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Title: War Services of the 62nd West Riding Divisional Artillery
Author: Anderson, A.T.
Language: English
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WAR SERVICES OF THE 62ND DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY.



  WAR SERVICES
  OF THE
  62ND WEST RIDING
  DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY

  BY
  Colonel A. T. ANDERSON, C.M.G.
  (_C.R.H. 62nd Division, 1916-1919_),
  Author of "The Field Gunner's Catechism," "A Short History
  of Lucknow,"

  With a Preface by
  Lieut.-General SIR W. P. BRAITHWAITE, K.C.B.


  W. HEFFER & SONS LTD.
  CAMBRIDGE
  1920



TO THE MEMORY OF OUR FALLEN COMRADES.


  "_As fighters with unequal lance we met,
  Broken I lie,
  And yet,
  O Death, art thou the victor or am I?_"

  MARY BYRON.



CONTENTS


                                                PAGE
  PREFACE                                        vii

  CHAPTER I.
  THE FIRST ADVANCE                                1

  CHAPTER II.
  JUNE TO OCTOBER 1917. TRENCH WARFARE            20

  CHAPTER III.
  THE BATTLE OF CAMBRAI                           40

  CHAPTER IV.
  THE GREAT GERMAN OFFENSIVE                      56

  CHAPTER V.
  WITH THE 5TH FRENCH ARMY                        80

  CHAPTER VI.
  THE FINAL TRIUMPH                               92

  CHAPTER VII.
  THE LAST PHASE                                 114

  APPENDIX A.
  SUBSEQUENT SERVICES OF THE 311TH BRIGADE       120

  APPENDIX B.
  ALPHABETICAL LIST OF OFFICERS                  123

  APPENDIX C.
  LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN AWARDED DECORATIONS
  OR MENTIONED IN DESPATCHES                     127

  INDEX                                          137



PREFACE

BY LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR WALTER BRAITHWAITE, K.C.B.


Colonel Anderson has commenced his interesting record of the war
services of the 62nd Divisional Artillery in January, 1917. He has,
therefore, no word to say as to how the instrument he commanded so ably
and with such distinction during two strenuous years of war came to
attain the standard of excellence which the following pages attest.

It was in February, 1916, that Brig.-General Anderson and Capt.
Lindsell, then serving at the Front, were selected to take over the
Command and Brigade-Majorship respectively of the 62nd Divisional
Artillery.

The Division was then at Salisbury Plain, and, without going into
details, I would like to tender my tribute to the untiring devoted work
accomplished by these two officers in training and fitting for war the
Artillery of the Division I had the honour to command.

They had their reward when the time came that the instrument they had
created was put to the test of war. It never failed to respond to their
touch. The proud record it established is the best testimony to their
teaching and training.

In the early part of 1917 I was asked to write a foreword for the
Divisional Magazine, and in it I wrote that, given grit and discipline,
there was nothing the Division could not accomplish. Grit the
Yorkshireman has always possessed, discipline he learnt. I might have
added a third desideratum--co-operation.

The event proved, however, that this virtue was not lacking. It is to
these three great qualities I attribute the success of the Division.
The Divisional Artillery knew that they existed for the purpose of
helping the Infantry. The Infantry knew that they could depend on the
Artillery in all circumstances and under all conditions.

There are many glorious episodes described in the following pages, many
plain unvarnished tales of heroism, and much record of what, to the
casual reader unacquainted with the conditions of life "out there," may
appear to be commonplace drudgery.

All had their place in building up the reputation of the 62nd
Divisional Artillery, and none were more important than others, or less.

The strain on the horses, the toil of the men in the never-ceasing
"packing" of the ammunition to Miraumont, up the shell-swept road,
past Shrapnel Corner, to the fire-desolated village, had its result
and compensation in the advance to Bapaume and the capture of
Achiet-le-Petit and Achiet-le-Grand.

The daily digging, the unceasing work on dug-outs and gun-positions
in Ecoust, and in the Noreuil Valley, saved many a life and rendered
possible the accurate service of the guns in the Battle of Bullecourt,
and in the subsequent period of holding that much-strafed line.

The practice in driving and the training in open warfare found their
consummation in that glorious advance of the batteries to Graincourt.

And then, after a year's hard work, came the first rest. In December,
1917, the gunners came out of the line for the first time, and hardly
knew themselves!

January, 1918, saw the Division back in the line again in a
comparatively peaceful sector with, however, as always, one bad
spot--Bailleul, through which one never loitered.

But peaceful bits of the line were not the lot of the 62nd Divisional
Artillery for long, and in March we were hurried down to Bucquoy. Here
was no line, peaceful or otherwise, no prepared positions to take over,
but the hurly-burly of battle, and positions to be chosen where they
could be found. But what splendid targets!

After the battle came a period of holding the line again, in, I think,
the most unpleasant sector we occupied, of which Essarts was the most
unhealthy spot.

Then came a change. A quick train journey to the South and a rush into
battle without time for proper reconnaissance, but with the willing and
ready help of French and Italian comrades.

A quick change also to open warfare, and fighting in dense woods! But
these variations affected not at all the Divisional Artillery except in
so far as it stimulated the interest of officers and men.

The fighting in the Ardre Valley was indeed an experience we shall all
look back upon with pride and with pleasure.

It was in the thick woods bordering the main road from Epernay to
Rheims that the D.A.C. lost their show team of roans who fell victims
to a bomb in that much bombed area. I can see now the distress on
Fraser's face when he told me of the casualty. There were many other
gallant four-footed friends who paid the toll of war there. If "the
men both good and wise" are right we may yet hope "to give them joyous
greeting when we pass the Golden Gate."

And so we come to the return journey, back again to the 4th Army Corps.
I am glad to say my own especial pets, a very handsome pair of blacks
in "A" Battery 310 Brigade, survived the bombs, and before long another
battle and the beginning of the glorious end.

Indeed, had we but realised it at the time, the beginning had come, and
we had participated in it, one of the only four British Divisions which
had had the luck of that honour.

It was shortly after our return from Rheims that I left the 62nd
Division for the 9th Army Corps, so I cannot speak from actual
experience of the thrilling excitement and glorious successes which the
Division achieved in the 2nd taking of Havrincourt, and in the other
great battles which brought this long war to a triumphant conclusion.
(I left just after the York and Lancasters made that thrilling bayonet
charge in company with the King's Company of the Grenadier Guards on
the heights near Mory.)

But the story of these culminating triumphs is told in the pages of
this book, and it only remains for me to offer one or two remarks.

Three things, among others, seem to me to be especially worthy of note:
the endurance of the personnel, the youth of the officers in command of
batteries, the efficiency of the Territorial gunner and driver.

How often do we see the phrase, "The Infantry were withdrawn for a
rest, the Artillery remaining, as usual, in the line covering the --th
Division."

The periodical reliefs of Divisions hardly affected the gunner at all.
It was a marvel to me how the various Divisional Artilleries managed
to "stick it out." A day or two in the wagon lines now and then seemed
all that was necessary to restore officers and men to full vigour and
activity again. It was a triumph of endurance.

As the war progressed battery commanders became younger and younger. I
remember once congratulating an officer on gaining command of a six-gun
battery--he had just "put up" his crowns--and making some remark on his
age, to be met with the retort, "I'm not so very young, Sir, I'm nearly
21."

I wonder what would have been thought of the prophet who, in 1913, had
predicted that batteries would be commanded in the greatest of all wars
by men of "nearly 21"!

I well remember, some years before the war, when the Territorial Force
was first evolved, the utter scepticism expressed of the Territorial
ever being able to be made into a gunner. Infantry yes, but gunners--!
And a distinguished Colonel Commandant R.A., of the old school, told
me, during 1916, that Territorial Force gunners might be all right
during trench warfare, but that it was absurd to think that Territorial
Force drivers would ever be able to bring the guns into position in
a war of movement. The advance of the batteries to Graincourt at the
Battle of Cambrai, the changes of position on the Ardre, and 100 other
instances prove the fallacy of such gloomy prognostications.

Properly trained and instructed--and the 62nd Divisional Artillery was
that--Territorial Force gunners and drivers proved themselves equal to
all tasks set them. Higher praise it is impossible to bestow.

In the concluding paragraph of his book, Colonel Anderson writes of
"the brotherhood of officers and men" and of "steadfast and loyal
comradeship."

It was these virtues fostered and encouraged by men like the writer
of this book, David Sherlock, Bedwell, Gadie, Woodcock, Lindsell,
FitzGibbon, and many others, which enabled the 62nd Divisional
Artillery to triumph over all obstacles, to achieve its deeds of
valour, and to gain its brilliant successes for the glory of England
and to the eternal honour of Yorkshiremen.

  WALTER BRAITHWAITE,
  _Lieut.-General_.

  (A former Commander of the
  62nd (West Riding) Division, T.F.)

  _February 7th, 1920._



CHAPTER I

THE FIRST ADVANCE

  "_Come, join in the only battle
    Wherein no man can fail,
  Where whoso fadeth and dieth
    Yet his deed shall still prevail._"

  WILLIAM MORRIS.


[Sidenote: Jan. 1917.]

On the 23rd December, 1916, the 62nd Division received orders to embark
for France. The artillery, which was billeted in Northampton, was
conveyed from Southampton to Havre on the 6th and 7th January, 1917,
and thence railed to the concentration area at and around Wavans,
near Auxi-le-Chateau. The weather was of the worst type that January
can give, alternate frost and thaw and bitterly cold, and we began to
experience at once the distressing conditions of mud and slush, which
were to be so normal a feature in this and the two following winters in
France and Belgium.

On the 17th January the 310th and 312th Brigades sent off one section
per battery by motor lorry to be attached to the 19th Division, then in
the firing line, for training preliminary to taking over finally their
part of the line. It was a snowy, uncomfortable sort of day, and the
lorries were, as so often happened, late in arriving, with the result
that the detachments did not get started on their journey till about 3
p.m., and arrived at their destination after dark. Sections from the
311th Brigade followed the next day.

On the 23rd the Divisional Artillery marched to Auteuil and Amplieu,
and remained in billets there for the next few days, the headquarters
being at Bus-les-Artois. The first gunner casualty took place on the
24th, a gunner of the 312th Brigade being wounded on that day while
attached to the 19th Division.

The next few days were spent by the Staffs of Headquarters and
Brigades in inspecting the positions to be occupied by batteries
in the neighbourhood of Courcelles, Mailly-mailly, Colincamps, and
Engelbelmer, and in reconnoitring the observation posts on the high
ground north of Beaumont Hamel. This village, like so many that we were
now to become acquainted with, had been so thoroughly destroyed by
shell fire, our own and that of the enemy, that one might easily have
passed through it without realising that there had ever been a village
there. All the ground in its neighbourhood was so deeply pitted with
shell craters that it was almost impossible for a foot passenger even
to find a pathway through them, there being rarely more than an inch
or two of the original ground between each. The mud was, moreover,
indescribable, and there was not only a risk of being badly bogged, but
cases even occurred of men being engulphed and drowned in the viscous
mud of a shell crater, and two of our artillery horses lost their lives
in this way.

[Sidenote: Feb. 1917.]

On the night of the 1st February the 310th Brigade, and one battery of
the 311th, went into action near Auchonvillers and Engelbelmer, and a
few days later helped to support an attack by the 63rd Division, when
the enemy was driven out of a part of the Pusieux trench and thereby
forced to evacuate Grandcourt.

On the 10th the same batteries supported the 32nd Division in a
successful assault on Ten Tree Alley; on this occasion we had the first
casualty among our officers, Capt. H. C. Lasbrey being severely wounded.

The remainder of the batteries took over their positions in action
from the 7th Division on the 11th and 12th February, as did our
infantry during the following two days; and on the 15th I took over the
artillery command. After a period of intense cold, during which the
temperature fell below zero one night, a thaw set in this day, and the
mud difficulty again became acute. Early on the 17th the 63rd Division
on our immediate right attacked and captured the Swan trench north of
Grandcourt, taking about 100 prisoners. The 311th Brigade did good work
in this successful little operation, and I got a special message of
thanks for their help from the G.O.C. 2nd Corps.

Arrangements were now in progress for a fresh attack, and, new
positions having being selected on the western outskirts of Beaumont
Hamel, the first sections of all the batteries moved into them on the
21st. The remainder was preparing to follow when, on the morning of
Saturday, the 24th February, our patrols discovered that the enemy had
vacated his line. The 5th Corps, to which we belonged, at once began
a cautious advance, and on the 25th had occupied Serre and Miraumont,
while the Division on our right pressed on into Pys. Strenuous efforts,
which none who took part in them are likely to forget, were now made
to push forward the guns, although the one road through Beaucourt to
Miraumont was all but impassable. Officers and men worked with a will,
and by the 28th all batteries were in action at the Bois d'Hollande and
Baillescourt, while one section of the Ammunition Column was advanced
to the neighbourhood of Hamel. Major R. C. Williams was wounded on this
date, and had to leave us, a great loss to the Divisional Artillery.

[Sidenote: March 1917.]

It was now established that the Boche was holding the line
Bucquoy--Achiet-le-Petit--Loupart, and it became necessary to advance
the guns to closer range. Positions were accordingly reconnoitred in
and around Miraumont, and every endeavour was made to occupy them as
quickly as possible. By the 3rd of March most of the batteries were in
their new positions, and the front infantry line on that date ran along
the dry ditch from the East of Pusieux to the railway line about a mile
N.E. of Miraumont. During the next week the forward move was completed
in the face of indescribable difficulties. On the 3rd March, Lieut. H.
A. Sabelli, and on the 5th Lieut. E. W. Jephson, were wounded, and two
more officers were hit on the 6th, Lieuts. R. Holburn and J. MacIlroy.
Major Swain had a fortunate escape; when his battery got into Miraumont
he took up his quarters in a German dug-out, which boasted the luxury
of a fireplace. His servant was about to light a fire, when Swain told
him that he needn't bother about it that night. Next morning the man
was laying the fire when he noticed a bit of wire; closer investigation
showed a length of quick-match fastened to the wire and leading to
a hole under the dug-out, in which was packed sufficient explosive
to have blown the whole place sky-high. On the 5th, Divisional
Headquarters moved to Engelsart, a hutted camp between Engelbelmer and
Martinsart.

Miraumont was a particularly dangerous and unpleasant spot; the Bosche
kept it continually under shell-fire, and also bespattered freely the
one road which formed our communication with it. This road ran for
over half-a-mile in full view of the enemy, and was in such a shocking
state of disrepair that all ammunition had to be brought up on pack
saddles, each horse or mule carrying eight rounds. The country on each
side was such a slough of despond that it was generally impossible for
pack animals to leave the road, and as all movements had to take place
at night, the ammunition supply was a very serious problem. At least
4000 rounds were required for daily consumption, and I find in my diary
that 1600 horse loads were sent up on the night of the 4th, in batches
of 25 animals at ten minutes interval, and that only one man was hit
in the process, although the road was constantly under fire. There was
very little rest for any of the drivers, whether of the D.A.C. or of
the batteries, and their zeal, endurance, and good temper were beyond
all praise.

  Just before the road enters Miraumont a sunken road runs to the
  left, honeycombed with dug-outs and occupied by one of our Infantry
  Brigade Headquarters; and on the right a steep path leads down into
  the valley. Here the three Colonels have their precarious shelters;
  sometimes things may be quiet for a short breathing space--more
  often they are just the reverse. On the 11th, all through the
  afternoon, and right on through the night, shells were exploding
  in this part of the valley on an average of one every two minutes.
  Not much damage was done, but the strain of it may be imagined on
  the nerves of those who have to live there without any adequate
  cover. The village is utterly destroyed, but has not disappeared.
  Walls and ruins still stand, sometimes as high as ten feet or so,
  and the streets are distinguishable. But it is not good to linger
  in them. Almost unceasingly in one part or another of the skeleton
  village shells scream and crash, raking the streets with bullets
  and splinters, and hurling bricks and beams in every direction.
  Here are to be found Swain's, Foot's, Bigg's, Arnold Forster's,
  Hudson's, and Robinson's batteries, the others being outside in the
  scarcely less dangerous outskirts of the village.

During the fighting in Miraumont, the losses in the Artillery amounted
to 6 officers (Capt. F. H. Seeman gassed, in addition to those already
mentioned) and about 70 other ranks, while a great many horses and
mules were killed; nine guns were knocked out by Artillery fire. The
strain on officers and men was very great; and although the latter
were able to get some slight respite from danger, though not from
hard work, by taking an occasional spell at the wagon lines, it was
difficult to give any relief to the officers. I therefore started an
experiment which was a great success for the short time in which it was
possible for it to remain in operation. One of the less ruined houses
in Mailly-mailly was commandeered and roughly fitted up as a rest house
in charge of one of the trench mortar officers, the mortars not yet
having been brought into action. It was arranged that three officers at
a time should be accommodated here for a clear three days and nights,
during which they would have nothing to do but take it easy and recoup
themselves, away from the noise and stress of battle. The change
was greatly appreciated by the few officers who were able to avail
themselves of it before a further advance put an end to the scheme.

Irles was captured by the 18th Division, supported by our artillery, on
the 10th March, and on the 14th the enemy was driven out of Grevillers
and Loupart Wood. A plan of attack on Achiet-le-Petit was now drawn
up, to take place at dawn on the 18th. Our preliminary bombardment,
however, which began on the 16th and went on through the night, was too
much for the Boche, and on the morning of Saturday the 17th March our
infantry patrols entered the village and found it unoccupied. News came
through the day of further successes. Bapaume had fallen, and Bucquoy,
Biefvillers and Bihucourt were all in our possession. Hopes ran high,
and there was general excitement and delight. Once more the batteries
were ordered to push on as quickly as possible, and they moved forward
into positions close to Achiet-le-Petit. The 7th Division now passed
through us, and for a short time the 62nd Division ceased to take
an active part in the fighting, though still continuing to advance.
Advanced guards occupied Courcelles and Gomiecourt on the 18th, and the
Lucknow Cavalry Brigade pressed on further and hung on to the heels of
the retreating enemy. On the 21st, D/312 advanced at dawn and joined
the 7th Division advanced guard at Ervillers, to help them in an attack
on Croisilles, which the Boche was still holding. On this occasion we
had our first officer killed, Lieut. C. W. Pullan; a shell burst in the
observation post near St. Leger, from which he was gallantly directing
the fire of his battery. A/312 and C/312 went into action the same day
between Ervillers and St. Leger, also with the 7th Division, while the
310th Brigade remained in positions of readiness near Logeast Wood.

The 311th Brigade was withdrawn from the line on the 22nd March, on
being converted into an Army Brigade, and marched from Engelbelmer on
the 24th, en route for an area in the North. It was with great regret
that I said farewell to this most efficient brigade, which, under the
able command of Lieut.-Colonel A. Gadie, had done consistently good
service, and had always given evidence of the finest fighting spirit
under the most trying conditions.

On the 27th March the 310th Brigade moved up into action in support of
the 7th Division before Croisilles, and were followed four days later
by B/312, so that all batteries were then again active.

[Sidenote: April 1917.]

On the 1st April, Divisional Headquarters moved to Achiet-le-Grand,
and next day, to the accompaniment of a blizzard of snow, the 7th
Division captured the villages of Croisilles and Ecoust, supported by
the 62nd Divisional Artillery in addition to their own guns. In this
fight Lieut. E. W. F. Jephson was awarded the Military Cross for the
following act of gallantry:--

"On the 2nd April, 1917, during an attack on Ecoust, this officer
was sent forward with an orderly to reconnoitre for an O.P. On his
way forward two runners of the Gordon Highlanders were fired at by a
German sniper in a post. One was shot dead. The other runner, Lieut.
Jephson, and orderly procured bombs from some wounded men, and crept
up to the post from behind some fallen trees, and bombed the sniper,
severely wounding him. Lieut. Jephson then went on through Ecoust with
the orderly, when he discovered sniping from his right rear. He then
returned another way and saw three Germans running into a cellar, which
he approached. After he had fired some revolver shots into the cellar,
they came out when ordered. One of these prisoners was taken off as
a guide to the infantry, the other two being brought back by Lieut.
Jephson. He did good work at the O.P. previous to moving forward out
of Ecoust."

The enemy was now firmly posted in his much advertised Hindenburg Line,
and as he showed every intention of holding on to it after his long
retreat, it became necessary to get all batteries forward to within
about 2500 yards range, in order to start wire cutting. The Ecoust
valley area was apportioned to my artillery, and the batteries began
to occupy positions there on the 3rd April. This was a work of great
difficulty and danger as the approaches were in view of the enemy, and
the positions themselves were barely concealed. As the first section of
B/312 were coming into action a shell completely knocked out one of the
detachments, killing five men and wounding three.

On the 5th our infantry again went into the line, and I took over
command of the artillery, which included, in addition to my own
brigades, the 7th D.A., the 16th R.H.A. Brigade, and an Anzac Brigade.
That afternoon a mine exploded in Mory, killing one and wounding two
of my men, and also wounding some artillery mules. In the evening a
similar mine went off in Ervillers with disastrous effect, killing
five and wounding seven men of D/312. These mines, which we often met
with later, were worked by a corrosive acid, acting on a wire holding
a spring hammer; when the acid had eaten through the wire, which might
be within a period ranging from a few hours to several weeks, according
to the relative strengths of the acid and the wire, the hammer struck a
detonator, and the mine exploded; a typically Hunnish method of warfare.

For the next few days guns were actively employed in wire cutting, and
the enemy responded by a vigorous shelling of the valley. Capt. J.
Willey and 14 men of B/310 were wounded on the 7th, and between the 6th
and the 9th three other officers were hit, Major F. A. Arnold Forster,
and Lieuts. P. K. B. Reynolds and H. C. Ashby. Five Military Medals
were awarded for gallant work on these days.

On the 9th April the Third and First Armies on our left began a big
forward movement, to be known as the Battle of Arras, and by the
evening of the 13th they were in possession of the Vimy Ridge and the
whole of the Wancourt branch of the Hindenburg Line, and had taken
about 16,000 prisoners, together with a large number of guns and
mortars. Our share in the operations was to make holding attacks and to
keep as many of the enemy as possible glued to our front. One of the
trench mortar batteries, V/62, was lent to the 51st Division, and took
part in the capture of the Vimy Ridge. On the last day of the battle
C/312 suffered heavily, losing the Sergeant-Major, three Sergeants, and
four other ranks killed, eight men wounded and four guns knocked out.

Capt. G. L. C. Hudson was wounded on the 13th, and Lieut. K. B.
Nicholson on the 14th; the latter officer was awarded the Military
Cross for the following services:

"On the 13th April, 1917, Lieut. K. B. Nicholson entered a dug-out
in which both a gas shell and a high explosive shell had burst, and
bravely attempted to save the men inside. Later on in the day, though
suffering from the effects of the gas, he went to the O.P. with the
Battery Commander, and while under heavy shell fire volunteered to go
back over the wire, thereby keeping up communication with the battery.
The following day, while still suffering from the gas, he again
repaired to the O.P. under heavy gas fire, remaining there until he was
finally wounded in the head by a fragment of high explosive shell. By
his actions on the days under review this gallant officer showed a fine
example of devotion to duty."

Our casualties in the artillery up to this date amounted to 14 officers
and about 150 other ranks.

My command was now largely increased, with a view to further
operations, by the addition of the 11th and the 58th Divisional
Artilleries, which went into action near St. Leger and Ecoust
respectively. This brought the artillery with the 62nd Division to a
strength of 180 18-pounder guns and 48 howitzers.

Early on the 15th the Huns made a determined counter-attack against
the Australian Division on our right. At first it was completely
successful; the enemy broke through as far as Noreuil and Lagnicourt,
and for a short time was actually in possession of two brigades of
the Australian artillery. At about 8 a.m., however, the Anzacs made a
magnificent recovery, and hurled the enemy back to his original line,
retaking their guns and capturing about 400 prisoners. Over a thousand
German corpses were left on the field. While all this was going on
my batteries were subjected to heavy shell fire, and suffered many
casualties. In one of the batteries of the 58th Division the losses
were particularly severe, three officers being killed and one wounded.
I sent one of the brigades of the 11th Division to reinforce the Anzacs
directly the attack commenced, and this was retained after the battle,
and therefore left my command.

On the 16th Lieut.-Colonel F. A. Woodcock arrived to command the
D.A.C. vice Lieut.-Colonel F. Mitchell, who had gone to England.

For some time past the weather had been very inclement, and the
unvarying cold and damp, added to the strain of heavy work and constant
danger night and day, was having its inevitable effect on the physical
powers, though not on the fighting spirit, of the officers and men
behind the guns; and, it should be added, of the officers and men of
the D.A.C., whose work in these operations had been of a most strenuous
and perilous nature.

  The men fall asleep while working at the guns. For nine or ten
  weeks now they have worked without a rest, and it is a question
  whether human endurance can go much further. They fire day and
  night, and when not firing they are staggering through the mud
  carrying up ammunition; they have no shelter except what they can
  dig in the ground, and no sooner have they dug a resting place than
  the batteries have to move to a fresh position. And the weather
  is beyond words abominable. If it isn't raining it's snowing, and
  it's impossible to keep anything dry; nothing but cold, squalor,
  and hideous discomfort. And yet they stick it out with the utmost
  courage and cheerfulness, and fight splendidly.

It was impossible to relieve the artillery as a whole, but as it was
now decided to make no serious attack for at least a fortnight, I
obtained authority to keep 50 per cent. of my command at rest in the
wagon lines during this period, and this measure did something to
relieve the strain. The horses, too, had suffered severely; about five
per cent. had been killed, and ten per cent. had died of over work and
debility, twenty per cent. having been sent away for the same reason.
As the Veterinary authorities, who naturally knew more of the condition
of the animals than of the circumstances which had brought them into
so low a state, showed a disposition to attribute the state of affairs
to indifferent horsemastership, I was glad when the Army Commander,
Sir H. de la P. Gough, inspected my wagon lines on the 21st April. He
expressed himself as perfectly satisfied with all he saw, and was most
cordial and pleasant. It was a great relief to Brigade and Battery
Commanders, who had been much harassed during a time of great anxiety
by the criticisms referred to above, to know that the Army Commander
had now seen for himself that everything possible was being done.

For the rest of the month little occurred of special interest;
preparations were being made for a further attack against the
Hindenburg Line, and meanwhile the now familiar form of trench warfare
was carried on from trenches about 200 yards apart. The Ecoust Valley
was still a far from healthy spot, though batteries improved their
cover day by day by incessant building and digging; and at times the
Boche turned his attention to the wagon lines as well. On the 18th the
310th lines were badly shelled, when two men were killed and seven
wounded, and several horses were lost. Lieut. G. P. Senior was wounded
(gassed) on the 24th, and on the 28th four more officers were hit,
Lieuts. C. T. Lutyens, S. C. Ball, R. Forrest, and J. W. Proctor. Five
Military Medals were awarded during this period, and the Military Cross
was gained by Lieut. J. C. F. Nowill.

"On the evening of the 26th April, 1917, near Ecoust, the camouflage
covering a large ammunition dump at the battery position was set
ablaze by hostile shell fire. Lieut. Nowill, single-handed, removed
the burning mass from the dump and extinguished it, at very great
personal danger from the burning ammunition which was exploding in
large quantities. By his gallantry and prompt action he undoubtedly
stopped the explosions from spreading through the whole dump."

On the 25th, Lieut.-Colonel G. R. V. Kinsman, D.S.O., left, much to
the regret of us all, to take up the duty of Artillery Instructor at
Shoeburyness; he was succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel D. J. C. Sherlock,
D.S.O.

Now, and afterwards, efforts were constantly being made by which to
vary the monotony of trench warfare, and to make things more lively
for the Huns; as an example, I select the following instance. On the
27th April, at a given time, two howitzer batteries put "stops" on
selected portions of the enemy's support line about 200 yards apart.
Then on the trench thus enclosed three batteries opened a rapid fire
of gas and smoke shell, the object being to smoke the occupants out of
their dug-outs. After five minutes of this treatment two more batteries
opened with shrapnel on the only trench which could be used by the
enemy if he tried to escape to the rear--this, of course, in the hope
of getting some of them as they retired. The whole thing went off like
clockwork, and the fire was most accurate. As to the amount of damage
done, that must remain a matter of conjecture, as it was impossible to
see into the trenches. In this case, as always in such experiments, one
could but hope for the best.

[Sidenote: May 1917.]

All arrangements having been made for an attack on Bullecourt under
an artillery barrage, Divisional Headquarters moved up on the 2nd May
to an advanced position north of Ervillers. The attack was launched
early on the 3rd as part of a big operation in which altogether
fourteen divisions took part. Our infantry advanced under a barrage
at 3.45 a.m., and broke through the Hindenburg Line at Bullecourt.
The enemy was, however, in great strength, and his position was an
extraordinarily formidable one. Although our men managed to get through
and beyond the village, they were then checked by numerous machine guns
firing from concrete emplacements, and were finally forced back again
through Bullecourt by a strong counter-attack. The Division suffered
very heavy losses, and the results of the battle did not come up to
our high expectations; but, none the less, substantial progress had
been made, and at the end of the action we were able to hold on to and
consolidate a good slice of the village of Bullecourt, together with
about 2000 yards of the Hindenburg front line to the east of it. It
was hard that our first battle should have been so costly in life and
so apparently unfruitful in results, but our sorely tried infantry had
proved their mettle, and had shown that magnificent spirit in the face
of appalling odds which, in the Homeric battles which were still to
come, was so often to spur them on to victory.

Lieut. C. Punchard was wounded (gas) on the 7th, and Lieuts. G.
H. Kitson and C. V. Montgomery were wounded on the 12th and 13th
respectively.

On the 14th May there was a readjustment of the line, the 7th Division
taking over the Bullecourt front and the Hindenburg trench to the
South-East, while the 62nd Division became responsible for the sector
from Bullecourt for about 2400 yards to the North-West. This entailed
a general shuffle of the artillery, my own brigades coming under the
7th Division, while the guns of the 7th remained under my command.
On this same night the 310th Brigade was subjected to a more than
usually heavy bombardment; over two thousand gas shells fell among the
batteries, and we lost five gunners killed, and about 12 wounded. On
the 15th, Lieuts. A. J. Edwards and E. W. Jephson were wounded, the
latter for the second time.

On the 16th May, Lieut.-Colonel E. P. Bedwell left the Division,
invalided home. His services had been invaluable, and I fully shared
the sorrow which all ranks of his brigade felt at his departure. He
had trained and commanded this brigade, the 312th, from the earliest
days of its formation, and might fairly claim to have made it; it must
have been a great satisfaction to him to see how well its performances
in France had repaid his care. I am glad to say that he recovered his
health and was able to take his place again in the fighting line later
on, though not in the 62nd Division. Major F. H. Lister took over the
command of the brigade, with the acting rank of Lieut.-Colonel.

Both sides now settled down to deliberate trench warfare, a state
of things which entailed constant work of a dangerous and harassing
nature, but which furnished few outstanding incidents of sufficient
interest to be chronicled. On the 26th May a sad disaster occurred in
D/312 Howitzer Battery. The camouflage over one of the howitzers caught
fire and blazed up. It was merely a question of a few moments when the
flames should reach the ammunition and cause a terrible explosion,
but there was a slight chance of the fire being put out in time, and
Capt. H. B. Gallimore, who was temporarily commanding the battery, with
Lieut. G. Hardy and a party of N.C.O.'s and men, made a gallant attempt
to extinguish the flames. Unfortunately their efforts were vain, and
there was a tremendous explosion. Poor Gallimore was killed, and also
ten others (including all the six "Numbers One" of the battery), while
Hardy was dangerously wounded, and also five gunners more or less
severely. The loss of two such officers and six of the most valuable
N.C.O.'s was a very serious blow to D/312, but the splendid act of
devotion, in which they sacrificed their brave young lives, conferred
a lustre not only on their own battery, but on the whole of the
Divisional Artillery, and will not soon be forgotten. Hardy, unhappily,
died of his wounds on the 28th.

The casualties in the artillery up to this date had been:

  3 officers and 72 other ranks killed.
  23 officers and 256 other ranks wounded.

On the 29th May our infantry was withdrawn from the line for a rest,
and I therefore ceased to command the artillery tactically; it remained
in the line in support of the 58th Division.

It was a great disappointment to me that the artillery could not be
withdrawn for a rest after all its strenuous work since coming into
action. The promise of rest in the near future had long been dangled
before our eyes, but the plain fact was that guns _could_ not be
spared from the firing line, and although the Commander-in-Chief, in
a confidential circular issued about this time, showed that he "fully
realised the untiring energy of the artillery during the first half of
the year," still he was unable to hold out any hopes of relaxation,
and could only "rely upon all ranks to continue their good work
ungrudgingly." His reliance was well founded, for all ranks accepted
the situation loyally, and learned now, and I may add for the rest of
the war, to do without rest, and to "stick it" somehow or other even
when it might have been truly said that

              "there was nothing in them
  "Except the will that said to them, Hold on."

I think that all realised the impossibility of reducing the number
of guns in front of the enemy, and one scarcely ever heard a word of
grumbling, but it is well that the fact should be placed on record
that the artillery practically never got a rest. Their work was not
perhaps so much in the public eye as that of their gallant comrades
in the infantry, nor did they experience as a rule the same extremes
of danger, but it should be remembered that, while the latter were
periodically withdrawn from the danger zone after about eight days in
the trenches to rest billets miles behind the firing line, the men
behind the guns endured the dirt and discomfort of the trenches for
months at a time, were never safe day or night from hostile shell fire,
and were constantly hard at work. Only perhaps those who have actually
served in a battery in war-time can realise the amount of hard work and
nerve strain involved in keeping up even the normal programme of day
and night firing, the map readings and calculations to be worked out by
the officers in a damp dug-out by the light of a guttering candle, the
long spells of duty to be endured by the weak gun detachments always
under strength through sickness and casualties, the heart-breaking and
back-breaking labours of keeping up the ammunition supply, and with
it all the constant sense of an ever-brooding danger. That all sorts
and conditions of men should have endured this kind of existence for
several years, cheerfully and without a murmur, seems to me a more
wonderful phenomenon than even the most dramatic act of individual
gallantry.

The following honours were announced on the 30th May:--

  Major G. Fleming, Legion of Honour.
  Major G. A. Swain, Croix de Guerre.



CHAPTER II

JUNE TO OCTOBER, 1917. TRENCH WARFARE

  "The thundering line of battle stands,
    And in the air Death moans and sings."

  JULIAN GRENFELL.


[Sidenote: June 1917.]

In the next few weeks trench warfare pursued its monotonous
course--long periods, as it has been aptly said, of unutterable boredom
varied by moments of inexpressible terror--but June was, on the
whole, the quietest month the Division had in France. On the 15th the
Divisional Headquarters at Achiet-le-Grand was shelled by a 15-inch
gun firing from a range of about 20 miles. Two or three shells burst
within 50 yards of our mess, but the only casualties were one of my
clerks and my Reconnaissance Officer Anderson's servant, both slightly
wounded. On the 19th orders came for the Division to go into the line
again, relieving the 20th Division on the front opposite Riencourt and
Quéant, a side slip of a mile or two to the right of our old position.
The artillery were all in their new positions by the 22nd, on which
date I reassumed command, moving my headquarters to the Monument Camp
on the Sapignies-Bapaume road.

I received the following letter from the G.O.C.R.A. 58th Division:--

  "The B.G.R.A. 58th Division wishes to express his gratitude and
  appreciation to all ranks of the 62nd Divisional Artillery, whom he
  has had the honour to have under his command during the past month.

  "Despite heavy shelling of their positions and continual firing
  night and day, they have never failed to respond quickly and
  efficiently to every call which he has made upon them, and it has
  been largely due to their excellent and energetic shooting that the
  operations which have just concluded have attained the measure of
  success which has come their way.

  "All ranks of the 58th Divisional Artillery unite in thanking the
  62nd Divisional Artillery for all their help, and wish them the
  best of luck.

  "E. J. R. PEEL,
  "_Brig.-General_."

The 310th Brigade were now in positions in the Noreuil Valley, which
had been given not inaptly the name of the Valley of Death, and the
312th in the neighbourhood of Lagnicourt. Early in the morning of the
25th they supported a successful little raid made by our infantry
on the Boche front line south of Riencourt. No prisoners were taken
unfortunately, but the infantry found several dead bodies, killed by
our artillery fire.

We now began to get the trench mortars into action. Up till this time
they had not had much chance of proving their value, although the
personnel had done much useful work in helping the D.A.C. with the
ammunition supply. They were now to take up their legitimate rôle in
the front trenches.

On the 26th D/312 underwent a severe shelling, but although two
howitzers were badly hit, no men were hurt.

About this time I used often to go round the O.P.'s in my spare time,
and to test the quickness of the different batteries in getting off
a round on a trial call of S.O.S. I considered it distinctly good if
a battery opened fire within 40 seconds of getting the call, but as
time went on most of them became extraordinarily quick to answer, and
I well remember my satisfaction when, during a walk round the O.P.'s
in company with General Benson, Commanding the 5th Corps Artillery, we
tried a few S.O.S. tests, and one of my batteries got off the answering
round in 17 seconds. I think that the record time was nine seconds, the
battery that reached it being C/310, then in position in the Noreuil
Valley.

[Sidenote: July 1917.]

On the 2nd July I was returning from one of these tours, and, calling
on my way back at the 310th Brigade Headquarters, which were then in
a sunken road just N.W. of Noreuil, I found that a few minutes before
my arrival a 4.2-inch shell had penetrated and burst inside a small
shelter in the trench, killing four men and wounding three--all, of my
special little R.A.R.E. company. The place was a shambles when I went
into it. It was a particularly distressing affair, as there was a good
and equally handy dug-out just beside the one that had suffered, fit
to withstand any number of 4.2-inch shells; and these poor fellows had
selected a place with no more protection than a corrugated iron roof.

I have not mentioned the R.A.R.E. company before. It was an
unauthorised formation, not to be found, that is to say, in any
official manual, and was made up of eight sappers from the Divisional
R.E., together with about ten men from each brigade and from the
D.A.C. The company was thus brought up to an establishment of about
40 men, and was commanded by a Royal Engineer officer. We called it
the R.A.R.E. Company, and its duties were to supervise generally the
work of building gun emplacements, stables, shelters, dug-outs, etc.,
and to carry out itself any works demanding skilled labour. I was most
fortunate in being given the services of Lieut. E. B. Hammond, M.C.,
R.E., as its first commander. He took the keenest interest in his work
and inspired all his men with his own zeal and energy; and his cheery
personality, and unfailing tact and good humour ensured him a warm
welcome from every battery he visited, and the cordial co-operation,
moreover, of those who, at the inception of the scheme, might have
been inclined to resent the taking away of even a few men from their
depleted batteries. It did not take long to convince any such doubters
of the immense utility of this small body of men. From working with
the eight skilled sappers, the gunners and drivers furnished from the
brigades gradually became skilled workers themselves, and the company
proved such an invaluable addition to my command from this date until
the final breaking up of the division in the Army of Occupation, that
I do not know how the D.A. could ever have got on without it. It was
a great blow when Hammond left us in January, 1918, on appointment as
Adjutant R.E., but our luck still held good, and the work was carried
on most efficiently by Lieut. C. L. Clarson, M.C., his successor.

On the 5th July Lieut.-Colonel Lister left the Division on appointment
to the Staff at G.H.Q., and was succeeded in command of the 312th
Brigade by Lieut.-Colonel A. T. Lough, who joined on the 9th.

Major-General W. P. Braithwaite, our Divisional Commander, inspected
the D.A.C. on the 7th. The General always took the greatest interest in
his artillery, and was a constant visitor to one or other of the units,
and I only mention this particular occasion because I noted at the
time, and well remember, what a really splendid turn-out we saw that
day. I don't believe there was a better ammunition column in France.
Lieut.-Colonel Woodcock, though not an old Regular officer himself,
shared to the full the conviction held by most Regulars, that the
smartest and best turned out troops are almost invariably the hardest
workers and the best fighters, that in fact the one virtue leads
automatically to the other. He had the happy knack, too, of getting the
last ounce of work out of his subordinates without any unpleasantness
in the process. In writing a record of artillery work it is inevitable
that the performances of the batteries which do the actual fighting
should come in for more frequent mention than the less showy, but
equally indispensable and arduous, services of the D.A.C. Let me take
this opportunity, therefore, of recording that the 62nd D.A.C. never
failed me. As the war went on the daily expenditure of ammunition grew
greater and greater, and at times the demands made on the column seemed
almost impossible of fulfilment. Yet I can recall no instance when
the amount of ammunition required was not punctually to hand. Colonel
Woodcock was fortunate in his three Section Commanders, Captains
Fraser, Kewley, and (for the greater part of the war) Edmondson. They
were always cheery and willing, however difficult and depressing the
circumstances might be, and they infected the N.C.O.'s and men under
their command with the same spirit of cheeriness and good-will.

At about this date the 5th Corps Staff left, and was replaced by that
of the 6th, to which corps we consequently now belonged.

Lieut. J. A. Brown was wounded on the 7th, and Lieut. R. L. Pickard on
the 11th July.

V/62 (Trench Mortar Battery), which had recently gone into action near
Bullecourt, took part in some successful minor operations towards the
end of July, at Hargicourt and Epehy, with the 34th and 35th Divisions
respectively, and had three men wounded.

During the second half of July the activity of the hostile artillery
increased considerably. On the 17th three officers were wounded,
Lieuts. H. C. O. Lawrie, E. H. Vanderpump, and T. B. Wills, and three
guns of B/310 were put out of action. On the next day the Noreuil
Valley again came in for a severe shelling, chiefly directed on the
advanced section of A/310, which had one of its guns knocked out, but
no casualties in its personnel.

The Army Commander, Sir Julian Byng, visited some of the batteries in
the right sector on the 19th, and also one or two of the O.P.'s. He
expressed himself as much pleased with all he saw.

On the 22nd A/312 was heavily shelled in its position just west of
Lagnicourt, and had two guns put out of action. C/312 was bombarded
the same night for several hours in the village of Morchies; not much
harm was done, but the guns were shifted next day to a garden in
the village which afforded better cover from the view of the Boche
observation balloons. Morchies showed signs of having once been as
pretty a village as could be seen in France, and must have been a
charming spot before the Boche left his obscene trail there. At
this time it was a shameful ruin, wantonly and brutally destroyed
by the Huns when they retired through it a few months before. The
numerous fruit trees had all been barked or uprooted, and most of the
destruction in the village, both indoors and out, had obviously been
done purposely and malignantly, and not by our, or the enemy's, shell
fire. Of course this was only one out of hundreds of such cases, but
Morchies must have once been so pretty and simple, and so aloof, that
one felt an especial sense of outrage in seeing the hateful treatment
to which it had been subjected. I used to wish that some of our
pacifists could be brought out to see it.

On the 24th A/310 was again plentifully bespattered with shell, but
so well were the guns and detachments protected that the net result
of several hours bombardment was only two men wounded, and one gun
wheel broken. Fortunately we were able to spot one of the batteries
responsible for these recent annoyances, and on the 25th July Major
Foot's battery, D/310, engaged this 5.9-inch battery with aeroplane
observation. The shoot was a very successful one; several direct hits
on the guns were recorded, and two emplacements were blown up with
their ammunition. As a rule the batteries that annoyed us were firing
from such a long range that they had to be dealt with by our heavy
artillery, and it was a great satisfaction to us all when we were able
to have a smack at them ourselves.

[Sidenote: Aug. 1917.]

On the 3rd August the Division made a side slip to the left, our left
sector now becoming our right; for the new left sector we took over
the rather unpleasant piece of trench (the old Hindenburg line) which
ran from due south of Riencourt to about 500 yards west of Bullecourt,
and which included the latter village. On this readjustment the 35th
Brigade, of the 7th Division, was added to my command, in positions in
the Ecoust valley. I moved two batteries of the 312th Brigade across
into the same valley, while A and C/312 remained on the Lagnicourt side
temporarily.

About this time we heard from a prisoner that part of the artillery
acting against our front was the 49th Field Artillery Regiment; "but
we call it," he said, "the 48½th, because they never quite reach their
target, and are always firing into their own trenches." This was
satisfactory hearing; at the same time we were uncomfortably aware that
they managed to reach their targets rather more often than their own
infantry seemed to suppose.

Good news reached us on the 4th from the Ypres front of 6000 prisoners
having been taken and St. Julien occupied. Operations had, however,
been brought to a standstill in the north by the vile weather; really
it seemed as though the elements were always on the side of the Powers
of Darkness.

Lieut. A. G. Bennett was wounded on the 8th August.

On about this date one of my trench mortar batteries went into action
in Bullecourt.

  They are in a ruin in the middle of the village. You get to them by
  first entering an old cellar in another ruin, and then scrambling
  down a sloping tunnel to an underground chamber about 30 feet
  below the surface of the ground. Here the detachment live. Then you
  crawl up another tunnel, and emerge into the ruin which holds the
  mortar emplacements.

I think that the trench mortar batteries had, on the whole, while
they were in action, the most uncomfortable and dangerous job of any
troops in the line. The infantry, while recognising their great value,
objected not unnaturally to have such favourite objects of the enemy's
attentions in any position near their dug-outs or much frequented
trenches; and, as it was necessary that the mortars should be sited as
close as possible to the enemy's front line, and yet, for the above
reason, not too near the infantry, it followed that the only available
positions were usually in unpopular spots shunned by all who had any
choice in the matter, and generally bearing such significant titles as
Hell Fire Point, V.C. Corner, Deadman's Gulley, etc. The unfortunate
detachments lived underground for practically the whole of their
tour of duty, as it was often impossible to get to and from their
emplacements during the daylight; and, owing to shortage of men, their
tours of duty were generally two or three times as long as those of
the infantry. When I went to visit them, I could nearly always promise
myself an exciting walk with plenty of thrills in it. I retain lively
recollections of crawling with Lindsell or Anderson, guided by Powell,
the D.T.M.O., along shallow trenches, or places where trenches had been
before they were demolished, and finally diving down into the ground to
find ourselves, when the eyes got used to the subterranean darkness,
in the midst of a party of smiling jolly looking gunners. They were a
cheerful lot, and, after all, they had their compensations. There were
times when there was no scope for the use of trench mortars, and then
they would sometimes get a rest for several weeks at a time, in some
pleasant billet well back from the firing line; and when they did get
a rest, it was well deserved.

On the 11th August C/312 was accurately bombarded, and lost two men
killed and two wounded. The casualties up to this date amounted to

  3 officers and 80 other ranks killed.
  28 officers and 292 other ranks wounded.

C/310 came in for a tremendous bombardment on the 15th. For a long time
shells were bursting in the position at the rate of about two a minute,
chiefly 5.9-inch, varied by an occasional 8-inch. The detachments took
refuge in their deep dug-out, and were able to laugh at the Boche's
efforts, the effects of which were very slight considering the severity
of the bombardment. One gun was buried, but subsequently dug out
undamaged; another was blown out of its pit, but though the carriage
was knocked to atoms the piece itself was still quite serviceable. At
least 400 shells had fallen in and around the battery, and the ground
was churned up into huge craters, many dead bodies being exhumed from
their graves and scattered about. We felt that the Huns had not got
good value on this occasion for the four thousand pounds which, at the
very least, the expenditure of ammunition must have cost them.

On the 18th the 6th Corps held an admirably managed horse show
at Bihucourt, which gave great enjoyment to a large concourse of
officers and men. The artillery competitors came from six divisional
artilleries, and we were remarkably successful, gaining the following
events:--

  Tent-pegging for Officers--1st prize (Major Swain).
  Tent-pegging for other ranks--1st prize (B.S.M. Howes of the D.A.C.).
  Gun Team--3rd prize.
  Pair of Light Draught Horses--1st prize.
  G.S. Wagon and Pair--2nd prize.
  Team of Mules--3rd prize.

I may mention that all the three prizes for officers' chargers were
won by the division, going to Lieut.-Colonel Hore-Ruthven V.C.,
Major-General Braithwaite, and Lieut. C. Newman respectively; the
second of these was a particularly popular win.

By this time the science of protective building and digging had been
brought to a wonderful state of perfection in the batteries, as was
evidenced by the remarkably small number of casualties caused by the
enemy's constant shelling. Rarely a day passed but that the Noreuil and
Ecoust valleys were under fire, and the former valley in particular
presented an extraordinarily sinister appearance. It was thickly
pitted with deep shell craters along its whole length, and a casual
visitor would have found it hard to believe that any human beings
could go on living in such a shell-swept area. Further investigation
would however have shown that beneath all this desolation an active
and busy underground existence was being carried on. The gun positions
were camouflaged to appear like the surrounding ground, or disguised
to represents heaps of debris, and were generally strongly enough
protected to resist the impact of a 4.2-inch shell; and from every
position at least two stairways led deep down into the ground to a
network of passages and sleeping chambers from 30 to 40 feet below the
surface. Where all the positions were so good, it would be difficult
to discriminate between them, but perhaps the palm should be given
to D/310. The Battery Commander, Major R. C. Foot, was a mining
engineer by profession, and two of his subalterns, Lieuts. Currie and
Casey, had been students with him at the same engineering college;
their experience was of great value in a case of this sort, and their
scientifically constructed position in a sunken road just north-west of
Noreuil was a model of what a position should be, and was visited with
great interest by many senior officers of other divisions as well as of
our own.

Concealment from view was daily becoming more and more impossible.
The enemy's balloons were so numerous, and were poised at so great an
altitude, that very few depressions on the ground were deep enough to
conceal emplacements from one or another of them. But, in addition
to this, as the science of sound ranging was brought to greater and
greater perfection, concealment became less and less useful, and
overhead protection became the most important consideration. We
now adopted a practice which was henceforth followed when possible
throughout the war. Each battery had a main position, the guns of which
remained silent except in combined "strafes," when every gun in the
line was firing; when this happened the gun flashes were so numerous
and continuous along the whole front that it was almost impossible for
observers in the hostile balloons to take accurate bearings to any one
battery, and sound ranging also was impracticable. For the ordinary
routine shooting each battery kept an advanced section; this could be
moved with comparative ease if the Boche artillery should make the
position too hot, and in any case it is more difficult to spot two
guns than six, and harder to hit them when found.

On the 21st August B/310 and C/312 were bombarded for several hours by
5.9 and 8-inch howitzers; although a tremendous weight of metal was
poured into the positions, no material damage was done, and only two
men were wounded.

On the 23rd and 24th the 35th Brigade was withdrawn from my command,
and a readjustment of batteries had to be made. The 310th continued
to cover the right, or Noreuil, sector, and the left, or Bullecourt,
sector fell to the 312th. A/312 consequently moved from Lagnicourt
to the Ecoust Valley; to our great delight the Boche threw about 400
rounds into the empty position the day after the battery had cleared
out of it.

[Sidenote: Sept. 1917.]

On the 4th and 6th September the Noreuil valley was again heavily
shelled; on the first of these dates A/310 had two guns knocked out,
but suffered no loss to personnel; on the 6th the fire was directed
on B/310 and C/310; one man was killed and one wounded, but no damage
whatever was done to material. Capt. J. G. Robinson was awarded the
Military Cross in connection with the above:

"On the 4th September, near Vaulx, the battery position was very
heavily shelled. Capt. Robinson, having got his men into safety,
endeavoured to locate the hostile battery by compass bearing. Later on,
noticing that the camouflage of the two gun pits had caught fire, he,
with Sergt. Rider and Gunner Charlesworth, left cover, and proceeded
to extinguish the fires and to recover the gun pits with camouflage.
As the shelling continued and the dial sights had not been removed
from the guns, he again went out and removed four of them. All this was
done under very heavy fire and at great personal risk. He showed very
great gallantry and coolness, and set a fine example to the rest of the
battery."

On the 10th the trench mortars in Bullecourt carried out one of their
periodical bombardments of the Boche trenches and knocked them about
handsomely. The enemy turned a number of batteries of varying calibres
on to the mortar emplacements and put one mortar out of action.
Corporal W. Settle, who was in charge of one of the mortars, behaved
with great gallantry. He was almost buried by an explosion, and his
coat was literally riddled, with at least 30 rents and holes, though in
some miraculous way he escaped unwounded. In spite of this he stuck to
his work until the shoot was finished. He got the Military Medal, but,
to my great sorrow, was killed five days later at Cherisy.

At the beginning of September the G.S.O.I. of the Division,
Lieut.-Colonel the Hon. A. Hore-Ruthven V.C., left us on transfer to
the Guards Division, much to the regret of us all. He was succeeded by
a Gunner, Lieut.-Colonel C. R. Newman, D.S.O.

On the night of the 11th our infantry carried out a successful
little raid on the Star Cross Roads, about quarter of a mile S.W. of
Riencourt. The guns bombarded the trench from 11.10 to 11.15 p.m., and
then formed a box barrage round the cross roads for quarter of an hour,
while the infantry walked in; they bombed the dug-outs, did as much
destruction as they could, and returned with four prisoners; their own
casualties were only three wounded. Early in the morning of the 13th
the enemy attempted a raid on our trenches at the Apex. The S.O.S.
signal was sent up, and our guns were firing hard for about two hours.
The attack was completely repulsed.

The G.O.C. received the following message from Sir Douglas Haig:

"The Commander-in-Chief congratulates you and your troops on the
repeated successes shown in your local operations, which show excellent
spirit and skill. These successes help appreciably in the general plan."

A few days before this attack I had been ordered to lend two 18-pounder
batteries and two trench mortar batteries to the 50th Division to help
them in a raid in the neighbourhood of Cherisy, and as they had marched
out on the 12th for an absence of four days, our artillery strength was
in a dangerously low state when the attack took place, their being only
sixteen 18-pounder guns and eleven howitzers to cover a front of 5000
yards.

The two field batteries that were temporarily detached for this
duty were A/310 and B/312. The raid was a very successful one, but,
unhappily, our losses in the trench mortars were very heavy, and
we lost two valuable officers killed, Lieuts. G. A. Craven and W.
E. Harris, and one wounded, Lieut. W. Wooliscroft. Seven N.C.O.'s
and gunners were also killed, and a large number wounded. Lieut. E.
Parkinson was given the Military Cross "for gallantry and devotion to
duty during minor operations west of Cherisy. After his battery had
suffered many casualties during the first phase, he reorganised his
positions, and, after his Commanding Officer had been killed, went
round under heavy fire encouraging his men to keep their mortars going.
Later, under heavy fire, he searched his gun position and assisted to
get wounded clear and his men away."

Lieut. Parkinson has kindly furnished me with the following account of
what took place:

"Y/62 and Z/62 trench mortar batteries were lent to the 50th Division
for a raid they carried out on September 15th, 1917. The field guns
and trench mortars provided a box barrage, the latter putting their
contributions at each side, while the field guns shelled the enemy's
support trenches.

"Our positions were in a little-used trench about 150 yards behind
our own front line, opposite Cherisy. This trench had previously
suffered very little from the German barrage, and it was expected that
casualties there would be slight. The wire was not cut from any of
these positions, and guns not even registered from them.

"The first portion of the raid was carried out from 4 p.m. to 4.40
p.m., and was completely successful. The Battalion which went over
the top was commanded by the late Brig.-General Bradford, V.C.,
then Colonel, who afterwards came to the 62nd Division as a Brigade
Commander.

"As ill luck would have it (I cannot think it anything else), the
trench the mortars were in received about 75 per cent. of the total
German barrage, and casualties were so heavy among Z battery that they
were unable to man their guns for the full length of time. Lieut. G.
A. Craven was so severely wounded that he died the same evening, while
Lieut. W. Wooliscroft was wounded, and most of the men either killed or
wounded.

"At 7.40 p.m. half a battalion went over the top again, and in
this case also the results were all that could have been desired.
Previously Y Battery had only had two men killed, and so were able to
man their four guns. The German barrage was again very heavy, and we
suffered severely. Round one gun were grouped about a hundred bombs
ready for firing, and exactly what happened we shall never know, but
the lot were detonated. The detachment was of course blown to atoms,
and at the next gun two men were killed by the explosion as well as
Lieut. Harris. One man alone was left unharmed, and after carrying some
wounded under cover, he returned and manned his gun single-handed until
the raid was over.

"We went to the raid 4 officers and about 40 other ranks, and returned
to our Division 1 officer and 6 other ranks."

I received the following letter from the G.O.C.R.A., 50th Division:

"Will you please thank your fellows very much for the good work they
did for us yesterday. I am most awfully sorry your trench mortars had
such a bad time. It was just bad luck; the Boche put down a barrage
where he had never put one down before, and caught them. It was most
unfortunate. I can't tell you how sorry I am about it."

On the 26th September we carried out a bombardment of the enemy's
trenches south of Riencourt, together with a barrage, with the object
of making him think we were assaulting, and inducing him to unmask his
artillery positions. This object was successfully attained, the enemy
"got the wind up" thoroughly, and answered with every available gun.
Our planes and balloons were able to fix the positions of nearly 40
batteries.

Major A. F. Bayley arrived on the 27th, and was posted to the 310th
Brigade.

For the next few weeks things were comparatively quiet, though life in
the batteries was diversified by occasional bombardments. I take from a
note written at the time a short account of one of my routine trips. It
is a fairly typical one, and will serve to give some idea of the sort
of condition under which we were now holding the line:

  First we drive in the car for about two miles; then we alight, fix
  gas helmets in the ready position, put on tin hats, and go on on
  foot, leaving the car in a sunken road fairly safe and snug. Now
  the excitement begins. We go across country, generally in full
  view of the Boche lines, though they are still far off, and often
  dodging the places where their long-range shells are falling, or
  lying down till they burst if we hear them coming near us. A walk
  of one and a half miles brings us into a much-battered village in
  which my most advanced guns are scattered about, and now begins the
  second and more dangerous stage. The village (Ecoust) is a deserted
  ruin, but for occasional individuals moving hastily from cover to
  cover, and we waste no time in passing through it, and enter the
  communication trench which leads up to the front infantry line. As
  the Boche has exact photographs of the course of this trench, he
  frequently bombards it; and though the chances are greatly against
  a shell falling on any one bit of the trench just at the moment
  when one is passing, still at the time the possibility seems far
  from remote, and the situation is thrilling enough. About a mile of
  trench as the crow flies (but treble that distance to walk, owing
  to the zig-zag formation of the trench, so designed to prevent
  a shell from sweeping right down it) brings one to the support
  line. Stage three, and the most dangerous one, now begins; one
  follows the support trench for a good long way; it is generally
  pretty deep, but in places it has almost been destroyed by recent
  shelling, and then one has to crawl and duck until a safer depth is
  reached; then up other zig-zags to the very front line. Here one
  is in comparative safety, for the enemy is only one or two hundred
  yards off, and his artillery dare not shoot at you for fear of
  hitting their own front line; so you are safe except for snipers
  (if you are foolish enough to show yourself), or for that most
  terrible of all terrors, the minenwerfer.

These trips were often unpleasant enough even to people who, like
myself, could always count on returning to a comfortable and fairly
safe billet for the night, and they helped us, I hope, to realise the
strain and discomfort which the officers and men at the batteries were
forced to endure from day to day and night to night. The bulletins
"nothing fresh to report" or "all quiet on such a front" had for _them_
very little signification.

During this period, in addition to the normal duties at the gun
positions and in the wagon lines, every spare man was kept constantly
hard at work in building stabling for the coming winter. It was a
case of "sic vos non vobis," for everyone knew that our chances of
remaining in this particular place were very small indeed, and that
other men would enter into the fruit of our labours; however, the same
considerations applied to the whole army, and one could only work one's
hardest and trust that other divisions would do the same--a trust
which, it is only fair to say, was rarely disappointed, even though,
as must also be admitted, batteries almost always thought that the
stables, shelters, and positions, which they had made, were a good deal
better than those to which they succeeded. This belief may or may not
have been always justified; anyway, it was human nature, and certainly
the stabling constructed for this winter by the brigades and D.A.C. was
of a very excellent and substantial nature.

During the period covered by this chapter 14 Military Medals were
gained in the Divisional Artillery. Lieut. F. C. Pritchard won the
Military Cross on the 8th October for the following act:

"When an ammunition pit and the camouflage over a gun were on fire, he
went out and pulled the camouflage off the gun, and shovelled wet mud
on to the fire. He did not leave until it was isolated from the other
ammunition, thereby preventing much destruction."



CHAPTER III

THE BATTLE OF CAMBRAI

                        "_And you, good Yeomen,
  Whose limbs were made in England, show us here
  The mettle of your pasture; let us swear
  That you are worth your breeding._"

  SHAKESPEARE.--KING HENRY THE FIFTH.


[Sidenote: Oct. 1917.]

Our infantry withdrew from the line for a rest on the 12th October.
The artillery, however, merely changed the scene of their labours, and
about ten days later marched straight up from their former positions
into action in the neighbourhood of Wancourt, to cover the 51st
Division; the trench mortar batteries in the meantime were temporarily
distributed between the 3rd and the 16th Divisions.

On the 29th we had the misfortune to lose a valuable officer in Lieut.
H. Sutherland, signalling officer of the 312th Brigade, who was killed
very soon after his brigade had joined the 51st Division.

My own headquarters had meanwhile moved to Haplincourt, and on the
30th October I learned from the G.O.C.R.A. of the 4th Corps that a big
attack was to be made in the direction of Cambrai within about three
weeks, in which the 62nd Division was to play a leading part. It was,
in fact, to attack and capture the village of Havrincourt, a position
of enormous strength protected by an elaborate system of trenches and
barbed wire entanglements, and forming one of the strongest portions of
the formidable Hindenburg line.

[Sidenote: Nov. 1917.]

The method of attack was to be an entirely new departure. There was
to be no artillery preparation; in other words, not one gun beyond
the normal was to be fired until the moment of assault, or what is
technically known as "Zero." Then the barrage was to begin, and the
infantry were to assault preceded by tanks. In addition to my own
brigades, I was to have under my command for the operation the 77th,
93rd, and 16th Brigades, i.e. twenty batteries in all.

A period of intense activity now commenced. A tremendous lot of work
had to be done, and there were at first very few men to do it. A party
of about 100 men, taken from the 3rd and 16th Brigades R.H.A., was
placed at my disposal, and I entrusted the superintendence of the
work to Major C. A. Eeles, who tackled it with the greatest energy.
Positions were selected for the five brigades at ranges of from 2000 to
2500 yards from the enemy's front line, chiefly along the Hubert road
on the northern edge of the Havrincourt Wood, and, as it was absolutely
essential that the work should be done without the Boche suspecting it,
and the whole country was visible from his lines, the task was a very
difficult one. The first thing to do was to screen off the proposed
positions from view. That part of the wood through which the Hubert
road ran had been cut down by the Huns when they retreated through
it in April; a lot of scrub had grown up in the clearing during the
summer, and with this a screen of twigs and branches was erected in one
night, for a distance of two miles along the edge of the road on the
enemy's side. When morning broke on the 4th November the road itself
was invisible from the German trenches, and yet the screen that hid it
mingled so well with the surrounding scrub that the enemy never noticed
any change. For the next fortnight the work of preparation went on
night and day, and so careful were the precautions taken by the working
parties, that the enemy never had the slightest suspicion that anything
unusual was going on. On this occasion the weather helped us, as the
days were usually misty, and yet not a drop of rain fell all the time.

The preliminaries consisted in making positions for 20 batteries,
digging ammunition recesses and telephone pits, construction of
shelters for the detachments, the preparation of gun platforms and
trail beds, and the collection at the gun pits of tremendous dumps of
ammunition (700 rounds per 18-pounder gun and 450 rounds per howitzer).
For the conveyance of the latter about three miles of light railway had
to be laid down. Then O.P.'s and brigade headquarters were selected
and prepared, and camouflage was collected and placed over all work as
it was carried out, and also arranged ready for putting on the guns as
they were required to move into their positions in action.

Lieut. E. W. Davis was wounded on the 9th November.

Lieut.-Colonel R. M. Foot, D.S.O., A.A. and Q.M.G. of the Division,
left us about this time on appointment to a corps. He had always been
most helpful to the gunners, and we were very sorry to lose him. His
place was taken, after an interval of a few weeks, by Lieut.-Colonel
Harold Lea, D.S.O., with whom the Divisional Artillery always preserved
the same happy relations.

The artillery concentration began on the night of the 12th/13th
November, when the 310th and 312th Brigades arrived in the
neighbourhood of Beaulencourt; they concentrated next day at Barastre,
where their wagon lines were to be during the battle. In this advance
to the battle area the most elaborate precautions were taken to keep
the enemy's suspicions from being awakened. All troops marched by
night, and remained hidden during the day time in the various big
woods, which are dotted about in this part of the country. I well
remember walking over to the Corps Headquarters at Villers au Flos on
the evening of the 14th; it was a pitch dark night, and I found it
almost impossible to make my way along the road, which was covered
along its whole length by an unbroken column of heavy guns being drawn
by caterpillars--the heavy artillery concentrating for the battle. And
yet next morning that same road presented its usual empty and tranquil
appearance to such hostile planes as might happen to fly overhead.

On the 18th, Divisional headquarters moved to Neuville. The 312th
Brigade moved into their gun positions on the night of the 17th/18th,
and all the rest of my command on the night of the 18th/19th, i.e. the
310th, 77th, 93rd, and 153rd Brigades.

Lieut.-Colonel Lough, commanding 312th Brigade, left on the 17th,
invalided home, and his successor, Lieut.-Col. A. G. Eden, joined us on
the 19th.

The night of the 19th was a very anxious one, and will long be
remembered by all who took part in the battle. It was impossible to
tell whether the enemy had any suspicions of what was in store for
him; he might even know all about it, and this was the more possible,
as he had made a raid two nights before the battle and had captured
one or two of our men. There was a chance that he might have wormed
some information out of them, for an uneducated man may often give
away valuable information quite innocently, out of pure ignorance or
indiscretion. If he _did_ know, the enemy might have wrecked the attack
before it began, by bombarding the long line of guns, which had the
most definite orders on no account to fire a round till 6.20 a.m. when
the attack was to be launched. As it happened, the Boche showed great
uneasiness, and fired very heavily during the night, though fortunately
not on any vital places. We listened to the firing in great suspense,
and watched the flashes of the shell bursting apparently very near our
line of guns; but we could get no information, for no telephones were
allowed until the moment of attack, lest indiscreet things might be
said, and tapped by the enemy's listening apparatus.

At 5.45 a.m. there was a particularly furious burst of firing, which
died down at a few minutes past six, and was succeeded by a dead
silence, during which one could fancy one heard the anxious beating
of fifty thousand hearts. Did the Boche know; had he some infernal
surprise for us? We stood in a little group outside the hut which
served for our headquarters, and fixed our eyes on the long grey line
of wood along the edge of which the guns lay waiting. The moment
arrived. A tremendous thunder clap broke the silence; the whole sky
grew red, and the air sighed with shell. The battle had begun according
to our plans, and success was certain.

Preceded by the tanks, our infantry swept forward in an irresistible
wave, and pressing close up behind the barrage, overcame all
obstacles, capturing system after system of strongly fortified posts,
and following the tanks through a jungle of barbed wire which the Boche
might well have believed to be absolutely impenetrable. By about noon
they had taken all their objectives. Havrincourt, Graincourt, Anneux,
and the Cambrai road, from the factory north-west of Graincourt to the
canal, were in our hands, together with several hundreds of prisoners,
a 4.2-inch howitzer battery, and many machine guns and mortars. The
Division had made the record advance of the war, 7000 yards in one day.
The following message was received in the evening:

"Army Commander sends special congratulations to all ranks of the 62nd
Division on their very fine achievements to-day."

As this was the greatest battle in which the Division had yet been
engaged, I shall here give in full the official account of the
artillery action, as it was made out at the time by Capt. Lindsell, my
Brigade Major.

_20th November._ From zero (6.20 a.m.) until the capture of the brown
line the artillery action was in the nature of a set piece, the barrage
being fired according to timetable as detailed. No modifications were
found necessary.

_10.30 a.m._ The first artillery advance was ordered, 77th Brigade
being directed to send forward one battery to the area north-east of
Havrincourt Wood in support of the 185th Infantry Brigade.

_10.40 a.m._ Eight prisoners were captured by the advanced
reconnoitring party of C/310.

_10.50 a.m._ The 5th Brigade R.H.A., having passed under the orders of
the C.R.A. 62nd Division, was ordered to advance battery by battery to
the east of Havrincourt, to support the advance of the 186th Infantry
Brigade on Graincourt.

_11.40 a.m._ The 77th Brigade was ordered to advance complete to the
south-west of Havrincourt to cover the line Graincourt--Factory on
Bapaume-Cambrai road.

_12 noon._ The 310th Brigade was ordered to advance battery by battery
to the east of Havrincourt to support, with 5th Brigade R.H.A., the
further advance of the 186th Infantry Brigade.

_2 p.m._ The Divisional Artillery situation was as follows:

    5th Brigade  R.H.A.   East of Havrincourt, moving into action.
  310th Brigade  R.F.A.   In column of route moving forward.
   77th    "       "      Two batteries in action south-west of
                            Havrincourt, and two moving into
                            action in the same area.
                        } Still in original positions, 93rd
   93rd    "       "    }   and 153rd awaiting orders
  153rd    "       "    }   from 36th Division, to whose
  312th    "       "    }   command they had now passed.

_2 p.m._ It was ascertained that the 51st Division (on our right) had
not captured Flesquières. As this position exposed the right of the
attack of the 62nd Division, the 310th Brigade were ordered back to
their former positions; this order did not, however, take effect, as on
receipt of later information they were allowed to continue their former
movement.

_2.30 p.m._ The 77th Brigade was in action complete S.W. of
Havrincourt.

_4.10 p.m._ The 5th Brigade R.H.A. and 310th Brigade R.F.A., in action
east of Havrincourt, were grouped under Colonel West, R.H.A., to
cover the line gained by the 186th Infantry Brigade in the vicinity
of Graincourt. The 77th Brigade was ordered to cover the part in the
direction of Flesquières. The 312th Brigade, still in its original
position, was ordered to be prepared to cover the brown line as a
defensive measure in case of necessity.

_6.50 p.m._ Orders were issued for the 62nd Division to continue the
advance on Bourlon on the 21st, and for a further advance of all
artillery brigades in support of this attack. Owing to the state of
the ground it was found impossible to get the guns forward during the
night. Brigades therefore advanced as early as possible on the 21st to
positions S.W. of Graincourt, with the exception of the 5th Brigade
R.H.A., which remained N.E. of Havrincourt. The four brigades, as their
batteries were able to get into action, were placed at the disposal of
the G.O.C. 186th Infantry Brigade for his attack on Bourlon Wood. Owing
to bad going and damaged roads the difficulties of getting guns forward
proved very considerable, but all brigades were in position by the
afternoon of the 21st, with communication established with the Infantry
Brigade headquarters in Graincourt.

_21st November._ Bourlon Wood and village were attacked, under a
barrage fired by the 5th R.H.A. and 310th Brigades. The attack was held
up by machine gun fire from the Marquion trench. During the remainder
of the day the artillery forward moves were continued, and a fresh
attack on the Marquion line was organised for the 22nd.

_22nd November._ The 62nd Division again attacked under a barrage
provided by all four artillery brigades. The attack succeeded in
gaining a hold astride the Marquion line, south of Bourlon Wood.

The 40th Division then relieved the 62nd, the artillery, however,
remaining in action under the former division.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following Divisional Order was issued on the 24th November:

"SPECIAL ORDER OF THE DAY.

"The Divisional Commander has the honour to announce that both the
Commander-in-Chief and the Army Commander have expressed their high
appreciation of the achievements of the 62nd Division in the battle.

"The Divisional Commander had the most implicit confidence that the
Division would acquit itself with honour. To have advanced 7000 yards
on the first day, taken all objectives, held them against counter
attacks, and handed over all gains intact to the relieving division, is
a feat of arms of which any division may be justly proud.

"The number of prisoners taken by the division is not far short of
2000. Thirty-seven guns have been captured, which include two 8-inch
howitzers, one complete 4.2-inch battery, one complete battery of
5.9-inch, and the remainder guns of various calibres, many of which
were brought into action against the enemy.

"The number of machine guns, granatenwerfer, etc., etc., which have
fallen into our possession is so considerable that it has not been
possible yet to make an accurate tally of them.

"The advance of the artillery to Graincourt, and the accuracy of the
barrage, is worthy of the best traditions of the Royal Regiment.

"To G Battalion, the Tanks, all ranks of the Division expresses their
admiration of the skill, bravery, and the splendid self-sacrifice which
made success possible.

"The discipline, valour, and steadiness of all ranks has been beyond
praise.

"It is with great and legitimate pride that I have the honour to sign
my name as Commander of the 62nd West Riding Division.

  "WALTER BRAITHWAITE,
  Major-General."

On the 23rd, 24th and 25th November attacks were continued by the 40th
Division against Bourlon Wood, which ended in the gaining of a firm
footing in its southern outskirts. I received a letter from the G.O.C.
40th Division expressing his thanks "for the excellent and untiring
support which the 62nd Divisional Artillery gave to the infantry under
his command" on these days.

On Sunday the 25th the 62nd Division was ordered back into the line,
much to our surprise, in relief of the 40th Division, which had
suffered heavily in its severe three days' fight. Our orders were to
capture Bourlon Wood, and we had the support of the following artillery
in addition to our own: 5th Brigade R.H.A., 77th, 178th, and 181st
Brigade R.F.A., and the 87th Heavy Artillery group.

Divisional headquarters moved forward into the Park of Havrincourt
Chateau.

The attack was made at 6.20 a.m. on the 27th under a rolling barrage,
and resulted in the capture of almost the whole of Bourlon Wood, the
highest piece of ground for miles round. Our losses were very heavy,
but the success was a most important one, and in the battle our tired
Division met and shattered a division of Prussian Guards which had to
be withdrawn from the line after only 24 hours in action.

Lieut. E. E. C. Lintern was wounded on the 25th, and for gallant
services on the 21st and 22nd, Major E. W. F. Jephson won a bar to his
Military Cross, and Lieut. N. Hess was awarded the Military Cross. The
same honour was gained by Lieut. J. B. Boden and Lieut. P. C. Furlong
for the following acts:

"On the 23rd November, Lieut. Boden, finding a disabled enemy field gun
in a forward position, fitted the breech mechanism of another gun to
it, and brought it into action in the open. He fired about 60 rounds
with excellent effect, though under heavy fire, and in full view of the
enemy."

"On the 25th November, when one of his guns blew up while his battery
was in action, Lieut. Furlong collected the detachment who were
suffering from shell shock, got them under cover, and steadied the
detachments at the other guns, under heavy shell fire."

On the night of the 28th our infantry was relieved by the 47th
Division. On this day and on the 29th there was a great increase of
activity on the part of the enemy's artillery, and it became evident
that he had been strongly reinforced.

At 8.45 a.m. on the 30th the enemy launched a very formidable counter
attack, pouring his infantry forward in great masses and with the most
desperate determination, supported by a tremendous artillery fire of
high explosive and gas shell. As the hostile infantry appeared over
the crest of the hill, to the west of Bourlon Wood, they were engaged
with direct fire by our field artillery, which swept through and raked
the advancing masses again and again, inflicting the most appalling
losses upon them. The most desperate fighting went on all day, and at
one time my two most forward batteries, A/312 and D/312, were within
a few hundred yards of the Boche infantry. Batteries have seldom been
given such excellent targets of massed infantry in the open as offered
themselves that day to nearly all my batteries, and full advantage was
taken of the opportunity. At 4 p.m., when darkness came on, the enemy
had made no progress against our corps front, the most determined
attacks of four German divisions, with three others in support, having
been utterly crushed by the unconquerable resistance of the three
British Divisions in the line. To quote from the official account
issued by the General Staff:

"At the end of this day of high courage and glorious achievement,
except for a few advanced positions, some of which were afterwards
regained, our line had been maintained intact. The men who had come
triumphantly through this mighty contest felt, and rightly felt, that
they had won a great victory, in which the enemy had come against them
in his full strength, and had been defeated with losses at which even
the victors stood aghast."

Against the corps on our right the Boche had been more successful, and
the position on its extreme right was at one time full of peril. Here
the enemy penetrated our lines and captured Gonnelieu and Gouzancourt,
though he was driven out of the latter village by the Guards that same
night. The back areas were very heavily bombarded all through the day,
and the D.A.C. in Metz suffered a good many casualties.

Lieut. C. B. Innes was wounded during this day's fighting; Lieut. E. T.
Williams was awarded the Military Cross, while Lieut. J. B. Boden added
a bar to the decoration which he had earned only eight days before:

"During a strong enemy attack the battery was in action during the
whole of the day. For over seven hours the battery was heavily shelled,
and during the whole of this period Lieut. Boden was among the guns,
occasionally working a gun himself, and setting a magnificent example
to the men of his detachment. Finally he was put _hors de combat_
through a shell dropping close by him and stunning him. His cool
determination and devotion to duty were magnificent."

"On the battery being heavily shelled, and fired on by machine guns
from the flank, orders were received to withdraw. Lieut. Williams
remained behind with two guns, the wheels of which had been damaged,
but succeeded in getting both of them clear of the position, thereby
setting a splendid example of gallantry and fearlessness to the men."

Thirty-three Military Medals were also awarded (v. Appendix).

I handed over artillery command on the evening of the 30th, and
rejoined Divisional Headquarters at Haplincourt, to find that all
our three infantry brigades had again been thrown into the line in
support of three different divisions. I heard to my great sorrow that
Brig.-General Bradford, V.C., who had joined the 62nd only about three
weeks before, had been killed. He was a man of extraordinary gallantry
and great personal charm, and a born soldier and leader of men.

I copy here an extract from a captured document, signed by the
Commander of the German army on our front, which was rather flattering
to our pride as gunners:

"It is worthy of remark that our enemy's guns have a much smaller zone
of dispersion than our own. They also appear to have better and more
accurate data for shooting from the map than we have. This seems to be
proved from the fact that in weather that excludes all possibility of
observation, and under conditions very different from those prevailing
during previous shoots, he obtains hits on small targets with great
accuracy."

[Sidenote: Dec. 1917.]

Divisional Headquarters left the area of the Cambrai battle on the
4th December, together with the infantry of the Division, and after
several moves the Artillery Headquarters finally settled down for a
time at Bethoncourt, near Tincques, on the 19th. The guns, as usual,
remained in action, supporting different divisions in the arduous work
of adjusting the new trench line. Bourlon Wood was given up together
with some more of the captured ground, but Havrincourt was retained,
and the net result to us was considerably on the credit side.

Capt. E. F. Johnson was killed on the 9th December only about a week
after joining the Division. On the 13th Lieut. L. Gane was awarded the
Military Cross when in action at Doignies:

"When an enemy shell hit one of the gun pits which contained a large
number of charges, Lieut. Gane ordered all the men away, and himself
went into the pit. Satisfied that immediate action would save the shell
dump and prevent the fire from spreading, he had a party to extinguish
the flames, which was successfully accomplished. By his prompt action
and coolness he saved the shells and guns from being blown up."

I received the following letter dated the 11th December from the G.O.C.
R.A. of the 47th Division:

"To-morrow I shall be parting with your brigades and D.A.C., and I take
the opportunity of thanking you most heartily for all the work they
have done since you handed them over to me.

"Our infantry have been greatly pleased with the support your gallant
fellows have given them, not only on November 30th, but ever since, and
I am only sorry that they have had to put up with so much discomfort,
but the conditions have made it impossible to do much for them. Colonel
Sherlock has been a tower of strength.

  "E. N. WHITLEY,
  Brig.-General R.A."

At last, after another fortnight of hard fighting and great discomfort,
the artillery was withdrawn, and arrived in the rest area behind Arras
on the 29th December. In spite of the severity of the weather, all
ranks greatly enjoyed the rest which they had so well earned, although
it could only be called a rest in the sense that they were out of
danger and in a condition of comparative comfort. Much work of course
had to be done in cleaning up and generally refitting, and in preparing
to take up the new positions just north of Arras, which were now to be
our special charge.

[Sidenote: Jan. 1918.]

On the 7th January my Brigade-Major, Capt. W. G. Lindsell, D.S.O.,
M.C., left the Division to take up the appointment of Staff Officer
R.A. of the 8th Corps. He was greatly regretted throughout the
Division, by none more sincerely than by myself. To an unlimited
capacity for work, and a meticulously accurate knowledge of staff
duties, he added a tact and charm of manner which made him many friends
in the Divisional Artillery, and helped to ensure that all orders,
however unpleasant, were carried out cheerfully and without question in
full confidence that nothing which bore the Brigade-Major's signature
would ever be unreasonable or unnecessary.

Major F. FitzGibbon, D.S.O., was appointed Brigade-Major in Lindsell's
place, and I may say at once that he proved a most worthy successor.

In the New Year's gazette Capt. Lindsell, M.C., and Major Arnold
Forster both received the D.S.O., and Major R. C. Foot the Military
Cross. All these honours had been thoroughly well earned, but it
was a great disappointment to me that more officers could not
receive decorations. The allotment of honours allowed for regimental
officers was always so small that each gazette left this feeling of
disappointment behind it, and many an officer remained undecorated
at the end of the war who had earned such distinction over and over
again. Major Arnold Forster, I may here mention, was the only battery
commander to hold that position in the Division throughout the war; one
or two others ran him close as far as service in France was concerned,
but he commanded a battery--and commanded it with conspicuous
success--from May, 1916, till the breaking up of the Division in
Germany, and had the satisfaction therefore of fighting the battery
which he had himself trained.



CHAPTER IV

THE GREAT GERMAN OFFENSIVE

  "_There is but one task for all,
    For each one life to give,
  Who stands, if freedom fall?
    Who dies, if England live?_"

  KIPLING.


[Sidenote: Jan. 1918.]

On the 9th January Divisional Headquarters moved to Victory Camp, near
Roclincourt, and I assumed command of the artillery in the line, the
56th Divisional Artillery.

Our own artillery relieved the 56th on the 15th. The front we now
covered ran roughly from Gavrelle to Oppy. The 310th Brigade, which
formed the right group, occupied positions on or about the southern end
of the Vimy Ridge, with one advanced battery, B/310, close to Arleux,
and only about a thousand yards from the Boche front line; this battery
was so sited as to enfilade a long portion of the enemy's trenches; and
though in what was apparently a dangerously forward position, it was so
well concealed in a hollow of the ground that it came in for no greater
attention than did the other batteries much further in rear.

The 312th Brigade was the left group; two of its batteries, B/312 and
D/312, were in the shattered ruins of Bailleul village; this was a
most unpleasant spot, and I don't think I've ever seen a village which
bore the signs of such serious and constant shell fire.

We now belonged to the 13th Corps, which consisted of the 31st and 56th
Divisions, in addition to our own. A system of reliefs was arranged
under which two divisions should hold the line and one division remain
at rest, and it was hoped that divisional artilleries would get about
three weeks' rest for every six weeks spent in action. No one, however,
believed in his heart that this scheme would prove a lasting one.
There were many indications that the enemy was preparing for a great
offensive, and indeed it was now obvious that his only chance would
be to strike, and strike hard, before the full weight of American
intervention should be thrown into the balance.

The next few weeks were comparatively quiet ones, and a tremendous lot
of work was done in improving the very indifferent positions which we
had taken over. These positions, it is only fair to state, had not been
occupied for more than ten days or so by the 56th Divisional Artillery,
who were in no way to blame for their unsatisfactory condition.

Two Regular Majors were posted to us about this time, Majors M. R. H.
Crofton, D.S.O., and J. F. K. Lockhart, who took over command of C/312
and A/310 respectively.

The experiment was now made of employing Indian drivers in ammunition
columns, and on the 26th January I inspected those who had been sent to
the 62nd D.A.C. There were about 130 of them, all Mussulmans, and they
looked a useful lot of men; they proved to be so as it turned out, and
did very good work for the rest of the war.

[Sidenote: Feb. 1918.]

On February 1st our heavy trench mortar battery, which, under command
of Capt. S. V. Bowden, had done much good service, was transferred
to the Corps, as it was now decided that divisional artillery should
only have medium trench mortars. Capt. Bowden himself remained in the
Division with the latter.

I have described this period as a comparatively quiet one, but that is
not to say that the batteries were left alone by the Boche artillery.
Shelling of a desultory sort was always going on, and most of the
batteries came in for an occasional bombardment--a _daily_ bombardment
it would be more correct to say in the case of the two batteries in
Bailleul. Fortunately the shooting was strangely ineffective. D/310,
for instance, was heavily shelled on the evening of the 23rd January;
but though there were three direct hits on emplacements and the whole
position was deeply pitted with shell craters, no damage was done to
men or material. A/310 was less fortunate on the 5th February, when,
unhappily, two sergeants and a signaller were killed, though no guns
were put out of action. B/310 was shelled the same day at Arleux, and
on this occasion one officer was wounded, Lieut. C. R. Witcher.

On the 16th February the artillery withdrew from the line into billets
in and around Aubigny, Caucourt, and Frevin Capelle, the headquarters
being in the chateau at Berles. This was the only rest we were to get
under the scheme mentioned above.

[Sidenote: March, 1918.]

On the 6th and 7th March we went into the line in relief of the 31st
Division, against an enemy front of about 4000 yards, stretching from
Oppy to Acheville; the 310th was again on the right, and the 312th
on the left, batteries being mostly in or about Willerval and Farbus.
Headquarters were at Roclincourt.

It now seemed certain that a big German offensive was brewing, and
henceforth practically all our firing was done by detached sections,
while the main positions remained silent, and every possible artifice
was employed to conceal them from detection by the enemy. At the same
time several single guns were distributed along the front for defence
against tanks, being so sited that every possible approach by a hostile
tank would be under fire from one or more of the guns.

Some experimental firing by single guns was carried out on the
afternoon of the 10th March near Souchez. A dummy tank, about
three-quarters real size, was drawn across an open space at about a
thousand yards from the gun. Detachments from various divisions engaged
it in turn, and the results were most reassuring, two or three direct
hits being very quickly scored in nearly every case; it seemed to
prove that an anti-tank gun well handled ought to be able to knock out
several tanks in a minute or two.

On the 11th Divisional Headquarters were persistently shelled by a 13
cm. gun firing from a range of about 14,000 yards. Information had been
received that the long expected offensive was to begin on the 13th, and
as the enemy's attacks were often heralded by long range firing into
the back areas, it seemed likely that the report might in this case be
correct, and all preparations were made accordingly. The bombardment
was repeated on the night of the 12th, and all troops, artillery and
infantry, were standing-to from an hour before dawn on the 13th.
Nothing unusual, however, happened, although the long range activity
against our headquarters became a regular nightly occurrence from now
on. As it was important to find out what was brewing, it was decided
to carry out a raid with the object of taking prisoners and getting
such information out of them as might be possible. The raid was carried
out by a battalion of the 186th Infantry Brigade. At 10.50 p.m. on
the 17th March, two batteries of the 56th Divisional Artillery opened
on the Boche front about a thousand yards south of the part we were
raiding. The enemy at once sent up S.O.S. signals, and his artillery
put down a barrage on that part of the front--which was exactly what we
wanted. At 11 p.m. all our guns opened fire on the real front for five
minutes, and then, lifting off the part that was to be raided, formed a
box barrage all round it. Our raiding party, consisting of 2 officers
and 70 men, then went over the top, passing through gaps in the wire
which had previously been cut by the trench mortars and by Bangalore
torpedoes. At 11.25 they returned, having killed several Huns and taken
five prisoners. The guns kept up the barrage till 11.40, and one of
the howitzer batteries fired a screen of smoke shell along the edge of
Fresnoy Park from 11.25 to 11.40, to screen our men as they returned.
The whole thing went off like clockwork, and our infantry only had
three men slightly wounded.

I received the following letter next day from the G.O.C. 186th Infantry
Brigade:

"The raiders wish me to say that the barrage was perfect. Would you
please accept for yourself and your batteries their thanks for the
large part you contributed towards the success of the show. To show
the accuracy of the shooting, the Bangalore torpedoes were inserted
in the wire while the barrage was still on the front line. This and
the absence of casualties from short shooting, and the fact that the
garrison was discovered prostrate on the floor of the trench, I think
speaks for itself.

  "J. G. BURNETT,
  "Brig.-General."

And also the following from Lieut.-Colonel Thackeray, who commanded the
battalion that carried out the raid:

"Both the officers and men who took part in the raid last night are
loud in their praise of the wonderful accuracy of the barrage. It gave
them the greatest confidence...."

I may say here that the infantry were always most generous in their
acknowledgment of our support, and there was the best possible
feeling between the two arms in our Division. We all had the greatest
admiration for our wonderful infantry, and it was a great gratification
to us to know that they appreciated _our_ efforts.

Eight Military Medals were awarded while we were in action in this part
of the line (v. Appendix).

Early on the morning of the 21st March the enemy began a tremendous
bombardment on our front, and we could hear the thunder of his guns
extending apparently for many miles to either flank. The great
offensive had evidently begun, and we received orders to be prepared
to withdraw from our part of the line, which was to be taken over by a
Canadian Division, and to become G.H.Q. reserve.

Lieut. H. G. Goldsmith was wounded this day.

It was sometime before we could get any news of what was taking place,
but on the 23rd we learned that the Boche had opened an attack with
45 divisions along a front of 50 miles, from the Oise to the Sensèe,
and thence to the Scarpe, that he had retaken Ecoust, Noreuil, and the
Mort Homme heights, and that the 17th Corps on our right had evacuated
the important height of Monchy. Further news came at mid-day that our
5th Army was retiring on Peronne, and that the 3rd Army was also being
pressed back by sheer weight of numbers. Two batteries of the 312th
Brigade, A and B, withdrew from the line that night, and went into
action on the 24th in positions close to Beaurains to support the 17th
Corps. My headquarters moved on the same day to Warlus, and the 310th
Brigade, and the remainder of the 312th, were ordered to withdraw from
the line that night and march to the Warlus area.

Events, however, were moving rapidly, and at midnight on the 24th I
received instructions to concentrate at Ayette. The previous orders
were at once countermanded; the batteries at Beaurains were ordered
to withdraw from action forthwith and to march on Ayette, where they
were to be joined by the rest of the artillery, which had just arrived
at the Roclincourt wagon lines. I left myself at 6 a.m. on the 25th
and met the G.O.C. at Ayette. Here we found orders awaiting us to push
on to Bucquoy. Our infantry began to arrive there about mid-day, and,
tired as they were after marching all through the night, were at once
thrown into the line from Logeast Wood to Achiet-le-Petit, where the
Boche was attacking in great strength.

The scene in Bucquoy that morning and all through the day was a
remarkable one, never to be forgotten. For hour after hour one
continuous unbroken stream of transport belonging to several
different divisions passed through the village retiring west towards
Hannescamps. Everything had to move along one rather narrow road
which, in bad enough condition to start with, became execrable later on
in the day, and one bad breakdown of a lorry or wagon might have led
to a disastrous block and the ultimate loss of thousands of vehicles.
Fortunately the traffic control was admirably managed, and the shells,
which as the day wore on began to fall with more and more frequency
in the village, never happened to find out the crowded road, so that
_that_ particular disaster was averted. We moved on to the high ground
just east of Bucquoy, and were able to get a good view of the general
situation. We joined the Headquarter Staffs of two other Divisions
there, and heard from them that our troops were still falling slowly
back under great and increasing pressure, and that there was actually a
large gap on the right through which our flank was in imminent danger
of being turned. As it was obvious that my guns could be of no use in
Bucquoy, and would only make the confusion in the crowded village worse
confounded, General Braithwaite directed me to divert their march if
still possible, and to put them into action near Monchy au Bois. The
advanced parties arrived about noon, and were sent back to Ayette,
where they were just in time to stop the brigades and turn them off to
the positions ordered.

General Braithwaite now assumed command, and we found ourselves
responsible for a tremendous number of guns, consisting of several
divisional artilleries. Nobody seemed to know where they all were, some
batteries being in action, some on the move, and some in positions of
observation or readiness in rear. FitzGibbon, however, did wonders,
and, with the help of Trench, the Signalling Officer, and Anderson the
R.O., at last succeeded in locating and establishing communication
with the majority of them.

As night fell the shelling of Bucquoy grew very severe, and orders
were received from Corps Headquarters to retire the infantry to a line
covering Bucquoy, while the Divisional Headquarters moved back to
Foncquevillers. It was a night of great stress and anxiety during which
there was no sleep for anyone; the artillery was safely withdrawn,
and positions were taken up in the area between Hannescamps and Les
Essarts, my own weary batteries having to move up from the positions
they had just occupied near Monchy. When the morning of the 26th dawned
the infantry were holding their new line, and the guns were nearly
all in action. There was desperate fighting throughout this day,
in the course of which our right was pressed back out of Puisieux.
Headquarters was shelled constantly, as was the whole area occupied by
the artillery. Fortunately the enemy had not yet had time to locate the
battery positions, and the shelling, being distributed over the whole
country side, caused fewer casualties than might have been expected.

The situation was most critical, as the gap on our right flank still
lay open to the enemy who kept pressing up into it and actually got up
to the outskirts of Hebuterne in the afternoon. It seemed as though
he would succeed in getting round the rear of the division, and many
alarmist reports were rife as to the presence of Huns in all sorts of
unlikely places behind us. These reports spread back for miles and
caused a good deal of commotion in the back area. It was believed that
they were propagated by German spies, and it may well have been so.
Certainly many suspicious cases were reported of orders having been
given to various units to retire at once by red-tabbed officers who
could never be identified afterwards as belonging to the staff of
any of the divisions engaged. At least one such case occurred in the
Divisional Artillery; a Staff Officer hurried up to Major Jephson,
and, telling him that the enemy was working round behind his Division,
advised him to retire his battery, C/310, before it should be too late.
Jephson, of course, declined to adopt the suggestion, and reported the
matter by telephone to Headquarters. He was from there told to arrest
the Staff Officer, but unfortunately by the time the order got through
to him the bird had flown.

That evening as the dusk was falling a group of us were standing at
a corner of Foncquevillers watching Hebuterne rather anxiously, when
an officer called out that he could see a crowd of Huns on our side
of that village. Glasses were levelled on the place, and a very brief
inspection served to show that the men were moving into and not out of
the village. A moment later, and a sharp-eyed officer declared that
he could make out the familiar slouched hats of the Australians. In
the gathering darkness it was hard to make certain of this, but the
arrival of an Australian Staff Officer a few minutes later dispelled
all doubts. The infantry brigade to which he belonged had been rushed
up to the critical point, and by 8 p.m. it had occupied Hebuterne and
driven back the Hun patrols in front of that village, thereby greatly
easing the situation. Later on in the night the New Zealand Division
arrived after a wonderful 29 mile march, and filled up the gap still
further to our right, from east of Colincamps to Beaumont Hamel.

The Military Cross was won this day by Lieuts. F. Abrahams and A. C.
Murray:

"As Battery Signalling Officer, Lieut. Abrahams, regardless of
personal safety, superintended the mending of wires under heavy shell
fire, encouraging the signallers and men of the battery in their task
by his example of energy and devotion to duty."

"When the line between the receiving station and the guns, some 300
yards, was broken, Lieut. Murray volunteered to take the orders from
the station up to the guns. He did this again and again under very
heavy fire. On a later date he carried out most useful observation from
an O.P., in spite of continual shelling."

Bitter fighting went on on the 27th, when we beat off five separate
attacks, all made in great strength, and killed large numbers of Huns.
The hostile artillery fire was again very intense on Headquarters
and the area occupied by the batteries. Lieut. W. P. Holt gained his
Military Cross for the following action:

"Finding that he could see little from his O.P., Lieut. Holt worked
forward to the infantry, and, returning, sent back messages which
obtained artillery support for a counter-attack. He displayed marked
courage and enterprise in moving over the open under heavy fire and
keeping touch with the fighting infantry. The information he sent back
was most valuable."

Next day, the 28th, four attacks were made from the direction of
Puisieux. One especially, launched at 10 a.m. against the 5th Duke of
Wellington's, was delivered in tremendous strength, but the attacking
enemy troops were nearly annihilated, and the battalion not only
held its own, but captured some twenty prisoners. The shelling of
Foncquevillers had now grown so severe that it became impossible to
keep Divisional Headquarters there any longer and still maintain
communication with the troops in front and the Corps Headquarters in
rear. We consequently moved to Souastre, leaving an advanced signal
station in Foncquevillers, at which one officer of my staff always
remained, taking it in turns among them to do each a 24-hour spell of
duty there.

On this day Lieuts. L. C. Gane, M.C., and C. V. Montgomery were
wounded, and Capt. A. Senior was awarded the Military Cross for
"conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty"; this decoration was also
gained by Capts. H. de B. Archer, Adjutant 310th Brigade, and J. Miles,
its Signalling Officer:

"On the 26th, 27th and 28th March, 1918, during operations round
Bucquoy, Capt. Archer sat, practically in the open, for 72 hours by
the telephone, receiving and sending messages. He was constantly under
shell fire, and had to carry the telephone from spot to spot, to be
able to carry on. His coolness and thoroughness throughout this period
greatly helped and encouraged the batteries. On the 25th and 26th March
he also carried out most useful reconnaissances under constant heavy
shell fire."

"On the 26th, 27th and 28th March, during operations near Bucquoy,
Capt. Miles established and maintained a complete system of
communication to all batteries of the brigade, and all neighbouring
formations taking part in the operations. During the whole of this time
he was continuously laying or mending wires; where the shelling was
most severe he had to go oftenest, and did so with entire disregard for
his personal safety. His work (and the results of it) and his behaviour
were beyond all praise."

On the 29th fighting was still very severe, but our front line was
now more firmly consolidated, and it began to look as though the
tremendous onslaught had been checked not only here but all along
the British front. This was Good Friday, and it seemed very fitting
that the day which already means so much for humanity should be still
further consecrated as marking the first serious check received by the
opponents of all that Christianity stands for. The following Divisional
Order was issued:

"The Divisional Commander knows that all ranks are cheerfully bearing
the strain of the prolonged fighting, and he is proud of their
endurance and fine fighting spirit.

"The Division is performing a very important rôle of holding up the
German advance in this part of the battlefield, and the very heavy
casualties inflicted on the enemy are an earnest of their determined
fighting.

"He congratulates all troops on their splendid gallantry, and is
confident in the continuation of the fine resistance they are making to
the enemy's attempts to break our line.

"Well done, 62nd (West Riding) Division!

  "WALTER BRAITHWAITE,
  "29/3/18.      Major-General."

Lieut. G. A. Ellis was this day awarded the Military Cross:

"He maintained communication and observed for his battery throughout
the day, though his O.P. was spotted by the enemy and subjected to
continuous rifle fire and shelling. He twice mended the wire, which was
cut by shell fire, in the open."

Fifteen Military Medals were gained in the Divisional Artillery during
the fighting from the 21st to the end of the month (v. Appendix).

During these strenuous days I had seven brigades of Field Artillery
under my command, disposed as follows:

  Right group. 93rd and 235th Brigades.
  Centre  "    187th, 236th and 310th Brigades.
  Left    "    190th and 312th Brigades.

And also the 54th, 71st, and 92nd Brigades of Heavy Artillery.

On the 30th March Lieut. C. R. Witcher was again wounded.

[Sidenote: April 1918.]

On the 1st April the 37th Division relieved our infantry but the
artillery remained unchanged, the batteries of the relieving division
not having arrived yet in the area.

On the 3rd April, Major J. Willey, Commanding A/312, was killed, to the
great sorrow of all who knew him. He was a gallant, unassuming officer,
with a rather diffident and altogether charming manner, and the loss of
so able a battery commander at this critical time was felt severely.

Early on the morning of April 5th the 37th Division carried out an
attack on Rossignol Wood and a position running thence westwards, under
cover of a barrage from the guns, which was kept up from 5.30 to 7.30
a.m. The enemy answered with a very heavy fire on all the batteries,
and especially on the headquarters of the right group at Chateau la
Haie. Here the Adjutant of the 235th Brigade was wounded, and there
were several casualties among the telephonists. About 130 prisoners
were captured, including four officers. It soon appeared, however, that
this local operation had merely forestalled another tremendous German
attack, which reached its full force at about 10.45 a.m., and was kept
up all through this and the following day. The Boche bombardment was
extraordinarily intense, and stretched far into the back area. It
included a large amount of gas shell, concentrated chiefly on the 312th
Brigade, which was in action along a hedge close to and south-west of
Les Essarts. The brigade fought with magnificent courage, and though
inundated with gas shell the batteries never failed to fire when called
upon throughout the day; there was scarcely a man but had his hands
badly blistered by the foul mustard gas, while many officers and men
were temporarily blinded by it. C/312 had a particularly terrible
experience. All the six officers with the guns, including Major M. R.
H. Crofton, D.S.O., were wounded or gassed, and the majority of the
gunners, while several guns were knocked out. In fact by the evening
the battery had ceased to exist as a fighting unit, and it was about a
fortnight before it could take an active share again in the fighting.
Much sympathy was felt for the gallant Battery Commander, Major
Crofton. He had already been three or four times wounded during the
war, and on this day orders arrived appointing him to the command of a
brigade, a promotion which he was unable to avail himself of owing to
this fresh wound. It was particularly bad luck, as he had once before
missed promotion in Mesopotamia for the same reason, having been badly
wounded on the day on which he was appointed to a command.

The enemy suffered a sanguinary defeat, being repulsed by our troops
with tremendous loss at all points, except that he gained possession of
a small corner of Bucquoy.

Major G. A. Swain was awarded the Military Cross for his gallant
behaviour on the 5th. His battery, D/312, fired no less than 2600
rounds while under the heavy gas bombardment referred to above.

During the two days' fighting the following officers were wounded in
addition to Major Crofton:

  Lieut. H. F. Nowill, M.C. }
    "    F. G. Sharpling    } A/310.
  Capt.  A. Senior          }
  Lieut. J. B. Boden, M.C.  }
    "    S. A. Rissik       } all of C/312.
    "    E. W. Puttock      }
    "    A. E. Stuttle      }

Although the Boche had failed so disastrously on this occasion, his
resources in men and guns seemed to be unlimited, and he still kept up
his daily attacks with unremitting vigour. Our troops were exhausted
almost beyond the limits of human endurance, and the first three
weeks of the great offensive seemed to us like as many months--a
period of constant danger and anxiety, unceasing hardships, and utter
fatigue. The news from other fronts was of so sinister a nature
that it might well have driven even the bravest of men to despair.
Amongst our splendid troops, however, there was never any thought
of further retreat, and the following stirring order, issued by the
Commander-in-Chief on the 11th April, only served to confirm the
resolution already taken by every officer and man in the British army
to hold back the hated enemy as long as there was a gun or rifle left
to fire at him:

"To all ranks of the British army in France and Flanders.

"Three weeks ago to-day the enemy began his terrific attacks against us
on a fifty-mile front. His objects are to separate us from the French,
to take the Channel ports, and destroy the British army.

"In spite of throwing already 106 Divisions into the battle, and
enduring the most reckless sacrifice of human life, he has as yet made
little progress towards his goal.

"We owe this to the determined fighting and self-sacrifice of our
troops. Words fail me to express the admiration which I feel for the
splendid resistance offered by all ranks of our army under the most
trying circumstances.

"Many amongst us now are tired. To those I would say that victory will
belong to the side which holds out the longest. The French army is
moving rapidly and in great force to our support.

"There is no other course open to us but to fight it out. Every
position must be held to the last man; there must be no retirement.
With our backs to the wall, and believing in the justice of our cause,
each one of us must fight on to the end. The safety of our homes and
the freedom of mankind alike depend upon the conduct of each one of us
at this critical moment.

  "D. HAIG,
  "Commander-in-Chief British Armies in France."

Divisional Headquarters were now at Henu, and on the 18th a
readjustment of the artillery took place, bringing back the 310th to
cover their own instead of the 37th Division. The right group now
consisted of the 310th and 312th Brigades, and the 187th Brigade,
while the 26th, 295th and 296th Brigades formed the left group. The
headquarters of the right group was established in a dug-out at Chateau
la Haie, and the batteries of the 62nd Divisional Artillery, which
had been in the Essarts area, were now distributed about between
Foncquevillers and Sailly au Bois. This was not quite so unpleasant an
area as the one they had left, and things gradually became a little
less strenuous. By the 19th April a French army had arrived in our
support, and though it was not brought into action, the knowledge of
its presence in close proximity to us was very reassuring.

The infantry of the Division was withdrawn from the line for a rest on
the 24th April, and our headquarters moved back to Pas en Artois. The
artillery remained in action, and had settled down by the end of the
month to the old familiar routine of trench warfare. We had six more
officers wounded during April, viz.:

  Lieut. E. H. Vanderpump    April 7th.
  Major  E. W. Jephson, M.C.   "   8th (for the third time).
  Lieut. E. J. C. Sheppard     "  11th.
    "    J. E. McIlroy         "  18th.
  Major  W. F. Tuthill         "  22nd.
  Lieut. A. E. Cockerell       "  22nd.

Twenty-four Military Medals were awarded during the month (v. Appendix).

I insert here a message received from Her Majesty the Queen. The
generous sympathy shown for us by all at home, and their unshaken
confidence in the army had been a source of great comfort and support
to us all during the ordeal we had passed through, and Her Majesty's
gracious and touching words were highly appreciated:

"From H.M. the Queen to F.M. Sir Douglas Haig.

"29/4/18.

"To the men of our Navy, Army, and Air Force, I send this message to
tell every man how much we, the women of the British Empire at home,
watch and pray for you during the long hours of these days of stress
and endurance. Our pride in you is immeasurable, our hope unbounded,
our trust absolute. You are fighting in the cause of righteousness and
freedom, fighting to defend the children and women of our land from
the horrors that have overtaken other countries, fighting for our very
existence as a people at home and across the seas. You are offering
your all. You hold back nothing, and day by day you show a love so
great that no man can have greater. We, on our part, send forth with
full hearts and unfaltering will the lives we hold most dear. We, too,
are striving in all ways possible to make the war victorious. I know
that I am expressing what is felt by thousands of wives and mothers
when I say that we are determined to help one another in keeping your
homes ready against your glad home-coming. In God's name we bless you,
and by His help we, too, will do our best.

  "MARY R."

The following special order of the day was published on the 9th May:

[Sidenote: May 1918.]

"I wish to convey to all ranks of the Royal Regiment of Artillery my
deep appreciation of the splendid service rendered by them in all
stages of the Somme and Lys battles since the opening of the enemy's
attack.

"The difficult conditions imposed by a defensive fight against greatly
superior numbers have been faced with the same skill, courage and
devotion to duty which characterised the work of all branches of the
artillery through the offensive battles of 1917. With less constant
and loyal co-operation on the part of both field, heavy, and siege
batteries, the great bravery and determination of the infantry could
scarcely have availed to hold up the enemy's advance. The infantry are
the first to admit the inestimable value of the artillery support so
readily given them on all occasions.

"The knowledge possessed by each arm, doubly confirmed by the severe
tests already passed through successfully, that it can rely with
absolute confidence upon the most whole-hearted and self-sacrificing
co-operation of the other, is the greatest possible assurance that
all further assaults of the enemy will be met and defeated. I thank
the artillery for what it has already done, and count without fear of
disappointment upon the maintenance of the same gallant spirit and high
standard of achievement in the future.

  "D. HAIG, F.M.,
  "Commander-in-Chief British Armies in France."

Lieut. J. Owen was wounded on the 10th May by a shell that entered his
dug-out at Sailly au Bois.

[Sidenote: June 1918.]

During May and June there was not much activity on our front. We got
many warnings from prisoners and other sources of the imminence of a
further offensive, and on the 26th May especially an unusually severe
bombardment, extending to the back areas, seemed to presage a fresh
German effort. Nothing however came of it, except that on this latter
date a big attack was started against the French near Reims. Our
Headquarters came in for a good deal of unpleasant attention, chiefly
from a high velocity gun firing from near Bapaume which bombarded us
with especial intensity on the 18th and 19th May, and on the 9th June.
We were also considerably annoyed by bombing aeroplanes at night, and
early in the morning of the 17th June several bombs fell very close
to the chateau in which we lived. One bomb on this occasion burst ten
yards from a small shanty in which two men were sleeping. Fortunately
the inside of the hut had been dug down about 2½ feet, and the men were
lying below the ground level, with the happy result that although the
hut was blown to fragments the men inside were absolutely unhurt. The
batteries were subjected to a good many bombardments, but generally
without much effect. D/310, however, had an unfortunate experience on
the 11th June. A 5.9 shell penetrated one of their dug-outs, going
through 12 feet of earth before it burst and killing all the six men
who were inside it at the time. Major Foot, who commanded this battery,
was at the time studying the duties of Brigade Major at headquarters,
and I may mention here that, in order to have understudies always ready
to take the place of any Staff Officer who might become casualties,
there was generally a Regimental Officer attached to my headquarters to
learn the work. We had a good many officers in the Divisional Artillery
who had been trained in this way, and who were quite competent to take
on the respective duties at a moment's notice. Majors Eeles and Foot,
and Capts. Archer and Middleton did particularly good work of this sort
at one time or another.

Several raiding operations were carried out by us. On the night of the
25th May our guns supported the 57th Division in a raid which resulted
in the capture of eleven prisoners, and at 1 a.m. on the 18th June
we fired off a thousand gas projectors at Ablainzeville, the guns
and trench mortars firing a barrage through the village at the same
time. The mortars that took part in this operation were firing from a
position barely 400 yards from the Boche line, which had been selected
by Bottomley, who had succeeded Powell as Trench Mortar Officer. It was
a very dangerous and badly "strafed" place, but the risk was well worth
taking, and the mortars were a constant thorn in the enemy's side.
For obvious reasons the results of operations of this sort could very
rarely be ascertained, but in this instance we were more fortunate for
we learned from a document, captured in the following August, that the
Germans lost in this gas attack two officers and 51 men killed, and 66
gassed, all of the 12th Bavarian R.I.R.

There were two rather notable events in the wagon lines during this
period. On the 19th May, Whit-Sunday, General Braithwaite attended
a parade service there and presented a large number of Military
Medals. He took the occasion to make us a very graceful speech and to
congratulate all ranks on their courage and fine behaviour during the
trying days of the great offensive.

On the 16th June he inspected the D.A.C. and presented three
Distinguished Service Medals which had been won by Indian drivers. The
Indians, as I have said before, were a very useful lot of men, and
could always be counted upon to obey orders, however difficult and
dangerous the execution of them might be. In fact, as the following
incident shows, the literal way in which they tried to obey their
orders was sometimes carried to excess. Sometime during April, when
the fighting was at its hottest, some wagons of the D.A.C., driven by
Indian drivers, were carrying ammunition up to a battery near Essarts.
The drivers of one of the wagons were making their first trip up to the
battery area, and one of the instructions given them was that they must
on no account leave anything behind them when they returned, however
heavily they might be shelled. As luck would have it this wagon had a
very bad time of it, the British N.C.O. with it being badly wounded,
and two out of the six mules being killed. The drivers behaved very
well, finished their job of delivering ammunition, and brought back
the wounded man safely. They were, however, full of apologies on their
return to camp; they had done their utmost, they said, to load up the
two dead mules on to the wagon, but although they had tried their
hardest for about an hour under heavy fire, they had had to give it up
at last as beyond their powers.

On the 14th June a rather disturbing order came out, reducing our
establishment of horses and mules; the first line wagons and all the
ammunition wagons of the D.A.C. were henceforth to be drawn by four
instead of six horses. No doubt this step was unavoidable owing to the
shortage of animals, but it added enormously to the difficulties of
ammunition supply for the rest of the war.

On the 18th the 312th Brigade, which had been supporting the Division
on our right for some time past, moved across to the neighbourhood of
Foncquevillers and joined its own division again.

In the _Gazette_ of the 3rd June, Lieut.-Colonel F. A. Woodcock and
Major C. A. Eeles were awarded the D.S.O.

Nine Military Medals were awarded during May and June (v. Appendix),
and two Military Crosses--to Lieuts. H. O. Schofield on the 9th June
and Harold Smith on the 23rd:

"When a shell burst in a gun pit, set the camouflage on fire and
damaged the gun, Lieut. Schofield, with a non-commissioned officer
(Corpl. Edwin Burton, D.C.M.) rushed to the spot, and, despite
continuous enemy shelling and the dangerously overheated condition
of the ammunition, they removed the clinometer and a large number of
rounds to a place of safety and put out the fire, thereby saving much
ammunition."

"During a destructive shoot on the battery, Lieut. H. Smith, with the
assistance of a N.C.O., removed all dial sights from the guns, carrying
them to a place of safety. Later, when the camouflage on the pit caught
fire from a direct hit, he, with the help of two men, cleared the
burning stuff away and removed ammunition whilst rounds were exploding
and the battery was still under heavy fire. He eventually put out the
fire, and thereby saved a gun from destruction."

On the 25th June the Division withdrew from the line to go into G.H.Q.
reserve, and the sorely tried batteries at last got a brief spell of
peace, and went into rest billets in and about Orville, Amplier, and
Sarton.



CHAPTER V

WITH THE 5TH FRENCH ARMY

      "_O torn out of thy trance,
      O deathless, O my France,
  O many wounded mother, O redeemed to reign._

      _Out of the obscene eclipse
      Re-risen with burning lips,
  To witness for us if we looked for thee in vain._"

  SWINBURNE.


[Sidenote: July 1918.]

Comfortable billets and beautiful summer weather, with sports,
entertainments given by the excellent "Pelican Troupe," and other
distractions, contributed to make the rest a very pleasant one, but it
was not to last long. On about the 12th July the Division was ordered
to prepare for a move to an unknown destination, and on the 15th the
artillery entrained and was taken south through Paris. That all units
had made good use of their time in a peaceful area is proved by this
letter, which the G.O.C. received from the General commanding the R.A.
of the 4th Corps:

"My dear General,--I saw your artillery entraining at two stations on
the 15th. I saw portions of six batteries and the D.A.C.

"I told the Corps Commander that I have seldom seen horses in such
magnificent condition, or a better turn-out of men, horses and
vehicles. They might have been proceeding for a ceremonial show in
London, instead of going to take part in a battle.

"I told the Battery Commanders how sorry we are in the Corps to part
with your Division. We know the Division and the Division knows the
Corps, and all our battle associations have been happy and successful.

"We sincerely hope that the gallant Pelicans will come back to us.

"I thought you would like to hear about your artillery. They certainly
impressed all who saw them very much, and I am sure that they will
impress our Allies....

  "Yours very sincerely,
  "J. G. GEDDES."

On the 15th July the enemy began a big attack on a front of 50
miles, each side of Reims, and the Division, which was originally, I
believe, to have gone to Verdun, was diverted while still in the troop
trains towards the Reims front, and by the 18th had been detrained
and billeted in an area between Arcis and Epernay, with headquarters
at Tours Sur Marne. We now learned that we, with the 51st Highland
Division, had been formed into the 22nd Corps, under command of
Lieut.-General Sir A. Godley, and were for the time being a part of
the 5th French Army. We heard, too, the cheering news that not only
had the German offensive been definitely checked, but that the French
had counter-attacked on a long front from Soissons southwards, and, in
addition to advancing several kilometres, had captured about 17,000
prisoners.

Late at night on the 18th I was aroused by the news that we were to
advance at once and take our place in the line of battle. Accordingly
we moved our headquarters on the 19th to Germaine, in the forest of
Reims, while the two brigades and the D.A.C. concentrated near Avenay
and Fontaine. In the afternoon I rode out with the Brigade and Battery
Commanders, and reconnoitred a position of assembly in the forest, out
of view of aeroplane observation. Early next morning the batteries
moved up into this position, while the Divisional Headquarters was
established in the village of St. Imoges. The D.A.C. took up its
position close to the Reims-Epernay road, about two miles east of
Courtagnon.

At 8 a.m. the French artillery attached to the Division opened a
barrage, under which our infantry attacked Marfaux and the Bois
de Reims. While in their positions of readiness the artillery was
unmolested except by a chance shell, which unfortunately burst on
a sub-section of B/312, killing six men and wounding two officers
(Lieuts. J. M. Whitworth and W. Burt) and five men. As the fight
progressed the brigades were ordered into action, and by 6 p.m. all
batteries were in position in the Patis d'Ecueil, with the exception of
C/312, which came into action about 800 yards west of Courtagnon Farm.
Lieut. P. K. Baillie-Reynolds was also wounded this day. Lieut. G. A.
Ellis added a bar to the Military Cross which he had won in March: "He
carried an officer, who was wounded in the battery O.P., back to safety
through a heavy barrage, and then returned to his post to observe the
progress of the attack, sending back valuable information. Later on,
when the battery of which he was left in charge was heavily shelled,
he promptly moved the men. His coolness and judgment prevented many
casualties."

At 10 a.m. on Sunday the 21st we launched an attack against the wooded
ridge running north-west from the north of Cuitron. The enemy offered
a stubborn resistance, and neither we nor the 51st were able to make
much progress. Firing was almost continuous during the day and night,
sometimes at the request of our own infantry and sometimes of the
French on our right.

Next day we attacked the Bois du Petit Champ just north of Cuitron, and
by 4 p.m. we had taken the wood, making prisoners over 200 Huns and
capturing 30 machine guns. Lieuts. H. E. Stephens and V. A. H. Draper
were wounded, and about ten men were killed or wounded.

At 6 a.m. on the 23rd July the Division attacked under a barrage of our
own artillery and French guns, and captured the villages of Marfaux and
Cuitron, together with 130 prisoners and about 30 more machine guns.
We also recovered a battery of French guns which had been lost in the
opening offensive. Several batteries fired as many as 600 rounds per
gun, and the infantry declared that the barrage was magnificent. The
prisoners were in a great state of depression, and reported that their
losses from our artillery fire had been enormous. This was no more than
we expected, for large bodies of the enemy had frequently presented
ideal targets to our guns throughout the day, and the batteries had
taken full advantage of their opportunity. Divisional Headquarters
moved to Hautvillers in the evening.

The 24th July was spent chiefly in consolidating the positions won.
The artillery fire was mainly in support of the 77th French division
on our right. Boche aeroplanes were very active during the night, and
the D.A.C. were particularly unfortunate, losing 26 animals killed and
20 wounded from hostile bombs. In the two brigades about nine horses
were killed, and there were several casualties among the men. Lieut.
W. H. House, United States Army, who was attached to the D.A.C. as
Medical Officer, was awarded the M.C. for gallantry on this occasion.
A great many bombs fell in the vicinity of our headquarters, and a
large ammunition dump, in the valley about a mile distant, was set
on fire, and went on exploding all through the night with tremendous
detonations. The spectacle as viewed from the roof of our billet was a
very grand and awe-inspiring one; the loss of ammunition to the French
must have been very serious.

The following letter referred to the work of these last few days:

  "Le Général Serrigny, C.B., C.M.G.,
  "Commandant la 77me Division d'lnfanterie.
  "à Monsieur le Général Commandant
  "La 62me Division Britannique.
  "le 26 Juillet, 1918.

"Mon Général,

"J'ai l'honneur de vous prier de vouloir bien transmettre au Commandant
de l'Artillerie Britannique placèe sur vos ordres mes remerciements
pour le concours efficace qu'elle a prété à ma Division au cours des
attaques sur le bois de Reims et le château de Commetreuil.

"L'enlèvement difficile de cette région boisèe avait été préparé par
les actions energiques menées par la 62me D. I. Britannique pendant
les journées précédentes; l'appui de I'artillerie anglaise pour les
opérations des 22 et 23 Juillet a facilité grandement la tâche de la
77me D. I. francaise.

"Je vous exprime, au nom des troupes sur mes ordres, toute leur
gratitude, et vous prie d'agréer l'expression de ma considération la
plus distinguèe.

  "SERRIGNY."

On the 25th and 26th July preparations were made for a further
attack, and dumps at battery positions were made up to 600 rounds per
18-pounder, and 500 rounds per howitzer. The 310th Headquarters at the
Ferme d'Ecueil was heavily shelled on the 26th, and had to be moved
a few hundred yards. Lieut.-Colonel Sherlock on this occasion showed
great personal gallantry in removing wounded men under very heavy fire.
It rained heavily in the evening, and a cloudy night kept the bombers
from troubling us.

At 6 a.m. on the 27th the Corps launched a fresh attack. It was
completely successful, and by 11.30 a.m. we had captured the villages
of Espilly and Nappe. After the attack the batteries advanced one at
a time, and were all in their new positions before dark, the 310th in
the Bois du petit Champ, and the 312th close to and west of Pourcy. We
moved our headquarters to Nanteuil in the evening. It was raining hard,
and the move was rather a cheerless one, the more so as the enemy was
shelling the village hard when we entered it. Lieut. E. S. Lloyd gained
the Military Cross for gallant and distinguished conduct in this day's
action.

By this time I had under my command, in addition to my own artillery,
12 batteries of French Field Artillery and six French heavy batteries.

On the 28th the 312th Brigade moved forward at dawn to positions west
of Marfaux, and supported a successful attack by the 185th Infantry
Brigade on the Montagne de Bligny. The D.A.C. advanced to the vicinity
of Courtagnon.

On the 29th we consolidated and pushed patrols forward, and there
was some very hard fighting. The 310th Brigade moved at dawn to
positions north of Cuitron, and engaged many moving targets with
direct observation firing about 1500 rounds per battery during the
day. D/310 engaged three hostile batteries with great success. Shortly
after mid-day A/310 and C/310 advanced in full view of the enemy to
positions near the Moulin de Chaumuzy and engaged machine guns which
were annoying the infantry. The 312th also advanced two batteries in
close support; B/312 trotted into a position near Chaumuzy under heavy
fire, and suffered a few casualties.

Orders came in the afternoon for the British Corps to be withdrawn from
the line and entrained to another destination, and after supporting
a small operation from 7.45 to 8.45 p.m. the 310th withdrew to their
wagon lines.

The 312th Brigade fired, in the early morning of the 30th, in support
of a French advance, and then withdrew at 10 a.m. to St. Imoges and
thence to Aigny. Divisional Headquarters moved back to Hautvillers.

The Divisional Artillery then marched to Chalons and Coolus, where
they entrained on the 1st and 2nd August, and returned to our old
neighbourhood. Headquarters were in Pas, the 310th Brigade in Couin,
the 312th in Bus, and the D.A.C. in Authie St. Leger.

So ended a very interesting and exciting experience. I think we all
felt it a great privilege to have been selected as part of the force
sent to help our French comrades against a formidable offensive, and we
found them so cordial and pleasant, and so easy to get on with, that we
all carried away very agreeable memories of our connection with their
5th Army, in spite of the strenuous nature of the fighting and the
many hardships and dangers which we had to face. The fighting was of
quite a new and unaccustomed type. It was moving, as opposed to trench
warfare, and batteries were continually changing position, and had no
more protection than they could dig for themselves in the intervals of
firing; they took to it as readily as if they had done nothing else all
through the war, and, in spite of all the difficulties of ammunition
supply and keeping up communications in the thickly wooded country,
they were always ready to open fire up to time, and to support the
infantry in their rapid advances. This could only be achieved, however,
by the unremitting exertion of every officer, N.C.O., and man, who were
fighting and toiling night and day without shelter of any sort, and
with never more than a chance hour or two of sleep at a time, from the
20th to the 30th July. Although the infantry suffered very severely,
our casualties were not heavy, owing to the indifferent counter-battery
work of the enemy, and to the excellent habit, which had become a
second nature in all the batteries, of digging themselves in directly
a position was occupied. The total losses in the Divisional Artillery
in the ten days' fighting were only five officers wounded, nine other
ranks killed, and about 60 other ranks wounded.

As some indication of the extent of artillery activity while with the
5th French army, I note here the number of rounds handled during the
period by the D.A.C.:

  From railhead to reserve dump,       18-pr.       How.
    by lorry                           55,705      18,450

  Delivered to the guns from the
    reserve dump by limbers            52,321      17,476

Eight Military Medals were awarded in connection with the operations,
and also one Legion of Honour and nine Croix de Guerre (v. Appendix).

The following special order of the day was issued on the 31st July by
Maj.-General Braithwaite:

"The operations which commenced on the 20th July were brought to a
successful termination at midnight on the 30th July.

"During the whole of this period the 62nd Division has had continuous
fighting, manoeuvring, and marching in new and hitherto unknown
country of a character entirely different from anything in which it
has operated before during this campaign. Especially have the densely
wooded slopes of the Bois de Reims been a difficulty for troops
unaccustomed to wood fighting.

"But neither the difficulty of the country, nor the determined and
bitter resistance of the enemy, have militated against the victorious
operations of the Division.

"The Division made a great name for itself at the battle of Cambrai.
It enhanced that reputation at Bucquoy, where it withstood the attacks
of some of the best of the German troops, up to that time flushed
with success. It has in this great battle set the seal on its already
established reputation as a fighting force of the first quality.

"During the period, it has been fighting with its comrades of the
French army, and side by side with the 51st (Highland) Division, the
62nd (West Riding) Division has utterly defeated the 123rd German
Division, which had to be withdrawn on the 22nd inst., and the 50th
German Division (an assault division of the first rank) shared a
similar fate a few days later.

"The fortitude, steadfastness, and valour of all ranks has been beyond
praise.

"Marfaux, Cuitron, Bouilly the clearing of the Bois du Petit Champ,
attest your gallantry, while Espilly, Nappes, the advance up the Ardre
Valley, and the capture of Bligny and the Montagne de Bligny are
evidence of your sustained valour.

"To every officer, warrant officer, non-commissioned officer and
private soldier I tender my grateful thanks, and express my unstinted
admiration of their victorious efforts. They have gloriously upheld the
highest traditions of the British Army.

"It is with intense pride that, once again after a great victory I
have the honour to sign myself as Commander of the 62nd (West Riding)
Division.

  "WALTER BRAITHWAITE,
  "Major-General."

The Corps had also the honour of receiving a complimentary order from
General Berthelot in the following terms:

"Ordre Général No. 63 le 30 Juillet, 1918.

"Au moment ou le XXII. C. A. Britannique est appelé à quitter la
Vme Armée, le Général Commandant l'Armée lui exprime toute la
reconnaissance et toute l'admiration qu'ont merité les hauts faits
qu'il vient d'accomplir.

"A peine débarqué, tenant à l'honneur de participer à la contre
offensive victorieuse qui venait d'arrêter la furieuse ruée de l'ennemi
sur la Marne, et commencait à le rejeter en desordre vers le Nords,
précipitant ses mouvements, réduisant à l'extreme la durée de ses
reconnaissances, le XXII. C. A. s'est jeté avec ardeur dans la melée.

"Poussant sans répit ses efforts, harcellant, talonnant l'ennemi, il a,
pendant 10 jours successifs d'âpres combats, fait sienne cette vallée
de l'Ardre largement arrosée de son sang.

"Grace au courage héroique, et à la tenacité proverbiale des fils de
la Grande Bretagne, les efforts continus et répétés de ce brave Corps
d'Armée n'ont pas étés vains;

"21 officiers, plus de 1300 soldats prisonniers, 140 mitrailleuses, 40
canons, enlevés à l'ennemi, dont 4 divisions ont été successivement
malmenées et refoulées,

"la haute vallée de l'Ardre réconquise avec les hauteurs qui la
dominent au Nord et au Sud.

"tel est le bilan de la participation Britannique à l'effort de la Vme
Armée.

"Ecossais de la Montagne, sous le commandement du Général
Carter-Campbell, Commandant la 51me Division!

"Enfants de Yorkshire, sous le commandement du Général Braithwaite,
commandant la 62nd Division!

"Cavaliers Neo-Zelandais et Australiens!

"Vous tous, officers et soldats du 22me C.A., si brillament commandé
par le Général Sir A. Godley, vous venez d'ajoutir une page glorieuse
à votre histoire.

"Marfaux, Chaumuzy, Montagne de Bligny, ces noms prestigieux pourront
être écrits en lettres d'or dans les annales de vos regiments.

"Vos amis Francais se souviendront avec émotion de votre brillant
bravoure, et de votre parfaite cameraderie de combat.

  "Le Général Commandant la Vme Armée,
  "BERTHELOT."

The G.O.C. also received the following letter from Sir A. Godley:

"I am very sorry not to have been able to see any of your artillery on
coming out of the battle. I had hoped to do so, but could not manage
it. I should be very glad if you would convey to them my most grateful
thanks and high appreciation of all the good work that they have done
during the last ten days. The way in which batteries worked with
battalions, and brigades with brigades of infantry, in open warfare,
must have been a source of enormous satisfaction to all officers,
non-commissioned officers, and men, and the way in which it was done is
worthy of the best traditions of the Royal Regiment. Will you please
convey my heartiest congratulations to all ranks."



CHAPTER VI

THE FINAL TRIUMPH

"_The Right Hand of the Lord hath the pre-eminence. The Right Hand of
the Lord bringeth mighty things to pass._"--PSALM CXVIII.


[Sidenote: Aug. 1918.]

On the 8th August the 4th Army launched a completely successful attack
west of Amiens, and an offensive on a large scale was then decided on
in which our Army, the third, was to participate. The 62nd Division was
in reserve, but its artillery was temporarily placed under the 37th
Division, and took up positions between Essarts and Bucquoy. The attack
began on the 21st with a substantial victory. Our troops advanced
through and beyond Bucquoy, Ablainzeville, and Moyenville, and later
on in the day captured Achiet le Petit and Courcelles. In this action
Lieut. A. G. Bennett was awarded the Military Cross:

"On the 21st August Lieut. Bennett was in charge of a section of trench
mortars, and took part in the barrage preceding the attack on Bucquoy.
In spite of the difficulties due to misfires, owing to dampness of
charges on account of the atmospheric conditions, he succeeded in
firing the whole of the hundred rounds in ten minutes, the shooting
being excellent. On completion of the barrage he went forward with
the infantry to reconnoitre, taking with him Gunner E. Wendrop, M.M.
In Bucquoy they met four of the enemy partly concealed, who had been
overlooked by the first wave, and who were then sniping our men from
the rear. With difficulty they got round them, and then rushed them,
taking them prisoners."

The artillery pushed on, and on the 23rd our batteries supported the
4th Corps in another great attack, which resulted in the capture
of Achiet le Grand, Bihucourt, and Irles. Our casualties were not
heavy, but unhappily we lost one officer killed, Lieut. J. C.
Massey-Beresford. That same evening the 62nd Divisional Artillery were
withdrawn to Bertrancourt, and thence marched to join the 38th Division
in an attack from the neighbourhood of Aveluy Wood. They remained with
this division until the 6th September, and took part in the arduous
advance from the Ancre to the Tortille river, being in action as the
fight progressed in and about the ruined remains of the historical
villages of Pozières, Bazentin, Flers, Morval, Mesnil, and Manancourt.
I myself, with my Headquarter Staff, was with the artillery supporting
the 62nd Division all this time, during its advance from Behagnies to
the neighbourhood of Morchies; unfortunately, therefore, I am unable to
describe the operations of the 62nd Divisional Artillery in detail, but
they entailed very heavy fighting and continuous hard work. Major R. C.
Foot has kindly furnished the following notes of the experiences of the
310th Brigade:

"Early on the 24th August we marched to Bouzincourt, where battery
commanders went forward. The 38th Division had crossed the Ancre and
made good Albert, but the enemy were still holding Tara and Usna Hills,
which overlook Albert from the east. Our orders were to take up
positions east of the river to cover the next morning's advance. The
three 18-pounder batteries went into action on the low ground east of
the river that night, and I went in by the goods station close to the
river. I remember we had to have 200 rounds per howitzer that night,
which meant that the horses were on the road all night after 48 hours
practically continuous marching.

"On the morning of the 25th we fired a barrage to cover the attack;
Tara and Usna Hills were taken with three 77 mm. guns and some
prisoners. That afternoon the 310th Brigade went into action near the
crest in front of La Boisselle. The infantry advanced this evening and
the next day, with little opposition after the morning's success.

"On the 26th the brigade was in action in the valley between
Contalmaison and Pozières. That evening B/310 and D/310 did a combined
shoot on a counter attack by two companies of the 3rd Grenadier
Regiment, made against the right brigade of the 38th Division; the
Germans came out of Trones Wood across the open, and Jim Currie
(commanding B/310) caught them beautifully; we counted about 40 dead
there next morning.

"On the 27th we were in action by Mametz Wood and Bazentin Wood.
Here we fired a barrage for an attack on the Longueval--Guillemont
area that morning. The 28th saw us in action at Ginchy covering the
advance on Morval, which proved rather a difficult place to take. Here
Latter behaved very gallantly under heavy shelling, for which he was
subsequently awarded the M.C. I had some very nice shooting from here
on some infantry dragging light trench mortars; I hit two teams and
counted 12 dead and all three mortars left there next day.

"We remained at Ginchy two days, and on the 30th went into action at
Morval. From this position we covered the advance on Sailly Saillisel
Ridge, which was taken on September 1st.

[Sidenote: Sept. 1918.]

"Reconnoitring the long forward slope down to the Canal du Nord at
Manancourt on the 2nd was a nasty job, and some 38th Division batteries
who were pushed on in front of us here had a bad time. Meanwhile my
battery moved up close behind Sailly Saillisel.

"On the evening of the 3rd we moved up close to the canal. I went in
rear of B/310, about 800 yards from the canal, which our infantry
were to cross in the morning. By bad luck I came under a German gas
concentration, which lasted from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. I had to stay there
to fire a barrage, and consequently got about 90 per cent. of the men
at my gun positions gassed. We were digging, and carrying ammunition
all night; the position was close to Manancourt. Nelson got an M.C. for
his work that night.

"The Brigade crossed the canal on the 5th, but on the 6th was withdrawn
from action. The advance had been 18 miles as the crow flies, in 13
days, over the old Somme battlefield."

The official records of the two Military Crosses mentioned in the above
account are as follows:

"When ordered to reconnoitre at Ginchy for a gun position for an
advance, Lieut. Latter found the enemy in possession of the area, and
sweeping all approaches with machine gun fire. He successfully marked
a position, although he was at times in the open within 300 yards of
the hostile machine guns. Later, in command of a detached section, he
displayed great gallantry and initiative, moving to and fro several
times from his section to the main battery position for orders, in
preference to sending runners from his men."

"Lieut. H. G. Nelson: when his battery came into action in a forward
position it was heavily shelled with gas, but with great courage and
determination he moved about encouraging his men. Later, when two of
his guns received direct hits, he kept them in action, removing the
casualties himself. His disregard for his own safety was a splendid
example to his men, and enabled them to maintain the fire of their guns
when this appeared impossible."

Four officers were wounded during these operations, Lieuts. F. R.
Stuart, W. J. Green, J. C. Harker, and H. G. Nelson. Eight Military
Medals were gained (v. Appendix). Lieut. N. Hess won a bar on the 1st
September to the M.C., which he gained in November 17, and Lieut. E. C.
Lintern was awarded the Military Cross for the following action on the
3rd September at Mesnil:

"When during night harassing fire one of the guns of D/312 burst,
killing two and wounding two of his detachment and setting fire to the
pit, he and a gunner at once went to the assistance of the wounded men.
They removed burning charges which had been blown into the ammunition
recess, and succeeded in preventing an explosion and keeping down the
fire, until other help was forthcoming and the fire was put out. His
prompt action prevented further loss of life."

The following letter was received by the Divisional Commander from the
G.O.C. 38th Division:

"I have experienced the great honour and privilege of having under my
command, from the 21st August to the 5th September, 1918, the artillery
of your Division.

"This Division has attacked on a 3000 yard front for 16 days
consecutively with a truly remarkable success. I attribute this success
to a great degree to the magnificent support I have received from
the Field Artillery. On many occasions batteries of your artillery
have literally moved parallel with my advancing infantry. Their dash,
determination, and staying power are above all praise.

"I wish especially to bring to your notice the gallant and
distinguished conduct of Lieut.-Colonel D. J. Sherlock, D.S.O., and
Lieut.-Colonel A. G. Eden."

This battle from the 21st to 31st August is now officially known as the
Battle of Bapaume, which, runs the official account, turning the flank
of the German positions on the Somme compelled the enemy to withdraw
to the east bank of the river. Here 23 divisions defeated 35 German
divisions, capturing 34,250 prisoners and 250 guns.

On the 28th August Major-General W. P. Braithwaite left us on promotion
to the command of a corps. Glad as we all were that he should receive
the recognition due to his distinguished services, each one of us felt
his departure as a personal loss. He had always taken the keenest
interest in his artillery, and had been a constant visitor at the
battery positions, and we felt that we were losing in him a leader
who inspired confidence and could understand our needs. Whatever the
difficulty and danger of the situation, he always preserved the same
cheery, courteous, and debonnaire demeanour, and he never passed
through a battery without leaving the officers and men the happier for
his visit. Less than this I cannot say, and I would gladly say more;
but it would be unbecoming in me to speak of the soldierly qualities of
a superior officer, while he and I are still on the active list, and I
must content myself with saying that Sir Walter Braithwaite will long
be remembered with admiration and affection by his old artillery.

He was succeeded in command of the Division by Major-General Sir Robert
Whigham.

[Sidenote: Sept. 1918.]

My own artillery joined the Division again on the 8th September.
Divisional Headquarters were then at the Triangle Copse near
Gomiecourt, and the Division was enjoying a short rest some distance
in rear of the front line, which ran roughly along the Canal du Nord.
I had hoped that our gunners would have a rest too after their fine
work with the 38th Division, but it was not to be, for on the day of
their arrival we received orders to be prepared to attack and capture
Havrincourt, the scene of our former triumph in a few days. The
brigades and D.A.C. accordingly moved on the 9th to the area round
Beugny, and the work of reconnoitring positions for the coming battle
began at once. The positions selected lay chiefly between Havrincourt
Wood and the Canal, a little to the left of those occupied in the
battle of the 20th November, 1917. The 3rd Divisional Artillery,
together with the 5th, 76th, 93rd, and 232nd brigades, were temporarily
added to my command, making a total of twenty-four 18-pounder batteries
and eight 4.5 howitzer batteries to support the Division in its attack.
Batteries set to work forthwith to prepare their positions, and to
dump thereon 450 rounds per gun. While engaged in this work Lieut. B.
Alderton won the Military Cross "for great gallantry at Havrincourt
Wood on September 10th, 1918, in leading ammunition wagons which were
being heavily shelled to a place of safety. He dealt with the situation
with great pluck and skill, assisted the five drivers who had been
wounded, and undoubtedly saved further damage being done."

The following Divisional Order was issued on the 10th:

  "The 62nd (West Riding) Division has been called on to make a
  big effort to capture the high ground on which the village of
  Havrincourt stands.

  "The early capture of this important tactical feature is regarded
  as essential to the success of larger operations in the near
  future. Every day given to the enemy to strengthen his positions
  there is a day gained for him.

  "There are no tanks available for this attack at Havrincourt, which
  will be carried out under intense artillery barrage and bombardment.

  "The 62nd Division has borne a brilliant share in the operations
  on the Marne in July, and more recently in nine days hard fighting
  round Mory and Vaulx. It captured Havrincourt on the 20th November
  last year, and a second capture of this strong position in the
  Hindenburg line will add fresh lustre to the splendid record of the
  Division.

  "R. D. WHIGHAM,
  "Major-General."

All the batteries went into action during the night of the 11th
September, and in the early hours of the 12th Divisional Headquarters
moved to the canal bank south-west of Hermies. At 5.25 a.m. the barrage
opened, and continued for about three hours, sweeping north-east
through the village of Havrincourt at the rate of 100 yards in three
minutes. The infantry pressed on irresistibly behind the line of
bursting shell, and once more this almost impregnable position fell
before the unconquerable onslaught of our wonderful battalions. The
prisoners numbered 12 officers and over 600 other ranks. We had one
officer wounded in the Divisional Artillery, Lieut. J. B. C. Hewitt.
All through the 13th there was fierce fighting round the village. The
Boche counter-attacked vigorously, and at one time got a foothold in a
corner of Havrincourt, but by the evening he was again thrust out. The
guns were hard at work all day, and we learned from prisoners that the
counter-attacking troops lost heavily from our artillery fire.

On the 14th the infantry again attacked under a barrage, and captured a
trench about a thousand yards east of Havrincourt, together with five
officers and 204 other ranks. The 15th was spent in consolidating the
positions gained. The enemy's aeroplanes were very active and brought
down three of our observation balloons in flames. That afternoon,
when visiting the headquarters of the 185th Infantry Brigade with
the G.O.C., I heard a curious story from Lord Hampden, the Infantry
Brigadier. During the attack of the previous day some of his men
entered a dug-out and found four Boches playing cards; they simply held
up their hands for a moment, remarked "Kamerad," and then went on with
their game! It was rather an amusing proof that the Huns were beginning
to regard defeat and capture as a thing naturally to be expected.

On the 16th September the infantry of the Division withdrew for a rest,
the guns remaining in the line, as usual, under the 3rd Division.
Lieut. S. A. Rissik was wounded this day. No further advance was made
for some days, but preparations were set in hand for another great
attack to be begun by the 3rd Division, and carried on afterwards by
the 62nd.

On the 18th the enemy counter-attacked heavily. For about two and a
half hours he kept up a bombardment of extraordinary intensity, and
shells of all sizes, about half of them gas, were falling in and around
our batteries; over a hundred shell craters were afterwards counted
in B/312's position alone. All communication lines were cut, but the
batteries fired hard on their S.O.S. lines, and the attack finally
broke down. In this action Lieuts. H. J. Dowden and C. F. M. Douet won
their Military Crosses:

"In response to an S.O.S., Lieut. Dowden at once got all the guns
into action, and maintained a quick rate of fire in spite of a heavy
barrage. He fired one gun himself until the detachment was collected,
and then assisted to bind up a wounded officer."

Lieut. Douet was "in charge of a forward section of his battery
when it was firing S.O.S. under heavy bombardment, previous to a
hostile counter attack. One of his guns was put out of action and the
detachment incapacitated, the detachment of the other gun were killed
or wounded. He, with an N.C.O., worked the gun until the order to cease
fire was received."

On the 25th Capt. K. B. Nicholson, M.C., was wounded.

We moved our headquarters on the 26th to a dug-out just north of
Hermies, and at 5.20 a.m. on the 27th the battle began. The 3rd
Division advanced under an artillery barrage and captured the strong
defensive positions of Flesquières and Ribecourt. The artillery command
then passed to me, and the 62nd Division, pushing on through the 3rd,
pressed forward towards Marcoing and captured a strong line of defence
between that village and Flesquières, taking prisoner 15 officers and
about 300 other ranks. The victory was complete all along the line,
Bourlon Wood having fallen to the Canadians and Graincourt to the 17th
Corps.

Next day we continued our advance, captured Marcoing, and secured
the crossings of the St. Quentin Canal. The 186th Infantry Brigade
pushed on the same night and secured an important line of trench
east of the Canal. We moved Divisional Headquarters to a dug-out on
the Graincourt road just north of Havrincourt. In these two days'
fighting our Division had captured about 60 officers and 1600 rank and
file, together with 49 guns and howitzers. On the 29th the action was
continued, and the Division took Masnières. Our headquarters shifted
to a dug-out east of Flesquières, the battery positions being now for
the most part in the area south of Marcoing. We were much gratified
at receiving the following telegram to the Division from our former
Commander, Lieut.-General Sir W. P. Braithwaite:

"To General Whigham, 62nd Division. Just heard of your great success at
Ribecourt and Marcoing. It is all splendid and just like 62. Will you
allow me to congratulate you and the Division and to say how very proud
I am to have once commanded so splendid a Division."

[Sidenote: Oct. 1918.]

The 3rd Division relieved our infantry during the night of the 30th
September and captured Rumilly under an artillery barrage on the 1st
October.

On the 2nd Major-General Sir R. Whigham visited the D.A.C. and brigades
with me. The former was in the Ribecourt Valley, and the brigades were
still in the neighbourhood of Marcoing, where they were enjoying a
short rest before being pushed forward again. They had lost a large
number of horses during the few preceding days from shell fire and
bombs. I remember that Lieut. G. A. Murray, the Signalling Officer of
the 310th Brigade, showed us round the positions; he had only been with
us for a few weeks, and I was much taken by his smiling, cheery manner,
and his evident grasp of his duties. It was therefore a great shock to
me when I heard next day that he had been killed while laying a line
across a bridge in Masnières; it was a great sorrow to us all, and a
serious loss to the brigade.

The Boche now made a peace offer in the vain hope of staying our
progress--the humblest thing that had yet emanated from Berlin. There
could, however, be no parleying with a foe who was destitute of honour
or humanity, and the answer, on our part of the front, was a fresh
attack made on the 8th October, in which the 2nd and 3rd Divisions
captured the high ground running through Seranvillers, and pushed on
through that village towards Wambaix. Our guns took part in the action,
and Lieut. E. Smart won his Military Cross for the following act of
bravery: "On October 8th he was observing officer; when the infantry
advanced over the crest he was unable to observe the situation, and so
went forward and kept in close touch with the infantry, then held up in
a trench. He established an O.P. in the trench and there observed the
enemy counter attacking, supported by three tanks. Our infantry were
compelled to retire, but Lieut. Smart remained at his post for some
considerable time, and sent back valuable information. Throughout the
whole of the period he was under constant shell fire from the enemy
barrage."

Cambrai was captured on the 9th by troops on our left, and on the
10th October we moved headquarters to Masnières. The position on that
day was as follows: on our front the Guards were in Bevilly, the 4th
Corps had captured Beauvois and Caudry, and the 5th Corps was closing
up on le Cateau. The 310th Brigade was in action covering the Guards'
Division, but the 312th were resting at and around Estourmel, and
came back under my command. This day brought to a close the Battle of
Cambrai--St. Quentin, 27th September to 10th October, which in ten days
of victorious fighting broke through the last and strongest of the
enemy's fully prepared positions, opening the way to a war of movement
and an advance on the German main lines of communication. Thirty-five
Infantry, 3 Cavalry, and 2 American Divisions defeated 45 German
Divisions, taking 48,500 prisoners and 630 guns.

On the 10th I walked up to Estourmel with Elston, my Staff Captain, to
see the 312th Brigade, which was then temporarily under Major Arnold
Forster's command, vice Lieut.-Colonel Eden, who had gone home on a
course a short time previously. Lieut.-Colonel R. H. Johnson, D.S.O.,
took over the command a few days later. I remember that we were much
struck by the rapid change in the appearance of the country. Masnières,
the village from which we started, was a mere heap of ruins; the next
village on the road, Seranvillers, had been badly knocked about, and
then came Wambaix, which was in not quite so bad a state. After that
the country presented an almost normal appearance, and church spires
and compact little villages were to be seen dotted about the landscape,
practically unharmed by the brutal Boche, who was now retiring in such
haste that he had little time to carry out the wanton destruction
in which his soul delighted. In Estourmel most of the houses were in
pretty good condition, and even contained furniture. The gardens were
cultivated, and Elston, as good and thorough a Staff Captain in the
lighter as he was in the sterner duties of warfare, was able to collect
a useful load of vegetables for the refreshment of our mess. We moved
our headquarters into this village on the 11th.

The 310th Brigade advanced on this day to St. Hilaire, still in support
of the Guards. The enemy was now holding a strong position along the
Selle river, and an attack was arranged for the 20th October in which
the whole of the 3rd and 4th Armies were to be engaged. The task of
the 62nd Division was to force the passage of the river to capture
the town of Solesmes and the village of St. Python, and then to
establish itself on a line about 3000 yards north-east of them. The 3rd
Divisional Artillery was put under my orders for the battle, and these
two brigades, together with the 310th and 312th, began to take up their
positions on the 16th, south of the Cambrai--Solesmes road, and about
2000 yards to the west of the river. We established headquarters at
Bevillers on the 18th. The barrage was rather a complicated one to make
out, not only because it had to be accurately co-ordinated with the
barrages of the Guards Division and the 42nd Division on each side of
us, but also owing to the fact that large numbers of French civilians
were known to be still living in both the town and the village, and we
were naturally anxious to put them into as little danger as possible.
It was finally decided not to direct any artillery on Solesmes itself,
but only on its suburbs on our side of the river, and on the village
of St. Python. It was assumed that the civilians would take refuge in
the cellars, and as no high explosive shell were to be fired at the
buildings, but only shrapnel, the risk to them would not be a serious
one. These suburbs and St. Python were at the time in "No Man's Land,"
and for a few nights before the battle our infantry patrols used
actually to enter them under cover of darkness and take coffee with the
unfortunate but stout-hearted inhabitants.

The attack was launched in bright moonlight at 2 a.m. on the 20th
October. The barrage was kept up for 23 minutes on the village and
suburbs mentioned above, while the infantry forced their way across
the river; it then crept up on each side of Solesmes at the rate of
100 yards in four minutes. The infantry followed it up closely and
secured the ground on each side of the town, while specially detailed
battalions turned in to the right and left and entered Solesmes, which
they took possession of after some hard fighting. While the town was
being "mopped up," the guns kept up a standing barrage beyond it for
over an hour. At 4.20 a.m. the artillery ceased firing for a time, and
some of the more distant batteries moved up to closer range. At 7.40
a.m. the creeping barrage began again, and moved north-east at the same
rate as before, followed by a fresh infantry brigade up to a line about
500 yards short of Romeries. The victory was complete, not only on our
immediate front, but along the whole army line. The 62nd Division took
prisoner 12 officers and 539 men, and also three field guns, several
trench mortars, and a large number of machine guns; its own casualties
were under three hundred. The infantry were loud in their praise of the
shooting of the guns, and I was proud to get the following note from
Brig.-General J. L. G. Burnett, D.S.O., Commanding the 186th Infantry
Brigade:

  "As I know that you people like to know what the infantry who
  attacked thought of the barrage: both the left attacking battalion
  and the one which took the railway station wish me to say that it
  was the most accurate barrage which they have yet advanced under.
  Would you please convey our thanks to the men behind the guns who
  so largely contributed towards the success.

  "Yours sincerely,
  "J. G. BURNETT."

The batteries advanced across the river as soon as crossings could be
prepared for them, a work which was carried out by the sappers in a
marvellously short time, and I found them already in action north of
Solesmes when I visited that place next day, the 21st. Two or three
thousand civilians were still in the town, and though a lot of shell
were already beginning to fall there, they were parading the streets
in great numbers, and there was a great doffing of hats and waving
of handkerchiefs as we passed through. I saw a party of prisoners
being marched along the main street; women and children were running
alongside shaking their fists at them, and crying out, "Sales Boches!
Sales Boches!" with all the strength of their lungs. When I thought of
all their sufferings at the hands of the barbarous savages, I could
hardly find it in my heart to blame them for this triumph over their
humbled enemy. The civilians would all have gladly stayed where they
were, but it was thought necessary in their own interests to get the
women and children, and the old men, out of the place as long as the
Boche guns remained within range. It was a very pathetic sight to see
them arriving in Bevilly that afternoon. Groups of soldiers met the
lorries as they arrived at the buildings reserved for the refugees,
and it was pleasant to see the tenderness with which the men lifted
out the children--and sometimes the old grand-mothers--and carried
them across the sea of mud that lay between the roadway and the
house. It was painful to think of the hell that these poor people had
been through, crouching in their cellars while our shell crashed and
screamed overhead, and later while our infantry hunted out the Boche
from house to house and street to street. However, they looked happy,
most of them, in spite of their discomforts; they were free at last and
out of danger, and had the prospect before them of a speedy return to
their own homes.

The 3rd Division took over our front during the night of the 22nd
and attacked at 3.20 a.m. the next day. Our guns helped to support
the attack, which resulted in the capture of Romeries and Vertain.
Continuing their victorious progress on the 24th, the 3rd Division
captured Escarmain, and reached the railway line north of Ruesnes.

So ended our share in the Battle of the Selle River, which forced the
enemy from the line of that river and drove a big salient into his
defences, and in which 26 Divisions defeated 31 German Divisions, with
21,000 prisoners and 450 guns.

A great many mines had been going up during our advance along the
railway lines, and the delay thus caused in the bringing up of
ammunition and supplies was becoming very serious. It was decided
therefore to call a halt for a few days until the communications
could be made more secure. This decision made it possible to give
the artillery the rest which they so sorely needed, and my brigades
withdrew to Quiévy on the 26th October while the D.A.C. remained at St.
Python, to which place they had gone after the capture of Solesmes. We
moved our headquarters to the latter town on the 30th. On this day we
heard the cheering news of the conclusion of an armistice with Turkey.

[Sidenote: Nov. 1918.]

We were now warned that we were to take part in a great attack on the
4th November, our immediate objectives being the villages of Orsinval
and Frasnoy. The 40th, 42nd, and 76th Brigades R.F.A. and the 84th
Brigade R.G.A. were put under my command for the battle in addition to
the 62nd Divisional Artillery. Positions were selected near Ruesnes for
the batteries, and across the railway close up to the front infantry
line for the trench mortars. The 310th and 312th moved up to Escarmain
on the 2nd; the village was heavily shelled that night and B/312
lost 44 horses. Next day the batteries occupied their positions, and
Divisional Headquarters went to Escarmain.

The barrage opened at 5.30 a.m. on the 4th November, and our infantry
made a victorious advance of 7000 yards, capturing their two villages
and taking over 600 prisoners and a large number of guns. The Guards,
on our left, met with equal success, and north and south along the
whole far flung battle line the enemy was completely defeated. Early
in the battle we advanced our headquarters into a ruined chateau in
Ruesnes; it had been badly knocked about, and a great deal of wanton
destruction had been done to a large and valuable library. In the
afternoon the New Zealand Division, on our right flank, captured
the fortified town of Le Quesnoy, together with its garrison of a
thousand men. Our casualties were not heavy, but two of the Battery
Sergeant-Majors were killed, and Lieut. J. A. Brown was wounded (for
the second time). Our satisfaction in the result of the day's fighting
was increased by the news we received that night that an armistice with
Austria had come into effect at 3 p.m.

On the 5th we pushed on and extended our gains. It was pouring with
rain, and the mud and slush made progress extraordinarily difficult.
We moved our headquarters to Frasnoy, where we were greeted with the
greatest enthusiasm by the 200 civilians who still remained in the
village--wild with joy at their deliverance after four years' suffering
at the hands of the hated Boche.

On the 6th and 7th the advance was continued without much opposition.
The roads were in a shocking state, and the forward movement was so
rapid that it was a matter of the greatest difficulty to comply with
the ammunition demands. The D.A.C. did wonders, but no sooner was a
dump of ammunition formed in one place than the tide of battle rolled
far beyond it, and another one had to be started further on. Never
during the whole war were the men and horses of the brigades and D.A.C.
worked to a greater state of exhaustion than in these closing days.
Headquarters went to Le Trechon on the 7th, the advanced infantry
having on that day reached a line about 5000 yards east of Obies. D/310
came under heavy shell fire during one of its advances, and Lieuts. W.
P. Holt and K. A. Latter were badly wounded. Lieut. R. G. Morgan gained
the Military Cross "for conspicuous gallantry and perseverance on the
6th and 7th November at Le Trechon and near Harguies. He kept in close
touch with the attacking infantry, advancing his guns in the face of
intense fire so as to afford them the utmost support. The following day
he carried out a similar task, advancing his section on very bad tracks
through heavy shell fire. He made several reconnaissances throughout
the day, which enabled him to afford effectual support to the infantry."

In Le Trechon I came across an authentic case of Boche barbarity. One
of our cavalry on patrol entered the village on the 6th, and seeing
four Germans preparing to destroy a bridge fired on them, killing
one. They returned the fire and he fell wounded. The Germans then
fled, thinking that there were more of our men close behind. The
French inhabitants of the nearest house, one of whom was my informant,
came out and made the wounded man as comfortable as they could. As
he was too badly hurt to be moved they laid a blanket over him so
that any passing Boche might think him dead. After a short time the
three Germans returned, seeing that no British were yet in sight, and
deliberately murdered the wounded man with their bayonets. An officer
of the 20th London Regiment told me that he had seen the corpse, and
that there were several bayonet wounds in it in addition to the mark of
the bullet.

On the 8th our infantry took the village of Neuf Mesnil, but, what with
the vile weather and a temporary stiffening of the enemy's resistance,
the day's advance was only about three kilometres. We heard that the
German emissaries had crossed our lines to sue for an armistice.

The 9th was a beautiful sunny day. There was little resistance to our
advance, and the Guards entered Maubeuge, while our infantry took
possession of the large suburb of Sous le Bois, and pushed through and
beyond it. Divisional Headquarters moved to Neuf Mesnil.

On the 10th we remained where we were. The enemy had retired about
six miles east of Maubeuge, and a short delay was necessary to get up
ammunition and supplies for a further forward movement. News came that
the Kaiser had abdicated, and that his ignoble son had renounced his
claim to the succession. A revolution in Berlin was also reported, and
the end seemed so close in sight that it was scarcely a surprise when,
at 9 a.m. on the 11th November, I received the wire, "Hostilities cease
at 11 a.m. to-day."

So ended the Battle of Maubeuge, which, lasting from the 1st to the
11th November, struck at and broke the enemy's last important lateral
communications, turned his position on the Scheldt, and forced him
to retreat rapidly from Courtrai. This victory completed the great
strategical aim of the whole series of battles by dividing the enemy's
forces into two parts, one on each side of the great natural barrier
of the Ardennes. The pursuit of the beaten enemy all along the Allied
line was only stopped by the Armistice. Twenty-six Divisions defeated
32 German Divisions, taking 19,000 prisoners and 450 guns.

The total casualties in the 62nd Divisional Artillery since landing in
France had been

  10 officers and 160 other ranks killed.
  71 officers and 714 other ranks wounded.

The following special order of the day was issued on the 11th:

  _TO ALL RANKS OF THE THIRD ARMY._

  The operations of the last three months have forced the enemy to
  sue for an armistice as a prelude to peace.

  Your share in the consummation of this achievement is one that
  fills me with pride and admiration.

  Since August 21st you have won eighteen decisive battles, you have
  driven the enemy back over sixty miles of country and you have
  captured 67,000 prisoners and 800 guns.

  That is your record, gained by your ceaseless enterprise, your
  indomitable courage and your loyal support to your leaders.

  Eleven Divisions in the four Corps (Guards 2nd 3rd and 62nd,
  5th 37th 42nd and New Zealand, 17th 21st and 38th), have been
  continuously in action since the beginning of the advance and have
  borne the brunt of the operations. Other Divisions have joined and
  left, each one adding fresh lustre to its history.

  To all ranks, to all Corps and formations, to all administrative
  and transport units, I tender my thanks. May your pride in your
  achievements be as great as mine is in the recollection of having
  commanded the Army in which you served.

  J. BYNG, General,
  Commanding Third Army.



CHAPTER VII

THE LAST PHASE


On the 12th November we went into comfortable billets in Sous le Bois
and Neuf Mesnil, while preparations were being made to march into
Germany. The 62nd Division was to form part of the 9th Corps, under
our former Commander, Lieut.-General Sir Walter Braithwaite, the other
divisions being the 1st and the 6th; the trench mortars were to be left
behind, but were to join us subsequently in Germany. While in Sous le
Bois Lieut. E. S. Lloyd, M.C., Signalling Officer of the 312th Brigade,
was taken ill with influenza, and to the great sorrow of us all died
after a few days' illness. On the 17th we had a thanksgiving service
for the Divisional Artillery, conducted by the Rev. S. Garrett, our
senior chaplain. I may mention here that the Rev. T. A. Horne, who came
out from England with the artillery, was invalided home in December,
1917, and was succeeded by the Rev. H. O. Perry. The latter was with us
all through the big German push, and was then transferred to another
appointment while we were fighting at the Marne in July, 1918. He was
succeeded in his turn by the Rev. S. Garrett.

We marched on the 18th November, a wet, unpleasant day, to Ferrière la
Grande. The artillery marched for the future in a separate column from
the rest of the division, our itinerary being as follows. I give as a
rule the name of the place where headquarters halted; the remainder of
the artillery was billeted in the surrounding area, generally within a
mile or two of headquarters.

19th. Solre sur Sambre, our first entry into Belgian territory.

20th. Berzèe. On arrival here we were greeted by the local band,
which played our National Anthem over and over again with remarkable
persistency for about two hours. It would be tedious to describe our
reception at each halting place throughout the march, but I quote here,
as typical of other greetings, the address presented to the 312th
Brigade on their arrival in this area; it was couched in English as
follows:

"Dear Allied Friends,

"After more than four years of a terrible war without example in the
history of the world, the Belgians deprived of their freedom and rights
during all that time have the immense joy of seeing again the sun of
liberty shining bright and joyful over their heads. To tell you what a
boundless feeling of happiness and gratitude we have now in our hearts
is impossible for us to do in some words. We are like slaves whose
fetters would fall down all of a sudden, like birds kept for long years
in a dull cage and which unexpectedly could fly freely again in the
open air of a nice spring day. Our hearts sing merrily, our souls are
transported with joy and hope. On this memorable day where you bring
us freedom, we turn away from the hard and unjust past to look forward
with hope to the future. But if we are so to say mad for joy, our
hearts are large enough to make room for another feeling as sincere and
powerful as our happiness--our gratefulness to all our Allied friends.
Yes, to you all which have helped us to reconquer our liberty, to you
all which have given your blood for a destruction of a system of
oppression, violence and brutality which threatened the world, we are
immensely obliged. We are full of admiration for the great exploits
of your armies; their courage, their spirit of self-sacrifice, their
perseverance in the duty are for us external signs of the inner forces
which animate them; passion for independence, justice and liberty. We
are proud indeed to have as friends and Allies men of such a noble
character.

"In the name of the Civil Authorities of the village of Thy-le-Chateau
I am proud and glad to have the privilege of greeting you heartily.

"Hurrah for the English people and their valiant armies.

"Hurrah for our brave Allies. Hurrah."

24th. Gerpinnes.

25th. Ermetont. The 310th Brigade on this occasion were billeted _en
masse_ in the Abbey of Maredsous, where they were entertained most
hospitably by the Benedictine Monks. The Prior and eight of the monks
had only just got back from serving two years' imprisonment with hard
labour in Germany. This savage punishment was inflicted on them for
having given a few days' shelter to a wounded British soldier.

27th. A long march through Dinant, where we crossed the Meuse, to
the Thynne area, where we had a long and rather tedious halt. The
headquarters billet was in a most picturesque chateau situated in a
deep hollow surrounded by rugged hills, on the road from Dinant to
Lisangues. The owner was the widow of a retired French General. She
told me that when the Germans were occupying her chateau, at the time
of the Dinant atrocities, they treated her and her husband, an old man
over eighty, with the greatest roughness. Finally they told the old
couple one day that if any further act of hostility were committed by
the surrounding villagers, _they_ would both be shot. The next day the
old General fell dead of heart disease.

[Sidenote: Dec. 1918.]

10th December. Area round Laignon. Headquarters at the Chateau de
Barçenal.

11th. Barvaux Condray.

12th. Clavier.

13th. Ville. We billeted in the fine chateau, which had been in the
early days of the war the headquarters of Prince Eitel and his staff.
Monsieur La Masch, the owner of the house, told me that his unwelcome
guests drank about a thousand bottles of his wine, for which they
offered him on their departure the generous payment of a franc a
bottle. As most of the wine they affected had cost from 15 to 20 francs
a bottle he declined their offer, and he was now entering the full
value in his claim against the Boche Government. The royal Eitel, a
true Boche, looted all the linen when he left, tablecloths, napkins,
sheets and towels; he even carried off all Madame's lace, most of it
old and priceless.

14th. Chevron. Here the scenery was as magnificent as the billets were
mean and uncomfortable.

16th. Basse Bodeux.

17th. We crossed the German frontier, and marched through Malmédy to
Weismes. It was decided that we should hold our anniversary dinners
on this auspicious date. We halted here for a few days in rather
uncomfortable billets. The weather was very bad, and it snowed
continuously.

21st. Elsenborn Camp. This was a sort of German "Salisbury Plain." The
huts were however far superior to those provided in an English practice
camp; they were substantially built and well heated, and officers and
men found them almost luxurious after the cramped village accommodation
which they had been accustomed to.

22nd. Mountjoie.

23rd. The area round Schleiden. Headquarters marched straight through
to Gemund, our final destination.

25th. The Divisional Artillery made their final march in a snow
blizzard and went into billets as follows:

  14th Brigade R.H.A. (now attached to the Division), Kal and
    Keldernich.
  310th Brigade R.H.A., Gemund and Malsbenden.
  312th Brigade R.H.A., Gemund, with two batteries at Nierfeld and
    Schleven.
  D.A.C. Kal and Sottenich.
  Trench Mortars (eventually), Urft.

The purpose of this work is to describe the war services of the
artillery, and I shall not therefore write about our life in Germany.
The ordinary military routine, under what were practically peace
conditions, affords little of interest to a Chronicler, and it is
sufficient to say that life was agreeable enough, and that ski-ing,
tobogganing, and later on fishing broke the monotony of our routine
duties in a very pleasant manner. Demobilisation dragged on slowly but
surely, and on the 18th February we heard that the Division was to be
broken up, and to be reformed as the Highland Division. Most of the
officers now began to drift away, but it was not till the 19th April
that I said farewell to my command. My Staff all left at about the same
time.

The Divisional Artillery remained with the Highland Division, though
greatly changed in personnel and with an almost entirely new set of
commanding officers. Major Lockhart was, I believe, the only battery
commander who stayed on until the final breaking up. The artillery left
Germany in the middle of August, and returned to England (Salisbury
Plain); on the 5th December the headquarters' office closed, and on
that date the Divisional Artillery may be said to have ceased to exist.

That it may long exist, however, as a brotherhood of officers and men,
bound together by a thousand memories of danger and privation borne in
common, proud in the consciousness of duty done, and strong to maintain
in peace the steadfast and loyal comradeship which knit them together
in war, is the sincere hope of the writer of this little chronicle.



APPENDIX A

SUBSEQUENT SERVICES OF THE 311TH BRIGADE


I should like to have been able to bring the records of the 311th
Brigade within the scope of this work, but the difficulties have proved
too great, and I must content myself with giving a brief digest of its
services after leaving the 62nd Division, for which I am indebted to
the kindness of Lieut.-Colonel A. Gadie.

The brigade was first attached to the 34th Division, and took part in
the battle of Arras on Easter Monday, 1917; after this it occupied
positions in the Arras sector, opposite Gavrelle and Oppy.

In May it marched to Ploeg Street Wood, and fought in the battle of
Messines, in support of the Anzacs. The battery positions in this
battle were in some cases within 850 yards of the Boche front line.

In June, 1917, the brigade enjoyed a rest at Bailleul, and then
returned to its old positions at Messines, near Warneton.

In October, 1917, it pulled out and went to the Ypres salient, where it
took part in the strenuous fighting at Passchendale.

December, 1917. St. Quentin sector.

February, 1918. In action at Jeancourt until the big German offensive
began. The brigade then retired steadily to the Somme, taking up as
many as five separate positions in one day. At St. Christ's bridge
it held on to its positions for two days, and then only retired on
being outflanked by the enemy. The batteries remained in action on
this occasion, firing over open sights, until the infantry had retired
behind the guns. Positions were finally taken up about 8 miles east of
Amiens.

May, 1918. To the Arras sector. When the final great advance was in
preparation, the brigade moved into seven different positions in ten
days, in order to cover the withdrawal of the Canadians, who were being
sent south. It finished up by occupying positions on the top of the
Vimy ridge.

During the advance, which began in August, the brigade was attached to
the 8th Division and to the Canadians.

When the armistice was concluded on the 11th November, 1918, it was at
the village of Le Havre, about three miles east of Mons.


The following officers were awarded Military Crosses:

  *ARMITAGE, Lieut. H. G.
  *BROWNE, Major W.
  *CAMPBELL, Major C. W.
  DANBY, Capt.
  *DAWSON, Capt. H. B.
  *FRASER-MACKENZIE, Major E. R. L.
  HANNAH, Major (also a D.S.O.)
  *HOLLINGWORTH, Major A. (also a bar, and a Croix de Guerre).
  HUNT, Lieut.
  *JAMESON, Major A. A. (also a bar), afterwards killed.
  *KNOWLES, Lieut. G. (_w._)
  MORGAN, Capt.
  SABERSTON, Lieut.
  *SAMPSON, Lieut. H. T.

  MENTIONED IN DESPATCHES.

  *GADIE, Lieut.-Colonel A.
  BECKETT, Capt.
  *BROWNE, Major W.
  *HOLLINGWORTH, Major A.
  *ARMITAGE, Lieut. H. G.

          * _Originally in the 62nd Divisional Artillery._



APPENDIX B

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF OFFICERS WHO SERVED WITH THE 62ND DIVISIONAL
ARTILLERY.

(An asterisk denotes that the officer has been more than once wounded
while with the Division.)


  ABRAHAMS, F., Lieut., M.C.
  ALDERTON, B., Lieut., M.C.
  ALDRICH, E. C., Capt.
  ANDERSON, A. T., Brig.-Gen., C.M.G.
  ANDERSON, R. A. T., Lieut.
  ARCHER, H. de B., Capt., M.C.
  ARMITAGE, H. G., Lieut.
  _w_ARNOLD-FORSTER, F. A., Major, D.S.O.
  _w_ASHBY, H. C., Lieut.
  ASPINWALL, R. H. S., Lieut.
  ASTLEY, N. T., Lieut.
  BADHAM-JACKSON, C. O., Lieut.
  *_w_BAILLIE-REYNOLDS, P. K., Lieut.
  BAKER, W., Capt.
  _w_BALL, S. C., Lieut.
  BAYLEY, A. F., Major
  BEDWELL, E. P., Lieut.-Col.
  BELBIN, H., Capt.
  BENNION, C. F., Major
  _w_BENNETT, A. G., Capt., M.C.
  BERESFORD, G. W. Capt. R.A.M.C.)
  BIGG, L. B., Major
  BLOW, A., Lieut.
  _w_BODEN, J. B., Lieut., M.C.
  BOTTOMLEY, G. R., Capt.
  BOWDEN, S. V., Capt.
  BRADFORD, L. B., Major
  *_w_BROWN, J. A., Lieut.
  BROWNE, W., Capt.
  _w_BURT, W., Lieut.
  CAIRNS-SMITH, A. F., Lieut.
  CAMPBELL, C. W., Major, M.C.
  CASEY, N. B. V. Major
  CASEY, S. N., Capt.
  CLARSON, C. L., Lieut. (R.E.) M.C.
  CLAYTON-BARKER, A. G.
  COCKAYNE, W. R., Major
  _w_COCKERELL, A. E., Lieut.
  COLEMAN, E. T., Lieut.
  CORKE, C. A., Lieut.
  _w_CRAVEN, G. A., Lieut.
  _w_CROFTON, M. R. H., Major, D.S.O.
  CURRER-BRIGGS, D. H., Major
  CURRIE, J. M., Major
  _w_DAVIS, E. W., Lieut.
  DAWSON, H. B., Lieut.
  DIXON, W. T., Lieut.
  DONOVAN, J., Lieut.
  DOUET, C. F. M., Lieut., M.C.
  DOWDEN, H. J., Lieut., M.C.
  DRABBLE, L., Capt.
  _w_DRAPER, V. A. H., Lieut.
  EAGER, W. McG., Lieut.
  EDEN, A. G., Lieut.-Col.
  EDMONDSON, J. E., Capt., T.D.
  _w_EDWARDS, A. J., Lieut.
  EELES, C. A., Major, D.S.O.
  ELLIS, G. A., Lieut., M.C.
  ELSTON, A. J., Major, T.D.
  EVELEIGH, E. D., Major, M.C.
  FITZGIBBON, F., Major, D.S.O.
  FLEMING, G. R., Major
  FLETCHER, S. R. H., Lieut.
  FOOT, R. C., Major, M.C.
  _w_FORREST, R., Lieut.
  FOWLER, A., Lieut.
  FOWLER, J. R., Lieut.
  FRASER, John, Capt.
  FRASER-MACKENZIE, E. R. L., Major, M.C.
  FURLONG, P. C., Capt., M.C.
  GADIE, A., Lieut.-Col., T.D.
  GADIE, C. A., Lieut.
  +GALLIMORE, H. B., Capt.
  _w_GANE, L. C., Lieut., M.C.
  GARRETT, S., The Rev.
  GEDDES, R., Lieut.
  GIFFEN, J. H. P., Lieut.
  GLOVER, A., Lieut. (R.E. Signals)
  _w_GOLDSMITH, H. G., Lieut.
  GOW, J. L., Capt.
  GRAVETT, G. M., Lieut.
  GREEN, J. S., Lieut.
  _w_GREEN, W. J., Lieut.
  HAIGH, S., Lieut.
  HAMMOND, E. B., Capt. (R.E.), M.C.
  +HARDY, G., Lieut.
  _w_HARKER, J. C., Lieut.
  +HARRIS, W. E., Lieut.
  HARTLEY, Capt. (R.A.M.C.)
  HATCHER, H. G. B., Capt.
  HAY, A. J., Lieut.
  HAYDOCK, T., Lieut.
  HEMPEL, F. H., Lieut.
  HESS, N., Lieut., M.C.
  _w_HEWITT, J. B. C., Lieut., M.M.
  HINCHCLIFFE, H., Lieut.
  HIRST, P. A., Lieut.
  _w_HOLBURN, R., Lieut.
  HOLLINGWORTH, A., Lieut.
  _w_HOLT, W. P. Lieut., M.C.
  HORNE, T. A., The Rev.
  HOUSE, H., Lieut. (United States)
  HOWELL, V. P., Lieut. (R.E. Signals)
  _w_HUDSON, G. L. C., Lieut.
  HUMPHREYS, B. J., Lieut.
  ILLINGWORTH, M., Lieut.
  _w_INNES, C. B., Lieut.
  JAMES, W. L., Lieut.
  +JAMESON, A. A., Lieut.
  *_w_JEPHSON, E. W. F., Major, M.C.
  JOHNSON, R. H., Lieut.-Col., D.S.O.
  +JOHNSON, E. F., Capt.
  JOHNSTON, Lieut.-Col. (Horse Master)
  JONES, K. S., Lieut.
  JOSLIN, G. A., Lieut.
  KENSETT, F., Lieut.
  KEWLEY, T. C., Capt.
  KINSMAN, G. R. V., Lieut.-Col., D.S.O., Comg. 310th Bde.
  KIRKCONNEL, W. H., Lieut., M.C.
  _w_KITSON, H. G., Lieut.
  +KNAGGS, V. St. G., Lieut.
  KNOWLES, G., Lieut.
  LAMB, Capt. (R.E. Signals)
  LANE, L., Lieut.
  _w_LASBREY, H. C., Capt.
  _w_LATTER, K. A., Lieut., M.C.
  _w_LAWRIE, H. C. O., Lieut.
  LAWRENCE, J. H., Capt.
  LINDSELL, W. G., Major, D.S.O., O.B.E., M.C.
  _w_LINTERN, E. E. C., Lieut., M.C.
  LISTER, F. H., Lieut.-Col., D.S.O.
  +LLOYD, E. S., Lieut., M.C.
  LOCKHART, J. F. K., Major, D.S.O.
  LONG, V. H. S., Capt.
  LOUGH, A. T., Lieut.-Col.
  *+LUTYENS, J. L. C., Lieut.
  LYN-JONES, R. F., Capt. (R.A.M.C.)
  *_w_MACILROY, J. C., Capt.
  MAJOR, A. E., Lieut.
  MARPLES, G., Capt.
  MARRIOTT, E. C., Lieut., M.M.
  MARTIN, Capt. (A.V.C.)
  +MASSEY-BERESFORD, J. C., Lieut.
  MIDDLETON, H. D., Capt.
  MILES, J., Capt., M.C.
  MILLET, J., Interpreter
  MITCHELL, F., Lieut.-Col.
  *_w_MONTGOMERY, C. V., Lieut.
  MORGAN, R. G., Lieut., M.C.
  MORT, A., Lieut.
  MOSSOP, G. N., Capt.
  MOXHAM, H. E., Lieut.
  MOXON, C. E., Lieut.
  MOXON, T. C., Lieut.
  MURRAY, A. C., Lieut., M.C.
  +MURRAY, G. A., Lieut.
  _w_NELSON, H. G., Lieut., M.C.
  NICKOLS, R., Major
  NICKOLS, N. F., Major
  *_w_NICHOLSON, K. B., Major, MC.
  _w_NOWILL, J. C. F., Lieut., M.C.
  OWEN, H. A., Lieut.
  _w_OWEN, J., Lieut.
  PARKINSON, E., Lieut., M.C.
  PERRY, H. O., The Rev.
  _w_PICKARD, R. L., Lieut.
  POWELL, J. B., Capt., M.C.
  _w_PROCTOR, J. W., Lieut.
  PRITCHARD, F. C., Lieut., M.C.
  +PULLAN, C. W., Lieut.
  _w_PUNCHARD, C., Capt.
  _w_PUTTOCK, E. W., Lieut.
  REW, J., Lieut.
  RICE, R. G., Capt.
  RICHARDSON, Norman, Lieut.
  RICHARDSON, N., Lieut.
  *_w_RISSIK, S. A., Lieut.
  ROBINSON, J. G., Major, M.C.
  ROBINSON, G., Major
  ROTHERAY, E., Major, M.C.
  RUDKIN, G. C. R., Lieut.
  RUNACRES, W., Lieut.
  _w_SABELLI, H. A., Lieut.
  SAMPSON, H. T., Lieut., M.C.
  SCHOFIELD, H. O., Lieut., M.C.
  _w_SEEMAN, F. H., Major
  _w_SENIOR, A., Major, M.C.
  _w_SENIOR, G. P., Major
  SEVERNE, A. de M., Lieut.
  SHARP, H. G., Capt.
  _w_SHARPLING, F. G., Lieut.
  _w_SHEPPARD, E. J. C., Lieut.
  SHERLOCK, D. J. C., Lieut.-Col., D.S.O., Comg. 310th Bde.
  SIDDONS, N. H., Major
  SMART, E., Lieut., M.C.
  SMITH, Harold, Capt., M.C.
  SPENCE, J. H., Lieut.
  _w_STEPHENS, H. E., Lieut.
  STROUD, A. H., Capt. (A.V.C.)
  STURROCK, G., Lieut.
  _w_STUART, F. R., Lieut.
  STUTTLE, A. E., Lieut.
  +SUTHERLAND, H. S., Lieut.
  SWAIN, G. A., Major, M.C.
  TANNER, G., Lieut.
  TRENCH, A. S. C., Lieut. (R.E., Signals), M.C.
  _w_TUTHILL, W. F., Major
  *_w_VANDERPUMP, E. H., Lieut.
  WALKER, C. S., Capt.
  WALKER, R., Capt.
  WEBBER, L. M., Major
  WHITE, O., Lieut.
  _w_WHITWORTH, J. N., Lieut.
  *+WILLEY, J., Major
  _w_WILLIAMS, R. C., Major, D.S.O.
  _w_WILLIAMS, E. T., Lieut., M.C.
  WILLIAMSON, R. E., Col. (R.A.M.C.), T.D.
  WILLS, H. A., Lieut.
  _w_WILLS, T. B., Lieut.
  WILSON, A., Lieut.
  WILSON, L., Lieut.
  WILSON, N. G., Lieut.
  *_w_WITCHER, C. R., Lieut.
  _w_WOODCOCK, F. A., Lieut.-Col., D.S.O.
  WOODWARD, D. S. H., Major
  _w_WOOLISCROFT, W., Lieut.
  WRANGLE, B. G., Lieut.
  WRIGHT, P. A., Capt., M.C.



APPENDIX C

  LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN AWARDED DECORATIONS OR MENTIONED IN
  DESPATCHES WHILE SERVING IN THE 62ND DIVISIONAL ARTILLERY.


C.M.G.

  ANDERSON, A. T.        Brig.-General           3. 6.18


D.S.O.

  LINDSELL, W. G.        Major                   1. 1.18
  ARNOLD-FORSTER, F. A.  Major                   1. 1.18
  EELES, C. A.           Major                   3. 6.18
  WOODCOCK, F. A.        Lieut.-Colonel          3. 6.18
  LOCKHART, J. F. K.     Major                   1. 1.19


MILITARY CROSS.

  JEPHSON, E. W. F.    Lieut.                    2. 4.17
                                   (and bar on 21.11.17)
  NICHOLSON, K. B. N.  Lieut.                   13. 4.17
  NOWILL, J. C. F.     Lieut.                   26. 4.17
  ROBINSON, J. G.      Capt.                     4. 9.17
  PARKINSON, E.        Lieut.                   15. 9.17
  PRITCHARD, F. C.     Lieut.                    8.10.17
  HESS, N.             Lieut.                   22.11.17
                                     (and bar on 1.9.18)
  BODEN, J. B.         Lieut.                   22.11.17
                                   (and bar on 30.11.17)
  FURLONG, P. C.       Lieut.                   25.11.17
  WILLIAMS, E. T.      Lieut.                   30.11.17
  GANE, L.             Lieut.                   13.12.17
  FOOT, R. C.          Major                     1. 1.18
  ABRAHAMS, F.         Lieut.                   26. 3.18
  MURRAY, A. C.        Lieut.                   26. 3.18
  HOLT, W. P.          Lieut.                   27. 3.18
  SENIOR, A.           Capt.                    28. 3.18
  ARCHER, H. DE B.     Capt.                    28. 3.18
  MILES, J.            Lieut.                   28. 3.18
  ELLIS, G. A.         Lieut.                   29. 3.18
                                     (and bar on 20.7.18)
  SWAIN, G. A.         Major                     5. 4.18
  POWELL, J. B.        Capt.                     3. 6.18
  SCHOFIELD, H. O.     Lieut.                   16. 6.18
  SMITH, HAROLD        Lieut.                   23. 6.18
  HOUSE, W. H.         Lieut. (U.S.A.)          24. 7.18
  LLOYD, E. S.         Lieut.                   27. 7.18
  BENNETT, A. G.       Lieut.                   21. 8.18
  LATTER, K. A.        Lieut.                   30. 8.18
  LINTERN, E. E. C.    Lieut.                    3. 9.18
  NELSON, H. G.        Lieut.                    5. 9.18
  ALDERTON, B.         Lieut.                   10. 9.18
  DOWDEN, H. J.        Lieut.                   18. 9.18
  DOUET, C. F. M.      Lieut.                   18. 9.18
  SMART, E.            Lieut                     8.10.18
  MORGAN, R. G.        Lieut.                    7.11.18
  ROTHERAY, E.         Major                     3. 6.19


LEGION OF HONOUR.

  FLEMING, G.          Major (Chevalier)        30. 5.17
  ANDERSON, A. T.      Brig.-General (Officier) 30. 7.18


CROIX DE GUERRE (French).

  SWAIN, G. A.         Major                    30. 5.17
  ELSTON, A. J.        Major                    30. 7.18
  FITZGIBBON, F.      Major                     30. 7.18
  CURRIE, J. M.       Major                     30. 7.18
  WOODCOCK, F. A.     Lieut.-Colonel            30. 7.18
  SHERLOCK, D. J. C.  Lieut.-Colonel            30. 7.18
  EDEN, A. G.         Lieut.-Colonel            30. 7.18
  LAWRENCE, J. H.     Capt.                     30. 7.18
  LONG, V. H. S.      Capt.                     30. 7.18
  ANDERSON, R. A. T.  Lieut.                    30. 7.18
  ANDERSON, A. T.     Brig.-General             15.12.19


CROIX DE GUERRE (Belgian).

  ARCHER, H. DE B.    Capt.                      3. 1.18


BREVETS.

  ANDERSON, A. T.     Brig.-General
                      Brevet-Colonel             1. 1.18
  SHERLOCK, D. J.     Lieut.-Colonel
                      Brevet-Lt.-Col.            3. 6.19


MILITARY MEDALS.

  786049  LEAF                Gunner               6. 4.17
  786012  ELLIS               Driver               6. 4.17
  4317    SMART, G.           Driver               6. 4.17
  14383   COOPER, J. S.       Gunner               6. 4.17
  785652  WHEATLY, G.         Driver               9. 4.17
  775585  CLARKE, F.          Corporal            22. 4.17
  2334    WHITE, A.           Corporal            26. 4.17
  796450  MATHER, W.          Sergeant            26. 4.17
                                      (and bar on 2.11.18)
  78616   TWEED, A.           Bombardier           1. 5.17
  786276  CARTWRIGHT, M.      Driver               1. 5.17
          UTLEY, F. A.        Driver              19. 5.17
          HARRISON, C.        Corporal            20. 5.17
          WAIDE, E. H.        Sergeant            12. 8.17
  40915   CHAMBERLAIN, C.     Sergeant            12. 8.17
                                      (and bar on 30.9.18)
          SETTLE, W.          Corporal            25. 8.17
          ESHELBY, J.         Gunner               2. 9.17
          FOSTER, E.          Gunner               2. 9.17
          RIDER, H.           Sergeant             4. 9.17
          CHARLESWORTH, G.    Gunner               4. 9.17
  785747  JOW, G. R.          Bombardier          10. 9.17
                                     (and bar on  15.9.17)
  797096  SCHOFIELD, H. H.    Corporal             15.9.17
  40813   JOHNSON, W. L.      Gunner               9.10.17
  781506  BURTON, E.          Corporal             9.10.17
  99305   PARKER, J.          Sergeant            10.10.17
  26073   WENDROP, E.         Gunner              10.10.17
                                     (and bar on  21.8.18)
  796216  FISHER, R.          Gunner              10.10.17
  776671  HARRISON, H.        Sergeant            21.11.17
  775809  PRESTON, J.         Bombardier          21.11.17
  786544  CLAPTON, G.         Gunner              22.11.17
  786176  NOBBS, J.           Gunner              22.11.17
  786216  HEATON, R.          Gunner              22.11.17
  686672  POTTS, J.           Gunner              24.11.17
  82908   YATES, J.           Sergeant            24.11.17
  403491  YATES, C.           Pte. (R.A.M.C.)     24.11.17
  479756  SWITHENBANK, H. S.  Corporal            25.11.17
  479751  CLARKE, F. W. H.    Corporal            25.11.17
  526246  PAGE, W.            Sapper              25.11.17
  534665  STOCKWELL, A. W.    Sapper              25.11.17
  785528  BODEN, G. F.        B.S.M.              25.11.17
  786705  KETTLEWELL, J.      Sergeant            25.11.17
  479981  BUTCHER, C.         Sapper              25.11.17
                                       (and bar on 5.4.18)
  490257  FISHER, H.          Sapper              25.11.17
  254350  STANDING, E.        Sapper              25.11.17
  776689  ASPINALL, C.        Bombardier          26.11.17
                                      (and bar on 21.3.18)
  765565  WALKER, H.          Gunner              26.11.17
  686744  BLACK, J.           Sergeant            26.11.17
  786087  SMITH, J. A.        Corporal            26.11.17
  775811  OTHEN, P.           Corporal            30.11.17
  786070  PARKINSON, T.       Driver              30.11.17
  785656  DAVIS, H.           Bombardier          30.11.17
  786267  WILTHEW, L.         Shoeing Smith       30.11.17
  785248  HEBBLETHWAITE, J.   Sergeant            30.11.17
  785507  HASLAM, W.          Gunner              30.11.17
  786597  BREARS, B.          Bombardier          30.11.17
  14394   FRENCH, F.          Gunner              30.11.17
  11390   SLATER, B.          Driver              30.11.17
  786714  WORSNOP, C.         Corporal            30.11.17
  796765  BAWN, A. S.         Bombardier           8.12.17
  795432  SCOTT, E.           Gunner               8.12.17
  78621   FIRTH, H.           Sergeant            12.12.17
                                      (and bar on 20.7.18)
  786143  EMMETT, H.          Bombardier          12.12.17
  105408  WILLIAMS, T. R.     Driver              22. 1.18
  42374   HIGDON, C. E.       Corporal            22. 1.18
  775647  PHILLIPS, F.        Driver               5. 2.18
  238966  MAGUIRE, W. J.      Driver               5. 2.18
  781555  SPENCER, W.         Gunner               7. 2.18
  781130  BESWICK, C.         Gunner               7. 2.18
  55022   SALMON, J. P.       B.S.M., M.M.        12. 3.18
                                             (Bar to M.M.)
  68968   BAIN, W.            Driver              12. 3.18
  775421  BENTLEY, J. A.      Sergeant            21. 3.18
  775421  BENTLEY, J. A.      Sergeant            21. 3.18
  775909  CHAPMAN, A.         Corporal            21. 3.18
  776421  KIRK, J.            Bombardier          21. 3.18
  776440  SLATER, F.          Gunner              21. 3.18
  775873  SIMPSON, A.         Driver              21. 3.18
  776659  WOODS, P.           Gunner              21. 3.18
  745725  GREEN, T. J.        Driver              22. 3.18
  170024  HALES, A. E.        Gunner              26. 3.18
  259377  WILLIAMS, M. A.     Corporal            27. 3.18
                                      (and bar on 12.9.18)
  482131  SNOWDEN, W. H.      Sapper              27. 3.18
  775175  FENLY, M.           Gunner              27. 3.18
  775526  PAWSEY, O.          Bombardier          27. 3.18
  776686  MCCART, J.          Bombardier          27. 3.18
          SIMPSON, J.         Bombardier          27. 3.18
  785292  BUCHANAN, H.        Sergeant            28. 3.18
  786257  SWEENEY, A.         Sergeant             4. 4.18
   62366  READ, G. W.         Sapper               5. 4.18
  786247  WHITAKER, S.        Driver               5. 4.18
  786788  SIMPSON, T.         Sergeant             5. 4.18
  786581  ORME, J.            Bombardier           5. 4.18
  786041  JEFFREY, H.         Corporal             5. 4.18
  786570  HOLLYHEAD, G.       Gunner               5. 4.18
  947529  GLASS, A.           Gunner               5. 4.18
  403103  ROBINSON, H.        Pte. (R.A.M.C.)      5. 4.18
  786145  PENNY, A.           Sergeant             5. 4.18
  786191  POLLARD, F.         Corporal             5. 4.18
  786289  STOBART, G.         Bombardier           5. 4.18
  785989  BLAND, C.           Corporal             5. 4.18
  786051  MCGOWAN, H.         Sergeant             5. 4.18
  482124  MAXFIELD, T.        Corporal             5. 4.18
  479979  BLAIR, S.           Corporal             5. 4.18
  776418  JAMES, T. E.        Corporal             5. 4.18
  149519  GERRARD, F. B.      Bombardier           6. 4.18
   03191  MOLLETT, T. A.      Sergt. (A.V.C.)     11. 4.18
  775729  FINCHAM, G.         Bombardier          12. 4.18
  795519  SIMMONS, F. W.      Gunner              18. 4.18
  795469  WHEATER, T. W.      Driver              18. 4.18
  796906  MORLEY, T. H.       Driver              18. 4.18
  795487  HATTERSLEY, J. W.   Bombardier          18. 4.18
  786097  STRADLING, C. H.    Sergeant            25. 5.18
                                      (and bar on 30.9.18)
  776462  GREEN, M.           Bombardier          25. 5.18
  776428  MIDDLETON, W. G.    Gunner              25. 5.18
  776401  ELMY, G. E.         Bombardier          25. 5.18
  776389  CLEMENTS, L. D. J.  Sergeant            10. 6.18
  781506  BURTON, E. B.       Corpl, D.C.M.       16. 6.18
  786598  FIRTH, E.           Corporal            17. 6.18
   70957  STEVENSON, W.       Sergeant            23. 6.18
  117895  ROBERTS, J. R.      Bombardier          23. 6.18
   68531  BRACKFIELD, E.      Corporal            20. 7.18
          TURNER, G.          B.S.M.              20. 7.18
  776435  PEARCE, H. E.       Bombardier          21. 7.18
  796698  TAYLOR, E.          Driver              21. 7.18
  814159  MELLOR, T. H.       Gunner              21. 7.18
  786071  BARR, G.            Sergeant            21. 7.18
   73925  HEDGES, J. W.       B.S.M.              21. 7.18
  786321  HOWARD, G.          Driver              21. 7.18
  776403  STAPLEY, A. H.      Sergeant            24. 7.18
  216999  WILLIS, W.          Driver              29. 7.18
   50531  EGGETT, G. H.       Sergeant            23. 8.18
  178962  GETHING, W. H.      Gunner              26. 8.18
  940904  BROWN, J. D.        B.S.M.              27. 8.18
  479989  WILSON, H.          Sapper              27. 8.18
  786188  WAKEFIELD, E.       Sergeant            28. 8.18
  960755  DARLING, G.         Sergeant             1. 9.18
  686809  MITCHELL, D. J.     Corporal             4. 9.18
  686749  BLAKELEY, J.        Bombardier           4. 9.18
   98085  HEAD, W.            Gunner               5. 9.18
  775441  MARSDEN, W.         Driver              10. 9.18
  142257  GISBY, S.           Sapper              12. 9.18
  811015  FELLOWES, A.        Gunner              15. 9.18
   03221  DANIELLS, J. W.     Sergt. (A.V.C.)     30. 9.18
  775071  HOWARD, A.          Corporal            30. 9.18
          DAWE, W. H.         Signaller            2.10.18
          CRERAR, E.          Signaller            2.10.18
  795531  LACEY, W.           Sergeant             6.10.18
  795655  FIRTH, A.           Bombardier           6.10.18
   55862  HILL, F.            Signaller            8.10.18
  795460  MALLINSON, G.       Sergeant            17.10.18
  796893  MARTIN, W. J.       Driver              17.10.18
  775228  NAYLOR, C. B.       Bombardier          20.10.18
  775859  MILNES, N.          Signaller           20.10.18
  154325  THORNTON, F. W.     Signaller           20.10.18
  775939  ARUNDEL, J. W.      Corporal             4.11.18
  776494  MORNAN, J.          Bombardier           4.11.18
  775751  SMITH, H.           Corporal             4.11.18
  776523  MALHAM, A.          Bombardier           4.11.18
  482341  SQUIRES, A.         Corporal             5.11.18
  247749  COURTNEY, H.        Signaller            6.11.18
  775451  DOOLAN, J.          Signaller            7.11.18
  482343  HOLMES, F. H. W.    Sapper               7.11.18
   57500  HEARD, J.           Bombardier           7.11.18
  795579  MARKS, H.           Driver               8.11.18
     670  MORGAN, D. E.       Driver               8.11.18
  785515  AMES, O.            Driver               8.11.18
  785624  BROTHWELL, T.       Sergeant             8.11.18


D.C.M.

  788499  JEFFREY, W.         Corporal            30.11.17
          WHITTAKER, F.       Sergeant            11. 1.18
  775056  MOODY, J.           Sergeant             3. 6.18
  786077  PULLAN, P. E.       B.Q.M.S.             3. 6.18


MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL.

          SHAW                Bombr. (T.M.)           1919


MEDAILLE MILITAIRE.

  786097  STRADLING, C. H.    Sergeant            30. 4.18


CROIX DE GUERRE (Belgian).

  775017  WHARTON, H.         Sergeant             3. 1.18
  776421  KIRK, J.            Gunner               3. 1.18
  786260  EDMONSON, C.        Sergeant             3. 1.18
  786044  KITCHIN, F.         B.S.M.               3. 1.18
  780086  HARGREAVES, W.      Corporal             3. 1.18
  797010  TYLER, J. A.        Gunner               3. 1.18


INDIAN DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL.

  21316  BASHIR AHMED        Driver               22. 4.18
  27652  ABDUL QUAYUM        Driver               22. 4.18
  33810  NATHOO KHAN         Driver               22. 4.18


MENTIONED IN DESPATCHES.

          ANDERSON, A. T.     Brig.-General, C.M.G.
          ANDERSON, R. A. T.  Lieut.
          BEDWELL, E. P.      Lieut.-Colonel
          BOWDEN, S. V.       Capt.
          CHAMPION            B.S.M.
  786544  CLAPTON, G.         Gunner, M.M.
          EELES, C. A.        Major, D.S.O.
          ELSTON, A. J.       Major
          FRASER, J.          Capt.
    6998  HOWES, T. W.        B.S.M., D.C.M.
          KEWLEY, T. C.       Capt.
          LINDSELL, W. G.     Major, D.S.O., M.C.
          LOCKHART, J. F. K.  Major, D.S.O.
          LONG, V. H. S.      Capt.
          NICKOLS, R.         Major
          ROBINSON, G.        Major
  781825  RUTTER, C.          Sergeant
          SEEMAN, F. H.       Major
          SENIOR, A.          Capt., M.C.
          SHERLOCK, D. J. C.  Lieut.-Colonel, D.S.O.
          WILLEY, J.          Major
          WOODCOCK, F. A.     Lieut.-Colonel, D.S.O.


MENTIONED IN DIVISIONAL ORDERS FOR ACTS OF GALLANTRY.

          CLAPTON, G.         Gunner              17. 3.17
          TRISTRAM, F.        Gunner              17. 3.17
          LAIRD, W.           Bombardier           6. 5.17
          SALT, L. K.         Sergeant            22. 7.17
          EDMONSON, C.        Sergeant            22. 7.17
          WELLS, H. T.        Bombardier          22. 7.17
          PICKERING, A. S.    Bombardier          22. 7.17
          CLAYTON, A. C.      Sergeant            22. 7.17
          HEBBLETHWAITE, J.   Sergeant            23. 7.17
          CAMERON, A.         Bombardier          23. 7.17
          PARKER, R.          Bombardier          23. 7.17
          EVEREST, H.         Gunner              23. 7.17
          WEBSTER, G.         Gunner              23. 7.17
          GIBSON, J. W.       Gunner              23. 7.17
          LEVETT, J. A.       Sergeant            28. 7.17
          BRACKFIELD          Gunner              10.10.17
          KNAGGS, V. S. G.    Lieut.              10.10.17



INDEX


  Ablainzeville, gas attack on, 77

  Abrahams, Lieut. F., 65

  Achiet le Grand, 8, 20, 93

  Achiet le Petit, 4, 7, 62, 92

  Albert, 93

  Alderton, Lieut. B., 98

  Ammunition supply, 5, 24, 42, 88

  Anderson, Lieut. R. A. T., 20, 28, 63

  Anneux, 45

  Archer, Capt. H. de B., 67, 76

  Arleux, 56, 58

  Armistice, 112

  Arnold-Forster, Maj. F. A., 6, 10, 55, 104

  Arras, Battle of, 10

  Artillery, French, 85

  Ashby, Lieut. H. C., 10

  Auchonvillers, 2

  Australians, 11, 65

  Austria, armistice, 110

  Aveluy wood, 93

  Ayette, 62


  Bailleul, 57, 58

  Baillie-Reynolds, Lieut. P. K., 10, 82

  Ball, Lieut. S. C., 13

  Bapaume, 7

     "     Battle of, 97

  Barastre, 43

  Barvaux, 117

  Basse-Bodeux, 117

  Batteries, A/310, 26, 32, 34, 58, 71, 86

  Batteries, B/310, 10, 32, 56, 58, 94, 95

  Batteries, C/310, 29, 32, 45, 65, 71, 86

  Batteries, D/310, 26, 31, 58, 76, 86, 94, 95, 110

  Batteries, A/312, 7, 32, 51, 62

      "      B/312, 8, 9, 34, 56, 62, 82, 86, 101, 109

  Batteries, C/312, 7, 10, 29, 32, 70, 82

  Batteries, D/312, 7, 9, 16, 51, 56, 71, 96

  Bayley, Maj. A. F., 37

  Beaumont Hamel, 2, 3, 65

  Beaurains, 62

  Bedwell, Lt.-Col. E. P., 16

  Bennett, Lieut. A. G., 27, 92

  Benson, Brig.-Gen., 22

  Berthelot, Gen., 89

  Berzèe, 115

  Bethoncourt, 53

  Bevillers, 105

  Bigg, Maj. L. B., 6

  Bihucourt, 7, 93

  Bligny, 86

  Boden, Lieut. J. B., 50, 52, 71

  Bois d'Hollande, 4

  Bois du petit champs, 83

  Bois de Reims, 82

  Bombing planes, 76, 84

  Bottomley, Capt. G. R., 77

  Bourlon Wood, 47, 49, 51, 53, 102

  Bowden, Capt. S. V., 58

  Bradford, Brig.-Gen., 35, 52

  Braithwaite, Lt.-Gen. Sir W. P., 24, 30, 63, 68, 77, 88, 97, 102, 114

  Brigade, 310th, 1, 2, 7, 8, 16, 21, 43, 46, 56, 62, 72, 85, 86, 93,
                  104, 105, 118

  Brigade, 311th, 2, 3, 7, 8, 120, 121

  Brigade, 312th, 1, 7, 16, 21, 27, 43, 46, 56, 70, 72, 78, 85, 86,
                  104, 118

  Brown, Lieut. J. A., 25, 110

  Bucquoy, 4, 7, 62, 64, 92

  Bullecourt, 14, 15, 27, 32

  Burnett, Brig.-Gen. J. G., 61, 107

  Burt, Lieut. W., 82

  Burton, Corpl. E., 79

  Bus les Artois, 2, 86

  Byng, Gen. Sir Julian, 25, 113


  Cambrai, 103

     "     Battle of, 45

  Cambrai--St. Quentin, Battle of, 104

  Canal du Nord, 98

  Casey, Maj. N. B. V., 32

  Casualty, First, 2

      "     First Officer, 3

  Casualties, number of, 11, 17, 29, 87, 112

  Charlesworth, Gunner, 32

  Chalons, 86

  Chateau la Haie, 69, 72

  Chaumuzy, 86

  Cherisy, 33-35

  Chevron, 117

  Clarson, Lieut. C. L., 23

  Clavier, 117

  Cockerell, Lieut. A. E., 73

  Colincamps, 2, 65

  Couin, 86

  Courtagnon, 82, 86

  Craven, Lieut. G. A., 34, 35

  Crofton, Maj. M. R. H., 57, 70

  Croisilles, 7, 8

  Cuitron, 83

  Currie, Maj. J. M., 31, 94


  D.A.C., 5, 12, 24, 52, 57, 77, 78, 82, 84, 86, 102, 110, 118

  Davis, Lieut. E. W., 42

  Dinant, 116

  Douet, Lieut. C. F. M., 101

  Dowden, Lieut. H. J., 101

  Draper, Lieut. V. A. H., 83


  Ecoust, 8, 9, 11, 13, 27, 30, 32, 37, 62

  Eden, Lt.-Col. A. G., 43, 97, 104

  Edmondson, Capt. J. E., 24

  Edwards, Lieut. A. J., 16

  Eeles, Maj. C. A., 41, 76, 78

  Eitel, Prince, 117

  Ellis, Lieut. G. A., 68, 82

  Elsenborn, 117

  Elston, Maj. A. J., 104, 105

  Engelbelmer, 2, 57

  Engelsart, 5

  Ermetont, 116

  Ervillers, 7, 9, 14

  Escarmain, 108, 109

  Espilly, 85

  Essarts, 64, 70, 92

  Establishment of horses, 78

  Estourmel, 104


  Farbus, 59

  Ferme d'Ecueil, 85

  Ferrière la Grande, 114

  Fitzgibbon, Maj. F., 55, 63

  Fleming, Maj. G., 19

  Flesquières, 46, 47, 101

  Foncquevillers, 64-66, 73

  Foot, Brig.-Gen. R. M., 42

    "   Maj. R. C., 6, 26, 31, 55, 76, 93

  Forrest, Lieut. R., 13

  Fraser, Capt. J., 24

  Frasnoy, 109, 110

  Frontier, Crossing the, 117

  Furlong, Lieut. P. C., 50


  Gadie, Lt.-Col. A., 8, 120

  Gallimore, Capt. H. B., 16, 17

  Gane, Lieut. L. C., 53, 67

  Garrett, Rev. S., 114

  Gas attack on 312th, 70

  Gavrelle, 56

  Geddes, Brig.-Gen. J. G., 81

  Gemund, 118

  Germaine, 82

  Gerpinnes, 116

  Ginchy, 94, 95

  Godley, Sir A., 81, 91

  Goldsmith, Lieut. H. G., 61

  Gomiecourt, 7

  Gonnelieu, 51

  Gough, Sir H. de la P., 13

  Gouzancourt, 51

  Graincourt, 45-47

  Grandcourt, 3

  Green, Lieut. W. J., 96


  Haig, F.M. Sir Douglas, 72, 75

  Hammond, Lieut. E. B., 23

  Hampden, Brig.-Gen. Viscount, 100

  Hannescamps, 62, 64

  Haplincourt, 40, 52

  Hardy, Lieut. G., 16, 17

  Harker, Lieut. J. C., 96

  Harris, Lieut. W. E., 34, 36

  Hautvillers, 83, 86

  Havrincourt, 40, 45-47, 53, 98, 99

  Hebuterne, 64, 65

  Henu, 72

  Hermies, 101

  Hess, Lieut. N., 50, 96

  Hewitt, Lieut. J. B. C., 100

  Hindenburg line, 9, 10, 13, 15, 27, 41

  Holburn, Lieut. R., 4

  Holt, Lieut. W. P., 66, 110

  Hore-Ruthven, Lt.-Col. The Hon. A., 30, 33

  Horne, Rev. T. A., 114

  Horse Show, 29

  House, Lieut. W. H., 84

  Howes, B. S. M., 30

  Hubert Road, 41

  Hudson, Capt. G. L. C., 6, 10


  Indian drivers, 57, 77

  Infantry appreciation, 60, 106, 107

  Innes, Lieut. C. B., 52


  Jephson, Maj. E. W. F., 4, 8, 16, 50, 65, 73

  Johnson, Capt. E. F., 53

     "     Lt.-Col. R. H., 104


  Kal, 118

  Keldernich, 118

  Kewley, Capt. T. C., 24

  Kinsman, Lt.-Col. G. R. V., 14

  Kitson, Lieut. G. H., 15


  Lagnicourt, 11, 21, 25, 27

  Laignon, 117

  Lasbrey, Capt. H. C., 3

  Latter, Lieut. K. A., 94, 95, 110

  Lawrie, Lieut. H. C. O., 25

  Lea, Lt.-Col. H., 42

  Le Quesnoy, 110

  Le Trechon, 110, 111

  Lindsell, Maj. W. G., 28, 45, 54, 55

  Lintern, Lieut. E. E. C., 50, 96

  Lister, Lt.-Col. F. H., 16, 23

  Lloyd, Lieut. E. S., 85, 114

  Lockhart, Maj. J. F. K., 57, 119

  Logeast Wood, 7, 62

  Lough, Lt.-Col. A. T., 24, 43

  Lutyens, Lieut. C. T., 13


  MacIlroy, Lieut. J., 4, 73

  Mailly-mailly, 2, 6

  Malsbenden, 118

  Marcoing, 101, 102

  Maredsous, 116

  Marfaux, 82, 83, 86

  Marquion, 47

  Martinsart, 5

  Masnières, 102, 104

  Massey-Beresford, Lieut. J. C., 93

  Maubeuge, Battle of, 112

  Medals, Presentation of, 77

  Mesnil, 93, 96

  Metz, 52

  Middleton, Capt. H. D., 76

  Miles, Lieut. J., 67

  Mines, 9

  Miraumont, 3-6

  Mitchell, Lt.-Col. F., 12

  Monchy au Bois, 63

  Montgomery, Lieut. C. V., 15, 67

  Monument Camp, 20

  Morchies, 25, 26, 93

  Morgan, Lieut. R. G., 110, 111

  Morval, 94

  Mory, 9

  Mountjoie, 118

  Murray, Lieut. A. C., 65

  Murray, Lieut. G. A., 103


  Nappe, 85

  Nelson, Lieut. H. G., 95, 96

  Neuf Mesnil, 111, 114

  Neuville, 43

  Newman, Lt.-Col. C. R., 33

  Newman, Lieut. C., 30

  New Zealanders, 65, 110

  Nicholson, Maj. K. B., 10, 101

  Nierfeld, 118

  Noreuil, 11, 21, 22, 25, 30, 32, 62

  Nowill, Lieut. J. C. F., 13, 71


  Obies, 110

  Oppy, 56, 58

  Orders, special, 34, 45, 48, 68, 71, 74, 88, 89, 91, 99, 113

  Orsinval, 109

  Orville, 79

  Owen, Lieut. J., 75


  Parkinson, Lieut. E., 34, 35

  Pas en Artois, 73, 86

  Patis d'Ecueil, 82

  Peel, Brig.-Gen. E. J. R., 20

  Pelican Troupe, 80

  Perry, Rev. H. O., 114

  Pickard, Lieut. R. L., 25

  Powell, Capt. J. B., 28

  Pritchard, Lieut. F. C., 39

  Proctor, Lieut. J. W., 13

  Puisieux, 4, 64, 66

  Pullan, Lieut. C. W., 7

  Punchard, Lieut. C., 15

  Puttock, Lieut. E. W., 71


  Quéant, 20

  Queen, Message from H.M. the, 73

  Quiévy, 109


  Raids, 33, 34, 35, 60, 76

  R.A.R.E. Company, 22, 23

  Reims, 81

  Rest house, 6

  Ribecourt, 101

  Rider, Sergt., 32

  Riencourt, 20, 21, 27, 36

  Rissik, Lieut. S. A., 71, 100

  Robinson, Maj. J. G., 6, 32

  Roclincourt, 56, 59

  Romeries, 106

  Rossignol Wood, 69

  Ruesnes, 109

  Rumilly, 102


  Sabelli, Lieut. H. A., 4

  Sailly au Bois, 73

  Sailly Saillisel, 95

  St. Hilaire, 105

  St. Imoges, 82

  St. Leger, 11

  St. Python, 105, 106

  Schleiden, 118

  Schleven, 118

  Schofield, Lieut. H. O., 79

  Seeman, Capt. F. H., 6

  Selle River, Battle of, 108

  Senior, Maj. A., 67, 71

    "     Maj. G. P., 13

  Seranvillers, 103, 104

  Serrigny, General, 84

  Settle, Corpl. W., 33

  Sharpling, Lieut. F. G., 71

  Sheppard, Lieut. E. J. C., 73

  Sherlock, Lt.-Col. D. J. C., 14, 54, 85, 97

  Smart, Lieut. E., 103

  Smith, Capt. H., 79

  Solesmes, 105-107

  Solre sur Sambre, 115

  S.O.S. Test calls, 22

  Sottenich, 118

  Souastre, 67

  Sous le Bois, 112, 114

  Special orders, 34, 45, 48, 68, 71, 74, 88, 89, 91, 99, 113

  Spies, German, 64

  Stephens, Lieut. H. E., 83

  Stuart, Lieut. F. R., 96

  Stuttle, Lieut. A. E., 71

  Sutherland, Lieut. H., 40

  Swain, Maj. G. A., 4, 6, 19, 29, 70


  Tanks, Practice against, 59

  Thackeray, Lt.-Col., 61

  Thy le Chateau, 116

  Tortille river, 93

  Tours sur Marne, 81

  Trench, Capt. A. S. C., 63

  Trench Mortar Batteries, 10, 21, 25, 27, 28, 33-35, 40, 58, 77,
                           109, 114, 118

  Turkey, Armistice, 109

  Tuthill, Maj. W. F., 73


  Urft, 118


  Vanderpump, Lieut. E. H., 25, 73

  Vertain, 108

  Villers au Flos, 43

  Vimy Ridge, 10, 56

  Ville, 117


  Wambaix, 103, 104

  Wancourt, 40

  Weismes, 117

  Wendrop, Gunner E., 93

  Whigham, Maj.-Gen. Sir R., 98, 99, 102

  Whitley, Brig.-Gen. E. N., 54

  Whitworth, Lieut. J. M., 82

  Willerval, 59

  Willey, Maj. J., 10, 69

  Williams, Lieut. E. T., 52

     "      Maj. R. C., 4

  Wills, Lieut. T. B., 24

  Witcher, Lieut. C. R., 58, 69

  Woodcock, Lt.-Col. F. A., 11, 24, 78

  Wooliscroft, Lieut. W., 34, 35



  PRINTED BY
  W. HEFFER AND SONS LTD.
  CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND



Transcriber's Notes

Obvious errors of punctuation and diacritics repaired.

Inconsistent hyphenation fixed.

P. 63: the shell, which as the day wore on -> the shells, which as the
day wore on.

P. 84: I'ai l'honneur -> J'ai l'honneur.

P. 117: 16. Basse Bodeux -> 16th. Basse Bodeux.

P. 121: East Monday -> Easter Monday.





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