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Title: War Medals and Their History
Author: Steward, W. Augustus
Language: English
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                              WAR MEDALS
                           AND THEIR HISTORY

                          W. AUGUSTUS STEWARD

                          OFFICIER D'ACADÉMIE

                        _With 258 Illustrations
                        in Half-tone and Line_

                           STANLEY PAUL & CO
                      31 ESSEX STREET STRAND W.C.

                       _First published in 1915_


If any excuse were needed for penning this, it is to be found in the
exceeding interest which was taken in my monograph "Badges of the
Brave." Indeed, many readers have requested me to deal, at greater
length, with a subject which not only opens up a great historical
vista and awakens national sentiment, but, incidentally, serves an
educational mission to those who collect and those who sell the
metallic records of many a hard-fought field, which, when collated,
form an imperishable record of our island story.

The War Medal is a comparatively modern institution, otherwise we might
have learned the names of the common folk who fought so tenaciously in
the old wars, as, for instance, the Welsh infantry and Irish soldiers
who, with the English bowmen, comprised the army of 30,000 which at
Crécy routed an army of 120,000; the followers of the Black Prince
who captured the impetuous King John at Poitiers, or the English
archers whose deadly volleys made such havoc at Agincourt, on that
fateful day in October nearly five hundred years ago; the brave seamen
who, under Lord Howard, Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher, fought the
"Invincible Armada"; and those who, under Raleigh, vigorously pursued
the Spaniards on the high seas. We might have learned something of
the men who composed the Royal Scots and the 18th Royal Irish, and
helped to vindicate the reputation of the British soldier at Namur,
and covered themselves with glory at Blenheim; the gallant Coldstream
Guards who did such excellent service under Marlborough at Oudenarde
and Malplaquet, as well as the Gloucesters and Worcesters who fought
so well at Ramillies, or the Royal Welsh Fusiliers who served under
George II at Dettingen.

When, however, war medals were designed for distribution among
successful combatants, a means of decorating surviving soldiers and
sailors was established, and at the same time a sentimental and
substantial record of a man's labours for his country upon the field
of battle. So that, if the veterans of Drake's historic fleet, or
Marlborough's dauntless soldiers, were not possessed of badges to
distinguish them from the soldiers of industry, we, at any rate, may
hold in our hands the medals which were awarded to those who served
the immortal Nelson, and be proud to possess the medals which shone
upon the breasts of our great grandparents who defied the Conqueror
of Europe on that memorable Sunday, and made his sun to set upon the
battlefield of Waterloo.

Have you listened to the smart British veteran as he explains the
disposition of the troops on that historic occasion--how the French
cavalry "foamed itself away" in the face of those steady British
squares? How he makes the Welsh blood tingle as he records the glorious
deeds and death of Sir Thomas Picton, and the Scotsman's dance through
his veins as he explains how, with the cold steel of their terrible
bayonets, the Black Watch at Quatre Bras, and its second battalion, the
Perthshires, at Waterloo, waited for the charge of the cuirassiers; and
how Sergeant Ewart of the Scots Greys captured the Eagle of the 45th,
and then, with the rest of the Union Brigade (the English Royals and
the Irish Inniskillings), crashed through the ranks of the faltering
French, and scattered the veterans of Napoleon's army! Have you
seen how the mention of the Guards holding the Château of Hougomont
brightens the eye of the Englishman? Yes! Then just think what it is
to touch and possess the solid proofs of the deeds that those men did,
and to feel that you have in your possession the only recompense those
brave and daring men received from a grateful country.

=Historical Value.=--My collection of medals enables me to cover over a
hundred years of history; takes me back to the stirring times when men
yet met face to face in the Peninsula and at Waterloo; to the men who
founded our Indian Empire. It enables me to keep in touch with sailors
who fought in the battle of the Nile, at Trafalgar, and at Navarino,
that last of all naval battles in which we British took part--our
allies were then the French and Russians--until our battleships met
those of the Germans in the great war now waging. It reminds me of the
horsemen who made the world wonder ere, with deathless glory, they
passed their little day, and of that "thin red line" of Scots, whose
cool daring at Balaklava has only been bedimmed by the gallantry of the
Light Brigade. It enables me to think more intimately of the men I know
who faced the Russians in that terrible winter, and then, like heroes,
plodded through the inferno of the Mutiny. It brings back vividly to
my mind the days of the Zulu War and the heroism of Rorke's Drift. It
reminds me of the daring march to Kandahar and the frontier wars so
necessary to hold back the turbulent human surf which beats on the
shores of our great Eastern Empire. It enables me to keep closely in
touch with those who so quickly dealt with Arabi Pasha and later faced
the fanatical hordes of the Mahdi; the young men of this generation
who fought so stubbornly at the Modder River, and who stormed the
Tugela Heights. It enables me to keep in touch with those "handymen"
and scouts on the fringe of Empire who in Somaliland, Gambia, Benin,
Matabeleland, and Bechuanaland uphold the dignity of Britain.

We sometimes read of a man or woman who has shaken hands, sixty,
seventy, or eighty years ago, with some great person, or some one whose
deeds have made him or her a name in history. The possession of war
medals and decorations, or of medals of honour gained by brave deeds
in time of peace, brings us in close touch with those who honourably
gained them. That is an aspect of medal-collecting which appeals to
me, and should to every one who admires pluck, grit, daring, and the
willingness to personal sacrifice which these badges of the brave

Finally there is an exceptional feature in the collection of war
medals which will also appeal, for, as Sir James Yoxall has pointed
out in "The A B C About Collecting," the collector of war medals "has
concentrated upon a line which can be made complete." If, however,
his inclinations or his means will not permit of the acquisition of a
complete set he may specialise in either Military or Naval Medals, or
those awarded to special regiments or ships, or to men of his own name,
or those earned by boys or nurses.

In order to facilitate the search for bars issued with the various
medals, the names inscribed thereon are printed in the text in small
capitals: these, of course, must not be taken as representing the type
used on the official bars; reference must be made to the illustrations,
which, being the same size as the original medals, will materially
assist the reader in recognising official lettering.

In conclusion I have to express my sincere thanks for the help afforded
and the deep interest taken in my book by Dr. A. A. Payne, whose
kindness in providing photographs of examples in his unique collection
has enabled me to illustrate many interesting and rare medals; to G. K.
J. and F. W. G. for clerical assistance; G. T. F. for sketches; and to
Messrs. Heywood & Co., Ltd., for the loan of several of the blocks of
medals which had been used in monographs I had written for publication
by them.

                                                    W. AUGUSTUS STEWARD.





  FIRST CAMPAIGN MEDALS                                                  1

  INDIA COMPANY                                                          9

  FIRST MEDAL FOR EGYPT, 1801                                           16

  THE MAHRATTA WAR                                                      20

  FIRST OFFICIAL MILITARY OFFICERS' MEDAL                               25

  THE PENINSULAR WAR                                                    26

  CONTINENTAL PENINSULAR WAR MEDALS                                     66

  WATERLOO AND QUATRE BRAS                                              70

  BRITISH AND CONTINENTAL WATERLOO MEDALS                               81

  NEPAUL, 1814-15                                                       86

  FIRST BURMESE WAR                                                     90

  FIRST AFGHAN WAR                                                      94

  FIRST CHINESE WAR                                                     98

  SECOND AFGHAN WAR                                                    100

  THE GWALIOR CAMPAIGN                                                 109

  THE SIKH WARS                                                        111

  SECOND PUNJAB CAMPAIGN                                               119

  FIRST NEW ZEALAND WAR                                                124

  MILITARY GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL GRANTED                               128

  INDIA GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL GRANTED                                  133

  FIRST KAFFIR WARS                                                    134

  SECOND BURMESE WAR                                                   137

  THE CRIMEAN WAR                                                      139

  PERSIAN WAR                                                          155

  INDIAN MUTINY                                                        156

  SECOND CHINESE WAR                                                   178

  SECOND NEW ZEALAND WAR                                               182

  ABYSSINIAN WAR                                                       189

  ASHANTEE WAR                                                         192

  ZULU WAR                                                             197

  THIRD AFGHAN WAR                                                     202

  EGYPTIAN CAMPAIGNS                                                   210

  RIEL'S REBELLION                                                     217

  ANNEXATION OF BURMA                                                  218

  BLACK MOUNTAIN AND BORDER EXPEDITIONS                                220

  EAST AND WEST AFRICA                                                 227

  SECOND ASHANTEE WAR                                                  229

  CHITRAL                                                              230

  MATABELELAND AND RHODESIA                                            235

  THE SUDAN                                                            239

  THIRD ASHANTEE WAR                                                   244

  THIRD CHINESE WAR                                                    245

  THE BOER WAR                                                         248

  NIGERIA                                                              256

  AFRICAN EXPEDITIONS                                                  257

  NATAL REBELLION                                                      259

  TIBET EXPEDITION                                                     259

  ABOR                                                                 261

  SUDAN, 1910                                                          262


  ARMADA MEDALS                                                        266

  CHARLES I MEDALS                                                     267

  COMMONWEALTH MEDALS                                                  268

  THE DUTCH WARS                                                       269

  CHARLES II MEDALS                                                    271

  LA HOGUE                                                             273

  QUEEN ANNE MEDALS                                                    274

  GEORGE I AND GEORGE II MEDALS                                        276

  "THE GLORIOUS" 1ST OF JUNE                                           279

  NAVAL GOLD MEDAL INSTITUTED                                          280

  ST. VINCENT                                                          281

  CAMPERDOWN                                                           283

  THE NILE                                                             284

  COPENHAGEN                                                           287

  TRAFALGAR                                                            288

  TRAFALGAR MEDALS                                                     290


  BARS ISSUED FOR BOAT ACTIONS                                         305

  ALGIERS                                                              306

  AVA                                                                  307

  NAVARINO                                                             308

  SYRIA                                                                309

  CHINA, 1840-2                                                        310

  SCINDE, 1843                                                         310

  PUNJAB, 1848-9                                                       311

  CHINA, 1856-60                                                       311

  PEGU                                                                 311

  CRIMEA                                                               312

  NAVAL BRIGADE IN CRIMEAN WAR                                         315

  INDIAN MUTINY                                                        316

  NEW ZEALAND, 1845-6-7                                                317

  AND SOUTH AFRICA                                                     318

  EGYPTIAN WARS                                                        319

  AFRICAN EXPEDITIONS                                                  329

  BOER WAR                                                             333

  MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDALS                                           336

  LONG SERVICE MEDALS                                                  348

  HOW MEDALS ARE NAMED                                                 352

  SOME CONTINENTAL AND FOREIGN WAR MEDALS                              357

  PISTRUCCI'S WATERLOO MEDAL                                           374

  REGIMENTAL DESIGNATIONS                                              377

  SALE PRICES                                                          382

  INDEX                                                                401



                                                               FACING PAGE

  ROYALIST BADGES                                                        1

  DUNBAR MEDAL                                                           4

  MEDAL FOR OUDENARDE                                                    4

  H.E.I. CO.'S MEDAL FOR SERINGAPATAM, 1799                             12

  H.E.I. CO.'S MEDAL FOR EGYPT, 1801                                    12

  PENINSULAR GOLD MEDAL                                                 16

  GOLD MEDAL FOR MAIDA, 1806                                            20

  H.E.I. CO.'S MEDAL FOR AVA, 1824-6                                    20



  SPANISH CROSS FOR ALBUHERA                                            36

  SPANISH CROSS FOR CIUDAD RODRIGO                                      36

  SPANISH GOLD CROSS FOR VITTORIA                                       36

  ALCANTARA MEDAL, 1809                                                 40

  MILITARY GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL                                        40

  PENINSULAR GOLD CROSS                                                 44

  PENINSULAR GOLD MEDAL WITH BARS                                       44


  PRUSSIAN MEDALS FOR NAPOLEONIC WARS                                   52

  BRONZE MEDAL TO BRITISH GERMAN LEGION                                 52

  SILVER MEDAL TO HANSEATIC LEGION                                      52

  WATERLOO MEDAL                                                        56

  ARMY OF INDIA MEDAL, 1799-1826                                        56

  NASSAU MEDAL FOR WATERLOO                                             60

  HANOVERIAN MEDAL FOR WATERLOO                                         60

  PRUSSIAN JUBILEE MEDALS FOR WATERLOO                                  64

  "ST. HELENA" MEDAL                                                    64

  BRUNSWICK MEDAL FOR WATERLOO                                          72

  SAXE-GOTHA-ALTENBURG WATERLOO MEDAL                                   72

  PISTRUCCI'S WATERLOO MEDAL                                            80

  GOVERNOR-GENERAL'S MEDAL FOR GHUZNEE, 1839                            88

  MEDAL FOR GHUZNEE, 1839                                               88

  MEDAL FOR KELAT-I-GHILZIE, 1842                                       96

  FIRST JELLALABAD MEDAL, 1842                                          96

  SECOND JELLALABAD MEDAL ("FLYING VICTORY"), 1842                     100

  CHINA MEDAL, 1842                                                    100

  MEDAL FOR CABUL, 1842                                                100

  MEDAL FOR CANDAHAR, ETC.                                             108

  BRONZE STAR FOR MAHARAJPOOR                                          108

  BRONZE STAR FOR PUNNIAR, 1843                                        112

  MEDAL FOR SUTLEJ, 1845                                               112

  MEDAL FOR PUNJAB, 1849                                               112

  FIRST INDIA GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL, 1854                              120

  FIRST SOUTH AFRICA MEDAL, 1853                                       120

  CRIMEA MEDALS                                                        128

  FIRST MÉDAILLE MILITAIRE                                             132

  SARDINIAN CRIMEA MEDAL                                               132

  SECOND CHINESE WAR MEDAL                                             132

  VICTORIA CROSS                                                       136

  INDIAN ORDER OF MERIT                                                136

  MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL                                            136

  DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT MEDAL                                          140

  CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY MEDAL                                          140

  INDIAN MUTINY MEDAL                                                  144

  NEW ZEALAND MEDAL                                                    144

  ABYSSINIAN MEDAL                                                     148

  CANADA MEDAL                                                         148

  ASHANTEE MEDAL                                                       148

  ZULU WAR MEDAL                                                       148

  AFGHAN MEDAL, 1878-9-80                                              156

  ROBERTS STAR FOR KANDAHAR                                            156

  HONG-KONG PLAGUE MEDAL                                               160

  EGYPTIAN WAR MEDAL                                                   160

  KHEDIVE'S STAR                                                       160

  INDIA MEDAL FOR FOUR CAMPAIGNS                                       164

  EGYPTIAN MEDAL FOR THREE CAMPAIGNS                                   164

  AFRICA MEDAL FOR FIVE EXPEDITIONS                                    164

  JUMMOO AND KASHMIR MEDAL                                             168

  HUNZA NAGAR BADGE                                                    168

  MEDAL FOR MATABELELAND                                               172

  CAPE OF GOOD HOPE MEDAL                                              172

  QUEEN'S SUDAN MEDAL (REVERSE)                                        172

  KHEDIVE'S SUDAN MEDAL (OBVERSE)                                      172

  QUEEN'S SUDAN MEDAL (OBVERSE)                                        176

  KHEDIVE'S SUDAN MEDAL (REVERSE)                                      176

  QUEEN'S SOUTH AFRICA MEDAL (OBVERSE)                                 176

  KING'S SOUTH AFRICA MEDAL (REVERSE)                                  176

  BOER WAR MEDALS FOR COMPARISON                                       180

  MAJOR CROOPER'S DECORATIONS                                          184


  BRONZE STAR FOR ASHANTI, 1896                                        192

  INDIA 1895 MEDAL                                                     192

  MAYOR'S STAR FOR DEFENCE OF KIMBERLEY                                192

  MEDAL FOR ASHANTI, 1900                                              198

  MEDAL FOR TIBET, 1903-4                                              198

  MEDAL FOR NATAL REBELLION                                            198

  INDIA GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL, 1908                                    204

  INDIA GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL FOR ABOR, 1911-12                        204

  MEDAL FOR SUDAN, 1910                                                204

  DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS                                          208

  DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER                                          208

  CONSPICUOUS SERVICE CROSS                                            208

  ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE MEDAL                                            224

  H.E.I. CO.'S MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL                               224

  KING EDWARD'S ARMY LONG SERVICE MEDAL                                224

  VICTORIAN VOLUNTEER OFFICER'S DECORATION                             240


  KING EDWARD'S MILITIA LONG SERVICE MEDAL                             244

  KING GEORGE'S TERRITORIAL EFFICIENCY MEDAL                           244

  VICTORIAN MILITARY LONG SERVICE MEDAL                                252


  EGYPTIAN MEDAL FOR BRAVERY                                           256

  THE MILITARY CROSS                                                   256

  ELIZABETHAN NAVAL MEDAL                                              266

  COMMONWEALTH MEDAL FOR DUTCH WARS                                    266

  LORD UPPINGHAM'S ARMADA MEDAL                                        270

  THE WYARD MEDAL                                                      270

  CHARLES II SILVER NAVAL MEDAL                                        272

  QUEEN ANNE SILVER NAVAL MEDAL                                        276

  WILLIAM III SILVER MEDAL FOR LA HOGUE                                280


  REAR-ADMIRAL USSHER'S DECORATIONS                                    284

  DAVISON'S MEDAL FOR THE NILE                                         288

  BOULTON'S MEDAL FOR TRAFALGAR                                        290

  NAVAL GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL                                          292

  SULTAN'S MEDAL FOR ACRE                                              292

  BALTIC MEDAL                                                         296

  NAVAL MEDAL FOR BEST SHOT                                            296

  AFRICA GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL                                         296

  EARL OF ST. VINCENT'S MEDAL, 1800                                    304

  WILLIAM IV NAVAL LONG SERVICE MEDAL                                  308

  VICTORIAN NAVAL LONG SERVICE MEDAL                                   308

  EDWARD VII NAVAL LONG SERVICE MEDAL                                  308

  CROSS OF THE LÉGION D'HONNEUR                                        320

  PRUSSIAN ORDER OF MERIT (2ND CLASS)                                  324

  AUSTRIAN CROSS FOR 1813-14                                           324

  HESSIAN MEDAL FOR 1814-15                                            324

  THE IRON CROSS                                                       332

  AUSTRIAN ORDER OF THE IRON CROWN                                     332

  PRUSSIAN MEDAL FOR DISTINCTION IN SERVICE                            332

  AUSTRIAN OFFICER'S GILT CROSS                                        332

  SILVER CROSS FOR SAN SEBASTIAN, 1846                                 336

  IRON CROSS FOR SAN SEBASTIAN, 1836                                   336

  SILVER MEDAL FOR SAN SEBASTIAN, 1836                                 340

  BADEN MEDAL FOR 1849                                                 340

  BADEN MEDAL "FOR FAITHFUL SERVICE"                                   340

  FRENCH MEDAL FOR MEXICO, 1862-3                                      348

  FRENCH MEDAL FOR TONKIN, 1883-5                                      348

  PAPAL MEDAL FOR 1860                                                 352

  CROSS FOR KÖNIG GRÄTZ (SADOWA)                                       352

  GENEVA CROSS FOR 1870-1                                              352

  FRENCH MEDAL FOR 1870-1                                              356

  GERMAN MEDAL FOR 1870-1                                              356

  CHILIAN WAR MEDALS                                                   356

  RUSSIAN WAR DECORATIONS                                              364

  GOLD MEDAL FOR MANILA BAY                                            368

  MEDAL FOR SERBO-TURKISH WAR                                          372

  MEDAL FOR SERBO-BULGARIAN WAR                                        372

  SERBIAN MEDAL "FOR COURAGE"                                          376

  SERBIAN MEDAL FOR SERVICE TO WOUNDED                                 376

  GERMAN MEDAL FOR SOUTH-WEST AFRICA                                   380

  GREEK MEDAL FOR GRECO-TURKISH WAR                                    380

  SECOND MÉDAILLE MILITAIRE                                            384


  H.E.I. Co.        Honourable East India Company.

  M.G.S.           Military General Service.

  N.G.S.           Naval General Service.

  I.G.S.           India General Service.

  V.C.             Victoria Cross.

  D.S.O.           Distinguished Service Order.

  D.C.M.           Distinguished Conduct Medal.

  D.S.C.           Distinguished Service Cross.

  D.S.M.           Distinguished Service Medal.

  C.G.M.           Conspicuous Gallantry Medal.

  G.S.M.           General Service Medal.






Since the days when woad-clad Britons faced Cæsar's legions we have had
a military system, but it was not, so far as we have any substantial
evidence, until the days of Elizabeth that personal decorations were
awarded for military service, or distinction on the seas or in the

In the Middle Ages, a warrior, knighted on the field of battle, was
permitted to use a square instead of a swallow-tailed pennon, as a
knight's banneret, and to use a war cry, from whence we may trace the
origin of the mottoes used with Coats of Arms.

Later, after Sedgemoor (July 6th, 1685), recognition of the lower ranks
is recorded in the bestowal of a gratuity of £40 to Sergeant Weems of
the 1st Royals (now the Royal Scots) for serving the great guns in an
emergency; but these types of award hardly provided that personal note
or record which the war medal, as we know it, gives to the recipient.

It is fitting that the Navy, which had existed for centuries prior
to the establishment of a standing Army, should take precedence in
the bestowal of awards for active service; the rout of the Spanish
Armada--in 1588--probably gave the incentive to Good Queen Bess to
commemorate the auspicious occasion by the issue of medals in gold and
silver, and we may reasonably assume that they were given for personal
decoration to the leading officers engaged in the defeat of the
Armada, or that the recipients thought that by wearing them they would
show respect to the Queen, and thus established the custom of wearing
medals, presented by the Sovereign for War Service. A specimen of these
medals, with rings and chain for suspension, probably from the neck, is
to be seen in the British Museum.

Just over fifty years later, Charles I established the principle for
the Army, and thus strengthened the precedent, which was gradually
extended, until now every boy and man who has acquitted himself
creditably in a campaign, and the nurses also, may rightly claim the
medallic recognition and record of their principal services by land or
by sea.

=Elizabethan Naval Medals.=--A silver medal, with an attached half-ring
loop for suspension, was apparently given by Queen Elizabeth for naval
achievements; it is oval, and bears on the obverse a bust of the
Queen, and on the reverse a bay tree on an island, with the legend
impressed thereon NON · IPSA · PERICVLA · TANGVNT. This is a splendidly
decorative medal. The "Ark-in-Flood medal," though hardly so well
designed or so delicately cut, is characteristic. It is generally
stated that it was given to the principal officers who fought against
the Armada, or to commanders who had distinguished themselves at sea.
The medal was struck in gold and silver and measured 2 in. by 1¾ in.,
and was suspended by a fancy loop. On the obverse of the medal is a
bust of the Queen facing to the left, with the inscription ELIZABETH ◆
D ◆ G ◆ ANGLIE ◆ F ◆ ET ◆ H ◆ REG.

These, like another medal given by Elizabeth, we may reasonably suppose
to have been struck to commemorate the defeat of the "Invincible
Armada." James I issued a similar medal in gold and silver, with a ring
for suspension. On the reverse is the Ark upon the waters, having above
it, like Elizabeth's medal, the symbol indicative of Divine protection,
surrounded by the motto STET · SALVUS · IN · VNDIS. There are two
kinds of obverse to this medal, one with a portrait bust of the King
in armour with a ruff, and the legend FIDEI DEFENSOR encircling the
head. This apparently was for military officers, and the one bearing an
obverse with the King's head surmounted by a broad-brimmed hat, for his
courtiers. Nothing, however, can be stated with any certainty on this
point. The motto on the obverse is JACOBUS · D · G · MAG · BRITA · FR ·
ET · HI · REX; and on the reverse an ark within an oval band containing

=Charles I establishes Military Medals.=--Having indicated the creation
of the campaign or active-service medal for the Navy, we will leave the
consideration of naval medals for the section which will be reserved
for that purpose and deal with the listing of the military badges of
the brave, commencing with those which were struck in the days of
Charles I, who established medals for military prowess.

They were, according to the order of the Court, held at Oxford on the
18th day of May, 1643, "to be delivered to wear on the breast of every
man who shall be certified under the hands of their commander-in-chief
to have done us faithful service in the forlorn hope." These medals
were only, it will be seen, given for very distinguished conduct in
the field. One bore the Royal image on the obverse, and Prince Charles
on the reverse; and the other the bust of Charles on the obverse, with
the inscription CAROLUS · D · G · MAG · BRI · FR · ET · HIB · REX, and
on the reverse the Royal Arms with the Garter bearing the motto HONI
· SOIT · QUI · MAL · Y · PENSE. Both medals were silver and oval in
shape, the sizes being respectively 1·7 in. by 1·3 in. and 1·5 in. by
1·2 in.

=First Distinguished-conduct Medal.=--The first record we have of the
bestowal of a medal for conspicuous conduct in the field is in the
award made to an Irish commander who distinguished himself at the
Battle of Edge Hill--the first battle of the Civil War, fought on
October 23rd, 1642--by the recovery of a Royal standard, and certain
military accessories. The gallant soldier, who became Sir Robert Welch,
was subsequently presented with an oval gold medal specially cut to
the King's orders by the Royal "graver of seals and medals," Thomas
Rawlins. The King's instructions, given on the 1st day of June 1643,
were to the effect that the medal was to have on the obverse his own
figure, and that of his son Prince Charles, and on the reverse a copy
of the banner Welch saved at Edge Hill, together with the legend PER
Encircling the busts of the King and his son was the inscription
The medal, oval in form, was 1·7 in. by 1·5 in.

=The First Campaign Medal.=--The Dunbar medal--by the famous medallist,
Thomas Simon, was struck in two sizes, in gold (1 in. by ·85 in.) and
silver (1·35 in. by 1·15 in.), for presentation to officers and men who
"did this excellent service," and, to use the quaint words of Oliver
Cromwell, in "commemoration of that great mercie at Dunbar" where the
Scots Royalists were defeated on September 3rd, 1650. Although these
medals, which were worn suspended by a chain from the neck, cannot be
regarded as campaign medals in the modern sense, they have the unique
distinction of being the first of which there is a reliable record,
indicating that the common soldiery and officers equally participated
in the receipt of a military decoration for war service. This issue was
exceptional, for throughout the existence of the Commonwealth, although
medals were struck to commemorate naval victories over the Dutch, they
were given to officers only, and during succeeding years this appears
to have been the rule also until the beginning of the nineteenth
century, when the custom was established to bestow upon all soldiers,
from Field Marshal to drummer-boy, the same medal; that was after the
battle of Waterloo, June 18th, 1815.

[Illustration: THE DUNBAR MEDAL, 1650.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.) (Reverse.)


The Dunbar medal, as the illustration facing page 1 shows, bears on
the obverse the bust of Cromwell in armour with the inscription in a
semicircle above ~WORD AT DVNBAR~·THE LORD OF HOSTS ~SEPTEM Y3·1650~.
On the reverse is quaintly depicted the House of Commons, which
referred to the Committee of the Army the consideration of a grant of
medals to officers and men who had served in Scotland, and to "set
the proportions and the values of them, and their number, and present
the estimate to the House." Bronze medals exist, but the reverses of
these are plain, despite Cromwell's request that an Army should form
the subject, which was only acceded to in so far as the legend is
concerned, and a slight suggestion of a fight behind the bust of the
Lord Protector.

The Cromwellians voted the sum of £100 to provide a gold medal, for
distinguished service, and chain for presentation to Colonel Mackworth,
who, as governor of Shrewsbury, had refused to surrender the castle to
the Royalists. Of Blake's medal and the other decorations for maritime
warfare I shall treat in the section devoted to naval medals, but I
might here remark upon the fact that in those Puritan days the seaman
appears to have been as much a "handyman" as in modern times, for, like
the present-day marine and seaman, he fought _Per Mare et per Terram_;
at any rate Generals Blake and Monk did, for they received naval medals
or awards from the Commonwealth for their services against the Dutch.

Various medals were struck during the Civil War by the Royalists, and
engravings are extant illustrating medals variously bearing on the
obverse the portraits of King Charles I, Prince Rupert, or one or
other of his leading supporters and generals, including the Earl of
Essex and Sir Thomas Fairfax. The reverse bore either a representation
of the Parliament or the arms of the person depicted on the obverse.
The victory of Naseby (June 14th, 1645) is commemorated by a silver
medal--gilt--with ring for suspension, upon the obverse of which is a
portrait of Sir Thomas Fairfax, and the inscription THO: FAIRFAX MILES
MILIT PARL DUX GEN, and on the reverse with a circle meruisti and POST

During the reign of Charles II (when the foundation of a standing army
was established) and James II, there is no record of military medals
being struck, although during the reign of the former, as I shall
presently describe, naval medals were issued to commemorate victories
over the Dutch, and in the reign of the latter a large silver medal,
apparently for presentation to naval men, was issued.

During the reign of William III and Mary, naval medals only were
struck, and, as far as is known, only one such during the reign of
Queen Anne, for there is no record of any being issued for the famous
battles of Blenheim, Ramillies, and Oudenarde (where, as "Prince
Elector of Hanover," George III distinguished himself), or the
sanguinary battle of Malplaquet, although commemorative medals were

The reign of George I is also barren of military campaign medals,
while there were apparently only two issued during the reign of George
II--one for the Battle of Culloden (April 16th, 1746), where the Duke
of Cumberland well earned the sobriquet of "The Butcher," and the other
for the taking of Louisbourg, in Canada (July 27th, 1758), where,
after a seven weeks' siege, the French garrison surrendered to General

=The Culloden Medals.=--The Culloden medal was struck to commemorate
the crushing of the Jacobite rebellion at the battle of Culloden on
April 16th, 1746, when the Scots under Prince Charles Edward and Lord
George Murray were defeated by the Duke of Cumberland. The medal, oval
in shape, and 1·75 in. by 1·45 in. in size, had on the obverse the head
of "The Butcher," with CUMBERLAND above, surrounded by an ornate ribbed
border and suspender; a nude figure of Apollo, with a wounded dragon at
his feet, occupies the ground of the reverse, with the words ACTUM EST
ILICET PERIIT, and in the exergue PRŒL · COLOD · AP · XVI · MDCCXLVI.
The medal, by Richard Yeo, was struck in gold, silver, and bronze,
and was suspended from a red ribbon with green edges. This is a very
rare medal, and few specimens now exist, and it is assumed it was only
given to regimental commanders, although as Mr. Grueber, of the British
Museum, pointed out there is no evidence of an order that it should be

In the British Museum there is a bronze medal commemorating this same
battle; it is possible that it was intended to be worn as a war medal.
The striking of the medal is with a scroll suspender at the top with
a hole, which leaves no doubt that it was intended for suspension
by means of a small ring. There is a small ornamental scroll at the
bottom. It is plain on the reverse, the obverse being occupied by the
equestrian effigy of the Duke of Cumberland, with the date 1746 in the
exergue, and above the group GUL · AUG · DUX · CUM · TERROR · REB.

=Capture of Louisbourg.=--For the siege of Louisbourg, gold and silver
medals were struck for presentation to those officers who had been
conspicuous by their gallantry. In gold and silver the medal, 1·7 in.
in diameter, bears on the reverse a representation of the bombardment,
with LOVISBOVRG TAKEN MDCCLVII, and on the obverse a globe resting upon
a figure symbolic of France (some say a fury) dropping fleur-de-lis,
and pointing to boats at sea. On the globe, supported by a British
Grenadier and a sailor, are the words CANADA and AMERICA, and above
all the figure of Fame, with laurel wreath and trumpet flying in front
of the Union Jack, and a scroll with the words PARITER IN BELLA; the
ribbon for this is half brownish-yellow and light purple. This rare
medal is, however, generally placed in the category of historic medals.
It is by Thomas Pingo, who was responsible for a series of historical
medals, including those commemorating the capture of Goree, December
29th, 1758, the capture of Guadaloupe, 1759, the battle of Minden, July
31st, 1759, and the capture of Quebec (where Wolfe lost his life),
September 15th, 1759.

=Carib War.=--For the Carib War in 1773 the Legislative Assembly of
the island of St. Vincent ordered that a medal of silver should be
awarded to those who had taken part in suppressing the rebellion which
had broken out among the natives. The medal bore upon the obverse the
bust of George III in high relief, his hair being tied with ribbon,
as was the fashion of the times, but represented as clad in armour.
Above the bust is the legend GEORGIVS III MB REX. On the reverse
Britannia, characteristically helmeted and resting her left hand upon
the Union Shield, offers to a beaten Carib an olive branch in token of
peace, while the vanquished is represented as having surrendered his
arms, which lie at the feet of Britannia. In the exergue is the date
The medal, 2³⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, was cast and chased, and bears on the
truncation of the King's head the name of the modeller--C. M. Moser.
It was worn suspended from the neck by a red ribbon. Among the regular
regiments taking part in the campaign were the 14th, 31st, and 70th.

=Isle of St. Vincent.=--Another medal was awarded for service in
the island of St. Vincent. It was given to the militia officers
and non-commissioned officers who commanded about five hundred
natives--slaves--who helped in the campaign against the Caribs and
French troops in 1795. On the obverse of this medal, which was cast
and chased in silver and bronze, is a winged figure of Victory, with
her right foot planted upon the body of a defeated Carib, who has
dropped his musket at her feet. While in her left hand she bears a palm
branch, she shows her determination by grasping a sword in the right.
Above is the inscription ST. VINCENTS BLACK CORPS; on the reverse is
a representation of a black soldier standing at attention with his
musket, with fixed bayonet, resting on the ground, encircled by the
legend BOLD LOCAL OBEDIENT. The whole of the lettering is in a square
type of Roman capitals. This medal is 1⅞ in. diameter.

The next in order we have to consider are those issued by the
Honourable East India Company to the officers and men who took part
in the Deccan and Mysore Campaigns, between 1778 and 1792, against
Hyder Ali and his son Tippoo Sahib, but these, despite the significant
character of the wars, were not official or Sovereign awards, and were
given to the Company's troops only. Previous to this, the Company had
awarded a medal (in 1766) to native officers who had quelled a mutiny
among European troops at Morighyr.

=The Deccan Medal.=--The medal for Guzerat--1778-84--and
Carnatic--1780-84--commonly known as the "Deccan" medal, was issued
to native troops only, and, as Dr. Payne states, is the earliest
Anglo-Indian medal to be awarded to all ranks. On the obverse Britannia
is represented resting upon a trophy of arms, and holding a wreath in
the right hand, which she extends toward a fort over which the British
flag is flying. On the reverse is an inscription in Persian, which
explains that the medal is awarded by the Government of Calcutta to
commemorate "the excellent services of the brave; year of the Hegira
1199, A.D. 1784." The medal, issued in two sizes, was intended to be
worn suspended from the neck by a yellow cord run through a metal loop.
It was issued in gold to Subadars,[1] silver gilt to Jemadars[2] and
other native officers, and of an inferior character to those who did
not hold warrant rank and the ordinary sepoy. A specimen of the smaller
medal, in fine condition, has sold for between £7 10_s._ and £8 5_s._

[1] Infantry captain.

[2] Jemadar--of the same standing as a lieutenant in the Cavalry or
Infantry, or the Sappers or Miners.

=Mysore Campaign.=--During 1791 and 1793 the native troops were
engaged against Tippoo Sultaun in Mysore, during which campaign the
city of Bangalore was captured in an exceedingly brilliant manner,
thanks to the pluck and daring of British officers. On the 1st day
of April 1793 it was decided by an Order in Council to give to the
successful troops a medal as a reward for their services. As in the
case of the forementioned medal, two grades and sizes were issued. The
gold ones were all 1¹³⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, but a smaller silver one
was issued 1½ in diameter, and while some of the medals have only two
cannon-balls at the foot of the sepoy, five are found on others. This
is probably due to different men cutting the replicas of the dies,
which may have cracked in the striking. On the obverse of the medal
a sepoy, standing with his left foot on a dismounted cannon, grasps
the British colours in his right hand and the Mysore flag reversed
in his left; the background shows the fort of Seringapatam in the
distance. On the reverse is the wording, FOR SERVICES IN MYSORE A.D.
1791-1792, encircled by laurel branches, round which is arranged a
Persian inscription to the effect that the medal is "a token of the
bravery of the troops of the English Government in the war in Mysore in
the year of the Hegira 1205-1206." Like the "Deccan" medal, this was
intended for suspension from the neck by means of a yellow cord running
through a loop. The Subadars were granted gold medals, the Jemadars
and Serrangs silver medals--afterwards gilt--and the non-commissioned
officers and men silver medals of less value. The order for striking
these medals was given to Mr. Mair, a Calcutta silversmith.

_Many Counterfeits._--This is a poor class of medal, and doubtless the
ease with which it lent itself to the counterfeiter is responsible
for the number of cast fakes which one meets with. These, however,
are easily detected: in casting, "sandholes" cause little grains on
the surface, while dust on the mould causes holes in the cast; the
granulations need removing and the holes closing up by the chasing
tool, but the "faker" was invariably careless, and the counterfeits
may be distinguished from the genuine medals by the presence of grains
on or small holes in the surface, and the fact that the "fakes,"
having been cast from an original, are slightly smaller, owing to the
"shrinkage" which always takes place in casting. This shrinkage is
responsible for practically closing up the space between the head of
the flagstaff and the rim of the medal. The larger medal is 1¾ in. and
the smaller 1½ in. in diameter. A fine specimen of the larger medal has
fetched as much as £18.

=Capture of Ceylon.=--For capturing Ceylon from the Dutch in 1795-6
it was decided by an Order in Council, dated Fort William, May 15th,
1807, to confer a medal upon the Gun Lascars only who served with the
European Artillery. Only two gold medals were struck and presented to
native officers, and one hundred and twenty to other ranks. Like those
previously mentioned, the medals were intended for suspension from
the neck by a yellow cord. One and nine-tenths inch in diameter, this
is one of the simplest medals ever issued, and the only one in which
lettering suffices for decoration. On the obverse is the inscription,
FOR SERVICES ON THE ISLAND OF CEYLON A.D. ~1795/6~, and on the reverse,
in Persian, "This medal was given by way of acknowledgment of services
in Ceylon in the year of the Hegira 1209-1210."

=Siege of Seringapatam.=--The feeling of animosity on the part
of Tippoo Sahib, the son of Hyder Ali, fed by the fact that the
Directory in France had designs against British India, led him to make
preparations for another conflict, but the Earl of Mornington, who
afterwards became Marquis of Wellesley, smartly marched an army into
Tippoo Sahib's territories, and on March 27th, 1799, advanced in battle
array against the enemy, who, after losing about 10,000 men, retreated
in disorder, followed by the British Army, which, pressing on to
Seringapatam, reached the city on April 5th, and commenced the famous
siege, which terminated on May 8th. Among the slain was Tippoo Sahib,
and the British in a magnanimous manner interred his remains in the
fine mausoleum which he had caused to be built over the resting-place
of his father. Twenty-two officers were killed and 45 wounded; 181 men
killed, 624 wounded, and 22 missing; 119 native soldiers killed, 420
wounded, and 100 missing.

The European regiments that took part in the storming were the 33rd
Regiment (now the 1st Batt. West Riding Regiment), which, led by the
Hon. Arthur Wellesley (afterwards Duke of Wellington), distinguished
itself on the road to Seringapatam--on March 27th--by standing its
ground in the face of an advancing body of 2,000 men, and then, after
firing a volley, boldly charging upon them, and with the aid of cavalry
driving them off. The other European regiments included the 19th
and 22nd (late 25th) Light Dragoons (both disbanded), the 12th and
73rd Regiments, 74th Highlanders, 75th and 77th Regiments, the Scots
Brigade, afterwards the 94th (disbanded in 1818), and the 103rd. For
these excellent services the Honourable East India Company issued a
medal, of which two kinds exist--one produced in the Soho Mint near
Birmingham, the famous place established by Matthew Boulton, and the
other from dies cut in Calcutta after strikings of the Soho medal.



_Variety of Medals Struck._--Quite a variety were struck. Gold for His
Majesty, the Governor-General of India--Lord Melville, the Marquis
Cornwallis, certain Nizams, Nabobs, and Rajahs, the Commander-in-Chief
and the General Officers on the Staff, and one for the Oriental Museum.
(£15 to £20 has been paid at auction for one of these medals.) Silver
gilt for the members of the Council of the three Presidencies, the
Residents of Hyderabad and Poona, the Field Officers and the General
Staff on Service. (£8 has been given for a fine specimen of the gilt
medal.) Silver medals were awarded to the captains and subalterns.
(As much as £5 and £6 has been paid for one of these.) Bronze for
non-commissioned officers of the British Army, and tin for privates.
The medals were issued unnamed in 1808, but it was not until August
29th, 1815, that the members of the British Army were permitted to wear
them; issued without suspenders, this permission led to the addition
of loops and suspenders, and the adoption of a ribbon for suspension,
and while some used a dark orange ribbon suggestive of a tiger's skin,
in allusion to the victory of the British arms over Tippoo Sahib--"the
conquering tiger of God"--the claret-coloured ribbon with dark blue
edges, as used with the Peninsular gold medals and crosses and the
Waterloo medal, was the recognised ribbon, although some officers wore
a watered yellow ribbon.

To the native commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers,
sergeants, bandsmen, and trumpeters of European corps, and to others
who might be ranked as non-commissioned officers, the bronze medal
was also granted, while the tin medals were given to corporals,
gunners, and European privates, and to native doctors, guides, and
general-utility men with the Army.

=The Soho Medal.=--This, 1⅑ in. in diameter, bears on the obverse a
representation of the British lion, with a defeated tiger beneath him,
a long pennon flying above, and held erect by the lion's tail, bearing
near the staff the Union Jack, and in Arabic the defeated Tippoo's
title, "Assad Allah El Ghaleb," and in the exergue IV MAY MDCCXCIX.
On the reverse is represented the storming of Seringapatam, with the
meridian sun indicating that when the sun was in its full glory the
successful assault was made and glorious victory was won. Underneath
is the legend in Persian, "Seringapatam God conquered 28th day of the
month Zikadah, 1213 of the Hegira." The Soho mint was responsible for
the striking, in the years 1801 and 1802, of 30 gold, 185 silver gilt,
5,000 bronze, and 45,000 tin medals.

=The Calcutta Medal.=--Like the medal of Mysore, there are two
varieties of the Seringapatam medal owing to mistakes on the part of
the die-cutters. The sun at its meridian, a significant and symbolic
feature in the Soho medal, is omitted in that struck at Calcutta;
moreover the medal is not so large, being only 1⅛ in. in diameter,
is thinner, has a loop for suspension by a cord, and, what is very
important, of inferior craftsmanship--so that in considering the value
or authenticity of a medal for the famous battle of Seringapatam the
collector has to remember several important features, since while he
may hold in his hand two medals differing somewhat in size, design, and
quality of craftsmanship, he may find that both are perfectly genuine.
The Calcutta mint issued 83 gold and 2,786 silver medals, so that the
collector must carefully consider what he is about when a silver-gilt
medal is offered for sale; only 185 _bona-fide_ medals of that quality
were issued, but of the 850 British-struck silver medals many have been
gilded to simulate the rarer medals, while a number of the smaller and
inferior Indian-struck medals have been gilded and offered as original
gilts. Despite the large number of tin medals issued (45,000), I have
seen many fetch £1 each at auction. No bronze or tin medals were struck
from the Calcutta die.

=Egypt, 1801.=--Napoleon, with an eye upon our Indian Empire, invaded
Egypt in order "to conquer the East and take Europe in the rear."
Fortunate in eluding Nelson, who was cruising in the Mediterranean, he
managed to disembark his troops, but he had to suffer the humiliation
of Nelson's brilliant victory in the Bay of Aboukir (on August 1st,
1798), by which he lost practically all his fleet. This famous sea
battle is known as the Battle of the Nile. It left Napoleon stranded
in Egypt with his army, which he marched across the desert. He stormed
Jaffa and besieged Acre for two months, but Sir Sidney Smith and his
garrison of British and Turks not only held the fort, but in so doing
caused the loss of 4,000 of Napoleon's finest troops. Falling back
on Egypt he found disquieting news awaiting him, so he returned to
France and proclaimed himself First Consul. Meanwhile his troops had to
prepare to meet the British expedition which, under Lieutenant-General
Abercromby, had been dispatched to evict them. The total British force
which landed under the brilliant but fated General was 15,330 men,
but of these, it is stated, only about 12,000 could be counted as
fighting units. The French had made formidable preparations to resist
the disembarkation, and the seamen had to row the troops ashore under
a hail of round shot, grape and shell. Many a boat-load of brave men
was sent to the bottom, but those who reached the shore rushed through
the surf, formed line, fixed bayonets, and, led by Major-General Moore
(who found a soldier's grave at Coruña), charged up the slope, drove
out the French battalions, and after withstanding a charge of cavalry,
compelled the French to retreat along the road to Alexandria, whither
they were ultimately pursued by the British army, many daring exploits
taking place _en route_. One is particularly noteworthy. The Perthshire
Regiment, wearing at the time brass helmets, were mistaken by the
French cavalry for dragoons, and the Scots were consequently charged in
an impetuous manner by them. The affair, which took place at Mandora,
was a precursor of the brilliant action of the 93rd Highlanders at
Balaklava, for, standing firm, the Perthshires coolly awaited their
mounted adversaries until they were within fifty yards of them, and
then, firing a volley, caused the main body to wheel off by their left
and retreat in confusion. Sir Ralph Abercromby narrowly escaped death
in this affair, but, as Archibald Forbes states, he "was rescued by the
devoted bravery of the Perthshire Regiment."

=The Highlanders at Alexandria, 1801.=--At the battle of Alexandria,
March 21st, 1801, Generals Moore and Oakes were wounded, but continued
to lead their men, who did prodigies of valour ere the French
retreated to their entrenchments before Alexandria. Abercromby had,
during the day, kept close to the Highlanders, whom he cheered with
the words, "My brave Highlanders, remember your country! Remember
your forefathers!" ere ordering them to pursue the enemy; but having
sent his staff officers on different missions, he was left a solitary
and conspicuous figure. A couple of French cavalrymen, seizing the
opportunity, endeavoured to capture the gallant Commander-in-Chief,
but, refusing to yield, he made a brilliant fight until a corporal of
the 42nd (Black Watch) ran up and shot one of the men, when the other
made off, but was bayoneted by another of the 42nd. Meanwhile it was
noticed that he dismounted with difficulty from his horse, but as he
exhibited no sign of suffering it was not until blood was observed
on his thigh that any idea was entertained that he had been wounded.
It was then found that a musket-ball had lodged in his hip joint.
This caused his death on board the _Foudroyant_ on March 28th, 1801.
General Hutchinson, who took command of the force, ultimately invested
Alexandria, and after a three days' armistice the terms of capitulation
were signed, and arrangements made for the departure of the armies.
The French, who were commanded by General Menou, left Egypt with about
27,500 men, and the British with 22,350.

=H.E.I. Co.'s Medal for Egypt.=--The Military and General Service
medal, with bar for Egypt, was not issued to the survivors of the
series of strenuous fights which concluded with the capitulation
of Alexandria, until February 11th, 1850, almost forty-nine years
after. Meanwhile a large number of the army of about 5,000 men, which
sailed from India under the command of Sir David Baird, had received
a special medal from the Honourable East India Company, which, by a
General Order, was granted on July 31st, 1802. The promptitude of the
Company in rewarding soldiers stands out in pleasant relief against the
thoughtlessness or procrastination of the home Government. This army
of 2,000 Europeans, 2,000 sepoys, and 400 artillerymen, marched across
the Nubian Desert to Keneh, and after descending the Nile encamped at
Rosetta, but saw no fighting. The British regiments which formed part
of the army to cross the desert were the 10th and 61st Regiments of
foot, and detachments of the 80th, 86th, and 88th.


Awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel Alex. Gordon, 83rd Foot, who was killed
at Talavera.]

Silver medals, 1⅑ in. in diameter, were struck for about half the
force, and sixteen gold ones. The medal, illustrated facing page 12,
bears on the obverse an energetic figure of a sepoy, carrying the Union
Jack, with a background suggesting a camp. In the exergue is a Persian
inscription to the effect that the medal is presented to commemorate
the defeat of the French armies in Egypt by the bravery and ability
of the victorious army of England. On the reverse, suggestive of the
transportation of troops, is a ship in full sail, and on the land which
forms the background the Pyramids and an obelisk indicative of Egypt.
In the exergue is the date MDCCCI.

=Order of the Crescent.=--Selim III presented a series of gold medals
to the officers who took part in the operations. These varied in
weight and size, some being set with diamonds, while a few of the
larger ones were enamelled crimson in the centre. The medals, being
struck from different dies, have the crescent either on the right or
left of the star. The principal naval and military officers received
medals measuring 2⅒ in. in diameter; those ranking next received a
lighter and smaller medal, 1⁹⁄₁₀ in. in diameter; while a third medal,
given to captains, was still lighter and only 1⅞ in. in diameter.
The non-commissioned officers received a silver medal 1⁴⁄₁₀ in. in
diameter, so that one may gauge by the size the rank of the officer who
received it. The medals were suspended from an orange-coloured ribbon
by means of a hook and chain. I have seen specimens without attachment
for suspension.

The army which landed under Abercromby included the 1st Battalion
of the Coldstreams and the Scots Guards; the 1st Royal Scots; 2nd
Queen's Royal; 8th King's; 13th, 18th Royal Irish; 19th, 28th; 23rd
Welsh Fusiliers; 28th, 30th, 40th (flank companies), 42nd Black
Watch; 44th, 50th, 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 54th, 58th; 79th
Cameron Highlanders; 89th, 90th Perthshire Light Infantry; 92nd Gordon
Highlanders; one squadron of the 11th Light Dragoons; the 12th and 26th
Light Dragoons (unmounted); Artillery and Engineers; also Dillon's
and De Rolle's Regiments; a detachment of Baron Hompesch's mounted
riflemen, and the Corsican Rangers. The army was further strengthened
by a squadron of the 8th Light Dragoons; the 10th and 27th Foot; 1st
and 2nd Battalions of the 89th, and the Queen's German Regiment.

The 22nd Light Dragoons; two battalions of the 20th Regiment; the 24th,
25th, and 26th Regiments; as well as the Ancient Irish Fencibles, the
Chasseurs Britanniques, and De Watteville's Regiment, did not reach
Egypt until July 1801. The medals of men attached to the regiments
which first landed and drove the French off to Alexandria, following up
their retreat, and particularly those who took part in the most furious
fighting, are the most sought after; those of the Black Watch and
Gloucesters being especially and rightly valued, likewise those of the
8th and 13th Foot.

=The Red Heckle.=--There is even now a common notion that the Black
Watch (which lost 54 officers and men killed, and 262 wounded) had
its white heckle changed to red because of its prowess against the
French "Invincible Legion" in the historic ruins outside Alexandria,
where, it is alleged, the heckles in the fallen bonnets became dyed
with the blood of the slain, and in honour of their part in the battle
of Alexandria they were granted this signal favour. Such, however, is
not the correct story, for it is now generally conceded that the red
heckle was granted for their courageous conduct in retaking some guns,
at Gildermaslen on January 4th, 1795, which the 11th Light Dragoons had
abandoned. The Dragoons wore a red feather in their helmets, and this
was passed on, so to speak, to the Black Watch, and the "red heckle"
has distinguished the gallant regiment ever since.

=Highland Society's Medal.=--For the "distinguished and brilliant
manner in which the 42nd acted at Alexandria," the Highland Society
of London had a medal struck to commemorate the capture of the
"Invincibles'" standard, and one was presented to each officer and
private, and to the relatives of the dead men. The medal is 2 in. in
diameter, and bears on the obverse the bust of Sir Ralph Abercromby
1801, and on the reverse a Highlander capturing a French standard, with
the inscription in Gaelic NA FIR A CHOISIN BUAIDH' SAN EPHAIT 21 MAR
1801, which being interpreted means "These are the heroes who achieved
victory in Egypt." On the edge of the medal is engraved in Gaelic O'N
Highland Society to the Black Watch 42nd Regiment"). In this battle the
28th (the 1st Gloucester Regiment) gained the distinction of wearing
their badge at the back and front of their helmets, they having--while
in line--turned about to meet an attack in the rear by cavalry while
repelling an attack on their front by infantry.


Dowlat Rao Scindiah, aspiring to the conquest of Hindustan, entered
into negotiations with other Mahratta (Máráthá) leaders to attack the
British and the Peishwah, who having allied himself to the British had
been restored to his ancient position. The treaty of Bassein, in which
the British agreed to restore him, has been described as "the greatest
diplomatic triumph the world has ever witnessed." The war did not last

=Allighur.=--The first serious engagement was the storming of Allighur,
"a bloody struggle, an hour in duration," on September 4th, 1803. The
place was defended by General Perron, who had risen from the rank of a
non-commissioned officer of the French Marine to be Commander in Chief
of the Scindiah's army. General Lake, the British Commander-in-Chief,
was his opponent, and he took the fortress by blowing in the gate,
an operation described in the Wellington dispatch as "one of the
most extraordinary feats I have heard of in this country." The 76th
Regiment, led by Colonel Monson, was mainly instrumental in this daring
feat; 2,000 of the defenders fell, and 17 officers and 261 men of the
British army were killed and wounded. The 27th and 29th Dragoons were
the only other European regiments present.

=Delhi.=--Within a few days the battle of Delhi was fought and won. A
portion of the force was dispatched, and on the 11th day of September,
1803, encamped near the Jehna Nullah within 6 miles of Delhi. Here Lake
was, with 4,500 fighting men, confronted by an army of 13,000 infantry
and 6,000 horsemen, with 79 pieces of artillery, under the command of a
French officer, Louis Bourquien. Lake, despite the fatigued condition
of his men, decided to give battle, and the result was a crowning
victory for the British General, who with a native army--he had only
two of the King's regiments with him, the 76th Foot and 27th Dragoons
(since disbanded), to stiffen it--utterly routed the Mahrattas, who
lost 3,000 men. The British losses were severe, for 585 men, including
17 European officers, fell ere the victorious army bivouacked on the
field of battle, after being seventeen hours under arms. On September
13th the gallant Lake and his men entered Delhi. The result of this
victory was the restoration of the Great Mogul, the blind Shah Alum,
who had been a prisoner of the Scindiah's for years.

[Illustration: GOLD MEDAL FOR MAIDA, 1806.

Awarded to Sir Henry Edward Bunbury, Bart., K.C.B.]

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR AVA, 1824-6.]

=Assaye.=[3]--Meanwhile Major-General the Hon. Arthur Wellesley had
besieged and taken Ahmednuggur, possibly at the time the strongest
stone fort in India. This he made his base of operations, and hastened
to get into touch with Colonel Stevenson in order to make a combined
attack on the enemy on September 24th, but while Wellesley was on the
march he discovered, when at Naulmah on the 23rd, that he was within
6 miles of the Mahratta army; he decided, therefore, to take what
he afterwards termed "a desperate expedient." With a force of 6,400
infantry and 1,600 cavalry (of these only 1,500 were British) and only
17 guns, the man who was to become the hero of Waterloo offered battle
to the armies of the confederate chiefs, which included 30,000 horse
and 128 cannon in position behind the steep banks of the River Kaitna.
The result of the battle was as brilliant as the commander's resolve
was daring, for the Mahratta army was routed by one only a fifth its
size, and left 2,000 dead on the field; but the cost to the British
was a third of the army killed or wounded, including 170 officers.
Wellesley had one horse killed under him by a cannon shot, and another
by a bayonet wound in the breast--sufficient evidence of the part the
General took in the attack. The battle of Assaye, Wellington's first
victory, is excellent evidence that he was as bold in attack as he was
brilliant in defence. The 19th Light Dragoons (since disbanded), the
74th and 78th Foot were the British regiments engaged in the battle,
and while the latter bore the brunt of the conflict, the Dragoons
largely contributed to it by their brilliant charge.

[3] Spelt ASSYE on bar of Army of India Medal.

=Siege of Agra.=--The Mahrattas, who had evacuated Delhi after the
surrender of their European officers, fell back on Agra, where the
garrison, desirous of keeping the great treasure the city held, had
shut the gates to their Mahratta countrymen. General Lake, having
ordered his army in pursuit, had therefore to deal with these before
laying siege to Agra. After a stiff fight, a charge of sepoys was all
that was necessary before proceeding to take the city, which when it
fell, on October 18th, was found to contain treasure worth £280,000.
For this battle no recognition was given, as we shall see when listing
the bars for the medals granted for the wars and battles in India
between September 4th, 1803, and January 1826.

=Asseerghur.=--At the battle of Asseerghur (October 21st, 1803)
there was only one British regiment present, the 94th Foot (the
Scotch Brigade). On October 16th Colonel Stevenson took possession of
Burhampoor, and then proceeded to Asseerghur, where he assaulted the
Pettah, or Citadel, on the 17th, and on the 21st, after cannonading
the fort, received the surrender of the place. The battle practically
cleared the Scindiah out of the Deccan, but did not humiliate him.

=Laswarree.=--The decisive defeat of the Scindiah's army at Laswarree
on November 1st, 1803, might be called the crowning glory of Lake's
life, for the battle was a particularly desperate one, fought
against great odds, and with a tenacity which had not characterised
any previous battles, hard-fought though they had been, the enemy
contesting the ground inch by inch. The Mahratta force comprised 9,000
infantry, 4,000 cavalry, with 72 guns, and of this fine army 7,000 were
left dead on the field of battle, while 2,000 were taken prisoners; the
British force, numbering only 4,000, had 172 killed and 652 wounded.
The British regiments present were the Royal Irish Hussars (8th); the
27th and 29th Light Dragoons; and the 76th Regiment, which lost heavily
in the battle, but covered itself with glory after a night march of
nearly 25 miles; indeed, the whole of the British army had been under
arms for sixteen hours. General Lake, who it was said had "carried
bravery to the very verge of rashness," was created Baron Lake of Delhi
and Laswarree.

=Argaum.=--The battle of Argaum, fought on November 29th, 1803, broke
the Mahratta power, Wellesley routing the enemy, who abandoned 38
pieces of cannon and all their ammunition. In this battle the 74th and
78th Highlanders were particularly praised by Major-General Wellesley
for repulsing and practically destroying a body of Persian or Arab
cavalry. The other infantry regiment present was the 94th, and the only
British cavalry regiment the 19th Light Dragoons.

=Gawilghur.=--Pressing on, Wellesley arranged with Colonel Stevenson
to besiege the fort of Gawilghur, the event taking place on December
15th, 1803. This was only possible after considerable hardships and
endurance on the part of the army, which had to make roads along which
it could drag its guns by hand. Their labours, however, were rewarded
by a comparatively bloodless victory for themselves, in which the
enemy lost a large number of men during the storming, among them being
Killadar and Bery Sing. Two days later the treaty of peace between the
Rajah of Berar and the Honourable East India Company was ratified,
and the Scindiah also ratified a treaty of peace on January 5th,
1804, and thus a campaign of five months' duration was brought to an
end by the astuteness and daring of Lake and Wellesley. The 74th and
78th Highlanders, and the 94th Foot (then the Scotch Brigade, now 2nd
Battalion Connaught Rangers) were the only British regiments present at

=Defence of Delhi.=--Holkar yet remained to be dealt with, and a series
of unfortunate circumstances made him somewhat bold, so he set about
besieging Delhi, which was held by Indian troops and four companies
of Europeans under British officers, who, numbering only 2,500, had to
defend a city 10 miles in circumference from the attacks of an army
of 70,000 men with 130 guns. Meanwhile General Lake, learning of the
trouble, marched rapidly up from Agra, and reached the city on October
18th, 1804. Holkar thereupon raised the siege, crossed the Jumna, and
proceeded to lay waste the land.

=Battle of Deig.=--Lake, however, with his usual daring, made after
him with his European cavalry and artillery, accompanied by the Delhi
garrison. General Frazer was detached to march on Deig, where in the
battle outside he was mortally wounded. In this battle the 76th (the
only British regiment present) again distinguished itself, and drove
the left flank of the enemy into the morass, where many were drowned.
Besides the 76th the H.E.I. Co.'s 101st (Bengal Fusiliers) and the
Bengal Native Infantry took part. During this action, in which the
Mahrattas lost about 2,000 men, Holkar was closely pursued by General
Lake, and was ultimately compelled to fly with a few adherents before
the surprising onslaught of Lake, who, finding that the Bajah of
Bhurtpoor had assisted with his cavalry in the battle of Deig, and
not only sheltered Holkar's retreating troops but had fired on their
pursuers, determined to act promptly and firmly.

=Capture of Deig.=--On December 13th he invested the fortress, but not
until the night of the 23rd was the assault made--ten days having been
occupied in making a breach--and then within one hour the place was
taken after a short but desperate resistance; the citadel, however,
still remained in the hands of the enemy, who evacuated the town and
citadel on Christmas Eve 1804, and fled to Bhurtpoor, whither Lake
resolved to pursue their army. The British regiments present at the
capture were the 8th and 29th Light Dragoons, and portions of the
22nd (the Cheshire Regiment) and the 76th Foot. The H.E.I. Co.'s 1st
European Regiment, 6th Light Cavalry, and 8th Native Infantry were also

Lord Lake made the one mistake in his Indian warfare when he sat down
before Bhurtpoor, because _matériel_ necessary to a successful issue
was lacking. After several unsuccessful assaults, Lake deemed it
advisable to withdraw, and on the 24th took up a position 6 miles off,
there to await fresh supplies of stores and ammunition. On April 9th
he renewed operations, and by the 21st had settled accounts with the
Rajah. The Scindiah, having joined Holkar, was pursued by Lake, and on
November 23rd, 1805, a treaty was ratified with him; later Holkar was
also glad to sign a treaty, whereby the peace of Hindustan was secured
for twelve years, and here we must leave for a period the tale of
Indian wars, which went unrewarded until April 1851--forty-eight years
after the battle of Allighur--and take up the thread with the war in

=Maida, 1806.=--The first official war medal for military service
was awarded to the seventeen superior officers who were engaged
in the decisive and brilliant victory of Sir John Stuart--then
Major-General--at Maida in Calabria, on July 4th, 1806, when the French
were defeated, leaving about 700 dead on the field. The order for
striking the medals was issued in 1808. On the obverse is a laureated
head of King George with the legend GEORGIVS TERTIVS REX, and on the
reverse the figure of Britannia hurling a spear with the right hand,
while guarding herself with a circular shield whereon the Union Jack
is delineated, and just underneath this the inscription ~MAI DA IVL.
IV MDCCCVI.~ Above is a small flying figure of Victory, crowning her
with a wreath of laurel, and behind, the ancient symbol of Sicily--the
triguetra, or triple leg--like the Manx arms; in the exergue are two
crossed darts tied with a knot. This medal, 1½ in. in diameter, framed
and glazed, was worn from the button-hole of the uniform, suspended
by a claret-coloured blue-edged ribbon from a gold swivel and loop.
The names and rank of recipients are inscribed on the edge; it was
cut by Pidgeon. The medal illustrated facing page 20 was awarded
to Lieut.-Gen. Henry Edward Bunbury, Bart., K.C.B., who was Under
Secretary of State for War, 1809-16. It was kindly photographed for use
in this book by his grandson, Sir Henry Bunbury, Bart.


Napoleon, having by a series of brilliant battles gained supremacy over
Central Europe, issued a decree against all commercial intercourse with
Great Britain, but having lost any semblance of maritime power by the
crushing defeat of Trafalgar (October 21st, 1805), this was a somewhat
idle procedure. Portugal declining to carry out his Imperial decrees,
Napoleon alleged that the house of Braganza no longer held power, and
by cajoling the Spaniards into a false security led them to believe
that they would participate in the spoils of Portugal; consequently
they permitted an army under Marshal Junot to over-run Portugal, but
Napoleon's ulterior object was to place his brother Joseph, King of
Naples, on the throne of Spain, and in order to effect this purpose
the weak-minded Charles IV and his son Ferdinand were induced to go
to Bayonne, where Napoleon extracted from them the renunciation of
the throne of Spain; meanwhile the Royal family of Portugal had fled
to Brazil. On July 20th, 1808, Joseph Bonaparte entered Madrid, but
the high-spirited Spaniards refused to accept him, and established a
"junta" at Seville, declared Ferdinand VII king, and drove Joseph out
of Madrid within a fortnight. The Spaniards, however, felt unequal to
dealing with the usurper, and appealed to England, and not in vain--for
an army of 10,000 men was speedily dispatched, under Sir Arthur
Wellesley, who fought his first successful battle against the French in
Spain on August 17th, 1808.

=Roleria.=--This was the battle of Roliça, erroneously called Roleria
through a mistake in dispatches, and maintained on the colours ever
since, when General Laborde was driven from the position he held. The
following regiments took part in the battle--5th, 6th, 9th, 29th,
32nd, 36th, 38th, 40th, 45th, 60th, 71st (known with the 43rd as the
"Glasgow Light Infantry," owing to the number of Lowland Scots in the
regiments), 82nd, 91st, and the Rifle Brigade, which, as Wellesley
stated in his dispatch, had just been formed, but the brunt of the
fighting fell on the 5th, 9th, 29th, Riflemen of the 60th and the 95th,
and also the flank companies of Major-General Rowland (afterwards
Viscount) Hill's Brigade. Meanwhile Marshal Junot, the French
Commander-in-Chief, decided to brook no delay, and advanced to attack
Wellesley, who was at this time at the Vimiera heights near the Maceria

=Vimiera.=--In this battle (August 21st, 1808) Wellesley gave some
indication of that power in organising defence which was to prove so
valuable at Waterloo. The French attacked with considerable spirit, but
the British retaliated with equal vigour and drove them off. In this
battle the 50th, known as the "Blind Half Hundred" owing to ophthalmia
having attacked the men, and as the "Dirty Half Hundred" owing to the
black coming off their cuffs when rubbing their faces, made brilliant
and determined charges, which, with those made by the 43rd and the
71st, compelled the French to retreat. In this battle a piper of the
71st, being wounded in the leg, sat upon his knapsack, and declared as
he placed his pipes to his lips, "Diel hae me, lads, if ye shall want
for music." There were no Victoria Crosses in those days, or George
Clark would have had one. Wellesley, who had been superseded in the
command by Lieutenant-General Sir Hew Dalrymple and Sir Harry Buzzard,
now returned to England, disgusted, it is said, with the Convention of
Cintra, by which the French army was permitted to evacuate Portugal and
leave Lisbon in September for Brittany, from whence it soon proceeded
to re-enter the Peninsula by way of the Pyrenees. Lieutenant-General
Sir John Moore, who arrived in Spain after the battle of Vimiera, was
placed in command of the troops, consequent upon the recall of Sir Hew
Dalrymple and the resignation of Sir Harry Buzzard. His glorious death
at Coruña, after a brilliant retreat, is an imperishable memory.

=Sahagun.=--The story of the advance against Marshal Soult is marked
by many brilliant episodes, among them the daring charge of the 15th
Hussars on December 20th, 1808, at Sahagun, where, unexpectedly finding
a broad ditch to pass, they leapt it in "a true fox-hunting spirit,"
and put the enemy to flight, with the loss of ten colonels and 160 men
prisoners. As a result of this action, Sir John Moore established his
headquarters at Sahagun. Though the 10th Hussars also took part in the
affair, the 15th is the only cavalry regiment which won the right to
carry the name on its battle-roll; the 7th, 18th Hussars, and the 3rd
Hussars of the King's German Legion, were also present, and were later
deemed worthy of the bar, likewise two batteries of Horse Artillery. It
is noteworthy that only fifteen bars for Sahagun were issued, those who
took part in the battle of Benevente as well, receiving a single bar
inscribed with the two names.

=Benevente.=--On December 24th Sir John Moore thought it advisable
to retire from Sahagun, and on the 28th reached Benevente in very
inclement, snowy weather, where another brilliant cavalry affair took
place on the 29th, when the 10th Hussars, under General Lord Paget,
made a most dashing charge against the cavalry of the Imperial Guard,
led by General Lefebvre-Desnouettes, who, together with 70 cavalrymen,
were made prisoners. The English cavalry lost 50 killed and wounded,
and the French 150 killed. Dr. Payne points out that the single bars
for this and the previous battle, as well as the bar SAHAGUN-BENEVENTE,
were issued so indiscriminately that it is difficult to distinguish to
which bar the recipient was entitled. There is a medal with the single
bar BENEVENTE in the Chelsea Hospital.


Awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Brunton.]

=Retreat to Coruña.=--Then began the awful yet masterly retreat to
Coruña. Through rain and snow, and over almost impassable roads, the
British army of about 19,000 retreated with the French army of about
60,000, with 91 guns, hanging on without daring to do more than press
the retreat, which became so demoralising to Moore's army, that not
only had baggage to be abandoned, but guns and treasure to the amount
of £25,000 were thrown over a precipice near Nogales to prevent any
possibility of their falling into the hands of the enemy. And so, with
his army of comparatively raw troops, Sir John Moore resolutely and
defiantly made his way to Coruña, pursued by the veterans, under Ney
and Soult, only to find on arriving at the port that the transports
which were to bear them to England had not arrived! There was nothing
to be done but to accept battle, and this he did in such a splendid
manner that it makes his death in the hour of victory an imperishable
memory, while the recollection of the valour of his much-tried
and distressed soldiers will last as long as men respect courage,
especially that which triumphs in the face of adversity. Sir John Moore
was buried on the ramparts of Coruña by his staff officers and a few
men of the Black Watch and other regiments he loved, but--

    "No useless coffin enclosed his breast,
      Nor in sheet nor in shroud we wound him;
    But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,
      With his martial cloak around him."

Over his soldier's grave the French Marshals placed a plain tomb, while
Marshal Soult, who commanded the French, had placed upon a rock near
which Sir John Moore fell a Latin inscription recording the fact. He
was not allowed, however, to sleep in his soldier's grave, for the
Spaniards removed his body to a more conspicuous position, and covered
it with a magnificent monument eloquent of his deeds, but hardly in
keeping with his simple spirit.

In the battle of Coruña, fought on January 16th, 1809, the 50th
Regiment particularly distinguished itself by its use of the bayonet,
as did also the 42nd, who made a daring and victorious dash into "the
key of the fight," Elvina village--indeed, the battle is said to
have been won by Lord William Bentinck's brigade; Sir David Baird's
division, consisting of the 4th, 42nd, and 50th, which, as mentioned in
general orders issued by Lieutenant-General Hope, "sustained the weight
of the attack." The 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers were the last to embark.

The regiments engaged at Coruña also included the Grenadier Guards;
1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, 14th, 20th, 26th, 28th, 32nd, 36th, 38th,
43rd, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 59th, 71st, 76th, 79th, 81st, 82nd, 91st, 92nd,
95th, and the Rifle Brigade; 7th, 10th, 15th, 18th Light Dragoons; 1st
and 2nd Light Battalions King's German Legion, and the 3rd Dragoons of
the same corps. Three batteries of the Royal Horse Artillery were also

=Martinique.=--This island was taken by the British in February, 1762,
and on several other occasions, but a bar was only given for the
campaign in 1809, which had been concluded, despite very bad weather,
by its surrender to Lieutenant-General Beckwith on February 24th, 1809.
The French were under Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse. It was restored to
France in 1814. For this campaign a bar was granted when the decision
was made to issue the Military General Service medal, commonly but
erroneously known as the Peninsular medal, since not only were bars for
Guadaloupe and Java included, but also for Fort Detroit, Chateauguay,
and Chrystler's Farm in America.

For the capture of Martinique the superior officers were awarded a
gold medal, similar to that I shall shortly describe as having been
conferred upon the officers who served in the Peninsula.

The following regiments took part in this expedition--60th, 63rd,
and 90th; 1st West India Regiment and the flank companies of the 7th
Royal Welsh Fusiliers; 8th, 13th Light Infantry, 15th, 23rd, and 25th

=Talavera.=--In the spring of 1809, Sir Arthur Wellesley left England
to take command of the Anglo-Portuguese army, and, landing at Lisbon
on April 22nd, placed himself at the head of 25,000 British and
Portuguese, crossed the Douro, drove Marshal Soult out of Oporto,
advanced into Spain, and giving battle to the French at Talavera,
defeated them after a long-drawn conflict lasting over the 27th and
28th July. The French were commanded by the intrusive King Joseph
Bonaparte, assisted by Marshal Victor. The French losses in the first
day's fighting were about 1,000 officers and men, the British losing
about 800. For the two days the French had a total of 7,394 placed
_hors de combat_, including Generals Lapisse and Morlot killed, and
Generals Sebastiani and Boulet wounded; the killed numbered 944, and
the wounded 6,274, while 150 were taken prisoners. The British losses
amounted to 6,268; Generals Mackenzie and Langewith, 857 officers and
men being killed; 3 generals, 192 officers, and 3,718 men wounded, 9
officers and 643 men missing. The Spaniards gave their losses as 1,200
killed and wounded. This battle, the victory in which was claimed for
both sides, gained for the victorious General the titles of Baron Douro
of Wellesley and Viscount Wellington of Talavera, with a pension of
£2,000 per annum.

The following regiments were engaged in the battle of Talavera, those
marked with an asterisk being specially mentioned in dispatches. 1st
Batt. Coldstream Guards; 1st and 3rd Batts. Scots Guards; 2nd, 3rd,
4th, 5th, 6th, 2nd Batt. 7th Regiment,* 2nd Batt. 24th, 1st Batt.
29th,* 2nd Batt. 31st,* 1st Batt. 40th, 1st Batt. 45th,* 1st and 2nd
Batts. 48th, 2nd Batt. 53rd,* 5th Batt. 60th,* 1st Batt. 61st, 2nd
Batt. 66th, 71st, 79th, 82nd, 2nd Batt. 83rd, 2nd Batt. 87th, 1st Batt.
88th, 91st, 92nd, 1st Batt. 97th,* and the Rifle Brigade. 3rd Dragoon
Guards, 4th Dragoons, 14th (now Hussars), 16th (now Lancers), and 23rd
Light Dragoons; Royal Artillery, Engineers, and Staff Corps; 1st and
2nd Light Battalions, 1st Light Dragoons, and 1st, 2nd, 5th, 7th Line
Battalions of the King's German Legion.

=Peninsular Gold Medals.=--Following this brilliant victory it was
notified in the _London Gazette_, September 9th, 1810, that a gold
medal would be granted to commemorate the battles of Roleria, Vimiera,
Coruña, and Talavera. It was, however, only given to officers who
had taken part in these engagements, or who had participated in any
brilliant cavalry affair. It was also decided that the medal to which
an officer would have been entitled, had he survived, should be given
to his next of kin. The medals vary in size, but are all of the same
design. The larger size was conferred upon General Officers, and the
smaller ones upon colonels and senior officers. The medal was only
given to those who were actually in command during an engagement, or
succeeded thereto owing to the commander being killed or placed _hors
de combat_.

The gold medal bears on the obverse the figure of Britannia, wearing a
rather squat Roman-looking helmet, seated upon a globe, and bearing in
her extended right hand a laurel wreath and in her left a palm branch,
which rests upon an oval shield bearing the Union Jack; to Britannia's
right is the British lion. On the reverse is a simple wreath of laurel,
with the name of the battle and the date engraved in Roman capitals.
The medal is attached to the ribbon by a simple suspender, and a gold
buckle was frequently worn in the middle of the ribbon. General and
Commanding Officers were ordered to wear the medal suspended from the
neck by means of a red ribbon with blue edges--familiarly known as
the Peninsular ribbon--and below the rank of lieutenant-general by
the same ribbon from a button-hole of their coat. The senior officers
complained that it was very inconvenient to wear a medal dangling from
the neck while on horseback, and they were supported in their plea
by Wellington. This medal is generally found glazed, to prevent its
surface being damaged, the name and rank of the officer being engraved
upon the edge of the medal itself.


Awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Brunton.]

=Guadaloupe.=--General Beckwith, who had captured Martinique, attacked
the West Indian Island of Guadaloupe, and captured it on February 6th,
1810. The French, who lost nearly 600 men, were commanded by General
Ernouf (see =Martinique= for regiments engaged).

=Busaco.=--Wellesley's Spanish allies had failed him, as Sir John Moore
with his sorry experience had predicted, and so after the battle of
Talavera de la Regna he retired into Portugal, whither Napoleon sent
Marshal Masséna to "drive the English Leopards into the sea," but
the "Sepoy General," as Napoleon had dubbed Wellesley, was alive to
the possibilities of the situation, and in face of the overwhelming
numbers of the French, decided to prepare the impregnable lines of
Torres Vedras, stretching from the Tagus to the sea; but before he
could entrench himself he was compelled to check the pursuit of
Masséna on the Busaco Sierra on September 27th, 1810, where his army
of British and Portuguese resisted all attempts to dislodge them. In
this battle both the British and Portuguese troops fought with daring
determination, so that it would appear invidious to single out special
regiments for notice, but the 38th, 45th, and the 8th Portuguese
Regiments were mentioned in dispatches. The 88th Connaught Rangers
repulsed a division of French infantry, while the 74th Highlanders did
a like service. General Simon, who had bravely led his brigade up the
mountain side, was captured by two men of the 52nd Regiment, and the
French losses amounted to 2,000 killed and as many wounded. The British
losses were 197 killed and 1,072 wounded. Marshals Ney, Masséna, and
Regnier commanded the French, the English and Portuguese being under

At the battle of Busaco the following regiments took part: the
Coldstreams and Scots Guards; 4th, 14th, and 16th Light Dragoons, and
three batteries of artillery; 1st Royal Scots 3rd Batt. 3rd, 5th,
7th, 9th, 11th, 24th, 27th, 29th, 31st, 34th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd,
43rd, 45th, 48th, 50th, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 60th, 61st, 66th, 74th,
79th, 83rd, 88th, 97th, and the Rifle Brigade; there were also present
the following units of the King's German Legion; 1st and 2nd Light
Battalions, and the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 7th Line Battalions.

=Rodrigues and Isle of France.=--To keep our order chronologically
we must leave for a moment the army in Spain to call attention to
the fact that it had become necessary, in order to protect British
shipping from the French ships harbouring in the Isle of France, or
the Mauritius, that the place should be taken from them. Previous to
this, as part of the same plan, it had been decided to also take the
Island of Rodrigues, as a preliminary to the capture of the Isle of
Bourbon. For the action which was fought at Rodrigues it was decided
to award a medal to those who had taken part in the expedition in the
then French islands, and on September 10th, 1811, a General Order was
issued stating that a medal would be awarded to those who had taken
part in the action at Rodrigues, the defeat of the French on the Isle
of Bourbon, and the capture of the Isle of France. The medal was
awarded to native troops only, although the 86th and 96th Regiments
bear BOURBON on their colours. 2,201 were struck, 45 gold and 2,156
silver. The obverse bears a figure of a sepoy standing beside a field
gun, holding the Union Jack unfurled in his right hand, and in his
left his musket with bayonet fixed; with his left foot he tramples on
a French colour and Eagle, whilst the British fleet at anchor forms
the background. On the reverse is a Persian inscription surrounding a
laurel wreath, stating that "this medal was conferred in commemoration
of the bravery and accustomed fidelity exhibited by the sepoys of the
English company in the capture of the Mauritius Islands in the year of
the Hegira 1226." Outside the wreath is the record RODRIGUES VI JULY
1⁹⁄₁₀ in. in diameter, was intended to be worn suspended from a silken

It is noteworthy that a corporal of the 86th planted the regimental
colours on the redoubt, and in the fight for the Isle of Bourbon
Lieutenant Munro of the 86th was killed, also 17 men killed and 59
wounded. At the taking of the Isle of France only 29 of both services
were killed, and less than 150 wounded and missing; besides the fleet
of 70 sail, an army of 10,000 men under Major-General Abercromby took
part in the expedition.

=Barrosa.=--On September 29th Wellington retired with the allied
armies of 25,000 British and 30,000 Portuguese behind the famous lines
of Torres Vedras, where his force was augmented by the arrival of
English troops. Masséna made a series of ineffectual attacks, which
had the effect of keeping Wellington's army from getting stale, and
then retired to Santarem. Meanwhile a force of 4,500 British, under
Lieutenant-General Graham, and 7,000 Portuguese under General Dom
Manuel le Lapeña, reached Tarifa to operate against the rear of the
French army under Marshal Victor at Chaclana. Graham had unfortunately
contented himself with the command of his own troops, leaving Lapeña to
assume the position of Commander-in-Chief. On April 5th, 1811, Lapeña
halted his army on the Cerro de Puerco, now known as the heights of
Barrosa. The Spaniards, lacking in discipline and devoid of _esprit
de corps_, straggled into a situation which gave the keen-eyed French
Marshal an opportunity he was not slow to take advantage of, for the
blundering Lapeña had left a position which could have been held on
the heights of Barrosa, with the result that his Spanish army was
routed and driven towards the sea. Lapeña's stupidity had placed
Graham in a very awkward situation. He had obeyed the command to
move to Te Bermeja, but, apprised of the danger that threatened the
Spanish General, he countermarched, only to find that Lapeña had bolted
with his rabble of soldiery, and that the French held the key of the
position. Graham determined to take the heights, and it is said there
was never a shorter, more violent, or bloodier conflict; it lasted one
hour and a quarter, and resulted in a loss to the French of about 3,000
killed and wounded, including General Ruffin and Brigadier Rousseau,
who were mortally wounded, and six guns. The British out of their
small army lost in killed and wounded about 1,243 men, including 50
officers and 60 sergeants. The 87th Regiment, Royal Irish Fusiliers,
distinguished themselves by charging the French line, and capturing the
Eagle of the 8th Infantry, the first to be taken during the war; two
companies of the Coldstream Guards accompanied the 87th in its charge.

The following British regiments took part in the battle: 2nd Batts. of
the Grenadier, Coldstream, and Scots Guards; flank companies of the 1st
Batt. 9th Regiment; 1st Batt. 28th; flank companies 2nd Batt. 47th; 2nd
Batt. 67th; flank companies 2nd Batt. 87th; 2nd Batt. 87th; 2nd and 3rd
Batts. Rifle Brigade; Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers, also the 2nd
Hussars of the King's German Legion.

The British had been under arms for twenty-four hours, and fought
the battle with Lapeña and his men acting the part of spectators,
except for the Spanish Walloon Guard and the regiment of Ciudad Real,
who joined in the fray "impelled by the instinct natural to brave
men." Napier, in comparing the two leaders at Barrosa, states: "The
contemptible weakness of Lapeña furnished a surprising contrast to
the heroic vigour of Graham, whose attack was an inspiration rather
than a resolution--so wise, so sudden was the decision, so swift, so
conclusive was the execution."




=Fuentes d'Onor.=--On Sunday, May 5th, 1811, the battle of Fuentes
d'Onor (Fountain of Honour) was fought. The British and Portuguese
armies under Marshal Beresford had invested Almeida, upon which Marshal
Masséna marched his army, and the British light division and cavalry
retired as the French advanced upon the village, which gave its name
to the battle, and together with the heights behind was occupied by
the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd division. The French attack upon the village on
May 3rd necessitated the aid of reinforcements, and the 71st (Highland
Light Infantry), the 79th (Cameron Highlanders), and the 24th (South
Wales Borderers) were dispatched, the first-named regiment charging the
enemy and driving them out of that portion of the village which they
had occupied. The contest raged until nightfall, and over 250 officers
and men fell on each side in what was practically a hand-to-hand
conflict. The 4th was spent quietly, but on the 5th Masséna decided to
try the fortune of the day, which at the commencement seemed to smile
in his favour, for Junot carried the village of Posa Velha, while the
French cavalry not only drove in the cavalry of the allies, but the
whole movement caused Wellington to make a daring change of position,
during which an episode unique in the annals of warfare took place. In
the retirement, two guns, under Captain Norman Ramsey, had been left
behind, and the French and British also were astounded to see Ramsey
charge through the French masses at the head of his battery, "his
horses breathing fire and stretching like greyhounds along the plain,
his guns bounding like things of no weight, and the mounted gunners in
close and compact order protecting the rear." Shortly after the 2nd
Battalion of the Black Watch again distinguished itself by repulsing a
charge of French dragoons.

While the fighting was proceeding on the vast plain, a furious attack
was made on Fuentes d'Onor, which was desperately held by the 24th,
71st, and 79th Regiments, but the unequal contest was determined by
the bayonet charge of the 88th Connaught Rangers. Nightfall compelled
the cessation of hostilities, and both armies lay down to rest, looking
to the morrow to decide the battle, but the French gave no sign of
battle, and on the 8th retreated on the road to Ciudad Rodrigo. Masséna
claimed Fuentes d'Onor as a victory, despite the fact that his object,
to relieve Almeida, was unattained. In this sanguinary battle the
British lost 200 killed, 1,028 wounded, and 294 missing. It is said
that Masséna's total loss was about 3,000; of the French dead 200 were
found in the lower village of Fuentes d'Onor. This was Masséna's last
battle, Napoleon recalling the _enfant chéri de la victoire_, who
returned to France broken-hearted, and when opportunity offered gave
his allegiance to Louis XVIII.

The regiments engaged in the battle were the 2nd Foot Guards
(Coldstreams), 3rd Foot Guards (Scots Guards), 1st Dragoons; 14th and
16th Light Dragoons; 1st, 4th, 5th, 9th, 24th, 30th, 38th, 42nd, 43rd,
44th, 45th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 60th, 71st, 74th, 79th, 83rd, 85th,
88th, 92nd, 94th, and the Rifle Brigade; Horse Artillery; 1st Hussars;
1st and 2nd Light Battalions, and the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 7th Line
Battalions of the King's German Legion.

=Albuera.=--"Modern history," wrote General Picton, "presents no
example of an action so obstinately disputed as that of Albuera." It
was there that the "Die-hards" gained their coveted name, and when
the roll-call of the "Buffs" was called, after the battle, only three
privates and a drummer answered to their names. It was the fight for
the regimental colours which accounted in a degree for the grave loss
of life, so Lieutenant-General Cust states. Ensign Thomas refused to
yield the colours and was killed. Lieutenant Latham, when severely
wounded, tore the precious flag he had received from Ensign Walsh from
the broken staff, and concealed it under his body, where it was found
after the battle by a sergeant of the 7th Fusiliers.

=Latham Gold Medal.=--Latham, who had a wonderful recovery,
was presented by the officers of the "Buffs" with a gold medal
commemorating the event, and a royal authority was given him to wear
it. The "Buffs," as I have indicated, were almost annihilated--4
officers, 4 sergeants, and 208 rank and file were killed; 13 officers,
11 sergeants, 1 drummer, and 222 rank and file wounded; 1 officer
wounded and taken prisoner; 2 officers, 15 sergeants, 1 drummer, and
161 rank and file missing--a loss of 644 officers and men in one
battle. The "Buffs" had already lost 27 killed and 208 wounded, and 7
missing, at Talavera. The 57th, Middlesex Regiment, who were called
upon by their dying Colonel Inglis to "die hard," went into action 570
strong, but when the battle was over, 23 officers and 400 rank and
file "were lying as they had fought, in ranks, with every wound in the

The battle was fought on May 16th, 1811, the Spanish leaders agreeing
that Marshal Beresford should have supreme command, and to receive
battle in the village of Albuera. The allied army consisted of 32,000
infantrymen and 2,000 cavalry, with 38 guns; half the force was
Spanish, and the other half equally composed of British and Portuguese.
The Spaniards, as usual, were slack, and did not get into position
properly. The battle opened by the French attacking the heights on the
right of the Spaniards, and though they fought stubbornly at first they
gradually gave way before the onslaught of the French. Matters had
become very serious when General Stewart sent the leading brigade of
his division up the hill under General Colborne; the advance was made
in a drizzling rain. The French made several brilliant charges, and in
the _mêlée_ the commanding officer, Marshal Beresford, was attacked
by a Polish lancer, whom he seized bodily and threw from his saddle.
Those were heroic days indeed! The bad weather, which had so far
favoured the French, actually helped to save the day for the English,
for the drizzling rain prevented Marshal Soult from appreciating the
sad condition of the British. On the heights the 31st had resolutely
held its ground; other regiments had been cut to pieces, and Beresford
thought of retreat, when the cool daring of Colonel (afterwards Lord)
Hardinge, who took upon himself to order General Cole to advance, and,
taking General Abercromby's brigade to the ground, saved the day--to
which, by the way, the Portuguese regiments of the fourth division
contributed--General Cole leading the 7th and 23rd Fusiliers in person.
Cole drove off the Lancers and recovered the lost guns, but ere the
enemy were driven from the ridge, they had fired a terrific volley from
all the guns, which killed Sir William Myers, wounded the intrepid Cole
and three officers, while the Fusiliers "reeled and staggered under
the iron tempest like sinking ships, but nothing could stop them."
Soult, rushing into the thickest of the fight, tried to encourage
his brave soldiers to stand; it was useless. "Suddenly and sternly
recovering, they closed on their terrible enemies, and then was seen
with what a strength and majesty the British soldier fights." To again
quote Napier, "Nothing could stop that astonishing infantry ... their
measured tread shook the ground, their dreadful volleys swept away
the head of every formation ... the French reserve, mixing with the
struggling multitude, endeavoured to sustain the fight, but the effort
only increased the irremediable confusion; the mighty mass gave way,
and like a loosened cliff went headlong down the steep. The rain flowed
after it in streams, discoloured with blood, and 1,500 unwounded men,
the remnant of 6,000 unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant
on the fatal hill." The dead and wounded lay in two distinct lines on
the ground, and in such compact masses that 7,000 bodies occupied so
small an area that the artillery advancing into action had to pass over
the living and the dead, friend and enemy.

[Illustration: ALCANTARA MEDAL, 1809. (Obverse.)]


[Illustration: ALCANTARA MEDAL, 1809. (Reverse.)]

=The Immortals.=--The "Die-hards," the "Buffs," the 7th Fusiliers, and
the 23rd Welsh Fusiliers immortalised themselves in that bloodiest of
all battles, where in four hours no less than 15,000 men were placed
_hors de combat_. Well might M. Thiers say that "a sort of fatality
rendered the heroic bravery of our troops powerless against the cold
courage of the English." The 23rd lost 347 men, 80 killed, and 257
wounded and missing, and it is noteworthy that one company was brought
out of action by a corporal. The 29th mustered only 2 captains and
about 100 junior officers and men; the 57th was little better off,
likewise the 48th when the French were driven across the Albuera River.
Of the 7,000 British soldiers engaged, 4,300 were killed or wounded;
the dead included Major-General Houghton, who was killed while leading
his division, 33 officers, 33 sergeants, and 917 men. The Spanish and
Portuguese allies lost about 2,000 men killed or wounded, and as the
allied army consisted of about 34,000 men, the brunt of the fighting
was borne by the British troops. The French, who numbered about
33,000, lost about 1,000 more men than the British, including 5 of
their General Officers killed or wounded; 2,000 dead and 800 of their
worst wounded were left on the field when the French drew off, leaving
the British uncertain as to what the morrow might bring forth, but
reinforcements coming for the British, Soult moved off in the direction
of Badajoz, followed by Beresford.

The following regiments took part in the battle: 3rd Dragoon Guards;
4th Dragoons; 13th Light Dragoons; 1st, 3rd Foot (the "Buffs");
1st and 2nd 7th (Royal Fusiliers); 1st 23rd (Welsh Fusiliers); 1st
27th Inniskillings; 2nd 28th; 29th; 2nd 31st; 2nd 34th; 2nd 39th
(Dorsetshire); 1st 40th; 1st and 2nd 48th (Northamptonshire); 1st
57th (West Middlesex); 1st and 2nd 60th and four companies of the 5th
Battalion; 2nd 66th (Berkshire); 97th Queen's Own; 1st and 2nd Light
Battalions of the King's German Legion, and one company of Brunswick

=Java.=--The capture of the East Indian island of Java, which the
Dutch called the most precious jewel in their diadem, was effected
after operations lasting from July 27th, 1811, when Lieutenant Edmund
Lyons--after Admiral Lyons--made a daring landing with a few seamen,
until August 26th, ten days after the battle fought at Serondel near
Samarang. During this expedition the storming of Fort Cornelis took
place, when the enemy lost 1,000 killed; and three Brigadiers, 30
Field Officers, 70 Captains, 140 Subalterns, and 5,000 rank and file
prisoners; 400 cannons were captured. A million sterling was received
by the British force as prize money. The British loss (naval and
military) was 150 killed, 788 wounded, and 16 missing. By the Treaty of
Vienna Java was restored to the Dutch in 1814.

=H.E.I. Co.'s Java Medal.=--A medal, 1·9 in. in diameter, was awarded
by the Honourable East India Company to the sepoys who took part in the
expedition. On the reverse is depicted the attack upon Fort Cornelis,
with a British flag flying above the Dutch, and above all CORNELIS. The
following is inscribed in Persian upon the reverse: "This medal was
conferred in commemoration of the bravery and courage displayed by the
sepoys of the English company, in the capture of the Kingdom of Java in
the year of the Hegira 1228." "Java conquered XXVI August MDCCCXI." 133
gold and 6,519 silver medals of this type were struck.

King George III conferred gold medals upon the officers engaged, and
when the Naval and the Military General Service Medals were awarded,
the surviving participants in the capture received a medal with bar
inscribed JAVA. Four distinct medals were issued for this expedition.

The military present at the capture of Java were the 14th (now West
Yorkshire Regiment), 59th (now 2nd East Lancashire Regiment), 69th (now
2nd Welsh Regiment), 78th Highland Regiment (now 2nd Seaforths), 89th
(now Royal Irish Fusiliers), Bengal Volunteers and sepoys of "John

=Ciudad Rodrigo.=--The siege of Ciudad Rodrigo followed the "soldiers'
battle" of Albuera. The army, after considerable manœuvring, marching,
and countermarching, besieged Ciudad Rodrigo, which, together with the
siege of Badajos, had to be undertaken before Wellington's plan of
campaign could be carried out. On January 1st, 1812, the order for the
siege of the fortress was suddenly issued, but some days elapsed before
the order could be put into execution, owing to the inclement weather,
snowstorms preventing any possibility of operations. On the 8th the
investment of the fortress was commenced, and the earth redoubt of
Teson Grande stormed and taken by Colonel Colborne with three companies
of the 52nd Regiment. On the 13th the Convent of Santa Cruz, one of
the two convents which had been fortified by the French, was stormed
and carried by the light companies of the brigade of Guards, and on
the night between the 14th and 15th the 40th Regiment escaladed and
carried the fortified San Francisco Convent. Meanwhile preparations
had been progressing for the general assault, which took place on the
night of January 19th. Wellington had written in his orders "Ciudad
must be stormed this evening," and the order was carried out in a
brilliant manner, but alas! two British Generals were killed, General
Crauford being mortally wounded whilst leading the light division,
and General Mackinnon killed on reaching the ramparts of the greater
breach. In this assault General Picton adjured the Connaught Rangers,
who passed with the forlorn hope to storm the breach, to "spare powder
and trust to cold iron," and it was by the use of the bayonet that the
43rd and 95th drove the French from the "fausse braye." The city was
taken after a siege lasting twelve days, but the troops "committed
frightful excesses," which some have condoned as a prescriptive
right which successful besiegers may enjoy. The British losses were
9 officers and 217 rank and file killed, 84 officers--including
Major-General Vandeleur and Major (afterwards Sir George) Napier, who
lost an arm--and 1,000 men wounded. For the successful issue to his
generalship, Wellington received the patent of an earl, and was made a
Spanish duke, the British Government increasing his annuity to £4,000
per annum.

The regiments engaged in the siege were the 2nd Foot Guards (the
Coldstreams); 3rd Foot Guards (Scots Guards); 5th, 7th, 24th, 30th,
40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th, 52nd, 60th, 74th, 77th, 83rd, 88th, 94th,
97th, and the Rifle Brigade.

=Siege of Badajoz.=--Before bringing to a successful issue the siege
of Ciudad Rodrigo, Wellington had been busily engaged in preparing
for the third siege of Badajoz. On March 16th, 1812, it was invested,
but the weather for some time was particularly unfavourable to the
besiegers, rain falling in torrents so that the men in the trenches
were knee-deep in mud and water. By March 23rd, however, the weather
had improved, and the ground was in better condition for placing the
guns, which by the 25th were in position at Picurina, the place being
taken by storm on that day. On the 26th breaching batteries opened
fire on the city, and by April 6th it was deemed possible to storm
the castle by escalade, Picton's division being ordered to do so. The
bastion of La Trinidad was to be stormed by Colville's division, and
the Santa Maria by the light division under Colonel Barnard, while
the lunette of San Rocque was to be carried by the 48th under Major
Wilson. At 10 o'clock at night the attack was made: General Kempts,
leading his brigade to the foot of the castle, was there wounded, but,
his men dashing on, the castle was won in an hour and a half. "At the
breaches the tumult was such as if the earth had been rent asunder ...
the carnage was frightful. It is doubtful whether, since the invention
of gunpowder, any mass of men had ever been more fearfully exposed to
all its murderous power. The dying were piled upon the dead in mounds,
which the living could not pass; and the French soldiers, undisturbed
in their avocation, raised the deriding cry _'Vive l'Empéreur!'_"
By midnight 2,000 men had fallen outside the city, and Wellington
ordered the troops to withdraw; but this was as impossible as to go
forward. Meanwhile some of the 5th division had entered the town (the
4th Regiment being in first), which by 6 o'clock the next morning was
surrendered by the Governor. The besiegers lost 131 officers and 1,707
rank and file killed, and 564 officers and 6,083 men wounded. Napier
states that "when the havoc of the night was told to Wellington, the
pride of conquest sunk into a passionate burst of grief for the loss of
his gallant soldiers," for in the assault alone the British casualties
were 59 officers and 744 men killed, and 258 officers and 2,600 rank
and file wounded. No wonder one of the Connaught Rangers exclaimed with
an oath, "Och! Boys, Soudradrodrago was but a flay-bite to this." The
43rd Monmouth Light Infantry lost more men than any other regiment;
20 officers, including its chief, Colonel M'Leod (who was only
twenty-seven), 335 sergeants and privates killed and wounded. Alas! the
Saturnalia of Ciudad Rodrigo was repeated, and the disciplined men who
had fought with such valour gave way to demoniacal passions which we
of to-day can scarce believe. The indignity of the threatened gallows
was the only way in which Wellington could curb his men, but not before
several of the worst plunderers had been executed.



The following regiments were engaged at the siege and storming of
Badajoz: 2nd Foot Guards; 1st, 4th, 5th, 7th, 23rd, 24th, 30th, 38th,
40th, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 48th, 52nd, 60th, 74th, 77th, 83rd, 85th, 88th,
94th, and 95th Regiments, the Rifle Brigade, and the 13th and 14th
Light Dragoons.

=Salamanca.=--The battle of Salamanca, fought on Sunday, July 22nd,
1812, is noteworthy as the first general action in the Peninsular
War in which Wellington attacked; his decision was due to Marmont
making a sudden movement which threatened to cut the British lines of
communication with Portugal, but although the position appeared to
be a critical one for the British General, he turned to the Spanish
General Alva and said, "Mon cher Alva, Marmont est perdu!" In this
battle the 3rd division, under Major-General Pakenham, were the first
in action, and brilliantly carried everything before them. In this
division were the Connaught Rangers, who, incensed by the death of
a favourite officer, Major Murphy, could hardly be kept in hand.
General Pakenham, noticing their impatience, ordered them to "be let
loose," when they charged with an impetuosity which nothing could
withstand, and together with the 45th and 74th broke through the
masses of infantry, bayoneting all they could overtake. Composed of
such material, no wonder the 3rd was called "the fighting division."
It took just forty minutes to defeat Marmont's left wing, which in his
endeavour to close the Ciudad road had got separated from the right,
and into the gap made thereby Wellington poured his men. The right,
however, reinforced by those who had escaped the conflict on the left,
made a very determined resistance, and the shades of evening were
falling ere the enemy made a last brave effort to retrieve the day,
and, indeed, appeared to be on the way to doing so when Wellington
ordered Clinton's division, numbering 6,000 bayonets, to advance,
which, after a furious struggle, compelled the French to give way in
confusion. Night had set in, and the remnants of Bonnet's division,
which Clinton had put to rout, had the good fortune to find a means of
escape through the abandonment of the ford of Alba de Tormes by the
Spaniards. For six hours the battle of Salamanca raged with unabated
fury, and with varying fortune on the right, so that the divisions
which had been actively engaged, on an exceedingly hot day, were
glad to bivouac on the ground where they had fought a battle, which
again demonstrated the brilliant commandership and the keen, quick
eye with which Wellington detected an opportunity when it offered.
Salamanca was, in the opinion of experts, the most skilful of any of
his victories, though the mistakes which Marmont made would have been
obvious to men of lesser capacity. A decisive battle, it would have
proved much more fatal to the French had darkness not precluded the
possibility of any considerable effort at pursuit on the part of the
victors. As it was, however, Wellington pressed the retreating French
to the ford of Huerta, and ordered the cavalry to follow the fugitives;
continually pressing on the rear, Wellington forced his way on to the
romantic city of Valladolid, which he entered in triumph on July 31st.
On August 12th he entered Madrid, to the plaudits of the people, who
hailed him as the deliverer of their country.

In this battle the allies' losses exceeded 5,000. The British lost
General Le Marchant, who was killed while leading a brilliant and
successful charge of the heavy brigade, 24 officers, and 686 rank and
file killed. Field-Marshal Beresford, Lieutenant-Generals Cotton, Cole,
Leith, and Major-General Allen were wounded, besides 182 officers of
inferior rank; 4,270 of the rank and file were wounded. The Portuguese
lost about 304 killed and 1,552 wounded; the Spaniards lost--4! The
French, who had at the battle about 42,000 men and 74 guns, lost about
7,000 men, besides Generals Desgraviers, Ferrey, and Thormières killed.
Marmont, the Commander-in-Chief, was badly wounded early in the action
by a shell; Bonnet was severely wounded, and Clausel, who commanded
after the disablement of Marmont and Bonnet, slightly; 130 officers
and 7,000 men were taken prisoners, and 2 Eagles, 6 standards, and 11
pieces of artillery were captured by the victors.

Essentially a General's victory, with exceedingly far-reaching
consequences, Wellington was rewarded with a marquisate, an
augmentation of his coat-of-arms to commemorate his services, and
a grant of £100,000 to maintain the dignity of his rank; while the
Spanish Regency presented him with the Order of the Golden Fleece. The
vanquished Marmont, Duke of Ragusa, on the other hand, was told by
Napoleon that he had "sacrificed to vanity the glory of the country,
and the good of my service."

The following regiments were present at Salamanca, although some were
in reserve: 2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 9th,
11th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 30th, 32nd, 36th, 38th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 44th,
45th, 48th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 58th, 60th, 61st, 68th, 74th, 79th,
83rd, 88th, 94th, and 95th Regiments; artillery and Rifle Brigade;
5th Dragoon Guards; 3rd, 4th, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Light
Dragoons. The King's German Legion was represented by the 1st Hussars;
1st and 2nd Light Battalions; 1st, 2nd, and 5th Line Battalions.

=Fort Detroit.=--From that unfortunate day in 1773, when the youth
of Boston boarded the ships and cast the cargoes of tea into the
sea, until the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, the relations
between the English-speaking peoples were continuously strained; the
centenary of that auspicious day, and the happy continuance of peace,
we celebrate this year. With the events which led up to the outbreak
of hostilities I am not here concerned, my province being merely to
record such facts as will help in the appraisement of the intrinsic,
historical, or sentimental value of medals awarded to those who have
carried the burden of war. The capture of Fort Detroit was an episode
which followed the declaration of war by the American Senate on June
18th, 1812. Early in July 2,500 Americans, under General Hull, crossed
the Detroit and invaded Upper Canada, but, opposed by about 1,330
Canadian militia and regulars under Major-General Brock, they were
forced back to Fort Detroit, on the American side of the St. Laurence,
which Brock proceeded to invest, but having constructed his batteries
and opened fire, before making the assault he sent his aide-de-camp to
summon the United States General to obviate bloodshed by surrendering.
This he did on August 16th.

[Illustration: Knight's Badge, Military Order of San Fernando.]

[Illustration: M.G.S. Medal.]

[Illustration: Officer's Gold Cross for Peninsular.]

[Illustration: King John VI's Jewelled Badge, for Special Service.]

[Illustration: Knight's Badge, Order of the Tower and Sword.]

[Illustration: Badge and Star (Knight Commander's) of the Order of St.
Bento d'Aviz.]

[Illustration: Officer's Badge, Order of the Tower and Sword.]


The regulars represented in this affair were 30 Royal Artillerymen,
about 250 men of the 41st (the Welsh Regiment), which, together with
its linked battalion, the 69th, bears DETROIT on its colours; 50 of the
Royal Newfoundland Regiment; 400 Canadian militiamen, and 600 Indians.

=Vittoria.=--Following the abortive siege of Burgos, September 19th,
1813, Wellington retired to Frenada and Coria on the frontiers of
Portugal, and went into winter quarters to await reinforcements.
They having arrived, and the army being well equipped and in a good
disciplinary spirit, he commenced the second part of the Peninsular
campaign, which was destined to be a series of successes for the
British commander, who commenced the final campaign in May 1813, by
bidding adieu to Portugal, and marching into Spain with 70,000 men. He
swept everything before him to the Pyrenees. "Neither," says Napier,
"the winter gulleys, nor the ravines, nor the precipitate passes among
the rocks, retarded even the march of the artillery--where horses could
not draw, men hauled; when the wheels would not roll, the guns were
let down or lifted by ropes--six days they toiled unceasingly, and
on the seventh (June 20th) they burst like raging streams from every
defile, and went foaming into the basin of Vittoria." There Joseph
Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan had taken up the position from which
they were to be driven by the forceful Wellington, who spared nothing
to achieve his object. "Never," wrote Napier, "was an army more hardly
used by its commander, and never was a victory more complete." It was
a terrific struggle; "the hills laboured and shook, and streamed with
fire and water," ere the pseudo-king, Joseph Bonaparte, and his army
fled in confusion, leaving all his personal belongings, and the rich
pictures and plunder he had taken from every part of Spain, strewn on
the road, for whosoever had a mind to acquire; 151 guns, 415 caissons
of ammunition, 4,000 rounds for guns, and 2,000,000 musket cartridges
were also abandoned, and a full military treasure-chest. Indeed, never
had such an accumulation of military stores and private wealth been
abandoned by a routed army.

The French General Gazan, who took part in the battle, recorded
that the French "lost all their equipage, all their guns, all their
treasure, all their papers, so that no man could prove how much pay
was due to him." Joseph Bonaparte's carriage was abandoned in the
street in his haste to evade Captain Wyndham, who made a bold dash to
secure him; the Sword of State, emblematic of the kingship which the
brother of Bonaparte had claimed, but which he had lost for ever, and
the marshal's baton belonging to Jourdan, together with the Eagle of
the 100th Regiment, were among the spoils. It is also recorded that "a
perfect herd of women, including General Gazan's wife, and a number
of the wives, mistresses, actresses, and nuns, belonging to officers
and men of the French army, were abandoned." The Field Marshal's
baton, which was taken by the 87th Royal Irish Fusiliers, commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel (afterwards Viscount) Gough, was sent to the Prince
Regent, who responded by sending Wellington the Field Marshal's baton
of Britain.

The French loss in killed and wounded was estimated by M. Thiers at
5,000; the allies' losses were, British 500 killed, 2,300 wounded, and
266 missing; the Portuguese loss was about 150 killed and 900 wounded;
the Spanish losing 89 killed and 460 wounded.

The British regiments present were the 1st and 2nd Life Guards and
Horse Guards, represented by two squadrons; 1st, 3rd, and 5th Dragoons;
3rd, 4th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, and 18th Light
Dragoons; 2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st Royal Scots; 2nd Queen's Royal;
4th King's Own Royal; 5th Northumberland Fusiliers; 6th Royal 1st
Warwickshire; 7th Royal Fusiliers; 9th East Norfolk; 20th; 23rd Royal
Welsh Fusiliers; 24th; 27th Inniskilling; 28th North Gloucestershire;
31st, 34th, 38th Staffordshire; 39th Dorsetshire; 40th; 43rd Monmouth
Light Infantry; 45th Sherwood Foresters; 47th Lancashire; 48th
Northamptonshire; 50th Queen's Own; 51st King's Own Light Infantry;
52nd Oxford Light Infantry; 53rd Shropshire; 57th West Middlesex; 58th,
59th, 60th King's Royal Rifle Corps; 66th Berkshire; 68th Durham Light
Infantry; 71st Highland Light Infantry; 74th Highland Regiment; 82nd
Prince of Wales Volunteers; 83rd; 87th Royal Irish Fusiliers; 88th
Connaught Rangers; 92nd Gordon Highlanders; 94th; 95th Derbyshire.

=Pyrenees.=--The rout at Vittoria gave Wellington possession of the
passes of the Pyrenees, and when in 1849 it was decided to decorate the
surviving soldiers of the Peninsular War, all those who had taken part
in the series of extraordinary actions in the Pyrenees, Roncesvalles,
Maya, Santarem, and Buenzas, from July 28th to August 2nd, 1813, were
awarded the medal with bar inscribed PYRENEES, and those who were
entitled to the medal for other actions received the additional bar.
Napoleon ordered his brother to retire into private life and instructed
the officials not to pay him the respect due to a monarch. Soult was
ordered to take up the command, and did so with a zest and ability that
has called forth the admiration of all who recognise in the dread game
of war that sportsmanlike character which thoughtfully dares all and
takes its rebuffs with a smile.

=Siege of Sebastian.=--Meanwhile, Wellington instructed the Spanish
Generals to blockade the fortress of Pampeluna, and besieged San
Sebastian, which was blockaded by the British Navy on July 3rd, and
invested by the troops under Sir Thomas Graham on the 9th. During this,
the first siege of San Sebastian, a Frenchman states that on the 19th
and 20th for fifteen hours the British fired 350 shots per gun. On the
24th General Graham ordered the assault, and the way was led by Colin
Campbell (afterwards Lord Clyde) of the 9th, and Machet the engineer.
Campbell, doing many a daring deed, saw all his friends dead round
him, while he, seriously wounded, was spared to achieve greater things.
In this assault 44 officers of the line and 500 men were killed,
wounded, or taken prisoners. The battalion of the Royal Scots present
alone lost 87 killed and 246 wounded in the unsuccessful assault. In
the meantime Marshal Soult, who had reached Bayonne on July 13th to
take command of the united French army, attacked Major-General Byng's
brigade at Roncesvalles on the 25th, while Count D'Erlon proceeded
to attack Sir Rowland Hill in the Pass of Maya, where very desperate
fighting ensued. The fighting at Roncesvalles and Maya continued until
nine in the evening, when it was deemed advisable to abandon the Pass
of Maya to the enemy.

=Gallantry of Gordons at Maya.=--In the day's fighting the allies
lost 1,600 men and 4 guns. In the Pass of Maya the British troops had
been engaged for ten hours, and it is noteworthy that the 92nd Gordon
Highlanders, being without ammunition, although ordered by General
Stewart not to charge, could not be restrained, and not only charged,
but led a charge against the enemy. In this engagement the 92nd lost
1 officer and 34 men killed, and 18 officers and 268 men wounded, one
wing being practically annihilated. Napier states in his history of
the war that "so dreadful was the slaughter, especially of the 92nd,
that it is said the advancing enemy was actually stopped by the heaped
dead and dying. The stern valour of the 92nd, principally composed of
Scotsmen, would have graced Thermopylæ." In this sanguinary combat the
82nd also particularly distinguished itself.




(See section, Some Continental and Foreign War Medals, p. 357.)]

On the 28th the British were attacked in position on a mountain ridge
between the valleys of the Lanz and the Guy, with Byng's brigade in
reserve on the second ridge of Huerta, and the 6th division adjoining;
the latter had scarcely got into position, when General Clausel
attacked it from the Sorauren side; the fight became general, and 27th
and 48th Regiments, charging, "rolled back the enemy in disorder, and
threw them headlong down the mountain side." With admirable heroism
the French soldiers returned three times to the charge, but their
efforts could not avail against the dogged determination of the allied
troops. In this affair every regiment in the 4th division, the 40th,
7th, 20th, and 23rd, charged four times, while Major-General Ross had
two horses shot under him. On the 29th the rival armies were inactive,
Soult apparently considering his plans for the relief of Pampeluna
and San Sebastian. He decided to abandon any advance on the former,
and proceeded to relieve San Sebastian, but by masterly manœuvres
Wellington checkmated his opponent, and compelled him to abandon the
endeavour, and on August 2nd the French troops evacuated Spain at all

For nine days the armies had confronted one another, and the allies
had lost in the different actions no less than 7,096 officers and men
killed and wounded, while the aggregate loss of the French is put down
at 15,000. At the conclusion of this series of conflicts Sir William
Stewart was wounded, and Wellington narrowly escaped being taken
prisoner by a French detachment which surprised him whilst studying a
map; the French Commander-in-Chief, Soult, also narrowly escaped with
his liberty.

=St. Sebastian.=--While Soult and Wellington had been busily engaged,
General Rey, the Governor of San Sebastian, had employed himself in
strengthening the city and castle, so that when the second siege was
renewed on August 5th, 1813, he was in a position to make a very
desperate defence. Many inactive days were spent, to the chagrin of
Wellington, who complained of the exceeding inactivity of the navy,
which compelled him to lose more than half of August. However, by the
26th he had breaching guns and mortars in position, and with these he
opened fire upon the city, and as a result 250 yards of the walls were
reduced to ruins; but it was not until the night between August 30th
and 31st that the place was assaulted. Then, again, the British soldier
gave proof of his cool bearing, not once, but again and again. At 8
a.m. the town was bombarded by all the batteries, and the fire was kept
up until 11 a.m., when the order for the assault was given. A storming
party of 750 volunteers was asked for from the 1st, 4th, and light
divisions, "men who could show other troops how to mount a breach."
They successfully passed one danger which destroyed a party of thirteen
that had rushed to cut the _saucisson_ of a mine, to die in mounting
the great breach. At the sea wall hundreds of the British were killed
by the explosion of a mine, and then "began a frightful slaughter,"
for there was hardly another conflict so desperate and so sanguinary
as that which took place at the storming of the great breach; "the
appearance of the breach was perfectly delusive; nothing living could
reach the summit; no courage, however desperate, could overcome the
difficulties, for they were alike unexpected and unsurmountable." The
officers encouraged their men by word and action, "crowd after crowd
were seen to mount, totter, and to fall, and at length the whole mass
sank to the bottom of the breach, but remained stubborn and immovable
on this lower part." General Graham, beholding this, resorted to an
unparalleled expedient by ordering all the breaching batteries to fire
over the stormers' heads on to the inner wall. This daring inspiration
saved the situation, for the terrible storm of missiles, passing over
the heads of the British troops, did their deadly work by demolishing
the defences, and killing or driving away the defenders. Another
furious effort was made upon the breach, and when this seemed as though
it must fail, explosions occurred all along the enemy's defences,
and the British soldiery, breaking into the first traverse, poured
through the town, pushed past the barricades, which the defenders could
not hold even for a few moments in face of the impetuous stormers,
who were, however, compelled to leave the castle unattacked. In
this terrible conflict the chief engineer, Sir Richard Fletcher, was
killed; Burgoyne, the second engineer, wounded; also Generals Sir James
Leith, Oswald, and Robinson. The total loss of the besiegers on the
day of the capture was 761 killed, 1,697 wounded, and 45 missing. The
castle was pluckily defended, but on the 8th was reduced to ruins,
and the garrison, surrendering, were allowed to march out, the brave
Rey at their head, with all the honours of war. The siege had lasted
seventy-three days, during which time nine assaults had been made. The
disgraceful scenes of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz were surpassed at
San Sebastian by the addition of revolting cruelty to the excesses of
drunkenness, and the crimes of rape and murder.

The regiments engaged in the siege and capture were 200 of the Guards;
1st, 2nd, 4th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 36th, 38th,
40th, 43rd, 47th, 48th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 59th, 68th, 82nd, 85th, 87th,
88th, and 95th, but only the Royal Scots, 4th, 9th, 38th, 47th, and
59th Regiments, are permitted to carry ST. SEBASTIAN on their colours.

=Chateauguay.=--This battle, fought on October 26th, 1813, occurred
during the military campaign in America. Having achieved a series
of successes, the Americans concentrated about 18,000 regulars and
10,000 militia at Sackett's Harbour. Sir George Prevost, thinking it
expedient, quitted Kingston and proceeded to the capital, whilst Sir R.
Skeaffe assembled as many troops as he possibly could, 8,000 militia
readily responding to the call. Major-General Hampton, commanding the
eastern division of the United States army, crossed the Canadian border
with 8,000 men on October 21st, having arranged to co-operate with
General Wilkinson, who was in command of about 10,000 men, but through
some misunderstanding the two forces were unable to combine, and on
October 26th General Hampton found himself faced by a body of 800 men,
under Lieutenant-Colonel De Salaberry, who disposed his little army
so admirably that he not only caused the enemy a severe loss, but
compelled Hampton to fall back to Plattsburgh, from which he "had not
the resolution again to return to the frontier."

Those engaged in this affair were the Canadian Fencible Light Infantry,
Canadian Militia, two companies of Voltigeurs, some Indians, and Royal

=The Peninsular Gold Cross.=--The long-drawn character of the
Peninsular War, and the frequent general engagements which called for
recognition, occasioned the recipients of the gold medals inconvenience
in wearing them; in consequence the names of battles were sometimes
engraved on the medals as suggested in Wellington's dispatch of October
1st, 1811, dated from Richoso. Subsequently an order was issued from
the Horse Guards, on October 7th, 1813, to the effect that amended
regulations would be adopted in the grant and circulation of marks of
distinction, _i.e._ medals. The regulations set forth that (1st) only
one medal should be borne by each officer, (2nd) that for the second
and third events a gold clasp attached to a ribbon, from which the
medal is suspended, inscribed with the name of the battle or siege to
which it relates. These bars, which were unconnected, were 2 in. long
by ⅗ in. broad, with laureated edges, the names of the battles being
soldered on. They were pierced and lapped bright. (3rd) That upon a
claim being admitted to a fourth mark of distinction, a cross shall
be borne by each officer with the names of the four battles or sieges
respectively inscribed thereupon, and to be worn in substitution of
the distinctions previously granted. (4th) That upon each occasion
of a similar nature, that may occur subsequent to the grant of the
cross, the clasp shall again be issued to those who have a claim to the
distinction. The following officers were eligible for the distinction:
General Officers, Commanding Officers of Brigades, Commanding Officers
of Artillery and Engineers, Adjutant-General and Quartermaster-General,
also Assistant Adjutant-General and Quartermaster-General ranking with
Field Officers; Military Secretary having the rank of Field Officer,
Commanding Officers of Battalions or Corps equivalent thereto, and
Officers who may have succeeded to the actual command during an
engagement, owing to the death or removal of the original Commanding

[Illustration: (Obverse) WATERLOO MEDAL.]

[Illustration: ARMY OF INDIA MEDAL.]

[Illustration: (Reverse.) WATERLOO MEDAL.]

The cross (see facing page 44), Maltese in form, is 1½ in. square, with
a bright lapped double border framing a laurel mount. In the centre in
bold relief is the British Lion statant, and on the four arms of the
cross are arranged the names of the battles the recipient was engaged
in. The name of the first battle is arranged in the space above the
Lion. The obverse and reverse are similar; the cross was suspended
from a crimson ribbon with blue edges--the regulation ribbon at this
time--1⁷⁄₁₀ in. wide, by means of a gold swivel and laureated ring,
connected to the cross by means of a gold loop and ornamentation. The
names and regiments of recipients were engraved on the edges of the
arms of the cross.

_Number Issued._--The Duke of Wellington received the only cross with 9
bars, representing 13 engagements; two were issued with 7 bars; three
with 6 bars; seven with 5 bars; eight with 4 bars; seventeen with 3
bars; eighteen with 2 bars; forty-six with 1 bar, and sixty-one the
cross alone. Eighty-five large gold medals were issued, and 599 small
gold ones. One hundred and forty-three bore 1 bar, and seventy-two 2
bars, leaving four hundred and sixty-nine medals without bars or clasps.

=Nivelle.=--For nearly six cold and inclement weeks after the fall
of San Sebastian, Wellington remained inactive in the Pyrenees, the
troops suffering considerably in the bleak situation. Then began the
operation which has been described as one of the boldest of the war.
Wellington determined to seize the great La Rhune mountain, 2,700 ft.
high, which stood between the Nivelle and Bidassoa valleys and the
dependent heights; by so doing he could menace the centre of the French
line, and cross the border. Soult lost his head, and called upon the
French peoples of the provinces to take up arms and war "to the knife."
Wellington coolly responded by informing the inhabitants that England
did not make war upon the people, but upon their ruler, who did not
allow others to remain at peace, and impressed upon his soldiers that
any acts of violence or marauding would be punished by death. Early on
the morning of October 7th, 1814, the British made their first movement
by crossing the mouth of the Bidassoa River--a feat classed among the
ablest and boldest of Wellington's operations; the enemy were taken by
surprise, and the British carried everything before them. At 3 o'clock
in the afternoon the famous exploit of Lieutenant William Havelock,
"El Chico Blanco," took place. He had been sent by General Baron
Alten to see the progress that Marshal Giron's Spaniards had made,
and finding them irresolute, despite their previous successes, his
fiery spirit could not brook the check. Taking off his hat, he called
upon the Spaniards to follow him, set spurs to his horse, and cleared
the abattis at a bound. "Then," wrote Napier, "the soldiers, shouting
for 'El Chico Blanco' (the fair boy)--so they called him, for he was
young and had light hair--with one shock broke through the French,
and at the very moment when their centre was flying under the fire
of Kempt's skirmishers from the Puerto de Vera." (Lieutenant-Colonel
Havelock, elder brother of Sir Henry Havelock, was born on January
23rd, 1793, and killed while leading the 14th Light Dragoons--"450
sabres against an army amounting to more than 15,000 men with heavy
cannon"--at Ramnuggur, November 22nd, 1848.) In three days the allies
lost 814 men, and the French 1,400, but the victorious allies were now
on French soil, and working well together, the Spaniards rising to
the occasion as success succeeded success. For some days the armies
were inactive; Wellington was getting ready to resume the offensive,
while Soult was preparing to attack. The enemy, however, attacked,
and carried a redoubt in the camp of Sarre held by the Spaniards.
They then attacked, on the morning of the 13th, the advance posts of
the army of Andalusia, under the command of Marshal Giron, but were
easily repulsed. Ultimately the French retreated in confusion towards
the bridge of Nivelle, and on November 10th the battle of La Nivelle
was fought. It was a beautiful morning, and it must have been a grand
sight to see the army of 90,000 men descend to the battle. "Three guns
pealed from the mountain heights of Achubia ... and the battle of the
Nivelle commenced." Driven from the centre, many of the French troops
crossed the Nivelle at St. Pè, while Major-General Colville, with the
3rd division, and General Le Cor with the 7th, drove off those who
held the heights above, and established the allied army on the rear
of the enemy's right. Night ended the battle, and under cover of the
darkness Soult withdrew his army and abandoned the position he had
been fortifying for three months. On the 12th he took up his position
in front of the camp at Bayonne. In this engagement the allies took
1,400 prisoners, 51 pieces of cannon, and 6 tumbrils of ammunition. The
French also lost 2,000 men killed and wounded.

In his dispatch Wellington particularly referred to the gallant conduct
of the 51st and 68th Regiments in the attack on the heights above St.
Pè. The allies lost 26 officers, including Lieutenant-Colonel Lloyd
of the 94th, 28 sergeants, 289 rank and file; 155 officers, including
Major-General Kempt, and 2,146 men wounded; 3 officers and 70 men

The following regiments were present in the engagements leading up to
the battle of Nivelle. 1st and 2nd Batts. Foot Guards; 1st, 2nd, 3rd,
4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 28th, 31st,
32nd, 34th, 36th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 47th, 48th, 50th,
51st, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 58th, 59th, 60th, 61st, 62nd, 66th, 68th, 71st
(did not take active part), 74th, 76th, 79th, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 85th,
87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, and 95th; the Rifle Brigade; 12th, 13th,
14th, and 18th Light Dragoons, and the 1st and 2nd Light Battalions,
also the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Line Battalions of the King's German Legion.

=Chrystler's Farm.=--The day following the battle of Nivelle in
France saw a victory for British arms in Canada at Chrystler's Point,
commonly called Chrystler's Farm. This battle was a sequel to that at
Chateauguay. I have referred to the fact that the American General
Wilkinson, with his army of 10,000 men, had failed to combine with
Major-General Hampton, but by November 3rd he landed a portion of
his troops near Point Iroquois, to which place the British General
dispatched a force of 800 regulars and militia, under Colonel Morrison,
to stop the advance. Meeting 3,000 men who had been landed under
Major-General Boyd at Chrystler's Farm, Colonel Morrison's little army
routed them after a fight lasting two and a half hours, with a loss of
250 killed and wounded, besides 100 prisoners and one gun. The effect
of the action at Chrystler's Farm was to compel the enemy to evacuate
Lower Canada.

Men of the 49th and 2nd Battalion 89th Regiments, the Royal Artillery,
Canadian Militia, Fencibles and Voltigeurs, likewise a few Indians,
were engaged in this battle. As comparatively few regulars took part in
the American battles, Fort Detroit, Chateauguay, and Chrystler's Farm,
and because they were awarded so many years after, medals to British
regiments bearing these bars are very rare, as indeed are those of the
Colonials who took part.



=Nive.=--Soult, having lost the Nivelle, withdrew his army to Anglet,
and formed a line of defence with his unfinished fortified camp in
front of Bayonne. Wellington, owing to the bad weather--the 12th
was very foggy, and rain fell in torrents from the 11th until the
20th November--was unable to move, and was consequently constrained
to maintain the allied army in very close quarters. The bad weather
abating, the British commander determined to enlarge the productive
area for his army by forcing the line of the Nive, and taking up a
position on the left bank of the Adour, where reasonable subsistence
could be found for the allied army. The time had not passed tamely, for
in pressing the posts slowly forward, Generals Wilson and Vandeleur
were wounded, while the light division alone lost 100 men. On December
8th the troops made a forward movement, and on the 9th the Nive was
crossed near Cambo by the right of the army under Lieutenant-General
Sir Rowland Hill, while the 6th division, under Lieutenant-General Sir
H. Clinton, successfully passed at Ustaritz, and by this manœuvre the
enemy were driven from the right bank of the river, and retired towards
Bayonne by the great road of St. Jean Pied de Port. Those opposite
Cambo were nearly intercepted by the 6th division, one regiment being
driven from the road and compelled to march across country.

On December 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th, Soult made a series of
determined and often desperate attacks upon the British divisions,
but without success, and was ultimately forced to fall back upon
Bayonne, leaving the courses of the Nivelle, Nive, and Adour in the
possession of the allies, who were thus enabled to obtain plentiful
supplies for their needs, while the enemy were harassed by having their
communications threatened and supplies restricted. During the conflicts
between the 9th and 13th the French lost about 6,000 killed and
wounded, and two guns. The British losses were 650 officers (including
6 Generals) and men killed; 233 officers, 215 sergeants, and 3,459 rank
and file wounded; 17 officers, 14 sergeants, and 473 rank and file

The battle on December 13th, which determined the series of conflicts,
was practically fought and won by the corps under Sir Rowland
Hill--indeed the glory of the day was frankly given him by Wellington,
who, taking him by the hand, said, "My dear Hill, the day is your
own." There could be little doubt about that, for on the heights of
St. Pierre--with only 16,000 men and 14 guns--he defied and drove off
35,000 French bayonets and 22 guns which assailed him in front, and the
corps (8,000) of General Paris, with the Light Cavalry under Pierre
Soult, which threatened his rear. The battle was regarded on both
sides as "one of the most sanguinary that the French Army of Spain had
fought, and that there was not one where so many deaths took place on
the battlefield." No wonder the enemy never again took the offensive!

The following regiments were present in the series of engagements: 1st,
2nd, and 3rd Foot Guards; 7th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 16th, and 18th Light
Dragoons; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 27th,
28th, 31st, 32nd, 34th, 36th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 47th,
48th, 50th, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 59th, 60th, 61st, 62nd, 66th, 71st, 74th,
76th, 79th, 83rd, 84th, 85th, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, 95th, and
the Rifle Brigade. Many of the regiments particularly distinguished
themselves on the day of victory; notably the 92nd, which, scattering
light troops that should have checked them, charged and repulsed a
column; re-forming behind St. Pierre, they again advanced with colours
flying and pibroch sounding, as if going to a review, and offered
battle to a French column five times their superior: the challenge
was, however, declined, for like Napier the French commanding officer
recognised that men who could act so understood war.

=Orthes.=--On February 27th, 1814, the battle of Orthes (Orthez) was
fought. A period of inaction had again been forced on Wellington by
the severity of the weather, but by the second week in February the
conditions were such as to make the roads passable, and the British
commander proceeded to follow up his successes. Several minor, but
in some instances obstinate, engagements, were fought, among them
that of Garris, where Wellington, determined to force the passage
of the Bidouse, ordered the 29th, with the 28th in support, to carry
a bold hill, occupied by 4,000 of the enemy, before dark. This they
did in a brilliant manner. Soult, finding the enemy pressing him
rather forcibly, crossed the Gave d'Olèron in the night, and marching
rapidly to Sauveterre, took up a position on the left of the Gave,
while Wellington, having strongly established his right upon the Gave
d'Olèron, returned to St. Jean de Luz to superintend the putting
together of the remarkable and "wondrous bridge," which had been
devised to enable the army to cross the Adour, 3 miles below Bayonne.
On the 25th Sir John Hope crossed with his whole corps for the
investment of the fortress; meanwhile Wellington was acting vigorously
at Gaves, and General Hill was ready to force the passage of the Gave
d'Olèron, which he did on the 24th, while Picton crossed between
Montfort and Lass; other divisions having made equal progress, Marshal
Soult withdrew his army across the Gave du Pau, and determined to make
a final stand at Orthez. There, on the semicircular heights, the army
of about 40,000 stood at bay, while the allies with about 37,000 men
advanced to the attack. They were irresistible, but Soult retreated
in a masterly manner, defending his divisions with splendid valour
at each ridge they passed. Once forced on to the plain, they fell
into disorder, and, charged and pursued by the British cavalry, they
hastened to the river, over which they passed in scattered parties, and
Soult retreated towards Toulouse, where the last and most unnecessary
battle of the campaign was to be fought. It is estimated that 8,000 men
were lost to the French in killed and wounded, while the allies lost 18
officers, 25 sergeants, and 234 men killed; 134 officers (including the
Duke of Wellington), 89 sergeants, and 1,700 rank and file wounded; 1
officer, 5 sergeants, and 64 men missing.

The following regiments were present: 3rd, 7th, 10th, 13th, 14th, 15th,
and 18th Light Dragoons; 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 10th, 20th, 23rd, 24th,
27th, 28th, 31st, 32nd, 34th, 36th, 37th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 45th,
48th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 57th, 58th, 60th, 61st, 66th, 68th, 71st,
74th, 82nd, 83rd, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, 95th, and the Rifle
Brigade. The 7th Hussars (Light Dragoons) distinguished themselves in
the neighbourhood of Sault de Navailles, and made a charge under Lord
Edward Somerset which Wellington described as "highly meritorious." The
52nd Oxford Light Infantry were also mentioned in dispatches.

=Toulouse.=--On April 10th, 1814, the sanguinary and unnecessary battle
of Toulouse was fought, for the allies had entered Paris on March 31st,
and Napoleon had abdicated. It is alleged that Soult fought the battle
out of personal vanity or pique, since he had news--on April 7th--of
what had happened in Paris. It was perhaps his last desperate effort
for his master. However, this last battle of the Peninsular War was
fought with terrible determination on both sides; but when the range of
heights had been carried by the British, and the redoubts of the city
won, Soult abandoned the town of Toulouse with 3 Generals and 1,600 men
"prisoners at the generosity of the conqueror." The allied British,
Portuguese, and Spanish armies lost in killed and wounded about
4,650, the latter including Generals Brisbane, Pack, Mendizabel, and
Espelette, while the French had 5 generals and 3,234 men placed _hors
de combat_. These numbers include, British losses, 31 officers and 563
men killed; 248 officers and 3,898 men wounded; 3 officers and 15 men




In storming the redoubts the 42nd Black Watch, which had the honour of
leading the attack, displayed their usual courage, but the withering
fire from the defenders was such that in a short time it would have
annihilated the regiment; indeed, out of the 500 who went into action,
scarcely 90 reached the redoubt, from which the enemy fled, but these
"leapt over the trenches like a pack of hungry hounds in pursuit."
Two officers and sixty men of inferior rank were all that remained
unwounded of the right wing of the regiment that entered the field in
the morning. During the battle the standard of the regiment had passed
through the hands of three wounded officers, until it was borne by
a sergeant and defended by a few men. The 42nd, likewise the 36th,
79th, and 61st, who also lost considerable numbers, were mentioned in
Wellington's dispatches. The 13th Light Dragoons, the 14th and 15th
Dragoons, and the 18th Hussars, were also mentioned for gallant conduct
during the advance on Toulouse.

The regiments represented at the battle were: 2 squadrons of the 1st
and 2nd Life Guards and Horse Guards; 1st Dragoons; 3rd and 5th Dragoon
Guards; 3rd, 4th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 18th Light Dragoons;
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 27th, 28th, 31st, 32nd,
34th, 36th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th, 50th, 52nd, 53rd, 57th,
60th, 61st, 66th, 71st, 74th, 79th, 83rd, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th,
and 95th.

=Rewards for Generals.=--On May 30th, 1814, a treaty of peace was
signed between Great Britain and France, Louis XVIII having been
restored, and Napoleon permitted to retire to the Isle of Elba, where
the allies allowed him to reign as sovereign. The Duke of Wellington
was raised to the rank and dignity of a Duke and Marquis of the United
Kingdom; Parliament suggested an annuity of £10,000, to be "paid
annually out of the consolidated fund for the use of the Duke of
Wellington, to be at any time commuted for the sum of £300,000 to be
laid out in the purchase of an estate," but the sum was objected to as
being too small, and an additional £100,000 was voted. Wellington's
lieutenants--Generals Hope, Graham, Cotton, Rowland Hill, and
Beresford--were also rewarded by pecuniary grants, and raised to the

=Nothing for Officers and Soldiers.=--The majority of the officers and
all the men who had participated in this seven years' campaign were,
notwithstanding the generosity of the nation to the leaders, left
undecorated, and, irony of ironies, the Commander-in-Chief, who had
shed tears at the loss of brave soldiers, and who had been so well
rewarded, raised his voice against the bestowal of decorations upon the
men who had fought and bled with him!


=Alcantara Medal.=--For the battle of Alcantara a medal of gold was
given to some of the officers, and Dr. Payne has in his collection
one awarded to Brigadier-General William Mayne, K.T.S., late Colonel
Loyal Lusitana Legion, which by his kindness I am able to illustrate.
It is 1⁷⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, enclosed in a gold-rimmed glass case,
suspended from a gold-hinged waved bar 1⁷⁄₁₀ in. long by a salmon-pink
ribbon 1½ in. wide, with a gold buckle attached thereto. On the obverse
is engraved an outstretched sleeved arm and hand, below is the word
CUIDADO, and above an eye, the whole within a wreath of palm and olive.
On the reverse is the inscription, in bold Roman capitals, AL MERITO,
and underneath, in script, "De la Juntade Gobierno y guerra de la Villa
de Alcantara MDCCCIX." On the rim the name of the recipient is engraved

=Gold Cross for Albuhera.=[4]--On March 1st, 1815, it was decided by
the Spanish Government to issue a cross to Generals, officers, and men
of the army of Estremadura, who had distinguished themselves at the
battle of Albuhera on March 16th, 1811. This is an oblong, four-pointed
cross of gold enamelled red, the points terminating in gold knobs,
having red enamelled gold-edged flames issuing between the arms of the
cross. In the centre of the cross, on a white enamelled ground, is the
letter F in script, with VII in gold, surrounded by a frosted gold oval
band bearing the inscription in bright gold letters AL BUHE RA. The
cross is suspended from a squat green enamelled laurel wreath, to which
is fixed a gold loop and ring for attachment to the ribbon, which is 1½
in. wide, and red with blue edges.

[4] Should be Albuera, but is spelt ALBUHERA on cross, also bars.

=Gold Cross for Vittoria.=--On April 22nd, 1815, a gold enamelled cross
was instituted in Spain for presentation to officers to commemorate the
battle of Vittoria, June 21st, 1813. The battle was won by the division
of the 4th Corps of the Army, under the command of the Captain-General,
the Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo (Wellington), and Field-Marshal D. Francisco
Thomas de Longa. The cross is 1⅕ in. in diameter, and enamelled white
with a red four-pointed star (see facing page 36), and between the
cross, which is enamelled the same both sides, is a green enamelled
laurel wreath; the cross is suspended from a gold Spanish crown
surmounted by an orb ensigned with a gold fleur-de-lis; the ring for
attachment to the ribbon being run through the ball. On the obverse is
a white enamelled circle with gold borders encircling a red irradiated
ground, whereon are three gold crossed swords, with a gold ribbon
(inverted) bearing the motto IRURAG BAT. On the reverse, on a domed
gold ground, is the legend in raised stamped letters, arranged in three
lines, RECOMPENSA DE LA BATALLA DE VITTORIA. This cross depends from
a 1½ in. ribbon composed of equal stripes of black, crimson, and pale

=Gold Cross for Commanders.=--This gold cross, as the illustration
facing page 28 shows, is star-like in form, but owing to the number
of engagements recorded the number of arms varies. This particular
cross, weighing nearly 2 oz., was awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel Richard
Brunton, of the 13th Light Dragoons, late of the Portuguese Service,
and forms part of the great collection of Dr. A. A. Payne. The cross
was instituted by King John VI of Portugal, on July 26th, 1816, and was
given to British officers who served on the Portuguese Staff during the
Peninsular War, and who were in command of divisions, brigades, or
regiments. The arms of this cross, enamelled white, have double points
terminating in gold beads, resting on a blue enamelled band bearing
a gold wreath of laurel; on each of the arms is a green enamelled
torpedo-shaped overlay, each recording the name of an action in which
the recipient was engaged: a gold scroll forms the attachment for the
loop which carries the broad red ribbon, edged with blue, by which the
cross was suspended from the neck. On the obverse a small gold bust of
King John occupies the centre, which is enamelled light blue surrounded
by a conventional continuous border of leaves. On the reverse, within
a similar band, but on a white enamelled ground, are the initials of
the recipient. Sir Denis Pack was awarded the cross with eleven actions
recorded on it.

=Officers' Gold Crosses.=--King John VI also instituted, on July
26th, 1816, an officer's cross for bestowal upon those officers who
had participated in all or any of the six campaigns which were fought
during the Peninsular War. The cross of gold was awarded to all who
fought in at least three campaigns, crosses of silver being given to
those who had only been engaged in one or two. The cross illustrated
was given to Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Brunton, for service in four
campaigns. It has four ornamental arms, 1¹¹⁄₂₀ in. long, resting
upon a green enamelled laurel wreath. In the centre of the obverse
are the arms of Portugal in gold on a convex ground, surrounded by a
blue enamelled circle, with the inscription GUERRA PENINSULAR. On the
reverse is a continuous gold wreath of laurel, enclosing the pierced
Roman numerals indicative of the total campaigns in which the recipient
was engaged. The loop to carry the broad red blue-edged ribbon is
attached to the cross by means of an inverted husk of gold. The gold
cross, awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Edward Brackenbury, differs
somewhat from that awarded to Colonel Burton. The arms on the obverse
of the cross are 1⁷⁄₂₀ in. long, and the coat-of-arms is of a somewhat
different character, and is not surmounted by a crown. On the reverse
the single gold pierced figure 4 is within a blue enamelled circle.
A gold ball and swivel bar are used for attachment to a blue watered
ribbon 1⅗ in. wide.

=Officer's Silver Cross.=--This was of the same size as
Lieutenant-Colonel Brackenbury's, and suspended from a gold swivel bar,
but the ribbon for suspension was blue silk ribbed, with broad pale
yellow borders; the width 1⅗ in.

=Crosses for Ciudad Rodrigo.=--These were instituted on December 6th,
1819, for bestowal upon those who had distinguished themselves at the
sorties on July 10th, 1810. They were given in gold to officers and
in silver to privates who comprised the garrison. The cross has four
arms, with blue enamelled edges tipped with gold beads. On the obverse
is a gold tower, with rays issuing therefrom, upon a red enamelled
ground enclosed by a white enamelled oval band. On the reverse is
an inscription in gold letters upon a white enamelled ground, VALOR

=Medal for Brunswick Contingent.=--On October 30th, 1824, Duke
Charles II decided to award a medal to those who formed the Brunswick
Contingent, which came to England in 1809 with the Duke Frederick
William, and took part in the Spanish and Portuguese war against
Napoleon. The Contingent fought in nearly all the battles between
1810-14. The officers received a silver medal, and sub-officers and
privates one of bronze. The medal, 1³⁄₁₆ in. in diameter, has a plain
double border, and is suspended from a crimson ribbon by means of
a loop and ring. On the obverse is a wreath of laurel and oak and
PENINSULAR; on the reverse is a military trophy with a studded shield,
arranged sideways, on which the Duke's initials, C. C., are arranged in
monogrammic form.

=Medal for British German Legion.=--King Ernest Augustus founded, on
May 11th, 1841, a medal for distribution to the survivors of the
British German Legion, who had served in the Peninsular War between
1803-14. The medal, having a double rim, was of bronze made from
captured cannon. One and seven-twentieths inch in diameter, it bears
on the obverse a cross _patée_ with double raised edges, in the centre
of which is the King's monogram, E. A. R., surmounted by a crown; on
the reverse within a laurel wreath is the inscription TAPFER UND TREU
(Brave and Loyal), and within the rim KÖNIGLICH-DEUTSCHE LEGION (Royal
German Legion). The medal is suspended from a 1⅖ in. white ribbon, with
yellow stripe near the edge, by means of a ring and loop. I have in
my possession one without the inscriptions, a laurel wreath and 1813
entirely filling the reverse. (See facing page 58.)

=Eve of Waterloo.=--On February 27th, 1815, Napoleon, untamed by
adversity, escaped from Elba, and on March 1st landed at Cannes in
Provence with 1,000 determined followers, but so rapidly did the people
rally to his standard that by the 20th he had reached Paris with an
army of such proportions that Louis was compelled to retire to Ghent,
and the Bourbon dynasty was again forgotten. Early on the morning of
June 12th Napoleon quitted the capital, on the 14th joined the army
collected on the frontier, and commenced his last campaign, which was
to terminate on the 18th at Waterloo. Wellington had been sent to take
charge of an army which he described in a letter as "very weak and
ill-equipped, and a very inexperienced staff," but we now know that,
though it was "a green army," the right material was there, and only
required the moulding of opportunity to make good form. Wellington's
army comprised British, Hanoverian, and Belgian troops, with
contingents of Nassau and Brunswick Oels. Of the 78,500 men comprising
it, only about 43,000 were British, German, or Hanoverians. By the
18th it had been reduced to 74,040. The Prussian army was 115,000
strong. The French army, estimated at not less than 154,370, with 296
pieces of cannon--and variously at 127,000, 122,000, and 115,000, with
350 guns--was mainly composed of men "whose trade was war, and whose
battles were as many as their years"; so that against the heterogeneous
mass of men of various tongues commanded by Wellington, his great
opponent was to hurl an army of veterans who could well be called upon
to repeat the deeds of Marengo, of Friedland, and of Austerlitz. As it
happened, the raw levies of Britain were to emulate the deeds of their
brethren at Badajoz and Albuera.

On June 15th Napoleon's army crossed the Sambre, and on the morning of
the 16th at Ligny he forced back the Prussians, but Blucher--falling
back upon Wavre instead of Ligny--upset the French General's
calculations. Meanwhile Wellington, having made arrangements with
Blucher, was with his officers in the celebrated ballroom of the
Duchess of Richmond at Brussels. Two hours after midnight the gaiety of
the brilliant ballroom was subdued, and following the "sound of revelry
by night" came "the cannon's opening roar" at Quatre Bras.

=Quatre Bras.=--By 8 o'clock the British had left Brussels, the 42nd
and 92nd Highland Regiments having assembled to the sound of the
pibroch, "Come to me and I will give you flesh"--an invitation to
the wolf and raven, for which, as Forbes relates, the coming day did
in fact spread an ample banquet. At 2 o'clock, after a march of 20
miles in sultry weather, they arrived at the hamlet of Quatre Bras, to
find the Prince of Orange pluckily but feebly endeavouring to check
the enemy, who had already gained Le Bois de Bossu. There, at the
intersection of the Charleroi-Brussels and Namur-Nivelle roads, 7,000
Dutch-Belgians with 16 guns and no cavalry stood against Marshal Ney
with 16,000 infantry, 1,700 cavalry, and 36 guns. It was, indeed, an
unequal contest until the arrival of Pack's and Kempt's brigades.
Wellington at once decided the wood must be taken, and then ensued
an exceedingly sanguinary conflict ere, with the ultimate arrival
of the Guards, the French were forced to retire. The Guards (mostly
young soldiers) had arrived from Enghein after a march of 27 miles,
having started at 3 o'clock in the morning to join the main body.
They had halted at Nivelles to rest and feed, but the arrival of a
Staff officer, urging them to hurry on, induced them to abandon their
meal, and resume their march. They arrived on the field of battle at
an opportune moment, and then, despite their fifteen hours' march
without food or drink, the first brigade of Guards, having loaded their
muskets and fixed bayonets, pushed their way into Le Bois de Bossu, and
within half an hour regained possession of it, but they could do no
more than hold it. Meanwhile a series of splendid struggles had been
taking place. When the 95th had been ordered to clear Le Bois de Bossu,
the Royals and the 28th (Gloucesters) were severely engaged on the
left, while the 44th, the 42nd and 92nd Highland Regiments were hotly
assailed on the right.

The 28th, after gallantly standing its ground under a furious
cannonade, was suddenly, and on three different sides, assailed by
French cavalry. Two faces of the square were charged by the lancers,
while the cuirassiers galloped down upon another. It was, as Maxwell
states, a trying moment. "There was a death-like silence; and one voice
alone, clear and calm, was heard. It was their colonel's (Sir Philip
Benson), who called upon them to be 'steady!' On came the enemy! The
earth shook beneath the horsemen's feet, while on every side of the
devoted band the corn bending beneath the rush of cavalry disclosed
their numerous assailants. The lance-blades approached the bayonets of
the kneeling front rank--the cuirassiers were within forty paces--yet
not a trigger was drawn; but, when the word 'Fire!' thundered from the
colonel's lips, each face poured out its deadly volley--and in a moment
the leading files of the French lay before the square, as if hurled
by a thunderbolt to the earth. The assailants, broken and dispersed,
galloped for shelter to the tall rye, while a stream of musketry from
the British square carried death into the retreating squadrons."



=42nd and French Lancers.=--The 42nd were not so fortunate, although
their difficulty gave them the opportunity of again demonstrating the
stern stuff of which they were moulded. The 42nd and 44th, the two
foremost regiments posted in line on a reverse slope on the top of
the Charleroi road, were suddenly and unexpectedly attacked in the
rear by the French lancers under Wathier. The 42nd had almost formed
square in the tall rye grass, all but the two flank companies having
run in to form the rear face, when the leading squadron of lancers
drove in the incompleted square, carrying along with it, by the impetus
of their charge, several men of these two companies, and by spearing
a number created considerable confusion, during which those who had
been detached in the _mêlée_ fought back to back until the fire of
their comrades drove off the cavalry, and enabled them to rejoin
the ranks, where the body of the Black Watch, coolly standing firm,
gradually closed up its faces, and bayoneted the daring lancers who
had penetrated their square. These brave fellows, however, died hard;
they killed the commanding officer, Sir Robert Macara, and wounded the
three officers upon whom the command had devolved in the space of a few
moments. The 42nd lost at Quatre Bras 298 officers and men killed and

The 44th were still more unfortunate, for, like the 42nd, they had
found a difficulty in forming up in the corn, which was up to their
shoulders, and having less time faced their ranks about and waited for
the French lancers to get in close before firing a volley. The foremost
went down, but those lancers were veterans who did not easily pale
before the leaden storm, and individual troopers dashed on; they were,
however, repulsed by the rear of the 44th, and galloped away eastward
under a fire from the left company of the line. As a result of the
cavalry attacks the 42nd and 44th were so reduced in numbers that at
5 p.m., when the first main attack had concluded, the remnants of the
two regiments formed in a single square. Pack's Brigade, formed of the
42nd, 44th, 92nd, and 95th, lost in this strenuous engagement 800 out
of 2,000 men.

The next cavalry charge fell upon Halkett's division, from which, in
response to an appeal from Pack, whose men were out of ammunition,
the 69th Regiment had been dispatched to assist. The 69th were later
ordered by Halkett's aide-de-camp to form square to receive the advance
of Kellerman's cavalry, which had trotted in from Charleroi, but the
Prince of Orange unwisely countermanding the order, Kellerman and
Guiton, leading the 8th Cuirassiers, passed round the flank of the 42nd
and 44th square, and charging the unfortunate 69th in line, completely
rolled them up; and within a few moments, of the 580 composing the
69th, 150 were dead or dying. During this unfortunate episode, Mr.
Clarke, a volunteer, fought with remarkable desperation, killing three
cuirassiers and preserving the colours he was carrying, although he had
received twenty-six sabre cuts. Kellerman's success was short-lived,
for the British artillery fire had begun to play havoc with his
cavalry, while the fierce charge of the squadrons of cuirassiers upon
the square of the 28th was repelled by deadly discharges of musketry,
and the French cavalry were compelled to flee, and in their wild
course, 2 miles from the field, they swept 2,000 dismounted horsemen
into the stampede. Another incident should be recorded: the 92nd,
having repulsed an attack of cavalry and infantry in an advanced
movement, were retiring to the wood, when a French column halted and
fired upon the Highlanders; already assailed by a superior force, this
notwithstanding they held their ground until relieved by a regiment
of the Guards, when they retired to their original position, but not
before the regiment had lost 28 officers and nearly 300 men.

=Losses at Quatre Bras.=--Night compelled the cessation of hostilities,
as at Ligny, and the French, having retired to their position held in
the morning, left the British in possession of Gemioncourt and the
southern end of the Bois de Bossu. The allied army lost at Quatre Bras
3,750 men, and of these 327 killed and 2,156 wounded were British; the
French losses were at least 4,500. All those who took part in this
battle, where the bull-dog tenacity of the British soldier was shown at
its best, were awarded the Waterloo medal. In his dispatch Wellington
stated, "I must particularly mention the 28th, 42nd, 79th, and 92nd
regiments and the battalion of the Hanoverians." In addition to these
the following British regiments were present at Quatre Bras: 2nd and
3rd Batts. 1st Foot Guards; Royal Scots; 32nd, 33rd, 44th, 69th, and
95th Regiments.


After Quatre Bras Marshal Ney fell back upon Frasnes, and the wearied
British, with their allies, piled arms, lighted their camp fires, and
laid down to rest upon the field which they had so hardly held. The
Prussians, after an intensely obstinate struggle, had been forced to
retire to Ligny, when Blucher determined to unite with his 4th Corps
and concentrate on Wavre. Wellington, recognising the importance of
keeping in communication with the Prussian General, decided to fall
back upon a position fronting the village of Waterloo, which, by the
way, had already been selected by the British commanders as a suitable
battleground. In retiring from Quatre Bras, the British cavalry were
attacked by the French, and the 7th Hussars and squadrons of the 11th
and 23rd Light Dragoons charged without success. The Life Guards,
however, under Lord Uxbridge, compelled the enemy to retreat, and
the British were allowed to quietly take up their position, which
they did in decidedly inclement weather, rain falling heavily most of
the day, and the night closing wild and stormy. Violent winds, heavy
rain, thunder and lightning added to the discomfort of the cheerless
bivouac of the allies. The Duke of Wellington and his staff occupied
the village of Waterloo, while Napoleon with his brother Jerome and his
generals passed the night of the 17th in a farm-house half a league
from the Château de Hougomont, which, in advance of the right centre
of the British, was held by detachments of the Brigade of Guards and
about 300 Nassau Riflemen. This was considered by Wellington to be the
key to the position, and how well the Guards maintained it is a matter
of glorious history. It is estimated that the allied forces numbered
74,400, and the French 90,000, when just before noon Joseph Bonaparte
directed the 2nd Corps to advance against Hougomont. "The British
batteries opened on the French masses as they debouched--their own guns
covered their advance--and under the crashing fire of 200 pieces of
artillery--a fitting overture for such a field--Waterloo opened, as it
closed, magnificently."

=The Guards at Hougomont.=--The Nassau light troops were soon forced
from the wood surrounding the Château by overwhelming numbers, and the
enemy pressed on to the Château, but the vigorous and disconcerting
fire of the Foot Guards arrested them while daring charges compelled
the French to give up possession of part of the wood. They were
not, however, to be denied, and with great determination repeatedly
assaulted the Château. During one of these attacks so closely did they
press that the Guards not only lost their position in the garden, but
falling back rapidly on the main building could not securely close
the gate of the yard, and a number of daring French soldiers entered;
the fire of the defenders, however, followed by a courageous sortie
from the Château forced the French from the yard, but only after a
most gallant struggle between the combatants. Then Lieutenant-Colonel
(afterwards Sir James) Macdonnell, with the assistance of Captain
Wyndham, Ensigns Gooch and Hervey and Sergeant Graham of the Coldstream
Guards, closed the gate, but not until, as Captain Siborne relates,
the French soldiers had fallen "a sacrifice to their undaunted and
conspicuous gallantry." Failing to take the Château by assault, the
French artillery was turned upon the old building; soon the tower
was in a blaze, and, the fire reaching the chapel, a number of
wounded--friend and foe--perished in the flames, which strangely enough
are stated to have ceased at the feet of a wooden image of Christ.
But when the shades of evening fell, the Coldstreams and Scots Guards
still held Hougomont, despite the repeated attacks of 30,000 men, and
when the day had been decided it was found that in the sanguinary
conflict which had raged so long around this advanced position 6,000
men had been killed. 1,500 were killed within half an hour in the
four-acre orchard; 600 French fell in the attack on the Château and
farm; 1,100 British were killed in the orchard and meadow; 400 near
the farm-garden; 25 in the garden; and 2,000 of both armies behind the
great orchard. Opposite the gate of the Château 300 British soldiers
lie buried.

=The Death of Picton.=--The second attack was made by D'Erlon, with
the whole of his corps, against the left and centre; fortune favoured
them temporarily when they obtained possession of Papelotte and La
Haye Sainte. In repelling this attack the gallant Picton fell. The 5th
division, waiting until the heads of the enemy's columns were within
40 yards, delivered a terrible volley, which annihilated the leading
sections and put the main body into confusion. Picton, seizing the
opportunity, called upon the men to "Charge!" but the word had hardly
thundered from his lips ere a bullet pierced his forehead, and he fell
from his saddle mortally wounded. The loss of a commander frequently
means defeat, but "as he fell he heard the Highland lament answered by
the deep execrations of Erin, and while the Scotch slogan was returned
by the Irish hurrah his fading sight saw his favourite division rush
on with irresistible fury. The French column was annihilated, and
2,000 dead enemies told how desperately he had been avenged. This
was probably the bloodiest struggle of the day; when the attack
commenced--and it lasted not an hour--the 5th division exceeded 5,000
men; when it ended they reckoned scarcely 1,000!"

=Charge of the Union Brigade.=--Following this affair, the famous
charge of the Union Brigade took place. Lord Anglesea, observing that
the French lancers and cuirassiers were preparing to make a flank
attack upon the British infantry, wheeled the Royals, Royal North
British Dragoons (Scots Greys), and Enniskilleners into line, charged
and overwhelmed the French cavalry, and falling upon the disorganised
infantry completed the brilliant work of the 5th division. It was in
this charge that Sergeant Ewart of the Scots Greys captured the Eagle
of the 45th Regiment. The Eagle of the 105th Regiment was captured by
Captain Clarke of the Royal Dragoons--securing the right for these
regiments to wear the Eagle badge--and 2,000 men were taken prisoners.
The impetuosity of the British Dragoons carried them into the rear
of the French position, and they were driven back by the French
horsemen, their brave leader, Sir William Ponsonby, being killed in the
retirement. Meanwhile the incessant attacks which Napoleon commanded
had played havoc with several of the British regiments, necessitating
the bringing into action of Wellington's reserves--indeed, the position
had become so serious that the left wing of the army, though only
partially engaged, had suffered so severely that it could not afford to
send assistance to the right or centre.

=Great Regimental Losses.=--The loss in individual regiments was awful.
Four hundred men of the 27th were mowed down in square without drawing
a trigger (their medals in fine condition have fetched as many pounds
as the number of the regiment represents). The 92nd, reduced to 200
men, made a daring attack upon a French column 2,000 strong, and with
the aid of their countrymen, the Scots Greys, routed it. The 33rd,
reduced to a skeleton, asked for support, and the commanding officer
was told to "stand or fall where he was," and of the 28th and 73rd
it is related that Wellington asked, pointing to a mass of killed
and wounded men of these regiments, "What square is that so far in
advance!" But the impoverishment of the regiments by incessant attacks
and murderous artillery could not break the indomitable tenacity
of the British; in vain had Milhaud's Cuirassiers, forty squadrons
strong, thrice attacked the British squares. In vain did the remnants
of these valorous squadrons, assisted by Kellerman and Guyot--making
a total of seventy-seven squadrons, make a desperate effort to pierce
those stubborn and thinning squares of British infantry. In vain did
Ney repeat his attack upon the centre, even though he annihilated
what remained of the German Legion, which had with such admirable
courage held the farm of La Haye Sainte, and broke the formation of
the British troops, causing Wellington to ask the question relating
to the 28th and 73rd. In vain did the ten battalions of the Imperial
Guard, led by Marshal Ney, push their way up the slopes between
Hougomont and La Haye Sainte, for the Foot Guards--with the 52nd,
71st, and 92nd Regiments--offered such a murderous reception that "the
Guard turned and fled." No wonder Napoleon ejaculated, "_A present
c'est fini--sauvons nous!_" for, Wellington ordering the whole line to
advance, the weary, hungry, and even wounded soldiers rushed forward
with a joyous cheer and forced the retreat, which, as the British
leader, with the 42nd and 95th, threw himself on Ney's flank, and the
allied cavalry charged the enemy's columns, became an utter rout.

=The Price of Victory.=--But the Old Guard, true to their traditions,
made a last desperate stand in square against the British cavalry;
it was desperate and grand, but ineffectual, and again they turned
and fled, and "the finest army, for its numbers, that France had ever
embattled in a field was utterly defeated, and the dynasty of that
proud spirit for whom Europe was too little was ended." Over the
terrible carnage which followed I must draw a veil, for the unrelenting
animosity of the Prussians to the French led them to retaliate in
a most vindictive manner, and thousands who had bravely fought and
survived the day lived only to fall ignominiously under the revengeful
sabre or thrust of Prussian lance. When Wellington recrossed the
battlefield, where the destiny of Europe had been changed by the defeat
of the greatest of the world's generals, he could have had little
stomach for supper, for he had to pass over that 2 square miles of
Belgian territory where 50,000 dead or wounded men and horses lay--the
terrible price of victory.

The following British regiments were represented at Waterloo: 2
squadrons 1st and 2nd Life Guards; 2 squadrons Royal Horse Guards
(Blue); 1st Dragoon Guards; 1st Royals,* 2nd Royal North British
Dragoons* (Scots Greys); 6th Inniskilling Dragoons*; 12th, 13th,
16th Queen's and 23rd Light Dragoons; 7th, 10th Royal; 15th King's;
18th Hussars; 2nd and 3rd Batts. 1st Foot Guards (Grenadiers); 2nd
Batt. 2nd Foot Guards (Coldstreams); 3rd Batt. 3rd Foot Guards (Scots
Guards); 3rd Batt. 1st Royal Scots; 1st Batt. 4th; 3rd Batt. 14th;
1st Batt. 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers; 1st Batt. 27th Inniskilling;*
1st Batt. 28th (Gloucesters); 2nd Batt. 30th; 1st 32nd; 33rd; 1st
Batt. 40th; 1st Batt. 42nd Black Watch*; 2nd Batt. 44th; 51st; 1st
Batt. 52nd; 2nd Batt. 69th; 1st Batt. 71st Highland Light Infantry;
2nd Batt. 73rd Perthshires (2nd Batt. Black Watch); 1st Batt. 79th
Cameron Highlanders; 1st Batt. 92nd Gordon Highlanders; 1st, 2nd, and
Prov. Batts. 95th; 8 Troops Royal Horse Artillery; 6 Brigades Royal
Artillery; Corps of Royal Artillery Drivers; Royal Foot Artillery;
Royal Engineers; Royal Sappers and Miners; Royal Waggon Train; Field
Train Department of the Ordnance; Royal Staff Corps; Commissariat
Department; Ordnance Medical Department, and the following units of the
King's German Legion: 1st and 2nd Light Dragoons; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd
Hussars; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 8th Line Battalions, and 1st and
2nd Light Battalions: the total present being about 2,308 officers and
42,120 non-commissioned officers and men.


(See page 373.)]

The medals of those regiments marked * are particularly sought after
by collectors. The Dragoons lost heavily in their brilliant charge,
the Scots Greys having 106 officers and men killed and 97 wounded,
and the "Enniskilleners" 86 officers and men killed, their Colonel,
Lieutenant-Colonel, 4 subordinate officers and 101 sergeants and rank
and file wounded. The 27th went into battle with 698 men, and of these
480 were placed _hors de combat_, while the 28th was reduced to four
companies. The 42nd lost at Quatre Bras and Waterloo 51 killed and
247 wounded, the former including their Colonel and a Major who was
mortally wounded, and the latter a Lieutenant-Colonel and a Major.
The 92nd was reduced to less than 300 before 4 o'clock. The following
regiments composing Sir Charles Colville's division, which was located
at Halle owing to Wellington's belief that he might be attacked on his
right flank, also received the medal, although not actually engaged in
the conflict; 2nd Batt. 35th; 1st Batt. 54th; 2nd 59th and 1st Batt.
91st (Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders); likewise two Brigades of
Artillery and the 6th Hanoverian Brigade.

=The British Waterloo Medal.=--When, on March 10th, 1816, it was
decided to bestow upon every soldier, from Commander-in-Chief to
drummer boy, the same type and quality of medal as a reward for
services at Waterloo, the custom was established to grant a medal to
all, irrespective of rank or occupation, who had given war service
to his or her country. It was ten months after that auspicious day
that there appeared in the _London Gazette_ the notification that "a
medal shall be conferred upon every officer, non-commissioned officer,
and soldier present on that memorable occasion," but be it noted "the
ribbon issued with the medal shall never be worn but with the medal
suspended to it."

=First Official War Medal.=--The first general official medal issued
at the suggestion of the Duke of Wellington--who, however, strenuously
opposed the grant of one for the Peninsular--was of silver, 1⅖ in.
in diameter, bearing on the obverse the laureated head of the Prince
Regent facing to the left, with the inscription GEORGE P. REGENT on
either side of the head, and on the reverse a seated figure of Victory
with wings outspread, holding in her right hand a palm branch, and in
the left a sprig of olive; on a plain tablet is WATERLOO, and in the
exergue JUNE 18. 1815, while above is the name of Wellington in Roman
letters. As originally issued it had a large steel ring 1 in. wide,
run through a steel clip, for suspension by a dark-crimson blue-edged
ribbon 1½ in. wide (sometimes found 2 in. wide), as illustrated facing
page 56. The clip, however, was not always secure, and as a result the
possessors of the medal frequently had silver suspenders made according
to their own taste, or that of the local jobbing jeweller, who did not
always do justice to Wyon's classic medal, slight differences in which
may be observed upon comparison, as the medals were not all struck from
one die, and the die-sinker's art was not then mechanical. The names
and regiments of the recipients were indented in large capital letters
on the edge of the medal, the tops and bottoms of the letters almost
touching the rims of the medal.

=Second General Award.=--This was the first general award of medals
for 166 years, when Simon's medal was given to those engaged at Dunbar
in 1650. However, the official war medal for all ranks is now an
established institution, and, it is said, sometimes given with too
free a hand. But the soldier has a substantial record of his services
on the field of battle--not even now, to my mind, satisfactorily
complete--and but a small recognition of his country's appreciation;
while those interested in the traditions of our race, those who
recognise that in the grim and terrible business of war the better part
of man is frequently called forth, will find the means of collecting an
interesting record of great deeds, and incidentally materialising the
history of the epoch-making nineteenth century, and these dawning days
of the twentieth, when we had hoped that the dark spectre of war might
have been replaced by the radiating figure of peace. But the war drums
still throb, the battle flags are still unfurled; and it is good, when
duty has called, in the nerve-wracking suspense and in the loud clamour
of war, that fortitude, loyalty, honour, and the love of fatherland
have shone above the horrors, and made us proud of the men who wear on
their breasts the badges of the brave.

=Continental Waterloo Medals.=--Several other medals were issued for
Waterloo, notably the Hanover, Nassau, Saxe-Gotha, Altenburg, and
Brunswick medals, also the Belgian silver star.

=Nassau Medal.=--Fredrich Duke of Nassau was the first to issue a medal
for Waterloo--that was on December 23rd, 1815. It is a small silver
medal 1⅒ in. in diameter, with a lug stamped with the medal, through
which ribbon could be run for suspension. On the obverse is the bust
of the Duke, and the inscription FRIEDRICH AUGUST HERZOG ZU NASSAU.
Underneath the truncation are the letters I.L. On the reverse, to the
left, is a standing figure of Victory, holding in her right hand a
palm branch, while with the left she is represented placing a laurel
wreath upon the brow of a Roman soldier; in the exergue is DEN 18 JUNI
The medal, issued unnamed, was suspended from a dark-blue ribbon with
orange edges.

=Hanover Medal.=--The Hanover medal was struck by command of the Prince
Regent of Great Britain. The order was given in December 1817, and was
to the effect that surviving soldiers of his German dominions and the
relatives of those who had fallen at Waterloo were eligible for the
award. The medal is 1⅖ in. in diameter, and bears on the obverse the
laureated head of the Prince Regent facing to the right, the truncation
draped, and surrounded by the inscription GEORG. PRINZ. REGENT 1815.
The reverse bears in the centre WATERLOO JUN. XVIII, flanked by laurel
wreaths, with a small trophy consisting of a cuirass and flags above,
and the whole encircled by the inscription HANOVERISCHER TAPFERKEIT.
The medal was suspended from a steel clip and ring by means of a
crimson and blue-edged ribbon, like that used for the British Waterloo.

=Brunswick Medal.=--The Prince Regent (as guardian of the minor Princes
of Brunswick) was also responsible for the issue of a medal to the
soldiers of Brunswick who were present in the engagements of June 16th,
17th and 18th, 1815. The order for the striking was given on June
11th, 1818, and the medals were struck from captured French cannon.
On the obverse is the head of Duke Fredrich Wilhelm of Brunswick, who
fell at Quatre Bras, and the inscription in German lettering FRIEDRICH
WILHELM HERZOG; on the truncation of the bust is C. Häseler in script.
On the reverse is a wreath of oak and laurel, encircling 1815, and the
inscription in German lettering arranged round and divided by rosettes,
Braunschweig Seinen Kriegern. Quatrebras und Waterloo (Brunswick to her
Warriors. Quatre Bras and Waterloo). The medal, 1⁷⁄₂₀ in. in diameter,
was suspended from a steel clip and ring by a 1½ in. yellow ribbon,
with broad blue stripes equal to one quarter the width near the edge.
The officers' medals were gilt, with the names indented on the edge.

=Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Medal.=--In 1816 Duke Emilius Leopold Augustus
decided to have a medal struck for presentation to the members of the
Foreign Legion of the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg who had taken
part in the campaigns of 1814-15. The medals were of bronze; those
awarded to the officers were 1⅗ in. in diameter, gilt all over, and
those given to the private soldiers 1¹³⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, parti-gilt,
the Altenburg rose and ornamental border on the obverse being gilt,
likewise the ducal crown and lettering on the reverse, which bears, in
old German characters, IM KAMPFE FUER DAS RECHT (In the struggle for
right), and round the edge, where the name of the recipient is usually
a ball-shaped loop and ring for suspension from a dark-green ribbon
1 in. wide, with a border of black, through which gold is braided at
intervals (see facing page 72).

=Belgian Star.=--A five-pointed star, with ring for suspension, was
granted to the Belgian troops who were present at the battle of
Waterloo. Like many continental medals of the period, it is very
simple, having on the obverse 1813, and on the reverse 1815. It is not
very coveted, owing to the uncertain conduct of the Belgian troops.

=Hanoverian Jubilee Medal.=--On the fiftieth anniversary of the battle
of Waterloo the inhabitants of Hanover presented a bronze medal to
the survivors of the Hanoverian troops. On the obverse is the arms of
Hanover, encircled with the inscription STADT HANOVER DEN SIEGERN VON
WATERLOO 18 JUNI 1815, and on the reverse, within a laurel wreath, ZUR

=French or St. Helena Medal.=--It was not until August 12th, 1857,
that the survivors of that magnificent army of Frenchmen who followed
_le petit Caporal_ in his campaigns from 1792 to 1815 received a medal
commemorative of their devotion and gallantry. It was due to the
Emperor Napoleon III that the old military and naval warriors received,
what their great General and Emperor would wish for them, "marks of
merit." The St. Helena medal is oval and of bronze, 1⅕ in. across. On
the obverse is a beaded circle within laurel leaves, which frame the
whole medal (see facing page 64), the laureated head of Napoleon facing
to the right with the legend NAPOLEON I EMPEREUR. On the reverse,
within a beaded circle, is the inscription A SES COMPAGNONS DE GLOIRE
SA DERNIERE PENSEE STE. HELENE 5 MAI 1821 (To his companions in glory
his last thought St. Helena 5 May 1821), and around CAMPAGNES DE 1792
A 1815, with a small five-pointed star beneath. As part of the medal,
but standing above the oval, is the French Imperial Crown, through the
terminal of which a ring runs for suspension from a green ribbon, 1½
in. wide, with narrow stripes of red.


While the attention of Britain was necessarily riveted upon the
Peninsula, both East and West, as we have seen, compelled her to
keep the torch of battle burning, and I must therefore mention the
campaign in Nepaul, for which the Honourable East India Company
awarded a special medal. The order dated Fort William, March 20th,
1816, stated that the Government had decided to present silver medals
to every native officer who had served within the hills, and to as
many non-commissioned officers and privates as might be recommended
for distinguished zeal or gallantry. The campaign was brought about
owing to the Goorka tribes having adopted an aggressive policy, and
refusing to vacate the districts of Bootwal and Sheoraj belonging to
the H.E.I. Co., that had to be retaken by an armed force, and by an
attack upon the British outposts at Rourah, which had been left in
possession when the rainy season commenced. The operations, which
followed the declaration of war made on November 1st, 1814, covered
a frontier stretching 600 miles. In the early part of the campaign
General Gillespie was killed while leading a body of 100 dismounted
men of the 8th Dragoons against the small but well-defended fort of
Kalunga. The back of the war was broken when, in March 1815, General
Sir David Ochterlony resisted a furious assault of the Gōrkālis for two
hours and then, boldly charging, forced them to fly in confusion. For
his brilliant services General Ochterlony was made G.C.B., the first
officer in the Indian Army to receive the honour. Ummur Singh, Rajah
of Nepaul, after the surrender of his officers and men was compelled
to submit, but a year elapsed before the treaty was ratified at Fort
William. The regiments occupied in the campaign were: H.M.'s 14th (the
14th did not, however, receive the medal, as they had not served in
the field), 17th, 24th, 66th, a wing of the 67th, and 87th Royal Irish
Fusiliers; a detachment of the 8th Light Dragoons, and the 20th and
25th Native Infantry.

=The H.E.I. Co.'s Nepaul Medal.=--The medal awarded by the Honourable
East India Company was silver, 1¹⁹⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, and given to all
ranks. On the obverse troops with fixed bayonets and colours flying
are represented marching through a hilly country, the heights crowned
with forts and stockades; in the foreground to the left is a field gun.
On the reverse is a Persian inscription, "This medal is conferred by
the Nawab Governor-General Bahadar in testimony of the energy, good
service, skill, and intrepidity displayed during the campaign in the
hills, in the years of the Hegira 1229 and 1230." It was worn suspended
from a yellow silk cord, and, as it was only given to native soldiers
for particularly distinguished conduct, is very uncommon.

When the "Army of India" medal was issued in 1851, those native
soldiers who had not received the H.E.I. Co.'s medal were granted
the new medal, with bar for NEPAUL (see facing page 56). The British
regiments entitled to the medal with this bar were the 8th Light
Dragoons; 17th, 24th, 26th, 66th, one wing of the 67th, 87th Regiments,
and 20th and 25th Native Infantry. On November 5th, 1817, the Peishwa,
Bajee Rao, who had again given evidence of his treachery, was defeated
at the village of Kirkee by Lieutenant-Colonel Burr of the 7th Bombay
Native Infantry, with the 65th Foot and a native force consisting
of the 2nd, 6th, 7th, 12th, 13th, and 23rd Bombay Native Infantry;
Bombay Artillery, Field and Horse, and Pioneers; the Bombay Fusiliers
(now 2nd Batt. Dublin Fusiliers); and Poona Horse. On November 17th
Colonel Burr, together with Brigadier-General Lionel Smith commanding
H.M.'s 65th British Regiment and the 2nd Grenadier Regiment of
Native Infantry, captured the town of Poona. On the 26th of the same
month a force under Lieutenant-Colonel Hopetoun Stratford Scott and
Brigadier-General Doveton captured the camp of the Rajah of Berar, Apa
Sahib, at Seetabuldee (£79 has been paid for a medal with the single
bar for this engagement), outside the city of Nagpore, which, after
a desperate defence by its garrison of 5,000 men, surrendered on New
Year's day, 1818. Although eight companies of the Royal Scots were
present at the battle of Seetabuldee, they were not awarded the bar
for same when the Army of India medal was distributed. They were also
present at the capture of Nagpore (400 medals were issued to officers
and men, and 43 to Europeans in the H.E.I. Co.'s service) with the
following native regiments: 1st, 2nd, 17th, 21st, 23rd, 26th, 28th,
29th Madras Infantry and 6th Bengal Light Cavalry and 6th Madras

=Maheidpore.=--At Maheidpore, on December 21st, 1817,
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Hislop defeated the Pindarees under the
Mahratta Rajah, Mulhar Rao Holkar. The British troops present were
two flank companies of the 1st or Royal Scots (12 medals only with
this bar were presented to officers and men of this regiment), who
were specially mentioned in the Commander-in-Chief's orders, and one
squadron of the 22nd Light Dragoons. Only 26 clasps for this battle
were issued to survivors of the 22nd. The native troops comprised 3rd,
14th, 27th, 28th, and 31st Madras Infantry; 1st Madras Fusiliers; 3rd
and 4th Madras Light Cavalry.

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR GHUZNEE, 1839.

Awarded to the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Auckland, G.C.B., P.C., Late
Governor-General of India.]

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR GHUZNEE, 1839.]

=Corygaum.=--On January 1st, 1818, the village of Corygaum was most
gallantly defended against the whole force of the Peishwa, and when
the "Army of India" medal was issued the surviving soldiers of the 2nd
Bombay Native Infantry and 2nd Poona Horse were given the medal, with
bar for the defence. Dr. Payne had in his collection a medal awarded to
G. Bainbridge of the 65th Foot, with the bar for POONA AND CORYGAUM,
which, according to the medal roll, was inaccurate, but it appeared
that the man was actually entitled to this rare distinction.

=Rare Medals.=--Ten medals only were issued with bars for POONA and
CORYGAUM. For the latter battle only 8 medals were issued. Only 20 with
the single bar for SEETABULDEE AND NAGPORE were issued to Europeans
and 194 to natives. For KIRKEE AND POONA AND CORYGAUM 73 medals were
issued. 16 medals with the bar for KIRKEE AND POONA were issued to
officers and men of the 65th Regiment and 44 officers and men of the
same regiment had the single bar for POONA. Medals with the bars for
AVA and BHURTPOOR are rarely met with, or those for CHRYSTLER'S FARM
and AVA to the 89th.

=Ceylon, 1818.=--In 1819 the Government of Ceylon issued a medal, 1½
in. in diameter, in connection with the Kandian rebellion of 1818. It
bears on the obverse a wreath of bay and oak leaves, encircling CEYLON
1818, and on the reverse REWARD OF MERIT, the name of the recipient
being engraved in the centre. A blue ribbon was used for suspension.
Four men only of the 73rd Perthshire Regiment, two men of the 2nd and
39 of the 1st Ceylon Regiments were awarded the medal.


In 1824 war was declared against Burmah, and the campaign opened by
Brigadier-General Sir Archibald Campbell taking possession of Rangoon
on May 12th, and the capture by storm of Cheduba on May 17th, 1824. A
series of assaults was made by the British, and feeble attacks by the
Burmese, before Maha Bandoola, a veteran of considerable force and
ability--having provided himself with gold fetters with which to bind
Lord Amherst when he was captured--took command of a force of about
50,000 infantry and horsemen, with 300 pieces of artillery, and began
to entrench himself in front of the British position. On December 1st
Major (afterwards Sir Robert) Sale--who gallantly defended Jellalabad
and was killed at Moodkee, December 1845--making a daring and vigorous
attack upon the left of his line with 450 men of the 13th Light
Infantry and 18th Native Infantry, compelled the Burmese to fly. On
December 5th another effort was made against the left wing, and 240
guns were captured; this success was followed, on December 7th, by a
determined assault upon the trenches, which resulted in the rout of
Bandoola's army with the loss of 5,000 men. With indomitable pluck the
Burmese general rallied his army and entrenched himself again; but
when the assault was made, upon the 15th, by the British, the Burmese
were forced from their position and put to rout in fifteen minutes.
In the meantime Brigadier General Morrison, with a force of about
11,000, had moved forward across the mountains into Ava, and on April
1st Arracan was captured, and the Burmese retreated to Donabu, where
on the Irrawady, behind a strong teak stockade a mile long, backed by
an old brick rampart upon which 150 guns were mounted, they defied a
marine attack, and the British had to retire down the river, leaving
their wounded to the fiendish treatment of their enemies. On the next
day, however, Sir Archibald Campbell gained possession of Donabu, for
Maha Bandoola having been killed the troops lost confidence in their
other leaders, and they evacuated the place at night. After a period
of inaction at Prome, necessitated by the season, hostilities were
resumed in November, and a series of conflicts took place until after
the evacuation of Meeaday, when the Burmese again made overtures for
peace. On January 19th, 1825, hostilities were resumed, and the British
army advanced upon the Burmese capital. In the advance the battle of
Melloon was fought, and a new Burmese General took command of an army
of 40,000 men. Nee Woon Breen, "King of Hell" or "Prince of Darkness"
as he was called, was, however, defeated by the British near Pagahm
Mew on February 9th, and fled to Ava, to meet a cruel death by order
of his King. Following up this success, the British marched upon the
old capital Amarapura, but when within four days' march of the city the
King accepted the British terms, and the treaty of peace was signed at
Yandaboo on February 24th, 1826. By this treaty Arracan, Mergui, Tavoy,
Tenasserim, and Yé were ceded, and became part of the Indian Empire.
3,222 European soldiers and 1,766 sepoys fell in the war.

The following regiments were engaged in this campaign, and those
marked * were mentioned in general orders with sentiments of unfeigned
admiration: 1st,* 13th,* 38th,* 41st,* 44th, 45th,* 47th, 54th,
87th,* and 89th,* also 14th Madras Native Infantry, Madras Fusiliers
(European, now 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers), and 1st Madras Cavalry,
Bengal and Madras Artillery (European).

=The Ava Medal.=--By a General Order, dated "Fort William, April
22nd, 1826," a medal was bestowed upon the native troops engaged in
the war between 1824-26. The medal, 1½ in. in diameter, was struck in
gold for the officers (Sir Archibald Campbell was the only British
officer to receive one) and in silver for the men: it was attached to
a large steel clip and ring for suspension from a crimson ribbon with
blue edges, 1½ in. wide. On the obverse is the White Elephant of Ava
crouching before the British Lion; behind the Lion is the Union Jack
unfurled, and behind the Elephant the Burmese colours submissively
lowered; in the background are palm trees. The exergue is occupied by
a Persian inscription, "The Elephant of Ava is obedient to the Lion
of England, Year 1826." In the left upper corner of the exergue is
the designer's name, W. DANIELL, RA. DEL. On the reverse is depicted
a storming party advancing against the Great Pagoda of Rangoon, which
is surrounded by stockades; to the left is the Irrawady flotilla of
gunboats and the "Diana"; In the foreground is depicted Sir Archibald
Campbell directing operations from the shade of a palm tree. In the
exergue is the Persian inscription, "A medal for the victorious
British soldiers on Ava" (on Ava territory). In the left upper corner
of the exergue is W. Wyon. Although 750 gold medals were struck for
distribution among native officers and civil dignitaries, and over
24,200 silver medals were issued, they are very rare. It is noteworthy,
as Dr. Payne points out, that in connection with the issue of this
medal it was the first time a ribbon was mentioned for use with an
Indian medal. It was ordered to be worn perfectly square upon the
centre of the left breast, the upper edge of the ribbon being even with
the button for ranks wearing sword-belts only, and even with the second
button for ranks wearing cross-belts. A bar for AVA was issued with the
"Army of India" medal in 1851.

=Burmese Chiefs' Medal.=--The H.E.I. Co. had a medal, 2³⁄₂₀ in. in
diameter, struck in gold for presentation to six Talaing chiefs who
served with the British army during 1825-26. On the obverse are the
arms and motto of the East India College; above is a scroll with "Award
of Merit," and underneath a scroll to take the name of recipient. On
the reverse in the foreground are two steamers by a river-side, and two
soldiers, one bearing a flag, addressing a group of Burmese; in the
background are hills, a pagoda, and a palm tree, and behind all the
setting sun. To the right are a cannon and bungalow. The medal has a
loop for suspension, composed of two plates held together by means of a
gold bezel.

=Bhurtpore.=[5]--Owing to the assumption of sovereign power by Doorjun
Sal, the nephew of the deceased Rajah of Bhurtpore, Baldeo Singh, it
became necessary for the Indian Government to take steps to ensure the
succession of the dead ruler's young son, Bhulwunt Singh. An army under
Lord Combermere was dispatched to lay siege to the city of Bhurtpore,
which with its 5 miles of fortifications, as already described, was
able to withstand the four assaults made by General Lake's army twenty
years before. On December 10th, 1825, the British army of just over
25,000 men appeared before the city, and prepared to lay siege to
the fortress, which was garrisoned by about 25,000. On December 24th
the artillery began to fire on the city, but despite the continual
bombardment, so well had the walls been built that breaches could not
be made large enough to admit of stormers. Mining, therefore, was
resorted to, and by the morning of January 18th, 1826, a determined
assault was made, and within two hours the British had gained
possession of the ramparts; by 4 o'clock the citadel surrendered, and
the 14th, as a reward for their gallantry, placed to garrison it.
The impregnable city, the capital of the Jants, had fallen after a
twenty-six days' siege; Doorjun Sal was captured, spoil to the value
of £500,000 taken, the young Rajah placed upon the throne, and the
conquest of India confirmed by the success of Lord Combermere, who was
rewarded with a Viscountcy. Hand grenades were last used in India at
the siege of Bhurtpore. One hundred and eighty of the British troops
were killed and 780 wounded. The following regiments took part in the
siege: 14th and 59th Regiments, 11th Light Dragoons, and 16th Lancers
(who had only just been armed with the lance). The Native Regiments
included: 11th, 15th, 21st, 23rd, 31st, 32nd, 33rd, 37th, 41st, 63rd,
and 66th Bengal Light Infantry; Simoor Rifles; 1st Bengal Cavalry; 6th
Light Cavalry and one wing of the Bengal Fusiliers (Europeans), now 1st
Royal Munster Fusiliers; Bengal Horse and Foot Artillery and Bengal
Engineers. The 14th, "The Old and Bold," were specially mentioned in

[5] This is spelt BHURTPOOR on the bar of the "Army of India" medal.

=Coorg, 1837.=--For suppressing the insurrection in Canara in 1837
the Coorg soldiers were, on the recommendation of the Commissioner,
Lieutenant-Colonel Mark Cubbon, awarded a medal as a recognition of
their noble conduct and courage. The medals of gold and silver were
1¹⁹⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, and of varying thicknesses according to value.
They were worn suspended from the neck by chains by the superiors who
received them; 20 gold medals and 200 silver medals given to junior
officers and ryots were presented without chains. Two gold medals
valued at 400 rupees, and 12 valued at 200 rupees, were bestowed with
chains. On the obverse is a Coorg warrior in fighting attitude, his
upraised right hand grasping a Coorg knife ready to strike, and in
his left a matchlock; round the face of the medal is the inscription
in Carnese, "For a memorial of Fidelity to the Government of the East
India Company in suppressing rebellion in the months of April and May
1837"; on the reverse a trophy of Coorg arms and ornaments within a
laurel wreath, surmounted by the inscription, for DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT


The Shah of Persia, having laid claim to a considerable portion of
Afghanistan after Shah Shoojah had been driven from his throne and his
kingdom divided among a number of chieftains, sent an army to besiege
Herat. The Indian Government then decided to effect the restoration
of Shah Shoojah, and sent forward the "army of the Indus" under the
command of Sir John (afterwards Lord) Keane. The Persians had meanwhile
raised the siege of Herat, and retired toward their capital. Fighting
their way against almost insuperable obstacles, short of food for man
and beast, the divisions of the British army pushed their way through
to Candahar, which they reached on April 27th, 1839. In the meantime
Hyderabad had been captured, the Ameers of Scinde compelled to submit,
the erstwhile rulers of Afghanistan forced from their thrones, and the
deposed ruler restored, but considerable fighting had to be done ere he
could settle down peaceably, and several important battles were fought.

=Ghuznee, 1839.=--The army of the Indus left Candahar at the end of
June 1839, and arrived before Ghuznee, which Prince Mahomed Hyder
Khan had strongly fortified; leaving only one gate unblocked by
masonry. He had with him a garrison of 3,000 Afghans. As the British
force possessed no means of breaching the walls, it was determined
to take the place by storm, and in order to effect this the gate was
blown in by the 13th (now Somerset Light Infantry), and the troops
entered the fort, only 5 men being killed, and 6 officers (including
Brigadier-General Sale, severely) and 63 men wounded out of Her
Majesty's Regiments. On the fall of the fortress the Afghan cavalry
outside fled in the direction of Cabul, the British forces following.
At Ughundee Dost Mahomed Khan had resolved to try conclusions, but
dissatisfied with the morale of his troops he decamped, and on August
7th Shah Shooja regained his throne, which, however, he did little to
strengthen. The British losses were 18 men and 20 officers killed, and
153 men wounded. The force engaged in this comparatively bloodless
campaign was composed of 8 companies of Her Majesty's 2nd (Queen's
Royal); 13th Light Infantry; 17th (Leicestershire); two squadrons
4th Light Dragoons; 16th Lancers; and the following regiments of the
H.E.I. Co.'s army: 1st Bengal Fusiliers (Europeans); Bengal Sappers and
Miners; 1st Bombay Light Cavalry; 2nd and 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry; 2nd
Skinner's Horse; 300 Poona Horse; Bengal Horse and Foot Artillery; two
troops Bombay Horse Artillery; Bombay Foot Artillery; 16th, 19th, 35th,
and 48th Native Infantry.

=Order of Dooranée.=--To reward the British officers who had been
instrumental in restoring him to his throne, Shah Shooja instituted
the Order of the Dooranée Empire, the first installation taking place
at Cabul on September 13th, 1839, when Sir John Keane, the commander
of the British army, received the First-Class Order from the Shah.
There are three classes of the Order, which is not unlike the Guelphic
Order of Hanover. Three of the first class, nineteen of the second, and
thirty-six of the third were to be presented. The badge consists of a
gold Maltese cross, the borders of which are raised, with eight points
terminating in gold beads, resting upon two crossed swords. On a blue
and green enamelled ground, which forms the centre, are two sentences
in Persian characters; above "Authority is from God alone," and below
"Every brave man recognises his sway." This translation, as Dr. Payne
states, is very different from the usual one of Duri-i-Dauran, "Pearl
of the Age." The enamelled centre is surrounded by a circle of pearls.
The star is of cut silver shaped like a Maltese cross, overlaid with
a smaller one of gold, in the centre of which is the same decoration
as on the badge, except that a diamond is set in each arm of the gold
cross, and the enamelled circle is surrounded by seventeen pearls. The
star of the second class has rays between the arms, and the small gold
cross which rests upon it has crossed swords between the arms; the
centre is enamelled with a green flower on a blue ground, surrounded by
eighteen pearls set in a gold band. The badge of the second class has
twenty pearls set round the centre, and on the reverse a red enamelled
centre circled by a green enamelled border decorated with gold tracery.
The third-class badge has only fourteen pearls. The badges of each
class were suspended from a half red and green ribbon, like that used
for the Ghuznee medal.

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR KELAT-I-GHILZI, 1842.

Awarded to Major Robert Leech, C.B., who had also the medal for
Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabul, 1842, and the Order of the Dooranée
Empire (3rd Class).]

[Illustration: FIRST JELLALABAD MEDAL, 1842.

Awarded to Captain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) Peter R. Jennings, 13th

=Ghuznee Medal, 1839.=--Shah Shoojah had also determined to decorate
the ordinary soldiers who had taken part in the campaign, but
his assassination prevented the realisation of his desire, and
subsequently--November 23rd, 1842--the Governor-General decided that
the medals which had been struck at Calcutta in commemoration of the
capture of Ghuznee should be given to the officers and men who had
participated in the capture. This, the first Indian medal to be issued
with a bar for suspension, is of silver, and, with the exception of
the medal for Seringapatam, the first to be given to all the troops
engaged, the previous medals having been bestowed upon native troops
only. It is 1½ in. in diameter, with broad flat edge, bearing on the
obverse a view of the gateway of the citadel, with GHUZNEE on an
ornamental panel underneath, running with the lines of the medal.
On the reverse, within a laurel wreath, a mural crown above 1839,
and between the terminals of the wreath the date of the capture of
the fortress, 23D. JULY, a space being left in the centre for the
recipient's name, which had to be placed there at his expense. The
medals are occasionally found with the names engraved or impressed upon
the edge. Two dies were used for the obverse, and one has a much wider
border. The medal was originally suspended from a half green and yellow
ribbon, but it was changed to crimson and green 1⅖ in. wide.

=Governor-General's Medal.=--Dr. Payne has kindly enabled me to
reproduce the unique silver medal presented to the Right Honourable the
Earl of Auckland, G.B.C., Governor-General of India and Governor of
the Presidency of Fort William. The medal is 1⅗ in. wide, has no bar
for suspension, and is enamelled. On the obverse is represented the
fortress of Ghuznee--a very different rendering to that on the medal
just referred to--with the victorious army marching through the gate.
On the reverse is the inscription AFGHANISTAN-GHUZNEE--23ʳ·ᵈ· JULY
1839. This striking is the only one known to exist. (See facing page


The extension of British commerce caused the first Chinese war. The
Government not only loathed the "Fan Kwei," or "foreign devils," but
objected to the use of opium which the merchants sold. The destruction
of about £2,000,000 worth of opium by Chinese officials, and the
insult offered to Her Majesty's representative, Captain Elliot,
R.N., led to the declaration of war against China, and a force under
Brigadier-General Burrell was dispatched to China in June 1840, but
following an attack on Ting-hae-hien the Chinese opened negotiations
for peace, and after protracted _pourparlers_ they agreed early in
1841 to pay an indemnity, and to cede the island of Hong Kong. In
accordance with the treaty the island was occupied by the British, but
this was resented by the Chinese, who had determined not to carry out
the terms agreed upon. Hostilities were consequently recommenced, and
an expedition sent up the Canton River, where it quickly dealt with the
batteries at Wantong, landed a body of British and Indian infantry, and
captured considerably over 1,000 Chinese soldiers without losing a man.
Pursuing its way up the river, the expedition imposed severe punishment
upon the different forts, and the Chinese again sued for peace, mainly,
however, for the purpose of gaining time to bring up reinforcements.
The forts at Canton were silenced, and on May 24th, 1841, the British
troops landed and carried the fortified heights, the 18th Royal Irish
and the 49th charging in brilliant style. A flag of truce was hoisted
on May 26th, and as a result of _pourparlers_ £4,250,000 sterling was
agreed to be paid for the evacuation of Canton, which was to be opened
to trade.

The Emperor had no intention of carrying out any such agreement--on the
contrary he issued a mandate for the extermination of the British. As a
result of this flagrant breach of faith, an expedition was sent to the
Island of Amoy, and appeared before the city of Amoy on August 25th.
Two hours' bombardment sufficed to demoralise the garrison, despite
their 500 pieces of cannon, and a force of troops was landed. Chusan
was retaken, the military depot of Chinghai stormed, and the fortified
and important city of Ningpo captured. A determined effort was made on
March 10th, 1842, to retake it, but despite the surprise the enemy was
beaten off. Later the British left Ningpo and again proceeded up-river,
attacking Tsekee on March 15th, capturing the heights of Segon and
forcing the Chankee pass ere returning to Ningpo on March 17th. In May
Ningpo was evacuated, and the fortified city of Chapoo at the mouth of
the Shanghai River attacked and a landing effected. In June Woosung and
Poonshau, and the city of Shangee, were captured, and with the aid of
the 98th Regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell (afterwards Lord
Clyde), which now reinforced the expedition, the city of Chin-Kiang
was attacked, and after a severe struggle taken on July 21st, 1842.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Hugh (afterwards Viscount) Gough, whose
decoration from Dr. Payne's collection is used to illustrate the medal
awarded for this campaign, led his army to the ancient capital Nankin,
which was reached on August 9th, 1842. The demonstration sufficed
to bring the enemy to reason, and a treaty of peace was signed, the
indemnity paid, the ports of Amoy, Ningpo, Foo-choo-foo, and Shanghai
opened to British commerce, and Hong Kong ceded to us.

The army of about 3,000 men was composed of the 18th Royal Irish, 26th
Cameronians (which lost nearly 600 men out of 900, by disease, before
Canton fell), 49th, 55th (which particularly distinguished itself at
the assault on the city of Chin-Kiang), 98th, 37th Madras Infantry,
Royal and Indian Artillery, and a Naval Brigade, including marines,
also took a prominent part.

=The First China Medal, 1842.=--In January 1843 the grant of a medal
was made to commemorate "the signal successes of Her Majesty's Naval
and Military forces," both European and Native, upon the coast and in
the interior of the Empire of China. On the obverse is the diademed
head of Queen Victoria facing to the left, with the legend VICTORIA
REGINA on either side, and on the truncation of the head W. WYON, R.A.
This was the first medal issued with the Queen's head. On the reverse
is a trophy of naval and military weapons, very badly disposed, with an
oval shield bearing the Royal Arms in the centre, the whole backed by a
palm tree, and above ARMIS EXPOSCERE PACEM, with CHINA on a plain panel
in the exergue, and underneath the date ~1842~. The medal is 1⅖ in. in
diameter, with a plain straight German-silver clasp soldered on for
suspension from a ribbon of red with broad yellow edges, the same width
as the diameter of the medal. The names of the recipients, and the
number of the regiment or name of ship, were impressed upon the edge
in bold Roman capital letters. The reverse of this medal has been used
ever since for presentation to troops taking part in Chinese wars, the
date 1842 being deleted, and fishtail bars recording the engagements
and dates used to indicate the campaign.


Shah Shoojah made a very indifferent ruler, and, as I have stated, did
little to strengthen his hold on the throne upon which the British had
placed him--indeed, without British arms he possessed no authority.
The price we paid to keep this unpopular and bad ruler upon his
throne--mainly, it is true, to ensure a barrier against Russia--was
a heavy one. In October 1841 the Afghans openly rebelled at Cabul,
murdered Sir Alexander Burnes and Sir William Macnaughton, and the
troops were forced to retire upon Jellalabad, but were practically
cut to pieces on the march, Dr. Brydon--who became one of the famous
Lucknow garrison--being the only British officer to reach that city. It
is estimated that of 20,000 who left Cabul, only a few hundreds escaped
with their lives. The 44th (1st Essex Regiment) had 22 officers and
543 men killed during this disastrous retreat. Meanwhile Sir Robert
Sale with the 13th Somerset Light Infantry, which had been detached
from Cabul to deal with the insurgents in the Khoord-Cabul pass, had
occupied Jellalabad.

[Illustration: (Reverse.)



[Illustration: CHINA, 1842.

Awarded to Field-Marshal Hugh Viscount Gough, K.P., G.C.B., G.C.S.I]


=Jellalabad.=--The defence of Jellalabad by the little force under
Sir Robert Sale, including Captain (afterwards the famous Sir Henry)
Havelock, is the bright gem which sparkles in the dross of this
unfortunate campaign. The city was in a very poor condition when the
gallant defender seized the place and proceeded to strengthen it. On
November 12th, 1841, the garrison had only one half-day's rations, but
by a plucky sortie they managed to drive off the Afghans and obtain
supplies. The place was again invested on the 27th, but by a successful
sally on December 1st they were routed. On January 9th the leader of
the rebellion called upon Sir Robert Sale to surrender the fortress,
but he naturally refused. Not only was the indomitable spirit of the
British tried by the repeated attacks of the enemy, but it almost
appeared as if Nature herself was in league with the insurgents, for
within a month a series of earthquake shocks demolished a third of
the place and part of the defences, and necessitated continual repair
of the works. Then came the blockade by Mahomed Akbar Khan, who after
assassinating the British envoy at Cabul was responsible for the
destruction of the army which left that city. On April 7th, however,
the defenders made a determined attack upon the camp of the besiegers,
and the 6,000 men under Mahomed Akbar were put to rout, and the siege
abandoned. The regiments engaged in the defence of Jellalabad, under
Sir Robert Sale, were H.M.'s 13th Light Infantry; a squadron of the
5th Bengal Light Cavalry; 35th Bengal Native Infantry; detachments
of Broadfoot's Sappers and the 6th Shah's Infantry; half the Shah's
Mountain Train; 2nd and 6th Batts. Bengal Artillery; a few native
officers, and 682 armed followers.

=First Jellalabad Medal.=--The "Illustrious" garrison of Jellalabad,
which had kept the flag flying for five months, was awarded a medal by
General Order dated Allahabad, April 30th, 1842. It is a very simple
medal, 1½ in. in diameter, bearing on the obverse JELLALABAD in capital
block letters taking the line of the medal above a mural crown, and on
the reverse the date APRIL boldly occupying the centre, with VII above
and ~1842~ below. The suspenders were of two kinds--a steel clip and
ring, or a silver wire loop attached to a ring through a hole in the
broad flat rim. The medals were mostly issued without names; a few were
indented, but the majority were engraved. The ribbon of watered silk
is 1⅘ in. wide, and shaded rainbow fashion from crimson to yellow and
blue. Two thousand five hundred and ninety-six medals were issued, and
the relatives of those defenders who succumbed between April 7th, 1842,
and the date of issue in December received the medal. The rarer medals
are those awarded to the Shah's Mountain Train and the Shah's Cavalry,
also the 5th Bengal Light Infantry.

=Second Jellalabad Medal.=--Lord Ellenborough, the Governor-General of
India, being dissatisfied with the simple and somewhat crude character
of the award, had a more decorative medal designed by W. Wyon and
struck at the Royal Mint, that those who cared might exchange when
they were issued in March 1845. The men, however, were loath to part
with the original medal, and very few applied for the new one; it is
stated that of the famous 13th--the only European regiment to receive
the award--only five exchanged their medals. The obverse of the second
Jellalabad, or the "Flying Victory," bears the head of Queen Victoria
as on the China medal, with VICTORIA VINDEX above (a few were issued
with VICTORIA REGINA), and on the reverse the fortress of Jellalabad,
with a bold flying figure of Victory above bearing in her uplifted left
hand the Union Jack, and in her right two wreaths; above is JELLALABAD
VII APRIL, and in the exergue MDCCCXLII. The medal, 1⅖ in. in diameter,
was suspended from the crimson, yellow, and blue ribbon by a steel or
plated bar 2⅖ in. long. The recipient's name, etc., was impressed upon
the edge in capital Roman letters, but some were issued engraved in
script. In addition to the 13th (later called Prince Albert's Light
Infantry, as one of the honours conferred for the occasion; they
also had their facings changed from yellow to blue), the 35th Native
Infantry, 2-6th Batt. Bengal Artillery, Anderson's Horse, one squadron
5th Bengal Light Native Cavalry, and Broadfoot's Sappers and Miners
took part in the defence.

=Cabul.=--The prestige of Britain had been lowered as a result of
the insurrections, and in order to relieve Jellalabad (but it is
said to take vengeance upon the enemy), Major-General Pollock was
dispatched with an army, with which he forced the Kyber Pass and
relieved Jellalabad on April 16th, where he halted for some months
to organise his transport. Meanwhile oppressive heat and pestilence
played havoc with the troops encamped in the valley of Jellalabad, and
it was determined to divide the force and advance on Cabul, General
Pollock having a hard fight at the pass of Jugdulluck, where he beat
off Mahomed Khan and the Ghilzie chiefs. Later the combined divisions
of Pollock and Sale combated the enemy in the Tezeen pass, where, on
September 13th, Akbar Khan with 20,000 men disputed passage. His force,
however, was put to rout, and the leader escaped accompanied by a
single soldier. The debacle was complete, and on September 15th the
army encamped on the race-course at Cabul, and next day the British
flag again flew over the city.

The following troops took part in the march and recapture of Cabul:
9th, 13th, 31st, 40th, and 41st Foot Regiments, and the 3rd Light
Dragoons, who were awarded the medal for Cabul, also the following
regiments in the H.E.I. Co.'s service: 4th, 5th, 6th, and 12th Bengal
Infantry; 1st and 10th Bengal Light Cavalry; 3rd Irregular Cavalry; the
5th company of the Bengal Artillery, and Sappers and Miners.

Three thousand five hundred medals were issued to Europeans for Cabul,
but very few were issued to the 40th Regiment.

=Candahar.=--Major-General Knott's defence of Candahar, if not so
famous as that of Jellalabad by Sir Robert Sale, exhibited the same
tenacity and cool determination. The rebels in the vicinity of Candahar
were led by Prince Sufter Jung, a son of Shah Shoojah, and Prince
Timour; they and their men, however, were helpless in the face of the
little British army that sallied forth on the morning of January 12th,
1842, and routed them. The success of the battle did but keep the enemy
at a respectful distance, for they spent their time in plundering
the villages in the neighbourhood. Bad weather militated against any
further effort on the part of the British general until March 7th,
when he advanced against the rebel Afghans, and again put them to
rout, but while the detachment was engaged in combating one section
of the insurgents, another made a daring attack upon the city; they
were, however, repulsed with considerable loss. Another action was
fought on March 25th, and, with the assistance of the brigade under
Colonel Wymer, the investing enemy was driven in confusion across the
Urghundaub. On April 28th Major-General (later Sir) Richard England,
after attacking the enemy at Hykulzie, successfully reached Candahar,
and enabled Major-General Knott to advance upon Cabul.

"The Fighting Fortieth" was the only British regiment present in the
defence and in the actions outside. It is noteworthy that through
disease the regiment had been considerably reduced before it took
part in the defence of Candahar. Major Biddulph states that only 64
"Candahar" medals were struck for the 40th Foot, and of these 42 were
for the relatives of deceased officers and soldiers, and 22 for sick,
etc., who had returned to India. The 41st, the Welsh Regiment, was the
only British unit that took part in the relief of Candahar. The 5th,
6th, and 12th Bengal Infantry; Poona Horse; 1st Bengal (Skinner's) and
3rd Bombay Cavalry, and Bombay and Bengal Artillery were engaged in the
defence and relief.

Only 130 Europeans received the medal for Candahar.

=Kelat-i-Ghilzie.=--Colonel Wymer, C.B., with a detachment
which included a few men of "The Fighting Fortieth," marched on
Kelat-i-Ghilzie, a hill fort 84 miles from Candahar, in order to draw
off the garrison, which had held the fort during the winter, and (on
May 21st) five days before Colonel Wymer's arrival had succeeded in
defeating 4,000 Ghilzees who had attacked the fort. The garrison
of only 950, under the command of Captain Craigie, included about
100 Europeans. For this heroic defence a silver medal was issued to
every man taking part; it is 1⅖ in. in diameter, and depends from a
steel clip and bar, as in the medal illustrated facing page 96, and
was suspended from the same kind of ribbon. On the obverse is an
ornamental shield inscribed KELAT-I-GHILZIE, surrounded by a laurel
wreath with a mural crown above. On the reverse is a military trophy,
with a breast-plate and helmet forming the central feature, and
"INVICTA MDCCCXLII" on an ornamental tablet underneath. The names of
the recipients were all engraved, generally in script. None of the
Queen's Regiments took part in the defence, the majority (600) of
the defenders being of the Shah's army. Three companies of the 43rd
Bengal Infantry, 44 European Artillerymen including one officer, and 60
Sappers and Miners of the H.E.I. Co.'s service were also engaged. Only
55 Europeans received this medal.

=Recapture of Ghuznee.=--Ghuznee, with its garrison of exhausted
and half-frozen men, had capitulated in March under the orders of
Major-General Elphinstone, who had been taken prisoner at Cabul, and
died shortly afterwards. Elphinstone's orders to surrender Jellalabad
and Candahar had been ignored by Sir Robert Sale and Sir William
Knott. They not only had the determination of Englishmen, but knew the
treacherous character of their enemies. Colonel Palmer, unfortunately,
forced by the weakness of his men and relying upon the promise of a
safe escort for his sepoys to Hindoostan, agreed to surrender. The
troops were unarmed, and with their womenfolk had hardly left the
citadel when they were attacked and the majority massacred. Colonel
Palmer was tortured, and with nine other officers thrown into a
dungeon. When Sir William Knott appeared before Ghuznee, on September
5th, 1842, he found the city swarming with rebel troops, and great
bodies of cavalry and infantry in the mountainous environs. He drove
these off, erected breaching batteries, and prepared to attack the
city, but on the morning of the 6th it was discovered that the fortress
had been evacuated; and so with very few casualties Ghuznee was again
taken, over 300 unfortunate sepoys released, and the sacred gates of
Somnath, which Mahommedan invaders had taken from India centuries
before, were taken down as mementoes of a campaign which did nothing to
improve our prestige.

The 40th and 41st were the only British regiments to receive the medal
with Ghuznee inscribed thereon. Members of these regiments who had been
in the other actions were entitled to the medals bearing Candahar and
Cabul also.

=The Ghuznee, Candahar, and Cabul Medals.=--For this war a silver
medal was issued by the Indian Government to those who had taken part
in it. Four types of medals were issued. One with the words CANDAHAR,
GHUZNEE, CABUL, 1842, the names being above one another and the date
below, all within a laurel wreath, the whole surmounted by the royal
crown; another for GHUZNEE-CABUL, 1842, with the names in entwined
wreaths and the date beneath them; and those for CANDAHAR, 1842, and
CABUL, 1842, as indicated in the illustration facing page 100 of one
with the original bright steel suspender attached to a hinged clip. The
medals are 1⅖ in. in diameter, the obverse bearing the diademed head
of the young Queen Victoria with the legend "Victoria Vindex" above;
some have the words "Victoria Regina," but these are scarce, while a
few of the medals for Cabul are spelt thus, CABVL, but it is doubtful
whether they were actually issued to soldiers. It is noteworthy that
on certain of the medals in this series the name of the executant, W.
Wyon, R.A., is on the truncation of the Queen's head instead of beneath
it. In this issue the recipients' names were engraved either in Italian
script or in square Roman letters; a few were impressed, and some were
issued unnamed. The "rainbow" or military ribbon for India is used for

One thousand four hundred Europeans received the medal with Candahar,
Ghuznee, Cabul.

=Meeanee.=--In 1843 the "tail of the Afghan storm" arose. It followed
the attempt on the part of several Ameers, with an army of 8,000
Belooches, to obtain possession of the British Presidency at Hyderabad;
they were driven off, but owing to the weakness of the place it was
decided to abandon it for the safety of the camp commanded by Sir
Charles Napier, to whom the conduct of the campaign in Scinde had
been entrusted, and who gained for himself the native sobriquet
"Shaitan-ke-bhaee," or "The devil's brother," by his determined action
in dealing with the Ameers. He first destroyed the fort at Emaun
Ghur on January 14th and 15th, a feat which drew forth the eulogiums
of Wellington, and ruined the chance of the Ameers in the campaign.
On February 17th the battle of Meeanee was fought, 2,800 men, with
12 guns, under Major-General Sir Charles Napier attacking, and in
three hours defeating the Scindian army of 30,000 infantry and 5,000
cavalry, with 15 guns, but not before nearly all the European officers
were killed or wounded. The Belooches, who fought with remarkable
valour, lost 5,000 men, their camp and all its appurtenances falling
into the hands of the British. Next day six of the Ameers surrendered.
The only Queen's Regiment represented at Meeanee was the 22nd Foot,
and only 65 medals were issued to the regiment, with two companies of
Bombay Artillery; Grenadiers of the 1st Native Infantry; 12th and 25th
Native Infantry; a detachment of Poona Irregular Horse, to which corps
only 14 medals were issued; Scinde Irregular Horse; 9th Bengal Light
Cavalry, and half company of Madras Sappers and Miners. The 22nd lost 1
officer and 23 men killed; its commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel
Pennefeather, 6 officers, and 52 men wounded.

=Hyderabad.=--The Ameers, who still held out against the British army,
made a stand with 20,000 men at the village of Duppa, near Hyderabad,
under Meer Shere Mahomed, where on March 24th they were attacked by Sir
Charles Napier with 5,000 troops, and defeated with great loss. The
arch enemy of the British, Hoche Mahomed Seede, was killed, and Meer
Shere Mahomed fled to the desert; the battle was decided by the 22nd
Regiment and the troop of Bombay Horse Artillery. In this battle the
22nd, which numbered 560 rank and file, lost 23 men killed, 5 officers
and 134 men wounded.



As a result of the campaign Scinde and Meerpore passed into British
possession. The troops engaged at Hyderabad were: H.M.'s 22nd Foot; 1st
Troop of Bombay Horse Artillery; 2nd-1st and 2nd-2nd Companies of the
Bombay Artillery; 1st, 8th, 12th, 21st, and 25th Native Infantry; 3rd
and 5th Companies of Golundaze; Madras Sappers and Miners; 3rd Bombay
Cavalry; 9th Bengal Cavalry; Poona Horse and Scinde Horse; also men
from the Indus Flotilla.

=Medals for Meeanee and Hyderabad.=--The medal for the war in Scinde in
1843 was the only war medal given by the Home Government to the troops
employed in India during the period of the East India Company's rule.
The medal is practically the same as that described and illustrated as
given for Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabul in the 1842 campaign, the name
of the battle--MEEANEE or HYDERABAD--and date, 1843, being arranged
inside a wreath surmounted by the royal crown. A third medal given to
those who were present in both actions has MEEANEE-HYDERABAD within
laurel wreaths tied together, the whole surmounted by the royal crown.
A medal for the battle of Meeanee, awarded to the 22nd, has realised
from £7 to £9. The steel suspender, as in the Cabul medal illustrated,
was issued with the medal given to non-commissioned officers and
privates, but those with the officers' medals were of silver; the
Colonel, however, of the only English regiment present--the 22nd--had,
at his own expense, silver suspenders made for his men in place of the
steel ones. The 22nd were present at both battles, also detachments
of royal and horse artillery. Some of these medals have the names of
the recipients, etc., engraved in script; others are mostly impressed
in Roman capitals. Those to the 22nd were generally engraved in block
lettering. The ribbon used is the "rainbow" or Army of India type.


The year 1843 also saw the Gwalior campaign, in which the two decisive
battles of Maharajpoor and Punniar were fought on the same day,
December 29th. "The Army of Exercise" had been assembled at Agra owing
to troubles following the death of the Maharajah. Tyajee Rao Scindiah
had been acknowledged by the British Government, and Mama Sahib was
appointed Regent. He was, however, expatriated, and an attempt made
to undermine the position of the young Maharajah. His authority was,
however, re-established, and the British army prepared to leave the
country under the command of Major-General Sir Hugh Gough.

=Maharajpoor.=--They crossed the Koharee River on the morning of
December 29th, to find about 18,000 Mahrattas with 100 guns strongly
entrenched at the village of Maharajpoor. The British army consisted
of 14,000 men with 40 guns. A terrific conflict ensued owing to the
superiority of the enemy in artillery, but attacked on all sides by
the British force they were routed, despite the splendid determination
of the Mahratta gunners, who were bayoneted at their guns, and the
gallantry of the infantry, who discarding their matchlocks stubbornly
fought hand to hand with the British soldiers.

The regiments engaged were the 39th and 40th Foot and the 16th Lancers.
The H.E.I. Co.'s troops were the 2nd, 14th, 16th, 31st, 43rd, and 56th
Bengal Native Infantry; 1st Bengal Light Cavalry; 4th, section of the
5th, 8th Bengal Light Cavalry; 10th Bengal Light Cavalry; 2nd Skinner's
Horse; 4th Irregular Cavalry (in reserve); 2 companies of Bengal Foot
Artillery (3 companies and 4 of natives in reserve); 3 troops of Bengal
Horse Artillery and 3rd, 4th, and 7th companies Bengal Sappers and

=Punniar.=--On the afternoon of the 29th the left wing of the army,
under Major-General Grey, discovered about 1,200 of the enemy in
position on a range of hills near Punniar, and by a brilliant attack
carried every position, and routed the enemy with considerable loss.
These two victories which terminated the war were dearly bought, over
1,000 men being placed _hors de combat_.

The Queen's Regiments at Punniar were the 3rd Buffs, 50th, Queen's
Own, and 2 squadrons 9th Lancers; 5 companies of the 39th, 50th, and
51st Native Infantry; 2 squadrons 5th Bengal Light Cavalry; 8th Bengal
and 8th Irregular Cavalry; 2 squadrons 11th Bengal Light Cavalry; 1st
Company Bengal Sappers and Miners; 2 troops Bengal Horse Artillery and
1 company Bengal Foot Artillery.

=Maharajpoor and Punniar Stars.=--For these fights the victorious
Britishers and native troops were awarded bronze six-pointed stars,
1⁷⁄₁₀ in. in diameter (as illustrated facing pages 108 and 112), made
from the captured cannon, having in the centre a small silver star
bearing the words PUNNIAR or MAHARAJPOOR, 1843, in a circle, and in
the centre the date of the action, ~29ᵗʰ· DECʳ·~ The star worn by
Lord Gough had a silver elephant on the obverse instead of the silver
star. These stars were originally fitted with broad brass hooks for
attachment to a loop on the coat, but in some instances a steel ring
was run through it, so as to allow for suspension by the rainbow ribbon
used at the time with other Indian war medals, as illustrated in the
pair for Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul, and Maharajpoor, or a silver, or
German-silver, suspender was attached, as shown in the Punniar star.
The name, number, and regiment of the soldier were engraven on the
back, at either side of the hook, in a light, slanting script.


The Sikh wars of 1845-6 and 1848-9, which concluded with the annexation
of the Punjab, and the Koh-i-noor diamond being presented to Queen
Victoria, were particularly hard-fought campaigns; and Lord Gough--one
of the famous fighting Goughs--whom Wellington thought unworthy to
continue the command in the second campaign, which, however, he
successfully closed, is depicted on the medal for the Punjab campaign
receiving from the defeated Sikhs the arms they were no longer allowed
to bear against us. Some state that the mounted soldier depicted on the
medal is Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert.

Runjeet Singh, who died in 1839, left an army trained by Europeans and
a young son, Dhuleep Singh. The former, numbering 60,000, inspired by
the ambitious Ministers of the infant Maharajah, crossed the Sutlej
and invested Ferozepore with the object of expelling the British from
Hindoostan, but was encountered at Moodkee on December 18th by the
"Army of the Sutlej," consisting of 3,850 Europeans and 8,500 natives,
which with 42 guns had made a tiring march of 22 miles to relieve

=Moodkee.=--It was 3 o'clock in the afternoon when the alarm was given
that the Sikhs were to give battle. The fatigued and famished soldiers
abandoned the meal they were preparing, and, many coatless, rushed to
their arms and to meet the Sikh army, the strength of which was so
great that it outflanked the British, which practically only formed a
single line to oppose it. The infantry meeting them in front gave a
brilliant account of itself with the bayonet. The second brigade of
cavalry, with the 3rd Light Dragoons, swept the enemy's left, while
the rest of the British cavalry turned their right, but the fight
continued until darkness, aided by the great clouds of dust from the
sandy desert, came to the aid of the Sikhs, who sullenly retired to
their camp at Ferozeshuhur after the loss of 17 guns, while the British
rested on the battlefield for a few hours and then returned to their
camp. In this battle, Colonel James Robertson, C.B., relates, Captain
(afterwards Lord) Napier had a remarkable escape with his life; when
riding armed merely with a walking-stick several of the enemy rushed
at him, but he escaped unscathed. He had ridden from Umballa alone and
straight into the battle when it was at its height! In this battle,
Colonel Robertson states, the Sikh gunners "were conspicuous for their
reckless bravery and devotion to their guns." They "died rather than
yield; and there were no white flags, and no quarter asked or given on
either side, so we had just to fight it out," and these were the men
with whom we had fought side by side in the advance on Cabul but three
years before! In this encounter 84 officers and 800 men were placed
_hors de combat_, and the hero of Jellalabad, Major-General Sir Robert
Sale, mortally wounded, Sir John McGaskill killed, and 4 brigadiers

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR SUTLEJ, 1845.]

[Illustration: BRONZE STAR FOR PUNNIAR, 1843.]

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR PUNJAB, 1849.]

At Moodkee H.M.'s 9th, 31st, 50th, and 80th Regiments and the 3rd
Light Dragoons were present, also the 2nd, 16th, 24th, 26th, 42nd,
45th, 47th, 48th, and 73rd Bengal Native Infantry; 4th and 5th Bengal
Light Cavalry, 9th Irregular Cavalry; 4 troops of Horse Artillery and
2 companies of Foot Artillery. On the day following the battle H.M.'s
26th Foot, the 1st Bengal European Regiment, 11th and 41st Bengal
Native Infantry, and 2 companies of Bengal Artillery joined the force.

=Ferozeshuhur.=--The Sikhs strengthened their position at "Ferushahr"
and entrenched themselves with 120 guns; meanwhile the British army
had been reinforced with heavy guns and a number of troops, while
Major-General Sir John Littler had brought his division of 5,000 men
from Ferozepore, making a total of about 5,674 Europeans and 12,053
native troops, with 65 guns, to be ranged against 25,000 Regulars and
10,000 Irregular Sikhs, with 83 guns, strengthened by an army of about
23,000, with 67 guns, under Tej Singh, encamped only ten miles away.
The battle of Ferushahr, or Ferozeshuhur, as it is officially spelt,
opened on December 21st, with a terrific cannonade by the Sikhs, under
which the British infantry advanced, stormed the entrenchments, and
took a number of the enemy's guns. So hardly did the Sikhs fight that
they could not be forced from the whole of their entrenchments; indeed,
so stubborn was the battle of Ferozeshuhur that it lasted for two days,
while the intervening night was also kept lively by the Sikh artillery
playing on to the ground gained by the British. The 80th Regiment was
sent with the 1st European Light Infantry to silence the guns, and the
80th was successful in capturing three. "A more wonderful battle never
was. Within 150 yards of one another were 8,000 British troops against
an unknown number of enemies yet unbroken." All the Governor-General's
staff were killed or wounded before the day of retribution arrived.
The Commander-in-Chief and the Governor-General of India, Sir Henry
Hardinge, placed themselves in front of the two wings of the army
"to prevent the troops from firing" until they closed! Unchecked by
the enemy's fire, the line advanced, dislodged the enemy and swept
everything before it. Halting, as on the parade ground, the army
vociferously cheered its leaders, for they were masters of the field.
Sirdar Tej Singh, however, brought up his army of over 30,000 men, with
a large field of artillery, and endeavoured to retrieve the day; but
despite the fact that the British artillery had already expended its
ammunition, he was compelled to retire, and the day was won. On the
field, however, were 2,415 dead or wounded soldiers, and 115 officers,
which the victorious army had lost. The men who fought and won this
protracted and sanguinary battle had mostly been without food or water
for forty-eight hours.

The Queen's Regiments present at Ferozeshuhur were the 9th, 29th, 31st,
50th, 62nd, and 80th; 3rd Light Dragoons; 1st and 3rd Brigades Bengal
Horse Artillery, and the 4th, 6th, and 7th Batteries of Artillery; the
2nd, 12th, 14th, 16th, 24th, 26th, 33rd, 42nd, 44th, 45th, 47th, 48th,
54th, and 73rd Native Infantry; Royal Bengal Fusiliers; No. 6 Company
Bengal Sappers and Miners; 4th, 5th, and 8th Bengal Light Cavalry;
3rd and 9th Bengal Irregular Cavalry; 2nd Skinner's Horse, and the
Governor-General's Bodyguard. The 11th and 41st Bengal Native Infantry
guarding the wounded at Moodkee and the men of the 27th and 63rd
Bengal Native Infantry, Bengal Artillery, and Sappers who garrisoned
Ferozepore were also granted the medal or the bar for Ferozeshuhur.

=Aliwal.=--Within a month the battle of Aliwal was fought. The Sikh
Sirdars having effected a passage of the Sutlej near Loodiana, likewise
at Ferozeshuhur near Sobraon, and threatened the garrison at the former
place, the first brigade under Sir Harry Smith--a Peninsular veteran
who bore twelve clasps to his medal--was ordered to make a forced march
to relieve it. At Budiwal the enemy had prepared to intercept the
British force by strongly entrenching the range of sand-hills and the
villages. Sir Harry Smith, however, refusing to take any risks with his
army of footsore and fatigued men, decided to make a flank movement
by the right, although it would mean running the gauntlet of a heavy
fire from the forty guns which was opened upon his columns. The British
troops passed through the ordeal with remarkable discipline, but with
a loss (this was on January 21st, 1846) far greater than was sustained
later at Aliwal.

Colonel Godby, who commanded the garrison, on observing the approach
of the British force, moved out from Loodiana and joined the relieving
force. General Wheeler's brigade also arrived, and on January 28th
the battle of Aliwal was fought. About 10,000 men against 20,000
with 68 guns, Sir Harry Smith boldly advanced upon the Sikh position
held by the flower of that fine army. The British cavalry drove the
Sikh horsemen on their own infantry, and captured several guns,
while the British infantry made terrible havoc with the bayonet.
The battle commenced at 10 a.m., and by 1 o'clock the Sikh army
was flying in disorder, the whole of their artillery being left in
possession of the victors. In this action the British losses were
151 killed, 413 wounded, and 25 missing. The 16th Lancers, who had
greatly distinguished themselves, lost 8 officers and 100 men. Colonel
Robertson, who was present with the 31st, records a "magnificent
charge of the 16th Lancers, who rode right through one of the enemy's
squares. As they (the Lancers) came round our right flank a regiment
of sepoys, our own men, opened fire upon them!" The gallant Colonel,
however, at the risk of his life, ran along the line knocking up their
muskets with his sword as he shouted in Hindustani, "Our men, our own

The following regiments were engaged at Aliwal: H.M.'s 31st, 50th, and
53rd Foot and 16th Lancers. The H.E.I. Co.'s troops were the 1st and
2nd Goorkas, 30th, 36th, 47th, and 48th Bengal Native Infantry and a
wing of the 24th; 1st, 3rd, and 5th Bengal Light Cavalry; 4th Irregular
Cavalry and the Bodyguard; Bengal Horse and Foot Artillery; Bengal
Sappers and Miners.

=Sobraon.=--The completeness of the victory at Aliwal did not utterly
dispirit the Sikhs, for they made a bold stand at Sobraon, where, on
February 10th, they desperately disputed the day with the army composed
of the combined forces of Sir Hugh Gough and Sir Harry Smith. The Sikhs
held their 3,500 yards of entrenchments, shielding 70 guns, with 34,000
men, while on the other bank of the Sutlej 20,000 more were ready
for battle. Sir Hugh Gough's army of 16,224 men--6,533 Europeans and
9,691 native troops--prepared for battle at sunrise, when the British
batteries opened fire, but with little effect upon the enemy's guns in
the strong redoubts. At 9 o'clock the European infantry advanced to
attack, and then, without firing a shot, under a galling fire rushed
upon the Sikhs, while the cavalry, passing in single files through the
gaps in the entrenchments made by the sappers, re-formed and sabred the
stubborn Sikh artillerymen at their posts. Those who fled were drowned
in thousands in the waters of the Sutlej, which was red in places with
the blood of men and horses, and the fine army of Sikhs (Khalsas)
melted away, after leaving about 8,000 on the field of battle. No
longer was there any doubt as to the determination of the British to
maintain their prestige and possessions, and the haughty chieftains
sought peace from their conquerors. The youthful Maharajah Dhuleep
Singh was, however, compelled to treat in person. As a result the
victors occupied the rich district between the Sutlej and the Beeas,
and he was allowed to nominally rule the Punjab until the war indemnity
of £1,500,000 was paid. It was a dear victory for the British: the 10th
lost 3 officers and 130 men; the 29th Regiment lost 13 officers and
135 men; the 31st, 7 officers and 147 men, two of the officers--Ensign
Tritton and Jones--being killed while bearing the regimental colours,
which were ultimately planted on the highest point of the enemy's
entrenchments by Sergeant Bernard McCabe, who as Captain McCabe was
mortally wounded when leading a fourth sortie from Lucknow on October
1st, 1857. The 50th lost 12 officers and 227 men. Generals McLaren and
Cyril Taylor were among the dead, also Major-General Sir Robert Dick,
who gained considerable fame as leader of the 42nd Highlanders during
the Peninsular War and at Waterloo, and who fell at the moment of

The regiments engaged at Sobraon were: H.M.'s 9th, 10th, 29th, 31st,
50th, 53rd, and 62nd Infantry Regiments; 3rd Light Dragoons; 9th and
16th Lancers; 1st Bengal Europeans; 1st and 2nd Goorkas; 1 company
12th, 16th, wing of 24th, 26th, 33rd, some of the 38th, 41st, 42nd,
43rd, 47th, 59th, 63rd, and 68th Bengal Native Infantry; with the 45th
and 59th in reserve; 3rd, 4th, and 5th Bengal Light Cavalry; 2nd, 8th,
and 9th Irregular Cavalry; 10 troops of Horse Artillery; 11 companies
Foot Artillery. The 73rd Bengal Native Infantry stationed at Rhodawalla
also received the medal. It should be noted that the record of
regiments engaged does not necessarily represent all the units taking
part. Details and drafts from various corps were often present through
one cause or another, or by accident. This should be borne in mind
whenever a medal comes under notice. The medal rolls will generally
assist, but there have been instances, and very serious ones for the
collector, where the want of accuracy in a medal roll has cost him
very dearly. Dr. Payne gives an instance of this on page 74 of "British
and Foreign Orders, War Medals and Decorations," a bar for Corygaum
being on a medal awarded to a man of the 65th Foot, as well as the bar
for Poona. The first-named bar made the medal one of the rarest of the
series issued to a British soldier, but the medal roll led Dr. Payne to
think it a fraud, which later evidence demonstrated was not the case.

=The Sutlej Medal.=--The first, or Sutlej medal, 1¼ in. in diameter,
bearing the legend "ARMY OF THE SUTLEJ," was given with three bars
for four battles; that is to say, that those who fought through all
the battles had their record on the medal and three bars. A soldier
taking part in the battle of MOODKEE would have the name impressed
in raised letters, with the date, 1845, in the exergue of the medal,
and the succeeding battles on the bars, as in the illustration facing
page 112, of a medal awarded to a man of the 31st Royal East Surrey
Regiment--this and the 50th Royal West Kent Regiment being the only two
British regiments to receive the three bars, for FEROZESHUHUR, ALIWAL,
and for SOBRAON, the battle which determined the first campaign.
This was the first Indian medal issued with bars. The ribbon is dark
blue, edged with dark crimson. The medal, with W. WYON, R.A., on the
truncation of the Queen's head and W.W. above the left-hand corner of
the exergue, is generally considered a good one, and certainly it does
stand out among the many issued during the reign of Queen Victoria as
symbolic and suited for its purpose. The names of the recipients are
impressed in Roman capitals on the edges. The medal is attached to
the ribbon by means of a scroll bar fixed to the medal by a claw clip
acting on a swivel, so that the medal may be turned about when fixed on
the breast.


This originated in a murderous assault made upon the British officials
accompanying the Sirdar Khan Singh, who was deputed to take over the
charge of the fortress of Mooltan (Multan) and province from the native
Governor Dewan Moolraj, who had resigned. On arriving at the gate of
the fortress the officers and their escort were attacked and killed
by some of the Governor's men. A punitive force, including a body of
1,400 Sikhs, was consequently sent to punish the city, but the Sikhs
went over to the rebels, and it was found necessary to send a strong
force to reduce the mutineers who had been excited by Moolraj. Mooltan,
a city three miles in circumference, is of considerable antiquity;
it was taken by Alexander the Great, and at the beginning of the
eleventh century by Mahmud of Ghazni, and by Tamerlane at the end of
the fourteenth century; besieged by Ranjit Singh in 1810, he was bought
off by the Afghan Governor, but it fell in 1818, and was annexed to the

General Whish marched upon the city from Lahore with a force which
included H.M.'s 10th and 32nd Regiments, and concentrated at Mooltan in
the middle of August; but he had realised, after the desertion of 5,000
Sikhs under Sheer Ali, that it was fruitless to maintain the siege, and
therefore raised it on September 15th. Lieutenant Edwardes, however,
had by superhuman energy and indomitable pluck raised a force of Sikhs
and Mahommedans, which was of the greatest possible assistance in
holding Moolraj and his army of about 8,800 infantry and 1,200 cavalry,
with 54 guns, in check, twice defeating him in battle at Kineyree and

=Edwardes's Medal.=--For his splendid services the H.E.I. Co. presented
him with a gold medal designed by W. Wyon, R.A., bearing on the obverse
the bust of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and on the reverse, resting
upon a lotus flower, the figures of Valour and Victory, crowning the
arms of Major (afterwards Sir Herbert) Edwardes; beneath, in allusion
to the youthfulness of the hero, the infant Hercules strangling
serpents. Within the border is the inscription, FROM THE EAST INDIA

=Where "El Chico Blanco" fell.=--While Whish and Edwardes had been
holding the ground, Lord Gough assembled an army at Ferozepore, and
marching into the Punjab met the rebels at Ramnuggur on the banks of
the Chenab on November 28th, 1848, where after a determined battle the
enemy drew off beaten. It was here Lieutenant-Colonel William Havelock,
K.H., "El Chico Blanco," the fair-haired and gallant boy-leader of
the Peninsular War, was killed while leading the 14th Dragoons in the
cavalry charge. Colonel Havelock was brother to Sir Henry Havelock, and
his six-bar Peninsular medal is in the great collection of my friend
Dr. A. A. Payne, of Sheffield. Brigadier-General Cureton, C.B., the
commander of the cavalry division, also fell. The brilliant charges
made by the 13th and 14th Light Dragoons, and the 5th and 8th Light
Cavalry, against the great bodies of hostile horsemen numbering nearly
4,000, called forth special mention in general orders. Various minor
engagements were fought while Major-General Whish renewed the siege of
Mooltan, which lasted twenty-five days, during which time a shell from
one of the British mortar batteries struck the "Jumma Musjid," or Great
Mosque, while another blew up a powder-magazine with 400,000 lb. of
powder, when, states Colonel Maude, "as if by mutual consent the firing
on both sides ceased a while, every one gazing upwards with silent awe
and wonder! Then from the British camp arose one long burst of triumph,
which was speedily answered by a furious cannonade from our courageous
and still unsubdued enemy." Two breaches had been made in the walls
by January 1st, 1849, one at the Delhi Gate and one near the "Khonee
Boorj," or Bloody Bastion; this the Bombay European Fusiliers, the 4th
Rifles, and the 19th Native Infantry were told off to storm, but the
"Old Toughs," as the Fusiliers were called, had to make three desperate
attempts before they and their comrades could gain the summit.
Meanwhile the 32nd, with two Bengal regiments in support, had been
ordered to storm the Delhi Gate; but their efforts were unsuccessful
owing to the imperfect breaching, and they entered the city by the
"Khonee Boorj." So Mooltan was won, but no rest was obtained until the
troops reached the Soharee Gate, after fighting through the streets of
the blood-stained city, in the siege of which the British force lost
1,200 in killed and wounded.


Issued for Second Burmese War, 1854.]

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR SOUTH AFRICA, 1853.

Awarded to Lieutenant-General A. C. Cavendish Bentinck.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.)


With bar for Persia, 1856-7.]

The British regiments which took part in the siege were the 10th, 32nd,
and 1st Batt. 60th Rifles (only 100 of this regiment received the
single bar for Mooltan, and fakers frequently remove the Goojerat bar
from a medal in order to enhance its value); likewise a Naval Brigade
(Indus Flotilla) of about 100 men; 1st (Royal) Bombay Fusiliers; 3rd,
4th, 9th, and 19th Bombay Native Infantry; 8th, 49th, 51st, 52nd, and
72nd Native Infantry; Bengal and Bombay Sappers and Miners; 1st and
2nd Scinde; Irregular Horse and 1st and 11th Bengal Light Cavalry; and
7th, 11th Irregular Cavalry with a detachment of the 14th. Likewise a
detachment of Guides and Horse and Foot Artillery.

=Chilianwala.=--After the fall of Mooltan, Major-General Whish, with
the 10th, 32nd, and the 60th Rifles, proceeded to join Gough's army,
and was in time to take part in the final battle of Goojerat. The
sanguinary battle of Chilianwala was fought on January 13th, 1849, and
although described by Sir Henry Havelock as "the most sanguinary, and
the nearest approximation to a defeat," it was not at first decided to
issue a bar for the engagement. It was not an officers' battle; all the
more reason, therefore, that the bar should be given to the soldiers
"whose dauntless valour rectifies the errors of its commanders," for,
as the _Calcutta Review_ rightly affirmed, the soldiery "redeemed their
errors with its blood," the unfortunate 24th, which advanced on the
Sikh guns with unloaded muskets, losing no less than 14 officers and
241 men killed in the action, and 10 officers and 253 men wounded,
besides losing one of their colours which was left on the field, but
four others shared the same fate when after this confused battle Lord
Gough drew his men off a mile in order to find water. The total loss of
the British was 38 officers and 564 men killed, 94 officers and 1,557
men wounded, and 104 missing. The Sikhs, who "fought like devils," lost
about 3,000 killed and 4,000 wounded.

The following British regiments took part: 24th, 29th (whose "undaunted
bravery" was placed on record), 61st Foot; 3rd, 9th, and 14th Light
Dragoons; Bengal Horse and Foot Artillery; the 2nd Bengal Fusiliers;
15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 31st, 36th, 45th, 46th, 56th, and 69th Bengal
Native Infantry; 1st, 5th, 6th, and 8th Bengal Light Cavalry; 3rd and
9th Irregular Cavalry and Bengal Pioneers.

=Goojerat.=--The last battle of the campaign was fought at Goojerat
(Gujerat) on February 21st, 1849. Hitherto the Sikhs had proudly
attacked; in this instance they acted upon the defensive under Sheer
Singh, who commanded a force of 34,000 Sikhs, with 59 guns, and about
1,500 Afghans under the command of a son of the Ameer. In this battle
the British General was superior in artillery, having 97 guns, but
only 24,000 men. In advancing upon the Sikh position, Gough, as usual,
intended sending his infantry forward before the artillery had done
its work. Colonel Robertson alleges that, "Sir Hugh Gough's simple
strategy was to put the strongest regiment into the hottest place, and
no attempt was made to outflank or turn a position, which must account
for the heavy list of casualties." However, on this occasion, Malleson
states his staff induced the veteran to mount the top story of an
isolated building which commanded a complete view of the battlefield,
and then quietly removed the ladder, and only replaced it when the
artillery had done its work. Then this indomitable army went for the
well-served Sikh guns, and put the enemy to rout, leaving the cavalry
to pursue them for twelve miles. The power of the Sikhs was broken,
the Punjab became a possession of the British Crown, and the Maharajah
Dhuleep Singh granted a pension. The Sikh losses were terrific, but
only 29 officers and 671 men of the British force were placed _hors de

The following regiments were represented at Goojerat: 10th, 24th,
29th, 32nd, 53rd (which arrived in the evening), 60th, and 1st Batt.
61st Foot; 3rd Light Dragoons, 9th Lancers, and 14th Light Dragoons;
1st Bombay Europeans; 1st and 2nd Bengal Europeans; 3rd, 8th, 13th,
15th, 19th, 20th, 25th, 31st, 36th, 45th, 46th, 51st, 52nd, 56th, 69th,
70th, 72nd Bengal Native Infantry; 19th Bombay Infantry; 1st, 5th,
6th, and 8th Bengal Light Cavalry; 3rd, 9th, 11th, and 14th Irregular
Cavalry, and Scinde Horse; 4 field batteries of Bombay Artillery, and
9 troops of Horse Artillery; 2 companies of Bengal Sappers and Miners,
6 companies of Bengal Pioneers, and 1st Company of Bombay Pioneers. A
Brigade of Seamen from the Indian Navy which accompanied the Bombay
column were awarded the medal.

=The Punjab Medal.=--The obverse bears the diademed head of Queen
Victoria by Wyon, and the legend VICTORIA REGINA, and the reverse Sikh
chiefs laying down their arms before a victorious British General
seated on horseback in the front of his troops, who are drawn up in
line with colours flying. In the background are palm trees, and above
TO THE ARMY OF THE PUNJAB. In the exergue is the date MDCCCXLIX. The
medal is 1⅖ in. in diameter, and has the names of the recipients
impressed on the edge in Roman capital letters. The clasps for
suspension, and the bars, are similar to those on the Sutlej medal; the
ribbon is 1¾ in. wide, and of dark blue with bright-yellow stripes at
the side.


During this time trouble had arisen in the distant colony of New
Zealand, the sovereignty of which had been ceded to Britain in 1840, a
year after the first settlers had established themselves. The trouble
arose mainly owing to the occupation of tribal land, although other
causes were alleged. The first outbreak took place in July 1844,
when a police magistrate and a number of settlers were killed, and a
powerful chief, Hone Heke, tore down the British flag at Kororareka--in
the north islands--took possession of the township and plundered it.
H.M.S. "Hazard," with a detachment of the 95th, was sent to quell the
disturbance and guard the place, but so persistent and successful
was Heke in his attacks that it was deemed advisable, in March 1845,
to abandon the settlement and embark the inhabitants for Auckland.
On the arrival of reinforcements from Sydney, the Union Jack was
again hoisted, and martial law proclaimed. A force consisting of the
58th Regiment, a detachment of the 96th, Seamen and Marines from the
"Hazard" and "North Star," and a number of natives under Colonel Hulme
of the 96th Regiment, then proceeded to Okaihau, where Heke had built
a Pah or fortification. Although only 18 miles inland, the troops
were four days in reaching their goal, and then the place was found
impregnable, and as no artillery accompanied the expedition, it was
forced to return, having lost 14 killed and 39 wounded. The expedition
being strengthened by reinforcements, another attempt was made to try
conclusions with Heke, who had entrenched himself at Oheawai. The 58th
Regiment, with detachments of the 96th and 99th, a number of volunteers
from Auckland, and 30 men from the "Hazard," in all 630 men with 250
natives and 4 guns, under the command of Colonel Despard, appeared
before Oheawai on June 23rd; the guns, however, proved useless for
the work, but breaches were made with a 32-pounder brought up by the
commander of the "Hazard." On July 1st an assault was made by 200
soldiers and seamen, but half the stormers were killed or wounded, and
they were compelled to retire. They consequently sat down in front of
the stockades, and when preparing to make another assault, on July
10th, they discovered that the enemy had evacuated their Pah. In
November 1845 more active measures were taken by the newly appointed
Governor, Captain (afterwards Sir George) Grey. A force of about
1,170 soldiers, volunteers, and seamen, with 450 natives, 4 guns, and
rocket tubes, were sent against the chiefs Heke and Kawiti. While a
friendly Maori chief, Macquarrie, kept Heke engaged at Ikorangi, the
main force attacked the Pah at Ruapekapeka held by Kawiti, which after
withstanding a siege from December 31st until January 10th, 1846, was
practically abandoned by the Maoris, and then taken with a loss of 13
men killed and 30 wounded. The chiefs were pardoned, and the war in the
North Island ended. Meanwhile trouble had been brewing in the South
Island, which was brought to a head by an attack in May 1847 on a party
of the 58th Regiment. A reprisal was made by the British attacking
the stockade of Rangihaeata, and dispersing the natives, 600 of whom,
however, on May 19th made an attack on the Wanganui settlement, and
maintained it for several hours until night fell, when they retired.
The place was held by 170 of the 58th, assisted by a gunboat. Early in
June an attack was made on a detachment of the 65th; but following a
sortie from the block-houses, held by the 58th, the Maori chiefs sued
for peace.

The regiments engaged were the 58th, 65th, 96th, 99th; Royal Artillery;
Royal Engineers; H.E.I. Co.'s Artillery; Royal Marines, and the crews
of nine of Her Majesty's ships, the names of which are recorded in the
naval section. The medal for the war was not authorised until March

=Medal for Peninsular War.=--It would appear strange that although a
medal was so readily awarded for Waterloo, no recognition was given to
the veterans of the Peninsular, and that they should have to wait until
1847 before a medal was issued as a record of, and reward for, their
services against the veteran troops of France. That they ultimately
received a decoration was due to the efforts of the veteran Duke of
Richmond, who, on July 21st, 1854, presented a petition in the House
of Lords, "requesting their Lordships' recommendation of them to their
Sovereign, that they may receive a decoration for the services they had
performed." The gallant Duke urged the claims of the junior officers,
non-commissioned officers, and men in simple but powerful terms,
while the Duke of Wellington, who had previously refused to present a
petition to King George, opposed the grant to the survivors of over
sixty battalions of the army who had, as he admitted, served under him
in six campaigns.

He appeared, according to the record of the debate, to have thought
only of the senior officers. "Have no rewards been bestowed upon
these officers?" he asked. "New modes were discovered and adopted of
distinguishing and rewarding the officers." Medals had been struck
and distributed to 1,300 officers, special brevets were issued, and 7
officers raised to the peerage, as the Duke of Wellington pointed out;
but he had no word of remembrance, no word of support for the thousands
of officers and men whose only rewards had been hardship and scars.
No word of commendation for the men who kept "grim Busaco's bloody
ridge," and ultimately hurled the veterans of Marengo and Austerlitz
into the ravine below; or for those who added laurels to Britain's
fame at Fuentes d'Onor (Fountain of Honour); the Fusiliers and their
brave companions in arms who fought so splendidly and so fiercely on
the heights of Albuera, where the 57th--the first battalion of the
Middlesex Regiment--gained their coveted _nom de guerre_, "Die Hards,"
for, as Napier states, "nothing could stop that astonishing infantry,"
which turned the day in the bloodiest battle of the war. It was indeed
a soldiers' battle, but the senior officers, as usual, received the
gold medal. What a case the Duke of Richmond had if only by stating
the result of this one battle, after which "1,800 unwounded men, the
remnant of 6,000 unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant on
the fatal hill." The Iron Duke must have forgotten the gallant storming
of the breaches at Ciudad Rodrigo, the success of which gained for him
his viscountcy; the storming of Badajoz, which caused him to weep at
the cost of the victory, and Orthes, where Picton's men climbed the
rough, rocky bank, and Colborne's 52nd undauntedly pressed forward
knee-deep in the marshy swamp and up the hill to the victory which
practically determined the Peninsular campaign.

In his efforts, however, to oppose and belittle the claims of the
petitioners for the Peninsular medal he incidentally and unconsciously
brought forward the claims of those who had fought in Egypt and on
the high seas, and at the battle of the Nile and Trafalgar, from the
"Glorious First of June" to the blockade of France and the Bay of
Biscay during the Peninsular War. As a result, we may assume, of his
arguments against the issue of what is known as the "Military General
Service Medal," when the claims came to be considered it was felt that
justice must also be done to the sister service, and the "Naval General
Service Medal" was likewise instituted on June 1st, 1847, when by a
General Order it was commanded that medals be struck and conferred
upon every officer and soldier who was present at any battle or siege
for which gold medals had been awarded. The medal was given to those
who had taken part in the Peninsular Campaign, Egypt, Italy, North
America, and in the East and West Indies; and although thirty-four
years had elapsed since the last battle, Toulouse, in 1814, over 30,000
applicants made good their claims to the medal. Only six applied for
fifteen bars, and of these two made good their claims, Private Talbot
of the 45th, and Private Loochstädt, formerly of the King's German
Legion. This medal is in Lord Cheylesmore's collection.

=The Military General Service Medal.=--The medal, 1⅖ in. in diameter,
bears on the obverse the diademed head of Queen Victoria, with VICTORIA
REGINA on either side of the head, and the date of issue, ~1848~,
underneath. On the reverse is depicted Queen Victoria, robed and
crowned, standing on a daïs in the act of placing a laurel wreath on
the head of the Duke of Wellington, who kneels on his left knee and
holds his field-marshal's baton in his right hand. By the side of the
daïs is the British Lion dormant; above is the inscription TO THE
BRITISH ARMY, and in the exergue ~1793-1814~. In the left-hand corner
of the exergue is the letter "w," the initial of W. Wyon, R.A., the
medallist. The medal depends from a straight clasp, which is attached
to the medal by a swivelled four-claw clip. The ribbon is 1¼ in. wide,
of dark crimson with blue edges. The recipient's name, rank, and
regiment are impressed in Roman capitals. It is noteworthy that the
bars, which are 1³⁄₁₀ in. by ⅒ in., are arranged in sets of three,
where the number warrants, the earliest date being nearest the medal.
Those awarded to the infantry are arranged ³⁄₄₀ in. apart until the
number exceeds six, when they are arranged, like those issued to the
cavalry, closely together.

The following regiments received the medal with bars--the bar for EGYPT
being granted by General Order dated February 11th, 1850; and as an
indication of the depletion of the ranks of those who fought in 1801, I
might mention that only three officers--Hill, Beaven, and Deane--of the
18th Royal Irish Regiment were alive to receive the Military General
Service Medal with the bar for Egypt.

[Illustration: English Crimea.

Turkish Crimea.


EGYPT, 1801.--The 2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st, 2nd, 8th, 10th, 13th,
18th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 30th, 40th, 42nd, 44th,
50th, 54th, 58th, 61st, 79th, 80th, 86th, 88th, 89th, 90th, 92nd, and
96th Foot; 11th, 12th, and 26th Light Dragoons; Hompesch's Hussars; De
Rolls and Dillon's Regiments; Corsican Rangers; and the 2nd and 13th
Bombay Infantry.

MAIDA, July 4th, 1806.--20th, 27th, 35th, 58th, 61st, 78th, and 81st
Foot; 20th Light Dragoons.

ROLEIA, August 17th, 1808.--5th, 6th, 9th, 29th, 32nd, 36th, 38th,
40th, 45th, 50th, 60th, 71st, 82nd, 91st, 95th, and 97th Foot; 20th
Light Dragoons.

VIMIERA, August 21st, 1808.--2nd, 5th, 6th, 9th, 20th, 29th, 32nd,
36th, 38th, 40th, 43rd, 45th, 50th, 52nd, 60th, 71st, 82nd, 91st, 95th,
and 97th Foot; 20th Light Dragoons.

SAHAGUN, December 20th, 1808.--7th, 10th, 15th, and 18th Hussars; 3rd
Hussars, K.G.L., and two batteries of Horse Artillery.

CORUNNA, January 16th, 1809.--1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th, 14th, 20th,
23rd, 26th, 28th, 32nd, 36th, 38th, 42nd, 43rd, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 59th,
60th, 71st, 76th, 79th, 81st, 82nd, 91st, 92nd, 95th; 1st and 3rd
Batts. 1st Foot Guards; 7th, 10th, 15th, and 18th Light Dragoons; 3rd
Dragoons, K.G.L.; three batteries Royal Horse Artillery; five batteries
Royal Artillery; 1st and 2nd Light Battalions, K.G.L.

MARTINIQUE, February 24th, 1809.--7th, 8th, 13th, 15th, 23rd, 25th,
46th, 60th, 63rd, and 90th Foot; 1st West India Regiment, and the Royal
York Rangers.

TALAVERA, July 27th-28th, 1809.--2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 2nd, 3rd,
4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 20th, 24th, 28th, 29th, 31st, 32nd, 36th, 38th,
40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th, 50th, 52nd, 53rd, 60th, 61st, 66th, 71st,
79th, 82nd, 83rd, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 95th, and 97th Foot; 3rd
Dragoon Guards; 4th, 14th, 16th, and 23rd Light Dragoons; 1st Light
Dragoons, K.G.L.; 1st and 2nd Light Battalions, K.G.L.; 1st, 2nd,
4th, 5th, and 7th Line Battalions, K.G.L.; 1st Hussars; 2nd and 4th
Batteries Foot Artillery, K.G.L.

GUADALOUPE, January to February 6th, 1810.--1st, 13th, 15th, 25th,
46th, 60th, 63rd, 70th, 90th, and 96th Foot; Marine Artillery and
Naval Brigade; the Light Companies of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 6th
West India Regiments; the 8th West India Regiment; York Light Infantry
Volunteers; Royal York Rangers; Royal Artillery and Military Artificers.

BUSACO, September 27th, 1810.--1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 24th,
27th, 29th, 31st, 34th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th, 50th,
52nd, 53rd, 57th, 60th, 61st, 66th, 74th, 79th, 83rd, 88th, 95th, and
97th Foot; three batteries of Royal Artillery; and the 1st and 2nd
Light Batts. and the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 7th Line Batts., K.G.L.; 4th,
14th, and 16th Light Dragoons; 2nd and 3rd Foot Guards.

BARROSA, March 5th, 1811.--1st, 2nd, and 3rd Foot Guards; 9th, 28th,
47th, 67th, 82nd, 87th, and 95th Foot.

FUENTES D'ONOR, May 5th, 1811.--1st, 4th, 5th, 9th, 24th, 30th, 38th,
42nd, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 60th, 71st, 74th, 79th, 83rd,
85th, 88th, 92nd, 94th, and 95th Foot; 1st Dragoons; 14th and 16th
Light Dragoons; 1st Hussars, K.G.L.; 1st and 2nd Light Batts., K.G.L.;
1st, 2nd, 5th, and 7th Line Battalions, K.G.L.; 2nd and 3rd Foot Guards.

ALBUERA,[6] May 11th, 1811.--3rd, 7th, 23rd, 27th, 28th, 29th, 31st,
34th, 39th, 40th, 48th, 57th, 60th, 66th, and 97th Foot; 3rd Dragoon
Guards; 4th and 13th Light Dragoons.

[6] Spelt ALBUHERA on bars.

JAVA, August to September 18th, 1811.--14th, 59th, 69th, 78th, and 89th
Foot; 22nd Light Dragoons; Indian Native Cavalry, Infantry, and Bengal

CIUDAD RODRIGO, January 19th, 1812.--2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 5th, 7th,
23rd, 24th, 30th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th, 52nd, 60th, 74th, 77th,
83rd, 88th, 94th, and 95th Foot.

BADAJOZ, March 17th to April 6th, 1812.--2nd Foot Guards; 1st, 4th,
5th, 7th, 23rd, 27th, 30th, 38th, 40th, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 48th, 52nd,
60th, 74th, 77th, 83rd, 85th, 88th, 94th, and 95th Foot; 13th and 14th
Light Dragoons.

SALAMANCA, July 22nd, 1812.--2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st, 2nd, 4th,
5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 30th, 32nd, 36th, 38th, 40th,
42nd, 43rd, 44th, 45th, 48th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 58th, 60th, 61st, 68th,
74th, 79th, 83rd, 88th, 94th, and 95th Foot; 5th Dragoon Guards; 3rd,
4th, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Light Dragoons; and the following
regiments of the K.G.L.: 1st Hussars; 1st and 2nd Light Battalions,
1st, 2nd, and 5th Line Battalions, and Artillery.

VITTORIA, June 21st, 1813.--2nd and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st, 2nd, 4th,
5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 28th, 31st, 34th, 38th,
39th, 40th, 43rd, 45th, 47th, 48th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 58th,
59th, 60th, 66th, 68th, 71st, 74th, 82nd, 83rd, 87th, 88th, 92nd, 94th,
and 95th Foot; two squadrons 1st and 2nd Life Guards and Horse Guards;
1st Dragoons; 3rd and 5th Dragoon Guards; 3rd, 4th, 10th, 11th, 12th,
13th, 14th, 16th, and 18th Light Dragoons; 15th Hussars.

PYRENEES, July 28th to August 2nd, 1813.--2nd, 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th,
11th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 28th, 31st, 32nd, 34th, 36th, 39th, 40th,
42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 58th, 60th, 61st,
66th, 68th, 71st, 74th, 79th, 82nd, 83rd, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th,
and 95th Foot; 13th and 14th Light Dragoons.

FORT DETROIT, August 16th, 1812.--Three hundred men of the 41st Foot;
Newfoundland Regiment; Canadian Militia, and 600 Indians; Royal
Artillery (30 men).

SAN SEBASTIAN, August and September 9th, 1813.--200 of the Foot Guards;
1st, 2nd, 4th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 36th, 38th,
40th, 43rd, 47th, 48th, 51st, 52nd, 53rd, 59th, 68th, 82nd, 85th, 87th,
88th, and 95th Foot, and a Naval Brigade.

CHATEAUGUAY, October 26th, 1812.--Royal Artillery; Indians; Canadian
Fencibles; Canadian Militia; Voltigeurs; and Chasseurs.

NIVELLE, November 10th, 1813.--1st, 2nd, and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st, 2nd,
3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 24th, 27th, 28th, 31st,
32nd, 34th, 36th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 47th, 48th, 50th,
51st, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 58th, 59th, 60th, 61st, 62nd, 66th, 68th, 71st,
74th, 76th, 79th, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 85th, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th
and 95th Foot; and the following regiments of the K.G.L.: 1st and 2nd
Light Battalions; 1st, 2nd, and 5th Line Battalions; 12th, 13th, 14th,
and 18th Light Dragoons.

CHRYSTLER'S FARM, November 11th, 1813.--49th and 89th Foot; Canadian
Fencibles; Canadian Militia; Indians; Voltigeurs; and Royal Artillery.

NIVE, December 9th to 13th, 1813.--1st, 2nd, and 3rd Foot Guards; 1st,
2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 20th, 23rd, 27th, 28th, 31st, 32nd,
34th, 36th, 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 47th, 48th, 50th, 52nd,
53rd, 57th, 59th, 60th, 61st, 62nd, 66th, 71st, 74th, 76th, 79th, 83rd,
84th, 85th, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, and 95th Foot; 7th, 12th,
13th, 14th, 16th, and 18th Light Dragoons.

ORTHES, February 17th, 1814.--2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 11th, 20th, 23rd,
24th, 27th, 28th, 31st, 32nd, 34th, 36th, 37th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 45th,
48th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, 57th, 58th, 60th, 61st, 66th, 68th, 71st, 74th,
82nd, 83rd, 87th, 88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, and 95th Foot; 3rd, 7th,
10th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 18th Light Dragoons.

TOULOUSE, April 10th, 1814.--1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 20th, 23rd,
27th, 28th, 31st, 32nd, 34th, 36th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 43rd, 45th, 48th,
50th, 52nd, 53rd, 57th, 60th, 61st, 66th, 71st, 74th, 79th, 83rd, 87th,
88th, 91st, 92nd, 94th, and 95th Foot; 2 squadrons 1st and 2nd Life
Guards and Horse Guards; 1st Dragoons; 3rd and 5th Dragoon Guards; 3rd,
4th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 18th Light Dragoons.


[Illustration: SARDINIAN MEDAL.]


Twenty-eight bars were authorised. Twenty-one for the Peninsular, three
for North America, two for services in the West Indies, one for Italy,
and one for Egypt, 1801, "to those who were still alive." The bars, it
should be noted, vary in their arrangement, some being farther apart
than others, those awarded to the cavalry being very close together,
and those to the infantry ³⁄₄₀ in. apart. If more than six are attached
they are placed quite close like those for the cavalry. The bars are
attached in sets of three, so that no rivets were used in the fixing of
two or three bars to a medal, the set being struck in one piece; six,
nine, or more bars were riveted together with very neat, small-headed

=The India Medal, 1799-1826.=--The European veterans of the Indian
wars had been as badly treated in the way of war decorations as the
heroes of the Peninsular, but an effort to reward the survivors was
made public by the announcement on April 14th, 1851--forty-eight years
after the first battle, for which a bar was issued, was fought--that
the Queen had assented to the measure proposed by the Court of
Directors of the East India Company to grant a medal at their expense
to the surviving officers and soldiers of the Crown who were engaged
in the services in India from 1799 to 1826. On the obverse is the
diademed head of Queen Victoria with VICTORIA REGINA similar to that
on the obverse of the medals already described, and on the reverse a
seated figure of Victory, holding in her left hand, which falls by
her side, a chaplet of laurel, and in her right hand an olive branch.
In the background is a palm tree, and in front a trophy of oriental
arms. Above all is inscribed TO THE ARMY OF INDIA, and in the exergue
~1790-1826~ and W.W., the initials of the medallist, in small capitals.
The medal is 1⅖ in. in diameter, attached to a scroll suspender as
used with the Punjab and Sutlej medals; the bars are also of the same
design. The ribbon of pale-blue corded silk is 1¼ in. wide. The names,
etc., of the European recipients were impressed in capital Roman
letters, but most of those awarded to native officers and soldiers
were officially engraved in a light, slanting script.

=Bars Awarded.=--Twenty-one bars were issued with the medal: ALLIGHUR,
AVA, BHURTPOOR. Only four medals were issued with the single bar for
Seetabuldee and Nagpore, and one of these with edge impressed and
verification of award to a man of the 39th Native Infantry realised
£74 at auction. Nineteen only were issued for Assye, thirteen for
Gawilghur, twenty-six for Maheidpoor, forty-eight for Laswarree,
seventy-nine for Corygaum, but only a few of any of these to Europeans.
The Duke of Wellington's medal had three clasps; for ASSYE, ARGAUM, and
GAWILGHUR. Only thirteen with this combination were issued. A single
bar for Capture of Deig awarded to a Lieutenant-Colonel has realised
£50. An officer's four bar has realised £100, and a five bar £150. (See
sales prices.)


In 1834-5 the Kaffirs in South Africa became very troublesome and
necessitated the employment of armed force to subdue them, but the
first serious Kaffir war broke out in 1846 owing to the outrages
perpetrated by the Gaikas, and considerable fighting had to be done
before the Kaffirs, by this time armed with firearms, were subdued, and
Sandilli and his brother surrendered. In this campaign the following
regiments were represented: 6th, 27th, 45th, 73rd, 90th, 91st, and
1st Battalion Rifle Brigade; 7th Dragoon Guards; Royal Artillery;
Engineers, Sappers and Miners, also Cape Mounted Riflemen.

At the end of the year 1850 the Kaffirs were again in a turbulent
condition, and Sir Harry Smith, a Peninsular veteran whose record in
India I have indicated, summoned the chiefs to meet him, but Sandilli
ignored the invitation and was outlawed. Then began another protracted
war with the natives, during which several disasters befell the British
troops. In the Keiskamma defile misfortune overtook Colonel Mackinnon,
where with a force of 600 men, which included detachments of the 6th
and 73rd Regiments, he was ambuscaded. He, however, reached Fort Cox,
where the Governor, Sir Harry Smith, was surrounded by the dusky
hordes. He managed to get away with a flying escort, and safely reached
King William's Town. In June 1851 operations were conducted in the
Amatola and Wolf Valley with comparatively severe losses to the British
troops. In December the passage of the Kei was effected, despite
the enemy's ingenious attempt--a new method in warfare to them--at
constructing breastworks. Ultimately the chiefs of the Gaikas and
Seyolo requested peace upon terms which could not be conceded, and the
war was continued. In the spring of 1852 a determined advance was made
by the British against Sandilli's stronghold in the Amatola mountains,
from whence the 74th Highland Regiment, the "tortoises" as the Kaffirs
called them in allusion to the markings of their kilt, after much hard
fighting cleared them out. Sir Harry Smith was relieved of his command
at the Cape by Sir George Cathcart, and ultimately the Water Kloof was
cleared, and the Basutos under Moshesh defeated at Berea; Sandilli
again surrendered, and the recalcitrant natives were expelled from the
territory they had previously occupied.

The regiments represented in the campaign were the 2nd, 6th, 12th,
43rd, 45th; 2nd Batt. 60th Rifles; 73rd, 74th, 91st; 1st Batt. Rifle
Brigade; 12th Lancers; Royal Artillery; Engineers, Sappers and Miners;
Cape Mounted Rifles, Seamen and Marines.

=Loss of the "Birkenhead."=--The South African Wars of 1834-53 recall
the loss of the troopship "Birkenhead" on February 26th, 1852, when 9
officers and 349 men, drawn up in parade order on the deck, went to
a watery grave after placing the women and children, and sick, in the
boats. They were on their way out as drafts for the regiments engaged
in the third Kaffir war, which began at the end of 1850, and was not
terminated until March 1853. The German Emperor was so impressed with
the heroism of these British soldiers, who so calmly went to their
death, that he caused an account of their gallant conduct to be read to
every regiment of his army.

Those who took part in these wars were awarded a medal in a General
Order issued in November 1854, and although many of the recipients
had fought their battles twenty years previously, the medal, 1⅖ in.
in diameter, bore the date ~1853~ in the exergue, above which is an
admirably modelled lion, crouching under a mimosa bush; above all the
record SOUTH AFRICA. No bars were given with the medal, which was only
awarded to survivors, and the only way to distinguish the campaign for
which it was granted is by the name of the regiment indented on the
edge of the medal; but this means of identification is not possible in
medals issued to the Naval Brigade, for the rank only is frequently
given, as for instance, J. SHORE, STOKER. The diademed head of Queen
Victoria, as issued with the medal previously described, was used on
the obverse of this medal, which was suspended by a scroll clasp. The
ribbon is orange and watered, with two thick and thin stripes of dark
blue, leaving a narrow orange margin at the edge; the names, etc., were
indented on the edge in square Roman capitals. The illustration of the
medal is from a photograph of the one awarded to Captain (afterwards
Lieutenant-General) A. C. Bentinck of the 7th Dragoon Guards--father of
the present Duke of Portland.

The regiments engaged in the three Kaffir wars were: 1834-5: 27th,
72nd, 75th. 1846-7: 6th, 27th, 45th, 73rd, 90th, 91st; Rifle Brigade
and 7th Dragoon Guards. 1850-3: 2nd, 6th, 12th, 43rd; 2nd Batt. 60th;
73rd, 74th, 91st; 1st Batt. Rifle Brigade; Royal Marines; a Naval
Brigade and Cape Mounted Rifles.

[Illustration: VICTORIA CROSS.]

[Illustration: INDIAN ORDER OF MERIT.]



As a result of the violation of the treaty of Yandaboo, which was
really never kept, and the refusal of the King of Ava to redress the
grievances of the Europeans in Rangoon, who had been compelled to seek
safety on board the "Proserpine," a force of 5,767 men, composed of
the 18th Royal Irish, 51st and 80th, together with Artillery, Sappers
and Miners, Gun Lascars, and three Infantry Regiments of the H.E.I.
Co., under the command of General Godwin, occupied, after very little
resistance, Martaban and Rangoon. In the reduction of the latter place
the naval contingent and the ships of the fleet participated. The
key to the position, the Golden Pagoda, Shwe Dagon, was carried by
the Royal Irish and the 80th after a very trying time caused by the
excessive heat, five of the senior officers being struck down by solar
apoplexy--Major Oakes, who commanded the artillery, and another officer
fatally. In the capture of Rangoon 2 officers were killed, and 14
wounded; 15 non-commissioned officers and men killed, and 114 wounded,
of whom one-third belonged to the Royal Irish, which lost its adjutant
at the foot of the Shwe Dagon.

=Pegu.=--Expeditions were sent out to the north and west, Bassein
being captured by one force and Pegu taken on November 21st, 1852,
by the other. The province of Pegu was then annexed; but the Burmese
continued to harass the garrison which held the city, and it was not
until after the arrival of reinforcements from Rangoon that steps could
be taken to successfully deal with the enemy. The war was concluded in
June 1853, but not before the army had been considerably reduced by
disease, cholera claiming a large number of victims, and 22 men had
been killed, and 14 officers and 94 men wounded in the taking of the
village of Donobyu, held by Myat Toon, a robber chief who had about
8,000 guerillas at his call. It was in the attack on this village that
Viscount, then Ensign, Wolseley of the 80th, in leading a small body
of men from the 18th, 51st, and 80th, was struck down at the moment of
victory. On June 30th, 1853, the war was declared at an end without any
formal treaty, and a few months later the troops left a country which
had claimed a terrible toll of brave men's lives in the swamps and
jungles, the 18th Royal Irish having alone lost 365 officers and men
mostly by disease.

=First India General Service Medal.=--On January 23rd, 1854, Queen
Victoria sanctioned the issue of a silver medal with bar for PEGU to
those who had taken part in the Burmese War of 1852-3. This, later
called the India General Service Medal, 1854, has been given for all
the various campaigns up to the fighting in the Kachin Hills in 1892-3.
Twenty-three bars were given, representing the different "little wars"
in which the recipients were engaged during forty-one years. This
medal, illustrated facing page 120, has the same kind of suspender and
bars as the Punjab medal, likewise the same head of Victoria, but on
the reverse a figure of Victory crowning with laurel a seated warrior
in classic pose, holding in his right hand a Roman sword, and in his
left a sheath. In the exergue is a lotus flower and leaves, and L. C.
WYON beneath it. The medals, 1⅖ in. in diameter, have the rank, name,
and the regiment or ship, impressed in Roman capitals for Pegu, Persia,
North-West Frontier, Umbeyla, Bhootan, but for Perak and the rest of
the series, except Jowaki, the lightly engraved running hand or Roman
capitals were used for naming. The ribbon, 1¾ in. wide, is dark crimson
with two dark-blue stripes.

The regiments entitled to the medal with bar for Pegu were the 18th,
51st, and 80th; Artillery; Sappers and Miners; 1st Bengal Fusiliers;
1st Madras Fusiliers; 5th Madras Native Infantry; and the Naval Brigade
from thirteen of Her Majesty's ships.

=The V.C. and Distinguished Conduct Medal.=--These were comparatively
small but significant campaigns, although the period between Waterloo
and the breaking out of the Crimean War has been termed the long peace.
The war in the Crimea was of a very different kind. Once again it was
the meeting of Europeans face to face, and a long struggle resulted. An
important outcome of the war from one point of view was the institution
on January 29th, 1856, of that coveted decoration, the Victoria Cross,
preceded by the institution of the Distinguished Conduct Medal on
December 4th, 1854, and the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal for naval men
on August 13th, 1855. The ribbon for the V.C. is dark red--dark blue
for the Navy--that for the Distinguished Conduct Medal (illustrated
facing page 140) dark blue with broad, red stripe down the centre, and
the ribbon blue with a white stripe down the centre for the Conspicuous
Gallantry medal. In the first issues the names were impressed on the
edge, but in the later issues they are engraved, and the date of the
action is also included. It is particularly noteworthy that the first
medals of this class issued were struck from the Meritorious Service
Medal, the two words being erased and Conspicuous Gallantry engraved in
place thereof (see facing page 140).


In October 1853 the Czar of Russia declared war against the Sultan of
Turkey, and to defend "the sick man" Great Britain and France landed
troops at Varna, a Bulgarian port in the Black Sea. At the end of
February 1854 Queen Victoria bade farewell to the Guards at Buckingham
Palace, and these with other regiments sailed for the East to take
part in a war which, declared on March 28th, 1854, was to cost us the
lives of thousands of brave men: 21,815 were killed, or died of wounds
or disease, and 11,876 were wounded--a total of 32,691 officers and
men. Disease accounted for the deaths of 16,041, battle only 4,774!
The old soldiers, as Sir Evelyn Wood states, died without a murmur,
and it "is impossible to overpraise the disciplined silence of men
under privations which in a few weeks reduced one battalion from nearly
1,000 effectives to a strength of 30 rank and file." At the end of
February 1855, although the strength of the British army was on paper
44,000, only 18,000 were "present and fit for duty"; and yet the medals
of the brave and patient survivors of this war are selling at a few
shillings apiece unless they happen to have the bar for Balaklava or
Inkermann--Sebastopol, that long-drawn agony, counts for nothing!

On September 7th, 1854, the Anglo-French army put to sea, its objective
being the great naval station of Sebastopol in the Crimea. There
were, in addition to the crews of the warships, about 27,000 British,
including the Light Brigade of 1,000, with 60 guns, under Lord Raglan,
who had served on Wellington's staff in the Peninsular; 28,000
French under Marshal St. Arnaud, and 7,000 Turks under Omar Pasha.
The Sardinian contingent under General La Marmora did not reach the
Crimea until May 1855. The troops were landed, between September 14th
and 18th, on the beach at Kalamita Bay, about twenty-five miles from
Sebastopol, and two days after the disembarkation had been effected
they had to force the Alma, when they defeated the Russians under
Prince Mentschikoff so effectively that the allies were allowed to
march southwards unmolested, and to form bases within a few miles of
Sebastopol. The British established themselves at the little port of
Balaklava, eight miles to the south of Sebastopol, and the French at
Kamiesch Bay, six miles north of the place.

[Illustration: (Reverse.) DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT MEDAL.]

[Illustration: (First Type.) CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY MEDAL.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.) DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT MEDAL.]

=The Alma.=--The Russians had taken up a position commanding the road
to Sebastopol, with a front of two miles, mainly on the range of hills
varying in height from 120 ft. to 200 ft. on the left bank of the
River Alma, and on the morning of September 20th the allies prepared
to attack them. The French and Turks began the battle, Marshal St.
Arnaud attacking the left of the Russian position, and the centre with
the aid of one British division, and Lord Raglan the right. The French
General Bosquet made a brilliant advance, and drove the enemy from
some high ground, but the French centre did not support him, and he
was isolated; Raglan therefore decided to order the second and light
divisions to advance, and this they did under a murderous cannonade.
"Opposed to the English were at least two-thirds of the Russians,"
but the young and untried soldiers of Britain once again demonstrated
the splendid fighting material of which they were made. Through the
entangling vineyards and into the rapid waters of the Alma they
steadily marched; emerging, they were ordered "to fix bayonets, get up
the bank, and advance to the attack." They quickly climbed the steep
and rugged hill-sides, but received a check, and then some one calling
"Cease fire and retire," they became somewhat confused; they soon
rallied, and the light division stormed into the great redoubt with
its 14 guns of heavy calibre, carried the Kourgane hill, defended by
17,000 men with two redoubts and 14 guns, and then, with their depleted
and broken ranks swelled by the Guards and the Highlanders, the Black
Watch to the fore, who had pressed into the fight and up the Kourgane
hill, charged the heights and at the point of the bayonet drove the
Russians off in confusion. Thus the battle of the Alma was won, not by
the brilliant tactics of the officers, but by the courage and tenacity
of the men, and so by 6 o'clock in the evening Marshal St. Arnaud's
tent was pitched on the spot where Mentschikoff had his headquarters in
the morning. After the battle, a staff officer relates, Lord Raglan's
eyes filled with tears when he shook hands with Sir Colin Campbell, and
"he could not speak when the brave old veteran said to him, pointing
to the dead Highlanders, 'Sir, it was they who did it,' and then the
cheer went up when he asked to wear a bonnet! With its horrors, war has
its romance." The same officer, writing a little later, said, "Glory
when looked at close, and while it is being earned, is rather an ugly
thing." The heroes of the Crimea certainly learned that.

The late Major-General (then Colour-Sergeant) Luke O'Connor, gained
his Victoria Cross in this battle. Ensign Anstruther of the Royal
Welsh had with boyish impetuosity gallantly rushed forward and,
outpacing all, proudly planted the Queen's colour on the parapet of the
Redoubt; riddled with Russian bullets he fell, but O'Connor, taking
the colour from his dying grasp again planted them on the Redoubt,
and, although wounded in the breast, carried them through the rest of
the fight. Captain (afterwards Major-General) Bell, C.B., also won
his V.C. at the heights of Alma for his daring conduct on that day,
when, all the senior officers of the regiment being placed _hors de
combat_, he found himself in command, and successfully brought the
23rd out of action. The gallant Welsh Fusiliers, who were the first
to land in the Crimea, lost their colonel and 8 officers, and the
Light Division, of which they formed part, lost 47 officers and 850
men. The Division was composed of the 7th, 19th, 23rd, 33rd, 77th, and
88th. The total British losses were 2,000, and those of the French 3
officers, including Generals Canrobert and Thomas wounded and 560 men.
The Russians had 5,000 placed _hors de combat_, including 45 officers,
among whom were Generals Karganoff and Shokanoff.

The regiments present at the Alma were the Grenadier, Coldstream, and
Scots Guards; 1st, 4th, 7th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 23rd, 28th, 30th, 33rd,
38th, 41st, 42nd, 44th; two companies of the 46th; 47th, 49th, 50th,
55th, 63rd, 68th, 77th, 79th, 88th, 93rd, 95th Foot; 4th and 13th Light
Dragoons; 8th and 11th Hussars and 17th Lancers. The cavalry were never
called into action. Lord Raglan had said he preferred to keep his
"cavalry in a band-box."

=Siege of Sebastopol.=--On September 23rd, 1854, the army began its
slow and "most remarkable flank march in military history." Balaklava
was ultimately reached, "the result of blind accident rather than
knowledge of how war should be conducted," and the armies of Britain
and France settled down on the Chersonese upland, and the siege of
Sebastopol commenced. From September 28th, 1854, it ran its long course
until September 11th, 1855, when the Russians, who had fought so well
under Todleben, retired and the allies entered it unopposed. This
long and complex siege cannot here be dealt with in detail. How the
unfortunate troops fared in the trenches has passed into the history
of this country as a blot upon the administration which allowed brave
men to die like flies; "between November 1854 and February 1855 there
were 9,000 deaths in hospital, and by the end of February there were
no less than 13,600 officers and men in hospital," and no wonder when
men, emaciated by disease and tried by the severe weather, "carrying
great-coat and blanket, marched through a sea of mud to the trenches,"
where they remained in a cramped position all night until day broke,
and, after a few hours' rest, "often in a puddle, which chilled their
bones under a worn-out tent through which the rain beat"; they who had
the heart of a lion were compelled to do asses' work. The hospitals
were frequently merely bell tents, and "the men lay, often in mud, on
the ground, and in many cases their diet was only meat and biscuit.
They were, moreover, so crowded together that the doctors could
scarcely pass between the patients." The heroic Florence Nightingale,
as every one knows, with her band of nurses helped to lighten the
burden of pain and suffering which the men endured, but the lasting
disgrace which attaches to the callous administrators of the period is
only accentuated when we consider the dire necessity for her action.

=Capture of the Mamelon.=--Sebastopol was bombarded, with the
co-operation of the fleet, on October 17th, and the Russians made
their first sortie on the 26th; in March 1855 they made another, and
on April 9th the place was ineffectively bombarded; but on June 6th
a bombardment was followed by an assault, and the Mamelon, an outwork
of the Malakoff, was taken. Then the allies essayed the capture of the
Malakoff and the Redan, the French to take the former and the British
the latter; but despite the strenuous efforts of the men, the forts
remained in the possession of the enemy. In these abortive attempts on
June 17th and 18th the French lost 3,500 men, and the British 1,500;
and of the six British and French Generals and Commanders who led the
attacks on the 18th, 4 were killed and 1 wounded. The Royal Irish lost
259 officers and men by death and wounds in the attack on the Redan,
and Captain Thomas Esmond of that regiment gained the V.C. and Sergeant
John Grant the Meritorious Service medal. The Russians lost 4,500
officers and men killed and wounded. The siege was, following these
repulses, resumed in the ordinary way, and the stubborn Russians, who
were losing 250 men each day, began to realise that their magnificent
courage could not stand much longer against the determination of the
allies; and at the end of August, when the brave garrison was being
depleted by the loss of over 900 each day, they determined upon the
evacuation of the fortress they had held so well. So they built a
bridge across the outer harbour, and made preparations to cover their

=Capture of the Malakoff.=--Then the allies again determined to reduce
the fortress, and bombarded it for practically three days and nights,
at the end of which, on September 8th, the French again assailed the
Malakoff, and carried and held it against the enemy, but the British
failed to capture the Redan. The British losses were 2,271 officers
and men placed _hors de combat_, including three generals wounded,
and the French 7,567, including 5 generals killed and 4 wounded. The
Russian losses were 12,915, including 9 generals. During the night the
Russians exploded their mines, and Prince Gortschakoff successfully
took his garrison, with most of the wounded, across the bridge, which
they destroyed, and took up a position on the heights to the north
of Sebastopol, from whence they cannonaded the fortress which the
allies had occupied. The war was thus virtually at an end, although
hostilities continued until February 1856, and the treaty of peace was
not signed in Paris until March 29th.

[Illustration: (Obverse.) MEDAL FOR INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-8.]

[Illustration: (Reverse.) MEDAL FOR NEW ZEALAND WARS, 1861-6.]

[Illustration: (Reverse.) MEDAL FOR INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-8.]

Meanwhile the battles of Balaklava and Inkermann had been fought, both
brought about by the efforts of the Russians to raise the siege, and
both battles remarkable for the courage and fearlessness of the British
troops, and alas! for the lack of simple military genius on the part
of many of the officers. As a military authority has stated, "The army
ought to have been beaten according to all the canons of war, but it
wasn't!" Tommy Atkins saved the face of his superiors.

=Balaklava.=--The charge of the Light Brigade in this battle was an
example of what appears to have been either muddle-headedness or
overweening belief in the importance of our cavalry, but it gave to
the Light Cavalry of the British Army undying fame. Their "death-ride"
gave them eternal life! The battle of Balaklava was fought on October
25th, 1854, the anniversary of Agincourt. The Russian relieving force,
numbering 22,000 infantry and 3,400 cavalry, with 78 guns, advanced
from the Tchernaya by Kamara across the Woronzoff Road to attack the
front of the position at Balaklava, and to meet them Lord Raglan
took down the first and fourth divisions to the plain, which General
Canrobert--St. Arnaud had died--reinforced with the first division of
French Infantry and the Chasseurs d'Afrique.

="The Thin Red Line."=--The Russians obtained possession of three
forts, and managed to retain two of them with 7 guns; then "their
artillery advanced with a large mass of cavalry, and their guns
ranged to the 93rd Highlanders, which, with 100 invalids, under
Lieutenant-Colonel Daveney, in support, occupied very insufficiently,
from the smallness of their numbers, the slightly rising ground in
front of No. 4 Battery." Then a body of the enemy's cavalry, "amounting
to about 400, turned to their left, separating themselves from those
who attacked Lord Lucan's Division, and charged the 93rd Highlanders,
who immediately advanced to the crest of the hill, on which they stood
and opened their fire, which forced the Russian cavalry to give way
and turn to their left; after which they made an attempt to turn the
flank of the 93rd ... upon which the Grenadiers of the 93rd under
Captain Ross were wheeled up to their right and fired on the enemy,
which manœuvre completely discomforted them." Thus the gallant Sir
Colin Campbell officially described the deed of the "thin red line"
at Balaklava; that line of imperturbable Highlanders armed only with
muzzle loaders, that, despite the rounds of shot and shell which
harried them, dared to accept the charge of cavalry and drove them off.

=Charge of the Heavy Brigade.=--Then the main body of the Russian
horsemen, about 3,000, advanced against the British Heavy Brigade,
900 sabres strong. The light-blue jackets, with embroidery of silver
lace, the grey coats of the Dragoons, and the glitter of the lances,
made a brave picture as the enemy's cavalry cantered toward their
objective. They "nearly halted. Their first line was at least double
the length of ours--it was three times as deep. Behind them was a
similar line, equally strong and compact. They evidently despised
their insignificant-looking enemy," but the trumpets rang out again
in the valley; then Brigadier-General Scarlett, with about 300 Scots
Greys and Enniskilleners, went right at the centre of the Russian
cavalry, and then, as W. H. Russell, the famous _Times_ correspondent,
graphically described, "as lightning flashes through a cloud the Greys
and Enniskilleners pierced through the dark masses of the Russians.
The shock was but of a moment. There was a clash of steel, and a light
play of sword blades in the air, and then the Greys and the redcoats
disappeared in the midst of the shaken and quivering columns. In
another moment we saw them emerging with diminished numbers, and in
broken order, charging against the second line. It was a terrible
moment.... With unbated fire the noble hearts dashed at the enemy.
It was a fight of heroes.... By sheer steel and sheer courage,
Enniskillener and Scot were winning their desperate way through the
enemy's squadrons, and already grey horses and red coats had appeared
right at the rear of the second mass, when, with visible force, like
one bolt from a bow, the 4th Dragoon Guards riding straight at the
right flank of the Russians, and the 5th Dragoon Guards, following
close after the Enniskilleners, rushed at the remnants of the
first line of the enemy, went through it as though it were made of
pasteboard, and put them to utter rout." Then followed that "superb
incident--at once a blunder and a miracle."

=Charge of the Light Brigade.=--Lord Raglan, being desirous that the
withdrawal of the Russians should be taken advantage of to regain the
heights, and fearing that the enemy might attempt to remove the guns
from the redoubts captured from the Turks, gave orders for the Light
Cavalry to be moved forward. Captain Nolan misconstrued the order, and
indicated to Lord Lucan that the heavy battery of guns a mile away,
supported by masses of cavalry and infantry, with other batteries on
either flank, was to be charged. Lucan hesitated to carry the mad
order into effect, but ultimately decided that it was his duty to do
so, and gave the order to the Earl of Cardigan to take the terrible
odds which he saw arrayed against him. Cardigan, like Scarlett, was
a brave and daring cavalry leader, and into the "valley of death" he
rode with his Light Brigade of 621 men. Encircled by fire they charged
down the valley, dashed through the guns, sabred the gunners where
they stood, cut their way through a brigade of Russian cavalry and a
company of infantry, turned about, what was left of them, when four
squadrons of Lancers were hurled at them, but they met the charge
gallantly, and then the Russian artillerymen, recovering from their
shock, but without regaining their senses, turned their guns upon the
daring British cavalry and their own men who were struggling with them!
The Greys and Enniskilleners, and the Chasseurs d'Afrique created a
diversion, otherwise it is doubtful whether a single man of that brave
little band, which rode so fearlessly and fought so uselessly, would
have survived to receive the plaudits of his countrymen, and--shame of
shames--as was the case with several of them, to end his days in the
workhouse or eke them out with the aid of charity. It were almost idle
for the poet to sing:

    "Honour the charge they made!
    Honour the Light Brigade,
      Noble six hundred!"

Four hundred and twenty-six of the brigade were placed _hors de
combat_, 13 officers and 162 men were killed or taken prisoners, the
former including Captain Nolan, who was struck early in the charge by a
piece of shell and killed; 27 officers and 224 men were wounded. There
struggled back to camp, in scattered groups, a remnant of 195 mounted
men. In this charge Quartermaster Charles Wooden, whose group of medals
forms the frontispiece to this volume, as Sergeant-Major in the 17th
Lancers, gained the Victoria Cross by assisting Surgeon Mouat in saving
the life of Lieutenant-Colonel Morris of his own regiment when lying
exposed to a heavy fire of shot and shell, and carrying him to a place
of safety. The Sergeant-Major had a horse shot under him.

The regiments engaged at Balaklava were the Heavy Brigade, comprising
the 1st, 2nd, and 6th Dragoons; 4th and 5th Dragoon Guards; the Light
Brigade, consisting of the 13th Light Dragoons and 17th Lancers in
the first line, 4th Light Dragoons and 8th and 11th Hussars in the
second line, and the 93rd Highlanders; but men of the Rifle and Naval
Brigades, and of the artillery and various line regiments, including
the 4th, 19th, 21st, 30th, 33rd, 44th, 47th, 50th, 53rd, 68th, and
77th, were also present and received the medal with the bar for

[Illustration: ABYSSINIAN WAR MEDAL, 1867-8.]

[Illustration: CANADA MEDAL, 1866 AND 1870.]

[Illustration: ASHANTEE WAR MEDAL, 1873-4.]

[Illustration: ZULU WAR MEDAL, 1877-9.]

=Inkermann.=--On Sunday, November 5th, 1854, the battle of Inkermann
was fought. The Russians had received considerable reinforcements;
it is estimated that by that time 120,000 troops were under Prince
Mentschikoff's command, and the Czar's soldiers were in high fettle,
owing to the presence in camp of the Czar's sons, Michael and Nicholas.
A general advance was made by the Russians, Mount Inkermann being
the objective, and the battle commenced by an assault thereon by
General Danneburg with about 40,000 men. The Mount of Inkermann and
the district thereof was held by the Second Division under General
Pennefeather. At daybreak masses of Russians were discerned marching
to the attack, and soon afterwards the armies were in conflict. Then
began the "soldiers' battle," which was to add lustre to the record
of the several British regiments whose gallantry gained the day. How
can one adequately paint the picture of 200 men of the 30th charging a
couple of Russian battalions and putting them to rout, or of the 49th
defeating a strong column and chasing their flying foemen? How can one
do justice to the 525 men of the 41st who fought and dispersed five
battalions of the enemy, and the 260 men of the 77th who put to rout
1,500 of the famous Tomsk Regiment? In the first stage of the battle
4,000 British soldiers beat back 15,000 Russians from the slopes of
Inkermann, where, in the detached fighting that had taken place, many a
V.C. was well earned. In the second stage the terrific struggle ranged
around the worthless sand-bag battery; seven times did the Russians
capture it, and as often was it retaken by the British, each time with
awful slaughter, until the dead lay around the battery in heaps and
filled the entrenchment. In this useless and stubborn fight Generals
Adams, Cathcart, and Torrens fell. There young Captain Stanley of
the "Die Hards" fell as he called to his men to "remember Albuera"
and follow him. There a few hundred Coldstreams, who had 8 officers
killed, fought back to back against 6,000 Russians, and sustained "the
bloodiest struggle ever witnessed since war cursed the earth." Then
two 18-pounders were ordered up by Lord Raglan, and, as happened at
the Alma, helped to determine the events of the day. An artillery duel
resulted, many a British gunner falling by his gun, in the discomfiture
of the enemy ere the Zouaves, led by their Vivandière, pushed into the
fight and drove the Russians toward the sand-bag battery, where the
dead had formed a wall. The French Zouaves and British soldiers then
made short work of the contest, and the Zouaves' standard was firmly
planted on the sand-bag battery. By 1 o'clock the battle was decided,
but such was the straggling and intermittent nature of the fighting
that it was not until 3 o'clock that Mount Inkermann was again entirely
in the possession of the allies. In this great battle 10 British
Generals were killed or wounded--Lord Raglan alone being unharmed--39
officers and 558 men killed, and 1,760 officers and men wounded (rather
more than one-third of the total strength of the army engaged). The
French lost 130 killed and wounded, and the Russians over 11,000,
including 256 officers killed.

The following regiments were present at Inkermann: Grenadiers,
Coldstreams, and Scots Fusilier Guards; 1st, 4th, 7th, 19th, 20th,
21st, 23rd, 28th, 30th, 33rd, 38th, 41st, 2 companies 46th, 47th, 49th,
50th, 55th, 57th, 63rd, 68th, 77th, 88th, 95th; 4th, 8th, 11th, and
13th Hussars; 17th Lancers and 2 batteries of the Royal Horse Artillery
and Royal Field Artillery.

Medals with bars for the Alma or Inkermann, or both, are rare to the
46th Foot, while the medals awarded the Coldstream Guards and to
participants in the charge of the Light Brigade realise good prices
when offered for sale.

=The Crimean Medals.=--In December 1854 Queen Victoria commanded that
a medal bearing the word "CRIMEA" should be struck, and that bars for
the ALMA and INKERMANN ("the soldiers' battle") should be awarded to
those who had taken part in the battles; but the world had wondered
at the "death-ride" of the Light Brigade--on October 29th, 1854--and
so no one was surprised when, in February 1855, a clasp for BALAKLAVA
was granted to those who rode so bravely into the jaws of death, and,
wonder of wonders, came out again; likewise to the Heavy Brigade and to
the regiments engaged in the vicinity. The bar for SEBASTOPOL was added
to the list in October 1855, so that the four-bar medal illustrated is
a complete record of one of the greatest of modern wars, significant
because of the fact that we fought shoulder to shoulder with our old
adversaries the French, and side by side with the Turks and Sardinians
against the Russian Army. The medal, designed by W. Wyon, represents on
the reverse a Roman warrior with a flying figure of Victory crowning
him with a laurel wreath; to the right of the figure is the word
CRIMEA arranged perpendicularly. The obverse is the same as that on
the Peninsular and India General Service medals. The bars are the most
ornate of the whole series given with British medals. A special bar for
AZOFF was given to the Navy. The suspender is of a very appropriate
character, suggesting a palm wreath issuing from a conventional cusp.
The ribbon is of pale blue with yellow edges, and, be it noted, the
ribbon for the Baltic medal--illustrated facing page 296--granted
to sailors and a few marines, is yellow, with pale-blue edges. The
Baltic medals were all issued unnamed, as were also the Crimean; but
some recipients of the latter had their name and regiment engraved
privately. Others were officially named later, with the same stamps as
were used for the Army General Service and early Kaffir War medals, in
square Roman capitals.

Five bars in all were issued, but four is the greatest number awarded
with any medal. The bars should read upward from the medal as follows:
Alma, Balaklava, Inkermann, Sebastopol, but a number of the medals were
issued without the bars being fixed, and the order is consequently
sometimes found to be inaccurate; care should therefore be taken to
verify the record of the person named on the medal. Many medals were
issued before the grant of the bar for Sebastopol at the end of October
1855, and many exist without this bar, although all who took part in
the battles of Balaklava and Inkermann were entitled to it. The troops
who landed in the Crimea after September 9th, 1855, the day Sebastopol
fell, were not entitled to the medal unless they had been engaged
against the enemy after that date.

=The Turkish Medals.=--The Turkish Government, in whose cause we took
up arms, gave to the allies a silver medal suspended by a bright-red
ribbon with green edges ½ in. wide running through a small ring. This
is illustrated beside the British Crimean medal. These medals vary;
they were intended for the British, French, and Sardinian soldiers,
and had among the trophy of flags that of the country the recipient
belonged to in the front, beside the Turkish flag, and in the exergue
either CRIMEA 1855, LA CRIMEA 1855, or CRIMEE 1855, but as the ship
which was bringing the medals to England foundered, many men received
the French or Sardinian variety. These medals, 1⅖ in. in diameter, bear
on the obverse the Sultan's cypher encircled by a laurel wreath, with
the date in Arabic Hegira "1271."

They were generally issued unnamed, but I have several impressed.

=The French Medal.=--The Emperor of the French awarded crosses of the
Legion of Honour to officers and men who had been conspicuous during
the war, and the Médaille Militaire to about 500 non-commissioned
officers and men who had distinguished themselves. The Duke of
Wellington and Sir William Cordington, who was presented by Marshal
Pellisier with his own medal, were the only two British officers to
receive it. The medal is silver, the eagle and centre being gilt, and
the band surrounding the head of Louis Napoleon enamelled, likewise
that on the reverse, encircling VALEUR ET DISCIPLINE. The medal is
suspended from an orange-coloured ribbon with green edges.

=The Sardinian Medal.=--The King of Sardinia awarded the Sardinian war
medal to 400 officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the Army,
sailors, and marines. The obverse has the arms of Savoy within a wreath
of palm or laurel encircled by the legend AL VALORE MILITARE. On the
reverse is a laurel wreath and the inscription SPEDIZIONE D'ORIENTE
1855-1856. The medal of silver is suspended by blue watered silk ribbon
through a broad loop with a flat top, much the same as the handle of
a flat-iron; medals of gunmetal with similar loops were given by the
German States for certain campaigns.

=Turkish General Service Medal.=--The Turkish General Service medal,
incorrectly called the "Danube Medal," was awarded by the Turkish
Government in 1855 to the officers and 30 men comprising the crew of a
British gunboat, and to a Colonel and 16 men of the Royal Engineers,
for services rendered on the Danube in 1854. On the obverse is the
cypher of the Sultan Abdil Mageed Khan II within a beaded circle, with
flags and laurel branches, and above all a crescent and star. On the
reverse is an elliptical star of twelve points, with a smaller one of
six in the centre; underneath is a scroll bearing an inscription in
Persian characters, reading "Mischani Iftikar" (Medal for Glory), and
under all a small star between laurel wreaths. The medal is 1⅕ in. in
diameter, and was suspended from a silver scroll bar by the same ribbon
as used with the Turkish Crimean medal. The General Service medals were
issued in gold and silver, gold to the officers and silver to the men.

=The Silistria Medal.=--Sir John Lintorn Arabin Simmonds, who was one
of the officers to receive the medal referred to above, was awarded
another in gold for his services in the defence of Silistria in 1854.
Six other British officers also received the medal, but in silver. The
obverse is the same as the General Service medal, but on the reverse
is, within a beaded border, the fortress of Silistria, over which the
Turkish flag is flying, with the Danube in the foreground. In the
exergue on a scroll is SILISTRIA and the year of the Hegira "1271"
in Arabic characters. The medal is 1⁹⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, and was
suspended from a steel ring run through it by the same ribbon as used
with the Turkish Crimean medal.

=Kars Medal.=--The Sultan of Turkey granted a silver medal for his
brilliant defence of Kars to Sir William Fenwick Williams, and to
several other British officers who had served with him, and also to
his artillery servant. It has the same obverse as the Turkish General
Service medal, but on the reverse is depicted the citadel and town of
Kars, with the Turkish flag flying over the citadel, and underneath
KARS and the date Hegira "1272" (1856). The medal, 1⁹⁄₂₀ in. in
diameter, has a milled edge and was suspended from a straight silver
bar and clip by 1½ in. crimson ribbon with green stripes at the side.

=The Order of the Medjidie.=--The Sultan of Turkey rather profusely
awarded the newly established Order of the Medjidie to officers in the
British Army and Navy for services rendered in the Crimean War. Field
Marshal Sir Evelyn Wood was awarded the fifth class. He was then a
midshipman of seventeen. Five classes were given, and the recipients
exceeded 1,000. The size of the decorations gradually decreased
according to grade. The centre of the Badge of the first four classes
is gold, and that of the fifth silver; the first three classes wear the
Badge round the neck, suspended by a crimson ribbon with green edges,
whilst the other two classes suspend the Badge from the left breast by
a similar ribbon. The Badge or Cross is of silver, with seven triple
points or rays, between which are disposed seven small crescents and
stars of five points. On a red enamelled band in Arabic characters are
the words "Loyalty--Patriotism--Zeal" and the year of the Hegira "1268"
(1852, when the order was founded) around the cypher of the Sultan. The
badge is suspended from a red enamelled crescent and star.

=Persia.=--The Persian War followed in 1856-7; it was brought about
by the intimate relations of the Persian Government with Russia. A
rebellion broke out in Herat, "the Gate of Persia," and the place was
besieged by the aid of Russia; as this was contrary to the provisions
of a convention made between the Shah and the British Minister in 1853,
an expedition under General Outram was dispatched. It landed near
Bushire, and on December 9th, 1856, a battle was fought at Reshire,
and the next day another at Bushire. Conflicts also took place at
Kooshab--where the 3rd Bombay Cavalry broke a Persian square--Barajoom,
Mohummerah and Ahaz, before the "King of Kings" sued for peace.

The following regiments were engaged: 64th and 78th Foot, and 14th
Light Dragoons; and the regiments in the H.E.I. Co.'s service: 2nd
Bombay European Fusiliers; Bombay Sappers and Miners; 2nd, 3rd, 4th,
5th, 8th, 11th, 15th, 20th, 22nd, 23rd, 25th, 26th, 28th, and 29th
Bombay Infantry; 1st Scinde Horse; 3rd Bombay Cavalry and Poona Horse.

The India General Service medal, illustrated facing page 120, was
awarded with the clasp for PERSIA, or the clasp was added to the medal
of the soldier who had taken part in the second Burmese War; indeed,
the medal was instituted to obviate the necessity for designing medals
for each campaign, and multiplying the number which might adorn the
soldier's breast.


On Sunday, May 10th, 1857, the native soldiers in Meerut openly
mutinied. It was not the fat used in the making of cartridges which
caused the outbreak; that was merely the ostensible reason, for
there can be little doubt that a section of the natives, failing to
understand European institutions and principles, were easily led by
political agitators to take the desperate step of rebellion. The
Kings of Oude and Delhi had been practically deposed by the Indian
Government, and it was the effort to restore the Mogul dynasty,
engineered by those who for political reasons wished to see the English
expelled from India, that had much to do with the mutiny--for mutiny it
certainly was, bred among men who had gathered extravagant notions of
their own importance and their ruler's weaknesses. The common people
were hardly affected--indeed, the princes were also, with the exception
of the Ranee of Jhansi and the Náná Sáhib, loyal to the British. The
arch-fiend of the mutiny was the Náná Sáhib, who had been quietly
waiting his opportunity for revenge upon the British for refusing
to continue the pension granted to his foster-father. The cartridge
incident merely helped him in his nefarious designs, and forwarded
the efforts of our external enemies. It was not, however, expected
that the mass of the people of India, with their princes, would remain
loyal as they did. At the time the mutiny broke out, in a population
of 18,000,000, 200,000 of whom were sepoys, there were only 38,000
British soldiers, so that it is quite evident that the outbreak was
not national, but military, otherwise they would have been swallowed
up in the tempest. Disaffection had occurred at two or three stations,
and the 19th and 34th Native Infantry had to be disbanded, the latter
after Mangul Pandy had shot two officers at Barrackpore. Then the more
determined outbreak occurred at Oude and Meerut; the English officers
were murdered, and the European civilians slaughtered before the two
regiments of mutineers marched off to join others in Delhi, which
became the centre of mutinous activity. They proclaimed as king a
descendant of the great Mogul, and attempted to capture the magazine,
but, as we shall see hereafter, ten Britishers gallantly defended it,
and ultimately blew it up. At this time the 8th were at Jallundur,
the 32nd at Lucknow, the 60th and 6th Carabineers, with a troop of
horse artillery and details of other regiments, at Meerut. The 61st at
Ferozepore, the 75th at Umballah, the 81st at Meeau Meer, the 37th were
called up from Ceylon, and the Madras Fusiliers from Madras. The 64th
and 78th hurried from Persia, and the 84th were recalled from Burmah.
The troops, which included the 93rd Highlanders, _en route_ for China
were ordered to India, and Sir Colin Campbell hurried off from England
to take command of the operations. Meanwhile the insurrection spread,
until the whole region between the Punjab and Lower Bengal was in
revolt, a district as great as Austria, France, and Prussia combined.
Within six weeks of the murder of Colonel Finnis at Meerut, of the 120
sepoy regiments only 25 had not mutinied, and of these only 5 could be
relied upon.

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR AFGHAN WAR.]


=Cawnpore.=--Náná Sáhib took his opportunity directly the news of the
rebellion at Meerut and Delhi became known. Placing himself at the
head of the rebels, he proclaimed himself Peshwa of the Mahrattas,
and on June 6th informed General Sir Hugh Wheeler that he was about
to attack the position held by him, a miserably slight fortification
within which he had gathered about 1,000 souls, of whom only 465 were
males of all ages and classes. How bravely they fought, despite hunger,
thirst, and disease, for twenty days, and only surrendered when a safe
passage to Allahabad had been guaranteed by the bloodthirsty Náná,
and how by his treachery they were butchered by gunshot and sword, or
burnt to death, is one of those heroic episodes which will live for
ever; while the butchery of the women and children also by order of
the Náná Sáhib will blot the pages of Indian history for all time. On
July 16th General Havelock, who had hastened to the relief, defeated
the Náná with 7,000 men and powerful artillery, a few miles south
of the city, and he fled during the night. Next morning the British
soldiers entered Cawnpore, too late to save the unfortunate captives.
Havelock's little army, which had marched 126 miles in eight days and
captured 24 guns, consisted of 435 men of the 64th, about 300 78th
Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs), 190 of the 84th, 400 of the 1st Madras
Fusiliers, 20 Volunteer Cavalry, 76 Royal Artillery, 450 Sikhs, and 50
Irregular Native Horse. "Better soldiers have never trod the earth,"
states Archibald Forbes; and when we consider the sweltering heat of
the Indian summer, the men wading "in a sea of slush ... while the
flood of tropical rain beat down," and fighting against overwhelming
odds, we may heartily endorse Dr. Fitchett when he says, "In the whole
history of war, men have seldom dared, and endured, and achieved more
than did Havelock's column in the gallant but vain struggle to relieve
Cawnpore"; and of the "Ironsides" who were to press on to relieve and
reinforce Lucknow, only 250 remained to participate in the glorious

=Delhi.=--On May 11, 1857, the 3rd Native Cavalry, who had outstripped
their infantry companions in revolt on the long march of 38 miles from
Meerut, appeared before the King's palace at Delhi, and declared they
had "slain all the English at Meerut, and had come to fight for the
faith." The old King had no desire to become embroiled in the tumult
that had begun to rage around him, but his guards, sympathising with
the mutineers, opened the gates and stood by while the miscreants
murdered the English officers and officials, and their families, and
any white person they could find. Lieutenant Willoughby, with 2 other
officers and 7 British soldiers, determined not only to sell their
lives dearly, but to do as much hurt to the rebels as possible, before
they accepted their fate. Their daring exploit of keeping nearly 2,000
mutineers at bay as long as they could serve the 10 guns, and coolly
taking their chance of life and death as they blew the magazine and the
surging masses of sepoys into the air, is one of the most brilliant
in history. Brave Conductor Scully, who fired the train, and four of
his companions heroically met their death, but the three officers,
Willoughby (who was captured later and killed), Raynor, and Forrest,
and Conductor Buckley, miraculously escaped for the time being.

Meanwhile the Commander-in-Chief, General Anson, had collected all
the available troops and marched upon Delhi, but dying of cholera at
Kurnaul, the command devolved upon Major-General Reed. Major-General
Sir Henry Barnard had collected a number of men at Aleepore, and
Brigadier-General Archdale Wilson had quitted Meerut with about 700
men in order to join forces with the Commander-in-Chief. On May 30th
he was attacked by the mutineers at Ghazee-ood-deen-nuggur, but drove
off his assailants numbering over 4,000. They returned to the attack on
the following day (Whit-Sunday), but the 6th Carabineers and the Rifles
drove them off with considerable slaughter, and captured 26 guns.

Then commenced the siege of Delhi, but for three and a half months
the ancient city withstood the assaults of the besiegers. First
Badlee-ke-Serai was taken, the 75th particularly distinguishing itself
in the valiant fight which the English troops made in acquiring it,
and then, after the Delhi cantonments had been taken and burned, the
Goorkas giving splendid evidence of their loyalty and gallantry, the
army sat down before the city, and the British lines were slowly
but deliberately pushed forward. On June 17th one of the enemy's
positions near the Ajmeer gate was taken; and on June 23rd, the fatal
day of prophecy when British rule was to cease, the mutineers made a
determined advance from the city, but after a hard day's fighting, in
which they had charged the Rifles, the Guides, and the Goorkas again
and again, they were compelled to retire.

In June cholera broke out in the camp, and early in July Sir Henry
Barnard was among its victims, while the 8th and 61st regiments
suffered considerably. Again and again the rebels sallied forth, only
to be beaten back, and the fighting proceeded gallantly week after
week, during which time Major Tombs, Lieutenant Hill, and a number
of men gained the V.C. Then Brigadier-General John Nicholson, having
gained a brilliant victory at Nujjuffhur, and prevented an attack upon
the rear of the British camp, rode in on August 7th. Shortly after his
little army marched in; it comprised 680 men of the 52nd, a wing of the
61st, the 2nd Punjab Infantry, and a field battery with detachments of
Beloochees and military police.

The besiegers were waiting for the siege train with which to breach the
walls, and the mutineers having learned that it was _en route_, sallied
forth in considerable numbers to intercept it; but Nicholson, with
1,600 infantry, 400 cavalry, and a battery of field guns, set out on
August 25th to save the train. The troops had to cross the swamps, made
more difficult by the ceaseless rain; but after wading through them,
the water sometimes over the horses' backs, and along the rain-drenched
roads, they came up with the enemy at Nujutgurh after a march of
twelve hours. The mutineers numbered 6,000, but the tired and drenched
soldiers of Britain, led by the daring Nicholson, charged the enemy,
placed 800 of them _hors de combat_, captured 13 guns, and sent the
sepoys flying back to Delhi. Retracing their steps, the little force,
having lost 60 men, arrived back in camp, having in forty hours, during
twenty-four of which they were foodless, marched 35 miles and beaten
and dispersed an army of well-trained men.


Awarded to about 350 of the Shropshire Light Infantry, Engineers, and
men of the R.N.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.)


[Illustration: (Obverse.)


The siege train arrived on September 4th, together with a wing of the
8th Detachment of the 9th and 60th, and a battalion of Beloochees. The
guns were mounted, and by the 11th ready for action, when fire was
opened and incessantly sustained against the Cashmere and Watergates
until breaches had been made, and then it was determined to assault the

=Blowing in the Cashmere Gate.=--It was found necessary, however, to
blow up the Cashmere Gate, and a party of twenty men under Lieutenants
Home and Salkeld of the Engineers were detailed for the purpose. They
effected their object, but Salkeld was mortally wounded and many of
the men killed and wounded in their gallant effort. Bugler Robert
Hawthorne of the 52nd, having thrice sounded the regimental call of the
52nd for the column to advance, took charge of the wounded lieutenant,
and having bound up his wounds, removed him to a place of comparative
safety. The bugler was decorated with the V.C. for "as noble a deed
as any that has ever graced the annals of war." In the assault on
September 14th the gallant Irishman John Nicholson fell, mortally
wounded while leading his men near the Lahore Gate, and 1,169 officers
and men were killed, wounded, or missing, but the whole of the outer
parts of the city were in possession of the British. On the 16th the
magazine which Willoughby had, it was found, only partially blown up
was captured by the 61st, but desultory fighting was continued until
the 20th, when the Lahore Gate and the palatial Jumma Musjid were
captured. Then the gates of the palace were blown in, and the 60th
Rifles led the way into the ancient home of the Mogul Kings, and Delhi
was in the hands of the British Army. In the grand assault upon Delhi
8 European officers and 162 men were killed, 52 officers and 510 men
wounded, and 103 sepoys killed and 310 wounded. It is estimated that
over 5,000 mutineers perished in the defence of the city.

=Hodson's Daring Feat.=--But the king and his family had taken refuge
in Humayon's Tomb, about 7 miles from the city, and Hodson, the daring
Captain of the Light Horse bearing his name, determined to capture
him. Taking only fifty men, he essayed one of the most daring feats
on record. With his little band he rode along the rebel-infested road
to the tomb where, in the gigantic marble dome, the King and his two
sons had concealed themselves; for two hours he parleyed with the
intermediaries of the decrepit King, undismayed by the thousands of
retainers who guarded him. At last the old man, on promise of his
life, surrendered, and Hodson marched off before the wondering natives
with his royal prisoner. There yet remained the two sons of the King,
whose conduct in torturing English prisoners had made them notorious.
They had barbarously slaughtered innocent women and hapless children,
and Hodson determined that they should also become his prisoners. On
September 21st he and his second in command, Macdowell, with 100 men
rode off to effect the capture of the princes, who had 6,000 or 7,000
armed followers at their command. Reaching Humayon's Tomb, he demanded
their surrender, but they at first refused to submit unless their lives
were promised. Hodson calmly refused, and then they came forth with
3,000 armed men. But the daring Hodson interposed his troopers between
the bullock-cart in which the princes were riding and the armed men,
sent forward the princes with an escort of troopers, and then--calmly
ordered the retainers to lay down their arms! Having collected them,
Hodson quickly said to Macdowell "We'll go now," and then rode off with
his troop. Overtaking the princes, he found that a crowd appeared to
be threatening the troopers in charge of the cart, and fearing that
he might lose them and that the ends of justice would be defeated, he
ordered the princes to strip, and, after stating the nature of the
crimes they had committed, shot them with his own hand. Brave, gallant,
and daring Hodson was prepared to take the consequences which he fully
appreciated, and, convinced that he was right, did not flinch from
moral censure any more than he had from physical consequences when
he sallied forth with a handful of men to capture the King and his
bloodthirsty sons. With the fall of Delhi the back of the mutiny was
broken, but it had cost the besiegers a loss of 3,854 killed, wounded,
and missing.

=Defence of Lucknow.=--The neighbourhood of Lucknow, however, remained
in possession of the mutineers, although over the Residency

       "Ever upon the topmost wall our banner of England flew."

For several weeks Lucknow had been in a state of unrest, and then at 9
o'clock on the night of May 30th, 1857, the smouldering fire broke into
flame. Sir Henry Lawrence, that stalwart, cool northern Irishman, as
just and firm as he was unselfish, had but 700 Europeans in a city of
700,000, of whom 7,000 were sepoys. He did not lose heart, but quickly
and steadily made preparations for the defence of the place; he knew
he could rely upon the Sikhs and a small number of the sepoys--700
actually remained true to their salt during the siege; he made no error
in his calculations, and took few chances. He turned the Residency into
a fortress, and generally prepared for the worst, while his sense of
humour and his smiling face gave no sign of the stern practical heart
within him. He was, as he said, "virtually besieging four regiments--in
a quiet way--with 300 Europeans," while he resided "in cantonments
guarded by the gentlemen" he was besieging!

On June 30th he decided to "blood" the native troops, and he
accordingly sent half a dozen guns with sepoy artillerymen in the
little force of just over 800, of whom only 336 were Europeans, to meet
the mutinous regiments which were marching upon the city from Eastern
Oude. The estimated force was 5,000; it turned out to be 15,000, and
when they were encountered at Chinhut the Sikh horsemen bolted, and
the artillerymen disabled and deserted their guns. The fates generally
went against the bold step that Lawrence had taken. The remnants of
the little band had to retire in face of the great moving mass of
mutineers; "regiment after regiment of sepoys steadily pursued towards
us," and the 32nd who had gone into battle--300 foodless and badly
armed men--were reduced to a skeleton, 5 of their officers and 112 men
being killed. Lawrence returned with his straggling men to Lucknow;
it was one of the few mistakes which the hero of Lucknow made, but he
saved the survivors of the desperate fight by a masterly stroke in
placing empty guns upon the iron bridge (the ammunition was exhausted),
and with gunners standing beside them with lighted port-fires stayed
the advance of the victorious sepoys. The time for desperate action
had arrived. On July 1st he blew up the Mutchee Bhawan with its
1,000,000 cartridges and 250 barrels of gunpowder, and concentrated
upon the Residency, and there for eighty-eight days, with a force of
927 Europeans and 700 sepoys, made one of the most famous defences in
history. And there, despite the supreme efforts of the mutineers to
shoot it down, the British flag was only temporarily out of position
when the staff was shot away, and so

    "Ever aloft on the palace roof the old banner of England blew."

On July 2nd Sir Henry Lawrence was mortally wounded, and died on the
4th; then Brigadier Inglis took command of the troops. During the
defence the populace of 3,000 and the troops were harassed by cholera,
smallpox, and an indefinable disease, but the spirit of the troops
remained undaunted until Jessie Brown's keen Scots ears heard the
far-off skirl of the bagpipes of the 78th, Outram's Highlanders--"the
saviours of India"--and Havelock, marching into Lucknow on September
25th, reinforced, as well as relieved, the brave garrison which still
had, for another six weeks, to hold the Residency against 60,000


[Illustration: INDIA MEDAL FOR FOUR CAMPAIGNS. (Reverse.)]


The original defenders of the Residency were 535 men of the 32nd, 50 of
the 84th, with 89 artillerymen, and 100 British officers whose native
regiments had mutinied, and 153 civilians who took up arms to assist
the regulars; and these, with 700 sepoys, undeterred by "the terrific
and incessant fire by day and night," had for eighty-eight days defied
not less than "8,000 men firing at one time into the position."

=Relief of Lucknow.=--Havelock, having rested his men after the
advance on Cawnpore, followed up the Náná Sáhib, destroyed his palace
and stronghold at Bithoor, and then with his tiny force, which was
daily lessening through wounds and disease, marched towards Lucknow.
He attacked Oonas _en route_, and passed through it, despite the 15
rebel guns which guarded the only road; pushed past the opposition
at Busserut Gunge, but with a loss of 88 officers and men killed and
wounded; then in despair, owing to his enfeebled force, Havelock
started to return to Cawnpore. On reaching the Ganges the mutineers
made a determined attack upon the little force, but the 78th,
Ross-shire Buffs, dashed at the enemy's guns, and, as Havelock said,
saved themselves and their comrades. Retracing his footsteps, Havelock
was not aware that he had unconsciously helped the besieged in
Lucknow by drawing off the rebel force to meet him, thus giving the
garrison breathing-space in which to strengthen the fortifications and
increase its stock of provisions. After a four-days rest the undaunted
Havelock again set out for Lucknow with 1,300 men, but again meeting
with opposition at Bithoor, and although the enemy was defeated, he
decided to return to Cawnpore and await reinforcements. The 5th and
90th Regiments arrived early in September, five companies of men came
in to make up for the terrible losses of the 78th, and then Sir James
Outram, the "Bayard of India," arrived to take command of the Cawnpore
and Dinapore divisions, but chivalrously delegated the command to
Havelock "in gratitude for the brilliant deeds of arms achieved by
General Havelock and his gallant troops." The relieving force consisted
of the 1st Brigade--5th Fusiliers, 84th, and 100 men of the 64th
under Brigadier-General Neill; 2nd Brigade--78th Highlanders, 90th
(Perthshire) Light Infantry, and Brasyer's Sikhs under Colonel Walter
Hamilton of the 78th; 3 batteries of artillery under the dauntless
Maude, "Hell-fire Jack" Olpherts, and brave Vincent Eyre; 109 volunteer
cavalry and 59 native cavalry under the dashing Barrow.

Crossing the Ganges on September 19th and 20th, the relieving force of
2,500 men attacked the enemy at Mungulwah on the 21st, and, although
an obstinate opposition was met with, defeated the enemy and captured
a couple of guns. Pushing forward, drenched by heavy rains for three
days and through quagmires of mud, the badly fed little force came upon
the enemy, 12,000 men, entrenched on the outskirts of Lucknow at the
Alambagh, but after the artillery had opened fire the 78th Highlanders
and the Fusiliers rushed the position, and in ten minutes the mutineers
were flying in all directions. "The petticoated devils" were too much
for them. After a day's rest, leaving 300 sick men to hold the place,
the army advanced towards the Residency, and through a storm of shot
gallantly rushed the Charbagh bridge, leaving the 78th as a rear-guard
to hold it, which they bravely did, although stormed at by rifles and
field pieces. The column then pushed on to the Kaiser Bagh, or King's
palace, taking in reverse the battery which had been firing on the main
body; and then the Highlanders, followed by the Sikhs and Fusiliers,
made a desperate effort to reach the Residency. For three-quarters of
a mile, with desperate and dauntless courage, the men pressed forward
through a street in which from every housetop, door, and window a
relentless hail of bullets poured upon them. In this grand advance
Brigadier Neill fell, shot through the head, but the troops pushed on,
and then through the embrasure by the side of the battered archway of
the Baillie Guard they pressed. The picture has often been painted
of the big rough-bearded soldiers--those stern but soft-hearted
Highlanders--seizing the little children out of their mothers' arms
and "kissing them with tears running down their cheeks." The relieving
column lost over 700 men by death or wounds, or nearly one in four of
its total complement of 3,000.

=Defence Continued.=--As I have stated, the relief of Lucknow was also
a reinforcement, and those who relieved the garrison, continued its
defence for nearly fifty days, and survived the war, were awarded the
clasp for the Defence of Lucknow.

Havelock, having relieved Lucknow, did not deem it advisable to take
the risk of escorting the women and children and non-combatants through
the thousands of sepoys who still encircled the Residency, so for six
weeks the garrison, under Outram, kept the enemy at bay, until Sir
Colin Campbell, the cool and daring Scots veteran of the Peninsular
War, fresh from the Crimea, who was ready at the age of sixty-five to
take up the arduous duties of Commander-in-Chief in India, prepared for
the final relief. He landed at Calcutta on August 13th, but through
delays, largely occasioned through want of transport, he could not
start out on the march to Lucknow until November 9th. Three days later
he had under his command 4,700 men, a number of whom had been engaged
in the siege of Delhi; detachments of the 4th, 5th, and 23rd Fusiliers;
a wing of the 53rd, a number of the 82nd, and the 93rd Highlanders
1,000 strong, 700 wearing the Crimean medal; remnants of the war-worn
8th King's (Liverpool) Regiment; the 75th (now 1st Gordons); a heavy
battery Royal Artillery; Bengal Horse and Field Artillery; two
squadrons of the 9th Lancers; Hodson's Horse; a squadron each of
the 1st, 2nd, and 5th Punjab Cavalry; 2nd and 4th Punjab Infantry;
detachments of Bengal and Punjab Sappers and Miners; and the Naval
Brigade with 8 guns under Captain Peel.

Sir Colin Campbell arrived at the Alambagh, where Sir James Hope Grant
had resolved to await reinforcements, on November 12th, and having
determined upon his plan of advance forced his way round the north of
the city, pushed the enemy through the Dilkoosha Park, and after taking
the Secundrabagh and the Shah Nujeef, entered the Residency, where on
the afternoon of November 17th he was shaking hands with Outram and
Havelock in front of the Mess House, with bullets and shells pouring
around them, for although the relief force had reached the Residency
they stood in fear of being themselves besieged. Sir Colin Campbell
therefore determined to take the 1,000 sick and wounded men, and 600
women and children, out of the place that had so long protected them
from the "devil's work" of the mutineers. On the night of November
19th the work of removal commenced, and by the morning of the 22nd the
Residency had been completely evacuated. As Captain R. H. Burgoyne,
who was present, states, "Thus was accomplished one of the most
difficult and daring achievements ever attempted, for such it must
be acknowledged it was, when we consider that with a force scarcely
exceeding 4,000 Sir Colin Campbell, opposed by upwards of 40,000
regularly trained soldiers supplied with munitions of war far exceeding
ours, and holding one of the strongest positions imaginable, penetrated
into their midst, carried one fortified position after another, and
finally brought away in safety every living man, woman, and child shut
up in the Residency, together with their baggage, treasure, etc.," and
"the guns it was thought worth while to keep."

[Illustration: JUMMOO AND KASHMIR MEDAL, 1895. (Obverse.)]

[Illustration: BRONZE HUNZA NAGAR BADGE, 1891.]

[Illustration: JUMMOO AND KASHMIR MEDAL, 1895. (Reverse.)]


=The Secundrabagh.=--The storming of the Secundrabagh is full of heroic
deeds. "There never was a bolder feat of arms," stated Sir Colin
Campbell in his dispatch. There seven companies of the 93rd, as the
4th Punjabis halted for a moment when their British officers were shot
down, raced ahead of their Sikh comrades, and Lance-Corporal Dunlay
gained his V.C. for being one of the first through the breaches and
supporting Captain Burroughs, who had been wounded, against superior
numbers of the enemy. There also Lieutenant Kirke Ffrench and Private
Irwin of the 53rd, and Private J. Smith of the 1st Madras Fusiliers,
gained the V.C. for being among the first to enter the Secundrabagh by
the gateway. When the roll of the 93rd was called after the storming,
it was found that 8 officers had been wounded, 28 non-commissioned
officers and men killed, and 71 wounded. At the Shah Nujeef, a domed
mosque, the enemy withstood a heavy cannonade by Captain Peel's naval
siege train, and the field battery with some mortars for three hours,
when "it was stormed in the boldest possible manner by the 93rd
Highlanders under Brigadier Hope," while Captain Peel took his guns
forward with such daring that had it not been for the withering fire
of the Highlanders the naval brigade would have suffered considerable
loss. As Sir Colin Campbell stated in his dispatch, it should not be
forgotten that the heroes of the relief of Lucknow had made the longest
forced marches, some from Agra, some from Allahabad, and had undergone
great fatigues and privations in pressing forward for the attainment of
this great object.

=No Bar for Cawnpore.=--On the afternoon of November 20th Sir Colin
Campbell, with his great convoy, arrived at the Alambagh, and encamped
on the open space his force had occupied before advancing on Lucknow.
Three days after the march was resumed, and as he advanced towards
Cawnpore the sounds of firing were heard, and he learned that the
Gwalior contingent, 10,000 strong, under Tantia Topi--the only leader
the mutiny produced--had joined with the force of the Náná Sáhib in
attacking Major-General Windham (Redan Windham). Leaving the convoy
in charge of the rear-guard, Sir Colin hurried forward with the main
column, which, despite its fatigued condition, footsore and hungry,
pressed onward to the assistance of their comrades at Cawnpore,
fighting their way forward until on December 6th the city was taken,
the rebel armies split in twain, and the portion under Tantia Topi
driven across the Jumna, and that with the Náná across the Ganges. This
was a general's battle. With a force of about 5,000 men, Sir Colin
Campbell had not only defeated an army of 25,000 well-trained men, but
had captured all their baggage and 32 guns. It is noteworthy that in
order to take part in this battle the 42nd, Black Watch, marched 80
miles in fifty-six hours, no mean feat in a tropical climate. Actions
were fought at Kâla Muddee, and Futteghur--where the 53rd spontaneously
charged the enemy and captured several guns--and having occupied the
latter place Sir Colin made arrangements for the retaking of Lucknow.

=Lucknow.=--To retake Lucknow, which Sir Colin Campbell had evacuated
on relieving the city, a splendidly equipped army was organised to
march upon the place under the Commander-in-Chief. On March 2nd,
1858, he advanced with about 18,700 men, to be later strengthened
by Brigadier Frank's column and the Nepaulese under Jung Bahadoor.
Approaching Lucknow by the Dilkoosha Park, the rebel pickets retired
before the 42nd and 93rd Highlanders, who swept the rebels from
their works in front of the Martinière, and the British troops
took possession of the palace and the Mahomed Bagh. On the morning
of March 9th the Martinière was assaulted. The Punjabis, with the
42nd Highlanders, took the rebels in flank, the 93rd Highlanders in
skirmishing order advanced at the double, supported by the 90th, and as
they approached the Martinière the mutineers bolted, and took refuge in
their entrenchments across the canal.

On the 11th the Begum's palace (Begum Kotee), sheltering 5,000 sepoys,
was stormed, the regiments rushing forward under "a perfect storm of
musketry," but "not a man wavered." The rebels had cunningly devised
"every obstacle that could be opposed to the stormers," but the 93rd
and the 4th Punjab Rifles were not deterred, and they fired their
muskets and plied their bayonets for two hours, until, with the aid of
a party of the 42nd, the enemy was forced to disperse, and the Begum
Kotee, the key of the position, was won after the most sanguinary
fight in the siege of Lucknow, nearly 1,000 rebels being killed. In
this fight Adjutant (later Lieutenant-Colonel) McBean, an Inverness
ploughman who rose from the ranks to the command of the 93rd, gained
the V.C. for his intrepid conduct in forcing his way through the breach
and killing eleven of the enemy with his own hands. Here the 93rd lost
a captain, a lieutenant, and 13 men killed, and 45 men wounded, several
dying afterwards of their wounds. Here, also, the dauntless Major
Hodson, of Hodson's Horse, met his death. Some of the flying sepoys
had taken refuge in the rooms abutting on a narrow lane, and Sergeant
Forbes Mitchell, of the 93rd Highlanders, records that Hodson, sabre
in hand, demanded of him "Where are the rebels?" The sergeant pointed
to the door of a room, and Hodson, shouting "Come on!" heedless of
Mitchell's entreaties to wait, made a step forward and was shot through
the body.

The Secundrabagh (Alexander's Garden) was again taken, this time with
comparatively little opposition, two companies of Highlanders being
conspicuous by the alacrity with which, on being faced by a wall, they
obeyed Sir Colin Campbell's command to "Tear off the tiles, and in at
the roof!" The Imambarrah was next stormed, and Brasyer's Sikhs rushed
the Kaiser Bagh, or King's palace; the different smaller points of
defence were carried, the mutineers scattered in all directions, and
the outworks of the city were soon in the possession of the besiegers.
It only remained to take the city itself, and this was effected by
a combined effort on the part of Sir James Outram, Sir James Hope
Grant and Brigadier Campbell, and after a stiff fight on March 21st
Lucknow was again under the British flag. The defeat of the retreating
mutineers by Sir Hope Grant about 12 miles out of the city removed all
fears for its safety.

=Central India.=--Between January and June 1858 a number of engagements
were fought, for which the clasp inscribed Central India was awarded.
The troops under Sir Hugh Rose (afterwards Lord Straithnairn) had
cannonaded the fort of Rathghur for a couple of days, and then on
January 28th, after a section of the mutineers had made an attack on
the rear of the British camp, took the place by storm. Three days
after they thrashed a force near Baroda, and then pressed on to the
relief of Saugor, where a number of Europeans with their wives and
families had been besieged for six months. Sir Hugh's force relieved
the fort on February 3rd, 1858. Major-General Whitlock, with the
Madras column, had started on the same errand, and in pushing his way
onward to the goal had cleared the Jubbulpore district. On March 17th
Brigadier Stuart took the fort of Chandairee with the 86th Queen's and
26th Bombay Native Infantry, and then with Sir Hugh Rose proceeded to
the investment of Jhansi, where the mutineers had shot down some of
their officers in cold blood, and treacherously murdered others. On
March 21st the army appeared before the place, but had hardly done so
when it was discovered that the remnants of the Gwalior contingent,
under Tantia Topi, which had retreated from Cawnpore, and had gathered
strength in its march, were advancing upon Jhansi from Kalpee. Sir Hugh
Rose gave the enemy no time to think, but turning his troops about
charged the rebel hordes with such vigour that it is estimated 2,000
of them were killed. The effect of this punishment so impressed the
Ranee, and the garrison of 12,000 men in Jhansi, that the bulk of them
fled during the night, and next day, after a considerable amount of
opposition, the British troops occupied the place. In the pursuit of
the rebels about 1,500 were killed, their guns, ammunition, and baggage
falling into the victors' hands. In this affair, in which Lieutenant
Leith won the V.C., were engaged the 14th Dragoons (who lost, out of
243, 5 killed and 24 wounded); 207 Native Cavalry; 208 of the 86th
Queen's; 226 3rd Bombay Fusiliers; 298 of the 14th, and 400 of the 25th
Bombay Native Infantry.



[Illustration: (Reverse.)


[Illustration: (Obverse.)


=Kotah.=--General Roberts, in order to deal with the mutineers who had
murdered the Resident, Major Burton, and his two sons, pushed past all
opposition in Rajpootana, and in spite of great hardships advanced
against Kotah, and on March 30th, under the leadership of the 72nd the
troops poured through the Kittenpole Gate, which had been blown up by
the Engineers; and after terrific fighting, in which Lieutenant Cameron
of the 72nd gained his V.C., the mutineers gave way, and by the evening
Kotah, with its 70 guns, was denuded of mutineers. The force engaged
included 250 of the 72nd Highlanders; 500 of the 83rd; 250 of the 95th;
a like number of the 10th and 13th Bengal Native Infantry; a number of
Sappers, and a detachment of the 8th Hussars.

The Highland brigade, after the capture of Lucknow, was engaged in
assisting to stamp out the rebellion in the province of Rohilcund, and
to that end were employed in Brigadier Walpole's force, which marched
from Lucknow with the object of advancing upon the district from one
point while Brigadier John Jones advanced from Roorkee. In Walpole's
advance he called upon the Rajah in possession of the jungle fort
of Rhooyah to surrender the place, and on his refusal ordered four
companies of the "Black Watch" to advance without protection or cover
against the strongest face of the fort, from which, after gallantly
remaining in an exposed position for six hours, they ultimately
retired, but not before Brigadier Adrian Jones of the 93rd, Lieutenants
Douglas and Bramley of the 42nd, and Lieutenant Willoughby of the
Punjabis had been killed, also a sergeant and 6 privates of the 42nd,
a lieutenant, 3 sergeants, and 34 privates wounded, in an affair that,
but for the want of spirit on the part of the commander, might have
been settled in a few minutes by a bayonet charge into the mud fort!
Next day the place was found to be deserted, and after burying their
dead the British marched in pursuit of the mutineers, whom they caught
up and defeated at Allahgunge.

=Three V.C.'s won by 42nd.=--In this unfortunate affair
Quartermaster-Sergeant Simpson of the 42nd gained the V.C. for bravely
going back and rescuing an officer and a private who lay dangerously
wounded. Private Davis of the 42nd was also awarded the coveted
distinction for going up to the very walls of the fort and rescuing the
body of Lieutenant Bramley. Lance-Corporal Alex Thompson of the 42nd
also received the Cross for assisting Major-General W. M. Cafe to bear
away, under a heavy fire, the body of Lieutenant Willoughby, and going
to the rescue of Private Spence, who had been mortally wounded in the
same effort.

=The Occupation of Bareilly.=--The advance on Bareilly was begun on
April 28th, and on May 5th the army came up with the rebels on the
plains to the east of the fort, where after a fight lasting four hours,
the mutineers were compelled to retreat, and the city of Bareilly
was occupied with little opposition. In the contest on the plains
the "Black Watch" particularly distinguished itself when a body of
Ghazis, Mussulman fanatics, charging down with mad fury upon the column
forced the 4th Punjabis back on the 42nd. The charge of the Ghazis
was described by Sir Colin Campbell as "the most determined effort he
had seen during the war," but it was coolly met by the Scots, and in
the hand-to-hand fight which ensued between them and the Ghazis the
latter were speedily exterminated. During this bloody episode Sergeant
Gardiner of the 42nd gained the V.C. by killing two fanatics with his
bayonet, and saving Colonel Cameron, who was dragged from his horse by
four of them, and was in danger of being killed. In this struggle the
famous _Times_ correspondent, W. H. Russell, would have been killed but
for the timely intervention of Sergeant Forbes-Mitchell of the 93rd,
who shot the attacking rebel. The back of the mutiny being broken the
Highland brigade was ordered to encamp at Bareilly, where the last
serious fight had been made by the mutineers. Parties of them, however,
continued to give trouble for some time, and in a sharp encounter at
Maylah Ghaut, on the banks of the Sarda, where on January 15th, 1859,
Captain Lawson and 37 men of the "Black Watch" kept at bay 2,000 rebels
from sunrise to sunset, and still further added to the roll of honour
of the 42nd by Privates W. Cook and D. Millar earning the V.C. by going
to the front and directing their company when their officers had been
shot down.

The mutiny was now crushed, thanks to the bravery and endurance of
the European soldiers, and the staunch conduct of those Indian troops
who, with their Princes, remained true to Britain. The gallant Sir
Colin Campbell at last received something like due reward for his
services to his country by being raised to the peerage as Lord Clyde.
The Honourable East India Company ceasing to exist, the Government of
India was transferred to the Crown by the India Act of 1858, and the
government of the country vested in a Viceroy and Council, the last
Governor-General under the old order becoming the first Viceroy of our
Indian Empire.

The following British regiments took part in the war: 5th, 8th, 10th,
13th, 23rd, 32nd, 34th, 38th, 42nd, 52nd, 53rd, 60th, 61st, 64th, 71st,
72nd, 75th, 78th, 79th, 80th, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 86th, 88th, 90th,
93rd, 95th, 97th, 101st Royal Bengal Fusiliers (now 1st Royal Munster
Fusiliers), 102nd Royal Madras (now 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers), 104th
Bengal Fusiliers (now 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers), 108th Madras (now
2nd Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers); Rifle Brigade; 7th, 8th, and 14th
Hussars; 9th and 12th Lancers.

The medal was also granted to a naval brigade from the "Pearl" and
"Shannon" (see Naval Section).

=The Mutiny Medal.=--This medal (1⅖ in. in diameter) was granted by a
General Order of the Indian Government to those in the service of Her
Majesty, and of the H.E.I. Co., the men who composed the naval brigade,
and to all persons not in the military service who were employed in the
suppression of the mutiny. By a General Order, May 19th, 1859, a clasp
for DELHI was granted to those employed in the operations against and
at the assault of Delhi from May 30th to September 14th, 1857. A clasp
for the DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW was granted to all the original garrison
under Major-General Sir John Inglis (who had succeeded to the command
after the death of Sir Henry Lawrence) and to those who succoured them
and continued the defence under Major-Generals Havelock and Outram,
until relieved by Sir Colin Campbell, from June 29th to September 25th,
1857. A clasp for the RELIEF OF LUCKNOW was awarded to those who,
under Havelock, had for nine weeks striven to succour the beleaguered
garrison. Outram joined him on September 16th, and on the 25th they
clambered through the battered gun embrasure beside the Baillie Guard
at Lucknow. The members of the force under Generals Havelock and Outram
were awarded this clasp. A clasp for LUCKNOW was granted to all the
troops engaged in the several operations against Lucknow under the
immediate command of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857 and March
1858. A clasp for CENTRAL INDIA was granted to the troops of the column
under Major-General Sir Hugh Rose engaged in the operations against
Jhansi, Kalpee, and Gwalior, and also to the troops under the command
of Major-Generals Roberts and Whitlock. Subsequently, by a general
order, May 3rd, 1860, the troops employed at and prior to the battle of
Banda and siege of Kotah were held entitled to the clasp for Central
India, but those of either of the columns commanded by Major-Generals
Roberts and Whitlock, who were employed in the subsequent minor
engagements, were considered to have a claim to the medal only. On
August 21st, 1860, it was notified that the few officers and soldiers
who may have been present in the actions in which the Malwa Force was
engaged under Brigadier Stuart, but who, from the consequence of wounds
received in action or other causes, were prevented from accompanying
the force on its junction with Sir Hugh Rose, were entitled to receive
the bar for Central India. A General Order, dated January 10th, 1860,
stated "that a clasp for the Relief of Lucknow was granted to the
troops engaged in the operations against that city under the immediate
command of Lord Clyde in November, 1857."

[Illustration: KHEDIVE'S SUDAN MEDAL. (Reverse.)]

[Illustration: QUEEN VICTORIA'S SUDAN MEDAL. (Obverse.)]

[Illustration: QUEEN'S MEDAL FOR BOER WAR. (Obverse.)]

[Illustration: KING'S MEDAL FOR BOER WAR. (Reverse.)]

It is noteworthy that the infantry did not receive more than two bars,
and that it was impossible for any participant in the war to obtain
more than four, and very few received as many. This is a very striking
medal, a very dignified figure of Britannia being represented on the
reverse holding a wreath in the outstretched right hand, and an oval
shield with the Union Jack thereon on the left arm, which also holds
a laurel wreath; INDIA is arranged above following the line of the
medal, and ~1857-58~ in the exergue. The obverse bears the same head
of Queen Victoria as the Military General Service medal. The names
were impressed on the edge in capital Roman letters, and the suspender
and fishtail bars are of the same kind as those used with the China
medal of 1857. The ribbon, which is 1¼ in. wide, consists of scarlet
and white stripes arranged alternately, three of white and two of red.
This was the last medal issued by the H.E.I. Co., and it might be said
almost the last of the classic medals (L. C. Wyon modelled the reverse).

=Reissues of Earlier Medals.=--On January 21st, 1859, the Government
of India sanctioned the reissue of medals gratis to all officers and
men who had lost their decorations through the mutiny. This is an
important fact to remember when considering war medals issued prior to
the mutiny, as reissues are not generally considered as valuable as


=Fatshan, 1857.=--The seizure by the Chinese of a small trading-vessel,
the "Arrow," led to the second Chinese War, the first stages of which
were confined to operations by seamen and marines under Admiral Sir
Michael Seymour, who, attacking the Chinese fleet in Fatshan Creek
with 11 gunboats and about 50 ships' boats from the fleet, defeated
the enemy's fleet of 80 junks armed with 800 guns, and manned by 6,000
seamen; only 3 of the junks escaped destruction.

=Canton, 1857.=--Having defeated the fleet, it was considered that
there was little chance of obtaining satisfaction without resort to
arms, and a force of 5,000 men was dispatched to the Far East, but the
mutiny breaking out they were diverted to India. The 59th Regiment,
however, was on the China station, and with a body of marines took part
in the bombardment and storm of Canton on December 29th, 1857, and the
blockade of the fort until some semblance of satisfaction had been
obtained. With the deportation of the late Imperial Commissioner Yeh to
India the possibility of a satisfactory treaty was imminent, and when
the treaty of Tientsin was signed, on June 26th, 1858, it was hoped
that peace was assured.

=Taku Forts, 1860.=--The signature of a treaty was one thing, the
ratification another; and when the British Envoy was proceeding up the
Peiho River, in order to obtain the ratification, the forts at the
mouth of the river opened fire upon the ships accompanying him, and
they had to retire. It was therefore determined to achieve by force
of arms what diplomacy had failed to do. An army of 10,000 British
troops, and a force of 7,000 French, were organised to take the
offensive against the Celestials. The British were under the command
of Lieutenant-General Sir Hope Grant, and the French under General
de Montaubon, a "beau sabreur." At the end of July 1860 the British
and French fleets were ready, and on August 1st the allied troops
were disembarked a couple of thousand yards from the Pehtang Forts in
the Gulf of Pecheli, and they marched towards Sin-ho, where a battle
was fought in which the new Armstrong guns were used in warfare for
the first time. In this battle the allies outnumbered the enemy by
two to one, and their steadfastness in the face of the most modern
artillery and seasoned troops called forth the praise of General Sir
Robert Napier, who stated that the enemy "had behaved with courageous
endurance." After another engagement on the following day, and the rout
of the enemy, the way was clear to attack the Taku Forts. The northern
forts were assailed on land and bombarded from the sea on August 21st;
the assault was made difficult by an arrangement of spiked bamboo
stakes that had been planted over a space 20 feet wide, and while the
allies were gingerly creeping over it missiles of all kinds were hurled
at them. Ultimately the walls were reached, and a daring French soldier
planted the tricolour on the parapet, only to fall dead with the cry of
victory on his lips. Lieutenant Rogers of the 44th and Ensign Chaplin
of the 67th were more fortunate, and the Queen's colours were firmly
fixed over the fort. In their retreat from the first northern fort the
unfortunate Chinamen had to cross the ground they had so ingeniously
staked out as an obstacle for their enemy, and were spitted on their
own stakes. The fall of the first fort advised the commander of the
second fort that opposition was useless, and he hoisted a white flag;
later the troops took possession of it, and then the southern forts
were likewise surrendered, and the capture of the Taku Forts effected
with the loss to the British force of 67 rank and file killed, and 22
officers and 161 men wounded; and to the French of 30 killed, and about
100 wounded. The Chinese are said to have had at least 2,000 killed.

=Pekin, 1860.=--The Buffs were left to garrison Taku, and the 44th
Shanghai, which was threatened by the Taiping rebels, while the army
marched on to Tientsin, from which on September 8th the 1st Division
and about half the French force set out on the advance to Pekin. At
Changdia-wan there was a sharp skirmish, and the enemy abandoned their
entrenchments with 74 guns, and offered to sign a convention. Mr.
(afterwards Sir Harry) Parkes, Lord Elgin's secretary, together with
four officers and an escort, set out to arrange preliminaries, but
were treacherously taken prisoners, and all the officials, with the
exception of Mr. Parkes, barbarously murdered. Sir Hope Grant then
prepared to meet the Chinese attack, and in the action which was fought
at Chow-ho the Chinese were put to rout, and a great number cut down
in the pursuit by the Dragoons and Probyn's Horse. The allies then
advanced on Pekin, and the French army occupied the Summer Palace of
Yuan-ming-Yuan. At the Bridge of Palichaio a last desperate effort was
made by the Chinese Imperial Guard, but the vigorous French attack
drove them back with the loss of 25 guns, and gained for General
Montauban the title of Comte de Paliko.

On October 7th the enemy was informed that unless the prisoners were
restored and one of the gates of the city given up to the allies, the
city would be stormed. The Chinese agreed to this, and the Au-ting
gate of the city was occupied without opposition by 200 British and
French troops on October 13th. It was found, however, that twenty of
Mr. Parkes' party had succumbed to the terrible treatment of their
Chinese captors, and Lord Elgin having given his word to spare the
city if it were surrendered, ordered the Summer Palace, where the
atrocities had been committed, to be razed to the ground. The Summer
Palace consisted of thirty buildings in grounds extending for about 6
miles, and although the troops set to work with a will to burn--and to
plunder--it took two days to destroy the buildings by fire. Of the loot
of the Summer Palace at Pekin many fabulous stories have been told, but
there can be no doubt that in this wilful destruction of the palace,
and the indiscriminate dispersal of its valued contents, gems of art
and wonderful pieces of jewellery and goldsmith's work were annexed by
men who had not the faintest notion of their exceeding value. It is
said that a French officer found a string of beautiful pearls, each
about the size of a small marble, and sold it for £3,000! The loot
taken by the British troops, such as was given up, was sold at public
auction by order of Sir Hope Grant, and it is recorded the share of
each private soldier was not less than £4 sterling. The city of Pekin
was then occupied by the allies, and, the Chinese having agreed to cede
the island of Kowloon, opposite Hong Kong, to Britain, to make Tientsin
an open port, and to pay an indemnity of £100,000 to the relatives of
the murdered men, the war was concluded.


The following regiments were engaged: 1st, 2nd, 1st Batt. 3rd, 31st,
44th, 59th, 60th, 67th, 99th; Royal Artillery; Sappers and Miners, and
two squadrons 1st Dragoon Guards; 11th and 19th Bengal Lancers; 20th
and 23rd Bengal Cavalry.

=The China Medal, 1857-60.=--This medal was granted on February 28th,
1861, to commemorate the successes of Her Majesty's British and Indian
forces, both naval and military, employed in the operations in China
which terminated in the capture of Canton on December 29th, 1857,
and in the operations which terminated in the capture of the city of
Pekin. The bars issued with the medal were, CHINA 1842 to those who
had been in the first war; CANTON 1857, TAKU FORTS 1858, TAKU FORTS
1860, PEKIN 1860, and FATSHAN 1857 to seamen and marines only. The
medal, which is the same size and design as that issued for 1842, but
with the date left out on the reverse, is affixed to an ornamental
clasp for suspension; the ribbon is also the same, and the names of
the recipients, their regiments and rank, are impressed on the edge
in Roman capitals. The medals given to the navy were mostly issued
unnamed, with the exception of those awarded to the Indian navy, and
sometimes those to the marines. The suspender and bars of this medal
are of the same pattern as those used with the "Mutiny Medal." A bar,
or bars only, was granted for the second China War, 1857-60, to be
affixed to the medal of those who had also served in the first China
War, 1842, but such specimens are of the greatest rarity.

The medal given with the two bars TAKU FORTS 1860 and PEKIN 1860 to the
1st Dragoon Guards is rare, as only two squadrons of the regiment were
present, no other British cavalry being engaged, and because of the
brilliant action of the men on September 21st in riding at "a very ugly
place," and scattering the Tartar cavalry. Lord Cheylesmore has in his
collection the only five-bar medal issued for the war; it was awarded
to a gunner in the Royal Marine Artillery, and has the bars for FATSHAN
1857, CANTON 1857, TAKU FORTS 1858, TAKU FORTS 1860, and PEKIN 1860.


War again broke out in New Zealand in 1860, and so serious did it
become that at one time as many as 10,000 regulars and 15,000 colonials
were under arms. At Taranaki, on June 13th, the Maoris were defeated,
and again at Mahoetaki on November 6th. In order to protect New
Plymouth, or the Taranaki district, a chain of redoubts was built, and
from one of these, on the Waitara River, a little party of men of the
40th Regiment moved out to locate the Maories known to be in the bush.
Directly they entered it a number were killed and wounded by the fire
of the hidden enemy, and in a very short time hardly a man was unhurt.
In this unfortunate affair, on March 18th, 1861, Sergeant Lucas gained
the V.C. for his heroic conduct in assisting Lieutenant Rees, who had
been wounded, into cover, and, although himself wounded, remaining at
his post under a galling fire. Next day the Maoris surrendered, and
for a short spell peace was restored.

In 1863 war again broke out. The Maoris in the North Island had
elected a young, characterless man as King, and established a capital
at Ngaruawahia, near the junction of the Waikoto and Waipa Rivers.
British law was defied, and when the supporters of the weak and pliant
"King" had interfered in a dispute affecting Europeans and Maoris, it
became necessary to take strong measures. Lieutenant-General Sir Duncan
A. Cameron, learning that the Waikoto tribe had planned to invade
Auckland, advanced into the wild country north of the Waikoto River,
where at Kohera, above the Mangatawari Creek, the rebels had taken
up a strongly fortified position. Attacking them on July 12th, 1863,
Cameron drove them out and into the swamps, but owing to difficulties
in transport was unable to follow up his success. An instance of the
chivalry which characterised the brave Maori warriors throughout the
war may here be mentioned; the Maoris at Meri-Meri, hearing a rumour
that Cameron and his men were short of food, sent a little fleet of
canoes under a flag of truce with potatoes and milch goats for their
enemy. When he was able to move, Cameron set out to attack Meri-Meri,
but on his arrival he discovered that the Maoris had retired southwards
across country, whither, owing to the condition of the land caused by
the heavy rains, they could not be followed. Cameron pushed on up the
river, and at Rangireri attacked the strongly fortified Pah on November
20th; but owing to the assault being made before the artillery had
completed its work, the troops, after their repeated assaults, were
only partially successful, and during which 6 officers were killed
and 9 wounded, and 120 men killed and wounded. At night a number of
the enemy escaped from the Pah, and the remnant of 183 surrendered at

=Four V.C.'s in 1863.=--In this fight about 50 artillerymen, armed with
swords and revolvers, led by Colonel Mercer, made a brave effort to
enter the Pah, but the Colonel was mortally wounded and the gunners
had to retire: brave efforts were made by some of his men to rescue
him, and Surgeon Temple of the artillery well earned his V.C. for
dressing the dying man's wound while the bullets showered around him.
Prior to this, Sergeant McKenna of the 65th had gained the V.C. for his
coolness and excellent handling of a small detachment of men after the
officers had been mortally wounded near Cameron Town on September 8th,
and Ensign Donn and Drummer Stagpoole of the 57th had won theirs by a
very gallant action in bringing in a wounded man under a heavy fire
at Pontoko, on October 2nd. On December 9th General Cameron occupied
Ngaruawahia and the Maori "King" surrendered.

=The "Gate Pah."=--On February 21st, 1864, Rangiawahia was taken, and
on March 31st Orakau was invested by a force under Major-General Carey,
and captured on April 2nd. Sixteen officers and men were killed and 52
wounded in this engagement. The Maoris then fortified Tauranga, which,
on April 29th, after the artillery had played on the place for several
hours, a party of the 43rd and about 150 seamen and marines stormed,
and thinking the enemy had deserted the Pah, took little precautions
for their own safety. The Maoris, however, breaking from the inner
entrenchments, mortally wounded the officers, and the storming party,
which had entered the "Gate Pah" with ringing cheers, poured out again
in confusion. The Pah was evacuated during the night. The "Fighting
43rd" lost 7 officers killed and mortally wounded, and 97 men killed or
wounded, the naval brigade losing its Commander, also 4 officers and 40
seamen and marines killed or wounded. In the assault on the Gate Pah
Samuel Mitchell, Captain of the Foretop of H.M.S. "Harrier," gained the
Victoria Cross for refusing to leave Commander Hay when ordered by him
to do so, and, under a shower of bullets, carrying him in his arms out
of the Pah. Surgeon Mauley of the R.A. also earned the V.C. for his
gallantry in succouring the dying Commander and the wounded generally
under the most dangerous circumstances.

[Illustration: Distinguished Service Order.

Albert Medal (3rd Class).

Jubilee Medal.

Zulu War Medal.

Queen's South Africa.

Royal Humane Society's Medal.


On June 21st the 43rd and a detachment of the 68th marched against the
Maoris at a Pah they had started to fortify at Te Ranga. After a short
but stubborn fight the enemy was worsted and routed, among the killed
being the chief, Rawhiwi, who had led the Maoris at the Gate Pah. In
this affair Sergeant J. Murray of the 68th gained the V.C. for his
bravery in charging one of the enemy's rifle pits and, singlehanded,
killing or wounding the eight or ten men who occupied it.

=V.C. and three D.C.M.'S.=--On January 25th, 1865, a daring attack
was made on the British camp at Nukumaru, but was repulsed with great
loss. At this place, on the 24th, Captain Shaw of the 18th Royal Irish
gallantly won his V.C., and Privates John Brandon, George Clampitt,
and James Kearns Distinguished Conduct Medals for the daring rescue
of a comrade who had been wounded within about 30 yards of the Maori

After the repulse at Nukumaru the Maoris retired upon Wereros, a Pah
considered by them to be impregnable and apparently also by General
Cameron, for he moved slowly up the coast; and it was not until July
20th, 1865, that the place was attacked, and then under orders from Sir
George Grey, the Governor of the Colony. One hundred of the 14th and a
like number of the 18th Royal Irish were deputed to threaten an attack
on the front of the position, while the 470 colonials and friendly
Maoris worked round the rear. This strategy disconcerted the enemy and
they abandoned their fortress without firing a shot. During the rest of
1865 and 1866 the fighting was restricted to the West Coast.

In January 1866 an expedition was organised against the Hau-Haus, a
body of fanatics whose religion was a strange mixture of cannibalism,
paganism, and Christianity. The force consisted of 139 of the 14th,
100 men of the 18th Royal Irish and a like number of the 50th, 45
Forest Rangers, and 300 native auxiliaries under Major Rocke of the
Royal Irish. This little army captured the palisaded village of Otahuhu
and the Putahi Pah, a fort in the top of a hill 500 feet high covered
with dense and primeval jungle. On the night of October 17th Papoia,
a native village in the depths of the primitive forest, was captured,
and the Hau-Haus no longer offered serious resistance. This was the
last serious engagement in which the regular troops took part, and for
the rest of the campaign, which terminated in 1869, the Colonials were
engaged under the direction of Colonel (afterwards Sir George) Whitmore.

=The New Zealand Medal.=--This, the second in the chronological order
of the series facing page 188, was granted to the troops and seamen
who had taken part in the Maori Wars of 1845-6-7 and 1860-1-2-3-4-5-6.
The medal, however, was not authorised by a general order until 1869,
and there are twenty-two different dates for the army and ten for
the navy in raised letters in the centre of a laurel wreath, above
which, following the outline of the medal, is "NEW ZEALAND" and below
"VIRTUTIS HONOR." On the obverse is the bust of Queen Victoria with a
coronet, in which fleur-de-lis stand out prominently, holding a veil
which falls upon the shoulders, and the legend VICTORIA D. G. BRITT.
REG. F. D. The suspender is fashioned after the manner of a fern frond.
This type is only seen with this medal, which is 1⅖ in. in diameter.
No bars were issued, but the dates of service were struck as stated
above, for example: 1845-7, 1860, or 1860-6; the rank, name, and ship
or regiment being impressed on the edge. The medallists were Joseph S.
and Alfred B. Wyon, but their names are not always found on truncation
of the bust on the obverse of the medals. The ribbon, 1¼ in. wide, is
dark blue with dark-red centre of equal width to the blue which borders

=North-West Frontier.=--Between the end of 1849 and the beginning of
1868 no less than seventeen expeditions had been sent to deal with the
turbulent inhabitants on the North-West Frontier of India, but the
troops which took part in the operations were not granted a medal until
1869, when by a general order dated July 1st it was decided to issue
a medal for the services rendered, and then the India General Service
Medal, with a bar inscribed NORTH WEST FRONTIER, was given to those who
had taken part in fifteen of the expeditions enumerated below; to those
who already possessed the medal the bar was added. The names and the
regiments were impressed on the edge of the medal in Roman capitals.

The following regiments took part in the various expeditions. Regiments
present, 1849: 60th and 61st. 1850: 60th, 61st, and 99th. 1852: 32nd,
53rd, and a battery of Royal Horse Artillery. 1853: 22nd, Guides,
66th Goorkas. 1857: 81st and 98th. 1863: bar for UMBEYLA--7th and
101st Fusiliers; 71st and 93rd Highlanders; half a battery of Royal
Artillery and a Mountain Mule battery; the Guides, both Foot and Horse;
a squadron of Probyn's Horse; 4th and 5th Goorkas; 3rd and 14th Sikhs;
1st, 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 20th Punjab Infantry; 23rd and 32nd Punjab
Pioneers and a company of Native Sappers. End of December 1863 to
January 1864: 79th Highlanders; 3rd Batt. Rifle Brigade; "D" Battery
5th Brigade Royal Horse Artillery; 7th Hussars and Native Corps.

=Umbeyla.=--At the end of 1863 a somewhat serious trouble again broke
out on the borders of the Aklumd of Swat by the fanatical outbreak of
Hindustanis, and a very arduous campaign had to be undertaken between
October and December before the district settled down. This little war
in Umbeyla (Ambela) was responsible for the death of a great number
of officers; first the Buner people refused to allow Sir Neville
Chamberlain's army to pass, and the commanding points on the mountains
were repeatedly taken and retaken, despite the bravery of the Punjabis
and the general gallantry of the troops. Around the Eagle's Nest and
the Craig Piquet the most desperate fighting took place, and at the
latter post Lieutenants Fosbery and Pitcher won the V.C. for their
daring, but to little avail until the force was increased to 9,000 men,
and then through strenuous opposition it pushed on, and the Hussanzaie
tribes were dispersed. In this expedition 36 British and 31 native
officers were killed, and 150 British and 689 native soldiers killed or
wounded. A bar for this expedition was not authorised until July 1st,

=Bhootan, 1864-6.=--The Umbeyla campaign was but the precursor of
another, for that restless spirit which seems to thrive so well on
the frontier engendered another outbreak, and disturbances among the
Bhootanese in 1864 necessitated the sending of an expedition of four
columns to invade Bhootan, a district to the north-east of India.
The left column met with little opposition at Dhalimcote, where the
fort was bombarded and stormed, or at Bhumsong, where the stockaded
positions were evacuated without a shot being fired by the enemy,
although they made something of a stand at Chamoorchee. Buxa was taken
by one column, and while another pressing on to the Barungah Pass
found small opposition, the other reached Bisheusing unmolested. The
annexation of Bhootan was then formally declared. In 1865, however,
the inhabitants endeavoured to free themselves from British dominion,
and rather determined fighting ensued; at the various places already
mentioned attacks were made upon the garrisons, and it became evident
that stronger force was necessary to hold the country. Reinforcements
were hurried forward under Brigadier-General Tombs, C.B., V.C., but
after the defeat of the Bhootanese at Dewangari, a hill post at the
summit of the Dungarah Pass, hostilities came to an end, and with
a stronger permanent military establishment peace was ensured, but
not effectually until in 1866 a force of 7,000 men was sent into the
country. This determined attitude on the part of the Indian Government
resulted in the Deb Rajah of Bhootan signing a treaty of peace.

[Illustration: Naval General Service.

New Zealand.



I.G.S., 1895.

Sudan, 1899.

South Africa, 1900.



The following regiments were engaged in the campaign, for which a bar
was granted on April 28th, 1870: 55th and 80th Foot; 2 batteries of
Royal Artillery; 2nd Goorkas; 11th, 12th, 18th, 43rd, and 44th Bengal
Infantry; 5th and 14th Bengal Cavalry; 19th, 29th, and 30th Punjab

=Looshai.=--The introduction of tea-planting into Assam, and the
consequent immigration of Europeans, encouraged the predatory hill
tribes of the vicinity to extend their depredations, and the Looshai
expedition had to be organised to punish the tribes which had been
making incursions into the fertile districts at the foot of the
mountains. Two columns were sent into the district. One under General
Bouchier, composed of native troops with artillery sappers, advanced
from Cachar, and so harassed the Looshais that they sued for peace,
but it was hardly agreed to before they attacked the British column
and wounded the commander. The right column, which had set out from
Chittagong, joining hands with the left, assailed the stronghold of
Lungvel, and taking it by storm burnt it. The payment of an indemnity
was then agreed to, likewise the residence of Government agents in the
Looshai villages.

The troops engaged in the operations, which extended from December
1871 to February 1872, were native troops only: 2nd and 4th Goorkas;
22nd and 27th Punjab Infantry; 42nd and 44th Assam Infantry; a battery
of Peshawar Mountain Artillery; two companies of Sappers and Miners,
and 100 Native Police. The troops were under the command of British


In January 1864 Theodore "The Negus," or Emperor of Abyssinia, fancying
himself insulted by the British Government, imprisoned the British
Consul, Captain Cameron, together with the Europeans resident in
his territory. Mr. Hormuzd Rassam, with Lieutenant Prideaux and Dr.
Blane, was sent by the British Government to obtain the release of the
prisoners, but they also were incarcerated, and it ultimately became
necessary to send an expedition to secure the release of the prisoners.
The Resident at Aden, Colonel Merewether, commanding a reconnoitring
party, landed at Mulkutto in Annesley Bay, where he established a base,
and, entering into friendly relationship with the local chiefs and
tribesmen, prepared the way for the army which under Sir Robert Napier
was to march on Magdala and effect the release of the captives.

The force at the command of Sir Robert was about 4,000 British and
8,000 Indian troops, with a transport service and camp followers
numbering about 14,000. How splendidly this mass of men was organised,
and led with remarkable rapidity across a most difficult country,
was a military feat reflecting the greatest credit upon the Indian
veteran, who was rewarded with the peerage of Magdala. With this
intrepid warrior they had, on scant rations, and each soldier carrying
accoutrements, etc., weighing 55 lb., scaled "mountains and descended
precipices ... traversed along the face of deep ravines, where a false
step was death!" scorched by the intense sun by day, and chilled to
the bone by the cold night air. But the valley of Bachelo was reached;
the three brigades formed into one, and then the fighting commenced,
when, after descending 3,800 feet, the army attempted to ascend the
other side of the ravine, but the 4th with their Sniders--in use for
the first time in warfare--and the Rocket Battery of the Naval Brigade,
did excellent service; and one body of the enemy being disposed of, the
other, amounting to about 5,000 men who made a rush at those in charge
of the convoy, was practically decimated by the fire from the battery
under Colonel Penn and the Sniders of the infantry. It is said that in
one hour each man had discharged ninety rounds of ammunition! Then
the guns and rockets were directed upon Magdala, the capital standing
9,000 feet above sea-level. Theodore made overtures for peace, released
the captives, and sent a present of sheep and cattle in token of
submission; but the fortress was stormed on Easter Monday, April 13th,
1867, the 33rd with the Engineers leading the way, with the 45th in
support. The fortress taken, it was discovered that Theodore--deserted
by his men--had committed suicide. The fortifications having been
destroyed and the huts burned, the troops returned to Mulkutto, and
before the end of June 1867 the British force had left Africa.

The following troops were engaged: 4th, 26th, 33rd, 45th; Royal
Artillery and Engineers; 3rd Dragoon Guards, and the following Indian
regiments: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 10th, 18th, 21st, 25th, and 27th Bombay
Infantry; Bombay and Madras Sappers and Miners; 3rd Bombay Cavalry;
10th and 12th Bengal Cavalry; Scinde Horse and a Naval Brigade (see
Naval Section).

=Abyssinia Medal.=--By a general order dated March 1st, 1869, a medal
was granted to all Her Majesty's British and Indian forces, naval and
military, who took part in the operations in Abyssinia under Sir Robert
Napier between October 4th, 1867, and April 19th, 1868. This is a very
distinctive silver medal, being considerably smaller than the others
issued. On the obverse, within a beaded circle, is the bust of Queen
Victoria facing left, crowned and veiled, encircled by a star of nine
points with the letters of the word ABYSSINIA between the angles. The
portrait of the Queen is similar to that on the New Zealand medal. On
the reverse, within a beaded circle surrounded by a wreath of laurel
tied at the base, the recipient's name, rank, and regiment or ship are
stamped in relief in the centre. The Indian troops had their names
and regiments generally engraved, but I have several in my possession
with the names stamped in relief, and also in intaglio. The medal is
suspended from a silver swivel ring attached to a crown soldered on to
the top of the medal, which is 1¼ in. in diameter, by means of 1½ in.
wide ribbon of red, with broad white borders.

ASHANTEE, 1873-4

There had been troubles on the Hinterland and in the West Coast
settlements as far back as 1824 and 1826, and again in 1863; but
the more serious outbreak of hostilities occurred in 1873, when the
Ashantees crossed the River Prah, and, attacking the Assims and
Fantees, opened a road for themselves to Elmina and Cape Coast Castle,
and in company with the Elminas attempted to capture Fort Elmina, but
were beaten off. A force of 20,000 Ashantees, however, sat down before
Mampon, 10 miles from the British forts, and there they remained until
the advent of Sir Garnet (afterwards Viscount) Wolseley in October
1874, when they abandoned their camp, and fell back behind the Prah.
A small force was sent to Elmina to disperse the natives, which it
did, while the main force, composed of the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers,
the 42nd Black Watch, and 2nd 60th Rifles, pressed forward over the
Prah--which the Ashantees asserted no white man could cross--over the
Adansi Hills, and across the Bahrein River on to Amoaful, where 20,000
Ashantees under General Amanquatia stubbornly fought for five hours
before giving way, and then desultory fighting continued for at least
six hours more before the enemy actually retreated, having lost their
General and considerably over 2,000 men. In this stubborn fight the
42nd, which had led the attack, and repeatedly charged the enemy, lost
Major Baird, who was mortally wounded, and had 7 officers and 104 men
placed _hors de combat_ by wounds.

[Illustration: BRONZE STAR FOR ASHANTI, 1896.]



Hewing their way through the dense bush, constantly assailed on
all sides by the natives, the army pushed on in three columns, and
after passing the village of Egginassie encountered considerable
opposition, and later stormed the village of Bequah, where Lord Gifford
earned his Victoria Cross. In effecting the bridging of the Ordah,
severe skirmishing took place, and at Ordah-su a lengthy battle was
fought, the village being ultimately carried and held by the Rifles.
In this battle the ill-fated Wauchope, who later met his death at
Magersfontein, was severely wounded when serving with the 42nd. Forcing
its way onward, with the pipers of the Black Watch playing at its head,
the army entered Commassie practically unopposed, and the reign of the
barbarous King Koffi Calcali came to an end, a reign in which "murder,
pure and simple, monotonous massacre of bound men," was the "one
employment of the King, and the one spectacle of the populace."

In the march on Commassie 80 European officers and men were killed, and
261 officers and men wounded, but the number of deaths from disease
was very great. The grim spectre of disease is always more to be
feared than the bullets of an enemy. In this war Captain (afterwards
Lieutenant-Colonel) Reginald Sartorius, who had accompanied the column
from Accra in the advance on Commassie, but did not reach there until
it was abandoned, earned the V.C. for a daring ride of 55 miles across
country in order to communicate with the General Commanding, and at
Abogov, under a heavy fire, carrying a wounded Houssa soldier into
cover. For his services Sir Garnet Wolseley was offered a baronetcy,
which he declined, but accepted a grant of £25,000.

The troops engaged were the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers; 42nd Black
Watch; 2nd Batt. 60th Rifles; 150 Royal Engineers; 2nd West India
Regiment; Houssa Artillery and a Naval Brigade.

=The Ashantee Medal.=--By a general order dated June 1st, 1874, Her
Majesty granted a medal to her naval and military forces who had
been employed on the Gold Coast under Sir Garnet Wolseley during
the operations against the King of Ashantee from June 9th, 1873, to
February 4th, 1874, with a bar inscribed COMMASSIE to those who were
present at Amoaful, and the actions between that place and Commassie,
including its capture, and to those who during the five days of those
actions were engaged on the north of the Prah in maintaining and
protecting the communications of the main army. This medal has since
been given for a number of expeditions in Central Africa, and on the
East and West Coast. The recipient's name and regiment, or ship, and
the date 1873-4, are engraved in square Roman capitals on the edge
of the medal, and blacked in for the campaign 1873-4, but after that
date the names are found impressed as well as engraved. On the obverse
is the diademed head of Queen Victoria facing left, with plain veil
falling over the back of the crown behind, surrounded by the legend
VICTORIA REGINA. On the truncation L. C. WYON. The reverse, by Sir
Edward Poynter, P.R.A., represents British troops fighting natives
in the bush, and while it may be alleged to pictorially represent
something of the difficulties met with by the troops--which I do not
consider it does--it cannot be said to fulfil the requirements of a
decoration for personal wear. The medal, which is 1⅖ in. in diameter,
with a straight clasp and claw clip arrangement, fastened by a rivet
through the medal, is suspended from a ribbon 1¼ in. wide, yellow with
black borders, and two narrow black stripes. The bars are plain, with a
raised straight border.

=Perak.=--Perak, on the western side of the Malay Peninsula, had been
independent of Siam since 1882, but the sovereignty of the State had
been in dispute. In order to put an end to the constant feuds, the
offer of Ismail, one of the claimants, to surrender the sovereignty to
Britain was accepted, and Mr. Birch was appointed British Resident in
Perak city. Ismail a few months later, desirous of securing the throne,
attacked the Residency and murdered the Resident. The neighbouring
Rajahs joined with him, and it became necessary to dispatch a punitive
expedition. A party of troops and a Naval Brigade therefore proceeded
up the Perak River, destroyed the village of Passir Sala, and captured
6 guns, while General Colbourne's column marched through the jungle,
so "dense and dark that during all the time not a vestige of sun or
sky was visible overhead," and during the advance (on Kintra) the
troops--1,300 men of the 80th and a naval brigade from the "Modeste"
and "Ringdove"--"were without cover of any kind, and slept in the
damp dewy open." On the capture of Kintra, the Maharajah Lela and
Ismail fled into the jungle; meantime Brigadier-General Ross, with a
detachment of the Buffs and some Goorkas, stormed Kotah Lama and burned
it. On January 19th Ismail was decisively worsted, and on March 22nd he
was captured and sent to Singapore, and the districts which had been
the scene of constant conflict became, under British rule, prosperous
and contented.

The troops engaged were: 1st Batt. 3rd; detachments of the 10th and
80th; Royal Artillery and Engineers; a Naval Brigade, and detachments
of Indian troops.

An issue of the India General Service Medal 1854 was authorised with a
bar for PERAK on September 1st, 1879, for the campaign from November
2nd to March 20th, 1875-6, and by a general order issued in 1881 to
those who had been engaged between November 27th and December 10th,

=Jowaki.=--Living on the hills of the Afghan frontier, the Jowakis,
a branch of the Afridis, long had a bad reputation as marauders,
disturbing, robbing, and slaughtering the inhabitants of the Peshawar
Valley; finally they attacked a British outpost, and it became
necessary to teach them a serious lesson. A force composed of the 9th
and 51st Regiments, and two companies of the 4th Rifle Brigade, with
Royal Engineers, Artillery, and Indian regiments, was therefore sent
against the hillmen under the command of Generals Keyes and Ross. The
Jowaki villages, fortified Sangars and crops, were destroyed, and on
December 1st, 1877, the stronghold of Jummoo was taken with little
opposition. By the end of January 1878 the Jowakis sued for peace;
unwilling, however, to accept the terms imposed, the hostilities were
resumed, but after a crushing charge by the Bengal Cavalry, on February
15th, their spirit was damped, and they unconditionally accepted the
terms laid down for peace.

By another order dated March 1st, 1879, a medal with bar for JOWAKI was
awarded to the troops who took part in the operations between November
9th, 1877, and January 19th, 1878.

The troops engaged were the 9th and 51st; two companies 4th Batt.
60th; two companies Royal Engineers; a battery of Field and a battery
of Royal Horse Artillery; 20th, 22nd, and 27th Punjab Infantry; 14th
Sikhs; 17th Bengal Cavalry.

=Campaign against Galekas and Gaikas.=--On September 25th, 1877, the
Galekas attacked the old allies of the British, the Fingoes, and a
party of mounted police at Guadana, but were repulsed. Troops were
immediately sent to the scene of hostilities, Kreli's country was
invaded and his kraal burnt, and a stiff fight was made at Umzintzani
before crossing the Krei. The Connaught Rangers then proceeded to
the front, with 50 mounted men of the 24th, and the bandsmen of that
regiment as gunners with a 7-pounder gun and Naval Brigades from the
"Active" and "Florence." The Galekas, who had joined forces with the
Gaikas under Sandilli, were badly beaten at Nynnuxa, but rallied in
the Chickaba Valley, where the British column attacked them on January
14th, 1878, and drove them off with considerable loss in men and
cattle. On February 25th General Thesiger (later Lord Chelmsford) took
over the command from Sir Arthur Cunningham, and Sandilli's force was
defeated in the Amotala Mountains by the column under Colonel (now
Field-Marshal Sir Evelyn) Wood. In succeeding skirmishes Sandilli was
killed; then the Galeka chief, Kreli, surrendered, and an amnesty was
proclaimed on June 28th, 1878, for all who had taken part in the war
except the sons of Sandilli.

=The Griqua Campaign.=--Meanwhile an outbreak in Griqualand West had to
be suppressed, and this was done by the colonial troops, without the
assistance of the regulars, but not until several sharp engagements
between the Griquas and the Colonials had been fought between June 11th
and July 20th, 1878, when an amnesty was declared and the war was at an

=The Basuto War.=--Following closely on the suppression of the rising
in Griqualand came the Basuto War, occasioned by the refusal of Morosi
and his son Dodo, chief of the Baphutis, to pay the hut tax. Morosi had
fortified an almost inaccessible mountain near the Orange River, and
thither, after a skirmish with the Cape Mounted Rifles, he gathered
his people, and for nine months defied the forces and artillery ranged
against him in his mountain fastness, which with only one accessible
side he had, with considerable skill, fortified and loopholed for
musketry fire. After many futile attempts to storm the place Morosi was
killed, and what was considered to be an impregnable mountain fortress
was taken, and the fortifications blown up. Then it was decided to
disarm the natives, and some hard fighting took place against the rebel
chief Letherodi, and the rising was not stamped out until the Imperial
and Colonial forces in the field totalled 15,000 men. In April 1878
an amnesty was proclaimed, and although the Basutos had been badly
defeated they gained practically all they asked for prior to the rising.


Then a war was entered upon which was to alternately bring disaster and
as frequently demonstrate the stern inflexibility of the white man.
Zululand, to the north-east of Natal, produced the finest and bravest
black warriors against whom Britain has fought. Chaka on becoming
chief in 1810 organised the tribe on a martial basis, and to his
determined and ruthless efforts to establish a military despotism the
splendid fighting qualities of the Zulu were due. Our story commences
with the recognition of Cetewayo as King of the Zulus by the British
Government in 1872. His father Panda had reverted to the peaceful
pastoral pursuits of the tribe, but Cetewayo determined to again
organise his countrymen as a military nation, and with such success did
he do this that he felt himself in a position to defy white authority.
The seizure of two women on British territory, claimed as the runaway
wives of a chief, and the refusal of Cetewayo to make reparation for
the incursion into British territory, led to the invasion of Zululand
on January 11th, 1879. It was decided to invade the country by three
columns. The first, or southern column, under Colonel Pearson of the
Buffs, was composed of the 2nd Batt. Buffs; six companies of the 99th;
100 Mounted Infantry; 19th Hussars; Royal Artillery with 4 guns; 170
Seamen and Marines from H.M.S. "Active," with a Gatling gun and Rocket
Battery; Mounted Colonial Volunteers, and about 1,000 natives. The
second, or central column, under Colonel Glyn of the 24th, comprised
seven companies of the 1st Batt. and the 2nd Batt. 24th Regiment;
Royal Artillery with 2 7-pounders; Natal Mounted Police; Mounted
Colonial Volunteers, and 1,000 natives. The third, or northern column,
under Colonel Evelyn Wood, consisted of the 1st Batt. 13th; the 90th
Regiment; Royal Artillery with 4 7-pounders; 100 Mounted Infantry;
200 Frontier Light Horse; 100 local Volunteers; a body of Boers under
Commandant Piet Uys, and 5,000 Swazies.

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR ASHANTI, 1900.]

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR TIBET, 1903-4.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.) (Reverse.)


On January 22nd a body of about 6,000 Zulus were defeated at Inyezane
by Colonel Pearson's force, which then marched on to Ekowe (Etschowe),
where a depot was formed without opposition, but on the same day the
central column, which had crossed the river at Rorke's Drift, where a
detachment of the 24th was left, met with overwhelming disaster at the
isolated hill of Isandhlwana. Lord Chelmsford, with Colonel Glyn, had
marched out leaving one company of the 2nd 24th, and five companies
of the 1st 24th, with 70 artillerymen and 2 guns, mounted police,
volunteers, and native friendlies, to defend the unfortified camp, and
while he was reconnoitring in the south-west the Zulu impi of 14,000
attacked the camp at Isandhlwana, where the men, standing back to back,
faced the fearful odds until almost every white man had fallen where
he stood. A Zulu chief afterwards said, "They turned back to back and
fought till they died. Not one tried to escape."

In this desperate struggle Lieutenants Coghill and Melville made
a gallant attempt to save the colours of the 24th, and with their
precious charge essayed to swim the Buffalo, but Melville's horse
being killed Coghill returned to assist him, and his horse being also
shot the colours fell into the river, from which they were rescued ten
days later. The brave officers were found dead side by side. For this
gallant effort the Victoria Cross was posthumously conferred upon the
two officers. Around the fatal hill of Isandhlwana 50 British officers,
and over 800 non-commissioned officers and men, met their death; the
five entire companies of the 1st 24th were annihilated, and 90 men of
the 2nd Battalion killed.

=Rorke's Drift.=--Meanwhile on that fatal day the little force which
had been left under Lieutenant Bromhead at Rorke's Drift to guard 35
sick men and the stores, had performed prodigies of valour. About 80
men kept at bay 3,000 Zulus from 5 o'clock on the afternoon of the 22nd
until 4 a.m. on the 23rd. Again and again the Zulus tried to rush the
hastily improvised fort; they set fire to a building which had been
converted into a hospital, and forced the devoted band into the inner
defences. Half a dozen times they rushed the meagre entrenchments,
but were forced back, until at last on the morning of the 23rd they
retired, leaving 370 dead around that well-kept post. The gallant men
who defied that army lost 17 killed and 2 wounded, 5 of the sick men
being burnt to death despite the strenuous efforts of their comrades to
rescue them.

=Eight Victoria Crosses.=--In this glorious defence, in which every man
was a hero, eight Victoria Crosses were earned: Lieutenant G. Bromhead
of the 24th, Lieutenant J. M. R. Chard, R.E., for their brilliant
defence; Corporal W. Allen, Privates F. Hitch, Hy. Hook, John Williams,
and W. and R. Jones, for their gallant defence of the hospital, and
holding it against the enemy while the patients were removed. Corporal
Allen and Private Hitch were wounded, but when no longer able to fight
served out ammunition to their comrades through that terrible night.

Towards the end of March Lord Chelmsford proceeded to the relief of
Ekowe, at the same time instructing Colonel Evelyn Wood to advance
on the Zlobani, or Inholbani, mountain, a precipitous and deeply
wooded stronghold which he determined to attack. Dividing his force
into two columns under Colonel Russell and Colonel (later General Sir
Redvers) Buller, he attacked the place on the early morning of March
28th. Buller gained the summit without much opposition, but Russell
discovered that an immense impi of Zulus was attempting to cut off the
former's retreat, which unfortunately became a rout, as the struggling
mass of men were compelled to face the assegais of the Zulus with
little opportunity of retaliating. Buller, who was one of the last to
leave the "Devil's Pass," won the V.C. for saving the lives of two
officers and a trooper during the retreat, which would have had more
disastrous results but for Russell's perception and assistance.

Next day the entrenched camp at Kambula was attacked by a force
of 25,000 Zulus, but after four hours' fighting, in which assegai
frequently clashed with British bayonet, they made off with Colonels
Buller and Russell in hot pursuit, and the humiliation of the previous
day was avenged, over 3,000 Zulus being killed. Meanwhile, Lord
Chelmsford, with 3,000 soldiers and sailors, and 2,500 friendlies,
was attacked on his way to Ekowe by a Zulu impi under Dabulamanzi,
the half-brother of Cetewayo, at Ginghilova; but after one and a half
hour's fighting, during which the Zulus rushed right up to the muzzles
of the British rifles, they were driven off with the loss of about
1,000 men. Two days later Ekowe was relieved, and the post abandoned.
By this time considerable reinforcements had arrived from England,
among the officers being the Prince Imperial of France, who on June
1st, while reconnoitring with Lieutenant Carey of the 98th Regiment and
6 troopers, was killed by a party of Zulus. On July 3rd, Buller, with
500 cavalrymen, was attacked after crossing the White Umvolosi River by
nearly 5,000 Zulus, and in this affair Lord William Beresford of the
9th Lancers gained the V.C. for the rescue of a dismounted trooper, and
Lieutenant Lysons and Private E. Fowler of the 2nd Cameronians also
gained the coveted distinction for their bravery.

=Ulundi.=--Next day the battle of Ulundi was fought, and despite the
repeated charges of the Zulu army of over 15,000 men, the British
square remained unbroken, until the enemy gave way after forty minutes'
desperate endeavour, and then the 17th Lancers under Colonel Drury Lowe
cut them up as they fled. The capture of the King's kraal at Ulundi
practically ended the war, although for over a fortnight he eluded
the vigilance of his pursuers. On August 28th he was captured, and on
September 1st, 1879, the Zulu chiefs accepted the conditions laid down
by the British Government. During this campaign 76 officers and 1,007
men were killed; 37 officers and 206 men wounded; 17 officers and 330
men died of disease, while 1,286 were invalided home.

=Basuto War, 1878-9.=--Sekukuni, who had allied himself with Cetewayo
and defied the Colonial Government, stating that the country was his,
and he was ready for war, caused trouble by raiding a friendly chief;
an expedition was therefore organised to proceed against him, but
owing to the need for the concentration of British troops in Zululand,
operations were suspended. When, however, Cetewayo had been captured,
Sir Garnet Wolseley, who had succeeded Lord Chelmsford in the command,
proceeded to attack the strongholds of Sekukuni on November 28th, 1879,
and the "Fighting Koppie" was taken after a desperate struggle, during
which the chief escaped, but was captured a few days later and taken
prisoner to Pretoria. Thus came to an end a succession of wars during
the severe trials of which the finest attributes of the British soldier
were repeatedly called forth.

The troops engaged from 1877-9 were, in 1877-8-9: 24th, 88th, 90th,
94th; 1878-9: 13th, 80th, 83rd; 1879: 2nd Batt. 3rd; 4th, 21st, 57th,
58th; 3rd Batt. 60th; 3rd Batt. 91st, 97th, 99th; and Naval Brigades.

=The Zulu Medal.=--For these campaigns a medal similar to that awarded
for the Kaffir wars was given to the participants, the only difference
being the substitution of a Zulu shield and assegais for the date
in the exergue of the reverse. The ribbon is the same. The bars are
similar to those given with the I.G.S. 1854 medal, and do not record
specific actions, but periods of service. Those serving for three years
received the bar inscribed 1877-8-9; two years, 1877-8 or 1878-9; or
for one year, 1879. A single bar only was issued with each medal.


The British had by military and monetary assistance helped Shere Ali on
to the throne of Afghanistan in 1869, and, naturally, took umbrage at
the overtures made to Russia--the refusal to accept a British Resident
at Cabul, the honoured reception of a Russian envoy, and finally the
signing of a treaty which placed the Ameer of Afghanistan under the
guardianship of Russia. A mission was consequently sent to Cabul,
but it was stopped at Ali Musjid, at the entrance to the Khyber Pass,
by threats of attack if it dared to proceed any farther. Sir Nevill
Chamberlain, therefore, thought it prudent to return to Peshawar, and
on November 21st, 1878, war was declared. Afghanistan was then invaded,
and the Ameer declared a Jehad, or holy war, against the British.

=Ali Musjid.=--The same day the fort of Ali Musjid, armed with 22 guns,
was attacked, and the enemy abandoned it after some smart fighting. The
column under General Sir S. Browne then pushed on to Jellalabad, having
lost in the attack 2 officers and 35 men killed.

The troops engaged at Ali Musjid, on November 21st, 1878, were the
17th, 51st; 4th Batt. 60th; 81st; four Batteries of Artillery; 10th
Hussars, and the following native regiments: 1st Sikhs; 4th Goorkas;
6th, 14th, 20th, 27th, and 45th Bengal Infantry; Bengal Sappers and
Miners and 11th Bengal Lancers.

=Peiwar Kotal.=--Major-General (later Field-Marshal Lord) Frederick
Roberts, V.C., with the Kurram Field Force, crossed the Thall the
same day as General Browne had captured Ali Musjid, and advancing up
the Kurram Valley garrisoned Fort Azim, and then proceeded to attack
Peiwar Kotal; but finding it too strong to assault in front, General
Roberts decided upon a daring march of 10 miles in order to turn the
Afghan position, and this he carried out in a masterly and successful
manner while the heavy snowstorms made the intense cold less endurable.
The attack was successfully delivered, the Afghan defence turned, and
then Brigadier-General Cobbe hammered away at the enemy's front with
his artillery while Roberts advanced against the main body; and after
a contest which fiercely raged for seven hours, the Afghans made off,
leaving their tents standing and the whole of their baggage; 6 field
and 11 mountain guns were captured, and so distressed was Shere Ali
with the defeat that he fled to Balkh, where he died while awaiting
permission to make an asylum in Russia. The British losses were: 2
officers killed, and General Cobbe wounded; 90 European and Indian
soldiers killed or wounded. In this battle Major J. Cook, of the Bengal
Staff Corps, gained the Victoria Cross by charging the enemy and
rescuing Major Galbraith, who was attacked by an Afghan. During the
operations at Cabul this gallant officer was killed.

The troops engaged were the 8th and 72nd, a squadron 10th Hussars,
and the following native regiments: 2nd and 5th Punjab Infantry; 5th
Goorkas; 23rd and 29th Bengal Infantry, and 12th Bengal Cavalry.

=Charasia.=--On the death of Shere Ali, his son Yakoub Khan, who had
been imprisoned by his father, ascended the throne, and, recognising
the futility of the contest, agreed by the treaty of Gandamak to vest
the control of his country in the Indian Government, to allow a British
Resident at Cabul, and to accept a subsidy of six lakhs of rupees while
the Khyber Pass was to be controlled by us, and the Kurram, Pishi, and
Sibi Passes were to be attached to the Indian Empire. On June 17th,
1879, Sir Louis Cavagnari set out with his secretary, Mr. Jenkins, and
Dr. Kelly, and an escort of 25 cavalry and 50 infantry of the Guides
under Lieutenant Hamilton. Cabul was reached on July 24th, and on the
night of September 2nd the Residency was attacked, and after a gallant
defence Sir Louis and his officers and almost all the escort were
murdered. This outrage necessitated prompt action, and General Roberts
hurried up from Simla. Pushing past Peiwar Kotal, the Shaturgardan Pass
was occupied before the enemy could reach it. At Kushi the Ameer rode
into camp and said that he had been dethroned by his rebellious troops.
No one believed him. Pressing as rapidly as possible on to Cabul, Sir
Frederick Roberts found that the Afghan army occupied a very strong
position at Charasia. On October 6th he stormed the place, and after a
determined defence the Afghans fled towards Cabul in great confusion,
leaving behind them 20 guns and 2 standards. Next day the British army
marched on Cabul, and entered with the band of the 67th playing at
its head; by October 8th General Roberts was occupying the fortified
cantonments of Sherpur, in which he found 73 guns. The British losses
were 20 killed and 70 wounded.

[Illustration: Edwardian Variety.

Medal for Abor.


[Illustration: (Reverse.) (Obverse.)


The regiments engaged were the 67th, 72nd, and 92nd; one battery Royal
Horse Artillery; one battery Royal Field Artillery; two Mountain
Batteries, and 9th Lancers. Native regiments: 5th Goorkas; 5th Punjab
Infantry; 5th Punjab Cavalry; 12th Bengal Cavalry; 14th Bengal Lancers;
Bengal Sappers and Miners.

=Cabul.=--Once inside the city the army was practically shut in,
for the whole country was hostile to the British. Colonel Sir Hugh
Gough, V.C., relieved the Shaturgardan garrison, and the lines of
communication were directed to Gandamak and the Khyber. Throughout
December General Roberts was kept busy with continual fighting; during
this time, in an engagement with the Kohistanee on December 11th, the
9th Lancers suffered severely, and for rescuing some of the unfortunate
troopers who had fallen into a deep ditch the Rev. J. W. Adams was
awarded the V.C. Standing up to his waist in water, and under a heavy
fire, he stuck to his task until the Afghans were within a stone's
throw of him. On this unfortunate day three guns had to be spiked
and abandoned. After this affair the Afghans made direct for Cabul,
but were checked on their advance on Sherpur by the steady conduct
of the 72nd Highlanders. On the 14th the Asmai heights were occupied
by the enemy, but after a determined fight they were driven off;
almost immediately, however, a force of over 15,000 Afghans, led by
Moollahs shouting "Allah Ya Allah!" dashed with reckless impetuosity
upon the place, and, despite the utmost gallantry on the part of the
British troops, a portion of the position and a couple of guns had to
be abandoned. Then the increasing number of the enemy compelled the
concentration of the army within the cantonments of Sherpur, which
were fortified to resist siege, and by the intuition of Sir Frederick
Roberts had been well provisioned to sustain the defenders.

At 6 o'clock on the morning of December 23rd, 1879, just before the day
broke, 30,000 Afghans flung themselves at the British defences, and
maintained the assault until 1 o'clock, then realising that further
efforts were fruitless, and suffering from heavy losses, they began to
retire, when the cavalry sallied forth and put them to rout. In this
defence 2 officers and 8 men were killed, and 5 officers--including
Colonel Gough--and 41 men wounded. It is estimated that the Afghans had
3,000 men placed _hors de combat_. During the night the enemy melted
away, and when General Gough arrived with reinforcements not an Afghan
was to be seen. Cabul was then reoccupied.

The regiments engaged were the 9th, 67th; 72nd Seaforth Highlanders;
92nd Gordon Highlanders; 9th Lancers. Native regiments: 2nd, 4th,
and 5th Goorkas; 5th Punjab Infantry; 23rd and 28th Bengal Infantry;
12th Bengal Cavalry, and 14th Bengal Lancers; 5th Punjab Cavalry; two
batteries Punjab Artillery, and Bengal Sappers and Miners.

=Ahmed Khel.=--General Sir Donald Stewart set out from Kandahar in
April 1880 to occupy Ghuznee, and to open up communication with General
Roberts at Cabul. On April 19th he met the enemy, 15,000 strong, at
Ahmed Khel, 23 miles south of Ghuznee. There a mad charge of 4,000
Ghazis threatened to exterminate Stewart's little force, but standing
firm they withstood the shock of the fanatics, who as they rushed at
the rallying squares of Britisher, Sikh, Punjabis, and Bengalese, were
mowed down by their steady fire. In this conflict, lasting only one
hour, 1,000 Ghazis were killed, but of the British force only 17 were
killed, and 6 officers with 120 men wounded. Marching on to Ghuznee,
they reached the city on the 20th. Sir Donald Stewart then assumed
command at Cabul, and Abdul Rahman was recognised as Ameer.

The regiments engaged at Ahmed Khel were 59th; 2nd 60th Rifles, and a
battery of artillery; native regiments; 2nd Sikhs; 15th, 19th, and 25th
Bengal Infantry; 19th Bengal Lancers, and 1st Punjab Cavalry.

=March to "Kandahar."=--When Abdul Rahman, who had been living in
Russian Turkestan, returned to Cabul, and his authority appeared to be
established, the British army was ordered back to India. They were,
however, delayed by the determination of Ayoub Khan, a younger brother
of the deposed Ameer, to make a bid for the Ameership, and he set out
with the object of seizing Candahar, which had been left in the command
of General Primrose with a garrison of about 3,000 men, including the
7th Fusiliers, the 66th, and a number of native troops. To check the
advance of the Afghans, about 2,000 men were sent out with 6 guns under
General Burrowes as far as the Helmund, but encountering an enormous
army at Maiwand he assumed the defensive in a bad position, and the
Ghazis drove the British troops from the field with the loss of the
colours of the 66th and 2 guns. Thirteen hundred of the British force
lay dead on the field. The remnants of that unfortunate army got back
to Candahar after suffering great privations, and General Primrose
concentrated his troops in the citadel, where they were hemmed in by
the enemy, and from August 11th to the 31st waited for relief.

General Sir Frederick Roberts then offered to march on Candahar, and
with 10,000 men and 8,000 camp followers set out on August 8th to
march over 300 miles through a mountainous and hostile country. His
army consisted of the 2nd 60th Rifles; 72nd and 92nd Highlanders; 9th
Lancers; three Batteries of Artillery; 2nd, 4th, and 5th Goorkas; 2nd
and 3rd Sikh Infantry; 15th Sikhs; 24th and 25th Punjab Infantry;
23rd Pioneers; 3rd Bengal and 3rd Punjab Cavalry, and Central India
Horse, formed into three brigades under Brigadiers Baker, Macgregor,
and Macpherson. Ghuznee was reached on August 15th; on the 23rd
Kelat-i-Ghilzie was relieved, and after a rest the force marched on
to Candahar, and by August 27th was in communication with General
Primrose. In face of the relieving force Ayoub Khan withdrew to the
hills, and General Roberts entered Candahar on the 31st.

=Battle of "Kandahar."=--Wasting no time, he made a reconnaissance, and
driving the enemy at the point of the bayonet from several of their
positions, proceeded next morning to give battle to Ayoub. The village
of Gundi was carried by the 92nd Highlanders and the 2nd Goorkas; the
3rd Sikhs and the 5th Goorkas, working round the end of the Pie Paimal,
carried several villages, and despite the tigerish fighting of the
Ghazis the village of Pie Paimal was taken at noon, and then the final
stand was made by the enemy; but they could not withstand the charge
of the 92nd Highlanders and Goorkas, and four hours after the battle
commenced the Afghans were in full flight, leaving behind them 31 guns
including the 2 Royal Horse Artillery 9-pounders taken at Maiwand.
In front of one of their tents lay the bleeding body of Lieutenant
Maclaine of the Royal Horse Artillery, who, taken prisoner at Maiwand,
had been reserved for the indignity of having his throat cut when his
foes were beaten and release seemed imminent. The 72nd Highlanders
suffered most severely in the battle of "Kandahar," losing among their
dead Colonel Brownlow. Two other officers were killed, and 11 wounded,
the loss in men being 46 killed and 200 wounded.

The following troops were engaged at "Kandahar" on September 1st,
1880: 7th, 60th, 66th, 72nd, and 92nd; three batteries artillery and
9th Lancers. Native regiments: 1st, 4th, 19th, 28th, and 29th Bombay
Infantry; 2nd and 3rd Sikhs; 2nd, 4th, and 5th Goorkas; 15th, 23rd,
24th, and 25th Bengal Infantry; 3rd Bengal, 3rd Bombay, and 3rd Punjab
Cavalry; 3rd Scinde Horse; Poona and Central India Horse.




A medal without bar was given to the following regiments: 12th, 14th,
15th, 17th, 25th, 31st, 53rd, 63rd; 6th Dragoon Guards; 8th and 15th
Hussars. A number of men of the 65th were engaged as signallers, and
took part in several of the actions.

=The Afghan Medal.=--With the Afghan medal, which was granted on
March 19th, 1881, were issued six bars for ALI MUSJID, PEIWAR KOTAL,
CHARASIA, AHMED KHEL, KABUL, and KANDAHAR. The medal bears on the
obverse a crowned head of Queen Victoria, which is not truncated
like her effigies on the other medals, but the shoulders are couped
by the bevel of the medal, which is 1⅖ in. in diameter. The bust is
surrounded by the legend VICTORIA REGINA ET IMPERATRIX. This obverse is
the fourth of the series facing page 188. On the reverse a column of
Anglo-Indian soldiery is depicted on the march; an officer leads the
way, accompanied by an infantrymen; an elephant bearing a mounted gun
on its back makes the central feature, with native cavalry to fill up
the foreground of a picture which has a fortress-capped mountain for
background. AFGHANISTAN is impressed above in raised letters, and the
date ~1878-9-80~ in the exergue. The names of the British recipients
were engraved in rather squat Roman capitals, but the medals given to
native troops were generally engraved in slanting writing letters. The
suspenders to this medal are straight, like the General Service medals,
the bars rather broad with square ends; the ribbon, 1¼ in. wide, is
green with broad dark-red edges.

=Star for Kabul-Kandahar, 1880.=--Her Majesty also bestowed a
bronze decoration on the troops who accompanied Major-General Sir
Frederick Roberts on his 318-mile march from Kabul to Kandahar. It was
subsequently granted to the troops which then composed the garrison
of Kelat-i-Ghilzie, and who accompanied the force from that place to
Kandahar. The decoration is a five-pointed radiated star, with small
balls between the inner angles, and was made from the bronze guns
taken at the battle of Kandahar on September 1st. In the centre is
the Imperial monogram V.R.I., encircled by a band, with raised border
inscribed ~KABUL TO KANDAHAR~, having ~1880~ below with a twig of
laurel on either side. At the top is the Imperial crown, from which
is a ring for suspension. The reverse is plain with a hollow centre,
round the edge of which the name and regiment of the British recipient
are indented in skeleton block letters. But those given to the native
troops were generally engraved in a sloping script, as on the India
1895 medal, and occasionally in block capitals. The ribbon, 1½ in.
wide, is of the rainbow pattern, but unwatered.


In 1882, owing to the rebellion of Arabi Pasha, British troops and
ships were sent to Egypt. The bombardment of Alexandria took place
on July 11th, followed by the decisive battle of Tel-el-Kebir, on
September 13th. During this campaign the famous midnight charge of
the heavy brigade at Kassasin took place. The British army of about
11,000 infantry, seamen, and marines, 2,000 cavalry, with 60 guns,
marched on Tel-el-Kebir, under Sir Garnet Wolseley, who finding the
rebel entrenchments reaching at least 4 miles from the canal out into
the desert, and that his force would have to attack without a scrap
of cover, decided to make a night march from Kassasin to get within
charging distance of the enemy's position. The march was directed by
Lieutenant Rawson, R.N., who steered by the stars, and the "monotonous
tramp, the sombre lines, the dimly discerned sea of desert faintly
lighted by the stars, were at once ghostly and impressive." When about
300 yards from the enemy's trenches the Highland Brigade, just before
daybreak, rushed forward, and with a cheer went over the trenches,
where after a stubborn resistance of about half an hour the rebels
fled in confusion towards Zagazig, and the capture of Arabi at Cairo
concluded the war. Nine British officers and 48 men were killed, 27
officers and 385 men wounded or missing. For his brilliant conduct of
the war Sir Garnet Wolseley was raised to the peerage.

The following troops were engaged at Tel-el-Kebir: One batt.
Grenadiers, Coldstreams, and Scots Fusilier Guards; 18th, 42nd, 46th,
60th, 72nd, 74th, 75th, 79th, 84th, and 87th; detachments of the 1st
and 2nd Life Guards and Royal Horse Guards; 4th and 7th Dragoon Guards;
19th Hussars; a batt. of Marines; Marine Artillery, and a brigade of
Seamen. The following Indian troops were also engaged: 7th Bengal
and 20th Punjab Infantry; 29th Beloochees; 2nd, 6th, and 13th Bengal

=Egyptian Medal, 1882.=--The medal is a simple one, 1⅖ in. in diameter,
depending from a suspender like that on the Ashantee medal; the ribbon
is 1¼ in. wide alternately blue and white, three blue stripes and two
white. On the obverse is the same Queen's head as on the Ashantee
medal, but the reverse has a well-modelled Sphinx, with ~EGYPT~ in
block letters above and ~1882~ in the exergue, while bars were given
for the two engagements, ALEXANDRIA 11TH JULY and TEL-EL-KEBIR. They
are wide and square, and set rather far apart, as in the Afghan medal
of 1878-80. The names are engraved on the edge in slanting Roman
capitals; in a few instances the naming is done in upright capitals.

=The Khedive's Star.=--Prince Twefik gave to all who took part in the
campaign a bronze star of five points bearing on the obverse in the
centre a front view of the Sphinx, behind which are three pyramids in
the distance encircled by a band bearing the inscription ~EGYPT 1882~,
and below in Arabic characters "The Khedive of Egypt" and the year
of the Hegira "~1299~." On the reverse within a raised border is the
Khedive's monogram T.M. (Twefik Muhammad), surmounted by a crown with
crescent and star above. The star is suspended from a laureated bar
bearing a crescent and star by means of a dark-blue ribbon 1½ in. wide.

=Against the Dervishes.=--Quite a different type of enemy were
the followers of the Mahdi, who after practically exterminating
the Egyptian army of 7,000 men led by Hicks Pasha, and under the
generalship of the slave-trader, Osman Digna, had made short work of
Baker Pasha's 5,000 Egyptians at El-Teb on February 1st, 1884, met at
the same place on the 29th, and fought the force of 4,000 men which
Major-General Graham had got together. The battle, which was of a
determined character (see also page 321), the brunt falling on the
"Black Watch," the 65th, and Naval Brigade, resulted in the defeat of
the Arabs with a loss of 2,000 killed; 22 British officers and 167 men
were killed or wounded. For this battle those who already possessed the
Egyptian medal received the bar inscribed EL-TEB.

The following troops were engaged at El-Teb: "Black Watch"; Gordon
Highlanders; Irish Rifles; King's Royal Rifle Corps; 1st Batt. York and
Lancaster Regiment; 100 Royal Engineers; 126 artillerymen; 328 men of
10th Hussars; 410 of 19th Hussars; 125 Mounted Infantry; Marine Light
Infantry and Marine Artillery, and a Naval Brigade of 162 men.

=Tamaai.=--Fourteen days later the British force again met the Mahdi's
hosts, and at Tamaai routed the Arabs with a loss of over 3,000. It was
at this battle that a few Arabs first got into the British square. The
"Black Watch," whose quick movement on being ordered to charge, left
a gap between themselves and the York and Lancaster Regiment, losing
Major Aitken, 8 sergeants, and 50 men killed, 3 officers and 26 men
wounded. The British losses were 5 officers and 104 men killed, and 8
officers and 120 men wounded or missing. (See also Naval Section, page

The following troops were engaged at Tamaai: "Black Watch"; Gordon
Highlanders; Royal Irish Fusiliers; York and Lancaster Regiment; King's
Royal Rifle Corps; Artillery; 26th Company Royal Engineers; a squadron
of the 10th and 19th Hussars; Royal Marines and a Naval Brigade.

A bar for TAMAAI was given for this battle, and to those who took part
in that of El-Teb also a bar bearing the words EL-TEB--TAMAAI. The
battle of Suakin on March 27th brought the first Soudan War to a close.
Those who landed at Suakin or Trinkitat between February 19th and March
26th, and had taken part in the 1882 campaign, were granted the bar for
SUAKIN 1884. It was further approved that a bar be issued to all those
who were actually present at either or both of the actions on February
29th and March 13th; this bar to be inscribed EL-TEB--TAMAAI for those
who were in both actions, and EL-TEB or TAMAAI for those who were in
one or the other, but not both.

=To Relieve Gordon.=--The Mahdi, however, was not conquered; he had
merely run away to fight another day. The defence of Khartoum for ten
months by General Gordon, and the belated and unsuccessful attempts to
relieve him, are matters of history which will not be easily forgotten;
but for our purpose they recall the gallant Britisher who refused to
yield, and the splendid efforts which were made by the officers and men
who went up the Nile in 1884-5. They started from Cairo in September
under Lord Wolseley, and reached Dongola early in November, when the
gallant Sir Herbert Stewart started off with his little army of 1,600
men to reach Khartoum, by first marching 170 miles and then travelling
100 miles by steamer.

=Abu Klea.=--It was during this march that the battle of Abu
Klea--"where the rifles jammed and the shoddy bayonets twisted like
tin"--was fought on January 17th, 1885, and the survivors of the little
band of about 1,200 who took part received the bar ABU KLEA. Here the
genial giant Colonel Fred Burnaby was thrown from his horse in riding
outside the square to assist some skirmishers, and killed as he lay
on the ground, and here Lord Charles Beresford had many hair-breadth
escapes from death (see page 325), while the Arabs achieved the
remarkable feat of breaking a British square and getting inside,
killing the wounded and a number of camels ere they were themselves
dispatched. This, one of the most strenuous of the battles in the
Sudan, resulted in a loss to the enemy of over 2,000, and to the
British of 9 officers killed and 9 wounded (2 dying of their wounds),
65 non-coms. and men killed, and 85 wounded; but the enemy were still
active, and as Sir Herbert Stewart marched on he found his way to the
Nile barred by them, so a zareba was formed at Abu Kru, and here he
was mortally wounded. The enemy were driven off; the harassed troops
pressed on, reached the Nile, and heard that Khartoum had fallen! Their
pluck, perseverance, and privations were in vain. In the fight between
Abu Klea and the river 1 officer and 22 men were killed, and 8 officers
and 90 men wounded; this was called the battle of Gubat, but no bar was
given for it.

The following troops were engaged at Abu-Klea: Sussex Regiment; Mounted
Infantry; Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers; Heavy Camel Corps; 19th
Hussars, and a Naval Brigade.

=Kirbekan.=--During the campaign the battle of Kirbekan was fought on
February 10th, and Major-General Earle, the General in Command, killed
in a manner which calls to mind Forbes Mitchell's description of how
Hodson, of Hodson's Horse, met his death. The battle had been won, but
odd parties of survivors were being routed out; the General, despite
warnings, went up to a stone hut full of Arabs, and essayed to enter
it, but was shot dead. Needless to say his death was avenged--indeed,
of the force of 2,000 Lord Wolseley said "scarcely any can have
escaped." Two colonels were also killed at this battle, which raged for
five hours. The "Black Watch" lost Lieutenant-Colonel Coveney killed,
and Lieutenant-Colonel Wauchope wounded. The bar inscribed KIRBEKAN
was well earned. It should be noted that no medal for this campaign is
genuine which has a single bar inscribed Kirbekan; it was only given
in combination with the bar THE NILE 1884-85. There are, of course,
other combinations, but these were due to the fact that the recipient
had taken part in the earlier campaigns. Four-bar medals are rather
rare, and five-bar medals very uncommon.

The following troops were engaged at Kirbekan: South Staffordshire
Regiment; 1st Batt. Black Watch, squadron 19th Hussars; 2 gun crews of
artillery; small naval detachment with maxim gun--about 1,200 men.

The following troops received the bar for the Nile: "Black Watch";
Gordon and Cameron Highlanders; 18th Royal Irish; Duke of Cornwall's
Light Infantry; Royal West Kent Regiment; Essex Regiment; South
Staffordshire Regiment; 19th Hussars; Heavy Camel Corps, and a Naval

=To Recover the Sudan.=--The fall of Khartoum led to the organisation
of another campaign in order to recover the Sudan from the power of
Osman Digna, and for this arduous campaign those who did not receive
the new Egyptian medal had a bar added to the one they possessed for
SUAKIN 1885. During this campaign a New South Wales contingent of 800
took part. A battle which came as a surprise, and resulted in heavy
losses, was fought on March 22nd, 1885, and for this a bar inscribed
TOFREK was given. The only entire regiment present was the 1st Batt.
Royal Berkshire. The losses of the Hadenowas were over 1,500; the
British lost 5 officers and 94 men killed, 6 officers and 136 men
wounded, 1 officer and 70 men missing, and of the Indian contingent 120
were killed or wounded.

The following troops were present at Tofrek: the Berkshire Regiment; a
detachment of Royal Engineers; a squadron of the 5th Lancers and 20th
Hussars; a battalion of Marines; a Naval Brigade, and an Indian Brigade.

By a General Order dated September 1st, 1885, a medal of the 1882
pattern was granted to all Her Majesty's forces employed in the
operations in the Sudan, in commemoration of their arduous labours
in the ascent of the Nile, and their gallantry in the operations
which ensued, and also for the operations in the Eastern Sudan in the
vicinity of Suakin; and Her Majesty further approved of the issue of
the following bars: THE NILE 1884-85, ABU KLEA, KIRBEKAN, SUAKIN 1885,
and TOFREK. A General Order dated June 1st, 1886, signified that the
Egyptian medal be granted to the troops engaged in the operations of
the Upper Nile who had not previously received it.

=Gemaizah, 1888.=--The neighbourhood of Suakin was again the scene of
battle when, on December 20th, 1888, the Dervishes advanced on the
place with the determination to invest it. General Grenfell, however,
forced the issue, and on December 20th, 1888, after one and a half
hour's fighting, totally routed them; for this battle the bar for
GEMAIZAH 1888 was awarded by an Army Order in January 1890, and the
medal to all who were employed at, or south of, Korosko on August 3rd,

The following troops were engaged at Gemaizah: King's Own Scottish
Borderers; the Welsh Regiment; Royal Irish Rifles; 137 officers and
men 20th Hussars; Mounted Infantry; 17 officers and men of the 24th
Company Royal Engineers; Naval Brigade of men from H.M.S. "Starling"
and "Racer," and Egyptian troops.

=Toski.=--After this battle the expedition was withdrawn, and the Sudan
was left to the mercy of the Dervishes, Suakin alone being held by the
British and Egyptians. Ever on the war-path, the followers of the Mahdi
resolved to invade Egypt, and were actually permitted to penetrate
northwards for about 50 miles. At Toski, however, they were seriously
encountered by Sir F. Grenfell, the Sirdar of the Egyptian Army, and
on August 3rd a terrific but comparatively bloodless battle for the
British and Egyptians was fought. The Dervishes, however, were routed,
and almost every leader was killed. For this battle a bar inscribed
TOSKI 1889 was awarded to all troops who were present at the action.
Men who had received bars for former Egyptian campaigns, on receiving
new ones, returned the old ones to the Commissary-General of Ordnance,
Woolwich Arsenal; the rivets of all genuine medal bars are, therefore,
always the same. The names and regiments are usually engraved in
slanting Roman letters, but those given to the navy are generally
stamped in rather large skeleton upright Roman letters.

The following were engaged at Toski: 98 officers, non-commissioned
officers, and men of the 20th Hussars, and Egyptian troops.

=Tokar.=--The battle of Tokar was fought in 1890, but the British
silver medal was not awarded for this engagement. The Egyptian
Government, however, issued a bar inscribed in Arabic characters
"Tokar" and "1308 H" (~TOKAR 1890~), to be worn with the Egyptian Star,
which, except for variations in the date, had been awarded to all who
took part in the campaigns. Officers and men from the "Dolphin" and
"Sandfly" received this star and British officers who were serving with
the Egyptian Army.

=The Khedive's Star.=--For the first campaign the Star bears in Arabic
and English ~EGYPT 1882~; for the campaigns of 1884 and 1885 ~EGYPT
1884-6~; but for the campaigns 1888-9, which include the fighting round
Suakin and up the Nile, the Star was issued without a date.

=Riel's Rebellion.=--Whilst we were busy in Egypt, "Riel's Rebellion"
was engineered in 1885 among the half-breeds and Indians on the
North-West Territories. It was a nine-days' wonder, but nevertheless a
troublesome one. Riel was attacked at Batoche on May 11th, defeated by
General Middleton, and after trial executed.

By Militia General Orders dated September 18th, 1885, the Canadian
troops which took part in suppressing the rebellion were awarded a
medal inscribed on the reverse in fancy letters NORTH-WEST CANADA
1885, the date being placed in the centre, with North-West above and
Canada below, and the whole surrounded by a wreath of maple leaves, the
terminals of which are at the bottom of the medal. The obverse is the
same as the Egyptian 1882 medal, and the bar similar to that used with
that medal. One bar for SASKATCHEWAN was issued with the medal to those
who took part in that engagement. The medals were issued unnamed, but
they are found both engraved and impressed; the ribbon is blue-grey,
with two red stripes.

=The Canada Medal.=--In January 1899 the Home Government approved of
the issue of a medal by the Canadian Government to the Imperial Forces
and Canadian Militia which had taken part in the campaigns occasioned
by the Fenian Raids, and in the Red River expedition, 1870, so ably
organised by Viscount Wolseley. This medal, which I illustrate facing
page 148, had the recipient's name and regimental number, as well as
the regiment, generally impressed in square block letters. The obverse
is as on the Egyptian 1882 medal. The ribbon is of scarlet, with a
broad white stripe down the centre. When the medals were struck in
1899, 16,120 were issued; of these only 365 had the single bar for
RED RIVER; 150 were issued with the two bars FENIAN RAID 1866 and RED
RIVER 1870; 30 only were issued with the combination of RED RIVER 1870
and FENIAN RAID 1870, and twenty with three bars for FENIAN RAID 1866,
FENIAN RAID 1870, and RED RIVER 1870.

=Annexation of Burma.=--Britain also became involved in another Burmese
War while the Egyptian campaigns were proceeding. King Theebaw, who
commenced his reign in a murderous manner, impelled by the financial
straits into which his extravagance had led him, began to extort money
from British subjects, and moreover laughed at the demand that a
British agent should be installed at Mandalay, expressing his contempt
for the "barbarians" in a very decided and provocative manner. As a
result an expedition under Major-General (afterwards Sir H. N. D.)
Prendergast, V.C., was sent into the country; the dethronement of the
King was declared by the British, Minhla was stormed and carried,
and the victorious troops marched to Mandalay, where Theebaw and his
army surrendered. On January 1st, 1886, Lord Dufferin proclaimed the
annexation of Burma. The British troops had plenty of work, however,
after this, for the dacoits gave a deal of trouble; several pitched
battles were fought, and the country remained in an unsettled state
for some time. Medals and bars were given for two periods during this
expedition and long-drawn guerilla warfare. For the first period the
Indian General Service Medal 1854 was awarded, with a bar inscribed
BURMA 1885-87, and it is noteworthy that for the first time a medal
of bronze was given to all authorised camp followers. To those who
took part in the second period of fighting a bar for BURMA 1887-89
was awarded; the bars only, in both instances, being given where the
soldier already possessed the medal.

The following regiments took part in the Burma campaign, 1885-7: Royal
West Surrey Regiment; Liverpool Regiment; Somerset Light Infantry;
Royal Welsh Fusiliers; Hampshire Regiment; Yorkshire Light Infantry;
Royal Munster Fusiliers; 1st Battery 1st Brigade East Division; 5th
Battery 1st Brigade South Division; 7th Battery 1st Brigade North
Division; 8th Battery 1st Brigade London Division; 9th Battery 1st
Brigade Cinque Ports Division Artillery. The following native regiments
were also engaged: 1st, 2nd, 5th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th, 18th,
26th, 27th, 44th Bengal Infantry; 3rd, 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th, 17th,
21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th Madras Infantry; 1st Madras Pioneers; 1st,
5th, 7th, 23rd, 25th, 27th Bombay Infantry; 3rd Goorkas; 2nd and 3rd
Infantry Hyderabad Contingent; 1st, 3rd, 4th, 6th Companies Madras
Sappers and Miners; 2nd, 4th, and 5th Companies Bengal Sappers and
Miners; 2nd Company Bombay Sappers; 1st Madras and 1st Bombay Lancers;
2nd Squadron 2nd Madras Cavalry; 3rd Cavalry Hyderabad Contingent; 7th
Bengal Cavalry; No. 1 Bombay Mountain Battery; No. 4 Punjab Mountain

=Naga, 1879-80.=--To those engaged in the operations against the Nagas,
an uncivilised race of hillmen in the north-east of Assam, during March
1875, December 1879, and January 1880, a bar inscribed NAGA 1879-80 was
awarded. Only British officers and native troops received this medal
or bar, and it has so far been seldom met with in England. The medals
realise in the sale-room, according to condition, anything between 10s.
and 30s. apiece.

The Naga expeditionary force comprised the 42nd, 43rd, and 44th
Goorkas; 18th Bengal Native Infantry, with the crews of two mountain

=Sikkim, 1888.=--Another expedition into Sikkim became necessary in
March 1888, owing to an attempt on the part of the Thibetans to annex
the district which lies to the north of Darjeeling. The British field
force under Colonel (afterwards General) T. Graham had to march over
rough mountain tracks, and through dense jungle, where pestilent
leeches, attaching themselves to man and beast, added to the hardships
of the campaign. It was not until September 24th that any really big
action was fought, and that was decisive; the Thibetan army of 10,000
men being attacked on the Tukola ridge, and within a short time totally
routed by the British force of 2,000 with comparatively little loss to
the victors.

The force engaged in this campaign was mainly composed of Goorkas, the
32nd Bengal Pioneers, and two companies of the 2nd Batt. Derbyshire
Regiment. The bar for SIKKIM 1888 was added to the medal already won by
those who had taken part in the Indian wars, and the medal with bar was
granted to those who did not possess one. Bronze medals with the bar
were awarded to authorised followers.

=The Black Mountain Expedition.=--In 1888 a punitive expedition
under Brigadier-General M'Queen, C.B., was sent into the Hazara or
Black Mountain district on the left bank of the Indus, beyond the
north-west frontier of India, to punish Khan Khel and to chastise the
Azakis and Hassanzais for the murder on June 18th of Major Battye,
Captain Thurston, and a number of the native surveying party which
they led. The district lies in a perfect maze of mountains, on the
crags and precipices of which watch-towers and villages were perched,
frequently 9,000 feet above sea-level; indeed, the Northumberland
Fusiliers and the Kybeerees actually carried the Gorapher Peak 9,500
feet above sea-level, thus establishing a record in altitude for an
assault by British troops. The expedition entered the district from
two directions, and the fourth column concentrating on October 1st
prepared to act on the offensive. On the 4th they proceeded against the
enemy, who was found in great force--official figures say 4,000--at the
village of Kotkai, which, built upon a great mass of broken rocks on
a steep spur, was defended by well-built sangars, but this was taken
after some hard fighting, in which the 18th Royal Irish met a charge
of Ghazis, who rushed from cover and surprised the Irishmen, but they
"went at them with a will, bayoneting or shooting every Ghazi within
reach." In this rush 88 fanatics paid the penalty of their madness.

Leaving the 29th Punjab Infantry in possession of Kotkai as an
advance post, the expedition pushed on and blew up the hill fortress
of Maidan; meanwhile the other column had been pressing forward from
the Agror Valley, climbing mountains and destroying watch-towers and
hostile villages, so that the pressure of the two forces, together
with the losses they had sustained, compelled the hillmen to sue for
peace, promising better behaviour in the future, and paying the heavy
indemnities imposed. In this campaign, which concluded on November 9th,
the Hazara field force lost 2 officers mortally wounded, and about 100
men killed and wounded.

The following regiments were engaged in the Hazara or Black Mountain
expedition: 1st Batt. Northumberland Fusiliers; 1st Batt. Suffolk
Regiment; 2nd Batt. Royal Irish Regiment; 2nd Batt. Sussex Regiment;
2nd Batt. Seaforth Highlanders; 240 men of the Scottish Division Royal
Artillery; 4th Goorkas; 3rd, 14th, and 45th Sikhs; 4th, 24th, and 29th
Punjab Infantry; 4th Bengal Native Infantry; 34th Pioneers; 15th Bengal
Cavalry, and a Native Mountain Battery.

=Hazara, 1888.=--To those not already in possession of the India medal
it was awarded with the bar HAZARA 1888, while the bar was added to the
medals of those who already possessed the I.G.S. 1854 medal. Bronze
medals were awarded to the followers.

=Chin-Lushai, 1889-90.=--In February 1889 an attack was made upon
another surveying party under Lieutenant Stewart, in which he and his
men were killed. A punitive expedition was consequently formed to
proceed against the tribes inhabiting the Chin Hills and Lushai. The
expedition advanced on November 15th in two columns, Brigadier-General
Symons proceeding against the Chin tribes, and Colonel Tregear against
the Lushais. The little forces had to make their way through the
roadless and pestilent jungle, which caused the troops much suffering
from disease, until, having destroyed the enemy's villages and crops,
and captured a few stockades, the chiefs of the tribes thought it
expedient to submit, which they did, and on April 30th, 1890, the
expedition was disbanded.

The following troops took part in the expedition: those under General
Symons were the King's Own Scottish Borderers, detachments of the 1st
Cheshire Regiment and the Norfolk Regiment, who with the 2nd Batt. 4th
and 24th Goorkas, and two companies of the Queen's Own Madras Sappers
and Miners, constituted the Burma Field Force. The native troops under
Brigadier Tregear consisted of the 2nd Goorkas, 3rd and 9th Bengal
Infantry, 28th Bombay Pioneers, and one company of Bengal Sappers and
Miners. The India Medal 1854 with bar for CHIN-LUSHAI 1889-90 was
given to those who did not already possess the medal, while to those
already issued the bar was added. A bronze medal and bar was given to
all authorised camp followers.

=Samana, 1891.=--The Meeranzies, a Pathan tribe, forgetful of the
lesson given them by Sir Neville Chamberlain in 1855, again caused
considerable trouble in 1891, and Sir William Lockhart marched from
Kohat on April 5th to chastise them. Being defeated with considerable
losses at Mastaon, they were glad to submit, and by May 25th the war
was concluded, and native troops were left to garrison Samana. The
British losses in this expedition were over 100 officers and men killed
and wounded.

The following regiments were engaged: 1st Batt. King's Royal Rifles,
two companies of the 2nd Batt. Manchester Regiment and No. 3 Mountain
Battery of the Royal Artillery; 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Punjab
Infantry; 3rd Sikh Infantry; 1st Batt. 5th Goorkas; 15th Sikhs; 19th,
22nd, 27th, and 29th Bengal Infantry; 23rd Punjab Pioneers; 19th Bengal
Lancers; Bengal Sappers and Miners, and No. 3 Peshawar Mountain Battery.

The India Medal 1854, with bar for SAMANA 1891, was awarded for this
campaign; bronze medals with bar being given to authorised followers.

=Hazara, 1891.=--In 1891 trouble again broke out in the Black Mountain
district, and another punitive expedition under Major-General Ellis was
necessary in order to compel that respect for British authority which
it was believed the campaign that had only concluded about sixteen
months previously had succeeded in achieving. The expedition set out on
March 12th, and took a couple of months to bring the tribes to their
senses. On May 16th they surrendered unconditionally, hostilities were
concluded, and the troops returned.

The Hazara Field Force of 1891 comprised the 1st Royal Welsh
Fusiliers; 2nd Seaforth Highlanders; 1st King's Royal Rifles; 6 men
of the 2nd Manchester; Nos. 1 and 9 Mountain Batteries of the Royal
Artillery; 4th Sikh Infantry; 5th Goorkas; 11th, 19th, 27th, 28th, and
37th Bengal Infantry; Bengal Sappers and Miners; 32nd Punjab Pioneers;
Infantry of the Guides Corps, and the 2nd Derajat Mountain Battery.
The I.G.S. 1854 Medal was given in silver to the troops, and in bronze
to authorised camp followers, with bar inscribed HAZARA 1891. Those
already in possession of the medal had the bar attached thereto.

=Burma, 1889-92.=--During the years 1889-90-1-2 a series of expeditions
was organised to put down disturbances in Burma and Lushai; for the
services rendered by the various forces the India Medal 1854, with
bars for BURMA 1889-92 and LUSHAI 1889-92, were issued to the troops
who took part in the following expeditions: The Pokhau expedition
from April 16th to May 16th, 1889; Touhon expedition from September
17th, 1889, to April 1890; Chinbok Column, January 1st to 20th, 1890;
Thetta Column, January 1st to 4th, 1891; Chinbok Column, January 8th to
February 14th, 1891; Morneik Column, January 27th to March 28th, 1891;
Wuntho Field Force, February 18th to May 7th, 1891; Tlang-Tlang Column,
March 29th to April 3rd, 1891; Baungshe Column, December 25th, 1891, to
February 29th, 1892; Irrawaddy Column, December 15th, 1891, to April
18th, 1892; North-Eastern Column, December 15th, 1891, to April 7th,

=Lushai, 1889-92.=--The medal with bar LUSHAI 1889-92 was awarded to
the officers and men comprising the Lushai Expeditionary Force from
January 11th to May 5th, 1889; the relieving force under Lieutenants
Swinton, Cole, and Watson, which went to the assistance of the forts
Ayal and Changsil when attacked by the Lushais, September 9th to
December 9th, 1890; the expedition under Captain Hutchinson against the
Jacopa Village to avenge the attack on Mr. Murray, February 20th to
March 3rd, 1891; the expedition under Captain Lock from March 1st to
June 1892, necessitated by the general rising of the Eastern Lushais,
and the attack at Lalbura upon a force under Mr. M. Cabe; also the
force under Captain Shakespear, which advanced into the South Lushai
hills between March 16th and May 13th, 1892. All dates are inclusive.





Two divisions took part in this campaign, and European troops
participated only with the Burma section. 1st King's Own Scottish
Borderers, and detachments of 1st Batt. Cheshire and Norfolk Regiments.
The native troops were: 2nd Batt. 4th and the 42nd Goorkas; two
companies of the Queen's Own Madras Sappers and Miners. The troops
engaged with the Chittagong column were: 2nd Goorkas, 3rd and 9th
Bengal Infantry; 28th Bombay Pioneers, and a company of Bengal Sappers
and Miners.

=North-East Frontier, 1891.=--Early in 1891 the British Resident at
Manipur was attacked, and columns from Tamu on March 28th, Silchar on
April 15th, and Kohmia on April 20th were sent forward to secure the
submission of the Rajah and the punishment of those responsible for the
attack on the Resident. The Rajah submitted to the terms laid down, and
by May 7th, 1891, the campaign was brought to a conclusion.

The Manipur Field Force consisted of about 300 of the 4th King's Royal
Rifles; 1st Batt. 2nd Goorkas; 2nd Batt. 4th Goorkas; detachments of
the 42nd, 43rd, and 44th Goorkas; 18th Bengal Infantry, and the 8th
Bengal Mountain Battery. For this expedition the bar for the N.E.
FRONTIER 1891 was added to the India General Service Medal 1854.

=Hunza, 1891.=--Lieutenant-Colonel Algernon Durand had foreseen that
trouble was brewing, and made very praiseworthy efforts not only to
circumvent it, but to ensure that should hostilities occur he would be
in a position to defend himself against the robbers and slave-dealers
who surrounded him. An attack had been made on the Chalt garrison,
and further trouble was anticipated when Durand informed the chiefs
of Hunza and Nagar, without referring to their misconduct, that the
British intended having free access to their territory in order that
"all requisite arrangements might be made for holding the frontier, and
that unless they complied with our demands troops would enter their
country, and make roads in spite of them." The tribesmen armed, and
"confident in the strength of their defiles ... and to defeat Kashmir
troops as of yore," they collected, and Colonel Durand concentrated
at Chalt, from whence on November 29th an ultimatum was sent to the
chiefs; but the envoy was insulted and robbed of his horse, so the
British force crossed the Hunza River on December 1st by a temporary
bridge thrown by Captain Aylmer, V.C., and the war which Colonel Durand
had striven to prevent commenced, and with a little force of 1,000 men
and 2 guns he opposed himself to about 5,000 or 6,000 men.

The force was made up of 180 of the 5th Goorkas, 400 Goorkas and
Dogras of the Kashmir Bodyguard, 250 Dogras of the Kashmir Raga Pertab
Regiment, 150 Punyali levies, and the commander's personal escort--20
men of the 20th Punjab Infantry. The only Europeans present were
officers. The forts of Nilt were assaulted and captured after very
desperate fighting, in which Captain Aylmer and Colonel Durand were
severely wounded, and in the moment of victory the command passed out
of the latter's hand. In two hours the place was captured, but owing to
the failure to advance 4 British officers had been lost, and nearly 40
men killed and wounded after the successful assault. The cliff opposite
Nilt, a very difficult position, was next scaled after "a little Dogra
sepoy named Nagdu one night succeeded in climbing 1,200 feet up the
cliff, and found a practicable path." Then the place was stormed by
the men under the command of Captain Colin Mackenzie of the Seaforths;
Lieutenant Manners-Smith led a little body of Kashmir troops up a cliff
1,000 feet high, and within two days Nagar was occupied, and the Hunza
chief with Uzr Khan fled across the frontier. It is noteworthy that
from the men of the district against whom we had fought, Colonel Durand
raised the Hunza-Nagar levies who later fought so well for us.

In this little hard-fought campaign three Victoria Crosses were
won, by Captain (now Major-General C. B.) Aylmer, Lieutenant (now
Major) Boisragon, and Lieutenant (now Lieutenant-Colonel C. I. E.)
Manners-Smith, while several of the native troops earned the Order of
Merit for their gallantry and devotion.

For this arduous expedition the I.G.S. Medal 1854, with bar for HUNZA
1891, was issued to those participants who had not already received the
medal for other services. Those who possessed the medal received the
bar only.

=East and West Africa.=--A great deal of fighting had been forced upon
us by the African tribes, against whom expeditions or columns had
been sent from 1887 to 1892. First against the Yonnie Tribe, when the
coloured men of the 1st West India Regiment fought side by side with
men from the crews of H.M.S. "Acorn," "Icarus," and "Rifleman," from
November 13th, 1887, to January 2nd, 1888. Next an expedition had to
be sent up the Gambia River, the men of H.M.S. "Swallow" composing the
force which operated between December 29th, 1891, and February 5th,
1892. Then the 1st West India Regiment again took the field on March
8th, 1892, against Tambi, men of H.M.S. "Alecto," "Race," "Sparrow,"
"Thrust," and "Widgeon" co-operating, and in the same year the native
troops took part in the expedition against Toniataba, and in the
expedition against the Jebus. For these services a medal similar to
that issued for the Ashantee War was granted on November 1st, 1892,
but, as in the case of the Zulu War medal, dates upon the bars are the
only indication of the particular service, or services, rendered. Three
bars were sanctioned, 1887-8, 1891-2, and 1892, so that the last bar
was issued for three different expeditions. This is known as the East
and West Africa medal, but it was not a distinct issue, for those
who possessed the Ashantee medal were only given the bar or bars. The
ribbon is the same as used for suspension with the Ashantee medal, and
the names were either engraved or impressed on the edge of the medal.

=Central Africa Medal.=--In 1895 a series of operations were found
necessary in Central Africa, and to decorate the native troops engaged
the same medal was awarded without bars. It was, however, suspended
from a brown, white, and black ribbon, 1¾ in. wide, by means of a
swivel ring, so that the ribbon was run through the ring as in the case
of the Abyssinian medal. This slight distinction, and the issue of a
new ribbon, constitutes the medal a distinct decoration, and those who
had already received the West African medal were entitled to it. It,
moreover, distinguishes the Central Africa medal from the East and West
Africa medal, which again had name bars added for WITU 1890 to the
crews of ten of H.M. ships; LIWONDI 1893 to 3 officers and 34 men of
H.M.S. "Herald" and "Mosquito"; WITU AUGUST 1893 to 200 seamen and 36
marines; JUBA RIVER 1893 to 1 officer and 40 men of the "Blanche"; LAKE
NYASSA 1893 to 100 Sikhs and parties of men from H.M.S. "Adventurer"
and "Pioneer"; a bar inscribed 1893-94 was issued to those who took
part in the operations against the Sofas from November 1893 to January
1894; GAMBIA 1894 was inscribed on the bar to 50 of the 1st W.I.R. and
parties of seamen and marines from four of H.M. ships; BRASS RIVER 1895
to men of four of H.M. ships, and NIGER 1897 to the troops taking part
in the expedition to Egbon, Bida, and Ilorin or garrisoning Fort Goldie
and Lokoja from January 6th to February 25th, 1897. The bars are square
and set somewhat far apart; the name and rating, etc., of the recipient
impressed on the edge.

Between January 1894 and April 1898 a series of operations and
expeditions was found necessary against various chiefs in British
Central Africa, and for these a bar inscribed CENTRAL AFRICA 1894-1898
was added to the Central Africa medal, which when issued in 1895 had
a swivel ring instead of a clasp. When the bars were added in 1899 the
straight-bar clasp with claw clutch--as used with the first issue of
this medal, the Ashantee--replaced the swivel ring.

=Ashanti, 1896.=--In 1895 trouble in Ashantee necessitated the sending
of a small force, comprising the 2nd Batt. of the West Yorkshire
Regiment, and a composite battalion made up of 20 men of each of
the three Guards Regiments, and the following eight regiments: 1st
Yorkshire Light Infantry, 1st Leinster Regiment, 1st Northumberland
Fusiliers, 2nd Royal Irish Fusiliers, 2nd Devons, 2nd Shropshire Light
Infantry, 3rd Batt. Royal Rifles, 2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade, together
with the necessary detachments of Artillery, Engineers, Army Service,
Ordnance, and Medical Corps. For this campaign against King Prempeh,
a very distinctive decoration was given: a St. Andrew's Cross bisects
the corners of a four-pointed star, over which is a circular centre
containing the Imperial crown surrounded by a plain band inscribed
~ASHANTI~ above, and ~1896~ below. On the back, in raised letters, is
the inscription FROM THE QUEEN. The star is suspended from a yellow
ribbon, with rather broad black stripes near the edges, by means of a
ring; it was issued unnamed, but the Colonel of the Yorkshires had the
name of each of his men and that of the regiment engraved upon their

=West African Medal.=--For their services against Mwele a number of
men from four of H.M. ships were awarded the West African medal,
but, instead of a bar, MWELE 1895-6 was impressed on the edge, on
either side of the clasp claw, together with the name and ship of the
recipient. Those already in possession of the medal had Mwele and the
date engraved on the edge. The 24th and 26th Bombay Infantry were also
engaged, and they likewise received the medal: the latter have the
names, etc., engraved in slanting script like India 1895 medals. A bar
for NIGER 1897 was issued later, and in 1898 bars for BENIN 1897 were
issued to men from nine of H.M. ships, and a bar for DAWKITA 1897 was
also added for the members of the Gold Coast Constabulary who took part
in the defence of Dawkita. In 1899 authority was given to add the bar
for SIERRA LEONE 1898-99 to the East and West Africa medal for those
engaged in the country between February 1898 and March 1899. Men of
the West African Rifles and 1st West India Regiment were engaged, also
some Royal Garrison Artillerymen. The name and date are arranged in
two lines, and the bar is consequently rather wider than the others.
The named edges are engraved in capital Roman letters, but some issued
to Europeans are impressed. In 1900 it was decided to issue four more
bars, and to revert to the use of dates instead of names; these bars
cover 1896-8, 1897-8, 1898, and 1899. In the following year the bar
inscribed 1896-99 was issued to those who had been employed in the
northern parts of the Gold Coast, or in the hinterland of Lagos; later
those who had been engaged in the Kadima and Munchi expeditions were
awarded the medal and bar for 1900.

=The Relief of Chitral.=--Early in 1895 the war cloud was gathering in
Chitral; the Nizam-ul-Mulk, the nominee of the British, had been shot
at the instigation of his supposedly idiot half-brother, Amir-ul-Mulk,
and the Indian Government was in no great haste to recognise the
succession attained in such a way, especially as the Mehtar indulged in
the most savagely murderous deeds. Later came the news to Surgeon-Major
(afterwards Sir George) Robertson that on the night of January 22nd
Umra Khan had crossed the Lowari Pass into Chitral territory with 3,000
or 4,000 followers, demanding that Amir-ul-Mulk should join him. Then
Robertson made up his mind to reach Chitral, and occupy the fort in the
valley, as speedily as possible. The little force pressed on, many an
unfortunate man getting frost-bitten during the terribly cold nights.
An ultimatum was then sent to Umra Khan, indicating that he must at
once leave Chitralis territory. Of course he did not; one or two
unfortunate affairs happened--the disaster at Mastuj and at the Koragh
defile, where a number of the surviving Sikhs, after existing without
food or water for seven or eight days, were cajoled, by the promise
of life, from the little sangars in which they had taken refuge, and
then cruelly murdered. The gallant defence of Rashun under Edwardes and
Fowler, until they were captured by the cunning of Muhammad Isa, must
be mentioned _en passant_.

On March 27th the famous march to Chitral began, and to join up with
the force marching from India Colonel J. G. Kelly set out with his
little force of 400 of the 32nd Pioneers and 40 Kashmir Sappers, with
two mountain guns, from Gupis. Laboriously climbing the hill tracks,
a foot deep in snow, until almost snowblind, his men reached Ghizr,
10,000 feet above sea-level, where a body of Hunza-Nagar levies were
encamped. These he added to his force; then Kelly endeavoured to push
through the great carpet of snow 3 feet thick. It was of no avail, for
the pitiless snow blinded his men, and he had to return to Ghizr until
it stopped, which it did on April 3rd. Of the heroic march of these
men, of the difficulties they faced and undauntedly overcame, one is
tempted to write at great length, but Sir George Robertson does fitting
justice to this party of his rescuers in "Chitral, the Story of a Minor

The main force from India under Major-General Sir Robert Low advanced
across the Malakund Pass after a smart fight on April 3rd, in which
the Gordons and Scottish Borderers, "racing for the honour of their
regiments ... swarmed over the Dechoities at a wonderful speed, and
breathless but triumphant had crowned the pass by 2 o'clock, the
60th Rifles being close up." Here the British force lost 11 killed,
and 47 wounded. The Jandol Valley was attacked on April 17th, and
occupied next day. On the 19th General Gatacre started with a couple
of battalions and some guns for Dir and Chitral; pushing across the
rugged Janbatai ridge, he learned that the garrison of Chitral was
almost at its last gasp--and five days' march lay between him and his
goal! He therefore asked permission from Sir Robert Low to make a dash
for Chitral with 500 of the Buffs, a few native sappers, and a couple
of mountain guns; but when sanction was obtained it was learned that
Kelly had reached Chitral, and that there was no need to hurry.

=The Defence of Chitral.=--Meanwhile Surgeon-Major Robertson had
"directed" by a gesture Amir-ul-Mulk to leave the Mehtarship, and had
raised in his stead his little brother Shuja-ul-Mulk. Then on March
3rd an unfortunate and desperate fight took place, in which Surgeon
Whitchurch earned the V.C. by one of the most unselfish actions on
record, and some devoted Goorkas gained the Order of Merit for the
rescue of a mortally wounded officer. On March 4th the siege began in
earnest, and preparations were made for the defence. Within the walls
were 550 persons to be fed; to defend the place about "340 riflemen,
but, excluding those in hospital, only 83 Sikhs--good shots, and
trustworthy soldiers," and 52 Chitralis. How well they held the fort
until the enemy melted away on April 18th, 1895, is one of the glorious
records of British pluck and Indian devotion and gallantry. During the
siege, and the reconnaissance of March 3rd, 41 were killed, and 62
wounded, the latter including the commander.

The following took part in the defence: Sir George Robertson, K.C.,
S.I., and 6 officers; Surgeon-Captain H. F. Whitchurch, 90 of the 14th
Sikhs, 300 of the 16th Punjabis, and 4th Kashmir Rifles, assisted by
about 40 servants and followers, who likewise received the India Medal
1895, with bar for the DEFENCE OF CHITRAL 1895. It is noteworthy that
the new medal is thicker than the one it replaced, and weighs 1¼ oz.
instead of 1 oz.

=The India Medal, 1895.=--For the Defence and Relief of Chitral it was
decided to issue a new India medal, and as a result that illustrated
facing page 192 was designed "to commemorate the military operations
in, and on the frontier of, India, and to be in future known as 'The
India Medal 1895.'" The bars are the same in design as those used on
the old India medal.

In 1898 another bar was awarded to those who had taken part in the
operations on the North-West Frontier between June 10th, 1897, and
April 6th, 1898, and to those who formed the Tirah expeditionary force
which proceeded beyond Kohat or Peshawar between October 1897 and April
6th, 1898. This bar was inscribed PUNJAB FRONTIER 1897-8. In 1897,
as a result of the efforts of fanatical priests, the hillmen in the
Tochi Valley made an attack upon a British officer and his escort, and
then, following an outbreak in the Swat Valley, Malakand was attacked
by thousands of the natives, but through the gallant efforts of the
little garrison the place was held until the arrival of the relieving
force. The troops who took part in the defence and relief of Malakand
and Chakdara received the bar inscribed MALAKAND 1897. During the same
year it was found necessary to again take up arms against the Pathan
Meeranzies, and the troops engaged received the bar for SAMANA 1897.
In August 1897 the Afridis, Mohmands, and Orakzais combined against
the British, and troops were sent to the frontier. That portion of
the Tirah expeditionary force which was also engaged beyond Kohat and
Peshawar, likewise the Kurram Movable Column and the Peshawar Column,
between October 1897 and the early part of April 1898, received the bar
for the TIRAH 1897-98. This campaign is made famous by the storming
of the heights of Dargai, and the coolness of Piper Findlater of the
Gordon Highlanders, who continued to play his pipes when a bullet had
crippled him. He was awarded the V.C.

The following troops were engaged in the various forces employed: the
Mohmand Field Force comprised, in the 1st Brigade, 2nd Batt. Argyll and
Sutherland Highlanders; 1st Punjab Infantry; 1st Sikhs; 33rd Bengal
Infantry; 2nd Company of the Bengal Sappers and Miners; 6 guns of the
Peshawar Battery, and a detachment of the Hospital Staff. The 2nd
Brigade included the Somerset Light Infantry; 3rd Batt. Rifle Brigade;
6th Bengal Infantry; 14th Sikhs; 25th Punjab Infantry; a squadron of
the 1st Punjab Cavalry; 13th Bengal Lancers; 4 guns of the 6th Bombay
Mountain Battery, and 51st Field Battery.

The Malakand Field Force comprised, in the 1st Brigade, 1st Somerset
Light Infantry; 2nd Batt. 1st Goorkas, and the 21st Bengal Infantry.
The 2nd Brigade included 2nd Oxfordshire Light Infantry; a regiment
of the Imperial Service Troops; 9th Goorkas; 37th Bengal Infantry;
28th Bombay Infantry; two squadrons 11th Bengal Lancers, and the 13th
Bengal Lancers; 3rd Mountain Battery of the R.A.; No. 5 Bombay Mountain
Battery; No. 8 Bengal Mountain Battery; No. 4 and No. 5 Companies
Bengal Sappers and Miners. The 3rd Brigade consisted of 1st Royal West
Surrey Regiment; two squadrons of the 4th Dragoon Guards and 11th
Hussars; K Battery Royal Horse Artillery; No. 1 Mountain Battery R.A.;
22nd and 39th Bengal Infantry; No. 3 Company Bengal Sappers and Miners;
two squadrons of the 11th Bengal Lancers.

The Samana Force comprised, in the 1st Brigade, 1st Royal West Kent
Regiment; 24th and 31st Punjab Infantry; 45th Sikhs. Included in the
2nd Brigade were 1st Buffs; 35th Sikhs; 38th Dogras; Guides Infantry;
two squadrons 11th Bengal Lancers; 5th Bengal Mounted Battery; 5th
Company of Bengal Sappers and Miners. The 3rd Brigade was made up of
1st Batt. Queen's; No. 1 Battery R.A.; 22nd Punjab Infantry; 38th
Bengal Infantry; 39th Gahrwalis; 3rd Company Bengal Sappers and Miners;
half company of Madras Sappers; a squadron of the 10th Bengal Lancers,
and 2 of the 11th.

The Tirah Field Force was made up of two divisions of two brigades
each. The 1st Division comprised: 2nd Devons; 2nd Yorkshire Regiment;
1st Royal West Surrey; 2nd Royal Irish; No. 1 Mountain Battery R.A.;
2nd Batt. 1st Goorkas; 2nd Batt. 4th Goorkas; 3rd Sikh Infantry;
28th Bombay Infantry; 30th Bengal Infantry; Kapurthala Infantry; two
squadrons of 18th Bengal Cavalry; No. 1 Kohat Mountain Battery; No.
2 Derajat Mountain Battery; 3rd and 4th Companies Bombay Sappers and
Miners; Maler Kotla Sappers. The 2nd Division included: 1st Gordons;
1st Dorsets; 1st Northamptons; 2nd King's Own Borderers; Nos. 8 and 9
Batteries R.A.; 1st Batt. 2nd and 3rd Goorkas; 36th Bengal Infantry;
Jhind Infantry; 21st Madras Infantry; two squadrons 18th Bengal
Lancers; No. 4 Company Madras Sappers and Miners; Sirmoor Sappers.

The lines of communication were kept by the 22nd and 39th Bengal
Infantry; 2nd Batt. 2nd Goorkas; 2nd Punjab Infantry; 3rd Bengal
Cavalry; Jeypore and Gwalior Transport Corps.

The Kurram Column consisted of: 4 guns 3rd Field Battery R.A.; 12th
Bengal Infantry; Nabha Infantry; Central India Horse; 6th Bengal

The Peshawar Column was composed of: 2nd Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers;
2nd Oxford Light Infantry; 3rd Mountain Battery R.A.; 57th Field
Battery R.A.; 9th and 45th Bengal Infantry; 9th Bengal Cavalry; No. 5
Company Bengal Sappers and Miners.

In reserve was the Rawul Pindi Brigade, composed of: 2nd Yorkshire
Light Infantry; 1st Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry; 2nd Hyderabad
Infantry; 27th Bombay Infantry, and the Jodhphur Lancers.

=Matabeleland, 1893.=--The first Matabele War, which broke out in 1893,
will always be remembered for the brave but unavailing stand made by
Major Wilson's little band at the Shangani River. Then Lobengula was
defeated, and things settled down--as they generally did in South
Africa--for a time, for within three years a second Matabele War had
to be contended with until by December 31st, 1896, the natives in
Rhodesia had been quietened again. In this latter war Prince Alexander
of Teck took part with his regiment, the 7th Hussars.

=Bechuanaland.=--At Christmastide a rebellion broke out at Pokwani
in Bechuanaland, about 40 miles north of Kimberley. The Cape Mounted
Police and the Diamond Fields Police set out on Christmas Eve to deal
with the recalcitrant natives, and after manœuvring in the pouring rain
all Christmas Day, the chief's stronghold was attacked and carried on
Boxing Day, and the rising was entirely crushed by December 27th, 1896.
For this short campaign the Cape Government, with the approval of the
Home Government, issued a medal in 1900 to those who had participated
in this and other campaigns against the natives, and bars were issued
for service in Basutoland in 1880-1, and Transkei, 1880-1, including
Griqualand East and Tembuland.

=The Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal.=--The medal awarded is
entitled the Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal; it is 1⁷⁄₁₆
in. in diameter, and bears on the obverse the bust of Queen Victoria
facing left, with the inscription VICTORIA REGINA ET IMPERATRIX. On
the reverse are the arms of Cape Colony, and the motto SPES CONA. It
is suspended from a 1¼ in. blue ribbon, with a broad yellow stripe
down the centre. The bars issued with the medal are, reading upwards
from the medal, BASUTOLAND, TRANSKEI, BECHUANALAND. The only soldiers
connected with the Imperial forces who received this medal with any of
the bars were officers serving with the Colonial troops. A medal with
the single bar "Transkei" has realised £3 2_s._ 6_d._ in the sale-room;
with two bars, "Transkei" and "Basutoland," £2 15_s._ The medals are
generally engraved in rather large square Roman capitals.

=The Dongola Expedition.=--The Dongola expedition took place in
1896, and for this the Khedive of Egypt ordered a medal to be issued
to all the British and native troops who served at, and south of,
Sarras between March 30th and September 23rd, 1896, and at Suakin
under Brigadier-General Egerton during the same period. Two bars
were awarded; one inscribed HAFIR for services south of Fareia on
September 29th, and the other FIRKET for those engaged south of
Akashen on June 7th, each name being inscribed in English and Arabic
on a single bar. The medal bears on the reverse an oval shield,
charged with three crescents, and stars above, backed by a trophy of
arms and flags, and a panel below bearing an inscription in Arabic
reading "The recovery of the Sudan, 1314 H." On the obverse is the
cypher of the Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, and ~1314 H.--A.D. 1897~. It
is suspended from an orange-coloured watered ribbon, with a broad
blue stripe down the centre, by means of a straight clasp. The medal
was issued unnamed; bronze medals without bars were issued to camp
followers and non-combatants. This being a foreign decoration it was
necessary for Queen Victoria to give her troops permission to wear
the medal. The first British regiment to receive it was the 1st Batt.
North Staffordshires. Later the following regiments received the medal
without bars, which were added afterwards: 1st Seaforth and Cameron
Highlanders; half a battalion of the 1st Lincolns; 21st Lancers; a
detachment of the 16th Company Eastern Division R.A.; 32nd Field
Battery R.A.; 2nd Company Royal Engineers. To those who took part in
the operations at and about Kerma, on the Nile, in 1897, the Khedive's
medal was given with a bar inscribed SUDAN 1897, and to those who
were engaged at and near Assouan and Abu-Hamed the medal with bar for
ABU-HAMED was awarded; the bars only being issued to those already in
possession of the medal.

=Matabeleland, 1893, and Rhodesia, 1896.=--In 1896 Queen Victoria
authorised the granting of a medal by the British South Africa Company
to its own forces and details from British regiments and the local
Mounted Rifles and Police. All who took part in hostilities between
October 16th and Christmas Eve 1893 were awarded the medal for
MATABELELAND, and those only of the Queen's officers who had received
permission to take part in the operations were allowed to accept and
wear the medal. It is 1⁷⁄₁₆ in. in diameter, and has on the reverse a
representation of the British lion boldly charging, though wounded in
the chest with an assegai. In the exergue, in tall thin Roman capitals,
or RHODESIA 1896. On the obverse is a rather poor effigy of Queen
Victoria. The suspender is very ornate, the rose, shamrock, and thistle
having been used in a weak sort of manner to decorate it. This clasp
or suspender is the most unsuitable and least beautiful of any in the
whole series. The ribbon, 1-1\4 in. wide, is composed of three blue and
four yellow stripes. It is the first instance of a chartered company
being authorised to award a medal since the H.E.I. Co. gave the Mutiny
medal. A bar for Rhodesia 1896 was given to those already in possession
of the medal. The bar for MASHONALAND 1897 was added the following
year, but those who did not possess the medal were awarded one with the
name and date on the reverse as explained above. In this campaign the
only Imperial troops employed were detachments of the 2nd Hampshires
and the 7th Hussars.

=Regiments Engaged.=--Among those who received the medal for
Matabeleland were a company of the 2nd W. Riding Regiment; 1 officer
and 18 men of the 1st Batt. "Black Watch"; 3 men of the 2nd York and
Lancaster Regiment; a detachment of the 3rd Dragoon Guards; Cape
Mounted Rifles and British Bechuanaland Police. Those entitled to wear
the medal for services in Rhodesia between March 24th and December
31st, 1896, were details of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Royal Rifles; 2nd and
4th Rifle Brigade; 1st Royal Irish; 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers; 2nd
Royal Irish Fusiliers; 1st Derbys; 1st Leicesters; 2nd Norfolks; 2nd
Hampshires; 2nd Royal West Kent; 2nd W. Riding Regiment; 2nd York and
Lancasters; 24th, 25th, and 26th Western Division Royal Artillery;
Army Ordnance and Army Service Corps. The 7th Hussars was the only
cavalry regiment employed.


The battles of Toski in 1889, or Tokar in 1890, did not settle the
unrest in Egypt. It smouldered and again broke into serious flame in
1897. Thanks, however, to the admirable organisation of the Egyptian
army by Earl (then Sir Herbert) Kitchener, and the prompt measures
which he took to deal with the Dervishes, the British flag and the
Egyptian crescent soon flew over what remained of the Residency of
Khartoum. Before, however, this was achieved the battles of the Atbara
and Omdurman had to be fought, and for these bars bearing the legends
THE ATBARA and KHARTOUM were issued with the medal to those who took
part in the fights.

=The Atbara.=--The battle of the Atbara was fought on the morning
of Good Friday 1898, the attack of the Anglo-Egyptian army of about
12,000 men being made at sunrise after a night march, during which
the troops had plodded across the desert from Umdabieh in brilliant
moonlight; they halted just before 5 o'clock for a rest, during which
they shiveringly discussed the prospects of the battle, for if the days
are scorching in the Sudan, the nights are icily cold. Then the squares
formed, and the army marched forward to battle. At first the artillery
played upon Mahmud's camp, but the Dervishes seemed to take little
heed of it, for it is said it was fully half an hour before they began
to reply with their rifles. Then at 7.30 a.m. the great guns stopped;
the bugles rang out "Advance!" and as the pipers played "The March of
the Cameron Men," the infantry advanced to the attack. Again the enemy
took little heed, until the Cameron men reached the top of the ridge
overlooking the zareba, and then the rifles of the Dervishes rang
out, but they could not stop the Camerons' onslaught; followed by the
Lincolns, the Seaforths, and the Warwicks, they went clean through the
zareba. General Gatacre and Private Cross of the Camerons distinguished
themselves by being the first in. The onslaught of the British and
Sudanese was irresistible, and whoever could of the fighting Dervishes
rushed riverward. Osman Digna again decamped, but a number of other
leaders, including Mahmud, were either killed or taken prisoners; 4,000
Dervishes were taken prisoners, and 3,000 killed. The Camerons lost
Captain Finlay and Urquhart, and the Seaforths Lieutenant Gore, the
three Scots officers falling as they led their men into the zareba;
18 men were also killed, and 88 wounded. Fourteen native officers
were killed, while the native regiments also lost 50 killed, and 319
wounded. The Sirdar at the conclusion of the battle highly complimented
the Colonel of the Camerons upon the steadiness of their advance in
face of the fire which greeted them at the zareba.

=Omdurman.=--This battle quieted the Dervishes until August, when
preparations were made to give them the _coup de grâce_. This happened
on September 2nd, 1898, at Omdurman--made famous by the maiden charge
of the 21st Lancers under Captain Martin against enormous odds--when
the enemy lost 11,000 killed, 16,000 wounded, and 4,000 made prisoners.
The British infantry division was again commanded by General Gatacre,
the Brigadiers being Generals Wauchope and Lyttleton. The 1st Brigade
consisted of the Camerons, Seaforths, Lincolns, and Warwicks, and a
Maxim Battery. The 2nd Brigade comprised 1st Grenadier Guards; 1st
Northumberland Fusiliers; 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers, and 2nd Rifle
Brigade. Macdonald, Maxwell, and Lewis again commanded three brigades
of the Egyptian army, and Collinson Bey a fourth. There were 7,500
Britishers, and 12,000 Egyptians.




On April 2nd the Dervish army advanced against the British, their front
extending for about 3 miles. The British formed an obtuse angle, and
at 6.30 a.m. opened fire upon the advancing hosts with such precision
that hundreds were mown down, but the Dervishes did not falter. As
Steevens said, "No white troops could have faced that torrent for five
minutes, but the Baggara and the blacks came on." There was no fear;
the black-eyed houris were waiting with outstretched arms to receive
such doughty warriors. Still they could not stand against their foe,
but they retired with such caution that they were able to re-form. The
pressure of their well-drilled enemy, however, was too great, and they
began to flee. The bravest of them, however, planted their standards
as rallying-points, and stood their ground until they were killed; the
others appeared to be making for Omdurman, 5 miles from the scene of
battle, and to prevent this the 21st Lancers were ordered to charge.
They hacked their way through the dense mass of men who feared nothing.
Then the Khalifa's stalwarts made a last effort, but Macdonald's
Sudanese steadily met the onslaught; repulsed it, sent the Dervishes
flying in all directions, and the battle of Omdurman was won. Mahdism
was worsted, but Osman Digna had again eluded the victors. At last
Khartoum was taken, the captives set free, and the dominion of the
rebel slave-trader overthrown.

=Khartoum.=--To those who took part in this battle, which ended in
the taking of Khartoum, a bar for KHARTOUM was added to the Khedive's
medal, and a bar for GEDAREF to all engaged in the capture of the
place, and the fighting which followed in the district.

The following British regiments were engaged in the campaign: 1st
Grenadier Guards; 1st Seaforth and 1st Cameron Highlanders; 1st
Warwicks; 1st Northumberland Fusiliers; 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers; 1st
Lincolns; 2nd Rifle Brigade; a detachment of 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers,
with 4 Maxim guns; 16th Company Eastern Division R.A.; 32nd and 37th
Field Batteries R.A.; 21st Lancers; a detachment of Royal Engineers;
Army Service and Army Ordnance Corps; Royal Army Medical Corps.

=Sudan, 1899, and Gedid.=--Early in 1900 a bar bearing the record SUDAN
1899 was awarded to those who had taken part in the second Dongola
campaign, and a medal with bar for GEDID was issued to those who were
engaged in the actions at that place on November 22nd and 24th, 1899,
which resulted in the defeat of the Khalifa Abdulla El Taaishi. Bronze
medals were issued to the civilian syces and authorised camp followers.
The number of bars issued with the Khedive's Sudan medal varies
from one to eight, but it is seldom that European soldiers received
medals with more than two bars. European officers in some instances
received more, but Major-General Sir Archibald Hunter, I think, has the
distinction of possessing one bearing six bars.

=Three Later Bars.=--In 1905 and 1906 it was decided to add three more
bars to the Khedive's Sudan medal, one for BAHR-EL-GHAZEL 1900-2 for
services rendered in the reconquest of that province; one for JEROK for
operations in the Blue Nile province against Wad-el-Mahmud in 1904; one
for NYAM-NYAM to those employed against the Nyam-Nyam tribesmen in the
province of Bahr-el-Ghazel in 1905.

=Queen's Sudan Medal.=--In March 1899 Her Majesty Queen Victoria
approved of a new medal being struck to commemorate the military
operations in connection with the reconquest of the Sudan. The medal,
1⅖ in. in diameter, in silver was granted to all officers, warrant
officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the British, Indian,
and Egyptian forces, and native allies who were employed in the
military operations in Egypt resulting in the capture of Abu-Hamed, the
reconquest of the Province of Berber, the defeat of Emir Mahmud's army
on the Atbara, and the final operations resulting in the overthrow of
the Khalifa's troops at Khartoum. Civilian syces, civilian servants
of officers, and authorised followers were entitled to the medal in
bronze. No bars were issued with this medal. On the obverse is a
half-length effigy of Queen Victoria, facing left, crowned, with a
lace veil flowing behind, on which a small Imperial crown is placed,
wearing the Ribbon and Star of the Order of the Garter, the Royal
Order of Victoria and Albert, and the Imperial Order of the Crown
of India, holding a sceptre in her right hand. Legend, VICTORIA
REGINA ET IMPERATRIX. On the reverse is a figure of a winged Victory
seated, having a palm-branch in her outstretched right hand, and
a laurel wreath in her left. There are two flags behind on either
side--the British being on the left and the Khedive's to the right;
beneath on the pedestal which supports the figure is the word SUDAN
in intaglio, the space beneath the pedestal being filled by the
decorative disposition of three lilies of the Nile in leaf. This is,
in my opinion, the most symbolic and beautiful medal issued since Wyon
took for his model a Greek coin, and based his figure of Victory--which
adorns the Waterloo medal--upon it. The name of the recipient, together
with his rank and regiment, was generally engraved upon the edge of
the medal in neat Roman capitals. I have seen some with the lettering
impressed in very small Roman capitals. The medal is suspended by a
straight bar from a black and yellow ribbon 1¼ in. wide, divided down
the centre by a narrow crimson stripe.

=East and Central Africa Medal.=--A medal to replace the old one with
swivel ring was issued to those who took part in the troubles which
occurred in the Uganda Protectorate during 1897 and 1898. The medal,
1⅖ in. in diameter, had on the obverse the same bust of Queen Victoria
as the Sudan medal, and on the reverse Britannia with the British lion
beside her, holding out in her left hand a palm branch and a scroll
toward the rising sun, and in her right a trident. In the exergue, in
Roman capitals, is the denomination EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICA. The medal
for Somaliland 1902-4 (illustrated facing page 296) is the same but for
the inscription in the exergue. Two bars were issued with the medal,
LUBWA'S and UGANDA 1897-8. A bar with the date 1898 was issued to those
who fought against the Ogaden Somalis from April to August 1898, and
a bar for UGANDA 1899 was awarded to those employed in the military
operations against Kabarega in the Protectorate between March and May
1899. The ribbon, 1¼ in. wide, is half red and yellow, and the names,
etc., of recipients are impressed or engraved on the edge in light
Roman capitals.

=Royal Niger Co.'s Medal.=--For participation in military operations
in the Niger Company's territories during the period of 1886 to 1897
the Company awarded a silver medal to the members of its executive
staff, and bronze medals to the natives. The names of the recipients
were impressed upon the silver medals, but the native's number only
was indented upon the edge of the bronze medals issued to those who
were actually serving on December 31st, 1899. These medals, which were
struck by Messrs. Spink & Son, bear on the obverse the diademed bust
of Queen Victoria, and on the reverse a shield bearing a Y-shaped
elevation, with the words ARS, JUS, PAX; behind the shield is a trophy
of arms and flags. This medal, 1½ in. in diameter, is suspended from a
ribbon 1½ in. wide, composed of three equal stripes of yellow, black,
and white, by means of a straight clasp. The bars, 1⅖ in. long by ³⁄₁₀
in. wide, have the record NIGERIA 1886-1897 attached to the silver
medals, but NIGERIA only on the bronze.

=Ashanti, 1900.=--After the rebellion of certain native tribes had been
quelled, and the siege of Kumassi raised, King Edward VII approved of
a medal--the first bearing his effigy--being issued to those who had
taken part in the operations, and a bar inscribed KUMASSI also to those
who had defended or relieved the city. On the obverse is the bemedalled
bust of King Edward in Field-Marshal's uniform, which was used later
on the South Africa medal 1901-2; on the reverse is modelled a lion
looking toward the left of the medal, where the rising sun is depicted
behind a hill. The lion is statant gardent in front of an African
shield, whereon are two assegais, one being significantly broken; below
is a plain panel with the word ASHANTI. The ribbon is alternately
black and green--three black and two green stripes. The suspender
is straight, and the names, etc., of recipients--mostly native
soldiery--indented in small block letters on the edge of the medal, a
few were issued engraved. The Flying Column was composed of 100 of the
West African Regiment, 250 of the 2nd Central African Regiment, 350
West African Frontier Force, and 40 Sierra Leone Police with 2 guns.
Some men of the 3rd W.I.R. also received the medal with bar for Kumassi.


MEDAL. (Reverse.)]


CHINA, 1900

The Chinese society known as Boxers had been for some time engaged in
agitating against foreigners, but did not become generally known to
the English-speaking race until the murder of an Anglican missionary,
the Rev. Sidney Brooks, on December 31st, 1899. They first, about a
century ago, selected the title of I Ho Ch'uan, or Fist of Righteous
Harmony; the society was, however, suppressed by Imperial edict, but,
like most associations which have a strong religious or political
basis, it was not exterminated, and as the political interference of
certain missionary enthusiasts became more daring their activities
again burst forth. They determined to destroy the foreigner and all his
works, so that their countrymen might pursue their own ways, and work
out their own salvation. All very laudable, in a way, but the patriots
degenerated into bloodthirsty fanatics, and as the Chinese authorities
were unable to deal with the rebels against Imperial authority--or
indeed, as some say, appeared to make covert cause with them--it
became necessary for the principal Powers to send troops to suppress
the disturbances and protect the lives and property of their subjects.
Great Britain, France, Germany, America, Japan, and Russia sent troops,
which took part in the military and naval operations in the North of
China and the Yangtse Valley from June 10th to December 31st, 1900. The
most stirring events in the campaign were the defence of the Legations
in Pekin from June 10th to August 14th, and the relief of Pekin
between the same dates.

=Defence of Legations.=--On Sunday, June 10th, 1900, the Summer
Legation at the Hills was burnt down, and from that time onward no one
dared leave the city, while inside the Europeans lived in constant
fear of the Chinese inhabitants, for within the very walls the German
Minister actually took prisoner a fully dressed and armed Boxer. The
Boxers and Imperial troops attacked the city again and again, until it
became necessary for the Europeans and their servants to take refuge
in the various Legations, and then on June 20th the siege began in
earnest. Eighteen officers and 389 men, assisted by 100 volunteers,
formed the combined force, and they had with them four guns of
uncertain quality. It has been said by Dr. Morrison that the Japanese
had only 100 rounds of ammunition per man, the Italians 120, the
Russians 145, and the rest at most 300 rounds per man. On the first day
the Austrians, for some unexplained reason, abandoned their Legation,
and thus weakened the general defence by leaving a corner of the
square open to the enemy. Then the Belgian Legation was burnt, and on
the morning of June 22nd the Americans, Austrians, Germans, Italians,
Russians, and Japanese began to retire on the British Legation, but
the masterly activity of Sir Claude MacDonald induced the French and
Austrians to return to the French Legation, and the others to resume
their posts, thus preventing a catastrophe. The fear of fire was ever
present with the besieged, for again and again buildings were ignited,
and but for the well-organised fire committee would have helped the
investing Boxers to make short work of the defence. Meanwhile the
enemy vigorously attacked the Legations, and bombarded the city until
a somewhat peaceable period ensued during an armistice which, however,
hardly raised the hopes of the besieged, for news had reached them that
the European powers believed them to have been massacred.

On August 10th the spirits of the defenders were greatly raised by the
receipt of messages from the relief force, and the knowledge gained
that the Japanese and American troops had defeated the enemy near Pei
Ts'ang on the 5th, and had occupied Yang Ts'un next day, while the
allied forces of America, Britain, and Russia were marching on from
that place, and hoped to reach Pekin by the 13th or 14th. This news
was conveyed in a letter from the Japanese Colonel Shiba, and it was
indeed prophetic, for at 2 o'clock on August 14th the Sikhs marched on
to the lawn of the British Legation, followed by General Gaselee and
his staff, and then, the work of clearing the enemy out of the environs
having been completed by the Sikhs, the relief of the Legations was

=Medal for China, 1900.=--Queen Victoria had decided that those who had
taken part in the campaign should be awarded a medal to commemorate
their labours. Her decease, however, delayed the consummation of her
desire, but in January 1902 the late King Edward gave the necessary
instructions for the striking of the medal. It was decided to use
the same reverse as on the China medal of 1842, and to revert to the
dating of the exergue, so that 1900 appears thereon. On the obverse
is the same bust of Queen Victoria as appears on the South African
medal. Instead of the strange suspender issued with the second China
medal, a straight clasp was used, and in place of the old fishtail
bar the straight type was utilised. Three bars were issued with the
medal: one with TAKU FORTS to those who were engaged in the Peiho River
in the capture of the Forts on June 17th, 1900; one for the DEFENCE
OF LEGATIONS to those who took part in the defence; and one for the
RELIEF OF PEKIN to those who took part in the operations at or beyond
Taku between June 10th and August 14th inclusive, which resulted in
the relief of the city and Legations. The names of the recipients were
mostly impressed upon the edge of the medal in light Roman capitals,
and the same type of ribbon as supplied for the 1842 medals was used
for suspension.

The following regiments were engaged: 2nd Batt. Royal Welsh Fusiliers;
12th Field Battery R.A.; 1st and 14th Sikhs; 3rd Madras N.I.; 4th
Goorkas; 2nd, 7th, and 26th Bengal Infantry; 22nd and 30th Bombay
N.I.; 24th Punjab Infantry; 1st Madras Pioneers; No. 2 Company Bombay
Sappers; No. 3 Company Madras Sappers; No. 4 Company Bengal Sappers,
and 1st Bengal Lancers. A Naval Brigade from thirty-six of H.M. ships
also participated in the campaign, but most naval medals were awarded
without bars, consequently those with bars are scarce, particularly
those awarded to men of the Naval Brigade who had previously fought in
the Boer War, scaled the Tugela Heights, and taken part in the Relief
of Ladysmith.


Little over a decade has passed since the South African, or Boer War,
was brought to a close, so that it is hardly necessary for me to enter
into details of the fighting, since so many will readily call to mind
the events which led up to the ultimatum from the Boer Government in
October 1899, and the necessity for Britain to place in the field
the largest army ever sent out of England--about 200,000 men, which
makes the army of 30,000 that fought under Viscount Wolseley in Egypt
look very insignificant. During the first seven months of the war the
battles of Talana Hill, Elandslaagte, Belmont, Modder River, Tugela
Heights, Paardeberg and Driefontein, and many another battle had been
fought and won; the sad disaster at Magersfontein had taken place,
and the oft-wounded Wauchope killed. Ladysmith and Kimberley had been
gallantly defended and relieved, and the siege of Wepener raised. Two
hundred and eighteen British officers and 2,062 soldiers had been
killed in action; 53 officers and 492 men had died of their wounds;
64 officers and 2,028 men had died of disease, and 664 officers and
9,225 men had been wounded. Indeed, a grand total of 24,253 officers
and men had been killed or placed _hors de combat_. During the war
Great Britain and her colonies lost in action 5,774 officers and men,
and 16,168 by disease, while of those sent home 508 succumbed to their
wounds or disease, 22,829 were wounded, and 5,879 were invalided out of
the service.

=Cape Colony.=--There is a mistaken idea that the single bar for CAPE
COLONY is not worth consideration as an engagement bar, but as a matter
of fact many a brave fellow found a billet for a Boer bullet in the
north of Cape Colony during the early days of the war, as the casualty
records of certain regiments show. It is true, however, that many a man
never got within miles of the enemy, and had to be content with the
"donkey work" of looking after things for those at the front, while
some whose bars include that for Cape Colony only landed for a day or
two, and were then transported by sea to the fighting area. NATAL on
a bar means, as every one knows, service in the zone where Buller did
so much hard fighting--indeed, it was the Boer invasion of Natal on
October 12th, 1899, that necessitated the defence of Ladysmith, and
occupied the efforts of the Natal Field Force during 1900.

=The Queen's Medal.=--Twenty-six bars were issued in connection with
the Queen's medal. Many think this constitutes a record, and it does
for one campaign, but twenty-eight were issued with the Military
General Service medal which was awarded in 1847; this, however, covered
a series of campaigns. No less than 230 bars were issued with the Naval
General Service medal also authorised in 1847, but these were obviously
to cover a series of operations and campaigns. The bars for the Boer
War are as follows, ranged in chronological order: CAPE COLONY,
AFRICA 1901, SOUTH AFRICA 1902. The latter two were issued to those
who, although engaged during the period for which the King's Medal
was awarded, were nevertheless not entitled to it by the terms of the
grant. Talana, where General Penn Symonds was killed on October 20th,
1899, was the first general engagement, and Belfast, fought on August
26th and 27th, 1900, the last. The bars should read upwards from the
medal in the order arranged above.

This medal by G. W. De Saulles is 1⅖ in. in diameter, and has on
the obverse the bust of Her Majesty Queen Victoria (as shown in the
illustration facing page 176). On the reverse is a spirited figure of
Britannia, grasping the Union Jack in her left hand, while with her
right she offers the laurel wreath to the army which marches past:

    "A varied host, from kindred realms they come,
    Brethren in arms, but rivals in renown."

Behind her in the distance is a man-of-war in Table Bay, and in the
foreground, lying to the left, her shield and trident; above is SOUTH
AFRICA. It is noteworthy that the Army Order specifically mentions not
only the Colonial and Indian forces, but nurses and nursing sisters.
Bronze medals without bars were given to non-enlisted men of whatever
nationality who drew military pay, and to authorised camp followers.
The ribbon has a broad centre stripe of orange, with dark blue and red
stripes at the sides. The names, etc., were mostly indented in skeleton
block letters, some tall and some square, but many were engraved in
slanting Roman capitals. The first medals awarded, including those
issued to the Canadian contingent, had the date 1899-1900 printed on
the field to the right of Britannia, but this, of course, quickly
rubbed off when the medal was worn. Medals, however, in mint
condition, are sometimes found with the date still clearly showing.

=The King's Medal.=--In October 1902 His Majesty King Edward VII
authorised the issue of a medal bearing his effigy, with the legend
EDWARDVS VII REX IMPERATOR, to all those who had served for eighteen
months at the front, and were still serving on January 1st, 1902, or
had completed such term before June 1st, 1902--that is, just one month
after the terms of surrender were signed. The reverse of this medal is
the same as the Queen's, but on the obverse is the bust of King Edward
in Field-Marshal's uniform. Two bars were given; SOUTH AFRICA 1901 and
SOUTH AFRICA 1902. The ribbon is composed of three equal stripes of
green, white, and orange, and the names are mostly indented or engraved
in the same manner as the Queen's medal.

=The Mediterranean Medal.=--A medal bearing the legend MEDITERRANEAN
to the right of Britannia, but otherwise exactly the same as the
Queen's South African medal, was awarded to those who garrisoned the
Mediterranean forts during the South African War; no bars were issued
with this. It is worn with the Queen's ribbon, and the names, etc.,
are generally indented. Those engaged in this work were mostly Militia
units, who volunteered for service abroad during the war.

=Kimberley Star.=--The Mayor of Kimberley presented to all those who
took part in its defence a silver six-pointed star, but it should be
particularly noticed that only those bearing the hall-mark, including
the date-mark =a=, are genuine. The ribbon is red, white, and blue in
the centre, edged with black on one side and yellow on the other. The
stars were issued unnamed, and generally depended from an ornamental
suspender, but the one illustrated facing page 192 was issued as

The following troops were engaged during the campaign:

_Cavalry._--One squadron each of the 1st and 2nd Life Guards and Horse
Guards; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Dragoon Guards; 1st
Dragoons; Scots Greys; 3rd and 4th Hussars; 5th Lancers; 6th Dragoons;
7th and 8th Hussars; 9th Lancers; 10th and 11th Hussars; 12th Lancers;
13th, 14th, and 15th Hussars; 16th and 17th Lancers; 18th, 19th, and
20th Hussars; and the 21st Lancers.

_Infantry._--Grenadier, Scots, and Coldstream Guards, and the following
Regiments of the Line: Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Border, Cheshire,
Cornwall Light Infantry, Derbyshire, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, Durham
Light Infantry, Essex, Royal Fusiliers, Gloucestershire, Hampshire,
East Kent, West Kent, King's Royal Rifle Corps, Lancashire Fusiliers,
East Lancashire, South Lancashire, Loyal North Lancastrian, Royal
Lancashire, Liverpool, Leicestershire, Lincoln, Manchester, Middlesex,
Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland Fusiliers, Oxford Light Infantry,
Rifle Brigade, Shropshire Light Infantry, Somersetshire Light Infantry,
North and South Staffordshire, Suffolk, Sussex, East and West Surrey
Regiments, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, Worcestershire, Yorkshire,
Yorkshire Light Infantry, East also West Yorkshire, York and Lancaster,
and West Riding Regiments, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, Royal
Highlanders ("Black Watch"), Cameron, Seaforth and Gordon Highlanders,
King's Own Scottish Rifles, Royal Scots Fusiliers, Scottish Rifles,
Highland Light Infantry, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Royal Dublin Fusiliers,
Inniskilling also Munster Fusiliers, Royal Irish, Royal Irish Rifles,
Leinster, Connaught Rangers, South Wales Borderers, Royal Welsh

_Volunteers._--Thirty-two Battalions of Imperial Yeomanry, City
Volunteer Battalions, Companies, and Corps.

_Royal Garrison Artillery._--Eastern Division: 5th, 6th, and 10th
Companies; Southern Division: 14th 15th, 16th, and 36th Companies;
Western Division: 2nd, 6th, 10th, 14th, 15th, 17th, and 23rd Companies.

_Royal Horse Artillery._--A, G, J, M, O, P, Q, R, T, U, and V



This medal is illustrated from lead squeezes specially taken for
illustration in this book. The medal depends from a straight suspender
as used with the Naval Long Service Medals.]

_Royal Field Artillery._--2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 13th, 14th,
17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 28th, 37th, 38th, 39th, 42nd, 43rd, 44th,
53rd, 61st, 62nd, 63rd, 64th, 65th, 66th, 67th, 68th, 69th, 73rd, 74th,
75th, 76th, 77th, 78th, 79th, 81st, 82nd, 83rd, 84th, 85th, 86th, 87th,
and 88th Batteries.

Royal Engineers, Army Service and Army Ordnance Corps, Army Veterinary
and Army Pay Departments, and R.A. Medical Corps.

_Irregular Corps._--Imperial Light Horse, South African Light Horse,
Cape Mounted Rifles, Kitchener's Fighting Scouts, Thorneycroft's
Horse, Brabant's Horse, Bethune's Horse, British South African Police,
South African Constabulary, National Scouts (Boers), Scottish Horse,
Lumsden's Horse and Strathcona's Horse, New South Wales Military
Forces, Imperial Bushmen, New Zealand Mounted Rifles and Rough Riders,
Queensland Mounted Infantry, South Australian Mounted Infantry and
Bushmen's Contingent, Tasmanian Infantry, Artillery, and Bushmen,
Victorian Infantry, Victorian Mounted Infantry, Cameron's Scouts, West
Australian Contingent, Royal Canadian Dragoons and Batteries of Field
Artillery, Canadian Mounted Rifles, Canadian Scouts, Ceylon Mounted
Infantry, Bechuanaland Rifles, Border Horse, and Mounted Rifles, also
Scouts, Brabant's Scouts, British South Africa Police, Cape Cavalry
Brigade, Cape Colony Cyclist Corps, Cape Garrison Artillery, Cape
Medical Staff Corps, Cape Mounted Rifle Club, Cape Police, 1st City
(Grahamstown) Volunteers, Colonial Defence Force, Commander-in-Chief's
Bodyguard, Dennison's Scouts, Diamond Field Artillery, Diamond Field
Horse, District Mounted Rifles, Driscoll's Scouts, Duke of Edinburgh's
Own Volunteer Rifles, Durban Light Infantry, East Griqualand Mounted
Rifle Volunteers, Eastern Province Horse, French's Scouts, Frontier
Mounted Rifles, Gatacre's Scouts, Griqualand East Mounted Rifle
Volunteers, Herbert District Mounted Rifles, Herschell Mounted
Volunteers, Imperial Light Horse and Light Infantry, Johannesburg
Mounted Rifles, Kaffrarian Rifles, Kenny's Scouts, Kimberley Regiment,
Kimberley Mounted Corps and Light Horse, Kimberley Rifles, Kitchener's
Horse, Kuysna Rangers, Komgha Mounted Volunteers, Loch's Horse, Lovat's
Scouts, Maritzani Mounted Irregulars, Marshal's Horse, Merre's Scouts,
Military Foot Police, Modder River District Mounted Rifles, Namaqualand
Border Scouts, Natal Volunteers, Natal Mounted Infantry, Nesbitt's
Horse, New England Mounted Rifles, Orpen's Horse, Pioneer Railway
Regiment, Prince Alfred's Own Cape Artillery, Prince Alfred's Volunteer
Guard, Prince of Wales's Light Horse, Queenstown Rifle Volunteers, Rand
Rifles, Rimington's Guides, Roberts's Light Horse, Rundle's Colonial
Scouts, Rhodesian Regiment, Scottish Horse, South African Constabulary,
South Rhodesian Volunteers, Steinaeker's Horse, Stellenbosch Mounted
Infantry, Tembuland Mounted Rifle Corps, Transkei Mounted Rifles,
Uitenhage Volunteer Rifles, and the Umvoti, Utrecht, Victoria, and
Vryburg Mounted Rifles, Warwick's Scouts, Western Light Horse, and
Western Province Mounted Rifles.

_Town Guards._--The Aliwal North, Barkly East, Barkly West, Boshof,
Burgherdorn, Campbell Town, Colesburg, Cradock, Dordrecht District,
Douglas, East London, Grahamstown, Griquatown, Hopetown, Hoppesia,
Indwe, Jamestown, Kimberley, King Williamstown, Klipdam, Kokstad,
Kuruman, Lady Grey, Molteno, Naauwpoort, Port Elizabeth, Queenstown,
Qumbu, Starkstroom, Steynsburg, Stormburg, T'somo, Uitenhage, Vryburg,
and Warrenton.

=Africa General Service Medal.=--In June 1902 it was decided to strike
a medal to take the place of the two which had hitherto been awarded
for service in Central, also East and West, Africa. It was to be
known as the Africa General Service Medal. The obverse is the same as
the King's South Africa medal, but on the reverse is the figure of
Britannia, with a lion beside her, as on the East and West African
medal illustrated facing page 296, but with AFRICA in the exergue. The
ribbon is yellow, with two narrow green stripes touching the broad
black edging. Bronze medals were issued to camp followers. Numerous
bars have been issued with this medal: NIGERIA for operations carried
on in the early-part of 1900, and in December of the same year, also in
August and September 1901; S. NIGERIA for operations in March, April,
and May, 1901, and for JUBALAND to those who were in the small force
sent against the truculent Ogaden Somalis between November 1900 and the
end of April 1901. Only 465 silver and 26 bronze medals were issued,
and these mostly to the 16th Bombay Cavalry. The other recipients of
the medal and bar were sailors and marines from three of H.M. ships.
The bar for SOMALILAND 1901 was issued to those who were engaged there
during May, June, and July 1901, and a bar for UGANDA 1900 to those who
were engaged in the Uandi country during the period between July and
October 1900. Only 5 officers and 1 British non-commissioned officer
received the bar, and only 373 other bars were issued--268 to the 4th
King's African Rifles, and 105 to Indian soldiers. To the 24th Punjab
Infantry, which was engaged in different districts between August 1899
and December 1900, a bar inscribed B. C. A. 1899-1900--meaning British
Central Africa 1899-1900--was awarded. The bar for GAMBIA was granted
to a detachment of the 2nd King's African Rifles, four companies of
the 3rd W.I.R., and the crews of three of H.M. ships who were engaged
in the operations between January and March 1901. The bar for ARO
1901-1902 was issued to those who were engaged against the Aro tribe
between November 1901 and March 1902. Fourteen British officers and
the crew of H.M. "Thrush," with 1,830 native soldiers, composed the
Aro Field Force. The bar for LANGO 1901 was awarded to those members
of the 4th King's African Rifles who were engaged against the Sudanese
mutineers and the Langos between April and August 1901. To those
engaged in the Bornu expedition, from February to May 1902, and in the
Kontagora expedition in February 1902, the bar for N. NIGERIA 1902 was
issued (the same bar was given to those who were serving at Argungu and
on convoy duty), and to those who were engaged in Nigeria between July
1902 and June 1903. In April 1905 a bar was issued inscribed N. NIGERIA
1903 to those who had taken part in the Kano-Sokoto campaign. To this
medal it was decided to add the bar SOMALILAND 1902-04, and one for
JIDBALLI to those engaged in the operations between January 1902 and
May 1904.

The only fairly complete regiment engaged in the campaign was the
1st Hampshire, and this, together with detachments of the Norfolks,
Yorkshires, and Rifle Brigade, and units of the Royal Engineers and
Army Service Corps, formed the only English Corps engaged. The rest
of the expedition included the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 5th King's African
Rifles; Bikanir Camel Corps; Kajawa Corps; Gudabursi Horse; Rajputs;
Sikhs; Punjabees and Indian Mounted Infantry; also the crews of
fourteen H.M. ships.

[Illustration: (Reverse.)


[Illustration: THE MILITARY CROSS.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.)


=Nigeria, 1902-6.=--At the battle of Jidballi the Mullah's army of
5,000 men were defeated by this little force, over 1,000 of the enemy
being killed. The loss in British officers was great; Captain Lister of
the 10th Hussars, heir to Lord Ribbledale, and 2 others being killed,
and 9 wounded. In 1905 the bar for S. NIGERIA 1902-03 was issued to
those who were engaged in South Nigeria between July 1902 and June
1903, against the Iris and the Omonoha and Ebima tribesmen, and in
the operations against the Chief Adukukaiku of Igarra. In 1906 it was
decided to give the same bar to those who took part in the expedition
in the Afikpo district between December 1902 and January 1903. In
April 1905 a bar was issued inscribed S. NIGERIA 1903 to those who
had taken part in the operations between April and July 27th, 1903.
In 1906 it was decided that the war should be issued to those who had
taken part in the expeditions in the Ebegga country west of Anan. In
April 1905 an Army Order set forth that a bar was to be issued to N.
NIGERIA 1903, and granted to those who took part in the Sokoto-Burmi
operations between April 15th and July 27th, 1903. In January 1906 a
bar for N. NIGERIA 1903-04 was authorised for distribution among the
700 native soldiers and carriers engaged in the operations in the Bassa
Province between December 1903 and March 1904. A bar for N. NIGERIA
1904 was granted to those who took part in four little expeditions,
and S. NIGERIA 1903-04 to those employed in the expedition between
December 1903 and January 1904 against the towns of Osca, Oriri, and
N'doto. The bar for S. NIGERIA 1904 was added for a series of five
expeditions, and a further addition to the Nigerian clasps was made in
June 1906 by the approval of one inscribed S. NIGERIA 1904-05, given
for operations between November 1894 and February 1895 in the Ibibio
and Kwa countries. The bar for S. NIGERIA 1905 was awarded to members
of the force which operated in the Kwale district between October 10th
and 18th, 1905, both dates inclusive. The bar for S. NIGERIA 1905-06
was issued to those who took part in the Bende-Onitsha Hinterland
expedition, and the bar for N. NIGERIA 1906 was given to those who
took part in the operations against the Satiru rebels and the Emir
of Hadeija. The bar for KISSI 1905 was awarded to those engaged in
that district from March to June 1905, and for NANDI 1905-06 to those
employed in that neighbourhood between October 1905 and July 1906,
making a total of twenty-seven bars to this medal, and indicating the
constant vigilance and discipline which is necessary to maintain the
outposts of our Empire.

=East Africa, 1902.=--The medal with bar for EAST AFRICA 1902 was
awarded to all officers and men composing the Maruka patrol, which
reached the Maruka district on September 4th, 1902, and operated in the
district until October 25th, 1902, both dates inclusive.

=East Africa, 1904.=--The medal with bar EAST AFRICA 1904 was issued
to all officers and men composing the Iraini patrol, which entered the
Iraini country on February 13th, 1904, and patrolled it between that
date and March 17th, both dates inclusive.

=East Africa, 1905.=--The medal with bar for EAST AFRICA 1905 was
issued to all officers and men who took part in the operations in and
near Sotik, from May 31st to July 12th, 1905, both dates inclusive,
also to the officers and men composing the Kissi patrol, which entered
the Kissi country on September 1st, 1905, and patrolled it until
October 9th, 1905, both dates inclusive.

=East Africa, 1906.=--The medal with bar EAST AFRICA 1906 was awarded
to all officers and men composing the Embo patrol, which entered the
Embo country on June 18th, 1906, and operated there until July 19th,
1906, both dates inclusive.

=West Africa, 1906.=--The medal with bar WEST AFRICA 1906 was issued to
all officers and men composing the Owa column, which left Asaba on June
9th, 1906, and operated against the people of Owa until the restoration
of peace and the breaking-up of the column on August 3rd, 1906, both
dates inclusive.

The medal with bar WEST AFRICA 1906 was also awarded to all officers
and men who operated in the Chibuk country between November 12th and
December 4th, 1906, both dates inclusive.

=West Africa, 1908.=--An Army Order issued in July 1910, with the
approval of His Majesty King George V, granted a bar inscribed W.
AFRICA 1908 to the forces who took part in the fighting in and near the
Soukwala Valley on December 11th, 1908, and between December 24th and
31st, 1908, both dates inclusive.

=I.G.S., 1903.=--This medal, precisely similar on the reverse, except
for the deletion of the date, to the India General Service Medal 1895,
bears on the obverse the same bust of King Edward as on the South
Africa medal. The ribbon is the same, also the suspender. With this
new issue the bar for WAZIRISTAN 1901-2 was given to those who took
an active part in the Mahsud Waziri blockade between November 1901 and
November 1902. To those holding the 1895 medal the bar only was issued.
Bronze medals were given to authorised camp followers.

Only three English soldiers received the medal--men of the Cheshires
who were employed as signallers. The troops engaged were: 1st, 3rd, and
4th Sikhs; 2nd, 4th, 5th, and 22nd Punjabis; 1st, 3rd, and 5th Punjab
Cavalry; Sappers and Miners.

=Natal Native Rebellion.=--In 1908 the Natal Government awarded a
silver medal to those who took part in suppressing the native rebellion
in 1906. The medal, which was supplied by the Goldsmiths & Silversmiths
Company, bears on the obverse a portrait bust of King Edward VII facing
to the right, encircled by the legend EDWARDVS VII REX IMPERATOR. On
the reverse Natali is represented holding the sword of justice in her
right hand, and a palm branch in her left, supported and protected by
Britannia, who holds in her left hand the orb of empire. In the exergue
is the word NATAL. A broad plain bar is inscribed ~·1906·~ with a large
dot on either side. The names, etc., are impressed in light square
block capitals, and the ribbon for suspension is a deep red, with black
edges. The medal illustrated facing page 198 was issued to the local
white forces, including the Natal Horse Corps and about 350 chiefs and
leading natives.

=Tibet, 1903-4.=--Owing to the non-fulfilment of treaty obligations on
the part of the Tibetans, Colonel Younghusband was sent by the Indian
Government with a military escort to the seat of Tibetan authority.
For some little time he made peaceful progress, until, on arriving at
Hot Springs, General Macdonald's force of 1,600 men, with 4 field and
2 Maxim guns, found it necessary to attack the Tibetans, and drove
them out of their position. Then, when they had gathered round their
Lhassa General, the political agent, Colonel Younghusband, together
with Brigadier Macdonald, their staffs, and some Sikhs, went forward
to parley with them, and despite the attitude of the Tibetans, the
officers dismounted; some began to eat sandwiches, others to take
photographs. Suddenly the Tibetans turned upon the ring of Sikhs which
surrounded them; all was soon confusion, but the discipline of the
Sikhs, and the coolness of the officers, saved the situation, and
within ten minutes the flower of the Tibetan army was demolished,
despite the grim determination of those composing it, for they
disdained to run away, but solemnly marched off as the fight became too
hot for them.

The medal for the Tibet Mission 1903-4 bears on the reverse the
fortress-capped hill of Potala a Lhassa, with TIBET 1903-4 beneath
it, and to those engaged in the mission about Gyantse a bar inscribed
GYANTSE was awarded. The obverse is the same as the I.G.S. 1903 medal.
The ribbon is dark red edged with green, with two white stripes. It is
noteworthy that with this and the medal I shall next describe the old
curled suspenders, as on the Sutlej medals, are used.

The Tibet Force comprised the Royal Fusiliers; a detachment of the
Norfolks; a Mountain Battery of the R.A.; 8th Goorkas; 40th Pathans;
Queen's Own Sappers and Miners, and the 6th Mule Corps.

=I.G.S. 1908.=--A new medal in place of the 1903 I.G.S., and destined
to be known as the I.G.S. Medal 1908, was awarded by an Army Order
in December 1908. It has a pictorial design on the reverse, somewhat
similar to the above-mentioned medal, and reminding one of the old
Ghuznee Medal. It was issued in 1910 to those who had been engaged on
the North-West Frontier between February 14th and May 31st, 1908. The
obverse bears the bust of King Edward VII in Field-Marshal's uniform,
encircled with the legend EDWARDVS VII KAISAR-I-HIND. On the reverse
is a fort on a hill-top backed by mountains, and beneath, forming
the exergue, an ornamental tablet overlaid by olive and oak branches
bearing the word INDIA. The bar bears NORTH-WEST FRONTIER 1908. This
medal was designed by Mr. Richard Garbe, R.B.S. It was awarded to both
the troops and followers, and was the last issued during the reign of
Edward the Peacemaker. (See facing page 204.)

The regiments engaged in the campaign were: the Gordon and Seaforth
Highlanders; Royal Irish Rifles and Royal Munster Fusiliers; the
Northumberland Fusiliers and Warwickshire Regiment; 10th Hussars; 71st
Company R.G.A.; 6 guns of the 18th and 80th Batteries R.F.A.; 62nd
and 75th Batteries R.F.A.; 2nd, 3rd, 8th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 28th
Mountain Batteries, and Nos. 1 and 7 British Field Hospital; 1st, 4th,
5th, and 6th Goorkas; 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 25th, 28th, 29th, 30th,
and 33rd Punjabees; 15th, 23rd, 34th, 45th, 53rd, 54th, 55th, 57th, and
59th Sikhs; 40th Pathans; Queen's Own Corps of Guides Infantry; Cavalry
of the Q.O. Guides; 21st Cavalry; 19th and 37th Lancers; Sappers and
Miners, and 5 Native Field Hospitals.

=Abor, 1911-12.=--The massacre of Mr. Williamson and his party
necessitated the dispatch of a punitive force, which under
Major-General Hamilton Bower, C.B., entered the Abor country in
October 1911, and for seven months, under the most trying physical
difficulties, operations were pursued. "The paths were quite unfit for
use by laden carriers," and progress was exceedingly slow, but as usual
the regiments pressed on to their destination, and, after inflicting
punishment on the culpable villagers who had been party to the
massacre, captured and brought to trial those immediately responsible
for the murders. An important result of the operations was the breaking
down of the power of the Kebang-Rotung group of villages, and the
freeing of the Lakhimpur districts north of the Brahmaputra from Abor
aggression. For his services in this campaign General Bower was made
K.C.B., and the following officers Companions of the D.S.O.: Majors
James Davidson, M.D., James Alban Wilson, Edward G. Vaughan, Ernest H.
Scott Cullen, M.V.O., and Lieutenant Miles A. Claude Kennedy.

Among the regiments taking part in the expedition were the 1st Batt.
8th Goorka Rifles, on whom the brunt of the fighting fell--medals of
this regiment have realised from £2 10_s._ to £3 in the sale-room;
1st Co. (King George's Own) Sappers and Miners, to whose skill and
energy "the success of the expedition was largely due"; 1st Batt. King
Edward's Own Goorka Rifles; 32nd Sikh Pioneers, who did excellent work
on the line of communications; dismounted detachment Assam Valley Light
Horse; Supply and Transport Corps; Lakhimpur Military Police; 5 Nagar
Carrier Corps.

The medal, although described as the India General Service Medal 1908,
has on the reverse the crowned bust of King George V truncated by the
edge of the medal, a spray of laurel covering the truncation, and
the legend GEORGIVS V KAISAR-I-HIND on a raised band surrounding the
effigy. This was given to those who served at or beyond Kobo between
October 6th, 1911, and April 20th, 1912, both dates inclusive. The
medals are engraved in a coarse kind of script--each letter being
separate--or in a loose running hand. Officers and men already in
possession of the India General Service Medal 1908 received the clasp

SUDAN, 1910

By a Special Army Order, dated from Headquarters, Khartoum, June 12th,
1911, His Highness the Khedive approved of a new medal being struck
to commemorate military operations in the Atwot district and granted
to the troops (including Government police and Jehadia) who took
part in the operations under the command of El Kaimakam W. J. St. J.
Harvey Bey, against the Atwot Dinkas in the Atwot district of the Bahr
el-Ghazal Province. The medal in silver was granted to all troops who
formed part of the columns operating in the district between February
9th and March 17th, 1910, both dates inclusive, or who were disembarked
at Sheikh Tombe, Aliah district, Mongalla province, between March 29th
and April 4th, 1910, both dates inclusive.

=Atwot.=--The bar inscribed ATWOT in English and Arabic was granted
to all troops taking part, and the following non-combatants were
entitled to the medal and bar in silver, who participated under the
same conditions as the troops: Government Civil employees; engineers
of steamers; Raises of steamers; Sheikhs; Armed Guides; whilst
non-combatants, _i.e._ Civilian Syces of Officers, Civilian Servants
of Officers, and Transport Drivers, were granted the medal in bronze
without bar.

=South Kordofan.=--To those who took part in the operations in Southern
Kordofan under the command of El Lewa Asser Pasha, against Jebel Tagoi,
between November 10th and 19th, 1910, inclusive, or who formed part of
the column operating against Jebels Katla and Tima, under the command
of El Kaimakam Conry Bey, D.S.O., between November 27th and December
19th, 1910, both dates inclusive, the silver medal with bar inscribed
in English and Arabic S. KORDOFAN 1910 was granted, and to those
already in possession of the medal, the bar. The Government police were
included in the troops, and therefore received the medal and bar. The
following non-combatants were also entitled to the medal and bar in
silver: Government Civil employees; Sheikhs, and Armed Guides, whilst
the bronze medal without bar was granted to Civilian Syces of Officers,
Civilian Servants of Officers, and Transport Drivers.

=Sudan, 1912.=--To the troops, including Sudan Government police, who
took part in the operations against the Beir and Anuak tribes, the
medal with bar inscribed SUDAN 1912 in English and Arabic was awarded.
Those entitled had taken part in the Pibor reconnaissance under the
command of El Bimbashi Dickinson between October 12th and December
25th, 1911, both dates inclusive, or had formed part of the columns
operating against the Beir tribe under the command of El Miralai Drake
Bey, between the dates stated below, both dates inclusive:

  I. Northern Column under the command of El Bimbashi Dickinson,
  December 26th, 1911, to March 15th, 1912.

  II. Central Column under the command of El Miralai Drake Bey,
  December 31st, 1911, to March 15th, 1912.

  III. Southern Column under the command of El Kaimakam Arden Bey,
  January 1st to February 3rd, 1912.

The column operating against the Anuak tribe under the command of El
Miralai Leveson Bey, D.S.O., between March 4th and April 12th, 1912,
both dates inclusive. The medal and bar in silver was awarded to
Government Civil employees, Sheikhs, and Armed Guides, although classed
as non-combatants; whilst the medal in bronze without bar was again
awarded to Civilian Syces of Officers, Civilian Servants of Officers,
and Transport Drivers.

=Sudan Medal, 1910.=--The medal, 1⅞ in. in diameter, bears on the
obverse the cypher of the Khedive Abbas Hilmi El Thani (Abbas II)
and the date Hegira 1328. On the reverse, modelled by Richard Garbe,
R.B.S., is a lion standing in the attitude of attention, with its
fore paws resting upon a small panel bearing the record SUDAN above
the exergue, in which is a Sudanese shield and spears. Forming the
background to the lion is the Nile within its banks, with the sun
rising and casting its rays over the sky and sparkling the water of the
river. The suspender is like that employed on the South African medal,
and the bars, ⅛ in. wide and riveted the same distance apart, are of
the same character. The photograph (facing page 204) illustrating the
medal does not properly depict the disposition of the bars, as they
are unfixed, the medal with loose bars having been kindly placed at
my disposal for the purpose of illustration herein by the Military
Secretary of the Egyptian Army. The ribbon of watered silk, 1¼ in.
wide, is black with a narrow edge of green and an under, outer edging
of red.


I have given military war medals preference over those awarded for
naval service, not because I do not recognise the first line of defence
as worthy of priority, for, as I have pointed out, the first medals of
which we have any record were probably given as mementoes of, or as
rewards for, the defeat of the Armada, but because the variety given
for land service is considerably greater, and, in many instances, as
a naval contingent also participated, it enabled me to deal with the
historical aspect out of hand, a necessity which the concise nature of
the book demands.

=The Armada Medals.=--The story of gallant Drake, Frobisher, and
Hawkins is perennially fresh in the minds of every Briton, and how
the wind came to their aid and practically destroyed the 120 mighty
galleons of Spain, while the flower of her nobility, with 30,000 men,
were killed in battle or drowned. I have already referred _en passant_
to the medals issued in the latter part of the sixteenth century. The
"Ark-in-Flood," a very handsome oval medal, is one of the most striking
of the Elizabethan series (see facing page 270), and a particularly
fine one is in the possession of W. R. Parker-Jervis, Esq., who
inherited it from his aunt, Lady Forester. The medal was given to Lord
Uppingham after the defeat of the Armada in 1588, and it is on record,
in a book at Woburn Abbey, that this medal was awarded to Admirals
and Commanders who took part in the battle, and was worn by them as
a badge. Pinkerton states that it was given, in gold and silver, to
Marine Commanders as a mark of royal approbation, and I think we have
sufficient evidence that it was given to the leading spirits of the
Armada. This medal differs in several respects from the one described
on page 2, for while on the one referred to above there are rays behind
the head of Elizabeth and it is framed in laurel leaves with a twist of
rope as suspender, that referred to in the beginning of the book has
only the simple beaded border, the only embellishment being a fancy
scroll on either side of a double ring suspender, and the motto reads
ELIZABETH · D · G · ANGLIE · F · ET · HI · REG. It will be noted on
comparison that the stops between the letters in the Uppingham medal
are round instead of diamond-shape as on the simpler medal. James I,
as I have previously described, issued a medal very similar. These
were, it may be presumed, suspended from the neck, but medallions were
sometimes worn in the hat.



=Drake's Medal.=--This handsome medal, given to Sir Francis Drake
by Queen Elizabeth after his voyage round the world, now in the
possession of the descendants of the famous commander at Nutwell Court,
Devonshire, is a characteristic example of the Elizabethan jeweller's
art. The frame, set with diamonds and rubies, and enamelled in various
colours, forms a handsome setting for the fine cameo cut in onyx, and
attributed to Valerio Vincenteno. Two heads are carved thereon, one
representing Europe cut in the lower strata of white, while out of the
upper strata of black the head of a negro has been fashioned. Set in
the reverse is a beautiful miniature of Queen Elizabeth by the famous
painter Nicholas Hilliard, with the date Anno Dom: 1575 Regni 20. From
the badge depends a cluster of baroque pearls connecting a pear-shaped
drop with the main body of the badge. The virgin Queen also presented
the intrepid mariner with a jewelled star of twelve points; rubies set
in the rays, and diamonds and opals in the circular centre surrounding
an orb indicative of sovereignty. Loops are attached for fixing on to
the coat.

=Charles I Naval Medals.=--Charles I issued a medal which, because of
its size, could not have been intended as a personal decoration, but
rather to commemorate the launching of the famous three-decker, the
"Royal Sovereign," in 1637. On the obverse is a portrait in profile
of the King looking left: it varies, however, and on one the monarch
is represented with a ruff round the neck, and a jewel depending from
stars on the shoulder; and on the other he is represented in armour,
with long curling hair over a turn-down collar. Around the bust is the
motto CAROLVS ◆ I ◆ D ◆ G ◆ MAG ◆ BRITAIN ◆ FRAN ◆ ET ◆ HIB ◆ REX. On
the truncation is 1639. The medal is in silver 2·35 in. in diameter,
and is by Nicholas, Bristol. On the reverse is the "Royal Sovereign"
under full sail, and to the left tiny promontories with forts thereon;
around the ship is the inscription NEC ◆ META ◆ MIHI ◆ QVÆ ◆ TERMINVS ◆
ORBI. A smaller medal, probably for naval service, was likewise issued
with the same inscription. It was not, however, a small replica of the
medal just described, although it bore the same effigy of King Charles
I on the obverse, and a ship in full sail on the reverse, for the
actual design and modelling differ.

=Commonwealth Naval Medals.=--Although I have stated that the Dunbar
medal was the first campaign medal to be distributed to military
officers and men of all ranks, the Navy holds the distinction of being
the first to be honoured in this way, for in June 1649 it was decided
to issue rewards to the officers and men who had "done good service
at sea." The medal, designed by Thomas Simon, has on the obverse the
Parliament in session, and on the reverse two distinctive cartouches,
depending from the stock of an anchor. The one to the left bears the
St. George's Cross for England, and that on the right the Harp for
Ireland; a rope attached to the anchor is disposed so as to form a
decorative surrounding by the arrangement of three twists; above is the
word MERUISTI. On the stock of the anchor are the medallist's initials
T. S. An order of the Council of State records that Simon was granted
the use of the press in the Tower of London on condition that he did
not use it for any other purpose than that of striking these medals,
and he had to enter into a surety for £500 that he would "make no
unlawful use of the presse."

=Wyard Medal.=--Robert Wyard of the "Adventure," with 22 guns, was
on the night of July 31st, 1650, bold enough to engage six royalist
frigates, and after fighting a whole day made them sheer off. Wyard
received a gold medal, which I illustrate, valued at £50, and his
officers and men medals varying in value from £5 to 10_s._ The obverse
of the medal is as that above described. The reverse shows the
"Adventure" engaging two of the royalist frigates with the other ships
in the distance. Above is the inscription SERVICE ◆ DON ◆ AGAINST ◆ SIX
◆ SHIPS ◆ IVLY ◆ Y ◆ XXXI ◆ & AVGVST ◆ Y ◆ 1 ◆ 1650. The medal is oval,
1·6 in. by 1·35 in., and was struck in gold and silver. (See facing
page 270.)


For the victories over the Dutch some fine medals were struck. Probably
the most interesting is the gold medal awarded to the Admirals who
participated in the war and in the decisive battle fought on July 31st,

On February 28th, 1653, Generals Blake, Deane, and Monk defeated
the Dutch fleet under Admirals Van Tromp and De Rutzer, and after
a three-days' fight defeated them off Portland. In this engagement
soldiers served for the first time on board ship, and the Marines came
into existence. At the beginning of June the Dutch admirals were again
defeated by the English Generals Deane, Penn, and Monk; but although
the English did not lose a ship, General Deane was killed in the
action. The English then followed the Dutch to their own coasts, and on
July 31st the enemy was badly beaten after a terrific fight in which
they lost 26 ships, their Admiral, Van Tromp, and about 6,000 men. The
English losses were 2 ships and 1,300 men killed and wounded. The
English Parliament was not slow to reward the victors, for on August
8th it was resolved to award Generals Blake and Monk gold chains valued
at £300 apiece; to Vice-Admiral Penn and Rear-Admiral Lawson chains of
the value of £100, and to the four staff officers chains worth £40 each
for their brilliant services. The money was ordered to be deducted from
the £2,000 voted, and the balance spent in the issue of medals among
the officers of the fleet.

=Types of Medal.=--Four types of medal were issued. One with a broad
border of naval trophies having on the obverse to left and right
cartouches bearing the Arms of Holland and Zealand, and on the reverse
in place thereof side drums. The obverse bears an anchor from the stock
of which are suspended three elaborate shields bearing St. George's
Cross, St. Andrew's Cross, the Irish Harp, and "the Armes of the
Com̃on wealth." A cable attached to the anchor encircles the whole in
a decorative manner. On the reverse is depicted a naval battle; a ship
sinking in the foreground has on the stern the medallist's surname, and
on the prow of another is T.S., while on the lower wing of the anchor
on the obverse is the monogram T.S., so that Thomas Simon made quite
sure that we should know who was responsible for the medal, which, with
the elaborate border, is 2·2 in. by 2 in. with a ring for suspension.
Three of the larger medals are known to be in existence. The medal
given to the four staff officers was 2 in. by 1·8 in., and the obverse
and reverse are the same; but the border on both sides is of laurel as
the one illustrated. One of these medals, presented to Captain William
Haddock, who commanded the "America," was purchased by Messrs. Spink at
auction for £430 in May 1908; it had realised £105 in 1879.

=Gold Medals for Officers.=--Gold medals with a plain border, but with
the same obverse and reverse as those described, were given to officers
of the fleet; and I might here remark that if a copy of this rare
medal comes under the notice of collectors, they should look for the
surname and initials, which forgers have generally overlooked.

[Illustration: (Reverse.)



[Illustration: (Obverse.)


=Seamen's Medals.=--To the seamen was awarded a small oval medal 0·95
in. by 0·85 in. also by Simon. Like the other medals it has a ring for
suspension, and bears on the obverse an anchor from the stock of which
depends two shields bearing respectively the Cross of St. George and
the Irish Harp, encircled by a cable which runs round the whole. Above
the stock is MERUISTI (Thou hast merited), and on the reverse the House
of Commons as on the Dunbar medal.

=The Triumph Medal.=--During the fight on July 31st Admiral Robert
Blake's old flagship (he was ashore owing to a wound) caught fire, and
many of the men jumped overboard; but those who remained extinguished
the fire and saved the ship. For this service the officers and those
who had stuck to the ship were awarded a special medal with the obverse
and reverse as on the other medals, but with the inscription engraved
IN FIGHT Wʰ Y DVCH IN IVLY 1653. This medal is 1·6 in. by 1·4 in.

=Blake's Jewel.=--On May 28th, 1657, the House of Commons voted £5,000
for a jewel to be "bestowed on General Blake" for his service in
destroying the Spanish fleet off Teneriffe on April 20th. The jewel,
supposed to have been a ring, was dispatched to Blake, but whether he
received it or not is uncertain, although, as he died within sight of
Plymouth on August 7th, 1657, it is quite probable that he did.

=Charles II Medals.=--In October 1665 Charles II had proclaimed that a
definite percentage of the value of prizes should be paid to those who
captured them from the Dutch, and that a portion of the proceeds should
be set aside to help the widows of those who died in battle, to assist
the sick and wounded, and to provide medals for those who performed
special service.

War was again declared against the Dutch on February 22nd, 1665,
and on June 3rd the Dutch fleet under Admirals Evertzen and Opdam
was engaged and defeated off Lowestoft by the English fleet under
Prince Rupert, the Duke of York, and Admirals Lawson and Penn. Opdam
was killed when his ship was blown up, and two other Dutch admirals
were killed. Twenty ships were sunk or taken by the British ere the
Dutch made off, and through carelessness were permitted to escape.
In the engagement the capable Vice-Admiral Lawson was killed, also
Vice-Admiral Sansome, likewise the Earls of Marlborough, Portland, and
Falmouth, and Lord Muskerry. To commemorate the victory, medals were
issued in gold and silver. One bore on the obverse the bust of the King
with his titles, and on the reverse the Island of Great Britain and
the legend QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO. A smaller medal has on the obverse a
triumphal chariot drawn by sea-horses, with the King seated therein,
and the legend ET PONTUS SERVIET. These medals were not apparently
issued as decorations; but the fine oval medal by Thomas Rawlins was
probably destined for that purpose; it was struck in copper and 1·6 in.
by 1·5 in. in size. It was also struck in gold and in silver. It bears
on the obverse the truncated bust of Charles II in armour, looking to
the left, and around the effigy is the inscription CAROLVS · II · D :
G : M : BR : FR : ET · H : REX., and on the reverse a warship with a
flag on the mainmast bearing the King's initials C R. This side bears
the legend NOS · PENSES · IMPERIVM.

In 1665 Charles II caused to be struck a large circular silver medal 2
in. in diameter with the motto PRO TALIBVS AVSIS (For such enterprises)
in the exergue of the reverse, whereon is depicted a battle at sea with
a wreck in the foreground and Charles II habited as a Roman general
looking on at the engagement. The medal by Rœttier is a fine example
of his workmanship, and a few very fine specimens are still extant.
This medal, illustrated facing page 272, was probably intended to be
commemorative of the victories of either the first or second Dutch
wars; but as it is undated it may have been issued to commemorate
either or both. It is 2 in. in diameter. Another medal by Rœttier
was struck during the reign of Charles II to commemorate the service
of James Duke of York; but this, again, is commemorative rather than


Several battles were fought ere in 1667 peace was declared with the
Dutch. It was not, however, of long duration, for in March 1672 war
again broke out, and several battles were fought before peace was
finally signed on February 9th, 1674.

=La Hogue, 1692.=--For this brilliant victory over the French by the
combined English and Dutch fleets, under Admiral Russell, following a
battle which waged for five days, several medals designed by Rœttier
were ordered to be struck by Queen Mary, who expressed her satisfaction
in the result of the conflict--which secured the throne of England to
her and William, and shattered the hopes of James II--by distributing
£30,000 among the soldiers and sailors who had been engaged in the
battle, and ordering medals for officers. The most important medal,
1·95 in. in diameter, was struck in gold and silver; it bears on the
obverse the busts of William III and Mary II, the king habited in
Roman armour and wearing long hair, the Queen simply draped. Around
the conjoined busts is the inscription GVL : ET. MAR : D : G : B :
F : ET · H : REX · REGINA; and on the reverse the representation of
the French Admiral's flagship, "Le Soliel Royal," in flames. This
ship was, with three others, driven ashore and set on fire by English
fire-ships. Above the scene is the legend NOX · NVLLA · SECVTA · EST
(No night followed), and in the exergue PVGN: NAV: INT: ANG: ET · FR:
21 · MAY · 1692. One of the medals in gold, together with a chain of
the value of £50, was presented to Captain John Tupper "for the good
services performed by him" when in a dense fog he sailed through the
French fleet and brought the news of their presence to Admiral Russell
at Spithead.

After this glorious victory Mary founded Greenwich Hospital as a home
for seamen who had been disabled in the service of their country.

=Special Gold Medals.=--A number of gold medals and chains were awarded
during this reign for service at sea, and, although there is no data to
go upon, it may be assumed that the obverse of the medals was struck
from the die used for the La Hogue medal described; the reverse being
left plain for an inscription, as is the case with the gold medal
awarded to Captain Peter Jolliffe, Master of the "Sea Adventure" hoy,
which bears on the reverse "His Maties' Gift as a Reward to Peter
Jollif, of Poole, for his good service agᵗ the enemy in retaking a
Ketch of Weymouth from a French Privateer, and chaceing the said
Privateer on Shoar near Lulworth in ye Isle of Purbeck, where shee was
broken in pieces, 1694."

=War Medals for Fishermen.=--During the reign of William and Mary
medals were not only given to those actually engaged in the profession
of soldier or seaman, but to fishermen and merchant sailors who
performed gallant deeds. Among the recipients was William Thompson,
the master of a fishing-smack, who, with one man and a boy armed with
a couple of small guns and a few muskets, attacked, on May 30th, 1695,
a French privateer armed with two guns and manned by sixteen seamen,
which he defeated and captured after two hours' fighting. For this
service he was awarded a gold chain and medal of the value of £50, and
allowed to retain the vessel he had conquered.

As far as can be ascertained, no medals for land service were issued
during the reigns of William and Mary, 1689-94, and William III

=Queen Anne.=--For the brilliant attack on Vigo, October 12th, 1702,
Queen Anne caused medals to be struck for distribution among the
officers of the fleet who had taken part in the victory. Vice-Admiral
Hopson was made a knight, and granted a pension for his particular
service. The medal bears on the obverse the bust of the Queen, as on
the medal described hereafter, and on the reverse a representation of
the engagement, with the date.

=Lampriere Gold Medal.=--Captain James Lampriere was, in 1703, awarded
a gold medal, and probably a chain also, as there is a ring for
suspension, as

  "Her Majᵗⁱᵉˢ reward to Capᵗ. James Lampriere for his Zeal to her
  Service, and his Successful Conducting yᵉ Squadron commanded by
  Rear Admiral Dilkes, who destroyed a considerable number of yᵉ
  Enemy's Merchant Ships under convey of 3 Men of War on their own

This inscription is engraved in writing characters upon the reverse of
the gold medal, with the Arms of Lampriere below, with the motto
TRUE · TO · MY · TRUST · on a ribbon. On the obverse is the bust of
Queen Anne, facing left, wearing the Royal Crown with a row of pearls
in her hair, and round her neck the Collar and Star of the order of the
Garter, surrounded by the legend ANNA · DEI · GRATIA · MAG : BRITAN :

=Granville, 1703.=--It is said that gold medals were presented to
Rear-Admiral Dilkes and his officers for their success near Granville
in Normandy in July 1703; but there is no official record of their
being granted. But to Captain Thomas Legge, who distinguished himself
under Rear-Admiral Dilkes in the same year a gold medal was specially
struck to commemorate his gallantry, and Campbell states in his "Naval
History" that "The Queen ... ordered gold medals to be struck on this
occasion and delivered to the Rear-Admiral and all his officers," and
Lampriere was one of the officers.

=Capture of Gibraltar.=--Medals were struck in this reign to celebrate
the capture of Gibraltar by Sir G. Rooke in 1704; but they were not, as
far as I can ascertain, issued as decorations.

A few medals were struck and given to pilots and fishermen; five to the
crew of the "Leonora" in consideration of their courage and resolution
in driving the Frenchmen (13 who had been placed as a prize crew on
the captured ship to pilot her to France) then aboard her "off the
Quarter-deck, and bringing the said shipp into England."

=Boy's Medal for Gallantry.=--In Dr. Payne's collection is a unique
specimen of a Queen Anne medal awarded to a boy for conspicuous
gallantry. On the obverse is the laureated bust of Queen Anne, facing
left, draped, with a row of pearls about the shoulders, with the legend
ANNA D : G : MAG : BRI : FR : ET HIB : REG :. The medal, which is 2·75
in. in diameter, has a raised border of laurel leaves and roses, and
a ring for suspension. On the reverse is the inscription engraved in
writing characters:

  "Her Majᵗⁱᵉˢ reward to Robert Taylor Boy of yᵉ Mary Galley, for his
  Zeal and Courage at yᵉ taking of yᵉ French Privateer Jacques La
  Blonde of Dunkirk."

This medal, illustrated facing page 276, is one of the few struck
during the reign of Queen Anne "to give all due Encouragement to the
Valour and Fidelity of Her Subjects serving aboard any of Her Majesties
Ships of War or Privateers." The cost of providing the medals, it was
further ordered, was to be paid out of Her Majesty's share of prizes.
This declaration, made on June 1st, 1702, in the first year of her
reign, differs from the Act of 1692, which directed that they were to
be provided out of a tenth part set aside for that special purpose.

=George I.=--During the reign of George I there is on record the award
in 1715 of a gold enamelled jewel and £1,000 sterling to Captain
Matthew Martin, Commander of the "Marlborough," for his gallant
defence of his ship against three French ships-of-war in the Bay
of Bengal, and getting her safely to Fort St. George in 1712. The
medal, it will be observed, was awarded for an action in the reign
of George's predecessor. It bore on the obverse the Arms of the East
India Company, and was enamelled and set with diamonds; on the reverse
was an inscription recording the services for which it was awarded. No
official decoration was awarded for the victory of Sir George Byng over
the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro in the Mediterranean on July 31st,
1718, although a silver medal was struck to commemorate the event.


=George II.=--Commemorative medals were also struck in connection
with the taking of Puerto Bello, in the Caribbean Sea, by Admiral
Vernon with six ships in 1739. The city had about 10,000 inhabitants,
and Vernon got possession of the place within forty-eight hours and
destroyed the fortifications. There are several "Vernon" medals in
existence, varying in size and shape, in white metal, bronze, and
silver; but most have on the reverse "He took Porto Bello with Six
Ships only." It is by no means certain that any of these medals were
issued as official decorations.

=Callis Gold Medal.=--In 1742 a gold medal and chain of the value of
£100 was awarded to Captain Smith Callis, R.N., for his gallant service
in taking the "Duke" fireship into the Port of St. Tropez in Provence,
on June 14th, and burning five Royal Spanish galleys which had fired
upon the blockading fleet. On the obverse of the medal, which is 2·1
in. in diameter, George II, laureated and attired as a Roman Emperor,
is represented in the act of presenting a medal to an officer. Under
the group, at the top of the plain exergue, is the medallist's name
T. PINGO F:. Above all on a ribbon is PRO TALIBVS AVSIS (For such
enterprise), and on the reverse five galleys in shore with a squadron
of ships-of-war preparing to attack, and in the exergue OB. V. TRIREM.
medal is the day on which the information was given of the successful
venture; but the actual driving into port of the galleys, and the
successful attack by the "Duke," was on June 14th. It is believed that
the medal in silver was awarded to the other officers who took part in
the general affair.

=Hornby Medal and Chain.=--By a decision of the King given at the Court
held at Kensington on September 18th, 1744, a gold medal and chain
of the value of £100 was granted to Captain Richard Hornby, of the
"Wrightson and Isabella" of Sunderland, and a bounty of £5 to each of
his five men, and 40_s._ to each of his three boys, for having engaged
a French privateer armed with ten carriage and eight swivel guns, and
manned by 75 seamen, and, after a contest renewed again and again over
a period of five hours, sinking the French vessel. A gold medal of the
value of one hundred guineas was also awarded to Captain Phillips of
the "Alexander" privateer for the capture of a large French vessel in
St. Martin's Road off the Isle of Rhe. There were 230 men on board the
ship of 22 guns, and Phillips's crew numbered 150, but he successfully
boarded the vessel and brought her into port, when it was discovered
that she was H.M.S. "Solebay," which the enemy had captured a couple of
years previously.

=Louisbourg, 1758.=--For the taking of Louisbourg on July 26th, 1753,
a medal was awarded to those who distinguished themselves upon land
under Generals Amherst and Wolfe, and at sea under Admiral Boscawen.
The Navy's participation in the affair was to attack and cut out the
two ships, the "Bienfaisant" of 64 guns, and "La Prudente" of 74
guns, which had been left for fighting purposes after some others had
been sunk to obstruct the entrance to the harbour. The boats from the
British fleet set out on their task at midnight on July 25th, cut the
cable under a heavy fire, and having boarded the ships proceeded to tow
them out. "La Prudente" grounded and had to be burned; but the smaller
vessel was successfully got out and added to the British fleet. The
medals, by T. Pingo, with rings for suspension, were struck in gold,
silver, and bronze. Four specimens of the gold medal are known to
exist--one which was in the Montague collection, another which was sold
at Sotheby's in 1895, and those awarded to Sir Alexander Schomberg,
great-grandfather of Lieutenant-Colonel Schomberg, R.M.L.I., and to
Senior Midshipman (afterwards Sir George) Young.

="The Glorious" 1st of June.=--The reign of George III produced a
long record of brilliant achievements by the British Navy. When he
ascended the throne, in October 1760, Britain was still at war with
France and continued to be so almost the whole time he reigned; but
it was not until "The Glorious" 1st of June 1794, when Admiral Lord
Howe gained his great victory off Ushant, that medals were awarded,
and a regulation medal instituted for naval services. Hearing that the
French fleet had sailed for Brest, Howe put to sea to meet it, and
having sighted the enemy on the morning of May 28th, gave chase. A
smart action ensued which was renewed next day; but heavy fog put an
end to fighting until the 31st. On June 1st both fleets prepared for
battle: the engagement commenced, and the French line was soon broken
in several places; but the French seamen fought with great courage. The
furious nature of the British attack, however, was too determined, and
the enemy sailed away, such of the ships as could, having 10 dismasted
and 7 taken by the English fleet, the "Vengeur" going down with 200 of
her crew as she was being towed away. The British Admiral's flagship,
the "Queen Charlotte," was badly injured, also the "Brunswick,"
"Defence," and "Marlborough." It is understood that the 2nd and
detachments of the 25th and 69th Foot served as Marines on board the
ships which fought on that glorious 1st of June.

The vessels engaged were H.M. ships "Queen Charlotte," "Royal
Sovereign," "Royal George," "Barfleur," "Bellerophon," "Impregnable,"
"Queen," "Cæsar," "Culloden," "Defence," "Glory," "Gibraltar,"
"Invincible," "Majestic," "Leviathan," "Marlborough," "Montague,"
"Ramillies," "Russell," "Orion," "Thunderer," "Tremendous,"
"Audacious," "Alfred," "Brunswick," and "Valiant," the frigates
"Aquilon," "Latona," "Phæton," "Niger," "Southampton," "Venus,"
"Charon," and "Pegasus," the sloops "Comet" and "Incendiary," and the
cutters "Ranger" and "Rattler."

=Naval Gold Medal instituted.=--On June 13th Lord Howe reached
Spithead, and the King and Queen at a levee held on the Admiral's
flagship presented him with a sword set with diamonds in the hilt and
a gold chain with a gold medal attached thereto. At the same time
gold chains were presented by His Majesty to the two vice-admirals,
three rear-admirals, and the captain of the fleet with the intimation
that gold medals for suspension would be distributed to the principal
officers when they had been struck. These were distributed on November
9th, 1796. The obverses of both medals are the same as illustrated
facing this page; but whereas on the larger medal the name of the
recipient and the event for which the medal was awarded are encircled
by a struck wreath of laurel and oak, the reverse of the smaller one
is plain except for the inscription. The larger medal was worn by
the admirals suspended from the neck by the gold chain referred to,
and the other flag officers hung theirs by means of a white ribbon
with dark-blue edges, which became the ribbon for the N.G.S. medal
when issued in 1847. The captains' medals, the smaller size, were
dependent from a ring and bar made from wire and suspended by the
white, blue-edged ribbon through the third or fourth button-hole on
the left side of their coats. Although Lord Howe's fleet consisted
of twenty-five ships of the line, as well as frigates, only fourteen
medals were awarded to his captains, _i.e._ to those whom he had
particularly mentioned in dispatches.

[Illustration: (Obverse.) (Reverse.)



Awarded to Captain James (later Admiral Rt. Hon. Lord) Gambier.]

This medal bears on the obverse an antique galley on the prow of
which Victory is represented in the act of alighting and placing a
wreath upon the head of Britannia, who stands with her right foot on
a Greek helmet; she holds in her left hand a spear; beside her is an
oval shield whereon is depicted the Union Jack. The larger medal is 2
in. in diameter and the smaller one 1·3 in. Both sizes were struck in
gold, and the medal became a general award to naval officers who had
distinguished themselves in great naval victories until 1815, and it
is noteworthy that the only officers below the rank of post captain
who earned the captains' medal were Lieutenant Pinfold of the "Ajax"
and Lieutenant Stockham of the "Thunderer," who in the absence of
their captains commanded their ships at Trafalgar; but they were not
given the medal until they had reached the rank of post captain. It
was ultimately awarded to Captain Mounsey of the "Bonne Citoyenne"
for the capture of "La Furieuse" on July 16th, 1809. The total number
of gold medals issued was 140, of which eight were admirals' medals
awarded with chains; flag officers' were issued with broad ribbons
for suspension from the neck, and 117 of the captains' size, as
illustrated, for suspension between the third and fourth buttonholes of
their coats. Gold chains were only given with the admirals' medals for
June 1st.

The vessels engaged were H.M. ships "Queen Charlotte," "Royal
Sovereign," "Royal George," "Barfleur," "Bellerophon," "Impregnable,"
"Cæsar," "Culloden," "Defence," "Gibraltar," "Glory," "Invincible,"
"Leviathan," "Marlborough," "Majestic," "Montague," "Orion,"
"Ramillies," "Russell," "Tremendous," "Thunderer," "Valiant," "Alfred,"
"Audacious," "Brunswick," and the frigates "Aquilon," "Charon,"
"Latona," "Phæton," "Southampton," "Niger," "Pegasus," the sloops
"Incendiary" and "Comet," and the cutters "Rattler" and "Ranger."

=St. Vincent, 1797.=--On St. Valentine's Day, 1797, the battle of St.
Vincent was fought between the Spanish fleet of 27 ships of the line
and 8 frigates under Admiral Don Josef de Cordova, and 20 British
ships of the line, 2 sloops, and a cutter which had been cruising off
the coasts of Spain and Portugal to prevent the fleets of France,
Spain, and Holland--which countries had entered into an alliance
against Great Britain--from combining. Sir John Jervis commanded;
his flagship was the "Victory." Passing through the two divisions
of the Spanish fleet, he cut off nine of the enemies' vessels: the
Spaniards then attempted to break the British line; but the effort
was frustrated, two of the enemy's ships striking their colours. This
action, which only lasted four hours, resulted in the loss of four
ships to the enemy, Commodore Horatio Nelson of the "Captain," 74 guns,
having taken the "San Josef" of 112 guns, and the "San Nicolas" of 80

In this battle Nelson by his intrepid action placed himself in the
front rank of commanders, and his bravery and dash were rewarded by the
Order of the Bath, and his advancement to the rank of Rear-Admiral. In
the fight off Cape St. Vincent he not only attacked at close quarters
the "Santissima Trinidad," a great galleon of 112 guns, but with the
aid of the "Culloden" (Captain Trowbridge), which gallantly began
the fight, he fought for nearly an hour this great ship and four
other galleons which had come to her assistance, until the "Blenheim"
(Captain Frederick) and the "Excellent" (Captain Collingwood) came to
assist the English, when Nelson ran the "Captain" alongside the "San
Nicolas," quickly sprang through one of the stern cabin windows, and
leading his men across the Spaniard's deck, boldly boarded the "San
Josef," on the quarter-deck of which he soon received the swords of
the conquered officers. By 5 o'clock the Spaniards were in retreat,
having lost to their enemy four of their finest vessels, and, besides
receiving a blow to their naval power, had considerably minimised
their value to the French in their effort to command the Channel, and
upset the calculations of the Dutch. For the victory Sir John Jervis
was created Earl of St. Vincent, and awarded a pension of £3,000 per
annum, while the unfortunate Spanish Admiral was dismissed in disgrace.

The vessels engaged were: H.M. ships "Victory," "Britannia,"
"Barfleur," "Blenheim," "Prince George," "Captain," "Goliath,"
"Excellent," "Egmont," "Culloden," "Colossus," "Diadem," "Namur,"
"Orion," "Irresistible," and the frigates "Dido," "Lively," "Minerva,"
"Niger," and "Southampton," sloops "Bon Citoyenne" and "Raven," and the
cutter "Fox."

=Camperdown.=--When the battle of Camperdown was fought on October
11th, 1797, Great Britain was in the unfortunate position of standing
isolated among the nations of Europe, and still concerned with the
series of mutinies which had broken out in her fleet owing to the poor
pay and bad food meted out to the seamen who had served their country
so well. As a consequence Britain was, had her enemies but realised
it, in a very precarious position. Fortunately Admiral Duncan had "a
way with him," which enabled him, by a combination of firmness and
reasoning power, to get his men into such a frame of mind as to state
in writing that there was not a man on board the "Venerable" "but
would lose the last drop of blood in his body before they (the enemy)
should obtain any victory over us, therefore, honoured sir, we once
more implore your gracious pardon." Fortunately Duncan's ability to
deal with the mutineers enabled him, at least, to have a fleet of some
pretensions wherewith to meet the enemy. Meanwhile the mutiny at the
Nore had been suppressed, "Admiral" Richard Parker, the leader, hanged,
and some effort made to remedy the grievances of the seamen while
Duncan had been hoodwinking the Dutch.

On October 9th, 1817, Duncan set sail from Yarmouth Roads with 20
ships, 4 cutters, and a lugger, to meet the Dutch fleet which had at
last left the Texel. Just before noon on the 11th, Duncan signalled
to his ships "clear for action and close," and by half-past 12
Vice-Admiral Onslow, in the "Monarch," had got through the enemy's
line and engaged Vice-Admiral Reyntier. Admiral Duncan engaged the
"Vyrheid," the Dutch Admiral's flagship, and after a hard fight lasting
until 2 o'clock, De Winter only struck his ship to the "Venerable"
when he was the only unwounded man on the quarter-deck of his mastless
ship. It is significant of Duncan's character and manliness that when
his opponent offered his sword he refused to take it, saying "rather
a brave man's hand than his sword." On October 16th the victorious
Admiral anchored off the Nore with the eleven ships he had taken, and
next day King George raised him to the Peerage with the titles of Baron
Duncan of Lundie and Viscount Duncan of Camperdown.

The vessels engaged were: H.M. ships "Venerable," "Ardent," "Adamant,"
"Agincourt," "Bedford," "Belliqueux," "Brackel," "Lancaster,"
"Monarch," "Montague," "Monmouth," "Powerful," "Russell," "Director,"
"Isis," "Veteran," "Triumph," the frigates "Beaulieu," "Circe," and
"Martin," the cutters "Active," "Diligent," "King George," "Rose," and
the lugger "Speculator."

=The Nile.=--For over a year hardly a British man-of-war had passed
into the Mediterranean until Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, with
Captain Trowbridge, entered with his fleet to frustrate the pretensions
of Napoleon. There were 13 74-gun ships and 1 of 50 guns; but before
the action commenced on August 1st, 1798, the former had been reduced
to 12 by the grounding of the "Culloden." The French fleet was of
equal proportions; but included several heavier ships: "L'Orient,"
the flagship, a magnificent three-decker carrying 120 guns, and three
others with 80 guns apiece. The French fleet was moored on the edge of
a shoal in a compact line running north-west by south-east. Captain
Foley, with the "Goliath," led the way between the front ships and
Aboukir Island, thus executing a manœuvre which the French Admiral
had thought impracticable. Five ships thus engaged the enemy on the
port or land side, while the "Vanguard," followed up by other ships,
made for the centre of the line. At half-past 6 in the evening the
battle commenced, and by 8 o'clock 8 British ships and an equal number
of French were engaged in one of the most deadly struggles in naval


Awarded to Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas Ussher, C.B., K.C.H.]

Early in the contest the French Admiral, de Brueys, had been badly
wounded, but, gallant sailor that he was, refused to go below, and met
his death about this time by a shot that almost cut him in two: even
then his resolute spirit refused to yield, and death only gave his
comrades the power to remove his maimed body. At 9 o'clock his ship,
"L'Orient," was seen to blaze out; but her determined crew stuck to
their guns and fired them until they were literally scorched out of
their places--and then the great ship blew up. So awful was the scene
that the gunners of both fleets were apparently too dazed to fire again
for about a quarter of an hour. Meantime a French lad won undying fame
by his devotion to his father, the Commodore of "L'Orient," and his
name has been immortalised by a British poetess, Mrs. Hemans, who has
so well portrayed the story of the little ten-year-old lad who refused
to leave his mortally wounded father, and despite the fact that, as
a French writer states, "the English seamen made the most strenuous
efforts to save the young Casabianca," he went down to his death with
the father he loved so well.

Just before "L'Orient" blew up, Nelson received a severe wound on the
forehead which was for a time thought likely to prove mortal; but on
hearing that the great vessel had blown up, he gave orders for the
launching of the only boat so that the unfortunate survivors of the
explosion might be rescued. The night with its horrors had exhausted
the fleets, and firing gradually ceased until the day broke at 4
o'clock: by then 6 French ships had hauled down their colours and two
were aground, while the "Tonnant," commanded by the bravest of brave
seamen, Captain Dupetit-Thouars, showed fight to the last, for her
seamen were filled with the spirit of their dead captain, who had his
colours nailed to the mast, and when wounded unto death refused to
yield. Such courage as his must be infectious. With both arms and a leg
shot away, seated in a tub of bran, this defiant and gallant Frenchman
commanded his ship until the conqueror of all--Death--claimed the

Only 2 French ships-of-war and 2 frigates escaped. The flagship and
the "Arteruise" had blown up, 2 were aground, a frigate had been sunk
when Rear-Admiral Villeneuve endeavoured to get away with the badly
damaged "Tonnant" and 3 others. Of these the "Timeleon" grounded, and
after her crew had got ashore, her captain burnt her; the "Tonnant"
was captured; and only the "Guillaume Tell" and the "Genereux," which
had hardly taken any part in the conflict, escaped with the frigates
"Justice" and "Diane." Not a British vessel went down, but all showed
severe evidence of the fight that had been waged on that August day
in 1798. The victory was due not only to the excellent seamanship of
Nelson, who was raised to the peerage as Baron Nelson of the Nile,
and of Burnham Thorpe, for what Lord St. Vincent described as "the
greatest achievement the history of the world can produce," but to the
superb gunnery of his men, who served their guns with such rapidity and
precision that their opponents were absolutely outclassed.

The ships engaged in the battle were the "Vanguard," "Bellerophon,"
"Orion," "Audacious," "Culloden," "Defiance," "Zealous," "Minotaur,"
"Goliath," "Alexander," "Majestic," "Leander," "Theseus," "Swiftsure,"
and the sloop "Mutine."

=Davison's Medal for the Nile.=--As a souvenir of this historic
sea-fight Mr. Alexander Davison, Lord Nelson's prize agent, presented
to every officer and seaman of Nelson's fleet a medal; gold to
captains and lieutenants, silver to warrant officers, bronze gilt
to petty officers, bronze to seamen and marines. The medal, which is
1¹⁷⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, is illustrated facing page 288. Upon the edge
OF REGARD. The medals were issued unnamed, but many had their names and
the name of their ship also engraved above the sky-line on the reverse.
The medals, modelled by C. H. Kuchler, were highly prized by all who
received them, from Nelson--who wrote very gratefully to Davison--to
the seamen, many of whom had the medals mounted in gold or silver
frames and wore them suspended from a broad blue ribbon. This is the
first instance of a medal given by a private individual being accepted
and worn in the Service.

=Copenhagen.=--This battle, fought on April 2nd, 1801, will long be
remembered for the gallant conduct of Nelson, who, when Admiral Sir
Hyde Parker signalled "leave off action," placed his glass to his blind
eye and saying, "I really do not see the signal!" ordered his own
signal for close action to be kept flying. Had it not have been for
this daring disregard of orders, Copenhagen would have been among the
failures of our navy, instead of one of its most glorious victories,
for it was one of the most stubborn fights on record. For five hours
Britons and Danes fought with equal courage and determination. For
five hours they fought with equal success, and it was only through
the pertinacity of Nelson that the fortune of war fell to Britain.
This battle has a double significance, for not only did Nelson prove
his great capacity as a seaman, but also gave further evidence of
his humane character; for when the stubborn spirit of the Danes was
likely to lead to useless bloodshed he appealed "to the brothers of
Englishmen--the Danes," to recognise the fact that they were beaten,
and so prevent unnecessary carnage.

It was an action which he knew would be misunderstood and
misrepresented, but he did not falter. Fortunately his message was
received by the Crown Prince in the spirit in which it was sent, and
the battle of Copenhagen, "the most terrible of all" his engagements,
was added to the laurels of the immortal and gentle Nelson, although
because Nelson requested the cessation of hostilities, the Danes
regarded it as a drawn battle.

The following ships were engaged: "Elephant," (Vice-Admiral Nelson's
flagship), "Defiance," "Edgar," "Monarch," "Bellona," "Ganges,"
"Russell," "Agamemnon," "Ardent," "Polyphemus," "Glatton," "Isis,"
"Amazon," "Alcméne," "Blanche," "Désirée," "Jamaica," sloops "Arrow,"
"Dart," "Cruiser," and "Harpy," bomb vessels "Discovery," "Explosion,"
"Hecla," "Sulphur," "Terror," "Volcano," and "Zebra," and the brigs
"Otter" and "Zephyr."

=Trafalgar.=--Napoleon having placed the crown of Italy upon his head
(May 6th, 1805), within a fortnight declared Genoa and the Ligurian
Republic part of the French Empire. He then had hopes that Admiral
De Villeneuve would successfully escort the "Army of England," then
encamped at Boulogne, across the Channel. His plans were, however,
frustrated by the engagement forced upon Villeneuve by Admiral Sir
Robert Calder off Ferrol, while Napoleon, charging his Admiral with
cowardice, caused him to leave the harbour of Cadiz on October 19th,
1805, and the epoch-making battle off Cape Trafalgar was the result.
Owing to light winds, Villeneuve did not make the Atlantic until the
next day, and then his combined fleet of 33 French and Spanish ships
of the line, 5 French frigates, and 2 brigs, were sighted off Cape
Trafalgar by Nelson's look-out ships. It was not until next day,
however, that the fleets formed in battle array. At 6.30 a.m. the
British ships cleared for action. The English fleet comprised 27 sail
of the line, 4 frigates, a cutter and a schooner. Lord Nelson led the
Weather or Northern Division in his flagship the "Victory," while
Vice-Admiral Collingwood led the Lee or Southern Division. Just before
noon the famous signal "England expects every man to do his duty" was
run up, and the battle began. "Engage the enemy more closely" was the
only other signal given by the British Admiral, and that was when the
enemy's ship "Fougueux" had opened fire upon the "Royal Sovereign";
then followed a series of contests between the French and British
ships, which reflect the greatest credit upon the seamen of both


Nelson, being desirous of engaging the French Admiral's flagship, came
upon the "Bucentaure" at 12.30 p.m., when she fired upon the British
flagship, but, unheedful of the shot from this and seven other ships,
the "Victory" ploughed her way ahead in order to break the enemy's
line. For three-quarters of an hour her guns refused to bark, though
her men were falling fast from the shots which broke through her sides,
and tore her sails to shreds; but at 1 o'clock the "Victory" closely
engaged the "Bucentaure," and so well were the British shots placed
that 20 of the enemy's guns were soon dismounted and, according to a
French estimate, 400 seamen were killed. Leaving the "Bucentaure" the
"Victory" engaged the "Redoubtable" at ten minutes past 1, and the
rigging of the two ships fouling, they were locked in a deadly embrace.
Then the crews of the two vessels fought with exceeding gallantry, for
both were led by brave men, and the "Redoubtable's" captain cheered
his men on to board the "Victory"; indeed, he lowered his main-yard on
to the "Victory's" deck, and his men made a brave effort to capture
her, but those daring Frenchmen who gained her decks paid for their
effort with their lives; not, however, before they had placed 30 of the
"Victory's" crew _hors de combat_.

=Death of Nelson.=--Meanwhile, one of the sharpshooters in the
mizzen-top of the "Redoubtable" had given Viscount Nelson his death
wound. At half-past one the fatal bullet passed through his shoulder
and spine, but Britain's greatest admiral lived long enough to learn
that the victory was his, and he died at 4.30 p.m. satisfied that he
had done his duty. By 5.30 p.m. 18 of the enemy's ships had struck
their colours, and the survivors of the fight were making the best of
their way to Cadiz, but a gale coming on, the British fleet with its
prizes stood out to sea, where some of the prizes foundered with their
crews; others were driven ashore and wrecked, while four were retaken
by the enemy, so that by the time the triumphant fleet sailed into
Gibraltar Bay it only retained 4 prizes. The victory of Trafalgar had,
however, made Britain indisputable mistress of the seas, destroyed the
sea power of France and Spain, and, while it added to the laurels of
British seamen, gave to Nelson a glorious death and secured for him a
resting-place in Westminster Abbey.

The following ships were engaged in the battle: "Victory," "Royal
Sovereign," "Temeraire," "Britannia," "Conqueror," "Neptune,"
"Agamemnon," "Leviathan," "Ajax," "Africa," "Minotaur," "Orion,"
"Belleisle," "Mars," "Thunderer," "Spartiate," "Bellerophon,"
"Achille," "Colossus," "Polyphemus," "Revenge," "Dreadnought,"
"Swiftsure," "Defence," "Defiance," "Prince" and "Tonnant." "Naiad,"
"Sirius," "Euryalus" and "Phœbe" frigates. The cutter "Entreprenaute"
and the schooner "Pickle."

=Gold Medal for Trafalgar.=--As already stated, the gold medal
instituted by George III to reward the officers of Lord Howe's fleet
who took part in the action on "The Glorious" June 1st, 1794, was
afterwards awarded for all great naval victories, and among those who
received them were Nelson's officers--from post-captains upwards--who
took part in the battle of Trafalgar. The gold medal was awarded for
18 different actions, the last award being for the fight between
the "Endymion" frigate of 48 guns and the American 50-gun frigate
"President" on January 15th, 1815. See facing page 280 for smaller
type of medal as awarded to James (afterwards Right Hon. Admiral Lord
James) Gambier of the "Defence" for June 1st, 1794.


=Boulton's Trafalgar Medal.=--To commemorate the last and greatest of
Nelson's victories, Matthew Boulton, the partner of James Watt of the
famous Soho Works near Birmingham, decided to strike medals and present
one to each participant in the fight. The medal, 1⁹⁄₁₀ in. in diameter,
bears on the obverse a fine bust of Nelson, with the inscription
reverse the battle is represented _en cameo_, with the famous signal
on a ribbon running with the line of the medal, and in the exergue
TRAFALGAR OCT. 21 1805. On the edge of the medal is the inscription TO
THE HEROES OF TRAFALGAR FROM M. BOULTON. The medal was struck in silver
for the senior officers, and in pewter for distribution among the
junior officers and seamen. The intrinsic value of the medal did not,
however, appeal to many of the recipients of the pewter variety, and
they either refused them or threw them overboard. Those who retained
them wore them suspended from a blue ribbon. A few were struck in
bronze as proofs.

=Davison's Trafalgar Medal.=--This medal, generally supposed to have
been struck at the instance of Mr. Alexander Davison for distribution
among the surviving members of the crew of the "Victory," has on the
obverse a shield bearing the arms of Nelson, encircled by a garter
inscribed TRIA · JUNCTO · IN · UNO · ensigned by a bust of Viscount
Nelson, with a laurel branch to the left, and a palm branch to the
right, and on a scroll beneath the shield PALMAM QUI MERUIT FERAT and
MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY. On the reverse is a man-of-war with sails furled,
and above THE LORD IS A MAN OF WAR. EXODUS C 15 V 3, whilst below is
21 1805. Beneath the man-of-war is ~HALLIDAY FECIT~. The medals, 2 in.
in diameter, were struck in pewter or white metal, and were sometimes
framed by the recipients in gold, silver, or gilt metal rims, with a
loop for suspension from a blue ribbon.

=The Official Medal.=--It was not until June 1st, 1847, that it was
made known by a General Order that Her Majesty Queen Victoria had
commanded that a medal should be struck, not only to commemorate
the battle of Trafalgar, but to recognise the services rendered by
her fleets and armies from 1793 to 1815. The medal was ready for
distribution in January 1849, and later the naval services for which it
might be awarded were extended to 1840. The admitted claims totalled

[Illustration: (Reverse.)


[Illustration: SULTAN'S MEDAL FOR ACRE.]

[Illustration: (Obverse.)


=The Naval General Service Medal.=--Two hundred and thirty bars were
issued with the medal, which bore upon the obverse the bust of Queen
Victoria, as on the Military General Service medal, and the legend
VICTORIA REGINA, with the date +1848+ below, and on the reverse a
figure of Britannia seated upon a sea-horse holding in her right hand
a trident, and in the left an olive branch. The medal, by Wyon, is
suspended by a straight clasp from a white ribbon with blue edges, and
the recipient's name is impressed upon the edge of the medal in Roman
capitals of the same character as those used for the M.G.S. medal.
Officers and warrant officers only had their rank described, and in
the arrangement of the bars the first action was placed nearest the
medal. Although so many bars were issued with the medal, six is the
most awarded to any one man. Dr. Payne has in his collection two with
five bars; one awarded to Thos. Hewitt, midshipman, for 1 JUNE 1794--12
another awarded to Capt. (afterwards Rear-Admiral Sir Thomas) Ussher,
Kt., C.B., K.C.H., illustrated facing page 284, which also includes 1
1812--2 MAY BOAT SERVICE 1813. This is a particularly rare set of bars,
for only seven of the second were issued, five of the third, seven of
the fourth, and forty-nine of the fifth.


  NYMPH, 18 June 1793. 4 issued. Capture of the French frigate
    "Cleopatre." Captain E. Pellew, who commanded the "Nymph," was

  CRESCENT, 20 Oct. 1793. 12 issued. Capture of the French frigate
    "Reunion," which was added to the British Navy under the same

  ZEBRA, 7 March 1794. 2 issued. Running the "Zebra" sloop alongside
    the bastion of Fort Royal at Martinique, and storming and
    capturing the fort.

  CARYSFORT, 29 May 1794. None issued. Recapture of the "Caster."

  1 June 1794 ("The Glorious First of June"). 576 issued. Defeat of
    the French fleet by Lord Howe, capture of 6 sail of the line and
    1 sunk. 58 vessels (for list of principal vessels engaged see
    page 279).

  ROMENY, 17 June 1794. 2 issued. Capture of French frigate "Sybille."

  BLANCHE, 4 Jan. 1795. 5 issued. At the end of the conflict she had
    a crew of 190. Capture of the French frigate "Pique."

  LIVELY, 13 March 1795. 3 issued. Capture of the French frigate

  14 March 1795. 111 issued. Action with French fleet, and capture
    of 2 sail of the line. 22 vessels under Vice-Admiral Hotham were

  ASTRÆA, 10 April 1795. 2 issued. Capture of the French frigate

                                          { Action with four
  THETIS, 17 May 1795. 3 issued.          {   French ships, and
                                          {   capture of "La
  HUSSAR, 17 May 1795. 1 issued.          {   Raison" and
                                          {   "Prevoyante."

  MOSQUITO, 9 June 1795. None issued. This was not due to delay in
    issuing medals, but to the loss of the captain and crew of the
    "Mosquito" soon after. Action with, and capture of, privateer.

  17 June 1795. 38 issued. Brilliant repulse by Vice-Admiral
    Cornwallis, of a fleet four times superior in force. 7 vessels

  23 June 1795. 201 issued. Action under Admiral Lord Bridport with
    French fleet, and capture of 3 sail of the line; the "Formidable"
    became the British ship "Belleisle" and the "Tigre" was also
    added under its own name. The "Alexander" was a recapture. 29
    vessels engaged.

  DIDO, 23 June 1795. 1 only          } Action with the French
      issued.                         }   frigates "Minerve"
  LOWESTOFFE, 24 June 1795.           }   and "Artemise," and
      6 issued.                       }   capture of the former.

  SPIDER, 25 Aug. 1795. 1 only issued. Action with 2 French brigs,
    and capture of 1. This medal realised £33 at the Gaskill sale.

  PORT SPERGUI, 17 March 1796. 4 issued to survivors of the
    "Diamond," "Liberty," and "Aristocrat." Destroying the batteries
    at Port Spergui, and destroying the corvette "Etourdie," 4 brigs,
    2 sloops, and 1 lugger.

  INDEFATIGABLE, 20 April 1796. 6 issued. Capture of French frigate
    "Virginia," in the English Channel.

                          { Action with the three
                          {   French frigates "La
  UNICORN, 8 June 1796. 4 {   Tribune," "La Tamise,"
      issued.             {   (formerly the British ship
  SANTA MARGARITA, 8 June {   "Thames") and "La
      1796. 3 issued.     {   Legere," and capture of
                          {   the two former. Captain
                          {   William of the "Unicorn"
                          {   was knighted.

  SOUTHAMPTON, 9 June 1796. 4 issued. Capture of French corvette

  DRYAD, 13 June 1796. 7 issued. Capture of the French frigate
    "Proserpine," which became H.M.S. "Amelia."

  TERPSICHORE, 13 Oct. 1796. 3 issued. Capture of the Spanish frigate

  LAPWING, 8 Dec. 1796. 2 issued. Action with French ship "Décieux"
    and brig "Vaillante," and capture of the former. 1 medal sold for
    £21 on July 24th, 1914.

  MINERVA, 19 Dec. 1796. 5 { Capture of Spanish frigate
      issued.              {   "Santa Sabina" by the
  BLANCHE, 19 Dec. 1796. 2 {   "Minerve," and action
      issued.              {   between "Blanche"
                           {   and "Ceres."

                               { Destruction of French
  INDEFATIGABLE, 13 Jan. 1797. {   "74," "Droits de
      8 issued.                {   L'Homme," off the
  AMAZON, 13 Jan. 1797. 6      {   coast of France. The
      issued.                  {   "Amazon" went
                               {   ashore and her crew
                               {   were made prisoners.

  ST. VINCENT, 14 Feb. 1797. 363 issued. Action with the Spanish
    fleet, and capture of 4 sail of the line. 23 ships engaged (for
    list see page 283).

  SAN FIORENZO, 8 March 1797. 7 issued. Capture of "Resistance" and
    "Constance." The first named became the "Fisgard."

  NYMPHE, 8 March 1797. 6 issued.

  CAMPERDOWN, 11 Oct. 1797. 332 issued. Battle of Camperdown, when
    Admiral Duncan defeated the Dutch fleet. 25 vessels engaged (for
    list see page 283).

  PHŒBE, 21 Dec. 1797. 7 issued. Capture of the French frigate
    "Néréide," which was added to the British Navy under the same

  MARS, 21 April 1798. 26 issued. Capture of French 74, "L'Hercule."
    In this severe action the "Mars" lost her captain, Alexander Hood.

  ISLE ST. MARCOU, 6 May 1798. 3 issued. Action at the Island of
    Marcou. 2 boats engaged.

  LION, 15 July 1798. 21 issued. Action with 4 Spanish frigates and
    capture of the "Santa Dorotea," which was added to the British
    Navy under the same name.

  NILE, 1 Aug. 1798. 351 issued. Battle of the Nile. 15 ships engaged
    (for list see page 286).

  ESPOIR, 7 Aug. 1798. 1 issued. Action with and capture of a Genoese
    pirate, the "La Guria."

  12 Oct. 1798. 81 issued. Action under Sir J. B. Warren with a
    French squadron, and capture of the "Hoche" "74"--which became
    the "Donegal"--and 2 frigates. 8 ships engaged.

  FISGARD II, 20 Oct. 1799. 9 issued. Capture of the French frigate

  SYBILLE, 28 Feb. 1799. 12 issued. Capture of the French frigate "La
    Forte," after a stern fight in which a detachment of the Scotch
    Brigade which was on board the "Sybille" took part.

  TELEGRAPH, 18 March 1799. None issued. Capture of "L'Hirondelle II."

[Illustration: BALTIC MEDAL.]



  ACRE, 30 May 1799. 42 issued. The record on the bar for this affair
    is ACRE, 30 MAY 1799; but as the French raised the siege on May
    20th, and Bonaparte retreated leaving 23 cannon, the bar is
    wrongly inscribed, but it is nevertheless official. The bar was
    awarded to those who assisted the Turkish fleet to defend "Acre"
    from the French attack, the ships taking part under Commodore Sir
    Henry Smith being the "Theseus," "Tigre," and "Alliance."

  SCHIERMONIKOOG, 12 Aug. 1799. 10 issued.

  ARROW, 13 Sept. 1799. 2 issued. Action and capture of "Draak" and
    "Gier." 2 vessels. The other boat was the "Wolverine," but no bar
    was issued for that.

  SURPRISE with HERMIONE, 25 Oct., 1799. 7 issued. Boarding and
    recapturing the "Hermione." For this dashing exploit Captain
    Hamilton was knighted.

  SPEEDY, 6 Nov. 1799. 3 issued. Action with 10 Spanish gunboats and
    2 schooners, and successful defence of convoy.

  COURIER, 22 Nov. 1799. 3 issued. Action with and capture of the

  VIPER, 26 Dec. 1799. 2 issued. Capture of French brig "Furet."

  FAIRY, 5 Feb. 1800. 4          } Action with and capture
      issued.                    }   of the French frigate
                                 }   "Pallas," which became
  HARPY, 5 Feb. 1800. 4          }   H.M.S. "Pique."
      issued.                    }

  PETEREL, 21 March 1800. 2 issued. Capture of "La Ligurienne."

                                    { Night action with "Guillaume
                                    {   Tell"; the "Lion"
                                    {   and "Foudroyant" were
  PENELOPE, 30 March 1800.          {   also engaged and actually
      11 issued.                    {   captured the vessel, which
                                    {   was added to the British
  VINCIEGO, 30 March 1800.          {   Navy as H.M.S. "Malta,"
      2 issued.                     {   but no award was made
                                    {   to the surviving crews of
                                    {   these ships.

  DESIRÉE, 8 July 1800. 23 issued. Boarding and capturing the French
    frigate "Desirée," and other French vessels. 18 vessels engaged.

  SEINE, 20 Aug. 1800. 9 issued. Capture of French frigate
    "Vengeance," between Porto Rico and San Domingo.

  PHŒBE, 19 Feb. 1801. 7 issued. Capture of French frigate
    "Africaine," which became H.M.S. "Amelia."

  EGYPT. 626 issued for services on Coast of Egypt. 117 vessels were

  COPENHAGEN, 1801. 589 issued. 38 vessels engaged.

  SPEEDY, 6 May. 7 issued. Capture of the "Gamo."

  GUT OF GIBRALTAR, 12 July 1801. 152 issued. 10 ships engaged.
    Action with the French squadrons in the "Gut of Gibraltar," and
    destruction of 2 Spanish ships of 122 guns each, and capture of
    the "St. Antonio" "74." For his services as commander of the
    British squadron Sir J. Saumarez was made a K.C.B. and given a
    pension of £1,200 a year.

  SYLPH, 28 Sept. 1801. 2 issued. Action with the "Artemise."

  PASLEY, 28 Oct. 1801. 3 issued. Capture of the Spanish ship
    "Virgen del Rosatio."

  SCORPION, 31 March 1804. }
     1 issued.             } Action with and capture
  BEAVER, 31 March 1804.   }   of vessels in the Ville
     None issued.          }   road.

  CENTURION, 18 Sept. 1804. 11 issued. Action with the line-of-battle
    ship "Marengo," and frigates "Atalante" and "Semillante."

  ARROW, 3 Feb. 1805. 8   } For the protection of 28
  issued.                 }   British merchant ships,
  ACHERON, 3 Feb. 1805. 2 }   when attacked by 2
  issued.                 }   French frigates.

  SAN FIORENZO, 14 Feb. 1805. 11 issued. Capture of the French
    frigate "Psyche."

  PHŒNIX, 10 Aug. 1805. 25 issued. Capture of French frigate "Didon."
    The vessel became H.M.S. "Didon."

  TRAFALGAR. 1,710 issued. 33 vessels engaged (see page 290).

  4 Nov. 1805. 298 issued. 8 vessels engaged. Capture of 4 sail of
    French line-of-battle ships.

  ST. DOMINGO. 410 issued. Battle of "St. Domingo," and capture and
    destruction of 4 sail of the line. 11 vessels were engaged.

  AMAZON, 13 March 1806. 27 issued. { Capture of " Marengo"
                                    {   and
  LONDON, 13 March 1806. 28 issued. {   "Belle Poule."

  PIQUE, 26 March 1806. 7 issued. Capture of the French brigs "Phæton
    " and "Voltigeur."

  SIRIUS, 17 April 1806. 12 issued. Action with French flotilla at
    Civita Vecchia, and capture of the "Bergere."

  BLANCHE, 19 July 1806. 22 issued. Capture of the "Guerrière." For
    this deed Captain Lavie was knighted.

  ARETHUSA, 23 Aug. 1806. } Capture of Spanish frigate
  6 issued.               }   "Pomone."
  ANSON, 23 Aug. 1806.    }

  CURAÇOA, 1 Jan. 1807. Taking of Curaçoa. 4 vessels
    engaged--"Arson," "Arethusa," "Fisgard," and "Latona."

  PICKLE, 3 Jan. 1807. 1 issued. Capture of the French privateer "La

  HYDRA, 6 Aug. 1807. 10 issued. In the harbour of Bergur, attack of
    batteries, and capture of "L'Eugene," "Rosario," and "Caroline."

  COMUS, 15 Aug. 1807. 10 issued. Capture of the Danish frigate

  LOUISA, 28 Oct. 1807. 1 issued. Action with and defeat of a French

  CARRIER, 4 Nov. 1807. 1 issued. Capture of the French cutter

  ANN, 24 Nov. 1807. None issued. Action with 10 Spanish gunboats.

  SAPPHO, 2 March 1808. 5 issued. Capture of the Danish brig "Admiral

  SAN FIORENZO, 8 March 1808. 16 issued. Capture of the French
    frigate "Piedmontaise." The British commander, Captain Hardinge,
    was killed, and a monument to his memory erected in St Paul's
    Cathedral at the public expense.

  EMERALD, 13 March 1808. 12 issued. Destruction of the batteries at
    Vivero and war vessels.

  CHILDERS, 14 March 1808. 4 issued. Captain Wilson and a crew of 65
    participated in this affair. Action with the Danish brig "Lougen."

  NASSAU, 22 March 1808.  } Destruction of Danish line-of-battle
      37 issued.          }   ship "Prince
                          }   Christian Frederic." 2
  STATELY, 22 March 1808. }   ships engaged.
      25 issued.          }

  OFF ROTA, 4 April 1808. 20 issued. Fight with gunboats and convoy.
    "Alceste," "Mercury," and "Grasshopper" engaged.

  GRASSHOPPER, 24 April   } Action with and destruction
      1808. 1 issued.     }   of Spanish ships and gunboats
                          }   at Faro. 2 vessels
  RAPID, 24 April 1808. 1 }   engaged.
      issued.             }

  REDWING, 7 May 1808. 7 issued. Action with Spanish gunboats and
    destroying them.

  VIRGINIE, 19 May 1808. 21 issued. Capture of Dutch frigate

  REDWING, 31 May 1808. 5 issued. Destroying Tarifa Battery near Cape
    Trafalgar, and taking 2 vessels.

  SEAHORSE WH BANDERE LA ZAFFERE, 6 July 1808. 35 issued. Capture of
    the Turkish frigate "Badere Zaffer."

  COMET, 11 Aug. 1808. 5 issued. Action with three French brigs, and
    capture of the "Sylphe." This became H.M.S. "Seagull."

  CENTAUR, 26 Aug. 1808.    }
      38 issued.            } Fight with Russian fleet
                            }   and capture of 74-gun
  IMPLACABLE, 26 Aug. 1808. }   ship "Sewolod."
      45 issued.            }

  CRUIZER, 1 Nov. 1808. 4 issued. Action with Danish flotilla off
    Gottenburgh and capture of brig-of-war.

  AMETHYST with THETIS, 10 Nov. 37 issued. Capture of French frigate
    "Thetis" by Captain Seymour, who was knighted for his prowess.

  OFF THE PEARL ROCK, 13 Dec. 1808. Action with batteries and French
    boats. 6 vessels engaged.

  ONYX, 1 Jan. 1809. 6 issued. Recapture from Dutch of the brig

  CONFIANCE, 14 Jan. 1809. 8 issued. Taking of Cayenne.

  MARTINIQUE. 523 issued. Capture of Martinique. 43 vessels engaged.

  HORATIO, 10 Feb. 1809.    { Capture of the French
      14 issued.            {   frigate "Junon," which
                            {   was added to the British
  SUPÉRIÉURE, 10 Feb. 1809. {   Navy under the same
      2 issued.             {   name.

  AMETHYST, 5 April. 28 issued. Capture of French frigate "Niemen."

  12 April. 646 issued. Fight with French squadron and destruction of
    ships in Basque Road. 35 ships engaged.

  POMPÉE, 17 June 1809. 17 { Chase and capture of French
      issued.              { ship of the line "Hautpoult"
                           { which became
  CASTOR, 17 June 1809. 4  { H.M.S. "Abercromby."
      issued.              { 3 vessels engaged. This
                           { action took place on
  RECRUIT, 17 June 1809. 3 { April 17 and not as stated
      issued.              { on the bars.

  CYANE, 25 and 27 June    { Action with "Ceres," and
      1809. 5 issued.      {   capture of 18 gunboats,
                           {   and destruction of 4.
  L'ESPOIR, 25 and 27 June {   Captain Staines, commander
      1809. 5 issued.      {   of the "Cyane,"
                           {   was knighted.

  BONNE CITOYENNE with FURIEUSE. 12 issued. Capture of French frigate
    "La Furieuse," July 6th, 1809. Captain Mounsey received the Naval
    Gold Medal for this exploit, as already explained.

  DIANA, 11 Sept. 1809. 3 issued. Capture of Dutch brig "Zephyr."

  ANSE-LE-BARQUE, 18 Dec. 1809. 42 issued. Storming batteries of
    Anse-le-barque, and capture of "Loire" and "Seine" frigates. 9
    vessels engaged.

  CHEROKEE, 10 Jan. 1810. 4 issued. Capture of the French lugger
    "L'Aimable Nelly."

  SCORPION, 12 Jan. 1810. 12 issued. Capture of the French brig

  GUADALOUPE. 509 issued. Capture of Guadaloupe, January and February
    1810. 50 vessels engaged.

  THISTLE, 10 Feb. 1810. None issued. Capture of the Dutch corvette

  SURLY, 24 April 1810. 1 }
      issued.             } Capture of the French
                          }   privateer "Alcide."
  FIRM, 24 April 1810. 1  }
      issued.             }

  SYLVIA, 26 April 1810. 1 issued. Capture of the Dutch brig "Echo,"
    in the Straits of Sunda.

  SPARTAN, 2 May 1810. 32 issued. Action with the French frigate
    "Ceres," and consorts, and capture of the corvette "Sparviéve."

  ROYALIST, May and June 1810. 3 issued. Action in the Channel with
    and capture of 6 armed French ships.

  AMANTHEA, 25 July. 29 issued. Action with gunboats, and capture
    and destruction of a number of transports at Amanthea. "Thames,"
    "Pilot," "Weasel" engaged.

  BANDA NEIRA. 69 issued. Capture of the Island of "Banda Neira," 9
    Aug. 1810. 3 boats engaged.

                           { Action with French squadron
  BOADICEA, 18 Sept. 1810. {   and capture of the French
      16 issued.           {   frigate "Venus" and recapture
                           {   of the British
  OTTER, 18 Sept. 1810.    {   frigate "Ceylon." "Boadicea,"
      8 issued.            {   "Otter," and
                           {   "Staunch" engaged. The
  STAUNCH, 18 Sept. 1810.  {   "Venus" was added to
      2 issued.            {   the British Navy as the
                           {   "Néréide."

  BRISEIS, 14 Oct. 1810. 2 issued. Capture of the French privateer

  LISSA. 130 issued. Action with French squadron and capture of
    frigates off Lissa, March 13th, 1811. 4 vessels engaged.

  ANHOLT, 27 March 1811. 40 issued. Action in defence of Anholt
    Island when attacked by Danes.

  ARROW, 6 April 1811. None issued. Action with "Chassemarées" and
    batteries off the French coast.

  OFF TAMATAVE, 20 May 1811. 79 issued. Action with French frigates
    and capture of "Renommée" and "Néréide"; the vessels became
    H.M.S. "Java" and "Madagascar." "Astree," "Galatea," "Phœbe," and
    "Racehorse" engaged.

  HAWKE, 18 Aug. 1811. 6 issued. Capture of the 16-gun French brig
    "Heron" and convoy.

  JAVA, 715 issued. Capture of Java, August and September 1811. 25
    vessels engaged.

  SKYLARK, 11 Nov. 1811. } Action with Boulogne flotilla
      2 issued.          }   of 12 gun-brigs and capture
                         }   of 1.
  LOCUST, 11 Nov. 1811.  }
      2 issued.          }

  PELAGOSA, 29 Nov. 1811. 64 issued. Action with French frigates
    "Pauline" and "Pomone" and capture of same. "Alceste," "Active,"
    and "Unitie" engaged.

                          { Capture of the French "74"
                          {   "Rivoli," February 22nd,
                          {   1812. The "Victorious"
                          {   lost 27 killed and 99
  VICTORIOUS with RIVOLI. {   wounded, but the "Weasel"
  WEASEL, 22 Feb. 1812.   {   did not have a man
      6 issued.           {   injured. Captain Talbot of
                          {   the "Victorious" was made
                          {   K.C.B., and the "Rivoli"
                          {   became a British war
                          {   vessel.

  Note that the bars are named differently for same engagement.

  ROSARIO, 27 March 1812.   }
      6 issued.             } Capture of 2 French brigs-of-war
                            }   off Dieppe.  Two vessels
  GRIFFON, 27 March 1812.   }   engaged
      3  issued.            }
  NORTHUMBERLAND, 22        } Destruction of the French
      May 1812. 62 issued.  }   frigates "Arienne" and
                            }   "Andromache" and a
  GROWLER, 22 May 1812.     }   brig.  2 vessels engaged.
      4  issued.            }

  MAGALA, 29 May 1812. 17 issued. Capture of French privateers
    "Brave" and "Napoleon," at Malaga. The date of the action was 29
    April. 4 vessels engaged.

  OFF MARDOE, 6 July 1812. 48 issued. Destruction of 2 Danish
    frigates and 2 brigs. 4 British boats engaged--"Calypso,"
    "Dictator," "Flamer," and "Podargus."

  SEALARK, 21 July 1812. 4 issued. Capture of the French privateer
    "Ville de Caen."

  ROYALIST, 29 Dec. 1812. 3 issued. Capture of the French privateer
    lugger "La Ruse."

  WEASEL, 22 April 1813. 6 issued. Destruction of 6 French gunboats
    in the Adriatic.

  SHANNON with CHESAPEAKE. 49 issued. Capture of American frigate
    "Chesapeake," on 1 June 1813.

  PELICAN, 14 Aug. 1813. 4 issued. Capture of the American brig

  ST. SEBASTIAN, Aug. and Sept. 1813. 292 issued. 16 vessels engaged
    (see page 53).

  THUNDER, 9 Oct. 1813. 7 issued. Capture of the French privateer

  GLUCKSTADT, 5 Jan. 1814. 45 issued. Capture of the fortress of
    Gluckstadt. 6 ships and 8 gunboats engaged.

  VENERABLE, 16 Jan. 1814. { Capture of the French
      31 issued.           {   frigates "Alcméne" and
                           {   "Iphigénia," which were
  CYANE, 16 Jan. 1814.     {   added to the Navy as
      18 issued.           {   H.M.S. "Gloire" and
                           {   "Dunira."

[Illustration: EARL ST. VINCENT'S MEDAL, 1800.

Presented by Admiral Earl St. Vincent to the petty officers, seamen,
and marines of his flagship the "Ville de Paris" for loyalty and good

  EUROTAS, 25 Feb. 1814. 32 issued. Capture of the French frigate
    "Glorinde," which became H.M.S. "Burma."

  HEBRUS with L'ETOILE, 27 March 1814. Capture of French frigate

  PHŒBE, 28 March 1814. 28    }
      issued.                 } Capture of the American
  CHERUB, 28 March 1814. 10   }   frigates "Essex" and
      issued.                 }   "Essex Junior."

  THE POTOMAC, 17 Aug. 1814. 107 issued. Daring navigation of the
    Potomac River and destruction of shipping in the Potomac. 8
    vessels engaged.

  ENDYMION with PRESIDENT, 15 Jan. 1815. Capture of the American
    frigate "President."

  GAIETA, 24 July. 89 issued. Attack and reduction of Gaieta. "Malta"
    and "Berwick" engaged.

  ALGIERS. 1,362 issued. Battle of Algiers. 27 Aug. 1816. 22 vessels
    engaged. See page 307.

  NAVARINO. 1,137 issued. Battle of "Navarino," Oct. 20th, 1827. 11
    ships engaged. See page 309.

  SYRIA. 6,877 issued. (Quite a number of these were used for
    fraudulent purposes, bars being manufactured bearing the records
    of rare bars and substituted for the common Syria.) Capture of
    "Acre," Nov. 1840, and operations with it on the coast of Syria.
    32 ships engaged. See page 310.


The boat actions commemorated by these bars cover a number of brilliant
actions performed by boats' crews in cutting out, and in some instances
actually recovering, British vessels lost to the enemy, or capturing
enemies' vessels.

15 March 1793. 1 only issued. 17 March 1794. 30 issued. 29 May 1797. 3
issued. 9 June 1799. 4 issued. 20 Dec. 1799. 3 issued. 29 July 1800. 4
issued. 29 Aug. 1800. 26 issued. 27 Oct. 1800. 5 issued. 21 July 1801.
9 issued. 27 June 1803. 5 issued. 4 Nov. 1803. 1 issued. 4 Feb. 1804.
10 issued. 4 June 1805. 10 issued. 16 July 1806. 51 issued. 2 Jan.
1807. 2 issued. 21 Jan. 1807. 9 issued. 19 April 1807. 1 issued. 13
Feb. 1808. 3 issued. 10 July 1808. 8 issued. 11 Aug. 1808. 12 issued.
28 Nov. 1808. 2 issued. 7 July 1809. 33 issued. 14 July 1809. 8 issued.
25 July 1809. 35 issued. 27 July 1809. 10 issued. 29 July 1809. 11
issued. 28 Aug. 1809. 14 issued. 1 Nov. 1809. 117 issued. 13 Dec. 1809.
10 issued. 13 Feb. 1810. 17 issued. 1 May 1810. 18 issued. 28 June
1810. 24 issued. 27 Sept. 1810. 34 issued. 4 Nov. 1810. 2 issued. 23
Nov. 1810. 66 issued. 24 Dec. 1810. 6 issued. 4 May 1811. 10 issued. 30
July 1811. 4 issued. 2 Aug. 1811. 10 issued. 20 Sept. 1811. 8 issued.
4 Dec. 1811. 18 issued. 4 April 1812. 4 issued. 1 Sept. 1812, 18 Sept.
1812. 24 issued for these 2 clasps. 17 Sept. 1812. 11 issued. 29 Sept.
1812. 26 issued. 6 Jan. 1813. 21 issued. 21 March 1813. 6 issued. 28
April 1813. 2 issued. April and May 1813. 54 issued. 2 May 1813. 49
issued. 8 April 1814. 23 issued. 24 May 1814. 11 issued. 3 and 6 Sept.
1814. 1 only issued. 14 Dec. 1814. 117 issued.

The last two bars are for actions in the war with America.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Algiers.=--For this battle, fought on August 27th, 1816, 1,362 medals
with a single bar, or combined with others, were issued. The action
was brought about by the piratical depredations of the Algerines, and
the enslavement of Christians by them. Lord Exmouth sailed for the
port with 5 ships of the line and 8 smaller vessels, being joined at
Gibraltar by 6 Dutch frigates under Admiral Van de Capellen. They
appeared before Algiers on August 26th, and proposed certain terms to
the Dey, which were not accepted, so next day they commenced to bombard
the city. The Algerine fleet was destroyed, and the Dey accepted the
terms he had refused. Over 1,200 Christian slaves were freed, and a
promise given that piracy and slavery should cease. For a time the
promise was kept, but in 1830 the French had to take strong steps to
deal with the Algerines, and in the end Algeria became a French colony.

=Exmouth Gold Medal.=--As a reward for his services, Admiral Lord
Exmouth was created a Viscount, and received from the Prince Regent a
large gold medal, bearing on the obverse the bust of the Prince Regent
REGENT. On the reverse is a representation of the bombardment, and in
EXTINGUISHED, AUGUST 27TH, 1816. Only 4 medals of this kind were struck.

The following ships were engaged in the bombardment: the flagship
"Queen Charlotte," "Impregnable," "Leander," "Superb," "Minden,"
"Albion," "Severn," "Glasgow," "Hebrus," "Granicus," and the sloops
"Mutine," "Cordelia," "Heron," "Britomart," and "Jasper," and the
following bomb vessels "Fury," "Infernal," "Beelzebub," "Hecla," and
three vessels for transport, ordnance, and dispatch. Eighty-four men
of the 1st Batt. Royal Sappers and Miners served as marines on the
flagship and the "Impregnable."

=Ava.=--To those officers and seamen who took part in the Burmese War
of 1824-6, the Army of India Medal, described on page 133 as having
been awarded to officers and soldiers, was also awarded with a bar for
AVA. Dr. Payne has in his collection medals with this bar awarded to a
junior captain of the Bombay Marine, with his name impressed, likewise
one awarded to a man of the H.E.I. Co.'s "Asseeghur," and one to an
ordinary seaman of the "Boadicea" with the name engraved.

The following ships' crews took part: H.M.S. "Liffey," "Larne,"
"Slaney," "Avachne," "Sophie," "Satellite," "Diana," "Tees,"
"Alligator," and "Mercury," and the H.E.I. Co.'s "Thetis" and
"Teignmouth." These were later joined after the capture of Martaban by
the crews of the "Boadicea" and "Champion."

=Navarino.=--This battle was fought on October 20th, 1827. 1,137 Naval
General Service Medals bearing the bar for NAVARINO were issued. In
1821 the Greeks had revolted against the Turks, and the latter treated
them with ruthless barbarity, murdering in cold blood the inhabitants
of Morea and laying waste the country. To put an end to this state of
affairs, Great Britain, France, and Russia signed a treaty to ensure
the independence of the Greeks, and in September 1827 Vice-Admiral
Cordington sailed with the British fleet to Navarino, in the harbour
of which the Turco-Egyptian fleet was at anchor. He was joined later
by the French and Russian fleets, and an ultimatum was then sent to
Ibrahim Pasha to the effect that the barbarities and the ravagings were
to cease, and this he agreed to pending communication with the Grand
Vizier at Constantinople, but because the allied fleets refused passage
to some of his ships from the harbour of Navarino he again resorted to
his fiendish practices. The British Admiral thereupon determined to
take his ships into the harbour, and anchor near the Turco-Egyptian

On October 20th, followed by the French and Russian squadrons, Admiral
Cordington entered the harbour and anchored close to the hostile
fleet, when fire was opened by the Turks upon a ship's boat, killing
the lieutenant in charge and several of his men. The "Dartmouth" then
opened fire, and the battle commenced. The batteries of the fortress
of Navarino then began to fire on the combined fleets, but so bad was
the aim of the enemy's gunners that they did as much damage to their
friends as to their foes. For four hours the fight continued with great
vigour, and had it not been for the splendid co-operation of the French
and Russian fleets it is doubtful whether the issue would have been
satisfactory to lovers of freedom. It is noteworthy, however, that the
French Admiral's flagship was only saved from grappling by a Turkish
fireship through the speedy assistance given by the British brig "Rose"
and some boats of the Russian fleet. The British losses were 75 killed,
and 197 wounded. The French lost 43 killed, and 144 wounded, and the
Russians 59 killed, and 139 wounded, while the enemy--according to his
own estimate--had thousands killed.

[Illustration: WILLIAM IV.]

[Illustration: QUEEN VICTORIA. (Reverse.) EDWARD VII. (Obverse.)


The following British ships were engaged: the flagship "Asia,"
"Albion," "Genoa," "Glasgow," "Cambrian," "Dartmouth," and "Talbot,"
and the brigs "Brisk," "Mosquito," "Philomel," and "Rose." There were 4
French ships of the line, a frigate and a schooner, and 5 Russian ships
of the line and 3 frigates.

Hereafter the history of the British Navy and its engagements was,
until 1914, confined to the bombardment of ports, or combined with that
of the army in land service.

=Syria.=--Mehemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt, had in 1839 defeated the
Turkish armies and made himself master of Syria, and, as has happened
often since, Great Britain went to the sick man's aid, co-operating
with Austria, Russia, and Prussia, to compel the recalcitrant Pasha
to accept the Vice-Royalty and be satisfied with the governorship of
Syria for his lifetime. An ultimatum was sent to him and his generals
to the effect that Syria was to be restored to the government of the
Sultan of Turkey within twenty-one days, but as no notice was taken
of the demand, a squadron of British ships blockaded Alexandria, in
the harbour of which the Egyptian fleet was at anchor, while the other
portion of the fleet, under Admiral Sir Robert Stopford, bombarded
Beyrout. Meanwhile, the towns on the coast of Syria had been retaken,
Tyre captured on September 24th and Sidon on the 27th. Concentrating
at Acre, the Egyptians were worsted there on November 2nd, and the war
was brought to a conclusion by Mehemet Ali accepting the terms he had
originally refused.

=The Sultan's Medal for Acre.=--To the officers and men a medal,
illustrated facing page 292, was awarded; to the officers ranking
as field officers in gold, in silver to quarter-deck and warrant
officers, and in bronze to petty officers, seamen, and marines.

The following ships were engaged in the operations upon the coast
of Syria in the years 1840-41: "Princess Charlotte," "Powerful,"
"Revenge," "Bellerophon," "Thunderer," "Ganges," "Benbow," "Edinburgh,"
"Hastings," "Vanguard," "Rodney," "Asia," "Implacable," "Cambridge,"
"Pique," "Castor," "Dido," "Carysfort," "Talbot," "Daphne," "Cyclops,"
"Wasp," "Magicienne," "Vesuvius," "Gorgon," "Hazard," "Phœnix,"
"Hydra," "Stromboli," "Medea," "Zebra," and "Hecate."

The bar for SYRIA was given with the Naval General Service medal for
these operations.

=China, 1840-2.=--In this war, already described on pages 98 and
99, the following ships' crews were engaged: in 1840 "Melville,"
"Blenheim," "Wellesley," "Blonde," "Druid," "Conway," "Volage,"
"Larne," "Alligator," "Pylades," "Modeste," "Cruiser," "Nimrod,"
"Algerine," "Columbine," "Rattlesnake," and the following ships'
crews of the Honourable East India Company: "Atalanta," "Queen,"
"Enterprise," "Calliope," "Madagascar," "Samarang," "Herald," and
"Nemesis"; the latter, a well-armed iron steamer, created great terror
amongst the Chinese, who named it the "devil ship." The following
ships were added from time to time to the fleet: H.M.S. "Cornwallis,"
"Endymion," "Vindictive," "North Star," "Cambrian," "Hazard,"
"Pelican," "Harlequin," "Clio," "Wanderer," "Wolverine," "Hebe,"
"Serpent," "Royalist," "Plover," "Starling," "Driver," "Vixen," and the
hospital ship "Minden," likewise the H.E.I. Co.'s steamers "Auckland,"
"Akbar," "Memnon," "Hooghley," "Proserpine," "Pluto," "Sesostris,"
"Medusa," and "Phlegethon."

=Scinde, 1843.=--The same medal as awarded to the army was awarded
to the naval force taking part in the campaign. One hundred and ten
medals were issued to the Indus Flotilla, and of these 40 were to
Europeans. For Hyderabad 115 medals were issued to the crews of H.E.I.
Co.'s "Comet," "Meteor," and "Nimrod." Medals were given to naval men
for Meeanee 1843, Hyderabad 1843, and Meeanee-Hyderabad 1843 (see pages

=Punjab, 1848-9.=--A brigade of seamen, 100 strong with 7 officers,
from the Indian Navy under Commander F. T. Powell, served at the Siege
of Mooltan, and it is noteworthy that this was the first occasion upon
which seamen served so far away from their ships. Medals were awarded
with and without bar for Mooltan.

=Second China War.=--The squadron of British ships engaged under
Rear-Admiral Sir Michael Seymour in 1856-60, in the operations
already described on pages 98-100, included the flagship "Calcutta,"
"Sybille," "Pique," "Winchester," "Encounter," "Bittern," "Hornet,"
"Comus," "Racehorse," "Barracouta," "Sampson," "Coromandel," "Nankin,"
"Esk," "Elk," "Amethyst," "Sanspareil," "Cruiser," "Acorn," "Niger,"
"Inflexible," and a number of gunboats. In the attack on the Taku
Forts, August 21st, 1860, the only naval co-operation was made by the
gunboats "Clown," "Drake," "Woodcock," and "Janus." Bars were awarded
for FATSHAN 1857 (navy only), CANTON 1857, TAKU FORTS 1858 (navy only),
TAKU FORTS 1860, and PEKIN 1860. These medals were issued to the navy
unnamed, and very few seamen appear to have troubled about having their
medals engraved. Many issued to the Indian Navy and some of the marines
were, however, impressed in capital Roman letters.

=Pegu.=--To those seamen and marines who took part in the second
Burmese War, 1852-3, the India General Service Medal 1854 was awarded
with the bar for PEGU, which, by the way, is somewhat smaller than the
other bars issued with this medal (see pages 137-138). The following
ships' crews were engaged: H.M.S. "Fox," "Rattler," "Serpent,"
"Sphinx," "Salamander," "Hermes," "Winchester," and a gunboat, together
with the H.E.I. Co.'s boats "Berenice," "Bhagerutee," "Moofuffer,"
"Feroze," "Zenobia," "Sesostris," "Medusa," "Pluto," "Proserpine,"
"Phlegethon," "Soane," "Spy," "Tenasserim," "Mahanuddy," "Fire Queen,"
"Enterprise," "Indus," "Krishna," "Luckea," "Damoodah," "Sutledge," and
"Lord Wm. Bentinck."

=South Africa, 1853.=--This medal, as previously explained, was
awarded to cover all the wars and operations that had taken place in
South Africa between 1834 and 1853. No bar was issued with the medal,
and the only means of discovering when a recipient was engaged is by
looking up the period during which his regiment, or ship, was engaged;
but this is not quite so easy in the case of naval medals, as the
name and rank only are impressed upon them in Roman capitals in the
same type as was used on the Naval General Service medal. The third
Kaffir War was the first in which the navy took part, and from the end
of 1850 to March 1853 a small naval brigade composed of seamen and
marines from the following ships were engaged ashore: "Castor," "Dee,"
"Grecian," "Hermes," "Penguin," "Pantaloon," "Gladiator," "Orestes,"
"Rhadamanthus" and "Styx."


During the early stages of the war the combined British and French
fleets were co-operating in Kavarna Bay, and on April 5th anchored
before Odessa, when the Russian commandant firing upon H.M.S.
"Furious," which was carrying a flag of truce, the following ships
were ordered to open fire on the batteries on April 22nd, 1854. H.M.S.
"Furious," "Terrible," "Retribution," "Niger," "Arethusa," and 3 French
vessels. The fort was blown up, and the shipping destroyed. Later the
"Firebrand" and the "Fury" destroyed the Russian batteries at Sulina,
and then with the rest of the fleet took part in the bombardment of

=Sebastopol.=--The following ships were engaged in the bombardment
of Sebastopol on October 17th, 1854: "Albion," "Britannia," "London,"
"Agamemnon," "Queen," "Firebrand," "Niger," "Furious," "Trafalgar,"
"Retribution," "Vesuvius," "Rodney," "Bellerophon," "Highflyer,"
"Spitfire," "Arethusa," "Cyclops," "Triton," "Lynx," "Sphinx,"
"Tribune," "Terrible," "Sampson," and "Sanspareil." In the bombardment
44 were killed and 264 wounded on board the British ships, the "Albion"
and the "Agamemnon" suffering most heavily. The French fleet lost about
200 killed and wounded. Prior to the bombardment a naval brigade of
1,050 seamen, under the command of Captain Lushington, landed with 50
heavy guns, and demonstrated their aptitude, and their right to the
name of "handymen," by constructing their own batteries and being ready
to take the defensive long before the artillerymen had their guns in
position. The success of the attack on the Malakoff tower was in no
small measure due to the assistance of the naval brigade with their
heavy guns. In the assault on the Redan the naval brigade also played
a conspicuous and daring part, as the casualty list showed, for out of
120 men 14 were killed and 46 wounded.

=Azoff.=--The following ships were engaged in the expedition which,
together with 3 French men-o'-war and 20 frigates, sailed on May
22nd, 1855, for the Sea of Azoff, blowing up _en route_ the works and
magazines at Kertch, and destroying Yenikale: H.M.S. "Agamemnon,"
"Algiers," "Hannibal," "St. Jean d'Acre," "Princess Royal," "Royal
Albert," and 27 frigates. The bar for AZOFF was awarded to the officers
and crews of the following ships: "Vesuvius," "Stromboli," "Miranda,"
"Swallow," "Curlew," "Beagle," "Lynx," "Ardent," "Viper," "Snake,"
"Medina," "Recruit," "Arrow," "Clinker," "Boxer," "Grinder," "Fancy,"
"Sulina," "Weser," "Jasper," and "Cracker"; also the first and second
launches of the "Agamemnon," "Hannibal," "Algiers," "St. Jean d'Acre,"
"Princess Royal," and the "Royal Albert."

During these operations Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral Sir) E.
Commerell of the "Weser" gained the Victoria Cross for his intrepid
conduct while engaged in destroying stores on the shore of the Sivash.

=The Baltic Medal.=--For their services in connection with the blockade
of the Baltic, Queen Victoria commanded in 1856 that a medal should
be struck and issued to the officers, seamen, and marines who had
been engaged in the Baltic from March 1854 to August 1855, during
which period they had blockaded Bomarsund, attacked and captured it,
and bombarded and destroyed Sveaborg. Two officers and 90 sappers
and miners who served aboard the flagship and at Bomarsund were also
awarded the medal, which bears on the obverse the same bust of Queen
Victoria as on the medals previously described, and on the reverse the
seated figure of Britannia, holding a trident in her right hand, with a
naval gun and pile of shot, flags, and a naval coronet beside her, and
behind in the distance the fort of Bomarsund to the left, and Sveaborg
to the right; above all is BALTIC, and in the exergue ~1854-55~. The
medal, by L. C. Wyon, is 1⅖ in. in diameter, and depends from a yellow
ribbon 1¼ in. wide with blue edges, by means of a curled suspender
similar to the Sutlej type. The medals were issued unnamed, except in
the case of the officers and sappers mentioned above, and theirs were
issued with their names impressed.

The following ships were employed in the Baltic: H.M.S. "Duke of
Wellington,*" "Saint George," "Neptune," "Princess Royal," "Royal
George,*" "Saint Jean d'Acre," "Majestic,*" "Nile,*" "James Watt,*"
"Prince Regent," "Cæsar,*" "Monarch," "Boscawen," "Cumberland,"
"Cressy,*" "Blenheim,*" "Hogue,*" "Edinburgh,*" "Amphion,*"
"Arrogant,*" "Ajax,*" "Euryalus,*" "Imperieuse,*" "Cruiser,"
"Odin," "Dauntless," "Archer," "Leopard," "Valorous," "Desperate,"
"Magicienne," "Vulture," "Dragon," "Porcupine," "Bulldog," "Conflict,"
"Driver," "Hecla," "Basilisk," "Rosamund," "Lightning," "Alban," and
H.M. Hospital Ship "Belleisle."

After the recall of Sir Charles Napier, who was censured for not
attacking Sveaborg, a fleet was dispatched to the Baltic under
Rear-Admiral Hon. R. Dundas. It included the ships named above
marked with an asterisk, and the "Calcutta," "Colossus," "Orion,"
"Cornwallis," "Exmouth," "Russell," "Hawk," "Pembroke," "Hastings,"
"Retribution," "Falcon," "Esk," "Tartar," "Cossack," "Archer,"
"Harrier," and "Pylades," with a number of smaller vessels and
gunboats. During the second operations in the Baltic, Lieutenant Dowell
of the Marine Artillery gained the V.C. for leading a volunteer crew
in a boat from the "Ruby," and taking the cutter of the "Arrogant" in
tow when she was swamped after the explosion of her magazine during an
attack on some vessels at Viborg.

The following vessels took part in the attack on Sveaborg: H.M.S.
"Duke of Wellington," "Arrogant," "Euryalus," "Exmouth," "Cornwallis,"
"Cossack," "Pembroke," "Merlin," "Vulture," "Dragon," "Locust,"
"Volcano," "Lightning," "Hastings," "Amphion," "Edinburgh,"
"Magicienne," "Geyser," "Eolus," "Belleisle," "Cruiser," "Princess
Alice," and the gunboats and mortar vessels "Redwing," "Lark,"
"Magpie," "Starling," "Skylark," "Stork," "Drake," "Redbreast,"
"Weasel," "Badger," "Mastiff," "Snapper," "Biter," "Growler,"
"Pincher," "Porpoise," "Snap," "Blazer," "Dapper," "Pelter," "Pickle,"
"Havock," "Prompt," "Manly," "Sinbad," "Beacon," "Carron," and

=Naval Brigade in Crimea.=--Some of the naval brigade in the Crimea
received medals with three clasps for BALAKLAVA, INKERMANN, and
SEBASTOPOL; others two clasps for INKERMANN and SEBASTOPOL, or
BALAKLAVA and SEBASTOPOL. Others, showing they had fought _per mare_,
_per terras_, three clasps for AZOFF, BALAKLAVA, and SEBASTOPOL, or
AZOFF, INKERMANN, and SEBASTOPOL. The only single bars are for AZOFF
or SEBASTOPOL. Some of the marines who fought ashore received the whole
four clasps for land service as awarded to soldiers. The medals issued
to the navy were generally unnamed, but I have in my possession a few
named with the same impressed lettering as on the medals issued to
the army. The sailors and marines who fought in the Crimea were also
awarded the Turkish medal described on page 152, while fifty of them
received the Sardinian medal described on page 153.


The deeds of the "Pearl" and "Shannon" Brigades during the Indian
Mutiny have always impressed students of the war, and collectors
have invariably been found willing to pay relatively high prices
for medals without a bar if awarded to a man of the "Pearl" Brigade
of 250 men, because of the splendid work they did in no less than
twenty engagements. The "Shannon" Brigade was composed of 410 seamen
and marines from that vessel, under the command of Captain W. Peel,
who landed with six 68-pounders--which were employed for the first
time as field pieces--eight 24-pounders, a battery of 8 rockets, and
2 howitzers, also some of the crew of the "Pearl," together with
120 sailors recruited from merchant ships. At Allahabad part of the
"Shannon's" company was left to garrison the place, the rest marching
to Cawnpore. Near Futtehgur 100 men of the naval brigade, co-operating
with 450 soldiers, defeated a force of 4,000 mutineers and captured
2 guns. In November the brigade was attacking and assisting in the
capture of the Martinière, and later breached the walls of the
Secundrabagh and Shah Nujeef at Lucknow. In this daring work Lieutenant
(afterwards Admiral Sir) M. Salmon and three of his men won the V.C.
In January the brigade took part in the battle of Kallee Nudee, and in
March 1858 was again at Lucknow storming the Dilkoosha and breaching
the Martinière, where Captain Peel was wounded. He died on March 27th
from an attack of smallpox, just when his gallantry had earned for him
a knighthood. With the capture of Lucknow the work of the "Shannon"
brigade was finished, and on September 15th she sailed for home.
Five hundred and thirty medals were issued to men of the "Shannon"
and 232 to men of the "Pearl." Three hundred Europeans of the Indian
Marine also received the medals without bars; this medal was generally

=Persia, 1857.=--The crews of the following ships of the Indian Navy
received the medal with bar for PERSIA: "Ajdaha," "Assyria," "Assaye,"
"Berenice," "Clive," "Comet," "Constance," "Euphrates," "Falkland,"
"Ferooz," "Hugh Lindsay," "Lady Falkland," "Napier," "Nitocris,"
"Planet," "Punjab," "Semiramis," "Victoria."

=New Zealand.=--I have already described at some length the extended
operations in New Zealand between 1845 and 1866. In these operations
the navy on many occasions took an important part, particularly the
crew of H.M.S. "Hazard" at the beginning of the war in 1845. The ships'
crews engaged in 1845-7 were H.M.S. "Hazard," "North Star," "Castor,"
"Elphinstone," "Racehorse," "Osprey."

=New Zealand, 1845-6-7.=--The ships engaged during this period were
H.M.S. "Castor," "Calliope," "Driver," "Elphinstone," H.E.I. Co.'s
"Hazard," "Inflexible," "North Star," "Osprey," and "Racehorse."

=New Zealand, 1860-6.=--Members of the crews of the following ships
received the medal for this period, although after August 1864,
following the Gate Pa affair--in which Samuel Mitchell, captain of the
foretop of H.M.S. "Harrier," gained the V.C.--the navy was not actively
employed: H.M.S. "Brisk," "Cordelia," "Curaçoa," "Eclipse," "Esk,"
"Falcon," "Harrier," "Himalaya," "Iris," "Miranda," "Niger," "Pelorus,"
and "Victoria" (see page 186 for description of medal).

=Abyssinia.=--In the Abyssinian campaign (1867-8), already referred
to on pages 189-191 a naval brigade consisting of 83 men, with twelve
12-pounder rocket tubes, commanded by Commander Fellowes of H.M.S.
"Dryad," took part, forming part of the first division under General
Staveley. Men of the "Octavia," "Dryad," "Spiteful," and "Satellite"
took part.

=Ashantee.=--In this campaign (1873-4) seamen and marines from H.M.S.
"Argus," "Encounter," "Barracouta," "Druid," "Seagull," "Simoom,"
"Rattlesnake," and "Beacon" were employed ashore and afloat, while the
gunboats "Bittern," "Decoy," and "Merlin" were actually engaged on the

=Perak.=--The crews of H.M. gunboats "Charybdis" and "Hart" were
employed in the operations against the Malays during 1875, and
the crews of H.M.S. "Egeria," and the gunboats "Fly," "Philomel,"
"Ringdove," "Thistle," and the corvette "Modeste" in 1876. The I.G.S.
Medal 1854, with bar for PERAK, was issued following a General Order of
September 1st, 1879. The officers and crews of H.M.S. "Egeria" and the
gunboats "Hart" and "Charybdis" received the medal for their services
up the Lakut and Lingie Rivers. The naval medals are named in squat,
sloping Roman capitals.

=South Africa, 1877-8.=--Sailors and marines from the following ships
were engaged at different periods in the various wars in South Africa
from 1877 to 1879 (see pages 196-202): H.M.S. "Active," "Boadicea,"
"Euphrates," "Forester," "Himalaya," "Orontes," "Shah," "Tamar," and

In the campaign against the Galekas and Gaikas in 1877-8 two small
naval brigades composed of men from H.M.S. "Active" and "Florence" were
engaged, and both did excellent work with their rocket batteries.

=Zulu War, 1879.=--In this war a naval brigade of 170 seamen and
marines from H.M.S. "Active" were attached to the third column under
Colonel Pearson. They were under the command of Captain Campbell, and
had with them two 7-pounders, a Gatling gun, and two rocket tubes. A
brigade from H.M.S. "Boadicea," "Shah," and "Tenedos" marched with
the relieving force to Ekowe. At the expiration of the war the naval
brigade was warmly thanked by General Sir Garnet (later Viscount)
Wolseley for the services they had rendered.


=Alexandria, 1882.=--In this campaign the navy played an important
part--indeed, it was opened by the bombardment of Alexandria on July
11th, 1882, the fortifications of which had been strengthened, and the
garrison increased by the rebel Arabi Pasha in anticipation of the
allied fleets of Britain and France acting on the offensive. Noticing
the preparations which Arabi was making, Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour
called upon him to desist, and as no notice was taken of his demand, or
of his ultimatum that unless work was stopped on the fortifications the
place would be bombarded, he prepared his ships for action. Meanwhile
the French fleet had left the harbour. The British steamed out, and
took up a position facing the outer forts; at half-past 6 on July 11th
the British ships cleared for action, and the bombardment began by the
"Alexandra" firing a shell into Fort Ada. The fort responded, and then
the duel between the ships' guns of the British fleet and those of the
fort began. In a couple of hours Fort Marsa-el-Kanat was blown up, and
very shortly after, nearly all the guns in Fort Mex were silenced. At
half-past 10 an attack was made upon the Lighthouse Fort, and within a
couple of hours the Ras-el-Tin batteries were silenced.

=The Plucky "Condor."=--Meantime Fort Marabout had been the scene of a
memorable action on the part of Lord Charles Beresford. Noticing that
the rifled guns of the fort were dropping their shot very near to the
ships anchored at about 4,500 yards, viz. the "Monarch," "Penelope,"
and "Temeraire," he steamed the gunboat "Condor" within range, and by
his daring action in pounding away at the fort for two hours diverted
the enemy's fire, and thus materially assisted in the reduction of
Fort Mex. The "Condor" was assisted in its plucky work by the gunboats
"Beacon," "Bittern," and "Cygnet," which the Admiral had sent to help
in the work, and so enabled her to be the means of silencing the guns
of the fort by 2 p.m. Three hours later all firing ceased, and the
battle of Alexandria was won with comparatively small loss to the
fleet, the "Alexandra" suffering most from the effects of the enemy's
guns. On this vessel gunner Israel Harding won the V.C. for throwing
water over a live shell, which had pierced the side of the ship, and
then picking it up and placing it in a tub of water; this hero rose to
be chief gunner before he retired. A force of sailors and marines were
landed, and engaged in keeping order. The successful Admiral became
Lord Alcester, and received a grant of £25,000.

The ships engaged in the bombardment of Alexandria were the flagship
"Alexandra," "Sultan," "Invincible," "Inflexible," "Temeraire,"
"Monarch," "Penelope," "Superb," and the gunboats "Beacon," "Bittern,"
"Condor," "Cygnet," "Decoy," and the dispatch vessel "Helicon."

=Tel-el-Kebir.=--In the operations leading up to the battle of
Tel-el-Kebir, a number of seamen were engaged; several strategic points
were seized by them, and several minor but vital engagements won by
them. Lieutenant Wyatt Rawson, R.N., who guided the Highland Brigade
across the desert to Tel-el-Kebir by his correct reading of the stars,
was the first to enter the entrenchments--alas! to meet his death
shortly after. In the battle of Tel-el-Kebir a naval brigade of 250
men, with 6 Gatling guns, took part; also marine artillery and marines.
The latter, attached to General Graham's brigade, were placed in the
front line, and suffered somewhat heavily, but the naval brigade did
not lose a man.

[Illustration: First type.]

[Illustration: Republican Variety.


For the bombardment of Alexandria the Egyptian Medal 1882 with a bar
inscribed ALEXANDRIA JULY 11 1882 was awarded to the officers, seamen,
and marines, and for TEL-EL-KEBIR to those who took part in that
decisive battle (see facing page 160 for medal, also the Khedive's Star
which was issued by Prince Tewfik); the naval medals were named.

=El-Teb.=--When the Mahdi incited the Sudanese to rise against the
Khedive in 1883, and practically gained control over the entire Sudan,
it became necessary, as I have already explained, to send a British
force to deal with the Mahdi and his principal lieutenant Osman Digna.
In the war in the Sudan the men of the navy again distinguished
themselves by their cheery willingness and ability. At Suakin, Admiral
Sir William Hewitt's brigade of sailors and marines was landed from the
"Decoy," "Euryalus," "Ranger," and "Sphinx" to defend the place, which
they did quite successfully against Osman Digna. On February 1st, 1884,
Osman Digna's force practically annihilated the army of 5,000 Egyptian
troops at El-Teb under Valentine Baker Pasha (at one time Colonel of
the 10th Hussars).

The work this undisciplined force set out to accomplish was then taken
in hand by Major-General Graham, and the army with which he proceeded
towards Tokar included 13 officers and 150 sailors, with 6 machine
guns, under the command of Commander Rolfe, likewise about 400 marines
and marine artillerymen under Colonel Tuson. At El-Teb on the morning
of February 29th, 1884, the British force advanced in square, over the
sickening area where the previous battle had taken place, to attack
the Mahdists, who had entrenched themselves upon a narrow ridge about
a mile in length. The Arabs opened fire, but the guns of the seamen
and artillerymen proving too warm for them, they came forward to meet
the advancing square, upon which they fell in their fanatical manner,
which was as mad as it was grand. The fire of the naval machine guns
stopped their rush, and then their position was taken, but the brunt of
the fighting had fallen upon the naval brigade--as well as the "Black
Watch" and the "York and Lancasters"--"who contributed materially to
the success of the action," in which they lost an officer and 3 men
killed, but one naval officer gained the V.C. when the Mahdists almost
penetrated the corner of the square and attempted to spear some of the
seamen; Captain A. K. Wilson's sword was broken in his gallant effort,
and himself would have fallen but for the timely action of some of the
65th (York and Lancasters). The British lost 4 officers and 26 men
killed, and 160 officers and men wounded, ere the village of El-Teb had
been taken, and the enemy made off in the direction of Tokar, which
was taken next day. Those who took part in this action had the bar
for EL-TEB added to their Egyptian medal, or, if this was their first
experience of Egyptian warfare, the medal without the date, but with
the bar for El-Teb, was awarded.

=Tamaai.=--This battle, which took place on March 13th, 1884, again
afforded the "handymen" an opportunity of demonstrating their worth.
Undismayed by what should have been a salutary lesson at El-Teb, the
Mahdists began to preach a strenuous crusade against the infidel. It
became necessary, therefore, to again set in motion the force which
had returned to Suakin, and to march on Tamaai, where the Arabs had
concentrated their forces. On the evening of the 12th the army, in
two squares, halted a couple of miles from Tamaai, and it was thought
there was little possibility of a night attack, but at 1 a.m. the enemy
began to fire upon the British camp, and continued to do so all through
the night, until at 8 o'clock the army, arranged in two brigades,
advanced--the first under General (later Sir) Redvers Buller, and the
second under General Davis, in which the naval brigade and marines were
included. The latter, after the skirmishers had fallen back, met the
enemy with a rattling fire from their machine guns and rifles, and then
the "Black Watch," charging the enemy with considerable impetuosity,
left a gap in the formation through which the tribesmen rushed, and
all was soon confusion--friend and foe being so mixed, and all so
closely packed together, that they could hardly use their weapons; and
when they had extricated themselves, hand-to-hand fighting of a most
ferocious character took place. In this unfortunate episode the naval
guns had to be abandoned for a time, with the loss of 3 lieutenants
and several men. Buller's brigade coming up turned the tables, and the
guns were retaken and turned upon the fleeing Mahdists. The troops
then marched upon Tamaai, took possession of the place next day,
and destroyed it together with Osman Digna's camp. In this battle 5
officers and 101 men were killed, and 8 officers and 103 men wounded,
but the Mahdists had lost over 3,000 killed.

For this engagement a bar inscribed TAMAAI was issued, and to those
who had also taken part in the previous battle of El-Teb one inscribed

=Suakin, 1884.=--Undaunted Osman Digna still managed to preach his holy
war, and secure thousands of adherents to his banner. Within four miles
of the disastrous defeat which he had suffered he successfully got
together, at Tamanieb, about 2,000 fighting men, but General Graham did
not give him much rope, and immediately set out to meet him. Leaving
Suakin on March 25th, he marched with a force which included marines
to meet the Mahdists. To guard Suakin in the absence of General Graham
and his troops, a force of 200 seamen was landed; the enemy did not,
however, come to close grips, and after driving them off on March 27th,
and destroying their camp, the troops returned to Suakin, after a very
trying time, in which owing to the intense heat many fell victims to
sunstroke. Suakin was then garrisoned with a small body of troops,
including a battalion of marines, and after the rest of the troops
had retired to Cairo, or returned to England, they had to defend the
place for several months, during which time the officers and crews of
the "Albacore," "Briton," "Coquette," "Myrmidon," "Sphinx," "Tyne,"
and "Woodlark" were kept busy in assisting the defenders. For these
services a clasp inscribed SUAKIN 1884 was issued.

=The Nile, 1884-5.=--The valiant defence of Khartoum by General Gordon
ultimately forced upon the British Government the task of attempting
to relieve him, and his few European comrades. The expedition was
organised to take the field under General Wolseley; and as special
efforts were to be made to use the Nile as a water road for the troops,
300 boats of a special type were built, and 500 Canadian boatmen
(Voyageurs) and 300 Kroomen were recruited to navigate them. It is said
of the Voyageurs that some of them "hardly knew the stern of a boat
from the bow," and "when they saw the Cataracts went sick."

It will be remembered that Lord Wolseley offered a prize of £100 to the
first regiment to reach Debbeh in boats, and the 1st Royal Irish won it.

In this expedition a naval brigade composed of men from the
Mediterranean fleet commanded by Captain (afterwards Admiral) Lord
Charles Beresford was prominently engaged. Of the difficulties that had
to be encountered in navigating the Nile much could be written, for the
work was not accomplished without considerable loss of life, and before
the expedition reached Dongola 10 of the Canadians and 40 of the troops
had been drowned.


[Illustration: HESSIAN MEDAL FOR 1814-15.]

[Illustration: AUSTRIAN CROSS FOR 1813-14.]

=Abu-Klea.=--At the beginning of January 1885 Lord Wolseley, becoming
apprehensive for the safety of General Gordon, ordered General Sir
Herbert Stewart to press forward across the desert with about 1,600 men
to Metammeh on the Nile, and from there to make for Khartoum--about
100 miles up the river--in Gordon's steamers. After a march of 100
miles the force rested on January 12th at Jadkul; refreshed, the troops
marched on until on January 16th they fell in with the enemy about
4 miles from Abu-Klea. A zareba was formed, and the men lay down to
rest, which intermittent firing made almost impossible. At 9 o'clock
on the morning of January 17th, leaving the camels and wounded inside
the zareba, the force advanced towards the enemy's position; the naval
brigade under Lord Charles Beresford formed the centre of the near
face of the square: they had with them a Gardner gun. After a march
of 2 miles the skirmishers were forced back on the square by the rush
of thousands of Mahdists, horse and foot, who came up to within 400
feet of the partly formed square. "The terrible rain of bullets poured
into them by the mounted infantry, and the Guards, stayed them not,"
for, as Lord Charles Beresford relates, "they were tearing down upon
us with a roar like the roar of the sea, an immense, surging wave of
white-slashed black forms brandishing bright spears and long flashing
swords; and all were chanting, as they leaped and ran, the war song
of their faith.... These things we heard and saw in a flash, as the
formidable wave swept steadily nearer."

Meanwhile Lord Charles had ordered the Gardner gun to be run outside
the square to the left flank, and he laid the gun himself to make sure.
As he fired, he states, "I saw the enemy mown down in rows, dropping
like ninepins.... I was putting in most effective work on the leading
ranks, and had fired about thirty rounds, when the gun jammed." Then
Lord Charles, with the captain of the gun, William Rhodes, chief
boatswain's mate, "set to work to try and unscrew the feed-plate in
order to clear the barrel, or to take out its lock. The next moment the
enemy were on top of us. The feed plate dropped on my head, knocking me
under the gun and across its trail." Rhodes was instantly killed by a
spear thrust, as was also the armourer, Walter Miller. On struggling to
his feet, Lord Charles was "carried bodily backwards by the tremendous
impact of the rush, right upon the front rank of the men of No. 4
Company, who stood like rocks." So great was the pressure that the
front ranks could not use rifle or bayonet for a few moments; then
the pressure forcing the white men back enabled the rear rank to fire
over their heads into the mass of the Arabs. "The Arabs fell in heaps,
whereupon the front rank, the pressure upon them relaxing, fired, and
fought hand to hand with the bayonet, cursing as the rifles jammed and
the shoddy bayonets twisted like tin." The men of the naval brigade
joined in the furious hand-to-hand fighting--indeed, all round this
was the feature of the fight at Abu-Klea, the heavy Camel Regiment,
Scots Greys, Royals, and 5th Dragoon Guards desperately fighting in the
square, while the Royal Sussex kept the enemy at bay with their steady
fire. Every Arab who penetrated the square was killed; outside their
comrades wavered, and then sullenly retired, until at half-past 2 the
battle was won.

Of the naval brigade 8 were killed and 7 wounded out of the 40 who
went into action. Among the killed were Lieutenants Alfred Piggott and
R. E. de Lisle. Every man handling the Gardner gun outside the square
was killed excepting Lord Charles Beresford, whose providential escape
has enabled us to learn the graphic details of the desperate battle of
Abu-Klea, which, as Colonel the Hon. Reginald Talbot (who commanded the
heavy Camel Regiment at the battle) wrote, "was an Inkermann on a small
scale." I have already described the fight towards the river, and the
fact that the expedition had been undertaken in vain--for Khartoum had
fallen. The bar for ABU-KLEA was issued to all the survivors.

=Suakin, 1885.=--In the fight at Hasheen, 14 miles from Suakin, on
March 20th, 1885, a naval brigade and marines from the fleet in the Red
Sea took part and were awarded the bar for SUAKIN.

=Tofrek.=--At daybreak on March 22nd, 1885, a force again marched
out from Suakin under Major-General Sir John McNeill, V.C.; included
was a naval brigade made up of men from the "Condor," "Carysfort,"
"Coquette," "Dolphin," and "Sphinx," with two Gardner guns, under
Commander Domville, also a battalion of marines. The object of the
force was to construct zarebas, which were to be garrisoned by the
49th Regiment. The troops, having made good progress with their work,
were taking things rather easily--some were breakfasting--when the
sudden appearance of the enemy caused great confusion. Roaring camels,
screaming mules, and frightened camp followers helped to make the
confusion worse confounded as the Arabs hewed their way through the
terrified animals and the helpless camp followers. The soldiers hastily
rushed for their rifles, and endeavoured to form squares, into one of
which, formed by the marines, about 60 Arabs forced their way, but
never got out again. Again the Gardner guns jammed, and the unfortunate
seamen had a bad time, as the howling Dervishes rushed into their
zareba. In half an hour, however, the fight subsided, but not until a
naval lieutenant and 6 men had been killed, and a number wounded. After
this battle the men of the naval brigade returned to their ships, and
the troops evacuated Suakin.

The Egyptian medal, described on page 211, with the bar for TOFREK, was
awarded to the sailors and marines who took part in the battle.

=Bars for Second Sudan War.=--To those who had taken part in the war
in the vicinity of Suakin in the Eastern Sudan the Egyptian medal
was awarded with five bars. Those already in possession of the medal
received the bars to which their services entitled them. All who
served south of Assouan on or before March 7th, 1885, received the
medal with a bar for THE NILE 1884-5, if not already in possession of
one; likewise those who served at Suakin from March 27th, 1884, to
May 14th, 1885. A bar inscribed ABU-KLEA was issued to all who took
part in the fight on January 17th, 1885. A bar inscribed KIRBEKAN was
awarded to those who took part in the action on February 10th, 1885,
in which a small naval brigade was present with a Maxim gun. A bar
with the record SUAKIN 1885 was issued to those who participated in the
operations round that place between March 1st and May 14th, 1885, and
a bar with TOFREK to those who took active part in the action on March
22nd, 1885. It should be particularly noted that no medals bearing
single bars for ABU-KLEA, KIRBEKAN, or TOFREK were issued, and that
these should be in conjunction with either SUAKIN 1885, or in the case
of ABU-KLEA or KIRBEKAN with THE NILE 1884-5. Medals without bars were
issued to the troops who were located in Egypt but did not participate
in any of the engagements. The medals are boldly named in Roman

To those who were engaged at or to the south of Wady Haifa between
November 30th, 1885, and January 11th, 1886, the medal without bar was
given to those who had not already earned one, and, although the battle
of Ginnis was fought during this period, no bar was issued to those who
were not presented with a medal. The Khedive's star was also given to
those who took part in these operations.

=Gemaizah.=--In 1888 Suakin was once again the centre of warfare, but
the Mahdists were acting on the offensive by endeavouring to invest
the place. General Grenfell therefore decided to march out and attack
them. In the action, which took place on December 20th, 1888, the
navy co-operated by firing from the Nile, H.M.S. "Racer" shelling the
enemy's trenches, and H.M.S. "Starling" the wells; the crews of these
boats were entitled to the bar for GEMAIZAH.

=Tokar, 1890.=--To the officers and men of H.M.S. "Dolphin" and
"Sandfly," engaged in transport duty, and to the British officers
who commanded the Egyptian army, the Khedive's bronze star without
date, but with the record in Arabic characters ~TOKAR 1890~ on the
suspender, was awarded. This is an interesting star, and more valued
than the other Khedive's, because it is the decoration for the services
rendered, no bars being issued for attachment to the silver Egyptian
medal, or medals awarded.

=Burma, 1885-7.=--To the crews of H.M.S. "Bacchante," "Woodlark,"
"Osprey," "Ranger," "Mariner," "Turquoise," and "Sphinx," which took
part in the third Burma War, that resulted in the disposition of
Theebaw and the annexation of Burma, the medal with the bar for BURMA
1885-7, as described on page 138, was granted. Those awarded to the
navy were generally impressed in tall upright Roman capitals.

=West Africa Medal.=--The boats' crews of H.M.S. "Acorn," "Icarus,"
and "Rifleman" co-operated with the 1st W.I.R. in the operations from
November 13th, 1887, to January 2nd, 1888, against the Yonnie tribes
who had raided British territory in the vicinity of Sierra Leone. The
medal, with bar 1887-8, was granted for this expedition.

=Witu, 1890.=--The crews of H.M.S. "Boadicea," "Brisk," "Conquest,"
"Cossack," "Humber," "Kingfisher," "Pigeon," "Redbreast," and
"Turquoise," together with marines who took part in the expedition
under Rear-Admiral D. Freemantle, C.B., to punish the Sultan of Witu
for the murder of nine Germans in his territory, received the medal
with the bar inscribed WITU 1890.

=1891-2.=--The crews of H.M.S. "Alecto," "Racer," "Sparrow," "Thrush,"
and "Widgeon" received the medal with bar inscribed 1891-2 for their
expedition against the robber chief Fodi Cabba, up the Gambia River,
from December 29th, 1891, to February 5th, 1892.

=1892.=--The bar with 1892 was awarded to those bluejackets and
marines who co-operated with the 1st W.I.R. in the expedition against
Tambi from March 8th, 1892, to April 11th, 1892. The naval brigade
consisted of men from H.M.S. "Alecto," "Racer," "Sparrow," "Thrush,"
and "Widgeon." The bar inscribed 1892 was also awarded with the medal
to the naval brigade from H.M.S. "Alecto," "Racer," and "Sparrow,"
who co-operated with the 1st W.I.R. in the expedition which ended in
the capture and destruction of the town and fort of Toniataba. The
operations extended from March 12th to April 30th, 1892.

=Liwondi, 1893.=--A bar inscribed LIWONDI 1893 was awarded to 34 men
of H.M.S. "Herald" and "Mosquito," who with a Nordenfelt gun marched
under Lieutenant-Commander Carr of the latter vessel to the relief of
H.M. Commissioner, Mr. H. Johnston, on the Shire River, Central Africa,
between February and March 1893, when they routed the chief Liwondi.
Only 29 medals were issued.

=Witu August, 1893.=--This bar, with the West Africa medal, was granted
to about 200 men from H.M.S. "Blanche," "Swallow," and "Sparrow," who
were landed under the command of Captain Geo. Robert Lindley, and with
the assistance of Zanzibar and Sudanese troops punished the chief Fumo
Omari. Two hundred and fifty medals were issued.

=Juba River, 1893.=--The bar for JUBA RIVER 1893 was awarded to about
40 men of H.M.S. "Blanche," who volunteered to proceed up the River
Juba to release two Englishmen who were besieged by a force of Somalis,
August 25th, 1893. They were commanded by Lieutenant Price Vaughan
Lewis, R.N. Forty bars were issued for this expedition.

=Lake Nyassa, 1893.=--The bar for LAKE NYASSA 1893 was awarded to
36 men of the "Adventurer" and "Pioneer," two screw steamers of 35
tons, who were engaged against Makaujira and other chiefs, and in the
bombardment of Okuirka in Nyassaland in 1893. One hundred and one
Sikhs, who were also engaged, received the Central Africa medal, with
clip and ring as described on page 228. Thirty-six medals with this bar
were issued.

=Gambia, 1894.=--The bar for GAMBIA 1894 was awarded to the naval
brigade from H.M.S. "Alecto," "Magpie," "Raleigh," "Satellite," and
"Widgeon," which landed early in February at Bathurst on the River
Gambia, West Coast of Africa, to operate against Fodi Selah, a
slave-raiding chief. The expedition, which lasted from February 22nd
to March 11th, 1894, only achieved its object of punishing the chief
after surmounting considerable difficulties, and surviving much hard
fighting, during which 2 lieutenants and 17 men were killed, and nearly
50 officers and men--mostly of the "Magpie" and "Raleigh"--had been
wounded. Surgeon Bowden won the D.S.O. during this expedition.

=1893-4.=--It is noteworthy that those men of the 1st W.I.R. who were
also engaged received the medal with bar for 1893-4, instead of the bar
for GAMBIA 1894; a very definite distinction is thus made between the
military and the naval medal.

=Benin River, 1894.=--The bar for BENIN RIVER 1894 was issued to
those sailors and marines of H.M.S. "Alecto," "Philomel," "Phœbe,"
and "Widgeon" who, assisted by Houssas, fought against the chief
Náná, the terror of the inhabitants of the Benin River, whom he had
plundered for a number of years. The steam launch of the "Alecto,"
while steaming up the narrow creek leading to the stronghold Brohemie,
on August 25th, was fired upon by a concealed battery, the steersman
shot dead, and every man on board wounded. In this unfortunate affair
Chief Petty Officer Crouch and Leading Stoker Joseph Perkins earned the
Conspicuous Gallantry Medal for their exceeding bravery. On September
18th Brohemie was attacked and captured, and the expedition proceeded
to another fortified town three miles distant, and this also was
captured, together with Nana's war canoes, which had helped him so much
in his depredations. Brohemie was then placed under the Niger Coast
Protectorate. Commander Heugh and Lieutenants Hickley and Gore-Browne
gained the D.S.O. in these operations.

=Brass River, 1895.=--The bar for BRASS RIVER 1895 was awarded to the
men from H.M.S. "Barrosa," "Saint George," "Thrush," and "Widgeon" who
took part in the attack on Nimbi, the stronghold of King Koko and
other native chiefs, from February 17th to March 26th, 1895.

=Benin River, 1897.=--Those sailors and marines who landed from the
following ships were awarded the bar for BENIN RIVER 1897: H.M.S.
"Alecto," "Barrosa," "Forte," "Magpie," "Philomel," "Phœbe," "Saint
George," "Theseus" and "Widgeon"; about 1,400 officers and men took

=Sierra Leone, 1898-9.=--The bar for SIERRA LEONE 1898-9 was awarded to
those who landed from H.M.S. "Alecto," "Blonde," and "Fox," likewise
the Colonial boat "Countess of Derby," and took part in the boat
expedition up the river and were actually under fire. The men from
H.M.S. "Blonde" were engaged in the Sherboro neighbourhood from May 1st
to 15th, and with the men from the "Alecto" on the Boom Kittam River
next day. Those belonging to the "Fox" and the "Countess of Derby" were
engaged on the Brempé River between May 11th and 14th, 1898. This bar
is wider than the others previously issued, as the inscription is in
two lines.

=Mwele, 1895-6.=--By an Admiralty Order dated January 1st, 1897, a
further grant of the West Africa medal was sanctioned, and the medal
awarded to those who had taken part in the operations against Mwele,
the stronghold of the rebel chief Sheik Mbarnok Bin Rashid, which was
captured on August 17th, 1895. No bar was issued for this affair,
the name and date MWELE 1895 being engraved on the edge of the medal
in slanting Roman capitals, together with the name, etc., of the
recipient. Those already in possession of the medal had MWELE 1895
engraved after their name. The little force comprised men from H.M.S.
"Barrosa," "Phœbe," "Racoon," and "Saint George," and the 24th and 26th
Bombay Infantry--their medals had MWELE impressed on one side of the
claw of the suspender and 1895 on the other side--who also received the
medal, while camp followers were given the medal in bronze. This medal
is described on page 228.

[Illustration: THE IRON CROSS.]




=Central Africa, 1895.=--Payne has in his collection the only Central
African 1895 medal believed to have been issued to the navy. It was
awarded to Lieutenant J. S. Brogden, R.M.L.I., who afterwards became
Captain R.N.


During the Boer War a naval contingent was employed, and their
assistance in the defence and relief of Ladysmith is one of the
outstanding features of that long conflict. The men of H.M.S.
"Powerful," who helped in the defence of Ladysmith under Captain
(afterwards Admiral Sir) Percy Scott, R.N., whose genius was such
a material asset to the beleaguered, did excellent work, while the
naval brigade which took part in the Natal campaign and the relief
of Ladysmith made splendid efforts. It comprised 39 officers and 403
men of the Royal Navy, and 2 officers and 50 men of the Natal Naval
Volunteers, who during the fighting leading up to the relief, on
February 28th, 1900, had fired 4,000 rounds of ammunition from the
4·7-inch guns, and 12,000 rounds from the 12-pounder quick-firing guns.

=Bars Gained by Navy.=--The officers and men of H.M.S. "Powerful"
received the bar for the DEFENCE OF LADYSMITH. The bar for the RELIEF
OF LADYSMITH was awarded to officers and men from H.M.S. "Terrible"
and "Philomel." Men from the latter ships also took part in the battle
of the TUGELA HEIGHTS. The sailors from the "Philomel," in addition to
the bars already mentioned, received those for ORANGE FREE STATE and
LAING'S NEK, while men from the "Monarch" and "Doris" were awarded bars
BELFAST. Men from H.M.S. "Naiad" fought in, and received bars for, CAPE

Medals with bars to the navy are rare, and those with more than two
particularly so. A leading stoker of H.M.S. "Doris" received, in
addition to those mentioned above as awarded to men from his ship, the
rare one for WEPENER, but though this bar to the navy was afterwards
recalled, Dr. Payne has this rare medal with this and six other bars in
his collection.

The crews of the following ships received the medal: H.M.S.
"Barracouta," "Barrossa," "Beagle," "Blonde," "Doris," "Dwarf,"
"Fearless," "Forte," "Gibraltar," "Magicienne," "Magpie," "Monarch,"
"Naiad," "Niobe," "Partridge," "Pearl," "Pelorus," "Philomel,"
"Powerful," "Racoon," "Rambler," "Rattler," "Redbreast," "Sappho,"
"Sybille," "Tartar," "Terpsichore," "Terrible," "Thesis," "Thrush," and

=Africa General Service Medal.=--This medal, described on page 254,
was awarded to the army and navy. It was instituted by King Edward VII
to commemorate and recognise the naval and military operations in East
Central and West Africa, and on its institution the East and West and
Central Africa medals were no longer issued.

=Jubaland.=--The medal with bar for JUBALAND for the operations against
the Ogaden Somalis, from November 16th, 1900, to April 30th, 1901, was
awarded to the officers and men of the Royal Navy and marines from
H.M.S. "Magicienne," "Terpsichore," and "Scout."

=Gambia, 1901.=--Those members of the crews of H.M. ships who had
received the Africa General Service medal with the bar for JUBALAND
were not entitled to this bar.

=Aro, 1901-2.=--The crew of H.M.S. "Thrush" took part in the operations
against the Aro tribe from November 15th, 1901, to March 23rd, 1902
(see also page 255). The naval recipients of the medal with the bar for
ARO 1901-2 were 53 of the crew of the "Thrush," and 3 officers and 27
sailors belonging to the Protectorate gunboat "Jackdaw."

=Somaliland, 1902-4.=--In this campaign men belonging to the following
ships participated in the expedition under Colonel Rochfort, C.B.,
C.M.G., and were entitled to this bar: H.M.S. "Cossack," "Dryad,"
"Fox," "Highflyer," "Harrier," "Hussar," "Hyacinth," "Mohawk,"
"Merlin," "Naiad," "Perseus," "Porpoise," "Pomone," and "Redbreast"
(see also page 256).

=Somaliland, 1908-10.=--This bar was awarded with the medal to
those who took part in the campaign. Men from H.M.S. "Hyacinth" and
"Proserpine" were engaged.

=Transport Medal.=--King Edward VII, on his birthday, November 9th,
1903, instituted a medal which was granted as a special recognition
of the magnificent work done, and for the nautical skill and perfect
efficiency shown, by those who were engaged in connection with the
Transport Service during the China and South Africa campaigns. On the
obverse is the bust of King Edward VII, facing left, in the uniform of
an Admiral of the Fleet, wearing his orders and decorations, and the
legend EDWARDVS VII REX IMPERATOR. On the reverse, in the foreground,
is a large liner ("Ophir") ploughing through the sea; above is a map of
the world on Mercator's projection, which embraces the British Empire
from the West Indies to New Zealand, but, owing to the circular form
of the medal, omits the North American Continent; below is the legend
in diameter, is suspended by means of a straight swivel bar from a
red ribbon, with two blue stripes each ¼ in. broad. The names are
impressed round the edge of the medal in capital letters. The official
announcement of the issue stated that the "Transport Medal shall be
granted in future wars to the Officers of the Mercantile Marine serving
in the transports" whenever a war medal is granted for the campaign.
These medals have realised from £2 to £4 each at public auction.


Under this heading I might have placed several of those earlier medals
which were awarded when campaign medals had not been instituted, but
the record for our purpose may begin with the institution of the
Meritorious Service Medal on December 19th, 1845, when Her Majesty
Queen Victoria decreed that a sum of not more than £2,000 per annum
should be set aside for the payment of rewards in the form of annuities
not exceeding £20, to sergeants recommended by the Commander-in-Chief
in recognition of meritorious or distinguished services. The sum for
disbursement was increased to £4,000 in June 1853. This medal bears
on the obverse the diademed head of Queen Victoria, with the legend
VICTORIA REGINA, and generally has the date of institution in the
exergue, but in some of the earlier, and in the later issues also, the
date is omitted. On the reverse (as illustrated facing page 136) is
the inscription FOR MERITORIOUS SERVICE, surmounted by a crown, and
encircled by a broad wreath of laurel. The suspender is of the same
pattern as that issued with the India 1854 medal, and the decoration
depends from a red ribbon 1¼ in. wide when worn by military sergeants,
and a blue ribbon by sergeants of marines, who in 1849 were also
granted the medal. Until November 1902 this medal could not be worn
with the L.S. and G.C. medal. These medals realise from £3 to £4 10_s._
in the sale-room.


Awarded to Staff-Surgeon Chas. Benson Brearey, M.D.]

[Illustration: IRON CROSS FOR SAN SEBASTIAN, 1836.

Awarded to Staff-Surgeon John Callender.]

=H.E.I. Co.'s Meritorious Service Medal.=--On May 20th, 1848, the
Governor-General of India instituted a medal for meritorious service
for distribution among the East India Company's troops. On the obverse
is the bust of Queen Victoria as on the war medals of the period,
with the date 1848 in the exergue, and on the reverse the arms of the
Company encircled by the inscription FOR MERITORIOUS SERVICE. The medal
is 1¼ in. in diameter, and was suspended by a scroll clasp as used with
the Sutlej medal by a red ribbon 1¼ in. wide. The name of the recipient
was engraved in a neat running hand upon the edge of the medal. The
issue of this medal was discontinued when the English variety was
instituted. These medals have realised from £3 10_s._ to £5.

=Distinguished Conduct Medal.=--The next in chronological order is the
medal for Distinguished Conduct in the Field, and was instituted on
December 4th, 1854, as an indication of the "Sovereign's sense of the
distinguished service and gallant conduct in the field of the army then
serving in the Crimea." It was awarded to non-commissioned officers
and privates only, and has since been given for gallant service in
many other campaigns. By the decree the medal could be awarded after
selection by the commanding officer. Originally a gratuity went with
the medal, but that was discontinued in 1862. In 1881 it was decided
that a bar bearing the full date of the action for which it was awarded
should be given to a recipient who had again distinguished himself.

The obverse is like the Queen Victoria Long Service Medal, and on the
reverse is the inscription FOR DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT IN THE FIELD.
The same kind of clasp as used with the Meritorious Service Medal is
employed for suspension by a red ribbon with a broad blue stripe down
the centre. The first medals issued had the name, rank, regiment, etc.,
impressed or engraved upon the edge in Roman capitals, but the modern
medals are engraved, and generally bear the date of the action, while
those issued during the reign of King Edward VII were impressed in
small block capitals.

These medals (see facing page 140) realise from £4 to £7 7_s._ in the
sale-room, generally with a war medal representing the campaign in
which it was gained. Groups are relatively higher.

=Conspicuous Gallantry Medal.=--This medal was instituted on August
13th, 1855, as a reward to petty officers, sailors, non-commissioned
officers, and privates in the marines who had distinguished themselves
in the Crimean War. With it gratuities were given ranging from £5 to
£15. In 1874, after the Ashantee War, it was again decided to issue the
medal, and to grant annuities to chief and first-class petty officers,
and sergeants of marines, whenever the annual grant authorised by the
Treasury had not been exceeded. This medal has the same obverse as the
Meritorious Service Medal, and the reverse is practically the same,
except for the inscription, which is FOR CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY. The
first medals issued were struck from the same die as the Meritorious
Service Medal, the second and third lines being erased, and the words
CONSPICUOUS GALLANTRY engraved in Roman capitals. The suspender in the
first issue was the same as that used with the sister medal for the
army, but in the second issue, which commenced in 1874, a straight bar
was used for suspension from a blue ribbon with a broad white stripe
down the centre. The names on these medals are engraved in capital
Roman letters like the naming on the Distinguished Conduct Medal.

The medal issued during the reign of King Edward VII bore upon the
obverse the same bust of His Majesty in Admiral's uniform as is used on
the Naval Long Service and Good Conduct medals granted by him. These
medals realise from £3 10_s._ to £5, but a medal of the first issue,
together with the Baltic medal awarded to George Belding of H.M.S.
"Firefly," realised £59.

=The Victoria Cross.=--This coveted decoration was first suggested by
the Prince Consort, and Queen Victoria being desirous of taking into
her royal consideration a means of adequately rewarding the individual
gallant services, either of officers of the lower grades in the naval
and military service, or of warrant and petty officers, seamen, and
marines, ordained by Royal Warrant on June 29th, 1856, that "the cross
shall only be awarded to those officers or men who have served us in
the presence of the enemy, and shall have performed some signal act of
valour or devotion to their country." With the cross an annuity of £10
is awarded to warrant officers, seamen and marines, non-commissioned
officers, and privates, and for each additional bar £5 per annum is
added to the annuity. In July 1898, owing to the unfortunate condition
to which a recipient had been reduced, and so induced to sell his
cross, it was decided that the Home Secretary might, in his discretion,
increase the annuity to £50. On April 23rd, 1881, the warrant was
revised to enable officers of any grade to receive the medal, and on
August 8th, 1902, King Edward sanctioned the posthumous award of the
cross, and of its issue to relatives of deceased men who had earned it;
prior to this the brave fellows' names had been gazetted only. The new
regulation was retrospective, so that the surviving representatives of
men who had earned the cross as long ago as the Indian Mutiny received
the bronze token of their relative's valour.

The cross (facing page 136) carries with it the right to append V.C.
after the recipient's name.

The cross is made from captured cannon, and is not, as is generally and
wrongly described, a Maltese cross, but a cross patée. It bears in the
centre of the obverse the royal crest of a lion passant gardant upon
the British crown, with a ribbon inscribed FOR VALOUR in a semicircle
beneath it, the ends tucked under the raised edge. The cross has a
pierced semicircular lug, through which a simple link is run to attach
the cross to the laureated suspender by a V. The obverse has raised
edges like the front, but the centre is circular. The name, rank,
regiment or ship to which the recipient was attached is engraved upon
the back of the suspender, and the record of the act which gained the
decoration inside the circle on the back of the cross. The cross is
suspended by a dark-red ribbon, 1½ in. wide, by military recipients,
and by a dark-blue ribbon by naval recipients. The cross, owing to the
fact that it is cast and chased, has often been copied, and I have
had in my possession one which, but for its size, would have deceived
experts, but it had the faults of all cast copies, having shrunk in
the casting, and this is the one way of telling a fraud, although
it generally needs the genuine article for comparison. The V.C. has
realised in the sale-room from £43 for a lieutenant's won in the Mutiny
to £175 for a private's won before Sebastopol.

The only Victoria Cross awarded for gallant services not in "the
presence of the enemy" was given to Private Timothy O'Hea for
extinguishing a fire in an ammunition van during the Fenian Raid in
Canada, 1866. It sold in August 1900 for £50.

=The Albert Medal.=--The Albert Medal, commonly called "The Civilian's
Victoria Cross," was originally instituted by Queen Victoria under a
Royal Warrant dated March 7th, 1866, as a reward for heroic actions
performed in saving life at sea. On April 12th, 1867, the Warrant was
revoked by a second which instituted two new decorations respectively
styled The Albert Medal of the First Class and The Albert Medal of the
Second Class, the original Warrant instituting one class only. Ten
years later, on April 30th, 1877, Her Majesty Queen Victoria signed
another Warrant which extended the decorations to cases of gallantry in
saving life on land.




By the Warrant of April 12th, 1867, it was ordained that the
Albert Medal of the First and Second Classes, severally inscribed
"For Gallantry in Saving Life at Sea," should be made only on a
recommendation by the President of the Board of Trade; and in the
Warrant dated April 30th, 1877, it was ordained that the award of the
Albert Medal of the First and Second Classes, inscribed "For Gallantry
in Saving Life on Land," should be made only on a recommendation by the
First Lord of the Treasury. On September 13th, 1881, an amended Warrant
was issued, ordaining that the award of the Albert Medal should be
made only on a recommendation by the Principal Secretary of State for
the Home Department, "Providing always that the preliminary steps and
inquiry concerning the award of the Albert Medals severally inscribed
'For Gallantry in Saving Life at Sea' be, as heretofore, with the
President of the Board of Trade." By Warrant dated April 30th, 1877,
it was ordained that a register of the names of those who received the
Albert Medal for Saving Life at Sea should be kept at the office of
the Board of Trade. By Warrant dated Whitehall, March 24th, 1891, the
previous Warrants bearing the dates April 30th, 1877, and September
13th, 1881, respectively, were amended, and it was ordained that the
award of the Albert Medal for Saving Life at Sea should be made only
on a recommendation of the Principal Secretary of State for the Home
Department, "Provided always that the preliminary steps and inquiry
concerning the award shall, if the award be to any one belonging to
the Royal Navy or the Royal Marines, be with the Lords Commissioners
of the Admiralty, and in other cases with the President of the Board
of Trade." Further, that a register of the names of those persons
belonging to the Royal Navy or Royal Marines, upon whom the Albert
Medal for Saving Life at Sea shall have been conferred, shall be kept
at the offices of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. (See group
facing p. 184.)

=Distinguished Service Order.=--By a Royal Warrant dated September
6th, 1866, Her Majesty Queen Victoria instituted the Distinguished
Service Order for the purpose of recognising the special services of
commissioned officers of the Army and Navy, likewise the Indian and
Colonial Naval and Military Forces.

The badge consists of a gold cross patée, convexed, the ground
enamelled white, leaving an edge of gold; on the obverse, in the
centre, within two sprigs of laurel, enamelled green, is the Imperial
Crown in gold, upon a red enamelled ground. On the reverse is the
monogram V.R.I. within two branches of laurel, also upon a red
enamelled ground. The badge is worn suspended from the left breast by
a red ribbon edged with blue, 1 in. in width, from a gold laureated
bar 1⅕ in. wide, fastened to the badge by two gold loops, and having
a similar gold laureated bar with brooch attachment above. The award
carries with it the right to append the letters D.S.O. after the
recipient's name. (See facing page 208.)

=The New Zealand Cross.=--This was instituted by Order in Council at
the Government House, Wellington, March 10th, 1869, and afterwards
sanctioned by Her Majesty as "a Decorative Distinction to be conferred
on members of the Militia, Volunteers, or Armed Constabulary, who may
particularly distinguish themselves by their bravery in action, or
devotion to their duty while on service." The conditions are almost
exactly similar to those for the Victoria Cross, and the recipient
received an annual pension of £10.

It is a silver Maltese cross, with bright silver double borders, having
a six-pointed gold star on each arm. In the centre, in a circle,
NEW ZEALAND surrounded by a wreath of laurel in gold. The cross is
surmounted by a gold crown and attached to a crimson ribbon--1½ in.
wide--by a silver bar ornamented with laurel, in gold, connected by
a V and ring, in silver, with the top of the crown. The name of the
recipient and the date of the action should be engraved on the back
of the cross. Clasps may be added for additional acts of bravery or
devotion. The clasp to be a silver bar across the ribbon, having a
plain surface burnished and inscribed with the date of the occurrence
for which the bar is given, and the name of the action--if any.
Twenty-one officers and men have received this decoration. These
crosses have realised from £15 to £25.

=India Distinguished Service Medal.=--This medal was instituted on
June 28th, 1907, by an Army Order published in Simla as a reward
for both commissioned and non-commissioned officers of the regular
and other forces in India. It bears on the obverse the bust of King
Edward VII, and on the reverse a laurel wreath encircling the words
FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE. The medal, 1⅖ in. in diameter, is ordered
to be worn immediately to the right of all war medals, suspended by a
red ribbon 1¼ in. wide, with blue edges ⅜ in. wide. This medal may be
conferred by the Viceroy of India.

=Conspicuous Service Cross.=--This cross was instituted by King Edward
VII on June 28th, 1901, as a reward for "distinguished service before
the enemy," for bestowal upon warrant officers and subordinate officers
of the fleet who do not hold commissions in the navy. No person can be
nominated for the cross unless his services shall have been marked by
a special mention of his name in dispatches by the Admiral, or senior
naval or military officer commanding the squadron or detached force.

The cross (facing page 208) is of silver, patée in form, and convex. It
bears on the obverse the monogram E.R.I. surrounded by a raised border,
surmounted by the imperial crown, with ring for suspension from a blue
ribbon with a white stripe down the centre like that used for the
Conspicuous Gallantry Medal. The reverse is plain. The recipient has
the right to append the letters C.S.C. to his name.

=Indian Order of Merit.=--This reward of valour takes chronological
precedence over those decorations already described. It was instituted
by the H.E.I. Co. in 1837, to reward personal bravery without any
reference to length of service or good conduct, and is the Sepoy's
Victoria Cross (facing page 136.)

It is divided into three classes and is awarded to native officers and
men for distinguished conduct in the field. On the advancement from
one class to another the star is surrendered to the Government, and
the superior class substituted, but in the event of the death of the
recipient his relatives retain the decoration. The order carries with
it an increase of one-third in the pay of the recipient, and in the
event of his death the allowance is continued to his widow for three
years. The First Class consists of a star of eight points, 1⅗ in. in
diameter, having in the centre a ground of dark-blue enamel bearing
crossed swords in gold, within a gold circle, and the inscription
REWARD OF VALOUR, the whole being surmounted by two wreaths of laurel
in gold. The Second Class star is of silver, with the wreaths of laurel
in gold; and the Third Class entirely of silver. The decoration is
suspended from a simple loop and bar from a dark-blue ribbon 1½ in.
in width with red edges, bearing a gold or silver buckle according to

The Indian Order of Merit realises from £2 10_s._ to £8 8_s._ in the
sale-room according to class and action for which it was awarded. It is
noteworthy, however, that in June 1900 the following prices were paid
in the auction-room: First Class, £58; Second Class, £40; and Third
Class, £35. When the order is unnamed, as it was issued, and there is
no record of the services for which it was earned, prices invariably
range lower than these.

=Order of British India.=--This order was instituted at the same time
as the Order of Merit, to reward native commissioned officers for long
and faithful service in the Indian Army. Since 1878, however, any
person, European or native, holding a commission in a native regiment,
became eligible for admission to the Order without reference to creed
or colour. The First Class consists of a gold eight-pointed radiated
star 1½ in. in diameter. The centre is occupied by a lion statant
gardant upon a ground of light-blue enamel, within a dark-blue band
inscribed ORDER OF BRITISH INDIA, and encircled by two laurel wreaths
of gold. A gold loop and ring are attached to the crown for suspension
from a broad ornamental band ⁹⁄₁₀ in. in diameter, through which the
ribbon, once blue, now red, is passed for suspension from the neck.
The Second Class is 1⁷⁄₁₀ in. in diameter with dark-blue enamelled
centre; there is no crown on this class, and the suspender is formed
of an ornamental gold loop. The reverse is plain in both classes. The
First Class carries with it the title Sirdar Bahadur, and an additional
allowance of two rupees a day; and the second the title of Bahadur, and
an extra allowance of one rupee per day.

=India Meritorious Service Medal.=--This was instituted on July 27th,
1888, and on receipt of the medal the order states "a non-commissioned
officer must surrender his Long Service and Good Conduct medal"; but
on being promoted to a commission he may retain the M.S. medal, but
the annuity attached to it will cease. On the obverse is the diademed
bust of Queen Victoria facing left, with a veil falling over the crown
behind, encircled by the legend VICTORIA KAISAR-I-HIND. On the reverse
is a wreath of lotus leaves enclosing a wreath of palm tied at the
base, having a star beneath; between the two wreaths is the inscription
FOR MERITORIOUS SERVICE. Within the palm wreath is the word INDIA. The
medal, 1⅖ in. in diameter, is suspended from a scroll by means of a red
ribbon 1¼ in. wide.

The medals issued during the reigns of Queen Victoria's successors
bear on the obverse their bust in profile with the legend altered to
EDWARDVS or GEORGIVS. The Victoria medals have realised from £3 3_s._
to £4 10_s._, and those of King Edward £4 to £5.

=Egyptian Medal for Bravery.=--As a means of rewarding N.C.O.'s and
men of the Egyptian Army who distinguish themselves on the field of
battle, the Khedive Abbas II instituted in May 1913 the silver medal
illustrated. It is 1⅞ in. in diameter and depends from a pale-blue
ribbed ribbon and a suspender of the same pattern as the British
Distinguished Conduct Medal. It bears on the obverse the cypher of
Abbas Hilmi El Thani (Abbas II) and on the reverse in the upper half of
the field FOR BRAVERY, and in the lower half in Arabic characters EL
SHAHAMA, which is the equivalent of the English lettering above it.

=Distinguished Service Cross.=--As already explained on page 343,
His Majesty King Edward VII instituted the Conspicuous Service Cross
in 1901 to reward "distinguished service before the enemy" on the
part of warrant or acting warrant officers and subordinate officers
of His Majesty's Fleet who do not hold naval commissions. On October
14th, 1914, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty--being "of
opinion that it would be desirable to enable the said Cross to be
granted also to commissioned officers" of the Navy below the rank
of Lieutenant-Commander "for meritorious or distinguished services
in cases where those services may not be considered sufficient to
warrant the appointment of such officers to the Distinguished Service
Order"--memorialised His Majesty King George V, who graciously
approved of the suggestion that the Cross be in future designated
the Distinguished Service Cross with the right to the recipient to
append the letters D.S.C. to his name. The Cross is identical with
the Conspicuous Service Cross, illustrated on page 208, except in the
change of the Royal Cypher, G.R.I. replacing E.R.I. on the obverse.
The ribbon, from which the decoration is suspended is dark blue with a
broad white stripe down the centre. The decoration, facing page 208, is
made by Messrs. Garrard & Co.

=Naval Distinguished Service Medal.=--In response to a memorial from
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, His Majesty King George
V decided at the Court held at Buckingham Palace on October 14th,
1914, to institute a medal for courageous service in war by chief
petty officers, petty officers, and men of His Majesty's Navy, and
by non-commissioned officers and men of His Majesty's Corps of Royal
Marines, and all other persons holding corresponding positions in His
Majesty's Service afloat, in cases where the award of the Conspicuous
Service Medal would be inappropriate (Her Majesty Queen Victoria having
instituted it as an award for pre-eminent bravery in action with the
enemy), the Distinguished Service Medal will be awarded to such men
"as may at any time show themselves to the fore in action, and set
an example of bravery and resource under fire without performing acts
of such pre-eminent bravery as would render them eligible for the
Conspicuous Gallantry Medal."

The design of the Naval Distinguished Service Medal is the same as the
Conspicuous Gallantry Medal, except that the suspender is straight and
the obverse bears the profile of His Majesty King George V and the
reverse FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE. The decoration is suspended by a
dark-blue ribbon, 1¼ in. wide, with two broad white stripes down the
centre divided by a thin dark-blue stripe. (See page 252 for squeezes,
the medal not being struck at time of going to press.)

=The Military Cross.=--Following the institution of the Cross and
medal above described, His Majesty King George V, by a Royal Warrant
published as a supplement to the _London Gazette_ on December 31st,
1914, announced that he had instituted a new decoration to be known
as The Military Cross for distinguished service in time of war. The
decoration consists of a silver cross, having on each arm the Imperial
Crown, and bearing in the centre the letters G.R.I. The Royal Warrant
states that "No person shall be eligible for this decoration unless he
is a captain, a commissioned officer of a lower grade, or a warrant
officer in Our army, or Our Indian or Colonial Military Forces, and
the Cross shall be awarded only to officers of the above ranks on
recommendation by the Principal Secretary of State for War," and that
"The Cross shall be worn immediately after all Orders and before all
decorations and medals (the Victoria Cross alone excepted), and shall
be worn on the left breast pendant from a riband 1⅜ in. in width which
shall be in colour white with a purple stripe." The Cross does not
carry with it any individual preference or entitle the recipient to
use any letters after his name. The list of first recipients of the
decoration was published the same day, included in the list being
Lieutenant Dimmer, K.R.R.C., a ranker, who has also the distinction of
winning the V.C. in the European War now waging.



The institution of the Long Service and Good Conduct medal is due to
an order of King William IV., who notified his intention to establish
it in an Order to the Secretary of War on July 30th, 1830. In it His
Majesty states that "discharged soldiers receiving a gratuity for
meritorious conduct shall be entitled to wear a medal having on one
side the words FOR LONG SERVICE AND GOOD CONDUCT, and on the other in
relief the King's Arms, with the name and rank of the soldier, and the
year, inscribed on the medal." Those entitled to the medal "must have
completed twenty-one years of actual service in the Infantry, or twenty
years in the Cavalry, never have been convicted by Court Martial, and
must have borne an irreproachable character, or have particularly
distinguished themselves in the service." The medal, designed by
Pistrucci, was suspended from a dark-crimson ribbon by means of a steel
bar attached to a steel clip which gripped the medal as on the Waterloo
medal. This medal is sometimes found, however, with a ring through
which the ribbon is passed. The name, rank, and regiment and the year
of discharge were impressed in large capital Roman letters round the
edge of the medal. On the accession of Queen Victoria the Arms of
Hanover were omitted. About 1851 a silver scroll suspender replaced
the steel clip, and in the new die the lettering on the reverse was
cut smaller and the date was omitted. By a warrant dated January 16th,
1860, the grant of the medal was extended to non-commissioned officers
on the permanent staff of the Militia. Since 1874 the names and rank
of the recipients have been engraved on the edge of the medal. The
earlier medals realise from 10_s._ to £1, and the later ones from
5_s._ to 7_s._ 6_d._ each, according to rank and condition.

[Illustration: (Reverse.)



[Illustration: (Obverse.)



=King Edward Long Service Medal.=--On the accession of King Edward
VII., the obverse of the Military Long Service and Good Conduct medal
was altered, and the effigy of King Edward, with the legend EDWARDVS
VII REX IMPERATOR substituted for the trophy of arms with the shield of
Great Britain in the centre.

=King George's Long Service Medal.=--The same alteration has been made
in this latest issue; the bust of H.M. King George V., takes the place
of King Edward, and the legend being slightly altered so far as the
name is concerned.


=William IV Naval Long Service.=--King William IV instituted by Order
in Council dated August 24th, 1831, a medal for Long Service and Good
Conduct to men of the navy. It was at first granted for not less than
twenty-one years' service; but this was subsequently reduced to twenty.
It bears on the obverse an anchor surmounted by a crown, encircled by a
wreath of oak leaves tied with a ribbon at the base. On the reverse is
a blank space within a beaded circle in the centre for the recipient's
name, rating, ship, and length of service, and running with the edge of
the medal FOR LONG SERVICE AND GOOD CONDUCT. The medal, 1⁷⁄₂₀ in. in
diameter, was issued with a silver ring passed through the medal, which
was suspended from a narrow blue ribbon; but many of the recipients
had a wire suspender made to take a broad ribbon for attachment to the
breast. Only about 450 of these medals were issued. (See facing page
308.) They realise from £1 5_s._ to £2 2_s._ according to condition.

=Victorian Naval Long Service.=--On the accession of Queen Victoria a
larger and thicker medal was instituted. It bears on the obverse the
bust of Queen Victoria, as on the military medals, and on the reverse a
line-of-battle ship at anchor, surrounded by a cable tied at the base
in a reef knot, encircled by FOR LONG SERVICE AND GOOD CONDUCT. In the
earlier medals the recipient's name, rank, etc., were engraved, and
the medal bore on the obverse 1848--very few were issued thus--and the
bar for suspension was nearly half as wide again, 1⅗ in. by 1⁷⁄₁₀ in.,
as those on the later medals. The later medals are mostly impressed
in capital letters, and are suspended from a clasp which takes a 1¼
in. ribbon of blue with white edges. The earlier medals realise about
10_s._, and the later ones about 5_s._ to 6_s._

=India, 1859.=--The H.E.I. Co. issued a medal in 1859 to men of the old
Indian Local European Service for "long service and good conduct"; but
none were issued to the H.E.I. Co.'s navy! About 100 were issued to men
in the three Presidencies before the mistake was discovered. The medal
bears on the obverse the diademed head of Queen Victoria as generally
used at this time on all war medals, and on the reverse FOR LONG
SERVICE AND GOOD CONDUCT. Above the wording is a crown, and below an
anchor surrounded by two oak branches. The medal, 1⅗ in. in diameter,
was suspended by a red ribbon 1³⁄₁₀ in. wide by a scroll suspender. The
names were impressed on the edges.

=Edward VII Naval Long Service.=--The obverse of this medal bears the
bust of the King in Admiral's uniform, and the legend EDWARDVS VII REX
IMPERATOR, and the recipient's name, rank, and ship are impressed upon
the edge. (See facing page 308.) The reverse is as that of the Victoria
variety. It realises, according to condition and rank, 5_s._ to 10_s._

=George V Naval Long Service.=--The medal issued during the reign of
our present Sovereign His Majesty King George V is in all respects the
same as the above mentioned, except that his bust in Admiral's uniform
adorns the obverse, and GEORGIVS takes the place of EDWARDVS. The
recipients' names are indented in block capitals.

=Volunteer, Militia, and Territorial Medals.=--I also illustrate
representative oval medals issued by King Edward and King George to
the Militia, Territorials, and Special Reserve, for Long Service,
Good Conduct and Efficiency. These are named in light skeleton block
capitals. The Victoria Volunteer Officer's Long Service and the
Edwardian Colonial and Auxiliary Forces Officer's Long Service Medals,
illustrated facing page 240, were issued unnamed.

=Naval Best Shot.=--The fine medal illustrated facing page 296 was
instituted by His late Majesty King Edward as a reward for excellence
in Naval Gunnery, and although, like Volunteer Long Service Medals, it
can hardly be classed among war medals, the importance of encouraging
good gunnery has been well demonstrated in the war now in progress,
where our gunners have made wonderful hits at a range of eight or more
miles. The obverse of this medal bears the bust of King Edward in
Admiral's uniform, as does also that of the Naval Reserve Medal facing
page 224.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have not herein considered the large number of regimental medals, or
those awarded by officers to their men for prowess in war or excellence
of conduct in the ranks; these, together with the old Volunteer medals
of the eighteenth century, are too numerous for adequate treatment in a
volume such as this, and as I have restricted my pages to war medals of
an official nature, only including those private ones which have great
historical interest, I must leave the consideration of these to the
time when I may find leisure to treat of them as they deserve.

I have endeavoured, while making my book helpful, to make it also
interesting, for I am of opinion that those who do not generally
take more than a mere handling interest in the things they sell lose
more than half the interest which a business life affords, while
those who simply take a pleasure in the mere possession of the things
they collect fail to understand the true meaning and value of the
collector's spirit.


I append a few sketches and notes which may be helpful, together
with the facts I have given, to those who collect or sell the golden
medallions, the bright discs of silver, or the intrinsically valueless
but precious bronze crosses or stars which have adorned the breasts of
the brave.

First let me state that any re-engraved medal is comparatively
valueless, and that those who purchase high-priced medals should not
trust to their own judgment, but employ the services of those experts
and dealers who possess the necessary technical knowledge and have at
their command the means of identification.

The names on the Waterloo medals were impressed with Roman capitals
like ~ROBERTS~ or ~MURPHY~, so large that they left little margin
between the edge of the medal and the top and bottom of the letters.

The Peninsular, or Military General Service, medal had the names
indented in Roman capitals as follows: ~STEWARD~. The same type was
used on the Naval General Service and the Army of India medals, also
the Mutiny medal.

On the Afghan medal of 1842, for Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabul, the
same kind of Roman capitals were used, but sometimes rather larger and
narrower, and the down-strokes somewhat lighter: these medals were
not always impressed, and many were engraved in this style ~John~ and
others in a light script.

The Punjab medals for 1849 were indented in the same style as the
M.G.S. medal; but on many of the Sutlej medals the rather taller type
of Roman capital was used.

The South Africa 1853 medals were named with the same letters as the
M.G.S. medals.




On those of the Crimean medals which were returned for naming the same
type was used, but the letters were rather more openly spaced. Some
were also impressed in large and others in small skeleton Roman, so,
~MURRAY~, many were engraved in square Roman capitals, and others in
upper and lower case upright block.

The India General Service medal, 1854, had the names mostly impressed
with the same type as the M.G.S. medals up to Bhootan 1864-6; some,
particularly naval medals, were named in a smaller kind of Roman
capitals stamped closer together. The same type of Roman capital was
likewise used on the New Zealand medals, while the China medals for
1857 and 1860, which were only named for the army, had the names
indented in the same type. But the naming on the China medal for 1842
was very characteristic, and heavy Roman impressed capitals of a square
nature, like ~DUNCAN~, were employed in the stamping, with three long
stars to fill the gap on either side between the name and the lug of
the suspender.

The Abyssinian medal is distinctive in its naming, the recipient's name
and regiment being impressed in relief on the centre of the reverse,
or, in the case of the Indian troops, in the same manner or struck
incuse, while some are engraved.

The Canada General Service medal has the names indented in square block
capitals, as ~BROCK~, or in caps and lower case, as ~Boston~. Some were
engraved in square upright Roman capitals.

The home troops who received it had the regimental numbers impressed
and not the territorial designations, as on the South African medals.
The Naval medals were generally engraved in dwarfed Roman capitals.

The Ashantee medal for 1873-4 was engraved in this style, ~BUCHANAN,
42ND.~ with the date 1873-74, after the regiment, but on the 1892
medals, while the same style was used, it was engraved with thinner
down-strokes and was smaller.

When the I.G.S. medals, 1854 type, were first issued the names were
impressed similar to the M.G.S. medal; but those medals awarded to the
navy and the army for Pegu have very small tall Roman capitals on the
edge; for Perak the names are engraved in sloping Roman capitals like
the Afghan medals described below; or like the medals for the rest of
the campaigns with the exception of Jowaki, 1877-8, which by the way
was the first campaign medal to have the date indicated on the bar, the
names were generally engraved as ~P. Murphy~, and the same style of
script, but very lightly engraved, as ~Edward~, was used to name the
I.G.S. 1895 medal. This light and somewhat scratchy form of script was
also employed in a very characteristic manner, to name the Punniar and
Maharajpoor stars, and also some of the first Cabul medals, 1842.

The Burma 1885-7 medal is generally engraved in a light running hand;
but I have seen several engraved in slightly sloping squat Roman
letters, ~2/SCOTS FUS~: The script kind of naming was used on the
1887-9 and 1889-92 Burma medals, but some of the latter medals were
engraved in a neat round hand.

The Naval medals awarded for Burma 1885-7 are mostly named with rather
tall thin Roman capitals.

The medals for Jowaki 1877-8 are impressed with Roman capitals after
the character of M.G.S. lettering, and the regiments are generally
described so, 2/9th Foot.

The Afghan medals for 1878-9-80 were engraved thus, ~RENDELL~, or in
the same style of letter but upright, as were also the Egyptian medals
of 1882 onward; but most of those issued to the Royal Marine Light
Infantry and seamen who took part in the Suakin Expedition of 1885
were indented like this, ~HENRY~. This kind of type was also used for
naming the King Edward Naval Long Service medals. Some, however, were
impressed in tall Roman capitals having thick down-strokes.

The engraving on the Egyptian medals awarded to some of the Indian
troops, dooley bearers, and Indian transport department is in a very
finely cut, neat script.

Some of the Zulu War medals of 1878-9-80 were engraved in this way,
~SHEA~, the letters being rather badly shaped and spaced, but most were
engraved in the same style as the Afghan and Egyptian medals.

The Soudan medals were engraved in this style ~CURTIS~, and some
~GORE.R.A.~: some of the Queen's and Khedive's medals were impressed
in very small Roman letters, thus MACPHERSON. In a few instances the
Queen's medals, like the Khedive's, were issued unnamed, and the
recipients had to have them engraved.

The medals granted for the Punjab Frontier are named with a rather
coarse script.

The engraving on the Hazara medal for 1888 has rather finer-cut
strokes, and the naming on the Sikkim medal, 1888, is the same.

King Edward's medal for Waziristan, 1901-2, is engraved in the same
style; but the medal for Chin-Lushai 1889-90 is named in a neat round

The Maharajah of Kashmir's bronze medal for Chitral, 1895, is impressed
in badly aligned and carelessly spaced block letters.

The Cape of Good Hope medal is engraved in neat, squat, upright Roman
capitals, and that for Natal is generally named in very lightly
impressed upright skeleton block.

The East and Central Africa medal with swivel ring is named in a light
script; but the same medal with bar for Uganda, 1897-8, is engraved
rather roughly in light Roman capitals.

But these medals are named in several ways. For Sierra Leone in square
block capitals. With bar for 1891-2 the medal is named in slightly
sloping Roman capitals, that for 1892 the same. That with bar for
1897-8 named like the tall thin block letters used on some of the Boer
War medals.

The Boer War medals were generally indented with block capitals, either
square, like ~HILL~, or tall like this, HILL, or engraved in this
style, ~F. HILL, 2/Linc Rqt~:

King Edward's medal for Ashanti, 1900, is generally impressed in rather
small skeleton block lettering.

The China medal, 1900, is named--for the navy--with a bold but light
kind of Roman capital, similar to that described on page 354 as used on
the Suakin, 1885, medals.

The Tibet medal is generally named in a combination of large and small
Roman and script, as ~G.Hand, 1ˢᵗ·13Bⁿ·ᵣ.~

The Indian medal for 1908 is engraved in script, but so badly that one
could not conceive an engraver's apprentice of one year's standing
doing so badly.

King George's medal for Abor, 1911-12, is engraved in a rather crude

       _The illustrations of the namings are mostly considerably
                 enlarged to render comparison easier._



[Illustration: FIRST CHILIAN WAR MEDAL, 1880.]

[Illustration: SECOND CHILIAN WAR MEDAL, 1881.]


A century ago the Prussians were our allies. Today the position is
reversed, and we have hastened to assist the descendants of the brave
men who routed the Prussians at Jena and the Austrians at Marengo,
and so strenuously fought against our forefathers at Waterloo. I have
already described most of the medals awarded for that famous battle,
but there are others of an interesting character which were awarded for
the campaigns of 1813, 1814, and 1815, when the various continental
nations strove against the genius and power of Napoleon.

=Prussian Oval Iron Medal for 1815.=--This reminds us of the fact that
the exchange made by modern German women of their gold wedding rings
for those of iron is simply a repetition of a sacrifice which the women
of Germany made during the Napoleonic Wars, when they gave their gold
jewellery and replaced it by delicately made ornaments of iron, as
visitors to the Victoria and Albert Museum may see. The medals awarded
to the survivors of the wars were invariably of metal, some, like our
Victoria Cross, having been made from captured cannon. This oval medal,
however, is of iron and bears on the obverse King Frederick William's
initials in German text capitals, surmounted by the Prussian crown
and underneath ~Fur Pflichirtreue im Kreige~ (For faithful service in
war); encircling the whole is the legend ~Gott war mit uns, Ihm sey die
Ehre!~ (God was with us, to Him the honour). On the reverse is a cross
patée with rays issuant between the arms and in the centre 1815. The
medal is suspended from a white watered-silk ribbon with black and
yellow stripes close to the edges. It was awarded to non-combatants.

=Prussian Medals for 1813-15.=--These were awarded by King Frederick
William III to all those of his subjects who took part in the campaigns
of 1813-14-15. On the obverse are the initials F. W. surmounted by
a crown; below, ~Preussens tapfern Kriegern~ (To Prussia's brave
warriors), surrounded by the legend, with a border, ~Gott war mit
uns, Ihm sey die Ehre!~ (God was with us, to Him the honour). On the
reverse, within a wreath of oak and laurel, tied with a ribbon at the
base, upon a cross patée with rays, 1815--the date of the campaign.
In the medals for 1813 and 1814 the arms of the cross are rounded at
the ends and terminate at the medal rim. Indented round the edge, AUS
EROBERTEM GESCHUETZ (from the captured guns). See page 52. The ribbon
is yellow, flanked by stripes of black and white.

=The Austrian Cross for 1813-14.=--This is an interesting decoration,
for the Cross itself is enamelled green in the _basse-taille_ manner,
the edge only being left to show the metal, likewise the laurel wreath
which connects the arms of the Cross. On the obverse, across the centre
arms, is PRINCEPS ET PATRIA, on the upper arm is the word GRATI, and
on the lower arm FRANC IMP AUG. On the reverse, across the centre
arms, is LIBERTATE ASSERTA, on the upper arm EUROPAE, and on the lower
~MDCCCXIII/MDCCCXIV~. It is suspended from a yellow corded ribbon with
very broad black edges.

=Hessian Medal for 1814-15.=--This is a bronze medal 1⅛ in. in
diameter, bearing on the obverse in German text capitals, ~K W II
reinen tapfern Hessen, _1821_~, surmounted by a crown, and encircled
by a wreath of conventionalised oak leaves. On the reverse in the
centre is a cross patée, the arms of which rest upon a wreath of
laurel. In the centre are the dates ~1814/1815~. Two tilting spears are
arranged between the arms. Over the top arm, and resting upon a circle
enclosing a light wreath, is a helmet, around is the motto in German
text, ~Gott brach des feindes macht und Hessen ward befreit~. On the
edge in Roman is impressed AUS EROBERTEM GESCHUTZ (from captured guns).
The medal is suspended from a dark-blue ribbon with wide red edges.
(See facing page 324.)

=Légion d'Honneur.=--The Order of the Légion d'Honneur was proposed
on May 15th, 1802, by Napoleon Bonaparte when he was First Consul, as
a reward for Military and Civil Services. The Legislative Assembly,
however, was not favourably disposed, and it was not until four days
later that the institution of the now famous Order was agreed to.
Napoleon knew the value of a ribbon to stick in the coat. (See facing
page 320.)

The Order was originally divided into three classes--Légionaries, Grand
Officers, and Commanders. After the Coronation of Napoleon (July 14th,
1804) the first class of Grand Officers was divided into Knights of the
Grand Eagle (as the highest) and Grand Officers. At present there are
five classes of the Order: Knights of the Grand Cross, Grand Officers,
Commanders, Officers, and Knights.

The original Badge or Cross consists of a white enamelled badge with
five double rays, with silver balls on the points, resting on a laurel
and oak wreath, tied at the base, surmounted by an Imperial crown
attached to the badge by a loop and ring, and has a ring for suspension
from a crimson corded ribbon, 1½ in. wide.

Obverse: On a silver-gilt radiated centre, the laureated head of the
Emperor Napoleon, facing right, surrounded by a blue enamelled band,
with gilt borders, inscribed, in gold letters, NAPOLEON EMPEREUR DES
FRANÇAIS. Reverse: Also on a silver-gilt centre of horizontal lines,
the French Imperial eagle, surrounded by a blue enamelled band, with
gilt borders, inscribed, HONNEUR ET PATRIE, with a sprig of laurel

The Cross for the Knight is in silver, and for the other classes in
gold and of a larger size.

The Knights and Officers wear it at the button-hole or on the left
breast; the Commanders round the neck. The Grand Officers wear besides,
upon the right breast, a silver Star, similar to that of the Grand
Crosses; and at the button-hole the Cross in gold. The Knights of the
Grand Cross wear a similar golden Cross, but larger, suspended by a
ribbon across the right shoulder towards the left hip; and also, on the
left breast, a silver Star.

The Star is of silver, similar to the Cross, without the wreath, having
rays between the angles, and in the centre, within a band inscribed
HONNEUR ET PATRIE, the Imperial French eagle.

The first claim to the Order must begin with the lowest degree of
Knights, as no degree can be passed over.

=The Republican Cross.=--The Badge of the Légion d'Honneur, given by
the Republic, bears on the obverse, facing right, a laureated female
head symbolic of the Republic, and surrounded by the legend REPUBLIQUE
FRANÇAISE, 1870. On the reverse in the centre are the crossed French
flags, surrounded by the motto HONNEUR ET PATRIE. In place of the
French Imperial crown which was employed as a suspender in the original
badge or cross is an enamelled wreath, otherwise the general appearance
of the decorations is the same.

=Prussian Iron Cross, 1813.=--The Order of the Prussian Iron Cross was
instituted by King Frederick William III on March 10th, 1813, to reward
those, either military or civil, who distinguished themselves in the
war then being carried on. It was divided into three classes. The Grand
Cross, which was double the size of the Knight's Cross, and was worn
round the neck, was given exclusively for the gaining of a decisive
battle, the conquest of an important position or place, or the brave
defence of a fortress. The first class also wear upon the left breast,
instead of a Star, a similar Cross or Badge. In the bestowal of the
Cross, neither rank nor condition was regarded. (See facing page 332.)

It was worn by the military with a black ribbon with two white
stripes near the edge; and by civilians with a white ribbon with black
borders, and was suspended from a silver loop and ring. At the close
of hostilities, the distribution of the Order ceased, but was revived
on July 19th, 1870, for the war then about to commence with France.
The decoration is a cast-iron Cross, in the form of a cross patée,
with silver borders and mountings. There are three classes, both for
military and civilians. Obverse: In the centre, within a silver milled
border, three oak leaves; above, F. W. surmounted by the Prussian
crown; below, 1813. The Cross awarded for the Franco-German War bears
on the reverse: In the centre, also within a silver milled border, the
initial W; above, is a crown; below, 1870.

=For Distinction in Service.=--In 1825, on the anniversary of the
battle of Waterloo, King Frederick William III instituted a gold Cross
for officers who had served twenty-five years, bearing on the obverse
the initials, ~F. W. III~, surmounted by a crown, and on the reverse
the number ~XXV~. It was worn on the left breast, suspended by a blue
ribbon. See facing page 332. For sub-officers and privates, silver
buckles, 1¹³⁄₂₀ by ⁹⁄₂₀ in., with the initials ~F. W. III~ in relief,
on a rough ground, within a raised double border, worn on the left
breast, with brooch attachment, suspended by a blue ribbon with yellow
borders for twenty-one years' service; by a blue ribbon with white and
blue borders for fifteen years' service; and by a blue ribbon with
black borders for nine years' service. Years of war service counted

=San Sebastian, 1836.=--This medal was granted by the Spanish
Government to the British Legion in Spain, who served under General Sir
de Lacy Evans against the Carlists on the heights of St. Sebastian,
on May 5th, 1836. It was given in silver to officers, and in white
metal to privates. On the obverse, surrounded by the Collar of the
Golden Fleece, within a circle, on a mottled ground, is a Lion, statant
gardant. Above, +ESPAÑA+; below, +AGRADECIDA+. On the reverse, in the
centre of a cross of four arms, with plain, raised borders, having
crowns in the angles, surrounded by a wreath of laurel, from which
rays issue, 1836; around which is inscribed SAN SEBASTIAN 5 DE MAYO.
Beneath, and to the right of the lower limb of the cross, I.D.

The medal, 1⅖ in. in diameter, is suspended by a ring passed through
the medal, to which is attached a silver bar. The ribbon is 1½ in.
wide, dark purple with two yellow stripes near the edges.

=Iron Cross for San Sebastian, 1836.=--An iron Cross of four arms, with
bright borders, with rays in the arms issuing from the centre, having
four gold crowns between the arms. On the obverse, in the centre, in
high relief, in gold, is a Lion, statant gardant, with a gold border,
on which is inscribed in gold letters, HESPEINA AGRADECIDA. The whole
within the Collar of the Golden Fleece, in bronze, the pendant Lamb
being in gold. On the reverse, also in relief, within a laurel wreath
of gold, SAN SEBASTIAN 5 DE MAYO in gold, having in the centre of a
gold circle, 1836 in gold. The Cross, similar to that on the circular
silver medal, is 1¹⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, with a gold loop and gold ring
for suspension.

=Medal for Irun.=--For the capture of the fort and town of Irun, in
Spain, on May 17th, 1836, a gold medal was issued by the Spanish
Government to the officers, and among the recipients was an English
surgeon, whose medal is in Dr. Payne's collection. It is 1⅟₁₆ by ¹⁹⁄₂₀
of an inch and has a plain gold border. On the obverse, encircled
by two oak leaves enamelled green, tied at the base with a ribbon
enamelled white, is a tower enamelled white; behind which is a sword
with a gold hilt, the blade enamelled blue, and above the tower on
a dark blue enamelled ribbon the word IRUN standing up in gold. The
whole is enamelled champlevé. On the reverse on a plain gold ground is
enamelled in blue 17 DE MAYO DE 1837, encircled by the name and rank
of the recipient, STAFF SURGEON B. A. L. SPAIN, C. B. BREAREY, M.D.,
M.R.C.S. The ribbon from which the medal is suspended is black with
red edges, symbolical of the blood spilt in capturing the fort and
town, over which the black flag was waving, indicating that no quarter
was being given.

Staff Surgeon Brearey likewise received the Silver Cross for San
Sebastian, 1836, and this also is in Dr. Payne's collection.

=Silver Cross for San Sebastian, 1846.=--This is a silver Cross of four
arms, 1¹⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, with plain, raised borders, with obverse
and reverse the same as the medal, the words ESPAÑA AGRADECIDA being
omitted on the obverse. (See facing page 336.)

=Russian Medal for Hungary, 1849.=--The medal awarded to the Russian
soldiers who took part in the Pacification of Hungary at the request of
Austria in 1849, bears on the obverse the Russian double-headed eagle,
surmounted by a crown, having a shield on its breast, encircled by a
collar and badge, containing the figure of St. George and the Dragon.
The eagle to the left is holding a baton in its claws, and the one to
the right a globe with a cross above it. Above, the radiated Eye of
Providence; encircling the whole, in Russian characters, GOD IS WITH
inscribed in Russian characters, is FOR THE PACIFICATION OF HUNGARY
AND TRANSILVANIA, 1849. This is a small circular medal, 1³⁄₂₀ in. in
diameter, with plain, raised double borders. It is made in silver and

=For Zeal.=--An interesting silver medal 1⅒ in. in diameter was issued
by the Emperor Nicholas I. It bears on the obverse the bust of the
young ruler facing right and his titles in Russian characters, and on
the reverse, following the line of a ribbed border, the legend FOR ZEAL
in Russian, a rope-like circle makes a central shield. The medal is
1⅟₁₆ in. in diameter.

=Médaille Militaire.=--This, the French equivalent of the British
Distinguished Conduct Medal, was founded in 1852 by Louis Napoleon,
when President of the French Republic. It is of silver, 1 in. in
diameter, formed of a close band of laurel wreaths, encircling on the
obverse the gilt bust of Louis Napoleon, facing left, with his name
in gilt letters on a blue enamelled band. On the reverse, the wreath
encircles a narrow band of blue enamel which borders the gilt centre
bearing the legend VALEUR ET DISCIPLINE. The medal is surmounted
by the French eagle, with outspread wings, and is suspended by an
orange-coloured ribbon with green edges. After the Crimea, Louis, who
had then become the Emperor Napoleon III, presented this medal to
500 British non-commissioned officers and men who had distinguished
themselves in the campaign. (See facing page 132.)

The Republican variety bears the female head symbolic of the Republic
on the obverse and the legend REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAIS * 1870 *; on the
reverse is the inscription VALEUR ET DISCIPLINE. The medal is connected
with the suspender by means of a trophy of French arms. The medal
illustrated was won in France during the war now waging, by the late
Sergeant Hunt.

=Turkestan.=--For the campaign in Turkestan the Emperor Alexander II
gave a small silver medal 1⅟₁₆ in. in diameter which bears on the
obverse the Emperor's initial A in ornamental cypher, surmounted by the
Imperial crown and II arranged between the legs of the initial. The
reverse bears in the centre the date 1857-1858-1859 encircled by an
inscription in Russian explaining that it was awarded for the success
of arms in Turkestan. (See facing page 364.)

=Garibaldian Medal, 1860.=--This medal was given in 1860 to the
Garibaldians in Sicily by the Municipality of Palermo, and distributed
to the troops by Garibaldi, November 4th, 1860, in the square fronting
the Royal Palace, Naples.







On the obverse, within the words AI PRODI CUI FU DUCE GARIBALDI, is a
spread eagle standing on a scroll, on which are the letters S.P.Q.P.
Three stars below. All in relief. On the reverse, outside a circle of
laurel leaves are the words MARSALA, CALATAFIMI, PALERMO. Within the
exergue. This is a small circular medal, 1⅕ in. in diameter, within a
plain, raised double border, suspended by a silver loop and ring from
a crimson ribbon, 1⅖ in. wide, with narrow yellow edges, on which is
attached the Arms of Sicily in silver, bearing the words UNO DEI MIL.

=Papal States Campaign, 1860.=--This medal was given by Pope Pius IX to
his troops, including the Irish Brigade of Volunteers, who served under
Major O'Reilly against Garibaldi. It was issued in gold to officers,
and in silver and white metal to privates.

The obverse: An open ring formed by the body of a serpent--symbolic
of eternity--on the head of which rests an inverted cross; around, on
a plain band with simple, moulded edge is the motto, PRO PETRI SEDE▲
PIO · IX · P · M · A · XV▲. On the reverse, in the band, VICTORIA QVAE

This (facing page 352) is a circular medal, 1½ in. in diameter, with a
plain, raised, double border, and a scroll bar and claw clip suspender,
from a crimson ribbon, 1⅕ in. wide, with two white stripes, edged with

=The Caucasus.=--For services in the Caucasus between 1859-1864 the
Emperor Alexander II granted a small silver medal 1⅟₁₆ in. in diameter
bearing on the obverse his bust in profile facing left, and on the
reverse across the centre is the date 1859-1864 encircled by an
inscription in Russian characters stating that it is awarded for the
subjugation of the Western Caucasus.

A bronze Cross, with crossed swords between the arms, to be attached
to the uniform by means of a ring and bar attachment, was also awarded
for the same campaign. It bears the explanatory inscription across the
horizontal arms and Alexander's initial in Russian character surmounted
by the Russian Imperial crown in the upper arm, and the date 1864 in
the lower arm. In the circle which occupies the centre is the Russian
eagle. It is 1⁹⁄₁₀ in. across the arms. (See facing page 364.)

=The Polish Insurrection.=--For the suppression of the Polish
Insurrection a bronze medal, 1⅟₁₆ in. in diameter, was granted to the
Russian troops. It is suspended from a ¾ in. ribbon composed of three
equal stripes of white, yellow, and black, and bears on the obverse the
two-headed Imperial eagle, surmounted by the Imperial crown, holding
in its claws the orb and sceptre. On the reverse across the centre is
the date 1863-1864 encircled by the inscription, in Russian, "For the
suppression of the Polish Rebellion."

=Cross for König Grätz.=--The Cross for König Grätz was awarded to the
Prussian troops who fought against the Austrians during the sanguinary
and disastrous seven weeks ("seven days") war in 1866. It was this
short campaign which demonstrated the superiority of the needle gun
or breech-loader, on the bolt principle, over the old-fashioned
muzzle-loader used by the Austrians, who assert that they were defeated
simply because it took them three or four times as long to load and
fire their guns as it did the Prussians. In this fight, also called
the battle of Sadowa, the Austrians lost 20,000 men placed _hors de
combat_, and as many prisoners. The Prussian loss was 10,000.

The Cross, which is 1⅖ in. in diameter, bears in the centre the Royal
Cypher W.R., surrounded by the legend PREUSSEN SIEGRIECHEM HEERE (To
Prussia's victorious army); on the upper arm of the Cross is the
Prussian crown, on the right arm GOTT MIT IHM, and on the left WAR
UNS SEI, on the bottom arm is DIE EHRE. On the reverse is the crowned
Prussian eagle, resting upon a cannon; on the upper arm is KONIG-GRATZ,
on the left DENZ, on the right, JULI, and on the lower arm, 1866. The
ribbon is of black corded silk, 1 in. wide, with narrow stripes of
white and orange at the side. (See facing page 352.)

=Geneva Cross, 1870-71.=--This bears on the obverse a red enamelled
Cross of four arms, with a silver indented border in the centre
in white enamel, with a plain silver edge. Reverse: On a silver
perpendicular lined surface, within a raised silver double border,
above, 1870; below, 1871; between, AUX BLESSÉS DES ARMÉES DE TERRE
ET DE MER. The cross has a ring and loop for suspension from a white
ribbon, 1½ in. wide, with a red cross in the centre. This Cross appears
to be like the one worn by King Edward VII.

The Silver Cross, 1½ in. in diameter, bears on the obverse, above,
DES ARMÉES DE TERRE ET DE MER. The reverse is plain, with a simple
border. Ribbon, the same as the above. The Bronze Cross is the same, 1½
in. in diameter, and is also suspended from the white ribbon with the
Geneva Cross in the centre. (See facing page 352.)

=French Medal for 1870-71.=--The bronze medal recently awarded by
the French Government to the survivors of the Franco-Prussian War
of 1870-71 is what one might expect from an artistic nation. It is
somewhat larger, however, than most French military medals. It bears on
the obverse the helmeted and armour-clad bust of a woman, symbolising
the Republic, with the legend ~REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE~ and on the
reverse a finely arranged trophy of French arms, supporting the French
tricolour, above a panel inscribed ~AUX DEFENSEURS DE LA PATRIE~ (To
the defenders of the country). It is suspended by a green ribbon, with
four black stripes of equal width. (See facing page 356.)

=German Medal for 1870-71.=--After the conclusion of the
Franco-Prussian War the German Emperor distributed circular medals of
iron or bronze to combatants and non-combatants who rendered service
during the campaign: the reverse of the medal explains whether it was
awarded to one or the other. On the obverse of the medal granted to
combatants is ~W~, the initial of Wilhelm, surmounted by the Prussian
crown, and underneath, ~Dem siegreichem Heere~ (To the victorious
army), encircled by ~Gott war mit uns, Ihm sei die Ehre~ (God was
with us, to Him the honour). On the reverse, surrounded by a laurel
wreath, ~1870/1871~. On the steel medals the wreath is of oak (on
the medals for 1813, 1814, 1815 the wreath is of laurel and oak),
but in each case the wreath overlays a cross patée with rays issuant
between the arms. On the edge is sometimes impressed AUS EROBERTEM
GESCHUETZ (From captured guns). The same inscription is on the edge of
the bronze medals issued to combatants for the campaigns of 1813-14
and 1815. The medal awarded to non-combatants bears the inscription
~Fur Pflichittreue im Kreige~ (For faithful service in war); there is
no inscription on the edge. The medal is suspended by a ribbed silk
ribbon, 1 in. wide, with a red stripe down the centre, flanked by black
and white stripes and black edging. (See facing page 356.)

=Chili-Peruvian War, 1879-81.=--On April 5th, 1879, war was
declared against Peru by the Chilian Republic, it being alleged as
a _casus belli_ that the Government of Peru had made a treaty with
Bolivia--Chili having strained relations with the latter country--which
was antagonistic to Chili. This, however, as the terms of the treaty
show, was merely a pretext for taking by force the province of Tarapaca
with its mineral wealth and guano deposits. The battle of Tarapaca was
fought on November 17th, 1879, and despite the gallant efforts of the
Peruvian Army, the city was taken by the Chilians. The latter, under
General Baquedano, landing an army farther north, fought the battle of
TACNA on May 26th, 1880, the action commemorated upon the bar attached
to the medal illustrated and shown above the bar for SAN FRANCISCO,
fought on November 19th, 1879. The Bolivian and Peruvian force of 9,000
men under General Camero was decisively defeated by the Chilians,
14,000 strong, who followed up their success by capturing Arica on June
7th, 1880. Incidentally I might mention that the bars slip over the
ribbon and bear on the back the date of the action. The campaign in
Lima succeeded the annihilation of the Peruvian Army. In this the raw
recruits and volunteers who fought for Peru made desperate struggles at
Chorrillos on the 13th and at a final concerted struggle at MIRAFLORES
on January 15th, 1881, but they were beaten, losing about 3,000 men
killed and wounded (their opponents' losses were over 2,000), and
despite the splendid defence of Lima, it was taken on the 17th; but its
defender, General Caceres, struggled on with a guerilla warfare until
October 1883, when the war was concluded upon terms which pressed very
heavily upon the unfortunate Peruvians.


=The First Chilian Medal.=--This was awarded to the participants in
the first campaign, which, as the inscription on the reverse states,
covered the inclusive period of ~DE 14 DE FEBRERO DE 1879 A 7 DE JUNIO
DE 1880~. This legend is on a blue enamelled ground, in the centre of
the silver medal, bordered by a band of red. The five arms of the star
are covered with scaling which forms the centre of the panels; the
points are tipped with balls; conventional rays are issuant between
the arms of the star. On the obverse, in the centre, is a laureated,
Grecian head, symbolic of the Republic; it is gilt and encircled by
a blue enamelled band bearing the legend ~CAMPAGNA A BOLIVIA I EL
PERU~. The decoration depends from a red, ribbed ribbon, and regulation
brooches were issued with the medals for suspension.

=The Second Chilian Medal.=--For the campaign which resulted in
the capture of Lima a silver Cross with five arms was awarded. The
terminals of the arms are protected by beads and the panelling is
scaled as in the other decoration; issuant between the arms, three
leaves of laurel. In the centre of the obverse and reverse is a gilt
five-pointed star upon a radiated ground. On one side in a blue
enamelled band is the record ~CAMPAGNA DE LIMA 1887~, and on the other
~REPUBLICA DE CHILE~. This decoration depends from a blue ribbon, from
a regulation silver buckle brooch. (See facing page 356.)

=Tonkin, 1883-5.=--The French medal for the China War of 1883-5 bears
on the obverse, within a wreath of laurel, with ribbon entwined, the
head of "the Republic," helmeted and laureated, with the word PATRIE
on the forehead. Around, REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE. Below truncation is
the artist's name, DANIEL DUPUIS. On the reverse, in the centre of
a circle, within a similar wreath of laurel, are the battle names,
TONKIN CHINE ANNAM, 1883-1885, below, with a dot on either side. This
is a small circular silver medal, 1³⁄₂₀ in. in diameter, with a ring
and loop for suspension from a yellow ribbon, 1½ in. wide, with four
light green stripes. (See facing page 348.)

=Spanish-American War.=--Arising out of the difficulties between
the Spanish and the Cubans, came the war between Spain and America
and the opportunity for the United States Navy to demonstrate its
power, with a squadron of only 6 ships, by destroying the fleet of 11
Spanish battleships in Manila Bay without the loss of a single man.
I illustrate the remarkably fine medal which was presented by the
American nation to Commodore George Dewey--Admiral Dewey, as he is
known in Britain--and to the officers and men who served under him. The
medal, designed by the famous American sculptor, Daniel Chester French,
was struck by Messrs. Tiffany & Co. It bears on the obverse the bust of
Admiral Dewey, and on the ground the following inscription, THE GIFT OF
is a finely modelled figure of an American sailor, sitting on a naval
gun, holding firmly across his knees the American flag, his left foot
resting on a small panel upon which the name of the ship was engraved.
Encircling all is the record IN MEMORY OF THE VICTORY OF MANILA BAY,
MAY 1ST, 1898. (See facing page 368.)

=German South-West Africa.=--The German medal for South-West Africa,
1904-6, marks a departure on the part of the Germans in the application
of art to the making of war medals. The severity which has usually
distinguished them has disappeared, and we have in very low relief
the richly helmeted head of Germania, surrounded by the inscription,
SUDEWEST AFRICA 1904-06, and on the reverse the Imperial crown with
ribbons surmounting the Gothic initial W. II, which is arranged above
crossed swords, the whole being encircled by the inscription DEN
SIEGREICHEN STREITERN. The medal was given in steel to non-combatants.
The ribbon is white with a series of red horizontal lines down the
centre, leaving a clear white margin, which is edged with black of an
equal width, and to it is attached a gilt bar for services rendered in
~KALAHARI 1908~. Like some of the medals awarded by American States,
the bar is not attached to the medal, and is apt to get lost.

=The Serbo-Turkish War.=--Of this medal, with 1912 in the centre,
400,000 were struck and distributed to the officers and men who took
part in the Serbo-Turkish campaign. Five medals were struck in gold for
the Court. On the obverse is the Serbian Eagle, encircled by a laurel
wreath upon the leaves of which are struck incuse the names of the
principal battles, reading downwards on the left: Kumanovo, Uesküb,
Prilip, Adrianople, Welles, N. Pazar, Debar, Istip, Prizren et Medare;
and reading downwards on the right: Monastir, Scutari, Ohrid, Dojran,
Sjeniza, Tetovo, Ljesch, Elbassan, Durazzo, and Pristina. The names are
in Serbian characters.

On the reverse in the foreground is represented a piece of artillery
captured from the Turks, with the sun in its splendour above, the date
1912 being inscribed on the orb itself, and running with the line of
the medal above is the Serbian inscription, in native characters,
signifying "Kossovo avenged," the field of Kossovo being the place
where the Serbians lost their independence in 1389. The medal, which
bears the Swiss modeller's name, Hugeunin Frères, is suspended from
a silk-woven ribbon, with the national colours, red, blue, and white,
repeated perpendicularly six times.

=The Serbo-Bulgarian War.=--The medal issued for the war with the
Bulgarians is in the form of a Cross--41 millimetres in dimension. This
is a very plain, bronze, gilt Cross, bearing on the obverse the royal
monogram and surmounted by the royal crown, and on the reverse the date
1913. The decoration is suspended from a red ribbon with an edging
of black. Five hundred thousand of these Crosses were issued to the
officers and men who took part in the campaign, and four Crosses were
struck in gold for the Court.

="For Courage."=--The third medal is for valour, and was awarded to
those officers and men who particularly distinguished themselves in the
two campaigns. On the obverse is a strong figure of Obilitch, a warrior
revered by the Serbian people. He has been their national hero since
1389, the ideal and the eternal spirit which inspired and encouraged
the Serbian people to live for the time when they could throw off the
yoke of the Turk. Around the bust of Obilitch is the inscription, in
Serbian characters, Miloch Obilitch, National Hero, 1389. It will
be noticed that the crest or chimera which surmounts the helmet of
the hero helps to give the connection between the shaped ring for
suspension and the decoration. On the reverse is the cross of chivalry,
and a wreath of laurel encircling the legend, in Serbian characters,
"For Courage." Crossed swords fittingly fill the gaps between the
arms of the cross. The medal, modelled by M. Henri Hugeunin, is 36
millimetres in diameter, is suspended from a red silk ribbon. Seven of
these decorations (see facing page 376) were struck in gold, 101 in
silver, 4,000 in silver-plated bronze, and 27,000 in bronze gilt.

[Illustration: FOR SERBO-TURKISH WAR, 1912.



=The Sanatory Cross.=--The "Sanatory Cross," which is bronze gilt
and enamelled, and 40 millimetres at its greatest dimension, was
distributed to those men and women who rendered service in the medical
department during the two campaigns. On the obverse is the Serbian
eagle on an enamelled ground, and on the reverse the inscription in
Serbian characters, "For care to the wounded and sick." The inscription
also stands out on an enamelled circle. Four thousand five hundred were
issued with the sky-blue ribbon arranged in triangular form for men,
and 3,500 in tie form for women. (See facing page 376.)

=French Veteran's Medal.=--An interesting medal is that worn by French
veterans who are members of the ~SOCIÉTÉ DE SECOURS MUTUELS FRANÇAISE
DES EX MILITAIRES~. It bears this inscription in a circle, and on the
reverse a trophy of arms. It is suspended from a wreath of laurel, tied
with flying ribbons, by a ribbon into which is woven the colours of
various war ribbons.



In the year 1819, when the battle of Waterloo was still fresh in the
minds of every one, the Prince Regent, who became George IV, being
desirous of fitly commemorating the event, conceived the idea of doing
so by the striking of a medal which by reason of its magnificence
would do justice to the great achievement of arms. To this end a
competition among the great artists of the day was suggested to the
Royal Academicians, but they unanimously selected Flaxman to execute
the commission. He produced a design which, approved by his peers, was
passed on to Benedetto Pistrucci, a Roman who succeeded T. Wyon as
chief engraver at the Royal Mint. Signor Pistrucci, however, refused to
cut the dies, on the grounds that his abilities and position placed him
above that of a mere die cutter. His claims were acceded to; Flaxman's
designs were abandoned, and Pistrucci was commissioned to prepare a
modelled design, which was "instantly honoured by the fullest and most
flattering approbation of" the Prince Regent. He thereupon received
instructions to cut the dies for a fee of £3,500, the price being
based upon the assumption that the design contained as much work as
thirty ordinary-sized medals, and certainly a glance at the reduced
photographs facing page 80--the medal is 5½ in. in diameter--will give
some idea of the exceeding amount of work which the famous die cutter
and gem carver put into his _chef d'œuvre_. The dies were finished in
1849; and of the great men who were to receive the medal in gold, the
Duke of Wellington--the greatest of them all--was the only survivor
when a lead impression was taken for submission to the Lords of the

It is stated that the reason for the failure to strike from the
massive dies was owing to the super difficulties which could not be
overcome in any attempt to harden them. The real reason may, however,
be found in our altered relationship with the Continental nations,
and in consequence thereof the Government of the day had no desire
to do anything which might give offence to our ally in 1850. It was
felt, however, that Pistrucci's masterpiece should not be kept from
the public, and the Lords of the Treasury handed the matrices to a
Mr. Johnson of Alexander Terrace, Bayswater, who prepared a number of
electrotypes, a pair of which have been kindly lent me for illustration
herein by my friend and late student, Cecil Thomas, who, like
Pistrucci, is one of the very few craftsmen who are equally at home in
the cutting of steel or gem stones.

_The Official Description._--"Both sides of the medal are treated
allegorically, except the central part of the obverse, which represents
the busts of the four allied Sovereigns, the Prince Regent, Emperor of
Austria, Emperor of Russia, and King of Prussia, grouped together in
profile. Around this group of actual portraits the figures constitute
an allegorical and mythological allusion to the treaty of peace
which was consequent upon the great triumph on the field of battle.
The summit of the surrounding groupings presents Apollo in his car
restoring the day. The rainbow zephyr and Iris follow the chariot of
the sun in succession, but the zephyr is tending towards the earth, and
scattering flowers, as the emblem of peace and tranquillity.

"On the opposite side, the car of Apollo is seen closely approaching
the constellation Gemini, personified, as usual, by a pair of graceful
youths, indicating the month in which the great contest took place.
Castor and Pollux, each armed with spears, are intended to elucidate
the apotheosis of Wellington and Blucher. Themis, the goddess of
justice, appears on earth, as in the Golden Age. This figure is placed
in front of the profile busts of the Sovereigns, to show that Justice
is a greater security to government than Power. The goddess is seated
on a rock; a palm-tree waves over her head; she is prepared to reward
virtue with its branches in one hand, and in the other holds a sword
for the ready punishment of crime. Power is personified by a robust
man of mature age, bearded, and armed with a club; he is seated under
an oak-tree, and forms the corresponding figure, at the back of the
group of busts of the Allied Sovereigns, to that of Justice facing it.
Beneath Themis the Fates are introduced, to indicate that henceforward
human actions will be controlled by Justice alone. These actions and
passions are represented by the Furies, which, being placed beneath the
emblematical figure of Power, are subjected to its influence, and no
longer suffered to quit the infernal regions, or Cimmerian caverns, in
which, at the base of this side of the medal, the allegory is completed
by the figure of Night, the mother of the Fates, receding into darkness
from the ruling daylight of Phœbus' car on the summit.

"The central group on the reverse consists of a couple of equestrian
figures, classically treated, but having the countenances of Wellington
and Blucher. They are full of action; the figure personifying the
Hero of Waterloo is galloping in advance, and that of the veteran
Blucher is rushing to the aid of his companion in glory, to complete
the enemy's destruction. They are guided by a female figure of a
flying Victory, placed between them, conducting their horses to the
conflict. Quite detached from this central group, and forming a border
round it, a composition of many figures represents the battle of the
Giants. They are struck down by the thunder of Jupiter; the youngest
ones, being the most daring in the assault of heaven, are the first
to receive the Divine punishment. In their descent they tumble over
one another in every variety of attitude--symbolical of the confusion
of the defeated enemy. The number of the figures of the Giants is
nineteen, illustrative of the nineteen years' duration of the war; and
in grouping these figures they are represented following each other in

[Illustration: MEDAL FOR COURAGE.






  Name.             |Former Title.               |Present Title.
  Life Guards       |1st and 2nd                 |Same
                    |                            |
  Royal Horse Guards|The "Blues"                 |"
                    |                            |
  1st Dragoon Guards|The King's                  |"
                    |                            |
  2nd " "           |Queen's Bays                |"
                    |                            |
  3rd " "           |Prince of Wales'            |"
                    |                            |
  4th " "           |Royal Irish                 |"
                    |                            |
  5th " "           |Princess Charlotte of Wales |
                    |                            |"
                    |                            |
  6th " "           |Carabineers                 |"
                    |                            |
  7th " "           |Princess Royal's            |"
                    |                            |
  1st Dragoons      |Royal                       |"
                    |                            |
  2nd "             |Royal North British (Scots  |Royal Scots Greys
                    |Greys)                      |
                    |                            |
  3rd Hussars       |Light Dragoons              |The King's Own
                    |                            |
  4th "             |" "                         |The Queen's Own
                    |                            |
  5th Lancers       |Royal Irish                 |Same
                    |                            |
  6th Dragoons      |Inniskilling                |"
                    |                            |
  7th Hussars       |Light Dragoons              |The Queen's Own
                    |                            |
  8th "             |" "                         |King's Royal Irish
                    |                            |
  9th Lancers       |" "                         |The Queen's Royal
                    |                            |
  10th Hussars      |" "                         |Prince of Wales' Own
                    |                            |Royal
                    |                            |
  11th "            |" "                         |Prince Albert's Own
                    |                            |
  12th Lancers      |" "                         |Prince of Wales' Royal
                    |                            |
  13th Hussars      |" "                         |None
                    |                            |
  14th "            |The King's                  |Same
                    |                            |
  15th "            |Light Dragoons              |The King's
                    |                            |
  16th Lancers      |The Queen's                 |Same
                    |                            |
  17th "            |"Death or Glory Boys"       |Duke of Cambridge's
                    |                            |Own
                    |                            |
  18th Hussars      |Light Dragoons              |Queen Mary's Own
                    |                            |
  19th "            |1st Bengal European Cavalry |Princess of Wales' Own
                    |                            |
  20th "            |2nd Bengal European Cavalry |
                    |                            |
  21st Lancers      |3rd Bengal European Cavalry |Empress of India's


  Name.             |Former Title.               |Present Title.
  Grenadier Guards  |1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battns.   |Same
                    |                            |
  Coldstream Guards |1st and 2nd Battns.         |"
                    |                            |
  Scots Fusilier    |1st and 2nd Battns.         |"
  Guards            |                            |
                    |                            |
  Irish Guards      |                            |"
                    |                            |
  Welsh Guards      |                            |"
                    |                            |
  1st Regt.         |The Royal                   |Royal Scots (Lothian
                    |                            |Regt.)
                    |                            |
  2nd "             |Queen's Royal               |Royal West Surrey
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  3rd "             |East Kent--The Buffs        |East Kent Regt.
                    |                            |
  4th "             |King's Own Royal            |Royal Lancaster Regt.
                    |                            |
  5th "             |Northumberland Fusiliers    |Same
                    |                            |
  6th "             |Royal 1st Warwickshire      |Royal Warwickshire
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  7th "             |Royal Fusiliers             |City of London Regt.
                    |                            |
  8th "             |The King's                  |Liverpool Regt.
                    |                            |
  9th "             |East Norfolk                |Norfolk Regt.
                    |                            |
  10th "            |North Lincolnshire          |Lincolnshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  11th "            |North Devonshire            |Devonshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  12th "            |East Suffolk                |Suffolk Regt.
                    |                            |
  13th "            |Prince Albert's Light Inf.  |Prince Albert's
                    |                            |(Somersetshire Light
                    |                            |Inf.)
                    |                            |
  14th "            |Buckinghamshire             |Prince of Wales' Own
                    |                            |(West Yorkshire Regt.)
                    |                            |
  15th "            |Yorkshire, East Riding      |East Yorkshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  16th "            |The Bedfordshire            |Bedfordshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  17th "            |Leicestershire              |Leicestershire Regt.
                    |                            |
  18th "            |Royal Irish                 |Royal Irish Regt.
                    |                            |
  19th "            |1st Yorkshire, N. Riding    |Alexandra, Princess
                    |                            |of Wales' Own
                    |                            |(Yorkshire Regt.)
                    |                            |
  20th "            |East Devonshire             |The Lancashire
                    |                            |Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  21st "            |Royal North British Fus.    |Royal Scots Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  22nd "            |The Cheshire                |Cheshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  23rd "            |Royal Welsh Fusiliers       |Same
                    |                            |
  24th "            |2nd Warwickshire            |South Wales Borderers
                    |                            |
  25th "            |King's Own Borderers        |King's Own Scottish
                    |                            |Borderers

   N.B.--All the above Infantry Regiments had two Battalions.

  26th Regt.        |The Cameronian              |1st Cameronians
                    |                            |(Scottish Rifles)
                    |                            |
  27th "            |Inniskilling                |1st Royal
                    |                            |Inniskilling Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  28th "            |North Gloucestershire       |1st Gloucestershire
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  29th "            |Worcestershire              |1st Worcestershire
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  30th "            |Cambridgeshire              |1st E. Lancashire
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  31st "            |Huntingdonshire             |1st E. Surrey Regt.
                    |                            |
  32nd "            |Cornwall Light Inf.         |1st Duke of
                    |                            |Cornwall's Light Inf.
                    |                            |
  33rd Regt.        |Duke of Wellington's        |1st West Riding Regt.
                    |                            |
  34th "            |Cumberland                  |1st Border Regt.
                    |                            |
  35th "            |Royal Sussex                |1st Royal Sussex
                    |                            |
  36th "            |Herefordshire               |2nd Worcestershire
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  37th "            |North Hampshire             |1st Hampshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  38th "            |1st Staffordshire           |1st S. Staffordshire
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  39th "            |Dorsetshire                 |1st Dorsetshire Regt.
                    |                            |
  40th "            |2nd Somersetshire           |Prince of Wales'
                    |                            |Volunteers 1st S.
                    |                            |Lancashire Regt.
                    |                            |
  41st "            |The Welsh                   |1st Welsh Regt.
                    |                            |
  42nd "            |Royal Highland (Black Watch)|1st Black Watch
                    |                            |(Royal Highlanders)
                    |                            |
  43rd "            |Monmouthshire Light Inf.    |1st Oxfordshire Light
                    |                            |Inf.
                    |                            |
  44th "            |East Essex                  |1st Essex Regt.
                    |                            |
  45th "            |Nottinghamshire (Sherwood   |1st Sherwood
                    |Foresters)                  |Foresters (Derbyshire
                    |                            |Regt.)
                    |                            |
  46th "            |South Devonshire            |2nd Duke of
                    |                            |Cornwall's Light Inf.
                    |                            |
  47th "            |Lancashire                  |1st Loyal N.
                    |                            |Lancashire Regt.
                    |                            |
  48th "            |Northamptonshire            |1st Northamptonshire
                    |                            |Regt.
  49th "            |Princess Charlotte of       |
                    |Wales' (Herts)              |1st Royal Berks Regt.
                    |                            |
  50th "            |The Queen's Own             |1st Royal W. Kent
                    |                            |Regt.
                    |                            |
  51st "            |2nd Yorkshire, West Riding  |1st King's Own
                    |(King's Own Light Infantry) |(Yorkshire Light Inf.)
                    |                            |
  52nd "            |Oxfordshire Light Inf.      |2nd Oxfordshire Light
                    |                            |Inf.
                    |                            |
  53rd "            |Shropshire                  |1st The King's
                    |                            |(Shropshire Light
                    |                            |Inf.)
                    |                            |
  54th "            |West Norfolk                |2nd Dorsetshire
                    |                            |
  55th "            |Westmoreland                |2nd The Border
                    |                            |
  56th "            |West Essex                  |2nd Essex
                    |                            |
  57th "            |West Middlesex              |1st Duke of
                    |                            |Cambridge's Own
                    |                            |(Middlesex)
                    |                            |
  58th "            |Rutlandshire                |2nd Northamptonshire
                    |                            |
  59th "            |2nd Nottinghamshire         |2nd East Lancashire
                    |                            |
  60th " (4 Battns.)|King's Royal Rifle Corps    |Same
                    |                            |
  61st "            |South Gloucestershire       |2nd Gloucestershire
                    |                            |
  62nd "            |Wiltshire                   |1st Duke of Edin.
                    |                            |(Wilts)
                    |                            |
  63rd "            |West Suffolk                |1st Manchester
                    |                            |
  64th "            |2nd Staffordshire           |1st Prince of Wales'
                    |                            |(N. Staffs)
  65th "            |2nd Yorkshire, North Riding |
                    |                            |1st York and Lancaster
                    |                            |
  66th "            |Berkshire                   |2nd Princess
                    |                            |Charlotte of Wales'
                    |                            |(Royal Berks)
                    |                            |
  67th Regt.        |South Hampshire             |2nd Hampshire
                    |                            |
  68th "            |Durham Light Inf.           |1st Durham Light Inf.
                    |                            |
  69th "            |South Lincolnshire          |2nd Welsh
                    |                            |
  70th "            |Surrey                      |2nd East Surrey
                    |                            |
  71st "            |Highland Light Inf.         |1st Highland Light
                    |                            |Inf.
                    |                            |
  72nd "            |Duke of Albany's Own        |1st Seaforth
                    |Highlanders                 |Highlanders,
                    |                            |Ross-shire Buffs
                    |                            |(Duke of Albany's)
                    |                            |
  73rd "            |Perthshire                  |2nd Black Watch
                    |                            |(Royal Highlanders)
                    |                            |
  74th "            |Highland Regt.              |2nd Highland Light
                    |                            |Inf.
                    |                            |
  75th "            |Stirlingshire Regt.         |1st Gordon Highlanders
                    |                            |
  76th "            |None                        |2nd Duke of
                    |                            |Wellington's (W.
                    |                            |Riding)
                    |                            |
  77th "            |East Middlesex              |2nd Duke of
                    |                            |Cambridge's Own
                    |                            |(Middlesex)
                    |                            |
  78th "            |Highland Regt. (Ross-shire  |2nd Seaforth
                    |Buffs)                      |Highlanders
                    |                            |(Ross-shire Buffs),
                    |                            |Duke of Albany's
                    |                            |
  79th "            |Cameron Highlanders         |Queen's Own Cameron
                    |                            |Highlanders
                    |                            |
  80th "            |Staffordshire Volunteers    |2nd South
                    |                            |Staffordshire
                    |                            |
  81st "            |Loyal Lincoln Volunteers    |2nd Loyal N. Lancaster
                    |                            |
  82nd "            |Prince of Wales' Volunteers |2nd Prince of Wales'
                    |                            |Volunteers (South
                    |                            |Lancaster)
                    |                            |
  83rd "            |County Dublin               |1st Royal Irish Rifles
                    |                            |
  84th "            |York and Lancaster          |2nd York and Lancaster
                    |                            |
  85th "            |Bucks Volunteers (King's    |2nd The King's
                    |Light Inf.)                 |(Shropshire Light
                    |                            |Inf.)
                    |                            |
  86th "            |Royal County Down           |2nd Royal Irish Rifles
                    |                            |
  87th "            |Royal Irish Fusiliers       |1st Princess
                    |                            |Victoria's (Royal
                    |                            |Irish Fusiliers)
                    |                            |
  88th "            |Connaught Rangers           |1st Connaught Rangers
                    |                            |
  89th "            |Princess Victoria's         |2nd Princess
                    |                            |Victoria's (Royal
                    |                            |Irish Fusiliers)
                    |                            |
  90th "            |Perthshire Volunteers       |2nd Cameronians
                    |(Light Inf.)                |(Scottish Rifles)
                    |                            |
  91st "            |Argyllshire Highlanders     |1st Princess
                    |                            |Louise's (Argyll
                    |                            |and Sutherland
                    |                            |Highlanders)
                    |                            |
  92nd "            |Gordon Highlanders          |2nd Gordon Highlanders
                    |                            |
  93rd "            |Sutherland Highlanders      |2nd Princess
                    |                            |Louise's (Argyll
                    |                            |and Sutherland
                    |                            |Highlanders)
                    |                            |
  94th "            |None                        |2nd Connaught Rangers
                    |                            |
  95th "            |Derbyshire                  |2nd Sherwood
                    |                            |Foresters (Derbyshire)
                    |                            |
  96th "            |None                        |2nd Manchester
                    |                            |
  97th Regt.        |Earl of Ulster's            |2nd Queen's Own
                    |                            |(Royal W. Kent)
                    |                            |
  98th "            |None                        |2nd Prince of Wales'
                    |                            |(N. Staffordshire)
                    |                            |
  99th "            |Lanarkshire                 |2nd Duke of
                    |                            |Edinburgh's(Wilts)
                    |                            |
  100th "           |Prince of Wales' Royal      |1st Prince of Wales'
                    |Canadians                   |(Leinster Royal
                    |                            |Canadians)
                    |                            |
  101st "           |Royal Bengal Fusiliers      |1st Royal Munster
                    |                            |Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  102nd "           |Royal Madras "              |1st Royal Dublin
                    |                            |Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  103rd "           |Royal Bombay "              |2nd Royal Dublin
                    |                            |Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  104th "           |2nd Bengal Fusiliers        |2nd Royal Munster
                    |                            |Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  105th "           |2nd Madras Light Inf.       |2nd King's Own (Yorks
                    |                            |Light Inf.)
                    |                            |
  106th "           |2nd Bombay " "              |2nd Durham Light Inf.
                    |                            |
  107th "           |3rd Bengal Inf.             |2nd Royal Sussex
                    |                            |
  108th "           |3rd Madras Light Inf.       |2nd Royal
                    |                            |Inniskilling Fusiliers
                    |                            |
  109th "           |3rd Bombay " "              |2nd Prince of Wales'
                    |                            |Leinster (Royal
  Rifle Brigade (4  |                            |Canadians)
                    |                            |
  Battns.)          |95th (Rifle Corps) Regt.    |Prince Consort's Own

        [Since the outbreak of war the number of battalions in all
                Regiments has been considerably increased.]

[Illustration: GREEK MEDAL FOR GRECO-TURKISH WAR, 1913. (Obverse.)]


[Illustration: GREEK MEDAL FOR GRECO-TURKISH WAR, 1913. (Reverse.)]



The following short record of average values is based upon auction
prices realised during the last twelve years. It is difficult to
standardise values, as so many factors are involved in the valuation of
war medals. Not only rarity, but condition; not only the number issued,
but the importance of the engagement in which they were earned, are
taken into consideration by most collectors. Then there are periods
during which there is a "slump," and prices do not rule so high. High
prices are invariably obtained for the first medals placed upon the
market even when, as in the case of the Boer War, it was known that
thousands would be issued. Medals for South Africa which sold in 1903
for £1 5_s._ have now a fairly regular price of about 10_s._ if in good
condition. In 1902 the Khedive's Sudan medal with bar for Khartoum
realised £3 15_s._; it is now valued at about 7_s._ 6_d._ in the
sale-room. In the same year the Mayor of Kimberley's siege medal (a
star of silver) sold for £6 15_s._; it now realises from 10_s._ to £1.
The last new British war medal to be issued, that for Abor, realised
as much as four guineas in the sale-room when it first appeared; it
dropped in a few weeks to three guineas. A Military General Service
medal with the single bar for "Roleria" has fetched as much as £21--and
as little as £3 3_s._, but this was due to the fact that the latter
was faked, _i.e._ some bars had been removed, the medal roll showing
that the man whose name was impressed on the edge had served in five
engagements, and his medal originally had that record.

On the other hand, because of its exceeding rarity as well as the
gallant conditions under which it was earned, the M.G.S. medal with bar
for "Benevente" has realised £34. Bars issued with the Army of India
medal for "Ava" and "Bhurtpoor" are the most frequently met with,
but these realise high prices at auction. At the Gaskell sale a medal
with single bar for "Defence of Delhi" sold for £20, a single bar for
"Corygaum" £35 (but one of these bars has realised as much as £100),
two bars for "Assaye" and "Argaum" £33. Three bars for "Allighur,"
"Argaum," and "Gawilghur" realised £40, and £60 was paid for one with
bars for "Allighur," "Battle of Delhi," and "Laswarree." The "Mutiny"
medal has realised as much as £38, the price for which a four-bar medal
from the Gaskell Collection sold at auction; but three-bar medals sell
at auction for from £2 2_s._ to £3 3_s._, and single bars for "Defence
of Lucknow" for as little as £1 16_s._; but at the present time there
is an inclination to pay more for Mutiny medals, and the conditions
under which they were earned warrant it. In the later Indian wars
the bar issued for the North-East Frontier 1891, owing to the great
interest taken in the Manipur Expedition, realised from £3 to £4, but
this bar, which is attached to the I.G.S. 1854 Medal, sells for about
a quarter of that sum now. The Waterloo medal, to one of the 42nd
(Black Watch), has sold at auction for as much as £15, and £20 has been
paid for one awarded to the 27th Regiment (Inniskillings); but a poor
specimen has found a purchaser at as low as £1 10_s._

Great care should be taken to examine the bars and ensure that they
have not been tampered with. No medal that has been re-engraved is
worth taking into consideration, unless it is one with rare bars which
show no signs of faking. Medals with genuine bars, even though the name
has been erased from the edge of the medal, realise good prices, and to
complete a collection are very useful when named medals fetch very high



                                               £ _s._ _d._      £ _s._ _d._
  1st Guards (Grenadier)                       2   2    0  to   3  15    0
  2nd Guards (Coldstreams)                     2   0    0  to   3  10    0
  2nd Battn. 3rd Guards (Scots Guards) and
    M.G.S. medal. Two bars: Vittoria and
    St. Sebastian                                               8   5    0
  2nd Battn. 3rd Guards (Scots Guards)         2   6    0  to   3  10    0
  14th Foot                                                     2   4    0
  23rd Foot (Royal Welsh Fusiliers)                             3  10    0
  27th Foot (Inniskillings)                    1  10    0  to  20   0    0
  27th Foot. Private Sale                                      25   0    0
  30th Foot (Sergeant)                                         12   0    0
  33rd Foot                                                     3   5    0
  42nd Foot (Black Watch). (Has sold for £15.) 4   0    0  to   6   6    0
  44th Foot (2nd Battn.)                                       10   0    0
  52nd Foot (1st Battn.)                                        2  10    0
  54th Foot                                                     5   5    0
  73rd Foot (now 2nd Black Watch)              4   0    0  to   7  15    0
  79th Foot (1st Battn.) (Paymaster-Sergeant)                  14   0    0
  79th Foot (Camerons)                                          8   5    0
  95th Foot (Rifles) (Captain)                                 12   0    0
  Royal Waggon Train (Officer). Private Sale                   20   5    0
  Royal Horse Guards (Officer). Private Sale                   25   0    0


  2nd Life Guards                                              5   15    0
  2nd or R.N. British Dragoons (Scots Greys)   3   0    0  to  6    0    0
  6th or Inniskilling Dragoons                                 5    0    0
  7th Hussars                                  2   0    0  to  6    0    0
  10th Royal Hussars                                           4    5    0
  11th Light Dragoons                                          4    0    0
  15th King's Hussars                                          2   18    0
  23rd Light Dragoons                                          2   17    6
  1st Light Dragoons (K.G.L.)                  2  14    0  to  3   10    0
  King's German Artillery (Gunner)                             4    0    0
  Hussars, Prinz Regt., Hanoverian Waterloo                    1   13    0
  Landwehr Battn., Verden, Hanoverian Waterloo                 1   16    0


  With bars for Orthes and Toulouse, awarded to
    Major Beatty, of 7th Regt. (Royal Fusiliers)             115    0    0


Awarded to Sir John French and non-commissioned officers and men of the
British Army.]


  1st Foot Guards. Three bars: St. Sebastian,
    Nivelle, Nive                                              2    8    0
  1st Foot Guards. One bar: Barossa, 1811                      3   12    6
  1st Foot Guards. One bar: St. Sebastian, 1813                3   15    0
  2nd Coldstream Guards (Captain). Four bars:
    Roleria, Vimiera, Corunna, Talavera.                      15    0    0
  1st Foot (Royal Scots). One bar: Martinique.                12   15    0
  3rd Foot (Lieutenant). Five bars: Pyrenees,
    Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, Toulouse.                           9    0    0
  5th Foot (Sergeant). Nine bars                              18    0    0
  5th Foot. One bar: Roleria. Private Sale                    37    0    0
  6th Foot. One bar: Orthes, 1814.                             6    0    0
  6th Foot. One bar: Vittoria, 1813.                           2   10    0
  6th Foot. Three bars                                         7    0    0
  7th Foot. Twelve bars (verified)                            36    0    0
  7th Foot (Sergeant). Eight bars                              23  10    0
  9th Foot (Ensign). Four bars: Vittoria,
    St. Sebastian, Nivelle, Nive                                8  10    0
  9th Foot. One bar: Roleria                                   12   0    0
  11th Foot. One bar: Busaco                                    9   0    0
  14th Foot. One bar: Java, 1811                                1   4    0
  23rd Foot (Sergeant). Ten bars                               38   0    0
  25th Foot. One bar: Guadaloupe                               13  15    0
  27th Foot. One bar: Maida, 1806                               6  10    0
  27th Foot. Two bars: Egypt, 1801;
    Maida, 1806                                                 7   0    0
  29th Foot (Lieutenant). Five bars                            16   0    0
  30th Foot. One bar: Fuentes d'Onor                           13  10    0
  31st Foot (Quartermaster). Seven bars:
    Talavera, Albuhera, Vittoria, Pyrenees,
    Nive, Orthes, Toulouse                                      8  10    0
  32nd Foot (Sergeant). Two bars: Roleira,
    Vimiera                                                     3  15    0
  36th Foot. One bar: Vimiera, 1808                             5  10    0
  38th Foot. Three bars: Vimiera, Corunna,
    Salamanca                                                   3   7    6
  39th Foot. Two bars: Vittoria, Toulouse                       1  14    0
  40th Foot. One bar: Ciudad Rodrigo                           18  10    0
  40th Foot. Seven bars: Vimiera, Talavera,
    Albuhera, Toulouse, Ciudad Rodrigo,
    Vittoria, Pyrenees                         5   0    0  to   7   7    0
  41st Foot. Two bars: Vittoria, St.
    Sebastian                                                   2   4    0
  42nd Highlanders. One bar: Corunna                            4   4    0
  42nd Highlanders. Ten bars                  10  10    0  to  13  13    0
  42nd Highlanders. Six bars                                    7   7    0
  43rd Foot. Two bars: Vimiera, Corunna                         3  12    6
  43rd Foot. Eight bars                                        12  10    0
  43rd Foot. Nine bars                                         15   0    0
  45th Foot. One bar: Talavera, 1809                            4  12    6
  47th Foot. Four bars: Barossa, Vittoria,
    St. Sebastian, Nive                                         4  10    0
  48th Foot. One bar: Talavera, 1809                            3  17    6
  48th Foot. Ten bars                                          38   0    0
  48th Foot. Thirteen bars                                     30   0    0
  52nd Foot. Eight bars: Fuentes d'Onor,
    Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Salamanca,
    Vittoria, Pyrenees, Orthes, Toulouse       6   0    0  to  12  15    0
  59th Foot (Drummer). Four bars                                5   0    0
  60th Foot (Lieutenant). Two bars:
    Martinique, Guadaloupe                                      9  15    0
  63rd Foot. One bar: Martinique, 1809                          2  17    6
  74th Foot. Seven bars                                        11  11    0
  74th Regt. (H.L.I.). Nine bars: Busaco,
    Fuentes d'Onor, Ciudad Rodrigo,
    Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle,
    Orthes, Toulouse                           7   0    0  to  12  12    0
  77th Foot. One bar: Ciudad Rodrigo                           15   0    0
  78th Foot. One bar: Java, 1811                                4  12    6
  83rd Foot. Ten bars: Talavera, Busaco,
    Fuentes d'Onor, Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz,
    Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Orthes,
    Toulouse                                                   12   0    0
  84th Foot. One bar: Nive                     2  10    0  to   3   3    0
  88th Foot (Lieutenant). Four bars: Talavera,
    Busaco, Fuentes d'Onor, Ciudad Rodrigo                      6   6    0
  89th Foot. One bar: Chrystler's Farm.                        20   0    0
  91st Foot. Six bars                                           7  10    0
  91st Foot. One bar: Vimiera                                  16   0    0
  95th Foot (Officer). Six bars                                14  10    0
  95th Foot. Seven bars                                        10  10    0
  97th Foot. Four bars: Roleria, Vimiera,
    Busaco, Albuhera                                            4  17    6
  Royal Staff Corps (Sergeant). Three bars:
    Roleria, Vimiera, Corunna                                   3   5    0
  Staff Surgeon. One bar: Badajoz                              17   0    0
  Royal Sappers and Miners. One bar:
    Badajoz, 1812                                               3   3    0
  Artillery Driver. One bar: Fuentes
    d'Onor, 1811                                               10   0    0
  Artillery Driver. Nine bars                                  14  10    0
  Royal Artillery (Gunner). Three bars:
    Pyrenees, St. Sebastian, Toulouse                           2  10    0
  Waggon Train. One bar: Ciudad Rodrigo.
    Only single bar awarded                                    23  10    0
  Canadian Militia. One bar: Fort Detroit     16   0    0  to  19  10    0
  Native Warrior. Three bars: Fort Detroit,
    Chateauguay, Chrystler's Farm                              40   0    0
  Royal Garrison Artillery. One bar: Fort
    Detroit                                                    26   0    0
  Native Warrior. One bar: Chateauguay                         10   5    0
  One bar: Chateauguay                                         10  10    0
  One bar: Fort Detroit                                        14  10    0
  One bar: Chrystler's Farm                                    13   0    0


  4th Light Dragoons. Six bars: Talavera,
    Albuhera, Busaco, Salamanca, Vittoria,
    Toulouse                                                    5   5    0
  10th Hussars. Four bars                                      17   0    0
  11th Light Dragoons. One bar: Salamanca,
    1812                                                        2  17    6
  13th Light Dragoons. Four bars                               27   0    0
  14th Light Dragoons. Ten bars: Talavera,
    Busaco, Fuentes d'Onor, Badajoz,
    Salamanca, Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nive,
    Orthes, Toulouse                                            8  15    0
  14th Light Dragoons. Ten bars: Talavera,
    Busaco, Fuentes d'Onor, Badajoz, Vittoria,
    Pyrenees, Nivelle, Orthes, Toulouse                         7   0    0
  15th Light Dragoons. One bar: Sahagun
    Private Sale                                               35   0    0
  16th Light Dragoons. Four bars: Talavera,
    Busaco, Fuentes d'Onor, Vittoria                            3  12    6
  18th Light Dragoons. Two bars: Sahagun,
    Toulouse                                                   16   0    0
  20th Light Dragoons. One bar: Vimiera                        12   0    0
  22nd Light Dragoons. One bar: Egypt, 1801                     3   5    0
  One bar: Sahagun and Benevente               8  10    0  to  18   0    0
  Three bars: Vittoria, Sahagun, Benevente                     25   0    0
  Ten bars (Officer)                                           50   0    0


  For the Peninsular, with three clasps for
    seven battles, awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel
    Sir Charles Sutton                                        370   0    0


  For Vimiera                                                  72   0    0


  For five engagements in Peninsular. Ensign
    5th Foot                                                   30   0    0


  One bar: "Nymphe," June 18th, 1793                           35   0    0
  Four bars: June 1st, 1794, St. Vincent, St.
    Domingo, Martinique (a rare combination)                   61   0    0
  One bar: June 1794                                            2   0    0
  One bar: March 14th, 1795                                    16  10    0
  One bar: " Lapwing," December 3rd, 1796 (two
    issued)                                                    21   0    0
  One bar: San Fiorenzo, March 8th, 1797 (three
    issued)                                                    50   0    0
  One bar: St. Vincent (349 issued)            1  16    0  to   6  15    0
  Two bars: St. Vincent, Nile                  3   3    0  to  10   5    0
  One bar: "Mars," April 21st, 1798                            15  15    0
  One bar: Camperdown, 1797 (332 issued)                       10   0    0
  One bar: "Lion," July 15th, 1798 (21 issued)                 23   0    0
  One bar: "Sybille," February 28th, 1799 (12
    issued)                                   12   0    0  to  40   0    0
  One bar: "Harpy," February 5th, 1800                         21   0    0
  Two bars: "Phœbe," February 19th, 1801,
    St. Sebastian                                              25  10    0
  One bar: Egypt (626 issued)                                   2   0    0
  One bar: Boat Service, August 29th, 1800                     30   0    0
  One bar: Gut of Gibraltar, June 12th, 1801,
    1st Lieutenant R.N.                                         3   0    0
  One bar: November 4th, 1805                                  10   0    0
  One bar: Curaçoa                                             13   0    0
  Two bars: St. Domingo, Algiers                                1  18    0
  One bar: Anson, August 23rd, 1806                            20   0    0
  Two bars: Off Rota, April 4th, 1808, Syria,
    1st Lieutenant R.N.                                        15  10    0
  One bar: Pompée, June 17th, 1809
    (21 issued)                               17   0    0  to  26   0    0
  One bar: Boat Service, July 29th, 1809
    (12 issued)                                                26   0    0
  One bar: Spartan, May 3rd, 1810 (32 issued)                  10   0    0
  One bar: Banda Neira                                         17   0    0
  One bar: Cherokee, July 10th, 1810
    (4 issued)                                                 26   0    0
  One bar: "Boadicea," September 12th, 1810
    (16 issued)                                                40   0    0
  Two bars: Martinique (523 issued),
    Guadaloupe (509 issued)                    3   0    0  to  12  10    0
  One bar: Anhalt, March 27th, 1811                            31   0    0
  One bar: Java                                                 4  10    0
  Two bars: Pelagosa, November 29th, 1811,
    St. Sebastian                                               3  10    0
  One bar: "Weasel," April 22nd, 1813                          36   0    0
  Two bars: "Amazon," March 13th, 1806;
    Boat Service, January 6th, 1813                            38   0    0
  Two bars: Boat Service, May 4th, 1811;
    Boat Service, December 14th, 1814 to
    Lieutenant                                                 12   0    0
  One bar: Boat Service, December 14th, 1814                    6  10    0
  One bar: "Cherub," March 28th, 1814                          10   0    0
  One bar: "Venerable," January 16th, 1814    16   0    0  to  20  10    0
  Three bars: Santa Margarita, June 8th, 1796
    (3 issued); "Fisgard," October 20th, 1798
    (9 issued); "Eurotas," February 25th,
    1814 (29 issued), to Boatswain, a rare
    combination, very fine                                     75   0    0
  Two bars: San Fiorenzo, February 11th, 1805,
    March 8th, 1808                                            40   0    0
  Three bars: Basque Roads, Martinique,
    Guadaloupe                                                  7  10    0
  Two bars: Java, St. Sebastian                                 2   0    0
  Three bars: November 4th, 1805; Basque
    Roads, 1809; Algiers                                       15  15    0
  One bar: Off Tamatave, 1811 (79 issued)                      16  10    0
  Two bars: Java, Syria                                         1  10    0
  Two bars: "Sapho," Algiers                                   40   0    0
  One bar: St. Domingo                                          1  10    0
  One bar: Algiers (1,320 issued)              1   0    0  to   1  10    0
  One bar: Java (715 issued)                   1  10    0  to   2   0    0
  One bar: St. Sebastian (292 issued)                           2   2    0
  One bar: Syria, 1840 (7,057 issued)                           0  17    6
  One bar: Navarino, 1827 (1,123 issued)                        2   0    0


  Officer's Gold Medal for Trafalgar (Captain
    H.M.S. "Prince"), sold in 1903.                           245   0    0
  One bar: Trafalgar, 1805 (1,710 issued)      2   0    0  to   3  10    0
  Two bars: Trafalgar, Algiers                                  2  12    0
  Two bars: Egypt, Trafalgar                   1  10    0  to   2  10    0
  Two bars: "Penelope," March 30th, 1800,
    Trafalgar, to Midshipman Carter                            41   0    0
  Two bars: Trafalgar, Boat Service, December
    14th, 1814                                                  4   5    0
  Three bars: Copenhagen, Trafalgar, Algiers                   18   0    0


  Battle of Nile, 1798: Davison's Gold Medal,
    to Officers                                               100  16    0
  Battle of Nile, 1798: Davison's Silver Medal,
    to Officers                                                 5  10    0
  Battle of Nile, 1798: Davison's Bronze
    Medal Gilt, to Petty Officers              0  12    0  to   1  10    0
  Battle of Nile, 1798: Davison's Bronze
    Medal, to Seamen                           0  10    0  to   1   5    0
  Battle of Trafalgar, October 21st, 1805:
    Davison's Pewter                           1   1    0  to   1   5    0


  Gold Medal for Siege of Seringapatam, May
    4th, 1799                                                  16  10    0
  Officer's Silver Gilt Medal, Seringapatam    3  15    0  to   6  15    0
  Officer's Silver Medal, Seringapatam         1   0    0  to   2   2    0
  Bronze Medal for Seringapatam, 1799
    (awarded to N.C.O.'s)                      1   1    0  to   1  10    0
  Tin Medal, Siege of Seringapatam. Awarded
    to Private Soldiers                        1   0    0  to   1  10    0


  H.E.I. Co.'s Small Deccan Medal, 1784                        10   0    0
  H.E.I. Co.'s Small Deccan Medal, 1784                        13   5    0
  H.E.I. Co.'s Mysore Medal, 1791-2                            10   0    0
  H.E.I. Co.'s Large Mysore Medal. Private
    Sale                                                       20   0    0
  H.E.I. Co.'s Java Medal, 1811                                11   0    0
  H.E.I. Co.'s Medal for Rodriques, Isle of
    France, 1810                                               14  10    0
  First Burmese War: H.E.I. Co.'s Medal,
    1824-6                                     4  10    0  to   5   5    0


  Five bars: Allighur, Battle of Delhi,
    Laswarree, Battle of Deig, Capture of
    Deig-name impressed (to Officer). Private
    sale                                                      150   0    0
  Four bars: Asseerghur, Argaum, Gawilghur,
    Ara--name impressed (to Officer). Private
    sale                                                      100   0    0
  One bar: Corygaum                                           100   0    0
  Two bars: Laswarree, Battle of Delhi                         55   0    0
  One bar: Capture of Deig (to Officer of 8th
    Light Dragoons), only 48 issued to the
    Regiment. Private sale                                     50   0    0
  Two bars: Laswarree, Capture of Deig.
    (8th Dragoons)                                             38   0    0
  One bar: Kirkee                                              20   0    0
  Two bars: Assaye and Nagpore                                 18   0    0
  Two bars: Maheidpore and Nagpore                             16   0    0
  Two bars: Assaye and Asseerghur (Sergeant
    Irregular Cavalry)                                         15  10    0
  One bar: Laswarree (Sepoy)                                   15   0    0
  22nd Foot. One bar: Capture of Deig                          75   0    0
  38th Regt. Native Inf. One bar: Seetabuldee
    and Nagpore                                                74   0    0
  2nd Native Infantry. One bar: Corygaum                       70   0    0
  94th Foot. Three bars: Asseerghur, Argaum,
    Gawilghur                                                  65   0    0
  Two bars: Kirkee and Poona, Corygaum                         51   0    0
  1st Foot. One bar: Nagpore                                   21   0    0
  One bar: Poona                                               17  10    0
  Horse Artillery. One bar: Poona                              31   0    0
  One bar: Nepaul, 1816 (Officers)             6  10    0  to  11  10    0
  Native Infantry (Lieutenant). One bar:
    Nepaul                                     6  10    0  to  12   0    0
  24th Foot. One bar: Nepaul                                    1  14    0
  Sappers and Miners. One bar: Defence of
    Delhi                                                       1  10    0
  87th Foot. One bar: Ava, 1824-6                               3  12    6
  38th Foot. Two bars: Poona, Ava                              23   0    0
  89th Foot. One bar: Ava, 1824-6                               3  17    6
  Armourers' Mate. One bar: Ava (Naval)                         4  12    0
  Four Bars: Assaye, Argaum, Poona, Bhurtpoor                  23   0    0
  Three bars: Assaye, Argaum, Bhurtpoor                        25   0    0
  16th Light Dragoons. One bar: Bhurtpoor                       3  12    6
  14th Foot. One bar: Bhurtpoor                                 3   7    6
  Native Infantry. One bar: Maheidpoor        12  10    0  to  15  10    0
  11th Light Dragoons. One bar: Bhurtpoor                       4   2    6
  16th Lancers. One bar: Bhurtpoor                              3   7    6
  16th Lancers. Ghuznee, July 23rd, 1839       1   5    0  to   2  10    0
  Ghuznee, Cabul, 1842                                          2  12    6
  4th Com. 2nd Battn. Bengal Foot Artillery.
    Ghuznee, Cabul, 1842                                        5   5    0
  3rd K.O. Light Dragoons. Cabul, 1842                          2   8    0
  40th Regt. Cabul, 1842                       2   2    0  to   3  10    0
  1st Troop Horse Brigade, Bombay Artillery.
    Ghuznee, Cabul, 1842: two wreaths                           4   0    0
  H.M. 40th Regt. Candahar, 1842                                7   0    0
  2nd Battn. Artillery. Candahar, 1842                          1  10    0
  Kelat-i-Ghilzie, 1842                                        14   0    0
  Jellalabad, April 7th, 1842. First type,
    Mural crown, XIII. P.A.L.I.                7  15    0  to  13  10    0
  Jellalabad, April 7th, 1842. Second type,
    "Flying Victory," to XIII. P.A.L.I.                        15   0    0
  40th Regt. Candahar, Ghuznee, Cabul, 1842    2   8    0  to   2  15    0
  Meeanee, 1843                                                 7  10    0
  Meeanee (Major)                                              20   0    0
  Meeanee (Officer)                                            23   0    0
  22nd Regt. Meeanee. Hyderabad, 1843          3  10    0  to   4   4    0
  1st Troop Horse Artillery. Hyderabad, 1843                    5   0    0
  Sutlej Campaign (Quartermaster-Sergeant).
    Three bars: Ferozeshuhur, Aliwal,
    Sobraon, 1845                                               2  17    6
  3rd Light Dragoons. Sutlej Campaign. Two
    bars: Ferozeshuhur, Sobraon                                 2   2    0
  50th Regt. Sutlej. Three bars: Ferozeshuhur,
    Sobraon, Aliwal                                             2   2    0
  44th Regt. N.I. (Assistant Surgeon).
    Ferozeshuhur                                                2  18    0
  3rd Light Dragoons. Moodkee, 1845. Two bars:
    Ferozeshuhur, Sobraon                                       3   3    0
  31st Regt. Moodkee. Three bars: Ferozeshuhur,
    Aliwal, Sobraon                                             3   0    0


  Private Sale                                                 45   0    0



  1845-6                                       3  10    0  to   4   0    0
  1860-1                                       1  10    0  to   2  10    0
  1863-4                                       1   0    0  to   1  10    0


  2nd Coast Brigade R.A. 1860-5                2  10    0  to   3   5    0
  12th Regt. 1860-6                                             8   0    0
  18th Royal Irish Rifles. 1863-6              1   0    0  to   1  15    0
  2nd 14th Regt. 1861-6                        1   0    0  to   1  10    0
  40th Regt. 1860-4                            3   7    6  to   3  15    0
  40th Regt. 1863-4                            1   1    0  to   2  10    0
  70th Regt. 1863-5                                             1   5    0
  Royal Artillery. 1863-6                      1   5    0  to   1  15    0
  Military Train. 1864                         3   2    6  to   3  15    0
  43rd Light Infantry. 1864-6                  1   7    0  to   1  10    0
  57th Regt. 1865-6                            2   0    0  to   2  10    0
  65th Regt. 1860-1-5                                           2  10    0
  65th Regt. 1865                                               6   0    0


  China, 1842. Lieutenant 26th Regt. Foot                       2   2    0
  China, 1842. A.B. Naval                      0  10    0  to   0  18    6
  China, 1857. Two bars: Unnamed               0  12    6  to   0  15    0
  China, 1860. Two bars: Unnamed               0  12    6  to   0  15    0
  China, 1860. One bar: Taku Forts, 1860:
    Acting Master H.M.S. "Bernici," I.N.                        1  10    0
  China, 1900. One bar: Defence of Legations.
    Lance-Corporal R.M.L.I.                                     9  10    0
  Defence of Legations. Private Sale. (Naval)                  10   5    0
  China, 1900. Relief of Pekin. (Naval)                         0  15    0
  China, 1900. No bar. (Naval)                                  0   7    6
  China, 1900. No bar. Nurse                                    0  15    0



  1st Royal Dragoons, Heavy Brigade
    (Quartermaster). Three bars: Balaklava,
    Inkermann, Sebastopol, Turkish Crimea
    medal, and Miniature medals of same                         6   5    0
  17th Lancers, Light Brigade. Four bars:
    Alma, Balaklava, Inkermann, Sebastopol,
    and Turkish medal                                           5   5    0
  Grenadier Guards. One bar: Inkermann                          0   8    6
  Coldstream Guards (Sergeant). Four bars:
    Alma, Balaklava, Inkermann, Sebastopol     1  10    0  to   1  15    0
  Coldstream Guards (Private). Four bars:
    Alma, Balaklava, Inkermann, Sebastopol     1   7    0  to   1  12    0
  2nd Dragoon Guards. One bar: Balaklava       0  15    0  to   1   5    0
  2nd Dragoons, Heavy Brigade. Three bars:
    Balaklava, Inkermann, Sebastopol; Turkish
    Crimea and Long Service medal                               2  10    0
  8th Hussars. One bar: Inkermann                               0   7    6
  18th Regt. (Drum-major). One bar: Sebastopol                  0  12    0
  Royal Artillery (Gunner). Two bars:
    Inkermann, Sebastopol                                       0  17    0
  55th Regt. One bar: Sebastopol                                0   5    0
  57th Regt. Two bars: Balaklava, Inkermann                     1   0    0
  79th Cameron Highlanders. Two bars:
    Balaklava, Sebastopol                                       1   5    0
  Turkish Contingent (English Surgeon).
    Turkish Crimea                                              0   15   0


  One bar: Sebastopol. Schoolmaster                             0   16   0
  One bar: Inkermann (A.B.)                                     0   12   0
  Two bars: Inkermann, Sebastopol (A.B.)                        0   10   0
  Two bars: Inkermann, Sebastopol (Boy)                         0   15   0


  1st Battn. 5th Fusiliers. Two bars: Defence
    of Lucknow, 1857                                            2   4    0
  9th Lancers. Three bars: Delhi, Relief of
    Lucknow, Lucknow                           2   2    0  to   2  12    0
  32nd Light Infantry. One bar: Defence of
    Lucknow                                                     1  16    0
  78th Highlanders. Defence of Lucknow                          1  12    0
  84th Regt. (Corporal). Defence of Lucknow,
    Lucknow                                                     1  15    0
  90th Light Infantry. Two bars: Defence of
    Lucknow                                                     1  15    0
  Royal Horse Artillery (Lieutenant). Two
    bars: Lucknow, Relief of Lucknow                            4  12    6
  1st Sikhs Infantry (Assistant Surgeon).
    No bar                                                      2  18    0

_Naval Brigade_

  A. B. "Pearl." No bar                                         1  16    0
  A.B. 1st Naval Brigade H.M.P.V., "Calcutta"                   2   4    0
  A. B. "Shannon." No bar                                       1  12    0
  A.B. "Shannon," 1857. Two bars: Lucknow,
    Relief of Lucknow                                           2  14    0
  A.B. "Shannon," 1857. One bar: Lucknow,
    "Shannon"                                                   5   5    0


  2nd Regt. South Africa, 1853                 0  12    6  to   0  15    0
  South Africa, 1853. (Naval)                                   0  15    0
  H.M.S. "Bittern." One bar: Commassie, 1873                    0  15    0
  42nd Black Watch. One bar: Commassie         0  12    6  to   1   0    0
  1st Royal Highlanders. Five bars: Egypt,
    1882; Tel-el-Kebir; Suakin; 1884; El Teb,
    The Nile, 1884-5; Kirbekan                                  3   3    0
  Gordon Highlanders. Four bars: Egypt, 1882;
    Tel-el-Kebir, Suakin, 1884-5; Khedive's
    Bronze Star. Long Service medal                             1   8    0
  1st Royal Highlanders (Black Watch). Two
    bars: Tel-el-Kebir, Suakin, 1884                            0  10    6
  1st Royal Highlanders. Two bars: El Teb,
    The Nile, 1884-5                                            0  12    6
  1st Royal Highlanders. Two bars: El Teb,
    Tamaai                                                      0  14    0
  1st Royal Highlanders. Five bars:
    Tel-el-Kebir; Suakin, 1884, El Teb;
    The Nile, 1884-5; Kirbekan                                  3  10    0
  Royal Artillery (Gunner). Three bars:
    Suakin, 1884; El Teb; The Nile, 1884-5                      1   0    0
  Naval. One bar: Witu, 1890                                    1   1    0
  Victoria Column (Trooper). British South
    Africa Co.'s medal for Matabeleland, 1893                   2   2    0
  Raaf's Column (Trooper). Matabeleland,
    1893, with bar: Rhodesia, 1896. (In 1901
    a medal of this kind realised at auction
    £10)                                                        3   5    0
  32nd Bengal Infantry (Sepoy). Central Africa,
    1893, with swivel and ring suspender                        3   0    0
  Royal Engineers (Sergeant). West Africa. One
    bar: 1893-4                                                 2  18    0
  B.C.A. Rifles. Central Africa. One bar:
    1894-8                                                     13  13    0
  2nd York and Lancs Regt. British South
    Africa Co.'s medal for Rhodesia, 1896                       1  10    0
  Kimberley Regt. (Lieutenant). Cape General
    Service. One bar: Bechuanaland 1896-7                       3   0    0
  Cape Mounted Rifles. Cape General Service.
    One bar: Bechuanaland                                       1  13    0
  P.A. Guards. One bar: Basutoland, 1896-7                      1  16    0
  Cape Town Rangers. Cape Colony Service
    medal. Two bars: Transkei, 1896-7;
    Basutoland                                                  2  12    0
  D.E.O.V.R. Cape General Service. One bar:
    Basutoland, 1896-7                                          1   8    0
  Raaf's Column. British South Africa Co.'s
    medal for Matabeleland. One bar: Rhodesia,
    1896                                                        4  15    0
  Gwelo Volunteers (Trooper). British South
    Africa's Co.'s medal for Rhodesia, 1896.
    One bar: Mashonaland, 1897                                  2   8    0
  Transport (Corporal). Two bars: Transkei,
    Bechuanaland, 1896-7                                        4   5    0
  P.A. Guards. Cape General Service. One bar:
    Bechuanaland, 1896-7                                        2   0    0
  Niger Coast Protectorate (Lieutenant). West
    Africa. One bar: Benin, 1897                                1  16    0
  H.M.S. "St. George" (Gunner R.M.A.). West
    Africa. One bar: Benin, 1897                                0  15    6
  British South African Police. Mashonaland,
    1897                                                        2  12    6
  27th Bombay Light Infantry. East and Central
    Africa. One bar: Uganda, 1897-8                             1  12    0
  Africa Field Force (Doctor). Ashanti, 1900                    3  17    6
  West Africa Field Force. Ashanti, 1900. One
    bar: Kumassi                               2   7    6  to   2  17    6
  Nigeria Regt. African General Service
    medal. One bar: North Nigeria, 1900-1                       1   6    0
  16th Bombay Light Infantry. One bar:
    Jubaland, 1900-1                                            1   6    0
  Naval. One bar: Jubaland, 1900-1             0  15    0  to   1   4    0
  Lagos Battn. West Africa Field Force.
    Two bars: Aro, 1901-2; North Nigeria, 1903                  2  10    0
  Royal Warwick Regt. One bar: Somaliland,
    1902-4                                                      1   2    0
  52nd Sikhs. Africa General Service medal.
    Two bars: Somaliland, 1902-4; Jidballi     0  17    0  to   1   1    0
  Nigeria Regt. One bar: North Nigeria, 1902                    1   7    0
  1/A Northern Nigeria Regt. (Gunner). Two
    bars: Northern Nigeria, 1903-4: Nigeria,
    1904                                                        4   0    0
  P.C.E. A.P.F. One bar: East Africa, 1905                      3   5    0
  3rd King's African Rifles (A.G.S.). One bar:
    East Africa, 1906                                           3   0    0
  Southern Nigeria Regt. One bar: West Africa,
    1906                                                        3   3    0
  Northern D. M. Rifles. Natal Rebellion. One
    bar: 1906                                                   1   0    0
  H.M.S. "Hyacinth" (A.B.). One bar:
    Somaliland, 1908-10                                         2   4    0
  H.M.S. "Fox." One bar: Somaliland, 1908-10                    2   0    0
  The British Niger Co.'s Bronze medal with
    bar, Nigeria, 1886-97                                       2  10    0
  H.M.S. "Sparrow" (A.B.). Two bars: Witu,
    1891-2; August, 1893                                        2  10    0
  H.M.S. "Swallow" (R.M.). West Africa. One
    bar: Witu, August 1893                                      1  16    0
  H.M.S. "Swallow." One bar: Witu, August 1893                  1   6    0
  H.M.S. "Electo." Two bars: Gambia, 1894;
    Benin, 1897                                                 1  10    0
  One bar: Gambia, 1894                                         0  15    0
  H.M.S. "Forte" (A.B.). One bar: Gambia. Only
    15 issued to officers, and 22 to men                        8   0    0
  West India Regt. One bar: Gambia             1   0    0  to   1   5    0
  H.M.S. "Barossa." Two bars: Brass River,
    1895; Benin, 1897. (The medal with same
    bars to same ship realised £5 7_s._ 6_d._
    in 1901)                                                    1   5    0
  H.M.S. "Philomel." Somaliland, 1908-10                        3  10    0
  3rd King's African Rifles (A.G.S.). Two bars:
    East Africa, 1906, Somaliland, 1908-10                      4   0    0


  25th Regt. One bar: Fenian Raid, 1866                         1  18    0
  Light Infantry. One bar: Fenian Raid, 1866                    1  15    0
  1st Rifle Brigade. Two bars: Fenian Raid,
    1866; Fenian Raid, 1870                                     3  10    0
  7th Royal Fusiliers. One bar: Fenian Raid,
    1866. Bugler                                                1   8    0
  Montreal G.A. One bar: Fenian Raid, 1870.
    Gunner                                                      2   0    0


  One bar: Saskatchewan (Bugler)                                2   0    0
  One bar: Saskatchewan (Naval), awarded to
    men from the steamer "Northcote" who took
    part in the Battle of Batouche. (Rare)                     10  10    0


  H.M.S. "Powerful" (A.B.). Five bars:
    Belmont, Modder River, Relief of
    Kimberley, Paardeberg, Driefontein                          2   5    0
  H.M.S. "Doris" (A.B.). Five bars: Cape
    Colony, Paardeberg, Driefontein,
    Diamond Hill, Belfast                                       1  18    0
  Cape Mounted Rifles. Four bars: Cape
    Colony, Wepener, Transvaal, Wittebergen                     1  11    0
  Horse Artillery (Gunner). Three bars: Cape
    Colony, Orange Free State, Transvaal                        1  10    0
  Lancs Fusiliers. Seven bars: 1900                             0  17    6
  Dublin Fusiliers. Six bars: 1900             0  10    0  to   0  15    0
  Rhodesia Regt. (Trooper). Four bars:
    Rhodesia. Relief of Mafeking, Orange Free
    State, Transvaal                                            1  15    0
  South African Corps (Captain). Two bars:
    Relief of Mafeking, Transvaal; and British
    South Africa Co.'s medal for Rhodesia, 1896                 4   5    0
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Four bars: Relief of
    Mafeking, Tugela Heights, Relief of
    Ladysmith, Transvaal                                        1  16    0
  British South African Police (Trooper). One
    bar: Defence of Mafeking                                    3   0    0
  K.R.R.C. Eight bars: Cape Colony, Tugela
    Heights, Orange Free State, Relief of
    Ladysmith, Laing's Nek, Belfast, S. Africa,
    1901, S. Africa, 1902                                       1   6    0
  Brabant's Horse. Five bars: Cape Colony,
    Wepener, Wittebergen, Belfast, South
    Africa, 1902                                                1  18    0
  Brabant's Horse (Corporal). Four bars: Cape
    Colony, Wepener, Wittebergen, Belfast                       2   2    0
  Brabant's Horse (Lieutenant). Two bars: Cape
    Colony, Wepener                                             3  12    0
  Two bars: Defence of Ladysmith and
    Elandslaagte (realised as much as £3 2_s._
    6_d._ in 1905)                             1   1    0  to   1   5    0
  Leicester Regt. Three bars: Cape Colony,
    Laing's Nek, Belfast. Egyptian Medal. Two
    bars: The Nile, 1884-5; Abu Klea and
    Khedive's Bronze Star                                       1   6    0


  43rd Regt. Native Infantry. One bar: Naga,
    1879-80                                                     1  10    0
  44th Regt. Native Infantry                   1  14    0  to   2   2    0
  One bar: Persia                              0   9    6  to   0  10    6
  One bar: Jowaki, 1877-8                      0  10    0  to   0  12    0
  One bar: North-West Frontier                 0  10    6  to   1   0    0
  One bar: North-West Frontier, 1908           0   9    6  to   0  12    6
  4th Battn. K.R.R.C. One bar: Lushai, 1889-92                  1  14    0
  One bar: Looshai                             1  10    0  to   2   2    0
  2nd Kashmir Infantry. Hunza, 1891                             3   5    0
  3rd Kashmir Infantry. Hunza, 1891                             3   7    6
  Muleteer, Peshawar Transport. Hunza, 1891                     3   0    0
  Bronze Collar badge for Hunza, Naga
    Expedition, 1891                                            1  10    0
  Defence of Chitral, 1895. Maharajah of
    Kashmir's bronze medal for Chitral, 1895                    4   0    0
  Warwick Regt. One bar: North-West Frontier,
    1908                                                        0  14    0
  Abor, 1911                                   3   3    0   to  4   4    0


  The following are a few prices realised in the sale-room: £43
  (Lieutenant); £47 (Gunner), R.A.; £50, Argyll and Sutherlands;
  £53, Madras Fusiliers; £58, 65th Regt.; £54 (Sergeant-Major), 37th
  B.N.I.; £61, 2nd Dragoons; £62, with Crimean Medals, Grenadier
  Guards; £67, and Mutiny Medal, 9th Lancers, £67; £80, 49th Regt.
  (said to be second issued); £85 with Mutiny Medal and three bars,
  9th Lancers; V.C. and South Africa Medal to Rorke's Drift hero,
  £95, 24th Regt.; 145 guineas for group of seven medals including
  V.C., 8th Lancers, and a V.C. won before Sebastopol, £175; a Naval
  V.C. has realised £170 at auction.


  Together with Ashantee Medal to Naval
    Gunner. Private Sale                                       40   0    0


  2nd W. Riding Regt. (Victorian)                               7  10    0


  1st Class (gold, enamelled decoration) for
    Conspicuous Gallantry in the Field                          8  10    0
  2nd Class (Gold, Enamelled Centre)           3  10    0  to   4  10    0
  3rd Class (entirely silver and centre
    enamelled)                                 2  10    0  to   3  10    0

    These orders have realised as much as £58, £40, and £35, according
                                 to class.


  For services in Crimea                                       10  10    0


  1st Class, gold, for Gallantry in saving
    life on land                                               75   0    0


  Gold Cross for Fuentes d'Onor, Badajoz,
    Ciudad Rodrigo, Orthes; the Gold Medal
    with bars for Badajoz and Ciudad Rodrigo,
    Peninsular Medal with three bars and gold
    badge of Military Companies of the Order
    of the Bath, to Lieutenant-Colonel Russell
    Manners, C.B., 74th Foot                                  600   0    0
  15th Light Dragoons. Waterloo Medal and
    three-bar Peninsular                      20   0    0  to  30   0    0
  6th Foot (Lieutenant). Five-bar Peninsular
    Medal with Gold Order of Knight of Hanover                 28   0    0
  Two Naval, Mutiny, with two bars: Lucknow,
    Relief of Lucknow. Baltic, 1854-5. To
    Midshipman who became M.P.                                 17   0    0
  One bar: Aro, 1901-2: and West Africa
    medal. One bar: 1897-8. West Africa Field
    Force                                                       2   0    0
  Three to Private, P. A. L. I.: Ghuznee,
    July 23rd, 1839, Cabul, 1842; Jellalabad,
    April 7th, 1842, first issue                                7   5    0
  13th Regt. (Sergeant-Major). Ghuznee, 1839;
    Cabul, 1842; Jellalabad, 1843; and
    Meritorious Service Medal                                  41   0    0
  13th Light Infantry. Jellalabad,
    1842, with Mural Crown and Indian Mutiny
    medal.                                                      5   0    0
  Three to Colour-Sergeant, 31st Regt.: Cabul,
    1842; Sutlej, three bars: Ferozeshuhur,
    Aliwal, Sobraon; Meritorious Service.                       6  10    0
  Two to 43rd Regt.: Kelat-i-Ghilzie, 1842;
    Ghuznee, Cabul, 1842--two wreaths                           5   5    0
  Two to Gunner, 2nd Battn. Bengal Artillery:
    Meeanee, Hyderabad, 1843; Indian Mutiny.
    Three bars: Delhi, Relief of Lucknow,
    Lucknow                                                     8   5    0
  Two to Riding-master, 2nd Brigade Horse
    Artillery: Punniar Star, December 29th,
    1843; Sutlej medal, Ferozeshuhur,
    1843: one bar: Sobraon                                      5  15    0
  Two to Lieutenant, 10th Foot: Sobraon, 1846;
    Punjab, two bars: Goojerat, Mooltan                         5  10    0
  Three to Sergeant, H.M. 101st Regt.: Indian
    General Service, one bar: Umbeyla, 1864;
    Distinguished Conduct in the Field;
    Meritorious Service                                        10  10    0
  Four to 1st Cameron Highlanders: The Sudan:
    Two bars: The Atbara, Khartoum; English
    Sudan; Boer War: Four bars: Cape Colony,
    Orange Free State, Transvaal; King's medal                  1   7    6
  Two, 1895, Defence of Chitral: Maharajah of
    Kashmir's bronze medal, Chitral, 1895                       4   0    0
  Three to Able Seaman: West African, Gambia,
    1894; Benin River, 1894; Brass River,
    1895; Boer War; China, 1900                                 4   0    0
  New Zealand Volunteers, Silver medal for 12
    years' service to Lieutenant, New Zealand
    Field Artillery. Boer War medal to same
    recipient as Private, N.Z. Mounted Rifles                   6   0    0
  66th Foot. Afghan, Kandahar, and
    Distinguished Conduct Medal, July 14th,
    1880. For the Battle of Maiwand                             6  15    0
  1st Connaught Rangers (Sergeant-Major). Five
    bars: Cape Colony, Tugela Heights, Orange
    Free State, Relief of Ladysmith,
    Transvaal, and Medal for Distinguished
    Conduct in the Field                                        6   0    0
  Hampshire Regt. (Sergeant). Four bars:
    Relief of Kimberley, Paardeberg,
    Johannesburg, Wittebergen, and West
    Africa Medal, one bar: 1897-8                               3   3    0
  North-West Frontier, 1908. King George V,
    Delhi Durbar medal, December 12th, 1911
    (both to Gunner)                                            4   0    0


  Large silver medal. Naval Reward. Struck for
    distribution amongst those who had
    commanded the royal forces and fleets
    which opposed the double invasion of
    Monmouth and Argyle                                        13  10    0
  Large Silver Medal, Charles II               4  10    0  to   6   6    0
  Oval Gold Badge, for taking of Portobello
    by Admiral Vernon                                          10   0    0
  American Indian Chief's large silver medal,
    bust of King George III in armour                          15   0    0
  American Indian Chief's medal. Obverse: Bust
    of George III, 1794. Reverse: Royal Arms   2   2    0  to   5   0    0
  Gold Medal and Chain given by German
    Emperor to eight officers of the 15th
    Light Dragoons, for "brilliant and
    important services" at Villiers-en-Couche
    (near Cambray), April 24th, 1794                          260   0    0
  Order of Dooranée. 3rd Class. Private sale                   45   0    0
  Highland Society's Silver Medal, for Egypt,
    1801                                                        2   7    6
  Medal for Coorg, April 1837                                  26   0    0
  Defence of Kars (Turkish)                    1   0    0  to   1   5    0
  Defence of Silistria (Turkish)               0  17    6  to   1   5    0
  George V Special Reserve medal for Long
    Service and Good Conduct                                    0  15    0
  George V Indian Volunteer Forces Officer's
    decoration                                                  1  10    0
  Naval Best Shot                              3   3    0  to   4  10    0


  Abor, 1911-12, 261

  Abu Klea, 1885, 213, 324

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 214

  Abyssinia, 1867-8, 318

  -- Medal for, 191

  -- Ships' crews engaged in, 318

  -- war, 1864, 189

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 191

  Acre, Sultan's medal for, 309

  Afghan war, First, 1839, 94

  -- -- Second, 1841, 100

  -- Medal for, 209

  Afghanistan, 1878-80, 202

  -- Medal for, 209

  Africa, Central, medal, 228

  -- -- 1895, 333

  -- East and West, 1887-92, 227, 242

  African General Service Medal, 254, 334

  -- West, medal, 229, 329

  Agra, Siege of, 1803, 22

  Ahmed Khel, 1880, 206

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 207

  Albert Medal, The, 340

  Albuera, 1811, 38

  -- Gold Cross for, 66

  -- Regiments engaged at, 41, 130

  Alcantara medal, 66

  Alexandria, 1882, 319

  -- Ships engaged at, 320

  -- "Black Watch" at, 1801, 15

  Algiers, 1816, 306

  -- Ships engaged at, 307

  Ali Musjid, 1878, 203

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 203

  Aliwal, 1846, 115

  -- Regiments engaged at, 116

  Allighur, 1804, 20

  Alma, 1854, 140

  Amoy, Bombardment, 1841, 99

  Argaum, 1803, 23

  Armada, Spanish, 1588, 1

  -- The, medals, 266

  Army medal, instituted by Charles I, 2

  Aro, 1901-2, 334

  Ashantee, 1873-4, 192, 318

  -- Medal for, 193

  -- Regiments engaged in, 193

  -- Ships' crews engaged in, 318

  Ashanti, 1896, Bronze Star for, 229

  -- 1900, Medal for, 244

  Assaye (Assye) 1803, 21

  -- Regiments engaged at, 21

  Asseerghur, 1803, 22

  Atbara, 1898, 239

  Atwot, 1910, 263

  Austrian Cross, 1813-14, 358

  Ava, 1824-6, 307

  -- Ships engaged at, 307

  -- Medal for, 91

  Azoff, 1855, 313

  Badajoz, Siege of, 1812, 44

  -- Regiments engaged at, 45, 130

  Baird, Sir David, special medal, 16

  Balaklava, 1854, 145

  -- Regiments engaged at, 148

  Baltic medal, 314

  Bareilly, Occupation of, 1858, 174

  Barrosa, 1811, 35

  -- Regiments engaged at, 36, 130

  Basuto war, 1878-9, 197, 201

  Battle of the Nile, 1798, 284

  -- -- -- Ships engaged at, 286

  Bechuanaland, 1896, 236

  Belgian Star for Waterloo, 85

  Benevente, 1808, 28

  Benin River, 1894, 331

  Bhootan, 1864-6, 188

  -- Regiments engaged at, 189

  Bhurtpore (Bhurtpoor), 1826, 93

  -- Regiments engaged at, 93

  "Birkenhead," Loss of, 135

  Black Mountain Expedition, 220

  -- -- -- Regiments engaged in, 222

  Blake, General, 5

  Blake's medal, 271

  "Blind Half Hundred," 27

  Boat actions, Bars for, 305

  Boer war, 248

  -- -- Naval medals, 333

  -- -- Regiments engaged in, 251

  -- -- Ships' crews engaged in, 334

  Boulton's Trafalgar medal, 291

  Boy's medal for gallantry (Queen Anne), 276

  Brass River, 1895, 331

  British German Legion medal, 69

  British India, Order of, 344

  Brunswick medal for Waterloo, 69, 84

  Burma, 1889-92, 224

  -- 1885-7, 329

  -- 1885-7, Regiments engaged in, 219

  -- Sailors entitled to bar for, 329

  -- Annexation of, 1886, 218

  Burmese Chiefs' medal, 92

  -- war, First, 1824, 90

  -- -- First, Regiments engaged in, 91

  -- -- Second, 137

  Busaco, 1810, 33

  -- Regiments engaged at, 34, 130

  "Busaco's bloody ridge," 126

  Cabul, 1842, 103

  -- Regiments engaged at, 104, 206

  -- 1879, 205

  -- Medal for, 1842, 107

  Calcutta, Medal for Seringapatam, 14

  Callis gold medal, 277

  Campaign medal, First, 4

  Camperdown, 1797, 288

  -- Ships engaged at, 284

  Canada medal, 218

  Canada, North-West Medal, 217

  Candahar, 1842, 104

  -- Battle of, 1880, 208

  -- (Kandahar), March to, 1880, 207

  -- medal, 107

  -- 1880, Regiments engaged at, 207, 208

  Canton, 1857, 178-311

  Cape Colony, 249

  Cape of Good Hope, G. S. M., 236

  Carib war, 1773, 8

  Cashmere Gate, Blowing in of, 1857, 161

  Caucasus, The, 1859-64, 365

  Cawnpore, 1857, 157

  -- No bar for, 169

  Central India, 1858, 172

  -- -- -- Regiments engaged in, 175

  Ceylon, 1818, Medal for, 89

  -- Capture of, 1795-6, Medal for, 11

  Charasia, 1879, 204

  -- Regiments engaged at, 205

  Charles I instituted Army medals, 2, 3

  -- -- Naval medals, 267

  -- II, medals, 6, 271

  Chateauguay, 1813, 55

  -- Regiments engaged at, 56, 131

  Chilian medal, First, 360

  -- -- Second, 369

  Chilianwala, 1849, 121

  Chili-Peruvian war, 1879-81, 368

  China, 1840-2, 310

  -- 1900, Regiments engaged at, 247

  -- medal, First, 1842, 100

  -- -- Second, 1857, 60

  -- -- Third, 247

  -- -- 1900, 245

  Chinese war, First, 1840, 98

  -- -- Second, 1857, 178

  -- -- -- Regiments engaged at, 181

  -- -- Ships engaged, 311

  Chin-Lushai, 1889-90, 222

  -- Regiments engaged at, 222

  Chitral, Relief of, 1895, 230

  -- Defence of, 232

  Chrystler's Farm, 1814, 60

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 132

  Ciudad Rodrigo, 1812, 42

  Commassie, 1874, 193

  Commonwealth Naval medals, 268

  "Condor," The plucky, 319

  Conspicuous Gallantry Medal, 338

  -- Service Cross, 343

  Continental Peninsular medals, 66

  -- War medals, 357

  Coorg, 1837, Medal for, 94

  Copenhagen, 1801, 287

  Corunna, Retreat to, 1808, 29

  -- Battle of, 1809, 30

  -- Regiments engaged at, 30, 129

  Corygaum, 1818, 89

  Courage, Serbian medal for, 372

  Crescent, Order of, 17

  Crimean war, 1854, 139, 312

  -- medals for, 150

  -- -- Crosses for, 69

  -- -- Regiments at, 44, 130

  Culloden medals, 1746, 6

  Davison's medal for the Nile, 286

  -- Trafalgar medal, 291

  Deccan medal, 1778-84, 9

  Deig, 1804, 24

  Delhi, 1803, 20

  -- Defence of, 1804, 23

  -- 1857, 158

  Detroit Fort, 1812, 48

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 48, 131

  Dewey (Admiral) Medal, 370

  "Die-hards," name earned, 126

  Distinction in Service, German medal for, 361

  Distinguished Conduct Medals, 3, 337

  Distinguished Service Medal, 346

  -- Service Order, 341

  -- -- Cross, 345

  Dongola expedition, 1896, 236

  -- Regiments engaged at, 237

  Dooranée, Order of, 96

  Drake's medal, 267

  Dunbar, 1650, 4

  -- medal, 5

  Dutch wars, 1653, 269

  East Africa, 1902, medal, 257

  -- -- 1904, medal, 257

  -- -- 1905-6, medals for, 258

  -- India Co., 9

  Edge Hill, 1642, 3

  Edward VII Naval Long Service, 350

  Edwardes's medal, 119

  Egypt, 1801, 14

  -- -- Regiments engaged in, 18

  -- H.E.I. Co.'s medal for, 16

  Egyptian campaign, 1882, 210

  -- medal, 1882, 211

  -- -- for Bravery, 1913, 345

  -- wars, 319

  "El Chico Blanco," 58

  -- -- -- Where fell, 120

  Elizabethan Naval medals, 2

  El-Teb, 1884, 321

  -- Regiments engaged at, 212

  -- Sailors engaged at, 321

  Exmouth gold medal, 307

  Fatshan, 1857, 178

  Ferozeshuhur, 1845, 113

  -- Regiments engaged at, 114

  "Fighting Fortieth, The," 105

  "Fighting 43rd," 184

  First Official War Medal, 82

  Fishermen, War medals for, 274

  Foreign war medals, 357

  French medal for Napoleon's veterans, 152

  -- -- 1870-1, 367

  -- veteran's medal, 373

  Fuentes d'Onor, 1811, 37

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 38, 130

  Galekas and Gaikas, Campaign against, 1877, 196

  Gambia, 1894, 330

  -- 1901, 334

  Garibaldian medal, 1860, 364

  "Gate Pah," 1864, 184

  Gawilghur, 1803, 23

  Gemaizah, 1888, 216, 328

  -- Regiments engaged at, 216

  -- Sailors entitled to bar for, 328

  Geneva Cross, 1870-1, 366

  George I and George II medals, 276 and 277

  George V Naval Long Service, 350

  German medal, 1870-1, 367

  -- South-West Africa, 1904-6, 370

  Ghuznee, 1839, 95

  -- medal, 1839, 97, 107

  -- Recapture of, 1842, 106

  -- Regiments engaged at, 95

  Gibraltar, Capture of, 1704, 275

  Gildermaslen, 1795, 19

  "Glorious 1st" of June, The, 279

  Gold Cross for Peninsular commanders, 67

  -- medals, Peninsular, 32

  Goojerat, 1849, 122

  -- Regiments engaged at, 123

  Gordon, Relief of, 213

  Gordons at Maya, 52

  Governor-General's medal, 97

  Granville, 1703, 275

  Griqua Campaign, 1878, 197

  Guadaloupe, Regiments engaged at, 129

  -- -- -- -- (Martinique), 31

  Gwalior Campaign, 1843, 109

  Hanoverian Jubilee medal for Waterloo, 85

  Hanover medal, 84

  Hau-Haus, The, 1866, 185

  Hazara, 1888, 222

  -- 1891, 223

  -- Regiments engaged at, 223

  "Hazard," H.M.S., 124

  Heavy Brigade, Charge of, 146

  H.E.I. Co.'s Meritorious Service medal, 336

  Hessian medal, 1814-15, 358

  Highlanders at Alexandria, 1801, 15

  Highland Society's medal, 19

  Hodson's daring feat, 161

  Hornby medal and chain, 278

  Hougomont, Guards at, 76

  How medals are named, 352

  Hungary, Russian medal for, 1849, 363

  Hunza, 1891, 225

  Hyderabad, 1843, 108

  -- medal, 109

  Immortals, The, 40

  India, Long Service, 1859, 350

  -- medal, The, 133

  -- -- 1895, 232

  -- Distinguished Service Medal, 342

  -- General Service Medal, First, 138

  -- General Service Medal, 1903, 258

  -- -- -- -- 1908, 260

  -- Meritorious Service Medal, 345

  Indian Mutiny, The, 1857, 156

  -- -- 1858, 316

  -- -- -- Medal for, 175

  -- Order of Merit, 343

  Inkermann, 1854, 149

  -- Regiments engaged at, 150

  Iron Cross for San Sebastian, 1836, 362

  Isandhlwana, 1879, 199

  Isles of France, 1811, 34

  James I, 2

  Java, 1811, 41

  -- H.E.I. Co.'s medal for, 42

  -- Regiments engaged at, 42, 130

  Jellalabad, 1841, 101

  -- medal, First, 102

  -- -- Second (Flying Victory), 102

  -- Regiments engaged at, 102

  Jowaki, 1877, 195

  -- Regiments engaged at, 196

  Jubaland, 1900, 334

  Juba River, 1893, 330

  Kabul-Kandahar Star, 209

  Kaffir war, First, 134

  -- -- -- Regiments engaged in, 135

  -- wars, Third, Regiments engaged in, 136

  Kars medal, 154

  Kelat-i-Ghilzie, 1842, Medal for, 105

  Khartoum, 241

  Khedive's Sudan medal, 239

  -- Star, 211, 217

  Kimberley Star, 251

  King Edward Long Service Medal, 349

  King George's Long Service Medal, 349

  King's South African medal, 251

  Kirbekan, 1885, 214

  -- Regiments engaged at, 215

  König Grätz, Cross for, 1866, 366

  Kordofan, South, 1910, 263

  Kotah, 1858, 173

  La Hogue, 1692, 273

  Lake, General, 22

  Lampriere gold medal, 275

  Laswarree, 1803, 22

  Latham gold medal, 38

  Legation, Defence of, 1900, 245

  Légion d'Honneur, 359

  Light Brigade, Charge of, 147

  Liwondi, 1893, 330

  Looshai, 1871-2, 189

  -- Regiments engaged at, 189

  Louisbourg, 1758, 278

  -- Capture of, 1758, 7

  Lucknow, Defence of, 1857, 163

  -- Defence of, regiments engaged in, 167

  -- Relief of, 1857, 165

  -- Retaking of, 1858, 170

  Lushai, 1889-92, 224

  Mackworth, Colonel, 5

  Maharajpoor Star, 111

  -- 1843, 110

  -- Regiments engaged at, 110

  Maheidpore, 1817, 88

  Mahratta war, 20

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 23

  Maida, 1806, 25

  -- Regiments engaged in, 129

  Malakand, 1895, Regiments engaged at, 234

  Malakoff, Capture of, 1855, 144

  Mamelon, 1855, 143

  Martinique, 1809, 30

  -- -- Regiments at, 31, 129

  Matabeleland, 1893, 235, 237

  -- Regiments engaged in, 238

  Maya, Gordons at, 52

  Médaille Militaire, 363

  Mediterranean medal, 251

  Medjidie, Order of, 154

  Meeanee, 1843, 107

  -- medal for, 109

  Merit, Indian Order of, 343

  Meritorious Service Medals, 336

  Military Cross, The, 347

  -- General Service Medal, 128

  -- -- -- -- Regiments receiving same for Egypt, 1801, 128

  -- Long Service Medals, 348

  -- medals established, 3

  Monk, General, 5

  Moodkee, 1845, 112

  -- Regiments engaged at, 113

  Mooltan, Regiments engaged at, 121, 122

  -- Siege of, 1849, 120

  Moore, Sir John, Death of, 29

  Mutiny Medal, 175

  Mwele, 1895-6, 332

  Mysore Campaign, 1791-3, 9

  Naga, 1879-80, 220

  Naseby, 1645, 5

  Nassau medal for Waterloo, 83

  Natal Native Rebellion, 1908, 259

  Naval Brigade in Crimea, 315

  -- Distinguished Service Medal, 346

  -- General Service Medal, 292

  -- -- -- -- instituted, 127

  Naval gold medal instituted, 280

  -- Long Service Medals, 349

  -- medals, Elizabethan, 2

  -- -- First instituted, 1

  -- -- Types of, 270

  -- officers, Gold medals for, 270

  -- war medals, 266

  Navarino, 1827, 308

  -- Ships engaged at, 309

  Nelson, Death of, 290

  Nepaul, 1814, 86

  -- H.E.I. Co.'s medal for, 87

  New Zealand, 1845-6-7, 317

  -- -- 1860-6, 317

  -- -- Cross, The, 342

  -- -- Medal, 186

  -- -- War, First, 1845, 124

  -- -- -- -- Regiments engaged in, 125

  -- Ships' crews engaged, 317

  -- -- -- 1860-6, 182

  Nigeria, 1902-6, 256

  Nile, The, 1798, 284

  -- -- 1884-5, 324

  Nive, 1814, 60

  -- Regiments engaged at, 62, 132

  Nivelle, 1814, 57

  -- Regiments engaged at, 59, 132

  North-East Frontier, 1891, 225

  "North Star," H.M.S., 124

  North-West Frontier, 1849-68, 187

  -- -- Expeditions, Regiments engaged in, 187

  North-West Canada, 217

  Nukumaru, 1865, 185

  Nyassa Lake, 1893, 330

  Officers' gold crosses for Peninsular, 68

  -- silver crosses for Peninsular, 69

  "Old Toughs," 121

  Omdurman, 1898, 240

  -- Regiments engaged at, 240

  Orthes, 1814, 62

  -- Regiments engaged at, 63, 132

  Papal States Campaign, 1860, 365

  "Pearl of the Age," 96

  Pegu, 1852, 137, 311

  -- Regiments entitled to medal, 138

  -- Seamen and Marines engaged, 311

  Peiwar Kotal, 1878, 203

  Pekin, 1860, 179

  Peninsular gold cross, 56

  -- gold medals, 32

  -- war, 1808, 26

  -- -- medal, 125

  Perak, 194

  -- 1876, 318

  -- Regiments engaged in, 195

  -- Ships' crews engaged, 318

  Persia, 1857, 317

  Persian war, 1856-7, 155

  Picton, Death of, 77

  Pistrucci's Waterloo medal, 374

  Polish insurrection, The, 1863-4, 366

  Prussian Iron Cross, 1813, 360

  -- medals, 1813-15, 358

  -- oval iron medal, 1815, 357

  Punjab, 1848-9, 311

  -- Campaign, Second, 119

  -- medal, 123

  Punniar, 1843, 110

  -- Regiments engaged at, 110

  -- Star, 111

  Pyrenees, 1813, 51

  -- Regiments engaged at, 131

  Quatre Bras, 1815, 71

  -- -- Losses at, 75

  Queen Anne, 274

  Queen's South African medal, 249

  -- Sudan medal, 242

  Rangiawahia, 1864, 184

  Rare medals, 89

  Redan, The, 144

  Red Heckle, The, 18

  Regimental designations, 377

  Reissues of earlier medals, 177

  Republican Légion d'Honneur, 360

  Rhodesia, 1893, 237

  Riel's rebellion, 1885, 217

  Rodrigues, 1811, 34

  Roleria, 1808, Regiments at, 27

  Rorke's Drift, 1879, 199

  Royal Niger Co.'s medal, 244

  Russian medal for Hungary, 1849, 363

  Sahagun, 1808, 28

  -- Regiments engaged at, 129

  Salamanca, 1812, 45

  -- Regiments at, 48, 131

  Sale prices, 382

  Samana, 1891, 223

  -- Regiments engaged at, 223, 234

  Sanatory Cross, The Serbian, 372

  San Sebastian, 1836, 361

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 131

  Sardinian medal, 153

  Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg medal, 84

  Scinde, 1843, 310

  -- Sailors engaged, 311

  Seamen's medals, 271

  Sebastian, Siege of, 51

  Sebastopol, Siege of 1854, 142

  -- Ships engaged in, 313

  Second general award of medals, 82

  Secundrabagh, 168

  Sedgemoor, 1685, 1

  Serbo-Bulgarian war, 1913, 372

  Serbo-Turkish war, 1912, 371

  Seringapatam, 1799, 11

  -- Regiments engaged at, 12

  -- -- Medals for, 12-14

  "Sepoy General" (Wellington), 33

  Sierra Leone, 1898-9, 332

  Sikh wars, 1845-9, 111

  Sikkim, 1888, 220

  Silistria medal, 153

  Silver Cross for San Sebastian, 1846, 363

  Sobraon, 1846, 116

  -- Regiments engaged at, 117

  Soho medal for Seringapatam, 13

  Somaliland, 1902-4, 334

  -- Ships' crews engaged, 335

  -- 1908-10, 335

  South Africa, 1853, 312

  -- Crews engaged, 312

  -- -- 1877-8-9, Ships' crews engaged in, 318

  Spanish-American war, 370

  -- -- Medal for, 370

  -- Armada, 1588, 1

  Special gold medals for Naval Service, 274

  Standing army founded, 6

  St. Helena medal, 85

  St. Sebastian, 1813, 53

  -- -- Regiments engaged at, 55

  St. Vincent medal, 1795, 8

  Suakin, 1884, 323

  -- Crews engaged at, 324

  -- 1885, 326

  Sudan, 1899, 241

  -- 1910, 262

  -- 1912, 261, 263

  -- medal, 1910, 264

  -- Recovery of, 215

  -- war, Second, bars for, 327

  Sutlej medal, 118

  Syria, 1839, 309

  -- Ships engaged, 310

  Taku Forts, 1860, 178-311

  Talavera, 1809, 31

  -- Regiments at, 31

  Tamaai, 1884, 212, 322

  -- Regiments engaged at, 213

  Tel-el-Kebir, 1882, 320

  -- Regiments engaged at, 211

  Thin Red Line, The, 145

  Tibet, 1903-4, 259

  Tirah, Regiments engaged at, 234

  Tofrek, 1885, 326

  -- Regiments engaged at, 215

  -- Sailors engaged at, 326

  Tokar, 1890, 217, 328

  Tonkin, 1883-5, 369

  Toski, 1888, 216

  Toski, Regiments engaged at, 217

  Toulouse, 1814, 64

  -- Regiments engaged at, 65, 132

  Trafalgar, 1805, 288

  -- Ships engaged at, 290

  -- Gold medal for, 291

  -- Official medal, 292

  Transport medal, 335

  Triumph medal, The, 271

  Turkestan, 1857-9, 364

  Turkish General Service Medal, 153

  -- medals, 152

  Ulundi, 1879, 201

  Umbeyla, 1863, 187

  Union Brigade, Charge of, 1815, 78

  Victoria Cross, The, 139, 338

  Victoria Crosses for New Zealand, 1863, 183

  -- -- gained at Alma, 142

  -- -- won by 42nd, 174

  -- -- -- in Zulu war, 200

  Victorian Naval Long Service, 349

  Vimiera, 1808, 27

  -- Regiments engaged at, 129

  Vittoria, 1813, 49

  -- Gold cross for, 67

  -- Regiments engaged at, 50, 131

  Waterloo, 1815, 75

  -- Eve of, 1815, 70

  -- medal, British, 81

  -- medals, Continental, 83

  -- Regiments engaged at, 80

  Wellesley, The Hon. Arthur, 21

  Wellington's first victory, 21

  West Africa, 1906-8 medals, 258

  William and Mary, Naval medals only, 6

  William IV Naval Long Service, 349

  Witu, 1890, 329

  -- 1893, 330

  Wyard medal, 269

  Zeal, Russian medal for, 363

  Zulu medal, 1877-8-9, 202

  -- war, 1879, 198, 318

  -- -- Regiments engaged in, 198, 202

  -- Ships' crews engaged, 318

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury._

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    Edited with a Biography of Juliette Drouet by Louis Guimbaud;
      translated by Lady Theodora Davidson. Demy 8vo, cloth gilt,
      with many illustrations, 10/6 net.

What is described as the most fascinating and notable human document
seen for many years has recently been discovered in Paris by a
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Academy. This writer, after ten years' patient work, has brought to
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The story of Juliette's love for the great French novelist is one of
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    BY CHRISTOPHER HARE, author of "Men and Women of the Italian
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    By CLAUDE FERVAL, with an introduction by Jean Richepin;
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    By ARTHUR LYNCH, M.P., Author of "Modern Authors: A Review and
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    A pocket book for our soldiers.

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  THE ADMIRABLE PAINTER: A study of Leonardo da Vinci

    By A. J. ANDERSON, Author of "The Romance of Fra Filippo Lippi,"
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the beginning of the Revolution, and some, like Marie Antoinette,
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