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Title: A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Perfumery
Author: Deite, C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    A PRACTICAL TREATISE

    ON THE

    MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMERY:

    COMPRISING

    DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING ALL KINDS OF PERFUMES, SACHET
    POWDERS, FUMIGATING MATERIALS, DENTIFRICES,
    COSMETICS, ETC., ETC.,

    WITH A FULL ACCOUNT OF THE

    VOLATILE OILS, BALSAMS, RESINS, AND OTHER NATURAL
    AND ARTIFICIAL PERFUME-SUBSTANCES, INCLUDING
    THE MANUFACTURE OF FRUIT ETHERS, AND
    TESTS OF THEIR PURITY.

    BY

    DR. C. DEITE,

    ASSISTED BY L. BORCHERT, F. EICHBAUM, E. KUGLER,
    H. TOEFFNER, AND OTHER EXPERTS.

    FROM THE GERMAN BY

    WILLIAM T. BRANNT,

    EDITOR OF "THE TECHNO-CHEMICAL RECEIPT-BOOK."

    ILLUSTRATED BY TWENTY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS.

    PHILADELPHIA:
    HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.,
    INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS AND IMPORTERS,
    810 WALNUT STREET.
    1892.


    COPYRIGHT BY
    HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.
    1892.

    PRINTED AT THE COLLINS PRINTING HOUSE,
    705 Jayne Street,
    PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.



PREFACE.


A translation of the portion of the "Handbuch der Parfümerie-und
Toiletteseifenfabrikation," edited by Dr. C. DEITE, relating to
perfumery and cosmetics, is presented to the English reading public
with the full confidence that it will not only fill a useful place
in technical literature, but will also prove--for what it is chiefly
intended--a ready book of reference and a practical help and guide for
the perfumer's laboratory. The names of the editor and his co-workers
are a sufficient guaranty of its value and practical usefulness, they
all being experienced men, well schooled each in the particular branch
of the industry, the treatment of which has been assigned to him.

The most suitable and approved formulæ, tested by experience, have been
given; and special attention has been paid to the description of the
raw materials, as well as to the various methods of testing them, the
latter being of special importance, since in no other industry has the
manufacturer to contend with such gross and universal adulteration of
raw materials.

It is hoped that the additions made here and there by the translator,
as well as the portion relating to the manufacture of "Fruit Ethers,"
added by him, may contribute to the interest and usefulness of the
treatise.

Finally, it remains only to be stated that, with their usual
liberality, the publishers have spared no expense in the proper
illustration and the mechanical production of the book; and, as is
their universal practice, have caused it to be provided with a copious
table of contents and a very full index, which will add additional
value by rendering any subject in it easy and prompt of reference.

  W. T. B.

 PHILADELPHIA, May 2, 1892.



CONTENTS.


 CHAPTER I.

 HISTORICAL NOTICE OF PERFUMERY.

                                                                PAGE

 Consumption of perfume-substances by the early nations of
 the Orient                                                       17

 Perfume-substances as an offering to the gods and their use
 for embalming the dead; Arts of the toilet in ancient times      18

 Perfume-substances used by the Hebrews; Olibanum and
 the mode of gaining it in ancient times, as described by
 Herodotus                                                        19

 Pliny's account of olibanum                                      20

 Practice of anointing the entire body customary among the
 ancients; The holy oil prescribed by Moses; Origin of
 the sweet-scented ointment "myron"                               21

 Luxurious use of ointments in Athens, and the special ointments
 used for each part of the body; Introduction of ointments in
 Rome, and edict prohibiting the sale of foreign ointments;
 Plutarch on the extravagant use of ointments in Rome             22

 Ancient books containing directions for preparing ointments;
 Directions for rose ointment, according to Dioscorides           23

  Ancient process of distilling volatile oils; Dioscorides's
  directions for making animal fats suitable for the reception of
  perfumes; Consumption of perfume-substances by the ancient
  Romans; Condition of the ancient ointment-makers                24

 Use of red and white paints, hair-dyes, and depilatories by
 the Romans                                                       25

 Peculiar substance for cleansing the teeth used by the Roman
 ladies; Perfumeries and cosmetics in the Middle Ages;
 Receipts for cosmetics in the writings of Arabian physicians,
 and of Guy de Chanlios                                           26

 Giovanni Marinello's work on "Cosmetics for Ladies;" Introduction
 of the arts of the toilet into France, by Catherine de Medici
 and Margaret of Valois                                           27

 Extravagant use of cosmetics in France from the commencement
 of the seventeenth to the middle of the eighteenth century       28

 Importance of the perfumer's craft in France; Chief seats
 of the French perfumery industry                                 29

 Privileges of the _parfumeurs-gantiers_ in France; Use of
 perfumes in England; Act of Parliament prohibiting the use of
 perfumeries, false hair, etc., for deceiving a man and inveigling
 him into matrimony                                               30

 CHAPTER II.

 THE PERFUME-MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE
 OF PERFUMERY.

 Derivation of the perfume-substances; Animal substances
 used; Occurrence of volatile oils in plants                      31

 Families of plants richest in oil; Central Europe the actual
 flower garden of the perfumer; Principal localities for the
 cultivation of plants                                            32

 Volatile oils and their properties                               33

 Principal divisions of volatile oils                             34

 Constitution of terpenes; Concentrated volatile oils             35

 Modes of gaining volatile oils; Expression                       36

 Clarification of the oil                                         37

 Filter for clarifying the oil, illustrated and described         38

 Distillation                                                     39

 Apparatus for determining the percentage of volatile oil a
 vegetable substance will yield, illustrated and described        40

 Various stills for the distillation of volatile oils, illustrated
 and described                                                    41

 Distillation of volatile oils by means of hot air; Separation
 of the oil and water; Florentine flasks, illustrated and
 described                                                        46

 Separator-funnel, illustrated and described                      47

 Extraction                                                       48

 Various apparatuses for extraction, illustrated and described    49

 Heyl's distilling apparatus                                      57

 Maceration or infusion; Pomades; Purification of the fats
 used in the maceration process                                   58

 _Huiles antiques_; Old French process of maceration; Piver's
 maceration apparatus, illustrated and described                  59

 Flowers for which maceration is employed; Absorption or
 _enfleurage_                                                     60

 Apparatuses for absorption, illustrated and described            61

 Flowers for which the absorption process is employed; Storage
 of volatile oils                                                 65

 CHAPTER III.

 TESTING VOLATILE OILS.

 Extensive adulteration of volatile oils; Testing volatile oils
 as to odor and taste                                             66

 Recognition of an adulteration with fat oil                      67

 Detection of alcohol or spirit of wine; Dragendorff's test       68

 Hager's tannin test                                              69

 Detection of chloroform; Detection of benzine                    71

 Quantitative determination of adulterations with alcohol,
 chloroform, and benzine                                          72

 Detection of adulterations with terpenes or terpene-like fluids  73

 Detection of adulterations with volatile oils of a lower quality;
 Test with iodine                                                 74

 Hoppe's nitroprusside of copper test                             75

 Table showing the behavior of volatile oils free from oxygen
 towards nitroprusside of copper                                  76

 Hager's alcohol and sulphuric acid test; Hager's guaiacum
 reaction                                                         78

 Division of the volatile oils with reference to the guaiacum
 reaction                                                         79

 Hübl's iodine method                                             80

 A. Kremel's test by titration or saponification with alcoholic
 potash lye                                                       81

 Utilization of Maumené's test by F. R. Williams                  82

 Planchon's proposed procedure for the recognition of a
 volatile oil                                                     83

 CHAPTER IV.

 THE VOLATILE OILS USED IN PERFUMERY.

 Acacia oil or oil of cassie; Almond oil (bitter)                 87

 Adulterations of oil of bitter almonds and their detection       90

 Angelica oil                                                     92

 Anise-seed oil                                                   93

 Star anise oil                                                   94

 Balm oil; Basil oil; Bayberry oil, or oil of bay leaves          96

 Bergamot oil; Testing bergamot oil as to its purity              97

 Cajeput oil                                                      98

 Camomile or chamomile oil; Blue camomile oil; Green
 camomile oil                                                     99

 Caraway oil; Recognition of the purity of caraway oil           100

 Cedar oil; Cherry-laurel oil                                    101

 Detection of oil of mirbane in cherry-laurel oil; Cinnamon
 oils; Ceylon cinnamon oil                                       102

 Cassia oil                                                      103

 Cinnamon-root oil and oil of cinnamon leaves; Quantitative
 determination of cinnamaldehyde in cassia oil                   104

 Detection of adulterations in cassia oil; Citron oil            106

 Detection of adulterations in citron oil; Citronella oil;
 Detection of adulterations in citronella oil                    107

 Oil of cloves                                                   108

 Test for the value of oil of cloves                             109

 Eucalyptus oil                                                  110

 Fennel oil                                                      111

 Geranium oil, palmarosa oil, Turkish geranium oil; East
 Indian geranium oil; French and African geranium oils           112

 Adulterations of geranium oils; Jasmine oil, or oil of
 jessamine                                                       113

 Juniper oil                                                     114

 Lavender oil; Spike oil                                         115

 Detection of adulterations of lavender oil; Lemon oil;
 Sponge process of obtaining lemon oil                           116

 Écuelle process                                                 117

 Distillation; Apparatus combining the écuelle and distilling
 processes, illustrated and described                            118

 Adulterations of oil of lemons and their detection: Lilac
 oil; Oil of limes                                               121

 Licari oil, linaloë oil; Marjoram oils; Spanish marjoram oil    122

 Mignonette oil; Myrrh oil                                       123

 Nutmeg oils; Mace oil; Adulterations of mace oil and their
 detection                                                       124

 Opopanax oil; Orange-peel oil, Portugal oil or essence of
 Portugal; Mandarin oil                                          125

 Orange-flower oil or neroli oil; Neroli Portugal oil;
 Cultivation of the orange on the French Riviera and yield of
 orange blossoms; Characteristics of oil of orange flowers       126

 Adulterations of neroli oil and their detection                 127

 Petit-grain oil; Oil of orris root                              129

 Patchouli oil                                                   130

 Varieties and characteristics of patchouli oil                  131

 Peppermint oil; Oil of curled mint; Peppermint oil and its
 varieties                                                       132

 American oils of peppermint of high reputation; Mode of
 distinguishing American, German, and English oils of
 peppermint                                                      133

 Adulterants of peppermint oil and their detection               134

 Poley oil                                                       135

 Pimento oil or oil of allspice; Rose oil or attar of roses;
 Principal localities of its production; Schimmel & Co.'s,
 of Leipzic, Germany, experiment to obtain oil from indigenous
 roses                                                           136

 The rose-oil industry in Bulgaria; Methods of gathering and
 distilling the roses                                            137

 Characteristics of pure rose oil                                138

 Manner of judging the genuineness of rose oil; Process for
 the insulation and determination of stearoptene in rose oil     139

 Adulteration of rose oil with ginger-grass oil                  140

 Test for the adulteration of rose oil with ginger-grass oil
 employed in Bulgaria                                            141

 Adulterants of rose oil                                         142

 Tests for rose oil; Approximate quantitative determination
 of spermaceti in rose oil                                       143

 Rosemary oil; Detection of adulterations in rosemary oil        144

 Rosewood oil or rhodium oil; Sandal-wood oil; Sassafras
 oil; Characteristics of sassafras oil                           145

 Thyme oil                                                       147

 Oil of turpentine; Austrian oil of turpentine; German oil
 of turpentine; French oil of turpentine; Venetian oil of
 turpentine                                                      148

 American oil of turpentine; Pine oil; Dwarf pine oil;
 Krummholz or Latschenoel; Pine-leaf oil; Templin oil
 (Kienoel); Balsam-pine oil                                      149

 Oil of verbena; Oil of violet; Vitivert or vetiver oil          150

 Wintergreen oil                                                 151

 Birch oil; Artificial preparation of methyl salicylate          152

 Adulteration of wintergreen oil and its detection; Ylang-ylang
 oil                                                             153

 Cananga oil                                                     154

 CHAPTER V.

 RESINS AND BALSAMS.

 Elementary constituents of resins; Division of resins; Hard
 resins; Soft resins or balsams; Gum-resins                      155

 Diffusion of resins in the vegetable kingdom; Benzoin           156

 Varieties of benzoin and their characteristics                  157

 Peru balsam and mode of obtaining it                            159

 White Peru balsam                                               160

 Characteristics of Peru balsam                                  161

 Adulterants of Peru balsam and their detection                  162

 Tolu balsam and its characteristics                             166

 A new variety of Tolu balsam                                    167

 Storax; Liquid storax and its characteristics                   168

 Adulteration of liquid storax and its detection                 170

 Storax in grains; Ordinary storax                               171

 American storax, white Peru balsam, white Indian balsam,
 or liquid-ambar; Myrrh                                          172

 Myrrha electa and its characteristics                           173

 Constitution of myrrh                                           174

 Adulteration of myrrh and its detection                         175

 Opopanax; Olibanum or frankincense                              176

 Commercial varieties of olibanum; Sandarac and its
 characteristics                                                 177

 CHAPTER VI.

 PERFUME-SUBSTANCES FROM THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

 Musk and its varieties; Musk sacs, illustrated and described    178

 Characteristics of Tonkin musk                                  180

 Musk of the American musk-rat as a substitute for genuine
 musk                                                            181

 Other possible substitutes for the musk-deer; Artificial musk   182

 Adulterations of musk and their detection                       183

 Civet                                                           184

 Castor and its varieties                                        185

 Adulterations of castor; Ambergris                              186

 Constituents of ambergris                                       187

 Adulterations of ambergris                                      188

 CHAPTER VII.

 ARTIFICIAL PERFUME-MATERIALS.

 Conversion of oil of turpentine into oil of lemons by Bouchardat
 and Lafont                                                      189

 Cumarin, its occurrence and properties                          190

 Varieties of tonka beans found in commerce                      191

 Preparation of cumarin from tonka beans; Artificial preparation
 of cumarin from salicylic acid                                  192

 Synthetical preparation of cumarin; Heliotropin or piperonal
 and its characteristics                                         193

 Preparation of heliotropin                                      194

 Vanillin; Characteristics of the vanilla                        195

 Artificial preparation of vanillin                              196

 Characteristics of vanillin                                     197

 Adulteration of vanillin, and its detection; Nitrobenzol        198

 Characteristics of nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane; adulteration
 of nitrobenzol and its detection                                199

 Fruit ethers and their characteristics                          200

 Acetic amyl ether or amyl acetate, its preparation and use;
 Acetic ether or ethyl acetate and its preparation               201

 Benzoic ether or ethyl benzoate and its preparation             204

 Butyric ethyl ether or ethyl butyrate; Preparation of butyric
 acid                                                            205

 Preparation of butyric ether                                    207

 St. John's bread or carob as material for the preparation of
 butyric ether                                                   209

 Formic ethyl ether, or ethyl formate and its preparation        210

 Nitrous ether or ethyl nitrate and its preparation according
 to Kopp's method                                                211

 Preparation and use of nitrous ether in England and America     212

 Valerianic amyl ether or amyl valerate and its preparation      214

 Valerianic ethyl ether; Apple ether; Apricot ether; Cherry
 ether; Pear ether; Pineapple ether; Strawberry ether;
 Preparation of fruit essences; Apple essence; Apricot essence   216

 Cherry essence; Currant essence; Grape essence; Lemon
 essence; Melon essence; Orange essence; Peach essence;
 Pear essence; Pineapple essence; Plum essence                   217

 Raspberry essence; Strawberry essence                           218

 CHAPTER VIII.

 ALCOHOLIC PERFUMES.

 Division of alcoholic perfumes; What constitutes the art
 of the perfumer; Qualities of flower-pomades and their
 designation                                                     219

 Storage of flower-pomades; Extraction of flower-pomades         220

 Apparatus for making alcoholic extracts from flower-pomades,
 illustrated and described                                       221

 Beyer frères improved apparatus, illustrated and described      223

 Tinctures and extracts and their preparation                    225

 Beyer frères apparatus for the preparation of tinctures,
 illustrated and described                                       226

 Musk tincture; Civet tincture                                   228

 Ambergris tincture; Castor tincture; Benzoin tincture;
 Peru balsam tincture; Tolu balsam tincture                      229

 Olibanum tincture; Opopanax tincture; Storax tincture;
 Myrrh tincture; Musk-seed or abelmosk tincture                  230

 Angelica root tincture; Orris-root tincture; Musk-root or
 sumbul-root tincture; Tonka-bean tincture                       231

 Cumarin tincture; Heliotropin tincture; Vanilla tincture;
 Vanillin tincture                                               232

 Vitivert tincture; Juniper-berry tincture; Patchouli extract    233

 Tinctures from volatile oils; Almond-oil (bitter) tincture;
 Balm-oil tincture; Bergamot-oil tincture; Canango-oil
 tincture                                                        234

 Cassia-oil tincture; Cedar-oil tincture; Cinnamon-oil tincture;
 Citronella-oil tincture; Clove-oil tincture; Eucalyptus-oil
 tincture; Geranium-oil tincture; Lavender-oil tincture;
 Lemon-grass-oil tincture; Lemon-oil tincture; Licari-oil
 tincture; Myrrh-oil tincture; Neroli-oil tincture; Opopanax-oil
 tincture; Orris-root-oil tincture; Patchouli-oil tincture       235

 Petit-grain-oil tincture; Pine-leaf-oil tincture; Portugal-oil
 tincture; Sandal-wood-oil tincture; Verbena-oil tincture;
 Vitivert-oil tincture; Wintergreen-oil tincture; Ylang-ylang-oil
 tincture; Rose-oil tincture                                     236

 Extraits aux fleurs; Extrait acacia; Extrait cassie; Extrait
 héliotrope; Extrait jacinthe                                    237

 Extrait jasmin; Essence of the odor of linden blossoms;
 Extrait jonquille; Extrait magnolia; Extrait muguet
 (lily of the valley); Extrait fleurs de Mai (May flowers)       238

 Extrait ixora; Extrait orange; Extrait white rose; Extrait
 rose v. d. centifolie; Extrait violette; Coloring substance
 for extraits; Extrait de violette de Parme                      239

 Extrait tubereuse; Extrait réséda; Extrait ylang-ylang;
 Compound odors (bouquets); Extrait Edelweiss; Extrait
 ess-bouquet                                                     240

 Extrait spring flower; Extrait bouquet Eugenie; Extrait
 excelsior; Extrait Frangipani; Extrait jockey club              241

 Extrait opopanax; Extrait patchouli; Extrait millefleurs;
 Extrait bouquet Victoria                                        242

 Extrait kiss-me-quick; Extrait mogadore; Extrait bouquet
 Prince Albert; Extrait muse; Extrait new-mown hay;
 Extrait chypre                                                  243

 Extrait maréchal; Extrait mousseline; Extraits triple
 concentrés and their preparations                               244

 Concentrated flower-extract for the preparation of extraits
 d'Odeurs; Extraits d'Odeurs, quality II                         245

 Extrait violette II; Extrait rose II; Extrait réséda II;
 Extrait ylang-ylang II                                          246

 Extrait new-mown hay II; Extrait chypre II; Extrait ess-bouquet
 II                                                              247

 Extrait muguet II; Extrait bouquet Victoria II; Extrait
 spring flower II; Extrait ixora II                              248

 Extrait Frangipani II; Cologne water (eau de Cologne) and
 its preparation                                                 249

 Durability of the volatile oils used in the preparation of
 Cologne water                                                   250

 Cologne water, quality I                                        252

 Cologne water, quality II; Cologne water, quality III;
 Cologne water, quality IV; Cologne water, quality V             253

 Maiglöckchen eau de Cologne; Various other receipts for
 Cologne water                                                   254

 Eau de Lavande; Eau de vie de Lavande double ambrée;
 Eau de Lavande double; Aqua mellis; Eau de Lisbonne             255

 CHAPTER IX.

 DRY PERFUMES.

 Use of dry perfumes in ancient times; Sachet powders and
 their preparation                                               256

 Sachet à la rose; Sachet à la violette; Heliotrope sachet
 powder; Ylang-ylang sachet powder; Jockey club sachet           257

 Sachet aux millefleurs; Lily of the valley sachet powder;
 Patchouli sachet powder; Frangipani sachet powder;
 Victoria sachet powder; Réséda sachet powder                    258

 Musk sachet powder; Ess-bouquet sachet powder; New-mown
 hay sachet powder; Orange sachet powder; Solid
 perfumes with paraffine; White rose                             259

 Ess-bouquet; Lavender odor; Eau de Cologne; Smelling
 salts; Preston salt and "menthol pungent" as prepared
 by William W. Bartlett; White smelling salt                     260

 CHAPTER X.

 FUMIGATING ESSENCES, PASTILLES, POWDERS, ETC.

 Constitution of fumigating agents; Object of fumigating;
 Prejudice against fumigating; Mode of fumigating                262

 Atomizers; Objections to dry fumigating agents                  263

 Fumigating essences and vinegars; Rose-flower fumigating
 essence; Flower fumigating essence--héliotrope                  264

 Violet-flower fumigating essence; Oriental flower fumigating
 essence; Pine odor (for atomizing); Juniper odor; fumigating
 balsam                                                          265

 Fumigating water; Fumigating vinegar; Fumigating powders;
 Ordinary fumigating powder                                      266

 Rose fumigating powder; Violet fumigating powder; Orange
 fumigating powder; New-mown hay fumigating powder               267

 Fumigating paper; Fumigating pastilles                          268

 Ordinary red fumigating pastilles; Ordinary black fumigating
 pastilles; Musk fumigating pastilles                            269

 Rose fumigating pastilles; Violet fumigating pastilles;
 Millefleurs fumigating pastilles; Fumigating lacquer            270

 CHAPTER XI.

 DENTIFRICES, MOUTH-WATERS, ETC.

 Selection of materials for and compounding of dentifrices       272

 Soap as a constituent of dentifrices; Value of thymol for
 dentifrices; Object of glycerin in dentifrices                  273

 Tooth and mouth waters; Thymol tooth-water; Eau dentifrice
 Botot; Eau dentifrice Orientale                                 274

 Violet mouth-water; Antiseptic gargle; Odontine; Sozodont;
 Eau de Botot (improved)                                         275

 Quinine tooth-water; Dr. Stahl's tooth-tincture; Esprit de
 menthe; Arnica tooth-tincture; Myrrh tooth-tincture             276

 Tooth-pastes and tooth-powders; tooth-paste or odontine         277

 Thymol tooth-paste; Cherry tooth-paste; Non-fermenting
 cherry tooth-paste; Odontine paste                              278

 Thymol tooth-powder; Poudre dentifrice; Violet tooth-powder     279

 Dr. Hufeland's tooth-powder; White tooth-powder; Black
 tooth-powder; Poudre de corail; Camphor tooth-powder;
 Opiat liquide pour les dents                                    280

 Poudre d'Algérine                                               281

 Dr. Hufeland's tooth-soap                                       282

 Tooth-soap; Saponaceous tooth-wash                              283

 CHAPTER XII.

 HAIR POMADES, HAIR OILS, AND HAIR TONICS; HAIR
 DYES AND DEPILATORIES.

 Fats used for the preparation of pomades; Reputation of
 some fats as hair pomades                                       284

 Pomades and their preparation; Purification of the fat          285

 Substances used for coloring pomades; Fine French pomades
 (flower-pomades); Maceration or extraction of the flowers       286

 Receipts for some flower-pomades; Pommade à la rose;
 Pommade à l'acacia; Pommade à la fleur d'orange;
 Pommade à l'héliotrope                                          287

 Pomades according to the German method and their preparation;
 Foundations for white pomades                                   288

 Apple pomade; Bear's grease pomade; Quinine pomades             289

 Quinine pomades (imitation); Benzoin pomade; Densdorf
 pomade; Ice pomades; Family pomades                             290

 Strawberry pomade; Fine hair pomade; Pomade for promoting
 the growth of the hair; Heliotrope pomades                      291

 Jasmine pomade; Emperor pomade; Macassar pomade;
 Portugal pomade; Herb pomade; Lanolin pomade                    292

 Oriental pomade; Paraffin ice pomade; Neroli pomade;
 Cheap pomade (red, yellow, white); Mignonette pomade;
 Castor oil pomades; Princess pomade                             293

 Fine pomade; Beef-marrow pomade; Rogers's pomade for
 producing a beard; Rose pomade; Fine rose pomade;
 Finest rose pomade; Salicylic pomade; Victoria pomade;
 Tonka pomade                                                    294

 Fine vanilla pomade; Vanilla pomade; Violet pomade;
 Walnut pomade; Vaseline pomades                                 295

 Foundations for vaseline pomades; Bouquet vaseline pomade;
 Family vaseline pomade; Lily of the valley vaseline
 pomade; Neroli vaseline pomade                                  296

 Mignonette vaseline pomade; Portugal vaseline pomade;
 Rose vaseline pomades; Fine vaseline pomade (yellow);
 Vaseline pomade (red); Vaseline pomade (white); Virginia
 vaseline pomade; Victoria vaseline pomade                       297

 Extra fine vaseline pomade; Stick pomades; Foundations
 for stick pomades; Manufacture of stick pomades                 298

 Rose-wax pomade; Black-wax pomade; Blonde-wax pomade;
 Brown-wax pomade                                                299

 Cheap wax pomades; Resin pomades; Hair oils; Huiles
 antiques; Vaseline oil for hair oils; Treatment of oils
 with benzoin                                                    300

 Preparation of huiles antiques; Huile antique à la rose;
 Huile antique au jasmin; Alpine herb oil; Flower hair
 oil; Peruvian bark hair oil                                     301

 Peru hair oil; Burdock root hair oils; Macassar hair oils;
 Neroli hair oil; Mignonette hair oils; Fine hair oil            302

 Cheap hair oil (red or yellow); Portugal hair oil; Jasmine
 hair oil; Vaseline hair oils; Vanilla hair oil; Ylang-ylang
 hair oil; Philocome hair oil                                    303

 Sultana hair oil; Rose hair oil; Tonka hair oil; Violet hair
 oil; Victoria hair oil; Cheap hair oils; Bandolines and
 their preparation                                               304

 Rose bandoline; Almond bandoline; Brilliantine                  305

 Flower brilliantine No. 1; Brilliantine No. 2                   306

 Brilliantine No. 3; Various formulas for brilliantine           307

 Hair tonics; Eau Athénienne; Florida water                      308

 Eau de Cologne hair tonic; Eau de quinine                       309

 Eau de quinine (imitation); Honey water; Glycerin hair
 tonic; Eau lustral (hair restorative); Tea hair tonic           310

 Locock's lotion for the hair; Shampoo lotion; Shampoo
 liquid                                                          311

 Dandruff cures; Dandruff lotion; Bay rum                        312

 Directions for preparing bay rum                                313

 Hair dyes; Requirements of a good hair dye; Gradual darkening
 of the hair; Use of dilute acids for making the hair lighter    314

 Use of lead salts, nitrate of silver, and copper salts for
 dyeing the hair                                                 315

 Iron salts for dying the hair; Rastikopetra, a Turkish hair
 dye; Use of potassium permanganate and pyrogallic acid
 for dyeing the hair                                             316

 Kohol, an Egyptian hair dye; The use of henna as a hair
 dye; Process of coloring hair, dyed red with henna, black       317

 Use of the juice of green walnut shells for coloring the hair;
 Bleaching the hair with peroxide of hydrogen; Formulæ
 for hair dyes                                                   318

 Single hair dyes; Teinture Orientale (Karsi); Teinture
 Chinoise (Kohol)                                                319

 Potassium permanganate hair dye; Bismuth hair dye; Walnut
 hair dye; Pyrogallic hair stain                                 320

 Double hair dyes; For dyeing brown; For dyeing black;
 Tannin hair dye                                                 321

 Melanogène; Eau d'Afrique; Krinochrom; Copper hair
 dye; Depilatories; Rhusma                                       322

 Boettger's depilatory; Bartholow's depilatory                   323

 CHAPTER XIII.

 COSMETICS.

 Skin cosmetics; Toilet vinegars; Vinaigre de Bully; Vinaigre
 de toilette à la rose; Vinaigre de toilette à la violette       324

 Vinaigre de toilette héliotrope; Vinaigre de toilette orange;
 Vinaigre de toilette; Aromatic vinegar; English aromatic
 vinegar                                                         325

 Toilet vinegar; Washes; Virginal milk (Lait virginal);
 Rose milk (Lait de rose)                                        326

 Almond milk (Lait d'amandes amères)                             327

 Lily milk (Lait de lys); Perfumed glycerin with rose odor;
 Perfumed glycerin with fruit odor; Perfumed meals and
 pastes; Farin de noisette (nut meal)                            328

 Farin d'amandes amères (almond meal); Pate d'amandes
 au miel (honey almond paste); Poudre de riz à la rose           329

 Poudre de riz héliotrope; Poudre de riz orange; Poudre de
 riz muguet                                                      330

 Poudre de riz ixora; Poudre de riz bouquet; Cold creams
 and lip salves; Cold cream; Vaseline cold cream                 331

 Glycerin cream; Crême de concombre; Glycerin gelée;
 Glycerin jelly                                                  332

 Cream of roses; Boroglycerin cream; Recamier cream;
 Preparations for chapped hands                                  333

 Wash for the hands; Nail powder; Lip-salves                     334

 Paints; Pulverulent paints (powders); "Blanc fard" or
 "Blanc français"                                                335

 Mixtures for powders; Coloring substances for powders;
 Powder for coloring intensely red; Solid paints; Ordinary
 red paint (rouge)                                               336

 Fine red paint (rouge); White paint; Preparation of paints      337

 Red stick-paint (stick rouge); Moulding the rouge into sticks   339

 White stick-paint; Rouge en feuilles; Liquid paints; Liquid
 rouge                                                           340

 White liquid paint; Fat paints                                  341

 Crême de Lys; Crême de rose                                     342

 INDEX                                                           343



 A PRACTICAL TREATISE

 ON THE

 MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMERY.



CHAPTER I.

HISTORICAL NOTICE OF PERFUMERY.


Nature has implanted in man the instinct of finding the odor
accompanying decay and putrefaction insufferable, of fleeing from it,
and of going in quest of fragrant odors. Hence, in ancient times,
perfume substances were highly esteemed, and an offering of them was
considered a sign of the most profound reverence and homage. The early
nations of the Orient especially used perfume substances in such
profusion that the consumption of them by the finest lady of to-day
must be called a comparatively moderate one. This may, however, be
readily explained, for, on the one hand, the majority of plants which
produce the most agreeable perfumes in larger quantity are indigenous
to the Orient; and, on the other, the excessive exhalations from the
human body, caused by the hot climate, forced the people to search for
means to remove, or at least to cover, the disagreeable odor arising
therefrom.

Since fragrant odors were agreeable to human beings, it was believed
that they must be welcome also to the gods, and, to honor them, perfume
substances were burned upon the altars. Besides, as an offering to
the gods, perfume substances were extensively used by many nations,
especially by the Egyptians, for embalming the dead, the process
employed by the latter having been transmitted to us by the ancient
authors Herodotus and Diodorus.

Furthermore, a desire for ornamentation and to give to the face and
body as pleasing an appearance as possible, is common to all mankind.
To be sure, the ideas of what constitutes beauty in this respect
have varied at different times and among the various nations. But,
independent of the savage races, who consider painting and tattooing
the body and face an embellishment, and taking into consideration only
the earliest civilized nations, it is astonishing how many arts of the
toilet have been preserved from the most ancient historical times up
to the present. "In the most ancient historical times, people perfumed
and painted, frizzed, curled, and dyed the hair as at present, and, in
fact, the same cosmetics, only slightly augmented, which were in use
hundreds, nay, thousands, of years ago are still employed to-day."[1]
It is especially woman, who everywhere exercises the arts of the
toilet, while, with the exception of perfumes and agents for the hair,
man is but seldom referred to as making use of cosmetics. The young
girls of ancient Egypt used red and white paints, colored their pale
lips, and anointed their hair with sweet-scented oils; they dyed their
eyelashes and eyelids black to impart a brighter lustre to the glance
of the eye, and the mother of the wife of the first king of Egypt is
said to have already composed a receipt for a hair-dye.

 [1] Paschkis, Kosmetik für Aerzte. Wien, 1890.

From the Egyptians, the practices of the toilet, like many other
things, were transmitted to the Jews. In Egypt, the Hebrew woman had
known the sweet-scented flower of the henna bush, and, finding it also
in Judea, it served her as a perfume. In the Bible the henna flower is
called _kopher_, in Greek _kypros_, and the Cyprian salve, mentioned by
Pliny, was prepared by boiling henna flowers in oil and then expressing
them.

Painting the face was also practised by the Hebrew women, reference
being made to it in II. Kings ix. 30, and Jeremiah v. 30, while
painting of the eyes is mentioned in Ezekiel xxiii. 40.

The number of perfume substances known to the ancient Hebrews was but a
limited one, they consisting, besides the above-mentioned henna flower,
chiefly of a few gum-resins, especially bdellium, olibanum and myrrh.

In ancient times olibanum was, without doubt, the most important
perfume-substance. It was introduced into commerce by the Phoenicians,
and, like many other substances, it received from them its name,
which was adopted by other nations. Thus, the Hebrews called the tree
_lebonah_, the Arabs, _lubah_, while the Greeks named it, λιβανός
and the resin derived from it, the celebrated frankincense of the
ancients, λιβανωτόςτς, Latin, _olibanum_. Regarding the mode of gaining
the olibanum, some curious ideas prevailed in ancient times. Thus,
Herodotus writes: "Arabia is the only country in which olibanum grows,
as well as myrrh, cassia, cinnamon and lederum. With the exception
of myrrh, the Arabs encounter many difficulties in procuring these
products. Olibanum they obtain by burning styrax, for every olibanum
tree is guarded by a number of small-sized winged serpents of a
variegated appearance, which can be driven away by nothing but styrax
vapors." According to Pliny, who gives a very full account of olibanum,
_Arabia felix_ received its by-name from the abundance of olibanum and
myrrh found there. He states that olibanum grows in no other country
besides Arabia, but it is not found in every part of it. About in the
centre, upon a high mountain, he continues, is the country of the
Atramites, a province of the Sabeans, from which the olibanum region is
distant about eight days' journey. It is called Saba and is everywhere
rendered inaccessible by mountains, a narrow defile, through which the
export is carried on, leading into an adjoining province inhabited by
the Mineans. In Saba itself were not more than 300 families, called the
saints, who claimed the cultivation of olibanum as a right of heritage.
When making the incisions in the trees, and while gathering the
olibanum, the men were prohibited from having intercourse with women
and from attending funerals. Notwithstanding the fact that the Romans
carried on war in Arabia, none of them had ever seen an olibanum tree.
When there was less chance of selling the olibanum, it was gathered but
once in the year, but since the increase in the demand, it was gathered
twice, first in the fall and again in the spring, the incisions in
the trees having been made during the winter. The collected olibanum
was brought upon camels to Sabota, where one gate was open for its
reception; to turn from the road was prohibited under penalty of death.
The priests took one-tenth by measure for the god Sabin, sales not
being allowed until their claim was satisfied. The olibanum could be
exported only through the territory of the Gebanites, whose King also
levied tribute.

Pliny further states that the Arabs did not steal one from another, but
for fear of loss those employed in the stores of Alexandria were forced
to go naked with the exception of a clout which was sealed. A mask and
a thick net were thrown over the head.

To us the practice of anointing the entire body, customary among the
ancients, appears very singular. Old Egyptian sculptures represent
the guests being anointed at the meal. Among the Jews we find a holy
oil with which Aaron and his sons were anointed to consecrate them to
the priesthood, Moses prescribing for this holy anointing oil, myrrh,
cinnamon, calamus, and oil from the olive tree. Other persons were
prohibited from imitating or using this holy oil. The anointing of
kings was introduced later on. Though it was prohibited to imitate and
use the holy oil, this prohibition did not refer to anointing with oil
in general.

That the Greeks also set a high value upon anointing with oil is
plainly seen from Homer. When Telemachus visited Nestor, Polycaste,
Nestor's youngest daughter, bathed him and anointed him with oil, and
when he was the guest of Menelaus, the maids of the latter performed
the same service for him, while for Ulysses returning as a beggar, the
aged Euryclea prepared a foot-bath and anointed him.

By the addition of fragrant substances to the oil, the sweet-scented
ointment, _myron_, originated. While the anointing with simple oil
evidently served as a hygienic measure after the bath, and especially
for men in the gymnasium, and before a combat, with the Greeks,
ointments were an article of luxury. In Socrates' time the use of
sweet-scented ointments had reached such an extent, that Xenophon
caused him to speak against it, but, as is the case with all such
lectures against fashion, without the slightest success. In Athens the
luxury was carried so far that the bacchanalians anointed each part of
their body with a special ointment. The oil extracted from the palm
was thought best adapted to the cheeks and the breasts; the arms were
refreshed with balsam-mint; sweet marjoram supplied an oil for the
hair and eyebrows; and wild thyme for the knee and neck. Although to
us it would be repugnant to have the entire body anointed, in Athens
it was considered beautiful to be glossy with ointments. It is said of
Demetrius Phalereus, that in order to appear more captivating, he dyed
his hair yellow, and anointed the face and the rest of his body.

From the Asiatics and Greeks the Romans also learned the use of
ointments. Pliny cannot say at what time they were introduced in Rome,
but states that after the conquest of Asia and the defeat of the King,
Antiochus, in the year 565, after the building of Rome, the censors
issued an edict prohibiting the sale of foreign ointments. However,
this edict was of no use, and the practice spread more and more,
Pliny speaking very bitterly about it. Regarding this extravagance
in ointments, Plutarch says: "Frankincense, cinnamon, spikenard, and
Arabian calamus are mixed together with the most careful art and sold
for large sums. It is an effeminate pleasure and has spoiled not only
the women but also the men, who will not sleep even with their own
wives if they do not smell of ointments and powders." Plutarch further
mentions an incident which must have created a sensation even in
luxurious Rome, as otherwise it would scarcely have been chronicled for
the benefit of posterity. Nero one day anointed himself with costly
ointments and scattered some of them over Otho. The next day Otho gave
Nero a banquet, and laid in all directions gold and silver tubes, which
poured forth expensive ointments like water, thoroughly saturating the
guests.

Directions for preparing ointments are contained in Theophrastus's
work "On Perfumes," in Dioscorides's "Medica materia," and Pliny's
"Historia naturalis." Dioscorides's receipts are the fullest. According
to Pliny, a distinction was made between the juice and the body, the
latter consisting of the fat oils and the former of the sweet-scented
substances. In preparing the ointments, the oil together with the
perfuming substances were heated in the water-bath. For instance,
rose ointment was, according to Dioscorides, prepared by mixing 5½
lbs. of bruised _Andropogon Schœnanthus_ with a little water, then
adding 20½ lbs. of oil and heating. After heating the oil was filtered
off, and the petals of one thousand roses were thrown into the oil,
the hands with which the rose leaves were pressed into the oil being
previously coated with honey. When the whole had stood for one night,
the oil was strained off and when all impurities had settled, it was
brought into another vessel and fresh rose leaves introduced, the
operation being several times repeated. However, according to the
opinion of the ancient ointment makers, no more odor was absorbed by
the oil after the seventh introduction of rose leaves. To fix the odor,
resins or gums were added to the ointments.

A process of distilling volatile oils was also known, the
odoriferous matter being caught by spreading wool over the heated
perfume-substances. The wool was afterwards subjected to pressure. This
process, of course, involved great loss and was available only for
substances containing much volatile oil.

Dioscorides also gives directions for making animal fats suitable for
the reception of perfumes. Beef-tallow, deer-fat, or the marrow of
animals was freed from all membranes, melted together with a little
salt in an entirely new vessel, and then poured into clean water, where
it was washed by rubbing with the hands, the water being frequently
renewed. Then it was boiled with equal parts of sweet-scented wine,
and after taking it from the fire it was allowed to stand over night.
The next day the cold fat was again boiled in a new vessel, with
sweet-scented wine, this operation being repeated until the fat had
lost every trace of disagreeable odor, when it was brought in contact
with the perfumes.

The consumption of perfume-substances by the ancient Romans must have
been enormous. The trade of the ointment makers (_ungentarii_) was so
extensive that the large street _Seplasia_ in old Capua was entirely
taken up by it, and the business must have paid well since the prices
realized were very high. However, in ancient times the business cannot
have been very agreeable, at least not in Greece, as shown by a passage
in Plutarch's Life of Pericles: "We take pleasure in ointments and
purple, but consider the dyers and ointment makers bondsmen and
mechanics."

Red and white paints, in the form of powder as well as of paste, were
extensively used by the Roman ladies. Chalk and white lead served for
white paint, and minium and carmine for red. Lovers preferred white
paints, a pale color being more becoming to them:--

    "Palleat omnis amans; hic est
      color aptus amanti."--(_Ovid._)

For black paints for the eyebrows roasted ant eggs or soot were used.

The Roman ladies paid as much attention to their natural, and also
false, hair as the fair ones of to-day. They curled their hair with
heated iron instruments, and perfumed them with fragrant oil. If from
age, sorrow, or other reasons, the hair was no longer black, it was
dyed, and it seems that a considerable number of hair-dyes were known
in Rome, amongst them some which are still employed to-day, such as
green nutshells and acetate of lead.

After the Romans had seen the blonde German maidens, blonde and red
hair became the fashion. To dye the hair blonde sharp alkaline soaps
were chiefly used. However, this or some other hair-dye seems to have
been very injurious, as it caused the hair to come out. The satirists
ridiculed this as well as the wigs, which were worn by men and women to
hide baldness, or on account of the color which could not be attained
by dyes.

Depilatories were also known to the Romans, the agents employed being
called _psilothrum_ and _dropax_. They were of vegetable origin, but
it is not exactly known from which plants they were derived.

For cleaning the teeth the Roman ladies used a dentifrice which does
not seem very inviting to us. It consisted of a urine imported from
Spain (_dens hiberna defricatus urina_). To perfume the breath or to
hide its bad odor, mouth-washes, perfumed with saffron, roses, etc.,
were used, or myrrh, mastic from Chios or perfumed pastilles were
chewed.

We know but little regarding the use of perfumeries and cosmetics in
the Middle Ages. In the wars during the migrations of the nations,
but little thought was very likely given to them, but as soon as the
nations became again settled and made sufficient progress in culture,
the taste for perfumes and other pleasures of life no doubt returned.
Our knowledge in this respect is limited to what is contained in the
works of physicians of the first centuries. Later on we find receipts
for cosmetics in the writings of Arabian physicians, such as Rhazes
(end of the 9th to the commencement of the 10th century), Avicenna
(end of the 10th to the commencement of the 11th century), and Mesuë
(11th century). To the 11th century also belong the works of the
celebrated Trotula, "_De mulierum passionibus_," "_Practica Trotulae
mulieris Salernitanae de curis mulierum_," and "_Trotula in utilitatem
mulierum_," all of which contain receipts for cosmetics. In the
14th century the most celebrated surgeon of the Middle Ages, Guy de
Chanlios, did not consider it beneath his dignity to devote a section
of his "Grande Chirurgie" to cosmetics. However, it was only in the
16th century that perfumes and cosmetics came again into prominent
notice in Italy, which at that time was the country of luxury and art.
Giovanni Marinello,[2] a physician, in 1562 wrote a work on "Cosmetics
for Ladies," which he dedicated to the ladies Victoria and Isabella
Palavicini. In the preface the author expresses the opinion that it
is only right and pleasing to God to place the gifts bestowed by him
in a proper light and to heighten them. He then proceeds to give
perfumes for various purposes, aromatic baths to keep the skin young
and fresh, means for increasing the stoutness of the entire body and
of separate limbs, and others for reducing them. He further recommends
certain remedies for making large eyes small, and small ones large.
The chapter on the hair is very fully treated. To prevent the hair
from coming out, rubbing with oil, and then washing with sorrel and
myrobalan is recommended. For promoting the growth of the hair, the
use of dried frogs, lizards, etc., rubbed to a powder, is prescribed.
Means for making the hair long and soft and curly are also given, and
others recommended for eyebrows and eyelashes. As depilatories lime
and orpiment are prescribed. Paints are also classed among general
cosmetics. Their use became at this time more and more fashionable, and
not only the face, but also the breast and neck were painted.

 [2] Gli ornamenti delle donne, tratti dalle seriture d'una Reina
 greca, par M. Giovanni Marinello in Venetia.

Catherine of Medici and Margaret of Valois introduced these arts
of the toilet into France. That country soon became the leader in
this respect, and for many years the greatest luxury in perfumes
and cosmetics prevailed there. The golden age for these articles
lasted from the commencement of the seventeenth to the middle of
the eighteenth century, during which time the _mouche_ or beauty
patch also flourished. "There were at that time hundreds of pastes,
essences, cosmetics, a white balsam, a water to make the face red,
another to make a coarse complexion delicate, one to preserve the fine
complexion of lean persons and again one to make the face like that
of a twenty-year old girl, an _Eau pour nourir et laver les teints
corrodés_ and _Eau de chair admirable pour teints jaunes et bilieux_,
_etc._ Then there were _Mouchoirs de Venus_, further bands impregnated
with wax to cleanse and smooth the forehead; gold leaf was even heated
in a lemon over a fire in order to obtain a means which should impart
to the face a supernatural brightness. For the hair, teeth and nails
there were innumerable receipts, ointments, etc. However, of special
importance were the paints, chemical white, blue for the veins, but,
chief of all, the red or rouge, mineral, vegetable, or cochineal. The
application of rouge was at that time no small affair, it was not only
to be rouged, but the rouge had also to express something--_Le grand
point est d'avoir un rouge qui dise quelque chose_. The rouge had to
characterize its wearer; a lady of rank did not wear the rouge like a
lady of the court, and the rouge of the wife of the bourgeois was not
like either of them nor like that of the courtesan. At court a more
intense rouge was worn, the intensity of which was still increased on
the day of presentation, it being then _Rouge d'Espagne_ and _Rouge
de Portugal en tasse_. It may seem incredible, but for eight days a
violet paint was used and then for a change _Rouge de Serkis_. Ladies,
when retiring for the night applied a light rouge (_un demi rouge_),
and even small girls wore rouge, such being the decree of fashion. The
ladies dyed their eyebrows and eyelashes, and powdered their hair, both
natural and false, for, about 1750, they commenced wearing wigs and
chignons. Powdering was done partially for the purpose of dying the
hair after dressing, and partially for decoration; white, gray, red and
fiery red powders were in vogue."

To that time fashion also ordained an ever-varying routine in the
employment of perfumes; so that the royal apartments were one day
fragrant with the scent of the tuberose and the next with that of amber
and cloves; and so on consecutively, each succeeding day bringing a
change of the reigning odor. In that luxurious age the personal use of
perfumes was not confined to the fair sex, but the effeminate gallants
of the day gloried in perfuming themselves with the favorite scents of
their mistresses or of prominent belles; so that the allegiance was
recognized, not as in more chivalrous times by the knight wearing the
colors of the fair one who had enslaved him, but by his smelling of the
particular odor which she had consecrated to herself.

Philip Augustus, in 1190, granted a charter to the French perfumers,
who had formed a guild. This charter was, in 1357, confirmed by
John, and in 1582 by Henry III., and remained in force until 1636.
The importance of the craft in France is shown by the fact that
under Colbert the perfumers or "_parfumeurs-gantiers_," as they were
called, were granted patents which were registered in Parliament.
In the seventeenth century Montpellier was the chief seat of the
French perfumery industry; to-day it is Paris, and over fifty
millions of francs' worth of perfumery are annually sold there. The
_parfumeurs-gantiers_ had the privilege of selling gloves of all
possible kinds of material, as well as the leather required for them;
they had the further privilege of perfuming gloves and selling all
kinds of perfumes. Perfumed leather for gloves, purses, etc., was at
that time imported from Spain. This leather was very expensive and
fashionable, but on account of its penetrating odor its use for gloves
was finally abandoned.

In England perfumes were not in general use before the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, when they soon became fashionable. Elizabeth had
an especially finely developed sense of smell and nothing was more
repugnant to her than a disagreeable odor. She had a cloak of perfumed
Spanish leather, and even her shoes were perfumed. Perfumed gloves were
also fashionable. The city soon imitated the practices of the court,
and that an extravagant use was made of perfumeries and cosmetics is
plainly seen from the works of the authors of that time, as well as
from an act of Parliament passed in 1770. By the latter it is ordained
that any woman, no matter of what age or rank, be she maid or widow,
who deceives a man and inveigles him into matrimony by the use of
perfumeries, false hair, _Crépons d'Espagne_ (a paint), corsets, hooped
petticoats, shoes with high heels, and false hips, shall suffer the
penalty of the law for procuring, and the marriage shall be null and
void.



CHAPTER II.

THE PERFUME-MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMERY.


Most of the perfume-materials employed by the perfumer are derived from
the vegetable kingdom; a few are of animal origin, whilst some are
artificially prepared.

Of animal substances only four are used, namely: _musk_, _castor_
or _castoreum_, _civet_, and _ambergris_; the separation of their
characteristic odoriferous substances has, however, not yet been
accomplished. The odor of plants is generally due to volatile
substances called _volatile_ or _essential oils_. Their occurrence is
not limited to special parts, they being found in the flower, seed,
wood, bast, bark, leaves, and root. However, in every plant the oil
occurs chiefly in certain organs, and it even happens that the oil
differs with the part of the plant whence it is derived. The odors
exist already formed in the living plant, or else are generated, as in
the instance of bitter almonds, by some reaction between the elements
which takes place during fermentation or distillation.

From the strength of the odor of a plant no conclusion can be drawn as
to the quantity of volatile oil present. If this were the case, the
hyacinth, for instance, would contain more oil than the coniferae,
whilst in fact it contains so little that it can be separated only
with the greatest difficulty. The odor does not depend on the quantity,
but on the quality of the oil; a plant may diffuse but little odor and
still contain much volatile oil. Of the various families of plants, the
_labiatae_, _umbelliferae_, and _coniferae_ are richest in volatile
oils.

In every climate plants diffuse odor, those growing in tropical
latitudes being more prolific in this respect than the plants of colder
regions, which, however, yield the most delicate perfume. Although
the East Indies, Ceylon, Peru, and Mexico afford some of the choicest
perfumes, Central Europe is the actual flower garden of the perfumer,
Grasse, Cannes, and Nice being the principal places for the production
of perfume-materials. Thanks to the geographical position of these
places, the cultivator, within a comparatively narrow space, has at his
disposal various climates suitable for the most perfect development
of the plants. The _Acacia Farnesiana_ grows on the seashore, without
having to fear frost, which in one night might destroy the entire crop,
while at the foot of the Alps, on Mount Esteral, the violet diffuses a
much sweeter odor than in the hotter regions, where the olive and the
tuberose reach perfect bloom. England asserts its superiority in oils
of lavender and peppermint. The volatile oils obtained from plants
cultivated in Mitcham and Hitchin command a considerably higher price
than those from other localities, this preference being justified only
by the delicacy of their perfume. Cannes is best suited for roses,
acacias, jasmine, and neroli, while in Nimes, thyme, rosemary, and
lavender are chiefly cultivated. Nice is celebrated for its violets,
while Sicily furnishes the lemon and orange, and Italy the iris and
bergamotte.

The odors exhaled by our own domestic plants have been but little
studied, but the southern as well as many northern districts of the
United States are well adapted for the cultivation of quite a number
of species of plants which might be made to yield highly valuable
articles of commerce. Among the plants which might furnish oils for the
perfumer's use are, for instance, the wall flower, the Lilly, lilac and
mignonette.


VOLATILE OILS.--The volatile oils are either fluid (actual volatile
oils) or solid (varieties of camphor) or solutions of solid
combinations in fluid. The latter, on exposure to low temperatures,
separate into two portions, one solid, called _stearoptene_, and the
other liquid, called _elæoptene_. The boiling point of the volatile
oils is considerably higher than that of water, but when heated with
water they pass over with the vapors. Upon paper, fluid volatile oils
produce grease spots, which differ, however, from those caused by fat
oils in that they gradually disappear at an ordinary temperature,
and rapidly by gentle heating. Most volatile oils are insoluble, or
only with difficulty and sparingly soluble, in water, but they impart
to the latter their odor and taste. They are readily soluble in
alcohol, ether, chloroform, bisulphide of carbon and petroleum-ether,
and miscible in every proportion with fats and fat oils. By their
solubility in alcohol they differ from most fat oils. When freshly
prepared many volatile oils are colorless, but soon turn yellow;
some, however, show a distinct color even when fresh. They ignite
with greater ease than fat oils and burn with a fierce smoky flame
depositing a large amount of carbon. They exhibit a great tendency to
absorb oxygen from the air and to gum, the influence of light promoting
the process. In specific gravity they range from about 0.75 to 1.17,
most of them being specifically lighter than water. Most bodies, under
otherwise equal conditions, show always exactly the same specific
gravity, the variations being so slight that they may be justly
ascribed to errors of observation. However, one and the same volatile
oil frequently shows such variations in specific gravity, that we are
forced to ascribe this phenomenon to alterations in the constitution
of the oil itself. For the exact determination of the specific gravity
of a volatile oil, it should, therefore, be subjected to examination
immediately after its preparation from the plant or vegetable
substance, which should be as fresh as possible. The influence of
light upon volatile oils is best shown by the following interesting
experiment: If certain volatile oils are distilled in a vacuum or over
burnt lime in a current of carbonic acid, it is no longer possible
to distinguish, for instance, oil of lemon from oil of turpentine;
however, by again exposing the oils to the air, they reacquire their
characteristic odor.

According to their elementary composition the volatile oils may be
divided into three principal divisions:--

1. Volatile oils free from oxygen, terpene (camphene), or hydrocarbons.

2. Oxygenated volatile oils.

3. Volatile oils containing sulphur.

On account of the facility with which most of the volatile oils absorb
oxygen, oils originally free from oxygen are frequently a mixture of
hydrocarbons and combinations containing oxygen. The volatile oils
varying so much in their physical as well as their chemical properties,
a suitable classification of them has thus far been unsuccessful.

Most of the volatile oils contain a liquid hydrocarbon, _terpene_,
which is characterized neither by special taste nor odor, nor is
the peculiarity of a volatile oil dependent on it. In the direct
distillation of a volatile oil, for instance, lemon oil, this
hydrocarbon (citrene), passes first over and can, therefore, be readily
separated from the constituents on which depend the peculiarity
of lemon oil, and which distil over at a higher temperature. The
specific character of an oil is generally due to the portion of the
oil containing oxygen. Hence, manufacturers have endeavored to free
several of the volatile oils, used for perfumery and the preparation of
food, from the worthless terpene and at the same time to obtain them
in a concentrated form. Carvol is, for instance, caraway oil freed
from carvene (terpene). These concentrated oils are not only purer and
more agreeable in odor and taste and more readily soluble in dilute
alcohol, but, being more concentrated, an equal volume of them goes
much further than ordinary volatile oil. In the price lists these oils
are designated as _extra strong_, _patented_, _concentrated_, _highly
concentrated oils_ or _essences_.

All the terpenes occurring in the various oils are combinations
having the formula C_{10}H_{16}, or polymeric with it, C_{15}H_{24},
C_{20}H_{32}, etc. These terpenes exhibiting certain deviations in
regard to their properties, odor, specific gravity, and boiling
points, nearly as many terpenes as there are volatile oils have been
distinguished. It is, however, very likely that these deviations
may be traced back to fortuitous circumstances, for example, to
the admixture of foreign substances occurring together with the
terpenes, and that, by a more accurate examination, the number of
terpenes entitled to be considered pure chemical combinations will be
considerably reduced. By Wallach's labors, the identity of several
terpenes formerly considered distinct, has already been established,
whilst many others have been found to possess properties in common.

According to the nature and quantity of the odoriferous substances
contained in the plants, various methods, namely, _expression_,
_distillation_, _extraction_, _maceration_, and _absorption_, are
employed for the purpose of obtaining them.

_Expression._--This is only practicable when the substances are
especially rich in oil and of sufficient softness, as in the case with
the peel of the orange, citron, lemon, etc. In such instances the
material is simply placed in a linen cloth and subjected to a strong
pressure until it ceases to yield oil. The press may be of any size
according to the quantity to be expressed. For small quantities it
generally consists of an iron vessel, having a small opening at the
bottom so that the oil may flow out. The material is placed upon a
perforated bottom inside of the vessel and covered with a well-fitting
iron plate, that can be pressed down by means of a screw. Though the
material is fairly exhausted by such a press, for large operations it
is advisable to make use of a hydraulic press, which is constructed and
managed in exactly the same manner as those used for the expression of
fixed oils.

By expression a turbid milky fluid is obtained, which consists of
the volatile oil and aqueous substances. The latter are a solution of
various extractive substances and salts in water. This fluid, as it
runs from the press, is received in tall, narrow, glass vessels and
brought into a cool place for clarification. This frequently requires
several days, three distinct layers being generally distinguished. On
the bottom is a mucous layer consisting of cell substances carried
along by the liquid bodies. Over this is a clear fluid consisting
of a solution of extractive substances, vegetable albumen, and
salts, and upon this floats the volatile oil, being specifically the
lightest body, which, by its greater refractive power, can be clearly
distinguished from the aqueous fluid.

The oil is separated by bringing all that has been expressed into a
bottle provided near the bottom with a lateral neck closed by a cock.
After separating the oil from the aqueous fluid, the latter is allowed
to escape by opening the cock.

The oil obtained in this manner is still impure, and requires further
treatment to remove small vegetable fibres, invisible to the naked eye,
which float in them, and cause them to be somewhat opaque and slightly
opalescent. By their subsequent decomposition they would also give the
oil a disagreeable odor.

There are two methods of obtaining the oil entirely clear, viz.,
filtration and distillation. Filtration is the cheaper process, but
requires special precautions to exclude the air as much as possible to
prevent the oil from undergoing injurious changes. By arranging the
filtering apparatus so that the oil always comes in contact with only
the same quantity of air, the injurious action of the oxygen is reduced
to a minimum. It is self-evident that the apparatus should not be
placed in the sun, but in a semi-dark, cool place.

 [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

A filter of simple construction, and performing excellent service, is
shown in Fig. 1. It consists of a large glass bottle, _F_, hermetically
closed by a doubly-perforated cork. The neck of the glass funnel _T_,
the upper rim of which is ground smooth, is placed in one of the holes,
and a glass tube, _r_, bent at a right angle, is fitted into the second
hole. A thick wooden lid, with a rubber ring on the lower side, is
placed upon the funnel, thus closing it air-tight. In the centre of the
lid is fitted a glass tube, _r´_, also bent at a right angle, which is
connected with the tube _r_, by a rubber hose, _k_. After the funnel
has been provided with filtering paper and the oil to be filtered, the
lid is placed upon it, and must not be removed, except for the purpose
of pouring more oil into the funnel. The air in the bottle _F_ is
displaced by the oil dropping into it, and escapes through _r_, _k_ and
_r´_ into the funnel, and thus only the air in the bottle and funnel
can act upon the oil.

The other method for the complete purification of expressed oil is
by rectification or distillation with water. For this purpose the
oil, together with a little water, is brought into one of the stills
described later on, and the oil distilled over. It is sometimes
difficult to obtain the last portion of the oil, especially with a
still heated by direct fire, and it is therefore preferable to combine
it with a fresh quantity of the same oil to be distilled.

_Distillation._--There are at present two methods in use. The one is
founded upon the direct action of the heat, the other upon the use
of steam. The first was formerly in general practice, and is still
largely employed in France and England, and to a limited extent in
this country. It is, however, very deficient in many respects. As the
stills must necessarily be of small capacity, only small quantities
can be distilled at one time, and the oils very rarely possess the
peculiar odor due to them, and sometimes the odor is even altered.
In mixing too little water with the materials to be extracted, there
is danger that empyreumatic oils will be formed; a large quantity of
water, on the other hand, is of disadvantage, in so far as in case
the perfume-materials contain little oil, only a perfumed water, but
no oil, will be obtained. In order to avoid these inconveniences, or,
at least, to do away with some of them, another plan was devised. The
materials to be distilled were spread upon sieves, which were suspended
in the upper part of a still, so that they might be penetrated from
below. It is true no scorching is possible in this case, as was in the
other process when the heating was continued after all the water had
evaporated, and the oil retains its proper color, but by this method
only small quantities can be extracted at a time. The still generally
used for distillation with direct heat resembles so much an ordinary
whiskey still as to need no further description here.

 [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

For the accurate determination of the percentage of volatile oil a
vegetable substance will yield, or to obtain the oil from very costly
raw materials, the small glass apparatus, Fig. 2, is used. The flask
_A_, with a capacity of up to 5 or 6 quarts, serves for a still. In
the tube _t_, shaped like the neck of a bottle, is inserted by means
of a cork, a funnel tube, _l_, reaching to the bottom of the flask.
The neck of the flask passes into the cooling pipe, which lies in a
so-called Liebig cooler. This consists of a wide-glass tube, _C_, into
the lower end of which, at _h_, flows cold water from the reservoir
_D_, displacing the heated water at _g_. The lower end of the cooling
pipe is connected with the neck-shaped tube _v_, under which stands the
vessel for the reception of the distillate. To prevent the cracking of
the flask, which might readily happen with the use of direct heat, it
is placed in a vessel filled with sand or water.

 [Illustration: FIG. 3.]

A very good small apparatus for the distillation of volatile oil is
shown in Fig. 3. It is known as a siphon still. It consists of a
double-walled boiler, surmounted by a still-head, which is provided
with a mechanism for keeping the contents of the boiler in motion. This
stirring apparatus consists of a perpendicular shaft, bearing a frame
work of iron, curved so as to correspond to the interior shape of the
still, and on the outside carrying a chain which scrapes over the inner
surface of the still while the stirrer is being turned. This may be
done either by hand or by steam. The still having been charged with
the material to be extracted, is filled up with water to within a few
inches of the top of the body of the still, and the latter is heated by
admitting steam. The vapors arising are conducted to a cooler situated
at a higher level than the still itself, and the condensed liquid
is collected in a receiver, where the oil and water separate. This
receiver is provided with two faucets, one near the top and the other
near the bottom. If the oil passing over is heavier than water, the
excess of the latter is removed by the upper faucet; if the oil swims
on the water, the lower faucet is regulated so as to allow the water
to escape in about the same ratio as it enters the receiver. In either
case the condensed water is made to run back into the still, and the
loss of oil is, therefore, greatly reduced.

Sometimes a single-walled still is used, and distillation carried on
with direct steam. This method is, however, not suitable where the
presence of water is necessary, for instance, in the production of oil
of bitter almonds.

A simple way of converting an ordinary still into use with steam is
shown in Fig. 4. For the helmet of the still _A_ is substituted a
cylindrical vessel, _B_, with an opening in the bottom. The materials
to be distilled are brought into _B_, and rest upon a wire bottom
to prevent particles from falling into _A_. From the upper portion
of _B_ a pipe, _R_, leads to the condenser. As may be seen from the
illustration, the still _A_ serves only for the generation of steam.
The latter, in passing through _B_, heats the contents and absorbs the
liberated oil, the combined vapors passing into the condenser.

 [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

This simple modification of the ordinary still affords some advantage,
the principal being the avoidance of the condensation of a large
quantity of water. This in itself would not amount to much, but it has
to be taken into consideration that, though volatile oils are only very
sparingly soluble in water, they are nevertheless soluble in it to
such a degree as to impart to it their characteristic odor and taste.
Such aromatized water can be utilized in the manufacture of liqueurs
and perfumery, but to the manufacturer who restricts himself to the
production of volatile oils alone, this represents a loss, and it is
therefore necessary for him to condense as little water as possible.
And this object can only be attained by the use of direct steam.

A simple apparatus for the purpose is shown in Fig. 5. The still _b_,
provided with a helmet, rests free upon a suitable support. To prevent
cooling, it is surrounded with a wooden jacket, _M_. The material to be
extracted rests upon a perforated bottom, beneath which enters the pipe
_HD_, which conducts the steam from the boiler. For the more uniform
distribution of the steam, it is recommended to let this pipe end in
a perforated coil. The water condensed in the apparatus itself is
discharged through the short pipe _H_, placed in the lowest part of the
still.

 [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

An improved apparatus for distilling dry substances by steam has
been patented in Germany by Messrs. Schimmel & Co., of Leipzic. The
tall conical column at the left (Fig. 6) is the still. About eight
inches from the bottom is a perforated diaphragm or false bottom,
upon which the material to be distilled is placed by introducing it
through the still-head. A perforated coil below the diaphragm projects
steam upwards through the mass, which is occasionally agitated from
without by means of a horizontal stirring apparatus indicated by the
two crosses. Any condensed water which may run back is converted into
steam by the heating coil at the bottom. Meanwhile, the mass itself is
heated by a long coil lining the body of the still and carrying steam
at a high pressure. Whatever of volatile oil is carried forward by the
steam passes through the still-head into the cooler on the right, where
both oil and steam are condensed, and from where they flow through a
small funnel tube into three successive receivers, which are arranged
like Florentine flasks, and which retain the volatile oil that has
separated. From the last receiver the water, which is still impregnated
with oil, enters another reservoir, shown in the illustration only by
dots, and from there it flows into a small globular still situated
underneath; in which, by means of steam, nearly all the oil still
retained is again volatilized with the steam of the water and both
again conducted to the cooler.

 [Illustration: FIG. 6.]

Attempts have been made to effect the distillation of volatile
oils without the use of steam by means of hot air, but comparative
experiments have shown that less oil is obtained. With the use of
steam, the vegetable substances swell up by the absorption of water,
and thus afford a free passage to the oil, liberated from the sacs
containing it. With the use of hot air, on the other hand, the surface
of the plant is completely dried and shrivels to a hard solid mass,
which offers considerable resistance to the process of distillation.

This injurious effect of hot air can be somewhat overcome by thoroughly
moistening the plants to be distilled, and allowing the hot air,
before entering the still, to pass through a pipe filled with sponges
constantly kept wet. But this process offers no advantages over that by
steam. The apparatus required is far more complicated; and, besides,
a ventilator has to be provided for forcing the hot air through the
apparatus.

_Separation of the oil and water._--As previously mentioned the
specific gravity of most volatile oils is less than that of water. This
behavior is utilized for the separation of the oil and water, by means
of a so-called Florentine flask (Fig. 7). It consists of a glass flask
provided near the bottom with a pipe, _a_, rising vertically to near
the neck _c_ of the flask where it is bent downwards as shown in the
illustration. The mixed liquid of water and oil drips from the cooling
pipe into the flask, and the water _w_, being specifically heavier,
separates from the oil floating on the top, and gradually ascends in
the pipe _a_, finally flowing over at _d_. Oils specifically heavier
than water are caught in receivers provided with a discharge-pipe near
the mouth of the flask as shown in Fig. 8.

 [Illustration: FIG. 7.]

 [Illustration: FIG. 8.]

The oil delivered from the receivers is, however, still mixed with
some water, dirt, etc., and for their separation is allowed to stand
quietly for some time. The final separation is effected either by
simply pouring off the oil, especially if larger quantities have to be
handled, or with the assistance of a separator-funnel (Fig. 9). This
consists of the glass-funnel _T_ secured to the stand _G_, and provided
with a close-fitting lid, _P_. The fluid is poured into the funnel, the
lid placed in position, and the whole allowed to rest until the water
_W_ is completely separated from the oil _O_. The oil is then separated
from the last drops of water by carefully opening the faucet _H_.

Most volatile oils are obtained by distillation, but this method is
not practicable for separating the odoriferous principle of many of the
most sweet-scented and delicate flowers, partially because the flowers
contain too little oil, and partially because the oil would lose in
quality if obtained by distillation.

 [Illustration: FIG. 9.]

_Extraction._--For obtaining the volatile oils by extraction various
solvents such as ether, bisulphide of carbon, etc., may be employed.
Carefully rectified petroleum-ether is very suitable for the purpose.
It completely evaporates at about 122° F., and when sufficiently
purified does not possess a disagreeable odor. The process of
extraction is briefly as follows: The material to be extracted is
treated in a digester with petroleum-ether or one of the above-named
solvents. The solution is then drawn off and the solvent evaporated
in a still. The recondensed solvent flows immediately back into the
digester and further extracts the material contained therein. The
operation is repeated until nothing soluble remains. In practice some
difficulties are, however, connected with this process since, besides
the volatile oils, resins, and coloring and extractive substances are
dissolved, which have to be removed, as well as the last traces of the
solvent, as otherwise the oil would acquire a foreign odor. Further
the solvents mentioned are very volatile and inflammable, requiring
the greatest precautions as regards fire. For these reasons the
extraction process is not suitable for many purposes, and though at
first great hopes were entertained in regard to it, its use is limited
to substances with a large content of volatile oil.

 [Illustration: FIG. 10.]

For extraction on a small scale, the apparatus, Fig. 10, is a very
suitable one. It is especially adapted for manufacturers of perfumery,
who wish to extract fresh flowers. It consists of a cylindrical vessel,
_C_, of tin plate, provided on the bottom with the stop-cock _a_ and
the pipe _b_. The lid _D_ fits into a gutter, _R_, running around the
edge of _C_, and is hermetically closed by water in _R_. The cylinder
is filled with the vegetable substance to be extracted, and sufficient
petroleum-ether or bisulphide of carbon to cover it, poured in. The lid
is then adjusted, the gutter _R_ filled with water and the apparatus
allowed to stand quietly for forty minutes. To remove the fluid from
the cylinder, the faucet _o_ in the lid is first opened, and then the
stop-cock _a_; the fluid escapes at _b_, and is caught in a well-closed
vessel. The operation may be repeated once or twice, or the vegetable
substance is pressed out by means of a wooden plate, and the apparatus
filled anew. The faucet _h_ serves for emptying the gutter _R_.

 [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

Extraction being finished, the cock _o_ is opened, and then the cock
_a_, and the fluid allowed to run into the flask of the distilling
apparatus (Fig. 2). For working on a large scale, the flask is,
however, too small, and is suitably replaced by a bottle-shaped tin
vessel, _F_ (Fig. 11), the conical cover _D_ of which is secured by
means of the rubber ring _R_ and iron screw-clamps, _S_. A bent glass
tube fitted into the cover is connected with the cooling-pipe of the
apparatus shown in Fig. 2. But the oils prepared by extraction are not
sufficiently purified by mere rectification, as traces of the solvent
adhere tenaciously to them, which can only be removed by passing a
current of air through the oil. But contact with air has an injurious
effect upon the delicacy of the odor. For expensive oils a current of
air should therefore never be used, but one of pure carbonic acid.
Fig. 12 shows a suitable apparatus for the purpose. The large bottle
_A_, filled half full with pieces of white marble, is closed with
a doubly-perforated cork; through one of the holes is inserted a
funnel-tube, and through the other a short tube bent at a right angle.
The latter is connected with another tube which reaches to the bottom
of the vessel _B_, in which is also inserted a tube open in the bottom,
and a short tube bent at a right angle. Alongside _B_ stands another
vessel, _C_, arranged in the same manner. The tube leading from _C_ is
connected with a tin pipe, _D_, with a rose-like expansion on its lower
end. This pipe is inserted in the glass balloon containing the volatile
oil. Finally, a pipe leads to the flask _F_, filled with water.

 [Illustration: FIG. 12.]

To put the apparatus in operation, strongly diluted hydrochloric acid
is poured through the funnel-tube upon the pieces of marble in _A_,
which causes the development of a current of carbonic acid. But as the
latter carries along water and hydrochloric acid, it has to be freed
from them before coming in contact with the volatile oil. The vessels
_B_ and _C_ serve for the purpose. _B_ is half filled with water,
while _C_ contains strong sulphuric acid. In _B_ the hydrochloric acid
carried along with the current of carbonic acid is retained, while the
water is fixed on the sulphuric acid in _C_. The current of carbonic
acid passing out from _C_ is perfectly pure, and enters the volatile
oil through the fine perforations in the pipe _D_. It absorbs the
traces of solvent still adhering to the oil, and finally passes out
through the water in the bottle _F_.

Volatile oils obtained by extraction, and purified by a current of
carbonic acid, will keep for years without undergoing alteration, if
placed immediately in hermetically closed vessels and stored in a dark
place. Oils purified by a current of air always become somewhat thickly
fluid by storing, and partially lose their fine odor, which is due to
the oxygen absorbed during the process.

For the extraction of oil on a larger scale, the apparatus shown in
Fig. 13 is very suitable. It consists of two principal parts, the
actual extracting vessel _E_, and the still _B_. The extracting vessel
_E_ sits in a vat containing cold water, _W_, the arrangement being
such that the heated water can be removed and replaced by cold. The
still _B_ sits in a boiler, _K_, filled with hot water.

The apparatus is charged as follows: The conical head _C_ of the
extracting vessel _E_ is unscrewed and its connection at _H_ with the
pipe _R_ loosened. The extracting vessel is then charged with the
vegetable substance, the head _C_ replaced, and the connection with the
pipe _R_ restored. The cocks _H_{2} and _H_{4} are then opened, and
the required quantity of solvent is brought into the still. Both cocks
are then closed, and the cocks _H_ and _H_{1} opened. The water in the
boiler is then heated until the contents of the still commence to boil.
The vapor of the solvent ascends through the pipe _R_; on entering the
extracting vessel _E_ it is condensed, and after falling as a spray
upon the material to be extracted, finally returns impregnated with
volatile oil to the still _B_. Here the solvent is revaporized, and
passes again through the material in the extracting vessel, while the
extracted oil remains in the still. During the boiling of the solvent
the extracting vessel must be suitably cooled by the constant admission
of cold water.

 [Illustration: FIG. 13.]

When extraction is finished, the cocks _H_ and _H_{1} are closed, and
the cock _H_{2}, which is connected with a cooling worm, is opened.
The solvent is then evaporated, and regained by condensation. The oil
is discharged, from the still through a pipe in the bottom provided
with the cock _H_{3}.

The apparatus may also be so arranged that the still _B_ is connected
with two extracting vessels which are used alternately, while the
contents of one are being extracted the other is emptied and refilled.

 [Illustration: FIG. 14.]

For working on a very large scale, Heyl's extracting apparatus, shown
in Fig. 14, is very suitable. It consists of a battery of four or more
cast iron or sheet iron cylinders, _A_{1} to _A_{4}, communicating
with each other and surrounded by steam jackets. The extracting
vessels are so arranged that they can be emptied by tilting, which is
rather inconvenient, as all the pipes have to be unscrewed. In each
cylinder close above the bottom is a perforated plate covered with
fine wire-gauze, upon which the material to be extracted is placed.
The cylinder is filled to the top, and, after placing a similar plate
upon it, the upper opening is closed by a lid suspended to a crane. The
cylinder, as well as the lid, is provided with a broad flange, between
which is placed a hemp tissue firmly pressed together by 12 clamps to
serve for packing. After filling the cylinders with the material to be
extracted and arranging the packing, the solvent (bisulphide of carbon)
is conducted from a reservoir through the principal pipe, _B_, to the
extracting vessels, and is introduced into _A_{2} by opening the cock
_C_{2}, which communicates with the pipe _B_. The bisulphide of carbon
passes through the bent pipe _D_{1}, enters through the cock _E_{2},
below the false bottom of the cylinder _A_{2}, and, after penetrating
the mass and filling the cylinder, runs through the cock _C_{2} of
the bent pipe _D_{2}, and the cock _E_{3} into the cylinder _A_{3},
reaching the fourth cylinder in the same manner through the cock
_C_{3}, the pipe _D_{3}, and the cock _E_{4}. From the last cylinder
it passes as a thoroughly saturated oil solution into a reservoir, in
which a vacuum has been created to promote the circulation of the fluid
in the entire apparatus. After a quantity of oil solution corresponding
to the contents of the cylinder _A_{4} has arrived, the cock _G_{4}
is closed and the cock _C_{4} opened, whereby the cylinder _A_{4} is
connected with _A_{1} by the bent pipe _D_{4} and the cock _E_{1}.

After the exhaustion of the contents of the cylinder _A_{2}, which
is recognized by means of the glass tube _H_{2} placed on _D_{2} by
the fluid running off being colorless, the cocks _C_{1} and _E_{2}
are closed, and _C_{2} and _E_{3} opened, whereby the solvent runs
into _A_{3}, and from there to _A_{4} and _A_{1}; _A_{2} being
omitted. To effect this omission, and at the same time not to prevent
the introduction of bisulphide of carbon, _C_{1}, _C_{2}, _C_{3},
and _C_{4}, are so-called two-way cocks, which, when placed in one
position, connect the principal pipe _B_ with the branch pipes _D_, but
interrupt a further flow through the principal pipe _B_; while in the
other position they close the pipes _D_ and open the principal pipe _B_.

The cylinder _A_{2} is, however, still filled with the solvent and
material saturated with it. To remove the solvent, the discharge cock
_K_{2} on the bottom of the cylinder is opened, which communicates
with the discharge pipe _J_, through which the bisulphide of carbon
is conducted into a reservoir. The discharge is promoted by opening
the cock _M_{2}, connected with the pipe _L_, and the admittance of
compressed air, which displaces the liquid solvent. After the flow
of the latter has ceased, the steam cocks on the jacket _O_{2} and
the cylinder _P_{2} are opened under constant admission of air and
simultaneous introduction of steam through the pipe _N_ into the upper
part of the cylinder.

The solvent (bisulphide of carbon) converted into vapor by the heat,
is conducted together with the aqueous vapor, by the admission of air
through the cock _K_{2}, the pipe _J_, and a cooling pipe placed
between the extracting vessels and the reservoir, and collected in a
reservoir to be re-used.

On account of the great volatility of bisulphide of carbon,
considerable loss would, however, be incurred by the above-mentioned
admission of air. To avoid this, the reservoir serving for the
reception of the condensed bisulphide of carbon and aqueous vapor
is closed, and connected by a pipe with a long, narrow, horizontal
cylinder half filled with oil, and provided with a fan-shaft. The
vapors of bisulphide of carbon entering the cylinder from the reservoir
are absorbed, together with the air by the oil, the surface of which is
constantly agitated by the fan-shaft, while the air, rendered entirely
inodorous, passes out at the other end. The bisulphide of carbon is
finally separated from the oil by distillation and again used.

After the cylinder _A_{2} is sufficiently steamed, it is emptied and
again charged with material and connected with the cylinder _A_{1};
while the other cylinders undergo the same manipulations described
above.

 [Illustration: FIG. 15.]

The saturated oil solution is subjected to distillation, which is
readily effected in Heyl's apparatus, Fig. 15. The lower part of the
still _A_ of boiler plate is surrounded by the steam-jacket _B_, into
which steam is admitted through _C_ and the condensed water discharged
through _D_. The concentrated oil solution runs from a reservoir,
standing at a higher level through the pipe _E_ into the still, the
admission of a sufficient quantity being indicated by the gauge _F_.
The bisulphide of carbon brought to the boiling point (114° F.) by the
steam introduced into the jacket, vaporizes quickly; the vaporization
being still more accelerated by revolving the stirrer _H_, by means of
the crank _G_. The vapors of bisulphide of carbon escape through four
openings in the upper part of the still, into a capacious worm, the
lower part of which enters, under water, a reservoir.

Notwithstanding the volatility of bisulphide of carbon, the oil retains
a portion of it so tenaciously that a complete separation cannot
be accomplished by the introduction of steam into the jacket _B_.
Hence, in order to vaporize the last traces of the solvent, air is
introduced into the oil through the pipe _K_, the lower end of which is
perforated. After completed distillation the oil is discharged through
_L_.

_Maceration or infusion._--This process is employed for flowers with an
inconsiderable content of volatile oil or whose odoriferous substance
would suffer decomposition or alteration by distillation. The process
is founded on the affinity of odoriferous substances for fatty bodies
which, when impregnated with them, are called _pomades_. These are
afterwards made to yield the aroma to strong alcohol, so that finally
there is obtained a solution of the volatile oil in alcohol from which
the pure oil is obtained by distilling off the alcohol. The fat used,
olive oil, lard, etc., should be entirely neutral, _i. e._, free from
every trace of acid. The fats are purified by treating them several
times in the heat with weak soda-lye and then washing carefully with
water until the last traces of the lye are removed, and the fat shows
no alkaline or acid reaction.

With the use of olive oil the so-called "_Huiles antiques_" are
obtained, which are merely solutions of volatile oils in the fixed oil.
By the use of lard, etc., the genuine _pomades_ are obtained, which are
directly used as expensive articles of perfumery, but in the factories
serve as a starting point for the preparation of volatile oils.

The old process of maceration, which is still in use in some parts
of France, is as follows: A certain quantity of fat is placed in an
enameled iron or porcelain pan provided with a water or steam bath.
When the fat is melted, the freshly gathered flowers from which the
aroma is to be extracted are thrown in and left to digest for from
twelve to twenty-four hours, the fat being kept fluid and stirred
frequently. When the flowers are completely exhausted, the fat is
strained from them into fresh pots, in which it is again macerated with
fresh flowers as before. This operation is repeated ten to fifteen
times until the pomade has acquired the desired strength.

Experience, however, has shown that volatile oils prepared by this
process possess a finer odor the shorter the time the flowers remain
in contact with the fat. Piver has devised an apparatus which reduces
the time of maceration to the shortest period possible. The kettle to
the left, Fig. 16, supplies the fat heated to the proper temperature,
which circulates slowly through the macerating tank, in which a
constant temperature of 149° F. is maintained by means of a steam pipe.
The macerating tank is divided into compartments, in which baskets
containing the vegetable substance to be extracted are suspended. The
basket on the left contains the substance which has passed through
all the compartments; it is from time to time removed, filled with
fresh substance, and then attached to the right, the other baskets
being moved to the next compartment to the left. In this way the fresh
substance has to traverse each compartment from right to left, while
the fat flows slowly from left to right, and saturated with the perfume
of the substance collects in the tank on the extreme right.

 [Illustration: FIG. 16.]

Maceration is employed for the flowers of the orange (_citrus
aurantum_), of the mock orange (_Philadelphus coronarius_), of the
acacia (_acacia Farnesiana_), of the violet (_viola odorata_), of the
mignonette (_réséda odorata_), etc.

The process of _absorption_, or "_enfleurage_," as it is called by the
French, is chiefly made use of for procuring the odoriferous principle
of very delicate flowers, the delicious odor of which would be greatly
modified, if not entirely spoiled, by the application of heat. The
older apparatus employed for the purpose consists of a number of
shallow wooden frames of about 15×18 inches, inclosing at half their
depth a sheet of glass. The edges of the frame rise about an inch above
each surface of the glass, and, being flat, the frames stand securely
upon one another, forming often considerable stacks. These frames
are called "_chassis_," those just described being termed "_chassis
aux vitres_," or "_chassis aux pomades_," to distinguish them from a
different form, which is used where oil has to be submitted to the
process of absorption. The process in the case of pomade is as follows:
Each sheet of glass is uniformly coated with a thin layer of purified
grease, care being taken that the grease does not come in contact with
the woodwork of the frames. The flowers are then thinly sprinkled, or
rather laid, one by one, upon the surface of the fat, where they are
allowed to remain one or two days, when they are removed and replaced
by fresh ones. The operation is thus continued for twenty-five or
thirty days, until the fat is saturated with aroma. The frames charged
with fat and flowers are stacked one upon the other, forming, in fact,
a number of little rectangular chambers.

For _perfuming oils_ a metal sieve, Fig. 17, is substituted for the
glass plate. Upon the sieve a piece of thick cotton cloth saturated
with oil is laid, and upon this the flowers are scattered, and left
there until fresh ones have to be substituted. The operation is
repeated until the oil is sufficiently impregnated with aroma, when
the cloth is subjected to pressure and the expressed oil filtered.

 [Illustration: FIG. 17.]

This process is very tedious, requiring much labor and a long time for
the impregnation of the fat or oil, but, notwithstanding its faults, it
is still pursued to a great extent, some French firms using 3000 such
frames during the season.

With the apparatus, shown in Fig. 18, the process of absorption can,
however, be conducted with very little expense of labor and time.
It has the further advantage that the flowers do not come in direct
contact with the fat, whereby a saving of the latter is effected, and
it is less liable to rancidity.

The apparatus consists of a tall wooden box provided with doors which
can be hermetically closed. In the box are placed upon brackets a
number of glass plates, _g_, so arranged one above the other that, for
instance, those with uneven numbers are on the left side, leaving an
open space to the right, while those with even numbers are arranged on
the right side with an open space to the left.

From the bottom of the box a pipe passes into a sheet-iron cylinder,
_K´_, filled loosely with flowers, and provided with lateral openings,
_O_ and _O´_. From the lid of the box _K_ ascends a pipe, _e_, which
is connected with a small ventilating apparatus kept in motion by a
clockwork and weights. This ventilator when in motion sucks a current
of air through the apparatus. The air enters the cylinder _K´_ at _O_,
and after ascending through the flowers and becoming impregnated with
the vapors of the volatile oil enters through the opening _O´_ into the
box _K_ and, in passing in the direction indicated by arrows, over the
plates coated with fat, yields its aroma to them.

 [Illustration: FIG. 18.]

Another apparatus for the same purpose, devised by Piver, is shown
in Fig. 19. The fat is converted into thin macaroni-like threads
and brought upon wire gauze stretched in frames. The flowers to
be extracted are piled upon tinned metallic plates, and the trays
containing the fat and the flowers are placed in an air-tight chamber
arranged as shown in the illustration. The air in the chamber is made
to circulate to and fro by the working of a bellows with which the
apparatus is provided, whereby the fat is caused to absorb the odor of
the flowers very rapidly and is less liable to rancidity.

 [Illustration: FIG. 19.]

The absorption process is employed for the flowers of the jasmine
(_jasminum oderatissimum_), the mignonnette (_réséda odorata_), the
violet (_viola tricolor_), the tuberose (_polianthes tuberosa_), etc.

_Storage of volatile oils._--In storing volatile oils, they should
be carefully protected from light and air. Some oils become darker
on exposure to light, while others, for instance, lemon oil, become
colorless. Most volatile oils, as previously mentioned, absorb oxygen
from the air with avidity and combine chemically with it. Thinly-fluid
oils become perceptibly more thickly-fluid and finally even rigid,
the product of oxidation being a resinous body. Some volatile oils
containing aldehydes are converted, by the absorption of oxygen, into
acids, cinnamic acid being, for instance, formed in cinnamon oil, and
benzoic acid in oil of bitter almonds.

To prevent evaporation, as well as the above-mentioned effects of
light and air, the volatile oils should be preserved in not too large
glass bottles kept as full as possible, and closed with a good cork,
over which it is best to tie a piece of bladder. The bottles should be
stored in a cool, shady place. The preservation of the oils is assisted
by the addition of 0.5 to 1 per cent. of anhydrous alcohol.



CHAPTER III.

TESTING VOLATILE OILS.


Volatile oils are much adulterated, the adulterations consisting
chiefly in mixing an expensive oil with a cheaper one and with alcohol;
more rarely with chloroform and fat oils. To these adulterations, which
have been common for many years, has recently been added the previously
mentioned hydrocarbon called terpene or camphene, which is separated in
the preparation of concentrated oils.

For the recognition of the quality of a volatile oil, serve first of
all its physical properties, especially its color, odor and taste.
The specific gravity varies too much and is not always a sufficient
criterion. Reagents can only be employed with a few oils. The chemical
detection of adulterations is rendered especially difficult by the
fact, that most of the volatile oils form a mixture of terpenes with
other combinations, in which the separate constituent parts do not
appear in fixed, but in changeable proportions, and in which the
constituents themselves suffer alteration by storing, air and light.

_Odor and taste_ are so characteristic for every volatile oil as to
suffice in most cases. For testing as to odor, bring a drop of the oil
to be examined upon the dry palm of one hand and for some time rub
with the other, whereby the odor is more perceptibly brought out. To
determine the taste, vigorously shake one drop of the oil with 15 to 20
grammes of distilled water and then test with the tongue.

An adulteration with _fat oil_ (poppy oil, castor oil) may be
recognized as follows: Place a drop of the suspected oil upon blotting
paper and expose it to the heat of the water bath. If it evaporates
completely and no stain is perceptible, the oil is pure. But frequently
a transparent stain remains with old oils without their being
adulterated, which is due to the resin formed by the absorption of
oxygen and remaining dissolved in the oil. In this case a transparent
ring is generally formed by the concentration of the resin on the
edges of the stain. If no tangible results are obtained by this test,
pour a few cubic centimeters of the oil upon a watch-crystal and
heat it very slowly upon a piece of sheet-iron, until all the odor
has disappeared. If the watch-crystal becomes empty in a short time,
nothing but volatile oil was present; but if a viscous residue remains,
this may consist either of fatty oil or resin, or of both. Treat the
residue with strong alcohol; if it dissolves it may be resin or castor
oil. Dilute the solution with much water; a white flocculent turbidity
indicates resin; the separation of an oily liquid, after standing,
castor oil. If the residue remains undissolved, it consists of a fatty
oil, generally oil of almond or olive.

The presence of castor oil can be accurately determined by bringing
the residue from the watch-crystal into a test-tube by means of a
glass-rod, and compounding it with a few drops of nitric acid. A
strong development of gas takes place, after the cessation of which,
solution of carbonate of soda is added as long as there is any sign
of effervescence. If the added oil was castor oil, the contents of the
test-tube will show a peculiar odor due to œnanthylic acid formed by
the action of nitric acid upon castor oil.

Another method of establishing the presence of fat oil consists in
mixing the suspected oil with eight times its quantity of 90 per
cent. alcohol (specific gravity 0.823). If the oil is unadulterated a
clear solution is formed; if it contains fat oil, the latter remains
undissolved. The presence of castor oil, which of the fat oils is
chiefly used for adulteration, is, however, not shown by this method,
it being also soluble in alcohol.

A permanent stain upon the paper may, however, also be formed by fresh
oils obtained by expression from the respective parts of the plant.
Thus, lemon oil obtained by expression from the peel, and which has
a far more agreeable odor than that produced by distillation, always
leaves behind a slight grease-stain.

_Detection of alcohol or spirit of wine._--Independent of the alcohol
added to assist the preservation of some oils, adulteration with
alcohol frequently occurs, especially in expensive oils. With a content
of not more than 3 per cent. of alcohol, it suffices to allow one to
two drops of the suspected oil to fall into water. In the presence of
alcohol, the drop becomes either immediately surrounded with a milky
zone, or it becomes turbid or whitish after being for some time in
contact with the water. Dragendorff's test is based upon the fact
that oils, which are hydrocarbons, suffer no change by the addition
of sodium (ten drops of oil and a small chip of sodium), while oils
containing hydrocarbons and oxygenated oils cause with sodium a slight
evolution of hydrogen gas, and suffer but a slight change during the
first five to ten minutes of the reaction. If, however, the oil is
adulterated with alcohol, not only a violent evolution of hydrogen gas
takes place, but the oil in a short time becomes brown or dark brown,
thickly fluid or rigid.

The detection of alcohol by means of fuchsine, which has been
frequently recommended, requires special precautions. It must first
be ascertained that the oil is free from acids and water; if such
is not the case, they must be removed by means of caustic potash.
After settling, bring, by means of a dry pipette, about five cubic
centimeters of the oil into a dry test-tube about ten millimeters
in diameter, without moistening the walls of the upper half of the
tube. Then bring, by means of a paper gutter, a few milligrammes of
coarsely-powdered fuchsine into the dry part of the obliquely held
tube, at a distance of one centimeter from the oil. Now heat gradually
over a lamp until the tube begins to tarnish. With pure oil no
evaporation is observed, but if the oil contains only 0.1 per cent.
of alcohol, every speck of fuchsine will, after heating to boiling
and setting aside, be surrounded by a stain produced by the alcoholic
solution. The chief requirement for this test is that the oil be free
from water. If such is not the case, vapors will be observed, which
condense in the upper portion of the test-tube, and dissolve fuchsine,
and, after flowing back, sink below the oil with a crackling noise. If
the oil contains alcohol, the condensing vapors dissolve fuchsine with
greater ease, and in flowing back mix without crackling.

Hager's tannin test is very reliable. Bring into a test-tube 5 to 10
drops of the oil to be examined, add a piece of tannin the size of a
pea, shake so that the tannin is moistened by the oil, and let the
whole stand at a temperature of 59° to 68° F. In most volatile oils
tannin is insoluble, and, if the oil is pure, floats for days on the
surface without change. If, however, the oil contains alcohol, the
tannin absorbs the latter, according to the quantity present, in 3 to
48 hours, and forms with it a more or less transparent, viscous, tough,
or smeary mass resembling a soft resin, which settles on the bottom,
and adheres so firmly to it, as well as to the sides of the tube, that
it cannot be moved by shaking. The mass may be examined as to its
consistency with a knitting needle. Traces of moisture in the oil are
not detrimental to the test, the tannin mass separating in the form of
a hyaline mass only in few oils, and if this mass is tested with the
knitting needle it will be found not tough or smeary, but hard, and may
sometimes be divided into small grains. With oil of bitter almonds,
cassia oil, and some oils of clove, as well as volatile oil containing
an acid, the tannin test is not available. The first two oils even
dissolve tannin, and large quantities of it, if they contain alcohol.

The above-mentioned oils may, however, be rendered fit for the
tannin test by mixing them with double their volume of benzine or
petroleum-ether, and allowing the mixture to stand for two or three
days. If, however, the oils contain much alcohol, the tannin is
dissolved. The use of powdered tannin is not advisable, because it
generally deposits in a thin layer on the bottom, and its alteration
is not so perceptible. If, for practical reasons, a content of 0.5 per
cent. anhydrous alcohol might be accepted as permissible in a volatile
oil, the tannin test would have to be so modified as to mix 10 drops
of the oil with a piece of tannin the size of two peas, and allow the
whole to stand for one hour. In this time the above-mentioned content
of alcohol would yield no result.

_Detection of chloroform._--An adulteration with chloroform, if
moderate, cannot always be detected by the odor and taste. In most
cases, chloroform will considerably increase the specific gravity of
the oil. Bring into a test-tube 15 drops of the suspected oil, 45 to 90
drops of alcohol, and 30 to 40 drops of dilute sulphuric acid. After
thorough shaking, add 2 or 3 shavings of zinc sheet and heat until a
vigorous evolution of hydrogen takes place. After again shaking, set
the whole aside, and heat again when the evolution of gas becomes
weaker. This heating and gentle shaking of the fluid is several times
repeated. After 20 to 25 minutes, compound the fluid with an equal
volume of cold distilled water, shake vigorously and filter through a
paper-filter moistened with water. Strongly acidulate the filtrate with
nitric acid and compound with nitrate of silver solution. If chloroform
is present, turbidity or a precipitate of chloride of silver appears.

_Detection of benzine._--An adulteration with benzine can be readily
detected only in oils specifically heavier than water. The separation
of benzine is effected by distillation from a small glass flask in the
water bath. The distillate together with an equal volume of nitric acid
of 1.5 specific gravity is gently heated in a test-tube. A too vigorous
reaction is modified by cooling in cold water, and a too sluggish
action quickened by gentle heating (dipping in warm water). If the
mixture has a yellow color, dilute it with water, shake with ether,
mix the decanted ethereal solution with alcohol and hydrochloric acid,
add some zinc and place the whole in a lukewarm place to convert the
nitrobenzol formed into aniline. After evolution of hydrogen is done,
neutralize with potash lye, shake, take off the layer of ether, let the
latter evaporate and add to the residue a few drops of calcium chloride
solution. If benzine is present, a blue-violet color reaction takes
place.

Adulterations with alcohol, chloroform, and benzine are quantitatively
determined by bringing a weighed quantity of the oil into a glass flask
so that it occupies about four-fifths of the volume of the flask. Place
upon the flask a cork through which has been passed a glass-tube bent
at a right angle and provided with a cylindrical glass vessel serving
as a receiver and heating in the water bath. If the distance from the
level of the oil to the angle of the glass tube in which it inclines
downwards, amounts, for instance, to 4.72 inches, and the neck of the
flask up to its angle is 2.75 inches high outside of the direct effect
of the heat of the water bath, only the above-mentioned adulterants
distill over, while the vapor of the volatile oil condenses at a
height of 2.75 inches and flows back into the flask. The distillate
is weighed and examined as to its derivation. First add one cubic
centimeter of it to two or three cubic centimeters of potassium acetate
solution of specific gravity 1.197 and shake moderately. If a clear
mixture results, alcohol alone is present. If, however, the mixture
is not clear, and the distilled fluid sinks down and collects on the
bottom of the test-tube, chloroform is very likely present, and if
it remains floating upon the acetate solution, benzine. Next bring
two to three centimeters of the distillate into a test-tube and add
a piece of sodium metal, the size of a pea. If violent foaming, _i.
e._, an evolution of gas, takes place, alcohol is certainly present,
and possibly also chloroform and benzine towards which sodium is
indifferent. However, in the presence of benzine, the sodium solution
would be colorless, and in the presence of chloroform, yellowish
and turbid. In case the sodium produces no reaction and alcohol is,
therefore, not present, add an equal volume (two to three cubic
centimeters) of anhydrous alcohol, and after moderately shaking allow
the solution of the sodium and the evolution of gas to proceed, whereby
benzine produces a nearly colorless, turbid fluid, and chloroform a
yellowish, milky one. Now dilute the fluid with an equal or double
volume of water, shake and allow the mixture to stand quietly. In the
presence of benzine a colorless, turbid layer collects on the bottom
of the fluid, while that collecting in the presence of chloroform is
yellowish. In the latter case, _i. e._, in the presence of chloroform,
the aqueous filtrate yields with lead acetate solution a white
precipitate (lead chloride and lead hydroxide). The adulterant having
thus been recognized, further particulars are learned from the specific
gravity of the oil as well as of the distillate.

Adulterations with _terpenes_ or _terpene-like fluids_, such as are
gained in the preparation of concentrated or patent oils, are difficult
to recognize. They may be detected by the specific gravity, the
terpenes being, as a rule, specifically lighter, their specific gravity
varying between 0.840 and 0.870.

The detection of _adulterations with volatile oils of a lower quality_
is very difficult, if not led to it by the odor and taste. Many methods
for establishing such adulterations have been proposed, of which the
following are the most important:--

I. _Test with iodine._--This test is based upon the fact that some oils
violently detonate with iodine, while others develop heat and vapors,
and others again remain indifferent. For this test pour upon about 0.19
gramme of dry iodine in a watch-crystal 4 to 6 drops of the oil to be
examined.

1. A vigorous reaction (detonation) with considerable increase in the
temperature and emission of vapors takes place with the following
oils: oils of bergamot, lemon, lavender, nutmeg, orange peel, spike,
turpentine, wormwood.

2. Such a reaction as mentioned under 1, does not take place with oils
of bitter almonds, copaiba, calamus, clove, peppermint, rose.

3. Moderate heating and slight vapors are developed with oils of
anise-seed, fennel, camomile, curly mint, marjoram, rosemary,
sassafras, thyme.

When an oil of the second series becomes heated with iodine and evolves
vapors, it may first of all be adulterated with cheaper oils. This may
also be the case when an oil of the third series reacts violently with
iodine and evolves vapors with strong heating. Formerly the iodine test
was highly valued; it has, however, been shown to be unreliable since
it is frequently dependent on the age of the oil.

In place of iodine, Rudolph Eck recommends a very dilute alcoholic
iodine solution, which is not discolored by oils of turpentine, while
other oils discolor it. Dissolve a drop of the oil to be examined in
3 cubic centimeters of 90 to 100 per cent. alcohol, and add a drop of
the iodine solution. The latter is not discolored in the presence of
an oil of turpentine. There are also, however, several volatile oils,
which do not discolor the iodine solution. Mierzinski mentions the
following: All cold-expressed oils from the _Aurantiaceæ_, further
oils of coriander, caraway, galanga, rue, sassafras, rose, rosemary,
anise-seed, fennel, calamus, neroli, angelica, wormwood. Hence, this
reaction cannot be relied upon.

II. _Hoppe's nitroprusside of copper test._--This test sometimes gives
good results, but only with hydrocarbons absolutely free from oxygen
and oxygenated oils. It is, therefore, not suitable for oils derived
from the _Aurantiaceæ_. The process is as follows: Add to a small
quantity of the oil to be examined in a perfectly dry test-tube, 2 to
5 milligrammes of pure nitroprusside of copper previously thoroughly
dried and finely pulverized, shake vigorously and gradually heat to
boiling. After boiling for a few seconds allow to cool. If the oil
is free from oil of turpentine, or another oil containing no oxygen,
the precipitate formed is brown, black, or gray, and according to the
quantity of the reagent added and the original color of the oil, the
supernatant oil will be differently colored and appear more or less
dark. If, however, the oil is adulterated with oil of turpentine,
the precipitate formed shows a handsome green or blue-green color,
while the supernatant oil retains its original color or at the utmost
acquires a very slightly darker one. The longer the oil is allowed to
stand after settling, the more distinct and beautiful the color of the
oil and of the precipitate appears. For the establishment and certain
recognition of very small quantities of oil of turpentine in oxygenated
oils, it is best to first add very little of the nitroprusside of
copper to the oil to be tested, and a larger quantity only after being
convinced either of the purity or adulteration of the oil. This is done
to be able, on the one hand, better to judge the reaction, if the oil
is pure, and, on the other, if it is adulterated, to establish such
adulteration with certainty and to approximately estimate the quantity
of oil of turpentine present. The less nitroprusside of copper is used,
the better small quantities of oil of turpentine can be detected.

Nearly all volatile oils free from oxygen show the same behavior
towards nitroprusside of copper; they decompose it, which is not the
case with oxygenated oils. The behavior of the latter is shown in the
following table:--

 -------------+---------------+---------------+------------------+-------------
              |               | Proportion of | Color of the oil |
   Name of    | Color of the  | nitroprusside |      after       | Color of the
   the oil.   |     oil.      |      of       | the experiment.  | precipitate.
              |               |copper to oil. |                  |
 -------------+---------------+---------------+------------------+-------------
 Caraway      |clear as water | 1 : 1000 parts|slightly          | dirty gray.
              | and colorless |               | yellowish        |
 Fennel       |pale yellowish | 1 : 1000   "  |brownish-yellow   | black.
 Dill         |pale           | 1 : 1000   "  |becomes first     |    "
              | reddish-yellow|               | colorless, then  |
              |               |               | yellowish        |    "
 Anise-seed   |pale yellow    | 1 : 1000   "  |yellow            |
              |               |               |   "              |
 Camomile     |               |               |                  |
   (green)    |yellowish      | 1 : 1000   "  |brownish-yellow   | ash-gray.
 Lavender     |pale yellow    | 1 : 1000   "  |wine-yellow       | slate-gray.
    "         |     "         | 1 :  100   "  |brown-yellow      |    "
 Mint (curly) |colorless      | 1 : 1000   "  |wine-yellow       | first gray,
              |               |               |                  |  then black.
 Peppermint   |    "          | 1 : 1000   "  |yellowish         | black.
     "        |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |brownish-yellow   |    "
 Balm         |yellow         | 1 : 1000   "  |dark wine-yellow  |    "
 Marjoram     |colorless      | 1 : 1000   "  |yellowish         |    "
    "         |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |brown-yellow      |    "
 Sage         |slightly       | 1 : 1000   "  |wine-yellow       | dark green.
              | yellowish     |               |                  |
   "          |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |brown-yellow      | dark green,
              |               |               |                  |  then nearly
              |               |               |                  |  black.
 Thyme (field)|    "          | 1 : 1000   "  |brownish-yellow   | slate-gray.
   "          |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |dark brown-yellow | nearly black.
 Wormwood     |yellow-brown   | 1 : 1000   "  |dark brown        | black.
 Tansy        |pale yellow    | 1 : 1000   "  |red-brown         | dirty brown.
 Milfoil      |dark           | 1 : 1000   "  |first pale blue,  | gray-brown.
              | azure-blue    |               | then dark green  |
 Cajeput      |colorless      | 1 : 1000   "  |brownish-yellow   | black.
 Clove        |slightly       | 1 : 2000   "  |rose-red and clear| slate-gray.
              | yellowish     |               |                  |
   "          |    "          | 1 : 1000   "  |violet-red and    |    "
              |               |               | clear            |
   "          |    "          | 1 :  500   "  |cherry-red        |    "
              |               |               | and opaque       |
   "          |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |dark cherry-red   |    "
              |               |               | and opaque       |
 Cassia       |brownish-yellow| 1 : 1000   "  |brownish-red to   | black.
              |               |               | hyacinth-red     |
   "          |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |dark brown-red    |    "
 Sassafras    |yellowish      | 1 : 1000   "  |yellowish-brown   |    "
 Star anise   |pale yellow    | 1 : 1000   "  |dark wine-yellow  |    "
 Valerian     |pale greenish  | 1 :  100   "  |brownish-yellow   |    "
 Rue          |slightly       | 1 :  100   "  |brown-yellow      | ash-gray.
              | yellowish     |               |                  |
 Bergamotte   |yellowish      | 1 : 1000   "  |dark yellow       |    "
      "       |    "          | 1 :  100   "  |brownish-red      |    "
 -------------+---------------+---------------+------------------+-------------

If these oxygenated oils are mixed with oils free from oxygen, for
instance, oil of turpentine, they show exactly the same behavior as
oils free from oxygen; the nitroprusside of copper is not decomposed
and retains its gray-green color. If, for instance, oil of cloves is
mixed with oil of turpentine, the red coloration by nitroprusside of
copper does not appear.

III. _Hager's alcohol and sulphuric acid test._--Bring into a test-tube
of about 0.5 inch diameter, five to six drops of the oil to be tested
and twenty-five to thirty drops of pure concentrated sulphuric acid,
and mix the two fluids by shaking, whereby either no heating takes
place or a scarcely perceptible one, or the heating is strong or very
vigorous and in some cases increased to the evolution of vapors. The
mixture is either clear or turbid. After complete cooling, add to the
mixture eight to ten cubic centimeters of 90 per cent. alcohol, and
after closing the tube with the finger, shake vigorously. The mixture
now shows a different color, is clear or turbid, and the deposit formed
after standing for one day is also differently colored and either
soluble or insoluble in boiling alcohol.

The mixture of oil, sulphuric acid and alcohol is perfectly clear
and transparent with oils of bitter almonds, fennel, clove and rose;
with anise-seed oil and star anise-seed oil only the alcoholic layer
over the mixture of sulphuric acid and oil is clear. The mixture of
oil, acid and alcohol is slightly turbid or nearly clear with oils
of valerian, peppermint and field thyme. With most of the other
volatile oils occurring in commerce, the mixture is more or less milky
turbid. Heating of the oil and acid mixtures does not take place with
pyrogenous oils (petroleum, benzine) or only to a very slight degree,
as with oils of peppermint and mustard.

IV. _Hager's guaiacum reaction_[3] serves for the detection of oil of
turpentine in a volatile oil. By pouring upon as much guaiacum, freshly
powdered, as will lie upon the point of a small knife, in a test-tube 1
cubic centimeter (25 drops) of spike oil, and heating nearly to boiling
over a petroleum lamp, the oil after being removed from the flame and
allowing the undissolved resin to settle, shows a _yellow_ color. By
now pouring upon an equal quantity of guaiacum in another test-tube 25
drops of spike oil and 5 drops of rectified oil of t from the flame
shows a _dark violet color_. Various other oils behave in the same
manner as spike oil, and hence a content of oil of turpentine can be
readily detected in them. Other oils do not exhibit this behavior; but
this can be remedied by adding, in testing for oil of turpentine, a few
drops of an oil of the first class.

 [3] Hager, Chemische Reactionen zur Nachweise des Terpentinoels in den
 aetherischen Oelen, etc. Berlin, 1885.

The guaiacum reaction is an ozone reaction and with reference to this,
the volatile oils may be divided into three classes:--

_a. Oils inclining to the formation of ozone._--Foremost of these is
oil of turpentine, especially when rectified. Oils of tansy, rue, mint,
juniper, zedoary, etc., show considerably less inclination.

_b. Oils which, especially when heated, directly incite the oil of
turpentine to form ozone, and to color guaiacum violet or blue._--Such
oils are many kinds of oil of citronella, oils of spike, calamus,
cedar, etc.

_c. Oils with a content of oil of turpentine, which remain indifferent
towards guaiacum._--To such oils, if to be tested for oil of
turpentine, with the assistance of the guaiacum reaction, a few drops
of an oil of the second class have to be added.

V. _Hübl's iodine method._--Mr. C. Barenthin has applied Hübl's iodine
method for fixed oils to the examination of volatile oils. He uses the
following solutions:--

1. Fifty grammes iodine and 60 grammes of mercuric chloride in a liter
of alcohol freed from fusel oil, and let stand for 12 hours.

2. Twenty-four grammes of hyposulphite of sodium in a liter of water.

3. A ten per cent. solution of iodide of potassium. Dissolve 0.1 to
0.2 gramme of the volatile oil in 10 cubic centimeters of chloroform,
and add first 15 cubic centimeters of the iodine-mercuric chloride
solution; let stand three or four hours, and, in case the mixture gets
discolored, add a few more centimeters of solution. Now add 10 to 15
cubic centimeters iodide of potassium solution, dilute with 150 cubic
centimeters of water, and titrate with hyposulphite till the mixture
remains clear for about a minute. The iodide of potassium solution
must be added before the water, and the relative proportions between
this solution and the iodine-mercuric chloride solution must be 15
to 20 cubic centimeters. The quantity of iodine solution consumed is
calculated to iodine for 100 parts and the figure thus obtained is
designated as the "iodine number."

Barenthin has in this manner determined the iodine number of several
volatile oils; other experimenters, however, for instance, Kremel and
Davies,[4] have found different numbers for the same oils, so that
this method requires further thorough examination before it can be
classed as available.

 [4] Pharm. Centralh. 1888, S. 482 u. 555; 1889, S. 133.

VI. A. Kremel has endeavored to utilize _titration or saponification
with alcoholic potash lye_ for the examination of volatile oils. In his
experiments he was guided by the following points: A series of volatile
oils contains partially free organic acids, like oils of bitter almonds
and cinnamon, and partially aldehydes or other combinations. Now it
seems not impossible, that up to a certain limit, the quantities of
these combinations in the separate volatile oils remain constant, thus
presenting the opportunity of testing the respective oils as to their
quality and purity by saponification. In some cases these combinations
are the chief bearers of the specific odor, and hence the determination
of the "_saponification number_" becomes of double value. It is, of
course, self-evident that not every volatile oil can be saponified, and
Kremel admits that, even where saponification takes place, it is not in
every case a sure test.

The execution of the method is as follows: Dissolve 1 gramme of
the oil to be examined in 2 to 3 cubic centimeters of 90 per cent.
alcohol freed from acid, compound the solution with a few drops of
phenol-phthalein solution, and titrate the free acid with ½ normal
alcoholic potash lye. The milligrammes of caustic potash used are
designated the "_acid number_." After having thus determined the
content of acid, add to the same solution 10 cubic centimeters of
the same potash lye, heat for ¼ hour upon the water bath, and then
titrate back the excess of potash lye with ½ normal hydrochloric
acid. In this manner the "_saponification number_" is obtained. (In
some cases when the final reaction is not plainly perceptible, it
is advisable to correspondingly dilute with water after heating the
alcoholic fluid.) The saponification number, less the acid number,
gives the "_ether_ or _ester number_."

Kremel has in this manner examined a large number of volatile oils and
partially obtained surprising results. Rose oil gives a saponification
number of 12, and geranium oils one of 40 to 50. While lavender
oils give very high saponification numbers, oil of lemons does not.
Artificial oil of bitter almonds shows higher saponification numbers
than the natural oil. By further compounding the saponified portions of
the latter with acid, a crystalline precipitate of benzoin is formed,
the quantity of which amounts to from 40 to 50 per cent. of the oil
used. Such a precipitate, but only in very small quantities, is also
formed in peach kernel oil, but not in other similar oils nor in
artificial oil of bitter almonds.

VII. F. R. Williams has recently endeavored to utilize for testing
volatile oils Maumené's test, which is based upon the increase in
temperature produced in oils by concentrated sulphuric acid, and
which gives valuable points for the examination of some fat oils. Of
course, the large quantities of oil otherwise prescribed cannot be
used. While for the examination of fat oils 50 grammes of oil are mixed
with 10 cubic centimeters of concentrated sulphuric acid in a beaker
glass wrapped around with cotton, Williams could use only six cubic
centimeters of volatile oil. They were brought into a very small beaker
glass enveloped in cotton. After reading off the temperature, twelve
cubic centimeters of concentrated sulphuric acid were added and the
whole stirred with the thermometer until the temperature no longer
rose. Numbers were in this manner obtained which might in some cases,
for instance, cassia oil, furnish guiding points for judging the purity
of the oil.

Planchon proposes the following procedure in order to recognize a
volatile oil:--


A. _The oil is specifically lighter than water._

1. The substance is solid and only melts at 347° F.: _Camphor_.

2. The oil at a temperature of over 32° F. contains a crystalline
stearoptene.

 _a._ The oil is laevorotatory, the stearoptene melts at 77° F., and,
 on adding sulphuric acid, a clear solution remains behind: _Rose oil_.

 _b._ The oil possesses no rotatory power, the stearoptene melts at 50°
 F., and, on adding sulphuric acid, two layers are formed, only one of
 which is liquid: _Anise-seed oil_.

 _c._ The oil is dextrorotatory, the stearoptene melts at 41° F., and,
 on adding sulphuric acid, a nearly colorless fluid remains behind:
 _Fennel oil_.

3. The oil is perfectly fluid and clear at above 32° F.

I. The oil explodes with iodine, emitting violet vapors.

 _a._ The oil thickens in the air and readily forms resin. It requires
 for its solution several volumes of alcohol: _Oil of conifers_.

 _b._ The oil, on exposure to the air, does not thicken and but slowly
 forms resin.

 α. It is dextrorotatory.

 The liquid oil dissolves santalin: _Oil of the aurantiaceæ_.

 The thick oil does not dissolve santalin: _Mace oil_.

 β. The oil is laevorotatory.

 The oil shows an acid reaction and dissolves in equal parts of
 alcohol: _Lavender oil_.

 The oil shows a neutral reaction and dissolves in 12 to 15 parts of
 alcohol: _Marjoram oil_.

II. The oil gives no explosion with iodine, but shows an increase in
temperature with or without emission of red vapors.

 _a._ The oil shows an acid reaction.

 α. The blue or green oil shows the acid reaction only
 indistinctly: _Milfoil oil_.

 β. The colorless or brown oil gives a turbid fluid with sulphuric
 acid. It is laevorotatory: _Spanish marjoram oil_.

 The oil is rendered but slightly turbid by sulphuric acid; it acquires
 a red-violet color by nitric acid, has no effect upon the plane of
 polarization, and has a peculiar odor: _Oil of valerian_.

_b._ The oil is neutral.

 α. It dissolves with difficulty in alcohol.

 β. The oil is miscible in every proportion with alcohol.

 1. It is dextrorotatory.

 The oil is colorless or yellowish, it thickens on exposure to the air,
 and dissolves and reduces fuchsine: _Caraway oil_.

 The oil is thick, yellow-brown or red-yellow, and has a peculiar odor:
 _Calamus oil_.

 2. The oil is laevorotatory.

 It is fluid and has an aromatic odor: _Rosemary oil_.

 The oil is thick and very pungent: _Cubebs oil_.

III. The oil dissolves iodine without vigorous reaction and without an
increase in the temperature.

 _a._ The oil is blue and green.

 It has an agreeable, camphor-like odor: _Camomile oil_.

 The green oil thickens in the air and is dextrorotatory: _Wormwood
 oil_.

 The oil is generally green and produces no effect upon the plane of
 polarization: _Cajeput oil_.

_b._ The oil is colorless or yellow-brown.

 α. It separates a solid stearoptene at about 32° F.: _Rue oil_.

 β. The oil remains liquid at several degrees below 32° F.

 1. Dextrorotatory oils.

 The oil shows an acid reaction, and gives with sulphuric acid a
 somewhat turbid solution, which becomes clear by the addition of
 alcohol: _Dill oil_.

 The oil gives with sulphuric acid a yellow-red turbid solution, which
 becomes clear and peach-blossom red by the addition of alcohol:
 _Eucalyptus oil_.

 2. Laevorotatory oil.

 The oil showing an acid reaction becomes thick in the air and has a
 characteristic odor: _Mint oil_.

 The oil shows a neutral reaction and has a camphor-like odor:
 _Thyme oil_.

IV. The oil does not dissolve iodine, does not heat with sulphuric
acid, and does not react upon nitric acid. The odor is empyreumatic:
_Petroleum_.


B. _The oil is specifically heavier than water._

1. The oil shows an acid reaction.

 It is soluble in 30 parts of water, boils at 356° F., and smells of
 bitter almonds: _Oil of bitter almonds_.

 The oil has an agreeable, sweet odor and boils at from 392° to 431.6°
 F.: _Wintergreen oil_.

2. The oil shows a neutral reaction.

 _a._ The oil is laevorotatory.

 It becomes blue by the addition of sulphuric acid: _Oil of cloves_.

_b._ The oil is optically inactive.

 The thick oil gives with sulphuric acid a turbid, black-brown fluid;
 the odor is agreeable: _Cinnamon oil_.

_c._ The oil is dextrorotatory.

 The thick oil has an agreeable odor: _Sassafras oil_.



CHAPTER IV.

THE VOLATILE OILS USED IN PERFUMERY.


The volatile oils, as previously mentioned, may be divided into three
groups, viz: the pure hydrocarbons, oxygenated oils, and sulphuretted
oils. Chemically, this division is, however, of little value, since,
among bodies which should be classed according to it in one of the
groups, combinations are found which vary very much in a chemical
respect, and belong partially in the groups of alcohols, indifferent
bodies, acids, etc.

It is, therefore, preferred not to attempt a classification of the
volatile oils according to their chemical composition, but simply to
enumerate them in alphabetical order.

_Acacia, oil of_, commonly called _oil of cassie_. The flowers or
buds of the _acacia Farnesiana_ yield a somewhat thickly-fluid,
greenish-yellow oil of a very intense but delightful odor. The oil
may be obtained either by extraction or absorption. The acacia is
cultivated in special plantations along the _Riviera di Genova_. These
plantations being controlled by a few perfumers, the oil is not allowed
to reach the market, and does not form an article of commerce. The
green-colored _extrait d'acacia_ is a solution of the oil in alcohol.

_Almond oil_ (_bitter_) (_oleum amygdalæ amaræ_) is obtained by
submitting bitter almond cake (left after the expression of the fixed
oil from bitter almonds) to distillation with water. The volatile
oil does not exist ready formed in the bitter almond, nor in the
almond cake, but results from the decomposition of a glucoside called
"amygdalin," contained in the cake, under the influence of emulsin and
water, the emulsin acting as a ferment, into benzylic aldehyde, glucose
and prussic acid. The almond tree grows wild, but is also cultivated
in Southern Europe, Africa, Barbary, Palestine and Syria. The bitter
almonds brought from Barbary are considered the best. Besides, in
almonds, amygdalin occurs in various other plants; for instance, in
the leaves of the cherry laurel, the leaves and kernels of the peach,
the kernels of the black cherry and other varieties of _prunus_
and _amygdalus_, they all yielding, after maceration with water, a
distillate containing prussic acid and oil of bitter almonds.

Instead of the comparatively expensive bitter almonds, peach kernels
freed from their hard shells are extensively used in the fabrication
of oil of bitter almonds. The oil is prepared as follows: The press
cakes of bitter almonds or peach kernels are ground and soaked about
twenty-four hours in twice their weight of water to which one-third
their weight of salt has been added. The whole is then submitted to
distillation. The temperature of the water should not exceed 113° to
122° F. The emulsin contained in the almonds possesses only within
certain limits of temperature the power of decomposing amygdalin,
and, if heated to 176° F., becomes inoperative. Hence, if the almond
paste is quickly heated to boiling, the emulsin becomes inoperative
before all the amygdalin is decomposed, and a portion of it being
consequently lost, the yield is insufficient. The distillation of the
almond paste is effected in a current of steam.

A portion of the prussic acid formed by the decomposition of the
amygdalin adheres tenaciously to the oil. This content of prussic acid
makes the oil of bitter almonds exceedingly poisonous, while in itself
it is non-poisonous. It can be freed from the prussic acid by shaking
with ferrous sulphate (blue vitriol) solution. By then distilling
over burnt lime the originally yellow or yellowish oil is obtained
colorless. It is then thinly fluid, of a peculiar agreeable odor and
strongly nutty taste. Its specific gravity is 1.043 at 59° F., but
varies a little with age. It boils at 356° F., and dissolves in 13
parts of water, but more readily in alcohol and ether. In the air it is
rapidly converted into benzoic acid by the absorption of oxygen. It has
to be carefully protected from air and light and kept in well-closed
bottles in a dark place. The crude oil, containing from 2 to 5 per
cent. prussic acid, has generally a yellowish color.

Oil of bitter almonds may be prepared artificially in many ways. By
allowing chlorine to flow into boiling toluene, the latter is converted
into benzyl chloride:-

 C_{6}H_{5}(CH_{3}) + Cl_{2} = C_{6}H_{5}(CH_{2}Cl) + HCl

 └----toluene-----┘            └-benzyl chloride--┘
                     chlorine                        hydrogen
                                                     chloride

By withdrawing the chlorine and one atom hydrogen from the benzyl
chloride and introducing for it one atom oxygen, the benzyl chloride
is converted into benzaldehyde. This conversion is readily effected
by continuously boiling, best with the introduction of carbonic acid,
1 part of benzyl chloride with 1½ parts of lead nitrate and 10 parts
of water, and finally distilling the benzaldehyde off by steam. The
decomposition takes place according to the following equation:--

  2[C_{6}H_{5}(CH_{2}Cl)] + Pb(NO_{3})2 =
  2[C_{6}H_{5}(CHO)] + PbCl_{2} + N_{2}O_{3} + H_{2}O.

The crude benzaldehyde thus obtained is agitated with warm solution
of acid sodium sulphite, the solution formed thereby is separated
from undissolved oily particles and cooled, whereby a combination
of benzaldehyde with acid sodium sulphate crystallizes out. This
combination is separated from the remaining fluid, decomposed by acid
and submitted to distillation, whereby benzaldehyde passes over. Large
quantities of benzaldehyde are at present prepared according to this
method. The identity of benzaldehyde with oil of bitter almonds has
been established by Lippmann and Hawliczek.

Genuine oil of almonds is much adulterated, chiefly with alcohol,
nitrobenzole, and various cheaper oils. An addition of 3 to 5 per cent.
of alcohol is frequently made by Italian dealers in order to conceal a
content of water, which at a low temperature is apt to render the oil
turbid. To detect the presence of alcohol, moderately heat a sample
of the oil in a distilling apparatus and compound the drops, first
passing over with sodium carbonate solution and then with potassium
iodide solution. In the presence of alcohol a yellowish crystalline
precipitate of iodoform is formed.

An addition of synthetically composed oil might seem of no importance,
since the natural oil does not differ from it. However, for very
fine perfumery the natural oil cannot be replaced by the artificial,
it having been thus far impossible to obtain the latter absolutely
chemically pure. It always contains small quantities of undecomposed
chlorine combinations which injure the taste and odor. To detect such
oil in the natural oil, bring a few drops upon a tuft of cotton and
ignite it. Over the burning flame invert a beaker moistened inside with
water. On the moist sides of the beaker the soot and hydrochloric acid
formed by the combustion of the chlorine combination are precipitated.
When the flame is extinguished, the beaker is rinsed out with water,
the fluid filtered and tested for chlorine with nitrate of silver.
An addition of 10 per cent. artificial oil can in this manner be
accurately determined.

If genuine oil of bitter almonds containing prussic acid, be heated
with an excess of alcoholic potash lye, and the excess of the latter
be neutralized with hydrochloric acid, benzoin amounting to 40 to 50
per cent. of the weight of oil of bitter almonds is, according to A.
Kremel, separated. By subjecting artificial oil of bitter almonds to
the same treatment, no benzoin is separated, so that the genuine oil
can in this manner be distinguished from the artificial. Kremel further
found that oil of bitter almonds prepared from apricot kernels, when
treated in an analogous manner, yielded considerably less benzoin,
and that cherry-laurel oil containing prussic acid, which has been
considered identical with oil of bitter almonds, separated no benzoin
whatever. Should further experiments prove the constancy of this
phenomenon, this reaction would be a convenient means of distinguishing
the four products.

An adulteration with nitrobenzole and other volatile oils is recognized
by mixing 2 drops of the oil with 100 drops of distilled water,
and shaking vigorously. Pure oil must completely dissolve. However,
the test yields accurate results only with the use of actually pure
distilled water and by accurately observing the above-mentioned
proportions. If to 5 cubic centimeters of 90 per cent. alcohol and
an equal quantity of distilled water in a test-tube, 10 drops of the
oil be added, and, after closing the tube with the finger, mixture be
effected by gently turning the tube twice upside down, a clear solution
will immediately result if the oil is pure. If, however, it contains
nitrobenzole, even only 1 per cent., the latter separates, at first
rendering the fluid turbid, but in the course of a minute, when gently
agitated, it floats in the form of minute drops upon the fluid, while,
when at rest, these drops collect to larger ones on the bottom of the
test-tube. If the oil becomes only turbid, adulteration with other
volatile oils is indicated. Another test, given by Wagner, is based
upon the difference in the specific gravity of mixtures of oil of
bitter almonds with oil of mirbane. The specific gravity of commercial
oil of bitter almonds varies between 1.040 and 1.043 and that of oil
of mirbane between 1.180 and 1.201.

  5 c. c. of pure oil of bitter almonds weigh 5.29 grammes.
  5   "   mixed with ¼ oil of mirbane     "   5.39    "
  5   "     "     "  ½  "        "        "   5.57    "
  5   "     "     "  ¾  "        "        "   5.75    "
  5   "   of pure       "        "        "   5.90    "


Oil of bitter almonds is much used in the fabrication of perfumery. In
a pure state its odor is by no means agreeable, but rather strong and
stupefying. When strongly diluted it is, however, very pleasant.

_Angelica oil_ is obtained by distillation with water from the root
of _Angelica Archangelica L._, natural order _Umbelliferae_. The oil
is lighter than water, possesses the spicy odor of the root and an
aromatic pungent taste. It consists mostly of a terpene which turns the
plane of polarization to the right, and boils at 320° F.

Besides the oil from the root, one obtained from the seeds also occurs
in commerce. It is, however, more expensive. In a fresh state it is
amber-yellow, and has a specific gravity of 0.8549 at 59° F.; older
oil is thickly-fluid, brown, and has a specific gravity of O.9086. It
contains a terpene which turns the plane of polarization to the right,
and has a lemon-like odor. It is used for fine perfumery.

_Anise-seed oil_ (_oleum anisi_). The anise (_Pimpinella anisum L._),
natural order _Umbelliferae_, contains volatile oil in all parts, but
chiefly in the seeds. Dry anise-seed yields by distillation 2½ to 3 per
cent. of oil, while the peduncle and chaff contain at the utmost 1 per
cent. of oil, which is said to be richer in stearoptene. The anise-seed
oil prepared in Southern Russia has always been highly valued, but as
it is generally considerably adulterated, the Leipsic manufacturers of
volatile oils prefer to import the seed and distill it themselves.

Freshly prepared anise-seed oil is colorless or straw-yellow, has the
odor of anise and a sweetish taste, leaving a burning sensation upon
the tongue. It is thinly fluid at 68° F., but commences to congeal
at a somewhat lower temperature, and the sooner the more stearoptene
it contains. Good oil should become solid at from 57.2° to 60.8° F.
It has a specific gravity of 0.980 to 0.995 at 59° F. The specific
gravity varies with the content of stearoptene; the greater the latter
the higher the specific gravity. Good anise-seed oil contains 5 to 10
per cent. of terpene and 90 to 95 per cent. of a stearoptene, called
anethol, C_{10}H_{12}O, on which the value of the oil depends. The
anethol can be separated from the oil by cooling to 32° F., and forms
colorless crystals. It has an agreeable odor and intensely sweet taste,
is sparingly soluble in water, but readily in alcohol, ether, and other
solvents of volatile oils. Good anethol has a specific gravity of
0.986, and melts at 69° to 70° F. By frequent contact with the air a
small portion of the anethol is oxidized, very likely to anisaldehyde.
By this process the specific gravity is raised and the melting point
lowered.

Anise-seed oil is soluble in 5 parts of 90 per cent. alcohol, and with
3½ times its volume of petroleum-ether yields a clear mixture. Its
mixture with four times its weight of petroleum-ether is turbid, but
becomes clear in ten minutes, while that with five times its volume of
petroleum-ether remains for a longer time turbid. In a fluid state the
oil, when exposed to the air, becomes resinous and loses its property
to crystallize. It should, therefore, be kept in tightly-closed bottles
in a cool, shady place.

Anise-seed oil is used in perfuming soaps and mouth waters. It should,
however, be used with prudence, since the sweetish, penetrating odor of
the oil readily overcomes the other volatile oils in the mixture, and
renders them inoperative.

_Star anise oil_ very much resembles the ordinary anise-seed oil. It
is obtained from star anise, the fruit of _Illicium anisatum_, a tree
formerly supposed to be indigenous to Cochin China, and cultivated in
China, Japan, and the Phillipine Islands. However, according to Messrs.
Bourgeoin-Meiffre, a French firm of Hanoï (Tonkin), the star anise oil
found in commerce is exclusively produced in the French colony Tonkin
(Province Langson), the French government having made over the entire
sale of the oil to the above-mentioned firm.

According to a memoir published by Dr. Blondel, of Paris, the star
anise tree is not indigenous to the Chinese provinces Yunnan, Quang-si,
and Fo-Rien, but to the province Langson, which has by conquest passed
into French possession. Hence, the producers of star anise and star
anise oil are now under French control and, as it seems, are obliged
to sell all the oil produced to the above-mentioned firm. If these
statements should prove correct, the Chinese harbors Macao and Hong
Kong, from which the greater portion of star anise oil was formerly
exported, will lose their importance in this respect and the product
find its way direct from Hanoï _via_ Hayphong to Marseilles. The first
shipment from Bourgeoin-Meiffre arrived in Europe in December, 1890.
According to Messrs. Schimmel & Co.'s report, the product is put up and
packed exactly like that formerly shipped from Hong Kong, and the oil
of excellent quality.

Star anise oil differs from the ordinary oil in containing a much
smaller quantity of anethol, and hence congealing only at a temperature
of from 41° to 50° F. Besides the odor of the terpene contained in star
anise oil differs from that of the ordinary oil. Admixtures of star
anise oil can, therefore, be generally recognized by the odor. Other
methods recommended for its detection are unreliable.

_Balm oil._--The leaves of this plant, _Melissa officinalis_, yield
by distillation a volatile oil sometimes called oil of melissa. It is
colorless or yellowish, of a pleasant odor, has a specific gravity of
0.85 to 0.92, shows a slightly acid reaction and dissolves in 2 to 3
parts of alcohol. It must not be confounded with the so-called East
India oil of melissa or citronella oil from _Andropogon Nardus L._ Balm
oil is occasionally used in the preparation of _eau de Cologne_.

_Basil oil_ is distilled in Southern France from the fresh leaves
of _Ocymum basilicum L._, natural order _Labiatæ_. The oil shows
the peculiar odor of the herb and crystallizes a few degrees above
32° F. In perfumery it is used as an addition to violet and other
preparations. The French also prepare a _pommade basilique_, which
serves as a cheap substitute for violet pomade.

_Bayberry oil_, or _oil of bay leaves_, is extracted by distillation
from the leaves of _Myrcia acris_ or the bayberry tree. Many varieties
of the tree exist throughout the West Indies, which are scarcely to
be distinguished botanically, but have quite a different odor from
that of the genuine tree. Great care must, therefore, be taken in the
collection of the leaves which are to be used, as the admixture of a
small quantity of the other leaves may entirely spoil the product of
distillation. Two oils are obtained, a light oil of specific gravity of
0.870 to 0.990, and a heavy oil with specific gravity 1.023 to 1.037.
When first distilled the oil is colorless, but by exposure to the air
quickly acquires a yellowish tint and, if the exposure be continued,
becomes quite dark in color. The odor of the freshly-distilled oil is
rank, but in the course of from three to six months it becomes mellow,
and ripens into the agreeable fragrance so much liked in the best
specimens of bay-rum. The oil is soluble in all proportions in 95 per
cent. alcohol, also in ether and petroleum benzine. Its chief use is
for the preparation of bay-rum.

_Bergamot oil_ is obtained from the rinds of the fruit of _citrus
bergamia_, a tree belonging to the natural order _Aurantiaceæ_. The
rind is grated and the oil running off separated from the aqueous
fluid and cellular substance by means of a separating funnel, or
the grated mass is distilled in a current of carbonic acid. The oil
is very fluid and pale yellow, but poorer qualities are frequently
greenish or brownish. When distilled with water it becomes perfectly
colorless, but is less durable. Its odor is very pleasant, somewhat
like a mixture of orange and lemon oils. Its specific gravity is 0.87
to 0.89. By standing for some time, the oil separates white crystalline
scales (stearoptene), which melt at 223° F. The oil becomes solid a
few degrees below the freezing point. The Messina oil of bergamot is
considered the best. From other volatile oils of the orange family,
bergamot oil differs in dissolving readily in caustic potash, forming
a clear solution. It has, however, the same property as other oils of
a similar origin, of igniting with iodine and not dissolving santalin,
the red resinous coloring matter of santal-wood.

Bergamot oil may be tested as to its purity by mixing it with alcohol.
It becomes pale gray-yellow, forms a sediment which adheres firmly to
the vessel and, on shaking, floats about in the form of flakes. After
two days the sediment is inconsiderable and difficult to divide into
flakes in the clear yellow fluid by shaking. The oil is frequently
adulterated with alcohol. To detect such adulteration, Righini
recommends the following method: Mix 15 parts of the oil with a like
quantity of pure olive oil or oil of sweet almonds. If alcohol is
present, it immediately separates, like water, from the fat oil; if no
separation takes place the oil is not adulterated with alcohol. The
tannin test also gives reliable results. In storing oil of bergamot
great care must be exercised to exclude air and light, as it is one of
the most changeable oils and soon acquires an odor resembling that of
turpentine.

Large quantities of oil of bergamot are used in perfumery. It forms, so
to say, the basis for most of the finer products. In Cologne water it
forms the principal constituent in the mixture of volatile oils.

_Cajeput oil_ (_oleum cajeputi_).--This oil is obtained by distillation
from the leaves of several species of _Melaleucæ_, natural order
_Caryophyllaceæ_, indigenous to the East Indies, Banda, and Malabar.
The ordinary oil has a greenish color and possesses a strong odor
of camphor and a pungent taste. It is chiefly imported by way of
Amsterdam, where it is partially discolored by rectification, so
that two kinds, the white and green cajeput oil, are brought into
commerce. The color of the latter is generally supposed to be due to a
resinous substance containing chlorophyl, though others assert that it
originates from the copper of the distilling apparatus and the copper
flasks in which it is dispatched. The specific gravity of the oil
varies between 0.910 and 0.940, though specifically lighter and heavier
oils are said to occur.

It is claimed that an artificial cajeput oil is often prepared
from camphor and rosemary oil, the green color being obtained by
distillation with milfoil. The presence of camphor may be readily
determined by thoroughly triturating a few drops of the oil with sugar
and then dissolving in water, whereby the particles of camphor separate
in the form of white flakes upon the surface.

Cajeput oil is frequently adulterated with oil of turpentine and
rosemary oil. Such adulteration is recognized by pure cajeput oil
dissolving clear in equal parts of 90 per cent. alcohol, which is not
the case with the other two oils.

_Camomile or chamomile oil_ (_oleum anthemidis_).--Two varieties of
oil of camomile are found in commerce, one green and the other blue.
The first is derived from the flowers of the genuine or Roman camomile
(_Anthemis nobilis_) and the blue from the common variety (_Matricaria
chamomila_). The last oil is the one chiefly used in the manufacture of
perfumery and in medicine.

_Blue camomile oil_ is generally obtained by distillation. In
distilling, metal Florentine flasks should be used, as the oil adheres
tenaciously to glass vessels and the distillate has to be treated with
ether. The pure oil has a beautiful blue color, and on heating forms
blue vapors. It has a penetrating odor which only by strong dilution
becomes similar to that of camomile. By storing in the light and the
simultaneous presence of air, the oil turns green; later on, brown, and
is finally converted into a thickly-fluid, brownish mass.

_Green camomile oil_ from the genuine or Roman camomile possesses an
agreeable odor of fresh lemons; it is more seldom used than the other.

On account of the slight yield obtained from the flowers, camomile oil
is rather expensive.

_Caraway oil_ (_oleum carui_) is obtained by distillation from the
seeds of the well-known aromatic plant _Carum carui_, or the caraway,
natural order _Umbelliferae_. In a fresh, purified state the oil is
colorless, very thinly-fluid and possesses a pungent taste. The oil
prepared from cleansed Dutch seed is best liked, while that distilled
from Norwegian or Tyrolese seed is not much in demand, its taste and
odor not being so pure on account of the many impurities mixed with
these kinds of seed.

Caraway oil consists mainly of a terpene, C_{10}H_{16}, called
_carvene_, specific gravity 0.870, and of _carvol_, specific gravity
0.960. The richer the oil in carvol, the higher its specific gravity.
Good caraway oil should have a specific gravity of 0.900 to 0.910.
The carvol being the actual bearer of the aroma, the value of the oil
exclusively depends on the content of it. In the better varieties
of oil, the content of carvol amounts to from 45 to 50 per cent.,
while poorer qualities generally contain only from 40 to 42 per cent.
The carvol and carvene are now frequently separated by fractional
distillation. The carvol, which has three times as strong an odor and
taste as the carvene, dissolves with much greater facility in alcohol.
The carvene being offered at very low prices might be suitable for
perfuming cheap soaps.

Caraway oil obtained by distillation from the plant has a less
agreeable odor than that from the seed, and possesses an acrid resinous
taste.

The purity of caraway oil is recognized by its dissolving clear in
equal parts of 90 per cent. alcohol. If such is not the case, the oil
contains either an admixture of oil of turpentine or does not possess
the full normal content of carvol. Pure caraway oil does not detonate
with iodine, which is the case with oil containing oil of turpentine.

Caraway oil is chiefly used for perfuming soap; for handkerchief
perfumes it is not suitable.

_Cedar oil_ (_oleum cedri_) is obtained by distillation from the
shavings of the wood of the American or Virginia cedar (_Juniperus
virginiana_). For the distillation of oil the waste falling off in the
manufacture of lead-pencils is almost exclusively used. It yields about
2 to 3 per cent. of oil. The oil is thinly-fluid, of specific gravity
0.9622, of a greenish color, and an agreeable but not very penetrating
odor. It is a mixture of a terpene, boiling at about 540° F., and of
a hydrocarbon. The latter, which is called _cidrin_, forms the fluid
portion of the oil. It has a specific gravity of 0.984, and boils at
about 459° F.

Cedar oil is extensively used in the manufacture of toilet soap,
it serving as the basis for other perfumes. Care must, however, be
taken that its odor does not preponderate, as in such case it readily
produces an unpleasant effect. The oil being cheap, adulteration is
scarcely to be feared.

A volatile oil is also obtained by distillation from the leaves of the
_Juniperus virginiana_. In odor it resembles savin oil, and is unfit
for perfuming purposes.

_Cherry-laurel oil_ (_oleum laurocerasi_) is the volatile oil, which
contains prussic acid, obtained from the leaves of the cherry-laurel
(_Prunus laurocerasus, L._). Like bitter almonds, the leaves contain
some amygdalin. Hence they are macerated with water and allowed to
stand in a warm place for 24 hours. By subsequent distillation a
volatile oil is obtained which closely resembles oil of bitter almonds,
but differs in some respects. It is colorless or yellowish, rarely
reddish, and of specific gravity 1.05 to 1.06. In its behavior towards
air, solvents, and reagents, it does not essentially differ from oil of
bitter almonds.[5]

 [5] Compare Kremel's observations, p. 91.

To detect oil of mirbane in cherry-laurel oil, Enrico Pega adds some
alcohol to the oil to be tested and then mixes it with some alcoholic
potash lye and a few drops of ferric chloride solution. After standing
for a few hours the mixture is shaken and distilled. A small portion
of the oil distilling over is freed from water, poured upon a few
small pieces of pure caustic potash in a test-tube, and heated over
a lamp. If the sample is pure it remains colorless; in the presence
of oil of mirbane it acquires a dark coloration in consequence of the
formation of nitrobenzide and aniline, a few drops of calcium chloride
solution brought into the mixture producing, for this reason, a violet
coloration.

Cherry laurel oil is but seldom used for perfuming purposes.

_Cinnamon oils._--There are four different kinds of this oil, viz.,
_Ceylon cinnamon oil_, _cassia oil_, _cinnamon root oil_, and _oil of
cinnamon leaves_. Though the first two are very much alike, the Ceylon
oil is considered the best.

_Ceylon cinnamon oil_ (_oleum cinnamoni ceylonici_).--Formerly this oil
was exclusively distilled from chips and waste of the genuine cinnamon
bark of the _Cinnamonum ceylonicum, Nees_, and came into commerce from
Ceylon. However, the fabrication of the oil from cinnamon waste or
chips is now extensively carried on in Germany, and this oil, being
prepared with the assistance of more perfect apparatus, has almost
entirely supplanted that exported from Ceylon.

When fresh, the Ceylon oil is colorless, but when stored for some
time it becomes first golden yellow and later on brownish. It is
thickly-fluid and heavier than water, its specific gravity being 1.060
to 1.090. It has an agreeable, aromatic odor and a biting but pure,
sweet taste. Its principal constituent is cinnamaldehyde (C_{9}H_{8}O),
and it contains, besides, 4 to 8 per cent. of eugenol. The presence of
the latter in cinnamon oil may be established by shaking with 15 per
cent. soda-solution, whereby the eugenol is dissolved, and decomposing
the aqueous solution with hydrochloric acid. The eugenol separated
thereby gives in alcoholic solution, when compounded with a trace of
ferric chloride, a beautiful blue color.

_Cassia oil_ (_oleum cassiæ_).--In China and Cochin China this oil is
obtained by distillation from the bark, unripe fruits, buds, and other
waste of the _Cinnamonum cassia_ or _Cinnamonum aromaticum, Nees_, a
tree indigenous to those countries. It has a pale yellow color, which
in time becomes brown. It is thickly-fluid, of specific gravity 1.05
to 1.07, and possesses a sweet taste with an acrid after-taste. Like
cinnamon oil, it consists chiefly of cinnamaldehyde, but contains no
eugenol, and hence can be readily distinguished from Ceylon oil by the
above-mentioned reaction. One part of pure cassia oil dissolves in two
parts of 80 per cent. alcohol.

_Cinnamon root oil and oil of cinnamon leaves._--Neither of these
oils contains cinnamaldehyde, but abundant quantities of eugenol, the
root oil as much as 50 to 70 per cent. The root oil is quite limpid
and has an agreeable odor of cinnamon and cloves. The leaf oil is
thickly-fluid, of the consistency of castor oil.

The Ceylon oil is frequently adulterated with cassia oil. Such
adulteration is very difficult to detect, and can only be recognized by
experts by the odor and taste.

The quality of cassia oil is recognized by the taste and odor,
especially on heating, and the high specific gravity, in consequence
of which the oil sinks in water. According to Hager, cassia oil is
frequently adulterated with oil of cloves. This is, however, scarcely
probable, the price of oil of cloves being, on an average, higher than
that of cassia oil. The latter, however, is frequently adulterated with
cheaper thickly-fluid volatile oils, especially with cedar oil. In this
case the oil does not dissolve in the above-mentioned proportion in
alcohol.

The value of cassia oil is dependent on its contents of cinnamaldehyde.
Hence, the establishment of its actual value requires a quantitative
determination of its contents of cinnamaldehyde, which unfortunately
presents great difficulties. For this purpose Schimmel & Co. proceed
indirectly as follows: 75 grammes of cassia oil in a capacious boiling
flask are mixed with 300 grammes of a boiling-hot 30 per cent. solution
of acid sodium sulphite, whereby cinnamaldehyde-sodium sulphite
is immediately separated. The whole is then vigorously agitated
and allowed to rest for a short time. (With oils rich in aldehyde
considerable heating generally takes place, which must eventually be
moderated by the addition of cold water.) Next add about 200 grammes of
hot water and heat the whole, with frequent shaking, in the water-bath
until the combination of the aldehyde with the acid-sodium sulphite
is _completely_ dissolved, and the non-aldehydes in the form of an
oily layer float upon the solution of the aldehyde salt. Now allow
the whole to cool, then shake twice with ether; first, with about 200
cubic centimeters, and then with 100; combine the ethereal extracts
of the non-aldehydes separated by means of a separatory funnel, and
filter them into a capacious, previously-weighed beaker provided with a
platinum wire, the lower end of which is bent in the form of a spiral.
Now evaporate the ether as much as possible, by placing the beaker in
hot water. When by swinging the beaker the remaining fluid no longer
foams up, allow to cool off and weigh. Now return the beaker-glass to
the water-bath for ten minutes, weigh again after cooling, and repeat
the operation until the difference between two weighings does not
amount to more than 0.3 gramme at the utmost. The weighing _previous to
the last_ is taken as the correct one.[6]

 [6] The manner of expelling the ether is of great influence upon
 the accuracy of the result. Though the non-aldehydes volatilize
 with difficulty, they are volatile, and hence the ether must be
 quickly expelled, and the beaker not allowed to stand longer upon the
 water-bath than necessary for the evaporation of the ether.

The weight of the non-aldehydes thus obtained is deducted from the
cassia oil used, the difference giving the content of cinnamaldehyde in
the latter.

For example:--

    Used 79.71 grammes of oil.

 First weighing of the beaker after evaporating the ether 147.55 grammes
 Second    "      "       "      "       "         "      146.84    "
 Third     "      "       "      "       "         "      146.58    "
                           Tare of the beaker             128.34    "

     Hence non-aldehydes in the oil    146.84 grammes.
     Less tare                         128.34    "
                                       ------
                                      = 18.50 grammes.

    Calculated to per cent., 23.1 per cent.
    100 - 23.1 = 76.9 per cent. cinnamaldehyde.

By accurately following the directions given, the difference between
two controlling determinations will be only a few tenths per cent.,
seldom as much as 1 per cent. For practical purposes, for which alone
this method is intended, this is more than sufficient.

According to the reports of Schimmel & Co., all the cassia oil brought
into commerce from China was for a considerable time adulterated with
resin and petroleum, they having found as much as 30 per cent. of resin
in the oil. Such adulteration can be established by the determination
of the specific gravity and distilling the oil. Good cassia oil should
show a specific gravity of 1.05 to 1.07 at 59° F., and by distillation
90 per cent. of pure cassia oil must pass over. The residue should not
solidify after cooling and acquire the character of a brittle resin; it
must remain at least thickly-fluid, and under no conditions amount to
more than 10 per cent.

_Citron oil_ (_oleum citri_), from the peel of the fruit of _Citrus
medica_ or the citron tree. The oil is prepared in a similar manner
to that of oil of bergamot, either by expression or distillation, the
latter process yielding more and purer oil.

Rectified citron oil is colorless, of an agreeable penetrating odor
and acrid taste, and very sensitive to light and air. By exposure to
light it turns yellow, and if air be admitted at the same time, it is
first converted into a fluid which, on account of its content of ozone,
possesses strong bleaching powers. The oil at the same time acquires a
disagreeable odor, resembling that of oil of turpentine, and is finally
converted into a resinous mass.

Citron oil is frequently adulterated with oil of orange and sometimes
with oil of bergamot. These adulterations are readily detected by an
experienced person by the odor, this being in fact the best guide. The
specific gravity of citron oil is 0.850 at 59° F.; it boils at from
332.6° to 343.4° F. and congeals at 4° F.

_Citronella oil_ (_oleum citronellæ_) is chiefly distilled in Ceylon
from the lemon grass, _Andropogon Nardus, L._ It is quite limpid, of
a greenish-yellow to brown color, and has an odor resembling that
of genuine citron oil. Its specific gravity is 0.896 at 59° F., and
it boils at from 392° to 410° F. Of the various oils reaching the
market that with the trade-mark "Fisher" is most in demand, it being
distinguished by special purity. Edward Kremers has found in citronella
oil an aldehyde, C_{7}H_{14}O, a terpene, C_{10}H_{16}, citronellol,
which is isomeric with borneol; further, acetic acid and valerianic
acid.

The Indian distillers, it is claimed, adulterate the citronella oil
with petroleum, an addition up to 25 per cent. being not uncommon.

According to experiments by Schimmel & Co., pure citronella oil must
give a clear solution, when 1 part of the oil is vigorously shaken with
10 parts of 80 per cent. alcohol. If, in executing the test, the kind
of turbidity is observed, and whether the portion insoluble in alcohol
separates, after standing, upon the surface or on the bottom of the
fluid, and further, if the above-mentioned quantity of alcohol is not
added at one time, but at first only 1 or 2 parts of it, a conclusion
may be drawn as to the kind and quantity of the adulterant.

Petroleum causes a milky-white turbidity, while in the presence of fat
oil the mixture becomes turbid, but not actually milky. As a rule,
fat oil deposits, after standing, on the bottom, while petroleum
floats upon the surface of the fluid. Citronella oil adulterated
with fat oil does not dissolve in 1 to 2 parts nor in 10 parts of
80 per cent. alcohol, while oil adulterated with not too large a
quantity of petroleum, gives a clear solution with 1 to 2 parts. The
determination of the specific gravity may also serve for the detection
of adulterations. This holds good, however, only for petroleum, which
reduces the specific gravity, an addition of fat oil producing no
deviation in this respect. The specific gravity of the oil should not
be below 0.895 at 59° F.

Citronella oil is much used for perfuming cheap hair oils and toilet
soaps; it is the chief constituent of all perfumes for honey-soaps.
In the American soap industry it is extensively used, the yearly
consumption being estimated at 1½ million ounces.

_Cloves, oil of_ (_oleum caryophylli_), is obtained by distillation
with steam, or by extraction from the cloves of commerce, which are
the dried unexpanded flower buds of _Caryophyllus aromaticus, L._,
or the clove tree. Oil of cloves, when fresh, is almost colorless,
but on exposure to air acquires a brownish coloration and a thickly
fluid consistency. It has the aromatic taste and odor of cloves, and
a specific gravity of 1.300 to 1.065. It frequently shows a slightly
acid reaction, boils at 482° F., and congeals at 4° F. It is readily
soluble in alcohol, ether, and strong acetic acid. It consists of a
terpene (C_{10}H_{16}) and eugenol (C_{10}H_{12}O_{2}), the odor of
the oil being due to the latter. The terpene has a specific gravity of
0.918, and in distilling passes over first (light oil of cloves). The
eugenol, when fresh, is colorless, has the odor and taste of cloves, a
specific gravity of 1.063 at 65° F., boils at 487.4° F., is insoluble
in water and glycerin, but soluble in alcohol, ether and glacial acetic
acid. Its alcoholic solution is colored magnificently blue by ferric
chloride. If in an alkaline solution it is oxidized with potassium
permanganate, vanillin being formed.

An inferior quality of oil is obtained from the stems of the clove
buds. It dissolves with greater difficulty than the oil prepared from
the buds, and has a darker red-brown color.

To test the value of oil of cloves, introduce, according to Stohman,
into a graduated glass cylinder 10 volumes ether, 10 oil of cloves,
and 30 of a 10-per cent. soda solution. After vigorous shaking, the
eugenol dissolves; the increase in volume of the aqueous fluid is
then proportional to the quantity of eugenol present. For more exact
determinations, dissolve a weighed quantity of oil, repeatedly shake
the aqueous fluid with ether to remove the terpene, then decompose
the eugenol-sodium with dilute sulphuric acid, dissolve the separated
eugenol in ether and weigh after evaporating the ethereal fluid. Good
oil of cloves does not contain less than 80 per cent. of eugenol, and
frequently 90 per cent. or more.

Oil of cloves is chiefly adulterated with copaiba oil and cedar oil.
Such adulteration is recognized by the oil not forming a clear solution
in every proportion with alcohol, as is the case with pure oil of
cloves.

Oil of cloves is much used for perfuming purposes.

_Eucalyptus oil_ (_oleum eucalypti_) is obtained from the leaves
of various trees of the eucalyptus family. According to Merk two
kinds of oil must be strictly kept apart: _oleum eucalypti_ from the
leaves of _eucalyptus globulus_ and _oleum eucalypti australe_, the
former being used in medicine, and the latter, which is considerably
cheaper, chiefly for perfuming purposes. However, Piesse's opinion that
eucalyptus oil, as far as its odor is concerned, does not deserve to be
classed among perfumes is undoubtedly correct. It has an odor between
that of oil of turpentine and cajeput oil, and as long as perfumery is
the art of sweet odors, such oil cannot be designated a perfume.

When not rectified, eucalyptus oil is mostly yellowish or bluish. In a
rectified state it is colorless, clear, limpid, lighter than water, of
a strong odor, and acrid taste. The oil from _eucalyptus globulus_ has
a specific gravity of 0.900 to 0.925, and dissolves in every proportion
in 90 per cent. alcohol. It is optically inactive or turns the plane of
polarization slightly to the right. On standing with sodium it acquires
a yellowish coloration, and does not detonate with iodine. The oil from
_eucalyptus australe_ has a specific gravity of 0.86 to 0.87, and is
but sparingly soluble in 90 per cent. alcohol, so that even a solution
prepared in the proportion of 1:15 is turbid. It turns the plane of
polarization strongly to the left; acquires, on standing with sodium, a
red coloration, and detonates with iodine.

Eucalyptus oil consists of eucalyptol and eucalyptene, and perhaps
other hydrocarbons. The content of the first, on which depends the
medicinal value of the oil, varies very much in the oils from the
different species of eucalyptus, the oil from some species, it is said,
containing no eucalyptol whatever.

Eucalyptol (C_{24}H_{20}O_{2}) is limpid, colorless, turns the plane
of polarization, has a specific gravity of 0.905, and boils at 347° F.
Its vapor mixed with air has an agreeable, refreshing taste, and its
dilute solutions remind one of roses. Eucalyptene (C_{24}H_{18}) has a
specific gravity of 0.836, and boils at 329° F.

_Fennel oil_ (_oleum fœniculi_) is derived by distillation from the
fruits of _Fœniculum vulgare, Gaertner_. Large quantities of it are
produced in Saxony, and also in Galicea. It is quite colorless,
limpid, of specific gravity 0.940 to 0.970 and, with a full content of
stearoptene, possesses a nauseous sweet taste and odor. It contains
60 to 70 per cent. of anethol and congeals at from 41° to 50° F. to a
crystalline mass. The leaves of the plant also contain a volatile oil,
which is, however, less valued than the seed-oil.

Good fennel oil should dissolve clear in 1 to 2 parts of 90 per cent.
alcohol. Direct adulterations of this oil do not occur, but the
stearoptene is frequently withdrawn by fractional distillation whereby
the oil loses much in value. Such oil freed from stearoptene does not
congeal, has a more bitter than sweet taste and does not dissolve in
the above-mentioned proportion in alcohol.

In perfumery fennel oil is but little used; sometimes in connection
with other volatile oils for perfuming soaps.

_Geranium oil_, _palmarosa oil_, _Turkish geranium oil_ is obtained
from _Andropogon Pachnodes_. It is yellowish, limpid, of specific
gravity 0.890 at 59° F., possesses a very agreeable rose-like odor
resembling that of geranium oils from _Pelargonium radula, Aiton_, and
for this reason is generally designated as Turkish geranium oil. The
odor of the oil is improved by shaking it with water containing lemon
juice, any content of copper being thereby removed. The washed oil is
then brought into shallow dishes and exposed for two or three weeks to
the sun, whereby its odor becomes still more like that of rose oil.
The oil thus prepared is much used for adulterating rose oil. Turkish
geranium oil is also much used for the adulteration of genuine geranium
oil and is itself adulterated with oil of turpentine. It is extensively
employed in perfumery, especially for perfuming hair oils and pomades,
and in conjunction with geranium oils for rose soap.

_East Indian geranium oil_ is obtained, chiefly in the Presidency of
Bombay, from _Andropogon Schoenantus, L._ It is greenish-yellow to
yellow-brown, has a specific gravity of 0.906 at 59° F., and consists
mainly of geraniol (C_{10}H_{18}O). Its odor is rose-like, though
modified by a lemon-like odor. It is principally used for perfuming
cheaper articles.

_French and African geranium oils_ (_oleum geranii_) are obtained
by distillation with water from the leaves of various species of
pelargonium. Many different kinds of this oil are found in commerce.
The finest and most expensive are the Spanish and French geranium
oils, so-called _rosé_, which are distinguished by their fine odor,
closely resembling that of rose oil. They are derived from _Pelargonium
radula_, and are either yellowish, brownish, or pale green, the
brownish oils being preferred. It congeals at 60.8° F. and turns the
plane of polarization to the right. Another good geranium oil is
the African, which is chiefly prepared in Algiers from _Pelargonium
roseum_, _Wildenow_, and _P. odoratissimum, Aiton_. It closely
resembles the French oil, but turns the plane of polarization to the
left.

French geranium oil is said to be frequently adulterated with fat or
copaiba oil; but geranium oil being soluble in 70 per cent. alcohol,
such adulterations are readily detected. Add to 5 cubic centimeters of
70 per cent. alcohol (specific gravity 0.890) at 59° to 62.5° F., 10
drops of the oil, and shake. If a clear solution results the oil is
very likely unadulterated.

The so-called Turkish geranium oil is frequently found mixed with
cocoanut oil. To detect this, place the oil in a test-tube in ice or a
cold mixture for several hours, whereby the cocoanut oil separates as
a white substance. Adulterations of upward to 20 per cent. are said to
frequently occur.

Reliable tests to detect an adulteration of the better qualities of
geranium oil with those of a lower grade do not exist, the odor being
the only guide.

_Jasmine oil_ or _oil of jessamine_, from the flowers of _Jasminium
officinale, L._, and _J. grandiflorum_.--The oil is exclusively
obtained by the absorption process, and is the most prized by the
perfumer. It is, however, exceedingly rare on account of the enormous
cost of its production. The extract of jasmine, the "essence de
jasmine" of the French manufactories, is a solution of the oil, as
obtained by extraction with lard or beef suet, in strong spirit of
wine. The odor of jasmine oil is so peculiar that it is without
comparison, and as such cannot be imitated.

_Juniper oil_ (_oleum juniperi_) is obtained by distillation from the
fruits of _Juniperus communis, L._, or juniper. The berries used for
the purpose should be fully grown and fresh and bruised before being
placed in the still. Unripe berries yield a smaller quantity and an oil
of somewhat different properties than ripe berries. The oil obtained by
distillation with steam is colorless and that by ordinary distillation
yellowish, the former having a specific gravity of 0.840 to 0.860
and the latter of 0.850 to 0.900. It consists mainly of terpenes. By
standing, a stearoptene is separated, which crystallizes in feathery
needles from hot spirit of wine. The odor and taste of juniper oil
remind one at the same time of juniper berries and oil of turpentine.

Juniper oil has a great tendency to thicken; it becomes resinous,
acid and thickly fluid, formic acid being formed. It should be kept
in well-closed bottles, and protected from light. It is frequently
adulterated with oil of turpentine and juniper-wood oil. It may be
tested by its behavior towards alcohol, as well as by the taste. A drop
of the oil rubbed up with sugar, and shaken with 500 grammes of water,
should not impart an acrid taste to the water. Juniper oil gives a
clear solution with ½ part absolute alcohol; by a larger quantity it
is rendered turbid.

_Lavender oil_ (_oleum lavandulæ_.)--Large quantities of this oil are
distilled in Southern France, in the neighborhood of Grasse and Nimes,
from the flowers of _lavandula officinalis, Chaix_, which grows wild
in that region. It is limpid, colorless, or yellowish, has a strong
odor and a pungent, aromatic, somewhat bitter taste. With 90 per cent.
alcohol it mixes clear in every proportion, boils at 320° F., and has a
specific gravity of 0.876 to 0.905. It turns the plane of polarization
to the left.

The best French lavender oil, distilled from pure flowers only, is
brought into commerce under the name, "Essence de Lavande Montblanc."
It is distinguished from all other kinds, in the preparation of which
more or less stems and leaves are used, by its extremely agreeable odor.

Lavender is also extensively cultivated in Mitchan and Hitchin,
England, and used for the preparation of an especially fine oil, the
odor of which surpasses even that of the best French product. It is,
however, comparatively expensive.

From the leaves and flowers of _lavandula spica_ the _spike oil_ is
obtained by distillation. It is colorless, or yellow, and in odor
approaches rosemary oil more than lavender oil. Its boiling point, like
that of lavender oil, is at 366.8° F., and its specific gravity 0.96.
Spike oil turns the plane of polarization only slightly to the left,
the deviation scarcely ever exceeding 0.8°.

Lavender oils are very sensitive to light and air, they becoming
ozonized under their influence, and acquire an odor like turpentine.
Hence they must be kept in well-closed vessels in a dark place.

Oil of lavender is frequently adulterated, chiefly with alcohol, fat
oils, oil of turpentine, and spike oil. To test the oil, mix a drop
of it with 10 cubic centimeters of warm water, and test the odor,
which should be pure and agreeably lavender-like. The taste of the
vigorously agitated water should be transiently bitter aromatic. One
volume of the oil should give a turbid mixture with one volume of
dilute alcohol (specific gravity 0.895), but a perfectly clear one
with three volumes. On shaking 0.5 cubic centimeter of the oil with a
few grains of rosaniline it remains uncolored, but, in the presence
of even a trace of alcohol, it acquires a red coloration. By mixing
in a graduated cylinder equal volumes of the oil and distilled water,
and shaking vigorously, the oil, after the water has settled, shows
a decrease in volume if alcohol be present. The presence of fat oil
can be readily recognized by bringing a drop of the oil to be tested
upon filtering paper; a grease stain is formed, which disappears
neither at the ordinary temperature nor by heating. Adulteration with
oil of turpentine is recognized by the boiling point, that of oil of
turpentine being 312.8° F., and that of oil of lavender, as previously
stated, 366.8° F.

Spike oil should mix clear with equal parts of 90 per cent. alcohol;
the contrary would indicate adulteration with oil of turpentine.

For perfumery, lavender oil is of great importance, it being much
employed by itself, as well as mixed with other oils.

_Lemon oil_ (_oleum limonis_) is obtained by various processes from the
rinds of lemons. The best and most delicately-scented oil is obtained
by the so-called sponge process in use in Southern Italy and Sicily.
The rinds are soaked from fifteen to twenty-five minutes in water, to
which sometimes a little soda is added. They are taken up singly in the
right hand and the outer surface of each is firmly pressed against a
large and rather hard-grained sponge held in the left hand and secured
by a strap. Two or three sharp turns of the wrist impart what may be
called a screw-pressure to the rind, thus effectually fracturing the
oil cells, the sponge absorbing the contents. The sponge is constantly
held over an earthen jar and occasionally squeezed into it. The fluid
in the jar quickly separates into three different products--the dregs
or deposit of mucilaginous and cellular matter, some fruit juice, and
the pure oil, which floats on the top. The latter, when bright and
clear, is passed, by means of a small glass siphon, into the cans of
thin copper, in which, after sealing, it is stored away for export.

The above described primitive mode of fabrication furnishes the most
highly prized oils of commerce; they are called hand-pressed oils
or _essences preparées a l'éponge_. In the same manner are obtained
the oils from the sweet and bitter pomegranate, the bergamotte, and
mandarin orange.

Another method of expressing the oil is that of the _écuelle à piquer_,
much used in the region about Nice. The oils obtained by this method,
which are also of a very fine quality, are marked _essence à l'écuelle_
or _au zeste_. The apparatus consists of a round shallow pan of copper
or brass, having a receptacle for the oil at its lowest part and a lip
on one side for pouring, and studded on its concavity by strong blunt
spikes. The workman takes the fruit and rolls it gently but quickly
around the inside of the _écuelle_; the spikes prick the oil sacs,
whereupon the oil, running down the spikes and the concavity of the
pan, collects in the reservoir at the lowest part. The oil is filtered
and then poured into clean glass bottles, in which the impurities are
allowed to settle.

In Reggio, where especially much bergamot oil is manufactured,
sheet-metal bowl-like vessels, studded inside with sharp ribs, are
used. Six to eight fruits are placed in the vessel. A movable lid
closes the vessel, so that there is just enough space for the fruits
between the lid and the bottom of the vessel. If now the lid be
revolved by hand-or steam-power, the rinds of the fruit are torn apart,
and the oil together with the juice runs through the sieve-bottom of
the apparatus into a cylindrical vessel where it clarifies.

The third method of obtaining the oil is by _expression_. The grated
rind is placed in hair mats, and subjected to powerful pressure by
means of a screw or lever press.

The process of _distillation_ is carried on as follows: The peels,
which should be from select fruit, are sprinkled with powdered salt,
and a few hours afterwards sufficient water to moisten them is poured
over them. A day or two afterwards more water is added, and the whole
is distilled until either no more oil separates or the steam, at first
purely fragrant, begins to acquire a rank and rather unpleasant smell.
The oil obtained by distillation is inferior to the others.

 [Illustration: FIG. 20.]

Lately a combination of the écuelle and distilling processes has been
introduced by Domenico Monfalcone, which has given excellent results.
It is shown in Fig. 20. _F F_ is a hollow cylinder, of sheet-iron,
the interior surface of which is studded with a large number of
small metallic knife-points. This cylinder revolves on two axles
attached to it at diagonally opposite points. The cylinder having been
half-charged with lemons, together with a small quantity of water, is
set in motion by aid of the shafting and pulleys driven by the small
steam engine. The fruits are thereby made to come in contact with the
metallic lancets, and their whole surface gradually becomes punctured
sufficiently to rupture the cells containing the volatile oil, which
escapes. The cylinder _F F_ has double walls, the space between them
being intended for the circulation of a current of steam, which is
admitted to heat the water and to facilitate the extraction of the
oil, while at the same time the vapors are rarefied or aspirated by
the vacuum pump _L_. The axles of the cylinder on both sides are
hollow; that on the side looking towards the engine is imbedded in
such a manner that steam from the boiler _D_ may be admitted at will,
either into the double walls of the cylinder, or into the interior
of the cylinder itself, while the hollow passage in the other axle
communicates with a condensing worm, _G_, the outlet of which, _H_,
descends into a cylindrical vessel, _I_, intended to receive the
condensed products, consisting of water and volatile oil. When the
apparatus is first set in motion the pump _L_ begins to produce a
vacuum during the first revolutions of the cylinder. Steam being now
cautiously admitted into the double walls of the cylinder, the water is
raised to boiling at a comparatively low temperature, and the vapors
charged with the volatile oil pass over into the receptacle, where
they separate into two layers. The product obtained by this process is
claimed to be equal in quality to that obtained by mechanical means,
and the yield nearly double.

During the months of November to March the average yield from 1000
lemons in the factories of Palermo is 320 grammes of oil; in those of
Messina, where a better quality of fruit is employed, the yield is
about 400 grammes. The same number of lemons yield about 10 gallons of
juice, the collection of which is, of course, a necessary accompaniment
of the manufacture of volatile oil.

Pure oil of lemons is almost colorless and has the odor of the fruit.
Its specific gravity varies between 0.8752 and 0.8785; it boils at
298.4° F., and is soluble in all proportions in absolute alcohol and
glacial acetic acid. It contains, according to G. Bouchardat and
J. Lafont, besides a little cymene, several hydrocarbons, the most
abundant of which is citrene, C_{10}H_{16}, boiling near 352.5° F.,
having a rotatory power exceeding +105°, and yielding a solid optically
inactive dihydrochloride.

Oil of lemons is frequently adulterated with oil of turpentine. This
may be detected, according to G. Heppe, by slowly heating the oil in
a dry test-tube with a small piece of copper butyrate to about 338°
F., taking care that the temperature does not exceed 356°F. The copper
salt will dissolve in pure oil of lemons with a green color, while in
the presence of oil of turpentine a yellow turbid mixture is obtained,
reddish-yellow cuprous oxide being separated. This test is also
applicable to oils of bergamot and of orange-peel.

_Lilac oil_ is obtained from the flowers of _Syringa vulgaris_, the
lilac, by aqueous distillation and subsequent extraction with benzine.
It is also frequently prepared by the absorption process. It is used
for the most expensive perfumes, and is seldom found in commerce.

_Limes, oil of_ (_oleum limettæ_), is derived from the rind of the
fruit of _Citrus limetta_, or lime. The oil is obtained in the same
manner as oil of lemons, which it somewhat resembles. Its mean specific
gravity is 0.8734 at 84° F. The oil made by the écuelle process is of a
decidedly yellow color, varying in intensity, being darker in the fresh
product. The difference in flavor and aroma is so marked as scarcely to
require any other means of distinguishing the oil made by the écuelle
process from that obtained by distillation, the first having a decided
fragrant lemon smell, whilst the distilled oil is very inferior,
frequently possessing little more than the smell of turpentine. Large
quantities of oil of limes are manufactured in Dominica, but most of
the oil exported from there is of an inferior quality and was formerly
solely used for adulterating oil of lemons. Lately it has also been
employed for scenting soaps and in the manufacture of the common
essences and perfumes.

_Licari oil, linaloë oil_, is obtained, partially in Mexico and
partially in Cayenne, from the wood of the white cedar (_bois de rose
femelle_), _Licari canali_. It is limpid, has an agreeable odor,
reminding one of roses, and does not become solid at 4° F. Its specific
gravity is 0.868 at 59° F., and it boils at 388.4° F.

_Marjoram oils._--By distilling the leaves of _Origanum marjorana, L._,
the _marjoram oil_ (_oleum marjoranæ_) is obtained. It is yellowish
or green-yellowish, but becomes reddish-brown by age. If badly kept
it finally becomes thickly-fluid and sticky, sometimes depositing a
reddish stearoptene. The odor of marjoram oil is less agreeable than
that of the plant, and the taste peculiar, bitter, cooling. The oil
dissolves readily in 90 per cent. alcohol, and when mixed with equal
parts of it yields a clear solution. Its specific gravity is 0.89 to
0.91. It should be kept in entirely filled, well-closed bottles in a
shady place. On coming in contact with air, it absorbs oxygen with
avidity and forms a white, odorless, crystalline mass.

From _Origanum vulgare, L._, the ordinary marjoram oil (_oleum origani
vulgaris_) is obtained. It is yellowish or reddish, limpid, of specific
gravity 0.90 to 0.95, and has a camphor-like odor.

_Spanish marjoram_ (_oleum origani cretici_) is obtained by
distillation from the flowering plants of several varieties of marjoram
(_Or. creticum_, _Or. hirtum_, _Or. smyrnæum_). It is brought into
commerce from Trieste, Smyrna, Salonica, and other Mediterranean
seaports. The oil exported from France appears to be derived from
another variety of marjoram; at least it shows a different behavior
and approaches more the ordinary marjoram oil. The genuine oil is
thickly-fluid, generally yellow-brown; of specific gravity O.95 to
O.97; has a strong, aromatic odor, and produces upon the tongue a sharp
continued burning. It dissolves in equal parts of 90 per cent. alcohol.
It is chiefly adulterated with copaiba oil, the presence of which can
be recognized by the oil dissolving with greater difficulty.

The marjoram oils are but little used for perfuming purposes.

_Mignonette oil_ (_oleum résédæ_). The well-known mignonette, _Réséda
odoratissima_, yields a thick yellowish oil, either by maceration and
absorption, or by extraction with ether or petroleum-ether. It has a
penetrating, disagreeable odor, which can only be rendered agreeable by
greatly diluting the oil. In gathering the flowers care must be had not
to mix them with leaves, as this spoils the odor of the oil.

_Myrrh oil_ (_oleum myrthæ_) is obtained from the leaves of _Myrtus
communis, L._ It is yellowish, dextrorotatory, of specific gravity
0.910 at 60.8° F., and commences to boil at 320° F. As its principal
constituents, Jahns has established a terpene (C_{10}H_{16}), boiling
at from 316.4° to 320° F., and turning the plane of polarization
to the right, and cineol (C_{10}H_{16}O), which boils at 348.8° F.
Besides these principal constituents there seems to be present a very
small quantity of a camphor, corresponding very likely to the formula
C_{10}H_{16}O. Myrtol, which was formerly supposed to exist in myrtle
oil, has been found to be a mixture of the dextrorotatory terpene and
of cineol.

_Nutmeg oils._--From mace, the fresh aril of the nutmeg (_Myristica
fragrans, Houtt_, natural order _Myristicaceæ_), _mace oil_ (_oleum
macidis_), is obtained by distillation. It is straw-yellow or
yellowish, later on yellow-reddish, clear, somewhat thickly-fluid,
of a strong odor resembling that of mace, and a taste at first mild,
but later on pungent and aromatic. It mixes clear in every proportion
with absolute alcohol, but of 90 per cent. alcohol, 5 to 6 volumes are
required for a clear solution. The specific gravity of the oil varies
from 0.87 to 0.92. With iodine it detonates, vapors being emitted. The
oil obtained from dried mace has a less agreeable odor.

The oil is frequently adulterated with tincture of nutmeg prepared
with absolute alcohol. Such an adulteration, as well as any content of
alcohol, is recognized by shaking 0.5 cubic centimeter of the oil with
a grain of rosaniline. In the presence of alcohol the oil acquires a
red coloration, while pure oil remains uncolored.

From the nutmegs, the seed of _Myristica fragrans_, freed from the
seed-coat and aril, a volatile oil (_oleum nucistæ æthereum_) is also
obtained by distillation. It is generally yellowish, seldom colorless,
somewhat thickly-fluid and has the odor and taste of nutmegs. It is
readily soluble in alcohol and ether and of specific gravity, 0.93 to
0.95. It consists of two oils, one specifically lighter and fluid, and
the other heavy and crystalline. On standing it deposits a stearoptene,
called myristicin.

The nutmeg oils are but seldom used in perfumery.

_Opopanax oil_ is obtained from opopanax.[7] It is of gold-yellow color
and an agreeable balsamic odor reminding one somewhat of myrrh. Its
specific gravity is 0.9016, and it boils between 392° and 572° F.

 [7] See later on under "Balsams and Resins."

On account of its strength, the oil must be very carefully handled
in perfuming, but if used in the correct proportion it is very
advantageous.

_Orange-peel oil_, also called _Portugal oil_ or _essence of Portugal_,
is obtained in Italy from the fresh peels of the orange, the fruit of
_Citrus vulgaris, Risso_. It is prepared in a manner similar to that of
oil of lemons (which see). In commerce a distinction is made between
the Messina oil, which is of inferior quality, and the Calabria oil,
which is of a better quality. The Messina oil has a yellow color,
frequently not much darker than that of oil of lemons, while the color
of Calabria oil is dark yellow, nearly brown. The oil prepared from the
peels of the bitter orange (_Citrus bigaradia, Duhamel_), is of the
same color as the sweet Messina oil. It is more used in the preparation
of liqueurs than for perfuming. Orange-peel oils are limpid and have a
specific gravity of 0.819 to 0.9. One part of orange-peel oil should,
according to its age, dissolve clear in 5 to 10 parts of 90 per cent.
alcohol.

Very similar to orange-peel oil, though differing somewhat in odor,
is the _mandarin oil_ obtained from the fresh peels of the mandarin
orange, the fruit of _Citrus sinensis_. It is brought into commerce
from Reggio and is said to form a constituent of the genuine
_ess-bouquet_. It has a specific gravity of 0.852 at 50° F. and is
dextrorotatory.

While from the peels the volatile oil is but seldom obtained by
distillation, this process is exclusively used for gaining volatile
oils from the flowers, leaves, and young branches. In this connection
two kinds of volatile oil have chiefly to be considered, viz:
_orange-flower oil_ and _petit-grain oil_.

_Orange-flower oil_ or _neroli oil_ (_oleum florum aurantii_; _ol.
neroli_; _ol. naphæ_) is obtained by distillation from the flowers of
the bitter orange; while the flowers of the sweet orange yield the
so-called _neroli-Portugal oil_, which is far inferior to the other.

On the French Riviera, the orange is especially cultivated for
obtaining blossoms and leaves for distilling purposes. At Cannes,
Le Cannet, Golfe-Juan, Vallauris, Biot, Vence, Le Bar, Antibes, Le
Cap, Nice, and Mentone, the bitter orange, whose flowers are very
numerous and especially suitable for perfumery, is chiefly cultivated.
Cannes and Le Cannet alone possess 150,000 to 160,000 such trees, and
Golfe-Juan and Vallauris 200,000. The flowers harvested in Golfe-Juan
amount to about 700,000 lbs., in Le Cannet to about 330,000 lbs., at
Cannes to about 130,000 lbs., and in Antibes, Mentone, and Nice to
about 260,000 lbs. One orange tree yields, according to its age, from
2 to 17 lbs. of flowers. The distillation of neroli oil has also been
lately commenced in Sicily and Calabria, but as far as quality is
concerned, the oil thus far brought into commerce cannot compete with
the French oil.

Oil of orange flowers is at first nearly colorless or straw-yellow,
but becomes reddish-yellow when kept for some time. In a clear glass
it opalizes bluish. It is limpid and has a slightly bitter taste and
a strong but very delicious odor. Its specific gravity varies between
0.85 and 0.90. It is but sparingly soluble in water, but imparts to
the latter an agreeable odor; the solution is colored red by sulphuric
acid. With 1 to 2 parts of 90 per cent. alcohol, the oil gives a clear
solution which becomes turbid by a further addition of alcohol and,
after standing quietly, a flaky separation of stearoptene is observed.
If not carefully kept the oil becomes darker and even acquires a
disagreeable odor. By rectification with water oil thus spoiled can
be restored. With sodium the oil does not evolve hydrogen gas; it
detonates with iodine.

Of the various oils of orange blossoms occurring in commerce "_Neroli
petale_" is the best.

Neroli oil being a very expensive oil is exposed to many adulterations.
Mierzinski even asserts that no genuine unadulterated neroli oil occurs
in commerce, because it is a well-known fact that what is sold as
genuine, pure neroli oil, consists on an average of 4/8 genuine neroli
oil, 1/8 oil of bergamot, and 3/8 petit-grain oil. Furthermore, it
is no secret that besides the flowers of all kinds of _Aurantiaceæ_,
unripe fruits or fresh peels of ripe fruits and even young shoots of
the branches and leaves are subjected to distillation. This assertion
perhaps goes too far, but nevertheless it is advisable to procure the
oil only from a thoroughly reliable firm.

A very frequent adulteration consists in an addition of petit-grain
oil. Such an addition can only be recognized by the taste and odor.
For this purpose add to 3 drops of oil in a small bottle 10 grammes
of distilled water, and, after shaking vigorously, test as to the
odor and taste. According to Chevalier, pour 1 or 2 drops of the oil
upon sugar and stir the latter in water; if the oil is not genuine the
water acquires a bitter taste. Hager recommends the following test:
Mix 3 drops of the oil in a test-tube with 40 to 50 drops of alcohol;
add, after complete solution, about ⅓ the volume of the solution of
concentrated sulphuric acid, and effect mixture by careful shaking.
Pure oil gives a turbid, reddish, dark-brown mixture (with old oil,
dark brown); almost all other oils, which may be substituted, give
paler-colored (reddish, red, or ocher-color) mixtures; or, in case the
genuine oil is adulterated with non-genuine, the mixture exhibits a
considerably less dark-color. When this test has been several times
executed with genuine oil, no room for doubt is left. If the mixture be
diluted with four times its volume of water, it becomes yellowish and
milky.

The odor of orange flowers is, according to Soubeiran, due to two
volatile oils, of which the one having the most delicious odor is
soluble in water. The other volatile oil, of which the neroli oil
of commerce chiefly consists, is sparingly soluble in water, and
does not possess such a delicious odor. This is the reason why good
orange-flower water cannot be prepared by saturating water with neroli
oil. The genuine orange-flower water is obtained as a by-product in
distilling the oil.

Neroli oil is much used for the finer perfumes, it being especially
a necessary constituent of _eau de Cologne_. It has to be carefully
protected from air and light. For perfuming purposes it is only
sufficiently ripe after having been stored for at least one year. If,
however, it becomes too old, it inclines towards rancidity, which may
be prevented by compounding it with an equal volume of fine spirit.
Portugal oil being of inferior quality can only be used for lower grade
products.

_Petit grain oil_ (_oleum petit grain_) is obtained by distillation
from the leaves, young shoots and unripe fruits of different
_Aurantiaceæ_. The best oil is that distilled from the leaves of the
bitter orange, it possessing an odor similar to that of neroli oil,
but, of course, not so fine. Southern France was formerly the chief
place for the production of this oil, but considerable quantities of
it are now manufactured in Paraguay, and the oil at present brought
from there into commerce being of quite a good quality and considerably
cheaper than the French oil, has almost entirely supplanted the latter.

_Orris root, oil of_ (_oleum iridis_), is obtained by distillation with
steam from the rhizomes of _Iris florentina_, which is cultivated in
Southern France, Dalmatia, and other regions. It has a yellow color
and, at an ordinary temperature, a quite solid consistency like butter
or wax, so that it can be rendered fluid only by heating. It consists
chiefly of a rigid odorless body to which the liquid odoriferous oil
adheres. The solid portion was formerly designated orris-stearoptene;
according to Flueckiger it is, however, myristic acid.

Oil of orris root is one of the oils which keep for years without
suffering injury. It is recommended to keep it in stock in alcoholic
solution so that the myristic acid contained in it may to a certain
degree be etherized, and cannot injuriously affect the odoriferous
principle.

Oil of orris root serves as a substitute and for strengthening the
natural odor of violets. It can, however, be employed only for very
fine expensive perfumery since, on account of the very slight yield
from the root (from 1000 parts ½ to ¾ part of oil), its price is
very high, generally exceeding that of rose oil.

An admixture of other volatile oils of less value would render the oil
fluid at the ordinary temperature.

_Patchouli oil._--By the name of patchouli are known, according to
L. Wray, Jr., the leaves of _Pogostemon patchouli, Pellet_, natural
order _Labiatæ_, indigenous to the East Indies, and known and used
for centuries in the various regions of China, Assam, and the
Malayan Islands. Most of the patchouli comes from the East Indies.
Before exportation it is sorted into three qualities: 1. _Selected_,
consisting of leaves only. 2. _Mixed_, leaves with slight peduncles
and few stems. 3. _Stalky leaves._ The best quality occurs seldom in
commerce since the picking of the leaves does not cover the expense.

According to Wray, the leaves are intentionally mixed with those of
the _ruku_ (_ocimum basilicum, L._), an herb indigenous to the Malayan
Islands. The leaves of the latter are broader than those of _pogostemon
patchouli_, and the stalks thinner and round. Seed-capsules are also
frequently found among the leaves, though patchouli seldom flowers and
bears seeds.

In Europe, patchouli has been an article of commerce since 1841. In
the Orient it is highly esteemed as a perfume. The Arabs even ascribe
remedial properties to it, and it is customary with them to fill their
pillows with the leaves to protect them from infection and prolong
their lives.

The peculiar, penetrating, though not exactly agreeable, odor of
patchouli leaves, is due to a volatile oil, of which they contain 1.5
to 2 per cent. In the Orient this oil has for many years been obtained
by distillation.

In the Penang market two kinds of oil, one _green_ and the other
_gold-brown_, are distinguished. Though both are sold at the same
price, there is a greater demand for the green oil. According to the
statements of the distillers, the brown oil is derived from the leaves
of old plants and the green oil from the leaves of young plants. It
would seem, however, that the color is dependent on the soil upon which
the plants are grown, as well as upon atmospheric influences. When ruku
is distilled with patchouli leaves, the oil is yellow and thickly-fluid.

In Germany, the oil is now distilled from imported leaves. It is
thickly-fluid, of a brown color, and, in an undiluted state, possesses
a disagreeable, almost musty odor. However, when sufficiently diluted
and suitably mixed with other volatile oils, the odor is far more
agreeable, and for this reason it has for some time played an important
part in the manufacture of perfumery. It has the advantage of being
very yielding and lasting, but, on the other hand, possesses the
disadvantage of not combining with other perfumes, so that its odor is
always perceptible. It should always be used in very small quantities
or much diluted.

In commerce Penang oil and French oil are distinguished, the first
having a specific gravity of 0.959 and the latter of 1.012. When
kept for any length of time the oil deposits patchouli-camphor
(C_{15}H_{28}O) in prismatic crystals of 1.045 specific gravity and
melting at 127 to 129° F. These crystals have a peculiar, very lasting
odor.

Patchouli oil is soluble in equal parts of 90 per cent. alcohol, the
contrary indicating that it is not pure. It is chiefly adulterated with
cedar oil.

_Peppermint oil._--The _Mentha_ family furnishes commerce with three
oils differing essentially from each other--_oil of curled mint_,
_peppermint oil_, _and poley oil_.

_Oil of curled mint_ (_oleum menthæ crispæ_) is separated by
distillation with water from the leaves of _Mentha crispa, Linn._ It
is limpid, yellowish, sometimes greenish; in time it becomes darker
and more thickly-fluid. Its specific gravity varies between 0.890 and
0.965. It has a strong odor of curled mint and a pungent, somewhat
cooling, slightly bitterish taste. It is soluble in all proportions in
90 per cent. alcohol. In commerce a distinction is made between German
and American oil of curled mint, the latter generally containing oil
of turpentine and oil of sassafras. Odor, taste, and the alcohol test
suffice for the determination of the quality of the oil.

Oil of curled mint contains a terpene, C_{10}H_{16}, and a body
isomeric with carvol, the carvol of curled mint, C_{10}H_{14}O. Its
specific gravity, boiling point and chemical properties are the same as
those of the carvol of caraway oil, but it differs from it by its odor
and turning the plane of polarization to the opposite direction. In
conjunction with other volatile oils, oil of curley mint is sometimes
used for perfuming soaps.

_Peppermint oil_ (_oleum menthæ piperitæ_) is obtained from the fresh
flowering peppermint, _Mentha piperita_, natural order _Labiatæ_. In
commerce, German, English, American and Japanese peppermint oils are
distinguished. As regards fineness, the German oil is inferior to
the English and better kinds of American oils, but superior to the
Japanese. The best and most expensive oil is the English so-called
"Mitcham oil of peppermint," which dissolves in 50 parts of 50 per
cent. spirit of wine and possesses a fine, pure taste, it being for
this reason preferred by distillers for the fabrication of liqueurs.
For perfuming purposes, however, the American as well as the German
oils are very suitable. Of American oils that of H. G. Hotchkiss,
L. B. Hotchkiss, Hale & Parshall, and Fritzsche Bros. enjoy a high
reputation. The Japanese oil is distinguished from the rest by a
peculiar train-oil-like odor and taste, and is in but little demand.

Crude oil of peppermint is yellowish to greenish and contains much
mucus; it has therefore to be subjected to another distillation with
water. The rectified oil is clear as water, limpid, of a strong but
pleasant odor and a specific gravity of 0.900 to 0.902. Old oil
thickens and then shows an acid reaction. The greater portion of the
oil congeals at the freezing point of water; many kinds, however,
requiring but slight cooling in order to become solid. The solid
portion of the oil, _Menthol_, (C_{10}H_{12},H_{2}O) is a colorless,
finely crystallized body with an intense odor of peppermint. It melts
at 107.6° F., is quite fluid at an ordinary temperature and boils at
413.6° F. Menthol is found in all oils of peppermint most abundantly in
the Japanese oil, which contains from 50 to 55 per cent. of it. Mitcham
oil is also very rich in menthol, it containing from 40 to 45 per
cent., while the American oil contains only from 20 to 25 per cent.

American, German and English oils of peppermint may be distinguished as
follows: By adding to 5 or 6 drops of the oil, 25 to 30 drops of pure
white concentrated sulphuric acid, _American oil of peppermint_ becomes
heated and emits vapors, the mixture acquiring a dark brownish red
coloration. After mixing with 8 to 10 cubic centimeters of 90 per cent.
alcohol, the fluid becomes turbid, pale yellowish brown, or reddish
brown, and on boiling clear pale brown. When mixed with sulphuric acid,
_German oil of peppermint_ becomes heated without emitting vapors,
becomes yellowish red, not very dark, and turbid. After diluting with
alcohol, the fluid becomes turbid and yellowish red, and on boiling
somewhat more transparent and currant-red. _English oil of peppermint_
treated in the same manner as the others with sulphuric acid becomes
very slightly heated without any emission of vapor. After diluting with
alcohol, it becomes clear and raspberry red.

As adulterants of peppermint oil are mentioned: fat oils, alcohol,
oil of turpentine, copaiba oil, mustard oil, and ginger oil. The most
frequent adulteration is an admixture of oil of turpentine. It is
recognized by the oil not dissolving clear in equal parts of 90 per
cent. alcohol, as is the case with the pure product. To detect the
presence of copaiba oil, mix 5 drops of the oil to be tested with 15 to
20 drops of fuming nitric acid, shake and allow it to stand for 1 to 2
hours. After this time the oily portion should be neither entirely nor
partially congealed, but remain fluid. To detect traces of mustard oil,
bring 10 drops of the oil into a wide reagent glass, then add 3 to 4
cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol, 2 to 3 drops of silver nitrate
solution and 12 to 15 drops of ammonia. The mixture is clear and
colorless, and remains so on heating to boiling. In the presence of
mustard oil turbidity and blackening take place in consequence of the
formation of silver sulphide. After boiling, allow the fluid to stand
quietly for 2 or 3 hours. If it then shows a grayish turbidity, the oil
is adulterated with another volatile oil.

Instead of pure American oil of peppermint, a product compounded
with camphor oil, and mostly freed from menthol, is said frequently
to occur in commerce. According to E. C. Federer, this is recognized
by dissolving one volume of oil of peppermint in 2 volumes of 94 per
cent. alcohol, adding water and shaking. Pure peppermint oil is then
separated with a certain portion of the alcohol. For example, mix 10
cubic centimeters of oil of peppermint in a graduated cylinder of 45
to 50 cubic centimeters' capacity with 20 cubic centimeters of 94 per
cent. alcohol, then add 10 cubic centimeters of water of 50° F. and
shake. After allowing the mixture to stand quietly, two layers are
formed, the upper one of which, if the oil is pure, will amount to 14
cubic centimeters, but only to 12.5 cubic centimeters if the oil is
freed from menthol and compounded with camphor oil. A larger or smaller
addition of water to the alcoholic mixture is without influence upon
the height of the upper layer separated.

In perfumery peppermint oil serves chiefly for aromatizing dentifrices,
etc. It should be kept in well-closed bottles in a shady place; an
addition of 0.5 per cent. of alcohol helps to preserve the oil for a
long time.

_Poley oil_ (_oleum menthæ pulegii_).--In Southern France and Spain
this oil is obtained by distillation from the leaves of _Mentha
pulegium_. It has an odor resembling that of peppermint, is at first
colorless, but soon becomes yellow, has a specific gravity of 0.927,
boils at 361.4° to 370.4° F., and contains neither menthol nor carvol.
It is used for perfuming herb soaps.

_Pimento oil_, or _oil of allspice_ (_oleum pimenta_) from the bruised
fruit of _Eugenia pimenta_, allspice, natural order _Myrtaceæ_. The oil
is pale yellow, becoming reddish-brown by age; it has a very pungent
taste and intense odor, very much resembling that of cloves. It is
heavier than water, its specific gravity being from 1.021 to 1.037.
It mixes with glacial acetic acid in all proportions. When treated
with nitric acid, pure pimento oil assumes a red color, with strong
effervescence.

_Rose oil_ or _attar of roses_ (_oleum rosæ_) comes almost exclusively
from Bulgaria, where it is obtained by distillation with water
from the flowers of _Rosa damascena_. The small quantities of an
excellent quality of rose oil prepared in Southern France from _Rosa
provincialis_ remain in the country of their production and do not
even cover the local demand. The small productions of Persia and India
need also not be taken into consideration. In Tunis, where formerly
much rose water was prepared from _Rosa canina_ and also rose oil
of a very fine quality, the distillation of roses has, according to
Christo Christoff, been entirely abandoned, geranium oil only being now
produced. In the summer of 1884, Schimmel & Co., of Leipzic, Germany,
made the experiment to obtain oil on a large scale from indigenous
roses. The result was very satisfactory, 2000 lbs. of rose leaves
yielding about 1 lb. of oil, the extraordinarily agreeable odor of
which was so superior to that of the Turkish oil, that notwithstanding
the high price--double that of Turkish oil--it found ready purchasers.
At the ordinary temperature the Leipzic oil is solid, it only melting
at 89.6° F.

In Bulgaria, Kazanlik, in the Tundscha Valley, is the centre of the
entire industry and the principal market. Rose oil is there called
"_gul-jag_" (_gul_, the rose, and _jag_, oil). The annual production of
Kazanlik and neighboring places, amounting 50 years ago to from 450 to
650 lbs., has within a few years risen to the enormous figure of 5500
lbs.

In Kazanlik two varieties of roses, known as the "white rose" and "red
rose," are cultivated; the former being _Rosa alba, L._, and the latter
_Rosa damascena, Miller_. By distillation the white rose yields an oil
of little perfume, but rich in stearoptene. On account of its slight
odor, the white rose is seldom distilled by itself, but occasionally
white and red roses are mixed in order to obtain an oil rich in
stearoptene, so that a fraudulent admixture of a larger quantity of
geranium oil may be effected without great danger of detection. The
large plantations consist only of bushes of red roses. But on the edges
of the field a strip, a few feet wide, is planted with white roses,
so that only flowers of little commercial value may be plucked by
passers-by.

The flowers are gathered before sunrise, and, if possible, the same
day subjected to distillation. The latter is effected in a very crude
apparatus, over a direct fire. The flowers are distilled with double
their weight of water, one-half of which is drawn off. The product
of several operations thus obtained is combined and again distilled,
when, however, only one-sixth is drawn off. This distillate is allowed
to stand for one or two days in a place warmer than 59° F., when the
oil floating on the top is skimmed off. It may be supposed that on an
average 6600 lbs. of roses are required to obtain 2.2 lbs. of oil, and
that these 6600 lbs. of roses correspond to an area of 1 hectare (2.471
acres) planted with rose bushes.

Pure, carefully-distilled rose oil is at first colorless, but soon
turns yellowish.[8] Its specific gravity is between 0.830 and 0.890.
It consists of a liquid oil and a stearoptene, the content of the
latter varying very much. It is a pure hydrocarbon, odorless, of
specific gravity, 0.840 to 0.860, and distils at 572° F. Hence it is
lighter than the elæoptene on which alone the odor of the rose oil is
dependent. Rose oil generally congeals between 50° and 60° F., though
sometimes at a higher or lower degree, according to its content of
stearoptene. While some oils require the cold of winter for congealing,
others are in the heat of summer either entirely solid, or form a
fluid filled with many crystals. The odor of rose oil is peculiarly
honey-like, and too intense to be agreeable, its entire deliciousness
being only developed by strong dilution, be it by dissolving in water
or alcohol, or by distribution upon large quantities of rigid bodies,
fats, soaps, etc. In alcohol it dissolves with greater difficulty than
all other volatile oils, 1 part of it requiring for solution 140 to 160
parts of alcohol of 0.815 specific gravity.

 [8] This, however, applies only to Bulgarian oil; French and Saxon
 rose oils have a greenish color.

The larger or smaller content of stearoptene in rose oil seems to be
dependent on climatic conditions, it having been remarked that the
quantity is the greater the lower the temperature of the region. The
oil from the coldest and highest regions of the Balkan is richer in
stearoptene than that from the lower and warmer regions.

The genuineness of rose oil is generally judged by its odor, its
capacity of congealing, and the manner of its crystallization. The
odor is by all means the most reliable criterion, but requires
much experience, and especially reliable pure standard samples for
comparison. The capacity of congealing at certain conditions of
temperature, is, to be sure, also a requirement of genuine rose oil,
but, as previously mentioned, this property varies very much, and is
subject to different influences, so that a fixed standard at which pure
rose oil must congeal cannot be established. Attention must, however,
be called to the fact that the quality of a rose oil does by no means
rise with its greater capacity to congeal, since only the liquid
oxygenated portion possesses odor.

Schimmel & Co. bring at present into commerce a liquid rose oil freed
from stearoptene which can be highly recommended for finer alcoholic
perfumes. It remains fluid at 32° F., but in a cold mixture congeals to
a gelatinous mass, and hence is not absolutely free from stearoptene.
It has an extremely fine and powerful odor, and when dissolved in
alcohol does not give the disagreeable crystalline separations of the
ordinary rose oil, which produce a disturbing effect, especially in the
preparation of extracts.

For the insulation and determination of the stearoptene in rose oil,
Schimmel & Co. proceed as follows: Heat 50 grammes of oil together
with 500 grammes of 75 per cent. alcohol to from 158° to 176° F. In
cooling, the stearoptene separates nearly quantitatively. Separate it
from the fluid, treat it again in the same manner with 200 grammes of
75 per cent. alcohol, and repeat the operation until the stearoptene is
entirely free from odor. Two treatments of the crude stearoptene are
generally sufficient. In this manner Schimmel & Co. obtained from 1887
German rose oil 32½ per cent. stearoptene, from 1888 German rose oil 34
per cent., from 1887 Turkish rose oil 12 to 13 per cent., and from 1888
Turkish rose oil 14 per cent.

It is evident that such a valuable product as rose oil is much
subjected to adulteration, it being even said that oils containing
scarcely 10 per cent. of genuine rose oil occur in the market. The
chief adulterant used by the Bulgarians is the so-called geranium oil,
but actually ginger-grass oil derived from India, which is brought
by way of Arabia to Constantinople, and prepared for the purpose of
adulterating rose oil by treatment with lemon juice and bleaching in
the sun. The sophistication is generally effected by sprinkling the
ginger-grass oil thus prepared upon the rose leaves before distilling.
The general characters of this oil are so similar to those of rose oil
that detection, when the adulteration is kept within certain limits,
is very difficult, so that during the distilling time large buyers and
exporters of rose oil are forced to pay, besides their other officers
in Kazanlik, confidential native agents who constantly move around in
the distilling regions and report where distillation has been carried
on honestly, and where the ginger-grass oil bottle has been seen.
However, the prepared ginger-grass oil is frequently not even distilled
with the rose leaves, but simply mixed with the finished rose oil.

Whether a rose oil is free from geranium or ginger-grass oil is tested
in Bulgaria, according to Christo Christoff, by the freezing method,
which is, however, unreliable. It is based upon the fact that an
addition of geranium oil reduces the congealing point of rose oil. Pure
Bulgarian rose oil congeals at from 63.5° to 68° F.; by the addition
of geranium oil, the same oil congeals at 61.25°, 59°, 56.75°, or at
a still lower temperature, according to the quantity added. The buyer
when purchasing oil carries with him two basins, one containing hot
and the other cold water, which he mixes in order to obtain a fixed
temperature, the operation being controlled by a Réaumur thermometer.
In the water thus prepared he completely submerges a 20 gramme flask
containing 15 grammes of the oil to be tested. In three minutes,
needle-like crystals of the separating stearoptene must appear, and
in ten minutes crystallization must be complete. According to the
congealing point thus established, the product is paid for. Oil
congealing below 59° F. being evidently adulterated is rejected and
bargained for at a special price.

Many attempts have been made to fraudulently make this congelation
appear within the limits of temperature permitted, paraffine which
dissolves well in rose oil being formerly frequently added. In such
case the oil may congeal at from 65.75° to 68° F., but the crystals are
opaque, dirty yellow, and dissolve to a turbid paste which collects on
the surface. The simplest method is to distil white roses with the red.
The resulting product has not as fine an odor as that from red roses
alone, but is richer in stearoptene. Such oil, which, unadulterated,
congeals perhaps at 68° F., can by the addition of geranium oil be
reduced to from 63.5° to 65.75° F., thus keeping within the limits
permitted.

Numerous attempts have been made to find a rapid and sure way for the
detection of geranium oil in rose oil, but thus far in vain. Attention
must also be drawn to the fact that the adulterant is frequently itself
adulterated with oil of turpentine before being sold to the distillers
of rose oil.

Besides the above-mentioned ginger-grass oil, the actual geranium oils
from _Pelargonium odoratissimum_ and _P. roseum_, as well as rosewood
oil, sandal-wood oil, spermaceti, paraffine, and fat oils have been
mentioned as adulterants of rose oil. The geranium oils having a
by-odor of lemon oil, by which their presence could be readily detected
are not suitable for the purpose. Neither can rosewood or sandal-wood
oils be used, or at least such adulteration would be so clumsy as to be
immediately recognized. Attempts to adulterate rose oil by the addition
of a fat crystallizable body together with another volatile oil fail
on account of the characteristic properties of rose oil stearoptene,
which resembles no other body at present known. While rose oil
stearoptene is lighter than elæoptene and entirely volatile, spermaceti
possesses essentially different qualities. It does not form such long
and specifically light crystals as rose oil stearoptene; hence it
readily separates on the bottom and on shaking exhibits a peculiar
iridescent loamy formation. Furthermore it melts at 122° F., and not
being volatile, leaves, on heating, a greasy stain upon paper, while
the stearoptene melts at 95° F. and, on heating, volatilizes completely
without leaving a greasy stain behind.

If a rose oil is to be tested, expose the bottle containing the oil to
a moderate heat until the contents are entirely liquid; then gently
shake the bottle in order to bring about an intimate mixture of
elæoptene and stearoptene. Now pour some of the oil into a cylindrical
glass flask of 20 to 40 cubic centimeters' capacity and allow it
to congeal; then, while heating in the hand, observe how the rigid
portions act in liquefying. These rigid, crystalline portions should
be transparently clear and, being lighter than the fluid portion,
float, while liquefying, in the upper layer of the fluid. Hence, if
now the fluid be again allowed to congeal, the crystals should appear
within the upper half of the oil. The above-mentioned volatile oils
partially lack the property of separating a stearoptene in crystals at
from 33.8° to 50° F., and though they may have a rose odor, it is not
the mild, fragrant odor of genuine rose oil. To recognize the latter,
Guibourt makes use of pure concentrated sulphuric acid. Stir together
in a watch-crystal an equal number of drops of the oil and of the acid;
pure rose oil preserves its characteristic odor, while the foreign oils
exhibit a disagreeable odor even when mixed with genuine rose oil.

Schimmel & Co. give a method for an approximate quantitative
determination of spermaceti in rose oil: Boil 3 to 5 grammes of
stearoptene, separated in the manner above given, with 20 to 25 grammes
of 5 per cent. alcoholic potash lye for 5 to 6 hours; then evaporate
the alcohol and compound the residue with hot water. In cooling, the
greater portion of the stearoptene separates in a crystalline mass upon
the surface. Now pour off the alkaline fluid, wash the stearoptene
with cold water, then melt it again in hot water, allow it to cool,
pour off the water, and repeat the same operations until the wash-water
is neutral. The combined aqueous fluids are twice shaken with ether to
remove any stearoptene suspended in them. The alcoholic lye separated
from the ether is acidulated with dilute sulphuric acid and again
extracted with ether. After evaporation no residue (fatty acids) should
remain. To control the experiment weigh the regained stearoptene dried
at 194° F., adding, of course, the ether used for extracting the
alkaline fluid. There will be a small loss, since small quantities of
stearoptene always evaporate in drying.

_Rosemary oil_ (_oleum rosemarini_ or _ol. anthos_) is obtained in
Southern Europe, especially in Southern France, Dalmatia and Northern
Italy, by distillation from the flowering rosemary, _Rosmarinus
officinalis_, natural order _Labiatæ_. It is, when fresh, limpid,
colorless, or yellowish, of a penetrating, camphor-like odor and taste,
and specific gravity 0.880 to 0.915. By age it becomes darker and
thickly-fluid. The French rosemary oil is the best and most expensive.
It is distinguished from the Italian oil by its much more pleasant
odor. Pure French rosemary oil dissolves in an equal part of 90 per
cent. alcohol, while the Italian product requires 2 to 3 parts. The
cheaper rosemary oils are generally adulterated with oil of turpentine,
which is recognized by the oil not dissolving in the above-mentioned
proportion in alcohol, as well as by the iodine test. Rosemary oil does
not detonate with iodine, but simply dissolves with heating and perhaps
the emission of vapors.

The French rosemary oil forms one of the ingredients of _eau de
Cologne_ and is used in other perfumery.

_Rosewood oil or rhodium oil_ (_oleum ligni rhodii_), is obtained by
distillation from the wood of the root and lower trunk of _Convolvulus
scopiarius_ and _C. floridas, L._, two plants indigenous to the
Canaries. The waste falling off in the manufacture of rosewood beads
is chiefly used for the purpose. The oil is of a pale yellow color
becoming brown by age. It has a pleasant odor resembling in some
slight degree the fragrance of the rose. It is sometimes used in cheap
perfumery as a substitute for rose oil.

_Sandal-wood oil_ (_oleum ligni sandali_) is distilled from the
white West Indian or dark yellow East Indian sandal-wood (_Santalum
myrtifolium_). For the purpose of distillation the wood is rasped as
finely as possible. The oil obtained from the East Indian wood is the
better and more valuable. It has a dark yellow to brown color and a
pleasant intense, rose-like odor, while the West Indian oil is pale
yellow and of a less agreeable odor. Both oils are very thickly-fluid.
The quality and value of sandal-wood oil are best judged by the odor,
an adulteration with cedar oil being readily detected thereby.

_Sassafras oil_ (_oleum ligni sassafras_), from the bruised root of
the sassafras tree, _Sassafras officinale_, natural order _Lauraceæ_.
Sassafras is one of the most widely distributed trees of North America,
being found in Canada, in all of the United States, east of the
prairies, beyond the Mississippi, and in Mexico. The largest amount of
oil distilled is within sixty miles of Baltimore, Md., which is the
principal depot for its commerce.

Oil of sassafras varies in color from colorless to yellow and red.
Its taste is pungent and aromatic, being agreeable to most persons.
It has a pleasant odor resembling that of fennel, and is heavier than
water, its specific gravity being 1.08 to 1.09. It is soluble in 4 to 5
parts of alcohol of 0.85 specific gravity, and consists of a mixture of
various oils, among which is safrene (C_{10}H_{16}), a dextrorotatory
terpene which boils between 311° and 314.6° F. By strongly cooling in
a cold mixture, safrol, a crystallizing stearoptene of the composition
C_{10}H_{10}O_{2}, is separated. Safrol is the chief constituent of
sassafras oil. It is obtained in abundance by cooling, at a temperature
of 13° F., the portion boiling between 442.4° and 455° F. It melts at
46.4° F., and at a medium temperature forms a colorless clear oil of
pungent taste, characteristic odor, and specific gravity 1.104. When
the crystals have been heated to above 158° F., they congeal only after
remaining for weeks at a temperature below 32° F., but on being melted
at 68° F., the fluid mass again congeals readily on cooling. The safrol
is neutral, optically inactive, boils at 449.6° F., and is soluble in
alcohol and ether. Sassafras oil is said to be frequently adulterated
with oil of turpentine, which is, however, readily detected by the
energetic reaction and by distilling a sample of the suspected oil.

Safrol is very suitable for perfuming ordinary soaps. It has in a
still higher degree than camphor oil the property of removing the
disagreeable odor of some fats, while at the same time it imparts to
the soaps an aromatic, refreshing odor. As a rule 8 to 11 ozs. are
used for 220 lbs. of soap; but if it shall at the same time serve for
removing the disagreeable odor of low quality fats, especially those
extracted with bisulphide of carbon or benzine, it is advisable to
take 2.2 lbs., or still better, 4.4 lbs. for 220 lbs. of soap. In this
case the safrol should be added to the fat after melting and before
saponification and thoroughly mixed with it by stirring. An excellent
perfume for ordinary soaps is a mixture of safrol and citronella oil,
it being at any rate preferable to oil of mirbane.

The standard of value for safrol is its specific gravity, which should
not be below 1.104 at 59° F. Specifically lighter kinds contain camphor
oil and other impurities.

_Thyme oil_ is obtained in Southern France and Spain by distillation
from the flowering thyme, _Thymus vulgaris, L._ It is greenish-yellow
to red (red thyme oil, _oleum thymi rubrum_), but by rectification
becomes colorless (white thyme oil, _oleum thymi album_). Both oils
are quite limpid and possess a strong thyme odor. The specific gravity
of the red oil is 0.91 to 0.94, and that of the rectified oil 0.87
to 0.89. The oil prepared from the fresh plant shows, as a rule, a
higher specific gravity than that from the dried plant. Thyme oil
consists essentially of thymene (C_{10}H_{16}) besides some cymene
(C_{10}H_{14}) and thymol (C_{10}H_{14}O), the latter forming an
essential constitutent of the oil. Oils from which the thymol has
been withdrawn occur in commerce. Pure thyme oil dissolves clear in
every proportion in 90 per cent. alcohol; if such is not the case,
adulteration with oil of turpentine is probable.

The oil distilled from the field thyme, _Thymus serpyllum, L._, is
limpid, yellowish to gold yellow, and of specific gravity 0.89 to 0.91.
Old oil is red or brown and no longer limpid. Good oil is soluble in
every proportion in 90 per cent. alcohol and emits only slight vapors
when brought in contact with iodine. It consists largely of thymene and
cymene, and contains a few per cent. of phenol-like bodies.

_Turpentine, oil of._--Under the general name "oil of turpentine" are
comprised the volatile oils obtained by distillation from the resins
or other portions of different species of the pine. There is a large
number of these oils, the most important ones of which shall here be
mentioned, though but a few are of interest to the perfumer.

_Austrian oil of turpentine_, from _Pinus laricio, Poir_.--It is
colorless or yellowish, transparent; specific gravity, 0.864; boiling
point, 311° to 314° F.; turns polarized light to the left; soluble in 6
parts 90 per cent. alcohol. When rectified it has a specific gravity of
0.862, and is soluble in 7 parts of 90 per cent. alcohol.

_German oil of turpentine_, from _Pinus sylvestris_, _P. abies_, _P.
vulgaris_, _P. picea_, and _P. rotundata_, resembles the former;
specific gravity, 0.860 to 0.870; boiling point, 311° to 320° F.; turns
polarized light to the left. When rectified it is soluble in 7 parts of
90 per cent. alcohol.

_French oil of turpentine_, from French turpentine of _Pinus
maritima_.--It is colorless or faint yellowish; specific gravity,
0.860; boiling point, 313° to 315° F.; turns polarized light to the
left; odor peculiar; taste burning. With 7 parts of 90 per cent.
alcohol it gives a clear solution.

_Venetian oil of turpentine_, from Venice turpentine of _Larix decidua,
Mill._, is laevorotatory and resembles the preceding, but has a more
agreeable odor. Venice turpentine is mostly obtained in Southern Tyrol
and in Piedmont, and yields 18 to 25 per cent. of oil.

_American oil of turpentine_, from American turpentine of _Pinus
australis, Mich._, and _P. Taeda, L._--It resembles French turpentine,
but turns polarized light to the right. Specific gravity, 0.864;
boiling point, 302° to 312.8° F.

_Pine oil_ (_oleum abietis_) is obtained by distilling with water the
leaves or green cones of _Pinus picea, L._, _Abies pectinata, D. C._
Its odor is much finer than that of ordinary oil of turpentine. It is
soluble in 7 parts of 90 per cent. alcohol.

_Dwarf pine oil, Krummholz or Latschenoel_ (_oleum pini pumilionis_),
is obtained by distilling the young tops and cones of _Pinus
pumilio_ with water. It has an agreeable odor, reminding one of
juniper; specific gravity, 0.865; boiling point, 338° F. The oil is
laevorotatory and soluble in 12 to 15 parts of 90 per cent. alcohol.

_Pine-leaf oil_ is obtained by distilling the leaves of _Pinus
sylvestris_ or _P. abies_ by means of steam. It is dextrorotatory; has
a fine aromatic odor; boiling point, 320° F.; specific gravity, 0.875
to 0.876.

_Templin oil_ (_Kienoel_) (_oleum pini_, _ol. templinum_) is obtained
chiefly in some sections of Switzerland and Tyrol by distilling the
wood, branches, leaves, cones, etc., with water. It has a lemon-like
odor; specific gravity, 0.860 to 0.880; boiling point, 320° to 327° F.,
and is laevorotatory.

_Balsam-pine oil_ (_oleum abietis canadensis_) is obtained in Canada
from the branches of _Abies balsamea, D. C._ It has a slightly
yellowish color, a very agreeable and refreshing odor; specific
gravity, 0.902; boiling point at 320° to 330.8° F., and turns
polarized light to the right.

Of the different varieties of oil of turpentine mentioned only pine oil
and dwarf pine oil are used in perfumery.

Oils of turpentine must be kept carefully protected from light and air.
When badly kept they gradually become resinous with formation of formic
and acetic acids. When exposed to the air oil of turpentine absorbs
ozone; with iodine it detonates violently. When brought in contact with
a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid it ignites.

_Verbena, oil of_, from the lemon verbena, _Aloysia citriodora,
Hooker_. The plant is cultivated in the gardens of Grasse. The oil is
extracted from the leaves by distillation in August, but on account of
its high price is almost out of market, it being everywhere substituted
by the oil of lemon grass, _Andropogon citratus_.

_Violet, oil of._--The perfume of the violet, _Viola odorata_, natural
order _Violaceæ_, is due to a volatile oil of a green color and of such
a penetrating odor as to cause headache; it acquires the agreeable odor
of the violet only by strong dilution. The violet farms from whence the
flowers are procured for the production of the oil, are very extensive
at Nice and in the neighborhood of Florence. The oil is only obtained
by the absorption process, all other methods to procure it having
failed up to this time. It is scarcely obtainable in commerce, as the
French manufacturers, who prepare the greater part of it, use the very
small yield for manufacturing fine perfumery.

_Vitivert or vetiver oil_ (_oleum iva ranchusa_) from the so-called
cuscus, the rhizome of an Indian grass, _Anathereum muricatum_. The
oil is obtained by distillation, either from the fresh root in India,
or from the imported dried root in Europe. The yield is very small.
The oil is thickly-fluid, of a red-brown color, and has an intense,
but agreeable odor very much like that of oil of orris root. Like the
latter, it possesses the valuable property of diffusing a lasting
perfume. Its value can only be judged by the odor, and hence it should
only be purchased from a thoroughly reliable firm.

_Wintergreen oil_ (_oleum gaultheriæ_) is obtained by distillation
from the wintergreen, _Gaultheria procumbens_, a plant common in North
America. It is thickly fluid, yellowish green to gold yellow, of a
sweetish, aromatic, pungent taste and penetrating, narcotic odor, which
becomes agreeable only by strongly diluting the oil. By rectification
the oil becomes entirely colorless. Its specific gravity is 1.170 to
1.190 (according to Gladstone, 1.142). It is sparingly soluble in
water, but readily so in alcohol, ether, chloroform, etc. The aqueous
or dilute alcoholic solution is colored deep violet by ferric chloride.

Wintergreen oil boils at 392° F.; the boiling point, however, soon
rises to 431.6° F., when it remains constant. Between 392° and 428° F.
a terpene (C_{10}H_{16}) constituting about 1/10 of the oil distils
off; the rest corresponds to the composition C_{8}H_{8}O_{3}; it is
methyl salicylate

    = C_{6}H_{4} {OH
                 {CO.OCH_{3}.

Wintergreen oil is also obtained by distillation from _Gaultheria
punctata_ and _Gaultheria leucocarpa_. An oil, very closely resembling
wintergreen oil, is in this country distilled from the young shoots of
the American species of birch, _Betula lenta_, variously called sweet
birch, black birch, cherry birch, and mountain mahogany. According
to Procter, the oil does not exist in the birch but is formed by the
action of the water upon an odorless body, called gaultherin, which
is converted into volatile oil by the reaction of another substance
analogous to emulsin. Hence the formation of oil is similar to that
of oil of bitter almonds. To obtain the oil from _Betula lenta_,
the material is chopped up and placed in the still, as much as this
will hold, a sufficient quantity of water being then added to fill
the still about one-third full. The still is generally permitted to
remain in this condition over night, a fire is made in the morning
and distillation proceeds nicely. The manufacture of birch oil is
carried on at quite a large scale by Mr. A. H. Seidle, of Middleport,
Schuylkill County, Pa.

Methyl salicylate may also be artificially prepared by heating a
mixture of methyl alcohol, sulphuric acid and salicylic acid whereby
at first methyl-sulphuric acid is formed which is then converted into
methyl ether and sulphuric acid:--

          {OH                   {OCH_{3}
    SO_{2}{  + CH_{3}OH = SO_{2}{       + H_{2}O
          {OH                   {OH

          {OCH_{3}             {OH
    SO_{2}{        + C_{6}H_{4}{     =
          {OH                  {COOH

              {OH                 {OH
    C_{6}H_{4}{           + SO_{2}{
              {CO.OCH_{3}         {OH.

Etherification succeeds without difficulty, it being sufficient to
heat the mixture for some time and then pour it into water whereby
the ether separates as a heavy layer of oil. After washing with water
distil in a direct current of steam. The ether thus obtained is as
clear as water and, as regards its other properties, does not differ
from the naturally occurring oil. This artificial wintergreen oil is
now much used for perfuming purposes.

Wintergreen oil is said to be frequently adulterated with sassafras oil
which is also specifically heavier than water. If, according to Hayer,
5 drops of the oil in a test-tube be mixed with 10 drops of crude
concentrated nitric acid, a deep blood-red fluid results in one minute
if oil of sassafras is present. In the course of another minute, the
fluid separates a brown resinous mass. Pure oil, on the other hand, is
but little altered.

According to P. MacEwan the adulteration of wintergreen oil with
camphor oil is carried on at a large scale. The presence of camphor
oil may be recognized by the specific gravity, 0.900, while that of
pure wintergreen oil is, on an average, 1.18. A crude test--which is,
however, readily executed--is as follows: Stir a few drops of the
suspected oil in water. If pure, the oil in a few seconds sinks to the
bottom, but if it contains camphor oil several minutes elapse before it
deposits, and there is time to observe that the particles of oil assume
different forms, but not a globular one.

_Ylang-Ylang oil_ (_oleum unonæ_) is obtained by distilling the flowers
of _Unona odoratissima_, indigenous to the Philippine Islands, the
Straits of Malacca, and Indian Archipelago. The oil is colorless to
yellowish. Its color and specific gravity, however vary very much,
according to the season of the year in which it is prepared, the oil
distilled in the cold season being more colorless and limpid than that
produced in the warm season. The oil has an exquisite odor, partaking
of the jasmine and the lilac, and is used in the manufacture of the
finest perfumery. Various kinds are found in commerce, that marked
"Sartorius" being preferred.

The difference in quality of the many kinds of oil found in commerce
is chiefly due to the method of preparation and the selection of the
flowers, which possess the finest aroma when freshly gathered. In
distilling, the first light volatile portions passing over have an
incomparable perfume, while the oil distilling over later on possesses
an insipid odor. Hence the manufacturer, who only obtains the first
portions, will furnish the finest quality of oil, and it is this
method of preparation which has gained the "Sartorius" oil its high
reputation. While according to Schimmel & Co.'s report, 220 lbs. of
fresh ylang-ylang flowers yield 2.64 lbs. of oil, Sartorius for the
preparation of his fine oil distils off only about half the quantity.

_Conanga oil_ is a poorer quality of ylang-ylang oil, obtained from
the same plant. Two varieties are distinguished in commerce, viz: the
_Javanese_ and _Indian_. The Java oil is the best, and may be used
where ordinary qualities of ylang-ylang oil will do. According to
Schimmel & Co.'s report the cheaper Indian oil is very resistant and
durable in soaps, especially when combined with licari or linaloë oil.



CHAPTER V.

RESINS AND BALSAMS.


The term _resins_ is applied to certain organic substances which are
very closely related to volatile oils, in so far as many of them are
formed from the latter by oxidation. As previously mentioned, by
exposure to the atmospheric air all volatile oils undergo a change,
whereby they thicken and are finally converted into substances
possessing the character of resins. In nature most resins also occur
mixed with volatile oils.

The elementary constituents of resins are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen;
but, generally speaking, they are poor in oxygen and rich in carbon.
Chemically they behave like weak acids, their solutions frequently
reddening litmus and sometimes expelling, on boiling, the carbonic acid
from alkaline carbonates.

Independent of a possible content of volatile oil, every naturally
occurring resin consists of several resins which, however, can, as a
rule, be separated only with difficulty.

The resins are generally divided into _hard resins_, _soft resins_
or _balsams_, and _gum-resins_. The hard resins are, at the ordinary
temperature, solid, hard, and brittle, can be readily pulverized, and
contain little or no volatile oil. The soft resins or balsams are
kneadable, and sometimes even semi-fluid; they represent solutions of
resins in volatile oils, or a mixture of volatile oil and resin. On
exposure to the air they are changed by the volatile oil suffering
oxidation, they becoming then more or less hard, and may be converted
into actual resins. The gum-resins are mixtures of vegetable gum,
resin, and volatile oils, and are obtained by inspissation of the milky
juice of several plants. When triturated with water they yield a milky,
turbid fluid, and dissolve only partially in alcohol.

The resins are widely diffused in the vegetable kingdom, there
being scarcely a plant which does not contain resin in one form or
another. Some families of plants and organs of plants are, however,
distinguished by their special wealth of resins. The resins are, as a
rule, secreted simultaneously with volatile oils in special reservoirs,
from which they flow out naturally at certain periods, or are obtained
by incisions made in the plants. A few bodies of the character of
resins also occur in the animal kingdom, and a series of them, the
fossil resins, are generally classed in the mineral kingdom, though
most of them are very likely derived from plants. Some resins, such as
the aldehyde resins, etc., are purely artificial products.

Of the hard resins, benzoin alone is used in perfumery; of the balsams,
Peru balsam, Tolu balsam, and storax balsam; and of the gum-resins, the
myrrh.

_Benzoin_ is exclusively obtained from _Styrax benzoïn, Dryand_
(_Benzoïne officinale, Hayne_), a tree which grows in Java, Sumatra,
and Siam. The bark of the tree is slit to allow a fluid to flow out,
which concretes on the trunk in the form of grains, or is collected
in vessels in which it congeals and assumes the form of lumps
("tampangs"). Older trees which have been frequently tapped for resin
yield a product of a lower quality; the grains ("tears") forming, as a
rule, the better varieties. When the benzoin collects in large masses
it always shows an amygdaloid structure, the grains ("almonds") of a
roundish form, smooth termination, homogeneous structure, and paler
color, appearing imbedded in a dark, porous, or resiniform mass.

According to the appearance of the product three varieties are
distinguished: Benzoin in tears (_B. in lacrimis_), _amygdaloid
benzoin_ (_B. amygdaloides_), and lump benzoin (_B. in sortis_, _B.
in massis_). The _benzoin in tears_ forms loose, smoothly terminated,
longish, homogeneously appearing masses of an opal-like lustre, and
first of a whitish, and later on, of a yellowish, reddish, or brownish
color. The separate pieces are up to 3 millimeters in diameter, though
the Siam benzoin in tears frequently consists of still larger and
generally decidedly flattened pieces.

_Amygdaloid benzoin_ consists chiefly of white pieces, becoming, later
on, brownish, of a waxy lustre and imbedded in a lustrous brown-red
resinous mass. The _lump benzoin_ or _ordinary benzoin_ has also an
amygdaloid structure but is not so rich in almonds as the preceding
variety and possesses either a fine granular or colophony-like
ground-mass and is frequently contaminated by parts of plants. The
exterior of the variety occurring in commerce in large lumps shows,
according to the mode of packing, the imprint of leaves or of coarse
pack-cloth.

Benzoin generally consists of cinnamic and benzoic acids which occur in
a crystalline state in the grains as well as the ground-mass; further,
of several amorphous resins soluble in alcohol, and coloring matter.
The content of cinnamic and benzoic acids amounts to from 12 to 20 per
cent. The best varieties from Sumatra and Singapore contain no benzoic
acid, and those from Siam no cinnamic acid.

All varieties of benzoin possess a peculiar odor, that of the better
varieties being agreeable, and a sweet, aromatic, but pungent taste.
The melting point generally lies between 176° and 203° F., that of the
tears and of the almonds being lower than that of the ground-mass.
A low melting-point is accepted as a mark of quality, Siam benzoin,
which is considered the best, melting at 167° F. Some varieties, for
instance, those recently imported from Singapore, have a pronounced
vanilla-like odor; the presence of vanillin has been established in
them. The Sumatra benzoin has a storax-like odor.

Benzoin is sparingly soluble in chloroform, only partially so in ether,
and completely in alcohol. On mixing the alcoholic solution with water,
the resin is separated. Petroleum-ether and benzine withdraw only
benzoic acid from the dry, powdered benzoin. All varieties of benzoin
dissolve in concentrated sulphuric acid to a beautiful purple colored
fluid, from which benzoic acid, if present, is separated in crystals
by the gradual addition of water. The establishment of the presence
of cinnamic acid is best effected as follows: Boil the sample in milk
of lime, filter, and treat the solution with hydrochloric acid. The
precipitate thereby separated is thoroughly washed, triturated with
potassium permanganate and water, and heated, whereby in the presence
of cinnamic acid, oil of bitter almonds is formed from the latter,
which is readily recognized by the odor.

If benzoin containing benzoic acid be heated, white vapors are emitted
which, on cold surfaces, deposit in very delicate, lustrous, acicular,
or foliated crystals of benzoic acid, the so-called benzoin flowers
(_Floris benzoes_.) Benzoic acid thus prepared possesses an agreeable,
vanilla-like odor, since by heating the benzoin the greater portion
of the odoriferous substance contained in it escapes. Benzoic acid
separated by the wet method is odorless.

Benzoin is especially used for fumigating pastilles. It is also of
great importance on account of its property of preventing fats from
becoming rancid, if added to them in small quantities.

_Peru balsam_ (_Balsamum Peruvianum_) is the produce of the Balsam
Coast, San Salvador, Central America, where Sansonate forms the
central point of the industry. In the mountain forests, back of the
coast, grows the balsam tree (_Myroxylon Pereiræ, Klotzch_; _Toluiferæ
Pereiræ, Baillon_), natural order, _Papilionaceæ_. The gaining of
balsam commences when the tree is five years old, the collecting time
beginning in the dry season in the first days of November. The trunks
of the trees are belabored with hammers on four places (according to
other statements, on twenty to thirty), so that the bark is detached
in strips. After a few days the bark thus loosened is burnt off by
means of torches, whereupon a balsamic fluid oozes from the young wood,
which is absorbed by pieces of cloth or rags, placed upon the denuded
places. When the rags are thoroughly saturated with balsam, they are
squeezed out and then thrown into an earthen pot filled with boiling
water, whereby the balsam is detached and collects on the bottom of
the vessel. By this process the _Balsamo de trapó_ is obtained. By
boiling the bark, which falls off, a small quantity of a poorer quality
of balsam, called _tacuasonte_, is obtained, which, it would seem,
is frequently added to the better quality. Crude Peruvian balsam is
a gray-green to dirty-yellow fluid, of the consistency of syrup. The
process of purification in use on the Balsamic Coast is as follows: The
crude balsam is brought into large iron vessels, holding from 1300 to
1500 lbs. each, and allowed to clarify by quietly standing from 8 to
14 days, the heavy impurities settling on the bottom, while the light
dirt, together with the water, appears as foam on the surface. After 8
to 14 days the balsam is drawn off through a cock, located about 4¾
inches above the bottom of the vessel, into a tinned iron boiler, and
boiled over an open fire at a moderate heat for 2 to 3 hours. The foam
which forms is skinned off, and boiling continued until no more foam
appears.

The collection of balsam continues until the first rain falls in April
or May, when the work ceases. A vigorous tree, well treated, yields
balsam for 30 years in succession, and if then allowed to rest 5 or 6
years can be used several years longer. The annual yield of balsam from
100 trees is said to be about 550 lbs.

From the very odoriferous flowers of the balsam tree or, according
to others, by expressing the fruits, a _white_ Peruvian balsam is
obtained, which is, however, seldom found in commerce. It is of the
consistency of honey, pale-yellow, smells of vanilla and melilot, and
has an aromatic bitter taste. On standing for some time it deposits
crystals of myroxocarpin.

Ordinary (black) Peruvian balsam is a black-brown fluid, transparent
and dark (honey-yellow in thin layers), which retains its consistency
even after being kept for years and deposits no crystals. It shows
a slight acid reaction, has an agreeable odor reminding one of gum
benzoin and vanilla, and at first a mild, but, later on, a sharp and
pungent taste.

The specific gravity of pure Peru balsam formerly varied between 1.14
and 1.16, but at present between 1.135 and 1.145, this change in the
specific gravity being very likely due to a different process of
purification.

Peru balsam is miscible in every proportion with absolute alcohol,
while ether leaves behind undissolved a black, smeary residue, and
hot oils of turpentine or almonds dissolve only about one-half. It
is miscible with acetone, chloroform, amyl alcohol. By digesting the
balsam with aqueous potash lye, _Peru balsam oil_, which constitutes
about 60 per cent. of the balsam, separates on the surface. In an
undecomposed state the oil is, according to Kachler, chiefly benzyl,
cinnamate, or cinnamein. The potash solution separated from the Peru
balsam oil, contains cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, and resin. The
latter, according to Stotze, can be separated into two portions, one
soluble, and the other insoluble, in aqueous alcohol.

Benzine and petroleum-ether dissolve from the Peru balsam only the
nearly colorless cinnamein of which it contains up to 45 per cent.
The behavior of Peru balsam towards bisulphide of carbon is very
characteristic, 3 parts of it giving, according to Flückiger, a clear
solution with 1 part of bisulphide of carbon; if, however, 8 parts
more of the latter be added, up to 30 per cent. of a dark resin is
separated, while the bisulphide of carbon is but slightly colored.

From San Salvador 11,000 to 13,000 lbs. of Peru balsam are annually
brought to Europe, it being generally imported in tin cans, and more
rarely in earthen jars surrounded by a kind of plaited matting.
According to whether the product comes by way of England, New York,
Bremen, or Hamburg, it is distinguished as English, American, Bremen,
or Hamburg Peru balsam. The supply being frequently insufficient, the
balsam is subjected to many adulterations. A cheap, so-called London
Peru balsam always contained colophony and had a specific gravity of
1.133. There can be no doubt that pure unadulterated Peru balsam is
difficult to obtain.

As adulterants, are used: Alcohol, volatile oils, fat oil, especially
castor oil; further, copaiba balsam, Canada balsam, gurjun balsam,
storax, benzoin, and asphaltum. The establishment of these adulterants
is connected with difficulties; but the properties of Peru balsam are
so characteristic that it is quite easy to detect whether it is genuine
and pure, or not, the specific gravity and proportions of solubility
deserving especial attention in this respect. The test by the specific
gravity is available, since most of the adulterants render the balsam
specifically lighter, especially alcohol, but also copaiba balsam
(specific gravity, O.95), castor oil (0.96), oil of turpentine (0.87),
gurjun (0.96), etc. The customary procedure is as follows: Prepare a
common salt solution of 1.25 specific gravity, by dissolving 1 part of
dried sodium chloride in 5 parts of distilled water; drop the balsam
into the solution; every drop of pure Peru balsam sinks in a roundish
form to the bottom; but if the drop again comes to the surface and
spreads out upon it, it is a sure sign of some kind of adulteration.
However, the change in the specific gravity by the admixture of fat
oils is but very slight, since the balsam can only be mixed with them
to a conformable fluid in the proportion of from 7 to 10 to 1. Castor
oil forms an exception in this respect, it being miscible also in other
proportions.

Petroleum-ether is an excellent testing agent. Bring into a test-tube
about 2.5 grammes of Peru balsam, and 6 to 7 centimeters of
petroleum-ether, close the tube with the finger and shake vigorously;
a brown, thickly-fluid mass adheres in unequal layers to the sides of
the tube, and before running together remains in this position 1 to
2 minutes after the petroleum-ether has been poured into a porcelain
saucer. If, however, the mass is thinly-fluid, and does not, in the
above-mentioned manner, adhere to the sides of the tube, but, after
shaking, collects below the petroleum-ether, the balsam is adulterated.
After shaking, immediately pour off the petroleum-ether; if the latter
is almost colorless, or but slightly colored yellowish, the balsam is
pure; if, however, it is turbid, and soon forms a sediment, or if it is
yellow or brownish, or brown, the balsam is adulterated.

Alcohol is added either by itself or in the form of saturated
solution of storax, benzoin, or Canada balsam, by which means the
specific gravity of the balsam is but slightly changed. Bring the
above-mentioned common salt solution, together with 20 grammes of the
Peru balsam to be examined, into a small flask, and distil off about 5
grammes; gradually mix the distillate with 5 drops of caustic potash
lye and potassium iodide solution saturated with iodine, shaking gently
until the mixture acquires a slightly yellow-brownish coloration. If
this coloration does not disappear in one minute, add drop by drop
more of the potash lye until discoloration appears. In the presence
of alcohol, yellow crystals of iodoform, which are readily recognized
under the microscope by their form, collect on the bottom of the fluid.
Adulteration with a volatile oil is recognized in the distillate by
odor and taste.

Fat oil, Canada balsam, copaiba balsam, gurjun balsam, and volatile
oil may be recognized by the following tests: If pure Peru balsam in
a porcelain saucer is thoroughly mixed with an equal volume of pure
concentrated sulphuric acid, the mixture thereby becomes heated, vapors
of a pungent odor being emitted, and if then set aside to cool, it
congeals. In the presence of fat or volatile oils, copaiba balsam,
gurjun balsam, or Canada balsam, it remains, however, more or less
thickly fluid or more or less soft-smeary. If the balsam be pure, the
cold mixture, after washing with water, should yield a hardish or
soft-friable mass, which, when kneaded with the fingers, should not
prove smeary or sticky.

Fat oils are also very readily recognized by the use of warm
petroleum-ether. The extract is evaporated, saponified with potash lye,
extracted with alcohol, evaporated and decomposed with hydrochloric
acid. A mixture of cinnamic acid and any of the fatty acids present in
the Peru balsam is thereby obtained, which, after treatment with water,
remains in the residue.

Of copaiba balsam, Peru balsam can take up as much as 25 per cent.
From such adulterated balsam benzine dissolves the copaiba balsam,
together with cinnamein, and the adulteration can then be recognized by
the odor. Cinnamein treated with sulphuric acid acquires a cherry-red
color, while in the presence of copaiba balsam or gurjun balsam, a
yellow-brown coloration appears. The detection of an adulteration of
Peru balsam with storax is, according to Denner, effected as follows:
Shake in a test-tube 5 parts of the balsam to be examined with 5 parts
of a 15 per cent. soda solution (soda lye of 1.60 specific gravity)
and 10 parts of water. Then shake with 15 parts of ether, and after
settling pour off the ether as much as possible. Repeat the shaking
with 15 parts of fresh ether. Now heat the aqueous residue to boiling,
acidulate with hydrochloric acid, add cold water, remove the resin
separated thereby from the fluids, dissolve it in about 3 parts of soda
lye of the above-mentioned strength, dilute with 20 parts of water,
heat to boiling, and precipitate with barium chloride solution. Bring
the precipitate upon the filter, and, after allowing it to drain off,
dry it in the water-bath. Then extract it with alcohol, evaporate the
alcoholic extract, take it up with concentrated sulphuric acid, add
chloroform, and shake. In the presence of gum benzoin or storax, the
chloroform acquires a violet to blue color. This method is a sure test
for the recognition of even very small admixtures.

A content of asphaltum is readily detected by mixing the Peru balsam
with ether compounded with about ⅛ alcohol. Any asphaltum present
remains undissolved, and may be collected upon a filter.

In perfumery Peru balsam is chiefly used for pomades and fumigating
pastilles, but also for cosmetics and soaps.

_Tolu balsam_ is the produce of _Myroxylon toluiferum, Humb._, _Bonpl._
et _Kunth_, _Toluifera balsamum, L._, a tree of the natural order
_Papilionaceæ_, growing in Northwestern South America. It exudes during
the heat of the day, and is collected in gourds. It soon hardens, by
which it is distinguished from Peru balsam. In commerce two varieties
of Tolu balsam are found, one of the consistency of turpentine and the
other solid. The first variety, Brazilian balsam, forms a semi-fluid,
turpentine-like, sticky mass, of the color of copaiba balsam. By long
storage it becomes hard and brownish. The solid variety, Tolu, or
Carthagena balsam, is a brittle, more or less translucent yellow-brown
or red-brown resin of a granular or crystalline appearance. It softens
at about 86° F., and melts between 140° and 149° F. Viewed under the
microscope, it appears rich in crystals of separated ciannamic and
benzoic acids. Its specific gravity varies between 1 and 2. Both
varieties of Tolu balsam have an aromatic, slightly pungent and sourish
taste, resembling somewhat that of Peru balsam. They are readily
soluble in ordinary spirit of wine, alcohol, acetone, chloroform, and
potash lye, but insoluble in petroleum-ether and bisulphide of carbon.
In Tolu balsam have been found toluene, cinnamic and benzoic acids, and
several resins not yet sufficiently examined. According to Scharling,
toluene constitutes about 1 per cent. of the Tolu balsam. It forms
a colorless, limp oil, boils, according to Deville, at 338° F., and
according to E. Kopp, at between 309° and 320° F., and has a specific
gravity of 0.858. It has a sharp, pungent, pepper-like taste, and an
odor resembling that of elemi. In the air, it is gradually converted by
oxidation into a soft resin, without, however, becoming colored.

On boiling Tolu balsam with water, cinnamic and benzoic acids are
separated from the solution. When treated with potash lye the resinous
acids are fixed, and the toluene floats upon the fluid.

Commercial Tolu balsam is frequently more or less mixed with vegetable
remains, which, however, can be readily detected with the microscope,
especially after the solution of the resinous constituents. It
is frequently adulterated with turpentine or pine resin. Such
adulterations may be detected by bisulphide of carbon, which completely
dissolves these substances, but not the Tolu balsam. When pure Tolu
balsam is triturated with concentrated sulphuric acid, a cherry-red
fluid is, according to Ulex, obtained, which does not evolve sulphurous
acid, as is the case in the presence of turpentine-resins.

Tolu balsam is chiefly used for fumigating pastilles. The tincture
prepared from it is also frequently used with advantage to give
durability to the scent of handkerchief perfumes.

According to Holmes and Nalor, a Tolu balsam differing in its chemical
behavior is found in the English wholesale trade. In thick layers
it is yellow-brown, but perfectly transparent and gold-yellow in
thin layers and extraordinarily sticky. By storage it hardens but
slightly, and does not become brittle even if exposed for several days
to a temperature of 212° F. Its odor reminds one somewhat of glue,
and it develops a pungent, sharp taste only after chewing it for a
few seconds. Its melting point lies at 136.4° F., being lower than
that of ordinary Tolu balsam, from which it also differs in that it
completely dissolves in ether as well as in benzine, while it is only
partially dissolved by potash lye. The balsam contains no toluene, nor
a hydrocarbon, boiling at 320° F. Further investigations have shown it
actually to be a natural product, the derivation of which, however,
could not be ascertained.

_Storax_ is the produce of _Liquid ambar orientale, Mill_, a
plantain-like tree which reaches a height of about 32 feet. In
Southern Asia Minor, especially in Cyprus, the tree forms handsome,
dense forests. According to Flückiger, the balsam is extracted from
the peeled-off bark, with the assistance of warm water. The mass thus
melted out sinks down in the water, and is later on combined with the
substance obtained by expressing the boiled bark while still warm. This
mixture forms the _liquid storax_ (_Storax liquidus_). The residue
remaining after expression is dried in the sun and forms, under the
name of _Cortex thymiamatis_, an article of commerce, which is used for
fumigating purpose, for the preparation of ordinary storax, etc. The
crude storax is brought to Smyrna, Syra, and Kos, and comes into the
European market almost exclusively from Trieste.

Liquid storax is a sticky, opaque substance of the consistency of
turpentine. It has a mouse-gray color, which by contact with the air
becomes brown on the surface, an agreeable benzoin-like odor, and a
sharp, pungent, aromatic taste. It is heavier than water, its specific
gravity being 1.112 to 1.115. On losing its content of moisture (by
drying out when heated) it becomes brown and clear. When exposed to
the air in a thick layer it does not completely dry, and in a thin
layer only after considerable time; but when pressed with the finger
always shows a certain stickiness. It is partially soluble in spirits
of wine, yielding with it a more or less turbid solution. It is also
incompletely soluble in oil of turpentine, benzine, petroleum-ether,
and chloroform. Viewed under the microscope liquid storax appears as a
colorless thickish fluid, intermingled with larger and smaller drops,
fragments of bark tissue, and now and then, perhaps, with crystals of
styracin and cinnamic acid.

Liquid storax contains styrol (10 to 15 per cent.), styracin, and
cinnamic acid (10 to 15 per cent.). Styrol or cinnamol seems to be
the most important carrier of the odor and taste of liquid storax. If
20 parts of liquid storax are subjected to distillation together with
15 parts of crystallized soda and 200 parts of water, the cinnamol
collects in the form of a yellowish, very mobile liquid upon the
distillate. By rectification it can be obtained colorless, but is
thereby partially converted into metastyrol, an isomeric, amorphous,
odorless, and tasteless substance which is solid at an ordinary
temperature. By exposure for some time to a heat of 608° F. it is
reconverted into styrol. Styrol (C_{8}H_{8}) forms a clear, colorless,
mobile liquid having an odor of benzine and naphthalene. Its specific
gravity is 0.924 and its boiling point lies at 294.8° F. In water it
is but sparingly soluble, but is miscible in all proportions with
anhydrous spirit of wine, chloroform, benzine, ether, and oils. It
stands in the same relation to cinnamic acid as benzol to benzoic acid,
and is formed by distilling a mixture of cinnamic acid and barium oxide.

Styracin is cinnyl cinnamate. On distilling liquid storax with water,
styrol passes over. If now from the residue the cinnamic acid be
withdrawn by means of soda-solution, and the resin, which remains
behind, be treated with cold spirit of wine, styracin is left, which
crystallizes from ether, hot alcohol, or benzol. It forms colorless,
odorless, and tasteless crystals which melt at 113° F. and remain for
a long time fluid after melting. It is insoluble in water, but soluble
in 25 parts cold, and 2 parts boiling, spirit of wine, as well as in 5
parts ether. By oxidizing substances it is converted into bitter almond
oil and benzoic acid, and by the action of potassium hydroxide it is
decomposed to cinnyl alcohol and cinnamic acid.

Good liquid storax should yield to 90 per cent. alcohol at least so
much soluble matter that the dried residue of the filtered alcoholic
solution amounts to 65 per cent. of the quantity of storax.

Ordinary liquid storax, which has not been stored too long, contains
10 to 20 per cent. of water and about the same quantity of impurities
(fragments of plant tissue) which remain behind on treatment with the
above-mentioned solvents.

Liquid storax is said to be adulterated with the turpentines of some
species of larch and pine. Such adulteration is primarily detected,
according to Hager, by the specific gravity. Take up a drop of the
balsam with a knitting-needle, and by heating the needle make it
fall into a cold solution of 1 part common salt and 8 parts water. On
stirring, the drop must sink, otherwise adulteration with turpentine
is very likely. Next bring 5 grammes of the storax into a test-tube,
melt it in the water-bath, add ½ volume of absolute alcohol, and
mix by shaking; then compound the mixture with several times its
volume of petroleum-ether, shake vigorously, allow to settle, and
decant the layer of petroleum-ether. Repeat twice this shaking with
petroleum-ether; then evaporate the petroleum-ether solution in a tared
flask in the water-bath. The residue remaining after evaporation is
colorless, bluish opalescent, and of an agreeable odor; in the presence
of turpentine it is yellowish and has the, not to be mistaken, odor of
turpentine.

_Storax in grains_ consists of round, longish grains of a brown-black
color and smooth, lustrous surface, which soften by the warmth of the
hand. It is nothing but liquid storax brought into a granular form and
by storing freed more or less from impurities.

_Ordinary storax_ (_Styrax calamitus_ or _St. vulgaris_) is an
artificial product prepared by mixing liquid storax with various
comminuted vegetable substances. Formerly the above-mentioned bark of
the storax tree (_Cortex thymiamatis_) was only used for this purpose,
but at present sawdust and exhausted cinnamon are also taken. This
storax forms a reddish or brown-black, humus-like mass, which is
generally moist. When dried it is very friable and has a storax-like
odor distinctly calling to mind that of cinnamon. Good qualities are
abundantly covered with crystalline efflorescences (of cinnamic acid
and styracin); poorer qualities prepared with the addition of sawdust
have a musty odor. The admixed vegetable tissue can, according to
Wiesner, be readily recognized by boiling the storax with alcohol,
and after washing treating with dilute chromic acid, to which a small
quantity of sulphuric acid has been added.

Liquid storax was already used for fumigating purposes by the ancient
Greeks and Jews, and it forms to-day a constituent of fumigating
pastilles, essences, etc. Storax tincture furthermore possesses the
property of giving more constancy to scents resembling it. Piesse says,
in regard to the odor of liquid storax, that it combines the agreeable
with the disagreeable, it possessing partially an odor similar to that
of the tuberose and partially one reminding of coal-tar oil. However,
it possesses this disagreeable odor only in a concentrated state; when
finely divided or diluted, it diffuses a very agreeable perfume.

Under the name _American storax_, _white Peru balsam_, _white Indian
balsam_ or _liquid ambar_ is found in commerce a product similar
to storax, which is derived from _Liquidambar styraciflua, L._, a
tree indigenous to Mexico and Louisiana. This balsam forms a clear,
transparent, brownish-yellow, semi-fluid mass. It has a storax-like
odor, and a sharp and pungent taste. It is only partially soluble in
alcohol, specifically lighter than water, and shows an acid reaction.
It is said to consist of 24 per cent. styracin, 1 per cent. benzoic
acid, volatile oil, etc. It is sometimes used for fumigating purposes,
but chiefly serves for the adulteration of Tolu balsam.

_Myrrh_ (_Gummi-resina myrrha_, _Gummi myrrha_) is a gum resin, the
produce of _Balsamodendron Ehrenbergianum, Berg_, and, perhaps, also
of _Balsamodendron Myrrha, Nees_. The first-named tree is found in
the countries bordering on the Red Sea, and extends into Africa to
the Somali Coast, where the principal supply of myrrh is collected.
The gum-resin exudes naturally as a white oil-like mass, which, after
hardening, whereby it becomes considerably darker, is collected by the
natives and brought chiefly to Berbera, a small seaport opposite Aden,
to be exchanged for English and Indian goods. From there, by way of
Aden and Bombay, it reaches the European market. In Bombay the first
sorting takes place, which is, however, superficial, and hence has to
be repeated in Europe (London). According to Parker, ten different
resins are admixed with myrrh, especially bdellium resins.

In commerce _Myrrha electa_ and _Myrrha vulgaris_ or _in sortis_ are
distinguished. _Myrrha electa_, the best quality, occurs in pieces of
irregular form and variable sizes, consisting of tears--either distinct
or agglomerated--usually covered with a fine powder or dust. The
surface is seldom smooth, but generally rough or granular. The color
varies, being pale reddish-yellow, red, or reddish-brown. The fracture
is conchoidal, seldom smooth, but rather granular, rough, of a fatty
lustre, and sometimes shows whitish striæ or veins, or opalesces like
flint. The fractured edges are more or less translucent; thin disks
or splinters are translucent or transparent. The specific gravity is,
according to Hager, 1.195 to 1.205, and according to Ruickholdt, 1.12
to 1.18. A _Myrrha electa_ is the better, the more fragile, friable,
and paler in color it is, and the more rapidly it ignites and burns
with a yellow, sooty flame. Poorer qualities may be recognized by the
dark-brown color and dirty appearance. Myrrh is with difficulty rubbed
to a fine powder, this being possible only after drying, which must,
however, be done at a very moderate heat in order to prevent loss of
volatile oil.

According to Hager, myrrh consists in 100 parts of about 2.5 parts
volatile oil (myrrhol), 25 to 35 parts resin (myrrhin), 55 to 65 parts
gum soluble in water, 3 to 8 parts salts, impurities, and water. Water
forms with myrrh an emulsion, and dissolves the gum. The resinous
constituents are dissolved by spirit of wine.

The gum, which forms the portion of the myrrh soluble in water,
but insoluble in alcohol, and amounts to from 57 to 59 per cent.,
is, according to Oscar Koehler, a hydrocarbon of the formula
C_{6}H_{10}O_{5}. The portion soluble in alcohol is, according to
the same chemist, a mixture of various resins, an indifferent soft
resin of the formula C_{26}H_{34}O_{5}, soluble in alcohol and ether,
forming the greater portion of it. There are further present two resin
acids, one of which has to be considered a bibasic acid of composition
C_{12}H_{16}O_{8}, and the other as a monobasic acid of the formula
C_{26}H_{32}O_{9}. The principal constituent of the volatile oil
of which, according to Koehler, 7 to 8 per cent. is present, while
Ruickholdt formerly found only 2.18 per cent. corresponds to the
formula C_{10}H_{14}O. The volatile oil is laevorotatory, and when
diluted with bisulphide of carbon becomes, according to Flückiger,
violet by the action of bromine. An extract of myrrh, prepared with
bisulphide of carbon, gives the same reaction with bromine vapor.
Hydrochloric or nitric acid also colors myrrh violet, which also
applies to the volatile oil.

Petroleum-ether should, at the utmost, take up 6 per cent. of the
myrrh, and the extract must be colorless.

Myrrh is frequently contaminated with bark, which forms either a film
of cork as thick as paper or a crust of a fibrous and, at the same
time, brittle nature. Sand or small pebbles are also frequently mixed
with the myrrh. Other varieties of gum or gum-resin, which considerably
decrease the value of the product, are often found in the commercial
article, the inferior qualities especially being adulterated and
mixed with dark pieces of Suakim gum, gum of the plum or cherry tree,
bdellium, and similar substances, which are partially moistened with
myrrh tincture, and scattered over with myrrh powder. Adulteration
with gum-arabic, gum of the plum or cherry tree, which are coated
with alcoholic myrrh solution, is recognized by the paler lustre,
greater transparency, and mucilaginous taste. Pieces of resin melt on
heating, while myrrh only swells up. Bdellium is detected by the dark
or black-brown color, toughness, less bitter taste, and by crackling
and spitting when held in the flame of a candle, as well as by the
reaction of myrrh with nitric acid discovered by Bonastre. By mixing
5 cubic centimeters of alcoholic myrrh tincture with 5 to 10 drops of
fuming nitric acid, a rose-color coloration passing into red results.
Parker gives the following method for testing myrrh: Prepare a tincture
of 1 part myrrh and 6 parts spirit of wine. Saturate with this tincture
white filtering paper, allow it to drain off, and then wrap it around
a glass rod moistened with nitric acid of 1.42 specific gravity. With
genuine myrrh the paper immediately becomes deep yellow-brown and then
black, while the edges of the paper strip appear dark purple-red.
When a few drops of the tincture of myrrh are allowed to dry in, a
transparent residue remains behind. The tinctures of spurious articles
(with the exception of bissabol) give turbid residues.

Myrrh was already in Moses's time an article used in the sacrifices
of the Israelites. It seems to have been made use of by Democrates.
Dioscorides enumerates eight varieties of it, and Pliny seven, which he
obtained from Abyssinia. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus mention Arabia
as the home of the myrrh tree.

In perfumery, myrrh is chiefly used for dentifrices and fumigating
pastilles and essences.

_Opopanax_ is the inspissated juice of the root of _Opoponax Chironium,
Koch_, or _Ferula Opoponax, L._ It forms grains or lumps of a
red-yellow or brown color, and has a fracture of a waxy lustre. It can
be rubbed to a gold-yellow powder. It has a strong and peculiar odor,
and a very bitter and balsamic taste. With water it forms an emulsion,
while it is only partially soluble in spirit of wine. It contains very
little volatile oil, and a resin which melts at 212° F., and is soluble
in ether and aqueous alkalies. It further contains gum, organic and
inorganic salts, and foreign admixtures. Opopanax is but little used in
perfumery. For _Extraits_ the opopanax oil is better adapted than the
tincture prepared from the gum, the latter coloring the _Extrait_ dark.

_Olibanum or Frankincense_ is the inspissated juice of various
varieties of _Boswellia_, partially indigenous to Africa and partially
to Asia. The pure pieces are pale yellow, seldom reddish, transparent,
or opaque, brittle, covered with a mealy coating and of a splintery
fracture. The specific gravity of olibanum is 1.22; its odor is
slightly balsamic, and its taste bitter and pungent. It melts only
incompletely when exposed to heat, diffusing an agreeable odor. It
consists in 100 parts of 5 to 7 parts of a clear volatile oil, boiling
at 323.6° F., and of specific gravity 0.86, 56 parts of acid resin,
and 30 to 36 parts gum, which corresponds with gum-arabic. With water
it forms a milky fluid, and is mostly dissolved by spirit of wine.
Selected olibanum (_Olibanum electum_) is the best commercial variety,
while _Olibanum naturale_, _O. in lacrymis_, and _O. in sortis_, form
darker pieces intermingled with separate paler grains, and contaminated
by pieces of bark, and wood and sand.

Olibanum is only adulterated with sandarac and naturally exuded pine
resin, inspissated to tears by exposure to the air. The former is
recognized by the fracture being glassy and transparent, and the latter
by completely dissolving to a clear solution in spirit of wine.

Olibanum serves as an addition to fumigating pastilles, etc.

_Sandarac_ is the resin exuding from the bark of _Thuja articulata,
Desf._, or _Callitris quadrivalvis, Vent._, which grows in Barbary. It
forms pale yellow, transparent, brittle grains with a glassy fracture,
which have a specific gravity of 1.06 to 1.09 and fuse readily. Its
odor is slightly balsamic and its taste somewhat bitter. Sandarac
softens at 212° F. and melts at 275° F. It dissolves in hot absolute
alcohol, ether, and amyl alcohol, is less soluble in chloroform,
petroleum-ether, and volatile oils, and insoluble in benzol. In 90
per cent. alcohol ⅘ of it dissolve; the term _sandaracin_ has been
applied to the insoluble portion. According to Unverdorben, sandarac
consists of three different resins. It is sometimes employed in
fumigating pastilles. CHAPTER VI.

PERFUME-SUBSTANCES FROM THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.


Musk is a peculiar concrete secretion obtained from _Moschus
mochiferus, L._, an animal bearing a close resemblance to the deer
in shape and size, and indigenous to the high plateaus of Asia. The
musk is contained in an oval, hairy, projecting sac, found only in the
male, situated between the umbilicus and the prepuce. It is from 2 to 3
inches long and from 1 to 2 broad.

In commerce, several varieties of musk are distinguished, the principal
ones, however, being Tonkin and Kabardin musk.

_Tonkin_, _Thibet_, or _Oriental musk_, _Yunnan musk_ (_Moschus
tonquinensis_, or _orientalis_, or _transgangetanus_) is the best
variety. It comes from China, Tonkin, and Thibet. It consists of sacs
of a puffed-up appearance, more roundish than longish, varying in
size, being at the utmost 1.77 inches long, up to 1.57 inches broad
and 0.59 to 1.18 inches thick, and weighing from 8.46 drachms to 1
oz. 9.39 drachms each. The hairy side of the sac is concave and the
other flat. Fig. 21 shows an unshorn Tonkin musk sac of medium size
from the concave or hairy side and Fig. 22 the same from the side. The
envelop of the sac consists of a double skin, the outer skin being
gray-brown. One side of the sac is covered with stiff, yellowish hair
with red-brown points, generally cut short. The original packages,
containing usually 24 sacs each, consist of longish, four-cornered
boxes lined with lead-foil and covered outside with some silken stuff.
Each sac is separately wrapped in tissue paper. The musk-substance
appears as a dark red to black-brown mass intermingled with hair, and
forming roundish grains. The odor is penetrating and the taste bitter.

 [Illustration: FIG. 21.]

 [Illustration: FIG. 22.]

 [Illustration: FIG. 23.]

_Kabardin_, _Siberian_, or _Russian musk_ (_Moschus sibirius_, or
_cabardinicus_) is a cheaper variety of an inferior quality, which is
brought from Mongolia and Siberia. The sacs (Fig. 23) are longish,
generally pear-shaped, flatter in proportion to their longitudinal and
latitudinal dimensions, and not of a puffed-up appearance, the surface
being frequently even shrivelled or wrinkled. The outer skin is denser
and harder, and on the convex side covered with longer hair (up to 0.9
inch long), of nearly a silver or brownish color. Towards the edge of
the sac the hairs are, however, frequently so trimmed and shorn as to
give the sac a resemblance to the Tonkin article. The musk-substance
inclosed in the sac amounts to from 8.46 drachms to 1 oz. It is
somewhat paler, more brown or yellow-brown, soft, almost unctuous, when
fresh, but after storing, solid or granular-pulverulent, like ground,
burnt coffee. The odor is weak, offensive, more urinose, resembling
that of castor, or horse sweat.

_Moschus ex vesicis_ is said to be the musk taken from Tonkin sacs.
As a rule, however, it consists of a mixture of musk substance taken
from good sacs which present a bad appearance, or have been torn, and
from sacs of an inferior quality, frequently adulterated with foreign
substances, such as dried blood, dung of birds, weathered bicarbonate
of soda, etc.

To open a musk sac, cut it with a sharp penknife around where the
hairless side joints the hairy side, and empty it by scraping it out
upon a sheet of paper. The membranes and hair are then removed by means
of pincers.

The musk-substance of the Tonkin sacs is generally a heavy, dry-feeling
mass; it is partially intermingled with and partially enveloped by
small, thin, soft, brown, somewhat transparent membranes and frequently
mixed with small hair. It is partially loose and crummy, and partially
consists of various lumps or grains of the size of a mustard seed to
that of a pea, which are more or less roundish, more seldom angular,
softer or harder (but can always be readily cut), of a fatty lustre and
black-brown or dark-red color. In fresh sacs, the mass is frequently
soft, and, when bruised, somewhat smeary, but never unctuous. On
rubbing, it becomes paler in color, and glistening hair-like, paler,
gray or whitishyellow particles, sometimes of a crystalline texture,
appear. The odor of the musk substance is peculiar, strong, and very
constant; it is agreeable only when much diluted.

Musk is not a substance of a constant chemical and physical
constitution, the reason for this being found in the age and the
different foods of the musk animal, the season in which it is killed,
and the degree of dryness of the musk-substance. Water dissolves ¾
of good musk and 90 per cent. alcohol ½. The alcoholic solution is
not precipitated by water. Musk further contains fat-like substances,
wax, gall-substances (together 10 to 12 per cent.), glue-substances
and albumen (6 to 9 per cent.), traces of lactic and butyric acids,
phosphates, sulphates and hydrochlorates of the alkalies and alkaline
earths, frequently strong traces of ammonium carbonate and a volatile
oil, further moisture, humus-substance, and fibrous matter.

Musk, when dried, has a weak odor, which gradually becomes stronger on
moistening. There are several substances which destroy the musk odor,
especially bitter almonds, camphor, sulphur, acids and sulphates. The
odor adhering to a mortar in which musk has been rubbed can best be
removed by pounding bitter almonds in it.

Since, on account of the high price of musk, the musk animal is much
hunted, there is a possibility of it becoming in time extinct. For this
reason a substitute has been long searched for, and is believed to have
been found, especially, in the American musk-rat (_Fiber zibethicus_),
which is chiefly hunted for its skin. In this animal the musk is found
in two small sacs located between the anus and generative organs,
and is emitted when the animal becomes excited. According to R. S.
Cristiani, this musk is invaluable for the toilet soap industry of
America, it being nearly as good and strong as genuine musk. Cristiani
has formerly used much of it for scenting soaps, powders, etc., but
does not recommend it for essences. When used for soaps, some time is
required for the odor to become refined, and if a piece of soap scented
with it is stored for a few months, it would, according to Cristiani's
assertion, be difficult even for an expert perfumer to distinguish the
odor from that of genuine Tonkin musk.

As possible substitutes for the musk deer may further be mentioned
a species of rat indigenous to the West Indies, and an antelope of
North Africa. It is also said that musk derived from the Mississippi
alligator has been brought into commerce. The sacs are said to
be small, the odor somewhat different from that of genuine musk,
resembling that of civet, but suitable for perfuming purposes.

A process for the preparation of _artificial musk_ has been patented
by Dr. Baur, of Gispersleben. According to the specification, toluol
is mixed with the halogen compounds of butane and boiled with the
addition of aluminium chloride or aluminium bromide. The product of the
reaction is mixed with water and distilled with steam. The fraction
passing over between 338° and 392° F. is caught and treated with fuming
nitric acid and fuming sulphuric acid. The product obtained is washed
with water and alcohol, and crystallized. The artificial musk forms an
amorphous white powder, which in time becomes yellow. It is readily
soluble in 90 per cent. alcohol, but from solutions in weaker alcohol
it again crystallizes out at a cool temperature. The odor becomes very
pronounced after the addition of 5 drops of ammonia to 1 pound of a one
per cent. solution.

This artificial product having been in existence but for a short
time, it is not possible to come to a final conclusion as to its
availability. However, its odor differs essentially from that of the
genuine article, and it can scarcely be employed for fine extracts;
if low enough in price it might, however, be suitable for soaps and
cheaper perfumes.

Musk is very much adulterated, the Chinese being adepts in this
sophistication. Dried blood, on account of its resemblance to musk,
is among the most common adulterations, but, besides this, sand, iron
filings, hair, the dung of birds, wax, asphaltum, and many other
substances are introduced. They are mixed with a small portion of
musk, the powerful odor of which is communicated to the entire mass,
and renders the discovery of the fraud sometimes difficult. The bags
containing the musk should have the characteristics before described
as belonging to the natural sac, and present no sign of having been
opened. One of the grossest frauds, which is also perpetrated in
Europe, consists, according to Hager, in perforating the musk sac with
a needle, placing it in strong rum or weak spirit of wine, and, after
pressing it with the fingers, washing with spirit of wine and drying
in the air. By this means a tincture suitable for perfuming purposes
is obtained, while the musk-substance is increased in weight by the
absorption of moisture. Sacs thus treated are, however, readily
recognized, they being, after drying, gnarled and uneven.

Good musk-sacs should yield from 50 to 60 per cent. of musk. An
admixture of blood is detected by the musk acquiring a putrid odor
when moistened with water. The presence of pieces of metal, pebbles,
resin, etc., is recognized by the naked eye or with the assistance of
a magnifying glass. The microscope reveals, in pure musk, white and
brownish, irregularly-formed grains, cells, oil drops, and, generally,
also fungoid threads. Genuine musk burns with a white flame and leaves
a gray ash, which should not amount to more than from 5 to 8 per cent.

In perfumery musk is used for soap, sachet powders, and extracts. By
itself it is, however, scarcely employed, not even for the so-called
musk soaps or musk extracts. It is chiefly valued by the perfumer for
its property of rendering other perfumes used in combination with it
more durable and bringing out their scent. For scenting soaps the
musk must first be prepared. If to be used for milled soaps, it is
triturated in a mortar with clear sugar, while for cold stirred soaps,
weak potash lye of at the utmost 3° to 5° Bé. is poured over it. Weak
lye makes the odor more pronounced, while strong lye destroys it.

_Civet_ (_zibethum_) is derived from two animals of the genus
_Viverra_. The actual civet cat (_Viverra civetta, L._) lives in the
hottest parts of Africa from the Guinea Coast and the Senegal to
Abyssinia, where it is carefully bred for its civet. The product is
also obtained from _Viverra zibetha, L._, indigenous to the Moluccas
and Philippines. The civet is secreted in a cavity between the anus
and the external genitals, and is scraped out with a spoon. It is
semi-liquid, unctuous, yellowish, becoming brown and thicker by
exposure to the air, of a bitter, disagreeable, fatty taste, and of a
peculiar, urinose, disagreeable odor, resembling that of musk which
becomes agreeable only when much diluted and mixed with other perfumes.
When ignited it burns with a bright flame, leaving behind 3 to 4 per
cent. of ash. It is insoluble in water; in spirit of wine it partially
dissolves with difficulty, and with greater ease in warm ether and in
chloroform. It should form a homogeneous, non-crumbling mass. According
to M. Boutron Chalard, it contains free ammonia, stearin, olein, mucus,
resin, a yellow coloring substance, salts, and a volatile oil, the
latter giving the odor to it. In perfumery, civet is chiefly used as an
addition to other perfumes in order to strengthen them and make them
more constant. It is also employed for perfuming fine leather articles.

_Castor_ or _castoreum_ is a peculiar concrete substance obtained
from _Castor fiber_ or the beaver. In both sexes between the anus
and external genitals are two pear-shaped sac-like follicles (Fig.
24) united at their thin ends. The follicles contain, when fresh, a
semi-liquid substance which becomes more solid by drying. The castor
occurring in commerce is generally dried by smoke.

 [Illustration: FIG. 24.]

In commerce two principal varieties are distinguished: Siberian or
Russian and Canadian, English or American castor, the first being the
most valuable. The length of a Siberian sac varies between 2.36 and
4.72 inches, the width between 0.98 and 2.55 inches, and the thickness
between 0.78 and 1.57 inches; it weighs from 1.76 to 8.81 ozs. One of
the sacs is generally somewhat smaller than the other. The exterior
skin of the sac is almost smooth and, in a dry state, dark brown; the
interior is dirty yellow, intermixed with a dense cellular tissue,
which envelops the castor-substance and is grown together with it. In a
dried state, the latter is dark brown, without lustre, almost friable,
of a very strong, peculiar odor, and a pungent, somewhat bitter,
aromatic taste.

The sacs of Canadian castor are smaller than the Siberian, they being
at the utmost 3.15 inches long, 0.98 inch thick, and darker and
uneven. The interior mass is resinous, hard, with a lustrous fracture,
red-brown, and can be readily pulverized. The odor is weaker, somewhat
musty and ammoniacal, and the taste more bitter and less pungent than
that of the Siberian castor.

Castor is much adulterated--pebbles, pieces of lead, dried blood,
etc., being frequently found in the sacs. These frauds can generally
be detected in cutting the sac open. Spurious sacs are said to be
frequently found among the genuine sacs of Canadian castor. These
spurious sacs are prepared by drying a mixture of castor, resin,
dragons' blood, etc., in the scrotum of goats.

In perfumery, castor is now very seldom used, the perfumers preferring
musk and civet, which, certainly, give a somewhat different scent.

_Ambergris_ is a fatty, waxy substance, often found floating on the sea
on the coasts of Arabia, Madagascar, Japan, etc. It is also found in
the cæcum of the sperm whale (_Physetus macrocephalus, Schow_), and
is supposed by some to be a morbid secretion in the urinary bladder.
According to Mr. Beale, it merely consists of the indurated fæces of
the animal, perhaps somewhat altered by disease. It has a gray-white
color, often with a black streak and a slight agreeable odor, like
that of benzoin, which becomes more pronounced on heating. When held
for some time in the hand it becomes soft and flexible. It melts at
the temperature of boiling water, and, when more strongly heated,
volatilizes in the form of a white vapor, leaving but slight traces
of ash behind. Its specific gravity is 0.8 to 0.9. It is insoluble in
water, sparingly soluble in cold spirit of wine, and more readily so
in hot spirit of wine, ether and volatile and fat oils. It is almost
completely soluble in absolute alcohol. Though ambergris crumbles
readily, it can only with difficulty be converted into coarse powder.
With the finger it can be polished like hard soda-soap.

The principal constituent of ambergris is ambrin or ambrein, a
non-saponifiable fat, which, from a saturated alcoholic solution of
ambergris, crystallizes, after standing for some time, in the form
of verrucose, whitish or lustrous acicular crystals. According to
John, ambergris consists of 85 per cent. ambrin, 12.5 per cent. sweet
balsamic extract, further benzoic acid, sodium chloride, and 1.5 per
cent. insoluble brown residue. When distilled with water, ambergris
yields 13 per cent. of a volatile oil having an agreeable odor. A
red-hot iron wire readily penetrates ambergris, and from the hole thus
made flows an oily liquid of a strong and agreeable odor.

On account of its high price, ambergris is frequently adulterated, the
commercial article being often nothing but an artificial mixture of
benzoin, olibanum, wax, and flour, with other substances, perfumed with
musk. Such adulterations are detected by the appearance, proportions
of solubility, nature of the fracture and the content of ash. A small
quantity of pure ambergris, exposed to heat, melts without forming
bubbles or scum. It is easily punctured with a heated needle, which,
when withdrawn, should come out clean and without anything adhering
to it, and the characteristic odor of ambergris should be immediately
evolved. The surface should be rugged, that with a smooth and uniform
surface being generally factitious.

In perfumery, ambergris is not so much used on account of its agreeable
odor, but rather to make the perfumes more constant.



CHAPTER VII.

ARTIFICIAL PERFUME-MATERIALS.


In speaking of the volatile oils used in perfumery, two artificial
perfume-materials, artificial oils of bitter almonds and wintergreen
have already been mentioned. There can be no doubt that when the
chemical construction of volatile oils is better known, chemistry
will succeed in preparing still more such combinations, valuable for
perfumery, or in converting cheap volatile oils into more valuable
ones, as has, for instance, been done by Bouchardat and Lafont, who
have successfully converted oil of turpentine into oil of lemons. These
chemists rectified French oil of turpentine at exactly 311° to 314.6°
F., dissolved in the distillate, which amounted to 120 grammes, an
equal quantity (120 grammes) of glacial acetic acid, cooled the mixture
and then carefully added, so that the temperature never exceeded 104°
F., 88 grammes of crystallized chromic acid dissolved in a sufficient
quantity of acetic acid. Notwithstanding that the greater portion of
the oil of turpentine remained unoxidized, a thorough reaction took
place, and the product of decomposition proved to be a hydrocarbon,
boiling at from 345.2° to 352.4° F., to which Bouchardat and Lafont
have applied the term "terpilene." The properties of this hydrocarbon,
especially its boiling point, corresponded with those of oil of lemons,
its odor also resembling that of the latter, but it contained about
one-sixth cymol which it was impossible to remove. Though thus far this
artificial oil of lemons is of no importance for perfumery, it is of
interest as showing the possibility of converting one volatile oil into
another.

The artificial musk, spoken of under "Musk," cannot be classed with the
previously-mentioned artificial perfumed-materials. The odoriferous
principle of the natural and artificial musk have nothing in common,
the odor depending not on a common chemical combination.

Besides the artificial perfume-materials already mentioned, but a
few others are employed in perfumery, viz: _Cumarin_, _heliotropin_,
_vanillin_, and _nitrobenzol_, or _oil of mirbane_. Another series of
artificial perfume-materials, the so-called fruit ethers, have also
been recommended for perfumery purposes. Although such products are
sometimes used, their employment is not advisable, since they produce
an irritating effect upon the bronchial tubes and respiratory organs,
and frequently cause headache.

_Cumarin._--The agreeable odor of new-mown hay is chiefly due to the
sweet-scented vernal grass (_Anthoxanthum odoratum, L._). This grass
contains an odoriferous substance, the _cumarin_. The latter is also
found in many other plants; for instance, in the tonka bean (the seeds
of _Dipterix odorata_), in the sweet woodruff (_Asperula odorata_),
and, combined with melilotic acid, in the melilot (_Melilotus
officinalis, Descr._).

Cumarin forms small, colorless crystals of a silky lustre. It is very
hard, cracks between the teeth, shows a smooth fracture, and sinks in
water. It has a very agreeable aromatic odor, which, on rubbing the
substance with the fingers, becomes like that of oil of bitter almonds,
and has a bitter, warm, and pungent taste. When pure it melts at 152.6°
F., but when containing fat, like that separated from tonka beans, at
from 104° to 122° F. Its boiling point lies at 554° F.; it volatilizes,
however, at far lower temperatures, diffusing an odor resembling that
of oil of bitter almonds, and sublimating in white needles. It is
soluble in alcohol, ether, acetic acid, fat, and volatile oils. Of cold
water (59° F.) 400 parts are, according to Buchner, required for its
solution, but of boiling water only 45 parts.

Tonka beans are the ripe seeds of _Dipterix odorata_. They are much
used in perfumery on account of their content of cumarin, and formerly
constituted the initial point for its manufacture. In commerce two
varieties are distinguished, viz., _Dutch tonka beans_, derived from
_Dipterix odorata, Willd._, indigenous to the forests of Guiana,
and _English tonka beans_, from _Dipterix oppositifolia, Willd._,
indigenous to Cayenne.

The Dutch tonka bean is 1.18 to 1.57 inches long, 0.39 to O.59 inch
wide, and O.27 to O.43 inch thick. It is generally slightly curved,
provided under the point with the hilum, and covered with a thin,
fragile, brown-black or black skin of a fatty lustre, upon which small
crystals of cumarin are generally found, so that it appears coated,
especially in the wrinkles, with a whitish dust. The kernel consists
of two yellow-brownish oleiferous catyledons, between which layers of
cumarin are generally found. The odor is agreeable, resembling that of
melilot, and the taste aromatic bitter. Dutch tonka beans contain fat,
sugar, malic acid, and malate of lime; further, starch, gum, and 1 to
5 per cent. of cumarin (C_{9}H_{6}O_{2}). The English tonka beans are
smaller, white-yellowish inside, nearly black outside, and of inferior
quality to the Dutch beans.

From tonka beans, cumarin may be obtained by two different methods.
One method consists in repeatedly extracting the bruised beans with
spirit of wine, distilling the latter off from the extract, and mixing
the residue with cold water, whereby cumarin contaminated with fat
is precipitated. To remove the fat, bring the whole to the boiling
point, filter the hot solution through a moist filter upon which the
fat is retained, and allow to cool, whereby the greater portion of the
cumarin crystallizes out; the remaining small portion is obtained by
evaporating the mother-lye.

According to the other method, the bruised tonka beans are distilled
with water. After 24 hours the greater portion of the cumarin separates
in a crystalline form. The residue remaining in solution can be
withdrawn from the water by shaking with petroleum-ether and subsequent
evaporation of the solvent. From one pound of good tonka beans, up to 4
drachms of cumarin may be obtained.

Cumarin is sometimes also obtained by purifying by recrystallization of
the débris found in the original boxes of tonka beans, which chiefly
consists of cumarin.

Perkin has recently succeeded in artificially preparing cumarin from
salicylic acid. By boiling the sodium salt of the latter in acetic
anhydride for a few minutes and then pouring into water, an oil-like
body is separated, whilst sodium acetate passes into solution. The
former is a mixture of acetic anhydride, salicylic acid and cumarin;
in distilling, the latter passes over last (at 554° F.), and congeals
in the receiver to a crystalline mass.

Cumarin is now synthetically prepared by several firms, that brought
into the market by Schimmel & Co., of Leipsic, especially being of
excellent quality. Although artificial cumarin is considerably lower
in price than that obtained from tonka beans, most perfumers still
prefer the extract from tonka beans prepared by themselves. There is,
however, no good reason for this, since a change in the respective
receipts for perfumes presents no difficulties, 8.46 drachms of cumarin
corresponding to 2.2 lbs. of best tonka beans.

_Heliotropin_ or _piperonal_ is of great importance in the manufacture
of perfumes. It forms small, colorless prismatic crystals, which have
an agreeable odor of héliotrope. Upon the tongue heliotropin produces
the same sensation as oil of peppermint under the same conditions, the
sensation being, however, more lasting. It melts at about 104° F., and
volatilizes at a higher temperature without leaving a residue. It is
soluble in alcohol and ether, and insoluble in cold water; in hot water
it melts to an oily liquid which floats upon the water.

Exposed to the action of heat and air, heliotropin acquires an uncomely
appearance, balls together and, under very unfavorable circumstances,
turns brown. It is then entirely decomposed and useless, and, hence,
should be kept in summer in as cool a place as possible. A temperature
of 95° F. has already an injurious effect upon the perfume, and it is
best not to buy it at all in the hot summer months. To preserve the
perfume in its entire freshness, it is advisable for consumers in hot
climates to at once dissolve the heliotropin in alcohol and to keep the
solution in a cool place.

Pepper serves as the initial point for heliotropin or piperonal, the
white variety being the best for the purpose. To obtain piperine,
contained in varying qualities (7 to 9 per cent.) in pepper, the
latter is repeatedly extracted with boiling alcohol. The extract is
then evaporated to one-third its volume, or the greater portion of the
alcohol is distilled off, and the resinous mass, obtained after the
addition of water, is repeatedly washed in water with the addition of a
small quantity of potash or soda lye, dissolved in alcohol and purified
by repeated recrystallization. To convert the white-yellow piperine
thus obtained into potassium piperate it is, together with equal
parts of potassium hydroxide and 5 to 6 parts of alcohol, kept gently
boiling for 24 hours in a well-closed flask provided with an ascending
Liebig cooler. A capacious flask should be used, as the mass pounds
quite vigorously. After cooling, the precipitate, which is obtained
in yellowish, lustrous lamina, is separated through a filter from the
dark-brown mother-lye, washed with cold alcohol and several times
recrystallized from hot water. A further discoloration may be effected
by the addition of animal charcoal.

The potassium piperate thus obtained forms nearly colorless prisms in
verucose groups, which, however, turn yellow when exposed to light.
By boiling the alcoholic mother-lye with ⅓ of the previously used
potash-lye, further small quantities of potassium piperate may be
obtained.

To obtain piperonal from the potassium piperate, dissolve 1 part of
the latter in 40 to 50 parts of hot water, and then slowly introduce,
with constant stirring, a solution of 2 parts potassium permanganate
in 50 parts of water. This precaution is absolutely necessary, as
otherwise the piperonal formed would be partially further oxidized and
lost. The paste-like mass formed is passed, while still hot, through a
straining cloth, and the residue repeatedly washed with boiling water
until it shows nothing more of the characteristic odor of héliotrope.
The wash-waters are combined with the first filtrate, and subjected to
distillation over a free fire.

The first distillates are richest in piperonal, it generally separating
already in the cooler. The fractionally caught distillate is allowed
to stand one or two days in as cool a place as possible, whereby the
greater portion of the piperonal separates in a crystalline form or in
fine lamina. To obtain the piperonal still remaining dissolved in the
water, the mother-lye, after the separation of the crystals through a
filter, may be repeatedly agitated with ether, whereby the piperonal
dissolves in the ether. The latter is carefully distilled off at as
low a temperature as possible (104° to 122° F.) in the water-bath or
allowed naturally to evaporate.

_Vanillin._--Vanilla is the not entirely ripe, pod-like, capsular
fruit (wrongly called pod), of a tropical orchid (_Vanilla planifolia,
Andrews_), which is cultivated in Mexico, the West Indies, and South
America. It is extensively used for flavoring, and its odoriferous
substance is highly valued in perfumery. The cross-section of the
capsule is thick and fleshy, filled with very small, black, lustrous
seeds stuck together by a gummy balsam with which they are coated. The
capsule has a sourish taste and has no value, the seeds, or rather
the balsam enveloping the seeds, being the substance on which the
odor and taste of vanilla depend. When the vanilla fruit becomes ripe,
the capsule opens and empties its content of seeds in the form of a
balsam-like mass.

The lustrous black-brown surface of vanilla is frequently coated with
white, delicate crystals, which were formerly taken for benzoic acid.
Bley and Vee first recognized them as a peculiar substance, which was
further examined by Gobley and Stokkebye. This substance, to which
Gobley applied the term _vanillin_, is the chief odoriferous substance
of vanilla. It is deposited upon the vanilla-crystals, when the latter
are densely and closely packed together and for some time exposed to
a heat of about 77° F. Of vanillin, vanilla contains 1.5 to 2.75 per
cent.; the Mexican variety containing 1.69 to 1.32 per cent., the
Bourbon No. I, 2.48 to 1.91 per cent., Bourbon No. II, 1.55 to 0.75 per
cent., and the Java, 2.75 to 1.56 per cent. It is singular, that the
highly valued Mexican vanilla has, generally speaking, a lower content
of vanillin than the other varieties.

At present, vanillin is prepared artificially. Tiemann and Harmann
first showed that by the oxidation of coniferin, a glucoside occurring
in the cambial sap of the _Coniferæ_, a product, perfectly identical
with the vanillin prepared from vanilla, is obtained. The coniferin
is obtained by barking the pine or silver fir, scraping together the
sap under the bark together with a portion of the liber and pouring
it into a vessel. The sap is then pressed off, boiled to separate
the albumin, filtered, evaporated to one-fifth its volume, and set
aside to crystallize. One hundred quarts of sap are said to yield
from 1 to 2 pounds of coniferin-crystals. By now allowing an aqueous
coniferin-solution to run into a heated mixture of 10 parts potassium
bichromate, 15 parts concentrated sulphuric acid, and 80 parts water,
and heating for 3 hours in a flask with back-flow cooler, a liquid
is obtained from which ether takes up a yellow oil. After treating
the latter with animal charcoal, dissolving in ether and evaporating
the latter, there remain colorless, acicular crystals of the odor and
taste of vanilla. These crystals consist of vanillin contaminated with
some vanillic acid. To separate the latter, purify with acid sodium
sulphite and recrystallize. After this operation, vanillin represents a
nearly white crystalline powder which melts at from 176° to 177.8° F.
In this form it is brought into commerce as a complete substitute for
vanilla, 5.64 drachms of it corresponding to about 1 pound of vanilla.
A medium-sized pine tree is said to yield vanillin of the value of 80
marks ($19.20).

Vanillin may also be prepared by oxidation from eugenol. Oil of cloves
is diluted with three times its volume of ether and agitated with
weak caustic potash solution to fix the eugenol on the potash. By
acidulating the alkaline solution and shaking with ether, the eugenol
is collected. After distilling off the ether, the eugenol is converted
with acetic anhydride into aceteugol, and the latter oxidized with
dilute, moderately-warmed potassium permanganate solution. The filtrate
is made slightly alkaline, concentrated, then compounded with acid and
the vanillin extracted with ether.

Vanillin (C_{8}H_{8}O_{3}) forms small colorless prisms of a strong
vanilla odor, a warm, vanilla taste, and an acid reaction. It is
readily soluble in hot water, alcohol, ether, chloroform, fat and
volatile oils, as well as in solutions of caustic alkalies and alkaline
carbonates. It melts when heated to from 176° to 177.8° F.; at a higher
temperature it sublimates without leaving a residue.

According to a notice published in the "Deutsch-Amerikanischen
Apotheker Zeitung," vanillin adulterated with benzoic acid has occurred
in the United States. A sample subjected to examination is said to
have been nothing but benzoic acid perfumed with vanillin. Such an
adulteration can be detected with the microscope, since vanillin
crystallizes in acicular crystals, and benzoic acid in lamina, which
can be readily recognized. Pure vanillin melts at 176° F., while
the melting points of such mixtures are considerably higher, it
being in one case at 249° F. By extracting such mixture with thin
sodium carbonate solution, benzoic acid passes into solution. After
neutralizing with hydrochloric acid, the filtrate yields with ferric
chloride a fawn-brown precipitate of ferric benzoate, and on adding
hydrochloric acid in excess, the benzoic acid, which dissolves
with great difficulty in cold water, is precipitated. By treating
the latter, or the ferric benzoate, with dilute sulphuric acid and
magnesium, the benzoic acid is reduced to benzaldehyde, which is
recognized by its characteristic odor of oil of bitter almonds.

_Nitrobenzol_ is obtained by treating benzol, or a mixture of it,
with toluol and their higher homologues, with strong nitric acid,
or a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, washing the product of
reaction with water and soda, caustic soda or ammonia, expelling the
unaltered hydrocarbons with steam and rectifying the residue. Three
varieties distinguished by their boiling points and odor occur in
commerce. The nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane (_essence de mirbane_) is
the so-called _light nitrobenzol_, which boils at from 401° to 415° F.
The _heavier_ varieties boil at a higher temperature and have a more or
less disagreeable odor; they are used in the manufacture of aniline and
aniline colors.

Pure oil of mirbane is pale yellow, the finest qualities being
colorless and almost as clear as water. It has an agreeable odor
resembling that of oil of bitter almonds, a specific gravity of 1.186
to 1.2 = 25° Bé., and congeals at 37.4° F. to a crystalline mass. It is
scarcely soluble in water, sparingly so in alcohol and with difficulty
in watery spirit of wine; it is miscible in all proportions with ether,
benzine, volatile oils, and most fat oils.

Oil of mirbane is largely manufactured in England, but the German
product is now generally preferred, it being purer and does not impart
to soap perfumed with it a yellowish tinge. The finest oil of mirbane
is prepared from pure crystallizable benzol, and again purified
by washing with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid, and by
rectification with steam.

Pure nitrobenzol suffers no change by boiling with soda lye, while the
poorly rectified product colors the lye yellow or brown.

Nitrobenzol is frequently adulterated with spirit of wine, which is
recognized by shaking the oil with fat oil of almonds; in the presence
of spirit of wine a turbid mixture is formed. By shaking nitrobenzol
containing spirit of wine with an equal volume of water in a graduated
cylinder, its volume decreases.

Oil of mirbane is much used for perfuming soaps, but even the finest
quality of it cannot replace oil of bitter almonds for fine soaps
and perfumery. Great care has to be exercised in storing, as well
as in working, nitrobenzol, it igniting very readily, and it is
also poisonous. Even the vapors, when inhaled for some time, may
produce symptoms of poisoning, which consist in the skin acquiring a
leaden color, and heavy feelings in the limbs with cold extremities,
especially the hands and feet.


FRUIT ETHERS. At the London Exhibition, in 1851, various products
called apple oil, pear oil, pine-apple oil, etc., were shown. They were
examined by A. W. Hofmann, and found to consist of solutions of certain
ethers in alcohol. Since then the manufacture has greatly increased and
large quantities are now brought into commerce under the name of _fruit
ethers_ or _fruit essences_.

Fruit ethers are fluids possessing an agreeable, refreshing odor
closely resembling that of some fruits. For this reason they are
used in confectionery, in the manufacture of liqueurs and also as
a substitute for volatile oils, in the manufacture of perfumery.
Chemically, fruit ethers are combinations of an organic acid--acetic,
butyric, valerianic, etc.--with a so-called alcohol radicle, such as
ethyl and amyl. The preparation of fruit ethers being connected with
many difficulties, is seldom attempted by perfumers, especially as
products of an excellent quality can at a low rate be procured from
chemical laboratories making a specialty of their manufacture. However,
for the sake of completeness, a brief description of the fabrication of
the principal ethers used in their preparation shall here be given.

_Acetic amyl ether_ or _amyl acetate_, C_{5}H_{11}O.C_{2}H_{3}O, is
prepared by mixing 1 part of amyl alcohol with 1 part of concentrated
sulphuric acid, and distilling the mixture with 2 parts of potassium
acetate. The distillate is washed with water, to which some carbonate
of soda has been added, and then rectified over magnesia. It forms a
colorless liquid of an agreeable fruity odor. It boils, according to
Kopp, at 280° F. and, at 59° F., its specific gravity is 0.8692.

For use in perfumery, the ether is best prepared, according to
Fehling's directions, by heating for some time at a temperature of 212°
F. 1 part of glacial acetic acid with ½ part of sulphuric acid and
one part of amyl alcohol. By then adding water the ether is separated.
By this process distillation is avoided.

_Acetic ethyl ether_ or _ethyl acetate_, C_{2}H_{3}O.O.C_{2}H_{5}.
Acetic ether is formed by the decomposition of sodium acetate by ethyl
sulphuric acid:--

    SO_{2} {OC_{2}H_{5} + C_{2}H_{3}O.ONa =
           {OH
           └----┬-----┘   └------┬------┘
         Ethyl sulphuric  Sodium acetate.
               acid.

    SO_{2} {ONa    +  C_{2}H_{3}O.OC_{2}H_{5}
           {OH
           └--┬--┘    └---------┬----------┘
         Acid sodium        Acetic ether.
          sulphate.

One molecule of sulphuric acid or 98 parts is mixed with one molecule
of alcohol or 46 parts, or with 1 molecule of alcohol of 90 per
cent. which contains 85.75 per cent. of absolute alcohol, hence
with 53.6 parts of alcohol, and distilled with 1 molecule or 82
parts of anhydrous sodium acetate. Since commercial sulphuric acid
always contains 5 or 6 per cent. of water, this has to be taken into
consideration, and 105 to 106 parts of it have to be used in order
to decompose the entire quantity of sodium acetate. The crude sodium
acetate found in commerce may be used. It is nearly white and at the
utmost contaminated by traces of sulphuric acid and chlorine, which in
this case are not injurious. The crystallized salt is heated in an iron
kettle whereby it melts in its water of crystallization. With constant
stirring the water is then completely evaporated until an entirely
dry mass of salt remains behind. The latter may be quite strongly
heated without fear of destroying the acetic acid. The dried salt is
immediately powdered, passed through a medium fine sieve and kept for
use in well-closed vessels.

On a large scale the distillation of the ether may be effected in an
iron kettle, which is provided with a well-fitting lid and connected
by a copper head with a cooling apparatus--a worm lying in cold water.
Bring into the kettle the required quantity of concentrated sulphuric
acid, add, with vigorous stirring, the alcohol and allow the mixture to
rest for 24 hours. Then throw the dry sodium acetate into the mixture,
mix it thoroughly, by stirring, with the ethyl sulphuric acid, and,
after luting all the joints of the apparatus, heat at first moderately.
Distillation proceeds quietly and uniformly, the fire being regulated
according to how the ether runs off from the worm. Such uniform
distillation is, however, only attained by the use of the sodium
acetate in the form of powder, and thoroughly mixing it with the acid.
If large pieces of the salt are present or the powdered salt balls
together, the formation of ether sometimes takes place so suddenly
that the vapors cannot condense in the cooling apparatus, but escape
violently, or if they cannot escape rapidly from the condenser, may
even burst the apparatus. The reason for this is that the larger pieces
float in the superheated acid without being saturated by it, and, when
they suddenly collapse, form a mass of ether-vapors.

Distillation is continued until that which at last passes over is not
inflammable. With the above-mentioned proportions 88 parts of acetic
ether are formed, but as some water always passes over, distillation
need not be interrupted until the receiver contains at least 90 parts
of crude ether.

The crude ether always contains more or less water, some alcohol,
and a small quantity of free acetic acid. With the above-mentioned
proportions, the content of alcohol can, however, be only very small.
To neutralize the acetic acid, add some burnt magnesia or shake with
carbonate of soda solution until the acid reaction disappears. For the
absorption of the water and alcohol, add as much sharply dried (not
fused) calcium chloride as the fluid will dissolve, and then let it
stand with an excess of the salt for one day. The calcium chloride
combines with the water and alcohol and separates as a heavy layer
beneath the ether. The latter is decanted off and brought into a
rectifying vessel--a copper still, heated by steam, and provided with a
cooling pipe. The ether is distilled off at a moderate heat, the last
portion, about 1/10, being caught in a special receiver, to be again
rectified at the next operation.

According to Grossschopf, 40 lbs. of pulverized anhydrous sodium
acetate, together with a cooled mixture of 46 lbs. of concentrated
sulphuric acid and 37 lbs. of 95 per cent. alcohol, free from fusel
oil, are distilled in a copper still heated by steam. Distillation
is continued with constant stirring by means of an apparatus in the
still, until no more fluid smelling and tasting of acetic ether passes
over. The crude distillate, amounting to 55 or 56 lbs., is brought into
bottles which are filled ⅔ full. The bottles are then filled up with
water and potassium carbonate is added until the fluid, after shaking,
shows no acid reaction. The aqueous fluid beneath the ether is then
drawn off by means of a siphon, and the ether several times washed by
shaking with water and allowing to settle. Since the wash-water absorbs
a quite considerable quantity of ether, it is collected and subjected
to rectification, whereby an alcoholic acetic ether is obtained. The
ether, being freed from acetic acid and alcohol by neutralization and
washing, is brought in contact with fused calcium chloride to free it
from water, and finally rectified over magnesia. In this manner 36 to
37 lbs. of pure acetic ether are obtained.

Acetic ether is a clear, colorless fluid of a pleasant, etheral odor.
It boils at 170.6° F., and at 59° F. its specific gravity is 0.9068.
Pure acetic ether dissolves in 11 to 12 parts of water; a content of
alcohol or the addition of water increases its solubility. Hence, its
solubility in water is a criterion of its purity.

_Benzoic ether_ or _ethyl benzoate_, C_{7}H_{5}O.OC_{2}H_{5}, is most
readily prepared by mixing 4 parts of alcohol, 2 parts of crystallized
benzoic acid, and 1 part fuming hydrochloric acid, and for some time
heating the mixture in a flask. The benzoic acid is thereby gradually
and completely converted into ether. The fluid is mixed with water,
whereby the ether is completely separated. It is several times washed
with carbonate of soda solution, and, for the purpose of withdrawing
the last trace of free acid, distilled over lead oxide. It forms a
colorless oil of an aromatic odor, specific gravity 1.0502, and boils
at 412° F. In cold water it is insoluble. However, like all varieties
of ether, it dissolves readily in alcohol and ether.

_Butyric ethyl ether_ or _ethyl butyrate_, C_{4}H_{7}O.OC_{2}H_{5}. The
preparation of this ether must be preceded by that of butyric acid.
The latter is obtained, according to Bensch, by dissolving 6 lbs. of
cane sugar and 8 drachms of tartaric acid in 13 quarts of hot water,
allowing the liquid to stand a few days and then adding 7 ozs. of old
rotten cheese, which has been stirred up in 4 quarts of skimmed sour
milk and 3 lbs. of finely pulverized chalk. The mixture must be kept
at a uniform temperature of from 86° to 95° F. for some weeks, from
time to time mixing it by stirring, and replacing the water lost by
evaporation.

By the action of a ferment the sugar is first converted into lactic
acid. In 10 to 12 days the entire mass congeals to a paste of calcium
lactate. By now allowing fermentation to proceed without interruption,
it gradually enters another stage; gas bubbles consisting of carbonic
acid and hydrogen rise up, until in the course of 5 or 6 weeks the
process is finished. This is recognized by the fluid becoming quiet,
no more gas being evolved. The fluid then contains a solution of
calcium lactate, which is converted into the corresponding sodium salt
by the addition of 8 lbs. of crystallized soda. It is then filtered
and concentrated by evaporation to 5 quarts. By adding 5½ lbs. of
sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal volume of water, butyric acid is
separated as a dark-colored oily mass.

The crude butyric acid thus obtained and freed from water by shaking
with calcium chloride, is a mixture of acetic, butyric, and capric
acids, but does not contain propionic and valerianic acids. To obtain
from it pure butyric acid, fractional distillation is required. For
manufacturing on a large scale, a copper distilling apparatus with
silver head and silver cooling pipe is used, the bulb of a thermometer
being placed in the head. In the first rectification, the receiver
is changed after the thermometer has risen to 311° F.; the portion
passing over between 311° and 329° F. is caught up by itself, and
the receiver being again changed, distillation is continued until
finished. The first distillate contains mostly acetic acid, besides
a small quantity of butyric acid, the second the greater portion of
the butyric acid besides a little acetic and capric acids, while the
third consists chiefly of capric acid. For preparing butyric ether for
technical purposes, the fraction passing over between 311° and 329°
F. is sufficiently pure. To obtain chemically pure butyric acid, the
rectification of the portion passing over between 311° and 329° F. is
in the same manner repeated, until finally a product with a constant
boiling point at 324.2° F. is obtained.

Butyric acid fermentation proceeds more rapidly by using, instead of
rotten cheese, putrefying meat, and in place of sugar, starch paste
or mashed boiled potatoes, 1 part of meat to 4 parts of starch or a
corresponding quantity of potatoes being employed. The same products
are formed as in the preceding process, but much more rapidly,
fermentation being finished, according to Schubert, in 5 to 6 days.

Butyric acid, C_{4}H_{7}O.OH, or C_{3}H_{7}COOH, is a liquid of a very
sour taste and odor, and at an intense cold congeals to a crystalline
mass which melts at 32° F. In a pure state it boils at 324.2° F. It is
soluble in water, but separates again if soluble salts are added to
this solution. Its specific gravity, after being completely freed from
water, is 0.974.

Besides the normal butyric acid, there is known another one called
_isobutyric' acid_ or _dimethyl acetic acid_. It is distinguished from
the normal acid by being less soluble in water and by its boiling
point, which lies at 309.2° F. It occurs in St. John's bread or carob,
in the volatile oil from _Arnica montana_ and in croton oil.

_Butyric ether_ is formed by mixing 2 parts of butyric acid with 2
parts of alcohol and 1 part of sulphuric acid. The fluid is heated to
176° F., and, after being for several hours kept at that temperature,
is poured into cold water, whereby the ether separates as an oily
fluid. It is then separated from the aqueous solution, washed with
water to which some chalk has been added for the neutralization of the
free acid, and finally the water is withdrawn from the ether by, for
several days, leaving it in contact with calcium chloride. To obtain
it entirely pure, it is only necessary to distil it once. It forms a
clear, very mobile fluid of a pine-apple odor, and a specific gravity
of 0.900. It boils at 249.8° F.

Commercial butyric ether, large quantities of which are used for the
preparation of the so-called _pine-apple ether_ or _essence_, is seldom
pure, it being generally obtained from simply rectified butyric acid.
According to another method, which is, however, not as profitable,
it is obtained by distilling butter-soap with alcohol and sulphuric
acid. For this purpose, bring 20 pounds of butter-soap, cut up in
small pieces, into a distilling apparatus, pour over it 10 pounds of
90 per cent. alcohol and heat moderately until the soap is dissolved.
Since a portion of the alcohol evaporates thereby, add 10 pounds more
of alcohol and then 20 pounds of sulphuric acid. On further heating,
a fluid of a very agreeable odor distils over, which is an alcoholic
solution of the ethers of the volatile acids found in butter. Towards
the end of the operation, in consequence of the further progress of
decomposition, a development of sulphurous acid generally takes place.
This is removed from the distillate by allowing it to remain for
several days in contact with finely-pulverized pyrolusite (peroxide
of manganese) and rectifying over burnt magnesia. In the first
distillation, the heavy volatile acids of the butter remain behind;
they are freed from the excess of sulphuric acid and the sulphate of
sodium or potassium by washing with hot water, and can be utilized in
the manufacture of soap.

The butyric ether obtained from butter-soap is far from being pure
butyric ether, it containing, besides it, a mixture of various kinds of
ether derived from the volatile acids--caproic, capric, and caprylic
acids. However, these varieties of ether possess similar properties
to that of butyric acid; in alcoholic solutions their taste and odor
are nearly alike, and hence can be employed in this mixture for the
preparation of essences of an agreeable odor and taste.

A suitable material for the preparation of butyric ether is also the
St. John's bread or carob, the pods of _Silequa dulcis_. Redtenbacher
established in them the occurrence of about 2 per cent. butyric acid,
which Gruenzweig later on proved to be isobutyric acid. Besides butyric
acid and other volatile acids, St. John's bread contains about 40 per
cent. of fermentable varieties of sugar, which can be utilized after
their conversion to butyric acid. For this purpose Stinde has proposed
the following process: Convert the pods together with the seeds to a
coarse powder; bring 100 lbs. of this powder into a capacious barrel
placed in a warm place, and pour sufficient water of 82.5° F. over it,
to form a thin paste; after 4 to 5 days add 24 lbs. of whiting and
await fermentation. The paste, which gradually becomes thicker, is from
time to time stirred, and, if necessary, a small quantity of lukewarm
water added. In summer fermentation is finished in six weeks, after
which the preparation of the ether is proceeded with.

For this purpose bring the paste into a still provided with a steam
jacket; the evening before mix 36 lbs. of concentrated sulphuric acid
with 60 lbs. of alcohol of 95 per cent., and add the mixture to the
paste in the still; then lute the joints of the distilling apparatus,
and quickly introduce steam. Distillation soon commences, and, when
once introduced, is continued with a moderate admission of steam.

The first pound of the distillate is caught by itself, and, after
changing the receiver, distillation is continued until but little
passes over, even with an increased admission of steam. Thus
an abundant yield of alcoholic butyric ether is obtained. When
distillation is finished 20 lbs. more of alcohol may be brought into
the still; the distillate obtained thereby being still rich in butyric
ether.

The St. John's bread used should be of the best quality, free from
worms and mould, as otherwise the ether would not possess the pure,
agreeable odor characteristic of butyric ether.

_Formic ethyl ether_, or _ethyl formate_, CHO.OC_{2}H_{5}.--This ether
is also much manufactured for the preparation of the so-called essences
which are employed for the purpose of imitating the odor of plants,
fruits, etc. It is formed by the action of formic acid upon alcohol, or
by bringing ethyl sulphuric acid, or a mixture of alcohol and sulphuric
acid, in contact with formates, or finally by bringing formic acid at
the moment of its formation in contact with alcohol.

The most simple process is that recommended by Lorin:--

Into a capacious distilling apparatus connected with the cooling pipe,
so that the distillate constantly flows back, bring 1 part, by weight,
of glycerin of the consistency of syrup, add ¼ of its weight of
crystallized oxalic acid and the same quantity of alcohol of 90 to 95
per cent. With moderate heating a vigorous development of gas soon
takes place. The oxalic acid in contact with the glycerin splits into
formic acid and carbonic acid, according to the following equation:--

      {COOH   =      CHO.OH    +  CO_{2}.
      {COOH
     └--┬--┘      └----┬----┘     └--┬--┘
    Oxalic acid.  Formic acid.  Carbonic acid.

The glycerine does not undergo alteration thereby. The nascent formic
acid converts the alcohol present into formic ether, water being
separated. When, after continued heating, the development of carbonic
acid abates, add the same quantities of oxalic acid and alcohol to
the contents of the still, heat again until but little carbonic acid
is evolved, and then add, twice in succession, the same quantities of
oxalic acid and alcohol as before, until finally as much oxalic acid is
consumed as glycerin has been employed. When the evolution of carbonic
acid ceases, the receiver is reversed and the ether distilled off. The
glycerin remaining behind is again concentrated to the consistency of
syrup, and may be re-used.

The distillate is freed from free acid by the addition of magnesia, and
the alcohol and water are separated by shaking with calcium chloride,
after which the pure ether is obtained by rectification.

Formic ether is colorless, thinly-fluid, of a pleasant smell, specific
gravity 0.945, boiling point 130° F., soluble in cold water, and
miscible in every proportion with alcohol and ether.

_Nitrous ether_, or _ethyl nitrite_, C_{2}H_{5}.ONO.--In a pure state
this ether is best prepared according to the method given by E. Kopp.
It consists in bringing equal volumes of alcohol and ordinary nitric
acid together with copper filings into a distilling apparatus, which
is so arranged that the vapors first pass through a flask filled with
water of 77° F., then through a calcium chloride tube, and are finally
condensed in a receiver surrounded by snow and common salt. The nitric
acid is first decomposed by the copper, nitrous acid being thereby
developed, which is so transposed that its radicle NO occupies the
position of the typical hydrogen in the alcohol, while the rest of the
acid forms water with the hydrogen of the alcohol. By the reaction such
a quantity of heat is liberated that the process requires assistance by
external heating only towards the end of the operation. In the receiver
is then a pale yellow fluid having the taste and odor of apples and, at
59° F., a specific gravity of 0.947. According to Liebig, the boiling
point of nitrous ether lies at 61.5° F.; hence it can be condensed only
by careful cooling, and has to be kept in glass tubes fused together.
In water it is but sparingly soluble, but readily so in alcohol. By the
addition of water it is separated from the alcoholic solution.

Mohr has modified Kopp's method as follows: Mix alcohol of 0.833
specific gravity, water, and nitric acid of 1.200 specific gravity,
each 24 parts and add 4 parts of copper filings. Of this mixture draw
off 24 parts of distillate, mix the latter with litmus tincture and
neutralize the free acid by adding, drop by drop, solution of caustic
potash or soda until the litmus tincture becomes blue. Rectify the
distillate and catch of it 8 parts. Compound the latter with 16 parts
alcohol of 0.833 specific gravity, whereby the product is made equal to
the quantity of alcohol originally used. The product is kept in glasses
holding from 2 to 3 ozs. each. This alcoholic nitrous ether is of a
yellow color, very strong and has a pure odor.

In England and America, nitrous ether is much used for aromatizing
whiskies and for other purposes. According to Stinde[9] it is prepared
on a large scale as follows:--

A stone-ware flask of at least 120 lbs. capacity, such as is used for
the preparation of chlorine, is so placed upon a tripod in a sheet-iron
cylinder that the neck projects over the edge of the cylinder. The
space between the flask and the walls of the cylinder is completely
filled with mats or coarse pack-cloth. A steam-pipe enters the lower
part of the cylinder, while a cock placed on the bottom of the cylinder
serves for discharging the condensed water. The cylinder is closed by
a sheet-iron cover provided in the centre with a hole through which
passes the neck of the flask. The flask is filled with 60 lbs of 90 per
cent. alcohol free from fusel oil, to which, in small portions, 15 lbs.
of crude nitric acid of 36° Bé. are added.

 [9] Dingler's Polyt. Journ., 184, 367.

The neck of the flask is provided with an exactly-fitting tube of pure
tin. The tube is bent twice at a right angle, and one end is provided
with an annular piece to prevent it from slipping too far into the
interior of the flask. The joints between the tube and the neck of the
flask are luted with a stiff paste of flaxseed meal, a wet strip of
linen being, for greater security, wrapped over the cement. The other
end of the tin-tube, which here occupies the place of a still-head,
is in the same manner connected with a long tin-worm lying in a large
cooling vat.

Everything being prepared, but little steam is at first introduced
into the iron cylinder in order to slowly warm the apparatus. When
this is done the admission of steam is gradually increased. The mats
or pack-cloth placed between the walls of the cylinder and the flask
prevent the latter from bursting, which otherwise might readily happen.
Distillation commences in about ten minutes. The admission of steam
is then moderated, care being had that the ether passes over in an
uninterrupted stream of the thickness of a goose-quill.

When, with the admission of the same amount of steam, the distillate
commences to run drop by drop, the steam-cock is closed and the
operation interrupted, this being the case in about six to seven hours.

The next day the flask--without removing the residue--is charged in
the same manner. However, the third day only 30 pounds of alcohol are
poured in.

The combined distillates come into a copper still with double walls,
between which steam can be admitted, and are neutralized with dry
calcium hydrate. The cooling pipe connected with the still consists of
tin, and is provided with a beak dipping into a flask filled half-full
with 4 pounds of alcohol. A slight current of steam suffices for
distillation. The first distillate is dark yellow, and contains large
quantities of aldehyde. Notwithstanding careful cooling, the vapors can
be but incompletely condensed, and their inhalation has to be carefully
avoided, they producing stupor and headache as well as inflammation of
the eyes. When the distillate is colorless and shows no reaction with
litmus paper, the receiver is removed and replaced by a large glass
balloon in which the entire distillate is collected. Distillation must
be quickly finished, as otherwise colored ether is obtained.

_Valerianic amyl ether_ or _amyl valerate_, C_{5}H_{11}O.C_{5}H_{9}O.

This ether is formed by treating amyl alcohol with chromic acid.
However, besides the ether a large quantity of valerianic acid is also
formed, which has to be converted by itself into ether.

To prepare the ether bring 5½ parts of powdered potassium dichromate
together with 5 parts of water into a distilling apparatus and very
gradually add a mixture of 1 part amyl alcohol and 5 parts concentrated
sulphuric acid. The fluid becomes so strongly heated that it almost
boils. When reaction is finished, heat and distil off the rest. The
distillate consists of two layers; the lower one being an aqueous
solution of valerianic acid and the upper one a mixture of valerianic
acid and amyl valerate. To separate both, add concentrated carbonate of
soda solution until all the free acid is neutralized. The oily liquid
separating thereby is the ether. It is separated from the valerianate
of sodium, the latter evaporated to a small volume, and, after cooling,
sufficient sulphuric acid to fix the entire quantity of the soda is
added. The valerianic acid is thereby separated, and floats upon the
solution of the sodium sulphate. It is separated from the latter, and
1¼ parts of it are added to a mixture of ¾ part of amyl alcohol and 1
part sulphuric acid and heated to 212° F. After the addition of water,
the apple-ether separates and only requires washing with water and some
sodium carbonate to yield a pure product.

The separation of the valerianic acid can, however, be readily avoided.
Evaporate the neutral solution of the valerianate of soda to dryness in
the water-bath, weigh off 1 molecule, or 124 parts, and gently heat it
with a mixture of 1 molecule or 98 parts of sulphuric acid (on account
of the content of water in the commercial acid, 105 parts of it will
have to be taken) and 1 molecule or 88 parts of amyl alcohol.

The ether thus obtained is a fluid, which, in a concentrated state,
does not possess an agreeable odor, but when mixed with 10 parts of
alcohol imparts to the latter an odor resembling that of apples. It
boils at from 370° to 374° F., and at 64° F. has a specific gravity of
0.8793.

_Valerianic ethyl ether_ closely resembles the amyl ether, and, like
it, is prepared from valerianate of sodium, ordinary alcohol, and
sulphuric acid.

_Apple ether_ essentially consists of valeric amyl ether, of which 1
part is dissolved in 6 to 10 parts of strong alcohol.

_Apricot ether_ is butyric ether with some amyl alcohol.

_Cherry ether_ is acetic ether with benzoic ether.

_Pear ether_ contains acetic amyl ether.

_Pineapple ether_ is butyric ether.

_Strawberry ether_ is acetic ether with acetic amyl ether and butyric
ether.

The ethers are dissolved in various proportions in alcohol, according
to the intensity of the odor which it is desired to obtain. The
aroma of most of them is generally increased by a slight addition of
chloroform.

For the preparation of different fruit essences Kletzinsky[10] gives
the following directions. The figures indicate additions in cubic
centimeters to 1 liter of rectified alcohol of 90 per cent.:--

 [10] Dingler's Polyt. Journ., 180, 77.

_Apple essence._--Chloroform 10, nitrous ether 10, aldehyde 20, acetic
ether 10, valeric amyl ether 100, oxalic acid[11] 10, glycerin 40.

_Apricot essence._--Chloroform 10, butyric ether 100, valeric ether
50, peach oil 10, amyl alcohol 20, butyric amyl ether 10, tartaric
acid[11] 10, glycerin 40.

_Cherry essence._--Acetic ether 50, benzoic ether 50, peach oil 10,
benzoic acid[11] 10, glycerin 30.

_Currant essence._--Aldehyde 10, acetic ether 50, benzoic ether 10,
grape-seed oil 10, tartaric acid[11] 50, succinic acid[11] 10, benzoic
acid[11] 10.

_Grape essence._--Chloroform 20, aldehyde 20, formic ether 20,
grape-seed oil 100, wintergreen oil 10, tartaric acid[11] 50, succinic
acid[11] 30, glycerin 100.

_Lemon essence._--Chloroform 10, nitrous ether 10, aldehyde 20, acetic
ether 100, oil of lemons 100, tartaric acid[11] 100, succinic acid[11]
10, glycerin 50.

_Melon essence._--Aldehyde 20, formic ether 10, butyric ether 40,
valeric ether 50, glycerin 30.

_Orange essence._--Chloroform 20, aldehyde 20, acetic ether 50,
formic ether 10, butyric ether 10, benzoic ether 10, wintergreen oil
10, acetic amyl ether 10, orange-peel oil 100, tartaric acid[11] 10,
glycerin 100.

 [11] The figures for free acids refer to cubic centimeters of cold,
 saturated, alcoholic solutions.

_Peach essence._--Aldehyde 20, acetic ether 50, formic ether 50,
butyric ether 50, valeric ether 50, peach oil 50, amyl alcohol 20,
glycerin 50.

_Pear essence._--Acetic ether 50, acetic amyl ether 100, glycerin 100.

_Pineapple essence._--Chloroform 10, aldehyde 10, butyric ethyl ether
50, butyric amyl ether 100, glycerin 30.

_Plum essence._--Aldehyde 50, acetic ether 50, formic ether 10, butyric
ether 20, peach oil 40, glycerin 80.

_Raspberry essence._--Nitrous ether 10, aldehyde 10, acetic ether 50,
formic ether 10, butyric ether 10, benzoic ether 10, grape-seed oil
10, wintergreen oil 10, acetic amyl ether 10, butyric amyl ether 10,
tartaric acid[11] 50, succinic acid[11] 10, glycerin 40.

 [11] The figures for free acids refer to cubic centimeters of cold,
 saturated, alcoholic solutions.

_Strawberry essence._--Nitrous ether 10, acetic ether 50, formic ether
10, butyric ether 50, wintergreen oil 10, acetic amyl ether 30, butyric
amyl ether 20, glycerin 20.



CHAPTER VIII.

ALCOHOLIC PERFUMES.


The alcoholic perfumes, also called "_Extraits d'Odeurs_," are divided
into flower-odors, "_Extraits aux fleurs_," and into compound odors,
"_Bouquets_." The extracts of French flower pomades form the foundation
of all _Extraits d'Odeurs_, all other additions serving the purpose of
rendering these odors more pronounced and durable. Hence the art of the
perfumer consist in attaining this object as perfectly as possible by
the correct composition of the perfume-materials at his disposal. If,
for instance, the flower-odor _jasmine_ is to be prepared, it would not
be sufficient to simply use the alcoholic extract of jasmine-pomade for
the purpose, since the odor of jasmine would soon volatilize in the
air or upon the handkerchief, if the perfumer did not understand how
to prevent it. To prevent the rapid volatilization of the scent, to
retain it or to fix it, extracts of various perfume-materials, known as
tinctures or extracts are used.

The method of preparing the flower-pomades in France has already been
described on p. 58 _et seq._ It need here only be added that, according
to their quality, these pomades are designated by different numbers
by the French manufacturers. There are three qualities, which by some
manufacturers are designated as No. 6, No. 18, and No. 30; and by
others as No. 12, No. 24 and No. 36, so that No. 6 and No. 12, No. 18
and No. 24, as well as No. 30 and 36 correspond to each other. Pomades
No. 6 or No. 12 are not suitable for the preparation of extracts, they
containing but little actual extract of flowers, and are generally
mixtures touched up with volatile oils. They are almost exclusively
used for hair pomades, for which they are well adapted. No. 18 or No.
24 is the quality generally employed by the perfumer for alcoholic
extracts. No. 30 or No. 36 is the strongest, and, hence, most expensive
flower-pomade, and is used only by a few perfumers who have customers
for the finest qualities of _Extraits d'Odeurs_.

When freshly prepared, the above-mentioned flower pomades do not
possess the fine odor of the respective flowers, the full aroma being
developed only after about six months. The tin-canisters containing
them should be provided with well-fitting lids and kept in a cool, dry
cellar. Thus stored, flower-pomade keeps for about five years, with the
exception of jasmine and tuberose, which keep only for about two years.

In order to show how the extraction of flower-pomades is effected,
we will take, as an example, 2 lbs. of French flower-pomade No. 18
and 3½ quarts of best alcohol.[14] This proportion yields a good and
sufficiently strong extract for the preparation of _Extraits d'Odeurs_.
It must, of course, be suited to the size of the extracting apparatus,
8 lbs. of flower-pomade and 14 quarts of alcohol being, for instance,
taken, though that depends on the quantity of the respective extract
required by the perfumer. It is, however, best that the apparatus
should be as completely filled as possible so that it contains but
little air.

 [14] By "best alcohol" is understood rectified alcohol of 95 to 97 per
 cent.

The gaining of alcoholic extracts from flower-pomades is best effected
in a special apparatus, one of the simplest kind for the purpose being
shown at Fig. 25.

 [Illustration: FIG. 25.]

It consists of two cylinders, _A_ and _A_{1}_ of stout sheet-iron
provided with well-fitting lids. Through the centre of each lid passes
a vertical iron shaft _a_ and _a_{1}_ which carries in the interior
of the apparatus several horizontal arms _b_, _b_{1}_, _b_{2}_. These
vertical shafts can be rapidly revolved by the horizontal shaft _c_.
Before bringing the flower-pomade into the apparatus, it is melted in
the water-bath at a temperature, which, under no conditions, should
exceed 88.25° F. The alcohol is also heated to 88.25° F. and added to
the melted pomade in the apparatus. The arms with which the vertical
shaft is provided, keep the mass in the apparatus in constant motion
and prevent the pomade from settling on the bottom. The apparatus is
arranged to be driven either by hand or steam, a fly-wheel instead of a
pulley, being in the first case provided at _g_.

Where the manufacturer has steam-power at his disposal, the apparatus
may be connected with the transmission and allowed to run for 48 to 60
hours during working time. After the expiration of this time, proceed
to strain off the finished extract (No. 1) as follows: Over a clean tin
vessel stretch a close, white linen cloth, and pour the entire contents
of the apparatus upon the latter; the liquid portion runs through the
cloth into the vessel, while the pomade remains behind upon the cloth.
Finally, the cloth is thoroughly wrung out in order to obtain as much
alcoholic extract from the pomade as possible. Bring the extract, No.
1, thus obtained into a glass flask, allow it to stand in a cool cellar
for about 48 hours, and then filter it through paper into another glass
bottle. This filtering through paper is necessary, even if the extract
should appear clear and pure, as, in straining, not only do small
particles of fat pass through the cloth, but are also dissolved in the
extract. By quietly standing in a cool cellar these particles of fat
are separated and appear as white flakes on the bottom and sides of the
flask. At a higher temperature, these flakes melt and appear as drops
of oil on the bottom of the flask. If filtering were omitted, these
particles of fat would be transferred to the extracts and thus cause
stains upon handkerchiefs, clothing, etc. If the manufacturer has not a
cool cellar at his disposal, the fatty particles are readily separated
by placing the flasks containing the extract upon ice, and filtering
immediately after separation is complete. The fat then remains upon the
filter.

The pomade remaining upon the straining cloth is, without being
previously melted, returned to the apparatus, and, after adding the
same quantity of alcohol (3½ quarts to every 2 lbs. of pomade), the
mixture is again worked as previously described. The straining off and
filtering of extract No. 2 is effected in precisely the same manner as
extract No. 1.

The pomade upon the cloth is now brought for the third time into the
apparatus and, after adding 3½ quarts of alcohol for every 2 lbs. of
pomade, subjected to the same treatment as for extracts Nos. 1 and 2.
After thoroughly wringing out the cloth containing the pomade, the
latter is brought into a clean tin vessel and entirely melted upon
the water-bath. The vessel containing the melted pomade is placed in
a cool cellar and, if after complete cooling, a liquid appears upon
the surface, it is added to the flask containing extract No. 3. This
extract, No. 3, is used in place of alcohol when preparing, the next
time, extract No. 1 from the same kind of pomade. In this manner, an
extract No. 1 of still greater strength is obtained, and by treating
the pomade three times with alcohol, it is more completely exhausted.
The exhausted pomade can, in conjunction with fresh fat, be used for
ordinary hair pomades.

Although the extraction of pomades is somewhat laborious and requires
great care, it nevertheless pays the perfumer.

 [Illustration: FIG. 26.]

Beyer frères, of Paris, have essentially improved the extracting
apparatus previously described, the improvement being shown in Fig. 26.
The cylinders _A_ and _A_{1}_ are of copper tinned inside; the lids
close air-tight; above the cocks _f_ and _f_{1}_ a perforated piece of
tin is placed in the interior of the cylinders; upon this piece of tin
a disk of felt may be placed, and thus the extract be drawn off clear.
In order to reduce the pomade to a finely divided state, and thus bring
it in contact with the alcohol, it is passed through a vermicelli
press, _h_, placed upon the cylinder _A_{1}_. The pomade passes, in
the form of fine vermicelli, through a sieve in the lower portion of
the press into the alcohol contained in the cylinders. The press can
be transferred from one extracting vessel to the other. The shafts _a_
and _a_{1}_ also have several horizontal arms like those shown in Fig.
25. Through the contrivances _d_ and _d_{1}_, sitting upon the shaft
_c_, the shafts _a_ and _a_{1}_, receive a revolving as well as an
up-and-down motion, so that a complete mixture of pomade and alcohol is
effected. By this arrangement the pomade completely yields its perfume
to the alcohol in one day, and independent of the quicker work, it
has the further advantage that the extracts are of better quality in
consequence of not remaining for so long a time in contact with the fat.


TINCTURES AND EXTRACTS. In the following pages receipts for the
preparation of the principal tinctures and extracts used in the
preparation of _Extraits_, as well as in other branches of perfumery,
fumigating pastils and powders, dentifrices, mouth-waters, and
cosmetics, will be given. The tinctures are prepared from the
resins and balsams previously mentioned, as well as from the
perfume-substances derived from the animal kingdom. Besides these
there are employed for the purpose several spices, leaves, roots, and
seeds--such as musk-seeds, angelica root, orris root, patchouli leaves,
musk-root or sumbul-root, tonka beans, vanilla, vitivert root, etc.

Most of these substances, if not already found in commerce in the form
of a powder, are, before extraction, pulverized, or at least comminuted
as much as possible. For a better view the treatment of each substance
is given with the respective receipt. The infusions should be stored in
a moderately warm room, and thoroughly shaken several times every day.
When extraction is finished the product is filtered through paper and
is then called _tincture_ or _extract_.

The substances to be used for tinctures should be fresh and genuine,
and the alcohol free from fusel oil, since a perfect tincture can only
be obtained under these conditions. For the preparation of tinctures
Beyer frères have constructed very suitable apparatuses (Figs. 27 and
28). By the vigorous and uninterrupted agitation produced by means of
such an apparatus extraction is effected much more rapidly and more
completely than by treating the substances to be extracted in ordinary
bottles and by shaking with the hand.

 [Illustration: FIG. 27.]

The apparatus (Fig. 27) is provided with two boxes for the reception
of bottles filled with the substances to be extracted and alcohol.
In the accompanying illustration one box is charged with two glass
bottles and the other with a copper flask. However, Beyer frères also
construct apparatuses which can, at one time, be charged with 6, 8,
or 10 glass bottles, so that 6, 8, or 10 different tinctures can be
prepared at one operation.

 [Illustration: FIG. 28.]

The apparatus (Fig. 28) consists of a round table provided with
cavities covered with leather, in which rest bottles of a special
shape. The bottles fit exactly in the cavities. The stoppers, with
which the bottles are closed, rest against a screw of large diameter
placed in the centre of the apparatus. Against this screw the bottles
are firmly pressed by means of clamps and screws. The bottles being
filled with the substances to be extracted, the table is set in motion,
moving alternately from left to right and from right to left.

It is advisable to have always a sufficient supply of tinctures on
hand, since their aroma improves by age.

The receipts given in the following pages have been practically tested
and can be recommended as perfectly reliable.

_Musk tincture._--Tonkin musk 11 drachms, rose water 8 ozs., best
quality of alcohol 2 quarts.

Carefully empty the musk sac into a glass flask, add the rose water and
let the flask stand for about 10 days, shaking frequently. Then add the
alcohol and let the whole stand for several weeks, shaking frequently.
Cut up the empty musk sacs into as small pieces as possible, and,
in another bottle, treat them in the same manner as their contents;
distilled water, may, however, be used instead of rose water. The
object of the water is to soften the musk, which swells up, so that the
alcohol can better penetrate into the cellular tissue and absorb the
aroma.

The extract from the empty musk sacs is used for cheaper products, or
mixed with the extract from the contents of the sacs, according to
whether a more or less fine quality of tincture is to be obtained. A
still higher yield might, perhaps, be obtained by the use of a machine
for comminuting the musk, which grinds the sac to atoms, whereby the
cellular tissue is still more completely disintegrated than by cutting
up.

_Civet tincture._--Civet 5½ drachms, best quality of alcohol 3 pints.

Civet in its natural state being, with difficulty, soluble in alcohol,
triturate it in a mortar to a pulverulent mass together with some dry
substance, for instance, whiting or exhausted orris-root powder. The
mixture is then brought into a glass flask, the alcohol added, and the
whole frequently shaken.

_Ambergris tincture._--Ambergris 5½ drachms, alcohol of the best
quality 1 quart.

Ambergris dissolving readily in alcohol, pulverizing is not required,
but if it is done, great care should be exercised to prevent loss of
this expensive substance. Ambergris is not so much distinguished by its
aroma as by its indestructibility, which renders it especially suitable
for fixing odors.

_Castor tincture._--Castor 3½ ozs., best quality of alcohol 3 pints.

Comminute the castor as much as possible, bring it into a glass flask
and add the alcohol.

Perfume-substances resembling musk having in the last few years
increased to an extraordinary degree, the use of castor has been almost
entirely abandoned on account of its disagreeable odor. The tincture
can only be employed, when very old, for cheap perfumes.

_Benzoin tincture._--Benzoin (Siam) 2 lbs., best quality of alcohol 3
quarts.

Convert the benzoin into a coarse powder, bring it into a flask, add
the alcohol and shake thoroughly. Solution takes place in 10 to 12 days.

Siam benzoin is the finest and most expensive and is indispensable for
_Extraits d'Odeurs_. For cheaper products of perfumery, Sumatra benzoin
answers very well.

_Peru-balsam tincture._--Peru balsam 8 ozs., best quality of alcohol 5
quarts.

_Tolu-balsam tincture._--Tolu balsam 3 lbs., best quality of alcohol 5
quarts.

Bring the alcohol into a bottle. Tolu balsam cannot be reduced to a
powder, hence it is necessary to keep it right cool, whereby it becomes
brittle so that it can be cut up with a sharp instrument and a hammer.
The pieces detached are rapidly brought into the alcohol, solution
taking place in about 14 days. If the alcohol were added to the tolu
balsam, the latter would ball together, rendering solution very
difficult. Frequent vigorous shaking is necessary.

_Olibanum tincture._--Olibanum 2 lbs., best quality of alcohol 4 quarts.

Reduce the olibanum to as fine a powder as possible, bring it into a
flask, add the alcohol and shake frequently.

_Opopanax tincture._--Opopanax 2 lbs., best quality of alcohol 4 quarts.

Reduce the opopanax to a coarse powder, bring it into a bottle, add the
alcohol and shake frequently.

_Storax tincture._--_Storax liquidus_ 4 lbs., alcohol of best quality 5
quarts.

Bring the alcohol first into the flask. Then place the pot containing
the storax in warm water until it becomes more liquid, and then pour it
in very thin threads into the flask. Shake frequently.

_Myrrh tincture._--Myrrh 1 lb., best quality of alcohol 2 quarts.

_Musk-seed or abelmosk tincture._--Abelmosk grains 21 ozs., best
quality of alcohol 2½ quarts.

Reduce the grains to a fine powder, bring the powder into a bottle,
and add the alcohol. This _tincture abelmoschi_ fulfils its object as
a fixing agent only when about one year old, when it possesses a very
fine aroma.

Abelmosk grains are the seeds of a plant (_Abelmoschus moschatus
Mönch_; _Hebiscus abelmoschus, L._) indigenous to Central Africa,
Arabia, and India. They are reddishgray, kidney-shaped, slightly
corrugated on the surface, and of an agreeable musk-like odor. The
substance producing the musk odor lies in the seed coat. The odor
becomes very pronounced on rubbing the seeds between the hands.

_Angelica root tincture._--Angelica root 16 ozs., best quality of
alcohol 2 quarts.

Bruise or rasp the root, bring it into a bottle, add the alcohol, and
shake frequently.

_Orris-root tincture._--Pulverized orris root of best quality 2 lbs.,
alcohol of best quality 3 quarts.

Pulverize the root, bring it into a glass flask, and add the alcohol.
The powder having a great tendency to ball together, it is necessary
to shake five or six times daily, and continue to do so for 14 days.
In straining off the tincture, it is advisable to bring the entire
contents of the flask upon a close linen cloth stretched over a tin
vessel. The orris-root powder remaining upon the cloth after the
tincture has run off is returned to the flask, and fresh alcohol added
in order to obtain a second extract.

_Musk-root_ or _sumbul-root tincture_.--Sumbul root 1 lb., best quality
of alcohol 2½ quarts.

Proceed in the same manner as given under angelica-root tincture.

_Tonka-bean tincture._--Tonka beans 8 ozs., alcohol of best quality 3
pints.

The tonka bean is of great importance for perfumery. The tincture
prepared from it has an agreeable, penetrating odor, and in mixing it
with other odors, great care has to be exercised, so that the tonka
odor is not too prominent. The tincture is prepared as follows: Bring
the beans, without comminuting them or removing the white coating
adhering to them, into a flask, add the alcohol, and let the whole
macerate, with frequent shaking, for about 14 days. Then filter off the
fluid. The tincture prepared in this manner only contains the cumarin
found as a white coating upon the beans, and is used only for the
finest products. Now take the beans from the flask, comminute them,
return them to the flask, and add 1¼ quarts of alcohol. This extract
gives an excellent tincture suitable for products of medium quality.

_Cumarin tincture._--Cumarin 5½ drachms, best quality of alcohol 1
quart.

_Heliotropin tincture._--The white crystals of heliotropin yield
with alcohol a solution clear as water, which is much used in the
preparation of _Extrait héliotrope_.

_Vanilla tincture._--Best quality of Bourbon vanilla 5¼ ozs., alcohol
of best quality 2 quarts.

To prepare the tincture proceed as follows: Cut the so-called vanilla
pods lengthwise and then into as small pieces as possible, and bring
the latter together with the alcohol into a flask. Some perfumers
triturate the commimuted vanilla with sugar in a porcelain mortar,
whereby the small-seed bodies contained in the pod are ground up, and
a better yield is claimed to be obtained. Though by this trituration
a tincture of a darker color may be obtained, the color alone is by
no means a proof of the strength of the tincture. Care must be had to
bring the white, downy crystals of vanillin found upon the vanilla pods
into the flask.

_Vanillin tincture._--Vanillin 1½ drachms, alcohol 2 quarts.

_Vitivert tincture._--Vitivert rhizome 8 ozs., best quality of alcohol
2 quarts.

Reduce the rhizome to as fine a powder as possible, bring the latter
into a flask, add the alcohol and shake frequently.

_Juniper-berry tincture._--Juniper berries 2 lbs., best quality of
alcohol 5 pints.

The juniper berries (the fruits of _Juniperus communis, L._) are
comminuted, and the alcohol is poured over them.

_Patchouli extract._[15]--Patchouli leaves 1 lb., best quality of
alcohol 5 pints.

 [15] Compare patchouli oil, p. 130.

Bring the pulverized leaves into a bottle and add the alcohol. The
tincture from patchouli leaves being dark-green is not suitable for
the preparation of _Extraits_, since white substances are colored
grass-green by it; only traces of the tincture may be used for the
purpose of giving the _Extrait patchouli_ a greenish shade of color.
The tincture may, however, be utilized for milled patchouli soaps.

From many of the above-mentioned perfume-substances, which serve
for the preparation of tinctures and are not entirely soluble in
alcohol, but leave a residue after extraction, a second infusion may
be made. Musk, castor, and the resins dissolve completely, there
remaining behind only the impurities and any mineral constituents
present which possess no aroma. But all residues from woods, fruits,
etc., are suitable for a second extraction, most of the tinctures
thus obtained being quite aromatic, and, as will be seen later on in
giving receipts, can be very advantageously utilized. For the second
extraction less alcohol has to be taken than for the first.

Since many perfumers consider it of greater advantage and more suitable
to first dissolve the volatile oils used for the _Extraits d'Odeurs_,
and to prepare a tincture in this manner, several receipts for the
purpose are given below. In the receipts for perfumery given in the
next following sections, the volatile oils are specified as such, and
not as tinctures, because the _Extraits d'Odeurs_ containing evidently
much non-saturated alcohol, the volatile oils will in time completely
dissolve in them. An exception to this rule might be ylang-ylang oil
and perhaps orris-root oil. Ylang-ylang oil is soluble with difficulty,
even in very strong alcohol, and if directly used for the _Extrait_,
the latter remains turbid for weeks, and frequently, especially in
winter, does not become clear, notwithstanding repeated filtering.
However, by preparing in good time an ylang-ylang tincture this evil is
avoided.

_Almond-oil (bitter) tincture._--Bitter almond oil 2¾ drachms,
alcohol[16] 1 quart.

 [16] For all the tinctures, 95 to 97 per cent. alcohol of the best
 quality is to be used.

_Balm-oil tincture._--Balm oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Basil-oil tincture._--Basil oil 14 drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Bergamot-oil tincture._--Bergamot oil 3½ ozs., alcohol 4 quarts.

_Canango-oil tincture._--Canango oil (Java), 1¾ ozs., alcohol 1
quart.

_Cassia-oil tincture._--Cassia oil 1¾ ozs., alcohol 1 quart.

_Cedar-oil tincture._--Cedar oil 1 oz., alcohol 1 quart.

_Cinnamon-oil tincture._--Ceylon cinnamon oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1
quart.

_Citronella-oil tincture._--Citronella oil 1 oz., alcohol 1 quart.

_Clove-oil tincture._--Oil of cloves 11 drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Eucalyptus-oil tincture._--Eucalyptus oil 1 oz., alcohol 1½ quarts.

_Geranium-oil tincture._--Palma rosa oil 14 drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Lavender-oil tincture._--Lavender oil 1¾ ozs., alcohol 1 quart.

_Lemon-grass-oil tincture._--Lemon-grass oil 1 oz., alcohol 1 quart.

_Lemon-oil tincture._--Oil of lemons 1¾ ozs., alcohol 1 quart.

_Licari-oil tincture._--Licari oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Myrrh-oil tincture._--Myrrh oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Neroli-oil tincture._--Neroli oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Opopanax-oil tincture._--Opopanax oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Orris-root-oil tincture._--Orris-root oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Patchouli-oil tincture._--Patchouli oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Petit-grain-oil tincture._--Petit-grain oil 11 drachms, alcohol 1
quart.

_Pine-leaf-oil tincture._--Pine-leaf oil[17] 14 drachms, alcohol 1
quart.

 [17] By pine-leaf oil is understood pine oil or dwarf-pine oil. See p.
 149.

_Portugal-oil tincture._--Portugal oil 1¾ ozs., alcohol 1 quart.

_Sandal-wood-oil tincture._--Sandal-wood[18] oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1
quart.

 [18] The better quality of oil from the East Indian wood is to be used.

_Verbena-oil tincture._--Verbena oil 11 drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Vitivert-oil tincture._--Vitivert oil 2¾ drachms, alcohol 1 quart.

_Wintergreen-oil tincture._--Wintergreen oil 5½ drachms, alcohol 1
quart.

_Ylang-ylang-oil tincture._--Ylang-ylang oil 11 drachms, alcohol 3
quarts.

_Rose-oil tincture._--Rose oil (Turkish)[19] 1¾ ozs., alcohol 6½
quarts.

 [19] Bulgarian rose oil is generally designated "Turkish rose oil."

Rose oil, if directly added to the alcohol, dissolves with difficulty
and incompletely. By the following method the object is, however,
readily accomplished:--

Bring about 5½ ozs. of pulverized sugar into a capacious porcelain
mortar, add the rose oil and mix intimately with the pestle. Then pour
the thickly-fluid mass through a glass funnel into a glass flask and
rinse the mortar with alcohol until the prescribed 6½ quarts of the
latter have been brought into the flask. Frequent shaking accelerates
the complete solution of the rose oil.


EXTRAITS AUX FLEURS. We now proceed to give receipts for _Extraits
d'Odeurs_, and consider first the flower odors, _Extraits aux fleurs_.
_By extracts are thereby understood the odors extracted from French
flower pomades._ Any coloring matter required is mentioned under the
respective receipts.

Great care has to be exercised in the preparation of _Extraits_ and
_Bouquets_, and special attention must be paid that they actually
represent the odor whose name they bear.

_Extrait acacia._--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm. Acacia_ 750 drachms,
bergamot oil 1, lavender oil 1, eucalyptus oil ½, orris-root tincture
125, musk-root tincture 12½, ambergris tincture 2½, civet tincture 1,
musk tincture 1.

_Extrait cassie._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Cassie_ 500 drachms,
from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 125, bergamot oil 5, orris-root tincture 75,
tinctures of vitivert and angelica each 12½, tinctures of musk and
ambergris each 2½.

_Extrait héliotrope_ (_Receipt No. 1_).--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm.
Héliotrope_ 750 drachms, and from _Pomm. Rose_ 75, bergamot oil 2½,
rose-geranium oil 1½, musk tincture 2½, civet tincture 1½, heliotropin
tincture 50.

_Extrait héliotrope_ (_Receipt No. 2_).--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm.
Héliotrope_ 500 drachms, and from _Pomm. Rose_ and _Pomm. Orange_ 50
each, bergamot oil 5, clove oil 2½, vanilla tincture 50, orris-root
tincture 100, musk-root tincture 25, tinctures of musk and civet 5
each, benzoin tincture 10, Peru-balsam tincture 5.

_Extrait jacinthe._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jacinthe_ 750 drachms,
and from _Pomm. Acacia_ 100; bergamot oil 5, clove oil 1, storax
tincture 2½, musk-root tincture 12½, tinctures of musk and ambergris 1½
each.

_Extrait jasmin._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 500 drachms,
and from _Pomm. Orange_ 100; civet tincture 1½, ambergris tincture 1,
sandal-wood oil 3 drops.

_Essence of the odor of linden blossoms._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm.
Acacia_ 250 drachms, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 50, and from _Pomm. Jonquille_
100; pure camomile oil 1½, oil of lemons 2½, ambergris tincture 5,
civet tincture 3.

_Extrait jonquille._--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm. Jonquille_ 750 drachms,
lavender oil ½, bergamot oil 2½, Ceylon cinnamon oil ½, storax
tincture 1½, tinctures of abelmosk and angelica each 5, musk tincture
1½, civet tincture 1.

_Extrait magnolia._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 150 drachms,
from _Pomm. Acacia_ 250, and from _Pomm. Rose_ 125, balm oil 2½,
tinctures of vanilla and cumarin each 12½, civet tincture 1½, musk
tincture 2½.

_Extrait muguet_ (_lily of the valley_).--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm.
Jonquille_ 750 drachms, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 100, from _Pomm. Tubereuse_
200, and from _Pomm. Acacia_ and _Pomm. Orange_ each 100; bergamot oil
7½ drachms, oil of lemons 2½, angelica oil 3 drops, storax tincture 5
drachms, musk tincture 2½, vanilla tincture 5, ambergris tincture 2,
ylang-ylang tincture 100, wintergreen tincture 25, bitter-almond-oil
tincture 2½.

_Extrait fleurs de Mai_ (_May flowers_).--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm.
Réséda_, _Pomm. Rose_ and _Pomm. Héliotrope_, each 75 drachms; from
_Pomm. Jasmin_ 125, and from _Pomm. Orange_ 50; bergamot oil 7½, Ceylon
cinnamon oil 2½, orris-root tincture 50, tinctures of ambergris and
musk, each 15, ylang-ylang tincture 25.

_Extrait ixora._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 125 drachms,
from _Pomm. Cassie_ and _Pomm. Réséda_, each 175; bergamot oil 5,
orris-root tincture 125, musk tincture 10, benzoin tincture 25.

_Extrait Orange._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Orange_ 500 drachms, from
_Pomm. Acacia_ 100; Portugal oil 7½, tinctures of musk and ambergris,
each 1.

_Extrait white rose._--Rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 500
drachms, bergamot oil 1¼, sandal-wood oil 3 drops, nutmeg oil 1 drop,
musk tincture ¾ drachm, civet tincture ½ drachm.

_Extrait rose v. d. centifolie._--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm. Rose_ 500
drachms, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 500, rose-geranium oil
10, musk tincture, 2½, sandal-wood oil, 7 drops.

_Extrait violette._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Violette_ 500 drachms,
and from _Pomm. Cassie_ 250; orris-root tincture 125, musk tincture 1½,
sandal-wood oil 3 drops.

To give the _extrait violette_ an apparently greater concentration,
it is compounded with a green coloring tincture. The latter may be
prepared by bringing comminuted dried spinach leaves into a bottle and
pouring 96 per cent. alcohol over them. The result is a handsome green
coloring matter; but care must be taken not to add too much of it to
the _extrait_, as otherwise it might stain the handkerchief, etc.[20]

 [20] This spinach extract unfortunately bleaches very rapidly
 when exposed to light, and the extraits colored with it acquire
 a dirty-brown color. Hence it is recommended to use the "green
 tincture," which can be purchased from the larger manufactories of
 volatile oils.

_Extrait de violette de Parme._--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm. Violette_
750 drachms, orris-root oil and bergamot oil each 2½, tinctures of
musk, ambergris, and bitter-almond oil each 1½.

This _extrait_ may also be colored slightly green.

_Extrait tubereuse._--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 500 drachms,
bergamot oil 2½, Ceylon cinnamon oil ½, musk tincture 1½, storax
tincture 2½.

_Extrait réséda._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Réséda_ 750 drachms, and
from _Pomm. Violette_ 100; bergamot oil 7½, rose-geranium oil 2½, clove
oil 1½, musk tincture 2, ambergris tincture 1.

A trace of the above-mentioned green coloring substance may be added.

_Extrait ylang-ylang._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_, _Pomm.
Jonquille_, _Pomm. Orange_, and _Pomm. Acacia_, each 250 drachms,
bergamot oil 7½, angelica oil 2½, ylang-ylang tincture 500, abelmosk
tincture 25, tonka-bean extract 7½, musk tincture 4, ambergris tincture
2½.


COMPOUND ODORS (BOUQUETS). _Extrait Edelweiss._--Extracts No. 1 from
_Pomm. Jasmin_ and _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 250 drachms each, and from
_Pomm. Orange_, _Pomm. Héliotrope_, and _Pomm. Jacinthe_ 125 each,
bergamot oil 10, basil oil 5, tinctures of musk and ambergris each 5,
bitter-almond-oil tincture 2½, tinctures of angelica and vitivert each
25.

_Extrait ess-bouquet._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Acacia_ and _Pomm.
Cassie_ each 100 drachms, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 325, from _Pomm. Rose_
75, and from _Pomm. Orange_ 250; bergamot oil 40, Ceylon cinnamon oil
and clove oil each 5, French rose-geranium oil 10, sandal-wood oil 2½,
licari oil 8, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 75, orris-root
tincture 50, tinctures of ambergris and civet each 10, musk tincture
15, musk-root tincture 37½, benzoin tincture 15.

_Extrait spring flower._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_, _Pomm.
Cassie_, _Pomm. Orange_, _Pomm. Jonquille_, _Pomm. Tubereuse_, and
_Pomm. Violette_ each 100 drachms, from _Pomm. Rose_ 50, from _Pomm.
Réséda_ 100, and from _Pomm. Héliotrope_ and _Pomm. Acacia_ each 50;
neroli oil 2½, bergamot oil 5, vitivert oil ½, rose-oil tincture from
Turkish rose oil 50, musk-root tincture 12½, musk tincture 5, civet
tincture 2½, orris-root tincture 25.

_Extrait bouquet Eugenie._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Cassie_ 100
drachms, from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 75, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 125; bergamot
oil 10, licari oil 2½, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 75,
musk-root tincture 10, cumarin tincture 7½, orris-root tincture 75,
tinctures of angelica and musk each 10, ambergris tincture 5.

_Extrait excelsior._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 200 drachms
and from _Pomm. Orange_ and _Pomm. Héliotrope_ each 100; oils of lemon
and rose geranium each 4, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 60,
orris-root tincture 50, musk tincture 5, abelmosk tincture 10, opopanax
tincture 5, storax tincture 1.

_Extrait Frangipani._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Cassie_ 150 drachms,
and from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 50; French rose geranium oil 5, cassia oil 2,
licari oil 3, sandal-wood oil 1, orris-root tincture 100, angelica
tincture 8, musk tincture 5, storax tincture 5.

_Extrait jockey club._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Orange_ 150 drachms,
from _Pomm. Rose_ 35, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 150, and from _Pomm.
Jonquille_ and _Pomm. Héliotrope_ each 30; bergamot oil 8, Ceylon
cinnamon oil 2, Portugal oil 6, cedar oil 1, clove oil 2, tincture of
rose oil from Turkish rose oil and of orris root each 40, musk-root
tincture 8, musk tincture 10, ambergris tincture 3, vanilla tincture 5.

_Extrait opopanax._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Orange_ 250 drachms,
and from _Pomm. Héliotrope_ 125; opopanax oil 10, Ceylon cinnamon oil
5, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 125, opopanax tincture 25,
orris-root tincture 62½, musk tincture 4, ambergris tincture 5.

_Extrait patchouly._--Extract No. 1 from _Pomm. Acacia_ 100 drachms,
patchouli oil 4, clove oil and Portugal oil, each 2, rose-oil tincture
from Turkish rose oil 40, orris-root tincture 30, musk-root tincture
10, vitivert tincture 10, patchouli tincture 1.

_Extrait millefleurs._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 250 drachms,
from _Pomm. Jonquille_ 100, _Pomm. Rose_ 75, _Pomm. Acacia_ 100,
_Pomm. Orange_ and _Pomm. Tubereuse_ each 150, and _Pomm. Cassie_ 100;
bergamot oil 20, rose geranium oil and Portugal oil each 15, oils
of angelica and sandal wood, each 5, rose-oil tincture from Turkish
rose oil 150, orris-root tincture 250, vanilla tincture 15, musk-root
tincture 35, tolu-balsam tincture 10, tinctures of storax and patchouli
each 5, musk tincture 30, civet tincture 25.

_Extrait bouquet Victoria._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Rose_ 200
drachms, _Pomm. Orange_ and _Pomm. Tubereuse_, each 100, _Pomm.
Jasmin_ 300, and _Pomm. Héliotrope_ 200; lemon oil 20, verbena oil
5, French rose geranium oil 10, musk tincture 20, tinctures of civet
and ambergris each 5, musk-root tincture 40, tolu-balsam tincture 20,
orris-root tincture 150.

_Extrait kiss-me-quick._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Acacia_ and _Pomm.
Jonquille_ each 100 drachms, and _Pomm. Jasmin_ 40; bergamot oil 4, oil
of lemons 2, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 30, tinctures of
vitivert and angelica 8, ambergris tincture 4, civet tincture 2, musk
tincture 1.

_Extrait mogadore._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 100 drachms,
from _Pomm. Jonquille_ and _Pomm. Acacia_, each 50, from _Pomm. Orange_
40; bergamot oil 6, oil of lavender 1, French rose geranium oil 2,
tinctures of musk, ambergris, tolu balsam, and cumarin, each 10,
tincture of orris root 50.

_Extrait bouquet Prince Albert._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_
150 drachms, from _Pomm. Tubereuse_, _Pomm. Orange_, and _Pomm. Cassie_
each 50, _Pomm. Rose_ 25, neroli oil 2, bergamot oil 4, musk tincture
2, tonka bean extract 4, angelica tincture 10, ambergris tincture 2.

_Extrait musc._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Orange_, _Pomm.
Héliotrope_, and _Pomm. Cassie_ each 50 drachms; clove oil 4, cassia
oil 2, tinctures of abelmosk and musk-root each 10, opopanax tincture
4, musk tincture 30, civet tincture 5, orris-root tincture 50.

_Extrait new-mown hay._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Réséda_ 200
drachms, _Pomm. Rose_ 40, _Pomm. Cassie_ 80, _Pomm. Acacia_ 40; French
rose geranium oil 4, bergamot oil 10, myrrh oil 5, tonka-bean extract
30, vitivert tincture 10, musk-root tincture 16, benzoin tincture 4.

_Extrait chypre._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Orange_ 60 drachms,
_Pomm. Jasmin_ 40, _Pomm. Cassie_ 110, _Pomm. Héliotrope_ 40; French
rose geranium oil 6, bergamot oil 2, cedar oil ⅗, benzoin tincture 4,
orris-root tincture 30, musk tincture 5, civet tincture 4, abelmosk
tincture 10.

_Extrait maréchal._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Héliotrope_ and _Pomm.
Orange_ each 200 drachms, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 75; oils of sandal wood
and cloves each 5, Portugal oil 10, cedar oil 1, rose-oil tincture from
Turkish rose oil 100, orris-root tincture 75, vitivert tincture 25,
civet tincture 10, musk tincture 20, bitter almond oil tincture 1½.

_Extrait mousseline._--Extracts No. 1 from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 250 drachms,
_Pomm. Rose_ 150, and _Pomm. Jonquille_, _Pomm. Héliotrope_, and _Pomm.
Cassie_, each 125; French rose geranium oil 12½, oil of cloves 10,
cassia oil 5, wintergreen oil 1, orris-root tincture 125, rose-oil
tincture from Turkish rose oil 100, musk tincture 12½, civet tincture
10, vitivert tincture 37½, abelmosk tincture 25.

In compiling the abundant choice of receipts for _Extraits d'Odeurs_
given above, the golden mean has been chosen in regard to the quality
of these odors, they, when carefully prepared, giving, at a moderate
cost of manufacture, a product which in most cases will satisfy the
demands of lovers of perfumes. To enable the perfumer, however, to
satisfy the highest demands attention is called to, and a brief
explanation given of, the so-called "_Extraits triple concentrés_."

For the preparation of these stronger products, the employment of
a stronger foundation, _i. e._, of more highly saturated extracts
from French flower pomades, is required. For this purpose the French
perfumers prepare, under No. 30, flower pomades of all odors which are
exclusively used for concentrated _Extraits_. They are, of course,
correspondingly higher in price than those prepared from No. 18, which
have previously been treated of.

The method of preparing the extracts from these pomades, No. 30, is the
same as previously described, the proportion of pomade to alcohol being
also the same; hence for 2 lbs. of pomade 1¾ quarts of alcohol are
to be used.

The proportions of volatile oils and tinctures given in the above
receipts are also to be retained. The stronger extracts from the flower
pomades are the only measure in the preparation of the _Extraits
triple concentrés_, and such must be the case since the object of the
concentration of the _Extraits_ is thus completely attained by the
greater prominence of the flower odors from the _Extraits d'Odeurs_.

For the preparation of _Extraits d'Odeurs_, the French perfumers also
manufacture a concentrated flower extract of the various odors. This
extract is simply dissolved in alcohol, the solution being effected
immediately, so that this method of preparing _Extraits d'Odeurs_ is
the simplest imaginable. However, the price of such extract (1000
francs = $200 and more per kilogramme = 2.2 lb.) is a considerable
item, so that most perfumers will prefer the extracts from the flower
pomades as previously described.


EXTRAITS D'ODEURS, QUALITY II.--In addition to the _fine_ extracts
given in the preceding section, a small selection of quite cheap
receipts for quality II of such extracts is here given, the extracts
No. 2 offering sufficient material for their preparation. In the
introduction to the previous section, attention has been called to
the fact that quite useful tinctures may be prepared from substances
leaving behind solid residues, there being also on hand the second
extract from the flower pomades.

Besides the alcohol, such tinctures and extracts cost only the small
trouble of treatment. For this second quality only half the quantity of
volatile oils prescribed for the best quality is used. Such tinctures,
from which a second extract cannot be had, may, for this purpose, be
diluted one-half with alcohol, which need not be of the best quality,
thus preparing a second quality of them.

The process to be followed is illustrated by a selection from the first
_Extrait_ receipts which have been converted into _Extraits_ of quality
II.

_Extrait violette II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Violette_ 500
drachms, from _Pomm. Cassie_ 250; bergamot oil 2½, musk tincture No.
2, 1½, ambergris tincture No. 2, ¾, diluted with alcohol ¾, bitter
almond oil tincture No. 2, 1, orris-root tincture No. 2, 125.

Add a small quantity of green coloring substance.

_Extrait rose II._--Extract No. 2 from _Pomm. Rose_ 500 drachms,
African rose geranium oil 4, sandal-wood oil 3 drops, musk tincture
No. 2, 2½ drachms, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 250 drachms
diluted with an equal quantity of alcohol, which may be called rose
tincture No. 2.

_Extrait réséda II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Réséda_ 750 drachms
and from _Pomm. Violette_ 100, bergamot oil 3½, African rose-geranium
oil 1, clove oil 1, musk tincture No. 2, 2, ambergris tincture ½
diluted with alcohol ½.

_Extrait ylang-ylang II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Jasmin_, _Pomm.
Jonquille_, _Pomm. Orange_, and _Pomm. Acacia_ each 250 drachms;
bergamot oil 3½, angelica oil 1¼, ylang-ylang tincture 250 diluted
with the equal quantity of alcohol, abelmosk No. 2, 25, tonka-bean
extract No. 2, 7½, musk tincture No. 2, 4, ambergris tincture 1¼
diluted with the same quantity of alcohol.

_Extrait new-mown hay II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Réséda_ 500
drachms, from _Pomm. Rose_ 100, from _Pomm. Cassie_ 200 and _Pomm.
Acacia_ 100; palma rosa oil 5, bergamot oil 12½, myrrh oil 6,
tonka-bean extract No. 2, 75, vitivert tincture No. 2, 25, musk-root
tincture No. 2, 40, benzoin tincture 5 diluted with the same quantity
of alcohol.

_Extrait chypre II._--Extracts No. 2, from _Pomm. Orange_ 150 drachms,
from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 100, _Pomm. Cassie_ 275, and _Pomm. Héliotrope_
100; palma rosa oil 7½, bergamot oil 2½, cedar oil ¾, orris-root
tincture No. 2, 75, musk tincture No. 2, 12½, abelmosk tincture No. 2,
25, civet tincture 5 diluted with alcohol 5, benzoin tincture 5 diluted
with alcohol 5.

_Extrait ess. bouquet II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Acacia_ and
_Pomm. Cassie_ each 100, from _Pomm. Jasmin_ 375, _Pomm. Rose_ 75,
_Pomm. Orange_ 250; bergamot oil 20, Ceylon cinnamon oil and clove oil
each 2½, African rose geranium oil 5, sandal-wood oil 1¾, licari oil
2, rose-oil tincture from Turkish rose oil 37½ diluted with an equal
quantity of alcohol, orris-root tincture No. 2, 50, ambergris tincture
5 diluted with an equal quantity of alcohol, civet tincture 5 diluted
with an equal quantity of alcohol, musk tincture No. 2, 15, musk-root
tincture No. 2, 37½, benzoin tincture 7½ diluted with an equal quantity
of alcohol.

_Extrait muguet II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Jonquille_ 750
drachms, _Pomm. Jasmin_ 100, _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 200 and _Pomm. Acacia_
and _Pomm. Orange_ each 100; bergamot oil 3½, oil of lemons 1¼,
angelica oil 2 drops, storax tincture 2½ drachms diluted with an
equal quantity of alcohol, musk tincture No. 2, 2½, vanilla tincture
5, ambergris tincture 1, diluted with an equal quantity of alcohol,
ylang-ylang tincture 50 diluted with alcohol 50, wintergreen tincture
12½ diluted with alcohol 12½, bitter-almond oil 1¼ diluted with alcohol
1¼.

_Extrait bouquet Victoria II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Rose_ 100
drachms, _Pomm. Orange_ and _Pomm. Tubereuse_ each 50; _Pomm. Jasmin_
150, _Pomm. Héliotrope_ 100; lemon oil 5, verbena oil 1½, African rose
geranium oil 2½, musk tincture No. 2, 10, musk-root tincture No. 2, 20,
orris-root tincture No. 2, 75, civet tincture 1¼ diluted with alcohol
1¼, ambergris tincture 1¼ diluted with alcohol 1¼, tolu-balsam tincture
5 diluted with alcohol 5.

_Extrait spring flower II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Jasmin_,
_Pomm. Cassie_, _Pomm. Orange_, _Pomm. Jonquille_, _Pomm. Tubereuse_
and _Pomm. Violette_, each 100 drachms, from _Pomm. Rose_ 50, _Pomm.
Réséda_ 100, and _Pomm. Héliotrope_ and _Acacia_, each 50; neroli
oil 1¼, bergamot oil 2½, vitivert oil 13 drops, rose-oil tincture
from Turkish rose oil 25 drachms, diluted with alcohol 25, musk-root
tincture No. 2, 12½, musk tincture No. 2, 12½, orris-root tincture No.
2, 25, civet tincture 1¼ diluted with alcohol 1¼.

_Extrait ixora II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 125 drachms,
from _Pomm. Cassie_ and _Pomm. Réséda_ each 175; bergamot oil 2½,
orris-root tincture No. 2, 125, musk tincture No. 2, 10, benzoin
tincture 12½ diluted with alcohol 12½.

_Extrait Frangipani II._--Extracts No. 2 from _Pomm. Cassie_ 375
drachms, and _Pomm. Jasmin_ 125; African rose geranium oil 12, cassia
oil 2½, licari oil 3½, sandal-wood oil 1¼, orris-root tincture No. 2,
250, angelica tincture No. 2, 20, musk tincture No. 2, 12½, storax
tincture 6 diluted with alcohol 6½.

_Cologne water, eau de Cologne._--Owing to its excellent properties,
Cologne water is, without doubt, one of the most popular perfumes.
It was invented early in the eighteenth century, and is perhaps the
only perfume which has kept its reputation for so long a time. It was
formerly employed as a medicine in all imaginable diseases, and even
now is in some cases successfully used in slight ailments, such as
headache, nausea, etc.

The success and reputation of Cologne water are the natural results
of a good product prepared with a thorough knowledge of the subject.
However, in order to be enabled to impart to Cologne water its
generally known excellent qualities, it is necessary to have a thorough
knowledge of the materials used, as well as to understand the method of
fabrication, and the proper treatment of all.

For the preparation of actually good Cologne water employment of the
best materials is the first condition. The alcohol must be pure, _i.
e._, free from fusel oil, and 95 to 96 per cent. strong, so as to
effect a ready and complete solution of the volatile oils. The latter
also should be of the best quality and proper age, _i. e._, neither
too young nor too old. If too young or too recently distilled, the
aroma is not thoroughly developed, and if, on the other hand, too
old, they have lost the greater portion of their aroma, are thickly
fluid, acquire a dark coloration, and are finally converted into a
resinous substance in which condition they are entirely unfit for finer
products. A cool and dry cellar is required for storing volatile oils,
and they must also be protected from air and sunlight.

Regarding the durability of the volatile oils used in the preparation
of Cologne water, the following may be said:--

_Bergamot oil_ is quite durable; in well-closed bottles stored in a
cool cellar it keeps quite well for 3 to 4 years. _Oil of lemons_ is,
however, very sensitive, and has to be especially protected against
heat, by which it is readily decomposed and, so to say, turns sour.
Freshly-distilled _neroli oil_ should never be used, it acquiring its
proper aroma only after being stored for about 2 years; on the other
hand, it should not be too old. When 6 to 8 years old, it shows a
tendency to rancidity, which can, however, be prevented by mixing it at
the proper time with an equal quantity of alcohol of the best quality.
_Petit-grain oil_ is apt to spoil when kept for several years, and
hence it is not advisable to have too large a supply of it on hand.
Besides the French variety of this volatile oil, there has existed for
several years past another kind, namely the _Paraguay petit-grain oil_,
which is about one-half cheaper than the French. While some consider
both oils as equally good, the French product no doubt deserves the
preference. Of _lavender oil_ only the best French oil, especially made
in France for the preparation of _Eau de Cologne_, should be used. The
price of the English Mitcham lavender oil, being six times that of
the French oil, is simply excessive. Of _rosemary oil_, an especially
fine quality for Cologne water, which can be highly recommended, is
also manufactured in France. Of _balm oil_ only the best German product
should be taken. The three varieties of volatile oils last mentioned
keep for years, especially when kept in hermetically-closed bottles in
a cool place protected from the sun.

Rose water and orange-blossom water also need careful treatment, the
bottles containing them requiring to be well stoppered and kept in a
cool place. These waters being liable to spoil, the supply of them
should be renewed from year to year. As regards the compounding of
the volatile oils, it is advisable to mix them in a capacious glass
flask, add at least an equal weight of alcohol of the best quality,
shake thoroughly, let the mixture stand about 14 days, and then in the
apparatus incorporate it with the required quantity of alcohol.

When the alcohol and volatile oils are intimately mixed, the mixture
is allowed to stand quietly for about 14 days, when solution of the
volatile oils will be complete. Now add, with vigorous agitation,
the rose water and the orange-blossom water, and let the whole stand
quietly to become clear.

Cologne water thus carefully prepared answers all demands. Special
attention is here called to the fact that all manipulation by the
addition of fixing or conspicuous substances is injudicious. An
addition of tincture of musk or civet should particularly be avoided.
Nervous people immediately detect such additions, even if present only
in very small quantities, and in most cases refuse the Cologne water
containing them.

Experience having shown that all alcoholic perfumes develop their
proper aroma only after storing for some time, provision must be made
to have always a sufficient supply of Cologne water on hand. It is best
to keep it in large glass balloons in a cool cellar. Wooden vessels
are impracticable on account of their permeability and other evils.
Metallic vessels, if used, should be tinned. Vessels defective in this
respect, or tinned with tin containing lead, exert an injurious effect
upon the aroma of the water. In the latter case, lead is dissolved,
even if only in small quantities, and a dirty precipitate injurious to
the odor of the Cologne water is formed.

The filtering of the Cologne water is best effected through white
filtering paper and a glass funnel; the paper, however, should not
have been bleached with chlorine, the odor of the latter being readily
perceived and having an injurious effect upon the aroma of the water.
Filtering should be avoided as much as possible by carefully decanting
off the clear water and filtering the sediment only. Filtering through
charcoal, magnesia, or other clarifying agents, should not be made use
of for fine perfumes, their odor being injured by all such means.

In the following a selection of receipts for Cologne water is given;
it is, however, especially mentioned that only good, pure materials
must be used even for the inferior qualities. A receipt for the now
fashionable "Maiglöckchen Eau de Cologne" is also given.

_Cologne water, quality I._--Bring into a large glass balloon 95 to
96 per cent. alcohol of the best quality 7.9 gallons, lemon oil 14.11
ozs., bergamot oil 15, neroli oil 4.23, French extra lavender oil 1.05
oz., rosemary oil 0.7, best German balm oil 0.42; mix thoroughly, and
after 14 days add best orange-blossom water and rose water each 2.64
quarts. Mix again thoroughly, and then let stand until wanted for use.

_Cologne water, quality II._--Bring into a large glass balloon 95 to
96 per cent. alcohol of the best quality 7.9 gallons, lemon oil 10.58
ozs., bergamot oil 12.34, neroli oil 1.76, French extra lavender oil
0.8, rosemary oil 0.63, finest German balm oil 0.35, French petit-grain
oil 0.8; mix thoroughly, and after 14 days add best orange-blossom
water and rose water each 2.64 quarts. Mix again thoroughly, and then
let stand until wanted for use.

_Cologne water, quality III._--Bring into a large glass balloon 95 to
96 per cent. alcohol of the best quality 7.9 gallons, lemon oil 7.05
ozs., bergamot oil 7.94, Portugal oil 3.52, French petit-grain oil
1.58, finest rosemary oil 0.52, lavender oil 0.7, orange-blossom water
and rose water each 1.58 quarts, distilled water 2.11 quarts. Proceed
in the same manner as given for qualities I and II.

_Cologne water, quality IV._--Bring into a large glass balloon alcohol
free from fusel oil 7.9 gallons, lavender oil 2.64 ozs., Portugal
oil 2.64, petit-grain oil 0.7, rosemary oil 0.52, bergamot oil 3.52,
lemon oil 3.52, distilled water 7.9 quarts. If this quality, after
standing for some weeks, should not become clear, use some magnesia in
filtering, or use less water.

_Cologne water, quality V._--Bring into a glass balloon alcohol free
from fusel oil 7.9 gallons, Portugal oil 0.88 oz., rosemary oil 0.88,
lavender oil, bergamot oil, and lemon oil each 1.76. After standing for
14 days, add 7.9 quarts of distilled water. Proceed in the same manner
as given for quality IV.

_Maiglöckchen Eau de Cologne._--95 to 96 per cent. alcohol of the
finest quality 10.56 quarts, bergamot oil and lemon oil each 3.52 ozs.,
neroli oil 0.7, French extra lavender oil 0.21, rosemary oil 0.14, best
German balm oil 0.7, ylang-ylang oil 0.17, _maiglöckchen_ (lily of the
valley) extract 2.11 pints.

Dissolve the 0.17 oz. of ylang-ylang oil by itself in 0.8 pint of
alcohol of the best quality, and when the solution is entirely clear
add it to the rest in the balloon. After standing for 14 days add
carefully orange-blossom water and rose water each 1.05 pints; shake
thoroughly and let the mixture stand quietly until perfectly clear.

_Various other receipts for Cologne water._--I. Bergamot oil 2 drachms,
oil of lemon 2 drachms, oil of origanum 6 drops, oil of rosemary 20
drops, alcohol 1 pint, orange-flower water 1 oz.

II. Bergamot oil 14 parts, citron oil 34, oil of neroli (petale) 20,
oil of neroli (bigarade) 7, rosemary oil 14, grape spirit 6000.

III. Cologne spirits 3 quarts, oils of rosemary, bergamot, cedrat, and
lemon each 2 drachms, oil of neroli 1 drachm, water (warm) 2 pints;
mix, filter until clear.

IV. Cologne spirits 3 quarts, oil of lemon 5 drachms, oil of bergamot 4
drachms, Portugal oil 3¾ drachms, neroli oil ¾ drachm, petit-grain
oil and rosemary oil each ½ drachm, lavender oil 25 drops, oil of
cloves 6 drops, extract _Pomm. jasmine_ 4 ozs., water (warm) 32 ozs.;
mix.

V. Cologne spirits 1 gallon, rosemary oil ½ oz., lemon oil 1 oz.,
lavender oil 1½ ozs., cinnamon oil 20 drops, warm water 1 quart; mix.

_Eau de Lavande._--For _eau de lavande_, but two receipts are given:
_Eau de vie de Lavande double ambrée_ and _eau de Lavande double_, the
former being a very agreeable perfume for toilet purposes, and is used
as an addition to wash-water as well as to baths and for fumigating. On
account of its balsamic constituents, _eau de Lavande ambrée_ in being
manufactured cannot be mixed with water, as the latter would produce
an emulsion which cannot be removed. _Eau de Lavande double_ is used
for the toilet, in the wash-water, or the bath. It is very popular, its
action upon the skin and nerves being refreshing and stimulating.

_Eau de vie de Lavande double ambrée._--Alcohol of the best quality
5.18 quarts, best quality of lavender oil 3.52 ozs., French rose
geranium oil 0.7, oils of cassia, bergamot, lemon, and French petit
grain each 0.88, Peru balsam 5.29, orris-root tincture 2.11 quarts,
ambergris tincture 5.29 ozs., musk tincture 0.28, storax tincture 8.81,
tolu-balsam tincture 5.29, benzoin tincture 10.58. No water should be
added.

_Eau de Lavande double._--Best quality of alcohol 10.56 quarts, best
lavender oil 8.81 ozs., Portugal oil and bergamot oil each 1.76. After
14 days add 2.11 pints of orange-blossom water.

_Aqua mellis._--Coriander seed 7 lbs., cloves 12 ozs., storax 8 ozs.,
nutmegs (bruised) 8 ozs., lemon-peel 10 ozs., calamus 6 ozs., proof
spirit 15 pints, water 8 pints.

Macerate for a month in a closed vessel, then distil 22 pints, and to
the distillate add: Orange-flower water 5 pints, rose oil 24 drops,
ambergris 1 grain, vanilla 2 ozs. Macerate for 8 days and filter.

_Eau de Lisbonne._--Lemon oil 2¼ ozs., Portugal oil 4½ ozs., rose oil
4¼ drachms, alcohol 5 quarts.



CHAPTER IX.

DRY PERFUMES.


In ancient times dry perfumes were almost exclusively used, but,
independent of fumigating agents, which will be considered later on,
the consumption of dry or solid perfumes is at present a limited
one. Sachet powders (_poudres pour sachets_) are, however, still
manufactured in large quantities. The preparation of solid perfumes
with the assistance of paraffine has been recently commenced, but up
to the present time such perfumes have not become of any importance.
Smelling salts may also be classed among the dry perfumes.


SACHET POWDERS.--Sachet powders (_poudres pour sachets_) are generally
put into silk or satin bags or into ornamental paper envelopes and are
useful for perfuming clothes, drawers, trunks, desks, letter paper, etc.

The incorporation of the powders with bags or envelopes is effected
by dividing them between thin layers of cotton, bringing the cotton
together with the powder in fine tissue paper into the shape of the
respective bag, cushion, etc., and then inclosing them in the bag or
envelope.

A selection of receipts for such powders is here given. Their
manufacture is not difficult; however, the weighing off of the
constituents should be conscientiously done, and in mixing the powders
with the volatile oils, etc., care should be had not to cause any
unnecessary dust and consequent loss of powder. After mixing, the
powder is passed through a sieve.

_Sachet à la rose._--Ground rose leaves, ground rose wood and
pulverized starch each 50 drachms, Turkish rose oil 1½, rose-geranium
oil 2½, oil of cloves 1, bergamot oil 2½, musk tincture 1.

_Sachet à la violette._--Ground orris root 125 drachms, ground lavender
flowers and pulverized starch each 50, liquid orris-root oil[21] 2½,
sandal-wood oil ½, musk tincture 2, extrait violette 25.

 [21] The so-called liquid orris-root oil is not pure orris-root oil,
 but generally a distillate of orris-root with bergamot oil; there
 are, however, also products in which the orris root is distilled with
 copaiba balsam oil and cedar oil.

_Héliotrope sachet powder._--Ground lavender flowers 50 drachms,
ground orris root and ground rose leaves each 25, ground benzoin 10,
pulverized starch 50, bergamot oil 10, rose geranium oil 2½, oil
of cloves and musk tincture each 1½, vanilla tincture 12½, extrait
héliotrope 25, oil of bitter almonds 2 drops.

_Ylang-ylang sachet powder._--Ground starch 100 drachms, orris-root
powder 25, ground lavender flowers 12½, ground vitivert root and ground
rose wood each 25, bergamot oil 2½, ylang-ylang oil 1, tinctures of
musk and of cumarin each 1½, extrait ylang-ylang 20.

_Jockey club sachet._--Ground orris root, ground rose leaves and ground
rose wood each 50 drachms, ground lavender flowers 25, African rose
geranium oil 5, oils of Ceylon cinnamon and bergamot each 2½, oils of
cloves and cedar each 1, musk tincture 2½, civet tincture 1, extrait
jockey club 22½.

_Sachet aux millefleurs._--Ground starch 50 drachms, ground orris
root, ground lavender flowers, ground rose wood, and exhausted vanilla
pulverized, each 50 drachms, pulverized cloves 20, bergamot oil and
African geranium oil each 2½, verbena oil 1, tincture of benzoin and
musk root each 5, musk tincture 5.

_Lily of the valley sachet powder._--Pulverized starch 50 drachms,
ground orris root 25, ground lavender flowers and ground rose wood
each 12½, ground vitivert root and ground benzoin each 25, bergamot
oil 5, wintergreen oil 2, ylang-ylang oil and angelica oil each ½,
bitter almond oil 2 drops, storax tincture 5 drachms, musk tincture 1½,
extrait muguet 25.

_Patchouli sachet powder._--Ground patchouli leaves 100, ground rose
leaves and ground lavender flowers, each 25, patchouli oil 2½, oil of
cloves 1, bergamot oil and African geranium oil each 2½.

_Frangipani sachet powder._--Pulverized starch 25 drachms, ground orris
root 75, ground rose leaves 50, ground lavender flowers 25, Portugal
oil 5, petit-grain oil and African geranium oil, 2½, Ceylon cinnamon
oil 1½, musk tincture 2½, civet tincture 1½, tinctures of cumarin and
vitivert each 10.

_Victoria sachet powder._--Ground lavender flowers 50 drachms, ground
rose wood and ground rose leaves each 25, ground orange peel 12½,
ground benzoin 25, ground vitivert root 12½, Turkish rose oil 1,
bergamot oil 2½, oils of cloves and verbena each 1, musk tincture 1½,
civet tincture 1.

_Réséda sachet powder._--Ground orris root 100 drachms, ground rose
leaves 50, ground rose wood 25, clove oil, African geranium oil, and
bergamot oil each 2½, musk-root tincture 10, vanilla tincture 5, musk
tincture 1, extrait réséda 25.

_Musk sachet powder._--Ground musk root, ground exhausted musk sacs,
and ground lavender flowers, each 50 drachms, ground benzoin 25, cassia
oil, palma-rose oil, and clove oil each 2½, musk tincture 22½.

_Ess-bouquet sachet powder._--Ground rose wood and ground lavender
flowers each 50 drachms, ground vitivert root 25, ground opopanax 12½,
ground orris root 25, bergamot oil and lemon oil each 2½, clove oil
1, Ceylon cinnamon oil 1½, African geranium oil 2½, sandal-wood oil
and licari oil each 1, musk tincture 2½, civet tincture 1½, extrait
ess-bouquet 25.

_New-mown hay sachet powder._--Pulverized starch 25 drachms, ground
rose leaves and ground lavender flowers, each 50, ground orris root and
ground benzoin, each 25, bergamot oil 5, angelica oil and Java cananga
oil each 1½, tonka-bean extract 7½, musk tincture 1½, vitivert tincture
7½.

_Orange sachet powder._--Ground orange peels 100 drachms, ground lemon
peels 50, ground lavender flowers 25, Portugal oil 10, neroli oil and
petit grain oil each 1½, bergamot oil 2½, musk-tincture 1½, musk-root
tincture 10.


SOLID PERFUMES WITH PARAFFINE. The solid perfumes simply consist of
hard paraffine, which, when melted, is perfumed with a corresponding
quantity of any desired perfume-essence and poured into moulds. A few
mixtures for such perfumes are here given:--

_White rose._--Rose geranium oil and bergamot oil each 10 drachms,
patchouli oil and oil of cloves 1½.

_Ess-bouquet._--Coriander oil 1 drachm, oil of cloves 7, nutmeg oil
3.5, lavender oil 10, sandal-wood oil 3.5, bergamot oil 30, rose oil
and rose-geranium oil each 2, neroli oil 0.6.

_Lavender odor._--Lavender oil 50 drachms, bergamot oil 25, cinnamon
oil 0.3, geranium oil 2.5, neroli oil 0.5.

_Eau de Cologne._--Bergamot oil and lime oil each 30 drachms, lemon oil
and neroli oil each 15, rosemary oil 5, rose geranium oil 0.6.


SMELLING SALTS. Smelling salts are ammoniacal perfumes in a solid form,
Preston salt (_sel de Preston_) being one of the most popular. It is
generally prepared by intimately rubbing together in a porcelain mortar
equal parts of sal ammoniac or ammonium carbonate and lime freshly
slaked to a powder, and perfuming the mixture, according to the quality
of volatile salts desired, with a finer or inferior perfume.

William W. Bartlett prepares Preston salt without lime according to
the following receipt: Powdered chloride of ammonium 1½ ozs., powdered
carbonate of potassium 1 oz. 6 drachms, coarsely powdered carbonate of
ammonium 3 drachms, oils of clove and bergamot each 10 drops.

Mr. Bartlett also gives a formula for a "_menthol pungent_" which is
quite agreeable to the smell and a novelty for headache and faintness.
It is prepared by leaving out the essential oils in the above formula
and substituting in their place 1 drachm of menthol.

_White smelling_ salt consists essentially of perfumed carbonate of
ammonia. There are several receipts for it, one frequently used being
as follows: Mix in a capacious porcelain mortar 2.2 lbs. of ammonium
carbonate with 1.1 lb. of ammonia, cover the mortar and let it stand
quietly. In the course of a few days the contents have been converted
into normal carbonate of ammonia. The latter is reduced to a coarse
powder and perfumed with bergamot oil 0.56 drachm, lavender oil 0.9,
nutmeg oil, clove oil, and rose oil each 0.28, cinnamon oil 2.82.

The incorporation of the volatile oils is effected by first triturating
about 1/10 of the salt with the volatile oils and then gradually
incorporating with this perfumed mass the rest of the salt, a uniform
distribution of the odor being in this manner effected.



CHAPTER X.

FUMIGATING ESSENCES, PASTILLES, POWDERS, ETC.


Fumigating agents are divided into liquid and dry, the first being
alcoholic solutions, and perhaps most popular. They consist of
extractions from resins, balsams, leaves, flowers, seeds, wood, and
roots, compounded with volatile oils, alcohol, and alcoholic extracts
from French flower pomades.

It should be the aim of the perfumer to compound these substances so
that a harmonious blending together of all the ingredients is attained.
The object of fumigating living rooms, sleeping rooms, and sick
chambers is not only to make abode in these rooms more agreeable by an
attempt to cover the disagreeable odors, but chiefly to render them
innoxious, thus combining the useful with the agreeable.

For several years past a strong prejudice against fumigating has been
developed. Such prejudice may be justified in certain cases, especially
when the fumigating agents contain musk or are otherwise incorrectly
composed. An addition of musk, even in very small quantities, causes
nervous persons to dislike fumigating agents containing it, because it
is a well-known fact that musk excites the nerves in a high degree, and
hence in most cases fumigating with agents containing it does more harm
than good.

The mode of fumigating has also to be taken into consideration. It
is, for instance, entirely incorrect to place the fumigating agent
upon very hot iron, a hot stovepipe, or glowing coals, because in
evaporating upon hot iron, it leaves behind an empyreumatic, pungent
odor excitatory to cough, while the actual aroma is lost and thus the
object of fumigating is frustrated.

To derive the best effects from the fumigating agent it should be
placed upon a moderately warm article so that it will slowly evaporate.
Liquid fumigating agents may also be mixed in a porcelain vessel with
distilled water. By placing the vessel upon a warm stove, evaporation
proceeds at a still slower rate, because the fumigating agent can only
evaporate together with the water, whereby its aroma becomes still more
agreeable. The use of rose water or orange water instead of distilled
water considerably enhances the success of fumigating.

The so-called atomizers may here be mentioned. They are very
practicable for cold fumigating, _i. e._, for the distribution of pine
odor, Cologne water, etc. On account of their content of musk the
atomization of _Extraits d'Odeurs_ in the presence of nervous people
cannot be recommended.

The dry fumigating agents, such as powders, pastilles, paper, and
lacquer, are less popular than the fluid, it being necessary for the
purpose of fumigating to place them upon hot articles, heat them,
or burn them. These manipulations develop more or less smoke, which
frequently exerts a disagreeable effect upon the respiratory organs.
The most injurious of these methods of hot fumigation is that by means
of hot coals, whereby the aroma of the fumigating agent is largely
destroyed, and the very injurious gas emanating from the coals is
inhaled. A heated piece of sheet-iron is, however, very suitable for
fumigation by means of powder or lacquer. Scatter the powder upon it or
coat it with the lacquer.

Several approved receipts for liquid and dry fumigating agents are here
given.


FUMIGATING ESSENCES AND VINEGARS. Great care should be exercised in
making the following receipts for liquid fumigating agents. After
mixing, shake thoroughly, and let the product stand quietly for at
least several weeks, the aroma of all alcoholic perfumes being improved
by storing for some time. It need scarcely be said that alcohol of the
finest quality is to be used, since, if it contains fusel oil, the
attainment of a fine product is absolutely impossible. To decrease the
cost of manufacture, it might be permissible to increase the proportion
of alcohol, but an inferior quality of it should, under no conditions,
be employed.

_Rose-flower fumigating essence._--Alcohol, extract No. 1, from
French-rose pomade and benzoin tincture each 1 quart, musk-root
tincture No. 1, 8¾ ozs., Turkish rose oil and clove oil each 2¾
drachms, French rose-geranium oil 5½ drachms. Dissolve the rose oil in
the other volatile oils.

_Flower fumigating essence, héliotrope._--Alcohol and extract No. 1
from French héliotrope pomade each 1 quart, vanilla tincture No. 1 and
orris-root tincture each 1 pint, tinctures of benzoin and tolu balsam
each ½ pint, musk-root tincture No. 1, 7 ozs., cumarin tincture 5¼
ozs., Portugal oil 1 oz., French rose-geranium oil 11¼ drachms, clove
oil 5½ drachms, best lavender oil 11¼ drachms.

_Violet flower fumigating essence._--Alcohol 1 quart, extracts No. 1
from French-violet pomade and cassie pomade each 1 pint, orris-root
tincture No. 1, 1 quart, benzoin tincture 1 pint, storax tincture ¼
pint, abelmosk tincture No. 1, 4¼ ozs., ambergris tincture 11¼ drachms,
orris-root oil 2¾ drachms, bergamot oil 11¼ drachms, best lavender
oil 5½ drachms, myrrh oil 1½ drachms, basil oil 2¾ drachms.

_Oriental-flower fumigating essence._--Alcohol 1 quart, extract from
French-rose pomade 17½ ozs., extracts from French-jasmine pomade,
jonquille pomade, héliotrope pomade and cassie pomades each 7 ozs.,
vanilla tincture 7 ozs., tinctures of orris root, tonka beans, and musk
root each 3½ ozs., benzoin tincture 8½ ozs., tolu-balsam tincture 4¼
ozs., storax tincture 5¼ ozs., olibanum tincture 3½ ozs., ambergris
tincture and bergamot oil each 1¾ ozs., Ceylon cinnamon oil 5½
drachms, best lavender oil 11 ozs., Turkish rose oil and clove oil each
5½ drachms, neroli oil 2¼ drachms, Peru balsam 3½ ozs.

_Pine odor_ (_for atomizing_) No. 1.--Alcohol 2 quarts, pine oil (from
_Pinus picea_) 7 ozs., bergamot oil 5½ drachms.

_Pine odor_ (_for atomizing_) No. 2.--Alcohol 2 quarts, dwarf-pine oil
(from _Pinus pumilio_) 5¼ ozs., oil of lemons 5½ drachms.

_Juniper odor._--Alcohol 2 quarts, extra fine juniper berry oil 3½
ozs., best lavender oil 5½ drachms, juniper tincture 8¾ ozs.

Pine odor or juniper odor may also be mixed in a vessel with water, and
thus used for fumigating.

_Fumigating balsam._--Alcohol 3 quarts, orris-root tincture 1 quart,
tinctures of benzoin, tolu balsam, and storax each 17½ ozs., olibanum
tincture 8¾ ozs., tinctures of abelmosk and musk-root each 3½ ozs.,
vanilla tincture 1¾ ozs., Peru balsam 4¼ ozs., bergamot oil 1¾
ozs., lemon oil 14 drachms, African rose geranium oil 11¼ drachms,
clove oil and cassia oil each 14 drachms, petit-grain oil 11¼ drachms,
fine lavender oil 1¾ ozs.

_Fumigating water._--Alcohol 10 quarts, orris-root tincture No. 2,
tinctures of storax, benzoin, and tolu balsam each 1 quart, abelmosk
tincture No. 2, 7 ozs., olibanum tincture 8¾ ozs., Peru balsam and
lavender oil each 3½ ozs., cassia oil and bergamot oil each 1 oz.,
thyme oil ½ oz., clove oil and palmarosa oil each 1 oz.

_Fumigating vinegar._--Alcohol 2 quarts, orris-root tincture 1 quart,
benzoin tincture 1 pint, tinctures of tolu balsam and storax each ½
pint, musk-root tincture 4¼ ozs., tinctures of vitivert and vanilla
each 3½ ozs., Peru balsam 1¾ ozs., lavender oil and clove oil each
8¼ drachms, Ceylon cinnamon oil and African rose-geranium oil each 5½
drachms, acetic acid 4¼ ozs.


FUMIGATING POWDERS. The lavender flowers, marigold flowers (_Calendula
officinalis_), rose leaves, etc., used in the preparation of fumigating
powders are not pulverized, but so far comminuted with a suitable
instrument as to form a distinctly colored mixture. To dissolve the
volatile oils, they are thoroughly mixed with the alcoholic extracts
mentioned in the receipts. The perfume thus obtained is finally
incorporated with the powders by rubbing together with the hands. To
prevent loss of perfume, it is mixed with the powders in a porcelain or
enamelled vessel.

_Ordinary fumigating powder._--Lavender flowers, marigold flowers,
corn flowers, rose leaves, rasped orris root each 2 lbs., cloves and
cinnamon each 3½ ozs., rasped sanders wood 17½ ozs., rasped cedar
wood 8¾ ozs., fumigating balsam 17½ ozs., bergamot oil and African
rose-geranium oil each 1¾ ozs., lavender oil 11¼ drachms.

Besides the above-mentioned dry constituents, the residues from
odoriferous substances, such as vanilla, orris root, vitivert root,
juniper berries, etc., employed in the preparation of tinctures may be
used for ordinary fumigating powders.

_Rose fumigating powder._--Rose leaves and rose wood each 2 lbs.,
lavender flowers and sanders wood each 1 lb., corn flowers ½
lb., tinctures of musk root and abelmosk each 1¾ ozs., African
rose-geranium oil 1 oz., Turkish rose oil 2¾ drachms, bergamot oil
8¼ drachms, clove oil 2¾ drachms, nutmeg oil 1½ drachms, extract
from French rose pomade 3½ ozs.

_Violet fumigating powder._--Rasped orris root 4 lbs., lavender flowers
and rasped sanders wood each 1 lb., orris-root tincture, abelmosk
tincture, and bergamot oil each 1¾ ozs., orris-root oil, basil oil,
and Ceylon-cinnamon oil each 2¾ drachms, extract from French cassie
pomade 1¾ ozs.

_Orange fumigating powder._--Orange peels 4 lbs., orange flowers and
marigold flowers each 1 lb., musk-root tincture and Portugal oil each
1¾ ozs., petit-grain oil 5½ drachms, bergamot oil 11 drachms,
extract from French orange flower pomade 3½ ozs.

_New-mown hay fumigating powder._--Lavender flowers 2 lbs.,
rose-leaves, rasped sanders wood, and rasped orris root each 1 lb.,
powdered benzoin, Roman camomile, curled mint and balm each ½ lb.,
exhausted tonka beans 1 lb., patchouli leaves and bergamot oil each
11¼ drachms, African rose-geranium oil 8¼ drachms, tonka-bean extract
and abelmosk tincture each 1¾ ozs., extract from French réséda
pomade 3½ ozs.


FUMIGATING PAPER. Bring into a capacious shallow dish a quantity of
fumigating balsam and repeatedly draw sheets of card-board through it,
allowing the sheets to thoroughly drain off and dry after each drawing
through. After repeating the operation about four times, the sheets
will be sufficiently perfumed and are then coated by means of a fine
brush with a solution of gum-arabic in rose water. This gives to the
sheets a dull lustre, while the thin layer of gum-arabic also prevents
the volatilization of the aroma. The sheets thus perfumed are cut up
into pieces the size of a playing card, and six to twelve such pieces
put up in an envelope. For use the paper is not ignited, but only
heated. With one such piece a room can be several times perfumed. It
may be remarked that before perfuming, the name of the firm, directions
for use, etc., are generally printed upon the card-board.


FUMIGATING PASTILLES. Some perfumers make more or less a specialty of
the manufacture of fumigating pastilles. They are generally of a red or
black color, different perfumes, names and qualities.

To prepare them, the finely pulverized substances are passed through a
sieve and mixed in a capacious dish with the volatile oils, tinctures,
etc. The mixture of powder and perfume is then made into a mass with
a mucilage of gum tragacanth, which is thoroughly kneaded to make it
homogeneous.

The saltpetre given in the receipts is dissolved by itself in
distilled water and last of all added to the mass. Its object is to
keep the pastilles burning after ignition.

As regards the mucilage of gum-tragacanth, it may be said that it
readily spoils, especially in summer. When it begins to get watery
it is already useless and soon acquires a bad odor; by decomposition
it loses its cementing power. Hence only a sufficient quantity for
immediate use should be made at one time.

The moulding of the pastilles is very simple. A number of tin cones
into which the mass is pressed are used for the purpose. After standing
for a short time the pastilles are taken from the moulds and allowed to
dry.

_Ordinary red fumigating pastilles._--Pulverized sanders wood and
pulverized Sumatra benzoin each 2 lbs., finely pulverized sandarac
and olibanum each 1 lb., saltpetre 4¼ ozs. dissolved in distilled
water; clove oil 5½ drachms, palmarosa oil 11 drachms, lavender oil 14
drachms. Mucilage of gum-tragacanth as much as required.

_Ordinary black fumigating pastilles._--Charcoal 2 lbs., finely
pulverized Sumatra benzoin 2 lbs., finely pulverized olibanum 1 lb.,
saltpetre 4¼ ozs., dissolved in distilled water; lavender oil, cassia
oil, and citronella oil each 11¼ drachms. Mucilage of gum-tragacanth as
much as required.

_Musk fumigating pastilles._--Pulverized genuine linden charcoal 2
lbs., pulverized musk root and orris root each 1 lb., pulverized
sanders wood, Siam benzoin, and abelmosk each ½ lb., saltpetre 4¼
ozs., dissolved in distilled water; Tonkin musk 1½ drachms, triturated
in distilled water; African-rose geranium oil, Portugal and cedar oil
each 5½ drachms. Mucilage of gum-tragacanth as much as required.

_Rose fumigating pastilles._--Pulverized sanders wood 2 lbs., powdered
sandarac and Siam benzoin each 1 lb., carmine, dissolved in rose
water, 1½ drachms; saltpetre 3½ ozs., bergamot oil 5½ drachms, clove
oil, Turkish rose oil, and French rose-geranium oil each 2.75 drachms.
Gum-tragacanth dissolved in rose water as much as required.

_Violet fumigating pastilles._--Powdered orris root 2 lbs., pulverized
sanders wood 1 lb., pulverized Siam benzoin and opopanax each ½ lb.,
saltpetre 3½ ozs., dissolved in distilled water; tolu-balsam tincture
3½ ozs., orris-root oil and bergamot oil each 5½ drachms, myrrh oil
2¾ drachms. Mucilage of gum-tragacanth as much as required.

_Millefleurs fumigating pastilles._--Pulverized linden charcoal 2 lbs.,
pulverized sanders wood, Siam benzoin, and orris root each 1 lb.,
pulverized olibanum ½ lb.; saltpetre 4¼ ozs., dissolved in distilled
water; bergamot oil and African rose-geranium oil each 14 drachms,
Ceylon cinnamon oil, Paraguay petit-grain oil, and juniper-berry oil
each 5½ drachms, Peru balsam 1¾ ozs., civet tincture 5½ drachms,
musk-root tincture 3½ ozs. Mucilage of gum-tragacanth as much as
required.

_Fumigating lacquer._--Fumigating lacquer consists chiefly of resins,
to which sufficient liquid storax is added to render the mass plastic,
so that sticks of any desired length and thickness can be formed
therefrom.

The resins and licorice mentioned in the receipt given below are
gradually and very carefully melted in an iron pan over a gas or
petroleum flame. To prevent the resins from scorching, the bottom of
the pan must constantly be kept free with a small iron spatula. When
the mass is perfectly fluid the Frankfort black is added, and the whole
thoroughly worked until no more lumps of Frankfort black are present.
The pan is then taken from the fire, and, after allowing the mass to
cool somewhat, it is perfumed with the thoroughly mixed perfume.

A lithographic stone, not too small, is used for giving the fumigating
lacquer a round form. The stone is rubbed with a rag moistened with a
very small quantity of olive oil. A small portion of the still very
warm mass is then poured upon the stone and rolled with the hands,
which should also be moistened with a little olive oil, into sticks of
desired thickness. The sticks are cut into the desired lengths while
the lacquer is still warm, and the operation is thus continued until
the entire mass is worked up. The mass in the pan must, of course, be
constantly kept liquid.

Siam benzoin, olibanum, and myrrh each 8¾ ozs., storax as free from
water as possible 3½ ozs., licorice 17½ ozs., Peru balsam 3½ ozs.,
Frankfort black 5¼ ozs., bergamot oil 14 drachms, African rose-geranium
oil, cassia oil, juniper-berry oil, and eucalyptus oil each 11¼
drachms.



CHAPTER XI.

DENTIFRICES, MOUTH-WATERS, ETC.


For cleansing and preserving the teeth and gums, _soaps_, _powders_,
and _tinctures_ are used, and for removing foul breath, _mouth-waters_.

Great care is required in compounding dentifrices and mouth-waters,
and special attention must be paid to the correct selection of the
material. The substances used must be chemically pure, and no caustic
or sharp or grating materials, such as pumice, sand, _ossa sepiæ_,
etc., should be employed, they destroying the enamel of the teeth.

The coloring substances used to give the dentifrices and mouth-waters
a pleasing appearance should under no condition be injurious or
poisonous, such as, for instance, brilliant rosa, cinnabar, aniline,
chrome yellow, picric acid, etc. The perfumes have also to be carefully
selected, and all repugnant volatile oils and tinctures, such as
bitter-almond oil, sandal-wood oil, musk tincture, etc., should
be avoided. On the other hand, peppermint oil forms the principal
constituent of the perfume for most dentifrices and mouth-waters, this
preference being not only due to its agreeable odor, but chiefly to its
pleasant, refreshing, and stimulating action upon our organs.

In accordance with recent medical directions and opinions soap is
again employed, and justly so, for the better cleansing of the teeth,
whilst formerly it was generally considered injurious. However, though
soap is innocuous to the teeth, it should be used in very limited
quantities, since its introduction into the mouth is repugnant to many
persons, producing in many cases vomiting. The quality of the soap must
also be taken into consideration, and only the best neutral soap in
the form of a powder, such as is used for fine milled soaps, should be
employed.

The alcohol used for the tooth and mouth-waters--more correctly
tinctures--should be perfectly free from fusel oil, and of 95 to 96 per
cent. strength. The best qualities of volatile oils should be taken,
and the tinctures prepared with the greatest care.

The dentifrices for preventing caries, among which the thymol
preparations are the most prominent, deserve special attention. The
most celebrated physicians have long since recognized thymol as
an antiseptic, it being much used in hospitals, and is frequently
preferred to carbolic acid. For this reason thymol preparations should
be used for preserving the teeth. They render good service, especially
in the case of hollow teeth, as they remove the foul odor and protect
the sound teeth from becoming hollow. For cleansing artificial teeth
thymol tooth-water can be especially recommended. Great care should,
therefore, be exercised in the preparation of these thymol dentifrices.
On the other hand, according to medical opinions, dentifrices
containing salicylic acid cannot be recommended, the acid, it is
claimed, being very injurious to the enamel of the teeth.

Glycerin, which occurs in several receipts for dentifrices and
mouth-waters, fulfills a double object; on the one hand, its action
upon the teeth and mouth is beneficial, and, on the other, it covers
the naturally bitter taste of many substances contained in the
preparations, and thus makes them more agreeable to use.

The receipts for dentifrices and mouth-waters here given have been
thoroughly tested, and can be highly recommended.

_Tooth and mouth waters._ _Thymol tooth-water._--Alcohol of best
quality 5 quarts, chemically pure glycerin of 28° B. 17½ ozs.,
crystallized thymol 1 oz., white thyme oil and best peppermint oil each
1¼ ozs., tinctures of arnica and guaiacum each 1¾ ozs., cochineal
tincture, for coloring, 2¾ to 3½ ozs.

Bring all the ingredients into a glass balloon, shake thoroughly, and
protect the liquid from sunlight.

The cochineal tincture is prepared from 14 ozs. of cochineal and 1
quart of alcohol of best quality, the arnica tincture from 2 lbs. of
arnica root and 2½ quarts of alcohol of best quality, and the guaiacum
tincture from 5¼ ozs. of guaiacum-wood and 1 quart of alcohol of best
quality.

_Eau dentifrice Botot._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts, chemically
pure glycerin of 28° B. 17¾ ozs., peppermint oil 2 ozs., clove oil
11 drachms, anise-seed oil 5 drachms, ratany tincture and vanilla
tincture each 5¼ ozs., Peruvian bark tincture 1¾ ozs., sanders-wood
tincture, as coloring matter, 3½ ozs. Proceed as above.

The sanders-wood tincture is prepared by macerating 5¼ ozs. of red
sanders wood with 1 quart of alcohol.

_Eau dentifrice Orientale._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts,
peppermint oil and rose-geranium oil each 1¼ ozs., clove oil 11¼
drachms, _extrait rose_ and ratany tincture each 3½ ozs., vanilla
tincture 1¾ ozs. Proceed as above and color rose color with corallin
tincture.

The ratany tincture is prepared from 17½ ozs. of ratany root and 1
quart alcohol, and the corallin tincture from 17½ ozs. of corallin and
1 quart alcohol.

_Violet mouth-water._--Tincture of benzoin 7 parts, tincture of ratany
30, tincture of myrrh 60, rose water 250, tincture of orris root 500,
alcohol 250.

_Antiseptic gargle._--The following solution is recommended for
sterilizing the mouth after the teeth have been cleansed with a
tooth-brush and soap: Thymol 3½ grains, benzoic acid 45, tincture of
eucalyptus 180, water 1½ pints.

_Odontine._--Exhaust 3 ozs. of pulverized myrrh with a mixture of
25 ozs. of alcohol and 8 ozs. of water. Then dissolve 1½ ozs. of
Castile soap shavings in a mixture of 25 ozs. of alcohol and 8 ozs. of
water, and color wine-red with alkannin. Then add lemon oil 30 drops,
peppermint oil 30 drops, wintergreen oil 10 drops, star-anise oil 30
drops, and finally 4 ozs. of glycerin. After allowing the whole to
stand in a cool place for one or two weeks, filter, mix the filtrate
with 10 drachms of acetic ether, and fill in bottles.

_Sozodont._--White Castile soap ½ oz., oil of peppermint 5 drops, oil
of wintergreen 12 drops, glycerin ½ oz., water 1 oz., alcohol 2 ozs.,
cochineal tincture sufficient to color.

_Eau de Botot_ (_improved_).--Cloves, star-anise, and soap bark, each
2½ drachms, cochineal 1½ drachms. Pulverize and percolate with the
following mixture: Alcohol 20 ozs., rose water 4 ozs. To the percolate
add: Cream of tartar 45 grains, oil of peppermint 1½ drachms. Filter.

_Quinine tooth-water._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts, peppermint
oil 1 oz., clove oil ½ oz., Ceylon cinnamon oil 2¾ drachms,
Peruvian bark-tincture 8¾ ozs., guaiacum-tincture 3½ ozs., myrrh
tincture 1.75 ozs., glycerine of 28° B. 17½ ozs. Proceed as above.

The Peruvian bark-tincture is prepared by macerating 8¾ ozs. of
Peruvian bark in 1 quart of alcohol of best quality.

_Dr. Stahl's tooth-tincture._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts,
peppermint oil 1¾ ozs., clove oil 5½ drachms, French rose-geranium
oil 8¼ drachms, vanilla-tincture 5¼ ozs., guaiacum-tincture 3½ ozs.,
benzoin tincture 8¾ ozs., henna-tincture, as coloring matter, 8¾
ozs.

Bring all the ingredients into a glass bottle, shake thoroughly and
protect the mixture from sunlight. The tincture, when mixed with water,
gives an emulsion.

The henna-tincture is obtained by macerating 17½ ozs. of henna-root in
4 quarts of alcohol.

_Esprit de menthe._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts, peppermint oil
4¼ ozs.

_Arnica tooth-tincture._--Alcohol of best quality and arnica-tincture
each 1 quart, Peruvian bark-tincture 1 pint, glycerin of 28° B. 5¼
ozs., cochineal tincture, as coloring matter, 1¾ ozs.

_Myrrh tooth-tincture._--Alcohol of best quality 1 quart, myrrh
tincture 2 quarts, guaiacum-tincture 8¾ ozs.

A few remarks may here be made regarding the use of tooth tinctures.
The tinctures should not be used undiluted, they being apt to make
tender gums sore, cause pain, and may even produce inflammation. It is
best to dilute the tinctures somewhat with water whereby they become
milder and more agreeable to the gums. An excellent article for rinsing
out the mouth is obtained by pouring a teaspoonful of the tincture into
a tumbler of water.


TOOTH-PASTES AND TOOTH-POWDERS. _Tooth-paste or odontine, No.
1._--Carbonate of magnesium 6 lbs., sugar of milk 2 lbs., precipitated
carbonate of calcium 4 lbs., alizarin, to color, 1¾ ozs., best
soap-powder 7 ozs., powdered gum-arabic 5¼ ozs., sugar 17½ ozs.
dissolved in distilled water 2½ quarts, chemically pure glycerin of 28°
B. 17½ ozs., peppermint oil 8¾ ozs., clove oil 8¼ drachms.

Pass the magnesia, sugar of milk, carbonate of calcium, alizarin,
soap-powder and gum-arabic through a fine sieve and mix intimately;
dissolve the sugar in the distilled water and add the glycerin to the
solution. Bring the sifted powders into a mortar or other convenient
vessel, gradually add the fluid and thoroughly mix with the hands.
Then add the perfume, and convert the whole into a solid paste with a
wooden pestle. Instead of mixing and working the mass in a mortar, the
operation is much more rapidly performed by passing the mixture through
the rolls of a soap mill, which must, of course, be thoroughly cleansed
for the purpose by washing with water.

_Tooth-paste or odontine, No. 2._--Carbonate of magnesium and sugar
of milk each 2 lbs., precipitated carbonate of calcium 4 lbs.,
prepared chalk 10 lbs., sugar 4 lbs. dissolved in water 5 quarts, best
soap-powder 2 lbs., alizarin, as coloring matter, 7 ozs., peppermint
oil 10½ ozs., clove oil 8¾ ozs.

This paste is prepared in the same manner as No. 1, only the
proportion of water has to be taken into consideration. To prevent the
mass from becoming too soft, the water should be very gradually added.

_Thymol tooth-paste._--Carbonate of magnesium 4 lbs., sugar of milk
2 lbs., pulverized gum-arabic and soap powder each 3½ ozs., carmine
nacarat, as coloring matter, 2¾ drachms, and alizarin, as coloring
matter, 6¾ drachms, sugar 10½ ozs., dissolved in distilled water
1¾ quarts, peppermint oil 1¼ ozs., white thyme oil 2½ ozs.,
crystallized thymol 1¼ ozs., arnica tincture 7 ozs. The thyme oil,
peppermint oil and arnica tincture are brought into a bottle and the
thymol is dissolved in the mixture. By previously converting the thymol
to a coarse powder solution takes place quite rapidly. The further
manipulation is the same as given for tooth-paste No. 1.

_Cherry tooth-paste._--Boil briskly 1 oz. potassium carbonate and 1 oz.
of powdered cochineal in a pint of water until reduced to 12 or 13 ozs.
When cold, add 1 oz. cream of tartar, ½ oz. alum, 2 ozs. glycerin,
and water sufficient to make 16 ozs. of filtered solution. Then add 4
ozs. of honey and set aside a few days to see if fermentation occurs.
Carefully mix the liquid with 2 lbs. prepared chalk, 1¾ ozs. orris
powder and ¾ ozs. cassia powder.

_Non-fermenting cherry tooth-paste._--Fine powdered pumice stone 2
ozs., powdered orris root 2 ozs., powdered myrrh ½ oz., honey 4 ozs.,
sufficient liquid cochineal to color, oil of cloves ½ drachm, essence
of lemon 1½ drachms, rose oil 8 drops. Mix well.

_Odontine paste._--French chalk 30 drachms, soap 15, sugar 15,
gum-arabic 2, peppermint oil 2, glycerin 8, water 8. Work into a paste.

_Thymol tooth-powder._--Sugar of milk and carbonate of magnesium each 2
lbs., precipitated carbonate of calcium 1 lb., best soap-powder 7 ozs.,
alizarin, as coloring matter, and crystallized thymol, each 1 oz.,
glycerin of 28° B. 5¼ ozs., arnica tincture 7 ozs., white thyme oil 1½
ozs., peppermint oil 11¼ drachms.

Thoroughly mix--preferably in a capacious enamelled vessel--the
powdered and colored ingredients, add the thymol dissolved in the
mixture of the volatile oils, arnica tincture and glycerin, rub and
uniformly mix the whole with the hands, so that no specks of coloring
matter and perfume are perceptible, and then again pass through a fine
sieve.

Tooth powder is best kept in well closed tin boxes; boxes of wood or
paste-board are not suitable for the purpose, the powder, when kept in
them, losing in quality.

The above explanations refer to all the following tooth powders:--

_Poudre dentifrice._--Precipitated carbonate of calcium 2 lbs.,
carbonate of magnesium 1 lb., sugar of milk 1½ lbs., fine soap-powder
5¼ ozs., alizarin, as coloring matter, 5¼ ozs., peppermint oil 2 ozs.,
clove oil 5½ drachms, Ceylon cinnamon oil 2¾ drachms, rose-geranium
oil 5½ drachms, vanilla tincture 1¾ ozs. Proceed as given for thymol
tooth-powder.

_Violet tooth-powder._--Orris-root powder 3 lbs., carbonate of
magnesium 1 lb., sugar of milk 1½ lbs., best soap-powder 5¼ ozs.,
Portugal oil and peppermint oil each 1 oz., ratany tincture 3½ ozs.
Proceed as given for thymol tooth-powder.

_Dr. Hufeland's tooth-powder._--Pulverized sanders wood, Peruvian bark,
and precipitated carbonate of calcium each 2 lbs., best soap-powder
7 ozs., bergamot oil and Portugal oil each 11 drachms, clove oil and
cassia oil each 14 drachms, myrrh tincture 1¾ ozs. Proceed as given
for thymol tooth-powder.

_White tooth-powder._--Carbonate of magnesium, precipitated carbonate
of calcium, and prepared chalk each 1 lb., soap-powder 3½ ozs.,
peppermint oil 1 oz., clove oil 5½ drachms. Proceed as given for thymol
tooth-powder.

_Black tooth-powder._--Finely pulverized linden charcoal 2 lbs.,
precipitated carbonate of calcium 1 lb., best soap-powder 3½ ozs.,
peppermint oil 1¾ ozs., clove oil 8¼ drachms, guaiacum tincture 3½
ozs. Proceed as given for thymol tooth-powder.

_Poudre de corail._--Carbonate of magnesium 1 lb., sugar of milk 7
ozs., prepared chalk 1 lb., best soap-powder 7 ozs., alizarin 3½ ozs.,
peppermint oil 1¾ ozs., clove oil 5½ drachms, cassia oil 2¾
drachms. Proceed as given for thymol tooth-powder.

_Camphor tooth-powder._--Prepared chalk and precipitated carbonate
of calcium each 1 lb., best soap-powder 2½ ozs., peppermint oil 5½
drachms, camphor 1 oz. dissolved in the necessary quantity of alcohol
of best quality.

Thoroughly mix all the ingredients and pass the mixture through a fine
sieve. This tooth-powder should be used only every 5 or 6 days; when
too frequently used it affects the nerves.

_Opiat liquide pour les dents._--Genuine honey 1½ lbs., sugar syrup 2½
ozs., best wheat flour 7 ozs., round-lake 2 ozs., peppermint oil and
clove oil each 11¼ drachms.

Convert the round-lake into a fine powder and pass it through a fine
sieve into a capacious porcelain dish. Then intimately mix it with the
wheat flour, gradually add the honey and syrup, and after thoroughly
working the mass for about ¼ hour, add the volatile oil. Now work
the whole thoroughly with the pestle, then cover the dish, and after
allowing it to stand quietly for about 36 hours, bring the mass into
boxes of glass or tin provided with screw-tops.

_Poudre d' Algérine._--Cream of tartar and pulverized red coral each
2 lbs., pulverized burnt alum 1 lb., pulverized sugar of milk 2 lbs.,
cochineal as coloring matter 3½ ozs.

The pulverized ingredients are brought into an enamelled vessel having
a capacity of 12 quarts and thoroughly mixed, so that the cochineal is
uniformly distributed in the mass. Now have ready about 3 quarts of
nearly boiling water and a thoroughly cleansed soap-stirrer or similar
instrument.

When everything is prepared, quickly pour the hot water upon the
powder in the enamelled vessel and stir rapidly and thoroughly during
the effervescence which immediately takes place. The effervescence
gradually ceases and the result will be a beautiful crimson colored
mass, the hot water having immediately and completely dissolved the
coloring matter of the cochineal. Now, bring the mass into a shallow
box lined with clean white paper and place it to dry in an airy room,
but do not expose it to the air or sunlight. The next day the mass in
the box is thoroughly worked through, this operation being repeated
every day until the mass is dry. It is then again powdered, whereby
it acquires a rose color, and is then sifted. The powder is perfumed
with peppermint oil 1 oz. and clove oil and cassia oil each 5½ ozs.,
sufficient glycerin to prevent dust, being at the same time rubbed
in. With the addition of the glycerin the beautiful crimson color of
the powder reappears. This tooth-powder possesses excellent cleansing
qualities and can be recommended chiefly to persons having yellow
teeth, as well as to smokers whose teeth commence to get black.

_Dr. Hufeland's tooth soap._--Best quality of tallow melted without
acid 14 lbs., soda lye of 38° B. 6½ lbs., potash lye of 20° B. 1 lb.
Further, yellow ochre 1 lb., umber 4½ ozs., and precipitated carbonate
of calcium 3 lbs., stirred together with hot water 2 quarts. Peppermint
oil 5¼ ozs., clove oil 14 drachms.

The kettle with the tallow strained through a cloth is brought upon the
water-bath and the tallow heated to 167° F. The lye heated to about
100° F. is then slowly added to the tallow in the kettle, and, after
stirring for about ¼ hour, the mass is allowed to rest quietly, the
kettle being lightly covered and only a little steam admitted or fire
kept under the kettle, so that saponification does not take place too
rapidly.

Saponification will be slowly effected from the sides of the kettle in
about one hour, the mass in the kettle rising somewhat. This rising
indicates that the process of saponification is going on. The mass
is now again stirred, which must be done carefully and not hastily,
as otherwise the soap readily becomes spumous. When the soap again
lies quietly in the kettle, it will have the appearance of a white
prime grain-soap. Now add the coloring substances and the precipitated
carbonate of calcium and thoroughly stir, so that the mass acquires a
uniform brown color. Then remove the kettle from the water-bath, add
the perfumes with constant stirring, bring the finished tooth soap into
the frame, lightly cover the latter with the wooden lid and let stand
over night. The next day the tooth soap may be cut up into suitable
pieces, which are allowed to dry for about 12 hours and then packed in
tinfoil, etc.

_Tooth-soap._--Castile soap 1 lb., prepared chalk 1 oz., thymol 20
grains, oil of wintergreen 30 drops.

Shave the soap into ribbons, beat it into a paste with a little water,
and add first the prepared chalk and lastly the thymol and wintergreen
oil dissolved in a little water.

_Saponaceous tooth-wash._--White Castile soap 3 ozs., oil of orange
peel 10 drops, oil of cinnamon 5 drops, water 4 ozs., alcohol 12 ozs.

Shave the soap into ribbons; melt with the water in a water-bath,
adding the alcohol while still warm. Continue the heat if necessary,
until solution is effected. When cold, dissolve the oils in the liquid.



CHAPTER XII.

HAIR POMADES, HAIR OILS, AND HAIR TONICS; HAIR DYES AND DEPILATORIES.


To properly preserve the hair it requires to be occasionally oiled, and
the scalp to be frequently cleansed. Pomades and oils serve for the
former purpose, and hair tonics for the latter. For the preparation
of pomades, fats, such as lard, beef-tallow, and beef-marrow, are
principally used, though cocoa butter, cocoanut oil, castor oil,
almond oil, spermaceti, and wax, and, more recently, vaseline are also
employed. For the preparation of hair oils, fat oils, especially olive
oil and almond oil are used, but also poppy oil, peanut oil, sesame
oil, etc. The fats and oils used should not be rancid, for, on the one
hand, the bad odor arising from rancidity is troublesome in perfuming,
and, on the other, what is of still greater importance, rancid fat
injuriously affects the scalp and the growth of the hair. Of the oils
above mentioned, which are sometimes used, poppy oil is a drying oil,
and, therefore, not suitable for the purpose.

Some fats enjoy a special reputation as hair pomades, the property of
strengthening the scalp and promoting the growth of the hair being
ascribed to them. This is especially the case as regards beef marrow
and horse fat,[22] whilst in olden times the bone marrow of the deer
(_cerval medullæ_) and bear's grease were believed to possess this
property. Cleopatra is said to have used the latter, and many ladies
are at the present time under the impression that they apply it to
their hair when they use _Pommade à la graisse d'ours_. Thoroughly
purified lard renders no doubt the same service as the above-mentioned
fats.

 [22] Genuine horse fat is obtained from the upper portion of the neck
 of the horse.

POMADES. Pomades are prepared by two different methods; the desired
odor is imparted to the fat by the extraction of the flowers of various
plants, or the fat in a semi-congealed state is perfumed with different
volatile oils.

The fats used for pomades should, as above indicated, be as fresh and
pure as possible, so that they will keep for a long time. Fats intended
for fine pomades, for which lard and beef-tallow are chiefly used, are
generally first subjected to purification by, for some time, treating
them with cold water, constantly renewed, and thoroughly washing, so
that all adhering particles of dirt and mucus are removed, and the
pomades prepared from them are better protected against rancidity. For
the removal of the water adhering from washing, the fats are remelted.
Still greater durability is imparted to the fat by adding in remelting
a small quantity of salicylic acid (2¾ drachms of the acid to 2 lbs.
of fat), or of gum benzoin. A small addition of ethyl nitrite also
renders the fats more durable.

The purification of the fat, which generally consists of 2 to 3 parts
lard and 1 part beef-tallow, is frequently effected as follows: Boil
for about one hour 125 lbs. of fat with about 30 gallons of water
containing 1 lb. each of common salt and alum in solution, constantly
removing the scum formed. After standing for several hours, the fat
thus purified is carefully taken off from the sediment and water; it is
then, together with 4 to 6 lbs. of pulverized benzoin, for some time
heated at 167° F., and finally strained into stone jars, which, after
the fat is cold, are closed with a piece of bladder or waxed paper and
kept for use. Fat thus prepared keeps for years.

For _coloring the pomades_ are used: 1. _For red_: Alkannin, cinnabar,
carmine (triturated with a small quantity of sal ammoniac and added
to the fat) and safranin (1 part of it dissolved in 20 parts alcohol
and 80 parts water and added to the melted fat). 2. _For yellow_:
Annotto, turmeric, cadmium sulphide. 3. _For brown_: Cocoa powder and
ochre. 4. _For green_: Chlorophyl. Besides the above-mentioned coloring
substances, a very intense coloring matter for pomades is brought into
commerce under the name "Lederin" by Saltzer & Voigt, of Oker, Germany.
It is manufactured in lemon color, orange, cinnabar, violet, and brown
shades, and 10 to 12 drachms of it, triturated in a porcelain dish with
about 1 lb. of the warm fat, will impart a truly beautiful color to 100
lbs. of fat or oil.

_Fine French Pomades_ (_Flower Pomades_).--In France, especially in
the southern part, where the cultivation of the various flowers, such
as roses, violets, mignonette, héliotrope, etc., is carried on on an
extensive scale, the fine pomades are prepared by the method previously
mentioned (see p. 58 _et seq._).

The maceration or extraction of the flowers is effected as follows: The
fat, generally consisting of 3 parts lard and 1 part beef-tallow, is
melted in an enamelled vessel over the steam or water-bath. The flowers
in a clean linen bag are suspended in the fat, and after covering the
vessel the fat is kept, according to the strength of the perfume of the
respective variety of flower, for a day or two more at a temperature of
from 133° to 145° F. The extracted and exhausted flowers are then taken
out, slightly pressed out, and thrown away. The same operation with
always the same quantities of fresh flowers is then repeated ten to
twelve times with the same fat, until it is sufficiently perfumed. The
pomade thus obtained, to which some white vaseline is frequently added,
is then stirred until cold.

Receipts for some flower pomades are here given:--

_Pommade à la rose._--Extract, in the manner above given, with 6 lbs.
of lard and 2 lbs. of beef-tallow, both thoroughly purified, 8 lbs. of
fresh rose leaves. Treat the fat ten to twelve times in the same manner
with an equal quantity of fresh rose leaves.

_Pommade à l'acacia._--Extract 6 lbs. of fresh acacia flowers with 20
lbs. of fat, and repeat the operation ten times with a like quantity of
fresh flowers.

_Pommade à la fleur d'orange._--Extract 8 lbs. of fresh orange flowers
with 8 lbs. of fat, and repeat the operation eight times with a like
quantity of fresh flowers.

_Pommade à l'héliotrope._--Extract 8 lbs. of fresh héliotrope flowers
with 8 lbs. of fat, and repeat the operation eight to ten times with an
equal quantity of fresh flowers.

All simple French pomades, for which flowers furnish the perfume, are
prepared in a similar manner. For pomades are chiefly used the flowers
of the geranium, jasmine, mignonette, hyacinth, tuberose, narcissus,
lily, etc., the pomades as a rule receiving the name of the perfume
imparted to them.

POMADES ACCORDING TO THE GERMAN METHOD. Most of the pomades consumed in
Germany are prepared from fresh, purified lard and beef-tallow, though
sometimes additions of wax, spermaceti, stearin, castor-oil, cocoanut
oil, etc., are made, or the pomade is entirely composed of the latter
fats. For inferior qualities of pomades, borax is much used, since it
not only possesses the property of combining a quantity of water with
the fat, but also makes the pomade more durable. Soap dissolved in hot
water is also often added to the fat, whereby not only considerable
water is fixed in the pomade, but the latter also becomes very white
and pliant. In regard to pomades containing borax, it may be mentioned
that safranin has proved a durable substance for coloring the pomades
red, while alkannin suffers alterations.

The fabrication of pomades is very simple. The fat, after being melted,
and somewhat cooled off, is generally vigorously worked or beaten with
a wooden pestle or spatula, until it acquires a frothy, cream-like
appearance. By this treatment the fat also gains in volume, small air
bubbles being inclosed in it. On the other hand, the fat is stirred
until cold, then perfumed and poured into pots.

The following mixtures of fat may serve as suitable foundations for
white pomades:--

I. Lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 2 lbs.

II. Lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 3 lbs.

III. Lard 7½ lbs., spermaceti 1½ lbs.

IV. Castor oil 6 lbs., vaseline 1½ lbs., wax 1 lb.

V. Lard 8 lbs., cocoanut oil 2 lbs.

VI. Castor oil 6 lbs., spermaceti 1 lb.

VII. Lard 6 lbs., cocoanut oil 3 lbs.

VIII. Lard 8 lbs., wax 1 lb., cocoa butter 1 lb.

IX. Pomade fat 12 lbs., soap 4 ozs., dissolved in hot water, borax ½
drachm. This mass will stand about ¼ water.

X. _In summer_: Fat 6 lbs., stearin 7 ozs.

_In winter_: Fat 6 lbs., stearin 4½ ozs.

To either mass given under X, add and combine thoroughly with it 14
drachms of borax dissolved in 1 quart of water.

The pomades, while still warm, are colored and finally perfumed.
For _perfuming_, different volatile oils and perfume substances of
suitable composition are used, 1 to 1½ ozs. of perfume being generally
sufficient for 2 lbs. of fat.

Receipts for the best known and most popular pomades are as follows:--

_Apple pomade._--Digest for some time in the water bath 2 lbs. of fresh
apple parings with 6 lbs. of lard and 2 lbs. of beef-tallow, press,
color yellow, stir until cold, and perfume with 1 oz. amyl valerate,
commonly called "apple oil."

_Bear's grease pomade._--Perfume purified bear's grease 8 lbs., or
benzoated lard 6 lbs. and beef-tallow 2 lbs., with rose-geranium oil
2¾ ozs. and vanilla tincture 2 ozs.

_Quinine pomade No. 1._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., fresh beef-tallow 2½ lbs.,
quinotannic acid 13 ozs., tincture of cantharides and distilled water
each 8 ozs., Peru balsam 4 ozs., rose-geranium oil 8 drachms.

_Quinine pomade No. 2._--Vaseline 4 lbs., paraffin 2 lbs., fat jasmine
oil 1 lb., Peruvian bark extract ½ lb., tannin 5¼ ozs., Peru balsam
3½ ozs., rose-geranium oil 11 drachms.

Melt together the vaseline and paraffin, add the Peruvian bark extract
previously rubbed up with as little water as possible, and stir in the
tannin dissolved in the volatile oils.

_Quinine pomade (imitation) No. 1._--Benzoated lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow
2 lbs., colored with prepared cocoa powder about 14 ozs., and perfumed
with Peruvian balsam 2¼ ozs., bergamot oil, citronella oil, and eau de
Cologne each 5½ drachms, and oils of cloves, lavender, and cinnamon
each 40 drops.

_Quinine pomade (imitation) No. 2._--Lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 2½ lbs.,
cocoa powder 15¾ ozs., Peru balsam 2¼ ozs., cassia oil 1¾ ozs.,
clove oil 2¾ drachms, oil of bitter almonds 10 drops.

_Benzoin pomade._--Digest for several hours in a water bath at 167°
F. 6 lbs. of lard, 2 lbs. of beef-tallow, and 1½ lbs. of pulverized
benzoin, and strain off the fat.

_Densdorf pomade._--Castor oil 6 lbs., vaseline 1½ lbs., yellow wax 1
lb., bergamot oil 2¼ ozs., lemon oil 1¼ ozs., geranium oil 4½ drachms.

_Ice pomade No. 1._--Best olive oil 6 lbs., white vaseline and
spermaceti each 1½ lbs., bergamot oil 3 ozs., bitter almond oil 11
drachms, rose-geranium oil 8¼ drachms, cinnamon oil 5½ drachms.

_Ice pomade No. 2._--Fat almond oil 6 lbs., spermaceti 1½ lbs.,
bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., citronella oil 14 drachms, palma rose oil
2¾ drachms.

_Family pomade (red)._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 3 lbs., bergamot
oil 1¾ ozs., oils of lemon, lavender, and cinnamon each 14 drachms.
Color with alkannin.

_Family pomade (white)._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 3 lbs., lemon
oil 2 ozs., sweet orange oil 1¼ ozs., bergamot oil 1 oz.

_Family pomade (rose color)._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 3 lbs.,
palma-rose oil, citronella oil, and lavender oil each 1¼ ozs. Color
with alkannin.

_Family pomade (yellow)._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 3 lbs.,
bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., cassia oil 14 drachms, clove oil 8¼ drachms,
thyme oil 5½ drachms. Color with lederin or annotto.

_Family pomade (brown)._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 3 lbs., cassia
oil 1¾ ozs., caraway oil 1 oz., sweet orange oil and clove oil each
11¼ drachms. Color brown with cocoa powder, lederin, or umber.

_Strawberry pomade._--Fresh ripe strawberries 1½ lbs., fresh lard, 6
lbs., fresh beef-tallow 2 lbs., rose oil 5 drops.

Put the strawberries in a clean linen bag, and digest them for some
time with the fat in the water-bath. Then moderately press the
strawberries, color with alkannin, and finally perfume.

_Fine hair pomade._--Fresh lard 8 lbs., cocoanut oil and wax each 1
lb., bergamot oil 3 ozs., lemon oil 1¼ ozs., geranium oil 5½ drachms,
musk tincture 1 drachm.[23]

 [23] A pomade containing musk cannot be used by everyone, since in
 nervous persons it may readily cause headache.

_Pomade for promoting the growth of the hair._--Lard 6 lbs.,
beef-tallow 2 lbs., tincture of cantharides 10½ ozs., lemon oil 2½
ozs., bergamot oil 2 ozs., cinnamon oil 1½ drachms.

_Heliotrope pomade, finest quality._--Lard treated with benzoin 6 lbs.,
beef tallow treated with benzoin 2 lbs., heliotropin 3¾ drachms,
dissolved in a small quantity of the fat heated to about 111° F.;
neroli oil 35 drops.

_Heliotrope pomade._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., fresh beef tallow 2 lbs., Peru
balsam 2½ ozs., cassia oil 1½ ozs., clove oil 8¼ drachms, artificial
bitter-almond oil 1½ drachms.

_Jasmine pomade._--Benzoated lard 6 lbs., benzoated beef tallow 2 lbs.,
fat jasmine oil 2⅖ lbs., rose oil 25 drops.

_Emperor pomade._--Melt together 7⅗ lbs. of fresh olive oil, 2 lbs.
of castor oil, and 2⅖ lbs. of spermaceti. Perfume with fat jasmine
oil 7 ozs., Turkish rose oil and bergamot oil each 2¾ drachms,
neroli oil 50 drops, geranium oil 20 drops, orris-root oil 10 drops,
heliotropin ½ drachm, and cumarin 1/10 drachm.

Dissolve the heliotropin and cumarin in a portion of the fat heated to
111° F., add the solution, together with the other perfume-materials,
to the fat before it congeals, then pour the pomade into jars and allow
it to cool slowly.

_Macassar pomade._--Castor oil 6 lbs., vaseline 1½ lbs., wax 1
lb., bergamot oil 2 ozs., cassia oil and cinnamon oil each 1 oz.,
rose-geranium oil 2¾ drachms.

_Portugal pomade._--Fresh lard 4 lbs., white vaseline 1 lb., wax 3½
ozs., Portugal oil 2 ozs., bergamot oil 1¼ ozs., caraway oil 2¾
drachms.

_Herb pomade._--Melt together fresh lard 8 lbs., Japanese wax and
bayberry oil each 3½ ozs., improve the color with chlorophyl, and
perfume with lemon oil 14 drachms, bergamot oil 11 drachms, clove oil
5½ drachms, geranium oil 3¼ drachms, and a few drops of curly mint oil.

_Lanolin pomade._--Benzoated fat 4 lbs., benzoinized olive oil and
lanolin each 2 lbs., bergamot oil 3½ ozs., cinnamon oil 7¼ drachms,
clove oil 5½ drachms, lavender oil 3¾ drachms, nerolin 1 drachm
dissolved in a portion of the fat heated to 111° F. Color red with
alkannin.

_Oriental pomade._--Benzoated lard 6 lbs., benzoated beef-tallow 2
lbs., bergamot oil 2 ozs., clove oil 1¼ ozs., neroli oil 5½ drachms,
musk tincture ½ drachm. Color red with lederin.

_Paraffin ice pomade._--Castor oil or olive oil 6 lbs., paraffin 1 lb.,
bergamot oil 3½ ozs., palma rose oil 11¼ drachms.

_Neroli pomade._--Benzoated lard 6 lbs., benzoated beef-tallow 2 lbs.,
fat jasmine oil and fat rose oil each 1¾ ozs., oil of bitter almonds
2 drops, nerolin 1½ drachms dissolved in a small portion of the fat
heated to 111° F. Color pale yellow.

_Cheap pomade (red, yellow, white)._--Lard 5 lbs., beef-tallow or
cocoanut oil 2 lbs., perfumed with about 3½ ozs. of fruit ether.

_Mignonette pomade._--Benzoated lard 4 lbs., benzoated beef-tallow and
fat mignonette oil each 2 lbs., tolu-balsam tincture 4¾ ozs. Color
pale green with chlorophyl.

_Castor oil pomade No. 1._--Melt together 4 lbs. of castor oil and 11¼
ozs. of spermaceti and perfume with bergamot oil 2 ozs., and geranium
oil 6½ drachms.

_Castor oil pomade No. 2._--Castor oil and fine olive oil each 2 lbs.,
yellow wax 7 ozs., bergamot oil and sweet orange oil each 14 drachms,
clove oil 8¼ drachms, neroli oil 2¼ drachms.

_Princess pomade._--Fresh lard 8 lbs., cocoa butter and wax each 1 lb.,
bergamot oil 3½ ozs., lemon oil and lavender oil each 14 drachms,
neroli oil 6¾ drachms. Color rose color with alkannin.

_Fine pomade._--Benzoated lard 6 lbs., benzoated beef-tallow 2 lbs.,
lemon oil 2 ozs., sweet orange oil 1¼ ozs., bergamot oil 1 oz. Color
yellow with annotto.

_Beef-marrow pomade._--Melt together 4 lbs. of lard and 1 lb. of
beef-marrow, or, 4 lbs of lard, 14 ozs. of spermaceti, and 1¾ ozs.
of yellow wax, color yellow and perfume with lemon oil 14 drachms,
bergamot oil 6¾ drachms, and a few drops of clove oil.

_Rogers's pomade for producing a beard._--Lard 7½ lbs., yellow wax ½
lb., fine cantharides powder 10½ ozs., bergamot oil 1¼ ozs., oils of
lemon, cinnamon and lavender each 11 drachms.

_Rose pomade._--Fresh lard 6 lbs., fresh beef-tallow 2 lbs., palma rosa
oil 2¾ ozs., citronella oil 11 drachms, alkannin for coloring 1 to
1½ ozs.

_Fine rose pomade._--Fresh lard 2½ lbs., spermaceti and fat almond oil,
each 3½ ozs., rose geranium oil 1¼ ozs., bitter almond oil 1½ ozs.

_Finest rose pomade._--Fat rose oil 2⅖ lbs., spermaceti 7 ozs.,
white wax 3½ ozs., rose-geranium oil 1½ ozs., rose oil and bergamot
oil, each ½ drachm. Color red with alkannin.

_Salicylic pomade._--Fresh lard 7 lbs., white wax 1 lb., fat jasmine
oil 1⅖ lbs. Peru balsam 5¼ ozs., salicylic acid 2 ozs., dissolved in
alcohol 4 ozs.

_Victoria pomade._--Melt together 3⅕ lbs. of fat almond oil and 10½
ozs. of white wax, and perfume the mixture, when quite cooled off, with
fat jasmine oil ½ lb., rose oil and geranium oil each 1 drachm. Color
rose color with alkannin.

_Tonka pomade._--Lard 7½ lbs., spermaceti ½ lb., cumarin 4½ drachms,
dissolved in a small portion of the warm fat.

_Fine vanilla pomade._--Benzoated lard 6 lbs., beef-tallow 2 lbs.,
vanilla 2¾ drachms, dissolved in a small portion of the warm fat.

_Vanilla pomade._--Lard and vaseline each 2 lbs., wax 3½ ozs., Peruvian
balsam 1⅛ ozs., bitter-almond oil ½ drachm, cinnamon oil 20 drops.

_Violet pomade._--Lard 4 lbs., vaseline 2 lbs., wax 5½ ozs., spermaceti
1¾ ozs., fat orris-root oil 2 lbs., bergamot oil 3¾ drachms,
clove oil 2¼ drachms, cinnamon oil ¾ drachm, rose oil ½ drachm.

_Walnut pomade._--Work in a mortar to a uniform paste ½ lb. of fresh
green walnut-shells and 2 ozs. of alum. Digest the paste with 2⅖
lbs. of benzoinized lard and tallow in the water-bath until the fat
appears clear. Then strain off the fat, stir until cold, and perfume
with 1½ drachms of neroli oil and ½ drachm of rose oil.


VASELINE POMADES.--Vaseline pomades consisting neither of an animal
nor of a vegetable fat, but almost entirely of a mineral fat, form
a special division of pomades. On account of its good properties
and cheapness, vaseline, which is obtained from petroleum residues,
etc., has for several years past been much used in the preparation
of pomades. The pomades prepared from vaseline are not only very
suitable for oiling the hair, as they never become rancid, but may also
advantageously be used as a remedy for chapped skin, inflammation,
cuts, burns, etc. For pomades odorless vaseline has to be used, 1 lb.
of it requiring about 5½ to 8½ drachms of perfume. Lederin, which has
been previously mentioned, is best suited for coloring the pomades.
When used for pomades vaseline, though by itself sufficient for the
purpose, frequently receives an addition of paraffin, wax (mostly
ceresin), and lard. To vaseline pomades intended for export to warm
climates, an addition of ¼ to ⅛ ceresin is required.

The following mixtures give good foundations for vaseline pomade:--

      I. Yellow or white vaseline 2 parts, paraffin 1.
     II. Vaseline 5 parts, paraffin or ceresin 1.
    III. Vaseline 3 parts, ceresin 1.
     IV. Vaseline and lard each 10 parts, ceresin 1.

The pomades are prepared by first melting the paraffin or ceresin
and then slowly stirring in the vaseline. When the fat commences to
thicken, the perfume is added and the pomade poured into jars or tin
boxes.

A few good receipts for vaseline pomades are here given.

_Bouquet vaseline pomade._--White vaseline and fresh lard each 2 lbs.,
ceresin 3½ ozs., bergamot oil 1¼ ozs., lavender oil 6¾ drachms,
cinnamon oil 5½ drachms, neroli oil 3¾ drachms, geranium oil 2¾
drachms.

_Family vaseline pomade._--Pale yellow vaseline 10 lbs., oils of
bergamot and lemons each 1 oz., citronella oil 12¾ drachms, cassia
oil 8¼ drachms, lavender oil 4½ drachms, clove oil 3¾ drachms; _or_,
bergamot oil 2 ozs., palma-rose oil 1¾ ozs., lavender oil 5½ drachms.

_Lily of the valley vaseline pomade._--White vaseline and fresh lard
each 2 lbs., ceresin 3½ ozs., bergamot oil 1 oz., ylang-ylang oil 2¾
drachms, licari oil ½ drachm.

_Neroli vaseline pomade._--Vaseline 10 lbs., ceresin 2 lbs., geranium
oil 1 oz., nerolin 3¾ drachms, dissolved in a small portion of the
warm fat.

_Mignonette vaseline pomade._--White vaseline 2 lbs., paraffin 1 lb.,
bergamot oil 9 drachms, neroli oil 5½ drachms, artificial bitter almond
oil 15 drops.

_Portugal vaseline pomade._--Pale yellow vaseline 10 lbs., ceresin
3½ ozs., Portugal oil 2¾ ozs., cassia oil 1 oz., lavender oil 5½
drachms.

_Rose vaseline pomade_, No. 1.--Vaseline 6 lbs., ceresin 3½ ozs.,
rose-geranium oil 1¼ ozs., nerolin ¾ drachm. Colored with lederin.

_Rose vaseline pomade_, No. 2.--Vaseline and lard each 2 lbs., ceresin
7 ozs., geranium oil 1½ ozs., bergamot oil 5½ drachms, musk tincture
½ drachm. Color red with alkannin.

_Fine vaseline pomade_ (_yellow_).--Yellow vaseline and castor oil each
2 lbs., yellow wax 7 ozs., lemon oil 1 oz., bergamot oil 6¾ drachms,
nerolin ½ drachm.

_Vaseline pomade_ (_red_).--White vaseline 4 lbs., paraffin or ceresin
14 ozs., palma-rose oil, citronella oil and lavender oil each 11¼
drachms. Color red with lederin or alkannin.

_Vaseline pomade_ (_white_).--White vaseline 4 lbs., paraffin 14 ozs.,
bergamot oil 1¼ ozs., cassia oil 2¾ drachms, thyme oil 1½ drachms.

_Virginia vaseline pomade._--Digest for some time in the water-bath
2 lbs. of white vaseline, 2½ ozs. each of yellow wax and pulverized
benzoin, and 11 drachms of Peru balsam. Then filter and perfume with
bergamot oil 14 drachms, citronella oil 1½ drachms.

This pomade serves not only for preserving the scalp, but is also a
good remedy for tetter, cutaneous eruptions, etc.

_Victoria vaseline pomade._--White vaseline 5 lbs., paraffin 1 lb.,
bergamot oil 1½ ozs., rose-geranium oil 1 oz., lavender 8¼ drachms.
Color red with alkannin or lederin.

_Extra fine vaseline pomade._--White vaseline 4 lbs., ceresin 10½ ozs.,
bergamot oil 1⅛ ozs., lemon oil 9 drachms, palmarosa oil 2¼ drachms.

_Stick pomades._--Besides the soft, unctuous pomades thus far treated
of, we have a solid product--the so-called stick-pomades. These
pomades, which serve for the better fastening of the hair, are brought
into commerce either as _wax pomades_ or _resin pomades_, the former
being prepared from a mixture of lard, tallow, and wax, and the latter
from tallow, wax, and resin, to which some Venetian turpentine may be
added.

The following mixtures give good foundations for stick pomades:--

       I. French flower pomade 4 parts, white wax 1½.
      II. Fresh beef tallow 3 parts, fresh lard 1, wax 1½.
     III. Best beef tallow 5 parts, yellow wax 1.
      IV. Tallow 10 parts, wax 2½, resin 1, Venetian turpentine ¼.
       V. Tallow 8½ parts, resin ¾, ceresin ¾.
      VI. Tallow 4 parts, pale resin 1, yellow wax ¼.
     VII. Tallow 10 parts, wax 2, pale resin 1.
    VIII. Olive oil 2 parts, pure stearin 1, yellow wax 1.
      IX. Tallow 9½ parts, ceresin ½.
       X. Best beef-tallow 10 parts, yellow wax 1½.

The usual process of manufacturing stick-pomade is as follows: Melt
the fat, wax and resin in the water-bath, then strain the mixture and
cool it off by constant stirring until a thin film is formed upon
the surface. Then perfume and pour into tin moulds of oval, round
or square form and of various sizes. A dozen of such tin moulds of
the same size are generally soldered together and are provided below
either with a hinged piece, or they are open. In the latter case they
are placed upon a tin support with a high edge which serves for the
reception for the fat escaping from any of the moulds. The cold pomades
are pushed out by means of sticks of wood fitting exactly into the
moulds. They are then wrapped in tinfoil, labelled and brought into
commerce.

Stick-pomades are either white, rose color, yellow, brown or black;
alkannin, lederin, umber, Frankfort black, etc., being used as coloring
substances.

In the following some receipts for wax and resin pomades are given:--

_Rose-wax pomade._--Best tallow 6 lbs., best lard 2 lbs., white-wax 3
lbs., colored with alkannin. _Perfume_: Lemon oil 1 oz., lavender oil
14 drachms, geranium oil 11 drachms, clove oil 6¾ drachms; _or_,
bergamot oil 1 oz., oils of geranium, cassia and Portugal, each 10
drachms, clove oil 3¼ drachms.

_Black-wax pomade._--Best tallow 10 lbs., yellow wax 1½ lbs., colored
with Frankfort black. _Perfume_: Bergamot oil 3½ ozs., cassia oil 13½
drachms; _or_, bergamot oil 3½ ozs., citronella oil 6¾ drachms.

_Blonde wax pomade._--Best tallow 6 lbs., best lard 2 lbs., white or
yellow wax 3 lbs. _Perfume_: Clove oil 1¼ ozs., lemon oil, bergamot oil
and Peru balsam each 14 drachms; _or_, bergamot oil 2¾ ozs., cassia
oil 5½ drachms, thyme oil 2¾ drachms.

_Brown wax pomade._--Best tallow 10 lbs., yellow wax 2 lbs., colored
with umber. _Perfume_: Citronella oil 2 ozs., clove oil 12¼ drachms,
bergamot oil 8¼ drachms, anise-seed oil 6¾ drachms; _or_, bergamot
oil 2½ ozs., cassia oil 1¼ ozs., clove oil 5½ drachms.

_Cheap-wax pomade_ (_color as desired_).--Best tallow 9½ lbs., ceresin
½ lb. Perfume: Lavender oil 1¾ ozs., cassia oil 1 oz., palma-rose
oil 11 drachms; _or_, bergamot oil 1½ ozs., palmarosa oil 1 oz.,
lavender oil ½ oz.

_Resin pomade No. 1._--Best tallow 10 lbs., yellow wax 2 lbs., pale
resin 1 lb. _Perfume_: Bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., cassia oil 14 drachms,
lavender oil 11 drachms, clove oil 8¼ drachms, thyme oil 5½ drachms.

_Resin pomade No. 2._--Best tallow 10 lbs., yellow wax 2½ lbs., pale
resin 1 lb., Venetian turpentine 4 ozs. _Perfume_: Cassia oil 2¾
ozs., lavender oil 1 oz., lemon-grass oil 11 drachms, clove oil and
thyme oil each 5½ drachms.

_Cheap resin pomade._--Best tallow 8½ lbs., pale resin and pale ceresin
each 13 ozs. _Perfume_: Bergamot oil 3½ ozs., cassia oil 9½ drachms,
thyme oil 5 drachms; _or_, Portugal oil 2¾ ozs., cassia oil 1 oz.,
lavender oil 5½ drachms.


HAIR OILS.--Like pomades, hair oils are perfumed either with volatile
oils or by treatment with larger quantities of fresh flowers. The oils
obtained in the latter manner are known as _Huiles antiques_, and are
the finest and most expensive. Vaseline oil, which is cheap and does
not become rancid, is also at present much used as hair oil. To make
the fat oils used as hair oils more durable and to protect them from
becoming rancid, they are also treated with benzoin. For this purpose
digest for three hours, with frequent stirring, in the water-bath 100
lbs. of the oil with 1 lb. of pulverized benzoin. With the exception
of alkannin for red-colored oil and chlorophyl for herb oils, no
coloring substances are used for hair oils. About 5½ to 8¼ drachms of
perfume are required for 1 lb. of oil.

The _Huiles antiques_ are obtained as follows:--

_Huile antique à la rose._--Extract in the cold 1 lb. of fresh rose
leaves with 1 lb. of best olive oil, and with the oil pressed off,
extract, six times in succession, equal quantities of fresh leaves,
leaving the rose-leaves each time in contact with the oil for 10 to 12
hours. The oil, when sufficiently perfumed, is filtered.

_Huile antique au jasmin._--Extract in the manner above given 1 lb. of
fresh jasmin flowers with 1 lb. of olive oil.

In the same manner the perfume of the different flowers can be
withdrawn and utilized.

A number of receipts for the most popular hair oils are here given.

_Alpine herb oil._--Color slightly with chlorophyl 10 lbs. of best
quality of olive oil and perfume with peppermint oil 2 ozs., lavender
oil 1 oz., caraway oil 6½ drachms.

_Flower hair oil._--Color slightly with alkannin 10 lbs. of benzoated
olive oil of best quality, and perfume with geranium oil 2¼ ozs.,
bergamot oil and lavender oil each 9 drachms, petit-grain oil 4½
drachms, and angelica oil 5 drops.

_Peruvian bark hair oil._--Extract for some time 1 lb. of pulverized
Peruvian bark with 10 lbs. of strongly heated benzoinized olive oil.
Then color the oil red with alkannin, and when cold, perfume with
bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., lemon oil 14 drachms, rose-geranium oil 2¼
drachms, neroli oil ½ drachm, and cinnamon oil 5 drops; _or_, with
bergamot oil 2¼ ozs., lemon oil 1⅛ oz., geranium oil 3¼ drachms.

_Peru hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., Peru balsam 3½ ozs.,
cassia oil 11 drachms.

_Burdock root hair oil No. 1._--Digest at a moderate heat 8 lbs. of
olive oil or sesame oil with 2 lbs. of fresh burdock roots; then pour
off the oil from the roots, add 7 ozs. of castor oil, color with
alkannin, and perfume with bergamot oil 2 ozs. and palma-rose oil 1 oz.

_Burdock root hair oil No. 2._--Color 10 lbs. of benzoated olive oil
pale green with chlorophyl, and perfume with bergamot oil 2 ozs.,
geranium oil 1¼ ozs., and lavender oil 11 drachms.

_Macassar hair oil No. 1._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., geranium oil
and lemon oil each 1¼ ozs., cassia oil 14 drachms. Color red with
alkannin.

_Macassar oil No. 2._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., colored with
alkannin, and perfumed with bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., lemon oil 1¼ ozs.,
cinnamon oil 1 drachm, musk essence 1 drachm.

_Neroli hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., nerolin 5½ drachms
dissolved in a small quantity of warm oil, rose oil 10 drops.

_Mignonette hair oil No. 1._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., cassia oil
1¼ ozs., geranium oil and tolu-balsam tincture each 11 drachms, nerolin
1 drachm, dissolved in a small quantity of warm oil.

_Mignonette hair oil No. 2._--Benzoated olive oil 4 lbs., fat
mignonette oil 3 lbs., tolu-balsam tincture 3½ ozs.

_Fine hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., lemon oil 1¼ ozs.,
bergamot oil 15¾ drachms, lavender oil 3¾ drachms, neroli oil
2¾ drachms, rosemary oil 1½ drachms, petit-grain oil 1 drachm.

_Cheap hair oil_ (_red or yellow_).--Sesame oil or purified colza oil
10 lbs., bergamot oil 2¼ ozs., citronella oil 1⅛ ozs., mirbane oil
10 drachms; _or,_ Portugal oil 2¾ ozs., cassia oil 1 oz., lavender
oil 5½ drachms.

_Portugal hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., Portugal oil 2 ozs.,
bergamot oil 1½ ozs., caraway oil 3¼ drachms.

_Jasmine hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., fat jasmine oil 1½
lbs., bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., clove oil 11 drachms, rose-geranium oil
4½ drachms, nerolin 1 drachm, dissolved in a small quantity of warm
oil, thyme oil ½ drachm.

_Vaseline hair oil No. 1._--White vaseline oil 8 lbs., white olive oil
2 lbs., colored red with alkannin, bergamot oil 1¼ ozs., lavender oil
and lemon oil each 11 drachms, neroli oil 5½ drachms.

_Vaseline hair oil No. 2._--Yellow vaseline oil 8 lbs., olive oil 2
lbs., cassia oil 1½ ozs., lemon-grass oil 1 oz., clove oil ½ oz.

_Vanilla hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., vanillin, dissolved
in a small quantity of warm oil, and Peru balsam, each 5½ drachms,
bergamot oil 1 drachm, musk tincture 10 drops.

_Ylang-ylang hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 5 lbs., ylang-ylang oil 2
drachms, rose oil 1 drachm, neroli oil 10 drops.

_Philocome hair oil._--Melt together benzoated olive oil and yellow wax
each 2 lbs., and when about half cold, add fat orris-root oil and fat
jasmine oil, each 1½ lbs., rose-geranium oil 1 drachm, and stir until
cold.

_Sultana hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., colored red with
alkannin, bergamot oil 1½ ozs., lavender oil 8 drachms, cinnamon oil 7
drachms, neroli oil 5½ drachms, geranium oil 3¼ drachms, musk tincture
1 drachm.

_Rose hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., colored pale red with
alkannin, geranium oil 2 ozs., bergamot oil 1 oz., cassia oil 14
drachms.

_Tonka hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., cumarin 10 drachms,
dissolved in a small quantity of warm oil.

_Violet hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., fat orris-root oil 3
lbs., bergamot oil 6½ drachms, clove oil 3¼ drachms, cinnamon oil 1
drachm, rose oil ½ drachm.

_Victoria hair oil._--Benzoated olive oil 10 lbs., slightly colored
with alkannin, palma-rose oil, lavender oil, and citronella oil each 1
oz., musk tincture 1½ drachms.

_Cheap hair oil No. 1._--Sunflower oil 500 drachms, bergamot oil 3,
rosemary oil 1, lemon oil 1, neroli and thyme oil each ½.

_Cheap hair oil No. 2._--Sunflower oil 500 drachms, lemon oil 2,
rosemary oil 3, lavender oil 5, geranium oil 1, musk tincture ¼,
thyme oil 1.


BANDOLINES.--Bandolines are mucilaginous liquids, and are prepared
from substances forming mucilage, such as gum-tragacanth, gum-arabic,
Japanese gelatine, quince seeds, flaxseed, etc. Gum-arabic adhering
very firmly, its use, however, cannot be recommended. The substances
above mentioned are heated with water until the mucilaginous matter
is extracted. The latter is then strained through a cloth, and the
mucilaginous, thick, transparent liquid thus obtained perfumed.
Volatile oils dissolving with difficulty in the liquid, an _Extrait_
is generally used for perfuming, or an aromatic water for dissolving
the gums. If the bandoline is to be colored, an ammoniacal carmine
solution is to be used. Aniline colors should not be employed for the
purpose, since they precipitate upon the scalp and hair, even if only
traces of them are present.

Bandolines are not very durable; their keeping properties may, however,
be improved by the addition of benzoic or boric acid.

_Rose bandoline._--Gum-tragacanth 1 lb., rose water 7 lbs.

Bring the pulverized gum-tragacanth into a suitable earthenware or
enamelled vessel, pour the rose water over it, and let it stand in a
right warm place until by the swelling of the gum a thick mucilage is
formed. If the latter is to remain white, it is first strained through
a coarse linen cloth and then through a finer one; if, however, the
bandoline is to be rose color, triturate in a mortar 1 to 1½ drachms of
best carmine with as little ammonia as possible, and distribute this
coloring matter in the mucilage. For the reception of the bandoline
jars with a sufficiently wide mouth for the index finger to reach to
the bottom are best.

_Almond bandoline._--Allow 5 lbs. of rose water and 1¼ ozs. of quince
seed to stand, with frequent shaking, for 24 hours. Then strain and
perfume with 2 drachms of bitter almond oil.


BRILLIANTINE.--Brilliantine is very popular for giving lustre to the
hair of the head and the beard, and in fact, if correctly prepared, it
has many advantages, since, owing to its composition, it considerably
decreases, even if it does not entirely prevent, the formation of the
annoying dandruff.

_Flower brilliantine No. 1._--Chemically pure glycerin 1½ ozs.,
alcoholic extract No. 2 from French-flower pomade No. 24 10½ ozs.,
French _huile antique_ as much as required.

Vigorously shake the glycerin and alcoholic pomade extract in a glass
flask until a uniform fluid is formed, which should be clear as water.
To give it, however, an oily appearance, carefully mix with it a little
sanders-wood tincture and turmeric tincture. Fill the brilliantine
glasses half full with the above mixture and fill up the glasses with
French _huile antique_ of the same flower-perfume as the respective
alcoholic flower-pomade extract, but do not shake, this being done only
when used.

Owing to the content of glycerin, which, as well known, is
non-volatile, the consumption of this brilliantine is very economical,
while it is made very agreeable by the fine French flower perfumes.

If it is desired to prepare the brilliantine at less cost, pure alcohol
may be substituted for the pomade extract and any perfumed hair oil for
the French _huile antique_.

_Brilliantine No. 2._--For brilliantine of quality II, the glasses are
first filled half full with perfumed hair oil and then filled up with
non-perfumed alcohol slightly colored with sanders-wood tincture or
turmeric tincture. Glycerin is not used, and, hence, in this case the
oil will be on the bottom and the alcohol, being lighter, on top.

This brilliantine, containing no glycerin, is not so economical as the
preceding. It evaporates quite rapidly and sometimes makes the hair
hard, especially that of persons having naturally dry hair. However,
this second quality is also quite popular and the perfumer must satisfy
the demands of his customers as much as possible.

_Brilliantine No. 3._--Castor oil 10 lbs., pure alcohol 5 lbs.,
Portugal oil 7 ozs., clove oil 1¾ ozs., petit-grain oil 1 oz.,
cassia oil 1 oz., citronella oil 11 drachms.

Mix the alcohol and castor oil in a glass-flask, then add the volatile
oils and shake vigorously. If the castor oil is pure and genuine, it
forms an intimate mixture with the alcohol; if, on the other hand,
traces of oil appear on the surface of the fluid, the castor oil is
adulterated with other fat oils and unsuitable for this purpose.
The castor oil should also be as fresh as possible and, under no
conditions, rancid.

If this brilliantine is desired of a somewhat yellowish color, the
object may be attained by the addition of sanders-wood tincture or
turmeric tincture.

That this brilliantine is of an inferior quality is shown by its
composition. It has the further disadvantage that it plasters the
hair, especially when the castor oil becomes old. However, there are
consumers with whom this quality is quite popular.

The following formulas for brilliantine are taken from various
sources:--

I. Veal fat 4 ozs., spermaceti 2 ozs., castor oil 12 ozs., oil of
bitter almonds 1 drop, oil of cloves 10 drops, oil of bergamot 20
drops. Melt together the first three ingredients, and add the perfumes
when nearly cold.

II. Almond oil 2½ lbs., spermaceti ½ lb., oil of lemon 3 ozs. Melt
the spermaceti at a low temperature; add the oil and heat until all
flakes disappear. Let the jars into which it is to be poured be warm,
and then cool as slowly as possible to insure good crystals.

The following, although somewhat peculiar, is offered as a good
brilliantine:--

III. Honey 1 fluid oz., glycerin and Cologne water each ½ fluid oz.,
alcohol 2 fluid ozs. Mix.


HAIR TONICS.--Hair tonics serve for cleansing and invigorating
the scalp and for preventing the hair from falling out. Glycerin
having a beneficial effect upon the scalp is much used as one of the
constituents. The tonics also frequently contain ingredients said
to promote the growth of the hair, such as Peruvian bark extract,
quinine, tincture of cantharides, and substances containing tannin.
Hair tonics containing tincture of cantharides should, however, not be
too frequently used, as otherwise an excessive stimulation of the scalp
might be the result, which would be more injurious than beneficial to
the growth of the hair.

Some receipts for hair tonics are here given.

_Eau Athénienne._--Alcohol of best quality 8 quarts, vanilla tincture
1¼ lb., cumarin tincture 7 ozs., bergamot oil 3½ ozs., rose-geranium
oil 11 drachms, clove oil 14 drachms.

After 8 days, add 1 quart of rose water and mix thoroughly.

_Florida water No. 1._--Alcohol 50 quarts, best lavender oil 3 lbs.,
bergamot oil 1 lb., African rose-geranium oil ½ lb., tinctures of
sanders-wood and turmeric each 11 drachms, distilled water 16 quarts.

The alcohol, volatile oils, and tinctures are intimately mixed in
a glass balloon, then allowed to stand two to three weeks when
the distilled water is added and the whole vigorously agitated.
After adding the water the fluid becomes very turbid and requires
several weeks to clarify. It is then filtered through paper. If,
notwithstanding filtering, it should remain somewhat turbid, bring a
small quantity of carbonate of magnesia upon the filter.

_Florida water No. 2._--Alcohol 25 quarts, lavender oil 7 ozs.,
palmarosa oil 8 ozs., Portugal oil and red thyme oil each 3½ ozs.,
tinctures of sanders-wood and turmeric each 5½ drachms, rain-water 10
quarts.

Proceed in the same manner as given for Florida water No. 1.

_Eau de Cologne hair tonic._--Alcohol 8 quarts, oils of bergamot and
lemons each 1¼ ozs., lavender oil 11 drachms, rosemary oil 5½ drachms,
glycerin of 28° B. 3½ ozs. After 8 days add 7 ozs. of bicarbonate of
soda dissolved in 2½ quarts of distilled water.

_Eau de quinine._--Alcohol of best quality 20 quarts, tinctures of
gall-nuts and Peruvian bark each 2 quarts, vanilla tincture 1 quart,
bergamot oil 7 ozs., African rose-geranium oil 3½ ozs., clove oil 14
drachms, glycerin of 28° B. 3 lbs., Panama wood 4 lbs., boiled with
filtered rain-water 12 quarts, bicarbonate of soda 1 lb. dissolved in 1
quart of water.

The alcohol, tinctures, and volatile oils are brought into a glass
balloon and after vigorous agitation allowed to stand 8 days for
the volatile oils to dissolve. The decoction of Panama wood is then
added, next the bicarbonate of soda solution, and finally the whole
is thoroughly agitated. The Panama-wood decoction should not be added
while hot, as otherwise the glass balloon might burst. Color the water
with cochineal tincture or henna tincture.

_Eau de quinine_ (_imitation_).--Alcohol 25 quarts, vanilla tincture
No. 2, 2 quarts, Portugal oil 1 lb., palmarosa oil 8 ozs., clove
oil 3½ ozs., glycerin of 28° B. 3 lbs., Panama wood 3 lbs., boiled
in rain-water 20 quarts, bicarbonate of soda 1 lb., dissolved in
rain-water 1 quart. Proceed in the manner given for genuine _Eau de
quinine_. Color with henna tincture.

_Honey water._--Alcohol of best quality 8 quarts, orris-root tincture 1
quart, angelica tincture 1 lb., tonka-bean extract 1¾ ozs., turmeric
tincture, as coloring matter, 5½ drachms, Portugal oil 7¾ ozs.,
lemon oil 1¾ ozs., citronella oil 5½ drachms. After 8 days add 1
liter of orange-flower water.

_Glycerin hair tonic._--Glycerin of 28° B. 1 quart, borax 1 oz., rose
water 2 quarts, alcohol 4 ozs., oils of petit-grain and cloves each 2
drachms, rosemary oil 4 drachms.

Dissolve the borax in the water, the perfume in the alcohol, and mix
all together. It should be clear. Color yellow, if desired, with
saffron tincture.

_Eau lustral_ (_hair restorative_).--Castor oil 2 quarts, linseed oil
and tincture of cantharides each 4 ozs., alcohol 13 quarts, bergamot
oil 2 ozs., lemon oil 1 oz., clove oil ½ oz., neroli oil 2 drachms.

Mix the two fat oils and dissolve them in the alcohol by agitation.
Then add the tincture of cantharides and the perfumes, and color red
with cochineal tincture or henna tincture.

_Tea hair tonic._--Bay rum 2 ozs., glycerin 2 ozs., alcohol 2 ozs.,
infusion of black tea 10 ozs. Mix and perfume to suit. The tea
infusion should be made very strong, say 1 oz. of best tea (best
quality) to 10 ozs. of boiling water, let stand till cool, strain, and
add the other ingredients.

_Locock's lotion for the hair._--Expressed oil of nutmeg 5 fluid ozs.,
olive oil and stronger water of ammonia each 20 fluid ozs., spirit
of rosemary 40 fluid ozs., rose water sufficient to make 20 pints.
The above should be mixed with skill, best by gradually pouring the
combined oils, with constant stirring, into the stronger water of
ammonia, previously diluted with the spirit, and afterwards slowly
incorporating the rose water.

_Shampoo lotion._--New England rum 1 pint, bay rum 12 ozs., glycerin 2
ozs., carbonate of ammonium 1 oz., borax 2 ozs.

_Shampoo liquid._--The readiest agent to produce a good lather upon the
hair of the head is a solution of potassa or soda or a dilute water of
ammonia. The latter, however, owing to its penetrating odor, is not
usually liked.

The following combinations will be found serviceable:--

I. Solution of potassa 4 fluid ozs., borax 1 oz., bay rum ½ fluid
oz., tincture of quillaga ½ fluid oz., water enough to make 16 fluid
ozs. This may be scented according to taste.

II. Fresh eggs 3, spirit of soap 1½ fluid ozs., carbonate of potassium
160 grains, water of ammonia 160 drops, oil-sugar of cumarin 8 grains,
oils of rose and bergamot each 2 drops, French geranium oil 1 drop,
almond oil 1 drop, rose water 27 fluid ozs. Thoroughly beat the 3 eggs,
and then dilute with the rose water. Then add the other ingredients.

Oil-sugar of cumarin is prepared by triturating 1 part of cumarin with
999 parts of sugar of milk.

_Dandruff cures._--I. Ointment of nitrate of mercury 1 drachm,
petrolatum 7 drachms. Mix. Cut the hair short and keep well brushed,
and apply the ointment every night for a fortnight.

II. Red oxide of mercury 10 grains, ammoniated mercury 10 grains,
petrolatum 1 oz. Mix, and apply every night.

III. Corrosive sublimate 30 grains, glycerin 5 fluid ozs., Cologne
water 5 fluid ozs., water sufficient to make 15 fluid ozs. Mix to make
lotion No. 1.

Beta naphthol 120 grains, alcohol 20 fluid ozs. Mix to make lotion No.
2.

Salicylic acid 120 grains, compound tincture of benzoin 20 fluid
drachms, olive oil 10 fluid ozs. Mix to make lotion No. 3.

Wash the head thoroughly with terebene soap, rinse well, and dry
thoroughly; then rub in some of solution No. 1 and allow to dry, then
use No. 2 in a like manner, and finally apply No. 3. The treatment
should be carried out daily for a month, and then every alternate day
for a fortnight. The dandruff disappears in a few days, and the hair in
a short time becomes vigorous and supple.

_Dandruff lotion._--Chloral hydrate 1 drachm, glycerin 4 drachms, bay
rum 8 ozs.

_Bay rum._--Genuine bay rum, as brought into commerce from St. Thomas,
is said to be prepared by twice distilling a fine quality of rum
with the leaves and berries of _Myrcia acris_ or the bayberry tree.
The berries are much richer in volatile oil than the leaves, but on
account of the height of the trees, the gathering of the berries is
connected with so many difficulties and the harvest so scanty, that the
manufacturers prefer to mix leaves and berries in a certain proportion.

The following directions for preparing bay rum are given in Schimmel &
Co.'s reports:--

I. Alcohol of 95 per cent. 4 lbs., water 4 lbs., bay oil 5½ drachms,
pimento oil 2¼ drachms, clove oil 10 drops. Mix, let stand for several
days and filter.

II. Alcohol of 95 per cent. 4 lbs., bay oil 15 drachms.

Mix, let stand for 2 weeks, and then add 8 lbs. of best Jamaica rum.
This bay rum is said to be equal to the imported.

Another receipt for bay rum is as follows:--

III. Alcohol of 95 per cent. 1 quart, rectified spirit of 60 per cent.
14 quarts, bay oil 1 oz., loaf sugar 4 ozs.

Beat up the sugar with the oil and add the alcohol; then the spirit,
and finally filter.

Mierzinski gives the following formulæ for bay rum:--

IV. Alcohol 8 ozs., oil of bay 40 drops, oil of mace 1 grain, oil of
orange 20 drops, Jamaica rum 1 oz., water enough to make 16 ozs. Digest
2 or 3 weeks, and filter through magnesia.

V. Alcohol 8 ozs., oil of bay 2 drachms, oil of cloves 1 drop, mace 20
grains, water warmed to 80° F. to make 12 ozs. Dissolve the oils in the
alcohol, digest the mace in the solution for a few days, filter and add
the water. The whole is allowed to stand, with occasional agitation,
for several days, and filtered through magnesia.

VI. Jamaica rum 36 ozs., 95 per cent. alcohol 36 ozs., oil of bay ½
oz., oil of pimento 1 drop, acetic ether 4 drops. Allow to stand at
least 3 weeks before using.


HAIR DYES.--The requirements of a good hair-dye are that it can be
readily applied, that it contains no injurious substances, and that
the coloration be as natural and durable as possible. These demands
are difficult to fulfil, and it cannot be said that there is one
of the ordinary hair dyes which in every respect comes up to them.
Black hair dyes give the most natural coloration, but the peculiar
shade of blue-black hair cannot be imitated. The medium colors, light
brown and blonde, are the least natural. Most dyes allow of rapid
coloration, though, in order to make the deception more complete, a
gradual coloration is by many persons preferred. Such gradual, though
only very slightly darker coloration, is attained by the use of hair
oils and certain animal fats containing a slight content of sulphur or
iron, such as freshly expressed egg oil and neat's-foot oil. It was
formerly believed that egg oil, if used in time, would even prevent the
hair from turning gray. The gradual darkening of the hair may also be
effected by agents, which are converted into colored combinations only
by the atmospheric oxygen or the content of sulphur in the hair, such
as extract from nut shells, tannin, pyrogallic acid and many metals,
the latter chiefly in the form of pomades or hair oil. Dilute acids
used for some time make the hair somewhat lighter. Mothers wishing to
keep the hair of their children blonde, avoid oils, and frequently wash
the heads of the children with vinegar or lemon juice. No coloration
is, however, durable; it becomes in the course of time gradually
weaker, and the new growth of hair always requires after-coloration.

For dyeing the hair metallic salts are chiefly employed. Owing to
their poisonous action the use of _lead salts_ for the purpose is
prohibited in some countries, for instance, in Germany and Austria.
_Silver_ is used in the form of _nitrate of silver_ (lunar caustic).
In the presence of organic substances, as well as under the influence
of light, this combination is reduced, metallic silver in small black
grains being separated. Silver salts also give a black precipitate
of silver sulphide with sulphuretted hydrogen. By simply moistening
the hair with silver solution they become brown to brown-black, the
coloration appearing more rapidly by previously treating the hair with
pyrogallic acid, or, after the application of the silver solution,
with sulphydrate of sodium or potassium. The colorations produced
with nitrate of silver are very durable, but, if not dyed again for
some time, the hair acquires a greenish or reddish color, this being
especially the case if they were not sufficiently freed from fat before
dyeing. For freeing the hair from fat, wash the hair with a mixture of
1 part spirit of sal ammonia in 10 parts of brandy, and dry carefully.

_Copper salts_ with certain substances, such as potassium ferrocyanide
solution, potassium sulphydrate, calcium sulphydrate, and pyrogallic
acid give dark-brown colorations. Of the copper salts, the sulphate in
ammoniacal solution is most frequently employed, though occasionally
also the chloride. These salts give a beautiful brown color to the
hair. Small quantities of copper salt are also frequently added to the
actual black dyes; the hair by this means acquiring a brown-black,
instead of a deep black color.

All the _iron salts_, with the exception of the chloride, may be used
for dyeing the hair. Soluble iron salts by themselves make the hair
somewhat darker, but this slow, natural process is not relied on, and
a second substance forming dark colored combinations with the iron,
such as sulphur, tannin, or pyrogallic acid, is, as a rule, employed.
To this class belongs a _Turkish hair dye_, which, according to X.
Landerer, is prepared as follows: Gall-nuts converted to a fine powder
are mixed with oil and roasted in a pan until no more empyreumatic
vapors and odor are evolved. The black powder thus obtained is
made into a paste with water, and into it is stirred a finely
pulverized mass prepared from ferrous oxide, copper, and antimony,
the result being a deep black mass. This dye is called _Rastikopetra_
(eyebrow-stone). It is one of the Oriental cosmetics used by both men
and women.

_Potassium permanganate solution_ is reduced by organic substances,
peroxide of manganese being formed. A concentrated solution of this
salt imparts to the hair and skin an intense brown color, which,
however, is not very durable, and requires frequent renewing.

_Pyrogallic acid_ may be used for darkening the hair, not only in
combination with metallic substances, but also by itself, or with
alkalies. Hair moistened with pyrogallic acid becomes under the
influence of light and air dark gray to blackish. However, the color is
not handsome, and appears only in the course of weeks. In connection
with alkalies, pyrogallic acid produces a red-brown to black-brown
coloration.

Under the name of _Kohol_, an extremely fine powder, consisting of
black sulphide of antimony, is used in Egypt by all classes for
blackening the edges of the eyelids and the eyebrows.

A hair dye, much used in the Orient, is _henna_, the dried and
pulverized leaves of _Lawsonia inermis_. By the women this powder is
used for coloring the hair and nails red-brown. In the Turkish sweating
baths the attendants scatter the henna upon the hair of the women and
tie it upon the finger nails. The women then frequently remain for
hours in the steam bath, whereby the powdered henna is converted into
an extract-like mass which colors hair and nails red-brown. It is said
that henna even colors the coal-black hair of the Arabs red-brown,
which is considered beautiful. Before treating with henna, the hair
must be freed from fat with soap or fuller's earth.

Hair dyed red with henna acquires a beautiful black color when
subsequently treated with indigo, this mode of dyeing black being much
in vogue in the Orient. The process is as follows: The hair, being
freed from fat with soap, is divided into separate strands and anointed
with quite a stiff paste prepared from pulverized henna and lukewarm
water. The hair, after being smoothed, is allowed to remain for at
least one hour in contact with the paste, and is then rinsed off with
lukewarm water. Being slightly dried, it is then in the same manner
anointed with a paste prepared from indigo and water, and allowed to
remain in contact with it for one hour. The hairs which were colored
orange-red by the henna, now have a greenish-black appearance, but
by the oxidation of the indigo in a short time acquire an intensely
blue-black color, which is extraordinarily durable, the hair only after
several months requiring to be again dyed.

The freshly expressed juice and the fresh parenchyma of _green walnut
shells_, or of unripe walnuts, gradually color light or gray hair dark
to nut-brown. The coloring substance is not thoroughly known, but is
very likely a phloroglucide; it is extracted by fats and alcohol, but,
according to Paschkis, is no longer effective in such solution. This,
however, is not correct in regard to the alcoholic extract, because the
extract from ordinary walnut shells, prepared by mixing the expressed
juice of green walnut shells with 10 parts of alcohol, allowing the
mixture to stand for ten days, and then filtering, also colors brown.

_Peroxide of hydrogen_ bleaches organic substances, dark or red hair
being thereby changed to reddish-yellow or pale blonde. The coloration,
or rather bleaching, does not appear at once, but is complete only
after some time. The peroxide of hydrogen only exists in aqueous
solution, which should be quite concentrated (15 to 20 per cent.).
Owing to the mode of preparation, the solution always contains some
nitric acid and readily decomposes, when exposed to light and air,
whereby it becomes useless.

In the following, a number of formulæ for hair-dyes are given.
According to their constitution, they may be divided into two groups,
viz: A. Dyes which contain the coloring matter in a finished state;
and, B. Dyes which are formed upon the hair by a chemical process. The
dye should first be applied in a dilute state, and the application
repeated in case the desired shade is not produced, since by the use
of the dye in a concentrated form a shade not resembling any natural
color might be obtained, hair which is to be colored black acquiring,
for instance, a metallic blue-black lustre.


A. SINGLE HAIR DYES. _Teinture Orientale (Karsi)._--Ambergris 2¾
drachms, gall-nuts 4 lbs., pulverized iron 1¾ ozs., pulverized
copper 1 drachm, musk 1 drachm. Convert the gall-nuts to a fine powder,
and roast the powder in an iron pan, stirring constantly until it is
dark brown to blackish. Rub the powder together with the metallic
powders, and the perfume substances and keep the mixture in a damp
place. For use moisten some of the powder upon the hand and apply to
the hair, rubbing it in vigorously. In a few days the hair acquires a
deep black, quite natural color. In roasting, the tannin-substances
contained in the gall-nuts are converted into gallic and pyrogallic
acids, which yield with the metals combinations of a deep black color,
and are even readily converted into black-brown bodies (humin bodies).

_Teinture Chinoise (Kohol)._--Gum-arabic 1 oz., Chinese ink 1¾ ozs.,
rose-water 1 quart. Reduce the gum-arabic and Chinese ink to fine
powder, and triturate the powder in small quantities with rose water
until a homogeneous black fluid free from grains is formed. Collect
this fluid in a bottle and mix it with the remaining rose water. Kohol
is only suitable for persons with black hair and is especially used for
dyeing the eyebrows. The coloring matter of this preparation consisting
only of carbon in a very finely divided state, it is perfectly
harmless.

_Potassium permanganate hair dye._--Potassium permanganate 5 ozs.,
distilled water 2 quarts. Crystallized potassium permanganate dissolves
with great ease in water to a deep violet fluid. By bringing the
solution in contact with an organic substance--paper, linen, skin,
horn, hair--it rapidly discolors, imparting to the substances a brown
color, which originates from peroxide of manganese. Free the hair from
fat by washing, and apply the dilute solution with a soft brush. The
color appears immediately, and according to the degree of dilution, all
shades of color from blonde to darkest brown may be produced with this
perfectly harmless agent. It may, of course, also be used for dyeing
the beard.

_Bismuth hair dye._--Subnitrate of bismuth 10 parts, 10 per cent.
solution of potassa and citric acid each a sufficient quantity,
glycerin 150 parts, water sufficient to make 300 parts. Intimately
mix the subnitrate of bismuth and the glycerin by trituration, then
heat the mixture in a water-bath, and gradually add to it solution of
potassa, under constant stirring, until the bismuth salt is dissolved.
Next add a concentrated solution of citric acid until only a slight
alkalinity remains. Finally add enough water to make 300 parts, and
perfume according to preference.

_Walnut hair dye._--Bruise 40 parts of fresh green walnut peel with 5
parts of alum, digest with 200 parts of olive oil until all moisture
has been dissipated, strain and perfume the oil according to preference.

_Pyrogallic hair stain._--Pyrogallic acid ½ oz., water 3 ozs.,
alcohol 1 oz. This liquid gives a dark brown color.

B. DOUBLE HAIR DYES.--These and similar hair dyes consist of two
preparations, kept in bottles I and II. The bottle II, which serves
for the reception of the silver preparation, must be of blue or black
glass, since silver salts are decomposed by light. For use, pour some
of the fluid in bottle I into a cup, and moisten the hair with it by
means of a soft brush. Then pour the fluid in bottle II into another
cup, and apply it with another brush.

_For dyeing brown._ I (in the white bottle).--Liver of sulphur 7 ozs.,
alcohol 1 quart. II (in the dark bottle). Nitrate of silver 4 ozs.,
distilled water 1 quart.

_For dyeing black._ I (in the white bottle).--Liver of sulphur 8 ozs.,
alcohol 1 quart. II (in the dark bottle).--Nitrate of silver 5 ozs.,
distilled water 1 quart.

Liver of sulphur is a leather-brown mass, readily soluble in water.
The solution has to be filtered before it is brought into the bottles.
By bringing the solutions together black sulphide of silver is formed,
which effects the dark coloration of the hair. After using the dye, a
disagreeable odor of stale eggs adheres to the hair, which is, however,
readily removed by washing.

The silver hair dyes may also be made by preparing the fluid in bottle
II as follows: Add drop by drop water of ammonia to the silver nitrate,
kept constantly agitated until the precipitate formed is redissolved.

_Tannin hair dye._ I (in the white bottle).--Pulverized gall-nuts
14 ozs., water 16 ozs., rose water 16 ozs. Boil the gall-nuts in
the water, strain the boiling fluid through a close cloth into the
rose water, and bring the fluid thus obtained, while still hot, into
the bottles, which should be immediately closed. (It is absolutely
necessary to bring the fluid hot into the bottles, as otherwise mould
is readily formed.) II (in the dark bottle).--Nitrate of silver 5 ozs.,
distilled water 1 quart. Add water of ammonia to the silver solution
until the precipitate at first formed is redissolved.

_Melanogène._ I (in the dark bottle).--Nitrate of silver 5½ drachms,
distilled water 2¾ ozs., water of ammonia 1 oz. II (in the white
bottle).--Pyrogallic acid ½ drachm, 40 per cent. spirit of wine 17
ozs.

_Eau d'Afrique._ I (in the dark bottle).--Nitrate of silver 1½ drachms,
distilled water 3½ ozs. II (in the white bottle).--Sodium sulphide 4½
drachms, distilled water 3½ ozs.

_Krinochrom._ I (in the white bottle).--Pyrogallic acid 5½ drachms,
distilled water 6¼ ozs., alcohol 5½ ozs. II (in the dark bottle).
Nitrate of silver 6¾ drachms, water of ammonia 2 ozs., distilled
water 10½ ozs.

_Copper hair dye._ I (in the white bottle).--Potassium ferrocyanide
(yellow prussiate of potash) 7 ozs., distilled water 1 quart. II (in
the dark bottle).--Cupric sulphate (blue vitriol) 7 ozs., distilled
water 1 quart. Add to the cupric sulphate solution water of ammonia
until the pale blue precipitate at first formed is dissolved to a
beautiful dark blue fluid. This hair dye gives a dark brown color, but
great care has to be exercised in its use, the yellow prussiate of
potash being very poisonous.


DEPILATORIES.--While the number of agents for promoting the growth of
the hair is a very small one, and their efficacy not above doubt, there
are, on the other hand, quite a number of very effective agents for
the removal of hair, sulphur combinations being most frequently used
for the purpose. _Rhusma_ is a depilatory which has long been known,
and is still almost exclusively used in the Orient. It consists of 1
part orpiment and 6 parts of lime slaked to a powder. Mix intimately
by passing the ingredients through a sieve, and preserve the mixture
in tightly-closed vessels. For use, stir some of the powder to a paste
with water, and apply it to the place upon which the hairs are to be
destroyed. As soon as the layer of paste begins to dry remove it with a
thin shaving of wood. Owing to the energetic action of this depilatory
upon the skin, ladies are advised not to use it for the face.

Combinations of sulphur with the alkalies and alkaline earths are
much used as depilatories. Of these, _sodium sulphydrate_, however,
should never be used, without the advice of a physician, as it acts
very energetically upon the skin, and frequently leaves scars behind.
_Calcium sulphide_ is contained in Boettger's depilatory. It is usually
prepared by heating at a low red heat in a securely-closed crucible
an intimate mixture of 100 parts of finely-powdered quicklime with 90
parts of precipitated sulphur. Of the calcium sulphide thus obtained,
mix 1 lb. with 8 ozs. of starch and 7 drachms of lemon oil. Apply the
paste to the place upon which the hairs are to be destroyed, allowing
it to remain 20 to 30 seconds. The action of _barium sulphide_, which
is frequently used as a depilatory, is much less energetic than that
of calcium sulphide. It is, for instance, a constituent of Bartholow's
depilatory, which consists of barium sulphide 1 part, caustic lime 1
part, and starch 2 parts, made into a paste with alcohol.



CHAPTER XIII.

COSMETICS.


Under this heading will be considered toilet vinegars, washes, perfumed
powders, pastes, skin pomades, as well as paints.

The fabrication of cosmetics is an important branch of perfumery. The
materials used for the purpose should be selected and of good quality
even for cheap articles, which are, of course, also represented in the
following receipts.


SKIN COSMETICS.--_Toilet vinegars._--Perfumed vinegars, when added to
wash water, have a refreshing effect and are also used as fumigating
agents by mixing them with water in a dish and placing the latter in
the room.

_Vinaigre de Bully._--Alcohol of best quality 10 quarts, tinctures
of orris root, tolu balsam, benzoin and storax, each 1 lb., olibanum
tincture ½ lb., vanilla tincture and best lavender oil 5¼ ozs.,
bergamot oil and lemon oil each 4¼ ozs., acetic acid 2 lbs.

_Vinaigre de toilette à la rose._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts,
benzoin tincture 1 lb., angelica tincture 8 ozs., _extrait rose_ No. 1,
1 lb., French rose geranium oil 3½ ozs., acetic acid 14 ozs.

_Vinaigre de toilette à la violette._--Alcohol of best quality 5
quarts, orris-root tincture 2 quarts, tinctures of benzoin and storax
each 7 ozs., bergamot oil 2½ ozs., liquid orris-root oil[24] 11
drachms, acetic acid 1 lb.

 [24] See foot-note, p. 257.

_Vinaigre de toilette héliotrope._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts,
tinctures of orris root and vanilla each 1 quart, musk root tincture 3½
ozs., benzoin tincture 1 lb., bergamot oil 1¾ ozs., verbena oil and
palmarosa oil each 14 drachms, clove oil 8¼ drachms, acetic acid 1 lb.

_Vinaigre de toilette orange._--Alcohol of best quality 5 quarts,
benzoin tincture 10½ ozs., abelmosk tincture and vitivert tincture each
8 ozs., civet tincture 14 drachms, Portugal oil 8 ozs., acetic acid 14
ozs.

_Vinaigre de toilette._--Alcohol of best quality 10 quarts, orris-root
tincture 1⅗ lbs., tinctures of benzoin, tolu balsam and angelica
each 1 lb., French rose-geranium oil 1¾ ozs., bergamot oil 4¼ ozs.,
lemon oil and lavender oil each 3½ ozs., neroli oil 8¼ drachms, best
rosemary oil 11 drachms, peppermint oil 5½ drachms, acetic acid 2 lbs.

_Aromatic vinegar._--Tincture of benzoin 1 oz., alcohol 1⅛ oz.,
acetic ether and extract of jasmine each 1½ ozs., acetic acid 3½ ozs.,
oil of rose 10 drops, oils of neroli and wintergreen each 5 drops.

_English aromatic vinegar._--Crystallized acetic acid 20 ozs., camphor
2 ozs., oil of lavender 10 drops, oil of cloves 30 drops, oil of
cinnamon 15 drops. Mix and dissolve.

The preparation is used for smelling-bottles. The vials are first
filled with sulphate of potassa in small crystals, and enough acetic
acid is added to thoroughly moisten the salt. The use of sulphate of
potassa is said to have originated from the fact, that the acid mixture
was formerly obtained by introducing into the vials acetate of potassa
and a sufficiency of sulphuric acid. Whether this be true or not,
sulphate of potassa constitutes an excellent medium for retaining the
liquid in the bottle. It acts simply as an incorrodible sponge.

_Toilet vinegar._--Essence of bergamot 20 drops, essence of ambergris
4 drachms, essence of vanilla and oil of neroli each 30 drops, strong
acetic acid 160 drops, alcohol 6 ozs.

_Washes._--Washes are mostly milky fluids or emulsions, formed by the
fine division of resins or balsams in water, benzoin and myrrh being
especially employed for the purpose. Of the former, it was at one time
believed that fumigations with it every evening after washing would
prevent wrinkles in the face. The emulsions are used by adding one to
two tablespoonfuls to the wash-water. Perfumed glycerin is also much
employed as an addition to wash-water.

_Virginal milk_ (_Lait virginal_).--Alcohol of finest quality 2½
quarts, bergamot oil and Turkish rose oil each 5½ drachms, benzoin
tincture 1 quart.

Pulverize in a porcelain mortar about 14 drachms of sugar, add the
bergamot oil and rose oil and mix intimately. Now bring the paste-like
substance into a glass bottle, rinse out the mortar with the alcohol
and add the latter to the contents of the bottle. Close the latter with
a well-fitting stopper and place it in a warm room for 8 days, shaking
frequently. Then add the benzoin tincture, mix intimately and finally
filter through paper. This fluid is used by adding sufficient of it
to the wash-water to form an emulsion, which exerts a refreshing and
invigorating effect upon the skin and olfactory nerves.

_Rose milk_ (_Lait de rose_).--Rose water 5 lbs., white beeswax and
comminuted Castile soap each 3½ ozs., potash 4½ ozs., _Extrait rose_
No. 1 8 ozs.

Heat the rose-water in an enamelled or porcelain vessel, and dissolve
in it the Castile soap. Then add the wax, and, when this is dissolved,
the potash, stirring constantly, while the substances are dissolving.
When solution is complete, strain the milk-like fluid through a cloth
(best gauze or muslin) into another vessel, cover it and allow it to
cool. When cold add the _Extrait rose_, shake thoroughly and fill it
into bottles for sale.

If the _Lait de rose_ is to be rose color, add very carefully a small
quantity of corallin tincture and shake vigorously.

Besides wax, fatty or oily substances should not be employed in the
preparation of these emulsions, as otherwise they would soon become
rancid.

_Almond milk_ (_Lait d'amandes amères_).--Distilled water 5 lbs.,
bitter almonds 1 lb., white beeswax 1¾ ozs., comminuted Castile soap
2½ ozs., potash 3½ ozs., bitter-almond oil 8¼ drachms, dissolved in
extract from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ 8 ozs.

Scald and peel the bitter almonds. Then convert them to a paste by
pounding in a clean mortar, bring the paste into the distilled water,
and extract in a water-bath for about ½ hour. Then strain the liquid
through a cloth, successively dissolve the other substances in the
strained fluid in the water-bath, and when all is dissolved, strain
again and proceed as given for rose milk. The bitter-almond oil is
dissolved in the extract from _Pomm. Tubereuse_ and added last of all
to the liquid mass.

_Lily milk_ (_Lait de lys_).--Rose water, orange-flower water, and
jasmine water each 1 quart, white beeswax 3½ ozs., Castile soap 2½
ozs., potash and orris-root tincture each 3½ ozs., cumarin tincture
1¾ ozs., dissolved in musk-root tincture 3½ ozs., bergamot oil 1¾
ozs. Proceed as given for _Lait de Rose_.

In regard to the Castile soap, it may here be remarked that it
should be neutral and contain no excess of oil, as otherwise all the
preparations above given might, in a short time, become rancid.

_Perfumed glycerin with rose odor._--Chemically pure glycerin of 28° B.
10 lbs., _Extrait rose_ No. 1, 8 ozs.

By adding the _Extrait rose_, the glycerin becomes turbid, but
clarifies by shaking thoroughly and allowing the mixture to stand
quietly for several days. Filtering the fluid is not advisable, and
besides entirely useless.

_Perfumed glycerin with fruit odor._--Chemically pure glycerin of 28°
B. 10 lbs., any kind of fruit ether 1¾ ozs. Shake thoroughly. The
glycerin, if chemically pure, is not rendered turbid by the fruit
ether, which, of course, must also be of the best quality.


PERFUMED MEALS AND PASTES.--The perfumed meals are frequently used
for washing in place of soap, or they are applied after washing, or
shaving, to the skin to prevent the latter from becoming rough or
chapped. The pastes are applied in order to make the skin softer.

_Farin de noisette_ (_nut meal_).--Best quality wheat flour 3 lbs.,
almond meal 1½ lbs., orris-root powder 1 lb., bergamot oil 2 ozs.

Mix the ingredients intimately and pass the mixture through a fine
sieve.

_Farin d'amandes amères_ (_almond meal_).--Best quality wheat flour and
almond meal each 3 lbs., bitter-almond oil 1 oz.

Mix the ingredients intimately and pass the mixture through a fine
sieve.

_Pate d'amandes au miel_ (_honey almond paste_).--Best quality almond
meal 2 lbs., honey 4 lbs., chemically pure glycerin of 28° B. 2 lbs.,
fresh olive oil 4 lbs., bitter-almond oil 1¾ ozs., the yolks of 20
eggs.

Sift the almond meal into a capacious earthenware dish. Mix the honey
and glycerin after slightly warming them. Beat the yolks of the eggs
in a small dish with a tablespoon until a uniform mass is formed. Now
add alternately of the mixture of honey and glycerin and of the olive
oil to the almond meal, work the whole thoroughly with the pestle,
then add the yolks of the eggs, stirring constantly, and finally the
bitter-almond oil. The whole now forms a viscous mass. It is best to
keep the freshly-prepared paste in a well-closed earthenware pot in a
cool place for about 14 days before distributing it into boxes, because
after the ingredients are mixed together a slight fermentation takes
place which might cause damage by bursting the lids of the porcelain
boxes.

Ladies use this paste for producing a fine soft skin, upon the hands,
face, and neck, for which, in fact, it has proved excellent.

_Poudre de riz à la rose._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19 ozs.,
_Extrait rose_ No. 1, 3½ ozs., French rose-geranium oil 14 drachms,
clove oil 2¾ drachms.

The ingredients are intimately mixed and passed through a sieve. The
perfumes are brought together in a glass and thoroughly shaken. The
same directions hold good for all succeeding receipts for _Poudre de
riz_. Of talc only the whitest pieces should be used, the Briancon talc
or French chalk being very suitable for the purpose, it yielding a very
white and delicate powder. It is prepared as follows: Over 1 part of
talc pour 2 parts of vinegar, let it stand, with frequent shaking, for
14 days, then filter and thoroughly wash the talc with distilled water.

If rose-colored _poudre de riz rose_ is demanded, add to the
proportions of weight above given about 1 oz. of madder, triturate it
thoroughly with the powder, perfume, triturate again, and finally pass
the whole through a fine sieve.

These rice powders are best kept in well-closed tin canisters.

_Poudre de riz héliotrope._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19 ozs.,
bergamot oil 10 drachms, French rose-geranium oil 5 drachms, clove oil
2½ drachms, vanilla tincture 10 drachms, _Extrait héliotrope_ No. 1,
1¾ ozs.

Proceed as directed for _Poudre de riz à la rose_.

_Poudre de riz à la violette._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19
ozs., bergamot oil 10 drachms, liquid orris-root oil 2½ drachms,
_Extrait Violette_ No. 1, 1 oz., cumarin tincture 5 drachms.

Proceed as directed for _Poudre riz à la rose_.

_Poudre de riz orange._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19 ozs.,
Portugal oil 1 oz., petit-grain oil 5 drachms, extract from _Pommade
Orange_ 1 oz.

Proceed as directed for _Poudre riz à la rose_.

_Poudre de riz muguet._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19 ozs.,
ylang-ylang oil, wintergreen oil, angelica oil, and bitter-almond
oil each 2 drops, bergamot oil 5 drops, storax tincture 14 drachms,
_Extrait Muguet_ No. 1, 3½ ozs.

Proceed as directed for _Poudre de riz à la rose_.

_Poudre de riz ixora._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19 oz.,
bergamot oil 2½ drachms, Ceylon cinnamon oil 1 drachm, tinctures of
orris root and vanilla each 1¾ ozs., extract from _Pomm. Cassie_ or
_Extrait ixora_ 1¾ ozs.

Proceed as directed for _Poudre de riz à la rose_.

_Poudre de riz bouquet._--Rice flour 4 lbs., prepared talc 19 ozs.,
bergamot oil 8 drachms, African rose oil and Ceylon cinnamon oil each
2¾ drachms, _Extrait ess-bouquet_ No. 1, 3½ ozs.

Proceed as directed for _Poudre de riz à la rose_.


COLD CREAMS AND LIP-SALVES.--The purpose of cold creams and lip-salves
is to impart lustre to the skin and protect it from cracking in changes
of temperature.

_Cold cream._--Fat-almond oil 3 lbs., spermaceti 5¼ ozs., white beeswax
7 ozs., best rose water 1 quart, bergamot oil 14 drachms, Turkish rose
oil 5½ drachms.

Melt in a porcelain dish in the water-bath, first the spermaceti
and wax, then add the almond oil, and when the whole forms a liquid
allow the previously warmed rose water to flow in slowly, stirring
constantly. Now take the dish from the water-bath, and with a large
spoon of silver or horn stir the mass until it begins to thicken. Then
stir in the perfume and fill the finished cold cream in boxes.

_Vaseline cold cream._--White vaseline 2 lbs., fat-almond oil 1 lb.,
white beeswax 1¾ ozs., bergamot oil 14 drachms, French rose-geranium
oil and Turkish rose oil each 2½ drachms.

Proceed (without the rose water) as directed for cold cream.

_Glycerin cream._--Fat-almond oil 3 lbs., white beeswax and spermaceti
each 7 ozs., chemically pure glycerin of 28° B. 1 lb., bergamot oil
1 oz., clove oil, Turkish rose oil, and French geranium oil each 2½
drachms. Proceed as above.

_Crême de concombre._--Fat-almond oil 8 ozs., white beeswax 10 drachms,
spermaceti 12 drachms, freshly-expressed cucumber juice 7 ozs.,
volatile cucumber oil 2½ drachms, bergamot oil 1½ drachms.

Grate the cucumbers on a grater, place the grated mass upon a clean
white cloth, and gently express the juice so that no mucus passes
through the cloth. The cucumber juice is slightly warmed, the rest of
the process being the same as with cold cream.

_Glycerin gelée._--Gum-tragacanth 5½ drachms, swelled up in rose water
10½ ozs., chemically pure glycerin of 28° B. 7 ozs., honey 3½ ozs.,
_Extrait rose_ No. 1, 1¾ ozs.

Convert the gum tragacanth to a coarse powder, bring the powder into
a capacious glass flask, pour the rose water upon it, and, after
corking the flask, let it stand for about 3 days, shaking it frequently
and vigorously. Then strain the swelled gum tragacanth, which now
represents a thick fluid, through a white cloth or fine-meshed sieve
into a dish, and after adding the glycerin, honey, and _Extrait rose_,
mix the whole intimately, and fill the tubes or glasses with the
finished preparation. It is an approved remedy for chapped skin.

_Glycerin jelly._--Glycerin 1 lb., fat-almond oil 3 lbs., soap 2½ ozs.,
orange-peel oil 2¾ drachms, thyme oil 5½ drachms.

Mix the soap with the glycerin, gradually add the oil, and finally the
perfume.

_Cream of roses._--Gum tragacanth 25 grains, glycerin 1 oz., alcohol
½ oz., water 6½ ozs., boric acid 40 grains, spirits of lavender and
bergamot each 1 oz.

_Boroglycerin cream._--Dissolve 1 part of boric acid in 24 parts of
glycerin; add to this solution 5 parts of lanolin and 70 parts of
petrolatum. This preparation is said to be excellent for chapped hands,
lips, etc.

_Récamier cream._--The following formula is said to produce something
quite similar to this preparation: zinc oxide 4 ozs., glycerin 13 fluid
drachms, water 5 fluid drachms, spirit of rose (4 drachms to 1 pint) 1
fluid drachm.

_Preparations for chapped hands._--I. Quince seed 2 ozs., rose water 16
ozs., glycerin 32 ozs., tincture of benzoin 2 ozs. Macerate the quince
seeds in the rose water 24 hours, strain, and add the glycerin and
benzoin.

II. Balsam of Peru 1 drachm, purified wool fat 1 oz. Perfume to suit.

III. Menthol 1.5 parts, salol 2, olive oil 2, lanolin 50. Apply twice
daily. The pain soon ceases, the skin softens and the chaps quickly
disappear.

IV. Quince seed 1½ drachms, boric acid 4 grains, carbolic acid 10
grains, glycerin 2 ozs., alcohol 3 ozs., cologne 2 ozs., oil of
lavender 20 drops, glycerite of starch 2 ozs., water sufficient to make
1 pint. Dissolve the boric acid in 8 ozs. of water, macerate the quince
seed in the solution for three hours and then press through a straining
cloth, add the glycerin, carbolic acid and glycerite of starch and mix
thoroughly. Mix the cologne and oil of lavender with the alcohol, add
the solution to the mucilage and mix the whole well.

_Wash for the hands.-_-Tannin 8 grains, glycerin 5 drachms, rose water
4 ozs. Mix and filter. The hands should be washed with soap in soft
water, or water to which a little borax has been added, thoroughly
dried and then well rubbed with the lotion.

_Nail-powder._--The following preparation serves for the purpose of
imparting smoothness and lustre to the finger nails. For use apply some
of the powder to a piece of soft glove-leather and rub the nails until
they show lustre.

Stannic oxide (putty powder) 2 lbs., carmine 5½ drachms, oils of
bergamot and lavender each 2½ drachms. Rub the stannic oxide as fine as
possible and mix it in the mortar with the other ingredients.

_Lip-salve_ No. 1.--_Pomm. Rose_ No. 24 or 30, 8 ozs., best carmine
nacarat 2½ drachms.

Convert the carmine to a fine powder and thoroughly triturate it with
the _Pomm. Rose_ in a porcelain mortar until no more specks of carmine
are perceptible. By this trituration the salve becomes very soft
and delicate, so that it can be conveniently pressed into the small
boxes. A pleasing lustre is then imparted to the surface of the salve
by carefully moving each box to and fro over the flame of an alcohol
lamp. It may here be remarked that carmine nacarat is the best coloring
matter for lip-salve, it being far more resistant than, for instance,
alkannin, which, in contact with the skin, readily acquires a bluish
coloration.

If lip-salve of a more solid consistency is desired, the object may be
attained by the addition of a few drachms of white beeswax. However,
in this case, the pomade must be melted in a water-bath, or the pomade
and wax melted together. Then add the carmine, stir until cold, fill
into boxes and make the surface lustrous over an alcohol flame.

_Lip-salve_ No. 2.--_Pomm. Rose_ No. 6 or 12, 10½ ozs., _Huile antique
rose_ No. 6 or 12, 14 drachms, white beeswax 5½ drachms, carmine
nacarat 2¾ drachms.

Melt the wax in a porcelain or enamelled vessel, then add, first, the
oil, combine it with the wax, then add the pomade and finally the
carmine. When all this is intimately mixed, stir it until cold. The
further process is the same as given for No. 1.


PAINTS.--The object of paints is to hide blemishes of the skin and to
impart to it a different color--as a rule a youthful one--from that
bestowed by nature, though under certain conditions, especially in the
case of actors, they are also employed for the purpose of changing the
expression of the face. A distinction is made between pulverulent,
solid, liquid and fat paints.


PULVERULENT PAINTS (POWDERS).--The simplest powder is wheat starch.
It forms a dull white powder with a bluish lustre, and is perfectly
harmless. Powdered talc, prepared in the manner previously described
(p. 330), is also much used for powder. By mixing 100 parts of prepared
talc, while still moist, with 12 parts of spermaceti, previously rubbed
to a moist powder with some rectified alcohol, and drying at a moderate
heat, a product known in commerce as "Blanc fard," or "Blanc français,"
is obtained.

Talc by itself not furnishing a beautiful white, it is mixed, according
to circumstances, with _subnitrate of bismuth_ (_flake-white_),
_magnesia_, _chalk_ or _zinc-white_. _White lead_, though frequently
used, cannot be recommended, it being injurious to health. Subnitrate
of bismuth furnishes the best white; it has, however, the disadvantage
of turning brown in air containing sulphuretted hydrogen. Zinc-white
does not have this defect, but lacks the lustre and pure white color.

Customary mixtures for powders are as follows:--

I. Carbonate of magnesia and wheat starch each 5 parts, prepared talc
15, zinc-white 10.

II. Carbonate of magnesia and chalk each 5 parts, prepared talc 15,
subnitrate of bismuth 20.

The powders are prepared in three colors: white, rose-color and
yellowish. To heighten the white color the powder is mixed with about
⅓ of one per cent. of ultra-marine. For rose color some carmine is
used, and for coloring yellowish some carmine and yellow ochre.

A powder for coloring more intensely red is prepared as follows: Mix
100 parts of prepared talc with 2.5 or more parts of carmine, according
to the desired shade of color. The carmine is triturated by itself and
in small portions added to the talc. It should not be dissolved, as
given in many directions, in ammonia, it losing thereby its fiery red.
To obtain an especially delicate powder, the finished article should be
carefully bolted through silk.


SOLID PAINTS.--Solid paints may be prepared from the above-mentioned
powders by stirring them to a paste with thin gum solution.

_Ordinary red paint_ (_rouge_).--Prepared talc 2 lbs., carmine 1 oz.,
gum-tragacanth mucilage prepared from distilled water 3½ ozs. and
gum-tragacanth 2¼ drachms, best olive oil 5½ drachms, best alcohol 1
oz., spirits of sal ammoniac ½ tablespoonful, distilled water as much
as required.

_Fine red paint_ (_rouge_).--Prepared talc 2 lbs., carmine 1½ ozs.,
gum-tragacanth mucilage prepared from distilled water 3½ ozs. and
gum-tragacanth 2¼ drachms, best olive oil 5½ drachms, _Extrait rose_
No. 1, 1 oz., spirits of sal ammoniac ½ tablespoonful, rose water as
much as required.

_White paint._--Prepared talc 2 lbs., gum-tragacanth mucilage prepared
from distilled water 3½ ozs. and gum-tragacanth 2¼ drachms, best olive
oil 5½ drachms, _Extrait rose_ No. 1, 1 oz., rose water as much as
required.

The above-mentioned paints may be filled in small porcelain boxes,
which must, however, be hermetically closed to prevent drying out. To
obviate the latter, the paints may be mixed with glycerin, which must,
however, be carefully done so that the mass does not become liquid; too
much glycerin may also make the paint blue.

Regarding the preparation of these paints, the following may be
said: The prepared talc is passed through a fine-meshed sieve into a
porcelain dish. The carmine is rubbed fine in a porcelain mortar and
then triturated with water[25] in the same mortar until no more specks
of carmine are visible. Now add the dissolved carmine to the talc in
the porcelain dish, stir thoroughly with a horn or wooden spoon, and
gradually add sufficient rose water to form a dough-like mass. Then add
to this mass about 1¾ ozs. of gum-tragacanth mucilage, prepared
3 or 4 days before from 2¼ drachms of pulverized gum-tragacanth and
3½ ozs. of water, work the mass thoroughly through, and add the 5½
drachms of best olive oil. The oil being also incorporated with the
mass, mix in the 1 oz. of _Extrait rose_ or alcohol, and again work the
mass thoroughly through, when the paint is ready to be brought upon
porcelain plates.

 [25] For fine preparations, rose water is used; for ordinary,
 distilled water.

The procedure is now as follows: By means of a spoon bring a quantity
of the paint, about the size of three hazelnuts upon the centre of a
porcelain plate, spread it out uniformly to the edge of the plate by
knocking the latter against the table, and in the same manner cover
6 or 8 plates. These are the test-plates. Tie a piece of paper over
the dish containing the rest of the paint and set it aside. Place the
plates coated with paint in a dry place to dry, but do not expose them
to sunlight, nor should soaps be kept in the room, as in both cases the
paint would become blue. After 12 to 18 hours the paint upon the plates
will be dry, and now comes the most difficult part of the manipulation.
With a small horn-knife or the sharp edge of a playing card scrape off
very carefully and uniformly a small quantity from the surface of the
paint, proceeding from the edges towards the centre of the plate. Then,
to see whether the paint adheres firmly to the plate, knock the edge of
the latter quite vigorously against the table. If it adheres firmly,
cover the entire plate with a piece of watered silk, catch the ends of
the latter beneath the plate with the left hand, and, with the palm of
the right, run quite hard over the silk. By this means the moiré of the
silk is imprinted upon the paint, giving it a nice appearance. Proceed
in the same manner with the six or eight test-plates, and if the paint
upon them bears the manipulation without dropping off, work up the
rest of the paint in the dish. If, however, the paint does not adhere
to the plates, it is proof of it containing not enough gum-tragacanth.
In this case add some of the mucilage to the paint in the dish, work
it thoroughly through, and proceed in the manner described. Packing,
labelling, etc., being subject to fashion, need not here be described,
but as the charm of novelty contributes much to the sale of an article,
the manufacturer should make it his business to invent new attractive
designs, without too much imitating others.

_Red stick-paint_ (_Stick rouge_).--Prepared talc 1 lb., carmine
5½ drachms, olive oil 2¾ drachms, alcohol 8¼ drachms, spirit of
sal ammoniac a good teaspoonful, distilled water and gum-tragacanth
mucilage as much as required.

The mode of preparation is the same as for solid paints, except that in
order to give the rouge more consistency, less water and gum-tragacanth
mucilage are to be used.

For moulding the rouge into sticks, round tin moulds about 2½ inches
long and of the thickness of a finger are used. To facilitate the
removal of the rouge sticks, the inside of the moulds is rubbed with
a rag moistened with olive oil and wrapped around a thin stick of
wood. After removing the sticks from the mould, they are allowed to
dry superficially, and next wrapped first in tissue paper and then in
tinfoil, one end, however, being left free from paper and tinfoil. They
are finally labelled and packed in paste-board boxes.

_White stick paint_ is prepared in the same manner as stick rouge, with
the exception that the carmine is omitted.

_Rouge en feuilles._--Prepared talc 1¾ ozs., carmine 2¾ drachms,
olive oil 10 to 15 drops, spirits of sal ammoniac about 50 drops, pure
alcohol 5¼ ozs., distilled water or rose water 8 ozs., gum-tragacanth
mucilage 1¾ ozs.

The carmine is first rubbed fine, then the olive oil, spirits of sal
ammoniac, and gum-tragacanth mucilage are successively thoroughly
triturated with the carmine, next the talc is added, then the water,
and finally the alcohol. Mix all intimately in a mortar with the
pestle. The whole forms a fluid which, by means of a fine brush, is
applied to a square piece of white card board, so that a circular
disk the size of a silver dollar lies in the centre of the paper. The
application of the rouge to the paper has to be repeated three or
four times, allowing one layer to dry before applying the next. When
the last layer is dry, the rouge is smoothed by laying a piece of
tissue paper upon it and running the broad side of a paper cutter over
the tissue paper. In packing, a piece of tissue is laid between the
separate pieces.


LIQUID PAINTS. Liquid paints are chiefly used by actors.

_Liquid rouge._--Rose water 1½ quarts, carmine 1¾ ozs., _Extrait
rose_ No. 1, 1 lb.

Heat the rose water, without allowing it to boil, in a glazed
earthenware vessel, add the carmine, previously rubbed fine, to the hot
rose water, and stir the fluid with a clean wooden spatula until the
carmine is completely divided. Then take the vessel from the fire and
add a tablespoonful of spirits of sal ammoniac. The latter imparts to
the rouge a brighter red, but not too much of it should be used, as
otherwise the rouge acquires a bluish shade, and besides the odor of
the spirits of sal ammoniac is not exactly agreeable. When the rouge
is cold add 1 lb. of _Extrait de rose_, mix the whole intimately, and
filter through white filtering paper into a clean glass bottle. The
rouge has to be protected from sunlight.

_White liquid paint._--Fine zinc-white 3 lbs., rose water or orange
water 3½ quarts.

In a clean enamelled vessel boil the zinc-white in 5 quarts of
distilled water, stirring constantly, until about 3 quarts of the
water are evaporated. Then take the vessel from the fire and allow the
fluid to stand quietly for ½ hour. Then carefully decant off the
supernatant water, pour the 3½ quarts of rose water or orange water
upon the zinc-white, stir thoroughly, and fill in bottles.

_Fat paints._--Fat paints of various colors and shades are prepared
chiefly for the use of actors. The ground mass consists of _Blanc
fard_ or _Blanc français_, or simply of pulverized talc bolted through
silk. It is colored, according to the color desired, with carmine,
eosin, sienna, lamp black, or aniline colors, and incorporated in the
proportion of 1½ ground mass to 1 fatty mass, with the fatty mass
consisting of white wax 3 parts and olive oil 7 parts; _or_ paraffin
1½ parts and white vaseline 2 parts. The fatty mass is melted in the
water-bath, the powder stirred in, and after allowing the mixture to
cool somewhat, it is perfumed and poured into tin tubes previously
slightly warmed.

Besides the above-mentioned _fat paints in sticks_, there are also _fat
paints in porcelain boxes_, which are of a somewhat softer consistency.
They are prepared in white, rose color, and yellowish. A few receipts
for them are as follows:--

_Crême de Lys._--Melt 3½ ozs. of spermaceti and 7 ozs. of white wax in
the water-bath, and after taking the mass from the fire mix it with
3⅕ lbs. of subnitrate of bismuth, previously rubbed fine, with
1⅘ lbs. of almond oil. Then allow to cool somewhat, next stir until
entirely cold, and perfume.

_Crême de rose._--Spermaceti 3½ ozs., white wax 7 ozs., _Blanc
Français_ 3⅕ lbs., carmine 8¼ drachms, almond oil 1-4/5 lbs.

Proceed as directed for _crême de lys_.



INDEX.


  Abelmosk or musk-seed tincture, 230, 231

  Absorption or enfleurage, process of, 60-65

  Acacia oil, 87

  Acetic amyl acetate or amyl acetate, 201
    ethyl or ethyl acetate, 201-204

  Acid number, 81

  African and French geranium oils, 112, 113

  Alcohol and sulphuric acid test, Hager's, 78
    chloroform, and benzine, quantitative determination of adulterations
    with, 72, 73
    or spirit of wine, detection of, in volatile oil, 68-71

  Alcoholic perfumes, 219-255

  Allspice, oil of, or pimento oil, 136

  Almond bandoline, 305
    meal, 329
    milk, 327
    oil (bitter), 87-93
      adulterations of, 90-92
      artificial, 89, 90
      tincture, 234
    paste, honey, 329

  Alpine herb oil, 301

  Ambergris, 31, 186-188
    adulterations of, 188
    tincture, 229

  Ambrein or ambrin, 187

  America and England, use and preparation of nitrous ether in, 212-214

  American curled mint oil, 132
    English, or Canadian castor, 185, 186
    musk-rat, musk of the, 181, 182
    oil of turpentine, 149
    peppermint oil, 132, 133

  American soap industry, consumption of citronella oil in the, 108
    storax, 172

  Amygdalin, 88

  Amyl acetate or acetic amyl acetate, 201
    valerate or valerianic ether, 214-216

  Anethol, 111

  Angelica oil, 92, 93
    root tincture, 231

  Animal kingdom, perfume-substances from the, 178-188

  Anise-seed oil, 93, 94

  Antiseptic gargle, 275

  Apparatus for alcoholic extracts from flower pomades, 223-225
    for determining the percentage of volatile oil in a vegetable
    substance, 40, 41
    for distilling lemon oil, 118-120
    for the absorption process, 62-64
    for the distillation of volatile oil, 41-46
    for the extraction of volatile oils, 48-57
    for the preparation of tinctures, 226, 227

  Apple essence, 216
    ether, 216
    pomade, 289

  Apricot essence, 216, 217
    ether, 216

  Aqua mellis, 255

  Arabian physicians, receipts for cosmetics in the writings of, 26

  Arnica tooth-tincture, 276

  Aromatic vinegar, 325
    English, 325, 326

  Artificial musk, 182, 183
    perfume-materials, 189-218

  Athens, luxurious use of ointments in, 22

  Atomizers, 263

  Atomizing, pine odor for, 265

  Attar of roses or rose oil, 136-144

  Austrian oil of turpentine, 148

  Avicenna, receipts for cosmetics in the writings of, 26


  Balm oil, 96

  Balm-oil tincture, 234

  Balsam, Brazilian, 166
    Carthagena, 166
    fumigating, 265, 266
    Peru, 159-166
    pine oil, 149, 150
    Tolu, 166-168
      new variety of, 167, 168
    white Indian, 172
      Peru, 172
      Peruvian, 160, 161

  Balsams, 155, 156
    and resins, 155-177

  Balsamum Peruvianum, 159-166

  Bandoline, almond, 305
    rose, 305

  Bandolines, 304, 305

  Barenthin's application of Hübl's iodine method to volatile oils, 80

  Bartholow's depilatory, 323

  Bartlett, W. W., menthol pungent as prepared by, 260
    Preston salt as prepared by, 260

  Basil oil, 96
    tincture, 234

  Bayberry oil, or oil of bay leaves, 96, 97

  Bay leaves, oil of, or bayberry oil, 96, 97

  Bay rum, 312-314
    formulæ for, 313, 314

  Beard, Rogers's pomade for producing a, 294

  Bear's grease, 285
    pomade, 289

  Beauty-patch or mouche, 28

  Beef-marrow pomade, 294

  Benzine, detection of, in volatile oil, 71, 72

  Benzoic ether or ethyl benzoate, 204, 205

  Benzoin, 157-159
    amygdaloid, 157
    determination of cinnamic acid in, 158, 159
    flowers, 159
    in tears, 157
    lump, 157
    pomade, 290
    tincture, 229
    treatment of fat oils with, 300, 301
    varieties of, 158

  Bergamot oil, 97, 98
    tincture, 234

  Betula lenta, oil from, 152

  Beyer frères, apparatus for alcoholic extracts from flower
    pomades, 223-225
    for the preparation of tinctures, 226, 227

  Birch oil, 152

  Bismuth hair dye, 320
    nitrate of, 335, 336

  Bisulphide of carbon, 48

  Black hair dyes, 321
    tooth-powder, 280
    wax pomade, 299

  Blanc fard or blanc français, 335

  Blondel, Dr., memoir on the star anise tree, by, 95

  Blonde wax pomade, 299

  Boettger's depilatory, 323

  Boroglycerin cream, 333

  Bouchardat and Lafont, conversion of oil of turpentine into lemon
    oil by, 189, 190

  Bouquet vaseline pomade, 296

  Bouquets, 219, 240-245

  Brazilian balsam, 166

  Brilliantine, 305-308
    formulas for, 307, 308

  Brown hair dye, 321
    wax pomade, 299, 300

  Bulgaria, rose oil industry in, 137, 138

  Burdock-root hair oil, 302

  Butyric acid, preparation of, 205-207
    ether, formation of, 207, 208
      or ethyl butyrate, 205-210

  Cajeput oil, 98, 99

  Camomile oil, 99, 100

  Camphor tooth-powder, 280

  Canadian, English, or American castor, 185, 186

  Canango oil, 154
    tincture, 234

  Caraway oil, 100, 101

  Carbon, bisulphide of, 48

  Carbonic acid, apparatus for developing a current of, 50-52

  Carob or St. John's bread, 209

  Carthagena balsam, 166

  Carvene, 100

  Carvol, 35, 100

  Cassia oil, 103, 104
    tincture, 235
    value of, 104

  Cassie, oil of, 87

  Castor, 31
    adulterations of, 186

  Castoreum or castor, 185, 186

  Castor oil, determination of, in volatile oil, 67, 68
    pomade, 293
    or castoreum, 185, 186
    tincture, 229

  Cedar oil, 101
    tincture, 235

  Ceylon cinnamon oil, 102, 103

  Chalk, 336

  Chamomile oil, 99, 100

  Chapped hands, preparations for, 333, 334

  Chassis, 61

  Cherry essence, 217
    ether, 216
    laurel oil, 101, 102
    tooth-paste, 278
      non-fermenting, 278

  Chloroform, alcohol, and benzine, quantitative determination of
    adulterations with, 72, 73
    detection of, in volatile oil, 71

  Cineol, 123

  Cinnamaldehyde, 103
    quantitative determination of, 104-106

  Cinnamic acid, determination of, in benzoin, 158, 159

  Cinnamon leaves, oil of, and cinnamon-root oil, 104
    oil tincture, 235
    oils, 102-106

  Cinnamon root oil and oil of cinnamon leaves, 104

  Citrene, 35, 121

  Citronella oil, 107, 108
    tincture, 235

  Citronellol, 107

  Citron oil, 106, 107

  Civet, 31, 184, 185
    tincture, 228

  Clove-oil tincture, 235

  Cloves, oil of, 108-110

  Cold cream, 331
    creams and lip-salves, 331-335

  Cologne water, 249-254
    durability of volatile oils used for, 250, 251
    preparation of, 249, 250
    receipts for, 252-254

  Coloring substances for dentifrices and mouth-waters, 272
    for pomades, 286

  Compound odors, 240-245

  Copper hair dye, 322
    nitroprusside of, test, 75-78
    salts for dyeing the hair, 315, 316

  Cortex thymiamatis, 168

  Cosmetics, 324-342
    and perfumeries in the Middle Ages, 26, 27
    and perfumes in Italy, 26, 27
    receipts for, in the writings of Arabian physicians, 26

  Cream, boroglycerin, 333
    cold, 331
    glycerin, 332
    of roses, 333
    Récamier, 333
    vaseline cold, 331

  Crême de concombre, 332
    de lys, 342
    de rose, 342

  Cumarin, 190-193
    manufacture of, 192, 193
    tincture, 232

  Curled mint oil, 132

  Currant essence, 217

  Cymene, 121


  Dandruff cures, 312
    lotion, 312

  Densdorf pomade, 290

  Dentifrice, singular, used by the Roman ladies, 26

  Dentifrices and mouth-waters, coloring substances for, 272
    mouth-waters, etc., 272-283

  Depilatories, 322, 323
    use of in ancient Rome, 25, 26

  Dioscorides's directions for making animal fats suitable for the
    reception of perfumes, 24
    for preparing rose ointment, 23, 24
    "Medica materia," 23

  Distillation of expressed oil, 39
    of lemon oil, 118
    of rose oil, 137, 138
    of volatile oils, 39-48
      ancient mode of, 24

  Distilling apparatus for lemon oil, 118-120

  Double hair dyes, 321, 322

  Dragendorff's test, 68, 69

  Dry perfumes, 256-261

  Dutch tonka bean, 191, 192

  Dwarf pine oil, 149


  East Indian geranium oil, 112

  Eau Athénienne, 308

  Eau d'Afrique, 322
    de Botot (improved), 275
    de Cologne, 249-254
      durability of volatile oils for, 250, 251
      hair tonic, 309
      preparation of, 249, 250
      receipts for, 252-254
      solid perfume, 260
    de lavande, 255
      double, 255
    de Lisbonne, 255
    de quinine, 309, 310
      (imitation), 310
    de vie de lavande double ambrée, 255
    dentifrice Botot, 274
      Orientale, 274, 275
    lustral (hair restorative), 310

  Écuelle process for obtaining lemon oil, 117, 118

  Egg oil, virtues of, 314

  Egypt, ancient, paints used in, 18, 19

  Egyptians, use of perfume-substances by the, for embalming the dead, 18

  Elæoptene, 33

  Emperor pomade, 292

  Enfleurage or absorption, process of, 60-65

  England and America, use and preparation of nitrous ether in, 212-214
    use of perfumery in, 30

  English aromatic vinegar, 325, 326
    Canadian, or American castor, 185, 186
    peppermint oil, 132, 133
    tonka bean, 192

  Esprit de menthe, 276

  Ess-bouquet sachet powder, 259
    solid perfume, 260

  Essence à l'écuelle, or au zeste, 117
    apple, 216
    apricot, 216, 217
    cherry, 217
    currant, 217
    de jasmin, 114
    de lavande Montblanc, 115
    de mirbane, 199
    grape, 217
    lemon, 217
    melon, 217
    of Portugal, 125
    of the odor of Linden blossoms, 238
    orange, 217
    peach, 217
    pear, 217
    pine-apple, 217
    plum, 217
    raspberry, 218
    strawberry, 218

  Essences and vinegars, fumigating, 264-266
    pastilles, powders, etc., for fumigating, 262-271

  Essential or volatile oils, occurrence of, in plants, 31

  Ester or ether number, 82

  Ether, apple, 216
    apricot, 216
    cherry, 216
    or ester number, 82
    pear, 216
    pine-apple, 216
    strawberry, 216

  Ethers, fruit, 200-218

  Ethyl acetate, or acetic ethyl, 201-204
    benzoate, or benzoic ether, 204, 205
    butyrate, or butyric ether, 205-210
    formate, or formic ethyl ether, 210, 211
    nitrite, or nitrous ether, 211-214

  Eucalyptene, 111

  Eucalyptol, 111

  Eucalyptus oil, 110, 111
    tincture, 235

  Eugenol, 103, 109

  Expression of volatile oils, 36-39

  Extract, concentrated flower, 245
    patchouli, 233
    spinach, 239

  Extraction of volatile oils, 48-58
    or maceration of flowers, 286, 287

  Extracts, alcoholic, from flower pomades, apparatus for, 223-225
    and tinctures, 225-237

  Extrait acacia, 237
    bouquet Eugenie, 241
      Prince Albert, 243
      Victoria, 242, 248
    cassie, 237
    chypre, 243, 244, 247
    de violette de Parme, 239, 240
    edelweiss, 240
    ess-bouquet, 240, 241, 247
    excelsior, 241
    fleurs de Mai, 238
    Frangipani, 241, 249
    héliotrope, 237
    ixora, 239, 248, 249
    jacinthe, 237, 238
    jasmin, 238
    jockey club, 241, 242
    jonquille, 238
    kiss-me-quick, 243
    lily of the valley, 238
    magnolia, 238
    maréchal, 244
    May flowers, 238
    millefleurs, 242
    mogadore, 243
    mousseline, 244
    muguet, 238, 248
    musk, 243
    new-mown hay, 243, 247

  Extract opopanax, 242
    orange, 239
    patchouli, 242
    réséda, 240, 246
    rose, 246
      v. d. centifolie, 239
    spring-flower, 241, 248
    tubereuse, 240
    violette, 239, 246
    white rose, 239
    ylang-ylang, 240, 246, 247

  Extraits aux fleurs, 219, 237-240
    d'odeurs, 219
    triple concentrés, 244, 245


  Face, painting the, practised by the Hebrew women, 19

  Family pomade, 290, 291
    vaseline pomade, 296

  Farine d'amandes amères, 329
    de noisette, 328

  Fat mixtures for hair pomades, 288, 289
    paints, 341, 342

  Fats, animal, preparation of, for the reception of perfumes, 24
    for pomades and hair oils, 284
    protection of, against rancidity, 285
    purification of, 285, 286

  Federer's, C. F., test for peppermint oil, 135

  Fennel oil, 111, 112

  Filter, illustrated and described, 38, 39

  Filtration of expressed oils, 37-39

  Flake-white, 336

  Florentine flasks, 46, 47

  Florida water, 308, 309

  Flower brilliantine, 306, 307
    extract, concentrated, 245
    fumigating essence, héliotrope, 264
    hair oil, 301
    pomades, 286, 287
      extraction of, 221-225

  Flowers for the production of volatile oils, localities best suited
    for the cultivation of, 32, 33
    maceration or extraction of, 286, 287

  Formic ethyl ether, or ethyl formate, 210, 211

  France, cultivation of the bitter orange in, 126
    extravagant use of rouge in, 28, 29
    golden age for toilet articles in, 27-29
    introduction of the arts of the toilet into, 27
    old process of maceration in, 59

  Frangipani sachet powder, 258

  Frankincense, in ancient times, 19-21
    or olibanum, 176, 177

  French and African geranium oils, 112, 113
    oil of turpentine, 148
    patchouli oil, 131
    perfumers, ancient, privileges of, 29, 30
    pomades (flower pomades),
      fine, 286, 287

  Fruit ethers, 200-218

  Fuchsine, detection of alcohol by, 69

  Fumigating agents, dry, objections to, 263, 264
    balsam, 265, 266
    essences and vinegars, 264-266
      pastilles, powders, etc., 262-271
    lacquer, 270, 271
    mode of, 262, 263
    object of, 262
    paper, 268
    pastilles, 268-270
      ordinary black, 269
        red, 269
    powder, ordinary, 266, 267
      violet, 267
    powders, 266-268
    prejudice against, 262
    vinegar, 266
    water, 266

  Funnel, separatory, 47


  Geraniol, 112

  Geranium oil, East Indian, 112

  Geranium oil, palmarosa oil, Turkish geranium oil, 112
      tincture, 235
    oils, French and African, 112, 113

  German curled-mint oil, 132

  German oil of turpentine, 148
    peppermint oil, 132, 133

  Germany, manufacture of rose oil in, from indigenous roses, 136

  Glycerin cream, 332
    for dentifrices, 273, 274
    gelée, 332
    hair tonic, 310
    jelly, 332, 333
    perfumed with fruit odor, 328
      with rose odor, 328

  Grape essence, 217

  Greeks, practice of anointing the body by the, 21

  Green camomile oil, 99

  Guaiacum reaction, Hager's, 78-80

  Gummi myrrha, 172-176
    resina myrrha, 172-176

  Gum-resins, 155, 156

  Guy de Chanlios, receipts for cosmetics in the works of, 26


  Hager's alcohol and sulphuric acid test, 78

  Hager's guaiacum reaction, 78-80
    tannin test, 69-71

  Hair, copper salts for dyeing the, 315, 316
    dye, bismuth, 320
      black, 321
      brown, 321
      copper, 322
      potassium permanganate, 320
      requirements of a good, 314
      tannin, 321, 322
      Turkish, 316
      walnut, 320
    dyes, 314-322
      double, 321, 322
      silver, 321
      single, 319, 320
      use of, in ancient Rome, 25
    green walnut shells for dyeing the, 318
    henna for dyeing the, 317, 318
    iron salts for dyeing the, 316
    lead salts for dyeing the, 315
    nitrate of silver for dyeing the, 315
    oil, alpine herb, 301
      burdock root, 302

  Hair oil, cheap, 303, 304
      fine, 302, 303
      flower, 301
      jasmine, 303
      macassar, 302
      mignonette, 302
      neroli, 302
      Peru, 302
      Peruvian bark, 301, 302
      philocome, 303
      Portugal, 303
      rose, 304
      sultana, 304
      tonka, 304
      vanilla, 303
      vaseline, 303
      Victoria, 304
      violet, 304
      ylang-ylang, 303
    oils, 300-304
      and pomades, fats for, 284
    peroxide of hydrogen for bleaching the, 318
    pomade, fine, 291
      for promoting the growth of the, 291
    pomades, 285-300
      according to the German method, 288-295
      coloring substances for, 286
      fine French, 286, 287
      foundations for, 288, 289
      hair oils, and hair tonics, hair dyes and depilatories, 284-323
    potassium permanganate for dyeing the, 316
    pyrogallic acid for dyeing the, 316
    stain, pyrogallic, 320
    tonics, 308-314

  Hands, chapped, preparations for, 333, 334
    wash for the, 334

  Hebrews, ancient, perfume-substances known to the, 19

  Heliotrope pomade, 291, 292
    sachet powder, 257

  Heliotropin or piperonal, 193-195
    tincture, 232

  Henna-flower, use of the, for perfuming, 19

  Henna for dyeing the hair, 317, 318

  Herb pomade, 292

  Herodotus on the mode of gaining olibanum, 19, 20

  Heyl's distilling apparatus, 57, 58
    extracting apparatus, 54-57

  Historical notice of perfumery, 17-30

  Hitchin and Mitchan lavender oil, 115

  Honey almond paste, 329
    water, 310

  Hoppe's nitroprusside of copper test, 75-78

  Horse fat, 284, 285

  Hübl's iodine method, 80, 81

  Hufeland's, Dr., tooth-powder, 280
    tooth-soap, 282, 283

  Huile antique à la rose, 301
    au jasmin, 301

  Huiles antiques, 301

  Hydrogen, peroxide of, for bleaching the hair, 318


  Ice pomade, 290

  Indian balsam, white, 172

  Infusion or maceration, process of, 58-60

  Iodine method, Hübl's, 80, 81
    test with, 74, 75

  Iron salts for dyeing the hair, 316

  Italy, perfumes and cosmetics in, 26, 27


  Japanese peppermint oil, 132, 133

  Jasmin, essence de, 114

  Jasmine hair oil, 303
    oil or oil of jessamine, 113, 114
    pomade, 292

  Jessamine, oil of, or jasmine oil, 113, 114

  Jockey club sachet, 257

  Juniper-berry tincture, 233

  Juniper odor, 265
    oil, 114


  Kabardin musk, 179, 180

  Kahol, 317

  Karsi, 319

  Kienoel, 149

  Kohol, 319

  Kopher, 19

  Kremel's saponification test, 81, 82

  Krinochrom, 322

  Krummholz oil, 149

  Kypros, 19


  Lacquer, fumigating, 270, 271

  Lait, d'amandes amères, 327

  Lait de lys, 328
    de rose, 326, 327
    virginal, 326

  Lanolin pomade, 292, 293

  Latschenoel, 149

  Lavande Montblanc, essence de, 115

  Lavender odor solid perfume, 260
    oil, 115, 116
      adulterations of, 116
      tincture, 235

  Lead salts for dyeing the hair, 315
    white, 336

  Leather, perfumed, 30

  Lebonah, 19-21

  Lederin, 286

  Lemon essence, 217
    grass-oil tincture, 235
    oil, 116-121
      conversion of oil of turpentine into, 189, 190
      tincture, 235

  Licari oil, linaloë oil, 122
    tincture, 235

  Lilac oil, 121

  Lily milk, 328
    of the valley sachet powder, 258
      vaseline pomade, 296

  Limes, oil of, 121, 122

  Linaloë oil, licari oil, 122

  Lip-salve, 334, 335

  Lip-salves and cold creams, 331-335

  Liquid ambar, 172
    paints, 340-342
    rouge, 340, 341
    storax, 168-171

  Locock's lotion for the hair, 311

  Lotion, dandruff, 312
    Locock's, for the hair, 311
    shampoo, 311

  Lubah, 19-21

  Lunar caustic for dyeing the hair, 315


  Macassar hair oil, 302
    pomade, 292

  Mace oil, 124

  Maceration or extraction of flowers, 286, 287
    or infusion, process of, 58-60

  Magnesia, 336

  Mandarin oil, 125, 126

  Marinello's work on "Cosmetics for Ladies," 27

  Marjoram oils, 122, 123

  Maumené's test, 82, 83

  Meal, almond, 329
    nut, 328

  Meals and pastes, perfumed, 328-331

  Melanogène, 322

  Melon essence, 217

  Menthol, 133
    pungent, 260

  Messina, yield of lemon oil in, 120

  Methyl salicylate, 151
    artificial production of, 152, 153

  Mierzinski's formulæ for bay rum, 313, 314

  Mignonette hair oil, 302
    oil, 123
    pomade, 293
    vaseline pomade, 296

  Milk, almond, 327
    lily, 328
    rose, 326, 327
    virginal, 326

  Millefleurs fumigating pastilles, 270

  Mint, curled, oil of, 132

  Mirbane, oil of, 199

  Mitchan and Hitchin lavender oil, 115

  Monfalcone's, D., distilling apparatus for lemon oil, 118-120

  Moschus ex vesicis, 180

  Moses, the holy oil prescribed by, 21

  Mouche or beauty patch, 28

  Mouth- and tooth-waters, 274-277
    waters and dentifrices, coloring substances for, 272
    dentifrices, etc., 272-283

  Musk, 31, 178-184
    adulterations of, 183, 184
    artificial, 182, 183
    fumigating pastilles, 269, 270

  Musk-rat, American, musk of the, 181, 182
    root or sumbul-root tincture, 231
    sachet powder, 259
    sac, how to open a, 180
    sacs, illustrated and described, 178, 179
    seed or abelmosk tincture, 230, 231
    substitutes for, 181, 182
    tincture, 228

  Myristicin, 124

  Myron, 21

  Myrrh, 172-176
    adulterations of, 175, 176
    oil, 123, 124
      tincture, 235
    tincture, 230
    tooth-tincture, 276

  Myrrha electa, 173
    in sortis, 173
    vulgaris, 173

  Myrrhin, 174

  Myrrhol, 174

  Myrtol, 123, 124


  Nail-powder, 334

  Neroli hair oil, 302

  Neroli oil, adulterations of, 127, 128
    or orange-flower oil, 126-129
      tincture, 235
    petale, 127
    pomade, 293
    vaseline pomade, 296

  New-mown hay fumigating powder, 267, 268
    sachet powder, 259

  Nitrate of bismuth, 335, 336
    of silver for dyeing the hair, 315

  Nitrobenzol, 198-200
    adulterations of, 199

  Nitroprusside of copper test, 75-78

  Nitrous ether, or ethyl nitrite, 211-214

  Nut meal, 328

  Nutmeg oils, 124, 125


  Odontine, 275
    or tooth-paste, 277, 278
    paste, 278

  Odor and taste, testing the, of volatile oils, 66, 67

  Odors, compound, 240-245

  Oil, castor, determination of, in volatile oil, 67, 68
    fat, adulteration with, of volatile oil, 67, 68
    the holy, prescribed by Moses, 21
    volatile, apparatus for determining the percentage of, in a
      vegetable substance, 40, 41
      for the distillation of, 41-46
    Planchon's procedure for the recognition of a, 83-86
    separation of the, and water, 46, 47
    testing the odor of, 66
      the taste of, 67

  Oils, fat, treatment of, with benzoin, 300, 301
    oxygenated, behavior of, towards nitroprusside of copper, 76-78
    perfuming of, 61, 62
    volatile, 33-65
      ancient mode of distilling, 24
      apparatus for the extraction of, 48-57
      characteristics of, 33, 34
      concentrated, 35
      detection of adulterations of, with an oil of lower quality, 74-83
      distillation of, 39-48
      division of, with reference to the guaiacum reaction, 79, 80
      expression of, 36-39
      extraction of, 48-58
      extra strong, 35
      for Cologne water, durability of, 250, 251
      localities best suited for the cultivation of flowers for the
       production of, 32, 33
      modes of obtaining, 36-65
      or essential, occurrence of, in plants, 31
      patented, 35
      principal divisions of, 34
      solubility of, 33
      storage of, 65
      testing of, 66-86
      the, used in perfumery, 87-154

  Ointment makers, ancient, condition of, 24, 25
    rose, according to Dioscorides, 23, 24

  Ointments, directions for preparing, in ancient works, 23, 24
    foreign, edict against, in Rome, 22
    for the different parts of the body used by the Athenians, 22

  Oleum abietes, 149
      canadensis, 149, 150
    amygdalæ amaræ, 87-93
    anisi, 93, 94
    anthemidis, 99, 100
    anthos, 144, 145
    cajeputi, 98, 99
    carui, 100, 101
    caryophylli, 108-110
    cassiæ, 103, 104
    cedri, 101
    cinnamoni ceylonici, 102, 103
    citri, 106, 107
    eucalypti, 110, 111
      australe, 110
    florum aurantii, 126-129
    fœniculi, 111, 112
    gaultheriæ, 151-153
    geranii, 112, 113
    iridis, 129, 130
    iva ranchusa, 150, 151
    juniperi, 114
    laurocerasi, 101, 102
    lavandulæ, 115, 116
    ligni rhodii, 145
      sandali, 145
      sassafras, 145-147
    limettæ, 121, 122
    limonis, 116-121
    macidis, 124
    menthæ crispæ, 132
      piperitæ, 132-135
      pulegii, 135, 136
    myrthæ, 123, 134
    naphæ, 126-129
    neroli, 126-129
    nucistæ æthereum, 124
    petit grain, 129
    pimenta, 136
    pini, 149
      pumilionis, 149
    résédæ, 123
    rosemarini, 144, 145
    templinum, 149
    unonæ, 153, 154

  Olibanum in ancient times, 19-21
    or frankincense, 176, 177
    tincture, 230

  Opiat liquide pour les dents, 280, 281

  Opopanax, 176
    oil, 125
      tincture, 235
    tincture, 230

  Orange, bitter, localities for the cultivation of the, 126
    essence, 217
    flower oil, or neroli oil, 126-129
      water, 128
    fumigating powder, 267
    peel oil, 125
    sachet powder, 259

  Oriental flower fumigating essence, 265
    pomade, 293

  Orris-root oil, 129, 130
      liquid, 257
      tincture, 235
    tincture, 231

  Orris stearoptene, 129


  Paint, fine red, 337
    ordinary red, 336, 337
    red stick, 339
    white, 337
      liquid, 341
      stick, 340

  Paints, 335-342
    fat, 341, 342
    liquid, 340-342
    preparation of, 337-339
    pulverulent, 335, 336
    solid, 336-340
    use of, by the Roman ladies, 25

  Palermo, yield of lemon oil in, 120

  Palmarosa oil, geranium oil, Turkish geranium oil, 112

  Paper, fumigating, 268

  Paraffine, solid perfumes with, 259, 260

  Paraguay, manufacture of petit-grain oil in, 129

  Paris, annual sale of perfumery in, 29, 30

  Paste, honey almond, 329

  Pastes and meals, perfumed, 328-331
    and powders for the teeth, 277-283

  Pastilles, fumigating, 268-270
    powders, essences, etc., for fumigating, 262-271

  Patchouli-camphor, 131

  Patchouli extract, 233
    leaves, 130, 131
    oil, 130-132
      tincture, 235
    sachet powder, 258

  Pate d'amandes au miel, 329

  Peach essence, 217
    kernels, use of, in the fabrication of bitter-almond oil, 88

  Pear essence, 217
    ether, 216

  Penang patchouli oil, 131

  Peppermint oil, adulterants of, 134, 135
    oils, 132-136
      American, English, and German, mode of distinguishing, 133, 134

  Pepper, perfume-substance from, 194

  Perfumed meals and pastes, 328-331

  Perfume-materials, artificial, 189-218
      for the manufacture of perfumery, 31-65
    substances, consumption of, by the ancient Romans, 24
      consumption of, by the early nations of the Orient, 17
      from the animal kingdom, 178-188

  Perfumeries and cosmetics in the Middle Ages, 26, 27

  Perfumer, the actual flower garden of the, 32
    what the art of the, consists in, 219

  Perfumers, French, ancient privileges of, 29, 30

  Perfumery, annual sale of, in Paris, 29, 30
    historical notice of, 17-30
    perfume-substances for themanufacture of, 31-65
    the volatile oils used in, 87-154
    use of, in England, 30

  Perfumes, alcoholic, 219-255
    and cosmetics in Italy, 26, 27
    dry, 256-261
    preparation of animal fats for the reception of, 24
    solid, with paraffine, 259, 260

  Peroxide of hydrogen for bleaching the hair, 318

  Peru balsam, 159-166
      adulterants of, 162
      oil, 161
      statistics of, 162
      tests for, 162-166
      tincture, 229
      white, 172
    hair oil, 302

  Peruvian balsam, white, 160, 161
    bark hair oil, 301, 302

  Petit-grain oil, 129
    tincture, 236

  Petroleum-ether, 48
    as testing agent for Peru balsam, 163

  Philocome hair oil, 303

  Pimento oil, or oil of allspice, 136

  Pineapple essence, 217
    ether, 216

  Pine-leaf oil, 149
    tincture, 236

  Pine odor for atomizing, 265
    oil, 149

  Piperate, potassium, 194

  Piperine, 194

  Piperonal, how obtained, 194, 195
    or heliotropin, 193-195

  Piver's apparatus for maceration, 59, 60
    for the absorption process, 63, 64

  Planchon's procedure for the recognition of a volatile oil, 83-86

  Plants, families of, richest in volatile oils, 32
    occurrence of volatile oils in, 31

  Pliny's account of olibanum, 20, 21
    "Historia naturalis," 23

  Plum essence, 217

  Plutarch on the extravagant use of ointments in Rome, 22, 23

  Paraffin ice pomade, 293

  Poley oil, 135, 136

  Pomade, apple, 289
    bear's grease, 289
    beef-marrow, 294
    benzoin, 290
    black wax, 299
    blonde wax, 299
    bouquet vaseline, 296
    brown wax, 299, 300
    castor oil, 293
    cheap, 293
      wax, 290
    Densdorf, 290
    emperor, 202
    extra fine vaseline, 298
    family, 290, 291
      vaseline, 296
    fine, 291, 294
      vaseline (yellow), 297
    for promoting the growth of the hair, 291
    héliotrope, 291, 292
    herb, 292
    ice, 290
    jasmine, 292
    lanolin, 292, 293
    lily of the valley vaseline, 296
    macassar, 292
    mignonette, 293
      vaseline, 296
    neroli, 293
      vaseline, 296
    oriental, 293
    paraffin ice, 293
    Portugal, 292
      vaseline, 296
    princess, 293, 294
    quinine, 289, 290
      (imitation), 290
    resin, 300
    Rogers's, for producing a beard, 294
    rose, 294
      wax, 299
    salicylic, 294
    stick, manufacture of, 298, 299
    strawberry, 291
    tonka, 294, 295
    vanilla, 295
    vaseline (red), 297
      (white), 297
      foundations for, 296
    Victoria, 294
      vaseline, 297, 298
    violet, 295
    Virginia vaseline, 297
    walnut, 295

  Pomades, 285-300
    according to the German method, 288-295
    and hair oils, fats for, 284
    coloring substances for, 286
    designation of the qualities of, 219, 220
    foundations for, 288, 289
    resin, 298
    stick, 298-300
      foundations for, 298
    vaseline, 295-298
    wax, 298

  Pommade à l'acacia, 287
    à la fleur d'orange, 287
    à la rose, 287
    à l'héliotrope, 287

  Portugal hair oil, 303
    oil, 125
      tincture, 236
    pomade, 292
    vaseline pomade, 296

  Potassium permanganate for dyeing the hair, 316
      hair dye, 320
    piperate, 194

  Poudre d'Algérine, 281, 282
    de corail, 280
    de riz à la rose, 329, 330
    de riz à la violette, 330
    de riz bouquet, 331
    de riz héliotrope, 330
    de riz ixora, 331
    de riz muguet, 330, 331
    de riz orange, 330
    dentifrice, 279

  Powder for coloring intensely red, 336
    new-mown hay fumigating, 267, 268
    orange fumigating, 267
    ordinary fumigating, 266, 267
    rose fumigating, 267

  Powders, 335, 336
    and pastes for the teeth, 277-283
    fumigating, 266-268
    mixtures for, 336
    pastilles, and essences, etc., for fumigating, 262-271

  Preston salt, 260

  Princess pomade, 293, 294

  Pyrogallic acid for dyeing the hair, 316
    hair stain, 320


  Quinine pomade, 289, 290
      (imitation), 290
    tooth-water, 276


  Raspberry essence, 218

  Rastikopetra, 316

  Récamier cream, 333

  Red paint, fine, 337
    ordinary, 336, 337
    stick paint, 339
    thyme oil, 147

  Reggio, mode of manufacturing bergamot oil in, 118

  Réséda sachet powder, 258, 259

  Resin pomade, 300
    pomades, 298

  Resins and balsams, 155-177
    definition of, 155
    diffusion of, in the vegetable kingdom, 156
    elementary constituents of, 155
    hard, 155
    soft, 155, 156

  Rhazes, receipts for cosmetics in the writings of, 26

  Rhodium oil, or rosewood oil, 145

  Rhusma, 322, 323

  Righini's method for testing bergamot oil, 98

  Rogers's pomade for producing a beard, 294

  Romans, ancient, consumption of perfume-substances by the, 24

  Rome, introduction of ointments in, 22
    Plutarch on the extravagant use of ointments in, 22, 23

  Rosa alba, 137
    damascena, 137

  Rose bandoline, 305
    flower fumigating essence, 264
    fumigating pastilles, 270
      powder, 267
    hair oil, 304
    milk, 326, 327
    oil, adulterants of, 142
        adulteration of, in Bulgaria 140
        determination of spermaceti in, 143, 144
        insulation and determination of the stearoptene in, 139, 140
        judging the genuineness of, 139
        liquid, 139
        or attar of roses, 136-144
        principal localities of production of, 136
        test for, 143
          used in Bulgaria, 141
        tincture, 236, 237
    ointment, according to Dioscorides, 23, 24
    pomade, 294
    wax pomade, 299

  Rosemary oil, 144, 145

  Roses, cream of, 333

  Rosewood oil, or rhodium oil, 145

  Rouge, 336, 337
    en feuilles, 340
    extravagant use of, in France, 28, 29
    liquid, 340, 341
    moulding of, into sticks, 339
    stick, 339

  Russian or Siberian castor, 185, 186
    musk, 179, 180


  Sachet à la rose, 257
    à la violette, 257
    aux millefleurs, 258
    jockey club, 257
    powder, ess-bouquet, 259
      Frangipani, 258
      héliotrope, 257
      lily of the valley, 258
      musk, 259
      new-mown hay, 259
      orange, 259
      patchouli, 258
      réséda, 258, 259
      Victoria, 258
      ylang-ylang, 257
    powders, 256-259

  Safrene, 146

  Safrol, 146, 147

  St. John's bread or carob, 209

  Salicylic pomade, 294

  Salts, smelling, 260, 261

  Salve, Cyprian, 19

  Sandal-wood oil, 145
    tincture, 236

  Saudarac, 177

  Sandaracin, 177

  Saponaceous tooth-wash, 283

  Saponification number, 81
    test, Kremel's, 81, 82

  Sassafras oil, 145-147

  Sartorius ylang-ylang oil, 154

  Schimmel & Co.'s directions for bay rum, 313
    directions for the quantitative determination of
    cinnamaldehyde, 104-106
    improved still, 44-46

  Separator-funnel, 47

  Shampoo liquid, 311, 312
    lotion, 311

  Siberian or Russian castor, 185, 186
    musk, 179, 180

  Silver, nitrate of, for dyeing the hair, 315

  Single hair dyes, 319, 320

  Siphon still, 41, 42

  Skin cosmetics, 324-328

  Smelling salts, 260, 261

  Soap for dentifrices, 273

  Solid paints, 336-340

  Solubility of volatile oils, 33

  Sozodont, 275

  Spanish marjoram oil, 122, 123

  Spermaceti, determination of, in rose oil, 143, 144

  Spike oil, 115

  Spinach extract, 239

  Spirit of wine, or alcohol, detection of, in volatile oil, 68-71

  Sponge-process for obtaining lemon oil, 116, 117

  Stahl's tooth-tincture, 276

  Star anise oil, 94, 95

  Stearoptene, 33
    of rose oil, 138

  Stick paint, white, 340
    pomade, manufacture of, 298, 299
    pomader, 298-300
      foundations for, 298
    rouge, 339

  Still, for direct steam, 43, 44
    improved, 44-46

  Still, ordinary, conversion of, into use with steam, 42, 43
    siphon, 41, 42

  Stohman's test for oil of cloves, 109

  Storax, 168-172
    American, 172
    in grains, 171
    liquid, 168-171
      adulterations of, 170, 171
    ordinary, 171, 172
    tincture, 230

  Strawberry essence, 218
    ether, 216
    pomade, 291

  Styracin, 170

  Styrax calamitus, 171, 172
    vulgaris, 171, 172

  Styrol, 169, 170

  Sultana hair oil, 304

  Sumbul root, or musk-root tincture, 231


  Tannin hair dye, 321, 322

  Taste and odor, testing the, of volatile oils, 66, 67

  Tea hair tonic, 310, 311

  Teinture Chinoise (Kohol), 319
    Orientale (Karsi), 319

  Templin oil, 149

  Terpenes, 35, 36
    adulterations of volatile oil with, 73

  Terpilene, 189, 190

  Testing volatile oils, 66-86

  Theophrastus's work "On Perfumes," 23

  Thibet or Oriental musk, 178, 179

  Thymene, 147

  Thyme oil, 147, 148
    from the field thyme, 147, 148

  Thymol, 147, 273
    tooth-paste, 278
    tooth-powder, 279
    tooth-water, 274

  Tincture, ambergris, 229
    angelica-root, 231
    balm-oil, 234
    basil-oil, 234
    benzoin, 229
    bergamot-oil, 234
    bitter almond-oil, 234
    canango-oil, 234
    cassia-oil, 235
    castor, 229
    cedar-oil, 235
    cinnamon-oil, 235
    citronella-oil, 235
    civet, 228
    clove-oil, 235
    cumarin, 232
    eucalyptus-oil, 235
    geranium-oil, 235
    heliotropin, 232
    juniper-berry, 233
    lavender-oil, 235
    lemon-grass oil, 235
    lemon-oil, 235
    licari-oil, 235
    musk, 228
      root or sumbul-root, 231
      seed or abelmosk, 230, 231
    myrrh, 230
      oil, 235
    neroli-oil, 235
    olibanum, 230
    opopanax, 230
      oil, 235
    orris-root, 231
      oil, 235
    patchouli-oil, 235
    Peru-balsam, 229
    petit-grain-oil, 236
    pine-leaf-oil, 236
    Portugal-oil, 236
    rose-oil, 236, 237
    sandal-wood-oil, 236
    storax, 230
    tolu-balsam, 229, 230
    tonka-bean, 231, 232
    vanilla, 232
    vanillin, 232
    verbena-oil, 236
    vitivert, 233
      oil, 236
    wintergreen-oil, 236
    ylang-ylang-oil, 236

  Tinctures and extracts, 225-237
    apparatus for the preparation of, 226, 227

  Toilet articles, golden age for, in France, 27-29
    arts of the, in ancient times, 18
    introduction of the arts of the, into France, 27
    vinegar, 326

  Tolu balsam, 166-168
    new variety of, 167, 168

  Tolu balsam, tincture, 229, 230

  Toluene, 166, 167

  Tonka beans, 191, 192
    bean tincture, 231, 232
    hair oil, 304
    pomade, 294, 295

  Tonkin musk, 178, 179
    characteristics of, 180, 181

  Tooth-and mouth-waters, 274-277
    paste or odontine, 277, 278
    pastes and tooth-powders, 277-283
    powder, Dr. Hufeland's, 280
    powders and tooth-pastes, 277-283
      preparation of, 279
    soap, 283
      Dr. Hufeland's, 282, 283
    tincture, Dr. Stahl's, 276
    tinctures, use of, 276, 277

  Trotula, works of, 26

  Turkish geranium oil, palmarosa oil, geranium oil, 112
    hair dye, 316

  Turpentine, oil of, 148-150
    conversion of, into lemon oil, 189, 190


  United States, adaptation of some districts of, for the cultivation
    of plants, 33


  Valerianic ether, or amyl valerate, 214-216
    ethyl ether, 216

  Vanilla, 195, 196
    hair oil, 303
    pomade, 295
    tincture, 232

  Vanillin, 195-198
    adulteration of, 198
    preparation of, 196, 197
    tincture, 232

  Vaseline cold cream, 331
    hair oil, 303
    pomade, extra fine, 298
      fine (yellow), 297
      (red), 297
      (white), 297
    pomades, 295-298
      foundations for, 296

  Venetian oil of turpentine, 148

  Verbena oil, 150
    tincture, 236

  Vetiver oil, or vitivert oil, 150, 151

  Victoria hair oil, 304
    pomade, 294
    sachet powder, 258
    vaseline pomade, 297, 298

  Vinaigre de Bully, 324
    de toilette, 325
    de toilette à l'héliotrope, 325
    de toilette à la rose, 324
    de toilette à la violette, 324
    de toilette orange, 325

  Vinegar, aromatic, 325, 326
    fumigating, 266
    toilet, 326

  Vinegars and essences, fumigating, 264-266

  Violet-flower fumigating essence, 265

  Violet fumigating pastilles, 270
      powder, 267
    hair oil, 304
    mouth-water, 275
    oil of, 150
    pomade, 295
    tooth-powder, 279

  Virginal milk, 326

  Virginia vaseline pomade, 297

  Vitivert-oil tincture, 236

  Vitivert, or vetiver oil, 150, 151
    tincture, 233

  Volatile oil, apparatus for determining the percentage of, in a
    vegetable substance, 40, 41
    apparatus for the distillation of, 41-46
    Planchon's procedure for the recognition of a, 83-86
    separation of the, and 46, 47
    testing the odor of, 66
      the taste of, 67
    oils, 33-65
      ancient method of distilling, 24
      apparatus for the extraction of, 48-57
      characteristics of, 33, 34
      concentrated, 35
      detection of adulterations of, with an oil of lower quality, 74-83
      distillation of, 39-48
      division of, with reference to the guaiacum reaction, 79, 80
      expression of, 36-39
      extraction of, 48-58
      extra strong, 35
      for Cologne water, durability of, 250, 251
      localities best suited for the cultivation of flowers for the
       production of, 32, 33
      modes of obtaining, 36-65
      patented, 35
      principal divisions of, 34
      solubility of, 33
      storage of, 65
      testing of, 66-86
      the, used in perfumery, 87-154
    or essential oils, occurrence of, in plants, 31


  Walnut hair dye, 320
    pomade, 295
    shells, green, for dyeing the hair, 318

  Washes, 326-328

  Wash for the hands, 334

  Water, fumigating, 266
    separation of the, and oil, 46, 47

  Wax pomade, cheap, 300
    pomades, 298

  White lead, 336
    liquid paint, 341
    paint, 337
    rose solid perfume, 259
    smelling salts, 260, 261
    stick paint, 340
    thyme oil, 147
    tooth-powder, 280

  Williams, F. R., utilization of Maumené's test by, 82, 83

  Wintergreen oil, 151-153
    adulteration of, 153
    tincture, 236

  Ylang-ylang hair oil, 303
    oil, 153, 154
    tincture, 236
    sachet powder, 257

  Yunnan musk, 178, 179


  Zibethum, 184, 185

  Zinc white, 336


Transcriber's Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected.

Variable use of accents and ligatures has been standardised to ensure
compatibility between text and index.

The reference in the index to oleum uonæ has been corrected to oleum
unonæ.

The index lists Pomade - cheap - wax at page 390, which does not exist.
This has been changed to 290.>

Footnotes 12 and 13, merely repeat footnote 11, so have been removed
and all references changed to footnote 11.

Italics are shown thus _italic_ and subscripts thus {2}.





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