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Title: Mrs. Beeton's Dictionary of Every-Day Cookery - The "All About It" Books
Author: Beeton, Mrs. (Isabella Mary)
Language: English
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[Transcriber's Note: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs= and
italic text is surrounded by _underscores_.]



_MRS. BEETON’S_

DICTIONARY OF EVERY-DAY COOKERY.

_THE “ALL ABOUT IT” BOOKS_

MRS. BEETON’S

DICTIONARY

OF

EVERY-DAY COOKERY.

[Illustration]

    LONDON:
    WARD, LOCK, AND TYLER,
    WARWICK HOUSE, PATERNOSTER ROW.



    LONDON:
    SAVILL, EDWARDS AND CO., PRINTERS. CHANDOS STREET,
    COVENT GARDEN.



PREFACE.

    _The reasons for the publication of this Volume—the
      First of a Series of Practical Manuals which were
      to be called the “All About It” Books—were thus
      explained in a Prospectus issued a few months ago,
      and approved by the late_ Mrs. S. O. BEETON:—


MANY wishes have been expressed to the Authoress of the “Book of
Household Management” that a volume of Recipes in Cookery should
be written which could be sold at a price somewhere between the
seven-and-sixpenny “Household Management” and the Shilling Cookery
Book. Accordingly Mrs. BEETON has prepared a Collection of Recipes, and
of other Practical Information concerning the Dressing and Serving of
Family Fare, which, when completed, will be published, in serviceable
binding, at the price of Three Shillings and Sixpence.

As Mistress, Cook, and Critic have declared that the details in Mrs.
BEETON’S larger work are _so easy to understand_, the Authoress has
followed, in every Recipe printed in the present Dictionary, the same
simple plan she originally used. Regarding, however, the _arrangement_
of the Recipes, the Authoress has chosen the Dictionary form, believing
an alphabetical arrangement to be the best for a book that is being
constantly referred to. By the adoption of a very intelligible system,
all _cross_ reference, and that very disagreeable parenthesis (_See_
So-and-so) is avoided, except in a very few instances. Where any
warning as to what should _not_ be done is likely to be needed, it is
given, as well as advice as to what ought to be done. No pains have
been thought too great to make _little things_ clearly understood.
Trifles constitute perfection. It is just the knowledge or ignorance of
little things that usually makes the difference between the success of
the careful and experienced housewife or servant, and the failure of
her who is careless and inexperienced. Mrs. BEETON has brought to her
new offering to the Public a most anxious care to describe plainly and
fully all the more difficult and recondite portions of Cookery, whilst
the smallest items have not been “unconsidered trifles,” but each
Recipe and preparation have claimed minute attention.



THE

DICTIONARY OF COOKERY.


ALMOND CAKE.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of sweet almonds, 1 oz. of bitter almonds, 6 eggs,
8 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar, 5 tablespoonfuls of fine flour, the
grated rind of 1 lemon, 3 oz. of butter. _Mode._—Blanch and pound the
almonds to a paste; separate the whites from the yolks of the eggs;
beat the latter, and add them to the almonds. Stir in the sugar, flour,
and lemon-rind; add the butter, which should be beaten to a cream; and,
when all these ingredients are well mixed, put in the whites of the
eggs, which should be whisked to a stiff froth. Butter a cake-mould,
put in the mixture, and bake in a good oven from 1¼ to 1¾ hour.
_Time._—1¼ to 1¾ hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any
time.


ALMOND CHEESECAKES.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of sweet almonds, 4 bitter ones, 3 eggs, 2 oz.
of butter, the rind of ¼ lemon, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 3 oz.
of sugar. _Mode._—Blanch and pound the almonds smoothly in a mortar,
with a little rose or spring water; stir in the eggs, which should be
well beaten, and the butter, which should be warmed; add the grated
lemon-peel and juice, sweeten, and stir well until the whole is
thoroughly mixed. Line some patty-pans with puff-paste, put in the
mixture, and bake for 20 minutes, or rather less, in a quick oven.
_Time._—20 minutes, or rather less. _Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_
for about 12 cheesecakes.


ALMOND PASTE, for Second-Course Dishes.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of sweet almonds, 6 bitter ones, 1 lb. of very
finely-sifted sugar, the whites of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Blanch the almonds,
and dry them thoroughly; put them into a mortar, and pound them well,
wetting them gradually with the whites of 2 eggs. When well pounded,
put them into a small preserving-pan, add the sugar, and place the
pan on a small but clear fire (a hot plate is better); keep stirring
until the paste is dry, then take it out of the pan, put it between two
dishes, and, when cold, make it into any shape that fancy may dictate.
_Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 8_d._ for the above quantity.
_Sufficient_ for 3 small dishes of pastry. _Seasonable_ at any time.


ALMOND PUDDING, Baked (very rich).

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of almonds, 4 bitter ditto, 1 glass of sherry, 4
eggs, the rind and juice of ½ lemon, 3 oz. of butter, 1 pint of cream,
2 tablespoonfuls of sugar. _Mode._—Blanch and pound the almonds to a
smooth paste with the water; mix these with the butter, which should be
melted; beat up the eggs, grate the lemon-rind, and strain the juice;
add these, with the cream, sugar, and wine, to the other ingredients,
and stir them well together. When well mixed, put it into a pie-dish
lined with puff-paste, and bake for ½ hour. To make this pudding more
economically, substitute milk for the cream; but then add rather more
than 1 oz. of finely-grated bread. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_,
3_s._, with cream at 1_s._ 6_d._ per pint. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


ALMOND PUDDINGS, Small.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of sweet almonds, 6 bitter ones, ¼ lb. of butter,
4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream,
1 tablespoonful of brandy. _Mode._—Blanch and pound the almonds to
a smooth paste with a spoonful of water; warm the butter, mix the
almonds with this, and add the other ingredients, leaving out the
whites of 2 eggs, and be particular that these are well beaten. Mix
well, butter some cups, half fill them, and bake the puddings from 20
minutes to ½ hour. Turn them out on a dish, and serve with sweet sauce,
or with sifted sugar only. _Time._—20 minutes to ½ hour. _Average
cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: SMALL ALMOND PUDDINGS.]


ALMOND PUFFS.

_Ingredients._—2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of
pounded sugar, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 4 bitter almonds. _Mode._—Blanch
and pound the almonds in a mortar to a smooth paste; melt the butter,
dredge in the flour, and add the sugar and pounded almonds. Beat the
mixture well, and put it into cups or very tiny jelly-pots, which
should be well buttered, and bake in a moderate oven for about 20
minutes, or longer, should the puffs be large. Turn them out on a
dish, the bottom of the puff uppermost, and serve. _Time._—20 minutes.
_Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


ALMOND SOUP.

_Ingredients._—4 lbs. of lean beef or veal, a few vegetables as for
Stock (_see_ STOCK), 1 oz. of vermicelli, 4 blades of mace, 6 cloves,
½ lb. of sweet almonds, the yolks of 6 eggs, 1 gill of thick cream,
rather more than 3 quarts of water. _Mode._—Boil the beef or veal,
vegetables, and spices gently in water that will cover them, till the
gravy is very strong, and the meat very tender; than strain off the
gravy, and set it on the fire with the specified quantity of vermicelli
to 2 quarts. Let it boil till sufficiently cooked. Have ready the
almonds, blanched and pounded very fine; the yolks of the eggs boiled
hard; mixing the almonds, whilst pounding, with a little of the soup,
lest the latter should grow oily. Pound them to a pulp, and keep adding
to them, by degrees, a little soup, until they are thoroughly mixed
together. Let the soup be cool when mixing, and do it perfectly smooth.
Strain it through a sieve, set it on the fire, stir frequently, and
serve hot. Just before taking it up, add the cream. _Time._—From 4 to 5
hours to simmer meat and vegetables; 20 minutes to cook the vermicelli.
_Average cost_ per quart, 2_s._ 3_d._ _Seasonable_ all the year.
_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


ANCHOVY BUTTER.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of butter allow 6 anchovies, 1 small
bunch of parsley. _Mode._—Wash, bone, and pound the anchovies well in
a mortar; scald the parsley, chop it, and rub through a sieve; then
pound all the ingredients together, mix well, and make the butter into
pats immediately. This makes a pretty dish, if fancifully moulded, for
breakfast or supper, and should be garnished with parsley. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._ _Sufficient_ to make 2 dishes, with 4 small pats
each. _Seasonable_ at any time.


ANCHOVY SAUCE, for Fish.

_Ingredients._—4 anchovies, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of melted butter,
cayenne to taste. _Mode._—Bone the anchovies, and pound them in a
mortar to a paste, with 1 oz. of butter. Make the melted butter hot,
stir in the pounded anchovies and cayenne; simmer for 3 or 4 minutes;
and, if liked, add a squeeze of lemon-juice. A more general and
expeditious way of making this sauce is to stir in 1½ tablespoonfuls
of anchovy essence to ½ pint of melted butter, and to add seasoning
to taste. Boil the whole up for 1 minute, and serve hot. _Time._—5
minutes. _Average cost_, 6_d._ for ½ pint. _Sufficient_, this quantity,
for a brill, small turbot, 2 soles, &c.


ANCHOVY TOAST.

_Ingredients._—Toast 2 or 3 slices of bread, or, if wanted very
savoury, fry them in clarified butter, and spread on them the paste
made by recipe for potted anchovies. Made mustard, or a few grains of
cayenne, may be added to the paste before laying it on the toast.


ANCHOVIES, Fried.

_Ingredients._—1 tablespoonful of oil, ½ a glass of white wine,
sufficient flour to thicken; 12 anchovies. _Mode._—Mix the oil and wine
together, with sufficient flour to make them into a thickish paste;
cleanse the anchovies, wipe them, dip them in the paste, and fry of a
nice brown colour. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, for this quantity,
9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year.


ANCHOVIES, Potted, or Anchovy Butter.

_Ingredients._—2 dozen anchovies, ½ lb. of fresh butter. _Mode._—Wash
the anchovies thoroughly; bone and dry them, and pound them in a mortar
to a paste. Mix the butter gradually with them, and rub the whole
through a sieve. Put it by in small pots for use, and carefully exclude
the air with a bladder, as it soon changes the colour of anchovies,
besides spoiling them. To potted anchovies may be added pounded mace,
cayenne, and nutmeg to taste.


APPLE CHARLOTTE, a very simple.

_Ingredients._—9 slices of bread and butter, about 6 good-sized apples,
1 tablespoonful of minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of juice, moist
sugar to taste. _Mode._—Butter a pie-dish; place a layer of bread and
butter, without the crust, at the bottom; then a layer of apples,
pared, cored, and cut into thin slices; sprinkle over these a portion
of the lemon-peel and juice, and sweeten with moist sugar. Place
another layer of bread and butter, and then one of apples, proceeding
in this manner until the dish is full; then cover it up with the peel
of the apples, to preserve the top from browning or burning; bake in
a brisk oven for rather more than ¾ hour; turn the charlotte on a
dish, sprinkle sifted sugar over, and serve. _Time._—¾ hour, or a few
minutes longer. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE CHEESECAKES.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of apple pulp, ¼ lb. of sifted sugar, ¼ lb. of
butter, 4 eggs, the rind and juice of 1 lemon. _Mode._—Pare, core, and
boil sufficient apples to make ½ lb. when cooked; add to these the
sugar, the butter, which should be melted, the eggs, leaving out 2 of
the whites, and the grated rind and juice of 1 lemon; stir the mixture
well; line some patty-pans with puff-paste; put in the mixture, and
bake about 20 minutes.—_Time._—About 20 minutes. _Average cost_, for
the above quantity, with the paste, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for about
18 or 20 cheesecakes. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE CUSTARD, Baked.

_Ingredients._—1 dozen large apples, moist sugar to taste, 1 small
teacupful of cold water, the grated rind of 1 lemon, 1 pint of milk,
4 eggs, 2 oz. of loaf sugar. _Mode._—Peel, cut, and core the apples;
put them into a lined saucepan with the cold water, and, as they heat,
bruise them to a pulp; sweeten with moist sugar, and add the grated
lemon-rind. When cold, put the fruit at the bottom of a pie-dish, and
pour over it a custard, made with the above proportion of milk, eggs,
and sugar; grate a little nutmeg over the top, place the dish in a
moderate oven, and bake from 25 to 35 minutes. The above proportions
will make rather a large dish. _Time._—25 to 35 minutes. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._, if fruit has to be bought. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7
persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE DUMPLINGS, Baked (Plain family Dish).

_Ingredients._—6 apples, suet-crust, sugar to taste. _Mode._—Pare and
take out the cores of the apples with a scoop, and make a suet-crust
with ¾ lb. of flour to 6 oz. of suet; roll the apples in the crust,
previously sweetening them with moist sugar, and taking care to join
the paste nicely. When they are formed into round balls, put them on a
tin, and bake them for about ½ hour, or longer, should the apples be
very large; arrange them pyramidically on a dish, and sift over them
some pounded white sugar. These may be made richer by using puff-paste
instead of suet-crust. _Time._—From ½ to ¾ hour, or longer. _Average
cost_, 1½_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from
August to March, but flavourless after the end of January.


APPLE DUMPLINGS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—6 apples, suet-crust, sugar to taste. _Mode._—Pare and
take out the cores of the apples with a scoop; sweeten, and roll each
apple in a piece of crust, made with ¾ lb. of flour to 6 oz. of suet,
and be particular that the paste is nicely joined. Put the dumplings
into floured cloths, tie them securely, and place them in boiling
water. Keep them boiling from ¾ to 1 hour; remove the cloths, and send
them hot and quickly to table. Dumplings boiled in knitted cloths have
a very pretty appearance when they come to table. The cloths should
be made square, just large enough to hold one dumpling, and should be
knitted in plain knitting, with _very coarse_ cotton. _Time._—¾ to 1
hour, or longer should the dumplings be very large. _Average cost_,
1½_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from August to
March, but flavourless after the end of January.


APPLE FRITTERS.

_Ingredients._—For the batter, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ½ oz. of
butter, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, 4 medium-sized apples,
hot lard or clarified beef-dripping. _Mode._—Break the eggs, dividing
the whites from the yolks, and beat them separately. Put the flour
into a basin, stir in the butter, which should be melted to a cream;
add the salt, and moisten with sufficient warm milk to make it of a
proper consistency, that is to say, a batter that will drop from the
spoon. Stir this well, rub down any lumps that may be seen, add the
yolks and then the whites of the eggs, which have been previously well
whisked; beat up the batter for a few minutes, and it is ready for use.
Now peel and cut the apples into rather thick whole slices, without
dividing them, and stamp out the middle of each slice, where the core
is, with a cutter. Throw the slices into the batter; have ready a pan
of boiling lard or clarified dripping; take out the pieces of apple one
by one, put them into the hot lard, and fry a nice brown, turning them
when required. When done, lay them on a piece of blotting-paper before
the fire, to absorb the greasy moisture; then dish on a white d’oyley,
piling the fritters one above the other; strew over them some pounded
sugar, and serve very hot. The flavour of the fritters would be very
much improved by soaking the pieces of apple in a little wine, mixed
with sugar and lemon-juice, for 3 or 4 hours before wanted for table;
the batter, also, is better for being mixed some hours before the
fritters are made. _Time._—From 7 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters; 5
minutes to drain them. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5
persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE JAM.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit weighed after being pared, cored,
and sliced, allow ¾ lb. of preserving-sugar, the grated rind of 1
lemon, the juice of ½ lemon. _Mode._—Peel the apples, core and slice
them very thin, and be particular that they are all the same sort. Put
them into a jar, stand this in a saucepan of boiling water, and let
the apples stew until quite tender. Previously to putting the fruit
into the jar, weigh it, to ascertain the proportion of sugar that may
be required. Put the apples into a preserving-pan, crush the sugar to
small lumps, and add it, with the grated lemon-rind and juice, to the
apples. Simmer these over the fire for ½ hour, reckoning from the time
the jam begins to simmer properly; remove the scum as it rises, and,
when the jam is done, put it into pots for use. Place a piece of oiled
paper over the jam, and, to exclude the air, cover the pots with tissue
paper dipped in the white of an egg, and stretched over the top. This
jam will keep good for a long time. _Time._—From 3 to 4 hours to stew
in the jar; ½ hour to boil after the jam begins to simmer. _Average
cost_, for this quantity, 5_s._ _Sufficient._—7 or 8 lbs. of apples
for 6 pots of jam. _Seasonable._—Make this in September, October, or
November, when apples can be bought at a reasonable price.


APPLE JELLY.

_Ingredients._—To 6 lbs. of apples allow 3 pints of water; to every
quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar;—the juice of ½ lemon.
_Mode._—Pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and put them into
a jar, with water in the above proportion. Place them in a cool oven,
with the jar well covered, and, when the juice is thoroughly drawn and
the apples are quite soft, strain them through a jelly-bag. To every
quart of juice allow 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, which should be crushed to
small lumps, and put into a preserving-pan with the juice. Boil these
together for rather more than ½ hour, remove the scum as it rises, add
the lemon-juice just before it is done, and put the jelly into pots
for use. This preparation is useful for garnishing sweet dishes, and
may be turned out for dessert. _Time._—The apples to be put in the
oven over-night, and left till morning; rather more than ½ hour to boil
the jelly. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 3_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6
small pots of jelly. _Seasonable._—This should be made in September,
October, or November.


APPLE JELLY.

_Ingredients._—Apples, water; to every pint of syrup allow ¾ lb. of
loaf sugar. _Mode._—Pare and cut the apples into pieces, remove the
cores, and put them in a preserving-pan with sufficient cold water to
cover them. Let them boil for an hour; then drain the syrup from them
through a hair sieve or jelly-bag, and measure the juice; to every
pint allow ¾ lb. of loaf sugar, and boil these together for ¾ hour,
removing every particle of scum as it rises, and keeping the jelly well
stirred, that it may not burn. A little lemon-rind may be boiled with
the apples, and a small quantity of strained lemon-juice may be put in
the jelly just before it is done, when the flavour is liked. This jelly
may be ornamented with preserved greengages, or any other preserved
fruit, and will turn out very prettily for dessert. It should be stored
away in small pots. _Time._—1 hour to boil the fruit and water; ¾ hour
to boil the juice with the sugar. _Average cost_, for 6 lbs. of apples,
with the other ingredients in proportion, 3_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6
small pots of jelly. _Seasonable._—Make this in September, October, or
November.


APPLE JELLY, Clear, for immediate Eating.

_Ingredients._—2 dozen small apples, 1½ pint of spring-water; to every
pint of juice allow ½ lb. of loaf sugar, ½ oz. of isinglass, the rind
of ½ lemon. _Mode._—Pare, core, and cut the apples into quarters,
and boil them, with the lemon-peel, until tender; then strain off
the apples, and run the juice through a jelly-bag; put the strained
juice, with the sugar and isinglass, which has been previously boiled
in ½ pint of water, into a lined saucepan or preserving-pan; boil all
together for about ½ hour, and put the jelly into moulds. When this
jelly is clear, and turned out well, it makes a pretty addition to the
supper-table, with a little custard or whipped cream round it: a little
lemon-juice improves the flavour, but it is apt to render the jelly
muddy and thick. If required to be kept any length of time, rather a
larger proportion of sugar must be used. _Time._—About 1 hour to boil
the apples; ½ hour the jelly. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for
1½-pint mould. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE JELLY, Thick, or Marmalade, for Entremets or Dessert Dishes.

_Ingredients._—Apples; to every lb. of pulp allow ¾ lb. of sugar, ½
teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel. _Mode._—Peel, core, and boil the
apples with only sufficient water to prevent them from burning; beat
them to a pulp, and to every lb. of pulp allow the above proportion of
sugar in lumps. Dip the lumps into water; put these into a saucepan,
and boil till the syrup is thick and can be well skimmed; then add this
syrup to the apple pulp, with the minced lemon-peel, and stir it over
a quick fire for about 20 minutes, or till the apples cease to stick
to the bottom of the pan. The jelly is then done, and may be poured
into moulds which have been previously dipped in water, when it will
turn out nicely for dessert or a side dish; for the latter, a little
custard should be poured round, and it should be garnished with strips
of citron or stuck with blanched almonds. _Time._—From ½ to ¾ hour
to reduce the apples to a pulp; 20 minutes to boil after the sugar
is added. _Sufficient._—1½ lb. of apple pulp sufficient for a small
mould. _Seasonable_ from August to March; but is best and cheapest in
September, October, or November.

[Illustration: APPLE JELLY, STUCK WITH ALMONDS.]


APPLE PUDDING, Rich Baked.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. apple pulp, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, 6 oz. of butter,
the rind of 1 lemon, 6 eggs, puff-paste. _Mode._—Peel, core, and cut
the apples, as for sauce; put them into a stewpan, with only just
sufficient water to prevent them from burning, and let them stew
until reduced to a pulp. Weigh the pulp, and to every ½ lb. add the
sifted sugar, grated lemon-rind, and 6 well-beaten eggs. Beat these
ingredients well together; then melt the butter, stir it to the other
things, put a border of puff-paste round the dish, and bake for rather
more than ½ hour. The butter should not be added until the pudding is
ready for the oven. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 10_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—12 large apples, 6 oz. of moist sugar, ¼ lb. of butter,
4 eggs, 1 pint of bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Pare, core, and cut the apples,
as for sauce, and boil them until reduced to a pulp; then add the
butter, melted, and the eggs, which should be well whisked. Beat up
the pudding for 2 or 3 minutes; butter a pie-dish; put in a layer of
bread-crumbs, then the apple, and then another layer of bread-crumbs;
flake over these a few tiny pieces of butter, and bake for about ½
hour. A very good economical pudding may be made merely with apples,
boiled and sweetened, with the addition of a few strips of lemon-peel.
A layer of bread-crumbs should be placed above and below the apples,
and the pudding baked for ½ hour. _Time._—About ½ hour. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from August
to March.


APPLE PUDDING, Baked (Very Good).

_Ingredients._—5 moderate-sized apples, 2 tablespoonfuls of
finely-chopped suet, 3 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 pint of
milk, a little grated nutmeg. _Mode._—Mix the flour to a smooth batter
with the milk, add the eggs, which should be well whisked, and put the
latter into a well-buttered pie-dish. Wipe the apples clean, but do
not pare them; cut them in halves, and take out the cores; lay them in
the batter, rind uppermost; shake the suet on the top, over which also
grate a little nutmeg; bake in a moderate oven for an hour, and cover,
when served, with sifted loaf sugar. This pudding is also very good
with the apples pared, sliced, and mixed with the batter. _Time._—1
hour. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


APPLE PUDDING, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Suet crust, apples, sugar to taste, 1 small teaspoonful
of finely-minced lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice.
_Mode._—Make a butter or suet crust by either of the given recipes,
using for a moderate-sized pudding from ¾ to 1 lb. of flour, with the
other ingredients in proportion. Butter a basin; line it with some
paste; pare, core, and cut the apples into slices, and fill the basin
with these; add the sugar, the lemon-peel and juice; and cover with
crust; pinch the edges together, flour the cloth, place it over the
pudding, tie it securely, and put it into plenty of fast-boiling water;
let it boil from 2½ to 3 hours; then turn it out of the basin and
send to table quickly. Apple puddings may also be boiled in a cloth
without a basin; but, when made in this way, must be served without the
least delay, as the crust soon becomes heavy. Apple pudding is a very
convenient dish to have when the dinner-hour is rather uncertain, as
it does not spoil by being boiled an extra hour; care, however, must
be taken to keep it well covered with water all the time, and not to
allow it to stop boiling. _Time._—From 2½ to 3 hours, according to the
quality of the apples. _Average_ cost, 10_d._ _Sufficient_, made with
1 lb. of flour, for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March;
but the apples become flavourless and scarce after February.


APPLE SAUCE, for Geese, Pork, &c.

_Ingredients._—6 good-sized apples, sifted sugar to taste, a piece of
butter the size of a walnut; water. _Mode._—Pare, core, and quarter the
apples, and throw them into cold water to preserve their whiteness. Put
them in a saucepan, with sufficient water to moisten them, and boil
till soft enough to pulp. Beat them up, adding sugar to taste, and a
small piece of butter. This quantity is sufficient for a good-sized
tureen. _Time._—According to the apples, about, ¾ hour. _Average cost_,
4_d._ _Sufficient_, this quantity, for a goose or couple of ducks.


APPLE SNOW (a pretty Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—10 good-sized apples, the whites of 10 eggs, the rind
of 1 lemon, ½ lb. of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Peel, core, and cut the
apples into quarters, and put them into a saucepan with the lemon-peel,
and sufficient water to prevent them from burning,—rather less than ½
pint. When they are tender, take out the peel, beat them into a pulp,
let them cool, and stir them to the whites of the eggs, which should
be previously beaten to a strong froth. Add the sifted sugar, and
continue the whisking until the mixture becomes quite stiff, and either
heap it on a glass dish or serve it in small glasses. The dish may be
garnished with preserved barberries or strips of bright-coloured jelly,
and a dish of custards should be served with it, or a jug of cream.
_Time._—From 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill a moderate-sized glass dish. _Seasonable_
from August to March.


APPLE SNOWBALLS.

_Ingredients._—2 teacupfuls of rice, apples, moist sugar, cloves.
_Mode._—Boil the rice and milk until three-parts done; then strain it
off, and pare and core the apples without dividing them. Put a small
quantity of sugar and a clove into each apple, put the rice round them,
and tie each ball separately in a cloth. Boil until the apples are
tender; then take them up, remove the cloths, and serve. _Time._—½ hour
to boil the rice separately; ½ to 1 hour with the apple. _Seasonable_
from August to March.


APPLE SOUFFLÉ.

_Ingredients._—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of ½ lemon,
sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs, the whites of 6, 1½ oz. of butter,
4 tablespoonfuls of apple marmalade. _Mode._—Boil the milk with the
lemon-peel until the former is well flavoured; then strain it, put
in the rice, and let it gradually swell over a slow fire, adding
sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. Then crush the rice to a smooth
pulp with the back of a wooden spoon; line the bottom and sides of a
round cake-tin with it, and put it into the oven to set; turn it out
of the tin dexterously, and be careful that the border of rice is firm
in every part. Mix with the marmalade the beaten yolks of eggs and the
butter, and stir these over the fire until the mixture thickens. Take
it off the fire; to this add the whites of the eggs, which should be
previously beaten to a strong froth; stir all together, and put it into
the rice border. Bake in a moderate oven for about ½ hour, or until the
soufflé rises very light. It should be watched, and served instantly,
or it will immediately fall after it is taken from the oven. _Time._—½
hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE TART or PIE.

_Ingredients._—Puff-paste, apples; to every lb. of unpared apples
allow 2 oz. of moist sugar, ½ teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel,
1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice. _Mode._—Make puff-paste by either of
the given recipes, with ½ lb. of flour; place a border of it round the
edge of a pie-dish, and fill the dish with apples pared, cored, and cut
into slices; sweeten with moist sugar, add the lemon-peel and juice,
and 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of water; cover with crust, cut it evenly
round close to the edge of the pie-dish, and bake in a hot oven from
½ to ¾ hour, or rather longer, should the pie be very large. When it
is three-parts done, take it out of the oven, put the white of an egg
on a plate, and, with the blade of a knife, whisk it to a froth; brush
the pie over with this, then sprinkle upon it some sifted sugar, and
then a few drops of water. Put the pie back into the oven, and finish
baking, and be particularly careful that it does not catch or burn,
_which it is very liable to do after the crust is iced_. If made with
a plain crust, the icing may be omitted. Many things are suggested
for the flavouring of apple pie; some say 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of
beer, others the same quantity of sherry, which very much improve the
taste; whilst the old-fashioned addition of a few cloves is, by many
persons, preferred to anything else, as also a few slices of quince.
_Time._—½ hour before the crust is iced; 10 to 15 minutes afterwards.
_Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient._—Allow 2 lbs. of apples to a tart
for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March; but the apples become
flavourless after February.


APPLE TART (Creamed).

_Mode._—Make an apple tart by the preceding recipe, with the exception
of omitting the icing. When the tart is baked, cut out the middle of
the lid or crust, leaving a border all round the dish. Fill up with a
nicely-made boiled custard, grate a little nutmeg over the top, and the
pie is ready for table. This tart is usually eaten cold; is rather an
old-fashioned dish, but, at the same time, extremely nice. _Time._—½ to
¾ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLE TRIFLE (a Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—10 good-sized apples, the rind of ½ lemon, 6 oz. of
pounded sugar, ½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, 2 eggs, whipped cream.
_Mode._—Peel, core, and cut the apples into thin slices, and put them
into a saucepan with 2 tablespoonfuls of water, the sugar, and minced
lemon-rind. Boil all together until quite tender, and pulp the apples
through a sieve; if they should not be quite sweet enough, add a little
more sugar, and put them at the bottom of the dish to form a thick
layer. Stir together the milk, cream, and eggs, with a little sugar,
over the fire, and let the mixture thicken, but do not allow it to
reach the boiling-point. When thick, take it off the fire; let it cool
a little, then pour it over the apples. Whip some cream with sugar,
lemon-peel, &c., the same as for other trifles; heap it high over the
custard, and the dish is ready for table. It may be garnished as fancy
dictates, with strips of bright apple jelly, slices of citron, &c.
_Time._—From 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples; 10 minutes to stir
the custard over the fire. _Average cost_, 2_s._, with cream at 1_s._
6_d._ per pint. _Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized trifle. _Seasonable_
from August to March.


APPLES à la Portugaise.

_Ingredients._—8 good boiling apples, ½ pint of water, 6 oz. of sugar,
a layer of apple marmalade, 8 preserved cherries, garnishing of apricot
jam. _Mode._—Peel the apples, and, with a scoop, take out the cores;
boil the fruit in the above proportion of sugar and water, without
being too much done, and take care the apples do not break. Have ready
some apple marmalade; cover the bottom of a glass dish with this, level
it, and lay the apples in a sieve to drain; pile them neatly on the
marmalade, raising them in the centre, and place a preserved cherry in
the middle of each. Garnish with strips of candied citron or apricot
jam, and the dish is ready for table. _Time._—From 20 to 30 minutes
to stew the apples. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1
entremets. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLES, Buttered (Sweet Entremets).

_Ingredients._—Apple marmalade or 7 good boiling apples, ½ pint
of water, 6 oz. of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, a little apricot jam.
_Mode._—Pare the apples, and take out the cores with a scoop; boil
up the sugar and water for a few minutes; then lay in the apples and
simmer them very gently until tender, taking care not to let them
break. Have ready sufficient marmalade made by the recipe for APPLE
MARMALADE, flavoured with lemon, to cover the bottom of the dish;
arrange the apples on this with a piece of butter placed in each, and
in between them a few spoonfuls of apricot jam or marmalade; put the
dish in the oven for 10 minutes, then sprinkle over the top sifted
sugar, and either brown it before the fire or with a salamander, and
serve hot. The syrup that the apples were boiled in should be saved
for another time. _Time._—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples
very gently, 10 minutes in the oven. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 1 entremets.


APPLES and RICE (a Plain Dish).

_Ingredients._—8 good-sized apples, 3 oz. of butter, the rind of ½
lemon minced very fine, 6 oz. of rice, 1½ pints of milk, sugar to
taste, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 6 tablespoonfuls of apricot jam.
_Mode._—Peel the apples, halve them, and take out the cores; put them
into a stewpan with the butter, and strew sufficient sifted sugar over
to sweeten them nicely, and add the minced lemon-peel. Stew the apples
very gently until tender, taking care they do not break. Boil the rice,
with the milk, sugar, and nutmeg, until soft, and, when thoroughly
done, dish it, piled high in the centre; arrange the apples on it, warm
the apricot jam, pour it over the whole, and serve hot. _Time._—About
30 minutes to stew the apples very gently; about ¾ hour to cook the
rice. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLES AND RICE (a pretty Dish of).

_Ingredients._—6 oz. of rice, 1 quart of milk, the rind of ½ lemon,
sugar to taste, ½ saltspoonful of salt, 8 apples, ¼ lb. of sugar, ¼
pint of water, ½ pint of boiled custard. _Mode._—Flavour the milk with
lemon-rind, by boiling them together for a few minutes; then take out
the peel, and put in the rice, with sufficient sugar to sweeten it
nicely, and boil gently until the rice is quite soft; then let it cool.
In the meantime pare, quarter, and core the apples, and boil them until
tender in a syrup made with sugar and water in the above proportion;
and, when soft, lift them out on a sieve to drain. Now put a
middling-sized gallipot in the centre of a dish; lay the rice all round
till the top of the gallipot is reached; smooth the rice with the back
of a spoon, and stick the apples into it in rows, one row sloping to
the right, and the next to the left. Set it in the oven to colour the
apples; then, when required for table, remove the gallipot, garnish the
rice with preserved fruits, and pour in the middle sufficient custard,
made by the recipe for boiled custard, to be level with the top of the
rice, and serve hot. _Time._—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples;
¾ hour to simmer the rice; ¼ hour to bake. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLES, Compôte of (Soyer’s Recipe,—a Dessert Dish).

_Ingredients._—6 ripe apples, 1 lemon, ½ lb. of lump sugar, ½ pint of
water. _Mode._—Select the apples of a moderate size, peel them, cut
them in halves, remove the cores, and rub each piece over with a little
lemon. Put the sugar and water together into a lined saucepan, and let
them boil until forming a thickish syrup, when lay in the apples with
the rind of the lemon cut thin, and the juice of the same. Let the
apples simmer till tender; then take them out very carefully, drain
them on a sieve, and reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for a few
minutes. When both are cold, arrange the apples neatly on a glass
dish, pour over the syrup, and garnish with strips of green angelica
or candied citron. Smaller apples may be dressed in the same manner:
they should not be divided in half, but peeled, and the cores pushed
out with a vegetable-cutter. _Time._—10 minutes to boil the sugar and
water together; from 20 to 30 minutes to simmer the apples. _Average
cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from August
to March.

[Illustration: COMPÔTE OF APPLES.]


APPLES, Flanc of; or Apples in a raised Crust. (Sweet Entremets.)

_Ingredients._—¾ lb. of short crust, 9 moderate-sized apples, the rind
and juice of ½ lemon, ½ lb. of white sugar, ¾ pint of water, a few
strips of candied citron. _Mode._—Make a plain stiff short crust, roll
it out to the thickness of ½ inch, and butter an oval mould; line it
with the crust, and press it carefully all round the sides, to obtain
the form of the mould, but be particular not to break the paste. Pinch
the part that just rises above the mould with the paste-pincers, and
fill the case with flour; bake it for about ¾ hour; then take it out of
the oven, remove the flour, put the case back in the oven for another
¼ hour, and do not allow it to get scorched. It is now ready for the
apples, which should be prepared in the following manner: peel, and
take out the cores with a small knife, or a scoop for the purpose,
without dividing the apples; put them into a small lined saucepan, just
capable of holding them, with sugar, water, lemon-juice and rind, in
the above proportion. Simmer them very gently until tender; then take
out the apples, let them cool, arrange them in the flanc or case, and
boil down the syrup until reduced to a thick jelly; pour it over the
apples, and garnish with a few slices of candied citron.

       *       *       *       *       *

A more simple flanc may be made by rolling out the paste, cutting the
bottom of a round or oval shape, and then a narrow strip for the sides:
these should be stuck on with the white of an egg to the bottom piece,
and the flanc then filled with raw fruit, with sufficient sugar to
sweeten it nicely. It will not require so long baking as in a mould;
but the crust must be made everywhere of an equal thickness, and so
perfectly joined that the juice does not escape. This dish may also be
served hot, and should be garnished in the same manner, or a little
melted apricot jam may be poured over the apples, which very much
improves their flavour. _Time._—Altogether, 1 hour to bake the flanc;
from 30 to 40 minutes to stew the apples very gently. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1 entremets or side-dish. _Seasonable_
from August to March.


APPLES, Ginger (a pretty Supper or Dessert Dish).

_Ingredients._—1½ oz. of whole ginger, ¼ pint of whiskey, 3 lbs. of
apples, 2 lbs. of white sugar, the juice of 2 lemons. _Mode._—Bruise
the ginger, put it into a small jar, pour over sufficient whiskey
to cover it, and let it remain for 3 days; then cut the apples into
thin slices, after paring and coring them; add the sugar and the
lemon-juice, which should be strained; and simmer all together _very
gently_ until the apples are transparent, but not broken. Serve cold,
and garnish the dish with slices of candied lemon-peel or preserved
ginger. _Time._—3 days to soak the ginger; about ¾ hour to simmer the
apples very gently. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3
dishes. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLES Iced, or Apple Hedgehog.

_Ingredients._—About 3 dozen good boiling apples, 1 lb. of sugar,
½ pint of water, the rind of ½ lemon minced very fine, the whites
of 2 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of pounded sugar, a few sweet almonds.
_Mode._—Peel and core a dozen of the apples without dividing them, and
stew them very gently in a lined saucepan with ½ lb. of the sugar and ½
pint of water, and when tender lift them carefully on to a dish. Have
ready the remainder of the apples, pared, cored, and cut into thin
slices; put them into the same syrup with the other ½ lb. of sugar,
the lemon-peel, and boil gently until they are reduced to a marmalade;
keeping them stirred, to prevent them from burning. Cover the bottom
of the dish with some of the marmalade, and over that a layer of the
stewed apples, in the insides of which, and between each, place some
of the marmalade; then place another layer of apples, and fill up the
cavities with marmalade as before, forming the whole into a raised oval
shape. Whip the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, mix with them
the pounded sugar, and cover the apples very smoothly all over with
the icing; blanch and cut each almond into 4 or 5 strips; place these
strips at equal distances over the icing, sticking up; strew over a
little rough pounded sugar, and put the dish in a very slow oven, to
colour the almonds, and so allow the apples to get warm through. This
entremets may also be served cold, and makes a pretty supper-dish.
_Time._—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the apples. _Average cost_, 2_s._
to 2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from
August to March.


APPLES in Red Jelly (a pretty Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—6 good-sized apples, 12 cloves, 6 oz. of pounded sugar,
1 lemon, 2 teacupfuls of water, 1 tablespoonful of gelatine, a few
drops of prepared cochineal. _Mode._—Choose rather large apples; peel
them and take out the cores, either with a scoop or a small silver
knife, and put into each apple 2 cloves and as much sifted sugar as
they will hold. Place them, without touching each other, in a large
pie-dish; add more white sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, and 2 teacupfuls
of water. Bake in the oven, with a dish over them, until they are done.
Look at them frequently, and, as each apple is cooked, place it in a
glass dish. They must not be left in the oven after they are done,
or they will break, and so would spoil the appearance of the dish.
When the apples are neatly arranged in the dish without touching each
other, strain the liquor in which they have been stewing into a lined
saucepan; add to it the rind of the lemon, and a tablespoonful of
gelatine which has been previously dissolved in cold water, and, if not
sweet, a little more sugar, and 6 cloves. Boil till quite clear; colour
with a few drops of prepared cochineal, and strain the jelly through a
double muslin into a jug; let it cool a _little_; then pour it into the
dish round the apples. When quite cold, garnish the tops of the apples
with a bright-coloured marmalade, jelly, or the white of an egg beaten
to a strong froth, with a little sifted sugar. _Time._—From 30 to 50
minutes to bake the apples. _Average cost_, 1_s._, with the garnishing.
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from August to March.


APPLES, to preserve, in Quarters (in imitation of Ginger).

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of apples allow ¾ lb. of sugar, 1½ oz.
of the best white ginger; 1 oz. of ginger to every ½ pint of water.
_Mode._—Peel, core, and quarter the apples, and put the fruit, sugar,
and ginger in layers into a wide-mouthed jar, and let them remain
for 2 days; then infuse 1 oz. of ginger in ½ pint of boiling water,
and cover it closely, and let it remain for 1 day: this quantity of
ginger and water is for 3 lbs. of apples, with the other ingredients in
proportion. Put the apples, &c., into a preserving-pan with the water
strained from the ginger, and boil till the apples look clear and the
syrup is rich, which will be in about an hour. The rind of a lemon may
be added just before the apples have finished boiling; and great care
must be taken not to break the pieces of apple in putting them into the
jars. Serve on glass dishes for dessert. _Time._—2 days for the apples
to remain in the jar with sugar, &c.; 1 day to infuse the ginger; about
1 hour to boil the apples. _Average cost_, for 3 lbs. of apples, with
the other ingredients in proportion, 2_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient._—3 lbs.
should fill 3 moderate-sized jars. _Seasonable._—This should be made in
September, October, or November.


APPLES, Stewed, and Custard (a pretty Dish for a Juvenile Supper).

_Ingredients._—7 good-sized apples, the rind of ½ lemon or 4 cloves, ½
lb. of sugar, ¾ pint of water, ½ pint of custard. _Mode._—Pare and take
out the cores of the apples, without dividing them, and, if possible,
leave the stalks on; boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes;
then put in the apples with the lemon-rind or cloves, whichever flavour
may be preferred, and simmer gently until they are tender, taking care
not to let them break. Dish them neatly on a glass dish, reduce the
syrup by boiling it quickly for a few minutes, let it cool a little;
then pour it over the apples. Have ready quite ½ pint of custard made
by the recipe for Boiled Custard; pour it round, but not over, the
apples when they are quite cold, and the dish is ready for table. A few
almonds blanched and cut into strips, and stuck in the apples, would
improve their appearance. _Time._—From 20 to 30 minutes to stew the
apples. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ to fill a large glass dish.
_Seasonable_ from August to March.


APRICOT CREAM.

_Ingredients._—12 to 16 ripe apricots, ½ lb. of sugar, 1½ pint of
milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 1 oz. of isinglass. _Mode._—Divide the
apricots, take out the stones, and boil them in a syrup made with ¼ lb.
of sugar and ¼ pint of water, until they form a thin marmalade, which
rub through a sieve. Boil the milk with the other ¼ lb. of sugar, let
it cool a little, then mix with it the yolks of eggs which have been
previously well beaten; put this mixture into a jug, place this jug in
boiling water, and stir it one way over the fire until it thickens; but
on no account let it boil. Strain through a sieve, add the isinglass,
previously boiled with a small quantity of water, and keep stirring
it till nearly cold; then mix the cream with the apricots; stir well,
put it into an oiled mould, and, if convenient, set it on ice; at any
rate, in a very cool place. It should turn out on the dish without any
difficulty. In winter-time, when fresh apricots are not obtainable, a
little jam may be substituted for them. _Time._—From 20 to 30 minutes
to boil the apricots. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill
a quart mould. _Seasonable_ in August, September, and October.


APRICOT JAM, or Marmalade.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of ripe apricots, weighed after being
skinned and stoned, allow 1 lb. of sugar. _Mode._—Pare the apricots,
which should be ripe, as thinly as possible, break them in half, and
remove the stones. Weigh the fruit, and to every lb. allow the same
proportion of loaf sugar. Pound the sugar very finely in a mortar,
strew it over the apricots, which should be placed on dishes, and let
them remain for 12 hours. Break the stones, blanch the kernels, and put
them with the sugar and fruit into a preserving-pan. Let these simmer
very gently until clear; take out the pieces of apricot singly as they
become so, and, as fast as the scum rises, carefully remove it. Put
the apricots into small jars, pour over them the syrup and kernels,
cover the jam with pieces of paper dipped in the purest salad-oil,
and stretch over the top of the jars tissue paper, cut about 2 inches
larger and brushed over with the white of an egg: when dry, it will be
perfectly hard and air-tight. _Time._—12 hours, sprinkled with sugar;
about ¾ hour to boil the jam. _Average cost._—When cheap, apricots
may be purchased for preserving at about 1_s._ 6_d._ per gallon.
_Sufficient._—10 lbs. of fruit for 12 pots of jam. _Seasonable._—Make
this in August or September.


APRICOT PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—12 large apricots, ¾ pint of bread-crumbs, 1 pint of
milk, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 glass of sherry.
_Mode._—Make the milk boiling hot, and pour it on to the bread-crumbs;
when half cold, add the sugar, the well-whisked yolks of the eggs, and
the sherry. Divide the apricots in half, scald them until they are
soft, and break them up with a spoon, adding a few of the kernels,
which should be well pounded in a mortar; then mix the fruit and other
ingredients together, put a border of paste round the dish, fill with
the mixture, and bake the pudding from ½ to ¾ hour. _Time._—½ to ¾
hour. _Average cost_, in full season, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or
5 persons. _Seasonable_ in August, September, and October.


APRICOT TART.

_Ingredients._—12 or 14 apricots, sugar to taste, puff-paste or short
crust. _Mode._—Break the apricots in half, take out the stones, and put
them into a pie-dish, in the centre of which place a very small cup or
jar, bottom uppermost; sweeten with good moist sugar, but add no water.
Line the edge of the dish with paste, put on the cover, and ornament
the pie in any of the usual modes. Bake from ½ to ¾ hour, according
to size; and if puff-paste is used, glaze it about 10 minutes before
the pie is done, and put it into the oven again to set the glaze.
Short crust merely requires a little sifted sugar sprinkled over it
before being sent to table. Green apricots make very good tarts, but
they should be boiled with a little sugar and water before they are
covered with the crust. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, in full
season, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in August,
September, and October; green ones rather earlier.


APRICOTS, Compôte of (an elegant Dish).

_Ingredients._—½ pint of syrup (_see_ SYRUP), 12 green apricots.
_Mode._—Make the syrup by the given recipe, and, when it is ready,
put in the apricots whilst the syrup is boiling. Simmer them very
gently until tender, taking care not to let them break; take them out
carefully, arrange them on a glass dish, let the syrup cool a little,
pour it over the apricots, and, when cold, serve. _Time._—From 15 to 20
minutes to simmer the apricots. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for
4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in June and July, with green apricots.


APRICOTS, Flanc of, or Compôte of Apricots in a Raised Crust (Sweet
Entremets).

_Ingredients._—¾ lb. of short crust (_see_ CRUST), from 9 to 12
good-sized apricots, ¾ pint of water, ½ lb. of sugar. _Mode._—Make a
short crust by the given recipe, and line a mould with it. Boil the
sugar and water together for 10 minutes; halve the apricots, take out
the stones, and simmer them in the syrup until tender; watch them
carefully, and take them up, for fear they should break. Arrange them
neatly in the flanc or case; boil the syrup until reduced to a jelly;
pour it over the fruit, and serve either hot or cold. Greengages,
plums of all kinds, peaches, &c., may be done in the same manner, as
also currants, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, &c.; but with
the last-named fruits, a little currant-juice added to them will be
found an improvement. _Time._—Altogether, 1 hour to bake the flanc,
from 15 to 20 minutes to simmer the apricots. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1 entremets or side-dish. _Seasonable_ in July,
August, and September.

The pretty appearance of this dish depends on the fruit being whole; as
each apricot is done, it should be taken out of the syrup immediately.


APRIL—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                  Spring Soup,
                  removed by Salmon
                  and Lobster Sauce.

  Fillets             Vase of         Fried
  of Mackerel.        Flowers.        Smelts.

                  Soles à la Crême.

_Second Course._

                  Roast Ribs of Lamb.

                  Larded Capon.

  Stewed Beef         Vase of         Boiled
  à la                Flowers.        Ham.
  Jardinière.

                  Spring Chickens.

                  Braised Turkey.

_Entrées._

                  Lamb Cutlets,
                  Asparagus and Peas.

  Curried             Vase of         Oyster
  Lobster.            Flowers.        Patties.

                  Grenadines de Veau.

_Third Course._

                  Ducklings,
                  removed by
                  Cabinet Pudding.

                  Charlotte
  Raspberry-Jam   à la Parisienne.    Rhubarb Tart.
  Tartlets.

            Clear     Vase of     Orange
            Jelly.    Flowers.    Jelly.

  Victoria                            Cheesecakes.
  Sandwiches.

                  Raspberry Cream.

                  Nesselrode Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.



Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Soup à la reine; julienne soup; turbot and lobster
sauce; slices of salmon à la genévése. _Entrées._—Croquettes of
leveret; fricandeau de veau; vol-au-vent; stewed mushrooms. _Second
Course._—Fore-quarter of lamb; saddle of mutton; boiled chickens,
asparagus and peas; boiled tongue garnished with tufts of broccoli;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Ducklings; larded guinea-fowls; charlotte
à la parisienne; orange jelly; meringues; ratafia ice pudding; lobster
salad; sea-kale; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Gravy soup; salmon and dressed cucumber; shrimp sauce;
fillets of whitings. _Entrées._—Lobster cutlets; chicken patties.
_Second Course._—Roast fillet of veal; boiled leg of lamb; ham,
garnished with broccoli; vegetables. _Third Course._—Ducklings; compôte
of rhubarb; custards; vanilla cream; orange jelly; cabinet pudding; ice
pudding; dessert.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Spring soup; slices of salmon and caper sauce; fried
filleted soles. _Entrées._—Chicken vol-au-vent; mutton cutlets and
tomato sauce. _Second Course._—Roast loin of veal; boiled fowls à la
béchamel; tongue; vegetables. _Third Course._—Guinea-fowls; sea-kale;
artichoke bottoms; cabinet pudding; blancmange; apricot tartlets; rice
fritters; macaroni and Parmesan cheese; dessert.


Dinners for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Tapioca soup; boiled salmon and lobster sauce.
_Entrées._—Sweetbreads; oyster patties. _Second Course._—Haunch of
mutton; boiled capon and white sauce; tongue; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Soufflé of rice; lemon cream; charlotte à la parisienne;
rhubarb tart; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Julienne soup; fried whitings; red mullet.
_Entrées._—Lamb cutlets and cucumbers; rissoles. _Second Course._—Roast
ribs of beef; neck of veal à la béchamel; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Ducklings; lemon pudding; rhubarb tart; custards; cheesecakes;
dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; brill and shrimp sauce.
_Entrées._—Fricandeau of veal; lobster cutlets. _Second Course._—Roast
fore-quarter of lamb; boiled chickens; tongue; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Goslings; sea-kale; plum pudding; whipped cream; compôte of
rhubarb; cheesecakes; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Ox-tail soup; crimped salmon. _Entrées._—Croquettes
of chicken; mutton cutlets and soubise sauce. _Second Course._—Roast
fillet of veal; boiled bacon-cheek, garnished with sprouts; boiled
capon; vegetables. _Third Course._—Sea-kale; lobster salad; cabinet
pudding; ginger cream; raspberry-jam tartlets; rhubarb tart; macaroni;
dessert.


APRIL, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Clear gravy soup. 2. Roast haunch of mutton, sea-kale,
potatoes. 3. Rhubarb tart, custards in glasses.

_Monday._—1. Crimped skate and caper sauce. 2. Boiled knuckle of veal
and rice, cold mutton, mashed potatoes. 3. Baked plum-pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Vegetable soup. 2. Toad-in-the-hole, made from remains of
cold mutton. 3. Stewed rhubarb and baked custard puddings.

_Wednesday._—1. Fried soles, anchovy sauce. 2. Boiled beef and carrots,
suet dumplings. 3. Lemon pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Pea-soup, made with liquor that beef was boiled in.
2. Cold beef, mashed potatoes, mutton cutlets and tomato sauce. 3.
Macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Bubble-and-squeak made with remains of cold beef, roast
shoulder of veal stuffed, spinach and potatoes. 2. Boiled batter
pudding and sweet sauce.

_Saturday._—1. Stewed veal with vegetables, made of remains of cold
shoulder, broiled rump-steak and oyster sauce. 2. Yeast dumplings.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—Boiled salmon and dressed cucumber, anchovy sauce. 2. Roast
fore-quarter of lamb, spinach, potatoes, and mint sauce. 3. Rhubarb
tart and cheesecakes.

_Monday._—Curried salmon, made with remains of salmon, dish of boiled
rice. 2. Cold lamb, rump-steak and kidney pudding, potatoes. 3. Spinach
and poached eggs.

_Tuesday._—1. Scotch mutton broth with pearl barley. 2. Boiled neck of
mutton, caper sauce, suet dumplings, carrots. 3. Baked rice puddings.

_Wednesday._—1. Boiled mackerel and melted butter and fennel sauce,
potatoes. 2. Roast fillet of veal, bacon and greens. 3. Fig pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Flemish soup. 2. Roast loin of mutton, broccoli,
potatoes, veal rolls made from remains of cold veal. 3. Boiled rhubarb
pudding.

_Friday._—1. Irish stew or haricot for cold mutton, minced veal. 2.
Half-pay pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak pie, broiled mutton chops. 2. Baked arrowroot
pudding.


APRIL, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Brill, carp, cockles, crabs, dory, flounders, ling, lobsters,
red and grey mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, prawns, salmon (but
rather scarce and expensive), shad, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles,
tench, turbot, whitings.

_Meat._—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal.

_Poultry._—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, pigeons, pullets, rabbits.

_Game._—Leverets.

_Vegetables._—Broccoli, celery, lettuces, young onions, parsnips,
radishes, small salad, sea-kale, spinach, sprouts, various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples, nuts, pears, forced cherries, &c. for tarts, rhubarb,
dried fruits, crystallized preserves.


ARROWROOT BISCUITS, or Drops.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of butter, 6 eggs, ½ lb. of flour, 6 oz. of
arrowroot, ½ lb. of pounded loaf sugar. _Mode._—Beat the butter to a
cream; whisk the eggs to a strong froth, add them to the butter, stir
in the flour a little at a time, and beat the mixture well. Break down
all the lumps from the arrowroot, and add that with the sugar to the
other ingredients. Mix all well together, drop the dough on a buttered
tin, in pieces the size of a shilling, and bake the biscuits about
¼ hour in a slow oven. If the whites of the eggs are separated from
the yolks, and both are beaten separately before being added to the
other ingredients, the biscuits will be much lighter. _Time._—¼ hour.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to make from 3 to 4 dozen
biscuits. _Seasonable_ at any time.


ARROWROOT BLANCMANGE (an inexpensive Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—4 heaped tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1½ pint of milk,
3 laurel-leaves or the rind of ½ lemon, sugar to taste. _Mode._—Mix to
a smooth batter the arrowroot with ½ pint of the milk; put the other
pint on the fire, with laurel-leaves or lemon-peel, whichever may be
preferred, and let the milk steep until it is well flavoured; then
strain the milk, and add it, boiling, to the mixed arrowroot; sweeten
it with sifted sugar, and let it boil, stirring it all the time, till
it thickens sufficiently to come from the saucepan. Grease a mould with
pure salad-oil, pour in the blancmange, and, when quite set, turn it
out on a dish, and pour round it a compôte of any kind of fruit, or
garnish it with jam. A tablespoonful of brandy, stirred in just before
the blancmange is moulded, very much improves the flavour of this sweet
dish. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ without the
garnishing. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


ARROWROOT PUDDING, Baked or Boiled.

_Ingredients._—2 tablespoonfuls of arrowroot, 1½ pint of milk, 1 oz. of
butter, the rind of ½ lemon, 2 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar,
a little grated nutmeg. _Mode._—Mix the arrowroot with as much cold
milk as will make it into a smooth batter, moderately thick; put the
remainder of the milk into a stewpan with the lemon-peel, and let it
infuse for about ½ hour; when it boils, strain it gently to the batter,
stirring it all the time to keep it smooth; then add the butter; beat
this well in until thoroughly mixed, and sweeten with moist sugar.
Put the mixture into a pie-dish, round which has been placed a border
of paste; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and bake the pudding
from 1 to 1¼ hour, in a moderate oven, or boil it the same length of
time in a well-buttered basin. To enrich this pudding, stir to the
other ingredients, just before it is put in the oven, 3 well-whisked
eggs, and add a tablespoonful of brandy. For a nursery pudding, the
addition of the latter ingredients will be found quite superfluous,
as also the paste round the edge of the dish. _Time._—1 to 1¼ hour,
baked or boiled. _Average cost_, 7_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


ARROWROOT SAUCE, for Puddings.

_Ingredients._—2 small teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, 4 dessertspoonfuls of
pounded sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, ½
pint of water. _Mode._—Mix the arrowroot smoothly with the water; put
this into a stewpan; add the sugar, strained lemon-juice, and grated
nutmeg. Stir these ingredients over the fire until they boil, when
the sauce is ready for use. A small quantity of wine, or any liqueur,
would very much improve the flavour of this sauce: it is usually served
with bread, rice, custard, or any dry pudding that is not very rich.
_Time._—Altogether, 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 4_d._ _Sufficient_ for
6 or 7 persons.


ARROWROOT, to make.

_Ingredients._—Two teaspoonfuls of arrowroot, 3 tablespoonfuls of cold
water, ½ pint of boiling water. _Mode._—Mix the arrowroot smoothly
in a basin with the cold water, then pour on it the _boiling_ water,
_stirring_ all the time. The water must be _boiling_ at the time it
is poured on the mixture, or it will not thicken; if mixed with hot
water only, it must be put into a clean saucepan, and boiled until it
thickens; but this occasions more trouble, and is quite unnecessary,
if the water is boiling at first. Put the arrowroot into a tumbler,
sweeten it with lump sugar, and flavour it with grated nutmeg or
cinnamon, or a piece of lemon-peel, or, when allowed, 3 tablespoonfuls
of port or sherry. As arrowroot is in itself flavourless and insipid,
it is almost necessary to add the wine to make it palatable. Arrowroot
made with milk instead of water is far nicer, but is not so easily
digested. It should be mixed in the same manner, with 3 tablespoonfuls
of cold water, the boiling milk then poured on it, and well stirred.
When made in this manner, no wine should be added, but merely sugar,
and a little grated nutmeg or lemon-peel. _Time._—If obliged to be
boiled, 2 minutes. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per pint. _Sufficient_ to make
½ pint of arrowroot.


ARTICHOKES, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt, a piece of soda the size of a shilling; artichokes.
_Mode._—Wash the artichokes well in several waters; see that no insects
remain about them, and trim away the leaves at the bottom. Cut off
the stems and put them into _boiling_ water, to which has been added
salt and soda in the above proportion. Keep the saucepan uncovered,
and let them boil quickly until tender; ascertain when they are done
by thrusting a fork in them, or by trying if the leaves can be easily
removed. Take them out, let them drain for a minute or two, and serve
in a napkin, or with a little white sauce poured over. A tureen of
melted butter should accompany them. This vegetable, unlike any other,
is considered better for being gathered two or three days; but they
must be well soaked and washed previous to dressing. _Time._—20 to 25
minutes, after the water boils. _Sufficient_,—a dish of 5 or 6 for 4
persons. _Seasonable_ from July to the beginning of September.

[Illustration: ARTICHOKES.]

[Illustration: JERUSALEM ARTICHOKES.]


ARTICHOKES, a French Mode of Cooking.

_Ingredients._—5 or 6 artichokes; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1
heaped tablespoonful of salt, ½ teaspoonful of pepper, 1 bunch of
savoury herbs, 2 oz. of butter. _Mode._—Cut the ends of the leaves, as
also the stems; put the artichokes into boiling water, with the above
proportion of salt, pepper, herbs, and butter; let them boil quickly
until tender, keeping the lid of the saucepan off, and when the leaves
come out easily, they are cooked enough. To keep them a beautiful
green, put a large piece of cinder into a muslin bag, and let it boil
with them. Serve with plain melted butter. _Time._—20 to 25 minutes.
_Sufficient_,—5 or 6 sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from
July to the beginning of September.


ARTICHOKES. Fried (Entremets, or small dish to be served with the
Second Course).

_Ingredients._—5 or 6 artichokes, salt and water: for the batter,—¼
lb. of flour, a little salt, the yolk of 1 egg, milk. _Mode._—Trim and
boil the artichokes, and rub them over with lemon-juice, to keep them
white. When they are quite tender, take them up, remove the chokes,
and divide the bottoms; dip each piece into batter, fry them into hot
lard or dripping, and garnish the dish with crisped parsley. Serve
with plain melted butter. _Time._—20 minutes to boil the artichokes,
5 to 7 minutes to fry them. _Sufficient_,—5 or 6 for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ from July to the beginning of September.


ARTICHOKES à l’Italienne.

_Ingredients._—4 or 5 artichokes, salt and butter, about ½ pint of good
gravy. _Mode._—Trim and cut the artichokes into quarters, and boil
them until tender in water mixed with a little salt and butter. When
done, drain them well, and lay them all round the dish, with the leaves
outside. Have ready some good gravy, highly flavoured with mushrooms;
reduce it until quite thick, and pour it round the artichokes, and
serve. _Time._—20 to 25 minutes to boil the artichokes. _Sufficient_
for one side-dish. _Seasonable_ from July to the beginning of September.


ARTICHOKES, Boiled Jerusalem.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt; artichokes. _Mode._—Wash, peel, and shape the artichokes in
a round or oval form, and put them into a saucepan with sufficient
_cold_ water to cover them salted in the above proportion. Let them
boil gently until tender; take them up, drain them, and serve them
in a napkin, or plain, whichever mode is preferred; send to table
with them a tureen of melted butter or cream sauce, a little of which
may be poured over the artichokes when they are _not_ served in a
napkin. _Time._—About twenty minutes after the water boils. _Average
cost_, 2_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_,—10 for a dish for 6 persons.
_Seasonable._—from September to June.


ARTICHOKES, Mashed Jerusalem.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 oz. of salt, 15 or 16
artichokes, 1 oz. butter, pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Boil the
artichokes as in the preceding recipe until tender; drain and press
the water from them, and beat them up with a fork. When thoroughly
mashed and free from lumps, put them into a saucepan with the butter
and a seasoning of _white_ pepper and salt; keep stirring over the fire
until the artichokes are quite hot, and serve. A pretty way of serving
Jerusalem artichokes as an entremets, or second course dish, is to
shape the artichokes in the form of a pear, and to serve them covered
with white sauce, garnished with Brussels sprouts. _Time._—About 20
minutes. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.
_Seasonable_ from September to June.


ARTICHOKE (Jerusalem) SOUP, sometimes called Palestine Soup (a White
Soup).

_Ingredients._—3 slices of lean bacon or ham, ½ a head of celery, 1
turnip, 1 onion, 3 oz. of butter, 4 lbs. of artichokes, 1 pint of
boiling milk, or 1 pint of boiling cream, salt and cayenne to taste,
2 lumps of sugar, 2½ quarts of white stock. _Mode._—Put the bacon and
vegetables, which should be cut into thin slices, into the stewpan with
the butter. Braise these for ¼ of an hour, keeping them well stirred.
Wash and pare the artichokes, and after cutting them into thin slices,
add them, with a pint of stock, to the other ingredients. When these
have gently stewed down to a smooth pulp, put in the remainder of the
stock. Stir it well, adding the seasoning, and when it has simmered for
five minutes, pass it through a strainer. Now pour it back into the
stewpan, let it again simmer five minutes, taking care to skim it well,
and stir it to the boiling milk or cream. Serve with small sippets of
bread fried in butter. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_ per quart, 1_s._
2_d._ _Seasonable_ from June to October. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


ASPARAGUS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt; asparagus. _Mode._—Asparagus should be dressed as soon as
possible after it is cut, although it may be kept for a day or two by
putting the stalks into cold water; yet to be good, like every other
vegetable, it cannot be cooked too fresh. Scrape the white part of the
stems, _beginning_ from the _head_, and throw them into cold water;
then tie them into bundles of about 20 each, keeping the heads all one
way, and cut the stalks evenly, that they may all be the same length;
put them into _boiling_ water, with salt in the above proportion; keep
them boiling quickly until tender, with the saucepan uncovered. When
the asparagus is done, dish it upon toast, which should be dipped in
the water it was cooked in, and leave the white ends outward each way,
with the points meeting in the middle. Serve with a tureen of melted
butter. _Time._—15 to 18 minutes after the water boils. _Average cost_,
in full season, 2_s._ 6_d._ the 100 heads. _Sufficient._—Allow about 50
heads for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable._—May be had forced from January,
but cheapest in May, June and July.

[Illustration: BOILED ASPARAGUS.]

[Illustration: ASPARAGUS TONGS.]


ASPARAGUS-PEAS (Entremets, or to be served as a Side Dish, with the
Second Course).

_Ingredients._—100 heads of asparagus, 2 oz. of butter, a small bunch
of parsley, 2 or 3 green onions, flour, 1 lump of sugar, the yolks of
2 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt. _Mode._—Carefully scrape the
asparagus, cut it into pieces of an equal size, avoiding that which is
in the least hard or tough, and throw them into cold water. Then boil
the asparagus in salt and water until three-parts done; take it out,
drain, and place it on a cloth to dry the moisture away from it. Put
it into a stewpan with the butter, parsley, and onions, and shake over
a brisk fire for 10 minutes. Dredge in a little flour, add the sugar,
and moisten with boiling water. When boiled a short time and reduced,
take out the parsley and onions, thicken with the yolks of 2 eggs
beaten with the cream; add a seasoning of salt, and when the whole is
on the point of simmering, serve. Make the sauce sufficiently thick to
adhere to the vegetable. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 6_d._ a pint. _Seasonable_ in May, June, and July.


ASPARAGUS PUDDING (a delicious Dish, to be served with the Second
Course).

_Ingredients._—½ pint of asparagus peas, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of
flour, 1 tablespoonful of _very finely_ minced ham, 1 oz. of butter,
pepper and salt to taste, milk. _Mode._—Cut up the nice green tender
parts of asparagus, about the size of peas; put them into a basin with
the eggs, which should be well beaten, and the flour, ham, butter,
pepper, and salt. Mix all these ingredients well together, and moisten
with sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick
batter; put it into a pint buttered mould, tie it down tightly with
a floured cloth, place it in _boiling water_, and let it boil for 2
hours; turn it out of the mould on to a hot dish, and pour plain melted
butter _round_, but not over, the pudding. Green peas pudding may be
made in exactly the same manner, substituting peas for the asparagus.
_Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ per pint. _Seasonable_ in
May, June, and July.


ASPARAGUS SOUP.

_Ingredients._—100 heads of asparagus, 2 quarts of medium stock (see
STOCK), 1 pint of water, salt. _Mode._—Scrape the asparagus, but do not
cut off any of the stems, and boil it in a pint of water salted, _until
the heads are nearly done_. Then drain the asparagus, cut off the green
heads very neatly, and put them on one side until the soup is ready. If
the stock is not made, add the stems of asparagus to the rest of the
vegetables; if, however, the stock is ready, boil the stems a little
longer in the same water that they were first cooked in. Then strain
them off, add the asparagus water to the stock, and when all is boiling
drop in the green heads (or peas as they are called), and simmer for 2
or 3 minutes. If the soup boils long after the asparagus is put in, the
appearance of the vegetable would be quite spoiled. A small quantity
of sherry, added after the soup is put into the tureen, would improve
this soup very much. Sometimes a French roll is cut up and served in
it. _Time._—_To nearly cook_ the asparagus, 12 minutes. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 9_d._ per quart. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_
from May to August.


ASPIC, or Ornamental Savoury Jelly.

_Ingredients._—4 lbs. of knuckle of veal, 1 cow-heel, 3 or 4 slices of
ham, any poultry trimmings, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 1 faggot of savoury
herbs, 1 glass of sherry, 3 quarts of water; seasoning to taste of
salt and whole white pepper; 3 eggs. _Mode._—Lay the ham on the bottom
of a stewpan, cut up the veal and cow-heel into small pieces, and
lay them on the ham; add the poultry trimmings, vegetables, herbs,
sherry, and water, and let the whole simmer very gently for 4 hours,
carefully taking away all scum that may rise to the surface; strain
through a fine sieve, and pour into an earthen pan to get cold. Have
ready a clean stewpan, put in the jelly, and be particular to leave the
sediment behind, or it will not be clear. Add the whites of 3 eggs,
with salt and pepper, to clarify; keep stirring over the fire till
the whole becomes very white; then draw it to the side, and let it
stand till clear. When this is the case, strain it through a cloth or
jelly-bag, and use it for moulding poultry, &c. Tarragon vinegar may
be added to give an additional flavour. _Time._—Altogether 4½ hours.
_Average cost_ for this quantity, 4_s._


AUGUST—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                  Mock-Turtle Soup,
                  removed by
                  Broiled Salmon and
                  Caper Sauce.

                  Vase of
  Red Mullet.     Flowers.         Perch.

                  Soup à la Julienne,
                  removed by
                  Brill and Shrimp Sauce.

_Second Course._

                            Haunch of Venison.

                            Ham, garnished.

                            Vase of
  Capons à la Financière.   Flowers.          Roast Fowls.

                            Leveret Pie.

                            Saddle of Mutton.


_Entrées._

                     Fricandeau de Veau
                     à la Jardinière.

                     Vase of            Lamb Cutlets à la Purée
  Curried Lobster.   Flowers.           de Pommes de Terre.

                     Fillets of Ducks
                     and Peas.


_Third Course._

  Lobster            Grouse                Cheesecakes.
  Salad.             removed by
                     Cabinet Pudding.

                     Fruit Jelly.

     Charlotte       Vase of            Custards.
     à la            Flowers.
     Vanille.
                     Vol-au-Vent of
                     Pears.

                     Larded Peahen,
  Raspberry          removed by               Prawns.
  Tartlets.          Iced Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; soup à la reine; boiled salmon;
fried flounders; trout en matelot. _Entrées._—Stewed pigeons;
sweetbreads; ragoût of ducks; fillets of chickens and mushrooms.
_Second Course._—Quarter of lamb; cotellette de bœuf à la jardinière;
roast fowls and boiled tongue; bacon and beans. _Third Course._—Grouse;
wheatears; greengage tart; whipped cream; vol-au-vent of plums; fruit
jelly; iced pudding; cabinet pudding; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Julienne soup; fillets of turbot and Dutch sauce; red
mullet. _Entrées._—Riz de veau aux tomates; fillets of ducks and peas.
_Second Course._—Haunch of venison; boiled capon and oysters; ham,
garnished; vegetables. _Third Course._—Leveret; fruit jelly; compôte of
greengages; plum tart; custards, in glasses; omelette soufflé; dessert
and ices.


Dinner for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Macaroni soup; crimped salmon and sauce Hollandaise;
fried fillets of trout. _Entrées._—Tendrons do veau and stewed peas;
salmi of grouse. _Second Course._—Roast loin of veal; boiled bacon,
garnished with French beans; stewed beef à la jardinière; vegetables.
_Third Course._—Turkey poult; plum tart; custard pudding; vol-au-vent
of pears; strawberry cream; ratafia soufflé; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Vegetable-marrow soup; stewed mullet; fillets of
salmon and ravigotte sauce. _Entrées._—Curried lobster; fricandeau de
veau à la jardinière. _Second Course._—Roast saddle of mutton; stewed
shoulder of veal, garnished with forcemeat balls; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Roast grouse and bread sauce; vol-au-vent of greengages; fruit
jelly; raspberry cream; custards; fig pudding; dessert.


AUGUST, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Vegetable-marrow soup. 2. Roast quarter of lamb, mint
sauce; French beans and potatoes. 3. Raspberry-and-currant tart,
custard pudding.

_Monday._—1. Cold lamb and salad, small meat-pie, vegetable marrow, and
white sauce. 2. Lemon dumplings.

_Tuesday._—1. Boiled mackerel. 2. Stewed loin of veal, French beans and
potatoes, 3. Baked raspberry pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Vegetable soup. 2. Lamb cutlets and French beans;
the remains of stewed shoulder of veal, mashed vegetable marrow. 3.
Black-currant pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Roast ribs of beef, Yorkshire pudding, French beans and
potatoes. 2. Bread-and-butter pudding.

_Friday._—1. Fried soles and melted butter. 2. Cold beef and salad,
lamb cutlets and mashed potatoes. 3. Cauliflowers and white sauce
instead of pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Stewed beef and vegetables, with remains of cold beef;
mutton pudding. 2. Macaroni and cheese.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Salmon pudding. 2. Roast fillet of veal, boiled
bacon-cheek garnished with tufts of cauliflowers, French beans and
potatoes. 3. Plum tart, boiled custard pudding.

_Monday._—1. Baked soles. 2. Cold veal and bacon, salad, mutton cutlets
and tomato sauce. 3. Boiled currant pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Rice soup. 2. Roast fowls and water-cresses, boiled
knuckle of ham, minced veal garnished with croûtons; vegetables. 3.
College pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Curried fowl with remains of cold fowl; dish of rice,
stewed rump-steak and vegetables. 2. Plum tart.

_Thursday._—1. Boiled brisket of beef, carrots, turnips, suet
dumplings, and potatoes. 2. Baked bread pudding.

_Friday._—1. Vegetable soup, made from liquor that beef was boiled in.
2. Cold beef and dressed cucumber, veal cutlets and tomato sauce. 3.
Fondue.

_Saturday._—1. Bubble-and-squeak, made from remains of cold beef; cold
veal-and-ham pie, salad. 2. Baked raspberry pudding.


AUGUST, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Brill, carp, chub, crayfish, crabs, dory, eels, flounders,
grigs, herrings, lobsters, mullet, pike, prawns, salmon, shrimps,
skate, soles, sturgeon, thornback, trout, turbot.

_Meat._—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

_Poultry._—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, pigeons, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks.

_Game._—Leverets, grouse, black-cock.

_Vegetables._—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, carrots, cabbages,
cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions,
peas, potatoes, radishes, sea-kale, small salading, sprouts, turnips,
various kitchen herbs, vegetable marrows.

_Fruit._—Currants, figs, filberts, gooseberries, grapes, melons,
mulberries, nectarines, peaches, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries,
walnuts.


BACON, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Bacon; water. _Mode._—As bacon is frequently excessively
salt, let it be soaked in warm water for an hour or two previous to
dressing it; then pare off the rusty parts, and scrape the under-side
and rind as clean as possible. Put it into a saucepan of cold water;
let it come gradually to a boil, and as fast as the scum rises to
the surface of the water, remove it. Let it simmer very gently until
it is _thoroughly_ done; then take it up, strip off the skin, and
sprinkle over the bacon a few bread raspings, and garnish with tufts of
cauliflower or Brussels sprouts. When served alone, young and tender
broad beans or green peas are the usual accompaniments. _Time._—1 lb.
of bacon, ¾ hour; 2 lbs., 1½ hour. _Average cost,_ 10_d._ to 1_s._
per lb. for the primest parts. _Sufficient._—2 lbs., when served with
poultry or veal, sufficient for 10 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: BOILED BACON.]


BACON, Broiled Rashers of.

Before purchasing bacon, ascertain that it is perfectly free from rust,
which may easily be detected by its yellow colour; and for broiling,
the streaked part of the thick flank is generally the most esteemed.
Cut it into _thin_ slices, take off the rind, and broil over a nice
clear fire; turn it two or three times, and serve very hot. Should
there be any cold bacon left from the previous day, it answers very
well for breakfast, cut into slices, and broiled or fried. _Time._—3
or 4 minutes. _Average cost_, 10_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. for the primest
parts. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—When the bacon is cut very thin, the slices may be curled round
and fastened by means of small skewers, and fried or toasted before
the fire.


BACON and HAMS, Curing of.

The carcass of the hog, after hanging over-night to cool, is laid on
a strong bench or stool, and the head is separated from the body at
the neck close behind the ears; the feet and also the internal fat are
removed. The carcass is next divided into two sides in the following
manner:—The ribs are divided about an inch from the spine on each side,
and the spine, with the ends of the ribs attached, together with the
internal flesh between it and the kidneys, and also the flesh above it,
throughout the whole length of the sides, are removed. The portion of
the carcass thus cut out is in the form of a wedge—the breadth of the
interior consisting of the breadth of the spine, and about an inch of
the ribs on each side, being diminished to about half an inch at the
exterior or skin along the back. The breastbone, and also the first
anterior rib, are also dissected from the side. Sometimes the whole of
the ribs are removed; but this, for reasons afterwards to be noticed,
is a very bad practice. When the hams are cured separately from the
sides, which is generally the case, they are cut out so as to include
the hock-bone, in a similar manner to the London mode of cutting a
haunch of mutton. The carcass of the hog thus cut up is ready for being
salted, which process, in large curing establishments, is generally as
follows:—The skin side of the pork is rubbed over with a mixture of
fifty parts by weight of salt, and one part of saltpetre in powder, and
the incised parts of the ham or flitch, and the inside of the flitch,
covered with the same. The salted bacon, in pairs of flitches with the
insides to each other, is piled one pair of flitches above another on
benches slightly inclined, and furnished with spouts or troughs to
convey the brine to receivers in the floor of the salting-house, to be
afterwards used for pickling pork for navy purposes. In this state the
bacon remains a fortnight, which is sufficient for flitches cut from
hogs of a carcass weight less than 15 stone (14 lbs. to the stone).
Flitches of a larger size, at the expiration of that time, are wiped
dry and reversed in their place in the pile, having, at the same time,
about half the first quantity of fresh, dry, common salt sprinkled over
the inside and incised parts; after which they remain on the benches
for another week. Hams being thicker than flitches, will require,
when less than 20 lbs. weight, 3 weeks; and when above that weight, 4
weeks to remain under the above described process. The next and last
process in the preparation of bacon and hams, previous to being sent to
market, is drying. This is effected by hanging the flitches and hams
for 2 or 3 weeks in a room heated by stoves, or in a smoke-house, in
which they are exposed for the same length of time to the smoke arising
from the slow combustion of the sawdust of oak or other hard wood. The
latter mode of completing the curing process has some advantages over
the other, as by it the meat is subject to the action of _creosote_,
a volatile oil produced by the combustion of the sawdust, which is
powerfully antiseptic. The process also furnishing a thin covering of
a resinous varnish, excludes the air not only from the muscle, but
also from the fat—thus effectually preventing the meat from becoming
rusted; and the principal reasons for condemning the practice of
removing the ribs from the flitches of pork are, that by so doing the
meat becomes unpleasantly hard and pungent in the process of salting,
and, by being more exposed to the action of the air, becomes sooner
and more extensively rusted. Notwithstanding its superior efficacy
in completing the process of curing, the flavour which smoke-drying
imparts to meat is disliked by many persons, and it is therefore by no
means the most general mode of drying adopted by mercantile curers. A
very impure variety of _pyroligneous_ acid, or vinegar made from the
destructive distillation of wood, is sometimes used, on account of
the highly preservative power of the creosote which it contains, and
also to impart the smoke-flavour; in which latter object, however, the
coarse flavour of tar is given, rather than that derived from the smoke
from combustion of wood. A considerable portion of the bacon and hams
salted in Ireland is exported from that country packed amongst salt,
in bales, immediately from the salting process, without having been in
any degree dried. In the process of salting above described, pork loses
from 8 to 10 per cent of its weight, according to the size and quality
of the meat; and a further diminution of weight, to the extent of 5
to 6 per cent. takes place in drying during the first fortnight after
being taken out of salt; so that the total loss in weight occasioned by
the preparation of bacon and hams in a proper state for market, is not
less on an average than 15 per cent. on the weight of the fresh pork.


BACON, to Cure and Keep it free from Rust (Cobbett’s Recipe).

The two sides that remain, and which are called flitches, are to be
cured for bacon. They are first rubbed with salt on their insides, or
flesh sides, then placed one on the other, the flesh sides uppermost,
in a salting-trough which has a gutter round its edges to drain away
the brine; for, to have sweet and fine bacon, the flitches must not be
sopping in brine, which gives it the sort of vile taste that barrel
and sea pork have. Every one knows how different is the taste of fresh
dry salt from that of salt in a dissolved state; therefore change the
salt often,—once in 4 or 5 days; let it melt and sink in, but not lie
too long; twice change the flitches, put that at bottom which was first
on the top: this mode will cost you a great deal more in salt than the
sopping mode, but without it your bacon will not be so sweet and fine,
nor keep so well. As for the time required in making your flitches
sufficiently salt, it depends on circumstances. It takes a longer time
for a thick than a thin flitch, and longer in dry than in damp weather,
or in a dry than in a damp place; but for the flitches of a hog of five
score, in weather not very dry or damp, about 6 weeks may do; and as
yours is to be fat, which receives little injury from over-salting,
give time enough, for you are to have bacon until Christmas comes
again. The place for salting should, like a dairy, always be cool, but
well ventilated; confined air, though cool, will taint meat sooner than
the midday sun accompanied by a breeze. With regard to smoking the
bacon, two precautions are necessary: first, to hang the flitches where
no rain comes down upon them; and next, that the smoke must proceed
from wood, not peat, turf, or coal. As to the time required to smoke a
flitch, it depends a good deal upon whether there be a constant fire
beneath; and whether the fire be large or small: a month will do, if
the fire be pretty constant and rich, as a farm-house fire usually is;
but over-smoking, or rather too long hanging in the air, makes the
bacon rust; great attention should therefore be paid to this matter.
The flitch ought not to be dried up to the hardness of a board, and
yet it ought to be perfectly dry. Before you hang it up, lay it on the
floor, scatter the flesh side pretty thickly over with bran, or with
some fine sawdust, not of deal or fir; rub it on the flesh, or pat it
well down upon it: this keeps the smoke from getting into the little
openings, and makes a sort of crust to be dried on. To keep the bacon
sweet and good, and free from hoppers, sift fine some clean and dry
wood ashes. Put some at the bottom of a box or chest long enough to
hold a flitch of bacon; lay in one flitch, then put in more ashes, then
another flitch, and cover this with six or eight inches of the ashes.
The place where the box or chest is kept ought to be dry, and, should
the ashes become damp, they should be put in the fireplace to dry, and
when cold, put back again. With these precautions, the bacon will be
as good at the end of the year as on the first day. For simple general
rules, these may be safely taken as a guide; and those who implicitly
follow the directions given, will possess at the expiration of from 6
weeks to 2 months well-flavoured and well-cured bacon.


BACON or HAMS, to Cure in the Devonshire way.

_Ingredients._—To every 14 lbs. of meat allow 2 oz. of saltpetre, 2
oz. of salt prunella, 1 lb. of common salt. For the pickle, 3 gallons
of water, 5 lbs. of common salt, 7 lbs. of coarse sugar, 3 lbs. of bay
salt. _Mode._—Weigh the sides, hams, and cheeks, and to every 14 lbs.
allow the above proportion of saltpetre, salt prunella, and common
salt. Pound and mix these together, and rub well into the meat; lay it
in a stone trough or tub, rubbing it thoroughly, and turning it daily
for two successive days. At the end of the second day, pour on it a
pickle made as follows:—Put the above ingredients into a saucepan, set
it on the fire, and stir frequently; remove all the scum, allow it to
boil for ¼ hour, and pour it hot over the meat. Let the hams, &c., be
well rubbed and turned daily; if the meat is small, a fortnight will
be sufficient for the sides and shoulders to remain in the pickle,
and the hams 3 weeks; if from 30 lbs. and upwards, 3 weeks will be
required for the sides, &c., and from 4 to 5 weeks for the hams. On
taking the pieces out, let them drain for an hour, cover with dry
sawdust, and smoke from a fortnight to three weeks. Boil and carefully
skim the pickle after using, and it will keep good, closely corked,
for 2 years. When boiling it for use, add about 2 lbs. of common salt,
and the same of treacle, to allow for waste. Tongues are excellent put
into this pickle cold, having been first rubbed well with saltpetre and
salt, and allowed to remain 24 hours, not forgetting to make a deep
incision under the thick part of the tongue, so as to allow the pickle
to penetrate more readily. A fortnight or three weeks, according to the
size of the tongue, will be sufficient. _Time._—Small meat to remain in
the pickle a fortnight, hams 3 weeks; to be smoked from a fortnight to
3 weeks.


BACON, to Cure in the Wiltshire way.

_Ingredients._—1½ lb. of coarse sugar, ½ lb. of bay salt, 6 oz. of
saltpetre, 1 lb. of common salt. _Mode._—Sprinkle each flitch with
salt, and let the blood drain off for 24 hours; then pound and mix
the above ingredients well together and rub it well into the meat,
which should be turned every day for a month; then hang it to dry, and
afterwards smoke it for 10 days. _Time._—To remain in the pickle from
three to four weeks, to be smoked 10 days, or rather longer.


BACON, Fried Rashers of, and Poached Eggs.

_Ingredients._—Bacon; eggs. _Mode._—Cut the bacon into thin slices,
trim away the rusty parts, and cut off the rind. Put it into a _cold_
frying-pan, that is to say, do not place the pan on the fire before
the bacon is in it. Turn it 2 or 3 times, and dish it on a very hot
dish. Poach the eggs and slip them on to the bacon without breaking
the yolks, and serve quickly. _Time._—3 or 4 minutes. _Average cost_,
10_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. for the primest parts. _Sufficient._—Allow 6
eggs for 3 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time. _Note._—Fried rashers of
bacon, curled, serve as a pretty garnish to many dishes; and, for small
families, answer very well as a substitute for boiled bacon, to serve
with a small dish of poultry, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

=The Bain Marie.=—It is an open kind of vessel, as shown in the
engraving, and is a utensil much used in modern cookery, both in
English and French kitchens. It is filled with boiling or nearly
boiling water; and into this water should be put all the stewpans
containing those ingredients which it is desired to keep hot. The
quantity and quality of the contents of these vessels are not at all
affected; and if the hour of dinner is uncertain in any establishment,
by reason of the nature of the master’s business, nothing is so sure a
means of preserving the flavour of all dishes as the employment of the
bain marie.

[Illustration: THE BAIN MARIE.]


BARBEL.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of port wine, a saltspoonful of salt, 2
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 sliced onions, a faggot of sweet herbs,
nutmeg and mace to taste, the juice of a lemon, 2 anchovies; 1 or 2
barbels, according to size. _Mode._—Boil the barbels in salt and water
till done; pour off some of the water, and to the remainder put the
ingredients mentioned above. Simmer gently for ½ hour or rather more,
and strain. Put in the fish, heat it gradually, but do not let it boil,
or it will be broken. _Time._—Altogether 1 hour. _Sufficient_ for 4
persons. _Seasonable_ from September to November.


BARBERRIES (Berberis vulgaris).

A fruit of such great acidity, that even birds refuse to eat it. In
this respect, it nearly approaches the tamarind. When boiled with
sugar, it makes a very agreeable preserve or jelly, according to the
different modes of preparing it. Barberries are also used as a dry
sweetmeat, and in sugarplums or comfits; are pickled with vinegar, and
are used for various culinary purposes. They are well calculated to
allay heat and thirst in persons afflicted with fevers. The berries,
arranged on bunches of nicely curled parsley, make an exceedingly
pretty garnish for supper dishes, particularly for white meats, like
boiled fowl à la Béchamel, the three colours, scarlet, green, and
white, contrasting well, and producing a very good effect.


BARBERRIES, to preserve in Bunches.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of syrup, barberries. _Mode._—Prepare some small
pieces of clean white wood, 3 inches long and ¼ inch wide, and tie the
fruit on to these in nice bunches. Have ready some clear syrup (_see_
SYRUP); put in the barberries, and simmer them in it for 2 successive
days, boiling them for nearly ½ hour each day, and covering them each
time with the syrup when cold. When the fruit looks perfectly clear it
is sufficiently done, and should be stowed away in pots, with the syrup
poured over, or the fruit may be candied. _Time._—½ hour to simmer each
day. _Seasonable_ in autumn.


BARLEY SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of shin of beef, ¼ lb. of pearl barley, a large
bunch of parsley, 4 onions, 6 potatoes, salt and pepper, 4 quarts of
water. _Mode._—Put in all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 3
hours. _Time._—3 hours. _Average cost_, 2½_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_
all the year, but more suitable for winter.


BARLEY-SUGAR, to make.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of sugar allow ½ pint of water, ½ the white
of an egg. _Mode._—Put the sugar into a well-tinned saucepan, with the
water, and, when the former is dissolved, set it over a moderate fire,
adding the well-beaten egg before the mixture gets warm, and stir it
well together. When it boils, remove the scum as it rises, and keep it
boiling until no more appears, and the syrup looks perfectly clear;
then strain it through a fine sieve or muslin bag, and put it back into
the saucepan. Boil it again like caramel, until it is brittle, when a
little is dropped in a basin of cold water: it is then sufficiently
boiled. Add a little lemon-juice and a few drops of essence of lemon,
and let it stand for a minute or two. Have ready a marble slab or large
dish, rubbed over with salad-oil; pour on it the sugar, and cut it into
strips with a pair of scissors: these strips should then be twisted,
and the barley-sugar stored away in a very dry place. It may be formed
into lozenges or drops, by dropping the sugar in a very small quantity
at a time on to the oiled slab or dish. _Time._—¼ hour. _Average cost_,
7_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 sticks.


BARLEY-WATER, to make.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of pearl barley, 2 quarts of boiling water, 1
pint of cold water. _Mode._—Wash the barley in cold water; put it into
a saucepan with the above proportion of cold water, and when it has
boiled for about ¼ hour, strain off the water, and add the 2 quarts
of fresh boiling water. Boil it until the liquid is reduced one half;
strain it, and it will be ready for use. It may be flavoured with
lemon-peel, after being sweetened, or a small piece may be simmered
with the barley. When the invalid may take it, a little lemon-juice
gives this pleasant drink in illness a very nice flavour; as does also
a small quantity of port wine. _Time._—To boil until the liquid is
reduced one half. _Sufficient_ to make 1 quart of barley-water.


BATTER PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 2 oz. of
butter, 4 eggs, a little salt. _Mode._—Mix the flour with a small
quantity of cold milk; make the remainder hot, and pour it on to
the flour, keeping the mixture well stirred; add the butter, eggs,
and salt; beat the whole well, and put the pudding into a buttered
pie-dish; bake for ¾ hour, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, or
stewed fruit. Baked in small cups, very pretty little puddings may
be made; they should be eaten with the same accompaniments as above.
_Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BATTER PUDDING, Baked, with Dried or Fresh Fruit.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of flour, 3 eggs,
2 oz. of finely-shredded suet, ¼ lb. of currants, a pinch of salt.
_Mode._—Mix the milk, flour, and eggs to a smooth batter; add a
little salt, the suet, and the currants, which should be well washed,
picked, and dried; put the mixture into a buttered pie-dish, and
bake in a moderate oven for 1¼ hour. When fresh fruits are in season,
this pudding is exceedingly nice, with damsons, plums, red currants,
gooseberries, or apples; when made with these, the pudding must be
thickly sprinkled over with sifted sugar. Boiled batter pudding, with
fruit, is made in the same manner, by putting the fruit into a buttered
basin, and filling it up with batter made in the above proportion,
but omitting the suet. It must be sent quickly to table, and covered
plentifully with sifted sugar. _Time._—Baked batter pudding, with
fruit, 1¼ to 1½ hour; boiled ditto, 1½ to 1¾ hour, allowing that both
are made with the above proportion of batter. Smaller puddings will be
done enough in ¾ or 1 hour. _Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 7
or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time, with dried fruits.


BATTER PUDDING, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—3 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, 1 pint of milk, 3
tablespoonfuls of flour, a little salt. _Mode._—Put the flour into a
basin, and add sufficient milk to moisten it; carefully rub down all
the lumps with a spoon, then pour in the remainder of the milk, and
stir in the butter, which should be previously melted; keep beating
the mixture, add the eggs and a pinch of salt, and, when the batter
is quite smooth, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down very
tightly, and put it into boiling water; move the basin about for a few
minutes after it is put into the water, to prevent the flour settling
in any part, and boil for 1¼ hour. This pudding may also be boiled in
a floured cloth that has been wetted in hot water: it will then take
a few minutes less than when boiled in a basin. Send batter puddings
very quickly to table, and serve with sweet sauce, wine sauce, stewed
fruit, or jam of any kind: when the latter is used, a little of it may
be placed round the dish in small quantities, as a garnish. _Time._—1¼
hour in a basin, 1 hour in a cloth. _Average cost_, 7_d._ _Sufficient_
for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BATTER PUDDING, with Orange Marmalade.

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 1½ oz. of loaf sugar, 3
tablespoonfuls of flour. _Mode._—Make the batter with the above
ingredients, put it into a well-buttered basin, tie it down with a
cloth, and boil for 1 hour. As soon as it is turned out of the basin,
put a small jar of orange marmalade all over the top, and send the
pudding very quickly to table. It is advisable to warm the marmalade
to make it liquid. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, with the marmalade,
1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time;
but more suitable for a winter pudding.


BEANS, Boiled Broad or Windsor.

[Illustration: BROAD BEANS.]

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water, allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt; beans. _Mode._—This is a favourite vegetable with many
persons, but, to be nice, should be young and freshly gathered. After
shelling the beans, put them into _boiling_ water, salted in the above
proportion, and let them boil rapidly until tender. Drain them well in
a colander; dish, and serve with them separately a tureen of parsley
and butter. Boiled bacon should always accompany this vegetable, but
the beans should be cooked separately. It is usually served with the
beans laid round, and the parsley and butter in a tureen. Beans also
make an excellent garnish to a ham, and when used for this purpose, if
very old, should have their skins removed. _Time._—Very young beans, 15
minutes; when a moderate size, 20 to 25 minutes, or longer. _Average
cost_, unshelled, 6_d._ per peck. _Sufficient._—Allow one peck for 6 or
7 persons. _Seasonable_ in July and August.


BEANS, Broad, à la Poulette.

_Ingredients._—2 pints of broad beans, ½ pint of stock or broth, a
small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, a small lump of
sugar, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ pint of cream, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Procure some young and freshly-gathered beans, and shell
sufficient to make 2 pints; boil them, as in the preceding recipe,
until nearly done; then drain them and put them into a stewpan with the
stock, finely-minced herbs, and sugar. Stew the beans until perfectly
tender, and the liquor has dried away a little; then beat up the yolk
of an egg with the cream, add this to the beans, let the whole get
thoroughly hot, and when on the point of simmering, serve. Should the
beans be very large, the skin should be removed previously to boiling
them. _Time._—10 minutes to boil the beans, 15 minutes to stew them in
the stock. _Average cost_, unshelled, 6_d._ per peck. _Seasonable_ in
July and August.


BEANS, Boiled French.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt, a very small piece of soda. _Mode._—This vegetable should
always be eaten young, as when allowed to grow too long it tastes
stringy and tough when cooked. Cut off the heads and tails, and a thin
strip on each side of the beans to remove the strings; then divide each
bean into 4 or 6 pieces, according to size, cutting them lengthways in
a slanting direction, and as they are cut put them into cold water,
with a small quantity of salt dissolved in it. Have ready a saucepan
of boiling water, with salt and soda in the above proportion; put in
the beans, keep them boiling quickly, with the lid uncovered, and
be careful that they do not get smoked. When tender, which may be
ascertained by their sinking to the bottom of the saucepan, take them
up, pour them into a colander, and when drained, dish and serve with
plain melted butter. When very young, beans are sometimes served whole:
thus dressed, their colour and flavour are much better preserved, but
the more general way of sending them to table is to cut them into
thin strips. _Time._—Very young beans, 10 to 12 minutes; moderate
size, 15 to 20 minutes, after the water boils. _Average cost_, in
full season, 1_s._ 4_d._ per peck, but when forced very expensive.
_Sufficient._—Allow ½ peck for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ from the
middle of July to the end of September, but may be had forced from
February to the beginning of June.


BEANS, French Mode of Cooking French.

_Ingredients._—A quart of French beans, 3 oz. of fresh butter, pepper
and salt to taste, the juice of ½ lemon. _Mode._—Cut and boil the beans
by the preceding recipe, and when tender, put them into a stewpan, and
shake over the fire, to dry away the moisture from the beans. When
quite dry and hot, add the butter, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice; keep
moving the stewpan, without using a spoon, as that would break the
beans; and when the butter is melted, and all is thoroughly hot, serve.
If the butter should not mix well, add a tablespoonful of gravy, and
serve very quickly. _Time._—About ¼ hour to boil the beans; 10 minutes
to shake them over the fire. _Average cost_, in full season, about
1_s._ 4_d._ per peck. _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_
from the middle of July to the end of September.


BEANS, to Boil Haricots Blancs, or White Haricot.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of white haricot beans, 2 quarts of soft water,
1 oz. of butter, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt. _Mode._—Put the beans
into cold water, let them soak from 2 to 4 hours, according to their
age; then put them into cold water salted in the above proportion,
bring them to boil, and let them simmer very slowly until tender; pour
the water away from them, let them stand by the side of the fire, with
the lid of the saucepan partially off, to allow the beans to dry; then
add 1 oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Shake the beans
about for a minute or two, and serve: do not stir them with a spoon,
for fear of breaking them to pieces. _Time._—After the water boils,
from 2 to 2½ hours. _Average cost_, 4_d._ per quart. _Sufficient_ for 4
or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in winter, when other vegetables are scarce.

_Note._—Haricots blancs, when new and fresh, should be put into boiling
water, and do not require any soaking previous to dressing.


BEANS, Haricots Blancs & Minced Onions.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of white haricot beans, 4 middling-sized onions,
¼ pint of good brown gravy, pepper and salt to taste, a little flour.
_Mode._—Peel and mince the onions not too finely, and fry them in
butter of a light brown colour; dredge over them a little flour, and
add the gravy and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Have ready a pint
of haricot beans well boiled and drained; put them with the onions and
gravy, mix all well together, and serve very hot. _Time._—From 2 to 2½
hours to boil the beans; 5 minutes to fry the onions. _Average cost_,
4_d._ per quart. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in
winter.


BEANS, Haricots Blancs à la Maître d’Hôtel.

[Illustration: HARICOT BEANS.]

_Ingredients._—1 quart of white haricot beans, ¼ lb. of fresh butter,
1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, pepper and salt to taste, the juice
of ½ lemon. _Mode._—Should the beans be very dry, soak them for an hour
or two in cold water, and boil them until perfectly tender, as in the
preceding recipe. If the water should boil away, replenish it with a
little more cold, which makes the skin of the beans tender. Let them
be very thoroughly done; drain them well; then add to them the butter,
minced parsley, and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Keep moving the
stewpan over the fire without using a spoon, as this would break the
beans; and, when the various ingredients are well mixed with them,
squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve very hot. _Time._—From 2 to 2½
hours to boil the beans. _Average cost_, 4_d._ per quart. _Sufficient_
for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in winter.


BÉCHAMEL, or French White Sauce.

_Ingredients._—1 small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, ½ bay-leaf, 1
small bunch of savoury herbs, salt to taste; 3 or 4 mushrooms, when
obtainable; 2 pints of white stock, 1 pint of milk or cream, 1
tablespoonful of arrowroot. _Mode._—Put the stock into a stewpan, with
the parsley, cloves, bay-leaf, herbs, and mushrooms; add a seasoning of
salt, but no pepper, as that would give the sauce a dusty appearance,
and should be avoided. When it has boiled long enough to extract the
flavour of the herbs, &c., strain it, and boil it up quickly again,
until it is nearly half reduced. Now mix the arrowroot smoothly with
the milk or cream, and let it simmer very gently for 5 minutes over
a slow fire; pour to it the stock, and continue to simmer slowly for
10 minutes, if the sauce be thick. If, on the contrary, it be too
thin, it must be stirred over a sharp fire till it thickens. Always
make it thick, as it can easily be thinned with cream, milk, or
white stock. This sauce is excellent for pouring over boiled fowls.
_Time._—Altogether, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 3_s._ per quart, with
cream at 1_s._ 6_d._ per pint.


BÉCHAMEL MAIGRE, or Without Meat.

_Ingredients._—2 onions, 1 blade of mace, mushroom trimmings, a small
bunch of parsley, 1 oz. of butter, flour, ½ pint of water, 1 pint of
milk, salt, the juice of ½ lemon, 2 eggs. _Mode._—Put in a stewpan
the milk and ½ pint of water, with the onions, mace, mushrooms,
parsley, and salt. Let these simmer gently for 20 minutes. In the
meantime, rub on a plate 1 oz. of flour and butter; put it to the
liquor, and stir it well till it boils up; then place it by the side
of the fire, and continue stirring until it is perfectly smooth. Now
strain it through a sieve into a basin, after which put it back in
the stewpan, and add the lemon-juice. Beat up the yolks of the eggs
with about 4 dessertspoonfuls of milk; strain this to the sauce, keep
stirring it over the fire, _but do not let it boil, or it will curdle_.
_Time._—Altogether, ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 5_d._ per pint.

This is a good sauce to pour over boiled fowls when they are a bad
colour.


BEEF, Aitchbone of, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Beef, water. _Mode._—After this joint has been in salt 5
or 6 days, it will be ready for use, and will not take so long boiling
as a round, for it is not so solid. Wash the meat, and, if too salt,
soak it for a few hours, changing the water once or twice, till the
required freshness is obtained. Put into a saucepan, or boiling-pot,
sufficient water to cover the meat; set it over the fire, and when it
boils, plunge in the joint, and let it boil up quickly. Now draw the
pot to the side of the fire, and let the process be very gradual,
as the water must only simmer, or the meat will be hard and tough.
Carefully remove the scum from the surface of the water, and continue
doing this for a few minutes after it first boils. Carrots and turnips
are served with this dish, and sometimes suet dumplings, which may be
boiled with the beef. Garnish with a few of the carrots and turnips,
and serve the remainder in a vegetable-dish. _Time._—An aitchbone of
10 lbs., 2½ hours after the water boils; one of 20 lbs., 4 hours.
_Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb. _Sufficient._—10 lbs. for 7 or 8 persons.
_Seasonable_ all the year, but best from September to March.

[Illustration: AITCH-BONE OF BEEF.]

_Note._—The liquor in which the meat has been boiled may be easily
converted into a very excellent pea-soup. It will require very few
vegetables, as it will be impregnated with the flavour of those boiled
with the meat.


BEEF À LA MODE.

_Ingredients._—6 or 7 lbs. of the thick flank of beef, a few slices of
fat bacon, 1 teacupful of vinegar, black pepper, allspice, 2 cloves
well mixed and finely pounded, making altogether 1 heaped teaspoonful;
salt to taste, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, all finely
minced and well mixed; 3 onions, 2 large carrots, 1 turnip, 1 head
of celery, 1½ pint of water, 1 glass of port wine. _Mode._—Slice
and fry the onions of a pale brown, and cut up the other vegetables
in small pieces, and prepare the beef for stewing in the following
manner:—Choose a fine piece of beef, cut the bacon into long slices,
about an inch in thickness, dip them into vinegar, and then into a
little of the above seasoning of spice, &c., mixed with the same
quantity of minced herbs. With a sharp knife make holes deep enough
to let in the bacon; then rub the beef over with the remainder of the
seasoning and herbs, and bind it up in a nice shape with tape. Have
ready a well-tinned stewpan (it should not be much larger than the
piece of meat you are cooking), into which put the beef, with the
vegetables, vinegar, and water. Let it simmer _very gently_ for 5
hours, or rather longer, should the meat not be extremely tender, and
turn it once or twice. When ready to serve, take out the beef, remove
the tape, and put it on a hot dish. Skim off every particle of fat from
the gravy, add the port wine, just let it boil, pour it over the beef,
and it is ready to serve. Great care must be taken that this does not
boil fast, or the meat will be tough and tasteless; it should only just
bubble. When convenient, all kinds of stews, &c. should be cooked on
a hot plate, as the process is so much more gradual than on an open
fire. _Time._—5 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 7_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year, but more
suitable for a winter dish.


BEEF À LA MODE (Economical).

_Ingredients._—About 3 lbs. of clod or sticking of beef, 2 oz. of
clarified dripping, 1 large onion, flour, 2 quarts of water, 12 berries
of allspice, 2 bay-leaves, ½ teaspoonful of whole black pepper, salt to
taste. _Mode._—Cut the beef into small pieces, and roll them in flour;
put the dripping into a stewpan with the onion, which should be sliced
thin. Let it get quite hot; lay in the pieces of beef, and stir them
well about. When nicely browned all over, add _by degrees_ boiling
water in the above proportion, and, as the water is added, keep the
whole well stirred. Put in the spice, bay-leaves, and seasoning, cover
the stewpan closely, and set it by the side of the fire to stew very
_gently_, till the meat becomes quite tender, which will be in about
3 hours, when it will be ready to serve. Remove the bay-leaves before
it is sent to table. _Time._—3 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._
_Sufficient_ for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Baked.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY. 1.] _Ingredients._—About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef,
2 small onions, 1 large carrot or 2 small ones, 1 turnip, a small bunch
of savoury herbs, salt and pepper to taste, quite ½ pint of gravy, 3
tablespoonfuls of ale, crust or mashed potatoes. _Mode._—Cut the beef
in slices, allowing a small amount of fat to each slice; place a layer
of this in the bottom of a pie-dish, with a portion of the onions,
carrots, and turnips, which must be sliced; mince the herbs, strew
them over the meat, and season with pepper and salt. Then put another
layer of meat, vegetables, and seasoning; and proceed in this manner
until all the ingredients are used. Pour in the gravy and ale (water
may be substituted for the former, but it is not so nice), cover with
a crust or mashed potatoes, and bake for ½ hour, or rather longer.
_Time._—Rather more than ½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat,
6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—It is as well to parboil the carrots and turnips before adding
them to the meat, and to use some of the liquor in which they were
boiled as a substitute for gravy; that is to say, when there is no
gravy at hand. Be particular to cut the onions in very _thin_ slices.

       *       *       *       *       *

[COLD MEAT COOKERY. 2.] _Ingredients._—Slices of cold roast beef,
salt and pepper to taste, 1 sliced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced
savoury herbs, 12 tablespoonfuls of gravy or sauce of any kind, mashed
potatoes. _Mode._—Butter the sides of a deep dish, and spread mashed
potatoes over the bottom of it; on this place layers of beef in thin
slices (this may be minced, if there is not sufficient beef to cut into
slices), well seasoned with pepper and salt, and a very little onion
and herbs, which should be previously fried of a nice brown; then put
another layer of mashed potatoes, and beef, and other ingredients, as
before; pour in the gravy or sauce, cover the whole with another layer
of potatoes, and bake for ½ hour. This may be served in the dish, or
turned out. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold
beef, 6_d._ _Sufficient._—A large pie-dish full for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF-BONES, Broiled.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The bones of ribs or sirloin; salt,
pepper and cayenne. _Mode._—Separate the bones, taking care that the
meat on them is not too thick in any part; sprinkle them well with the
above seasoning, and broil over a very clear fire. When nicely browned,
they are done; but do not allow them to blacken.


BEEF, Brisket of, à la Flamande.

_Ingredients._—About 6 or 8 lbs. of the brisket of beef, 4 or 5 slices
of bacon, 2 carrots, 1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, salt and pepper
to taste, 4 cloves, 4 whole allspice, 2 blades of mace. _Mode._—Choose
that portion of the brisket which contains the gristle, trim it,
and put it into a stewpan with the slices of bacon, which should be
placed under and over the meat. Add the vegetables, herbs, spices,
and seasoning, and cover with a little weak stock or water; shut the
stewpan-lid as closely as possible, and simmer very gently for 4 hours.
Strain the liquor, reserve a portion of it for sauce, and the remainder
boil quickly over a sharp fire until reduced to a glaze, with which
glaze the meat. Garnish the dish with scooped carrots and turnips, and,
when liked, a little cabbage; all of which must be cooked separately.
Thicken and flavour the liquor that was saved for sauce, pour it round
the meat, and serve. The beef may also be garnished with glazed onions,
artichoke-bottoms, &c. _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 7_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Brisket of, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—7 lbs. of the brisket of beef, vinegar and salt, 6
carrots, 6 turnips, 6 small onions, 1 blade of pounded mace, 2 whole
allspice pounded, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup; stock, or water. _Mode._—About an hour before dressing it,
rub the meat over with vinegar and salt; put it into a stewpan, with
sufficient stock to cover it (when this is not at hand, water may be
substituted for it), and be particular that the stewpan is not much
larger than the meat. Skim well, and when it has simmered very gently
for 1 hour, put in the vegetables, and continue simmering till the meat
is perfectly tender. Draw out the bones, dish the meat, and garnish
either with tufts of cauliflower or braised cabbage cut in quarters.
Thicken as much gravy as required, with a little butter and flour; add
spices and ketchup in the above proportion, give one boil, pour some of
it over the meat, and the remainder send in a tureen. _Time._—Rather
more than 3 hours. _Average cost_, 7_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 7 or
8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—The remainder of the liquor in which the beef was boiled may be
served as a soup, or it may be sent to table with the meat in a tureen.


BEEF, Broiled, and Mushroom Sauce.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—2 or 3 dozen small button
mushrooms, 1 oz. of butter, salt and cayenne to taste, 1 tablespoonful
of mushroom ketchup, mashed potatoes, slices of cold roast beef.
_Mode._—Wipe the mushrooms free from grit with a piece of flannel, and
salt; put them in a stewpan with the butter, seasoning, and ketchup;
stir over the fire until the mushrooms are quite done, when pour it in
the middle of mashed potatoes, browned. Then place round the potatoes
slices of cold roast beef, nicely broiled over a clear fire. In making
the mushroom sauce the ketchup may be dispensed with, if there is
sufficient gravy. _Time._—¼ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the
meat, 8_d._ _Seasonable_ from August to October.


BEEF, Broiled, and Oyster Sauce.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—2 dozen oysters, 3 cloves, 1 blade
of mace, 2 oz. of butter, ½ teaspoonful of flour, cayenne and salt to
taste, mashed potatoes, a few slices of cold roast beef. _Mode._—Put
the oysters in a stewpan, with their liquor strained; add the cloves,
mace, butter, flour, and seasoning, and let them simmer gently for
5 minutes. Have ready in the centre of a dish round walls of mashed
potatoes, browned; into the middle pour the oyster sauce quite hot,
and round the potatoes place, in layers, slices of the beef, which
should be previously broiled over a nice clear fire. _Time._—5 minutes.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._, exclusive of the cold meat. _Sufficient_
for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from September to April.


BEEF BUBBLE-AND-SQUEAK.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few thin slices of cold boiled
beef; butter, cabbage, 1 sliced onion, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Fry the slices of beef gently in a little butter, taking care
not to dry them up. Lay them on a flat dish, and cover with fried
greens. The greens may be prepared from cabbage sprouts or green
savoys. They should be boiled till tender, well drained, minced, and
placed till quite hot in a frying-pan, with butter, a sliced onion,
and seasoning of pepper and salt. When the onion is done it is ready
to serve. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the
cold beef, 3_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF CAKE.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast beef;
to each pound of cold meat allow ¼ lb. of bacon or ham; seasoning to
taste of pepper and salt, 1 small bunch of minced savoury herbs, 1 or
2 eggs. _Mode._—Mince the beef very finely (if underdone it will be
better), add to it the bacon, which must also be chopped very small,
and mix well together. Season, stir in the herbs, and bind with an egg,
or 2 should 1 not be sufficient. Make it into small square cakes, about
½ inch thick, fry them in hot dripping, drain them, and serve in a
dish with good gravy poured round. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the cold meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Collared.

[Illustration: COLLARED BEEF.]

_Ingredients._—7 lbs. of the thin end of the flank of beef, 2 oz. of
coarse sugar, 6 oz. of salt, 1 oz. of saltpetre, 1 large handful of
parsley, minced, 1 dessertspoonful of minced sage, a bunch of savoury
herbs, ½ teaspoonful of pounded allspice; salt and pepper to taste.
_Mode._—Choose fine tender beef, but not too fat; lay it in a dish, rub
in the sugar, salt, and saltpetre, and let it remain in the pickle
for a week or ten days, turning and rubbing it every day. Then bone
it, remove all the gristle and the coarse skin of the inside part,
and sprinkle it thickly with parsley, herbs, spice, and seasoning in
the above proportion, taking care that the former are finely minced,
and the latter well pounded. Roll the meat up in a cloth as tightly
as possible; bind it firmly with broad tape, and boil it gently for
6 hours. Immediately on taking it out of the pot put it under a good
weight, without undoing it, and let it remain until cold. This dish is
a very nice addition to the breakfast-table. _Time._—6 hours. _Average
cost_, for this quantity, 4_s._ _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—During the time the beef is in pickle it should be kept cool,
and regularly rubbed and turned every day.


BEEF COLLOPS.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of rump-steak, ¼ lb. of butter, 1 pint of gravy
(water may be substituted for this), salt and pepper to taste, 1
shalot, finely minced, ½ pickled walnut, 1 teaspoonful of capers.
_Mode._—Have the steak cut thin, and divide it in pieces about 3 inches
long; beat these with the blade of a knife, and dredge with flour.
Put them in a frying-pan with the butter, and let them fry for about
3 minutes; then lay them in a small stewpan, and pour over them the
gravy. Add a piece of butter kneaded with a little flour, put in the
seasoning and all the other ingredients, and let the whole simmer,
but not boil, for 10 minutes. Serve in a hot covered dish. _Time._—10
minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF CARVING.

=Beef, Aitchbone of.=—A boiled aitchbone of beef is not a difficult
joint to carve, as will be seen on reference to the accompanying
engraving. By following with the knife the direction of the line from
1 to 2, nice slices will be easily cut. It may be necessary, as in a
round of beef, to cut a thick slice off the outside before commencing
to serve.

[Illustration]

=Beef, Brisket of.=—There is but little description necessary to add
to show the carving of a boiled brisket of beef beyond the engraving
here inserted. The only point to be observed is, that the joint should
be cut evenly and firmly quite across the bones, so that on its
reappearance at table it should not have a jagged and untidy look.

[Illustration]

=Beef, Ribs of.=—This dish resembles the sirloin, except that it has no
fillet or undercut. As explained in the recipes, the end piece is often
cut off, salted and boiled. The mode of carving is similar to that of
the sirloin, viz., in the direction of the dotted line from 1 to 2.
This joint will be the more easily cut if the plan be pursued which is
suggested in carving the sirloin; namely, the inserting of the knife
immediately between the bone and the meat, before commencing to cut it
into slices. All joints of roast beef should be cut in even and thin
slices. Horseradish, finely scraped, may be served as a garnish; but
horseradish sauce is preferable for eating with the beef.

[Illustration]

=Beef, a Round of.=—A round of beef is more easily carved than any
other joint of beef, but, to manage it properly, a thin-bladed and very
sharp knife is necessary. Off the outside of the joint, at its top,
a thick slice should first be cut, so as to leave the surface smooth:
then thin and even slices should be cleverly carved in the direction of
the line 1 to 2; and with each slice of the lean a delicate morsel of
the fat should be served.

[Illustration]

=Beef, Sirloin of.=—This dish is served differently at various tables,
some preferring it to come to table with the fillet, or, as it is
usually called, the undercut, uppermost. The reverse way, as shown in
the cut, is that most usually adopted. Still the undercut is best eaten
when hot; consequently, the carver himself may raise the joint, and
cut some slices from the under side, in the direction of from 1 to 2,
as the fillet is very much preferred by some eaters. The upper part of
the sirloin should be cut in the direction of the line from 5 to 6, and
care should be taken to carve it evenly and in thin slices. It will be
found a great assistance, in carving this joint well, if the knife be
first inserted just above the bone at the bottom, and run sharply along
between the bone and meat, and also to divide the meat from the bone in
the same way at the side of the joint; the slices will then come away
more readily. Some carvers cut the upper side of the sirloin across, as
shown by the line from 3 to 4; but this is a wasteful plan, and one not
to be recommended. With the sirloin, very finely-scraped horseradish
is usually served, and a little given, when liked, to each guest.
Horseradish sauce is preferable, however, for serving on the plate,
although the scraped horseradish may still be used as a garnish.

[Illustration]

=Beef Tongue.=—Passing the knife down in the direction of from 1 to 2,
a not too thin slice should be helped; and the carving of a tongue may
be continued in this way until the best portions of the upper side are
served. The fat which lies about the root can be served by turning the
tongue, and cutting in the direction of from 3 to 4.

[Illustration]


BEEF, Curried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few slices of tolerably lean
cold roast or boiled beef, 3 oz. of butter, 2 onions, 1 wineglassful
of beer, a dessertspoonful of curry powder. _Mode._—Cut up the beef
into pieces about 1 inch square, put the butter into a stewpan with the
onions sliced, and fry them of a light-brown colour. Add all the other
ingredients, and stir gently over a brisk fire for about 10 minutes.
Should this be thought too dry, more beer, or a spoonful or two of
gravy or water, may be added; but a good curry should not be very thin.
Place it in a deep dish, with an edging of dry boiled rice, in the
same manner as for other curries. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the meat, 4_d._ _Seasonable_ in winter.


BEEF, Roast Fillet of (Larded).

_Ingredients._—About 4 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin, 1
onion, a small bunch of parsley, salt and pepper to taste, sufficient
vinegar to cover the meat, glaze, Spanish sauce (_see_ SAUCE).
_Mode._—Lard the beef with bacon, and put it into a pan with sufficient
vinegar to cover it, with an onion sliced, parsley, and seasoning, and
let it remain in this pickle for 12 hours. Roast it before a nice clear
fire for about 1¼ hour, and, when done, glaze it. Pour some Spanish
sauce round the beef, and the remainder serve in a tureen. It may be
garnished with Spanish onions boiled and glazed. _Time._—1¼ hour.
_Average cost_, exclusive of the sauce, 4_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 8
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Fricandeau of.

_Ingredients._—About 3 lbs. of the inside fillet of the sirloin (a
piece of the rump may be substituted for this), pepper and salt to
taste, 3 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 6 whole allspice, 1 pint of stock
(_see_ STOCK), or water, 1 glass of sherry, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, 2
shalots, bacon. _Mode._—Cut some bacon into thin strips, and sprinkle
over them a seasoning of pepper and salt, mixed with cloves, mace, and
allspice, well pounded. Lard the beef with these, put it into a stewpan
with the stock or water, sherry, herbs, shalots, 2 cloves, and more
pepper and salt. Stew the meat gently until tender, when take it out,
cover it closely, skim off all the fat from the gravy, and strain it.
Set it on the fire, and boil, till it becomes a glaze. Glaze the larded
side of the beef with this, and serve on sorrel sauce, which is made as
follows:—Wash and pick some sorrel, and put it into a stewpan with only
the water that hangs about it. Keep stirring, to prevent its burning,
and when done, lay it in a sieve to drain. Chop it, and stew it with
a small piece of butter and 4 or 5 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, for
an hour, and rub it through a sieve. If too acid, add sugar; a little
cabbage-lettuce boiled with the sorrel will be found an improvement.
_Time._—2 hours to gently stew the meat. _Average cost_, for this
quantity, 4_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Fried Salt.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few slices of cold salt beef,
pepper to taste, ½ lb. of butter, mashed potatoes. _Mode._—Cut any
part of cold salt beef into thin slices, fry them gently in butter,
and season with a little pepper. Have ready some very hot mashed
potatoes, lay the slices of beef on them, and garnish with 3 or 4
pickled gherkins. Cold salt beef, warmed in a little liquor from mixed
pickle, drained, and served as above, will be found good. _Time._—About
5 minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


BEEF FRITTERS.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast beef,
pepper and salt to taste, ¾ lb. of flour, ½ pint of water, 2 oz. of
butter, the whites of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Mix very smoothly, and, by
degrees, the flour with the above proportion of water; stir in 2 oz. of
butter, which must be melted but not oiled, and, just before it is to
be used, add the whites of two well-whisked eggs. Should the batter be
too thick, more water must be added. Pare down the cold beef into thin
shreds, season with pepper and salt, and mix it with the batter. Drop
a small quantity at a time into a pan of boiling lard, and fry from 7
to 10 minutes, according to the size. When done on one side, turn and
brown them on the other. Let them dry for a minute or two before the
fire, and serve on a folded napkin. A small quantity of finely-minced
onions, mixed with the batter, is an improvement. _Time._—From 7 to 10
minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


BEEF, Hashed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY. 1.] _Ingredients._—Gravy saved from the meat, 1
teaspoonful of tomato sauce, one teaspoonful of Harvey’s sauce, one
teaspoonful of good mushroom ketchup, ½ glass of port wine or strong
ale, pepper and salt to taste, a little flour to thicken, 1 onion
finely minced, a few slices of cold roast beef. _Mode._—Put all the
ingredients but the beef into a stewpan with whatever gravy may have
been saved from the meat the day it was roasted; simmer these gently
for 10 minutes, then take the stewpan off the fire; let the gravy cool
and skim off the fat. Cut the beef into thin slices, dredge them with
flour, and lay them in the gravy; let the whole simmer gently for 5
minutes, but not boil, or the meat will be tough and hard. Serve very
hot, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread. _Time._—20 minutes.
Average cost, exclusive of the cold meat, 4_d._ _Seasonable_ at any
time.

       *       *       *       *       *

[COLD MEAT COOKERY. 2.] _Ingredients._—The remains of ribs or sirloin
of beef, 2 onions, 1 carrot, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt
to taste, ½ blade of pounded mace, thickening of flour, rather more
than 1 pint of water. _Mode._—Take off all the meat from the bones of
ribs or sirloin of beef; remove the outside brown and gristle; place
the meat on one side, and well stew the bones and pieces, with the
above ingredients, for about 2 hours, till it becomes a strong gravy,
and is reduced to rather more than ½ pint; strain this, thicken with a
teaspoonful of flour, and let the gravy cool; skim off all the fat; lay
in the meat, let it get hot through, but do not allow it to boil; and
garnish with sippets of toasted bread. The gravy should be flavoured
as in the preceding recipe. _Time._—Rather more than 2 hours. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Either of the above recipes may be served in walls of mashed
potatoes browned; in which case the sippets should be omitted. _Be
careful that hashed meat does not boil, or it will become tough._


BEEF, Hunter’s.

_Ingredients._—For a round of beef weighing 25 lbs. allow 3 oz. of
saltpetre, 3 oz. of coarse sugar, 1 oz. of cloves, 1 grated nutmeg, ½
oz. of allspice, 1 lb. of salt, ½ lb. bay-salt. _Mode._—Hang the beef
for 2 or 3 days, and remove the bone. Pound spices, salt, &c. in the
above proportion, and let them be reduced to the finest powder. Put the
beef into a pan, rub all the ingredients well into it, and turn and
rub it every day for rather more than a fortnight. When it has been
sufficiently long in pickle, wash the meat, bind it up securely with
tape, and put it into a pan with ½ pint of water at the bottom; mince
some suet, cover the top of the meat with it, and over the pan put a
common crust of flour and water; bake for 6 hours, and when cold remove
the paste. Save the gravy that flows from it, as it adds greatly to the
flavour of hashes, stews, &c. The beef may be glazed and garnished with
meat jelly. _Time._—6 hours. _Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note._—In salting or pickling beef or pork for family consumption, it
not being generally required to be kept for a great length of time,
a less quantity of salt and a larger quantity of other matters more
adapted to retain mellowness in meat, may be employed, which could not
be adopted by the curer of the immense quantities of meat required to
be preserved for victualling the shipping of this maritime country.
Sugar, which is well known to possess the preserving principle in a
very great degree, without the pungency and astringency of salt, may
be, and is, very generally used in the preserving of meat for family
consumption. Although it acts without corrugating or contracting the
fibres of meat, as is the case in the action of salt, and, therefore,
does not impair its mellowness, yet its use in sufficient quantities
for preservative effect, without the addition of other antiseptics,
would impart a flavour not agreeable to the taste of many persons. It
may be used, however, together with salt, with the greatest advantage
in imparting mildness and mellowness to cured meat, in a proportion of
about one part by weight to four of the mixture; and, perhaps, now that
sugar is so much lower in price than it was in former years, one of the
obstructions to its more frequent use is removed.


BEEF KIDNEY, to Dress.

_Ingredients._—1 kidney, clarified butter, pepper and salt to taste,
a small quantity of highly-seasoned gravy, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, ¼ teaspoonful of powdered sugar. _Mode._—Cut the kidneys
into neat slices, put them into warm water to soak for two hours, and
change the water 2 or 3 times; then lay them on a clean cloth to dry
the water from them, place them in a frying-pan with some clarified
butter, and fry them of a nice brown; season each side with pepper
and salt, put them round the dish, with the gravy in the middle.
Before pouring the gravy in the dish, add the lemon-juice and sugar.
_Time._—From 5 to 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 9_d._ each. _Seasonable_
at any time.


BEEF KIDNEY, to Dress.

_Ingredients._—1 kidney, 1 dessertspoonful of minced parsley, 1
teaspoonful of minced shalot, salt and pepper to taste; ¼ pint of
gravy (follow one of the gravy recipes), 3 tablespoonfuls of sherry.
_Mode._—Take off a little of the kidney fat, mince it very fine, and
put it in a frying-pan; slice the kidney, sprinkle over it parsley
and shalots in the above proportion, add a seasoning of pepper and
salt, and fry it of a nice brown. When it is done enough, dredge over
a little flour, and pour in the gravy and sherry. Let it just simmer,
but not boil any more, or the kidney would harden; serve very hot, and
garnish with croûtons. Where the flavour of the shalot is disliked
it may be omitted, and a small quantity of savoury herbs substituted
for it. _Time._—From 5 to 10 minutes, according to the thickness of
the slices. _Average cost_, 9_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 3 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF KIDNEY, to Dress (a more simple method).

Cut the kidneys into thin slices, flour them, and fry of a nice brown.
When done, make a gravy in the pan by pouring away the fat, putting in
a small piece of butter, ¼ pint of boiling water, pepper and salt,
a dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, and a tablespoonful of mushroom
ketchup. Let the gravy just boil up, pour over the kidney, and serve.


BEEF MARROW-BONES, Boiled.

[Illustration: MARROW-BONES.]

_Ingredients._—Bones, a small piece of common paste, a floured cloth.
_Mode._—Have the bones neatly sawed into convenient sizes, and cover
the ends with a small piece of common crust, made with flour and water.
Over this tie a floured cloth, and place them upright in a saucepan
of boiling water, taking care there is sufficient to cover the bones.
Boil the bones for 2 hours, remove the cloth and paste, and serve them
upright on a napkin with dry toast. Many persons clear the marrow from
the bones after they are cooked, spread it over a slice of toast, and
add a seasoning of pepper; when served in this manner, it must be very
expeditiously sent to table, as it so soon gets cold. _Time._—2 hours.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Marrow-bones may be baked after preparing them as in the
preceding recipe; they should be laid in a deep dish, and baked for 2
hours.


BEEF, Minced.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—1 oz. of butter, 1 small onion, 12
tablespoonfuls of gravy left from the meat, 1 tablespoonful of strong
ale, 1 teaspoonful of flour, salt and pepper to taste, a few slices
of lean roast beef. _Mode._—Put into a stewpan the butter with an
onion chopped fine; add the gravy, ale, and a teaspoonful of flour to
thicken; season with pepper and salt, and stir these ingredients over
the fire until the onion is a rich brown. Cut (but do not chop) the
meat _very fine_, add it to the gravy, stir till quite hot, and serve.
Garnish with sippets of toasted bread. Be careful in not allowing the
gravy to boil after the meat is added, as it would render it hard and
tough. _Time._—About ½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat,
3_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Minced Collops of (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of rump-steak, salt and pepper to taste, 2 oz. of
butter, 1 onion minced, ¼ pint of water, 1 tablespoonful of Harvey’s
sauce, or lemon-juice, or mushroom ketchup; 1 small bunch of savoury
herbs. _Mode._—Mince the beef and onion very small, and fry the latter
in butter until of a pale brown. Put all the ingredients together in a
stewpan, and boil gently for about 10 minutes; garnish with sippets of
toasted bread, and serve very hot. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_,
1_s._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Miroton of.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few slices of cold roast beef,
3 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 3 onions, ½ pint of gravy.
_Mode._—Slice the onions and put them into the frying-pan with the cold
beef and butter; place it over the fire, and keep turning and stirring
the ingredients to prevent them burning. When a pale brown, add the
gravy and seasoning; let it simmer for a few minutes, and serve very
hot. The dish is excellent and economical. _Time._—5 minutes. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF OLIVES.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of rump-steak, 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful of minced
savoury herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 1 pint of stock, 2 or 3
slices of bacon, 2 tablespoonfuls of any kind of store sauce, a slight
thickening of butter and flour. Mode.—Have the steaks cut rather thin,
beat them to make them level, cut them into 6 or 7 pieces, brush over
with egg, and sprinkle with herbs, which should be very finely minced;
season with pepper and salt, roll up the pieces tightly, and fasten
with a small skewer. Put the stock in a stewpan that will exactly hold
the ingredients, for, by being pressed together, they will keep their
shape better; lay in the rolls of meat, cover them with the bacon, cut
in thin slices, and over that put a piece of paper. Stew them very
_gently_ for full 2 hours; for the slower they are done the better.
Take them out, remove the skewers, thicken the gravy with butter and
flour, and flavour with any store sauce that may be preferred. Give
one boil, pour over the meat, and serve. _Time._—2 hours. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ per pound. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_
at any time.


BEEF OLIVES (Economical).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of underdone cold
roast beef, bread-crumbs, 1 shalot finely minced, pepper and salt
to taste, gravy made from the beef bones, thickening of butter and
flour, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. _Mode._—Cut some slices of
underdone roast beef about half an inch thick; sprinkle over them some
bread-crumbs, minced shalot, and a little of the fat and seasoning;
roll them, and fasten with a small skewer. Have ready some gravy made
from the beef bones; put in the pieces of meat, and stew them till
tender, which will be in about 1¼ hour, or rather longer. Arrange the
meat in a dish, thicken and flavour the gravy, and pour it over the
meat, when it is ready to serve. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the beef, 2_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF PALATES, to Dress (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—4 palates, sufficient gravy to cover them, cayenne
to taste, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 1 tablespoonful of
pickled-onion liquor, thickening of butter and flour. _Mode._—Wash
the palates, and put them into a stewpan, with sufficient water to
cover them, and let them boil until perfectly tender, or until the
upper skin may be easily peeled off. Have ready sufficient gravy to
cover them; add a good seasoning of cayenne, and thicken with a little
butter kneaded with flour; let it boil up, and skim. Cut the palates
into square pieces, put them in the gravy, and let them simmer gently
for ½ hour; add ketchup and onion-liquor, give one boil, and serve.
_Time._—From 3 to 5 hours to boil the palates. _Sufficient_ for 4
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Palates may be dressed in various ways with good onion sauce,
tomato sauce, &c., &c., and may also be served in a _vol-au-vent_; but
the above will be found a more simple method of dressing them.


BEEF PICKLE. (This may also be used for any kind of Meat, Tongues, or
Hams.)

_Ingredients._—6 lbs. of salt, 2 lbs. of fine sugar, 3 oz. of powdered
saltpetre, 3 gallons of spring water. _Mode._—Boil all the ingredients
gently together, so long as any scum or impurity arises, which
carefully remove; when quite cold, pour it over the meat, every part of
which must be covered with the brine. This may be used for pickling any
kind of meat, and may be kept for some time, if boiled up occasionally
with an addition of the ingredients. _Time._—A ham should be kept in
pickle for a fortnight; a piece of beef weighing 14 lbs., 12 or 15
days; a tongue, 10 days or a fortnight.

_Note._—For salting and pickling meat, it is a good plan to rub in only
half the quantity of salt directed, and to let it remain for a day or
two to disgorge and effectually to get rid of the blood and slime; then
rub in the remainder of the salt and other ingredients, and proceed as
above. This rule may be applied to all recipes for salting and pickling
meat.


BEEF, Potted.

[Illustration: JAR FOR POTTED MEATS.]

[COLD MEAT COOKERY. 1.] _Ingredients._—2 lbs. of lean beef, 1
tablespoonful of water, ¼ lb. of butter, a seasoning to taste of salt,
cayenne, pounded mace, and black pepper. _Mode._—Procure a nice piece
of lean beef, as free as possible from gristle, skin, &c., and put
it into a jar (if at hand, one with a lid) with 1 tablespoonful of
water. Cover it _closely_, and put the jar into a saucepan of boiling
water, letting the water come within 2 inches of the top of the jar.
Boil gently for 3½ hours, then take the beef, chop it very small with
a chopping-knife, and pound it thoroughly in a mortar. Mix with it by
degrees all, or a portion, of the gravy that will have run from it,
and a little clarified butter; add the seasoning, put it in small pots
for use, and cover with a little butter just warmed and poured over.
If much gravy is added to it, it will keep but a short time; on the
contrary, if a large proportion of butter is used, it may be preserved
for some time. _Time._—3½ hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity,
1_s._ 10_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.

       *       *       *       *       *

[COLD MEAT COOKERY. 2.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast or
boiled beef, ¼ lb. of butter, cayenne to taste, 2 blades of pounded
mace. _Mode._—The outside slices of boiled beef may, with a little
trouble, be converted into a very nice addition to the breakfast-table.
Cut up the meat into small pieces and pound it well, with a little
butter, in a mortar; add a seasoning of cayenne and mace, and be very
particular that the latter spice is reduced to the finest powder.
When all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed, put them into glass
or earthen potting-pots, and pour on the top a coating of clarified
butter. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—If cold _roast_ beef is used, remove all pieces of gristle and
dry outside pieces, as these do not pound well.


BEEF RAGOÛT.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—About 2 lbs. of cold roast beef,
6 onions, pepper, salt, and mixed spices to taste; ½ pint of boiling
water, 3 tablespoonfuls of gravy. _Mode._—Cut the beef into rather
large pieces, and put them into a stewpan with the onions, which must
be sliced. Season well with pepper, salt, and mixed spices, and pour
over about ½ pint of boiling water, and gravy in the above proportion
(gravy saved from the meat answers the purpose); let the whole stew
very gently for about 2 hours, and serve with pickled walnuts,
gherkins, or capers, just warmed in the gravy. _Time._—2 hours.
_Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Rib-bones of (a pretty Dish).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Ribs of beef bones, 1 onion chopped
fine, a few slices of carrot and turnip, ¼ pint of gravy. _Mode._—The
bones for this dish should have left on them a slight covering of
meat; saw them into pieces 3 inches long; season them with pepper and
salt, and put them into a stewpan with the remaining ingredients.
Stew gently, until the vegetables are tender, and serve on a flat
dish within walls of mashed potatoes, _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the bones, 2_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Roast Ribs of.

_Ingredients._—Beef, a little salt. _Mode._—The fore-rib is considered
the primest roasting piece, but the middle-rib is considered the most
economical. Let the meat be well hung (should the weather permit),
having previously cut off the ends of the bones, which should be
salted for a few days, and then boiled. Put the meat down to a nice
clear fire, with some clean dripping in the pan, dredge the joint with
a little flour, and keep continually basting it all the time it is
cooking. Sprinkle some fine salt over it (this must never be done until
the joint is dished, as it draws the juices from the meat); pour the
dripping from the pan, put in a little boiling water, and _strain_ the
gravy over the meat. Garnish with tufts of scraped horseradish, and
send horseradish sauce to table with it. A Yorkshire pudding (_see_
PUDDINGS) sometimes accompanies this dish, and, if lightly made and
well cooked, will be found a very agreeable addition. _Time._—10 lbs.
of beef, 2½ hours; 14 to 16 lbs., from 3½ to 4 hours. _Average cost_,
9_d._ per lb. _Sufficient._—A joint of 10 lbs. sufficient for 8 or 9
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Roast Ribs of, Boned and Rolled (a very convenient Joint for a
small Family).

_Ingredients._—1 or 2 ribs of beef. _Mode._—Choose a fine rib of beef,
and have it cut according to the weight you require, either wide or
narrow. Bone and roll the meat round, secure it with wooden skewers,
and, if necessary, bind it round with a piece of tape. Spit the beef
firmly, or, if a bottle-jack is used, put the joint on the hook, and
place it _near_ a nice clear fire. Let it remain so till the outside
of the meat is set, when draw it to a distance, and keep continually
basting until the meat is done, which can be ascertained by the steam
from it drawing towards the fire. As this joint is solid, rather more
than ¼ hour must be allowed for each lb. Remove the skewers, put in
a plated or silver one, and send the joint to table with gravy in
the dish, and garnish with tufts of horseradish. Horseradish sauce
is a great improvement to roast beef. _Time._—For 10 lbs. of the
rolled ribs, 3 hours (as the joint is very solid, we have allowed an
extra ½ hour); for 6 lbs., 1½ hour. _Average cost_, 9_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient._—A joint of 10 lbs. for 6 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ all
the year.

_Note._—When the weight exceeds 10 lbs., we would not advise the above
method of boning or rolling; only in the case of 1 or 2 ribs, when the
joint cannot stand upright in the dish, and would look awkwardly. The
bones should be put on with a few vegetables and herbs, and made into
stock.


BEEF RISSOLES.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast
beef; to each pound of meat allow ¾ lb. of bread-crumbs, salt and
pepper to taste, a few chopped savoury herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of
minced lemon-peel, 1 or 2 eggs, according to the quantity of meat.
_Mode._—Mince the beef very fine, which should be rather lean, and mix
with this bread-crumbs, herbs, seasoning, and lemon-peel, in the above
proportion, to each pound of meat. Make all into a thick paste with 1
or 2 eggs; divide into balls or cones, and fry a rich brown. Garnish
the dish with fried parsley, and send to table some good brown gravy in
a tureen. Instead of garnishing with fried parsley, gravy may be poured
in the dish round the rissoles; in this case, it will not be necessary
to send any in a tureen. _Time._—From 5 to 10 minutes, according to
size. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 5_d._ _Seasonable_ at any
time.


BEEF, Rolled, to eat like Hare.

_Ingredients._—About 5 lbs. of the inside of the sirloin, 2 glasses
of port wine, 2 glasses of vinegar, a small quantity of forcemeat, 1
teaspoonful of pounded allspice. _Mode._—Take the inside of a large
sirloin, soak it in 1 glass of port wine and 1 glass of vinegar, mixed,
and let it remain for 2 days. Make a forcemeat (_see_ FORCEMEAT), lay
it on the meat, and bind it up securely. Roast it before a nice clear
fire, and baste it with 1 glass each of port wine and vinegar, with
which mix a teaspoonful of pounded allspice. Serve, with a good gravy
in the dish, and send red-currant jelly to table with it. _Time._—A
piece of 5 lbs., about 1½ hour before a brisk fire. _Average cost_, for
this quantity, 5_s._ 4_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


BEEF ROLLS.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast or boiled
beef, seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and minced herbs; puff paste.
_Mode._—Mince the beef tolerably fine with a _small_ amount of its
own fat; add a seasoning of pepper, salt, and chopped herbs; put the
whole into a roll of puff paste, and bake for ½ hour, or rather longer,
should the roll be very large. Beef patties may be made of cold meat,
by mincing and seasoning beef as directed above, and baking in a rich
puff paste in patty-tins. _Time._—½ hour. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Boiled Round of.

_Ingredients._—Beef, water. _Mode._—As a whole round of beef, generally
speaking, is too large for small families, and very seldom required,
we here give the recipe for dressing a portion of the silver side of
the round. Take from 12 to 16 lbs., after it has been in salt about
10 days; just wash off the salt, skewer it up in a nice round-looking
form, and bind it with tape to keep the skewers in their places. Put
it in a saucepan of boiling water, set it upon a good fire, and when
it begins to boil, carefully remove all scum from the surface, as, if
this is not attended to, it sinks on to the meat, and, when brought
to table, presents a very unsightly appearance. After it is well
skimmed, draw the pot to the corner of the fire, allow the liquor to
cool, then let the beef simmer very gently until done. Remove the tape
and skewers, which should be replaced by a silver one; pour over a
little of the pot-liquor, and garnish with carrots. Carrots, turnips,
parsnips, and sometimes suet dumplings, accompany this dish; and these
may all be boiled with the beef. The pot-liquor should be saved, and
converted into pea-soup; and the outside slices, which are generally
hard, and of an uninviting appearance, may be cut off before being
sent to table, and potted. These make an excellent relish for the
breakfast or luncheon table. _Time._—Part of a round of beef weighing
12 lbs., about 3 hours after the water boils. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per
lb. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year, but more
suitable for winter.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Soyer’s Recipe for Preserving the Gravy in Salt Meat, when it is to
be served Cold.=—Fill two tubs with cold water, into which throw a few
pounds of rough ice; and when the meat is done, put it into one of the
tubs of ice-water; let it remain 1 minute, when take out, and put it
into the other tub. Fill the first tub again with water, and continue
this process for about 20 minutes; then set it upon a dish, and let
it remain until quite cold. When cut, the fat will be as white as
possible, besides having saved the whole of the gravy. If there is no
ice, spring water will answer the same purpose, but will require to be
more frequently changed.

_Note._—The brisket and rump may be boiled by the above recipe; of
course allowing more or less time, according to the size of the joint.


BEEF, Miniature Round of (an excellent Dish for a small Family).

_Ingredients._—From 5 to 10 lbs. of ribs of beef, sufficient brine to
cover the meat. _Mode._—Choose a fine rib, have the bone removed, rub
some salt over the inside, and skewer the meat up into a nice round
form, and bind it with tape. Put it into sufficient brine to cover it
(_see_ BEEF PICKLE), and let it remain for 6 days, turning the meat
every day. When required to be dressed, drain from the pickle, and put
the meat into very hot water; boil it rapidly for a few minutes, then
draw the pot to the side of the fire, and simmer the beef very gently
until done. Remove the skewer, and replace it by a plated or silver
one. Carrots and turnips should be served with this dish, and may be
boiled with the meat. _Time._—A small round of 8 lbs., about 2 hours
after the water boils; one of 12 lbs., about 3 hours. _Average cost_,
9_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Should the joint be very small, 4 or 5 days will be sufficient
time to salt it.


BEEF, to Pickle part of a Round, for Hanging.

_Ingredients._—For 14 lbs. of a round of beef allow 1½ lb. of salt, ½
oz. of powdered saltpetre; or, 1 lb. of salt, ½ lb. of sugar, ½ oz. of
powdered saltpetre. _Mode._—Rub in, and sprinkle either of the above
mixtures on 14 lbs. of meat. Keep it in an earthenware pan, or a deep
wooden tray, and turn twice a week during 3 weeks; then bind up the
beef tightly with coarse linen tape, and hang it in a kitchen in which
a fire is constantly kept, for 3 weeks. Pork, hams, and bacon may be
cured in a similar way, but will require double the quantity of the
salting mixture; and, if not smoke-dried, they should be taken down
from hanging after 3 or 4 weeks, and afterwards kept in boxes or tubs,
amongst dry oat-husks. _Time._—2 or 3 weeks to remain in the brine, to
be hung 3 weeks. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—The meat may be boiled fresh from this pickle, instead of
smoking it.


BEEF SAUSAGES.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of suet allow 2 lbs. of lean beef;
seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and mixed spices. _Mode._—Clear
the suet from skin, and chop that and the beef as finely as possible;
season with pepper, salt, and spices, and mix the whole well together.
Make it into flat cakes, and fry of a nice brown. Many persons pound
the meat in a mortar after it is chopped, but this is not necessary
when the meat is minced finely. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_, for
this quantity, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Roast Sirloin of.

[Illustration: ROAST SIRLOIN OF BEEF.]

_Ingredients._—Beef, a little salt. _Mode._—As a joint cannot be well
roasted without a good fire, see that it is well made up about ¾ hour
before it is required, so that when the joint is put down, it is
clear and bright. Choose a nice sirloin, the weight of which should
not exceed 16 lbs., as the outside would be too much done, whilst the
inside would not be done enough. Spit it or hook it on to the jack
firmly, dredge it slightly with flour, and place it near the fire at
first. Then draw it to a distance, and keep continually basting until
the meat is done. Dish the meat, sprinkle a small quantity of salt over
it, empty the dripping-pan of all the dripping, pour in some boiling
water, stir it about, and _strain_ over the meat. Garnish with tufts of
horseradish, and send horseradish sauce and Yorkshire pudding to table
with it. _Time._—A sirloin of 10 lbs., 2½ hours; 14 to 16 lbs., about 4
or 4½ hours. _Average cost_, 8½_d._ per lb. _Sufficient._—A joint of 10
lbs. for 8 or 9 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time. The rump, round, and
other pieces of beef are roasted in the same manner, allowing for solid
joints ¼ hour to every lb.

_Note._—The above is the usual method of roasting meat; but to have it
in perfection and the juices kept in, the meat should at first be laid
_close_ to the fire, and when the outside is set and firm, drawn away
to a good distance, and then left to roast very slowly. Where economy
is studied, this plan would not answer, as the meat requires to be at
the fire double the time of the ordinary way of cooking; consequently,
double the quantity of fuel would be consumed.


BEEF, Sliced and Broiled (a pretty Dish).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few slices of cold roast beef, 4
or 5 potatoes, a thin batter, pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Pare
the potatoes as you would peel an apple; fry the parings in a thin
batter seasoned with salt and pepper, until they are of a light brown
colour, and place them on a dish over some slices of beef, which should
be nicely seasoned and broiled. _Time._—5 minutes to broil the meat.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Spiced (to serve Cold).

_Ingredients._—14 lbs. of the thick flank or rump of beef, ½ lb. of
coarse sugar, 1 oz. of saltpetre, ¼ lb. of pounded allspice, 1 lb. of
common salt. _Mode._—Rub the sugar well into the beef, and let it lie
for 12 hours; then rub the saltpetre and allspice, both of which should
be pounded, over the meat, and let it remain for another 12 hours; then
rub in the salt. Turn daily in the liquor for a fortnight, soak it for
a few hours in water, dry with a cloth, cover with a coarse paste, put
a little water at the bottom of the pan, and bake in a moderate oven
for 4 hours. If it is not covered with a paste, be careful to put the
beef into a deep vessel, and cover with a plate, or it will be too
crisp. During the time the meat is in the oven it should be turned once
or twice. _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 7_d._ per lb. _Seasonable_
at any time.


BEEF, Stewed. (A Polish Dish.)

_Ingredients._—A thick beef or rump-steak of about 2 lbs., an onion,
some bread-crumbs, pepper and salt, ¼ lb. of butter. _Mode._—Mince
the onion fine, mix it with the bread, pepper, and salt; make deep
incisions in the beef, but do not cut it through; fill the spaces
with the bread, &c. Roll up the steak and put it in a stewpan with
the butter; let it stew very gently for more than two hours; serve it
with its own gravy, thickened with a little flour, and flavoured, as
may be required, either with tomato sauce, ketchup, or Harvey’s sauce.
_Time._—About 2 hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF, Stewed Rump of.

_Ingredients._—½ rump of beef, sufficient stock to cover it, 4
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, 1 bunch
of savoury herbs, 2 onions, 12 cloves, pepper and salt to taste,
thickening of butter and flour, 1 glass of port wine. _Mode._—Cut
out the bone, sprinkle the meat with a little cayenne (this must be
sparingly used), and bind and tie it firmly up with tape; put it into a
stewpan with sufficient stock to cover it, add vinegar, ketchup, herbs,
onions, cloves, and seasonings in the above proportions, and simmer
very gently for 4 or 5 hours, or until the meat is perfectly tender,
which may be ascertained by piercing it with a thin skewer. When done,
remove the tape, lay it into a deep dish, which keep hot; strain and
skim the gravy, thicken it with butter and flour, add a glass of
port wine and any flavouring to make the gravy rich and palatable;
let it boil up, pour over the meat, and serve. This dish may be very
much enriched by garnishing with forcemeat balls, or filling up the
space whence the bone is taken with a good forcemeat; sliced carrots,
turnips, and onions boiled with the meat are also a great improvement,
and, where expense is not objected to, it may be glazed. This, however,
is not necessary where a good gravy is poured round and over the meat.
_Time._—½ rump stewed gently from 4 to 5 hours. _Average cost_, 10_d._
per lb. _Sufficient_ for 8 or 10 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—A stock or gravy in which to boil the meat may be made of the
bone and trimmings, by boiling them with water, and adding carrots,
onions, turnips, and a bunch of sweet herbs. To make this dish richer
and more savoury, half-roast the rump, and afterwards stew it in strong
stock and a little Madeira. This is an expensive method, and is not,
after all, much better than a plainer-dressed joint.


BEEF, Stewed Shin of.

_Ingredients._—A shin of beef, 1 head of celery, 1 onion, a faggot of
savoury herbs, ½ teaspoonful of allspice, ½ teaspoonful of whole black
pepper, 4 carrots, 12 button onions, 2 turnips, thickening of butter
and flour, 3 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of
port wine; pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Have the bone sawn into 4
or 5 pieces, cover with hot water, bring it to a boil, and remove any
scum that may rise to the surface. Put in the celery, onion, herbs,
spice, and seasoning, and simmer very gently until the meat is tender.
Peel the vegetables, cut them into any shape fancy may dictate, and
boil them with the onions until tender; lift out the beef, put it on a
dish, which keep hot, and thicken with butter and flour as much of the
liquor as will be wanted for gravy; keep stirring till it boils, then
strain and skim. Put the gravy back in the stewpan, add the seasoning,
port wine, and ketchup, give one boil, and pour it over the beef;
garnish with the boiled carrots, turnips and onions. _Time._—The meat
to be stewed about 4 hours. _Average cost_, 5_d._ per lb. with bone.
_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BEEF-TEA.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of lean gravy-beef, 1½ pint of water, 1
saltspoonful of salt. _Mode._—Have the meat cut without fat and bone,
and choose a nice fleshy piece. Cut it into small pieces about the size
of dice, and put it into a clean saucepan. Add the water _cold_ to
it; put it on the fire, and bring it to the boiling-point; then skim
well. Put in the salt when the water boils, and _simmer_ the beef-tea
_gently_ from ½ to ¾ hour, removing any more scum should it appear on
the surface. Strain the tea through a hair sieve, and set it by in a
cool place. When wanted for use, remove every particle of fat from
the top; warm up as much as may be required, adding, if necessary, a
little more salt. This preparation is simple beef-tea, and is to be
administered to those invalids to whom flavourings and seasonings are
not allowed. When the patient is very weak, use double the quantity
of meat to the same proportion of water. Should the invalid be able
to take the tea prepared in a more palatable manner, it is easy to
make it so by following the directions in Soyer’s recipe, which is an
admirable one for making savoury beef-tea. Beef-tea is always better
when made the day before it is wanted, and then warmed up. It is a
good plan to put the tea into a small cup or basin, and to place this
basin in a saucepan of boiling water. When the tea is hot, it is
ready to serve. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per pint.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1 lb. of meat for a pint of _good_ beef-tea.


BEEF-TEA, Baked.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of fleshy beef, 1 pint of water, ½ saltspoonful
of salt. _Mode._—Cut the beef into small square pieces, after trimming
off all the fat, and put it into a baking-jar (these jars are sold
expressly for the purpose of making soups, gravies, &c., in the oven,
and are arranged with tightly-fitting lids), with the above proportion
of water and salt; close the jar well, place it in a warm but not
hot oven, and bake for 3 or 4 hours. When the oven is very fierce in
the day-time, it is a good plan to put the jar in at night, and let
it remain till next morning, when the tea will be done. It should be
strained, and put by in a cool place until wanted. It may also be
flavoured with an onion, a clove, and a few sweet herbs, &c., when the
stomach is sufficiently strong to take these. _Time._—3 or 4 hours,
or to be left in the oven all night. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per pint.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1 lb. of meat for 1 pint of good beef-tea.


BEEF-TEA, Savoury (Soyer’s Recipe).

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of solid beef, 1 oz. of butter, 1 clove, 2 button
onions or ½ a large one, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1 quart of water.
_Mode._—Cut the beef into very small dice; put it into a stewpan with
the butter, clove, onion, and salt; stir the meat round over the fire
for a few minutes until it produces a thin gravy, then add the water,
and let it simmer gently from ½ to ¾ of an hour, skimming off every
particle of fat. When done, strain it through a sieve, and put it by in
a cool place until required. The same, if wanted quite plain, is done
by merely omitting the vegetables, salt, and clove; the butter cannot
be objectionable, as it is taken out in skimming. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour.
_Average cost_, 8_d._ per pint. _Sufficient._—Allow 1 lb. of beef to
make 1 pint of good beef-tea.

_Note._—The meat left from beef-tea may be boiled a little longer, and
pounded with spices, &c., for potting. It makes a very nice breakfast
dish.


BEETROOT, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Beetroot; boiling water. _Mode._—When large, young, and
juicy, this vegetable makes a very excellent addition to winter salads,
and may easily be converted into an economical and quickly-made pickle.
(_See_ BEETROOT, PICKLED.) Beetroot is more frequently served cold than
hot: when the latter mode is preferred, melted butter should be sent
to table with it. It may also be stewed with button onions, or boiled
and served with roasted onions. Wash the beets thoroughly; but do not
prick or break the skin before they are cooked, as they would lose
their beautiful colour in boiling. Put them into boiling water, and
let them boil until tender, keeping them well covered. If to be served
hot, remove the peel quickly, cut the beetroot into thick slices, and
send to table melted butter. For salads, pickle, &c., let the root
cool, then peel, and cut it into slices. _Time._—Small beetroot, 1½ to
2 hours; large, 2½ to 3 hours. _Average cost_, in full season, 2_d._
each. _Seasonable._—May be had at any time.


BEETROOT, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—Sufficient vinegar to cover the beets, 2 oz. of whole
pepper, 2 oz. of allspice to each gallon of vinegar. _Mode._—Wash the
beets free from dirt, and be very careful not to prick the outside
skin, or they would lose their beautiful colour. Put them into boiling
water, let them simmer gently, and when about three parts done, which
will be in 1½ hour, take them out and let them cool. Boil the vinegar
with pepper and allspice, in the above proportion, for 10 minutes, and
when cold, pour it on the beets, which must be peeled and cut into
slices about ½ inch thick. Cover with bladder to exclude the air, and
in a week they will be fit for use.


BISCUITS, Crisp.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, the yolk of 1 egg, milk. _Mode._—Mix
the flour and the yolk of the egg with sufficient milk to make the
whole into a very stiff paste; beat it well, and knead it until it is
perfectly smooth. Roll the paste out _very thin_; with a round cutter
shape it into small biscuits, and bake them a nice brown in a slow oven
from 12 to 18 minutes. _Time._—12 to 18 minutes. _Average cost_, 4_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BISCUITS, Dessert, which may be flavoured with Ground Ginger, Cinnamon,
&c.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of butter, ½ lb. of sifted
sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, flavouring to taste. _Mode._—Put the
butter into a basin; warm it, but do not allow it to oil; then with
the hand beat it to a cream. Add the flour by degrees, then the sugar
and flavouring, and moisten the whole with the yolks of the eggs,
which should previously be well beaten. When all the ingredients are
thoroughly incorporated, drop the mixture from a spoon on to a buttered
paper, leaving a distance between each cake, for they spread as soon
as they begin to get warm. Bake in rather a slow oven from 12 to 18
minutes, and do not let the biscuits acquire too much colour. In making
the above quantity, half may be flavoured with ground ginger and the
other half with essence of lemon or currants, to make a variety. With
whatever the preparation is flavoured, so are the biscuits called,
and an endless variety may be made in this manner. _Time._—12 to 18
minutes, or rather longer, in a very slow oven. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d. Sufficient_ to make from 3 to 4 dozen cakes. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


BISCUITS, Simple Hard.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 2 oz. of butter, about ½
pint of skimmed milk. _Mode._—Warm the butter in milk until the former
is dissolved, and then mix it with the flour into a very stiff paste;
beat it with a rolling-pin until the dough looks perfectly smooth.
Roll it out thin; cut it with the top of a glass into round biscuits;
prick them well, and bake them from 6 to 10 minutes. The above is
the proportion of milk which we think would convert the flour into a
stiff paste; but should it be found too much, an extra spoonful or two
of flour must be put in. These biscuits are very nice for the cheese
course. _Time._—6 to 10 minutes. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BLACK-COCK, to Roast.

_Ingredients._—Black-cock, butter, toast. _Mode._—Let these birds hang
for a few days, or they will be tough and tasteless, if not well kept.
Pluck and draw them, and wipe the insides and outsides with a damp
cloth, as washing spoils the flavour. Cut off the heads, and truss
them, the same as a roast fowl, cutting off the toes, and scalding
and peeling the feet. Trussing them with the head on, as shown in the
engraving, is still practised by many cooks, but the former method is
now considered the best. Put them down to a brisk fire, well baste
them with butter, and serve with a piece of toast under, and a good
gravy and bread sauce. After trussing, some cooks cover the breast with
vine-leaves and slices of bacon, and then roast them. They should be
served in the same manner and with the same accompaniments as with the
plainly-roasted birds. _Time._—45 to 50 minutes. _Average cost_, from
5_s._ to 6_s._ the brace; but seldom bought. _Sufficient_,—2 or 3 for a
dish. _Seasonable_ from the middle of August to the end of December.

[Illustration: ROAST BLACK-COCK.]


BLACK-COCK, to Carve.

[Illustration: BLACK-COCK.]

Skilful carving of game undoubtedly adds to the pleasure of the guests
at a dinner-table; for game seems pre-eminently to be composed of such
delicate limbs and tender flesh that an inapt practitioner appears to
more disadvantage when mauling these pretty and favourite dishes, than
larger and more robust _pièces de résistance_. This bird is variously
served with or without the head on; and, although we do not personally
object to the appearance of the head as shown in the woodcut, yet it
seems to be more in vogue to serve it without. The carving is not
difficult, but should be elegantly and deftly done. Slices from the
breast, cut in the direction of the dotted line from 2 to 1, should be
taken off, the merrythought displaced, and the leg and wing removed
by running the knife along from 3 to 4, reserving the thigh, which is
considered a great delicacy, for the most honoured guests, some of whom
may also esteem the brains of this bird.


BLANCMANGE (a Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—1 pint of new milk, 1¼ oz. of isinglass, the rind
of ½ lemon, ¼ lb. of loaf sugar, 10 bitter almonds, ½ oz. of sweet
almonds, 1 pint of cream. _Mode._—Put the milk into a saucepan, with
the isinglass, lemon-rind, and sugar, and let these ingredients stand
by the side of the fire until the milk is well flavoured; add the
almonds, which should be blanched and pounded in a mortar to a paste,
and let the milk just boil up; strain it through a fine sieve or muslin
into a jug, add the cream, and stir the mixture occasionally until
nearly cold. Let it stand for a few minutes, then pour it into the
mould, which should be previously oiled with the purest salad-oil, or
dipped in cold water. There will be a sediment at the bottom of the
jug, which must not be poured into the mould, as, when turned out,
it would very much disfigure the appearance of the blancmange. This
blancmange may be made very much richer by using 1½ pint of cream, and
melting the isinglass in ½ pint of boiling water. The flavour may also
be very much varied by adding bay-leaves, laurel-leaves, or essence
of vanilla, instead of the lemon-rind and almonds. Noyeau, Maraschino,
Curaçoa, or any favourite liqueur, added in small proportions, very
much enhances the flavour of this always favourite dish. In turning
it out, just loosen the edges of the blancmange from the mould, place
a dish on it, and turn it quickly over: it should come out easily,
and the blancmange have a smooth glossy appearance when the mould is
oiled, which it frequently has not when it is only dipped in water. It
may be garnished as fancy dictates. _Time._—About 1½ hour to steep the
lemon-rind and almonds in the milk. _Average cost_, with cream at 1_s._
per pint, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_
at any time.

[Illustration: BLANC-MANGE MOULD.]


BLANCMANGE, Cheap.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of sugar, 1 quart of milk, 1½ oz. of isinglass,
the rind of ½ lemon, 4 laurel-leaves. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients
into a lined saucepan, and boil gently until the isinglass is
dissolved; taste it occasionally to ascertain when it is sufficiently
flavoured with the laurel-leaves; then take them out, and keep stirring
the mixture over the fire for about 10 minutes. Strain it through a
fine sieve into a jug, and, when nearly cold, pour it into a well-oiled
mould, omitting the sediment at the bottom. Turn it out carefully on a
dish, and garnish with preserves, bright jelly, or a compôte of fruit.
_Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill
a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: BLANC-MANGE.]


BOUDIN à la REINE (an Entrée; M. Ude’s Recipe).

_Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowls, 1 pint of Béchamel,
salt and cayenne to taste, egg and bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Take the
breasts and nice white meat from the fowls; cut it into small dice of
an equal size, and throw them into some good Béchamel (_see_ BÉCHAMEL);
season with salt and cayenne, and put the mixture into a dish to cool.
When this preparation is quite cold, cut it into 2 equal parts, which
should be made into boudins of a long shape, the size of the dish they
are intended to be served on; roll them in flour, egg and bread-crumb
them, and be careful that the ends are well covered with the crumbs,
otherwise they will break in the frying-pan; fry them a nice colour,
put them before the fire to drain the greasy moisture from them, and
serve with the remainder of the Béchamel poured round: this should be
thinned with a little stock. _Time._—10 minutes to fry the boudins.
_Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl, 1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1
entrée.


BRAWN, to make.

_Ingredients._—To a pig’s head weighing 6 lbs. allow 1½ lb. lean beef,
2 tablespoonfuls of salt, 2 teaspoonfuls of pepper, a little cayenne,
6 pounded cloves. _Mode._—Cut off the cheeks and salt them, unless the
head be small, when all may be used. After carefully cleaning the head,
put it on in sufficient cold water to cover it, with the beef, and skim
it just before it boils. A head weighing 6 lbs. will require boiling
from 2 to 3 hours. When sufficiently boiled to come off the bones
easily, put it into a hot pan, remove the bones, and chop the meat with
a sharp knife before the fire, together with the beef. _It is necessary
to do this as quickly as possible to prevent the fat settling in it._
Sprinkle in the seasoning, which should have been previously mixed.
Stir it well and put it quickly into a brawn-tin if you have one; if
not, a cake-tin or mould will answer the purpose, if the meat is well
pressed with weights, which must not be removed for several hours. When
quite cold, dip the tin into boiling water for a minute or two, and
the preparation will turn out and be fit for use. _Time._—From 2 to 3
hours. _Average cost_, for a pig’s head, 4½_d._ per lb. _Seasonable_
from September to March.

_Note._—The liquor in which the head was boiled will make good pea
soup, and the fat, if skimmed off and boiled in water, and afterwards
poured into cold water, answers the purpose of lard.


BREAD-MAKING.

PANIFICATION, or bread-making, consists of the following processes,
in the case of Wheaten Flour. Fifty or sixty per cent. of water is
added to the flour, with the addition of some leavening matter, and
preferably, of yeast from malt and hops. All kinds of leavening
matter have, however, been, and are still used in different parts of
the world: in the East Indies, “toddy,” which is a liquor that flows
from the wounded cocoa-nut tree; and in the West Indies, “dunder,” or
the refuse of the distillation of rum. The dough then undergoes the
well-known process called _kneading_. The yeast produces fermentation,
a process which may be thus described:—The dough reacting upon the
leavening matter introduced, the starch of the flour is transformed
into saccharine matter, the saccharine matter being afterwards changed
into alcohol and carbonic acid. The dough must be well “bound,” and yet
allow the escape of the little bubbles of carbonic acid which accompany
the fermentation, and which, in their passage, cause the numerous
little holes which are seen in light bread.

The yeast must be good and fresh, if the bread is to be digestible and
nice. Stale yeast produces, instead of vinous fermentation, an acetous
fermentation, which flavours the bread and makes it disagreeable. A
poor thin yeast produces an imperfect fermentation, the result being a
heavy, unwholesome loaf.

When the dough is well kneaded, it is left to stand for some time, and
then, as soon as it begins to swell, it is divided into loaves; after
which it is again left to stand, when it once more swells up, and
manifests for the last time the symptoms of fermentation. It is then
put into the oven, where the water contained in the dough is partly
evaporated, and the loaves swell up again, while a yellow crust begins
to form upon the surface. When the bread is sufficiently baked, the
bottom crust is hard and resonant if struck with the finger, while the
crumb is elastic, and rises again after being pressed down with the
finger. The bread is, in all probability, baked sufficiently if, on
opening the door of the oven, you are met by a cloud of steam, which
quickly passes away.

One word as to the unwholesomeness of new bread and hot rolls. When
bread is taken out of the oven, it is full of moisture; the starch is
held together in masses, and the bread, instead of being crusted so as
to expose each grain of starch to the saliva, actually prevents their
digestion by being formed by the teeth into leathery poreless masses,
which lie on the stomach like so many bullets. Bread should always be
at least a day old before it is eaten; and, if properly made, and kept
in a _cool dry_ place, ought to be perfectly soft and palatable at
the end of three or four days. Hot rolls, swimming in melted butter,
and new bread, ought to be carefully shunned by everybody who has the
slightest respect for that much-injured individual—the Stomach.


AËRATED BREAD.—It is not unknown to some of our readers that Dr.
Dauglish, of Malvern, has recently patented a process for making
bread “light,” without the use of leaven. The ordinary process of
bread-making by fermentation is tedious, and much labour of human hands
is requisite in the kneading, in order that the dough may be thoroughly
interpenetrated with the leaven. The new process impregnates the bread,
by the application of machinery, with carbonic acid gas, or fixed air.
Different opinions are expressed about the bread; but it is curious to
note, that, as corn is now reaped by machinery, and dough is baked by
machinery, the whole process of bread-making is probably in course of
undergoing changes which will emancipate both the housewife and the
professional baker from a large amount of labour.

In the production of Aërated Bread, wheaten flour, water, salt, and
carbonic acid gas (generated by proper machinery), are the only
materials employed. We need not inform our readers that carbonic acid
gas is the source of the effervescence, whether in common water coming
from a depth, or in lemonade, or any aërated drink. Its action, in the
new bread, takes the place of fermentation in the old.

In the patent process, the dough is mixed in a great iron ball, inside
which is a system of paddles, perpetually turning, and doing the
kneading part of the business. Into this globe the flour is dropped
till it is full, and then the common atmospheric air is pumped out, and
the pure gas turned on. The gas is followed by the water, which has
been aërated for the purpose, and then begins the churning or kneading
part of the business.

Of course, it is not long before we have the dough, and very “light”
and nice it looks. This is caught in tins, and passed on to the
floor of the oven, which is an endless floor, moving slowly through
the fire. Done to a turn, the loaves emerge at the other end of the
apartment,—and the Aërated Bread is made.

It may be added, that it is a good plan to change one’s baker from time
to time, and so secure a change in the quality of the bread that is
eaten.

MIXED BREADS.—Rye bread is hard of digestion, and requires longer and
slower baking than wheaten bread. It is better when made with leaven of
wheaten flour rather than yeast, and turns out lighter. It should not
be eaten till two days old. It will keep a long time.

A good bread may be made by mixing rye-flour, wheat-flour, and
rice-paste, in equal proportions; also by mixing rye, wheat, and
barley. In Norway, it is said that they only bake their barley bread
once a year, such is its “keeping” quality.

Indian-corn flour mixed with wheat-flour (half with half) makes a nice
bread, but it is not considered very digestible, though it keeps well.

Rice cannot be made into bread, nor can potatoes; but one-third
potato-flour to three-fourths wheaten flour makes a tolerably good loaf.

A very good bread, better than the ordinary sort, and of a delicious
flavour, is said to be produced by adopting the following recipe:—Take
ten parts of wheat-flour, five parts of potato-flour, one part of
rice-paste; knead together, add the yeast, and bake as usual. This is,
of course, cheaper than wheaten bread.

Flour, when freshly ground, is too glutinous to make good bread, and
should therefore not be used immediately, but should be kept dry for a
few weeks, and stirred occasionally until it becomes dry, and crumbles
easily between the fingers.

Flour should be perfectly dry before being used for bread or cakes; if
at all damp, the preparation is sure to be heavy. Before mixing it with
the other ingredients, it is a good plan to place it for an hour or two
before the fire, until it feels warm and dry.

Yeast from home-brewed beer is generally preferred to any other: it is
very bitter, and on that account should be well washed, and put away
until the thick mass settles. If it still continues bitter, the process
should be repeated; and, before being used, all the water floating at
the top must be poured off. German yeast is now very much used, and
should be moistened, and thoroughly mixed with the milk or water with
which the bread is to be made.

The following observations are extracted from a valuable work on
Bread-making, and will be found very useful to our readers:—

The first thing required for making wholesome bread is the utmost
cleanliness; the next is the soundness and sweetness of all the
ingredients used for it; and, in addition to these, there must be
attention and care through the whole process.

An almost certain way of spoiling dough is to leave it half-made, and
to allow it to become cold before it is finished. The other most common
causes of failure are using yeast which is no longer sweet, or which
has been frozen, or has had hot liquid poured over it.

Too small a proportion of yeast, or insufficient time allowed for the
dough to rise, will cause the bread to be heavy.

Heavy bread will also most likely be the result of making the dough
very hard, and letting it become quite cold, particularly in winter.

If either the sponge or the dough be permitted to overwork itself,
that is to say, if the mixing and kneading be neglected when it has
reached the proper point for either, sour bread will probably be the
consequence in warm weather, and bad bread in any. The goodness will
also be endangered by placing it so near the fire as to make any part
of it hot, instead of maintaining the gentle and equal degree of heat
required for its due fermentation.

MILK OR BUTTER.—Milk which is not perfectly sweet will not only injure
the flavour of the bread, but, in sultry weather, will often cause it
to be quite uneatable; yet either of them, if _fresh and good_, will
materially improve its quality.

To keep bread sweet and fresh, as soon as it is cold it should be put
into a clean earthen pan, with a cover to it: this pan should be placed
at a little distance from the ground, to allow a current of air to pass
underneath. Some persons prefer keeping bread on clean wooden shelves
without being covered, that the crust may not soften. Stale bread may
be freshened by warming it through in a gentle oven. Stale pastry,
cakes, &c., may also be improved by this method.

The utensils required for making bread on a moderate scale, are a
kneading-trough or pan, sufficiently large that the dough may be
kneaded freely without throwing the flour over the edges, and also to
allow for its rising; a hair sieve for straining yeast, and one or two
strong spoons.

Yeast must always be good of its kind, and in a fitting state to
produce ready and proper fermentation. Yeast of strong beer or ale
produces more effect than that of milder kinds; and the fresher the
yeast, the smaller the quantity will be required to raise the dough.

As a general rule, the oven for baking bread should be rather quick,
and the heat so regulated as to penetrate the dough without hardening
the outside. The oven door should not be opened after the bread is
put in until the dough is set, or has become firm, as the cool air
admitted, will have an unfavourable effect on it.

Brick ovens are generally considered the best adapted for baking bread:
these should be heated with wood faggots, and then swept and mopped
out, to cleanse them for the reception of the bread. Iron ovens are
more difficult to manage, being apt to burn the surface of the bread
before the middle is baked. To remedy this, a few clean bricks should
be set at the bottom of the oven, close together, to receive the tins
of bread. In many modern stoves the ovens are so much improved that
they bake admirably; and they can always be brought to the required
temperature, when it is higher than is needed, by leaving the door open
for a time.


BREAD, to make good Home-made (Miss Acton’s Recipe).

[Illustration: COTTAGE LOAF.]

[Illustration: TIN BREAD.]

_Ingredients._—1 quartern of flour, 1 large tablespoonful of solid
brewer’s yeast, or nearly 1 oz. of fresh German yeast, 1¼ to 1½ pint
of warm milk-and-water. _Mode._—Put the flour into a large earthenware
bowl or deep pan; then, with a strong metal or wooden spoon, hollow
out the middle; but do not clear it entirely away from the bottom of
the pan, as, in that case, the sponge, or leaven (as it was formerly
termed) would stick to it, which it ought not to do. Next take either
a large tablespoonful of brewer’s yeast which has been rendered solid
by mixing it with plenty of cold water, and letting it afterwards
stand to settle for a day and night; or nearly an ounce of German
yeast; put it into a large basin, and proceed to mix it, so that it
shall be as smooth as cream, with ¾ pint of warm milk-and-water, or
with water only; though even a very little milk will much improve the
bread. Pour the yeast into the hole made in the flour, and stir into
it as much of that which lies round it as will make a thick batter, in
which there must be no lumps. Strew plenty of flour on the top, throw
a thick clean cloth over, and set it where the air is warm; but do not
place it upon the kitchen fender, for it will become too much heated
there. Look at it from time to time: when it has been laid for nearly
an hour, and when the yeast has risen and broken through the flour,
so that bubbles appear in it, you will know that it is ready to be
made up into dough. Then place the pan on a strong chair, or dresser,
or table, of convenient height; pour into the sponge the remainder of
the warm milk-and-water; stir into it as much of the flour as you can
with the spoon; then wipe it out clean with your fingers, and lay it
aside. Next take plenty of the remaining flour, throw it on the top of
the leaven, and begin, with the knuckles of both hands, to knead it
well. When the flour is nearly all kneaded in, begin to draw the edges
of the dough towards the middle, in order to mix the whole thoroughly;
and when it is free from flour and lumps and crumbs, and does not stick
to the hands when touched, it will be done, and may be covered with
the cloth, and left to rise a second time. In ¾ hour look at it, and
should it have swollen very much and begin to crack, it will be light
enough to bake. Turn it then on to a paste-board or very clean dresser,
and with a large sharp knife divide it in two; make it up quickly into
loaves, and despatch it to the oven: make one or two incisions across
the tops of the loaves, as they will rise more easily if this be done.
If baked in tins or pans, rub them with a tiny piece of butter laid on
a piece of clean paper, to prevent the dough from sticking to them.
All bread should be turned upside down, or on its side, as soon as it
is drawn from the oven: if this be neglected, the under part of the
loaves will become wet and blistered from the steam, which cannot then
escape from them. _To make the dough without setting a sponge_, merely
mix the yeast with the greater part of the warm milk-and-water, and wet
up the whole of the flour at once after a little salt has been stirred
in, proceeding exactly, in every other respect, as in the directions
just given. As the dough will _soften_ in the rising, it should be made
quite firm at first, or it will be too lithe by the time it is ready
for the oven. _Time._—To be left to rise an hour the first time, ¾ hour
the second time; to be baked from 1 to 1¼ hour, or baked in one loaf
from 1½ to 2 hours.


BREAD, to make a Peck of good.

_Ingredients._—3 lbs. of potatoes, 6 pints of cold water, ½ pint of
good yeast, a peck of flour, 2 oz. of salt. _Mode._—Peel and boil
the potatoes; beat them to a cream while warm; then add 1 pint of
cold water, strain through a colander, and add to it ½ pint of good
yeast, which should have been put in water over-night to take off its
bitterness. Stir all well together with a wooden spoon, and pour the
mixture into the centre of the flour; mix it to the substance of cream,
cover it over closely, and let it remain near the fire for an hour;
then add the 5 pints of water, milk-warm, with 2 oz. of salt; pour this
in, and mix the whole to a nice light dough. Let it remain for about 2
hours; then make it into 7 loaves, and bake for about 1½ hour in a good
oven. When baked, the bread should weigh nearly 20 lbs. _Time._—About
1½ hour.


BREAD-AND-BUTTER FRITTERS.

_Ingredients._—Batter, 8 slices of bread and butter, 3 or 4
tablespoonfuls of jam. _Mode._—Make a batter, the same as for apple
fritters; cut some slices of bread and butter, not very thick; spread
half of them with any jam that may be preferred, and cover with the
other slices; slightly press them together, and cut them out in square,
long, or round pieces. Dip them in the batter, and fry in boiling
lard for about 10 minutes; drain them before the fire on a piece of
blotting-paper or cloth. Dish them, sprinkle over sifted sugar, and
serve. _Time._—About 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for
4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—9 thin slices of bread and butter, 1½ pint of milk, 4
eggs, sugar to taste, ¼ lb. of currants, flavouring of vanilla, grated
lemon-peel, or nutmeg. _Mode._—Cut 9 slices of bread and butter, not
very thick, and put them into a pie-dish, with currants between each
layer, and on the top. Sweeten and flavour the milk, either by infusing
a little lemon-peel in it, or by adding a few drops of essence of
vanilla; well whisk the eggs, and stir these to the milk. _Strain_ this
over the bread and butter, and bake in a moderate oven for 1 hour, or
rather longer. This pudding may be very much enriched by adding cream,
candied peel, or more eggs than stated above. It should not be turned
out, but sent to table in the pie-dish, and is better for being made
about two hours before it is baked. _Time._—1 hour, or rather longer.
_Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


BREAD CRUMBS, Fried.

Cut the bread into thin slices, place them in a cool oven over-night,
and when thoroughly dry and crisp, roll them down into fine crumbs. Put
some lard, or clarified dripping, into a frying-pan; bring it to the
boiling-point, throw in the crumbs, and fry them very quickly. Directly
they are done, lift them out with a slice, and drain them before the
fire from all greasy moisture. When quite crisp, they are ready for
use. The fat they are fried in should be clear, and the crumbs should
not have the slightest appearance or taste of having been, in the least
degree, burnt.


BREAD, Fried, for Borders.

Proceed by frying some slices of bread, cut in any fanciful shape, in
boiling lard. When quite crisp, dip one side of the sippet into the
beaten white of an egg mixed with a little flour, and place it on the
edge of the dish. Continue in this manner till the border is completed,
arranging the sippets a pale and a dark one alternately.


BREAD, Fried Sippets of, for Garnishing many Dishes.

Cut the bread into thin slices, and stamp them out in whatever shape
you like,—rings, crosses, diamonds, &c. &c. Fry them in the same manner
as the bread-crumbs, in clear boiling lard or clarified dripping, and
drain them until thoroughly crisp before the fire. When variety is
desired, fry some of a pale colour, and others of a darker hue.


BREAKFASTS.

It will not be necessary to give here a long bill of fare of cold
joints, &c., which may be placed on the sideboard, and do duty at the
breakfast-table. Suffice it to say, that any cold meat the larder
may furnish should be nicely garnished and be placed on the buffet.
Collared and potted meats or fish, cold game or poultry, veal-and-ham
pies, game-and-rump-steak pies, are all suitable dishes for the
breakfast-table; as also cold ham, tongue, &c. &c.

The following list of hot dishes may perhaps assist our readers in
knowing what to provide for the comfortable meal called breakfast.
Broiled fish, such as mackerel, whiting, herrings, dried haddocks,
&c.; mutton chops and rump-steaks, broiled sheep’s kidneys, kidneys à
la maître d’hôtel, sausages, plain rashers of bacon, bacon and poached
eggs, ham and poached eggs, omelets, plain boiled eggs, œufs-au-plat,
poached eggs on toast, muffins, toast, marmalade, butter, &c. &c.

In the summer, and when they are obtainable, always have a vase of
freshly-gathered flowers on the breakfast-table, and, when convenient,
a nicely-arranged dish of fruit: when strawberries are in season, these
are particularly refreshing; as also grapes, or even currants.


BRILL.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water; a little
vinegar. _Mode._—Clean the brill, cut off the fins, and rub it over
with a little lemon-juice, to preserve its whiteness. Set the fish
in sufficient cold water to cover it; throw in salt, in the above
proportions, and a little vinegar, and bring it gradually to boil:
simmer very gently, till the fish is done, which will be in about 10
minutes for a small brill, reckoning from the time the water begins to
simmer. It is difficult to give the _exact_ number of minutes required
for cooking a brill, as the fish varies somewhat in thickness, but the
cook can always bear in mind that fish of every description should
be _very thoroughly dressed_, and never come to table in the _least
degree underdone_. The time for boiling of course depends entirely
on the size of the fish. Serve it on a hot napkin, and garnish with
cut lemon, parsley, horseradish, and a little lobster coral sprinkled
over the fish. Send lobster or shrimp sauce and plain melted butter
to table with it. _Time._—After the water boils, a small brill, 10
minutes; a medium sized brill, 15 to 20 minutes; a large brill, ½ hour.
_Average cost_, from 4_s._ to 8_s._; but when the market is plentifully
supplied, may be had from 2_s._ each. _Seasonable_ from August to April.

_To choose Brill._—The flesh of this fish, like that of turbot,
should be of a yellowish tint, and should be chosen on account of its
thickness. If the flesh has a bluish tint, it is not good.

A Brill and John Dory are carved in the same manner as a Turbot.

_Note._—The thick parts of the middle of the back are the best slices
in a turbot; and the rich gelatinous skin covering the fish, as well as
a little of the thick part of the fins, are dainty morsels, and should
be placed on each plate.

[Illustration: HOW TO CARVE A BRILL.]


BROWNING, for Stock.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of powdered sugar, and ½ a pint of water.
_Mode._—Place the sugar in a stewpan over a slow fire until it begins
to melt, keeping it stirred with a wooden spoon until it becomes black,
when add the water, and let it dissolve. Cork closely, and use a few
drops when required.

_Note._—In France, burnt onions are made use of for the purpose
of browning. As a general rule, the process of browning is to be
discouraged, as apt to impart a slightly unpleasant flavour to the
stock, and consequently all soups made from it.


BROWNING for Gravies and Sauces.

The browning for stock answers equally well for sauces and gravies,
when it is absolutely necessary to colour them in this manner; but
where they can be made to look brown by using ketchup, wine, browned
flour, tomatoes, or any coloured sauce, it is far preferable. As,
however, in cooking so much depends on appearance, perhaps it would be
as well for the inexperienced cook to use the artificial means. When no
browning is at hand, and you wish to heighten the colour of your gravy,
dissolve a lump of sugar in an iron spoon close to a sharp fire; when
it is in a liquid state, drop it into the sauce or gravy quite hot.
Care, however, must be taken not to put in too much, as it would impart
a very disagreeable flavour to the preparation.


BRUSSELS-SPROUTS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt; a _very small_ piece of soda. _Mode._—Clean the sprouts from
insects, nicely wash them, and pick off any dead or discoloured leaves
from the outsides; put them into a saucepan of _boiling_ water, with
salt and soda in the above proportion; keep the pan uncovered, and
let them boil quickly over a brisk fire until tender; drain, dish,
and serve with a tureen of melted butter, or with a maître d’hôtel
sauce poured over them. Another mode of serving them is, when they are
dished, to stir in about 1½ oz. of butter and a seasoning of pepper
and salt. They must, however, be sent to table very quickly, as, being
so very small, this vegetable soon cools. Where the cook is very
expeditious, this vegetable when cooked may be arranged on the dish in
the form of a pineapple, and so served has a very pretty appearance.
_Time._—from 9 to 12 minutes after the water boils. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 4_d._ per peck. _Sufficient._—Allow between 40 and 50 for 5 or 6
persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.


BUBBLE-AND-SQUEAK.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few thin slices of cold boiled
beef; butter, cabbage, 1 sliced onion, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Fry the slices of beef gently in a little butter, taking care
not to dry them up. Lay them on a flat dish, and cover with fried
greens. The greens may be prepared from cabbage sprouts or green
savoys. They should be boiled till tender, well drained, minced, and
placed, till quite hot, in a frying-pan, with butter, a sliced onion,
and seasoning of pepper and salt. When the onion is done, it is ready
to serve. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the
cold beef, 3_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


BULLOCK’S HEART, to Dress a.

_Ingredients._—1 heart, stuffing of veal forcemeat. _Mode._—Put the
heart into warm water to soak for 2 hours; then wipe it well with
a cloth, and, after cutting off the lobes, stuff the inside with a
highly-seasoned forcemeat. Fasten it in, by means of a needle and
coarse thread; tie the heart up in paper, and set it before a good
fire, being very particular to keep it well basted, or it will eat dry,
there being very little of its own fat. Two or three minutes before
dishing remove the paper, baste well, and serve with good gravy and
red-currant jelly or melted butter. If the heart is very large, it
will require 2 hours, and, covered with a caul, may be baked as well
as roasted. _Time._—Large heart, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year.

_Note._—This is an excellent family dish, is very savoury, and, though
not seen at many good tables, may be recommended for its cheapness and
economy.


BUNS, Light.

_Ingredients._—½ teaspoonful of tartaric acid, ½ teaspoonful of
bicarbonate of soda, 1 lb. of flour, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of loaf
sugar, ¼ lb. of currants or raisins,—when liked, a few caraway seeds,
½ pint of cold new milk, 1 egg. _Mode._—Rub the tartaric acid, soda,
and flour all together through a hair sieve; work the butter into the
flour; add the sugar, currants, and caraway seeds, when the flavour of
the latter is liked. Mix all these ingredients well together; make a
hole in the middle of the flour, and pour in the milk, mixed with the
egg, which should be well beaten; mix quickly, and set the dough, with
a fork, on baking-tins, and bake the buns for about 20 minutes. This
mixture makes a very good cake, and if put into a tin, should be baked
1½ hour. The same quantity of flour, soda, and tartaric acid, with ½
pint of milk and a little salt, will make either bread or tea-cakes, if
wanted quickly. _Time._—20 minutes for the buns; if made into a cake,
1½ hour. _Sufficient_ to make about 12 buns.

[Illustration: BUNS.]


BUNS, Plain.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of good butter, ¼ lb. of sugar, 1
egg, nearly ¼ pint of milk, 2 small teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, a
few drops of essence of lemon. _Mode._—Warm the butter, without oiling
it; beat it with a wooden spoon; stir the flour in gradually with the
sugar, and mix these ingredients well together. Make the milk lukewarm,
beat up with it the yolk of the egg and the essence of lemon, and stir
these to the flour, &c. Add the baking-powder, beat the dough well for
about 10 minutes, divide it into 24 pieces, put them into buttered tins
or cups, and bake in a brisk oven from 20 to 30 minutes. _Time._—20
to 30 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ to make 12 buns.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


BUNS, Victoria.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of pounded loaf sugar, 1 egg, 1½ oz. of ground
rice, 2 oz. of butter, 1½ oz. of currants, a few thin slices of
candied-peel, flour. _Mode._—Whisk the egg, stir in the sugar, and
beat these ingredients both together; beat the butter to a cream, stir
in the ground rice, currants, and candied-peel, and as much flour as
will make it of such a consistency that it may be rolled into 7 or 8
balls. Place these on a buttered tin, and bake them for ½ to ¾ hour.
They should be put into the oven immediately or they will become heavy,
and the oven should be tolerably brisk. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average
cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to make 7 or 8 buns. _Seasonable_ at any time.


BUTTER, Browned.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 3
tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper to taste. _Mode._—Put the
butter into a frying pan over a nice clear fire, and when it smokes,
throw in the parsley, and add the vinegar and seasoning. Let the whole
simmer for a minute or two, when it is ready to serve. This is a very
good sauce for skate. _Time._—¼ hour.


BUTTER, Clarified.

Put the butter in a basin before the fire, and when it melts, stir
it round once or twice, and let it settle. Do not strain it unless
absolutely necessary, as it causes so much waste. Pour it gently off
into a clean dry jar, carefully leaving all sediment behind. Let it
cool, and carefully exclude the air by means of a bladder, or piece of
wash-leather, tied over. If the butter is salt, it may be washed before
melting, when it is to be used for sweet dishes.


BUTTER, Curled.

Tie a strong cloth by two of the corners to an iron hook in the wall;
make a knot with the other two ends, so that a stick might pass
through. Put the butter into the cloth; twist it tightly over a dish,
into which the butter will fall through the knot, so forming small and
pretty little strings. The butter may then be garnished with parsley,
if to serve with a cheese course; or it may be sent to table plain for
breakfast, in an ornamental dish. Squirted butter for garnishing hams,
salads, eggs, &c., is made by forming a piece of stiff paper in the
shape of a cornet, and squeezing the butter in fine strings from the
hole at the bottom. Scooped butter is made by dipping a teaspoon or
scooper in warm water, and then scooping the butter quickly and thin.
In warm weather, it would not be necessary to heat the spoon.


BUTTER, Fairy.

_Ingredients._—The yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, 1 tablespoonful of
orange-flower water, 2 tablespoonfuls of pounded sugar, ¼ lb. of good
fresh butter. _Mode._—Beat the yolks of the eggs smoothly in a mortar,
with the orange-flower water and the sugar, until the whole is reduced
to a fine paste; add the butter, and force all through an old but clean
cloth by wringing the cloth and squeezing the butter very hard. The
butter will then drop on the plate in large and small pieces, according
to the holes in the cloth. Plain butter may be done in the same manner,
and is very quickly prepared, besides having a very good effect.


BUTTER, to keep Fresh.

Butter may be kept fresh for ten or twelve days by a very simple
process. Knead it well in cold water till the buttermilk is extracted;
then put it in a glazed jar, which invert in another, putting into the
latter a sufficient quantity of water to exclude the air. Renew the
water every day.


BUTTER, Maître d’Hôtel, for putting into Broiled Fish just before it is
sent to Table.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of minced parsley,
salt and pepper to taste, the juice of 1 large lemon. _Mode._—Work
the above ingredients well together, and let them be thoroughly mixed
with a wooden spoon. If this is used as a sauce, it may be poured
either under or over the meat or fish it is intended to be served with.
_Average cost_, for this quantity, 5_d._

_Note._—4 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel, 2 do. of white stock, with 2 oz.
of the above maître d’hôtel butter stirred into it, and just allowed
to simmer for 1 minute, will be found an excellent hot maître d’hôtel
sauce.


BUTTER, Melted.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of butter, a dessertspoonful of flour, 1
wineglassful of water, salt to taste. _Mode._—Cut the butter up into
small pieces, put it into a saucepan, dredge over the flour, and add
the water and a seasoning of salt; stir it _one way_ constantly till
the whole of the ingredients are melted and thoroughly blended. Let it
just boil, when it is ready to serve. If the butter is to be melted
with cream, use the same quantity as of water, but omit the flour; keep
stirring it, but do not allow it to boil. _Time._—1 minute to simmer.
_Average cost_ for this quantity, 4_d._


BUTTER, Melted (more Economical).

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to
taste, ½ pint of water. _Mode._—Mix the flour and water to a smooth
batter, which put into a saucepan. Add the butter and a seasoning of
salt, keep stirring _one way_ till all the ingredients are melted and
perfectly smooth; let the whole boil for a minute or two, and serve.
_Time._—2 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 2_d._


BUTTER, Rancid, What to do with.

When butter has become very rancid, it should be melted several times
by a moderate heat, with or without the addition of water, and as soon
as it has been well kneaded, after the cooling, in order to extract
any water it may have retained, it should be put into brown freestone
pots, sheltered from the contact of the air. The French often add to
it, after it has been melted, a piece of toasted bread, which helps to
destroy the tendency of the butter to rancidity.


BUTTER, Melted (the French Sauce Blanche).

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, salt
to taste, ½ gill of water, ½ spoonful of white vinegar, a very little
grated nutmeg. _Mode._—Mix the flour and water to a smooth batter,
carefully rubbing down with the back of a spoon any lumps that may
appear. Put it in a saucepan with all the other ingredients, and let it
thicken on the fire, but do not allow it to boil, lest it should taste
of the flour. _Time._—1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, 5_d._ for
this quantity.


BUTTER, Melted, made with Milk.

_Ingredients._—1 teaspoonful of flour, 2 oz. of butter, ½ pint of
milk, a few grains of salt. _Mode._—Mix the butter and flour smoothly
together on a plate, put it into a lined saucepan, and pour in the
milk. Keep stirring it _one way_ over a sharp fire; let it boil quickly
for a minute or two, and it is ready to serve. This is a very good
foundation for onion, lobster, or oyster sauce: using milk instead of
water makes it look much whiter and more delicate. _Time._—Altogether,
10 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 3_d._


CABBAGE, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—-To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt; a _very small_ piece of soda. _Mode._—Pick off all the dead
outside leaves, cut off as much of the stalk as possible, and cut the
cabbages across twice, at the stalk end; if they should be very large,
quarter them. Wash them well in cold water, place them in a colander,
and drain; then put them into _plenty_ of _fast-boiling_ water, to
which have been added salt and soda in the above proportions. Stir them
down once or twice in the water, keep the pan uncovered, and let them
boil quickly until tender. The instant they are done, take them up into
a colander, place a plate over them, let them thoroughly drain, dish,
and serve. _Time._—Large cabbages, or savoys, ½ to ¾ hour, young summer
cabbage, 10 to 12 minutes, after the water boils. _Average cost_, 2_d._
each in full season. _Sufficient._—2 large ones for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable._—Cabbages and sprouts of various kinds at any time.


CABBAGE, Red, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—Red cabbages, salt and water; to each quart of vinegar,
½ oz. of ginger well bruised, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, and, when
liked, a little cayenne. _Mode._—Take off the outside decayed leaves
of a nice red cabbage, cut it in quarters, remove the stalks, and cut
it across in very thin slices. Lay these on a dish, and strew them
plentifully with salt, covering them with another dish. Let them remain
for 24 hours, turn into a colander to drain, and, if necessary, wipe
lightly with a clean soft cloth. Put them in a jar; boil up the vinegar
with spices in the above proportion, and, when cold, pour it over the
cabbage. It will be fit for use in a week or two, and, if kept for a
very long time, the cabbage is liable to get soft and to discolour. To
be really nice and crisp, and of a good red colour, it should be eaten
almost immediately after it is made. A little bruised cochineal boiled
with the vinegar adds much to the appearance of this pickle. Tie down
with bladder, and keep in a dry place. _Seasonable_ in July and August,
but the pickle will be much more crisp if the frost has just touched
the leaves.


CABBAGE, Red, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—1 red cabbage, a small slice of ham, ½ oz. of fresh
butter, 1 pint of weak stock or broth, 1 gill of vinegar, salt and
pepper to taste, 1 tablespoonful of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Cut the
cabbage into very thin slices, put it into a stewpan, with the ham cut
in dice, the butter, ½ pint of stock, and the vinegar; cover the pan
closely, and let it stew for 1 hour. When it is very tender, add the
remainder of the stock, a seasoning of salt and pepper, and the pounded
sugar; mix all well together, stir over the fire until nearly all the
liquor is dried away, and serve. Fried sausages are usually sent to
table with this dish: they should be laid round and on the cabbage, as
a garnish. _Time._—Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 4_d._ each.
_Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from September to January.


CABBAGE SOUP.

_Ingredients._—1 large cabbage, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 4 or 5 slices
of lean bacon, salt and pepper to taste, 2 quarts of medium stock.
_Mode._—Scald the cabbage, cut it up and drain it. Line the stewpan
with the bacon, put in the cabbage, carrots, and onions; moisten with
skimmings from the stock, and simmer very gently, till the cabbage is
tender; add the stock, stew softly for half an hour, and carefully skim
off every particle of fat. Season and serve. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ per quart. _Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 8
persons.


CABINET or CHANCELLOR’S PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—1½ oz. of candied peel, 4 oz. of currants, 4 dozen
sultanas, a few slices of Savoy cake, sponge-cake, a French roll, 4
eggs, 1 pint of milk, grated lemon-rind, ¼ nutmeg, 3 tablespoonfuls of
sugar. _Mode._—Melt some butter to a paste, and with it, well grease
the mould or basin in which the pudding is to be boiled, taking care
that it is buttered in every part. Cut the peel into thin slices, and
place these in a fanciful device at the bottom of the mould, and fill
in the spaces between with currants and sultanas; then add a few slices
of sponge-cake or French roll; drop a few drops of melted butter on
these,and between each layer sprinkle a few currants. Proceed in this
manner until the mould is nearly full; then flavour the milk with
nutmeg and grated lemon-rind; add the sugar, and stir to this the eggs,
which should be well beaten. Beat this mixture for a few minutes; then
strain it into the mould, which should be quite full; tie a piece of
buttered paper over it, and let it stand for two hours; then tie it
down with a cloth, put it into boiling water, and let it boil slowly
for 1 hour. In taking it up, let it stand for a minute or two before
the cloth is removed; then quickly turn it out of the mould or basin,
and serve with sweet sauce separately. The flavouring of this pudding
may be varied by substituting for the lemon-rind essence of vanilla or
bitter almonds; and it may be made much richer by using cream; but this
is not at all necessary. _Time._—1 hour, _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: CABINET PUDDING.]


CABINET or BOILED BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING, Plain.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of raisins, a few thin slices of bread and butter,
3 eggs, 1 pint of milk, sugar to taste, ¼ nutmeg. _Mode._—Butter a
pudding-basin and line the inside with a layer of raisins that have
been previously stoned; then nearly fill the basin with slices of
bread and butter with the crust cut off, and, in another basin, beat
the eggs; add to them the milk, sugar, and grated nutmeg; mix all well
together, and pour the whole on to the bread and butter; let it stand ½
hour, then tie a floured cloth over it; boil for 1 hour, and serve with
sweet sauce. Care must be taken that the basin is quite full before the
cloth is tied over. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_
for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CAFÉ AU LAIT.

This is merely very strong coffee added to a large proportion of
good hot milk; about 6 tablespoonfuls of strong coffee being quite
sufficient for a breakfast-cupful of milk. Of the essence which
answers admirably for _café au lait_, so much would not be required.
This preparation is infinitely superior to the weak watery coffee so
often served at English tables. A little cream mixed with the milk,
if the latter cannot be depended on for richness, improves the taste
of the coffee, as also the richness of the beverage. _Sufficient._—6
tablespoonfuls of strong coffee, or 2 tablespoonfuls of the essence, to
a breakfast-cupful of milk.


CAFÉ NOIR.

This is usually handed round after dinner, and should be drunk well
sweetened, with the addition of a little brandy or liqueurs, which may
be added or not at pleasure. The coffee should be made very strong, and
served in very small cups, but never mixed with milk or cream. _Café
noir_ may be made of the essence of coffee by pouring a tablespoonful
into each cup, and filling it up with boiling water. This is a very
simple and expeditious manner of preparing coffee for a large party,
but the essence for it must be made very good, and kept well corked
until required for use.


CAKES, Making and Baking of.

_Eggs_ should always be broken into a cup, the whites and yolks
separated, and they should always be strained. Breaking the eggs thus,
the bad ones may be easily rejected without spoiling the others, and so
cause no waste. As eggs are used instead of yeast, they should be very
thoroughly whisked; they are generally sufficiently beaten when thick
enough to carry the drop that falls from the whisk.

_Loaf Sugar_ should be well pounded, and then sifted through a fine
sieve.

_Currants_ should be nicely washed, picked, dried in a cloth, and then
carefully examined, that no pieces of grit or stone may be left amongst
them. They should then be laid on a dish before the fire, to become
thoroughly dry; as, if added damp to the other ingredients, cakes will
be liable to be heavy.

_Good Butter_ should always be used in the manufacture of cakes; and,
if beaten to a cream, it saves much time and labour to warm, but not
melt, it before beating.

Less butter and eggs are required for cakes when yeast is mixed with
the other ingredients.

The heat of the oven is of great importance, especially for large
cakes. If the heat be not tolerably fierce, the batter will not rise.
If the oven is too quick, and there is any danger of the cake burning
or catching, put a sheet of clean paper over the top: newspaper, or
paper that has been printed on, should never be used for this purpose.

To know when a cake is sufficiently baked, plunge a clean knife into
the middle of it; draw it quickly out, and if it looks in the least
sticky put the cake back, and close the oven door until the cake is
done.

Cakes should be kept in closed tin canisters or jars, and in a dry
place. Those made with yeast do not keep so long as those made without
it.


CAKES, nice Breakfast.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ½ teaspoonful of tartaric acid,
½ teaspoonful of salt, ½ teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 1½
breakfast-cupful of milk, 1 oz. of sifted loaf sugar, 2 eggs.
_Mode._—These cakes are made in the same manner as the soda bread, with
the addition of eggs and sugar. Mix the flour, tartaric acid, and salt
well together, taking care that the two latter ingredients are reduced
to the finest powder, and stir in the sifted sugar, which should also
be very fine. Dissolve the soda in the milk, add the eggs, which should
be well whisked, and with this liquid work the flour, &c. into a light
dough. Divide it into small cakes, put them into the oven immediately,
and bake for about 20 minutes. _Time._—20 minutes.


CAKE, Christmas.

_Ingredients._—5 teacupfuls of flour, 1 teacupful of melted butter, 1
teacupful of cream, 1 teacupful of treacle, 1 teacupful of moist sugar,
2 eggs, ½ oz. of powdered ginger, ½ lb. of raisins, 1 teaspoonful of
carbonate of soda, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar. _Mode._—Make the butter
sufficiently warm to melt it, but do not allow it to oil; put the flour
into a basin, add to it the sugar, ginger, and raisins, which should
be stoned and cut into small pieces. When these dry ingredients are
thoroughly mixed, stir in the butter, cream, treacle, and well-whisked
eggs, and beat the mixture for a few minutes. Dissolve the soda in
the vinegar, add it to the dough, and be particular that these latter
ingredients are well incorporated with the others; put the cake into
a buttered mould or tin, place it in a moderate oven immediately, and
bake it from 1¾ to 2¼ hours. _Time._—1¾ to 2¼ hours. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 6_d._


CAKE, Common (suitable for sending to Children at School).

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of flour, 4 oz. of butter or clarified dripping,
½ oz. of caraway seeds, ¼ oz. of allspice, ½ lb. of pounded sugar, 1
lb. of currants, 1 pint of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of fresh yeast.
_Mode._—Rub the butter lightly into the flour; add all the dry
ingredients, and mix these well together. Make the milk warm, but not
hot; stir in the yeast, and with this liquid mix the whole into a light
dough; knead it well, and line the cake-tins with strips of buttered
paper: this paper should be about 6 inches higher than the top of the
tin. Put in the dough; stand it in a warm place to rise for more than
an hour, then bake the cakes in a well-heated oven. If this quantity
be divided into two, they will take from 1½ to 2 hours’ baking,
_Time._—1½ to 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ to make
2 moderate-sized cakes.


CAKE, Economical.

[Illustration: CAKE-MOULD.]

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of sugar, ¼ lb. of butter or lard,
½ lb. of currants, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, the whites of 4
eggs, ½ pint of milk. _Mode._—In making many sweet dishes, the whites
of eggs are not required, and if well beaten and added to the above
ingredients, make an excellent cake with or without currants. Beat the
butter to a cream, well whisk the whites of the eggs, and stir all the
ingredients together but the soda, which must not be added until all
is well mixed, and the cake is ready to be put into the oven. When the
mixture has been well beaten, stir in the soda, put the cake into a
buttered mould, and bake it in a moderate oven for 1½ hour. _Time._—1½
hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._


CAKE, Good Holiday.

_Ingredients._—1½_d._ worth of Borwick’s German baking-powder, 2 lbs.
of flour, 6 oz. of butter, ¼ lb. of lard, 1 lb. of currants, ½ lb. of
stoned and cut raisins, ¼ lb. of mixed candied peel, ½ lb. of moist
sugar, 3 eggs, ¾ pint of cold milk. _Mode._—Mix the baking-powder with
the flour; then rub in the butter and lard; have ready the currants,
washed, picked, and dried, the raisins stoned and cut into small pieces
(not chopped), and the peel cut into neat slices. Add these with the
sugar to the flour, &c., and mix all the dry ingredients well together.
Whisk the eggs, stir to them the milk, and with this liquid moisten the
cake; beat it up well, that all may be very thoroughly mixed; line a
cake-tin with buttered paper, put in the cake, and bake it from 2¼ to
2¾ hours in a good oven. To ascertain when it is done, plunge a clean
knife into the middle of it, and if, on withdrawing it, the knife looks
clean, and not sticky, the cake is done. To prevent it burning at the
top, a piece of clean paper may be put over whilst the cake is soaking,
or being thoroughly cooked in the middle. A steamer, such as is used
for steaming potatoes, makes a very good cake-tin, if it be lined at
the bottom and sides with buttered paper. _Time._—2¼ to 2¾ hours.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


CAKE, Luncheon.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of butter, 1 lb. of flour, ½ oz. of caraway seeds,
¼ lb. of currants, 6 oz. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of candied peel, 3 eggs,
½ pint of milk, 1 small teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. _Mode._—Rub
the butter into the flour until it is quite fine; add the caraway
seeds, currants (which should be nicely washed, picked, and dried),
sugar, and candied peel cut into thin slices; mix these well together,
and moisten with the eggs, which should be well whisked. Boil the milk,
and add to it, whilst boiling, the carbonate of soda, which must be
well stirred into it, and, with the milk, mix the other ingredients.
Butter a tin, pour the cake into it, and bake it in a moderate oven
from 1 to 1½ hour. _Time._—1 to 1½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.


CAKE, a nice useful.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of butter, 6 oz. of currants, ¼ lb. of sugar,
1 lb. of dried flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, 3 eggs, 1
teacupful of milk, 2 oz. of sweet almonds, 1 oz. of candied peel.
_Mode._—Beat the butter to a cream; wash, pick, and dry the currants;
whisk the eggs; blanch and chop the almonds, and cut the peel into neat
slices. When all these are ready, mix the dry ingredients together;
then add the butter, milk, and eggs, and beat the mixture well for a
few minutes. Put the cake into a buttered mould or tin, and bake it for
rather more than 1½ hour. The currants and candied peel may be omitted,
and a little lemon or almond flavouring substituted for them; made in
this manner, the cake will be found very good. _Time._—Rather more than
1½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._


CAKE, a Pavini.

_Ingredients._—1-2 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of ground rice, ½ lb. of raisins
stoned and cut into small pieces, ¼ lb. of currants, ¼ lb. of butter,
2 oz. of sweet almonds, ¼ lb. of sifted loaf sugar, ½ nutmeg grated,
1 pint of milk, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda. _Mode._—Stone and
cut the raisins into small pieces; wash, pick, and dry the currants;
melt the butter to a cream, but without oiling it; blanch and chop the
almonds, and grate the nutmeg. When all these ingredients are thus
prepared, mix them well together; make the milk warm, stir in the soda,
and with this liquid make the whole into a paste. Butter a mould,
rather more than half fill it with the dough, and bake the cake in a
moderate oven from 1½ to 2 hours, or less time should it be made into 2
cakes. _Time._—1½ to 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._ _Seasonable_
at any time.


CAKE, a nice Plain.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, 1 teaspoonful of Borwick’s
baking-powder, ¼ lb. of good dripping, 1 teacupful of moist sugar, 3
eggs, 1 breakfast-cupful of milk, 1 oz. of caraway seeds, ½ lb. of
currants. _Mode._—Put the flour and the baking-powder into a basin;
stir these together; then rub in the dripping, add the sugar, caraway
seeds, and currants; whisk the eggs with the milk, and beat all
together very thoroughly until the ingredients are well mixed. Butter a
tin, put in the cake, and bake it from 1½ to 2 hours. Let the dripping
be quite clean before using: to insure this, it is a good plan to
clarify it. Beef dripping is better than any other for cakes, &c., as
mutton dripping frequently has a very unpleasant flavour, which would
be imparted to the preparation. _Time._—1½ to 2 hours, _Average cost_,
1_s._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


CAKE, a nice Plain, for Children.

_Ingredients._—1 quartern of dough, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ¼ lb. of
butter or good beef dripping, ¼ pint of warm milk, ½ grated nutmeg or
½ oz. of caraway seeds. _Mode._—It you are not in the habit of making
bread at home, procure the dough from the baker’s, and as soon as
it comes in put it into a basin near the fire; cover the basin with
a thick cloth, and let the dough remain a little while to rise. In
the mean time, beat the butter to a cream, and make the milk warm;
and when the dough has risen, mix with it thoroughly all the above
ingredients, and knead the cake well for a few minutes. Butter some
cake-tins, half fill them, and stand them in a warm place, to allow the
dough to rise again. When the tins are three parts full, put the cakes
into a good oven, and bake them from 1¾ to 2 hours. A few currants
might be substituted for the caraway seeds when the flavour of the
latter is disliked. _Time._—1¾ to 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.


CAKE, Queen.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of butter, ½ lb. of pounded loaf
sugar, 3 eggs, 1 teacupful of cream, ½ lb. of currants, 1 teaspoonful
of carbonate of soda, essence of lemon, or almonds to taste.
_Mode._—Work the butter to a cream; dredge in the flour, add the sugar
and currants, and mix the ingredients well together. Whisk the eggs,
mix them with the cream and flavouring, and stir these to the flour;
add the carbonate of soda, beat the paste well for 10 minutes, put it
into small buttered pans, and bake the cake from ¼ to ½ hour. Grated
lemon-rind may be substituted for the lemon and almond flavouring,
which will make the cakes equally nice. _Time._—¼ to ½ hour. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


CAKE, Saucer, for Tea.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of _tous-les-mois_, ¼ lb. of
pounded white sugar, ¼ lb. of butter, 2 eggs, 1 oz. of candied orange
or lemon-peel. _Mode._—Mix the flour and _tous-les-mois_ together;
add the sugar, the candied peel cut into thin slices, the butter
beaten to a cream, and the eggs well whisked. Beat the mixture for 10
minutes, put it into a buttered cake-tin or mould, or, if this is not
obtainable, a soup-plate answers the purpose, lined with a piece of
buttered paper. Bake the cake in a moderate oven from 1 to 1¼ hour, and
when cold, put it away in a covered canister. It will remain good some
weeks, even if it be cut into slices. _Time._—1 to 1¼ hour. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


CAKES, Scrap.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of leaf, or the inside fat of a pig; 1½ lb.
of flour, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ½ lb. of currants, 1 oz. of candied
lemon-peel, ground allspice to taste. _Mode._—Cut the leaf, or flead,
as it is sometimes called, into small pieces; put it into a large dish,
which place in a quick oven; be careful that it does not burn, and in
a short time it will be reduced to oil, with the small pieces of leaf
floating on the surface; and it is of these that the cakes should be
made. Gather all the scraps together, put them into a basin with the
flour, and rub them well together. Add the currants, sugar, candied
peel, cut into thin slices, and the ground allspice. When all these
ingredients are well mixed, moisten with sufficient cold water to make
the whole into a nice paste; roll it out thin, cut it into shapes,
and bake the cakes in a quick oven from 15 to 20 minutes. These are
very economical and wholesome cakes for children, and the lard, melted
at home, produced from the flead, is generally better than that you
purchase. To prevent the lard from burning, and to insure its being a
good colour, it is better to melt it in a jar placed in a saucepan of
boiling water; by doing it in this manner, there will be no chance of
its discolouring. _Time._—15 to 20 minutes. _Sufficient_ to make 3 or 4
dozen cakes. _Seasonable_ from September to March.


CALF.

The manner of cutting up a calf for the English market is to divide
the carcase into four quarters, with eleven ribs to each fore quarter;
which are again subdivided into joints, as exemplified on the cut.

_Hind quarter:_—

  1. The loin.
  2. The chump, consisting of the rump and hock-bone.
  3. The fillet.
  4. The hock, or hind knuckle.

_Fore quarter:_—

  5. The shoulder.
  6. The neck.
  7. The breast.
  8. The fore knuckle.

[Illustration: SIDE OF A CALF, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

The several parts of a moderately-sized well-fed calf, about eight
weeks old, are nearly of the following weights:—loin and chump 18 lbs.,
fillet 12½ lbs., hind knuckle 5½ lbs., shoulder 11 lbs., neck 11 lbs.,
breast 9 lbs., and fore knuckle 5 lbs.; making a total of 144 lbs.
weight. The London mode of cutting the carcase is considered better
than that pursued in Edinburgh, as giving three roasting joints and one
boiling in each quarter; besides the pieces being more equally divided,
as regards flesh, and from the handsomer appearance they make on the
table.


CALF’S FEET, Baked or Stewed.

_Ingredients._—1 calf’s foot, 1 pint of milk, 1 pint of water, 1 blade
of mace, the rind of ½ lemon, pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Well
clean the foot, and either stew or bake it in the milk-and-water with
the other ingredients from 3 to 4 hours. To enhance the flavour, an
onion and a small quantity of celery may be added, if approved; ½ a
teacupful of cream, stirred in just before serving, is also a great
improvement to this dish. _Time._—3 to 4 hours. _Average cost_, in full
season, 9_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 1 person. _Seasonable_ from March
to October.


CALF’S FEET, Boiled, and Parsley and Butter.

_Ingredients._—2 calf’s feet, 2 slices of bacon, 2 oz. of butter, two
tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1 onion,
a bunch of savoury herbs, 4 cloves, 1 blade of mace, water, parsley,
and butter. _Mode._—Procure 2 white calf’s feet; bone them as far as
the first joint, and put them into warm water to soak for 2 hours. Then
put the bacon, butter, lemon-juice, onion, herbs, spices, and seasoning
into a stewpan; lay in the feet, and pour in just sufficient water to
cover the whole. Stew gently for about three hours; take out the feet,
dish them, and cover with parsley and butter. The liquor they were
boiled in should be strained and put by in a clean basin for use: it
will be found very good as an addition to gravies, &c. _Time._—Rather
more than 3 hours. _Average cost_, in full season, 9_d._ each.
_Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S-FOOT BROTH.

_Ingredients._—1 calf’s foot, 3 pints of water, 1 small lump of sugar,
nutmeg to taste, the yolk of 1 egg, a piece of butter the size of a
nut. _Mode._—Stew the foot in the water with the lemon-peel _very
gently_, until the liquid is half wasted, removing any scum, should
it rise to the surface. Set it by in a basin until quite cold, then
take off every particle of fat. Warm up about ½ pint of the broth,
adding the butter, sugar, and a very small quantity of grated nutmeg;
take it off the fire for a minute or two, then add the beaten yolk
of the egg; keep stirring over the fire until the mixture thickens,
but do not allow it to boil again after the egg is added, or it will
curdle, and the broth will be spoiled. _Time._—To be boiled until the
liquid is reduced one half. _Average cost_, in full season, 9_d._ each.
_Sufficient_ to make 1½ pint of broth. _Seasonable_ from March to
October.


CALF’S FEET, Fricasseed.

_Ingredients._—A set of calf’s feet; for the batter, allow for each egg
1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 tablespoonful of bread-crumbs, hot lard, or
clarified dripping, pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—If the feet are
purchased uncleaned, dip them into warm water repeatedly, and scrape
off the hair, first one foot and then the other, until the skin looks
perfectly clean, a saucepan of water being kept by the fire until they
are finished. After washing and soaking in cold water, boil them in
just sufficient water to cover them, until the bones come easily away.
Then pick them out, and after straining the liquor into a clean vessel,
put the meat into a pie-dish until the next day. Now cut it down in
slices about ½ inch thick, lay on them a stiff batter made of egg,
flour, and bread-crumbs in the above proportion; season with pepper
and salt, and plunge them into a pan of boiling lard. Fry the slices
a nice brown, dry them before the fire for a minute or two, dish them
on a napkin, and garnish with tufts of parsley. This should be eaten
with melted butter, mustard, and vinegar. Be careful to have the lard
boiling to _set_ the batter, or the pieces of feet will run about the
pan. The liquor they were boiled in should be saved, and will be found
useful for enriching gravies, making jellies, &c. _Time._—About 3 hours
to stew the feet, 10 or 15 minutes to fry them. _Average cost_, in full
season, 9_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from March
to October.

_Note._—This dish can be highly recommended to delicate persons.


CALF’S-FEET JELLY.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of calf’s-feet stock, ½ lb. sugar, ½ pint of
sherry, 1 glass of brandy, the shells and whites of 5 eggs, the rind
and juice of 2 lemons, ½ oz. of isinglass. _Mode._—Prepare the stock as
directed in recipe for stock, taking care to leave the sediment, and
to remove all the fat from the surface. Put it into a saucepan cold,
without clarifying it; add the remaining ingredients, and stir them
well together before the saucepan is placed on the fire. Then simmer
the mixture gently for ¼ hour, _but do not stir it after it begins to
warm_. Throw in a teacupful of cold water, boil for another 5 minutes,
and keep the saucepan covered by the side of the fire for about ½
hour, but do not let it boil again. In simmering, the head or scum
may be carefully removed as it rises; but particular attention must
be given to the jelly, that it be not stirred in the slightest degree
after it is heated. The isinglass should be added when the jelly begins
to boil: this assists to clear it, and makes it firmer for turning out.
Wring out a jelly-bag in hot water; fasten it on to a stand, or the
back of a chair; place it near the fire with a basin underneath it, and
run the jelly through it. Should it not be perfectly clear the first
time, repeat the process until the desired brilliancy is obtained.
Soak the moulds in water, drain them for half a second, pour in the
jelly, and put it in a cool place to set. If ice is at hand, surround
the moulds with it, and the jelly will set sooner, and be firmer when
turned out. In summer it is necessary to have ice in which to put the
moulds, or the cook will be, very likely, disappointed, by her jellies
being in too liquid a state to turn out properly, unless a great deal
of isinglass is used. When wanted for table, dip the moulds in hot
water for a minute, wipe the outside with a cloth, lay a dish on the
top of the mould, turn it quickly over, and the jelly should slip out
easily. It is sometimes served broken into square lumps, and piled
high in glasses. Earthenware moulds are preferable to those of pewter
or tin for red jellies, the colour and transparency of the composition
being often spoiled by using the latter. To make this jelly more
economically, raisin wine may be substituted for the sherry and brandy,
and the stock made from cow-heels, instead of calf’s feet. _Time._—20
minutes to simmer the jelly, ½ hour to stand covered. _Average cost,_
reckoning the feet at 6_d._ each, 5_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill two
1½-pint moulds. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: JELLY-MOULD.]

_Note._—As lemon-juice, unless carefully strained, is liable to make
the jelly muddy, see that it is clear before it is added to the other
ingredients. Omit the brandy when the flavour is objected to.


CALF’S HEAD à la Maître d’Hôtel.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a cold calf’s head,
rather more than ½ pint of maître d’hôtel sauce. _Mode._—Make the sauce
by the given recipe, and have it sufficiently thick that it may nicely
cover the meat; remove the bones from the head, and cut the meat into
neat slices. When the sauce is ready, lay in the meat; _gradually_ warm
it through, and, after it boils up, let it simmer very gently for 5
minutes, and serve. _Time._—Rather more than 1½ hour. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the meat, 1_s._ 2_d._ _Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S HEAD, Boiled (with the Skin on).

_Ingredients._—Calf’s head, boiling water, bread-crumbs, 1 large bunch
of parsley, butter, white pepper and salt to taste, 4 tablespoonfuls
of melted butter, 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice, 2 or 3 grains of
cayenne. _Mode._—Put the head into boiling water, and let it remain by
the side of the fire for 3 or 4 minutes; take it out, hold it by the
ear, and with the back of a knife, scrape off the hair (should it not
come off easily, dip the head again into boiling water). When perfectly
clean, take the eyes out, cut off the ears, and remove the brain,
which soak for an hour in warm water. Put the head into hot water to
soak for a few minutes, to make it look white, and then have ready a
stewpan, into which lay the head; cover it with cold water, and bring
it gradually to boil. Remove the scum, and add a little salt, which
assists to throw it up. Simmer it very gently from 2½ to 3 hours, and
when nearly done, boil the brains for ¼ hour; skin and chop them, not
too finely, and add a tablespoonful of minced parsley which has been
previously scalded. Season with pepper and salt, and stir the brains,
parsley, &c., into about 4 tablespoonfuls of melted butter; add the
lemon-juice and cayenne, and keep these hot by the side of the fire.
Take up the head, cut out the tongue, skin it, put it on a small dish
with the brains round it; sprinkle over the head a few bread-crumbs
mixed with a little minced parsley; brown these before the fire, and
serve with a tureen of parsley and butter, and either boiled bacon,
ham, or pickled pork as an accompaniment. _Time._—2½ to 3 hours.
_Average cost_, according to the season, from 3_s._ to 7_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 8 or 9 persons. _Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S HEAD, Boiled (without the Skin).

_Ingredients._—Calf’s head, water, a little salt, 4 tablespoonfuls of
melted butter, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, pepper and salt to
taste, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice. _Mode._—After the head has been
thoroughly cleaned, and the brains removed, soak it in warm water to
blanch it. Lay the brains also into warm water to soak, and let them
remain for about an hour. Put the head into a stewpan, with sufficient
cold water to cover it, and, when it boils, add a little salt; take off
every particle of scum as it rises, and boil the head until perfectly
tender. Boil the brains, chop them, and mix with them melted butter,
minced parsley, pepper, salt, and lemon-juice in the above proportion.
Take up the head, skin the tongue, and put it on a small dish with
the brains round it. Have ready some parsley and butter, smother the
head with it, and the remainder send to table in a tureen. Bacon, ham,
pickled pork, or a pig’s cheek, are indispensable with calf s head. The
brains are sometimes chopped with hard-boiled eggs, and mixed with a
little Béchamel or white sauce. _Time._—From 1½ to 2¼ hours. _Average
cost,_ according to the season, from 3_s._ to 5_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6
or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ from March to October.

[Illustration: CALF’S HEAD.]

[Illustration: HALF A CALF’S HEAD.]

_Note._—The liquor in which the head was boiled should be saved: it
makes excellent soup, and will be found a nice addition to gravies, &c.
Half a calf’s head is as frequently served as a whole one, it being a
more convenient-sized joint for a small family. It is cooked in the
same manner, and served with the same sauces, as in the preceding
recipe.


CALF’S HEAD, Collared.

_Ingredients._—A calf’s head, 4 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, 4
blades of pounded mace, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, white pepper
to taste, a few thick slices of ham, the yolks of 6 eggs boiled hard.
_Mode._—Scald the head for a few minutes; take it out of the water, and
with a blunt knife scrape off all the hair. Clean it nicely, divide
the head and remove the brains. Boil it tender enough to take out the
bones, which will be in about 2 hours. When the head is boned, flatten
it on the table, sprinkle over it a thick layer of parsley, then a
layer of ham, and then the yolks of the eggs cut into thin rings and
put a seasoning of pounded mace, nutmeg, and white pepper between
each layer; roll the head up in a cloth, and tie it up as tightly as
possible. Boil it for 4 hours, and when it is taken out of the pot,
place a heavy weight on the top, the same as for other collared meats.
Let it remain till cold; then remove the cloth and binding, and it will
be ready to serve. _Time._—Altogether, 6 hours. _Average cost_, 5_s._
to 7_s._ each. _Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S HEAD, Fricasseed (an Entrée).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a boiled calf’s
head, 1½ pint of the liquor in which the head was boiled, 1 blade of
pounded mace, 1 onion minced, a bunch of savoury herbs, salt and white
pepper to taste, thickening of butter and flour, the; yolks of 2 eggs,
1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, forcemeat balls. _Mode._—Remove all
the bones from the head, and cut the meat into nice square pieces. Put
1½ pint of the liquor it was boiled in into a saucepan, with mace,
onions, herbs, and seasoning in the above proportion: let this simmer
gently for ¾ hour, then strain it and put in the meat. When quite hot
through, thicken the gravy with a little butter rolled in flour, and,
just before dishing the fricassee, put in the beaten yolks of eggs, and
lemon-juice; but be particular, after these two latter ingredients are
added, that the sauce does not boil, or it will curdle. Garnish with
forcemeat balls and curled slices of broiled bacon. To insure the sauce
being smooth, it is a good plan to dish the meat first, and then to add
the eggs to the gravy: when these are set, the sauce may be poured over
the meat. _Time._—Altogether, 1¼ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the
meat, 6_d._


CALF’S HEAD, Hashed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a cold boiled calf’s
head, 1 quart of the liquor in which it was boiled, a faggot of savoury
herbs, 1 onion, 1 carrot, a strip of lemon-peel, 2 blades of pounded
mace, salt and white pepper to taste, a very little cayenne, rather
more than 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice,
1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, forcemeat balls. _Mode._—Cut the
meat into neat slices, and put the bones and trimmings into a stewpan
with the above proportion of liquor that the head was boiled in. Add a
bunch of savoury herbs, 1 onion, 1 carrot, a strip of lemon-peel, and
2 blades of pounded mace, and let these boil for 1 hour, or until the
gravy is reduced nearly half. Strain it into a clean stewpan, thicken
it with a little butter and flour, and add a flavouring of sherry,
lemon-juice, and ketchup, in the above proportion; season with pepper,
salt, and a little cayenne; put in the meat, let it _gradually_ warm
through, but not boil more than _two_ or _three_ minutes. Garnish the
dish with forcemeat balls and pieces of bacon rolled and toasted,
placed alternately, and send it to table very hot. _Time._—Altogether
1½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the remains of the head, 6_d._
_Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S HEAD, Moulded.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a calf’s head, some
thin slices of ham or bacon, 6 or 8 eggs boiled hard, 1 dessertspoonful
of salt, pepper, mixed spice, and parsley, ½ pint of good white gravy.
_Mode._—Cut the head into thin slices. Butter a tin mould, cut the
yolks of eggs in half, and put some of them round the tin; sprinkle
some of the parsley, spice, &c., over it; then put in the head and
the bacon in layers, adding occasionally more eggs and spice till the
whole of the head is used. Pour in the gravy, cover the top with a thin
paste of flour and water, and bake ¾ of an hour. Take off the paste,
and, when cold, turn it out. _Time._—From ¾ to 1 hour to bake the
preparation. _Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S HEAD, to Carve.

This is not altogether the most easy-looking dish to cut when it is put
before a carver for the first time; there is not much real difficulty
in the operation, however, when the head has been attentively examined,
and, after the manner of a phrenologist, you get to know its bumps,
good and bad. In the first place, inserting the knife quite down to
the bone, cut slices in the direction of the line 1 to 2; with each of
these should be helped a piece of what is called the throat sweetbread,
cut in the direction of from 3 to 4. The eye, and the flesh round,
are favourite morsels with many, and should be given to those at the
table who are known to be the greatest connoisseurs. The jawbone being
removed, there will then be found some nice lean; and the palate, which
is reckoned by some a tit-bit, lies under the head. On a separate dish
there is always served the tongue and brains, and each guest should be
asked to take some of these.

[Illustration: CALF’S HEAD.]


CALF’S LIVER, aux Fines Herbes and Sauce Piquante.

_Ingredients._—A calf’s liver, flour, a bunch of savoury herbs,
including parsley; when liked, 2 minced shalots; 1 teaspoonful of
flour, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice,
pepper and salt to taste, ¼ pint water. _Mode._—Procure a calf’s liver
as white as possible, and cut it into slices of a good and equal
shape. Dip them in flour, and fry them of a good colour in a little
butter. When they are done, put them on a dish, which keep hot before
the fire. Mince the herbs very fine, put them in the frying-pan with a
little more butter; add the remaining ingredients, simmer gently until
the herbs are done, and pour over the liver. _Time._—According to the
thickness of the slices, from 5 to 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 10_d._
per lb. _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from March to
October.


CALF’S LIVER and BACON

_Ingredients._—2 or 3 lbs. of liver, bacon, pepper and salt to taste, a
small piece of butter, flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, ¼ pint
of water. _Mode._—Cut the liver in thin slices, and cut as many slices
of bacon as there are of liver; fry the bacon first, and put that on a
hot dish before the fire. Fry the liver in the fat which comes from the
bacon, after seasoning it with pepper and salt and dredging over it a
very little flour. Turn the liver occasionally to prevent its burning,
and when done, lay it round the dish with a piece of bacon between
each. Pour away the bacon fat, put in a small piece of butter, dredge
in a little flour, add the lemon-juice and water, give one boil, and
pour it in the _middle_ of the dish. It may be garnished with slices
of cut lemon, or forcemeat balls. _Time._—According to the thickness
of the slices, from 5 to 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ from March to October.


CALF’S LIVER, Larded and Roasted (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—A calf’s liver, vinegar, 1 onion, 3 or 4 sprigs of
parsley and thyme, salt and pepper to taste, 1 bay-leaf, lardoons,
brown gravy. _Mode._—Take a fine white liver, and lard it the same as a
fricandeau; put it into vinegar with an onion cut in slices, parsley,
thyme, bay-leaf, and seasoning in the above proportion. Let it remain
in this pickle for 24 hours, then roast and baste it frequently with
the vinegar, &c.; glaze it, serve under it a good brown gravy, or sauce
piquante, and send it to table very hot. _Time._—Rather more than 1
hour. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.
_Seasonable_ from March to October.

_Note._—Calf’s liver stuffed with forcemeat (_see_ FORCEMEAT), to which
has been added a little fat bacon, will be found a very savoury dish.
It should be larded or wrapped in buttered paper, and roasted before a
clear fire. Brown gravy and currant jelly should be served with it.


CAMP VINEGAR.

_Ingredients._—1 head of garlic, ½ oz. cayenne, 2 teaspoonfuls of
soy, 2 ditto walnut ketchup, 1 pint of vinegar, cochineal to colour.
_Mode._—Slice the garlic, and put it, with all the above ingredients,
into a clean bottle. Let it stand to infuse for a month, when strain it
off quite clear, and it will be fit for use. Keep it in small bottles
well sealed, to exclude the air. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 8_d._


CANARY PUDDING (very good).

_Ingredients._—The weight of 3 eggs in sugar and butter, the weight of
2 eggs in flour, the rind of 1 small lemon, 3 eggs. _Mode._—Melt the
butter to a liquid state, but do not allow it to oil; stir to this the
sugar and finely-minced lemon-peel, and gradually dredge in the flour,
keeping the mixture well stirred; whisk the eggs; add these to the
pudding; beat all the ingredients until thoroughly blended, and put
them into a buttered mould or basin; boil for 2 hours, and serve with
sweet sauce. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4
or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CANNELONS, or Fried Puffs (Sweet Entremets).

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of puff-paste; apricot, or any kind of preserve
that may be preferred; hot lard. _Mode._—Cannelons, which are made of
puff-paste rolled very thin, with jam inclosed, and cut out in long
narrow rolls or puffs, make a very pretty and elegant dish. Make some
good puff-paste by the recipe given; roll it out very thin, and cut it
into pieces of an equal size, about 2 inches wide and 8 inches long;
place upon each piece a spoonful of jam, wet the edges with the white
of egg, and fold the paste over _twice_; slightly press the edges
together, that the jam may not escape in the frying; and when all are
prepared, fry them in boiling lard until of a nice brown, letting
them remain by the side of the fire after they are coloured, that the
paste may be thoroughly done. Drain them before the fire, dish on a
d’oyley, sprinkle over them sifted sugar, and serve. These cannelons
are very delicious made with fresh instead of preserved fruit, such
as strawberries, raspberries, or currants: it should be laid in the
paste, plenty of pounded sugar sprinkled over, and folded and fried in
the same manner as stated above. _Time._—About 10 minutes. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient._—½ lb. of paste for a moderate-sized dish of
cannelons. _Seasonable_, with jam, at any time.


CAPER SAUCE, for Fish.

_Ingredient_s.—½ pint of melted butter, 3 dessertspoonfuls of capers,
1 dessertspoonful of their liquor, a small piece of glaze, if at hand
(this may be dispensed with), ¼ teaspoonful of salt, ditto of pepper,
1 tablespoonful of anchovy essence. _Mode._—Cut the capers across once
or twice, but do not chop them fine; put them in a saucepan with ½ pint
of good melted butter, and add all the other ingredients. Keep stirring
the whole until it just simmers, when it is ready to serve. _Time._—1
minute to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 5_d._ _Sufficient_
to serve with a skate, or 2 or 3 slices of salmon.


CAPER SAUCE, for Boiled Mutton.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of melted butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of capers or
nasturtiums, 1 tablespoonful of their liquor. _Mode._—Chop the capers
twice or thrice, and add them, with their liquor, to ½ pint of melted
butter, made very smoothly with milk; keep stirring well; let the
sauce just simmer, and serve in a tureen. Pickled nasturtium-pods are
fine-flavoured, and by many are eaten in preference to capers. They
make an excellent sauce. _Time._—2 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_
for this quantity, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ to serve with a leg of mutton.


CAPER SAUCE, a Substitute for.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of melted butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of cut
parsley, ½ teaspoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar.
_Mode._—Boil the parsley slowly to let it become a bad colour; cut, but
do not chop it fine. Add it to ½ pint of smoothly-made melted butter,
with salt and vinegar in the above proportions. Boil up and serve.
_Time._—2 minutes to simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 3_d._


CAPSICUMS, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—Vinegar, ¼ oz. of pounded mace, and ¼ oz. of grated
nutmeg, to each quart; brine. _Mode._—Gather the pods with the stalks
on, before they turn red; slit them down the side with a small-pointed
knife, and remove the seeds only; put them in a strong brine for 3
days, changing it every morning; then take them out, lay them on a
cloth, with another one over them, until they are perfectly free from
moisture. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with mace and nutmeg
in the above proportions; put the pods in a jar, pour over the vinegar
when cold, and exclude them from the air by means of a wet bladder tied
over.


CARP, Baked.

_Ingredients._—1 carp, forcemeat, bread-crumbs, 1 oz. butter, ½ pint of
stock (_see_ STOCK), ½ pint of port wine, 6 anchovies, 2 onions sliced,
1 bay-leaf, a faggot of sweet herbs, flour to thicken, the juice of
1 lemon; cayenne and salt to taste; ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar.
_Mode._—Stuff the carp with a delicate forcemeat, after thoroughly
cleansing it, and sew it up, to prevent the stuffing from falling out.
Rub it over with an egg, and sprinkle it with bread-crumbs, lay it in a
deep earthen dish, and drop the butter, oiled, over the bread-crumbs.
Add the stock, onions, bay-leaf, herbs, wine, and anchovies, and bake
for 1 hour. Put 1 oz. of butter into a stewpan, melt it, and dredge
in sufficient flour to dry it up; put in the strained liquor from the
carp, stir frequently, and when it has boiled, add the lemon-juice and
seasoning. Serve the carp on a dish garnished with parsley and cut
lemon, and the sauce in a boat. _Time._—1¼ hour. _Average cost._ Seldom
bought. _Seasonable_ from March to October. _Sufficient_ for 1 or 2
persons.


CARP, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—1 carp, salt, stock, 2 onions, 6 cloves, 12 peppercorns,
1 blade of mace, ¼ pint of port wine, the juice of ½ lemon, cayenne
and salt to taste, a faggot of savoury herbs. _Mode._—Scale the fish,
clean it nicely, and, if very large, divide it; lay it in the stewpan,
after having rubbed a little salt on it, and put in sufficient stock to
cover it; add the herbs, onions and spices, and stew gently for 1 hour,
or rather more, should it be very large. Dish up the fish with great
care, strain the liquor, and add to it the port wine, lemon-juice, and
cayenne; give one boil, pour it over the fish, and serve. _Time._—1¼
hour. _Average cost._ Seldom bought. _Seasonable_ from March to
October. _Sufficient_ for 1 or 2 persons.

_Note._—This fish can be boiled plain, and served with parsley and
butter. Chub and Char may be cooked in the same manner as the above, as
also Dace and Roach.


CARROT JAM, to Imitate Apricot Preserve.

_Ingredients._—Carrots; to every lb. of carrot pulp allow 1 lb. of
pounded sugar, the grated rind of 1 lemon, the strained juice of 2,
6 chopped bitter almonds, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy. _Mode._—Select
young carrots; wash and scrape them clean, cut them into round pieces,
put them into a saucepan with sufficient water to cover them, and let
them simmer, until perfectly soft; then beat them through a sieve.
Weigh the pulp, and to every lb. allow the above ingredients. Put
the pulp into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and let this boil for
5 minutes, stirring and skimming all the time. When cold, add the
lemon-rind and juice, almonds and brandy; mix these well with the jam;
then put it into pots, which must be well covered and kept in a dry
place. The brandy may be omitted, but the preserve will then not keep:
with the brandy it will remain good for months. _Time._—About ¾ hour to
boil the carrots; 5 minutes to simmer the pulp. _Average cost_, 1_s._
2_d._ for 1 lb. of pulp, with the other ingredients in proportion.
_Sufficient_ to fill 3 pots. _Seasonable_ from July to December.


CARROT PUDDING, Baked or Boiled.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of bread-crumbs, 4 oz. suet, ¼ lb. of stoned
raisins, ¾ lb. of carrot, ¼ lb. of currants, 3 oz. of sugar, 3 eggs,
milk, ¼ nutmeg. _Mode._—Boil the carrots, until tender enough to mash
to a pulp; add the remaining ingredients, and moisten with sufficient
milk to make the pudding of the consistency of thick batter. If
to be boiled, put the mixture into a buttered basin, tie it down
with a cloth, and boil for 2½ hours: if to be baked, put it into a
pie-dish, and bake for nearly an hour; turn it out of the dish, strew
sifted sugar over it, and serve. _Time._—2½ hours to boil; 1 hour to
bake. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from September to March.


CARROT SOUP.

_Ingredients._—4 quarts of liquor in which a leg of mutton or beef
has been boiled, a few beef-bones, 6 large carrots, 2 large onions, 1
turnip; seasoning of salt and pepper to taste; cayenne. _Mode._—Put the
liquor, bones, onions, turnip, pepper, and salt, into a stewpan, and
simmer for 3 hours. Scrape and cut the carrots thin, strain the soup
on them, and stew them till soft enough to pulp through a hair sieve
or coarse cloth; then boil the pulp with the soup, which should be of
the consistency of pea-soup. Add cayenne. Pulp only the red part of
the carrot, and make this soup the day before it is wanted. _Time._—4½
hours. _Average cost_, per quart, 1½_d._ _Seasonable_ from October to
March. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


CARROT SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of carrots, 3 oz. of butter, seasoning to taste
of salt and cayenne, 2 quarts of stock or gravy soup. _Mode._—Scrape
and cut out all specks from the carrots, wash, and wipe them dry, and
then reduce them into quarter-inch slices. Put the butter into a large
stewpan, and when it is melted, add 2 lbs. of the sliced carrots, and
let them stow gently for an hour without browning. Add to them the
soup, and allow them to simmer till tender,—say for nearly an hour.
Press them through a strainer with the soup, and add salt and cayenne
if required. Boil the whole gently for 5 minutes, skim well, and serve
as hot as possible. _Time._—1¼ hour. _Average cost_, per quart, 1_s._
1_d._


CARROTS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water, allow one heaped
tablespoonful of salt; carrots. _Mode._—Cut off the green tops, wash
and scrape the carrots, and should there be any black specks, remove
them. If very large, cut them in halves, divide them lengthwise into
four pieces, and put them into boiling water, salted in the above
proportion; let them boil until tender, which may be ascertained by
thrusting a fork into them: dish, and serve very hot. This vegetable
is an indispensable accompaniment to boiled beef. When thus served, it
is usually boiled with the beef; a few carrots are placed round the
dish as a garnish, and the remainder sent to table in a vegetable-dish.
Young carrots do not require nearly so much boiling, nor should they be
divided: these make a nice addition to stewed veal, &c. _Time._—Large
carrots, 1¾ to 2¼ hours; young ones, about ½ hour. _Average cost_,
6_d._ to 8_d._ per bunch of 18. _Sufficient._—4 large carrots for 5 or
6 persons. _Seasonable._—Young carrots from April to July, old ones at
any time.


CARROTS, to dress, in the German way.

_Ingredients._—8 large carrots, 3 oz. of butter, salt to taste, a
very little grated nutmeg, 1 tablespoonful of finely-minced parsley,
1 dessertspoonful of minced onion, rather more than 1 pint of weak
stock or broth, 1 tablespoonful of flour. _Mode._—Wash and scrape the
carrots, and cut them into rings of about ¼ inch in thickness. Put the
butter into a stewpan; when it is melted, lay in the carrots, with
salt, nutmeg, parsley, and onion in the above proportions. Toss the
stewpan over the fire for a few minutes, and when the carrots are well
saturated with the butter, pour in the stock, and simmer gently until
they are nearly tender. Then put into another stewpan a small piece of
butter; dredge in about a tablespoonful of flour; stir this over the
fire, and when of a nice brown colour, add the liquor that the carrots
have been boiling in; let this just boil up, pour it over the carrots
in the other stewpan, and let them finish simmering until quite tender.
Serve very hot. This vegetable, dressed as above, is a favourite
accompaniment to roast pork, sausages, &c., &c. _Time._—About ¾ hour.
_Average cost_, 6_d._ to 8_d._ per bunch of 18. _Sufficient_ for 6 or
7 persons. _Seasonable._—Young carrots from April to July, old ones at
any time.


CARROTS, Sliced (Entremets, or to be served with the Second Course, as
a Side-Dish).

_Ingredients._—5 or 6 large carrots, a large lump of sugar, 1 pint of
weak stock, 3 oz. of fresh butter, salt to taste. _Mode._—Scrape and
wash the carrots, cut them into slices of an equal size, and boil them
in salt and water until half done; drain them well, put them into a
stewpan with the sugar and stock, and let them boil over a brisk fire.
When reduced to a glaze, add the fresh butter and a seasoning of salt;
shake the stewpan about well, and when the butter is well mixed with
the carrots, serve. There should be no sauce in the dish when it comes
to table, but it should all adhere to the carrots. _Time._—Altogether,
¾ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ to 8_d._ per bunch of 18. _Sufficient_
for 1 dish. _Seasonable._—Young carrots from April to July, old ones at
any time.


CARROTS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—7 or 8 large carrots, 1 teacupful of broth, pepper
and salt to taste, ½ teacupful of cream, thickening of butter and
flour. _Mode._—Scrape the carrots nicely; half-boil, and slice them
into a stewpan; add the broth, pepper and salt, and cream; simmer
till tender, and be careful the carrots are not broken. A few minutes
before serving, mix a little flour with about 1 oz. of butter; thicken
the gravy with this; let it just boil up, and serve. _Time._—About ¾
hour to boil the carrots, about 20 minutes to cook them after they are
sliced. _Average cost_, 6_d._ to 8_d._ per bunch of 18. _Sufficient_
for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable._—Young carrots from April to July, old
ones at any time.


CAULIFLOWERS à la SAUCE BLANCHE (Entremets, or Side-dish, to be served
with the Second Course).

_Ingredients._—3 cauliflowers, ½ pint of sauce blanche, or French
melted butter, 3 oz. of butter, salt and water. _Mode._—Cleanse the
cauliflowers as in the succeeding recipe, and cut the stalks off flat
at the bottom; boil them until tender in salt and water, to which the
above proportion of butter has been added, and be careful to take them
up the moment they are done, or they will break, and the appearance of
the dish will be spoiled. Drain them well, and dish them in the shape
of a large cauliflower. Have ready ½ pint of sauce made by recipe,
pour it over the flowers, and serve hot and quickly. _Time._—Small
cauliflowers, 12 to 15 minutes; large ones, 20 to 25 minutes, after
the water boils. _Average cost_, large cauliflowers, in full season,
6_d._ each. _Sufficient_, 1 large cauliflower for 3 or 4 persons.
_Seasonable_ from the beginning of June to the end of September.


CAULIFLOWERS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt. _Mode._—Choose cauliflowers that are close and white; trim off
the decayed outside leaves, and cut the stalk off flat at the bottom.
Open the flower a little in places to remove the insects, which are
generally found about the stalk, and let the cauliflowers lie in salt
and water for an hour previous to dressing them, with their heads
downwards: this will effectually draw out all the vermin. Then put
them into fast-boiling water, with the addition of salt in the above
proportion, and let them boil briskly over a good fire, keeping the
saucepan uncovered, and the water well skimmed. When the cauliflowers
are tender, take them up with a slice; let them drain, and, if large
enough, place them upright in the dish. Serve with plain melted
butter, a little of which may be poured over the flower. _Time._—Small
cauliflower 12 to 15 minutes, large one 20 to 25 minutes, after the
water boils. _Average cost_, for large cauliflowers, 6_d._ each.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1 large cauliflower for 3 persons. _Seasonable_
from the beginning of June to the end of September.

[Illustration: BOILED CAULIFLOWER.]


CAULIFLOWERS, with Parmesan Cheese (Entremets, or Side-dish, to be
served with the Second Course).

_Ingredients._—2 or 3 cauliflowers, rather more than ½ pint of white
sauce, 2 tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese, 2 oz. of fresh
butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Cleanse and boil the
cauliflowers by the preceding recipe, drain them, and dish them with
the flowers standing upright. Have ready the above proportion of white
sauce; pour sufficient of it over the cauliflowers just to cover the
top; sprinkle over this some rasped Parmesan cheese and bread-crumbs,
and drop on these the butter, which should be melted, but not oiled.
Brown with a salamander, or before the fire, and pour round, but not
over, the flowers the remainder of the sauce, with which should be
mixed a small quantity of grated Parmesan cheese. _Time._—Altogether,
½ hour. _Average cost_, for large cauliflowers, 6_d._ each.
_Sufficient._—3 small cauliflowers for 1 dish. _Seasonable_ from the
beginning of June to the end of September.


CAYENNE CHEESES.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of butter, ½ lb. of flour, ½ lb. of grated cheese,
1/6 teaspoonful of cayenne, 1/3 teaspoonful of salt; water. _Mode._—Rub
the butter in the flour; add the grated cheese, cayenne, and salt, and
mix these ingredients well together. Moisten with sufficient water to
make the whole into a paste; roll out, and cut into fingers about 4
inches in length. Bake them in a moderate oven a very light colour, and
serve very hot. _Time._—15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 4_d._
_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CAYENNE VINEGAR, or Essence of Cayenne.

_Ingredients._—½ oz. of cayenne pepper, ½ pint of strong spirit, or 1
pint of vinegar. _Mode._—Put the vinegar, or spirit, into a bottle,
with the above proportion of cayenne, and let it steep for a month,
when strain off and bottle for use. This is excellent seasoning for
soups or sauces, but must be used very sparingly.


CELERY.

With a good heart, and nicely blanched, this vegetable is generally
eaten raw, and is usually served with the cheese. Let the roots be
washed free from dirt, all the decayed and outside leaves being cut
off, preserving as much of the stalk as possible, and all specks or
blemishes being carefully removed. Should the celery be large, divide
it lengthwise into quarters, and place it, root downwards, in a
celery-glass, which should be rather more than half filled with water.
The top leaves may be curled, by shredding them in narrow strips with
the point of a clean skewer, at a distance of about 4 inches from the
top. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per head. _Sufficient._—Allow 2 heads for 4
or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from October to April.

[Illustration: CELERY, IN GLASS.]

_Note._—This vegetable is exceedingly useful for flavouring soups,
sauces, &c., and makes a very nice addition to winter salad.


CELERY SAUCE, for Boiled Turkey, Poultry, &c.

_Ingredients._—6 heads of celery, 1 pint of white stock, 2 blades of
mace, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs; thickening of butter and flour,
or arrowroot, ½ pint of cream, lemon-juice. _Mode._—Boil the celery in
salt and water until tender, and cut it into pieces 2 inches long. Put
the stock into a stewpan with the mace and herbs, and let it simmer
for ½ hour to extract their flavour. Then strain the liquor, add the
celery, and a thickening of butter kneaded with flour, or, what is
still better, with arrowroot; just before serving, put in the cream,
boil it up, and squeeze in a little lemon-juice. If necessary, add a
seasoning of salt and white pepper. _Time._—25 minutes to boil the
celery. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_, this quantity for a
boiled turkey.

_Note._—This sauce may be made brown by using gravy instead of white
stock, and flavouring it with mushroom ketchup or Harvey’s sauce.


CELERY SAUCE (a more simple Recipe).

_Ingredients._—4 heads of celery, ½ pint of melted butter made with
milk, 1 blade of pounded mace; salt and white pepper to taste.
_Mode._—Wash the celery, boil it in salt and water till tender, and
cut it into pieces 2 inches long; make ½ pint melted butter by recipe;
put in the celery, pounded mace, and seasoning; simmer for 3 minutes,
when the sauce will be ready to serve. _Time._—25 minutes to boil the
celery. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_, this quantity for a boiled
fowl.


CELERY SOUP.

_Ingredients._—9 heads of celery, 1 teaspoonful of salt, nutmeg to
taste, 1 lump of sugar, ½ pint of strong stock, a pint of cream, and
2 quarts of boiling water. _Mode._—Cut the celery into small pieces;
throw it into the water, seasoned with the nutmeg, salt, and sugar.
Boil it till sufficiently tender; pass it through a sieve, add the
stock, and simmer it for half an hour. Now put in the cream, bring
it to the boiling-point, and serve immediately. _Time._—1 hour.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ per quart. _Seasonable_ from September to March.
_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note._—This soup can be made brown instead of white, by omitting the
cream, and colouring it a little. When celery cannot be procured, half
a drachm of the seed, finely pounded, will give a flavour to the soup,
if put in a quarter of an hour before it is done. A little of the
essence of celery will answer the same purpose.


CELERY, Stewed, à la Crême.

_Ingredients._—6 heads of celery; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1
heaped tablespoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1/3 pint of
cream. _Mode._—Wash the celery thoroughly; trim, and boil it in salt
and water until tender. Put the cream and pounded mace into a stewpan,
shake it over the fire until the cream thickens, dish the celery,
pour over the sauce, and serve. _Time._—Large heads of celery, 25
minutes; small ones, 15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per head.
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from October to April.


CELERY, Stewed (with White Sauce).

_Ingredients._—6 heads of celery, 1 oz. of butter; to each half gallon
of water allow 1 heaped teaspoonful of salt, ½ pint of white sauce
(_see_ WHITE SAUCE). _Mode._—Have ready sufficient boiling water just
to cover the celery, with salt and butter in the above proportion. Wash
the celery well, cut off the decayed outside leaves, trim away the
green tops, and shape the root into a point; put it into the boiling
water, let it boil rapidly until tender, then take it out, drain well,
place it upon a dish, and pour over it about ½ pint of white sauce,
made by recipe. It may also be plainly boiled as above, placed on
toast, and melted butter poured over, the same as asparagus is dished.
_Time._—Large heads of celery 25 minutes, small ones 15 to 20 minutes,
after the water boils. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per head. _Sufficient_ for
5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from October to April.


CELERY, Stewed (with White Sauce).

_Ingredients._—6 heads of celery, ½ pint of white stock or weak broth,
4 tablespoonfuls of cream, thickening of butter and flour, 1 blade of
pounded mace, a _very little_ grated nutmeg; pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Wash the celery, strip off the outer leaves, and cut it into
lengths of about 4 inches. Put these into a saucepan, with the broth,
and stow till tender, which will be in from 20 to 25 minutes; then add
the remaining ingredients, simmer altogether for 4 or 5 minutes, pour
into a dish, and serve. It may be garnished with sippets of toasted
bread. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per head.
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from October to April.

_Note._—By cutting the celery into smaller pieces, by stewing it a
little longer, and, when done, by pressing it through a sieve, the
above stew may be converted into a Purée of Celery.


CELERY VINEGAR.

_Ingredients._—¼ oz. of celery-seed, 1 pint of vinegar. _Mode._—Crush
the seed by pounding it in a mortar; boil the vinegar, and when cold,
pour it to the seed; let it infuse for a fortnight, when strain and
bottle off for use. This is frequently used in salads.


CHAMPAGNE-CUP.

_Ingredients._—1 quart bottle of champagne, 2 bottles of soda-water,
1 liqueur-glass of brandy or Curaçoa, 2 tablespoonfuls of powdered
sugar, 1 lb. of pounded ice, a sprig of green borage. _Mode._—Put all
the ingredients into a silver cup; stir them together, and serve the
same as claret-cup. Should the above proportion of sugar not be found
sufficient to suit some tastes, increase the quantity. When borage is
not easily obtainable, substitute for it a few slices of cucumber-rind.
_Seasonable._—Suitable for pic-nics balls, weddings, and other festive
occasions.


CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.

_Ingredients._—A few slices of rather stale bread ½ inch thick,
clarified butter, apple marmalade, with about 2 dozen apples, ½ glass
of sherry. _Mode._—Cut a slice of bread the same shape as the bottom of
a plain round mould, which has been well buttered, and a few strips the
height of the mould, and about 1½ inch wide; dip the bread in clarified
butter (or spread it with cold butter, if not wanted quite so rich);
place the round piece at the bottom of the mould, and set the narrow
strips up the sides of it, overlapping each other a little, that no
juice from the apples may escape, and that they may hold firmly to
the mould. Brush the _interior_ over with the white of egg (this will
assist to make the case firmer); fill it with the apple marmalade,
with the addition of a little sherry, and cover them with a round
piece of bread, also brushed over with egg, the same as the bottom;
slightly press the bread down to make it adhere to the other pieces;
put a plate on the top, and bake the _charlotte_ in a brisk oven, of
a light colour. Turn it out on the dish, strew sifted sugar over the
top, and pour round it a little melted apricot jam. _Time._—40 to 50
minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from July to March.

[Illustration: CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES.]

CHARLOTTE-AUX-POMMES, an easy method of making.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of powdered
sugar, ½ teaspoonful of baking-powder, 1 egg, milk, 1 glass of
raisin-wine, apple marmalade, ¼ pint of cream, 2 dessert spoonfuls of
pounded sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice. _Mode._—Make a cake
with the flour, butter, sugar, and baking-powder; moisten with the egg
and sufficient milk to make it the proper consistency, and bake it in
a round tin. When cold, scoop out the middle, leaving a good thickness
all round the sides, to prevent them breaking; take some of the
scooped-out pieces, which should be trimmed into neat slices; lay them
in the cake, and pour over sufficient raisin-wine, with the addition of
a little brandy, if approved, to soak them well. Have ready some apple
marmalade, made by recipe; place a layer of this over the soaked cake,
then a layer of cake and a layer of apples; whip the cream to a froth,
mixing with it the sugar and lemon-juice; pile it on the top of the
_charlotte_, and garnish it with pieces of clear apple jelly. This dish
is served cold, but may be eaten hot by omitting the cream, and merely
garnishing the top with bright jelly just before it is sent to table.
_Time._—1 hour to bake the cake. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for
5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from July to March.


CHARLOTTE, Russe (an elegant Sweet Entremets).

_Ingredients._—About 18 Savoy biscuits, ¾ pint of cream, flavouring of
vanilla, liqueurs, or wine, 1 tablespoonful of pounded sugar, ½ oz. of
isinglass. _Mode._—Procure about 18 Savoy biscuits, or ladies’-fingers,
as they are sometimes called; brush the edges of them with the white of
an egg, and line the bottom of a plain round mould, placing them like a
star or rosette. Stand them upright all round the edge, carefully put
them so closely together that the white of egg connects them firmly,
and place this case in the oven for about 5 minutes, just to dry the
egg. Whisk the cream to a stiff froth, with the sugar, flavouring,
and melted isinglass; fill the charlotte with it, cover with a slice
of sponge-cake cut in the shape of the mould; place it in ice, where
let it remain till ready for table; then turn it on a dish, remove
the mould, and serve. 1 tablespoonful of liqueur of any kind, or 4
tablespoonfuls of wine, would nicely flavour the above proportion of
cream. For arranging the biscuits in the mould, cut them to the shape
required, so that they fit in nicely, and level them with the mould at
the top, that, when turned out, there may be something firm to rest
upon. Great care and attention is required in the turning out of this
dish, that the cream does not burst the case; and the edges of the
biscuits must have the smallest quantity of egg brushed over them, or
it would stick to the mould, and so prevent the charlotte from coming
away properly. _Time._—5 minutes in the oven. _Average cost_, with
cream at 1_s._ per pint, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1 charlotte.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


CHEESE.

Cheese is the curd formed from milk by artificial coagulation, pressed
and dried for use. Curd, called also casein and caseous matter, or the
basis of cheese, exists in the milk, and not in the cream, and requires
only to be separated by coagulation: the coagulation, however, supposes
some alteration of the curd. By means of the substance employed to
coagulate it, it is rendered insoluble in water. When the curd is freed
from the whey, kneaded and pressed to expel it entirely, it becomes
cheese; this assumes a degree of transparency, and possesses many of
the properties of coagulated albumen. If it be well dried, it does not
change by exposure to the air; but if it contain moisture, it soon
putrefies; it therefore requires some salt to preserve it, and this
acts likewise as a kind of seasoning. All our cheese is coloured more
or less, except that made from skim milk. The colouring substances
employed are arnatto, turmeric, or marigold, all perfectly harmless
unless they are adulterated; and it is said that arnatto sometimes
contains red lead.

Cheese varies in quality and richness according to the materials of
which it is composed. It is made—1. Of entire milk, as in Cheshire; 2.
of milk and cream, as at Stilton; 3. of new milk mixed with skim milk,
as in Gloucestershire; 4. of skimmed milk only, as in Suffolk, Holland,
and Italy.

The principal varieties of cheese used in England are the following:
_Cheshire cheese_, famed all over Europe for its rich quality and
fine piquante flavour. It is made of entire new milk, the cream not
being taken off. _Gloucester cheese_ is much milder in its taste than
the Cheshire. There are two kinds of Gloucester cheese, single and
double:—_Single Gloucester_ is made of skimmed milk, or of the milk
deprived of half the cream; _Double Gloucester_ is a cheese that
pleases almost every palate: it is made of the whole milk and cream.
_Stilton cheese_ is made by adding the cream of one day to the entire
milk of the next: it was first made at Stilton, in Leicestershire.
_Sage cheese_ is so called from the practice of colouring some curd
with bruised sage, marigold-leaves, and parsley, and mixing this with
some uncoloured curd. With the Romans, and during the middle ages,
this practice was extensively adopted. _Cheddar cheese_ much resembles
Parmesan. It has a very agreeable taste and flavour, and has a spongy
appearance. _Brickbat cheese_ has nothing remarkable except its form.
It is made by turning with rennet a mixture of cream and new milk; the
curd is put into a wooden vessel the shape of a brick, and is then
pressed and dried in the usual way. _Dunlop cheese_ has a peculiarly
mild and rich taste: the best is made entirely from new milk. _New
cheese_ (as it is called in London) is made chiefly in Lincolnshire,
and is either made of all cream, or, like Stilton, by adding the cream
of one day’s milking to the milk that comes immediately from the cow:
they are extremely thin, and are compressed gently two or three times,
turned for a few days, and then eaten new with radishes, salad, &c.
_Skimmed Milk cheese_ is made for sea voyages principally. _Parmesan
cheese_ is made in Parma and Piacenza. It is the most celebrated of all
cheese: it is made entirely of skimmed cows’ milk; the high flavour
which it has is supposed to be owing to the rich herbage of the meadows
of the Po, where the cows are pastured. The best Parmesan is kept for
three or four years, and none is carried to market till it is at least
six months old. _Dutch cheese_ derives its peculiar pungent taste from
the practice adopted in Holland of coagulating the milk with muriatic
acid instead of rennet. _Swiss cheeses_, in their several varieties,
are all remarkable for their fine flavour; that from _Gruyère_, a
bailiwick in the canton of Fribourg, is best known in England; it is
flavoured by the dried herb of _Melilotus officinalis_ in powder.
Cheese from milk and potatoes is manufactured in Thuringia and Saxony.
_Cream cheese_, although so called, is not properly cheese, but is
nothing more than cream dried sufficiently to be cut with a knife.

In families where much cheese is consumed, and it is bought in large
quantities, a piece from the whole cheese should be cut, the larger
quantity spread with a thickly-buttered sheet of white paper, and the
outside occasionally wiped. To keep cheeses moist that are in daily
use, when they come from table a damp cloth should be wrapped round
them, and the cheese put into a pan with a cover to it, in a cool but
not very dry place. To ripen cheeses, and bring them forward, put them
into a damp cellar; and to check too large a production of mites,
spirits may be poured into the parts affected. Pieces of cheese which
are too near the rind, or too dry to put on table, may be made into
Welsh rarebits, or grated down and mixed with macaroni. Cheeses may be
preserved in a perfect state for years, by covering them with parchment
made pliable by soaking in water, or by rubbing them over with a
coating of melted fat. The cheeses selected should be free from cracks
or bruises of any kind.


CHEESE, Mode of Serving.

The usual mode of serving cheese at good tables is to cut a small
quantity of it into neat square pieces, and to put them into a glass
cheese-dish, this dish being handed round. Should the cheese crumble
much, of course this method is rather wasteful, and it may then be put
on the table in the piece, and the host may cut from it. When served
thus, the cheese must always be carefully scraped, and laid on a white
d’oyley or napkin, neatly folded. Cream cheese is often served in a
cheese course, and, sometimes, grated Parmesan: the latter should be
put into a covered glass dish. Rusks, cheese-biscuits, pats or slices
of butter, and salad, cucumber, or water-cresses, should always form
part of a cheese-course.

[Illustration: CHEESE-GLASS.]


CHEESE, Pounded.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of cheese allow 3 oz. of fresh butter.
_Mode._—To pound cheese is an economical way of using it if it has
become dry; it is exceedingly good spread on bread, and is the best
way of eating it for those whose digestion is weak. Cut up the cheese
into small pieces, and pound it smoothly in a mortar, adding butter in
the above proportion. Press it down into a jar, cover with clarified
butter, and it will keep for several days. The flavour may be very much
increased by adding mixed mustard (about a teaspoonful to every lb.),
or cayenne, or pounded mace. Curry-powder is also not infrequently
mixed with it.


CHEESE, Toasted, or Scotch Rarebit.

_Ingredients._—A few slices of rich cheese, toast, mustard, and pepper.
_Mode._—Cut some nice rich sound cheese into rather thin slices; melt
it in a cheese-toaster on a hot plate or over steam, and, when melted,
add a small quantity of mixed mustard and a seasoning of pepper; stir
the cheese until it is completely dissolved, then brown it before the
fire, or with a salamander. Fill the bottom of the cheese-toaster with
hot water, and serve with dry or buttered toasts, whichever may be
preferred. Our engraving illustrates a cheese-toaster with hot-water
reservoir: the cheese is melted in the upper tin, which is placed in
another vessel of boiling water, so keeping the preparation beautifully
hot. A small quantity of porter, or port wine, is sometimes mixed with
the cheese; and, if it be not very rich, a few pieces of butter may
be mixed with it to great advantage. Sometimes the melted cheese is
spread on the toasts, and then laid in the cheese-dish at the top of
the hot water. Whichever way it is served, it is highly necessary that
the mixture be very hot, and very quickly sent to table, or it will
be worthless. _Time._—About 5 minutes to melt the cheese. _Average
cost_, 1½_d._ per slice. _Sufficient._—Allow a slice to each person.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: HOT-WATER CHEESE-DISH.]


CHEESE, Toasted, or Welsh Rarebit.

_Ingredients._—Slices of bread, butter, Cheshire or Gloucester cheese,
mustard, and pepper. _Mode._—Cut the bread into slices about ½ inch
in thickness; pare off the crust, toast the bread slightly without
hardening or burning it, and spread it with butter. Cut some slices,
not quite so large as the bread, from a good rich fat cheese; lay them
on the toasted bread in a cheese-toaster; be careful that the cheese
does not burn, and let it be equally melted. Spread over the top a
little made mustard and a seasoning of pepper, and serve very hot,
with very hot plates. To facilitate the melting of the cheese, it may
be cut into thin flakes, or toasted on one side before it is laid on
the bread. As it is so essential to send this dish hot to table, it is
a good plan to melt the cheese in small round silver or metal pans,
and to send these pans to table, allowing one for each guest. Slices
of dry or buttered toast should always accompany them, with mustard,
pepper, and salt. _Time._—About 5 minutes to melt the cheese. _Average
cost_, 1½_d._ per slice. _Sufficient._—Allow a slice to each person.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Should the cheese be dry, a little butter mixed with it will be
an improvement.


CHEESE SANDWICHES.

_Ingredients._—Slices of brown bread-and-butter, thin slices of
cheese. _Mode._—Cut from a nice fat Cheshire, or any good rich cheese,
some slices about ½ inch thick, and place them between some slices
of brown bread-and-butter, like sandwiches. Place them on a plate in
the oven, and, when the bread is toasted, serve on a napkin very hot
and very quickly. _Time._—10 minutes in a brisk oven. _Average cost_,
1½_d._ each sandwich. _Sufficient._—Allow a sandwich for each person.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


CHEESECAKES.

_Ingredients._—8 oz. of pressed curds, 2 oz. of ratafias, 6 oz. of
sugar, 2 oz. of butter, the yolks of 6 eggs, nutmegs, salt, rind of 2
oranges or lemons. _Mode._—Rub the sugar on the orange or lemon rind,
and scrape it off. Press the curd in a napkin, to get rid of moisture;
pound it thoroughly in a mortar with the other ingredients till the
whole becomes a soft paste. Line 2 dozen, or more, tartlet-pans with
good puff-paste, garnish these with the cheese-custard, place a strip
of candied-peel on the top of each, and bake in a moderate oven
a light colour; when done, shake a little sifted sugar over them.
Currants, dried cherries, sultanas, and citron may be used instead of
candied-peel. _Time._—20 minutes to bake. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per
dozen. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CHEROKEE, or Store Sauce.

_Ingredients._—½ oz. of cayenne pepper, 5 cloves of garlic, 2
tablespoonfuls of soy, 1 tablespoonful of walnut ketchup, 1 pint
of vinegar. _Mode._—Boil all the ingredients _gently_ for about ½
hour; strain the liquor, and bottle off for use. _Time._—½ hour.
_Seasonable._—This sauce can be made at any time.


CHERRIES, Dried.

Cherries may be put into a slow oven and thoroughly dried before they
begin to change colour; they should then be taken out of the oven,
tied in bunches, and stored away in a dry place. In the winter, they
may be cooked with sugar for dessert, the same as Normandy pippins.
Particular care must be taken that the oven be not too hot. Another
method of drying cherries is to stone them, and to put them into
a preserving-pan, with plenty of loaf sugar strewed amongst them.
They should be simmered till the fruit shrivels, when they should be
strained from the juice. The cherries should then be placed in an oven
cool enough to dry without baking them. About 5 oz. of sugar would be
required for 1 lb. of cherries, and the same syrup may be used again to
do another quantity of fruit.


CHERRIES, Morello, to Preserve.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of cherries allow 1¼ lb. of sugar, 1 gill
of water. _Mode._—Select ripe cherries, pick off the stalks, and
reject all that have any blemishes. Boil the sugar and water together
for 5 minutes; put in the cherries, and boil them for 10 minutes,
removing the scum as it rises. Then turn the fruit, &c., into a pan,
and let it remain until the next day, when boil it all again for
another 10 minutes, and, if necessary, skim well. Put the cherries
into small pots, pour over them the syrup, and, when cold, cover down
with oiled papers, and the tops of the jars with tissue-paper brushed
over on both sides with the white of an egg, and keep in a dry place.
_Time._—Altogether, 25 minutes to boil. _Average cost_, from 8_d._ to
10_d._ per lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make this in July or August.


CHERRIES, to Preserve in Syrup (very delicious).

_Ingredients._—4 lbs. of cherries, 3 lbs. of sugar, 1 pint of
white-currant juice. _Mode._—Let the cherries be as clear and as
transparent as possible, and perfectly ripe; pick off the stalks, and
remove the stones, damaging the fruit as little as you can. Make a
syrup with the above proportion of sugar, mix the cherries with it,
and boil them for about 15 minutes, carefully skimming them; turn them
gently into a pan, and let them remain till the next day, then drain
the cherries on a sieve, and put the syrup and white-currant juice
into the preserving-pan again. Boil these together until the syrup is
somewhat reduced and rather thick, then put in the cherries, and let
them boil for about 5 minutes; take them off the fire, skim the syrup,
put the cherries into small pots or wide-mouthed bottles; pour the
syrup over, and, when quite cold, tie them down carefully, so that the
air is quite excluded. _Time._—15 minutes to boil the cherries in the
syrup; 10 minutes to boil the syrup and currant-juice; 5 minutes to
boil the cherries the second time. _Average cost_ for this quantity,
3_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable._—Make this in July or August.


CHERRY BRANDY, to make.

_Ingredients._—Morello cherries, good brandy; to every lb. of cherries
allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Have ready some glass bottles,
which must be perfectly dry. Ascertain that the cherries are not too
ripe and are freshly gathered, and cut off about half of the stalks.
Put them into the bottles, with the above proportion of sugar to every
lb. of fruit; strew this in between the cherries, and, when the bottles
are nearly full, pour in sufficient brandy to reach just below the
cork. A few peach or apricot kernels will add much to their flavour,
or a few blanched bitter almonds. Put corks or bungs into the bottles,
tie over them a piece of bladder, and store away in a dry place. The
cherries will be fit to eat in 2 or 3 months, and will remain good
for years. They are liable to shrivel and become tough if too much
sugar be added to them. _Average cost_, 1_s._ to 1_s._ 6_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient._—1 lb. of cherries and about a ¼ pint of brandy for a
quart bottle. _Seasonable_ in August and September.


CHERRY JAM.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit, weighed before stoning, allow
½ lb. of sugar; to every 6 lbs. of fruit allow 1 pint of red-currant
juice, and to every pint of juice 1 lb. of sugar. _Mode._—Weigh the
fruit before stoning, and allow half the weight of sugar; stone the
cherries, and boil them in a preserving-pan until nearly all the juice
is dried up, then add the sugar, which should be crushed to powder,
and the currant-juice, allowing 1 pint to every 6 lbs. of cherries
(original weight), and 1 lb. of sugar to every pint of juice. Boil all
together until it jellies, which will be in from 20 minutes to ½ hour;
skim the jam well, keep it well stirred, and, a few minutes before it
is done, crack some of the stones, and add the kernels: these impart
a very delicious flavour to the jam. _Time._—According to the quality
of the cherries, from ¾ to 1 hour to boil them; 20 minutes to ½ hour
with the sugar. _Average cost_, from 7_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot.
_Sufficient._—1 pint of fruit for a lb. pot of jam. _Seasonable._—Make
this in July or August.


CHERRY SAUCE, for Sweet Puddings (German Recipe).

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of cherries, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 oz. of
butter, ½ pint of water, 1 wineglassful of port wine, a little grated
lemon-rind, 4 pounded cloves, 2 tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice, sugar to
taste. _Mode._—Stone the cherries, and pound the kernels in a mortar
to a smooth paste; put the butter and flour into a saucepan, stir them
over the fire until of a pale brown, then add the cherries, the pounded
kernels, the wine, and the water. Simmer these gently for ¼ hour, or
until the cherries are quite cooked, and rub the whole through a hair
sieve; add the remaining ingredients, let the sauce boil for another
5 minutes, and serve. This is a delicious sauce to serve with boiled
batter pudding, and when thus used, should be sent to table poured over
the pudding. _Time._—20 minutes to ½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.


CHERRY TART.

_Ingredients._—1½ lb. of cherries, 2 small tablespoonfuls of moist
sugar, ½ lb. of short crust. _Mode._—Pick the stalks from the cherries,
put them, with the sugar, into a _deep_ pie-dish just capable of
holding them, with a small cup placed upside down in the midst of them.
Make a short crust with ½ lb. of flour, by either of the recipes for
short crust, lay a border round the edge of the dish, put on the cover,
and ornament the edges; bake in a brisk oven from ½ hour to 40 minutes;
strew finely-sifted sugar over, and serve hot or cold, although the
latter is the more usual mode. It is more economical to make two or
three tarts at one time, as the trimmings from one tart answer for
lining the edges of the dish for another, and so much paste is not
required as when they are made singly. Unless for family use, never
make fruit pies in very _large_ dishes; select them, however, as _deep_
as possible. _Time._—½ hour to 40 minutes. _Average cost_, in full
season, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ in June,
July, and August.

_Note._—A few currants added to the cherries will be found to impart a
nice piquante taste to them.


CHESTNUT SAUCE, Brown.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of chestnuts, ½ pint of stock, 2 lumps of sugar,
4 tablespoonfuls of Spanish sauce (_see_ SAUCES). _Mode._—Prepare the
chestnuts as in the succeeding recipe, by scalding and peeling them;
put them in a stewpan with the stock and sugar, and simmer them till
tender. When done, add Spanish sauce in the above proportion, and rub
the whole through a tammy. Keep this sauce rather liquid, as it is
liable to thicken. _Time._—1½ hour to simmer the chestnuts. _Average
cost_, 8_d._


CHESTNUT SAUCE, for Fowls or Turkey.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of chestnuts, ½ pint of white stock, 2 strips of
lemon-peel, cayenne to taste, ¼ pint of cream or milk. _Mode._—Peel off
the outside skin of the chestnuts, and put them into boiling water
for a few minutes; take off the thin inside peel, and put them into a
saucepan with the white stock and lemon-peel, and let them simmer for
1½ hour, or until the chestnuts are quite tender. Rub the whole through
a hair-sieve with a wooden spoon; add seasoning and the cream; let
it just simmer, but not boil, and keep stirring all the time. Serve
very hot, and quickly. If milk is used instead of cream, a very small
quantity of thickening may be required: that, of course, the cook will
determine. _Time._—Altogether, nearly 2 hours. _Average cost_, 8_d._
_Sufficient_, this quantity for a turkey.


CHESTNUT (Spanish) SOUP.

_Ingredients._—¾ lb. of Spanish chestnuts, ¼ pint of cream; seasoning
to taste of salt, cayenne, and mace; 1 quart of stock. _Mode._—Take the
outer rind from the chestnuts, and put them into a large pan of warm
water. As soon as this becomes too hot for the fingers to remain in it,
take out the chestnuts, peel them quickly, and immerse them in cold
water, and wipe and weigh them. Now cover them with good stock, and
stew them gently for rather more than ¾ of an hour, or until they break
when touched with a fork; then drain, pound, and rub them through a
fine sieve reversed; add sufficient stock, mace, cayenne, and salt, and
stir it often until it boils, and put in the cream. The stock in which
the chestnuts are boiled can be used for the soup, when its sweetness
is not objected to, or it may, in part, be added to it; and the rule
is, that ¾ lb. of chestnuts should be given to each quart of soup.
_Time._—Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, per quart, 1_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from October to February.


CHICKENS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—A pair of chickens, water. _Choosing and Trussing._—In
choosing fowls for boiling, it should be borne in mind that those which
are not black-legged are generally much whiter when dressed. Pick,
draw, singe, wash, and truss them in the following manner, without
the livers in the wings; and, in drawing, be careful not to break the
gall-bladder:—Cut off the neck, leaving sufficient skin to skewer back.
Cut the feet off to the first joint, tuck the stumps into a slit made
on each side of the belly, twist the wings over the back of the fowl,
and secure the top of the leg and the bottom of the wing together by
running a skewer through them and the body. The other side must be done
in the same manner. Should the fowl be very large and old, draw the
sinews of the legs before tucking them in. Make a slit in the apron of
the fowl, large enough to admit the parson’s nose, and tie a string on
the tops of the legs to keep them in their proper place. _Mode._—When
they are firmly trussed, put them into a stewpan with plenty of hot
water, bring it to boil, and carefully remove all the scum as it rises.
_Simmer very gently_ until the fowl is tender, and bear in mind that
the slower it boils the plumper and whiter will the fowl be. Many cooks
wrap them in a floured cloth to preserve the colour, and to prevent
the scum from clinging to them; in this case, a few slices of lemon
should be placed on the breasts, over these a sheet of buttered paper,
and then the cloth; cooking them in this manner renders the flesh very
white. Boiled ham, bacon, boiled tongue, or pickled pork, are the usual
accompaniments to boiled fowls, and they may be served with Béchamel,
white sauce, parsley and butter, oyster, lemon, liver, celery, or
mushroom sauce. A little should be poured over the fowls after the
skewers are removed, and the remainder sent in a tureen to table.
_Time._—Large fowl, 1 hour; moderate-sized one, ¾ hour; chicken, from
20 minutes to ½ hour. _Average cost_, in full season, 5_s._ the pair.
_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year, but scarce
in early spring.

[Illustration: BOILED FOWL.]


CHICKEN BROTH.

_Ingredients._—½ fowl, or the inferior joints of a whole one; 1 quart
of water, 1 blade of mace, ½ onion, a small bunch of sweet herbs, salt
to taste, 10 peppercorns. _Mode._—An old fowl not suitable for eating
may be converted into very good broth; or, if a young one be used, the
inferior joints may be put in the broth, and the best pieces reserved
for dressing in some other manner. Put the fowl into a saucepan, stew
all the ingredients, and simmer gently for 1½ hour, carefully skimming
the broth well. When done, strain, and put by in a cool place until
wanted; then take all the fat off the top, warm up as much as may be
required, and serve. This broth is, of course, only for those invalids
whose stomachs are strong enough to digest it, with a flavouring of
herbs, &c. It may be made in the same manner as beef tea, with water
and salt only, but the preparation will be but tasteless and insipid.
When the invalid cannot digest this chicken broth with the flavouring,
we would recommend plain beef tea in preference to plain chicken tea,
which it would be without the addition of herbs, onions, &c. _Time._—1½
hour. _Sufficient_ to make rather more than 1 pint of broth.


CHICKEN, Curried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowls,
2 large onions, 1 apple, 2 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of
curry-powder, 1 teaspoonful of flour, ½ pint of gravy, 1 tablespoonful
of lemon-juice. _Mode._—Slice the onions, peel, core, and chop the
apple, and cut the fowl into neat joints; fry these in the butter
of a nice brown, then add the curry-powder, flour, and gravy, and
stew for about 20 minutes. Put in the lemon-juice, and serve with
boiled rice, either placed in a ridge round the dish or separately.
Two or three shalots or a little garlic may be added, if approved.
_Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fowl,
6_d._ _Seasonable_ in the winter.


CHICKEN CUTLETS (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—2 chickens; seasoning to taste of salt, white pepper,
and cayenne; 2 blades of pounded mace, egg and bread-crumbs, clarified
butter, 1 strip of lemon-rind, 2 carrots, 1 onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of
mushroom ketchup, thickening of butter and flour, 1 egg. _Mode._—Remove
the breast and leg-bones of the chickens; cut the meat into neat
pieces after having skinned it, and season the cutlets with pepper,
salt, pounded mace, and cayenne. Put the bones, trimmings, &c., into a
stewpan with 1 pint of water, adding carrots, onions, and lemon-peel in
the above proportion; stew gently for 1½ hour, and strain the gravy.
Thicken it with butter and flour, add the ketchup and 1 egg well
beaten; stir it over the fire, and bring it to the simmering-point,
but do not allow it to boil. In the mean time, egg and bread-crumb the
cutlets, and give them a few drops of clarified butter; fry them a
delicate brown, occasionally turning them; arrange them pyramidically
on the dish, and pour over them the sauce. _Time._—10 minutes to fry
the cutlets. _Average cost_, 2_s._ each. _Sufficient_ for an entrée.
_Seasonable_ from April to July.


CHICKEN CUTLETS, French.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast or boiled
fowl, fried bread, clarified butter, the yolk of 1 egg, bread-crumbs,
½ teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel; salt, cayenne, and mace to
taste. For sauce,—1 oz. of butter, 2 minced shalots, a few slices of
carrot, a small bunch of savoury herbs, including parsley, 1 blade of
pounded mace, 6 peppercorns, ½ pint of gravy. _Mode._—Cut the fowls
into as many nice cutlets as possible; take a corresponding number of
sippets about the same size, all cut one shape; fry them a pale brown,
put them before the fire, then dip the cutlets into clarified butter
mixed with the yolk of an egg, cover with bread-crumbs seasoned in the
above proportion, with lemon-peel, mace, salt, and cayenne; fry them
for about 5 minutes, put each piece on one of the sippets, pile them
high in the dish, and serve with the following sauce, which should be
made ready for the cutlets. Put the butter into a stewpan, add the
shalots, carrot, herbs, mace, and peppercorns; fry for 10 minutes, or
rather longer; pour in ½ pint of good gravy, made of the chicken-bones;
stew gently for 20 minutes, strain it, and serve. _Time._—5 minutes
to fry the cutlets; 35 minutes to make the gravy. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the chicken, 9_d._ _Seasonable_ from April to July.


CHICKEN, Fricasseed (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—2 small fowls or 1 large one, 3 oz. of butter, a bunch
of parsley and green onions, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, 1 shalot, 1
bay-leaf, salt and white pepper to taste, ¼ pint of cream, the yolks
of 3 eggs. _Mode._—Choose a couple of fat plump chickens, and, after
drawing, singeing, and washing them, skin, and carve them into joints;
blanch these in boiling water for 2 or 3 minutes, take them out, and
immerse them in cold water to render them white. Put the trimmings,
with the necks and legs, into a stewpan; add the parsley, onions,
clove, mace, shalot, bay-leaf, and a seasoning of pepper and salt;
pour to these the water that the chickens were blanched in, and simmer
gently for rather more than 1 hour. Have ready another stewpan; put in
the joints of fowl, with the above proportion of butter; dredge them
with flour, let them get hot, but do not brown them much; then moisten
the fricassee with the gravy made from the trimmings, &c., and stew
very gently for ½ hour. Lift the fowl into another stewpan, skim the
sauce, reduce it quickly over the fire by letting it boil fast, and
strain it over them. Add the cream, and a seasoning of pounded mace
and cayenne; let it boil up, and when ready to serve, stir to it the
well-beaten yolks of 3 eggs; these should not be put in till the last
moment, and the sauce should be made _hot_, but must _not boil_, or
it will instantly curdle. A few button-mushrooms stewed with the fowl
are by many persons considered an improvement. _Time._—1 hour to make
the gravy, ½ hour to simmer the fowl. _Average cost_, 5_s._ the pair.
_Sufficient._—1 large fowl for 1 entrée. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CHICKEN (or Fowl) PATTIES.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast chicken
or fowl; to every ¼ lb. of meat allow 2 oz. of ham, 3 tablespoonfuls
of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of veal gravy, ½ teaspoonful of minced
lemon-peel; cayenne, salt, and pepper to taste; 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice, 1 oz. of butter rolled in flour, puff paste. _Mode._—Mince
very small the white meat from a cold roast fowl, after removing
all the skin; weigh it, and to every ¼ lb. of meat allow the above
proportion of minced ham. Put these into a stewpan with the remaining
ingredients, stir over the fire for 10 minutes or ¼ hour, taking care
that the mixture does not burn. Roll out some puff paste about ¼ inch
in thickness, line the patty-pans with this, put upon each a small
piece of bread, and cover with another layer of paste; brush over with
the yolk of an egg, and bake in a brisk oven for about ¼ hour. When
done, cut a round piece out of the top, and, with a small spoon, take
out the bread (be particular in not breaking the outside border of
the crust), and fill the patties with the mixture. _Time._—¼ hour to
prepare the meat; not quite ¼ hour to bake the crust. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


CHICKEN (or Fowl) PIE.

_Ingredients._—2 small fowls or 1 large one, white pepper and salt to
taste, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, ½ teaspoonful of pounded mace,
forcemeat, a few slices of ham, 3 hard-boiled eggs, ½ pint of water,
puff crust. _Mode._—Skin and cut up the fowls into joints, and put the
neck, leg, and backbones in a stewpan, with a little water, an onion, a
bunch of savoury herbs, and a blade of mace; let these stew for about
an hour, and, when done, strain off the liquor: this is for gravy, Put
a layer of fowl at the bottom of a pie-dish, then a layer of ham, then
one of forcemeat and hard-boiled eggs cut in rings; between the layers
put a seasoning of pounded mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Proceed in
this manner until the dish is full, and pour in about ½ pint of water;
border the edge of the dish with puff crust, put on the cover, ornament
the top, and glaze it by brushing over it the yolk of an egg. Bake
from 1¼ to 1½ hour, should the pie be very large, and, when done, pour
in at the top the gravy made from the bones. If to be eaten cold, and
wished particularly nice, the joints of the fowls should be boned, and
placed in the dish with alternate layers of forcemeat; sausage-meat
may also be substituted for the forcemeat, and is now very much used.
When the chickens are boned, and mixed with sausage-meat, the pie will
take about 2 hours to bake. It should be covered with a piece of paper
when about half-done, to prevent the paste being dried up or scorched.
_Time._—For a pie with unboned meat, 1¼ to 1½ hour; with boned meat
and sausage or forcemeat, 1½ to 2 hours. _Average cost_, with 2 fowls,
6_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CHICKEN, Potted (a Luncheon or Breakfast Dish).

_Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast chicken; to every lb. of
meat allow ¼ lb. of fresh butter, salt and cayenne to taste, 1
teaspoonful of pounded mace, ½ small nutmeg. _Mode._—Strip the meat
from the bones of cold roast fowl; when it is freed from gristle and
skin, weigh it, and to every lb. of meat allow the above proportion of
butter, seasoning, and spices. Cut the meat into small pieces, pound
it well with the fresh butter, sprinkle in the spices gradually, and
keep pounding until reduced to a perfectly smooth paste. Put it into
potting-pots for use, and cover it with clarified butter, about ¼ inch
in thickness, and, if to be kept for some time, tie over a bladder: 2
or 3 slices of ham, minced and pounded with the above ingredients, will
be found an improvement. It should be kept in a dry place. _Seasonable_
at any time.


CHICKEN (or Fowl) SALAD.

_Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast or boiled chicken, 2 lettuces,
a little endive, 1 cucumber, a few slices of boiled beetroot,
salad-dressing. _Mode._—Trim neatly the remains of the chicken; wash,
dry, and slice the lettuces, and place in the middle of a dish; put
the pieces of fowl on the top, and pour the salad-dressing over them.
Garnish the edge of the salad with hard-boiled eggs cut in rings,
sliced cucumber, and boiled beetroot cut in slices. Instead of cutting
the eggs in rings, the yolks may be rubbed through a hair sieve, and
the whites chopped very finely, and arranged on the salad in small
bunches, yellow and white alternately. This should not be made long
before it is wanted for table. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold
chicken, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


CHILI VINEGAR.

_Ingredients._—50 fresh red English chilies, 1 pint of vinegar.
_Mode._—Pound or cut the chilies in half, and infuse them in the
vinegar for a fortnight, when it will be fit for use. This will be
found an agreeable relish to fish, as many people cannot eat it without
the addition of an acid and cayenne pepper.


CHINA CHILO.

_Ingredients._—1½ lb. of leg, loin, or neck of mutton, 2 onions, 2
lettuces, 1 pint of green peas, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful
of pepper, ¼ pint of water, ¼ lb. of clarified butter; when liked, a
little cayenne. _Mode._—Mince the above quantity of undressed leg,
loin, or neck of mutton, adding a little of the fat, also minced; put
it into a stewpan with the remaining ingredients, previously shredding
the lettuce and onion rather fine; closely cover the stewpan, after the
ingredients have been well stirred, and simmer gently for rather more
than two hours. Serve in a dish, with a border of rice round, the same
as for curry. _Time._—Rather more than two hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from June to August.


CHOCOLATE, to Make.

_Ingredients._—Allow ½ oz. of chocolate to each person; to every oz.
allow ½ pint of water, ½ pint of milk. _Mode._—Make the milk-and-water
hot; scrape the chocolate into it, and stir the mixture constantly
and quickly until the chocolate is dissolved; bring it to the
boiling-point, stir it well, and serve directly with white sugar.
Chocolate prepared within a mill, as shown in the engraving, is made
by putting in the scraped chocolate, pouring over it the boiling
milk-and-water, and milling it over the fire until hot and frothy.
_Sufficient._—Allow ½ oz. of cake chocolate to each person.

[Illustration: MILL.]



CHOCOLATE CREAM.

[Illustration: CREAM-MOULD.]

_Ingredients._—3 oz. of grated chocolate, ¼ lb. of sugar, 1½ pint of
cream, 1½ oz. of clarified isinglass, the yolks of 6 eggs. _Mode._—Beat
the yolks of the eggs well, put them into a basin with the grated
chocolate, the sugar, and 1 pint of the cream; stir these ingredients
well together, pour them into a jug, and set this jug in a saucepan
of boiling water; stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but _do
not allow it to boil_, or it will curdle. Strain the cream through
a sieve into a basin; stir in the isinglass and the other ½ pint of
cream, which should be well whipped; mix all well together, and pour it
into a mould which has been previously oiled with the purest salad-oil,
and, if at hand, set it in ice until wanted for table. _Time._—About 10
minutes to stir the mixture over the fire. _Average cost_, 4_s._ 6_d._,
with cream at 1_s._ per pint. _Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


CHOCOLATE SOUFFLÉ.

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful
of flour, 3 oz. of the best chocolate. _Mode._—Break the eggs,
separating the whites from the yolks, and put them into different
basins; add to the yolks the sugar, flour, and chocolate, which should
be very finely grated, and stir these ingredients for 5 minutes.
Then well whisk the whites of the eggs in the other basin until they
are stiff, and, when firm, mix lightly with the yolks till the whole
forms a smooth and light substance; butter a round cake-tin, put in
the mixture, and bake in a moderate oven from 15 to 20 minutes. Pin
a white napkin round the tin, strew sifted sugar over the top of the
soufflé, and send it immediately to table. The proper appearance of
this dish depends entirely on the expedition with which it is served;
and some cooks, to preserve its lightness, hold a salamander over
the soufflé until it is placed on the table. If allowed to stand
after it comes from the oven it will be entirely spoiled, as it falls
almost immediately. _Time._—15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._
_Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized soufflé. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CLARET-CUP.

[Illustration: CLARET-CUP.]

_Ingredients._—1 bottle of claret, 1 bottle of soda-water, about ½
lb. of pounded ice, 4 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, ¼ teaspoonful
of grated nutmeg, 1 liqueur-glass of Maraschino, a sprig of green
borage. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients into a silver cup, regulating
the proportion of ice by the state of the weather; if very warm, a
larger quantity would be necessary. Hand the cup round with a clean
napkin passed through one of the handles, that the edge of the cup
may be wiped after each guest has partaken of the contents thereof.
_Seasonable_ in summer.


COCK-A-LEEKIE.

_Ingredients._—A capon or large fowl (sometimes an old cock, from which
the recipe takes its name, is used), which should be trussed as for
boiling, 2 or 3 bunches of fine leeks, 5 quarts of stock (_see_ STOCK),
pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Well wash the leeks (and, if old,
scald them in boiling water for a few minutes), taking off the roots
and part of the heads, and cut them into lengths of about an inch. Put
the fowl into the stock, with, at first, one half of the leeks, and
allow it to simmer gently. In half an hour add the remaining leeks,
and then it may simmer for 3 or 4 hours longer. It should be carefully
skimmed, and can be seasoned to taste. In serving, take out the fowl
and carve it neatly, placing the pieces in a tureen, and pouring over
them the soup, which should be very thick of leeks (a _purée_ of leeks,
the French would call it). _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ per quart; or with stock, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.
_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Note._—Without the fowl, the above, which would then be merely called
leek soup, is very good, and also economical. Cock-a-leekie was largely
consumed at the Burns Centenary Festival at the Crystal Palace,
Sydenham, in 1859.


COCOA, to Make.

_Ingredients._—Allow 2 teaspoonfuls of the prepared cocoa to 1
breakfast-cup; boiling milk and boiling water. _Mode._—Put the cocoa
into a breakfast-cup, pour over it sufficient cold milk to make it
into a smooth paste; then add equal quantities of boiling milk and
boiling water, and stir all well together. Care must be taken not to
allow the milk to get burnt, as it will entirely spoil the flavour of
the preparation. The above directions are usually given for making
the prepared cocoa. The rock cocoa, or that bought in a solid piece,
should be scraped, and made in the same manner, taking care to rub down
all the lumps before the boiling liquid is added. _Sufficient._—2
teaspoonfuls of prepared cocoa for 1 breakfast-cup, or ¼ oz. of the
rock cocoa for the same quantity.


COD.

Cod should be chosen for the table when it is plump and round near the
tail, when the hollow behind the head is deep, and when the sides are
undulated as if they were ribbed. The glutinous parts about the head
lose their delicate flavour after the fish has been twenty-four hours
out of the water. The great point by which the cod should be judged is
the firmness of its flesh; and, although the cod is not firm when it
is alive, its quality may be arrived at by pressing the finger into
the flesh: if this rises immediately, the flesh is good; if not, it is
stale. Another sign of its goodness is, if the fish, when it is cut,
exhibits a bronze appearance, like the silver side of a round of beef;
when this is the case the flesh will be firm when cooked. Stiffness in
a cod, or in any other fish, is a sure sign of freshness, though not
always of quality. Sometimes codfish, though exhibiting signs of rough
usage, will eat much better than those with red gills, so strongly
recommended by many cookery-books. This appearance is generally caused
by the fish having been knocked about at sea, in the well-boats, in
which they are conveyed from the fishing-grounds to market.


COD à la BÉCHAMEL.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Any remains of cold cod, 4
tablespoonfuls of béchamel (_see_ BÉCHAMEL SAUCE), 2 oz. of butter;
seasoning to taste of pepper and salt; fried bread, a few bread-crumbs.
_Mode._—Flake the cod carefully, leaving out all skin and bone; put the
béchamel in a stewpan with the butter, and stir it over the fire till
the latter is melted; add seasoning, put in the fish, and mix it well
with the sauce. Make a border of fried bread round the dish, lay in the
fish, sprinkle over with bread-crumbs, and baste with butter. Brown
either before the fire or with a salamander, and garnish with toasted
bread cut in fanciful shapes. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive
of the fish, 6_d._


COD à la CREME.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—1 large slice of cod, 1 oz. of
butter, 1 chopped shalot, a little minced parsley, ¼ teacupful of
white stock, ¼ pint of milk or cream, flour to thicken, cayenne and
lemon-juice to taste, ¼ teaspoonful of powdered sugar. _Mode._—Boil
the cod, and while hot, break it into flakes; put the butter, shalot,
parsley, and stock into a stewpan, and let them boil for 5 minutes.
Stir in sufficient flour to thicken, and pour to it the milk or cream.
Simmer for 10 minutes, add the cayenne and sugar, and, when liked,
a little lemon-juice. Put the fish in the sauce to warm gradually,
but do not let it boil. Serve in a dish garnished with croûtons.
_Time._—Rather more than ½ hour. _Average cost_, with cream, 2_s._
_Sufficient_ for 3 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Note._—The remains of fish from the preceding day answer very well for
this dish.


COD à l’ITALIENNE.

_Ingredients._—2 slices of crimped cod, 1 shalot, 1 slice of ham minced
very fine, ½ pint of white stock, when liked, ½ teacupful of cream;
salt to taste; a few drops of garlic vinegar, a little lemon-juice, ½
teaspoonful of powdered sugar. _Mode._—Chop the shalots, mince the ham
very fine, pour on the stock, and simmer for 15 minutes. If the colour
should not be good, add cream in the above proportion, and strain it
through a fine sieve; season it, and put in the vinegar, lemon-juice,
and sugar. Now boil the cod, take out the middle bone, and skin it; put
it on the dish without breaking, and pour the sauce over it. _Time._—¾
hour. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 6_d._, with fresh fish. _Sufficient_ for 4
persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.


COD à la MAÎTRE D’HÔTEL.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—2 slices of cod, ¼ lb. of butter,
a little chopped shalot and parsley; pepper to taste; ¼ teaspoonful
of grated nutmeg, or rather less when the flavour is not liked; the
juice of ¼ lemon. _Mode._—Boil the cod, and either leave it whole, or,
what is still better, flake it from the bone, and take off the skin.
Put it into a stewpan with the butter, parsley, shalot, pepper, and
nutmeg. Melt the butter gradually, and be very careful that it does
not become like oil. When all is well mixed and thoroughly hot, add
the lemon-juice, and serve. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._
6_d._; with remains of cold fish, 5_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 persons.
_Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Note._—Cod that has been left will do for this.


COD, Curried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—2 slices of large cod, or
the remains of any cold fish; 3 oz. of butter, 1 onion sliced, a
teacupful of white stock, thickening of butter and flour, 1 _small_
teaspoonful of curry-powder, ¼ pint of cream, salt and cayenne to
taste. _Mode._—Flake the fish, and fry it of a nice brown colour
with the butter and onions; put this in a stewpan, add the stock and
thickening, and simmer for 10 minutes. Stir the curry-powder into the
cream; put it, with the seasoning, to the other ingredients; give one
boil, and serve. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, with fresh fish, 3_s._
_Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.


COD PIE.

_Ingredients._—2 slices of cod; pepper and salt to taste; ½ a
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 1 large blade of pounded mace, 2 oz. of
butter, ½ pint of stock, a paste crust (_see_ PASTRY). For sauce,—1
tablespoonful of stock, ¼ pint of cream or milk, thickening of
flour or butter, lemon-peel chopped very fine to taste, 12 oysters.
_Mode._—Lay the cod in salt for 4 hours, then wash it and place it in
a dish; season, and add the butter and stock; cover with the crust,
and bake for 1 hour, or rather more. Now make the sauce, by mixing the
ingredients named above; give it one boil, and pour it into the pie by
a hole made at the top of the crust, which can easily be covered by a
small piece of pastry cut and baked in any fanciful shape,—such as a
leaf, or otherwise. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_, with fresh fish,
2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to
March.

_Note._—The remains of cold fish may be used for this pie.


COD PIE. (Economical.)

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Any remains of cold cod, 12
oysters, sufficient melted butter to moisten it; mashed potatoes
enough to fill up the dish. _Mode._—Flake the fish from the bone, and
carefully take away all the skin. Lay it in a pie-dish, pour over the
melted butter and oysters (or oyster sauce, if there is any left), and
cover with mashed potatoes. Bake for ½ an hour, and send to table of a
nice brown colour. _Time._—½ hour. _Seasonable_ from November to March.


COD, Salt, commonly called “Salt-fish.”

_Ingredients._—Sufficient water to cover the fish. _Mode._—Wash the
fish, and lay it all night in water, with a ¼ pint of vinegar. When
thoroughly soaked, take it out, see that it is perfectly clean, and put
it in the fish-kettle with sufficient cold water to cover it. Heat it
gradually, but do not let it boil much, or the fish will be hard. Skim
well, and when done, drain the fish, and put it on a napkin garnished
with hard-boiled eggs cut in rings. _Time._—About 1 hour. _Average
cost_, 6_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for each person, ¼ lb. _Seasonable_
in the spring.

_Note._—Serve with egg sauce and parsnips. This is an especial dish on
Ash Wednesday.


COD SOUNDS

Should be well soaked in salt and water, and thoroughly washed before
dressing them. They are considered a great delicacy, and may either be
broiled, fried, or boiled; if they are boiled, mix a little milk with
the water.


COD SOUNDS, en Poule.

_Ingredients._—For forcemeat, 12 chopped oysters, 3 chopped anchovies,
¼ lb. of bread-crumbs, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, seasoning of salt,
pepper, nutmeg, and mace to taste; 4 cod sounds. _Mode._—Make the
forcemeat by mixing the ingredients well together. Wash the sounds,
and boil them in milk and water for ½ an hour; take them out, and let
them cool. Cover each with a layer of forcemeat, roll them up in a nice
form, and skewer them. Rub over with lard, dredge with flour, and cook
them gently before the fire in a Dutch oven. _Time._—1 hour. _Average
cost_, 6_d._ per lb.


COD’S HEAD & SHOULDERS.

_Ingredients._—Sufficient water to cover the fish; 5 oz. of salt to
each gallon of water. _Mode._—Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and rub a
little salt over the thick part and inside of the fish 1 or 2 hours
before dressing it, as this very much improves the flavour. Lay it
in the fish-kettle, with sufficient cold water to cover it. Be very
particular not to pour the water on the fish, as it is liable to break
it, and only keep it just simmering. If the water should boil away,
add a little by pouring it in at the side of the kettle, and not on
the fish. Add salt in the above proportion, and bring it gradually to
a boil. Skim very carefully, draw it to the side of the fire, and let
it gently simmer till done. Take it out and drain it; serve on a hot
napkin, and garnish with cut lemon and horseradish. _Time._—According
to size, ½ an hour, more or less. _Average cost_, from 3_s._ to 6_s._
_Sufficient_ for 6 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.

_Note._—Oyster sauce and plain melted butter should be served with this.


COD’S HEAD & SHOULDERS, to Carve.

First run the knife along the centre of the side of the fish, namely,
from _d_ to _b_, down to the bone; then carve it in unbroken slices
downwards from _d_ to _e_, or upwards from _d_ to _c_, as shown in
the engraving. The carver should ask the guests if they would like a
portion of the roe and liver.

[Illustration]

_Note._—Of this fish, the parts about the backbone and shoulders are
the firmest and most esteemed by connoisseurs. The sound, which lines
the fish beneath the backbone, is considered a delicacy, as are also
the gelatinous parts about the head and neck.


COFFEE, Essence of.

_Ingredients._—To every ¼ lb. of ground coffee allow 1 small
teaspoonful of powdered chicory, 3 small teacupfuls, or 1 pint, of
water. _Mode._—Let the coffee be freshly ground, and, if possible,
freshly roasted; put it into a percolater, or filter, with the chicory,
and pour _slowly_ over it the above proportion of boiling water. When
it has all filtered through, warm the coffee sufficiently to bring
it to the simmering-point, but do not allow it to boil; then filter
it a second time, put it into a clean and dry bottle, cork it well,
and it will remain good for several days. Two tablespoonfuls of this
essence are quite sufficient for a breakfast-cupful of hot milk. This
essence will be found particularly useful to those persons who have
to rise extremely early; and having only the milk to make boiling, is
very easily and quickly prepared. When the essence is bottled, pour
another 3 teacupfuls of _boiling_ water slowly on the grounds, which,
when filtered through, will be a very weak coffee. The next time there
is essence to be prepared, make this weak coffee boiling, and pour it
on the ground coffee instead of plain water: by this means a better
coffee will be obtained. Never throw away the grounds without having
made use of them in this manner; and always cork the bottle well that
contains this preparation, until the day that it is wanted for making
the fresh essence. _Time._—To be filtered once, then brought to the
boiling-point, and filtered again. _Average cost_, with coffee at
1_s._ 8_d._ per lb., 6_d._ _Sufficient._—Allow 2 tablespoonfuls for a
breakfast-cupful of hot milk.


COFFEE, Nutritious.

_Ingredients._—½ oz. of ground coffee, 1 pint of milk. _Mode._—Let
the coffee be freshly ground; put it into a saucepan with the milk,
which should be made nearly boiling before the coffee is put in, and
boil together for 3 minutes; clear it by pouring some of it into a
cup, and then back again, and leave it on the hob for a few minutes to
settle thoroughly. This coffee may be made still more nutritious by the
addition of an egg well beaten, and put into the coffee-cup. _Time._—5
minutes to boil, 5 minutes to settle. _Sufficient_ to make 1 large
breakfast-cupful of coffee.


COFFEE, Simple Method of Making.

_Ingredients._—Allow ½ oz., or 1 tablespoonful, of coffee to each
person; to every oz. allow ½ pint of water. _Mode._—Have a small iron
ring made to fit the top of the coffee-pot inside, and to this ring
sew a small muslin bag (the muslin for the purpose must not be too
thin). Fit the bag into the pot, warm the pot with some boiling water;
throw this away, and put the ground coffee into the bag; pour over as
much boiling water as is required, close the lid, and, when all the
water has filtered through, remove the bag, and send the coffee to
table. Making it in this manner prevents the necessity of pouring the
coffee from one vessel to another, which cools and spoils it. The water
should be poured on the coffee gradually, so that the infusion may
be stronger; and the bag must be well made, that none of the grounds
may escape through the seams, and so make the coffee thick and muddy.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1 tablespoonful, or ½ oz., to each person.


COFFEE, to Make.

[Illustration: LOYSEL’S HYDROSTATIC URN.]

_Ingredients._—Allow ½ oz., or 1 tablespoonful, of ground coffee to
each person; to every oz. of coffee allow 1/3 pint of water. _Mode._—To
make coffee good, _it should never be boiled_, but the boiling water
merely poured on it, the same as for tea. The coffee should always be
purchased in the berry,—if possible, freshly roasted; and it should
never be ground long before it is wanted for use. There are very many
new kinds of coffee-pots, but the method of making the coffee is nearly
always the same, namely, pouring the boiling water on the powder, and
allowing it to filter through. Our illustration shows one of Loysel’s
Hydrostatic Urns, which are admirably adapted for making good and clear
coffee, which should be made in the following manner:—Warm the urn
with boiling water, remove the lid and movable filter, and place the
ground coffee at the bottom of the urn. Put the movable filter over
this, and screw the lid, inverted, tightly on the end of the centre
pipe. Pour into the inverted lid the above proportion of boiling water,
and when all the water so poured has disappeared from the funnel, and
made its way down the centre pipe and up again through the ground
coffee by _hydrostatic pressure_, unscrew the lid and cover the urn.
Pour back direct into the urn, _not through the funnel_, one, two, or
three cups, according to the size of the percolater, in order to make
the infusion of uniform strength; the contents will then be ready for
use, and should run from the tap strong, hot, and clear. The coffee
made in these urns generally turns out very good, and there is but one
objection to them,—the coffee runs rather slowly from the tap; this
is of no consequence where there is a small party, but tedious where
there are many persons to provide for. A remedy for this objection
may be suggested, namely, to make the coffee very strong, so that
not more than 1/3 cup would be required, as the rest would be filled
up with milk. Making coffee in filters or percolaters does away with
the necessity of using isinglass, white of egg, and various other
preparations, to clear it. Coffee should always be served very hot,
and, if possible, in the same vessel in which it is made, as pouring
it from one pot to another cools, and consequently spoils it. Many
persons may think that the proportion of water we have given for each
oz. of coffee is rather small; it is so, and the coffee produced from
it will be very strong; 1/3 of a cup will be found quite sufficient,
which should be filled with nice hot milk, or milk and cream mixed.
This is the _café au lait_ for which our neighbours over the Channel
are so justly celebrated. Should the ordinary method of making coffee
be preferred, use double the quantity of water, and, in pouring it into
the cups, put in more coffee and less milk. _Sufficient._—For very good
coffee, allow ½ oz., or 1 tablespoonful, to each person.


COFFEE, to Roast. (A French Recipe.)

It being an acknowledged fact that French coffee is decidedly superior
to that made in England, and as the roasting of the berry is of great
importance to the flavour of the preparation, it will be useful and
interesting to know how they manage these things in France. In Paris,
there are two houses justly celebrated for the flavour of their
coffee,—_La Maison Corcellet_ and _La Maison Royer de Chartres_; and
to obtain this flavour before roasting, they add to every 3 lbs. of
coffee a piece of butter the size of a nut, and a dessertspoonful of
powdered sugar: it is then roasted in the usual manner. The addition of
the butter and sugar develops the flavour and aroma of the berry; but
it must be borne in mind, that the quality of the butter must be of the
very best description.


COLLOPS, Scotch.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast veal,
a little butter, flour, ½ pint of water, 1 onion, 1 blade of pounded
mace, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1-2 teaspoonful of finely-minced
lemon-peel, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom
ketchup. _Mode._—Cut the veal the same thickness as for cutlets, rather
larger than a crown piece; flour the meat well, and fry a light brown
in butter; dredge again with flour, and add ½ pint of water, pouring
it in by degrees; set it on the fire, and when it boils, add the onion
and mace, and let it simmer very gently about ¾ hour; flavour the gravy
with lemon-juice, peel, wine, and ketchup, in the above proportion;
give one boil, and serve. _Time._—¾ hour. _Seasonable_ from March to
October.


COLLOPS, Scotch, White.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast veal, ½
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, 2 blades of pounded mace, cayenne and
salt to taste, a little butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, ¼ pint of
water, 1 teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice,
¼ teaspoonful of lemon-peel, 1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 3
tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 tablespoonful of sherry. _Mode._—Cut the
veal into thin slices about 3 inches in width; hack them with a knife,
and grate on them the nutmeg, mace, cayenne, and salt, and fry them in
a little butter. Dish them, and make a gravy in the pan by putting in
the remaining ingredients. Give one boil, and pour it over the collops;
garnish with lemon and slices of toasted bacon, rolled. Forcemeat balls
may be added to this dish. If cream is not at hand, substitute the
yolk of an egg beaten up well with a little milk. _Time._—About 5 or 7
minutes. _Seasonable_ from May to October.


COMPÔTE.

A confiture made at the moment of need, and with much less sugar than
would be ordinarily put to preserves. They are very wholesome things,
suitable to most stomachs which cannot accommodate themselves to raw
fruit or a large portion of sugar: they are the happy medium, and far
better than ordinary stewed fruit. For Fruit Compôtes refer to the
recipes relating to the various Fruits.


CONFECTIONARY.

In speaking of confectionary, it should be remarked that many
preparations come under that head; for the various fruits, flowers,
herbs, roots, and juices, which, when boiled with sugar, were
formerly employed in pharmacy as well as for sweetmeats, were called
_confections_, from the Latin word _conficere_, ‘to make up;’ but
the term confectionary embraces a very large class indeed of sweet
food, many kinds of which should not be attempted in the ordinary
cuisine. The thousand and one ornamental dishes that adorn the tables
of the wealthy should be purchased from the confectioner: they cannot
profitably be made at home. Apart from these, cakes, biscuits, and
tarts, &c., the class of sweetmeats called confections may be thus
classified:—1. Liquid confects, or fruits either whole or in pieces,
preserved by being immersed in a fluid transparent syrup; as the liquid
confects of apricots, green citrons, and many foreign fruits. 2. Dry
confects are those which, after having been boiled in the syrup, are
taken out and put to dry in an oven, as citron and orange-peel, &c.
3. Marmalade, jams, and pastes, a kind of soft compounds made of the
pulp of fruits or other vegetable substances, beat up with sugar or
honey; such as oranges, apricots, pears, &c. 4. Jellies are the juices
of fruits boiled with sugar to a pretty thick consistency, so as, upon
cooling, to form a trembling jelly; as currant, gooseberry, apple
jelly, &c. 5. Conserves are a kind of dry confects, made by beating up
flowers, fruits, &c., with sugar, not dissolved. 6. Candies are fruits
candied over with sugar after having been boiled in the syrup.


COW-HEEL, Fried.

_Ingredients._—Ox-feet, the yolk of 1 egg, bread-crumbs, parsley,
salt and cayenne to taste, boiling butter. _Mode._—Wash, scald, and
thoroughly clean the feet, and cut them into pieces about 2 inches
long; have ready some fine bread-crumbs mixed with a little minced
parsley, cayenne, and salt; dip the pieces of heel into the yolk of
egg, sprinkle them with the bread-crumbs, and fry them until of a nice
brown in boiling butter. _Time._—¼ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ each.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Ox-feet maybe dressed in various ways, stewed in gravy or
plainly boiled and served with melted butter. When plainly boiled, the
liquor will answer for making sweet or relishing jellies, and also to
give richness to soups or gravies.


COW-HEEL STOCK, for Jellies (More Economical than Calf’s-Feet).

_Ingredients._—2 cow-heels, 3 quarts of water. _Mode._—Procure 2 heels
that have only been scalded, and not boiled; split them in two, and
remove the fat between the claws; wash them well in warm water, and put
them into a saucepan with the above proportion of cold water; bring
it gradually to boil, remove all the scum as it rises, and simmer
the heels gently from 7 to 8 hours, or until the liquor is reduced
one-half; then strain it into a basin, measuring the quantity, and
put it in a cool place. Clarify it in the same manner as calf’s-feet
stock, using, with the other ingredients, about ½ oz. of isinglass to
each quart. This stock should be made the day before it is required for
use. Two dozen shank-bones of mutton, boiled for 6 or 7 hours, yield a
quart of strong firm stock. They should be put on in 2 quarts of water,
which should be reduced one-half. Make this also the day before it is
required. _Time._—7 to 8 hours to boil the cow-heels, 6 to 7 hours
to boil the shank-bones. _Average cost_, from 4_d._ to 6_d._ each.
_Sufficient._—2 cow-heels should make 3 pints of stock. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


COWSLIP WINE.

_Ingredients._—To every gallon of water allow 3 lbs. of lump sugar,
the rind of 2 lemons, the juice of 1, the rind and juice of 1 Seville
orange, 1 gallon of cowslip pips. To every 4½ gallons of wine allow 1
bottle of brandy. _Mode._—Boil the sugar and water together for ½ hour,
carefully removing all the scum as it rises. Pour this boiling liquor
on the orange and lemon-rinds and the juice, which should be strained;
when milk-warm, add the cowslip pips or flowers, picked from the stalks
and seeds; and to 9 gallons of wine 3 tablespoonfuls of good fresh
brewers’ yeast. Let it ferment 3 or 4 days, then put all together in
a cask with the brandy, and let it remain for 2 months, when bottle
it off for use. _Time._—To be boiled ½ hour; to ferment 3 or 4 days;
to remain in the cask 2 months. _Average cost_, exclusive of the
cowslips, which may be picked in the fields, 2_s._ 9_d._ per gallon.
_Seasonable._ Make this in April or May.


CRAB, to Choose.

The middle-sized crab is the best; and the crab, like the lobster,
should be judged by its weight; for if light, it is watery.


CRAB, to Dress.

_Ingredients._—1 crab, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 1 ditto of oil;
salt, white pepper, and cayenne, to taste. _Mode._—Empty the shells,
and thoroughly mix the meat with the above ingredients, and put it in
the large shell. Garnish with slices of cut lemon and parsley. The
quantity of oil may be increased when it is much liked. _Average cost_,
from 10_d._ to 2_s._ _Seasonable_ all the year; but not so good in May,
June, and July. _Sufficient_ for 3 persons.


CRAB, Hot.

_Ingredients._—1 crab, nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, 3 oz.
of butter, ¼ lb. of bread-crumbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar.
_Mode._—After having boiled the crab, pick the meat out from the
shells, and mix with it the nutmeg and seasoning. Cut up the butter in
small pieces, and add the bread-crumbs and vinegar. Mix altogether,
put the whole in the large shell, and brown before the fire or with
a salamander. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, from 10_d._ to 2_s._
_Sufficient_ for 3 persons, _Seasonable_ all the year; but not so good
in May, June, and July.


CRAB SAUCE, for Fish (equal to Lobster Sauce).

_Ingredients._—1 crab; salt, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste; ½ pint
of melted butter made with milk. _Mode._—Choose a nice fresh crab, pick
all the meat away from the shell, and cut it into small square pieces.
Make ½ pint of melted butter, put in the fish and seasoning; let it
gradually warm through, and simmer for 2 minutes: it should not boil.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._


CRAYFISH.

Crayfish should be thrown into boiling water, to which has been added a
good seasoning of salt and a little vinegar. When done, which will be
in ¼ hour, take them out and drain them. Let them cool, arrange them on
a napkin, and garnish with plenty of double parsley.

_Note._—This fish is frequently used for garnishing boiled turkey,
boiled fowl, calf’s head, turbot, and all kinds of boiled fish.


CRAYFISH, Potted.

_Ingredients._—100 crayfish; pounded mace, pepper, and salt to taste; 2
oz. butter. _Mode._—Boil the fish in salt and water, pick out all the
meat, and pound it in a mortar to a paste. Whilst pounding, add the
butter gradually, and mix in the spice and seasoning. Put it in small
pots, and pour over it clarified butter, carefully excluding the air.
_Time._—15 minutes to boil the crayfish. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 9_d._
_Seasonable_ all the year.


CRAYFISH SOUP.

_Ingredients._—50 crayfish, ¼ lb. of butter, 6 anchovies, the crumb of
1 French roll, a little lobster-spawn, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of
medium stock, or fish stock. _Mode._—Shell the crayfish, and put the
fish between two plates until they are wanted; pound the shells in a
mortar with the butter and anchovies; when well beaten, add a pint of
stock, and simmer for ¾ of an hour. Strain it through a hair sieve,
put the remainder of the stock to it, with the crumb of the roll; give
it one boil, and rub it through a tammy, with the lobster-spawn. Put
in the fish, but do not let the soup boil after it has been rubbed
through the tammy. If necessary, add seasoning. _Time._—1½ hour.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 3_d._ or 1_s._ 9_d._ per quart. _Sufficient_ for
8 persons. _Seasonable_ from January to July.


CREAM à la VALOIS.

_Ingredients._—4 sponge-cakes, jam, ¾ pint of cream, sugar to taste,
the juice of ½ lemon, ¼ glass of sherry, 1¼ oz. of isinglass.
_Mode._—Cut the sponge-cakes into thin slices, place two together with
preserve between them, and pour over them a small quantity of sherry
mixed with a little brandy. Sweeten and flavour the cream with the
lemon-juice and sherry; add the isinglass, which should be dissolved in
a little water, and beat up the cream well. Place a little in an oiled
mould; arrange the pieces of cake in the cream, then fill the mould
with the remainder, let it cool, and turn it out on a dish. By oiling
the mould the cream will have a much smoother appearance, and will turn
out more easily than when merely dipped in cold water. _Average cost_,
3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill a 1½ pint mould. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


CREAM CHEESE.

Cream cheese should be served on a d’oyley, and garnished either with
water-cresses or parsley; of the former, a plentiful supply should
be given, as they add greatly to the appearance of the dish, besides
improving the flavour of the cheese.


CREAM, Devonshire.

The milk should stand 24 hours in the winter, half that time when the
weather is very warm. The milkpan is then set on a stove, and should
there remain until the milk is quite hot; but it must not boil, or
there will be a thick skin on the surface. When it is sufficiently done
the undulations on the surface look thick, and small rings appear. The
time required for scalding cream depends on the size of the pan and
the heat of the fire, but the slower it is done the better. The pan
should be placed in the dairy when the cream is sufficiently scalded,
and skimmed the following day. This cream is so much esteemed that it
is sent to the London markets in small square tins, and is exceedingly
delicious eaten with fresh fruit. In Devonshire, butter is made from
this cream, and is usually very firm.


CREAM, Italian.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, sugar to taste, 1 oz.
of isinglass, 1 lemon, the yolks of 4 eggs. _Mode._—Put the cream and
milk into a saucepan, with sugar to sweeten, and the lemon-rind. Boil
until the milk is well flavoured, then strain it into a basin and add
the beaten yolks of eggs. Put this mixture into a jug, place the jug in
a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and stir the contents until
they thicken, but do not allow them to boil. Take the cream off the
fire, stir in the lemon-juice and isinglass, which should be melted,
and whip well; fill a mould, place it in ice if at hand, and, when set,
turn it out on a dish, and garnish as taste may dictate. The mixture
may be whipped and drained, and then put into small glasses, when this
mode of serving is preferred. _Time._—From 5 to 8 minutes to stir the
mixture in the jug. _Average cost_, with the best isinglass, 2_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill 1½ pint mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CREAM SAUCE, for Fish or White Dishes.

_Ingredients._—1/3 pint of cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of
flour, salt and cayenne to taste; when liked, a small quantity of
pounded mace or lemon-juice. _Mode._—Put the butter in a very clean
saucepan, dredge in the flour, and keep shaking round till the butter
is melted. Add the seasoning and cream, and stir the whole till it
boils; let it just simmer for 5 minutes, when add either pounded mace
or lemon-juice to taste to give it a flavour. _Time._—5 minutes to
simmer. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 7_d._

_Note._—This sauce may be flavoured with very finely-shredded shalot.


CREAM, Stone, of tous les Mois.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of preserve, 1 pint of milk, 2 oz. of lump sugar,
1 heaped tablespoonful of tous les mois, 3 drops of essence of cloves,
3 drops of almond-flavouring. _Mode._—Place the preserve at the bottom
of a glass dish; put the milk into a lined saucepan, with the sugar,
and make it boil. Mix to a smooth batter the tous les mois with a
very little cold milk; stir it briskly into the boiling milk, add the
flavouring, and simmer for 2 minutes. When rather cool, but before
turning solid, pour the cream over the jam, and ornament it with strips
of red-currant jelly or preserved fruit. _Time._—2 minutes. _Average
cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CREAM, Swiss.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of macaroons or 6 small sponge-cakes, sherry,
1 pint of cream, 5 oz. of lump sugar, 2 large tablespoonfuls of
arrowroot, the rind of 1 lemon, the juice of ½ lemon, 3 tablespoonfuls
of milk. _Mode._—Lay the macaroons or sponge-cakes in a glass dish,
and pour over them as much sherry as will cover them, or sufficient to
soak them well. Put the cream into a lined saucepan, with the sugar and
lemon-rind, and let it remain by the side of the fire until the cream
is well flavoured, when take out the lemon-rind. Mix the arrowroot
smoothly with the cold milk; add this to the cream, and let it boil
gently for about 3 minutes, keeping it well stirred. Take it off the
fire, stir till nearly cold, when add the lemon-juice, and pour the
whole over the cakes. Garnish the cream with strips of angelica, or
candied citron cut thin, or bright-coloured jelly or preserve. This
cream is exceedingly delicious, flavoured with vanilla instead of
lemon: when this flavouring is used the sherry may be omitted, and the
mixture poured over the _dry_ cakes. _Time._—About ½ hour to infuse the
lemon-rind; 5 minutes to boil the cream. _Average cost_, with cream at
1_s._ per pint, 3_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


CREAM, Vanilla.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of milk, the yolks of 8 eggs, 6 oz. of sugar,
1 oz. of isinglass, flavouring to taste of essence of vanilla.
_Mode._—Put the milk and sugar into a saucepan, and let it get hot over
a slow fire; beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add gradually
the sweetened milk; flavour the whole with essence of vanilla, put
the mixture into a jug, and place this jug in a saucepan of boiling
water. Stir the contents with a wooden spoon one way until the mixture
thickens, but do not allow it to boil, or it will be full of lumps.
Take it off the fire; stir in the isinglass, which should be previously
dissolved in about ¼ pint of water, and boiled for 2 or 3 minutes;
pour the cream into an oiled mould, put it in a cool place to set,
and turn it out carefully on a dish. Instead of using the essence of
vanilla, a pod may be boiled in the milk until the flavour is well
extracted. A pod, or a pod and a half, will be found sufficient for
the above proportion of ingredients. _Time._—About 10 minutes to stir
the mixture. _Average cost_, with the best isinglass, 2_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: VANILLA-CREAM MOULD.]


CREAM, Whipped, for putting on Trifles, serving in Glasses, &c.

_Ingredients._—To every pint of cream allow 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 1
glass of sherry or any kind of sweet white wine, the rind of ½ lemon,
the white of 1 egg. _Mode._—Rub the sugar on the lemon-rind, and pound
it in a mortar until quite fine, and beat up the white of the egg until
quite stiff; put the cream into a large bowl, with the sugar, wine, and
beaten egg, and whip it to a froth; as fast as the froth rises take it
off with a skimmer, and put it on a sieve to drain in a cool place.
This should be made the day before it is wanted, as the whip is then so
much firmer. The cream should be whipped in a cool place, and in summer
over ice, if it is obtainable. A plain whipped cream may be served on a
glass dish, and garnished with strips of angelica, or pastry-leaves, or
pieces of bright-coloured jelly: it makes a very pretty addition to the
supper-table. _Time._—About 1 hour to whip the cream. _Average cost_,
with cream at 1_s._ per pint, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1 dish or 1
trifle. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: PASTRY-LEAF.]


CRUMPETS.

These are made in the same manner as muffins, only, in making the
mixture, let it be more like batter than dough. Let it rise for about
½ hour; pour it into iron rings, which should be ready on a hot-plate;
bake them, and when one side appears done, turn them quickly on the
other. _To toast them_, have ready a very _bright clear_ fire; put
the crumpet on a toasting-fork, and hold it before the fire, _not too
close_, until it is nicely brown on one side, but do not allow it to
blacken; turn it, and brown the other side; then spread it with good
butter, cut it in half, and, when all are done, pile them on a hot
dish, and send them quickly to table. Muffins and crumpets should
always be served on separate dishes, and both toasted and served as
expeditiously as possible. _Time._—From 10 to 15 minutes to bake them.
_Sufficient._—Allow 2 crumpets to each person.


CRUST, Butter, for Boiled Puddings.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 6 oz. of butter, ½ pint of
water. _Mode._—With a knife, work the flour to a smooth paste with ½
pint of water; roll the crust out rather thin; place the butter over
it in small pieces, dredge lightly over it some flour, and fold the
paste over; repeat the rolling once more, and the crust will be ready
for use. It may be enriched by adding another 2 oz. of butter; but, for
ordinary purposes, the above quantity will be found quite sufficient.
_Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Common, for Raised Pies.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow ½ pint of water, 1½ oz. of
butter, 1½ oz. of lard, ½ saltspoonful of salt. _Mode._—Put into a
saucepan the water; when it boils, add the butter and lard, and when
these are melted, make a hole in the middle of the flour; pour in the
water gradually, beat it well with a wooden spoon, and be particular
in not making the paste too soft. When it is well mixed, knead it with
the hands until quite stiff, dredging a little flour over the paste and
board to prevent them from sticking. When it is well kneaded, place it
before the fire, with a cloth covered over it, for a few minutes; it
will then be more easily worked into shape. This paste does not taste
so nicely as a richer one, but it is worked with greater facility, and
answers just as well for raised pies, for the crust is seldom eaten.
_Average cost_, 5_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Dripping, for Kitchen Puddings, Pies, &c.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 6 oz. of clarified beef
dripping, ½ pint of water. _Mode._—After having clarified the dripping,
weigh it, and to every lb. of flour allow the above proportion of
dripping. With a knife, work the flour into a smooth paste with the
water, rolling it out three times, each time placing on the crust 2
oz. of the dripping broken into small pieces. If this paste is lightly
made, if good dripping is used, and _not too much of it_, it will be
found good; and by the addition of two tablespoonfuls of fine moist
sugar, it may be converted into a common short crust for fruit pies.
_Average cost_, 4_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Lard or Flead.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow ½ lb. of lard or flead, ½
pint of water, ½ saltspoonful of salt. _Mode._—Clear the flead from
skin, and slice it into thin flakes; rub it into the flour, add the
salt, and work the whole into a smooth paste, with the above proportion
of water; fold the paste over two or three times, beat it well with the
rolling-pin, roll it out, and it will be ready for use. The crust made
from this will be found extremely light, and may be made into cakes or
tarts; it may also be very much enriched by adding more flead to the
same proportion of flour. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Suet, for Pies or Puddings.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 5 or 6 oz. of beef suet,
½ pint of water. _Mode._—Free the suet from skin and shreds, chop it
extremely fine, and rub it well into the flour; work the whole to a
smooth paste with the above proportion of water; roll it out, and it is
ready for use. This crust is quite rich enough for ordinary purposes,
but when a better one is desired, use from ½ to ¾ lb. of suet to every
lb. of flour. Some cooks, for rich crusts, pound the suet in a mortar,
with a small quantity of butter. It should then be laid on the paste in
small pieces, the same as for puff-crust, and will be found exceedingly
nice for hot tarts. 5 oz. of suet to every lb. of flour will make a
very good crust; and even ¼ lb, will answer very well for children, or
where the crust is wanted very plain. _Average cost_, 5_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Common Short.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 2 oz. of sifted sugar, 3 oz.
of butter, about ½ pint of boiling milk. _Mode._—Crumble the butter
into the flour as finely as possible, add the sugar, and work the whole
up to a smooth paste with the boiling milk. Roll it out thin, and bake
in a moderate oven. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Very good Short for Fruit Tarts.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow ½ or ¾ lb. of butter, 1
tablespoonful of sifted sugar, 1/3 pint of water. _Mode._—Rub the
butter into the flour, after having ascertained that the latter is
perfectly dry; add the sugar, and mix the whole into a stiff paste with
about 1/3 pint of water. Roll it out two or three times, folding the
paste over each time, and it will be ready for use. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 1_d._ per lb.


CRUST, Another good Short.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, the yolks
of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of sifted sugar, about ¼ pint of milk. _Mode._—Rub the
butter into the flour, add the sugar, and mix the whole as lightly as
possible to a smooth paste, with the yolks of the eggs well beaten, and
the milk. The proportion of the latter ingredient must be judged of by
the size of the eggs; if these are large so much will not be required,
and more if the eggs are smaller. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per lb.


CUCUMBER SAUCE.

_Ingredients._—3 or 4 cucumbers, 2 oz. of butter, 6 tablespoonfuls of
brown gravy. _Mode._—Peel the cucumbers, quarter them, and take out the
seeds; cut them into small pieces, put them in a cloth, and rub them
well to take out the water that hangs about them. Put the butter in a
saucepan, add the cucumbers, and shake them over a sharp fire until
they are of a good colour; then pour over them the gravy, mixed with
the cucumbers, and simmer gently for 10 minutes, when it will be ready
to serve. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour.


CUCUMBER SAUCE, White.

_Ingredients._—3 or 4 cucumbers, ½ pint of white stock, cayenne and
salt to taste, the yolks of 3 eggs. _Mode._—Cut the cucumbers into
small pieces, after peeling them and taking out the seeds. Put them in
the stewpan with the white stock and seasoning; simmer gently till the
cucumbers are tender, which will be in about ¼ hour. Then add the yolks
of the eggs, well beaten; stir them to the sauce, but do not allow it
to boil, and serve very hot. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour.


CUCUMBER SOUP (French Recipe).

_Ingredients._—1 large cucumber, a piece of butter the size of a
walnut, a little chervil and sorrel cut in large pieces, salt and
pepper to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 gill of cream, 1 quart of
medium stock. _Mode._—Pare the cucumber, quarter it, and take out the
seeds; cut it in thin slices, put these on a plate with a little salt,
to draw the water from them; drain, and put them in your stewpan with
the butter. When they are warmed through, without being browned, pour
the stock on them. Add the sorrel, chervil, and seasoning, and boil for
40 minutes. Mix the well-beaten yolks of the eggs with the cream, which
add at the moment of serving. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._
2_d._ per quart. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from June to
September.


CUCUMBER VINEGAR (a very nice addition to Salads).

_Ingredients._—10 large cucumbers, or 12 smaller ones, 1 quart of
vinegar, 2 onions, 2 shalots, 1 tablespoonful of salt, 2 tablespoonfuls
of pepper, ¼ teaspoonful of cayenne. _Mode._—Pare and slice the
cucumbers, put them in a stone jar or wide-mouthed bottle with the
vinegar; slice the onions and shalots, and add them, with all the other
ingredients, to the cucumbers. Let it stand 4 or 5 days, boil it all
up, and, when cold, strain the liquor through a piece of muslin, and
store it away in small bottles well sealed. This vinegar is a very nice
addition to gravies, hashes, &c., as well as a great improvement to
salads, or to eat with cold meat.


CUCUMBERS, to Dress.

_Ingredients._—3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of
vinegar, salt and pepper to taste. _Mode._—Pare the cucumber, cut
it equally into _very thin_ slices, and _commence_ cutting from the
_thick end;_ if commenced at the stalk, the cucumber will most likely
have an exceedingly bitter taste, far from agreeable. For the purpose
of slicing cucumbers evenly and very thin, we recommend the slice in
preference to an ordinary knife. Put the slices into a dish, sprinkle
over salt and pepper, and pour over oil and vinegar in the above
proportion; turn the cucumber about, and it is ready to serve. This is
a favourite accompaniment to boiled salmon, is a nice addition to all
descriptions of salads, and makes a pretty garnish to lobster salad.
_Average cost_, when scarce, 1_s._ to 2_s._ 6_d._; when cheapest, may
be had for 1_d._ each. _Seasonable._—Forced from the beginning of March
to the end of June; in full season in July, August, and September.

[Illustration: CUCUMBER-SLICES.]

[Illustration: SLICED CUCUMBERS.]


CUCUMBERS, Fried.

_Ingredients._—2 or 3 cucumbers, pepper and salt to taste, flour, oil
or butter. _Mode._—Pare the cucumbers, and cut them into slices of an
equal thickness, commencing to slice from the thick and not the stalk
end of the cucumber. Wipe the slices dry with a cloth, dredge them
with flour, and put them into a pan of boiling oil or butter; keep
turning them about until brown; lift them out of the pan, let them
drain, and serve, piled lightly in a dish. These will be found a great
improvement to rump-steak: they should be placed on a dish with the
steak on the top. _Time._—5 minutes. _Average cost_, when cheapest,
1_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable._—Forced from
the beginning of March to the end of June; in full season in July and
August.


CUCUMBERS à la Poulette.

_Ingredients._—2 or 3 cucumbers, salt and vinegar, 2 oz. of butter,
flour, ½ pint of broth, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, a lump of
sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, salt and pepper to taste. _Mode._—Pare
and cut the cucumbers into slices of an equal thickness, and let them
remain in a pickle of salt and vinegar for ½ hour, then drain them in
a cloth, and put them into a stewpan with the butter. Fry them over a
brisk fire, but do not brown them, and then dredge over them a little
flour; add the broth, skim off all the fat, which will rise to the
surface, and boil gently until the gravy is somewhat reduced, but the
cucumber should not be broken. Stir in the yolks of the eggs, add the
parsley, sugar, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; bring the whole to
the _point of boiling_, and serve. _Time._—Altogether, 1 hour. _Average
cost_, when cheapest, 1_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ in July, August, or September; but may be had, forced,
from the beginning of March.


CUCUMBERS, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—1 oz. of whole pepper, 1 oz. of bruised ginger,
sufficient vinegar to cover the cucumbers. _Mode._—Cut the cucumbers
in thick slices, sprinkle salt over them, and let them remain for 24
hours. The next day, drain them well for 6 hours, put them into a
jar, pour boiling vinegar over them, and keep them in a warm place.
In a short time, boil up the vinegar again, add pepper and ginger in
the above proportion, and instantly cover them up. Tie them down with
bladder, and in a few days they will be fit for use.


CUCUMBERS, an excellent way of Preserving.

_Ingredients._—Salt and water, 1 lb. of lump sugar, the rind of
1 lemon, 1 oz. of ginger, cucumbers. _Mode._—Choose the greenest
cucumbers, and those that are most free from seeds; put them in strong
salt and water, with a cabbage-leaf to keep them down; tie a paper
over them, and put them in a warm place till they are yellow, then
wash them and set them over the fire in fresh water with a very little
salt, and another cabbage-leaf over them; cover very closely, but take
care they do not boil. If they are not a fine green, change the water
again, cover them as before, and make them hot. When they are a good
colour take them off the fire and let them cool; cut them in quarters,
take out the seeds and pulp, and put them into cold water; let them
remain for 2 days, changing the water twice each day, to draw out the
salt. Put the sugar, with ½ pint of water, in a saucepan over the fire;
remove the scum as it rises, and add the lemon-peel and ginger with
the outside scraped off; when the syrup is tolerably thick, take it
off the fire, and when _cold_, wipe the cucumbers _dry_ and put them
in. Boil the syrup once in 2 or 3 days for 3 weeks; strengthen it if
required, and let it be quite cold before the cucumbers are put in.
Great attention must be paid to the directions in the commencement of
this recipe, as, if these are not properly carried out, the result will
be far from satisfactory. _Seasonable._—This recipe should be used in
June, July, or August.


CUCUMBERS, German Method of keeping for Winter use.

_Ingredients._—Cucumbers, salt. _Mode._—Pare and slice the cucumbers
(as for the table), sprinkle well with salt, and let them remain for 24
hours; strain off the liquor, pack in jars, a thick layer of cucumbers
and salt alternately; tie down closely, and, when wanted for use, take
out the quantity required. Now wash them well in fresh water, and
dress as usual with pepper, vinegar, and oil.


CUCUMBERS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—3 large cucumbers, flour, butter, rather more than ½
pint of good brown gravy. _Mode._—Cut the cucumbers lengthwise the size
of the dish they are intended to be served in; empty them of the seeds,
and put them into boiling water with a little salt, and let them simmer
for 5 minutes; then take them out, place them in another stewpan, with
the gravy, and let them boil over a brisk fire until the cucumbers
are tender. Should these be bitter, add a lump of sugar; carefully
dish them, skim the sauce, pour over the cucumbers, and serve.
_Time._—Altogether, 20 minutes. _Average cost_, when cheapest, 1_d._
each. _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ in June, July, and
August; but may be had, forced, from the beginning of March.


CUCUMBERS, Stewed with Onions.

_Ingredients._—6 cucumbers, 3 moderate-sized onions, not quite 1 pint
of white stock, cayenne and salt to taste, the yolks of 2 eggs, a very
little grated nutmeg. _Mode._—Pare and slice the cucumbers, take out
the seeds, and cut the onions into thin slices; put these both into a
stewpan, with the stock, and let them boil for ¼ hour or longer, should
the cucumbers be very large. Beat up the yolks of 2 eggs; stir these
into the sauce; add the cayenne, salt, and grated nutmeg; bring it to
the point of boiling, and serve. Do not allow the sauce to boil, or
it will curdle. This is a favourite dish with lamb or mutton chops,
rump-steaks, &c. _Time._—Altogether, 20 minutes. _Average cost_, when
cheapest, 1_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ in
July, August, and September; but may be had, forced, from the beginning
of March.


CURRANT DUMPLINGS.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, 6 oz. of suet, ½ lb. of currants, rather
more than ½ pint of water. _Mode._—Chop the suet finely, mix it with
the flour, and add the currants, which should be nicely washed, picked,
and dried; mix the whole to a limp paste with the water (if wanted very
nice, use milk); divide it into 7 or 8 dumplings; tie them in cloths,
and boil for 1¼ hour. They may be boiled without a cloth: they should
then be made into round balls, and dropped into boiling water, and
should be moved about at first, to prevent them from sticking to the
bottom of the saucepan. Serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted
sugar. _Time._—In a cloth, 1¼ hour; without, ¾ hour. _Average cost_,
9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CURRANT FRITTERS.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of milk, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 4 eggs, 3
tablespoonfuls of boiled rice, 3 tablespoonfuls of currants, sugar to
taste, a very little grated nutmeg, hot lard or clarified dripping.
_Mode._—Put the milk into a basin with the flour, which should
previously be rubbed to a smooth batter with a little cold milk; stir
these ingredients together; add the well-whisked eggs, the rice,
currants, sugar, and nutmeg. Beat the mixture for a few minutes, and,
if not sufficiently thick, add a little more boiled rice; drop it, in
small quantities, into a pan of boiling lard or clarified dripping; fry
the fritters a nice brown, and, when done, drain them on a piece of
blotting-paper, before the fire. Pile them on a white d’oyley, strew
over sifted sugar, and serve them very hot. Send a cut lemon to table
with them. _Time._—From 8 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters. _Average
cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CURRANT JAM, Black.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stripped
from the stalks, allow; ¾ lb. of loaf sugar, 1 gill of water.
_Mode._—Let the fruit be very ripe, and gathered on a dry day. Strip
it from the stalks, and put it into a preserving-pan, with a gill of
water to each lb. of fruit; boil these together for 10 minutes; then
add the sugar, and boil the jam again for 30 minutes, reckoning from
the time when the jam simmers equally all over, or longer, should
it not appear to set nicely when a little is poured on to a plate.
Keep stirring it to prevent it from burning, carefully remove all the
scum, and when done, pour it into pots. Let it cool, cover the top
of the jam with oiled paper, and the top of the jars with a piece of
tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg:
this, when cold, forms a hard stiff cover, and perfectly excludes the
air. Great attention must be paid to the stirring of this jam, as it
is very liable to burn, on account of the thickness of the juice.
_Time._—10 minutes to boil the fruit and water; 30 minutes with the
sugar, or longer. _Average cost_, from 6_d._ to 8_d._ for a pot capable
of holding 1 lb. _Sufficient._—Allow from 6 to 7 quarts of currants to
make 1 dozen pots of jam, each pot to hold 1 lb. _Seasonable._—Make
this in July.


CURRANT JAM, Red.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit allow ¾ lb. of loaf sugar.
_Mode._—Let the fruit be gathered on a fine day; weigh it, and then
strip the currants from the stalks; put them into a preserving-pan
with sugar in the above proportion; stir them, and boil them for about
¾ hour. Carefully remove the scum as it rises. Put the jam into pots,
and, when cold, cover with oiled papers; over these put a piece of
tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of an egg; press
the paper round the top of the pot, and, when dry, the covering will
be quite hard and air-tight. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour, reckoning from the
time the jam boils all over. _Average cost_, for a lb. pot, from 6_d._
to 8_d._ _Sufficient._—Allow from 6 to 7 quarts of currants to make 12
1-lb. pots of jam. _Seasonable._—Make this in July.

[Illustration: JAM-POT.]


CURRANT JELLY, Black.

_Ingredients._—Black currants; to every pint of juice allow ¼ pint of
water, 1 lb of loaf sugar. _Mode._—Strip the currants from the stalks,
which may be done in an expeditious manner, by holding the bunch in
one hand, and passing a small silver fork down the currants: they will
then readily fall from the stalks. Put them into a jar, place this jar
in a saucepan of boiling water, and simmer them until their juice is
extracted; then strain them, and to every pint of juice allow the above
proportion of sugar and water; stir these ingredients together cold
until the sugar is dissolved; place the preserving-pan on the fire, and
boil the jelly for about ½ hour, reckoning from the time it commences
to boil all over, and carefully remove the scum as it rises. If the
jelly becomes firm when a little is put on a plate, it is done; it
should then be put into _small_ pots, and covered the same as the jam
in the preceding recipe. If the jelly is wanted very clear, the fruit
should not be squeezed dry; but, of course, so much juice will not be
obtained. If the fruit is not much squeezed, it may be converted into
a jam for immediate eating, by boiling it with a little common sugar:
this answers very well for a nursery preserve. _Time._—About ¾ hour to
extract the juice; ½ hour to boil the jelly. _Average cost_, from 8_d._
to 10_d._ per ½-lb. pot. _Sufficient._—From 3 pints to 2 quarts of
fruit should yield a pint of juice. _Seasonable._—Make this in July.


CURRANT JELLY, Red.

_Ingredients._—Red currants; to every pint of juice allow ¾ lb. of
loaf sugar. _Mode._—Have the fruit gathered in fine weather; pick it
from the stalks, put it into a jar, and place this jar in a saucepan
of boiling water over the fire, and let it simmer gently until the
juice is well drawn from the currants; then strain them through a
jelly-bag or fine cloth, and if the jelly is wished very clear, do not
squeeze them _too much_, as the skin and pulp from the fruit will be
pressed through with the juice, and so make the jelly muddy. Measure
the juice, and to each pint allow ¾ lb of loaf sugar; put these into
a preserving-pan, set it over the fire, and keep stirring the jelly
until it is done, carefully removing every particle of scum as it
rises, using a wooden or silver spoon for the purpose, as metal or
iron ones would spoil the colour of the jelly. When it has boiled from
20 minutes to ½ hour, put a little of the jelly on a plate, and if
firm when cool, it is done. Take it off the fire, pour it into small
gallipots, cover each of the pots with an oiled paper, and then with
a piece of tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white of
an egg. Label the pots, adding the year when the jelly was made, and
store it away in a dry place. A jam may be made with the currants, if
they are not squeezed too dry, by adding a few fresh raspberries, and
boiling all together, with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely. As
this jam is not worth storing away, but is only for immediate eating,
a smaller proportion of sugar than usual will be found enough: it
answers very well for children’s puddings, or for a nursery preserve.
_Time._—From ¾ to 1 hour to extract the juice; 20 minutes to ½ hour to
boil the jelly. _Average cost_, from 8_d._ to 10_d._ per ½-lb. pot.
_Sufficient._—8 quarts of currants will make from 10 to 12 pots of
jelly. _Seasonable._—Make this in July.

_Note._—Should the above proportion of sugar not be found sufficient
for some tastes, add an extra ¼ lb. to every pint of juice, making
altogether 1 lb.


CURRANT JELLY, White.

_Ingredients._—White currants; to every pint of juice allow ¾ lb. of
good loaf sugar. _Mode._—Pick the currants from the stalks, and put
them into a jar; place this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and
simmer until the juice is well drawn from the fruit, which will be
in from ¾ to 1 hour. Then strain the currants through a fine cloth
or jelly-bag; do not squeeze them too much, or the jelly will not be
clear, and put the juice into a very clean preserving-pan, with the
sugar. Let this simmer gently over a clear fire until it is firm, and
keep stirring and skimming until it is done; then pour it into small
pots, cover them, and store away in a dry place. _Time._—¾ hour to draw
the juice; ½ hour to boil the jelly. _Average cost_, from 8_d._ to
10_d._ per ½-lb. pot. _Sufficient._—From 3 pints to 2 quarts of fruit
should yield 1 pint of juice. _Seasonable_ in July and August.


CURRANT PUDDING, Boiled (Plain and Economical).

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of suet, ½ lb. of currants, milk.
_Mode._—Wash the currants, dry them thoroughly, and pick away any
stalks or grit; chop the suet finely; mix all the ingredients together,
and moisten with sufficient milk to make the pudding into a stiff
batter; tie it up in a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and
boil for 3½ hours; serve with a cut lemon, cold butter, and sifted
sugar. _Time._—3½ hours. _Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CURRANT PUDDING, Black or Red.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of red or black currants, measured with the
stalks, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, suet crust or butter crust (_see_ recipes
for CRUSTS). _Mode._—Make, with ¾ lb. of flour, either a suet crust or
butter crust (the former is usually made); butter a basin, and line
it with part of the crust; add the currants, which should be stripped
from the stalks, and sprinkle the sugar over them; put the cover of the
pudding on; make the edges very secure, that the juice does not escape;
tie it down with a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and boil
from 2½ to 3 hours. Boiled without a basin, allow ½ hour less. We have
given rather a large proportion of sugar; but we find fruit puddings
are so much more juicy and palatable when _well sweetened_ before they
are boiled, besides being more economical. A few raspberries added
to red-currant pudding are a very nice addition; about ½ pint would
be sufficient for the above quantity of fruit. Fruit puddings are
very delicious if, when they are turned out of the basin, the crust
is browned with a salamander, or put into a very hot oven for a few
minutes to colour it: this makes it crisp on the surface. _Time._—2½
to 3 hours; without a basin, 2 to 2½ hours. _Average cost_, in full
season, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ in June,
July, and August.


CURRANT AND RASPBERRY TART, Red.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of picked currants, ½ pint of raspberries,
3 heaped tablespoonfuls of moist sugar, ½ lb of short crust.
_Mode._—Strip the currants from the stalks, and put them into a deep
pie-dish, with a small cup placed in the midst, bottom upwards; add the
raspberries and sugar; place a border of paste round the edge of the
dish, cover with crust, ornament the edges, and bake from ½ to ¾ hour;
strew some sifted sugar over before being sent to table. This tart is
more generally served cold than hot. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour, _Average
cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ in June,
July, and August.

_Note._—In tarts of this description carefully avoid washing the fruit.


CURRANTS, Iced, for Dessert.

_Ingredients._—¼ pint of water, the whites of 2 eggs, currants, pounded
sugar. _Mode._—Select very fine bunches of red or white currants, and
well beat the whites of the eggs. Mix these with the water; then take
the currants, a bunch at a time, and dip them in; let them drain for
a minute or two, and roll them in very fine-pounded sugar. Lay them
to dry on paper, when the sugar will crystallize round each currant,
and have a very pretty effect. All fresh fruit may be prepared in the
same manner; and a mixture of various fruits iced in this manner, and
arranged on one dish, looks very well for a summer dessert. _Time._—¼
day to dry the fruit. _Average cost_, 8_d._ for a pint of iced
currants. _Seasonable_ in summer.


CURRY.

_Ingredients._—Veal, mutton, fowl, or rabbit; a large onion, butter,
brown gravy or stock, a tablespoonful of curry-powder. _Mode._—Let
the meat be half fried. Cut the onion into small pieces, and fry it
in butter till quite brown; add the meat, with a small quantity of
brown gravy or stock, also the curry-powder, and stew all for about 20
minutes. This is for a dry curry; more gravy and curry-powder can be
used if preferred. _Time._—20 minutes. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CURRY ST. LEONARDS.

_Ingredients._—Chicken, or any meat; 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 2
tablespoonfuls of curry-powder, 4 or 5 leaves of mint, a teacup of good
gravy, salt, a dessertspoonful of vinegar, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream.
_Mode._—Fry together for 10 minutes the butter, curry-powder, and mint;
then add the meat _cut into dice_, also the gravy, salt, and vinegar.
Let all these simmer for 20 minutes, and then pour over the cream, and
serve quite hot. _Time._—30 minutes. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CURRY-POWDER (Founded on Dr. Kitchener’s Recipe).

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of coriander-seed, ¼ lb. of turmeric, 2 oz. of
cinnamon-seed, ½ oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. of mustard, 1 oz. of ground
ginger, ½ ounce of allspice, 2 oz. of fenugreek seed. _Mode._—Put
all the ingredients in a cool oven, where they should remain one
night; then pound them in a mortar, rub them through a sieve, and mix
thoroughly together; keep the powder in a bottle, from which the air
should be completely excluded.


CURRY-POWDER (Capt. White’s Recipe; most excellent).

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of pale turmeric seed, 4 oz. of cumming seed,
8 oz. of coriander seed, 4 oz. of black pepper, 2 oz. of cayenne
pepper, 4 oz. of Jamaica ginger, 10 oz. of caraway seed, ¼ oz. of
cardamums. _Mode._—Mix together all these ingredients, well pounded,
and then place the mixture in the sun, or before the fire, stirring it
frequently. _Average cost_, 5_s._ 2_d._

_Note._—This will be found a most excellent curry-powder, if care be
taken to purchase the ingredients at a good druggist’s.


CUSTARDS, Boiled.

[Illustration: CUSTARDS IN GLASSES.]

_Ingredients._—1 pint of milk, 5 eggs, 3 oz. of loaf sugar, 3
laurel-leaves, or the rind of ½ lemon, or a few drops of essence of
vanilla, 1 tablespoonful of brandy. _Mode._—Put the milk into a _lined_
saucepan, with the sugar and whichever of the above flavourings may
be preferred (the lemon-rind flavours custards most deliciously), and
let the milk steep by the side of the fire until it is well flavoured.
Bring it to the point of boiling, then strain it into a basin; whisk
the eggs well, and, when the milk has cooled a little, stir in the
eggs, and _strain_ this mixture into a jug. Place this jug in a
saucepan of boiling water over the fire; keep stirring the custard
_one way_ until it thickens; but on no account allow it to reach the
boiling point, as it will instantly curdle and be full of lumps. Take
it off the fire, stir in the brandy, and when this is well mixed with
the custard, pour it into glasses, which should be rather more than
three-parts full; grate a little nutmeg over the top, and the dish is
ready for table. To make custards look and eat better, ducks’ eggs
should be used, when obtainable; they add very much to the flavour
and richness, and so many are not required as of the ordinary eggs,
4 ducks’ eggs to the pint of milk making a delicious custard. When
desired extremely rich and good, cream should be substituted for the
milk, and double the quantity of eggs used to those mentioned, omitting
the whites. _Time._—½ hour to infuse the lemon-rind, about 10 minutes
to stir the custard. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill 8
custard-glasses. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CUSTARD PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of milk, the rind of ¼ lemon, ¼ lb. of moist
sugar, 4 eggs. _Mode._—Put the milk into a saucepan with the sugar and
lemon-rind, and let this infuse for about ½ hour, or until the milk
is well flavoured; whisk the eggs, yolks and whites; pour the milk to
them, stirring all the while; then have ready a pie-dish, lined at the
edge with paste ready baked; strain the custard into the dish, grate a
little nutmeg over the top, and bake in a _very slow_ oven for about ½
hour, or rather longer. The flavour of this pudding may be varied by
substituting bitter almonds for the lemon-rind; and it may be very much
enriched by using half cream and half milk, and doubling the quantity
of eggs. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5
or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—This pudding is usually served cold with fruit tarts.


CUSTARD PUDDING, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of milk, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs,
flavouring to taste. _Mode._—Flavour the milk by infusing in it a
little lemon-rind or cinnamon; whisk the eggs, stir the flour gradually
to these, and pour over them the milk, and stir the mixture well.
Butter a basin that will exactly hold it; put in the custard, and tie
a floured cloth over; plunge it into boiling water, and turn it about
for a few minutes, to prevent the flour from settling in one part. Boil
it slowly for ½ hour; turn it out of the basin, and serve. The pudding
may be garnished with red-currant jelly, and sweet sauce may be sent to
table with it. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, 7_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5
or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CUSTARD SAUCE, for Sweet Puddings or Tarts.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of milk, 2 eggs, 3 oz. of pounded sugar, 1
tablespoonful of brandy. _Mode._—Put the milk in a very clean saucepan,
and let it boil. Beat the eggs, stir to them the milk and pounded
sugar, and put the mixture into a jug. Place the jug in a saucepan of
boiling water; keep stirring well until it thickens, but do not allow
it to boil, or it will curdle. Serve the sauce in a tureen, stir in the
brandy, and grate a little nutmeg over the top. This sauce may be made
very much nicer by using cream instead of milk; but the above recipe
will be found quite good enough for ordinary purposes. _Average cost_,
6_d._ per pint. _Sufficient_, this quantity, for 2 fruit tarts, or 1
pudding.


CUSTARD TARTLETS, or Fanchonnettes.

_Ingredients._—For the custard, 4 eggs, ¾ pint of milk, 2 oz. of
butter, 2 oz. of pounded sugar, 3 dessertspoonfuls of flour, flavouring
to taste; the whites of 2 eggs, 2 oz. of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Well
beat the eggs; stir to them the milk, the butter, which should be
beaten to a cream, the sugar, and flour; mix these ingredients well
together, put them into a very clean saucepan, and bring them to the
simmering point, but do not allow them to boil. Flavour with essence
of vanilla, bitter almonds, lemon, grated chocolate, or any flavouring
ingredient that may be preferred. Line some round tartlet-pans with
good puff-paste; fill them with the custard, and bake in a moderate
oven for about 20 minutes; then take them out of the pans; let them
cool, and in the meantime whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff
froth; stir into this the pounded sugar, and spread smoothly over the
tartlets a little of this mixture. Put them in the oven again to set
the icing, but be particular that they do not scorch; when the icing
looks crisp, they are done. Arrange them, piled high in the centre,
on a white napkin, and garnish the dish, and in between the tartlets,
with strips of bright jelly, or very firmly-made preserve. _Time._—20
minutes to bake the tartlets; 5 minutes after being iced. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the paste, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ to fill 10 or 12
tartlets, _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—The icing may be omitted on the top of the tartlets, and a
spoonful of any kind of preserve put at the bottom of the custard
instead: this varies both the flavour and appearance of this dish.


CUTLET, the Invalid’s.

_Ingredients._—1 nice cutlet from a loin or neck of mutton, 2
teacupfuls of water, 1 very small stick of celery, pepper and salt to
taste. _Mode._—Have the cutlet cut from a very nice loin or neck of
mutton; take off all the fat; put it into a stewpan, with the other
ingredients; stew _very gently_ indeed for nearly 2 hours, and skim off
every particle of fat that may rise to the surface from time to time.
The celery should be cut into thin slices before it is added to the
meat, and care must be taken not to put in too much of this ingredient,
or the dish will not be good. If the water is allowed to boil fast, the
cutlet will be hard. _Time._—2 hours’ very gentle stewing. _Average
cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1 person. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CUTLETS, Mutton, Italian.

_Ingredients._—About 3 lbs. of the neck of mutton, clarified butter,
the yolk of 1 egg, 4 tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs, 1 tablespoonful of
minced savoury herbs, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful
of minced shalot, 1 saltspoonful of finely-chopped lemon-peel; pepper,
salt, and pounded mace to taste; flour, ½ pint of hot broth or water, 2
teaspoonfuls of Harvey’s sauce, 1 teaspoonful of soy, 2 teaspoonfuls of
tarragon vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of port wine. _Mode._—Cut the mutton
into nicely-shaped cutlets, flatten them, and trim off some of the fat,
dip them in clarified butter, and then into the beaten yolk of an egg.
Mix well together bread-crumbs, herbs, parsley, shalot, lemon-peel, and
seasoning in the above proportion, and cover the cutlets with these
ingredients. Melt some butter in a frying-pan, lay in the cutlets, and
fry them a nice brown; take them out, and keep them hot before the
fire. Dredge some flour into the pan, and, if there is not sufficient
butter, add a little more; stir till it looks brown, then put in the
hot broth or water, and the remaining ingredients; give one boil,
and pour round the cutlets. If the gravy should not be thick enough,
add a little more flour. Mushrooms, when obtainable, are a great
improvement to this dish, and when not in season, mushroom-powder may
be substituted for them. _Time._—10 minutes; rather longer, should the
cutlets be very thick. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5
or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


CUTLETS of Cold Mutton.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold loin or neck of
mutton, 1 egg, bread-crumbs, brown gravy or tomato sauce. _Mode._—Cut
the remains of cold loin or neck of mutton into cutlets, trim them,
and take away a portion of the fat, should there be too much; dip them
in beaten egg, and sprinkle with bread-crumbs, and fry them a nice
brown in hot dripping. Arrange, them on a dish, and pour round them
either a good gravy or hot tomato sauce. _Time._—About 7 minutes.
_Seasonable._—Tomatoes to be had most reasonably in September and
October.


DAMPFNUDELN, or German Puddings.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of butter, 5 eggs, 2 small
tablespoonfuls of yeast, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-pounded sugar,
milk, a very little salt. _Mode._—Put the flour into a basin, make a
hole in the centre, into which put the yeast, and rather more than
¼ pint of warm milk; make this into a batter with the middle of the
flour, and let the sponge rise in a warm temperature. When sufficiently
risen, mix the eggs, butter, sugar, and salt, with a little more warm
milk, and knead the whole well together with the hands, beating the
dough until it is perfectly smooth, and it drops from the fingers.
Then cover the basin with a cloth, put it in a warm place, and when
the dough has nicely risen, knead it into small balls; butter the
bottom of a deep sauté-pan, strew over some pounded sugar, and let the
dampfnudeln be laid in, but do not let them touch one another; then
pour over sufficient milk to cover them, put on the lid, and let them
rise to twice their original size by the side of the fire. Now place
them in the oven for a few minutes to acquire a nice brown colour, and
serve them on a napkin, with custard sauce flavoured with vanilla, or a
compôte of any fruit that may be preferred. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour for the
sponge to rise; 10 to 15 minutes for the puddings to rise; 10 minutes
to bake them in a brisk oven. _Sufficient_ for 10 or 12 dampfnudeln.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


DAMSON CHEESE.

_Ingredients._—Damsons; to every lb. of fruit pulp allow ½ lb. of
loaf sugar. _Mode._—Pick the stalks from the damsons, and put them
into a preserving-pan; simmer them over the fire until they are soft,
occasionally stirring them, then beat them through a coarse sieve,
and put the pulp and juice into the preserving-pan, with sugar in the
above proportion, having previously carefully weighed them. Stir the
sugar well in, and simmer the damsons slowly for 2 hours. Skim well,
then boil the preserve quickly for ½ hour, or until it looks firm and
hard in the spoon; put it quickly into shallow pots, or very tiny
earthenware moulds, and, when cold, cover it with oiled papers, and
the jars with tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white
of an egg. A few of the stones may be cracked, and the kernels boiled
with the damsons, which very much improves the flavour of the cheese.
_Time._—1 hour to boil the damsons without the sugar; 2 hours to simmer
them slowly, ½ hour quickly. _Average cost_, from 8_d._ to 10_d._ per
¼-lb. pot. _Sufficient._—1 pint of damsons to make a _very small_ pot
of cheese. _Seasonable._—Make this in September or October.


DAMSON JAM.

_Ingredients._—Damsons; to every lb. of fruit allow ¾ lb. of loaf
sugar. _Mode._—Have the fruit gathered in dry weather, pick it over,
and reject any that is at all blemished. Stone the damsons, weigh them,
and to every lb. allow ¾ lb. of loaf sugar. Put the fruit and sugar
into a preserving-pan; keep stirring them gently until the sugar is
dissolved, and carefully remove the scum as it rises. Boil the jam
for about an hour, reckoning from the time it commences to simmer all
over alike: it must be well stirred all the time, or it will be liable
to burn and stick to the pan, which will cause the jam to have a very
disagreeable flavour. When the jam looks firm, and the juice appears to
set, it is done; then take it off the fire, put it into pots, cover it
down, when quite cold, with oiled and egged papers, and store it away
in a dry place. _Time._—1 hour after the jam simmers all over. _Average
cost_, from 6_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot. _Sufficient._—1½ pint of
damsons for a lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make this in September or October.


DAMSON PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of damsons, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ¾ lb. of suet
or butter crust. _Mode._—Make a suet crust with ¾ lb. of flour by
recipe; line a buttered pudding-basin with a portion of it; fill the
basin with the damsons, sweeten them, and put on the lid; pinch the
edges of the crust together, that the juice does not escape; tie over a
floured cloth, put the pudding into boiling water, and boil from 2½ to
3 hours. _Time._—2½ to 3 hours. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for
6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ in September and October.


DAMSON TART.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of damsons, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, ½ lb. of short
or puff crust. _Mode._—Put the damsons, with the sugar between them,
into a deep pie-dish, in the midst of which place a small cup or jar
turned upside down; pile the fruit high in the middle, line the edges
of the dish with short or puff crust, whichever may be preferred; put
on the cover, ornament the edges, and bake from ½ to ¾ hour in a good
oven. If puff-crust is used, about 10 minutes before the pie is done,
take it out of the oven, brush it over with the white of an egg beaten
to a froth with the blade of a knife; strew some sifted sugar over,
and a few drops of water, and put the tart back to finish baking:
with short crust, a little plain sifted sugar, sprinkled over, is all
that will be required. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 10_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ in September and October.


DAMSONS, Baked, for Winter use.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit allow 6 oz. of pounded sugar;
melted mutton suet. _Mode._—Choose sound fruit, not too ripe; pick off
the stalks, weigh it, and to every lb. allow the above proportion of
pounded sugar. Put the fruit into large dry stone jars, sprinkling the
sugar amongst it; cover the jars with saucers, place them in a rather
cool oven, and bake the fruit until it is quite tender. When cold,
cover the top of the fruit with a piece of white paper cut to the size
of the jar; pour over this melted mutton suet about an inch thick, and
cover the tops of the jars with thick brown paper well tied down. Keep
the jars in a cool dry place, and the fruit will remain good till the
following Christmas, but not much longer. _Time._—From 5 to 6 hours to
bake the damsons in a very cool oven. _Seasonable_ in September and
October.


DAMSONS, Compôte of.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of damsons, 1 pint of syrup (_see_ SYRUP).
_Mode._—Procure sound ripe damsons, pick the stalks from them, and put
them into boiling syrup made by the recipe. Simmer them gently until
the fruit is tender, but not sufficiently soft to break; take them up,
boil the syrup for 5 minutes, pour it over the damsons, and serve.
This should be sent to table in a glass dish. _Time._—About ¼ hour to
simmer the damsons; 5 minutes to boil the syrup. _Average cost_, 9_d._
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in September and October.


DAMSONS, Preserved.

_Ingredients._—To every quart of damsons allow ½ lb. of loaf sugar.
_Mode._—Put the damsons (which should be picked from the stalks and
quite free from blemishes) into a jar, with pounded sugar sprinkled
amongst them in the above proportion; tie the jar closely down, set it
in a saucepan of cold water; bring it gradually to boil, and simmer
gently until the damsons are soft, without being broken. Let them stand
till cold; then strain the juice from them, boil it up well, strain it
through a jelly-bag, and pour it over the fruit. Let it cool, cover
with oiled papers, and the jars with tissue-paper brushed over on
both sides with the white of an egg, and store away in a dry place.
_Time._—About ¾ hour to simmer the fruit after the water boils; ¼ hour
to boil the juice. _Seasonable._—Make this in September or October.


DAMSONS, or any kind of Plums, to Preserve. (Useful in Winter.)

_Ingredients._—Damsons or plums; boiling water. _Mode._—Pick the fruit
into clean dry stone jars, taking care to leave out all that are broken
or blemished. When full, pour boiling water on the plums, until it
stands one inch above the fruit; cut a piece of paper to fit the inside
of the jar, over which pour melted mutton-suet; cover down with brown
paper, and keep the jars in a dry cool place. When used, the suet
should be removed, the water poured off, and the jelly at the bottom of
the jar used and mixed with the fruit. _Seasonable_ in September and
October.


DARIOLES À LA VANILLE. (Sweet Entremets.)

_Ingredients._—½ pint of milk, ½ pint of cream, 2 oz. of flour, 3 oz.
of pounded sugar, 6 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, puff-paste, flavouring of
essence of vanilla. _Mode._—Mix the flour to a smooth batter, with the
milk; stir in the cream, sugar, the eggs, which should be well whisked,
and the butter, which should be beaten to a cream. Put in some essence
of vanilla, drop by drop, until the mixture is well flavoured; line
some dariole-moulds with puff-paste, three-parts fill them with the
batter, and bake in a good oven from 25 to 35 minutes. Turn them out of
the moulds on a dish, without breaking them; strew over sifted sugar,
and serve. The flavouring of the darioles may be varied by substituting
lemon, cinnamon, or almonds, for the vanilla. _Time._—25 to 35 minutes.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill 6 or 7 dariole-moulds.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


DECEMBER—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                     Mock-Turtle Soup,
                     removed by
                     Cod’s Head & Shoulders
                     and Oyster Sauce.

  Stewed Eels.                                   Fried Whitings.
                     Vase of
                     Flowers.

                     Julienne Soup,
                     removed by
                     Soles aux fines herbes.


_Second Course._

                   Haunch of Mutton

  Roast Goose.     Ham and Brussels        Stewed Beef à la Jardinière.
                     Sprouts.

                   Vase of
                   Flowers.

                   Game Pie.

                   Boiled Turkey and
                   Celery Sauce.


_Entrées._

                     Fillets of Grouse and
                     Sauce Piquante.

  Curried Lobster.                        Mutton Cutlets and
                                          Soubise Sauce.
                     Vase of
                     Flowers.

                     Sweetbreads.


_Third Course._

  Apricot                   Pheasants,             Victoria
  Tourte.                   removed by             Sandwiches.
                            Plum-Pudding.

    Lemon Jelly.            Vanilla Cream.      Champagne Jelly.

                            Vase of
                            Flowers.

                            Blancmange.

  Tipsy Cake.               Wild Ducks,           Mince Pies.
                            removed by
                            Iced Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Game soup; clear vermicelli soup; codfish au gratin;
fillets of whitings à la maître d’hôtel. _Entrées._—Filet de bœuf
and sauce piquante; fricasseed chicken; oyster patties; curried
rabbit. _Second Course._—Roast turkey and sausages; boiled leg of
pork and vegetables; roast goose; stewed beef à la Jardinière. _Third
Course._—Widgeon; partridges; Charlotte aux pommes; mince pies; orange
jelly, lemon cream; apple tart; cabinet pudding. Dessert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Mulligatawny soup; fried slices of codfish; soles à la
crême. _Entrées._—Croquettes of fowl; pork cutlets and tomato sauce.
_Second Course._—Roast ribs of beef; boiled turkey and celery sauce;
tongue, garnished; lark pudding; vegetables. _Third Course._—Roast
hare; grouse; plum-pudding; mince pies; Charlotte à la Parisienne;
cheesecakes; apple tart; Nesselrode pudding. Dessert and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Carrot soup; crimped cod and oyster sauce; baked soles.
_Entrées._—Mutton kidneys à la Française; oyster patties. _Second
Course._—Boiled beef and vegetables; marrow-bones; roast fowls and
water-cresses; tongue, garnished; game pie. _Third Course._—Partridges;
blancmange; compôte of apples; vol-au-vent of pears; almond
cheesecakes; lemon pudding. Dessert and ices.


Dinners for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Rabbit soup; brill and shrimp sauce. _Entrées._—Curried
fowl; oyster patties. _Second Course._—Roast turkey and sausages;
boiled leg of pork; vegetables. _Third Course._—Hunters’ pudding; lemon
cheesecakes; apple tart; custards, in glasses; raspberry cream. Dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Ox-tail soup; crimped cod and oyster sauce.
_Entrées._—Savoury rissoles; fowl scollops à la Béchamel. _Second
Course._—Haunch of mutton; boiled chickens and celery sauce;
bacon-cheek, garnished with Brussels sprouts; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Snipes; orange jelly; cheesecakes; apples à la Portugaise;
apricot-jam tartlets; soufflé of rice. Dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; soles à la maître d’hôtel; fried
eels. _Entrées._—Pork cutlets and tomato sauce; ragoût of mutton à
la Jardinière. _Second Course._—Roast goose; boiled leg of mutton
and vegetables. _Third Course._—Pheasants; whipped cream; meringues;
compôte of Normandy pippins; mince pies; plum-pudding. Dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Carrot soup; baked cod; fried smelts. _Entrées._—Stewed
rump-steak à la Jardinière; fricasseed chicken. _Second Course._—Roast
leg of mutton, boned and stuffed; boiled turkey and oyster sauce;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Wild ducks; fancy pastry; lemon cream;
damson tart, with bottled fruit; custards, in glasses; cabinet pudding.
Dessert.


DECEMBER, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Carrot soup. 2. Roast beef, horseradish sauce, vegetables.
3. Plum-pudding, mince pies.

_Monday._—1. Fried whitings, melted butter. 2. Rabbit pie, cold beef,
mashed potatoes. 3. Plum-pudding cut in slices and warmed, apple tart.

_Tuesday._—1. Hashed beef and broiled bones, pork cutlets and tomato
sauce; vegetables. 2. Baked lemon pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Boiled neck of mutton and vegetables,—the broth served
first with a little pearl barley or rice boiled in it. 2. Bakewell
pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Roast leg of pork, apple sauce; vegetables. 2. Rice
snowballs.

_Friday._—1. Soles à la crême. 2. Cold pork and mashed potatoes,
broiled rump-steaks and oyster sauce. 3. Rolled jam pudding.

_Saturday._—1. The remains of cold pork curried, dish of rice, mutton
cutlets and mashed potatoes. 2. Baked apple dumplings.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Roast turkey and sausages, boiled leg of pork, pease
pudding; vegetables. 2. Baked apple pudding, mince pies.

_Monday._—1. Hashed turkey, cold pork, mashed potatoes. 2. Mincemeat
pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Pea-soup made from liquor in which pork was boiled. 2.
Boiled fowls and celery sauce, vegetables. 3. Baked rice pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast leg of mutton, stewed Spanish onions, potatoes.
2. Baked rolled jam pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Baked cod’s head. 2. Cold mutton, roast hare, gravy and
red-currant jelly. 3. Macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Hare soup, made with stock and remains of roast hare. 2.
Hashed mutton, pork cutlets, and mashed potatoes. 3. Open tarts, rice
blancmange.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak-and-kidney pudding, vegetables. 2. Mince
pies, baked apple dumplings.


DECEMBER, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, dace, gudgeons,
haddocks, herrings, lobsters, oysters, perch, pike, shrimps, skate,
sprats, soles, tench, thornback, turbot, whiting.

_Meat._—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, venison.

_Poultry._—Capons, chickens, fowls, geese, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks.

_Game._—Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks.

_Vegetables._—Broccoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, leeks, onions,
potatoes, parsnips, Scotch kale, turnips, winter spinach.

_Fruit._—Apples, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, medlars, oranges, pears,
walnuts, dried fruits, such as almonds and raisins, figs, dates,
&c.,—crystallized preserves.


DESSERT.

With moderns the dessert is not so profuse, nor does it hold the
same relationship to the dinner that it held with the ancients,—the
Romans more especially. On ivory tables they would spread hundreds
of different kinds of raw, cooked, and preserved fruits, tarts, and
cakes, as substitutes for the more substantial comestibles with which
the guests were satiated. However, as late as the reigns of our two
last Georges, fabulous sums were often expended upon fanciful desserts.
The dessert certainly repays, in its general effect, the expenditure
upon it of much pains; and it may be said, that if there be any
poetry at all in meals, or the process of feeding, there is poetry in
the dessert, the materials for which should be selected with taste,
and, of course, must depend, in a great measure, upon the season.
Pines, melons, grapes, peaches, nectarines, plums, strawberries,
apples, pears, oranges, almonds, raisins, figs, walnuts, filberts,
medlars, cherries, &c. &c., all kinds of dried fruits, and choice
and delicately-flavoured cakes and biscuits, make up the dessert,
together with the most costly and _recherché_ wines. The shape of the
dishes varies at different periods, the prevailing fashion at present
being oval and circular dishes on stems. The patterns and colours are
also subject to changes of fashion; some persons selecting china,
chaste in pattern and colour; others, elegantly-shaped glass dishes
on stems, with gilt edges. The beauty of the dessert services at the
tables of the wealthy tends to enhance the splendour of the plate. The
general mode of putting a dessert on table, now the elegant tazzas are
fashionable, is, to place them down the middle of the table, a tall
and short dish alternately; the fresh fruits being arranged on the
tall dishes, and dried fruits, bon-bons, &c., on small round or oval
glass plates. The garnishing needs especial attention, as the contrast
of the brilliant-coloured fruits with nicely-arranged foliage is very
charming. The garnish _par excellence_ for dessert is the ice-plant;
its crystallized dewdrops producing a marvellous effect in the height
of summer, giving a most inviting sense of coolness to the fruit it
encircles. The double-edged mallow, strawberry, and vine leaves have
a pleasing effect; and for winter desserts, the bay, cuba, and laurel
are sometimes used. In town, the expense and difficulty of obtaining
natural foliage is great, but paper and composite leaves are to be
purchased at an almost nominal price. Mixed fruits of the larger sort
are now frequently served on one dish. This mode admits of the display
of much taste in the arrangement of the fruit: for instance, a pine in
the centre of the dish, surrounded with large plums of various sorts
and colours, mixed with pears, rosy-cheeked apples, all arranged with a
due regard to colour, have a very good effect. Again, apples and pears
look well mingled with plums and grapes, hanging from the border of the
dish in a négligé sort of manner, with a large bunch of the same fruit
lying on the top of the apples. A dessert would not now be considered
complete without candied and preserved fruits and confections. The
candied fruits may be purchased at a less cost than they can be
manufactured at home. They are preserved abroad in most ornamental and
elegant forms. And since, from the facilities of travel, we have become
so familiar with the tables of the French, chocolate in different forms
is indispensable to our desserts. Olives, too, should not be omitted;
these should be served in a small, deep glass dish, with a little of
the liquor, or brine, poured over.


DESSERT DISHES.

The tazza, or dish with stem, the same as that shown in our
illustrations, is now the favourite shape for dessert-dishes. The fruit
can be arranged and shown to better advantage on these tall high dishes
than on the short flat ones. All the dishes are now usually placed down
the centre of the table, dried and fresh fruit alternately, the former
being arranged on small round or oval glass plates, and the latter on
the dishes with stems. The fruit should always be gathered on the same
day that it is required for table, and should be tastefully arranged
on the dishes, with leaves between and round it. By purchasing fruits
that _are in season_, a dessert can be supplied at a very moderate
cost. These, with a few fancy biscuits, crystallized fruit, bon-bons,
&c., are sufficient for an ordinary dessert. When fresh fruit cannot
be obtained, dried and foreign fruits, compôtes, baked pears, stewed
Normandy pippins, &c. &c., must supply its place, with the addition
of preserves, bon-bons, cakes, biscuits, &c. At fashionable tables,
forced fruit is served growing in pots, these pots being hidden in
more ornamental ones, and arranged with the other dishes. A few vases
of fresh flowers, tastefully arranged, add very much to the appearance
of the dessert; and, when these are not obtainable, a few paper
ones, mixed with green leaves, answer very well as a substitute. In
decorating a table, whether for luncheon, dessert, or supper, a vase or
two of flowers should never be forgotten, as they add so much to the
elegance of the _tout ensemble_. In summer and autumn, ladies residing
in the country can always manage to have a few freshly-gathered flowers
on their tables, and should never be without this inexpensive luxury.
On the Continent, vases or epergnes filled with flowers are invariably
placed down the centre of the dinner-table at regular distances. Ices
for dessert are usually moulded; when this is not the case, they are
handed round in glasses, with wafers to accompany them. Preserved
ginger is frequently handed round after ices, to prepare the palate for
the delicious dessert wines. A basin or glass of finely-pounded lump
sugar must never be omitted at a dessert, as also a glass jug of fresh
cold water (iced, if possible), and two goblets by its side. Grape
scissors, a melon-knife and fork, and nutcrackers, should always be
put on table, if there are dishes of fruit requiring them. Zests are
sometimes served at the close of the dessert; such as anchovy toasts or
biscuits. The French often serve plain or grated cheese with a dessert
of fresh or dried fruits. At some tables, finger-glasses are placed at
the right of each person, nearly half filled with cold spring water,
and in winter with tepid water. These precede the dessert. At other
tables, a glass or vase is simply handed round, filled with perfumed
water, into which each guest dips the corner of his napkin, and, when
needful, refreshes his lips and the tips of his fingers. After the
dishes are placed, and every one is provided with plates, glasses,
spoons, &c., the wine should be put at each end of the table, cooled or
otherwise, according to the season. If the party be small, the wine may
be placed only at the top of the table, near the host. The following
dishes may be introduced at dessert, according to season:—

=Dish of Nuts.=—These are merely arranged piled high in the centre of
the dish, as shown in the engraving, with or without leaves round the
edge. Filberts should always be served with the outer skin or husk on
them; and walnuts should be well wiped with a damp cloth, and then
with a dry one, to remove the unpleasant sticky feeling the shells
frequently have. _Seasonable._—Filberts from September to March;
walnuts from September to January.

[Illustration: DISH OF NUTS.]

       *       *       *       *       *

=Box of French Plums.=—If the box which contains them is exceedingly
ornamental, it may be placed on the table; if small, on a glass dish;
if large, without one. French plums may also be arranged on a glass
plate, and garnished with bright-coloured sweetmeats, which make a very
good effect. All fancy boxes of preserved and crystallized fruit may be
put on the table or not, at pleasure. These little matters of detail
must, of course, be left to individual taste. _Seasonable._—May be
purchased all the year; but are in greater perfection in the winter.

[Illustration: BOX OF FRENCH PLUMS.]

       *       *       *       *       *

=Dish of Mixed Fruit.=—For a centre dish, a mixture of various fresh
fruits has a remarkably good effect, particularly if a pine be added
to the list. A high raised appearance should be given to the fruit,
which is done in the following manner. Place a tumbler in the centre
of the dish, and, in this tumbler, the pine, crown uppermost; round
the tumbler put a thick layer of moss, and, over this, apples, pears,
plums, peaches, and such fruit as is simultaneously in season. By
putting a layer of moss underneath, so much fruit is not required,
besides giving a better shape to the dish. Grapes should be placed on
the top of the fruit, a portion of some of the bunches hanging over
the sides of the dish in a négligé kind of manner, which takes off
the formal look of the dish. In arranging the plums, apples, &c., let
the colours contrast well. _Seasonable._—Suitable for a dessert in
September or October.

[Illustration: DISH OF MIXED FRUIT.]


=Box of Chocolate.=—This is served in an ornamental box, placed on a
glass plate or dish. _Seasonable._—May be purchased at any time.

[Illustration: BOX OF CHOCOLATE.]

       *       *       *       *       *

=Dish of Apples.=—The apples should be nicely wiped with a dry cloth,
and arranged on a dish, piled high in the centre, with evergreen
leaves between each layer. The inferior apples should form the bottom
layer, with the bright-coloured large ones at the top. The leaves of
the laurel, bay, holly, or any shrub green in winter, are suitable for
garnishing dessert dishes. Oranges may be arranged in the same manner;
they should also be wiped with a dry cloth before being sent to table.

[Illustration: DISH OF APPLES.]

       *       *       *       *       *

=Dish of Mixed Summer Fruit.=—This dish consists of cherries,
raspberries, currants, and strawberries, piled in different layers,
with plenty of leaves between each layer, so that each fruit is well
separated. The fruit should be arranged with a due regard to colour,
so that they contrast nicely one with the other. Our engraving shows
a layer of white cherries at the bottom, then one of red raspberries,
over that a layer of white currants, and at the top some fine scarlet
strawberries. _Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.

[Illustration: DISH OF MIXED SUMMER FRUIT.]

       *       *       *       *       *

=Almonds and Raisins.=—These are usually served on glass dishes, the
fruit piled high in the centre, and the almonds blanched and strewn
over. To blanch the almonds, put them into a small mug or teacup,
pour over them boiling water, let them remain for 2 or 3 minutes, and
the skins may then be easily removed. Figs, dates, French plums, &c.,
are all served on small glass plates or oval dishes, but without the
almonds. _Seasonable_ at any time, but more suitable in winter, when
fresh fruit is not obtainable.

[Illustration: ALMONDS AND RAISINS.]

       *       *       *       *       *

=Dish of Strawberries.=—Fine strawberries, arranged in the manner
shown in the engraving, look exceedingly well. The inferior ones
should be placed at the bottom of the dish, and the others put in rows
pyramidically, with the stalks downwards, so that when the whole is
completed, nothing but the red part of the fruit is visible. The fruit
should be gathered with rather long stalks, as there is then something
to support it, and it can be placed more upright in each layer. A few
of the finest should be reserved to crown the top.

_DISH OF STRAWBERRIES._



DEVONSHIRE JUNKET.

_Ingredients._—To every pint of new milk allow 2 dessertspoonfuls of
brandy, 1 dessertspoonful of sugar, and 1½ dessertspoonful of prepared
rennet; thick cream, pounded cinnamon, or grated nutmeg. _Mode._—Make
the milk blood-warm; put it into a deep dish with the brandy, sugar,
and rennet; stir it altogether, and cover it over until it is set.
Then spread some thick or clotted cream over the top, grate some
nutmeg, and strew some sugar over, and the dish will be ready to serve.
_Time._—About 2 hours to set the milk. _Seasonable_ at any time.


DINNER,

Being the grand solid meal of the day, is a matter of considerable
importance; and a well-served table is a striking index of human
ingenuity and resource.

The elegance with which a dinner is served depends, of course, partly
upon the means, but still more upon the taste of the master and
mistress of the house. It may be observed, in general, that there
should always be flowers on the table, and, as they form no item of
expense where a garden is, there is no reason why they should not be
employed every day.

The variety of the dishes which furnish forth a modern dinner-table,
does not necessarily imply anything unwholesome, or anything
capricious. Food that is not well relished cannot be well digested; and
the appetite of the over-worked man of business, or statesman, or of
any dweller in towns, whose occupations are exciting and exhausting, is
jaded, and requires stimulation. Men and women who are in rude health,
and who have plenty of air and exercise, eat the simplest food with
relish, and commonly digest it well; but those conditions are out of
the reach of many men. They must suit their mode of dining to their
mode of living, if they cannot choose the latter. It is in serving
up food that is at once appetizing and wholesome that the skill of
the modern housewife is severely tasked; and she has scarcely a more
important duty to fulfil. It is, in fact, her particular vocation, in
virtue of which she may be said to hold the health of the family, and
of the friends of the family, in her hands from day to day.

The following aphorisms and short directions in relation to
dinner-parties, are well deserving of notice:—“Let the number of your
guests never exceed twelve, so that the conversation may be general.
Let the temperature of the dining-room be about 68°. Let the dishes be
few in number in the first course, but proportionally good. The order
of food is from the most substantial to the lightest. The order of
drinking wine is from the mildest to the most foamy and most perfumed.
To invite a person to your house is to take charge of his happiness
so long as he is beneath your roof. The mistress of the house should
always be certain that the coffee is excellent; whilst the master
should be answerable for the quality of his wines and liqueurs.”

_Dinners à la Russe_ differ from ordinary dinners in the mode of
serving the various dishes. In a dinner à la Russe, the dishes are cut
up on a sideboard, and handed round to the guests, and each dish may be
considered a course. The table for a dinner à la Russe should be laid
with flowers and plants in fancy flower-pots down the middle, together
with some of the dessert dishes. A _menu_ or bill of fare should be
placed by the side of each guest.

The following are bills of fare for dinners à la Russe, and eatable
from July to November: the dishes can easily be varied to suit other
months.


SERVICE A LA RUSSE (July).

Julienne Soup, Vermicelli Soup.

Boiled Salmon, Turbot and Lobster Sauce. Soles-Water Souchy,
Perch-Water Souchy. Matelote d’Anguilles à la Toulouse, Filets de Soles
à la Normandie. Rod Mullet, Trout. Lobster Rissoles, Whitebait.

Riz de Veau à la Banquière, Filets de Poulets aux Concombres. Canards
à la Rouennaise, Mutton Cutlets à la Jardinière. Braised Beef à la
Flamande, Spring Chickens, Roast Quarter of Lamb, Roast Saddle of
Mutton, Tongue, Ham and Peas.

Quails, larded, Roast Ducks, Turkey Poult, larded. Mayonnaise of
Chicken, Tomatoes, Green Peas à la Française. Suédoise of Strawberries,
Charlotte Russe, Compôte of Cherries. Neapolitan Cakes, Pastry, Madeira
Wine Jelly. Iced Pudding à la Nesselrode.

Dessert and Ices.


SERVICE A LA RUSSE (November).

Ox-tail Soup, Soup à la Jardinière.

Turbot and Lobster Sauce, Crimped Cod and Oyster Sauce. Stewed Eels,
Soles à la Normandie. Pike and Cream Sauce. Fried Fileted Soles.

Filets de Bœuf à la Jardinière, Croquettes of Game aux Champignons.
Chicken Cutlets, Mutton Cutlets and Tomato Sauce. Lobster Rissoles,
Oyster Patties. Partridges aux fines Herbes, Larded Sweetbreads. Roast
Beef, Poulets aux Cressons, Haunch of Mutton, Roast Turkey, Boiled
Turkey and Celery Sauce, Ham.

Grouse, Pheasants, Hare. Salad, Artichokes, Stewed Celery. Italian
Cream, Charlotte aux Pommes, Compôte of Pears. Croûtes madrées aux
Fruits, Pastry, Punch Jelly. Iced Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.


DORMERS.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—½ lb. of cold mutton, 2 oz. of
beef suet, pepper and salt to taste, 3 oz. of boiled rice, 1 egg,
bread-crumbs, made gravy. _Mode._—Chop the meat, suet, and rice finely;
mix well together, and add a high seasoning of pepper and salt, and
roll into sausages; cover them with egg and bread-crumbs, and fry in
hot dripping of a nice brown. Serve in a dish with made gravy poured
round them, and a little in a tureen. _Time._—¼ hour to fry the
sausages. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


DRAUGHT for Summer.

_Ingredients._—The juice of 1 lemon, a tumblerful of cold water,
pounded sugar to taste, ½ small teaspoonful of carbonate of soda.
_Mode._—Squeeze the juice from the lemon; strain, and add it to the
water, with sufficient pounded sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. When
well mixed, put in the soda, stir well, and drink while the mixture is
in an effervescing state.


DRINK, Pleasant, for Warm Weather.

_Ingredients._—To every ½ pint of good ale allow 1 bottle of ginger
beer. _Mode._—For this beverage the ginger beer must be in an
effervescing state, and the beer not in the least turned or sour. Mix
them together, and drink immediately. The draught is refreshing and
wholesome, as the ginger corrects the action of the beer. It does not
deteriorate by standing a little, but, of course, is better when taken
fresh.


DRIPPING, to Clarify.

Good and fresh dripping answers very well for basting everything except
game and poultry, and, when well clarified, serves for frying nearly as
well as lard; it should be kept in a cool place, and will remain good
some time. To clarify it put the dripping into a basin, pour over it
boiling water, and keep stirring the whole to wash away the impurities.
Let it stand to cool, when the water and dirty sediment will settle at
the bottom of the basin. Remove the dripping, and put it away in jars
or basins for use.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Another Way.=—Put the dripping into a clean saucepan, and let it
boil for a few minutes over a slow fire, and be careful to skim it
well. Let it stand to cool a little, then strain it through a piece of
muslin into jars for use. Beef dripping is preferable to any other for
cooking purposes, as, with mutton dripping, there is liable to be a
tallowy taste and smell.


DUCK, Hashed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast duck,
rather more than 1 pint of weak stock or water, 1 onion, 1 oz. of
butter, thickening of butter and flour, salt and cayenne to taste, ½
teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice,
½ glass of port wine. _Mode._—Cut the duck into nice joints, and put
the trimmings into a stewpan; slice and fry the onion in a little
butter; add these to the trimmings, pour in the above proportion of
weak stock or water, and stew gently for 1 hour. Strain the liquor,
thicken it with butter and flour, season with salt and cayenne, and
add the remaining ingredients; boil it up and skim well; lay in the
pieces of duck, and let them get thoroughly hot through by the side of
the fire, but do not allow them to boil: they should soak in the gravy
for about ½ hour. Garnish with sippets of toasted bread. The hash may
be made richer by using a stronger and more highly-flavoured gravy; a
little spice or pounded mace may also be added, when their flavour is
liked. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of cold duck, 4_d._
_Seasonable_ from November to February; ducklings from May to August.


DUCKS, Roast.

_Ingredients._—A couple of ducks; sage-and-onion stuffing; a little
flour. _Choosing and Trussing._—Choose ducks with plump bellies, and
with thick and yellowish feet. They should be trussed with the feet
on, which should be scalded, and the skin peeled off, and then turned
up close to the legs. Run a skewer through the middle of each leg,
after having drawn them as close as possible to the body, to plump
up the breast, passing the same quite through the body. Cut off the
heads and necks, and the pinions at the first joint; bring these
close to the sides, twist the feet round, and truss them at the back
of the bird. After the duck is stuffed, both ends should be secured
with string, so as to keep in the seasoning. _Mode._—To insure ducks
being tender, never dress them the same day they are killed; and, if
the weather permits, they should hang a day or two. Make a stuffing of
sage and onion sufficient for one duck, and leave the other unseasoned,
as the flavour is not liked by everybody. Put them down to a brisk
clear fire, and keep them well basted the whole of the time they
are cooking. A few minutes before serving, dredge them lightly with
flour, to make them froth and look plump; and when the steam draws
towards the fire, send them to table hot and quickly, with a good
brown gravy poured _round_, but not _over_ the ducks, and a little of
the same in a tureen. When in season, green peas should invariably
accompany this dish. _Time._—Full-grown ducks from ¾ to 1 hour;
ducklings from 25 to 35 minutes. _Average cost_, from 2_s._ 3_d._ to
2_s._ 6_d._ each. _Sufficient._—A couple of ducks for 6 or 7 persons.
_Seasonable._—Ducklings from April to August; ducks from November to
February.

[Illustration: ROAST DUCK.]


DUCK, Roast, to carve.

[Illustration: ROAST DUCK.]

[Illustration: LEG, WING, AND NECKBONE OF DUCK.]

No dishes require so much knowledge and skill in their carving as do
game and poultry; for it is necessary to be well acquainted with the
anatomy of the bird in order to place the knife at exactly the proper
point. A tough fowl and an old goose are sad triers of a carver’s
powers and temper, and, indeed, sometimes of the good humour of those
in the neighbourhood of the carver; for a sudden tilt of the dish may
eventuate in the placing of a quantity of the gravy in the lap of the
right or left-hand supporter of the host. We will endeavour to assist
those who are unacquainted with the “gentle art of carving,” and also
those who are but slightly acquainted with it, by simply describing the
rules to follow, and referring to the distinctly-marked illustrations
of each dish, which will further help to bring light to the minds of
the uninitiated. If the bird be a young duckling, it may be carved like
a fowl, viz., by first taking off the leg and the wing on either side;
but in cases where the duckling is very small, it will be as well not
to separate the leg from the wing, as they will not then form too large
a portion for a single serving. After the legs and wings are disposed
of, the remainder of the duck will be also carved in the same manner as
a fowl; and not much difficulty will be experienced, as ducklings are
tender, and the joints are easily broken by a little gentle forcing,
or penetrated by the knife. In cases where the duck is a large bird,
the better plan to pursue is then to carve it like a goose, that is,
by cutting pieces from the breast in the direction indicated by the
lines marked from 1 to 2, commencing to carve the slices close to
the wing, and then proceeding upwards from that to the breastbone.
If more should be wanted than can be obtained from both sides of the
breast, then the legs and wings must be attacked, in the same way as is
described in connection with carving a fowl. It may be here remarked,
that as the legs of a duck are placed far more backward than those of
a fowl, their position causing the waddling motion of the bird, the
thigh-bones will be found considerably nearer towards the backbone than
in a chicken; this is the only difference worth mentioning. The carver
should ask each guest if a portion of stuffing would be agreeable; and
in order to get at this, a cut should be made below the breast, as
shown by the line from 3 to 4, at the part called the “apron,” and the
spoon inserted. (As described in the recipe, it is an excellent plan,
when a couple of ducks are served, to have one with, and the other
without, stuffing.) As to the prime parts of a duck, it has been said
that “the wing of a flier and the leg of a swimmer” are severally the
best portions. Some persons are fond of the feet of the duck; and, in
trussing, these should never be taken off. The leg, wing, and neckbone
are here shown; so that it will be easy to see the shape they should be
when cut off.

_Note._—Ducklings are trussed and roasted in the same manner, and
served with the same sauces and accompaniments. When in season, do not
omit apple sauce.


DUCK AND PEAS, Stewed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast duck,
2 oz. of butter, 3 or 4 slices of lean ham or bacon, 1 tablespoonful
of flour, 2 pints of thin gravy, 1, or a small bunch of green onions,
3 sprigs of parsley, 3 cloves, 1 pint of young green peas, cayenne
and salt to taste, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Put the
butter into a stewpan; cut up the duck into joints, lay them in with
the slices of lean ham or bacon; make it brown, then dredge in a
tablespoonful of flour, and stir this well in before adding the gravy.
Put in the onion, parsley, cloves, and gravy, and when it has simmered
for ¼ hour, add a pint of young green peas, and stew gently for about
½ hour. Season with cayenne, salt, and sugar; take out the duck, place
it round the dish, and the peas in the middle. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the cold duck, 1_s._ _Seasonable_ from June to
August.


DUCK AND PEAS, Stewed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast duck, ½
pint of good gravy, cayenne and salt to taste, ½ teaspoonful of minced
lemon-peel, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 2 oz. of butter rolled in
flour, 1½ pint of green peas. _Mode._—Cut up the duck into joints,
lay it in the gravy, and add a seasoning of cayenne, salt, and minced
lemon-peel; let this gradually warm through, but not boil. Throw the
peas into boiling water slightly salted, and boil them rapidly until
tender. Drain them, stir in the pounded sugar, and the butter rolled in
flour; shake them over the fire for two or three minutes, and serve in
the centre of the dish, with the duck laid round. _Time._—15 minutes to
boil the peas, when they are full grown. _Average cost_, exclusive of
the cold duck, 10_d._ _Seasonable_ from June to August.


DUCK, Stewed, in Turnips.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold duck, ½ pint
of good gravy, 4 shalots, a few slices of carrot, a small bunch of
savoury herbs, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 lb. of turnips weighed after
being peeled, 2 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Cut
up the duck into joints, fry the shalots, carrots, and herbs, and put
them with the duck into the gravy. Cut about 1 lb. of turnips into ½
inch squares, put the butter into a stewpan, and stew them till quite
tender, which will be in about ½ hour, or rather more; season with
pepper and salt, and serve on the centre of the dish, with the duck,
&c., laid round. _Time._—Rather more than ½ hour to stew the turnips.
_Average cost_, exclusive of cold duck, 1_s._ _Seasonable_ from
November to February.


DUCK, to Ragoût a whole.

_Ingredients._—1 large duck, pepper and salt to taste, good beef
gravy, 2 onions sliced, 4 sage-leaves, a few leaves of lemon thyme,
thickening of butter and flour. _Mode._—After having emptied and singed
the duck, season it inside with pepper and salt, and truss it. Roast
it before a clear fire for about 20 minutes, and let it acquire a nice
brown colour. Put it into a stewpan with sufficient well-seasoned beef
gravy to cover it; slice and fry the onions, and add these, with the
sage-leaves and lemon thyme, both of which should be finely minced, to
the stock. Simmer gently until the duck is tender; strain, skim, and
thicken the gravy with a little butter and flour; boil it up, pour over
the duck, and serve. When in season, about 1½ pint of young green peas,
boiled separately, and put in the ragoût, very much improve this dish.
_Time._—20 minutes to roast the duck; 20 minutes to stew it. _Average
cost_, from 2_s._ 3_d._ to 2_s._ 6_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5
persons. _Seasonable_ from November to February; ducklings from April
to August.


DUCK, Wild, Hashed.

_Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast wild duck, 1 pint of good
brown gravy, 2 tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs, 1 glass of claret,
salt, cayenne, and mixed spices to taste; 1 tablespoonful of lemon or
Seville orange-juice. _Mode._—Cut the remains of the duck into neat
joints, put them into a stewpan, with all the above ingredients; let
them get gradually hot by the side of the fire, and occasionally stir
the contents; when on the point of boiling, serve, and garnish the dish
with sippets of toasted bread. _Time._—About ¼ hour. _Seasonable_ from
November to February.


DUCK, Wild, Ragoût of.

_Ingredients._—2 wild ducks, 4 shalots, 1 pint of stock (_see_ STOCK),
1 glass of port wine, 1 oz. of butter, a little flour, the juice of ½
lemon, cayenne and salt to taste. _Mode._—Ducks that have been dressed
and left from the preceding day will answer for this dish. Cut them
into joints, reserve the legs, wings, and breasts until wanted; put
the trimmings into a stewpan with the shalots and stock, and let them
simmer for about ½ hour, and strain the gravy. Put the butter into a
stewpan; when melted, dredge in a little flour, and pour in the gravy
made from the bones; give it one boil, and strain it again; add the
wine, lemon-juice, and cayenne; lay in the pieces of duck, and let the
whole gradually warm through, but do not allow it to boil, or the duck
will be hard. The gravy should not be too thick, and should be very
highly seasoned. The squeeze of a Seville orange is a great improvement
to this dish. _Time._—About ½ hour to make the gravy; ¼ hour for the
duck gradually to warm through. _Seasonable_ from November to February.


DUCK, Wild, Roast.

_Ingredients._—Wild duck, flour, butter. _Mode._—Carefully pluck and
draw them; cut off the heads close to the necks, leaving sufficient
skin to turn over, and do not cut off the feet; some twist each leg
at the knuckle, and rest the claws on each side of the breast; others
truss them as shown in our illustration. Roast the birds before a
quick fire, and, when they are first put down, let them remain for 5
minutes without basting (this will keep the gravy in); afterwards baste
plentifully with butter, and a few minutes before serving dredge them
lightly with flour; baste well, and send them to table nicely frothed,
and full of gravy. If overdone, the birds will lose their flavour.
Serve with a good gravy in the dish, or orange gravy, and send to table
with them a cut lemon. To take off the fishy taste which wild fowl
sometimes have, baste them for a few minutes with hot water to which
have been added an onion and a little salt; then take away the pan, and
baste with butter. _Time._—When liked under-dressed, 20 to 25 minutes;
well done, 25 to 35 minutes. _Average cost_, 4_s._ to 5_s._ the couple.

[Illustration: ROAST WILD DUCK.]


DUCK, Wild, to Carve.

As game is almost universally served as a dainty, and not as a dish to
stand the assaults of an altogether fresh appetite, these dishes are
not usually cut up entirely, but only those parts are served of each
which are considered the best flavoured and the primest. Of wild fowl,
the breast alone is considered by epicures worth eating, and slices are
cut from this, in the direction indicated by the lines, from 1 to 2; if
necessary, the leg and the wing can be taken off by passing the knife
from 3 to 4, and by generally following the directions described for
carving boiled fowl.

[Illustration: WILD DUCK.]


DUMPLINGS, Sussex, or Hard.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ½ pint of water, ½ saltspoonful of
salt. _Mode._—Mix the flour and water together to a smooth paste,
previously adding a small quantity of salt. Form this into small round
dumplings; drop them into boiling water, and boil from ½ to ¾ hour.
They maybe served with roast or boiled meat; in the latter case, they
may be cooked with the meat, but should be dropped into the water when
it is quite boiling. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Sufficient_ for 10 or 12
dumplings. _Seasonable_ at any time.


DUTCH FLUMMERY.

_Ingredients._—1½ oz. of isinglass, the rind and juice of 1 lemon,
1 pint of water, 4 eggs, 1 pint of sherry, Madeira, or raisin-wine;
sifted sugar to taste. _Mode._—Put the water, isinglass, and lemon-rind
into a lined saucepan, and simmer gently until the isinglass is
dissolved; strain this into a basin, stir in the eggs, which should
be well beaten, the lemon-juice, which should be strained, and the
wine; sweeten to taste with pounded sugar, mix all well together, pour
it into a jug, set this jug in a saucepan of boiling water over the
fire, and keep stirring it one way until it thickens; but _take care
that it does not boil_. Strain it into a mould that has been oiled or
laid in water for a short time, and put it in a cool place to set. A
tablespoonful of brandy stirred in just before it is poured into the
mould, improves the flavour of this dish: it is better if it is made
the day before it is required for table. _Time._—¼ hour to simmer the
isinglass; about ¼ hour to stir the mixture over the fire. _Average
cost_, 4_s._ 6_d._, if made with sherry; less with raisin-wine.
_Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.


EEL BROTH.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of eel, a small bunch of sweet herbs, including
parsley, ½ onion, 10 peppercorns, 3 pints of water, 2 cloves, salt
and pepper to taste. _Mode._—After having cleaned and skinned the
eel, cut it into small pieces, and put it into a stewpan with the
other ingredients; simmer gently until the liquid is reduced to nearly
half, carefully removing the scum as it rises. Strain it through a
hair sieve: put it by in a cool place, and, when wanted, take off all
the fat on the top; warm up as much as is required, and serve with
sippets of toasted bread. This is a very nutritious broth, and easy
of digestion. _Time._—To be simmered until the liquor is reduced to
half. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to make 1½ pint of broth.
_Seasonable_ from June to March.


EEL PIE.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of eels, a little chopped parsley, 1 shalot,
grated nutmeg, pepper and salt to taste, the juice of ½ a lemon, small
quantity of forcemeat, ¼ pint of Béchamel; puff paste. _Mode._—Skin and
wash the eels, cut them in pieces 2 inches long, and line the bottom of
the pie-dish with forcemeat. Put in the eels, and sprinkle them with
the parsley, shalots, nutmeg, seasoning, and lemon-juice, and cover
with puff paste. Bake for 1 hour, or rather more; make the Béchamel
hot, and pour it into the pie. _Time._—Rather more than 1 hour.
_Seasonable_ from August to March.


EEL SOUP.

_Ingredients._—3 lbs. of eels, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, 3 blades of
mace, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, ¼ oz. of peppercorns, salt to taste,
2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ¼ pint of cream, 2 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Wash the eels, cut them into thin slices, and put them into
the stewpan with the butter; let them simmer for a few minutes, then
pour the water to them, and add the onion, cut in thin slices, the
herbs, mace, and seasoning. Simmer till the eels are tender, but do
not break the fish. Take them out carefully, mix the flour smoothly to
a batter with the cream, bring it to a boil, pour over the eels, and
serve. _Time._—1 hour or rather more. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ from June to March. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note._—This soup may be flavoured differently by omitting the cream,
and adding a little ketchup or Harvey’s sauce.


EELS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—4 small eels, sufficient water to cover them; a large
bunch of parsley. _Mode._—Choose small eels for boiling; put them into
a stewpan with the parsley, and just sufficient water to cover them;
simmer till tender. Take them out, pour a little parsley and butter
over them, and serve some in a tureen. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_,
6_d._ per lb. _Seasonable_ from June to March. _Sufficient_ for 4
persons.


EEL, Collared.

_Ingredients._—1 large eel; pepper and salt to taste; 2 blades of mace,
2 cloves, a little allspice very finely pounded, 6 leaves of sage, and
a small bunch of herbs minced very small. _Mode._—Bone the eel and skin
it; split it, and sprinkle it over with the ingredients, taking care
that the spices are very finely pounded, and the herbs chopped very
small. Roll it up and bind with a broad piece of tape, and boil it in
water, mixed with a little salt and vinegar, till tender. It may either
be served whole or cut in slices; and when cold, the eel should be kept
in the liquor it was boiled in, but with a little more vinegar put to
it. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb. _Seasonable_ from
August to March.


EELS, Fried.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of eels, 1 egg, a few bread-crumbs, hot lard.
_Mode._—Wash the eels, cut them into pieces 3 inches long, trim and
wipe them very dry; dredge with flour, rub them over with egg, and
cover with bread-crumbs; fry a nice brown in hot lard. If the eels are
small, curl them round, instead of cutting them up. Garnish with fried
parsley. _Time._—20 minutes or rather less. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per
lb. _Seasonable_ from June to March.


EELS, en Matelote.

_Ingredients._—5 or 6 young onions, a few mushrooms, when obtainable;
salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; 1 laurel leaf, ½ pint of port wine,
½ pint of medium stock, butter and flour to thicken; 2 lbs. of eels.
_Mode._—Rub the stewpan with butter, dredge in a little flour, add
the onions cut very small, slightly brown them, and put in all the
other ingredients. Wash, and cut up the eels into pieces 3 inches
long; put them in the stewpan, and simmer for ½ hour. Make round the
dish a border of croûtons, or pieces of toasted bread; arrange the
eels in a pyramid in the centre, and pour over the sauce. Serve very
hot. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ for this quantity.
_Seasonable_ from August to March. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


EELS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of eels, 1 pint of rich strong stock, 1 onion,
3 cloves, a piece of lemon-peel, 1 glass of port or Madeira, 3
tablespoonfuls of cream; thickening of flour; cayenne and lemon-juice
to taste. _Mode._—Wash and skin the eels, and cut them into pieces
about 3 inches long; pepper and salt them, and lay them in a stewpan;
pour over the stock, add the onion stuck with cloves, the lemon-peel,
and the wine. Stew gently for ½ hour, or rather more, and lift
them carefully on a dish, which keep hot. Strain the gravy, stir
the cream, sufficient flour to thicken; mix altogether, boil for 2
minutes, and add the cayenne and lemon-juice; pour over the eels and
serve. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 2_s._ 3_d._
_Seasonable_ from June to March. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


EELS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of middling-sized eels, 1 pint of medium stock,
¼ pint of port wine; salt, cayenne, and mace to taste; 1 teaspoonful
of essence of anchovy, the juice of ½ a lemon. _Mode._—Skin, wash, and
clean the eels, thoroughly; cut them into pieces 3 inches long, and
put them into strong salt and water for 1 hour; dry them well with a
cloth, and fry them brown. Put the stock on with the heads and tails
of the eels, and simmer for ½ hour; strain it, and add all the other
ingredients. Put in the eels, and stew gently for ½ hour, when serve.
_Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Seasonable_ from June to
March. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


EELS, à la Tartare.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of eels, 1 carrot, 1 onion, a little flour, 1
glass of sherry; salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste; bread-crumbs,
1 egg, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar. _Mode._—Rub the butter on the
bottom of the stewpan; cut up the carrot and onion, and stir them over
the fire for 5 minutes; dredge in a little flour, add the wine and
seasoning, and boil for ½ an hour. Skin and wash the eels, cut them
into pieces, put them to the other ingredients, and simmer till tender.
When they are done, take them out, let them get cold, cover them with
egg and bread-crumbs, and fry them of a nice brown. Put them on a dish,
pour sauce piquante over, and serve them hot. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._, exclusive of the sauce piquante. _Seasonable_ from
August to March. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


EGGS.

There is only one opinion as to the nutritive properties of eggs,
although the qualities of those belonging to different birds vary
somewhat. Those of the common hen are most esteemed as delicate food,
particularly when “new-laid.” The quality of eggs depends much upon
the food given to the hen. Eggs in general are considered most easily
digestible when little subjected to the art of cookery. The lightest
way of dressing them is by poaching, which is effected by putting
them for a minute or two into brisk boiling water: this coagulates
the external white, without doing the inner part too much. Eggs are
much better when new-laid than a day or two afterwards. The usual time
allotted for boiling eggs in the shell is 3 to 3¾ minutes: less time
than that in boiling water will not be sufficient to solidify the
white, and more will make the yolk hard and less digestible: it is very
difficult to _guess_ accurately as to the time. Great care should be
employed in putting them into the water, to prevent cracking the shell,
which inevitably causes a portion of the white to exude, and lets water
into the egg. For the purpose of placing eggs in water, always choose
a _large_ spoon in preference to a small one. Eggs are often beaten up
raw in nutritive beverages.

The eggs of the _turkey_ are almost as mild as those of the hen; the
egg of the _goose_ is large, but well-tasted. _Ducks’ eggs_ have a
rich flavour; the albumen is slightly transparent, or bluish, when set
or coagulated by boiling, which requires less time than hens’ eggs.
_Guinea-fowl eggs_ are smaller and more delicate than those of the hen.
Eggs of _wild fowl_ are generally coloured, often spotted; and the
taste generally partakes somewhat of the bird they belong to. Those of
land birds that are eaten, as the _plover_, _lapwing_, _ruff_, &c., are
in general much esteemed; but those of _sea-fowl_ have, more or less,
a strong fishy taste. The eggs of the _turtle_ are very numerous: they
consist of yolk only, without shell, and are delicious.

When fresh eggs are dropped into a vessel _full_ of boiling water, they
crack, because the eggs being well filled, the shells give way to the
efforts of the interior fluids, dilated by heat. If the volume of hot
water be small, the shells do not crack, because its temperature is
reduced by the eggs before the interior dilation can take place. Stale
eggs, again, do not crack because the air inside is easily compressed.


EGG BALLS, for Soups and made Dishes.

_Ingredients._—8 eggs, a little flour; seasoning to taste of salt.
_Mode._—Boil 6 eggs for 20 minutes, strip off the shells, take the
yolks and pound them in a mortar. Beat the yolks of the 2 uncooked
eggs; add them, with a little flour and salt, to those pounded; mix all
well together, and roll into balls. Boil them before they are put into
the soup or other dish they may be intended for.


EGG SAUCE, for Salt Fish.

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, ½ pint of melted butter, when liked, a very
little lemon-juice. _Mode._—Boil the eggs until quite hard, which
will be in about 20 minutes, and put them into cold water for ½ hour.
Strip off the shells, chop the eggs into small pieces, not, however,
too fine. Make the melted butter very smooth, and, when boiling,
stir in the eggs, and serve very hot. Lemon-juice may be added at
pleasure. _Time._—20 minutes to boil the eggs. _Average cost_, 8_d._
_Sufficient._—This quantity for 3 or 4 lbs. of fish.

_Note._—When a thicker sauce is required, use one or two more eggs to
the same quantity of melted butter.


EGG SOUP.

_Ingredients._—A tablespoonful of flour, 4 eggs, 2 small blades of
finely-pounded mace, 2 quarts of stock. _Mode._—Beat up the flour
smoothly in a teaspoonful of cold stock, and put in the eggs; throw
them into boiling stock, stirring all the time. Simmer for ¼ of an
hour. Season and serve with a French roll in the tureen or fried
sippets of bread. _Time._—½ an hour. _Average cost_, 11_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


EGG WINE.

_Ingredients._—1 egg, 1 tablespoonful and ½ glass of cold water,
1 glass of sherry, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste. _Mode._—Beat
the egg, mixing with it a tablespoonful of cold water; make the
wine-and-water hot, but not boiling; pour it on the egg, stirring all
the time. Add sufficient lump sugar to sweeten the mixture, and a
little grated nutmeg; put all into a very clean saucepan, set it on a
gentle fire, and stir the contents one way until they thicken, but
_do not allow them to boil_. Serve in a glass with sippets of toasted
bread or plain crisp biscuits. When the egg is not warmed, the mixture
will be found easier of digestion, but it is not so pleasant a drink.
_Sufficient_ for 1 person.


EGGS, to Boil for Breakfast, Salads, &c.

Eggs for boiling cannot be too fresh, or boiled too soon after they are
laid; but rather a longer time should be allowed for boiling a new-laid
egg than for one that is three or four days old. Have ready a saucepan
of boiling water; put the eggs into it gently with a spoon, letting the
spoon touch the bottom of the saucepan before it is withdrawn, that
the egg may not fall, and consequently crack. For those who like eggs
lightly boiled, 3 minutes will be found sufficient; 3¾ to 4 minutes
will be ample time to set the white nicely; and, if liked hard, 6 to
7 minutes will not be found too long. Should the eggs be unusually
large, as those of black Spanish fowls sometimes are, allow an extra ½
minute for them. Eggs for salads should be boiled from 10 minutes to ¼
hour, and should be placed in a basin of cold water for a few minutes;
they should then be rolled on the table with the hand, and the shell
will peel off easily. _Time._—To boil eggs lightly, for invalids or
children, 3 minutes; to boil eggs to suit the generality of tastes, 3¾
to 4 minutes; to boil eggs hard, 6 to 7 minutes; for salads, 10 to 15
minutes.

[Illustration: EGG-STAND FOR THE BREAKFAST-TABLE.]


EGGS, Buttered.

_Ingredients._—4 new-laid eggs, 2 oz. of butter. _Mode._—Procure the
eggs new-laid if possible; break them into a basin, and beat them well;
put the butter into another basin, which place in boiling water, and
stir till the butter is melted. Pour that and the eggs into a lined
saucepan; hold it over a gentle fire, and, as the mixture begins to
warm, pour it two or three times into the basin, and back again, that
the two ingredients may be well incorporated. Keep stirring the eggs
and butter one way until they are hot, _without boiling_, and serve on
hot buttered toast. If the mixture is allowed to boil, it will curdle,
and so be entirely spoiled. _Time._—About 5 minutes to make the eggs
hot. _Average cost_, 7_d._ _Sufficient._—Allow a slice to each person.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


EGGS, to Choose.

In choosing eggs, apply the tongue to the large end of the egg, and,
if it feels warm, it is new, and may be relied on as a fresh egg.
Another mode of ascertaining their freshness is to hold them before a
lighted candle or to the light, and, if the egg looks clear, it will
be tolerably good; if thick, it is stale; and if there is a black spot
attached to the shell, it is worthless. No egg should be used for
culinary purposes with the slightest taint in it, as it will render
perfectly useless those with which it has been mixed. Eggs that are
purchased, and that cannot be relied on, should always be broken in a
cup, and then put into a basin: by this means stale or bad eggs may be
easily rejected, without wasting the others.


EGGS, Ducks’.

Ducks’ eggs are usually so strongly flavoured that, plainly boiled,
they are not good for eating; they answer, however, very well for
various culinary preparations where eggs are required; such as
custards, &c. &c. Being so large and highly-flavoured, 1 duck’s egg
will go as far as 2 small hen’s eggs, besides making whatever they
are mixed with exceedingly rich. They also are admirable when used in
puddings.


EGGS, Fried.

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, ¼ lb. of lard, butter or clarified dripping.
_Mode._—Place a delicately-clean frying-pan over a gentle fire; put in
the fat, and allow it to come to the boiling-point. Break the eggs
into cups, slip them into the boiling fat, and let them remain until
the whites are delicately set; and, whilst they are frying, ladle a
little of the fat over them. Take them up with a slice, drain them for
a minute from their greasy moisture, trim them neatly, and serve on
slices of fried bacon or ham; or the eggs may be placed in the middle
of the dish, with the bacon put round as a garnish. _Time._—2 to 3
minutes. _Average cost_, 1_d._ each; 2_d._ when scarce. _Sufficient_
for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: FRIED EGGS ON BACON.]


EGGS à la Maître d’Hôtel.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of fresh butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, ½ pint
of milk, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of minced parsley,
the juice of ½ lemon, 6 eggs. _Mode._—Put the flour and half the butter
into a stewpan; stir them over the fire until the mixture thickens;
pour in the milk, which should be boiling; add a seasoning of pepper
and salt, and simmer the whole for 5 minutes. Put the remainder of the
butter into the sauce, and add the minced parsley; then boil the eggs
hard, strip off the shell, cut the eggs into quarters, and put them
on a dish. Bring the sauce to the boiling-point, add the lemon-juice,
pour over the eggs and serve. _Time._—5 minutes to boil the sauce; the
eggs, 10 to 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


EGGS, to Pickle.

_Ingredients._—16 eggs, 1 quart of vinegar, ½ oz. of black pepper, ½
oz. of Jamaica pepper, ½ oz. of ginger. _Mode._—Boil the eggs for 12
minutes, then dip them into cold water, and take off the shells. Put
the vinegar, with the pepper and ginger, into a stewpan, and let it
simmer for 10 minutes. Now place the eggs in a jar, pour over them the
vinegar, &c., boiling hot, and, when cold, tie them down with bladder
to exclude the air. This pickle will be ready for use in a month.
_Average cost_, for this quantity, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Seasonable._—This
should be made about Easter, as at this time eggs are plentiful and
cheap. A store of pickled eggs will be found very useful and ornamental
in serving with many first and second course dishes.


EGGS AU PLAT, or AU MIROIR, served on the Dish in which they are Cooked.

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Butter a dish rather thickly with good fresh butter; melt it,
break the eggs into it the same as for poaching, sprinkle them with
white pepper and fine salt, and put the remainder of the butter, cut
into very small pieces, on the top of them. Put the dish on a hot
plate, or in the oven, or before the fire, and let it remain until the
whites become set, but not hard, when serve immediately, placing the
dish they were cooked in on another. To hasten the cooking of the eggs,
a salamander may be held over them for a minute; but great care must
be taken that they are not too much done. This is an exceedingly nice
dish, and one very easily prepared for breakfast. _Time._—3 minutes.
_Average cost_, 5_d._ _Sufficient_ for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


EGGS, Plovers’.

Plovers’ eggs are usually served boiled hard, and sent to table in
a napkin, either hot or cold; they may also be shelled, and served
the same as eggs à la Tripe, with a good Béchamel sauce, or brown
gravy, poured over them. They are also used for decorating salads, the
beautiful colour of the white being generally so much admired.


EGGS, Poached.

_Ingredients._—Eggs, water. To every pint of water allow 1
tablespoonful of vinegar. _Mode._—Eggs for poaching should be perfectly
fresh, but not quite new-laid; those that are about 36 hours old are
the best for the purpose. If quite new-laid, the white is so milky it
is almost impossible to set it; and, on the other hand, if the egg be
at all stale, it is equally difficult to poach it nicely. Strain some
boiling water into a deep clean frying-pan; break the egg into a cup
without damaging the yolk, and, when the water boils, remove the pan to
the side of the fire, and gently slip the egg into it. Place the pan
over a gentle fire, and keep the water simmering until the white looks
nicely set, when the egg is ready. Take it up gently with a slice, cut
away the ragged edges of the white, and serve either on toasted bread
or on slices of ham or bacon, or on spinach, &c. A poached egg should
not be overdone, as its appearance and taste will be quite spoiled if
the yolk be allowed to harden. When the egg is slipped into the water,
the white should be gathered together, to keep it a little in form,
or the cup should be turned over it for ½ minute. To poach an egg to
perfection is rather a difficult operation; so, for inexperienced
cooks, a tin egg-poacher may be purchased, which greatly facilitates
this manner of dressing eggs. Our illustration clearly shows what
it is: it consists of a tin plate with a handle, with a space for
three perforated cups. An egg should be broken into each cup, and the
machine then placed in a stewpan of boiling water, which has been
previously strained. When the whites of the eggs appear set, they are
done, and should then be carefully slipped on to the toast or spinach,
or with whatever they are served. In poaching eggs in a frying-pan,
never do more than four at a time; and, when a little vinegar is
liked mixed with the water in which the eggs are done, use the above
proportion. _Time._—2½ to 3½ minutes, according to the size of the egg.
_Sufficient._—Allow 2 eggs to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time,
but less plentiful in winter.

[Illustration: EGGS POACHED ON TOAST.]

[Illustration: TIN EGG-POACHER.]


EGGS, Poached, with Cream.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of water, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 4 teaspoonfuls
of vinegar, 4 fresh eggs, ½ gill of cream, salt, pepper, and pounded
sugar to taste, 1 oz. of butter. _Mode._—Put the water, vinegar, and
salt into a frying-pan, and break each egg into a separate cup; bring
the water, &c., to boil, and slip the eggs gently into it without
breaking the yolks. Simmer them from 3 to 4 minutes, but not longer,
and, with a slice, lift them out on to a hot dish, and trim the edges.
Empty the pan of its contents, put in the cream, add a seasoning to
taste of pepper, salt, and pounded sugar; bring the whole to the
boiling-point; then add the butter, broken into small pieces; toss the
pan round and round till the butter is melted; pour it over the eggs,
and serve. To insure the eggs not being spoiled whilst the cream, &c.
is preparing, it is a good plan to warm the cream with the butter,
&c. before the eggs are poached, so that it may be poured over them
immediately after they are dished. _Time._—3 to 4 minutes to poach
the eggs, 5 minutes to warm the cream. _Average cost_ for the above
quantity, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 2 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


EGGS, Scotch.

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls of forcemeat, hot lard, ½ pint
of good brown gravy. _Mode._—Boil the eggs for 10 minutes; strip them
from the shells, and cover them with forcemeat, or substitute pounded
anchovies for the ham. Fry the eggs a nice brown in boiling lard, drain
them before the fire from their greasy moisture, dish them, and pour
round from ¼ to ½ pint of good brown gravy. To enhance the appearance
of the eggs, they may be rolled in beaten egg and sprinkled with
bread-crumbs; but this is scarcely necessary if they are carefully
fried. The flavour of the ham or the anchovy in the forcemeat must
preponderate, as it should be very relishing. _Time._—10 minutes to
boil the eggs, 5 to 7 minutes to fry them. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 4_d._
_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


EGGS, Snow, or Œufs à la Neige (a very pretty Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, ¾ pint of milk, pounded sugar to taste,
flavouring of vanilla, lemon-rind, or orange-flower water. _Mode._—Put
the milk into a saucepan with sufficient sugar to sweeten it nicely,
and the rind of ½ lemon. Let this steep by the side of the fire for ½
hour, when take out the peel; separate the whites from the yolks of the
eggs, and whisk the former to a perfectly stiff froth, or until there
is no liquid remaining; bring the milk to the boiling-point, drop in
the snow a tablespoonful at a time, and keep turning the eggs until
sufficiently cooked. Then place them on a glass dish, beat up the yolks
of the eggs, stir to them the milk, add a little more sugar, and strain
this mixture into a jug; place the jug in a saucepan of boiling water,
and stir it one way until the mixture thickens, but do not allow it to
boil, or it will curdle. Pour this custard over the eggs, when they
should rise to the surface. They make an exceedingly pretty addition
to a supper, and should be put in a cold place after being made. When
they are flavoured with vanilla or orange-flowered water, it is not
necessary to steep the milk. A few drops of the essence of either may
be poured into the milk just before the whites are poached. In making
the custard, a little more flavouring and sugar should always be
added. _Time._—About 2 minutes to poach the whites; 8 minutes to stir
the custard. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


EGGS, to keep Fresh for several Weeks.

Have ready a large saucepan, capable of holding 3 or 4 quarts, full of
boiling water. Put the eggs into a cabbage-net, say 20 at a time, and
hold them in the water (which must be kept boiling) _for_ 20 _seconds_.
Proceed in this manner till you have done as many eggs as you wish to
preserve; then pack them away in sawdust. We have tried this method of
preserving eggs, and can vouch for its excellence. They will be found,
at the end of 2 or 3 months, quite good enough for culinary purposes;
and although the white may be a little tougher than that of a new-laid
egg, the yolk will be nearly the same. Many persons keep eggs for a
long time by smearing the shells with butter or sweet oil: they should
then be packed in plenty of bran or sawdust, and the eggs not allowed
to touch each other. Eggs for storing should be collected in fine
weather, and should not be more than 24 hours old when they are packed
away, or their flavour, when used, cannot be relied on. Another simple
way of preserving eggs is to immerse them in lime-water soon after they
have been laid, and then to put the vessel containing the lime-water in
a cellar or cool outhouse. _Seasonable._—The best time for preserving
eggs is from April to September.


EGGS, à la Tripe.

_Ingredients._—8 eggs, ¾ pint of Béchamel sauce, dessertspoonful of
finely-minced parsley. _Mode._—Boil the eggs hard; put them into cold
water, peel them, take out the yolks whole, and shred the whites. Make
¾ pint of Béchamel sauce; add the parsley, and, when the sauce is quite
hot, put the yolks of the eggs into the middle of the dish, and the
shred whites round them; pour over the sauce, and garnish with leaves
of puff-paste or fried croûtons. There is no necessity for putting the
eggs into the saucepan with the Béchamel; the sauce, being quite hot,
will warm the eggs sufficiently. _Time._—10 minutes to boil the eggs.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


ELDER WINE.

_Ingredients._—To every 3 gallons of water allow 1 peck of
elderberries; to every gallon of juice allow 3 lbs. of sugar, ½ oz.
of ground ginger, 6 cloves, 1 lb. of good Turkey raisins; ¼ pint of
brandy to every gallon of wine. To every 9 gallons of wine, 3 or
4 tablespoonfuls of fresh brewer’s yeast. _Mode._—Pour the water,
quite boiling, on the elderberries, which should be picked from the
stalks, and let these stand covered for 24 hours; then strain the
whole through a sieve or bag, breaking the fruit to express all the
juice from it. Measure the liquor, and to every gallon allow the above
proportion of sugar. Boil the juice and sugar with the ginger, cloves,
and raisins for 1 hour, skimming the liquor the whole time; let it
stand until milk-warm, then put it into a clean dry cask, with 3 or 4
tablespoonfuls of good fresh yeast to every 9 gallons of wine. Let it
ferment for about a fortnight; then add the brandy, bung up the cask,
and let it stand some months before it is bottled, when it will be
found excellent. A bunch of hops suspended to a string from the bung,
some persons say, will preserve the wine good for several years. Elder
wine is usually mulled, and served with sippets of toasted bread and
a little grated nutmeg. _Time._—To stand covered for 24 hours; to be
boiled 1 hour. _Average cost_, when made at home, 3_s._ 6_d._ per
gallon. _Seasonable._—Make this in September.


ENDIVE.

This vegetable, so beautiful in appearance, makes an excellent
addition to winter salad, when lettuces and other winter salads are
not obtainable. It is usually placed in the centre of the dish, and
looks remarkably pretty with slices of beetroot, hard-boiled eggs, and
curled celery placed round it, so that the colours contrast nicely. In
preparing it, carefully wash and cleanse it free from insects, which
are generally found near the heart; remove any decayed or dead leaves,
and dry it thoroughly by shaking in a cloth. This vegetable may also be
served hot, stewed in cream, brown gravy, or butter; but when dressed
thus, the sauce it is stewed in should not be very highly seasoned, as
that would destroy and overpower the flavour of the vegetable. _Average
cost_, 1_d._ per head. _Sufficient._—1 head for a salad for 4 persons.
_Seasonable_ from November to March.


ENDIVE, à la Française.

_Ingredients._—6 heads of endive, 1 pint of broth, 3 oz. of fresh
butter; salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg to taste. _Mode._—Wash and boil
the endive as in the preceding recipe; chop it rather fine, and put
into a stewpan with the broth; boil over a brisk fire until the sauce
is all reduced; then put in the butter, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg
(the latter must be very sparingly used); mix all well together, bring
it to the boiling point, and serve very hot. _Time._—10 minutes to
boil, 5 minutes to simmer in the broth. _Average cost_, 1_d._ per head.
_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.


ENDIVE, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—6 heads of endive, salt and water, 1 pint of broth,
thickening of butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, a
small lump of sugar. _Mode._—Wash and free the endive thoroughly from
insects, remove the green part of the leaves, and put it into boiling
water, slightly salted. Let it remain for 10 minutes; then take it
out, drain it till there is no water remaining, and chop it very fine.
Put it into a stewpan with the broth; add a little salt and a lump of
sugar, and boil until the endive is perfectly tender. When done, which
may be ascertained by squeezing a piece between the thumb and finger,
add a thickening of butter and flour and the lemon-juice; let the sauce
boil up, and serve. _Time._—10 minutes to boil, 5 minutes to simmer
in the broth. _Average cost_, 1_d._ per head. _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4
persons. _Seasonable_ from November to March.


ESPAGNOLE, or Brown Spanish Sauce.

_Ingredients._—2 slices of lean ham, 1 lb. of veal, 1½ pint of white
stock, 2 or 3 sprigs of parsley, ½ a bay-leaf, 2 or 3 sprigs of savoury
herbs, 6 green onions, 3 shalots, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 2 glasses
of sherry or Madeira, thickening of butter and flour. _Mode._—Cut up
the ham and veal into small square pieces, and put them into a stewpan.
Moisten these with ½ pint of the stock, and simmer till the bottom of
the stewpan is covered with a nicely-coloured glaze, when put in a few
more spoonfuls to detach it. Add the remainder of the stock, with the
spices, herbs, shalots, and onions, and simmer very gently for 1 hour.
Strain and skim off every particle of fat, and, when required for use,
thicken with butter and flour, or with a little roux. Add the wine,
and, if necessary, a seasoning of cayenne; when it will be ready to
serve. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ per pint.

_Note._—The wine in this sauce may be omitted, and an onion sliced and
fried of a nice brown substituted for it. This sauce or gravy is used
for many dishes, and with most people is a general favourite.


FEBRUARY—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

  Hare Soup,
  removed by
  Turbot and Oyster Sauce.

  Fried Eels.

  Fried Whitings.

  Vase of
  Flowers.

  Oyster Soup,
  removed by
  Crimped Cod à la Maître
  d’Hôtel.

_Second Course._

  Roast Fowls, garnished with
  Water-cresses.

  Braised Capon.
  Boiled Ham, garnished.

  Boiled Fowls and
  White Sauce.

  Vase of
  Flowers.

  Pâté Chaud.
  Haunch of Mutton.

_Entrées._

  Lobster Patties.

  Lark Pudding.

  Filets de Perdrix.

  Vase of
  Flowers.

  Fricasseed Chicken.

_Third Course._

  Meringues.

  Ducklings,
  removed by
  Iced Pudding.

  Cheesecakes.

  Orange Jelly.

  Coffee Cream.

  Clear Jelly.

  Vase of
  Flowers.

  Victoria
  Sandwiches.

  Blancmange.

  Gâteau de
  Pommes.

  Partridges,
  removed by
  Cabinet Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Soup à la reine; clear gravy soup; brill and lobster
sauce; fried smelts. _Entrées._—Lobster rissoles; beef palates; pork
cutlets à la soubise; grilled mushrooms. _Second Course._—Braised
turkey; haunch of mutton; boiled capon and oysters; tongue, garnished
with tufts of broccoli; vegetables and salads. _Third Course._—Wild
ducks; plovers; orange jelly; clear jelly; Charlotte Russe; Nesselrode
pudding; gâteau de riz; sea-kale; maids of honour; desert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Palestine soup; John Dory, with Dutch sauce; red
mullet, with sauce Génoise. _Entrées._—Sweetbread cutlets, with
poivrade sauce; fowl au Béchamel. _Second Course._—Roast saddle of
mutton; boiled capon and oysters; boiled tongue, garnished with
Brussels sprouts. _Third Course._—Guinea-fowls; ducklings; pain de
rhubarb; orange jelly; strawberry cream; cheesecakes; almond pudding;
fig pudding; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Mock turtle soup; fillets of turbot à la crême; fried
filleted soles and anchovy sauce. _Entrées._—Larded fillets of rabbits;
tendrons de veau with purée of tomatoes. _Second Course._—Stewed rump
of beef à la Jardinière; roast fowls; boiled ham. _Third Course._—Roast
pigeons or larks; rhubarb tartlets; meringues; clear jelly; cream; ice
pudding; soufflé; dessert and ices.


Dinners for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Rice soup; red mullet, with Génoise sauce; fried
smelts. _Entrées._—Fowl pudding; sweetbreads. _Second Course._—Roast
turkey and sausages; boiled leg of pork; pease pudding. _Third
Course._—Lemon jelly; Charlotte à la vanille; maids of honour;
plum-pudding, removed by ice pudding; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Spring soup; boiled turbot and lobster sauce.
_Entrées._—Fricasseed rabbit; oyster patties. _Second Course._—Boiled
round of beef and marrow-bones; roast fowls, garnished with
water-cresses and rolled bacon; vegetables. _Third Course._—Marrow
pudding; cheesecakes; tartlets of greengage jam; lemon cream; rhubarb
tart; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; fried whitings; stewed eels.
_Entrées._—Poulet à la Marengo; breast of veal stuffed and rolled.
_Second Course._—Roast leg of pork and apple sauce; boiled capon and
oysters; tongue, garnished with tufts of broccoli. _Third Course._—Wild
ducks; lobster salad; Charlotte aux pommes; pain de rhubarb; vanilla
cream; orange jelly; dessert.

_First Course._—Ox-tail soup; cod à la crême; fried soles.
_Entrées._—Lark pudding; fowl scollops. _Second Course._—Roast leg of
mutton; boiled turkey and celery sauce; pigeon pie; small ham, boiled
and garnished; vegetables. _Third Course._—Game, when liked; tartlets
of raspberry jam; vol-au-vent of rhubarb; Swiss cream; cabinet pudding;
broccoli and sea-kale; dessert.


FEBRUARY, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Ox-tail soup. 2. Roast beef, Yorkshire pudding, broccoli,
potatoes. 3. Plum-pudding, apple tart. Cheese.

_Monday._—1. Fried soles, plain melted butter, and potatoes. 2. Cold
roast beef, mashed potatoes. 3. The remains of plum-pudding cut in
slices, warmed, and served with sifted sugar sprinkled over it. Cheese.

_Tuesday._—1. The remains of ox-tail soup from Sunday. 2. Pork cutlets
with tomato sauce; hashed beef. 3. Rolled jam pudding. Cheese.

_Wednesday._—1. Boiled haddock and plain melted butter. 2. Rump-steak
pudding, potatoes, greens. 3. Arrowroot, blancmange, garnished with jam.

_Thursday._—1. Boiled leg of pork, greens, potatoes, pease pudding. 2.
Apple fritters, sweet macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Pea-soup made with liquor that the pork was boiled in. 2.
Cold pork, mashed potatoes. 3. Baked rice pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Broiled herrings and mustard sauce. 2. Haricot mutton.
3. Macaroni, either served as a sweet pudding or with cheese.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Carrot soup. 2. Boiled leg of mutton and caper sauce,
mashed turnips, roast fowls, and bacon. 3. Damson tart made with
bottled fruit, ratafia pudding.

_Monday._—1. The remainder of fowl curried and served with rice;
rump-steaks and oyster sauce, cold mutton. 2. Rolled jam pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Vegetable soup made with liquor the mutton was boiled in
on Sunday. 2. Roast sirloin of beef, Yorkshire pudding, broccoli, and
potatoes. 3. Cheese.

_Wednesday._—1. Fried soles, melted butter. Cold beef and mashed
potatoes; if there is any cold mutton left, cut it into neat slices and
warm it in a little caper sauce. 2. Apple tart.

_Thursday._—1. Boiled rabbit and onion sauce, stewed beef and
vegetables, made with the remains of cold beef and bones. 2. Macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Roast leg of pork, sage and onions and apple sauce, greens
and potatoes. 2. Spinach and poached eggs instead of pudding. Cheese
and water-cresses.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak and kidney pudding, cold pork and mashed
potatoes. 2. Baked rice pudding.


FEBRUARY, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Barbel, brill, carp; cod may be bought, but is not so good as
in January; crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders, haddocks, herrings,
lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, place, prawns,
shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, thornback,
turbot, whiting.

_Meat._—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

_Poultry._—Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets
with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season.

_Game._—Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock.

_Vegetables._—Beetroot, broccoli (purple and white), Brussels sprouts,
cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers (forced),
endive, kidney-beans, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, spinach,
turnips—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples (golden and Dutch pippins), grapes, medlars, nuts,
oranges, pears (Bon Chrétien), walnuts, dried fruits (foreign), such
as almonds and raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates,
crystallized preserves.


FENNEL SAUCE, for Mackerel.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of melted butter, rather more than 1
tablespoonful of chopped fennel. _Mode._—Make the melted butter very
smooth, chop the fennel rather small, carefully cleansing it from any
grit or dirt, and put it to the butter when this is on the point of
boiling. Simmer for a minute or two, and serve in a tureen. _Time._—2
minutes. _Average cost_, 4_d._ _Sufficient_ to serve with 5 or 6
mackerel.


FIG PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of figs, 1 lb. of suet, ½ lb. of flour, ½ lb. of
bread-crumbs, 2 eggs, milk. _Mode._—Cut the figs into small pieces,
grate the bread finely, and chop the suet very small; mix these well
together, add the flour, the eggs, which should be well beaten, and
sufficient milk to form the whole into a stiff paste; butter a mould
or basin, press the pudding into it very closely, tie it down with
a cloth, and boil for 3 hours, or rather longer; turn it out of the
mould, and serve with melted butter, wine-sauce, or cream. _Time._—3
hours, or longer. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8
persons. _Seasonable._—Suitable for a winter pudding.


FIG PUDDING (Staffordshire Recipe).

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of figs, 6 oz. of suet, ¾ lb. of flour, milk.
_Mode._—Chop the suet finely, mix with it the flour, and make these
into a smooth paste with milk; roll it out to the thickness of about ½
inch, cut the figs in small pieces, and strew them over the paste; roll
it up, make the ends secure, tie the pudding in a cloth, and boil it
from 1½ to 2 hours. _Time._—1½ to 2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 1_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


FIGS, Compôte of Green.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of syrup, 1½ pint of green figs, the rind
of ½ lemon. _Mode._—Make a syrup as directed, boiling with it the
lemon-rind, and carefully remove all the scum as it rises. Put in the
figs, and simmer them very slowly until tender; dish them on a glass
dish; reduce the syrup by boiling it quickly for 5 minutes; take out
the lemon-peel, pour the syrup over the figs, and the compôte, when
cold, will be ready for table. A little port wine, or lemon-juice,
added just before the figs are done, will be found an improvement.
_Time._—2 to 3 hours to stew the figs. _Average cost_, figs, 2_s._ to
3_s._ per dozen. _Seasonable_ in August and September.

[Illustration: COMPÔTE OF FIGS.]


FISH.

Fish shortly before they spawn are, in general, best in condition. When
the spawning is just over, they are out of season, and unfit for human
food.

When fish is out of season, it has a transparent, bluish tinge, however
much it may be boiled; whenever it is in season, its muscles are firm,
and boil white and curdy.

As food for invalids, white fish, such as the ling, cod, haddock,
coal-fish, and whiting, are the best; flat fish, as soles, skate,
turbot, and flounders, are also good.

Salmon, mackerel, herrings, and trout soon spoil or decompose after
they are killed; therefore, to be in perfection, they should be
prepared for the table on the day they are caught. With flat fish, this
is not of such consequence, as they will keep longer. The turbot, for
example, is improved by being kept for a few hours.


FISH, General Directions for Dressing.

In dressing fish of any kind, the first point to be attended to, is to
see that it is perfectly clean. It is a common error to wash it too
much, as by doing so the flavour is diminished. If the fish is to be
boiled, a little salt and vinegar should be put into the water, to give
it firmness, after it is cleaned. Codfish, whiting, and haddock, are
none the worse for being a little salted, and kept a day; and, if the
weather be not very hot, they will be good for two days.

When fish is cheap and plentiful, and a larger quantity is purchased
than is immediately wanted, the overplus of such as will bear it should
be potted, or pickled, or salted, and hung up; or it may be fried,
that it may serve for stewing the next day. Fresh-water fish, having
frequently a muddy smell and taste, should be soaked in strong salt and
water, after it has been well cleaned. If of a sufficient size, it may
be scalded in salt and water, and afterwards dried and dressed.

Fish should be put into cold water and set on the fire to do very
gently, or the outside will break before the inner part is done. Unless
the fishes are small, they should never be put into warm water; nor
should water, either hot or cold, be poured _on_ to the fish, as it is
liable to break the skin; if it should be necessary to add a little
water whilst the fish is cooking, it ought to be poured in gently at
the side of the vessel. The fish-plate may be drawn up, to see if the
fish be ready, which may be known by its easily separating from the
bone. It should then be immediately taken out of the water, or it will
become woolly. The fish-plate should be set crossways over the kettle,
to keep hot for serving, and a cloth laid over the fish, to prevent its
losing its colour.

In garnishing fish great attention is required, and plenty of parsley,
horseradish, and lemon should be used. If fried parsley be used, it
must be washed and picked, and thrown into fresh water. When the lard
or dripping boils, throw the parsley into it immediately from the
water, and instantly it will be green and crisp, and must be taken
up with a slice. When well done, and with very good sauce, fish is
more appreciated than almost any other dish. The liver and roe, in
some instances, should be placed on the dish, in order that they may
be distributed in the course of serving; but to each recipe will be
appended the proper mode of serving and garnishing.

If fish is to be fried or broiled it must be dried in a nice soft cloth
after it is well cleaned and washed. If for frying, brush it over with
egg, and sprinkle it with some fine crumbs of bread. If done a second
time with the egg and bread, the fish will look so much the better.
If required to be very nice, a sheet of white blotting-paper must be
placed to receive it, that it may be free from all grease; it must also
be of a beautiful colour, and all the crumbs appear distinct. Butter
gives a bad colour; lard and clarified dripping are most frequently
used; but oil is the best, if the expense be no objection. The fish
should be put into the lard when boiling, and there should be a
sufficiency of this to cover it.

When fish is broiled, it must be seasoned, floured, and laid on a very
clean gridiron, which, when hot, should be rubbed with a bit of suet,
to prevent the fish from sticking. It must be broiled over a very clear
fire, that it may not taste smoky; and not too near, that it may not be
scorched.

In choosing fish, it is well to remember that it is possible it may be
_fresh_, and yet not _good_. Under the head of each particular fish in
this work, are appended rules for its choice, and the months when it is
in season. Nothing can be of greater consequence to a cook than to have
the fish good; as, if this important course in a dinner does not give
satisfaction, it is rarely that the repast goes off well.


FISH, General Directions for Carving.

In carving fish, care should be taken to help it in perfect flakes, as,
if these are broken, the beauty of the fish is lost. The carver should
be acquainted, too, with the choicest parts and morsels; and to give
each guest an equal share of these _titbits_ should be his maxim. Steel
knives and forks should on no account be used in helping fish, as these
are liable to impart to it a very disagreeable flavour. When silver
fish-carvers are considered too dear to be bought, good electro-plated
ones answer very well, and are inexpensive.


FISH CAKE.

_Ingredients._—The remains of any cold fish, 1 onion, 1 faggot of sweet
herbs; salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of water, equal quantities
of bread-crumbs and cold potatoes, ½ teaspoonful of parsley, 1 egg,
bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Pick the meat from the bones of the fish, which
latter put, with the head and fins, into a stewpan with the water; add
pepper and salt, the onion and herbs, and stew slowly for gravy about
2 hours; chop the fish fine, and mix it well with bread-crumbs and
cold potatoes, adding the parsley and seasoning; make the whole into
a cake with the white of an egg, brush it over with egg, cover with
bread-crumbs, fry of a light brown; strain the gravy, pour it over,
and stew gently for ¼ of an hour, stirring it carefully once or twice.
Serve hot, and garnish with thin slices of lemon and parsley. _Time._—½
an hour after the gravy is made.


FISH AND OYSTER PIE.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Any remains of cold fish, such as
cod or haddock; 2 dozen oysters, pepper and salt to taste, bread-crumbs
sufficient for the quantity of fish; ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg,
1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley. _Mode._—Clear the fish from
the bones, and put a layer of it in a pie-dish, which sprinkle with
pepper and salt; then a layer of bread-crumbs, oysters, nutmeg, and
chopped parsley. Repeat this till the dish is quite full. You may
form a covering either of bread-crumbs, which should be browned,
or puff-paste, which should be cut into long strips, and laid in
cross-bars over the fish, with a line of the paste first laid round the
edge. Before putting on the top, pour in some made melted butter, or a
little thin white sauce, and the oyster-liquor, and bake. _Time._—If
made of cooked fish, ¼ hour; if made of fresh fish and puff-paste, ¾
hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note._—A nice little dish may be made by flaking any cold fish, adding
a few oysters, seasoning with pepper and salt, and covering with mashed
potatoes; ¼ hour will bake it.


FISH PIE, with Tench and Eels.

_Ingredients._—2 tench, 2 eels, 2 onions, a faggot of herbs, 4 blades
of mace, 3 anchovies, 1 pint of water, pepper and salt to taste, 1
teaspoonful of chopped parsley, the yokes of 6 hard-boiled eggs,
puff-paste. _Mode._—Clean and bone the tench, skin and bone the eels,
and cut them into pieces 2 inches long, and leave the sides of the
tench whole. Put the bones into a stewpan with the onions, herbs, mace,
anchovies, water, and seasoning, and let them simmer gently for 1 hour.
Strain it off, put it to cool, and skim off all the fat. Lay the tench
and eels in a pie-dish, and between each layer put seasoning, chopped
parsley, and hard-boiled eggs; pour in part of the strained liquor,
cover in with puff-paste, and bake for ½ hour or rather more. The
oven should be rather quick, and when done, heat the remainder of the
liquor, which pour into the pie. _Time._—½ hour to bake, or rather more
if the oven is slow.


FISH SAUCE.

_Ingredients._—1½ oz. of cayenne, 2 tablespoonfuls of walnut ketchup,
2 tablespoonfuls of soy, a few shreds of garlic and shalot, 1 quart of
vinegar. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients into a large bottle, and shake
well every day for a fortnight. Keep it in small bottles well sealed,
and in a few days it will be fit for use. _Average cost_, for this
quantity, 1_s._


FISH, Scalloped.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Remains of cold fish of any sort,
½ pint of cream, ½ tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, ½ teaspoonful of
made mustard, ditto of walnut ketchup, pepper and salt to taste (the
above quantities are for ½ lb. of fish when picked): bread-crumbs.
_Mode._—Put all the ingredients into a stewpan, carefully picking the
fish from the bones; set it on the fire, let it remain till nearly hot,
occasionally stir the contents, but do not allow it to boil. When done,
put the fish into a deep dish or scallop shell, with a good quantity of
bread-crumbs; place small pieces of butter on the top, set in a Dutch
oven before the fire to brown, or use a salamander. _Time._—¼ hour.
_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 10_d._


FISH, Scalloped.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Any cold fish, 1 egg, milk, 1
large blade of pounded mace, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful
of anchovy sauce, pepper and salt to taste, bread-crumbs, butter.
_Mode._—Pick the fish carefully from the bones, and moisten with milk
and the egg; add the other ingredients, and place in a deep ditch or
scallop shells; over with bread-crumbs, butter the top, and brown
before the fire; when quite hot, serve. _Time._—20 minutes. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the cold fish, 4_d._


FISH STOCK.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of beef or veal (these can be omitted), any kind
of white fish trimmings of fish which are to be dressed for table, 2
onions, the rind of ½ a lemon, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 carrots, 2
quarts of water. _Mode._—Cut up the fish, and put it, with the other
ingredients, into the water. Simmer for 2 hours; skim the liquor
carefully, and strain it. When a richer stock is wanted, fry the
vegetables and fish before adding the water. _Time._—2 hours. _Average
cost_, with meat, 10_d._ per quart; without, 3_d._

_Note._—Do not make fish stock long before it is wanted, as it soon
turns sour.


FLOUNDERS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Sufficient water to cover the flounders, salt in the
proportion of 6 oz. to each gallon, a little vinegar. _Mode._—Put on a
kettle with enough water to cover the flounders, lay in the fish, add
salt and vinegar in the above proportions, and when it boils, simmer
very gently for 5 minutes. They must not boil fast, or they will break.
Serve with plain melted butter, or parsley and butter. _Time._—After
the water boils, 5 minutes. _Average cost_, 3_d._ each. _Seasonable_
from August to November.


FLOUNDERS, Fried.

_Ingredients._—Flounders, egg, and bread-crumbs; boiling lard.
_Mode._—Cleanse the fish, and, two hours before they are wanted, rub
them inside and out with salt, to render them firm; wash and wipe them
very dry, dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with bread-crumbs; fry
them in boiling lard, dish on a hot napkin, and garnish with crisped
parsley. _Time._—From 5 to 10 minutes, according to size. _Average
cost_, 3_d._ each. _Seasonable_ from August to November. _Sufficient_,
1 for each person.


FLOWERS, Almond.

_Ingredients._—Puff-paste; to every ½ lb. of paste allow 3 oz. of
almonds, sifted sugar, the white of an egg. _Mode._—Roll the paste out
to the thickness of ¼ inch, and, with a round fluted cutter, stamp out
as many pieces as may be required. Work the paste up again, roll it
out, and, with a smaller cutter, stamp out some pieces the size of a
shilling. Brush the larger pieces over with the white of an egg, and
place one of the smaller pieces on each. Blanch and cut the almonds
into strips lengthwise; press them slanting into the paste closely
round the rings; and when they are all completed, sift over some
pounded sugar, and bake for about ¼ hour or twenty minutes. Garnish
between the almonds with strips of apple jelly, and place in centre
of the ring a small quantity of strawberry jam; pile them high on the
dish, and serve. _Time._—¼ hour or 20 minutes. _Sufficient._—18 or 20
for a dish. _Seasonable_ at any time.


FLOWERS, to Preserve Cut.

A bouquet of freshly-cut flowers may be preserved alive for a long time
by placing them in a glass or vase with fresh water, in which a little
charcoal has been steeped, or a small piece of camphor dissolved. The
vase should be set upon a plate or dish, and covered with a bell-glass,
around the edges of which, when it comes in contact with the plate, a
little water should be poured to exclude the air.


FLOWERS, to Revive after Packing.

Plunge the stems into boiling water, and, by the time the water is
cold, the flowers will have revived. Then cut afresh the ends of the
stems, and keep them in fresh cold water.


FONDUE.

_Ingredients._—4 eggs, the weight of 2 in Parmesan or good Cheshire
cheese, the weight of 2 in butter; pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Separate the yolks from the whites of the eggs; beat the
former in a basin, and grate the cheese, or cut it into _very thin_
flakes. Parmesan or Cheshire cheese may be used, whichever is the most
convenient, although the former is considered more suitable for this
dish; or an equal quantity of each may be used. Break the butter into
small pieces, add to it the other ingredients, with sufficient pepper
and salt to season nicely, and beat the mixture thoroughly. Well whisk
the whites of the eggs, stir them lightly in, and either bake the
fondue in a soufflé-dish or small round cake-tin. Fill the dish only
half full, as the fondue should rise very much. Pin a napkin round the
tin or dish, and serve very hot and very quickly. If allowed to stand
after it is withdrawn from the oven, the beauty and lightness of this
preparation will be entirely spoiled. _Time._—From 15 to 20 minutes.
_Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


FONDUE, Brillat Savarin’s (an excellent Recipe).

_Ingredients._—Eggs, cheese, butter, pepper and salt. _Mode._—Take the
same number of eggs as there are guests; weigh the eggs in the shell,
allow a third of their weight in Gruyère cheese, and a piece of butter
one-sixth of the weight of the cheese. Break the eggs into a basin,
beat them well; add the cheese, which should be grated, and the butter,
which should be broken into small pieces. Stir these ingredients
together with a wooden spoon; put the mixture into a lined saucepan,
place it over the fire, and stir until the substance is thick and
soft. Put in a little salt, according to the age of the cheese, and a
good sprinkling of pepper, and serve the fondue on a very hot silver or
metal plate. Do not allow the fondue to remain on the fire after the
mixture is set, as, if it boils, it will be entirely spoiled. Brillat
Savarin recommends that some choice Burgundy should be handed round
with this dish. We have given this recipe exactly as he recommends it
to be made; but we have tried it with good Cheshire cheese, and found
it answer remarkably well. _Time._—About 4 minutes to set the mixture.
_Average cost_, for 4 persons, 10_d._ _Sufficient._—Allow 1 egg, with
the other ingredients in proportion, for 1 person. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


FOOD FOR INFANTS, and its Preparation.

The articles generally employed as food for infants consist of
arrowroot, bread, flour, baked flour, prepared groats, farinaceous
food, biscuit-powder, biscuits, tops-and-bottoms, and semolina, or
manna croup, as it is otherwise called, which, like tapioca, is the
prepared pith of certain vegetable substances. Of this list the least
efficacious, though, perhaps, the most believed in, is arrowroot, which
only as a mere agent, for change, and then only for a very short time,
should ever be employed as a means of diet to infancy or childhood.
It is a thin, flatulent, and innutritious food, and incapable of
supporting infantine life and energy. Bread, though the universal
_régime_ with the labouring poor, where the infant’s stomach and
digestive powers are a reflex, in miniature, of the father’s, should
never be given to an infant under three months, and, even then, however
finely beaten up and smoothly made, is a very questionable diet. Flour,
when well boiled, though infinitely better than arrowroot, is still
only a kind of fermentative paste, that counteracts its own good by
after-acidity and flatulence.

Baked flour, when cooked into a pale brown mass, and finely powdered,
makes a far superior food to the others, and may be considered as a
very useful diet, especially for a change. Prepared groats may be
classed with arrowroot and raw flour, as being innutritious. The
articles that now follow on our list are all good, and such as we
could, with conscience and safety, trust to the health and development
of any child whatever.

We may observe in this place, that an occasional change in the
character of the food is highly desirable, both as regards the health
and benefit of the child; and, though the interruption should only last
for a day, the change will be advantageous.

The packets sold as farinaceous food are unquestionably the best
aliment that can be given from the first to a baby, and may be
continued, with the exception of an occasional change, without
alteration of the material, till the child is able to take its regular
meals of animal and vegetable food. Some infants are so constituted as
to require a frequent and a total change in their system of living,
seeming to thrive for a certain time on any food given to them, but if
persevered in too long, declining in bulk and appearance as rapidly
as they had previously progressed. In such cases, the food should be
immediately changed, and when that which appeared to agree best with
the child is resumed, it should be altered in its quality, and perhaps
in its consistency.

For the farinaceous food there are directions with each packet,
containing instructions for the making; but, whatever the food employed
is, enough should be made at once to last the day and night; at first,
about a pint basinful, but, as the child advances, a quart will hardly
be too much. In all cases, let the food boil a sufficient time,
constantly stirring, and taking every precaution that it does not get
burnt, in which case it is on no account to be used.

The food should always be made with water, the whole sweetened at once,
and of such a consistency that, when poured out, and it has had time
to cool, it will cut with the firmness of a pudding or custard. One
or two spoonfuls are to be put into the pap saucepan and stood on the
hob till the heat has softened it, when enough milk is to be added,
and carefully mixed with the food, till the whole has the consistency
of ordinary cream; it is then to be poured into the nursing-bottle,
and the food having been drawn through to warm the nipple, it is to
be placed in the child’s mouth. For the first month or more, half a
bottleful will be quite enough to give the infant at one time; but,
as the child grows, it will be necessary not only to increase the
quantity given at each time, but also gradually to make its food
more consistent, and, after the third month, to add an egg to every
pint basin of food made. At night, the mother puts the food into the
covered pan of her lamp, instead of the saucepan—that is, enough for
one supply, and, having lighted the rush, she will find, on the waking
of her child, the food sufficiently hot to bear the cooling addition
of the milk. But, whether night or day, the same food should never be
heated twice, and what the child leaves should be thrown away.

The biscuit powder is used in the same manner as the farinaceous food,
and both prepared much after the fashion of making starch. But when
tops-and-bottoms, or the whole biscuit, are employed, they require
soaking in cold water for some time previously to boiling. The biscuit
or biscuits are then to be slowly boiled in as much water as will, when
thoroughly soft, allow of their being beaten by a three-pronged fork
into a fine, smooth, and even pulp, and which, when poured into a basin
and become cold, will cut out like a custard. If two large biscuits
have been so treated, and the child is six or seven months old, beat up
two eggs, sufficient sugar to properly sweeten it, and about a pint of
skim milk. Pour this on the beaten biscuit in the saucepan, stirring
constantly; boil for about five minutes, pour into a basin, and use,
when cold, in the same manner as the other.

This makes an admirable food, at once nutritious and strengthening.
When tops-and-bottoms or rusks are used, the quantity of the egg may be
reduced, or altogether omitted.

Semolina, or manna croup, being in little hard grains, like a fine
millet-seed, must be boiled for some time, and the milk, sugar, and egg
added to it on the fire, and boiled for a few minutes longer, and, when
cold, used as the other preparations.

Many persons entertain a belief that cow’s milk is hurtful to infants,
and, consequently, refrain from giving it; but this is a very great
mistake, for both sugar and milk should form a large portion of every
meal an infant takes.


FORCEMEATS.

The points which cooks should, in this branch of cookery, more
particularly observe, are the thorough chopping of the suet, the
complete mincing of the herbs, the careful grating of the bread-crumbs,
and the perfect mixing of the whole. These are the three principal
ingredients of forcemeats, and they can scarcely be cut too small,
as nothing like a lump or fibre should be anywhere perceptible. To
conclude, the flavour of no one spice or herb should be permitted to
predominate.


FORCEMEAT BALLS, for Fish Soups.

_Ingredients._—1 middling-sized lobster, ½ an anchovy, 1 head of
boiled celery, the yolk of a hard-boiled egg; salt, cayenne, and
mace to taste; 4 tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs, 2 oz. of butter, 2
eggs. _Mode._—Pick the meat from the shell of the lobster, and pound
it, with the soft parts, in a mortar; add the celery, the yolk of
the hard-boiled egg, seasoning, and bread-crumbs. Continue pounding
till the whole is nicely amalgamated. Warm the butter till it is in a
liquid state; well whisk the eggs, and work these up with the pounded
lobster-meat. Make the balls of about an inch in diameter, and fry of a
nice pale brown. _Sufficient_, from 18 to 20 balls for 1 tureen of soup.


FORCEMEAT, French.

It will be well to state, in the beginning of this recipe, that French
forcemeat, or quenelles, consist of the blending of three separate
processes; namely, panada, udder, and whatever meat you intend using.

=Panada.= _Ingredients._—The crumb of 2 penny rolls, 4 tablespoonfuls
of white stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 slice of ham, 1 bay-leaf, a little
minced parsley, 2 shalots, 1 clove, 2 blades of mace, a few mushrooms,
butter, the yolks of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Soak the crumb of the rolls in
milk for about ½ hour, then take it out, and squeeze so as to press
the milk from it; put the soaked bread into a stewpan with the above
quantity of white stock, and set it on one side; then put into a
separate stewpan 1 oz. of butter, a slice of lean ham cut small, with a
bay-leaf, herbs, mushrooms, spices, &c., in the above proportions, and
fry them gently over a slow fire. When done, moisten with 2 teacupfuls
of white stock, boil for 20 minutes, and strain the whole through a
sieve over the panada in the other stewpan. Place it over the fire,
keep constantly stirring, to prevent its burning, and, when quite dry,
put in a small piece of butter. Let this again dry up by stirring over
the fire; then add the yolks of 2 eggs, mix well, put the panada to
cool on a clean plate, and use it when required. Panada should always
be well flavoured, as the forcemeat receives no taste from any of the
other ingredients used in its preparation.

=Boiled Calf’s Udder for French Forcemeat.=—Put the udder into a
stewpan with sufficient water to cover it; let it stew gently till
quite done, when take it out to cool. Trim all the upper parts, cut it
into small pieces, and pound well in a mortar, till it can be rubbed
through a sieve. That portion which passes through the strainer is
one of the three ingredients of which French forcemeats are generally
composed; but many cooks substitute butter for this, being a less
troublesome and more expeditious mode of preparation.


FORCEMEAT, for Cold Savoury Pies.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of veal, 1 lb. of fat bacon; salt, cayenne,
pepper, and pounded mace to taste; a very little nutmeg, the same of
chopped lemon-peel, ½ teaspoonful of chopped parsley, ½ teaspoonful
of minced savoury herbs, 1 or 2 eggs. _Mode._—Chop the veal and bacon
together, and put them into a mortar with the other ingredients
mentioned above. Pound well, and bind with 1 or 2 eggs which have been
previously beaten and strained. Work the whole well together, and
the forcemeat will be ready for use. If the pie is not to be eaten
immediately, omit the herbs and parsley, as these will prevent it from
keeping. Mushrooms or truffles may be added. _Sufficient_ for 2 small
pies.


FORCEMEAT, for Pike, Carp, Haddock, and various Kinds of Fish.

_Ingredients._—1 oz. of fresh butter, 1 oz. of suet, 1 oz. of fat
bacon, 1 small teaspoonful of minced savoury herbs, including parsley;
a little onion, when liked, shredded very fine; salt, nutmeg, and
cayenne to taste; 4 oz. of bread-crumbs, 1 egg. _Mode._—Mix all the
ingredients well together, carefully mincing them very finely; beat up
the egg, moisten with it, and work the whole very smoothly together.
Oysters or anchovies may be added to this forcemeat, and will be
found a great improvement. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for a
moderate-sized haddock or pie.


FORCEMEAT, for Baked Pike.

_Ingredients._—3 oz. of bread-crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury
herbs, 8 oysters, 2 anchovies (these may be dispensed with), 2 oz.
of suet; salt, pepper, and pounded mace to taste; 6 tablespoonfuls
of cream or milk, the yolks of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Beard and mince the
oysters, prepare and mix the other ingredients, and blend the whole
thoroughly together. Moisten with the cream and eggs, put all into a
stewpan, and stir it over the fire till it thickens, when put it into
the fish, which should have previously been cut open, and sew it up.
_Time._—4 or 5 minutes to thicken. _Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_
for a moderate-sized pike.


FORCEMEAT, or QUENELLES, for Turtle Soup. (Soyer’s Recipe.)

Take a pound and a half of lean veal from the fillet, and cut it in
long thin slices; scrape with a knife till nothing but the fibre
remains; put it into a mortar, pound it 10 minutes, or until in a
purée; pass it through a wire sieve (use the remainder in stock); then
take 1 pound of good fresh beef suet, which skin, shred, and chop very
fine; put it into a mortar and pound it; then add 6 oz. of panada (that
is, bread soaked in milk and boiled till nearly dry) with the suet;
pound them well together, and add the veal; season with a teaspoonful
of salt, a quarter one of pepper, half that of nutmeg; work all well
together; then add four eggs by degrees, continually pounding the
contents of the mortar. When well mixed, take a small piece in a spoon,
and poach it in some boiling water; and if it is delicate, firm, and of
a good flavour, it is ready for use.


FORCEMEAT VEAL, or VEAL QUENELLES.

_Ingredients._—Equal quantities of veal, panada, and calf’s udder, 2
eggs; seasoning to taste of pepper, salt, and pounded mace, or grated
nutmeg; a little flour. _Mode._—Take the fleshy part of veal, scrape
it with a knife, till all the meat is separated from the sinews,
and allow about ½ lb. for an entrée. Chop the meat, and pound it in
a mortar till reduced to a paste; then roll it into a ball; make
another of panada the same size, and another of udder, taking care
that these three balls be of the same size. (It is to be remembered,
that equality of _size_, and not of weight, is here necessary.) When
the three ingredients are properly prepared, pound them altogether in
a mortar for some time; for the more quenelles are pounded, the more
delicate they are. Now moisten with the eggs, whites and yolks, and
continue pounding, adding a seasoning of pepper, spices, &c. When the
whole is well blended together, mould it into balls, or whatever shape
is intended, roll them in flour, and poach in boiling water, to which
a little salt should have been added. If the quenelles are not firm
enough, add the yolk of another egg, but omit the white, which only
makes them hollow and puffy inside. In the preparation of this recipe,
it would be well to bear in mind that the ingredients are to be well
pounded and seasoned, and must be made hard or soft according to the
dishes they are intended for. For brown or white ragoûts they should be
firm, and when the quenelles are used very small, extreme delicacy will
be necessary in their preparation. Their flavour may be varied by using
the flesh of rabbit, fowl, hare, pheasant, grouse, or an extra quantity
of mushroom, parsley, &c.


FORCEMEAT for Veal, Turkeys, Fowls, Hare, &c.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of ham or lean bacon, ¼ lb. of suet, the rind
of half a lemon, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1 teaspoonful of
minced sweet herbs; salt, cayenne, and pounded mace to taste; 6 oz. of
bread-crumbs, 2 eggs. _Mode._—Shred the ham or bacon, chop the suet,
lemon-peel, and herbs, taking particular care that all be very finely
minced; add a seasoning to taste of salt, cayenne, and mace, and blend
all thoroughly together with the bread-crumbs, before wetting. Now beat
and strain the eggs; work these up with the other ingredients, and
the forcemeat will be ready for use. When it is made into balls, fry
of a nice brown, in boiling lard, or put them on a tin and bake for
½ hour in a moderate oven. As we have stated before, no one flavour
should predominate greatly, and the forcemeat should be of sufficient
body to cut with a knife, and yet not dry and heavy. For very delicate
forcemeat, it is advisable to pound the ingredients together before
binding with the eggs; but for ordinary cooking, mincing very finely
answers the purpose. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for a turkey, a
moderate-sized fillet of veal, or a hare.

_Note._—In the forcemeat for Hare, the liver of the animal is sometimes
added. Boil for 5 minutes, mince it very small, and mix it with the
other ingredients. If it should be in an unsound state, it must be on
no account made use of.


FOWLS, Boiled, à la Béchamel.

_Ingredients._—A pair of fowls, 1 pint of Béchamel, a few bunches of
boiled broccoli or cauliflower. _Mode._—Truss and boil the flowers;
make a pint of Béchamel sauce; pour some of this over the fowls, and
the remainder send to table in a tureen. Garnish the dish with bunches
of boiled cauliflowers or broccoli, and serve very hot. The sauce
should be made sufficiently thick to adhere to the fowls; that for
the tureen should be thinned by adding a spoonful or two of stock.
_Time._—From ½ to 1 hour, according to size. _Average cost_, in full
season, 5_s._ a pair. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ all
the year, but scarce in early spring.


FOWLS, Boiled, to Carve.

[Illustration: BOILED FOWL.]

This will not be found a very difficult member of the poultry family
to carve, unless, as may happen, a very old farm-yard occupant,
useless for egg-laying purposes, has, by some unlucky mischance,
been introduced into the kitchen as a “fine young chicken.” Skill,
however, and the application of a small amount of strength, combined
with a fine keeping of the temper, will even get over that difficulty.
Fixing the fork firmly in the breast, let the knife be firmly passed
along the line shown from 1 to 2; then cut downwards from that line
to fig. 3: and the wing, it will be found, can be easily withdrawn.
The shape of the wing should be like the accompanying engraving. Let
the fork be placed inside the leg, which should be gently forced away
from the body of the fowl; and the joint, being thus discovered, the
carver can readily cut through it, and the leg can be served. When
the leg is displaced, it should be of the same shape as that shown in
the annexed woodcut. The legs and wings on either side having been
taken off, the carver should draw his knife through the flesh in the
direction of the line 4 to 5; by this means the knife can be slipped
underneath the merrythought, which, being lifted up and pressed
backward, will immediately come off. The collar- or neck-bones are the
next to consider: these lie on each side of the merrythought, close
under the upper part of the wings; and, in order to free these from the
fowl, they must also be raised by the knife at their broad end, and
turned from the body towards the breastbone, until the shorter piece
of the bone, as shown in the cut, breaks off. There will now be left
only the breast, with the ribs. The breast can be, without difficulty,
disengaged from the ribs by cutting through the latter, which will
offer little impediment. The side bones are now to be taken off;
and to do this, the lower end of the back should be turned from the
carver, who should press the point of the knife through the top of the
backbone, near the centre, bringing it down towards the end of the back
completely through the bone. If the knife be now turned in the opposite
direction, the joint will be easily separated from the vertebræ.
The backbone being now uppermost, the fork should be pressed firmly
down on it, whilst at the same time the knife should be employed in
raising up the lower small end of the fowl towards the fork, and thus
the back will be dislocated about its middle. The wings, breast, and
merrythought are esteemed the prime parts of a fowl, and are usually
served to the ladies of the company, to whom legs, except as a matter
of paramount necessity, should not be given. Byron gave it as one
reason why he did not like dining with ladies, that they always had the
wings of the fowls, which he himself preferred. We heard a gentleman
who, when he might have had a wing, declare his partiality for a leg,
saying that he had been obliged to eat legs for so long a time that he
had at last come to like them better than the other more prized parts.
If the fowl is, capon-like, very large, slices may be carved from its
breast in the same manner as from a turkey’s.

[Illustration: LEG, WING, AND NECKBONE OF FOWL.]


FOWL, Boiled, with Oysters. (Excellent.)

_Ingredients._—1 young fowl, 3 dozen oysters, the yolks of 2 eggs, ¼
pint of cream. _Mode._—Truss a young fowl as for boiling; fill the
inside with oysters which have been bearded and washed in their own
liquor; secure the ends of the fowl, put it into a jar, and plunge the
jar into a saucepan of boiling water. Keep it boiling for 1½ hour, or
rather longer; then take the gravy that has flowed from the oysters
and fowl, of which there will be a good quantity; stir in the cream
and yolks of eggs, add a few oysters scalded in their liquor; let the
sauce get quite _hot_, but do not allow it to _boil_; pour some of it
over the fowl, and the remainder send to table in a tureen. A blade
of pounded mace added to the sauce, with the cream and eggs, will be
found an improvement. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_, 4_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from September to April.


FOWLS, Broiled, and Mushroom Sauce.

_Ingredients._—A large fowl; seasoning, to taste, of pepper and salt, 2
handfuls of button mushrooms, 1 slice of lean ham, ¾ pint of thickened
gravy, 1 teaspoonful of lemon juice, ½ teaspoonful of pounded sugar.
_Mode._—Cut the fowl into quarters, roast it until three-parts done,
and keep it well basted whilst at the fire. Take the fowl up, broil
it for a few minutes over a clear fire, and season it with pepper and
salt. Have ready some mushroom sauce made in the following manner. Put
the mushrooms into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, the ham, a
seasoning of pepper and salt, and the gravy; simmer these gently for ½
hour, add the lemon-juice and sugar, dish the fowl, and pour the sauce
round them. _Time._—To roast the fowl, 35 minutes; to broil it, 10 to
15 minutes. _Average cost_, in full season, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_
for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable._—In full season from May to January.


FOWL, Boiled, and Rice.

_Ingredients._—1 fowl, mutton broth, 2 onions, 2 small blades of
pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste, ¼ pint of rice, parsley and
butter. _Mode._—Truss the fowl as for boiling, and put it into a
stewpan with sufficient clear well-skimmed mutton broth to cover it;
add the onion, mace, and a seasoning of pepper and salt; stew very
gently for about 1 hour, should the fowl be large, and about ½ hour
before it is ready put in the rice, which should be well washed and
soaked. When the latter is tender, strain it from the liquor, and put
it on a sieve reversed to dry before the fire, and, in the mean time,
keep the fowl hot. Dish it, put the rice round as a border, pour a
little parsley and butter over the fowl, and the remainder send to
table in a tureen. _Time._—A large fowl, 1 hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year.


FOWLS, to Bone, for Fricassees, Curries, and Pies.

First carve them entirely into joints, then remove the bones, beginning
with the legs and wings, at the head of the largest bone; hold this
with the fingers, and work the knife as directed in the recipe
above. The remainder of the birds is too easily done to require any
instructions.


FOWL, Croquettes of (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—3 or 4 shalots, 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of flour,
white sauce; pepper, salt, and pounded mace to taste; ½ teaspoonful of
pounded sugar, the remains of cold roast fowls, the yolks of 2 eggs,
egg, and bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Mince the fowl, carefully removing all
skin and bone, and fry the shalots in the butter; add the minced fowl,
dredge in the flour, put in the pepper, salt, mace, pounded sugar,
and sufficient white sauce to moisten it; stir to it the yolks of 2
well-beaten eggs, and set it by to cool. Then make the mixture up
into balls, egg and bread-crumb them, and fry a nice brown. They may
be served on a border of mashed potatoes, with gravy or sauce in the
centre. _Time._—10 minutes to fry the balls. _Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWL AND RICE, Croquettes of (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of rice, 1 quart of stock or broth, 3 oz. of
butter, minced fowl, egg, and bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Put the rice into
the above proportion of cold stock or broth, and let it boil very
gently for ½ hour; then add the butter, and simmer it till quite dry
and soft. When cold, make it into balls, hollow out the inside, and
fill with minced fowl made by recipe. The mince should be rather thick.
Cover over with rice, dip the balls into egg, sprinkle them with
bread-crumbs, and fry a nice brown. Dish them, and garnish with fried
parsley. Oysters, white sauce, or a little cream, may be stirred into
the rice before it cools. _Time._—½ hour to boil the rice, 10 minutes
to fry the croquettes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl, 8_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWL, Curried.

_Ingredients._—1 fowl, 2 oz. of butter, 3 onions sliced, 1 pint of
white veal gravy, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 tablespoonful
of flour, 1 apple, 4 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice. _Mode._—Put the butter into a stewpan, with the onions
sliced, the fowl cut into small joints; and the apple peeled, cored,
and minced. Fry of a pale brown, add the stock, and stew gently for
20 minutes; rub down the curry-powder and flour with a little of the
gravy, quite smoothly, and stir this to the other ingredients; simmer
for rather more than ½ hour, and just before serving, add the above
proportion of hot cream and lemon-juice. Serve with boiled rice, which
may either be heaped lightly on a dish by itself, or put round the
curry as a border. _Time._—50 minutes. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 3_d._
_Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ in the winter.

_Note._—This curry may be made of cold chicken, but undressed meat
will be found far superior.


FOWL, Fricasseed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl, 1
strip of lemon-peel, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 bunch of savoury herbs,
1 onion, pepper and salt to taste, 1 pint of water, 1 teaspoonful of
flour, ¼ pint of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Carve the fowls
into nice joints; make gravy of the trimmings and legs, by stewing them
with the lemon-peel, mace, herbs, onion, seasoning, and water, until
reduced to ½ pint; then strain, and put in the fowl. Warm it through,
and thicken with a teaspoonful of flour; stir the yolks of the eggs
into the cream; add these to the sauce, let it get thoroughly hot, but
do not allow it to boil, or it will curdle. _Time._—1 hour to make the
gravy, ¼ hour to warm the fowl. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold
chicken, 8_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWLS, Fried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowls,
vinegar, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 or 4 minced shalots. For the
batter,—½ lb. of flour, ½ pint of hot water, 2 oz. of butter, the
whites of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Cut the fowl into nice joints; steep them for
an hour in a little vinegar, with salt, cayenne, and minced shalots.
Make the batter by mixing the flour and water smoothly together; melt
in it the butter, and add the whites of egg beaten to a froth; take out
the pieces of fowl, dip them in the batter, and fry in boiling lard, a
nice brown. Pile them high in the dish, and garnish with fried parsley
or rolled bacon. When approved, a sauce or gravy may be served with
them. _Time._—10 minutes to fry the fowl. _Average cost_, exclusive of
the cold fowl, 8_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWLS, Fried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl,
vinegar, salt and cayenne to taste, 4 minced shalots, yolk of egg;
to every teacupful of bread-crumbs allow 1 blade of pounded mace, ½
teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, 1 saltspoonful of salt, a few grains
of cayenne. _Mode._—Steep the pieces of fowl as in the preceding
recipe, then dip them into the yolk of an egg or clarified butter;
sprinkle over bread-crumbs with which have been mixed salt, mace,
cayenne, and lemon-peel in the above proportion. Fry a light brown, and
serve with or without gravy, as may be preferred. _Time._—10 minutes
to fry the fowl. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fowl, 6_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWLS, Fried, and French Beans.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl; the
yolk of 1 egg, 2 oz. of butter, 1 blade of pounded mace, ¼ saltspoonful
of grated nutmeg, bread-crumbs and chopped parsley. _Mode._—Cut the
fowl into neat joints, brush them over with the yolk of egg, and
sprinkle them with bread-crumbs, with which the _parsley_, _nutmeg_,
and _mace_ have been well mixed. Fry the fowl in the butter until of a
nice brown, and dish the pieces on French beans boiled, and afterwards
simmered for a minute or two in butter. The dish should be garnished
with rolled bacon. _Time._—10 minutes to fry the fowl. _Average cost_,
exclusive of the cold fowl, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ from July to September.


FOWL au Gratin.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of either cold roast
or boiled fowl, ½ pint of Béchamel sauce, a dessertspoonful of grated
Parmesan cheese, pepper and salt to taste, ¼ saltspoonful of grated
nutmeg, ¼ pint of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs, fried
potatoes. _Mode._—Mince the fowl not too finely, and make it hot in
the Béchamel sauce, to which the nutmeg, pepper and salt, and cream,
have been added. When well mixed, serve the fowl on to a dish, cover it
with the bread-crumbs and Parmesan cheese, drop over a little clarified
butter, and bake in the oven until of a pale brown. Garnish the dish
with fried potatoes. _Time._—10 minutes to warm the fowl, 10 minutes to
bake. _Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWL, Hashed. An Entrée.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl, 1
pint of water, 1 onion, 2 or 3 small carrots, 1 blade of pounded mace,
pepper and salt to taste, 1 small bunch of savoury herbs, thickening
of butter and flour, 1½ tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup. _Mode._—Cut
off the best joints from the fowl, and the remainder make into gravy,
by adding to the bones and trimmings a pint of water, an onion sliced
and fried of a nice brown, the carrots, mace, seasoning, and herbs.
Let these stew gently for 1½ hour, strain the liquor, and thicken
with a little flour and butter. Lay in the fowl, thoroughly warm it
through, add the ketchup, and garnish with sippets of toasted bread.
_Time._—Altogether 1¾ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fowl,
4_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWL, Hashed, Indian Fashion (an Entrée).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl, 3
or 4 sliced onions, 1 apple, 2 oz. of butter, pounded mace, pepper and
salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 2 tablespoonfuls of
vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1
pint of gravy. _Mode._—Cut the onions into slices, mince the apple, and
fry these in the butter; add pounded mace, pepper, salt, curry-powder,
vinegar, flour, and sugar in the above proportions; when the onion is
brown, put in the gravy, which should be previously made from the bones
and trimmings of the fowls, and stew for ¾ hour; add the fowl cut into
nice-sized joints, let it warm through, and when quite tender, serve.
The dish should be garnished with an edging of boiled rice. _Time._—1
hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl, 8_d._ _Seasonable_ at any
time.


FOWL, an Indian Dish of (an Entrée).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl, 3
or 4 sliced onions, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, salt to taste.
_Mode._—Divide the fowl into joints; slice and fry the onions in a
little butter, taking care not to burn them; sprinkle over the fowl a
little curry-powder and salt; fry these nicely, pile them high in the
centre of the dish, cover with the onion, and serve with a cut lemon on
a plate. Care must be taken that the onions are not greasy: they should
be quite dry, but not burnt. _Time._—5 minutes to fry the onions, 10
minutes to fry the fowl. _Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl, 4_d._
_Seasonable_ during the winter months.


FOWL à la Mayonnaise.

_Ingredients._—A cold roast fowl, Mayonnaise sauce, 4 or 5 young
lettuces, 4 hard-boiled eggs, a few water-cresses, endive. _Mode._—Cut
the fowl into neat joints, lay them in a deep dish, piling them high in
the centre, sauce the fowl with Mayonnaise, and garnish the dish with
young lettuces cut in halves, water-cresses, endive, and hard-boiled
eggs: these may be sliced in rings, or laid on the dish whole, cutting
off at the bottom a piece of the white, to make the egg stand. All
kinds of cold meat and solid fish may be dressed à la Mayonnaise, and
make excellent luncheon or supper dishes. The sauce should not be
poured over the fowls until the moment of serving. Should a very large
Mayonnaise be required, use 2 fowls instead of one, with an equal
proportion of the remaining ingredients. _Average cost_, with one fowl,
3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized dish. _Seasonable_ from
April to September.


FOWL, Minced (an Entrée).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl, 2
hard-boiled eggs, salt, cayenne, and pounded mace, 1 onion, 1 faggot
of savoury herbs, 6 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 oz. of butter, two
teaspoonfuls of flour, ½ teaspoonful of finely-minced lemon-peel, 1
tablespoonful of lemon-juice. _Mode._—Cut out from the fowl all the
white meat, and mince it finely without any skin or bone; put the
bones, skin, and trimmings into a stewpan with an onion, a bunch of
savoury herbs, a blade of mace, and nearly a pint of water; let this
stew for an hour, then strain the liquor. Chop the eggs small; mix them
with the fowl; add salt, cayenne, and pounded mace, put in the gravy
and remaining ingredients; let the whole just boil, and serve with
sippets of toasted bread. _Time._—Rather more than 1 hour. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the fowl, 8_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Another way to make this is to mince the fowl, and warm it in
white sauce or Béchamel. When dressed like this, 3 or 4 poached eggs
may be placed on the top: oysters, or chopped mushrooms, or balls of
oyster forcemeat, may be laid round the dish.


FOWL, Minced, à la Béchamel.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowl,
6 tablespoonfuls of Béchamel sauce, 6 tablespoonfuls of white stock,
the white of 1 egg, bread-crumbs, clarified butter. _Mode._—Take the
remains of roast fowls, mince the white meat very small, and put it
into a stewpan with the Béchamel and stock; stir it well over the fire,
and just let it boil up. Pour the mince into a dish, beat up the white
of egg, spread it over, and strew on it a few grated bread-crumbs; pour
a very little clarified butter on the whole, and brown either before
the fire or with a salamander. This should be served in a silver dish,
if at hand. _Time._—2 or 3 minutes to simmer in the sauce. _Seasonable_
at any time.


FOWL, Ragoût of.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast fowls,
3 shalots, 2 blades of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, 2 or 3 slices
of lean ham, 1 pint of stock or water, pepper and salt to taste, 1
onion, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, ½
teaspoonful of pounded sugar, 1 oz. of butter. _Mode._—Cut the fowls up
into neat pieces, the same as for a fricassee; put the trimmings into
a stewpan with the shalots, mace, herbs, ham, onion, and stock (water
may be substituted for this). Boil it slowly for 1 hour, strain the
liquor, and put a small piece of butter into a stewpan; when melted,
dredge in sufficient flour to dry up the butter, and stir it over the
fire. Put in the strained liquor, boil for a few minutes, and strain
it again over the pieces of fowl. Squeeze in the lemon-juice, add the
sugar and a seasoning of pepper and salt, make it hot, but do not allow
it to boil; lay the fowl neatly on the dish, and garnish with croûtons.
_Time._—Altogether 1½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold fowl,
9_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


FOWLS, Roast.

_Ingredients._—A pair of fowls, a little flour. _Mode._—Fowls, to be
tender, should be killed a couple of days before they are dressed;
when the feathers come out easily; then let them be picked and cooked.
In drawing them be careful not to break the gall-bag, as, wherever it
touches, it would impart a very bitter taste; the liver and gizzard
should also be preserved. Truss them in the following manner:—After
having carefully picked them, cut off the head, and skewer the skin of
the neck down over the back. Cut off the claws, dip the legs in boiling
water, and scrape them; turn the pinions under, run a skewer through
them and the middle of the legs, which should be passed through the
body to the pinion and leg on the other side, one skewer securing the
limbs on both sides. The liver and gizzard should be placed in the
wings, the liver on one side and the gizzard on the other. Tie the legs
together by passing a trussing-needle, threaded with twine, through the
backbone, and secure it on the other side. If trussed like a capon, the
legs are placed more apart. When firmly trussed, singe them all over;
put them down to a bright clear fire, paper the breasts with a sheet of
buttered paper, and keep the fowls well basted. Roast them for ¾ hour,
more or less, according to the size, and 10 minutes before serving,
remove the paper, dredge the fowls with a little fine flour, put a
piece of butter into the basting-ladle, and as it melts baste the fowls
with it; when nicely frothed and of a rich colour, serve with good
brown gravy (a little of which should be poured over the fowls), and a
tureen of well-made bread sauce. Mushroom, oyster, or egg sauce, are
very suitable accompaniments to roast fowl.—Chicken is roasted in the
same manner. _Time._—A very large fowl, quite 1 hour; a medium-sized
one, ¾ hour; chicken, ½ hour, or rather longer. _Average cost_, in full
season, 5_s._ a pair; when scarce, 7_s._ 6_d._ the pair. _Sufficient_
for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year, but scarce in early
spring.

[Illustration: ROAST FOWL.]


FOWL, Roast, to Carve.

A roast fowl is carved in the same manner as a boiled fowl, viz., by
cutting along the line from 1 to 2, and then round the leg between
it and the wing. The markings and detached pieces, as shown in the
engravings under the heading of “Boiled Fowl,” supersede the necessity
of our lengthily again describing the operation. It may be added, that
the liver, being considered a delicacy, should be divided, and one half
served with each wing. In the case of a fowl being stuffed, it will be
proper to give each guest a portion, unless it be not agreeable to some
one of the party.

[Illustration: ROAST FOWL.]


FOWL, Roast, Stuffed.

_Ingredients._—A large fowl, forcemeat, a little flour. _Mode._—Select
a large plump fowl, fill the breast with forcemeat, truss it firmly,
the same as for a plain roast fowl, dredge it with flour, and put it
down to a bright fire. Roast it for nearly or quite an hour, should it
be very large; remove the skewers, and serve with a good brown gravy
and a tureen of bread sauce. _Time._—Large fowl, nearly or quite 1
hour. _Average cost_, in full season, 2_s._ 6_d._ each. _Sufficient_
for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year, but scarce in early
spring.

_Note._—Sausage-meat stuffing may be substituted: this is now a very
general mode of serving fowl.


FOWL SAUTE with Peas (an Entrée).

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast
fowl, 2 oz. of butter, pepper, salt, and pounded mace to taste, 1
dessertspoonful of flour, ½ pint of weak stock, 1 pint of green peas,
1 teaspoonful of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Cut the fowl into nice pieces;
put the butter into a stewpan; sautez or fry the fowl a nice brown
colour, previously sprinkling it with pepper, salt, and pounded mace.
Dredge in the flour, shake the ingredients well round, then add the
stock and peas, and stew till the latter are tender, which will be in
about 20 minutes; put in the pounded sugar, and serve, placing the
chicken round, and the peas in the middle of the dish. When liked,
mushrooms may be substituted for the peas. _Time._—Altogether 40
minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the fowl, 7_d._ _Seasonable_ from
June to August.


FOWL SCOLLOPS.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast or boiled
fowl, ½ pint of Béchamel, or white sauce. _Mode._—Strip off the skin
from the fowl; cut the meat into thin slices, and warm them in about
½ pint, or rather more, of Béchamel, or white sauce. When quite hot,
serve, and garnish the dish with rolled ham or bacon toasted. _Time._—1
minute to simmer the slices of fowl. _Seasonable_ at any time.


FRENCH TERMS used in modern Household Cookery, explained.

ASPIC.—A savoury jelly, used as an exterior moulding for cold game,
poultry, fish, &c. This, being of a transparent nature, allows the
article which it covers to be seen through it. This may also be used
for decorating or garnishing.

ASSIETTE (plate).—_Assiettes_ are the small _entrées_ and
_hors-d’œuvres_, the quantity of which does not exceed what a plate
will hold. At dessert, fruits, cheese, chestnuts, biscuits, &c., if
served upon a plate, are termed _assiettes_.—ASSIETTE VOLANTE is a dish
which a servant hands round to the guests, but is not placed upon the
table. Small cheese soufflés and different dishes, which ought to be
served very hot, are frequently made _assiettes volantes_.

AU-BLEU.—Fish dressed in such a manner as to have a _bluish_ appearance.

BAIN-MARIE.—An open saucepan or kettle of nearly boiling water, in
which a smaller vessel can be set for cooking and warming. This is
very useful for keeping articles hot, without altering their quantity
or quality. If you keep sauce, broth, or soup by the fireside, the
soup reduces and becomes too strong, and the sauce thickens as well as
reduces; but this is prevented by using the _bain-marie_, in which the
water should be very hot, but not boiling.

BÉCHAMEL.—French white sauce, now frequently used in English cookery.

BLANCH.—To whiten poultry, vegetables, fruit, &c., by plunging them
into boiling water for a short time, and afterwards plunging them into
cold water, there to remain until they are cold.

BLANQUETTE.—A sort of fricassee.

BOUILLI.—Beef or other meat boiled; but, generally speaking, boiled
beef is understood by the term.

BOUILLIE.—A French dish resembling hasty-pudding.

BOUILLON.—A thin broth or soup.

BRAISE.—To stew meat with fat bacon until it is tender, it having
previously been blanched.

BRAISIÈRE.—A saucepan having a lid with ledges, to put fire on the top.

BRIDER.—To pass a packthread through poultry, game, &c., to keep
together their members.

CARAMEL (burnt sugar).—This is made with a piece of sugar, of the size
of a nut, browned in the bottom of a saucepan; upon which a cupful of
stock is gradually poured, stirring all the time, and adding the broth
little by little. It may be used with the feather of a quill, to colour
meats, such as the upper part of fricandeaux; and to impart colour to
sauces. Caramel made with water instead of stock may be used to colour
_compôtes_ and other _entremets_.

CASSEROLE.—A crust of rice, which, after having been moulded into the
form of a pie, is baked, and then filled with a fricassee of white meat
or a purée of game.

COMPÔTE.—A stew, as of fruit or pigeons.

CONSOMMÉ.—Rich stock, or gravy.

CROQUETTE.—Ball of fried rice or potatoes.

CROÛTONS.—Sippets of bread.

DAUBIÈRE.—An oval stewpan, in which _daubes_ are cooked; _daubes_ being
meat or fowl stewed in sauce.

DÉSOSSER.—To _bone_, or take out the bones from poultry, game, or fish.
This is an operation requiring considerable experience.

ENTRÉES.—Small side or corner dishes served with the first course.

ENTREMETS.—Small side or corner dishes served with the second course.

ESCALOPES.—Collops; small, round, thin pieces of tender meat, or of
fish, beaten with the handle of a strong knife to make them tender.

FEUILLETAGE.—Puff-paste.

FLAMBER.—To singe fowl or game, after they have been picked.

FONCER.—To put in the bottom of a saucepan slices of ham, veal, or thin
broad slices of bacon.

GALETTE.—A broad thin cake.

GÂTEAU.—A cake, correctly speaking; but used sometimes to denote a
pudding and a kind of tart.

GLACER.—To glaze, or spread upon hot meats, or larded fowl, a thick and
rich sauce or gravy, called _glaze_. This is laid on with a feather or
brush, and in confectionary the term means to ice fruits and pastry
with sugar, which glistens on hardening.

HORS-D’ŒVRES.—Small dishes, or _assiettes volantes_ of sardines,
anchovies, and other relishes of this kind, served to the guests during
the first course. (_See_ ASSIETTES VOLANTES.)

LIT.—A bed or layer; articles in thin slices are placed in layers,
other articles, or seasoning, being laid between them.

MAIGRE.—Broth, soup, or gravy, made without meat.

MATELOTE.—A rich fish-stew, which is generally composed of carp, eels,
trout, or barbel. It is made with wine.

MAYONNAISE.—Cold sauce, or salad dressing.

MENU.—The bill of fare.

MERINGUE.—A kind of icing, made of whites of eggs and sugar, well
beaten.

MIROTON.—Larger slices of meat than collops; such as slices of beef for
a vinaigrette, or ragoût or stew of onions.

MOUILLER.—To add water, broth, or other liquid, during the cooking.

PANER.—To cover with very fine crumbs of bread, meats, or any other
articles to be cooked on the gridiron, in the oven, or frying-pan.

PIQUER.—To lard with strips of fat bacon, poultry, game, meat, &c. This
should always be done according to the vein of the meat, so that in
carving you slice the bacon across as well as the meat.

POELÉE.—Stock used instead of water for boiling turkeys, sweetbreads,
fowls, and vegetables, to render them less insipid.—This is rather an
expensive preparation.

PURÉE.—Vegetables or meat reduced to a very smooth pulp, which is
afterwards mixed with enough liquid to make it of the consistency of
very thick soup.

RAGOÛT.—Stew or hash.

REMOULADE.—Salad dressing.

RISSOLES.—Pastry, made of light puff-paste, and cut into various forms,
and fried. They may be filled with fish, meat, or sweets.

ROUX.—Brown and white; French thickening.

SALMI.—Ragoût of game previously roasted.

SAUCE PIQUANTE.—A sharp sauce, in which somewhat of a vinegar flavour
predominates.

SAUTER.—To dress with sauce in a saucepan, repeatedly moving it about.

TAMIS.—Tammy, a sort of open cloth or sieve through which to strain
broth and sauces, so as to rid them of small bones, froth, &c.

TOURTE.—Tart. Fruit pie.

TROUSSER.—To truss a bird; to put together the body and tie the wings
and thighs, in order to round it for roasting or boiling, each being
tied then with packthread, to keep it in the required form.

VOL-AU-VENT.—A rich crust of very fine puff-paste, which may be filled
with various delicate ragoûts or fricassees, of fish, flesh, or fowl.
Fruit may also be inclosed in a _vol-au-vent_.


FRITTERS, Indian.

_Ingredients._—3 tablespoonfuls of flour, boiling water, the yolks of 4
eggs, the whites of 2, hot lard or clarified dripping, jam. _Mode._—Put
the flour into a basin, and pour over it sufficient _boiling_ water
to make it into a stiff paste, taking care to stir and beat it well,
to prevent it getting lumpy. Leave it a little time to cool, and then
break into it (_without beating them at first_) the yolks of 4 eggs
and the whites of 2, and stir and beat all well together. Have ready
some boiling lard or butter; drop a dessertspoonful of batter in at
a time, and fry the fritters of a light brown. They should rise so
much as to be almost like balls. Serve on a dish, with a spoonful of
preserve or marmalade dropped in between each fritter. This is an
excellent dish for a hasty addition to dinner, if a guest unexpectedly
arrives, it being so easily and quickly made, and it is always a great
favourite. _Time._—From 5 to 8 minutes to fry the fritters. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the jam, 5_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


FRITTERS, Plain.

_Ingredients._—3 oz. of flour, 3 eggs, 1/3 pint of milk. _Mode._—Mix
the flour to a smooth batter with a small quantity of the milk; stir
in the eggs, which should be well whisked, and then the remainder of
the milk; beat the whole to a perfectly smooth batter, and should it
be found not quite thin enough, add two or three tablespoonfuls more
milk. Have ready a frying-pan, with plenty of boiling lard in it; drop
in rather more than a tablespoonful at a time of the batter and fry
the fritters a nice brown, turning them when sufficiently cooked on
one side. Drain them well from the greasy moisture by placing them
upon a piece of blotting-paper before the fire; dish them on a white
d’oyley, sprinkle over them sifted sugar, and send to table with them
a cut lemon and plenty of pounded sugar. _Time._—From 6 to 8 minutes.
_Average cost_, 4_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


FRUIT, to Bottle Fresh. (Very useful in Winter.)

_Ingredients._—Fresh fruits, such as currants, raspberries, cherries,
gooseberries, plums of all kinds, damsons, &c.; wide-mouthed glass
bottles, new corks to fit them tightly. _Mode._—Let the fruit be full
grown, but not too ripe, and gathered in dry weather. Pick it off the
stalks without bruising or breaking the skin, and reject any that is
at all blemished: if gathered in the damp, or if the skins are cut
at all, the fruit will mould. Have ready some _perfectly dry_ glass
bottles, and some nice _new_ soft corks or bungs; burn a match in
each bottle, to exhaust the air, and quickly place the fruit in to be
preserved; gently cork the bottles, and put them in a very cool oven,
where let them remain until the fruit has shrunk away a fourth part.
Then take the bottles out; _do not open them_, but immediately beat the
corks in tight, cut off the tops, and cover them with melted resin.
If kept in a dry place, the fruit will remain good for months; and on
this principally depends the success of the preparation; for if stored
away in a place that is in the least damp, the fruit will soon spoil.
_Time._—From 5 to 6 hours in a very slow oven.


FRUIT, to Bottle Fresh.

_Ingredients._—Any kind of fresh fruit, such as currants, cherries,
gooseberries, all kinds of plums, &c.; wide-mouthed glass bottles,
new corks to fit them tightly. _Mode._—the fruit must be full-grown,
not too ripe, and gathered on a fine day. Let it be carefully picked
and put into the bottles, which must be clean and perfectly dry. Tie
over the tops of the bottles pieces of bladder; stand the bottles in a
large pot, copper, or boiler, with cold water to reach to their necks;
kindle a fire under, let the water boil, and as the bladders begin to
rise and puff, prick them. As soon as the water boils, extinguish the
fire, and let the bottles remain where they are, to become cold. The
next day remove the bladders, and strew over the fruit a thick layer of
pounded sugar; fit the bottles with cork, and let each cork lie close
at hand to its own bottle. Hold for a few moments, in the neck of the
bottle, two or three lighted matches, and when they have filled the
bottle neck with gas, and before they go out, remove them very quickly;
instantly cork the bottle closely, and dip it in bottle-cement.
_Time._—Altogether about 8 hours.


FRUIT, to Bottle Fresh, with Sugar. (Very useful in Winter.)

_Ingredients._—Any kind of fresh fruit; to each quart bottle allow ¼
lb. of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Let the fruit be gathered in dry weather.
Pick it carefully, and drop it into _clean_ and _very dry_ quart glass
bottles, sprinkling over it the above proportion of pounded sugar to
each quart. Put the corks in the bottles, and place them in a copper
of cold water up to their necks, with small hay-wisps round them, to
prevent the bottles from knocking together. Light the fire under, bring
the water gradually to boil, and let it simmer gently until the fruit
in the bottles is reduced nearly one third. Extinguish the fire, _and
let the bottles remain in the water until it is perfectly cold_; then
take them out, make the corks secure, and cover them with melted resin
or wax. _Time._—About ½ hour from the time the water commences to boil.


FRUIT TURNOVERS (suitable for Pic-Nics).

_Ingredients._—Puff-paste, any kind of fruit, sugar to taste.
_Mode._—Make some puff-paste by recipe; roll it out to the thickness
of about ¼ inch, and cut it out in pieces of a circular form; pile the
fruit on half of the paste, sprinkle over some sugar, wet the edges
and turn the paste over. Press the edges together, ornament them, and
brush the turnovers over with the white of an egg; sprinkle over sifted
sugar, and bake on tins, in a brisk oven, for about 20 minutes. Instead
of putting the fruit in raw, it may be boiled down with a little sugar
first, and then inclosed in the crust; or jam, of any kind, may be
substituted for fresh fruit. _Time._—20 minutes. _Sufficient._—½ lb. of
puff-paste will make a dozen turnovers. _Seasonable_ at any time.


GAME, Hashed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold game, 1 onion
stuck with 3 cloves, a few whole peppers, a strip of lemon-peel, salt
to taste, thickening of butter and flour, 1 glass of port wine, 1
tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful of ketchup, 1 pint of
water or weak stock. _Mode._—Cut the remains of cold game into joints,
reserve the best pieces, and the inferior ones and trimmings put into
a stewpan with the onion, pepper, lemon-peel, salt, and water or weak
stock; stew these for about an hour, and strain the gravy; thicken it
with butter and flour; add the wine, lemon-juice, and ketchup; lay in
the pieces of game, and let them gradually warm through by the side of
the fire; do not allow it to boil, or the game will be hard. When on
the point of simmering, serve, and garnish the dish with sippets of
toasted bread. _Time._—Altogether 1¼ hour. _Seasonable_ from August to
March.

_Note._—Any kind of game may be hashed by the above recipe, and the
flavour may be varied by adding flavoured vinegars, curry powder, &c.;
but we cannot recommend these latter ingredients, as a dish of game
should really have a gamy taste; and if too many sauces, essences, &c.,
are added to the gravy, they quite overpower and destroy the flavour
the dish should possess.


GERMAN PUFFS.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of flour, 2 eggs, ½ pint of new milk, 2 oz. of
melted butter, little salt and nutmeg. _Mode._—Let the 2 eggs be well
beaten, then mix all the ingredients well together, and heat them up
just before they are put into little cups half full for baking. Bake
for ¼ hour in a hot oven till the puffs are of a nice brown; turn out
on a flat dish, rub a little butter over each puff, and dust on it
powdered sugar. _Time._—¼ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


GHERKINS, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—Salt and water, 1 oz. of bruised ginger ½ oz. of whole
black pepper, ¼ oz. of whole allspice, 4 cloves, 2 blades of mace, a
little horseradish. This proportion of pepper, spices, &c., for 1 quart
of vinegar. _Mode._—Let the gherkins remain in salt and water for 3
or 4 days, when take them out, wipe perfectly dry, and put them into
a stone jar. Boil sufficient vinegar to cover them, with spices and
pepper, &c., in the above proportion, for 10 minutes; pour it, quite
boiling, over the gherkins, cover the jar with vine-leaves, and put
over them a plate, setting them near the fire, where they must remain
all night. Next day drain off the vinegar, boil it up again, and pour
it hot over them. Cover up with fresh leaves, and let the whole remain
till quite cold. Now tie down closely with bladder to exclude the
air, and in a month or two they will be fit for use. _Time._—4 days.
_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.


GIBLET PIE.

_Ingredients._—A set of duck or goose giblets, 1 lb. of rump-steak, 1
onion, ½ teaspoonful of whole black pepper, a bunch of savoury herbs,
plain crust. _Mode._—Clean, and put the giblets into a stewpan with an
onion, whole pepper, and a bunch of savoury herbs; add rather more than
a pint of water, and simmer gently for about 1½ hour. Take them out,
let them cool, and cut them into pieces; line the bottom of a pie-dish
with a few pieces of rump-steak; add a layer of giblets and a few more
pieces of steak; season with pepper and salt, and pour in the gravy
(which should be strained), that the giblets were stewed in; cover
with a plain crust, and bake for rather more than 1½ hour in a brisk
oven. Cover a piece of paper over the pie, to prevent the crust taking
too much colour. _Time._—1½ hour to stew the giblets, about 1 hour to
bake the pie. _Average cost_, exclusive of the giblets, 1_s._ 4_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


GIBLET SOUP.

_Ingredients._—3 sets of goose or duck giblets, 2 lbs. of shin of beef,
a few bones, 1 ox-tail, 2 mutton-shanks, 2 large onions, 2 carrots, 1
large faggot of herbs, salt and pepper to taste, ¼ pint of cream, 1 oz.
of butter mixed with a dessertspoonful of flour, 3 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Scald the giblets, cut the gizzards in 8 pieces, and put them
in a stewpan with the beef, bones, ox-tail, mutton-shanks, onions,
herbs, pepper, and salt; add the 3 quarts of water, and simmer till
the giblets are tender, taking care to skim well. When the giblets are
done, take them out, put them in your tureen, strain the soup through
a sieve, add the cream and butter, mixed with a dessertspoonful of
flour, boil it up for a few minutes, and pour it over the giblets. It
can be flavoured with port wine and a little mushroom ketchup, instead
of cream. Add salt to taste. _Time._—3 hours. _Average cost_, 9_d._ per
quart. _Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


GINGER, Apple. (A Dessert Dish.)

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of any kind of hard apples, 2 lbs. of loaf sugar,
1½ pint of water, 1 oz. of tincture of ginger. _Mode._—Boil the sugar
and water until they form a rich syrup, adding the ginger when it boils
up. Pare, core, and cut the apples into pieces; dip them in cold water
to preserve the colour, and boil them in the syrup until transparent;
but be careful not to let them break. Put the pieces of apple into
jars, pour over the syrup, and carefully exclude the air, by well
covering them. It will remain good some time, if kept in a dry place.
_Time._—From 5 to 10 minutes to boil the syrup; about ½ hour to simmer
the apples. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.
_Seasonable._—Make this in September, October, or November.


GINGER-BEER.

_Ingredients._—2½ lbs. of loaf sugar, 1½ oz. of bruised ginger, 1
oz. of cream of tartar, the rind and juice of 2 lemons, 3 gallons of
boiling water, two large tablespoonfuls of thick and fresh brewer’s
yeast. _Mode._—Peel the lemons, squeeze the juice, strain it, and put
the peel and juice into a large earthen pan, with the bruised ginger,
cream of tartar, and loaf sugar. Put over these ingredients 3 gallons
of _boiling_ water; let it stand until just warm, when add the yeast,
which should be thick and perfectly fresh. Stir the contents of the
pan well, and let them remain near the fire all night, covering the
pan over with a cloth. The next day skim off the yeast, and pour the
liquor carefully into another vessel, leaving the sediment; then bottle
immediately, and tie the corks down, and in 3 days the ginger-beer
will be fit for use. For some tastes, the above proportion of sugar
may be found rather too large, when it may be diminished; but the beer
will not keep so long good. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 2_s._;
or ½_d._ per bottle. _Sufficient_ to fill 4 dozen ginger-beer bottles.
_Seasonable._—This should be made during the summer months.


GINGER CREAM.

_Ingredients._—The yolks of 4 eggs, 1 pint of cream, 3 oz. of preserved
ginger, 2 dessertspoonfuls of syrup, sifted sugar to taste, 1 oz. of
isinglass. _Mode._—Slice the ginger finely; put it into a basin with
the syrup, the well-beaten yolks of eggs, and the cream; mix these
ingredients well together, and stir them over the fire for about 10
minutes, or until the mixture thickens; then take it off the fire,
whisk till nearly cold, sweeten to taste, add the isinglass, which
should be melted and strained, and serve the cream in a glass dish. It
may be garnished with slices of preserved ginger or candied citron.
_Time._—About 10 minutes to stir the cream over the fire. _Average
cost_, with cream at 1_s._ per pint, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for a
good-sized dish. _Seasonable_ at any time.


GINGER, Preserved,

Comes from the West Indies. It is made by scalding the roots when they
are green and full of sap, then peeling them in cold water and putting
them into jars, with a rich syrup; in which state we receive them. It
should be chosen of a deep yellow colour, with a little transparency.
What is dark-coloured, fibrous, and stringy, is not good. Ginger roots,
fit for preserving and in size equal to West Indian, have been produced
in the Royal Agricultural Garden in Edinburgh.


GINGER PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of flour, ¼ lb. of suet, ¼ lb. of moist sugar, 2
large teaspoonfuls of grated ginger. _Mode._—Shred the suet very fine,
mix it with the flour, sugar, and ginger; stir all well together;
butter a basin, and put the mixture in dry; tie a cloth over, and boil
for 3 hours. _Time._—3 hours. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5
or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


GINGER WINE.

_Ingredients._—To 9 gallons of water allow 27 lbs. of loaf sugar,
9 lemons, 12 oz. of bruised ginger, 3 tablespoonfuls of yeast, 2
lbs. of raisins stoned and chopped, 1 pint of brandy. _Mode._—Boil
together for 1 hour in a copper (let it previously be well scoured
and beautifully clean) the water, sugar, _lemon-rinds_, and bruised
ginger; remove every particle of scum as it rises, and when the liquor
is sufficiently boiled, put it into a large tub or pan, as it must not
remain in the copper. When nearly cold, add the yeast, which must be
thick and very fresh, and, the next day, put all in a dry cask with the
strained lemon-juice and chopped raisins. Stir the wine every day for a
fortnight; then add the brandy, stop the cask down by degrees, and in a
few weeks it will be fit to bottle. _Average cost_, 2_s._ per gallon.
_Sufficient_ to make 9 gallons of wine. _Seasonable._—The best time for
making this wine is either in March or September.

_Note._—Wine made early in March will be fit to bottle in June.


GINGERBREAD, Thick.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of treacle, ¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of coarse
brown sugar, 1½ lb. of flour, 1 oz. of ginger, ½ oz. of ground
allspice, 1 teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, ¼ pint of warm milk, 3
eggs. _Mode._—Put the flour into a basin, with the sugar, ginger, and
allspice; mix these together; warm the butter, and add it, with the
treacle, to the other ingredients. Stir well; make the milk just warm,
dissolve the carbonate of soda in it, and mix the whole into a nice
smooth dough with the eggs, which should be previously well whisked;
pour the mixture into a buttered tin, and bake it from ¾ to 1 hour, or
longer, should the gingerbread be very thick. Just before it is done,
brush the top over with the yolk of an egg beaten up with a little
milk, and put it back in the oven to finish baking. _Time._—¾ to 1
hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per square. _Seasonable_ at any time.


GINGERBREAD, White.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of flour, ½ lb. of butter, ½ lb. of loaf sugar,
the rind of 1 lemon, 1 oz. of ground ginger, 1 nutmeg grated, ½
teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, 1 gill of milk. _Mode._—Rub the
butter into the flour; add the sugar, which should be finely pounded
and sifted, and the minced lemon-rind, ginger, and nutmeg. Mix these
well together; make the milk just warm, stir in the soda, and work
the whole into a nice smooth paste; roll it out, cut it into cakes,
and bake in a moderate oven from 15 to 20 minutes. _Time._—15 to 20
minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


GINGERBREAD-NUTS, Rich Sweetmeats.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of treacle, ¼ lb. of clarified butter, 1 lb.
of coarse brown sugar, 2 oz. of ground ginger, 1 oz. of candied
orange-peel, 1 oz. of candied angelica, ½ oz. of candied lemon-peel,
½ oz. of coriander seeds, ½ oz. of caraway seeds, 1 egg; flour.
_Mode._—Put the treacle into a basin, and pour over it the butter,
melted so as not to oil, the sugar, and ginger. Stir these ingredients
well together, and whilst mixing, add the candied peel, which should
be cut into very small pieces, but not bruised, and the caraway and
coriander seeds, which should be pounded. Having mixed all thoroughly
together, break in an egg, and work the whole up with as much fine
flour as may be necessary to form a paste. Make this into nuts of any
size, and put them on a tin plate, and bake in a slow oven from ¼ to ½
hour. _Time._—¼ to ½ hour. _Average cost_, from 1_s._ to 1_s._ 4_d._
per lb. _Seasonable_ at any time.


GINGERBREAD-NUTS, Sunderland. (An Excellent Recipe.)

_Ingredients._—1¾ lb. of treacle, 1 lb. of moist sugar, 1 lb. of
butter, 2¾ lbs. of flour, 1½ oz. of ground ginger, 1½ oz. of allspice,
1½ oz. of coriander-seeds. _Mode._—Let the allspice, coriander-seeds,
and ginger be freshly ground; put them into a basin, with the flour and
sugar, and mix these ingredients well together; warm the treacle and
butter together; then with a spoon work it into the flour, &c. until
the whole forms a nice smooth paste. Drop the mixture from the spoon
on a piece of buttered paper, and bake in rather a slow oven from 20
minutes to ½ hour. A little candied lemon-peel mixed with the above
is an improvement, and a great authority in culinary matters suggests
the addition of a little cayenne pepper in gingerbread. Whether it be
advisable to use the latter ingredient or not, we leave our readers to
decide. _Time._—20 minutes to ½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ to 1_s._
4_d._ per lb. _Seasonable_ at any time.


GLAZE for covering Cold Hams, Tongues, &c.

_Ingredients._—Stock, doubling the quantity of meat in the recipes.
_Mode._—We may remark at the outset, that unless glaze is wanted in
very large quantities, it is seldom made expressly. Either of the
stocks, boiled down and reduced very considerably, will be found
to produce a very good glaze. Put the stock into a stewpan, over a
nice clear fire; let it boil till it becomes somewhat stiff, when
keep stirring, to prevent its burning. The moment it is sufficiently
reduced, and come to a glaze, turn it into the glaze-pot before it gets
cold. As, however, this is not to be found in every establishment,
a white earthenware jar would answer the purpose; and this may be
placed in a vessel of boiling water, to melt the glaze when required.
It should never be warmed in a saucepan, except on the principle of
the bain marie, lest it should reduce too much, and become black and
bitter. If the glaze is wanted of a pale colour, more veal than beef
should be used in making the stock; and it is as well to omit turnips
and celery, as those impart a disagreeable bitter flavour.


GLAZE-KETTLE.

[Illustration: GLAZE-KETTLE.]

This is a kettle used for keeping the strong stock boiled down to a
jelly, which is known by the name of glaze. It is composed of two tin
vessels, as shown in the cut, one of which, the upper,—containing the
glaze, is inserted into one of larger diameter, and containing boiling
water.


GLAZE, to, Cold Joints, &c.

Melt the glaze by placing the vessel which contains it, into the
bain marie or saucepan of boiling water; brush it over the meat with
a paste-brush, and if in places it is not quite covered, repeat the
operation. The glaze should not be too dark a colour.


GOLDEN PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of bread-crumbs, ¼ lb. of suet, ¼ lb. of
marmalade, ¼ lb. of sugar, 4 eggs. _Mode._—Put the bread-crumbs into
a basin; mix with them the suet, which should be finely minced, the
marmalade, and the sugar; stir all these ingredients well together,
beat the eggs to a froth, moisten the pudding with these, and when
well mixed put it into a mould or buttered basin; tie down with a
floured cloth, and boil for 2 hours. When turned out, strew a little
fine-sifted sugar over the top, and serve. _Time._—2 hours. _Average
cost_, 11_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—The mould may be ornamented with stoned raisins, arranged in
any fanciful pattern, before the mixture is poured in, which would add
very much to the appearance of the pudding. For a plainer pudding,
double the quantities of the bread-crumbs; and if the eggs do not
moisten it sufficiently, use a little milk.


GOOSE, Green.

_Ingredients._—Goose, 3 oz. of butter, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Geese are called green till they are about four months old,
and should not be stuffed. After it has been singed and trussed,
put into the body a seasoning of pepper and salt, and the butter to
moisten it inside. Roast before a clear fire for about ¾ hour, froth
and brown it nicely, and serve with a brown gravy, and, when liked,
gooseberry-sauce. This dish should be garnished with water-cresses.
_Time._—About ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 4_s._ 6_d._ each. _Sufficient_
for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ in June, July, and August.


GOOSE, Hashed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast goose,
2 onions, 2 oz. of butter, 1 pint of boiling water, 1 dessertspoonful
of flour, pepper and salt to taste, 1 tablespoonful of port wine, 2
tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup. _Mode._—Cut up the goose into
pieces of the size required; the inferior joints, trimmings, &c., put
into a stewpan to make the gravy; slice and fry the onions in the
butter of a very pale brown; add these to the trimmings, and pour over
about a pint of boiling water; stew these gently for ¾ hour, then skim
and strain the liquor. Thicken it with flour, and flavour with port
wine and ketchup in the above proportion; add a seasoning of pepper
and salt, and put in the pieces of goose; let these get thoroughly
hot through, but do not allow them to boil, and serve with sippets of
toasted bread. _Time._—Altogether, rather more than 1 hour. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the cold goose, 4_d._ _Seasonable_ from September
to March.


GOOSE, Roast.

[Illustration: ROAST GOOSE.]

_Ingredients._—Goose, 4 large onions, 10 sage-leaves, ¼ lb. of
bread-crumbs, 1½ oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste, 1 egg.
_Choosing and Trussing._—Select a goose with a clean white skin, plump
breast, and yellow feet: if these latter are red, the bird is old.
Should the weather permit, let it hang for a few days; by so doing the
flavour will be very much improved. Pluck, singe, draw, and carefully
wash and wipe the goose; cut off the neck close to the back, leaving
the skin long enough to turn over; cut off the feet at the first joint,
and separate the pinions at the first joint. Beat the breastbone flat
with a rolling-pin, put a skewer through the under part of each wing,
and having drawn up the legs closely, put a skewer into the middle of
each, and pass the same quite through the body. Insert another skewer
into the small of the leg, bring it close down to the side-bone, run
it through, and do the same to the other side. Now cut off the end
of the vent, and make a hole in the skin sufficiently large for the
passage of the rump, in order to keep in the seasoning. _Mode._—Make a
sage-and-onion stuffing of the above ingredients, put it into the body
of the goose, and secure it firmly at both ends by passing the rump
through the hole made in the skin, and the other end by tying the skin
of the neck to the back: by this means the seasoning will not escape.
Put it down to a brisk fire, keep it well basted, and roast from 1½
to 2 hours, according to the size. Remove the skewers, and serve with
a tureen of good gravy, and one of well-made apple sauce. Should a
very highly-flavoured seasoning be preferred, the onions should not be
parboiled, but minced raw: of the two methods the mild seasoning is far
superior. A ragoût, or pie, should be made of the giblets, or they may
be stewed down to make gravy. Be careful to serve the goose before the
breast falls, or its appearance will be spoiled by coming flattened
to table. As this is rather a troublesome joint to carve, a _large_
quantity of gravy should not be poured round the goose, but sent in a
tureen. _Time._—A large goose, 1¾ hour; a moderate-sized one, 1/¼ to
1½ hour. _Seasonable_ from September to March; but in perfection from
Michaelmas to Christmas. _Average cost_, 5_s._ 6_d._ each. _Sufficient_
for 8 or 9 persons.

_Note._—A teaspoonful of made mustard, a saltspoonful of salt, a few
grains of cayenne, mixed with a glass of port wine, are sometimes
poured into the goose by a slit made in the apron. This sauce is by
many considered an improvement.


GOOSE, Roast, to Carve.

[Illustration: ROAST GOOSE.]

It would not be fair to say that this dish bodes a great deal of
happiness to an inexperienced carver, especially if there is a large
party to serve, and the slices off the breast should not suffice to
satisfy the desires and cravings of many wholesome appetites, produced,
may be, by the various sports in vogue at Michaelmas and Christmas. The
beginning of the task, however, is not in any way difficult. Evenly-cut
slices, not too thick or too thin, should be carved from the breast
in the direction of the line from 2 to 3; after the first slice has
been cut, a hole should be made with the knife in the part called the
apron, passing it round the line as indicated by the figures 1, 1, 1;
here the stuffing is located, and some of this should be served on each
plate, unless it is discovered that it is not agreeable to the taste
of some one guest. If the carver manages cleverly, he will be able to
cut a very large number of fine slices off the breast, and the more
so if he commences close down by the wing, and carves upwards towards
the ridge of the breastbone. As many slices as can be taken from the
breast being carved, the wings should be cut off, and the same process
as described in carving boiled fowl is made use of in this instance,
only more dexterity and greater force will most probably be required.
The shape of the leg, when disengaged from the body of the goose,
should be like that shown in the accompanying engraving. It will be
necessary, perhaps, in taking off the leg, to turn the goose on its
side, and then, pressing down the small end of the leg, the knife
should be passed under it from the top quite down to the joint; the
leg being now turned back by the fork, the knife must cut through the
joint, loosening the thighbone from its socket. The merrythought, which
in a goose is not so large as might be expected, is disengaged in the
same way as that of a fowl—by passing the knife under it, and pressing
it backwards towards the neck. The neck-bones, of which we give a cut,
are freed by the same process as are those of a fowl; and the same may
be said of all the other parts of this bird. The breast of a goose is
the part most esteemed; all parts, however, are good, and full of juicy
flavour.

[Illustration: LEG, WING, AND NECK-BONE OF GOOSE.]


GOOSE STUFFING, Soyer’s Recipe for.

Take 4 apples peeled and cored, 4 onions, 4 leaves of sage, and 4
leaves of lemon thyme not broken, and boil them in a stewpan with
sufficient water to cover them; when done, pulp them through a sieve,
removing the sage and thyme; then add sufficient pulp of mealy potatoes
to cause it to be sufficiently dry without sticking to the hand; add
pepper and salt, and stuff the bird.


GOOSEBERRIES, Compôte of.

_Ingredients._—Syrup; to 1 pint of syrup allow nearly a quart of
gooseberries. _Mode._—Top and tail the gooseberries, which should
not be very ripe, and pour over them some boiling water; then take
them out and plunge them into cold water with which has been mixed a
tablespoonful of vinegar, which will assist to keep the fruit a good
colour. Make a pint of syrup, and when it boils drain the gooseberries
and put them in; simmer them gently until the fruit is nicely pulped
and tender without being broken; then dish the gooseberries on a glass
dish, boil the syrup for 2 or 3 minutes, pour over the gooseberries,
and serve cold. _Time._—About 5 minutes to boil the gooseberries
in the syrup, 3 minutes to reduce the syrup. _Average cost_, 9_d._
_Sufficient._—A quart of gooseberries for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_
in June.


GOOSEBERRY CHIPS. (Useful for Dessert.)

_Ingredients._—Gooseberries unripe and green, but quite full-grown;
sifted loaf sugar. _Mode._—Put the gooseberries, when cleaned of tops
and tails, into jars, and boil them in a copper till quite soft. To
every lb. of pulp put ½ lb. of loaf sugar sifted: the sugar must be
stirred in very gently. Then pour out the sweetened pulp on flat
dishes, about 1/8 inch thick, which must be set in the sun to dry.
When sufficiently dried in the sun, the pulp may be cut into strips,
and twisted into any fanciful shapes, bows, &c. _Time_ for drying,
according to the amount of sun. _Seasonable_ at all times.

_Note._—These chips may be kept for years in tin boxes, if packed quite
dry, with layers of paper between the rows.


GOOSEBERRY FOOL.

_Ingredients._—Green gooseberries; to every pint of pulp add 1 pint
of milk, or ½ pint of cream and ½ pint of milk; sugar to taste.
_Mode._—Cut the tops and tails off the gooseberries, put them into a
jar with 2 tablespoonfuls of water and a little good moist sugar; set
this jar in a saucepan of boiling water, and let it boil until the
fruit is soft enough to mash. When done enough, beat it to a pulp,
work this pulp through a colander, and stir to every pint the above
proportion of milk, or equal quantities of milk and cream. Ascertain if
the mixture is sweet enough, and put in plenty of sugar, or it will not
be eatable; and in mixing the milk and gooseberries add the former very
gradually to these: serve in a glass dish, or in small glasses. This,
although a very old-fashioned and homely dish, is, when well made, very
delicious, and, if properly sweetened, a very suitable preparation for
children. _Time._—From ¾ to 1 hour. _Average cost,_ 6_d._ per pint,
with milk. _Sufficient._—A pint of milk and a pint of gooseberry pulp
for 5 or 6 children. _Seasonable_ in May and June.


GOOSEBERRY JAM.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit allow ¾ lb. of loaf sugar;
currant-juice. _Mode._—Select red hairy gooseberries; have them
gathered in dry weather, when quite ripe, without being too soft. Weigh
them; with a pair of scissors cut off the tops and tails, and to every
6 lbs. of fruit have ready ½ pint of red-currant juice, drawn as for
jelly. Put the gooseberries and currant-juice into a preserving-pan,
let them boil tolerably quickly, keeping them well stirred; when they
begin to break, add to them the sugar, and keep simmering until the
jam becomes firm, carefully skimming and stirring it, that it does not
burn at the bottom. It should be boiled rather a long time, or it will
not keep. Put it into pots (not too large), let it get perfectly cold,
then cover the pots down with oiled and egged papers. _Time._—About
1 hour to boil the gooseberries in the currant-juice, from ½ to ¾
hour with the sugar. _Average cost_, per lb. pot, from 6_d._ to 8_d._
_Sufficient._—Allow 1½ pint of fruit for a lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make
this in June or July.


GOOSEBERRY JAM.

_Ingredients._—To every 8 lbs. of red, rough, ripe gooseberries allow
1 quart of red-currant juice, 5 lbs. of loaf sugar. _Mode._—Have the
fruit gathered in dry weather, and cut off the tops and tails. Prepare
1 quart of red-currant juice, the same as for red-currant jelly; put
it into a preserving-pan with the sugar, and keep stirring until the
latter is dissolved. Keep it boiling for about 5 minutes; skim well;
then put in the gooseberries, and let them boil from ½ to ¾ hour; then
turn the whole into an earthen pan, and let it remain for 2 days. Boil
the jam up again until it looks clear; put it into pots, and when cold,
cover with oiled paper, and over the jars put tissue-paper brushed
over on both sides with the white of an egg, and store away in a dry
place. Care must be taken, in making this, to keep the jam well stirred
and well skimmed, to prevent it burning at the bottom of the pan, and
to have it very clear. _Time._—5 minutes to boil the currant-juice
and sugar after the latter is dissolved; from ½ to ¾ hour to simmer
the gooseberries the first time, ¼ hour the second time of boiling.
_Average cost_, from 8_d._ to 10_d._ per lb. pot. _Sufficient._—Allow
1½ pint of fruit for a lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make this in June or July.


GOOSEBERRY JAM, White or Green.

_Ingredients._—Equal weight of fruit and sugar. _Mode._—Select the
gooseberries not very ripe, either white or green, and top and tail
them. Boil the sugar with water (allowing ½ pint to every lb.) for
about ¼ hour, carefully removing the scum as it rises; then put in the
gooseberries, and simmer gently till clear and firm: try a little of
the jam on a plate; if it jellies when cold, it is done, and should
then be poured into pots. When cold, cover with oiled paper, and
tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the unbeaten white of an
egg, and stow away in a dry place. _Time._—¼ hour to boil the sugar and
water, ¾ hour the jam. _Average cost_, from 6_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1½ pint of fruit for a lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make
this in June.


GOOSEBERRY JELLY.

_Ingredients._—Gooseberries; to every pint of juice allow ¾ lb. of loaf
sugar. _Mode._—Put the gooseberries, after cutting off the tops and
tails, into a preserving-pan, and stir them over the fire until they
are quite soft; then strain them through a sieve, and to every pint
of juice allow ¾ lb. of sugar. Boil the juice and sugar together for
nearly ¾ hour, stirring and skimming all the time; and if the jelly
appears firm when a little of it is poured on to a plate, it is done,
and should then be taken up and put into small pots. Cover the pots
with oiled and egged papers, the same as for currant jelly, and store
away in a dry place. _Time._—¾ hour to simmer the gooseberries without
the sugar; ¾ hour to boil the juice. _Average cost_, from 8_d._ to
10_d._ per ½-lb. pot. _Seasonable_ in July.


GOOSEBERRY PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—Gooseberries, 3 eggs, 1½ oz. of butter, ½ pint of
bread-crumbs, sugar to taste. _Mode._—Put the gooseberries into a jar,
previously cutting off the tops and tails; place this jar in boiling
water, and let it boil until the gooseberries are soft enough to pulp;
then beat them through a coarse sieve, and to every pint of pulp add 3
well-whisked eggs, 1½ oz. of butter, ½ pint of bread-crumbs, and sugar
to taste; beat the mixture well, put a border of puff-paste round the
edge of a pie-dish, put in the pudding, bake for about 40 minutes,
strew sifted sugar over, and serve. _Time._—About 40 minutes. _Average
cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from May to
July.


GOOSEBERRY PUDDING, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—¾ lb. of suet crust, 1½ pint of green gooseberries, ¼
lb. of moist sugar. _Mode._—Line a pudding-basin with suet crust rolled
out to about ½ inch in thickness, and, with a pair of scissors, cut off
the tops and tails of the gooseberries; fill the basin with the fruit,
put in the sugar, and cover with crust. Pinch the edges of the pudding
together, tie over it a floured cloth, put it into boiling water, and
boil from 2½ to 3 hours; turn it out of the basin, and serve with a jug
of cream. _Time._—2½ to 3 hours. _Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_
for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ from May to July.

[Illustration: BOILED FRUIT PUDDING]


GOOSEBERRY SAUCE for Boiled Mackerel.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of green gooseberries, 3 tablespoonfuls of
Béchamel (veal gravy may be substituted for this), 2 oz. of fresh
butter; seasoning to taste of salt, pepper, and grated nutmeg.
_Mode._—Boil the gooseberries in water until quite tender; strain
them, and rub them through a sieve. Put into a saucepan the Béchamel
or gravy, with the butter and seasoning; add the pulp from the
gooseberries, mix all well together, and heat gradually through. A
little pounded sugar added to this sauce is by many persons considered
an improvement, as the saccharine matter takes off the extreme acidity
of the unripe fruit. _Time._—Boil the gooseberries from 20 minutes to
½ hour. _Sufficient._—This quantity, for a large dish of mackerel.
_Seasonable_ from May to July.


GOOSEBERRY TART.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of gooseberries, ½ lb. of short crust, ¼ lb. of
moist sugar. _Mode._—With a pair of scissors cut off the tops and tails
of the gooseberries; put them into a deep pie-dish, pile the fruit high
in the centre, and put in the sugar; line the edge of the dish with
short crust, put on the cover, and ornament the edges of the tart; bake
in a good oven for about ¾ hour, and before being sent to table, strew
over it some fine-sifted sugar. A jug of cream, or a dish of boiled
or baked custards, should always accompany this dish. _Time._—¾ hour.
_Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_
from May to July.


GOOSEBERRY TRIFLE.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of gooseberries, sugar to taste, 1 pint of
custard, a plateful of whipped cream. _Mode._—Put the gooseberries
into a jar, with sufficient moist sugar to sweeten them, and boil them
until reduced to a pulp. Put this pulp at the bottom of a trifle-dish;
pour over it a pint of custard made by recipe, and, when cold, cover
with whipped cream. The cream should be whipped the day before it is
wanted for table, as it will then be so much firmer and more solid; but
it should not be added to the fruit until a short time before it is
required. The dish may be garnished as fancy dictates. _Time._—About ¾
hour to boil the gooseberries. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_
for 1 trifle. _Seasonable_ in May, June, and July.


GOOSEBERRY VINEGAR. (An Excellent Recipe.)

_Ingredients._—2 pecks of crystal gooseberries, 6 gallons of water,
12 lbs. of foots sugar of the coarsest brown quality. _Mode._—Mash
the gooseberries (which should be quite ripe) in a tub with a mallet;
put to them the water nearly milk-warm; let this stand 24 hours; then
strain it through a sieve, and put the sugar to it; mix it well, and
tun it. These proportions are for a 9-gallon cask; and if it be not
quite full, more water must be added. Let the mixture be stirred from
the bottom of the cask two or three times daily for three or four
days, to assist the melting of the sugar; then paste a piece of linen
cloth over the bunghole, and set the cask in a warm place, _but not
in the sun_; any corner of a warm kitchen is the best situation for
it. The following spring it should be drawn off into stone bottles,
and the vinegar will be fit for use twelve months after it is made.
This will be found a most excellent preparation, greatly superior to
much that is sold under the name of the best white wine vinegar. Many
years’ experience has proved that pickle made with this vinegar will
keep, when bought vinegar will not preserve the ingredients. The cost
per gallon is merely nominal, especially to those who reside in the
country and grow their own gooseberries; the coarse sugar is then
the only ingredient to be purchased. _Time._—To remain in the cask 9
months. _Average cost_, when the gooseberries have to be purchased,
1_s._ per gallon; when they are grown at home, 6_d._ per gallon.
_Seasonable._—This should be made the end of June or the beginning of
July, when gooseberries are ripe and plentiful.


GOOSEBERRY WINE, Effervescing.

_Ingredients._—To every gallon of water allow 6 lbs. of green
gooseberries, 3 lbs. of lump sugar. _Mode._—This wine should be
prepared from unripe gooseberries, in order to avoid the flavour which
the fruit would give to the wine when in a mature state. Its briskness
depends more upon the time of bottling than upon the unripe state of
the fruit, for effervescing wine can be made from fruit that is ripe as
well as that which is unripe. The fruit should be selected when it has
nearly attained its full growth, and consequently before it shows any
tendency to ripen. Any bruised or decayed berries, and those that are
very small, should be rejected. The blossom and stalk ends should be
removed, and the fruit well bruised in a tub or pan, in such quantities
as to insure each berry being broken without crushing the seeds. Pour
the water (which should be warm) on the fruit, squeeze and stir it with
the hand until all the pulp is removed from the skin and seeds, and
cover the whole closely for 24 hours; after which, strain it through
a coarse bag, and press it with as much force as can be conveniently
applied, to extract the whole of the juice and liquor the fruit may
contain. To every 40 or 50 lbs. of fruit one gallon more of hot water
may be passed through the _marc_, or husks, in order to obtain any
soluble matter that may remain, and be again pressed. The juice should
be put into a tub or pan of sufficient size to contain all of it,
and the sugar added to it. Let it be well stirred until the sugar is
dissolved, and place the pan in a warm situation; keep it closely
covered, and let it ferment for a day or two. It must then be drawn off
into clean casks, placed a little on one side for the scum that arises
to be thrown out, and the casks kept filled with the remaining “must,”
that should be reserved for that purpose. When the active fermentation
has ceased, the casks should be plugged upright, again filled, if
necessary, the bungs be put in loosely, and, after a few days, when
the fermentation is a little more languid (which may be known by the
hissing noise ceasing), the bungs should be driven in tight, and a
spile-hole made, to give vent if necessary. About November or December,
on a clear fine day, the wine should be racked from its lees into clean
casks, which may be rinsed with brandy. After a month, it should be
examined to see if it is sufficiently clear for bottling; if not, it
must be fined with isinglass, which may be dissolved in some of the
wine: 1 oz. will be sufficient for 9 gallons. In bottling the wine,
it will be necessary to wire the corks down, or to tie them down with
string. Old champagne bottles are the best for this wine. In March or
April, or when the gooseberry bushes begin to blossom, the wine must be
bottled, in order to insure its being effervescing. _Seasonable._—Make
this the end of May or beginning of June, before the berries ripen.


GRAVIES, General Stock for

By the addition of various store sauces, thickening and flavouring,
good stock may be converted into good gravies. It should be borne
in mind, however, that the goodness and strength of spices, wines,
flavourings, &c., evaporate, and that they lose a great deal of their
fragrance if added to the gravy a long time before they are wanted.
If this point is attended to, a saving of one half the quantity of
these ingredients will be effected, as, with long boiling, the flavour
almost entirely passes away. The shank-bones of mutton, previously well
soaked, will be found a great assistance in enriching gravies; a kidney
or melt, beef skirt, trimmings of meat, &c. &c., answer very well when
only a small quantity is wanted, and a good gravy need not necessarily
be so very expensive; for economically-prepared dishes are oftentimes
found as savoury and wholesome as dearer ones. The cook should also
remember that the fragrance of gravies should not be overpowered by
too much spice, or any strong essences, and that they should always
be warmed in a _bain marie_, after they are flavoured, or else in a
jar or jug placed in a saucepan full of boiling water. The remains of
roast-meat gravy should always be saved; as, when no meat is at hand, a
very nice gravy in haste may be made from it, and when added to hashes,
ragoûts, &c., is a great improvement.


GRAVY, a Good Beef, for Poultry, Game, &c.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of lean beef, ½ pint of cold water, 1 shalot or
small onion, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, 1 tablespoonful
of Harvey’s sauce or mushroom ketchup, ½ a teaspoonful of arrowroot.
_Mode._—Cut up the beef into small pieces, and put it, with the water,
into a stewpan. Add the shalot and seasoning, and simmer gently for 3
hours, taking care that it does not boil fast. A short time before it
is required, take the arrowroot, and having mixed it with a little cold
water, pour it into the gravy, which keep stirring, adding the Harvey’s
sauce, and just letting it boil. Strain off the gravy in a tureen, and
serve very hot. _Time._—3 hours. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per pint.


GRAVY, Beef, a Quickly Made.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of shin of beef, ½ onion, ¼ carrot, 2 or 3 sprigs
of parsley and savoury herbs, a piece of butter about the size of a
walnut; cayenne and mace to taste, ¾ pint of water. _Mode._—Cut up
the meat into very small pieces, slice the onion and carrot, and put
them into a small saucepan with the butter. Keep stirring over a sharp
fire until they have taken a little colour, when add the water and
the remaining ingredients. Simmer for ½ hour, skim well, strain, and
flavour, when it will be ready for use. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_,
for this quantity, 5_d._


GRAVY, Brown.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of butter, 2 large onions, 2 lbs. of shin of beef,
2 small slices of lean bacon (if at hand), salt and whole pepper to
taste, 3 cloves, 2 quarts of water. For thickening, 2 oz. of butter, 3
oz. of flour. _Mode._—Put the butter into a stewpan; set this on the
fire, throw in the onions cut in rings, and fry them a light brown;
then add the beef and bacon, which should be cut into small square
pieces; season, and pour in a teacupful of water; let it boil for
about ten minutes, or until it is of a nice brown colour, occasionally
stirring the contents. Now fill up with water in the above proportion;
let it boil up, when draw it to the side of the fire to simmer very
gently for 1½ hour; strain, and when cold, take off all the fat. In
thickening this gravy, melt 3 oz. of butter in a stewpan, add 2 oz. of
flour, and stir till of a light-brown colour; when cold, add it to the
strained gravy, and boil it up quickly. This thickening may be made
in larger quantities, and kept in a stone jar for use when wanted.
_Time._—Altogether, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 4_d._ per pint.


GRAVY, Brown, without Meat.

_Ingredients._—2 large onions, 1 large carrot, 2 oz. of butter, 3
pints of boiling water, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, a wineglassful of
good beer; salt and pepper to taste. _Mode._—Slice, flour, and fry the
onions and carrots in the butter until of a nice light-brown colour,
then add the boiling water and the remaining ingredients; let the whole
stew gently for about an hour, then strain, and when cold, skim off
all the fat. Thicken it, and, if thought necessary, add a few drops of
colouring. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per pint.

_Note._—The addition of a small quantity of mushroom ketchup or
Harvey’s sauce very much improves the flavour of this gravy.


GRAVY, Cheap, for Minced Veal

_Ingredients._—Bones and trimmings of cold roast or boiled veal,
1½ pint of water, 1 onion, ¼ teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, ¼
teaspoonful of salt, 1 blade of pounded mace, the juice of ¼ lemon;
thickening of butter and flour. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients into
a stewpan, except the thickening and lemon-juice, and let them simmer
very gently for rather more than 1 hour, or until the liquor is reduced
to a pint, when strain through a hair sieve. Add a thickening of butter
and flour, and the lemon-juice; set it on the fire, and let it just
boil up, when it will be ready for use. It may be flavoured with a
little tomato sauce, and, where a rather dark-coloured gravy is not
objected to, ketchup, or Harvey’s sauce, may be added at pleasure.
_Time._—Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 3_d._


GRAVY, Cheap, for Hashes, &c.

_Ingredients._—Bones and trimmings of the cooked joint intended for
hashing, ¼ teaspoonful of salt, ¼ teaspoonful of whole pepper, ¼
teaspoonful of whole allspice, a small faggot of savoury herbs, ½ head
of celery, 1 onion, 1 oz. of butter, thickening, sufficient boiling
water to cover the bones. _Mode._—Chop the bones in small pieces, and
put them in a stewpan, with the trimmings, salt, pepper, spice, herbs,
and celery. Cover with boiling water, and let the whole simmer gently
for 1½ or 2 hours. Slice and fry the onion in the butter till it is of
a pale brown, and mix it gradually with the gravy made from the bones;
boil for ¼ hour, and strain into a basin; now put it back into the
stewpan; flavour with walnut pickle or ketchup, pickled-onion liquor,
or any store sauce that may be preferred. Thicken with a little butter
and flour, kneaded together on a plate, and the gravy will be ready for
use. After the thickening is added, the gravy should just boil, to take
off the rawness of the flour. _Time._—2 hours, or rather more. _Average
cost_, 4_d._, exclusive of the bones and trimmings.


GRAVY for Roast Meat.

_Ingredients._—Gravy, salt. _Mode._—Put a common dish with a small
quantity of salt in it under the meat, about a quarter of an hour
before it is removed from the fire. When the dish is full, take it
away, baste the meat, and pour the gravy into the dish on which the
joint is to be served.


GRAVY for Venison.

_Ingredients._—Trimmings of venison, 3 or 4 mutton shank-bones, salt to
taste, 1 pint of water, 2 teaspoonfuls of walnut ketchup. _Mode._—Brown
the trimmings over a nice clear fire, and put them in a stewpan with
the shank-bones and water; simmer gently for 2 hours, strain and skim,
and add the walnut ketchup and a seasoning of salt. Let it just boil,
when it is ready to serve. _Time._—2 hours.


GRAVY, Jugged (Excellent).

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of shin of beef, ¼ lb. of lean ham, 1 onion or
a few shalots, 2 pints of water, salt and whole pepper to taste, 1
blade of mace, a faggot of savoury herbs, ½ a large carrot, ½ a head of
celery. _Mode._—Cut up the beef and ham into small pieces, and slice
the vegetables; take a jar, capable of holding two pints of water, and
arrange therein, in layers, the ham, meat, vegetables, and seasoning,
alternately, filling up with the above quantity of water; tie down the
jar, or put a plate over the top, so that the steam may not escape;
place it in the oven, and let it remain there from 6 to 8 hours;
should, however, the oven be very hot, less time will be required.
When sufficiently cooked, strain the gravy, and when cold, remove the
fat. It may be flavoured with ketchup, wines, or any other store sauce
that may be preferred. It is a good plan to put the jar in a cool oven
over-night, to draw the gravy; and then it will not require so long
baking the following day. _Time._—From 6 to 8 hours, according to the
oven. _Average cost_, 7_d._ per pint.


GRAVY-KETTLE.

This is a utensil which will not be found in every kitchen; but it is a
useful one where it is necessary to keep gravies hot for the purpose of
pouring over various dishes as they are cooking. It is made of copper,
and should, consequently, be heated over the hot-plate, if there be
one, or a charcoal stove.

[Illustration: GRAVY-KETTLE.]


GRAVY made without Meat for Fowls.

_Ingredients._—The necks, feet, livers, and gizzards of the fowls, 1
slice of toasted bread, ½ onion, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, salt and
pepper to taste, ½ pint of water, thickening of butter and flour,
1 dessertspoonful of ketchup. _Mode._—Wash the feet of the fowls
thoroughly clean, and cut them and the neck into small pieces. Put
these into a stewpan with the bread, onion, herbs, seasoning, livers,
and gizzards; pour the water over them and simmer gently for 1 hour.
Now take out the liver, pound it, and strain the liquor to it. Add a
thickening of butter and flour, and a flavouring of mushroom ketchup;
boil it up and serve. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, 4_d._ per pint.


GRAVY, Rich, for Hashes, Ragoûts, &c.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of shin of beef, l large onion or a few shalots,
a little flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of mace, 2 or 3
cloves, 4 whole allspice, ¼ teaspoonful of whole pepper, 1 slice of
lean ham or bacon, ½ a head of celery (when at hand), 2 pints of
boiling water; salt and cayenne to taste. _Mode._—Cut, the beef into
thin slices, as also the onions, dredge them with flour, and fry of a
pale brown, but do not allow them to get black; pour in the boiling
water, let it boil up, and skim. Add the remaining ingredients, and
simmer the whole very gently for 2 hours, or until all the juices are
extracted from the meat; put it by to get cold, when take off all the
fat. This gravy may be flavoured with ketchup, store sauces, wine, or,
in fact, anything that may give additional and suitable relish to the
dish it is intended for. _Time._—Rather more than 2 hours. _Average
cost_, 8_d._ per pint.


GRAVY SOUP.

_Ingredients._—6 lbs. of shin of beef, a knuckle of veal weighing 5
lbs., a few pieces or trimmings, 2 slices of nicely-flavoured lean
ham; ¼ lb. of butter, 4 onions, 4 carrots, 1 turnip, nearly a head of
celery, 3 blades of mace, 6 cloves, a bunch of savoury herbs, seasoning
of salt and pepper to taste, 3 lumps of sugar, 6 quarts of boiling soft
water. It can be flavoured with ketchup, Leamington sauce, Harvey’s
sauce, and a little soy. _Mode._—Slightly brown the meat and ham in the
butter, but do not let them burn. When this is done, pour to it the
water, and as the scum rises, take it off; when no more appears, add
all the other ingredients, and let the soup simmer slowly by the fire
for 6 hours without stirring it any more from the bottom; take it off,
and let it settle; skim off all the fat you can, and pass it through
a sieve or cloth. When perfectly cold you can remove all the fat,
and leave the sediment untouched, which serves very nicely for thick
gravies, hashes, &c. _Time._—7 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 14 persons.


GRAVY, Veal, for White Sauces, Fricassees, &c.

_Ingredients._—2 slices of nicely-flavoured lean ham, any poultry
trimmings, 3 lbs. of lean veal, a faggot of savoury herbs, including
parsley, a few green onions (or 1 large onion may be substituted for
these), a few mushrooms, when obtainable; 1 blade of mace, salt to
taste, 3 pints of water. _Mode._—Cut up the ham and veal into small
square pieces, put these in a stewpan, moistening them with a small
quantity of water; place them over the fire to draw down. When the
bottom of the stewpan becomes covered with a white glaze, fill up with
water in the above proportion; add the remaining ingredients, stew very
slowly for 3 or 4 hours, and do not forget to skim well the moment it
boils. Put it by, and when cold take off all the fat. This may be used
for Béchamel, sauce tournée, and many other white sauces. _Time._—3 or
4 hours. _Average cost_, 9_d._ per pint.


GREENGAGE JAM.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit, weighed before being stoned,
allow ¾ lb. of lump sugar. _Mode._—Divide the greengages, take out
the stones, and put them into a preserving-pan. Bring the fruit to
a boil, then add the sugar, and keep stirring it over a gentle fire
until it is melted. Remove all the scum as it rises, and, just before
the jam is done, boil it rapidly for 5 minutes. To ascertain when it
is sufficiently boiled, pour a little on a plate, and if the syrup
thickens and appears firm, it is done. Have ready half the kernels
blanched; put them into the jam, give them one boil, and pour the
preserve into pots. When cold, cover down with oiled papers, and,
over these, tissue paper brushed over on both sides with the white
of an egg. _Time._—¾ hour after the sugar is added. _Average cost_,
from 6_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot. _Sufficient._—Allow about 1½ pint of
fruit for every lb. pot of jam. _Seasonable._—Make this in August or
September.


GREENGAGES, Compôte of.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of syrup, 1 quart of greengages. _Mode._—Make
a syrup, skim it well, and put in the greengages when the syrup is
boiling, having previously removed the stalks and stones from the
fruit. Boil gently for ¼ hour, or until the fruit is tender; but take
care not to let it break, as the appearance of the dish would be
spoiled were the fruit reduced to a pulp. Take the greengages carefully
out, place them on a glass dish, boil the syrup for another 5 minutes,
let it cool a little, pour over the fruit, and, when cold, it will be
ready for use. _Time._—¼ hour to simmer the fruit, 5 minutes the syrup.
_Average cost_, in full season, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ in July, August, and September.


GREENGAGES, to Preserve and Dry.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of sugar allow 1 lb. of fruit, ¼ pint of
water. _Mode._—For this purpose, the fruit must be used before it is
quite ripe, and part of the stalk must be left on. Weigh the fruit,
rejecting all that is in the least degree blemished, and put it into
a lined saucepan with the sugar and water, which should have been
previously boiled together to a rich syrup. Boil the fruit in this for
10 minutes, remove it from the fire, and drain the greengages. The next
day, boil up the syrup and put in the fruit again, and let it simmer
for 3 minutes, and drain the syrup away. Continue this process for 5 or
6 days, and the last time place the greengages, when drained, on a hair
sieve, and put them in an oven or warm spot to dry; keep them in a box,
with paper between each layer, in a place free from damp. _Time._—10
minutes the first time of boiling. _Seasonable._—Make this in August or
September.


GREENGAGES, Preserved in Syrup.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit allow 1 lb. of loaf sugar, ¼
pint of water. _Mode._—Boil the sugar and water together for about 10
minutes; divide the greengages, take out the stones, put the fruit into
the syrup, and let it simmer gently until nearly tender. Take it off
the fire, put it into a large pan, and, the next day, boil it up again
for about 10 minutes with the kernels from the stones, which should be
blanched. Put the fruit carefully into jars, pour over it the syrup,
and, when cold, cover down, so that the air is quite excluded. Let
the syrup be well skimmed both the first and second day of boiling,
otherwise it will not be clear. _Time._—10 minutes to boil the syrup;
¼ hour to simmer the fruit the first day, 10 minutes the second day.
_Average cost_, from 6_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot. _Sufficient._—Allow
about 1 pint of fruit to fill a 1-lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make this in
August or September.


GREENS, Boiled Turnip.

_Ingredients._—To each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful
of salt; turnip-greens. _Mode._—Wash the greens well in two or three
waters, and pick off all the decayed and dead leaves; tie them in small
bunches, and put them into plenty of boiling water, salted in the above
proportion. Keep them boiling quickly, with the lid of the saucepan
uncovered, and when tender, pour them into a colander; let them drain,
arrange them in a vegetable-dish, remove the string that the greens
were tied with, and serve. _Time._—15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_,
4_d._ for a dish for 3 persons. _Seasonable_ in March, April, and May.


GROUSE PIE.

_Ingredients._—Grouse; cayenne, salt, and pepper to taste; 1 lb. of
rump-steak, ½ pint of well-seasoned broth, puff-paste. _Mode._—Line the
bottom of a pie-dish with the rump-steak cut into neat pieces, and,
should the grouse be large, cut them into joints; but, if small, they
may be laid in the pie whole; season highly with salt, cayenne, and
black pepper; pour in the broth, and cover with a puff-paste; brush
the crust over with the yolk of an egg, and bake from ¾ to 1 hour. If
the grouse is cut into joints, the backbones and trimmings will make
the gravy, by stewing them with an onion, a little sherry, a bunch of
herbs, and a blade of mace: this should be poured in after the pie is
baked. _Time._—¾ to 1 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the grouse,
which are seldom bought, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Seasonable_ from the 12th of
August to the beginning of December.


GROUSE, Roast.

_Ingredients._—Grouse, butter, a thick slice of toasted bread.
_Mode._—Let the birds hang as long as possible; pluck and draw them;
wipe, but do not wash them, inside and out, and truss them without
the head, the same as for a roast fowl. Many persons still continue
to truss them with the head under the wing, but the former is now
considered the most approved method. Put them down to a sharp clear
fire; keep them well basted the whole of the time they are cooking,
and serve them on a buttered toast, soaked in the dripping-pan, with
a little melted butter poured over them, or with bread-sauce and
gravy. _Time._—½ hour; if liked very thoroughly done, 35 minutes.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ to 2_s._ 6_d._ the brace; but seldom bought.
_Sufficient._—2 for a dish. _Seasonable_ from the 12th of August to the
beginning of December.

[Illustration: ROAST GROUSE.]


GROUSE, to Carve.

Grouse may be carved in the way first described in carving partridge.
The backbone of the grouse is highly esteemed by many, and this part of
many game birds is considered the finest-flavoured.

[Illustration: ROAST GROUSE.]


GROUSE SALAD (Soyer’s Recipe improved.)

_Ingredients._—8 eggs, butter, fresh salad, 2 or 3 grouse; for the
sauce, 1 tablespoonful of minced shalot, 2 tablespoonfuls of pounded
sugar, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, ¼ oz. of
salt, 12 tablespoonfuls of oil, 4 tablespoonfuls of Chili vinegar,
1 gill of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped tarragon and chervil.
_Mode._—Boil the eggs hard, shell them, throw them into cold water, cut
a thin slice off the bottom to facilitate the proper placing of them
in the dish, cut each one into four lengthwise, and make a very thin
flat border of butter, about one inch from the edge of the dish the
salad is to be served on; fix the pieces of egg upright close to each
other, the yolk outside, or the yolk and white alternately; lay in the
centre a fresh salad of whatever is in season, and, having previously
roasted the grouse rather underdone, cut it into eight or ten pieces,
and prepare the sauce as follows:—Put the shalots into a basin, with
the sugar, the yolk of an egg, the parsley, and salt, and mix in by
degrees the oil and vinegar; when all the ingredients are well mixed,
put the sauce on ice or in a cool place. When ready to serve, whip the
cream rather thick, which lightly mix with it; then lay the inferior
parts of the grouse on the salad, sauce over so as to cover each piece,
then lay over the salad and the remainder of the grouse, pour the rest
of the sauce over, and serve. The eggs may be ornamented with a little
dot of radishes or beetroot on the point. Anchovy and gherkin, cut
into small diamonds, may be placed between, or cut gherkins in slices,
and a border of them laid round. Tarragon or chervil-leaves are also a
pretty addition. The remains of cold black-game, pheasant, or partridge
may be used in the above manner, and will make a very delicate dish.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ from the 12th of August to the
beginning of December.


GRUEL, to make.

_Ingredients._—1 tablespoonful of Robinson’s patent groats, 2
tablespoonfuls of cold water, 1 pint of boiling water. _Mode._—Mix the
prepared groats smoothly with the cold water in a basin; pour over
them the boiling water, stirring it all the time. Put it into a very
clean saucepan; boil the gruel for 10 minutes, keeping it well stirred;
sweeten to taste, and serve. It may be flavoured with a small piece
of lemon-peel, by boiling it in the gruel, or a little grated nutmeg
may be put in; but in these matters the taste of the patient should
be consulted. Pour the gruel in a tumbler, and serve. When wine is
allowed to the invalid, 2 tablespoonfuls of sherry or port make this
preparation very nice. In cases of colds, the same quantity of spirits
is sometimes added instead of wine. _Time._—10 minutes. _Sufficient_ to
make a pint of gruel.


GUDGEONS.

_Ingredients._—Egg and bread-crumbs sufficient for the quantity of
fish; hot lard. _Mode._—Do not scrape off the scales, but take out
the gills and inside, and cleanse thoroughly; wipe them dry, flour
and dip them into egg, and sprinkle over with bread-crumbs. Fry of a
nice brown. _Time._—3 or 4 minutes. _Average cost._—Seldom bought.
_Seasonable_ from March to July. _Sufficient._—3 for each person.


GUINEA-FOWL, Roast, Larded.

_Ingredients._—A guinea-fowl, lardoons, flour, and salt. _Mode._—When
this bird is larded, it should be trussed the same as a pheasant; if
plainly roasted, truss it like a turkey. After larding and trussing it,
put it down to roast at a brisk fire; keep it well basted, and a short
time before serving, dredge it with a little flour, and let it froth
nicely. Serve with a little gravy in the dish, and a tureen of the
same, and one of well-made bread-sauce. _Time._—Guinea-fowl, larded,
1¼ hour; plainly roasted, about 1 hour. _Sufficient_ for 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ in winter.

_Note._—The breast, if larded, should be covered with a piece of paper,
and removed about 10 minutes before serving.


GURNET, or GURNARD.

_Ingredients._—1 gurnet, 6 oz. of salt to each gallon of water.
_Mode._—Cleanse the fish thoroughly, and cut off the fins; have ready
some boiling water, with salt in the above proportion; put the fish
in, and simmer very gently for ½ hour. Parsley and butter, or anchovy
sauce, should be served with it. _Time._—¼ hour. _Average cost._—Seldom
bought. _Seasonable_ from October to March, but in perfection in
October. _Sufficient._—A middling-sized one for two persons.

_Note._—This fish is frequently stuffed with forcemeat, and baked.


HADDOCK, Baked.

_Ingredients._—A nice forcemeat, butter to taste, egg and bread-crumbs.
_Mode._—Scale and clean the fish, without cutting it open much; put
in a nice delicate forcemeat, and sew up the slit. Brush it over with
egg, sprinkle over bread-crumbs, and baste frequently with butter.
Garnish with parsley and cut lemon, and serve with, a nice brown gravy,
plain melted butter, or anchovy sauce. The egg and bread-crumbs can
be omitted, and pieces of butter placed over the fish. _Time._—Large
haddock, ¾ hour; moderate size, ¼ hour. _Seasonable_ from August to
February. _Average cost_, from 9_d._ upwards.

_Note._—Haddocks may be filleted, rubbed over with egg and
bread-crumbs, and fried a nice brown; garnish with crisped parsley.


HADDOCK, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Sufficient water to cover the fish; ¼ lb. of salt to
each gallon of water. _Mode._—Scrape the fish, take out the inside,
wash it thoroughly, and lay it in a kettle, with enough water to
cover it, and salt in the above proportion. Simmer gently from 15 to
20 minutes, or rather more, should the fish be very large. For small
haddocks, fasten the tails in their mouths, and put them into boiling
water. 10 to 15 minutes will cook them. Serve with plain melted butter,
or anchovy sauce. _Time._—Large haddock, ½ hour; small, ¼ hour, or
rather less. _Average cost_, from 9_d._ upwards. _Seasonable_ from
August to February.


HADDOCK, Dried.

Dried haddock should be gradually warmed through, either before or
over a nice clear fire. Rub a little piece of butter over, just before
sending it to table.


HADDOCK, Dried.

_Ingredients._—1 large thick haddock, 2 bay-leaves, 1 small bunch of
savoury herbs, not forgetting parsley, a little butter and pepper;
boiling water. _Mode._—Cut up the haddock into square pieces, make a
basin hot by means of hot water, which pour out. Lay in the fish, with
the bay-leaves and herbs; cover with boiling water; put a plate over
to keep in the steam, and let it remain for 10 minutes. Take out the
slices, put them in a hot dish, rub over with butter and pepper, and
serve. _Time._—10 minutes. _Seasonable_ at any time, but best in winter.


HAM OMELET (a delicious Breakfast Dish).

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, ½ saltspoonful of pepper,
2 tablespoonfuls of minced ham. _Mode._—Mince the ham very finely,
without any fat, and fry it for 2 minutes in a little butter; then
make the batter for the omelet, stir in the ham, and proceed as in the
case of a plain omelet. Do not add any salt to the batter, as the ham
is usually sufficiently salt to impart a flavour to the omelet. Good
lean bacon, or tongue, answers equally well for this dish; but they
must also be slightly cooked previously to mixing them with the batter.
Serve very hot and quickly, without gravy. _Time._—From 4 to 6 minutes.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


HAM, FRIED, AND EGGS (a Breakfast Dish).

_Ingredients._—Ham; eggs. _Mode._—Cut the ham into slices, and take
care that they are of the same thickness in every part. Cut off the
rind, and if the ham should be particularly hard and salt, it will be
found an improvement to soak it for about 10 minutes in hot water, and
then dry it in a cloth. Put it into a cold frying-pan, set it over the
fire, and turn the slices 3 or 4 times whilst they are cooking. When
done, place them on a dish, which should be kept hot in front of the
fire during the time the eggs are being poached. Poach the eggs, slip
them on to the slices of ham, and serve quickly. _Time._—7 or 8 minutes
to broil the ham. _Average cost_, 8_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. by the whole
ham. _Sufficient._—Allow 2 eggs and a slice of ham to each person.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Ham may also be toasted or broiled; but, with the latter
method, to insure its being well cooked, the fire must be beautifully
clear, or it will have a smoky flavour far from agreeable.


HAM, Potted, that will keep Good for some time.

_Ingredients._—To 4 lbs. of lean ham allow 1 lb. of fat, 2 teaspoonfuls
of pounded mace, ½ nutmeg grated, rather more than ½ teaspoonful of
cayenne, clarified lard. _Mode._—Mince the ham, fat and lean together
in the above proportion, and pound it well in a mortar, seasoning it
with cayenne pepper, pounded mace, and nutmeg; put the mixture into a
deep baking-dish, and bake for ½ hour; then press it well into a stone
jar, till up the jar with clarified lard, cover it closely, and paste
over it a piece of thick paper. If well seasoned, it will keep a long
time in winter, and will be found very convenient for sandwiches, &c.
_Time._—½ hour. _Seasonable_ at any time.


HAM, Potted (a nice addition to the Breakfast or Luncheon table).

_Ingredients._—To 2 lbs. of lean ham allow ½ lb. of fat, 1 teaspoonful
of pounded mace, ½ teaspoonful of pounded allspice, ½ nutmeg, pepper to
taste, clarified butter. _Mode._—Cut some slices from the remains of a
cold ham, mince them small, and to every 2 lbs. of lean allow the above
proportion of fat. Pound the ham in a mortar to a fine paste, with the
fat, gradually add the seasonings and spices, and be very particular
that all the ingredients are well mixed and the spices well pounded.
Press the mixture into potting-pots, pour over clarified butter, and
keep it in a cool place. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 2_s._ 6_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.


HAM, to Bake.

_Ingredients._—Ham; a common crust. _Mode._—As a ham for baking should
be well soaked, let it remain in water for at least 12 hours. Wipe
it dry, trim away any rusty places underneath, and cover it with a
common crust, taking care that this is of sufficient thickness all
over to keep the gravy in. Place it in a moderately-heated oven, and
bake for nearly 4 hours. Take off the crust and skin, and cover with
raspings, the same as for boiled ham, and garnish the knuckle with
a paper frill. This method of cooking a ham is, by many persons,
considered far superior to boiling it, as it cuts fuller of gravy and
has a finer flavour, besides keeping a much longer time good. _Time._—A
medium-sized ham, 4 hours. _Average cost_, from 8_d._ to 1_s._ per lb.
by the whole ham. _Seasonable_ all the year.


HAM, to Boil.

[Illustration: BOILED HAM]

_Ingredients._—Ham, water, glaze, or raspings. _Mode._—In choosing a
ham, ascertain that it is perfectly sweet, by running a sharp knife
into it, close to the bone; and if, when the knife is withdrawn, it has
an agreeable smell, the ham is good; if, on the contrary, the blade
has a greasy appearance and offensive smell, the ham is bad. If it has
been long hung, and is very dry and salt, let it remain in soak for
24 hours, changing the water frequently. This length of time is only
necessary in the case of its being very hard; from 8 to 12 hours would
be sufficient for a Yorkshire or Westmoreland ham. Wash it thoroughly
clean, and trim away from the under-side all the rusty and smoked
parts, which would spoil the appearance. Put it into a boiling-pot,
with sufficient cold water to cover it; bring it gradually to boil, and
as the scum rises, carefully remove it. Keep it simmering very gently
until tender, and be careful that it does not stop boiling, nor boil
too quickly. When done, take it out of the pot, strip off the skin, and
sprinkle over it a few fine bread-raspings, put a frill of cut paper
round the knuckle, and serve. If to be eaten cold, let the ham remain
in the water until nearly cold: by this method the juices are kept
in, and it will be found infinitely superior to one taken out of the
water hot; it should, however, be borne in mind that the ham must _not_
remain in the saucepan _all_ night. When the skin is removed, sprinkle
over bread-raspings, or, if wanted particularly nice, glaze it. Place
a paper frill round the knuckle, and garnish with parsley or cut
vegetable flowers. _Time._—A ham weighing 10 lbs., 4 hours to _simmer
gently_; 15 lbs., 5 hours; a very large one, about 6 hours. _Average
cost_, from 8_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. by the whole ham. _Seasonable_ all
the year.


HAM, how to Boil to give it an excellent flavour.

_Ingredients._—Vinegar and water, 2 heads of celery, 2 turnips, 3
onions, a large bunch of savoury herbs. _Mode._—Prepare the ham as in
the preceding recipe, and let it soak for a few hours in vinegar and
water. Put it on in cold water, and when it boils, add the vegetables
and herbs. Simmer very gently until tender, take it out, strip off the
skin, cover with bread-raspings, and put a paper ruche or frill round
the knuckle. _Time._—A ham weighing 10 lbs., 4 hours. _Average cost_,
8_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. by the whole ham. _Seasonable_ at any time.


HAM, to Carve.

In cutting a ham, the carver must be guided according as he desires to
practise economy, or have, at once, fine slices out of the prime part.
Under the first supposition, he will commence at the knuckle end, and
cut off thin slices towards the thick part of the ham. To reach the
choicer portion, the knife, which must be very sharp and thin, should
be carried quite down to the bone, in the direction of the line 1 to 2.
The slices should be thin and even, and always cut down to the bone.
There are some who like to carve a ham by cutting a hole at the top,
and then slicing pieces off inside the hole, gradually enlarging the
circle; but we think this is a plan not to be recommended. A ham, when
hot, is usually sent to table with a paper ruffle round the knuckle.

[Illustration: HAM.]


HAMS, for Curing (Mons. Ude’s Recipe).

_Ingredients._—For 2 hams weighing about 16 or 18 lbs. each, allow 1
lb. of moist sugar, 1 lb. of common salt, 2 oz. of saltpetre, 1 quart
of good vinegar. _Mode._—As soon as the pig is cold enough to be cut
up, take the 2 hams and rub them well with common salt, and leave
them in a large pan for 3 days. When the salt has drawn out all the
blood, drain the hams, and throw the brine away. Mix sugar, salt, and
saltpetre together in the above proportion, rub the hams well with
these, and put them into a vessel large enough to hold them, always
keeping the salt over them. Let them remain for 3 days, then pour over
them a quart of good vinegar. Turn them in the brine every day for a
month, then drain them well, and rub them with bran. Have them smoked
over a wood fire, and be particular that the hams are hung as high
up as possible from the fire; otherwise the fat will melt, and they
will become dry and hard. _Time._—To be pickled 1 month; to be smoked
1 month. _Sufficient_ for 2 hams of 18 lbs. each. _Seasonable_ from
October to March.


HAMS, to Cure Sweet, in the Westmoreland way.

_Ingredients._—3 lbs. of common salt, 3 lbs. of coarse sugar, 1 lb.
of bay-salt, 3 quarts of strong beer. _Mode._—Before the hams are put
into pickle, rub them the preceding day well with salt, and drain the
brine well from them. Put the above ingredients into a saucepan, and
boil for ¼ hour; pour over the hams, and let them remain a month in the
pickle. Rub and turn them every day, but do not take them out of the
pickling-pan; and have them smoked for a month. _Time._—To be pickled 1
month; to be smoked 1 month. _Seasonable_ from October to March.


HAMS, to Pickle (Suffolk Recipe).

_Ingredients._—To a ham from 10 to 12 lbs., allow 1 lb. of coarse
sugar, ¾ lb. of salt, 1 oz. of saltpetre, ½ a teacupful of vinegar.
_Mode._—Rub the hams well with common salt, and leave them for a day
or two to drain; then rub well in the above proportion of sugar, salt,
saltpetre, and vinegar, and turn them every other day. Keep them in
the pickle 1 month, drain them, and send them to be smoked over a wood
fire for 3 weeks or a month. _Time._—To remain in the pickle 1 month;
to be smoked 3 weeks or 1 month. _Sufficient._—The above proportion of
pickle is sufficient for 1 ham. _Seasonable._—Hams should be pickled
from October to March.


HAMS, to Salt Two, about 12 or 15 lbs. each.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of treacle, ½ lb. of saltpetre, 1 lb. of
bay-salt, 2 pounds of common salt. _Mode._—Two days before they are put
into pickle, rub the hams well with salt, to draw away all slime and
blood. Throw what comes from them away, and then rub them with treacle,
saltpetre, and salt. Lay them in a deep pan, and let them remain one
day; boil the above proportion of treacle, saltpetre, bay-salt, and
common salt for ¼ hour, and pour this pickle boiling hot over the hams:
there should be sufficient of it to cover them. For a day or two rub
them well with it; afterwards they will only require turning. They
ought to remain in this pickle for 3 weeks or a month, and then be
sent to be smoked, which will take nearly or quite a month to do. An
ox-tongue pickled in this way is most excellent, to be eaten either
green or smoked. _Time._—To remain in the pickle 3 weeks or a month; to
be smoked about a month. _Seasonable_ from October to March.


HAMS, to Smoke, at Home.

Take an old hogshead, stop up all the crevices, and fix a place to put
a cross-stick near the bottom, to hang the articles to be smoked on.
Next, in the side, cut a hole near the top, to introduce an iron pan
filled with sawdust and small pieces of green wood. Having turned the
tub upside down, hang the articles upon the cross-stick, introduce the
iron pan in the opening, and place a piece of red-hot iron in the pan,
cover it with sawdust, and all will be complete. Let a large ham remain
40 hours, and keep up a good smoke. Fish may be smoked in the same
manner.


HARE, Broiled (a Supper or Luncheon Dish).

_Ingredients._—The legs and shoulders of a roast hare, cayenne and salt
to taste, a little butter. _Mode._—Cut the legs and shoulders from a
roast hare, season them highly with salt and cayenne, and broil them
over a very clear fire for 5 minutes. Dish them on a hot dish, rub over
them a little cold butter, and send to table very quickly. _Time._—5
minutes. _Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.


HARE, Hashed.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast hare,
1 blade of pounded mace, 2 or 3 allspice, pepper and salt to taste,
1 onion, a bunch of savoury herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of port wine,
thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup.
_Mode._—Cut the cold hare into neat slices, and put the head, bones,
and trimmings into a stewpan, with ¾ pint of water; add the mace,
allspice, seasoning, onion, and herbs, and stew for nearly an hour, and
strain the gravy; thicken it with butter and flour, add the wine and
ketchup, and lay in the pieces of hare, with any stuffing that may be
left. Let the whole gradually heat by the side of the fire, and, when
it has simmered for about 5 minutes, serve, and garnish the dish with
sippets of toasted bread. Send red-currant jelly to table with it.
_Time._—Rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the cold
hare, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.


HARE, Jugged (very good).

_Ingredients._—1 hare, 1½ lb. of gravy beef, ½ lb. of butter, 1 onion,
1 lemon, 6 cloves; pepper, cayenne, and salt to taste; ½ pint of port
wine. _Mode._—Skin, paunch, and wash the hare, cut it into pieces,
dredge them with flour, and fry in boiling butter. Have ready 1½ pint
of gravy, made from the above proportion of beef, and thickened with
a little flour. Put this into a jar; add the pieces of fried hare, an
onion stuck with six cloves, a lemon peeled and cut in half, and a good
seasoning of pepper, cayenne, and salt; cover the jar down tightly,
put it up to the neck into a stewpan of boiling water, and let it stew
until the hare is quite tender, taking care to keep the water boiling.
When nearly done, pour in the wine, and add a few forcemeat balls:
these must be fried or baked in the oven for a few minutes before they
are put to the gravy. Serve with red-currant jelly. _Time._—3½ to 4
hours. If the hare is very old, allow 4½ hours. _Average cost_, 7_s._
_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from September to the end
of February.


HARE, Jugged (a Quicker and more Economical Way).

_Ingredients._—1 hare, a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 onions, each stuck
with 3 cloves, 6 whole allspice, ½ teaspoonful of black pepper, a strip
of lemon-peel, thickening of butter and flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of
mushroom ketchup, ¼ pint of port wine. _Mode._—Wash the hare nicely,
cut it up into joints (not too large), and flour and brown them as in
the preceding recipe; then put them into a stewpan with the herbs,
onions, cloves, allspice, pepper, and lemon-peel; cover with hot water,
and when it boils, carefully remove all the scum, and let it simmer
gently till tender, which will be in about 1¾ hour, or longer, should
the hare be very old. Take out the pieces of hare, thicken the gravy
with flour and butter, add the ketchup and port wine, let it boil
for about 10 minutes, strain it through a sieve over the hare, and
serve. A few fried forcemeat balls should be added at the moment of
serving, or, instead of frying them, they may be stewed in the gravy,
about 10 minutes before the hare is wanted for table. Do not omit to
serve red-currant jelly with it. _Time._—Altogether 2 hours. _Average
cost_, 5_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from
September to the end of February.

_Note._—Should there be any left, re-warm it the next day by putting
the hare, &c., into a covered jar, and placing this jar in a saucepan
of boiling water; this method prevents a great deal of waste.


HARE, Potted (a Luncheon or Breakfast Dish).

_Ingredients._—1 hare, a few slices of bacon, a large bunch of savoury
herbs, 4 cloves, ½ teaspoonful of whole allspice, 2 carrots, 2 onions,
salt and pepper to taste, 1 pint of water, 2 glasses of sherry.
_Mode._—Skin, empty, and wash the hare; cut it down the middle, and
put it into a stewpan, with a few slices of bacon under and over it;
add the remaining ingredients, and stew very gently until the hare
is tender, and the flesh will separate easily from the bones. When
done enough, take it up, remove the bones, and pound the meat, _with
the bacon_, in a mortar, until reduced to a perfectly smooth paste.
Should it not be sufficiently seasoned, add a little cayenne, salt, and
pounded mace, but be careful that these are well mixed with the other
ingredients. Press the meat into potting-pots, pour over clarified
butter, and keep in a dry place. The liquor that the hare was stewed
in, should be saved for hashes, soups, &c. &c. _Time._—About 2½ hours
to stew the hare. _Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.


HARE, Roast.

[Illustration: ROAST HARE.]

_Ingredients._—Hare, forcemeat, a little milk, butter. _Choosing and
Trussing._—Choose a young hare; which may be known by its smooth and
sharp claws, and by the cleft in the lip not being much spread. To
be eaten in perfection, it must hang for some time; and, if properly
taken care of, it may be kept for several days. It is better to hang
without being paunched; but should it be previously emptied, wipe the
inside every day, and sprinkle over it a little pepper and ginger, to
prevent the musty taste which long keeping in the damp occasions, and
also which affects the stuffing. After it is skinned, wash it well,
and soak for an hour in warm water to draw out the blood; if old, let
it lie in vinegar for a short time, but wash it well afterwards in
several waters. Make a forcemeat, wipe the hare dry, fill the belly
with it, and sew it up. Bring the hind and fore legs close to the body
towards the head, run a skewer through each, fix the head between the
shoulders by means of another skewer, and be careful to leave the ears
on. Put a string round the body from skewer to skewer, and tie it
above the back. _Mode._—The hare should be kept at a distance from the
fire when it is first laid down, or the outside will become dry and
hard before the inside is done. Baste it well with milk for a short
time, and afterwards with butter; and particular attention must be
paid to the basting, so as to preserve the meat on the back juicy and
nutritive. When it is almost roasted enough, flour the hare, and baste
well with butter. When nicely frothed, dish it, remove the skewers,
and send it to table with a little gravy in the dish, and a tureen of
the same. Red-currant jelly must also not be forgotten, as this is
an indispensable accompaniment to roast hare. For economy, good beef
dripping may be substituted for the milk and butter to baste with;
but the basting, as we have before stated, must be continued without
intermission. If the liver is good, it may be parboiled, minced, and
mixed with the stuffing; but it should not be used unless quite fresh.
_Time._—A middling-sized hare, 1¼ hour; a large hare, 1½ to 2 hours.
_Average cost_, from 4_s._ to 6_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from September to the end of February.


HARE, Roast, to Carve.

The “Grand Carver” of olden times, a functionary of no ordinary
dignity, was pleased when he had a hare to manipulate, for his skill
and grace had an opportunity of display. _Diners à la Russe_ may
possibly, erewhile, save modern gentlemen the necessity of learning the
art which was in auld lang syne one of the necessary accomplishments of
the youthful squire; but, until side-tables become universal, or till
we see the office of “grand carver” once more instituted, it will be
well for all to learn how to assist at the carving of this dish, which,
if not the most elegant in appearance, is a very general favourite.
The hare, having its head to the left, as shown in the woodcut, should
be first served by cutting slices from each side of the backbone, in
the direction of the lines from 3 to 4. After these prime parts are
disposed of, the leg should next be disengaged by cutting round the
line indicated by the figures 5 to 6. The shoulders will then be taken
off by passing the knife round from 7 to 8. The back of the hare should
now be divided by cutting quite through its spine, as shown by the line
1 to 2, taking care to feel with the point of the knife for a joint
where the back may be readily penetrated. It is the usual plan not to
serve any bone in helping hare; and thus the flesh should be sliced
from the legs and placed alone on the plate. In large establishments,
and where men-cooks are kept, it is often the case that the backbone of
the hare, especially in old animals, is taken out, and then the process
of carving is, of course, considerably facilitated. A great point to
be remembered in connection with carving hare is, that plenty of gravy
should accompany each helping, otherwise this dish, which is naturally
dry, will lose half its flavour, and so become a failure. Stuffing is
also served with it; and the ears, which should be nicely crisp, and
the brains of the hare, are esteemed as delicacies by many connoisseurs.

[Illustration: ROAST HARE.]


HARE SOUP.

_Ingredients._—A hare fresh-killed, 1 lb. of lean gravy-beef, a slice
of ham, 1 carrot, 2 onions, a faggot of savoury herbs, ¼ oz. of whole
black pepper, a little browned flour, ¼ pint of port wine, the crumb
of two French rolls, salt and cayenne to taste, 3 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Skin and paunch the hare, saving the liver and as much blood
as possible. Cut it in pieces, and put it in a stewpan with all the
ingredients, and simmer gently for 6 hours. This soup should be made
the day before it is wanted. Strain through a sieve, put the best parts
of the hare in the soup, and serve.


HARE SOUP.

Proceed as above; but, instead of putting the joints of the hare in
the soup, pick the meat from the bones, pound it in a mortar, and
add it, with the crumb of two French rolls, to the soup. Rub all
through a sieve; heat slowly, but do not let it boil. Send it to table
immediately. _Time._—8 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ from September to February. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


HERB POWDER, for Flavouring when Fresh Herbs are not obtainable.

_Ingredients._—1 oz. of dried lemon-thyme, 1 oz. of dried winter
savory, 1 oz. of dried sweet marjoram and basil, 2 oz. of dried
parsley, 1 oz. of dried lemon-peel. _Mode._—Prepare and dry the herbs,
pick the leaves from the stalks, pound them, and sift them through a
hair sieve; mix in the above proportions, and keep in glass bottles,
carefully excluding the air. This we think a far better method of
keeping herbs, as the flavour and fragrance do not evaporate so much as
when they are merely put in paper bags. Preparing them in this way, you
have them ready for use at a moment’s notice. Mint, sage, parsley, &c.,
dried, pounded, and each put into separate bottles, will be found very
useful in winter.


HERBS, to Dry, for Winter Use.

On a very dry day, gather the herbs, just before they begin to flower.
If this is done when the weather is damp, the herbs will not be so good
a colour. (It is very necessary to be particular in little matters like
this, for trifles constitute perfection, and herbs nicely dried will
be found very acceptable when frost and snow are on the ground. It is
hardly necessary, however, to state that the flavour and fragrance of
fresh herbs are incomparably finer.) They should be perfectly freed
from dirt and dust, and be divided into small bunches, with their roots
cut off. Dry them quickly in a very hot oven, or before the fire, as by
this means most of their flavour will be preserved, and be careful not
to burn them; tie them up in paper bags, and keep in a dry place. This
is a very general way of preserving dried herbs; but we would recommend
the plan described in a former recipe. _Seasonable._—From the month of
July to the end of September is the proper time for storing herbs for
winter use.


HERRINGS, White, Baked.

_Ingredients._—12 herrings, 4 bay-leaves, 12 cloves, 12 allspice, 2
small blades of mace, cayenne pepper and salt to taste, sufficient
vinegar to fill up the dish. _Mode._—Take herrings, cut off the heads,
and gut them. Put them in a pie-dish, heads and tails alternately, and,
between each layer, sprinkle over the above ingredients. Cover the fish
with the vinegar, and bake for ½ hour, but do not use it till quite
cold. The herrings may be cut down the front, the backbone taken out,
and closed again. Sprats done in this way are very delicious. _Time._—½
an hour. _Average cost_, 1_d._ each.

TO CHOOSE THE HERRING.—The more scales this fish has, the surer the
sign of its freshness. It should also have a bright and silvery look;
but if red about the head, it is a sign that it has been dead for some
time.


HERRINGS, Red or YARMOUTH BLOATERS.

The best way to cook these is to make incisions in the skin across the
fish, because they do not then require to be so long on the fire, and
will be far better than when cut open. The hard roe makes a nice relish
by pounding it in a mortar, with a little anchovy, and spreading it on
toast. If very dry, soak in warm water 1 hour before dressing.


HIDDEN MOUNTAIN, The (a pretty Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, a few slices of citron, sugar to taste, ¼ pint
of cream, a layer of any kind of jam. _Mode._—Beat the whites and yolks
of the eggs separately; then mix them and beat well again, adding a
few thin slices of citron, the cream, and sufficient pounded sugar
to sweeten it nicely. When the mixture is well beaten, put it into a
buttered pan, and fry the same as a pancake; but it should be three
times the thickness of an ordinary pancake. Cover it with jam, and
garnish with slices of citron and holly-leaves. This dish is served
cold. _Time._—About 10 minutes to fry the mixture. _Average cost_, with
the jam, 1_s._ 4_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


HODGE-PODGE.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of shin of beef, 3 quarts of water, 1 pint of
table-beer, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of celery; pepper
and salt to taste; thickening of butter and flour. _Mode._—Put the
meat, beer, and water in a stewpan; simmer for a few minutes, and skim
carefully. Add the vegetables and seasoning; stew gently till the meat
is tender. Thicken with the butter and flour, and serve with turnips
and carrots, or spinach and celery. _Time._—3 hours, or rather more.
_Average cost_, 3_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_
for 12 persons.


HODGE-PODGE.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—About 1 lb. of underdone cold
mutton, 2 lettuces, 1 pint of green peas, 5 or 6 green onions, 2 oz. of
butter, pepper and salt to taste, ½ teacupful of water. _Mode._—Mince
the mutton, and cut up the lettuces and onions in slices. Put those
in a stewpan, with all the ingredients except the peas, and let these
simmer very gently for ¾ hour, keeping them well stirred. Boil the peas
separately, mix these with the mutton, and serve very hot. _Time._—¾
hour. _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from the end of May
to August.


HOLLY-LEAVES, to Frost, for Garnishing and Decorating Dessert and
Supper Dishes.

_Ingredients._—Sprigs of holly, oiled butter, coarsely-powdered sugar.
_Mode._—Procure some nice sprigs of holly; pick the leaves from the
stalks, and wipe them with a clean cloth free from all moisture; then
place them on a dish near the fire, to get thoroughly dry, but not
too near to shrivel the leaves; dip them into oiled butter, sprinkle
over them some coarsely-powdered sugar, and dry them before the fire.
They should be kept in a dry place, as the least damp would spoil
their appearance. _Time._—About 10 minutes to dry before the fire.
_Seasonable._—These may be made at any time; but are more suitable for
winter garnishes, when fresh flowers are not easily obtained.


HONEY CAKE.

_Ingredients._—½ breakfast-cupful of sugar, 1 breakfast-cupful of rich
sour cream, 2 breakfast-cupfuls of flour, ½ teaspoonful of carbonate of
soda, honey to taste. _Mode._—Mix the sugar and cream together; dredge
in the flour, with as much honey as will flavour the mixture nicely;
stir it well that all the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed; add the
carbonate of soda, and beat the cake well for another 5 minutes; put
it into a buttered tin, bake it from ½ to ¾ hour, and let it be eaten
warm. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or
4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


HORSERADISH.

This root, scraped, is always served with hot roast beef, and is used
for garnishing many kinds of boiled fish. Let the horseradish remain
in cold water for an hour; wash it well, and with a sharp knife scrape
it into very thin shreds, commencing from the thick end of the root.
Arrange some of it lightly in a small glass dish, and the remainder use
for garnishing the joint; it should be placed in tufts round the border
of the dish, with 1 or 2 bunches on the meat. _Average cost_, 2_d._ per
stick. _Seasonable_ from October to June.


HORSERADISH SAUCE, to serve with Roast Beef.

_Ingredients._—4 tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish, 1 teaspoonful
of pounded sugar, 1 teaspoonful of salt, ½ teaspoonful of pepper, 2
teaspoonfuls of made mustard; vinegar. _Mode._—Grate the horseradish,
and mix it well with the sugar, salt, pepper, and mustard; moisten it
with sufficient vinegar to give it the consistency of cream, and serve
in a tureen; 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of cream added to the above very
much improve the appearance and flavour of this sauce. To heat it to
serve with hot roast beef, put it in a _bain marie_ or a jar, which
place in a saucepan of boiling water; make it hot, but do not allow it
to boil, or it will curdle.

_Note._—This sauce is a great improvement on the old-fashioned way of
serving cold-scraped horseradish with hot roast beef. The mixing of the
cold vinegar with the warm gravy cools and spoils everything on the
plate. Of course, with cold meat, the sauce should be served cold.


HORSERADISH VINEGAR.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of scraped horseradish, 1 oz. of minced shalot, 1
drachm of cayenne, 1 quart of vinegar. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients
into a bottle, which shake well every day for a fortnight. When it
is thoroughly steeped, strain and bottle, and it will be fit for use
immediately. This will be found an agreeable relish to cold beef,
&c. _Seasonable._—This vinegar should be made either in October or
November, as horseradish is then in its highest perfection.


HOT SPICE (a Delicious Adjunct to Chops, Steaks, Gravies, &c.)

_Ingredients._—3 drachms each of ginger, black pepper, and cinnamon,
7 cloves, ½ oz. mace, ¼ oz. of cayenne, 1 oz. grated nutmeg, 1½ oz.
white pepper. _Mode._—Pound the ingredients, and mix them thoroughly
together, taking care that everything is well blended. Put the spice
in a very dry glass bottle for use. The quantity of cayenne may be
increased, should the above not be enough to suit the palate.


ICE-CREAMS, Fruit.

_Ingredients._—To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of cream;
sugar to taste. _Mode._—Let the fruit be well ripened; pick it off
the stalks, and put it into a large earthen pan. Stir it about with
a wooden spoon, breaking it until it is well mashed; then, with the
back of the spoon, rub it through a hair sieve. Sweeten it nicely with
pounded sugar; whip the cream for a few minutes, add it to the fruit,
and whisk the whole again for another 5 minutes. Put the mixture into
the freezing-pot, and freeze, taking care to stir the cream, &c., two
or three times, and to remove it from the sides of the vessel, that
the mixture may be equally frozen and smooth. Ices are usually served
in glasses, but if moulded, as they sometimes are for dessert, must
have a small quantity of melted isinglass added to them, to enable
them to keep their shape. Raspberry, strawberry, currant, and all
fruit ice-creams, are made in the same manner. A little pounded sugar
sprinkled over the fruit before it is mashed assists to extract the
juice. In winter, when fresh fruit is not obtainable, a little jam may
be substituted for it: it should be melted and worked through a sieve
before being added to the whipped cream; and if the colour should not
be good, a little prepared, cochineal or beetroot may be put in to
improve its appearance. _Time._—½ hour to freeze the mixture. _Average
cost_, with cream at 1_s._ per pint, 4_d._ each ice. _Seasonable_, with
fresh fruit, in June, July, and August.


ICE, Lemon-water.

_Ingredients._—To every pint of syrup, allow 1/3 pint of lemon-juice;
the rind of 4 lemons. _Mode._—Rub the sugar on the rinds of the lemons,
and with it make the syrup. Strain the lemon-juice, add it to the other
ingredients, stir well, and put the mixture into a freezing-pot. Freeze
as directed for Ice Pudding, and when the mixture is thoroughly and
equally frozen, put it into ice-glasses. _Time._—½ hour to freeze the
mixture. _Average cost_, 3_d._ to 4_d._ each. _Seasonable_ at any time.


ICED-PUDDING (Parisian Recipe).

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of sweet almonds, 2 oz. of bitter ones, ¾ lb, of
sugar, 8 eggs, 1½ pint of milk. _Mode._—Blanch and dry the almonds
thoroughly in a cloth, then pound them in a mortar until reduced to
a smooth paste; add to these the well-beaten eggs, the sugar, and
milk; stir these ingredients over the fire until they thicken, but
do not allow them to boil; then strain and put the mixture into the
freezing-pot; surround it with ice, and freeze it. When quite frozen,
fill an iced-pudding mould, put on the lid, and keep the pudding in ice
until required for table; then turn it out on the dish, and garnish
it with a _compôte_ or any fruit that may be preferred, pouring a
little over the top of the pudding. This pudding may be flavoured with
vanilla, Curaçoa, or Maraschino. _Time._—½ hour to freeze the mixture.
_Seasonable._—Served all the year round.

[Illustration: ICED-PUDDING MOULD.]


ICES.

Ices are composed, it is scarcely necessary to say, of congealed
cream or water, combined sometimes with liqueurs or other flavouring
ingredients, or more generally with the juices of fruits. At desserts,
or at some evening parties, ices are scarcely to be dispensed with.
The principal utensils required for making ice-creams are ice-tubs,
freezing-pots, spaddles, and a cellaret. The tub must be large enough
to contain about a bushel of ice, pounded small, when brought out of
the ice-house, and mixed very carefully with either _salt_, _nitre_, or
_soda_. The freezing-pot is best made of pewter. If it be of tin, as
is sometimes the case, the congelation goes on too rapidly in it for
the thorough intermingling of its contents, on which the excellence
of the ice greatly depends. The spaddle is generally made of copper,
kept bright and clean. The cellaret is a tin vessel, in which ices are
kept for a short time from dissolving. The method to be pursued in the
freezing process must be attended to. When the ice-tub is prepared
with fresh-pounded ice and salt, the freezing-pot is put into it up
to its cover. The articles to be congealed are then poured into it
and covered over; but to prevent the ingredients from separating and
the heaviest of them from falling to the bottom of the mould, it is
requisite to turn the freezing-pot round and round by the handle, so as
to keep its contents moving until the congelation commences. As soon
as this is perceived (the cover of the pot being occasionally taken
off for the purpose of noticing when freezing takes place), the cover
is immediately closed over it, ice is put upon it, and it is left in
this state till it is served. The use of the spaddle is to stir up
and remove from the sides of the freezing-pot the cream, which in the
shaking may have washed against it, and by stirring it in with the
rest, to prevent waste of it occurring. Any negligence in stirring
the contents of the freezing-pot before congelation takes place, will
destroy the whole: either the sugar sinks to the bottom and leaves the
ice insufficiently sweetened, or lumps are formed, which disfigure and
discolour it.


ICES, to make Fruit-water.

_Ingredients._—To every pint of fruit-juice allow 1 pint of syrup.
_Mode._—Select nice ripe fruit; pick off the stalks and put it into
a large earthen pan, with a little pounded sugar strewed over; stir
it about with a wooden spoon until it is well broken, then rub it
through a hair sieve. Make a syrup, without white of egg; let it cool
add the fruit-juice, mix well together, and put the mixture into the
freezing-pot. Proceed as directed for Ice Puddings, and when the
mixture is equally frozen, put it into small glasses. Raspberry,
strawberry, currant, and other fresh-fruit-water ices, are made in the
same manner. _Time._—½ hour to freeze the mixture. _Average cost_,
3_d._ to 4_d._ each. _Seasonable_, with fresh fruit, in June, July, and
August.

[Illustration: DISH OF ICES.]


ICING, Almond, for Cakes.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of finely-pounded loaf sugar, allow 1
lb. of sweet almonds, the whites of 4 eggs, a little rosewater.
_Mode._—Blanch the almonds, and pound them (a few at a time) in
a mortar to a paste, adding a little rosewater to facilitate the
operation. Whisk the whites of the eggs to a strong froth; mix them
with the pounded almonds, stir in the sugar, and beat altogether.
When the cake is sufficiently baked, lay on the almond icing, and put
it into the oven to dry. Before laying this preparation on the cake,
great care must be taken that it is nice and smooth, which is easily
accomplished by well beating the mixture.


ICING, Sugar, for Cakes.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of loaf sugar allow the whites of 4 eggs,
1 oz. of fine starch. _Mode._—Beat the eggs to a strong froth, and
gradually sift in the sugar, which should be reduced to the finest
possible powder, and gradually add the starch, also finely powdered.
Beat the mixture well until the sugar is smooth; then with a spoon or
broad knife lay the ice equally over the cakes. These should then be
placed in a very cool oven, and the icing allowed to dry and harden,
but not to colour. The icing may be coloured with strawberry or currant
juice, or with prepared cochineal. If it be put on the cakes as soon
as they are withdrawn from the oven, it will become firm and hard by
the time the cakes are cold. On very rich cakes, such as wedding,
christening cakes, &c., a layer of almond icing is usually spread over
the top, and over that the white icing as described. All iced cakes
should be kept in a very dry place.


INVALID COOKERY.

_A few Rules to be observed in Cooking for Invalids._

Let all the kitchen utensils used in the preparation of invalids’
cookery be delicately and _scrupulously clean_; if this is not the
case, a disagreeable flavour may be imparted to the preparation, which
flavour may disgust, and prevent the patient from partaking of the
refreshment when brought to him or her.

For invalids, never make a large quantity _of one thing_, as they
seldom require much at a time; and it is desirable that variety be
provided for them.

Always have something in readiness; a little beef tea, nicely made and
nicely skimmed, a few spoonfuls of jelly, &c., &c., that it may be
administered as soon almost as the invalid wishes for it. If obliged to
wait a long time, the patient loses the desire to eat, and often turns
against the food when brought to him or her.

In sending dishes or preparations up to invalids, let everything look
as tempting as possible. Have a clean tray-cloth laid smoothly over the
tray; let the spoons, tumblers, cups and saucers, &c., be very clean
and bright. Gruel served in a tumbler is more appetizing than when
served in a basin or cup and saucer.

As milk is an important article of food for the sick, in warm weather
let it be kept on ice, to prevent its turning sour. Many other
delicacies may also be preserved good in the same manner for some
little time.

If the patient be allowed to eat vegetables, never send them up
undercooked, or half raw; and let a small quantity only be temptingly
arranged on a dish. This rule will apply to every preparation, as an
invalid is much more likely to enjoy his food if small delicate pieces
are served to him.

Never leave food about a sick-room; if the patient cannot eat it when
brought to him, take it away, and bring it to him in an hour or two’s
time. Miss Nightingale says, “To leave the patient’s untasted food
by his side from meal to meal, in hopes that he will eat it in the
interval, is simply to prevent him from taking any food at all.” She
says, “I have known patients literally incapacitated from taking one
article of food after another by this piece of ignorance. Let the food
come at the right time, and be taken away, eaten or uneaten, at the
right time, but never let a patient have ‘something always standing’ by
him, if you don’t wish to disgust him of everything.”

Never serve beef tea or broth with the _smallest particle_ of fat or
grease on the surface. It is better, after making either of these, to
allow them to get perfectly cold, when _all the fat_ may be easily
removed; then warm up as much as may be required. Two or three pieces
of clean whity-brown paper laid on the broth will absorb any greasy
particles that may be floating at the top, as the grease will cling to
the paper.

Roast mutton, chickens, rabbits, calves’ feet or head, game, fish
(simply dressed), and simple puddings, are all light food, and easily
digested. Of course, these things are only partaken of supposing the
patient is recovering.

A mutton chop, nicely cut, trimmed, and broiled to a turn, is a dish
to be recommended for invalids; but it must not be served _with all
the fat_ at the end, nor must it be too thickly cut. Let it be cooked
over a fire free from smoke, and sent up with the gravy in it, between
two very hot plates. Nothing is more disagreeable to an invalid than
_smoked_ food.

In making toast-and-water, never blacken the bread, but toast it only a
nice brown. Never leave toast-and-water to make until the moment it is
required, as it cannot then be properly prepared,—at least the patient
will be obliged to drink it warm, which is anything but agreeable.

In boiling eggs for invalids, let the white be just set; if boiled
hard, they will be likely to disagree with the patient.

In Miss Nightingale’s admirable “Notes on Nursing,” a book that no
mother or nurse should be without, she says,—“You cannot be too
careful as to quality in sick-diet. A nurse should never put before a
patient milk that is sour, meat or soup that is turned, an egg that
is bad, or vegetables underdone.” Yet often, she says, she has seen
these things brought in to the sick, in a state perfectly perceptible
to every nose or eye except the nurse’s. It is here that the clever
nurse appears,—she will not bring in the peccant article; but, not
to disappoint the patient, she will whip up something else in a few
minutes. Remember, that sick-cookery should half do the work of your
poor patient’s weak digestion.

She goes on to caution nurses, by saying,—“Take care not to spill into
your patient’s saucer; in other words, take care that the outside
bottom rim of his cup shall be quite dry and clean. If, every time he
lifts his cup to his lips, he has to carry the saucer with it, or else
to drop the liquid upon and to soil his sheet, or bedgown, or pillow,
or, if he is sitting up, his dress, you have no idea what a difference
this minute want of care on your part makes to his comfort, and even to
his willingness for food.”


INVALID’S CUTLET.

_Ingredients._—1 nice cutlet from a loin or neck of mutton; 2
teacupfuls of water; 1 very small stick of celery; pepper and salt to
taste. _Mode._—Have the cutlet cut from a very nice loin or neck of
mutton, take off all the fat, put it into a stewpan with the other
ingredients; stew very gently indeed for nearly 2 hours, and skim off
every particle of fat that may rise to the surface from time to time.
The celery should be out into thin slices before it is added to the
meat, and care must be taken not to put in too much of this, or the
dish will not be good. If the water is allowed to boil fast, the cutlet
will be hard. _Time._—2 hours very gentle stewing. _Average cost_,
6_d._ _Sufficient_ for one person. _Seasonable._—Whenever celery may be
had.


INVALID’S JELLY.

_Ingredients._—12 shanks of mutton, 3 quarts of water, a bunch of sweet
herbs, pepper and salt to taste, 3 blades of mace, 1 onion, 1 lb. of
lean beef, a crust of bread toasted brown. _Mode._—Soak the shanks in
plenty of water for some hours, and scrub them well; put them, with the
beef and other ingredients, into a saucepan with the water, and let
them simmer very gently for 5 hours. Strain the broth, and, when cold,
take off all the fat. It may be eaten either warmed up or cold as a
jelly. _Time._—5 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ to make from
1½ to 2 pints of jelly. _Seasonable_ at any time.


INVALIDS, Lemonade for.

_Ingredients._—½ lemon, lump sugar to taste, 1 pint of boiling water.
_Mode._—Pare off the rind of the lemon thinly; cut the lemon into 2 or
3 thick slices, and remove as much as possible of the white outside
pith, and all the pips. Put the slices of lemon, the peel, and lump
sugar into a jug; pour over the boiling water; cover it closely, and
in 2 hours it will be fit to drink. It should either be strained or
poured off from the sediment. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 2_d._
_Sufficient_ to make 1 pint of lemonade. _Seasonable_ at any time.


JAM ROLY-POLY PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—¾ lb. of suet-crust, ¾ lb. of any kind of jam.
_Mode._—Make a nice light suet-crust, and roll it out to the thickness
of about ½ inch. Spread the jam equally over it, leaving a small margin
of paste without any, where the pudding joins. Roll it up, fasten
the ends securely, and tie it in a floured cloth; put the pudding
into boiling water, and boil for 2 hours. Mincemeat or marmalade may
be substituted for the jam, and makes excellent puddings. _Time._—2
hours. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable._—Suitable for winter puddings, when fresh fruit is not
obtainable.


JANUARY—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                          Mock-Turtle Soup,
                             removed by
                      Cod’s Head and Shoulders.

  Stewed Eels.                Vase of                     Red Mullet.
                              Flowers.

                         Clear Ox-tail Soup,
                            removed by
                        Fried Filleted Soles.

_Entrées._

                           Riz de Veau aux
                              Tomates.

    Ragoût of                 Vase of               Cotelettes de Porc
    Lobster.                  Flowers.                 à la Robert.

                        Poulet à la Marengo.

_Second Course._

                         Roast Turkey.

                          Pigeon Pie.

  Boiled Turkey and         Vase of                Boiled Ham.
   Celery Sauce.            Flowers.

                       Tongue, garnished.

                       Saddle of Mutton.

_Third Course._

  Charlotte                 Pheasants,                Apricot-Jam
  à la Parisienne.          removed by                 Tartlets.
                           Plum-Pudding.

                               Jelly.

  Cream.                      Vase of                  Cream.
                              flowers.

                               Jelly.

   Mince Pies.                 Snipes,                 Maids
                             removed by              of Honour.
                          Pommes à la Condé.

Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Carrot soup à la Crécy; ox-tail soup; turbot and
lobster sauce; fried smelts, with Dutch sauce. _Entrées._ Mutton
cutlets, with Soubise sauce; sweetbreads; oyster patties; fillets
of rabbits. _Second Course._—Roast Turkey; stewed rump of beef à
la jardinière; boiled ham, garnished with Brussels sprouts; boiled
chickens and celery sauce. _Third course._—Roast hare; teal; eggs à la
neige; vol-au-vent of preserved fruit; 1 jelly; 1 cream; potatoes à la
maître d’hôtel; grilled mushrooms; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Soup à la Reine; whitings au gratin; crimped cod and
oyster sauce. _Entrées._—Tendrons de veau; curried fowl and boiled
rice. _Second Course._—Turkey, stuffed with chestnuts, and chestnut
sauce; boiled leg of mutton, English fashion, with caper sauce and
mashed turnips. _Third course._—Woodcocks or partridges; widgeon;
Charlotte à la vanille; cabinet pudding; orange jelly; blancmange;
artichoke bottoms; macaroni, with Parmesan cheese; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First course._—Mulligatawny soup; brill and shrimp sauce; fried
whitings. _Entrées._—Fricasseed chicken; pork cutlets, with tomato
sauce. _Second course._—Haunch of mutton; boiled turkey and celery
sauce; boiled tongue, garnished with Brussels sprouts. _Third
Course._—Roast pheasants; meringues à la crême; compôte of apples;
orange jelly, cheesecakes; soufflé of rice; dessert and ices.


Dinners for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Julienne soup; soles à la Normandie.
_Entrées._—Sweetbreads, with sauce piquante; mutton cutlets, with
mashed potatoes. _Second Course._—Haunch of venison; boiled fowls and
bacon, garnished with Brussels sprouts. _Third Course._—Plum pudding;
custards in glasses; apple tart; fondue à la Brillat Savarin; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; fried slices of codfish and anchovy
sauce; John Dory. _Entrées._—Stewed rump-steak à la jardinière;
rissoles; oyster patties. _Second Course._—Leg of mutton; curried
rabbit and boiled rice. _Third Course._—Partridges; apple fritters;
tartlets of greengage jam; orange jelly; plum-pudding; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Pea-soup; baked haddock; soles à la crême.
_Entrées._—Mutton cutlets and tomato sauce; fricasseed rabbit.
_Second Course._—Roast pork and apple sauce; breast of veal, rolled
and stuffed; vegetables. _Third Course._—Jugged hare; whipped cream;
blancmange; mince pies; cabinet pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Palestine soup; fried smelts; stewed eels.
_Entrées._—Ragoût of lobster; broiled mushrooms; vol-au-vent of
chicken. _Second Course._—Sirloin of beef; boiled fowls and celery
sauce; tongue, garnished with Brussels sprouts. _Third Course._—Wild
ducks; Charlotte aux pommes; cheesecakes; transparent jelly, inlaid
with brandy cherries; blancmange; Nesselrode pudding.


JANUARY, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Boiled turbot and oyster sauce, potatoes. 2. Roast leg or
griskin of pork, apple sauce, brocoli, potatoes. 3. Cabinet pudding,
and damson tart made with preserved damsons.

_Monday._—1. The remains of turbot warmed in oyster sauce, potatoes. 2.
Cold pork, stewed steak. 3. Open jam tart, which should have been made
with the pieces of paste left from the damson tart; baked arrowroot
pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Boiled neck of mutton, carrots, mashed turnips, suet
dumplings, and caper sauce: the broth should be served first, and a
little rice or pearl barley should be boiled in it along with the meat.
2. Rolled jam pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast rolled ribs of beef, greens, potatoes, and
horseradish sauce. 2. Bread-and-butter pudding, cheesecakes.

_Thursday._—1. Vegetable soup (the bones from the ribs of beef should
be boiled down with this soup), cold beef, mashed potatoes. 2.
Pheasants, gravy, bread sauce. 3. Macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Fried whitings or soles. 2. Boiled rabbit and onion sauce,
minced beef, potatoes. 3. Currant dumplings.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak pudding or pie, greens, and potatoes. 2.
Baked custard pudding and stewed apples.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Codfish and oyster sauce, potatoes. 2. Joint of roast
mutton, either leg, haunch, or saddle; brocoli and potatoes,
red-currant jelly. 3. Apple tart and custards, cheese.

_Monday._—1. The remains of codfish picked from the bone, and warmed
through in the oyster sauce; if there is no sauce left, order a few
oysters and make a little fresh; and do not let the fish boil, or it
will be watery. 2. Curried rabbit, with boiled rice served separately,
cold mutton, mashed potatoes. 3. Somersetshire dumplings with wine
sauce.

_Tuesday._—1. Boiled fowls, parsley-and-butter; bacon garnished with
Brussels sprouts; minced or hashed mutton. 2. Baroness pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. The remains of the fowls cut up into joints and
fricasseed; joint of roast pork and apple sauce, and, if liked,
sage-and-onion, served on a dish by itself; turnips and potatoes. 2.
Lemon pudding, either baked or boiled.

_Thursday._—1. Cold pork and jugged hare, red-currant jelly, mashed
potatoes. 2. Apple pudding.

_Friday._—1. Boiled beef, either the aitchbone or the silver side of
the round; carrots, turnips, suet dumplings, and potatoes: if there
is a marrow-bone, serve the marrow on toast at the same time. 2. Rice
snowballs.

_Saturday._—1. Pea-soup made from liquor in which beef was boiled; cold
beef, mashed potatoes. 2. Baked batter fruit pudding.


JANUARY, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Barbel, brill, carp, cod, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels,
flounders, haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters,
perch, pike, plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats,
sturgeon, tench, thornback, turbot, whitings.

_Meat._—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

_Poultry._—Capons, fowls, tame pigeons, pullets, rabbits, turkeys.

_Game._—Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wild-fowl,
woodcock.

_Vegetables._—Beetroot, brocoli, cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil,
cresses, cucumbers (forced), endive, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes,
savoys, spinach, turnips, various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples, grapes, medlars, nuts, oranges, pears, walnuts,
crystallized preserves (foreign), dried fruits, such as almonds and
raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates.


JAUNEMANGE.

_Ingredients._—1 oz. of isinglass, 1 pint of water, ½ pint of white
wine, the rind and juice of 1 large lemon, sugar to taste, the yolks
of 6 eggs. _Mode._—Put the isinglass, water, and lemon-rind into a
saucepan, and boil gently until the former is dissolved; then add the
strained lemon-juice, the wine, and sufficient white sugar to sweeten
the whole nicely. Boil for 2 or 3 minutes, strain the mixture into a
jug, and add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well beaten; place
the jug in a saucepan of boiling water; keep stirring the mixture _one
way_ until it thickens, _but do not allow it to boil_; then take it off
the fire, and keep stirring until nearly cold. Pour it into a mould,
omitting the sediment at the bottom of the jug, and let it remain
until quite firm. _Time._—¼ hour to boil the isinglass and water;
about 10 minutes to stir the mixture in the jug. _Average cost_, with
the best isinglass, 2_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


JELLIES

Are not the nourishing food they were at one time considered to be, and
many eminent physicians are of opinion that they are less digestible
than the flesh, or muscular part of animals; still, when acidulated
with lemon-juice and flavoured with wine, they are very suitable for
some convalescents. Vegetable jelly is a distinct principle, existing
in fruits, which possesses the property of gelatinizing when boiled and
cooled; but it is a principle entirely different from the gelatine of
animal bodies, although the name of jelly, common to both, sometimes
leads to an erroneous idea on that subject. Animal jelly, or gelatine,
is glue, whereas vegetable jelly is rather analogous to gum. Liebig
places gelatine very low indeed in the scale of usefulness. He says,
“Gelatine, which by itself is tasteless, and when eaten, excites
nausea, possesses no nutritive value; that, even when accompanied by
the savoury constituents of flesh, it is not capable of supporting the
vital process, and when added to the usual diet as a substitute for
plastic matter, does not increase, but on the contrary, diminishes
the nutritive value of the food, which it renders insufficient in
quantity and inferior in quality.” It is this substance which is most
frequently employed in the manufacture of the jellies supplied by the
confectioner; but those prepared at home from calves’ feet do possess
some nutrition, and are the only sort that should be given to invalids.
Isinglass is the purest variety of gelatine, and is prepared from the
sounds or swimming-bladders of certain fish, chiefly the sturgeon.
From its whiteness it is mostly used for making blancmange and similar
dishes.


JELLIES, Bottled, How to Mould.

Uncork the bottle; place it in a saucepan of hot water until the jelly
is reduced to a liquid state; taste it, to ascertain whether it is
sufficiently flavoured, and if not, add a little wine. Pour the jelly
into moulds which have been soaked in water; let it set, and turn it
out by placing the mould in hot water for a minute; then wipe the
outside, put a dish on the top, and turn it over quickly. The jelly
should then slip easily away from the mould, and be quite firm. It may
be garnished as taste dictates.


JELLY, Isinglass, or Gelatine.

(Substitutes for Calf’s Feet.)

_Ingredients._—3 oz. of isinglass or gelatine, 2 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Put the isinglass or gelatine into a saucepan with the above
proportion of cold water; bring it quickly to boil, and let it boil
very fast, until the liquor is reduced one-half. Carefully remove the
scum as it rises, then strain it through a jelly-bag, and it will be
ready for use. If not required very clear, it may be merely strained
through a fine sieve, instead of being run through a bag. Rather more
than ½ oz. of isinglass is about the proper quantity to use for a quart
of strong calf’s-feet stock, and rather more than 2 oz. for the same
quantity of fruit juice. As isinglass varies so much in quality and
strength, it is difficult to give the exact proportions. The larger the
mould, the stiffer should be the jelly; and where there is no ice, more
isinglass must be used than if the mixture were frozen. This forms a
stock for all kinds of jellies, which may be flavoured in many ways.
_Time._—1½ hour. _Sufficient_, with wine, syrup, fruit, &c., to fill
two moderate-sized moulds. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—The above, when boiled, should be perfectly clear, and may be
mixed warm with wine, flavourings, fruits, &c., and then run through
the bag.


JELLY-BAG, How to make a.

[Illustration: JELLY-BAG.]

The very stout flannel called double-mill, used for ironing-blankets,
is the best material for a jelly-bag: those of home manufacture are
the only ones to be relied on for thoroughly clearing the jelly. Care
should be taken that the seam of the bag be stitched twice, to secure
it against unequal filtration. The most convenient mode of using the
bag is to tie it upon a hoop the exact size of the outside of its
mouth; and, to do this, strings should be sewn round it at equal
distances. The jelly-bag may, of course, be made any size; but one of
twelve or fourteen inches deep, and seven or eight across the mouth,
will be sufficient for ordinary use. The form of a jelly-bag is the
fool’s-cap.


JELLY Moulded with fresh Fruit, or Macedoine de Fruits.

_Ingredients._—Rather more than 1½ pint of jelly, a few nice
strawberries, or red or white currants, or raspberries, or any fresh
fruit that may be in season. _Mode._—Have ready the above proportion
of jelly, which must be very clear and rather sweet, the raw fruit
requiring an additional quantity of sugar. Select ripe, nice-looking
fruit; pick off the stalks, unless currants are used, when they are
laid in the jelly as they come from the tree. Begin by putting a little
jelly at the bottom of the mould, which must harden; then arrange
the fruit round the sides of the mould, recollecting that _it will
be reversed when turned out_; then pour in some more jelly to make
the fruit adhere, and, when that layer is set, put another row of
fruit and jelly until the mould is full. If convenient, put it in ice
until required for table, then wring a cloth in boiling water, wrap
it round the mould for a minute, and turn the jelly carefully out.
Peaches, apricots, plums, apples, &c., are better for being boiled in
a little clear syrup before they are laid in the jelly; strawberries,
raspberries, grapes, cherries, and currants are put in raw. In winter,
when fresh fruits are not obtainable, a very pretty jelly may be made
with preserved fruits or brandy cherries: these, in a bright and clear
jelly, have a very pretty effect; of course, unless the jelly be _very
clear_, the beauty of the dish will be spoiled. It may be garnished
with the same fruit as is laid in the jelly; for instance, an open
jelly with strawberries might have, piled in the centre, a few of
the same fruit prettily arranged, or a little whipped cream might be
substituted for the fruit. _Time._—One layer of jelly should remain 2
hours in a very cool place, before another layer is added. _Average
cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_, with fruit, to fill a quart mould.
_Seasonable_, with fresh fruit, from June to October; with dried, at
any time.

[Illustration: JELLY MOULDED WITH CHERRIES.]


JELLY, ORANGE, Moulded with slices of Orange.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of orange jelly, 4 oranges, ½ pint of clarified
syrup, _Mode._—Boil ½ lb. of loaf sugar with ½ pint of water until
there is no scum left (which must be carefully removed as fast as it
rises), and carefully peel the oranges; divide them into thin slices,
without breaking the thin skin, and put these pieces of orange into the
syrup, where let them remain for about 5 minutes; then take them out,
and use the syrup for the jelly. When the oranges are well drained, and
the jelly is nearly cold, pour a little of the latter into the bottom
of the mould; then lay in a few pieces of orange; over these pour a
little jelly, and when this is set, place another layer of oranges,
proceeding in this manner until the mould is full. Put it in ice,
or in a cool place, and, before turning it out, wrap a cloth round
the mould for a minute or two, which has been wrung out in boiling
water. _Time._—5 minutes to simmer the oranges, _Average cost_, 3_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_, with the slices of orange, to fill a quart mould.
_Seasonable_ from November to May.


JELLY of Two Colours.

[Illustration: JELLY OF TWO COLOURS.]

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of calf’s-feet jelly, a few drops of prepared
cochineal. _Mode._—Make 1½ pint of calf’s-feet jelly, or, if wished
more economical, of clarified syrup and gelatine, flavouring it in
any way that may be preferred. Colour one-half of the jelly with a
few drops of prepared cochineal, and the other half leave as pale as
possible. Have ready a mould well wetted in every part; pour in a small
quantity of the red jelly, and let this set; when quite firm, pour on
it the same quantity of the pale jelly, and let this set; then proceed
in this manner until the mould is full, always taking care to let one
jelly set before the other is poured in, or the colours would run
one into the other. When turned out, the jelly should have a striped
appearance. For variety, half the mould may be filled at once with one
of the jellies, and, when firm, filled up with the other: this, also,
has a very pretty effect, and is more expeditiously prepared than when
the jelly is poured in small quantities into the mould. Blancmange and
red jelly, or blancmange and raspberry cream, moulded in the above
manner, look very well. The layers of blancmange and jelly should be
about an inch in depth, and each layer should be perfectly hardened
before another is added. Half a mould of blancmange and half a mould
of jelly are frequently served in the same manner. A few pretty dishes
may be made, in this way, of jellies or blancmanges left from the
preceding day, by melting them separately in a jug placed in a saucepan
of boiling water, and then moulding them by the foregoing directions.
_Time._—¾ hour to make the jelly. _Average cost_, with calf’s-feet
jelly, 2_s._; with gelatine and syrup, more economical. _Sufficient_ to
fill 1½-pint mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—In making the jelly, use for flavouring a very pale sherry, or
the colour will be too dark to contrast nicely with the red jelly.


JELLY, Open, with whipped Cream (a very pretty dish).

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of jelly, ½ pint of cream, 1 glass of sherry,
sugar to taste. _Mode._—Make the above proportion of calf’s-feet or
isinglass jelly, colouring and flavouring it in any way that may be
preferred; soak a mould, open in the centre, for about ½ hour in cold
water; fill it with the jelly, and let it remain in a cool place until
perfectly set; then turn it out on a dish; fill the centre with whipped
cream, flavoured with sherry and sweetened with pounded sugar; pile
this cream high in the centre, and serve. The jelly should be made of
rather a dark colour, to contrast nicely with the cream. _Time._—¾
hour. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill 1½-pint mould.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: OPEN JELLY WITH WHIPPED CREAM.]


JELLY, Savoury, for Meat Pies.

_Ingredients._—3 lbs. of shin of beef, 1 calf’s-foot, 3 lbs. of knuckle
of veal, poultry trimmings (if for game pies, any game trimmings), 2
onions stuck with cloves, 2 carrots, 4 shalots, a bunch of savoury
herbs, 2 bay-leaves; when liked, 2 blades of mace and a little spice;
2 slices of lean ham; rather more than 2 quarts of water. _Mode._—Cut
up the meat and put it into a stewpan with all the ingredients except
the water; set it over a slow fire to draw down, and, when the gravy
ceases to flow from the meat, pour in the water. Let it boil up, then
carefully take away all scum from the top. Cover the stewpan closely,
and let the stock simmer very gently for 4 hours: if rapidly boiled,
the jelly will not be clear. When done, strain it through a fine sieve
or flannel bag; and when cold, the jelly should be quite transparent.
If this is not the case, clarify it with the whites of eggs. _Time._—4
hours. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 5_s._


JELLY, to make the Stock for, and to Clarify it.

_Ingredients._—2 calf’s feet, 6 pints of water. _Mode._—The stock for
jellies should always be made the day before it is required for use, as
the liquor has time to cool, and the fat can be so much more easily and
effectually removed when thoroughly set. Procure 2 nice calf’s feet;
scald them, to take off the hair; slit them in two, remove the fat from
between the claws, and wash the feet well in warm water; put them into
a stewpan, with the above proportion of cold water, bring it gradually
to boil and remove every particle of scum as it rises. When it is well
skimmed, boil it very gently for 6 or 7 hours, or until the liquor is
reduced rather more than half; then strain it through a sieve into a
basin, and put it in a cool place to set. As the liquor is strained,
measure it, to ascertain the proportion for the jelly, allowing
something for the sediment and fat at the top. To clarify it, carefully
remove all the fat from the top, pour over a little warm water, to wash
away any that may remain, and wipe the jelly with a clean cloth; remove
the jelly from the sediment, put it into a saucepan, and, supposing
the quantity to be a quart, add to it 6 oz. of loaf sugar, the shells
and well-whisked whites of 5 eggs, and stir these ingredients together
cold; set the saucepan on the fire, but _do not stir the jelly after
it begins to warm._ Let it boil about 10 minutes after it rises to a
head, then throw in a teacupful of cold water; let it boil 5 minutes
longer, then take the saucepan off, cover it closely, and let it remain
½ hour near the fire. Dip the jelly-bag into hot water, wring it out
quite dry, and fasten it on to a stand or the back of a chair, which
must be placed near the fire, to prevent the jelly from setting before
it has run through the bag. Place a basin underneath to receive the
jelly; then pour it into the bag, and should it not be clear the first
time, run it through the bag again. This stock is the foundation of
all _really good_ jellies, which may be varied in innumerable ways, by
colouring and flavouring with liqueurs, and by moulding it with fresh
and preserved fruits. To insure the jelly being firm when turned out,
½ oz. of isinglass clarified might be added to the above proportion
of stock. Substitutes for calf’s feet are now frequently used in
making jellies, which lessen the expense and trouble in preparing this
favourite dish, isinglass and gelatine being two of the principal
materials employed; but although they may _look_ as nicely as jellies
made from good stock, they are never so delicate, having very often
an unpleasant flavour, somewhat resembling glue, particularly when
made with gelatine. _Time._—About 6 hours to boil the feet for the
stock; to clarify it,—¼ hour to boil, ½ hour to stand in the saucepan
covered. _Average cost._—Calf’s feet may be purchased for 6_d._ each
when veal is in full season, but more expensive when it is scarce.
_Sufficient._—2 calf’s feet should make 1 quart of stock. _Seasonable_
from March to October, but may be had all the year.

[Illustration: JELLY-MOULD.]


JOHN DORY.

_Ingredients._—-¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water. _Mode._—This
fish, which is esteemed by most people a great delicacy, is dressed
in the same way as a turbot, which it resembles in firmness, but
not in richness. Cleanse it thoroughly and cut off the fins; lay it
in a fish-kettle, cover with cold water, and add salt in the above
proportion. Bring it gradually to a boil, and simmer gently for ¼
hour, or rather longer, should the fish be very large. Serve on a hot
napkin, and garnish with cut lemon and parsley. Lobster, anchovy, or
shrimp sauce, and plain melted butter, should be sent to table with
it. _Time._—After the water boils, ¼ to ½ hour, according to size.
_Average cost_, 3_s._ to 5_s._ _Seasonable_ all the year, but best from
September to January.

_Note._—Small John Dory are very good baked.


JUNE—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                           Asparagus Soup,
                              removed by
                           Crimped Salmon.

  Fillets of Gurnets.          Vase of         Soles aux fines herbes.
                              Flowers.

                            Vermicelli Soup,
                              removed by
                              Whitebait.

_Entrées._

                         Lamb Cutlets and
                              Peas.

  Lobster Patties.          Vase of          Tendrons de Veau
                            Flowers.         à la Jardinière.

                       Larded Sweetbreads.

_Second Course._

                         Saddle of Lamb.

                             Tongue.

  Roast Spring               Vase of                Boiled Capon.
  Chickens.                  Flowers.

                               Ham.

                         Boiled Calf’s Head.

_Third Course._

                               Leveret,
  Prawns.                     removed by               Tartlets.
                              Iced Pudding.

  Vol-au-Vent of               Wine Jelly.             Custards,
  Strawberries and Cream.                             in glasses.
                                Vase of
                                Flowers.
  Cheesecake.                                       Plovers’ Eggs.
                                Blancmange.

                                Goslings,
                                removed by
                             Fondues, in cases.

                             Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Green-pea soup; rice soup; salmon and lobster
sauce; trout à la Genévése; whitebait. _Entrées._—Lamb cutlets and
cucumbers; fricasseed chicken; stewed veal and peas; lobster rissoles.
_Second Course._—Roast quarter of lamb and spinach; filet de bœuf
à la Jardinière; boiled fowls; braised shoulder of lamb; tongue;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Goslings; ducklings; Nesselrode pudding;
Charlotte à la Parisienne; gooseberry tartlets; strawberry cream;
raspberry-and-currant tart; custards; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Julienne soup; salmon trout and parsley-and-butter; red
mullet. _Entrées._—Stewed breast of veal and peas; mutton cutlets à la
Maintenon. _Second Course._—Roast fillet of veal; boiled leg of lamb,
garnished with young carrots; boiled bacon-cheek; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Roast ducks; leveret; gooseberry tart; strawberry cream;
strawberry tartlets; meringues; cabinet pudding; iced pudding; dessert
and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; trout à la Genévése; salmon cutlets.
_Entrées._—Lamb cutlets and peas; fricasseed chicken. _Second
Course._—Roast ribs of beef; half calf’s head, tongue, and brains;
boiled ham; vegetables. _Third Course._—Roast ducks; compôte of
gooseberries; strawberry jelly; pastry; iced pudding; cauliflower with
cream sauce; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Spring soup; boiled salmon and lobster sauce.
_Entrées._—Veal cutlets and endive; ragoût of duck and green peas.
_Second Course._—Roast loin of veal; boiled leg of lamb and white
sauce; tongue, garnished; vegetables. _Third Course._—Strawberry cream;
gooseberry tartlets; almond pudding; lobster salad; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Calf’s head soup; mackerel à la maître d’hôtel;
whitebait. _Entrées._—Chicken cutlets; curried lobster. _Second
Course._—Fore-quarter of lamb and salad; stewed beef à la Jardinière;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Goslings; green-currant tart; custards, in
glasses; strawberry blancmange; soufflé of rice; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Green-pea soup; baked soles aux fines herbes;
stewed trout. _Entrées._—Calf’s liver and bacon; rissoles. _Second
Course._—Roast saddle of lamb and salad; calf’s head à la tortue;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Roast ducks; vol-au-vent of strawberries
and cream; strawberry tartlets; lemon blancmange; baked gooseberry
pudding; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Spinach soup; soles à la crême; red mullet.
_Entrées._—Roast fillet of veal; braised ham and spinach. _Second
Course._—Boiled fowls and white sauce; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Leveret; strawberry jelly; Swiss cream; cheesecakes; iced
pudding; dessert.


JUNE, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Salmon trout and parsley-and-butter, new potatoes. 2.
Roast fillet of veal, boiled bacon-cheek and spinach, vegetables. 3.
Gooseberry tart, custard.

_Monday._—1. Light gravy soup. 2. Small meat pie, minced
veal, garnished with rolled bacon, spinach, and potatoes. 3.
Raspberry-and-currant tart.

_Tuesday._—1. Baked mackerel, potatoes. 2. Boiled leg of lamb,
garnished with young carrots. 3. Lemon pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Vegetable soup. 2. Calf’s liver and bacon, peas, hashed
lamb from remains of cold joint. 3. Baked gooseberry pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Roast ribs of beef, Yorkshire pudding, peas, potatoes.
2. Stewed rhubarb and boiled rice.

_Friday._—1. Cold beef and salad, lamb cutlets and peas. 2. Boiled
gooseberry pudding and baked custard pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak pudding, broiled beef-bones and cucumber,
vegetables. 2. Bread pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Roast fore-quarter of lamb, mint sauce, peas, and new
potatoes. 2. Gooseberry pudding, strawberry tartlets. Fondue.

_Monday._—1. Cold lamb and salad, stewed neck of veal and peas, young
carrots, and new potatoes. 2. Almond pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Green-pea soup. 2. Roast ducks stuffed, gravy, peas, and
new potatoes. 3. Baked ratafia pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast leg of mutton, summer cabbage, potatoes. 2.
Gooseberry and rice pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Fried soles, melted butter, potatoes. 2. Sweetbreads,
hashed mutton, vegetables. 3. Bread-and-butter pudding.

_Friday._—1. Asparagus soup. 2. Boiled beef, young carrots, and new
potatoes, suet dumplings. 3. College puddings.

_Saturday._—1. Cold boiled beef and salad, lamb cutlets, and green
peas. 2. Boiled gooseberry pudding and plain cream.


JUNE, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Carp, crayfish, herrings, lobsters, mackerel, mullet, pike,
prawns, salmon, soles, tench, trout, turbot.

_Meat._—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

_Poultry._—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears.

_Vegetables._—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots,
cucumbers, lettuces, onions, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, small
salads, sea-kale, spinach,—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apricots, cherries, currants, gooseberries, melons,
nectarines, peaches, pears, pineapples, raspberries, rhubarb,
strawberries.


JULY—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                               Green-Pea Soup,
                                 removed by
                             Salmon and dressed
                                 Cucumber.

  Whitebait.                    Vase of                Stewed Trout.
                                Flowers.

                              Soup à la Reine,
                               removed by
                           Mackerel à la Maître
                                d’Hôtel.

_Entrées._

                             Lamb Cutlets and
                                   Peas.

  Lobster Curry                  Vase of            Scollops of
  en Casserole.                  Flowers.            Chickens.

                              Chicken Patties.

_Second Course._

                        Haunch of Venison.

                           Pigeon Pie.

  Boiled Capons.             Vase of               Spring Chickens.
                             Flowers.

                           Braised Ham.

                          Saddle of Lamb.

_Third Course._

                             Roast Ducks,
                              removed by
                            Vanilla Soufflé.

  Prawns.                   Raspberry Cream.             Custards.

                                Vase of
                               Flowers.
  Cherry Tart.                                          Raspberry-and-Currant
                                                             Tart.
                            Strawberry Cream.

  Creams.                     Green Goose,                   Tartlets.
                              removed by
                             Iced Pudding.

                             Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Soup à la Jardinière; chicken soup; crimped
salmon and parsley-and-butter; trout aux fines herbes, in cases.
_Entrées._—Tendrons de veau and peas; lamb cutlets and cucumbers.
_Second Course._—Loin of veal à la Béchamel; roast fore-quarter of
lamb; salad; braised ham, garnished with broad beans; vegetables.
_Third Course._—Roast ducks; turkey poult; stewed peas à la Française;
lobster salad; cherry tart; raspberry-and-currant tart; custards, in
glasses; lemon creams; Nesselrode pudding; marrow pudding. Dessert and
ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Green-pea soup; salmon and lobster sauce; crimped
perch and Dutch sauce. _Entrées._—Stewed veal and peas; lamb cutlets
and cucumbers. _Second Course._—Haunch of venison; boiled fowls à la
Béchamel; braised ham; vegetables. _Third Course._—Roast ducks; peas à
la Française; lobster salad; strawberry cream; blancmange; cherry tart;
cheesecakes; iced pudding. Dessert and ices.


Dinner for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Soup à la Jardinière; salmon trout and
parsley-and-butter; fillets of mackerel à la maître d’hôtel.
_Entrées._—Lobster cutlets; beef palates, à la Italienne. _Second
Course._—Roast lamb; boiled capon and white sauce; boiled tongue,
garnished with small vegetable marrows; bacon and beans. _Third
Course._—Goslings; whipped strawberry cream; raspberry-and-currant
tart; meringues; cherry tartlets; iced pudding. Dessert and ices.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Julienne soup; crimped salmon and caper sauce;
whitebait. _Entrées._—Croquettes à la Reine; curried lobster.
_Second Course._—Roast lamb; rump of beef à la Jardinière. _Third
Course._—Larded turkey poult; raspberry cream; cherry tart; custards,
in glasses; Gâteaux à la Genévése; Nesselrode pudding. Dessert.


JULY, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Salmon trout and parsley-and-butter. 2. Roast fillet of
veal, boiled bacon-cheek, peas, potatoes. 3. Raspberry-and-currant
tart, baked custard pudding.

_Monday._—1. Green-pea soup. 2. Roast fowls garnished with
water-cresses; gravy, bread sauce; cold veal and salad. 3. Cherry tart.

_Tuesday._—1. John dory and lobster sauce. 2. Curried fowl with remains
of cold fowls, dish of rice, veal rolls with remains of cold fillet. 3.
Strawberry cream.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast leg of mutton, vegetable marrow and potatoes,
melted butter. 2. Black-currant pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Fried soles, anchovy sauce. 2. Mutton cutlets and tomato
sauce, hashed mutton, peas, potatoes, 3. Lemon dumplings.

_Friday._—1. Boiled brisket of beef, carrots, turnips, suet dumplings,
peas, potatoes. 2. Baked semolina pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Cold beef and salad, lamb cutlets and peas. 2. Rolled
jam pudding.

_Sunday._—1. Julienne soup. 2. Roast lamb, half calf’s head, tongue and
brains, boiled ham, peas and potatoes. 3. Cherry tart, custards.

_Monday._—1. Hashed calf’s head, cold lamb and salad. 2. Vegetable
marrow and white sauce, instead of pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Stewed veal, with peas, young carrots, and potatoes.
Small meat pie. 2. Raspberry-and-currant pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast ducks stuffed, gravy, peas, and potatoes; the
remains of stewed veal rechauffé. 2. Macaroni served as a sweet pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Slices of salmon and caper sauce. 2. Boiled knuckle
of veal, parsley-and-butter, vegetable marrow and potatoes. 3.
Black-currant pudding.

_Friday._—1. Roast shoulder of mutton, onion sauce, peas and potatoes.
2. Cherry tart, baked custard pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Minced mutton, rump-steak-and-kidney pudding. 2. Baked
lemon pudding.


JULY, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Carp, crayfish, dory, flounders, haddocks, herrings, lobsters,
mackerel, mullet, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, soles,
sturgeon, tench, thornback.

_Meat._—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal, buck venison.

_Poultry._—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, plovers,
pullets, rabbits, turkey poults, wheatears, wild ducks (called
flappers).

_Vegetables._—Artichokes, asparagus, beans, cabbages, carrots,
cauliflowers, celery, cresses, endive, lettuces, mushrooms, onions,
peas, radishes, small salading, sea-kale, sprouts, turnips, vegetable
marrow,—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apricots, cherries, currants, figs, gooseberries, melons,
nectarines, pears, pineapples, plums, raspberries, strawberries,
walnuts in high season, for pickling.


JULIENNE, Soup à la.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of carrots, ½ pint of turnips, ¼ pint of onions,
2 or 3 leeks, ½ head of celery, 1 lettuce, a little sorrel and
chervil, if liked, 2 oz. of butter, 2 quarts of stock. _Mode._—Cut the
vegetables into strips of about 1¼ inch long, and be particular they
are all the same size, or some will be hard whilst the others will
be done to a pulp. Cut the lettuce, sorrel, and chervil into larger
pieces; fry the carrots in the butter, and pour the stock boiling to
them. When this is done, add all the other vegetables and herbs, and
stew gently for at least an hour. Skim off all the fat, pour the soup
over thin slices of bread, cut round about the size of a shilling,
and serve. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost._—1_s._ 3_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

[Illustration: STRIPS OF VEGETABLE.]

_Note._—In summer, green peas, asparagus-tops, French beans, &c., can
be added. When the vegetables are very strong, instead of frying them
in butter at first, they should be blanched, and afterwards simmered in
the stock.


KALE BROSE (a Scotch Recipe).

_Ingredients._—Half an ox-head or cow-heel, a teacupful of toasted
oatmeal, salt to taste, 2 handfuls of greens, 3 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Make a broth of the ox-head or cow-heel, and boil it till
oil floats on the top of the liquor, then boil the greens, shred, in
it. Put the oatmeal, with a little salt, into a basin, and mix with
it quickly a teacupful of the fat broth: it should not run into one
doughy mass, but form knots. Stir it into the whole, give one boil,
and serve very hot. _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ all the year, but more suitable in winter. _Sufficient_
for 10 persons.


KEGEREE.

_Ingredients._—Any cold fish, 1 teacupful of boiled rice, 1 oz. of
butter, 1 teaspoonful of mustard, 2 soft-boiled eggs, salt and cayenne
to taste. _Mode._—Pick the fish carefully from the bones, mix with the
other ingredients, and serve very hot. The quantities may be varied
according to the amount of fish used. _Time._—¼ hour after the rice is
boiled. _Average cost_, 5_d._ exclusive of the fish.


KIDNEYS, Broiled (a Breakfast or Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—Sheep kidneys, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Ascertain that the kidneys are fresh, and cut them open, very
evenly, lengthwise, down to the root, for should one half be thicker
than the other, one would be underdone whilst the other would be dried,
but do not separate them; skin them, and pass a skewer under the white
part of each half to keep them flat, and broil over a nice clear fire,
placing the inside downwards; turn them when done enough on one side,
and cook them on the other. Remove the skewers, place the kidneys on
a very hot dish, season with pepper and salt, and put a tiny piece of
butter in the middle of each; serve very hot and quickly, and send very
hot plates to table. _Time._—6 to 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 1½_d._
each. _Sufficient._—Allow 1 for each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: KIDNEYS.]

_Note._—A prettier dish than the above may be made by serving the
kidneys each on a piece of buttered toast cut in any fanciful shape. In
this case a little lemon-juice will be found an improvement.


KIDNEYS, Fried.

_Ingredients._—Kidneys, butter, pepper, and salt to taste. _Mode._—Cut
the kidneys open without quite dividing them, remove the skin, and
put a small piece of butter in the frying-pan. When the butter is
melted, lay in the kidneys the flat side downwards, and fry them for 7
or 8 minutes, turning them when they are half done. Serve on a piece
of dry toast, season with pepper and salt, and put a small piece of
butter in each kidney; pour the gravy from the pan over them, and
serve very hot. _Time._—7 or 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 1½_d._ each.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1 kidney to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.


KIDNEY OMELET (a favourite French Dish).

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, ½ saltspoonful of
pepper, 2 sheep’s kidneys, or 2 tablespoonfuls of minced veal kidney, 5
oz. of butter. _Mode._—Skin the kidneys, cut them into small dice, and
toss them in a frying-pan, in 1 oz. of butter, over the fire for 2 or
3 minutes. Mix the ingredients for the omelet, and when the eggs are
well whisked, stir in the pieces of kidney. Make the butter hot in the
frying-pan, and when it bubbles, pour in the omelet, and fry it over a
gentle fire from 4 to 6 minutes. When the eggs are set, fold the edges
over, so that the omelet assumes an oval form, and be careful that it
is not too much done: to brown the top, hold the pan before the fire
for a minute or two, or use a salamander until the desired colour is
obtained, but never turn an omelet in the pan. Slip it carefully on to
a _very hot_ dish, or, what is a much safer method, put a dish on the
omelet, and turn the pan quickly over. It should be served the instant
it comes from the fire. _Time._—4 to 6 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._
_Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: OMELET PAN.]


KIDNEYS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—About 8 kidneys, a large dessertspoonful of chopped
herbs, 2 oz. butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, a little gravy, juice
of half a lemon, a teaspoonful of Harvey sauce and mushroom ketchup,
cayenne, and salt to taste. _Mode._—Strew the herbs, with cayenne and
salt, over the kidneys, melt the butter in the frying-pan, put in the
kidneys, and brown them nicely all round; when nearly done, stir in the
flour, and shake them well; now add the gravy and sauce, and stew them
for a few minutes, then turn them out into a dish garnished with fried
sippets. _Time._—10 or 12 minutes. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LAMB.

The most delicious sorts of lamb are those of the South-Down breed,
known by their black feet; and of these, those which have been
exclusively suckled on the milk of the parent ewe, are considered
the finest. Next to these in estimation are those fed on the milk of
several dams; and last of all, though the fattest, the grass-fed lamb:
this, however, implies an age much greater than either of the others.

LAMB, in the early part of the season, however reared, is in London,
and indeed generally, sold in quarters, divided with eleven ribs to the
fore-quarter; but, as the season advances, these are subdivided into
two, and the hind-quarter in the same manner; the first consisting of
the shoulder, and the neck and breast; the latter, of the leg and the
loin.—As lamb, from the juicy nature of its flesh, is especially liable
to spoil in unfavourable weather, it should be frequently wiped, so as
to remove any moisture that may form on it.

[Illustration: SIDE OF LAMB.]

IN THE PURCHASING OF LAMB FOR THE TABLE, there are certain signs by
which the experienced judgment is able to form an accurate opinion
whether the animal has been lately slaughtered, and whether the joints
possess that condition of fibre indicative of good and wholesome meat.
The first of these doubts may be solved satisfactorily by the bright
and dilated appearance of the eye; the quality of the fore-quarter can
always be guaranteed by the blue or healthy ruddiness of the jugular,
or vein of the neck; while the rigidity of the knuckle, and the firm,
compact feel of the kidney, will answer in an equally positive manner
for the integrity of the hind-quarter.

MODE OF CUTTING UP A SIDE OF LAMB IN LONDON.—1. Ribs; 2. Breast; 3.
Shoulder; 4. Loin; 5. Leg; 1, 2, 3. Fore Quarter.


LAMB, Breast of, and Green Peas.

_Ingredients._—1 breast of lamb, a few slices of bacon, ½ pint of
stock, 1 lemon, 1 onion, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, green-peas.
_Mode._—Remove the skin from a breast of lamb, put it into a saucepan
of boiling water, and let it simmer for 5 minutes. Take it out and lay
it in cold water. Line the bottom of a stewpan with a few thin slices
of bacon; lay the lamb on these; peel the lemon, cut it into slices,
and put these on the meat, to keep it white and make it tender; cover
with 1 or 2 more slices of bacon; add the stock, onion, and herbs, and
set it on a slow fire to simmer very gently until tender. Have ready
some green peas, put these on a dish, and place the lamb on the top
of them. The appearance of this dish may be much improved by glazing
the lamb, and spinach may be substituted for the peas when variety is
desired. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_
for 3 persons. _Seasonable._—Grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB, Stewed Breast of.

_Ingredients._—1 breast of lamb, pepper and salt to taste, sufficient
stock to cover it, 1 glass of sherry, thickening of butter and flour.
_Mode._—Skin the lamb, cut it into pieces, and season them with pepper
and salt; lay these in a stewpan, pour in sufficient stock or gravy to
cover them, and stew very gently until tender, which will be in about
1½ hour. Just before serving, thicken the sauce with a little butter
and flour; add the sherry, give one boil, and pour it over the meat.
Green peas, or stewed mushrooms, may be strewed over the meat, and will
be found a very great improvement. _Time._—1½ hour. _Average cost_,
10_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 3 persons. _Seasonable._—Grass lamb,
from Easter to Michaelmas.

LAMB, TO CARVE.—Leg, loin, saddle, shoulder, are carved as mutton.


LAMB, Fore-quarter of, to Carve.

We always think that a good and practised carver delights in the
manipulation of this joint, for there is a little field for his
judgment and dexterity which does not always occur. The separation of
the shoulder from the breast is the first point to be attended to; this
is done by passing the knife round the dotted line, as shown by the
figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, so as to cut through the skin, and then, by
raising with a little force the shoulder, into which the fork should
be firmly fixed, it will come away with just a little more exercise
of the knife. In dividing the shoulder and breast, the carver should
take care not to cut away too much of the meat from the latter, as that
would rather spoil its appearance when the shoulder is removed. The
breast and shoulder being separated, it is usual to lay a small piece
of butter, and sprinkle a little cayenne, lemon-juice, and salt between
them; and when this is melted and incorporated with the meat and gravy,
the shoulder may, as more convenient, be removed into another dish. The
next operation is to separate the ribs from the brisket, by cutting
through the meat on the line 5 to 6. The joint is then ready to be
served to the guests; the ribs being carved in the direction of the
lines from 9 to 10, and the brisket from 7 to 8. The carver should ask
those at the table what parts they prefer—ribs, brisket, or a piece of
the shoulder.

[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.]


LAMB CUTLETS.

_Ingredients._—Loin of lamb, pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Trim
off the flap from a fine loin of lamb, and cut it into cutlets about
¾ inch in thickness. Have ready a bright clear fire; lay the cutlets
on a gridiron, and broil them of a nice pale brown, turning them when
required. Season them with pepper and salt; serve very hot and quickly,
and garnish with crisped parsley, or place them on mashed potatoes.
Asparagus, spinach, or peas are the favourite accompaniments to lamb
chops. _Time._—About 8 or 10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per lb.
_Sufficient._—Allow 2 cutlets to each person. _Seasonable_ from Easter
to Michaelmas.


LAMB, Cutlets and Spinach (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—8 cutlets, egg and bread-crumbs, salt and pepper to
taste, a little clarified butter. _Mode._—Cut the cutlets from a
neck of lamb, and shape them by cutting off the thick part of the
chine-bone. Trim off most of the fat and all the skin, and scrape the
top part of the bones quite clean. Brush the cutlets over with egg,
sprinkle them with bread-crumbs, and season with pepper and salt. Now
dip them into clarified butter, sprinkle over a few more bread-crumbs,
and fry them over a sharp fire, turning them when required. Lay them
before the fire to drain, and arrange them on a dish with spinach in
the centre, which should be previously well boiled, drained, chopped,
and seasoned. _Time._—About 7 or 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per
lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.

_Note._—Peas, asparagus, or French beans, may be substituted for the
spinach; or lamb cutlets may be served with stewed cucumbers, Soubise
sauce, &c., &c.


LAMB, Roast Fore-quarter of.

[Illustration: FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB.]

_Ingredients._—Lamb, a little salt. _Mode._—To obtain the flavour of
lamb in perfection, it should not be long kept; time to cool is all
that it requires; and though the meat may be somewhat thready, the
juices and flavour will be infinitely superior to that of lamb that has
been killed 2 or 3 days. Make up the fire in good time, that it may be
clear and brisk when the joint is put down. Place it at a sufficient
distance to prevent the fat from burning, and baste it constantly till
the moment of serving. Lamb should be very _thoroughly_ done without
being dried up, and not the slightest appearance of red gravy should
be visible, as in roast mutton: this rule is applicable to all young
white meats. Serve with a little gravy made in the dripping-pan, the
same as for other roasts, and send to table with it a tureen of mint
sauce, and a fresh salad. A cut lemon, a small piece of fresh butter,
and a little cayenne, should also be placed on the table, so that when
the carver separates the shoulder from the ribs, they may be ready for
his use; if, however, he should not be very expert, we would recommend
that the cook should divide these joints nicely before coming to table.
_Time._—Fore-quarter of lamb weighing 10 lbs., 1¾ to 2 hours. _Average
cost_, 10_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.
_Seasonable._—Grass lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB’S FRY.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of lamb’s fry, 3 pints of water, egg and
bread-crumbs, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, salt and pepper to
taste. _Mode._—Boil the fry for ¼ hour in the above proportion of
water, take it out and dry it in a cloth; grate some bread down finely,
mix with it a teaspoonful of chopped parsley and a high seasoning of
pepper and salt. Brush the fry lightly over with the yolk of an egg,
sprinkle over the bread-crumbs, and fry for 5 minutes. Serve very hot
on a napkin in a dish, and garnish with plenty of crisped parsley.
_Time._—¼ hour to simmer the fry, 5 minutes to fry it. _Average cost_,
10_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 2 or 3 persons. _Seasonable_ from
Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB, Hashed, and Broiled Blade-Bone.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a cold shoulder of
lamb, pepper and salt to taste, 2 oz. of butter, about ½ pint of stock
or gravy, 1 tablespoonful of shalot vinegar, 3 or 4 pickled gherkins.
_Mode._—Take the blade-bone from the shoulder, and cut the meat into
collops as neatly as possible. Season the bone with pepper and salt,
pour a little oiled butter over it, and place it in the oven to warm
through. Put the stock into a stewpan, add the ketchup and shalot
vinegar, and lay in the pieces of lamb. Let these heat gradually
through, but do not allow them to boil. Take the blade-bone out of the
oven, and place it on a gridiron over a sharp fire to brown. Slice the
gherkins, put them into the hash, and dish it with the blade-bone in
the centre. It may be garnished with croûtons or sippets of toasted
bread. _Time._—Altogether ½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the
meat, 4_d._ _Seasonable._—Houselamb, from Christmas to March; grass
lamb, from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB, Boiled Leg of, à la Béchamel.

_Ingredients._—Leg of lamb, Béchamel sauce. _Mode._—Do not choose a
very large joint, but one weighing about 5 lbs. Have ready a saucepan
of boiling water, into which plunge the lamb, and when it boils
up again, draw it to the side of the fire, and let the water cool
a little. Then stew very gently for about 1¼ hour, reckoning from
the time that the water begins to simmer. Make some Béchamel, dish
the lamb, pour the sauce over it, and garnish with tufts of boiled
cauliflower or carrots. When liked, melted butter may be substituted
for the Béchamel: this is a more simple method, but not nearly so
nice. Send to table with it some of the sauce in a tureen, and
boiled cauliflowers or spinach, with whichever vegetable the dish is
garnished. _Time._—1¼ hour after the water simmers. _Average cost_,
10_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_
from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB, Roast Leg of.

_Ingredients._—Lamb, a little salt. _Mode._—Place the joint at a good
distance from the fire at first, and baste well the whole time it is
cooking. When nearly done, draw it nearer the fire to acquire a nice
brown colour. Sprinkle a little fine salt over the meat, empty the
dripping-pan of its contents; pour in a little boiling water, and
strain this over the meat. Serve with mint sauce and a fresh salad, and
for vegetables send peas, spinach, or cauliflowers to table with it.
_Time._—A leg of lamb weighing 5 lbs., 1½ hour. _Average cost_, 10_d._
to 1_s._ a pound. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from
Easter to Michaelmas.

[Illustration: LEG OF LAMB.]


LAMB, Braised Loin of.

_Ingredients._—1 loin of lamb, a few slices of bacon, 1 bunch of green
onions, 5 or 6 young carrots, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 blades of
pounded mace, 1 pint of stock, salt to taste. _Mode._—Bone a loin of
lamb, and line the bottom of a stewpan just capable of holding it, with
a few thin slices of fat bacon; add the remaining ingredients, cover
the meat with a few more slices of bacon, pour in the stock, and simmer
very _gently_ for 2 hours; take it up, dry it, strain and reduce the
gravy to a glaze, with which glaze the meat, and serve it either on
stewed peas, spinach, or stewed cucumbers. _Time._—2 hours. _Average
cost_, 11_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_
from Easter to Michaelmas.

[Illustration: LOIN OF LAMB.]


LAMB, Roast Saddle of.

_Ingredients._—Lamb; a little salt. _Mode._—This joint is now very much
in vogue, and is generally considered a nice one for a small party.
Have ready a clear brisk fire; put down the joint at a little distance,
to prevent the fat from scorching, and keep it well basted all the time
it is cooking. Serve with mint sauce and a fresh salad, and send to
table with it either peas, cauliflowers, or spinach. _Time._—A small
saddle, 1½ hour; a large one, 2 hours. _Average cost_, 10_d._ to 1_s._
per lb. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from Easter to
Michaelmas.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF LAMB.]

[Illustration: RIBS OF LAMB.]

_Note._—Loin and ribs of lamb are roasted in the same manner, and
served with the same sauces as the above. A loin will take about 1¼
hour; ribs, from 1 to 1¼ hour.


LAMB, Roast Shoulder of.

_Ingredients._—Lamb; a little salt. _Mode._—Have ready a clear brisk
fire, and put down the joint at a sufficient distance from it, that the
fat may not burn. Keep constantly basting until done, and serve with
a little gravy made in the dripping-pan, and send mint sauce to table
with it. Peas, spinach, or cauliflowers are the usual vegetables served
with lamb, and also a fresh salad. _Time._—A shoulder of lamb rather
more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 10_d._ to 1_s._ per lb. _Sufficient_
for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from Easter to Michaelmas.


LAMB, Shoulder of, Stuffed.

_Ingredients._—Shoulder of lamb, forcemeat, trimmings of veal or beef,
2 onions, ½ head of celery, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, a few slices
of fat bacon, 1 quart of stock. _Mode._—Take the blade-bone out of
a shoulder of lamb, fill up its place with forcemeat, and sew it up
with coarse thread. Put it into a stewpan with a few slices of bacon
under and over the lamb, and add the remaining ingredients. Stew very
gently for rather more than 2 hours. Reduce the gravy, with which glaze
the meat, and serve with peas, stewed cucumbers, or sorrel sauce.
_Time._—Rather more than 2 hours. _Average cost_, 10_d._ to 1_s._
per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from Easter to
Michaelmas.


LANDRAIL, Roast, or Corn-Crake.

[Illustration: LANDRAILS.]

_Ingredients._—3 or 4 birds, butter, fried bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Pluck
and draw the birds, wipe them inside and out with damp cloths, and
truss them in the following manner: Bring the head round under the
wing, and the thighs close to the sides; pass a skewer through them and
the body, and keep the legs straight. Roast them before a clear fire,
keep them well basted, and serve on fried bread-crumbs, with a tureen
of brown gravy. When liked, bread-sauce may also be sent to table
with them. _Time._—12 to 20 minutes. _Average cost._—Seldom bought.
_Sufficient._—Allow 4 for a dish. _Seasonable_ from August 12th to the
middle of September.


LANDRAIL, to Carve.

Landrail, being trussed like Snipe, with the exception of its being
drawn, may be carved in the same manner.


LARD, to Melt.

Melt the inner fat of the pig, by putting it in a stone jar, and
placing this in a saucepan of boiling water, previously stripping off
the skin. Let it simmer gently over a bright fire, and, as it melts,
pour it carefully from the sediment. Put it into small jars or bladders
for use, and keep it in a cool place. The flead or inside fat of
the pig, before it is melted, makes exceedingly light crust, and is
particularly wholesome. It may be preserved a length of time by salting
it well, and occasionally changing the brine. When wanted for use, wash
and wipe it, and it will answer for making into paste as well as fresh
lard. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb.


LARDING.

_Ingredients._—Bacon and larding-needle. _Mode._—Bacon for larding
should be firm and fat, and ought to be cured without any saltpetre, as
this reddens white meats. Lay it on a table, the rinds downwards; trim
off any rusty part, and cut it into slices of an equal thickness. Place
the slices one on the top of another, and cut them evenly into narrow
strips, so arranging it that every piece of bacon is of the same size.
Bacon for fricandeaux, poultry, and game, should be about 2 inches in
length, and rather more than one-eighth of an inch in width. If for
larding fillets of beef or loin of veal, the pieces of bacon must be
thicker. The following recipe of Soyer is, we think, very explicit; and
any cook, by following the directions here given, may be able to lard,
if not well, sufficiently for general use:—

[Illustration: BACON FOR LARDING, AND LARDING-NEEDLE.]

“Have the fricandeau trimmed; lay it, lengthwise, upon a clean napkin
across your hand, forming a kind of bridge with your thumb at the
part where you are about to commence; then with the point of the
larding-needle make three distinct lines across, ½ inch apart; run the
needle into the third line, at the farther side of the fricandeau, and
bring it out at the first, placing one of the lardoons in it; draw the
needle through, leaving out ¼ inch of the bacon at each line; proceed
thus to the end of the row; then make another line, ½ inch distant,
stick in another row of lardoons, bringing them out at the second
line, leaving the ends of the bacon out all the same length; make the
next row again at the same distance, bringing the ends out between
the lardoons of the first row, proceeding in this manner until the
whole surface is larded in chequered rows. Everything else is larded
in a similar way; and, in the case of poultry, hold the breast over a
charcoal fire for one minute, or dip it into boiling water, in order to
make the flesh firm.”


LARK PIE (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—A few thin slices of beef, the same of bacon, 9 larks,
flour; for stuffing, 1 teacupful of bread-crumbs, ½ teaspoonful of
minced lemon-peel, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley, 1 egg, salt and
pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful of chopped shalot, ½ pint of weak stock
or water, puff-paste. _Mode._—Make a stuffing of bread-crumbs, minced
lemon-peel, parsley, and the yolk of an egg, all of which should be
well mixed together; roll the larks in flour, and stuff them. Line the
bottom of a pie-dish with a few slices of beef and bacon; over these
place the larks, and season with salt, pepper, minced parsley, and
chopped shalot, in the above proportion. Pour in the stock or water,
cover with crust, and bake for an hour in a moderate oven. During the
time the pie is baking, shake it 2 or 3 times, to assist in thickening
the gravy, and serve very hot. Time.—1 hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ per dozen. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable._—In full
season in November.


LARKS, Roast.

_Ingredients._—Larks, egg and bread-crumbs, fresh butter.
_Mode._—These birds are by many persons esteemed a great delicacy,
and may be either roasted or broiled. Pick, gut, and clean them;
when they are trussed, brush them over with the yolk of an egg;
sprinkle with bread-crumbs, and roast them before a quick fire;
baste them continually with fresh butter, and keep sprinkling with
the bread-crumbs until the birds are well covered. Dish them on
bread-crumbs fried in clarified butter, and garnish the dish with
slices of lemon. Broiled larks are also very excellent: they should be
cooked over a clear fire, and would take about 10 minutes or ¼ hour.
_Time._—¼ hour to roast; 10 minutes to broil. _Seasonable._—In full
season in November.

_Note._—Larks may also be plainly roasted, without covering them with
egg and bread-crumbs; they should be dished on fried crumbs.


LEEK SOUP.

_Ingredients._—A sheep’s head, 3 quarts of water, 12 leeks cut small,
pepper and salt to taste, oatmeal to thicken. _Mode._—Prepare the head,
either by skinning or cleaning the skin very nicely; split it in two;
take out the brains, and put it into boiling water; add the leeks and
seasoning, and simmer very gently for 4 hours. Mix smoothly, with cold
water, as much oatmeal as will make the soup tolerably thick; pour it
into the soup; continue stirring till the whole is blended and well
done, and serve. _Time._—4½ hours. _Average cost_, 4_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


LEMON BISCUITS.

_Ingredients._—1¼ lb. of flour, ¾ lb. of loaf sugar, 6 oz. of fresh
butter, 4 eggs, 1 oz. of lemon-peel, 2 dessertspoonfuls of lemon-juice.
_Mode._—Rub the flour into the butter; stir in the pounded sugar
and very finely-minced lemon-peel, and when these ingredients are
thoroughly mixed, add the eggs, which should be previously well
whisked, and the lemon-juice. Beat the mixture well for a minute or
two, then drop it from a spoon on to a buttered tin, about 2 inches
apart, as the cakes will spread when they get warm; place the tin in
the oven, and bake the cakes of a pale brown from 15 to 20 minutes.
_Time._—15 to 20 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


LEMON BLANCMANGE.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of milk, the yolks of 4 eggs, 3 oz. of ground
rice, 6 oz. of pounded sugar, 1½ oz. of fresh butter, the rind of 1
lemon, the juice of 2, ½ oz. of gelatine. _Mode._—Make a custard with
the yolks of the eggs and ½ pint of the milk, and when done, put it
into a basin; put half the remainder of the milk into a saucepan with
the ground rice, fresh butter, lemon-rind, and 3 oz. of the sugar, and
let these ingredients boil until the mixture is stiff, stirring them
continually; when done, pour it into the bowl where the custard is,
mixing both well together. Put the gelatine with the rest of the milk
into a saucepan, and let it stand by the side of the fire to dissolve;
boil for a minute or two, stir carefully into the basin, adding 3 oz.
more of pounded sugar. When cold, stir in the lemon-juice, which should
be carefully strained, and pour the mixture into a well-oiled mould,
leaving out the lemon-peel, and set the mould in a pan of cold water
until wanted for table. Use eggs that have rich-looking yolks; and,
should the weather be very warm, rather a larger proportion of gelatine
must be allowed. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill 2 small moulds. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: BLANCMANGE MOULD.]


LEMON CAKE.

[Illustration: CAKE-MOULD.]

_Ingredients._—10 eggs, 3 tablespoonfuls of orange-flower water, ¾
lb. of pounded loaf sugar, 1 lemon, ¾ lb. of flour. _Mode._—Separate
the whites from the yolks of the eggs; whisk the former to a stiff
froth; add the orange-flower water, the sugar, grated lemon-rind, and
mix these ingredients well together. Then beat the yolks of the eggs,
and add them, with the lemon-juice, to the whites, &c.; dredge in the
flour gradually; keep beating the mixture well; put it into a buttered
mould, and bake the cake about an hour, or rather longer. The addition
of a little butter, beaten to a cream, we think, would improve this
cake. _Time._—About 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 4_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


LEMON CHEESECAKES.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of butter, 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 6 eggs, the rind
of 2 lemons and the juice of 3. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients into
a stewpan, carefully grating the lemon-rind and straining the juice.
Keep stirring the mixture over the fire until the sugar is dissolved,
and it begins to thicken: when of the consistency of honey, it is done;
then put it into small jars, and keep in a dry place. This mixture
will remain good 3 or 4 months. When made into cheesecakes, add a few
pounded almonds, or candied peel, or grated sweet biscuit; line some
patty-pans with good puff-paste, rather more than half fill them with
the mixture, and bake for about ¼ hour in a good brisk oven. _Time._—¼
hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 4_d._ _Sufficient_ for 24 cheesecakes.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON CREAM.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of cream, the yolks of two eggs, ¼ lb. of white
sugar, 1 large lemon, 1 oz. of isinglass. _Mode._—Put the cream into a
_lined_ saucepan with the sugar, lemon-peel, and isinglass, and simmer
these over a gentle fire for about 10 minutes, stirring them all the
time. Strain the cream into a jug, add the yolks of eggs, which should
be well beaten, and put the jug into a saucepan of boiling water; stir
the mixture one way until it thickens, _but do not allow it to boil_;
take it off the fire, and keep stirring it until nearly cold. Strain
the lemon-juice into a basin, gradually pour on it the cream, and _stir
it well_ until the juice is well mixed with it. Have ready a well-oiled
mould, pour the cream into it, and let it remain until perfectly set.
When required for table, loosen the edges with a small blunt knife, put
a dish on the top of the mould, turn it over quickly, and the cream
should easily slip away. _Time._—10 minutes to boil the cream; about 10
minutes to stir it over the fire in the jug. _Average cost_, with cream
at 1_s._ per pint, and the best isinglass, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to
fill 1½ pint mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: LEMON-CREAM MOULD.]


LEMON CREAM, Economical.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of milk, 8 bitter almonds, 2 oz. of gelatine,
2 large lemons, ¾ lb. of lump sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs. _Mode._—Put
the milk into a lined saucepan with the almonds, which should be well
pounded in a mortar, the gelatine, lemon-rind, and lump sugar, and
boil these ingredients for about 5 minutes. Beat up the yolks of the
eggs, strain the milk into a jug, add the eggs, and pour the mixture
backwards and forwards a few times, until nearly cold; then stir
briskly to it the lemon-juice, which should be strained, and keep
stirring until the cream is almost cold; put it into an oiled mould,
and let it remain until perfectly set. The lemon-juice must not be
added to the cream when it is warm, and should be well stirred after it
is put in. _Time._—5 minutes to boil the milk. _Average cost_, 2_s._
5_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill two 1½ pint moulds. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON CREAMS, Very Good.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of cream, 2 dozen sweet almonds, 3 glasses of
sherry, the rind and juice of 2 lemons, sugar to taste. _Mode._—Blanch
and chop the almonds, and put them into a jug with the cream; in
another jug put the sherry, lemon-rind, strained juice, and sufficient
pounded sugar to sweeten the whole nicely. Pour rapidly from one jug
to the other till the mixture is well frothed; then pour it into
jelly-glasses, omitting the lemon-rind. This is a very cool and
delicious sweet for summer, and may be made less rich by omitting
the almonds and substituting orange or raisin wine for the sherry.
_Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average cost_, with cream at 1_s._ per
pint, 3_s._ _Sufficient_ to fill 12 glasses. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON CREAMS, or Custards.

_Ingredients._—5 oz. of loaf sugar, 2 pints of boiling water, the
rind of 1 lemon and the juice of 3, the yolks of 8 eggs. _Mode._—Make
a quart of lemonade in the following manner:—Dissolve the sugar in
the boiling water, having previously, with part of the sugar, rubbed
off the lemon-rind, and add the strained juice. Strain the lemonade
into a saucepan, and add the yolks of the eggs, which should be well
beaten; stir this _one way_ over the fire until the mixture thickens,
but do not allow it to boil, and serve in custard glasses, or on a
glass dish. After the boiling water is poured on the sugar and lemon,
it should stand covered for about ½ hour before the eggs are added to
it, that the flavour of the rind may be extracted. _Time._—½ hour to
make the lemonade; about 10 minutes to stir the custard over the fire.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ to fill 12 to 14 custard glasses.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON DUMPLINGS.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of grated bread, ¼ lb. of chopped suet, ¼ lb.
of moist sugar, 2 eggs, 1 large lemon. _Mode._—Mix the bread, suet,
and moist sugar well together, adding the lemon-peel, which should be
very finely minced. Moisten with the eggs and strained lemon-juice;
stir well, and put the mixture into small buttered cups. Tie them down
and boil for ¾ hour. Turn them out on a dish, strew sifted sugar over
them, and serve with wine sauce. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, 7_d._
_Sufficient_ for 6 dumplings. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: LEMON DUMPLINGS.]


LEMON JELLY.

_Ingredients._—6 lemons, ¾ lb. of lump sugar, 1 pint of water, 1¼ oz.
of isinglass, ¼ pint of sherry. _Mode._—Peel 3 of the lemons, pour
½ pint of boiling water on the rind, and let it infuse for ½ hour;
put the sugar, isinglass, and ½ pint of water into a lined saucepan,
and boil these ingredients for 20 minutes; then put in the strained
lemon-juice, the strained infusion of the rind, and bring the whole
to the point of boiling; skim well, add the wine, and run the jelly
through a bag; pour it into a mould that has been wetted or soaked
in water; put it in ice, if convenient, where let it remain until
required for table. Previously to adding the lemon-juice to the other
ingredients, ascertain that it is very nicely strained, as, if this
is not properly attended to, it is liable to make the jelly thick and
muddy. As this jelly is very pale, and almost colourless, it answers
very well for moulding with a jelly of any bright hue; for instance,
half a jelly bright red, and the other half made of the above, would
have a very good effect. Lemon jelly may also be made with calf’s-feet
stock, allowing the juice of 3 lemons to every pint of stock.
_Time._—Altogether, 1 hour. _Average cost_, with the best isinglass,
3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill 1½ pint mould. _Seasonable_ at any
time.


LEMON MINCEMEAT.

_Ingredients._—2 large lemons, 6 large apples, ½ lb. of suet, 1 lb. of
currants, ½ lb. of sugar, 2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 1 oz. of citron,
mixed spice to taste. _Mode._—Pare the lemons, squeeze them, and boil
the peel until tender enough to mash. Add to the mashed lemon-peel the
apples, which should be pared, cored, and minced; the chopped suet,
currants, sugar, sliced peel, and spice. Strain the lemon-juice to
these ingredients, stir the mixture well, and put it in a jar with a
closely-fitting lid. Stir occasionally, and in a week or 10 days the
mincemeat will be ready for use. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for
18 large or 24 small pies. _Seasonable._—Make this about the beginning
of December.


LEMON-PEEL.

This contains an essential oil of a very high flavour and fragrance,
and is consequently esteemed both a wholesome and agreeable stomachic.
It is used, as will be seen by many recipes in this book, as an
ingredient for flavouring a number of various dishes. Under the name of
candied lemon-peel, it is cleared of the pulp and preserved in sugar,
when it becomes an excellent sweetmeat.


LEMON PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—The yolks of 4 eggs, 4 oz. of pounded sugar, 1 lemon, ¼
lb. of butter, puff-crust. _Mode._—Beat the eggs to a froth; mix with
them the sugar and warmed butter; stir these ingredients well together,
putting in the grated rind and strained juice of the lemon-peel. Line
a shallow dish with puff-paste; put in the mixture, and bake in a
moderate oven for 40 minutes; turn the pudding out of the dish, strew
over it sifted sugar, and serve. _Time._—40 minutes. _Average cost_,
10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—10 oz. of bread-crumbs, 2 pints of milk, 2 oz. of
butter, 1 lemon, ¼ lb. of pounded sugar, 4 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of
brandy. _Mode._—Bring the milk to the boiling point, stir in the
butter, and pour these hot over the bread-crumbs; add the sugar and
very finely-minced lemon-peel; beat the eggs, and stir these in with
the brandy to the other ingredients; put a paste round the dish,
and bake for ¾ hour. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._
_Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON PUDDING, Baked (Very Rich).

_Ingredients._—The rind and juice of 2 large lemons, ½ lb. of loaf
sugar, ¼ pint of cream, the yolks of 8 eggs, 2 oz. of almonds, ½ lb. of
butter, melted. _Mode._—Mix the pounded sugar with the cream and add
the yolks of eggs and the butter, which should be previously warmed.
Blanch and pound the almonds, and put these, with the grated rind and
strained juice of the lemons, to the other ingredients. Stir all well
together; line a dish with puff-paste, put in the mixture, and bake for
1 hour. _Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON PUDDING, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of chopped suet, ¾ lb. of bread-crumbs, 2 small
lemons, 6 oz. of moist sugar, ¼ lb. of flour, 2 eggs, milk. _Mode._—Mix
the suet, bread-crumbs, sugar, and flour well together, adding the
lemon-peel, which should be very finely minced, and the juice, which
should be strained. When these ingredients are well mixed, moisten with
the eggs and sufficient milk to make the pudding of the consistency of
thick batter; put it into a well-buttered mould, and boil for 3½ hours;
turn it out, strew sifted sugar over, and serve with wine sauce, or
not, at pleasure. _Time._—3½ hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_
for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—This pudding may also be baked, and will be found very good. It
will take about 2 hours.


LEMON PUDDING, Plain.

_Ingredients._—¾ lb. of flour, 6 oz. of lard or dripping, the juice of
1 large lemon, 1 teaspoonful of flour, sugar. _Mode._—Make the above
proportions of flour and lard into a smooth paste, and roll it out to
the thickness of about ½ an inch. Squeeze the lemon-juice, strain it
into a cup, stir the flour into it, and as much moist sugar as will
make it into a stiff and thick paste; spread this mixture over the
paste, roll it up, secure the ends, and tie the pudding in a floured
cloth. Boil for 2 hours. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 7_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON SAUCE, for Boiled Fowl.

_Ingredients._—1 small lemon, ¾ pint of melted butter. _Mode._—Cut the
lemon into very thin slices, and these again into very small dice. Have
ready ¾ pint of melted butter, put in the lemon; let it just simmer,
but not boil, and pour it over the fowls. _Time._—1 minute to simmer.
_Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for a pair of large fowls.


LEMON WHITE SAUCE, for Fowls, Fricassees, &c.

_Ingredients._—¾ pint of cream, the rind and juice of 1 lemon, ½
teaspoonful of whole white pepper, 1 sprig of lemon thyme, 3 oz. of
butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 teacupful of white stock; salt to
taste. _Mode._—Put the cream into a very clean saucepan (a lined one is
best), with the lemon-peel, pepper, and thyme, and let these infuse for
½ hour, when simmer gently for a few minutes, or until there is a nice
flavour of lemon. Strain it, and add a thickening of butter and flour
in the above proportions; stir this well in, and put in the lemon-juice
at the moment of serving; mix the stock with the cream, and add a
little salt. This sauce should not boil after the cream and stock are
mixed together. _Time._—Altogether, ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_, this quantity, for a pair of large boiled fowls.

_Note._—Where the expense of the cream is objected to, milk may be
substituted for it. In this case, an additional dessertspoonful, or
rather more, of flour must be added.


LEMON SAUCE, for Sweet Puddings.

_Ingredients._—The rind and juice of 1 lemon, 1 tablespoonful of flour,
1 oz. of butter, 1 large wineglassful of sherry, 1 wineglassful of
water, sugar to taste, the yolks of 4 eggs. _Mode._—Rub the rind of the
lemon on to some lumps of sugar; squeeze out the juice, and strain it;
put the butter and flour into a saucepan, stir them over the fire, and
when of a pale brown, add the wine, water, and strained lemon-juice.
Crush the lumps of sugar that were rubbed on the lemon; stir these
into the sauce, which should be very sweet. When these ingredients
are well mixed, and the sugar is melted, put in the beaten yolks of 4
eggs; keep stirring the sauce until it thickens, when serve. Do not,
on any account, allow it to boil, or it will curdle, and be entirely
spoiled. _Time._—Altogether, 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._
_Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons.


LEMON SPONGE.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of isinglass, 1¾ pint of water, ¾ lb. of pounded
sugar, the juice of 5 lemons, the rind of 1, the whites of 3 eggs.
_Mode._—Dissolve the isinglass in the water, strain it into a saucepan,
and add the sugar, lemon-rind, and juice. Boil the whole from 10 to 15
minutes; strain it again, and let it stand till it is cold and begins
to stiffen. Beat the whites of the eggs, put them to it, and whisk the
mixture till it is quite white; put it into a mould which has been
previously wetted, and let it remain until perfectly set; then turn
it out, and garnish it according to taste. _Time._—10 to 15 minutes.
_Average cost_, with the best isinglass, 4_s._ _Sufficient_ to fill a
quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.


LEMON SYRUP.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of loaf sugar, 2 pints of water, 1 oz. of citric
acid, ½ drachm of essence of lemon. _Mode._—Boil the sugar and water
together for ¼ hour, and put it into a basin, where let it remain till
cold. Beat the citric acid to a powder, mix the essence of lemon with
it, then add these two ingredients to the syrup; mix well, and bottle
for use. Two tablespoonfuls of the syrup are sufficient for a tumbler
of cold water, and will be found a very refreshing summer drink.
_Sufficient._—2 tablespoonfuls of syrup to a tumblerful of cold water.


LEMONS, to Pickle, with the Peel on.

_Ingredients._—6 lemons, 2 quarts of boiling water; to each quart of
vinegar allow ½ oz. of cloves, ½ oz. of white pepper, 1 oz. of bruised
ginger, ¼ oz. of mace and chilies, 1 oz. of mustard-seed, ½ stick of
sliced horseradish, a few cloves of garlic. _Mode._—Put the lemons
into a brine that will bear an egg; let them remain in it 6 days,
stirring them every day; have ready 2 quarts of boiling water, put in
the lemons, and allow them to boil for ¼ hour; take them out, and let
them lie in a cloth until perfectly dry and cold. Boil up sufficient
vinegar to cover the lemons, with all the above ingredients, allowing
the same proportion as stated to each quart of vinegar. Pack the lemons
in a jar, pour over the vinegar, &c. boiling hot, and tie down with a
bladder. They will be fit for use in about 12 months, or rather sooner.
_Seasonable._—This should be made from November to April.


LEMONS, to Pickle, without the Peel.

_Ingredients._—6 lemons, 1 lb. of fine salt; to each quart of vinegar,
the same ingredients as in the last recipe. _Mode._—Peel the lemons,
slit each one down 3 times, so as not to divide them, and rub the salt
well into the divisions; place them in a pan, where they must remain
for a week, turning them every other day; then put them in a Dutch
oven before a clear fire until the salt has become perfectly dry;
then arrange them in a jar. Pour over sufficient boiling vinegar to
cover them, to which have been added the ingredients mentioned in the
foregoing recipe; tie down closely, and in about 9 months they will be
fit for use. _Seasonable._—The best time to make this is from November
to April.

_Note._—After this pickle has been made from 4 to 5 months, the liquor
may be strained and bottled, and will be found an excellent lemon
ketchup.


LEMON WINE.

_Ingredients._—To 4½ gallons of water allow the pulp of 50 lemons, the
rind of 25, 16 lbs. of loaf sugar, ½ oz. of isinglass, 1 bottle of
brandy. _Mode._—Peel and slice the lemons, but use only the rind of 25
of them, and put them into the cold water. Let it stand 8 or 9 days,
squeezing the lemons well every day; then strain the water off and put
it into a cask with the sugar. Let it work some time, and when it has
ceased working, put in the isinglass. Stop the cask down; in about six
months put in the brandy and bottle the wine off. _Seasonable._—The
best time to make this is in January or February, when lemons are best
and cheapest.


LEMONADE.

_Ingredients._—The rind of two lemons, the juice of 3 large or 4 small
ones, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, 1 quart of boiling water. _Mode._—Rub some
of the sugar, in lumps, on 2 of the lemons until they have imbibed all
the oil from them, and put it with the remainder of the sugar into a
jug; add the lemon-juice (but no pips), and pour over the whole a quart
of boiling water. When the sugar is dissolved, strain the lemonade
through a fine sieve or piece of muslin, and, when cool, it will be
ready for use. The lemonade will be much improved by having the white
of an egg beaten up in it; a little sherry mixed with it, also, makes
this beverage much nicer. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per quart.


LEMONADE, Nourishing.

_Ingredients._—1½ pint of boiling water, the juice of 4 lemons, the
rinds of 2, ½ pint of sherry, 4 eggs, 6 oz. of loaf sugar. _Mode._—Pare
off the lemon-rind thinly, put it into a jug with the sugar, and pour
over the boiling water. Let it cool, then strain it; add the wine,
lemon-juice, and eggs, previously well beaten, and also strained, and
the beverage will be ready for use. If thought desirable, the quantity
of sherry and water could be lessened, and milk substituted for them.
To obtain the flavour of the lemon-rind properly, a few lumps of the
sugar should be rubbed over it, until some of the yellow is absorbed.
_Time._—Altogether 1 hour to make it. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._
_Sufficient_ to make 2½ pints of lemonade. _Seasonable_, at any time.


LETTUCES.

These form one of the principal ingredients to summer salads; they
should be blanched, and be eaten young. They are seldom served in any
other way, but may be stewed and sent to table in a good brown gravy
flavoured with lemon-juice. In preparing them for a salad, carefully
wash them free from dirt, pick off all the decayed and outer leaves,
and dry them thoroughly by shaking them in a cloth. Cut off the stalks,
and either halve or cut the lettuces into small pieces. The manner
of cutting them up entirely depends on the salad for which they are
intended. In France, the lettuces are sometimes merely wiped with
a cloth and not washed, the cooks there declaring that the act of
washing them injuriously affects the pleasant crispness of the plant:
in this case scrupulous attention must be paid to each leaf, and the
grit thoroughly wiped away. _Average cost_, when cheapest, 1_d._ each.
_Sufficient._—Allow 2 lettuces for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from
March to the end of August, but may be had all the year.


LEVERET, to Dress a.

_Ingredients._—2 leverets, butter, flour. _Mode._—Leverets should be
trussed in the same manner as a hare, but they do not require stuffing.
Roast them before a clear fire, and keep them well basted all the time
they are cooking. A few minutes before serving, dredge them lightly
with flour, and froth them nicely. Serve with plain gravy in the dish,
and send to table red-currant jelly with them. _Time._—½ to ¾ hour.
_Average cost_, in full season, 4_s._ each. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6
persons. _Seasonable_ from May to August, but cheapest in July and
August.


LIAISON OF EGGS, for Thickening Sauces.

_Ingredients._—The yolks of 3 eggs, 8 tablespoonfuls of milk or cream.
_Mode._—Beat up the yolks of the eggs, to which add the milk, and
strain the whole through a hair-sieve. When the liaison is being added
to the sauce it is intended to thicken, care must be exercised to keep
stirring it during the whole time, or, otherwise, the eggs will curdle.
It should only just simmer, but not boil.


LIQUEUR JELLY.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of lump sugar, 2 oz. of isinglass, 1½ pint of
water, the juice of 2 lemons, ¼ pint of liqueur. _Mode._—Put the
sugar, with 1 pint of the water, into a stewpan, and boil them gently
by the side of the fire until there is no scum remaining, which must
be carefully removed as fast as it rises. Boil the isinglass with the
other ½ pint of water, and skim it carefully in the same manner. Strain
the lemon-juice, and add it, with the clarified isinglass, to the
syrup; put in the liqueur, and bring the whole to the boiling-point.
Let the saucepan remain covered by the side of the fire for a few
minutes; then pour the jelly through a bag, put it into a mould, and
set the mould in ice until required for table. Dip the mould in hot
water, wipe the outside, loosen the jelly by passing a knife round
the edges, and turn it out carefully on a dish. Noyeau, Maraschino,
Curaçoa, brandy, or any kind of liqueur, answers for this jelly;
and, when made with isinglass, liqueur jellies are usually prepared
as directed above. _Time._—10 minutes to boil the sugar and water.
_Average cost_, with the best isinglass, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to
fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: OVAL JELLY MOULD.]


LIVER AND LEMON SAUCE, for Poultry.

_Ingredients._—The liver of a fowl, one lemon, salt to taste, ½ pint
of melted butter. _Mode._—Wash the liver, and let it boil for a few
minutes; peel the lemon very thin, remove the white part and pips,
and cut it into very small dice; mince the liver and a small quantity
of the lemon-rind very fine; add these ingredients to ½ pint of
smoothly-made melted butter; season with a little salt, put in the cut
lemon, heat it gradually, but do not allow it to boil, lest the butter
should oil. _Time._—1 minute to simmer. _Sufficient_ to serve with a
pair of small fowls.


LIVER AND PARSLEY SAUCE, for Poultry.

_Ingredients._—The liver of a fowl, one tablespoonful of minced
parsley, ½ pint of melted butter. _Mode._—Wash and score the liver,
boil it for a few minutes, and mince it very fine; blanch or scald
a small bunch of parsley, of which there should be sufficient when
chopped to fill a tablespoon; add this with the minced liver, to ½ pint
of smoothly-made melted butter; let it just boil; when serve. _Time._—1
minute to simmer. _Sufficient_ for a pair of small fowls.


LOBSTERS, to Boil.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water. _Mode._—Buy the
lobsters alive, and choose those that are heavy and full of motion,
which is an indication of their freshness. When the shell is incrusted,
it is a sign they are old: medium-sized lobsters are the best. Have
ready a stewpan of boiling water, salted in the above proportion; put
in the lobster, and keep it boiling quickly from 20 minutes to ¾ hour,
according to its size, and do not forget to skim well. If it boils too
long, the meat becomes thready, and if not done enough, the spawn is
not red: this must be obviated by great attention. Rub the shell over
with a little butter or sweet oil, which wipe off again. _Time._—Small
lobster, 20 minutes to ½ hour; large ditto, ½ to ¾ hour. _Average
cost_, medium size, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ all the
year, but best from March to October.

TO CHOOSE LOBSTERS.—This shellfish, if it has been cooked alive, as
it ought to have been, will have a stiffness in the tail, which, if
gently raised, will return with a spring. Care, however, must be taken
in thus proving it; for if the tail is pulled straight out, it will
not return; when the fish might be pronounced inferior, which, in
reality, may not be the case. In order to be good, lobsters should be
weighty for their bulk; if light, they will be watery; and those of the
medium size, are always the best. Small-sized lobsters are cheapest,
and answer very well for sauce. In boiling lobsters, the appearance of
the shell will be much improved by rubbing over it a little butter or
salad-oil on being immediately taken from the pot.


LOBSTER CURRY (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—1 lobster, 2 onions, 1 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful
of curry-powder, ½ pint of medium stock, the juice of ½ lemon.
_Mode._—Pick the meat from the shell, and cut into nice square pieces;
fry the onions of a pale brown in the butter, stir in the curry-powder
and stock, and simmer till it thickens, when put in the lobster; stew
the whole slowly for ½ hour, stirring occasionally; and just before
sending to table, put in the lemon-juice. Serve boiled rice with it,
the same as for other curries. _Time._—Altogether, ¾ hour. _Average
cost_, 3_s._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


LOBSTER CUTLETS (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—1 large hen lobster, 1 oz. fresh butter, ½ saltspoonful
of salt, pounded mace, grated nutmeg, cayenne and white pepper to
taste, egg, and bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Pick the meat from the shell, and
pound it in a mortar with the butter, and gradually add the mace and
seasoning, well mixing the ingredients; beat all to a smooth paste, and
add a little of the spawn; divide the mixture into pieces of an equal
size, and shape them like cutlets. They should not be very thick. Brush
them over with egg, and sprinkle with bread-crumbs, and stick a short
piece of the small claw in the top of each; fry them of a nice brown
in boiling lard, and drain them before the fire, on a sieve reversed;
arrange them nicely on a dish, and pour béchamel in the middle, but not
over the cutlets. _Time._—About 8 minutes after the cutlets are made.
_Average cost_ for this dish, 2_s._ 9_d._ _Seasonable_ all the year.
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


LOBSTERS, to Dress.

When the lobster is boiled, rub it over with a little salad-oil, which
wipe off again; separate the body from the tail, break off the great
claws, and crack them at the joints, without injuring the meat; split
the tail in halves, and arrange all neatly in a dish, with the body
upright in the middle, and garnish with parsley.


LOBSTER, Hot.

_Ingredients._—1 lobster, 2 oz. of butter, grated nutmeg; salt, pepper,
and pounded mace, to taste; broad crumbs, 2 eggs. _Mode._—Pound the
meat of the lobster to a smooth paste with the butter and seasoning,
and add a few bread-crumbs. Beat the eggs, and make the whole mixture
into the form of a lobster; pound the spawn, and sprinkle over it. Bake
¼ hour, and just before serving, lay over it the tail and body shell,
with the small claws underneath, to resemble a lobster. _Time._—¼ hour.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ for
4 or 5 persons.


LOBSTER PATTIES (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—Minced lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of béchamel, 6 drops
of anchovy sauce, lemon-juice, cayenne to taste. _Mode._—Line the
patty-pans with puff-paste, and put into each a small piece of bread;
cover with paste, brush over with egg, and bake of a light colour.
Take as much lobster as is required, mince the meat very fine, and add
the above ingredients; stir it over the fire for 5 minutes; remove the
lids of the patty-cases, take out the bread, fill with the mixture, and
replace the covers. _Seasonably_ at any time.


LOBSTER, Potted.

_Ingredients._—2 lobsters; seasoning to taste, of nutmeg, pounded
mace, white pepper, and salt; ¼ lb. of butter, 3 or 4 bay-leaves.
_Mode._—Take out the meat carefully from the shell, but do not cut it
up. Put some butter at the bottom of a dish, lay in the lobster as
evenly as possible, with the bay-leaves and seasoning between. Cover
with butter, and bake for ¾ hour in a gentle oven. When done, drain
the whole on a sieve, and lay the pieces in potting-jars, with the
seasoning about them. When cold, pour over it clarified butter, and, if
very highly seasoned, it will keep some time. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average
cost_ for this quantity, 4_s._ 4_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Potted lobster may be used cold, or as a _fricassee_ with cream
sauce.


LOBSTER (à la Mode Française).

_Ingredients._—1 lobster, 4 tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2
tablespoonfuls of cream, pounded mace, and cayenne to taste;
bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Pick the meat from the shell, and cut it up
into small square pieces; put the stock, cream, and seasoning into a
stewpan, add the lobster, and let it simmer gently for 6 minutes. Serve
it in the shell, which must be nicely cleaned, and have a border of
puff-paste; cover it with bread-crumbs, place small pieces of butter
over, and brown before the fire, or with a salamander. _Time._—¼ hour.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


LOBSTER SALAD.

_Ingredients._—1 hen lobster, lettuces, endive, small salad (whatever
is in season), a little chopped beetroot, 2 hard-boiled eggs, a few
slices of cucumber. For dressing, 4 tablespoonfuls of oil, 2 do. of
vinegar, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard, the yolks of 2 eggs; cayenne
and salt to taste; ¼ teaspoonful of anchovy sauce. These ingredients
should be mixed perfectly smooth, and form a creamy-looking sauce.
_Mode._—Wash the salad, and thoroughly dry it by shaking it in a cloth.
Cut up the lettuces and endive, pour the dressing on them, and lightly
throw in the small salad. Mix all well together with the pickings from
the body of the lobster; pick the meat from the shell, cut it up into
nice square pieces, put half in the salad, the other half reserve for
garnishing. Separate the yolks from the whites of 2 hard-boiled eggs;
chop the whites very fine, and rub the yolks through a sieve, and
afterwards the coral from the inside. Arrange the salad lightly on a
glass dish, and garnish, first with a row of sliced cucumber, then with
the pieces of lobster, the yolks and whites of the eggs, coral, and
beetroot placed alternately, and arranged in small separate bunches,
so that the colours contrast nicely. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 6_d._
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from April to October;
may be had all the year, but salad is scarce and expensive in winter.

_Note._—A few crayfish make a pretty garnishing to lobster salad.


LOBSTER SAUCE, to serve with Turbot, Salmon, Brill, &c. (very Good.)

_Ingredients._—1 middling-sized hen lobster, ¾ pint of melted butter,
1 tablespoonful of anchovy sauce, ½ oz. of butter, salt and cayenne
to taste, a little pounded mace when liked, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of
cream. _Mode._—Choose a hen lobster, as this is indispensable, in order
to render this sauce as good as it ought to be. Pick the meat from the
shells, and cut it into small square pieces; put the spawn, which will
be found under the tail of the lobster, into a mortar with ½ oz. of
butter, and pound it quite smooth; rub it through a hair-sieve, and
cover up till wanted. Make ¾ pint of melted butter; put in all the
ingredients except the lobster-meat, and well mix the sauce before
the lobster is added to it, as it should retain its square form, and
not come to table shredded and ragged. Put in the meat, let it get
thoroughly hot, but do not allow it to boil, as the colour would
immediately be spoiled; for it must be remembered that this sauce
should always have a bright red appearance. If it is intended to be
served with turbot or brill, a little of the spawn (dried and rubbed
through a sieve without butter) should be saved to garnish with; but
as the goodness, flavour, and appearance of the sauce so much depend
on having a proper quantity of spawn, the less used for garnishing the
better. _Time._—1 minute to simmer. _Average cost_, for this quantity,
2_s._ _Seasonable_ at any time. _Sufficient_ to serve with a small
turbot, a brill, or salmon for 6 persons.

_Note._—Melted butter made with milk, will be found to answer very
well for lobster sauce, as by employing it a nice white colour will
be obtained. Less quantity than the above may be made by using a very
small lobster, to which add only ½ pint of melted butter, and season as
above. Where economy is desired, the cream may be dispensed with, and
the remains of a cold lobster left from table, may, with a little care,
be converted into a very good sauce.


LOBSTER SOUP.

_Ingredients._—3 large lobsters, or 6 small ones; the crumb of a French
roll, 2 anchovies, 1 onion, 1 small bunch of sweet herbs, 1 strip of
lemon-peel, 2 oz. of butter, a little nutmeg, 1 teaspoonful of flour, 1
pint of cream, 1 pint of milk; forcemeat balls, mace, salt, and pepper
to taste, bread-crumbs, 1 egg, 2 quarts of water. _Mode._—Pick the
meat from the lobsters, and beat the fins, chine, and small claws in a
mortar, previously taking away the brown fin and the bag in the head.
Put it in a stewpan, with the crumb of the roll, anchovies, onions,
herbs, lemon-peel, and the water; simmer gently till all the goodness
is extracted, and strain it off. Pound the spawn in a mortar, with the
butter, nutmeg, and flour, and mix with it the cream and milk. Give
one boil up, at the same time adding the tails cut in pieces. Make
the forcemeat balls with the remainder of the lobster, seasoned with
mace, pepper, and salt, adding a little flour, and a few bread-crumbs;
moisten them with the egg, heat them in the soup, and serve. _Time._—2
hours, or rather more. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 6_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ from April to October. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


LUNCHEONS.

The remains of cold joints, nicely garnished, a few sweets, or a little
hashed meat, poultry or game, are the usual articles placed on the
table for luncheon, with bread, and cheese, biscuits, butter, &c. If a
substantial meal is desired, rump-steaks or mutton chops may be served,
as also veal cutlets, kidneys, or any dish of that kind. In families
where there is a nursery, the mistress of the house often partakes of
the meal with the children, and makes it her luncheon. In the summer, a
few dishes of fresh fruit should be added to the luncheon, or, instead
of this, a compôte of fruit or fruit tart, or pudding.


MACARONI, as usually served with the CHEESE COURSE.

I.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of pipe macaroni, 1 lb. of butter, 6 oz. of
Parmesan or Cheshire cheese, pepper and salt to taste, 1 pint of
milk, 2 pints of water, bread-crumbs. _Mode._—Put the milk and water
into a saucepan with sufficient salt to flavour it; place it on the
fire, and, when it boils quickly, drop in the macaroni. Keep the
water boiling until it is quite tender; drain the macaroni, and put
it into a deep dish. Have ready the grated cheese, either Parmesan or
Cheshire; sprinkle it amongst the macaroni and some of the butter cut
into small pieces, reserving some of the cheese for the top layer.
Season with a little pepper, and cover the top layer of cheese with
some very fine bread-crumbs. Warm, without oiling, the remainder of
the butter, and pour it gently over the bread-crumbs, Place the dish
before a bright fire to brown the crumbs; turn it once or twice, that
it may be equally coloured, and serve very hot. The top of the macaroni
may be browned with a salamander, which is even better than placing
it before the fire, as the process is more expeditious; but it should
never be browned in the oven, as the butter would oil, and so impart a
very disagreeable flavour to the dish. In boiling the macaroni, let it
be perfectly tender but firm, no part beginning to melt, and the form
entirely preserved. It may be boiled in plain-water, with a little salt
instead of using milk, but should then have a small piece of butter
mixed with it. _Time._—1 to 1½ hours to boil the macaroni, 5 minutes to
brown it before the fire. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for
6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Riband macaroni may be dressed in the same manner, but does not
require boiling so long a time.

II.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of pipe or riband macaroni, ½ pint of milk, ½
pint of veal or beef gravy, the yolks of 2 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls
of cream, 3 oz. of grated Parmesan or Cheshire cheese, 1 oz. of
butter. _Mode._—Wash the macaroni, and boil it in the gravy and milk
until quite tender, without being broken. Drain it, and put it into
rather a deep dish. Beat the yolks of the eggs with the cream and 2
tablespoonfuls of the liquor the macaroni was boiled in; make this
sufficiently hot to thicken, but do not allow it to boil; pour it over
the macaroni, over which sprinkle the grated cheese and the butter
broken into small pieces; brown with a salamander, or before the fire,
and serve. _Time._—1 to 1½ hour to boil the macaroni, 5 minutes to
thicken the eggs and cream, 5 minutes to brown. _Average cost_, 1_s._
2_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons, _Seasonable_ at any time.


III.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of pipe macaroni, ½ pint of brown gravy No.
436, 6 oz. of grated Parmesan cheese. _Mode._—Wash the macaroni, and
boil it in salt and water until quite tender; drain it, and put it
into rather a deep dish. Have ready a pint of good brown gravy, pour
it hot over the macaroni, and send it to table with grated Parmesan
served on a separate dish. When the flavour is liked, a little pounded
mace may be added to the water in which the macaroni is boiled; but
this must always be sparingly added, as it will impart a very strong
flavour. _Time._—1 to 1½ hour to boil the macaroni. _Average cost_,
with the gravy and cheese, 1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


MACARONI, Sweet Pudding.

_Ingredients._—2½ oz. of macaroni, 2 pints, of milk, the rind of ½
lemon, 3 eggs, sugar and grated nutmeg to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls
of brandy. _Mode._—Put the macaroni, with a pint of the milk, into
a saucepan with the lemon-peel, and let it simmer gently until the
macaroni is tender: then put it into a pie-dish without the peel; mix
the other pint of milk with the eggs; stir these well together, adding
the sugar and brandy, and pour the mixture over the macaroni. Grate a
little nutmeg over the top, and bake in a moderate oven for ½ hour. To
make this pudding look nice, a paste should be laid round the edges of
the dish, and, for variety, a layer of preserve or marmalade may be
placed on the macaroni: in this case, omit the brandy. _Time._—1 hour
to simmer the macaroni; ½ hour to bake the pudding. _Average cost_,
11_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MACARONI SOUP.

_Ingredients._—3 oz. of macaroni, a piece of butter the size of a
walnut, salt to taste, 2 quarts of clear stock. _Mode._—Throw the
macaroni and butter into boiling water, with a pinch of salt, and
simmer for ½ an hour. When it is tender, drain and cut it into thin
rings or lengths, and drop it into the boiling stock. Stew gently for
15 minutes, and serve grated Parmesan cheese with it. _Time._—¾ to
1 hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per quart. _Seasonable_ all the year.
_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


MACARONI, a Sweet Dish of.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of macaroni, 1½ pint of milk, the rind of ½ lemon,
3 oz. of lump sugar, ¾ pint of custard. _Mode._—Put the milk into a
saucepan, with the lemon-peel and sugar; bring it to the boiling-point,
drop in the macaroni, and let it gradually swell over a gentle fire,
but do not allow the pipes to break. The form should be entirely
preserved; and, though tender, should be firm, and not soft, with no
part beginning to melt. Should the milk dry away before the macaroni
is sufficiently swelled, add a little more. Make a custard, place
the macaroni on a dish, and pour the custard over the hot macaroni;
grate over it a little nutmeg, and, when cold, garnish the dish with
slices of candied citron. _Time._—From 40 to 50 minutes to swell the
macaroni. _Average cost_, with the custard, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or
5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MACAROONS.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of sweet almonds, ½ lb. of sifted loaf sugar,
the whites of three eggs, wafer paper. _Mode._—Blanch, skin and dry
the almonds, and pound them well with a little orange flower or plain
water, then add the sifted sugar and the whites of the eggs, which
should be beaten to a stiff froth, and mix all the ingredients well
together. When the paste looks soft, drop it at equal distances from
a biscuit syringe on to sheets of wafer paper: put a strip of almond
on the top of each; strew some syrup over, and bake the macaroons in
rather a slow oven, of a light brown colour. When hard and set, they
are done. They must not be allowed to get very brown, as that would
spoil their appearance. If the cakes when baked, appear heavy, add a
little more white of egg, which should be well whisked up before it is
added to the other ingredients. _Time._—From 15 to 20 minutes. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._ per lb.


MACKEREL.

In choosing this fish, purchasers should, to a great extent, be
regulated by the brightness of its appearance. If it has a transparent,
silvery hue, the flesh is good; but if it be red about the head, it is
stale.


MACKEREL, Baked.

_Ingredients._— 4 middling-sized mackerel, a nice delicate forcemeat, 3
oz. of butter; pepper and salt to taste. _Mode._—Clean the fish, take
out the roes, and fill up with forcemeat, and sew up the slit. Flour,
and put them in a dish, heads and tails alternately, with the roes;
and, between each layer, put some little pieces of butter, and pepper
and salt. Bake for ½ an hour, and either serve with plain melted butter
or a _maître d’hôtel_ sauce. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_ for this
quantity, 1_s._ 10_d._ _Seasonable_ from April to July. _Sufficient_
for 6 persons.

_Note._—Baked mackerel may be dressed in the same way as baked
herrings, and may also be stewed in wine.


MACKEREL, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water. _Mode._—Cleanse
the inside of the fish thoroughly, and lay it in the kettle with
sufficient water to cover it with salt as above; bring it gradually
to boil, skim well, and simmer gently till done; dish them on a hot
napkin, heads and tails alternately, and garnish with fennel. Fennel
sauce and plain melted butter are the usual accompaniments to boiled
mackerel; but caper or anchovy sauce is sometimes served with it.
_Time._—After the water boils, 10 minutes; for large mackerel, allow
more time. _Average cost_, from 4_d._ _Seasonable_ from April to July.

_Note._—When variety is desired, fillet the mackerel, boil it, and pour
over parsley and butter; send some of this, besides, in a tureen.


MACKEREL, Broiled.

_Ingredients._—Pepper and salt to taste, a small quantity of oil.
_Mode._—Mackerel should never be washed when intended to be broiled,
but merely wiped very clean and dry, after taking out the gills and
insides. Open the back, and put in a little pepper, salt, and oil;
broil it over a clear fire, turn it over on both sides, and also on
the back. When sufficiently cooked, the flesh can be detached from
the bone, which will be in about 10 minutes for a small mackerel.
Chop a little parsley, work it up in the butter with pepper and salt
to taste, and a squeeze of lemon-juice, and put it in the back. Serve
before the butter is quite melted, with a _maître d’hôtel_ sauce in a
tureen. _Time._—Small mackerel 10 minutes. _Average cost_, from 4_d._
_Seasonable_ from April to July.


MACKEREL, Fillets of.

_Ingredients._—2 large mackerel, 1 oz. butter, 1 small bunch of chopped
herbs, 3 tablespoonfuls of medium stock, 3 tablespoonfuls of béchamel;
salt, cayenne, and lemon-juice to taste. _Mode._—Clean the fish, and
fillet it; scald the herbs, chop them fine, and put them with the
butter and stock into a stewpan. Lay in the mackerel, and simmer very
gently for 10 minutes; take them out, and put them on a hot dish.
Dredge in a little flour, add the other ingredients, give one boil, and
pour it over the mackerel. _Time._—20 minutes. _Average cost_ for this
quantity, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_ from April to July. _Sufficient_ for
4 persons.

_Note._—Fillets of mackerel may be covered with egg and bread-crumbs,
and fried of a nice brown. Serve with _maître d’hôtel_ sauce and plain
melted butter.


MACKEREL, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—12 peppercorns, 2 bay-leaves, ½ pint of vinegar, 4
mackerel. _Mode._—Boil the mackerel, and lay them in a dish; take half
the liquor they were boiled in; add as much vinegar, peppercorns, and
bay-leaves; boil for 10 minutes, and when cold, pour over the fish.
_Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._


MACKEREL, Potted.

_Ingredients._—Mackerel, a blade of mace, cayenne, salt, and 2 oz. or
more butter, according to the quantity of mackerel. _Mode._—Any remains
of cooked mackerel may be potted as follows; pick it well from the
bones, break it into very small pieces, and put into a stewpan with the
butter, pounded mace, and other ingredients; warm it thoroughly, but do
not let it boil; press it into potting pots and pour clarified butter
over it.


MAIGRE SOUP (i.e., Soup without Meat).

_Ingredients._—6 oz. butter, 6 onions sliced, 4 heads of celery, 2
lettuces, a small bunch of parsley, 2 handfuls of spinach, 3 pieces of
bread-crust, 2 blades of mace, salt and pepper to taste, the yolks
of 2 eggs, 3 teaspoonfuls of vinegar, 2 quarts of water. _Mode._—Melt
the butter in a stewpan, and put in the onions to stew gently for 3 or
4 minutes; then add the celery, spinach, lettuces, and parsley, cut
small. Stir the ingredients well for 10 minutes. Now put in the water,
bread, seasoning, and mace. Boil gently for 1½ hour, and, at the moment
of serving, beat in the yolks of the eggs and the vinegar, but do not
let it boil, or the eggs will curdle. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_,
6_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


MAIZE, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—The ears of young and green Indian wheat; to every ½
gallon of water allow 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt. _Mode._—This
vegetable, which makes one of the most delicious dishes, brought to
table, is unfortunately very rarely seen in Britain; and we wonder
that, in the gardens of the wealthy, it is not invariably cultivated.
Our sun, it is true, possesses hardly power sufficient to ripen maize;
but, with well-prepared ground, and in a favourable position, it might
be sufficiently advanced by the beginning of autumn to serve as a
vegetable. The outside sheath being taken off and the waving fibres
removed, let the ears be placed in boiling water, where they should
remain for about 25 minutes (a longer time may be necessary for larger
ears than ordinary); and, when sufficiently boiled and well drained,
they may be sent to table whole, and with a piece of toast underneath
them. Melted butter should be served with them. _Time._—25 to 35
minutes. _Average cost._—Seldom bought. _Sufficient_ 1 ear for each
person. _Seasonable_ in autumn.


MALT WINE.

_Ingredients._—5 gallons of water, 28 lbs. of sugar, 6 quarts of
sweet-wort, 6 quarts of tun, 3 lbs. of raisins,; ½ lb. of candy, 1 pint
of brandy. _Mode._—Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes;
skim it well, and put the liquor into a convenient-sized pan or tub.
Allow it to cool; then mix it with the sweet-wort and tun. Let it stand
for 3 days, then put it into a barrel; here it will work or ferment
for another three days or more; then bung up the cask, and keep it
undisturbed for 2 or 3 mouths. After this, add the raisins (whole),
the candy, and brandy, and, in 6 months’ time, bottle the wine off.
Those who do not brew, may procure the sweet-wort and tun from any
brewer. Sweet-wort is the liquor that leaves the mash of malt before
it is boiled with the hops; tun is the new beer after the whole of the
brewing operation has been completed. _Time._—To be boiled 10 minutes;
to stand 3 days after mixing; to ferment 3 days; to remain in the
cask 2 months before the raisins are added; bottle 6 months after.
_Seasonable._—Make this in March or October.


MANNA KROUP PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—3 tablespoonfuls of manna kroup, 12 bitter almonds, 1
pint of milk, sugar to taste, 3 eggs. _Mode._—Blanch and pound the
almonds in a mortar; mix them with the manna kroup; pour over these a
pint of boiling milk, and let them steep for about ¼ hour. When nearly
cold, add sugar and the well-beaten eggs; mix all well together; put
the pudding into a buttered dish, and bake for ½ hour. _Time._—½ hour.
_Average cost_, 8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


MARCH—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.


_First Course._

                      Turtle or Mock Turtle Soup,
                             removed by
                         Salmon and dressed
                              Cucumber.

  Red Mullet.               Vase of                 Fillets of Whitings.
                            Flowers.

                           Spring Soup,
                            removed by
                         Boiled Turbot and Lobster
                            Sauce.


_Entrées._

                     Fricasseed Chicken.

  Vol-au-Vent.       Vase of Flowers.        Compôte of Pigeons.

                     Larded Sweetbreads.


_Second Course._

                 Fore-quarter of Lamb.

                   Braised Capon.

  Boiled Tongue,     Vase of          Ham.
  garnished.         Flowers.

                     Roast Fowls.

                  Rump of Beef à la
                     Jardinière.


_Third Course._

  Apricot          Guinea-Fowls, larded,             Rhubarb
  Tartlets.           removed by                     Tart.
                   Cabinet Pudding.

      Custards.      Wine Jelly.    Jelly, in
                                    glasses.
                     Vase of
                     Flowers.

                  Italian Cream.

                    Ducklings,
  Damson           removed by                     Cheesecakes.
  Tart.         Nesselrode Pudding.

                 Dessert and Ices.



Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—White soup; clear gravy soup; boiled salmon,
shrimp sauce, and dressed cucumber; baked mullets in paper cases.
_Entrées._—Filet de bœuf and Spanish sauce; larded sweetbreads;
rissoles; chicken patties. _Second Course._—Roast fillet of veal
and Béchamel sauce; boiled leg of lamb; roast fowls, garnished
with water-cresses; boiled ham, garnished with carrots and mashed
turnips; vegetables—sea-kale, spinach, or brocoli. _Third Course._—Two
ducklings; guinea-fowl, larded; orange jelly; Charlotte Russe; coffee
cream; ice pudding; macaroni with Parmesan cheese; spinach, garnished
with croûtons; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Macaroni soup; boiled turbot and lobster sauce; salmon
cutlets. _Entrées._—Compôte of pigeons; mutton cutlets and tomato
sauce. _Second Course._—Roast lamb; boiled half calf’s head, tongue,
and brains; boiled bacon-cheek, garnished with spoonsfuls of spinach;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Ducklings; plum-pudding; ginger cream;
trifle; rhubarb tart; cheesecakes; fondues, in cases; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Calf’s-head soup; brill and shrimp sauce; broiled
mackerel à la Maître d’Hôtel. _Entrées._—Lobster cutlets; calf’s liver
and bacon, aux fines herbes. _Second Course._—Roast loin of veal; two
boiled fowls à la Béchamel; boiled knuckle of ham; vegetables—spinach
or brocoli. _Third Course._—Wild ducks; apple custards; blancmange;
lemon jelly; jam sandwiches; ice pudding; potatoes à la Maître d’Hôtel;
dessert and ices.


Dinner for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; soles à la Crême. _Entrées._—Veal
cutlets; small vols-au-vent. _Second Course._—Small saddle of mutton;
half calf’s head; boiled bacon-cheek, garnished with Brussels sprouts.
_Third Course._—Cabinet pudding; orange jelly; custards, in glasses;
rhubarb tart; lobster salad; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Julienne soup; baked mullets. _Entrées._—Chicken
cutlets; oyster patties. _Second Course._—Roast lamb and mint
sauce; boiled leg of pork; pease pudding; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Ducklings; Swiss cream; lemon jelly; cheesecakes; rhubarb
tart; macaroni; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Oyster soup; boiled salmon and dressed cucumber.
_Entrées._—Rissoles; fricasseed chicken. _Second Course._—Boiled leg
of mutton, caper sauce; roast fowls, garnished with water-cresses;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Charlotte aux pommes; orange jelly; lemon
cream; soufflé of arrowroot; sea-kale; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Ox-tail soup; boiled mackerel. _Entrées._—Stewed mutton
kidneys; minced veal and oysters. _Second Course._—Stewed shoulder of
veal; roast ribs of beef and horseradish sauce; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Ducklings; tartlets of strawberry jam; cheesecakes; Gâteau de
Riz; carrot pudding; sea-kale; dessert.


MARCH, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Boiled ½ calf’s head, pickled pork, the tongue on a small
dish with the brains round it; mutton cutlets and mashed potatoes. 2.
Plum tart made with bottled fruit, baked custard pudding, Baroness
pudding.

_Monday._—1. Roast shoulder of mutton and onion sauce, brocoli, baked
potatoes. 2. Slices of Baroness pudding warmed, and served with sugar
sprinkled over Cheesecakes.

_Tuesday._—1. Mock turtle soup, made with liquor that calf’s head was
boiled in, and the pieces of head. 2. Hashed mutton, rump-steaks and
oyster sauce. 3. Boiled plum-pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Fried whitings, melted butter, potatoes. 2. Boiled
beef, suet dumplings, carrots, potatoes, marrow-bones. 3. Arrowroot
blancmange, and stewed rhubarb.

_Thursday._—1. Pea-soup made from liquor that beef was boiled in. 2.
Stewed rump-steak, cold beef, mashed potatoes. 3. Rolled jam pudding.

_Friday._—1. Fried soles, melted butter, potatoes. 2. Roast loin of
mutton, brocoli, potatoes, bubble-and-squeak. 3. Rice pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak pie, haricot mutton made with remains of cold
loin. 2. Pancakes, ratafia pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Roast fillet of veal, boiled ham, spinach and potatoes. 2.
Rhubarb tart, custards in glasses, bread-and-butter pudding.

_Monday._—1. Baked soles, potatoes. 2. Minced veal and rump-steak pie.
3. Somersetshire dumplings with the remains of custards poured round
them; marmalade tartlets.

_Tuesday._—1. Gravy soup. 2. Boiled leg of mutton, mashed turnips, suet
dumplings, caper sauce, potatoes, veal rissoles made with remains of
fillet of veal. 3. Cheese.

_Wednesday._—1. Stewed mullet. 2. Roast fowls, bacon, gravy, and bread
sauce, mutton pudding, made with a few slices of the cold meat and the
addition of two kidneys. 3. Baked lemon pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Vegetable soup made with liquor that the mutton was
boiled in, and mixed with the remains of gravy soup. 2. Roast ribs of
beef, Yorkshire pudding, horseradish sauce, brocoli and potatoes. 3.
Apple pudding or macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Stewed eels, pork cutlets, and tomato sauce. 2. Cold beef,
mashed potatoes. 3. Plum tart made with bottled fruit.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak-and-kidney pudding, broiled beef-bones,
greens and potatoes. 2. Jam tartlets made with pieces of paste from
plum tart, baked custard pudding.


MARCH, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Barbel, brill, carp, crabs, crayfish, dace, eels, flounders,
haddocks, herrings, lampreys, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike,
plaice, prawns, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench,
thornback, turbot, whiting.

_Meat._—Beef, house lamb, mutton, pork, veal.

_Poultry._—Capons, chickens, ducklings, tame and wild pigeons, pullets
with eggs, turkeys, wild-fowl, though now not in full season.

_Game._—Grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcock.

_Vegetables._—Beetroot, brocoli (purple and white), Brussels sprouts,
cabbages, carrots, celery, chervil, cresses, cucumbers (forced),
endive, kidney-beans, lettuces, parsnips, potatoes, savoys, sea-kale,
spinach, turnips,—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples (golden and Dutch pippins), grapes, medlars, nuts,
oranges, pears (Bon Chrétien), walnuts, dried fruits (foreign), such
as almonds and raisins; French and Spanish plums; prunes, figs, dates,
crystallized preserves.


MARMALADE AND VERMICELLI PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—1 breakfast-cupful of vermicelli, 2 tablespoonfuls of
marmalade, ¼ lb. of raisins, sugar to taste, 3 eggs, milk. _Mode._—Pour
some boiling milk on the vermicelli, and let it remain covered for 10
minutes; then mix with it the marmalade, stoned raisins, sugar, and
beaten eggs. Stir all well together, put the mixture into a buttered
mould, boil for 1½ hour, and serve with custard sauce. _Time._—1½ hour.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.


MARROW-BONES, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Bones, a small piece of common paste, a floured cloth.
_Mode._—Have the bones neatly sawed into convenient sizes, and cover
the ends with a small piece of common crust, made with flour and
water. Over this tie a floured cloth, and place the bones upright in
a saucepan of boiling water, taking care there is sufficient to cover
them. Boil them for 2 hours, remove the cloth and paste, and serve them
upright on a napkin with dry toast. Many persons clear the marrow from
the bones after they are cooked, spread it over a slice of toast and
add a seasoning of pepper: when served in this manner, it must be very
expeditiously sent to table, as it so soon gets cold. _Time._—2 hours.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Marrow-bones may be baked after preparing them as in the
preceding recipe; they should be laid in a deep dish, and baked for 2
hours.


MARROW DUMPLINGS, to serve with Roast Meat, in Soup, with Salad, &c.

(_German Recipe._)

_Ingredients._—1 oz. of beef marrow, 1 oz. of butter, 2 eggs, 2 penny
rolls, 1 teaspoonful of minced onion, 1 teaspoonful of minced parsley,
salt and grated nutmeg to taste. _Mode._—Beat the marrow and butter
together to a cream; well whisk the eggs, and add these to the other
ingredients. When they are well stirred, put in the rolls, which should
previously be well soaked in boiling milk, strained, and beaten up with
a fork. Add the remaining ingredients, omitting the minced onion where
the flavour is very much disliked, and form the mixture into small
round dumplings. Drop these into boiling broth, and let them simmer
for about 20 minutes or ½ hour. They may be served in soup, with roast
meat, or with salad, as in Germany, where they are more frequently sent
to table than in this country. They are very good. _Time._—20 minutes
to ½ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 dumplings.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


MARROW PUDDING, Baked or Boiled.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of bread-crumbs, 1½ pint of milk, 6 oz. of
marrow, 4 eggs, ¼ lb. of raisins or currants, or 2 oz. of each; sugar
and grated nutmeg to taste. _Mode._—Make the milk boiling, pour it
hot on to the bread-crumbs, and let these remain covered for about
½ hour; shred the marrow, beat up the eggs, and mix these with the
bread-crumbs; add the remaining ingredients, beat the mixture well, and
either put it into a buttered mould and boil it for 2½ hours, or put it
into a pie-dish edged with puff-paste, and bake for rather more than
¾ hour. Before sending it to table, sift a little pounded sugar over,
after being turned out of the mould or basin. _Time._—2½ hours to boil,
¾ hour to bake. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MAY—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.


_First Course._

                     Asparagus Soup,
                      removed by
                   Salmon and Lobster
                      Sauce.
  Fried Filleted                           Fillets of Mackerel,
  Soles.             Vase of Flowers.       à la Maître d’Hôtel.

                      Ox-tail Soup,
                       removed by
                    Brill & Shrimp Sauce.


_Entrées._

                      Lamb Cutlets and
                          Cucumbers.

  Lobster Pudding.                      Curried Fowl.
                         Vase of
                         Flowers.

                       Veal Ragoût.


_Second Course._

                       Saddle of Lamb.

                         Raised Pie.
  Roast Fowls.                              Boiled Capon and
                       Vase of Flowers.         White Sauce.

                        Braised Ham.

                        Roast Veal.


_Third Course._

  Almond                    Goslings,                Lobster
  Cheesecakes.           removed by                   Salad.
                        College Puddings.

                         Noyeau Jelly.

           Italian       Vase of       Charlotte à la
           Cream.        Flowers.      Parisienne.

                      Inlaid Jelly.

  Plover’s             Ducklings,
  Eggs.               removed by            Tartlets.
                   Nesselrode Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—White soup; asparagus soup; salmon cutlets; boiled
turbot and lobster sauce. _Entrées._—Chicken vol-au-vent; lamb
cutlets and cucumbers; fricandeau of veal; stewed mushrooms. _Second
Course._—Roast lamb; haunch of mutton; boiled and roast fowls;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Ducklings; goslings; Charlotte Russe;
Vanilla cream; gooseberry tart; custards; cheesecakes; cabinet pudding
and iced pudding; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 10 persons.

_First Course._—Spring soup; salmon à la Genévése; red mullet.
_Entrées._—Chicken vol-au-vent; calf’s liver and bacon aux fines
herbes. _Second Course._—Saddle of mutton; half calf’s head, tongue,
and brains; braised ham; asparagus. _Third Course._—Roast pigeons;
ducklings; sponge-cake pudding; Charlotte à la vanille; gooseberry
tart; cream; cheesecakes; apricot-jam tart; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Julienne soup; brill and lobster sauce; fried fillets
of mackerel. _Entrées._—Lamb cutlets and cucumbers; lobster patties.
_Second Course._—Roast fillet of veal; boiled leg of lamb; asparagus.
_Third Course._—Ducklings; gooseberry tart; custards; fancy pastry;
soufflé; dessert and ices.


Dinner for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Vermicelli soup; boiled salmon and anchovy
sauce. _Entrées._—Fillets of beef and tomato sauce; sweetbreads.
_Second Course._—Roast lamb; boiled capon; asparagus. _Third
Course._—Ducklings; cabinet pudding; compôte of gooseberries; custards
in glasses; blancmange; lemon tartlets; fondue; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Macaroni soup; boiled mackerel à la maître d’hôtel;
fried smelts. _Entrées._—Scollops of fowl; lobster pudding. _Second
Course._—Boiled leg of lamb and spinach; roast sirloin of beef and
horseradish sauce; vegetables. _Third Course._—Roast leveret; salad;
soufflé of rice; ramakins; strawberry-jam tartlets; orange jelly;
dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Julienne soup; trout with Dutch sauce; salmon cutlets.
_Entrées._—Lamb cutlets and mushrooms; vol-au-vent of chicken. _Second
Course._—Roast lamb; calf’s head à la tortue; vegetables. _Third
Course._—Spring chickens; iced pudding; Vanilla cream; clear jelly;
tartlets; cheesecakes; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Soup à la reine; crimped trout and lobster sauce;
baked whitings aux fines herbes. _Entrées._—Braised mutton cutlets
and cucumbers; stewed pigeons. _Second Course._—Roast fillet of
veal; bacon-cheek and greens; fillet of beef à la jardinière. _Third
Course._—Ducklings; soufflé à la vanille; compôte of oranges;
meringues; gooseberry tart; fondue; dessert.


MAY, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Vegetable soup. 2. Saddle of mutton, asparagus and
potatoes. 3. Gooseberry tart, custards.

_Monday._—1. Fried whitings, anchovy sauce. 2. Cold mutton, mashed
potatoes, stewed veal. 3. Fig pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Haricot mutton, made from remains of cold mutton,
rump-steak pie. 2. Macaroni.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast loin of veal and spinach, boiled bacon, mutton
cutlets and tomato sauce. 2. Gooseberry pudding and cream.

_Thursday._—1. Spring soup. 2. Roast leg of lamb, mint sauce, spinach,
curried veal and rice. 3. Lemon pudding.

_Friday._—1. Boiled mackerel and parsley-and-butter. 2. Stewed
rump-steak, cold lamb and salad. 3. Baked gooseberry pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Vermicelli. 2. Rump-steak pudding, lamb cutlets, and
cucumbers. 3. Macaroni.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Boiled salmon and lobster or caper sauce. 2. Roast lamb,
mint sauce, asparagus, potatoes. 3. Plum-pudding, gooseberry tart.

_Monday._—1. Salmon warmed in remains of lobster sauce and garnished
with croûtons. 2. Stewed knuckle of veal and rice, cold lamb and
dressed cucumber. 3. Slices of pudding warmed, and served with sugar
sprinkled over. Baked rice pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Roast ribs of beef, horseradish sauce, Yorkshire pudding,
spinach and potatoes. 2. Boiled lemon pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Fried soles, melted butter. 2. Cold beef and dressed
cucumber or salad, veal cutlets and bacon. 3. Baked plum-pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Spring soup. 2. Calf’s liver and bacon, broiled
beef-bones, spinach and potatoes. 3. Gooseberry tart.

_Friday._—1. Roast shoulder of mutton, baked potatoes, onion sauce,
spinach. 2. Currant dumplings.

_Saturday._—1. Broiled mackerel, fennel sauce or plain melted butter.
2. Rump-steak pie, hashed mutton, vegetables. 3. Baked arrowroot
pudding.


MAY, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Carp, chub, crabs, crayfish, dory, herrings, lobsters,
mackerel, red and gray mullet, prawns, salmon, shad, smelts, soles,
trout, turbot.

_Meat._—Beef, lamb, mutton, veal.

_Poultry._—Chickens, ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, pullets,
rabbits.

_Vegetables._—Asparagus, beans, early cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers,
cresses, cucumbers, lettuces, pease, early potatoes, salads,
sea-kale,—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples, green apricots, cherries, currants for tarts,
gooseberries, melons, pears, rhubarb, strawberries.


MAYONNAISE, a Sauce or Salad-Dressing for cold Chicken, Meat, and other
cold Dishes.

_Ingredients._—The yolks of 2 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls of salad oil,
4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and white pepper to taste, 1
tablespoonful of white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream. _Mode._—Put
the yolks of the eggs into a basin, with a seasoning of pepper and
salt; have ready the above quantities of oil and vinegar, in separate
vessels; add them _very gradually_ to the eggs; continue stirring and
rubbing the mixture with a wooden spoon, as herein consists the secret
of having a nice smooth sauce. It cannot be stirred too frequently,
and it should be made in a very cool place, or, if ice is at hand, it
should be mixed over it. When the vinegar and oil are well incorporated
with the eggs, add the stock and cream, stirring all the time, and it
will then be ready for use.

For a fish Mayonnaise, this sauce may be coloured with lobster-spawn,
pounded; and for poultry or meat, where variety is desired, a little
parsley-juice may be used to add to its appearance. Cucumber, tarragon,
or any other flavoured vinegar, may be substituted for plain, where
they are liked. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 7_d._ _Sufficient_
for a small salad.

_Note._—In mixing the oil and vinegar with the eggs, put in first a few
drops of oil, and then a few drops of vinegar, never adding a large
quantity of either at one time. By this means, you can be more certain
of the sauce not curdling. Patience and practice, let us add, are two
essentials for making this sauce good.


MELONS.

This fruit is rarely preserved or cooked in any way, but is sent
whole to table on a dish garnished with leaves or flowers, as fancy
dictates. A border of any other kind of small fruit, arranged round
the melon, has a pretty effect, the colour of the former contrasting
nicely with the melon. Plenty of pounded sugar should be served with
it; and the fruit should be cut lengthwise, in moderate-sized slices.
In America, it is frequently eaten with pepper and salt. _Average
cost._—English, in full season, 3_s._ 6_d._ to 5_s._ each; when scarce,
10_s._ to 15_s._; _seasonable_, June to August. French, 2_s._ to 3_s._
6_d._ each; _seasonable_, June and July. Dutch, 9_d._ to 2_s._ each;
_seasonable_, July and August.


MERINGUES.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of pounded sugar, the whites of 4 eggs.
_Mode._—Whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and, with a
wooden spoon, stir in _quickly_ the pounded sugar; and have some boards
thick enough to put in the oven to prevent the bottom of the meringues
from acquiring too much colour. Cut some strips of paper about 2 inches
wide; place this paper on the board, and drop a tablespoonful at a
time of the mixture on the paper, taking care to let all the meringues
be the same size. In dropping it from the spoon, give the mixture the
form of an egg, and keep the meringues about 2 inches apart from each
other on the paper. Strew over them some sifted sugar, and bake in a
moderate oven for ½ hour. As soon as they begin to colour, remove them
from the oven; take each slip of paper by the two ends, and turn it
gently on the table, and, with a small spoon, take out the soft part of
each meringue. Spread some clean paper on the board, turn the meringues
upside down, and put them into the oven to harden and brown on the
other side. When required for table, fill them with whipped cream,
flavoured with liqueur or vanilla, and sweetened with pounded sugar.
Join two of the meringues together, and pile them high in the dish, as
shown in the annexed drawing. To vary their appearance, finely-chopped
almonds or currants may be strewn over them before the sugar is
sprinkled over; and they may be garnished with any bright-coloured
preserve. Great expedition is necessary in making this sweet dish; as,
if the meringues are not put into the oven as soon as the sugar and
eggs are mixed, the former melts, and the mixture would run on the
paper, instead of keeping its egg-shape. The sweeter the meringues are
made, the crisper will they be; but, if there is not sufficient sugar
mixed with them, they will most likely be tough. They are sometimes
coloured with cochineal; and, if kept well covered in a dry place, will
remain good for a month or six weeks. _Time._—Altogether, about ½ hour.
_Average cost_, with the cream and flavouring, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ to
make 2 dozen meringues. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: MERINGUES.]


MILK.

Milk, when of good quality, is of an opaque white colour: the cream
always comes to the top; the well-known milky odour is strong; it
will boil without altering its appearance in these respects; the
little bladders which arise on the surface will renew themselves if
broken by the spoon. To boil milk is, in fact, the simplest way of
testing its quality. The commonest adulterations of milk are not of a
hurtful character. It is a good deal thinned with water, and sometimes
thickened with a little starch, or coloured with yolk of egg, or even
saffron; but these processes have nothing murderous in them.


MILK AND CREAM, to keep, in hot Weather.

When the weather is very warm, and it is very difficult to prevent
milk from turning sour and spoiling the cream, it should be scalded,
and it will then remain good for a few hours. It must on no account be
allowed to boil, or there will be a skin instead of a cream upon the
milk; and the slower the process the safer will it be. A very good plan
to scald milk, is to put the pan that contains it into a saucepan or
wide kettle of boiling water. When the surface looks thick, the milk is
sufficiently scalded, and it should then be put away in a cool place in
the same vessel that it was scalded in. Cream may be kept for 24 hours,
if scalded without sugar; and by the addition of the latter ingredient,
it will remain good double the time, if kept in a cool place. All pans,
jugs, and vessels intended for milk, should be kept beautifully clean,
and well scalded before the milk is put in, as any negligence in this
respect may cause large quantities of it to be spoiled; and milk should
never be kept in vessels of zinc or copper. Milk may be preserved good
in hot weather, for a few hours, by placing the jug which contains it
in ice, or very cold water; or a pinch of bicarbonate of soda may be
introduced into the liquid.


MILK AND CREAM, Separation of.

If it be desired that the milk should be freed entirely from cream, it
should be poured into a very shallow broad pan or dish, not more than
1½ inch deep, as cream cannot rise through a great depth of milk. In
cold and wet weather, milk is not so rich as it is in summer and warm
weather, and the morning’s milk is always richer than the evening’s.
The last-drawn milk of each milking, at all times and seasons, is
richer than the first-drawn, and on that account should be set apart
for cream. Milk should be shaken as little as possible when carried
from the cow to the dairy, and should be poured into the pans very
gently. Persons not keeping cows, may always have a little cream,
provided the milk they purchase be pure and unadulterated. As soon as
it comes in, it should be poured into very shallow open pie-dishes, and
set by in a very cool place, and in 7 or 8 hours a nice cream should
have risen to the surface.


MILK AND CREAM, Substitute for, in Tea and Coffee.

_Ingredients._—1 new laid egg to every large breakfast-cupful of tea or
coffee. _Mode._—Beat up the whole of the egg in a basin, put it into
a cup, and pour over it the tea or coffee quite hot, stirring all the
time to prevent the egg from curdling. In point of nourishment, both
tea and coffee are much improved by this addition. _Sufficient._—1 egg
to every large breakfast-cupful of tea or coffee.


MILK SOUP (a nice Dish for Children).

_Ingredients._—2 quarts of milk, 1 saltspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful
of powdered cinnamon, 3 teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, or more if
liked, 4 thin slices of bread, the yolks of 6 eggs. _Mode._—Boil the
milk with the salt, cinnamon, and sugar; lay the bread in a deep dish,
pour over it a little of the milk, and keep it hot over a stove,
without burning. Beat up the yolks of the eggs, add them to the milk,
and stir it over the fire till it thickens. Do not let it curdle.
Pour it upon the bread, and serve. _Time._—¾ of an hour. _Average
cost_, 8_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ all the year. _Sufficient_ for 10
children.


MINCE PIES.

_Ingredients._—Good puff-paste, mincemeat. _Mode._—Make some good
puff-paste by recipe; roll it out to the thickness of about ¼ inch,
and line some good-sized patty-pans with it; fill them with mincemeat,
cover with the paste, and cut it off all round close to the edge of the
tin. Put the pies into a brisk oven, to draw the paste up, and bake
for 25 minutes, or longer, should the pies be very large; brush them
over with the white of an egg, beaten with the blade of a knife to a
stiff froth; sprinkle over pounded sugar, and put them into the oven
for a minute or two, to dry the egg; dish the pies on a white d’oyley,
and serve hot. They may be merely sprinkled with pounded sugar instead
of being glazed, when that mode is preferred. To re-warm them, put
the pies on the patty-pans, and let them remain in the oven for 10
minutes or ¼ hour, and they will be almost as good as if freshly made.
_Time._—25 to 30 minutes; 10 minutes to re-warm them. _Average cost_,
4_d._ each. _Sufficient_—½ lb. of paste for 4 pies. _Seasonable_ at
Christmas time.

[Illustration: MINCE PIES.]


MINCEMEAT.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of raisins, 3 lbs. of currants, 1½ lb. of lean
beef, 3 lbs. of beef suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 2 oz. of citron,
2 oz. of candied lemon-peel, 2 oz. of candied orange-peel, 1 large
nutmeg, 1 pottle of apples, the rind of 2 lemons, the juice of 1, ½
pint of brandy. _Mode._—Stone and _cut_ the raisins once or twice
across, but do not chop them; wash, dry, and pick the currants free
from stalks and grit, and mince the beef and suet, taking care that the
latter is chopped very fine; slice the citron and candied peel, grate
the nutmeg, and pare, core, and mince the apples; mince the lemon-peel,
strain the juice, and when all the ingredients are thus prepared, mix
them well together, adding the brandy when the other things are well
blended; press the whole into a jar, carefully exclude the air, and
the mincemeat will be ready for use in a fortnight. If an additional
quantity of spice be preferred, add ½ teaspoonful of pounded mace, and
the same of pounded allspice. We, however, prefer the mincemeat without
the latter ingredients, and can vouch for its excellence. _Average
cost_ for this quantity, 8_s._ _Seasonable._—Make this about the
beginning of December.


MINCEMEAT, Excellent.

_Ingredients._—3 large lemons, 3 large apples, 1 lb. of stoned raisins,
1 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of suet, 2 lbs. of moist sugar, 1 oz. of
sliced candied citron, 1 oz. of sliced candied orange-peel, and the
same quantity of lemon-peel, 1 teacupful of brandy, 2 tablespoonfuls
of orange marmalade. _Mode._—Grate the rinds of the lemons; squeeze
out the juice, strain it, and boil the remainder of the lemons until
tender enough to pulp or chop very finely. Then add to this pulp the
apples, which should be baked, and their skins and cores removed; put
in the remaining ingredients one by one, and, as they are added, mix
everything very thoroughly together. Put the mincemeat into a stone
jar with a closely-fitting lid, and in a fortnight it will be ready
for use. _Seasonable._—This should be made the first or second week in
December.


MINT SAUCE, to serve with Roast Lamb.

_Ingredients._—4 dessertspoonfuls of chopped mint, 2 dessertspoonfuls
of pounded white sugar, ¼ pint of vinegar. _Mode._—Wash the mint, which
should be young and fresh-gathered, free from grit; pick the leaves
from the stalks, mince them very fine, and put them into a tureen;
add the sugar and vinegar, and stir till the former is dissolved.
This sauce is better by being made 2 or 3 hours before wanted for
table, as the vinegar then becomes impregnated with the flavour of
the mint. By many persons, the above proportion of sugar would not be
considered sufficient; but as tastes vary, we have given the quantity
which we have found to suit the general palate. _Average cost_, 3_d._
_Sufficient_ to serve with a middling-size joint of lamb.

_Note._—Where green mint is scarce and not obtainable, mint vinegar
may be substituted for it, and will be found very acceptable in early
spring.


MINT VINEGAR.

_Ingredients._—Vinegar, mint. _Mode._—Procure some nice fresh mint,
pick the leaves from the stalks, and fill a bottle or jar with them.
Add vinegar to them until the bottle is full; _cover closely_ to
exclude the air, and let it infuse for a fortnight. Then strain the
liquor, and put it into small bottles for use, of which the corks
should be sealed. _Seasonable._—This should be made in June, July or
August.


MOCK TURTLE SOUP.


I.

_Ingredients._—½ a calf’s head, ¼ lb. of butter, ¼ lb. of lean ham, 2
tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, a little minced lemon thyme, sweet
marjoram, basil, 2 onions, a few chopped mushrooms (when obtainable),
2 shalots, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, ¼ bottle of Madeira or sherry,
forcemeat balls, cayenne, salt and mace to taste, the juice of 1 lemon
and 1 Seville orange, 1 dessertspoonful of pounded sugar, 3 quarts of
best stock. _Mode._—Scald the head with the skin on, remove the brain,
tie the head up in a cloth, and let it boil for 1 hour. Then take
the meat from the bones, cut it into small square pieces, and throw
them into cold water. Now take the meat, put it into a stewpan, and
cover with stock; let it boil gently for an hour, or rather more, if
not quite tender, and set it on one side. Melt the butter in another
stewpan, and add the ham, cut small, with the herbs, parsley, onions,
shalots, mushrooms, and nearly a pint of stock; let these simmer
slowly for 2 hours, and then dredge in as much flour as will dry up
the butter. Fill up with the remainder of the stock, add the wine, let
it stew gently for 10 minutes, rub it through a tammy, and put it to
the calf’s head; season with cayenne, and, if required, a little salt;
add the juice of the orange and lemon; and when liked, ¼ teaspoonful
of pounded mace, and the sugar. Put in the forcemeat balls, simmer 5
minutes, and serve very hot. _Time._—4½ hours. _Average cost_, 3_s._
6_d._ per quart, or 2_s._ 6_d._ without wine or forcemeat balls.
_Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note._—The bones of the head should be well stewed in the liquor it
was first boiled in, and will make good white stock, flavoured with
vegetables, &c.


II.

(_More Economical._)

_Ingredients._—A knuckle of veal weighing 5 or 6 lbs., 2 cow-heels, 2
large onions stuck with cloves, 1 bunch of sweet herbs, 3 blades of
mace, salt to taste, 12 peppercorns, 1 glass of sherry, 24 forcemeat
balls, a little lemon-juice, 4 quarts of water. _Mode._—Put all the
ingredients, except the forcemeat balls and lemon-juice, in an earthen
jar, and stew for 6 hours. Do not open it till cold. When wanted for
use, skim off all the fat, and strain carefully; place it on the
fire, cut up the meat into inch-and-a-half squares, put it, with the
forcemeat balls and lemon-juice, into the soup, and serve. It can be
flavoured with a tablespoonful of anchovy, or Harvey’s sauce. _Time._—6
hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 4_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ in winter.
_Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


MUFFINS.

_Ingredients._—To every quart of milk allow 1½ oz. of German yeast, a
little salt; flour. _Mode._—Warm the milk, add to it the yeast, and mix
these well together; put them into a pan, and stir in sufficient flour
to make the whole into a dough of rather a soft consistence; cover it
over with a cloth, and place it in a warm place to rise, and, when
light and nicely risen, divide the dough into pieces, and round them to
the proper shape with the hands; place them in a layer of flour about
two inches thick, on wooden trays, and let them rise again: when this
is effected, they each will exhibit a semi-globular shape. Then place
them carefully on a hot plate or stove, and bake them until they are
slightly browned, turning them when they are done on one side. Muffins
are not easily made, and are more generally purchased than manufactured
at home. _To toast them_, divide the edge of the muffin all round, by
pulling it open to the depth of about an inch, with the fingers. Put
it on a toasting-fork, and hold it before a very clear fire until one
side is nicely browned, but not burnt; turn, and toast it on the other.
Do not toast them too quickly, as, if this be done, the middle of the
muffin will not be warmed through. When done, divide them by pulling
them open; butter them slightly on both sides, put them together again,
and cut them into halves: when sufficient are toasted and buttered,
pile them on a very hot dish, and send them very quickly to table.
_Time._—From 20 minutes to ½ hour to bake them. _Sufficient._—Allow 1
muffin to each person.

[Illustration: MUFFINS.]


MULBERRIES, Preserved.

_Ingredients._—To 2 lbs. of fruit and 1 pint of juice allow 2½ lbs. of
loaf sugar. _Mode._—Put some of the fruit into a preserving pan, and
simmer it gently until the juice is well drawn. Strain it through a
bag, measure it, and to every pint allow the above proportion of sugar
and fruit. Put the sugar into the preserving-pan, moisten it with the
juice, boil it up, skim well, and then add the mulberries, which should
be ripe, but not soft enough to break to a pulp. Let them stand in the
syrup till warm through, then set them on the fire to boil gently;
when half done, turn them carefully into an earthen pan, and let them
remain till the next day; then boil them as before, and when the syrup
is thick, and becomes firm when cold, put the preserve into pots. In
making this, care should be taken not to break the mulberries: this
may be avoided by very gentle stirring, and by simmering the fruit
very slowly. _Time._—¾ hour to extract the juice; ¼ hour to boil the
mulberries the first time, ¼ hour the second time. _Seasonable_ in
August and September.


MULLAGATAWNY SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 tablespoonfuls of curry powder, 6 onions, 1 clove
of garlic, 1 oz. of pounded almonds, a little lemon-pickle, or
mango-juice, to taste; 1 fowl or rabbit; 4 slices of lean bacon;
2 quarts of medium stock, or, if wanted very good, best stock.
_Mode._—Slice and fry the onions of a nice colour; line the stewpan
with the bacon; cut up the rabbit or fowl into small joints, and
slightly brown them; put in the fried onions, the garlic, and stock and
simmer gently till the meat is tender, skim very carefully, and when
the meat is done, rub the curry powder to a smooth batter: add it to
the soup with the almonds, which must be first pounded with a little of
the stock. Put in seasoning and lemon-pickle or mango-juice to taste,
and serve boiled rice with it. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note._—This soup can also be made with breast of veal, or calf’s
head. Vegetable mullagatawny is made with veal stock, by boiling and
pulping chopped vegetable marrow, cucumbers, onions, and tomatoes, and
seasoning with curry powder and cayenne. Nice pieces of meat, good
curry powder, and strong stock, are necessary to make this soup good.


MULLET, Grey.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water. _Mode._—If the
fish be very large, it should be laid in cold water, and gradually
brought to a boil; if small, put it in boiling water, salted in the
above proportion. Serve with anchovy sauce and plain melted butter.
_Time._—According to size, ¼ to ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per lb.
_Seasonable_ from July to October.


MULLET, Red.

_Ingredients._—Oiled paper, thickening of butter and flour, ½
teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 glass of sherry; cayenne and salt
to taste. _Mode._—Clean the fish, take out the gills, but leave the
inside, fold in oiled paper, and bake them gently. When done, take
the liquor that flows from the fish, add a thickening of butter
kneaded with flour; put in the other ingredients, and let it boil for
2 minutes. Serve the sauce in a tureen, and the fish, either with or
without the paper cases. _Time._—About 25 minutes. _Average cost_,
1_s._ each. _Seasonable_ at any time, but more plentiful in summer.

_Note._—Red mullet may be broiled, and should be folded in oiled paper,
the same as in the preceding recipe, and seasoned with pepper and salt.
They may be served without sauce; but if any is required, use melted
butter, Italian or anchovy sauce. They should never be plain boiled.


MUSHROOM KETCHUP.

_Ingredients._—To each peck of mushrooms ½ lb. of salt; to each quart
of mushroom-liquor ¼ oz. of cayenne, ½ oz. of allspice, ½ oz. of
ginger, 2 blades of pounded mace. _Mode._—Choose full-grown mushroom
flaps, and take care they are perfectly _fresh gathered_ when the
weather is tolerably dry; for, if they are picked during very heavy
rain, the ketchup from which they are made is liable to get musty, and
will not keep long. Put a layer of them in a deep pan, sprinkle salt
over them, and then another layer of mushrooms, and so on alternately.
Let them remain for a few hours, when break them up with the hand; put
them in a nice cool place for 3 days, occasionally stirring and mashing
them well, to extract from them as much juice as possible. Now measure
the quantity of liquor without straining, and to each quart allow the
above proportion of spices, &c. Put all into a stone jar, cover it up
very closely, put it in a saucepan of boiling water, set it over the
fire, and let it boil for 3 hours. Have ready a nice clean stewpan;
turn into it the contents of the jar, and let the whole simmer very
gently for ½ hour; pour it into a jug, where it should stand in a cool
place till the next day; then pour it off into another jug, and strain
it into very dry clean bottles, and do not squeeze the mushrooms. To
each pint of ketchup add a few drops of brandy. Be careful not to shake
the contents, but leave all the sediment behind in the jug; cork well,
and either seal or rosin the cork, so as perfectly to exclude the air.
When a very clear bright ketchup is wanted, the liquor must be strained
through a very fine hair-sieve, or flannel bag, _after_ it has been
very gently poured off; if the operation is not successful, it must be
repeated until you have quite a clear liquor. It should be examined
occasionally, and if it is spoiling, should be reboiled with a few
peppercorns. _Seasonable_ from the beginning of September to the middle
of October, when this ketchup should be made.

_Note._—This flavouring ingredient, if genuine and well prepared, is
one of the most useful store sauces to the experienced cook, and no
trouble should be spared in its preparation. Double ketchup is made by
reducing the liquor to half the quantity; for example, 1 quart must be
boiled down to 1 pint. This goes farther than ordinary ketchup, as so
little is required to flavour a good quantity of gravy. The sediment
may also be bottled for immediate use, and will be found to answer for
flavouring _thick_ soups or gravies.


MUSHROOM POWDER (a valuable addition to Sauces and Gravies, when fresh
Mushrooms are not obtainable).

_Ingredients._—½ peck of large mushrooms, 2 onions, 12 cloves, ¼ oz.
of pounded mace, 2 teaspoonfuls of white pepper. _Mode._—Peel the
mushrooms, wipe them perfectly free from grit and dirt, remove the
black fur, and reject all those that are at all worm-eaten; put them
into a stewpan with the above ingredients, but without water; shake
them over a clear fire, till all the liquor is dried up, and be careful
not to let them burn; arrange them on tins, and dry them in a slow
oven; pound them to a fine powder, which put into small _dry_ bottles;
cork well, seal the corks, and keep it in a dry place. In using this
powder, add it to the gravy just before serving, when it will merely
require one boil-up. The flavour imparted by this means to the gravy,
ought to be exceedingly good. _Seasonable._—This should be made in
September, or at the beginning of October.

_Note._—If the bottles in which it is stored away are not perfectly
dry, as, also, the mushroom powder, it will keep good but a very short
time.


MUSHROOM SAUCE, very rich and good, to serve with Fowls or Rabbits.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of mushroom-buttons, salt to taste, a little
grated nutmeg, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 pint of cream, 2 oz. of
butter, flour to thicken. _Mode._—Rub the buttons with a piece of
flannel and salt, to take off the skin; cut off the stalks, and put
them in a stewpan with the above ingredients, previously kneading
together the butter and flour; boil the whole for about ten minutes,
stirring all the time. Pour some of the sauce over the fowls, and the
remainder serve in a tureen. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_, 2_s._
_Sufficient_ to serve with a pair of fowls. _Seasonable_ from August to
October.


MUSHROOM SAUCE, Brown, to serve with Roast Meat, &c.

_Ingredients._— ½ pint of button mushrooms, ½ pint of good beef gravy,
1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup (if at hand), thickening of butter
and flour. _Mode._—Put the gravy into a saucepan, thicken it, and stir
over the fire until it boils. Prepare the mushrooms by cutting off
the stalks, and wiping them free from grit and dirt; the large flap
mushrooms cut into small pieces will answer for a brown sauce, when
the buttons are not obtainable; put them into the gravy, and let them
simmer very gently for about 10 minutes; then add the ketchup, and
serve. _Time._—Rather more than 10 minutes. _Seasonable_ from August to
October.

_Note._—When fresh mushrooms are not obtainable, the powder may be used
as a substitute for brown sauce.


MUSHROOM SAUCE, White, to serve with Boiled Fowls, Cutlets, &c.

_Ingredients._—Rather more than ½ pint of button mushrooms,
lemon-juice, and water, 1 oz. of butter, ½ pint of Béchamel, ¼
teaspoonful of pounded sugar. _Mode._—Turn the mushrooms white by
putting them into lemon-juice and water, having previously cut off the
stalks and wiped them perfectly free from grit. Chop them, and put them
in a stewpan with the butter. When the mushrooms are softened, add the
Béchamel, and simmer for about 5 minutes; should they, however, not
be done enough, allow rather more time. They should not boil longer
than necessary, as they would then lose their colour and flavour. Rub
the whole through a tammy, and serve very hot. After this, it should
be warmed in a bain marie. _Time._—Altogether ¼ hour. _Average cost_,
1_s._ _Seasonable_ from August to October.


MUSHROOM SAUCE, White, to serve with Boiled Fowls, Cutlets, &c. (a more
simple Method).

_Ingredients._— ½ pint of melted butter, made with milk, ½ pint of
button mushrooms, 1 dessertspoonful of mushroom ketchup, if at hand;
cayenne and salt to taste. _Mode._—Make the melted butter with milk,
and add to it the mushrooms, which must be nicely cleaned, and free
from grit, and the stalks cut off. Let them simmer gently for about
10 minutes, or until they are quite tender. Put in the seasoning and
ketchup; let it just boil, when serve. _Time._—Rather more than 10
minutes. _Average cost_, 8_d._ _Seasonable_ from August to October.


MUSHROOMS, Baked (a Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—16 to 20 mushroom-flaps, butter, pepper to taste.
_Mode._—For this mode of cooking, the mushroom-flaps are better than
the buttons, and should not be too large. Cut off a portion of the
stalk, peel the top, and wipe the mushrooms carefully with a piece of
flannel and a little fine salt. Put them into a tin baking-dish, with
a very small piece of butter placed on each mushroom; sprinkle over
a little pepper, and let them bake for about 20 minutes, or longer
should the mushrooms be very large. Have ready a _very hot_ dish, pile
the mushrooms high in the centre, pour the gravy round, and send them
to table quickly, with very _hot_ plates. _Time._—20 minutes; large
mushrooms, ½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_d._ each for large mushroom-flaps.
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable._—Meadow mushrooms in
September and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.


MUSHROOMS, Broiled (a Breakfast, Luncheon, or Supper Dish).

[Illustration: BROILED MUSHROOMS.]

_Ingredients._—Mushroom-flaps, pepper and salt to taste, butter,
lemon-juice. _Mode._—Cleanse the mushrooms by wiping them with a piece
of flannel and a little salt; cut off a portion of the stalk, and peel
the tops; broil them over a clear fire, turning them once, and arrange
them on a very hot dish. Put a small piece of butter on each mushroom,
season with pepper and salt, and squeeze over them a few drops of
lemon-juice. Place the dish before the fire, and when the butter is
melted, serve very hot and quickly. Moderate-sized flaps are better
suited to this mode of cooking than the buttons: the latter are better
in stews. _Time._—10 minutes for medium-sized mushrooms. _Average
cost_, 1_d._ each for large mushrooms. _Sufficient._—Allow 3 or 4
mushrooms to each person. _Seasonable._—Meadow mushrooms in September
and October; cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.


MUSHROOMS, Dried.

_Mode._—Wipe them clean, take away the brown part, and peel off the
skin; lay them on sheets of paper to dry, in a cool oven, when they
will shrivel considerably. Keep them in paper bags, which hang in a
dry place. When wanted for use, put them into cold gravy, bring them
gradually to simmer, and it will be found that they will regain nearly
their usual size.


MUSHROOMS, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—Sufficient vinegar to cover the mushrooms; to each
quart of mushrooms, 2 blades of pounded mace, 1 oz. of ground pepper,
salt to taste. _Mode._—Choose some nice young button mushrooms for
pickling, and rub off the skin with a piece of flannel and salt, and
cut off the stalks; if very large, take out the red inside, and reject
the black ones, as they are too old. Put them into a stewpan, sprinkle
salt over them, with pounded mace and pepper in the above proportion;
shake them well over a clear fire until the liquor flows, and keep
them there until they are all dried up again; then add as much vinegar
as will cover them; just let it simmer for 1 minute, and store it
away in stone jars for use. When cold, tie down with bladder and keep
in a dry place: they will remain good for a length of time, and are
generally considered delicious. _Seasonable._—-Make this the same time
as ketchup, from the beginning of September to the middle of October.


MUSHROOMS, to Preserve.

_Ingredients._—To each quart of mushrooms, allow 3 oz. butter, pepper
and salt to taste, the juice of 1 lemon, clarified butter. _Mode._—Peel
the mushrooms, put them into cold water, with a little lemon-juice;
take them out and _dry_ them very carefully in a cloth. Put the butter
into a stewpan capable of holding the mushrooms; when it is melted,
add the mushrooms, lemon-juice, and a seasoning of pepper and salt;
draw them down over a slow fire, and let them remain until their liquor
is boiled away, and they have become quite dry, but be careful in not
allowing them to stick to the bottom of the stewpan. When done, put
them into pots, and pour over the top clarified butter. If wanted for
immediate use, they will keep good a few days without being covered
over. To re-warm them, put the mushrooms into a stewpan, strain the
butter from them, and they will be ready for use. _Average cost_,
1_d._ each. _Seasonable._—Meadow mushrooms in September and October;
cultivated mushrooms may be had at any time.


MUSHROOMS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—1 pint mushroom-buttons, 3 oz. of fresh butter, white
pepper and salt to taste, lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of flour, cream
or milk, ¼ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg. _Mode._—Cut off the ends of
the stalks, and pare neatly a pint of mushroom-buttons; put them into
a basin of water, with a little lemon juice, as they are done. When
all are prepared, take them from the water with the hands, to avoid
the sediment, and put them into a stewpan with the fresh butter, white
pepper, salt, and the juice of ½ lemon; cover the pan closely, and
let the mushrooms stew gently from 20 to 25 minutes; then thicken the
butter with the above proportion of flour, add gradually sufficient
cream, or cream and milk, to make the sauce of a proper consistency,
and put in the grated nutmeg. If the mushrooms are not perfectly
tender, stew them for 5 minutes longer, remove every particle of butter
which may be floating on the top, and serve. _Time._—½ hour. _Average
cost_, from 9_d._ to 2_s._ per pint. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable._—Meadow mushrooms in September and October.


MUSHROOMS, Stewed in Gravy.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of mushroom-buttons, 1 pint of brown gravy, ¼
teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, cayenne and salt to taste. _Mode._—Make a
pint of brown gravy, cut nearly all the stalks away from the mushrooms
and peel the tops; put them into a stewpan, with the gravy, and simmer
them gently from 20 minutes to ½ hour. Add the nutmeg and a seasoning
of cayenne and salt, and serve very hot. _Time._—20 minutes to ½ hour.
_Average cost_, 9_d._ to 2_s._ per pint. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6
persons. _Seasonable._—Meadow mushrooms in September and October.


MUSTARD, How to Mix.

_Ingredients._—Mustard, salt and water. _Mode._—Mustard should be mixed
with water that has been boiled and allowed to cool; hot water destroys
its essential properties, and raw cold water might cause it to ferment.
Put the mustard into a cup, with a small pinch of salt, and mix with it
very gradually sufficient boiled water to make it drop from the spoon
without being watery. Stir and mix well, and rub the lumps well down
with the back of a spoon, as well-mixed mustard should be perfectly
free from these. The mustard-pot should not be more than half-full, or
rather less if it will not be used for a day or two, as it is so much
better when it is freshly mixed.


MUSTARD, Indian, an excellent Relish to Bread and Butter, or any cold
Meat.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of the best mustard, ¼ lb. of flour, ½ oz. of
salt, 4 shalots, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 4 tablespoonfuls of
ketchup, ¼ bottle of anchovy sauce. _Mode._—Put the mustard, flour, and
salt into a basin, and make them into a stiff paste with boiling water.
Boil the shalots with the vinegar, ketchup, and anchovy sauce, for 10
minutes, and pour the whole, _boiling_, over the mixture in the basin;
stir well, and reduce it to a proper thickness; put it into a bottle,
with a bruised shalot at the bottom, and store away for use. This makes
an excellent relish, and if properly prepared will keep for years.


MUSTARD, Tartar.

_Ingredients._—Horseradish vinegar, cayenne, ½ a teacupful of mustard.
_Mode._—Have ready sufficient horseradish vinegar to mix with the
above proportion of mustard; put the mustard into a cup, with a slight
seasoning of cayenne; mix it perfectly smooth with the vinegar,
adding this a little at a time; rub down with the back of a spoon any
lumps that may appear, and do not let it be too thin. Mustard may be
flavoured in various ways, with Tarragon, shalot, celery, and many
other vinegars, herbs, spices, &c.


MUTTON.

Almost every large city has a particular manner of cutting up, or, as
it is called, dressing the carcase. In London this process is very
simple, and as our butchers have found that much skewering back,
doubling one part over another, or scoring the inner cuticle or fell,
tends to spoil the meat and shorten the time it would otherwise keep,
they avoid all such treatment entirely. The carcase when flayed (which
operation is performed while yet warm), the sheep when hung up and the
head removed, presents the profile shown in our cut; the small numerals
indicating the parts or joints into which one-half of the animal is
cut. After separating the hind from the fore quarters, with eleven
ribs to the latter, the quarters are usually subdivided in the manner
shown in the sketch, in which the several joints are defined by the
intervening lines and figures. _Hind quarter_: No. 1, the leg; 2, the
loin—the two, when cut in one piece, being called the saddle. _Fore
quarter_: No. 3, the shoulder; 4 and 5 the neck; No. 5 being called,
for distinction, the scrag, which is generally afterwards separated
from 4, the lower and better joint; No. 6, the breast. The haunch of
mutton, so often served at public dinners and special entertainments,
comprises all the leg and so much of the loin, short of the ribs or
lap, as is indicated on the upper part of the carcase by a dotted line.

[Illustration: SIDE OF MUTTON, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]


MUTTON, Baked Minced.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of any joint of cold
roast mutton, 1 or 2 onions, 1 bunch of savoury herbs, pepper and salt
to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace or nutmeg, 1 teacupful of gravy,
mashed potatoes. _Mode._—Mince an onion rather fine, and fry it a
light-brown colour; add the herbs and mutton, both of which should be
also finely minced and well mixed; season with pepper and salt, and a
little pounded mace or nutmeg, and moisten with the above proportion
of gravy. Put a layer of mashed potatoes at the bottom of a dish, then
the mutton, and then another layer of potatoes, and bake for about ½
hour. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4_d._
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—If there should be a large quantity of meat, use 2 onions
instead of 1.


MUTTON, Boiled Breast of, and Caper Sauce.

_Ingredients._—Breast of mutton, bread-crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of
minced savoury herbs (put a large proportion of parsley), pepper and
salt to taste. _Mode._—Cut off the superfluous fat; bone the meat;
sprinkle over a layer of bread-crumbs, minced herbs, and seasoning;
roll, and bind it up firmly. Boil _gently_ for 2 hours, remove
the tape, and serve with caper sauce, a little of which should be
poured over the meat. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year.


MUTTON, an excellent way to cook a Breast of.

_Ingredients._—Breast of mutton, 2 onions, salt and pepper to taste,
flour, a bunch of savoury herbs, green peas. _Mode._—Cut the mutton
into pieces about 2 inches square, and let it be tolerably lean; put
it into a stewpan, with a little fat or butter, and fry it of a nice
brown; then dredge in a little flour, slice the onions, and put it with
the herbs in the stewpan; pour in sufficient water _just_ to cover the
meat, and simmer the whole gently until the mutton is tender. Take out
the meat, strain, and skim off all the fat from the gravy, and put
both the meat and gravy back into the stewpan; add about a quart of
young green peas, and let them boil gently until done. 2 or 3 slices of
bacon added and stewed with the mutton give additional flavour; and,
to insure the peas being a beautiful green colour, they may be boiled
in water separately, and added to the stew at the moment of serving.
_Time._—2½ hours. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5
persons. _Seasonable_ from June to August.


MUTTON, Broiled, and Tomato Sauce.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—A few slices of cold mutton, tomato
sauce. _Mode._—Cut some nice slices from a cold leg or shoulder of
mutton; season them with pepper and salt, and broil over a clear fire.
Make some tomato sauce, pour it over the mutton, and serve. This makes
an excellent dish, and must be served very hot. _Time._—About 5 minutes
to broil the mutton. _Seasonable_ in September and October, when
tomatoes are plentiful and seasonable.


MUTTON BROTH, to Make.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of the scrag end of the neck of mutton, 1 onion,
a bunch of sweet herbs, ½ turnip, 3 pints of water, pepper and salt to
taste. _Mode._—Put the mutton into a stewpan; pour over the water cold,
and add the other ingredients. When it boils, skim it very carefully,
cover the pan closely, and let it simmer very gently for an hour;
strain it, let it cool, take off all the fat from the surface, and
warm up as much as may be required, adding, if the patient be allowed
to take it, a teaspoonful of minced parsley which has been previously
scalded. Pearl barley or rice are very nice additions to mutton broth,
and should be boiled as long as the other ingredients. When either of
these is added, the broth must not be strained, but merely thoroughly
skimmed. Plain mutton broth without seasoning is made by merely boiling
the mutton, water, and salt together, straining it, letting the broth
cool, skimming all the fat off, and warming up as much as is required.
This preparation would be very tasteless and insipid, but likely to
agree with very delicate stomachs, whereas the least addition of
other ingredients would have the contrary effect. _Time._—1 hour.
_Average cost_, 7_d._ _Sufficient_ to make from 1½ to 2 pints of broth.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—Veal broth may be made in the same manner; the knuckle of a
leg or shoulder is the part usually used for this purpose. It is very
good with the addition of the inferior joints of a fowl, or a few
shank-bones.


MUTTON BROTH, to Make Quickly.

_Ingredients._—1 or 2 chops from a neck of mutton, 1 pint of water, a
small bunch of sweet herbs, ¼ of an onion, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Cut the meat into small pieces; put it into a saucepan with
the bones, but no skin or fat; add the other ingredients; cover the
saucepan, and bring the water quickly to boil. Take the lid off, and
continue the rapid boiling for 20 minutes, skimming it well during
the process; strain the broth into a basin; if there should be any
fat left on the surface, remove it by laying a piece of thin paper on
the top; the greasy particles will adhere to the paper, and so free
the preparation from them. To an invalid nothing is more disagreeable
than broth served with a quantity of fat floating on the top; to avoid
this, it is always better to allow it to get thoroughly cool, the fat
can then be so easily removed. _Time._—20 minutes after the water
boils. _Average cost_, 5_d._ _Sufficient_ to make ½ pint of broth.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Haunch of, to Carve.

A deep cut should, in the first place, be made quite down to the bone,
across the knuckle-end of the joint, along the line 1 to 2. This will
let the gravy escape; and then it should be carved, in not too thick
slices, along the whole length of the haunch, in the direction of the
line from 4 to 3.

[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.]


MUTTON, Leg of, to Carve.

This homely, but capital English joint, is almost invariably served
at table as shown in the engraving. The carving of it is not very
difficult: the knife should be carried sharply down in the direction of
the line from 1 to 2, and slices taken from either side, as the guests
may desire, some liking the knuckle-end, as well done, and others
preferring the more underdone part. The fat should be sought near the
line 3 to 4. Some connoisseurs are fond of having this joint dished
with the under-side uppermost, so as to get at the finely-grained meat
lying under that part of the joint, known as the Pope’s eye; but this
is an extravagant fashion, and one that will hardly find favour in the
eyes of many economical British housewives and housekeepers.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]


MUTTON, Loin of, to Carve.

[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.]

There is one point in connection with carving a loin of mutton which
includes every other; that is, that the joint should be thoroughly well
jointed by the butcher before it is cooked. This knack of jointing
requires practice and the proper tools; and no one but the butcher is
supposed to have these. If the bones be not well jointed, the carving
of a loin of mutton is not a gracious business; whereas, if that has
been attended to, it is an easy and untroublesome task. The knife
should be inserted at fig. 1, and after feeling your way between the
bones, it should be carried sharply in the direction of the line 1 to
2. As there are some people who prefer the outside cut, while others do
not like it, the question as to their choice of this should be asked.


MUTTON, Saddle of, to Carve.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.]

Although we have heard, at various intervals, growlings expressed at
the inevitable “saddle of mutton” at the dinner-parties of our middle
classes, yet we doubt whether any other joint is better liked, when
it has been well hung and artistically cooked. There is a diversity
of opinion respecting the mode of sending this joint to table; but
it has only reference to whether or no there shall be any portion of
the tail, or, if so, how many joints of the tail. Some trim the tail
with a paper frill. The carving is not difficult: it is usually cut
in the direction of the line from 2 to 1, quite down to the bones, in
evenly-sliced pieces. A fashion, however, patronized by some, is to
carve it obliquely, in the direction of the line from 4 to 3; in which
case the joint would be turned round the other way, having the tail end
on the right of the carver.


MUTTON, Shoulder of, to Carve.

[Illustration: SHOULDER OF MUTTON.]

This is a joint not difficult to carve. The knife should be drawn
from the outer edge of the shoulder in the direction of the line from
1 to 2, until the bone of the shoulder is reached. As many slices as
can be carved in this manner should be taken, and afterwards the meat
lying on each side of the blade-bone should be served, by carving in
the direction of 3 to 4 and 5 to 6. The uppermost side of the shoulder
being now finished, the joint should be turned, and slices taken off
along its whole length. There are some who prefer this under-side of
the shoulder for its juicy flesh, although the grain of the meat is not
so fine as that on the other side.


MUTTON CHOPS, Broiled.

_Ingredients._—Loin of mutton, pepper and salt, a small piece of
butter. _Mode._—Cut the chops from a well-hung tender loin of mutton,
remove a portion of the fat, and trim them into a nice shape;
slightly beat and level them; place the gridiron over a bright clear
fire, rub the bars with a little fat, and lay on the chops. Whilst
broiling, frequently turn them, and in about 8 minutes they will
be done. Season with pepper and salt, dish them on a very hot dish,
rub a small piece of butter on each chop, and serve very hot and
expeditiously. _Time._—About 8 minutes. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient._—Allow 1 chop to each person. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON-COLLOPS.

_Ingredients._—A few slices of a cold leg or loin of mutton, salt
and pepper to taste, 1 blade of pounded mace, 1 small bunch of
savoury herbs minced very fine, 2 or 3 shalots, 2 or 3 oz. of butter,
1 dessertspoonful of flour, ½ pint of gravy, 1 tablespoonful of
lemon-juice. _Mode._—Cut some very thin slices from a leg or the chump
end of a loin of mutton; sprinkle them with pepper, salt, pounded mace,
minced savoury herbs, and minced shalot; fry them in butter, stir in a
dessertspoonful of flour, add the gravy and lemon-juice, simmer very
gently about 5 or 7 minutes, and serve immediately. _Time._—5 to 7
minutes. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at
any time.


MUTTON, Curried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of any joint of cold
mutton, 2 onions, ¼ lb. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of curry-powder,
1 dessertspoonful of flour, salt to taste, ¼ pint of stock or water.
_Mode._—Slice the onions in thin rings, and put them into a stewpan
with the butter, and fry of a light brown; stir in the curry-powder,
flour, and salt, and mix all together. Cut the meat into nice thin
slices (if there is not sufficient to do this, it may be minced), and
add it to the other ingredients; when well browned, add the stock or
gravy, and stew gently for about ½ hour. Serve in a dish with a border
of boiled rice, the same as for other curries. _Time._—½ hour. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ in winter.


MUTTON CUTLETS, with Mashed Potatoes.

_Ingredients._—About 3 lbs. of the best end of the neck of mutton, salt
and pepper to taste, mashed potatoes. _Mode._—Procure a well-hung neck
of mutton, saw off about 3 inches of the top of the bones, and cut the
cutlets of a moderate thickness. Shape them by chopping off the thick
part of the chine-bone; beat them flat with a cutlet-chopper, and
scrape quite clean, a portion of the top of the bone. Broil them over
a nice clear fire for about 7 or 8 minutes, and turn them frequently.
Have ready some smoothly-mashed white potatoes; place these in the
middle of the dish; when the cutlets are done, season with pepper
and salt; arrange them round the potatoes, with the thick end of the
cutlets downwards, and serve very hot and quickly. _Time._—7 or 8
minutes. _Average cost_, for this quantity, 2_s._ 4_d._ _Sufficient_
for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: MUTTON CUTLETS.]

_Note._—Cutlets may be served in various ways; with peas, tomatoes,
onions, sauce piquant, &c.


MUTTON, Braised Fillet of, with French Beans.

_Ingredients._—The chump end of a loin of mutton, buttered paper,
French beans, a little glaze, 1 pint of gravy. _Mode._—Roll up the
mutton in a piece of buttered paper, roast it for 2 hours, and do not
allow it to acquire the least colour. Have ready some French beans,
boiled, and drained on a sieve; remove the paper from the mutton, glaze
it; just heat up the beans in the gravy, and lay them on the dish with
the meat over them. The remainder of the gravy may be strained, and
sent to table in a tureen. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 8½_d._ per
lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Haricot.

_Ingredients._—4 lbs. of the middle or best end of the neck of
mutton, 3 carrots, 3 turnips, 3 onions, pepper and salt to taste, 1
tablespoonful of ketchup or Harvey’s sauce. _Mode._—Trim off some of
the fat, cut the mutton into rather thin chops, and put them into a
frying-pan with the fat trimmings. Fry of a pale brown, but do not cook
them enough for eating. Cut the carrots and turnips into dice, and
the onions into slices, and slightly fry them in the same fat that the
mutton was browned in, but do not allow them to take any colour. Now
lay the mutton at the bottom of a stewpan, then the vegetables, and
pour over them just sufficient boiling water to cover the whole. Give
the boil, skim well, and then set the pan on the side of the fire to
simmer gently until the meat is tender. Skim off every particle of fat,
add a seasoning of pepper and salt, and a little ketchup, and serve.
This dish is very much better if made the day before it is wanted for
table, as the fat can be so much more easily removed when the gravy is
cold. This should be particularly attended to, as it is apt to be rich
and greasy if eaten the same day it is made. It should be served in
rather a deep dish. _Time._—2½ hours to simmer gently. _Average cost_,
for this quantity, 3_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_
at any time.


MUTTON, Haricot.

_Ingredients._—Breast or scrag of mutton, flour, pepper, and salt to
taste, 1 large onion, 3 cloves, a bunch of savoury herbs, 1 blade of
mace, carrots and turnips, sugar. _Mode._—Cut the mutton into square
pieces, and fry them a nice colour; then dredge over them a little
flour and a seasoning of pepper and salt. Put all into a stewpan, and
moisten with boiling water, adding the onion, stuck with 3 cloves, the
mace, and herbs. Simmer gently till the meat is done, skim off all the
fat, and then add the carrots and turnips, which should be previously
cut in dice and fried in a little sugar to colour them. Let the whole
simmer again for 10 minutes; take out the onion and bunch of herbs, and
serve. _Time._—About 3 hours to simmer. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Haricot.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of cold neck or loin of
mutton, 2 oz. of butter, 3 onions, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, ½ pint
of good gravy, pepper and salt to taste, 2 tablespoonfuls of port wine,
1 tablespoonful of mushroom ketchup, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 1 head of
celery. _Mode._—Cut the cold mutton into moderate-sized chops, and take
off the fat; slice the onions, and fry them with the chops, in a little
butter, of a nice brown colour; stir in the flour, add the gravy, and
let it stew gently nearly an hour. In the mean time boil the vegetables
until _nearly_ tender, slice them, and add them to the mutton about
¼ hour before it is to be served. Season with pepper and salt, add
the ketchup and port wine, give one boil, and serve. _Time._—1 hour.
_Average cost_, exclusive of the cold meat, 6_d._ _Seasonable_ at any
time.


MUTTON, Hashed.

_Ingredients._—The remains of cold roast shoulder or leg of mutton,
6 whole peppers, 6 whole allspice, a faggot of savoury herbs, ½ head
of celery, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter, flour. _Mode._—Cut the meat in
nice even slices from the bones, trimming off all superfluous fat and
gristle; chop the bones and fragments of the joints, put them into a
stewpan with the pepper, spice, herbs, and celery; cover with water,
and simmer for 1 hour. Slice and fry the onion of a nice pale-brown
colour, dredge in a little flour to make it thick, and add this to
the bones, &c. Stew for ¼ hour, strain the gravy, and let it cool;
then skim off every particle of fat, and put it, with the meat, into
a stewpan. Flavour with ketchup, Harvey’s sauce, tomato sauce, or any
flavouring that may be preferred, and let the meat gradually warm
through, but not boil, or it will harden. To hash meat properly, it
should be laid in cold gravy, and only left on the fire just long
enough to warm through. _Time._—1½ hour to simmer the gravy. _Average
cost_, exclusive of the meat, 4_d._ _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Roast Haunch of.

[Illustration: HAUNCH OF MUTTON.]

_Ingredients._—Haunch of mutton, a little salt, flour. _Mode._—Let this
joint hang as long as possible without becoming tainted, and while
hanging dust flour over it, which keeps off the flies, and prevents the
air from getting to it. If not well hung, the joint, when it comes to
table, will do credit neither to the butcher nor the cook, as it will
not be tender. Wash the outside well, lest it should have a bad flavour
from keeping; then flour it and put it down to a nice brisk fire, at
some distance, so that it may gradually warm through. Keep continually
basting, and about ½ hour before it is served, draw it nearer to the
fire to get nicely brown. Sprinkle a little fine salt over the meat,
pour off the dripping, add a little boiling water slightly salted, and
strain this over the joint. Place a paper ruche on the bone, and send
red-currant jelly and gravy in a tureen to table with it. _Time._—About
4 hours. _Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 8 to 10
persons. _Seasonable._—In best season from September to March.


MUTTON, Boiled Leg of.

_Ingredients._—Mutton, water, salt. _Mode._—A leg of mutton for boiling
should not hang too long, as it will not look a good colour when
dressed. Cut off the shank-bone, trim the knuckle, and wash and wipe it
very clean; plunge it into sufficient boiling water to cover it; let
it boil up, then draw the saucepan to the side of the fire, where it
should remain till the finger can be borne in the water. Then place it
sufficiently near the fire, that the water may gently simmer, and be
very careful that it does not boil fast, or the meat will be hard. Skim
well, add a little salt, and in about 2¼ hours after the water begins
to simmer, a moderate-sized leg of mutton will be done. Serve with
carrots and mashed turnips, which may be boiled with the meat, and send
caper sauce to table with it in a tureen. _Time._—A moderate-sized leg
of mutton of 9 lbs., 2¼ hours after the water boils; one of 12 lbs., 3
hours. _Average cost_, 8½_d._ per lb. _Sufficient._—A moderate-sized
leg of mutton for 6 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ nearly all the year, but
not so good in June, July, and August.

_Note._—When meat is liked very _thoroughly_ cooked, allow more time
than stated above. The liquor this joint was boiled in should be
converted into soup.


MUTTON, Boned Leg of, Stuffed.

_Ingredients._—A small leg of mutton, weighing 6 or 7 lbs., forcemeat,
2 shalots finely minced. _Mode._—Make a forcemeat, to which add 2
finely-minced shalots. Bone the leg of mutton, without spoiling the
skin, and cut off a great deal of the fat. Fill the hole up whence the
bone was taken with the forcemeat, and sew it up underneath, to prevent
its falling out. Bind and tie it up compactly, and roast it before a
nice clear fire for about 2½ hours or rather longer; remove the tape
and send it to table with a good gravy. It may be glazed or not, as
preferred. _Time._—2½ hours, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 4_s._
8_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Braised Leg of.

_Ingredients._—1 small leg of mutton, 4 carrots, 3 onions, 1 faggot of
savoury herbs, a bunch of parsley, seasoning to taste of pepper and
salt, a few slices of bacon, a few veal trimmings, ½ pint of gravy or
water. _Mode._—Line the bottom of a braising-pan with a few slices of
bacon, put in the carrots, onions, herbs, parsley, and seasoning, and
over these place the mutton. Cover the whole with a few more slices of
bacon and the veal trimmings, pour in the gravy or water, and stew very
_gently_ for 4 hours. Strain the gravy, reduce it to a glaze over a
sharp fire, glaze the mutton with it, and send it to table, placed on
a dish of white haricot beans boiled tender, or garnished with glazed
onions. _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 5_s._ _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Roast Leg of.

[Illustration: LEG OF MUTTON.]

_Ingredients._—Leg of mutton, a little salt. _Mode._—As mutton, when
freshly killed, is never tender, hang it almost as long as it will
keep; flour it, and put it in a cool airy place for a few days, if the
weather will permit. Wash off the flour, wipe it very dry, and cut off
the shank-bone; put it down to a brisk clear fire, dredge with flour,
and keep continually basting the whole time it is cooking. About 20
minutes before serving, draw it near the fire to get nicely brown;
sprinkle over it a little salt, dish the meat, pour off the dripping,
add some boiling water slightly salted, strain it over the joint, and
serve. _Time._—A leg of mutton weighing 10 lbs., about 2¼ or 2½ hours;
one of 7 lbs., about 2 hours, or rather less. _Average cost_, 8½_d._
per lb. _Sufficient._—A moderate-sized leg of mutton sufficient for 6
or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time, but not so good in June, July,
and August.


MUTTON, Roast Loin of.

_Ingredients._—Loin of mutton, a little salt. _Mode._—Cut and trim
off the superfluous fat, and see that the butcher joints the meat
properly, as thereby much annoyance is saved to the carver, when it
comes to table. Have ready a nice clear fire (it need not be a very
wide large one), put down the meat, dredge with flour, and baste well
until it is done. Make the gravy as for roast leg of mutton, and serve
very hot. _Time._—A loin of mutton weighing 6 lbs., 1½ hour, or rather
longer. _Average cost_, 8½_d_, per lb. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: LOIN OF MUTTON.]


MUTTON, Rolled loin of (very Excellent).

_Ingredients._—About 6 lbs. of a loin of mutton, ½ teaspoonful of
pepper, ¼ teaspoonful of pounded allspice, ¼ teaspoonful of mace, ¼
teaspoonful of nutmeg, 6 cloves, forcemeat, 1 glass of port wine,
2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup. _Mode._—Hang the mutton till
tender, bone it, and sprinkle over it pepper, mace, cloves, allspice,
and nutmeg in the above proportion, all of which must be pounded very
fine. Let it remain for a day, then make a forcemeat, cover the meat
with it, and roll and bind it up firmly. Half bake it in a slow oven,
let it grow cold, take off the fat, and put the gravy into a stewpan;
flour the meat, put it in the gravy, and stew it till perfectly tender.
Now take out the meat, unbind it, add to the gravy wine and ketchup as
above, give one boil, and pour over the meat. Serve with red-currant
jelly; and, if obtainable, a few mushrooms stewed for a few minutes
in the gravy, will be found a great improvement. _Time._—1½ hour to
bake the meat, 1½ hour to stew gently. _Average cost_, 4_s._ 9_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

_Note._—This joint will be found very nice if rolled and stuffed, as
here directed, and plainly roasted. It should be well basted, and
served with a good gravy and currant jelly.


MUTTON, Boiled Neck of.

_Ingredients._—4 lbs. of the middle, or best end of the neck of mutton;
a little salt. _Mode._—Trim off a portion of the fat, should there be
too much, and if it is to look particularly nice, the chine-bone should
be sawn down, the ribs stripped half-way down, and the ends of the
bones chopped off; this is, however, not necessary. Put the meat into
sufficient _boiling_ water to cover it; when it boils, add a little
salt and remove all the scum. Draw the saucepan to the side of the
fire, and let the water get so cool that the finger may be borne in it;
then simmer very _slowly_ and gently until the meat is done, which will
be in about 1½ hour, or rather more, reckoning from the time that it
begins to simmer. Serve with turnips and caper sauce, and pour a little
of it over the meat. The turnips should be boiled with the mutton;
and when at hand, a few carrots will also be found an improvement.
These, however, if very large and thick, must be cut into long thinnish
pieces, or they will not be sufficiently done by the time the mutton is
ready. Garnish the dish with carrots and turnips, placed alternately
round the mutton. _Time._—4 lbs. of the neck of mutton, about 1½
hour. _Average cost_, 8½_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON, Ragoût of Cold Neck of.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a cold neck or
loin of mutton, 2 oz. of butter, a little flour, 2 onions sliced, ½
pint of water, 2 small carrots, 2 turnips, pepper and salt to taste.
_Mode._—Cut the mutton into small chops, and trim off the greater
portion of the fat; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in a little
flour, add the sliced onions, and keep stirring till brown; then put
in the meat. When this is quite brown, add the water, and the carrots
and turnips, which should be cut into very thin slices; season with
pepper and salt, and stew till quite tender, which will be in about ¾
hour. When in season, green peas may be substituted for the carrots and
turnips: they should be piled in the centre of the dish, and the chops
laid round. _Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, exclusive of the meat,
4_d._ _Seasonable_, with peas, from June to August.


MUTTON, Roast Neck of.

_Ingredients._—Neck of mutton; a little salt. _Mode._—For roasting,
choose the middle, or the best end, of the neck of mutton, and if there
is a very large proportion of fat, trim off some of it, and save it
for making into suet puddings, which will be found exceedingly good.
Let the bones be cut short, and see that it is properly jointed before
it is laid down to the fire, as they will be more easily separated
when they come to table. Place the joint at a nice brisk fire, dredge
it with flour, and keep continually basting until done. A few minutes
before serving, draw it nearer the fire to acquire a nice colour,
sprinkle over it a little salt, pour off the dripping, add a little
boiling water slightly salted; strain this over the meat and serve.
Red-currant jelly may be sent to table with it. _Time._—4 lbs. of the
neck of mutton, rather more than 1 hour. _Average cost_, 8½_d._ per lb.
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: NECK OF MUTTON.

1-2. _Best end._ 2-3. _Scrag._]


MUTTON PIE.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—The remains of a cold leg, loin,
or neck of mutton, pepper and salt to taste, 2 blades of pounded mace,
1 dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, 1 teaspoonful of minced savoury
herbs; when liked, a little minced onion or shalot; 3 or 4 potatoes, 1
teacupful of gravy; crust. _Mode._—Cold mutton may be made into very
good pies if well seasoned and mixed with a few herbs; if the leg is
used, cut it into very thin slices; if the loin or neck, into thin
cutlets. Place some at the bottom of the dish; season well with pepper,
salt, mace, parsley, and herbs; then put a layer of potatoes sliced,
then more mutton, and so on till the dish is full; add the gravy, cover
with a crust, and bake for 1 hour. _Time._—1 hour. _Seasonable_ at any
time.

_Note._—The remains of an underdone leg of mutton may be converted
into a very good family pudding, by cutting the meat into slices,
and putting them into a basin lined with a suet crust. It should be
seasoned well with pepper, salt, and minced shalot, covered with a
crust, and boiled for about three hours.


MUTTON PIE.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of the neck or loin of mutton, weighed after
being boned; 2 kidneys, pepper and salt to taste, 2 teacupfuls of gravy
or water, 2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley; when liked, a little
minced onion or shalot; puff crust. _Mode._—Bone the mutton, and cut
the meat into steaks all of the same thickness, and leave but very
little fat. Cut up the kidneys, and arrange these with the meat neatly
in a pie-dish; sprinkle over them the minced parsley and a seasoning
of pepper and salt; pour in the gravy, and cover with a tolerably good
puff crust. Bake for 1½ hour, or rather longer, should the pie be very
large, and let the oven be rather brisk. A well-made suet crust may
be used instead of puff crust, and will be found exceedingly good.
_Time._—1½ hour, or rather longer. _Average cost_, 2_s._ _Sufficient_
for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


MUTTON PUDDING.

_Ingredients._—About 2 lbs. of the chump end of the loin of mutton,
weighed after being boned; pepper and salt to taste, suet crust made
with milk, in the proportion of 6 oz. of suet to each pound of flour;
a very small quantity of minced onion (this may be omitted when the
flavour is not liked). _Mode._—Cut the meat into rather thin slices,
and season them with pepper and salt; line the pudding-dish with crust;
lay in the meat, and nearly, but do not quite, fill it up with water;
when the flavour is liked, add a small quantity of minced onion; cover
with crust, and proceed in the same manner as directed in recipe for
rump steak and kidney pudding. _Time._—About 3 hours. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year, but
more suitable in winter.


MUTTON, Roast Saddle of.

_Ingredients._—Saddle of mutton; a little salt. _Mode._—To insure
this joint being tender, let it hang for ten days or a fortnight, if
the weather permits. Cut off the tail and flaps, and trim away every
part that has not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and have the
skin taken off and skewered on again. Put it down to a bright, clear
fire, and, when the joint has been cooking for an hour, remove the
skin and dredge it with flour. It should not be placed too near the
fire, as the fat should not be in the slightest degree burnt, but kept
constantly basted, both before and after the skin is removed. Sprinkle
some salt over the joint; make a little gravy in the dripping-pan;
pour it over the meat, which send to table with a tureen of made gravy
and red-currant jelly. _Time._—A saddle of mutton weighing 10 lbs., 2½
hours; 14 lbs., 3¼ hours. When liked underdone, allow rather less time.
_Average cost_, 10_d._ per lb. _Sufficient._—A moderate-sized saddle of
10 lbs. for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year; not so good when
lamb is in full season.

[Illustration: SADDLE OF MUTTON.]


MUTTON, Roast Shoulder of.

_Ingredients._—Shoulder of mutton; a little salt. _Mode._—Put the joint
down to a bright, clear fire; flour it well, and keep continually
basting. About ¼ hour before serving, draw it near the fire, that the
outside may acquire a nice brown colour, but not sufficiently near to
blacken the fat. Sprinkle a little fine salt over the meat, empty the
dripping-pan of its contents, pour in a little boiling water slightly
salted, and strain this over the joint. Onion sauce, or stewed Spanish
onions, are usually sent to table with this dish, and sometimes baked
potatoes. _Time._—A shoulder of mutton weighing 6 or 7 lbs., 1½
hour. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per lb. _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: SHOULDER OF MUTTON.]

_Note._—Shoulder of mutton may be dressed in a variety of ways; boiled,
and served with onion sauce; boned, and stuffed with a good veal
forcemeat; or baked, with sliced potatoes in the dripping-pan.


MUTTON SOUP, Good.

_Ingredients._—A neck of mutton about 5 or 6 lbs., 3 carrots, 3
turnips, 2 onions, a large bunch of sweet herbs, including parsley;
salt and pepper to taste; a little sherry, if liked; 3 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Lay the ingredients in a covered pan before the fire, and let
them remain there the whole day, stirring occasionally. The next day
put the whole into a stewpan, and place it on a brisk fire. When it
commences to boil, take the pan off the fire, and put it on one side to
simmer until the meat is done. When ready for use, take out the meat,
dish it up with carrots and turnips, and send it to table; strain the
soup, let it cool, skim off all the fat, season and thicken it with
a tablespoonful, or rather more, of arrowroot; flavour with a little
sherry, simmer for 5 minutes, and serve. _Time._—15 hours. _Average
cost_, including the meat, 1_s._ 3_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ at any
time. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


NASTURTIUMS, Pickled (a very good Substitute for Capers).

_Ingredients._—To each pint of vinegar, 1 oz. of salt, 6 peppercorns,
nasturtiums. _Mode._—Gather the nasturtium pods on a dry day, and
wipe them clean with a cloth; put them in a dry glass bottle, with
vinegar, salt, and pepper, in the above proportion. If you cannot find
enough ripe to fill a bottle, cork up what you have got until you
have some more fit; they may be added from day to day. Bung up the
bottles, and seal or rosin the tops. They will be fit for use in 10 or
12 months; and the best way is to make them one season for the next.
_Seasonable._—Look for nasturtium-pods from the end of July to the end
of August.


NECTARINES, Preserved.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of sugar allow ¼ pint of water; nectarines.
_Mode._—Divide the nectarines in two, take out the stones, and make a
strong syrup with sugar and water in the above proportion. Put in the
nectarines, and boil them until they have thoroughly imbibed the sugar.
Keep the fruit as whole as possible, and turn it carefully into a pan.
The next day boil it again for a few minutes, take out the nectarines,
put them into jars, boil the syrup quickly for five minutes, pour it
over the fruit, and, when cold, cover the preserve down. The syrup and
preserve must be carefully skimmed, or it will not be clear. _Time._—10
minutes to boil the sugar and water; 20 minutes to boil the fruit the
first time, 10 minutes the second time; 5 minutes to boil the syrup.
_Seasonable_ in August and September, but cheapest in September.


NECTAR, Welsh.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of raisins, 3 lemons, 2 lbs. of loaf sugar, 2
gallons of boiling water. _Mode._—Cut the peel of the lemons very thin,
pour upon it the boiling water, and, when cool, add the strained juice
of the lemons, the sugar, and the raisins, stoned and chopped very
fine. Let it stand 4 or 5 days, stirring it every day; then strain it
through a jelly-bag, and bottle it for present use. _Time._—4 or 5
days. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ to make 2 gallons.


NEGUS, to make.

_Ingredients._—To every pint of port wine allow 1 quart of boiling
water, ¼ lb. of sugar, 1 lemon, grated nutmeg to taste. _Mode._—As this
beverage is more usually drunk at children’s parties than at any other,
the wine need not be very old or expensive for the purpose, a new
fruity wine answering very well for it. Put the wine into a jug, rub
some lumps of sugar (equal to ¼ lb.) on the lemon-rind until all the
yellow part of the skin is absorbed, then squeeze the juice, and strain
it. Add the sugar and lemon-juice to the port-wine, with the grated
nutmeg; pour over it the boiling water, cover the jug, and, when the
beverage has cooled a little, it will be fit for use. Negus may also
be made of sherry, or any other sweet white wine, but is more usually
made of port than of any other beverage. _Sufficient._—Allow 1 pint of
wine, with the other ingredients in proportion, for a party of 9 or 10
children.


NOVEMBER—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.


_First Course._

                    Thick Grouse Soup,
                       removed by
                 Crimped Cod and Oyster
                        Sauce.

  Baked Whitings.     Vase of           Fried Smelts.
                      Flowers.

                Clear Ox-tail Soup,
                     removed by
             Fillets of Turbot à la
                       Crême.


_Entrées._

                      Poulet à la Marengo.

  Fillets of Leveret.      Vase of        Ragoût of Lobster.
                           Flowers.

                       Mushrooms sautés.

_Second Course._

                            Haunch of Mutton.

                             Cold Game Pie.

                                Vase of
  Lark Pudding.                 Flowers.              Roast Fowls.

                              Boiled Ham.

                        Boiled Turkey and Celery
                                 Sauce.

_Third Course._

                               Partridges,
                               removed by
  Apple Tart.                 Plum-pudding.             Shell-Fish.

                               Wine Jelly.

  Pommes à la                   Vase of                 Vol-au-Vent
     Condé.                     Flowers.                 of Pears.

                              Blancmange.

                                Snipes,
  Prawns.                      removed by              Apricot Tartlets.
                            Charlotte glacée.

                            Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Hare soup; Julienne soup; baked cod; soles à la
Normandie. _Entrées._—Riz de veau aux tomates; lobster patties; mutton
cutlets and Soubise sauce; croûtades of marrow aux fines herbes.
_Second Course._—Roast sirloin of beef; braised goose; boiled fowls and
celery sauce; bacon-cheek, garnished with sprouts. _Third Course._—Wild
ducks; partridges; apples à la Portugaise; Bavarian cream; apricot-jam
sandwiches; cheesecakes; Charlotte à la vanille; plum-pudding; dessert
and ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Mulligatawny soup; fried slices of codfish and oyster
sauce; eels en matelote. _Entrées._—Broiled pork cutlets and tomato
sauce; tendrons de veau à la jardinière. _Second Course._—Boiled
leg of mutton and vegetables; roast goose; cold game pie. _Third
Course._—Snipes; teal; apple soufflé; iced Charlotte; tartlets;
champagne jelly; coffee cream; mince pies; dessert and ices.


Dinners for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Oyster soup; crimped cod and oyster sauce; fried perch
and Dutch sauce. _Entrées._—Pigs’ feet à la Béchamel; curried rabbit.
_Second Course._—Roast sucking-pig; boiled fowls and oyster sauce;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Jugged hare; meringues à la crême; apple
custard; vol-au-vent of pears; whipped cream; cabinet pudding; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Game soup; slices of codfish and Dutch sauce; fried
eels. _Entrées._—Kidneys à la Maître d’Hôtel; oyster patties. _Second
Course._—Saddle of mutton; boiled capon and rice; small ham; lark
pudding. _Third Course._—Roast hare; apple tart; pineapple cream; clear
jelly; cheesecakes; marrow pudding; Nesselrode pudding; dessert.


NOVEMBER, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. White soup. 2. Roast haunch of mutton, haricot beans,
potatoes. 3. Apple tart, ginger pudding.

_Monday._—1. Stewed eels. 2. Veal cutlets garnished with rolled bacon;
cold mutton and winter salad. 3. Baked rice pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Roast fowls, garnished with water-cresses; boiled
bacon-cheek; hashed mutton from remains of haunch. 2. Apple pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Boiled leg of pork, carrots, parsnips, and
pease-pudding; fowl croquettes made with remainder of cold fowl. 2.
Baroness pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Cold pork and mashed potatoes; roast partridges, bread
sauce and gravy. 2. The remainder of the pudding cut into neat slices,
and warmed through, and served with sifted sugar sprinkled over; apple
fritters.

_Friday._—1. Roast hare, gravy, and currant jelly; rump-steak and
oyster-sauce; vegetables. 2. Macaroni.

_Saturday._—1. Jugged hare; small mutton pudding. 2. Fig pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Crimped cod and oyster sauce. 2. Roast fowls, small boiled
ham, vegetables; rump-steak pie. 3. Baked apple pudding, open jam tart.

_Monday._—1. The remainder of cod warmed in maître d’hôtel sauce. 2.
Boiled aitchbone of beef, carrots, parsnips, suet dumplings. 3. Baked
bread-and-butter pudding.

_Tuesday._—1. Pea-soup made from liquor in which beef was boiled. 2.
Cold beef, mashed potatoes; mutton cutlets and tomato sauce. 3. Carrot
pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Fried soles, melted butter. 2. Roast leg of pork, apple
sauce, vegetables. 3. Macaroni with Parmesan cheese.

_Thursday._—1. Bubble-and-squeak from remains of cold beef; curried
pork. 2. Baked Semolina pudding.

_Friday._—1. Roast leg of mutton, stewed Spanish onions, potatoes. 2.
Apple tart.

_Saturday._—1. Hashed mutton; boiled rabbit and onion sauce;
vegetables. 2. Damson pudding made with bottled fruit.


NOVEMBER, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Brill, carp, cod, crabs, eels, gudgeons, haddocks, oysters,
pike, soles, tench, turbot, whiting.

_Meat._—Beef, mutton, veal, doe venison.

_Poultry._—Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild-duck.

_Game._—Hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes, woodcocks.

_Vegetables._—Beetroot, cabbages, carrots, celery, lettuces, late
cucumbers, onions, potatoes, salading, spinach, sprouts—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples, bullaces, chestnuts, filberts, grapes, pears, walnuts.


NOVEMBER—BILLS OF FARE FOR A GAME DINNER.

Dinner for 30 persons.

_First Course._

                               Hare Soup.

                                Vase of
  Purée of Grouse.              Flowers.              Pheasant Soup.

                           Soup à la Reine.

_Entrées._

                              Fillets of Hare
  Salmi of                      en Chevreuil.               Salmi of
  Widgeon.                                                  Woodcock.
                             Perdrix au Choux.

                                 Vase of
  Lark Pudding.                  Flowers.                 Game Patties.

                             Curried Rabbits.
  Salmi of                                                  Salmi of
  Woodcock.                 Fillet of Pheasant              Widgeon.
                              and Truffles.

_Second Course._

                         Larded Pheasants.

                         Leveret, larded and
                              stuffed.

  Cold Pheasant Pie           Vase of                Hot raised Pie of
  à la Perigord.             Flowers.                  mixed Game.

                             Grouse.

                         Larded Partridges.

_Third Course._

                                 Pintails.

                                  Quails.
  Snipes.                                               Ortolans.
                                  Vase of
                                  Flowers.
  Golden Plovers.                                       Widgeon.
                                   Teal.
  Wild Duck.                                             Snipes.
                                 Woodcocks.

_Entremets and Removes._

                         Boudin à la Nesselrode.
  Apricot                                                  Maids
   Tart.                     Dantzic Jelly.              of Honour.

  Vol-au-Vent                   Vase of                    Gâteau
  of Pears.                     Flowers.               Génoise Glacé.

                             Charlotte Russe.
  Maids of                                               Compôte of
  Honour.                     Plum-pudding.                Apples.

_Dessert._

                            Strawberry-Ice
                               Cream.
    Olives.                                             Figs.
                             Pineapples.
    Preserved                                           Dried
    Cherries.                   Grapes.                 Fruit.

    Filberts.                   Pears.                 Walnuts.

    Wafers.                    Vase of                 Biscuits.
                               Flowers.
    Ginger-Ice Cream.                               Orange-Water Ice.
                               Apples.
    Dried                                             Preserved
    Fruit.                     Grapes.                Cherries.

                                Pears.
    Figs.                                               Olives.
                            Lemon-Water Ice.


NOYEAU CREAM.

_Ingredients._—1½ oz. of isinglass, the juice of 2 lemons, noyeau
and pounded sugar to taste, 1½ pint of cream. _Mode._—Dissolve the
isinglass in a little boiling water, add the lemon-juice, and strain
this to the cream, putting in sufficient noyeau and sugar to flavour
and sweeten the mixture nicely; whisk the cream well, put it into an
oiled mould, and set the mould in ice or in a cool place; turn it out,
and garnish the dish to taste. _Time._—Altogether, ½ hour. _Average
cost_, with cream at 1_s._ per pint and the best isinglass, 4_s._
_Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould. _Seasonable_ at any time.


NOYEAU, Home-made.

_Ingredients._—2 oz. of bitter almonds, 1 oz. of sweet ditto, 1 lb. of
loaf sugar, the rinds of 3 lemons, 1 quart of Irish whiskey or gin, 1
tablespoonful of clarified honey, ½ pint of new milk. _Mode._—Blanch
and pound the almonds, and mix with them the sugar, which should also
be pounded. Boil the milk; let it stand till quite cold; then mix all
the ingredients together, and let them remain for 10 days, shaking
them every day. Filter the mixture through blotting-paper, bottle off
for use in small bottles, and seal the corks down. This will be found
useful for flavouring many sweet dishes. A tablespoonful of the above
noyeau, added to a pint of boiled custard instead of brandy as given
in our recipe for custard, makes an exceedingly agreeable and delicate
flavour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 9_d._ _Sufficient_ to make about 2½
pints of noyeau. _Seasonable._—May be made at any time.


OCTOBER—BILLS OF FARE.

Dinner for 18 persons.

_First Course._

                             Mock-Turtle Soup,
                                removed by
                          Crimped Cod and Oyster
                                  Sauce.

                                 Vase of
  Soles à la Normandie.          Flowers.                 Red Mullet.

                               Julienne Soup,
                                 removed by
                             John Dory and Dutch
                                   Sauce.

_Entrées._

                       Sweetbreads and Tomato
                                Sauce.

                              Vase of
  Oyster Patties.             Flowers.              Stewed Mushrooms.

                       Fricandeau de Veau and
                            Celery Sauce.


_Second Course._

                 Roast Saddle of
                    Mutton.

                  Grouse Pie.

  Roast Goose.      Vase of      Boiled Fowls and
                    Flowers.     Oyster Sauce.

                      Ham.

                  Larded Turkey.


_Third Course._

                     Pheasants,
  Custards.          removed by          Prawns.
                    Cabinet Pudding.

                    Italian Cream.

        Gâteau de    Vase of             Compôte of
        Pommes.      Flowers.              Plums.

  Lobster Salad.    Peach Jelly.         Apple Tart.

                    Roast Hare,
                     removed by
                   Iced Pudding.

Dessert and Ices.


Dinner for 12 persons.

_First Course._—Carrot soup à la Crécy; soup à la Reine; baked cod;
stewed eels. _Entrées._—Riz de Veau and tomato sauce; vol-au-vent of
chicken; pork cutlets and sauce Robert; grilled mushrooms. _Second
Course._—Rump of beef à la jardinière; roast goose; boiled fowls and
celery sauce; tongue, garnished; vegetables. _Third Course._—Grouse;
pheasants; quince jelly; lemon cream; apple tart; compôte of peaches;
Nesselrode pudding; cabinet pudding; scalloped oysters; dessert and
ices.


Dinner for 8 persons.

_First Course._—Calf’s-head soup; crimped cod and oyster sauce; stewed
eels. _Entrées._—Stewed mutton kidneys; curried sweetbreads. _Second
Course._—Boiled leg of mutton, garnished with carrots and turnips;
roast goose. _Third Course._—Partridges; fruit jelly; Italian cream;
vol-au-vent of pears; apple tart; cabinet pudding; dessert and ices.


Dinners for 6 persons.

_First Course._—Hare soup; broiled cod à la Maître d’Hôtel. Haddocks
and egg sauce. _Entrées._—Veal cutlets, garnished with French beans;
haricot mutton. _Second Course._—Roast haunch of mutton; boiled
capon and rice; vegetables. _Third Course._—Pheasants; punch jelly;
blancmange; apples à la Portugaise; Charlotte à la Vanille; marrow
pudding; dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *

_First Course._—Mock-turtle soup; brill and lobster sauce; fried
whitings. _Entrées._—Fowl à la Béchamel; oyster patties. _Second
Course._—Roast sucking-pig; stewed rump of beef à la jardinière;
vegetables. _Third Course._—Grouse; Charlotte aux pommes; coffee cream;
cheesecakes; apricot tart; iced pudding; dessert.


OCTOBER, Plain Family Dinners for.

_Sunday._—1. Roast sucking-pig, tomato sauce and brain sauce; small
boiled leg of mutton, caper sauce, turnips, and carrots. 2. Damson
tart, boiled batter pudding.

_Monday._—1. Vegetable soup, made from liquor that mutton was boiled
in. 2. Sucking-pig en blanquette, small meat pie, French beans, and
potatoes. 3. Pudding, pies.

_Tuesday._—1. Roast partridges, bread sauce, and gravy; slices of
mutton warmed in caper sauce; vegetables. 2. Baked plum-pudding.

_Wednesday._—1. Roast ribs of beef, Yorkshire pudding, vegetable
marrow, and potatoes. 2. Damson pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Fried soles, melted butter. 2. Cold beef and salad;
mutton cutlets and tomato sauce. 3. Macaroni.

_Friday._—1. Carrot soup. 2. Boiled fowls and celery sauce;
bacon-cheek, garnished with greens; beef rissoles, from remains of cold
beef. 3. Baroness pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Curried fowl, from remains of cold ditto; dish of
rice, rump-steak-and-kidney pudding, vegetables. 2. Stewed pears and
sponge-cakes.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Sunday._—1. Crimped cod and oyster sauce. 2. Roast haunch of mutton,
brown onion sauce, and vegetables. 3. Bullace pudding, baked custards
in cups.

_Monday._—1. The remains of codfish, flaked, and warmed in a maître
d’hôtel sauce. 2. Cold mutton and salad, veal cutlets and rolled bacon,
French beans and potatoes. 3. Arrowroot blancmange and stewed damsons.

_Tuesday._—1. Roast hare, gravy, and red-currant jelly; hashed mutton,
vegetables. 2. Currant dumplings.

_Wednesday._—1. Jugged hare, from remains of roast ditto; boiled
knuckle of veal and rice; boiled bacon cheek. 2. Apple pudding.

_Thursday._—1. Roast leg of pork, apple sauce, greens, and potatoes. 2.
Rice snowballs.

_Friday._—1. Slices of pork, broiled, and tomato sauce, mashed
potatoes; roast pheasants, bread sauce, and gravy. 2. Baked apple
pudding.

_Saturday._—1. Rump-steak pie, sweetbreads. 2. Ginger pudding.


OCTOBER, Things in Season.

_Fish._—Barbel, brill, cod, crabs, eels, flounders, gudgeons, haddocks,
lobsters, mullet, oysters, plaice, prawns, skate, soles, tench, turbot,
whiting.

_Meat._—Beef, mutton, pork, veal, venison.

_Poultry._—Chickens, fowls, geese, larks, pigeons, pullets, rabbits,
teal, turkeys, widgeons, wild ducks.

_Game._—Black-cock, grouse, hares, partridges, pheasants, snipes,
woodcocks, doe venison.

_Vegetables._—Artichokes, beets, cabbages, cauliflowers, carrots,
celery, lettuces, mushrooms, onions, potatoes, sprouts, tomatoes,
turnips, vegetable marrows,—various herbs.

_Fruit._—Apples, black and white bullaces, damsons, figs, filberts,
grapes, pears, quinces, walnuts.


OMELET.

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, ½ saltspoonful of
pepper, ¼ lb. of butter. _Mode._—Break the eggs into a basin, omitting
the whites of 3, and beat them up with the salt and pepper until
extremely light; then add 2 oz. of the butter broken into small pieces,
and stir this into the mixture. Put the other 2 oz. of butter into a
frying-pan, make it quite hot, and, as soon as it begins to bubble,
whisk the eggs, &c., very briskly for a minute or two, and pour them
into the pan; stir the omelet with a spoon one way until the mixture
thickens and becomes firm, and when the whole is set, fold the edges
over, so that the omelet assumes an oval form; and when it is nicely
brown on one side, and quite firm, it is done. To take off the rawness
on the upper side, hold the pan before the fire for a minute or two,
and brown it with a salamander or hot shovel. Serve very expeditiously
on a very hot dish, and never cook until it is just wanted. The flavour
of this omelet may be very much enhanced by adding minced parsley,
minced onion or eschalot, or grated cheese, allowing 1 tablespoonful
of the former, and half the quantity of the latter, to the above
proportion of eggs. Shrimps or oysters may also be added: the latter
should be scalded in their liquor, and then bearded and cut into small
pieces. In making an omelet, be particularly careful that it is not too
thin, and, to avoid this, do not make it in too large a frying-pan,
as the mixture would then spread too much, and taste of the outside.
It should also not be greasy, burnt, or too much done, and should be
cooked over a gentle fire, that the whole of the substance may be
heated without drying up the outside. Omelets are sometimes served
with gravy; but _this should never be poured over them_, but served in
a tureen, as the liquid causes the omelet to become heavy and flat,
instead of eating light and soft. In making the gravy, the flavour
should not overpower that of the omelet, and should be thickened with
arrowroot or rice flour. _Time._—With 6 eggs, in a frying-pan 18 or 20
inches round, 4 to 6 minutes. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.

[Illustration: OMELET.]


OMELET, The Cure’s, or Omelette au Thon.

_Ingredients._—Take for 6 persons, the roes of 2 carp;[A] bleach them,
by putting them, for 5 minutes, in boiling water slightly salted; a
piece of fresh tunny the size of a hen’s egg, to which add a small
shalot already chopped; hash up together the roe and the tunny, so
as to mix them well, and throw the whole into a saucepan, with a
sufficient quantity of very good butter: whip it up until the butter
is melted! This constitutes the specialty of the omelet. Take a second
piece of butter, _à discrétion_, mix it with parsley and herbs, place
it in a long-shaped dish destined to receive the omelet; squeeze the
juice of a lemon over it, and place it on hot embers. Beat up 12 eggs
(the fresher the better); throw up the sauté of roe and tunny, stirring
it so as to mix all well together; then make your omelet in the usual
manner, endeavouring to turn it out long, thick, and soft. Spread it
carefully on the dish prepared for it, and serve at once. This dish
ought to be reserved for recherché déjeûners, or for assemblies where
amateurs meet who know how to eat well: washed down with a good old
wine, it will work wonders.

_Note._—The roe and the tunny must be beaten up (sauté) without
allowing them to boil, to prevent their hardening, which would prevent
them mixing well with the eggs. Your dish should be hollowed towards
the centre, to allow the gravy to concentrate, that it may be helped
with a spoon. The dish ought to be slightly heated, otherwise the cold
china will extract all the heat from the omelet.


OMELETTE AUX CONFITURES, or Jam Omelet.

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of apricot,
strawberry, or any jam that may be preferred. _Mode._—Make an omelet,
only instead of doubling it over, leave it flat in the pan. When quite
firm, and nicely brown on one side, turn it carefully on to a hot dish,
spread over the middle of it the jam, and fold the omelet over on each
side; sprinkle sifted sugar over, and serve very quickly. A pretty
dish of small omelets may be made by dividing the batter into 3 or 4
portions, and frying them separately; they should then be spread each
one with a different kind of preserve, and the omelets rolled over.
Always sprinkle sweet omelets with sifted sugar before being sent to
table. _Time._—4 to 6 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._ _Sufficient_
for 4 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


OMELET, Bachelor’s.

_Ingredients._—2 or 3 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, teaspoonful of flour, ½
teacupful of milk. _Mode._—Make a thin cream of the flour and milk;
then beat up the eggs, mix all together, and add a pinch of salt and a
few grains of cayenne. Melt the butter in a small frying-pan, and, when
very hot, pour in the batter. Let the pan remain for a few minutes over
a clear fire; then sprinkle upon the omelet some chopped herbs and a
few shreds of onion; double the omelet dexterously, and shake it out
of the pan on to a hot dish. A simple sweet omelet can be made by the
same process, substituting sugar or preserve for the chopped herbs.
_Time._—2 minutes. _Average cost_, 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 2 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


OMELET, Plain Sweet.

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 4 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of sifted sugar.
_Mode._—Break the eggs into a basin, omitting the whites of 3; whisk
them well, adding the sugar and 2 oz. of the butter, which should be
broken into small pieces, and stir all these ingredients well together.
Make the remainder of the butter quite hot in a small frying-pan, and
when it commences to bubble, pour in the eggs, &c. Keep stirring them
until they begin to set; then turn the edges of the omelet over, to
make it an oval shape, and finish cooking it. To brown the top, hold
the pan before the fire, or use a salamander, and turn it carefully
on to a _very hot_ dish; sprinkle sifted sugar over, and serve.
_Time._—From 4 to 6 minutes. _Average cost_, 10_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4
persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


OMELETTE SOUFFLÉ.

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 5 oz. of pounded sugar, flavouring of vanilla,
orange-flower water, or lemon-rind, 3 oz. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful
of rice-flour. _Mode._—Separate the yolks from the whites of the
eggs, add to the former the sugar, the rice-flour, and either of the
above flavourings that may be preferred, and stir these ingredients
well together. Whip the whites of the eggs, mix them lightly with
the batter, and put the butter into a small frying-pan. As soon as
it begins to bubble, pour the batter into it, and set the pan over a
bright but gentle fire; and when the omelet is set, turn the edges over
to make it an oval shape, and slip it on to a silver dish, which has
been previously well buttered. Put it in the oven, and bake from 12 to
15 minutes; sprinkle finely-powdered sugar over the soufflé, and _serve
it immediately._ _Time._—About 4 minutes in the pan; to bake, from 12
to 15 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


ONION SAUCE, Brown.

_Ingredients._—6 large onions, rather more than ½ pint of good gravy,
2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to taste. _Mode._—Slice and fry the
onions of a pale brown in a stewpan, with the above quantity of butter,
keeping them well stirred, that they do not get black. When a nice
colour, pour over the gravy, and let them simmer gently until tender.
Now skim off every particle of fat, add the seasoning, and rub the
whole through a tammy or sieve; put it back into the saucepan to warm,
and when it boils, serve. _Time._—Altogether 1 hour. _Seasonable_ from
August to March.

_Note._—Where a high flavouring is liked, add 1 tablespoonful of
mushroom ketchup, or a small quantity of port wine.


ONION SAUCE, French, or Soubise.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of Béchamel, 1 bay-leaf, seasoning to taste of
pounded mace and cayenne, 6 onions, a small piece of ham. _Mode._—Peel
the onions and cut them in halves; put them into a stewpan, with just
sufficient water to cover them, and add the bay-leaf, ham, cayenne, and
mace; be careful to keep the lid closely shut, and simmer them until
tender. Take them out and drain thoroughly; rub them through a tammy or
sieve (an old one does for the purpose) with a wooden spoon, and put
them to ½ pint of Béchamel; keep stirring over the fire until it boils,
when serve. If it should require any more seasoning, add it to taste.
_Time._—¾ hour to boil the onions. _Average cost_, 10_d._ for this
quantity. _Sufficient_ for a moderate-sized dish.


ONION SAUCE, White, for Boiled Rabbits, Roast Shoulder of Mutton, &c.

_Ingredients._—9 large onions, or 12 middling-sized ones, 1 pint of
melted butter made with milk, ½ teaspoonful of salt, or rather more.
_Mode._—Peel the onions and put them into water to which a little salt
has been added, to preserve their whiteness, and let them remain for ¼
hour. Then put them into a stewpan, cover them with water, and let them
boil until tender, and, if the onions should be very strong, change the
water after they have been boiling for ¼ hour. Drain them thoroughly,
chop them, and rub them through a tammy or sieve. Make 1 pint of
melted butter with milk, and when that boils, put in the onions, with
a seasoning of salt; stir it till it simmers, when it will be ready
to serve. If these directions are carefully attended to, this onion
sauce will be delicious. _Time._—From ¾ to 1 hour, to boil the onions.
_Average cost_, 9_d._ per pint. _Sufficient_ to serve with a roast
shoulder of mutton, or boiled rabbit. _Seasonable_ from August to March.

_Note._—To make this sauce very mild and delicate, use Spanish onions,
which can be procured from the beginning of September to Christmas. 2
or 3 tablespoonfuls of cream added just before serving, will be found
to improve its appearance very much. Small onions, when very young, may
be cooked whole, and served in melted butter. A sieve or tammy should
be kept expressly for onions; an old one answers the purpose, as it
is liable to retain the flavour and smell, which of course would be
excessively disagreeable in delicate preparations.


ONION SOUP.

_Ingredients._—6 large onions, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, ½ pint of cream, 1 quart of stock. _Mode._—Chop the onions, put
them in the butter, stir them occasionally, but do not let them brown.
When tender, put the stock to them, and season; strain the soup, and
add the boiling cream. _Time._—½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons.


ONION SOUP, Cheap.

_Ingredients._—8 middling-sized onions, 3 oz. of butter, a
tablespoonful of rice-flour, salt and pepper to taste, 1 teaspoonful
of powdered sugar, thickening of butter and flour, 2 quarts of water.
_Mode._—Cut the onions small, put them into the stewpan with the
butter, and fry them well; mix the rice-flour smoothly with the water,
add the onions, seasoning, and sugar, and simmer till tender. Thicken
with butter and flour, and serve. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_,
4_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


ONIONS, Burnt, for Gravies.

_Ingredients._—½ lb. of onions, ½ pint of water, ½ lb. of moist sugar,
1/3 pint of vinegar. _Mode._—Peel and chop the onions fine, and put
them into a stewpan (not tinned), with the water; let them boil for
5 minutes, then add the sugar, and simmer gently until the mixture
becomes nearly black and throws out bubbles of smoke. Have ready the
above proportion of boiling vinegar, strain the liquor gradually to it,
and keep stirring with a wooden spoon until it is well incorporated.
When cold, bottle for use. _Time._—Altogether, 1 hour.


ONIONS, Pickled (a very simple Method, and exceedingly Good).

_Ingredients._—Pickling onions; to each quart of vinegar, 2
teaspoonfuls of allspice, 2 teaspoonfuls of whole black pepper.
_Mode._—Have the onions gathered when quite dry and ripe, and, with
the fingers, take off the thin outside skin; then, with a silver knife
(steel should not be used, as it spoils the colour of the onions),
remove one more skin, when the onion will look quite clear. Have ready
some very dry bottles or jars, and as fast as they are peeled, put them
in. Pour over sufficient cold vinegar to cover them, with pepper and
allspice in the above proportions, taking care that each jar has its
share of the latter ingredients. Tie down with bladder, and put them
in a dry place, and in a fortnight they will be fit for use. This is a
most simple recipe and very delicious, the onions being nice and crisp.
They should be eaten within 6 or 8 months after being done, as the
onions are liable to become soft. _Seasonable_ from the middle of July
to the end of August.


=ONIONS, Pickled.=

_Ingredients._—1 gallon of pickling onions, salt and water, milk; to
each ½ gallon of vinegar, 1 oz. of bruised ginger, ¼ tablespoonful of
cayenne, 1 oz. of allspice, 1 oz. of whole black pepper, ¼ oz. of whole
nutmeg bruised, 8 cloves, ¼ oz. of mace. _Mode._—Gather the onions,
which should not be too small, when they are quite dry and ripe; wipe
off the dirt, but do not pare them; make a strong solution of salt and
water, into which put the onions, and change this, morning and night,
for 3 days, and save the _last_ brine they were put in. Then take the
outside skin off, and put them into a tin saucepan capable of holding
them all, as they are always better done together. Now take equal
quantities of milk and the last salt and water the onions were in, and
pour this to them; to this add 2 large spoonfuls of salt, put them over
the fire, and watch them very attentively. Keep constantly turning the
onions about with a wooden skimmer, those at the bottom to the top,
and _vice versâ_; and let the milk and water run through the holes of
the skimmer. Remember, the onions must never boil, or, if they do,
they will be good for nothing; and they should be quite transparent.
Keep the onions stirred for a few minutes, and, in stirring them, be
particular not to break them. Then have ready a pan with a colander,
into which turn the onions to drain, covering them with a cloth to
keep in the steam. Place on a table an old cloth, 2 or 3 times double;
put the onions on it when quite hot, and over them an old piece of
blanket; cover this closely over them, to keep in the steam. Let them
remain till the next day, when they will be quite cold, and look yellow
and shrivelled; take off the shrivelled skins, when they should be
as white as snow. Put them into a pan, make a pickle of vinegar and
the remaining ingredients, boil all these up, and pour hot over the
onions in the pan. Cover very closely to keep in all the steam, and
let them stand till the following day, when they will be quite cold.
Put them into jars or bottles well bunged, and a tablespoonful of the
best olive-oil on the top of each jar or bottle. Tie them down with
bladder, and let them stand in a cool place for a month or six weeks,
when they will be fit for use. They should be beautifully white, and
eat crisp, without the least softness, and will keep good many months.
_Seasonable_ from the middle of July to the end of August.


ONIONS, Spanish, Baked.

_Ingredients._—4 or 5 Spanish onions, salt, and water. _Mode._—Put the
onions, with their skins on, into a saucepan of boiling water slightly
salted, and let them boil quickly for an hour. Then take them out,
wipe them thoroughly, wrap each one in a piece of paper separately,
and bake them in a moderate oven for 2 hours, or longer, should the
onions be very large. They may be served in their skins, and eaten with
a piece of cold butter and a seasoning of pepper and salt; or they may
be peeled, and a good brown gravy poured over them. _Time._—1 hour
to boil, 2 hours to bake. _Average cost_, medium-sized, 2_d._ each.
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ from September to January.


ONIONS, Spanish, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—Onions, vinegar; salt and cayenne to taste. _Mode._—Cut
the onions in thin slices; put a layer of them in the bottom of a jar;
sprinkle with salt and cayenne; then add another layer of onions, and
season as before. Proceeding in this manner till the jar is full, pour
in sufficient vinegar to cover the whole, and the pickle will be fit
for use in a month. _Seasonable._—May be had in England from September
to February.


ONIONS, Spanish, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—5 or 6 Spanish onions, 1 pint of good broth or gravy.
_Mode._—Peel the onions, taking care not to cut away too much of the
tops or tails, or they would then fall to pieces; put them into a
stewpan capable of holding them at the bottom without piling them one
on the top of another; add the broth or gravy, and simmer _very gently_
until the onions are perfectly tender. Dish them, pour the gravy round,
and serve. Instead of using broth, Spanish onions may be stewed with
a large piece of butter: they must be done very gradually over a slow
fire or hot-plate, and will produce plenty of gravy. _Time._—To stew in
gravy, 2 hours, or longer if very large. _Average cost_, medium-sized,
2_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 6 or 7 persons. _Seasonable_ from
September to January.

_Note._—Stewed Spanish onions are a favourite accompaniment to roast
shoulder of mutton.


ORANGE BRANDY. (Excellent.)

_Ingredients._—To every ½ gallon of brandy allow ¾ pint of Seville
orange-juice, 1¼ lb. of loaf sugar. _Mode._—To bring out the full
flavour of the orange-peel, rub a few lumps of the sugar on 2 or 3
unpared oranges, and put these lumps to the rest. Mix the brandy with
the orange-juice, strained, the rinds of 6 of the oranges pared very
thin, and the sugar. Let all stand in a closely-covered jar for about 3
days, stirring it 3 or 4 times a day. When clear, it should be bottled
and closely corked for a year; it will then be ready for use, but will
keep any length of time. This is a most excellent stomachic when taken
pure in small quantities; or, as the strength of the brandy is very
little deteriorated by the other ingredients, it may be diluted with
water. _Time._—To be stirred every day for 3 days. _Average cost_,
7_s._ _Sufficient_ to make 2 quarts. _Seasonable._—Make this in March.


ORANGE CREAM.

[Illustration: OPEN MOULD.]

_Ingredients._—1 oz. of isinglass, 6 large oranges, 1 lemon, sugar to
taste, water, ½ pint of good cream. _Mode._—Squeeze the juice from
the oranges and lemon; strain it, and put it into a saucepan with the
isinglass, and sufficient water to make it in all 1½ pint. Rub the
sugar on the orange and lemon-rind, add it to the other ingredients,
and boil all together for about 10 minutes. Strain through a muslin
bag, and, when cold, beat up with it ½ pint of thick cream. Wet a
mould, or soak it in cold water; pour in the cream, and put it in a
cool place to set. If the weather is very cold, 1 oz. of isinglass
will be found sufficient for the above proportion of ingredients.
_Time._—10 minutes to boil the juice and water. _Average cost_,
with the best isinglass, 3_s._ _Sufficient_ to fill a quart mould.
_Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGE CREAMS.

_Ingredients._—1 Seville orange, 1 tablespoonful of brandy, ¼ lb. of
loaf sugar, the yolks of 4 eggs, 1 pint of cream. _Mode._—Boil the rind
of the Seville orange until tender, and beat it in a mortar to a pulp;
add to it the brandy, the strained juice of the orange, and the sugar,
and beat all together for about 10 minutes, adding the well-beaten
yolks of eggs. Bring the cream to the boiling-point, and pour it very
gradually to the other ingredients, and beat the mixture till nearly
cold; put it into custard-cups, place the cups in a deep dish of
boiling water, where let them remain till quite cold. Take the cups
out of the water, wipe them, and garnish the tops of the creams with
candied orange-peel or preserved chips. _Time._—Altogether, ¾ hour.
_Average cost_, with cream at 1_s._ per pint, 1_s._ 7_d._ _Sufficient_
to make 7 or 8 creams. _Seasonable_ from November to May.

_Note._—To render this dish more economical, substitute milk for the
cream, but add a small pinch of isinglass to make the creams firm.


ORANGE FRITTERS.

_Ingredients._—For the batter, ½ lb. of flour, ½ oz. of butter, ½
saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, oranges, hot lard or clarified
dripping. _Mode._—Make a nice light batter with the above proportion of
flour, butter, salt, eggs, and sufficient milk to make it the proper
consistency; peel the oranges, remove as much of the white skin as
possible, and divide each orange into eight pieces, without breaking
the thin skin, unless it be to remove the pips; dip each piece of
orange in the batter. Have ready a pan of boiling lard or clarified
dripping; drop in the oranges, and fry them a delicate brown from 8 to
10 minutes. When done, lay them on a piece of blotting-paper before
the fire, to drain away the greasy moisture, and dish them on a white
d’oyley; sprinkle over them plenty of pounded sugar, and serve quickly.
_Time._—8 to 10 minutes to fry the fritters; 5 minutes to drain them.
_Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_
from November to May.


ORANGE GRAVY, for Wildfowl, Widgeon, Teal, &c.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of white stock, 1 small onion, 3 or 4 strips of
lemon or orange peel, a few leaves of basil, if at hand, the juice
of a Seville orange or lemon, salt and pepper to taste, 1 glass of
port wine. _Mode._—Put the onion, cut in slices, into a stewpan with
the stock, orange-peel, and basil, and let them simmer very gently
for ¼ hour or rather longer, should the gravy not taste sufficiently
of the peel. Strain it off, and add to the gravy the remaining
ingredients; let the whole heat through, and, when on the point of
boiling, serve very hot in a tureen which should have a cover to it.
_Time._—Altogether ½ hour. _Sufficient_ for a small tureen.


ORANGE JELLY.

[Illustration: OPEN MOULD.]

_Ingredients._—1 pint of water, 1½ to 2 oz. of isinglass, ½ lb. of loaf
sugar, 1 Seville orange, 1 lemon, about 9 China oranges. _Mode._—Put
the water into a saucepan, with the isinglass, sugar, and the rind of
1 orange, and the same of ½ lemon, and stir these over the fire until
the isinglass is dissolved, and remove the scum; then add to this the
juice of the Seville orange, the juice of the lemon, and sufficient
juice of China oranges to make in all 1 pint: from 8 to 10 oranges will
yield the desired quantity. Stir all together over the fire until it is
just on the point of boiling; skim well; then strain the jelly through
a very fine sieve or jelly-bag, and when nearly cold, put it into a
mould previously wetted, and, when quite set, turn it out on a dish,
and garnish it to taste. To insure this jelly being clear, the orange-
and lemon-juice should be well strained, and the isinglass clarified,
before they are added to the other ingredients, and, to heighten the
colour, a few drops of prepared cochineal may be added. _Time._—5
minutes to boil without the juice; 1 minute after it is added. _Average
cost_, with the best isinglass, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ to fill a
quart mould. _Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGE MARMALADE.

_Ingredients._—Equal weight of fine loaf sugar and Seville oranges; to
12 oranges allow 1 pint of water. _Mode._—Let there be an equal weight
of loaf sugar and Seville oranges, and allow the above proportion of
water to every dozen oranges. Peel them carefully, remove a little
of the white pith, and boil the rinds in water 2 hours, changing the
water three times to take off a little of the bitter taste. Break the
pulp into small pieces, take out all the pips, and cut the boiled rind
into chips. Make a syrup with the sugar and water; boil this well,
skim it, and, when clear, put in the pulp and chips. Boil all together
from 20 minutes to ½ hour; pour it into pots, and, when cold, cover
down with bladders or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with
the white of an egg. The juice and grated rind of 2 lemons to every
dozen of oranges, added with the pulp and chips to the syrup, are a
very great improvement to this marmalade. _Time._—2 hours to boil the
orange-rinds; 10 minutes to boil the syrup; 20 minutes to ½ hour to
boil the marmalade. _Average cost_, from 6_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot.
_Seasonable._—This should be made in March or April, as Seville oranges
are then in perfection.


ORANGE MARMALADE.

_Ingredients._—Equal weight of Seville oranges and sugar; to every lb.
of sugar allow ½ pint of water. _Mode._—Weigh the sugar and oranges,
score the skin across, and take it off in quarters. Boil these quarters
in a muslin bag in water until they are quite soft, and they can be
pierced easily with the head of a pin; then cut them into chips about
1 inch long, and as thin as possible. Should there be a great deal of
white stringy pulp, remove it before cutting the rind into chips. Split
open the oranges, scrape out the best part of the pulp, with the juice,
rejecting the white pith and pips. Make a syrup with the sugar and
water; boil it until clear; then put in the chips, pulp, and juice, and
boil the marmalade from 20 minutes to ½ hour, removing all the scum as
it rises. In boiling the syrup, clear it carefully from scum before the
oranges are added to it. _Time._—2 hours to boil the rinds, 10 minutes
the syrup, 20 minutes to ½ hour the marmalade. _Average cost_, 6_d._
to 8_d._ per lb. pot. _Seasonable._—Make this in March or April, when
Seville oranges are in perfection.

ORANGE MARMALADE, an easy way of Making.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of pulp allow 1½ lb. of loaf sugar.
_Mode._—Choose some fine Seville oranges; put them whole into a stewpan
with sufficient water to cover them, and stew them until they become
perfectly tender, changing the water 2 or 3 times; drain them, take
off the rind, remove the pips from the pulp, weigh it, and to every
lb. allow 1½ of loaf sugar and ½ pint of the water the oranges were
last boiled in. Boil the sugar and water together for 10 minutes; put
in the pulp, boil for another 10 minutes; then add the peel cut into
strips, and boil the marmalade for another 10 minutes, which completes
the process. Pour it into jars; let it cool; then cover down with
bladders, or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with the white
of an egg. _Time._—2 hours to boil the oranges; altogether ½ hour to
boil the marmalade. _Average cost_, from 6_d._ to 8_d._ per lb. pot.
_Seasonable._—Make this in March or April.


ORANGE MARMALADE, made with Honey.

_Ingredients._—To 1 quart of the juice and pulp of Seville oranges
allow 1 lb. of the rind, 2 lbs. of honey. _Mode._—Peel the oranges, and
boil the rind in water until tender, and cut it into strips. Take away
the pips from the juice and pulp, and put it with the honey and chips
into a preserving-pan; boil all together for about ½ hour, or until the
marmalade is of the proper consistency; put it into pots, and, when
cold, cover down with bladders. _Time._—2 hours to boil the rind, ½
hour the marmalade. _Average cost_, from 7_d._ to 9_d._ per lb. pot.
_Seasonable._—Make this in March or April.


ORANGE MARMALADE, Pounded.

_Ingredients._—Weight and ½ in sugar to every lb. of oranges.
_Mode._—Cut some clear Seville oranges in 4 pieces, put all the juice
and pulp into a basin, and take out the seeds and skins; boil the
rinds in hard water till tender, changing the water 2 or 3 times while
boiling; drain them well, and pound them in a mortar; then put them
into a preserving-pan with the juice and pulp, and their weight and ½
of sugar; boil rather more than ½ an hour. _Time._—About 2 hours to
boil the rinds, ½ an hour the marmalade.


ORANGE PUDDING, Baked.

_Ingredients._—6 oz. of stale sponge cake or bruised ratafias, 6
oranges, 1 pint of milk, 6 eggs, ½ lb. of sugar. _Mode._—Bruise the
sponge-cake or ratafias into fine crumbs, and pour upon them the
milk, which should be boiling. Rub the rinds of 2 of the oranges on
sugar, and add this, with the juice of the remainder, to the other
ingredients. Beat up the eggs, stir them in, sweeten to taste, and put
the mixture into a pie-dish previously lined with puff-paste. Bake for
rather more than ½ hour; turn it out of the dish, strew sifted sugar
over, and serve. _Time._—Rather more than ½ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._
6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from November to
May.


ORANGE PUDDING, Seville.

_Ingredients._—4 Seville oranges, 6 oz. of fresh butter, 12 almonds,
½ lb. of sifted sugar, the juice of 1 lemon, 8 eggs. _Mode._—Boil the
oranges and chop them finely, taking out all the pips. Put the butter,
the almonds, blanched and chopped, and the sugar, into a saucepan, to
which add the orange pulp and the lemon-juice. Put it on a hot plate
to warm, mixing all together until the butter is thoroughly melted.
Turn the mixture out, let it get cold, then add the eggs, which should
be well whipped. Put all into a baking-dish, bordered with puff paste,
and bake from ½ hour to 40 minutes, according to the heat of the oven.
_Time._—½ hour to 40 minutes. _Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGE SALAD.

_Ingredients._—6 oranges, ¼ lb. of muscatel raisins, 2 oz. of pounded
sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of brandy. _Mode._—Peel 5 of the oranges;
divide them into slices without breaking the pulp, and arrange them on
a glass dish. Stone the raisins, mix them with the sugar and brandy,
and mingle them with the oranges. Squeeze the juice of the other orange
over the whole, and the dish is ready for table. A little pounded spice
may be put in when the flavour is liked; but this ingredient must be
added very sparingly. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6
persons. _Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGE WINE, a very Simple and Easy Method of Making a very Superior.

_Ingredients._—90 Seville oranges, 32 lbs. of lump sugar, water.
_Mode._—Break up the sugar into small pieces, and put it into a dry,
sweet, 9-gallon cask, placed in a cellar or other storehouse, where
it is intended to be kept. Have ready close to the cask two large
pans or wooden keelers, into one of which put the peel of the oranges
pared quite thin, and into the other the pulp after the juice has been
squeezed from it. Strain the juice through a piece of double muslin,
and put into the cask with the sugar. Then pour about 1½ gallon of cold
spring water on both the peels and the pulp; let it stand for 24 hours,
and then strain it into the cask; add more water to the peels and pulp
when this is done, and repeat the same process every day for a week: it
should take about a week to fill up the cask. Be careful to apportion
the quantity as nearly as possible to the seven days, and to stir the
contents of the cask each day. On the _third_ day after the cask is
full—that is, the _tenth_ day after the commencement of making—the cask
may be securely bunged down. This is a very simple and easy method, and
the wine made according to it will be pronounced to be most excellent.
There is no troublesome boiling, and all fermentation takes place in
the cask. When the above directions are attended to, the wine cannot
fail to be good. It should be bottled in 8 or 9 months, and will be
fit for use in a twelvemonth after the time of making. Ginger wine may
be made in precisely the same manner, only, with the 9-gallon cask
for ginger wine, 2 lbs. of the best whole ginger, _bruised_, must be
put with the sugar. It will be found convenient to tie the ginger
loosely in a muslin bag. _Time._—Altogether, 10 days to make it.
_Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ per gallon. _Sufficient_ for 9 gallons.
_Seasonable._—Make this in March, and bottle it in the following
January.


ORANGES, Compôte of.

[Illustration: COMPÔTE OF ORANGES.]

_Ingredients._—1 pint of syrup, 6 oranges. _Mode._—Peel the oranges,
remove as much of the white pith as possible, and divide them into
small pieces without breaking the thin skin with which they are
surrounded. Make the syrup by recipe, adding the rind of the orange
cut into thin narrow strips. When the syrup has been well skimmed, and
is quite clear, put in the pieces of orange, and simmer them for 5
minutes. Take them out carefully with a spoon without breaking them,
and arrange them on a glass dish. Reduce the syrup by boiling it
quickly until thick; let it cool a little, pour it over the oranges,
and, when cold, they will be ready for table. _Time._—10 minutes to
boil the syrup; 5 minutes to simmer the oranges; 5 minutes to reduce
the syrup. _Average cost_, 9_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGES, a Pretty Dish of.

_Ingredients._—6 large oranges, ½ lb. of loaf sugar, ¼ pint of water, ½
pint of cream, 2 tablespoonfuls of any kind of liquor, sugar to taste.
_Mode._—Put the sugar and water into a saucepan, and boil them until
the sugar becomes brittle, which may be ascertained by taking up a
small quantity in a spoon, and dipping it in cold water; if the sugar
is sufficiently boiled, it will easily snap. Peel the oranges, remove
as much of the white pith as possible, and divide them into nice-sized
slices, without breaking the thin white skin which surrounds the juicy
pulp. Place the pieces of orange on small skewers, dip them into the
hot sugar, and arrange them in layers round a plain mould, which should
be well oiled with the purest salad-oil. The sides of the mould only
should be lined with the oranges, and the centre left open for the
cream. Let the sugar become firm by cooling; turn the oranges carefully
out on a dish, and fill the centre with whipped cream, flavoured with
any kind of liqueur, and sweetened with pounded sugar. This is an
exceedingly ornamental and nice dish for the supper-table. _Time._—10
minutes to boil the sugar. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 8_d._—_Sufficient_ for
1 mould. _Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGES, Iced.

_Ingredients._—Oranges; to every lb. of pounded loaf sugar allow the
whites of 2 eggs. _Mode._—Whisk the whites of the eggs well, stir in
the sugar, and beat this mixture for ¼ hour. Skin the oranges, remove
as much of the white pith as possible without injuring the pulp of
the fruit; pass a thread through the centre of each orange, dip them
into the sugar, and tie them to a stick. Place this stick across the
oven, and let the oranges remain until dry, when they will have the
appearance of balls of ice. They make a pretty dessert or supper dish.
Care must be taken not to have the oven too fierce, or the oranges
would scorch and acquire a brown colour, which would entirely spoil
their appearance. _Time._—From ½ to 1 hour to dry in a moderate oven.
_Average cost_, 1½_d._ each. _Sufficient._—½ lb. of sugar to ice 12
oranges. _Seasonable_ from November to May.


ORANGES, Preserved.

_Ingredients._—Oranges; to every lb. of juice and pulp allow 2 lbs. of
loaf sugar; to every pint of water ½ lb. of loaf sugar. _Mode._—Wholly
grate or peel the oranges, taking off only the thin outside portion of
the rind. Make a small incision where the stalk is taken out, squeeze
out as much of the juice as can be obtained, and preserve it in a basin
with the pulp that accompanies it. Put the oranges into cold water;
let them stand for 3 days, changing the water twice; then boil them in
fresh water till they are very tender, and put them to drain. Make a
syrup with the above proportion of sugar and water, sufficient to cover
the oranges; let them stand in it for 2 or 3 days; then drain them
well. Weigh the juice and pulp, allow double their weight of sugar, and
boil them together until the scum ceases to rise, which must all be
carefully removed; put in the oranges, boil them for 10 minutes, place
them in jars, pour over them the syrup, and, when cold, cover down.
They will be fit for use in a week. _Time._—3 days for the oranges
to remain in water, 3 days in the syrup; ½ hour to boil the pulp, 10
minutes the oranges. _Seasonable._—This preserve should be made in
February or March, when oranges are plentiful.


OX, The.

The manner in which a side of beef is cut up in London is shown in the
engraving on this page. In the metropolis, on account of the large
number of its population possessing the means to indulge in the “best
of everything,” the demand for the most delicate joints of meat is
great, the price, at the same time, being much higher for these than
for the other parts. The consequence is, that in London the carcass
is there divided so as to obtain the greatest quantity of meat on the
most esteemed joints. In many places, however, where, from a greater
equality in the social condition and habits of the inhabitants, the
demand and prices for the different parts of the carcasses are more
equalized, there is not the same reason for the butcher to cut the best
joints so large.

The meat on those parts of the animal in which the muscles are least
called into action is most tender and succulent; as, for instance,
along the back, from the rump to the hinder part of the shoulder;
whilst the limbs, shoulder, and neck are the toughest, driest, and
least-esteemed.

The names of the several joints in the hind and fore quarters of a side
of beef, and the purposes for which they are used, are as follows:—

_Hind Quarter:_—

1. Sirloin,—the two sirloins, cut together in one joint, form a baron;
this, when roasted, is the famous national dish of Englishmen, at
entertainments, on occasion of rejoicing.

2. Rump,—the finest part for steaks.

3. Aitchbone,—boiling piece.

4. Buttock,—prime boiling piece.

5. Mouse-round,—boiling or stewing.

6. Hock,—stewing.

7. Thick flank, cut with the udder-fat,—primest boiling piece.

8. Thin flank,—boiling.

[Illustration: SIDE Of BEEF, SHOWING THE SEVERAL JOINTS.]

_Fore Quarter:_—

9. Five ribs, called the fore-rib.—This is considered the primest
roasting piece.

10. Four ribs, called the middle-rib,—greatly esteemed by housekeepers
as the most economical joint for roasting.

11. Two ribs, called the chuck-rib,—used for second quality of steaks.

12. Leg-of-mutton piece,—the muscles of the shoulder dissected from the
breast.

13. Brisket, or breast,—used for boiling, after being salted.

14. Neck, clod, and sticking-piece,—used for soups, gravies, stocks,
pies, and mincing for sausages.

15. Shin,—stewing.

The following is a classification of the qualities of meat, according
to the several joints of beef, when cut up in the London manner.

_First class_—includes the sirloin, with the kidney suet (1), the
rump-steak piece (2), the fore-rib (9).

_Second class_—The buttock (4), the thick flank (7), the middle-rib
(10).

_Third class_—The aitchbone (3), the mouse-round (5), the thin flank
(8), the chuck (11), the leg-of-mutton piece (12), the brisket (13).

_Fourth class_—The neck, clod, and sticking-piece (14).

_Fifth class_—The hock (6), the shin (15).


OX-CHEEK SOUP.

_Ingredients._—An ox-cheek, 2 oz. of butter, 3 or 4 slices of lean ham
or bacon, 1 parsnip, 3 carrots, 2 onions, 3 heads of celery, 3 blades
of mace, 4 cloves, a faggot of savoury herbs, 1 bay leaf, a teaspoonful
of salt, half that of pepper, 1 head of celery, browning, the crust of
a French roll, 5 quarts of water. _Mode._—Lay the ham in the bottom of
the stewpan, with the butter; break the bones of the cheek, wash it
clean, and put it on the ham. Cut the vegetables small, add them to the
other ingredients, and set the whole over a slow fire for ¼ of an hour.
Now put in the water, and simmer gently till it is reduced to 4 quarts;
take out the fleshy part of the cheek, and strain the soup into a clean
stewpan; thicken with flour, put in a head of sliced celery, and simmer
till the celery is tender. If not a good colour, use a little browning.
Cut the meat into small square pieces, pour the soup over, and serve
with the crust of a French roll in the tureen, A glass of sherry much
improves this soup. _Time._—3 to 4 hours. _Average cost_, 8_d._ per
quart. _Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 12 persons.


OX-CHEEK, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—1 cheek, salt and water, 4 or 5 onions, butter and
flour, 6 cloves, 3 turnips, 2 carrots, 1 bay-leaf, 1 head of celery,
1 bunch of savoury herbs, cayenne, black pepper, and salt to taste, 1
oz. of butter, 2 dessertspoonfuls of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of Chili
vinegar, 2 tablespoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, 2 tablespoonfuls of
port wine, 2 tablespoonfuls of Harvey’s sauce. _Mode._—Have the cheek
boned, and prepare it the day before it is to be eaten, by cleaning
and putting it to soak all night in salt and water. The next day, wipe
it dry and clean, and put it into a stewpan. Just cover it with water,
skim well when it boils, and let it gently simmer till the meat is
quite tender. Slice and fry 3 onions in a little butter and flour, and
put them into the gravy; add 2 whole onions, each stuck with 3 cloves,
3 turnips quartered, 2 carrots sliced, a bay-leaf, 1 head of celery, a
bunch of herbs, and seasoning to taste of cayenne, black pepper, and
salt. Let these stew till perfectly tender; then take out the cheek,
divide into pieces fit to help at table, skim and strain the gravy, and
thicken 1½ pint of it with butter and flour in the above proportions.
Add the vinegar, ketchup, and port wine; put in the pieces of cheek;
let the whole boil up, and serve quite hot. Send it to table in a
ragoût-dish. If the colour of the gravy should not be very good, add a
tablespoonful of the browning. _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 3_d._
per lb. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons. _Seasonable_ at any time.


OX-TAIL, Broiled (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—2 tails, 1½ pint of stock, salt and cayenne to
taste, bread-crumbs, 1 egg. _Mode._—Joint and cut up the tails into
convenient-sized pieces, and put them into a stewpan, with the stock,
cayenne, and salt, and, if liked very savoury, a bunch of sweet herbs.
Let them simmer gently for about 2½ hours; then take them out, drain
them, and let them cool. Beat an egg upon a plate; dip in each piece
of tail, and, afterwards, sprinkle them well with fine bread-crumbs;
broil them over a clear fire, until of a brownish colour on both
sides, and serve with a good gravy, or any sauce that may be preferred.
_Time._—About 2½ hours. _Average cost_, from 9_d._ to 1_s._ 6_d._,
according to the season. _Sufficient_ for 6 persons. _Seasonable_ at
any time.

_Note._—These may be more easily prepared by putting the tails in a
brisk oven, after they have been dipped in egg and bread-crumb; and,
when brown, they are done. They must be boiled the same time as for
broiling.


OX-TAIL SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 ox-tails, 2 slices of ham, 1 oz. of butter, 2 carrots,
2 turnips, 3 onions, 1 leek, 1 head of celery, 1 bunch of savoury
herbs, 1 bay-leaf, 12 whole peppercorns, 4 cloves, a tablespoonful of
salt, 2 tablespoonfuls of ketchup, ½ glass of port wine, 3 quarts of
water. _Mode._—Cut up the tails, separating them at the joints; wash
them, and put them in a stewpan, with the butter. Cut the vegetables
in slices, and add them, with the peppercorns and herbs. Put in ½ pint
of water, and stir it over a sharp fire till the juices are drawn.
Fill up the stewpan with the water, and, when boiling, add the salt.
Skim well, and simmer very gently for 4 hours, or until the tails are
tender. Take them out, skim and strain the soup, thicken with flour,
and flavour with the ketchup and port wine. Put back the tails, simmer
for 5 minutes, and serve. _Time._—4½ hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 3_d._
per quart. _Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.


OX-TAILS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—2 ox-tails, 1 onion, 3 cloves, 1 blade of mace, ¼
teaspoonful of whole black pepper, ¼ teaspoonful of allspice, ½ a
teaspoonful of salt, a small bunch of savoury herbs, thickening of
butter and flour, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 tablespoonful
of mushroom ketchup. _Mode._—Divide the tails at the joints, wash,
and put them into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and
set them on the fire; when the water boils, remove the scum, and add
the onion cut into rings, the spice, seasoning, and herbs. Cover the
stewpan closely, and let the tails simmer very gently until tender,
which will be in about 2½ hours. Take them out, make a thickening of
butter and flour, add it to the gravy, and let it boil for ¼ hour.
Strain it through a sieve into a saucepan, put back the tails, add the
lemon-juice and ketchup; let the whole just boil up, and serve. Garnish
with croûtons or sippets of toasted bread. _Time._—2½ hours to stew the
tails. _Average cost_, 9_d._ to 1_s._ 6_d._, according to the season.
_Sufficient_ for 8 persons. _Seasonable_ all the year.


OYSTER, Forcemeat for Roast or Boiled Turkey.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of bread-crumbs, 1½ oz. of chopped suet or
butter, 1 faggot of savoury herbs, ¼ saltspoonful of grated nutmeg,
salt and pepper to taste, 2 eggs, 18 oysters. _Mode._—Grate the bread
very fine, and be careful that no large lumps remain; put it into
a basin with the suet, which must be very finely minced, or, when
butter is used, that must be cut up into small pieces. Add the herbs,
also chopped as small as possible, and seasoning; mix all these well
together, until the ingredients are thoroughly mingled. Open and beard
the oysters, chop them, but not too small, and add them to the other
ingredients. Beat up the eggs, and, with the hand, work altogether,
until it is smoothly mixed. The turkey should not be stuffed too full:
if there should be too much forcemeat, roll it into balls, fry them,
and use them as a garnish. _Sufficient_ for 1 turkey.


OYSTER KETCHUP.

_Ingredients._—Sufficient oysters to fill a pint measure, 1 pint of
sherry, 3 oz. of salt, 1 drachm of cayenne, 2 drachms of pounded mace.
_Mode._—Procure the oysters very fresh, and open sufficient to fill a
pint measure; save the liquor, and scald the oysters in it with the
sherry; strain the oysters, and put them in a mortar with the salt,
cayenne, and mace; pound the whole until reduced to a pulp, then
add it to the liquor in which they were scalded; boil it again five
minutes, and skim well; rub the whole through a sieve, and, when cold,
bottle and cork closely. The corks should be sealed. _Seasonable_ from
September to April.

_Note._—Cider may be substituted for the sherry.


OYSTER PATTIES (an Entrée).

_Ingredients._—2 dozen oysters, 2 oz. of butter, 3 tablespoonfuls of
cream, a little lemon-juice, 1 blade of pounded mace; cayenne to
taste. _Mode._—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, beard them, and
cut each one into 3 pieces. Put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in
sufficient flour to dry it up; add the strained oyster-liquor with the
other ingredients; put in the oysters, and let them heat gradually, but
not boil fast. Make the patty-cases as directed for lobster patties,
fill with the oyster mixture, and replace the covers. _Time._—2 minutes
for the oysters to simmer in the mixture. _Average cost_, exclusive of
the patty-cases, 1_s._ 4_d._ _Seasonable_ from September to April.


OYSTER SAUCE, to serve with Fish, Boiled Poultry, &c.

_Ingredients._—3 dozen oysters, ½ pint of melted butter, made with
milk. _Mode._—Open the oysters carefully, and save their liquor; strain
it into a clean saucepan (a lined one is best), put in the oysters, and
let them just come to the boiling-point, when they should look plump.
Take them off the fire immediately, and put the whole into a basin.
Strain the liquor from them, mix with it sufficient melted butter
made with milk to make ½ pint altogether. When this is ready and very
smooth, put in the oysters, which should be previously bearded, if
you wish the sauce to be really nice. Set it by the side of the fire
to get thoroughly hot, _but do not allow it to boil_, or the oysters
will immediately harden. Using cream instead of milk makes this sauce
extremely delicious. When liked, add a seasoning of cayenne or anchovy
sauce; but, as we have before stated, a plain sauce _should_ be plain,
and not be overpowered by highly-flavoured essences; therefore we
recommend that the above directions be implicitly followed, and no
seasoning added. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 2_s._ _Sufficient_
for 6 persons. Never allow fewer than 6 oysters to 1 person, unless the
party is very large. _Seasonable_ from September to April.

A more economical sauce may be made by using a smaller quantity of
oysters, and not bearding them before they are added to the sauce: this
may answer the purpose, but we cannot undertake to recommend it as a
mode for making this delicious adjunct to fish, &c.


OYSTER SOUP.

_Ingredients._—6 dozen of oysters, 2 quarts of white stock, ½ pint of
cream, 2 oz. of butter, 1½ oz. of flour; salt, cayenne, and mace to
taste. _Mode._—Scald the oysters in their own liquor; take them out,
beard them, and put them in a tureen. Take a pint of the stock, put
in the beards and the liquor, which must be carefully strained, and
simmer for ½ an hour. Take it off the fire, strain it again, and add
the remainder of the stock, with the seasoning and mace. Bring it to
a boil, add the thickening of butter and flour, simmer for 5 minutes,
stir in the boiling cream, pour it over the oysters, and serve.
_Time._—1 hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 8_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_
from September to April. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note._—This soup can be made less rich by using milk instead of cream,
and thickening with arrowroot instead of butter and flour.


OYSTER SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 quarts of good mutton broth, 6 dozen oysters, 2 oz.
butter, 1 oz. of flour. _Mode._—Beard the oysters, and scald them in
their own liquor; then add it, well strained, to the broth; thicken
with the butter and flour, and simmer for ¼ of an hour. Put in the
oysters, stir well, but do not let it boil, and serve very hot.
_Time._—¾ hour. _Average cost_, 2_s._ per quart. _Seasonable_ from
September to April. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


OYSTERS, Fried.

_Ingredients._—3 dozen oysters, 2 oz. butter, 1 tablespoonful of
ketchup, a little chopped lemon-peel, ½ teaspoonful of chopped parsley.
_Mode._—Boil the oysters for 1 minute in their own liquor, and drain
them; fry them with the butter, ketchup, lemon-peel, and parsley; lay
them on a dish, and garnish with fried potatoes, toasted sippets, and
parsley. This is a delicious delicacy, and is a favourite Italian
dish. _Time._—5 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 1_s._ 9_d._
_Seasonable_ from September to April. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons.


OYSTERS Fried in Batter.

_Ingredients._—½ pint of oysters, 2 eggs, ½ pint of milk, sufficient
flour to make the batter; pepper and salt to taste; when liked, a
little nutmeg; hot lard. _Mode._—Scald the oysters in their own liquor,
beard them, and lay them on a cloth to drain thoroughly. Break the eggs
into a basin, mix the flour with them, add the milk gradually, with
nutmeg and seasoning, and put the oysters in the batter. Make some
lard hot in a deep frying-pan, put in the oysters, one at a time; when
done, take them up with a sharp-pointed skewer, and dish them on a
napkin. Fried oysters are frequently used for garnishing boiled fish,
and then a few bread-crumbs should be added to the flour. _Time._—5 or
6 minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 1_s._ 10_d._ _Seasonable_
from September to April. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


OYSTERS, to Keep.

Put them in a tub, and cover them with salt and water. Let them remain
for 12 hours, when they are to be taken out, and allowed to stand for
another 12 hours without water. If left without water every alternate
12 hours, they will be much better than if constantly kept in it. Never
put the same water twice to them.


OYSTERS, Pickled.

_Ingredients._—100 oysters; to each ½ pint of vinegar, 1 blade of
pounded mace, 1 strip of lemon-peel, 12 black peppercorns. _Mode._—Get
the oysters in good condition, open them, place them in a saucepan, and
let them simmer in their own liquor for about 10 minutes very gently;
then take them out one by one, and place them in a jar, and cover them,
when cold, with a pickle made as follows:—Measure the oyster-liquor;
add to it the same quantity of vinegar, with mace, lemon-peel, and
pepper in the above proportion, and boil it for 5 minutes; when cold,
pour over the oysters, and tie them down very closely, as contact with
the air spoils them. _Seasonable_ from September to April.

_Note._—Put this pickle away in small jars; because, directly one is
opened, its contents should immediately be eaten, as they soon spoil.
The pickle should not be kept more than 2 or 3 months.


OYSTERS, Scalloped.

_Ingredients._—Oysters, say 1 pint, 1 oz. butter, flour, 2
tablespoonfuls of white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream; pepper and
salt to taste; bread-crumbs, oiled butter. _Mode._—Scald the oysters
in their own liquor, take them out, beard them, and strain the liquor
free from grit. Put 1 oz. of butter into a stewpan; when melted, dredge
in sufficient flour to dry it up; add the stock, cream, and strained
liquor, and give one boil. Put in the oysters and seasoning; let them
gradually heat through, but not boil. Have ready the scallop-shells
buttered; lay in the oysters, and as much of the liquid as they will
hold; cover them over with bread-crumbs, over which drop a little oiled
butter. Brown them in the oven, or before the fire, and serve quickly,
and very hot. _Time._—Altogether, ¼ hour. _Average cost_, for this
quantity, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.


OYSTERS, Scalloped.

Prepare the oysters as in the preceding recipe, and put them in a
scallop-shell or saucer, and between each layer sprinkle over a few
bread-crumbs, pepper, salt, and grated nutmeg; place small pieces of
butter over, and bake before the fire in a Dutch oven. Put sufficient
bread-crumbs on the top to make a smooth surface, as the oysters
should not be seen. _Time._—About ¼ hour. _Average cost_, 3_s._ 2_d._
_Seasonable_ from September to April.


OYSTERS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of oysters, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1/3 pint
of cream; cayenne and salt to taste; 1 blade of pounded mace.
_Mode._—Scald the oysters in their own liquor, take them out, beard
them, and strain the liquor; put the butter into a stewpan, dredge in
sufficient flour to dry it up, add the oyster-liquor and mace, and stir
it over a sharp fire with a wooden spoon; when it comes to a boil, add
the cream, oysters, and seasoning. Let all simmer for 1 or 2 minutes,
but not longer, or the oysters would harden. Serve on a hot dish, and
garnish with croûtons, or toasted sippets of bread. A small piece of
lemon-peel boiled with the oyster-liquor, and taken out before the
cream is added, will be found an improvement. _Time._—Altogether 15
minutes. _Average cost_ for this quantity, 3_s._ 6_d._ _Seasonable_
from September to April. _Sufficient_ for 6 persons.


PANCAKES.

_Ingredients._—Eggs, flour, milk; to every egg allow 1 oz. of flour,
about 1 gill of milk, 1/8 saltspoonful of salt. _Mode._—Ascertain that
the eggs are fresh; break each one separately in a cup; whisk them
well, put them into a basin, with the flour, salt, and a few drops
of milk, and beat the whole to a perfectly _smooth_ batter; then add
by degrees the remainder of the milk. The proportion of this latter
ingredient must be regulated by the size of the eggs, &c. &c.; but
the batter, when ready for frying, should be of the consistency of
thick cream. Place a small frying-pan on the fire to get hot; let it
be delicately clean, or the pancakes will stick, and, when quite hot,
put into it a small piece of butter, allowing about ½ oz. to each
pancake. When it is melted, pour in the batter, about ½ teacupful to
a pan 5 inches in diameter, and fry it for about 4 minutes, or until
it is nicely brown on one side. By only pouring in a small quantity of
batter, and so making the pancakes thin, the necessity of turning them
(an operation rather difficult to unskilful cooks) is obviated. When
the pancake is done, sprinkle over it some pounded sugar, roll it up
in the pan, and take it out with a large slice, and place it on a dish
before the fire. Proceed in this manner until sufficient are cooked
for a dish; then send them quickly to table, and continue to send in
a further quantity, as pancakes are never good unless eaten almost
immediately they come from the frying-pan. The batter may be flavoured
with a little grated lemon-rind, or the pancakes may have preserve
rolled in them instead of sugar. Send sifted sugar and a cut lemon
to table with them. To render the pancakes very light, the yolks and
whites of the eggs should be beaten separately, and the whites added
the last thing to the batter before frying. _Time._—From 4 to 5 minutes
for a pancake that does not require turning; from 6 to 8 minutes for a
thicker one. _Average cost_ for 3 persons, 6_d._ _Sufficient._—Allow
3 eggs, with the other ingredients in proportion, for 3 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time, but specially served on Shrove Tuesday.

[Illustration: PANCAKES.]


PANCAKES.

_Ingredients._—6 eggs, 1 pint of cream, ¼ lb. of loaf sugar, 1 glass
of sherry, ½ teaspoonful of grated nutmeg, flour. _Mode._—Ascertain
that the eggs are extremely fresh, beat them well, strain and mix with
them the cream, pounded sugar, wine, nutmeg, and as much flour as will
make the batter nearly as thick as that for ordinary pancakes. Make
the frying-pan hot, wipe it with a clean cloth, pour in sufficient
batter to make a thin pancake, and fry it for about 5 minutes. Dish the
pancakes piled one above the other, strew sifted sugar between each,
and serve. _Time._—About 5 minutes. _Average cost_, with cream at 1_s._
per pint, 2_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ to make 8 pancakes. _Seasonable_ at
any time, but specially served on Shrove Tuesday.


PANCAKES, French.

_Ingredients._—2 eggs, 2 oz. of butter, 2 oz. of sifted sugar, 2 oz. of
flour, ½ pint of new milk. _Mode._—Beat the eggs thoroughly, and put
them into a basin with the butter, which should be beaten to a cream;
stir in the sugar and flour, and when these ingredients are well mixed,
add the milk; keep stirring and beating the mixture for a few minutes;
put it on buttered plates, and bake in a quick oven for 20 minutes.
Serve with a cut lemon and sifted sugar, or pile the pancakes high on
a dish, with a layer of preserve or marmalade between each. _Time._—20
minutes. _Average cost_, 7_d._ _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


PANCAKES, Snow.

_Ingredients._—3 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 egg, 3 tablespoonfuls of
snow, about ½ pint of new milk. _Mode._—Mix the flour with the milk by
degrees, add the egg well beaten, and just before frying, the snow,
it should then be all beaten up together quickly, and put into the
frying-pan immediately. _Sufficient_ for 8 pancakes.


PAN KAIL.

_Ingredients._—2 lbs. of cabbage, or Savoy greens; ¼ lb. of butter or
dripping, salt and pepper to taste, oatmeal for thickening, 2 quarts
of water. _Mode._—Chop the cabbage very fine, thicken the water with
oatmeal, put in the cabbage and butter, or dripping; season and
simmer for 1½ hour. It can be made sooner by blanching and mashing the
greens, adding any good liquor that a joint has been boiled in, and
then further thicken with bread or pounded biscuit. _Time._—1½ hour.
_Average cost_, 1½_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ all the year, but more
suitable in winter. _Sufficient_ for 8 persons.


PARSLEY AND BUTTER, to serve with Calf’s Head, Boiled Fowls, &c.

_Ingredients._—2 tablespoonfuls of minced parsley, ½ pint of melted
butter. _Mode._—Put into a saucepan a small quantity of water, slightly
salted, and when it boils, throw in a good bunch of parsley which has
been previously washed and tied together in a bunch; let it boil for
5 minutes, drain it, mince the leaves _very fine_, and put the above
quantity in a tureen; pour over it ½ pint of smoothly-made melted
butter; stir once, that the ingredients may be thoroughly mixed,
and serve. _Time._—5 minutes to boil the parsley. _Average cost_,
4_d._ _Sufficient_ for 1 large fowl; allow rather more for a pair.
_Seasonable_ at any time.


PARSLEY, Fried, for Garnishing.

_Ingredients._—Parsley, hot lard or clarified dripping. _Mode._—Gather
some young parsley; wash, pick, and dry it thoroughly in a cloth; put
it into the wire basket of which we have given an engraving, and hold
it in boiling lard or dripping for a minute or two. Directly it is
done, lift out the basket, and let it stand before the fire, that the
parsley may become thoroughly crisp; and the quicker it is fried the
better. Should the kitchen not be furnished with the above article,
throw the parsley into the frying-pan, and when crisp, lift it out with
a slice, dry it before the fire, and when thoroughly crisp it will be
ready for use.

[Illustration: WIRE BASKET.]

WIRE BASKET.—For this recipe a wire basket, as shown in the annexed
engraving, will be found very useful. It is very light and handy, and
may be used for other similar purposes besides that just described.


PARSLEY JUICE, for Colouring various Dishes.

Procure some nice young parsley; wash it and dry it thoroughly in a
cloth; pound the leaves in a mortar till all the juice is extracted,
and put the juice in a teacup or small jar; place this in a saucepan
of boiling water, and warm it on the _bain-marie_ principle just long
enough to take off its rawness; let it drain, and it will be ready for
colouring.

_Substitute for._—Sometimes in the middle of winter parsley-leaves
are not to be had, when the following will be found an excellent
substitute:—Tie up a little parsley-seed in a small piece of muslin,
and boil it for 10 minutes in a small quantity of water; use this water
to make the melted butter with, and throw into it a little boiled
spinach, minced rather fine, which will have an appearance similar to
that of parsley.


PARSLEY, to Preserve through the Winter.

Use freshly-gathered parsley for keeping, and wash it perfectly free
from grit and dirt; put it into boiling water which has been slightly
salted and well skimmed, and then let it boil for 2 or 3 minutes;
take it out, let it drain, and lay it on a sieve in front of the
fire, when it should be dried as expeditiously as possible. Store it
away in a very dry place in bottles, and when wanted for use pour
over it a little warm water, and let it stand for about 5 minutes.
_Seasonable._—This may be done at any time between June and October.


PARSNIP SOUP.

_Ingredients._—1 lb. of sliced parsnips, 2 oz. of butter, salt and
cayenne to taste, 1 quart of stock. _Mode._—Put the parsnips into the
stewpan with the butter, which has been previously melted, and simmer
them till quite tender. Then add nearly a pint of stock, and boil
together for half an hour. Pass all through a fine strainer, and put to
it the remainder of the stock. Season, boil, and serve immediately.
_Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ from
October to April. _Sufficient_ for 4 persons.


PARSNIPS, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—Parsnips; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1 heaped
tablespoonful of salt. _Mode._—Wash the parsnips, scrape them
thoroughly, and with the point of the knife remove any black specks
about them, and, should they be very large, cut the thick part into
quarters. Put them into a saucepan of boiling water salted in the above
proportion, boil them rapidly until tender, which may be ascertained
by thrusting a fork in them; take them up, drain them, and serve in
a vegetable-dish. This vegetable is usually served with salt fish,
boiled pork, or boiled beef: when sent to table with the latter, a few
should be placed alternately with carrots round the dish as a garnish.
_Time._—Large parsnips, 1 to 1½ hour; small ones, ½ to 1 hour. _Average
cost_, 1_d._ each. _Sufficient._—Allow 1 for each person. _Seasonable_
from October to May.


PARTRIDGE, Broiled (a Luncheon, Breakfast, or Supper Dish).

_Ingredients._—3 partridges, salt and cayenne to taste, a small piece
of butter, brown gravy or mushroom sauce. _Mode._—Pluck, draw, and
cut the partridges in half, and wipe the inside thoroughly with a
damp cloth. Season them with salt and cayenne, broil them over a very
clear fire, and dish them on a hot dish; rub a small piece of butter
over each half, and send them to table with brown gravy or mushroom
sauce. _Time._—About ¼ hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ a
brace. _Sufficient_ for 3 or four persons. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of
September to the beginning of February.


PARTRIDGE PIE.

_Ingredients._—3 partridges, pepper and salt to taste, 1 teaspoonful
of minced parsley (when obtainable, a few mushrooms), ¾ lb. of veal
cutlet, a slice of ham, ½ pint of stock, puff paste. _Mode._—Line a
pie-dish with a veal cutlet; over that place a slice of ham and a
seasoning of pepper and salt. Pluck, draw, and wipe the partridges; cut
off the legs at the first joint, and season them inside with pepper,
salt, minced parsley, and a small piece of butter; place them in the
dish, and pour over the stock; line the edges of the dish with puff
paste, cover with the same, brush it over with the yolk of an egg, and
bake for ¾ to 1 hour. _Time._—¾ to 1 hour. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._
to 2_s._ a brace. _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from
the 1st of September to the beginning of February.

_Note._—Should the partridges be very large, split them in half, they
will then lie in the dish more compactly. When at hand, a few mushrooms
should always be added.


PARTRIDGE, Potted.

_Ingredients._—Partridges; seasoning to taste of mace, allspice, white
pepper, and salt; butter, coarse paste. _Mode._—Pluck and draw the
birds, and wipe them inside with a damp cloth. Pound well some mace,
allspice, white pepper, and salt; mix together, and rub every part of
the partridges with this. Pack the birds as closely as possible in a
baking-pan, with plenty of butter over them, and cover with a coarse
flour and water crust. Tie a paper over this, and bake for rather more
than 1½ hour; let the birds get cold, then cut them into pieces for
keeping, pack them closely into a large potting-pot, and cover with
clarified butter. This should be kept in a cool dry place. The butter
used for potted things will answer for basting, or for paste for meat
pies. _Time._—1½ hour. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the
beginning of February.


PARTRIDGE, Roast.

[Illustration: ROAST PARTRIDGE.]

_Ingredients._—Partridge; butter. _Choosing and Trussing._—Choose young
birds, with dark-coloured bills and yellowish legs, and let them hang
a few days, or there will be no flavour to the flesh, nor will it be
tender. The time they should be kept entirely depends on the taste of
those for whom they are intended, as what some persons would consider
delicious would be to others disgusting and offensive. They may be
trussed with or without the head, the latter mode being now considered
the most fashionable. Pluck, draw, and wipe the partridge carefully
inside and out; cut off the head, leaving sufficient skin on the neck
to skewer back; bring the legs close to the breast, between it and the
side-bones, and pass a skewer through the pinions and the thick part of
the thighs. When the head is left on, it should be brought round and
fixed on to the point of the skewer. _Mode._—When the bird is firmly
and plumply trussed, roast it before a nice bright fire; keep it well
basted, and a few minutes before serving, flour and froth it well.
Dish it, and serve with gravy and bread sauce, and send to table hot
and quickly. A little of the gravy should be poured over the bird.
_Time._—25 to 35 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ to 2_s._ a brace.
_Sufficient._—2 for a dish. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to
the beginning of February.


PARTRIDGE SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 partridges, 3 slices of lean ham, 2 shred onions, 1
head of celery, 1 large carrot, and 1 turnip cut into any fanciful
shapes, 1 small lump of sugar, 2 oz. of butter, salt and pepper to
taste, 2 quarts of medium stock. _Mode._—Cut the partridges into
pieces, and braise them in the butter and ham until quite tender; then
take out the legs, wings, and breast, and set them by. Keep the backs
and other trimmings in the braise, and add the onions and celery; any
remains of cold game can be put in, and 3 pints of stock. Simmer slowly
for 1 hour, strain it, and skim the fat off as clean as possible; put
in the pieces that were taken out, give it one boil, and skim again to
have it quite clear, and add the sugar and seasoning. Now simmer the
cut carrot and turnip in 1 pint of stock; when quite tender, put them
to the partridges, and serve. _Time._—2 hours. _Average cost_, 2_s._
or 1_s._ 6_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ from September to February.
_Sufficient_ for 8 persons.

_Note._—The meat of the partridges may be pounded with a crumb of a
French roll, and worked with the soup through a sieve. Serve with
stewed celery cut in slices, and put in the tureen.


PARTRIDGES, to Carve.

There are several ways of carving this most familiar game bird. The
more usual and summary mode is to carry the knife sharply along the top
of the breastbone of the bird, and cut it quite through, thus dividing
it into two precisely equal and similar parts, in the same manner as
carving a pigeon. Another plan is to cut it into three pieces; viz.,
by severing a small wing and leg on either side from the body, by
following the line 1 to 2 in the upper woodcut; thus making 2 helpings,
when the breast will remain for a third plate. The most elegant manner
is that of thrusting back the body from the legs, and then cutting
through the breast in the direction shown by the line 1 to 2: this plan
will give 4 or more small helpings. A little bread-sauce should be
served to each guest.

[Illustration: ROAST PARTRIDGE.]


PARTRIDGES, Hashed, or Salmi de Perdrix.

_Ingredients._—3 young partridges, 3 shallots, a slice of lean ham, 1
carrot, 3 or 4 mushrooms, a bunch of savoury herbs, 2 cloves, 6 whole
peppers, ¾ pint of stock, 1 glass of sherry or Madeira, a small lump
of sugar. _Mode._—After the partridges are plucked and drawn, roast
them rather underdone, and cover them with paper, as they should not be
browned; cut them into joints, take off the skin from the wings, legs,
and breasts; put these into a stewpan, cover them up, and set by until
the gravy is ready. Cut a slice of ham into small pieces, and put them,
with the carrots sliced, the shallots, mushrooms, herbs, cloves, and
pepper, into a stewpan; fry them lightly in a little butter, pour in
the stock, add the bones and trimming from the partridges, and simmer
for ¼ hour. Strain the gravy, let it cool, and skim off every particle
of fat; put it to the legs, wings, and breasts, add a glass of sherry
or Madeira and a small lump of sugar, let all gradually warm through
by the side of the fire, and when on the point of boiling, serve, and
garnish the dish with croûtons. The remains of roast partridge answer
very well dressed in this way, although not so good as when the birds
are in the first instance only half-roasted. This recipe is equally
suitable for pheasants, moorgame, &c.; but care must be taken always
to skin the joints. _Time._—Altogether 1 hour. _Sufficient._—2 or 3
partridges for an entrée. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of September to the
beginning of February.


PASTE, Common, for Family Pies.

_Ingredients._—1¼ lb. of flour, ½ lb. of butter, rather more than ½
pint of water. _Mode._—Rub the butter lightly into the flour, and mix
it to a smooth paste with the water; roll it out 2 or 3 times, and it
will be ready for use. This paste may be converted into an excellent
short crust for sweet tart by adding to the flour, after the butter is
rubbed in, 2 tablespoonfuls of fine-sifted sugar. _Average cost_, 8_d._
per lb.


PASTE, Puff, French, or Feuilletage (Founded on M. Ude’s Recipe).

_Ingredients._—Equal quantities of flour and butter—say 1 lb. of each;
½ saltspoonful of salt, the yolks of 2 eggs, rather more than ¼ pint
of water. _Mode._—Weigh the flour; ascertain that it is perfectly
_dry_, and sift it; squeeze all the water from the butter, and wring
it in a clean cloth till there is no moisture remaining. Put the
flour on the paste-board, work lightly into it 2 oz. of the butter,
and then make a hole in the centre; into this well put the yolks of 2
eggs, the salt, and about ¼ pint of water (the quantity of this latter
ingredient must be regulated by the cook, as it is impossible to give
the exact proportion of it); knead up the paste quickly and lightly,
and, when quite smooth, roll it out square to the thickness of about
½ inch. Presuming that the butter is perfectly free from moisture,
and _as cool_ as possible, roll it into a ball, and place this ball
of butter on the paste; fold the paste over the butter all round, and
secure it by wrapping it well all over. Flatten the paste by rolling
it lightly with the rolling-pin until it is quite thin, but not thin
enough to allow the butter to break through, and keep the board and
paste dredged lightly with flour during the process of making it. This
rolling gives it the _first_ turn. Now fold the paste in three, and
roll out again, and, should the weather be very warm, put it in a cold
place on the ground to cool between the several turns; for, unless this
is particularly attended to, the paste will be spoiled. Roll out the
paste again _twice_, put it by to cool, then roll it out _twice_ more,
which will make 6 _turnings_ in all. Now fold the paste in two, and
it will be ready for use. If properly baked and well made, this crust
will be delicious, and should rise in the oven about 5 or 6 inches. The
paste should be made rather firm in the first instance, as the ball of
butter is liable to break through. Great attention must also be paid
to keeping the butter very cool, as, if this is in a liquid and soft
state, the paste will not answer at all. Should the cook be dexterous
enough to succeed in making this, the paste will have a much better
appearance than that made by the process of dividing the butter into 4
parts, and placing it over the rolled-out paste; but until experience
has been acquired, we recommend puff-paste made by recipe. The above
paste is used for vols-au-vent, small articles of pastry, and, in fact,
everything that requires very light crust. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._
per lb.


PASTE, Puff, very Good.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 1 lb. of butter, and not
quite ½ pint of water. _Mode._—Carefully weigh the flour and butter,
and have the exact proportion; squeeze the butter well, to extract
the water from it, and afterwards wring it in a clean cloth, that no
moisture may remain. Sift the flour; see that it is perfectly dry,
and proceed in the following manner to make the paste, using a very
_clean_ paste-board and rolling-pin:—Supposing the quantity to be 1
lb. of flour, work the whole into a smooth paste with not quite ½ pint
of water, using a knife to mix it with: the proportion of this latter
ingredient must be regulated by the discretion of the cook; if too much
be added, the paste, when baked, will be tough. Roll it out until it
is of an equal thickness of about an inch; break 4 oz. of the butter
into small pieces; place these on the paste, sift over it a little
flour, fold it over, roll out again, and put another 4 oz. of butter.
Repeat the rolling and buttering until the paste has been rolled out 4
times, or equal quantities of flour and butter have been used. Do not
omit, every time the paste is rolled out, to dredge a little flour over
that and the rolling-pin, to prevent both from sticking. Handle the
paste as lightly as possible, and do not press heavily upon it with the
rolling-pin. The next thing to be considered is the oven, as the baking
of pastry requires particular attention. Do not put it into the oven
until it is sufficiently hot to raise the paste; for the best-prepared
paste, if not properly baked, will be good for nothing. Brushing the
paste as often as rolled out, and the pieces of butter placed thereon,
with the white of an egg, assists it to rise in _leaves_ or _flakes_.
As this is the great beauty of puff-paste, it is as well to try this
method. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 4_d._ per lb.


PASTE, Puff, Medium.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow 8 oz. of butter, 4 oz. of
lard, not quite ½ pint of water. _Mode._—This paste may be made by
the directions in the preceding recipe, only using less butter, and
substituting lard for a portion of it. Mix the flour to a smooth paste
with not quite ½ pint of water; then roll it out 3 times, the first
time covering the paste with butter, the second with lard, and the
third with butter. Keep the rolling-pin and paste slightly dredged with
flour, to prevent them from sticking, and it will be ready for use.
_Average cost_, 1_s._ per lb.


PASTE, Puff (Soyer’s Recipe).

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow the yolk of 1 egg, the juice
of 1 lemon, ½ saltspoonful of salt, cold water, 1 lb. of fresh butter.
_Mode._—Put the flour on to the paste-board; make a hole in the centre,
into which put the yolk of the egg, the lemon-juice, and salt; mix the
whole with cold water (this should be iced in summer, if convenient)
into a soft flexible paste, with the right hand, and handle it as
little as possible; then squeeze all the buttermilk from the butter,
wring it in a cloth, and roll out the paste; place the butter on this,
and fold the edges of the paste over, so as to hide it; roll it out
again to the thickness of ¼ inch; fold over one third, over which again
pass the rolling-pin; then fold over the other third, thus forming a
square; place it with the ends, top, and bottom before you, shaking a
little flour both under and over, and repeat the rolls and turns twice
again, as before. Flour a baking-sheet, put the paste on this, and let
it remain on ice or in some cool place for ½ hour; then roll twice
more, turning it as before; place it again upon the ice for ¼ hour,
give it 2 more rolls, making 7 in all, and it is ready for use when
required. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ per lb.


PASTRY AND PUDDINGS, Directions in connection with the making of.

A few general remarks respecting the various ingredients of which
puddings and pastry are composed may be acceptable, in addition to the
recipes in this department of Household Management.

_Flour_ should be of the best quality, and perfectly dry, and sifted
before being used; if in the least damp, the paste made from it will
certainly be heavy.

_Butter_, unless fresh is used, should be washed from the salt, and
well squeezed and wrung in a cloth, to get out all the water and
buttermilk, which, if left in, assist to make the paste heavy.

_Lard_ should be perfectly sweet, which may be ascertained by cutting
the bladder through, and, if the knife smells sweet, the lard is good.

_Suet_ should be finely chopped, perfectly free from skin, and quite
sweet; during the process of chopping, it should be lightly dredged
with flour, which prevents the pieces from sticking together. Beef suet
is considered the best; but veal suet, or the outside fat of a loin or
neck of mutton, makes good crusts; as also the skimmings in which a
joint of mutton has been boiled, but _without_ vegetables.

_Clarified Beef Dripping_ answers very well for kitchen pies, puddings,
cakes, or for family use. A very good short crust may be made by mixing
with it a small quantity of moist sugar; but care must be taken to use
the dripping sparingly, or a very disagreeable flavour will be imparted
to the paste.

Strict cleanliness must be observed in pastry-making; all the utensils
used should be perfectly free from dust and dirt, and the things
required for pastry kept entirely for that purpose.

In mixing paste, add the water very gradually, work the whole together
with the knife-blade, and knead it until perfectly smooth. Those
who are inexperienced in pastry-making should work the butter in by
breaking it in small pieces, and covering the paste rolled out. It
should then be dredged with flour, and the ends folded over and rolled
out very thin again: this process must be repeated until all the butter
is used.

[Illustration: PASTE-BOARD AND ROLLING-PIN.]

[Illustration: PASTE-PINCERS AND JAGGER, FOR ORNAMENTING THE EDGES OF
PIE-CRUSTS.]

The art of making paste requires much practice, dexterity, and skill:
it should be touched as lightly as possible, made with cool hands and
in a cool place (a marble slab is better than a board for the purpose),
and the coolest part of the house should be selected for the process
during warm weather.

[Illustration: PASTE-CUTTER AND CORNER-CUTTER.]

To insure rich paste being light, great expedition must be used in the
making and baking; for if it stand long before it is put in the oven,
it becomes flat and heavy.

[Illustration: ORNAMENTAL-PASTE CUTTER.]

_Puff-paste_ requires a brisk oven, but not too hot, or it would
blacken the crust; on the other hand, if the oven be too slack, the
paste will be soddened, and will not rise, nor will it have any colour.

[Illustration: PATTY-PANS, PLAIN AND FLUTED.]

[Illustration: PIE-DISH.]

Tart-tins, cake-moulds, dishes for baked puddings, patty-pans, &c.,
should all be buttered before the article intended to be baked is put
in them. Things to be baked on sheets should be placed on buttered
paper. Raised-pie paste should have a soaking heat, and paste glazed
must have rather a slack oven, that the icing be not scorched. It is
better to ice tarts, &c., when they are three-parts baked.

[Illustration: RAISED-PIE MOULD.]

[Illustration: RAISED-PIE MOULD, OPEN.]

To ascertain when the oven is heated to the proper degree for
puff-paste, put a small piece of the paste in previous to baking the
whole, and then the heat can thus be judged of.

The freshness of all pudding ingredients is of much importance, as one
bad article will taint the whole mixture.

When the _freshness_ of eggs is _doubtful_, break each one separately
in a cup, before mixing them altogether. Should there be a bad one
amongst them, it can be thrown away; whereas, if mixed with the good
ones, the entire quantity would be spoiled. The yolks and whites beaten
separately make the articles they are put into much lighter.

Raisins and dried fruits for puddings should be carefully picked, and
in many cases stoned. Currants should be well washed, pressed in a
cloth, and placed on a dish before the fire to get thoroughly dry:
they should then be picked carefully over, and _every piece of grit
or stone_ removed from amongst them. To plump them, some cooks pour
boiling water over them, and then dry them before the fire.

Batter pudding should be smoothly mixed and free from lumps. To insure
this, first mix the flour with a very small proportion of milk, and add
the remainder by degrees. Should the pudding be very lumpy, it may be
strained through a hair sieve.

_All boiled puddings_ should be put on in _boiling water_, which
must not be allowed to stop simmering, and the pudding must always
be covered with the water; if requisite, the saucepan should be kept
filled up.

[Illustration: BOILED-PUDDING MOULD.]

To prevent a pudding boiled in a cloth from sticking to the bottom of
the saucepan, place a small plate or saucer underneath it, and set the
pan _on a trivet_ over the fire. If a mould is used, this precaution is
not necessary; but care must be taken to keep the pudding well covered
with water.

For dishing a boiled pudding as soon as it comes out of the pot, dip
it into a basin of cold water, and the cloth will then not adhere to
it. Great expedition is necessary in sending puddings to table, as by
standing they quickly become heavy, batter puddings particularly.

[Illustration: BOILED PUDDING MOULD.]

For baked or boiled puddings, the moulds, cups, or basins should be
always buttered before the mixture is put in them, and they should be
put into the saucepan directly they are filled.

[Illustration: PUDDING-BASIN.]

Scrupulous attention should be paid to the cleanliness of
pudding-cloths, as from neglect in this particular the outsides of
boiled puddings frequently taste very disagreeably. As soon as possible
after it is taken off the pudding, it should be soaked in water, and
then well washed, without soap, unless it be very greasy. It should be
dried out of doors, then folded up and kept in a dry place. When wanted
for use, dip it in boiling water, and dredge it slightly with flour.

_The dry ingredients_ for puddings are better for being mixed some time
before they are wanted; the liquid portion should only be added just
before the pudding is put into the saucepan.

A pinch of salt is an improvement to the generality of puddings; but
this ingredient should be added very sparingly, as the flavour should
not be detected.

When baked puddings are sufficiently solid, turn them out of the dish
they were baked in, bottom uppermost, and strew over them fine-sifted
sugar.

When pastry or baked puddings are not done through, and yet the outside
is sufficiently brown, cover them over with a piece of white paper
until thoroughly cooked: this prevents them from getting burnt.


PASTRY, to Ice or Glaze.

To glaze pastry, which is the usual method adopted for meat or raised
pies, break an egg, separate the yolk from the white, and beat the
former for a short time. Then, when the pastry is nearly baked, take it
out of the oven, brush it over with this beaten yolk of egg, and put it
back in the oven to set the glaze.

To ice pastry, which is the usual method adopted for fruit tarts and
sweet dishes of pastry, put the white of an egg on a plate, and with
the blade of a knife beat it to a stiff froth. When the pastry is
nearly baked, brush it over with this, and sift over some pounded
sugar; put it back into the oven to set the glaze, and, in a few
minutes, it will be done. Great care should be taken that the paste
does not catch or burn in the oven, which it is very liable to do after
the icing is laid on. _Sufficient._—Allow 1 egg and 1½ oz. of sugar to
glaze 3 tarts.


PASTRY SANDWICHES.

_Ingredients._—Puff-paste, jam of any kind, the white of an egg,
sifted sugar. _Mode._—Roll the paste out thin; put half of it on a
baking-sheet or tin, and spread equally over it apricot, greengage,
or any preserve that may be preferred. Lay over this preserve another
thin paste; press the edges together all round; and mark the paste in
lines with a knife on the surface, to show where to cut it when baked.
Bake from 20 minutes to ½ hour; and, a short time before being done,
take the pastry out of the oven, brush it over with the white of an
egg, sift over pounded sugar, and put it back in the oven to colour.
When cold, cut it into strips; pile these on a dish pyramidically, and
serve. These strips, cut about 2 inches long, piled in circular rows,
and a plateful of flavoured whipped cream poured in the middle, make a
very pretty dish. _Time._—20 minutes to ½ hour. _Average cost_, with ½
lb. of paste, 1_s._ _Sufficient._—½ lb. of paste will make 2 dishes of
sandwiches. _Seasonable_ at any time.


PATE BRISEE, Crust French, for Raised Pies.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of flour allow ½ saltspoonful of salt, 2
eggs, 1/3 pint of water, 6 oz. of butter. _Mode._—Spread the flour,
which should be sifted and thoroughly dry, on the paste-board; make a
hole in the centre, into which put the butter; work it lightly into the
flour, and when quite fine, add the salt; work the whole into a smooth
paste with the eggs (yolks and whites) and water, and make it very
firm. Knead the paste well, and let it be rather stiff, that the sides
of the pie may be easily raised, and that they do not afterwards tumble
or shrink. _Average cost_, 1_s._ per lb.

_Note._—This paste may be very much enriched by making it with equal
quantities of flour and butter; but then it is not so easily raised as
when made plainer.


PATTIES, Fried.

[COLD MEAT COOKERY.] _Ingredients._—Cold roast veal, a few slices of
cold ham, 1 egg boiled hard, pounded mace, pepper and salt to taste,
gravy, cream, 1 teaspoonful of minced lemon-peel, good puff-paste.
_Mode._—Mince a little cold veal and ham, allowing one-third ham to
two-thirds veal; add an egg boiled hard and chopped, and a seasoning
of pounded mace, salt, pepper, and lemon-peel; moisten with a little
gravy and cream. Make a good puff-paste; roll rather thin, and cut it
into round or square pieces; put the mince between two of them, pinch
the edges to keep in the gravy, and fry a light brown. They may also
be baked in patty-pans; in that case, they should be brushed over with
the yolk of an egg before they are put in the oven. To make a variety,
oysters may be substituted for the ham. _Time._—15 minutes to fry the
patties. _Seasonable_ from March to October.


PEA SOUP (Inexpensive).

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of onions, ¼ lb. of carrots, 2 oz. of celery, ¾
lb. of split peas, a little mint, shred fine; 1 tablespoonful of coarse
brown sugar, salt and pepper to taste, 4 quarts of water, or liquor
in which a joint of meat has been boiled. _Mode._—Fry the vegetables
for 10 minutes in a little butter or dripping, previously cutting them
up into small pieces; pour the water on them, and when boiling add
the peas. Let them simmer for nearly 3 hours, or until the peas are
thoroughly done. Add the sugar, seasoning, and mint; boil for ¼ of an
hour, and serve. _Time._—3½ hours. _Average cost_, 1½_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ in winter. _Sufficient_ for 12 persons.


PEA SOUP (Green).

_Ingredients._—3 pints of green peas, ¼ lb. of butter, 2 or 3 thin
slices of ham, 3 onions sliced, 4 shredded lettuces, the crumb of 2
French rolls, 2 handfuls of spinach, 1 lump of sugar, 2 quarts of
medium stock. _Mode._—Put the butter, jam, 1 quart of peas, onions,
and lettuces, to a pint of stock, and simmer for an hour; then add the
remainder of the stock, with the crumb of the French rolls, and boil
for another hour. Now boil the spinach, and squeeze it very dry. Rub
the soup through a sieve, and the spinach with it, to colour it. Have
ready a pint of _young_ peas boiled; add them to the soup, put in the
sugar, give one boil, and serve. If necessary, add salt. _Time._—2½
hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 9_d._ per quart. _Seasonable_ from June to
the end of August. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note._—It will be well to add, if the peas are not quite young, a
little more sugar. Where economy is essential, water may be used
instead of stock for this soup, boiling in it likewise the pea-shells;
but using a double quantity of vegetables.


PEA SOUP, Winter (Yellow).

_Ingredients._—1 quart of split peas, 2 lbs. of shin beef, trimmings of
meat or poultry, a slice of bacon, 2 large carrots, 2 turnips, 5 large
onions, 1 head of celery, seasoning to taste, 2 quarts of soft water,
any bones left from roast meat, 2 quarts of common stock, or liquor in
which a joint of meat has been boiled. _Mode._—Put the peas to soak
over-night in soft water, and float off such as rise to the top. Boil
them in the water till tender enough to pulp; then add the ingredients
mentioned above, and simmer for 2 hours, stirring it occasionally. Pass
the whole through a sieve, skim well, season, and serve with toasted
bread cut in dice. _Time._—4 hours. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per quart.
_Seasonable_ all the year round, but more suitable for cold weather.
_Sufficient_ for 12 persons.


PEACHES, Compôte of.

_Ingredients._—1 pint of syrup, about 15 small peaches, _Mode._—Peaches
that are not very large, and that would not look well for dessert,
answer very nicely for a compôte. Divide the peaches, take out the
stones, and pare the fruit; make a syrup by recipe, put in the peaches,
and stew them gently for about 10 minutes. Take them out without
breaking, arrange them on a glass dish, boil the syrup for 2 or 3
minutes, let it cool, pour it over the fruit, and, when cold, it will
be ready for table. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 2_d._
_Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons. _Seasonable_ in August and September.


PEACH FRITTERS.

_Ingredients._—For the batter, ½ lb. of flour, ½ oz. of butter, ½
saltspoonful of salt, 2 eggs, milk, peaches, hot lard or clarified
dripping. _Mode._—Make a nice smooth batter; skin, halve, and stone the
peaches, which should be quite ripe; dip them in the batter, and fry
the pieces in hot lard or clarified dripping, which should be boiling
before the peaches are put in. From 8 to 10 minutes will be required to
fry them; when done, drain them before the fire. Dish them on a white
d’oyley. Strew over plenty of pounded sugar and serve. _Time._—From 8
to 10 minutes to fry the fritters, 5 minutes to drain them. _Average
cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ in July,
August, and September.


PEACHES PRESERVED IN BRANDY.

_Ingredients._—To every lb. of fruit weighed before being stoned, allow
¼ lb. of finely-pounded loaf sugar; brandy. _Mode._—Let the fruit be
gathered in dry weather; wipe and weigh it, and remove the stones as
carefully as possible, without injuring the peaches much. Put them
into a jar, sprinkle amongst them pounded loaf sugar in the above
proportion, and pour brandy over the fruit. Cover the jar down closely,
place it in a saucepan of boiling water over the fire, and bring the
brandy to the simmering-point, but do not allow it to boil. Take the
fruit out carefully, without breaking it; put it into small jars, pour
over it the brandy, and, when cold, exclude the air by covering the
jars with bladders, or tissue-paper brushed over on both sides with
the white of an egg. Apricots may be done in the same manner, and,
if properly prepared, will be found delicious. _Time._—From 10 to 20
minutes to bring the brandy to the simmering-point. _Seasonable_ in
August and September.


PEARS, Baked.

_Ingredients._—12 pears, the rind of 1 lemon, 6 cloves, 10 whole
allspice; to every pint of water allow ½ lb. of loaf sugar.
_Mode._—Pare and cut the pears into halves, and, should they be very
large, into quarters; leave the stalks on, and carefully remove the
cores. Place them in a clean baking-jar, with a closely-fitting lid;
add to them the lemon-rind cut in strips, the juice of ½ lemon, the
cloves, pounded allspice, and sufficient water just to cover the whole,
with sugar in the above proportion. Cover the jar down closely, put
it into a very cool oven, and bake the pears from 5 to 6 hours, but
be very careful that the oven is not too hot. To improve the colour
of the fruit, a few drops of prepared cochineal may be added; but
this will not be found necessary, if the pears are very gently baked.
_Time._—Large pears, 5 to 6 hours, in a very slow oven. _Average cost_,
1_d._ to 2_d._ each. _Sufficient_ for 7 or 8 persons. _Seasonable_ from
September to January.


PEARS à L’ALLEMANDE.

_Ingredients._—6 to 8 pears, water, sugar, 2 oz. of butter, the yolk of
an egg, ½ oz. of gelatine. _Mode._—Peel and cut the pears into any form
that may be preferred, and steep them in cold water to prevent them
turning black; put them into a saucepan with sufficient cold water to
cover them, and boil them with the butter and enough sugar to sweeten
them nicely, until tender; then brush the pears over with the yolk of
an egg, sprinkle them with sifted sugar, and arrange them on a dish.
Add the gelatine to the syrup, boil it up quickly for about 5 minutes,
strain it over the pears, and let it remain until set. The syrup may
be coloured with a little prepared cochineal, which would very much
improve the appearance of the dish. _Time._—From 20 minutes to ½ hour
to stew the pears; 5 minutes to boil the syrup. _Average cost_, 1_s._
3_d._ _Sufficient_ for a large dish. _Seasonable_ from August to
February.


PEARS, Moulded.

_Ingredients._—4 large pears or 6 small ones, 8 cloves, sugar to taste,
water, a small piece of cinnamon, ¼ pint of raisin wine, a strip of
lemon-peel, the juice of ½ lemon, ½ oz. of gelatine. _Mode._—Peel and
cut the pears into quarters; put them into a jar with ¾ pint of water,
cloves, cinnamon, and sufficient sugar to sweeten the whole nicely;
cover down the top of the jar, and bake the pears in a gentle oven
until perfectly tender, but do not allow them to break. When done, lay
the pears in a plain mould, which should be well wetted, and boil ½
pint of the liquor the pears were baked in with the wine, lemon-peel,
strained juice, and gelatine. Let these ingredients boil quickly for
5 minutes, then strain the liquid warm over the pears; put the mould
in a cool place, and when the jelly is firm, turn it out on a glass
dish. _Time._—2 hours to bake the pears in a cool oven. _Average cost_,
1_s._ 3_d._ _Sufficient_ for a quart mould. _Seasonable_ from August to
February.


PEARS, Preserved.

_Ingredients._—Jargonelle pears; to every lb. of sugar allow ½ pint
of water. _Mode._—Procure some Jargonelle pears, not too ripe; put
them into a stewpan with sufficient water to cover them, and simmer
them till rather tender, but do not allow them to break; then put them
into cold water. Boil the sugar and water together for 5 minutes,
skim well, put in the pears, and simmer them gently for 5 minutes.
Repeat the simmering for 3 successive days, taking care not to let
the fruit break. The last time of boiling, the syrup should be made
rather richer, and the fruit boiled for 10 minutes. When the pears are
done, drain them from the syrup, and dry them in the sun, or in a cool
oven; or they may be kept in the syrup, and dried as they are wanted.
_Time._—½ hour to simmer the pears in water, 20 minutes in the syrup.
_Average cost_, 1_d._ to 2_d._ each. _Seasonable._—Most plentiful in
September and October.


PEARS, Stewed.

_Ingredients._—8 large pears, 5 oz. of loaf sugar, 6 cloves, 6 whole
allspice, ½ pint of water, ¼ pint of port wine, a few drops of prepared
cochineal. _Mode._—Pare the pears, halve them, remove the cores, and
leave the stalks on; put them into a _lined_ saucepan with the above
ingredients, and let them simmer very gently until tender, which
will be in from 3 to 4 hours, according to the quality of the pears.
They should be watched, and, when done, carefully lifted out on to
a glass dish without breaking them. Boil up the syrup quickly for 2
or 3 minutes; allow it to cool a little, pour it over the pears, and
let them get perfectly cold. To improve the colour of the fruit, a
few drops of prepared cochineal may be added, which rather enhances
the beauty of this dish. The fruit must not be boiled fast, but only
simmered, and watched that it be not too much done. _Time._—3 to 4
hours. _Average cost_, 1_s._ 6_d._ _Sufficient_ for 5 or 6 persons.
_Seasonable_ from September to January.

[Illustration: STEWED PEARS.]


PEAS, Boiled Green.

_Ingredients._—Green peas; to each ½ gallon of water allow 1
_small_ teaspoonful of moist sugar, 1 heaped tablespoonful of salt.
_Mode._—This delicious vegetable, to be eaten in perfection, should be
young, and not _gathered_ or _shelled_ long before it is dressed. Shell
the peas, wash them well in cold water, and drain them; then put them
into a saucepan with plenty of _fast-boiling_ water, to which salt and
_moist sugar_ have been added in the above proportion; let them boil
quickly over a brisk fire, with the lid of the saucepan uncovered, and
be careful that the smoke does not draw in. When tender, pour them into
a colander; put them into a hot vegetable-dish, and quite in the centre
of the peas place a piece of butter, the size of a walnut. Many cooks
boil a small bunch of mint _with_ the _peas_, or garnish them with it,
by boiling a few sprigs in a saucepan by themselves. Should the peas
be very old, and difficult to boil a good colour, a very tiny piece of
soda may be thrown in the water previous to putting them in; but this
must be very sparingly used, as it causes the peas, when boiled, to
have a smashed and broken appearance. With young peas, there is not the
slightest occasion to use it. _Time._—Young peas, 10 to 15 minutes;
the large sorts, such as marrowfats, &c., 18 to 24 minutes; old peas,
½ hour. _Average cost_, when cheapest, 6_d._ per peck; when first in
season, 1_s._ to 1_s._ 6_d._ per peck. _Sufficient._—Allow 1 peck of
unshelled peas for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from June to the end of
August.


PEAS, Green, à la Française.

_Ingredients._—2 quarts of green peas, 3 oz. of fresh butter, a
bunch of parsley, 6 green onions, flour, a small lump of sugar, ½
teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of flour. _Mode._—Shell sufficient
fresh-gathered peas to fill 2 quarts; put them into cold water, with
the above proportion of butter, and stir them about until they are
well covered with the butter; drain them in a colander, and put them
in a stewpan, with the parsley and onions; dredge over them a little
flour, stir the peas well, and moisten them with boiling water; boil
them quickly over a large fire for 20 minutes, or until there is no
liquor remaining. Dip a small lump of sugar into some water, that it
may soon melt; put it with the peas, to which add ½ teaspoonful of
salt. Take a piece of butter the size of a walnut, work it together
with a teaspoonful of flour, and add this to the peas, which should
be boiling when it is put in. Keep shaking the stewpan, and, when
the peas are nicely thickened, dress them high in the dish, and
serve. _Time._—Altogether, ¾ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per peck.
_Sufficient_ for 4 or 5 persons. _Seasonable_ from June to the end of
August.


PEAS, Stewed Green.

_Ingredients._—1 quart of peas, 1 lettuce, 1 onion, 2 oz. of butter,
pepper and salt to taste, 1 egg, ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar.
_Mode._—Shell the peas, and cut the onion and lettuce into slices;
put these into a stewpan, with the butter, pepper, and salt, but with
no more water than that which hangs around the lettuce from washing.
Stew the whole very gently for rather more than 1 hour; then stir in a
well-beaten egg, and about ½ teaspoonful of powdered sugar. When the
peas, &c., are nicely thickened, serve; but, after the egg is added,
do not allow them to boil. _Time._—1¼ hour. _Average cost_, 6_d._ per
peck. _Sufficient_ for 3 or 4 persons. _Seasonable_ from June to the
end of August.


PERCH, Boiled.

_Ingredients._—¼ lb. of salt to each gallon of water. _Mode._—Scale the
fish, take out the gills and clean it thoroughly; lay it in boiling
water, salted as above, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. If the fish
is very large, longer time must be allowed. Garnish with parsley, and
serve with plain melted butter, or Dutch sauce. Perch do not preserve
so good a flavour when stewed as when dressed in any other way.
_Time._—Middling-sized perch, ¼ hour. _Seasonable_ from September to
November.

_Note._—Tench may be boiled the same way, and served with the same
sauces.


PERCH, Fried.

_Ingredients._—Egg and bread-crumbs, hot lard. _Mode._—Scale and
clean the fish, brush it over with egg, and cover with bread-crumbs.
Have ready some boiling lard; put the fish in, and fry a nice brown.
Serve with plain melted butter or anchovy sauce. _Time._—10 minutes.
_Seasonable_ from September to November.

_Note._—Fry tench in the same way.


PERCH, Stewed with Wine.

_Ingredients._—Equal quantities of stock and sherry, 1 bay-leaf, 1
clove of garlic, a small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, salt to taste;
thickening of butter and flour, pepper, grated nutmeg, ½ teaspoonful
of anchovy sauce. _Mode._—Scale the fish and take out the gills, and
clean them thoroughly; lay them in a stewpan with sufficient stock
and sherry just to cover them. Put in the bay-leaf, garlic, parsley,
cloves, and salt, and simmer till tender. When done, take out the fish,
strain the liquor, add a thickening of butter and flour, the pepper,
nutmeg, and the anchovy sauce, and stir it over the fire until somewhat
reduced, when pour over the fish, and serve. _Time._—About 20 minutes.
_Seasonable_ from September to November.


PETITES BOUCHÉES.

_Ingredients._—6 oz. of sweet almonds, ¼ lb. of sifted sugar, the
rind of ½ lemon, the white of 1 egg, puff-paste. _Mode._—Blanch the
almonds, and chop them fine; rub the sugar on the lemon-rind, and pound
it in a mortar; mix this with the almonds and the white of the egg.
Roll some puff-paste out; cut it in any shape that may be preferred,
such as diamonds, rings, ovals, &c., and spread the above mixture over
the paste. Bake the bouchées in an oven, not too hot, and serve cold.
_Time._—¼ hour, or rather more. _Average cost_, 1_s._ _Sufficient_ for
½ lb. of puff-paste. _Seasonable_ at any time.


PHEASANT.

If this bird be eaten three days after it has been killed, it then has
no peculiarity of flavour; a pullet would be more relished, and a quail
would surpass it in aroma. Kept, however, a proper length of time,—and
this can be ascertained by a slight smell and change of colour,—then
it becomes a highly-flavoured dish, occupying, so to speak, the middle
distance between chicken and venison. It is difficult to define any
exact time to “hang” a pheasant; but any one possessed of the instincts
of gastronomical science, can at once detect the right moment when a
pheasant should be taken down, in the same way as a good cook knows
whether a bird should be removed from the spit, or have a turn or two
more.


PHEASANT, Broiled (a Breakfast or Luncheon Dish).

_Ingredients._—1 pheasant, a little lard, egg and bread-crumbs, salt
and cayenne to taste. _Mode._—Cut the legs off at the first joint,
and the remainder of the bird into neat pieces; put them into a
frying-pan with a little lard, and when browned on both sides, and
about half done, take them out and drain them; brush the pieces over
with egg, and sprinkle with bread-crumbs with which has been mixed a
good seasoning of cayenne and salt. Broil them over a moderate fire
for about 10 minutes, or rather longer, and serve with mushroom-sauce,
sauce piquante, or brown gravy, in which a few game-bones and trimmings
have been stewed. _Time._—Altogether ½ hour. _Sufficient_ for 4 or
5 persons. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of October to the beginning of
February.


PHEASANT, to Carve.

Fixing the fork in the breast, let the carver cut slices from it in
the direction of the lines from 2 to 1: these are the prime pieces.
If there be more guests to satisfy than these slices will serve, then
let the legs and wings be disengaged in the same manner as described in
carving boiled fowl, the point where the wing joins the neckbone being
carefully found. The merrythought will come off in the same way as that
of a fowl. The most valued parts are the same as those which are most
considered in a fowl.

[Illustration: ROAST PHEASANT.]


PHEASANT CUTLETS.

_Ingredients._—2 or 3 pheasants, egg and bread-crumbs, cayenne and
salt to taste, brown gravy. _Mode._—Procure 3 young pheasants that
have been hung a few days; pluck, draw, and wipe them inside; cut
them into joints; remove the bones from the best of these; and the
backbones, trimmings, &c., put into a stewpan, with a little stock,
herbs, vegetables, seasoning, &c., to make the gravy. Flatten and trim
the cutlets of a good shape, egg and bread-crumb them, broil them over
a clear fire, pile them high in the dish, and pour under them the
gravy made from the bones, which should be strained, flavoured, and
thickened. One of the small bones should be stuck on the point of each
cutlet. _Time._—10 minutes. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._ each.
_Sufficient_ for 2 entrées. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of October to the
beginning of February.


PHEASANT, Roast.

_Ingredients._—Pheasant, flour, butter. _Choosing and trussing._—Old
pheasants may be known by the length and sharpness of their spurs;
in young ones they are short and blunt. The cock bird is generally
reckoned the best, except when the hen is with egg. They should hang
some time before they are dressed, as, if they are cooked fresh, the
flesh will be exceedingly dry and tasteless. After the bird is plucked
and drawn, wipe the inside with a damp cloth, and truss it in the same
manner as partridge. If the head is left on, as shown in the engraving,
bring it round under the wing, and fix it on to the point of the
skewer. _Mode._—Roast it before a brisk fire, keep it well basted, and
flour and froth it nicely. Serve with brown gravy, a little of which
should be poured round the bird, and a tureen of bread sauce. 2 or 3 of
the pheasant’s best tail-feathers are sometimes stuck in the tail as an
ornament; but the fashion is not much to be commended. _Time._—½ to 1
hour, according to the size. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 6_d._ to 3_s._ each.
_Sufficient_,—1 for a dish. _Seasonable_ from the 1st of October to the
beginning of February.

[Illustration: ROAST PHEASANT.]


PHEASANT, Roast, Brillat Savarin’s Recipe (à la Sainte Alliance).

When the pheasant is in good condition to be cooked, it should be
plucked, and not before. The bird should then be stuffed in the
following manner:—Take two snipes, and draw them, putting the bodies
on one plate, and the livers, &c., on another. Take off the flesh,
and mince it finely with a little beef, lard, a few truffles, pepper
and salt to taste, and stuff the pheasant carefully with this. Cut
a slice of bread, larger considerably than the bird, and cover it
with the liver, &c., and a few truffles: an anchovy and a little
fresh butter added to these will do no harm. Put the bread, &c., into
the dripping-pan, and, when the bird is roasted, place it on the
preparation, and surround it with Florida oranges.

Do not be uneasy, Savarin adds, about your dinner; for a pheasant
served in this way is fit for beings better than men. The pheasant
itself is a very good bird; and, imbibing the dressing and the flavour
of the truffle and snipe, it becomes thrice better.


PHEASANT SOUP.

_Ingredients._—2 pheasants, ¼ lb. of butter, 2 slices of ham, 2 large
onions sliced, ½ head of celery, the crumb of two French rolls, the
yolks of 2 eggs boiled hard; salt and cayenne to taste, a little
pounded mace, if liked; 3 quarts of stock medium. _Mode._—Cut up the
pheasants, flour and braise them in the butter and ham till they are of
a nice brown, but not burnt. Put them in a stewpan, with the onions,
celery, stock, and seasoning, and simmer for 2 hours. Strain the soup;
pound the breasts with the crumb of the roll previously soaked, and
the yolks of the eggs; put it to the soup, give one boil, and serve.
_Time._—2½ hours. _Average cost_, 2_s._ 10_d._ per quart, or, if
made with fragments of cold game, 1_s._ _Seasonable_ from October to
February. _Sufficient_ for 10 persons.

_Note._—Fragments, pieces and bones of cold game, may be used to great
advantage in this soup, and then 1 pheasant will suffice.


PICKLE, an Excellent.

_Ingredients._—Equal quantities of medium-sized onions, cucumbers,
and sauce-apples; 1½ teaspoonful of salt, ¾ teaspoonful of cayenne, 1
wineglassful of soy, 1 wineglassful of sherry; vinegar. _Mode._—Slice
sufficient cucumbers, onions, and apples to fill a pint stone jar,
taking care to cut the slices very thin; arrange them in alternate
layers, adding at the same time salt and cayenne in the above
proportion; pour in the soy and wine, and fill up with vinegar. It will
be fit for use the day it is made. _Seasonable_ in August and September,


PICKLE, Indian (very Superior).

_Ingredients._—To each gallon of vinegar allow 6 cloves of garlic, 12
shalots, 2 sticks of sliced horseradish, ¼ lb. of bruised ginger, 2
oz. of whole black pepper, 1 oz. of long pepper, 1 oz. of allspice,
12 cloves, ¼ oz. of cayenne, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, ¼ lb. of mustard,
1 oz. of turmeric; a white cabbage, cauliflowers, radish-pods, French
beans, gherkins, small round pickling-onions, nasturtiums, capsicums,
chilies, &c. _Mode._—Cut the cabbage, which must be hard and white,
into slices, and the cauliflowers into small branches; sprinkle salt
over them in a large dish, and let them remain two days; then dry them,
and put them into a very large jar, with garlic, shalots, horseradish,
ginger, pepper, allspice, and cloves, in the above proportions. Boil
sufficient vinegar to cover them, which pour over, and, when cold,
cover up to keep them free from dust. As the other things for the
pickle ripen at different times, they may be added as they are ready:
these will be radish-pods, French beans, gherkins, small onions,
nasturtiums, capsicums, chilies, &c., &c. As these are procured, they
must, first of all, be washed in a little cold vinegar, wiped, and then
simply added to the other ingredients in the large jar, only taking
care that they are _covered_ by the vinegar. If more vinegar should be
wanted to add to the pickle, do not omit first to boil it before adding
it to the rest. When you have collected all the things you require,
turn all out in a large pan, and thoroughly mix them. Now put the mixed
vegetables into smaller jars, without any of the vinegar; then boil
the vinegar again, adding as much more as will be required to fill the
different jars, and also cayenne, mustard-seed, turmeric, and mustard,
which must be well mixed with a little cold vinegar, allowing the
quantities named above to each gallon of vinegar. Pour the vinegar,
boiling hot, over the pickle, and when cold, tie down with a bladder.
If the pickle is wanted for immediate use, the vinegar should be boiled
twice more, but the better way is to make it during one season for use
during the next. It will keep for years, if care is taken that the
vegetables are quite covered by the vinegar.

This recipe was taken from the directions of a lady whose pickle was
always pronounced excellent by all who tasted it, and who has, for many
years, exactly followed the recipe given above.

_Note._—For small families, perhaps the above quantity of pickle will
be considered too large; but this may be decreased at pleasure, taking
care to properly proportion the various ingredients.


PICKLE, Mixed (very good).

_Ingredients._—To each gallon of vinegar allow ¼ lb. of bruised ginger,
¼ lb. of mustard, ¼ lb. of salt, 2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1½ oz. of
turmeric, 1 oz. of ground black pepper, ¼ oz. of cayenne, cauliflowers,
onions, celery, sliced cucumbers, gherkins, French beans, nasturtiums,
capsicums. _Mode._—Have a large jar, with a tightly-fitting lid, in
which put as much vinegar as required, reserving a little to mix the
various powders to a smooth paste. Put into a basin the mustard,
turmeric, pepper, and cayenne; mix them with vinegar, and stir well
until no lumps remain; add all the ingredients to the vinegar, and
mix well. Keep this liquor in a warm place, and thoroughly stir every
morning for a month with a wooden spoon, when it will be ready for the
different vegetables to be added to it. As these come into season, have
them gathered on a dry day, and, after merely wiping them with a cloth,
to free them from moisture, put them into the pickle. The cauliflowers,
it may be said, must be divided into small bunches. Put all these into
the pickle raw, and at the end of the season, when there have been
added as many of the vegetables as could be procured, store it away
in jars, and tie over with bladder. As none of the ingredients are
boiled, this pickle will not be fit to eat till 12 months have elapsed.
Whilst the pickle is being made, keep a wooden spoon tied to the jar;
and its contents, it may be repeated, must be stirred every morning.
_Seasonable._—Make the pickle-liquor in May or June, as the season
arrives for the various vegetables to be picked.


PICKLE for Tongues or Beef (Newmarket Recipe).

_Ingredients._—1 gallon of soft water, 3 lbs. of coarse salt, 6 oz. of
coarse brown sugar, ½ oz. of saltpetre. _Mode._—Put all the ingredients
into a saucepan, and let them boil for ½ an hour, clear off the scum as
it rises, and when done pour the pickle into a pickling-pan. Let it get
cold, then put in the meat, and allow it to remain in pickle from 8 to
14 days, according to the size. It will keep good for 6 months if well
boiled once a fortnight. Tongues will take 1 month or 6 weeks to be
properly cured; and, in salting meat, beef and tongues should always be
put in separate vessels. _Time._—A moderate-sized tongue should remain
in the pickle about a month, and be turned every day.


PICKLE, Universal.

_Ingredients._—To 6 quarts of vinegar allow 1 lb. of salt, ¼ lb. of
ginger, 1 oz. of mace, ½ lb. of shalots, 1 tablespoonful of cayenne,
2 oz. of mustard-seed, 1½ oz. of turmeric. _Mode._—Boil all the
ingredients together for about 20 minutes; when cold, put them into a
jar with whatever vegetables you choose, such as radish-pods, French
beans, cauliflowers, gherkins, &c. &c., as these come into season;
put them in fresh as you gather them, having previously wiped them
perfectly free from moisture and grit. This pickle will be fit for use
in about 8 or 9 months. _Time._—20 minutes. _Seasonable._—Make the
pickle in May or June, to be ready for the various vegetables.

_Note._—As this pickle takes 2 or 3 months to make,—that is to say,
nearly that time will elapse before all the different vegetables are
added,—care must be taken to keep the jar which contains the pickle
well covered, either with a closely-fitting lid, or a piece of bladder
securely tied over, so as perfectly to exclude the air.


PICKLES.

Although pickles may be purchased at shops at as low a rate as they
can usually be made for at home, or perhaps even for less, yet we
would advise all housewives, who have sufficient time and convenience,
to prepare their own. The only general rules, perhaps, worth stating
here,—as in the recipes all necessary details will be explained—are,
that the vegetables and fruits used should be sound, and not over-ripe,
and that the very best vinegar should be employed.


PICNIC FOR 40 PERSONS, Bill of Fare for.

A joint of cold roast beef, a joint of cold boiled beef, 2 ribs of
lamb, 2 shoulders of lamb, 4 roast fowls, 2 roast ducks, 1 ham, 1
tongue, 2 veal-and-ham pies, 2 pigeon pies, 6 medium-sized lobsters,
1 piece of collared calf’s head, 18 lettuces, 6 baskets of salad, 6
cucumbers.

Stewed fruit well sweetened, and put into glass bottles well corked;
3 or 4 dozen plain pastry biscuits to eat with the stewed fruit, 2
dozen fruit turnovers, 4 dozen cheesecakes, 2 cold cabinet puddings
in moulds, 2 blancmanges in moulds, a few jam puffs, 1 large cold
plum-pudding (this must be good), a few baskets of fresh fruit, 3 dozen
plain biscuits, a piece of cheese, 6 lbs. of butter (this, of course,
includes the butter for tea), 4 quartern loaves of hous