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Title: Latin Phrase-Book
Author: Meissner, Carl, Auden, Henry William
Language: Latin
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Latin Phrase-Book" ***

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                           LATIN PHRASE-BOOK


                             C. MEISSNER


                        WITH THE ADDITION OF



                           H. W. AUDEN, M.A.



                            MACMILLAN AND CO.

                              AND NEW YORK


                          All rights reserved


Although, ideally speaking, a phrase-book should always be compiled by
the pupil himself from his own individual observation, yet in these
days, when an extended curriculum tends to curtail considerably the
amount of Latin read, it seems to me that anything which may help boys
to some knowledge of Latinity in a short time is not wholly useless.
Hence this translation. The use of such books as _Meissner's
Phraseologie_ involves no new and untried principles, witness the
excellent results obtained in Germany, where the book has passed
through six editions. It has also been translated into French (the
translation is now in its third edition) and Italian.

My best thanks are due to Professor Meissner for his courtesy in
allowing me to make this translation, also to Professor Pascal of
Reims, to whose admirable translation I am much indebted.





I. The World and Nature—

  1. The World—Creation
  2. The Earth and its Surface
  3. Water—Rivers—Sea
  4. Fire
  5. Air—Sky—Climate—Heavenly Bodies
  6. Natural Phenomena

II. Space and Time—

  1. Points of the Compass—Situation
  2. Boundary—Territory—Distance
  3. Road—Travel
  4. Coming—Going
  5. Riding—Driving
  6. Walking—Footsteps—Direction
  7. Movement in General
  8. Time in General
  9. Year—Seasons
 10. Day—Divisions of the Day

III. Parts of the Human Body

IV. Properties of the Human Body—

  1. Feelings—Sensations—Powers
  2. Birth—Life
  3. Time of Life
  4. Hunger—Thirst
  5. Laughter—Tears
  6. Health—Sickness
  7. Sleep—Dreams
  8. Death
  9. Burial

V. Human Life; its various Relations and Conditions—

  1. Circumstance—Situation—Difficulty
  2. Commencement—End—Result
  3. Cause—Motive—Origin
  4. Regard—Importance—Influence—Power—Inclination
  5. Opportunity—Possibilty—Occasion—Chance
  6. Success—Good Fortune
  7. Misfortune—Fate—Ruin
  8. Danger—Risk—Safety
  9. Assistance—Deliverance—Consolation
 10. Riches—Want—Poverty
 11. Utility—Advantage—Harm—Disadvantage
 12. Goodwill—Kindness—Inclination—Favour
 13. Benefit—Gratitude—Recompense
 14. Merit—Value—Reward
 15. Requests—Wishes—Commissions—Orders
 16. Friendship—Enmity—Reconciliation
 17. Authority—Dignity
 18. Praise—Approval—Blame—Reproach
 19. Rumour—Gossip—News—Mention
 20. Fame—Reputation
 21. Honour—Disgrace—Ignominy
 22. Effort—Industry—Labour—Exertion
 23. Business—Leisure—Inactivity—Idleness
 24. Pleasure—Recreation

VI. The Mind; its Functions—

  1. Genius—Talent—Intelligence
  2. Imagination—Thought
  3. Conceptions—Ideals—Perfection
  4. Opinion—Prejudice—Conjecture
  5. Truth—Error
  6. Choice—Doubt—Scruple
  7. Knowledge—Certainty—Persuasion
  8. Plan—Advice—Deliberation
  9. Resolve—Design—Intention
 10. Object—Aim—Hesitation—Delay
 11. Remembrance—Forgetfulness
 12. Theory—Practice—Experience

VII. The Arts and Sciences—

  1. Scientific Knowledge in General—Literature
  2. Learning—Erudition
  3. Culture—Civilisation
  4. Education—Instruction—School—Profession
  5. Example—Pattern—Precedent
  6. Philosophy
  7. The Parts of Philosophy
  8. System—Method—Principles
  9. Species—Definition—Classification—Connection
  10. Proof—Refutation
  11. Conclusion—Hypothesis—Inference
  12. Debate—Controversy
  13. Agreement—Contradiction
  14. Particular Sciences
  15. Art in General
  16. Poetry—Music—Painting—Sculpture
  17. The Drama

VIII. Speech and Writing—

  1. Speech in General
  2. Style—Expression
  3. Delivery—Voice
  4. Subject-Matter—Argument
  5. Question—Answer
  6. Humour—Earnest
  7. Language—Use of Language—Translation—Grammar
  8. Sentence—Period—Words—Proverbs—Syllables
  9. Writing—Writers—Books
 10. Letters

IX. The Emotions—

  1. Disposition—Emotion in General
  2. Joy—Pain
  3. Vexation—Care—Equanimity—Contentment—Affliction
  4. Fear—Terror—Anxiety
  5. Courage—Discouragement—Pusillanimity—Pride—Arrogance—Insolence
  6. Presence of Mind—Composure—Despair
  7. Hope—Expectation
  8. Pity—Pardon—Want of Feeling—Cruelty
  9. Love—Longing—Admiration—Enthusiasm
 10. Belief—Confidence—Loyalty—Protection—Promise—Veracity (_fides,
 11. Suspicion—Presentiment
 12. Hatred—Jealousy—Envy
 13. Discontent—Anger—Revenge—Fury

X. Virtues and Vices—

  1. Virtue—Morality
  2. Vice—Crime
  3. Desire—Passion—Self-Control
  4. Wrong—Insult—Outrage—Offence
  5. Violence—Ambuscade—Threats
  6. Appearance—Deceit—Falsehood—Derision
  7. Duty—Inclinations
  8. Reason—Conscience—Remorse
  9. Measure—Standard—Limit—Moderation
 10. Morals—Immorality—Principles—Character

XI. Religion—

  1. God—Worship
  2. Religion—Religous Scruple—Oath
  3. Belief—Unbelief—Superstition
  4. Prayers—Wishes—Vows
  5. Sacrifice—Festival
  6. Oracle—Prodigies—Auspices—Presage

XII. Domestic Life—

  1. The House and its different Parts
  2. Domestic Matters—Property
  3. Habitation—Clothing
  4. Food—Drink
  5. Subsistence in General
  6. Expenditure—Luxury—Prodigality
  7. Hospitality
  8. Sociability—Intercourse—Isolation
  9. Conversation—Audience—Conference
 10. Greeting—Farewell
 11. Betrothal—Marriage—Divorce
 12. Will—Inheritance
 13. Custom—Usage

XIII. Commerce and Agriculture—

  1. Commerce in General—Purchase—Price
  2. Money—Interest—Loans
  3. Money-Matters—Accounts—Audit
  4. Rate of Interest
  5. Profit—Credit—Debt
  6. Building
  7. Agriculture—Management of Stock

XIV. The State—

  1. Constitution—Administration—Government
  2. Civil Rights—Rank
  3. Dignity—Position—Honours—Pre-eminence
  4. Public Meetings—Suffrage
  5. Laws—Bills
  6. Popular Favour—Influence—Unpopularity
  7. Party-Spirit—Neutrality—Politics—Aristocracy—Democracy
  8. Demagogy—Revolution—Rebellion—Anarchy
  9. Proscription—Confiscation—Banishment—Amnesty
 10. Power—Monarchy—Royalty
 11. Slavery—Freedom
 12. Revenue—Colonies—Provinces
 13. Magistracies—
     (_a_) Candidature—Election
     (_b_) Particular Magistracies
 14. The Senate

XV. Law and Justice—

  1. Law in General
  2. Inquiry—Testimony—Torture
  3. Process—Defence
  4. Accusation—Verdict—Decision
  5. Guilt
  6. Punishment—Acquittal

XVI. War—

  1. Levies—Military Oath—Armies in General
  2. Pay—Service—Commissariat
  3. Command—Discipline
  4. Weapons
  5. War
  6. The Army on the March
  7. The Camp
  8. A Siege
  9. Before the Fight
 10. The Fight—
     (_a_) The Fight in General
     (_b_) The Attack
     (_c_) Close Quarters
     (_d_) Tactics—Reinforcements
     (_e_) Successful Attack
     (_f_) Retreat—Flight—Pursuit
     (_g_) Defeat—Massacre—Wounds—Losses
 11. Victory—Triumph
 12. Truce—Peace—Treaties—Alliance
 13. Conquest Submission

XVII. Shipping—

  1. Naval Affairs in General
  2. Voyage—Shipwreck—Landing
  3. A Naval Battle


I. The World and Nature

1. The World—Creation

_rerum_ or _mundi universitas_—the universe.

_rerum natura_ or simply _natura_—creation; nature.

_haec omnia, quae videmus_—the visible world.

_totius mundi convenientia et consensus_—the perfect harmony of the

_deus mundum aedificavit, fabricatus est, effecit_ (not
_creavit_)[1]—God made the world.

_deus est mundi procreator_ (not _creator_), _aedificator, fabricator,
opifex rerum_—God is the Creator of the world.

_elementa; initia_ or _principia rerum_—the elements.

_elementa et tamquam semina rerum_—the elements and first beginnings.

_nutus et pondus_ or simply _nutus_ (_ῥοπή_)—gravity.

[1] _Creare_ is usually employed in the sense of producing,
originating, causing, e.g. _similitudo creat errorem; periculum alicui
creare_. It has, however, occasionally the meaning to create, e.g. De
Fin. _rerum quas creat natura._

2. The Earth and its Surface

_orbis terrae, terrarum_[1]—the earth; the globe

_(terra) continens_ (B. G. 5. 8. 2)—the continent.

_terra (regio) mediterranea_—an inland region; the interior.

_interior Asia; interiora Asiae_—the interior of Asia.

_sinus urbis_ (Sall. Cat. 52. 35)—the heart of the city.

_in ipsam_ or _intimam Graeciam penetrare_—to penetrate into the heart
of Greece.

_terra effert_ (more rarely _fert_,[2] but not _profert_) _fruges_—the
earth brings forth fruit, crops.

_terra fundit fruges_—the earth brings forth fruit abundantly.

_animata (animalia) inanimaque_ (not _inanimata_)—animate and
inanimate nature.

_ea, quae terra gignit_—the vegetable kingdom.

_ea, quae e terra gignuntur_—the vegetable kingdom.

_ea, quae a terra stirpibus continentur_—the vegetable kingdom.

_ea quorum stirpes terra continentur_ (N. D. 2. 10. 26)—the vegetable

_arbores stirpesque, herbae stirpesque_ (De Fin. 5. 11. 33)—the
vegetable kingdom.

_radices agere_ (De Off. 2. 12. 73)—to take root.

_gemmas agere_—to bud, blossom.

_gemmae proveniunt_—the trees are budding.

_arbores frondescunt_—the trees are coming into leaf.

_rami late diffunduntur_—the twigs are shooting out, spreading.

_montes vestiti silvis_—wooded hills.

_summus mons_—the top of a mountain.

_culmina Alpium_—the summits of the Alps.

_sub radicibus montis, in infimo monte, sub monte_—at the foot of the

_superare Alpes, Pyrenaeum, Apenninum_[3] (both always in the
sing.)—to cross the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines.

_altissimis montibus undique contineri_—to be shut in on all sides by
very high mountains.

_prospectus est ad aliquid_—one has a view over...; one is able to see
as far as...

_collis leniter ab infimo acclivis_ (opp. _leniter a summo
declivis_)—a gentle ascent.

_ad extremum tumulum_—on the edge of the hill.

_loca edita, superiora_—heights, high ground.

_loca aspera et montuosa_ (Planc. 9. 22)—rough and hilly ground.

_loca plana_ or simply _plana_—level country; plains.

_saxa praerupta_—steep rocks.

_loca inculta_—uncultivated districts.

_loca deserta_ (opp. _frequentia_)—deserts.

_loca amoena, amoenitas locorum_—pleasant districts; charming

[1] To the Romans _orbis terrarum_ (more rarely _orbis terrae_) meant
all those countries which made up the Roman Empire.

[2] _ferre_ is also used metaphorically, to produce, e.g. _haec aetas
perfectum oratorem tulit_ (Brut. 12. 45).

[3] But _Pyrenaei montes, saltus_ occur (B. G. 1. 1. 7; B.C. 1. 37. 1).

3. Water—Rivers—Sea

_summa aqua_—the surface of the water.

_ex aqua exstare_—to stand out of the water.

_aqua est umbilīco tenus_—the water reaches to the waist.

_aqua pectus aequat, superat_—the water is up to, is above, the chest.

_(se) ex aqua emergere_[1]—to come to the surface.

_aquam ex flumine derivare_—to draw off water from a river.

_aquam ducere per hortum_—to bring a stream of water through the garden.

_aquae ductus_ (plur. _aquarum ductus_)[2]—a conduit; an aqueduct.

_agros irrigare_—to irrigate fields.

_aqua viva, profluens_ (opp. _stagnum_)—running water.

_aqua iugis, perennis_—a perpetual spring.

_frigidā, calidā lavari_ (Plin. Ep. 3. 5. 11)—to take a cold, warm,

_aquae, aquarum inops_—ill-watered.

_fluctuare_ or _fluctuari_—driven by the waves.

_fluctibus iactari_—tossed hither and thither by the waves.

_fluctibus (undis) obrui_,[3]_submergi_—to be engulfed.

_gurgitibus hauriri_—to be drowned in the eddies.

_flumen citatum fertur_—the rivers flows with a rapid current.

_flumen imbribus auctum_—a river swollen by the rain.

_flumen super ripas effunditur_—the river is over its banks, is in

_flumen extra ripas diffluit_—the river is over its banks, is in flood.

_flumen agros inundat_[4]—the river floods the fields.

_flumen vado transire_—to wade across, to ford a river.

_flumine secundo_—with the stream; downstream.

_flumine adverso_—against the stream; upstream.

_Rhenus oritur_ or _profluit ex Alpibus_—the Rhine rises in the Alps.

_accessus et recessus aestuum_—ebb and flow (of tide).

_decessus aestus_—the ebb.

_aestus maritimi mutuo accedentes et recedentes_ (N. D. 2. 53.
132)—the alternation of tides.

_aestus ex alto se incitat_ (B. G. 3.12)—the tide is coming in.

_aestu rursus minuente_—when the tide begins to go down.

_mare ventorum vi agitatur et turbatur_—there is a storm at sea.

_mare medium_ or _internum_[5]—the Mediterranean Sea.

[1] Also used metaphorically, e.g. _(se) emergere ex malis_ (Nep. Att.
11. 1) to recover from misfortune. So _emergere e fluctibus
servitutis_ (Harusp. Resp. 23. 48).

[2] _aquae ductio_ = the action, process of drawing off the water;
_canalis_ = the water-pipe, channel, conduit.

[3] So metaphorically, _aere alieno obrutum esse_, to be over head and
ears in debt; _nomen alicuius obruere perpetua oblivione_, to drown a
person's name in oblivion.

[4] Inundation = _eluvio_, not _inundatio_ which is post-classical.

[5] The Romans called it _mare nostrum_ (B.G. 5.1). Similarly _mare
Oceanus_ (B. G. 3. 7), the Atlantic; _mare superum_, the Adriatic
(Att. 8. 16. 1); _mare inferum_, the Etruscan Sea (Att. 8. 3. 5).

4. Fire

_ignem facere, accendere_—to light, make a fire.

_ignem tectis inferre, subicere_—to set fire to houses.

_ignem concipere, comprehendere_—to take fire.

_ignem excitare_ (pro Mur. 25. 51)—to make up, stir up a fire.

_ignem alere_—to keep up a fire.

_accendere, incendere aedificia_—to set buildings on fire.

_inflammare urbem_—to set fire to a city.

_flammis corripi_—to be devoured by the flames.

_incendio flagrare_, or simply _conflagrare, ardere_ (Liv. 30. 7)—to
be on fire, in flames.

_incendio deleri, absūmi_—to be burned to ashes.

_igni cremari, necari_—to perish in the flames.

_ignem conclamare_—to raise an alarm of fire.

_ventus ignem distulit_ (B. G. 5. 43)—the wind spread the conflagration.

5. Air—Sky—Climate—Heavenly Bodies

_aer terrae circumiectus_ or _circumfusus_—the atmosphere.

_aer qui est terrae proximus_—the atmosphere.

_suspicere_[1]_ (in) caelum_—to raise the eyes to heaven; to look up
to the sky.

_oculos tollere, attollere ad caelum_—to raise the eyes to heaven; to
look up to the sky.

_sub divo_—in the open air.

_orbis finiens_ (Div. 2. 44. 92)—the horizon.

_caelum_ or _natura caeli_—climate.

_caelum salūbre, salubritas caeli_ (opp. _grave, gravitas_)—healthy

_caeli temperatio_—temperate climate.

_aer calore et frigore temperatus_—temperate climate.

_caeli asperitas_—rough climate.

_caeli varietas_—variable climate.

_caelestia_—(1) the heavenly bodies, (2) celestial phenomena.

_sol oritur, occidit_—the sun rises, sets.

_ortus, occasus solis_—sunrise; sunset.

_sol_[2] (_luna_) _deficit, obscuratur_—the sun, moon, is eclipsed.

_solis defectio_—an eclipse of the sun.

_luna crescit; decrescit, senescit_—the moon waxes, wanes.

_motus stellarum constantes et rati_—the regular courses of the stars.

_cursum conficere in caelo_—to run its course in the sky.

_caelum astris distinctum et ornatum_—the star-lit sky; the firmament.

_nox sideribus illustris_—a star-light night.

_stellae errantes, vagae_—the planets.

_stellae inerrantes_ (N. D. 2. 21. 54)—the fixed stars.

_sidera certis locis infixa_—the fixed stars.

_orbis lacteus_—the milky way.

_orbis signifer_—the zodiac.

_vertex caeli, axis caeli, cardo caeli_—the pole.

_orbis, pars (terrae), cingulus_—a zone.

_orbis medius_—the temperate zone.

[1] _suspicere_ is also used figuratively, to look up to, esteem,
honour, e.g. _viros, honores_. Similarly _despicere_.

[2] For an account of an eclipse _vid._ Liv. 44. 37.

6. Natural Phenomena

_vocis imago_, or simply _imago_[1]—an echo.

_saxa voci respondent_ or _resonant_—the rocks re-echo.

_ventus remittit_ (opp. _increbrescit_)—the wind is falling.

_ventus cadit, cessat_—the wind dies down, ceases.

_ventis secundis, adversis uti_—to have favourable, contrary, winds.

_ventus se vertit in Africum_—the wind is turning to the south-west.

_tempestas cooritur_—a storm is rising.

_imber tenet_ (Liv. 23. 44. 6)—the rain continues.

_imbres repente effusi_—a sudden shower.

_tempestatem idoneam, bonam nancisci_—to meet with good weather.

_calor se frangit_ (opp. _increscit_)—the heat is abating.

_sol ardet, urit_—the sun burns, scorches.

_ardore solis torreri_—to be dried up by the sun's heat.

_tanta vis frigoris insecuta est, ut_—the frost set in so severely

_frigore (gelu) rigere, torpere_—to be numb with cold.

_frigore confici_—to freeze to death.

_aestus et frigoris patientem esse_—to be able to bear heat and cold.

_tempestas cum magno fragore (caeli) tonitribusque_ (Liv. 1. 16)—a
storm accompanied by heavy claps of thunder.

_caelum tonitru contremit_—the heavens are shaken by the thunder.

_fulmina_[2] _micant_—the lightning flashes.

_fulmen locum tetigit_—the lightning has struck somewhere.

_fulmine tangi, ici_—to be struck by lightning.

_de caelo tangi, percuti_—to be struck by lightning.

_fulmine ictus_—struck by lightning.

_eruptiones ignium Aetnaeorum_—an eruption of Etna.

_Vesuvius evomit_ (more strongly _eructat_) _ignes_—Vesuvius is
discharging flame.

_venti ab ortu solis flant_—the east winds are blowing.

[1] Also metaphorically, e.g. _gloria virtuti resonat tamquam imago_
(Tusc. 3. 3), glory is as it were the echo of virtue.

[2] Used sometimes figuratively, e.g. _fulmen verborum, fulmina
eloquentiae, fulmina fortunae_ (Tusc. 2. 27), _fulmina imperii_ (Balb.
15. 34).

II. Space and Time

1. Points of the Compass—Situation

_spectare in (vergere ad) orientem (solem), occidentem_[1] (_solem_),
_ad meridiem, in septentriones_—to lie to the east, west, south, north.

_spectare inter occasum solis et septentriones_—to be situate to the

_Germania quae_ or _Germaniae ea pars quae, ad orientem, occidentem
vergit_—eastern, western Germany.

_est a septentrionibus collis_—a hill lies to the north.

_situs loci_—the situation of a place.

_natura loci_—the natural position of a place.

_opportunitas loci_ (B. G. 3. 14)—the advantageous situation of a place.

_opportuno loco situm_ or _positum esse_—to be favourably situated.

_urbs situ ad aspectum praeclara est_—the city is very beautifully

_oppidum mari adiacet_—the town lies near the sea.

_villa tangit viam_—the country-house stands near the road.

_oppidum colli impositum est_—the town stands on rising ground.

_oppidum monti subiectum est_—the town lies at the foot of a mountain.

_promunturium in mare procurrit_—a promontory juts out into the sea.

_paeninsula in mare excurrit, procurrit_—a peninsula projects into the

_promunturium superare_—to double a cape.

_urbs in sinu sita est_—the city is situate on a bay.

[1] "The east" and "the west" = _orientis, occidentis (solis) terrae,
partes, regiones, gentes_. The adjectives _orientalis, occidentalis_
are not used in good Latin. The north, i.e. northern countries, is
represented by _terrae septentrionibus subiectae_; the south by _terra

2. Boundary—Territory—Distance

_tangere, attingere terram_—to be contiguous, adjacent to a country.

_finitimum_[1] _esse terrae_—to be contiguous, adjacent to a country.

_continentem esse terrae_ or _cum terra_ (Fam. 15. 2. 2)—to have the
same boundaries; to be coterminous.

_Gallia Rhodano continetur_ (_vid._ sect. V. 4., note _contineri
aliqua re..._)—Gaul is bounded by the Rhone.[TR1]

_Rhodanus Sequanos ab Helvetiis dividit_—the Rhone[TR2] is the
frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani.

_fines (imperii) propagare, extendere, (longius) proferre_—to enlarge
the boundaries of a kingdom.

_(ex) finibus excedere_—to evacuate territory.

_in Sequanis_—in the country of the Sequani.

_in Sequanos proficisci_—to invade the territory of the Sequani.

_porrigi ad septentriones_—to stretch northwards.

_haec gens pertinet usque ad Rhenum_—the territory of this race
extends as far as the Rhine.

_in latitudinem, in longitudinem patere_—to extend in breadth, in

_late patere_[2] (also metaphorically _vid._ sect. VIII. 8)—to have a
wide extent.

_imperium orbis terrarum terminis definitur_—the empire reaches to the
ends of the world.

_longe, procul abesse ab urbe_—to be far from town.

_prope (propius, proxime) abesse_—to be not far away.

_paribus intervallis distare_—to be equidistant.

_tantundem viae est_—the road is the same length.

_longo spatio, intervallo interiecto_—at a great distance.

_intervallo locorum et temporum disiunctum esse_—to be separated by an
immense interval of space and time.

_a mille passibus_—a mile away.

_e longinquo_—from a distance.

_loca longinqua_—distant places.

_ultimae terrae_—the most distant countries, the world's end.

_extremae terrae partes_—the most distant countries, the world's end.

_longinquae nationes_—distant nations.

[1] _vicinum esse_, to be neighbouring; used of houses, gardens, etc.

[2] _patere_ denotes extension in its widest sense; _pertinere_,
extension from one point to another, e.g. _ars et late patet et ad
multos pertinet_ (De Or. 1. 55. 235); _ex eo oppido pars ad Helvetios
pertinet_ (B. G. 1. 6. 3).

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: the English original says "Gaul is bounded
by the Rhine" which is wrong as can be seen both from the Latin
expression and the original German edition.

[TR2] Transcriber's Note: In the original book Auden translates
_Rhodanus Sequanos ab Helvetiis dividit_ wrongly as "the Rhine is the
frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani." The French and German
versions correctly translate _Rhodanus_ as "le Rhône" and "Rhone".

3. Road—Travel

_viam sternere (silice, saxo)_—to pave a road.

_substruere viam glarea_ (Liv. 41. 27)—to make a gravel path.

_via strata_—a street, a made road.

_via trita_[1]—a well-trodden, much-frequented way.

_viam munire_[2]—to make a road.

_viam patefacere, aperire_—to open a route.

_ferro viam facere (per confertos hostes)_—to cut one's way (through
the enemies' ranks).

_viam intercludere_—to obstruct a road; to close a route.

_iter obstruere_—to obstruct a road; to close a route.

_via fert, ducit aliquo_—a road leads somewhere.

_in viam se dare_—to set out on a journey.

_viae se committere_—to set out on a journey.

_viam ingredi, inire_ (also metaphorically)—to enter upon a route; to
take a road.

_rectā (viā)_—straight on.

_de via declinare, deflectere_ (also metaphorically)—to turn aside
from the right way; to deviate.

_(de via) decedere alicui_—make way for any one.

_Appia via proficisci_—to set out by the Appian road.

_erranti viam monstrare_—to direct a person who has lost his way.

_errores Ulixis_—the wanderings of Ulysses.

_viam persequi_ (also metaphorically)—to continue one's journey,
pursue one's course.

_longam viam conficere_—to accomplish a long journey.

_fessus de via_—weary with travelling; way-worn.

_Hercules_[3] _in trivio, in bivio, in compitis_—Hercules at the
cross-roads, between virtue and vice.

_iter facere_—(1) to take a journey, (2) to make, lay down a road

_una iter facere_—to travel together.

_iter ingredi (pedibus, equo, terra)_—to begin a journey (on foot, on
horseback, by land).

_iter aliquo dirigere, intendere_—to journey towards a place.

_tendere aliquo_—to journey towards a place.

_longum itineris spatium emetiri_—to finish a very long journey.

_ex itinere redire_[4]—to return from a journey.

_in itinere_[5]—on a journey; by the way.

_iter terrestre, pedestre_—travel by land, on foot.

_itinera diurna nocturnaque_—travelling day and night.

_iter unius diei_ or simply _diei_—a day's journey.

_iter impeditum_—an impassable road.

_disiunctissimas ultimas terras peragrare_ (not _permigrare_)—to
travel through the most remote countries.

_peregrinatio_—a foreign journey.

_peregrinari, peregre esse_—to be travelling abroad.

_peregre proficisci_—to go abroad.

_aliquem proficiscentem prosequi_—to accompany any one when starting;
to see a person off.

_aliquem proficiscentem votis ominibusque prosequi_ (_vid._ sect. VI.
11, note _Prosequi..._)—to wish any one a prosperous journey.

_rus excurrere_—to make a pleasure-trip into the country.

_ruri vivere, rusticari_—to live in the country.

_vita rustica_—country life (the life of resident farmers, etc.)

_rusticatio, vita rusticana_—country life (of casual, temporary

[1] _tritus_ is also used figuratively, e.g. _proverbium (sermone)
tritum_ (De Off. 1. 10. 33), _vocabulum latino sermone non tritum_
(Acad. 1. 7. 27).

[2] Cf. in metaphorical sense, _viam ad honores alicui munire_ (Mur.
10. 23).

[3] _vid._ on this subject De Off. 1. 32. 118; Fam. 5. 12. 3.

[4] _reverti_ means properly to turn back and retrace one's steps,
after giving up one's intention of remaining longer in a place, or
continuing one's journey, cf. Div. 1. 15. 27, _itaque revertit ex
itinere, cum iam progressus esset multorum dierum viam_. Similarly
_reditus_ = return, _reversio_ generally = turning back. Cicero only
uses _revenire_ in conjunction with _domum_.

[5] _ex itinere_ implies that the march was interrupted, thus there is
a difference between _in itinere aliquem aggredi_ and _ex itinere_,
etc. In the same way distinguish _in fuga_ and _ex fuga_, e.g. _ex
fuga evadere, ex fuga dissipati_.

4. Coming—Going

_pedibus ire_—to go on foot.

_discedere a, de, ex loco aliquo_—to leave a place.

_egredi loco_;[1] _excedere ex loco_—to leave a place.

_decedere loco, de, ex loco_[2]—to quit a place for ever.

_ingredi, intrare urbem, introire in urbem_—to enter a city.

_portā ingredi, exire_—to go in at, go out of a gate.

_extra portam egredi_—to go outside the gate.

_commeare ad aliquem_—to go in and out of any one's house; to visit

_Romam venire, pervenire_—to come to Rome.

_adventus Romam, in urbem_—arrival in Rome, in town.

_in unum locum convenire, confluere_—to collect together at one spot.

_Romam concurrere_ (Mil. 15. 39)—to stream towards Rome.

_obviam ire alicui_—to meet any one.

_obviam venire alicui_—to go to meet some one.

_obvium_ or _obviam esse, obviam fieri_—to meet some one by chance.

_incidere in aliquem_—to meet, come across a person; to meet casually.

_offendere, nancisci aliquem_—to meet, come across a person; to meet

_obviam alicui aliquem mittere_—to send to meet a person.

[1] _relinquere_, e.g. _domum_, properly means to give up, renounce
the possession or enjoyment of a place.

[2] Cf. especially _decedere (ex, de) provincia_, used regularly of a
magistrate leaving his province on expiry of his term of office.
Similarly, where life is compared to a province, _decedere (de) vita_,
or merely _decedere_ = to quit this life, die (cf. De Sen. 20. 73).

5. Riding—Driving

_curru vehi, in rheda_ (Mil. 21. 55)—to drive.

_equo vehi_—to ride.

_sternere equum_—to saddle a horse.

_conscendere equum_—to mount.

_ascendere in equum_—to mount.

_descendere ex equo_—to dismount.

_in equo sedere; equo insidēre_—to be on horseback.

_(in) equo haerere_—to sit a horse well; to have a good seat.

_calcaria subdere equo_—to put spurs to a horse.

_calcaribus equum concitare_—to put spurs to a horse.

_equo citato_ or _admisso_—at full gallop.

_freno remisso; effusis habenis_—with loose reins.

_equum in aliquem concitare_—ride against any one at full speed;
charge a person.

_habenas adducere_—to tighten the reins.

_habenas permittere_—to slacken the reins.

_admittere, permittere equum_—to give a horse the reins.

_frenos_[1] _dare equo_—to give a horse the reins.

_agitare equum_—to make a horse prance.

_moderari equum_—to manage a horse.

_equi consternantur_—the horses are panic-stricken, run away.

_equos incitatos sustinere_—to bring horses to the halt when at full

[1] Cf. _frenos, calcaria alicui adhibere_, used metaphorically.

6. Walking—Footsteps—Direction

_gradum facere_—to take a step.

_gradum addere_ (sc. _gradui_) (Liv. 26. 9)—to increase one's pace.

_suspenso gradu_—on tiptoe.

_gradum sensim referre_—to retreat step by step.

_vestigia alicuius sequi, persequi_ or _vestigiis aliquem sequi,
persequi_—to follow in any one's steps.

_vestigiis alicuius insistere, ingredi_ (also metaph.)—to follow in
any one's steps.

_loco_ or _vestigio se non movere_—not to stir from one's place.

_recta (regione, via); in directum_—in a straight line.

_in obliquum_—in an oblique direction; sideways.

_obliquo monte decurrere_—to run obliquely down the hill.

_in contrarium; in contrarias partes_—in an opposite direction.

_in transversum, e transverso_—across; transversely.

_quoquo versus; in omnes partes_—in all directions.

_in diversas partes_ or simply _diversi abeunt, discedunt_—they
disperse in different directions.

_huc (et) illuc_—hither and thither.

_ultro citroque_—on this side and on that; to and fro.

_longe lateque, passim_ (e.g. _fluere_)—far and wide; on all sides;

7. Movement in General

_se conferre in aliquem locum_—to go to a place.

_petere locum_—to go to a place

_quo tendis?_—where are you going?

_sublimem_ or _sublime_ (not _in sublime_ or _sublimiter_) _ferri,
abire_—to fly aloft; to be carried into the sky.

_praecipitem ire; in praeceps deferri_—to fall down headlong.

_in profundum deici_—to fall down into the abyss.

_se deicere de muro_—to throw oneself from the ramparts.

_deicere aliquem de saxo Tarpeio_—to throw some one down the Tarpeian

_Nilus praecipitat_[1] _ex altissimis montibus_—the Nile rushes down
from very high mountains.

_se proripere ex domo_—to rush out of the house.

_humi procumbere_—to fall on the ground.

_humi prosternere aliquem_—to throw any one to the ground.

_in terram cadere, decidere_—to fall to the earth.

_in terram demergi_—to sink into the earth.

_appropinquare urbi_, rarely _ad urbem_—to draw near to a city.

_propius accedere ad urbem_ or _urbem_—to advance nearer to the city.

_longius progredi, procedere_—to march further forward.

_Romam versus proficisci_—to advance in the direction of Rome.

_ad Romam proficisci_—to set out for Rome.

_properat, maturat proficisci_—he starts in all haste, precipitately.

_consequi, assequi aliquem_—to catch some one up.

_praecurrere aliquem (celeritate)_—to overtake and pass some one.

_post se relinquere aliquem_—to overtake and pass some one.

_multitudo circumfunditur alicui_—a crowd throngs around some one.

_per totum corpus diffundi_—to spread over the whole body.

[1] _praecipitare_ is also transitive, e.g. _praecipitare aliquem_, to
hurl a person down; _ruere_ always intransitive except in poetry.

8. Time in General

_tempus praeterit, transit_—time passes.

_tempus habere alicui rei_—to have time for a thing.

_tempus mihi deest ad aliquid faciendum_—I have no time to do something.

_tempus consumere in aliqua re_—to pass one's time in doing something.

_tempus terere, conterere (in) aliqua re_—to waste time on something.

_tempus conferre ad aliquid_—to employ one's time in...

_tempus tribuere alicui rei_—to devote time to anything.

_tempus non amittere, perdere_—to lose no time.

_nullum tempus intermittere, quin_ (also _ab opere_, or _ad opus_)—to
devote every spare moment to...; to work without intermission at a

_tempus ducere_—to spend time.

_aliquid in aliud tempus, in posterum differre_—to put off till
another time; to postpone.

_nihil mihi longius est_ or _videtur quam dum_ or _quam ut_—I cannot
wait till...

_nihil mihi longius est quam_ (c. Inf.)—nothing is more tiresome to me

_tempus (spatium) deliberandi_ or _ad deliberandum postulare, dare,
sibi sumere_—to require, give, take time for deliberation.

_paucorum dierum spatium ad deliberandum dare_—to give some one a few
days for reflection.

_tempori servire,_[1] _cedere_—to accommodate oneself to circumstances.

_ex quo tempore_ or simply _ex quo_—since the time that, since (at the
beginning of a sentence).

_eo ipso tempore, cum; tum ipsum, cum_—at the same moment that,
precisely when.

_incidunt tempora, cum_—occasions arise for...

_tempus (ita) fert_ (not _secum_)—circumstances demand.

_tempus maximum est, ut_—it is high time that...

_haec tempora, nostra haec aetas, memoria_—the present day.

_his temporibus, nostra (hac) aetate, nostra memoria, his_ (not
_nostris_) _diebus_—in our time; in our days.

_nostra aetas multas victorias vidit_—our generation has seen many

_memoria patrum nostrorum_—in our fathers' time.

_aetate (temporibus) Periclis_—in the time of Pericles.

_antiquis_[2] _temporibus_—in old days, in the olden time.

_libera re publica_—in the time of the Republic.

_tempora Caesariana_—the imperial epoch.

_media quae vocatur aetas_—the middle ages.

_Pericles summus vir illius aetatis_—Pericles, the greatest man of his

_Pericles, quo nemo tum fuit clarior_—Pericles, the greatest man of
his day.

_Pericles, vir omnium, qui tum fuerunt, clarissimus_—Pericles, the
greatest man of his day.

_vir ut temporibus illis doctus_—a man of considerable learning for
those times.

_tempore progrediente_—in process of time.

_primo quoque tempore_—at the first opportunity.

_hoc tempore_—at this moment.

_puncto temporis_—in an instant.

_momento_[3] _temporis_—at the important moment.

_in ipso discrimine (articulo) temporis_—just at the critical moment.

_temporis causa_—on the spur of the moment.

_ad tempus_[4] _adesse_—to be there at a given time.

_ad exiguum tempus_—for a short time.

_brevis_ or _exigui temporis_—for a short time.

_satis longo intervallo_—after a fairly long interval.

_spatio temporis intermisso_—after some time.

_in praesentia, in praesens (tempus)_—at present; for the moment.

_in posterum; in futurum_—for the future.

_in perpetuum_—for ever.

_semel atque iterum; iterum ac saepius; identidem; etiam atque
etiam_—more than once; repeatedly.

_futura providere_ (not _praevidere_)—to foresee the future.

_futura_ or _casus futuros (multo ante) prospicere_—to foresee the far
distant future.

_futura non cogitare, curare_—to take no thought for the future.

_saeculi_[5] _consuetudo_ or _ratio atque inclinatio temporis
(temporum)_—the spirit of the times, the fashion.

_his moribus_—according to the present custom, fashion.

[1] The verb _servire_ helps to form several phrases, e.g. _servire
valetudini_, to be a valetudinarian; _iracundiae_, to be unable to
restrain one's anger; _brevitati_, to be concise; _communi utilitati_,
to be devoted to the public good, etc.

[2] _antiquitas_ = the state of affairs in times gone by, not a
division of time; so _antiquitatis studia_, archaeology; _veteres_ or
_antiqui poetae, populi_, the poets, people of antiquity; _antiqua
monumenta_, the relics of antiquity. _antiquitates_ plur. is used for
the institutions, usages of times gone by.

[3] _momentum_ (i.e. _movimentum_) is properly that which sets in
motion, which gives a decisive impulse to things, cf. Luc. iv. 819,
_momentumque fuit mutatus Curio rerum_. Livy and later writers employ
the word in the sense of a moment of time.

[4] _ad tempus_ also means (1) according to the circumstances of the
case, e.g. _ad tempus consilium capere_, (2) for a short time,

[5] The _spirit_ of a thing is usually rendered by such words as
_natura, proprietas, ratio atque voluntas_, e.g. the spirit, genius of
a language, _natura_ or _proprietas sermonis_; the spirit of the laws,
_voluntas et sententia legum_.

9. Year—Seasons

_praeterito anno_ (not _praeterlapso_)—in the past year.

_superiore, priore anno_—last year.

_proximo anno_—(1) last year; (2) next year.

_insequenti(e) anno_ (not _sequente_)—in the following year.

_anno_[1] _peracto, circumacto, interiecto, intermisso_—after a year
has elapsed.

_anno vertente_—in the course of the year.

_initio anni, ineunte anno_—at the beginning of the year.

_exeunte, extremo anno_—at the end of the year.

_singulis annis, diebus_—year by year; day by day.

_quinto quoque anno_—every fifth year.

_ad annum_—a year from now.

_amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni_ or _viginti annis_—it is more than
twenty years ago.

_viginti anni et amplius, aut plus_—twenty years and more.

_abhinc (ante) viginti annos_ or _viginti his annis_—twenty years ago.

_quinque anni sunt_ or _sextus annus est, cum te non vidi_—I have not
seen you for five years.

_quinque annos_ or _sextum (iam) annum abest_—he has been absent five

_anno ab urbe condita quinto_—in the fifth year from the founding of
the city.

_commutationes temporum quadripartitae_—the succession of the four

_verno, aestivo, auctumnali, hiberno tempore_—in spring, summer,
autumn, winter time.

_ineunte, primo vere_—at the beginning of spring.

_ver appetit_—spring is approaching.

_suavitas verni temporis_—the charms of spring.

_summa aestate, hieme_—in the height of summer, depth of winter.

_hiems subest_—winter is at hand.

_hiemem tolerare_—to bear the winter.

_anni descriptio_—the division of the year (into months, etc.)

_annus (mensis, dies) intercalaris_—the intercalary year (month, day).

_fasti_—the calender (list of fasts and festivals).

[1] Unless _one_ is emphasised _unus_ is left out with the following
words: _annus, mensis, dies, hora_, and _verbum_.

10. Day—Divisions of the Day

_ante lucem_—before daybreak.

_prima luce_—at daybreak.

_luce (luci)_—in full daylight.

_ubi illuxit, luxit, diluxit_—when it was day.

_lucet_—it is daylight.

_diluculo_—in the morning twilight.

_advesperascit_—evening is drawing on.

_die, caelo vesperascente_—when it is growing dusk; towards evening.

_multus dies_ or _multa lux est_—the day is already far advanced.

_ad multam noctem_—till late at night.

_de nocte, de die_—while it is still night, day.

_multa de nocte_—late at night.

_intempesta, concubia nocte_—in the dead of night; at midnight.

_silentio noctis_—in the silence of the night.

_vicissitudines dierum noctiumque_—the succession of day and night.

_noctes diesque, noctes et dies, et dies et noctes, dies noctesque,
diem noctemque_—night and day.

_tempus matutīnum, meridianum, vespertinum, nocturnum_—morning, noon,
evening, night.

_tempora matutina_—the morning hours.

_in dies (singulos)_—from day to day.

_in diem vivere_—to live from day to day.

_alternis diebus_—every other day.

_quattuor dies continui_—four successive days.

_unus et alter dies_—one or two days.

_dies unus, alter, plures intercesserant_—one, two, several days had
passed, intervened.

_diem proferre_ (Att. 13. 14)—to adjourn, delay.

_biduo serius_[1]—two days late.

_horā citius_—an hour too soon.

_postridie qui fuit dies Non. Sept. (Nonarum Septembrium)_ (Att. 4. 1.
5)—on the day after, which was September 5th.

_hodie qui est dies Non. Sept.; cras qui dies futurus est Non.
Sept._—to-day the 5th of September; tomorrow September the 5th.

_dies hesternus, hodiernus, crastinus_—yesterday, to-day, tomorrow.

_diem dicere colloquio_—to appoint a date for an interview.

_ad diem constitutam_—at the appointed time.

_diem videre, cum..._—to live to see the day when...

_dies dolorem mitigabit_—time will assuage his grief.

_quota hora est?_—what time is it?

_tertia hora est_—it is the third hour (= 9 A.M.)

_ad horam compositam_—at the time agreed on.

[1] Used absolutely "too late" = _sero_; if "too late for," "later
than," always _serius (quam)_.

III. Parts of the Human Body

_omnibus artubus contremiscere_—to tremble in every limb.

_aures claudere, patefacere_ (e.g. _veritati, assentatoribus_)—to turn
a deaf ear to, to open one's ears to...

_aures praebere alicui_—to listen to a person.

_aures alicuius obtundere_ or simply _obtundere (aliquem)_—to din a
thing into a person's ears.

_in aurem alicui dicere (insusurrare) aliquid_—to whisper something in
a person's ears.

_ad aures alicuius_ (not _alicui_) _pervenire, accidere_—to come to
some one's ears.

_aures erigere_—to prick up one's ears.

_oratio in aures influit_—his words find an easy hearing, are listened
to with pleasure.

_aures elegantes, teretes, tritae_ (De Or. 9. 27)—a fine, practised ear.

_neque auribus neque oculis satis consto_—I am losing my eyesight and
getting deaf.

_caput aperire_ (opp. _operire_)—to uncover one's head.

_capite aperto_ (opp. _operto_)—bare-headed.

_capite obvoluto_—with head covered.

_caput demittere_—to bow one's head.

_caput praecīdere_—to cut off a man's head.

_caput_[1] _parieti impingere_—to strike one's head against the wall.

_cervices_ (in Cic. only in plur.) _frangere alicui_ or _alicuius_—to
break a person's neck.

_gladius cervicibus impendet_—a sword hangs over his neck.

_hostis_[2] _in cervicibus alicuius est_—the foe is at our heels, is
upon us.

_promittere crinem, barbam_—to grow one's hair, beard long.

_passis crinibus_—with dishevelled hair.

_capilli horrent_—his hair stands on end.

_capilli compti, compositi_ (opp. _horridi_)—well-ordered,
well-brushed hair.

_extremis digitis aliquid attingere_—to touch with the fingertips.

_frontem contrahere_ (opp. _explicare_)—to frown.

_frontem ferire, percutere_—to beat one's brow.

_in fronte alicuius inscriptum est_—one can see it in his face.

_ab alicuius latere non discedere_—to be always at a person's side.

_a latere regis esse_—to belong to the king's bodyguard.

_manum (dextram) alicui porrigere_—to give one's hand to some one.

_manum non vertere alicuius rei causa_[3]—to make not the slightest
effort; not to stir a finger.

_manus inicere, inferre, afferre alicui_—to lay violent hands on a

_manus tollere_—to raise one's hands in astonishment.

_manus dare_—to own oneself conquered, surrender.

_manu ducere aliquem_—to lead some one by the hand.

_manu_ or _in manu tenere aliquid_—to hold something in one's hand.

_in manibus habere aliquid_ (also metaphorically)—to have something in
one's hands, on hand.

_de manu in manus_ or _per manus tradere aliquid_—to pass a thing from
hand to hand.

_ex_ or _de manibus alicui_ or _alicuius extorquere aliquid_—to wrest
from a person's hand.

_e manibus dimittere_—to let go from one's hands.

_in alicuius manus venire, pervenire_—to come into some one's hands.

_in alicuius manus incidere_—to fall unexpectedly into some one's hands.

_in manus(m) sumere aliquid_—to take something into one's hands.

_in manibus_[4] _aliquem gestare_—to carry in one's arms.

_e (de) manibus effugere_,[5] _elābi_—to slip, escape from the hands.

_inter manus auferre aliquem_—to carry some one away in one's arms.

_compressis manibus sedere_ (proverb.) (Liv. 7. 13)—to sit with folded
arms; to be inactive.

_mordicus tenere aliquid_—to hold fast in the teeth (also
metaphorically, obstinately).

_oculos conicere in aliquem_—to turn one's gaze on; to regard.

_oculos circumferre_—to look in every direction.

_in omnes partes aciem (oculorum) intendere_—to gaze intently all

_omnium oculos (et ora) ad se convertere_—to draw every one's eyes
upon one.

_omnium animos_ or _mentes in se convertere_—to attract universal

_conspici, conspicuum esse aliqua re_—to make oneself conspicuous.

_oculos_ (_aures, animum_[6]) _advertere ad aliquid_—to turn one's
eyes (ears, attention) towards an object.

_oculi in vultu alicuius habitant_—his eyes are always fixed on some
one's face.

_oculos figere in terra_ and _in terram_—to keep one's eyes on the

_oculos pascere aliqua re_ (also simply _pasci aliqua re_)—to feast
one's eyes with the sight of...

_oculos deicere, removere ab aliqua re_—to turn one's gaze away from
an object.

_oculos operire (morienti)_[7]—to close the eyes of a dying person.

_oculorum aciem alicui praestringere_ (also simply _praestringere_)—to
dazzle a person.

_oculos, lumina amittere_—to lose one's sight.

_oculis privare aliquem_—to deprive a person of his eyes.

_luminibus orbare aliquem_—to deprive a person of his eyes.

_oculis captum esse_[8] (_vid._ sect. IV. 6., note _auribus,
oculis..._)—to be blind.

_ante oculos aliquid versatur_—something presents itself to my vision.

_oculis, ante oculos (animo) proponere aliquid_—to picture a thing to
oneself; to imagine.

_ante oculos vestros_ (not _vobis_) _res gestas proponite_—picture to
yourselves the circumstances.

_cernere et videre aliquid_—to see clearly, distinctly.

_oculis mentis videre aliquid_—to see with the mind's eye.

_in oculis aliquem ferre_—to cherish as the apple of one's eye.

_aliquis est mihi in oculis_—to cherish as the apple of one's eye.

_abire ex oculis, e conspectu alicuius_—to go out of sight, disappear.

_venire in conspectum alicuius_—to come in sight.

_se in conspectum dare alicui_—to show oneself to some one.

_fugere alicuius conspectum, aspectum_—to keep out of a person's sight.

_in conspectu omnium_ or _omnibus inspectantibus_—before every one, in
the sight of the world.

_omnia uno aspectu, conspectu intueri_—to take in everything at a

_non apparere_—to have disappeared.

_pedibus obterere, conculcare_—to trample under foot.

_ad pedes alicuius accidere_—to fall at some one's feet.

_ad pedes alicuius se proicere, se abicere, procumbere, se
prosternere_—to throw oneself at some one's feet.

_ad pedes alicuius iacēre, stratum esse (stratum iacēre)_—to prostrate
oneself before a person.

_quod ante pedes est_ or _positum est, non videre_—to fail to see what
lies before one.

_sanguine manare, redundare_—to drip blood; to be deluged with blood.

_vultum fingere_—to dissemble, disguise one's feelings.

_vultus ficti simulatique_—a feigned expression.

_vultum componere ad severitatem_—to put on a stern air.

_vultum non mutare_—to keep one's countenance, remain impassive.

[1] _caput_ has several metaphorical meanings, e.g. _capita
coniurationis_ (Liv. 9. 26), the leaders of the conspiracy; _caput
Graeciae_, the capital of Greece; _caput cenae_, the chief dish;
_capita legis_, the headings, clauses of a law; _id quod caput est_,
the main point; _de capite deducere_ (Liv. 6. 15), to subtract from
the capital; _capitis periculum_, mortal peril; _capitis deminutio_
(_maxima, media, minima_) (Liv. 22. 60), deprivation of civil rights.
_caput_ is often combined with _fons_ = source, origin, e.g. _ille
fons et caput Socrates_ (Cic. De. Or. 1. 42); _in aegritudine est fons
miseriarum et caput_ (Cic.) By metonymy _caput_ is used with _liberum_
(and _noxium_) (Verr. 2. 32. 79) with the meaning of a free (guilty)
person, individual.

[2] Cf. _velut in cervicibus habere hostem_ (Liv. 44. 39); _bellum
ingens in cervicibus est_ (Liv. 22. 33. 6).

[3] Cf. _ne digitum quidem porrigere alicuius rei causa_.

[4] Notice too _liberos de parentum complexu avellere_ (Verr. 2. 1. 3.
7), to snatch children from their parents' "arms" (not _brachium_), so
_in alicuius complexu mori_; _in alicuius complexu haerere_. _medium
aliquem amplecti_, to take to one's arms, embrace; _libentissimo animo
accipere_, to welcome with open arms.

[5] Distinguish _effugere aliquid_, to escape the touch of, e.g.
_invidiam, mortem_; and _effugere ex aliqua re_, to escape from a
position one is already in, e.g. _e carcere, e caede, e praelio_.
Notice _fugit me_, it escapes my notice.

[6] _animum advertere aliquid_ = _animadvertere aliquid_ = to notice a
thing; _animadvertere in aliquem_ = to punish a person.

[7] To shut one's eyes to a thing, _conivere in aliqua re_.

[8] Cf. _caecatus, occaecatus cupiditate, stultitia_.

IV. Properties of the Human Body

1. Feelings—Sensations—Powers

_sensus sani, integri, incorrupti_—sound, unimpaired senses.

_sensibus praeditum esse_—to be endowed with sense.

_sensu audiendi carere_—not to possess the sense of hearing.

_sub sensum_ or _sub oculos, sub aspectum cadere_—to come within the
sphere of the senses.

_sensibus_ or _sub sensus subiectum esse_—to come within the sphere of
the senses.

_sensibus percipi_—to be perceptible to the senses.

_res sensibus_ or _oculis subiectae_ (De Fin. 5. 12. 36)—the world of
sense, the visible world.

_res quas oculis cernimus_—the world of sense, the visible world.

_res externae_—the world of sense, the visible world.

_sensus movere_ (more strongly _pellere_)—to make an impression on the

_aliquid sensus suaviter afficit_—a thing makes a pleasant impression
on the senses.

_aliquid sensus iucunditate perfundit_—a thing makes a pleasant
impression on the senses.

_pulsu externo, adventicio agitari_—to be affected by some external
impulse, by external impressions.

_sevocare mentem a sensibus_ (De Nat. D. 3. 8. 21)—to free one's mind
from the influences of the senses.

_aliquid a sensibus meis abhorret_—something offends my instincts,
goes against the grain.

_vires corporis_ or merely _vires_—bodily strength.

_vires colligere_—to gain strength.

_vires aliquem deficiunt_—to lose strength.

_dum vires suppetunt_—as long as one's strength holds out.

_bonis esse viribus_—to be robust, vigorous.

_pro viribus_ or _pro mea parte_—as well as I can; to the best of my

_pro virili parte_[1] (cf. sect. V. 22.)—as well as I can; to the best
of my ability.

[1] _pro virili parte_ is distinct from the other expressions, as
implying more assurance and confidence on the part of the speaker.

2. Birth—Life

_in lucem edi_—to see the light, come into the world.

_ei, propter quos hanc lucem aspeximus_—those to whom we owe our being.

_tollere_[1] or _suscipere liberos_—to accept as one's own child; to
make oneself responsible for its nurture and education.

_aliquem in liberorum loco habere_—to treat as one's own child.

_sexus_ (not _genus_) _virilis, muliebris_—the male, female sex.

_patre, (e) matre natus_—son of such and such a father, mother.

_Cato Uticensis ortus erat a Catone Censorio_—Cato of Utica was a
direct descendant of Cato the Censor.

_originem ab aliquo trahere, ducere_—to trace one's descent from some

_Romae natus, (a) Roma oriundus_—a native of Rome.

_cuias es_—what country do you come from?

_natione, genere Anglus_—an Englishman by birth.

_ortus ab Anglis_ or _oriundus ex Anglis_—a native of England.

_urbs patria_ or simply _patria_—native place.

_animam, spiritum ducere_—to breathe, live.

_aera spiritu ducere_—to breathe the air.

_animam continere_—to hold one's breath.

_cursu exanimari_ (B.G. 2. 23. 1)—to run till one is out of breath.

_spiritum intercludere alicui_—to suffocate a person.

_in vita esse_—to be alive.

_vita_ or _hac luce frui_—to enjoy the privilege of living; to be alive.

_vitam beatam (miseram) degere_—to live a happy (unhappy) life.

_vitam, aetatem (omnem aetatem, omne aetatis tempus) agere (honeste,
ruri, in litteris), degere, traducere_—to live (all) one's life
(honourably, in the country, as a man of learning).

_dum vita suppetit; dum (quoad) vivo_—as long as I live.

_si vita mihi suppeditat_[2]—if I live till then.

_si vita suppetit_—if I live till then.

_quod reliquum est vitae_—the rest of one's life.

_vitae cursum_ or _curriculum_[3] _conficere_—to finish one's career.

_Homerus fuit_[4] _multis annis ante Romam conditam_—Homer lived many
years before the foundation of Rome.

[1] It was the custom for a Roman father to lift up his new-born
child, which was laid on the ground at his feet; hence the expression
_tollere, suscipere_.

[2] _suppeditare_ (1) transitive, to supply sufficiently; (2) intrans.
to be present in sufficient quantities = _suppetere_.

[3] _vitae (vivendi) cursus_ or _curriculum_ = life,
career—considering its duration, length. Life = biography is not
_curriculum vitae_, but simply _vita, vitae descriptio_.

[4] To live, speaking chronologically, is _esse_; _vivere_ denotes to
be alive, pass one's life, e.g. _laute, in otio_.

3. Time of Life

(The terms for the different ages of man are _infans, puer,
adulescens, iuvenis, senior, senex, grandis natu_.)

_ea aetate, id aetatis esse_—to be of such and such an age.

_a puero (is), a parvo (is), a parvulo (is)_—from youth up.

_a teneris unguiculis_ (ἐξ ἁπαλων ὀνύχων) (Fam. 1. 6. 2)—from one's
cradle, from one's earliest childhood.

_ab ineunte (prima) aetate_ (De Or. 1. 21. 97)—from one's entry into
civil life.

_ex pueris excedere_—to leave one's boyhood behind one, become a man.

_flos aetatis_—the prime of youthful vigour.

_aetate florere, vigere_—to be in the prime of life.

_integra aetate esse_—to be in the prime of life.

_adulescentia deferbuit_—the fires of youth have cooled.

_aetate progrediente_—with advancing years.

_aetate ingravescente_—with the weight, weakness of declining years.

_aetas constans, media, firmata, corroborata_ (not _virilis_)—manhood.

_grandior factus_—having reached man's estate.

_corroborata, firmata aetate_—having reached man's estate.

_sui iuris factum esse_—to have become independent, be no longer a

_aetate provectum esse_ (not _aetate provecta_)—to be advanced in years.

_longius aetate provectum esse_—to be more advanced in years.

_grandis natu_—aged.

_aetate affecta esse_—to be infirm through old age.

_vires consenescunt_—to become old and feeble.

_senectute, senio confectum esse_—to be worn out by old age.

_exacta aetate mori_—to die at a good old age.

_ad summam senectutem pervenire_—to live to a very great age.

_senectus nobis obrēpit_—old age creeps on us insensibly.

_admodum adulescens, senex_—still quote a young (old) man.

_extrema aetas_—the last stage of life, one's last days.

_extremum tempus aetatis_—the last stage of life, one's last days.

_vita occidens_—the evening of life.

_aequalem esse alicuius_—to be a contemporary of a person.

_maior (natu)_—the elder

_aetate alicui antecedere, anteire_—to be older than.

_quot annos natus es?_—how old are you?

_qua aetate es?_—how old are you?

_tredecim annos natus sum_—I am thirteen years old.

_tertium decimum annum ago_—I am in my thirteenth year.

_puer decem annorum_—a boy ten years old.

_decimum aetatis annum ingredi_—to be entering on one's tenth year.

_decem annos vixisse_—to be ten years old.

_decimum annum excessisse, egressum esse_—to be more than ten years
old, to have entered on one's eleventh year.

_minorem esse viginti annis_—to be not yet twenty.

_tum habebam decem annos_—I was ten years old at the time.

_centum annos complere_—to reach one's hundredth year, to live to be a

_vitam ad annum centesimum perducere_—to reach one's hundredth year,
to live to be a hundred.

_accessio paucorum annorum_—the addition of a few years.

_tertiam iam aetatem videre_—to be middle-aged (_i.e._ between thirty
and forty).

_in aetatem alicuius, in annum incidere_—to happen during a person's
life, year of office.

_omnium suorum_ or _omnibus suis superstitem esse_—to outlive, survive
all one's kin.

_homines qui nunc sunt_ (opp. _qui tunc fuerunt_)—our contemporaries;
men of our time.

_homines huius aetatis, nostrae memoriae_—our contemporaries; men of
our time.


_scriptores aetate posteriores_ or _inferiores_—later writers.

4. Hunger—Thirst

_esurire_—to be hungry.

_fame laborare, premi_—to be tormented by hunger, to be starving.

_famem tolerare, sustentare_—to endure the pangs of hunger.

_inediā mori_ or _vitam finire_—to starve oneself to death.

_fame confici, perire, interire_—to die of starvation.

_fame necari_—to be starved to death (as punishment).

_famem, sitim explere_—to allay one's hunger, thirst.

_famem sitimque depellere cibo et potione_—to allay one's hunger,

_siti cruciari, premi_—to suffer agonies of thirst.

_sitim colligere_—to become thirsty.

_sitim haustu gelidae aquae sedare_—to slake one's thirst by a draught
of cold water.

_famis et sitis_[1] _patientem esse_—to be able to endure hunger and

[1] _sitis_ is also used metaphorically—e.g. _libertatis sitis_ (Rep.
1. 43. 66), so _sitire_—e.g. _honores_ (De Fin. 4. 5. 3), _libertatem_
(Rep. 1. 43. 66), _sanguinem_ (Phil. 2. 7. 20). The participle
_sitiens_ takes the Gen.—e.g. _sitiens virtutis_ (Planc. 5. 13).

5. Laughter—Tears

_risum edere, tollere_[1]—to begin to laugh.

_cachinnum tollere, edere_—to burst into a roar of laughter.

_risum movere, concitare_—to raise a laugh.

_risum elicere_ (more strongly _excutere_) _alicui_—to make a person

_risum captare_—to try and raise a laugh.

_risum tenere vix posse_—to be scarcely able to restrain one's laughter.

_risum aegre continere posse_—to be scarcely able to restrain one's

_aliquid in risum vertere_—to make a thing ridiculous, turn it into a

_lacrimas, vim lacrimarum effundere, profundere_—to burst into a flood
of tears.

_in lacrimas effundi_ or _lacrimis perfundi_—to be bathed in tears.

_lacrimis obortis_—with tears in one's eyes.

_multis cum lacrimis_—with many tears.

_magno cum fletu_—with many tears.

_lacrimas tenere non posse_—to be hardly able to restrain one's tears.

_fletum cohibere non posse_—to be hardly able to restrain one's tears.

_vix mihi tempero quin lacrimem_—to be hardly able to restrain one's

_vix me contineo quin lacrimem_—to be hardly able to restrain one's

_lacrimas_ or _fletum alicui movere_—to move to tears.

_prae lacrimis loqui non posse_—to be unable to speak for emotion.

_gaudio lacrimare_—to weep for joy.

_hinc illae lacrimae_ (proverb.) (Ter. And. 1. 1. 99; Cael. 25.
61)—hence these tears; there's the rub.

_lacrimula_ (Planc. 31. 76)—crocodiles' tears.

_lacrimae simulatae_—crocodiles' tears.

[1] Not _in risum erumpere_, which only occurs in late Latin. However,
_risus, vox, fletus erumpit_ is classical, similarly _indignatio_
(Liv. 4. 50), _furor, cupiditates_ (Cael. 12. 28).

6. Health—Sickness

_bona (firma, prospera) valetudine_[1] _esse_ or _uti_ (_vid._ sect.
VI. 8., note _uti..._)—to enjoy good health.

_valetudini consulere, operam dare_—to take care of one's health.

_firma corporis constitutio_ or _affectio_—a good constitution.

_infirma, aegra valetudine esse_ or _uti_—to be ill, weakly.

_in morbum incidit_—he fell ill.

_aegrotare coepit_—he fell ill.

_morbo tentari_ or _corripi_—to be attacked by disease.

_morbo afflīgi_—to be laid on a bed of sickness.

_lecto teneri_—to be confined to one's bed.

_vehementer, graviter aeogratare, iacēre_—to be seriously ill.

_gravi morbo affectum esse, conflictari, vexari_—to be seriously ill.

_leviter aegrotare, minus valere_—to be indisposed.

_aestu et febri iactari_—to have a severe attack of fever.

_omnibus membris captum esse_[2]—to be affected by disease in every
limb; to be paralysed.

_ex pedibus laborare, pedibus aegrum esse_—to have the gout.

_pestilentia_ (not _pestis_) _in urbem (populum) invadit_—the plague
breaks out in the city.

_animus relinquit aliquem_—a man loses his senses, becomes unconscious.

_morbus ingravescit_[3]—the disease gets worse.

_morbo absūmi_ (Sall. Iug. 5. 6)—to be carried off by a disease.

_assidēre aegroto_ (Liv. 25. 26)—to watch by a sick man's bedside.

_aegrotum curare_—to treat as a patient (used of a doctor).

_curationes_—method of treatment.

_aegrotum sanare_ (not _curare_)—to cure a patient.

_ex morbo convalescere_ (not _reconvalescere_)—to recover from a

_e gravi morbo recreari_ or _se colligere_—to recruit oneself after a
severe illness.

_melius ei factum est_—he feels better.

_valetudinem (morbum) excusare_[4] (Liv. 6. 22. 7)—to excuse oneself
on the score of health.

_valetudinis excusatione uti_—to excuse oneself on the score of health.

[1] _valetudo_ is a neutral term = state of health. _sanitas_ =
soundness of mind, reason—e.g. _ad sanitatem reverti_, to recover
one's reason.

[2] Note _auribus, oculis, captum esse_, to be deaf, blind; _mente
captum esse_, to be mad.

[3] The comparative and superlative of _aeger_ and _aegrotus_ are not
used in this connection, they are replaced by such phrases as
_vehementer, graviter aegrotare, morbus ingravescit_, etc.

[4] But _se excusare alicui_ or _apud aliquem_ (_de_ or _in aliqua
re_) = to excuse oneself to some one about a thing.

7. Sleep—Dreams

_cubitum ire_—to go to bed.

_somno_ or _quieti se tradere_—to lay oneself down to sleep

_somnum capere non posse_—to be unable to sleep.

_curae somnum mihi adimunt, dormire me non sinunt_—I cannot sleep for

_somnum oculis meis non vidi_ (Fam. 7. 30)—I haven't had a wink of

_arte, graviter dormire (ex lassitudine)_—to sleep soundly (from

_artus somnus aliquem complectitur_ (Rep. 6. 10)—to fall fast asleep.

_somno captum, oppressum esse_—to be overcome by sleep.

_sopītum esse_—to be sound asleep.

_in lucem dormire_—to sleep on into the morning.

_somno solvi_—to awake.

_(e) somno excitare, dormientem excitare_—to rouse, wake some one.

_e lecto_ or _e cubīli surgere_—to rise from one's bed, get up.

_per somnum, in somnis_—in a dream.

_per quietem, in quiete_—in a dream.

_in somnis videre aliquid_ or _speciem_—to see something in a dream.

_in somnis visus (mihi) sum videre_—I dreamed I saw...

_species mihi dormienti oblata est_—I saw a vision in my dreams.

_somnium verum evādit_ (Div. 2. 53. 108)—my dream is coming true.

_somnium interpretari_—to explain a dream.

_somniorum interpres, coniector_—an interpreter of dreams.

_somniare de aliquo_—to dream of a person.

8. Death

_(de) vita decedere_ or merely _decedere_—to depart this life.

_(ex) vita excedere, ex vita abire_—to depart this life.

_de vita exire, de (ex) vita migrare_—to depart this life.

_mortem (diem supremum) obire_—to depart this life.

_supremo vitae die_—on one's last day.

_animam edere_ or _efflare_—to give up the ghost.

_extremum vitae spiritum edere_—to give up the ghost.

_animam agere_—to be at one's last gasp.

_mors immatura_ or _praematura_—an untimely death.

_mature decedere_—to die young.

_subita morte exstingui_—to be cut off by sudden death.

_necessaria_ (opp. _voluntaria_) _morte mori_—to die a natural death.

_morbo perire, absūmi, consūmi_—to die a natural death.

_debitum naturae reddere_[1] (Nep. Reg. 1)—to die a natural death.

_mortem sibi consciscere_[2]—to commit suicide.

_se vita privare_—to take one's own life.

_manus, vim sibi afferre_—to lay hands on oneself.

_vitae finem facere_—to put an end to one's life.

_talem vitae exitum_ (not _finem_) _habuit_ (Nep. Eum. 13)—such was
the end of... (used of a violent death).

_mortem oppetere_—to meet death (by violence).

_mortem occumbere pro patria_—to die for one's country.

_sanguinem suum pro patria effundere_ or _profundere_—to shed one's
blood for one's fatherland.

_vitam profundere pro patria_—to sacrifice oneself for one's country.

_se morti offerre pro salute patriae_—to sacrifice oneself for one's

_dare venenum in pane_—to give a person poison in bread.

_venenum sumere, bibere_—to take poison.

_veneno sibi mortem consciscere_—to poison oneself.

_poculum mortis (mortiferum) exhaurire_ (Cluent. 11. 31)—to drain the
cup of poison.

_potestas vitae necisque_—power over life and death.

_plagam extremam_ or _mortiferam infligere_—to inflict a death-blow.

_e_ or _de medio tollere_—to remove a person.

_perii! actum est de me!_ (Ter. Ad. 3. 2. 26)—I'm undone! it's all up
with me!

[1] _sua morte defungi_ or _mori_ is late Latin, cf. Inscr. Orell.
3453, _debitum naturae persolvit_.

[2] _se interficere, se occidere, se necare_ are rare. During the
classic period, when suicide was not common, _ipse_ is often
added—e.g. _Crassum se ipsum interemisse_ (Cic. Scaur. 2. 16),
_Lucretia se ipsa interemit_ (Fin. 2. 20. 66); but later, when suicide
had become frequent, _se interemit; nonnulli semet interemerunt_
(Suet. Iul. 89), etc., occur commonly.

9. Burial

_funere efferri_ or simply _efferri_ (_publice; publico, suo
sumptu_)—to be interred (at the expense of the state, at one's own

_sepultura aliquem afficere_—to bury a person.

_iusta facere, solvere alicui_—to perform the last rites for a person.

_supremo officio in aliquem fungi_—to perform the last rites for a

_funus alicui facere, ducere_ (Cluent. 9. 28)—to carry out the funeral

_funus alicuius exsequi_—to attend a person's funeral.

_exsequias alicuius funeris prosequi_—to attend a person's funeral.

_supremis officiis aliquem prosequi_ (_vid_ sect. VI. 11., note
_Prosequi..._)—to perform the last offices of affection.

_mortuum in sepulcro condere_—to entomb a dead body.

_aliquem mortuum_[1] _cremare_ (Sen. 23. 84)—to burn a corpse.

_pompa funebris_—a funeral procession.

_funus_ or _exsequias celebrare_—to celebrate the obsequies.

_ludos funebres alicui dare_—to give funeral games in honour of a

_oratio funebris_[2]—a funeral oration.

_sepulturae honore carere_—to be deprived of the rites of burial.

_iustis exsequiarum carere_—to be deprived of the rites of burial.

_elogium in sepulcro incisum_—the epitaph.

_sepulcro_ (Dat.) or _in sepulcro hoc inscriptum est_—this is the
inscription on his tomb...

_hic situs est..._—here lies...

_aliquem in rogum imponere_—to place on the funeral-pyre.

_proiici inhumatum (in publicum)_—to be cast out unburied.

[1] "Corpse" usually = _corpus mortui_ or simply _corpus_. _cadaver_
is a corpse which has begun to decompose.

[2] For eulogy, panegyric, use _laudatio funebris_ or simply
_laudatio_, cf. Mil. 13. 33; Liv. 5. 50.

V. Human Life; its various Relations and Conditions

1. Circumstance—Situation—Difficulty

_res humanae_ or simply _res_—human life.

_haec est rerum humanarum condicio_—that is the way of the world; such
is life.

_sic vita hominum est_—that is the way of the world; such is life.

_ita (ea lege, ea condicione) nati sumus_—this is our natural
tendency, our destiny; nature compels us.

_res externas_ or _humanas despicere_—to despise earthly things.

_res humanas infra se positas arbitrari_—to feel superior to the
affairs of life.

_meliore (deteriore) condicione esse, uti_—to find one's circumstances
altered for the better (the worse).

_condicio ac fortuna hominum infimi generis_—the position of the lower

_res meae meliore loco, in meliore causa sunt_—my position is
considerably improved; my prospects are brighter.

_meliorem in statum redigor_—my position is considerably improved; my
prospects are brighter.

_aliquem in antiquum statum, in pristinum restituere_—to restore a man
to his former position.

_in tanta rerum (temporum) iniquitate_—under such unfavourable

_res dubiae, perditae, afflictae_—a critical position; a hopeless
state of affairs.

_in angustias adducere aliquem_—to place some one in an embarrassing

_in angustiis, difficultatibus, esse_ or _versari_—to be in a dilemma;
in difficulties.

_angustiis premi, difficultatibus affici_—to be in a dilemma; in

_agitur praeclare, bene cum aliquo_—so-and-so is in a very
satisfactory position; prospers.

_res ita est, ita (sic) se habet_—the facts are these; the matter
stands thus.

_eadem (longe alia) est huius rei ratio_—the case is exactly similar
(entirely different).

_hoc longe aliter, secus est_—this is quite another matter.

_res (ita) fert_—circumstances make this necessary; the exigencies of
the case are these.

_pro re (nata), pro tempore_—according to circumstances.

_pro tempore et pro re_—according to circumstances.

_res eo_ or _in eum locum deducta est, ut..._—the matter has gone so
far that...; the state of affairs is such that...

_quo loco res tuae sunt?_—how are you getting on?

_eadem est causa mea_ or _in eadem causa sum_—my circumstances have
not altered.

_si quid (humanitus) mihi accidat_ or _acciderit_—if anything should
happen to me; if I die.

_quae cum ita sint_—under such circumstances.

_utcumque res ceciderit_—whatever happens; in any case.

2. Commencement—End—Result

_initium capere; incipere ab aliqua re_—to begin with a thing.

_initium facere, ducere, sumere (alicuius rei)_—to commence a thing.

_ab exiguis initiis proficisci_—to start from small beginnings.

_parare_ with Inf.—to prepare to do a thing.

_aggredi ad aliquid faciendum_—to prepare to do a thing.

_incunabula_[1] _doctrinae_—the origin, first beginnings of learning.

_finem facere alicuius rei_—to finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a

_finem imponere, afferre, constituere alicui rei_—to finish, complete,
fulfil, accomplish a thing.

_ad finem aliquid adducere_—to finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a

_ad exitum aliquid perducere_—to finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish
a thing.

_finem habere_—to come to an end.

_aliquid (bene, prospere) succedit_ or _procedit_ (opp. _parum
procedere, non succedere_)—the matter progresses favourably, succeeds.

_eventum, exitum (felicem) habere_—to turn out (well); to result

_quorsum haec res cadet_ or _evadet?_—what will be the issue, end,
consequence of the matter?

_ad irritum redigere aliquid_—to frustrate, nullify.

_res aliter cecidit ac putaveram_—the result has surprised me; I was
not prepared for this development.

_quid illo fiet?_—what will become of him?

_quid huic homini_ (also _hoc homine_) _faciam?_—what am I to do with
this fellow?

[1] _incunabula_ literally swaddling-clothes. _cunabula_, cradle, is
not used in this metaphorical sense except in post-Augustan Latin.

3. Cause—Motive—Origin

_causam afferre_—to quote as a reason; give as excuse.

_iustis de_[1] _causis_—for valid reasons.

_magnae (graves) necessariae causae_—cogent, decisive reasons.

_non sine causa_—on good grounds; reasonably.

_quid causae fuit cur...?_—how came it that...?

_causa posita est in aliqua re_—the motive, cause, is to be found in...

_causa repetenda est ab aliqua re_ (not _quaerenda_)—the motive,
cause, is to be found in...

_multae causae me impulerunt ad aliquid_ or _ut..._—I was induced by
several considerations to...

_causam interponere_ or _interserere_—to interpose, put forward an
argument, a reason.

_praetendere, praetexere aliquid_—to make something an excuse, pretext.

_causam idoneam nancisci_—to find a suitable pretext.

_per causam_ (with Gen.)—under the pretext, pretence of...

_causae rerum et consecutiones_—cause and effect.

_causae extrinsecus allatae_ (opp. _in ipsa re positae_)—extraneous

_rerum causae aliae ex aliis nexae_—concatenation, interdependence of

_ex parvis saepe magnarum rerum momenta pendent_—important results are
often produced by trivial causes.

_ex aliqua re nasci, manare_—to originate in, arise from.

_ab aliqua re proficisci_—to originate in, arise from.

_ex aliqua re redundare_ (_in_ or _ad aliquid_)—to accrue in great

_utilitas efflorescit ex aliqua re_—untold advantages arise from a

_e fontibus haurire_ (opp. _rivulos consectari_ or _fontes non
videre_)—to draw from the fountain-head.

_haec ex eodem fonte fluunt, manant_—these things have the same origin.

_fons et caput_ (_vid._ sect. III., note _caput..._)—source, origin.

[1] Notice the order; so regularly _ea_ and _qua de causa_; but _ob
eam causam_ not _eam ob causam_. For the meaning of _iustus_ cf. xvi.
5 _bellum iustum_ and xvi. 10a _praelium iustum_.

4. Regard—Importance—Influence—Power—Inclination

_rationem habere alicuius rei_—to have regard for; take into

_respicere_[1] _aliquid_—to have regard for; take into consideration.

_quo in genere_—from this point of view; similarly.

_multis rebus_ or _locis_—in many respects; in many points.

_in utraque re_—in both cases; whichever way you look at it.

_ceteris rebus_ (not _cetera_)—as regards the rest; otherwise.

_omni ex parte; in omni genere; omnibus rebus_—from every point of
view; looked at in every light.

_aliqua ex parte_—to a certain extent.

_aliquatenus_—to a certain extent.

_magni (nullius) momenti esse_—to be of great (no) importance.

_momentum afferre ad aliquid_—to determine the issue of; to turn the

_pertinere ad aliquid_—to be essentially important to a thing.

_hoc nihil ad sapientem pertinet_—a wise man is in no way affected by

_hoc in sapientem non cadit_—it is incompatible with the nature of a
wise man; the wise are superior to such things.

_multum valere ad aliquid_—to contribute much towards...; to affect
considerably; to be instrumental in...

_multum afferre ad aliquid_—to contribute much towards...; to affect
considerably; to be instrumental in...

_magnam vim habere ad aliquid_—to have considerable influence on a

_positum, situm esse in aliqua re_—to depend upon a thing.

_contineri aliqua re_[2]—to depend upon a thing.

_consistere in aliqua re_—to depend upon a thing.

_pendēre ex aliqua re_—to depend upon a thing.

_in te omnia sunt_—everything depends on you.

_in ea re omnia vertuntur_—all depends on this; this is the decisive

_constare ex aliqua re_—to be composed of; to consist of.

_cernitur (in) aliqua re_ (not _ex aliqua re_)—it is evident from...

_in manu, in potestate alicuius situm, positum esse_—to be in a
person's power.

_penes aliquem esse_—to be in a person's power.

_res integra_[3] _est_—the matter is still undecided; it is an open

_res mihi integra est_—I have not yet committed myself.

_mihi non est integrum, ut..._—it is no longer in my power.

_integrum (causam integram) sibi reservare_—to leave the question
open; to refuse to commit oneself.

_penes te arbitrium huius rei est_—the decision of the question rests
with you.

_arbitrio alicuius omnia permittere_—to put the matter entirely in
some one's hands.

_omnium rerum arbitrium alicui permittere_—to put the matter entirely
in some one's hands.

_arbitratu, arbitrio tuo_—just as you wish.

[1] But _respicere ad aliquid (aliquem)_ = to look round at an object.

[2] _contineri aliqua re_ also means (1) to be bounded by..., e.g.
_oceano_; (2) to be limited, restricted to, e.g. _moenibus_.

[3] The proper meaning of _integer_ (_in-TAG, tango_) is untouched,

5. Opportunity—Possibility—Occasion—Chance

_occasio datur, offertur_—a favourable[1] opportunity presents itself.

_occasione data, oblata_—when occasion offers; as opportunity occurs.

_per occasionem_—when occasion offers; as opportunity occurs.

_quotienscunque occasio oblata est; omnibus locis_—on every occasion;
at every opportunity.

_occasionem alicui dare, praebere alicuius rei_ or _ad aliquid
faciendum_—to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing.

_facultatem alicui dare alicuius rei_ or _ut possit..._—to give a man
the opportunity of doing a thing.

_potestatem,_[2] _copiam alicui dare, facere_ with Gen. gerund.—to
give a man the opportunity of doing a thing.

_occasionem nancisci_—to get, meet with, a favourable opportunity.

_occasione uti_—to make use of, avail oneself of an opportunity.

_occasionem praetermittere, amittere_ (through carelessness),
_omittere_ (deliberately), _dimittere_ (through indifference)—to lose,
let slip an opportunity.

_occasioni deesse_[3]—to neglect an opportunity.

_occasionem arripere_—to seize an opportunity.

_facultatem, potestatem alicui eripere, adimere_—to deprive a man of
the chance of doing a thing.

_nulla est facultas alicuius rei_—no opportunity of carrying out an
object presents itself.

_locum dare suspicioni_—to give ground for suspicion.

_ansas dare ad reprehendum, reprehensionis_—to give occasion for
blame; to challenge criticism.

_ansam habere reprehensionis_—to contain, afford matter for criticism.

_adduci aliqua re_ (_ad aliquid_ or _ut..._)—to be induced by a

_nescio quo casu_ (with Indic.)—by some chance or other.

_temere et fortuito; forte (et) temere_—quite accidentally,

[1] Not _occasio opportuna, bona, pulchra_, the notion "favourable"
being contained in the word itself. We find, however, _occasio
praeclara, ampla, tanta_, not unfrequently.

[2] Notice _potestatem alicui pugnandi facere_, to offer battle, and
_potestatem sui facere alicui_, (1) to give opportunity of battle, and
also (2) to grant an audience to (cf. _sui conveniendi potestatem

[3] In the same way _deesse officio_, to leave one's duties undone;
_d. muneri_, to neglect the claims of one's vocation; _d. rei
publicae_, to be careless of state interests, to be unpatriotic; _d.
sibi_, not to do one's best.

6. Success—Good Fortune

_fortuna secunda uti_—to be fortunate, lucky.

_fortunae favore_ or _prospero flatu fortunae uti_ (_vid._ sect. VI.
8., note _uti..._)—to be favoured by Fortune; to bask in Fortune's

_fortunam fautricem nancisci_—to be favoured by Fortune; to bask in
Fortune's smiles.

_fortuna caecos homines efficit, animos occaecat_—Fortune makes men
shortsighted, infatuates them.

_fortunam tentare, experiri_—to try one's luck.

_fortunam periclitari (periculum facere)_—to run a risk; to tempt

_fortunae se committere_—to trust to luck.

_fortunam in manibus habere_—to have success in one's grasp.

_fortunam ex manibus dimittere_—to let success slip through one's

_fortuna commutatur, se inclinat_—luck is changing, waning.

_ludibrium fortunae_—the plaything of Fortune.

_is, quem fortuna complexa est_—Fortune's favourite.

_a fortuna desertum, derelictum esse_—to be abandoned by good luck.

_fortuna aliquem effert_—Fortune exalts a man, makes him conspicuous.

_rebus secundis efferri_—to be puffed up by success; to be made
arrogant by prosperity.

_ad felicitatem (magnus) cumulus accedit ex aliqua re_—his crowning
happiness is produced by a thing; the culminating point of his
felicity is...

_aliquid felicitatis cumulum affert_—his crowning happiness is
produced by a thing; the culminating point of his felicity is...

_aliquid felicitatem magno cumulo auget_—his crowning happiness is
produced by a thing; the culminating point of his felicity is...

_in rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem fluentibus_—when life runs

_beata vita, beate vivere, beatum esse_[1]—happiness, bliss.

_ad bene beateque vivendum_—for a life of perfect happiness.

_peropportune accidit, quod_—it is most fortunate that...

[1] _beatitas_ and _beatitudo_ are used by Cicero in one passage only
(De Nat. Deorum, 1. 34. 95), but merely as a linguistic experiment.

7. Misfortune—Fate—Ruin

_fortuna adversa_—misfortune, adversity.

_res adversae, afflictae, perditae_—misfortune, adversity.

_in calamitatem incidere_—to be overtaken by calamity.

_calamitatem accipere, subire_—to suffer mishap.

_nihil calamitatis (in vita) videre_—to live a life free from all

_calamitatem haurire_—to drain the cup of sorrow.[1]

_omnes labores exanclare_—to drain the cup of sorrow.

_calamitatem, pestem inferre alicui_—to bring mishap, ruin on a person.

_calamitatibus affligi_—to be the victim of misfortune.

_calamitatibus obrui_—to be overwhelmed with misfortune.

_calamitatibus defungi_—to come to the end of one's troubles.

_calamitate doctus_—schooled by adversity.

_conflictari (cum) adversa fortuna_—to struggle with adversity.

_in malis iacere_—to be broken down by misfortune.

_malis urgeri_—to be hard pressed by misfortune.

_fortunae vicissitudines_—the vicissitudes of fortune.

_ancipites et varii casus_—the changes and chances of this life.

_sub varios incertosque casus subiectum esse_—to have to submit to the
uncertainties of fortune; to be subject to Fortune's caprice.

_multis casibus iactari_—to experience the ups and downs of life.

_ad omnes casus subsidia comparare_—to be prepared for all that may

_varia fortuna uti_—to experience the vicissitudes of fortune; to have
a chequered career.

_multis iniquitatibus exerceri_[2]—to be severely tried by misfortune.

_fortunae telis propositum esse_—to be exposed to the assaults of fate.

_fortunae obiectum esse_—to be abandoned to fate.

_ad iniurias fortunae expositum esse_—to be a victim of the malice of

_fortunae cedere_—to acquiesce in one's fate.

_aliquem affligere, perdere, pessumdare, in praeceps dare_—to bring a
man to ruin; to destroy.

_praecipitem agi, ire_—to be ruined, undone.

_ad exitium vocari_—to be ruined, undone.

_ad interitum ruere_—to be ruined, undone.

_in perniciem incurrere_—to be ruined, undone.

_pestem alicui (in aliquem) machinari_—to compass, devise a man's
overthrow, ruin.

_perniciem (exitium) alicui afferre, moliri, parare_—to compass,
devise a man's overthrow, ruin.

_ab exitio, ab interitu aliquem vindicare_—to rescue from destruction.

[1] In Latin metaphor the verb only, as a rule, is sufficient to
express the metaphorical meaning—e.g. _amicitiam iungere cum aliquo_,
to be bound by the bands of affection to any one; _religionem
labefactare_, to undermine the very foundations of belief; _bellum
exstinguere_, to extinguish the torch of war; _cuncta bello ardent_,
the fires of war are raging all around; _libido consedit_, the storm
of passion has ceased; _animum pellere_, to strike the heart-strings;
_vetustas monumenta exederat_, the tooth of time had eaten away the

[2] The first meaning of _exercere_ is to keep in motion, give no rest
to. Then, metaphorically, to keep busy, to harass—e.g. _fortuna
aliquem vehementer exercet_. Lastly, _exercere_ is used to express the
main activity in any branch of industry, thus, _exercere agros_, to
farm; _metalla_, to carry on a mining industry; _navem_, to fit out
ships, be a shipowner; _vectigalia_, to levy, collect taxes, used
specially of the _publicani_; _qui exercet iudicium_, the presiding
judge (_praetor_).

8. Danger—Risk—Safety

_in periculo esse_ or _versari_—to be in danger.

_res in summo discrimine versatur_—the position is very critical.

_in vitae discrimine versari_—to be in peril of one's life.

_in pericula incidere, incurrere_—to find oneself in a hazardous

_pericula alicui impendent, imminent_—dangers threaten a man.

_pericula in_ or _ad aliquem redundant_—many dangers hem a person in;
one meets new risks at every turn.

_pericula subire, adire, suscipere_—to incur danger, risk.

_periculis se offerre_—to expose oneself to peril.

_salutem, vitam suam in discrimen offerre_ (not _exponere_)—to risk
one's life.

_aliquem, aliquid in periculum (discrimen) adducere, vocare_[1]—to
endanger, imperil a person or thing.

_alicui periculum creare, conflare_—to endanger, imperil a person or

_in periculum capitis, in discrimen vitae se inferre_—to recklessly
hazard one's life.

_salus, caput, vita alicuius agitur, periclitatur, in discrimine est_
or _versatur_—a man's life is at stake, is in very great danger.

_in ipso periculi discrimine_—at the critical moment.

_aliquem ex periculo eripere, servare_—to rescue from peril.

_nullum periculum recusare pro_—to avoid no risk in order to...

_periculis perfungi_—to surmount dangers.

_periculum facere alicuius rei_—to make trial of; to risk.

_periculum hostis facere_—to try one's strength with the enemy; to try
issue of battle.

_res ad extremum casum perducta est_—affairs are desperate; we are
reduced to extremeties.

_ad extrema perventum est_—affairs are desperate; we are reduced to

_in tuto esse_—to be in a position of safety.

_in tuto collocare aliquid_—to ensure the safety of a thing.

[1] _vocare_ helps to form several phrases—e.g. _in invidiam, in
suspicionem, in dubium, ad exitium, in periculum vocare_. It is used
in the passive to express periphrastically the passive of verbs which
have only an active voice—e.g. _in invidiam vocari_, to become
unpopular, be hated, _invideor_ not being used. Cf. _in invidiam

9. Assistance—Deliverance—Consolation

_auxilium, opem, salutem ferre alicui_—to bring aid to; to rescue.

_auxilio alicui venire_—to come to assist any one.

_alicuius opem implorare_—to implore a person's help.

_confugere ad aliquem_ or _ad opem, ad fidem alicuius_—to fly to some
one for refuge.

_ad extremum auxilium descendere_[1]—to be reduced to one's last

_auxilium praesens_[2]—prompt assistance.

_adesse alicui_ or _alicuius rebus_ (opp. _deesse_)—to assist, stand
by a person.

_salutem alicui afferre_—to deliver, rescue a person.

_saluti suae consulere, prospicere_—to take measures for one's safety;
to look after one's own interests.

_suis rebus_ or _sibi consulere_—to take measures for one's safety; to
look after one's own interests.

_salutem expedire_—to effect a person's deliverance.

_solacium praebere_—to comfort.

_nihil habere consolationis_—to afford no consolation.

_hoc solacio frui, uti_—to solace oneself with the thought...

_consolari aliquem de aliqua re_—to comfort a man in a matter; to
condole with him.

_consolari dolorem alicuius_—to soothe grief.

_consolari aliquem in miseriis_—to comfort in misfortune.

_hoc (illo) solacio me consōlor_—I console myself with...

_haec (illa) res me consolatur_—I console myself with...

[1] Similarly _descendere_ is frequently used of consenting
unwillingly to a thing, condescending. Cf. vi. 9 ad fin. and xvi. 9.

[2] Notice too _poena praesens_, instant punishment; _pecunia
praesens_, ready money; _medicina praesens_, efficacious remedy; _deus
praesens_, a propitious deity; _in rem praesentem venire_, to go to
the very spot to make a closer examination.

10. Riches—Want—Poverty

_divitiis, copiis abundare_—to be rich, wealthy.

_magnas opes habere_—to be very rich; to be in a position of affluence.

_opibus maxime florere_—to be very rich; to be in a position of

_omnibus opibus circumfluere_—to be very rich; to be in a position of

_fortunis maximis ornatum esse_—to be in the enjoyment of a large

_in omnium rerum abundantia vivere_—to live in great affluence.

_aliquem ex paupere divitem facere_—to raise a man from poverty to

_inopia alicuius rei laborare, premi_—to suffer from want of a thing.

_ad egestatem, ad inopiam (summam omnium rerum) redigi_—to be reduced
to (abject) poverty.

_vitam inopem sustentare, tolerare_—to earn a precarious livelihood.

_in egestate esse, versari_—to live in poverty, destitution.

_vitam in egestate degere_—to live in poverty, destitution.

_in summa egestate_ or _mendicitate esse_—to be entirely destitute; to
be a beggar.

_stipem colligere_—to beg alms.

_stipem (pecuniam) conferre_—to contribute alms.

11. Utility—Advantage—Harm—Disadvantage

_usui_ or _ex usu esse_—to be of use.

_utilitatem afferre, praebere_—to be serviceable.

_multum (nihil) ad communem utilitatem afferre_—to considerably (in no
way) further the common good.

_aliquid in usum suum conferre_—to employ in the furtherance of one's

_omnia ad suam utilitatem referre_—to consider one's own advantage in

_rationibus alicuius prospicere_ or _consulere_ (opp. _officere,
obstare, adversari_)—to look after, guard a person's interests, welfare.

_commodis alicuius servire_—to look after, guard a person's interests,

_commoda alicuius tueri_—to look after, guard a person's interests,

_meae rationes ita tulerunt_—my interests demanded it.

_fructum (uberrimum) capere, percipere, consequi ex aliqua re_[1]—to
derive (great) profit , advantage from a thing.

_fructus ex hac re redundant in_ or _ad me_—(great) advantage accrues
to me from this.

_aliquid ad meum fructum redundat_—I am benefited by a thing.

_quid attinet?_ with Infin.—what is the use of?

_cui bono?_—who gets the advantage from this? who is the interested

_damnum_ (opp. _lucrum_) _facere_—to suffer loss, harm, damage.[2]

_damno affici_—to suffer loss, harm, damage.

_detrimentum capere, accipere, facere_—to suffer loss, harm, damage.

_iacturam_[3] _alicuius rei facere_—to throw away, sacrifice.

_damnum inferre, afferre alicui_—to do harm to, injure any one.

_damnum ferre_—to know how to endure calamity.

_incommodo afficere aliquem_—to inconvenience, injure a person.

_incommodis mederi_—to relieve a difficulty.

_damnum_ or _detrimentum sarcire_ (not _reparare_)—to make good,
repair a loss or injury.

_damnum compensare cum aliqua re_—to balance a loss by anything.

_res repetere_—to demand restitution, satisfaction.

_res restituere_—to give restitution, satisfaction.

[1] Also _fructum alicuius rei capere, percipere, ferre, consequi ex
aliqua re_—e.g. _virtutis fructus ex re publica (magnos, laetos,
uberes) capere_ = to be handsomely rewarded by the state for one's
high character.

[2] Notice too _calamitatem, cladem, incommodum accipere_, to suffer
mishap, reverse, inconvenience; _naufragium facere_, to be shipwrecked.

[3] _damnum_ (opp. _lucrum_) = loss, especially of worldly
possessions; _detrimentum_ (opp. _emolumentum_) = harm inflicted by
others; _fraus_ = deceitful injury; _iactura_ (properly "throwing
overboard") = the intentional sacrifice of something valuable in order
either to avert injury or to gain some greater advantage. "Harmful" =
_inutilis, qui nocet_, etc., not _noxius_, which is only used
absolutely—e.g. _homo noxius_, the offender, evildoer.

12. Goodwill—Kindness—Inclination—Favour

_benevolo animo esse in aliquem_—to be well-disposed towards...

_benevolentiam habere erga aliquem_—to be well-disposed towards...

_benevolentiam, favorem, voluntatem alicuius sibi conciliare_ or
_colligere (ex aliqua re)_—to find favour with some one; to get into
their good graces.

_benevolentiam alicui praestare, in aliquem conferre_—to show kindness

_benevolentia aliquem complecti_ or _prosequi_—to show kindness to...

_gratiosum esse alicui_ or _apud aliquem_—to be popular with; to stand
well with a person.

_in gratia esse apud aliquem_—to be popular with; to stand well with a

_multum valere gratia apud aliquem_—to be highly favoured by; to be
influential with...

_florere gratia alicuius_—to be highly favoured by; to be influential

_gratiam inire ab aliquo_or _apud aliquem_—to gain a person's esteem,

_in gratiam alicuius venire_—to gain a person's esteem, friendship.

_gratiam alicuius sibi quaerere, sequi_, more strongly _aucupari_—to
court a person's favour; to ingratiate oneself with...

_studere, favere alicui_—to look favourably upon; to support.

_studiosum esse alicuius_—to look favourably upon; to support.

_propenso animo, studio esse_ or _propensa voluntate esse in aliquem_
(opp. _averso animo esse ab aliquo_)—to look favourably upon; to

_alicui morem gerere, obsequi_—to comply with a person's wishes; to

_alicuius causa_[1] _velle_ or _cupere_—to be favourably disposed

_gratum (gratissimum) alicui facere_—to do any one a (great) favour.

_se conformare, se accommodare ad alicuius voluntatem_—to accomodate
oneself to another's wishes.

_alicuius voluntati morem gerere_—to accomodate oneself to another's

_se convertere, converti ad alicuius nutum_[2]—to take one's
directions from another; to obey him in everything.

_totum se fingere et accommodare ad alicuius arbitrium et nutum_—to be
at the beck and call of another; to be his creature.

_voluntatem_or _animum alicuius a se abalienare, aliquem a se
abalienare_ or _alienare_—to become estranged, alienated from some one.

[1] Probably originally _omnia alicuius causa velle_ = to wish
everything (favourable) in some one's behalf.

[2] But _se convertere ad aliquem_ = either (1) to approach with
hostile intention, or (2) to turn to some one for sympathy or

13. Benefit—Gratitude—Recompense

_beneficium alicui dare, tribuere_—to do any one a service or kindness.

_beneficio aliquem afficere, ornare_—to do any one a service or

_beneficia in aliquem conferre_—to heap benefits upon...

_beneficiis aliquem obstringere, obligare, devincire_—to lay any one
under an obligation by kind treatment.

_beneficium remunerari_ or _reddere (cumulate)_—to (richly) recompense
a kindness or service.

_gratus_ (opp. _ingratus_) _animus_[1]—gratitude.

_gratiam alicui debere_—to owe gratitude to; to be under an obligation
to a person.

_gratiam alicui habere_—to feel gratitude (in one's heart).

_gratiam alicui referre (meritam, debitam) pro aliqua re_—to show
gratitude (in one's acts).

_gratias alicui agere pro aliqua re_—to thank a person (in words).

_grates agere (dis immortalibus)_—to give thanks to heaven.

_gratiam mereri_—to merit thanks; to do a thankworthy action.

_par pari referre_—to return like for like.

_paria paribus respondere_—to return like for like.

_bonam (praeclaram) gratiam referre_—to reward amply; to give manifold
recompense for.

_benefacta maleficiis pensare_—to return evil for good.

_maleficia benefactis remunerari_—to return good for evil.

_pro maleficiis beneficia reddere_—to return good for evil.

[1] _animus_ is used similarly in several periphrases to express
abstract qualities—e.g. _animus inexorabilis_ = inflexibility,
severity; _animus implacabilis_ = implacability; _animus (fides)
venalis_ = venality. Cf. _simplices mores, simplex natura, ratio,
genus_ = simplicity (_simplicitas_ is post-Augustan and usually =
frankness, candour). _immemor ingenium_ = forgetfulness (_oblivio_ in
this sense is not classical).

14. Merit—Value—Reward

_bene, praeclare (melius, optime) mereri_[1] _de aliquo_—to deserve
well at some one's hands; to do a service to...

_male mereri de aliquo_—to deserve ill of a person; to treat badly.

_meritum alicuius in_ or _erga aliquem_—what a man merits at another's

_nullo meo merito_—I had not deserved it.

_ex, pro merito_—according to a man's deserts.

_multum (aliquid) alicui rei tribuere_—to consider of importance; to
set much (some) store by a thing.

_multum alicui tribuere_—to value, esteem a person.

_praemiis (amplissimis, maximis) aliquem afficere_[2]—to remunerate

_meritum praemium alicui persolvere_—to reward a man according to his

_praemium exponere_ or _proponere_—(to encourage) by offering a reward.

_praemium ponere_—to offer a prize (for the winner).

_palmam deferre, dare alicui_—to award the prize to...

_palmam ferre, auferre_—to win the prize.

_pacta merces alicuius rei_—the stipulated reward for anything.

_mercede conductum esse_—to be hired, suborned.

[1] _mereri_ is a middle verb, and consequently always has an adverb
with it.

[2] Notice the numerous phrases of which _afficere_ is a part—e.g.
_afficere aliquem admiratione, beneficio, exilio, honore, iniuria,
laude, poena, supplicio_. Especially important is its passive use—e.g.
_affici admiratione_, to admire; _gaudio, voluptate_, to rejoice, be
pleased; _dolore_, to be pained, vexed; _poena_, to suffer punishment.

15. Requests—Wishes—Commissions—Orders

_orare et obsecrare aliquem_—to entreat earnestly; to make urgent

_magno opere, vehementer, etiam atque etiam rogare aliquem_—to entreat
earnestly; to make urgent requests.

_precibus aliquem fatigare_—to importune with petitions.

_supplicibus verbis orare_—to crave humbly; to supplicate.

_precibus obsequi_—to grant a request.

_alicui petenti satisfacere, non deesse_—to accede to a man's petitions.

_magnis (infimis) precibus moveri_—to be influenced by, to yield to
urgent (abject) entreaty.

_negare_, more strongly _denegare alicui aliquid_—to refuse, reject a

_petenti alicui negare aliquid_—to refuse, reject a request.

_repudiare, aspernari preces alicuius_—to refuse, reject a request.

_nihil tibi a me postulanti recusabo_—I will refuse you nothing.

_aliquid ab aliquo impetrare_—to gain one's point with any one.

_optata mihi contingunt_—my wishes are being fulfilled.

_voluntati alicuius satisfacere, obsequi_—to satisfy a person's wishes.

_ex sententia_—as one would wish; to one's mind.

_aliquid optimis ominibus prosequi_ (_vid._ sect. VI. 11., note
_Prosequi..._)—to wish prosperity to an undertaking.

_bene id tibi vertat!_—I wish you all success in the matter.

_mandatum, negotium alicui dare_—to entrust a matter to a person; to

_negotium ad aliquem deferre_—to entrust a matter to a person; to

_mandatum exsequi, persequi, conficere_—to execute a commission.

_iussa_ (usually only in plur.), _imperata facere_—to carry out orders

16. Friendship—Enmity—Reconciliation (cf. xii. 8)

_amicitiam cum aliquo jungere, facere, inire, contrahere_—to form a
friendship with any one.

_amicitiam colere_—to keep up, foster a connection.

_uti aliquo amico_—to be friendly with any one.

_est_ or _intercedit mihi cum aliquo amicitia_—I am on good terms with
a person.

_sunt_ or _intercedunt mihi cum aliquo inimicitiae_[1]—I am on bad
terms with a person.

_uti aliquo familiariter_—to be on very intimate terms with...

_artissimo amicitiae vinculo_ or _summa familiaritate cum aliquo
coniunctum esse_—to be bound by the closest ties of friendship.

_vetustate amicitiae coniunctum esse_—to be very old friends.

_amicitiam alicuius appetere_—to court a person's friendship.

_in amicitiam alicuius recipi_—to gain some one's friendship; to
become intimate with.

_ad alicuius amicitiam se conferre, se applicare_—to gain some one's
friendship; to become intimate with.

_aliquem (tertium) ad (in) amicitiam ascribere_—to admit another into
the circle of one's intimates.

_amicitiam renuntiare_—to renounce, give up a friendship.

_amicitiam dissuere, dissolvere, praecīdere_—to renounce, give up a

_amicissimus meus_ or _mihi_—my best friend.

_homo intimus, familiarissimus mihi_—my most intimate acquaintance.

_inimicitias gerere, habere, exercere cum aliquo_—to be at enmity with
a man.

_inimicitias cum aliquo suscipere_—to make a person one's enemy.

_inimicitias deponere_—to lay aside one's differences.

_aequi iniqui_—friend and foe.

_placare aliquem alicui_ or _in aliquem_—to reconcile two people; to
be a mediator.

_reconciliare alicuius animum_ or simply _aliquem alicui_—to reconcile
two people; to be a mediator.

_in gratiam aliquem cum aliquo reducere_—to reconcile two people; to
be a mediator.

_in gratiam cum aliquo redire_—to be reconciled; to make up a quarrel.

_sibi aliquem, alicuius animum reconciliare_ or _reconciliari
alicui_—to be reconciled; to make up a quarrel.

[1] The singular _inimicitia_ is only used to express the abstract
idea "enmity".

17. Authority—Dignity (cf. xiv. 3)

_magna auctoritate esse_—to possess great authority; to be an
influential person.

_auctoritate valere_ or _florere_—to possess great authority; to be an
influential person.

_magna auctoritas est in aliquo_—to possess great authority; to be an
influential person.

_multum auctoritate valere, posse apud aliquem_—to have great
influence with a person; to have considerable weight.

_magna auctoritas alicuius est apud aliquem_—to have great influence
with a person; to have considerable weight.

_alicuius auctoritas multum valet apud aliquem_—to have great
influence with a person; to have considerable weight.

_auctoritatem_ or _dignitatem sibi conciliare, parare_—to gain
dignity; to make oneself a person of consequence.

_ad summam auctoritatem pervenire_—to attain to the highest eminence.

_auctoritatem alicuius amplificare_ (opp. _imminuere, minuere_)—to
increase a person's dignity.

_auctoritati, dignitati alicuius illudere_—to insult a person's dignity.

_dignitas est summa in aliquo_—to be in a dignified position.

_summa dignitate praeditum esse_—to be in a dignified position.

_aliquid alienum (a) dignitate sua_ or merely _a se ducere_—to
consider a thing beneath one's dignity.

_aliquid infra se ducere_ or _infra se positum arbitrari_—to consider
a thing beneath one's dignity.

18. Praise—Approval—Blame—Reproach

_laudem tribuere, impertire alicui_—to praise, extol, commend a person.

_laude afficere aliquem_—to praise, extol, commend a person.

_(maximis, summis) laudibus efferre aliquem_ or _aliquid_—to praise,
extol, commend a person.

_eximia laude ornare aliquem_—to praise, extol, commend a person.

_omni laude cumulare aliquem_—to overwhelm with eulogy.

_laudibus aliquem (aliquid) in caelum ferre, efferre, tollere_—to
extol, laud to the skies.

_alicuius laudes praedicare_—to spread a person's praises.

_aliquem beatum praedicare_—to consider happy.

_omnium undique laudem colligere_—to win golden opinions from every one.

_maximam ab omnibus laudem adipisci_—to win golden opinions from every

_aliquid laudi alicui ducere, dare_—to consider a thing creditable to
a man.

_aliquem coram, in os_ or _praesentem laudare_—to praise a man to his

_recte, bene fecisti quod..._—you were right in...; you did right to...

_res mihi probatur_—a thing meets with my approval.

_res a me probatur_—I express my approval of a thing.

_hoc in te reprehendo_ (not _ob eam rem_)—I blame this in you; I
censure you for this.

_vituperationem subire_—to suffer reproof; to be criticised, blamed.

_in vituperationem, reprehensionem cadere, incidere, venire_—to suffer
reproof; to be criticised, blamed.

_exprobrare alicui aliquid_—to reproach a person with...

_aliquid alicui crimini dare, vertere_—to reproach a person with...

_conqueri, expostulare cum aliquo de aliqua re_—to expostulate with a
person about a thing.

19. Rumour—Gossip—News—Mention

_rumor, fama, sermo est_ or _manat_—report says; people say.

_rumor, fama viget_—a rumour is prevalent.

_fama serpit (per urbem)_—a report is spreading imperceptibly.

_rumor increbrescit_—a report, an impression is gaining ground.

_rumorem spargere_—to spread a rumour.

_famam dissipare_—to spread a rumour.

_dubii rumores afferuntur ad nos_—vague rumours reach us.

_auditione et fama accepisse aliquid_—to know from hearsay.

_fando aliquid audivisse_—to know from hearsay.

_ex eo audivi, cum diceret_—I heard him say...

_vulgo dicitur, pervulgatum est_—every one says.

_in ore omnium_ or _omnibus_ (_hominum_ or _hominibus_, but only
_mihi, tibi_, etc.) _esse_—to be in every one's mouth.

_per omnium ora ferri_—to be in every one's mouth.

_in ore habere aliquid_ (Fam. 6. 18. 5)—to harp on a thing, be always
talking of it.

_efferre_ or _edere aliquid in vulgus_—to divulge, make public.

_foras efferri, palam fieri, percrebrescere, divulgari, in medium
proferri, exire, emanare_—to become known, become a topic of common
conversation (used of things).

_in sermonem hominum venire_—to be a subject for gossip.

_in ora vulgi abire_—to be a subject for gossip.

_fabulam fieri_—to be the talk of the town, a scandal.

_nuntio allato_ or _accepto_—on receiving the news.

_Romam nuntiatum est, allatum est_—news reached Rome.

_certiorem facere aliquem_ (_alicuius rei_ or _de aliqua re_)—to
inform a person.

_mentionem facere alicuius rei_ or _de aliqua re_[1]—to mention a thing.

_mentionem inicere de aliqua re_ or Acc. c. Inf.—to mention a thing
incidentally, casually.

_in mentionem alicuius rei incidere_—to mention a thing incidentally,

_mentio alicuius rei incidit_—to mention a thing incidentally, casually.

[1] Not _commemorare_, the fundamental meaning of which is "to make a
person mindful of...," and implies an emphatic reference to a definite

20. Fame—Reputation

_gloriam, famam sibi comparare_—to gain distinction.

_gloriam (immortalem) consequi, adipisci_—to win (undying) fame.

_gloriae, laudi esse_—to confer distinction on a person; to redound to
his credit.

_laudem afferre_—to confer distinction on a person; to redound to his

_gloria, laude florere_—to be very famous, illustrious.

_summa gloria florere_—to have reached the highest pinnacle of eminence.

_clarum fieri, nobilitari, illustrari_ (not the post-classical
_clarescere_ or _inclarescere_—to become famous, distinguish oneself.

_gloriam colligere, in summam gloriam venire_—to become famous,
distinguish oneself.

_aliquem immortali gloria afficere_—to confer undying fame on,
immortalise some one.

_aliquem sempiternae gloriae commendare_—to confer undying fame on,
immortalise some one.

_immortalitatem consequi, adipisci, sibi parere_—to attain eternal

_gloria duci_—to be guided by ambition.

_laudis studio trahi_—to be guided by ambition.

_laudem, gloriam quaerere_—to be guided by ambition.

_stimulis gloriae concitari_—to be spurred on by ambition.

_gloriae, laudis cupiditate incensum esse, flagrare_—to be consumed by
the fires of ambition.

_de gloria, fama alicuius detrahere_—to detract from a person's
reputation, wilfully underestimate a person.

_alicuius gloriae_ or simply _alicui obtrectare_—to detract from a
person's reputation, wilfully underestimate a person.

_alicuius famam, laudem imminuere_—to detract from a person's
reputation, wilfully underestimate a person.

_obscurare alicuius gloriam, laudem, famam_[1] (not _obscurare
aliquem_)—to render obscure, eclipse a person.

_famae servire, consulere_—to have regard for one's good name.

_famam ante collectam tueri, conservare_—to live up to one's reputation.

_bene, male audire (ab aliquo)_—to have a good or bad reputation, be
spoken well, ill of.

_bona, mala existimatio est de aliquo_—to have a good or bad
reputation, be spoken well, ill of.

_famam crudelitatis subire_ (Catil. 4. 6. 12)—to gain the reputation
of cruelty.

_infamiam alicui inferre, aspergere_—to damage a person's character,
bring him into bad odour.

_infamem facere aliquem_—to damage a person's character, bring him
into bad odour.

_magnam sui famam relinquere_—to leave a great reputation behind one.

_opinionem virtutis habere_—to have the reputation of virtue.

_existimatio_[2] _hominum, omnium_—the common opinion, the general idea.

[1] In the same way, to improve a man, _alicuius mores corrigere_ (not
_aliquem c._); to understand some one, _alicuius orationem_ or _quid
dicat intellegere_.

[2] _existimatio_ has two uses: (1) active—opinion held by others,
criticism; (2) passive—reputation, character, usually in a good sense,
consequently = good reputation without the addition of _bona,
integra_, etc.

21. Honour—Disgrace—Ignominy

_esse in honore apud aliquem_—to be honoured, esteemed by some one.

_honorem alicui habere, tribuere_—to honour, show respect for, a person.

_aliquem honore afficere, augere, ornare, prosequi_ (_vid._ sect. VI.
11., note _Prosequi..._)—to honour, show respect for, a person.

_aliquem cupiditate honorum inflammare_ (or _aliquem ad cupiditatem
honorum inflammare_)—to kindle ambition in some one's mind.

_honores concupiscere_ (opp. _aspernari_)—to aspire to dignity, high

_honoris causa aliquem nominare_ or _appellare_—to speak of some one

_statuam alicui ponere, constituere_—to set up a statue in some one's

_aliquem colere et observare_ (Att. 2. 19)—to pay respect to, be
courteous to a person.

_aliquem ignominia afficere, notare_—to inflict an indignity upon,
insult a person.

_alicui ignominiam inurere_—to inflict an indignity upon, insult a

_infamiam concipere, subire, sibi conflare_—to incur ignominy.

_vitae splendori(em) maculas(is) aspergere_—to sully one's fair fame.

_notam turpitudinis alicui_ or _vitae alicuius inurere_—to injure a
man's character, tarnish his honour.

_ignominiam non ferre_—to chafe under an indignity, repudiate it.

_maculam (conceptam) delere, eluere_—to blot out a reproach.

22. Effort—Industry—Labour—Exertion

_studiose (diligenter, enixe, sedulo, maxime) dare operam, ut..._—to
take great pains in order to...

_egregiam operam_ (_multum, plus_ etc. _operae_) _dare alicui rei_—to
expend great labour on a thing.

_operam alicui rei tribuere, in aliquid conferre_—to expend great
labour on a thing.

_operam (laborem, curam) in_ or _ad aliquid impendere_—to expend great
labour on a thing.

_multum operae ac laboris consumere in aliqua re_—to exert oneself
very energetically in a matter.

_studium, industriam_ (not _diligentiam_) _collocare, ponere in aliqua
re_—to apply oneself zealously, diligently to a thing.

_incumbere in (ad) aliquid_—to be energetic about, throw one's heart
into a thing.

_opus_[1] _facere_ (De Senect. 7. 24)—to do work (especially

_opus aggredi_—to take a task in hand, engage upon it.

_ad opus faciendum accedere_—to take a task in hand, engage upon it.

_res est multi laboris et sudoris_—the matter involves much labour and

_desudare et elaborare in aliqua re_ (De Senect. 11. 38)—to exert
oneself very considerably in a matter.

_labori, operae non parcere_—to spare no pains.

_laborem non intermittere_—to work without intermission.

_nullum tempus a labore intermittere_—not to leave off work for an

_lucubrare_ (Liv. 1. 57)—to work by night, burn the midnight oil.

_inanem laborem suscipere_—to lose one's labour.

_operam (et oleum) perdere_ or _frustra consumere_—to lose one's labour.

_rem actam_ or simply _actum agere_ (proverb.)—to have all one's
trouble for nothing.

_labore supersedēre (itineris)_ (Fam. 4. 2. 4)—to spare oneself the
trouble of the voyage.

_patiens laboris_—capable of exertion.

_fugiens laboris_—lazy.

_operae pretium est_ (c. Inf.)—it is worth while.

_acti labores iucundi_ (proverb.)—rest after toil is sweet.

_contentionem adhibere_—to exert oneself.

_omnes nervos_[2] _in aliqua re contendere_—to strain every nerve, do
one's utmost in a matter.

_omnibus viribus_or _nervis contendere, ut_—to strain every nerve, do
one's utmost in a matter.

_omni ope atque opera_ or _omni virium contentione eniti, ut_—to
strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter.

_contendere et laborare, ut_—to strain every nerve, do one's utmost in
a matter.

_pro viribus eniti et laborare, ut_—to strain every nerve, do one's
utmost in a matter.

[1] _opus_ always means the concrete work on which one is engaged;
_labor_ is the trouble, fatigue, resulting from effort; _opera_ is the
voluntary effort, the trouble spent on an object. Thus _laborare_ =
not simply to work, but to work energetically, with exertion and
consequent fatigue; _operari_, to be busy with a thing. Terence thus
distinguishes _opus_ and _opera_: _quod in opere faciundo operae
consumis tuae_. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1. 455 _operumque laborem miratur_ =
the trouble with such huge works must have cost.

[2] _nervi_ properly = sinews, muscles, not nerves the existence of
which was unknown to the ancients. Metaphorically _nervi_ denotes not
only strength in general but also specially—(1) vital power,
elasticity, e.g. _omnes nervos virtutis elidere_ (Tusc. 2. 11. 27),
_incīdere_, to paralyse the strength of virtue; (2) motive power,
mainspring, essence, of a thing, e.g. _vectigalia nervi rei publicae
sunt_ (Imp. Pomp. 7. 17), _nervi belli pecunia_ (Phil. 5. 2. 15).

23. Business—Leisure—Inactivity—Idleness

_negotium suscipere_—to undertake an affair.

_negotium obire, exsequi_—to execute, manage a business, undertaking.

_negotium conficere, expedire, transigere_—to arrange, settle a matter.

_negotia agere, gerere_—to be occupied with business, busy.

_multis negotiis implicatum, districtum, distentum, obrutum esse_—to
be involved in many undertakings; to be much occupied, embarrassed,
overwhelmed by business-claims.

_negotiis vacare_—to be free from business.

_occupatum esse in aliqua re_—to be engaged upon a matter.

_intentum esse alicui rei_—to be engaged upon a matter.

_negotium alicui facessere_ (Fam. 3. 10. 1)—to give a person trouble,
inconvenience him.

_magnum negotium est_ c. Inf.—it is a great undertaking to...

_nullo negotio_—without any trouble.

_otiosum esse_—to be at leisure.

_in otio esse_ or _vivere_—to be at leisure.

_otium habere_—to be at leisure.

_otio frui_—to be at leisure.

_otio abundare_—to have abundance of leisure.

_otium sequi, amplexari_—to be a lover of ease, leisure.

_otiosum tempus consumere in aliqua re_—to spend one's leisure hours
on an object.

_otio abūti_[1] or _otium ad suum usum transferre_—to use up, make
full use of one's spare time.

_(in) otio languere et hebescere_—to grow slack with inactivity,

_otio diffluere_—to grow slack with inactivity, stagnate.

_desidiae et languori se dedere_—to abandon oneself to inactivity and

_ignaviae_[2] _et socordiae se dare_—to abandon oneself to inactivity
and apathy.

_per luxum et ignaviam aetatem agere_—to pass one's life in luxury and

[1] _abuti_ properly = to consume, make full use of. From this is
developed the rarer meaning to use in excess, abuse = _perverse,
intemperanter, immoderate uti_. Abuse, misuse = _pravus usus, vitium
male utentium, insolens mos_. _abusus_ is only found in the Jurists,
and _abusio_ is a technical term of rhetoric = _κατάχρησις_.

[2] The original meaning of _ignavia_ (_in-gnavus_, cf. _navus,
navare_) is not cowardice but laziness.

24. Pleasure—Recreation

_voluptatem ex aliqua re capere_ or _percipere_—to derive pleasure
from a thing.

_voluptate perfundi_—to revel in pleasure, be blissfully happy.

_voluptatibus frui_—to take one's fill of enjoyment.

_voluptates haurire_—to take one's fill of enjoyment.

_se totum voluptatibus dedere, tradere_—to devote oneself absolutely
to the pursuit of pleasure.

_homo voluptarius_ (Tusc. 2. 7. 18)—a devotee of pleasure; a
self-indulgent man.

_voluptatis illecebris deleniri_—to be led astray, corrupted by the
allurements of pleasure.

_voluptatis blanditiis corrumpi_—to be led astray, corrupted by the
allurements of pleasure.

_in voluptates se mergere_—to plunge into a life of pleasure.

_animum a voluptate sevocare_—to hold aloof from all amusement.

_voluptates (corporis)_—sensual pleasure.

_voluptatis_ or _animi causa_ (B. G. 5. 12)—for one's own diversion;
to satisfy a whim.

_deliciis diffluere_—to wanton in the pleasures of sense.

_animum relaxare, reficere, recreare_ or simply _se reficere, se
recreare, refici, recreari (ex aliqua re)_—to recruit oneself, seek

_animum_ or simply _se remittere_—to indulge oneself.

_animo_ or simply _sibi indulgere_—to indulge oneself.

VI. The Mind; its Functions

1. Genius—Talent—Intelligence

_magno animo esse_—to be magnanimous, broad-minded.

_animum attendere ad aliquid_—to turn one's attention to a thing.

_diligenter attendere (aliquid)_—to attend carefully.

_alias res_ or _aliud agere_—to be inattentive.

_animo adesse_[1]—(1) to be attentive; (2) to keep one's presence of

_vir magno ingenio, ingeniosus_—a man of ability.

_vir magno ingenio praeditus_—a man of ability.

_ingenio valere_—to be talented, gifted.

_ingenio abundare_—to be very talented.

_natura et ingenium_—natural gifts.

_ingenium acuere_—to sharpen the wits.

_ingenii acumen_—penetration; sagacity.

_ingenii tarditas_ (opp. _celeritas_)—dulness of intellect.

_ingenii infirmitas_ or _imbecillitas_—weakmindedness.

_mentis compotem esse_—to be of sane mind.

_mente captum esse, mente alienata esse_—to be out of one's mind.

_sanae mentis esse_—to be of sound mind.

_mentis quasi luminibus officere_ (_vid._ sect. XIII. 6) or _animo
caliginem offundere_—to obscure the mental vision.

_intellegentia_ or _mente multum valere_[2]—to possess great ability.

_ad intellegentiam communem_ or _popularem accommodare aliquid_—to
accommodate something to the standard of the popular intelligence.

[1] For the second meaning cf. Cicero, _ades animo et omitte timorem,

[2] _captus_, in the meaning ability, capacity, only occurs in the
phrase _ut captus est servorum_; while _capacitas_ merely means
capacity, content, e.g. _vasorum_.

2. Imagination—Thought

_animo, cogitatione aliquid fingere_ (or simply _fingere_, but without
_sibi_), _informare_—to form an idea of a thing, imagine, conceive.

_animo concipere aliquid_—to form an idea of a thing, imagine, conceive.

_animo, cogitatione aliquid praecipere_ (Off 1. 23. 81)—to form a
conception of a thing beforehand.

_cogitatione sibi aliquid depingere_—to picture to oneself.

_ingenium, cogitatio_—imagination.

_ingenii vis_ or _celeritas_—vivid, lively imagination.

_rerum imagines_—creatures of the imagination.

_res cogitatione fictae_ or _depictae_—creatures of the imagination.

_opinionum commenta, ineptiae, monstra, portenta_—extravagant fictions
of fancy.

_animo, mente, cogitatione aliquid comprehendere, complecti_—to grasp
a thing mentally.

_in eam cogitationem incidere_—to happen to think of...

_haec cogitatio subit animum_—an idea strikes me.

_illud succurrit mihi_—an idea strikes me.

_mihi in mentem venit alicuius rei_—something comes into my mind.

_aliquid animo meo obversatur_ (cf. sect. III, s. v. _oculi_)—a vague
notion presents itself to my mind.

_aliquem ad eam cogitationem adducere ut_—to induce a person to think

_alicuius animum ab aliqua re abducere_—to draw away some one's
attention from a thing.

_cogitationem, animum in aliquid intendere_ (Acad. 4. 46)—to direct
one's attention...

_omnes cogitationes ad aliquid conferre_—to give all one's attention
to a thing.

_mentem in aliqua re defigere_—to fix all one's thoughts on an object.

_in cogitatione defixum esse_—to be deep in thought.

_cogitationes in res humiles abicere_ (De Amic. 9. 32) (Opp. _alte
spectare, ad altiora tendere, altum, magnificum, divinum
suspicere_)—to study the commonplace.

3. Conceptions—Ideals—Perfection

_notiones animo (menti) insitae, innatae_—innate ideas.

_intellegentiae adumbratae_[1] or _incohatae_ (De Leg. 1. 22.
59)—vague, undeveloped ideas.

_notionem_ or _rationem alicuius rei in animo informare_ or _animo
concipere_—to form a conception, notion of a thing.

_absolutus et perfectus_—absolutely perfect.

_omnibus numeris absolutus_ (N. D. 2. 13)—perfect in every detail.

_ad summum perducere_—to bring to the highest perfection.

_perficere et absolvere_—to bring to the highest perfection.

_ad perfectionem, (ad summum) pervenire_—to attain perfection.

_absolutio et perfectio_ (not _summa perfectio_)—ideal perfection.

_cogitatione, non re_—ideally, not really.

_undique expleta et perfecta forma_—an ideal.

_species optima_ or _eximia, specimen_, also simply _species,
forma_—an ideal.

_comprehensam quandam animo speciem (alicuius rei) habere_—to have
formed an ideal notion of a thing.

_singularem quandam perfectionis imaginem animo concipere_—to conceive
an ideal.

_imaginem perfecti oratoris adumbrare_—to sketch the ideal of an orator.

_civitas optima, perfecta Platonis_—Plato's ideal republic.

_illa civitas Platonis commenticia_—Plato's ideal republic.

_illa civitas, quam Plato finxit_—Plato's ideal republic.

[1] _adumbrare_ is a technical term of painting = to make a sketch,
outline of an object; then metaphorically, to merely hint at a thing.
Its opposite is _exprimere_, technical term of sculpture,
=figuratively, to represent exactly, clearly. It never has the simple
meaning "to express."

4. Opinion—Prejudice—Conjecture

_in sententia manere, permanere, perseverare, perstare_—to abide by,
persist in one's opinion.

_illud, hoc teneo_—I abide by this opinion.

_a sententia sua discedere_—to give up one's opinion.

_de sententia sua decedere_—to give up one's opinion.

_(de) sententia desistere_—to give up one's opinion.

_de sententia deici, depelli, deterreri_—to be forced to change one's

_de sententia aliquem deducere, movere_—to make a man change his

_aliquem ad suam sententiam perducere_ or _in suam sententiam
adducere_—to win a man over to one's own way of thinking.

_ad alicuius sententiam accedere, sententiam alicuius sequi_—to adopt
some one's opinion.

_idem sentire_ (opp. _dissentire ab aliquo_)—to hold the same views.

_sententiam suam aperire_[1]—to freely express one's opinions.

_sententiam fronte celare, tegere_—not to betray one's feelings by
one's looks.

_dic quid sentias_[2]—give me your opinion.

_in hac sum sententia, ut...putem_—I think that...

_plura in eam sententiam disputare_—to discuss a subject more fully on
the same lines.

_ut mea fert opinio_—according to my opinion.

_ut mihi quidem videtur_—according to my opinion.

_mea (quidem) sententia_—according to my opinion.

_quot homines, tot sententiae_—many men, many minds.

_opiniones falsas animo imbibere_—to be imbibing false opinions.

_opinionibus falsis imbui_—to be imbibing false opinions.

_opinionis error_—erroneous opinion.

_opinio praeiudicata_, also simply _opinio_ (not _praeiudicium_ = a
preliminary decision)—prejudice.

_opinio confirmata, inveterata_—a rooted opinion.

_opinionum pravitate infici_—to be filled with absurd prejudices.

_opinionum commenta_ (N. D. 2. 2. 5)—chimeras.

_monstra_ or _portenta_—marvellous ideas; prodigies.

_coniectura assequi, consequi, aliquid coniectura colligere_—to

_quantum ego coniectura assequor, auguror_—as far as I can guess.

_coniecturam alicuius rei facere_ or _capere ex aliqua re_—to infer by
comparison, judge one thing by another.

_de se (ex se de aliis) coniecturam facere_—to judge others by oneself.

_aliquid in coniectura positum est_—it is a matter of conjecture,

_aliquid coniectura nititur, continetur_ (Div. 1. 14. 24)—it is a
matter of conjecture, supposition.

_probabilia coniectura sequi_—to try to conjecture probabilities.

_aliquid mihi nec opinanti, insperanti accidit_—a thing has happened
contrary to my expectation.

[1] _se aperire_ = to betray oneself; cf. _se indicare_ (Liv. 2. 12).

[2] Not _sententiam dicere_, which is used of senators giving their
vote; cf. _suffragium ferre_.

5. Truth—Error

_verum dicere, profiteri_—to speak the truth, admit the truth.

_omnia ad veritatem_[1] _dicere_—to be truthful in all one's statements.

_veritatis amans, diligens, studiosus_—truthful; veracious.

_a vero aversum esse_ (Catil. 3. 1. 29)—to be averse to truth.

_a veritate deflectere, desciscere_—to swerve from the truth.

_veri videndi, investigandi cupiditas_—love of truth.

_veri inquisitio atque investigatio_—zealous pursuit of truth.

_a vero abduci_—to be led away from the truth.

_proxime ad verum accedere_—to be very near the truth.

_a vero non abhorrere_—to be probable.

_veri simile esse_—to be probable.

_haec speciosiora quam veriora sunt_—this is more plausible than true.

_vera et falsa (a falsis) diiudicare_—to distinguish true and false.

_vera cum falsis confundere_—to confuse true with false.


_re (vera), reapse_ (opp. _specie_)—in truth; really.

_in errore versari_—to be mistaken.

_magno errore teneri_—to be in gross error, seriously misled.

_in magno errore versari_—to be in gross error, seriously misled.

_vehementer errare_—to be in gross error, seriously misled.

_erroribus implicari_ (Tusc. 4. 27. 58)—to fall into error.

_per errorem labi_, or simply _labi_—to take a false step.

_aliquem in errorem inducere, rapere_—to lead a person into error.

_errorem animo imbibere_—to get a mistaken notion into the mind.

_errorem cum lacte nutricis sugere_ (Tusc. 3. 1. 2)—to imbibe error
from one's mother's breasts.

_error longe lateque diffusus_—a wide-spread error.

_errorem tollere_—to banish an error, do away with a false impression.

_errorem amputare et circumcīdere_—to banish an error, do away with a
false impression.

_errorem stirpitus extrahere_—to totally eradicate false principles.

_errorem deponere, corrigere_—to amend, correct one's mistake.

_alicui errorem demere, eripere, extorquere_—to undeceive a person.

_nisi fallor_—if I am not mistaken.

_nisi (animus) me fallit_—if I am not mistaken.

_nisi omnia me fallunt_—unless I'm greatly mistaken.

[1] _verum_ = the truth, concrete; _veritas_ = truth in the abstract.

6. Choice—Doubt—Scruple

_optionem alicui dare_ (Acad. 2. 7. 19)—to give a person his choice.

_optionem alicui dare, utrum...an_—to offer a person the alternative
of... or...

_in dubium vocare_—to throw doubt upon a thing.

_in dubio ponere_—to throw doubt upon a thing.

_in dubium venire_—to become doubtful.

_quod aliquam (magnam) dubitationem habet_ (Leg. Agr. 1. 4. 11)—a
thing which is rather (very) dubious.

_dubitatio mihi affertur, inicitur_—a doubt arises in my mind.

_dubitationem alicui tollere_—to relieve a person of his doubts.

_aliquid in medio, in dubio relinquere_ (Cael. 20. 48)—to leave a
thing undecided.

_aliquid dubium, incertum relinquere_—to leave a thing undecided.

_sine dubio_ (not _sine ullo dubio_)—without doubt, beyond all doubt.

_sine ulla dubitatione_—without any hesitation; without the least

_scrupulum ex animo alicuius evellere_ (Rosc. Am. 2. 6)—to relieve a
man of his scruple.

_unus mihi restat scrupulus_ (Ter. Andr. 5. 4. 37) (cf. too _religio_,
sect. XI. 2)—one thing still makes me hesitate.

7. Knowledge—Certainty—Persuasion

_certo (certe) scio_[1] (Arch. 12. 32)—I know for a fact.

_probe scio, non ignoro_—I know very well.

_non sum ignarus, nescius_ (not _non sum inscius_)—I know very well.

_me non fugit, praeterit_—I am not unaware.

_quantum scio_—as far as I know.

_quod sciam_—as far as I know.

_hoc_ (not _tantum_) _certum est_—this much is certain.

_aliquid compertum habere_—to know a thing for certain.

_illud pro certo affirmare licet_—this much I can vouch for.

_mihi exploratum est, exploratum (certum) habeo_—I am quite certain on
the point.

_inter omnes constat_—it is a recognised fact.

_mihi persuasum est_[2]—I am persuaded, convinced.

_mihi persuasi_—I am persuaded, convinced.

_sic habeto_—convince yourself of this; rest assured on this point.

_persuade tibi_—convince yourself of this; rest assured on this point.

_velim tibi ita persuadeas_—convince yourself of this; rest assured on
this point.

_sic volo te tibi persuadere_—convince yourself of this; rest assured
on this point.

_addūcor, ut credam_—I am gradually convinced that...

_non possum adduci, ut (credam)_—I cannot make myself believe that...

_ex animi mei sententia_ (_vid._ sect. XI. 2)—according to my strong

_suo iudicio uti_—to act in accordance with one's convictions.

[1] With _certe scio_, which is the form Cicero usually employs, the
certitude lies in our knowledge, _certum est me scire_; with _certo
scire_ the certitude lies in the object of our knowledge. _certo_
rarely occurs except with _scio_.

[2] Caesar occasionally uses _persuasum sibi habere_.

8. Plan—Advice—Deliberation

_consilium capere, inire_ (_de aliqua re_, with Gen. gerund., with
Inf., more rarely _ut_)—to form a plan, make a resolution.

_consilio desistere_—to give up a project, an intention.

_consilium abicere_ or _deponere_—to let a plan fall through.

_a consilio deterreri aliqua re_—to be deterred from one's intention
by something.

_mediocribus consiliis uti_—to adopt half-measures.

_consilium, sententiam mutare_—to alter one's views, intentions.

_suo consilio uti_[1]—to go one's own way, proceed independently.

_magna moliri_—to be busy with ambitious projects.

_consilia cum aliquo communicare_[2]—(1) to communicate one's plans to
some one; (2) to make common cause with a person. Similarly _c.
causam, rationem_.

_consilia inter se communicare_—to take common counsel.

_aliquem in_ or _ad consilium adhibere_—to consult a person, take his

_consilium habere (de aliqua re)_—to deliberate together (of a number
of people).

_consultare_ or _deliberare (de aliqua re)_—to deliberate, consider
(of individuals).

_consiliis arcanis interesse_ (Liv. 35. 18)—to be present at secret

_consilium dare alicui_—to give a person advice.

_auctorem esse alicui, ut_—to give a person advice.

_aliquem consilio (et re) iuvare_—to give a person the advantage of
one's advice (and actual support).

_consilii mei copiam facio tibi_—I put myself at your disposal as
regards advice.

_consilium petere ab aliquo_—to apply to a person for advice.

_consilii inopem esse_—to be perplexed.

_omnia consilia frigent_ (Verr. 2. 25)—advice is useless in this case;
the situation is very embarrassing.

_nullo consilio, nulla ratione, temere_—without reflection;
inconsiderately; rashly.

_secum (cum animo) reputare aliquid_—to think over, consider a thing.

_considerare in, cum animo, secum aliquid_—to think over, consider a

_agitare (in) mente_ or _(in) animo aliquid_—to think over, consider a

_aliquid cadit in deliberationem_ (Off. 1. 3. 9)—a subject becomes
matter for reflection.

_re diligenter considerata, perpensa_—after mature deliberation.

_omnibus rebus circumspectis_—after mature deliberation.

_inita subductaque ratione_—after mature deliberation.

[1] _uti_ is similarly used in several phrases, especially with the
meaning of having, showing, enjoying, practising, proving, etc., e.g.
_uti ventis secundis, adversis_; _praesenti animo uti_, to show
presence of mind; _perpetua felicitate_, to enjoy...; _prudentia,
severitate, crudelitate_, to show...; _bona valetudine, prospero
fortunae flatu_, to enjoy...; cf. sect. V. 6.

[2] _communicare (aliquid cum aliquo)_ means properly to share a thing
with some one. From this are developed the two senses—1. to give some
one something, e.g. _consilia, laudem, gloriam alicuius rei_; 2. to
receive a share of a thing, e.g. _pericula, paupertatem_. "To
communicate," _i.e._ to announce, inform, is represented by _dicere,
tradere, narrare, exponere, certiorem facere_, etc.

9. Resolve—Design—Intention

_in animo habeo_ or _mihi est in animo_ c. Inf.—I am resolved; it is
my intention.

_certum (mihi) est_—I am determined.

_certum deliberatumque est_—I am firmly resolved.

_stat mihi sententia_ (Liv. 21. 30.)—I am firmly resolved.

_incertus sum, quid consilii capiam_—I am undecided...

_mihi non constat_ (with indirect question)—I have not made up my mind.

_propositum est mihi_ c. Inf.—I intend, propose to...

_propositum, consilium tenere_ (opp. _a proposito deterreri_)—to abide
by one's resolution.

_propositum_[1] _assequi, peragere_—to carry out one's plan.

_magna sibi proponere_ or _magna spectare_—to have a high object in
view; to be ambitious.

_in incepto_ or _conatu perstare_—to persevere in one's resolve.

_in proposito susceptoque consilio permanere_—to persevere in one's

_incepto_ or _conatu desistere_—to give up one's project.

_parare aliquid_—to take measures for...

_animum inducere_ c. Inf. (not _in animum inducere_)—to persuade
oneself to...

_a me impetrare non possum, ut_—I cannot bring myself to...

_descendere ad aliquid, ad omnia_ (_vid._ sect. V. 9, note _Similarly
descendere..._)—to consent to..., lend oneself to...

_descendere ad extrema consilia_ (Fam. 10. 33. 4)—to have recourse to
extreme measures.

[1] In classical prose _propositum_ is still semi-adjectival and has
not yet acquired all the functions of a substantive; consequently it
cannot be joined to a genitive, an adjective, or a pronoun. Cf. the
treatment of _factum, dictum_, etc., in Augustan Latin.

10. Object—Aim—Hesitation—Delay

_consilium est_ c. Inf. or _ut_—my intention is...

_id sequor, ut_—my intention is...

_spectare aliquid_ or _ad aliquid_—to have an object in view.

_res eo spectat, ut_—the matter tends towards..., has this object.[1]

_res spectat ad vim (arma)_—there seems a prospect of armed violence;
things look like violence.

_id quod voluit consecutus est_—he attained his object.

_ad id quod voluit pervenit_—he attained his object.

_quid tibi vis?_—what do you mean to do?

_quid hoc sibi vult?_—what is the meaning of this?

_quid hoc rei est?_—what is the meaning of this?

_eo consilio, ea mente, ut_—with the intention of...

_de industria, dedita opera_ (opp. _imprudens_)—designedly;

_ad id ipsum_[2]—with this very object.

_infecta re_ (Liv. 9. 32)—to no purpose; ineffectually.

_moram alicui rei afferre, inferre, facere_—to retard, delay a thing.

_in mora alicui esse_—to detain a person.

_nullam moram interponere, quin_ (Phil. 10. 1. 1)—to make all possible
haste to...

_sine mora_ or _nulla mora interposita_—without delay.

_diem ex die ducere, differre_—to put off from one day to another.

[1] Note _Athenae a Persis petutuntur_, the object of the Persian
invasion is Athens (Nep. Them. 2. 6).

[2] The aim, tendency of a writing or a poem is _consilium, quo liber
scriptus est, quo carmen compositum est_, or _quod quis in libro
scribendo secutus est_, not _consilium libri_.

11. Remembrance—Forgetfulness

_memoriā tenere aliquid_—to remember a thing perfectly.

_memoriam alicuius rei tenere_—to remember a thing perfectly.

_recenti memoria tenere aliquid_—to have a vivid recollection of a

_memoriā (multum) valere_ (opp. _memoriā vacillare_)—to have a good

_memorem esse_ (opp. _obliviosum esse_)—to have a good memory.

_memoria tanta fuit, ut_—he had such an extraordinary memory that...

_memoriā labi_—to make a slip of the memory.

_memoriae mandare aliquid_[1]—to impress on the memory.

_ex memoria_ (opp. _de scripto_)—from memory; by heart.

_memoriter_—(1) with good memory; (2) from personal recollection.

_memoria custodire_—to keep in mind.

_memoriam alicuius rei renovare, revocare (redintegrare)_—to recall a
thing to one's recollection.

_memoriam alicuius rei repetere_—to recall to mind a thing or person.

_in memoriam alicuius redire_—to recall to mind a thing or person.

_in memoriam alicuius redigere, reducere aliquid_ (not _revocare_)—to
recall a thing to a person's mind.

_memoria et recordatio_—vivid recollection.

_grata memoria aliquem prosequi_[2]—to show a thankful appreciation of
a person's kindness.

_nomen alicuius grato animo prosequi_—to think of a person with a
grateful sense of his goodness.

_memoriam alicuius rei repraesentare_ (opp. _memoriam alicuius rei
deponere, abicere_)—to picture to oneself again.

_memoriam alicuius rei conservare, retinere_—to retain the
recollection of a thing.

_memoriam alicuius pie inviolateque servare_—to show an affectionate
regard for a person's memory.

_gratam (gratissimam) alicuius memoriam retinere_—to retain a (most)
pleasant impression of a person.

_numquam ex animo meo memoria illius rei discedet_—the memory of this
will never fade from my mind.

_aliquid in memoria nostra penitus insidet_—a thing has been vividly
impressed on our[TR1] memory.

_memoriam eius nulla umquam delebit (obscurabit) oblivio_ (Fam. 2.
1)—nothing will ever make me forgetful of him.

_semper memoria eius in (omnium) mentibus haerebit_—nothing will ever
make me forgetful of him.

_nomen suum posteritati aliqua re commendare, propagare, prodere_—to
win renown amongst posterity by some act.

_memoriam nominis sui immortalitati tradere, mandare, commendare_—to
immortalise one's name.

_post hominum memoriam_—within the memory of man.

_post homines natos_—within the memory of man.

_memoriae causa, ad_ (not _in_) _memoriam_[3] (Brut. 16. 62)—in memory

_oblivio alicuius rei me capit_—I forget something.

_aliquem in oblivionem alicuius rei adducere_ (pass. _in oblivionem
venire_)—to make a person forget a thing.

_aliquid excidit e memoria, effluit, excidit ex animo_—a thing
escapes, vanishes from the memory.

_memoria alicuius rei excidit, abiit, abolevit_—the recollection of a
thing has been entirely lost.

_obliterari_[4] (Liv. 26. 41)—to be forgotten, pass into oblivion.

_memoria alicuius rei obscuratur, obliteratur, evanescit_—to be
forgotten, pass into oblivion.

_oblivioni esse, dari_—to be forgotten, pass into oblivion.

_in oblivionem adduci_—to be forgotten, pass into oblivion.

_oblivione obrui, deleri, exstingui_—to be forgotten, pass into

_in oblivione iacēre_ (of persons)—to be forgotten, pass into oblivion.

_aliquid ab oblivione vindicare_—to rescue from oblivion.

_mementote_ with Acc. c. Inf.—do not forget.

[1] Distinguish this expression from _ediscere_ which = to learn by
heart; also from _memoriae prodere, tradere_ = to hand down as
tradition (_vid._ sect. VII. 14).

[2] _Prosequi_ used figuratively, with an ablative, occurs in several
phrases—e.g. _prosequi aliquem honore; verbis honorificis; beneficiis,
officiis, studiis suis; ominibus, votis, lacrimis_.

[3] One can also say _monumenti causa_—e.g. _aliquid alicui momenti
causa relinquere_. Cf. such turnings as _alicuius memoriam aliqua re
prosequi, celebrare, renovare_.

[4] This and the following expressions are useful to express the
passive of _oblivisci_.

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: the original text indeed has "my", which is
wrong, however, because the Latin phrase uses _nostra_. The French
edition uses "notre mémoire".

12. Theory—Practice—Experience

_ratione, doctrina_ (opp. _usu_) _aliquid cognitum habere_—to have a
theoretical knowledge of a thing.

_ad artem, ad rationem revocare aliquid_ (De Or. 2. 11. 44)—to reduce
a thing to its theoretical principles; to apply theory to a thing.

_doctrinam ad usum adiungere_—to combine theory with practice.

_in rebus atque in usu versatum esse_—to have had practical experience.

_usu_[1] _praeditum esse_—to possess experience.

_magnum usum in aliqua re habere_—to have had great experience in a

_multarum rerum usus_—varied, manifold experience.

_usu rerum (vitae, vitae communis) edocti sumus_—we know from

_experti scimus, didicimus_—we know from experience.

_usu cognitum habemus_—we know from experience.

_res ipsa, usus rerum (cotidie) docet_—everyday experience tells us

_(rerum) imperitum esse_—to have had no experience of the world.

_multa acerba expertus est_[2]—he has had many painful experiences.

_usus me docuit_—experience has taught me.

[1] Not _experientia_, which in classical prose means attempt, proof.

[2] _experiri_ is only used of personal experience.

VII. The Arts and Sciences

1. Scientific Knowledge in General—Literature

_optima studia, bonae, optimae, liberales, ingenuae artes,
disciplinae_—the sciences; the fine arts.

_litterarum_[1] _studium_ or _tractatio_ (not _occupatio_)—the study
of belles-lettres; literary pursuits.

_homines litterarum studiosi_—learned, scientific, literary men.

_homines docti_—learned, scientific, literary men.

_artium studia_ or _artes vigent_ (not _florent_)—learning, scientific
knowledge is flourishing.

_litterae iacent, neglectae iacent_[2]—scholarship, culture,
literature is at a low ebb.

_litteras colere_—to be engaged in the pursuit of letters.

_litteras amplecti_—to be an enthusiastic devotee of letters.

_litteras adamasse_ (only in perf. and plup.)—to be an enthusiastic
devotee of letters.

_in studio litterarum versari_—to be engaged in literary pursuits.

_in aliquo litterarum genere versari_—to be engaged in any branch of

_summo studio in litteris versari_—to be an ardent student of...

_se totum litteris tradere, dedere_—to devote oneself entirely to

_se totum in litteras_ or _se litteris abdere_—to be quite engrossed
in literary studies.

_in litteris elaborare_ (De Sen. 8. 26)—to apply oneself very closely
to literary, scientific work.

_in litteris acquiescere_ or _conquiescere_—to find recreation in study.

_aetatem in litteris ducere, agere_—to devote one's life to science,

_omne (otiosum) tempus in litteris consumere_—to devote all one's
leisure moments to study.

_omne studium in litteris collocare, ad litteras conferre_—to employ
all one's energies on literary work.

_optimarum artium studio incensum esse_—to be interested in, have a
taste for culture.

_litterarum studio trahi_—to feel an attraction for study.

_trahi, ferri ad litteras_—to feel an attraction for study.

_litterarum studia remittere_—to relax one's studies.

_intermissa studia revocare_—to resume one's studies.

_primis (ut dicitur)_[3] or _primoribus labris gustare_ or _attingere
litteras_—to have a superficial knowledge, a smattering of literature,
of the sciences.


_litterae ac monumenta_ or simply _monumenta_—written records;

_litterae latinae_[4]—Roman literature.

_clarissima litterarum lumina_—shining lights in the literary world.

_graecis litteris studere_—to study Greek literature.

_multum (mediocriter) in graecis litteris versari_—to be well
(slightly) acquainted with Greek literature.

[1] _littera_ in sing. = letter of the alphabet, e.g. _litteram nullam
ad me misit_. In plur. = 1. letters of the alphabet, characters (cf.
viii. 9); 2. a letter (_epistola_); 3. writings, books, e.g. _graecae
de philosophia litterae_; 4. literature, _graecas litteras discere_;
5. literary pursuits; 6. science; 7. culture, erudition, learning,
_erant in eo plurimae litterae, neque eae vulgares, sed interiores
quaedam et reconditae_.

[2] _iacēre_ metaphorically is used not only of things neglected and
abandoned, but of persons (cf. _frigere_) who have lost all their
political influence.

[3] Cf. Pro Caelio 12, 28 _extremis ut dicitur digitis attingere_.

[4] _latinus_ is only used of language and literature, _Romanus_ of

2. Learning—Erudition

_vir_ or _homo doctus, litteratus_—a man of learning; a scholar; a

_vir doctissimus_—a great scholar.

_vir perfecte planeque eruditus_—a man of profound erudition.

_vir omni doctrina eruditus_—a man perfect in all branches of learning.

_multi viri docti_, or _multi et ii docti_ (not _multi docti_)—many
learned men; many scholars.

_omnes docti, quivis doctus, doctissimus quisque_—all learned men.

_nemo doctus_—no man of learning.

_nemo mediocriter doctus_—no one with any pretence to education.

_latinis litteris_ or _latine doctus_—acquainted with the Latin

_bene_[1] _latine doctus_ or _sciens_—a good Latin scholar.

_doctrina abundare_ (De Or. 3. 16. 59)—to be a man of great learning.

_a doctrina mediocriter instructum esse_—to have received only a
moderate education.

_doctrina exquisita, subtilis, elegans_[2]—sound knowledge; scholarship.

_doctrina recondita_—profound erudition.

_studia, quae in reconditis artibus versantur_ (De Or. 1. 2.
8)—abstruse studies.

_magnam doctrinae speciem prae se ferre_—to pass as a man of great

_vita umbratilis_ (_vid._ sect. VII. 4)—the contemplative life of a

_litterarum scientiam_ (only in sing.) _habere_—to possess literary

_scientiam alicuius rei consequi_—to acquire knowledge of a subject.

_scientia comprehendere aliquid_—to acquire knowledge of a subject.

_penitus percipere et comprehendere aliquid_ (De Or. 1. 23. 108)—to
have a thorough grasp of a subject.

_scientia augere aliquem_—to enrich a person's knowledge.

_multa cognita, percepta habere, multa didicisse_—to be well-informed,

_multarum rerum cognitione imbutum esse_ (opp. _litterarum_ or
_eruditionis expertem esse_ or _[rerum] rudem esse_)—to be
well-informed, erudite.

[1] For the use of adverbs to modify adjectives and other adverbs
_vid._ Nägelsbach Lat. Stil. p. 278; cf. _bene multi, bene mane, bene
penitus_ (Verr. 2. 70. 169), _impie ingratus_ (Tusc. 5. 2. 6) etc.
Such combinations are especially frequent in Tacitus, Velleius,
Seneca, and Quintilian. For _latine_ by itself cf. Cic. Opt. Gen. 4
_latine, id est pure et emendate, loqui_. If the style is to be
criticised, adverbs can be added—e.g. _bene, perbene, pessime,
eleganter_, etc., cf. vii. 7.

[2] Not _solida_, which means properly entire, massive—e.g. _marmor
solidum, crateres auro solidi_, then metaph. e.g.—_solida laus,

3. Culture—Civilisation

_animum, ingenium excolere_ (not _colere_)—to cultivate the mind.

_animi, ingenii cultus_ (not _cultura_)—mental culture.

_optimis studiis_ or _artibus, optimarum artium studiis eruditum
esse_—to have received a liberal education.

_litteras scire_—to have received a liberal education.

_litterae interiores et reconditae, artes reconditae_—profound
scientific education.

_sunt in illo, ut in homine Romano, multae litterae_ (De Sen. 4.
12)—for a Roman he is decidedly well educated.

_litteris leviter imbutum_ or _tinctum esse_—to have received a
superficial education.

_omni vita atque victu excultum atque expolitum esse_ (Brut. 25.
95)—to have attained to a high degree of culture.

_omnis cultus et humanitatis expertem esse_[1]—to be quite uncivilised.

_ab omni cultu et humanitate longe abesse_ (B. G. 1. 1. 3)—to be quite

_homines, gentem a fera agrestique vita ad humanum cultum civilemque
deducere_ (De Or. 1. 8. 33)—to civilise men, a nation.

[1] Not _incultum esse_, which refers only to external appearance.

4. Education—Instruction—School—Profession

_liberaliter, ingenue, bene educari_—to receive a liberal education.

_severa disciplina contineri_—to be brought up under strict discipline.

_aliquem ad humanitatem informare_ or _instituere_—to teach a person

_mores alicuius corrigere_—to improve a person.

_in viam reducere aliquem_—to bring a person back to the right way.

_in viam redire_—to return to the right way.

_litteras discere ab aliquo_—to be educated by some one.

_institui_ or _erudiri ab aliquo_—to receive instruction from some one.

_disciplina alicuius uti, magistro aliquo uti_—to receive instruction
from some one.

_e disciplina alicuius profectum esse_—to be brought up in some one's

_puerum alicui erudiendum_ or _in disciplinam tradere_—to entrust a
child to the tuition of...

_operam dare_ or simply _se dare alicui, se tradere in disciplinam
alicuius, se conferre, se applicare ad aliquem_—to become a pupil,
disciple of some one.

_multum esse cum aliquo_ (Fam. 16. 21)—to enjoy close intercourse
with... (of master and pupil).

_ludus (discendi_ or _litterarum_)—an elementary school.

_schola_—a school for higher education.

_scholam frequentare_—to go to a school.

_disciplina (institutio) puerilis_ (not _liberorum_)—the teaching of

_pueros elementa (prima) docere_—to teach children the rudiments.

_primis litterarum elementis imbui_—to receive the first elements of a
liberal education.

_doctrinae, quibus aetas puerilis impertiri solet_ (Nep. Att. 1.
2)—the usual subjects taught to boys.

_artes, quibus aetas puerilis ad humanitatem informari solet_—the
usual subjects taught to boys.

_erudire aliquem artibus, litteris_ (but _erudire aliquem in iure
civili, in re militari_)—to teach some one letters.

_natum, factum esse ad aliquid (faciendum)_—to be born for a thing,
endowed by nature for it.

_adversante et repugnante natura_ or _invitā Minervā (ut aiunt)
aliquid facere_ (Off. 1. 31. 110)—to do a thing which is not one's
vocation, which goes against the grain.

_crassa_ or _pingui Minerva_ (proverb.)—with no intelligence or skill.

_calcaria alicui adhibere, admovere; stimulos alicui admovere_—to
spur, urge a person on.

_frenos adhibere alicui_—to restrain some one.

_bona indole_ (always in sing.) _praeditum esse_—to be gifted,
talented (not _praeditum esse_ by itself).

_ingenio valere_—to be gifted, talented.

_summo ingenio praeditum esse_—to possess rich mental endowments.

_in aliqua re progressus facere, proficere, progredi_—to make progress
in a subject.

_aliquid efficere, consequi in aliqua re_ (De Or. 1. 33. 152)—to
obtain a result in something.

_adulescens alios bene de se sperare iubet, bonam spem ostendit_ or
_alii de adulescente bene sperare possunt_—he is a young man of great

_adulescens bonae (egregiae) spei_—a promising youth.

_magna est exspectatio ingenii tui_—we expect a great deal from a man
of your calibre.

_desudare in scholae umbra_ or _umbraculis_[1]—to exert oneself in the

_genus vitae (vivendi)_ or _aetatis degendae deligere_[2]—to choose a
career, profession.

_viam vitae ingredi_ (Flacc. 42. 105)—to enter upon a career.

_philosophiam, medicinam profiteri_—to be a philosopher, physician by

_se philosophum, medicum (esse) profiteri_—to be a philosopher,
physician by profession.

_qui ista profitentur_—men of that profession.

[1] Cf. _umbra, umbracula (-orum)_, and _umbratilis_ (_vid._ vii. 2,
_vita umbratilis_), used of the retired life of a savant as opposed to
_sol, lux fori_[TR1] or _forensis_. Cf. De Legg. 3. 6. 14 _Phalereus
ille Demetrius mirabiliter doctrinam ex umbraculis eruditorum otioque
non modo in solem atque in pulverem sed in ipsum discrimen aciemque

[2] The _locus classicus_ on the choice of a profession is De Officiis
1. 32. 115-122.

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: the original text indeed has _sol, lux ori_.
But that is wrong as can be seen from the French edition using _sol,
lux fori_.

5. Example—Pattern—Precedent

_exemplum clarum, praeclarum_—a good,[1] brilliant example; a striking

_exemplum luculentum_—a good, brilliant example; a striking example.

_exemplum illustre_—a good, brilliant example; a striking example.

_exemplum magnum, grande_—a weighty example, precedent.

_exemplum afferre_—to quote an example.

_exemplo uti_—to quote an example.

_aliquem (aliquid) exempli causa_[2] _ponere, proferre, nominare,
commemorare_—to cite a person or a thing as an example.

_aliquid exemplis probare, comprobare, confirmare_—to quote precedents
for a thing.

_aliquid exemplis ostendere_—to demonstrate by instances.

_exempla petere, repetere a rerum gestarum memoria_ or _historiarum
(annalium, rerum gestarum) monumentis_—to borrow instances from history.

_exempla a rerum Romanarum (Graecarum) memoria petita_—examples taken
from Roman (Greek) history.

_multa exempla in unum (locum) colligere_—to collect, accumulate

_ex infinita exemplorum copia unum (pauca) sumere, decerpere
(eligere)_—to choose one from a large number of instances.

_a Socrate exemplum virtutis petere, repetere_—to quote Socrates as a
model of virtue.

_similitudines afferre_—to cite parallel cases.

_auctore aliquo uti ad aliquid_—to have as authority for a thing.

_auctorem aliquem habere alicuius rei_—to have as authority for a thing.

_auctoritatem alicuius sequi_—to be guided by another's example.

_auctoritas et exemplum_ (Balb. 13. 31)—standard and pattern.

_sibi exemplum alicuius proponere ad imitandum_ or simply _sibi
aliquem ad imitandum proponere_—to set up some one as one's ideal,

_sibi exemplum sumere ex aliquo_ or _exemplum capere de aliquo_—to
take a lesson from some one's example.

_ad exemplum alicuius se conformare_—to shape one's conduct after
another's model.

_exemplum edere, prodere_—to set an example.

_exemplo esse_—to set an example.

_exemplum in aliquo_ or _in aliquem statuere_—to inflict an exemplary
punishment on some one.

_exemplum (severitatis) edere in aliquo_ (Q. Fr. 1. 2. 2. 5)—to
inflict an exemplary punishment on some one.

_bene (male) praecipere alicui_—to inculcate good (bad) principles.

_praecepta dare, tradere de aliqua re_—to give advice, directions,
about a matter.

_ad praecipiendi rationem delābi_ (Q. Fr. 1. 1. 6. 18)—to adopt a
didactic tone.

_aliquid in animo haeret, penitus insedit_ or _infixum est_—a thing is
deeply impressed on the mind.

_aliquid animo mentique penitus mandare_ (Catil. 1. 11. 27)—to impress
a thing on one's memory, mind.

_demittere aliquid in pectus_ or _in pectus animumque suum_—to take a
thing to heart.

_hoc verbum alte descendit in pectus alicuius_—what he said made a
deep impression on...

[1] Not _bonum exemplum_, which means an example morally good for us
to follow.

[2] "For example" must not be translated by _exempli causa_, which is
only used in complete sentences with such verbs as _ponere, afferre,
proferre, nominare_. _verbi causa (gratia)_ = "for instance," "we will
say," usually refers to a single expression, e.g. _quid dicis igitur?
miserum fuisse verbi causa M. Crassum?_ (Tusc. 1. 4. 12). Often
examples are introduced by such words as _ut, velut, in his_, etc.,
e.g. _bestiae quae gignuntur in terra, veluti crocodili_ (N. D. 2. 48.

6. Philosophy

_se conferre ad philosophiam, ad philosophiae_ or _sapientiae studium_
(Fam. 4. 3. 4)—to devote oneself to philosophy.

_animum appellere_ or _se applicare ad philosophiam_—to apply oneself
to the study of philosophy.

_philosophiae (sapientiae) studio teneri_ (Acad. 1. 2. 4)—to be
enamoured of philosophy.

_in portum philosophiae confugere_—to take refuge in philosophy.

_in sinum philosophiae compelli_—to be driven into the arms of

_philosophia (neglecta) iacet_ (_vid._ sect. VII. 1, note
_iacēre..._)—philosophy is neglected, at low ebb.

_philosophiam latinis litteris illustrare_ (Acad. 1. 1. 3)—to write
expositions of philosophy in Latin.

_Ciceronis de philosophia libri_—Cicero's philosophical writings.

_decreta, inventa philosophorum_—the tenets, dogmas of philosophers.

_quae in philosophia tractantur_—philosophical subjects.

_praecepta philosophorum (penitus) percepta habere_—to be well
acquainted with the views of philosophers.

_illae sententiae evanuerunt_—those views are out of date.

_illae sententiae iam pridem explosae et eiectae sunt_ (Fin. 5. 8.
23)—those ideas have long ago been given up.

_schola, disciplina, familia; secta_—a sect, school of thought.

_sectam alicuius sequi_ (Brut. 31. 120)—to be a follower, disciple of
some one.

_disciplinam alicuius profiteri_—to be a follower, disciple of some one.

_qui sunt a Platone_ or _a Platonis disciplina; qui profecti sunt a
Platone; Platonici_—disciples of Plato, Platonists.

_Solo, unus de septem (illis)_—Solon, one of the seven sages.

_Pythagorae doctrina longe lateque fluxit_ (Tusc. 4. 1. 2)—Pythagoras'
principles were widely propagated.

_scholas habere, explicare_ (Fin. 2. 1. 1)—to give lectures.

_scholis interesse_—to attend lectures.

_tradere (aliquid de aliqua re)_—to teach

_audire Platonem, auditorem esse Platonis_—to attend Plato's lectures.

7. The Parts of Philosophy

_physica_[1] (_-orum_) (Or. 34. 119); _philosophia naturalis_—physics;
natural philosophy.

_dialectica_ (_-ae_ or _-orum_) (pure Latin _disserendi ratio et
scientia_)—logic, dialectic.

_disserendi praecepta tradere_—to teach logic.

_disserendi elegantia_—logical minuteness, precision.

_disserendi subtilitas_ (De Or. 1. 1. 68)—dialectical nicety.

_disserendi spinae_ (Fin. 4. 28. 79)—subtleties of logic; dilemmas.

_disserendi peritus et artifex_—an accomplished dialectician.

_homo in dialecticis versatissimus_—an accomplished dialectician.

_disserendi artem nullam habere_—to know nothing of logic.

_dialecticis ne imbutum_[2] _quidem esse_—to be ignorant of even the
elements of logic.

_ratione, eleganter_ (opp. _nulla ratione, ineleganter, confuse_)
_disponere aliquid_—to arrange on strictly logical principles.

_philosophia, quae est de vita et moribus_ (Acad. 1. 5. 19)—moral
science; ethics.

_philosophia, in qua de bonis rebus et malis, deque hominum vita et
moribus disputatur_—moral science; ethics.

_philosophia, quae in rerum contemplatione versatur_, or _quae artis
praeceptis continetur_—theoretical, speculative philosophy.

_philosophia,_[3] _quae in actione versatur_—practical philosophy.

_omnes philosophiae loci_—the whole domain of philosophy.

[1] Cf. Acad. 1. 5. 19 _philosophandi ratio triplex; una de vita et
moribus, altera de natura et rebus occultis, tertia de disserendo_.

[2] _imbuere_ is properly to give the first touch to, tinge, bathe,
e.g. _gladii sanguine imbuti_. Metaph. it = (1) to fill with, e.g.
_religione, pietate, superstitione, crudelitate_; (2) to teach,
initiate, e.g. _animum honestis artibus_, and is used especially of a
superficial knowledge.

[3] Cf. Sen. Ep. 25. 10 _philosophia activa_.

8. System—Method—Principles

_ratio; disciplina, ratio et disciplina; ars_—system.

_ad artem redigere aliquid_—to systematise.

_ad rationem, ad artem et praecepta revocare aliquid_ (De Or. 1.
41)—to systematise.

_arte conclusum esse_—to have been reduced to a system.

_ratio et doctrina_—systematic, methodical knowledge.

_artificio et via tradere aliquid_—to give a scientific explanation of
a thing.

_artificiose redigere aliquid_—to treat with scientific exactness; to

_ad rationis praecepta accommodare aliquid_—to treat with scientific
exactness; to classify.

_totam rationem evertere_ (pass. _iacet tota ratio_)—to upset the
whole system.

_ratione et via, via et ratione progredi, disputare_ (Or. 33. 116)—to
proceed, carry on a discussion logically.

_novam rationem ingredi_—to enter on a new method.

_a certa ratione proficisci_—to be based on a sound principle.

_a falsis principiis proficisci_—to start from false premises.

_ad philosophorum_ or _philosophandi rationes revocare aliquid_—to
deal with a subject on scientific principles.

_perpetuitas et constantia_ (Tusc. 5. 10. 31)—logical consistency.

9. Species—Definition—Classification—Connection

_partes_[1] _generibus subiectae sunt_—the species is subordinate the

_genus universum in species certas partiri et dividere_ (Or. 33.
117)—to analyse a general division into its specific parts.

_genere, non numero_ or _magnitudine differre_—to differ qualitatively
not quantitatively.

_spinae partiendi et definiendi_ (Tusc. 5. 8. 22)—minute, captious
subdivisions and definitions.

_rem (res) definire_—to define a thing.

_a definitione proficisci_—to start from a definition.

_involutae rei notitiam definiendo aperire_ (Or. 33. 116)—to make an
obscure notion clear by means of definition.

_sub metum subiectum esse_—to be comprised under the term "fear."

_constituere, quid et quale sit, de quo disputetur_—to determine the
nature and constitution of the subject under discussion.

_in ordinem redigere aliquid_—to systematise, classify a thing.

_conexum et aptum esse inter se_—to be closely connected with each

_cohaerere, coniunctum esse cum aliqua re_—to be closely connected
with a thing.

_arte (artissime) coniunctum esse_—to be very intimately related.

_apte (aptissime) cohaerere_—to be very intimately related.

_continuatio seriesque rerum, ut alia ex alia nexa et omnes inter se
aptae colligataeque sint_ (N. D. 1. 4. 9)—systematic succession,

_diffusum, dissipatum esse_—to have no coherence, connection.

_confusum, perturbatum esse_—to be confused.

_rem dissolutam conglutinare, coagmentare_—to reunite disconnected

[1] Cf. Cic. De Or. 1. 42 for the definition. _GENUS autem id est,
quod sui similes communione quadam, specie autem differentes, duas aut
plures complectitur partes. PARTES autem sunt, quae generibus eis ex
quibus manant subiciuntur; omniaque quae sunt vel generum vel partium
nomina, definitionibus, quam vim habeant, est exprimendum. est enim
DEFINITIO rerum earum, quae sunt eius rei propriae, quam definire
volumus, brevis et circumscripta quaedam explicatio._

10. Proof—Refutation

_argumentum_[1] _firmum, magnum_—a strong, striking proof.

_argumentum afferre_—to bring forward a proof.

_argumentum immortalitatis afferre_ (not _pro_)—to quote an argument
in favour of immortality.

_argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstratur_—to bring
forward a proof of the immortality of the soul.

_argumento huic rei est, quod_—a proof of this is that...

_aliquid planum facere_ (Ad Herenn. 2. 5)—to demonstrate, make a thing

_aliquid alicui probare_ (or c. Acc. c. Inf.)—to prove one's point to
a person's satisfaction.

_argumentis confirmare, comprobare, evincere aliquid_ (or c. Acc. c.
Inf.)—to prove a thing indisputably.

_argumentum ducere, sumere ex aliqua re_ or _petere ab aliqua re_—to
derive an argument from a thing.

_argumentum premere_ (not _urgere_)—to persist in an argument, press a

_loci (τόποι) argumentorum_ (De Or. 2. 162)—the points on which proofs
are based; the grounds of proof.

_argumenta refellere, confutare_—to refute arguments.

_rationem_[2] _afferre_ (Verr. 3. 85. 195)—to bring forward an
argument (based on common-sense).

[1] _argumentum_ = a proof resting on facts; _ratio_ = an argument
drawn from the general reasonableness of the proposition.

[2] _argumentum_ = a proof resting on facts; _ratio_ = an argument
drawn from the general reasonableness of the proposition.

11. Conclusion—Hypothesis—Inference

_concludere, colligere, efficere, cogere ex aliqua re_—to draw a
conclusion from a thing.

_acute, subtiliter concludere_—to draw a subtle inference.

_ratio_ or _rationis conclusio efficit_—the conclusion proves that...

_ratiocinatio, ratio_—the syllogism; reasoning.

_prima_[1] (_superiora_); _consequentia_ (Fin. 4. 19. 54)—premises;

_conclusiuncula fallax_ or _captio_—a fallacious argument; sophism.

_positum est a nobis primum_ (c. Acc. c. Inf.)—we start by
presupposing that...

_hoc posito_—on this supposition, hypothesis.

_hoc probato consequens est_—it follows from what we have shown.

_sequitur_ (not _ex quo seq._) _ut_—it follows from this that...

_ex quo, unde, hinc efficitur ut_—it follows from this that...

[1] In a syllogism the technical term for the major premise is
_propositio_ or _propositio major_; for the minor, _propositio minor_;
for the conclusion, _conclusio_.

12. Debate—Controversy

_disputatio, quaestio_—systematic, scientific discussion.

_disputare_[1] (_de aliqua re, ad aliquid_)—to discuss, investigate a
subject scientifically.

_subtiliter disputare_—to thoroughly discuss.

_in utramque partem, in contrarias partes disputare_ (De Or. 1. 34)—to
discuss both sides of a question.

_in nullam partem disputare_—to say nothing either for or against an

_non repugno_—I have nothing to say against it.

_pertinacem_ (opp. _clementem_) _esse in disputando_—to be dogmatic;

_opponere alicui aliquid_—to object, to adduce in contradiction.

_dare, concedere aliquid_—to grant, admit a thing.

_sumere_ (opp. _reicere_) _aliquid_—to assume a thing.

_tenere aliquid; stare in aliqua re_—to insist on a point.

_obtinere aliquid_—to maintain one's assertion, prove oneself right.

_in controversia (contentione) esse, versari_—to be at variance with.

_in controversiam cadere_—to be at variance with.

_in controversiam vocare, adducere aliquid_—to make a thing the
subject of controversy.

_in controversiam vocari, adduci, venire_ (De Or. 2. 72. 291)—to be
contested, become the subject of debate.

_in controversia relinquere aliquid_—to leave a point undecided.

_controversiam (contentionem) habere cum aliquo_—to maintain a
controversy with some one.

_in contentione ponitur, utrum...an_—it is a debated point whether...

_id, de quo agitur_ or _id quod cadit in controversiam_—the point at

_controversiam sedare, dirimere, componere, tollere_—to put an end to,
settle a dispute.

_controversiam diiudicare_—to decide a debated question.

_transigere aliquid cum aliquo_—to come to an understanding with a

_res mihi tecum est_—I have a point to discuss with you.

_sine (ulla) controversia_—indisputably; incontestably.

_hoc est a (pro) me_—this goes to prove what I say.

_res ipsa docet_—the very facts of the case show this.

_res ipsa (pro me apud te) loquitur_—the matter speaks for itself.

_res confecta est_—the question is settled, finished.

[1] _disputare_ = to discuss, considering the arguments _pro_ and
_con_, used of a number of people with different opinions. _disserere
de aliqua re_ = to discourse on a matter for the benefit of those
present; but in both cases the substantive is _disputatio_.

13. Agreement—Contradiction

_consentire, idem sentire cum aliquo_—to agree with a person.

_dissentire, dissidere ab_ or _cum aliquo_—to disagree with a person.

_omnes (uno ore) in hac re consentiunt_—all agree on this point.

_una et consentiens vox est_—all are unanimous.

_una voce; uno ore_—unanimously.

_uno, communi, summo_ or _omnium consensu_ (Tusc. 1. 15.

_re concinere, verbis discrepare_—to agree in fact but not in word.

_hoc convēnit inter nos_—we have agreed on this point.

_hoc mihi tecum convēnit_ (Att. 6. 1. 14)—I agree with you there.

_quī convenit?_—how is this consistent? how are we to reconcile this...?

_summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio_ (opp. _dissensio_)—the
learned men are most unanimous in...

_constantia_ (opp. _inconstantia_) (Tusc. 5. 11. 32)—consistency.

_inter se pugnare_ or _repugnare_—to be mutually contradictory.

_secum pugnare_ (without _sibi_); _sibi repugnare_ (of things)—to
contradict oneself, be inconsistent.

_a se dissidere_ or _sibi non constare_ (of persons)—to contradict
oneself, be inconsistent.

_pugnantia loqui_ (Tusc. 1. 7. 13)—to make contradictory, inconsistent

_dicere contra aliquem_ or _aliquid_ (not _contradicere alicui_)—to
contradict some one.

14. Particular Sciences

_res Romanae_[1]—Roman history (_i.e._ the events in it).

_res gestae Romanorum_—Roman history (_i.e._ the events in it).

_historia_—history (as a science).

_historia Romana_[2] or _rerum Romanarum historia_—Roman history
(_i.e._ the exposition, representation of it by writers).

_memoria rerum Romanarum_—Roman history (as tradition).

_historiam (-as) scribere_—to write a history.

_res populi Romani perscribere_—to write a history of Rome.

_rerum scriptor_[3]—an historian.

_rerum auctor_ (as authority)—an historian.

_evolvere historias, litterarum (veterum annalium) monumenta_—to study
historical records, read history.

_memoriae traditum est, memoriae (memoria) proditum est_ (without
_nobis_)—tradition, history tells us.

_tradunt, dicunt, ferunt_—they say; it is commonly said.

_accepimus_[4]—we know; we have been told.

_historiae prodiderunt_ (without _nobis_)—history has handed down to us.

_apud rerum scriptores scriptum videmus, scriptum est_—we read in

_duplex est memoria de aliqua re_—a twofold tradition prevails on this

_rerum veterum memoria_—ancient history.

_memoria vetus_ (Or. 34. 120)—ancient history.

_veterum annales_—ancient history.

_veterum annalium monumenta_—ancient history.

_antiquitatis memoria_—ancient history.

_recentioris aetatis memoria_—modern history.

_memoria huius aetatis (horum temporum)_—the history of our own times;
contemporary history.

_nostra memoria_ (Cael. 18. 43)—the history of our own times;
contemporary history.

_omnis memoria, omnis memoria aetatum, temporum, civitatum_ or _omnium
rerum, gentium, temporum, saeculorum memoria_—universal history.

_memoriam annalium_ or _temporum replicare_—to consult history.

_aetas heroica_[5] (Tusc. 5. 3. 7)—the mythical period, the heroic age.

_tempora heroica_ (N. D. 3. 21. 54)—the mythical period, the heroic age.

_fabulae, historia fabularis_—mythology.

_repetere ab ultima (extrema, prisca) antiquitate (vetustate), ab
heroicis temporibus_—to go back to the remote ages.

_ut a fabulis ad facta veniamus_—to pass from myth to history.

_historicorum fide contestata memoria_—historic times.

_historiae, rerum fides_—historic truth.

_narrare aliquid ad fidem historiae_—to give a veracious and historic
account of a thing.

_res historiae fide comprobata_—an acknowledged historical fact.

_incorrupta rerum fides_—genuine historical truth.

_ad historiam (scribendam) se conferre_ or _se applicare_—to devote
oneself to writing history.

_homo in historia diligens_—a conscientious historian.

_memoriam rerum gestarum (rerum Romanarum) tenere_—to be well versed
in Roman history.

_domestica (externa) nosse_—to be acquainted with the history of one's
own land.

_temporum ratio, descriptio, ordo_—chronology.

_temporum ordinem servare_—to observe the chronological order of events.

_servare et notare tempora_—to observe the chronological order of

_res temporum ordine servato narrare_—to narrate events in the order
of their occurrence.

_temporibus errare_ (Phil. 2. 9. 23)—to make a chronological mistake.

_ad temporum rationem aliquid revocare_—to calculate the date of an

_diligentem esse in exquirendis temporibus_—to be exact in calculating

_terrarum_ or _regionum descriptio (geographia)_—geography.

_Africae situm paucis exponere_—to give a brief exposition of the
geography of Africa.

_regionum terrestrium aut maritimarum scientia_—geographical knowledge.

_mathematica (-ae)_ or _geometria (-ae)_, _geometrica (-orum)_ (Tusc.
1. 24. 57)—mathematics.

_mathematicorum ratione concludere aliquid_—to draw a mathematical

_formas_ (not _figuras_) _geometricas describere_—to draw geometrical

_se conferre ad naturae investigationem_—to devote oneself to the
study of a natural science.

_astrologia_ (pure Latin _sidera, caelestia_)—astronomy.

_spectator siderum, rerum caelestium_ or _astrologus_[6]—an astronomer.

_arithmetica_[7] (_-orum_)—arithmetic.

_numeri (-orum)_—arithmetic.

_bis bina quot sint non didicisse_—to be absolutely ignorant of

[1] But _res Romana_ = the Roman power, Rome.

[2] _historia_ has several different senses. (1) The narration,
exposition of the facts (_res gestae, res_), cf. _rerum exemplum_,
historic precedent; _res facta_, historic fact. (2) Historical
composition, e.g. _historiam scribere, historia graeca_ = either a
history written in Greek or a history of Greece (_rerum graecarum
historia_); _historia latina_, history written in Latin; _historia
romana_ or _rerum romanarum historia_ = a history of Rome. (3) A place
famous in history, e.g. _quacunque ingredimur, in aliqua historia
pedem ponimus_. In the plural _historiae_ means specially histories,
anecdotes (_narratiunculae_), memoirs, e.g. _Taciti historiae_.

[3] _historicus_ means an erudite student of history, one engaged on
historical research. As an adjective its use in Cicero is limited,
being only used when opposed to _oratorius_, e.g. _genus historicum_,
historic style (Brut. 83. 286).

[4] _scimus, cognovimus_ (= we know by experience) are not used of
historical knowledge.

[5] _heroicus_ only of time. _herous_ = epic, e.g. _versus herous_ (De
Or. 3. 49. 191) = a dactylic hexameter; _pes herous_ a dactyl; "epic"
of other things is usually _epicus_, e.g. _carmen epicum_; _poetae
epici_, or _epici_ alone. For "heroic" of an action, cf. _praeclarum
atque divinum factum; factum illustre et gloriosum_, etc.

[6] It is only in later Latin after _astrologus_ had acquired the
meaning of astrologer, magician, that _astronomus_ came to be used (=

[7] In Cicero always neut. plur., e.g. _in arithmeticis satis
versatus_; later writers use the fem. sing. The pure Latin word is
_numeri_, cf. De Fin. 1. 21. 72 _an ille se, ut Plato, in musicis,
geometria, numeris, astris contereret?_ So De Fin. 5. 29. 87 _cur
Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et
caelestia acciperet?_ Cf. Nägelsb. Lat. Stil. p. 46.

15. Art in General

_artis opus; opus arte factum_ or _perfectum_—a work of art.

_opus summo artificio[TR1] factum_—a master-piece of classical work.

_opus omnibus numeris absolutum_—a master-piece of classical work.

_artem exercere_—to follow an artistic profession, practise an art.

_artem tradere, docere_—to teach an art.

_artem profiteri_—to profess an art.

_artium (liberalium) studium_, or simply _studium_—a taste for the
fine arts.

_artis praecepta_, or also simply _ars_—the rules of art; aesthetics.

_(artis, artium) intellegens, peritus_[1] (opp. _idiota_, a layman)—a
connoisseur; a specialist.

_existimator (doctus, intellegens, acerrimus)_—a (competent,
intelligent, subtle) critic.

_in existimantium arbitrium venire_ (Brut. 24. 92)—to come before the
tribunal of the critics.

_iudicium facere_—to criticise.

_sensum, iudicium habere_—to be a man of taste.

_elegantia in illo est_—he possesses sound judgment in matters of taste.

_iudicium subtile, elegans, exquisitum, intellegens_—good taste;
delicate perception.

_iudicium acuere_—to cultivate one's powers of criticism.

_abhorrere ab artibus_ (opp. _delectari artibus_)—to have no taste for
the fine arts.

_veritatem_[2] _imitari_ (Div. 1. 13. 23)—(1) to make a lifelike
natural representation of a thing (used of the artist); (2) to be
lifelike (of a work of art).

_in omni re vincit imitationem veritas_—in everything nature defies

_aliquid ad verum exprimere_—to make a copy true to nature.

_morum ac vitae imitatio_—a lifelike picture of everyday life.

_aliquid e vita ductum est_—a thing is taken from life.

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: the original text has _opus summo artifico
factum_. But that is wrong as can be seen from the French edition
using _opus summo artificio factum._

[1] _idiota_ = properly uninitiated, not the same as _rudis, indoctus,

[2] _veritas_ means not merely truth (opp. _mendacium_), but also
reality (opp. _opinio, imitatio_). Thus we often find the combination
_res et veritas ipsa_ (Tusc. 5. 5. 13), _natura rerum et ipsa veritas_.

16. Poetry—Music—Painting—Sculpture

_poema condere, facere, componere_—to write poetry.

_versus facere, scribere_—to write poetry.

_carmina , versus fundere_ (De Or. 3. 50)—to write poetry with facility.

_carmen epicum_—epic poetry.

_poeta epicus_—an epic, heroic poet.

_poesis scaenica_—dramatic poetry.

_poeta scaenicus_—a dramatic poet.

_scriptor tragoediarum, comoediarum_, also (_poeta_) _tragicus,
comicus_[1]—a writer of tragedy, comedy.

_scriptor fabularum_[2]—a writer of fables.

_divino quodam instinctu concitari, ferri_ (Div. 1. 31. 66)—to feel

_divino quodam spiritu inflatus_ or _tactus_—inspired.

_carmen, versum agere_—to recite a poem, line with appropriate action.

_carmen recitare_—to read a piece of verse with expression.

_carmen pronuntiare_—to recite a piece of verse (without gestures).

_carmen inconditum_—a rough poem; an extempore effusion.

_se conferre ad poesis studium_—to devote oneself to poetry.

_poetica laude florere_—to be distinguished as a poet.

_poesis genus ad Romanos transferre_—to transplant to Rome one of the
branches of poesy.

_alicuius laudes versibus persequi_—to sing the praises of some one
(not _canere aliquem_)

_alicuius laudes (virtutes) canere_—to sing the praises of some one
(not _canere aliquem_)

_alicuius res gestas versibus ornare, celebrare_—to celebrate some
one's exploits in song.

_ut ait Homerus_—as Homer sings (not _canit_).

_numerus poetice vinctus_—poetical rhythm.

_artem musicam_[3] _discere, tractare_—to learn, study music.

_nervorum et tibiarum cantus_—instrumental music.

_vocum et fidium (nervorum) cantus_—vocal and instrumental music.

_docere aliquem fidibus_—to teach some one to play a stringed

_fidibus discere_ (De Sen. 8. 26)—to learn to play a stringed

_fidibus canere_—to play on the lyre.

_pellere nervos in fidibus_—to strike the strings of the lyre.

_tibias inflare_—to play the flute.

_tibiis_ or _tibiā canere_—to play the flute.

_ad tibiam_ or _ad tibicinem canere_—to sing to a flute accompaniment.

_(homo) symphoniacus_—a singer, member of a choir.

_symphōnīa canit_ (Verr. 3. 44. 105)—the orchestra is playing.

_acroāma_[4]—a professional performer.

_modi_ (De Or. 1. 42. 187)—the melody.

_modos facere_—to compose, put to music.

_numerus, numeri_—the tune; rhythm.

_numerose cadere_—to have a rhythmical cadence.

_ars pingendi, pictura_ (De Or. 2. 16. 69)—the art of painting.

_ars fingendi_—the art of sculpture.

_signa et tabulae (pictae)_—statues and pictures.

_simulacrum e marmore facere_—to make a marble statue.

_statuas_[5] _inscribere_ (Verr. 2. 69. 167)—to put an inscription on

[1] _tragicus, comicus_ as adjectives = occurring in tragedy,
comedy—e.g. _Orestes tragicus; senes comici_. Comic in the ordinary
sense = _ridiculus_, c.f. _homo ridiculus_.

[2] Not _fabulator_, which = a gossip, teller of anecdotes.

[3] _musica (-orum)_ is also used for music, cf. _in musicis se

[4] _acroama_ = originally anything performed to give pleasure, then a
performer. The Greeks applied the term to music; the Romans used it of
any professional performer who entertained guests while at table.

[5] _statua_ is not used of statues of the gods, but _signum,

17. The Drama

_ars ludicra_ (De Or. 2. 20. 84)—the dramatic art.

_fabula, ludus scaenicus_—the piece; the play.

_argumentum_—the plot of the piece.

_actio_—the treatment of the piece.

_actus_—an act.

_fabulam docere_ (διδάσκειν) (of the writer) (opp. _fabulam
discere_—to study a piece, of the actor)—to get a piece played,
rehearse it.

_fabulam agere_—to act a play (said of the actors).

_fabulam edere_—to bring out a play, put it on the stage (used of the
man who finds the money).

_fabulam dare_—to produce a play (of the writer).

_in scaenam producere aliquem_—to introduce a character on the stage.

_in scaenam prodire_—to come upon the stage.

_in scaenam redire_—to reappear on the stage.

_de scaena decedere_—to retire from the stage.

_in scaenam aliquid inducere_—to bring a thing upon the stage.

_familia, grex, caterva histrionum_—a theatrical company.

_dominus gregis_—the manager.

_theatrum_[1]—the playhouse.

_theatra reclamant_—the spectators protest.

_populum facilem, aequum habere_—to have an appreciative audience.

_plaudere_ (not _applaudere_)—to applaud, clap a person.

_plausum dare (alicui)_—to applaud, clap a person.

_clamores (coronae) facere, excitare_—to elicit loud applause.

_saepius revocatur_ (Liv. 7. 2. 9)—he is encored several times.

_fabulam exigere_ (Ter. Andr. Pol.)—to hiss a play.

_fabula cadit_—a piece is a failure, falls flat.

_histrionem exsibilare, explodere, eicere, exigere_—to hiss an actor
off the stage.

_histrioni acclamare_[2]—to interrupt an actor by hooting him.

_partes agere alicuius_[3]—to play the part of some one.

_agere servum, lenonem_—to act the rôle of a slave, pander.

_actor primarum (secundarum, tertiarum) partium_—the actor who plays
the leading part.

_tragoedia_ or _fabula Antigona_ (not _Antigona trag._ or _fab._)—the

_in Sophoclis_ (not _Sophoclea_) _Aiace_ or _apud Sophoclem in
Aiace_—in Sophocles' Ajax.

_caterva, chorus_—the Chorus in Tragedy.

_carmen chori, canticum_—a choric ode in a tragedy.

_loci melici_—the lyric portions of a tragedy.

_diverbium_—stage dialogue.

_canticum_—a choric ode.

_ludi circenses, scaenici_—performances in the circus; theatrical

_ludos apparare_—to institute games.

_ludos facere, edere (Iovi)_—to give public games in honour of Jupiter.

_ludos instaurare_—to revive public games.

_munus gladiatorium edere, dare_ (or simply _munus edere, dare_)—to
give a gladiatorial show.

_gladiatores dare_—to give a gladiatorial show.

_familia_[4] _gladiatoria_ (Sest. 64. 134)—a band, troupe of
gladiators under the management of a _lanista_.

_ludus gladiatorius_—a school for gladiators.

_gladiatoribus_ (Att. 2. 19. 3)—at the gladiatorial games.

_celebritas ludorum_—crowded games.

_magnificentia ludorum_—sumptuous public games.

_ludi apparatissimi_—sumptuous public games.

_ludi Olympia_ (not _ludi Olympici_), _Pythia_—the Olympian, Pythian

_Olympia vincere_ (Ολύμπια νικαν)—to win a prize at the Olympian games.

_ludi gymnici_—gymnastic contests.

_certamina gymnica_—gymnastic contests.

_stadium currere_ (Off. 3. 10. 42)—to run a foot-race.

[1] _theatrum_ = (1) the playhouse, theatre; (2) the audience, house.
It is used metaphorically for the sphere of activity, theatre, scene,
e.g. _theatrum magnum habet ista provincia_ (Cic.); _nullum theatrum
virtuti conscientia majus_ (ibid.)

[2] Livy is the first writer who uses _acclamare_ in a good sense.

[3] Also used metaphorically of the part played in life, e.g. _partes
suscipere, sustinere, dare, tribuere, defendere, tueri_. Similarly
_persona_ (properly mask) is used in several phrases, e.g. _personam
alicuius agere, ferre, tenere_; _personam suscipere_ or _induere_;
_personam tueri_ (Phil. 8. 10); _personam alicui imponere_ (Sull. 3.
8). _persona_ thus got the meaning of personality, individuality,
character, and lastly in a concrete sense a personage of distinction.
N.B.—It never represents our "person," cf. many persons were present,
_multi (homines) aderant_.

[4] Hence _familiam ducere_, metaphorically to be at the head of a
movement, to play the leading part, e.g. _in iure civili_ (Cic.) For
other phrases drawn from the wrestling-school _vid._ ix. 6.

VIII. Speech and  Writing

1. Speech in General

_ars dicendi_—the art of speaking; oratory.

_ad dicendum se conferre_—to devote oneself to oratory.

_dicendi_[1] _praecepta tradere_—to teach rhetoric.

_rhetor, dicendi magister_—a teacher of rhetoric.

_facultas dicendi_—oratorical talent.

_natum, factum esse ad dicendum_—to be a born orator.

_facilem et expeditum esse ad dicendum_ (Brut. 48. 180)—to be a ready,
fluent speaker.

_rudem, tironem ac rudem_ (opp. _exercitatum_) _esse in dicendo_—to be
an inexperienced speaker.

_disertum esse_ (De Or. 1. 21. 94)—to be fluent.

_eloquentem esse_ (De Or. 1. 21. 94)—to be a capable, finished speaker.

_eloquentia valere_—to be very eloquent.

_dicendi arte florere_—to be very eloquent.

_eloquentiae laude florere_—to be a distinguished orator.

_vis dicendi_—oratorical power.

_multum dicendo valere, posse_—to have great weight as a speaker.

_eloquentiae principatum tenere_—to be considered the foremost orator.

_primum_ or _principem inter oratores locum obtinere_—to be considered
the foremost orator.

_oratorum principem esse_—to be considered the foremost orator.

_orationem conficere_—to compose a speech.

_orationem commentari_ (Fam. 16. 26)—to prepare, get up a speech.

_oratio meditata_ (Plin. 26. 3. 7)—a prepared speech.

_subito, ex tempore_ (opp. _ex praeparato_) _dicere_—to speak extempore.

_oratio subita_—an extempore speech.

_oratio perpetua_—a continuous discourse.

_oratio accurata_[2] _et polita_—a carefully prepared speech.

_oratio composita_—an elaborate speech.

_contentio_ (opp. _sermo_) (Off. 2. 48)—pathetic address; emotional

_copiose dicere_—to speak very fluently.

_ornate dicere_—to speak well, elegantly.

_libere dicere_ (Verr. 2. 72. 176)—to speak frankly, independently.

_plane, aperte dicere_—to speak openly, straightforwardly.

_perspicue, diserte dicere_—to speak in clear, expressive language.

_missis ambagibus dicere_—to speak without circumlocution.

_accommodate ad persuadendum dicere_—to be a persuasive speaker.

_aggredi ad dicendum_[3]—to come forward to make a speech; to address
the house.

_verba facere apud_[4] _populum, in contione_—to address a meeting of
the people.

_in contionem (in rostra) escendere_[5] (only of Romans)—to mount the

_orationem habere_ (Tusc. 5. 33. 94)—to make a speech.

_initium dicendi facere_—to begin to speak.

_finem dicendi facere_—to cease speaking.

_perorare_—(1) to make one's peroration; (2) to deliver the closing
speech (in a case where several speeches have been made).

_animos audientium permovere, inflammare_—to make an impression on
one's audience.

_animos tenere_—to rivet the attention of...

_audientiam sibi (orationi) facere_—to obtain a hearing.

_solutum et expeditum esse ad dicendum_—to be never at a loss for
something to say.

_lingua promptum esse_—to have a ready tongue.

_celeritas in respondendo_—readiness in debate, in repartee.

_bonis lateribus_[6] _esse_—to have good lungs.

_linguae solutio_—volubility.

[1] Note the way in which the Latin language prefers a concrete
expression in the plural to represent our abstract "rhetoric," cf.
_musica (-orum), astra, numeri, soni_ = music, astronomy, arithmetic,
acoustics (_vid._ vii. 14).

[2] _accuratus_ is only used of things, never of persons.

[3] _surgere ad dicendum_ is only used of some one who has been till
now seated (De Or. 2. 78. 316).

[4] _apud_ is used of appearing before an official assembly, e.g.
_apud populum, apud senatum, apud iudices_. _coram_ is used of an
informal casual meeting.

[5] _escendere_ is more common than _ascendere_, cf. _in contionem
escendere_ (Cic. Att. 4. 2. 3; Liv. 2. 7. 7, etc. etc.) Similarly _in
rostra escendere_ (Cic. Liv.), _in tribunal escendere_ (Liv.) Later
_suggestum, rostra escendere_ (Tac. Ann. 15. 59; ibid. 13. 5.).

[6] _latus_ is never used in the singular in good Latin with the
meaning "lungs,", "breath," "vigour," cf. Cic. _iam me dies, vox,
latera deficient si..._ In a somewhat similar way _lacerti_ is used of
oratorical vigour, e.g. _ipse hastas...oratoris lacertis viribusque
torquebit_ (De Or. 1. 57. 242).

2. Style—Expression

_genus dicendi (scribendi); oratio_[1]—style.

_genus dicendi grave_ or _grande, medium, tenue_[2] (cf. Or. 5. 20; 6.
21)—elevated, moderate, plain style.

_fusum orationis genus_—a running style.

_inconditum dicendi genus_ (Brut. 69. 242)—a rough, unpolished style.

_inflatum orationis genus_—a bombastic style.

_oratio altius exaggerata_—a bombastic style.

_elatio atque altitudo orationis_—the exalted strain of the speech.

_exsurgere altius_ or _incitatius ferri_—to take a higher tone
(especially of poets and orators).

_magnifice loqui, dicere_—(1) to speak vehemently, passionately; (2)
to speak pompously, boastfully.

_magniloquentia, granditas verborum_—pathos; passion.

_tragoediae_—tragic pathos.

_expedita et facile currens oratio_—an easy, fluent style.

_oratio aequabiliter fluens_—an easy, fluent style.

_flumen_[3] _orationis_ (De Or. 2. 15. 62)—flow of oratory.

_siccitas, sanitas orationis_—the plain style.

_verborum tenuitias, oratio subtilis_—the plain style.

_oratio exilis, ieiuna, arida, exsanguis_—the dry, lifeless style.

_ornatus orationis, verborum_—well-chosen language, grace of style.

_elegantia orationis_—tasteful description.

_oratio pura, pura et emendata_—pure, correct language.

_integritas, sinceritas orationis_ (not _puritas_)—purity of style.

_oratio inquinata_[4] (De Opt. Gen. Or. 3. 7)—incorrect language.

_orationes Catonis antiquitatem redolent_ (Brut. 21. 82)—Cato's
speeches sound archaic.

_ex illius orationibus ipsae Athenae redolent_—there is a flavour of
Atticism about his discourse.

_oratio soluta_ (not _prosa_) or simply _oratio_—prose.

_oratio numerose cadit_—his style has a well-balanced cadence.

_numeris orationem astringere, vincire_—to make a speech rhythmical.

_lumina, flores dicendi_ (De Or. 3. 25. 96)—flowers of rhetoric;
embellishments of style.

_sententias (verbis) explicare, aperire_—to explain one's sentiments.

_sententiae reconditae ex exquisitae_ (Brut. 97. 274)—profound

_ubertas_ (not _divitiae_) _et copia orationis_—a full and copious
style of speech.

_crebritas_ or _copia_ (opp. _inopia_) _sententiarum_ or simply
_copia_—richness of ideas.

_sententiis abundans_[5] or _creber_ (opp. _sententiis inanis_)—rich
in ideas.

_adumbrare aliquid_ (Or. 14. 43)—to roughly sketch a thing.

_exprimere aliquid verbis_ or _oratione_ (_vid._ sect. VI. 3, note
_adumbrare..._)—to express clearly, make a lifelike representation of
a thing.

_exponere aliquid_ or _de aliqua re_—to give an account of a thing
(either orally or in writing).

_sententiae inter se nexae_—the connection.

_perpetuitas verborum_—the connection.

_contextus orationis_ (not _nexus, conexus sententiarum_)—the

_ratio sententiarum_—the connection of thought.

_ratio, qua sententiae inter se excipiunt._—the connection of thought.

_vitam alicuius exponere_—to give an account of a man's life.

_vitam alicuius depingere_—to make a sketch of a man's life.

_de ingenio moribusque alicuius exponere_—to make a character-sketch
of a person.

_summo colore aliquid illustrare_—to depict a thing in lively colours.

_ante oculos ponere aliquid_—to bring a thing vividly before the eyes.

_oculis_ or _sub oculos, sub aspectum subicere aliquid_—to represent a
thing vividly.

_rerum sub aspectum paene subiectio_ (De Or. 3. 53. 202)—graphic

_perlustrare, lustrare oculis aliquid_—to scrutinise, examine closely.

_sic exponere aliquid, quasi agatur res (non quasi narretur)_—to
represent a thing dramatically.

_aliquem disputantem facere, inducere, fingere (est aliquid apud
aliquem disputans)_—to introduce a person (into a dialogue)
discoursing on...

_in uno conspectu ponere aliquid_—to give a general idea of a thing.

_sub unum aspectum subicere aliquid_—to give a general idea of a thing.

_in brevi conspectu ponere aliquid_—to make a short survey of a thing.

_uno conspectu videre aliquid_—to have a general idea of a thing.

_breviter tangere, attingere aliquid_—to touch briefly on a thing.

_strictim, leviter tangere, attingere, perstringere aliquid_—to make a
cursory mention of a thing; to mention by the way (not _obiter_ or _in

_quasi praeteriens, in transitu attingere aliquid_—to make a cursory
mention of a thing; to mention by the way (not _obiter_ or _in

_res summas attingere_—to dwell only on the main points.

_summatim aliquid exponere_—to dwell only on the main points.

_multa verba facere_—to go deeply into a matter, discuss it fully.

_multum, nimium esse (in aliqua re)_ (De Or. 2. 4. 17)—to go deeply
into a matter, discuss it fully.

_pluribus verbis, copiosius explicare, persequi_[6] _aliquid_—to give
a full, detailed account of a thing.

_fusius, uberius, copiosius disputare, dicere de aliqua re_—to speak
at great length on a subject, discuss very fully.

_breviter, paucis explicare aliquid_—to explain a matter briefly, in a
few words (not _paucis verbis_).

_rem paucis absolvere_ (Sall. Iug. 17. 2)—to explain a matter briefly,
in a few words (not _paucis verbis_).

_rebus ipsis par est oratio_—the circumstances are described in
language worthy of them.

_rebus verba respondent_—the circumstances are described in language
worthy of them.

_copiam quam potui persecutus sum_—I have exhausted all my material.

_verbis non omnia exsequi posse_—to be unable to say all one wants.

_in medium proferre aliquid_—to bring a subject forward into discussion.

_in medio ponere (proponere)_—to publish, make public.

_silentio praeterire_ (not _praetermittere_) _aliquid_—to pass over in

_significare aliquem_ or _aliquid_—to allude to a person or thing (not

_significatione appellare aliquem_—to allude to a person or thing (not

_describere aliquem_ (Cael. 20. 50)—to allude to a person or thing
(not _alludere_).

_leviter significare aliquid_—to hint vaguely at a thing.

_ordine narrare, quomodo res gesta sit_—to detail the whole history of
an affair.

_dicendo ornare aliquid_—to embellish a narrative.

_rhetorice, tragice ornare aliquid_ (Brut. 11. 43)—to add rhetorical,
dramatic embellishments to a subject.

_digressus, digressio, egressio_—a digression, episode.

_quod ornandi causa additum est_—a digression, episode.

_includere in orationem aliquid_—to interpolate, insert something.

_inserere orationi aliquid_—to interpolate, insert something.

_interponere aliquid_ (De Am. 1. 3)—to interpolate, insert something.

_dicendo augere, amplificare aliquid_ (opp. _dicendo extenuare
aliquid_)—to lend lustre to a subject by one's description.

_in maius ferre, in maius extollere aliquid_—to exaggerate a thing.

_in maius accipere aliquid_—to overestimate a thing.

_digredi (a proposito)_ (De Or. 2. 77. 311)—to digress, deviate.

_studio alicuius rei provectus sum_—my zeal for a thing has led me too

_longe, alte (longius, altius) repetere_ (either absolute or _ab
aliqua re_)—to go a long way back (in narrative).

_oratio longius repetita_ (De Or. 3. 24. 91)—a rather recondite speech.

_accedere ad cotidiani sermonis genus_—to adopt the language of
everyday life.

_ad vulgarem sensum_ or _ad communem opinionem orationem accommodare_
(Off. 2. 10. 35)—to express oneself in popular language.

[1] Not _stilus_, which means the writing instrument, the stylus,
hence the expression _stilum vertere_ (Verr. 2. 3. 41), to erase what
has been written. Metaphorically it denotes—(1) the action of writing,
e.g. _stilus optimus est et praestantissimus dicendi effector et
magister_; (2) the manner of writing, mode of composition, e.g. _unus
enim sonus est totius orationis et idem stilus_.

[2] Speeches belong according to their subject-matter to _genus
deliberativum_ (συμβουλευτικόν), _genus iudicale_ (δικανικόν), or
_genus demonstrativum_ (ἐπιδεικτικόν), cf. Cic. de Inv. 1. 5. 7;
Arist. Rhet. bk. iii.

[3] On the other hand, _oratio fluit_ (De Or. 3. 49. 190) = the
language has no rhythm.

[4] Not _impura_, which means unchaste, obscene.

[5] Not _dives_ which Cicero uses only absolutely and almost always of
persons, cf. however _animus hominis dives_ (Parad. 6. 44), _divitior
mihi et affluentior videtur esse vera amicitia_ (De Am. 16. 58).

[6] _persequi_ is often used in the meaning to expound, treat of
either orally or in writing, e.g. _alicuius vitam, alicuius laudes
versibus, res Hannibalis_.

3. Delivery—Voice

_actio_ (Brut. 38)—delivery.

_pronuntiatio_[1] c. Gen.—artistic delivery; declamation.

_actio paulum claudicat_[2]—the delivery is rather halting, poor.

_haerere, haesitare_ (Catil. 2. 6. 13)—to stop short, hesitate.

_perturbari, permoveri_—to be nervous, embarrassed.

_de scripto orationem_[3] _habere, dicere_ (opp. _sine scripto, ex
memoria_)—to read a speech.

_interpellare aliquem (dicentem)_—to interrupt.

_vox magna, clara_ (Sulla 10. 30)—a strong, loud voice.

_vox gravis, acuta, parva, mediocris_—a deep, high, thin, moderate

_vox canōra_ (Brut. 63. 234)—a melodious, ringing voice.

_vox lenis, suppressa, summissa_—a gentle, subdued voice.

_vocem mittere_ (_sonitum reddere_ of things)—to speak, utter a sound.

_vocem summittere_—to lower one's voice.

_contentio, remissio vocis_—raising, lowering the voice.

_vocem intercludere_ (Just. 11. 8. 4)—to prevent some one from speaking.

_nulla vox est ab eo audita_—no sound passed his lips.

_magna voce clamare_—to shout at the top of one's voice.

_clamorem tollere_ (Liv. 3. 28)—to raise a shout, a cry.

_gestum_ (always in the sing.) _agere_—to gesticulate.

[1] Not _declamatio_ which = an oratorical exercise. Distinguish
_pronuntiare_ (De Or. 1. 59. 251), to declaim a thing according to the
rules of rhetoric; and _declamare_ = to go through rhetorical
exercises as a practice in speaking.

[2] _claudicare_ often metaph. of things which are unequal, weak, e.g.
_amicitia claudicat_ (Fin. 1. 69).

[3] But to read a speech _orationem legere_ (Brut. 51. 191); to read
with expression, _recitare_ (Phil. 10.2. 5).

4. Subject-Matter—Argument

_non habeo argumentum scribendi_—I have nothing to write about.

_deest mihi argumentum ad scribendum_ (Att. 9. 7. 7)—I have nothing to
write about.

_non habeo, non est quod scribam_—I have nothing to write about.

_res_ (opp. _verba_) _mihi suppetit_—I have abundance to say.

_materia mihi crescit_—my subject grows as I write.

_res componere ac digerere_—to arrange and divide the subject-matter.

_dispositio rerum_ (De Inv. 1. 7. 9)—the arrangement of the

_materia rerum et copia uberrima_—abundance of material.

_infinita et immensa materia_—abundance of material.

_materiem ad ornatum praebere_—to afford matter for elaboration,

_id quod (mihi) propositum est_—a theme, subject proposed for

_res proposita_—a theme, subject proposed for discussion.

_id quod quaerimus (quaeritur)_—a theme, subject proposed for

_institutum_ or _id quod institui_—a theme, subject proposed for

_a proposito aberrare, declinare, deflectere, digredi, egredi_—to
digress from the point at issue.

_ad propositum reverti, redire_—to come back to the point.

_ad rem redire_—to come back to the point.

_sed redeat, unde aberravit oratio_—but to return from the digression
we have been making.

_sed ad id, unde digressi sumus, revertamur_—but to return from the
digression we have been making.

_verum ut ad id, unde digressa est oratio, revertamur_—but to return
from the digression we have been making.

_mihi propositum est_ c. Inf. (or _mihi proposui, ut_)—the task I have
put before myself is...

_ponere_—to propose, set a theme.

_ponere alicui, de quo disputet_—to set some one a theme for discussion.

_ponere iubere, qua de re quis audire velit_ (Fin. 2. 1. 1)—to let
those present fix any subject they like for discussion.

5. Question—Answer

_quaestionem ponere, proponere_—to propose a subject of debate, put a

_quaestionem poscere_ (Fin. 2. 1. 1)—to get a question submitted to one.

_hoc loco exsistit quaestio, quaeritur_—at this point the question

_nunc id quaeritur, agitur_—the question now is...

_res, de qua nunc quaerimus, quaeritur_—the question at issue.

_magna quaestio est_ (followed by an indirect question)—it is a
difficult point, disputed question.

_quaerendum esse mihi visum est_—the question has forced itself on my

_quaestionem solvere_—to decide, determine a question.

_quaestio ad exitum venit_—the question has been settled.

_ad interrogata respondere_[1]—to answer questions.

_bene interrogare_—to cross-examine cleverly, put leading questions.

_percontanti non deesse_ (De Or. 1. 21. 97)—to answer every question.

_responsum ab aliquo ferre, auferre_—to extract an answer from some one.

_respondere in hanc sententiam_[2]—to answer to this effect.

[1] Note to answer (a thing) _respondere ad aliquid_ or _alicui rei_;
to answer (a person) always _alicui_. So _dicere alicui_ to speak to a
person, but _scribere ad aliquem_.

[2] _responsum dare_ only of answers given by oracles or lawyers.

6. Humour—Earnest

_ioco uti_ (Off. 1. 29. 103)—to make a joke.

_haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixi_—I said it in jest.

_animo prompto esse ad iocandum_—to be humorously inclined.

_extra iocum, remoto ioco_ (Fam. 7. 11. 3)—joking apart.

_facete dicere_—to be witty.

_facetiis uti, facetum esse_—to make witty remarks.

_facete et commode dicere_ —to indulge in apt witticisms.

_breviter et commode dictum_—a short, pointed witticism.

_facete dictum_—a witticism, bon mot.

_arcessitum dictum_ (De Or. 2. 63. 256)—a far-fetched joke.

_dicta dicere in aliquem_—to make jokes on a person.

_aspergere sales orationi_ (Or. 26. 87)—to intersperse one's speech
with humorous remarks.

_aliquid ad ridiculum convertere_—to make a joke of a thing.

_(homo) ridiculus_ (Plaut. Stich. 1. 3. 21)—a wit; a joker.

_lepos in iocando_—humour.

_iucunde esse_ (Deiot. 7. 19)—to be in a good temper.

_se dare iucunditati_—to let oneself be jovial.

_sibi displicere_ (opp. _sibi placere_)—to be in a bad temper.

_ioca et seria agere_—to be now jesting, now in earnest.

_serio dicere_ (Plaut. Bacch. 1. 1. 42)—to say in earnest...

_severitatem adhibere_—to show that one is serious.

_ineptum esse_ (De Or. 2. 4. 17)—to be silly, without tact.

_nimium diligentem esse_[1]—to be pedantic.

[1] Such words as "pedantry," "pedant" can be expressed very variously
in Latin, cf. N. D. 3. 31. 71 _posse ACERBOS e Zenonis schola exire_;
Pro Mur. 9. 19 _multorum DIFFICULTATEM exsorbuit_; Brut. 38. 143 _erat
in Crasso latine loquendi sine MOLESTIA diligens elegantia_.

7. Language—Use of Language—Translation—Grammar

_lingua graeca latinā locupletior (copiosior, uberior) est_—the Greek
language is a richer one than the Latin.

_commercium linguae_—intercourse of speech.

_volubilitas, solutio linguae_—volubility.

_vitium orationis, sermonis_ or simply _vitium_—a mistake, solecism.

_saepe (crebro, multa) peccavit, erravit, lapsus est_—he has made
several mistakes.

_eiusdem linguae societate coniunctum esse cum aliquo_ (De Or. 3. 59.
223)—to be united by having a common language.

_orationis expertem esse_—to be unable to express one's ideas.

_sermo patrius_ (Fin. 1. 2. 4)—native tongue; vernacular.

_consuetudo sermonis, loquendi_—to usage of language.

_cotidiani sermonis usus_—the ordinary usage of language, everyday

_communis sermonis consuetudo_—the ordinary usage of language,
everyday speech.

_sermo familiaris et cotidianus_—the ordinary usage of language,
everyday speech.

_aliquid a consuetudine sermonis latini abhorret, alienum est_—the
expression is not in accordance with Latin usage.

_consuetudo vitiosa et corrupta_ (opp. _pura et incorrupta_)
_sermonis_—incorrect usage.

_incorrupta latini sermonis integritas_[1] (Brut. 35. 132)—pure,
correct Latin.

_sermo latinus_ (opp. _sermo parum latinus_) (cf. sect. VII. 2., note
_For the use of adverbs..._)—good Latin.

_latine loqui_ (Brut. 45. 166)—(1) to speak Latin, (2) to speak good
Latin (also _bene latine_), (3) to express oneself clearly.

_graece_ or _graeca lingua loqui_—to speak the Greek language.

_latinam linguam scire_ or _didicisse_—to know Latin.

_latine scire_—to know Latin.

_latine commentari_—to write treatises in Latin.

_aliquid e graeco in latinum (sermonem) convertere, vertere,
transferre_—to translate from Greek into Latin.

_Platonem vertere, convertere_—to translate Plato.

_ab_ or _de_ (not _ex_) _Platone vertere, convertere, transferre_—to
translate from Plato.

_ex Platonis Phaedone haec in latinum conversa sunt_—what follows has
been translated into Latin from Plato's Phaedo.

_aliquid (graeca) latine reddere_ or _sermone latino interpretari_—to
render something into Latin.

_ad verbum transferre, exprimere_—to translate literally, word for
word (not _verbo tenus_).

_verbum e verbo exprimere_—to translate literally, word for word (not
_verbo tenus_).

_verbum pro verbo reddere_—to translate literally, word for word (not
_verbo tenus_).

_totidem verbis transferre_—to translate literally, word for word (not
_verbo tenus_).

_his fere verbis, hoc fere modo convertere, transferre_—to translate

_liber (scriptoris) conversus, translatus_—the work when translated;
translation (concrete).

_interpretatio, translatio_ (not _versio_ or _conversio_)—the process
of translation.

_interpres_—the translator.

_leges dicendi_—the rules of speech, grammar.

_praecepta_[2] _grammaticorum_—the rules of speech, grammar.

_grammaticus_[3] (De Or. 1. 3. 10)—a linguist, philologian.

_emendate scribere_—to write correctly, in faultless style.

_latine scribere_[4] (Opt. Gen. Or. 2. 4)—to write good Latin.

[1] Cf. Cic. ad Herenn. 4. 12. 17 _latinitas est quae sermonem purum
conservat ab omni vitio remotum_.

[2] Not _regula_, which means a level, standard, e.g. _regula ad quam
iudicia rerum diriguntur_ (Cic.)

[3] The adverb _grammatice_ is used with _loqui, scribere_ = to speak,
write correctly; _grammatista_ and also _litterator_ are used of
elementary teachers.

[4] Cf. _latine docere philosophiam_, to teach philosophy in Latin;
Fin. 3. 12. 40 _latine scire_, to know Latin. (cf. ἑλληνιστὶ ξυνιέναι
Xen. Anab. 7. 6. 8). Also _latine didicisse, latine oblivisci_ (Caec.
22. 62), in which Dräger supposes an ellipse of _loqui_ or _dicere_.

8. Sentence—Period—Words—Proverbs—Syllables

_enuntiatio, enuntiatum, sententia_—the sentence, proposition.

_compositio, structura verborum_—the structure of the sentence.

_ambitus, circuitus, comprehensio, continuatio (verborum, orationis)_,
also simply _periodus_—the period.

_constructio, structura verborum, forma dicendi_—the construction.

_adiungi, addi coniunctivo_ (Marc. Cap. 3. 83)—to be used with the
conjunctive mood.

_copia, ubertas verborum_—profusion of words.

_verbis abundantem esse, abundare_—to be rich in words.

_inopia verborum_—poverty of expression.

_lectissimis verbis uti_ (De Or. 3. 37)—to employ carefully chosen

_prisca, obsoleta_ (opp. _usitata_), _ambigua verba_—obsolete,
ambiguous expressions.

_locutio_ (Brut. 74. 258)—a phrase.

_verbo, nomine; re, re quidem vera_—nominally; really.

_si verba spectas_—literally.

_verbis alicuius_, e.g. _salutare_ (Liv. 9. 36)—in some one's name; on
some one's behalf (not _nomine alicuius_).

_haec verba sunt_ (Ter. Phorm. 3. 2. 32)—these are mere empty phrases.

_inanis verborum sonitus_—mere words; empty sound.

_inanium verborum flumen_—senseless rant.

_flosculi, rhetorum pompa_—fine, rhetorical phrases.

_voces iacere_ (Sall. Iug. 11)—to let fall an expression.

_nullum (omnino) verbum facere_—to not say a word.

_ne verbum_ (without _unum_) _quidem de aliquo facere_—to say not a
syllable about a person.

_verba facere (de aliqua re, apud aliquem)_—to speak on a subject.

_verbum ex aliquo elicere_—to extract a word from some one.

_verbis concertare_ or _altercari cum aliquo_ (B. C. 3. 19. 6)—to hold
an altercation with a man.

_verborum concertatio_—an altercation, debate.

_pauca dicere_ (_pauca verba dicere_ only of the orator)—to say only a
few words.

_omnia verba huc redeunt_—all this means to say.

_nullum verbum ex ore eius excidit_ (or simply _ei_)—no word escaped

_verbo parum valere_ (Tusc. 3. 5. 11)—to unable to find a suitable

_verbum prorsus nullum intellegere_—not to understand a single word.

_huic rei deest apud nos vocabulum_—we have no expression for that.

_inducere novum verbum in latinam linguam_—to introduce a new word
into the Latin language.

_verba parere, fingere, facere_—to invent, form words.

_nominum interpretatio_—etymology (not _etymologia_).

_vocabulum,_[1] _verbum, nomen ducere ab, ex..._—to form, derive a
word from... (used of the man who first creates the word).

_verbum ductum esse a...putare_—to derive a word from... (used of an

_originem verbi repetere a..._—to derive a word from... (used of an

_nomina enodare_ or _verborum origines quaerere, indagare_—to give the
etymological explanation of words.

_nomen amicitiae_ (or simply _amicitia_) _dicitur ab amando_—the word
_amicitia_ comes from _amare_.

_in aliqua re dici_—to be used in speaking _of_ a thing.

_quid significat, sonat haec vox?_—what is the meaning, the original
sense of this word?

_quae est vis huius verbi?_—what is the meaning, the original sense of
this word?

_quae notio_ or _sententia subiecta est huic voci?_—what is the
meaning, the original sense of this word?

_vis et notio verbi, vocabuli_—the fundamental meaning of a word.

_vox, nomen carendi_ or simply _carere hoc significat_ (Tusc. 1. 36.
88)—the word _carere_ means...

_quem intellegimus sapientem?_—what do we understand by "a wise man"?

_quae intellegitur virtus_—what do we mean by "virtue"?

_quid est virtus?_—what do we mean by "virtue"?

_idem valere, significare, declarare_—to have the same meaning.

_vocabula idem fere declarantia_—synonyms.

_vocabulum latius patet_—the word has a more extended signification.

_vocabulum angustius valet_—the word has a narrow meaning.

_iracundiam sic (ita) definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant_
or _ut u. libido sit_ or _iracundiam sic definiunt, ulc.
libidinem_—anger is defined as a passionate desire for revenge.

_in bonam (malam) partem accipere aliquid_—to take a thing in good
(bad) part.

_aemulatio dupliciter dicitur, ut et in laude et in vitio hoc nomen
sit_—the word _aemulatio_ is employed with two meanings, in a good and
a bad sense.

_verba ac litteras_ or _scriptum (legis) sequi_ (opp. _sententia_ the
spirit)—to hold by the letter (of the law).

_hoc vocabulum generis neutri_ (not _neutrius_) _est_)—this word is

_ordo verborum_ (Or. 63. 214)—the order of words.

_vocabulum proprium_—the proper term; a word used strictly.

_verbum translatum_ (Or. 27. 92)—a figurative expression; a word used

_translatio_—a metaphor.

_verba composita_[2]—well-arranged words.

_verborum immutatio_—a trope; metonymy.

_continua translatio_ (Or. 27. 94)—an allegory; continuous metaphor.

_simili uti_—to employ a comparison, simile.

_dissimulatio_ (Off. 1. 30. 108)—irony.

_vetus (verbum) est_ (c. Acc. c. Inf.)—it was said long ago that...

_ut est in proverbio_—as the proverb says.

_ut_ or _quod_ or _quomodo aiunt, ut_ or _quemadmodum dicitur_—as the
proverb says.

_in proverbii consuetudinem_ or simply _in proverbium venire_—to pass
into a proverb.

_proverbii locum obtinere_ (Tusc. 4. 16. 36)—to be used as a proverb.

_hoc est Graecis hominibus in proverbio_—this is a proverb among the

_bene illo Graecorum proverbio praecipitur_—that Greek proverb
contains an excellent lesson.

_vetamur vetere proverbio_—an old proverb tells us not to...

_proverbium vetustate_ or _sermone tritum_ (_vid._ sect. II. 3, note
_tritus..._)—an old proverb which every one knows.

_syllabam, litteram producere_ (opp. _corripere_) (Quintil. 9. 4.
89)—to lengthen the pronunciation of a syllable or letter.

_haec vox longa syllaba terminatur, in longam syllabam cadit,
exit_—this word ends in a long syllable.

_oriri a longa_ (De Or. 1. 55. 236)—to begin with a long syllable.

_syllabarum auceps_—a verbal, petty critic; a caviller.

_verborum aucupium_ or _captatio_—minute, pedantic carping at words.

_litteras exprimere_ (opp. _obscurare_)—to pronounce the syllables

_ad litteram, litterate_—to the letter; literally.

_litterarum_[3] _ordo_—the alphabet.

_litterae, elementa_—the alphabet.

_ad litteram_ or _litterarum ordine digerere_—to arrange in
alphabetical order.

[1] _verbum derivare_ means to form new words from words which exist
already, e.g. by adding a syllable, _Atrides_ from _Atreus_. For
word-building, cf. Cic. De Or. 3. 37 and 38; Hor. A. P. 46.

[2] Compound words = _verba copulata, iuncta_ (Or. 48. 159),
_coniuncta_, cf. Cic. De Or. 3. 38. 154.

[3] Cf. _quarta elementorum littera_, the fourth letter of the
alphabet (Suet. Iul. 56).

9. Writing—Writers—Books

_litteris mandare_ or _consignare aliquid_ (Acad. 2. 1. 2)—to put down
in writing.

_litteris persequi_ (_vid._ sect. VIII. 2, note _persequi..._)
_aliquid_—to treat in writing.

_scriptor_ (not _auctor_ = guarantor)—the writer, author.

_scribere_—to take to writing, become an author.

_ad scribendum_ or _ad scribendi studium se conferre_—to become a
writer, embrace a literary career.

_animum ad scribendum appellere, applicare_—to become a writer,
embrace a literary career.

_librum scribere, conscribere_—to write a book.

_librum conficere, componere_ (De Sen. 1. 2)—to compose, compile a book.

_librum edere_ (Div. 1. 3. 6)—to publish a book.

_librum evolvere, volvere_—to open a book.

_volumen explicare_—to open a book.

_librum mittere ad aliquem_ (Fin. 1. 3. 8)—to dedicate a book to some

_index, inscriptio_[1] _libri_—the title of a book.

_liber inscribitur_[2] _Laelius_ (Off. 2. 9. 30)—the book is entitled

_Cicero dicit in Laelio (suo)_ or _in eo_ (not _suo_) _libro, qui
inscribitur Laelius_—Cicero says in his "Laelius."

_est liber de..._—there exists a book on...

_exstat liber_ (notice the order of the words)—the book is still extant.

_liber intercidit, periit_—the book has been lost.

_liber deperditus_—a book which has been entirely lost sight of.

_liber perditus_—a lost book of which fragments (_relliquiae_, not
_fragmenta_) remain.

_liber qui fertur alicuius_—a book which is attributed to some one.

_nescio quis_—an anonymous writer.

_liber refertur ad nescio quem auctorem_—the book is attributed to an
unknown writer.

_hic liber est de amicitia_ (not _agit_) or _hoc libro agitur de
am._—the book treats of friendship.

_libro continetur aliquid_—the book contains something... (not
_continet aliquid_).

_libro scriptor complexus est aliquid_—the book contains something...
(not _continet aliquid_).

_in extremo libro_ (Q. Fr. 2. 7. 1)—at the end of the book.

_liber mihi est in manibus_—to be engaged on a book.

_librum in manibus habere_ (Acad. 1. 1. 2)—to be engaged on a book.

_liber, oratio in manibus est_—the book, speech can easily be obtained.

_librum in manus sumere_—to take up a book in one's hands.

_librum de manibus ponere_[3]—to lay down a book (_vid._ sect. XII. 3,
note _vestem deponere..._).

_perpolire, limare diligenter librum, opus_—to polish, finish a work
with the greatest care.

_extrema manus accēdit operi_ (active _extremam manum imponere
operi_)—to put the finishing touch to a work.

_liber accurate, diligenter scriptus_—a carefully written book.

_aliquid, multa ex Ciceronis libris excerpere_ (not _excerpere
librum_)—to make extracts from Cicero's writings.

_aliquid in commentarios suos referre_ (Tusc. 3. 22. 54)—to enter a
thing in one's note-book.

_librum annotare, interpolare, distinguere_—to furnish a book with
notes, additional extracts, marks of punctuation.

_se abdere in bibliothecam suam_—to bury oneself in one's library.

_Platonem legere, lectitare_—to read Plato.

_locum Platonis afferre, proferre_ (not _citare_)—to quote a passage
of Plato.

_scriptor hoc loco dicit_—our (not _noster_) author tells us at this

_Cicero loco quodam haec dicit_—Cicero says this somewhere.

_Platonem legere et cognoscere_—to study Plato.

_legendo percurrere aliquid_—to read cursorily.

_apud Platonem scriptum videmus,_[4] _scriptum est_ or simply _est_—we
read in Plato.

_in Platonis Phaedone scriptum est_—in Plato's "Phaedo" we read.

_verba, oratio, exemplum scriptoris_—the text of the author (not

_legentes, ii qui legunt_[5]—the reader.

_languorem, molestiam legentium animis afferre_—to weary, bore the

_liber plenus delectationis_—a very charming book.

_alicuius mens in scriptis spirat_—a man's soul breathes through his

_mendum (scripturae)_ (Fam. 6. 7. 1)—a clerical error, copyist's

_mendose scriptum_—full of orthographical errors.

_labi in scribendo_—to make a mistake in writing.

_mendosum esse_ (Verr. 2. 4. 77)—(1) to make frequent mistakes in
writing; (2) to be full of mistakes (speaking of a passage).

_inducere verbum_ (Phil. 13. 19. 43)—to strike out, delete a word.

[1] Not _titulus_ which means—(1) an inscription on a tomb, monument;
(2) public notice, e.g. an advertisement of a sale, _sub titulum misit
lares_ (Ov.); (3) metaph. title, honour, e.g. _consulatus, coniugis_.
It is only in very late writers that it = a title of a book.

[2] The perfect _inscriptus est_ is only used when the writer himself
is speaking of his book, e.g. _de senectute disputavi eo libro, qui
Cato maior inscriptus est_, "...which I have entitled _Cato maior_."

[3] Distinguish the two verbs _ponere_ = to set down for a moment
temporarily, and _deponere_ to lay aside, abandon altogether. Cf.
_vincere_ and _devincere_, _perdere_ and _deperdere_.

[4] _legere_ in this connection only in the perfect.

[5] Not _lector_, which means a professional reader, cf. De Or. 2. 55.
223. Similarly "audience" = _ii qui audiunt_ or _audientes_ (usually
in oblique cases). Words in _-tor_ and _-trix_ always denote those who
do something habitually or for some permanent object. Thus of
functionaries—_censor, dictator, quaestor_; of artisans—_fictor_
sculptor, _institor_ retail dealer, _mercator_ wholesale merchant,
_structor_ mason; of people who are always showing some distinguishing
quality or defect—_calumniator, ratiocinator_; of those who have
performed a feat so remarkable as to confer on them a durable
characteristic—_creator urbis_ (Romulus), _servator Graeciae_
(Themistocles), _Cimbrorum victor_ (Marius), etc.

10. Letters

_epistulam (litteras) dare, scribere, mittere ad aliquem_—to write a
letter to some one.

_epistula ad Atticum data, scripta, missa_ or _quae ad A. scripta
est_—a letter to Atticus.

_epistulam dare alicui ad aliquem_—to charge some one with a letter
for some one else.

_epistulam reddere alicui_ (Att. 5. 21. 4)—to deliver a letter to some
one (used of the messenger).

_epistularum commercium_—correspondence.

_litterae missae et allatae_—correspondence.

_colloqui cum aliquo per litteras_—to correspond with some one.

_litteras inter se dare et accipere_—to be in correspondence with...

_litteras perferre aliquo_—to take a letter somewhere.

_epistulam signare, obsignare_—to seal, fasten a letter.

_epistulam solvere, aperire, resignare_ (of Romans also _linum
incīdere_)—to open a letter.

_epistulam intercipere_ (Att. 1. 13. 2)—to intercept a letter.

_epistulam deprehendere_—to take forcible possession of a letter.

_litteras recitare_ (Att. 8. 9. 2)—to read a letter aloud (in public).

_litterae hoc exemplo_ (Att. 9. 6. 3)—a letter, the tenor of which is...

_litterae in hanc sententiam_ or _his verbis scriptae sunt_—the terms,
contents of the letter are as follows.

_Kalendis Ianuariis Romā (dabam)_—Rome, January 1st.

_dies_ (fem. in this sense)—the date.

_pater optime_[1] or _carissime, mi pater_ (_vid._ sect. XII. 10)—my
dear father.

_litteras reddere datas a. d. Kal. X. Octob._—to deliver a letter
dated September 21st.

[1] Neither _amatus_ nor _dilectus_ can be used in this connection.

IX. The Emotions

1. Disposition—Emotion in General

_animi affectio_ or _habitus_ (De Inv. 2. 5)—humour; disposition.

_ita_[1] _animo affectum esse_—to be so disposed.

_animos tentare_ (Cluent. 63. 176)—to try to divine a person's

_animum alicuius_ or simply _aliquem flectere_—to make a person change
his intention.

_animi motus, commotio, permotio_—the emotions, feelings.

_aliqua re moveri, commoveri_—to be moved by a thing.

_alicuius animum commovere_—to touch a person's heart, move him.

_alicuius animum pellere_—to make an impression on a person's mind.

_motus excitare in animo_ (opp. _sedare, exstinguere_)—to excite

_commotum_ or _concitatum esse_—to be moved, agitated.

_commotum perturbatumque esse_—to be greatly agitated.

_alicuius mentem turbare, conturbare, perturbare_—to upset a person.

_quid tibi animi est?_—what sort of humour are you in?

[1] But not _magno, laeto,_ etc., _animo affici_.

2. Joy—Pain

_afficere aliquem gaudio, laetitia_—to give pleasure to some one.

_afferre alicui laetitiam_—to give pleasure to some one.

_laetitiam capere_ or _percipere ex aliqua re_—to take pleasure in a

_delectari aliqua re_—to take pleasure in a thing.

_in sinu gaudere_ (Tusc. 3. 21. 51)—to rejoice in secret.

_gaudio perfundi_[1]—to be filled with delight.

_cumulum gaudii alicui afferre_ (_vid._ sect. V. 6) (Fam. 16. 21.
1)—to add the crowning point to a person's joy.

_gaudio, laetitia exsultare_—to utter cries of joy.

_laetitia gestire_ (Tusc. 4. 6. 13)—to be transported with joy.

_effusa_[2] _laetitia_—a transport of joy.

_laetitia gestiens_—a transport of joy.

_gaudio, laetitia efferri_—to be beside oneself with joy.

_animum alicuius ad laetitiam excitare_—to put a man in a pleasurable
frame of mind.

_nimio gaudio paene desipere_—to almost lose one's reason from excess
of joy.

_doleo aliquid, aliqua re, de_ and _ex aliqua re_—I am pained, vexed,

_aegre, graviter, moleste fero aliquid_ (or with Acc. c. Inf. or
_quod_)—I am pained, vexed, sorry.

_tuam vicem_[3] _doleo_—I am sorry for you.

_dolore affici_—to feel pain.

_dolorem capere (percipere) ex aliqua re_—to be vexed about a thing.

_doloribus premi, angi, ardere, cruciari, distineri et divelli_—to
feel acute pain.

_dolorem alicui facere, afferre, commovere_—to cause a person pain.

_acerbum dolorem alicui inurere_—to cause any one very acute pain.

_acer morsus doloris est_ (Tusc. 2. 22. 53)—the pain is very severe.

_dolorem in lacrimas effundere_—to find relief in tears.

_dolori indulgere_—to give way to grief.

_dolor infixus animo haeret_ (Phil. 2. 26)—grief has struck deep into
his soul.

_dolore confici, tabescere_—to be wasted with grief; to die of grief.

_dolores remittunt, relaxant_—the pain grows less.

_dolori resistere_—to struggle against grief.

_callum obducere_[4] _dolori_ (Tusc. 2. 15. 36)—to render insensible
to pain.

_animus meus ad dolorem obduruit_ (Fam. 2. 16. 1)—I have become
callous to all pain.

_dolorem abicere, deponere, depellere_—to banish grief.

_dolorem alicui eripere_ (Att. 9. 6. 4)—to free a person from his pain.

_cum magno meo dolore_—to my sorrow.

[1] _gaudio compleri_ (Fin. 5. 14. 69) is rare in Cicero; _gaudio
impleri_ does not occur. Speaking generally, _complere, implere,
replere_, should not be used of emotions.

[2] Cf. _effusa fuga_, headlong flight; _effusi sumptus_, lavish
expenditure (Rosc. Am. 24. 68); _cursus effusus_ (Liv. 9. 41. 17).

[3] _vicem_ with a genitive or a possessive pronoun has the meaning
"on account of," "with regard to," especially with verbs expressing
the emotions, e.g. _doleo, timeo, irascor_.

[4] Note too _consuetudo callum obduxit stomacho meo_ (Fam. 9. 2. 3),
habit has made me callous. _callum_ properly is the thic nerveless
skin which covers the bodies of animals.

3. Vexation—Care—Equanimity—Contentment—Affliction

_in aegritudine, sollicitudine esse_—to be vexed, mortified, anxious.

_aegritudine, sollicitudine affici_—to be vexed, mortified, anxious.

_sollicitum esse_—to be vexed, mortified, anxious.

_nihil omnino curare_—not to trouble oneself about a thing.

_non laborare de aliqua re_—not to trouble oneself about a thing.

_aliquid me sollicitat, me sollicitum habet, mihi sollicitudini est,
mihi sollicitudinem affert_—something harasses me, makes me anxious.

_aegritudo exest animum planeque conficit_ (Tusc. 3. 13. 27)—anxiety
gnaws at the heart and incapacitates it.

_aegritudine, curis confici_—to be wasting away with grief.

_aegritudine afflictum, debilitatum esse, iacēre_—to be bowed down,
prostrated by grief.

_aegritudinem alicuius elevare_—to comfort another in his trouble.

_aliquem aegritudine levare_—to comfort another in his trouble.

_quieto, tranquillo, securo animo esse_—to enjoy peace of mind.

_rebus suis, sorte sua contentum esse_—to be contented.

_satis habeo, satis mihi est_ c. Inf.—I am content to...

_paucis, parvo contentum esse_—to be satisfied with a little.

_fortunae meae me paenitet_[1]—I am discontented with my lot.

_non me paenitet, quantum profecerim_—I am not dissatisfied with my

_in luctu esse_ (Sest. 14. 32)—to suffer affliction.

_in sordibus luctuque iacēre_—to be in great trouble, affliction.

_mors alicuius luctum mihi attulit_—some one's death has plunged me in

_in maximos luctus incidere_—to be overwhelmed by a great affliction.

_magnum luctum haurire_ (without _ex-_)—to undergo severe trouble,

_luctum percipere ex aliqua re_—to feel sorrow about a thing.

_omnem luctum plane abstergere_—to banish all sad thoughts.

_luctum deponere_ (Phil. 14. 13. 34)—to lay aside one's grief.

_vel maximos luctus vetustate tollit diuturnitas_ (Fam. 5. 16. 5)—time
assuages the most violent grief.

[1] The evidence of inscriptions and the best MSS. seems to point to
the derivation of _paenitet_, not from _poena_ (cf. _punire,
impunis_), but from the root contained in _penes, penetrare, penitus_;
its original meaning would thus be, "to be touched, affected within,
at heart" (Bréal).

4. Fear—Terror—Anxiety

_timorem, terrorem alicui inicere_, more strongly _incutere_—to
inspire fear, terror.

_timor aliquem occupat_ (B. G. 1. 39)—fear comes upon some one.

_in timore esse, versari_—to be in fear.

_in timorem venire, pervenire_—to become frightened.

_metus aliquem exanimat_ (Mil. 24. 65)—a man is paralysed with fear.

_exalbescere metu_—to grow pale with fear.

_metu fractum et debilitatum, perculsum esse_—to be completely
prostrated by fear.

_abicere, omittere timorem_—to banish one's fears.

_a metu respirare_ (Cluent. 70. 200)—to recover from one's fright.

_ex metu se recreare, se colligere_—to recover from one's fright.

_respirandi spatium dare_—to give time for recovery.

_terror incidit alicui_—terror, panic seizes some one.

_terror invadit in aliquem_ (rarely _alicui_, after Livy
_aliquem_)—terror, panic seizes some one.

_in terrorem conicere aliquem_—to overwhelm some one with terror.

_(animo) angi_ (Brut. 27)—to be very uneasy; to fret.

_cura sollicitat angitque aliquem_—anxiety troubles and torments one.

_angoribus premi_—to be tormented with anxiety.

_angoribus confici_ (Phil. 2. 15. 37)—to be worn out, almost dead with

5. Courage—Discouragement—Pusillanimity—Pride—Arrogance—Insolence

_bono animo esse_—to be brave, courageous.

_bonum animum habere_—to be brave, courageous.

_animus alicui accedit, crescit_—to take courage.

_animum capere, colligere_—to take courage.

_animum recipere_ (Liv. 2. 50)—to take courage again.

_animo forti esse_—to be brave by nature.

_fortem te praebe_—be brave!

_alacri et erecto animo esse_—to show a brisk and cheerful spirit.

_animum facere, addere alicui_—to succeed in encouraging a person.

_animum alicuius confirmare_—to strengthen, confirm a person's courage.

_animum alicui augere_ (B. G. 7. 70)—to increase a person's courage.

_animum alicuius redintegrare_—to re-inspire courage.

_animus frangitur, affligitur, percellitur, debilitatur_—their spirits
are broken.

_animos militum accendere_—to fire with courage.

_animi cadunt_—their courage is ebbing.

_animo cadere, deficere_—to lose courage; to despair.

_animum demittere_—to lose courage; to despair.

_erigere alicuius animum_ or _aliquem_—to encourage a person.

_excitare animum iacentem et afflictum_ (opp. _frangere animum_)—to
inspire the spiritless and prostrate with new vigour.

_animo esse humili, demisso_ (more strongly _animo esse fracto,
perculso et abiecto_) (Att. 3. 2)—to be cast down, discouraged, in

_inflatum, elatum esse aliqua re_—to be proud, arrogant by reason of

_insolentia, superbia inflatum esse_—to be puffed up with pride.

_magnos spiritus sibi sumere_ (B. G. 1. 33)—to be haughty.

_spiritus alicuius reprimere_—to lower a person's pride.

_insolentius se efferre_—to behave arrogantly.

_elatius se gerere_—to give oneself airs.

_sibi sumere aliquid_ (Planc. 1. 3)—to take upon oneself.

_contumacius se gerere_—to display a proud obstinacy.

_libera contumacia Socratis_ (Tusc. 1. 29. 71)—the frank but defiant
demeanour of Socrates (before his judges).

6. Presence of Mind—Composure—Despair

_praesenti animo uti_ (_vid._ sect. VI. 8, note _uti..._)—to possess
presence of mind.

_aequo (aequissimo) animo ferre aliquid_—to endure a thing with (the
greatest) sang-froid.

_humane, modice, moderate, sapienter, constanter ferre aliquid_—to
bear a thing with resignation, composure.

_(animo) paratum esse ad aliquid_—to be resigned to a thing.

_omnia perpeti paratum esse_—to be ready to endure anything.

_ad omnes casus se comparare_—to prepare oneself for all contingencies.

_animum alicuius de statu, de gradu demovere_ (more strongly
_depellere, deturbare_)—to disconcert a person.

_de statu suo_ or _mentis deici_ (Att. 16. 15)—to lose one's
composure; to be disconcerted.

_de gradu deici, ut dicitur_[1]—to lose one's composure; to be

_perturbari (animo)_—to lose one's composure; to be disconcerted.

_sui (mentis) compotem non esse_—to lose one's head, be beside oneself.

_non esse apud se_[2] (Plaut. Mil. 4. 8. 26)—to lose one's head, be
beside oneself.

_mente vix constare_ (Tusc. 4. 17. 39)—to compose oneself with

_animo adesse_ (Sull. 11. 33)—to be quite unconcerned.

_ad se redire_—to regain one's self-possession.

_constantiam servare_—to be calm, self-possessed.

_mente consistere_—to be calm, self-possessed.

_desperare_[3] _suis rebus_—to despair of one's position.

_ad (summam) desperationem pervenire, adduci_ (B. C. 2. 42)—to be
plunged into the depths of despair.

_desperatio rerum (omnium)_ (Catil. 2. 11. 25)—absolute despair; a
hopeless situation.

_quid (de) me fiet?_ (Ter. Heaut. 4. 3. 37)—what will become of me?

_actum est de me_—it's all over with me; I'm a lost man.

[1] These expressions are metaphors from the fencing-school. _gradus_
is the position taken up by a combatant, so _gradu depelli, deici_ =
to be driven out of one's ground.

[2] Used especially in the comic poets.

[3] _desperare_ is used, generally with _de_, more rarely with the
accusative, in the meaning "to no longer count upon a thing," e.g.
_reditum, pacem_; or with the dative, especially with _sibi, suis
rebus, saluti, fortunae suae_. Note the use of _desperatus_,
"abandoned," "given up," "despaired of," e.g. _desperati morbi_
(Cic.), _aegrota ac paene desperata res publica_ (Cic.)

7. Hope—Expectation

_spem habere_—to cherish a hope.

_spe duci, niti, teneri_—to cherish a hope.

_magna me spes tenet_ (with Acc. c. Inf.) (Tusc. 1. 41. 97)—I have
great hopes that...

_sperare videor_—I flatter myself with the hope...

_bene, optime (meliora) sperare de aliquo_ (Nep. Milt. 1. 1)—to hope
well of a person.

_in spem venire, ingredi, adduci_—to conceive a hope.

_spem concipere animo_—to conceive a hope.

_spem redintegrare_ (B. G. 7. 25)—to revive a hope.

_spem alicui facere, afferre, inicere_—to inspire any one with hope.

_ad spem aliquem excitare, erigere_—to awaken new hope in some one.

_in maximam spem aliquem adducere_ (Att. 2. 22. 3)—to inspire some one
with the most brilliant hopes.

_in meliorem spem, cogitationem aliquem inducere_ (Off. 2. 15. 53)—to
induce some one to take a brighter view of things.

_spem proponere alicui_—to lead some one to expect...

_spes affulget_ (Liv. 27. 28)—a ray of hope shines on us.

_spem falsam alicui ostendere_—to rouse a vain, groundless hope in
some one's mind.

_spem alicui adimere, tollere, auferre, eripere_—to deprive a person
of hope.

_spem praecīdere, incidere_ (Liv. 2. 15)—to cut off all hope.

_spem perdere_—to lose hope.

_spe deici, depelli, deturbari_—to lose hope.

_spes ad irritum cadit, ad irritum redigitur_—expectation is overthrown.

_spem abicere, deponere_—to give up hoping.

_inani, falsa spe duci, induci_—to be misled by a vain hope.

_spes me frustratur_—hope has played me false.

_spes extenuatur et evanescit_—hope is vanishing by degrees.

_spem alicuius fallere_ (Catil. 4. 11. 23)—to deceive a person's hope.

_spem alicui_ or _alicuius minuere_—to weaken, diminish a person's hope.

_spem alicuius confirmare_—to strengthen a person in his hopes.

_spem alere_—to entertain a hope.

_spem habere in aliquo_—to set one's hope on some one.

_spem suam ponere, collocare in aliquo_—to set one's hope on some one.

_inter spem metumque suspensum animi esse_—to hover between hope and

_praeter spem, exspectationem_—contrary to expectation.

_exspectationem_[1] _sui facere, commovere_—to cause oneself to be

_exspectationem explere_ (De Or. 1. 47. 205)—to fulfil expectation.

_exspectationi satisfacere, respondere_—to respond to expectations.

_exspectatione alicuius rei pendēre (animi)_ (Leg. Agr. 2. 25. 66)—to
be in suspense, waiting for a thing.

_exspectatione torqueri, cruciari_—to suffer torments of expectation,

_suspenso animo exspectare aliquid_—to be waiting in suspense for...

_aliquem in summam exspectationem adducere_ (Tusc. 1. 17. 39)—to rouse
a person's expectation, curiosity to the highest pitch.

[1] Att. 1. 4. 5 _crebras exspectationes tui commoves_—i.e. you are
leading us to expect your arrival.

8. Pity—Pardon—Want of Feeling—Cruelty

_misericordiam alicui commovere_—to excite some one's pity.

_misericordiam alicuius concitare_—to excite some one's pity.

_ad misericordiam aliquem allicere, adducere, inducere_—to arouse
feelings of compassion in some one.

_misericordia moveri, capi_ (De Or. 2. 47)—to be touched with pity.

_misericordiam implorare_—to implore a person's sympathy, pity.

_indulgere vitiis alicuius_—to be indulgent to a person's faults.

_alicui veniam dare (alicuius rei)_—to pardon some one.

_omnem humanitatem exuisse, abiecisse_ (Lig. 5. 14)—to be quite
insensible to all feelings of humanity.

_omnem humanitatis sensum amisisse_—to be quite insensible of all
feelings to humanity.

_omnis humanitatis expertem esse_—to be absolutely wanting in sympathy.

_omnem humanitatem ex animo exstirpare_ (Amic. 13. 48)—to stifle,
repress all humane sentiments in one's mind.

_nullam partem sensus habere_—to possess not the least spark of feeling.

_crudelitate uti_ (_vid._ sect. VI. 8, note _uti..._)—to behave with

_crudelitatem exercere in aliquo_—to exercise one's cruelty on some one.

_crudelitatem adhibere in aliquem_—to exercise one's cruelty on some

_animadvertere in aliquem_—to inflict punishment on a person.

9. Love—Longing—Admiration—Enthusiasm

_carum habere aliquem_—to feel affection for a person.

_in amore habere aliquem_—to feel affection for a person.

_amore prosequi, amplecti aliquem_—to feel affection for a person.

_carum esse alicui_—to be dear to some one.

_carum atque iucundum esse alicui_—to be dear to some one.

_adamasse aliquem_ (only in Perf. and Plup.) (Nep. Dion 2. 3)—to
become devoted to some one.

_aliquem toto pectore,_[1] _ut dicitur, amare_ (Leg. 18. 49)—to love
some one very dearly, with all one's heart.

_aliquem ex animo_ or _ex animi sententia amare_ (Q. Fr. 1. 1. 5)—to
love deeply.

_amore captum, incensum, inflammatum esse, ardere_—to be fired with

_amorem ex animo eicere_—to banish love from one's mind.

_mel ac deliciae alicuius_ (Fam. 8. 8. 1)—somebody's darling.

_amores et deliciae alicuius_—somebody's darling.

_in amore et deliciis esse alicui_ (active _in deliciis habere
aliquem_)—to be some one's favourite.

_aliquem in sinu gestare (aliquis est in sinu alicuius)_ (Ter. Ad. 4.
5. 75)—to love and make a bosom friend of a person.

_aliquis, aliquid mihi curae_ or _cordi_[2] _est_—somebody, something
is never absent from my thoughts.

_curae habere aliquid_—to have laid something to heart; to take an
interest in a thing.

_nihil antiquius_ or _prius habeo quam ut_ (_nihil mihi antiquius_ or
_potius est, quam ut_)—there is nothing I am more interested in than...

_desiderio alicuius rei teneri, affici_ (more strongly _flagrare,
incensum esse_)—to long for a thing, yearn for it.

_desiderio exardescere_—to be consumed with longing.

_admirationi esse_—to be admired.

_admiratione affici_[3]—to be admired.

_admirationem habere_ (Quintil. 8. 2. 6)—to be admired.

_magna est admiratio alicuius_—some one is the object of much

_admirationem alicui movere_—to fill a person with astonishment.

_admiratione incensum esse_—to be fired with admiration.

_admirabilia_ (= παράδοξα)—paradoxes; surprising things.

_studio ardere alicuius_ or _alicuius rei_ (De Or. 2. 1. 1)—to have
enthusiasm for a person or thing.

_studio alicuius rei aliquem incendere_—to make some one enthusiastic
for a thing.

_ardor, inflammatio animi, incitatio mentis, mentis vis

_ardorem animi restinguere_—to damp, chill enthusiasm.

_ardor animi resēdit, consedit_—his enthusiasm has abated, cooled down.

[1] _pectus_ metaphorically only occurs in isolated phrases, e.g.
_toto pectore, cogitare, tremere_. Its commonest substitute is
_animus_. Similarly _cor_ metaphorically is only used in the phrase
_cordi est_.

[2] _pectus_ metaphorically only occurs in isolated phrases, e.g.
_toto pectore, cogitare, tremere_. Its commonest substitute is
_animus_. Similarly _cor_ metaphorically is only used in the phrase
_cordi est_.

[3] _admiratione affici_ also means "to be filled with admiration."

10. Belief—Confidence—Loyalty—Protection—Promise—Veracity (_fides,_

_fidem_[1] _habere alicui_—to believe a person.

_fidem alicuius rei facere alicui_—to make some one believe a thing.

_fidem tribuere, adiungere alicui rei_—to believe in, trust in a thing.

_fidem abrogare, derogare alicui_—to rob a person of his credit.

_fidem alicuius imminuere, infirmare_ (opp. _confirmare_)—to weaken,
destroy a man's credit.

_fiduciam in aliquo ponere, collocare_—to put confidence in some one.

_confidere alicui_ (but _aliqua re_)—to put confidence in some one.

_fiduciam (alicuius rei) habere_—to have great confidence in a thing.

_fiducia sui_ (Liv. 25. 37)—self-confidence.

_committere aliquid alicui_ or _alicuius fidei_—to entrust a thing to
a person's good faith.

_totum se committere, tradere alicui_—to put oneself entirely in some
one's hands.

_fidem colere, servare_—to preserve one's loyalty.

_fidem praestare alicui_—to keep faith with a person, keep one's word.

_in fide manere_ (B. G. 7. 4. 5)—to remain loyal.

_fidem laedere, violare, frangere_—to break one's word.

_fidem alicuius labefactare_ (Cluent. 60. 194)—to make a person waver
in his loyalty.

_de fide deducere_ or _a fide abducere aliquem_—to undermine a
person's loyalty.

_fide data et accepta_ (Sall. Iug. 81. 1)—having exchanged pledges,

_se conferre, se tradere, se permittere in alicuius fidem_—to put
oneself under some one's protection.

_confugere ad aliquem, ad fidem alicuius_—to flee for refuge to some

_in fidem recipere aliquem_ (B. G. 2. 15. 1)—to take a person under
one's protection.

_fidem alicuius obsecrare, implorare_—to implore some one's protection.

_fidem addere alicui rei_—to confirm, ratify, sanction something.

_fidem publicam dare, interponere_ (Sall. Iug. 32. 1)—to guarantee the
protection of the state; to promise a safe-conduct.

_fidem dare alicui_ (opp. _accipere_) (c. Acc. c. Inf.)—to give one's
word that...

_fidem servare_ (opp. _fallere_)—to keep one's word (not _tenere_).

_fidem persolvere_—to fulfil a promise.

_fidem (promissum) praestare_—to fulfil a promise.

_fidem interponere_ (Sall. Iug. 32. 5)—to pledge one's word to...

_fidem prodere_—to break one's word.

_fidem frangere_—to break one's word.

_promisso stare_—to abide by one's undertaking.

_fide obstrictum teneri_ (Pis. 13. 29)—to be bound by one's word; to
be on one's honour.

_fidem facere, afferre alicui rei_ (opp. _demere, de-, abrogare
fidem_)—to make a thing credible.

_aliquid fidem habet_ (_vid._ also _fides_ under sect. VII.,
History)—a thing finds credence, is credible.

_sponsionem facere, sponsorem esse pro aliquo_—to be security for some

_praestare aliquem, aliquid, de aliqua re_ or Acc. c. Inf.—to be
answerable for a person, a thing.

[1] _fides_ has six principal meanings. A. subjectively—(1) in an
active sense, belief, confidence, which some one holds; (2) passive,
veracity, credit which one enjoys; (3) neutral, good faith, sincerity,
loyalty, conscientiousness, and especially of the protection which one
expects by appealing to a man's loyalty. B. (4) active, ratification,
sanction; (5) passive, the thing promised, surety, guarantee; (6)
neutral, authenticity, certitude, truth of a thing. Cf. Haacke, Lat
Stil. 40-41.

11. Suspicion—Presentiment

_suspicionem movere, excitare, inicere, dare alicui_—to rouse a
person's suspicions.

_suspicionem habere de aliquo_—to suspect a person.

_suspicionem alicuius rei habere_—to be suspected of a thing.

_suspicio (alicuius rei) cadit in aliquem, pertinet ad aliquem_—a
suspicion falls on some one.

_aliquem in suspicionem adducere (alicui), aliquem suspectum
reddere_—to make a person suspected.

_in suspicionem vocari, cadere_—to become the object of suspicion.

_in suspicionem alicui venire_—to be suspected by some one.

_suspicionem a se removere, depellere, propulsare_ (Verr. 3. 60.
140)—to clear oneself of a suspicion.

_suspicionem ex animo delere_—to banish all feeling of prejudice from
the mind.

_suspicio insidet in animo ejus_—he is in a suspicious mood.

_suspicio ei penitus inhaeret_—he is in a suspicious mood.

_suspicio tenuissima, minima_—the faintest suspicion.

_a suspicione alicuius rei abhorrere_—to have no presentiment of a

_animus praesāgit malum_—my mind forebodes misfortune.

_animo praesagio malum_—my mind forebodes misfortune.

12. Hatred—Jealousy—Envy

_invisum esse alicui_—to be hated by some one.

_odio, invidiae esse alicui_—to be hated by some one.

_in invidia esse alicui_—to be hated by some one.

_in odio esse apud aliquem_—to be hated by some one.

_invidia flagrare, premi_—to be detested.

_in odium, in invidiam venire alicui_—to incur a person's hatred.

_invidiam colligere (aliqua re)_—to incur a person's hatred.

_alicuius odium subire, suscipere, in se convertere, sibi conflare_—to
incur a person's hatred.

_in alicuius odium incurrere_—to incur a person's hatred.

_in invidiam, odium (alicuius) vocare aliquem_—to make a person
odious, unpopular.

_in invidiam adducere aliquem_—to make a person odious, unpopular.

_invidiam alicui conflare_ (Catil. 1. 9. 23)—to make a person odious,

_invidiam, odium ex-, concitare alicui, in aliquem_—to make a person
odious, unpopular.

_capitali odio dissidere ab aliquo_ (De Am. 1. 2)—to be separated by a
deadly hatred.

_odium explere aliqua re_ (Liv. 4. 32)—to glut one's hatred.

_odium implacabile suscipere in aliquem_—to conceive an implacable
hatred against a man.

_odio_ or _invidia alicuius ardere_—to be consumed with hatred.

_odium inveteratum habere in aliquem_ (Vat. 3. 6)—to cherish an
inveterate animosity against some one.

_odio inflammatum, accensum esse_—to be fired with a passionate hatred.

_odium alicuius inflammare_—to kindle hatred in a person's heart; to
fill some one with hatred (not _implere_, _vid._ sect. IX. 2, note

_odium restinguere, exstinguere_—to stifle, drown one's hatred.

13. Discontent—Anger—Revenge—Fury

_aegre, graviter, moleste, indigne ferre aliquid_—to be discontented,
vexed at a thing; to chafe.

_indignitas, atrocitas rei_ (Mur. 25. 51)—the revolting nature of an

_o facinus indignum!_ (Ter. Andr. 1. 1. 118)—monstrous!

_ira incensum esse_—to be fired with rage.

_iracundia inflammatum esse_—to be fired with rage.

_ira ardere_ (Flacc. 35. 88)—to be fired with rage.

_iracundia exardescere, effervescere_—to be transported with passion.

_iracundia efferri_—to be carried away by one's anger.

_ira defervescit_ (Tusc. 4. 36. 78)—his anger cools.

_virus acerbitatis suae effundere in aliquem_ (De Amic. 23. 87)—to
vent one's anger, spite on some one.

_iram in aliquem effundere_—to vent one's anger, spite on some one.

_iram, bilem evomere in aliquem_—to vent one's anger, spite on some one.

_irae indulgere_ (Liv. 23. 3)—to give free play to one's anger.

_praecipitem in iram esse_ (Liv. 23. 7)—to be short-tempered; to be
prone to anger.

_animum explere_—to cool one's anger.

_iracundiam continere, cohibere, reprimere_—to restrain, master one's

_iram restinguere, sedare_—to calm one's anger.

_animum alicuius ab iracundia revocare_—to prevent some one from
growing angry, appease his anger.

_stomachum, bilem alicui movere_—to excite a person's wrath.

_ulcisci aliquem,_[1] _poenas expetere ab aliquo_—to revenge oneself
on some one.

_ulcisci aliquid, poenas alicuius rei expetere_—to revenge oneself for
a thing.

_ulcisci aliquem pro aliquo_ or _pro aliqua re_—to revenge oneself on
another for a thing or on some one's behalf.

_poenas alicuius_ or _alicuius rei repetere ab aliquo_—to revenge
oneself on another for a thing or on some one's behalf.

_iniurias persequi_ (Verr. 2. 3. 9)—to avenge an insult.

_impellere aliquem in furorem_—to make some one furious.

_furore inflammari, incendi_—to become furious.

_furore incensus, abreptus, impulsus_—in a transport of rage.

_indignatio aliquem incedit_—to be filled with indignation.

_indignationes_ (Liv. 25. 1. 9)—signs of irritation, of discontent.

[1] _ulcisci aliquem_ also means to avenge some one; to exact
satisfaction on his behalf.

X. Virtues and Vices

1. Virtue—Morality

_vita honesta (turpis)_—a virtuous (immoral) life.

_honesta expetere; turpia fugere_—to follow virtue; to flee from vice.

_virtute praeditum, ornatum esse_ (opp. _vitiis obrutum esse_)—to be

_viam virtutis ingredi_ (Off. 1. 32. 118)—to walk in the ways of virtue.

_omnia consilia et facta ad virtutem referre_[1] (Phil. 10. 10. 20)—to
make virtue the standard in every thought and act.

_virtutem sequi, virtutis studiosum esse_—to strive to attain virtue.

_virtutis perfectae perfecto munere fungi_ (Tusc. 1. 45. 109)—to live
a perfect life.

_virtutem pristinam retinere_—to live as scrupulously moral a life as

_nihil ex pristina virtute remittere_—to live as scrupulously moral a
life as ever.

_summum bonum_[2] _in virtute ponere_—to consider virtue the highest

_virtus hoc habet, ut..._—this is a characteristic of virtue, it...

_a virtute discedere_ or _deficere_—to deviate from the path of virtue.

_honestatem deserere_—to deviate from the path of virtue.

_a maiorum virtute desciscere, degenerare, deflectere_—to deteriorate.

_a parentibus degenerare_—to degenerate (from one's ancestors).

_corrumpi, depravari_—to be demoralised, corrupted.

_excitare aliquem ad virtutem_—to rouse in some one an enthusiasm for

_bonitas_ (Fin. 5. 29. 65)—kindheartedness.

_naturae bonitas_ (Off. 1. 32. 118)—innate goodness, kindness.

_naturae bona_—natural advantages.

[1] For "thoughts and deeds," cf. Or. 3. 43. 182 _mores instituta et
facta_; Prov. Cons. 8. 20 _consilia et facta_; Fin. 2. 14. 5 _studia
et facta_; Verr. 5. 14. 35 _mentes hominum et cogitationes_.

[2] Note too _finis bonorum et malorum_ = the highest good and the
greatest evil.

2. Vice—Crime

_omni vitio carere_—to be free from faults.

_vitia erumpunt (in aliquem)_ (De Amic. 21. 76)—his vices betray

_animum vitiis dedere_—to abandon oneself to vice.

_vitiis, sceleribus contaminari_ or _se contaminare_ (Off. 3. 8.
37)—to be tainted with vice.

_vitiis, sceleribus inquinatum, contaminatum, obrutum esse_—to be
vicious, criminal.

_vitia exstirpare et funditus tollere_—to eradicate vice.

_vita omnibus flagitiis,_[1] _vitiis dedita_—a life defiled by every

_vita omnibus flagitiis inquinata_—a life defiled by every crime.

_natura proclivem esse ad vitia_—to have a natural propensity to vice.

_scelera moliri_ (Att. 7. 11)—to meditate crime.

_scelus facere, committere_—to commit crime.

_facinus facere, committere_—to do a criminal deed.

_scelere se devincire, se obstringere, astringi_—to commit a crime and
so make oneself liable to the consequences of it.

_scelus (in se) concipere, suscipere_—to commit a crime and so make
oneself liable to the consequences of it.

_scelus edere in aliquem_ (Sest. 26. 58)—to commit a crime against
some one.

_scelus scelere cumulare_ (Catil. 1. 6. 14)—to heap crime on crime.

_scelus_[2] _supplicio expiare_—to expiate a crime by punishment.

[1] _flagitium_ is a crime against oneself, e.g. drunkenness. _scelus_
is a sin against society at large, e.g. theft, murder. _nefas_ a sin
against God, e.g. sacrilege, parricide. _facinus_ any unusual action,
then generally a crime, outrage.

[2] _flagitium_ is a crime against oneself, e.g. drunkenness. _scelus_
is a sin against society at large, e.g. theft, murder. _nefas_ a sin
against God, e.g. sacrilege, parricide. _facinus_ any unusual action,
then generally a crime, outrage.

3. Desire—Passion—Self-Control

_cupiditate alicuius rei accensum, inflammatum esse_—to be fired with
desire of a thing.

_cupiditate alicuius rei ardere, flagrare_—to have an ardent longing
for a thing.

_cupiditatem alicuius accendere_—to rouse a person's interest, cupidity.

_aliquem ad cupiditatem incitare_—to rouse a person's interest,

_aliquem cupiditate inflammare_—to rouse a person's interest, cupidity.

_cupiditatibus occaecari_ (Fin. 1. 10. 33)—to be blinded by passions.

_libidine ferri_—to be carried away by one's passions.

_se (totum) libidinibus dedere_—to abandon oneself (entirely) to

_cupiditatibus servire, pārēre_—to be the slave of one's desires.

_praecipitem ferri aliqua re_ (Verr. 5. 46. 121)—to be carried away by

_homo impotens sui_—a man of no self-control, self-indulgent.

_homo effrenatus, intemperans_—a man of no self-control, self-indulgent.

_sibi imperare_ or _continere et coercere se ipsum_—to have
self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations.

_animum regere, coercere, cohibere_—to have self-control; to restrain
oneself, master one's inclinations.

_animum vincere_ (Marcell. 3. 8)—to have self-control; to restrain
oneself, master one's inclinations.

_imperare cupiditatibus_—to overcome one's passions.

_coercere, cohibere, continere, domitas habere cupiditates_—to
overcome one's passions.

_refrenare cupiditates, libidines_—to bridle one's desires.

_effrenatae cupiditates_—unrestrained, unbridled lust.

_indomitae animi cupiditates_—unrestrained, unbridled lust.

_cupiditates explere, satiare_—to satisfy one's desires.

_libidinem alicuius excitare_—to arouse some one's lust.

_libido dominatur_ (Or. 65. 219)—the passions win the day.

_libido consēdit_—the storm of passion has abated.

_cupiditates deferbuerunt_ (Cael. 18. 43)—the passions have cooled down.

_animi perturbationes exstirpare_—to eradicate passion from the mind.

4. Wrong—Insult—Outrage—Offence

_iniuriam inferre, facere alicui_—to wrong a person.

_iniuria afficere aliquem_—to wrong a person.

_iniuria lacessere aliquem_—to provoke a person by a gratuitous insult.

_iniuria abstinere_ (Off. 3. 17. 72)—to refrain from doing a wrong, an

_iniuriam accipere_—to be the victim of an injustice.

_iniuriam ferre, pati_—to suffer wrong.

_iniurias defendere, repellere, propulsare_—to repel an injury.

_iniurias neglegere_—to leave a wrong unpunished, to ignore it.

_ab iniuria aliquem defendere_—to protect any one from wrong.

_satisfacere alicui pro (de) iniuriis_—to give some one satisfaction
for an injury.

_contumelia aliquem afficere_—to insult some one.

_voces (verba) contumeliosae_—insulting expressions.

_verborum contumeliae_—insulting expressions.

_contumeliosis vocibus prosequi aliquem_ (_vid._ sect. VI. 11, note
_Prosequi..._)—to use insulting expressions to any one.

_maledictis aliquem onerare, lacerare_—to heap abuse on some one.

_offendere aliquem, alicuius animum_—to hurt some one's feelings.

_offendere apud aliquem_ (Cluent. 23. 63)—to hurt some one's feelings.

_in offensionem alicuius incurrere_ (Verr. 1. 12. 35)—to hurt some
one's feelings.

_offendi aliqua re (animus offenditur)_—to feel hurt by something.

_offendere in aliquo_ (Mil. 36. 99)—to have something to say against a
person, to object to him.

_offendere_[1] _in aliqua re_ (Cluent. 36. 98)—to take a false step in
a thing; to commit an indiscretion.

_offensionem habere_—to give offense to, to shock a person (used of
things, _vid._ sect. V. 18).

_res habet aliquid offensionis_—there is something repulsive about the

[1] Notice too _offendere caput_ (Quintil. 6. 3. 67), _pedem_ (B.
Hisp. 23), to strike one's head, foot against anything; _offendere
aliquem imparatum_ (Fam. 2. 3), to find some one unprepared, cf.

5. Violence—Ambuscade—Threats

_vim adhibere, facere alicui_—to use violence against some one.

_vim inferre alicui_—to do violence to a person.

_vim et manus afferre alicui_ (Catil. 1. 8. 21)—to kill with violence.

_vim vi depellere_—to meet force by force.

_vi vim illatam defendere_—to meet force by force.

_insidias collocare, locare_ (Mil. 10. 27)—to set an ambuscade.

_insidias alicui parare, facere, struere, instruere, tendere_—to
waylay a person.

_aliquem in insidiis locare, collocare, ponere_—to place some one in

_aliquem in insidias elicere, inducere_—to draw some one into an ambush.

_subsidere in insidiis_ (Mil. 19. 49)—to place oneself in ambush.

_minitari (minari) alicui mortem, crucem et tormenta, bellum_—to
threaten some one with death, crucifixion, torture, war.

_minitari alicui igni ferroque_ (Phil. 13. 9. 21)—to threaten with
fire and sword.

_denuntiare_[1] _bellum, caedem_ (Sest. 20. 46)—to threaten war,

_minas iacere, iactare_—to use threats.

_minis uti_—to use threats.

[1] "Threaten" in the sense of to be at hand, to be imminent, is
rendered by some such word as _imminere, impendere, instare_, e.g.
_bellum imminet_. For the meaning to seem likely, to promise, cf.
_coniuratio rem publicam perversura videtur_, the conspiracy threatens
to overthrow the state.

6. Appearance—Deceit—Falsehood—Derision

_speciem alicuius rei habere_—to have the appearance of something.

_speciem alicuius rei praebere_—to give the impression of...; have the
outward aspect of...

_speciem prae se ferre_[1]—to give the impression of...; have the
outward aspect of...

_in speciem_—apparently; to look at.

_specie_ (De Amic. 13. 47)—apparently; to look at.

_per speciem (alicuius rei)_—apparently; to look at.

_per simulationem, simulatione alicuius rei_—under pretext, pretence

_simulare morbum_—to pretend to be ill.

_dissimulare_[2] _morbum_—to pretend not to be ill.

_aliquis simulat aegrum_ or _se esse aegrum_—some one feigns illness.

_aliter sentire ac loqui (aliud sentire, aliud loqui)_—to think one
thing, say another; to conceal one's opinions.

_per dolum_ (B. G. 4. 13)—by craft.

_dolis et fallaciis_ (Sall. Cat. 11. 2)—by the aid of fraud and lies.

_sine fuco ac fallaciis_ (Att. 1. 1. 1)—without any disguise, frankly.

_verba dare alicui_ (Att. 15. 16)—to deceive a person, throw dust in
his eyes.

_mendacium dicere_—to tell lies.

_falsa (pro veris) dicere_—to tell lies.

_ludere, irridere, deridere aliquem_—to make sport of, rally a person.

_illudere alicui_ or _in aliquem_ (more rarely _aliquem_)—to make
sport of, rally a person.

_ludibrio esse alicui_—to serve as some one's butt.

_in ludibrium verti_ (Tac. Ann. 12. 26)—to become an object of
ridicule; to be laughed at.

_omnibus artibus aliquem ludificari, eludere_—to fool a person

_per ludibrium_—in sport, mockery.

[1] _prae se ferre_ followed by Acc. and Inf. = to manifest, display,
e.g. _Romanum esse semper prae me tuli_.

[2] _simulo_ = I pretend to be what I am not, cf. ἀλαζών, a braggart;
_dissimulo_ = I pretend not to be what I am, cf. εἴρων, a mock-modest
person. _Quae non sunt simulo, quae sunt ea dissimulantur_.

7. Duty—Inclination

_officium suum facere, servare, colere, tueri, exsequi, praestare_—to
do one's duty.

_officio suo satisfacere_ (Div. in Caec. 14. 47)—to do one's duty.

_officio suo fungi_—to do one's duty.

_omnes officii partes exsequi_—to fulfil one's duty in every detail.

_nullam officii partem deserere_—to fulfil one's duty in every detail.

_diligentem esse in retinendis officiis_—to be exact, punctual in the
performance of one's duty.

_officium suum deserere, neglegere_—to neglect one's duty.

_ab officio discedere_—to neglect one's duty.

_de, ab officio decedere_—to neglect one's duty.

_officio suo deesse_ (Fam. 7. 3)—to neglect one's duty.

_ad officium redire_—to return to one's duties.

_in officio manere_ (Att. 1. 3)—to remain faithful to one's duty.

_contra officium est_ c. Inf.—it is a breach of duty to...

_ab officio abduci, avocari_—to let oneself be perverted from one's

_salvo_[1] _officio_ (Off. 3. 1. 4)—without violating, neglecting
one's duty.

_multa et magna inter nos officia_[2] _intercedunt_ (Fam. 13. 65)—we
are united by many mutual obligations.

_in aliquem officia conferre_—to be courteous, obliging to some one.

_aliquem officiis suis complecti, prosequi_—to be courteous, obliging
to some one.

_officiosum esse in aliquem_—to be courteous, obliging to some one.

_litterae officii_ or _humanitatis plenae_—a most courteous letter.

_studere alicui rei, studiosum esse alicuius rei_—to have an
inclination for a thing.

_studio alicuius rei teneri_—to have an inclination for a thing.

_propensum, proclivem esse ad aliquid_ (opp. _alienum, aversum esse,
abhorrere ab aliqua re_)—to have an inclination for a thing.

_studiis suis obsequi_ (De Or. 1. 1. 3)—to follow one's inclinations.

_sibi_ or _ingenio suo indulgere_ (Nep. Chabr. 3)—to indulge one's

[1] Notice _salvis legibus_ (Fam. 1. 4), without breaking the law;
_salva fide_ (Off. 3. 4. 44), without breaking one's word.

[2] _officium_ is used of anything which one feels bound to do, either
on moral grounds or from a desire to please others (especially those
in authority). Thus the word denotes not merely duty, sense of duty,
faithful performance of duty, submissiveness (cf. sect. xvi. 13), but
also courteous, obliging behaviour, complaisance, mark of respect.
Objectively it has the meaning of an office, service, command, e.g.
_officium maritimum_.

8. Reason—Conscience—Remorse

_rationis participem_ (opp. _expertem_) _esse_—to be endowed with

_ratione praeditum esse, uti_—to be endowed with reason.

_prudenter, considerate, consilio agere_ (opp. _temere, nullo
consilio, nulla ratione_)—to act reasonably, judiciously.

_sapere_ (Off. 2. 14. 48)—to be a man of sense, judgment.

_resipiscere_ (Att. 4. 5. 2)—to recover one's reason, be reasonable

_ad sanitatem reverti, redire_—to recover one's reason, be reasonable

_ad bonam frugem se recipere_—to recover one's reason, be reasonable

_ad sanitatem adducere, revocare aliquem_—to bring some one back to
his senses.

_satin (= satisne) sanus es?_—are you in your right mind?

_rationi repugnare_—to be contrary to all reason.

_conscientia recta, recte facti (factorum), virtutis, bene actae
vitae, rectae voluntatis_—a good conscience.

_mens bene sibi conscia_—a good conscience.

_conscientia mala_ or _peccatorum, culpae, sceleris, delicti_—a guilty

_animus male sibi conscius_—a guilty conscience.

_nullius culpae sibi conscium esse_—to be conscious of no ill deed.

_conscientia morderi_ (Tusc. 4. 20. 45)—to be conscience-stricken.

_conscientiae maleficiorum stimulant aliquem_—his guilty conscience
gives him no rest.

_conscientia mala angi, excruciari_—to be tormented by remorse.

_(mens scelerum furiis agitatur_)—to be tormented by remorse.

_conscientia recte factorum erigi_—to congratulate oneself on one's
clear conscience.

_Furiae agitant et vexant aliquem_—the Furies harass and torment some

9. Measure—Standard—Limit—Moderation

_modum tenere, retinere_[1]_, servare, adhibere_—to observe
moderation, be moderate.

_omnia modice agere_—to be moderate in all things, commit no excess.

_modum facere, statuere, constituere alicui rei_ or _alicuius rei_—to
set a limit to a thing.

_modum transire_—to pass the limit.

_extra modum prodire_—to pass the limit.

_ultra modum_[2] _progredi_—to pass the limit.

_metiri, ponderare, aestimare, iudicare aliquid (ex) aliqua re_—to
measure something by the standard of something else; to make something
one's criterion.

_dirigere_ or _referre aliquid ad aliquam rem_—to measure something by
the standard of something else; to make something one's criterion.

_fines certos terminosque constituere_—to impose fixed limitations.

_terminis circumscribere aliquid_—to set bounds to a thing, limit it.

_moderatum, continentem esse_—to behave with moderation.

_moderatum se praebere_—to behave with moderation.

_temperantia uti_—to behave with moderation.

_moderationem, modum adhibere in aliqua re_—to show moderation in a

_moderari aliquid_ (Flacc. 5. 12)—to show moderation in a matter.

_modice ac sapienter_—with moderation and judgment.

_sine modo; nullo modo adhibito_—with no moderation.

_extra, praeter modum_—beyond all measure.

_mediocritatem tenere_ (Off. 1. 25. 89)—to observe the golden mean.

[1] In the original book is _retineri_. I transcribed this as
_retinere_, following the Latin text of the French edition
(_Phraséologie Latine_, translatation by Charles Pascal, 5th ed.,
1942, Librairie C. Klincksieck, p. 212).

[2] Only Livy and subsequent writers use _modum excedere_, and in the
same way _supra modum_.

10. Morals—Immorality—Principles—Character

_homo bene (male) moratus_—a moral (immoral) man.

_homo perditus_—a depraved, abandoned character.

_praecepta de moribus_ or _de virtute_—moral precepts.

_morum praecepta tradere alicui_—to give moral advice, rules of conduct.

_de virtute praecipere alicui_—to give moral advice, rules of conduct.

_mores corrupti_ or _perditi_—moral corruption (not _corruptela morum_).

_tam perditis_ or _corruptis moribus_—amongst such moral depravity.

_mores in dies magis labuntur_ (also with _ad_, e.g. _ad
mollitiem_)—immorality is daily gaining ground.

_severus morum castigator_—a stern critic of morals.

_aliquid abhorret a meis moribus_ (opp. _insitum [atque innatum] est
animo_ or _in animo alicuius_)—something is contrary to my moral
sense, goes against my principles.

_consilia et facta_ (cf. sect. X. 1, note _For "thoughts and
deeds"..._)—thought and deed.

_institutum tenere_—to remain true to one's principles.

_ratione; animi quodam iudicio_—on principle.

_vitae ratio bene ac sapienter instituta_—a sound and sensible system
of conduct.

_meae vitae rationes ab ineunte aetate susceptae_ (Imp. Pomp. 1.
1.)—the principles which I have followed since I came to man's estate.

_certas rationes in agendo_[1] _sequi_—to follow fixed principles of

_omnia temere agere, nullo iudicio uti_—to have no principles.

_caeco impetu ferri_—to have no principles.

_natura et mores; vita moresque; indoles animi ingeniique_; or simply
_ingenium, indoles, natura, mores_—character.

_vir constans, gravis_ (opp. _homo inconstans, levis_)—a man of
character, with a strong personality.

_sibi constare, constantem esse_—to be consistent.

_animo mobili esse_ (Fam. 5. 2. 10)—to be inconsistent, changeable.

_aliquid est proprium alicuius_—something is a characteristic of a man.

_mobilitas et levitas animi_—inconsistency; changeability.

[1] Do not translate "to act, behave, conduct oneself" by _agere_
without an object or an accompanying adverb, e.g. _bene, recte agere_;
however, with the gerundive the adverb may be omitted, e.g _agendum
est, tempus agendi, celeritas in agendo_.

XI. Religion

1. God—Worship

_numen (deorum) divinum_—the sovereign power of the gods.

_dei propitii_ (opp. _irati_)—the favour of heaven.

_superi; inferi_—the gods of the upper, lower world.

_inferi_ (_Orcus_ and _Tartarus_ only poetical)—the world below.

_ad inferos descendere_—to descend to the world below.

_apud inferos esse_—to be in the lower world.

_aliquem ab inferis_ or _a mortuis evocare, excitare_ (passive _ab
inferis exsistere_)—to summon some one from the dead.

_deos sancte, pie venerari_—to be an earnest worshipper of the gods.

_deum rite (summa religione) colere_—to honour the gods with all due
ceremonial (very devoutly).

_cultus dei, deorum_ (N. D. 2. 3. 8)—worship of the gods; divine

_sacra, res divinae, religiones, caerimoniae_—ritual; ceremonial.

_rebus divinis interesse_ (B. G. 6. 13)—to take part in divine service
(of the priest).

_sacris adesse_—to be present at divine service (of the people).

_sacris initiari_ (Quintil. 12. 10. 14)—to be initiated into the
mysteries of a cult.

_templa deorum adire_—to make a pilgrimage to the shrines of the gods.

_numerum deorum obtinere_ (N. D. 3. 20)—to be regarded as a god.

_aliquem in deorum numerum referre, reponere_—to deify a person.

_aliquem in deorum numero referre_—to consider as a god.

_aliquem divino honere colere_—to pay divine honours to some one.

_alicui divinos honores tribuere, habere_—to pay divine honours to
some one.

_propius ad deos accedere_ (Mil. 22. 59)—to approach the gods.

_supera et caelestia; humana et citerioria_—heavenly things; earthly

_divinitus_ (De Or. 1. 46. 202)—by divine inspiration (often =
marvellously, excellently).

_divinitus accidit_—it happened miraculously.

2. Religion—Religious Scruple—Oath

_imbuere_ (_vid._ sect. VII. 7, note _imbuere..._) _pectora
religione_[1]—to inspire with religious feeling, with the fear of God.

_audientium animos religione perfundere_ (Liv. 10. 388)—to fill the
souls of one's audience with devotion.

_religionem ex animis extrahere_ (N. D. 1. 43. 121)—to banish devout
sentiment from the minds of others.

_omnem religionem tollere, delere_—to annihilate all religious feeling.

_religionem labefactare_ (_vid._ sect. V. 7, note _In Latin
metaphor..._)—to shake the foundations of religion.

_religione obstrictos habere multitudinis animos_ (Liv. 6. 1. 10)—to
have power over the people by trading on their religious scruples.

_religionem alicui afferre, inicere, incutere_—to inspire some one
with religious scruples.

_aliquid religioni habere_ or _in religionem vertere_—to make a thing
a matter of conscience, be scrupulous about a thing.

_aliquid in religionem alicui venit_—to make a thing a matter of
conscience, be scrupulous about a thing.

_nulla religio_—absence of scruples, unconscientiousness.

_religionem externam suscipere_—to embrace a strange religion.

_novas religiones instituere_—to introduce a new religion, a new cult.

_bellum pro religionibus susceptum_—a religious war.

_violatas caerimonias inexpiabili religione sancire_ (Tusc. 1. 12.
27)—to invoke an irrevocable curse on the profanation of sacred rites.

_iusiurandum dare alicui_[2]—to swear an oath to a person.

_ex animi mei sententia iuro_—I swear on my conscience.

_iureiurando aliquem astringere_—to bind some one by an oath.

_iureiurando aliquem adigere_—to make some one take an oath.

_iureiurando ac fide se obstringere, ut_—to promise an oath to...

_iureiurando teneri_ (Off. 3. 27. 100)—to be bound by oath.

_iusiurandum (religionem) servare, conservare_—to keep one's oath.

_periurium facere; peierare_—to commit perjury, perjure oneself.

_iusiurandum violare_—to break one's oath.

[1] _religio_ (original meaning probably that which binds down, cf.
_religo, leges, lictor_, etc.) denotes, subjectively, religious
feeling, devotion, fear of God, religious scruple, conscientiousness.
Objectively it means the object of religious fear, a sacred thing or
place, also that which is contrary to the gods' will, a crime, sin,
curse; lastly in an active sense a religious obligation, an oath.

[2] _sacramentum dicere alicui_ and _apud aliquem_ = to take in some
one's presence an oath to the standard, a military oath.

3. Belief—Unbelief—Superstition

_opinio dei_—belief in god.

_deum esse credimus_—we believe in the existence of a God.

_deos esse negare_—to deny the existence of the gods.

_insitas (innatas) dei cognitiones habere_ (N. D. 1. 17. 44)—to have
innate ideas of the Godhead; to believe in the Deity by intuition.

_omnibus innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deum_—belief in
God is part of every one's nature.

_natura in omnium animis notionem dei impressit_ (N. D. 1. 16.
43)—Nature has implanted in all men the idea of a God.


_qui deum esse negat_—an atheist.

_superstitio mentes occupavit_ (Verr. 4. 51. 113)—superstition has
taken possession of their souls.

_superstitione imbutum esse_—to be tinged with superstition.

_superstitione teneri, constrictum esse, obligatum esse_—to be the
slave of superstition.

_superstitionem funditus tollere_—to absolutely annihilate superstition.

_superstitionem radicitus_ or _penitus evellere_—to destroy
superstition root and branch.

_formidines_—superstitious fears; phantoms.

4. Prayers—Wishes—Vows

_precari aliquid a deo_—to pray to God.

_precari deum, deos_—to pray to God.

_supplicare deo_ (Sall. Iug. 63. 1)—to pray to God.

_adhibere deo preces_—to pray to God.

_praeire verba (carmen)_ (Liv. 31. 17)—to read prayers for the
congregation to repeat.

_(supinas) manus_[1] _ad caelum tendere_—to raise the hands to heaven
(attitude of prayer).

_favete ore, linguis_ = εὐφημειτε—maintain a devout silence (properly,
utter no ill-omened word).

_preces facere_—to pray.

_grates, laudes agere dis immortalibus_—to thank, glorify the immortal

_testari deos_ (Sull. 31. 86)—to call the gods to witness.

_contestari deos hominesque_—to call gods and men to witness.

_dis bene iuvantibus_ (Fam. 7. 20. 2)—with the help of the gods.

_quod deus bene vertat!_[2]—and may God grant success!

_quod di immortales omen avertant!_ (Phil. 44. 11)—and may heaven
avert the omen! heaven preserve us from this!

_quod abominor! (procul absit!)_—God forbid!

_di prohibeant, di meliora!_—heaven forfend!

_quod bonum, faustum, felix, fortunatumque sit!_[3] (Div. 1. 45.
102)—may heaven's blessing rest on it.

_precari alicui bene (male)_ or _omnia bona (mala), salutem_—to bless
(curse) a person.

_vota facere, nuncupare, suscipere, concipere_—to make a vow.

_vota solvere, persolvere, reddere_—to accomplish, pay a vow.

_voti damnari, compotem fieri_—to have to pay a vow; to obtain one's

[1] _supinus_ = ὕπτιος, bent backwards; _supinae manus_, with the
palms turned up. The opposite of _supinus_ is _pronus_, e.g. _puerum
imponere equo pronum in ventrem, postea sedentem_ (Varr.); _pecora
quae natura prona finxit_ (Sall.)

[2] Note that these clauses with _quod_ are parenthetical.

[3] Sometimes abbreviated q. b. f. f. f. s.

5. Sacrifice—Festival

_sacra, sacrificium facere (ἱερὰ ῥέζειν), sacrificare_—to sacrifice.

_rem divinam facere (dis)_—to sacrifice.

_ture et odoribus incensis_—with incense and perfumes.

_rebus divinis (rite) perpetratis_—after having performed the
sacrifice (with due ritual).

_sacrificium statum (solemne)_ (Tusc. 1. 47. 113)—a periodically
recurring (annual) sacrifice.

_sacra polluere et violare_—to profane sacred rites.

_victimas_ (oxen), _hostias_ (smaller animals, especially sheep)
_immolare, securi ferire, caedere, mactare_—to slaughter victims.

_deos placare_ (B. G. 6. 15)—to appease the anger of the gods.

_manes expiare_ (Pis. 7. 16)—to appease the manes, make sacrifice for
departed souls.

_pro victimis homines immolare_—to sacrifice human victims.

_parentare_ (Leg. 2. 21. 54)—to make a sacrifice on the tomb of one's

_libare_—to offer libations.

_diem festum agere_ (of an individual)—to keep, celebrate a festival.

_diem festum celebrare_ (of a larger number)—to keep, celebrate a

_supplicationem indicere ad omnia pulvinaria_ (Liv. 27. 4)—to proclaim
a public thanksgiving at all the street-shrines of the gods.

_supplicationem quindecim dierum decernere_ (Phil. 14. 14. 37)—to
decree a public thanksgiving for fifteen days.

_supplicationem habere_ (Liv. 22. 1. 15)—to celebrate a festival of

_lectisternium facere, habere_ (Liv. 22. 1. 18)—to hold a lectisternium.

6. Oracle—Prodigies—Auspices—Presage

_oraculum consulere_—to consult an oracle.

_oraculum petere (ab aliquo)_—to ask for an oracular response.

_mittere Delphos consultum_—to send and consult the oracle at Delphi.

_oraculum dare, edere_—to give an oracular response.

_responsum dare_ (_vid._ sect. VIII. 5, note _Note to answer..._),
_respondere_—to give an oracular response.

_oraculum Pythium (Pythicum)_—an oracle given by the Delphian Apollo
(Apollo Pythius).

_vox Pythia (Pythica)_ (Liv. 1. 56)—an oracle given by the Delphian
Apollo (Apollo Pythius).

_prodigia procurare_[1] (Liv. 22. 1)—to avert by expiatory sacrifices
the effect of ominous portents.

_libros Sibyllinos adire, consulere, inspicere_—to consult the
Sibylline books.

_augurium agere,_[2] _auspicari_ (N. D. 2. 4. 11)—to take the
auspices, observe the flight of birds.

_de caelo servare_ (Att. 4. 3. 3)—to observe the sky (_i.e._ the
flight of birds, lightning, thunder, etc.)

_aves (alites, oscines)_[3] _addīcunt alicui_ (opp. _abdicunt
aliquid_)—the omens are favourable to some one.

_augures obnuntiant (consuli)_ (Phil. 2. 33. 83)—the augurs announce
an unfavourable sign.

_auspicato (rem gerere, urbem condere)_—after having duly taken the

_omen accipere_ (opp. _improbare_)—to accept as a happy omen.

_accipere, vertere aliquid in omen_—to interpret something as an omen.

_faustis ominibus_—with favourable omens.

_omen infaustum, triste_—an evil omen; presage of ill.

[1] _procurare_, a technical term of religious ceremonial = to avert
by expiation; to take the necessary measures, observe the proper
ceremony for appeasing the anger of the gods.

[2] Not _auspicia habere_, which means to have the right to take the
auspices. As this right was usually combined with the right to
command, we find such phrases as _ponere auspicia_, to give up a
command; _imperio auspicioque alicuius, auspiciis alicuius_, under
some one's command.

[3] In the science of augury, _alites_ denoted birds which gave omens
by their flight; _oscines_ those which gave them by their cries.

XII. Domestic Life

1. The House and its different Parts

_domus necessariis rebus instructa_—a comfortably-furnished house.

_domus ruina_[1] _impendet_—the house threatens to fall in  (_vid._
sect. X. 5, note _"Threaten"..._).

_domus collapsura, corruitura (esse) videtur_—the house threatens to
fall in  (_vid._ sect. X. 5, note _"Threaten"..._).

_domus subita ruina collapsa est_—the house suddenly fell in ruins.

_domum demoliri_ (Top. 4. 22)—to demolish, raze a house.

_domus non omnes capit_[2] (χωρειν)—the house is not large enough for

_domum frequentare_ (Sall. Cat. 14. 7)—to be a regular visitor at a

_domus rimas agit_—the house walls are beginning to crack.

_apud eum sic fui tamquam domi meae_ (Fam. 13. 69)—I felt quite at
home in his house.

_apud aliquem esse_—to be at some one's house.

_tectum subire_—to enter the house.

_tecto, (in) domum suam aliquem recipere_ (opp. _prohibere aliquem
tecto, domo_)—to welcome to one's house (opp. to shut one's door
against some one).

_domo pedem non efferre_—to never set foot out of doors.

_pedem limine efferre_—to cross the threshold.

_foras exire_ (Plaut. Amph. 1. 2. 35)—to go out of the house.

_foras mittere aliquem_—to turn some one out of the house.

_in publico_—in the streets.

_in publicum prodire_ (Verr. 2. 1. 31)—to show oneself in the streets,
in public.

_publico carere, se abstinere_—to never appear in public.

_domi se tenere_—to never appear in public.

_deducere_[3] _aliquem de domo_—to escort a person from his house.

_pro aris_[4] _et focis pugnare, certare, dimicare_—to fight for
hearth and home.

_domi_ (opp. _foris_)—at home; in one's native country.

_ostium, fores pulsare_—to knock at the door.

_ostium, fores aperire, claudere_—to open, shut the door.

_fores obserare_—to bolt the door.

_ianuam effringere, revellere_—to burst open the door.

_valvas (portam) obstruere_—to barricade a door (a city-gate).

[1] _ruina_ = fall, overthrow (metaphor. e.g. _ruina rei publicae,
ruinae fortunarum_, Catil. 1. 6. 14). In plur. it is used of the
ruins, débris resulting from an overthrow, e.g. _urbs strata ruinis_,
a town in ruins; _fumantes ruinae urbis_. For "ruins" in the sense of
remains of old buildings use _parietinae_.

[2] Also metaph. e.g. _Macedonia te no capit_.

[3] Notice too _deducere coloniam_; _deducere naves_, to launch ships,
opposed to _subducere_ = to beach a boat; _deducere adulescentes ad
virum clarissimum_ (De Am. 1. 1); _deducere de sententia aliquem_;
_rem in eum locum deducere, ut..._; _de capite deducere_ (opp.
_addere_) _quod pernumeratum est_ = to subtract from the capital the
amount paid; _deducere aliquem_, to escort a person from his province
to Rome.

[4] At Rome there were altars not only in the temples but also in the
streets and in private houses. In a house there were usually two—one
in the court, the altar of the _Penates_; another in the _atrium_ on a
small hearth (_focus_), this was the altar of the _Lares_. Hence _arae
focique_ = the altars and hearths of the _Lares_ and _Penates_.

2. Domestic Matters—Property

_rem domesticam, familiarem administrare, regere, curare_—to keep house.

_rem_ or _opes habere, bona possidere, in bonis esse_—to possess
means, to be well off.

_opibus, divitiis, bonis, facultatibus abundare_—to be very rich.

_rem bene (male) gerere_[1] (_vid._ sect. XVI. 10a)—to manage one's
affairs, household, property well or ill.

_rem familiarem tueri_—to manage one's affairs, household, property
well or ill.

_rem familiarem neglegere_—to neglect, mismanage one's household

_diligentem, frugi esse_—to be economical.

_diligens paterfamilias_—a careful master of the house.

_frugi_[2] (opp. _nequam_) _servus_—a good, useful slave.

_severum imperium in suis exercere, tenere_ (De Sen. 11. 37)—to be a
strict disciplinarian in one's household.

_in possessionem alicuius rei venire_—to come into the possession of

_in possessionem alicuius rei invadere_—to take forcible possession of
a thing.

_expellere aliquem domo, possessionibus pellere_—to turn a person out
of his house, his property.

_demovere, deicere aliquem de possessione_—to dispossess a person.

_exturbare aliquem omnibus fortunis, e possessionibus_—to drive a
person out of house and home.

_evertere aliquem bonis, fortunis patriis_—to drive a person out of
house and home.

_possessione alicuius rei cedere alicui_ (Mil. 27. 75)—to give up a
thing to some one else.

_res, quae moveri possunt; res moventes_[3] (Liv. 5. 25. 6)—movable,
personal property.

_fundi_—property in land; real property.

[1] _rem gerere_= generally to manage one's affairs. Then
specially—(1) to do business (of commercial men); (2) to administer
one's estate; (3) to hold a command (of a general in the field). _res
gerere_ plur. = to carry out, accomplish undertakings, used specially
of political activity.

[2] _frugi_ is an old case-form (either locative or dative) from an
obsolete nominative _frux_. Cf. _bonae frugi esse_, to be useful; _ad
bonam frugem se recipere_, to come to one's senses (Cael. 12. 28).

[3] _res moventes_; _movere_ is apparently sometimes used
intransitively, e.g. _terra movet_ (Liv. 35. 40; 40. 59), but here
_moventes_ is probably the participle of the middle _moveri_ (cf. _res
quae MOVERI possunt_). For parallel examples of a middle verb with a
participle present or a gerundive cf. Fin. 2. 10. 31 _utra voluptate
stante an movente?_ Suet. Claud. 28 _lecticam per urbem vehendi ius_;
Or. 2. 71. 287 _ceteris in campo exercentibus_, etc.

3. Habitation—Clothing

_habitare_[1] _in domo alicuius, apud aliquem_ (Acad. 2. 36. 115)—to
live in some one's house.

_domicilium (sedem ac domicilium) habere in aliquo loco_—to dwell in a
certain place.

_sedem collocare alicubi_ (Rep. 2. 19. 34)—to take up one's abode in a
place, settle down somewhere.

_sedem ac domicilium (fortunas suas) constituere alicubi_—to take up
one's abode in a place, settle down somewhere.

_considere alicubi_ (Att. 5. 14. 1)—to take up one's abode in a place,
settle down somewhere.

_multitudinem in agris collocare_—to settle a large number of people
in a country.

_domo emigrare_ (B. G. 1. 31)—to emigrate.

_domo profugus_ (Liv. 1. 1)—homeless.

_induere vestem_ (without _sibi_)—to dress oneself.

_vestem mutare_ (opp. _ad vestitum suum redire_) (Planc. 12. 29)—to go
into mourning.

_vestimenta (et calceos) mutare_—to change one's clothes (and shoes).

_vestitus obsoletus, tritus_—cast-off clothing.

_vestis stragula_ or simply _vestis_—drapery.

_togatus,_[2] _palliatus_—with a toga, cloak on.

_pannis obsitus_—in rags

_paludatus, sagatus_—in a military cloak (_paludamentum_, of a
general; _sagum_, of soldiers).

_togam virilem (puram) sumere_—to assume the _toga virilis_.

_vestem ponere_[3] _(exuere)_—to undress.

[1] _habitare locum_ is not used, _locus habitatur_ is. On the other
hand, we find _incolere Asiam_, etc., or with preps. _cis, trans,
inter, prope, circum—incolere_ being used intransitively, e.g. B. G.
1. 1. 4 _Germani qui trans Rhenum incolunt_. _incolere_ is used of a
number of people, _habitare_ of individuals.

[2] _togatus_ = a Roman citizen as opposed to—(1) a foreigner, (2) a
soldier, (3) _tunicatus_, which is used of the lower classes who
actually had no _toga_ but simply _tunica_, cf. Hor. Ep. 1. 7. 65
_tunicatus popellus_.

[3] _vestem deponere_ = to give up wearing a garment, never use it
again. Notice too _ponere arma_, to put down one's weapons; _ponere
librum (de manibus)_, to lay aside a book (not _deponere_, which would
mean to lay aside for good. Cf. viii. 9).

4. Food—Drink

_cibum sumere, capere_—to take food.

_cibum concoquere, conficere_—to digest food.

_multi cibi esse, edacem esse_—to be a great eater.

_cibum apponere, ponere alicui_—to set food before a person.

_corpus curare (cibo, vino, somno)_—to refresh oneself, minister to
one's bodily wants.

_ventri deditum esse_—to be the slave of one's appetite.

_cibo se abstinere_—to abstain from all nourishment.

_ieiunium servare_—to fast.

_tantum cibi et potionis adhibere quantum satis est_—to take only
enough food to support life.

_cibus delicatus_—delicacies.

_panis cibarius_—ordinary bread.

_vino deditum esse, indulgere_—to be given to drink.

_potare_—to drink to excess; to be a drunkard.

_alicui bibere dare_[1]—to give some one to drink.

_alicui bibere ministrare_—to serve some one with drink.

_propīno tibi hoc (poculum, salutem)_—I drink your health.

_bene tibi_ or _te!_—your health!

_inter pocula_—whilst drinking; at table.

_exhaurire poculum_—to empty a cup at a draught.

[1] These forms _dare bibere_, etc., are not Graecisms but old usages
which have survived in conversational language. For the infinitive
(the dative of the verbal noun) used in this way compare Verg. Aen. 1.
527 _non nos aut ferro Libycos populare penates venimus_; Plaut. Bacc.
iv. 3. 18 _parasitus modo venerat aurum petere._

5. Subsistence in General

_victus cotidianus_—daily bread.

_victus tenuis_ (Fin. 2. 28. 90)—meagre diet.

_res ad vitam necessariae_—the necessaries of life.

_quae ad victum pertinent_—the necessaries of life.

_res ad victum cultumque necessariae_—things indispensable to a life
of comfort.

_vitae commoditas iucunditasque_—comfort

_omnes ad vitam copias suppeditare alicui_—to provide some one with a

_quae suppeditant ad victum_ (Off. 1. 4. 12)—a livelihood.

_copiae cotidianis sumptibus suppetunt_ (_vid._ sect. IV. 2, note
_suppeditare..._)—his means suffice to defray daily expenses.

_victum aliqua re quaerere_—to earn a livelihood by something.

_vivere carne, piscibus, rapto_ (Liv. 7. 25)—to live on meat, fish, by

_de suo_ (opp. _alieno_) _vivere_—to live on one's means.

_vitam (inopem) tolerare_ (B. G. 7. 77)—to endure a life of privation.

_non habeo, qui (unde) vivam_—I have no means, no livelihood.

_laute vivere_[1] (Nep. Chab. 3. 2)—to live well.

[1] Not _bene vivere_, which is used of leading a moral life.

6. Expenditure—Luxury—Prodigality

_sumptum facere, insumere in aliquid_—to spend money on an object.

_sumptus effusi_ (_vid._ sect. IX. 2, note _Cf. effusa fuga..._) or
_profusi_—prodigal expenditure.

_sumptui parcere_ (Fam. 16. 4)—to incur few expenses.

_sumptibus modum statuere_—to limit one's expenditure.

_sumptum minuere_—to retrench.

_sumptus perpetui_ (Off. 2. 12. 42)—current expenses.

_sumptus liberales_ (Off. 2. 12. 42)—munificence.

_delicate ac molliter vivere_—to live a luxurious and effeminate life.

_luxuria diffluere_ (Off. 1. 30. 106)—to be abandoned to a life of

_omnium rerum copia diffluere_—to be abandoned to a life of excess.

_in luxuriam effundi_—to plunge into excesses, a career of excess.

_effundere, profundere pecuniam, patrimonium_—to squander one's money,
one's patrimony.

_dissipare rem familiarem (suam)_—to squander all one's property.

_lacerare bona sua_ (Verr. 3. 70. 164)—to squander all one's property.

7. Hospitality

_convivium instruere, apparare, ornare (magnifice, splendide)_—to
prepare, give a feast, dinner.

_mensas exquisitissimis epulis instruere_ (Tusc. 5. 21. 62)—to load
the tables with the most exquisite viands.

_mensae exstructae_—a table bountifully spread.

_caput cenae_ (Fin. 2. 8. 25)—the main dish.

_secunda mensa_ (Att. 14. 6. 2)—the dessert.

_ab ovo usque ad mala_ (proverb.)[1]—from beginning to end.

_aliquem vocare, invitare ad cenam_—to invite some one to dinner.

_promittere (ad cenam)_ (Off. 3. 14. 58)—to accept an invitiation to

_inter cenam, inter epulas_—during dinner; at table.

_promittere ad aliquem_—to promise to dine with a person.

_condicere alicui (ad cenam)_—to invite oneself to some one's house
for dinner.

_adhibere aliquem cenae_ or _ad cenam, convivio_ or _in convivium_—to
welcome some one to one's table.

_cenam alicui apponere_—to set a repast before a person.

_convivia tempestiva_ (Arch. 6. 13)—a repast which begins in good time.

_accipere aliquem (bene, copiose, laute, eleganter, regio apparatu,
apparatis epulis)_—to entertain, regale a person.

_deverti ad aliquem (ad [in] villam)_—to go to a man's house as his

_deversari apud aliquem_ (Att. 6. 1. 25)—to stop with a person, be his
guest for a short time when travelling.

_mihi cum illo hospitium est, intercedit_—my relations with him are
most hospitable.

_hospitio alicuius uti_—to enjoy a person's hospitality.

_hospitium cum aliquo facere, (con-)iungere_—to become a friend and
guest of a person.

_hospitio aliquem accipere_ or _excipere (domum ad se)_—to welcome a
man as a guest in one's house.

_hospitium renuntiare_ (Liv. 25. 18)—to sever (previous) hospitable

_domus patet, aperta est mihi_—I am always welcome at his house.

_invitare aliquem tecto ac domo_ or _domum suam_ (Liv. 3. 14. 5)—to
invite some one to one's house.

[1] Lit. "from the egg to the apples," i.e. throughout the dinner; cf.
_integram famem ad ovum affero_ (Fam. 9. 20. 1).

8. Sociability—Intercourse—Isolation

_vitae societas_[1]—social life.

_facilitas, faciles mores_ (De Am. 3. 11)—a sociable, affable

_societatem inire, facere cum aliquo_—to associate with some one.

_dissipatos homines in (ad) societatem vitae convocare_ (Tusc. 1. 25.
62)—to unite isolated individuals into a society.

_socium se adiungere alicui_—to attach oneself to a person's society.

_aliquem socium admittere_—to admit a person into one's society.

_assiduum esse cum aliquo_—to be always in some one's company.

_uti aliquo (familiariter)_—to be on intimate terms with some one.

_alicuius familiaritate uti_—to be on intimate terms with some one.

_usu, familiaritate, consuetudine coniunctum esse cum aliquo_—to be on
friendly terms with a person.

_est mihi consuetudo_, or _usus cum aliquo_—to be on friendly terms
with a person.

_vivere cum aliquo_—to be on friendly terms with a person.

_vetus usus inter nos intercedit_—we have known each other well for
several years.

_devincire aliquem consuetudine_—to attach a person to oneself.

_se dare in consuetudinem alicuius_—to devote oneself to a person's

_se insinuare in consuetudinem alicuius_ (Fam. 4. 13. 6)—to insinuate
oneself into a person's society.

_summa necessitudine aliquem contingere_—to stand in very intimate
relations to some one.

_in simultate cum aliquo sum_—relations are strained between us.

_hominum coetus, congressus fugere_—to shun society.

_in solitudine vivere_ (Fin. 3. 20. 65)—to live in solitude.

_secum vivere_—to live to oneself.

_vitam solitariam agere_—to live a lonely life.

[1] The adj. _socialis_ in the sense of "sociable" only occurs in late
Latin, e.g. _homo sociale animal_ (Sen.)

9. Conversation—Audience—Conference

_sermonem conferre_,[1] _instituere, ordiri cum aliquo_—to enter into
conversation with some one.

_se dare in sermonem cum aliquo_—to enter into conversation with some

_sermonem inferre de aliqua re_—to turn the conversation on to a
certain subject.

_in eum sermonem_[2] _incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in ore_—to
talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation.

_sermo incidit de aliqua re_—the conversation turned on...

_in sermonem ingredi_—to begin a conversation.

_sermo ortus est ab aliqua re_—the conversation began with...

_sermonem alio transferre_—to turn the conversation to another topic.

_medium sermonem abrumpere_ (Verg. Aen. 4. 388)—to break off in the
middle of the conversation.

_sermonem producere in multam noctem_ (Rep. 6. 10. 10)—to prolong a
conversation far into the night.

_sermonem habere cum aliquo de aliqua re_ (De Am. 1. 3)—to converse,
talk with a person on a subject.

_hinc sermo ductus est_—the conversation began in this way.

_sermo inductus a tali exordio_—the conversation began in this way.

_multus sermo_—a long conversation.

_narratio, fabula_—a narrative, tale, story.

_narratiuncula, fabella_ (Fin. 5. 15)—an anecdote.

_haec fabula docet_—this fable teaches us (without _nos_).

_convenire aliquem_—to meet a person (accidentally or intentionally)
and talk with him.

_congredi cum aliquo_—to meet a person by arrangement, interview him.

_sui potestatem facere, praebere alicui_—to give audience to some one.

_colloquendi copiam facere, dare_—to give audience to some one.

_conveniendi aditum_[3] _dare alicui_—to give audience to some one.

_aditum conveniendi_ or _colloquium_[4] _petere_—to ask a hearing,
audience, interview.

_(ad colloquium) admitti_ (B. C. 3. 57)—to obtain an audience of some

_in congressum alicuius venire_—to obtain an audience of some one.

_velle aliquem_ (Plaut. Capt. 5. 2. 24)—to wish to speak to some one.

_paucis te volo_—a word with you.

_tribus verbis te volo_—a word with you.

_sermo cotidianus_, or simply _sermo_—conversational language.

_coram loqui (cum aliquo)_—to speak personally to...

_commercium loquendi et audiendi_—interchange of ideas; conversation.

_capita conferre_ (Liv. 2. 45)—to put our heads together.

_remotis arbitris_ or _secreto_—in private; tête-à-tête.

_intra parietes_ (Brut. 8. 32)—within four walls.

[1] _sermonem conserere_ in late Latin.

[2] Distinguish from such phrases as _incidere in sermonem (hominum)_,
to become common talk.

[3] _audientia_ is not used in this connection, but only in such
phrases as _audientiam facere alicui_ or _orationi alicuius_, to
listen to a person.[TR1]

[4] _colloquium_ as opposed to _sermo_ means an interview specially
arranged, usually for transaction of some business.

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: the original text has indeed "to listen to a
person". The French edition gives "prêter l'oreille, écouter
quelqu'un". Both seem to be wrong because the original German footnote
says: "Es ist nicht hierfür _audientia_ zu gebrauchen, welches Wort
nur in der Redensart _audientiam facere alicui_ oder _orationi
alicuius_ einem 'Gehör verschaffen', vorkommt." Compare also Lewis &
Short, "A Latin Dictionary", entry "audientia".

10. Greeting—Farewell

_salutem alicui dicere, impertire, nuntiare_—to greet a person.

_aliquem salvere iubere_ (Att. 4. 14)—to greet a person.

_quid agis?_[1]—how are you?

_quid agitur? quid fit?_—what is going on? how are you getting on?

_Cicero Attico_[2] _S.D.P. (salutem dicit plurimam)_—Cicero sends
cordial greetings to Atticus.

_tibi plurimam salutem_—my best wishes for your welfare.

_nuntia fratri tuo salutem verbis meis_ (Fam. 7. 14)—remember me to
your brother.

_adscribere alicui salutem_ (Att. 5. 20. 9)—to add to one's letter
good wishes to some one.

_salute data (accepta) redditaque_—after mutual greeting.

_inter se consalutare_ (De Or. 2. 3. 13)—to exchange greetings.

_dextram alicui porrigere, dare_—to give one's right hand to some one.

_dextram iungere cum aliquo, dextras inter se iungere_—to shake hands
with a person.

_te valere_[3] _iubeo_—I bid you good-bye, take my leave.

_vale_ or _cura ut valeas_—good-bye; farewell.

_bene ambula et redambula_—a safe journey to you.

_gratulari alicui aliquid_ or _de aliqua re_—to congratulate a person
on something.

[1] _quid agis?_ is also used as an expression of surprise, "what are
you thinking of?"

[2] This and the following phrase only epistolary.

[3] _valedicere alicui_ is poetical.

11. Betrothal—Marriage—Divorce

_filiam alicui despondere_—to betroth one's daughter to some one.

_sibi (aliquam) despondere_ (of the man)—to betroth oneself, get

_nuptias conciliare_ (Nep. Att. 5. 3)—to arrange a marriage.

_nuptias parare_—to make preparations for a marriage.

_condicio (uxoria)_ (Phil. 2. 38. 99)—a match.

_ducere uxorem_—to marry (of the man).

_ducere aliquam in matrimonium_—to marry (of the man).

_nubere alicui_—to marry (of the woman).

_nuptam esse cum aliquo_ or _alicui_—to be married to some one.

_uxorem habere_ (Verr. 3. 33. 76)—to be a married man.

_dotem filiae dare_—to give a dowry to one's daughter.

_filiam alicui in matrimonio_ or _in matrimonium collocare_ or simply
_filiam alicui collocare_—to give one's daughter in marriage to

_filiam alicui in matrimonium dare_—to give one's daughter in marriage
to some-one.

_filiam alicui nuptum dare_—to give one's daughter in marriage to

_nuntium remittere alicui_ (De Or. 1. 40)—to separate, be divorced
(used of man or woman).

_repudium dicere_ or _scribere alicui_—to separate, be divorced (used
of man or woman).

_divortium facere cum uxore_—to separate from, divorce (of the man).

_aliquam suas res sibi habere_[1] _iubere_ (Phil. 2. 28. 69)—to
separate from, divorce (of the man).

_repudium_[2] _remittere viro_ (Dig. 24. 3)—to separate (of the woman).

[1] The formula of divorce used by the man was _tuas res tibi habeto_,
cf. Plaut. Trin. 266.

[2] Cicero uses _divortium_ not _repudium_. _divortium_ (_dis,
vertere_) is a separation by mutual consent, _divortium est, quod in
diversas partes eunt, qui discedunt_ (Paul. Dig. L. 16. 1. 161). In
_repudium_ one party takes the initiative, usually the husband. The
formula commonly used was _tua condicione non utar_.

12. Will—Inheritance

_testamentum facere, conscribere_—to make a will.

_testamentum obsignare_ (B. G. 1. 39)—to sign a will.

_testamentum resignare_—to open a will.

_testamentum rescindere_—to declare a will to be null and void.

_testamentum subicere, supponere_—to produce a false will.

_testamentum irritum facere, rumpere_—to annul, revoke a will.

_testamento aliquid cavere_ (Fin. 2. 31)—to prescribe in one's will.

_pecuniam alicui legare_—to leave money to a person in one's will.

_aliquem heredem testamento scribere, facere_—to appoint some one as
heir in one's will.

_alicuius mortui voluntas (suprema)_—the last wishes of a deceased

_heredem esse alicui_—to be some one's heir.

_hereditate aliquid accipere_—to inherit something.

_exheres paternorum bonorum_ (De Or. 1. 38. 175)—disinherited.

_exheredari a patre_—to be disinherited.

_hereditate aliquid relictum est ab aliquo_—something has been left as
a legacy by some one.

_hereditas ad me_ or _mihi venit ab aliquo_ (Verr. 2. 1. 10)—I have
received a legacy from a person.

_hereditatem adire, cernere_—to take possession of an inheritance.

_heres ex asse, ex dodrante_—sole heir; heir to three-quarters of the

_heres ex besse_—heir to two-thirds of the property.

13. Custom—Usage

_assuefactus_[1] or _assuetus aliqua re_—accustomed to a thing.

_in consuetudinem_ or _morem venire_—to become customary, the fashion.

_in nostros mores inducere aliquid_ (De Or. 2. 28)—to introduce a
thing into our customs; to familiarise us with a thing.

_consuetudinem suam tenere, retinere,[TR1] servare_—to keep up a usage.

_consuetudo inveterascit_ (B. G. 5. 41. 5)—a custom is taking root,
growing up.

_res obsolescit_—a thing is going out of use, becoming obsolete.

_a vetere consuetudine discedere_—to give up old customs.

_a pristina consuetudine deflectere_—to give up old customs.

_in pristinam consuetudinem revocare aliquid_—to return to ancient

_aliquid est meae consuetudinis_—it is my custom.

_aliquid cadit in meam consuetudinem_—it is my custom.

_mos (moris) est, ut_ (Brut. 21. 84)—it is customary to...

_more, usu receptum est_—it is traditional usage.

_ut fit, ita ut fit, ut fere fit_—as usually happens.

_ut solet, ut fieri solet_—as usually happens.

_ita fert consuetudo_—so custom, fashion prescribes.

_ex consuetudine mea_ (opp. _praeter consuetudinem_)—according to my

_more institutoque maiorum_ (Mur. 1. 1)—according to the custom and
tradition of my fathers.

_ex instituto_ (Liv. 6. 10. 6)—according to traditional usage.

[1] Note _assuescere_, to accustom oneself to .... and _assuefacere
aliquem_, to accustom some one else to...

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: The original text has _retineri_. But that
is wrong as can be seen from the French edition using _retinere_.

XIII. Commerce and Agriculture

1. Commerce in General—Purchase—Price

_negotiatores_[1] (Verr. 2. 69. 168)—business-men.

_homines negotii_ (always in sing.) _gerentes_—business-men.

_negotii bene gerentes_ (Quint. 19. 62)—good men of business.

_negotium obire_ or _exsequi_—to be engaged upon a transaction, carry
it out.

_negotium (rem) conficere, absolvere_—to settle, finish a transaction.

_mercaturam facere_—to be engaged in commerce, wholesale business.

_negotia habere (in Sicilia)_—to have commercial interests in Sicily.

_contrahere rem_ or _negotium cum aliquo_ (Cluent. 14. 41)—to have
business relations with some one.

_transigere aliquid (de aliqua re) cum aliquo_ or _inter se_—to
transact, settle a matter with some one.

_nihil cum aliquo contrahere_—to do no business with a man.

_quaestum facere_ (Fam. 15. 14)—to make money.

_quaestui aliquid habere_ (Off. 2. 3. 13)—to make a profit out of

_res, quae importantur et exportantur_—imports and exports.

_exponere, proponere merces (venales)_—to set out goods for sale.

_parvo, vili pretio_ or _bene emere_—to buy cheaply.

_magno_ or _male emere_—to buy dearly.

_aliquid magno, parvo stat, constat_—a thing costs much, little.

_aliquid nihilo_ or _gratis constat_—a thing costs nothing.

_pretium alicui rei statuere, constituere_ (Att. 13. 22)—to fix a
price for a thing.

[1] The usual term for men of business are _negotiator, mercator,
caupo, institor_. The first two are used of merchants, wholesale
dealers, _negotiator_ especially when talking of the transactions
(_negotia_) of business, _mercator_ with reference to the profits
(_merces_). _caupo_ is a retail dealer, tradesman, shopkeeper;
_institor_, a pedlar, commercial traveller.

2. Money—Interest—Loans

_pecunia magna_,[1] _grandis (multum pecuniae)_—much money.

_pecunia exigua_ or _tenuis_—little money.

_pecunia praesens_ (_vid._ sect. V. 9, note _Notice too..._) or
_numerata_—cash; ready money.

_aes (argentum) signatum_—coined money; bullion.

_argentum (factum)_ (Verr. 5. 25. 63)—silver plate.

_nummi adulterini_—bad money; base coin.

_pecuniam erogare (in classem)_—to spend money.

_pecuniam insumere in aliquid_ or _consumere in aliqua re_—to devote
money to a purpose.

_pecuniam numerare alicui_ (Att. 16. 16)—to pay cash.

_pecuniam solvere_—to pay money.

_pecuniam alicui debere_—to owe some one money.

_pecuniam alicui credere (sine fenore, usuris)_—to lend some one money
(without interest).

_pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquo_—to lend,
borrow money at interest.

_pecuniam fenore occupare_ (Flacc. 21. 54)—to put out money at interest.

_pecuniam collocare_[2] _in aliqua re_—to put money in an undertaking.

_pecunia iacet otiosa_—the money is bringing in no interest, lies idle.

_pecuniam mutuari_ or _sumere mutuam ab aliquo_—to borrow money from
some one.

_pecuniam alicui mutuam dare_—to lend money to some one.

_pecuniam creditam solvere_—to repay a loan.

_non solvendo_[3] _esse_ (Phil. 2. 2. 4)—to be bankrupt.

_pecuniam exigere (acerbe)_—to demand payment.

_magnas pecunias ex aliqua re_ (e.g. _ex metallis_) _facere_—to have a
large income from a thing (e.g. from mines).

_nummus iactatur_ (Off. 3. 20. 80)—the bank-rate varies.

_versuram facere_ (Att. 5. 21. 12)—to transfer a debt.

_nummulis acceptis_ (Att. 1. 16. 6)—for a trifle, a beggarly pittance.

[1] In plur. _magnae, multae pecuniae_ = large sums of money.

[2] Sometimes absolutely, e.g. Cic. Off. 2. 25. 90 _pecuniam collocare_.

[3] _solvendo_ is a predicative dative. For the development of such
uses cf. _nulli rei erimus postea_ (Plaut. Stich. 718); Ovid Met. 15.
403 _dedit huic aetas vires onerique ferendo est_; Liv. 4. 35
_experiunda res est sitne aliqui plebeius ferendo magno honori_.

3. Money-Matters—Accounts—Audit

_res nummaria_ or _pecuniaria_—finance; money-matters.

_ratio pecuniarum_—finance; money-matters.

_argentariam facere_ (Verr. 5. 59. 155)—to be a banker.

_argentariam dissolvere_ (Caecin. 4. 11)—to close one's bank, give up

_codex_ or _tabulae ratio accepti et expensi_—account-book; ledger.

_nomina facere_ or _in tabulas referre_—to book a debt.

_pecunia in nominibus_[1] _est_—money is outstanding, unpaid.

_pecuniam in nominibus habeo_—I have money owing me.

_alicui expensum ferre aliquid_—to put a thing down to a man's account.

_alicui acceptum referre aliquid_[2] (Verr. 2. 70. 170)—to put down to
a man's credit.

_rationem alicuius rei inire, subducere_—to go through accounts, make
a valuation of a thing.

_ad calculos vocare aliquid_ (Amic. 16. 58)—to go through accounts,
make a valuation of a thing.

_inita subductaque ratione aliquid facere_—to do something after
careful calculation.

_rationes putare_[3] _cum aliquo_—to balance accounts with some one.

_ratio alicuius rei constat (convenit, par est)_—the accounts balance.

_ratio acceptorum et datorum (accepti et expensi)_ (Amic. 16. 58)—the
account of receipts and expenditure.

_rationem diligenter conficere_—to keep the accounts (day-book)

_summam facere alicuius rei_—to compute the total of anything.

_de capite deducere_ (_vid._ sect. XII. 1, note _Notice too..._)
_aliquid_—to subtract something from the capital.

_rationem alicuius rei reddere_—to render count of a matter; to pass
it for audit.

_rationem alicuius rei reposcere aliquem_ or _ab aliquo_—to demand an
account, an audit of a matter.

_rationem ab aliquo reptere de aliqua re_ (Cluent. 37. 104)—to demand
an account, an audit of a matter.

[1] _nomina_ are properly the sums entered in the ledger as due from a
person. Hence _nomen solvere, dissolvere_, to pay a debt.; _nomen
expedire, exsolvere_, to get rid of a debt; _bonum nomen_, a safe
investment (Cic. Fam. 5. 6. 2).

[2] Also used metaphorically to "owe a thing to another's
instrumentality," e.g. _quod vivo tibi acceptum refero_.

[3] The original meaning of _putare_ is to prune (cf. _purus,
amputare_), cleanse by cutting off, then make clear, calculate,
reckon. By a transference it became used of calculation, i.e.
thinking, believing. Compare the history of the French _raisonner_ and
the Italian _ragioneria_.

4. Rate of Interest

_centesimae_ (sc. _usurae_) (Att. 5. 21. 11)—interest at 1 per cent
per month, 12 per cent per annum.

_binis centesimis fenerari_—to lend at 24 per cent.[TR1]

_ternae centesimae_—36 per cent per annum.

_quaternas centesimas postulare_ (Att. 5. 21. 11)—to demand 48 per cent.

_semisses_—6 per cent (i.e. if for 100 denarii, asses, one pays half a
denarius, half an as per month).

_semissibus magna copia est_—money is plentiful at 6 per cent.

_usurae semissium_ (Colum.)—6 per cent.

_usurae semisses_ (Jurists)—6 per cent.

_quadrantes usurae_—3 per cent (a quarter of centesima).

_trientes_ or _trientariae usurae_ (Att. 4. 15)—4 per cent.

_quincunx_ (Pers. 5. 149)—5 per cent.

_quincunces usurae_—5 per cent.

_fenus ex triente Id. Quint. factum erat bessibus_ (Att. 4. 15. 7)—the
rate of interest has gone up from 4 per cent to 8 per cent.

_perpetuum fenus_ (Att. 5. 21. 13)—simple interests.

_fenus renovatum_—compound interest.

_anatocismus_ (ἀνατοκισμός) (Att. 5. 21. 11)—compound interest.

_fenus iniquissimum, grande, grave_—exorbitant rate of interest.

_usura menstrua_—monthly interest.

_centesimis cum anatocismo contentum esse_ (Att. 5. 21. 12)—to be
content with 12 per cent at compound interest.

[TR1] Transcriber's Note: The Latin expression means _at 2 percent per
month_ which amounts to 24 percent per year (Cp. French edition).

5. Profit—Credit—Debt

_lucrum facere_ (opp. _damnum facere_) _ex aliqua re_—to make profit
out of a thing.

_in lucro ponere aliquid_ (Flacc. 17. 40)—to consider a thing as profit.

_debitor_, or _is qui debet_—the debtor.

_creditor_, or _is cui debeo_—the creditor.

_fides et ratio pecuniarum_—credit and financial position.

_fides_ (_vid._ sect. IX. 10, note _fides has six..._)
_concidit_—credit is going down.

_fidem derogare alicui_—to rob a person of his credit.

_fides aliquem deficere coepit_—a man's credit begins to go down.

_fides (de foro) sublata est_ (Leg. Agr. 2. 3. 8)—credit has

_fides tota Italia est angusta_—credit is low throughout Italy.

_fidem moliri_ (Liv. 6. 11. 8)—to shake credit.

_laborare de pecunia_—to have pecuniary difficulties.

_in summa difficultate nummaria versari_ (Verr. 2. 28. 69)—to be in
severe pecuniary straits.

_in maximas angustias (pecuniae) adduci_—to be reduced to extreme
financial embarrassment.

_aes alienum_ (always in sing.) _facere, contrahere_—to incur debts.

_grande, magnum_ (opp. _exiguum_) _aes alienum conflare_—to incur
debts on a large scale.

_incidere in aes alienum_—to get into debt.

_aes alienum habere_—to be in debt.

_in aere alieno esse_—to be in debt.

_in suis nummis versari_ (Verr. 4. 6. 11)—to have no debts.

_aere alieno obrutum, demersum esse_—to be deeply in debt.

_aere alieno oppressum esse_—to have pressing debts.

_aes alienum dissolvere, exsolvere_—to pay one's debts.

_nomina_ (cf. sect. XIII. 3) _solvere, dissolvere, exsolvere_—to pay
one's debts.

_nomina exigere_ (Verr. 3. 10. 28)—to demand payment of, recover debts.

_ex aere alieno exire_—to get out of debt.

_aere alieno liberari_—to get out of debt.

_versurā solvere, dissolvere_ (Att. 5. 15. 2)—to pay one's old debts
by making new.

6. Building

_opus locare_—to contract for the building of something.

_opus redimere, conducere_—to undertake the contract for a work.

_domum aedificandam locare, conducere_—to give, undertake a contract
for building a house.

_aedificatorem esse_ (Nep. Att. 13. 1)—to be fond of building.

_exstruere aedificium, monumentum_—to erect a building, a monument.

_fundamenta iacere, agere_—to lay the foundations.

_turrim excitare, erigere, facere_—to build a tower.

_oppidum constituere, condere_—to build, found a city.

_pontem facere in flumine_—to build a bridge over a river.

_inicere pontem_—to build a bridge over a river.

_flumen ponte iungere_—to build a bridge over a river.

_pons est in flumine_—there is a bridge over the river.

_pontem dissolvere, rescindere, interscindere_ (B. G. 2. 9. 4)—to
break down a bridge.

_luminibus alicuius obstruere, officere_[1]—to obstruct a person's
view, shut out his light by building.

[1] Also used metaphorically to overshadow, eclipse a person, cf. vi. 1.

7. Agriculture—Management of Stock

_agrum colere_ (Leg. Agr. 2. 25. 67)—to till the ground.

_agros fertiles deserere_—to leave fertile ground untilled.

_agriculturae studere_ (opp. _agriculturam deserere_)—to have a taste
for agriculture.

_opus rusticum_—tillage; cultivation.

_in agris esse, habitare_—to live in the country.

_serere; semen spargere_—to sow.

_sementem facere_ (B. G. 1. 3. 1)—to look after the sowing.

_ut sementem feceris, ita metes_ (proverb.) (De Or. 2. 65)—as you sow,
so will you reap.

_laetae segetes_—the laughing cornfields.

_laetissimi flores_ (Verr. 4. 48. 107)—a glorious expanse of flowers.

_odores, qui efflantur e floribus_—the perfume exhaled by flowers.

_messis in herbis est_ (Liv. 25. 15)—the crop is in the blade.

_adhuc tua messis in herba est_ (proverb.)—your crop is still green,
_i.e._ you are still far from your ambition.

_frumenta in agris matura non sunt_ (B. G. 1. 16. 2)—the corn is not
yet ripe.

_messem facere_—to reap.

_fructus demetere_ or _percipere_—to reap.

_fructus condere_ (N. D. 2. 62. 156)—to harvest crops.

_messis opīma_ (opp. _ingrata_)—a good harvest.

_arbores serere_ (De Sen. 7. 24)—to plant trees.

_arbores caedere_—to fell trees.

_inopia_ (opp. _copia_) _rei frumentariae_—want of corn; scarcity in
the corn-market.

_difficultas annonae_ (Imp. Pomp. 15. 44)—want of corn; scarcity in
the corn-market.

_annona ingravescit, crescit_—the price of corn is going up.

_annona laxatur, levatur, vilior fit_—the price of corn is going down.

_caritas annonae_ (opp. _vilitas_), also simply _annona_—dearth of
corn; high prices.

_ad denarios_[1] _L in singulos modios annona pervenerat_—corn had
gone up to 50 denarii the bushel.

_annona cara est_—corn is dear.

_hac annona_ (Plaut. Trin. 2. 4. 83)—when corn is as dear as it is.

_rem pecuariam facere, exercere_ (cf. Varr R. R. 2. 1)—to rear stock.

_pastum agere_—to drive to pasture.

_pastum ire_—to go to pasture.

_pascere gregem_—to feed a flock (of goats).

_greges pascuntur_[2] (Verg. G. 3. 162)—the herds are grazing.

_alere equos, canes_—to keep horses, dogs.

_animalia quae nobiscum degunt_ (Plin. 8. 40)—domestic animals.

[1] _denarius_ = about 9-1/2 d., _vid._ Gow, Companion to School
Classics, p. 149.

[2] _pascere_ and _pasci_ are also used metaphorically, _vid._ iii. s.
v. _oculi_.

XIV. The State

1. Constitution—Administration—Government

_forma rei publicae_—the constitution.

_descriptio civitatis_—the constitution.

_instituta et leges_—the constitution.

_rem publicam constituere_[1]—to give the state a constitution.

_rem publicam legibus et institutis temperare_ (Tusc. 1. 1. 2)—to give
the state a constitution.

_civitati leges, iudicia, iura describere_—to give the state a

_suis legibus utitur_ (B. G. 1. 45. 3)—(a state) has its own laws, is

_nullam habere rem publicam_—to have no constitution, be in anarchy.

_rem publicam in pristinum statum restituere_—to restore the ancient

_optima re publica_—at the time of a most satisfactory government.

_libera res publica, liber populus_—the Republic.

_rem publicam gerere, administrare, regere, tractare, gubernare_—to
govern, administer the state.

_rei publicae praeesse_—to have the management of the state.

_ad gubernacula_ (metaph. only in plur.) _rei publicae sedere_—to hold
the reins of government.

_clavum rei publicae tenere_—to hold the reins of government.

_gubernacula rei publicae tractare_—to hold the reins of government.

_principem civitatis esse_—to be the chief man in the state.

_principem in re publica locum obtinere_—to hold the first position in
the state.

_negotia publica_ (Off. 1. 20. 69)—public affairs.

_vita occupata_ (_vid._ sect. VII. 2)—the busy life of a statesman.

_accedere, se conferre ad rem publicam_—to devote oneself to politics,
a political career.

_rem publicam capessere_ (Off. 1. 21. 71)—to devote oneself to
politics, a political career.

_in re publica_ or _in rebus publicis versari_—to take part in politics.

_rei publicae deesse_ (opp. _adesse_)—to take no part in politics.

_a negotiis publicis se removere_—to retire from public life.

_a re publica recedere_—to retire from public life.

_in otium se referre_ (Fam. 99)—to retire into private life.

_vita privata_ (Senect. 7. 22)—private life.

_publico carere, forum ac lucem fugere_—to shun publicity.

_forensi luce carere_—to shun publicity.

_rem publicam tueri, stabilire_—to defend, strengthen the state.

_res publica stat_ (opp. _iacet_)—the state is secure.

_rem publicam augere, amplificare_—to aggrandise, extend the power of
the state.

_saluti rei publicae non deesse_—to further the common weal.

_rei publicae_[2] _causa_ (Sest. 47. 101)—for political reasons.

_e re publica_ (opp. _contra rem p._)—for the advantage of the state;
in the interests of the state.

_summa res publica_ (or _summa rei publicae_)—the welfare of the state.

_commoda publica_ or _rei publicae rationes_—the interests of the state.

_rei publicae rationibus_ or simply _rei publicae consulere_—to
further the public interests.

_ad rei publicae rationes aliquid referre_—to consider a thing from a
political point of view.

_in rem publicam omni cogitatione curaque incumbere_ (Fam. 10. 1.
2)—to devote one's every thought to the state's welfare.

_omnes curas et cogitationes in rem publicam conferre_—to devote one's
every thought to the state's welfare.

_omnes curas in rei publicae salute defigere_ (Phil. 14. 5. 13)—to
devote one's every thought to the state's welfare.

_totum et animo et corpore in salutem rei publicae se conferre_—to
devote oneself body and soul to the good of the state.

_bene, optime sentire de re publica_—to have the good of the state at

_omnia de re publica praeclara atque egregia sentire_—to have the good
of the state at heart.

_rector civitatis_ (De Or. 1. 48. 211)—the head of the state.

_viri rerum civilium, rei publicae gerendae periti_ or _viri in re
publica prudentes_—statesmen.

_auctores consilii publici_—statesmen.

_principes rem publicam administrantes_ or simply _principes_—statesmen.

_prudentia (civilis)_ (De Or. 1. 19. 85)—statesmanship; political

_homo in re publica exercitatus_—an experienced politician.

_res civiles_—political questions.

_plus in re publica videre_—to possess great political insight.

_longe prospicere futuros casus rei publicae_ (De Amic. 12. 40)—to
foresee political events long before.

_alicuius in re publica_ or _capessendae rei publicae consilia eo
spectant, ut..._—a man's policy is aiming at, directed towards...

_rei publicae muneribus orbatus_—banished from public life.

_gerendis negotiis orbatus_ (Fin. 5. 20. 57)—banished from public life.

[1] Cf. _tres viri rei publicae constituendae_.

[2] There being no adjective in Latin for "political," we have to make
use of periphrasis with such words as _res publica, civilis,
popularis_, etc.

2. Civil Rights—Rank

_civitate donare aliquem_ (Balb. 3. 7)—to make a man a citizen.

_in civitatem recipere, ascribere, asciscere aliquem_—to enroll as a
citizen, burgess.

_civitatem alicui dare, tribuere, impertire_—to present a person with
the freedom of the city.

_civitatem mutare_ (Balb. 11. 27)—to naturalise oneself as a citizen
of another country.

_generis antiquitate florere_—to be of noble family.

_nobilitati favere_ (Sest. 9. 21)—to be a friend of the aristocracy.

_nobilitatis fautorem, studiosum esse_—to be a friend of the

_homo novus_[1]—a parvenu (a man no member of whose family has held
curule office).

_ordo senatorius (amplissimus)_—the senatorial order.

_ordo equester (splendidissimus)_—the equestrian order; the knights.

_summo loco natus_—of high rank.

_nobili, honesto, illustri loco_ or _genere natus_—of illustrious

_humili, obscuro loco natus_—of humble, obscure origin.

_humilibus (obscuris) parentibus natus_—of humble, obscure origin.

_infimo loco natus_—from the lowest classes.

_equestri loco natus_ or _ortus_—a knight by birth.

_summi (et) infimi_ (Rep. 1. 34. 53)—high and low.

_homines omnis generis_—people of every rank.

_homines omnium ordinum et aetatum_—people of every rank and age.

_homo plebeius, de plebe_—one of the people.

_traduci ad plebem_ (Att. 1. 18. 4)—to get oneself admitted as a

_transitio ad plebem_ (Brut. 16. 62)—to transfer oneself from the
patrician to the plebeian order.

_traductio ad plebem_—to transfer oneself from the patrician to the
plebeian order.

_unus de_ or _e multis_—one of the crowd; a mere individual.

_faex populi, plebis, civitatis_—the dregs of the people.

_infima fortuna_ or _condicio servorum_—a degraded, servile condition.

_unus e togatorum numero_—an ordinary, average Roman citizen.

[1] A _novus homo_ by taking office becomes for his descendants
_princeps nobilitatis_ (Cic. Brut. 14) or _auctor generis_ (Leg. Agr.
2. 35).

3. Dignity—Position—Honours—Pre-Eminence—(cf. v. 17)

_dignitatem suam tueri, defendere, retinere, obtinere_—to guard,
maintain one's dignity.

_dignitati suae servire, consulere_—to be careful of one's dignity.

_aliquem ad summam dignitatem perducere_ (B. G. 7. 39)—to elevate to
the highest dignity.

_principem (primum), secundum locum dignitatis obtinere_—to occupy the
first, second position in the state.

_in altissimo dignitatis gradu collocatum, locatum, positum esse_—to
occupy a very high position in the state.

_aliquem ex altissimo dignitatis gradu praecipitare_ (Dom. 37. 98)—to
depose, bring down a person from his elevated position.

_aliquem de dignitatis gradu demovere_—to overthrow a person (cf.
sect. IX. 6).

_aliquem gradu movere, depellere_ or _de gradu (statu) deicere_—to
overthrow a person (cf. sect. IX. 6).

_dignitatis gradum ascendere_—to attain a position of dignity.

_ad honores ascendere_—to rise, mount to the honours of office.

_amplissimos honorum gradus assequi, adipisci_—to reach the highest
grade of office.

_ad summos honores pervenire_ (cf. also sect. V. 17)—to attain to the
highest offices.

_vir defunctus honoribus_—a man who has held every office (up to the

_principatum tenere, obtinere_—to occupy the leading position.

_de principatu deiectus_ (B. G. 7. 63)—deposed from one's high position.

_contendere cum aliquo de principatu_ (Nep. Arist. 1)—to contend with
some one for the pre-eminence.

_primas_ (e.g. _sapientiae_) _alicui deferre, tribuere, concedere_—to
give the palm, the first place (for wisdom) to some one.

4. Public Meetings—Suffrage

_convocare populi concilium_ and _populum ad concilium_—to summon an
assembly of the people.

_contionem advocare_ (Sall. Iug. 33. 3)—to summon an assembly of the

_agere cum populo_[1] (Leg. 3. 4. 10)—to submit a formal proposition
to the people.

_concilium indicere, habere, dimittere_—to fix the day for, to hold,
to dismiss a meeting.

_comitia habere_—to hold a meeting of the people.

_comitia magistratibus creandis_—meetings for the election of officers.

_comitiis_ (Abl.) _convenire_—to meet for elections.

_comitiis consulem creari_—to be chosen consul at the elections.

_suffragium ferre_ (_vid._ sect. VI. 4, note _Not sententiam..._)—to
vote (in the popular assembly).

_multitudinis suffragiis rem permittere_—to leave a matter to be
decided by popular vote.

[1] Aulus Gellius (13. 16. 3) explains the difference between _cum
populo agere_ and _contionem habere_; the former = _rogare quid
populum quod suffragiis suis aut iubeat aut vetet_. Cf. Liv. 22. 10. 2
_velitis iubeatisne haec sic fieri?_ also 21. 17. 4. _habere contionem
(conventio = countio = contio)_ is equivalent to _verba facere ad
populum sine ulla rogatione_.

5. Laws—Bills

_legem, rogationem_[1] _promulgare_ (Liv. 33. 46)—to bring a bill
before the notice of the people.

_legem ferre_ or simply _ferre ad populum, ut..._—to propose a law in
the popular assembly.

_legem suadere_ (opp. _dissuadere_)—to support a bill (before the

_pro lege dicere_—to support a bill (before the people).

_legem rogare_ or _rogare populum_ (cf. sect. XVI. 4, note _Aulus
Gellius..._)—to formally propose a law to the people.

_legem perferre_ (Liv. 33. 46)—to carry a law (said of the magistrate).

_lex perfertur_—a law is adopted.

_legem antiquare_[2] (opp. _accipere, iubere_)—to reject a bill.

_legem sciscere_ (Planc. 14. 35)—to vote for a law.

_legem iubere_—to ratify a law (used of the people).

_legem sancire_—to let a bill become law (of the people and senate).

_Solo lege sanxit, ut_ or _ne_—Solo ordained by law that...

_Solonis legibus sanctum erat, ut_ or _ne_—the laws of Solon ordained

_legem abrogare_[3] (Att. 3. 23. 2)—to replace an old law by a new.

_legem tollere_ (Leg. 2. 12. 31)—to abolish a law.

_legi intercedere_—to protest against a law (used of the veto,
_intercessio_, of plebeian tribunes).

_legem proponere in publicum_—to bring a law before the notice of the

_edictum proponere_ (Att. 2. 21. 4)—to publish, post up an edict.

_legem in aes incīdere_—to engrave a law upon a brazen tablet.

_lex rata est_ (opp. _irrita_)—a law is valid.

_legem ratam esse iubere_—to declare a law valid.

_a lege discedere_—to transgress a law.

_salvis legibus_ (_vid._ sect. X. 7, note _Notice..._)—without
breaking the law.

_lex_[4] _iubet, vetat (dilucide, planissime)_—the law orders, forbids
(expressly, distinctly).

_in lege scriptum est_, or simply _est_—the law says...

_sententia_ or _voluntas legis_—the spirit of the law.

_leges scribere, facere, condere, constituere_ (not _dare_)—to make
laws (of a legislator).

_legum scriptor, conditor, inventor_—a legislator.

_qui leges scribit_ (not _legum lator_)[5]—a legislator.

_in legem iurare_ (Sest. 16. 37)—to swear obedience to a law.

_lege teneri_—to be bound by a law.

_legibus solvere_—to free from legal obligations.

_ea lege, ut_—on condition of...

_aliquid contra legem est_—a thing is illegal.

_acta rescindere, dissolvere_ (Phil. 13. 3. 5)—to declare a
magistrate's decisions null and void.

_in album referre_ (De Or. 2. 12. 52)—to record in the official
tablets (_Annales maximi_).

[1] A _rogatio_ had to be posted up in some public place for _trinum
nundinum (tempus)_ (Phil. 5. 3. 8), i.e. for seventeen days, _nundinae
(novem, dies)_ being a holiday, fair, held every ninth day.

[2] On the voting-tablets (_tabellae_) used in the _comitia_ was
written either A (_antiquo_) to reject the bill, V * R (_uti rogas_)
to pass it; in judicial questions A (_absolvo_), C (_condemno_), N * L
(_non liquet_).

[3] _legi_ or _de lege derogare_ = to reject a clause in it; _legem
abrogare_, to nullify a law by passing another which contradicts it;
_multam, poenam inrogare alicui_, to inflict a fine on some one with
the approval of the people; _pecuniam erogare (ex aerario in
classem)_, to draw money from the treasury and distribute it according
to the wishes of the people.

[4] _lex_ is often personified in this way.

[5] _legis lator_ = the man who proposes a law.

6. Popular Favour—Influence—Unpopularity

_aura favoris popularis_ (Liv. 22. 26)—popular favour; popularity.

_populi favor, gratia popularis_—popular favour; popularity.

_aura popularis_ (Harusp. 18. 43)—popular favour; popularity.

_auram popularem captare_ (Liv. 3. 33)—to court popularity.

_gratiam populi quaerere_—to court popularity.

_aurae popularis homo_ (Liv. 42. 30)—a popular man.

_ventum popularem quendam (in aliqua re) quaerere_—to strive to gain
popular favour by certain means.

_gratiosum esse_ (opp. _invisum esse_)—to be popular, influential.

_opibus, gratia, auctoritate valere, florere_—to have great influence.

_opes, gratiam, potentiam consequi_—to acquire influence.

_gratiam inire apud aliquem, ab aliquo_ (cf. sect. V. 12)—to gain some
one's favour.

_crescere ex aliquo_—to raise oneself by another's fall.

_crescere ex invidia senatoria_—to profit by the unpopularity of the
senate to gain influence oneself.

_iacēre_ (_vid._ sect. VII. 1, note _iacēre..._)—to be politically

_existimatio populi, hominum_—public opinion.

_multum communi hominum opinioni tribuere_—to be always considering
what people think.


_offensio populi, popularis_—unpopularity.

_offensa populi voluntas_—unpopularity.

_invidia dictatoria_ (Liv. 22. 26)—the feeling against the dictator.

_ex invidia alicuius auram popularem petere_ (Liv. 22. 26)—to use some
one's unpopularity as a means of making oneself popular.

7. Party-Spirit—Neutrality—Politics—Aristocracy—Democracy

_partes_ (usually of plebeians)—a party; faction.

_factio_ (of aristocrats)—a party; faction.

_partium studium_, also simply _studia_—party-spirit.

_partium studiosum esse_—to be a strong partisan.

_certamen partium_—party-strife.

_contentio partium_ (Phil. 5. 12. 32)—party-strife.

_partium studiis divisum esse_—to be torn by faction.

_consiliorum in re publica socius_—a political ally.

_alicuius partes (causam)_ or simply _aliquem sequi_—to embrace the
cause of..., be a partisan of...

_alicuius partibus studere_—to embrace the cause of..., be a partisan

_ab (cum) aliquo stare_ (Brut. 79. 273)—to be on a person's side (not
_ab alicuius partibus_).

_alicuius studiosum esse_—to be a follower of some one.

_cum aliquo facere_ (Sull. 13. 36)—to take some one's side.

_nullius_ or _neutrius_ (of two) _partis esse_—to be neutral.

_in neutris partibus esse_—to be neutral.

_neutram partem sequi_—to be neutral.

_medium esse_—to be neutral.

_medium se gerere_—to be neutral.

_a partibus rei publicae animus liber_ (Sall. Cat. 4. 2)—an
independent spirit.

_idem de re publica sentire_—to have the same political opinions.

_ab aliquo in re publica dissentire_—to hold different views in

_ex rei publicae dissensione_—owing to political dissension.

_in duas partes discedere_ (Sall. Iug. 13. 1)—to divide into two

_studio ad rem publicam ferri_—to throw oneself heart and soul into

_se civilibus fluctibus committere_—to enter the whirlpool of
political strife.

_imperium singulare, unius dominatus, regium imperium_—monarchy.

_optimatium dominatus_—aristocracy (as a form of government).

_civitas, quae optimatium arbitrio regitur_—aristocracy (as a form of

_boni cives, optimi, optimates_, also simply _boni_ (opp. _improbi_);
_illi, qui optimatium causam agunt_—the aristocracy (as a party in

_principes_ or _primores_—the aristocracy (as a leading class in

_nobiles; nobilitas; qui nobilitate generis excellunt_—the aristocracy
(as a social class).

_paucorum dominatio_ or _potentia_—oligarchy.

_multitudinis dominatus_ or _imperium_—government by the mob.

_spiritus patricii_ (Liv. 4. 42)—patrician arrogance; pride of caste.

_homines graves_ (opp. _leves_)—men of sound opinions.

_homo popularis_—a democrat.

_homo vere popularis_ (Catil. 4. 5. 9)—a man who genuinely wishes the
people's good.

_homo florens in populari ratione_—a democratic leader.

_imperium populi_ or _populare, civitas_ or _res publica

_causam popularem suscipere_ or _defendere_—to take up the cause of
the people, democratic principles.

_populi causam agere_—to be a leading spirit of the popular cause.

_patriae amantem (amantissimum) esse_ (Att. 9. 22)—to be (very)

_mundanus, mundi civis et incola_ (Tusc. 5. 37)—a citizen of the
world; cosmopolitan.

8. Demagogy—Revolution—Rebellion—Anarchy

_plebis dux, vulgi turbator, civis turbulentus, civis rerum novarum
cupidus_—a demagogue, agitator.

_iactatio, concitatio popularis_—popular agitation.

_artes populares_—tricks of a demagogue.

_populariter agere_—to play the demagogue.

_conversio rei publicae_ (Div. 2. 2. 6)—revolution.

_homines seditiosi, turbulenti_ or _novarum rerum

_novis rebus studere_—to hold revolutionary opinions.

_novarum rerum cupidum esse_—to hold revolutionary opinions.

_novas res moliri_ (Verr. 2. 125)—to plot a revolution.

_contra rem publicam sentire_—to foster revolutionary projects.

_contra rem publicam facere_—to be guilty of high treason.

_a re publica deficere_—to betray the interests of the state.

_plebem concitare, sollicitare_—to stir up the lower classes.

_seditionem facere, concitare_—to cause a rebellion.

_seditio erumpit_[1]—a rebellion breaks out.

_coniurare (inter se) de_ c. Gerund. or _ut..._—to form a conspiracy.

_coniurationem facere_ (Catil. 2. 4. 6)—to form a conspiracy.

_conspirare cum aliquo (contra aliquem)_—to conspire with some one.

_rem publicam labefactare_—to shake the stability of the state.

_rem publicam perturbare_—to throw the state into confusion.

_statum rei publicae convellere_—to endanger the existence of the state.

_rem publicam vexare_—to damage the state.

_rem publicam funditus evertere_—to completely overthrow the
government, the state.

_omnes leges confundere_—to upset the whole constitution.

_omnia turbare ac miscere_—to cause universal disorder.

_perturbatio omnium rerum_ (Flacc. 37)—general confusion; anarchy.

_omnia divina humanaque iura permiscentur_ (B. C. 1. 6. 8)—anarchy
reigns supreme.

_leges nullae_—lawlessness; anarchy.

_iudicia nulla_—lawlessness; anarchy.

_res fluit ad interregnum_—things seem tending towards an interregnum.

_non nullus odor est dictaturae_ (Att. 4. 18)—there are whispers of
the appointment of a dictator.

_tumultum sedare_ (B. C. 3. 18. 3)—to quell an outbreak.

_concitatam multitudinem reprimere_—to allay the excitement of the mob.

_plebem continere_—to hold the people in one's power, in check.

[1] But _bellum exardescit_, war breaks out.

9. Proscription—Confiscation—Banishment—Amnesty

_proscribere aliquem_ or _alicuius possessiones_—to proscribe a
person, declare him an outlaw.

_aqua et igni interdicere alicui_—to proscribe a person, declare him
an outlaw.

_in proscriptorum numerum referre aliquem_ (Rosc. Am. 11. 32)—to place
a person's name on the list of the proscribed.

_e proscriptorum numero eximere aliquem_—to erase a person's name from
the list of the proscribed.

_bona alicuius publicare_ (B. G. 5. 54)—to confiscate a person's

_bona alicui restituere_—to restore to a person his confiscated

_in exsilium eicere_ or _expellere aliquem_—to banish a person, send
him into exile.

_ex urbe (civitate) expellere, pellere aliquem_—to banish a person,
send him into exile.

_de, e civitate aliquem eicere_—to banish a person, send him into exile.

_exterminare (ex) urbe, de civitate aliquem_ (Mil. 37. 101)—to expel a
person from the city, country.

_e patria exire iubere aliquem_—to banish a man from his native land.

_patria carere_—to be in exile.

_interdicere alicui Italiā_—to banish a person from Italy.

_aliquem exsilio afficere, multare_—to punish by banishment.

_in exsilium ire, pergere, proficisci_—to go into exile.

_exsulatum ire_ or _abire_—to go into exile.

_solum vertere, mutare_ (Caecin. 34. 100)—to leave one's country (only
used of exiles).

_exsulare_ (Div. 2. 24. 52)—to live in exile.

_in exsilio esse, exsulem esse_—to live in exile.

_aliquem (in patriam) restituere_—to recall from exile.

_in patriam redire_—to return from exile.

_ante actarum (praeteritarum) rerum oblivio_ or simply
_oblivio_—amnesty (ἀμνηρτία).

_omnem memoriam discordiarum oblivione sempiterna delere_ (Phil. 1. 1.
1)—to proclaim a general amnesty.

_postliminium_ (De Or. 1. 40. 181)—a returning from exile to one's
former privileges.

10. Power—Monarchy—Royalty

_imperium, rerum summam deferre alicui_[1]—to confer supreme power on
a person.

_rem publicam alicui permittere_—to give some one unlimited power in
state affairs.

_imperium tenere (in aliquem)_—to have power over some one.

_imperium obtinere_—to maintain power, authority.

_principatu deici_ (B. G. 7. 63)—to be deposed from one's leading

_cum imperio esse_ (cf. XVI. 3)—to have unlimited power; to be
invested with _imperium_.

_in imperio esse_—to hold a high office (such as conferred _imperium_,
i.e. _consulatus, dictatura, praetura_).

_imperium in annum prorogare_—to prolong the command for a year.

_imperium deponere_ (Rep. 2. 12. 23)—to lay down one's power.

_imperium singulare_[2]—absolute power; autocracy.

_dominari in aliquem_—to have unlimited power over a person.

_imperium, regnum, tyrannidem_[3] _occupare_—to take upon oneself
absolute power.

_rerum potiri_—(1) to usurp supreme power, (2) to be in a position of

_dominatio impotens_—despotic, tyrannous rule.

_potestas immoderata, infinita_—despotic, tyrannous rule.

_tyrannidem concupiscere_—to aspire to a despotism.

_tyrannidem sibi parere aliqua re_—to establish oneself as despot,
tyrant by some means.

_regnum appetere_ (B. G. 7. 4)—to aspire to the sovereignty.

_regnum adipisci_—to obtain the sovereignty, kingly office.

_alicui regnum deferre, tradere_—to invest some one with royal power.

_aliquem regem, tyrannum constituere_—to establish some one as king,

_regem restituere_—to restore a king to his throne (not _in solium_).

_aliquem in regnum restituere_—to restore a king to his throne (not
_in solium_).

_aliquem regno spoliare_ or _expellere_ (Div. 1. 22. 74)—to depose a

_regios spiritus sibi sumere_—to assume a despotic tone.

[1] _deferre_ in the sense "confer," "attribute," is also constructed
with _ad_; when it means to bring news, give information it always
takes _ad_.

[2] Cf. _certamen singulare_, a fight of one individual with another,
a duel (cf. xvi. 10a). _singularis_ also has the meaning "unique,"
"pre-eminent," e.g. _singularis virtus_.

[3] _tyrannus, tyrannis, tyrannicus_ are rarely used in the Greek
sense, irresponsible sovereign, etc., but usually mean despot,
despotic, etc. The pure Latin equivalents are _rex, dominus,
dominatio, imperium, regius_, or if there is emphasis on the cruelty
of despots, _dominus saevus, crudelis et superba dominatio_, etc.

11. Slavery—Freedom

_servitute premi_ (Phil. 4. 1. 3)—to languish in slavery.

_liberum populum servitute afficere_—to enslave a free people.

_aliquem in servitutem redigere_—to reduce to slavery.

_alicui servitutem iniungere, imponere_—to lay the yoke of slavery on
some one.

_civitatem servitute oppressam tenere_ (Dom. 51. 131)—to keep the
citizens in servile subjection.

_libertatem populo eripere_—to rob a people of its freedom.

_populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati_—to grant a
people its independence.

_aliquem in servitutem abducere, abstrahere_—to carry off into slavery.

_aliquem sub corona vendere_ (B. G. 3. 16)—to sell a prisoner of war
as a slave.

_iugum servitutis accipere_—to submit to the yoke of slavery.

_libertas, libertatis studium_—independent spirit.

_imperium oppugnare, percellere_—to attack, overthrow a tyranny.

_ad libertatem conclamare_—to summon to liberty.

_ad arma conclamare_ (Liv. 3. 50)—to call to arms.

_vincula rumpere_—to burst one's chains.

_iugum servitutis excutere_—to shake off the yoke of slavery.

_iugum servile a cervicibus deicere_ (Phil. 1. 2. 6)—to shake off the
yoke of slavery.

_servitutem exuere_ (Liv. 34. 7)—to shake off the yoke of slavery.

_iugum servile alicui demere_—to deliver some one from slavery.

_ab aliquo servitutem_ or _servitutis iugum depellere_—to deliver some
one from slavery.

_dominationem_ or _dominatum refringere_—to destroy a despotism,

_regios spiritus reprimere_ (Nep. Dion. 5. 5)—to destroy a despotism,

_libertatem recuperare_—to recover liberty.

_rem publicam in libertatem vindicare a_ or _ex dominatione_—to
deliver the state from a tyranny.

12. Revenue—Colonies—Provinces

_vectigalia redimere, conducere_—to farm the revenues.

_vectigalia exercere_ (_vid._ sect. V. 7, note _The first..._)—to
collect the taxes.

_vectigalia exigere (acerbe)_—to exact the taxes (with severity).

_pecuniam cogere a civitatibus_—to extort money from the communities.

_vectigalia, tributa_[1] _pendere_—to pay taxes.

_immunis (tributorum)_ (Verr. 5. 21. 51)—exempt from taxation.

_immunitatem omnium rerum habere_—to enjoy absolute immunity.

_vectigalia, tributa alicui imponere_—to impose tribute on some one.

_tributorum multitudine premi_—to be crushed by numerous imposts.

_ager publicus_—public land; state domain.

_agros assignare_ (Leg. Agr. 1. 6. 17)—to allot land.

_pecunia publica, quae ex metallis redit_—the public income from the

_avertere pecuniam_ (Verr. 2. 1. 4)—to embezzle money.

_peculatum facere_ (Rab. Perd. 3. 8)—to embezzle money.

_rem publicam quaestui habere_—to enrich oneself at the expense of the

_coloniam deducere in aliquem locum_ (_vid._ sect. XII. 1, note
_Notice too..._)—to found a colony somewhere.

_colōnos mittere_ (Div. 1. 1. 3)—to send out colonists.

_coloniam constituere_ (Leg. Agr. 1. 5. 16)—to found a colony.

_provinciam_[2] _alicui decernere, mandare_—to entrust some one with
an official duty, a province.

_provincias sortiri_ (Liv. 38. 35)—to draw lots for the provinces.

_alicui Syria (sorte) obvēnit, obtigit_—the province of Syria has
fallen to some one's lot.

_provincias inter se comparant_—(the magistrates) arrange among
themselves the administration of the provinces, the offical spheres of

_in provinciam proficisci_ (Liv. 38. 35)—to set out for one's province.

_provincias permutare_—to exchange provinces.

_provinciam administrare, obtinere_—to manage, govern a province.

_provinciam obire_—to visit, traverse a province.

(_de_ or _ex_) _provincia decedere_ or simply _decedere_ (_vid._ sect.
II. 4, note _Cf. especially..._)—to leave a province (at the
termination of one's term of office).

[1] _vectigalia_ = indirect taxes, including, for example, _decumae_,
the tenth, tithe of corn; _scriptura_, the duty on pasturage;
_portorium_, harbour-toll. _tributum_ = direct tax on incomes.

[2] _provincia_ originally means a sphere of activity, an employ,
especially of magistrates; it then means the administration of a
country outside Italy conquered in war, and lastly the country itself,
a province. The senate each year determined on the countries to which
magistrates were to be sent (_provincias nominare, decernere_).

13. Magistracies

(a) Candidature—Election

_petere magistratum, honores_—to seek office.

_ambire_[1] _aliquem_ (always with Acc. of person)—to solicit the vote
or favour of some one.

_nomen profiteri_ or simply _profiteri_—to become a candidate.

_manus prensare_[2] (De Or. 1. 24. 112)—to shake hands with voters in

_nomina appellat (nomenclator)_—the agent (_nomenclator_) mentions the
names of constituents to the canvasser.

_competītor_ (Brut. 30. 113)—a rival candidate.

_multa (pauca) puncta in centuria (tribu) aliqua ferre_[3]—to obtain
many (few) votes in a century or tribe.

_centuriam, tribum ferre_ (Planc. 49)—to gain the vote of a century or

_omnes centurias ferre_ or _omnium suffragiis, cunctis centuriis
creari_—to be elected unanimously

_repulsam ferre consulatus (a populo)_ (Tusc. 5. 19. 54)—to fail in
one's candidature for the consulship.

_magistratus vitio creati_—magistrates elected irregularly (_i.e._
either when the auspices have been unfavourable or when some formality
has been neglected).

_sufficere aliquem in alicuius locum_ or _alicui_—to elect a man to
fill the place of another who has died whilst in office.

_alicui_ or _in alicuius locum succedere_—to succeed a person in an

_alicui imperatori succedere_—to succeed some one as general.

_suo (legitimo) anno creari_ (opp. _ante annum_)—to be elected at the
age required by law (_lex Villia annalis_).

_continuare magistratum_ (Sall. Iug. 37. 2)—to continue one's office
for another year.

_continuare alicui magistratum_—to prolong some one's office for
another year.

_prorogare alicui imperium (in annum)_—to prolong a person's command.

_magistratus et imperia_ (Sall. Iug. 3. 1)—civil and military offices.

_inire magistratum_—to enter into office.

_munus administrare, gerere_—to perform official duties.

_munere fungi, muneri praeesse_—to perform official duties.

_honores alicui mandare, deferre_—to invest a person with a position
of dignity.

_muneri aliquem praeficere, praeponere_—to appoint some one to an

_munus explere, sustinere_—to fulfil the duties of one's position.

_abdicare se magistratu_ (Div. 2. 35)—to resign one's post (before the
expiry of the term of office).

_deponere_[4] _magistratum_—to give up, lay down office (usually at
the end of one's term of office).

_abire magistratu_—to give up, lay down office (usually at the end of
one's term of office).

_de potestate decedere_—to give up, lay down office (usually at the
end of one's term of office).

_res ad interregnum venit_ or _adducitur_—an interregnum ensues.

_abrogare alicui munus_ (Verr. 2. 57)—to remove a person from his

_abrogare alicui imperium_—to deprive a person of his position as

_viri clari et honorati_ (De Sen. 7. 22)—men of rank and dignity.

_honoribus ac reipublicae muneribus perfunctus_ (De Or. 1. 45)—a man
who has held many offices.

_amplis honoribus usus_ (Sall. Iug. 25. 4)—a man who has held many

[1] Hence _ambitio_, legitimate canvassing; _ambitus_, illegal

[2] Under the head _ambitionis occupatio_ (De Or. 1. 1. 1) are
enumerated _salutare, rogare, supplicare, manus prensare, invitare ad
prandium_, and sometimes _convivia tributim data_. For the whole
subject _vid._ Q. Cicero's book _de petitione consulatus ad M. fratrem_.

[3] In counting the votes polled, a dot or mark was put opposite a
candidate's name as often as a tablet (_tabella_) with his name on it
came up. Hence _punctum ferre_, to be successful, e.g. Hor. A. P. 343
_omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci_.

[4] But _deponere_ is also found in the sense of _abdicare_, e.g. B.
G. 7. 33. 4; N. D. 2. 11; Liv. 2. 28. 9.

(b) Particular Magistracies

_consulem creare_[1]—to elect a consul.

_aliquem consulem declarare_ (Leg. Agr. 2. 2. 4)—to declare a person

_aliquem consulem renuntiare_ (De Or. 2. 64. 260)—to offically
proclaim (by the _praeco_, herald) a man elected consul; to return a
man consul.

_bis consul_—twice consul.

_iterum, tertium consul_—consul for the second, third time.

_sextum_ (Pis. 9. 20), _septimum consul_—consul for the sixth, seventh

_videant_ or _dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti
capiat_[2] (Catil. 1. 2. 4)—let the consuls take measures for the
protection of the state.

_in hoc praeclaro consulatu_—during this brilliant consulship.

_aetas consularis_—the consular age (43 years).

_pro consule in Ciliciam proficisci_—to go to Cilicia as pro-consul.

_superiore consulatu_—in his former consulship.

_dictatorem dicere (creare)_—to name a person dictator.

_dictaturam gerere_—to be dictator.

_dictator dicit (legit) magistrum equitum_—a dictator appoints a
_magister equitum_.

_potestatem habet in aliquem vitae necisque_ (B. G. 1. 16. 5)—he has
power over life and death.

_lictores summovent turbam_ (Liv. 4. 50)—the lictors clear the way.

_fasces praeferre, summittere_—to walk before with the fasces; to
lower the fasces.

_censores censent populum_—the censors hold a census of the people.

_censum habere, agere_ (Liv. 3. 22)—to hold the census.

_censuram agere, gerere_—to perform the censors' duties.

_locare aedes, vias faciendas_ (Phil. 9. 7. 16)—to receive tenders for
the construction of temples, highroads.

_locare opera publica_—to let out public works to contract.

_redimere, conducere porticum aedificandam_ (Div. 2. 21. 47)—to
undertake a contract for building a portico.

_nota, animadversio censoria_—the reprimand of a censor.

_notare aliquem ignominia_ (Cluent. 43. 119)—to brand a person with

_censu prohibere, excludere_—to strike off the burgess-roll.

_tribu movere aliquem_—to expel some one from his tribe.

_e senatu eicere_—to expel from the senate.

_senatu movere_—to expel from the senate.

_lustrum condere_ (Liv. 1. 44. 2)—to complete the censorship (by
certain formal purificatory ceremonies = _lustro faciendo_).

_tribuni plebis sacrosancti_ (Liv. 3. 19. 10)—the plebeian tribunes,
whose persons are inviolable.

_appellare_[3] _tribunos plebis (in aliqua re a praetore)_ (Liv. 2.
55)—to appeal to the plebeian tribunes against a praetor's decision.

_provocare_[4] _ad populum_ (Liv. 2. 55)—to appeal to the people.

_intercessio tribunicia_ (cf. sect. XIV. 5)—the tribunicial veto.

[1] _creare_ is used of any magistrate regularly elected. The _locus
classicus_ on this subject is Cic. De Leg. 3. 3. 6-12.

[2] This formula conferred absolute power on the consuls. This was
done only in cases of great emergency, and was somewhat similar to our
"declaration of martial law."

[3] _appellare_ as a legal technical term only occurs in classical
Latin in the formula _te, vos appello_.

[4] _provocare_ only with proper names, e.g. _ad Catonem provocare_.
To appeal to some one's pity, etc. = _implorare alicuius
misericordiam, fidem_, etc.

14. The Senate

_publicum consilium_ (Phil. 7.7. 19)—the council of the nation; the

_in senatum legere,_[1] _eligere_—to elect to the senate.

_senatum vocare, convocare_—to call a meeting of the senate.

_senatum cogere_ (Liv. 3. 39)—to assemble the senate.

_edicere,_[2] _ut senatus frequens adsit_ (Fam. 11. 6. 2)—to issue a
proclamation calling on the senators to assemble in full force.

_senatum habere_—to hold a sitting of the senate.

_ad senatum referre_[4] (Cic. Dom. 53. 136)—to bring a question before
the senate (of the presiding magistrate).

_patres (senatum) consulere de aliqua re_ (Sall. Iug. 28)—to consult
the senators on a matter.

_sententiam rogare, interrogare_—to ask the opinion of...

_sententiam dicere_—to give an opinion (also used of a judge, cf.
sect. VI. 4).

_senatus sententia inclīnat ad..._ (De Sen. 6. 16)—the senate inclines
to the opinion, decides for...

_sententia vincit_ (Liv. 2. 4. 3)—the majority were of the opinion...

_maior pars_—the majority.

_quid censes? quid tibi videtur?_—what is your opinion?

_quid de ea re fieri placet?_—what is your opinion?

_discessionem facere_ (Sest. 34. 74)—to take the vote (by division).

_discedere (pedibus), ire in alicuius sententiam_[5] (Liv. 23. 10)—to
vote for some one's motion.

_senatus decrevit (populusque iussit) ut_—the senate decreed (and the
people ratified the decree) that...

_senatus consultum fit_ (Att. 2. 24. 3)—a resolution of the senate
(not opposed by a tribunicial veto) was made.

_senatus auctoritas_—the opinion of the senate in general.

_senatum alicui dare_ (Q. Fr. 2. 11. 2)—to give a man audience before
the senate.

_a senatu res ad populum reicitur_—a matter is referred (for decision)
from the senate to the people.

_dicendi mora diem extrahere, eximere, tollere_—to pass the whole day
in discussion.

_dimittere senatum_[5]—to dismiss the senate.

_nox senatum dirimit_—night breaks up the sitting.

[1] Distinct from _senatum legere_ = to read over and revise the list
of senators (used of the censors). The head of the list was called
_princeps senatus_.

[2] _edicere, edictum_, technical terms; _edicere_ is used of the
praetor deciding how a case is to be tried, cf. Verr. 2. 1. 41; Flacc.
28. 67. Then more generally of an order, declaration, proclamation.
The senate was convened by the _praeco_ or by means of a notice posted
in some public place (_edictum_).

[3] A meeting of the senate opened by a declaration of the agenda by
the presiding magistrate, a consul, praetor, or tribune. This was
called _referre ad senatum_.

[4] After the _rogatio sententiarum_ came the voting, usually by
division (_per discessionem, pedibus ire in sententiam_), but in cases
of doubt each member was asked his opinion (_per singulorum sententias
exquisitas_). The presiding officer then dismissed the meeting with
the words _nihil vos moramur, patres conscripti_, "I need not detain
you any longer." From this formula probably came the colloquial
uses—(1) "I do not care for...," "I have no interest in..." (with the
Acc.); (2) "I have nothing against...," "you have my consent to..."
(with the Acc. and Inf. or _quominus_).

[5] id.

XV. Law and Justice

1. Law in General

_ius dicere_—to administer justice (said of the praetor).

_ius reddere_ (Liv. 3. 33)—to administer justice (said of the praetor).

_ius suum persequi_—to assert one's right.

_ius suum adipisci_ (Liv. 1. 32. 10)—to obtain justice.

_ius suum tenere, obtinere_—to maintain one's right.

_de iure suo decedere_ or _cedere_—to waive one's right.

_(ex) iure, lege agere cum aliquo_—to go to law with a person.

_summo iure agere cum aliquo_ (cf. _summum ius, summa iniuria_)—to
proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain
the law in one's favour.

_in ius, in iudicium vocare aliquem_—to summon some one before the

_diem dicere alicui_—to summon some one to appear on a given day; to
accuse a person.

_in iudicium venire, in iudicio adesse_—to appear in court.

_iudicia administrare_—to have charge of the administration of justice.

_iudicium exercere_ (_vid._ sect. V. 7, note _The first..._)—to
administer justice; to judge (used of criminal cases before the

_iudicio praeesse_—to be president of a court.

_conventus agere_ (B. G. 1. 54)—to convene the assizes (used of a
provincial governor).

_quaestiones perpetuae_ (Brut. 27. 106)—the standing commissions of

_aliquem in integrum_ (_vid._ sect. V. 4, note _The proper..._)
_restituere_—to reinstate a person in his right.

(1) _respondere_[1] (_de iure_ or _ius_)—to give a legal opinion,
decision on points of law.

(2) _cavere (in iure)_ (Off. 2. 65)—to point out what precautions,
what formal steps must be taken to insure immunity.

(3) _agere_—to be energetic in the conduct of the case; to plead
before the judge.

_aequum iudicem se alicui praebere_—to judge some one equitably.

_ex aequo et bono_ (Caecin. 23. 65)—justly and equitably.

_iudex incorruptus_—an impartial judge.

_ratio iudiciorum_—judicial organisation.

_aequa iuris descriptio_ (Off. 2. 4. 15)—a sound judicial system.

_aequo iure vivere cum aliquo_—to live with some one on an equal

_iustitium indicere, edicere_ (Phil. 5. 12)—to proclaim that the
courts are closed, a cessation of legal business.

_iustitium remittere_—to re-open the courts.

_ius ad artem redigere_—to reduce law to a system.

_ius nullum_—absence of justice.

_ius ac fas omne delere_—to trample all law under foot.

_omnia iura pervertere_—to trample all law under foot.

_contra ius fasque_—against all law, human and divine.

_optimo iure_—with full right.

_ius praecipuum, beneficium, donum_, also _immunitas_[2] c.
Gen.—prerogative, privilege.

[1] In full _consulenti respondere_. From this consultation lawyers
got the title _iuris_ or _iure consulti_. In these three points,
_respondere, cavere, agere_, consisted the practical duty of a jurist.
Cicero, however (De Or. 1. 48), adds _scribere_ = to draw up legal
instruments such as wills, contracts, etc.

[2] _privilegium_ in this sense is post-classical. In classical prose
it denotes a law passed for or against an individual (_privus_), e.g.
_privilegium ferre, irrogare de aliquo_ (Cic.)

2. Inquiry—Testimony—Torture

_aliquid, causam cognoscere_—to hold an inquiry into a matter.

_quaerere aliquid_ or _de aliqua re_—to hold an inquiry into a matter.

_quaestionem habere de aliquo, de aliqua re_ or _in aliquem_—to
examine a person, a matter.

_quaestioni praeesse_—to preside over an inquiry.

_quaesītor_—the examining judge.

_incognita causa_ (cf. sect. XV. 3, _indicta causa_)—without any

_in tabulas publicas referre aliquid_—to enter a thing in the public

_deprehendere aliquem (in aliqua re)_—to catch a person, find him out.

_deprehendere aliquem in manifesto scelere_—to take a person in the act.

_testis gravis_—an important witness.

_testis locuples_—a witness worthy of all credit.

_testis incorruptus atque integer_—an impartial witness.

_aliquem testem alicuius rei (in aliquid) citare_—to cite a person to
give evidence on a matter.

_aliquem testem adhibere_—to use some one's evidence.

_aliquo teste uti_—to use some one's evidence.

_aliquem testem dare, edere, proferre_—to produce as a witness.

_aliquem testem producere_—to produce as a witness.

_testem prodire (in aliquem)_—to appear as witness against a person.

_testimonium dicere pro aliquo_—to give evidence on some one's behalf.

_pro testimonio dicere_—to state as evidence.

_testibus teneri, convictum esse_—to be convicted by some one's

_alicui admovere tormenta_—to have a person tortured.

_quaerere tormentis de aliquo_—to have a person tortured.

_de servis quaerere (in dominum)_—to examine slaves by torture.

_cruciatūs tormentorum_—the pains of torture.

_aliquem a ceteris separare et in arcam conicere ne quis cum eo
colloqui possit_ (Mil. 22. 60)—to isolate a witness.

3. Process—Defence

_causa privata_—a civil case.

_causa publica_ (Brut. 48. 178)—a criminal case.

_causam alicuius agere (apud iudicem)_—to conduct a person's case
(said of an agent, solicitor).

_causam dicere, orare_ (Brut. 12. 47)—to address the court (of the

_causam dicere_—to defend oneself before the judge (of the accused).

_causam dicere pro aliquo_—to defend a person.

_causam alicuius defendere_—to conduct some one's defence in a case.

_causam optimam habere_ (Lig. 4. 10)—to have a good case.

_causam inferiorem dicendo reddere superiorem_ (λόγον κρείττω ποιειν)
(Brut. 8. 30)—to gain a weak case by clever pleading.

_patronus_[1] _(causae)_ (De Or. 2. 69)—counsel; advocate.

_causam suscipere_—to undertake a case.

_ad causam aggredi_ or _accedere_—to undertake a case.

_indicta causa_ (opp. _cognita causa_)—without going to law.

_litem alicui intendere_—to go to law with, sue a person.

_adhuc sub iudice lis est_ (Hor. A. P. 77)—the case is still undecided.

_lites componere_ (Verg. Ecl. 3. 108)—to arrange a dispute (by

_causam_ or _litem obtinere_—to win a case.

_causā_ or _iudicio vincere_—to win a case.

_causam_ or _litem amittere, perdere_—to lose one's case.

_causā_ or _lite cadere_ (owing to some informality)—to lose one's case.

_calumniae litium_ (Mil. 27. 74)—chicanery (specially of wrongfully
accusing an innocent man).

[1] They were not called _advocati_ till under the Empire. In Augustan
Latin _advocatus_ = _amicus qui adest alicui (in iudicio)_, i.e. a man
who supported his friend by his presence and influence.

4. Accusation—Verdict—Decision

_accusatio_ (Cael. 3. 6)—a criminal accusation.

_actio, petitio_—a private, civil prosecution.

_nomen alicuius deferre (apud praetorem)_ (Verr. 2. 38. 94)—to accuse,
denounce a person.

_referre in reos aliquem_—to put some one on the list of the accused.

_eximere de reis aliquem_—to strike a person's name off the list of
the accused.

_aliquis reus fit_ (Fam. 13. 54)—some one is accused.

_iudices reicere_ (Verr. 3. 11. 28)—to challenge, reject jurymen.

_crimina diluere, dissolvere_—to refute charges.

_accusare aliquem rei capitalis (rerum capitalium)_—to charge some one
with a capital offence.

_caput alicuius agitur_ (_vid._ sect. V. 8)—a person's life is in

_accusare aliquem peculatus, pecuniae publicae_—to accuse some one of
malversation, embezzlement of public money.

_accusare aliquem falsarum tabularum_[1]—to accuse a person of forging
the archives.

_postulare aliquem repetundarum_[2] or _de repetundis_—to accuse a
person of extortion (to recover the sums extorted).

_accusare aliquem perduellionis_—to charge a person with treason
(hostile conduct against the state generally).

_accusare aliquem maiestatis_—to accuse a person of high treason (more
specific than the preceding).

_accusare aliquem ambitus, de ambitu_—to accuse some one of illegal

_accusare aliquem de vi, de veneficiis_—to accuse a person of
violence, poisoning.

_accusare aliquem inter sicarios_ (Rosc. Am. 32. 90)—to accuse a
person of assassination.

_sententiae iudicum_—the finding of the jury.

_sententiam ferre, dicere_ (Off. 3. 16. 66)—to give sentence (of the
judge, cf. sect. VI. 4, note _Not..._).

_iudicare causam (de aliqua re)_—to decide on the conduct of the case.

_iudicium rescindere_—to rescind a decision.

_res iudicatas rescindere_ (Cic. Sull. 22. 63)—to rescind a decision.

_lege Plautia damnari_ (Sall. Cat. 31. 4)—to be condemned under the
Lex Plautia.

[1] Cf. _tabulas publicas corrumpere_ (Rosc. Am. 128); _commutare_, to
falsify public records.

[2] Extortion generally can be rendered by _violenta exactio
pecuniarum_, or some verbal periphrasis (e.g. _per vim capere
pecunias_, etc.)

5. Guilt

_in culpa esse_—to be at fault; to blame; culpable.

_culpa alicuius rei est in aliquo_—some one is to blame in a matter;
it is some one's fault.

_mea culpa est_—it is my fault.

_culpa carere, vacare_—to be free from blame.

_extra culpam esse_—to be free from blame.

_abesse a culpa_—to be free from blame.

_prope abesse a culpa_—to be almost culpable.

_affinem esse culpae_—to be almost culpable.

_culpam in aliquem conferre, transferre, conicere_—to put the blame on

_culpam alicui attribuere, assignare_—to attribute the fault to some

_aliquid alicui crimini dare, vitio vertere_ (Verr. 5. 50)—to
reproach, blame a person for...

_culpam committere, contrahere_—to commit some blameworthy action.

_facinus, culpam in se admittere_—to commit some blameworthy action.

_non committere, ut..._—to take care not to...

_culpam alicuius rei sustinere_—to bear the blame of a thing.

_culpam a se amovere_[1]—to exonerate oneself from blame.

_veniam dare alicui_—to pardon a person.

[1] Note _purgare aliquid_, to justify oneself in a matter; _se alicui
purgare de aliqua re_ (Fam. 12. 25); _alicui purgatum esse_ (B. G. 1.

6. Punishment—Acquittal

_poena afficere aliquem_ (Off. 2. 5. 18)—to punish some one.

_animadvertere in aliquem_—to punish some one.

_punire aliquem_—to punish some one.

_ulcisci aliquem (pro aliqua re)_—to punish some one.

_poenas alicuius persequi_—to exact a penalty from some one.

_poenam petere, repetere ab aliquo_—to exact a penalty from some one.

_poenas expetere ab aliquo_—to exact a penalty from some one.

_supplicium sumere de aliquo_—to exact a penalty from some one.

_hanc poenam constituere in aliquem, ut..._—to ordain as punishment

_graviter consulere in aliquem_ (Liv. 8. 13)—to deal severely with a

_poenas (graves) dare alicui_—to be (heavily) punished by some one.

_poenas alicui pendere (alicuius rei)_—to be punished by some one (on
account of a thing).

_poenas dependere, expendere, solvere, persolvere_—to suffer punishment.

_poenam (alicuius rei) ferre, perferre_—to suffer punishment.

_poenam luere (alicuius rei)_ (Sull. 27. 76)—to be punished for a
thing, expiate it.

_luere_[1] _aliquid aliqua re_ (De Sen. 20)—to atone for something by...

_poenam subire_—to submit to a punishment.

_pecunia multare aliquem_—to condemn some one to a fine.

_multam irrogare alicui_ (Cic. Dom. 17. 45)—to impose a fine (used of
the prosecutor or the _tribunus plebis_ proposing a fine to be
ratified by the people).

_decem milibus aeris damnari_—to be fined 10,000 asses.

_in vincula (custodiam) dare aliquem_—to put some one in irons, chains.

_in vincula, in catenas conicere aliquem_—to put some one in irons,

_in carcerem conicere aliquem_—to throw some one into prison.

_capitis_ or _capite damnare aliquem_—to condemn some one to death.

_capitis absolvere aliquem_—to repeal a death-sentence passed on a

_supplicium alicui decernere, in aliquem constituere_—to decree the
penalty of death.

_Solo capite sanxit, si quis..._ (Att. 10. 1)—Solon made it a capital
offence to...

_morte multare aliquem_ (Catil. 1. 11. 28)—to punish any one with death.

_supplicium sumere de aliquo_—to execute the death-sentence on a person.

_supplicio (capitis) affici_—to suffer capital punishment.

_ad palum deligare_ (Liv. 2. 5)—to bind to the stake.

_virgis caedere_—to beat with rods.

_securi percutere, ferire aliquem_—to execute a person, cut off his

_in crucem agere, tollere aliquem_—to crucify.

_cruci suffigere aliquem_—to crucify.

_impune fecisse, tulisse aliquid_—to go unpunished.

_impunitum aliquem dimittere_—to let a person go scot-free.

_mortem_[2] _deprecari_ (B. G. 7. 40. 6)—to beg for life.

[1] To express the passive use _expiari_, e.g. _scelus supplicio

[2] One can also say _vitam, salutem deprecari_, as _deprecari_ means
(1) to obtain by supplication, (2) to avert by supplication.

XVI. War

1. Levies—Military Oath—Armies in General

_aetas militaris_—military age.

_qui arma ferre possunt_ or _iuventus_—men of military age.

_qui per aetatem arma ferre non possunt_ or _aetate ad bellum
inutiles_—men exempt from service owing to age.

_exercitum conficere_ (Imp. Pomp. 21. 61)—to raise an army.

_milites (exercitum) scribere, conscribere_—to levy troops.

_dilectum habere_—to hold a levy.

_imperare milites civitatibus_—to compel communities to provide troops.

_nomen (nomina) dare, profiteri_—to enlist oneself.

_ad nomen non respondere_ (Liv. 7. 4)—to fail to answer one's name.

_militiam_ (only in the sing.) _capessere_—to take service in the army.

_militiam detrectare, subterfugere_—to try to avoid military service.

_excusare morbum, valetudinem_—to plead ill-health as an excuse for

_militiae vacationem habere_—to be excused military duty.

_equo, pedibus merere_ (Liv. 27. 11)—to serve in the cavalry, infantry.

_sacramentum (o) dicere_ (_vid._ sect. XI. 2, note
_sacramentum..._)—to take the military oath.

_milites sacramento rogare, adigere_—to make soldiers take the
military oath.

_evocare undique copias_—to call up troops from all sides.

_evocati, voluntarii_ (B. G. 5. 56)—the volunteers.

_omnes ad arma convocare_—to issue a general call to arms.

_efficere duas legiones_—to form two legions.

_complere legiones_ (B. C. 1. 25)—to fill up the numbers of the legions.

_supplementum cogere, scribere, legere_—to levy recruits to fill up
the strength.

_auxilia_[1] _arcessere_—to summon auxiliary troops.

_copias (arma) cum aliquo iungere_ or _se cum aliquo iungere_—to join
forces with some one.

_conducere, contrahere copias_—to concentrate troops.

_cogere omnes copias in unum locum_—to concentrate all the troops at
one point.

_parare exercitum, copias_—to equip an army, troops.

_alere exercitum_ (Off. 1. 8. 25)—to support an army.

_recensere, lustrare, recognoscere exercitum_ (Liv. 42. 31)—to review
an army.

_dimittere exercitum_—to disband an army.

_commeatum militibus dare_ (opp. _petere_)—to give furlough, leave of
absence to soldiers.

_magnae copiae_ (not _multae_)—a large force, many troops.

_exiguae copiae_ (Fam. 3. 3. 2)—a small force.

_ingens, maximus exercitus_ (not _numerosus_)—a numerous army.

_robora peditum_—the flower of the infantry.

_milites levis armaturae_—light infantry.

_vetus miles, veteranus miles_—veterans; experienced troops.

_qui magnum in castris usum habent_—veterans; experienced troops.

_expeditus_ (opp. _impeditus_) _miles_—a soldier lightly armed, ready
for battle.

_exercitatus in armis_—practised in arms.

_milites tumultuarii_[2] (opp. _exercitus iustus_) (Liv. 35.
2)—soldiers collected in haste; irregulars.


[1] _auxilia_ = auxiliary troops raised in the provinces, usually
light cavalry. In Caesar's army the cavalry consisted of Gaulish,
Spanish, and German auxiliaries. A thousand of these were attached to
each legion and were usually commanded by a Roman officer.

[2] _tumultus_ is used of a sudden rising, rebellion, to repress which
all able-bodied men were called to arms. Such risings were
particularly common in Gaul, but cf. _tumultus servilis_ (B. G. 1.
10)—; _tumultus Istricus_ (Liv. 41. 6. 1).

2. Pay—Service—Commissariat

_stipendium_[1] _dare, numerare, persolvere militibus_—to pay the

_stipendia facere, merere_—to serve.

_emeritis stipendiis_ (Sall. Iug. 84. 2)—after having completed one's

_militia functum, perfunctum esse_—to retire from service.

_rude donatum esse_[2] (Phil. 2. 29)—to retire from service.

_milites mercennarii_ or _exercitus conducticius_—mercenary troops.

_rem frumentariam comparare, providere_—to look after the commissariat.

_rei frumentariae prospicere_ (B. G. 1. 23)—to look after the

_frumentum providere exercitui_—to provide corn-supplies for the troops.

_frumenti vim maximam comparare_—to procure a very large supply of corn.

_intercludere commeatum_—to cut off the supplies, intercept them.

_intercludere, prohibere hostes commeatu_—to cut off all supplies of
the enemy.

[1] _stipendium_ first established in 406 B.C.; it was paid at the end
of the campaign, hence _stipendia_ often = campaigns, years of service.

[2] Used originally of gladiators, who on their retirement received a
staff or wooden sword (_rudis_), hence they were called _rudiarii_.
Cf. Ov. Tr. 4. 8. 24 _me quoque donari iam rude tempus erat_.

3. Command—Discipline

_praeficere aliquem exercitui_—to place some one at the head of an
army, give him the command.

_praeficere aliquem bello gerendo_—to charge some one with the conduct
of a war.

_praeesse exercitui_—to be at the head of an army.

_magnum usum in re militari habere_ (Sest. 5. 12)—to possess great
experience in military matters.

_rei militaris rudem esse_—to have had no experience in war.

_vir fortissimus_—a hero.

_magnas res gerere_—to perform heroic exploits.

_res fortiter feliciterque gesta_—a success; a glorious feat of arms.

_res bene gesta_—a success; a glorious feat of arms.

_res gestae_[1]—exploits in war; brilliant actions.

_summa belli, imperii_ (B. G. 2. 4. 7)—the command-in-chief.

_cum imperio esse_—to hold a high command.

_imperii summam tenere_ (Rep. 2. 28)—to be commander-in-chief.

_imperii summae praeesse_—to be commander-in-chief.

_imperii summam deferre alicui_ or _ad aliquem, tradere alicui_—to
appoint some one commander-in-chief.

_imperium transfertur ad aliquem_ (not _transit_)—the command is
transferred, passes to some one.

_imperium alicui abrogare_ (Off.3. 10)—to depose a person from his

_modestia_[2] (opp. _immodestia_)—discipline (insubordination).

_dicto audientem esse alicui_—to obey a person's orders.

_milites disciplina coercere_—to keep good discipline amongst one's men.

_milites coercere et in officio continere_ (B. C. 1. 67. 4)—to keep
good discipline amongst one's men.

[1] Thus _magnae, memorabiles, praestantissimae res gestae_, and also
_meae, tuae, suae_, etc. The phrase _rem gerere_ can be used either of
the combat (_proelium_) or the whole war (_bellum_), cf. B. G. 5. 44.
11; Off. 3. 108.

[2] _modestia_, the character of the man who observes a mean (_qui
servat modum_), is used morally of self-restraint, moderation
(σωφροσύνη). In politics it means loyalty; in the army, discipline.

4. Weapons

_arma capere, sumere_—to take up one's arms.

_arma expedire_ (Tusc. 2. 16. 37)—to make ready for battle.

_galeam induere_—to put on one's helmet.

_armis (castris) exuere aliquem_—to disarm a person.

_arma ponere_ (not _deponere_)—to pile arms (cf. sect. XII. 3, note
_vestem deponere..._).

_ab armis discedere_ (Phil. 11. 33)—to lay down arms.

_in armis esse_—to be under arms.

_cum telo esse_—to be armed.

_extorquere arma e manibus_—to wrest weapons from some one's hands.

_res ad arma venit_—matters have reached the fighting-stage.

_tela iacere, conicere, mittere_—to discharge missiles.

_extra teli iactum, coniectum esse_—to be out of range.

_ad teli coniectum venire_ (Liv. 2. 31)—to come within javelin-range.

_se obicere telis_—to expose oneself to missiles.

_eminus hastis, comminus gladiis uti_—to use javelins at a distance,
swords at close quarters.

_gladium educere (e vagīna)_—to draw one's sword (from the scabbard).

_gladium in vaginam recondere_—to sheath one's sword.

_gladium stringere, destringere_—to draw one's sword.

_gladium alicui in pectus infigere_—to plunge one's sword in some
one's breast.

_gladio aliquem per pectus transfigere_ (Liv. 2. 46)—to transfix,
pierce a man's breast with one's sword.

_sicam, cultrum in corde alicuius defigere_[1] (Liv. 1. 58)—to plunge
a dagger, knife in some one's heart.

_decurrere (in armis)_—to manœuvre.

_vi et armis_—by force of arms.

[1] _defigere_ is also used metaphorically, e.g. _defigere omnes
curas, cogitationes in rei publicae salute_ (Phil. 14. 5. 13).

5. War

_bellum parare_—to make preparations for war.

_apparatus_ (rare in plur.) _belli_—preparations for war; war-material.

_bellum indīcere, denuntiare_—to make formal declaration of war.

_res repetere (ab aliquo)_ (Off. 1. 11. 36)—to demand satisfaction,

_res reddere (alicui)_ (cf. sect. V. 11)—to make restitution.

_bellum iustum (pium)_—a regular, formal war.

_bellum intestinum, domesticum_ (opp. _bellum externum_)—a civil war.

_bellum facere, movere, excitare_—to cause a war.

_bellum conflare_ (Fam. 5. 2. 8)—to kindle a war.

_bellum moliri_—to meditate war.

_bellum incipere, belli initium facere_ (B. G. 7. 1. 5)—to commence

_bello se interponere_ (Liv. 35. 48)—to interfere in a war.

_bello implicari_—to be involved in a war.

_bellum cum aliquo inire_—to begin a war with some one.

_bellum impendet, imminet, instat_—a war is imminent.

_bellum oritur, exardescit_—war breaks out.

_omnia bello flagrant_ or _ardent_ (Fam. 4. 1. 2)—everywhere the torch
of war is flaming.

_bellum gerere cum aliquo_—to make war on a person.

_bellum coniungere_ (Imp. Pomp. 9. 26)—to wage war in conjunction with
some one.

_bellum ducere, trahere, extrahere_—to protract, prolong a war.

_omni studio in (ad) bellum incumbere_—to carry on a war energetically.

_bellum inferre alicui_ (Att. 9. 1. 3)—to invade.

_bellum_ or _arma ultro inferre_—to be the aggressor in a war; to act
on the offensive.

_bellum (inlatum) defendere_—to act on the defensive.

_proficisci ad bellum, in expeditionem_ (Sall. Iug. 103)—to go to war,
commence a campaign.

_mittere ad bellum_—to send to the war.

_bellum administrare_—to have the control of the war.

_bello persequi aliquem, lacessere_—to harass with war.

_belli finem facere, bellum finire_—to put an end to war.

_bellum conficere, perficere_—to terminate a war (by force of arms and
defeat of one's opponents).

_bellum componere_ (Fam. 10. 33)—to terminate a war (by a treaty, etc.)

_bellum transferre alio, in..._—to transfer the seat of war elsewhere.

_belli sedes_ (Liv. 4. 31)—the seat of war, theatre of operations.

_rationem belli gerendi mutare_ (Liv. 32. 31)—to change one's tactics.

6. The Army on the March

_agmen medium_ (Liv. 10. 41)—the centre of the marching column.

_agmen primum_—the vanguard.

_agmen novissimum (extremum)_—the rearguard.

_agmen claudere, cogere_—to bring up the rear.

_signa_[1] _ferre, tollere_—to begin the march, break up the camp.

_castra movere_—to begin the march, break up the camp.

_agmen agere_—to set the army in motion.

_procedere cum exercitu_—to advance with the army.

_magnis itineribus_ (Sall. Iug. 37)—by forced marches.

_quam maximis itineribus (potest)_—by the longest possible forced

_citatum agmen rapere_—to lead the army with forced marches.

_raptim agmen ducere_—to lead the army with forced marches.

_citato gradu incedere_ (cf. sect. II. 5)—to advance rapidly.

_loca, regiones, loci naturam explorare_—to reconnoitre the ground.

_iter facere_—to march.

_iter conficere_ (B. C. 1. 70)—to traverse a route.

_iter maturare, accelerare_—to quicken the pace of marching.

_iter continuare_ (B. C. 3. 11)—to march without interruption.

_iter non intermittere_—not to interrupt the march.

_iter flectere, convertere, avertere_—to deviate, change the direction.

_signa convertere_ (B. G. 1. 25)—to deviate, change the direction.

_averso itinere contendere in..._—to change one's route and march

_iter tentare per vim_ (cf. sect. II. 3)—to force a way, a passage.

_agmen, exercitum demittere in..._—to march down on to...

_exercitum admovere, adducere ad..._—to advance on...

_signa sequi_ (opp. _a signis discedere, signa relinquere_)—to follow
the standards.

_ordines servare_ (B. G. 4. 26)—to keep the ranks.

_confertis, solutis ordinibus_—with close ranks; with ranks in disorder.

_raris ordinibus_—in open order.

_ordines turbare, perrumpere_—to break the ranks.

_agmine quadrato incedere, ire_—to march with closed ranks, in order
of battle.

_agmine duplici, triplici_—in two, three columns.

_novissimos premere_—to press the rearguard.

_novissimos turbare_—to throw the rearguard into confusion.

_novissimos carpere_—to harass the rear.

_novissimis praesidio esse_—to protect the troops in the rear.

_opprimere hostes (imprudentes, incautos, inopinantes)_—to surprise
and defeat the enemy.

_subsistere, consistere_—to halt.

_gradum sistere_—to halt.

_capere, occupare locum_—to occupy a position (with troops).

_occupare loca superiora_—to occupy the high ground.

_praeoccupare locum_ (Liv. 35. 27)—to occupy a place beforehand.

_tenere montem_ (B. G. 1. 22)—to hold a mountain.

_consistere in monte_—to take up one's position on a mountain.

_considere sub monte (sub montis radicibus)_—to occupy the foot of a

_praesidiis firmare urbem_—to garrison a town.

_praesidium collocare in urbe_—to garrison a town.

_praesidia, custodias disponere_—to station posts, pickets, at

_vigilias crebras ponere_ (Sall. Iug. 45. 2)—to place a close line of

[1] _signa_ = standards of a maniple, cohort, or legion. Since Marius'
time the _signum_ of a legion was an eagle, those of the maniples
different animals, wolf, horse, etc. In the camp the standards were
fixed in the ground, in action they were carried in the front rank,
hence several phrases—_signa convellere, tollere, efferre_, to break
up camp; _signa proferre, promovere_, to advance in battle-order;
_signa inferre_, to attack; _signa conferre_, to come to close
quarters; _signa statuere_, to halt; _signa convertere_, to change
one's route; _signa referre_, to retire; _signa relinquere_, to
desert, etc.

7. The Camp

_castra stativa_ (Sall. Iug. 44)—a permanent camp.

_castra hiberna, aestiva_—winter-quarters, summer-quarters.

_castra ponere, locare_—to encamp.

_idoneo, aequo, suo_ (opp. _iniquo_) _loco_—in a favourable position.

_castra metari_ (B. C. 3. 13)—to mark out a camp.

_milites in hibernis collocare, in hiberna deducere_—to take the
troops to their winter-quarters.

_castra munire_—to make a fortified, entrenched camp.

_castra munire vallo (aggere)_—to fortify the camp with a rampart.

_fossam ducere_—to make a ditch, a fosse.

_vallum iacere, exstruere, facere_—to raise a rampart, earthwork.

_castra praesidiis firmare_—to strengthen the camp by outposts.

_praesidio castris milites relinquere_—to leave troops to guard the

_castra coniungere, iungere_ (B. C. 1. 63)—to make a camp in common.

_castra nudare_ (B. G. 7. 70)—to leave the camp undefended.

_cohors, quae in statione est_—the cohort on guard-duty.

_vigilias agere in castris_ (Verr. 4. 43)—to mount guard in the camp.

_custodias agere in vallo_—to keep watch on the rampart.

_stationes agere pro portis_—to be on duty before the gates.

_circumvenire vigilias_ (Sall. Iug. 45. 2)—to make the round of the

_tesseram dare_ (Liv. 28. 14)—to give the watchword, countersign.

_copias castris continere_—to keep the troops in camp.

_se (quietum) tenere castris_—to remain inactive in camp.

_excursionem in hostium agros facere_—to make an inroad into hostile

_praedatum ire_—to go in search of plunder, booty.

_ferre atque agere_[1] _praedam_—to carry off booty.

_capere equos_—to capture horses.

_lignatum, aquatum ire_—to go to fetch wood, water.

_pabulatum, frumentatum ire_—to forage.

_pabulatione premi_ (B. C. 1. 78)—to suffer from want of forage.

_omnia ferro ignique, ferro atque igni_ or _ferro flammaque
vastare_—to ravage with fire and sword.

_classicum_ or _tuba canit ad praetorium_—the bugle, trumpet sounds
before the general's tent.

_vasa conclamare_ (B. C. 3. 37)—to give the signal for breaking up the
camp, collecting baggage.

_vasa colligere_ (Liv. 21. 47)—to pack the baggage (for marching).

_signa convellere_ (_vid._ sect. XVI. 6, note _signa..._)—to pluck up
the standards out of the ground (to begin the march).

_consilium habere, convocare_—to hold a council of war.

_rem ad consilium deferre_—to refer a matter to a council of war.

[1] _ferre_ of things inanimate, _agere_ of cattle. Cf. φέρειν καὶ

8. A Siege

_oppidum natura loci munitum_ (B. G. 1. 38)—a town with a strong
natural position.

_oppidum manu (opere) munitum_—a town artificially fortified.

_oppidum obsidere_—to besiege a city.

_oppidum obsidione claudere_—to besiege a city.

_oppidum in obsidione tenere_—to keep a town in a state of siege.

_oppidum fame domare_—to starve a town into surrender.

_oppidum oppugnare_—to storm a town.

_oppidum cingere vallo et fossa_—to surround a town with a rampart and

_opera facere_—to raise siege-works.

_vineas agere_ (B. G. 3. 21)—to advance pent-houses, mantlets.

_turres instituere, exstruere_—to raise towers.

_testudine facta moenia subire_ (B. G. 2. 6)—to advance to the walls
protected by a covering of shields.

_scalas admovere_ (B. C. 3. 63)—to apply scaling-ladders.

_positis scalis muros ascendere_—to scale the walls by means of ladders.

_aries murum attingit, percutit_—the battering-ram strikes the wall.

_iter ruina patefactum_—a breach.

_patentia ruinis_ (_vid._ XII. 1, note _ruina..._)—a breach.

_cuniculos agere_ (B. G. 3. 21)—to make mines, subterraneous passages.

_oppidum tormentis verberare_—to rain missiles on a town, bombard it.

_tela ingerere, conicere_—to discharge showers of missiles.

_murum nudare defensoribus_—to drive the defenders from the walls.

_eruptionem facere ex oppido_—to make a sally, sortie from the town.

_crebras ex oppido excursiones facere_ (B. G. 2. 30)—to make a sally,
sortie from the town.

_ignem inferre operibus_ (B. C. 2. 14)—to set fire to the siege-works.

_subsidium alicui summittere_—to send relief to some one.

_munitiones perrumpere_—to break through the lines (and relieve a town).

_urbis obsidionem liberare_—to raise a siege (used of the army of

_oppidum obsidione liberare_—to raise a siege (used of the army of

_obsidionem quattuor menses sustinere_—to hold out for four months.

_oppugnationem, obsidionem relinquere_—to give up an assault, a siege.

_portas obstruere_ (B. G. 5. 50)—to barricade the gates.

_portas refringere_—to break down the gates.

_claustra portarum revellere_—to break down the gates.

_in oppidum irrumpere_—to break into the town.

_in oppidum irruptionem facere_—to break into the town.

_oppidum capere, expugnare_—to take, storm a town.

_oppidum recipere_—to retake a town.

_oppidum incendere_—to fire a town.

_oppidum diripere_—to plunder a town.

_oppidum evertere, excīdere_—to completely destroy a town.

_oppidum solo aequare_—to raze a town to the ground.

_deditione facta_ (Sall. Iug. 26)—after capitulation.

_arma tradere_—to surrender weapons.

_salutem petere a victore_—to beg for mercy from the conqueror.

_se suaque omnia dedere victori_—to give up one's person and all one's
possessions to the conqueror.

_se suaque omnia permittere victoris potestati_—to give up one's
person and all one's possessions to the conqueror.

_se permittere in fidem atque in potestatem alicuius_ (B. G. 2. 3)—to
surrender oneself to the discretion of some one.

_in fidem recipere aliquem_ (Fam. 13. 16)—to deal mercifully with some

_libera corpora sub corona (hasta) veneunt_ (B. G. 3. 16. 4)—the free
men are sold as slaves.

_cum uxoribus et liberis_—with wife and child.

_aliquem (incolumem) conservare_—to grant a man his life.

9. Before the Fight

_potestatem, copiam pugnandi hostibus facere_—to offer battle to the

_potestatem sui facere (alicui)_ (cf. sect. XII. 9, note
_audientia..._)—to accept battle.

_proelio (ad pugnam) hostes lacessere, provocare_—to provoke the enemy
to battle.

_pugnam detrectare_ (Liv. 3. 60)—to decline battle.

_supersedere proelio_—to refrain from fighting.

_hostem e manibus non dimittere_—to not let the enemy escape.

_locum ad pugnam idoneum deligere_—to choose suitable ground for an

_diem pugnae constituere_ (B. G. 3. 24)—to fix a day for the engagement.

_signum proelii (committendi) exposcere_ (B. G. 7. 19)—to demand
loudly the signal to engage.

_signum proelii dare_—to give the signal to engage.

_vexillum proponere_ (Liv. 22. 3)—to fix the ensign on the general's
tent (as a signal to commence the engagement).

_ad arma concurrere_—to rush to arms.

_exercitum educere_ or _producere in aciem_—to lead the army to the

_ad vim et arma descendere_ (_vid._ sect. V. 9, note
_Similarly..._)—to have recourse to force of arms.

_in certamen descendere_—to engage in the fight.

_in aciem descendere_ (Liv. 8. 8)—to enter the field of battle.

_aciem (copias, exercitum) instruere_ or _in acie constituere_—to draw
up forces in battle-order.

_aciem triplicem instruere_ (B. G. 1. 24)—to draw up the army in three

_aciem explicare_ or _dilatare_—to extend the line of battle, deploy
the battalions.

_media acies_—the centre.

_subsidia collocare_—to station reserve troops.

_equites ad latera disponere_ (B. G. 6. 8)—to place the cavalry on the

_contionari apud milites_ (B. C. 1. 7)—to harangue the soldiers.

_contionem habere apud milites_—to harangue the soldiers.

_ad virtutem excitare, cohortari_ (or simply _adhortari,
cohortari_)—to incite to valour.

_animos militum confirmare_ (B. G. 5. 49)—to encourage, embolden the

10. The Fight

(a) The Fight in General

_proelium committere_—(1) to begin the battle, (2) to give battle.

_proelium inire_ (Liv. 2. 14)—to engage.

_proelium facere_—to give battle.

_proelio equestri contendere_—to give battle with a cavalry-division.

_proelium equestre facere_—to give battle with a cavalry-division.

_proelium facere secundum_—to fight successfully.

_proeliis secundis uti_—to fight successfully.

_rem (bene, male) gerere_ (_vid._ sect. XII. 2, note _rem
gerere..._)—to win, lose a fight (of the commander).

_proelium intermittere_—to interrupt the battle.

_proelium dirimere_ (B. C. 1. 40)—to break off the fight.

_proelium restituere_—to renew the battle with success.

_proelium renovare, redintegrare_—to begin the fight again.

_proelium deserere_—to give up the fight.

_proelio, armis decertare_ (B. G. 1. 50)—to fight a decisive battle.

_acie (armis, ferro) decernere_—to fight a pitched battle.

_in acie dimicare_—to fight a pitched battle.

_proelio interesse_—to take part in the engagement.

_ex equo pugnare_—to fight on horseback.

_certamen singulare_—single combat.

_povocare aliquem ad certamen singulare_—to challenge some one to
single combat.

_proelium cruentum, atrox_—a bloody battle.

_proelium iustum_ (opp. _tumultuarium_)—a pitched battle.

(b) The Attack

_classicum canit_ (B. C. 3. 82)—the trumpet sounds for the attack.

_gradum inferre in hostem_—to march on the enemy.

_aggredi hostem_—to attack the enemy.

_invadere, impetum_[1] _facere in hostem_—to attack the enemy.

_signa inferre in hostem_—to attack the enemy.

_impetum sustinere_ (B. G. 1. 26)—to resist the attack, onset.

_impetum excipere_[2] (Liv. 6. 12)—to parry the attack.

_in medios hostes se inicere_—to rush into the midst of the foe.

_per medios hostes (mediam hostium aciem) perrumpere_—to break through
the enemy's centre.

_manum (us) conserere cum hoste_—to come to close quarters.

_signa conferre cum hoste_[3]—to come to close quarters.

_proelio concurritur_ (Sall. Iug. 59)—the lines charge in battle one
on another.

_adversis hostibus occurrere_—to attack the enemy in the front.

_aversos hostes aggredi_—to attack the enemy in the rear.

_hostes a tergo adoriri_—to attack the enemy in the rear.

_iusto_ (opp. _tumultuario_) _proelio confligere cum hoste_ (Liv. 35.
4)—to fight a pitched, orderly battle with an enemy.

_acies inclīnat_ or _inclīnatur_ (Liv. 7. 33)—the line of battle gives

_proelium anceps est_—the issue of the battle is undecided.

_ancipiti Marte pugnatur_—the issue of the battle is undecided.

_diu anceps stetit pugna_—the issue of the day was for a long time

_res est in periculo, in summo discrimine_—the position is critical.

_res ad triarios_[4] _redit_ (Liv. 8. 8)—the triarii must now fight
(proverbially = we are reduced to extremities).

[1] _impetus_ is not used in the dative sing. or in the plur.; these
cases are supplied by _incursio_.

[2] Caesar's method of attack was usually this: the troops drawn up on
rising ground charged at the double (_concursus_); when within range
came _emissio telorum_ or _pilorum_. This was followed up by a
hand-to-hand _mêlée (impetus gladiorum)_.

[3] _signa conferre cum aliquo_ also sometimes means to join forces.

[4] The _triarii_ were the veterans who made up the third line behind
the _principes_ and _hastati_. If these first two lines were beaten or
in difficulties (_laborare_), the _triarii_, who were in a kneeling
posture (_dextro genu innixi_, Liv. 8. 9), stood up (_consurgebant_,
Liv. 8. 10) and continued the fight. Hence this proverb (_inde rem ad
triarios redisse cum laboratur proverbio increbuit_). For the
organisation of the legion in general _vid._ Liv. book 8.

(c) Close Quarters

_collatis signis (viribus) pugnare_—to fight hand-to-hand, at close

_tum pes cum pede collatus est_ (Liv. 28. 2)—a hand-to-hand engagement

_collato pede_ (Liv. 6. 12)—hand to hand.

_gladio comminus_ (opp. _eminus_) _rem gerere_—to fight with swords at
close quarters.

_omissis pilis gladiis rem gerere_—to throw down the javelins (_pila_)
and fight with the sword.

_res ad gladios vēnit_—swords must now decide the day.

_res gladiis geri coepta est_—swords must now decide the day.

_strictis gladiis in hostem ferri_—to throw oneself on the enemy with
drawn sword.

_res ad manus venit_—the fighting is now at close quarters.

_laxatis_ (opp. _confertis_) _ordinibus pugnare_—to fight in open order.

_ferarum_[1] _ritu pugnare_—to fight like lions.

_manu fortis_—personally brave.

[1] The Latin language uses the general term (_fera_) where we use the
special (lion). Similarly _pecorum modo fugiunt_ (Liv. 40. 27), where
we translate "they flee like deer."

(d) Tactics—Reinforcements

_in latus hostium incurrere_—to fall upon the enemy's flank.

_circumvenire hostem aversum_ or _a tergo_ (B. G. 2. 26)—to surround
the enemy from the rear.

_multitudine hostium cingi_—to be surrounded by the superior force of
the enemy.

_equitatu superiorem esse_—to have the advantage in cavalry.

_parem_ (opp. _imparem_) _esse hosti_—to be a match for the enemy.

_orbem_[1] _facere_ (Sall. Iug. 97. 5)—to form a square.

_in orbem consistere_—to form a square.

_cuneum facere_ (Liv. 22. 47)—to draw up troops in a wedge-formation.

_phalangem facere_ (B. G. 1. 24)—to form a phalanx.

_phalangem perfringere_—to break through the phalanx.

_subsidia summittere_—to send up reserves.

_integros defatigatis summittere_—to send fresh troops to take the
place of those wearied with fighting.

_rari dispersique pugnare_ (B. C. 1. 44)—to fight in skirmishing order.

_integri et recentes defatigatis succedunt_—fresh troops relieve the
tired men.

[1] _orbis_ properly a circle, but corresponding almost exactly in its
objects to our square-formation (_vid._ B. G. 4. 37, 5. 33; Sall. Iug.
97. 5). For a good account of Roman military formation see Kraner,
_Uebersicht des Kriegswesens bei Caesar_, in his edition of the
_Bellum Gallicum_.

(e) Successful Attack

_pellere hostem_—to repulse the enemy.

_acies hostium impellitur_—the enemy's line is repulsed.

_loco movere, depellere, deicere hostem_ (B. G. 7. 51)—to drive the
enemy from his position.

_summovere_ or _reicere hostium equites_—to repel the attack of the
enemy's cavalry.

_repellere, propulsare hostem_—to repulse an attack.

_undique premi, urgeri_ (B. G. 2. 26)—to be pressed on all sides.

_prosternere, profligare hostem_—to rout the enemy.

(f) Retreat—Flight—Pursuit

_signa receptui canunt_—the retreat is sounded.

_receptui canitur_ (B. G. 7. 47)—the retreat is sounded.

_pedem referre_—to retire (without turning one's back on the enemy).

_equitatus tutum receptum dat_—the cavalry covers the retreat.

_se recipere_ (B. G. 7. 20)—to withdraw one's forces.

_loco excedere_—to abandon one's position.

_in fugam dare, conicere hostem_—to put the enemy to flight.

_fugare hostem_—to put the enemy to flight.

_fundere hostium copias_—to rout the enemy's forces.

_caedere et fundere hostem_—to utterly rout the enemy.

_fundere et fugare hostem_—to utterly rout the enemy.

_prae se agere hostem_—to drive the enemy before one.

_fugam facere_ (Sall. Iug. 53)—(1) to put to flight, (2) to take to

_terga vertere_ or _dare_—to flee, run away.

_terga dare hosti_—to run away from the enemy.

_fugae se mandare_ (B. G. 2. 24)—to take to flight.

_fugam capessere, capere_—to take to flight.

_se dare in fugam, fugae_—to take to flight.

_se conicere, se conferre in fugam_—to take to flight.

_fuga salutem petere_—to seek safety in flight.

_fuga effusa, praeceps_ (Liv. 30. 5)—headlong flight.

_pecorum modo fugere_ (Liv. 40. 27)—to flee like deer, sheep.

_arma abicere_—to throw away one's arms.

_praecipitem se fugae mandare_—to flee headlong.

_ex (in) fuga dissipati_ or _dispersi_ (B. G. 2. 24)—soldiers routed
and dispersed.

_hostes insequi, prosequi_—to pursue the enemy.

_hostes (fusos) persequi_—to follow up and harass the enemy when in

_hostes assequi, consequi_—to overtake the enemy.

_fugientibus instare_—to press the fugitives.

_tergis hostium inhaerere_—to be on the heels of the enemy.

_fugam hostium reprimere_ (B. G. 3. 14)—to bring the flying enemy to a

_excipere aliquem fugientem_—to cut off some one's flight.

_magna caedes hostium fugientium facta est_—there was great slaughter
of fugitives.

_capere aliquem vivum_—to take a person alive.

_effugere, elābi e manibus hostium_—to escape from the hands of the

_dimittere e manibus hostes_—to let the enemy escape.

_eripere aliquem e manibus hostium_—to rescue some one from the hands
of the enemy.

_se fuga recipere_ (B. G. 1. 11)—to save oneself by flight.

(g) Defeat—Massacre—Wounds—Losses

_proelio vinci, superari, inferiorem, victum discedere_—to be defeated
in fight, lose the battle.

_cladem hostibus afferre, inferre_—to inflict a defeat on the enemy.

_cladem accipere_—to suffer a defeat.

_ingentem caedem edere_ (Liv. 5. 13)—to cause great slaughter, carnage.

_stragem edere, facere_—to massacre.

_omnia strata sunt ferro_—all have perished by the sword.

_hostes, exercitum delere, concīdere_—to annihilate, cut up the enemy,
an army.

_hostes ad internecionem caedere, delere_ (Liv. 9. 26)—to absolutely
annihilate the enemy.

_hostium copias occidione occīdere_ (Liv. 2. 51)—to absolutely
annihilate the enemy.

_vulnus infligere alicui_—to wound a person (also used metaphorically).

_mortiferam plagam alicui infligere_—to inflict a mortal wound on some

_vulnus (grave, mortiferum) accipere, excipere_—to be (seriously,
mortally) wounded.

_multis et illatis et acceptis vulneribus_ (B. G. 1. 50)—after many
had been wounded on both sides.

_vulneribus confectus_—weakened by wounds.

_vulnera (cicatrices) adversa_ (opp. _aversa_)—wounds (scars) on the

_vulnera adverso corpore accepta_—wounds (scars) on the breast.

_refricare_[1] _vulnus, cicatricem obductam_—to open an old wound.

_ex vulnere mori_ (Fam. 10. 33)—to die of wounds.

_magno cum detrimento_—with great loss.

_nostri circiter centum ceciderunt_—about a hundred of our men fell.

_ad unum omnes_[2] _perierunt_—they perished to a man.

[1] _refricare_ is also used metaphorically in the sense of renewing,
recalling, e.g. _dolorem_ (De Or. 2. 48); _memoriam_ (Phil. 3. 7. 18);
_desiderium_ (Fam. 5. 17. 4).

[2] The phrase _ad unum omnes_, to a man, without exception, occurs De
Am. 23. 86; Fam. 12. 14; Liv. 2. 55; and without _omnes_, Fam. 10. 16;
B. C. 3. 14.

11. Victory—Triumph

_exercitus victor_—the victorious army.

_superiorem_ (opp. _inferiorem_), _victorem (proelio, pugna)
discedere_—to come off victorious.

_victoriam adipisci, parere_—to gain a victory, win a battle.

_victoriam ferre, referre_—to gain a victory, win a battle.

_proelio vincere_—to gain a victory, win a battle.

_victoriam reportare ab hoste_—to gain a victory over the enemy.

_victoriam praecipere (animo)_ (Liv. 10. 26)—to consider oneself
already victor.

_victoriam exploratam dimittere_—to let a sure victory slip through
one's hands.

_sicut parta iam atque explorata victoria_—as if the victory were
already won.

_victoriam conclamare_ (B. G. 5. 37)—to raise a shout of victory.

_victoriam_ or _de victoria gratulari alicui_—to congratulate a person
on his victory.

_victoria multo sanguine ac vulneribus stetit_ (Liv. 23. 30)—the
victory cost much blood and many wounds, was very dearly bought.

_triumphare de aliquo (ex bellis)_—to triumph over some one.

_triumphum_[1] _agere de_ or _ex aliquo_ or c. Gen. (_victoriae,
pugnae_)—to triumph over some one.

_per triumphum (in triumpho) aliquem ducere_—to lead some one in

_triumphum senatus Africano decernit_ (Fin. 4. 9. 22)—the senate
decrees to Africanus the honours of a triumph.

[1] E.g. _triumphum agere Boiorum_ (Liv.); _Pharsaliae pugnae_ (Cic.);
_de Liguribus_ (Liv.); _ex Aequis_ (Liv.) For other phrases cf.
_triumphum postulare, imperare; triumphum tertium deportare; triumphum
consulis celebrare_.

12. Truce—Peace—Treaties—Alliance

_indutias facere_ (Phil. 8. 7)—to make a truce.

_indutias violare_—to break a truce.

_ius gentium violare_—to violate the law of nations.

_agere cum aliquo de pace_—to treat with some one about peace.

_pacem conciliare_ (Fam. 10. 27)—to bring about a peace.

_pacem facere cum aliquo_—to make peace with some one.

_pacem dirimere, frangere_—to break the peace.

_his condicionibus_—on these terms.

_pacis condiciones ferre_ (not _proponere_)—to propose terms of peace.

_pacis condiciones dare, dicere alicui_ (Liv. 29. 12)—to dictate the
terms of peace to some one.

_pacis condiciones accipere, subire_ (opp. _repudiare, respuere_)—to
accept the terms of the peace.

_pax convenit in eam condicionem, ut..._—peace is concluded on
condition that...

_summa pax_—deep peace.

_captivos permutare, commutare_—to exchange prisoners.

_captivos redimere_ (Off. 2. 18)—to ransom prisoners.

_captivos sine pretio reddere_—to restore prisoners without ransom.

_obsides dare_—to give hostages.

_obsides civitatibus imperare_—to compel communities to provide

_pactionem facere cum aliquo_ (Sall. Iug. 40)—to conclude a treaty
with some one.

_ex pacto, ex foedere_—according to treaty.

_foedus facere (cum aliquo), icere, ferire_—to conclude a treaty, an

_foedus frangere, rumpere, violare_—to violate a treaty, terms of

_socium aliquem asciscere_ (B. G. 1. 5)—to make some one one's ally.

_in amicitia populi Romani esse_ (Liv. 22. 37)—to be on friendly terms
with the Roman people.

_a senatu amicus_[1] _appellatus est_ (B. G. 1. 3)—he received from
the senate the title of friend.

[1] _amicus_, the friend of the Roman people, distinct from _socius_,
an ally; a _socius_ was always _amicus_, but not necessarily _vice
versa_. The title _amicus populi Romani_ was granted by the senate to
foreign princes in recognition of some signal service.

13. Conquest—Submission

_terra potiri_—to conquer a country.

_terram suae dicionis facere_—to reduce a country to subjection to

_populum in potestatem suam redigere_ (B. G. 2. 34)—to reduce a
country to subjection to oneself.

_populum in deditionem venire cogere_—to reduce a country to
subjection to oneself.

_populum in deditionem accipere_—to accept the submission of a people.

_populum perdomare, subigere_—to subjugate a nation.

_populum, terram suo imperio, suae potestati subicere_ (not _sibi_ by
itself)—to make oneself master of a people, country.

_se imperio alicuius subicere_ (not _alicui_)—to make one's submission
to some one.

_in deditionem venire_ (without _alicui_)—to make one's submission to
some one.

_in alicuius potestatem se permittere_—to make one's submission to
some one.

_sub imperio et dicione alicuius esse_—to be subject to some one,
under some one's dominion.

_subiectum esse, obnoxium esse imperio_ or _dicioni alicuius_ (not
simply _alicui_)—to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion.

_in potestate, in dicione alicuius esse_—to be subject to some one,
under some one's dominion.

_qui imperio subiecti sunt_—subjects.

_aliquem ad officium_ (cf. sect. X. 7, note _officium..._) _reducere_
(Nep. Dat. 2. 3)—to reduce a people to their former obedience.

_aliquem in officio continere_—to keep some one in subjection.

_in officio manere, permanere_—to remain in subjection.

_Asiam in provinciae formam (in provinciam) redigere_ (B. G. 1. 45)—to
make Asia into a Roman province.

_Asia populi Romani facta est_—Asia was made subject to Rome.

_gentem ad internecionem redigere_ or _adducere_ (B. G. 2. 28)—to
completely annihilate a nation.

XVII. Shipping

1. Naval Affairs in General

_navis actuaria_—a cutter.

_navis longa_—a man-of-war.

_navis oneraria_—a transport or cargo-boat.

_navis mercatoria_—a merchantman.

_oppidum maritimum_—a seaport town.

_navibus plurimum posse_—to have a powerful navy.

_rebus maritimis multum valere_—to have a powerful navy.

_navem, classem aedificare, facere, efficere, instituere_—to build a
ship, a fleet.

_navem (classem) armare, ornare, instruere_—to equip a boat, a fleet.

_navem deducere_ (_vid._ sect. XII. 1, note _Notice too..._)—to launch
a boat.

_navem subducere (in aridum)_—to haul up a boat.

_navem reficere_—to repair a boat.

_navem conscendere, ascendere_—to embark.

_exercitum in naves imponere_ (Liv. 22. 19)—to embark an army.

_milites in terram, in terra exponere_—to disembark troops.

_classiarii_[1] (B. C. 3. 100)—marines.

_nautae, remiges_—sailors, rowers.

_vectores_ (Phil. 7. 9. 27)—passengers.

_naves annotinae_—ships of last year.

[1] Also _classici milites, classica legio_ (Liv. 21. 41; 22. 19). The
marines were recruited from the lowest classes (_capite censi_) and
from the _liberti_. The rowers were slaves; the ordinary sailors were
_socii navales_.

2. Voyage—Shipwreck—Landing

_solvere_ (B. G. 4. 28)—to weigh anchor, sail.

_navem (naves) solvere_—to weigh anchor, sail.

_ancoram (ancoras) tollere_—to weigh anchor, sail.

_naves ex portu solvunt_—the ships sail from the harbour.

_malacia et tranquillitas_ (B. G. 3. 15)—a dead calm.

_vela in altum dare_ (Liv. 25. 27)—to put to sea.

_ventum (tempestatem) nancti idoneum ex portu exeunt_—the ships sail
out on a fair wind.

_vela facere, pandere_—to set the sails.

_vela dare_—to set the sails.

_vela contrahere_ (also metaph.)—to furl the sails.

_oram legere_ (Liv. 21. 51)—to hug the coast.

_superare insulam, promunturium_—to double an island, cape.

_ventis reflantibus_ (Tusc. 1. 49)—with the wind against one.

_cursum dirigere aliquo_—to set one's course for a place.

_cursum tenere_ (opp. _commutare_ and _deferri_)—to hold on one's

_cursum conficere_ (Att. 5. 12. 1)—to finish one's voyage.

_gubernaculum tractare_—to steer.

_clavum tenere_—to steer.

_navem remis agere_ or _propellere_—to row.

_remis contendere_—to row hard.

_navem remis concitare, incitare_—to row hard.

_sustinere, inhibere remos_ (De Or. 1. 33)—to stop rowing; to easy.

_navem retro inhibere_ (Att. 13. 21)—to back water.

_naufragium facere_—to be shipwrecked.

_navis ad scopulos alliditur_ (B. C. 3. 27)—the ship strikes on the

_vento se dare_—to run before the wind.

_in litus eici_ (B. G. 5. 10)—to be stranded.

_deferri, deici aliquo_—to be driven out of one's course; to drift.

_tempestate abripi_—to be driven out of one's course; to drift.

_procella (tempestas) aliquem ex alto ad ignotas terras (oras)
defert_—the storm drives some one on an unknown coast.

_naufragium colligere_ (Sest. 6. 15)—to collect the wreckage.

_appellere navem (ad terram, litus)_—to land (of people).

_appelli (ad oram)_ (Att. 13. 21)—to land (of ships).

_ancoras iacere_—to drop anchor.

_ancoras tollere_—to weigh anchor.

_naves ad ancoras deligare_ (B. G. 4. 29)—to make fast boats to anchors.

_naves (classem) constituere (in alto)_—to make fast boats to anchors.

_ad ancoram consistere_—to ride at anchor.

_ad ancoras deligari_—to ride at anchor.

_in ancoris esse, stare, consistere_—to ride at anchor.

_exire ex, de navi_—to land, disembark.

_exire, egredi in terram_—to land, disembark.

_escensionem facere_ (of troops)—to land, disembark.

_portu, terra prohiberi_ (B. C. 3. 15)—to be unable to land.

_litora ac portus custodia clausos tenere_—to keep the coast and
harbours in a state of blockade.

_deperire_—to founder, go down.

_aestu incitato_—at high tide.

3. A Naval Battle

_navis praetoria_ (Liv. 21. 49)—the admiral's ship; the flagship.

_pugnam navalem facere_[1]—to fight a battle at sea.

_navem expedire_—to clear for action.

_navem rostro percutere_—to charge, ram a boat.

_navem expugnare_—to board and capture a boat.

_navem, classem deprimere, mergere_—to sink a ship, a fleet.

_classes concurrunt_ (Liv. 26. 39)—the fleets charge.

_copulas, manus ferreas (in navem) inicere_—to throw grappling irons
on board; to board.

_in navem (hostium) transcendere_—to throw grappling irons on board;
to board.

_navem capere, intercipere, deprehendere_—to capture a boat.

_vela armamentaque_—sails and rigging.

_ex eo navium concursu magnum incommodum est acceptum_—much damage was
done by this collision.

_navigia speculatoria_—reconnoitring-vessels.

[1] For a description of a sea-fight _vid._ B. G. iii. 13-16.


_ut ait Cicero_ (always in this order)—as Cicero says.

_ut Ciceronis verbis utar_—to use Cicero's expression; to say with
Cicero (not _ut cum Cicerone loquar_).

_ut ita dicam_—so to speak (used to modify a figurative expression).

_ut non (nihil) dicam de..._—not to mention...

_ut plura non dicam_—to say nothing further on...

_ne dicam_—not to say... (used in avoiding a stronger expression).

_ne (quid) gravius dicam_—to say the least...

_ut breviter dicam_—to put it briefly.

_denique_—in short; to be brief.

_ne multa, quid plura? sed quid opus est plura?_—in short; to be brief.

_ut paucis (rem) absolvam_—in short; to be brief.

_ut paucis (brevi, breviter) complectar_—in short; to be brief.

_ut brevi comprehendam_—in short; to be brief.

_ut brevi praecīdam_—in short; to be brief.

_ut eorum, quae dixi, summam faciam_—to sum up...

_ne longum sit_—not to be prolix.

_ne longus, multus sim_—not to be prolix.

_ne diutius vos demorer_—not to be prolix.

_ne in re nota et pervulgata multus sim_—not to be diffuse on such a
well-known subject.

_ut levissime dicam_ (opp. _ut gravissimo verbo utar_)—to use the
mildest expression.

_ut planius dicam_—to express myself more plainly.

_ut verius dicam_—to put it more exactly.

_ut semel_ or _in perpetuum dicam_—to say once for all.

_ut in eodem simili verser_—to use the same simile, illustration.

_ut hoc utar_ or _afferam_—to use this example.

_dicam quod sentio_—I will give you my true opinion.

_tantum_ or _unum illud_ or _hoc dico_—I will only say this much...

_non nego, non infitior_—I do not deny.

_hoc dici potest de aliqua re_—this can be said of..., applies to...

_hoc cadit in aliquid_—this can be said of..., applies to...

_hoc transferri potest in aliquid_—this can be said of..., applies to...

_dixi quasi praeteriens_ or _in transitu_—I said _en passant_, by the

_sexcenties, millies dixi_—I have said it a thousand times.

_ut supra_ (opp. _infra_) _diximus, dictum est_—as I said above.

_dici vix (non) potest_ or _vix potest dici_ (_vix_ like _non_ always
before _potest_)—I cannot find words for...

_incredibile dictu est_—it sounds incredible.

_supersedeo oratione_ (not _dicere_)—I avoid mentioning...; I prefer
not to touch upon...

_omitto dicere_—I avoid mentioning...; I prefer not to touch upon...

_haec habeo dicere_ or _habeo quae dicam_—this I have to say.

_haec (fere) dixit_—he spoke (very much) as follows.

_hanc in sententiam dixit_—the tenor of his speech was this...

_mihi quaedam dicenda sunt de hac re_—I have a few words to say on this.

_quod vere praedicare possum_—without wishing to boast, yet...

_quod non arroganter dixerim_—which I can say without offence,

_pace tua dixerim_ or _dicere liceat_—allow me to say.

_bona (cum) venia tua dixerim_—allow me to say.

_non est huius loci_ c. Inf.—this is not the place to...

_non est hic locus, ut..._—this is not the place to...

_sed de hoc alias pluribus_—more of this another time.

_atque_ or _sed haec (quidem) hactenus_—so much for this subject...;
enough has been said on...

_atque haec quidem de..._—so much for this subject...; enough has been
said on...

_ac (sed) de ... satis dixi, dictum est_—so much for this subject...;
enough has been said on...

_haec (quidem) ille_—this much he said.

_haec Ciceronis fere_—this is very much what Cicero said.

_atque etiam hoc animadvertendum est_—there is this also to notice.

_ad reliqua pergamus, progrediamur_—to pass on.

_hic (ille) locus obscurus est_—this passage is obscure.

_hoc in medio relinquamus_—let us leave that undecided.

_sed lābor longius_—but that takes us too far.

_non id ad vivum reseco_ (Lael. 5. 8)—I do not take that too strictly.

_nonnulla praedīcam_—I wish to say a few words in preface.

_ut omittam_ c. Accus.—putting aside, except.

_cum discessi, -eris, -eritis ab_—putting aside, except.

_praeter_ c. Accus.—putting aside, except.

_ut praetermittam_ c. Acc. c. Inf.—to except the fact that...

_praeterquam quod_ or _nisi quod_—to except the fact that...

_hoc in promptu est_—it is clear, evident.

_hoc in aperto est_—it is clear, evident.

_hoc est luce (sole ipso) clarius_—this is as clear as daylight.

_hoc facile intellegi potest_—that is self-evident, goes without saying.

_hoc per se intellegitur_—that is self-evident, goes without saying.

_hoc sua sponte appāret_—that is self-evident, goes without saying.

_ex quo intellegitur_ or _intellegi potest, debet_—from this it
appears, is apparent.

_ex quo perspicuum est_—from this it appears, is apparent.

_inde patet, appāret_—from this it appears, is apparent.

_apparet et exstat_—it is quite manifest.

_exstat atque eminet_—it is quite manifest.

_si quaeris, si verum quaerimus_—to put it exactly.

_id quod maximum, gravissimum est_—the main point.

_quod caput est_—the main point.

_quod maius est_—what is more important.

_testis est, testatur, declarat_—this shows, proves...

_documento, indicio est_ (without demonstr. pron. but _cui rei
documento, indicio est_)—this shows, proves...

_sed hoc nihil (sane) ad rem_—but this is not to the point.

_aliquid (τι) dicis_ (opp. _nihil dicis_)—there is something in what
you say; you are more or less right.

_est istuc quidem aliquid_—there is something in what you say; you are
more or less right.

_audio, fateor_—I admit it, say on.

_ain tu?_—do you think so? are you in earnest?

_nonne?_—is it not so?

_quorsum haec (dicis)?_—what do you mean?

_male_ (opp. _bene_) _narras (de)_—I am sorry to hear...

_monstra dicis, narras_—it is incredible.

_clarius loquere_—speak up, please.

_mihi crede_ (not _crede mihi_)—believe me.

_per me licet_—I have no objection.

_rem acu tetigisti_—you have hit the nail on the head.

_ita prorsus existimo_—that is exactly what I think.

_ita res est_—it is so.

_res ita (aliter) se habet_—the matter stands so (otherwise).

_nec mirum, minime mirum (id quidem), quid mirum?_—no wonder.

_neque id mirum est_ or _videri debet_—there is nothing strange in that.

_et recte (iure, merito)_—quite rightly.

_et recte (iure) quidem_—quite rightly.

_recte, iure id quidem_—quite rightly.

_neque immerito (iniuria)_—and rightly too.

_neque id immerito (iniuria)_—and rightly too.

_meo (tuo, suo) iure_—with perfect right.

_iusto iure_—with perfect right.

_iustissime, rectissime_—legitimately; with the fullest right.

_optimo iure_ (cf. _summo iure_, sect. XV. 1).—legitimately; with the
fullest right.

_macte virtute_ (_esto_ or _te esse iubeo_)—good luck to you.

_sed manum de tabula!_—but enough!

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