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Title: A Gothic Grammar - with selections for reading and a glossary
Author: Wilhelm, Braune
Language: English
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                            GOTHIC GRAMMAR



                            WILHELM BRAUNE.



                           AND EDITED, WITH



                           GERHARD H. BALG.

                            SECOND EDITION.

                     MILWAUKEE, WIS.: THE AUTHOR.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                              G. H. BALG,



                   *       *       *       *       *


The main object of this Gothic Grammar is to render service to academic
instruction, as a basis for lectures and Gothic exercises; it is
intended, at the same time, to afford the student sufficient aid in
acquiring a practical knowledge of the Gothic language and thus enable
him to follow more advantageously the lectures on historical and
comparativ grammar. For this purpose the Gothic Fonology and Inflection
ar, as far as possibl, set forth by themselves, without resorting
to Comparativ Grammar for an explanation of the facts. Occasionally
another Germanic dialect, as the Old High German, has rather been
referd to. The linguistic elucidation is left to the lectures. To him,
however, who lerns Gothic from this book, without any possibility
of hearing lectures, wishing at the same time to gain profounder
knowledge, there may be especially recommended the following helps: K.
BRUGMANN'S 'Grundriss der vergleichenden grammatik' and FR. KLUGE'S
'Vorgeschichte der altgermanischen dialekte' (in PAUL'S 'Grundriss der
germ. philologie', I, 300-406).

The references to literary works containd in the Grammar itself ar not
intended to act as linguistic explanations, but refer to works and
treatises which present much of profit concerning the establishment
and conception of facts from a purely Gothic point of view; several
references to BRUGMANN'S 'Grundriss' ar perhaps the only exceptions.

The Reading Exercises ar intended to offer sufficient material for
Gothic exercises; they giv students working independently of a teacher
an opportunity to apply what they hav lernd from the Grammar. The
beginner may be advized at first simply to read over the chapters on
Fonology, but to giv more attention to those on Inflection (for the
beginning without the notes) and then to commence reading a text. This
exercise ought to be accumpanied by a more extended lerning of the
Grammar, just as a thuro analysis of the text wil require a constant
reference to the Grammar.

The Glossary contains not only the vocabulary of the Reading Exercises,
but also all words occurring in the Grammar. The citations from the
Inflection hav been givn in ful, those from the Fonology in every case
where a word is not givn merely as an arbitrary chozen exampl. Thus the
Glossary may at the same time serv as an Index to the Grammar.

Sinse its first appearance in 1880, this book has not undergone
essential changes; the success seemd to me to garantee the
appropriateness of the plan, so that also in the present edition I hav
not complied with several wishes for a farther scope. I stil hold that
an admixture of elements from Comparativ Filology would be opposed to
the object of the book. The question could rather arize as to whether
there ought not to be added any chapters on Word-Formation and Syntax
as main parts to the Fonology and Inflection. However this also has
been disregarded. Such points of word-formation as may promote the
practical study of the Gothic language, wil be found interwoven in
the Inflection; a systematic presentation of the Gothic alone does
not seem to me to prove very beneficial, but only in connection with
the other Germanic, resp. Indo-Germanic, languages. And particularly
with respect to this, excellent assistance is afforded the student by
KLUGE's 'Nominale stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen dialekte'
(cp. § 223) which has been amply referd to under Inflection, and which
is easily accessibl as a supplementary number to the 'Sammlung kurzer
grammatiken germanischer dialekte'. The addition of a syntax in harmony
with the rest of the grammar would likely hav increast the book to dubl
its size, which, as regards its sale, seemd to me a point wurthy of
consideration. There are, moreover, easily attainabl summaries of the
Gothic language. Therefore I hav for the present contented myself with
annexing a list of grammatical and lexical helps (§ 224), which may
serv as a guide to the inquirer.

For this edition I hav again receivd kind informations from sum that
uze the book. Beside the correction of misprints, the contents of the
book has been favorably influenced by notes receivd from Mssrs. G. H.
Balg, R. Bethge, J. Franck, and M. H. Jellinek. I herewith express my
sincerest thanks to all. Mr. Roediger's review has also been thankfully
uzed. For assistance renderd me in correcting the proof-sheets, I ow
many thanks to my friend E. Sievers.

  HEIDELBERG, May 1st, 1895.

                                                           W. BRAUNE.


The present edition contains all of the latest (fourth) German edition
and such additional matter as has been deemd fit to enable the student
to lern Gothic more quickly than he would without it. The addition of
the Explanatory Notes and of the comprehensiv amplification of the
Glossary has, in a mezure, been suggested and desired by many. At first
it was intended to ad explanatory notes only, leaving the glossary
intact. But from numerous communications I lernd that the present
glossary must be welcum to many, if not all, students of Gothic.

In writing down the Notes I hav taken great pains to place myself in
the position of the beginner, and it is hoped that the more advanced
student wil pardon what might seem superfluous to him. Sum of the
explanations ar due to Bernhardt's critical notes in his 'Wulfila'
to which I hav often referd. The Notes wer much more comprehensiv
before the glossary was workt out, but many of them hav been transferd
to the latter, in a few cases without being deleted in their first
place, as I observd in reading the proof-sheets. The Glossary has
been prepared upon the following plan: It is strictly alfabetic. The
compound verbs ar mentiond with the simpl verbs. Many inflectional
forms which the beginner who has not yet fully masterd the declensions
and conjugations, is not likely to recognize in the texts, hav been
givn as vocabulary words. The inflection of every word is indicated
by figures in parentheses. The figures in () immediately after the
vocabulary words refer to the paragrafs on Fonology. Proper nouns hav
been inflected in full inasmuch as they occur in the Selections. The
references to the texts ar complete and may be regarded as the first
supplement to my 'Comparativ Glossary of the Gothic Language'. Tho
admitting accidental omissions in this respect, I am certain that the
references ar more complete than those of any other glossary. This
tiresum work has cost me much time and labor, but I hope soon to be
able to continue and complete it for the remaining part of the Gothic

In the square brackets the derivation of the Gothic words is givn
first; then follow the correspondences or cognates, both being, with
one or two exceptions, Germanic. The cognates ar always preceded by cp.
or cf. It is possibl, however, that I hav faild in sum cases to point
out the transference of a word from one declension or conjugation to

This part of the book makes no claim to completeness. Several articls
had been laid aside for further consideration, but professional and
other duties as wel as the sudden appearance of the German edition
ar the causes of leaving them untucht. As regards derivation and
composition, the student wil do wel by reading carefully §§ 79-82 and §
88ᵃ together with the notes. To point out the various root-grades from
which words are derived, is left to the lecturer.

The translation of the Grammar was made from the advanced plate proofs
for which I am obliged to the eminent author, Prof. Wm. Braune, who
kindly and promptly forwarded them to me. Altho this part of the
work was done as fast as it was demanded by the printer, I feel sure
that nothing has been omitted. In this respect I am indetted to my
wife and one of my pupils, Miss Matilda Uihlein who, in comparing my
translation with the German text, red the latter from the beginning to
the end. Another pupil, Miss Ida Uihlein, is to be credited for the
translation of Prof. Braune's preface, which could be sent to press
with comparativly few emendations.

Beside the books often cited in the square brackets and in the Notes
I have thankfully uzed Mayhew and Skeat's Midl English Dictionary,
Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, and Mac Lean's Old and Midl English

  MILWAUKEE, Aug. 15th, 1895.

                                                          G. H. BALG.


  Fonology.                                                           Page

  Chap.   I. Alfabet (§§ 1-2)                                            1

  Chap.  II. Vowels (§§ 3-27)                                            3

  Chap. III. Table of the Vowels (§§ 28-36)                             14
    A. Fonetic System (§ 28).
    B. Historical System (§§ 29-36).

  Chap.  IV. Consonants (§§ 37-82)                                      18
    A. Sonorous Consonants (§§ 38-50).
    B. Noizd Sounds (§§ 51-78).
        Labials (§§ 51-56).
        Gutturals (§§ 57-68).
        Dentals (§§ 69-78).
    Appendix. General Remarks on the Consonants (§§ 79-82).


  Chap.   I. Declension of Substantivs (§§ 83-120)                      37
    General Remarks (§§ 83-88).
    A. Vowel (Strong) Declension (§§ 89-106).
    B. N-Declension (Weak Declension) (§§ 107-113).
    C. Minor Declensions (§§ 114-118).
    Appendix. Declension of Foren Words (§§ 119-120).

  Chap.  II. Declension of Adjectivs (§§ 121-139)                       51
    A. Strong Adjectivs (§§ 122-139).
    B. Weak Adjectivs (§ 132).
    C. Declension of Participls (§§ 133-134).
    D. Comparison of Adjectivs (§§ 135-139).

  Chap. III. Numerals (§§ 140-149)                                      58

  Chap.  IV. Pronouns (§§ 150-166)                                      61

  Chap.   V. Conjugation (§§ 167-209)                                   66
      I. Strong Verbs (§§ 169-182).
     II. Weak Verbs (§§ 183-195).
    III. Irregular Verbs (§§ 196-209).

  Chap.  VI. Particls (§§ 210-219)                                      85

  Appendix. The Goths, Sources, Editions, Grammatical and Lexical
                Helps, Literature of the Goth. Syntax (§§ 220-224)      89

  Selections for Reading                                                97

  Explanatory Notes                                                    117

  Glossary                                                             135


  anv., anomalous verb.
  cf. or cp., compare.
  E., English.
  follg., following.
  G., German.
  Gr., Greek.
  Idg., Indo-Germanic.
  Lt., Latin.
  ME., Midl English.
  MHG., Midl High German.
  NE., New English.
  NHG., New High German.
  Nth., Northumbrian.
  OE., Old English.
  OHG., Old High German.
  ON., Old Norse.
  OS., Old Saxon.
  pp., past participl.
  prec., preceding.
  prsp., present participl.
  prt.-prs., preterit present.
  Sc., Scotch.
  Shak., Shakspere.
  Sp., Spenser.
  sta., strong adjectiv.
  stv., strong verb.
  th. s., the same.
  w., with or word.
  wa., weak adjectiv.
  wv., weak verb.
  <, from; >, whense.

  Anz. fda., Anzeiger für deutsches alterthum, s. Zs. fda.

  Beitr., Beiträge zur geschichte der deutschen sprache und
      literatur. Halle 1874 ff.

  Bezzenb. beitr., Beiträge zur kunde der indogerm. sprachen, hg. v.
      A. Bezzenberger. Göttingen 1875 ff.

  Brugm., Grundriss der vergleichenden grammatik der indog. sprachen
      von K. Brugmann (Engl. edition). Strassburg 1886-92.

  Dietrich, aussprache des got., s. § 2 n. 1.

  Germ., Germania, hg. von Pfeiffer-Bartsch-Behaghel (1856-92).

  Grundr., Grundriss der germ. philologie, hg. v. H. Paul. Strassburg

  IF., Indogerm. forschungen, hg. v. K. Brugmann und W. Streitberg.
      Strassburg 1892 ff.

  Kl. W., Kluge, Wörterbuch.

  Kuhns zs., Zeitschrift für vergleichende sprachforschung. Berlin
      1852 ff.

  Litbl., Literaturblatt für germ. und roman. philologie. Heilbronn
      1880 ff.

  Sk., Skeat, Etymological Dictionary.

  vB., von Bahder, Verbalabstracta.

  Wrede, Wand., Sprache der Wandalen, s. § 220 n. 4.

  Wrede, Ostg., Sprache der Ostgoten, s. § 221 n. 4.

  Zs. fda., Zeitschrift für deutsches alterthum. Berlin 1841 ff. With
      this sinse vol. 19: Anzeiger für d. alt. Berlin 1876 ff.

  Zs. fdph., Zeitschrift für deutsche philologie. Halle 1869 ff.



§ 1. The monuments of the Gothic language ar handed down to us in a
peculiar alfabet which, according to Greek ecclesiastic writers, was
invented by Wulfila (s. § 221). The Gothic alfabet, however, is not
entirely a new creation, but Wulfila based it on the Greek alfabet
which he accomodated to the Gothic sounds, increasing it by several
signs from the Latin alfabet, and, in a few cases, availing himself
of the familiar runic alfabet. Of the Greek alfabet he also retaind
the order and numerical value. The Gothic alfabet is now sufficiently
represented in Roman letters. In the following we giv in the first line
the original Gothic characters, in the second their numerical values,
in the third the transliteration of the Gothic characters by Roman
letters, which latter we shall uze exclusivly in this book.


   A    B    Γ    d    e    u    z    h    Ψ

   1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9

   a    b    g    d    e    q    z    h    þ

   ϊι   R    λ    M    N    G    n    Π    ɥ

   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90

   i    k    l    m    n    j    u    p    --

   R    S    T    Y    Ꝼ    X    Θ    Ω    ↑

  100  200  300  400  500  600  700  800  900

   r    s    t    w    f    χ    ƕ    o    --]

  NOTE 1. Of these signs one (=i=, _10_) is represented by two forms.
  The =i= without dots occurs oftener, the =i= with dots stands at
  the beginning of a word, and in the midl of a word after a vowel,
  to show that it forms a syllabl for itself and does not form a
  difthong with the preceding vowel; e. g., =fraïtiþ= (= =fra-itiþ=).
  In transliteration =i= is employd thruout.

  NOTE 2. Two characters, the Greek episema 'koppa' (_90_) and
  'sampi' (_900_), hav no fonetic values, but serv only as numerals.
  When the symbols denote numerals, they ar markt by a horizontal
  stroke abuv them, or by dots before and after them: =i̅b̅= or
  =·ib·= = 12.

  NOTE 3. The transliteration of the Gothic symbols is not alike in
  all cases. Most editors hav hitherto uzed =v= for =w= (§ 39, n. 1);
  for the singl symbols =q= (§ 39, n. 1) and =ƕ= (§ 63) we find =kv=
  or =qu= and =hv= or =w=, respectivly; for =þ=, which is borrowd
  from the Norse-A.-S. alfabet, also =th= occurs (§ 70, n. 1).

  NOTE 4. The Gothic monuments show but few abbreviations; the holy
  names, =guþ=, =frauja=, =iêsus=, =Χristus=, ar always abbreviated.
  Abbreviations ar denoted by a stroke abuv the word, but in our
  texts the abbreviated words ar uzually printed in ful; as, =g̅þ̅= =
  =guþ=, =f̅a̅=, =f̅i̅n̅s̅= = =frauja=, =fraujins=.--For more on this
  point, s. Gabelentz-Loebe's grammar, p. 19 et seq.

  NOTE 5. The Goths alredy had the Germanic runic letters before
  Wulfila. The names of these letters wer uzed also for the new
  characters. The names of the Gothic symbols, together with a
  few Gothic words and alfabets, ar preservd in a Salzburg-Vienna
  manuscript of the 9th century: W. Grimm, 'Wiener Jahrbücher der
  Litteratur 43', p. 4 et seq. Massmann, zs. fda. 1, p. 296 et
  seq.--The form of the names, however, is very corrupt. As to
  this, cp. A. Kirchhoff, 'Das Gotische Runenalphabet', 2nd edit.,
  Berlin 1854; J. Zacher, 'Das Gotische Alphabet Vulfilas und das
  Runenalphabet', Leipzig 1855.--Of special importance is Wimmer's
  treatis on Wulfila's alfabet, as 'Appendix I' to his book: 'Die
  Runenschrift', Berlin 1887, pp. 259-274.

§ 2. Of the 27 characters two hav only numerical values, (§ 1, n. 2), a
third, the χ, is retaind only in Greek foren words, especially in the
name 'Christus', and denotes no Gothic sound. Hense there remain the
following 24 characters whose fonetic values ar to be determind:

(a) Consonants:

  =p b f m w | t d þ s z n l r | k q g h ƕ j.=

(b) Vowels:

  =a e i o u.=

(c) Difthongs:

  =ei iu ai au.=

In determining the fonetic values of these characters we ar guided
by the following means: (1) The Gothic alfabet is based on the Greek
alfabet; hense, the pronunciation of the Greek letters to be determind
for the 4th century, must also be regarded as that of the Gothic
letters so long as there is no proof to the contrary. (2) The rendition
of the numerous Greek foren words and proper nouns by Wulfila. (3)
The transliteration of the Gothic proper nouns in Latin documents
and by Latin authors of the 4th-8th centuries. (4) The testimony of
the cognate Germanic languages. (5) Fonetic changes and grammatical
fenomena in the Gothic language itself permit us to draw conclusions
about the nature of the sounds.

  NOTE 1. Concerning the pronunciation of the Gothic letters, cp.
  Weingärtner, 'Die Aussprache des Gotischen zur Zeit des Ulfilas',
  Leipzig 1858; Fr. Dietrich, 'Ueber die Aussprache des Gotischen
  während der Zeit seines Bestehens', Marburg 1862; about the
  consonants, Paul, 'Zur Lautverschiebung', Beitr. 1, p. 147 et seq.

  NOTE 2. An old testimony for the Gothic pronunciation in the
  Salzburg-Vienna MS.:

  _uuortun  otan   auar  euangeliū   ther   lucam_
  =waurþun  uþþan  afar  aiwaggeljo  þairh  Lokan=

      _uuorthun  auar  thuo  iachuedant iachᵘatun_
      =waurþun   afar  þo    jah qeþun.=

  ubi dicit. genuit _.j._ ponitur     ubi gabriel _.g._ ponunt et
  alia his sim̅ ubi aspiratione . ut dicitur gah libeda _jah libaida_
      diptongon _ai_ pro e longa    p ch _q_ ponunt.--Cp. § 1, n. 5,
  and, for explanation, especially Kirchhoff, p. 20 et seq.



§ 3. The Gothic =a= signifies as a rule the short a-sound [as in G.

  NOTE 1. Foren words and names; as, =Annas=, Ἀννας; =Akaja=, Ἀχαΐα;
  =barbarus=, βάρβαρος; =aggilus=, ἄγγελος; =karkara=, _carcer_;
  =lukarn=, _lucerna_; =Kafarnaum=, Καπερναούμ.

  NOTE 2. Gothic names: =Athanaricus=, =Ariaricus=, =Amalafrigda=

§ 4. Short =a= is very frequent both in stem-syllabls and in
inflection. E. g.

(a) Stem-syllabls: =agis=, _aw_; =aljis=, '_alius_'; =tagr=, _tear_;
=aƕa=, '_aqua_'; =alan=, _to grow_; =hafjan=, _to heav_; =saltan=, _to
salt_; =haldan=, _to hold_; =waldan=, _to rule_; =fadar=, _father_;
=staþs=, _place_.--=ahtau=, '_octo_'; =gasts=, _guest_; =ƕaþar=,
'_uter_'; =awistr=, _sheepfold_ (OHG. au, '_ovis_'; ahd. gr., § 219, n.
3); =bandi=, _band_; =barn=, _child_; =saggws=, _song_; all preterits
of the III.-V. ablaut-series: =bar=, _I bore_; =hlaf=, _I stole_;
=band=, _I bound_; =gaf=, _I gave_, etc.

(b) Inflections: =daga= (dat. sg., § 90), =waúrda= (nom. acc. pl., §
93), =giba= (nom. acc. sg., § 96), =guma= (nom. sg., § 107), =haírtôna=
(nom. acc. pl., § 109); --=blindamma=, =blindana=, =blinda=, =blindata=
(str. adj., § 123); --=imma=, =ina=, =ita=, =ija=, =meina= (prn.; § 150
et seq.); --=nima= (1st pers. sg. prs. ind.); =nimaima=, =nimaiwa=,
=nimaina= (1st pers. pl. du. and 3d pers. pl. opt., § 170); =haitada=
(medio-passiv, § 170); =sôkida= (weak prt., § 184); --adverbs: =-ba=
(as, =glaggwuba=), =nêƕa=, =inna=, =ana=, =waíla=, etc.

  NOTE 1. Apocope of an unaccented =a= before enclitics:
  =þat-ist=, =þat-ei=, =þan-uh=, =þamm-uh=, =þan-ei=, =þamm-ei=,
  =kar-ist=.--Also =frêt= and =frêtum= (prt. of =fra-itan=, _to
  devour_, § 176, n. 3).

  NOTE 2. For =a= in the difthongs =ai=, =au=, s. §§ 21. 25.

§ 5. In a few cases =a= is long [as in E. father]. (Comp. Holtzmann,
Altd. Gr., I, 3 et seq.).

(a) In foren words: =Silbânus= (_Silvanus_), =aurâli= (_orale_),
=spaíkulâtur= (_speculator_), =Peilâtus=, etc.;

(b) In the following Gothic words: =fâhan= (OHG. fâhan), _to cach_;
=hâhan= (OHG. hâhan), _to hang_; =þâhta= (prt. of =þagkjan=, _to
think_); =brâhta= (prt. of =briggan=, _to bring_); =gafâhs=, _a haul_;
=faúrhâh=, _curtain_; =gahâhjô=, _in order_; =-gâhts=, _a going_; also
=þâhô= (OHG. dâha), _clay_; =unwâhs=, _blameless_ (OE. wôh, _wrong_).

  NOTE. In the words mentiond under (b) =âh= arose from =anh= (§ 50,
  n. 1). Cp. also Litbl. 1886, p. 485.


§ 6. =e= is always a long, close vowel (=ê=) approaching very much the
sound of =i= [as in E. they].

  NOTE 1. In Greek words η is regularly represented by =ê=; e.
  g., =Gabriêl=, =Kêfas=, =aíkklêsjô=, =Krêta=; --sumtimes also
  ι: =Naên=, Ναίν; =Tykêkus=, Τυχικός; =aíloê=, ἐλωί; likewise e:
  =Jarêd=, Ἰαρέδ.

  NOTE 2. In Gothic names Latin writers employ =e= for Gothic =ê=:
  =Sigismêres=, =Gelimêr=, =Reccarêd=; besides, as erly as the 6th
  century, quite regularly also =i=; as, =Theodemir=, =Valamir=. Cp.
  Beitr., 11, 7 et seq.; Wrede, Wand., 92 et seq. #/Ναίν

§ 7. Goth. =ê= (which regularly corresponds to OHG. and OS. â; ahd.
gr., § 34) is found:

(a) in reduplicating verbs, in part with the ablaut =ô= (§§ 179.
181): =grêtan=, =lêtan=, =slêpan=; (b) in the prt. pl. of the IV.
and V. ablaut-series: =sêtum= (inf. =sitan=, _to sit_), =nêmun= (inf.
=niman=, _to take_), =têmum= (inf. =timan=, _to befit_), =êtum= (inf.
_itan_), and in the prt. sg. =frêt=; Luc. XV, 30 (§ 176, n. 3); (c)
in derivativs from the verbal stems givn under (b); as, =andanêms=,
_agreeabl_; =andanêm=, _a receiving_; =gatêmiba=, _becumingly_;
=uzêta=, _manger_; (d) in other words; as, =jêr=, _year_; =qêns=,
_wife_; =mêna=, _moon_; =lêkeis=, _fysician_; =mêrjan=, _to preach_;
=manasêþs= ('_man-seed_'), _world_, etc.; (e) in formativ syllabls:
=fahêþs=, _joy_; =awêþi=, _flock of sheep_ (cp. however § 17, n. 1);
=azêts=, _easy_; 2nd pers. sg. prt. of wvs., =-dês= (=nasidês=, § 184);
(f) final: in the ending of the gen. pl.; as, =dagê=; in monosyllabic
instrumentals: =þê=, =ƕê= (§§ 153. 159); in particls and advs.; as,
=swê=, =untê=, =hidrê=, =bisunjanê=; lastly, in the dativs =ƕammêh=,
=ƕarjammêh=, =ainummê-hun= (cp. §§ 163-166).

  NOTE 1. =ê= before vowels appears as =ai=; s. § 22.

  NOTE 2. =ei= occurs quite often for =ê=, especially in the Gospel
  of St. Luke; as, =qeins= (= =qêns=), =faheid= (= =fahêd=),
  =fraleitais= (= =fralêtais=); Lu. II, 5. 10. 29; =afleitan=; Mt.
  IX, 6, etc.

  NOTE 3. Sporadically also =i= for =ê=; so, frequently, in the
  Gospel of St. Lu.; as, =b~i~rusjôs=; Lu. II, 41; =q~i~þeina=; VIII,
  56. IX, 21; =tawid~i~deina=; VI, 11; =duatsn~i~wun=; Mk. VI, 53.
  Only =i= is found in =wriþus=, _herd_; Lu. VIII, 33 (for =wrêþus=;
  cp. Bezzenb. Beitr. 3, 114).

  NOTE 4. Reversely, also =e= occurs for =i= and =ei= (§ 10, n. 5; §
  17, n. 1).--These deviations (in ns. 2-4) seem due to East Gothic
  writers; cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 161.

§ 8. From the preceding =ê= must be separated the =ê= of sum Gothic
words in which it corresponds to OHG. ea, ia (not â): =hêr=, _here_;
=Krêks=, _Greek_; =fêra=, _side_, _region_; =mês=, _table_. Cp. ahd.
gr., §§ 35. 36; Beitr., 18, 409 et seq.


§ 9. Gothic =i=, as a rule, denotes the short vowel =i= [as in E. it],
while its corresponding long sound is represented by =ei= [= ie in E.
believ]; s. § 16.

  NOTE 1. The =i= in Greek words stands for short ι, only
  exceptionally for η which is generally represented by =ê=; e. g.,
  =Aúnisimus=, Ὀνήσιμος; =Biþania=, Βηθανία.

  NOTE 2. =i= in Gothic words is long, when it is incorrectly employd
  for =ê= (cp. § 7, n. 3).

§ 10. The Gothic =i=, from an historical point of view, is of two
kinds: It represents two originally distinct sounds which, from a
purely Gothic standpoint, can not be separated.

(a) Goth. =i= = proethnic Germanic e (OHG. ë or i; cp. ahd. gr., §§
28-30), as in the prs. tense of verbs of the III.-V. ablaut-series
(§§ 32-34): =niman=, OHG. nëman; =giban=, OHG. gëban; =giba=, OHG.
gëba; =bindan=, OHG. bintan; =itan=, _to eat_; =midjis=, '_medius_';
=hlifan=, _to steal_; =swistar=, OHG. swëster; =fidwôr=, _four_;
=gifts=, _gift_; =-qiss=, _speech_; the pps. of the V. ablaut-series:
=gibans=, =itans=, =lisans=, =wigans=, =qiþans=.

(b) Goth. =i= = proethnic Germanic i (OHG. i; ahd. gr., § 31); e. g.,
=lists=, _stratagem_; =fisks=, _fish_; =is=, _he_; =wissa=, _I knew_;
=skritnan=, _to rend_ (intr.); prt. pl. and pp. of the verbs of the
I. ablaut-series (§ 30): =bitun=, =bitans= (inf. =beitan=); =stigun=,
=stigans= (inf. =steigan=); =liþun=, =liþans= (inf. =leiþan=).

  NOTE 1. Final =i= occurs in =ni=, =bi=, =si=, =hiri=; in the
  nominativs of feminin and neuter =j=-stems: =bandi= (§ 96), =kuni=
  (§ 93); in the acc. and voc. sg. of the masculin =j=-stems: =hari=
  (§ 90); 3d pers. sg. prt. opt.: =nêmi=. This final =i= appears as
  =j=, when it becums medial (§ 45).

  NOTE 2. Final =i= before a following =i= of an enclitic word
  is elided in =nist= (= =ni-ist=), =sei= (= =si-ei=), =niba= (=

  NOTE 3. Every =i= before =h= and =r= is broken to =aí=; cp. § 20.

  NOTE 4. =ij= is found in =ija=, '_eam_'; =þrija=, '_tria_';
  =fijan=, _to hate_; =frijôn=, _to luv_; =sijum=, _we ar_; =kijans=,
  _germinated_, etc. =i= for =ij= is rare: =fian=, =sium=, etc., but
  =friaþwa= (beside =frijaþwa=), _luv_, occurs very often.

  NOTE 5. Occasionally =e= takes the place of =i=; as, =usdrebi=; Mk.
  V, 10; =seneigana=; I. Tim. V, 1.

  NOTE 6. For =i= in the difthong =iu=, s. §§ 18. 19.

  NOTE 7. For a separation of the two =i=s (= OHG. ë and i) in East
  Gothic names, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 162.


§ 11. The Gothic character =o= always denotes a long close =o=
approaching sumwhat the sound of =û= (= o in E. home).

  NOTE 1. In Greek words =o=, as a rule, corresponds to ω, rarely to
  ο; e. g., =Makidonja=, Μακεδονία; it also stands for ου: =Iodas=,
  Ἰούδας; Lu. III, 26.

  NOTE 2. =o= in Gothic words often stands for (short) =u= (§ 14, n.

§ 12. =ô= (= OHG. uo; s. ahd. gr., § 38 et seq.) is frequent in Gothic
words. E. g., =brôþar=, _brother_; =bôka=, _beech_; =frôþs=, _wise_;
=flôdus=, _flud_; =fôtus=, _foot_.

In the prt. of the VI. series (§ 35) and of the =ê--ô=-series (§ 36):
=ôl=, =hôf=, =ôg=, pl. =ôlum=, =hôfum=, =ôgum=; =laílôt=, =laílôtum,
aísô=. In endings, as in nom. pl. =gibôs=, =dagôs=; wvs. II.: =salbôn=;
final, in gen. pl. f. =gibô=, =tuggônô=; nom. sg. =tuggô=, =haírtô=.
Prns.: =ƕô=, =þô=, =sô=, =ƕanô-h=, =ainnô-hun=, =ƕarjanô-h=. Verb
=salbô=. Advs. in =-ô= (§ 211).

  NOTE 1. For =ô= we sumtimes find =u=: =gakrôtûda= (inf. =krôtôn=),
  _he is crusht_; Lu. XX, 18; =ûhtêdun= (prs. =ôg=), _they feard_;
  Mk. XI, 32.--In East Gothic names =u= often takes the place of =ô=;
  s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 164.

  NOTE 2. In a few words =ô= before vowels becums =au=; s. § 26.

  NOTE 3. =ô= and =u= interchange in the inflection of =fôn=, gen.
  =funins= (§ 118). Concerning this and other relations between =ô=
  and =u=, cp. Beitr. 6, 377 et seq.; 564; also Kuhns Zs., 26, 16 et


§ 13. The letter =u= in Gothic denotes both a short and a long vowel;
the short =u=, however, occurs oftener than long =û=.

  NOTE 1. =u= in foren words regularly represents Gr. ου. In
  unaccented syllabls, however, it stands for Gr. ο: =diabulus=,
  διάβολος (beside =diabaúlus=), =apaústulus= (beside =apaústaúlus=),
  =paíntêkustê=, πεντηκοστή.

  NOTE 2. =u= for =ô= seldom (§ 12, n. 1), =u= for =áu= (§ 25, n. 3).

§ 14. Short =u= is very frequent in Gothic. E. g.

(a) =juk=, _yoke_; =sunus=, _sun_; =drus=, _fall_; =us-drusts=, _a
falling_; =fra-lusts=, _lost_; =lusnan=, _to perish_; --in the prt.
pl. and pp. of the verbs of the II. series (§ 31); e. g., =gutum=,
=gutans=; =lusum=, =lusans=; --in endings of the sbs. of the =u=-decl.:
=handus=, =handu=; --final, as in =þu=, prn., _thou_; =nu=, _now_; =-u=
(interr. particl).

(b) =wulfs=, _wolf_; =wulla=, _wool_; =gaqumþs=, _council_; =gulþ=,
_gold_; =swumfsl=, _pond_; =hund=, _100_; =sibun=, _7_; =taíhun=, _10_;
=fulls=, _ful_; =un-= (privativ prefix); in the prt. pl. and pp. of the
verbs of the III. series (§ 32): =bundum=, =bundans=; in the pp. of the
verbs of the IV. series (§ 33): =numans=, =stulans=.

=brukans=, _broken_; =us-bruknan=, _to break off_ (intr.); =trudan=,
_to tred_, pp. =trudans=; =snutrs=, _wise_.

  NOTE 1. As a rule, the final =u= of stems is dropt before derivativ
  =j=-suffixes; e. g., =-hardjan=, _to harden_ (< =hardus=);
  =-agljan=, _to trubl_ (< =aglus=); =manwjan=, _to prepare_ (<
  =manwus=); =ufarassjan=, _to increase_ (< =ufarassus=); L. Meyer,
  'Got. Spr.', p. 325 et seq. But =skadwjan=, _to overshadow_
  (< =skadus=), and =skadweins=, _a shading_ (cp. Zs. fda. 36,
  269).--Concerning =u= beside =w=, cp. § 42.

  NOTE 2. Every =u= before =h= and =r= is broken to =aú=; cp. § 24.

  NOTE 3. =u= is eight times (mostly in Lu.) represented by =o=; e.
  g., =laúhm~o~ni=, _lightning_: Lu. XVII, 24; =sunj~o~s=, _suns_;
  Lu. XVI, 8; =ushôf~o~n=; Lu. XVII, 13; =ain~o~mêhun=; Lu. VIII, 43;
  =faíh~o~=, _muney_; Mk. X, 23.

  NOTE 4. In the endings of the =u=-declension =u= is occasionally
  represented by =au=; as, =sunaus= (nom. sg.); Lu. IV, 3; cp. § 105,
  n. 2.

§ 15. Long =û= certainly appears in: (a) =ût=, _out_ (=ûta=, etc.);
=dûbô=, _duv_; =rûna=, _mystery_; =rûms=, _room, roomy_; =*mûl= (in
=faúrmûljan=, _to muzl_); =brûþs=, _bride_; =hûs=, _house_; =skûra=,
_shower_; =hlûtrs=, _pure_; =fûls=, _foul_; =*mûks= (in =mûkamôdei=),
_meek_; =þûsundi=, _1000_; =brûkjan=, _to uze_ (prt. =brûhta=; adj.
=brûks=); =lûkan=, _to lock_ (§ 173, n. 2); =hrûkjan=, _to crow_ (s.
Beitr., 6, 379); =hnûþô=, _sting_ (Icel. hnúþa; s. Noreen, Nord. revy,
April 1883).

(b) for nasalized =u=, the primitiv nasal being lost (cp. § 5, b; § 50,
n. 1): =þûhta= (prt. of =þugkjan=, _to think_), =þûhtus=, _thought_
(adj. =þûhts=); =hûhrus=, _hunger_; =jûhiza= (compar. to =juggs=),
_yunger_; =ûhtwô=, _daybreak_; =ûhteigs=, =ûhtiugs=, _seasonabl_;
=bi-ûhts=, _accustomd_ (s. Brgm., I, 181).

  NOTE 1. =u= is perhaps long in: =þrûtsfill=, _leprosy_ (cp. ON.
  =þrútinn=, _swoln_; OE. =þrûstfell=; Beitr., 9, 254); =anabûsns=,
  _commandment_ (Beitr., 9, 152 and 10, 497; Brgm., II, 287); =lûns=,
  _ransom_ (Brgm., II, 285); =sûts=, _sweet_ (OS. swôti, OE. swête;
  cp. however Kuhn's Zs., 26, 380); the suff. =-dûþs= (§ 103; cp.
  Beitr. 6, 380); =jûs=, _ye_ (§ 150; Brgm., III, 374. 398). Sum
  write also =fidûr-= and =-ûh= (cp. § 24, n. 2).

  NOTE 2. In =Rûma=, _Rome_, =Rûmôneis=, _a Roman_, =û= stands for
  the Lt. o.

  NOTE 3. =o= for =û= occurs only in =ôhteigô=; II. Tim. IV, 2 (in
  codex B, for =ûhteigô= in A).

  NOTE 4. For =û= becuming =au= before vowels, s. § 26, b.


§ 16. Like Greek ει at the time of Wulfila, and in imitation of it,
Gothic =ei= denotes long =î=.

  NOTE 1. In Greek words =ei= uzually stands for ι, but also for
  =ei=, and sumtimes for η.

  NOTE 2. Concerning =ei= for Goth. =ê=, s. § 7, n. 2.

  NOTE 3. The difthongal pronunciation of =ei= suggested by J. Grimm
  is refuted also for linguistic reasons. Cp. J. Schmidt, 'Idg.
  Vocalismus', I, 485; Litbl. 1886, 485; Brgm., I, 57.

§ 17. =ei= in stem syllabls of Gothic words occurs especially in the
prs. tense of the I. series (§ 30): =beitan=, _to bite_; =steigan=,
_to mount_; =þeihan=, _to thrive_; in the inflection of these verbs it
interchanges with =ai= and =i=.

Other exampls: =ƕeila=, _time_; =eisarn=, _iron_; =leiþu=, _cider_;
=þreis=, _3_; =leihts=, _light_; =weihs=, _holy_; =skeirs=, _clear_;
pronouns: =weis=, _we_; =meins=, =þeins=, =seins=; --very often in
formativ and inflectional syllabls; as, adjs. in =-eigs= (=mahteigs=,
_mighty_); in =-eins= (=aiweins=, _eternal_); nomina actionis
in =-eins= (=laiseins=, _doctrin_); nom. and gen. sg. of the m.
=ja=-stems: =haírdeis=, _herd_; =laisareis=, _teacher_; nom. pl. of the
=i=-decl.: =gasteis=; opt. prt.: =nêmeis=; final, in feminins in =-ei=:
=managei= (§ 113); imperativs: =sôkei=, etc. (§ 186); the rel. particl
=ei= (§ 157), alone and in composition.

  NOTE 1. =ei= is quite often represented by =ê=; as =akêtis=; Mt.
  XXVII, 48; =wêhsa=; Mk. VIII, 26. 27; =akê=; Gal. II, 14; =izê=;
  Mk. IX, 1. Lu. VIII, 13. 15, etc.--Here perhaps belongs also
  =awêþi= (§ 7, e), which, however, occurs three times with =ê=: Jo.
  XVI, 16. I. Cor. IX, 7; cp. Beitr., 11, 32; 18, 286.

  NOTE 2. Onse (in =seiteina=; II. Cor. XI, 28) occurs =ei= beside
  =in= (in =sinteins=, _daily_; =sinteinô=, _always_).

  NOTE 3. Beside =gabeigs=, _rich_ (=gabei=, _riches_), which occurs
  5 times in Luke, also II. Cor. VIII, 9. Eph. II, 4 (in B), we find
  more frequently (11 times) =gabigs= (> =gabigjan=, _to enrich_;
  =gabignan=, _to grow rich_); cp. Brgm., II, 261. 271.


§ 18. In the pronunciation of =iu= the stress is on the =i=, and =u= is
a consonant.

  NOTE 1. In Gothic words Latin writers render =iu= by eu, eo:
  =Theudes=, =Theudicodo=; =Theodoricus=. As to this, cp. Wrede,
  'Wand', 100 et seq.; 'Ostg.', 167.

  NOTE 2. In =sium= (§ 10, n. 4), =niu= (interr. particl = =ni-u=, §
  216) =iu= is dissyllabic, i. e. =í-ú=.

§ 19. =iu= is a normal vowel of the present tense of the II. series (§
31), and here it interchanges with the ablauts =au=, =u=: =biugan=, _to
bend_; =biudan=, _to offer_.--In other words; as, =þiuda=, _peple_;
=dius=, _animal_; =liuhaþ=, _light_; =diups=, _deep_; =siuks=, _sick_;
=niujis=, _new_; =niun=, _9_; =iup=, _upward_.--In formativ and
inflectional syllabls =iu= does not occur, except in the isolated
=ûhtiugs= (I. Cor. XVI, 12. Cp. Beitr., 12, 202).

  NOTE. In =triu=, _tree_; =qiujan=, _to quicken_, etc., =iu=
  interchanges with =iw= before an inflectional vowel: gen. =triwis=;
  prt. =qiwida=; cp. § 42.


=ai= in Gothic words denotes two etymologically, and certainly also
fonetically, different sounds.

§ 20. I. +The short vowel+ =aí= [= a in E. fat]. =ai= is uzed in Gothic
to denote a short, open e[1]-sound. In this case, according to Grimm's
exampl, grammarians put an accute accent over the =i= (=aí=) in order
to distinguish it from =ái= (§ 21). Gothic =ai= corresponds to e or
i in OHG. and in the other Germanic languages. The short =e=-sound
represented by =aí= occurs:

(1) before =h= (=ƕ=) and =r=, which sounds hav caused breaking of
+every+ preceding short =i= to =e= (aí; § 10, n. 3); e. g., =aírþa=,
_erth_; =waírpan=, _to throw_; =baírhts=, _bright_; =faíhu=, _catl_;
=maíhstus=, _dung_; =raíhts=, _right_; =taíhun=, _10_; =saíƕan=, _to
see_; =þaíhum= (prt. pl. of =þeihan=, _to grow_). (2) in reduplicated
syllabls (§ 178 et seq.): =haíhald=, =aíaik=, =laílôt=, =saísô=, etc.
Cp. Osthoff, 'Zur Geschichte des Perfects', p. 276 et seq. Brugmann,
IV, 15. (3) in the conj. =aíþþau=, _or_ (= OHG. ëddo, ahd. gr. § 167,
n. 11; cp. Beitr. 12, 211); probably, also, in =waíla=, _wel_ (= OHG.
wëla, ahd. gr., § 29, n. 4), but cp. Beitr. 11, 553.

  NOTE 1. The law for the transition of =i= to =ai= before =h= and
  =r= (so-calld breaking or refraction) is almost without exception,
  and equally concerns the Germanic i in general and the Gothic =i=s
  (§ 10) in particular. The =i= before =h=, =r=, is retaind only in
  the following words: =nih=, '_neque_' (= =ni uh=), =hiri=, _(cum)
  here!_; du. =hirjats=, pl. =hirjiþ= (219); and in the isolated
  forms: =sihu=, _victory_ (cp. § 106, n. 1), =þarihis= (a probably
  corrupt form in Mt. IX, 16), adj. in gen. sg., _not fuld_ (said of
  cloth). Cp. IF. 4, 334 et seq.

  NOTE 2. +Not every+ =ai= before =h=, =r= is =aí=, but may also be
  the old difthong; e. g., =þáih= (prt. of =þeihan=, like =ráis=,
  prt. of =reisan=, but pl. =þaíhum=, like =risum=, § 30), =áih=, _I
  hav_; =áihts=, _property_; =háihs=, _one-eyd_; =fáih=, _deceit_
  (Beitr., 12, 397); =áir=, _erly_ (OHG. êr); =sáir= (OHG. sêr),
  _sorrow_; =áirus=, _messenger_. Whether =ai= has the value of
  =ái= or =aí= can in most cases only be inferd from the remaining
  Germanic languages.

  NOTE 3. In Latin orthografy =aí= is exprest by e; e. g.,
  Ermanaricus = Goth. =*Aírmanareiks=, Ermenberga = Goth.
  =*Aírminbaírga=. Cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 162.

  NOTE 4. =ai= is to be regarded as a difthong (=ái=) in =baitrs=,
  _bitter_; =jains=, _yon, that_ (and its derivations), while
  formerly, according to OHG. bittar, jenêr, it was thought to be
  short (=aí=). Cp. Holtzmann, 'Altd. Gr.', p. 11 et seq.; Brgm.,
  I, 392; Bezzenb. Beitr., 16, 156.--Scherer (Zur Gesch. d. dtsch.
  Sprache) presumed short =aí= also in the 3d pers. sg. prs. opt.
  (like =nimai=) and in several forms of the strong inflection of
  adjs. (nom. pl. m. =blindai=, gen. sg. f. =blindaizôs=, gen. pl.
  =blindaizê=, =blindaizô=). Hirt (Beitr., 18, 284 et seq.) goes stil
  farther in this direction.--Cp. also § 22, n. 3. #/

§ 21. II. +The old Difthong+ =ai=. By far the greater number of the
Gothic =ai=s express a difthongal sound which is equivalent to OHG. ei
or ê (ahd. gr., §§ 43. 44), OS. ê, ON. ei. The Goths of Wulfila's time
indeed seem to hav stil pronounced this =ai= as =a= + =i=.--For the
difthong =ai= we employ Grimm's sign =ái= whenever it is likely to be
confused with =aí=. Exampls of difthongal =ai= (before =h=, =r=, cp.
§ 20, n. 2): The prts. sg. of the I. ablaut-series (§ 30),--=bait=,
_I bit_ (inf. =beitan=); =staig=, _I mounted_ (inf. =steigan=); etc.;
=wait= (§ 197); =ains=, _one_; =hlaifs=, (_loaf of_) _bred_; =staiga=,
_path_; =laisjan=, _to teach_; --=haitan=, _to be calld_; =maitan=,
_to cut_; =skaidan=, _to separate_; =aiws=, _time_; --=hails=, _hale_,
_sound_; =dails=, _deal_.

=ai= appears also in inflectional syllabls of the III. Weak Conjugation
(§ 191): =habais=, =habaida=, etc.; in the prs. opt.: =nimais=, etc.;
=anstais=, gen. sg. of the =i=-decl.; in the str. adjs.: =blindaizôs=,
etc. (§ 123); --final: =gibai=, =anstai=, dat. sg.: =nimai=, 3 prs.
sg. opt.; =blindai=, dat. sg. f. and nom. pl. m. of the str. adj.;
--monosyllabls: =þai=, nom. pl., _these_; =twai=, _2_; =bai=, _both_;
=jai=, _yes_; =sai=, _behold!_; =wai=, _woe!_

  NOTE 1. Latin writers express the Gothic =ai= predominantly by
  ai, ei: =Dagalaiphus=, =Gaina=, =Radagaisus=, =Gisaleicus= (cp.
  Dietrich, 'Ausspr.'), =eils= in a Lt. epigram (Zs. fda., 1, 379).
  On the Bukarest rune-ring (cp. § 221, n. 3) stands =hailag= (Paul's
  'Grundriss', I, 411).--Concerning the difthongal pronunciation of
  the Gothic =ai=, cp. especially Wrede, 'Wand.', 95 et seq.; about
  monofthongization in East Goth., s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 165.

  NOTE 2. =ai= and =aj= interchange in =wai=, _woe!_; =wai-dêdja=,
  _evil-doer_, and =waja-mêrjan=, _to blasfeme_; in =aiws=, _time_,
  and =ajukdûþs=, _eternity_.

§ 22. Many scholars hold that also the =ai= in the reduplicating ablaut
vs. (§ 182) =saian= and =waian= is difthongal. This =ai=, however,
stands etymologically for Gothic =ê=, and its OHG. equivalent is â (not
ei): OHG. sâen, wâen (cp. ahd. gr., § 359, n. 3.) The difthong =ai=
before a vowel would becum =aj=; hense, =*sajan=, =*wajan=. Here =ai=
perhaps has the sound of long æ, i. e. open e representing close e (ê)
when followd by a vowel; thus, =saian=, =waian=, for =sêan=, =wêan=.

  NOTE 1. Before the =i= of the 3d pers. sg. prs. a =j= is often
  found: =saijiþ= (Mk. IV, 14), =saijiþ= (II. Cor. IX, 6 in A, for
  =saiiþ= in B; Gal. VI, 7. 8. in A, for =saiiþ= in B). Before =a=
  the =j= occurs but onse: =saijands= (Mk. IV, 14). Cp. Beitr. 11, 75
  et seq.

  NOTE 2. Here belongs also the isolated =faian= (Rom. IX, 19, in
  prs. =faianda=); but the prs. to the prt. =laílôun= is =lauan=
  rather than =laian=. Cp. Beitr. 11, 56.

  NOTE 3. Also the =ai= in =armaiô=, _alms_ (Bezzenb. Beitr. 7, 210;
  Beitr. 11, 74), is likely to belong here.--Concerning the fonetic
  values of the =ai=s discust here, cp. especially Beitr. 11, 51
  et seq.; Brgm., I, pp. 126. 127; Wrede, 'Wand.' 99, who, beside
  Holtzmann, is inclined to assume a long sound for these =ai=s;
  Noreen, 'Urg. Lautlehre', p. 35 et seq.

§ 23. That the Goth. =ai= may be both short and long (like a in E.
at, fare) is evident from its regular occurrence in Greek words. As
a rule, =ai= = ε in =aikklêsjô=, ἐκκλησία; =Aileisabaiþ=, Ἐλισάβεθ;
=Baiailzaibul=, Βεελζεβούλ; =Gainnêsaraiþ=, Γεννησαρέτ, etc.; likewise
= αι (i. e. long æ): =Idumaia=, Ἰδουμαία; =Haíbraius=, Ἑβραῖος;
=hairaísis=, αἵρεσις, etc.

  NOTE. Gothic =ai= for Greek η is exceptional; e. g.,
  =Hairodiadins=, gen. to Ἡρωδίας (Mk. VI, 17); =Neikaúdaimus=
  (Skeir. 52); Νικόδημος (for =Nikaúdêmus= elsewhere.)


Also Goth. =au= (like =ai=) stands for historically and fonetically
different sounds.

§ 24. I. +The short vowel+ =aú=.--=au= in Gothic denotes a short open
=o=-sound. In this case grammarians put an accute accent over the =u=
(=aú=) in order to keep it apart from the difthong =au=. Goth. =aú=
corresponds to o or u in OHG. and in the other Germanic languages.

The =aú=, before =h= and =r= in Gothic words, has in every instance
developt from a short =u= which, when immediately followd by these
sounds, was 'broken' to short ŏ. E. g.

=waúrms=, _wurm_; =haúrn=, _horn_; =baúrgs= (OHG. burg), _city_;
=waúrd=, _word_; =waúrpum=, prt. pl. of =waírpan=, _to throw_ (cp. §
32); =saúhts= (OHG. suht), _sickness_; =daúhtar=, _daughter_; =aúhsa=,
_ox_; =taúhum=, prt. pl. of =tiuhan=, _to pul_; =baúhta=, prt. of
=bugjan=, _to buy_.

  NOTE 1. =aú= before other sounds is entirely exceptional and
  sumwhat doutful. Thus, in =auftô=, _perhaps_ (onse also =ufto=;
  Mt. XXVII, 64), =bisauljan=, _to sully_; =bisaulnan=, _to becum
  sullied_. Holtzmann (altd. gr., p. 14) regards also =ufbauljan=
  (II. Tim. III, 4) as belonging to this class.

  NOTE 2. The change of short =u= into =aú= before =h= is without
  exception. An apparent exception is the enclitic =-uh=, _and_,
  the =u= of which must be referd to a secondary development; it is
  never found after a short accented vowel, nor after a long vowel or
  difthong; e. g., =sa-h=, =ni-h=, =þai-h=, =wiljáu-h=, =ƕarjanô-h=;
  =u= occurs after consonants, and in polysyllabic words in which a
  final short =a= before the =u= was elided; as, =ƕaz-uh=, =þammuh=
  (= =þamma uh=), =qiþuh= (= =qiþa uh=). Sum, however, assume =-ûh=
  (cp. Beitr. 18, 299).--Other =u=s before =h= ar all long: =þûhta=
  (cp. § 15).--There ar a few cases of =u= before =r= in unaccented
  syllabls (§ 13, n. 1), namely in the foren words =spaikulâtur= and
  =paúrpura= (beside =paúrpaúra=), _purpl_; so, also, in the Gothic
  =fidur-= (§ 141, n. 1) which, however, stands perhaps for =fidûr-=
  (cp. IF. 4, 334).--The prefix =ur-= (in =urreisan=, =urruns=, etc.)
  does not belong here; it is a late form for =us= the =s= of which
  was assimilated to a following =r= (§ 78, n. 4).

  NOTE 3. Not every =au= before =h= and =r= has developt from =u=,
  but may also be the difthong =au=; as, =háuhs=, _high_; =táuh=,
  prt. of =tiuhan= (but pl. =taúhum=, § 31); =gáurs=, _sorry_ (cp.
  OHG. gôrag, _wreched_, and Goth. =gaunôn=, _to mourn_).

  NOTE 4. The =au= for =u= in the endings of the =u=-declension may
  be =aú=, but also =áu= which would be due to confusion caused by
  analogy. Beitr., 18, 280.--Cp. also =uftô= for =auftô=, § 24, n. 1.

  NOTE 5. As a rule, the Greek ο is represented by =aú=; e.
  g., =apaustaulus=, ἀπόστολος; =alabalstraun=, ἀλάβαστρον;
  =Barþaulaumaius=, Βαρθολομαῖος; =Pauntius=, Πόντιος; =aú= = υ in
  =Saúr=, Σύρος; =paúrpaúra=, πορφύρα.--Goth. =aú= = o in the East
  Gothic name =Thorisa=. (Wrede, 'Ostg.', 76. 165).

§ 25. II. +The old difthong+ =au= [= ou in E. house]. Every =au= not
broken from =u= (before =h=, =r=; s. § 24 and note 3) is a difthong; it
corresponds to OHG. au, ou, or ô (ahd. gr., §§ 45. 46), OS. ô, ON. au.
Whenever it is likely to be confused with =aú=, we put (according to
Grimm), an accute accent over the =a= (=áu=). E. g.

The prts. sg. of the II. ablaut-series (§ 31): =gaut=, _I pour_ (inf.
=giutan=); =laug=, _I lied_, etc.; =laugnjan=, _to deny_; =daupjan=,
_to baptize_; =galaubjan=, _to believ_; =galaubeins=, _belief_;
=rauþs=, _red_; =dauþus=, _deth_; --=aukan=, _to increase_; =hlaupan=,
_to run_; =stautan=, _to push, strike_; --=haubiþ=, _hed_; =augô=, _ey_.

=au= in inflections and final occurs in the =u=-declension: =sunaus=,
=sunau=; 1st pers. sg. opt.: =nimau=, =nêmjau=; 3d pers. sg. imper.:
=lausjadau=; opt. midl: =haitaidau=.

  NOTE 1. =au= often interchanges with =aw= (cp. § 42); e. g.,
  =taujan=, prt. =tawida=, _to do_; =mawi=, gen. =maujôs=, _girl_;
  =sniwan=, prt. =snau=, _to hasten_.

  NOTE 2. Latin writers express Goth. =au= by au; as, =Ausila=,
  =Austrovaldus=, =Audericus=. Cp. Wrede, 'Wand.', 96 et seq.
  Concerning East Gothic monofthongizations, s. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 165
  et seq. (Zs. fda., 36, 273²).

  NOTE 3. In the =u=-declension =u= is often found for =áu=; cp. §
  24, n. 4; § 105, n. 2.

§ 26. Another =au=, historically, and probably also fonetically,
different from the preceding ones occurs before vowels.

(a) For original =ô=: =stauida=, prt. of =stôjan=, _to judge_; =staua=,
f., _judgment_; =staua=, m., _judge_; =taui=, n., gen. =tôjis=, _deed_
(cp. also =ubiltôjis=, _evil-doer_; =taujan=, _to do_, prt. =tawida=);
=afmauidai= and =afdauidai=, pps. of =*afmôjan=, and =*afdôjan=, _to
tire out, weary_; =sauil=, n., _sun_.

(b) For û in the other Germanic languages: =trauan= (OHG. trûên), _to
trust_; =bauan= (OHG. bûan), _to dwel_; =bnauan=, _to rub_ (_to pieces_
or _powder_. ON. (g)núa, OHG. nûan). Cp. also § 179, n. 2.

Sinse this =au= does not change into =aw= before vowels, it must denote
a monofthong which is likely to be the long of =aú=, hense a long open
=o= (= a in E. fall), while long close =o= (shading very much to =û=,
like ô in E. home) is denoted by =ô=. Accordingly, Goth. antevocalic
=ô=, =û= past into =au=. Cp. Brgm., I, 156. For the extensiv literature
on this question, s. Noreen's 'Urgerm. Lautlehre', p. 34; also Beitr.,
17, 563-567.

  NOTE 1. Also Gr. ω before a vowel, which is represented as a
  rule by =ô=, is renderd by =au=: =Trauada=, Τρῳάς; =Nauêl=, Νωέ;
  =Lauidja=, Λωίς.

  NOTE 2. =ô= before =u= occurs, however, in the preterit forms
  =waiwôun= (inf. =waian=, § 182), =lailôun= (inf. =*lauan=, § 179,
  4). Cp. Beitr., 11, 74².


§ 27. Beside the vowel-signs discust in the foregoing paragrafs, a
few consonant-signs may likewise discharge the function of vowels,
for the Gothic liquids =l=, =r= and the nasals =m=, =n= ar very often
vocalic (i. e. syllabic) at the end of a word after a consonant. Here
an original suffixal vowel was lost in most cases, and in its place the
following liquid or nasal became the bearer of the accent. Thus the
Gothic has dissyllabic words with vocalic liquids or vocalic nasals
(sonant liquids or sonant nasals); as, =ak~r~s=, _field_; =fug~l~s=,
_bird_; =taik~n~s=, _token_; =maiþ~m~s=, _present_.

  NOTE In the West Germanic languages a new vowel (OHG. a) has
  developt from these vocalic liquids and nasals; e. g., OHG. akkar,
  fogal, zeihhan, OS. mêþom. Cp. ahd. gr., § 65, and Brgm., I, 190.


[1] For the values of this sign according to 'Amended Spelling', s.
'Standard Dictionary', p. 568.



§ 28. In the preceding paragrafs the Gothic vowels hav been givn
according to the letters by which they ar represented. Now they wil
be arranged according to the nature of their +sounds+, the following
scale of seven vowels from i to u being taken as a basis:

                          i  e  æ  a  ǫ  o  u.

e and o denote here the close e and o (which shade very much to i and
u, respectivly); æ = open e (= a in fat, fare); ǫ = open o.

In the following survey we shal state after each of these vowel grades
whether it occurs in Gothic, and by what letter it is exprest.

  i:  Short, =i= (§ 10).
      Long, =ei= (§§ 16. 17).
  e:  Short, wanting.
      Long, =ê= (§§ 6-8).
  æ:  Short, =aí= (§ 20).
      Long? (perhaps the ai in § 22).
  a:  Short, =a= (§§ 3. 4).
      Long, =â= (§ 5).
  ǫ:  Short, wanting.
      Long, =ô= (§§ 11. 12).
  u:  Short, =u= (§§ 13. 14).
      Long, =û= (§ 15).

  iu: §§ 18. 19.
  ai: § 21.
  au: § 25.


§ 29. The Gothic vowels, as regarded from a historico-etymological
point of view, may be groupt into a number of series of related vowels.
The vowels belonging to such a series may interchange in formations
with the same root; in the formation of tenses and in the verbal and
nominal derivation all vowels of the same series may occur, but not
such as hav nothing in common with that series. This change of vowels
within a series is calld +ablaut+ (or gradation), the series themselvs
+ablaut-series+. The ablaut-series ar most perceptibl in the verb. The
relation between the vowels of the same series is not a fonetic but a
+historical+ one; to establish it, we must pass beyond the limits of
the Germanic languages and take recourse to the comparativ grammar of
the Indo-Germanic languages. The Gothic ablaut-series as appearing in
verbal inflection ar these (cp. § 172 et seq.):

§ 30. I. Series: =ei= =ai= =i (aí)=.

Exampls: =reisan= (=urreisan=), =rais=, =risum=, =risans=, _to rize_;
=urraisjan=, _to raiz_; =urrists=, f., _resurrection_; --=þeihan=,
=þaíh=, =þaíhum=, =þaíhans=, _to thrive_; --=wait=, _I know_; pl.
=witum=; =weitan=, _to see_; =weitwôds=, _witness_; =miþ-wissei=,
_conscience_; =witubni=, n., _knowledge_; --=lais=, _I know_;
=lubja-leisei=, f., _wichcraft_; =lists=, f. (?), _stratagem_;
=laisjan=, _to teach_.

  NOTE. The =i= of this series is the proethnic Germanic i mentiond
  in § 10, b.

§ 31. II. Series: =iu= =au= =u (aú)=.

Exampls: =giuta=, =gaut=, =gutum=, =gutans=, _to pour_; =gutnan=,
_to pour_ (intr.); --=liugan=, =laug=, =lugum=, =lugans=, _to lie_;
=liugnja=, m., _liar_; =liugn=, n., _lie_; =analaugns=, _hidn_;
=laugnjan=, _to deny_; --=galaubjan=, _to believ_; =galaubeins=,
_belief_; =liufs=, _dear_; =lubô=, f., _luv_; =lubains=, f., _hope_;
--=siuks=, _sick_; =saúhts=, f., _sickness_; --=driusan=, _to fall_;
=drausjan=, _to drop_ (tr.); =drus=, m., _fall_; =driusô=, f., _slope_.

  NOTE. The vowel =û= is rare in this series; cp. =lûkan=, _to lock_
  (§ 173, n. 2); =anabûsns= (? § 15, n. 1), _command_, < =biudan=.

§ 32. III. Series: =i (aí)= =a= =u (aú)=.

The themes of this series always hav two consonants after the vowel,
mostly a liquid or a nasal in gemination, or a liquid or a nasal +
another consonant. E. g.

=bindan=, =band=, =bundum=, =bundans=, _to bind_; =bandi=, f., _band_;
=bandja=, m., _prisoner_; =gabinda=, f., _band, bond_; =and-bundnan=,
_to becum loose_; =gabundi=, f., _bond_; --=rinnan=, _to run_;
=rannjan=, _to cause to run_; =runs=, m., _a run, course_; =rinnô=,
f., _brook_; --=waírpan=, =warp=, =waúrpum=, =waúrpans=, _to throw_;
=uswaúrpa=, f., _a casting out_ or _away, an outcast_; --=þaírsan=,
_to be dry_; =þaúrsnan=, _to wither_; =þaúrsus=, _dry, witherd_;
=þaúrstei=, _thirst_; --=drigkan=, _to drink_; =dragkjan=, _to giv to
drink_; =dragk=, n., _a drink, potion_; =-drukja=, m., _a drinker_;
=drugkanei=, f., _drunkenness_; --=þriskan=, _to thresh_; =gaþrask=,
n., _threshing-floor_.

  NOTE. The =i= of this and the following two series is that givn in
  § 10, a (= proethnic Germanic e).

§ 33. IV. Series: =i (aí)= =a= =ê= =u (aú)=.

The stems of this series hav a simpl liquid or nasal after the vowel.
E. g.

=niman=, =nam=, =nêmum=, =numans=, _to take_; =-numja=, m., _taker_;
=anda-numts=, f., _a receiving_; =andanêms=, _agreeabl_; =andanêm=,
n., _a receiving_; --=baíran=, =bar=, =bêrum=, =baúrans=, _to bear_;
=baúr=, m., '_natus_'; =barn=, n., _child_; =bêrusjôs=, _parents_;
--=ga-timan=, _to becum, suit_; =ga-tamjan=, _to tame_; =gatêmiba=,

  NOTE. To this series belongs also =brikan=, =brak=, =brêkum=,
  =brukans=, _to break_: =gabruka=, f., _a broken bit_; =us-bruknan=,
  _to break off_ (intr.); =brakja=, f., _strugl_.--Also =trudan=, _to
  tred_; § 175, n. 2.

§ 34. V. Series: =i (aí)= =a= =ê=.

The vowel of the stems of this series is followd by a singl consonant
other than a liquid or a nasal. E. g.

=giban=, =gaf=, =gêbum=, =gibans=, _to giv_; =giba=, f., _gift_;
=gabei=, f., _richness_; --=sitan=, _to sit_; =satjan=, _to set_;
=anda-sêts=, _abominabl_; --=mitan=, _to mezure_; =mitôn=, _to
consider_; =mitaþs=, f., _mezure_; =usmêt=, n., _manner of life_;
--=ga-nisan=, _to be saved_, _recuver_; =nasjan=, _to save_; =ganists=,

  NOTE. Also =saíƕan=, =saƕ=, =sêƕum=, =saíƕans=, belongs to this
  class, because =ƕ= represents a singl sound; § 63, n. 1.

§ 35. VI. Series: =a= =ô=.

Most of the stems of this series end in a singl consonant. E. g.

=wakan=, =wôk=, =wôkum=, =wakans=, _to wake_; =waknan=, _to awake_;
=wahtwô=, f., _wach_; =wôkains=, f., _a waching_; --=graban=, _to dig_;
=grôba=, f., _pit, hole_; =graba=, f., _dich_; --=fraþjan=, =frôþ=, _to
understand_; =fraþi=, n., _understanding_; =frôþs=, _wise_; =frôdei=,
f., _understanding, wisdom_; --=hafjan=, =hôf=, _to heav_ (tr.);
=-hafnan=, _to heav_ (intr.); =haban=, _to hav, hold_; =ungahôbains=,
f., _incontinency_; --=ôg=, _I fear_; =unagands=, _fearless_; =ôgjan=,
_to frighten_; =usagjan=, _to terrify_; =agis=, n., _fear_; --=sakan=,
_to contend_; =sakjô=, f., _strife_; =sôkjan=, _to seek_; =sôkns=, f.,
_serch, inquiry_; =unand-sôks=, _irrefutabl_.

§ 36. Series: =ê= =ô= (VII. Ablaut-Series).

A connection between =ê= and =ô= occurs in the so-calld reduplicating
ablaut-verbs =lêtan=, =laílôt=, etc.; =saian= (= =*sêan=, § 22),
=saísô=, etc.; cp. § 180 et seq.

  NOTE. This series is no longer found in the verbal inflection of
  the remaining Germanic languages, but its existence is proved by
  its occurring in word-formation; as, OHG. (â: ô) tât, f., tôn,
  tuon, _to do_; --knâan, _to know_: knôt, chnuat, f., _kin_.--For
  more on this point, s. Beitr. 11, 262 et seq.


§ 37. The consonant-signs to be discust here both in regard to value
and occurrence in the Gothic language hav alredy been enumerated in
§ 2. We divide the consonantal sounds in +sonorous+ consonants and
+noizd sounds+. Cp. Sievers, Grundzüge der Phonetik⁴, p. 70 et seq.
Accordingly, the Gothic consonant-signs =w=, =j=, =l=, =m=, =n=, =r=,
represent the +sonorous sounds+, the rest the noizd sounds.


1. The semivowels w and j.

§ 38. Germanic w and j ar the vowels u and i uzed as consonants; hense
in Gothic the interchange between =i= and =j=, =u= and =w=, according
to their position which determins their fonetic values as vowels or
consonants. The consonantal i and u, which in other languages ar
denoted by the same signs as the vocalic i and u, hav special signs in
Gothic, =j= and =w=. These sounds ar also calld 'semivowels'.


§ 39. The sign of the Gothic alfabet which we represent by =w=, is,
according to its form and alfabetic position, the Gr. υ. For this
it also stands in Greek foren words, for exampl, =Pawlus=, Παῦλος;
=Daweid=, Δαυίδ; =aíwaggêljô=, εὐαγγέλιον; =paraskaíwê=, παρασκευή.
But the Gothic =w= stands not only for the Gr. υ of the combinations
αυ, ευ, in which it had perhaps at that time assumed the value
of a spirant, but also for simpl Greek υ, namely vocalic υ; as,
=Swmaíôn=, Συμεών; =swnagôgê=, συναγωγή; =martwr=, μάρτυρ. But in our
transcriptions of the Gothic texts the Greek vocalic υ is exprest by
=y= instead of =w= (=Symaíôn=, =synagôgê=, =martyr=); so, also, for
practical reasons, in this book.

  NOTE 1. A noteworthy Gothic transcription is =kawtsjô= (= Lt.
  cautio) in the document at Naples (§ 221, n. 3). Cp. Wrede,
  'Ostg.', 166; Zs. fda., 36, 273.

  NOTE 2. The Gothic sign is in most of the later editions
  represented by =v=. But because of its correspondence in the
  other Germanic languages the letter =w= should be uzed (as, Goth.
  =wilja=, MHG. NHG. wille, OE. willa, NE. wil). Cp. Beitr., 12, 218
  et seq.

§ 40. In Gothic words the =w= originally had the fonetic value of the
consonantal =u= (= E. w). But at Wulfila's time the =u=-sound seems to
hav alredy containd sumwhat of a spirant. Cp. Zs. fda., 36, 266 et seq.
(37, 121 et seq.).

  NOTE. Latin writers uzually express the =w= in proper nouns by uu.
  =Vvilia=, =Uualamir=; but also often by Ub: =Ubadala= (= =Wadila=),
  =Ubadamirus= (= =Wadamêrs=), etc. Greek authors mostly put οὐ for
  the Goth. =w= (as in Οὐάνδαλοι), but also β (as in Βάνδαλοι). Cp.
  Dietrich, pp. 77-80. Wrede, 'Wand.', 102; 'Ostg.', 167 et seq.

§ 41. Initial Gothic =w= occurs frequently; e. g., =wasjan=, _to
clothe_; =witan=, _to know_; =wiljan=, _to wil_; =waír=, _man_;
=warmjan=, _to warm_.

So also before =l= and =r=; as, =wlits=, _countenance_; =wrikan=, _to
persecute_; =wrôhjan=, _to accuse_.

After the consonants: =t=, =d=, =þ=, =s=; e. g., =twai=, _two_;
=dwals=, _foolish_; =þwahan=, _to wash_; =swistar=, _sister_.

Medial =w= before vowels; e. g., =awistr=, _sheepfold_; =saiwala=,
_soul_; =hneiwan=, _to bow_; =siggwan=, _to sing_; =ûhtwô=, _dawn_;
=taíhswô=, _right hand_; =nidwa=, _rust_.

  NOTE. The signs =q= (=kw=) and =ƕ= (=hw=) ar also uzually explaind
  as combinations of =w= with =k= and =h=. There ar reasons, however,
  to assume that =q= and =ƕ= ar simpl labialized gutturals (§§ 59.
  63). But on the other hand =q= and =ƕ= in High German ar treated
  precisely like Goth. =tw=, =gw=, etc. (= t, g, etc., medial w being
  dropt); for exampl, Goth. =ûhtwô=, =siggwan= = OHG. ûhta, singan;
  and Goth. =sigqan=, =saíƕan= = OHG. sinkan, sehan. Altho this
  proves nothing as to the values of the +Gothic+ signs, it certainly
  shows that in +proethnic Germanic+ the tw, gw, etc., must hav
  denoted sounds analogous to those of kw and hw.

§ 42. (1) =w= remains unchanged after +long+ vowels, +difthongs+,
and +consonants+, (a) finally, (b) before the =s= of the nominativ,
(c) before =j=; e. g., (a) =lêw=, n., _opportunity_; =hlaiw=, n.,
_grave_;, =waúrstw=, n., _work_; (b) =snaiws=, _snow_; =triggws=,
_tru, faithful_; (c) =lêwjan=, _to betray_; =hnaiwjan=, _to abase_;
=skadwjan=, _to cast a shade_ (< =skadus=, _shade_); =arwjô=, adv., _in

(2) in all three positions, however, =w= becums =u= after a +short+
vowel; e. g., (a) =snau= (prt. to =sniwan=, § 176, n. 2); =triu=,
_tree_ (gen. =triwis=); =*kniu=, _knee_ (gen. =kniwis=, § 94, n. 1);
(b) =naus=, m., _a ded person_ (gen. =nawis=); =*þius=, _servant_ (gen.
=þiwis=, § 91, n. 3); (c) =mawi=, gen. =maujôs=, _girl_; =gawi=, gen.
=gaujis=, _district_; =þiwi=, gen. =þiujôs=, _maid-servant_; =tawida=,
pres. =taujan=, _to do_; =*straujan=, _to strew_, prt. =strawida;
iujan=, _to quicken_, prt. =qiwida=.--Cp. Grundr., I, 414; Zs. fda.,
36, 277.

  NOTE 1. Hense a word does not end in =aw=, =iw=; =aws=, =iws=,
  except the isolated =lasiws=, _weak_ (II. Cor. X, 10).

  NOTE 2. =aw= for =au= occurs before =j= in =usskawjan=, _to awake_;
  II. Tim. II, 26 (in B); I. Cor. XV, 34 (=ussk..jiþ= in MS.); and in
  the nom. pl. =usskawai= (=unskawai= in MS.), _wakeful_; I. Thess.
  V, 8; cp. § 124, n. 3.

  NOTE 3. No exampl occurs for the position of medial =w= before
  consonants other than =j= and =s=; before =n= after a short vowel
  =u= is found in =qiunan= (< =qiwa-=), _to becum alive_; =siuns=
  (cp. =saíƕa-=).


§ 43. The sign =j= stands, as a rule, for the Greek antevocalic ι,
in =Akaja=, Αχαία; =Marja=, Μαρία; =Judas=, Ἰούδας; =Iskarjôtês=,
Ἰσκαριώτης, etc. But Gr. antevocalic ι is also often represented by
Goth. =i=; as, =Iskariôtês=, =Zakarias=, =Gabriêl=, =Iûdas=.--The sign
=j= in Gothic pronunciation probably has the value of a consonantal
=i=, not that of the spirant j in German.

§ 44. (a) +Initial+ =j= in Gothic words: =juk=, _yoke_; =jêr=, _year_;
=ju=, _alredy_; =jus=, _yu_. (b) +Medial+ =j= occurs after vowels and
after consonants, but always +before+ vowels, never before consonants;
e. g., =midjis=, '_medius_'; =lagjan=, _to lay_; =niujis=, _new_;
=frauja=, _lord_; =þrija=, '_tria_'; =bajôþs=, _both_. (c) =ji= is
contracted into =ei= after a consonant belonging to the same syllabl,
but is retaind when the syllabl begins with =j= (cp. Beitr. 16, 282).
The latter is the case when it is preceded by a short high-toned vowel
with a singl consonant or by a long stem-vowel without a consonant.
Exampls--concerning particularly the masculins (and neuters) of
the =ja=-stems (§§ 92. 127)--ar: =har-jis=, =tô-jis= (_doer_), but
=haír-deis=, dat. =haírd-ja=; --also the I. Weak Conjugation (§ 185):
=sô-kja=, =sô-keis=, =sô-keiþ=; =san-dja=, =san-deiþ=; =miki-lja=,
=miki-leiþ=; but =nas-ja=, =nas-jis=, =nas-jiþ=; =stô-ja=, =stô-jis=,

  NOTE 1. The rule under (c) may, practically, also be worded in
  the following manner: =ji= becums =ei= after a long stem-syllabl
  and after secondary syllabls, but remains =ji= after a short
  stem-syllabl and immediately after a long stem-vowel.--For
  exceptions, s. § 95; § 108, n. 2; § 132, n. 1.

  NOTE 2. Only =i= is often employd for medial =ij= before vowels;
  s. § 10, n. 4; for =j= occurring sporadically in the inflection of
  =saian=, s. § 22, n. 1.

§ 45. =j= is never +final+; in this position it always becums =i=;
e. g., =harjis=, acc. =hari=; =mawi=, gen. =maujôs= (s. § 42, 2, c);
=taui=, _deed_, gen. =tôjis=.

  NOTE 1. For the change of =aj= and =ai=, s. § 21, n. 2.

2. Liquids.


§ 46. Gothic =l= occurs often,--initially, medially, and finally;
as, =laggs=, _long_; =galaubjan=, _to believ_; =liuhaþ=, _light_;
=laúhmuni=, _lightning_; =wiljan=, _to wil_; =aljis=, '_alius_';
=blôma=, _flower_; --dubl =l=, as in =fill=, _hide_; =fulls=, _ful_;
=wulla=, _wool_.

  NOTE 1. =l= is syllabic (§ 27), for exampl, in =fugls=, _bird_
  (_fowl_); =tuggl=, _constellation, star_; =tagl=, _hair_;
  =swumfsl=, _pond_; =sigljan=, _to seal_.

  NOTE 2. Goth. =l= always corresponds to Gr. λ. It is interpolated
  in =alabalstraún=, ἀλάβαστρον.


§ 47. =r= is equivalent to Gr. ρ and occurs frequently in Gothic words;
e. g., =raíhts=, _right_; =raubôn=, _to rob_; =baíran=, _to bear_;
=fidwôr=, _four_.--Dubl =r= is rare: =qaírrus=, _meek_; =andstaúrran=,
_to threten_; =faírra=, _far_.

  NOTE 1. Syllabic =r= (§ 27) occurs, for exampl, in =ak~r~s=,
  _field_; =brôþ~r~=, dat. sg. of =brôþar= (§ 114), _brother_;
  =figg~r~s=, _finger_; =tag~r~=, _tear_; =hlût~r~s=, _pure_;
  =fag~r~s=, _suitabl_; =maúrþ~r~=, _murder_; =hugg~r~jan=, _to

  NOTE 2. Every =i= before =r= becums =aí=, and every =u= in the same
  position =aú=; s. §§ 20. 24.

  NOTE 3. Concerning =r= from =z=, s. § 78, n. 4; § 24, n. 2.

3. Nasals.


§ 48. =m= occurs in all positions of a word; as, =mizdô=, f., _reward_;
=mêna=, m., _moon_; =ams=, m., _shoulder_; =guma=, m., _man_; finally:
=nam=, _I took_; in the terminations of the dat. pl.,--=dagam=, etc.;
1st pers. pl.,--=nimam=, =nêmum=, etc.--Dubl (=mm=) in =swamms= (cp.
§ 80, n. 1), _spunge_; =wamm=, n., _spot_; in the pronominal dat.
sg.,--=imma=, =blindamma=.

  NOTE. Syllabic =m= (§ 27) in =maiþ~m~s=, _present_; =bag~m~s=,


§ 49. Initial =n= in =nahts=, _night_; =niujis=, _new_; =ni=
(negation), etc.; medial: =kuni=, n., _kin_; =ains=, _one_, etc.;
final: =laun=, n., _reward_; =niun=, _nine_; often in inflection; as,
dat. sg. =hanin=, inf. =niman=, =nêmun= (3d pers. pl. prt.), etc.

Dubl =n= (=nn=) occurs frequently; e. g., =brinnan=, _to burn_;
=spinnan=, _to spin_; =rinnan=, _to run_; =kann=, _I know_; =kannjan=,
_to make known_; =manna=, _man_; =brunna=, _wel, spring_. Dubl =n=
remains finally and before =j=, but is simplified before other
consonants (s. § 80): =kant=, =kunþa= (inf. =kunnan=), =rant= (2nd
pers. sg. prt.; inf. =rinnan=), =brunsts= (inf. =brinnan=), =ur-runs=
(< =rinnan=), _outlet_.

  NOTE. Syllabic =n= (§ 27) in =usbeis~n~s=, f., _expectation_;
  =taik~n~s=, f., _token_; =ib~n~s=, _even_; =laug~n~jan=, _to deny_;
  =swêg~n~jan=, _to triumf, rejoice_.

§ 50. Before guttural consonants =n= becums a guttural nasal which (in
imitation of the Gr.) is denoted by =g= (=gg=; s. § 67).

  NOTE. The (guttural) nasal disappears before =h=, and the preceding
  short vowel is lengthend. S. § 5, b; § 15, b (Brgm., I, 182 et


1. Labials.


§ 51. The letter =p=, which does not occur very often in Gothic,
corresponds to Gr. π.

(a) +Initially+, =p= may be regarded as being altogether wanting in
purely Gothic words; the exampls which do occur ar either obviously
foren words or at least etymologically obscure, if not loanwords too:
=plinsjan=, _to dance_; =plats=, _pach_; =anapraggan=, _to harass_;
=paida=, _coat_; =puggs=, _purse_; =peikabagms=, _date-palm_; =pund=,
_pound_; =plapja=, _street_ ('platea'); =pistikeins=, πιστικός,
=paúrpura=, _purpl_.

(b) =p= occurs in purely Gothic words +medially+ and +finally+; e.
g., =slêpan=, _to sleep_; =greipan=, _to gripe_; =ƕôpan=, _to boast_;
=skapjan=, _to shape, make_; =hlaupan=, _to run_; =diups=, _deep_;
=waírpan=, _to throw_; =hilpan=, _to help_; =skip=, _ship_; =iup=,
_upwards_.--Initial =sp= in =speiwan=, _to spit_; =sparwa=, _sparrow_;
=spillôn=, _to narrate_; =spinnôn=, _to spin_.

  NOTE 1. =pp= does not occur.

  NOTE 2. =p= before =t= becums =f= in =gaskafts=, f., _creature_
  (cp. =skapjan=); =ƕôftuli=, f., _glory_ (cp. =ƕôpan=). Cp. § 81.


§ 52. Gothic =f= in foren words corresponds to Gr. φ; e. g.,
=Filippus=, Φίλιππος; =Kajafa=, Καϊάφας. Latin writers render Goth. =f=
mostly by =ph= (Dietrich, p. 75); as, =Dagalaiphus=, =Phaeba=. Hense
Goth. =f= was probably a +bilabial+, not a labiodental spirant, as is
also evident from Goth. =fimf=, =hamfs=.

  NOTE. =f= is regarded as labiodental by Jellinek; Zs. fda., 36, 275
  et seq.

§ 53. (a) +Initial+ =f= occurs often in Gothic words; e. g., =fôtus=,
_foot_; =fadar=, _father_; =flôdus=, _flud_; =faíhu= (_catl_), _muney_;
=fûls=, _foul_; =frôþs=, _wise, judicious_; =frius=, _cold_; =fidwôr=,

(b) +Medially+ and +finally+ =f= occurs in but a small number of
Gothic words; as, =hlifan=, _to steal_; =hafjan=, _to heav_; =hiufan=,
_to lament_; =lôfa=, m., _palm of the hand_; =ufar=, _over_; =afar=,
_after_. Before consonants: =luftus=, _air_; =hamfs=, _maimd_;
=tweifls=, _dout_; =wulfs=, _wolf_; --(final) =fimf=, _five_; =hôf=
(prt. of =hafjan=); =þarf=, _I need_ (inf. =þaúrban=).

  NOTE 1. Finally and before the =s= of the nom., =f= occurs very
  often for medial =b=; s. § 56.

  NOTE 2. Medial =f= before =t= (=n=) stands for =b= (§ 56, n. 4),
  before =t= also for =p= (§ 51, n. 2).

  NOTE 3. =ff= is not found.


§ 54. =b= corresponds to Gr. β, for which it stands in foren words;
e. g., =barbarus=, βάρβαρος; =Iakôb=, Ἰακώβ. The pronunciation of
the Gr. β was that of a labial soft spirant [nearly = E. v]. In
like manner Goth. =b= has the value of a soft (voiced) labiolabial
spirant +medially+ after vowels, while +initially+ and medially after
consonants it denotes a soft stop (= E. b).

  NOTE 1. Gothic =b= between vowels in Latin foren words stands for
  Lt. v, but after =m= for b: =Silbanus=, _Silvanus_; =Naúbaímbaír=,
  _November_; =(ana)kumbjan=, _cumbere_.

  NOTE 2. In Gothic names Latin writers employ Lt. b for Gothic =b=
  initially and after a consonant (as, =Amala-berga=, =Hildi-bald=,
  =Albila=), but medially between vowels Lt. v is uzed (as, =Liuva=,
  =Erelieva=); cp. Dietrich, p. 71; Beitr., 1, 148 et seq.; Wrede,
  'Ostg.', 169; Zs. fda., 36, 275.

§ 55. Exampls of =b=:

(a) +initially+: =baíran=, _to bear_; =beitan=, _to bite_; =brikan=,
_to break_; =brûkjan=, _to uze_; =blêsan=, _to blow_; =biudan=, _to
offer_; =blôma=, _flower_; =brôþar=, _brother_; =bôka=, _letter_;
=bnauan=, _to rub_.

(b) +medially+: =liuba= (w. m. adj.), _dear_; =galaubjan=, _to believ_;
=graban=, _to dig_; =sibja=, _relationship_; =arbi=, _inheritance_;
=kalbô=, _hefer_; --=haubiþ=, _hed_; =hlaibis= (gen. of =hlaifs=),
_bred_; =sibun=, _seven_; =haban=, _to hav_; =skaban=, _to shave_;
=(bi-)leiban=, _to remain_; =liban=, _to liv_; =biraubôn=, _to rob_;
=salbôn=, _to salv, anoint_.

  NOTE. =bb= occurs in foren words only; as, =sabbatus=.

§ 56. =b= after consonants (=l=, =m=, =r=) remains finally, before
the =s= of the nom., and before the =t= of the 2nd pers. sg. prt.;
postvocalic =b= becums =f=. This means that postvocalic =b= was a soft
spirant (§ 54) which, finally, changed into the corresponding hard
spirant, while postconsonantal =b=, medially and finally, had the
value of a stop. Hense =giban=, _to giv_, 1st and 3d pers. sg. prt.:
=gaf=, 2nd. pers. =gaft=, 2nd sg. imper.: =gif=; =hlaifs=, _bred_,
acc. =hlaif=, nom. pl. =hlaibôs=; --but =lamb=, _lam_; =dumbs=, _dum_;
=swaírban=, _to wipe_, prt. =swarb=.

  NOTE 1. Our texts contain a few exceptions to the rule of final =f=
  for medial =b= after vowels, but the preponderant number of exampls
  prove the validity of the rule which is fonetically founded and
  has a striking analogon in the OS. geƀan--gaf; lioƀo--liof (but
  lamb). The exceptional cases with final =b= (21 in all) occur only
  in definit parts of the texts (7 in Lu., 5 in the epistls to the
  Thess., 4 in Jo., 3 in Skeir., in all the other texts only onse
  each in Mk. and Eph.). Therefore the anomalous =b=s may be referd
  to the writers of the respectiv parts, who either from purely
  orthografic considerations put the medial =b=s also finally, or in
  order to express a later pronunciation as it existed at their time,
  according to which voiced sounds occurd also finally. The latter
  supposition is founded on the fact that in the Arezzo document
  (of the 6th century) the spelling =Gudilub= occurs.--Cp. also the
  remarks on the interchange of =d= and =þ= in § 74, n. 1.

  The exceptions in the verb ar rare, only =grôb= (Lu. VI, 48) and
  =gadôb= (Skeir. 42); --the forms with =f= occur in =gaf=, =gaft=,
  =gif= (very often); onse each: =grôf= (inf. =graban=), =swaif=
  (inf. =sweiban=), =bilaif= (inf. =bileiban=), =skauf= (inf.
  =skiuban=). Accordingly, we may safely write =draif= (prt. of
  =dreiban=, _to drive_).

  Of nouns only =hlaifs= is often found: nom. =hlaifs= (12 times,
  onse =hlaibs=), acc. =hlaif= (19 times, =hlaib= seven times);
  --=twalif=, _twelv_ (12 times, =twalib= 3 times); accordingly, also
  =*ainlif= (dat. =ainlibim=).

  Furthermore the following nominativs must be regarded as normal
  forms: =*stafs=, _element_ (only =stabim= occurs); =*laufs=, _leaf_
  (only =galaubamma= 3 times, =filugalaubis=, =galubaim=), =*gadôfs=,
  _becuming_ (onse =gadôf=, 4 times =gadôb=), =*liufs=, _dear_
  (only forms with more than one syllabl occur: =liubai=, =liuba=,
  =liubana=, etc.). Lastly, also =*þiufs= (= OS. thiof), _thief_, tho
  the nom. accidentally occurs (4 times) as =þiubs=, beside =þiubôs=
  (twice), =þiubê=.

  NOTE 2. Subject to the abuv rule ar also the preps. =of= and =uf=,
  the =f= of which becums medial by enclisis and is changed into
  =b= before the following vowel; =ab-u=, =ub-uh=. In composition,
  however, =f= remains: =af-êtja=, _voracious eater_; =uf-aiþeis=,
  _under oath_. (Cp. =us= in § 78, n. 4).

  NOTE 3. An apparent exception is =þarf=, _I want_ (for =þarb=), pl.
  =þaúrbum=; but =þarf= has real =f= (§ 53) and must be kept apart
  from the pl. with =b= (s. ahd. gr., § 101). =b= stands correctly in
  the adj. =gaþaúrbs=. Cp. § 79, n. 2.

  NOTE 4. =f= before =t= in derivativ words stands for =b= elsewhere
  (§ 81): =gifts=, f., _gift_ (< =giban=, onse =fragibtim=; Lu. I,
  27), =þaúrfts=, _necessity_. =b= is common before =n=: =ibns=,
  =stibna=, =daubnan=, =drôbnan=, but the ending =-ubni= interchanges
  with =-ufni=; as, =fraistubni=, _temptation_, but =waldufni=,
  _power_; =aflifnan=, _to remain, be left_; cp. =laiba=, _remnant_.

2. Gutturals.


§ 57. Goth. =k= corresponds to Greek κ, Lt. c; e. g., =Kêfas=, Κηφᾶς;
=aíkklêsjô=, ἐκκλησία; =laíktjô=, _lectio_. Goth. =k= in Greek words
represents also χ; as, =kaúrazein=, Χοραζίν; =ark-aggilus=, ἀρχάγγελος.
The Gr. sign χ is but rarely retaind, always in =χristus= (s. § 2). Cp.
Wrede, 'Ostg.', 54.

  NOTE. The labialized =k= (=kw=) has a special sign (=q= § 59) in

§ 58. Exampls of =k=: (a) +initially+: =kniu=, _knee_; =kaúrn=, _corn_;
=kuni=, _kin_; =kalds=, _cold_; =kiusan=, _to choose_; =kalbô=, f.,
_calf_; --=sk=: =skeinan=, _to shine_; =skaidan=, _to separate_. (b)
+medially+: =brikan=, _to break_; =aukan=, _to increase_; =akrs=,
_field_; =reiks=, _mighty_; =mikils=, _great_; =waúrkjan=, _to work_;
=laikan=, _to leap_; =rakjan=, _to strech_; +finally+: =ik=, _I_;
=mik=, _me_; =juk=, _yoke_.

  NOTE 1. =kk= occurs in =smakka=, _fig_; =sakkus=, _sack_.

  NOTE 2. In derivativ words =h= takes the place of =k= before =t=
  (§ 81); as, =saúhts=, _sickness_ (cp. =siuks=); =wahtwô=, _wach_
  (cp. =wakan=); =brûhta= (prt. of =brûkjan=); =þâhta= (prt. of
  =þagkjan=).--Sinse there occur no exampls of the 2nd pers. prt.
  of verbs in =k= (as, =wakan=, =aukan=, =têkan=), it is uncertain
  whether the =k= before =t= remaind =k= or was changed into =h=
  (=wôkt= or =wôht=?).


§ 59. The Gothic sign =q= does not occur in the Greek alfabet, the
corresponding sign being borrowd from the Latin (Q). In Lt. words it
corresponds to Lt. qu (=qartus=; Rom. XVI, 23) to which it most likely
corresponds also fonetically. The Lt. qu denoted a labialized k-sound
which was a simpl consonant not forming position. Cp. Zs. fdph., 12,
481 et seq.

  NOTE. The dubl sign =kw= (=kv=) which is uzed beside =q= for the
  Gothic character is due to the perception that in the cognate
  languages Gothic =q= is represented by a combination of consonants
  which appears as k with a w-sound closely attacht to it, and is
  therefore exprest by two signs: in OE. by cw, in ON. by kv, in
  OHG. MHG. NHG. by qu. Hense Goth. =qiþan=, _to say_, = OE. cweþan,
  ON. kveþa, OHG. quedan. But from this nothing certain can be
  inferd about the fonetic value of Goth. =q=, altho it is +possibl+
  that its pronunciation was precisely the same as that of NHG. NE.
  qu.--Cp. also § 41, n. 1.

§ 60. Exampls of =q=: =qinô=, _woman_; =*qius=, pl. =qiwai=, _alive_;
=qaírnus=, _mil_; =qiman=, _to cum_; =qrammiþa=, _moisture_; =naqaþs=,
_naked_; =aqizi=, _ax_; =riqis=, _darkness_; =sigqan=, _to sink_, prt.


§ 61. Gothic =h= in Greek words stands for the ruf breathing (as,
=Haíbraius=, Ἑβραῖος; =Hêrôdês=, Ἡρώδης), but the ruf breathing is
often disregarded (as, =ôsanna=, ὡσαννά). Accordingly, Goth. initial
=h= had the value of a mere breathing. Medially and finally it may stil
hav had the value of a fricativ sound (HG. ch). Cp. the assimilations
(§ 62, n. 3) and breaking (§ 62, n. 1). Also initially before
consonants, (=hl=, =hn=, =hr= (=ƕ=)), the =h= had probably retaind a
stronger sound.

  NOTE 1. Latin writers render Gothic =h= by their h (as,
  =Hildibald=, =Hildericus=); but they also omit it; as, =Ariamirus=,
  =eils= = =hails= in the epigram (s. § 21, n. 1), Zs. fda. 1, 379;
  cp. Dietrich, p. 77.

  NOTE 2. Labialized h (hw) has a special sign in Gothic: =ƕ= (§§ 63.

  NOTE 3. In foren names h is sumtimes interposed medially between
  vowels; as, =Iôhannês=, Ιωάννης; =Abraham=, Ἀβραάμ. Cp. Es. Tegnér,
  Tidskr. for filol. N. R. 7, 304 et seq.

§ 62. Exampls for =h=: (a) +initially+: =haúrn=, _horn_; =hana=,
_cock_; =haírtô=, _hart_; =hails=, _hole, sound_; =hund=, _hundred_;
=hafjan=, _to heav_; --+initial combinations+: =hlaifs=, _bred_;
=hliuma=, m., _hearing_; =hlifan=, _to steal_; =hlûtrs=, _pure_;
=hlahjan=, _to laf_; =hnaiws=, _low_; =hrains=, _clean_; =hrôpjan=, _to
call_; =hrôt=, n., _roof_.--(b) +medially+: =faíhu=, _muney_; =taíhun=,
_ten_; =teihan=, _to show_; =tiuhan=, _to pul_; =saíhs=, _six_;
=nahts=, _night_; =liuhtjan=, _to light_; =filhan=, _to conceal_;
=swaíhra=, '_socer_'.--(c) +finally+: =jah=, _and_; =-uh=, _and_ (cp. §
24, n. 2); =falh= (prt. of =filhan=); =taúh= (prt. of =tiuhan=), etc.

  NOTE 1. Before =h= (as before =r=) =i= is broken to =aí=, =u= to
  =aú=; cp. §§ 20. 24.

  NOTE 2. Dropping of =n= before =h=, which made the preceding vowel
  long: =fâhan= (< =fanhan=), =þûhta= (< =þunhta=), etc.; cp. § 50,
  n. 1; § 5, b; § 15, b.

  NOTE 3. Final =h= in =-uh= (or =-h=; § 24, n. 2), =jah=, =nih=, may
  be assimilated to the initial sound of a following word. But rarely
  in the gospels (cod. argent.) and in codex B, and only before
  particls or prns. beginning with =þ=; frequently, however, also
  before other consonants, in codex A and Skeir; as, =wasuþþan= (=
  =wasuh-þan=, _but it was_); Mk. I, 6; =sumaiþþan= (= =sumaih-þan=,
  _but sum_); Mt. XXVI, 67; =sijaiþþan= (= =sijaih-þan=, _but it
  shall be_); Mt. V, 37; =jaþþê= (= =jah-þê=, _and if_); =niþþan= (=
  =nih-þan=, _and not_); --before +other+ consonants in A: =jalliban=
  (= =jah liban=, _and liv_); II. Cor. I, 8; =jaggatraua= (= =jah
  gatraua=, _and I trust_); Rom. XIV, 14; =jaddu= (= =jah du=, _and
  to_); II. Cor. II, 16; =jabbrusts= (= =jah brusts=); II. Cor. VII,
  15; =nukkant= (= =nuh kant=, _knowest thou now?_); I. Cor. VII, 16;
  exceptionally also in the codex argent., but only in Lu.: =janni=
  (= =jah ni=); Lu. VII, 32; =nissijai= (= =nih sijai=); Lu. XX, 16.

  NOTE 4. Final =h= is sumtimes dropt (in consequence of having lost
  its sharp sound? But cp. Beitr., XV, 277): =ƕarjô= (for =ƕarjôh=);
  Mk. XV, 6; =ƕammê= (for =ƕammêh=); Gal. V, 3; =ƕarjanô= (for
  =ƕarjanôh=); Skeir. 43; oftener =inu= (in A) for =inuh=, _without_;
  the =h= of consonant-combinations is dropt in =hiuma=; Lu. VI, 17.
  VIII, 4 (elsewhere =hiuhma=, _multitude_); =drausnôs=; Skeir. 50
  (beside =drauhsna=, _crum_); =als= (for =alhs=); Mk. XV, 38, etc.
  All these cases ar probably due to the copyists, and most of them
  hav therefore been amended by the editors. Cp. Bernhardt, Vulfila,
  LIII et seq.--Also superfluous =h= occurs: =snauh= (for =snau=); I.
  Thess. II, 16; here, however, it is perhaps the enclitic =-h= (=
  =-uh=, § 24, n. 2).

  NOTE 5. In derivativ words =h= occurs in certain cases beside =k=
  (s. § 58, n. 2) and =g= (§ 66, n. 1).


§ 63. The sound of =ƕ= is peculiar to the Gothic, and has no equivalent
in Gr. The Gothic sign (whose alfabetic position is that of the Greek
ψ) is uzually exprest by =hv= (=hw=), because all the corresponding
words of the remaining Germanic languages (at least initially) hav
hw (hu, hv); as, Goth. =ƕeits= = OHG. hwîz, OS. OE. hwît, ON. hvîtr,
_white_. But there ar reasons which justify the assumption that the
Goth. =ƕ= was a simpl consonant. Fonetically, it may be regarded as
a labialized =h= (or a voiceless =w= = NE. wh? Grundr., I, 411). It
is therefore recommendabl to represent the simpl Gothic sign by the
unitary ligature =ƕ=. Cp. Zs. fdph., 12, 481 et seq.; Beitr., 12, 218
et seq.

  NOTE. =ƕ= and =hw= ar not identical in Gothic. This is proved
  by the fact that in composition the final =h= and the following
  initial =w= ar not exprest by =ƕ=, but by =hw=: =þaírhwakandans=,
  _keeping wach (thruout)_; Lu. II, 8; =ubuhwôpida= (=
  =uf-uh-wôpida=; =ufwôpida= < =uf-wôpjan=), _and he cried out_; Lu.
  XVIII, 38.--The simpl sound of =ƕ= is also evident from the fact
  that the verb =saíƕan= is inflected like the verbal stems ending in
  a singl consonant (§ 34, n. 1), and that in reduplication =ƕ= is
  treated like a singl consonant (=ƕaíƕôp=, § 178). Cp. Holtzmann,
  altd. gr. I, 25, together with § 41, n. 1, abuv.

§ 64. Exampls of =ƕ=: +initially+: =ƕas=, _who_; =ƕaírnei=, f., _skul_;
=ƕaírban=, _to walk about_; =ƕeila=, _time_; =ƕôpan=, _to boast_;
=ƕeits=, _white_; =ƕaiteis=, _wheat_; --+medially+: =aƕa=, _water_;
=saíƕan=, _to see_; =leiƕan=, _to lend_; =þeiƕô=, _thunder_; =nêƕa=,
_near_; =aíƕa-tundi=, f., _brambl-bush_; --also +finally+: =saƕ=,
=saƕt= (prt. of =saíƕan=), =nêƕ=, _near_.

  NOTE. =i= and =u= ar broken before =ƕ= as wel as before =h=; cp. §
  62, n. 1.

§ 65. =g= corresponds to Greek γ, also as a guttural nasal; as,
=synagôgê=, συναγωγή; =aggilus=, ἄγγελος.--The pronunciation of the
Gothic initial =g= was quite certainly that of a soft (voiced) stop;
final and medial =g= was possibly a spirant.

  NOTE 1. Latin authors render =g= in Gothic names by g, but
  also by c; as, =Caina= beside =Gaina= (Jornandes), =Commundus=
  (= =Gummundus=); medially, especially before =i=, it is often
  dropt; as, =Eila= beside =Agila=, =Egila=, =Aiulf= (= =Aigulf=),
  =Athanaildus= (= =Athanagildus=); cp. Dietrich, p. 73 et seq.

  NOTE 2. For the pronunciation of medial =g= as a spirant the Latin
  representations may be adduced (cp. especially Wrede, 'Ostg.',
  173 et seq.); but this is contradicted by the fact that final =g=
  does not becum =h= (cp. =b-f=, =d-þ=). Jellinek (Beitr., 15, 276
  et seq.; Zs. fda., 36, 85) infers a 'media affricata' for the
  pronunciation of medial and final =g=; then the value of a stop
  seems more probabl (cp. Wilmanns, D. Gramm., I, 16).

§ 66. =g= occurs frequently in Goth. words, both initially and
medially. E. g. (a) =gasts=, _guest_; =guma=, _man_; =gulþ=, _gold_;
=gôþs=, _good_; =giutan=, _to pour_; =greipan=, _to gripe, seiz_;
=graban=, _to dig_. (b) =agis=, _aw_; =wigs=, _way_;  =frijôndi=, §
98), =daupjands=, _the Baptist_; =mêrjands=, _preacher_; =bisitands=,
_neighbor_; =talzjands=, _teacher_; =-waldands=, _ruler_ (=all-w.=,
_the Almighty_; =garda-w.=, _master of the house_); =fraweitands=,
_avenger_; =fraujinônds=, _ruler_; =midumônds=, _mediator_; =gibands=,
_giver_. Cp. Zs. fdph., 5, 315.

§ 116. +A number of feminins+ following in sum cases the =i=-decl.
(=ansts=, § 102) appear in others as short forms which ar remains of an
old consonantal inflection. Paradim: =baúrgs=, (_burg_), _town_, _city_.

  Sing. N. =baúrgs=     Plur. N. =baúrgs=
        G. =baúrgs=           G. =baúrgê=
        D. =baúrg=            D. =baúrgim=
        A. =baúrg=            A. =baúrgs=

Like =baúrgs= inflect also =alhs=, _templ_; =spaúrds=, _race-course_;
=brusts=, _brest_; =dulþs=, _feast_; =waíhts=, _thing_; =miluks=,
_milk_; =mitaþs= (=d=), _mezure_.

The word =nahts=, _night_, inflects in the sg. like =baúrgs=, in the
pl. only the dat. =nahtam= is found. Cp. =nahta-mats=, § 88ᵃ, n. 3.

  NOTE 1. =waíhts= and =dulþs= chiefly follow the =i=-declension;
  hense, g. sg. =waíhtais=, =dulþais=. According to the cons.
  declension occur onse each the dat. sg. =dulþ= and acc. pl.
  =waíhts=. Beside =waíhts= there is a n. nom. sg. =waíht= in the
  combination =ni-waíht=, _nothing_.

§ 117. Masculins with short (consonantal) cases: =manna=, _man_;
=mênôþs=, _month_; =reiks=, _ruler_; =weitwôds=, _witness_ (cp. § 74,
n. 2). But in point of inflection they ar not fully alike.

(1) =manna= follows in sum cases the =n=-decl. (=guma=, § 107). These
cases ar here put in Italics:

  Sing. N. _manna_      Plur. N. =mans=, _mannans_
        G. =mans=             G. =mannê=
        D. =mann=             D. _mannam_
        A. _mannan_           A. =mans=, _mannans_

  NOTE 1. To =manna= belongs the cpd. =*alamans= (_all men_),
  found in the dat. pl. =alamannam= (Skeir.) only; also the neuter
  =gaman= (_cumpanion, cumpany_) which inflects, however, in all the
  extant forms (nom. acc. sg. =gaman=, dat. sg. =gamana=, dat. pl.
  =gamanam=) precisely like =waúrd= (§ 93).

  NOTE 2. In composition the stem =mana-= (=man-=) appears; s. § 88ᵃ,
  n. 3.

(2) =mênôþs= and =reiks= follow in the g. sg. the =a=-decl.: =mênôþis=,
=reikis=, but in the dat. sg. the short forms =mênôþ= and =reik=
(Eph. II, 2) occur. In the nom. acc. pl. the short forms =mênôþs= and
=reiks= ar uzed; gen. pl. =reikê=. In the dat. pl. =mênôþum=, but
=reikam=.--Beside the nom. sg. =weitwôds= there occur the acc. sg.
=weitwôd= and the g. pl. =weitwôdê=.

  NOTE 3. The g. sg. =mênôþis= (Neh. VI, 15) is not quite certain;
  Löbe red =mênôþs=.

  NOTE 4. Here belongs also the nom. =bajôþs=, dat. =bajôþum=, _both_
  (s. § 140, n. 1).

§ 118. The neuter =fôn=, _fire_, has this form in the nom. acc. sg.,
but =funins= in the gen., and =funin= in the dat.--No plural occurs.
Cp. § 12, n. 3.

  NOTE 1. Concerning the neuter genitivs =guþs= and =hatis=, s. § 94,
  n. 3, and § 94, n. 5, respectivly.



§ 119. A number of foren words from the Latin and Greek wer fully
adopted into the Gothic language thru commercial and political
intercourse, so that their inflection is the same as that of purely
Gothic words; e. g., =pund=, n., _pound_; =marikreitus=, m., _perl_;
=Krêks=, m., _Greek_; =karkara=, f., '_carcer_'; =alêw=, n., _oil_;
=kaisar=, m., _Cæsar_.

§ 120. A second portion of foren words wer at a later period forced on
the Gothic language by Christianity and especially by the version of
the Bible. To these belong for the most part proper nouns which ar stil
felt to be foren elements and hav but imperfectly adopted the Gothic
inflection. For their treatment in Gothic no fixt rules can be givn.
Sumtimes they retain their Greek inflection, sumtimes they take either
similar or arbitrarily formd case-endings.--Cp. Bernhardt's 'Vulfila',
p. XXVIII, and especially M. H. Jellinek, 'Beitr. zur erklärung der
german. flexion' (Berlin 1891), pp. 76-84.

  NOTE 1. Most consistent is the treatment of the Gr. masculins in
  -ος, Lt. -us, which inflect in Gothic according to the =u=-decl.
  (§§ 104, 105); e. g., =Paítrus=, =Barþaúlaúmaius=, =Teitus=,
  =aípiskaúpus=, ἐπίσκοπος; =apaústaúlus=, ἀπόστολος; =aggilus=,
  ἄγγελος; =sabbatus=, _sabbath_. But only in the sg. pl. forms
  follow mostly the =i=-decl.; e. g., =apaústaúleis=, =sabbatins=,
  =aggileis=, =aggilê= beside =aggiljus=.

  NOTE 2. Greek case-endings ar retaind in the neuters
  =alabalstraún=, ἀλάβαστρον; =praitôriaún=, πραιτώριον, etc.;
  =Israêleitês= has the nom. pl. =Israêleitai= = Ἰσραηλῖται; Rom. IX,
  4; or (with Gothic inflection) =Israêleiteis=; II. Cor. XI, 22.

  NOTE 3. The following exampl may illustrate arbitrary inflection.
  The Gr. ἐπιστολή is represented in Goth. by =aípistaúlê=
  (nom. sg.). But the dat. sg. is =aípistaúlein=, the dat. pl.
  =aípistaúlêm=, and the acc. pl. =aípistaúlans=.


§ 121. In Gothic, as in all other Germanic languages, adjectivs hav two
kinds of inflection, the +strong+ and the +weak+. The strong inflection
is the original one corresponding to that of the cognate languages,
the weak originated on Germanic soil. Every normal adj. may hav both a
strong and a weak inflection. The distinction is a syntactic one: the
+weak+ form is employd after the articl (rarely in other positions),
the +strong+ form in all other cases, especially when the adj. is uzed
predicativly, or attributivly without the articl. Cp. Zs. fda., 18,


§ 122. The strong inflection of adjectivs is in part the same as the
vocalic (or strong) inflection of the substantivs with which it was
originally identical. In Germanic, however, sum cases of the adj. hav
adopted the pronominal inflection, so that the identity between the
adjectival inflection and that of the substantivs is now confined to
certain cases. The nom. and acc. sg. of the neuter gender hav two forms
of the same value, a substantival and a pronominal one (in =-ata=). The
latter, however, is not uzed predicativly.

The Gothic adjectiv, like the substantiv, has three vocalic
declensions: (1) Adjectivs of the =a=-declension which correspond to
the substantival =a=-declension in the m. and n. (§ 89 et seq.) and in
the f. of the =ô=-declension (§ 96 et seq.).--A subdivision is formd by
the =ja=-stems, just as in the case of the corresponding substantivs.
(2) Adjectivs of the =i=-declension which correspond to the substantivs
in §§ 99-103. (3) Adjectivs of the =u=-declension belonging to the
substantivs in §§ 104-106.

Classes (2) and (3), however, contain but very few remains in Gothic.
The few adjectival =ja=-stems hav in most of the inflectional cases
past over to the 1st class, so that the normal strong declension of
the adjectivs in Gothic embraces only the =a=-declension and its
subdivision, the =ja=-stems.

  NOTE. Subject to +strong+ inflection ar all pronouns (except =sama=
  and =silba=, § 132, n. 3), the cardinal numbers, inasmuch as they
  inflect adjectivly, and =anþar=, _the second_; also the adjectivs
  of a more general meaning: =alls=, _all_; =ganôhs=, _enuf_;
  =halbs=, _half_; =midjis=, '_medius_'; =fulls=, _ful_.

§ 123. Paradim of the strong adjectival declension: =blinds=, _blind_.
The pronominal forms differing from the inflection of the corresponding
substantivs ar in the following paradim put in Italics:

  Sing.     M.           N.               |     F.
     N.  =blinds=    =blind=, _blindata_  |  =blinda=
     G.        =blindis=                  |  _blindaizôs_
     D.        _blindamma_                |  =blindai=
     A.  _blindana_  =blind=, _blindata_  |  =blinda=
  Plur.                                   |
     N.  _blindai_   =blinda=             |  =blindôs=
     G.        _blindaizê_                |  _blindaizôs_
     D.        _blindaim_                 |  _blindaim_
     A.  =blindans=  =blinda=             |  =blindôs=

§ 124. Here belong most of the extant adjectivs; e. g., =hails=,
_hole, helthy_; =siuks=, _sik_; =juggs=, _yung_; =triggws=, _tru,
faithful_; =swinþs=, _strong_; =ubils=, _evil_; =aiweins=, _eternal_;
=haiþiwisks=, _wild_; =mahteigs=, _mighty_; =ansteigs=, _gracious_;
=manags=, _much, many_; =môdags=, _angry_; =handugs=, _wise_.--Also
adjectiv pronouns; as, =meins=, _mine, my_; =þeins=, _thine, thy_;
=seins=, _his_; =jains=, _yun_; the superlativs (§ 137) and pps. pass.;
as, =numans=, _taken_; =nasiþs=, _saved_ (cp. § 134).

  NOTE 1. According to § 78, n. 2, the =s= of the nom. sg. is
  dropt, (1) after =s=; e. g., =swês=, =swêsis=, _own_; =gaqiss=,
  =gaqissis=, _consenting_. (2) after =r= preceded by a short vowel:
  =anþar=, _the second, the other_; =unsar=, _our_; =izwar=, _your_;
  =ƕaþar=, _which of the two_. Accordingly, the nom. pl. =warai= must
  hav had a nom. sg. =war=, _wary_.

  NOTE 2. The rules for the hardening of final soft spirants (79)
  must be noted; as, =frôþs=, =frôdis=, _wise_; =gôþs=, =gôdis=,
  _good_ (§ 74); =liufs=, =liubis=, _dear_; =daufs=, =daubis=, _def_
  (§ 56, n. 1).

  NOTE 3. Stems having a =w= before the case-endings ar subject to
  the rule for final =w= (§ 42) in the nom. sg. m. and n. The three
  words of this kind occur only in other cases. Therefore the noms.
  pl. =fawai=, =qiwai=, =usskawai= suggest as noms. sg. m. and n.
  =faus=, =fau=, _few_; =qius=, =qiu=, _alive_; =usskaus=, =usskau=,
  _wakeful_. According to =usskawjan= (_to awake_, § 42, n. 2), also
  =usskaws= might be supposed insted of =usskaus=. For =lasiws=, s. §
  42, n. 1.

  NOTE 4. The pronominal adjectivs in =-ar=: =unsar=, =izwar=,
  =anþar=, =ƕaþar=, hav in the n. sg. only the shorter forms:
  =unsar=, =izwar=, etc.

§ 125. Adjectiv-stems with =ja= before the endings (=ja=-stems) hav
most of their forms like the paradim =blinds=. Only in few forms a
change is caused by the =j=. As in the case of nouns, we distinguish
between short and long adjectival =ja=-stems.

Paradim of a short =ja=-stem: =midjis=, _midl_:

  Sing.      M.                N.           |    F.
        N. =midjis=      =midi=, =midjata=  |  =midja=
        G.        =midjis=                  |  =midjaizôs=
        D.        =midjamma=                |  =midjai=
        A. =midjana=     =midi=, =midjata=  |  =midja=

  Plur.                                     |
        N. =midjai=      =midja=            |  =midjôs=
        G.        =midjaizê=                |  =midjaizô=
        D.        =midjaim=                 |  =midjaim=
        A. =midjans=     =midja=            |  =midjôs=

§ 126. As regards inflection, the m. =midjis= is closely related to the
substantiv =harjis= (§§ 90. 92), the n. =midi= to the substantiv =kuni=
(§§ 93. 95). The fem. =midja= shows no deviation whatever.

Only a small number of adjectivs belong to this class: =aljis=,
_another_; =sunjis=, _tru_; =ga-wiljis=, _unanimous_; =unsibjis=,
_criminal_; =-fraþjis=, _minded_ (only in =grinda-=, =sama-fr.=);
=ƕarjis= (§ 160); also those whose stems end in a vowel (§ 44, c):
=niujis=, _new_; =-tôjis=, _doing_ (as, =ubiltôjis=, _evil-doing_).

  NOTE 1. On account of the small number of these adjs. sum forms of
  the abuv paradim ar not extant. Thus, the short form of the neuter
  =midi= is givn in conformity with the long stems (§ 127), and that
  of =niujis= would be =niwi=; only =niujata= occurs; the n. of
  =-tôjis= would be =-taúi= (§ 26, a).

  NOTE 2. The adj.-stem =frija-=, _free_, which occurs in the f. sg.
  =frija=, =frijaizôs=, =frijai=, =frija=, and in the m. forms, acc.
  sg. =frijana=, nom. pl. =frijai=, acc. =frijans=, has a contracted
  nom. sg. m. =freis= (for =frijis=). Also the gen. sg., if extant,
  would be =freis=.

  NOTE 3. The nom. sg. f. of =niujis= is =niuja= (contrary to =þiwi=,
  § 98, n. 1).

§ 127. The long =ja=-stems inflect in the pl. like =midjis=. Paradim
=wilþeis= (stem =wilþja-=), _wild_, in the sg.:

  Sing.       M.             N.               |    F.
        N. =wilþeis=     =wilþi=, =wilþjata=  |  =wilþi=
        G.    [=wilþeis= or =wilþjis=?]       |  [=wilþjaizôs=]
        D.        =wilþjamma=                 |  =wilþjai=
        A. =wilþjana=    =wilþi=, =wilþjata=  |  =wilþja=

§ 128. The infl. of the m. is related to that of the sb. =haírdeis= (§§
90. 92), the infl. of the f. to that of =bandi= (§§ 96. 98; only =wôþi=
occurs; II. Cor. II, 15). None of the few adjs. of this class occurs in
the gen. sg.; =wilþjis= (Rom. XI, 24) probably stands for =wilþjins=;
s. § 132, n. 1.

Further exampls: =alþeis=, _old_; =faírneis=, _old_; =aírzeis=,
_astray_; =wôþeis=, _sweet_.

       *       *       *       *       *

§ 129. According to § 122, only remains of the original adjs. of the
=i-= and =u=-declension ar extant in Gothic, viz.: nom. sg. of all
genders, acc. sg. n., and gen. sg. m. and n. All other extant cases hav
past over to the inflection of the =ja=-stems (§§ 125-127). The same
rule applies to the weak forms (§ 132, n. 1).

  NOTE. The old form of the gen. sg. [m.] n. is seen in =skeiris=
  (Skeir. 45) for the =i=-decl., in =filaus= (§ 131, n. 3) for the
  =u=-decl.; the latter, of course, is only a partial proof for the

§ 130. The adjectival =i=-stems ar connected with the substantivs
=balgs=, =ansts= (§§ 99-103). Exampls: =hrains=, _clean_; =gamains=,
_common_; =brûks=, _uzeful_; =analaugns=, _hidn_; =anasiuns=, _visibl_;
=andanêms=, _agreeabl_; =andasêts=, _abominabl_; =sêls=, _kind_
(=unsêls=, _wicked_); =suts=, _sweet_; =skeirs=, _clear_; =gafáurs=,
_sober_ (=unfáurs=, _talkativ_); =aljakuns=, _of different kind_. The
paradim =hrains= inflects thus:

  Sing.       M.              N.                  |     F.
        N. =hrains=        =hrain= [=hrainjata=]  |  =hrains=
        G.        [=hrainis=]                     |  [=hrainjaizos=]
        D.        =hrainjamma=                    |  =hrainjai=
        A. =hrainjana=     =hrain= [=hrainjata=]  |  =hrainja=

  Plur.                                           |
        N. =hrainjai=      =hrainja=              |  =hrainjôs=
           etc.                                   |

  NOTE 1. A gen. sg. f. as wel as a longer n. form (like =hrainjata=)
  ar not extant.

  NOTE 2. A word may with certainty be referd to this class, (1)
  if it occurs in the nom. sg. f. (=hrains=), (2) if besides the
  nom. sg. m. and n. also cases with =j= ar found. But if only the
  nominativs m. and n. (=hrains=, =hrain=) occur, the word may
  inflect like =blinds= (123); if only =j=-cases (as, =hrainjamma=)
  ar found, it may decline like =wilþeis=, =midjis= (§§ 127.
  125).--Other adjectivs, however, ar without sufficient proof, but
  for other considerations, included in this class; e. g., =skauns=,
  _beutiful_; =auþs=, _desolate_, _waste_; =hauns=, _base_; =bleiþs=,
  _merciful_; =gadôfs=, _fit_; =*mêrs=, _famous_ (in =wailamêr=,
  nom. sg. n.).--Cp. Kluge, Stammbildg., §§ 178. 197. 229-231;
  Beitr., 14, 167; 15, 489; Brgm., II, 287.

  NOTE 3. Adjectival =i=-stems may be inferd from adverbs in =-iba=
  (§ 210); e. g., =arniba=, =gatêmiba=.

§ 131. The adjectival =u=-stems ar related to the substantivs =sunus=
(fem. =handus=), =faíhu= (§§ 104-106). Exampls: =hardus=, _hard_;
=qaírrus=, _meek_; =þaúrsus=, _dry_; =tulgus=, _stedfast_; =manwus=,
_redy_; =aggwus=, _narrow_; =aglus=, _difficult_; =seiþus=, _late_;
=þlaqus=, _tender_; =twalibwintrus=, _twelv years_ (lit. _winters_)
_old_. Paradim =hardus=:

  Sing.       M.             N.                      F.
        N. =hardus=       =hardu=, =hardjata=  |  =hardus=
        G.       [=hardaus=?]                  |  [=hardjaizôs=]
        D.       [=hardjamma=]                 |  [=hardjai=]
        A. =hardjana=     =hardu=, =hardjata=  |  =hardja=

  Plur.                                        |
        N. =hardjai=      [=hardja=]           |  =hardjôs=
           etc.                                |

  NOTE 1. Whether adjectivs belong to this class is seen from the
  nom. sg. in which the abuv adduced exampls occur (the only f.
  forms being =þaúrsus= and =tulgus=; Beitr., 15, 570; 16, 318).
  =laushandus=, _empty-handed_; =hnasqus=, _soft_; =kaúrus=, _hevy_,
  ar merely inferd from their =ja=-cases.

  NOTE 2. From the adv. =glaggwuba= (§ 210) an adj. =glaggwus= (§ 68)
  can be inferd.

  NOTE 3. The original adj. =*filus=, _much_, is preservd in Goth. in
  the nom. acc. sg. n. uzed substantivly and adverbially: =filu=, the
  gen. =filaus= being uzed adverbially.


§ 132. The weak declension of adjectivs is fully identical with the
weak or =n=-declension of nouns (§§ 107-112). But it must be noticed
that the f. of the weak adj. inflects like the paradim =tuggô= (cp. §
112, n. 1).--Exampl of an inflected weak adj. (=blinds=, § 123):

  Sing.       M.             N.             F.
        N. =blinda=       =blindô=    |  =blindô=
        G.        =blindins=          |  =blindôns=
        D.        =blindin=           |  =blindôn=
        A. =blindan=      =blindô=    |  =blindôn=

  Plur.                               |
        N. =blindans=     =blindôna=  |  =blindôns=
        G.        =blindanê=          |  =blindônô=
        D.        =blindam=           |  =blindôm=
        A. =blindans=     =blindôna=  |  =blindôns=

  NOTE 1. Like =blinda= inflect all weak adjectivs. Of =ja=-stems:
  nom. sg. =niuja=, =niujô=, =niujô= (cp. § 126), =wilþja= (§ 127);
  --=i=-stems: =hrainja=, =hrainjô=; =u=-stems: =hardja=, =hardjô=
  (cp. § 129 et seq.).--In the cases with =i= (gen. dat. sg. m. n.)
  of the long stems in =-ja-= (=-i-=, =-u-=) the forms with =-ji-=
  appear as the regular ones (as in the sb., § 108, n. 2; contrary
  to § 44, c); cp. =wilþji(n)s=; Rom. XI, 24; =unhrainjin=; Mk.
  IX, 25. Lu. VIII, 29; =unsêljin=; Mt. V, 39. Jo. XVII, 15. But
  beside =unsêljins=; Eph. VI, 16 (in A) =unsêleins= (in B); beside
  =faírnjin=; Mk. II, 21. Lu. V, 36, also =faírnin=; II. Cor. VIII,
  10. IX, 2.

  NOTE 2. Sum adjectivs occur only in the weak forms; as, =usgrudja=,
  _idle, despondent_; =alaþarba=, _poor_; =usfaírina=, _blameless_;
  =inkilþô=, _pregnant_, and a few more of which sum ar probably to
  be regarded as substantivs (cp. Zs. fda., 18, 41, note).--The weak
  form =ainaha= (no strong form occurs), _only_, has in Lu. VIII, 42
  the nom. sg. f. =ainôhô= (cp. Beitr., 12, 203) which is certainly
  incorrect for =ainahô=.

  NOTE 3. All ordinals except 1st and 2nd (cp. § 146), and the prns.
  =sama= and =silba= (§ 156) follow the +weak+ inflection only.

  NOTE 4. Lastly, the prs. ptcs. (§ 133), comparativs (§ 136), and
  the superlativs in =-ma= (§ 139) inflect exclusivly like weak adjs.
  But all these words hav the f. according to the paradim =managei=
  (§ 113, n. 3).


§ 133. The present participl has lost its strong inflection and
declines like a weak adj., but with the f. in =-ei= (§ 132, n. 4). Only
the nom. sg. m. has frequently both the strong and the weak inflection.
Paradim =gibands=, _giving_:

  Sing.    M.           N.       |     F.
     N. =gibands= }  =gibandô=   |  =gibandei=
        =gibanda= }              |
     G.       =gibandins=        |  =gibandeins=
     D.       =gibandin=         |  =gibandein=
     A. =gibandan=   =gibandô=   |  =gibandein=
  Plur.                          |
     N. =gibandans=  =gibandôna= |  =gibandeins=
     G.       =gibandanê=        |  =gibandeinô=
     D.       =gibandam=         |  =gibandeim=
     A. =gibandans=  =gibandôna= |  =gibandeins=

  NOTE 1. Concerning the shorter inflection of sum participls uzed
  substantivly, s. § 115.

§ 134. The prt. ptc. pass., like an ordinary adj., follows the strong
and weak inflection; e. g., the pp. of the stv. =giban=:

  Strong:  m. =gibans=  n. =giban=, =gibanata=  f. =gibana=
  Weak:       =gibana=     =gibanô=                =gibanô=

The pp. of the wv. =nasjan=:

  Strong: m. =nasiþs=   n. =nasiþ=, =nasidata=   f. =nasida=
  Weak:      =nasida=      =nasidô=                 =nasidô=

  NOTE. Concerning the interchange between =þ= and =d= in the pp. of
  the weak verbs, s. § 74.



§ 135. The comparativ degree of adjectivs in Gothic is formd by means
of two suffixes, =-iz-= and =-ôz-=, to which the terminations of the
weak adjectivs ar added.

The formation with the suff. =-iz-= is more general than the other.
It is found in adjs. of all kinds; e. g., =managiza= (< =manags=,
=a=-stem), =alþiza= (< =alþeis=, §§ 127. 128), =hardiza= (< =hardus=,
§ 131).--But the suffix =-ôz-= occurs in =a=-stems only: =frôdôza= (<
=frôþs=), =swinþôza= (< =swinþs=).

  NOTE. The adj. =juggs=, _yung_, has the compar. =jûhiza= (according
  to § 50, n. 1). Its superlativ is not extant.

§ 136. The comparativs inflect exactly like weak adjectivs, but the f.
ends in =-ei= (§ 132, n. 4):

  Sing. N. m. =frôdôza=   n. =frôdôzô=   f. =frôdôzei=
        G.          =frôdôzins=             =frôdôzeins=,

etc., like the prs. ptc. (§ 133).


§ 137. The superlativ degree, like the comparativ, is formd in two
ways, in =-ist-= or in =-ôst-=; e. g., =managists= (< =manags=),
=armôsts= (< =arms=, _poor_). The inflection of the superlativs is
precisely the same as that of ordinary adjectivs--strong and weak.

  NOTE. No rule can be givn for the appearance of the =ô= or the =i=
  in the suffix, except that the =ô=-form occurs only with =a=-stems.
  We may suppose that a word which forms the compar. by means of
  =i=, has =i= in the superl. also, and that, in like manner, the
  =ô=-forms correspond to each other. This supposition, however, is
  only founded on a few extant exampls.


§ 138. The lack of comparison of sum adjectivs is supplied by
comparativs and superlativs with a corresponding meaning, but without a

  =gôþs= (=d=), _good_   Compar. =batiza=     Superl. =batists=
  =ubils=, _evil_           "    =waírsiza=      "       --
  =mikils=, _great_         "    =maiza=         "    =maists=
  =leitils=, _litl_         "    =minniza=       "    =minnists=
  =sineigs=, _old_          "       --           "    =sinista=.

§ 139. A superlativ with an =m=-suffix is found in six words, which
ar derived from adverbial stems and appear without a positiv. The
=m=-suffix is either simpl: =fru-ma=, =innu-ma=, =aúhu-ma=, or
compound: =af-tuma=, =if-tuma=, =hlei-duma=.

Two of them hav assumed a comparativ meaning: =aúhuma=, _higher_;
=hleiduma=, _left_ (ἀριστερός); the others hav a superlativ or an
intensiv signification: =aftuma=, _the last_; =iftuma=, _the next_;
=innuma=, _the inmost_; =fruma=, _the first_.

These words follow the weak inflection, but hav the f. in =-ei=,
exactly like the comparativs.

  NOTE. Sum superlativs in =-ma= ar compared anew in the uzual
  manner: =aftumists=, _the last_; =aúhumists=, oftener than
  =aúhmists= (cp. OE. ŷmest, Sievers-Cook, OE. Gr., § 314, n. 3),
  _the highest_; =frumists=, _the first_.--The forms =hindumists=,
  _hindmost_, =spêdumists=, _last_ (< =*spêþs=, beside =spêdiza=,
  =spêdists=), suggest the missing =hinduma= and =spêduma=. Also
  =miduma=, =midst=, =midumônds=, _mediator_, point to a form
  =*miduma=, _midl_ (cp. OE. meodume, midmest).



§ 140. The first three numerals ar declinabl in all cases and genders.

1. =ains=, n. =ain= and =ainata=, f. =aina=, inflects entirely like a
strong adj. (=blinds=, § 123). Plural forms mean _only_, _alone_. No
weak inflection is found. (§ 122, n. 1).

  2.        M.        N.          F.
       N. =twai=    =twa=    |  =twôs=
       G.     =twaddjê=      |    --
       D.     =twaim=        |  =twaim=
       A. =twans=   =twa=    |  =twôs=
  3.   N.   --      =þrija=  |    --
       G.     =þrijê=        |    --
       D.     =þrim=         |    --
       A. =þrins=   =þrija=  |  =þrins=

The nom. of the m. and f., which is not extant, may with certainty be
givn as =þreis=.

  NOTE. The definit dual number '_both_', ἀμφότεροι, is renderd by
  =bai=, which inflects like =twai=. The extant forms ar nom. m.
  =bai=, dat. =baim=, acc. =bans=, nom. acc. n. =ba=.--There occurs
  also an extended form with the same meaning, its inflection being
  that of a consonantal substantiv (§ 117, n. 4): nom. =bajôþs=, dat.

§ 141. The numerals from 4 to 19 ar of one gender. Extant ar: =fidwôr=,
_4_; =fimf=, _5_; =saíhs=, _6_; =sibun=, _7_; =ahtau=, _8_; =niun=,
_9_; =taíhun=, _10_; =ainlif= (§ 56, n. 1), _11_; =twalif=, _12_;
=fidwôrtaíhun=, _14_; =fimftaíhun=, _15_. These numerals ar uzed
uninflected, but may take an inflected gen. and dat. according to the
=i=-declension (§ 99 et seq.). Thus, =fidwôr=, dat. =fidwôrim=; =niun=,
gen. =niunê=; =taíhun=, dat. =taíhunim=; =ainlif=, dat. =ainlibim=;
=twalif=, gen. =twalibê=, dat. =twalibim=.

  NOTE. For =fidwôr= appears =fidur-= (s. § 24, n. 2) in cpds.:
  =fidurfalþs=, _fourfold_; =fidurdôgs=, _time of four days_;
  =fidurragineis=, _tetrarch_. Cp. Beitr., 6, 394; Brgm., III, 11.

§ 142. The tens from 20 to 60 ar formd by means of the pl. =tigjus=
(< =*tigus=, _a decad_), preceded by the units. =tigjus= inflects
regularly like =sunus= (§ 104). The object counted is always givn in
the gen.--=twai tigjus=, _20_; =*þreis tigjus=, _30_ (extant in gen.
=þrijê tigiwê=, acc. =þrins tiguns=), =fidwôr tigjus=, _40_; =fimf
tigjus=, _50_; =saíhs tigjus=, _60_.

§ 143. From 70 to 100 =-têhund= takes the place of =tigjus=:
=sibuntêhund=, _70_; =ahtautêhund=, _80_; =niuntêhund=, _90_;
=taíhuntêhund= and =taíhuntaíhund=, _100_. The numerals in =-têhund=
ar substantivs which ar as a rule indeclinabl. Onse (Lu. XV, 7)
we meet with an inflected gen. sg.; =in niuntêhundis jah niunê
garaíhtaizê=.--Cp. Brgm., III, 40.

§ 144. The hundreds ar formd by means of the plural of a neuter =hund=
(_a hundred_). The following ar extant: =twa hunda=, _200_; =þrija
hunda=, _300_; =fimf hunda=, _500_; =niun hunda=, _900_.

§ 145. =þûsundi=, _1000_, is a f. sb. (inflecting like =bandi=, § 96),
with a gen. pl.; several thousands ar exprest by =þûsundjôs=.--Onse
(Ezra II, 14) occurs a n. pl. =twa þûsundja=. Cp. ahd. gr., § 275. OE.
Gr., § 327, and Mahlow, 'Die langen Vocale', p. 98.

The extant thousands ar: =twôs þûsundjôs=, _2000_; =.g. þûsundjôs=,
_3000_; =fidwôr þûsundjôs=, _4000_; =fimf þûsundjôs=, _5000_; =taíhun
þ.=, _10000_; =miþ twaim tigum= (dat.) =þûsundjô= (gen.), _with 20000_.

  NOTE (to §§ 141-145). The numerals ar very often denoted by letters
  (cp. § 1, n. 2). Therefore so many words for numerals ar wanting.


§ 146. The first two ordinals differ in point of stem from the
corresponding cardinals. 1. m. =fruma=, n. =frumô=, f. =frumei= (s. §
139), and the superl. =frumists=, _first_ (§ 139, n. 1). 2. =anþar=,
_second, other_, inflects like a strong adj. (§ 122, n. 1; § 124,
ns. 1. 4).--All subsequent ordinals ar derived from the cardinals
and inflect like weak adjectivs (§ 132, n. 3). The extant ordinals
ar: =þridja=, _3d_; =*fimfta= (only in 15th), _fifth_; =saíhsta=,
_6th_; =ahtuda=, _8th_; =niunda=, _9th_; =taíhunda=, _tenth_;
=fimftataíhunda=, _15th_. Only the second component is declined: dat.
sg. (=in jêra=) =fimftataíhundin=; Lu. III, 1.


§ 147. A distributiv numeral is =tweihnai=, _two apiece, two-and-two_,
extant in the dat. f. =tweihnaim= and acc. f. =tweihnôs=.

  NOTE. All other distributivs ar exprest by means of the cardinals
  along with =ƕazuh=, =ƕarjizuh= (§§ 164. 165) or the prep. =bi=;
  as (=insandida ins=) =twans ƕanzuh=, _two and two_; Lu. X, 1; =bi
  twans=; I. Cor. XIV, 27.

§ 148. Multiplicativs ar formd by means of the adj. =falþ-=:
=ainfalþs=, _onefold_; =fidurfalþs=, _fourfold_; =taíhuntaíhund-falþs=,
_hundredfold_; =managfalþs=, _manifold_.

§ 149. Numeral adverbs answering the question 'how many times', 'how
often'? ar exprest by the dat. sg. =sinþa= or by the dat. pl. =sinþam=
(nom. sg. =sinþs=, _time_, lit. '_a going_') preceded by the cardinals:
=ainamma sinþa=, _onse_; =twaim sinþam=, _twice_; =þrim sinþam=,
_thrice_; =fimf s.=, _five times_; =sibun s.=, _seven times_.--With an
ordinal numeral: =anþaramma sinþa=, _a second time_.

  NOTE. Also the n. =þridjô=, _a third time_, is uzed adverbially
  (II. Cor. XII, 14).



§ 150.

         1. Person.        2. Person.       Reflexiv.
  Sing. N.  =ik=             =þu=               --
        G.  =meina=          =þeina=          =seina=
        D.  =mis=            =þus=            =sis=
        A.  =mik=            =þuk=            =sik=

  Dual  N.  =wit=              --              --
        G.  =ugkara=         =igqara=         =seina=
        D.  =ugkis=          =igqis=          =sis=
        A.  =ugkis=, =ugk=   =igqis=          =sik=

  Plur. N.  =weis=           =jus=              --
        G.  =unsara=         =izwara=         =seina=
        D.  =uns=, =unsis=   =izwis=          =sis=
        A.  =uns=, =unsis=   =izwis=          =sik=

  NOTE 1. =ugkis=, =igqis=, etc., are also speld =uggkis=, =iggqis=;
  cp. § 67, n. 1.

  NOTE 2. The nom. du. 2nd pers. is not extant; it was undoutedly
  =jut=. For =jus= (=jûs=?), s. § 15, n. 1.

§ 151. From the stems of these pronouns adjectivs ar derived, the
so-calld possessiv pronouns. 1st pers.: m. =meins=, n. =mein=,
=meinata=; f. =meina=, _my_ (_mine_); 2nd pers.: =þeins=, _thy_
(_thine_); refl. =seins=, _his_. Plurals: 1st pers. =unsar=, _our_; 2nd
pers. =izwar=, _your_. The only extant dual poss. prn. is =igqar=, the
1st pers. would be =ugkar=.

  NOTE 1. The inflection of these pronominal adjectivs is identical
  with that of the strong adj.; concerning =unsar=, =izwar=, cp. §
  124, ns. 1 and 4.--No weak inflection occurs.

  NOTE 2. The reflexiv =*seins= occurs only in the gen., dat., acc.;
  insted of the nominativs of all genders and numbers the genitivs
  of the prn. of the 3d pers. (=is=, =izôs=; =izê=, =izô=; § 152) ar


§ 152.

  Sing.      M.                N.          |    F.
        N. =is=, _he_         =ita=, _it_  |  =si=, _she_
        G.            =is=                 |  =izôs=
        D.            =imma=               |  =izai=
        A. =ina=              =ita=        |  =ija=

  Plur.                                    |
        N. =eis=              =ija=        |  [=ijôs=]
        G.            =izê=                |  =izô=
        D.            =im=                 |  =im=
        A. =ins=              [=ija=]      |  =ijôs=

  NOTE. The acc. and gen. pl. n. and the nom. pl. f. ar not extant,
  but the inferd forms ar undoutedly correct.


§ 153. The simpl dem. prn. =sa=, =sô=, =þata= is uzed both as dem.
prn., _this_, _that_ (for the Gr. οὗτος or αὐτός), and, with a weakend
force, as articl, _the_. The latter uze is predominant.--The neuter
sing. (like the interrog., § 159) has preservd the instrumental case.

  Sing.      M.           N.     |    F.
        N. =sa=         =þata=   |  =sô=
        G.       =þis=           |  =þizôs=
        D.       =þamma=         |  =þizai=
        A. =þana=       =þata=   |  =þô=

  Instr.     --         =þê=     |    --

  Plur.                          |
        N. =þai=        =þô=     |  =þôs=
        G.       =þizê=          |  =þizô=
        D.       =þaim=          |  =þaim=
        A. =þans=       =þô=     |  =þôs=

  NOTE 1. The final =a=s of the dissyllabic forms ar dropt in
  combination with enclitics beginning with a vowel; cp. § 4, n.
  1.--For =þei= from =*þa-ei=, s. § 157, n. 2.

  NOTE 2. The instr. n. =þê= is preservd only in the combinations
  =bi-þê=, =du-þê= (=duþþê=), =jaþ-þê= (§ 62, n. 3), =þêei= (§ 157,
  n. 1), and, like =þana= (in =þanamais=, =þanaseiþs=), before a
  comparativ (= E. 'the' in 'the more').

§ 154. A compound demonstrativ pronoun is formd by affixing the
enclitic particl =-uh= to the simpl demonstrativ. Cp. § 24, n. 2. Its
meaning is always that of the simpl =sa= uzed demonstrativly, _this_,
_that_ (= Gr. οὗτος or αὐτός).--It inflects thus:

  Sing.      M.           N.     |    F.
        N. =sah=        =þatuh=  |  =sôh=
        G.       =þizuh=         |  [=þizôzuh=]
        D.       =þammuh=        |  [=þizaih=]
        A. =þanuh=      =þatuh=  |  [=þôh=]

  Plur.                          |
        N. =þáih=       [=þôh=]  |  [=þôzuh=]
        G.       [=þizêh=]       |  [=þizôh=]
        D.       [=þaimuh=]      |  [=þaimuh=]
        A. [=þanzuh=]   [=þôh=]  |  [=þôzuh=]

  NOTE 1. The forms in square brackets ar not extant.

  NOTE 2. The instr. n. =þêh= occurs only in the adv. =bi-þêh=.

§ 155. A defectiv demonstrativ pronoun =hi-= (nom. =*his= = =is=, §
152), _this_, occurs only in temporal frases in the dativ m. and n.
=himma= and in the acc. m. =hina=, n. =hita=; e. g., =himma daga=,
_to-day_; =und hina dag=, _to this day_; =und hita=, _til now_.

§ 156. =jains= (concerning the vowel =ai=, cp. § 20, n. 4), n.
=jainata=, f. =jaina= (_yon_), _that_, inflects like a strong adj.
(=blinds=, § 124).

Like weak adjectivs inflect =silba=, _self_, and =sama=, _same_, or
with the articl: =sa sama=, _the same_ (cp. § 132, n. 3).


§ 157. A simpl relativ pronoun is not found in the Gothic language.
A relativ prn. of the 3d pers. is formd from the simpl demonstrativ
pronoun by affixing the particl =ei= which, when uzed independently,
has the force of a conjunction, _that, in order that_. This relativ
pronoun inflects as follows:

  Sing.      M.                 N.    |    F.
        N.  =saei=            =þatei= | =sôei=
        G.          =þizei=           | =þizôzei=
        D.          =þammei=          | =þizaiei=
        A.  =þanei=           =þatei= | =þôei=
  Instr.     --               =þêei=  |   --
  Plur.                               |
        N.  =þaiei=           =þôei=  | =þôzei=
        G.          =þizêei=          | [=þizôei=]
        D.          =þaimei=          | =þaimei=
        A. =þanzei=           =þôei=  | =þôzei=

  NOTE 1. The instr. n. =þêei= is uzed only as a conjunction.

  NOTE 2. Beside =þatei= occurs =þei=, which is employd, however,
  only in combination with =ƕah= (§ 164, n. 1), and (like =þatei=) as
  a conjunction, _that_. Cp. Beitr., 4, 467; 6, 402; Zs. fda., 29,
  366 et seq.

  NOTE 3. Insted of the nom. sg. =saei=, m., =sôei=, f., also =izei=,
  m., =sei= (i. e. =si-ei=, § 10, n. 2), f., (formd from the 3d pers.
  of the pers. prn., § 152) ar employd. The form =sei= occurs even
  more frequently than =sôei=. Sumtimes =izei= stands as nom. pl.
  m. (for =eizei= which is not found); e. g., =þai izei bimaitanai
  sind=; Gal. VI, 13.--For =izei= the form =izê= is often found; cp.
  § 17, n. 1.

  NOTE 4. Concerning the change of final =s= before =ei= into =z=, s.
  § 78, c.

§ 158. When a relativ clause refers to a prn. of the 1st or 2nd pers.,
the relativ particl is affixt to the respectiv pers. prn. Thus, =ikei=,
_who_ (1st pers. sg.); --=þuei=, _who_; =þuzei=, _to whom_ (as in Mk.
I, 11); =þukei=, _whom_ (2nd pers. sg.); --=juzei=, _who_; =izwizei=,
_to whom_ (2nd pers. pl.).


§ 159. The interrogativ pronoun =ƕas=, _who?_ (= Lt. quis), is formd
from the simpl interrogativ stem =ƕa-=. A substantiv following =ƕas=
occurs always in the genitiv; e. g., =ƕa mizdônô=, τίνα μισθόν; Mt. V,

  Sing.      M.              N.   |    F.
        N. =ƕas=            =ƕa=  |  =ƕô=
        G.         =ƕis=          |  [=ƕizôs=]
        D.         =ƕamma=        |  =ƕizai=
        A. =ƕana=           =ƕa=  |  =ƕô=

  Instr.     --             =ƕê=  |   --

  NOTE 1. The gen. f. is not extant. The instr. occurs only in the
  neuter (cp. =sa=, § 153).

  NOTE 2. =ƕas= has no plural; cp. however =ƕanzuh=, § 164, n.

  NOTE 3. =ƕas= is also employd as an indefinit prn.; cp. § 162, n. 2.

§ 160. From stem =ƕa-= ar derived: =ƕaþar=, _which of two?_, and
=ƕarjis=, _which?_ A substantiv following is always put in the gen.
Both words inflect like strong adjectivs--=ƕaþar= like =anþar= (cp.
§ 124, n. 1), =ƕarjis= like =midjis= (§ 125), f. =ƕarja=, the n.
=*ƕarjata= like =ƕarjatôh= (§ 165).

§ 161. Compound interrogativs: =ƕileiks=, _what sort of?_, '_qualis?_'
(its correlativ being =swaleiks=, _such_, '_talis_'), and =ƕêlauþs=,
f. =ƕêlauda=, _how great?_, '_quantus?_' (correlativ =swalauþs=, _so
great_, '_tantus_'). These words inflect like a strong adjectiv.

  NOTE. =ƕeleiks= (in Lu. I, 29), for =ƕileiks=, is probably miswritn
  (according to § 10, n. 5).


§ 162. The Goth. indefinit pronoun =sums=, f. =suma=, n. =sum=,
=sumata=, =sum= (Gr. τις, τι), inflects like a strong adjectiv and is
uzed adjectivly; with the meaning _sum one, a certain one_, it is also
uzed substantivly.

  NOTE 1. An enumerativ expression is =sums...sums= (= Gr. ὁ μέν...ὁ
  δέ). In most cases =uh= (§ 24, n. 2) is added to the second
  =sums=, occasionally also to the first; as, =sumai...sumáih=, or
  =sumáih...sumáih=, _sum ... others_.

  NOTE 2. Also the interrogativ =ƕas= (§ 159) is very often uzed as
  an indefinit prn., _anyone_.

§ 163. The enclitic particl =-hun= is uzed to form indefinit pronouns
which occur only with the negativ particl =ni=. Their meaning is _no
one, none_.

(a) The singular of =manna=, _man_ (§ 117), with the suffix =-hun=
means _no one_.--The extant forms ar:

  n. =ni mannahun=,
  d. =ni mannhun=,
  g. =ni manshun=,
  acc. =ni mannanhun=.

(b) =ni ƕashun= (< =ƕas=, § 159), uzed substantivly, _no one_. It
occurs in the nom. sg. m. only.--An analogon to =ƕashun= is =ƕanhun= (<
=ƕan=, § 214, n. 1).

(c) =ni ainshun=, the commonest indef. prn., is uzed substantivly (_no
one, none_) and adjectivly (_no, not any_). A following sb. occurs
always in the (partit.) gen.; e. g., =ni ainshun þiwê=, _no servant_;
Lu. XVI, 3.--The declension of =ainshun= differs in sum cases from that
of the simpl form =ains= (§ 140).

  Sing.      M.                      N.     |    F.
        N. =ainshun=               =ainhun= | =ainôhun=
        G.           =ainishun=             |    --
        D.           =ainummêhun=           | =ainaihun=
        A. =ainnôhun= }            =ainhun= | =ainôhun=
           =ainôhun=  }                     |

  NOTE. =-hun= is also affixt to the acc. sg. of the sb. =ƕeila= (§
  97, n. 2): =ƕeilôhun=, _for an hour_ (=ni ƕeilôhun=, οὐδὲ πρὸς
  ὥραν; Gal. II, 5).

§ 164. '_Every_' is renderd by affixing =-uh= to the interrogativ

(a) =ƕazuh=, _every_. A noun or prn. following takes the gen. Its
inflection differs in part from that of the simpl form =ƕas= (§ 159):

  Sing.      M.                  N.   |    F.
        N. =ƕazuh=             =ƕah=  |  =ƕôh=
        G.           =ƕizuh=          |    --
        D.           =ƕammêh=         |    --
        A. =ƕanôh=             =ƕah=  |    --

  Plur.                               |
        A. =ƕanzuh=               --  |    --

In the pl. only the acc. =ƕanzuh= occurs.

  NOTE 1. The indef. relativ '_whoever, whosoever_' (Lt. quicunque)
  is renderd: (1) by =ƕazuh saei= or, with =sa= prefixt, =saƕazuh
  saei=. For =saei= also =izei= is found (§ 157, n. 3).--These
  forms ar uzed in the nom. sg. only, the nom. n. =þataƕah þei=
  (=þei= = =þatei=, § 157, n. 2) occurs twice: Jo. XV, 7. 16.--(2)
  by =þisƕazuh= followd by =saei= or =ei= in all cases; the first
  component, =þis=, remains uninflected: m. n. =þisƕazuh saei=, dat.
  =þisƕammêh saei=, acc. =þisƕanôh saei=; --nom. acc. n. =þisƕah þei=
  (or =þatei=), gen. =þisƕizuh þei=, dat. =þisƕammêh þei=.

  NOTE 2. Here may be observd the adverbs: =ƕêh= (instr. of =ƕazuh=),
  _at least, at any rate, only_, and =þisƕaduh þei=, _whithersoever_,
  =þisƕaruh þei=, _wheresoever_ (cp. =ƕaþ=, =ƕar=, § 213, n. 1).

§ 165. (b) =ƕarjizuh=, _every, each_.

  Sing.     M.          N.        |    F.
     N.  =ƕarjizuh=  =ƕarjatôh=   |    --
     G.        =ƕarjizuh=         |    --
     D.        =ƕarjammêh=        |    --
     A.  =ƕarjanôh=  [=ƕarjatôh=] | =ƕarjôh=

  NOTE. =ƕarjizuh= is also compounded with (uninflected) =ain=:
  =ainƕarjizuh=, _every one, every, each_, n. =ainƕarjatôh=, dat.
  =ainƕarjammêh=, etc.

§ 166. _Each of two_ is renderd by =ƕaþaruh=; it occurs only in the
dat. =ƕaþarammêh= (Skeir. 46), for the evidently incorrect =ƕaþaramma=
(cp. Bernhardt's comment on this passage); --also with =ain-=
prefixt (cp. § 165, n. 1): =ainƕaþaruh=, _each one of two_ (only
=ainƕaþarammêh= occurs; Skeir. 41).



§ 167. The Gothic verb has the following forms:

1. Two voices, Activ and Midl. The Activ Voice alone has preservd a
great variety of forms. The Midl Voice is retaind in but a few forms of
the prs. indicativ and optativ, which occur, however, very often. The
midl forms hav a passiv meaning. Therefore the Midl Voice is also calld
Passiv or Medio-Passiv Voice.

  NOTE 1. The lost passiv forms ar supplied by the pp. along with the
  corresponding forms of =waírþan= or =wisan=; e. g., =daupjada=, _he
  is baptized_, but =daupiþs was= or =warþ=, _he was baptized_. Cp.
  Zs. fdph., 5, 409 et seq.

  NOTE 2. The originally inchoativ verbs in =-nan= (§ 194) frequently
  hav a medial meaning (§ 194).

2. Two tenses, Present and Preterit (Perfect). The Preterit is the
general tense for the past. The future is wanting; its place is mostly
supplied by the present, seldom by means of auxiliary verbs (=skulan=,
_shal_; =haban=, _hav_; =duginnan=, _to begin_).

3. Two complete moods, Indicativ and Optativ (also calld Subjunctiv).
An Imperativ occurs only in the present; it has the second persons of
all three numbers and a 1st pers. pl.--There ar but few instances of a
3d pers. sg. and pl. imper. This is uzually exprest by the 3d pers.
opt. But also the 2nd and 1st pers. imp. ar frequently exprest by the

4. Three numbers: Singular, Dual, and Plural. The 3d pers. du. is

5. The Present Infinitiv, the Present Participl with an activ meaning,
and the Preterit Partic. with a passiv meaning.

§ 168. The Gothic verbs ar, from a Germanic point of view, divided
according to the formation of the preterit in relation to the present
into two chief classes:


The strong verbs do not form the preterit with an additional suffix,
but by change of the radical vowel or by reduplication. Thus, we hav
two subdivisions:

1. Ablaut Verbs. The preterit of these verbs is formd without
reduplication. It differs from the present only by a regular change of
the radical vowel, the so-calld ablaut (cp. § 29); e. g., =binda=, _I
bind_, =band=, _I bound_.

2. Reduplicating Verbs. The prt. has reduplication, but no ablaut; e.
g., =halda=, _I hold_, =haíhald=, _I held_.

3. Reduplicating Ablaut Verbs. A smaller number of verbs hav the prt.
both with ablaut and reduplication; e. g., =lêta=, _I let_; =laílôt=,
_I let_ (prt.).


The weak verbs form the preterit by the addition of a suffix beginning
with a dental consonant; e. g., =nasja=, _I save_, =nasida=, _I saved_.
This suffixal element, =-da=, was formerly regarded as a form of the
verb 'do' (Germanic dôn), wherefore the weak prt. was also calld
'compound preterit'.

The weak verbs (except a few) ar derivativ verbs. According to their
formativ suffixes, which ar best preservd in the preterit forms, they
ar divided into four classes: (1) Suffix =i= (in the present =j=):
=nasja=, =nasi-da=. (2) Suffix =ô=: =salbô=, =salbô-da=. (3) Suffix
=ai= (in the present in part obscured): =haba=, =habai-da=. (4) Suffix
=nô= (in the present =n=): =fullna=, =fullnô-da=.

  NOTE. The small number of verbs which can not be referd to the two
  chief classes must, according to this classification, be considerd



§ 169. The inflection of the strong verbs (by means of personal
endings) is the same in all three classes (§ 168). Therefore we first
giv the paradims of inflection and then discuss the formation of the
tense-stems (which is different in each class). As paradims may serv
a reduplicating verb, =haitan=, _to be calld_, and two ablaut verbs,
=niman=, _to take_, and =biudan=, _to offer_.

§ 170. +(a) Present (Activ).+


  Sing.    1. =nima=          =biuda=         =haita=
           2. =nimis=         =biudis=        =haitis=
           3. =nimiþ=         =biudiþ=        =haitiþ=

  Dual     1. =nimôs=         =biudôs=        =haitôs=
           2. =nimats=        =biudats=       =haitats=

  Plur.    1. =nimam=         =biudam=        =haitam=
           2. =nimiþ=         =biudiþ=        =haitiþ=
           3. =nimand=        =biudand=       =haitand=


  Sing.    1. =nimau=         =biudau=        =haitau=
           2. =nimais=        =biudais=       =haitais=
           3. =nimai=         =biudai=        =haitai=

  Dual     1. =nimaiwa=       =biudaiwa=      =haitaiwa=
           2. =nimaits=       =biudaits=      =haitaits=

  Plur.    1. =nimaima=       =biudaima=      =haitaima=
           2. =nimaiþ=        =biudaiþ=       =haitaiþ=
           3. =nimaina=       =biudaina=      =haitaina=


  Sing.    2. =nim=           =biuþ=          =hait=
           3. =nimadau=       =biudadau=      =haitadau=

  Dual     2. =nimats=        =biudats=       =haitats=

  Plur.    1. =nimam=         =biudam=        =haitam=
           2. =nimiþ=         =biudiþ=        =haitiþ=
           3. =nimandau=      =biudandau=     =haitandau=


  =niman=         =biudan=        =haitan=


  =nimands=       =biudands=      =haitands=

+(b) Preterit.+


  Sing.    1. =nam=           =bauþ=          =haíhait=
           2. =namt=          =baust=         =haíhaist=
           3. =nam=           =bauþ=          =haíhait=

  Dual     1. =nêmu=          =budu=          =haíhaitu=
           2. =nêmuts=        =buduts=        =haíhaituts=

  Plur.    1. =nêmum=         =budum=         =haíhaitum=
           2. =nêmuþ=         =buduþ=         =haíhaituþ=
           3. =nêmun=         =budun=         =haíhaitun=


  Sing.    1. =nêmjau=        =budjau=        =haíhaitjau=
           2. =nêmeis=        =budeis=        =haíhaiteis=
           3. =nêmi=          =budi=          =haíhaiti=

  Dual     1. =nêmeiwa=       =budeiwa=       =haíhaiteiwa=
           2. =nêmeits=       =budeits=       =haíhaiteits=

  Plur.    1. =nêmeima=       =budeima=       =haíhaiteima=
           2. =nêmeiþ=        =budeiþ=        =haíhaiteiþ=
           3. =nêmeina=       =budeina=       =haíhaiteina=

+(c) Preterit Participl Passiv.+

  =numans=        =budans=        =haitans=

+(d) Medio-Passiv--Present.+


  Sing.    1. =nimada=        =biudada=       =haitada=
           2. =nimaza=        =biudaza=       =haitaza=
           3. =nimada=        =biudada=       =haitada=

     1. 2. 3. =nimanda=       =biudanda=      =haitanda=


  Sing.    1. =nimaidau=      =biudaidau=     =haitaidau=
           2. =nimaizau=      =biudaizau=     =haitaizau=
           3. =nimaidau=      =biudaidau=     =haitaidau=

     1. 2. 3. =nimaindau=     =biudaindau=    =haitaindau=

  NOTE 1. =biudan= is subject to the rules for the final soft
  spirants (§ 79): imper. sg. =biuþ=, prt. =bauþ= (cp. § 374).
  Likewise =giban=, =gif=, =gaf= (cp. § 56).

  NOTE 2. The termination of the 2nd pers. sg. prt. (=-t=) causes
  the change stated in the rule for consonants before dentals (§
  81). Final =b= of stems becums =f=: =gaft= (inf. =giban=); exampls
  for =pt= ar wanting: =skôpt= or =skôft=? (inf. =skapjan=); --=g=
  remains unchanged in =magt= (§ 66, n. 1), other exampls ar wanting;
  neither ar there any exampls for =kt= (=wôkt= or =wôht=? cp. § 58,
  n. 2); --dentals becum =s=: =warst= < =waírþan=, =qast= < =qiþan=
  (§ 71, n. 3), =gastôst= < =standan=, =baust= < =biudan= (§ 75, n.
  1), =bigast= < =gitan=, =haíhaist= < =haitan= (§ 69, n. 2).--The
  extant 2nd pers. prt. of =saísô= (inf. =saian=) is =saísôst=. On
  account of the scarcity of exampls it is uncertain whether all
  stems ending in a vowel had =-st=.--The 2nd pers. prt. of =rinnan=
  is =rant= (§ 80).

  NOTE 3. Only one strong verb is found (twice) in the 3d pers. sg.
  imper.: =atsteigadan=, καταβάτω; Mt. XXVII, 42. Mk. XV, 32 (cp. §
  186, n. 1). The 3d pers. pl. may be givn with certainty according
  to the weak verb (§ 192, n. 1).

  NOTE 4. The dual forms of the verb occur very seldom. The 1st pers.
  du. opt. prt., =nêmeiwa=, etc., which is only givn according to the
  corresponding form of the prs. =nimaiwa=, is not found at all. Also
  the 2nd pers. du. opt. prt. is but an inferd form according to the
  anomalous =wileits= (§ 205).

  NOTE 5. Concerning the irregular formation of the present of sum
  strong verbs with =j=, s. § 206, n.


1. Ablaut Verbs.

§ 171. The ablaut verbs form their tense-stems by a regular change of
the radical vowel, the so-calld ablaut. The several ablaut-series and
the conditions of their appearance wil be found givn in §§ 30-35. To
each of these series belong ablaut verbs, and therefore six ablaut
classes must be distinguisht. Each ablaut verb contains four ablaut
vowels which appear in the formation of the verb in the following
manner: (1) The first vowel belongs to the present and to what is
connected with the present (prsp., inf., also medio-passiv). (2) The
second vowel is that of the sg. prt. indic. (3) The third vowel appears
in the du. and pl. prt. indic. and thruout the prt. opt. (4) The fourth
vowel belongs to the pp.

In order to determin the inflection of a strong verb, it is customary
to giv the following four forms (principal parts): (1) 1st pers. sg.
prs. indic., or the prs. inf.; (2) 1st pers. sg. prt. indic.; (3) 1st
pers. pl. prt. indic.; (4) the pp.

In the following we arrange the ablaut verbs according to their classes.

§ 172. Class I. Verbs of the first ablaut series: =ei=--=ái=--=i=
(=aí=) (cp. § 30); e. g., =greipa=, =graip=, =gripum=, =gripans=, _to
gripe, seiz_; =i= before =h= (=ƕ=) becums =aí= by breaking (§ 20):
=leiƕa=, =láiƕ=, =laíƕum=, =laíƕans=, _to lend_.

  NOTE 1. Like these inflect: =deigan=, _to knead_; =steigan=, _to
  mount_; =gateihan=, _to show_; =þeihan=, _to thrive_; =þreihan=,
  _to throng_; =weihan=, _to fight_; --=beitan=, _to bite_;
  =dis-kreitan=, _to tear to pieces_; =ga-smeitan=, _to smear_;
  =-weitan= (=inweitan=, _to wurship_; =fraweitan=, _to punish_);
  =beidan=, _to wait_; =leiþan=, _to go_; =sneiþan=, _to cut_;
  --=weipan=, _to crown_; =dreiban=, _to drive_; =bi-leiban=, _to
  remain_; =sweiban=, _to cease_; --=reisan=, _to rize_; =skeinan=,
  _to shine_; =hneiwan=, _to decline, bow_; =speiwan=, _to spit_.

  NOTE 2. The =n= of =keinan= (OHG. kînan), _to germinate_, occurs
  only in the prs. stem (cp. § 206, b); the pp. is =kijans= (only in
  =uskijanata=; Lu. VIII, 6). The prt. =*kai=, =*kijum=, has been
  replaced by a weak prt. of the IV. weak conjugation (=keinôda=, §
  195, n. 2). Cp. Kluge, 'Germ. Conjug.', 143.

  NOTE 3. The verb =neiwan=, _to hav a quarrel against_, occurs only
  in a sumwhat doutful exampl: =naiw=; Mk. VI, 19. Cp. Bernhardt,
  'Vulfila', p. 282, and Zs. fdph., 7, 112. 484.

§ 173. Class II. Verbs of the second ablaut series: =iu=--=au=--=u=
(=aú=)--=u= (=aú=) (cp. § 31); e. g., =biuda=, =bauþ=, =budum=,
=budans=, _to offer_; with breaking (§ 24): =tiuha=, =táuh=, =taúhum=,
=taúhans=, _to draw, lead_.

  NOTE 1. Like =tiuhan= inflect: =siukan=, _to be sick_; =biugan=,
  _to bend_; =driugan=, _to perform military service_; =liugan=, _to
  lie_; =þliuhan=, _to flee_; --=giutan=, _to pour_; =usþriutan=,
  _to trubl, vex_; =niutan=, _to enjoy_; =liudan=, _to grow_;
  --=dis-hniupan=, _to break to pieces_; =sliupan=, _to slip_;
  =af-skiuban=, _to shuv away_; =hiufan=, _to weep_; =driusan=, _to
  fall_; =kiusan=, _to choose_; =fra-liusan=, _to lose_; =kriustan=,
  _to gnash_.

  NOTE 2. The vowel of the prs. is irregular in =lûka=, =lauk=,
  =lukum=, =lukans=, _to lock_.

§ 174. Class III. Verbs of the third ablaut series: =i=
(=aí=)--=a=--=u= (=aú=)--=u= (=aú=) (cp. § 32); e. g., =binda=, =band=,
=bundum=, =bundans=, _to bind_; with breaking (§§ 20. 24): =waírpa=,
=warp=, =waúrpum=, =waúrpans=, _to throw, cast_.

  NOTE 1. Like these inflect: =brinnan=, _to burn_; =du-ginnan=, _to
  begin_; =af-linnan=, _to depart_; =rinnan=, _to run_; =spinnan=,
  _to spin_; =winnan=, _to suffer_; --=trimpan=, _to tred_;
  --=fra-slindan=, _to devour_; =windan=, _to wind_; =hinþan=, _to
  cach_; =finþan=, _to find_; =þinsan=, _to draw_; --=stiggan= (only
  by conjecture in Mt. V, 29), _to sting_; =bliggwan=, _to beat_
  (§ 68, 2); =siggwan=, _to sing_; =sigqan=, _to sink_; =stigqan=,
  _to thrust_; =drigkan=, _to drink_; --=gildan=, _to be of value_;
  =swiltan=, _to die_; =hilpan=, _to help_; =filhan=, _to hide_;
  =wilwan=, _to rob_; --=baírgan=, _to hide, keep_; =gaírdan=,
  _to gird_; =waírþan=, _to becum_; =ga-þaírsan=, _to wither_;
  =swaírban=, _to wipe_; =ƕaírban=, _to walk_; --=þriskan=, _to
  thresh_; =ga-wrisqan=, _to bear fruit_ (these two only in the prs.
  tense, in I. Tim. V, 18. Lu. VIII, 14).

  NOTE 2. According to its prs. tense, also =briggan= would belong
  here; s. § 208.

§ 175. Class IV. Verbs of the fourth ablaut series: =i=
(=aí=)--=a=--=ê=--=u= (=aú=) (cp. § 33); e. g., =nima=, =nam=, =nêmum,
umans=, _to take_; with breaking (§§ 20. 24): =baíra=, =bar=, =bêrum=,
=baúrans=, _to bear_.

  NOTE 1. Like these inflect: =qiman=, _to cum_; =ga-timan=, _to
  suit_; =stilan=, _to steal_; =ga-taíran=, _to tear_; --=brikan=,
  _to break_ (§ 33, n. 1).

  NOTE 2. Here belongs also =trudan=, [=traþ=], [=trêdum=],
  =trudans=, _to tred_ (ON. troða, trað, traðum, troðinn; in OHG.
  according to V.: trëtan, trat, trátum, trëtan). According to
  =trudan=, we should also write =wulan=, _to boil_ (only prsp.
  =wulandans= occurs; Rom. XII, 11).

§ 176. Class V. Verbs of the fifth ablaut series: =i=
(=aí=)--=a=--=ê=--=i= (=aí=) (cp. § 34); e. g., =mita=, =mat=, =mêtum=,
=mitans=, _to mezure_; =giba=, =gaf=, =gêbum=, =gibans=, _to giv_.

  NOTE 1. Here belong also =wrikan=, _to persecute_; =rikan= (found
  in the prs. only), _to accumulate_; =ligan=, _to lie_; =ga-wigan=,
  _to move_; =saíƕan=, _to see_ (cp. § 34, n. 1); --=hlifan=, _to
  steal_; --=bigitan=, _to get, obtain_; =sitan=, _to sit_; =fitan=,
  _to bear_ (_children_)?; =widan=, _to bind_; =qiþan=, _to say_;
  =niþan=, _to help_ (?); --=lisan=, _to gather_; =ga-nisan=, _to
  recuver_; =wisan=, _to remain_.

  NOTE 2. =sniwan=, _to hasten_, has =sniwa=, =snau= (§ 42),
  =snêwum=, =sniwans=. Onse occurs the prt. =snauh= (with additional
  =h=; cp. § 62, n. 4), onse =sniwun= for =snêwun= (§ 7, n. 3).--Like
  =sniwan= inflects probably =diwan=, _to die_, of which only the pp.
  (=þata=) =diwanô= occurs.

  NOTE 3. The prt. sg. of =itan= is, irregularly, =êt=, not =at=;
  only the cpd. =frêt= (< =fra-itan=, _to eat up_; § 4, n. 1; § 7, b)
  is extant. Hense =itan=, =êt=, =êtum=, =itans=. Cp. the OHG. prts.
  âz frâz (ahd. gr., § 343, n. 5), ON. át. Möller, 'Engl. Studien',
  3, 154.

  NOTE 4. The =n= of =fraíhnan=, _to ask_, occurs only in the prs.
  stem: =fraíhna=, =frah=, =frêhum=, =fraíhans= (cp. § 206, b).

  NOTE 5. The =j= in =bidjan= occurs in the prs. stem only: =bidja=,
  =baþ=, =bêdum=, =bidans= (cp. § 206, n.). Onse the prs. is found
  without =j=: =usbida=; Rom. IX, 3.

§ 177. Class VI. Verbs of the sixth ablaut series: =a--ô--ô--a= (cp. §
35); e. g., =slaha=, =slôh=, =slôhum=, =slahans=, _to strike_.

  NOTE 1. Like =slahan= go: =sakan=, _to quarrel_; =wakan=, _to
  wake_; =dragan=, _to carry, load_; =þwahan=, _to wash_; =hlaþan=,
  _to load_; =ga-daban=, _to becum, fit_; =ga-draban=, _to hew_;
  =graban=, _to dig_; =skaban=, _to shave_; =alan=, _to grow_;
  =malan=, _to grind_; =swaran=, _to swear_; =faran=, _to fare, go_;
  =us-anan=, _to expire_. Sum of these verbs occur only in the prs.:
  =wakan=, =dragan=, =alan=, =malan=, =faran=.

  NOTE 2. Sum verbs of this class hav =j= in the present stem,
  which is wanting in the prt. and pp.; e. g., =hafjan=, _to heav_,
  forms: =hafja=, =hôf=, =hôfum=, =hafans=. So do: =fraþjan=, _to
  understand_; =hlahjan=, _to laf_; =skapjan=, _to shape, make_;
  =skaþjan=, _to do scath, to injure_; =wahsjan=, _to wax, grow_.
  Doutful is the prs. form =*garaþjan= which is uzually inferd from
  the pp. =garaþana= (Mt. X, 30), _to count_.--Cp. § 206, n.

  NOTE 3. The =n= of =standan= occurs only in the present stem (cp.
  § 206, b): =standa=, =stôþ=, =stôþum=. The pp. =*staþans= (ON.
  staðinn) is wanting; cp. Anz. fda., 14, 286.

2. Reduplicating Verbs.

§ 178. The preterit of the reduplicating verbs is formd by
reduplication only, the radical vowel remaining unchanged. The
reduplication consists of the initial consonant together with the
constant reduplication vowel =aí= (short e; s. § 20); e. g., =haita=,
_I am calld_, prt. =haíhait=; =ƕôpa=, _I boast_, prt. =ƕaíƕôp=. When
the word begins with two consonants, only the first is repeated; e. g.,
=fraisa=, _I tempt_, prt. =faífrais=. The initial combinations =st=,
=sk=, [=sp=], however, ar repeated together; e. g., =(ga-)stalda=, _I
possess_, prt. =staístald=; =skaida=, _I separate_, prt. =skaískaiþ=.
When the word begins with a vowel, only the reduplication vowel is
prefixt; e. g., =auka=, _I increase_, prt. =aíauk=.

The pp. is formd without reduplication: =haitans=, =fraisans=, etc.

§ 179. The reduplicating verbs may be divided into five classes
according to their radical vowels: (1) =a= (=â=). (2) =ê=. (3) =ai=.
(4) =ô=. (5) =au=. Sinse the vowel remains unchanged in the hole verb,
it causes no change of inflection. Therefore the paradim =haitan= (givn
in § 170) is sufficient for all classes.

The preterits of the following reduplicating verbs ar extant:

(1) =haldan=, _to hold_; =falþan=, _to fold_; =staldan=, _to possess_;
--=fâhan=, _to cach_ (prt. =faífâh=, pl. =faífâhum=, pp. =fâhans=),
=hâhan=, _to hang_ (§ 62, n. 2).

(2) =slêpan=, _to sleep_ (concerning the prt., cp. § 78, n. 3).

(3) =af-aikan=, _to deny_; =fraisan=, _to tempt_; =haitan=, _to be
calld_; =laikan=, _to leap_; =maitan=, _to cut off_; =skaidan=, _to

(4) =ƕôpan=, _to boast_; =flôkan=, _to lament_.--The inf. belonging to
the prt. =laílôun= (Jo. IX, 28) is probably (according to § 26, n.)
=*lauan=, _to revile_. Cp. § 22, n. 2.

(5) =aukan=, _to increase_.

  NOTE 1. It is tolerably certain that several verbs of which the
  preterit does not occur belong here too: (1) =us-alþan=, _to grow
  old_; =blandan=, _to blend_; =saltan=, _to salt_; =waldan=, _to
  wield, rule_; =ana-praggan=, _to oppress, harass_. (2) =blêsan=,
  _to blow_. (3) =ga-þláihan=, _to cumfurt, caress_. (4) =blôtan=,
  _to wurship_. (5) =stautan=, _to thrust, smite_; =hlaupan=, _to

  NOTE 2. =bauan=, _to dwel_, which formerly belongd here according
  to the testimony of other Germanic dialects, has the weak prt.
  =bauaida= and is referd to the third weak conjugation (§ 193)
  also because of the f. =bauains= (§ 103, n. 1). But the 3d pers.
  sg. is =bauiþ= which is stil a form of the strong conjugation.
  The inflection of the Goth. =bnauan=, _to rub_, which occurs only
  onse (=bnauandans=; Lu. VI, 1) can not be determind; its ON.
  correspondence, *bnúa, (g)núa (altisl. gr., § 433; cp. Zs. fdph.,
  17, 250), like the OHG. nûan, niuwan (ahd. gr., § 334, n. 5)
  belongs to the strong inflection; =trauan=, however, follows the
  weak inflection thruout.--Cp. § 26, b.

  NOTE 3. =gaggan=, _to go_, pp. =gaggans=, has lost its prt.
  =*gaígagg=, which is replaced by other forms. Cp. § 207.

  NOTE 4. Insted of =flôkan= the form =flêkan= was formerly uzed on
  account of the isolated prt. =faíflôkun= (according to § 181). That
  this is wrong was shown by Bezzenberger, 'Ueber die =a=-reihe der
  got. spr.', p. 56⁴. Cp. also Gallée, 'Noord en Zuid', 4, 54 et seq.

  NOTE 5. =arjandan= (in Lu. XVII, 7) seems to refer to a red. v.
  =arjan= (_to plow_), w. a =j=-present (206ᵃ); cp. OHG. erien, iar,
  giaran (ahd. gr., § 350, n. 5).

3. Reduplicating Ablaut Verbs.

§ 180. A number of verbs with the stem-vowel =ê= in the present (or
final =ai= in the root) hav the ablaut of the =ê--ô=-series (s. §
36). The prt. has the vowel =ô= and reduplication. In the pp. appears
the same vowel as in the prs. These verbs ar divided into two classes
according to the vowel of the prs.:

§ 181. I. Stems ending in a consonant hav =ê= in the prs.; e. g.,
=lêtan=, _to let_, which has =lêta=, =laílôt=, =laílôtum=, =lêtans=. Of
this kind ar also =grêtan= (=gaígrôt=), _to weep_; =têkan= (=taítôk=),
_to tuch_; =-rêdan= (=raírôþ=), _to counsel_.

§ 182. II. Roots ending in a vowel change the =ê= into =ai= (§ 22).
Here belong: =saian=, _to sow_: =saia=, =saísô=, =saísôum=, =saians=
(concerning other forms, cp. § 22, n. 1; § 170, n. 2), and =waian=
(=waíwô=), _to blow_.

  NOTE. The prt. of =faian=, _to blame_, is not extant; cp. § 22, n.


§ 183. The formation and inflection of the prt. and pp. of the four
classes of the weak verbs (§ 168) ar alike. The pp. is formd by means
of the suffix =-da-= (nom. m. =-þs=) which is in all classes added to
the verbal stem. The latter varies according to the formativ suffix and
causes in the present forms a considerabl difference of inflection in
the four classes. We first giv the inflection of the prt., which is the
same in all classes.


§ 184. Paradims: =nasida=, =salbôda=, =habaida=, =fullnôda=. Only one
exampl is necessary to show the inflection.

            INDICATIV.         OPTATIV.

  Sing. 1. =nasi-da=        =nasi-dêdjau=
        2. =nasi-dês=       =nasi-dêdeis=
        3. =nasi-da=        =nasi-dêdi=

  Dual  1. =nasi-dêdu=      =nasi-dêdeiwa=
        2. =nasi-dêduts=    =nasi-dêdeits=

  Plur. 1. =nasi-dêdum=     =nasi-dêdeima=
        2. =nasi-dêduþ=     =nasi-dêdeiþ=
        3. =nasi-dêdun=     =nasi-dêdeina=

What has been said in § 170, n. 4 concerns also the 1st and 2nd pers.
du. optativ.


§ 185. The verbs of this class hav the formativ suffix =i= which
appears in the present as =j= (inf. =-jan=). This =j= and a following
=i= ar either contracted into =ei= (according to § 44, c and n. 1)
or remain =ji=. Thus we hav two subdivisions: (a) Verbs with short
stem-syllabls; e. g., =nasjan=, _to save_, or verbs in a long vowel;
as, =stôjan=, _to judge_. (b) Verbs with long stem-syllabls ending in a
consonant; e. g., =sôkjan=, _to seek_, and polysyllabic verbs; e. g.,
=mikiljan=, _to praise_.

§ 186.

(a) +Present+ (+Activ+).


  Sing. 1. =nasja=      =stôja=      |  =sôkja=
        2. =nasjis=     =stôjis=     |  =sôkeis=
        3. =nasjiþ=     =stôjiþ=     |  =sôkeiþ=
  Dual  1. =nasjôs=     =stôjôs=     |  =sôkjôs=
        2. =nasjats=    =stôjats=    |  =sôkjats=
  Plur. 1. =nasjam=     =stôjam=     |  =sôkjam=
        2. =nasjiþ=     =stôjiþ=     |  =sôkeiþ=
        3. =nasjand=    =stôjand=    |  =sôkjand=


  Sing. 1. =nasjau=       =stôjau=      |  =sôkjau=
        2. =nasjais=        etc.        |    etc.
        3. =nasjai=                     |
  Dual  1. =nasjaiwa=                   |
        2. =nasjaits=                   |
  Plur. 1. =nasjaima=                   |
        2. =nasjaiþ=                    |
        3. =nasjaina=                   |


  Sing. 2. =nasei=        [=stauei=]    |  =sôkei=
        3. =nasjadau=     =stôjadau=    |  =sôkjadau=
  Dual  2. =nasjats=      =stôjats=     |  =sôkjats=
  Plur. 1. =nasjam=       =stôjam=      |  =sôkjam=
        2. =nasjiþ=       =stôjiþ=      |  =sôkeiþ=
        3. =nasjandau=    =stôjandau=   |  =sôkjandau=


  =nasjan=       =stôjan=      |  =sôkjan=


  =nasjands=     =stôjands=    |  =sôkjands=

                             (b) Preterit.

  =nasida=       =stauida=     |  =sôkida=

(Inflection § 184.)

                   (c) Preterit Participl (Passiv).

  =nasiþs=       =stauiþs=     |  =sôkiþs=

                      (d) Medio-Passiv: Present.


  Sing. 1. 3. =nasjada=      =stôjada=     |  =sôkjada=
           2. =nasjaza=      =stôjaza=     |  =sôkjaza=
  Plur. 1. 2. 3. =nasjanda=     =stôjanda=    |  =sôkjanda=


  Sing. 1. 3. =nasjaidau=    =stôjaidau=   |  =sôkjaidau=
           2. =nasjaizau=    =stôjaizau=   |  =sôkjaizau=
  Plur. 1. 2. 3. =nasjaindau=   =stôjaindau=  |  =sôkjaindau=

  NOTE 1. The 3d pers. sg. imper. is preservd in =lausjadau=,
  ῥυσάσθω; Mt. XXVII, 43 (cp. § 170, n. 3). The 3d pers. pl. would be
  =lausjandau= according to § 192, n. 1.

  NOTE 2. The 2nd pers. sg. imper. =stauei= (inf. =stôjan=) is
  suggested by the prt. =stauida= according to § 26.

§ 187. Further exampls of this very numerous class: (a) 1. verbs with
short stem-syllabls: =waljan=, _to choose_; =ga-tamjan=, _to tame_;
=uf-þanjan=, _to strech_; =warjan=, _to forbid_; =lagjan=, _to lay_;
=us-wakjan=, _to awake_; =satjan=, _to set_; =wasjan=, _to vest,
clothe_; =hazjan=, _to praise_; =huljan=, _to cuver_; 2. stems ending
in a vowel: =taujan= (imper. sg. =tawei=, prt. =tawida=, pp. =tawiþs=),
_to do_; =*straujan=, _to strew_ (only the prt. =strawida= and pp.
=strawiþs= ar extant); =qiujan= (=qiwida=), _to quicken_; =ana-niujan=
(=-niwida=), _to renew_; =siujan=, _to sew_; --concerning =*môjan= (in
=afmôjan=, _to weary_) and =*dôjan= (in =afdôjan=, _to tire out_), s. §
26, a.

(b) verbs with long stems and polysyllabic verbs: =mêljan=, _to write_;
=mêrjan=, _to preach_; =sipônjan=, _to be a disciple_; =hnaiwjan=, _to
abase_; =hrainjan=, _to clean_; =hausjan=, _to hear_; =þiuþjan=, _to
bless_; --=brannjan=, _to burn_; =sandjan=, _to send_; =namnjan=, _to
name_; =andbahtjan=, _to serv_; =glitmunjan=, _to glitter_; =haúrnjan=,
_to blow the horn_.

  NOTE 1. =kaupatjan=, _to buffet_, has the prt. =kaupasta= (without
  =i=; cp. § 75), but the pp. =kaupatiþs= (cp. § 209, n. 1). The
  verbs =lauhatjan=, _to shine_; =swôgatjan=, _to sigh_, occur in the
  prs. only.

  NOTE 2. Sum primary verbs with =j= in the present stem inflect in
  the present like the weak verbs of the first class. In the prt.
  they ar either strong or weak without the formativ suffix =i=. Cp.
  § 206, a (§ 209).

  NOTE 3. Only two verbs assume occasionally forms of the 2nd weak
  conjugation: =hausjan=, _to hear_, beside =hausjôn= (occurs several
  times); pp. =un-beistjôþs=, _unlevend_, but =ga-beistjan=, _to

  NOTE 4. Like the 2nd pers. du. and pl. imper. of =nasjan= go the
  interjectional =hirjats=, =hirjiþ=. The sg. =hiri= is irregular.
  Cp. § 219.

§ 188. Verbs of this class ar derived from verbs, adjectivs and
substantivs. Their meaning is predominantly causativ. Causativs from
strong ablaut verbs hav the vowel of the prt. sg.; e. g., =wandjan=,
_to wend, turn_ (< =windan=); =dragkjan=, _to giv to drink_ (<
=drigkan=); =ur-raisjan=, _to raiz_ (< =ur-reisan=, _to arize_);
=ga-drausjan=, _to cause to fall_ (< =driusan=).--Also verbs derived
from adjectivs and substantivs show, with few exceptions, a causativ
meaning; e. g., =háuhjan=, _to make high_ (< =háuhs=); =hailjan=, _to
heal_ (< =hails=); =warmjan=, _to warm_ (< =warms=); --=dailjan=, _to
deal_ (< =dails=); =taiknjan=, _to make a sign, to show_ (< =taikns=,
_a token_); etc.--Only a few hav an intransitiv meaning, e. g.,
=sipônjan=, _to be a disciple_; =faúrhtjan=, _to fear_.


§ 189. The formativ suffix (=ô=) occurs in this class not only in
the prt., but also in the hole prs., and absorbs the initial vowels
appearing in the endings of the strong verb. Paradim: =salbôn=, _to

(a) +Present.+

            INDIC.          OPT.          IMPER.
  Sing. 1. =salbô=        =salbô=           --
        2. =salbôs=       =salbôs=       =salbô=
        3. =salbôþ=       =salbô=        =salbôdau=

  Dual  1. =salbôs=       =salbôwa=         --
        2. =salbôts=      =salbôts=      =salbôts=

  Plur. 1. =salbôm=       =salbôma=      =salbôm=
        2. =salbôþ=       =salbôþ=       =salbôþ=
        3. =salbônd=      =salbôna=      =salbôndau=

INFINITIV: =salbôn=

PARTICIPL: =salbônds=

(b) +Preterit.+

=salbôda=, =-dês=, =-da=, etc. (s. § 184).

(c) +Pret. Participl Passiv.+


(d) +Medio-Passiv: Present.+

                    INDIC.          OPT.
  Sing. 1. 3.    =salbôda=      =salbôdau=
           2.    =salbôza=      =salbôzau=

  Plur. 1. 2. 3. =salbônda=     =salbôndau=

  NOTE. No exampls of the 3. pers. sg. and pl. imper. ar extant, but
  they may be safely inferd like other forms; e. g., the dual forms,
  or the 2nd pers. sg. midl: =salbôza=, =salbôzau=, which hav been
  merely inferd according to the other conjugations.

§ 190. The number of verbs of the 2nd class is greater than that of
the 3d, but much smaller than that of the verbs in =-jan=. Exampls:
=mitôn=, _to think_; =ƕarbôn=, _to wander_; =fiskôn=, _to fish_;
=sidôn=, _to practis_; =idreigôn=, _to repent_; =awiliudôn=, _to
thank_; =þiudanôn=, _to be king_; =faginôn=, _to rejoice_; =fraujinôn=,
_to rule_; =reikinôn=, _to rule_; =frijôn=, _to luv_; =sunjôn=, _to
justify_; =hausjôn= (§ 187, n. 3).


§ 191. Verbs of this class hav the formativ suffix =-ai=. This,
however, appears in all forms of the prt. (and in the pp.), while it
occurs in but few forms of the present and what belongs to the prs.,
the greater number following entirely the present forms of the strong
verb. The =ai= is found in the present only where the terminations of
the strong verb begin with =i= which it absorbs (thus, in the 2nd and
3d pers. sg. indic., in the 2nd pers. pl. indic., and in 2nd pers. pl.
imper.), and in 2nd pers. sg. imper. (which has no termination).--But
the =ai= is entirely wanting before the endings beginning with =a=

§ 192. Paradim =haban=, _to hav_.

(a) +Present.+

            INDIC.          OPT.          IMPER.

  Sing. 1. =haba=         =habau=           --
        2. =habais=       =habais=       =habai=
        3. =habaiþ=       =habai=        =habadau=

  Dual  1. =habôs=        =habaiwa=         --
        2. =habats=       =habaits=      =habats=

  Plur. 1. =habam=        =habaima=      =habam=
        2. =habaiþ=       =habaiþ=       =habaiþ=
        3. =haband=       =habaina=      =habandau=

INFINITIV: =haban=

PARTICIPL: =habands=

(b) +Preterit.+

=habaida=, =-dês=, =-da=, etc. (s. § 184).

(c) +Preterit Participl.+


(d) +Medio-Passiv: Present.+

               INDIC.          OPT.

  Sing. 1. 3. =habada=       =habaidau=
           2. =habaza=       =habaizau=

  Plur.       =habanda=      =habaindau=

  NOTE. An exampl of the 3d pers. pl. imper. is extant in this
  conjugation only: =liugandau=, γαμησάτωσαν; I. Cor. VII, 9.

§ 193. Verbs of this class ar mostly intransitiv. Their number is
comparativly small. Exampls: =þahan=, _to be silent_; =þulan=, _to
suffer_; =liban=, _to liv_; =ana-silan=, _to be silent_; =fijan=,
_to hate_; =trauan=, _to trust_ (cp. § 26); =saúrgan=, _to sorrow_;
=liugan=, _to marry_.

  NOTE. =hatan=, _to hate_, fluctuates between this and the 1st weak
  conj. (=hatjan=); --=bauan=, _to dwel_, has the 3d pers. sg. prs.
  indic. strong: =bauiþ=; cp. § 179, n. 2.


§ 194. By means of the suff. =-no-= in the prt., =n= (=-na-=) in the
present, verbs ar formd in Gothic which denote an entering into a
state; therefore they hav an 'inchoativ' meaning. When they hav a
medial meaning, they often also render Greek medio-passiv verbs. These
verbs ar always intransitiv and never hav a purely passiv meaning.
Hense, for exampl, =andbindada= means _it is loost_ (by sum one), but
=andbundniþ=, _it becums loose, it loosens_. Nearly all of these verbs
ar derived from adjectivs or from the stem of the pp. passiv. Exampls:
(a) from strong verbs: =and-bundnan= (=bindan=), _to loosen_ (intr.);
=us-bruknan= (=brikan=), _to break off_ (intr.); =dis-kritnan=, _to
rend_ (intr.); =fra-lusnan= (=fra-liusan=), _to perish_; =ga-waknan=
(=wakan=), _to awaken_; =ga-skaidnan= (=skaidan=), _to becum parted, to
depart_; --(b) from adjectivs: =gahailnan= (=hails=), _to becum hole_;
=mikilnan= (=mikils=), _to becum great_; =weihnan= (=weihs=), _to becum
holy_; =gadauþnan=, _to becum ded, to die_.

  NOTE 1. To substantivs belong =gafrisahtnan= (=frisahts=, _image_),
  _to be formd_; =ga-gawaírþnan= (=ga-waírþi=), _to reconcile one's
  self to_; the stem-vowel is irregular in: =us-geisnan=, _to becum
  amazed_; =in-feinan=, _to be moved with compassion_.

  NOTE 2. That the fundamental meaning of these verbs is inchoativ
  has been shown by Egge, 'Inchoativ or =n=-verbs in Gothic'
  (American Journal of Phil., 7, p. 38 et seq.). The corresponding
  Norse verbs in =-na= ar inchoativ only.

§ 195. The inflection of these verbs is in the present identical with
that of the strong verbs. No medio-passiv nor a pp. can be formd.
Paradim: =fullnan= (=fulls=, _ful_; =fulljan=, _to fil_), _to becum
ful, fil_ (intr.).

(a) +Present.+

            INDIC.          OPT.          IMPER.

  Sing. 1. =fullna=       =fullnau=         --
        2. =fullnis=      =fullnais=     =fulln=
        3. =fullniþ=      =fullnai=      =fullnadau=

  Dual  1. =fullnôs=      =fullnaiwa=       --
        2. =fullnats=     =fullnaits=    =fullnats=

  Plur. 1. =fullnam=      =fullnaima=    =fullnam=
        2. =fullniþ=      =fullnaiþ=     =fullniþ=
        3. =fullnand=     =fullnaina=    =fullnandau=

INFINITIV: =fullnan=

PARTICIPL: =fullnands=

(b) +Preterit.+

=fullnôda=, =-dês=, =-da= (s. § 184).

  NOTE 1. Of the imper. of verbs of this class only the 2nd pers. sg.
  is extant.

  NOTE 2. The prt. =keinôda=, _germinated_, aroze thru the influence
  of the strong present =keinan= (§ 172, n. 2) which could not belong
  here merely because of its meaning.



§ 196. Preterit-Presents ar strong verbs whose preterit has assumed
a present meaning. In consequence thereof the real presents hav been
lost. These verbs form the preterit like weak verbs by adding =-da=
(=-ta=, =-þa=, =-sa=; cp. §§ 75. 81). Their inflection is the same as
that of =nasida= (§ 184). According to the form of their presents,
the preterit-presents may be distributed among the different classes
of the strong verbs. The prs. inflects like a strong preterit. In the
following the 13 Gothic verbs of this kind ar clast according to the
corresponding ablaut-series:

§ 197. First Ablaut-Series.

1. Prs. =wait=, _I know_, 2nd pers. =waist=, pl. =witum=, opt.
=witjau=; prt. =wissa=, prt. opt. =wissêdjau=, prs. ptc. =witands=,
inf. [=witan=].

2. =lais=, _I know_ (the only form extant; causativ =laisjan=, _to

  NOTE. The complete strong verb of =wait= is =*weitan=, =wait=,
  =witum=, =witans=, retaind in =fraweitan=, _to avenge_, and in
  =inweitan=, _to wurship_ (§ 172, n. 1).--To =wait= belongs also a
  weak verb of the III. weak conj., =witan=, =witaida=, _to look at,

§ 198. Second Ablaut-Series.

3. =daug= (impers., the only form extant), _it is of use, it profits_.

§ 199. Third Ablaut-Series.

4. =kann=, _I know_, 2nd pers. =kant= (also =kannt=; cp. § 80), pl.
=kunnum=; prt. indic. =kunþa=, prt. opt. =kunþêdjau=, pp. =kunþs=,
_known_; inf. =kunnan=; prsp. =kunnands=.

5. =þarf=, _I need, be in want of_, 2nd pers. =þarft=, pl. =þaúrbum=,
opt. =þaúrbjau=; prt. =þaúrfta=, pp. =þaúrfts=, _necessary_, prsp.
=þaúrbands=, _needing_, inf. [=þaúrban=].--Cp. § 56, n. 3.

6. =ga-dars=, _I dare_, pl. =ga-daúrsum=, opt. =gadaúrsjau=; prt.
=gadaúrsta=; inf. =gadaúrsan=.

  NOTE. Like =kann= inflect its cpds.: =frakann=, _I despise_;
  =gakann=, _I subject myself_.--With this must not be confounded
  the derivativ weak verb =-kunnan= of the III. weak conjug.,
  =-kunnan=, =-kunnaida=, _to recognize_, in the cpds.: =anakunnan=
  (ἀναγιγνώσκειν), _to read_; =atkunnan=, _to grant, award_;
  =gakunnan=, _to know, consider, read_ (Mk. XII, 26).--=uf-kunnan=,
  _to recognize, know_, belongs in the prs. and pp. (=ufkunnaiþs=) to
  the III. weak conjug., but its prt. is =ufkunþa=, onse (I. Cor. I,
  21) =ufkunnaida=.

§ 200. Fourth Ablaut-Series.

7. =skal=, _I shal_, 2nd pers. =skalt=, pl. =skulum=, opt. =skuljau=;
prt. =skulda=, opt. =skuldêdjau=, pp. =skulds=, _owing_; inf.
[=skulan=], prsp. =skulands=.

8. =man=, _I think, suppose_, 2nd pers. [=mant=], pl. =munum=, opt.
=munjau=; prt. =munda=, pp. =munds= (Lu. III, 23); inf. =munan=, prsp.

  NOTE. Like =man= goes =gaman=, _I remember_.--To this belongs also
  =munan=, prt. =munaida=, a derivativ wv. of the III. conjug.

§ 201. Fifth Ablaut-Series.

9. =mag=, _I may, can_, 2nd pers. =magt=, 3d =mag=; dual =magu=,
=maguts=, pl. =magum=, =maguþ=, =magun=, opt. =magjau=; prt. =mahta=,
opt. =mahtêdjau=, pp. =mahts=; inf. [=magan=], prsp. =magands=.

10. =ga-nah=, _it suffices_; =binah=, _it is permitted, it is lawful_.
These impersonal forms and the pp. =binaúhts= ar the only forms extant.
There may be inferd the pl. =-naúhum=; prt. =-naúhta=; inf. =-naúhan=.

§ 202. Sixth Ablaut-Series.

11. =ga-môt=, _I hav_ or _find room_ or _place_, 2nd pers. [=môst=],
pl. [=môtum=], opt. =gamôtjau=, prt. =gamôsta=; inf. [=gamôtan=].

12. =ôg=, _I fear_, 2nd pers. [=ôht=], pl. [=ôgum=], opt. =ôgjau=; prt.
=ôhta=; inf. [=ôgan=]. Causativ =ôgjan=, _to frighten_.

  NOTE 1. To =ôg= belongs an anomalous 2nd pers. sg. imper.: =ôgs=,
  _fear thou!_ The opt. =ôgeiþ= does duty for the corresponding 2nd
  pers. pl.

  NOTE 2. The only extant form of the primary strong verb is the
  negativ prsp. =unagands=, _fearless_.

§ 203. The verb =áih=, _I hav_, belongs to none of the ablaut-series.
Disregarding the want of reduplication, we may, according to its
formation, refer it to a reduplicated prt. like =haíhait= (§ 179,
3). The extant forms ar: 1st and 3d pers. sg. =áih= (onse =aig=),
pl. 1st =aigum= and =áihum=, 2nd =áihuþ= (onse), 3d =aigun=, opt.
sg. 3d =aigi=, pl. 2nd =aigeiþ=, 3d =aigeina=; prt. =áihta=; prsp.
=aigands= (5 times) and =áihands= (onse), inf. =áihan= (only onse, in
=faíráihan=, _to partake_).

  NOTE. In most forms there is a peculiar fluctuation between =g=
  and =h= in such a manner that the =h= is predominant in the sg.
  (=áih=), the =g= in the other forms. Cp. § 66, n. 1; § 79, n. 2.

_2. THE VERBS 'be' AND 'wil'._

§ 204. The old root es-, which is preservd in all Indo-Germanic
languages, occurs in the Gothic substantiv verb only in the present
indic. and opt. The remaining forms ar supplied by the strong verb
=wisan= (§ 176, n. 1). The pp. is wanting (cp. Anz. fda., 14, 286).


            INDIC.          OPT.

  Sing. 1. =im=           =sijau=
        2. =is=           =sijais=
        3. =ist=          =sijai=

  Dual  1. =siju=         [=sijaiwa=]
        2. [=sijuts=]     [=sijaits=]

  Plur. 1. =sijum=        =sijaima=
        2. =sijuþ=        =sijaiþ=
        3. =sind=         =sijaina=

  INF.:  =wisan=

  PRSP.: =wisands=


  INDIC.: =was=, =wast=, =was=, etc.

  OPT.: =wêsjau=

  NOTE 1. For =ij= (in the opt. and du. pl. indic. prs.) also simpl
  =i= (§ 10, n. 4) is occasionally found; e. g., pl. indic. 1st pers.
  =sium=, 2nd =siuþ=, opt. =siau=, etc. But the ful forms occur far
  more frequently. The comparativly small number of the forms with
  =i= is confined to the epistls (especially in Cod. B) and to the
  gospel of Lu. which also in other respects shows many irregular
  forms (V, 10. VIII, 25. IX, 12. 41. XIV, 31). Of two extant codices
  (II. Cor. VII, 13. Phil. IV, 5. Col. IV, 6. I. Tim. V, 22) one (in
  three cases A) always has the correct form with =j=.

  NOTE 2. Insted of the imper. the opt. forms, sg. =sijais=, =sijai=,
  pl. =sijaiþ=, ar employd. The form =sai= (= Gr. ἔστω), which occurs
  onse in the manuscript, either stands erroneously for =sijai=,
  =siai=, or must, according to Osthoff (Beitr., 8, 311), be regarded
  as interj. =sai=, _'ecce'!_

  NOTE 3. =nist= = =ni ist=, _is not_ (§ 10, n. 2), =þatist= =
  =þata ist=, _that is_, =karist= = =kara ist=, _there is care, it
  concerns_; Jo. X, 12 (§ 4, n. 1).

§ 205. The verb 'wil' has in the present only an opt. which discharges,
however, the function of the indicativ. This present optativ has the
uzual terminations of the prt. opt. Its preterit is weak. The extant
forms ar:--

  PRESENT:   Sg. 1. =wiljau=    2. =wileis=   3. =wili=
             Du. 2. =wileits=
             Pl. 1. =wileima=   2. =wileiþ=   3. =wileina=

  INFINITIV: =wiljan=

  PRSP.:     =wiljands=

  PRET.:     =wilda=   OPT.: =wildêdjau=

  (Inflection like that of =nasida=, § 184.)


§ 206. The distinction between the present stem and the preterit
stem of the strong ablaut verbs consists only in the change of the
vowel. The consonantal skeleton of the word remains the same. This was
not always so, for in proethnic Germanic, as in other Indo-Germanic
languages, there existed present formations with additional consonantal
elements. Of these a few remnants stil survive in Gothic, which from a
Gothic point of view must be regarded as irregularities.

(a) Present formations with =j=. The =j= of these formations which in
the present inflect entirely like weak verbs of the I. conjug. (as,
=nasjan=, =sôkjan=), is no formativ suffix and is dropt in the prt.
and pp. The existing exampls ar:--=bidjan= (§ 176, n. 5), =hafjan=,
=fraþjan=, =hlahjan=, =skapjan=, =skaþjan=, =wahsjan= (§ 177, n. 2),
=arjan= (§ 179, n. 5). Cp. also § 209.

(b) Present stems with a final nasal: =keinan= (§ 172, n. 2) and
=fraíhnan= (§ 176, n. 4); --a medial nasal is seen in =standan= (§ 177,
n. 3).

§ 207. The verb =gaggan= belongs, according to its present and pp. and
according to the testimony of the other Germanic languages, to the
reduplicated verbs (§ 179, n. 3). Its prt. is uzually represented by
the defectiv =iddja= which is conjugated like a weak prt.: =iddja=, _I
went_, =iddjês=, =iddja=, etc.; opt. =iddjêdjau=. Onse, however (Lu.
XIX, 12), a weak prt. =gaggida= occurs.

§ 208. =briggan=, _to bring_, is, according to its prs., an ablaut
verb (III), but the prt. (with ablaut) is formd weak: =brâhta= (from
=*branhta=, § 5, b), pp. [=brâhts=].

§ 209. Sum verbs whose present follows the first weak conjug. (in
part perhaps belonging to § 206, a), form the prt. weak, but without
the formativ suffix =i=: =bugjan=, _to buy_, =baúhta=; =brûkjan=,
_to uze_, =brûhta=; =waúrkjan=, _to work_, =waúrhta=; =þagkjan=, _to
think_, =þâhta= (§ 5, b); =þugkjan=, _to seem_, =þûhta= (§ 15, b).
The extant pps. ar:--=baúhts= < =bugjan=, =waúrhts= < =waúrkjan=, the
remaining ones would be =brûhts=, =þâhts=, =þûhts= (§ 75); =þâhts=
occurs in =anda-þâhts=, _cautious, vigilant_; =þûhts= in =háuh-þûhts=,
=mikil-þûhts=, _haughty_.

  NOTE. Cp. also =kaupatjan= (§ 187, n. 1), which has, however, the
  formativ =i= in the pp.



§ 210. Adverbs of Manner ar formd from adjectivs. (a) The commonest
adverbial suff. is =-ba= which is added to the stem of the adjectiv.

Thus, from =a=-stems (§§ 123. 124); e. g., =ubilaba=, _evilly_;
=baírhtaba=, _brightly_; from a =ja=-stem (§ 125 et seq.): =sunjaba=,
_truly_.--The original =i-= and =u=-stems (§§ 129-131) also show
here their real stem-endings; e. g., =analaugniba=, _secretly_;
=anasiuniba=, _visibly_; =arniba=, _surely_; =gatêmiba=, _fitly_;
--=harduba=, _hard, severely_; =manwuba=, _redily_; =glaggwuba=,

  NOTE. =a= for =u= is found onse each in =hardaba=; II. Cor. XIII,
  10 (in Cod. A, =harduba= in B); =glaggwaba=; Lu. XV, 8.--Cp.
  =brôþra-lubô= (in A), § 88ᵃ, n. 2.

§ 211. (b) Another class of adverbs formd from adjectivs hav the suffix
=-ô= which contains the final vowel of the adjectival stem; e. g.,
=galeikô=, _similarly_; =ûhteigô=, _seasonably_; =þiubjô=, _secretly_;
=glaggwô= (beside =glaggwuba=, _accurately_).

  NOTE. The same adverbial ending also in =auftô=, _perhaps_;
  =sprautô=, _quickly_; =missô=, _reciprocally_; =sundrô=,
  _especially_; =unwêniggô=, _unexpectedly_; =ufarô=, _abuv_;
  =undarô=, _below_; =aftarô=, _behind, from behind_.

§ 212. From comparativ adjectivs an adverbial form has developt which
ends in the bare comparativ suffix (=-iz=), =-is=; e. g., =háuhis=,
_higher_; =áiris=, _erlier_; =mais=, _more_; =haldis=, _rather, more_;
=framis=, _further_; =nêƕis=, _nearer_.

  NOTE 1. Without the =i= of the suffix ar formd: =mins= (§ 78, n.
  1), _less_; =waírs=, _wurse_; =þana-seiþs=, _further, more_.

  NOTE 2. With the comparativ suffix =-ôs= appear =sniumundôs=, _more
  speedily_; =aljaleikôs=, _otherwise_.

  NOTE 3. As superlativ adverbs occur the neuter forms =frumist=,
  _first_; =maist=, _most_.

§ 213. Adverbs of Place ar formd either without a suffix or by means of
the suffixes =-þ= (=-d=) and =-drê= to denote motion towards a place;
by means of the suffixes =-r= and =-a= to denote rest in a place; with
the suffixes =-þrô= and =-ana= to denote motion from a place.

  NOTE 1. From pronominal stems ar thus formd the correlativs:

  =ƕaþ=, =ƕadrê=, _wither?_           | =ƕar=, _where_       | =ƕaþrô=, _whense_
  =[þaþ]= (=þadei=, _where, whither_) | =þar=, _there_       | =þaþrô=, _thense_
  =jaind=, =jaindrê=, _thither_       | =jainar=, _yonder_   | =jainþrô=, _thense_
  =aljaþ=, _elsewhere, away_          | =aljar=, _elsewhere_ | =aljaþrô=, _by another way_
                                      | =hêr=, _here_        |

  NOTE 2. Other exampls: (a) 'Whither'? =dalaþ=, _down_; =samaþ=,
  _together_; =iup=, _upwards_; =ût=, _out_; =inn=, _into_. (b)
  'Where'? =dalaþa=, _below_; =iupa=, _abuv_; =ûta=, _out_; =inna=,
  _in_; =faírra=, _far_; =afta=, _behind_. (c) 'Whense'? =dalaþrô=,
  _from below_; =iupaþrô= and =iupana=, _from abuv_; =ûtaþrô= and
  =ûtana=, _from without_; =innaþrô= and =innana=, _from within_;
  =allaþrô=, _from all sides_; =faírraþrô=, _from afar_; =aftana=,
  _from behind_; =hindana=, _from behind, beyond_.

§ 214. Adverbs of Time ar for the most part represented by cases of
substantivs; e. g., =gistradagis=, _to-morrow_; =himma daga=, _to-day_;
=du maúrgina=, _to-morrow_; =ni aiw=, _never_ (acc. of =aiws=, _time_);
=framwigis=, _continually_.

  NOTE. Simpl adverbs of time are rare: =nu=, _now_; =ju=, _alredy_;
  =áir=, _erly_; =simlê=, _onse_; =ufta=, _often_; from pronominal
  stems: =þan=, _then_; =ƕan=, _when?, whenever_; =suman=, _in times

§ 215. Other nominal cases than those givn in § 214 ar also uzed as
adverbs; e. g., =landis=, _far away_, lit. '_of land_'; =allis=,
_holely_; =sunja= and =bi sunjai=, _truly_.

§ 216. Questions and Answers ar mostly accumpanied by adverbial
particls. Interrogativ particls ar: =-u= (=niu=, _not?_, § 18, n. 2);
=an=, =nuh=, _then?_; =ibai=, _whether_; =jau= (=ja-u=), _whether_;
=þau=, _perhaps_.--Affirmativ particls: =ja=, =jai=, _yes, truly!_; a
negativ particl is =nê=, _no!_ These particls, however, ar rarely uzed
'alone' as answers, the verb of the question being uzually repeated, in
negativ sentences with the adv. =ni=.

  NOTE. The interrogativ particl =-u= is enclitically attacht to
  the first word of the sentence; as, =skuldu=; e. g., =skuldu ist
  kaisaragild giban=; Mk. XII, 14. In combinations with a prefix the
  =u= is attacht to the prefix; e. g., =galaubjats þatei magjau þata
  taujan?= Mk. IX, 28.


§ 217. (a) With the Dativ: =alja=, _except_; =af=, _of_; =du=, _to_;
=miþ=, _with_; =us=, _out, out of_; =faúra=, _before_; =fram=, _from_;
=nêƕa=, _near_; =faírra=, _far off_; =undarô=, _under_.

(b) With the Accusativ: =and=, _along_; =þaírh=, _thru, by_; =inuh=,
_without_; =undar=, _under_; =wiþra=, _against_; =faúr=, _for_.

(c) With Dativ and Accusativ: =ana=, _on, upon_; =at=, _at, by_;
=afar=, _after_; =bi=, _by, according to, against, about, concerning_;
=hindar=, _behind, beyond_; =und= w. dat., _for_; w. acc., _unto, to,
until_; =uf=, _under, beneath_; =ufar=, _over, abuv_.

(d) With Genitiv and Dativ: =ufarô=, _over, abuv, upon_.

(e) With Genitiv, Dativ, and Accusativ: =in= w. gen., _on account of,
for ... sake_; w. dat., _in, into, within, among, on, at_; w. acc.,
_in, into, toward, against_, etc. (s. the Glossary).

  NOTE. Also adverbs ar uzed as prepositions with the genitiv; =as=,
  =utaþrô=, =utana=, =hindana=, =innana= (§ 213, n. 2).


§ 218. (a) Copulativ: =jah=, _and, also_; =-uh=, _and_ (cp. § 24, n.
2); =nih=, _and not_. (b) Disjunctiv: =aíþþau=, _or_; =andizuh...
aíþþau=, _either ... or_; =jaþþê...jaþþê=, _whether ... or_; =þau=
(=þáuh=), _or_. (c) Adversativ: =iþ=, =þan=, =aþþan=, =akei=, _but,
however_; =ak=, _but_. (d) Causal: =allis=, =auk=, =untê=, =raíhtis=,
_for, because_. (e) Conclusiv: =þanuh=, =þaruh=, =eiþan=, =nu=, =nuh=,
=þannu=, =nunu=, _now, therefore, hense_. (f) Conditional: =jabai=,
_if_, =niba=, =nibai=, _if not, unless_ (§ 10, n. 2). (g) Concessiv:
=þáuhjabai=, _even if, tho_; =swêþauh=, _yet, indeed, however_. (h)
Final: =ei=, =þatei=, =þêei=, =þei=, _that, in order that_; =ei=,
=swaei, waswê=, _so that_; =ibai= (=iba=), _that not, lest_. (i)
Comparativ: =ƕaiwa=, _how?_; =swê=, _as_; =swaswê=, _so as, as_; =þau=,
(=þáuh=), _than_. (k) Temporal: =swê=, _as, when_; =þan=, =þandê=,
_when, as long as_; =biþê=, =miþþanei=, _while_; =sunsei=, _as soon
as_; =faúrþizei=, _before_; =untê=, =und þatei=, =þandê=, _til, until,
as long as_.

NOTE. Sum of these conjunctions ar uzed also as adverbs. The adverbial
origin of a few is even recognizabl from their form; e. g., =allis=,
=raihtis=, =faúrþizei= (=faúrþis=, adv., _beforehand_).


§ 219. =ô=, _oh! ah!_; =wai=, _woe!_; =sai=, _behold!_--Interjectional
in meaning ar the sg. =hiri=, the du. =hirjats=, and the pl. =hirjiþ=,
_cum here!_ (cp. § 20, n. 1; § 187, n. 4).


  Cp. Sievers 'Grundr.', I, 407-416 ('Geschichte der got. sprache');
  II, 1, 65-70 ('Gotische literatur'); Kögel, Geschichte der deutsch.
                      litteratur, I, 1, 176-195.

§ 220. THE GOTHS.

(a) The Gothic language is the language of the Gothic peple
(=Gut-þiuda=) which, divided into the two great tribes of the East and
West Goths, figured in history in the time of the great migration.
Together with the fall of the East Gothic kingdom in Italy and of the
West Gothic kingdom in Spain the Gothic nation also past away. Only
scatterd remains of the Goths and their language remaind until the
beginning of the modern era in the Crimea. ('Crimean' or 'Tetraxitic'

  NOTE 1. The Goth. spelling of the name of the Goths as a peple
  is =*Gutans= and =*Gutôs=, with =t=, not with =þ= according to
  J. Grimm's suggestion which is supported by Kremer (Beitr., 8,
  447). Concerning the form, inflection, and etymology of the name
  of the Goths, cp. Zs. fda., 9, 243 et seq.; Grundr., I, 407;
  Wrede, 'Ostg.', 44 et seq.; Beitr., 17, 178 et seq.; Ax. Erdmann,
  folknamnen 'Götar' och 'Goter', Stockholm 1891 (cp. Litbl. 1894,

  NOTE 2. The current interpretation of the two Lt. names Austro-,
  Ostrogot(h)æ, -i and Wisigot(h)æ, -i, as East Goths and West Goths,
  which dates back to Jordanes, might hold good for the former only;
  the name of the Wisigothæ which ar simply calld also Vesi, Visi,
  has nothing to do with 'west'. Ep. IF., 4, 300 et seq.

  NOTE 3. Concerning the Crimean Goths and the remains of their
  language, s. Zs. fda., 1, 345-366; W. Tomaschek, 'Die Goten in
  Taurien', Wien 1881; Beitr., 11, 563 et seq.; F. Braun, 'Die
  letzten schicksale der Krimgoten'. Program St. Petersburg 1890 (cp.
  Anz. fda. 17, 167 f.).

(b) It was for the Gothic peple that the group of Germanic tribes to
which the Goths belongd has been frequently calld the 'Gothic Group'.
For this there has been recently proposed the name 'Vandilians'
(according to Pliny, 'nat. hist.', IV, 99). The most important of
these Vandilians ar the Goths, the Gepidae, the Vandals, the Burgundi,
the Heruli, and the Rugii. At the beginning of the Christian era their
abodes wer between the Elbe and the Vistula. The languages of these
peples wer closely related. The extant literary remains, however,
except in Gothic, ar very few, and these ar almost entirely proper

  NOTE 4. Concerning the Vandilians, cp. F. Wrede, 'Ueber die sprache
  der Wandalen', Strassburg, 1886 (QF., 59), p. 3 et seq.; F. Dahn,
  'Urgeschichte der germ. und rom. völker', vol. I (Berlin 1881), p.
  139 et seq.; R. Much, 'Goten und Ingvaeonen. (Beitr., 17, 178-221).

(c) The Gothic or Vandilian group of tribes together with the
Scandinavians constitute the 'East Germanic' division as opposed to the
'West Germanic' division which embraces the remaining Germanic tribes.

  NOTE 5. Concerning the division of the Germanic race into East
  Germanic and West Germanic tribes, cp. H. Zimmer, 'Ostgermanisch
  und Westgermanisch', in Zs. fda., 19, 393 et seq.; Beitr. 9, 546 et
  seq.; Grundr., I, 362 et seq.; concerning the separate position of
  the Scandinavian as compared with the Gothic, s. Noreen, 'altisl.
  gr.²', § 2, and Grundr., I, 419 et seq.


We know the Gothic language from the fragments of the biblical
translation which is safely ascribed to bishop Ulfilas (or, in Gothic
spelling, Wulfila; cp. Bernhardt, Vulfila, p. VII; Anz. fda., 14, 285;
Grundr., II, 67⁴). Wulfila was born in 310 and died at the end of 380
or erly in 381 after Christ. During the last 33 years of his life
he was bishop of that part of the West Goths which, when persecuted
by their heathen kinsmen, he led across the Danube where they wer
permitted by Constantius to setl in Moesia (Moeso-Goths or Goti
minores).--The fragments of the biblical version hav cum down to us in
the following manuscripts:--

1. 'Codex Argenteus' at Upsala. It containd on 330 leavs the four
gospels in the following order: Matthew, John, Luke, Mark. Of these 330
leavs 187 ar extant. The gospel of Lu. shows yunger forms of speech
which differ in many respects from the normal forms (cp. §§ 7, n. 2;
14, n. 3; 56, n. 1; 62, n. 3; 67, n. 2; a 74, n. 1; 105, n. 2; 204,
n. 1; probably thru the influence of the dialect of the East Gothic
writers; cp. Wrede, 'Ostg.', 200 et seq.).

2. 'Codex Carolinus', a 'codex rescriptus' at Wolfenbüttel, which
contains portions of the 11.-15. chaps. of the epistl to the Romans.

3. 'Codices Ambrosiani', five fragments ('codices rescripti') in the
Ambrosian library at Milan, which contain chiefly St. Paul's epistls.
They are clast as follows:--

  Codex A contains on 95 leavs fragments of the epistls to the
    Romans, Corinthians, Ephesians, Galatians, Philippians,
    Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and a
    fragment of a Gothic calendar.

  Codex B contains on 77 leavs all of the second epistl to the
    Corinthians, fragments of the first epistl to the Corinthians, of
    the epistls to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians,
    Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus.--In contents Codex A and Codex B
    ar partly the same, which is important for the criticism of the

  Codex C. Two leavs with fragments of Mt. XXV-XXVII.

  Codex D. Three leavs with fragments of the books of Ezra and

  Codex E. Eight leavs three of which ar in the Vatican library at
    Rome, and contain the fragments of an interpretation of the
    gospel of St. John. They wer calld by their editor (Massmann):
    =Skeireins aíwaggêljôns þaírh Jôhannên=, and are therefore stil
    cited as =Skeireins= (concerning which cp. Zs. fda., 37, 320;
    Anz. fda., 20, 148 et seq.).

4. 'Codex Taurinensis', four considerably damaged leavs with scanty
fragments of the epistls to the Galatians and Colossians, which remain
to be deciferd.

  NOTE 1. Concerning Wulfila, cp. Waitz, 'Ueber das leben und die
  Lehre des Ulfila' (Hannover 1840); Bessell, 'Ueber das leben des
  Ulfilas' (Göttingen 1860); G. Kaufmann, 'Kritische untersuchung
  der quellen zur geschichte Ulfilas', in Zs. fda., 27, 193 et seq.;
  Grundr. II, 68; Kögel, 'Gesch. der dtsch. Litt.', I, 1, 182.

  NOTE 2. For more on the Gothic manuscripts, s. Bernhardt's
  'Vulfila', Introduction, p. XXXIX et seq.; for the history of
  the 'Codex Argenteus', cp. also the recent articls by Schulte,
  'Gotthica minora', in Zs. fda., 23, 51. 318 and 24, 324 et seq.:
  lastly, J. Peters, 'Germania', 30, 314 et seq.

  NOTE 3. Beside the translation of the Bible (and the =Skeireins=)
  there ar no Gothic literary monuments of great moment. The most
  important ones ar two Latin title deeds with Gothic signatures at
  Naples and Arezzo, and the abuv (with Codex A) mentiond fragment
  of a Gothic calendar. The editions of Wulfila contain these
  remains also. Concerning the Gothic words and alfabets in the
  Salzburg-Vienna manuscript (§ 1, n. 5; § 2, n. 2) and other remains
  of the Gothic language, cp. Massmann's articl 'Gotthica minora',
  in Zs. fda., 1, 294-393.--Concerning Gothic runic inscriptions, s.
  Wimmer, 'Die runenschrift' (1887), p. 62 et seq.; R. Henning, 'Die
  deutschen runendenkmäler', Strassburg 1889 (and Zs. fdph., 23, 354
  et seq.; Wimmer, 'de tyske runemindesmærker, Aarb. f. nord. oldk.
  og hist.', 1894, 1 et seq.). The most important inscription is that
  of the Bukarest ring ('gold-ring of Pietroassa', Henning, 27 et
  seq.): =gutaniowi hailag=.

  NOTE 4. The numerous proper nouns in Gothic, which ar containd
  in Greek and stil more so in Latin sources, hav been utilized by
  Dietrich ('Ausspr.') and by Bezzenberger, 'Ueber die A-reihe der
  got. sprache', Göttingen 1874, p. 7 et seq. A monografic treatment
  of the East Gothic names has been givn us by F. Wrede, 'Ueber die
  sprache der Ostgoten in Italien', Strassburg 1891 (OF., 68); cp.
  review of this book in Litbl. 1891, p. 333; Anz. fda., 18, 43 et
  seq., 309 et seq.

§ 222. EDITIONS.

The first printed edition of the 'Codex Argenteus' is that by Fr.
Junius, Dortrecht 1665. All the erlier editions (the titles of which
s. in Bernhardt's 'Vulfila', p. LXIII et seq., and in Balg's 'First
Germanic Bible', p. XVII et seq.; cp. also v. Bahder, 'Die deutsche
philologie', Paderborn 1883, p. 44 et seq.) hav now only historical
value. For the study of the Gothic language the following editions ar
of importance:--

(a) The large edition of Ulfilas by +v. d. Gabelentz+ and +Löbe+,
which appeard in 1843-46 in three volumes 4to. Altho the text in the
first volume is antiquated in consequence of Uppström's editions, the
glossary (vol. II, 1) and particularly the grammar (vol. II, 2) ar of
great value for their abundant compilations and syntactic elaboration.

(b) For an exact establishment of the manuscripts ar exceedingly
important the new readings of the learnd Swedish Professor +Andreas
Uppström+ who issued exact reprints of the text according to these
readings: Codex Argenteus, Upsala 1854,--Decem codicis argentei
rediviva folia, Upsala 1857,--Fragmenta gothica selecta 1861,--Codices
gotici ambrosiani 1864-68.--(For complete titles, s. v. Bahder, loc.
cit.; cp. also Balg, loc. cit.).

(c) A critically amended text based on Uppström's readings, with
critical exegetic notes and the original Greek text, is givn in +E.
Bernhardt's+ edition: 'Vulfila oder die gotische bibel'. Halle 1876.
Cp. review of it in Zs. fdph., 7, 103 et seq.

(d) A good manual of Ulfilas, with a glossary and a grammar, is that
by +M. Heyne+, 8th edition. Paderborn 1885. Its text is likewise based
on Uppström's readings, but it is treated more conservativly than
Bernhardt's. The fonological and inflectional parts of the grammar
rest on antiquated views, but the glossary is a recommendabl handbook
containing all the words of the Gothic language.

  NOTE. Other later editions of the texts ar: (a) +Bernhardt's+,
  Halle 1884 (a reprint of the text of his larger edition, with a
  concise glossary); cp. review of it in Zs. fdph., 17, 249 et seq.
  (b) The first Germanic Bible translated from the Greek by the
  Gothic bishop Wulfila in the fourth century, and the other remains
  of the Gothic language, edited (according to Bernhardt's edition),
  with an introduction, a syntax, and a glossary, by +G. H. Balg+.
  Milwaukee, Wis. 1891.


I. Fonology and Inflection.

(a) The Gothic grammar by +v. d. Gabelentz+ and +Löbe+, mentiond in §
222, a.

(b) +Leo Meyer+, Die gotische Sprache. Berlin 1869. A comparativ
treatment of the Gothic fonology, with complete material.

(c) The treatment of the Gothic fonology, in +Holtzmann's+ 'Altdeutsche
Grammatik'. Leipzig 1870.

II. Word-Formation.

(a) The 2nd and 3d volumes of +J. Grimm's+ 'Deutsche Grammatik'
(reprinted, Berlin 1878. 1890) ar stil the fundamental helps on

(b) The section on word-formation in +v. d. Gabelentz+ and +Löbe's+
'Grammatik', pp. 108-135.

(c) From a comparativ point of view: +Fr. Kluge+, 'Nominale
stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen dialekte'. Halle 1886.--See also
Brugmann, II, the sections concerning Gothic.

III. Lexicografy.

(a) The glossary in +v. d. Gabelentz+ and +Löbe's+ edition, II, 1 (s. §
222, a). (Arranged according to the Gothic alfabet).

(b) +Ernst Schulze+, 'Gotisches Glossar. Mit einer vorrede von J.
Grimm'. Magdeburg 1847. The most complete Gothic Glossary.--An extract
(without citations, but with etymological references and based on
Uppström's readings): 'Gotisches wörterbuch nebst flexionslehre' by E.
Schulze. Züllichau 1867.

(c) Heyne's glossary, s. § 222, d.

(d) +Lorenz Diefenbach+, 'Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der gotischen
Sprache', vols. 1. and 2. Frankfurt 1851.

(e) +Sigmund Feist+, 'Grundriss der gotischen Etymologie'. Strassburg
1888. For reviews of it, cp. Anz. fda., 16, 61 et seq.; Litbl. 1889,
365 et seq.; 1890, 47.

  NOTE 1. Sum grammatical facts hav been laid down in the useful
  articls of +J. H. Gallée+, 'Gutiska' (I.) 'Lijst van gotische
  woorden, wier geslacht of buiging naar analogie van andere gotische
  woorden, of van het oudgermaansch wordt opgegeven'. Haarlem 1880;
  (cp. also the addenda to this in the 'Tijdschrift voor Nederl.
  taal-en letterk.', I, 220 et seq.); --(II.) 'De adjectiva in het
  gotisch en hunne suffixen'. Utrecht 1882.

  NOTE 2. Concise treatments of the Gothic word-formation also in the
  grammars of Le M. Douse and Bernhardt (s. § 224, n. 1).

  NOTE 3. Further lexical works: +W. W. Skeat+, 'A Moeso-Gothic
  glossary, with an introduction, an outline of Moeso-Gothic grammar,
  and a list of Anglo-Saxon and old and modern English words
  etymologically connected with M.-G.' London 1868.--+G. H. Balg+, 'A
  comparativ glossary of the Gothic language, with especial reference
  to English and German'. Milwaukee, Wis. 1887-1889. Cp. Zs. fdph.,
  24, 236 et seq.--+O. Priese+, 'Deutsch-gotisches wörterbuch', with
  an appendix, containing a topically arranged survey of the Gothic
  vocabulary and a collection of idioms and proverbs. Leipzig 1890.


(a) General works: +J. Grimm+, 'Deutsche grammatik', vol. 4. Göttingen
1837, (syntax of the simpl sentence).--+v. d. Gabelentz+ and +Löbe+,
in vol. II, 2 of their edition (an elaborate treatment of the hole

  NOTE. Concise works on Gothic syntax, which ar useful to the
  beginner, and which rest in part on independent investigation, ar
  the respectiv parts in: T. Le +Marchant Douse's+ 'An introduction,
  phonological, morphological, syntactic, to the Gothic of Ulfilas'.
  London 1886 (pp. 208-268); +E. Bernhardt's+ 'Kurzgefasste got.
  grammatik'. Halle 1885 (cp. Zs. fdph., 17, 254 et seq.); +Heyne's+
  Ulfilas (§ 222 d); +Balg's+ 'First Germanic Bible' (pp. 222-292;
  cp. § 222, n. 1).

(b) Monografs (cp. +W. Scherer+, 'Kl. schriften', I, 360 et seq.):

  APELT, O., 'Ueber den accus. c. infin. im gotischen' (Germ., 19,

  BERNHARDT, E., (a) 'Die partikel =ga= als hilfsmittel bei der
    got. conjugation' (Zs. fdph. 2, 158-66).--(b) 'Ueber den
    genet. partit. nach transitiven verben im got.' (Zs. fdph., 2,
    292-94).--(c) 'Der artikel im gotischen' (19 pp.), Progr. Erfurt
    1874.--(d) 'Der gotische optativ' (Zs. fdph., 8, 1-38).--(e)
    'Zur got. syntax' (Zs. fdph. 9, 383 et seq.).--(f) 'Zur got.
    casuslehre' ('Beitr. zur deutschen philol.' Halle 1880,
    71-82).--(g) 'Zur got. casuslehre' (Zs. fdph., 13, 1-20).

  BORRMANN, J., 'Ruhe und Richtung in den gotischen verbalbegriffen'.
    Halle diss. 1892 (39 pp.).

  BURCKHARDT, F., 'Der got. conjunctiv verglichen mit den
    entsprechenden modis des neutestamentl. griechisch'. Zschopau
    1872 (36 pp.).--reviewd by Erdmann, in Zs. fdph., 4, 455-59.

  COLLIN, 'Sur les conjonctions gothiques' (40 pp., in Lunds univers.
    årsskrift, XII. 1875-76).

  DORFELD, C., 'Ueber die function des praefixes ge- (got. =ga-=) in
    der composition mit verben. Teil 1.: Das praefix bei Ulfilas und
    Tatian'. Giessen diss. 1885 (47 pp.).

  ECKARDT, E., 'Ueber die syntax des got. relativpronomens'. Halle
    diss. 1875 (54 pp.).--Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph. 6, 484.

  ERDMANN, O., 'Ueber got. =ei= u. ahd. thaz'. (Zs. fdph., 9, 43-53).

  FRIEDRICHS, E., 'Die stellung des pron. personale im gotischen'.
    Leipzig diss. Jena 1891 (124 pp.). Publisht in 1893.

  GERING, H. (a) 'Ueber den syntactischen gebrauch der participia
    im got.' (Zs. fdph., 5, 294-324; 393-433).--Reviewd by Marold,
    in 'Wissenschaftl. monatsblätter' 1875, 26-28.--(b) 'Zwei
    parallelstellen aus Wulfila und Tatian' (Zs. fdph., 6, 1-3).

  KLINGHARDT, H., 'Die syntax der got. partikel =ei=' (Zs. fdph., 8,
    127-180; 289-329).

  KÖHLER, A., (a) 'Ueber den syntakt. gebrauch des dativs im got'.
    Göttingen Diss. Dresden 1864 (54 pp.), and Germ. 11, 261-305.
    Nachtrag Germ., 12, 63 et seq.--(b) 'Der syntaktische gebrauch
    des infinitivs im got.' (Germ., 12, 421-462).--(c) 'Der
    syntakt. gebrauch des optativs im got.' (Germanist. studien, 1,
    77-133).--Reviewd by Erdmann in Zs. fdph., 5, 212-16.

  LICHTENHELD, A., 'Das schwache adjectiv im gotischen' (Zs. fda.,
    18, 17-43).

  LÜCKE, O., 'Absolute participia im got. und ihr verhältnis
    zum griech. original, mit besonderer berücksichtigung der
    =Skeireins='. Göttingen diss. Magdeburg 1876 (58 pp.).--Reviewd
    by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 8, 352-54.

  MAROLD, K., (a) 'Futurum und futurische ausdrücke im gotischen'
    (Wissensch. monatsblätter 1875, 169-176).--(b) 'Ueber die got.
    conjunctionen, welche οὖν und γάρ vertreten'. Progr. Königsberg
    1881 (30 pp.).

  MOERKERKEN, P. H. van, 'Over de verbinding der volzinnen in't
    gotisch' (Bekroond..en uitgeg. door de k. vlaamsche acad. voor
    taal en letterk.). Gent 1888 (104 pp.).

  MOUREK, V. E., (a) 'Syntax der got. praepositionen'. Prag 1890 (X
    and 234 pp.). [In the Czechic language]. Reviewd by Heinzel in
    Anz. fda., 17, 91-93.--(b) 'Ueber den einfluss des hauptsatzes
    auf den modus des nebensatzes im got.' (Sitzungsber. d. k. böhm.
    ges. der wissensch. 1892, 5, 263-96).--(c) 'Syntax der mehrfachen
    sätze im gotischen'. Prag 1893 (X and 334 pp.). [In the Czechic
    language, pp. 285-334 an extract in the German language].

  NABER, F., 'Gotische Praepositionen' I. Progr. Detmold 1879 (26

  PIPER, P., 'Ueber den gebrauch des dativs im Ulfilas, Heliand und
    Otfrid'. Progr. Altona 1874 (30 pp.).--Reviewd by Erdmann in Zs.
    fdph., 6, 120-23.

  RÜCKERT, H., 'Die gotischen absoluten nominativ-und
    accusativ-constructionen' (Germ. 11, 415-43).

  SALLWÜRK, E. v., 'Die Syntax des Wulfila' I (I. die fürwörter, II.
    der relativsatz, III. der inhaltssatz). Progr. Pforzheim 1875 (36

  SCHIRMER, K., 'Ueber den gebrauch des optativs im got.' Marburg
    diss. 1874 (47 pp.).--Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 6, 485.

  SCHRADER, K., 'Ueber den syntakt. gebrauch des genitivs in der got.
    sprache'. Göttingen diss. 1875 (58 pp.).

  SKLADNY, A., 'Ueber das got. passiv.' Progr. Neisse 1873 (19
    pp.).--Reviewd by Bernhardt in Zs. fdph., 6, 483.

  SILBER, 'Versuch über den got. dativ.' Progr. Naumburg 1845 (16

  STREITBERG, W., 'Perfective und imperfective actionsart im
    germanischen'. Introduction and I. part: 'Gotisch' (Beitr. 15,

  TOBLER, L., 'Conjunctionen mit mehrfacher bedeutung; ein beitrag
    zur lehre vom satzgefüge' (Beitr. 5, 358-88).

  WEISKER, Ed., 'Ueber die bedingungssätze im gotischen'. Progr.
    Freiburg in Schlesien 1880 (14 pp.).



                          (CODEX ARGENTEUS).

Chap. V. 17 Ni hugjaiþ ei qemjau gatairan witoþ aiþþau praufetuns;
ni qam gatairan, ak usfulljan. 18 amen auk qiþa izwis: und þatei
usleiþiþ himins jah airþa, jota ains aiþþau ains striks ni usleiþiþ af
witoda, unte allata wairþiþ. 19 iþ saei nu gatairiþ aina anabusne þizo
minnistono, jah laisjai swa mans, minnista haitada in þiudangardjai
himine; iþ saei taujiþ jah laisjai swa, sah mikils haitada in
þiudangardjai himine.

20 Qiþa auk izwis þatei nibai managizo wairþiþ izwaraizos garaihteins
þau þize bokarje jah Fareisaie, ni þau qimiþ in þiudangardjai himine.
21 hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist þaim airizam: ni maurþrjais; iþ saei
maurþreiþ, skula wairþiþ stauai. 22 aþþan ik qiþa izwis þatei ƕazuh
modags broþr seinamma sware skula wairþiþ stauai; iþ saei qiþiþ
broþr seinamma raka, skula wairþiþ gaqumþai; aþþan saei qiþiþ dwala,
skula wairþiþ in gaiainnan funins. 23 jabai nu bairais aibr þein du
hunslastada, jah jainar gamuneis þatei broþar þeins habaiþ ƕa bi þuk,
24 aflet jainar þo giba þeina in andwairþja hunslastadis, jah gagg
faurþis gasibjon broþr þeinamma, jah biþe atgaggands atbair þo giba
þeina. 25 sijais waila hugjands andastauin þeinamma sprauto, und þatei
is in wiga miþ imma, ibai ƕan atgibai þuk sa andastaua stauin, jah sa
staua þuk atgibai andbahta, jah in karkara galagjaza. 26 amen qiþa þus:
ni usgaggis jainþro, unte usgibis þana minnistan kintu.

27 Hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist: ni horinos. 28 aþþan ik qiþa izwis,
þatei ƕazuh saei saiƕiþ qinon du luston izos, ju gahorinoda izai in
hairtin seinamma. 29 iþ jabai augo þein þata taihswo marzjai þuk,
usstigg[2] ita jah wairp af þus; batizo ist auk þus ei fraqistnai ains
liþiwe þeinaize, jah ni allata leik þein gadriusai in gaiainnan. 30 jah
jabai taihswo þeina handus marzjai þuk, afmait þo jah wairp af þus;
batizo ist auk þus ei fraqistnai ains liþiwe þeinaize, jah ni allata
leik þein gadriusai in gaiainnan. 31 qiþanuh þan ist þatei ƕazuh[3]
saei afletai qen, gibai izai afstassais bokos. 32 iþ ik qiþa izwis
þatei ƕazuh saei afletiþ qen seina, inuh fairina kalkinassaus, taujiþ
þo horinon; jah sa ize afsatida liugaiþ, horinoþ.

33 Aftra hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist þaim airizam: ni ufarswarais, iþ
usgibais fraujin aiþans þeinans. 34 aþþan ik qiþa izwis ni swaran
allis, ni bi himina, unte stols ist guþs; 35 nih bi airþai, unte
fotubaurd ist fotiwe is, nih bi Iairusaulymai, unte baurgs ist þis
mikilins þiudanis; 36 nih bi haubida þeinamma swarais, unte ni magt ain
tagl ƕeit aiþþau swart gataujan. 37 sijaiþ-þan waurd izwar: ja, ja; ne,
ne; iþ þata managizo þaim us þamma ubilin ist.

38 Hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist: augo und augin, jah tunþu und tunþau.
39 iþ ik qiþa izwis ni andstandan allis þamma unseljin; ak jabai ƕas
þuk stautai bi taihswon þeina kinnu, wandei imma jah þo anþara. 40 jah
þamma wiljandin miþ þus staua jah paida þeina niman, aflet imma jah
wastja. 41 jah jabai ƕas þuk ananauþjai rasta aina, gaggais miþ imma
twos. 42 þamma bidjandin þuk gibais, jah þamma wiljandin af þus leiƕan
sis ni uswandjais.

43 Hausideduþ þatei qiþan ist: frijos neƕundjan þeinana, jah fiais
fiand þeinana. 44 aþþan ik qiþa izwis: frijoþ fijands izwarans,
þiuþjaiþ þans wrikandans izwis, waila taujaiþ þaim hatjandam izwis,
jah bidjaiþ bi þans usþriutandans izwis, 45 ei wairþaiþ sunjus attins
izwaris þis in himinam, unte sunnon seina urranneiþ ana ubilans jah
godans, jah rigneiþ ana garaihtans jah ana inwindans. 46 jabai auk
frijoþ þans frijondans izwis ainans, ƕo mizdono habaiþ? niu jah þai
þiudo þata samo taujand? 47 jah jabai goleiþ þans frijonds izwarans
þatainei, ƕe managizo taujiþ? niu jah motarjos þata samo taujand? 48
sijaiþ nu jus fullatojai, swaswe atta izwar sa in himinam fullatojis

Chap. VI. 1 Atsaiƕiþ armaion izwara ni taujan in andwairþja manne du
saiƕan im; aiþþau laun ni habaiþ fram attin izwaramma þamma in himinam.
2 þan nu taujais armaion, ni haurnjais faura þus, swaswe þai liutans
taujand in gaqumþim jah in garunsim, ei hauhjaindau fram mannam; amen
qiþa izwis: andnemun mizdon seina. 3 iþ þuk taujandan armaion ni witi
hleidumei þeina, ƕa taujiþ taihswo þeina, 4 ei sijai so armahairtiþa
þeina in fulhsnja, jah atta þeins saei saiƕiþ in fulhsnja[4], usgibiþ
þus in bairhtein. 5 jah þan bidjaiþ, ni sijaiþ swaswe þai liutans,
unte frijond in gaqumþim jah waihstam plapjo standandans bidjan, ei
gaumjaindau mannam. amen, qiþa izwis, þatei haband mizdon seina. 6 iþ
þu þan bidjais, gagg in heþjon þeina, jah galukands haurdai þeinai
bidei du attin þeinamma þamma in fulhsnja, jah atta þeins saei saiƕiþ
in fulhsnja[5], usgibiþ þus in bairhtein.

7 Bidjandansuþ-þan ni filuwaurdjaiþ, swaswe þai þiudo; þugkeiþ im auk
ei in filuwaurdein seinai andhausjaindau. 8 ni galeikoþ nu þaim; wait
auk atta izwar þizei jus þaurbuþ, faurþizei jus bidjaiþ ina. 9 swa nu
bidjaiþ jus: atta unsar þu in himinam, weihnai namo þein. 10 qimai
þiudinassus þeins. wairþai wilja þeins, swe in himina jah ana airþai.
11 hlaif unsarana þana sinteinan gif uns himma daga. 12 jah aflet uns
þatei skulans sijaima, swaswe jah weis afletam þaim skulam unsaraim.
13 jah ni briggais uns in fraistubnjai, ak lausei uns af þamma ubilin;
unte þeina ist þiudangardi jah mahts jah wulþus in aiwins. amen.

14 Unte jabai afletiþ mannam missadedins ize, afletiþ jah izwis atta
izwar sa ufar himinam. 15 iþ jabai ni afletiþ mannam missadedins ize,
ni þau atta izwar afletiþ missadedins izwaros.

16 Aþþan biþe fastaiþ, ni wairþaiþ swaswe þai liutans gaurai;
frawardjand auk andwairþja seina, ei gasaiƕaindau mannam fastandans.
amen, qiþa izwis, þatei andnemun mizdon seina. 17 iþ þu fastands
salbo haubiþ þein, jah ludja þeina þwah, 18 ei ni gasaiƕaizau mannam
fastands, ak attin þeinamma þamma in fulhsnja, jah atta þeins, saei
saiƕiþ in fulhsnja, usgibiþ þus.

19 Ni huzdjaiþ izwis huzda ana airþai, þarei malo jah nidwa frawardeiþ,
jah þarei þiubos ufgraband jah hlifand. 20 iþ huzdjaiþ izwis huzda
in himina, þarei nih malo nih nidwa frawardeiþ, jah þarei þiubos ni
ufgraband nih stiland. 21 þarei auk ist huzd izwar, þaruh ist jah
hairto izwar.

22 Lukarn leikis ist augo: jabai nu augo þein ainfalþ ist, allata leik
þein liuhadein wairþiþ; 23 iþ jabai augo þein unsel ist, allata leik
þein riqizein wairþiþ. jabai nu liuhaþ þata in þus riqiz ist, þata
riqiz ƕan filu!

24 Ni manna mag twaim fraujam skalkinon; unte jabai fijaiþ ainana, jah
anþarana frijoþ; aiþþau ainamma ufhauseiþ, iþ anþaramma frakann. ni
maguþ guþa skalkinon jah mammonin[6]. 25 duþþe qiþa izwis: ni maurnaiþ
saiwalai izwarai ƕa matjaiþ jah ƕa drigkaiþ, nih leika izwaramma ƕe
wasjaiþ; niu saiwala mais ist fodeinai jah leik wastjom? 26 insaiƕiþ
du fuglam himinis, þei ni saiand nih sneiþand, nih lisand in banstins,
jah atta izwar sa ufar himinam fodeiþ ins. niu jus mais wulþrizans
sijuþ þaim? 27 iþ ƕas izwara maurnands mag anaaukan ana wahstu seinana
aleina aina? 28 jah bi wastjos ƕa saurgaiþ? gakunnaiþ blomans haiþjos,
ƕaiwa wahsjand; nih arbaidjand nih spinnand. 29 qiþuh þan izwis þatei
nih Saulaumon in allamma wulþau seinamma gawasida sik swe ains þize. 30
jah þande þata hawi haiþjos himma daga wisando jah gistradagis in auhn
galagiþ guþ swa wasjiþ, ƕaiwa mais izwis, leitil galaubjandans? 31 ni
maurnaiþ nu qiþandans: ƕa matjam aiþþau ƕa drigkam, aiþþau ƕe wasjaima?
32 all auk þata þiudos sokjand; waituh þan atta izwar sa ufar himinam
þatei þaurbuþ----




Chap. I. 1 Anastodeins aiwaggeljons Iesuis Xristaus sunaus guþs.

2 Swe gameliþ ist in Esaïin praufetau: sai, ik insandja aggilu meinana
faura þus, saei gamanweiþ wig þeinana faura þus. 3 stibna wopjandins in
auþidai: manweiþ wig fraujins, raihtos waurkeiþ staigos guþs unsaris.
4 was Iohannes daupjands in auþidai jah merjands daupein idreigos du
aflageinai frawaurhte. 5 jah usiddjedun du imma all Iudaialand jah
Iairusaulymeis, jah daupidai wesun allai in Iaurdane aƕai fram imma,
andhaitandans frawaurhtim seinaim. 6 wasuþ-þan Iohannes gawasiþs taglam
ulbandaus jah gairda filleina bi hup seinana, jah matida þramsteins jah
miliþ haiþiwisk[7], 7 jah merida qiþands: qimiþ swinþoza mis sa afar
mis, þizei ik ni im wairþs anahneiwands andbindan skaudaraip skohe is.
8 aþþan ik daupja izwis in watin, iþ is daupeiþ izwis in ahmin weihamma.

9 Jah warþ in jainaim dagam, qam Iesus fram Nazaraiþ Galeilaias, jah
daupiþs was fram Iohanne in Iaurdane. 10 jah suns usgaggands us þamma
watin gasaƕ uslukanans[8] himinans, jah ahman swe ahak atgaggandan ana
ina. 11 jah stibna qam us himinam: þu is sunus meins sa liuba, in þuzei
waila galeikaida[9]. 12 jah suns sai, ahma ina ustauh in auþida. 13 jah
was in þizai auþidai dage fidwor tiguns fraisans fram Satanin, jah was
miþ diuzam, jah aggileis andbahtidedun imma.

14 Iþ afar þatei atgibans warþ Iohannes, qam Iesus in Galeilaia
merjands aiwaggeljon þiudangardjos guþs, 15 qiþands þatei usfullnoda
þata mel jah atneƕida sik þiudangardi guþs: idreigoþ jah galaubeiþ
in aiwaggeljon. 16 jah ƕarbonds faur marein Galeilaias gasaƕ Seimonu
jah Andraian broþar is, þis Seimonis, wairpandans nati in marein;
wesun auk fiskjans. 17 jah qaþ im Iesus: hirjats afar mis, jah gatauja
igqis wairþan nutans manne. 18 jah suns afletandans þo natja seina
laistidedun afar imma. 19 jah jainþro inngaggands framis leitil[10]
gasaƕ Iakobu þana Zaibaidaiaus jah Iohanne broþar is, jah þans in skipa
manwjandans natja. 20 jah suns haihait ins. jah afletandans attan
seinana Zaibaidaiu in þamma skipa miþ asnjam, galiþun afar imma.

21 Jah galiþun in Kafarnaum, jah suns sabbato daga galeiþands in
synagogen laisida ins. 22 jah usfilmans waurþun ana þizai laiseinai is;
unte was laisjands ins swe waldufni habands jah ni swaswe þai bokarjos.
23 jah was in þizai synagogen ize manna in unhrainjamma ahmin, jah
ufhropida 24 qiþands: fralet, ƕa uns jah þus, Iesu Nazorenai? qamt
fraqistjan uns; kann þuk, ƕas þu is, sa weiha guþs. 25 jah andbait ina
Iesus qiþands: þahai jah usgagg ut us þamma, ahma unhrainja. 26 jah
tahida ina ahma sa unhrainja, jah hropjands stibnai mikilai usiddja us
imma. 27 jah afslauþnodedun allai sildaleikjandans, swaei sokidedun miþ
sis misso qiþandans: ƕa sijai þata? ƕo so laiseino so niujo, ei miþ
waldufnja jah ahmam þaim unhrainjam anabiudiþ jah ufhausjand imma? 28
usiddja þan meriþa is suns and allans bisitands Galeilaias.

29 Jah suns us þizai synagogen usgaggandans qemun in garda Seimonis
jah Andraiins miþ Iakobau jah Iohannen. 30 iþ swaihro Seimonis lag in
brinnon; jah suns qeþun imma bi ija. 31 jah duatgaggands urraisida þo
undgreipands handu izos, jah aflailot þo so brinno suns, jah andbahtida
im. 32 Andanahtja þan waurþanamma, þan gasaggq sauil, berun du imma
allans þans ubil habandans jah unhulþons habandans. 33 jah so baurgs
alla garunnana was at daura. 34 jah gahailida managans ubil habandans
missaleikaim sauhtim, jah unhulþons managos uswarp, jah ni fralailot
rodjan þos unhulþons, unte kunþedun ina.

35 Jah air uhtwon usstandands usiddja, jah galaiþ ana auþjana staþ, jah
jainar baþ. 36 jah galaistans waurþun imma Seimon jah þai miþ imma. 37
jah bigitandans ina qeþun du imma þatei allai þuk sokjand. 38 jah qaþ
du im: gaggam du þaim bisunjane haimom[11] jah baurgim, ei jah jainar
merjau, unte duþe qam. 39 jah was merjands in synagogim ize and alla
Galeilaian jah unhulþons uswairpands.

40 Jah qam at imma þrutsfill habands, bidjands ina jah kniwam
knussjands jah qiþands du imma þatei jabai wileis, magt mik gahrainjan.
41 iþ Iesus infeinands, ufrakjands handu seina attaitok imma jah qaþ
imma: wiljau, wairþ hrains. 42 jah biþe qaþ þata Iesus, suns þata
þrutsfill aflaiþ af imma, jah hrains warþ. 43 jah gaƕotjands imma suns
ussandida ina, 44 jah qaþ du imma: saiƕ ei mannhun ni qiþais waiht; ak
gagg þuk silban ataugjan gudjin, jah atbair fram gahraineinai þeinai
þatei anabauþ Moses du weitwodiþai im. 45 iþ is usgaggands dugann
merjan filu jah usqiþan þata waurd, swaswe is juþan ni mahta andaugjo
in baurg galeiþan, ak uta ana auþjaim stadim was; jah iddjedun du imma

       *       *       *       *       *

Chap. II. 1 Jah galaiþ aftra in Kafarnaum afar dagans, jah gafrehun
þatei in garda ist. 2 jah suns gaqemun managai, swaswe juþan ni
gamostedun nih at daura, jah rodida im waurd. 3 jah qemun at imma
usliþan bairandans, hafanana fram fidworim[12]. 4 jah ni magandans
neƕa qiman imma faura manageim, andhulidedun hrot þarei was Iesus, jah
usgrabandans insailidedun þata badi, jah fralailotun ana þammei lag
sa usliþa. 5 Gasaiƕands þan Iesus galaubein ize qaþ du þamma usliþin:
barnilo, afletanda þus frawaurhteis þeinos. 6 wesunuh þan sumai þize
bokarje jainar sitandans jah þagkjandans sis in hairtam seinaim: 7 ƕa
sa swa rodeiþ naiteinins? ƕas mag afletan frawaurhtins, niba ains guþ?
8 jah suns ufkunnands Iesus ahmin seinamma þatei swa þai mitodedun sis,
qaþ du im: duƕe mitoþ þata in hairtam izwaraim? 9 ƕaþar ist azetizo
du qiþan þamma usliþin: afletanda[13] þus frawaurhteis þeinos, þau
qiþan: urreis jah nim þata badi þeinata jah gagg? 10 aþþan ei witeiþ
þatei waldufni habaiþ sunus mans ana airþai afletan frawaurhtins, qaþ
du þamma usliþin: 11 þus qiþa: urreis nimuh þata badi þein jah gagg
du garda þeinamma. 12 jah urrais suns jah ushafjands badi usiddja
faura andwairþja allaize, swaswe usgeisnodedun allai jah hauhidedun
mikiljandans guþ, qiþandans þatei aiw swa ni gaseƕum[14].

13 Jah galaiþ aftra faur marein, jah all manageins iddjedun du imma,
jah laisida ins. 14 jah ƕarbonds gasaƕ Laiwwi þana Alfaiaus sitandan
at motai, jah qaþ du imma: gagg afar mis. jah usstandands iddja afar
imma. 15 jah warþ, biþe is anakumbida in garda is, jah managai motarjos
jah frawaurhtai miþanakumbidedun Iesua jah siponjam is; wesun auk
managai jah iddjedun afar imma. 16 jah þai bokarjos jah Fareisaieis
gasaiƕandans ina matjandan miþ þaim motarjam jah frawaurhtaim, qeþun
du þaim siponjam is: ƕa ist þatei miþ motarjam jah frawaurhtaim[15]
matjiþ jah driggkiþ? 17 jah gahausjands Iesus qaþ du im: ni þaurbun
swinþai lekeis, ak þai ubilaba habandans; ni qam laþon uswaurhtans ak

18 Jah wesun siponjos Iohannis jah Fareisaieis fastandans; jah
atiddjedun jah qeþun du imma: duƕe siponjos Iohannes jah Fareisaieis
fastand, iþ þai þeinai siponjos ni fastand? 19 jah qaþ im Iesus: ibai
magun sunjus bruþfadis, und þatei miþ im ist bruþfaþs, fastan? swa
lagga ƕeila swe miþ sis haband bruþfad, ni magun fastan. 20 aþþan
atgaggand dagos þan afnimada af im sa bruþfaþs, jah þan fastand in
jainamma daga. 21 ni manna plat fanins niujis siujiþ ana snagan
fairnjana; ibai afnimai fullon af þamma sa niuja þamma fairnjin, jah
wairsiza gataura wairþiþ. 22 ni manna giutiþ wein juggata in balgins
fairnjans; ibai aufto distairai wein þata niujo þans balgins, jah wein
usgutniþ, jah þai balgeis fraqistnand; ak wein juggata in balgins
niujans giutand.

23 Jah warþ þairhgaggan imma sabbato daga þairh atisk, jah dugunnun
siponjos is skewjandans raupjan ahsa. 24 jah Fareisaieis qeþun du
imma: sai, ƕa taujand siponjos þeinai sabbatim þatei ni skuld ist? 25
jah is qaþ du im: niu ussuggwuþ aiw ƕa gatawida Daweid, þan þaurfta
jah gredags was, is jah þai miþ imma? 26 ƕaiwa galaiþ in gard guþs uf
Abiaþara gudjin jah hlaibans faurlageinais matida, þanzei ni skuld ist
matjan niba ainaim gudjam, jah gaf jah þaim miþ sis wisandam? 27 jah
qaþ im: sabbato in mans warþ gaskapans, ni manna in sabbato dagis; 28
swaei frauja ist sa sunus mans jah þamma sabbato.

Chap. III. 1 Jah galaiþ aftra in synagogen, jah was jainar manna
gaþaursana habands handu. 2 jah witaidedun imma, hailidediu sabbato
daga, ei wrohidedeina ina. 3 jah qaþ du þamma mann þamma gaþaursana
habandin handu: urreis in midumai. 4 jah qaþ du im; skuldu ist in
sabbatim þiuþ taujan aiþþau unþiuþ taujan, saiwala nasjan aiþþau
usqistjan? iþ eis þahaidedun. 5 jah ussaiƕands ins miþ moda, gaurs in
daubiþos hairtins ize, qaþ du þamma mann: ufrakei þo handu þeina! jah
ufrakida, jah gastoþ aftra so handus is.

6 Jah gaggandans þan Fareisaieis sunsaiw miþ þaim Herodianum garuni
gatawidedun bi ina, ei imma usqemeina. 7 jah Iesus aflaiþ miþ siponjam
seinaim du marein, jah filu manageins us Galeilaia[15] laistidedun afar
imma. 8 jah us Iudaia jah us Iairusaulymim jah us Idumaia jah hindana
Iaurdanaus; jah þai bi Tyra jah Seidona, manageins filu, gahausjandans
ƕan filu is tawida, qemun at imma. 9 jah qaþ þaim siponjam seinaim ei
skip habaiþ wesi at imma in þizos manageins, ei ni þraiheina ina. 10
managans auk gahailida, swaswe drusun ana ina ei imma attaitokeina, 11
jah swa managai swe habaidedun wundufnjos jah ahmans unhrainjans, þaih
þan ina gaseƕun, drusun du imma jah hropidedun qiþandans þatei þu is
sunus guþs. 12 jah filu andbait ins ei ina ni gaswikunþidedeina.

13 Jah ustaig in fairguni jah athaihait þanzei wilda is, jah galiþun
du imma. 14 jah gawaurhta twalif du wisan miþ sis, jah ei insandidedi
ins merjan, 15 jah haban waldufni du hailjan sauhtins jah uswairpan
unhulþons. 16 jah gasatida Seimona namo Paitrus; 17 jah Iakobau þamma
Zaibaidaiaus, jah Iohanne broþr Iakobaus, jah gasatida im namna
Bauanairgais, þatei ist: sunjus þeiƕons; 18 jah Andraian, jah Filippu
jah Barþaulaumaiu jah Matþaiu jah Þoman jah Iakobu þana Alfaiaus, jah
Þaddaiu jah Seimona þana Kananeiten. 19 jah Iudan Iskarioten, saei jah
galewida ina.

20 Jah atiddjedun in gard, jah gaïddja sik managei, swaswe ni mahtedun
nih hlaif matjan. 21 jah hausjandans fram imma bokarjos jah anþarai
usiddjedun gahaban ina; qeþun auk þatei usgaisiþs ist. 22 jah bokarjos
þai af Iairusaulymai qimandans qeþun þatei Baiailzaibul habaiþ,
jah þatei in þamma reikistin unhulþono uswairpiþ þaim unhulþom. 23
jah athaitands ins in gajukom qaþ du im: ƕaiwa mag Satanas Satanan
uswairpan? 24 jah jabai þiudangardi wiþra sik gadailjada, ni mag
standan so þiudangardi jaina. 25 jah jabai gards wiþra sik gadailjada,
ni mag standan sa gards jains. 26 jah jabai Satana usstoþ ana sik
silban jah gadailiþs warþ, ni mag gastandan, ak andi habaiþ. 27 ni
manna mag kasa swinþis galeiþands in gard is wilwan, niba faurþis þana
swinþan gabindiþ; jah _þan_[16] þana gard is diswilwai. 28 amen, qiþa
izwis, þatei allata afletada þata frawaurhte sunum manne, jah naiteinos
swa managos swaswe wajamerjand; 29 aþþan saei wajamereiþ ahman weihana,
ni habaiþ fralet aiw, ak skula ist aiweinaizos frawaurhtais. 30 unte
qeþun: ahman unhrainjana habaiþ.

31 Jah qemun þan aiþei is jah broþrjus is jah uta standandona
insandidedun du imma, haitandona ina. 32 jah setun bi ina managei;
qeþun þan du imma: sai, aiþei þeina jah broþrjus þeinai jah swistrjus
þeinos uta sokjand þuk. 33 jah andhof im qiþands: ƕo ist so aiþei meina
aiþþau þai broþrjus meinai? 34 jah bisaiƕands bisunjane þans bi sik
sitandans qaþ: sai, aiþei meina jah þai broþrjus meinai. 35 saei allis
waurkeiþ wiljan guþs, sa jah broþar meins jah swistar jah aiþei ist.

       *       *       *       *       *

Chap. IV. 1 Jah aftra Iesus dugann laisjan at marein, jah galesun sik
du imma manageins filu, swaswe ina galeiþandan[17] in skip gasitan in
marein; jah alla so managei wiþra marein ana staþa was. 2 jah laisida
ins in gajukom manag, jah qaþ im in laiseinai seinai: 3 hauseiþ! sai,
urrann sa saiands du saian fraiwa seinamma. 4 jah warþ, miþþanei saiso,
sum raihtis gadraus faur wig, jah qemun fuglos jah fretun þata. 5
anþaruþ-þan gadraus ana stainahamma, þarei ni habaida airþa managa,
jah suns urrann, in þizei ni habaida diupaizos airþos; 6 at sunnin þan
urrinnandin ufbrann, jah unte ni habaida waurtins, gaþaursnoda. 7 jah
sum gadraus in þaurnuns; jah ufarstigun þai þaurnjus jah afƕapidedun
þata, jah akran ni gaf. 8 jah sum gadraus in airþa goda, jah gaf akran
urrinnando jah wahsjando, jah bar ain ·l· jah ain ·j· jah ain ·r·. 9
jah qaþ: saei habai ausona hausjandona, gahausjai.

10 Iþ biþe warþ sundro, frehun ina þai bi ina miþ þaim twalibim þizos
gajukons. 11 jah qaþ im: izwis atgiban ist kunnan runa þiudangardjos
guþs, iþ jainaim þaim uta in gajukom[18] allata wairþiþ, 12 ei
saiƕandans saiƕaina jah ni gaumjaina. jah hausjandans hausjaina jah ni
fraþjaina, nibai ƕan gawandjaina sik jah afletaindau im frawaurhteis.
13 jah qaþ du im: ni wituþ þo gajukon, jah ƕaiwa allos þos gajukons
kunneiþ? 14 sa saijands waurd saijiþ. 15 aþþan þai wiþra wig sind,
þarei saiada þata waurd, jah þan gahausjand unkarjans, suns qimiþ
Satanas jah usnimiþ waurd þata insaiano in hairtam ize. 16 jah sind
samaleiko þai ana stainahamma saianans, þaiei þan hausjand þata
waurd, suns miþ fahedai nimand ita. 17 jah ni haband waurtins in sis,
ak ƕeilaƕairbai sind; þaþroh, biþe qimiþ aglo aiþþau wrakja in þis
waurdis, suns gamarzjanda. 18 jah þai sind þai in þaurnuns saianans,
þai waurd hausjandans, 19 jah saurgos þizos libainais jah afmarzeins
gabeins jah þai bi þata anþar lustjus innatgaggandans afƕapjand þata
waurd, jah akranalaus wairþiþ. 20 jah þai sind þai ana airþai þizai
godon saianans, þaei hausjand þata waurd jah andnimand, jah akran
bairand, ain ·l· jah ain ·j· jah ain ·r·.

21 Jah qaþ du im: ibai lukarn qimiþ duþe ei uf melan satjaidau aiþþau
undar ligr? niu ei ana lukarnastaþan satjaidau? 22 nih allis ist ƕa
fulginis þatei ni gabairhtjaidau; nih warþ analaugn, ak ei swikunþ
wairþai. 23 jabai ƕas habai ausona hausjandona, gahausjai.

24 Jah qaþ du im: saiƕiþ, ƕa hauseiþ! In þizaiei mitaþ mitiþ, mitada
izwis jah biaukada izwis þaim galaubjandam. 25 unte þisƕammeh saei
habaiþ gibada imma; jah saei ni habaiþ jah þatei habaiþ afnimada imma.

26 Jah qaþ: swa ist þiudangardi guþs, swaswe jabai manna wairpiþ fraiwa
ana airþa. 27 jah slepiþ jah urreisiþ naht jah daga, jah þata fraiw
keiniþ jah liudiþ swe ni wait is. 28 silbo auk airþa akran bairiþ:
frumist gras, þaþroh ahs, þaþroh fulleiþ kaurnis in þamma ahsa. 29
þanuh biþe atgibada akran, suns insandeiþ gilþa, unte atist asans.

30 Jah qaþ: ƕe galeikom þiudangardja guþs, aiþþau in ƕileikai gajukon
gabairam þo? 31 swe kaurno sinapis, þatei þan saiada ana airþa, minnist
allaize fraiwe ist þize ana airþai; 32 jah þan saiada, urrinniþ jah
wairþiþ allaize grase maist, jah gataujiþ astans mikilans, swaswe magun
uf skadau is fuglos himinis gabauan. 33 jah swaleikaim managaim gajukom
rodida du im þata waurd, swaswe mahtedun hausjon. 34 iþ inuh gajukon ni
rodida im, iþ sundro siponjam seinaim andband allata.

35 Jah qaþ du im in jainamma daga at andanahtja þan waurþanamma:
usleiþam jainis stadis. 36 jah afletandans þo managein andnemun
ina swe was in skipa; jah þan anþara skipa wesun miþ imma. 37 jah
warþ skura windis mikila jah wegos waltidedun in skip, swaswe ita
juþan gafullnoda. 38 jah was is ana notin ana waggarja slepands,
jah urraisidedun ina jah qeþun du imma: laisari, niu kara þuk þizei
fraqistnam? 39 jah urreisands gasok winda jah qaþ du marein: gaslawai,
afdumbn! jah anasilaida sa winds, jah warþ wis mikil. 40 jah qaþ du im:
duƕe faurhtai sijuþ swa? ƕaiwa ni nauh habaiþ galaubein? 41 jah ohtedun
sis agis mikil, jah qeþun du sis misso: ƕas þannu sa sijai, unte jah
winds jah marei ufhausjand imma?

Chap. V. 1 Jah qemun hindar marein in landa Gaddarene. 2 jah
usgaggandin imma us skipa suns gamotida imma manna us aurahjom in ahmin
unhrainjamma, 3 saei bauain habaida in aurahjom: jah ni naudibandjom
eisarneinaim manna mahta ina gabindan. 4 unte is ufta eisarnam bi
fotuns gabuganaim jah naudibandjom eisarneinaim gabundans was, jah
galausida af sis þos naudibandjos, jah þo ana fotum eisarna gabrak, jah
manna ni mahta ina gatamjan[19]. 5 jah sinteino nahtam jah dagam in
aurahjom jah in fairgunjam was hropjands jah bliggwands sik stainam. 6
gasaiƕands[20] þan Iesu fairraþro rann jah inwait ina, 7 jah hropjands
stibnai mikilai qaþ: ƕa mis jah þus, Iesu, sunau guþs þis hauhistins?
biswara þuk bi guþa, ni balwjais mis! 8 unte qaþ imma: usgagg, ahma
unhrainja, us þamma mann! 9 jah frah ina: ƕa namo þein? jah qaþ du
imma: namo mein Laigaion, unte managai sijum. 10 jah baþ ina filu ei ni
usdrebi im us landa. 11 wasuh þan jainar hairda sweine haldana at þamma
fairgunja. 12 jah bedun ina allos þos unhulþons qiþandeins: insandei
unsis in þo sweina, ei in þo galeiþaima. 13 jah uslaubida im Iesus
suns. jah usgaggandans ahmans þai unhrainjans galiþun in þo sweina, jah
rann so hairda and driuson in marein; wesunuþ-þan swe twos þusundjos,
jah afƕapnodedun in marein. 14 jah þai haldandans þo sweina gaþlauhun
jah gataihun in baurg jah in haimom, jah qemun saiƕan ƕa wesi þata
waurþano. 15 jah atiddjedun du Iesua, jah gasaiƕand þana wodan sitandan
jah gawasidana jah fraþjandan, þana saei habaida laigaion, jah ohtedun.
16 jah spillodedun im þaiei gaseƕun, ƕaiwa warþ bi þana wodan jah bi
þo sweina. 17 jah dugunnun bidjan ina galeiþan hindar markos seinos.
18 jah inngaggandan ina in skip baþ ina, saei was wods, ei miþ imma
wesi. 19 jah ni lailot ina, ak qaþ du imma: gagg du garda þeinamma du
þeinaim, jah gateih im, ƕan filu þus frauja gatawida jah gaarmaida þuk.
20 jah galaiþ jah dugann merjan in Daikapaulein, ƕan filu gatawida imma
Iesus; jah allai sildaleikidedun.

21 Jah usleiþandin Iesua in skipa aftra hindar marein, gaqemun sik
manageins filu du imma, jah was faura marein, 22 jah sai, qimiþ ains
þize synagogafade namin Jaeirus; jah saiƕands ina gadraus du fotum
Iesuis, 23 jah baþ ina filu, qiþands þatei dauhtar meina aftumist
habaiþ, ei qimands lagjais ana þo handuns, ei ganisai jah libai. 24
jah galaiþ miþ imma, jah iddjedun afar imma manageins filu jah þraihun
ina. 25 jah qinono suma wisandei in runa bloþis jera twalif, 26 jah
manag gaþulandei fram managaim lekjam jah fraqimandei allamma seinamma
jah ni waihtai botida, ak mais wairs habaida, 27 gahausjandei bi Iesu,
atgaggandei in managein aftana attaitok wastjai is. 28 unte qaþ þatei
jabai wastjom is atteka, ganisa. 29 jah sunsaiw gaþaursnoda sa brunna
bloþis izos, jah ufkunþa ana leika þatei gahailnoda af þamma slaha. 30
jah sunsaiw Iesus ufkunþa in sis silbin þo us sis maht usgaggandein;
gawandjands sik in managein qaþ: ƕas mis taitok wastjom? 31 jah qeþun
du imma siponjos is: saiƕis þo managein þreihandein þuk, jah qiþis:
ƕas mis taitok? 32 jah wlaitoda saiƕan þo þata taujandein. 33 iþ so
qino ogandei jah reirandei, witandei þatei warþ bi ija, qam jah draus
du imma, jah qaþ imma alla þo sunja. 34 iþ is qaþ du izai: dauhtar,
galaubeins þeina ganasida þuk, gagg in gawairþi, jah sijais haila af
þamma slaha þeinamma.

35 Nauhþanuh imma rodjandin qemun fram þamma synagogafada, qiþandans
þatei dauhtar þeina gaswalt; ƕa þanamais draibeis þana laisari? 36 iþ
Iesus sunsaiw gahausjands þata waurd rodiþ, qaþ du þamma synagogafada:
ni faurhtei; þatainei galaubei. 37 jah ni fralailot ainohun ize miþ sis
afargaggan, nibai Paitru jah Iakobu jah Iohannen broþar Iakobis. 38
jah galaiþ in gard þis synagogafadis, jah gasaƕ auhjodu jah gretandans
jah waifairƕjandans filu. 39 jah innatgaggands qaþ du im: ƕa auhjoþ
jah gretiþ? þata barn ni gadauþnoda, ak slepiþ. 40 jah bihlohun ina.
iþ is uswairpands allaim ganimiþ attan þis barnis jah aiþein jah þans
miþ sis, jah galaiþ inn þarei was þata barn ligando. 41 jah fairgraip
bi handau þata barn qaþuh du izai: taleiþa kumei, þatei ist gaskeiriþ:
mawilo, du þus qiþa: urreis. 42 jah suns urrais so mawi jah iddja; was
auk jere twalibe; jah usgeisnodedun faurhtein mikilai. 43 jah anabauþ
im filu ei manna ni funþi þata, jah haihait izai giban matjan.



Chap. II. 1 Warþ þan in dagans jainans, urrann gagrefts fram kaisara
Agustau, gameljan allana midjungard. 2 soh þan gilstrameleins frumista
warþ at [wisandin kindina Syriais][21] raginondin Saurim Kyreinaiau.
3 jah iddjedun allai, ei melidai weseina, ƕarjizuh in seinai baurg. 4
urrann þan jah Iosef us Galeilaia, us baurg Nazaraiþ, in Iudaian, in
baurg Daweidis sei haitada Beþlahaim, duþe ei was us garda fadreinais
Daweidis, 5 anameljan miþ Mariin, sei in fragiftim was imma qeins,
wisandein inkilþon. 6 Warþ þan, miþþanei þo wesun jainar, usfullnodedun
dagos du bairan izai. 7 jah gabar sunu seinana þana frumabaur, jah
biwand ina, jah galagida ina in uzetin, unte ni was im rumis in stada
þamma. 8 jah hairdjos wesun in þamma samin landa, þairhwakandans jah
witandans wahtwom nahts ufaro hairdai seinai. 9 iþ aggilus fraujins
anaqam ins jah wulþus fraujins biskain ins, jah ohtedun agisa
mikilamma. 10 jah qaþ du im sa aggilus: ni ogeiþ; unte sai, spillo
izwis faheid mikila, sei wairþiþ allai managein, 11 þatei gabaurans ist
izwis himma daga nasjands, saei ist Xristus frauja, in baurg Daweidis.
12 jah þata izwis taikns: bigitid barn biwundan jah galagid in uzetin.
13 jah anaks warþ miþ þamma aggilau managei harjis himinakundis
hazjandane guþ jah qiþandane: 14 wulþus in hauhistjam guþa jah ana
airþai gawairþi in mannam godis wiljins.

15 Jah warþ, biþe galiþun fairra im in himin þai aggiljus, jah þai
mans þai hairdjos qeþun du sis misso: þairhgaggaima ju und Beþlahaim,
jah saiƕaima waurd þata waurþano, þatei frauja gakannida unsis. 16 jah
qemun sniumjandans, jah bigetun Marian jah Iosef jah þata barn ligando
in uzetin. 17 gasaiƕandans þan gakannidedun bi þata waurd þatei rodiþ
was du im bi þata barn. 18 jah allai þai gahausjandans sildaleikidedun
bi þo rodidona fram þaim hairdjam du im. 19 iþ Maria alla gafastaida
þo waurda, þagkjandei in hairtin seinamma. 20 jah gawandidedun sik þai
hairdjos mikiljandans jah hazjandans guþ in allaize þizeei gahausidedun
jah gaseƕun swaswe rodiþ was du im.

21 Jah biþe usfullnodedun[1] dagos ahtau du bimaitan ina, jah haitan
was namo is Iesus, þata qiþano fram aggilau, faurþizei ganumans wesi in

22 Jah biþe usfullnodedun[22] dagos hraineinais ize bi witoda Mosezis,
brahtedun ina in Iairusalem, atsatjan faura fraujin, 23 swaswe gamelid
ist in witoda fraujins: þatei ƕazuh gumakundaize uslukands qiþu
weihs fraujins haitada, 24 jah ei gabeina fram imma hunsl, swaswe
qiþan ist in witoda fraujins, gajuk hraiwadubono aiþþau twos juggons
ahake. 25 þaruh was manna in Iairusalem, þizei namo Symaion, jah sa
manna was garaihts jah gudafaurhts, beidands laþonais Israelis, jah
ahma weihs was ana imma. 26 jah was imma gataihan fram ahmin þamma
weihin ni saiƕan dauþu, faurþize seƕi Xristu fraujins. 27 jah qam
in ahmin in þizai alh; jah miþþanei innattauhun berusjos þata barn
Iesu, ei tawidedeina bi biuhtja witodis bi ina. 28 jah is andnam ina
ana armins seinans, jah þiuþida guþa jah qaþ: 29 nu fraleitais skalk
þeinana, fraujinond frauja, bi waurda þeinamma in gawairþja; 30 þande
seƕun augona meina nasein þeina, 31 þoei manwides in andwairþja[23]
allaizo manageino, 32 liuhaþ du andhuleinai þiudom jah wulþu managein
þeinai Israela. 33 jah was Iosef jah aiþei is sildaleikjandona ana
þaim þoei rodida wesun bi ina. 34 jah þiuþida ina Symaion jah qaþ du
Mariin, aiþein is: sai, sa ligiþ du drusa jah usstassai managaize in
Israela jah du taiknai andsakanai. 35 jah þan þeina silbons saiwala
þairhgaggiþ hairus, ei andhuljaindau us managaim hairtam mitoneis.
36 jah was Anna praufeteis, dauhtar Fanuelis, us kunja Aseris; soh
framaldra dage managaize libandei miþ abin jera sibun fram magaþein
seinai, 37 soh þan widuwo jere ahtautehund jah fidwor, soh ni afiddja
fairra alh fastubnjam jah bidom blotande fraujan nahtam jah dagam. 38
soh þizai ƕeilai atstandandei andhaihait fraujin, jah rodida bi ina
in allaim þaim usbeidandam laþon Iairusaulymos. 39 jah biþe ustauhun
allata bi witoda fraujins, gawandidedun sik in Galeilaian, in baurg
seina Nazaraiþ. 40 iþ þata barn wohs jah swinþnoda ahmins fullnands jah
handugeins, jah ansts guþs was ana imma.

41 Jah wratodedun þai birusjos is jera ƕammeh in Iairusalem at
dulþ paska. 42 jah biþe warþ twalibwintrus, usgaggandam þan im in
Iairusaulyma bi biuhtja dulþais, 43 jah ustiuhandam þans dagans,
miþþane gawandidedun sik aftra, gastoþ Iesus sa magus in Iairusalem,
jah ni wissedun[24] Iosef jah aiþei is. 44 hugjandona in gasinþjam ina
wisan qemun dagis wig jah sokidedun ina in ganiþjam jah in kunþam. 45
jah ni bigitandona ina gawandidedun sik in Iairusalem sokjandona ina.
46 jah warþ afar dagans þrins, bigetun ina in alh sitandan in midjaim
laisarjam jah hausjandan im jah fraihnandan ins. 47 usgeisnodedun
þan allai þai hausjandans is ana frodein jah andawaurdjam is. 48 jah
gasaiƕandans ina sildaleikidedun, jah qaþ du imma so aiþei is: magau,
ƕa gatawides uns swa? sai, sa atta þeins jah ik winnandona sokidedum
þuk. 49 jah qaþ du im: ƕa þatei sokideduþ mik? niu wisseduþ þatei in
þaim attins meinis skulda wisan? 50 jah ija ni froþun þamma waurda
þatei rodida du im. 51 jah iddja miþ im jah qam in Nazaraiþ, jah was
ufhausjands im; jah aiþei is gafastaida þo waurda alla in hairtin
seinamma. 52 jah Iesus þaih frodein jah wahstau jah anstai at guþa jah




Chap. I.[25] 1 Pawlus apaustaulus Iesuis Xristaus þairh wiljan guþs jah
Teimauþaius broþar aikklesjon guþs þizai wisandein in Kaurinþon miþ
allaim þaim weiham þaim wisandam in allai Akaïjai. 2 ansts izwis jah
gawairþi fram guþa attin unsaramma jah fraujin Iesu Xristau.

3 Þiuþiþs guþ jah atta fraujins unsaris Iesuis Xristaus, atta
bleiþeino jah guþ allaizo gaþlaihte, 4 saei gaþrafstida uns ana allai
aglon unsarai, ei mageima weis gaþrafstjan þans in allaim aglom þairh
þo gaþlaiht þizaiei gaþrafstidai sijum silbans fram guþa. 5 unte swaswe
ufarassus ist þulaine Xristaus in uns, swa jah þairh Xristu ufar filu
ist jah gaþrafsteins unsara. 6 aþþan jaþþe þreihanda, in izwaraizos
gaþlaihtais jah naseinais þizos waurstweigons in stiwitja þizo samono
þulaine, þozei jah weis winnam, jah wens unsara gatulgida faur
izwis; jaþþe gaþrafstjanda in izwaraizos gaþlaihtais jah naseinais,
7 witandans þatei swaswe gadailans þulaine sijuþ, jah gaþlaihtais
wairþiþ. 8 unte ni wileima izwis unweisans, broþrjus, bi aglon unsara
þo waurþanon uns in Asiai, unte ufarassau kauridai wesum ufar maht,
swaswe[26] skamaidedeima uns jah liban. 9 akei silbans in uns silbam
andahaft dauþaus habaidedum, ei ni sijaima trauandans du uns silbam,
ak du guþa þamma urraisjandin dauþans, 10 izei us swaleikaim dauþum
uns galausida jah galauseiþ, du þammei wenidedum ei galauseiþ, 11 at
hilpandam jah izwis bi uns bidai, ei in managamma andwairþja so in uns
giba þairh managans awiliudodau faur uns. 12 unte ƕoftuli unsara so
ist, weitwodei miþwisseins unsaraizos, þatei in ainfalþein jah hlutrein
guþs, ni in handugein leikeinai, ak in anstai guþs usmeitum[27] in
þamma fairƕau, iþ ufarassau at izwis. 13 unte ni alja meljam izwis,
alja þoei anakunnaiþ aiþþau jah ufkunnaiþ; aþþan wenja ei und andi
ufkunnaiþ, 14 swaswe gakunnaideduþ uns bi sumata, unte ƕoftuli izwara
sijum, swaswe jah jus unsara in daga fraujins Iesuis Xristaus[28].

15 Jah þizai trauainai wilda faurþis qiman at izwis, ei anþara anst
habaidedeiþ, 16 jah[29] þairh izwis galeiþan in Makidonja[30] jah
aftra af Makidonjai qiman at izwis, jah fram izwis gasandjan mik in
Iudaia. 17 þatuþ-þan nu mitonds, ibai aufto leihtis bruhta? aiþþau
þatei mito, bi leika þagkjau, ei sijai[31] at mis þata ja ja jah þata
ne ne? 18 aþþan triggws guþ, ei þata waurd unsar þata du izwis nist
ja jah[32] ne. 19 unte guþs sunus Iesus Xristus, saei in izwis þairh
uns wailamerjada[33], þairh mik jah Silbanu jah Teimauþaiu, nih[34]
warþ ja jah[35] ne, ak ja in imma warþ. 20 ƕaiwa managa gahaita guþs,
in imma þata ja, duþþe jah[36] þairh ina amen, guþa du wulþau þairh
uns. 21 aþþan sa gaþwastjands unsis[37] miþ izwis in Xristau jah
salbonds[38] uns guþ, 22 jah sigljands uns jah gibands wadi ahman in
hairtona unsara. 23 aþþan ik weitwod guþ anahaita ana meinai saiwalai,
ei freidjands izwara þanaseiþs ni qam in Kaurinþon; 24 ni þatei
fraujinoma[39] izwarai galaubeinai, ak gawaurstwans sijum anstais
izwaraizos; unte galaubeinai gastoþuþ.

Chap. II.[40] 1 Aþþan gastauida þata silbo at mis, ei aftra in
saurgai ni qimau at izwis. 2 unte jabai ik gaurja izwis, jah ƕas ist
saei gailjai mik, niba[41] sa gaurida us mis? 3 jaþþata[42] silbo
gamelida izwis, ei qimands saurga ni habau fram þaimei skulda faginon,
gatrauands in allaim izwis þatei meina faheþs[43] allaize izwara ist.
4 aþþan us managai aglon jah aggwiþai hairtins gamelida izwis þairh
managa tagra, ni þeei saurgaiþ, ak ei frijaþwa[44] kunneiþ þoei haba
ufarassau du izwis. 5 aþþan jabai ƕas gaurida, ni mik gaurida, ak bi
sumata[45], ei ni anakaurjau allans izwis. 6 ganah þamma swaleikamma
andabet[46] þata fram managizam, 7 swaei þata andaneiþo izwis mais
fragiban jag-[47]gaþlaihan, ibai aufto managizein saurgai gasiggqai sa
swaleiks. 8 inuþ-[48]þis bidja izwis tulgjan in imma friaþwa. 9 duþþe
gamelida, ei ufkunnau kustu izwarana, sijaidu in allamma ufhausjandans.
10 aþþan þammei ƕa fragibiþ, jah ik; jah þan ik, jabai ƕa fragaf,
fragaf[49] in izwara in andwairþja Xristaus, 11 ei ni gaaiginondau[50]
fram Satanin; unte ni sijum unwitandans munins is.

12 Aþþan qimands in Trauadai in aiwaggeljons[51] Xristaus jah at
haurdai mis uslukanai in fraujin, 13 ni habaida gaƕeilain ahmin
meinamma, in þammei ni bigat Teitaun broþar meinana; ak twisstandands
im[52] galaiþ in Makaidonja[53]. 14 aþþan guþa awiliuþ[54] þamma
sinteino ustaiknjandin hroþeigans uns in Xristau jah daun kunþjis
seinis gabairhtjandin þairh uns in allaim stadim[55]; 15 unte
Xristaus[56] dauns sijum woþi guþa in þaim ganisandam jah in
þaim fraqistnandam[57]: 16 sumaim dauns us dauþau[58] du dauþau,
sumaimuþ-þan dauns us libainai du libainai; jad-[59]du þamma ƕas
wairþs? 17 unte ni sium swe[60] sumai maidjandans waurd guþs, ak us
hlutriþai, ak swaswe us guþa in andwairþja guþs in Xristau rodjam.

Chap. III. 1 Duginnam aftra uns silbans anafilhan? aiþþau ibai þaurbum
swe sumai anafilhis boko du izwis, aiþþau us izwis anafilhis? 2
aipistaule unsara jus siuþ[61], gamelida in hairtam unsaraim, kunþa
jah anakunnaida fram allaim mannam. 3 swikunþai[62] þatei siuþ[63]
aipistaule Xristaus, andbahtida fram uns, inn[64] gamelida ni
swartiza[65], ak ahmin guþs libandins, ni in spildom staineinaim, ak in
spildom hairtane leikeinaim.

4 Aþþan trauain swaleika habam þairh Xristu du guþa, 5 ni þatei
wairþai sijaima þagkjan ƕa af uns silbam, swaswe af uns silbam[66],
ak so wairþida unsara us guþa ist, 6 izei jah wairþans brahta uns
andbahtans niujaizos triggwos, ni bokos, ak ahmins; unte boka usqimiþ,
iþ ahma gaqiujiþ. 7 aþþan jabai andbahti dauþaus in gameleinim
gafrisahtiþ in stainam warþ wulþag, swaei ni mahtedeina[67] sunjus
Israelis fairweitjan du wlita Mosezis in wulþaus wlitis is þis
gataurnandins, 8 ƕaiwa nei mais andbahti ahmins wairþai in wulþau? 9
jabai auk andbahtja[68] wargiþos wulþus, und filu mais ufarist andbahti
garaihteins in[69] wulþau. 10 unte ni was wulþag þata wulþago in þizai
halbai in ufarassaus wulþaus; 11 jabai auk þata gataurnando þairh
wulþu, und filu mais þata wisando in wulþau.

12 Habandans nu swaleika wen managaizos balþeins brukjaima, 13
janni[70] swaswe Mosez[71] lagida hulistr ana andawleizn, duþe ei ni
fairweitidedeina sunjus Israelis in andi þis gataurnandins; 14 ak
afdaubnodedun[72] fraþja ize, unte und hina dag þata samo hulistr in
anakunnainai þizos fairnjons triggwos wisiþ unandhuliþ, unte in Xristau
gatairada. 15 akei und hina dag miþþanei siggwada Moses, hulistr ligiþ
ana hairtin ize. 16 aþþan miþþanei gawandeiþ du fraujin, afnimada þata
hulistr. 17 aþþan frauja ahma ist; aþþan þarei ahma fraujins, þaruh
freihals[73] ist. 18 aþþan weis allai andhulidamma andwairþja wulþu
fraujins þairhsaiƕandans, þo samon frisaht ingaleikonda af wulþau in
wulþu[74], swaswe af fraujins ahmin.

       *       *       *       *       *

Chap. IV.[75] 1 Duþþe habandans þata andbahti[76], swaswe gaarmaidai
waurþum, ni wairþaima[77] usgrudjans, 2 ak afstoþum þaim analaugnjam
aiwiskjis, ni gaggandans in warein nih galiug taujandans waurd
guþs, ak bairhtein sunjos[78] ustaiknjandans uns silbans du allaim
miþwisseim manne in andwairþja guþs. 3 aþþan jabai ist gahulida
aiwaggeljo unsara, in þaim fralusnandam ist gahulida, 4 in þaimei guþ
þis aiwis gablindida fraþja þize ungalaubjandane, ei ni liuhtjai
im liuhadeins[79] aiwaggeljons wulþaus Xristaus, saei ist frisahts
guþs ungasaiƕanins[80]. 5 aþþan ni uns silbans merjam, ak Iesu Xristu
fraujan, iþ uns skalkans[81] izwarans in Iesuis. 6 unte guþ saei qaþ
ur-riqiza liuhaþ skeinan, saei jah liuhtida in hairtam unsaraim du
liuhadein kunþjis wulþaus guþs in andwairþja Iesuis Xristaus.

7 Aþþan habandans þata huzd in airþeinaim kasam, ei ufarassus sijai
mahtais guþs jah ni us unsis. 8 in allamma þraihanai, akei ni
gaaggwidai; andbitanai, akei ni afslauþidai; 9 wrikanai, akei ni
biliþanai; gadrausidai, akei ni fraqistidai, 10 sinteino dauþein
fraujins Iesuis ana leika unsaramma[82] _bairandans, ei jah libains,
Iesuis ana leika unsaramma_[83] uskunþa sijai. 11 sinteino weis
libandans in dauþu atgibanda in Iesuis, ei jah libains Iesuis
swikunþa wairþai in riurjamma leika unsaramma. 12 swaei nu dauþus in
uns waurkeiþ, iþ libains in izwis. 13 habandans nu þana saman ahman
galaubeinais bi þamma gamelidin: galaubida, in þizei jah rodida, jah
weis galaubjam, in þizei jah rodjam, 14 witandans þatei sa urraisjands
fraujan Iesu jah unsis þairh Iesu urraiseiþ jah fauragasatjiþ miþ
izwis. 15 þatuh þan allata in izwara, ei ansts managnandei þairh
managizans awiliud ufarassjai du wulþau guþa. 16 inuh þis ni wairþam
usgrudjans, ak þauhjabai sa utana unsar manna frawardjada, aiþþau sa
innuma ananiujada daga jah daga. 17 unte þata andwairþo ƕeilaƕairb
jah leiht[84] aglons unsaraizos bi ufarassau aiweinis wulþaus kaurei
waurkjada unsis. 18 ni fairweitjandam þizei gasaiƕanane, ak þizei
ungasaiƕanane; unte þo gasaiƕanona riurja sind, iþ þo ungasaiƕanona

       *       *       *       *       *

Chap. V. 1 Witum auk þatei, jabai sa airþeina unsar gards
þizos hleiþros gatairada, ei gatimrjon us[85] guþa habam, gard
unhanduwaurhtana aiweinana in himinam. 2 unte jah in þamma swogatjam,
bauainai unsarai þizai us himina ufarhamon gairnjandans, 3 jabai
sweþauh jah[86] gawasidai, ni naqadai bigitaindau. 4 jah auk wisandans
in þizai hleiþrai swogatjam kauridai, ana þammei ni wileima afhamon,
ak anahamon, ei fraslindaidau þata diwano fram libainai. 5 aþþan saei
jah[87] gamanwida uns du þamma guþ, saei jah gaf uns[88] wadi ahman.
6 gatrauandans nu sinteino jah witandans þatei wisandans in þamma
leika afhaimjai sijum fram fraujin; 7 unte þairh galaubein gaggam, ni
þairh siun. 8 aþþan gatrauam jah waljam mais usleiþan us þamma leika
jah anahaimjaim wisan at fraujin. 9 inuh[89] þis usdaudjam, jaþþe
anahaimjai jaþþe afhaimjai, waila galeikan imma. 10 unte allai weis
ataugjan skuldai sijum faura stauastola Xristaus, ei ganimai ƕarjizuh
þo swesona leikis, afar þaimei gatawida, jaþþe þiuþ jaþþe unþiuþ.

11 Witandans nu agis fraujins mannans fullaweisjam, iþ guþa swikunþai
sijum. aþþan wenja jah in miþwisseim izwaraim swikunþans wisan uns.
12 ni ei aftra uns silbans uskannjaima[90] izwis, ak lew gibandans
izwis ƕoftuljos fram uns[91], ei habaiþ wiþra þans in andwairþja
ƕopandans jah ni hairtin[92]. 13 unte jaþþe usgeisnodedum, guþa,
jaþþe fullafraþjam, izwis. 14 unte friaþwa Xristaus dishabaiþ uns, 15
domjandans þata þatei ains faur allans gaswalt, þannu allai gaswultun,
jah faur allans gaswalt, ei þai libandans ni þanaseiþs sis[93] silbam
libaina[94], ak þamma faur sik gaswiltandin jah urreisandin. 16 swaei
weis fram þamma nu ni ainnohun kunnum bi leika; iþ jabai ufkunþedum bi
leika Xristu, akei nu ni þanaseiþs ni kunnum ina[95]. 17 swaei jabai
ƕo in Xristau niuja gaskafts, þo alþjona usliþun; sai, waurþun niuja
alla. 18 aþþan alla us guþa, þamma gafriþondin uns sis[96] þairh Xristu
jah[97] gibandin uns[98] andbahti gafriþonais. 19 unte sweþauh guþ was
in Xristau manaseþ gafriþonds sis, ni rahnjands im missadedins ize, jah
lagjands in uns waurd gafriþonais. 20 faur Xristu nu airinom, swe at
guþa gaþlaihandin þairh uns; bidjam[99] faur Xristu gagawairþnan guþa.
21 unte þana izei[100] ni kunþa frawaurht, faur uns gatawida frawaurht,
ei weis waurþeima garaihtei guþs in imma.


(LEAF VII.--ABOUT JOHN VI, 9-13.)[101]

(a 49)--ahun kunnandins fraujins maht jah andþaggkjandins sik is
waldufneis. nih Stains _ains_[102], ak jah Andraias, saei qaþ: +ist
magula ains her, saei habaiþ ·e· hlaibans barizeinans jah twans
fiskans+, analeiko swe Filippus gasakada, ni waiht mikilis hugjands
nih wairþidos laisareis andþaggkjands, þairh þoei usbar qiþands: +akei
þata ƕa ist du swa managaim?+ iþ frauja andtilonds ize niuklahein
(b) qaþ: +waurkeiþ þans mans anakumbjan+. iþ eis, at hauja managamma
wisandin in þamma stada, þo filusna anakumbjan gatawidedun, fimf
þusundjos waire inuh qinons jah barna. swe at mikilamma nahtamata
anakumbjandans _wesun_[103] at ni wisandein[104] aljai waihtai ufar
þans fimf hlaibans jah twans fiskans, þanzei nimands jah awiliudonds
gaþiuþida, jah swa managai ganohjands ins wailawiznai ni þatainei
ganauhan þaurftais im fra-(c 50)gaf, ak filaus maizo; afar þatei matida
so managei, bigitan was þizei hlaibe ·ib· tainjons fullos, þatei
aflifnoda. +samaleikoh þan jah þize fiske, swa filu swe wildedun.+
nih þan ana þaim hlaibam ainaim seinaizos mahtais filusna ustaiknida,
ak jah in þaim fiskam; swa filu auk[105] gamanwida ins wairþan,
swaei ainƕarjammeh swa filu swe wilda andniman is[106], tawida; jah
ni in waihtai waninassu þizai filusnai wairþan gatawida. akei (d)
nauh us þamma filu mais siponjans fullafahida jah anþarans gamaudida
gaumjan, þatei is was sa sama, saei in auþidai ·m· jere attans ize
fodida. +þanuh, biþe sadai waurþun, qaþ siponjam seinaim: galisiþ þos
aflifnandeins drausnos, ei waihtai ni fraqistnai. þanuh galesun jah
gafullidedun ·ib· tainjons gabruko us þaim ·e· hlaibam barizeinam jah
·b· fiskam, þatei aflifnoda at þaim --+


[2] usstagg _MS._

[3] ƕa ƕazuh _MS._

[4] fulhsja _MS._

[5] fulhlsnja _MS._

[6] _in the margin_ faihuþra.., _i. e._ faihuþraihna _Luke XVI, 13_.

[7] _gloss_ wilþi.

[8] usluknans _MS._

[9] _in the margin_ þukei wilda.

[10] leita _MS._

[11] haimon _MS._

[12] fidworin _MS._

[13] afleþanda _MS._

[14] gaseƕū _MS._

[15] Galeilaian _MS._

[16] _wanting MS._

[17] galeiþan _MS._

[18] gajukon _MS._

[19] _gloss in the margin_, gabindan.

[20] gasaisaiƕands _MS._

[21] wisandin kindina Syriais _is evidently a marginal gloss of the
manuscript, which was accidentally put in the text_.

[22] usfulnodedun _MS._

[23] anandwairþja _MS._

[24] wisedun _MS._

[25] _According to codex B; from verse 8, onward, with the various
readings of A._

[26] _In A_: swaswe afswaggwidai weseima jal liban, _and the additional
marginal gloss_ skamaidedeima.

[27] usmetum _A_.

[28] Xristaus _wanting in A_.

[29] jaþ _A_.

[30] Makaidonja, Makaidonjai _A_.

[31] ei ni sijai _B_.

[32] jan _A_.

[33] merjada _A_.

[34] Timaiþaiu ni _A_.

[35] jan _A_.

[36] jaþ _A_.

[37] uns _A_.

[38] salbonsd _A_.

[39] fraujoma _B_.

[40] _Chaps. II. III. according to A, with the various readings of B._

[41] nibai _B_.

[42] jah _B_.

[43] faheds _B_.

[44] friaþwa _B_.

[45] bi sumata» bi sum ain _B_.

[46] andabeit _B_.

[47] jah _B_.

[48] inuh _B_.

[49] _For_ fragaf _in both cases_ fragiba _B_.

[50] _marginal gloss_ ni gafaihondau _in A_.

[51] aiwaggeljon _B_.

[52] twistandands imma _B_.

[53] in in Makidonja _B_.

[54] awiliud _B_.

[55] þairh uns _after_ stadim _B_.

[56] Xristaus _wanting in A_.

[57] _gloss_ fralusnandam _in A_.

[58] sumaim auk dauns dauþaus _B_.

[59] jah _B_.

[60] sijum _B_, swe _wanting in B_.

[61] jus siuþ» jusijuþ _B_.

[62] swikunþ _B_.

[63] sijuþ _B_.

[64] inna _B_.

[65] swartizla _B_.

[66] swaswe af uns silbam _wanting in A_.

[67] mahtededeina _B_.

[68] andbahti _B_.

[69] us _B_.

[70] jah _B_.

[71] Moses _B_.

[72] _gloss_ afdaubnodedun in _A_.

[73] freijhals _A_.

[74] wulþau _B_.

[75] Chaps. IV. V. _according to B, with the various readings of A_.

[76] andbahtei _A_.

[77] wairþam _A_.

[78] sunjus _A_.

[79] liuhadein _B_.

[80] ungas. _wanting in A_.

[81] unskalkans _A_.

[82] unsaram--_A stops here_.

[83] _The words put in Italics are wanting in the manuscript, they are
interpolated translations from the Greek original._

[84] ƕeiht _MS._

[85] _Here A begins again._

[86] jah _wanting in A_.

[87] jag _A_.

[88] unsis _A_.

[89] inuþ _A_.

[90] _gloss_ anafilhaima _in A_.

[91] unsis _A_.

[92] jan-ni in hairtin _A_.

[93] sis _wanting in A_.

[94] libainai _B_.

[95] ina _wanting in A_.

[96] uns sis» unsis _AB_.

[97] jag _A_.

[98] unsis _A_.

[99] bidjandans _A_.

[100] ize _A_.

[101] _John VI, 9-13 according to Codex Argenteus_: 9. ist magula
ains her, saei habaiþ ·e· hlaibans barizeinans jah ·b· fiskans; akei
þata ƕa ist du swa managaim? 20. iþ Iesus qaþ: waurkeiþ þans mans
anakumbjan. wasuh þan hawi manag ana þamma stada. þaruh anakumbidedun
wairos raþjon swaswe fimf þusundjos. 11. namuh þan þans hlaibans Iesus
jah awiliudonds gadailida þaim anakumbjandam; samaleiko jah þize
fiske, swa filu swe wildedun. 12. þanuh, biþe sadai waurþun, qaþ du
siponjam seinaim: galisiþ þos aflifnandeins drauhsnos, þei waihtai ni
fraqistnai. 13. þanuh galesun jah gafullidedun ·ib· tainjons gabruko us
fimf hlaibam þaim barizeinam, þatei aflifnoda þaim matjandam.

[102] ains _interpolated by Uppström_.

[103] wesun _interpolated by Vollmer_.

[104] wisandin _MS._

[105] swe _after_ auk _in MS._

[106] ist _MS._


  [The figures in parentheses refer to paragrafs of the syntax of my
   'First Germanic Bible', when preceded by S.; to paragrafs of this
                    grammar, when preceded by Gr.]


Chap. V, 17. =ni hugjaiþ=; prohibitiv optativ (S., 91, (2)).--=qêmjau=;
opt. in a final object clause (S., 93).--=gataíran=, _to tear_ or
_break completely, destroy_; =usfulljan=, _to fulfil_. Both =gat.=
and =usf.= ar infinitivs of purpose (S., 114), the prefixes =ga=
and =us= being intensiv. 18. =usleiþiþ himins jah aírþa=; two subj.
nominativs with a sg. v. (S., 5, n. 1). 19. =saei=; rel. prn. (Gr.,
157; S., 60).--=þizô=; dem. prn., not art. (S., 63).--=gataíriþ=
(prs. ind.) =.....laisjai= (prs. opt.); the first denoting a fact,
the second a possibility (S., 99, c): _whosoever breaks and 'should'
teach_.--=minnista=; an exceptional case of a weak adj. without the
art.--=þiudangardjai himinê=; without the art. (in the Grk. text

20. =managizô= (n. compar. uzed as sb.) =izwaraizôs garaíhteins=,
_more of your righteousness than of [the righteousness of] the
scribes_.--=þau= (conj.), _than_ =...þau= (adv.), _in any case_;
=ni þau=, _in no case_.--=qimiþ in þiudangardjai=; the dativ after
=qiman in= and similar vs. of 'motion towards' is distinctivly Gothic
(S., 55). 21. =qiþan ist=; stands for the Grk. aor. (S., 87, n., c)
= imperf. in English.--=maúrþrjais=; the hort. opt. for the second
pers. fut. in Grk.--=waírþiþ=; the prs. for the Grk. fut. (S., 86,
(3)).--=skula= w. dat., _a detter_ or _subject to_ (S., 35, (2)). 22.
=ik=; the personal prn. is uzed with a v. for the sake of emfasis (S.,
2, n. 1).--=ƕazuh môdags=; for πᾶς ὁ w. a ptc.--=brôþr seinamma=; dat.
after =môdags=: _angry with_ (lit. '_to_'; S., 36, (3)).--=gaqumþai=,
_council_, from =gaqiman=, _to cum together_.--=dwala= (voc.); weak
adj. uzed as sb.--=skula in gaíaínnan=; =in= denoting 'direction'
'in regard to'; the expression seems to be an imitation of the
corresponding Grk. passage: ἔνοχος ἔσται εὶς τὴν γέενναν.

23. =jabai nu baírais...gamuneis= (Gr., 200, n. 1; and 196); a
conditional sentence, the vs. of the protasis being in the opt.,
those of the apodosis in the imper. (S., 102, e).--=aibr=; s.
'Vocabulary'.--=þeins=; attributes generally follow their sb. (S.,
10, n. 2).--=ƕa=; here indef. (Gr., 162, n. 2; S., 78, n. 2). 24. Here
the apodosis begins.--=þô=; the art. is uzed, because the sacrifice
(=aibr=) is again mentiond (as =giba=) (S., 67).--=þeina=; for its
strong inflection, s. Gr. 122, n. 1.--=brôþr þeinamma=; dat. after
=gasibjôn= (S., 43). 25. =andastauin þeinamma=; dat. after =waíla
hugjands= (S., 41).--=ibai=, _lest_, lit. _perhaps_, which sense is
also exprest by the opt. =atgibai=.--=stauin=; from =staua=, m. (Gr.,
108; not f.; Gr., 97).--=in karkara gal.=; =gal. in= w. acc., more
frequently w. dat.; see =qimiþ in=, abuv; =jah galagjaza=, _and [then]
thou wilt be cast_. 26. =usgaggis..usgibis=; the first prs. expresses
the first, the second the past future.--=minnistan=; this word does
not exactly answer ἔσχατον (which Wulfila in other places renders by
=aftuma=, =aftumists=, =spêdiza=, =spêdists=, =spêdumists=). It is not
impossibl, however, that =kintus= ment not one particular coin (or
mezure), but any coin (or mezure) of litl value.

27. For the tenses and opt. mood, see 21, abuv. 28. =saei saíƕiþ=;
ind. in a rel. clause for a Grk. ptc. (S., 99).--=du lustôn=; inf.
of purpose after =du= (S., 144).--=izôs=; gen. after =lustôn=
(S., 26).--=gahôrinôda= (For the Grk. aor.; S., 87, (3)) =izai=;
instrumental dat. of association (S., 52, (1), c). 29. =marzjai=;
opt. necessitated by the sense, not by the conj. =jabai= (S.,
102).--=usstigg ita jah waírp=; the order of words is Grk.; in Engl.
we repeat the object 'it' after the second v. (=waírp=).--=gadriusai
in gaíaínnan=; =gadr. in= w. acc.; onse (Lu. 8, 7) it takes the dat.;
comp. =qiman in=, chap. V, 20, abuv. 30. =taíhswô þeina handus=; comp.
the sequence of words (without the art.) with the similar expression
(with the art.) in 29, abuv.--=þô=, _this, that_; but αὐτήν in
Grk.--=batizô ist þus ei=, etc.; the dependent clause after =batizô
ist= is sumtimes an acc. w. inf. (S., 113); =þus= is dat. of advantage
(S., 36, (4)).--=fraqistnai....gadriusai=; both optativs imply
possibility (S., 103). 31. =-uh þan=; both particls (= =þan= alone)
ar here continuativ: _but farther, also_.--=saei aflêtai qên=; opt.
in a rel. clause which does not contain a statement of the speaker,
but of sum one else (cp. verse 32, below); =qên= is less definit
here than in the following verse, where =seina= is emfatic, and =qên
seina= means as much as '_his legitimate wife_'.--=gibai=; hort. opt.
(S., 91, (2)).--=afstassais bôkôs=, _a writing_ (lit. _letters_; cp.
the Latin 'littera': 'litterae') _of divorcement_ (lit. '_standing
off_'; cp. the G. 'abstand' in the sense of 'desistence'). 32. =saei
aflêtiþ.....taujiþ=; the vs. ar in the ind. mood, because they contain
the speaker's statements (as opposed to the preceding ones).--=izê=;
for =izei= (Gr., 157, n. 3). 33. =ufarswarais...usgibais=; hort. opt.
(S., 91, (2)).--=fraujin=; without the articl, when signifying _God_
(S., 68, n. 2. The Grk. text has τῷ). 34. =swaran=; objectiv inf. after
=qiþan=, _to say_, with the sense of 'commanding' (S., 110).--=guþs=;
gen. in its abbreviated form (Gr., 94, n. 3). 35. =baúrgs=; without
the art., as in Grk. 36. =tagl=, _a singl hair_; =skuft=, _the hairs_
collectivly. 37. =sijaiþ-þan= (for =sijaih þan=, for =sijai-uh þan=;
see Gr., 62, n. 3), _but ... shall be_.--=þata= (art.) =managizô=; n.
compar. uzed as sb.: lit. '_the more_', i. e. _what is more_.--=þaim=;
dat. as abl. (S., 54, 3), after the compar. =managizô= (= =þau= w.
nom.; cp. the Grk. gen. and the Lt. abl. in such cases).--=ubilin=;
dat. of the n. sg. =ubilô= uzed as sb. 38. =und=, _for, in return
for_, w. dat.; in other senses, and more frequently, w. acc. 39.
=andstandan=; inf., as in verse 34.--=allis=; adverbial gen., from the
adj. =alls=, _at all_, without equivalent in the Grk. text. Wulfila
probably inserted it according to verse 34, where the Grk. text shows
ὅλως.--=þamma unsêljin=; weak adj. n. uzed as sb.; see =ubilin= in 37,
abuv.--=ƕas=; here indef., as in 23, abuv.--=stautai=; opt., as in 29,
abuv; likewise the imper. =wandei= in the apodosis.--=jah=, _also_.
40. =jah=, _and_.--=þamma wiljandin=; a participial construction, as
in Grk. (τῷ θέλοντι).--=niman=; complimentary inf. after =wiljandin=
(as in 42, below; S., 109). 41. =ananauþjai..gaggais=; the prs. opt.
in protasis and apodosis (S., 102, a).--=rasta aina=; acc. expressing
extent of space (S., 15, (2), β); =rasta= (for μίλιον, the Roman
_mile_), lit. _'rest', place of resting, a stage or station_, also
_the distance between two stages_. 42. =þamma wiljandin=; dat. as
abl. after =uswandjais= (S., 54, (1), where =us= should be inserted
after =af=).--=leiƕan= (complementary inf.; S., 109) =sis=, _to
borrow_; =leiƕan=, _to lend_. 43. =frijôs...fiais fiand.....frijôþ
fijands=; these words and several others ar found both with and
without =j= (Gr., 10, n. 4); =fiand= (=fijand=), acc. of =fiands=
(=fijands=), _enemy_, lit. _hating_, prsp. of =fi(j)an=, _to hate_
(Gr., 115). 44. =þiuþjaiþ þans wrikandans=; _bless ye_ (= _treat wel_;
for the dat. after =þiuþjan=, s. S., 45, page 246, below).--=bi=,
_concerning, for_.--=usþriutandans=; acc. of the prs. ptc. (Gr., 133)
of =usþriutan=, the =us-= being intensiv; =-þriutan= = '-trude' in
'obtrude'. 45. =ei waírþaiþ sunjus=; =ei=, _that, in order that_;
=waírþaiþ=, prs. opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).--=in himinam=;
adv. frase uzed substantivly after the art. (=þis=).--=urranneiþ=;
=ur-= from =us=; Gr., 24, n. 2; 78, n. 4.--=rigneiþ=; from =rignjan=,
factitiv of =rign=, n., _rain_. 46. =ƕô mizdônô=; the interr. =ƕô=
agrees with the following gen. in gender.--=niu= (i. e. =ni-u=);
interr. particl.--=þai þiudô=, _the (= those) of the Gentiles_, =
_the Gentiles_; =þiudô= is gen. pl. of =þiuda=, _peple_. 47. =þans
frijônds izwarans=, _the frends (of) yours, = your frends_; =frijônds=
is sb. in form (Gr., 115) and meaning, while =þans frijôndans= stil
has its verbal force; =izwarans= is a poss. prn. acc. pl. agreeing
with =frijônds=, but =izwis= is a personal prn. acc. pl. guvernd by
=frijôndans=.--=ƕê=; instr. case of =ƕa=, n. of =ƕas= (Gr., 159; S.,
51).--=managizô=; compar. after =ƕê= (S., 51). 48. =jus=; for the
personal prn. with a vb., see verse 22, abuv.--=swaswê atta izwar sa in
himinam= is the subject, not =sa=, =sa in himinam= being an attribute
of =atta izwar=, and may be renderd by a rel. clause in English.

Chap. VI. 1. =taujan=; complimentary inf. after =atsaíƕiþ= (2nd pers.
pl. imper.).--=du saíƕan im= prop. a gerundiv construction, _to be
seen by them_, lit. '_for them to see_'. The activ inf. in Gothic
often has a passiv force (S., 106, n. 3, end).--=aiþþau=, _or else,
otherwise_. 2. =þan=, _when_.--=taujais=; opt. in a temporal clause
(S., 100).--=haúrnjais=; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).--=þai liutans=; the
art. denotes a class of peple (S., 68, (6), n.).--=háuhjaindau=; prs.
opt. pass. in a final clause (S., 96, a, α).--=fram=, _by_.--=qiþa=;
without =ik=; see V, 22, abuv.--=andnêmun=; pret. expressing completion
(= our prs. perf.): _they hav receivd_ (Cp. 5, below). 3. =þuk
taujandan armaiôn ni witi hleidumei þeina, ƕa taujiþ taíhswô þeina=;
a puzling construction, indeed! (Cp. O. Luecke, 'Absolute Participia
im Gotischen, etc.'; and E. Bernhardt, 'Gotische Grammatik', p. 116).
Sum Latin manuscripts hav 'te facientem'. But =þuk taujandan= probably
depends on =witi=: _Let not thy left hand know thee doing alms, what
thy right hand doeth_ (= _when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand
know what thy right hand doeth_.) 4. =sijai=; prs. opt. in a final
clause (S., 96, a).--=saíƕiþ=; ind. in a rel. clause expressing a fact
(S., 99).--=usgibiþ=; prs. ind. for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)). 5.
=ei gaumjaindau mannam=; dat. after =gaumjan= in the pass. ('_to be
seen by_' = '_to appear_' or '_show one's self to_').--=þatei haband=,
etc.; cp. =andnêmun=, etc., in 2, abuv. 6. =haúrdai þeinai=; instr.
dativ after =galûkands= (S., 52, (4), note). 7. =bidjandansuþ=; =s=
before the enclitic =-uh= (=-uþ=; Gr., 62, n. 3) generally becums
=z= (Gr., 78, c).--=þai þiudô=; gen. after the art. in the nom.;
see V, 46.--=im=; dat. (of the pers. prn. =is=) after the impers.
=þugkeiþ= (S., 42, n.).--=andhausjaindau=; prs. opt. pass. expressing
probability (S., 91, (3)). 8. =þaim= (dem. prn. S., 63); instr. dat.
after =galeikôþ= (S., 51 and 52).--=þizei jus þaúrbuþ=, _of what you
ar in need_; =þizei= is gen. of attraction (= =þata þizei=; S., 70, n.
1; 72); for the inflection of =þaúrbuþ=, s. Gr., 196.--=bidjaiþ=; opt.
in a temporal clause. 9. =bidjaiþ=; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)).--=atta
unsar þu=; voc. accumpanied by =þu= (for the Greek art. S., 14, ns.
1 and 2).--(9 ... 13) =weihnai.. qimai..waírþai.....briggais=; opts.
expressing a wish, while the imperativs =gif....aflêt.....lausei= imply
what the speaker desires to be done now (S., 91, n. 1). 11. =hlaif
unsarana þana sinteinan=, _our bred, the daily_ = _our daily bred_;
=sinteins=, _continual_ (= _daily_) is undoutedly ment to express
the 'cotidianum' of the Itala, for the Grk. τὸν ἐπιούσιον means _the
following_ [ἡ ἐπιοῦσα (whense ἐπιούσιος), sc. ἡμέρα, _the following
day_].--=himma daga=; loc. dat. (S., 53, (2)): _to day_. (For the
dem. =himma=, s. Gr., 155). 12. =uns=; dat. of the indir. object, as
in 14, below.--=þatei=; acc. after =skulans sijaima= (S., 15, n. 5).
13. =in fraistubnjai=; dat. after =in=, where we should expect the
acc., as in V, 20.--=þeina ist=; the predicate is in the sg., altho
it belongs to three coordinate subjects (S., 5, n. 1), the gender of
=þeina= being that of the first subject (S., 9, n. 3).--=in aiwins=
(acc. pl. of the =i=-declension; see Gr., 91, n. 5), _for ages, for
ever_. 14. =aflêtiþ= (2nd pers. pl. prs. ind.) =...aflêtiþ= (3d pers.
sing. prs. ind., for the Grk. future); the ind. in both clauses
regarded as statements implying facts (S., 102).--=izê=, _of them_ =
_their_ (S., 60). 15. =þau=; adv.; see V, 20.--=missadêdins=; acc.
pl. of =-dêþs= (=-dêds=; s. Gr., 74, n. 2). 18. =mannam=; dat., as
in 5, abuv.--=usgibiþ þus=; cp. verse 6, end. 19. =frawardeiþ=; sg.,
altho belonging to two subjects connected by =jah= (S., 5, n. 1).
21. =ist=; for the Grk. future.--=jah=, _also_. 22. =lukarn leikis
ist augô=; the subject is =augô=; in the Grk. text the art. occurs
with each noun.--=waírþiþ=; for ἔσται. 23. =ƕan filu=; supply =ist=
from the protasis. 24. =twaim fraujam=; dat. of the relation of one
person towards another (S., 37 and 45); so after the following vbs.,
=ufhauseiþ= and =frakunnan= (S., 41).--=jabai=; as if for εἰ, but the
Grk. text has ἤ; hense the follg. =jah= means _also_. 25. =duþþê=;
for =du-h-þê= (see 'Vocabulary').--=saiwalai...leika=; dats. of the
thing towards which the action of the vb., =maúrnaiþ=, is directed
(S., 40): _for your life_.--=matjaiþ ..drigkaiþ..wasjaiþ=; opt. in
indir. questions (S., 95).--=ƕê=; instr. case (Gr., 153 and 159; S.,
52, (2)).--=fôdeinai..wastjôm=; abl. dats. after =mais= (S., 54, (3)).
26. =þei ni saiand=, etc.; an object clause depending on =insaíƕiþ=;
=þei= is conj. (Gr., 218).--=mais wulþrizans=; a pleonastic use of
the compar. degree (S., 57. n.).--=þaim=; abl. dat., as =fôdeinai= in
25. 29. =qiþuh=; for =qiþa-uh= (Gr., 4, n. 1). 30. =himma daga=; s.
verse 11.--=gistradagis=, _to-morrow_; the corresponding word of the
cognate dialects means _yesterday_. See 'Vocabulary'.--=wisandô=; prs.
ptc. n. (weak infl.; Gr., 133) =...galagiþ=; pp. n. (strong infl.;
Gr., 134).--=guþ=; subject. 31. =matjam..drigkam=; ind.: _what shal we
eat ... drink_ [_now_] =..wasjaima= [sc. _uns_]; opt. (for the Grk.
fut.): _wherewith shal_ [= _may_ (S., 91, (3))] _we clothe ourselvs_
[_hereafter_]? 32. =waituh=; for =wait-uh=.


Chap. I. 1. =aíwaggêljôns...guþs=; contrary to the Greek text, the
art. is omitted before these gens. (S., 68, n. 2). 2. =gamêliþ ist=;
for the Grk. perf.--=Êsaïin praúfêtau=; in the Greek text the art.
is uzed before both dats. (S., 68, n. 2); for the different forms of
=praúfêtus=, s. 'Vocabulary'.--=sai= (Gr., 204, n. 2).--=ik=; the pers.
prn. might here be omitted, as it does not seem to be emfasized (S.,
59). Probably for this reason sum MSS. do not hav it.--=saei=; rel.
prn. (Gr., 157).--=gamanweiþ=; the prs. for the Grk. future (S., 86,
(3)).--=þeinana=; after its sbs., because it is not emfatic (S., 10,
n. 2). 3. =wôpjandins=; gen. sg. of =wôpjanda=, weak prs. ptc. (Gr.,
133).--=manweiþ=; there is no perceptibl difference between this v. and
the compound =gamanweiþ= in the second verse. 4. =du aflageinai=; =du=
denotes purpose.--=frawaúrhtê=; objectiv gen. (S., 20; and 19) with the
verbal noun =aflageinai=. 5. =daupidai wêsun=; imperf. made up of the
pp. and the prt. of =wisan= (S., 87, n. a).--=Iaúrdanê= (Grk. dat.);
attribute of =aƕai=.--=fram= (w. dat.), _by_.--=andhaitandans=; w. the
dat. of the dir. object (S., 45). 6. =wasuþ-þan=; for =was-uh-þan=
(Gr., 62, n. 3).--=taglam=; instr. dat. after =gawasiþs= (S., 52,
(2), b).--=gaírda filleina=; subj. of =was= understood.--=haiþiwisk=,
_wild_, lit. '_pertaining to the heath_'. 7. =mis=; abl. dat. after
=swinþôza= (S., 54, (3)).--=sa afar mis=; =sa= seems to hav been added
erroneously, or =afar= should be =ufar= (?).--=ik=; emfatic, as opposed
to =swinþôza=, or =sa=.--=andbindan=; the prefix =and-= expresses the
contrary of an action (Cp. E. un-in 'unbind').--=is=, _his_ (Gr.,
152; S., 60 et seq.).--=ik.....is=; uzed for the sake of emfasis (S.,
2). 9. =warþ...qam=; an asyndetic construction.--=Nazaraíþ=; indecl.
pr. n.--=Galeilaias=; notice the adj. force of this adnominal gen.
(S., 20).--=fram=; _by_, as in 5, abuv; --=Iôhannê= and =Iaúrdanê= ar
Grk. dativs. 10. =uslukanans=; the emendation is wel grounded; see
Bernhardt's large edition. 11. =þuzei= (= =þus-ei=; Gr., 78); rel. prn.
(Gr., 158; S., 73). 12. =sai, ahma=, not =sa ahma=, because =ahma=,
'_Holy Ghost_', occurs always without the art. (Bernhardt, note to
this passage). 13. =dagê=; partit. gen. with =tiguns= (Gr., 142; S.,
21).--=diuzam=; dat. pl. of =dius= (Gr., 78, b; 94).--=imma=; dat.
with =andbahtidêdun= (S., 38). 14. =Galeilaia=; (Grk.) dat. after =qam
in=; see V, 20. 15. =usfullnôda...atnêƕida=; for the Grk. perfect (S.,
87, (2)).--=galaubeiþ in=; with the dat. (for other constructions
after =galaubjan=, see S., 41 and note). 16. =faúr=, _along_, lit.
_before_.--=Galeilaias=; (Grk.) gen. as in verse 9.--=is=, _his_,
i. e. _Simon's_ (S., 62). 17. =hirjats=; dual of =hiri= (Gr., 20,
n. 1).--=igqis=; dir. obj.--=nutans=; predicate acc. (S., 18). 18.
=seina=; poss. prn. referring to the subj. of the sentence; cp. verse
16. 19. =inngaggands=, _going on_.--=þana Zaíbaídaiaus=, [_that of
Zebedee_, = _the 'Zebedeean'_ =] _the son of Zebedee_. Observ the
adj. force of the gen. (S., 19 and 21).--=is=; see verses 16 and 18,
abuv.--=manwjandans=; weak inflection of the prs. ptc. uzed as sb.,
and with an obj., =natja= (Gr., 133. Cp. also Gr., 115; and Mt. V,
47). 20. =seinana=; this poss. prn. refers to the subj.; cp. the
poss. =is= in v. 19; also v. 16. 21. =sabbatô=; indecl. sb. for the
gen. pl.--=synagôgên=; acc. 22. =usfilmans=; this is one of the adjs.
that follow the weak infl. only (Gr., 132, n. 2). 23. =synagôgên=;
dat.--=in= (the second); denotes a condition: _in, with_. 24. =ƕa uns
jah þus=, _what hav we to do with thee_, lit. _what [is there] to us
and to thee_ (S., 35, n. 1).--=Nazôrênai=; a Grk. ending, or =-ai= is
an error for =-au=.--=uns=; is dat. or acc. with =fraqistjan= (S.,
46).--=weiha=; weak adj. uzed as sb.--=guþs=; gen. (Gr., 94, n. 3).
25. =ût us þamma=, _out of him_ (lit. _this_, for the Grk. αὐτός. S.,
63).--=unhrainja=; the weak infl. of adjs. in the voc. case is quite
common in Gothic. 26. =stibnai mikilai=; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 27.
=miþ sis missô=, _with one another_ (S., 59, n.).--=sijai=; prs. opt.
in a dir. question implying possibility (S., 91, (3)).--=ƕô=, _of what
kind_; the copula is omitted, as in Grk.--=laiseinô=; gen. pl.; s. Mt.
V, 46; also Gr., 159.--=ahmam þaim unhrainjam=; dat. with =anabiudiþ=
(S., 37).--=imma=; dat. after =ufhausjand= (S., 38; and 45). 28. =is=,
_his_.--=bisitands=, _neighbor_ (lit. _sitting_, i. e. _dwelling,
near_; for this kind of nouns, see Gr., 115). 29. =in garda=; =in= with
dat. after =qiman=; see Mt. V, 20.--=Iôhannên=; with a Grk. ending.
There is no fixt rule for the declension of proper names in Gothic
(Gr., 120). 30. =in brinnôn=; _in fever_, lit. '_in burning_'. 31.
=im=; dat. pl. of =is=, guvernd by =andbahtida= (S., 38); refers to
Jesus and those with him. 32. =andanahtja waúrþanamma=; dat. abs. (S.,
119).--=þan=; for δέ, the second =þan= for ὅτε.--=sauil=; this word
occurs only twice in Gothic, and without the art. (S. 262), the uzual
word for 'sun' being =sunnô=. 34. =missaleikaim saúhtim=; instr. dat.
(or 'with-case'. S., 50) of cause: =ubil habandans m. s.=, (_having
evil_ =) _being sick with divers diseases_. 36. =jah galaistans waúrþun
imma=; =imma= is instr. dat. of accumpaniment or association, depending
on the predicate noun =galaistans= (S., 52, (1), a). 37. =þatei=,
conj., _that_, before a dir. quotation. 38. =bisunjanê=; attributiv
adv. preceded by the art. (S., 68, (2)). 40. =þrutsfill habands=,
(_a person_) _having leprosy_, for λεπρός, _a leper_.--=kniwam
knussjands=; an alliterativ expression, =kniwam= being a superfluous
instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 41. =imma=; dat. guvernd by =attaítôk= (S.,
40).--=wiljau=; the opt. of this vb. discharges the function of the
ind. (Gr., 205).--=waírþ=, _be thou_ (for the distinction between the
imper. and the hort. opt., see S., 91, n. 1). 42. =þata..þata=; the
former is the dem. prn., the latter the art. 43. =imma=; dir. obj.
in the dat., guvernd by =gaƕôtjands= (S., 40; cp. verse 41, abuv).
44. =qiþais=; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, a).--=mannhun=; indef.
prn. in the dat. (Gr., 163, a).--=ataugjan=; inf. of purpose (without
=du=, _to_) after =gagg= (S., 114).--=fram= (περί), _concerning,
for_.--=þatei=; rel. prn., for =þata-ei= (Gr., 4, n. 1; 157), _that
which_, = =giba þôei= in Mt. VIII, 4. 45. =swaswê=, _so that_.--=is=,
_he_ (= =Iesus=), while the first =is= refers to the heald man.

Chap. II. 1. =þatei=; conj., _that_ (Gr., 157, n. 2).--=ist=
(for ἐστίν); we should rather expect the prt. 2. =swaswê juþan
ni gamôstêdun= (prt. of =gamôtan=; Gr., 202) =nih at daúra=, _so
that they found no room any more, not even at the door_.--=im=;
dat. of the indir. obj. (S., 37).--=waúrd=; in Gr.: τὸν λόγον. 3.
=hafanana= (acc. sg. of =hafans=; Gr., 134), pp. of =hafjan= (Gr.,
177, n. 2). 4. =imma=; dat. guvernd by =nêƕa= (=qiman=; cp. =nêƕjan
sik=, S., 39).--=faúra= (w. dat.), _because of_.--=usgrabandans=;
for ἐξορύξαντες, _digging out_; hense _breaking up_ (sc.
=hrôt=).--=insailidêdun þata badi jah fralaílôtun= (for χαλῶσιν τόν
κράβαττον), lit.: _they tied the bed to cords and let (it) down_.
5. =þus=; dat. after =aflêtanda= (S., 37). 6. =þagkjandans sis=,
_reasoning with themselvs_, the refl. dat., =sis=, does duty for the
Grk. midl (S., 47, n. 1). 7. =ƕa= (acc. sg. of the interr. prn., =
τί, quare), _why?_--=sa=; dem. prn. (S., 63).--=ains=, _alone_. 8.
=ahmin seinamma=; loc. dat. (S., 53, (1), c).--=sis=; refl. dat.,
as in verse 6, abuv.--=duƕê=, = =du-ƕê=, =ƕê= being an instr. case
proper (Gr., 159, n. 1; S., 51). 9. =du qiþan....qiþan=; two subj.
infs., the former with, the latter without =du= (S., 107, a and b).
10. =mans=; gen. sg. (Gr., 117, (1)). 11. =nimuh=, _and take_. 12.
=jah háuhidêdun mikiljandans guþ=, _and glorifying praised God_,
for δοξάζειν τὸν θεόν. Similarly in chap. I, v. 27: =afsláuþnôdêdun
sildaleikjandans=, for ἐθαμβήθησαν.--=aiw ..ni=, _ever not_, = _never_.
=aiw= is, properly, the acc. sg. of =aiws=, _time_, and answers in
form and meaning our '_aye_'.--=gasêƕum=; notice change of person. 13.
=iddjêdun=; pl. vb., agreeing with the subj., =all=, in sense (S., 5
and 82, c). 14. =þana Alfaiaus=; cp. I, 19. III, 18. 15. =warþ......
jah managai=, etc. (for a different construction with =warþ=, s. Mk.
II, 23. S., 108, n.; 113), _it came to pass [that] ... also many_,
etc.--=Iêsua sipônjam=; instr. dat. of accumpaniment (S., 52, 1, c).
16. =ƕa=, _how_, as in 7. 17. =lêkeis=; gen. (as abl.) with =þaúrbun=
(S., 27).--=ubilaba= (adv.) =habandans=; for κακῶς ἔχοντες, _being
sick_; cp. Mk. V, 26. 18. =Jôhannis..... Iôhannês=; these genitivs
in the same verse ar a striking exampl of arbitrary inflection of
proper names in Gothic (Gr., 120). 19. =ibai=; an interr. particl,
_perhaps_, or its sense is exprest by our _may_, a negativ answer being
expected. 20. =atgaggand...fastand=; for the Grk. future (S., 86,
(3)).--=þan...þan=, _when, then_. 21. =ibai afnimai fullôn af þamma
sa niuja þamma faírnjin= (εἰ δὲ μή, αἴρει τό πλήρωμα ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τὸ
καινὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ). Wulfila took πλήρωμα to be the obj. of αἴρει. The
subj. of the Goth. construction is either the preceding =plat fanins
niujis=; with =sa niuja= as apposition, or =sa niuja= (sc. =plat=).
In both cases =þamma faírnjin= is in apposition with =af þamma= (dem.
pron. S., 63). 23. =jah warþ þaírhgaggan imma=, _and it came to pass
that he went_ (Lit.: _and it came to pass to him to go_. S., 108, n.).
Cp. 14, abuv.--=sabbatô= (indecl., for gen. pl.; =sabbatê daga= in
Mk. XVI, 1.) =daga=; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)). 24. =sabbatim=;
dat. as in verse 23. 25. =niu= (= =ni-uh=) =aiw=, _never_. 26. =uf=,
under, i. e. _in the time of_.--=þanzei= (i. e. =þans-ei=; Gr., 157,
n. 4).--=matjan=; subj. inf. (S., 108).--=ainaim gudjam=, _for the
priests alone_ (S., 108, n.).--=sis=; refers to the subj. (S., 60). 27.
=in= (for διά with the acc.) =mans= (gen.; Gr., 117), _for man_; =in
sabbatô dagis=, _for sabbath day_.--=warþ gaskapans=; for the Gr. aor.
(S., 87, (4), c). 28. =frauja=; predicate noun.--=jah=, _also_.--=þamma
sabbatô=; dat. depending on =frauja= (S., 35, (2)).

Chap. III. 1. =synagôgên=; Grk. acc., as in Mk. I, 21. 2. =imma=;
dat. guvernd by =witaidêdun= (S., 40).--=hailidêdiu=; the suffix =-u=
introduces the indir. question: _whether he would heal_, the prt. opt.
being uzed after the prt. in the leading clause (S., 95, b).--prt.
=wrôhidêdeina=; opt. in a final clause (S., 96, b, β). 3. =in midumai=
(for εἰς τὸ μέσον); dat. with _in_ after a vb. of motion within limited
space (S., 55). 4. =skuldu=; the suffix =-u= introduces the question
(cp. verse 2, abuv).--=sabbatim=; for its decl., s. Gr., 120, n. 1.
5. =gastôþ= (figurativ), _was restored_, lit. _stood_. 6. =imma=;
instr. dat. (S., 52, p. 250) of the dir. obj., guvernd by =usqêmeina=,
prt. opt. of purpose (S., 96, b). 7. =manageins=; partitiv gen. with
=filu= (S., 21).--=laistidêdun=; its subj., =filu manageins=, is pl.
in sense (S., 5). 9. =ei skip habaiþ= (n. sg. of the prt. ptc. in the
predicate) =wêsi= (prt. opt. of purpose. S., 96, b), _that a ship be
redy_ (lit. _had_ or _held_).--=in=, _because of_.--=þraíheina=; prt.
opt. of purpose, like =wêsi=. 10. =drusun=, _they prest upon_, lit.
_fel upon_.--=imma=; dir. obj. (S., 40) guvernd by =attaítôkeina=
(prt. opt. of =têkan=). 11. =þaih= (i. e. =þai-h=, for =þai-uh=; Gr.,
154) =þan=, _when they_. =þatei=, conj., _that_, before a direct
quotation, as in Mk. I, 37. 13. =ustaig=; for =usstaig= (Gr. 78, n.
5), prt. of =us-steigan=.--=þanzei=; see II, 26. 14. =sis=; refers
to the subj. of =gawaúrhta= (S., 60). 16. =Paítrus=; predicate nom.;
we should rather hav expected the acc. (S., 13, n. 2). 17. =þamma
Z.=; s. I, 19. 18. =Seimôna=; (Grk.) acc., while the same form in 16
is a regular Goth. dat. 20. =gaïddja sik=; for συνέρχεται (S., 16,
n.). 22. =þaim unhulþôm=; instr. dat. guvernd by =uswaírpiþ= (S., 52,
(4), and p. 253, n. 2). 23. =Satanan=; acc. after =uswaírpan= (cp. v.
22). 27. =mag kasa swinþis galeiþands in gard is wilwan=, (_can rob
a strong one's goods, entering into his house_ =) _can enter into a
strong man's house and rob his goods_. 28. =allata þata frawaúrhtê=,
_all that of sins_; =frawaúrhtê= is partitiv gen. after =þata= (S.,
21; and 68, (3)). 29. =aiweinaizôs frawaúrhtais=, gen. depending on
=skula= (S., 22, p. 235, where =dauþus= is an error for =dauþaus=). 31.
=standandôna...haitandôna=, the n. (pl.) is uzed in the predicate (cp.
the following verse), because the persons in the subj. ar of different
gender (S., 9, n. 3). 32. =sêtun=; refers to =managei=, which is pl.
in meaning (S., 5).--=þeina..þeinai..þeinôs=; the attribute (cp. the
preceding verse) occurs with each of the sbs. of different gender
(S., 10, n. 1). 35. =allis=; here conj.: _for_.--=waúrkeiþ=, for the
Grk. future (S., 86, (3)).--=sa=; dem. prn.--=meins=; agrees with the
nearest sb., and (=meina=) is understood with the others, =swistar=,
=aiþei=.--The first =jah= was added by Wulfila.

Chap. IV. 1. The gen. =manageins= depends on =filu= (S., 21), the
predicate, =galêsun=, being in the pl. because of the pl. meaning
of the subj. (S., 5).--=swaswê=; with the acc. (=ina galeiþandan=,
ptc. agreeing with =ina=) and inf. (=gasitan=), for ὥστε w. the
acc. and inf. (S., 115).--=was=; here =managei= takes a sg. v. (S.,
5). 2. =manag=; acc. sg. n. uzed as sb. 3. =saiands=; prsp. uzed
substantivly. For its declension, s. Gr., 133.--=du saian=; inf.
of purpose after =urrann=, a vb. of motion (S., 114).--=fraiwa
seinamma=; instr. dat. guvernd by =saian= (S., 52, (4)). 4. =þata=;
for αὐτό. 5. =anþaruþ-þan=, i. e. =anþar-uh-þan= (Gr., 62, n.
3).--=stainahamma=; uzed substantivly: _stony ground_.--=in þizei=,
_because_ (s. 'Vocabulary', =in=, (1)).--=diupaizôs airþôs=; gen.
guvernd by =habaida= (S., 25). 6. =at sunnin þan urrinnandin=; dat.
abs. introduced by =at= (S., 119); =þan= for δέ.--=waúrtins=; for the
sg. in Grk. 8. For the numeral signs in this verse, see Gr., 1. 9.
=hausjandôna=; for the inf. in Grk., for which we find =du hausjan=
(S., 114) in Lu. VIII, 8.--=gahausjai=; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 10.
=warþ=, _was_, lit. _became_ (ἐγένετο).--=ina...þizôs gajukôns=; acc.
of the pers. addrest and the gen. of the th. askt about (S., 26), for
a dubl acc. in Grk. 11. =atgiban= (pp.) =ist=; for δέδοται.--=jainaim
þaim= (art. S., 68, (2)) =ûta=, _to them_ (_the_ =) _that ar without_.
12. =nibai ƕan= (for μήποτε; we should expect =ibai ƕan=; cp. Mt. V,
25) =gawandjaina sik=, _lest at any time they should be converted_
(lit.: _should convert themselvs_).--=aflêtaindau= (prs. opt. pass.)
=im frawaúrhteis=, _their sins should be forgivn_ (lit.: _sins
should be forgivn to them_. S., 37). 13. =þô=; dem. prn. =...þôs=;
art.--=kunneiþ=; for the Grk. fut. 14. =saijands..saijiþ=; without the
=j= in verses 3 and 15 (Gr., 22 and n. 1). 15. =aþþan þai wiþra wig
sind=; the Greek text is: οὕτοι δέ εὶσιν οἱ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, but Lu.
VIII, 12: οἱ δέ παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν εὶσιν.--=þan=, _when_.--=unkarjans=;
added by Wulfila from a Lt. MS., for 'negligenter'. 16. =jah=; sc.
=þai=, dem. prn. 18. =þai=, dem. prn. =...þai=, art. =...þai=, art.
19. =þai bi þata anþar lustjus=, _the lusts of_ (lit.: concerning)
_other things_ (lit.: _that other_, for τὰ λοιπά). 21. =ibai=; here it
introduces a dir. question, a negativ answer being expected.--=qimiþ=,
_is brought_ (lit. _does cum_).--=duþê ei=, _to that that_, i. e.
_for the purpose that_.--=satjaidau=; opt. in a final clause (S., 96,
a).--=niu= (= =ni-u= = =ni-uh=), _and not?_ i. e. _and (is it) not
(brought)?_ 22. =nih= (= =ni-uh=), _for not_.--=allis=, _at all_.--=ist
ƕa fulginis=, _is (there) anything hidn_ (lit.: _of anything hidn_, the
gen. =fulginis= depending on the indef. prn., =ƕa=; Gr., 162, n. 2;
and S., 21).--=gabaírhtjaidau=; opt. in a consecutiv rel. clause (S.,
99, a).--=nih=, _and not, neither_. 23. =hausjandôna=; prsp. for the
inf. in Grk., as in IV, 9.--=gahausjai=; hort. opt. (S., 91, (2)). 24.
=in þizaiei mitaþ=; the noun (=mitaþ=; dat., Gr., 116) is attracted
into the rel. clause, and agrees with the rel. prn. (=þizaiei=; Gr.,
157, and S., 72, n.).--=izwis þaim galaubjandam= (Gr., 133); =þ.
g.= is in apposition (S., 11) with the dat. =izwis= (Gr., 150). 25.
=gibada=; for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).--=imma=; abl. dat. guvernd
by =afnimada= (S., 54, (1)). 26. =fraiwa=; instr. dat. guvernd by
=wairþiþ= (S., 52, (4)). 27. =slêpiþ..urreisiþ=; the ind. for the Grk.
subj. (S., 90; and 100, n.).--=naht= (Gr., 116) =jah daga=; loc. dat.
(S., 53, (2)): _night and day_.--=is=; i. e. =manna=. 28. =silbô=;
weak form (Gr., 156), agreeing with =aírþa=; it stands for αὐτομάτη,
_spontaneous, of herself_. 29. =insandeiþ=; its subj. is =is=, i. e.
=manna=.--=atist=; the prs. for the Grk. perf. (ἕστηκα; S., 86, (4)).
30. =ƕê=; instr. of =ƕa= (Gr., 159; S., 51), guvernd by =galeikôm= (S.,
52, (1), c).--=gabaíram=, _shal we compare_, lit. _bear_ or _bring
together_; here =ga-= has an associativ force. 31. =þatei=; subj. of
=ist=.--=þan=, _when_. 33. =swaleikaim managaim gajukôm=; instr. dat.
of manner (S., 52, (6); in Mk. III, 23 we hav =in gajukôm=).--=im=;
dat. pl. guvernd by =du=, while in the following verse =im= is guvernd
by =rôdida=. 35. =andanahtja þan= (_then_) =waúrþanamma=; dat. abs.
introduced by =at= (S., 120).--=jainis stadis= (S., 30), _'yun' shore_,
= _that shore_ (towards which the speaker pointed), i. e. _to the other
side_ [_of the lake_]. 36. =jah þan=; emfatic: _and also, besides,
moreover_. 37. =warþ=, _arose_.--=waltidêdun=; orig. trans., but here
intr. (S., 16, 3). 38. =niu= (= =ni-u=, the enclitic =-u= introducing
the question) =kara þuk þizei?=, _is there not care to thee of that_
(=þis=) _that_ (=ei=; Gr., 157), i. e. _does it not concern thee that?_
=kara= (or =kara ist=) takes the acc. of the person and the gen. of the
obj. (S., 15, (1), n. 4). 39. =winda=; the dat. is guvernd by =gasôk=
(S., 45).--=afdumbn=; imper. sing. (Gr., 195, n. 1). 41. =sis=; refl.
dat. for the Grk. midl (S., 47, n. 1).--=agis mikil=; cognate acc.
(with a vb. of kindred signification, =ôhtêdun=; S., 15, (2), b).--=du
sis missô=, _to one another_ (S., 60, n.).--=sa= (dem. prn.) =sijai=;
opt. in a dir. question (S., 91, (3), p. 276): _may he be_.--=imma=;
dat. guvernd by =ufhausjand=, _listen with submission, obey_ (S., 38).

Chap. V. 1. =landa=; dat. guvernd by =qiman in= (S., 55, n.). 2.
=usgaggandin imma=; dat. abs. (S., 119).--=imma=; dat. guvernd by
=gamôtida= (S., 39). 3. =naudibandjôm eisarneinaim=; instr. dat.
(S., 52, (2)), as in the following verse. 4. =eisarnam bi fôtuns
gabuganaim=; the hole frase translates the Greek πέδαις, its literal
meaning being: _with bent irons for_ (=bi=, _about, for_, = περί) _the
feet_.--=naudibandjôm eisarneinaim= (for ἁλύσεσιν), _with chains_, but
literally: _with iron 'need-bands'_, i. e. _fetters_.--=naudibandjôs=;
for ἁλύσεις.--=þô ana fôtum eisarna= (for τὰς πέδας), _the irons on the
feet_. 5. =nahtam jah dagam=; adv. frase (S., 53, (2)): _night and day_
(The Greek has the gen. Cp. S., 30).--=stainam=; instr. dat. (S., 52,
(2)). 7. =stibnai mikilai=; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).--=ƕa
mis jah þus= (the copula =ist= being understood); dativs denoting
relationship (S., 35, n. 1): _what is there to me and to thee?_, i. e.
_what hav I to do with thee?_--=sunau=; this is the voc. (Gr., 105,
n. 2), in apposition with =Iêsu=.--=balwjais=; hort. opt. (S., 91,
(2)).--=mis=; dat. guvernd by =balwjais= (S., 44). 8. =mann=; dat. sg.
(Gr., 117, (1)). 10. =im=; instr. dat. pl. (Gr., 152), referring to
the subj. of =sijum=, and guvernd by =usdrêbi=, for =usdribi= (Gr.,
10, (2), n. 5), (S., 52, (4)). 12. =qiþandeins=; nom. pl. of the prsp.
(Gr., 133). 14. =baúrg=; dat. (Gr., 116).--=haimôm=; dat. (Gr., 103,
n. 4).--=qêmun=; its subj. is _they_, i. e. _the peple_.--=saíƕan=;
inf. of purpose (without =du=, _to_; S., 114).--=wêsi=, _might be_;
prt. opt. in an indir. question.--=þata= (art.) =waúrþanô= (pp.
uzed as sb.), '_the being done_', i. e. _that which was done_. 15.
=atiddjêdun= (the prt.) =...gasaíƕand= (the prs.); both for the Grk.
historical prs. (S., 86, (2)).--=þana saei habaida laígaíôn=; for τὸν
εσχηκότα λεγεῶνα; =þana= is dem. prn. 17. =seinôs=, _their_; refers
to the subj. of =dugunnun= (S., 62; and 60; cp. Mk. III, 14). 18.
=inngaggandan ina in skip= (for ἐμβαίνοντος αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ πλοῖον), _him
going into the ship_; =baþ ina saei was wôds=, _him prayd he that had
been_ (lit. _was_) _possest_. 21. =usleiþandin Iêsua=; dat. abs. (S.,
119).--=hindar marein=; depends on =usleiþandin=.--=gaqêmun sik=;
for the Grk. midl (S., 16, n. 1).--=manageins=; gen. with =filu=,
the predicate being here in the pl. (S., 5). 22. =qimiþ...gadraus=;
change of tense, as in V, 15.--=namin=; dat. of specification (S.,
15, (2), n. 2, α). 23. =þatei=; conj. (Gr., 157, n. 2) before a dir.
quotation.--=aftumist habaiþ=, '_has the last_', i. e. _lies_ (or _is_)
_at the point of deth_.--=ei=; conj., _that_, which here introduces an
exhortation.--=qimands lagjais=, _cuming thou mayst lay_, i. e. _cum
and lay_.--=ganisai...libai=; opts. of purpose (S., 96, a). 25. =suma=;
indef. prn. uzed substantivly, and with a part. gen. (Gr., 162; S.,
78, (1)). 26. =allamma seinamma= (uzed as sb. S., 82, (2), c); instr.
dat. guvernd by =fraqimandei= (S., 52, (1), c), lit.: '_cuming away
with all hers_', i. e. _having spent_ (lit. _spending_. S., 117)
_all that she had_.--=ni waíhtai= (instr. dat. denoting mezure of
difference. S., 52, (7)), _not in anything, in nothing_; =bôtida= (fem.
of the pp. Gr., 134), _betterd_.--=mais waírs=; =mais= is pleonastic,
as in Mt. VI, 26.--=habaida= (3d pers. sg. prt. ind., not pp.); cp. Mk.
II, 17. 27. =wastjai=; dat. guvernd by =attaítôk= (prt. of =attêkan=.
Gr., 181), (S., 40). 28. =þatei=; conj., as in 23. 29. =izôs= (Gr.,
151, n. 2). 30. =mis=; so-calld poss. dat. (for the gen. in Grk. S.,
48).--=wastjôm=; dat. as in 27. 32. =þô þata taujandein=, _her that had
done this_ (lit.: _the this doing_), the prsp. having a prt. meaning,
as in 26. 34. =ganasida=; for the Grk. perf. (S., 87, (2)).--=sijais=;
the opt. for the Grk. imper., the imper. of =wisan= being wanting (Gr.,
204, n. 2). 35. =imma rôdjandin=; dat. abs. (S., 119).--=qêmun=; the
prt. for the historical prs. in Grk. (S., 87, 3).--=þatei=; introduces
a dir. quotation; cp. verse 23.--=ƕa=; _why?_ It is uzed like τί (S.,
74, n. 2), as in verse 39. 36. =rôdíþ=; pp. of =rôdjan=, agreeing
with =waúrd=. 40. =allaim=; instr. dat. guvernd by =uswaírpands= (S.,
52, 4; and n. 2, p. 253). 41. =qaþuh= (= =qaþ-uh=), _and said_. The
first part of the compound sentence stands for a participial frase in
Greek.--=izai=; refers to the natural gender of =barn=; cp. Lu. II, 27.
28. 42. =jêrê twalibê=; gen. of quality (S., 24), _of twelv years_, i.
e. _twelv years old_.--=faúhrtein mikilai=; instr. dat. of manner (S.,
52, (6)) which is here (and in Lu. II, 9) uzed with a vb. of kindred
signification; hense it resembls the cognate acc. (S., 15, (2), n. 2).
43. =ei manna ni funþi= (prt. opt. in a final clause, after a prt.,
=anabauþ=, in the leading clause. S., 96, b), _that a man should not
find out_, i. e. _that no man should find out_.--=izai...matjan=; the
former is the indir., the latter the dir. obj. of =giban= (for the
pass. inf. in Grk. S., 84, n. 3), this being the obj. of =haíhait= (S.,


Chap. II. 1. =warþ...urrann=; asyndetic constructions with =warþ= ar
quite common in Gothic.--=in dagans jainans=; for the acc. we should
rather hav expected the dat. of the Grk. text. 2. =at raginôndin
Kyreinaiau=; abl. abs. introduced by =at= (S., 120).--=Saúrim=; dat.
(pl.) guvernd by =raginôndin= (S., 38; 52, 3, n.). 3. =ei mêlidai= (pp.
Gr., 134) =wêseina=; a final clause for the inf. in Grk.--=ƕarjizuh in
seinai baúrg= (dat. Gr., 116); belongs to =mêlidai=: _every one (of
all that went) in his own city_. 4. =Galeilaia...Nazaraíþ= (indecl.);
both stand for the dat. (Gr., 120 and notes).--=sei=; for =si-ei=
(Gr., 157, n. 3). 5. =anamêljan= (for the inf. pass. in Grk.) to enrol
(himself).--=sei was imma qeins= (for =qêns=, Gr., 7, n. 2), _who was
to him a wife_, i. e. _who was his wife_ (S., 35, (1)); the rel. clause
stands for the Grk. art. with a ptc.--=wisandein inkilþôn= (w. adj.
uzed as sb. in the predicate); in apposition with =Mariin=. 6.
=warþ ...usfullnôdêdun=; see verse 1.--=þô=; nom. pl. n. of =sa=,
referring to two persons of different gender (Joseph and Mary. S.,
8).--=du baíran= (for τοῦ τεκεῖν. Cp. the Latin: tempus est abire,
for the gen. of the gerund).--=izai=; dat. of advantage after
=usfullnôdêdun= (S. 47). 7. =uzêtin=; dat. after =galagida in=; see
Mt. V, 20.--=im=; dat. of possession after =was= (S., 35).--=rûmis=;
gen. as subj.: _of room_, i. e. _room_ (S., 25, n. 2). 8. =wahtwôm=;
dir. obj. after =witandans= (S., 40).--=nahts= (Gr., 116), adv.
gen. (S., 30), _by night_. 9. =agisa mikilamma=; see Mk. V, 42. 10.
=waírþiþ=; for ἔσται.--=allai managein=; poss. dat., as in verse
7. 11. =himma daga=; adv. frase (S., 53, (2)), _this day_. 12.
=þata=; subj. prns. are not subject to agreement with pred. sbs.
(S., 7).--=bigitid= (=d= for =þ= is very common in this gospel. Gr.,
74, 1); for the Grk. fut. (S., 86, (3)).--=biwundan.. galagid= (=d=
for =þ=, as abuv); acc. sg. n. of the pp. (Gr., 134). 13. =warþ=,
_was_, lit. _became, appeard_: it is the pred. (in the sing.) of the
collectiv noun =managei= (S., 5. Cp. Mk. V, 32).--=harjis h.=; gen.
after =managei=.--=hazjandanê..qiþandanê= (Gr., 133); attributiv ptcs.
agreeing w. =harjis= in gender and number (in sense. S., 5 and 9, n.
1). 14. =in háuhistjam=, _in the highest_, for ἐν ὑψίστοις.--=guþa=
(sc. =sijai=); dat. of possession (S., 35). 15. =himin=; dat. guvernd
by =galiþun in=; see Mk. V, 20.--=þai haírdjôs=; in apposition (S.,
11) with =mans= (Gr., 117).--=þaírhgaggaima ...saíƕaima=; 1st pers.
pl. of the hort. opt., for the more common 1st pers. pl. imper. (S.,
91, n. 1). 18. =im=; refers to =allai= (S., 61). 19. =þagkjandei=;
prsp. fem. (in =-ei=. Gr., 133): _pondering_ (sc. _them_). 20. =in
allaizê þizêei=, _because of all that which_, the rel. prn. (Gr., 157)
being assimilated to the case of its antecedent (S., 71). verse 6. 21.
=jah biþê...= _and when_--=du bimaitan ina=; cp. verse 6.--=....jah=;
introduces the principal clause, and remains untranslated. We might
rather expect =þan= which is uzually found after temporal clauses
introduced by =biþê=.--=namô is=; subj. =...Iêsus=; pred. nom. with
=haitan was= (S., 13, b, β).--=þata qiþanô=; refers to =namô=.--=wêsi=;
opt. in a temporal clause (S., 100); so always with =faúrþizei= (S.,
100, n.). 22. =atsatjan=; sc. =ina=. 23. =ƕazuh= (Gr., 164); uzed
substantivly, and followd by the partitiv gen.--=weihs=; predicate
adj. with =haitada= (cp. 21, abuv).--=fraujins=; guvernd by =weihs=
(S., 22). 24. =ei gêbeina=; prt. opt. in a final clause (S., 96,
b), while the coordinate =atsatjan= (in verse 22) is an 'inf.' of
purpose (S., 114).--=fram imma=, _on his behalf_ (cp. Mk. I, 44; II
Cor. V, 12).--=juggôns=; adj. uzed as sb., followd by a partitiv
gen. (S., 21). 25. =þaruh=; for καὶ ἰδοῦ, _and behold_.--=sa=; dem.
prn. =laþônais=; obj. gen. after =beidands= (S., 26). 27. =alh=;
dat. (Gr., 116) guvernd by =qam in=; see Mt. V, 20.--=ina=; refers
to the natural gender of =barn=, as in verse 28, and elsewhere. 28.
=guþa=; dat. guvernd by =þiuþida= (S., 45). 29. =fraleitais= (=ei=
for =ê=. Gr., 7, n. 2); opt. proper (S., 91, (1)). 32. =þiudôm= (for
ἐθνῶν); dat. of advantage after =andhuleinai=, like =managein= (for
λαοῦ) =þeinai= after =wulþu= (S., 34).--=Israêla=; in apposition with
=managein= (S., 11). 33. =sildaleikjandôna=; nom. pl. n., referring
to two living beings of different gender (S., 9, n. 3). 34. =ina=;
the Grk. text has αὐτούς.--=sa=; dem. prn. 35. =þeina saiwala=; the
obj. of =þaírhgaggiþ=.--=silbôns= (always weak. Gr., 156); intensiv
(like the Lt. 'ipsius' preceded by a poss. prn. and followd by the
sb.), its gender being that of the noun or prn. to which it refers
(here =Mariin=). 36. =sôh= (for =sô-uh=); a compd. dem. (Gr.,
154), for αὕτη.--=dagê managaizê=; emfatic gen. w. =framaldra=
(S., 22).--=jêra sibun=; acc. of extent of time (S., 15, n. 2,
β). 37. =sôh þan=, _and this, and she_ (sc. _was_).--=ahtáutêhund
jah fidwôr=; uninflected (Gr., 143) attribute to =jêrê=.--=sôh=;
here for ἥ.--=fastubnjam...bidôm=; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52,
(6)).--=blôtandê= (=ê= for =ei=, fem. ending of the prsp. Gr., 17, n.
1, and 133).--=nahtam jah dagam=; loc. dat. of time (S., 53, (2)),
like =þizai ƕeilai= in the next verse. 38. =andhaíhait= with the
dat. (=fraujin=), _to giv thanks to_ (S., 45).--=in allaim= (=in=
being added by Wulfila), _among all_ (without =in=, =allaim= would be
the indir. obj. after =rôdida=); =allaim= is attribute to the ptc.
=usbeidandam=, which is uzed substantivly, but with a dir. obj. (S.,
15, n. 2), =laþôn=, _redemption_. 40. =ahmins..handugeins=; instr.
genitivs guvernd by =fullnands=, _becuming fild with spirit and wisdom_
(S., 27). 41. =jêra ƕammêh= (Gr., 164, a); loc. dat. of time (S.,
53, (2)): _every year_.--=at dulþ= (acc. Gr., 116) =paska= (indecl.
attribute), _at the feast of the passover_; =at= with the acc. always
denotes time. 42. 43. =usgaggandam þan im...jah ustiuhandam=; dat.
abs. (S., 119), _when they then_ (=þan= referring to the preceding
clause) _went up ... and when they had fulfild_.--=miþþanê= (=ê= for
=ei=, as in 37) =gawandidêdun sik aftra=, _as they returnd_, lit.:
_as they turnd themselvs back_.--=wissêdun=; here the pl. occurs in
an abridged compound sentence (S. 1, n.), sumtimes the sing. (S., 5,
n. 1). 44. =hugjandôna=; n. pl., as in verse 33.--=ina wisan=; acc.
and inf. guvernd by =hugjandôna= (S., 112).--=dagis= (adnominal gen.
S., 20) =wig= (acc. of extent of space. S., 15, n. 2, β), _a day's
way, a day's jurney_.--=kunþam=; weak dat. of =kunþs= (uzed as sb.
Gr., 132). 46. =warþ=; see verse 1.--=in midjaim laisarjaim=, _in the
midst of the teachers_ (cp. the Lt. 'in media urbe').--=im=; dat.
guvernd by =hausjandan=, _hearing_, i. e. _listening to_ (S., 45). 47.
=is=, _him_, lit. _of him_; obj. gen. guvernd by =hausjandans= (S.,
26).--=ana frôdein=; depends on =usgeisnôdêdun=. 48. =magau=; voc. for
=magu= (Gr., 105, n. 2).--=ƕa=; acc. of specification (S., 15, 2, b, n.
2, α): _why?_--=uns=; dat. of the indir. obj. (S., 37).--=sôkidêdum=;
here and in verse 49 we should rather hav expected the dual (S., 5,
n. 4). The subj. being of different persons, the first person is
preferd (S., 5, n. 2). 49. =in þaim attins meinis=; so-calld elliptic
expressions like this ar also common in Grk., a noun signifying
'things' or the like being understood with the art.: _in_, or _about,
the things of my father_. As a matter of fact, however, =attins meinis=
shows the orig. adj. force of the gen. which is here uzed substantivly
(S., 19, and 68, (3)). 50. =ija=; nom. pl. n. (Gr., 152), referring to
Joseph and Mary; see verse 6.--=þamma waúrda=; loc. dat. guvernd by
=frôþun= (S., 53, (1), p. 254; and cp. n. 2, p. 255), prt. of =fraþjan=
(Gr., 177, n. 2). 51. =im=; dat. after =ufhausjands= (S., 38). 52.
=frôdein..wahstau..anstai=; loc. dats. of specification (S., 53, 1, c).


Chap. I. 1. =aíkklêsjôn=; dat., the guverning vb. being
omitted.--=þizai wisandein=; agrees with =aíkklêsjôn=. 2. =Iêsu=;
for =Iêsua= which, together with =Xristau=, is in apposition with
=fraujin=. 3. =þiuþiþs=; sc. =sijai=: _blessed be_.--=jah= (καί);
here emfatic: _(who is) even_. 4. =gaþrafstida...gaþrafstidai
sijum=; we should have expected the prs., because the statement
does not refer to any particular consolations, but is a statement
of 'general truth'.--=weis=; emfatic (S., 2, n. 1).--=in allaim
aglôn=; a prepositional frase, with the art., uzed as sb. (S.,
68, (2)).--=þizaiei=; instr. dat. guvernd by =gaþrafstidai=. 5.
=swaswê...swa jah=, _as ... so also_; the second =jah= may remain
untranslated, or the first =jah= may be rendered by '_the same_'
(=jah þaírh Xristu=, _by the same Christ_), and the second by
_also_.--=ufar filu ist=, _is beyond much_, i. e. _abounds_. 6.
=aþþan=, _but_.--=jaþþê þr., in...; jaþþe gaþr., in...=, _whether we
ar afflicted, (it is) because of ..., or whether we ar cumforted,
(it is) because of_. 7. =swaswê...jah=, _as (so) also_.--=waírþiþ=;
added by the translator: _ye shal be_ (lit. _becum_, sc. =gadailans=,
_partakers_, with the gen. S., 20; and cp. 26). 8. =izwis
unweisans= (sc. =wisan=); acc. and inf. depending on =wileima= (S.,
112).--=brôþrjus= (before which we should put a comma); voc.--=uns=;
dat. of interest (S., 47).--=ufarassau=; instr. dat. of manner (S.,
52, (6)).--=ufar maht= (acc. Gr., 102), _abuv strength_; cp. verse
5.--=swaswê skamaidêdeima uns= (refl. acc. S., 16, n. 1); opt. in a
consecutiv clause (S., 97, b): _so that we wer ashamed_.[107]--=jah=,
_even_. 9. =akei silbans in uns silbam andahaft dauþaus habaidêdum=,
_but we ourselvs had the answer of deth in ourselvs_, i. e. (according
to de Wette.--Bernhardt's large edition, p. 415) _the question,
whether I should escape deth, I answerd negativly_.--=sijaima=; final
opt. (S., 96, a, β). 10. =izei=; rel. prn. (= =saei=. Gr., 157, n.
3).--=dauþum=, _deths_, i. e. _dangers of deth_.--=galauseiþ= (not
for ῥύεται. Bernhardt, p. 415) =...galauseiþ=; both for the Grk. fut.
(S., 86, (3)). 11. =at hilpandam jah izwis=; dat. abs. introduced by
=at= (S., 119): _as ye also ar helping_.--=bidai=; instr. dat. (S.,
52, (2)).--=bi=; w. acc., _for_ (= ὑπερ w. gen., as in Mt., 44).--=in
managamma andwaírþja=, _in (= before) a great presence_, i. e. _before
many persons_.--=ei sô in uns giba awiliudodau= (3d pers. sg. prs.
opt. pass. Gr., 189, d), _that for the gift (bestowd) on us thanks
be givn_, lit.: _that the gift (bestowd) on us be praizd_.--=þaírh
managans=, _by many_.--=faúr uns=, _on our behalf_. 12. =þatei=;
conj., _that_.--=usmeitum=; =ei= for =ê= (Gr., 7, n. 2).--=iþ
ufarassau= (instr. dat. of manner. S., 52, (6)), _and more abundantly_
(περισσοτέρως δὲ), _and beyond mezure_. 13. =alja=; acc. pl. n. of
=aljis= (Gr., 125), here uzed substantivly.--=alja= (the second);
conj., _except_. 14. =unsara=; sc. =sijuþ ƕôftuli=. 15. =þizai= (dem.
prn.) =trauainai=; instr. dat. of manner (S., 52, (6)).--=habaidêdeiþ=;
prt. opt. (Gr., 192) in a final clause (S., 96, b). 16. =gasandjan mik=
(an activ vb. with a refl. acc., for a pass. vb. in Grk. (S., 16)): _to
return_. 17. =þatuþ-þan=; for =þata-uh-þan=, _and this_.--=ibai auftô=,
_perhaps_ (a negativ answer being expected).--=leihtis=; gen. guvernd
by =brûhta= (S., 25).--=aíþþau þatei= (rel. prn.) =mitô bi leika
þagkjau=, _or do I purpose that which I think according to the flesh?_
There is a notewurthy change of mood in this and other dubl questions
(S., 91).--=þata ja ja jah þata nê nê= (advs. w. the art. uzed
substantivly. S., 68, (2)), _the yea, yea and the nay, nay?_ i. e. _now
yea, now nay?_ 18. =aþþan triggws guþ=, an ellipsis: _but (as) God (is)
tru, [so tru it is]_. 19. =nih=; for =ni-h=, the =-h= (= =uh=) being
intensiv.--=warþ=; here the same as =was=. 20. =ƕaiwa managa gahaita
guþs, ín imma=, _as many promises of God, [they ar] in him_, i. e.
_all promises of God ar in him_ (= _Christ_).--=duþþê= (for =du-uh-þê=.
Gr., 62, n. 3), _to that, for that, therefore_. 21. =guþ=; sc. =ist=.
22. =wadi=; predicate acc. (S., 18), _as a pledge_. 23. =weitwôd=;
like =wadi=, pred. acc.--=izwara=; gen. guvernd by =freidjands= (S.,
26). 24. =izwarai galaubeinai=; dat. guvernd by =fraujinôma= (S., 38;
cp. also 52, (3), n.)--=anstais=, _joy_, but probably for χάριτος (not
χαρᾶς), which is found in sum manuscripts.--=galaubeinai=; loc. dat.
(S., 53, 1, b), after =gastôþuþ=, for which we might expect the pres.
(S., 86, 4).

Chap. II. 1. =gastauida=; prt. of =gastôjan= (Gr., 186).--=at=,
_with_.--=qimau=; opt. in an obj. clause expressing possibility (S.,
92).--=at=, _to_. 2. =gailjai=; opt. in a rel. clause expressing result
(S., 99, a).--=sa=; art.--=gáurida=; nom. sg. m. of the weak pp. (Gr.,
134).--=us=, _by_. 3. =jaþ=; for =jah= (Gr., 62, n. 3).--=izwis=; dat.
of the indir. obj. after =gamêlida= (S., 37).--=habau=; prs. opt. in
a final clause after a prt. in the leading proposition (S., 96, a,
β).--=fram þaimei= (its antecedent being omitted. S., 70, n. 1; and
72); loc. dat. guvernd by =faginôn= (S., 53, 1, b).--=allaizê= (uzed
substantivly) =izwara= (pers. prn. in the gen. pl. Gr., 150); sc.
=fahêþs=, _the joy of all of you_ (S., 82). 4. =aþþan= (γάρ; so in the
epistls only), _for_.--=þaírh=, _with_; expresses the situation of the
subj.--=ni þêei= (prop. instr. of the rel. prn. Gr., 157, n. 1); conj.
_not that_.--=ufarassau=; see I, 8. 5. =ƕas=; indef. prn. (Gr., 162,
n. 2).--=bi sumata, ei ni anakaúrjau, allans izwis=, _in sum mezure,
that I may not overcharge (him) you all_. 6. =þamma swaleikamma= (the
dat. being guvernd by =ganah=, which uzually takes the acc. S., 42,
n.); uzed substantivly (S., 68, (1), a, α).--=andabêt= (=ê= for =ei=.
Gr., 17, n. 1).--=managizam=; compar. (Gr., 132, n. 4; 135; 136),
where we uze the positiv: _many_. 7. =swaei..izwis..fragiban jag= (=g=
for =h=. Gr., 62, n. 3) =gaþláihan=; acc. with the inf. introduced by
=swaei= to express result (S., 115; cp. Mk. IV, 1).--=þata andaneiþô=;
adverbial acc. (S., 15, (2), n. 2): _contrariwise_.--=managizein=
(weak compar. adj. fem. Gr., 132, n. 4) =saúrgai=; instr. dat. of
cause (S., 52, 5; cp. also 53, n. 1).--=sa swaleiks= (for its strong
inflection, see Gr., 161), _such a one_. 8. =inuþ= (for =in-uh=, i.
e. =-uh= attacht to the prep. =in=, which is here uzed with the gen.:
_because of_. The prep. =inuh= or =inu= means _without_) =þis=, _on
this account, therefore_.--=in imma=; for εὶς αὐτόν. 9. =sijaidu= (for
=sijaiþ-u=. Gr., 74, n. 1); opt. in an indir. question depending on
=ufkunnau=, and introduced by the interr. particl =-u= (S., 95, a, β).
10. =aþþan=; here for δέ; cp. 4.--=ƕa=; here indef. prn.; see Mt. V,
23.--=jah ik=, _[to him] I [forgiv] also_.--=jah þan ik ...fragaf= (in
both cases for the Grk. perf.), _for I hav alredy forgivn_.--=jabai ƕa=
(indef.) =fragaf=, _if I hav forgivn anything_. 11. =gaáiginôndau=;
1st pers. pl. prs. opt. (in a final clause. S., 96, a, α) pass. (Gr.,
189, d).--=munins=; gen. after =unwitandans= (S., 23).--=is=; pers.
prn. for the poss. prn. (S., 62). 12. =aþþan=; for δέ.--=qimands in
Trauadai=; see Mt. V, 20.--=at haúrdai uslukanai=; dat. abs. with =at=
(S., 120).--=mis=; dat. of interest (S., 47). 13. =ahmin meinamma=;
loc. dat. (S., 53, (1), c).--=in þammei= (for =þamma ei=. Gr., 4,
n.), _in that_ (Gr., 157), _because_.--=im=; abl. dat., guvernd by
=twisstandands= (S., 54). 15. =dauns wôþi=; for εὐωδία. 16. =us=,
_of_.--=jad=; for =jah= (Gr., 62, n. 3). 17. =sium=; for =sijum= (Gr.,
10, n. 4; 204, n. 1).

Chap. III. 1. =anafilhis=; adnominal gen. after =bôkô= (S.,
20).--=bôkô=; abl. gen. guvernd by =þaúrbum=. 2. =siuþ=; = =sijuþ=;
see II, 17.--=gamêlida ..kunþa..anakunnaida=; pps. agreeing with
=aípistaúlê= (Gr., 134). 3. =swikunþai þatei, siuþ=, etc., _forasmuch
as ye ar known [to be]_, etc. B has =swikunþ=: _It is manifest that
ye ar_.--=swartiza..ahmin=; instr. dats. (S., 52, (2)). 5. =ƕa=;
indef. prn. 6. =izei=; rel. prn. (Gr., 157, n. 3).--=brâhta=, with two
accs. (S., 18): _made_. 7. =swaei mahtêdeina= (Gr., 201); consecutiv
clause (S., 97, b).--=þis gataúrnandins=; belongs to =wulþaus=, not
to the adnominal gen. =wlitis=. 8. =waírþai=; potential opt. in a
dir. question (S., 91, (3)). 9. =andbahtja=; dat. of possession, the
vb. being understood: _For if there be glory to the ministration of_,
etc. 11. =þaírh=; denotes here, as in II, 4, a state or condition. 12.
=managaizôs balþeins=; gen. guvernd by =brûkjaima= (S., 25), hort. opt.
(S., 91, (2)). 13. =jan=; for =jah= (Gr., 62, n. 3).--=duþê= (i. e.
=du= + the instr. case of =þata=. Gr., 153. S., 51) =ei= (Gr., 157),
_'to that that', for the purpose that, in order that_, with a final
opt. (S., 96, b).--=gataúrnandins=; gen. sg. of the weak pp. (Gr.,
134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, (4)): _of the vanishing (glory)_. 14.
=wisiþ=, _remains_. 16. =gawandeiþ= (intr. S., 16, n. 2); its subj.
is =haírtô izê=, to be supplied from the preceding verse. 18. =þô
samôn frisaht=; this acc., with a pass. vb., is an imitation of the
corresponding Greek passage: τήν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα, _we ar
changed into the same image_ (S., 17 and 18, n. 4, where this passage
ought to hav been explaind).

Chap. IV. 1. =gaarmaida waúrþum= (for the Grk. aor. pass. S., 87,
(4), c), _wer pitied, receivd mercy_.--=ni waírþaima=; hort. opt.
(for the ind. in A).--=usgrudjans=; only weak (Gr., 132, n. 2). 2.
=þaim analaugnjam= (adj. uzed as sb. S., 68, (1)); abl. dat. guvernd
by =afstôþum= (S., 54,(1)).--=galiug= (pred. acc. S., 18) =taujandans
waúrd guþs=, _falsifying the word of God_, lit.: _making the word of
God a lie_.--=baírhtein=; instr. dat. (S., 52, (2)). 4. =ei ni liuhtjai
im liuhadeins=. Like Bernhardt, I am in favor of =liuhadeins= (gen. as
subj. S., 25, n. 2); cp. =ni was im rûmis= in Lu. II, 7. Sum editors
(cp. Gr., 113, n. 2) prefer =liuhadein= (in B). Bernhardt remarks that
=liuhadein= may 'allenfalls' be explaind as an acc.: 'damit er ihnen
nicht leuchten lasse das licht'. But it may also pass as instrumental
dat.: 'damit er ihnen nicht leuchte vermöge des lichtes', _lest ther
be any light to them thru the light_, etc. Cp. similar instr. dativs
in Mk. V, 42; Lu. II, 8. 9. 5. =aþþan=, _for_; see II, 4. 6.--=uns=;
external obj. after =mêrjam=.--=skalkans izwarans=; pred. acc. (S.,
18). 6. =untê guþ=; sc. =ist=: _for it is God who_, etc.--=ur-=; for
=us= (Gr., 78, n. 4).--=liuhaþ skeinan=; acc. and inf. depending on
=qaþ= (S., 112).--=saei jah=, _and who_. 7. =aþþan=, _but_. 11. =in
dauþu=; depends on =atgibanda=. 12. =swaei nu= (for ὥστε), _therefore_.
13. =gamêlidin=; dat. of the pp. n. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S.,
68, (4)). 14. =jah=, _also_.--=urraiseiþ...faúragasatjiþ=; for the Grk.
fut. (S., 86, (3)). 15. =þatuh= (for the art. =þata= and the intensiv
particl =-uh=), immediately followd by =þan=, =allata= being uzed
substantivly (S., 82, (1), a): _for all (the) things_.--=managizans=,
_more_; we uze the positiv: _several, many_ (see II, 6).--=ufarassjai=;
trans., its obj. being =awiliud=.--=guþa=; dat. after a sb. (for
the Grk. gen. S., 34; and 35, n. 2): _for God_, i. e. _of God_.
16. =inuh= (for =in-uh=; see II, 8) =þis=, _because of this, for
this reason_.--=ak þáuhjabai= (for ἀλλ' εἰ καί), _but even if, but
tho_.--=aíþþau=, _yet_ (cp. S., 102, b).--=daga jah daga=; loc. dat.
of time (S., 53, (2)). 17. =þata andwaírþô= (adv.) =ƕeilaƕaírb jah
leiht= (for τὸ παραυτίκα πρόσκαιρον καὶ ἐλαφρόν), _that (which is) at
present_, etc., the two uninflected adjs. being uzed substantivly,
with an adnominal gen., =aglôns unsaraizôs=.--=waúrkjada=; the pass.
for the Grk. midl, with the pred. nom. (S., 18, n. 4) =kaúrei=. 18.
=faírweitjandam=, sc. =unsis=; dat. abs. (S., 119), or the ptc. is
simply in apposition with the preceding dat. =unsis=.--=þizei= (=ei=
for =ê=. Gr., 7, n. 2); gen. pl. of the art. before the following two
ptcs. (Gr., 134) uzed substantivly (S., 68, n. 4).

Chap. V. 1. =þatei=; repeated after the protasis in the form of
=ei=.--=jabai=; with the ind., for ἐάν with the subj. (S., 102; cp.
also 100, n.). 2. =ufarhamôn=; uzed reflexivly (for the Grk. midl. S.,
16, n. 3), and with the instr., =bauainai unsarai þizai= (S., 52, (2),
b). 3. =jabai swêþáuh jah=, _if even tho_.--=gawasidai=; the pass. for
the Grk. midl; cp. the preceding verse. 4. =ana þammei= (for =þamma
ei=), _over that that, for the reason that_.--=afhamôn..anahamôn=;
for the Grk. midl; cp. verse 2. 5. =jah=; a strange addition in
the Gothic text. Perhaps it is ment to connect =gamanwida=, etc.,
with what it is said in the preceding verses to cum from God (or
heven), then the second =jah= means _also_; or =jah..jah= = _both ...
and_.--=guþ=; sc. =ist=.--=wadi ahman=; the latter is the external
obj. of =gaf=, the former predicate acc. (S., 18; cp. also n. 1). 8.
=mais=, _rather_.--=anahaimjaim wisan= (for ἐνδημῆσαι). Gabelentz and
Loebe and Uppström explain the dat. =anahaimjaim= as being due to
=unsis= understood with =waljam=. 9. =inuh=; see IV, 16.--=imma=; dat.
guvernd by =galeikan= (S., 42), the obj. of =usdaudjam= (S., 109).
10. =skuldai sijum=, _we ar owing, we must_.--=þô swêsôna leikis=,
_the body's own, the bodily things_, i. e. _the things which the
body deservs_.--=afar þaimei=; for =afar þaim þôei= (by attraction.
S., 71. Cp. the reverse attraction in Grk. πρός ἅ). 11. =swikunþans=
(pred. adj.) =wisan uns= (subj.); acc. with the inf. (in Grk. the
inf. alone) after =wênja= (S., 112). 12. =ni ei=, _not that, not as
if_.--=uskannjaima=; final opt. (S., 96, a).--=ƕôftuljôs=; adnominal
gen. after =lêw= (S., 20).--=fram=, _concerning, for, on behalf of_
(cp. Mk. I, 44; Lu. II, 24). 13. =guþa..izwis=; dats. of interest
(S., 47): _(it is) for God ... (it is) for you_. 15. =þata=; dem.
prn.--=þatei=; conj., _that_.--=sis silbam...sik=; refers to the subj.
of the dependent clause, =þai libandans= (S., 60).--=þamma gaswiltandin
jah urreisandin=; like the preceding =sis=, dats. of advantage (S.,
36, (4)), the prsp. rendering the Grk. aor. ptc. (S., 117). 16. =swaei
kunnum=; a consecutiv clause, the vb. being in the ind. (cp. S., 97 and
89).--=fram þamma nu=, lit. _from the now_ (=nu= with the art. being
uzed substantivly. S., 68, 2), i. e. _henseforth_.--=ni ainnôhun=;
indef. prn. (Gr., 163, c).--=ni..ai=; the two negativs strengthen the
negation (never make an affirmativ in Goth.) 17. =ƕô= (indef. prn.
f. Gr., 159, n. 3); agrees with =gaskafts=, and is uzed adjectivly
(we might hav expected =ƕas=: _if any man (be) in Christ, he (is) a
new creature_).--=þô alþjôna= (the n. adj. uzed as sb. S., 68, (1))
=usliþun= (apodosis), _the old things past away_.--=niuja= (nom. pl. n.
Gr., 126); pred. adj. agreeing with =alla= uzed substantivly (S., 82,
(1)). 18. =uns= (the first), dir. obj. of =gafriþôndin=.--=sis=; indir.
obj. (S., 43).--=uns= (the second); dat. 19. =untê swêþauh= (seems
to stand for 'quoniam quidem' of the Lt. manuscripts.--Bernhardt),
_because indeed_.--=im..izê=, _to them ... their_, referring to
_mankind, world_. 20. =at guþa gaþlaíhandin=; dat. abs. introduced by
=at= (S., 120).--=guþa=; dat. after =gagawaírþnan= (cp. =sis= in verse
18). 21. =þana= (dem. prn.) =izei= (rel. prn. Gr., 157, n. 3) =kunþa=
(prt. of =kunnan=. Gr., 199, (4)); for τὸν γνόντα.--=gatawida=; with
an external obj., =þana=, and a pred. acc., =frawaúrht= (S., 18).--=ei
weis waúrþeima= (final opt. S., 96, b), _that we might becum_.


a 49. =...ahun=; the remaining part of an unknown word, probably
=ainahun=.--=kunnandins=; weak inflection of the prsp. (Gr., 133),
uzed as sb.--=is=; refers to =fraujins= (S., 60).--=waldufneis=;
gen. guvernd by =andþaggkjandins=.--=Stains=; i. e. Πέτρος,
_Peter_.--=ains= (the first), _alone_.--=ains= (the second),
_one_.--=·e·=, _five_ (Gr., 1 and n. 2).--=mikilis=; gen. depending
on =waíht= (S., 21).--=waírþidôs= (_dignity, greatness_);
gen. guvernd by =andþaggkjands= (=sik= being omitted. S., 26
and 16, n. 2).--=þaírh þôei= (acc. pl. n. Gr., 157), _thru
which_, i. e. _wherefore_.--=usbar=, _brought forth_, i. e.
_exclaimd_.--=niuklahein=; dat. guvernd by =andtilônds= (S., 38). b.
=þans mans= (Gr., 117, (1)) =anakumbjan=; acc. with the inf., guvernd
by =waúrkeiþ= (S., 112).--=at hauja managamma wisandin=; dat. abs.
introduced by =at= (S., 120).--=þô filusna anakumbjan=; acc. with
the inf., guvernd by =gatawidêdun=.--=inuh= (prep., not =in-uh=),
_without_.--=at ni wisandein= (Gr., 133) =aljai waíhtai=; dat. abs.
with =at= (S., 120).--=swa managai=; belongs to =waílawiznai=, instr.
dat. (S., 52, 2, a).--=ganaúhan=; acc. sing. m. of =ganaúha= (for
the inf. =ganaúhan=, s. Gr., 201), guvernd by =fragaf=, =im= being
the indir. obj. c. =filaus=; adv. gen. w. the (acc. sg. n. of the)
compar. =maizô= (S., 30, c).--=afar þatei=; temporal conj.: _after
that, when_.--=managei=; here w. a sg. v. (S., 5).--=matida= (prt.
here = our past perfect = Lt. 'postquam' w. the perfect).--=bigitan
was=, _there was found_; we should expect the pl., but the sense
is: _there was found a quantity of twelv_ (=·ib·= Gr., 1, n. 2)
_baskets_, etc.--=þatei=, _which_ (i. e. _which quantity_).--=þizei=
(=ei= for =ê=. Gr., 7, n. 2) =hlaibê...þizê fiskê=; partit. gens.
(S., 21).--=nih þan=, _for not_.--=ana...in=; change of prep.
without change of sense.--=ainaim=, _alone_ (Gr., 140, 1).--=swaei=;
consecutiv conj., _that_.--=ainƕarjammêh=; dat. (Gr., 165, n. 1)
guvernd by =tawida=.--=is=; I prefer Bernhardt's emendation, =izê=,
_of them_ (i. e. _of the fishes_). d. =naúh us þamma=, _besides_ (lit.
'_stil from that_.')--=jêrê=; partit. gen. after =·m·= (Gr., 1, n.
2).--=aflifnandeins=; prsp. f. (Gr., 133).--=waíhtai=; dat. guvernd by
=fraqistnai= (impers.; cp. the Lt. 'mihi invidetur'. S., 49); opt. in a
final clause.


[107] =afswaggwidai wêseima=; evidently a better rendering of
ἐξαπορεῖσθαι, _to be utterly embarrast_.--=jal=; for =jah=. Gr., 62, n.


REMARKS.--The signs =ƕ=, =q=, =þ= follow =h=, =k=, =t=, respectivly.--The
                 figures in () refer to the paragrafs of the Grammar.

=Aba=, m. (108, n. 1), _husband, man_; Lu. II, 36.

=Abiaþar=, pr. n., _Abiathar_; dat. =-a=; Mk. II, 26. [< Ἀβιάθαρ.]

=Abraham= (61, n. 3), pr. n., _Abraham_. [< Ἀβραάμ.]

=af= (56, n. 1), prep. w. dat. (217), _of, from, out of, away from,
off_; Mt. V, 18. 42. Mk. III, 22. II. Cor. III, 5. [OE. of, ME. of,
off, a, o, NE. of, off, a- (as in 'adown').]

=af-aikan=, rv. (179), _to deny, curse_.

=afar=, prep. (217), (1) w. dat.: _after, according to_; Mk. I, 7. 17.
20. II. Cor. V, 10. (2) w. acc.: _after_ (only of time); =afar dagans=,
_after sum days_; Mk. II, 1; =afar þatei=, _after that, when_; Mk. I,
14. Skeir. VII, c. [< =af= + compar. suff. =-ar=. OHG. avar, abur, MHG.
aver, aber, NHG. aber- (in compos.), _further, again_, aber, conj.,
_but_. Cf. OE. eafora, m., _posterity, child_.]

=afar-gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to go after, follow_; w. =miþ=
w. dat.; Mk. V, 37.

=af-daubnan=, wv. (194), _to becum def, grow dul_; II. Cor. III, 14.

=af-dôjan= (26, a), wv. (187), _to tire out, vex, harass_.

=af-dumbnan=, wv. (194), _to becum dum, hold one's peace_; Mk. IV, 39.

=af-êtja= (56, n. 2), m. (108), _voracious eater, glutton_. [=-êtja= <
√ of =itan= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=af-gaggan=, stv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to go away, depart_; w. =faírra=
w. dat.; Lu. II, 37.

=*af-haimeis=, adj. (127), _away from home, absent_; II. Cor. V, 6. 9.
[=-haimeis= < =haims=. Cf. =anahaimeis=.]

=af-hamôn=, wv. (190), _to take off clothes, to unclothe_; II. Cor. V,

=af-hlaþan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to lade, load_.

=af-ƕapjan=, wv. (188), w. acc., _to choke_; Mk. IV, 7. 19.

=af-ƕapnan=, wv. (194), _to choke_ (intr.), _be choked_; Mk. V, 13.

=af-iddja=, prt. of =afgaggan=.

=af-lageins=, f. (124), _a laying aside, remission_; Mk. I, 4. [<
=af-lagjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=af-laílôt=, prt. of =aflêtan=.

=af-leiþan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to go away, depart_; w. =af= w. dat.;
Mk. I, 42; =du= w. dat.; Mk. III, 7.

=af-lêtan= (=-leitan=; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc. of pers. or th.,
_to leav, forsake, put away (a wife)_; Mt. V, 24. 31. 32; w. dat. of
pers. and acc. of th., _to let off, forgiv_; Mt. VI, 12. 14. 15; _to
let one hav_; Mt. V, 40.

=af-lifnan= (56, ns. 1. 4), wv. (194), _to remain, remain over and
abuv_; Skeir. VII, c.

=af-linnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to depart_.

=af-maitan=, stv. (179), _to cut off_; w. acc. of th.; Mt. V, 30.

=af-marzeins=, f. (103, n. 1), _offense, deceitfulness_; Mk. IV, 19. [<
=af-marzjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=af-môjan= (26), wv. (187), _to weary, fatigue_.

=af-niman=, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., _to take away, remove_; II. Cor.
III, 16; and dat.; Mk. IV, 25; or =af= w. dat.; Mk. II, 20. 21.

=af-satjan=, wv. (187), w. acc., _to put away (a wife), divorce_; Mt.
V, 32.

=af-skiuban= (56, n. 1), stv. (173, n. 1), _to shuv away, put away,

=af-slauþjan=, wv. (188), _to amaze_; in pass.: _to be in despair_; II.
Cor. IV, 8.

=af-slauþnan=, wv. (194), _to becum beside one's self, be amazed_.

=af-standan=, stv. (177, n. 3), _to fall away, renounce_; w. dat.; II.
Cor. IV, 2.

=af-stass=, f. (103, n. 3), _a standing off, falling away_; =afstassais
bôkôs=, _a writing of divorcement_; Mt. V, 31. [< stem =-stassi-= <
stat-ti-< stat (< √ of =standan= +-t) + suff. -ti-.]

=af-stôþum=, prt. of =afstandan=.

=af-swaggwjan=, wv. (188), _to make despondent_; =afswaggwiþs wisan=,
_to despair_; II. Cor. I, 8 (note).

=afta=, adv. (213, n. 2), _behind_. [< =af= + suff. =-ta=. OE. æft,
_again, behind_.]

=aftana=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from behind_; Mk. V, 27. [< =afta= + suff.
=-na=. OE. æftan, ME. æfte, NE. aft; cf. abaft < a, _on_, + bi, _by_, +

=aftarô=, adv. (211, n. 1), _from behind, behind_. [< =af= + adv.
compar. suff. =-tarô=.]

=aftra=, adv., _back, backwards, behind_; Lu. II, 43; _again_; Mt. V,
33. [< =af= + adv. compar. suff. =-tra=. OE. æfter, ME. æfter, after,
NE. after.]

=aftuma=, superl. adj. (139), _the last_. [< =af= + superl. suff.

=aftumists=, superl. adj. (139, n. 1), _the last_; =aftumist haban=,
_to lie_, or _be, at the point of deth_; Mk. 5, 23. [< =aftuma= +
superl. suff. =-ist-a-=. OE. ME. æftemest, NE. aftermost (by influence
of after and most; s. =aftra= and =maists=).]

=aggilus=, m. (120, n. 1), _angel, messenger_; Lu. II, 9. 10; dat.
=-au=; Lu. II, 13. 21; acc. =-u=; Mk. I, 2; pl. nom. =-jus=; Lu. II,
15; or =-eis=; Mk. I, 13. [< ἄγγελος, _messenger, angel_.]

=aggwiþa=, f. (97), _anguish_; II. Cor. II, 4. [< =aggwus= + suff.

=*aggwjan=, wv. (188), in =ga-aggwjan=. [< =aggwus=.]

=aggwus=, adj. (68; 131), _narrow_. [OE. ange, ME. ang, OHG. engi
(ja-stem), MHG. enge, NHG. enge, eng, adj. _narrow_.]

=agis=, gen. =agisis=, n. (35; 94), _aw, fear_; Mk. IV, 41. Lu. II, 9.
II. Cor. V, 11. [< =agan= (s. =un-agands=) + suff. =-is-a-=. OE. ege
(or i-stem; see Brgm., II, p. 421, § 132, Rem. 2), ME. eᵹe, ON. agi >
ME. aghe, awe, NE. aw.]

=*agjan=, wv. (35), in =us-agjan=. [< =*ags=, _awful, fearful_, <
=-agan=; s. =agis=.]

=aglait-gastalds= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (124), _greedy of filthy lucre,
greedy_. [=-gastalds= < =ga-= + =-stalds= < √ of =staldan=.]

=aglaiti=, n. (95), _lasciviousness, unchastity_. [< =*aglaits=, adj.,
_lascivious_; cp. =agls=, adj., _indecent_.]

=aglaiti-waúrdei= (88ᵃ), f. (113), _indecent language, filthy talk_. [<
=aglaiti-waúrds=, adj.; =-waúrds= < =waúrd=.]

=-agljan= (14, n. 1), wv. (188), _to trubl_, in =us-a.= [< =aglus.= OE.
eglan, ME. eile, NE. ail.]

=aglô=, f. (112), _tribulation, anguish, distress_; Mk. IV, 17. II.
Cor. I, 4. 8. II, 4. IV, 17. [< =aglus=.]

=aglus=, adj. (131), _difficult, hard_. [< √ of =agis= + suff. =-lu-=.
OE. egle (jô-stem), ME. egle, _trublsum_, < eglan, ME. eile, NE. ail.]

=Agustus=, pr. n., _Augustus_; dat. =-au=; Lu. II, 1. [Αὔγουστος.]

=ahaks=, f. (103, n. 2), _duv_; Mk. I, 10. Lu. II, 24.

=ahma=, m. (108), _the Spirit, the Holy Ghost_; Mk. I, 8. 10. 12.
23. 25. 26. 27. II, 8. 11. 29. 30. V, 2. 8. 13. Lu. II, 26. 27. 40.
II. Cor. I, 22. II, 13. III, 3. 6. 8. 17. 18. IV, 13. V, 5. [< √ of
=ahjan=, _to think_, + suff. =-man-=.]

=ahs=, n. (94), _ear (of grain)_; Mk. II, 23. IV, 28. [OE. êar (<
*eaur, *eahur, *ahur), ME. ear, er, NE. ear (of grain; for ear, the
organ of hearing, s. =ausô=).]

=ahtau=, indecl. num. (141), _eight_; Lu. II, 21. [OE. eahta, ME.
eighte, NE. eight.]

=ahtau-têhund=, indecl. num. (143), _eighty_; Lu. II, 37.

=ahtuda=, ord. num. (146), _the eighth_. [< =aht-au= + suff.
=-u-da-n-=. OE. eahtoða, ME. eighte, NE. eighth.]

=aƕa=, f. (97), _river, stream, water_; Mk. I, 5. [OE. êa (< *au, *ahu,
*ahwu), f., ME. æ, _river, water_, > OE. îg, _iland_, lit. '_belonging
to the water_', and in composition: îgland, ME. iland, NE. iland.]

=aibr=, n. (94), _an offering_; Mt. V, 23. [No doubt a corrupt form
for =*tibr= = OE. tifer, n., OHG. zebar, _victim, sacrifice_; cf. MHG.
un-ge-zibere, un-zifer, NHG. ungeziefer, n., _vermin_, prop. '_an
animal unfit for a sacrifice_'.]

=áigan= (=áihan=), prt.-prs. (203), _to own, hav, possess_.--Cpd.
=faíráihan= (203). [OE. âgan, ME. aghe, owe, NE. ow.--Prt.: Gothic
=áihta=, OE. âhte, ME. âhte, ouhte, NE. ought.]

=áiginôn=, wv., in =ga-aiginôn=. [< =aigin= (< √ of =aigan= + suff.
=-ina-=), n., _property_.]

=áihts= (20, n. 2), f. (103), _property, possession_; in pl. _goods,
things_. [< √ of =aigan= + suff. =-ti-=. OHG. êht, f., _property,
goods_, in compos. frêht (= Goth. =*fra-aihts=), _gain, wages_; cf. LG.
fracht, Du. vracht > ME. fraht, fraught, _cargo, freight_, > frahte,
fraughte, _to load_, pp. fraught, NE. fraught. Of G. or Du. origin is
the ML. frecta, fretta, > OF. *freit, fret > ME. freit, freight (the gh
being due to 'fraught'), NE. freight.]

=aíƕa-tundi= (64), f. (98), _brambl-bush, bush_. [< =aíƕa= = OE. eoh (<
*eohu), m., _horse_; =-tundi= < =*tindan= > the caus. =tandjan=, _to
kindl_, OE. tendan, ME. tende, NE. tind.]

=*aikan=, rv. (179), in =af-aikan=.

=aíkklêsjô=, f. (111), _church_. [< ἐκκλησία.]

=Aíleisabaíþ= (23), pr. n., _Elisabeth_. [< Ἐλισάβεθ.]

=aílôê= (6, n. 1), _my God!_ [< Ἐλωί < the Hebrew.]

=ainaha=, weak adj. (132, n. 2), _only_. [< =ains= + suff. =-(a)ha-n-=.]

=ain-falþei=, f. (113), _simplicity_; II. Cor. I, 12. [< =ainfalþs=.]

=ain-falþs=, adj. (148), _'one-fold', singl_; Mt. VI, 22.

=ain-ƕarjizuh=, prn. (165, n. 1), _every one, each one_; Luc. II, 3.
II. Cor. V, 10.

=ain-ƕaþaruh=, prn. (166), _each of two_.

=*ainlif= (56, n. 1), num. (141), _eleven_. [< =ains= + =-lif=, _left,
over_. OE. and-, end-leofan, -leofen, (for ân-leofan, etc., -leofan being
the dat. of-lif), ME. end-, en-, el-leven, NE. eleven.]

=ain(n)ôhun=, acc. sg. of =ainshun=.

=ains=, num. (140), (I) _one, a singl one_, (1) alone; II. Cor. V, 15;
(2) w. a sb., (a) follg.; Mt. V, 18. 36; (b) preceding; Mt. V, 18. 41;
(c) understood; Mk. IV, 8; (3) w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mt. V, 19.
29. 30. VI, 29; (4) =ains--anþar=, _the one, the other_; Mt. VI, 24.
(II) indef., _one, sum one, an, a_, w. a partit. gen. follg.; Mk. V,
22. (III) _only, alone_, (1) w. a sb., (a) prec.; Skeir. VII, c; (b)
follg.; Mk. II, 7. 26; (2) w. a prn. prec.; Mt. V, 46. [OE. ân, _one_,
ME. on, an, ane, a, one, o, (shortend when uzed as a proclitic), _one,
alone; an_, NE. one; an, a.]

=ains-hun=, indef. prn. (163, c), only in negativ sentences, _not any
one, none_, (1) alone; II. Cor. V, 16; (2) w. a partit. gen. follg.;
Mk. V, 37.

=aípiskaúpus=, m. (120, n. 1), _bishop_. [< ἐπίσκοπος, _bishop_.]

=aípistaúlê=, f. (120, n. 3), _epistl, letter_; II. Cor. III, 2. 3. [<
ἐπιστολή, _message, letter_.]

=áir=, adv. (214, n. 1), _erly_; Mk. I, 35. [OE. *âr > the compar. æ̂r;
see =áiris=.]

=áirinôn=, wv. (190), _to be a messenger, an ambassador_; w. =faúr= w.
acc.; II. Cor. V, 20. [< =áirus=.]

=áiris=, comp. adv. (212), _erlier_. [< =áir= + suff. =-is=. OE. æ̂r,
ME. er, _sooner, erlier, before_, NE. ere.]

=áiriza=, comp. adj. (136), _of old time, living formerly_; in pl. uzed
substantivly; Mt. V, 21. 33. [< =áir= + suff. =-iz-an-=. OE. æ̂ror, ME.
erer, _former_.]

=aírþa=, f. (97), _erth, ground, land_; Mt. V, 18. 35. VI, 10. 19. Mk.
II, 10. IV, 5. 8. 20. 28. 31. Lu. II, 14. [OE. eorðe, ME. erthe, NE.

=aírþa-kunds= (88ᵃ), adj. (124), _erthy, born of the erth_.

=aírþeins=, adj. (124), _of erth, erthen_; II. Cor. IV, 7. _erthly_;
II. Cor. V, 1. [< =aírþa= + suff. =-eina-=. ME. eorthen, erthen, NE.

=áirus= (20, n. 2), m. (105), _messenger, ambassador_. [OE. =âr= (of
the o-declension), m., _messenger_. Cf. OE. æ̂rende, n., ME. erand, NE.

=aírzeis=, adj. (128), _astray, led astray_. [OE. yrre, eorre, ME.
eorre, irre, _angry_, OHG. irri, MHG. NHG. irre, adj., _astray,

=*ais= (for which =aiz=, 78, n. 1; occurs only onse; Mk. VI, 8), n.
(94), _brass, bronz, muney_. [OE. âr, f., _brass, bronz, copper_, ME.
ôr, NE. ore.]

=aiþei=, f. (113), _mother_; Mk. III, 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. V, 40. Lu.
II, 33. 34. 43. 48. 51. [OHG. eidi, eide, _mother_.]

=aiþs=, gen. =aiþis=, m. (91), _oath_; Mt. V, 33. [OE. âð, m., ME. oth,
NE. oath.]

=aíþþau= (20, 3; 71, n. 1), conj. (218), _or_; Mt. V, 17. 18. 36.
VI, 31. Mk. III, 4. 33. IV, 17. 21. 30. Lu. II, 24. II. Cor. I, 13.
17. III, 1; =jabai ...aíþþau=, _either ... or_; Mt. VI, 24; _else,
otherwise_; Mt. VI, 1. [Cf. OE. oððe, North æththa, _or_.]

=Aiulf=, prn. n. (65, n. 1).

=aiw=, adv. (prop. acc. sing. of =aiws=, q. v.), _ever_, always with
ni: _never_; Mk. II, 12. 25. III, 29. [OE. â (for *âw), ME. â, ô, ON.
ei > NE. aye.]

=aíwaggêljô=, f. (112), _gospel_; Mk. I, 1. 14. 15. [< εὐαγγέλιον.]

=aiweins=, adj. (124), _eternal_; Mk. III, 29. II. Cor. IV, 17. 18. V,
1. [< =aiws= + suff. =-ein-a-=.]

=aiwiski=, n. (95), _shame, dishonesty_; II. Cor. IV, 2. [< =*aiwisks=
(in =un-aiwisks=, _that need not be ashamed_). OE. æ̂wisc, _ashamed_.]

=aiws=, m. (91, n. 5), _time, life-time, age, world, eternity_; II.
Cor. IV, 4; =in aiwins=, _forever_; Mt. VI, 13.--S. also =aiw=.

=aiz=; see =ais=.

=ajukduþs= (21, n. 2), f. (103), _time, eternity_. [< =ajuk-= (perhaps
< =aiws=) + suff. =-du-þ-i-=.]

=ak=, conj. (218), _but, for_; Mt. V, 17. 39. VI, 13. 18. Mk. I, 45.
II, 17. 22. III, 26. 29. IV, 17. 22. V, 19. 26. 39. II. Cor. I, 9. 12.
19. 24. II, 4. 5. 13. 17. III, 3. 5. 6. 14. IV, 2. 5. 18. V, 4. 12. 15.
Skeir. VII, a. c. [OE. ME. ac, _but_.]

=Akaïja=, pr. n., _Achaja_; dat. =-ai=; II. Cor. I, 1. [< Ἀχαΐα.]

=akei=, conj. (218), _but_; II. Cor. I, 9. III, 15. IV, 8. 9. Skeir.
VII, a; _yet_; II. Cor. V, 16. [< =ak= + =ei=.]

=akeits=, m. (? 91, n. 2), _vinegar_. [< Lt. acêtum, _vinegar_.]

=akran=, n. (94), _fruit_; Mk. IV, 7. 8. 20. 28. 29. [OE. æcern, n.,
ME. akern, acorn, NE. acorn.]

=akrana-laus=, adj. (124), _fruitless, unfruitful_; Mk. IV, 19.

=akrs=, m. (91, n. 1), _field_. [OE. æcer, m., _field_, ME. aker, NE.

=aqizi=, f. (98), _ax_. [OE. æx, eax, f., ME. æx, NE. ax.]

=alabalstraún= (24, n. 5; 46, n. 2), indecl. sb. n. (120, n. 2),
_alabaster box_. [< ἀλάβαστρον.]

=ala-mans=, m. (117, n. 1), _all men, the hole human race_. [For
=ala-=, s. =alaþarba=; =mans= is nom. pl. of =manna=.]

=alan=, stv. (177), _to grow_. [OE. alan, _to nurish_.]

=ala-þarba=, adj. (132, n. 2), _very poor, very needy_. [=ala-= stands
for =alla-= (< alna- < √ of =alan= + ptc. suff. -na-), stem of =alls=,
_all_; =þarba=, _needy_, < √ of =þaúrban=.]

=Albila= (54), pr. n., _Albila_.

=alds= (73; 74, n. 3), f. (103), _age, generation, life, world_. [< √
of =alan= + suff. =-di-=. OE. ieldu (orig. i-stem), ME. elde, NE. eld
(poet.), _age_. Cf. =alþeis=.]

=aleina=, f. (97), _el, cubit_; Mt. VI, 27. [OE. eln, f., ME. (< the
inflected cases) elne, elle, NE. el.]

=alêw=, n. (119), _oliv, oil_; Mk. VI, 13. [< Lt. oleum, _oil_.]

=Alfaius=, pr. n., _Alpheus_; gen. =-aus=; Mk. II, 14. III, 18. [<

=alhs=, f. (116), _templ_; Lu. II, 27. 37. 46. [OE. alh, ealh, m.,

=alja=, (1) conj., _than, except, unless_; II. Cor. I, 13. (2) prep. w.
dat. (217), _except_. [< stem of =aljis=.]

=alja-kuns=, adj. (130), _foren, strange_. [=alja= < =aljis=; =kuns= <

=alja-leikôs=, adv. (212, n. 2), _otherwise_. [From stems of =aljis=
and =-leiks= + adv. compar. suff. =-ôs=.]

=aljar=, adv. (213, n. 1), _elsewhere_. [< stem of =aljis= + suff.

=aljaþ=, adv. (213, n. 1), _in another direction_. [< stem of =aljis= +
suff. =-þ=.]

=aljaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 1), _from elsewhere_. [< stem of =aljis= +
suff. =-þrô=.]

=aljis=, adj. (126), _other, another_; II. Cor. I, 13. Skeir. VII, b.
[OE. elles (gen. sg. n.), ME. elles, NE. else.]

=allaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from all directions, from every quarter_;
Mk. I, 45. [< stem of =alls= + suff. =-þrô=.]

=allis=, (1) adv. (215), _in general, holely, at all_; =ni--allis=,
_not at all_. (2) conj. (218), never at the beginning, _for_; Mk. III,
35; _for neither, for not_; Mk. IV, 22. [Prop. gen. sg. n. of =alls=.
OE. ealles, ME. alles, adv., _holely_.]

=alls=, adj. (122, n. 1), _all, every, hole_, (1) alone, w. or without
the prec. or follg. art. or dem. prn.; Mt. V, 18. VI, 32. Mk. I, 5. 27.
37. II, 12. IV, 11. 34. V, 20. 40. Lu. II, 3. 19. II. Cor. II, 9. IV,
8. 15. V, 15. 17. 18. (2) w. a pers. prn. prec. or follg.; II. Cor.
II, 3. III, 18. V, 10. (3) w. a poss. prn. follg.; Mk. V, 26. (4) w.
attraction of a rel. prn. (see 'Explanatory Notes'); Lu. II, 20. (5)
w. a ptc.; Mk. I, 32. Lu. II, 18. 38. 47. (6) w. a follg. adj. prec.
by the art.; II. Cor. I, 1. (7) w. an adv. frase; Lu. II, 39. (8) w. a
sb., w. or without the art.; Mt. VI, 29. Mk. I, 5. 28. 33. 39. IV, 1.
13. V, 12. 33. Lu. II, 1. 10. 31. 51. II. Cor. I, 1. 3. 4. II, 14. III,
2. IV, 2; and a poss. prn.; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 22. 23. (9) in gen. pl.
w. a superl.; Mk. IV, 31. 32. (10) =all= (sing. n.) w. gen. sg.; Mk.
II, 13; =allata þata= w. gen. pl.; Mk. III, 28. [< √ of =alan= + suff.
=-la= <=-no-=; cp. =fulls=. OE. eall, ME. all, NE. all.]

=all-waldands=, m. (115), _all-ruling, almighty_. [< =all-s= + prsp. of

=-alþan=, rv. (179, n. 1), in =us-alþan=. [Cp. =alþeis=.]

=alþeis=, adj. (128), _old_; n. pl. =þô alþjôna=, _(the) old things_;
II. Cor. V, 17. [Cp. =alds=; also OE. eald (w. suff. -do-), ME. ald,
old, NE. old.]

=Amalaberga=, pr. n. (54, n. 2).

=Amalafrigda=, pr. n. (3, n. 2).

=amên=, _amen, verily_; Mt. V, 18. 26. VI, 2. 5. 13. 16. Mk. III, 28.
II. Cor. I, 20. [< ἀμήν < the Hebrew.]

=ams=, m. (91, n. 4), _shoulder_.

=an=, interr. particl (216), _then_.

=ana=, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., (a) local, _in, to, on, upon, over_;
Mk. I, 45. IV, 5. 16. 20. 38. V, 4. II. Cor. III, 15; (b) of cause,
especially w. vs. of 'affection', _in, for, at, over_; Mk. I, 22.
Lu. II, 33. 47. II. Cor. I, 4; =ana þammei=, _for that_; V, 4; (c)
w. vs. of 'knowing, showing', and the like, _on, by, from, in_; Mk.
V, 29. Skeir. VII, c; (d) in other relations, denoting 'inclination,
reference', and the like; Lu. II, 25. 40. II. Cor. I, 23. IV, 10. (2)
w. acc., local, _on, upon, at, into_; Mt. V, 45. VI, 27. Mk. I, 10. 35.
II, 21. III, 10. IV, 21. 26. 31. V, 23. Lu. II, 28. II. Cor. III, 13.
[OE. an, ǫn, ME. on, o, NE. on.]

=ana-aukan=, rv. (179), _to ad_, w. =ana= w. acc.; Mt. VI, 27.

=ana-biudan=, stv. (170; 173), _to command, instruct, bid_, (1) w. dat.
of pers.; Mk. I, 27. (2) w. acc. of th.; Mk. I, 44. (3) w. dat. of
pers. and an obj. clause w. =ei=; Mk. V, 43.

=ana-busns= (15, n. 1), f. (103); _command, commandment_; Mt. V, 19. [<
=ana-biudan= + suff. =-sni-= (the radical =d= being dropt). OE. bysen,
bisen, ME. bisne, f., NE. (dial.) byzen, _exampl_.]

=ana-filh=, n. (94), _commendation_; =anafilhis bôkôs=, _epistls of
commendation_; II. Cor. III, 1. [< =ana-filhan=.]

=ana-filhan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to hand down as tradition, commit to,
commend_, w. acc. (dir. obj.); II. Cor. III, 1; and dat. (indir. obj.);
II. Cor. V, 12.

=*ana-haimeis=, adj. (127), _at home, present_; II. Cor. V, 8. 9.
[=-haimeis= < =haims=.]

=ana-haitan=, rv. (170; 179), w. two accs.; II. Cor. I, 23.

=ana-hamôn=, w. v. (190), _to put on clothes, to clothe_; II. Cor. V, 4.

=ana-hneiwan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to bend down, stoop down_; Mk. 1, 7.

=ana-kaúrjan=, w. v. (193) w. acc., _to press upon, overload_; II. Cor.
II, 5.

=anaks=, adv., _suddenly, at onse_; Lu. II, 13.

=ana-kumbjan= (54, n. 1), wv. (187), _to lie down, recline, sit at
meat_; Mk. II, 15. Skeir. VII, b.

=ana-kunnains=, f. (103, n. 1), _a reading_; II. Cor. III, 14. [<
=ana-kunnan= + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=ana-kunnan=, wv. (193) w. acc., _to read_; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 2.

=ana-qiman=, stv. (175, n. 1) w. acc., _to cum near, approach_; Lu. II,

=ana-laugniba=, adv. (210), _secretly, in secret_. [< =analaugns= +
suff. =-ba=.]

=ana-laugns=, adj. (130), _hidn, secret_; Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor. IV, 2.
[< =ana= + =-laugns= < =liugan= + suff. =-ni-=.]

=ana-leikô=, adv., _in like manner_; Skeir. VII, a. [< =*analeiks=
(< =ana= + =-leiks=; s. also =galeikô=) + suff. =-ô=; = OHG. analih
(anagilîh), MHG. anelîch, NHG. ähnlich, adj., _like, similar_.]

=ana-mêljan=, w. v. (187), _to write down, enrol for taxation_; Lu. II,

=-anan= (78, n. 4), stv. (177, n. 1), in =us-anan=, _to breath out, giv
up the ghost_. [< √ an, in OE. andian, _to be angry_, OHG. andôn, MHG.
anden, NHG. ahnden, _to punish_.]

=ana-nauþjan=, wv. (188), w. acc., _to constrain, force, compel_; Mt.
V, 41.

=ana-niujan=, wv. (188), _to renew_; II. Cor. IV, 16.

=ana-praggan= (51), rv. (178), _to harass, trubl_.

=ana-silan=, wv. (193), _to be silent, be stil_; Mk. IV, 39.

=ana-siuns=, adj. (130), _visibl_.

=ana-stôdeins=, f. (103, n. 1), _beginning_; Mk. I, 1. [< =ana-stôdjan=
+ suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=ana-stôdjan=, wv. (188), intr., _to begin_; Mk. superscr.

=ana-trimpan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to tred upon, press upon_.

=and=, prep. w. acc. (217), local, denoting 'motion over', _along_
(orig. _opposit_), _to, into, on, in_; Mk. I, 28. 39. =and driusôn=,
_down a slope_; Mk. V, 13. [Orig. =*anda= = =anda-=, uzed w. sbs. and
adjs. only; =and-= also w. vs. and advs. OE. ME. and-, ǫnd-, NE. an-
(in answer).]

=anda-=; s. =and=.

=anda-beit= (in B, =-bêt= in A), n. (94), _reproach_; II. Cor. II, 6.
[< =and-beitan=.]

=anda-hafts=, f. (103), _answer, reply; sentence_; II. Cor. I, 9.
[=-hafts= < =hafjan= + suff. =-ti-=.]

=anda-nahti=, n. (95), _the time toward night, evening_; Mk. I, 32. IV,
35. [=nahti= < =nahts=.]

=anda-neiþs=, adj. (124), _contrary_; =þata andaneiþô=, _contrariwise_;
II. Cor. II, 7. [=-neiþs= < =neiþ=, n., _envy_, OE. nîð, m., ME. nið,
OHG. nîd, MHG. nît (nîd-), NHG. neid, m., _envy_.]

=anda-nêm= (33), n. (94), _a receiving_. [< =and-= (= =anda-=) =niman=.]

=anda-nêms= (33), adj. (130), _plezant, acceptabl_. [< =and-niman=; cp.
prec. w.]

=anda-numts= (33), f. (103), _a receiving, acceptation_. [< =and-niman=
+ suff. =-ti-=; cp. prec. w.]

=anda-sêts= (34), adj. (130), _abominabl_. [< =and-= (s. =and=)
=sitan=, _to fear, regard_. Cf. G. entsetzlich, _terribl_, < (sich)
entsetzen, _to be amazed_, < ent-+ setzen, factit. of sitzen, _to sit_,

=anda-staþjis=, m. (92), _adversary_. [=-staþjis= < =staþs=.]

=anda-staua=, m. (107), _adversary_; Mt. V, 25.

=anda-þâhts=, (209), adj. (124), _vigilant, cautious_. [Prop. an old
ptc. in-to-, < =and-þagkjan=.]

=and-augjô=, adv., _openly, publicly_; Mk. I, 45. [< =and-augi= (+ adv.
suff. =-ô=), n., _face_; =-augi= < =aug-= (in =augô=) + suff. =-ja-=.]

=anda-waúrdi=, n. (95), _answer_; Luc. II, 47. [=waúrdi= < =-waúrds=
(in =lausa-waúrds=, etc.) < =waúrd=. OHG. ant-wurti, n. f., MHG.
ant-würte, -wurt, NHG. antwort, f., _answer_.]

=anda-wleizn=, n. (94) or =-wleizns=, f. (103), _countenance, face_;
II. Cor. III, 13. [=-wleizn= < =*wleitan= (= OE. wlîtan, ME. wlite, _to
look_) + (if f.) suff. =-sni-=.]

=and-bahti=, n. (95, n. 1), _service, office, ministry, ministration_;
II. Cor. III, 7. 8. 9. IV, 1. V, 18. [< =andbahts=.]

=and-bahtjan=, wv. (187) w. dat. of pers., _to serv, minister_; Mk. I,
13. 31; w. acc. of th., _to perform, administer_; II. Cor. III, 3. [<
=andbahts=, =andbahti=.]

=and-bahts=, m. (91), _servant, minister_; II. Cor. III, 6. _officer_;
Mt. V, 25. [Perhaps < L. ambactus, _servant_, of Celtic origin.]

=and-beitan=, stv. (172, n. 1), w. acc., _to rebuke, charge_; Mk. I,
25. III, 12; in pass., _to be perplext_; II. Cor. IV, 8.

=and-bindan=, stv. (174) w. acc., _to unbind, loose_; Mk. I, 7; _to
explain_; Mk. IV, 34.

=and-bundnan=, wv. (194), _to becum loose, loosen_.

=andeis=, m. (92, n. 1), _end_; Mk. III, 26; =und=, or =in=, =andi=,
_to the end_; II. Cor. I, 13. III, 13. [OE. ende, m., ME. ende, end,
NE. end.]

=and-hafjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), w. dat. of pers., _to answer_; Mk. III,

=and-haitan=, rv. (170; 179), _to confess_, w. dat. of pers., _to
confess (one's self) to, to thank_; Lu. II, 38; w. dat. of th., _to
confess sumthing_; Mk. I, 5.

=and-hausjan=, wv. (187), _to listen to_ (and answer favorably), _to
hear_; pers. pass.; Mt. VI, 7.

=and-hôf=, prt. of =andhafjan=.

=and-huleins=, f. (103, n. 1), _uncuvering, revelation; illumination_;
Lu. II, 32. [< =and-huljan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=and-huljan=, wv. (187), w. acc., _to uncuver_; Mk. II, 4; _to reveal_;
Lu. II, 35; pp. =andhuliþs=, _uncuverd, open_; II. Cor. III, 18.

=andi-laus= (88ᵃ, n. 2), adj. (124), _endless_.

=andizuh=, conj. (218), _otherwise, else_. [< =andiz-=, perhaps a
compar. form of =and=, =anda-=, orig. _opposit_.]

=and-niman=, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., _to take, receiv, partake,
accept_; Mk. IV, 20. 36. Skeir. VII, c; in the prt. _to hav receivd, to
hav_; Mt. VI, 2, 16; and =ana= w. acc., _to take, take up in_; Lu. II,

=Andraías=, pr. n. _Andrew_; Skeir. VII, a; gen. =-ins=; Mk. I, 29;
acc. =-an=; Mk. I, 16. III, 18. [< Ἀνδρέας.]

=and-sakan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to argue against, speak against_; Lu.
II, 34.

=and-standan=, stv. (177, n. 3), w. dat., _to stand against, resist_;
Mt. V, 39.

=and-staúrran=, wv. (193), _to murmur against_.

=and-tilôn=, wv. (189), _to serv, accomodate one's self to_; Skeir.
VII, a.

=and-þagkjan= (=gg=; 67, n. 1), wv. (209), prt. =-þâhta= (5, b), _to
consider, devise_; w. =sik= and gen. of th., _to recollect, remember_;
Skeir. VII, a; so without =sik=; Skeir. VII, a.

=and-waírþi=, n. (95), _presence, sight, face_; Mt. VI, 16. II. Cor.
II, 17. III, 18. IV, 2; _person_; II. Cor. II, 10; =in managamma
andwaírþja=, _before many persons_; II. Cor. I, 11. =in andwaírþja=
w. gen., _in the presence of, before_; Mt. V, 24. VI, 1. Lu. II, 31;
=faúra a.= w. gen., _before_; Mk. II, 12. [< =and-waírþs=.]

=and-waírþs=, adj. (124), _present_; II. Cor. IV, 17. [=-waírþs= <
=waírþan=. OE. ǫnd-, and-weard, ME. NE. -ward.]

=Anna=, pr. n., _Anna_; Lu. II, 36. [< Ἀννα.]

=Annas=, pr. n., _Annas_. [< Ἀννας.]

=*ans=, m. (91, n. 4), _beam_. [ON. ǫss, áss (from *ans), _beam, pole_,
> vindáss, _windlass_, > ME. windas, NE. windlass (the l by influence
of windlass, _a circuit_, < the vb. wind +-lass, for lace).]

=ansteigs=, adj. (124), _gracious, favorabl_. [< =ansts= + suff.

=ansts=, f. (102), _favor_; Lu. II, 52; _grace_; Lu. II, 40. II. Cor.
I, 2. 12; _joy_; II. Cor. I, 24. _benefit_; II. Cor. I, 15. [OE. êst (ê
is i-uml. of ô < ǫn for an), m., ME. este, _favor, grace_.]

=anþar=, adj. (122, n. 1; 124, ns. 1. 4; 146), _another, second_,
(1) alone, with or without the art.; Mt. V, 39. Mk. III, 21. V, 19;
=ains... anþar=, _the one ... the other_; Mt. VI, 24; =sum...anþaruþ
þan=, _sum ... sum_; Mk. IV, 5; (2) w. a sb.; Mk. IV, 36. II. Cor. I,
15. [OE. ǫ̂ðer (ǫ̂ < ǫn for an), ME. other, NE. other.]

=apaústaúlus=, m. (120, n. 1; =apaústulus=, 13, n. 1), _apostl,
messenger_; II. Cor. I, 1. [< ἀπόστολος.]

=arbaidjan=, wv. (187), _to work, labor, toil_; Mt. VI, 28. [<

=arbaiþs=, f. (103), _work, labor, toil_. [< =*arban=, _to work_ (vB.,
78) + suff. =-di-=. OE. earfoð, earfeðe, n., ME. earfeð-, _labor,
pains, trubl_, OHG. arabeit, MHG. arebeit, arbeit, f., _labor, trubl,
need_, NHG. arbeit, f., _work, labor_.]

=arbi=, n. (95), _heritage, inheritance_. [OE. yrfe, ierfe (ie is
i-uml. of ea), n., ME. erfe, OHG. erbi, MHG. NHG. erbe, n., _heritage,

=arbi-numja= (88ᵃ), m. (108), _one who takes an inheritance, an heir_.
[=-numja= < =niman= +-suff. =-jan-=.]

=arbja=, m. (108), _heir_. [< =arb-i= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=arbjô=, f. (112), _heiress_. [< =arbi= + suff. =-jôn-=. OHG. arbeo
(-eo <-jo), erbo, MHG. NHG. erbe, m., _heir_.]

=Ariamirus= (61, n. 1), pr. n.

=Ariaricus= (3, n. 2), pr. n.

=arjan=, rv. (179, n. 5), _to til, plow, cultivate_. [OE. erian, ME.
ere, NE. ear, _to plow_.]

=ark-aggilus= (57), m. (105), _archangel_. [< ἀρχάγγελος.]

=arma-haírtiþa=, f. (97), _pity, mercy_; Mt. VI, 4. [< =armahaírts= (+
suff. =-iþô-=), _merciful_, < =arms= = OE. earm, ME. arm, OHG. aram,
arm, MHG. NHG. arm, adj. _poor, miserabl_; + =-haírts= < =haírt-ô=.
Formd after the Lt. misericors.]

=armaiô= (22, n. 3), f. (112), _mercy, pity; alms_; Mt. VI, 1. 2. 3. [<

=arman=, wv. (192), _to show mercy_.--Cpd. =ga-a=. [< =arms=, adj.; s.

=arms=, m. (101), _arm_; Lu. II, 28. [OE. earm, m., ME. arm, NE. arm.]

=arniba=, adv. (130, n. 3; 210), _surely_. [< =*arni-= (+ suff. =-ba=)
= OE. *ærne- > eorn-ost, ME. ernest, NE. ernest.]

=arwjô=, adv., _without cause, freely, for nought_.

=asans=, f. (103), _harvest, harvest time, summer_; Mk. IV, 29. [< √ as
= OE. ær in earnian, ME. arne, erne, NE. ern.]

=Asêr=, pr. n., _Aser_; gen. =-is=; Lu. II, 36. [< Ἀσήρ.]

=Asia=, pr. n., f., _Asia_; dat. =-ai=; II. Cor. I, 8.

=asilus=, m. f. (105), _yung ass, ass_. [Lt. asinus (with change of
suff.), OE. esol, m., _ass_, OHG. esil, MHG. esel, NHG. esel, m.,

=asneis=, m. (92), _servant, hired man, hireling_; Mk. I, 20. [<
=asans=. OE. esne, m., _servant_.]

=asts=, m. (91), _branch, twig_; Mk. IV, 32. [OE. *æst (> æstel, m.,
_litl branch, book-mark_), OHG. MHG. NHG. ast, m., _branch, bough_.]

=at=, prep. (217), (I) w. dat., (1) local, (a) denoting nearness, _at,
by, with, about_; Mk. II, 2. 14. IV, 1. V, 11. _for_ (s. =haban=); Mk.
III, 9; in an abstract sense; Luc. II, 52. II. Cor. I, 12. 17. II, 1
(the first). 17. V, 8; (b) the point or goal at which anything arrives,
after vs. of 'cuming, bringing', and the like, _to_; Mk. I, 33. 40. II,
3. III, 8. II. Cor. I, 15. 16. II, 1 (the second). Skeir. VII, b (the
second); (2) temporal, i. e. 'the time within which'; emfatic w. the
dat. abs.; Mk. IV, 6. 35. Lu. II, 2. II. Cor. I, 11. II, 12. V, 20.
Skeir. VII, b (the first and third). (II) w. acc., only temporal, _at,
in_; =at dulþ=, _at the feast_; Lu. II, 41. [OE. æt, ME. NE. at.]

=at-augjan=, wv. (187), (1) w. refl. acc. (=sik=) and dat. of pers.,
_to bring before the eys, show (one's self to)_; Mk. I, 44; (2) w.
=faúra= w. dat., _to show one's self, appear_; II. Cor. V, 10.

=at-baíran=, stv. (175), w. acc. of th., _to bring_; Mt. V, 24; _to
offer_; Mk. I, 44.

=at-gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to go to, cum_; Mt. V, 24. Mk. II,
18. 20; w. =ana= w. acc.; Mk. I, 10; =du= w. dat.; Mk. V, 15; =in= w.
acc.; Mk. III, 20; =aftana=; Mk. V, 27.

=at-giban= (56, n. 1), stv. (176), (1) w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), _to
giv over, deliver up, deliver, put in prison_; Mk. I, 14; _to bring
forth_; Mk. IV, 29; and =in= w. acc., _to deliver unto_; II. Cor. IV,
11; (2) w. dat. (indir. obj.) and acc. (dir. obj.), _to deliver_; Mt.
V, 25; in pass. w. dat. of pers. (indir. obj.) and an inf. clause
(subj.); Mk. IV, 11.

=at-haitan= (69, n. 2), rv. (170; 179), w. acc., _to call to one_; Mk.
III, 13. 23.

=Athanaildus= (65, n. 1), pr. n.

=Athanaricus= (3, n. 2), pr. n.

=at-iddja=, prt. of =at-gaggan=.

=atisk=, n. (94) or m. (91; only acc. sg., =atisk=, occurs), _seed,
cornfield_; Mk. II, 23.

=at-kunnan=, wv. (193), w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th., _to afford,
grant, award, giv_.

=at-nêƕjan=, wv. (188), w. =sik=, _to draw near_, (in prt.) _to be at
hand_; Mk. I, 15.

=at-saíƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), w. inf., _to take heed_; Mt.
VI, 1.

=at-satjan=, wv. (186), w. acc. (understood) and =faúra= w. dat.
(=fraujin=), _to present to the Lord_; Lu. II, 22.

=at-standan=, stv. (177, n. 3), _to stand near, cum near_; Lu. II, 38.

=atta= (69, n. 1), m. (108), _father_; Mk. I, 20. V, 40. Lu. II, 48. (=
_God_) Mt. V, 45. 48. VI, 4. 6. 8. 9. 14. 15. 18. 26. 32. Lu. II, 49.
II. Cor. I, 2. 3; _forefather, ancestor_; Skeir. VII, d. [OHG. atto.--<
the language of children.]

=attaítôk=, prt. of =attêkan=.

=attaúhun=, prt. of =attiuhan=.

=at-têkan= (=ei= for =ê=; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. dat.; _to tuch_; Mk.
I, 41. III, 10. V, 27. 28.

=Attila=, pr. n. (108), prop. '_litl father_'.

=at-tiuhan=, stv. (173), _to pul_ or _draw towards, to bring_; s.

=at-þinsan=, stv. (174, n. 1), w. acc., _to draw towards_.

=at-wisan=, _to be present, be at hand_; Mk. IV, 29.

=aþþan=, conj. (218), always at the beginning of the sentence, _but,
moreover_; Mt. V, 22. 28. 34. 44. VI, 16. Mk. II, 10. 20. III, 29. IV,
15. II. Cor. I, 6. 13. 18. 21. 23. II, 1. 5. 10. 14. III, 4. 7. 16. 17.
18. IV, 3. 7. V, 5. 8. 11. 18; _for_; II. Cor. II, 4. IV, 5; =aþþan
ik...iþ is=, _I (indeed) ... but he_; Mk. I, 8.

=Audericus= (25, n. 2), pr. n.

=auftô= (24, n. 1; 211, n. 1), adv., _perhaps, likely, surely_; =ibai
auftô=, _lest perhaps_; Mk. II, 22. II. Cor. I, 17. II, 7.

=auga-daúrô= (88ᵃ), n. (110), _window_, lit. '_ey-door_'. [The pl. f.
=daúrôns= means _door_; s. also =daúr=.]

=augjan=, wv. (187), _to show_.--Cpd. =at-au.= [< stem =auga-= (s.
prec. w.). OE. æt-êawan, æt-ŷwan, ME. (at-)ewe, _to show_.]

=augô=, n. (110), _ey_; Mt. V, 29. 38. VI, 22. 23. Lu. II, 30. [OE.
êage, n., ME. eᵹe, eye, NE. ey.]

=auhjôdus= (=aúhjôdus=?), m. (105), _noiz, tumult_; Mk. V, 38. [<
=aúhjôn= + suff. =-ô-dus=.]

=auhjôn= (=aúhjôn=?), wv. (190), _to make a noiz, cry aloud_; Mk. V, 39.

=*aúhns=, m. (91, n. 2), _oven_; Mt. VI, 30. [OE. ofen (for the common
orig. of h and f, s. Brgm., I, p. 305 et seq.), m., ME. oven, _furnace,
oven_, NE. oven.]

=aúhsa=, m. (108, n. 1), _ox_. [OE. oxa, m., ME. oxe, NE. ox.]

=aúhuma=, superl. adj. (139), w. a compar. meaning, _higher_, >
=aúhumists=, =aúhmists= (a new superl.; 124; 139, n. 1), _highest,
chief_. [OE. ŷmest, _highest_.]

=auk=, conj. (in our 'Selections' after the first, or two first closely
connected words of the sentence), _for_; Mt. V, 18. 20. 29. 30. 46. VI,
7. 8. 16. 21. 32. Mk. I, 16. II, 15. III, 10. 21. IV, 28. V, 42. II.
Cor. III, 9. 11. V, 1. Skeir. VII, c; =jah auk=, _for_; II. Cor. V, 4;
=auk...-uþ (= uh)-þan=, _for ... but_; II. Cor. II, 16 (in B). [OE.
êac, ME. êk, êke, _also, likewise_, NE. eke.]

=aukan=, rv. (179), _to increase_.--Cmpds. =ana-=, =bi-au.= [OE. *êacan
(pp. êacen), _to increase_, > the caus. ŷcan, *êcan, ME. eke, eche, _to
increase_, NE. eke (dial.), ech(e) (Shak.).]

=Aúnisimus= (9, n. 1), pr. n.

=aurahi= (98, or =aurahjô=, 111? =aú=? Only dat. pl., =aurahjôm=,
occurs), f., _tomb_; Mk. V, 2. 3. 5.

=aurâli= (5, a), n. (98), _napkin_. [< Lt. orale, _napkin_.]

=Ausila= (25, n. 2), pr. n.

=ausô=, n. (110), _ear_; Mk. IV, 9. 23. [OE. êare, ME. êre, n., NE.

=Austrovaldus= (25, n. 2), pr. n.

=auþeis=, adj. (127; or =auþs=, 130, n. 2), _desert, waste_; Mk. I, 35.
45. [ON. auðr, OHG. ôdi, MHG. œde, NHG. öde, _desert, waste_.]

=auþida=, f. (97), _desert_; Mk. I, 3. 4. 12. 13. Skeir. VII, d. [<
=auþeis= or =auþs= + suff. =-idô-=.]

=awêþi= (17, n. 1), n. (95), _flock of sheep_. [Perhaps for =*aweiþi=
(7, n. 4), < =*awi=; s. =awistr=. OE. eowde, n., ME. eowd, _flock of

=awiliuþ= (-d), n. (94), _thanks_; II. Cor. II, 14. _giving of thanks,
thanksgiving_; II. Cor. IV, 15.

=awiliudôn=, wv. (190), _to thank, giv thanks_; Skeir. VII, b; w.
=faúr= w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11.

=awistr= (4), n. (94), _sheepfold_. [< =*awi= (OE. eowu, a-stem, f.,
ME. ewe, NE. ewe, yu) + suff. =-stra=. OE. eowestre, n., _sheepfold_.]

=azêts=, adj. (124), _easy_; compar. =azêtizô=, n.; Mk. II, 9.

=azgô=, f. (112), _ashes_. [Cf. OE. asce, f., ME. asche, pl. -en (reg.)
and es, NE. ash, pl. ashes.]

=azymus= (77), occurs only onse, in gen. pl. =azymê=, _unlevend bred_.
[< ἄζυμος, adj., _unlevend, unmixt_, =azymê= being formd in accordance
w. τῶν ἀζύμων, gen. pl. of the n. adj. uzed substantivly.]

=Badi=, n. (95), _bed_; Mk. II, 4. 9. 11. 12. [OE. bed(d), n., ME. NE.

=bagms= (48, n. 1), m. (91), _tree_. [Cf. OE. bêam, m., _tree_, ME.
beom, bêm, NE. beam.]

=-bahtjan=, wv., in =and-bahtjan=.

=bai=, num. adj. (140, n. 1), _both_. [OE. *bâ (for which beᵹen; cp.
my Compar. Gloss., p. 583), m., bâ, f., ME. bâ, bô, f. n., NE. bo-, in

=Baíaílzaíbul=, pr. n. in acc., _Beelzebub_; Mk. III, 22. [<

=baíran=, stv. (175), (1) _to carry, bring (a person)_; w. =at= w.
dat.; Mk. II, 3; =du= w. dat.; Mk. I, 32. (a th.) Mt. V, 23. (2) _to
bear; bring, bring forth (a child)_; Lu. II, 6; w. =akran=, _fruit_;
Mk. IV, 8. 28.--Cpds. =at-=, =ga-=, =us-b.= [OE. beran, ME. bere, NE.

=baírgan=, stv. (174, n. 1), w. dat., _to hide, keep_. [OE. beorgan,
ME. berᵹe, _to keep, preserv, protect_.]

=baírhtaba=, adv. (210), _clearly, brightly_. [< =baírhts= + suff.

=baírhtei=, f. (113), _brightness, clear__ness_; =baírhtein sunjôs=,
_by manifestation of the truth_; II. Cor. IV, 2; =in baírhtein=,
_openly_; Mt. VI, 4. 6. [< =baírhts=.]

=baírhtjan=, wv. (187), _to make clear, show_.--Cpd. =ga-b.= [<

=baírhts=, adj. (124), _bright, manifest_. [OE. beorht, byrht, ME.
briᵹt, briht, NE. bright.]

=baitrs= (20, n. 4), adj. (124), _bitter_. [< =bait= (the √-form of the
prt. sg. of =beitan=) + suff. =-ra-=. OE. ME. NE. bitter < bit-, the
√-form of the prt. pl. and pp.]

=bajôþs=, adj. (117, n. 1; 140, n. 1), _both_. [Cf. =bai=.]

=balgs=, m. (100), _lether bag, wine-skin, botl_; Mk. II, 22. [Orig.
_skin of an animal_. OE. bælg, m., _a lethern bag, pouch, belly_, ME.
bely, NE. belly.]

=balþei=, f. (113), _boldness_; II. Cor. III, 12. [< =*balþs=, _bold,
daring_, = OE. beald, ME. bald, bold, NE. bold.]

=balwjan=, wv. (187), w. dat., _to torment, plague_; Mk. V, 7. [<
=*balws=, _pernicious, baleful_, = OE. bealu, adj., _evil, pernicious_,
and n. sb., _evil, sorrow_, ME. bale, sb., bali, adj., NE. bale,

=bandi=, f. (96), _band, bond_. [< =bindan=. OE. bend, m. f. n., ME.
NE. bend.]

=bandja= (32), m. (108), _one being bound, prisoner_. [< =band-i= +
suff. =-jan-=.]

=bandwa=, f. (97, n. 1), _sign, token_.

=bansts=, m. (101), _barn_. Mt. VI, 26. [Cf. OE. bôs (< *bǫns < *bans),
n., _stable_, ME. bôs, NE. boose.]

=barizeins=, adj. (124), _of barley_; Skeir. VII, a. d. [< *baris (+
suff. =-eina-=), _barley_, = OE. bere, m. (?), ME. bere, _barley_, NE.
bar-in barley.]

=barn= (33), n. (93), _child_; Mk. V, 39. 40. 41. Lu. II, 12. 16. 17.
27. 40. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. bearn, barn, ME. barn, n., _child_, NE.
barn (Shak.).]

=barnilô=, n. (110), _litl child, sun_; Mk. II, 5. [< =barn= + suff.

=Barþaúlaúmaius= (24, n. 5), pr. n., _Bartholomew_; acc. =-u=; Mk. III,
18. [< Βαρθολομαῖος.]

=batiza=, compar. adj. (138), _better_, w. dat. of pers. and a subj.
clause; Mt. V, 29. 30. [< =*bat-=, _good_, + compar. suff. =-iz-a-n-=.
OE. bet(e)ra, ME. betere, bettre, NE. better.]

=baþ=, prt. of =bidjan=.

=bauains=, f. (103, n. 1), _dwelling_; Mk. V, 3. II. Cor. V, 2. [<
=bauan= + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=bauan= (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193, n. 1), _to dwel, inhabit_.--Cpd.
=ga-b.= [OE. bûan, ME. bue, OHG. bûan, MHG. bûwen, _to dwel, til,
plant, cultivate_, NHG. bauen, _to build, cultivate_, etc. Its √ is
containd also in NE. bower and-bor, in neighbor.]

=Baúanaírgaís= (a by-name of James and John), _Boanerges_; Mk. III, 17.
[< Βοανεργές.]

=-bauljan= (24, n. 1), wv. (187), _to cause to swel_, in =uf-b.= [Cf.
OE. bŷle, f., ME. bile, bule, NE. bile, _boil, tumor_.]

=baúr= (33), m. (101, n. 2), _son_. [< =baíran=. OE. byre (< *buri-),
m., _son_.]

=baúrgs=, f. (116), _town, city_; Mt. V, 35. Mk. I, 33. 38. 45. V,
14. Lu. II, 3. 4. 11. 39. [OE. burh, burg, f., ME. burgh, borugh, NE.

=baúrgs-waddjus= (88ᵃ, n. 3), f. (105), _town-wall_.

=beidan=, stv. (172, n. 1), w. gen., _to abide, expect_; Lu. II,
25.--Cpd. =us-b.= [OE. bîdan, ME. bide, NE. (a)bide.]

=-beistjan=, wv. (187, n. 3), _to leven_, in =ga-b.= [< =beist=, n.,
_leven_. < √ of =beitan=.]

=beitan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to bite_.--Cpd. =and-b.= [OE. bîtan, ME.
bite, NE. bite.]

=bêrusjôs= (=bi-=; 7, n. 3), pl. (sing. =*bêruseis=; 33), m. (92,
n. 2), _parents_; Lu. II, 27. 41. [Orig. perfect ptc. activ, < √ of

=Bêþlahaim= (=aí= for =a= in Jo. VII, 42; concerning the =h=, s. 61, n.
3), indecl. pr. n., _Bethlehem_; Lu. II, 4. 15. [< Βηθλεéμ.]

=bi=, prep. (217), (I) w. dat., (1) local, _by_. Mk. V, 41; (2) in
abstr. relations, _by, on_; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36. Mk. V, 7; _after,
according to, in_; Lu. II, 22. 27. 29. 39. 42. II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 13.
V, 16; =bi ufarassau=, _exceedingly_; II. Cor. IV, 17. (II) w. acc.,
(1) local, _against, on_; Mt. V, 39; _about_; Mk. I, 6. III, 8. 32.
34. IV, 10. V, 4; (2) in abstr. relations, _about_, _over_, _for_,
_of_, concerning; Mt. V, 44. Mk. I, 30. IV, 19. V, 16. 27. 33. Lu.
II, 17. 27. 33. 38. II. Cor. I, 8. 11; _against_; Mt. V, 23. Mk. III,
6; _because of, at, about_; Mt. VI, 28. Lu. II, 18.--=bi sumata=, _in
part_; II. Cor. I, 14. II, 5. [OE. bî, prep., bĭ-, be-, pref. ME. bi,
by, bi-, be-, NE. by, be-.]

=bi-aukan=, rv. (179), _to increase_; in pass. w. dat. of pers., _to ad
to, giv more_; Mk. IV, 24.

=bida=, f. (97), _request, prayer_; Lu. II, 37; the pers. for whom
the prayer is made, is exprest by =bi= w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 11. [<
=bidjan=. OE. bedu, f. (ge-bed, n.), ME. bede, OHG. beta, bita, MHG.
bete, bite, NHG. bitte, f., _prayer, request_.]

=bidjan=, stv. (176, n. 5), _to pray, ask, desire, beseech, call on,
beg_, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 5. 6. 7. 9. Mk. I, 35; (2) w. acc. of the pers.
addrest; Mt. V, 42. VI, 8. Mk. I, 40. V, 12. 23; (3) w. =du= w. dat.
of the pers. addrest; Mt. VI, 6; (4) the pers. for whom the prayer is
made, is exprest by =bi= w. acc.; Mt. V, 44; (5) w. acc. of pers. and
a dependent clause introduced by =ei= (w. opt.); Mk. V, 10. 18; or an
inf. clause; Mk. V, 17. II. Cor. II, 8. V, 20. [OE. biddan, ME. bidde,
NE. bid, to pray, which represents also OE. bêodan; s. =biudan=.]

=bi-gaírdan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to begird, gird one's self_.

=bi-gat=, =bi-gêtun=, prt. of =bigitan=.

=bi-gitan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to find, meet with_, w. acc.; Mk. V, 37.
Luc. II, 16. 45; w. two accs., the second being a ptc. in agreement w.
the first; Lu. II, 12. 16 (=barn=). 46; in pass. w. nom.; Skeir. VII,
c; or two noms. (one being implied); II. Cor. V, 3.

=bi-hlahjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to laf at, laf to scorn_; Mk. V, 40.

=bi-leiban= (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), _to remain_.

=bi-leiþan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to leav, forsake_, in pp.; II. Cor. IV,

=bi-maitan=, rv. (179), w. acc., _to circumcise_; Lu. II, 21.

=bi-naúhan=, prt.-prs. (201); impers.: =bi-nah=, _it is lawful_.

=bindan=, stv. (174), _to bind_.--Cpds. =and-=, =ga-b.= [OE. bindan,
ME. binde, NE. bind.]

=bi-raubôn=, wv. (190), _to rob, strip, despoil_.

=birusjôs=; s. =bêrusjôs=.

=bi-saíƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), w. acc., _to look round about
on_; Mk. III, 34.

=bi-sauljan= (24, n. 1), wv. (188), _to sully, defile_.

=bi-saulnan= (24, n. 1), wv., _to becum soild, sullied, defiled_.

=bi-sitan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to sit about_ or _near_; only in prsp.
uzed substantivly (115): =and allans bisitands= (acc. pl.) =G.=, _to
'all dwellers' of G._, i. e. _round about G._; Mk. I, 28.

=bi-skeinan=, stv. (172, n. 1), w. acc., _to shine upon, shine round
about_; Lu. II, 9.

=bi-sunjanê=, adv., _about, round about, near_; Mk. I, 38. III, 34.
[=-sunjanê=, for =*sundjanê=, gen. pl. of the prsp. of √ =es-= + suff.
=-jon-= (Feist p. 19); s. =im=.]

=bi-swaírban=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to wipe_.

=bi-swaran=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to swear to, to adjure_, w. acc. of
pers. and =bi= w. dat.; Mk. V, 7.

=Biþania= (9, n. 1), pr. n., _Bethany_.

=bi-þê= and =bi-þêh= (153, n. 2; 154, n. 2; for =-h=, s. =-uh=), (1)
adv., _after that, then, afterward_; Mt. V, 24. (2) conj. (218),
_while, when, as, as soon as_; Mt. VI, 16. Mk. I, 42. II, 15. IV, 10.
17. 29. Lu. II, 15. 21. 22. 39. 42. Skeir. VII, d.

=-biudan=, stv. (170; 173), _to offer_.--Cpd. =ana-b.= [OE. bêodan, ME.
bede, _to offer, command, announce_. NE. bid represents both OE. biddan
and bêodan; s. =bidjan=.]

=biugan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to bow, bend_.--Cpd. =ga-b.= [OE. bûgan (û
for êo in the prs. forms), ME. buge, bouwe, NE. bow.]

=bi-ûhti=, n. (95), _custom_; Lu. II, 27. 42. [< =biûhts=.]

=bi-ûhts= (15), adj. (124), _accustomd, wont_.

=biuþs= (74, n. 2), m. (91, n. 2), _table_. [Apparently < √ of
=biudan=. OE. bêod, m., _table_.]

=bi-windan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to wind round, enwrap, swathe_, w.
acc.; Lu. II, 7. (=biwundans=, _wrapt_) 12.

=blandan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to blend, mix_. [OE. blandan, blǫndan, _to
mix_, confused with blendan, _to make blind, to mix_, ME. blende, NE.

=bleiþei=, f. (113), _mercy_; II. Cor. I, 3. [< =bleiþs=.]

=bleiþs=, adj. (130, n. 2), _merciful, kind_. [OE. blîðe, _happy, glad,
frendly_, ME. bliþe, NE. blithe.]

=-blêsan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to blow_, in =uf-b.= [OHG. blâsan, MHG.
NHG. blasen, _to blow_.]

=bliggwan= (68), stv. (174, n. 1), _to beat, cut_, w. acc. and instr.
dat.; Mk. V, 5. [OE. *blêowan (Kluge, W., bläuen) (> ME. blowe, NE.
blow, _a stroke, hit_), OHG. bliuwan, MHG. bliuwe, NHG. bläuen (now
connected with blau, _blu_), _to beat_.]

=-blindjan=, wv. (187), _to make blind_, in =ga-b.= [< =blinds=.]

=-blindnan=, wv. (194), _to becum blind_, in =ga-blindnan=. [<

=blinds=, adj. (123), _blind_. [OE. blind, ME. blind, NE. blind.]

=blôma=, m. (108), _flower_; Mt. VI, 28. [< √ =blô=, _to bloom_, +
suff. =-man-=. OE. blôma, m., ME. blome, NE. bloom.]

=-blôstreis= (69, n. 2), m. (92), _wurshipper_, only in =guþ-b.= [<
=*blôstra-=, _a sacrifice_, < =blôtan= + suff. =-stra-=.]

=blôtan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to reverence, wurship_, w. acc. of pers.
and instr. dat.; Lu. II, 37. [OE. blôtan, _to sacrifice_.]

=blôþ= (gen. =blôþis=; 94), n., _blud_; Mk. V, 25. 29. [OE. blôd (w.
-d), n., ME. blod, n., NE. blud.]

=blôþa-rinnands=, adj. (prop. prsp.; 133), _blud-running_. [< stem of
=blôþ= + prsp. of =rinnan=.]

=bnauan= (26), stv. (? 179, n. 2), _to rub_. [For =bi-n.= ON. *bnûa <
b- + nûa =-nûa in gnûa (later nûa), _to scrape_.]

=bôka=, f. (97), _letter_; II. Cor. III, 6; in pl. _letters; epistl_;
=anafilhis bôkôs=, _letters of commendation_; II. Cor. III, 1.
=afstassais bôkôs=, _writing of divorcement_; Mt. V, 31. [Probably nom.
pl. of =bôk=, n., which, at a later period, was mistaken for a nom. sg.
f. OE. bôc, n., uzually f. (pl. bêc, w. i-uml.), ME. bok, NE. book.]

=bôkareis=, m. (92), _scribe_; Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 22. II, 6. 16. III,
21. 22. [OE. ME. bôcere, m., _scribe_, lit. '_booker_'.]

=bôtjan=, wv. (187), w. acc., _to boot, profit, advantage_. =ni waíhtai
bôtida=, _nothing betterd_; Mk. V, 26. [< =bôta= (= OE. bôt, f., ME.
bôte, _advantage_, NE. boot, _reparation_). OE. bêtan, ME. bête, NE.
beet, bete, _to mend, make better_.]

=brâhta=, prt. of =briggan=.

=braidei=, f. (113), _bredth_. [< =braiþs=. OE. bræ̂du (the u for orig.
î = Goth. =ei=), ME. brêde, NE. bredth (the th being due to sbs. w.
orig. th = Goth.) =-þ-= of the ful suff. =-iþô-=.]

=*braiþs=, =braids= (74, n. 2), adj. (124), _broad_. [OE. brâd, ME.
brâd, brôd, NE. broad.]

=brakja= (33, n. 1), f. (97, n. 1), _strugl_. [Orig. '_breach_' (Brgm.,
II, § 63), < =brikan= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=-brannjan= (80, n. 1), wv. (187), _to burn_ (tr.), in =in-br.= [Caus.
of =brinnan= (prt. =brann=). OE. brennan, bærnan, ME. brenne, NE. burn

=briggan= (67, n. 2), anv. (174, n. 2; 208), _to bring, lead_, w.
acc. and =in= w. dat.; Mt. VI, 13; =waírþana b.=, _to make_ or _count
wurthy_; II. Cor. III, 6. [OE. bringan (prt. brǫ̂hte < *branhte = Goth.
=brâhta= < =*branhta=), ME. bringe, NE. bring.]

=brikan= (33, n. 1), stv. (175, n. 1), _to break_.--Cpd. =ga-b.= [OE.
brecan, ME. breke, NE. break.]

=brinnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to burn_ (intr.).--Cpd. =uf-b.= [OE.
brinnan, beornan (< birnan for brinnan), ME. berne, birne, NE. burn.]

=brinnô=, f. (112), _fever_; Mk. I, 31; =in brinnôn ligan=, _to lie
sick of fever_; Mk. I, 30. [< =brinnan=.]

=brôþar=, m. (114), _brother_; Mt. V, 22. 23. 24. Mk. I, 16. 19. III,
17. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 1. 8. [OE. brôðor, ME.
broðer, NE. brother.]

=brôþru-lubô= (88ᵃ, ns. 2. 3; 210, n. 1), f. (112), _brotherly luv_.

=brûkjan= (15), anv. (209), _to uze, partake of_, w. gen.; II. Cor. I,
17. III, 12. [< =brûks=.]

=-bruknan=, wv. (194), _to break off_ (intr.), in =us-b.= [< pp. stem
of =brikan=.]

=brûks= (15), adj. (130), _useful, profitabl_. [OE. brŷce, ME. briche,
_useful_, < √ of Goth. =*brûkan=, OE. brûcan, ME. brôke, brouke, _to
uze, enjoy_, NE. brook (v.).]

=brunjô=, f. (112), _brestplate_. [OE. byrne (-yr-for-ry-), f., ME.
brynie, G. brünne, _coat of mail_.]

=brunna=, m. (108), _wel, spring, issue_; Mk. V, 29. [OE. burna
(-ur-for -ru-), m., ME. burne, bourne, NE. bourn(e).]

=-brunsts= (49), f. (103), in =ala-brunsts=, _holocaust, burnd
offering_. [< =brinnan= + suff. =-sti-=.]

=brusts=, f. (116), _brest_. [OHG. MHG. NHG. brust, f., _brest_. Cf.
OE. brêost, n., ME. brest, NE. brest.]

=brûþ-faþs= (88ᵃ, n. 1; gen. =-fadis=), m., (101), _bridegroom_; Mk.
II, 19. 20.

=brûþs= (15), f. (116), _bride, daughter-in-law_. [OE. brŷd, ME. bryde,
brid, NE. bride.]

=bugjan=, anv. (209), _to buy, sel_. [OE. bycᵹan, ME. bugge, bigge,
biᵹe, beye, NE. buy.]

=-bundnan=, wv. (194), in =and-b.= [< pp. stem of =bindan=.]

=-Daban=, stv. (177, n. 1), in =ga-d.= [OE. *dafan > the verbal adj.
dæft, _mild, gentl_, ME. deft, daft, NE. deft, _fit, dexterous, neat_.]

=daddjan= (73, n. 1), wv. (187), _to giv suck, suckl_. [See Brgm., IV,
§ 707.]

=Dagalaiphus= (21, n. 1; 52), pr. n.

=dags=, m. (90), _day_; Mk. I, 9. 13. II, 20. IV, 35. Lu. II, 1. 6.
21. 22. 36. 44. II. Cor. I, 14; =daga jah daga=, _day by day, daily_;
II. Cor. IV, 16; =afar dagans=, _after (sum) days_; Mk. II, 1; =himma
daga=, _to-day_; Mt. VI, 11. 30. Lu. II, 11; =und hina dag=, _until
(unto) this day_; II. Cor. III, 14. 15; =naht jah daga=, _night and
day_; Mk. IV, 27; =nahtam jah dagam=, th. s.; Mk. V, 5. Lu. II, 37.
[OE. dæg, m., ME. dæi, dai, day, NE. day.]

=Daíkapaúlis=, pr. n., _Decapolis_; dat. =-ein=; Mk. V, 20.

=dailjan=, wv. (188), _to deal_. Cpd. =ga-d.= [< =dails=. OE. dæ̂lan,
ME. dêle, NE. deal, v.]

=dails=, f. (103), _deal, part, portion, share_. [OE. dæ̂l, m., ME.
deal, dêl, NE. deal, sb.]

=dal=, n. (? 94, n. 2), _dale, valley_. [OE. dæl, n., ME. dale, NE.

=dalaþ=, adv. (213, n. 2), _downward, down_. [< stem of =dal= + suff.

=dalaþa=, adv. (213, n. 2), _below_. [< =dalaþ= + suff. =-a=.]

=dalaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from beneath_. [< stem of =dal= + suff.

=daubiþa=, f. (97), _defness_; =d. haírtins=, _hardness of hart_; Mk.
III, 5. [< =daufs=, gen. =daub-is=, + suff. =-iþô-=.]

=-daubnan=, wv. (194, b), _to becum def_, in =af-d.= [< =*daufs=, gen.

=-daudjan=, wv. (188), in =us-d.= [< =-dauþs=, _zelous_, in =us-dauþs=.]

=*daufs= (56, n. 1), adj. (124, n. 2), _def, hardend_. [OE. dêaf, ME.
dêf, NE. def.]

=daug=, prt.-prs. in 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. (198), _it is fit, it is of
use, it profits_. [OE. dêah, inf. dugan, ME. duᵹe, dowe, NE. do (in the
frase 'that wil do'), prov. E. dow.]

=daúhtar=, f. (114), _daughter_; Mk. V, 23. 34. 35. Lu. II, 36. [OE.
dohtor, f., ME. douᵹter, NE. daughter.]

=dauns=, f. (103, n. 1), _odor, savor_; II. Cor. II, 14. 15. 16. [ON.
daunn, m., _odor_.]

=daupeins=, f. (103, n. 1), _baptism_; Mk. I, 4. [< =daupjan= + suff.

=daupjan=, wv. (187), _to baptize_, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 4. (2) w. acc. and
=in= w. dat.; Mk. I, 8. (pass.) Mk. I, 5. 9. [OE. dŷpan (ŷ for ie < êa
+ -j = Goth. =au= + =-j=), _to immerge, baptize_.]

=daupjands=, m., prop. prsp. of =daupjan= (115); =sa d.=, _the Baptist_.

=daúr=, n. (94), _door, gate_; Mk. I, 33. II, 2. [OE. dor, n., OHG.
MHG. tor, NHG. thor, n., _door, gate_; s. also =auga-daúrô=.]

=-daúrsan=, prt.-prs. (199), _to dare_, in =ga-d.= [OE. *durran, prs.
ind. sg. dear (= Goth. =-dars=), ME. dar, der, NE. dare.]

=dauþeins=, f. (103, n. 1), _the dying_; II. Cor. IV, 10. [< =dauþjan=
+ (suff. =-ei-ni=), _to kil_, < =dauþs=.]

=-dauþnan=, wv. (194), _to die_, in =ga-d.= [< =dauþs=.]

=dauþs=, gen. =dauþis=, adj. (124), _ded_; II. Cor. I, 9. [Prop. an
old ptc. < √ =dau= (containd in ON. dó, prt. of deyja (Noreen, § 413),
stv., to _die_, > ME. deye, NE. die) + suff. =-þo-=. OE. dêad, ME. dêd,
ded, NE. ded.]

=dauþus=, m. (105), _deth_; II. Cor. I, 9. II, 16. in pl. _deths_, i.
e. _dangers of deth_; II. Cor. I, 6. III, 7. IV, 11. 12. [< √ =dau= (s.
=dauþs=) + suff. =-þu-=. OE. dêað (orig. u-stem), m., ME. deaþ, deð,
NE. deth.]

=Daweid=, pr. n., _David_; Mk. II, 25. gen. =-is=: Lu. II, 4. 11. [<

=-dêds=; s. =-dêþs=.

=deigan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to knead_. [< √ =dîg=, in prt. =daig=
= OE. dâg, seen in dâg (Goth. =daigs=), dâh, m., ME. dah, dogh, NE.

=-dêþs=, =-dêds= (74, n. 2), f. (103), _deed_, only in cpds.; cf.
=missa-dêþs=. [< √ =dê= (: dô > OE. dôn, ME. dô, NE. do) + suff.
=-þi-=. OE. dæ̂d, f., ME. dede, NE. deed.]

=diabaúlus=, =diabulus= (13, n. 1), m. (105), _devil_. [< διάβολος,
_slanderer, devil_.]

=dis-=, inseparabl particl prefixt to vs. (and verbal sbs.), (1)
_asunder, apart_; (2) uzed intensivly (cf. =dis-haban=). [In meaning =
Lt. dis- (> NE. dis- and OE. des-)> NE. de- (different from de-< Lt.

=dis-haban=, wv. (192), w. acc., _to constrain_ (s. =dis-=); II. Cor.
V, 14.

=dis-hniupan=, wv. (173, n. 1), _to break to pieces_.

=dis-kreitan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to tear asunder, rend_ (tr.).

=dis-skritnan=, wv. (194), _to rend_ (intr.).

=dis-taíran=, stv. (175, n. 1), w. acc., _to tear asunder, burst_; Mk.
II, 22.

=dis-wilwan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to plunder (completely), spoil_; Mk.
III, 27.

=diupei=, f. (113), _depth, deep_. [< =diups=.]

=diups=, adj. (124), _deep_; Mk. IV, 5. [OE. dêop, ME. dêp, NE. deep.]

=dius=, gen. =diuzis=, n. (94), _beast_; Mk. I, 13. [OE. dêor, n., ME.
dêr, der, _(wild) animal_, NE. deer.]

=diwan=, stv. (176, n. 2), _to die_; =þata diwanô=, _that which is
mortal, mortality_; II. Cor. V, 4. [Cp. =dauþs=.]

=-dôjan= (26), wv. (187), in =af-d.=

=dômjan=, wv. (187), w. acc., _to deem, judge_; II. Cor. V, 14. [<
=dôms=, m., _judgment_ (= OE. dôm, m., ME. dôm, NE. doom). OE. dêman,
ME. dême, deme, NE. deem.]

=-draban=, stv. (177, n. 1), in =ga-d.=

=dragan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to carry, load_. [OE. dragan, ME. drawe,
draᵹe, NE. draw.]

=dragk= (32; =-ggk=; 67, n. 1), n. (94), _drink_. [< =drigkan=, prt.

=dragkjan=, wv. (188), _to giv to drink_. [Caus. of =drigkan=. OE.
drencan, ME. drenche, NE. drench.]

=draibjan=, wv. (188), w. acc., _to trubl_; Mk. V, 35. [Caus. of
=dreiban=. OE. -dræ̂fan, OHG. MHG. treiben, wv., _to drive_.]

=draúhsna= (=drausna=; 62, n. 4), f. (97), _crum, fragment_. Skeir.
VII, d. [OE. drosn, ME. drosne, _dregs_.--?]

=draúhtinassus=, m. (105), _warfare_. [< =draúhtinôn= + suff. =-assu-=,
_to war_, < stem of =-draúhts= (=ga-draúhts=, m., _soldier_), < √ of
=driugan= + suff. =-ti-=.]

=-drausjan=, wv. (188), _to cause to fall_, in =ga-dr.= [Caus. of

=dreiban= (=-drêbi=; 10, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), _to drive_, in
=us-dr.= [OE. drîfan, ME. drive, NE. drive.]

=drigkan= (gg for g; 67, n. 1), (stv. 174, n. 1), _to drink_, (1) abs.;
Mk. II, 16. (2) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 25. 31. [OE. drincan, ME. drinke, NE.

=driugan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to perform military service, to war_.
[OE. drêogan, ME. drege, dreᵹe, NE. dree, _to endure, suffer_.]

=driusan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to fall, fall down_, w. =ana= w. acc.;
Mk. III, 10; =du= w. dat.; Mk. III, 11. V, 33.--Cpd. =ga-d.= [OE.
drêosan (> drêor n., _gore, blud_, > drêorig, _gory, sad_, ME. drery,
NE. dreary), ME. drese, _to fall_, > the NE. frequ. drizl.]

=driusô= (31), f. (112), _slope_; Mk. V, 13. [< =driusan=.]

=drôbnan= (56, n. 4), wv. (194), _to becum trubld_. [< =*drôfs= =
OE. drôf, _trubld_, > OE. drêfan, ME. dreve, _to trubl, afflict_, =
Goth. =drôbjan=, _to stir up, trubl_, OHG. truoben, MHG. trüeben, NHG.
trüben, _to make turbid, to afflict_.]

=drugkanei= (32), f. (113), _drunkenness_. [< pp. stem of =drigkan=.]

=-drugkja= (32), m., in =weindrugkja=. [< =drugk-= (s. =drugkanei=) +
suff. =-jan-.=]

=drus=, m. (101, ns. 1. 2), _fall_; Lu. II, 34. [< =driusan=, pp.
=drusans=. OE. dryre, m., _fall_.]

=drusun=, prt. of =driusan=.

=du=, prep. w. dat., (1) local (especially after vs. of 'saying,
speaking', and the like, denoting the pers. or th. addrest), _to, into,
at, on, towards_; Mt. V, 23. VI, 6. 26. Mk. I, 5. 32. 37. 38. 40. 44.
45. II, 5. 8. 10. 11. 13. 14. 16. 17. 18. 24. 25. III, 3. 5. 7. 11.
13. 23. 31. 32. IV, 1. 13. 21. 24. 33. 35. 38. 39. 40. 41. V, 9. 15.
19. 21. 22. 31. 33. 34. 36. 39. 41. Lu. II, 10. 15. 17. 18. 20. 34.
48. 49. 50. II. Cor. I, 18. III, 7. 16. (2) abstr., _to, unto, toward,
for_; Mt. VI, 6. Mk. I, 4. 44. Lu. II, 32. 34. II. Cor. I, 18. 20. II,
4. III, 1. IV, 2. 6. 15. V, 5. Skeir. VII, a; _in_; II. Cor. I, 9. 10.
III, 4. (3) w. inf., _to_; Mt. V, 28. VI, 1. Mk. II, 9. III, 14. 15.
IV, 3. Lu. II, 6. 21. [In meaning (not in form) identical w. OE. tô,
ME. to, NE. to, prep. (_too_, adv.).]

=-dûbô= (15), in =hraiwa-dûbô=. [OE. dûfe, f., ME. douve, NE. duv.]

=du-ginnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to begin_, w. inf.; Mk. I, 45. II, 23.
IV, 1. V, 17. 20. II. Cor. III, 1.

=du-ƕê=, adv., _wherefore_; Mk. II, 8. 18. IV, 40.

=dulþs=, f. (116 and n. 1), _feast_; Lu. II, 41. 42. [OHG. tuld, MHG.
tuld, dult, f., NHG. (Bavarian) dult, _a fair_.]

=-dumbnan=, wv. (194), in =af-d.= [< =dumbs=.]

=dumbs=, adj. (124), _dum_. [OE. dumb, ME. domb, dum, NE. dum.]

=du-stôdjan=, wv. (188), _to begin_; II. Cor. superscr.

=du-þê= (=duþþê=, for _duhþê_, i. e. =du-h-þê=, for =du-uh þê=; s. 62,
n. 3), adv. and conj. (153, n. 2), _therefore_; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. I, 38.
II. Cor. I, 20. II, 9. IV, 1; =duþê ei= w. indic., _for, because_; Lu.
II, 4; w. opt., _that, in order that_; Mk. IV, 21. II. Cor. III, 13.

=dwals=, adj. (124), _foolish_; =dwala=, m. (107; cp. also 132, n. 2),
_fool_. [OE. dwal, dwol, dol, ME. dwal, dul, adj., _foolish_, NE. dul.]

=Ei=, (1) conj. (218), (a) before subj. clauses, _that_; Mt. V, 29.
30. VI, 7. II. Cor. I, 18; (b) before obj. clauses, after vs. of
'perceiving, knowing, believing, hoping, saying, commanding', and
the like, _that_; Mt. V, 17. Mk. I, 44. III, 9 (first). 12. V, 43.
II. Cor. I, 10. 13. 23. II, 1 (appositional). V, 1; (d) before final
clauses, after vs. of 'willing, praying', and the like, _that, in order
that_; Mt. V, 45. VI, 2. 4. 5. 16. 18. Mk. I, 38. II, 10. III, 2. 6. 9
(second). 10. 14. IV, 12. 21. 22. V, 10. 12. 18. 23. Luc. II, 3. 20.
24. 27. 35. II. Cor. I, 4. 9. 11. 15. 17. II, 3. 4. 5. 9. 11. III, 13.
IV, 4. 7. 10. 11. 15. V, 4. 10. 12. 15. 21; (e) causal, _sinse, for_;
Mk. I, 27. (2) enclitic, forming, (a) rel. prns. (157, 158; S., 69):
saei, ikei, etc.; (b) rel. advs.: =þarei=, =þadei=, etc.; (c) conjs.:
=akei=, =faúrþizei=, etc.; (d) adv. particls: =waitei=, =wainei=, etc.
[Cp. =sai=.]

=Eila= (65, n. 1), pr. n.

=eils= = =hails= (21, n. 1; 61, n. 1).

=eisarn=, n. (94), _iron_. See note to Mk. V, 4. [OE. îsern, îren, n.,
ME. iren, NE. iron. Of Keltic orig.]

=eisarneins=, adj. (124), _of iron, iron_; Mk. V, 3. 4. [< =eisarn= +
suff. =-eina-=.]

=ei-þan=, conj. (218), _therefore_.

=Erelieva= (54, n. 2), pr. n.

=Ermanaricus= (20, n. 3), pr. n.

=Ermenberga= (20, n. 3), pr. n.

=Esaeias=, pr. n. m., _Esaias_; dat. =Esaïin=; Mk. I, 2. [< Ἠσαΐας.]

=Fadar=, m. (114), _father_. [OE. fæder, m., ME. fader, NE. father (th
for d may be due to the influence of ON. faðir and to 'brother', which
hav orig. th).]

=fadrein=, n. (94, n. 4), _paternity, family_. [Prop. adj. uzed as sb.,
< =fadar= + suff. =-eina-=.]

=fadreins=, f. (103), _lineage, family_; Lu. II, 4. [< =fadar= + suff.

=faginôn= (66, n. 1), wv. (190), _to rejoice_, w. fram w. dat.; II.
Cor. II, 3. [< a lost adj. (cp. =aiginôn=). OE. fæᵹnian (< fæᵹen, adj.,
_glad_), ME. faine, _to rejoice_, NE. fain (obs.), _to wish, desire_.]

=fagrs=, adj. (124), _suitabl, fair_. [OE. fæᵹer, adj., _fair,
beutiful_, ME. fæiᵹer, fayr, NE. fair.]

=fâhan= (5 b), rv. (179), _to cach, seiz_. [OE. fôn (< fôan < fôhan <
fǫnhan < fanhan; prt. fêng), ME. fon, fong (by influence of the prt.
forms w. ng), _to cach_, > OE. ME. fang, NE. fang (sb.).]

=fahêþs= (=fahêds=; acc. =faheid=; 7, n. 2), f. (103), _joy, gladness_;
Mk. IV, 16. Lu. II, 10. II. Cor. II, 3. [< =fah-= (cp. =fag-inôn=) +
suff. =-êdi-=.]

=-fahjan=, wv. (188), in =fulla-f.= [< =fah-=; s. =fahêþs=.]

=faian= (22, n. 2), rv. (? 182, n. 1), _to find fault with_. [Cp.

=fáih= (20, n. 2), n., _fraud, deception_.

=-fáihôn=, wv. (190), in =ga-f.= [< =fáih=. Cp. OE. fâh, adj.,
_hostil_, ge-fâh, m., _foe_, ME. fâ, fô, adj., _hostil_, (i-) fâ, (i-)
fô, m. (sb.), NE. foe. See also =ga-fáihôn=.]

=faíhu= (53), n. (106), _catl, property, muney_. [OE. feoh, n., ME. fê,
NE. fee.]

=*faíhu-þraíhns=, m. (91, or =-þraíhn=, n.; 94?), _plenty of catl,
riches_. [=-þraíhns= < =þreihan= + suff. =-na-=.]

=faír-=, inseparabl particl, w. vs. and verbal derivativs which it
intensifies. [OE. for-, intensiv prefix, ME. NE. for- (except in
forfeit, where it is) < Lt. foris, _out of doors_.]

=faír-áihan=, prt.-prs. (203), _to partake_.

=faír-greipan=, stv. (172), w. acc., _to take hold of, take_; Mk. V, 41.

=faírguni=, n. (95), _mountain_; Mk. III, 13. V, 5. 11. [OE. firgen-,
n., _mountain_, in f.-bêam, m., _mountain-tree_; f.-holt, n.,
_mountain-wood_, etc.]

=-faírƕjan=, wv. (188), in =wai-f.= [< =faírƕus=.]

=faírƕus=, m. (105), _the world_; II. Cor. I, 12. [OE. feorh, m. n.,
ME. vor, _life_.]

=faírina=, f. (97), _charge, cause_; Mt. V, 32. [< =faír-= + suff.
=-inô-= (?). OE. firen (< *firenu), f., _crime, sin_.]

=faírneis=, adj. (128), _old_; Mk. II, 21, 22. [< =*faírna-= (<
=*faír-=; cp. =faírra=) + suff. =-na=. OE. fyrn (cp. Siev., § 302), ME.
furn, _former_, OHG. firni, MHG. virne, NHG. firn, _old_.]

=faírra=, adv. (213, n. 2; 217), _far, far off_; uzed as prep. w. dat.;
Lu. II, 15. 37. [< =faír-= + suff. =-ra=. OE. feor(r), ME. feor, fer,
adv. and adj., NE. far.]

=faírraþrô=, adv. (213, n. 2), _far from, afar off_; Mk. V, 6. [<
=faírra= + =-þrô=.]

=faír-weitjan=, wv. (187), _to look at, behold stedfastly, fix the eys
upon_, w. gen.; II. Cor. IV, 18; w. =du= w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 7; =in=
w. acc.; II. Cor. III, 13.

=falþan=, rv. (179), _to fold_. [OE. fealdan, ME. falde, folde, NE.

=-falþs=, adj. (148), _-fold_, in =ain-f.=, =fidur-f.= [< =falþan=. OE.
-feald, ME. -fald, -fold, NE. -fold.]

=fana=, m. (108), _a small piece of cloth, a pach_; Mk. II, 21. [OE.
fana, _a piece of cloth, banner_, ME. fane, vane, NE. vane, _flag_.]

=Fanuêl=, pr. n., _Phanuel_; gen. =-is=; Lu. II, 36. [< Φανουήλ.]

=faran=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to fare, go_. [OE. faran, _to go, travel_,
ME. fare, NE. fare.]

=Fareisaius=, m., _Farisee_; nom. pl. =-eis=; Mk. II, 16. 18. 24. III,
6; gen. pl. =-ê=; Mt. V, 20. [< Φαρισαῖος.]

=fastan=, wv. (193), _to hold fast, observ, keep; to fast_; Mt. VI,
16. 17. 18. Mk. II, 18. 19. 20.--Cpd. =ga-f.= [< =*fasts= (= OE. fæst,
adj., _firm, strong_, ME. NE. fast). OE. fæstan, ME. faste, _to fasten,
fast_, NE. fast (also fasten, ME. fæstne, OE. fæstnian < OE. fæst).]

=fastubni=, n. (95), (1) _a keeping, observance_. (2) _fasting_; Lu.
II, 37. [< =fastan= + suff. =-ubnja-=. OE. fæsten, n., ME. fasten,
festen, _fasting_.]

=-faþs=, m. (101), _master_; s. =brûþ-=, =synagôga-=, =þûsundi-faþs=.

=faúr=, prep. w. acc. (217), (1) of space, _before, along, by_; Mk.
I, 16. II, 13. IV, 4. (2) in abstr. relations, _for, for ... sake,
concerning_; II. Cor. I, 6. 11. V, 15. 20.--Occurs also in composition
w. other words. [OE. for, prep., _before, for_, ME. NE. for.]

=faúra=, =faúr-=, (1) adv. of space and time, _before_. (2) prep. w.
dat. (217), (a) of space, _before_; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. I, 2. V, 21. Lu. II,
22. II. Cor. V, 10; (b) in abstr. relations, _for, because of_; Mk.
II, 4. =f. andwaírþja= w. gen., _before_; Mk. II, 12.--Occurs also in
composition w. other words. [OE. ME. fore, prep., _for, before_; cp.

=faúra-gaggja= (67, n. 1), m. (108), _'fore-goer', guvernor, steward_.
[< =-gaggja= < =*gaggi= < =gaggan= + suff. =-ja=.]

=faúra-ga-satjan=, wv. (187), w. acc., _to set before, to present_; II.
Cor. IV, 14.

=faúr-hâh= (5 b), n. (94), _curtain_. [< =-hâh= < =hâhan=.]

=faúrhtei=, f. (113), _fright, fear_; Mk. V, 42. [< =faúrhts=. OE.
fyrhtu (u for orig. î), f., ME. frigt, friᵹt, NE. fright.]

=faúrhtjan=, wv. (188), _to fear, be afraid_; Mk. V, 36. [< =faúrhts=.
OE. fyrhtan, ME. friᵹte, a-friᵹt, pp., NE. fright (poet.), affright.]

=faúrhts=, adj. (124), _fearful_; Mk. IV, 40. [OE. forht, _timid_.]

=faúr-lageins=, f. (103, n. 1), _a laying before_; =hlaibôs
faúrlageinais=, _show-bred_; Mk. II, 26. [< =faúr-lagjan= + suff.

=faúr-mûljan= (15), wv. (188), _to bind up one's mouth, to muzl_.

=faúrþis=, adv., _first, beforehand, before_; Mt. V, 24. Mk. III,
27. II. Cor. I, 15. [< =faúr= + adverbial compar. suff. =-þis= (<
=-þiza-=). OE. furðor, ME. furðer, NE. further.]

=faúrþiz-ei=, conj. (218), _before_; Mt. VI, 8. Lu. II, 21. =faúrþizê=
(6, n. 4); Lu. II, 26.

=*faus=, adj. (124, n. 3), _few_. [OE. fêa(w-), ME. fêwe (the-we is due
to the inflected forms), NE. few.]

=-feinan=, wv. (193), in =in-f.=, _to be moved with compassion, to
pity_; Mk. I, 41.

=fêra= (8), f. (97), _region, side, part_. [OHG. feara, fiara, _side,

=fidur-= (15, n. 1; 24, n. 2; 141, n. 1), num. (only in cpds.), _four_.
[< =*fiþur=. OE. fyðer-, ME. feðer-, _four_; cp. =fidwôr=.]

=fidur-falþs=, adj. (148), _four-fold_.

=fidwôr=, num. (141), _four_; Lu. II, 37; dat. -im; Mk. II, 3. [For
=*fidwôr(i)z=. OE. fyðer-, ME. feðer-. Cp. OE. fêower (< *fewur, for
*fehwur = O. Icel. fjogor, fjugur, n., < an erlier *kwekur-< *kwetur-;
cp. Brugm., III, p. 11), ME. foure, NE. four. Cp. =fidur=.]

=fidwôr-taíhun=, num. (141). [OE. fêower-tene, ME. fourtene, NE.

=fidwôr tigjus= (cp. =tigus=), num. (142), _forty_; Mk. I, 13. Skeir.
VII, d (= ·m·). [OE. fêowertiᵹ, ME. fowwerrtiᵹ, vourti, NE. forty.]

=figgra-gulþ= (88ᵃ), n. (94), _'finger-gold', finger-ring_.

=figgrs=, m. (91), _finger_. [OE. finger, m., ME. finger, NE. finger.]

=fijan= (=fian=; 10, n. 4), wv. (193), _to hate_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 43.
VI, 24. [OE. fêon (< *fi(j)ǫn). Cp. =fijands=.]

=fijands= (=fiands=), m. (115), _enemy_; Mt. V, 43. 44. [Prop. prsp. of
=fijan=, uzed as sb. OE. fêond (< fi(j)ǫnd), m., ME. fênd, NE. fiend.]

=filhan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to hide, conceal_.--Cpd. =ana-f.= [OE.
feolan (< *feolhan), _to hide_, be-feolan, _to commit_, ME. fele,
_to hide_, be-fele, _to commit_, OHG. bifel(h)an, _to commit, trust,
recommend_, also _to hide, bury_, MHG. bevel(he)n, _to trust, commit,
command_, NHG. be-fehlen, _to command, commend, commit_.]

=Filippus=, pr. n., _Philip_; Skeir. VII, a; acc. =-u=; Mk. III, 18. [<

=-fill=, n. (94), _skin, hide_, in =þrûts-fill=. [< Germanic fella- (i.
e. fel-la-; -la- < orig. -no-; cp. Brgm., I, § 67). OE. fel(l), n.,
_skin, hide_, ME. NE. fel.]

=filleins=, adj. (124), _made of skin, lethern_; Mk. I, 6. [< =fill= +
suff. =-eina-=.]

=filu=, adj. (131, n. 3), _much, very_; II. Cor. I, 5; w. a sb. in the
gen.; Mk. III, 7. 8. IV, 1. V, 21. 24; as adv., _much, greatly_; Mk. I,
45. III, 12. V, 10. 23. 38. 43; w. a compar.: =filu mais=, _much more_;
Skeir. VII, d; =filaus= (gen.) =maizô=, _(sumthing) much greater_;
Skeir. VII, c; =und filu mais=, _much more, stil more_; II. Cor. III,
9. 11; =ƕan filu=, _how much, how great_; Mt. VI, 23. Mk. III, 8. V,
19. 20. w. advs.: =swa filu=, _so much_; Skeir. VII, c. =swa filu swê=,
_as much as_; Skeir. VII, c. [OE. feolu, feola, ME. fela, fele, OHG.
filu, MHG. vil(e), NHG. viel, _much_.]

=filusna=, f. (97), _abundance_; Skeir. VII, c (the first);
_multitude_; Skeir. VII, b. c (the second). [< =filu= + suff. =-s-nô-=;
cp. Brgm. II, p. 141.]

=filu-waúrdei=, f. (113), _much talking_; Mt. VI, 7. [< =*filu-waúrds=,
adj.; =-waúrds= < =waúrd=.]

=filu-waúrdjan=, wv. (188), _to uze many words, to speak much_; Mt. VI,
7. [< =*filuwaúrds=; s. prec. word.]

=fimf=, num. (141), _five_; Skeir. VII, b; =fimf-taíhun= (141),
_fifteen_. =fimf tigjus= (142), _fifty_. =fimf þûsundjôs waírê=, _five
thousand (of) men_; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. fîf (< *fimf), ME. fif, vive,
NE. five.--OE. fîftene, -tyne, ME. fiftene, NE. fifteen.--OE. fîftiᵹ,
ME. fifti, NE. fifty.]

=fimfta-taíhunda=, ord. num. (146), _the fifteenth_. [OE. fîftêoða (<
fîfta-têoða, -têogeða), _the fifteenth_.]

=finþan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to find, find out, know_, w. acc.; Mk. V,
43. [OE. findan, ME. finde, NE. find.]

=fiskja=, m. (107), _fisher_; Mk. I, 16. [< =fisks= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=fiskôn=, wv. (190), _to fish_. [< =fisks=.]

=fisks=, m. (91), _fish_; Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. [OE. fisc, m., ME.
fiss, fish, NE. fish.]

=fitan=, stv. (? 176, n. 1), _to travail (in birth), to bear

=flôdus=, f. (? 105, b), _flud_. [< √ =flô= (also seen in OE. flôwan,
ME. flowe, NE. flow) + suff. =-du-=. OE. flôd, m., ME. flôd, flod, NE.

=flôkan=, rv. (179 and n. 4), _to lament, bewail_. [OS. -flôkan
(stv.) in far-flôkan, _to curse_, OHG. (far-)fluohhôn (wv., but pp.
farfluahhan), MHG. (ver-)fluochen, NHG. (ver-)fluchen (wv.), _to

=fôdeins=, f. (103, n. 1), _food_; Mt. VI, 25. [< =fôdjan= + suff.

=fôdjan=, wv. (188), _to feed, nurish, bring up_, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 26.
Skeir. VII, d. [OE. fêdan (< *fôdian), ME. fede, NE. feed.]

=fôn= (12, n. 3), n. (118), gen. =funins=, dat. =funin=, _fire_;
Mt. V, 22. [< √ fû (Goth. =ô= for =û=) + suff. =-na=, =-n-an-=. In
West-Germanic the suff. -r-is added. OE. fŷr (< fû-ir), ME. fir, NE.

=fôtu-baúrd= (88ᵃ), n. (94), _foot-board, foot-stool_; Mt. V. 35. [<
=fôtus= + =baúrd= = OE. bord, n., _board, shield, table_, ME. bord, NE.

=fôtus=, m. (105), _foot_; Mt. V, 35. Mk. V, 4. 22. [Stem =fôtu-=,
orig. =fôt-= (consonantal stem). OE. fôt, pl., fêt, m., ME. fôt, fot,
pl. fêt, NE. foot.]

=fra-=, an inseparabl particl uzed w. vbs. and verbal nouns. It chiefly
signifies '_separation, destruction, loss, change_', and the like. [A
variant of =faír-=.]

=fra-gaf=, prt. of =fra-giban=.

=fra-giban= (56, n. 1), stv. (176), w. acc. of th. (dir. obj.) and
dat. of pers. (indir. obj.), _to forgiv_; II. Cor. II, 7. 10; _to giv,
grant_; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. for-giefan, ME. forgive, NE. forgiv.]

=fra-gifts= (56, n. 4), f. (103), _a giving away; espousal_; Lu. II, 5.
[< =fra-giban=; s. =-gifts=.]

=fraíhnan=, stv. (176, n. 4), _to ask_, w. acc. of the pers. askt and
gen. of the th. askt for; Mk. IV, 10; for the gen. a dir. question; Mk.
V, 9; _to ask questions_; Lu. II, 46. [OE. frignan, ON. fregna > ME.
freine, _to ask_; cp. OHG. frâgên, MHG. vrâgen, NHG. fragen, _to ask_.]

=fraisan=, rv. (179), _to tempt_; Mk. I, 13. [Cp. OE. frâsian, wv., _to

=fraistubni=, f. (98), _temptation_; Mt. VI, 13. [< =fraisti-= (<
=fraisan= + suff. =-ti-=) = ON. freisti, f., _temptation_; + suff.

=fra-itan=, stv. (176, n. 3), _to eat up, devour_, w. acc.; Mk. IV, 4.
[OE. fretan (< *for-etan), _to eat up, devour_, ME. frete, _to devour,
consume, corrode_, NE. fret, _to eat away_.]

=fraiw=, n. (94, n. 1), _seed_; Mk. IV, 3. 26. 27. 31. [ON. fræ̂ (dat.
fræ̂wi), n., _seed_.]

=fra-kunnan=, prt.-prs. (199, n. 1), _to despise_, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 24.

=fra-qiman=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to expend, spend, consume_, w. dat.;
Mk. V, 26.

=fra-qistjan=, wv. (188), _to destroy_; Mk. I, 24. II. Cor. IV, 9.

=fra-qistnan=, wv. (194), _to perish_; Mt. V, 29. 30. Mk. II, 22. IV,
38. II. Cor. II, 15. Skeir. VII, d.

=fra-laílôt=, prt. of =fralêtan=.

=fra-lêtan= (=-leitan=; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc., _to let free,
dismiss, send away_; Lu. II, 29; _to let down_; Mk. II, 4; w. dat. of
pers. and an inf., _to permit, suffer_; Mk. I, 34. V, 37; =fralêt=
(imper.), _let be, let alone_; Mk. I, 24.

=fra-lêts=, m. (91; or =-lêt=; n.; 94?), _forgivness_; Mk. III, 29. [<

=fra-liusan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to lose_. [OE. for-lêosan, ME.
forlêse, NE. *forleese (s. =-liusan=), pp. forlorn.]

=fra-lusnan=, wv. (194), _to perish_; II. Cor. II, 15 (gloss). IV, 3.

=fra-lusts=, f. (103), _loss, destruction_. [< =fraliusan= + suff.
=-ti-=.] [OHG. vir-lust, MHG. verlust, f., NHG. verlust, m., _loss_.]

=fram=, prep. w. dat. (217), (1) local, denoting, (a) 'separation',
_from, away from_; II. Cor. V, 6; (b) 'motion, direction', _from_; Mk.
I, 9. V, 35. (2) temporal, _from, sinse_; Lu. II, 36. II. Cor. V, 16.
(3) in other relations, (a) after vs. of 'hearing, knowing, receiving,
lerning', _of, from, about_; Mk. III, 21; (b) of 'cause or motiv',
_from_; II. Cor. II, 3; (c) denoting the 'source' whense anything cums,
_from_; Lu. II, 1. II. Cor. I, 2. _on the part of, of_; Mt. VI, 1; (d)
_concerning, on behalf, for_; Mk. I, 44. Lu. II, 24. II. Cor. V, 12;
(e) w. a pass. v., _of, by_; Mt. VI, 2. Mk. I, 5. 9. 13. II, 3. Lu. II,
18. 21. 26. II. Cor. I, 4. II, 6 (where a pp. may be added). 11. III,
2. 3. V, 4; or an act. v. w. a pass. meaning; Mk. V, 26. II. Cor. I,
16.--Occurs also in composition w. other words. [OE. frǫm, fram, ME.
from, vram, NE. from.]

=fram-aldrs=, adj. (124), _advanced in age, very old_; Lu. II, 36.
[=-aldrs= < =*aldr=, n. (= OE. ealdor, n., OHG. altar, MHG. NHG. alter,
n., _age_), _age_, < =alan= + suff. =-dra-=.]

=framis=, compar. adv. (212), _further, onward_; Mk. I, 19. [< =fram= +
=-is=, the adv. ending of the compar.]

=fram-wigis=, adv. (214), _continually, ever more_, [=-wigis= is gen.
sg. of =wigs=.]

=fra-slindan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to swallow up_; II. Cor. V, 4.

=fraþi= (74, n. 3), n. (95), _mind_; II. Cor. III, 14. IV, 4. [<
=fraþ-= (in =fraþjan=).]

=fraþjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to understand, know_; Mk. IV, 12; _be
in right mind_; Mk. V, 15; w. dat., _to understand_; Lu. II, 50. [Cp.
=frôþs= (w. ablaut).]

=-fraþjan=, wv. (185), in =fulla-f.= [< =-fraþjis=.]

=-fraþjis=, adj. (126), _thinking, minded_. [< =fraþ-= (in =fraþjan=,
stv.) + suff. =-ja-=.]

=frauja= (1, n. 4), m. (108), _lord, master_; Mt. V, 33. Mk. I, 3. II,
28. V, 19. Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. I, 2. 3. III, 17. IV, 5. [OE. frêa (for
*frêa(j)a), m., _lord_ (especially _Christ, God_), OHG. frô, MHG. vrô,
_lord, king, God_, NHG. frohn- (< OHG. frôno, gen. pl.) in cpds.]

=fraujinôn=, wv. (190), _to be lord, be king, rule over_; Lu. II, 29;
w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 24. [< =frauja=.]

=fraujinônds=, m. (115), _ruler_. [Prop. prsp. of =fraujinôn=.]

=fra-waírþan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to go to ruin, to corrupt_ (intr.).

=fra-wardjan=, wv. (188), _to ruin, corrupt_, w. acc. (exprest or
understood); Mt. VI, 19. 20; _to disfigure_; Mt. VI, 16; in pass. _to
perish_; II. Cor. IV, 16.

=fra-waúrhts=, adj. (124), _evil-working, sinful_; (in our
'Selections') uzed as m. sb., _sinner_; Mk. II, 15. 16. 17. [Prop. pp.
of =fra-waúrkjan=.]

=fra-waúrhts=, f. (103), _sin_; Mk. I, 4. 5. II, 5. 7. 9. III, 28. 29.
IV, 12. II. Cor. V, 21. [< =fra-waúrkjan=, _to work il, do evil, sin_,
+ suff. =-ti-=. OE. -wyrht (< *wurhti-), f., ME. -wurht, _deed, work_.]

=fra-weitan=, stv. (172. n. 1; 197, n. 1), _to avenge, revenge_.

=fra-weitands=, m. (115), _revenger_. [Prop. prsp. of =fra-weitan=.]

=frêhun=, prt. of =fraíhnan=.

=freidjan=, wv. (188), _to spare_, w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 23. [OHG.
frîten, _to luv, foster, protect_, > frît-in frîthof, MHG. vrîthof,
_churchyard_, cognate with vride, _enclosure_, > NHG. friedhof, m.,
_churchyard, graveyard_. Cp. =friaþwa=, =-friþôn=.]

=frei-hals= (88ᵃ), m. (91, n. 4), _liberty, freedom_; II. Cor. III,
17. [< =freis= + =hals=. OE. frêols (< *frêoheals < *frîoheals, for
*frijo-hals), _liberty, freedom_, lit. _the state of having a free

=freis=, adj. (126, n. 2), _free_. [OE. frêo (< frîo, *frijo), ME. frê,
NE. free.--See also =friaþwa=.]

=frêtun=, prt. of =fra-itan=.

=frijaþwa=, =friaþwa= (10, n. 4), f. (97), _luv_; II. Cor. II, 4. 8.
V, 14. [< =frija-=, stem of =freis=, _free_, orig. _dear_, (cp. Brugm.,
II, 61) + suff. =-þwô=.]

=frijôn= (10, n. 4), wv. (190), _to luv_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 43. 44. 46.
VI, 24; w. inf.; Mt. VI, 5. [< stem of =freis=; s. also =frijaþwa=. Cp.
OE. frêogan, _to luv_ and _to make free_, ME. freoie, _to 'free'_, MHG.
(prop. LG., Kl. W.) vrîen, NHG. freien, _to woo, marry_.]

=frijôndi=, f. (98), _a female frend_. [< =frijônds=.]

=frijônds=, m. (115), _frend_; Mt. V, 47. [Prop. prsp. of =frijôn=. OE.
frêond (< fri(j)ǫnd), ME. frend, NE. frend.]

=-fri-sahtjan=, wv. (188), _to make an image_, in =ga-f.= [<

=-fri-sahtnan=, wv. (194, n. 1), _to be formd_, in =ga-f.= [<

=fri-sahts=, f. (103), _image, exampl, ridl_; II. Cor. III, 18. IV, 4.
[< =fri-= (allied to =faír-=?) + =-sahts= (= OE. saht, sæht, f., ME.
sahte, sæhte, _reconciliation, peace_) < =sakan= + suff. =-ti-=.]

=-friþôn=, wv. (190), in =ga-f.= [< =*friþus= (= OE. frioðu-< friðu-,
m., later frið, n., ME. frið, _peace, luv, protection_, = G. friede,
m., _peace_), < √ fri (cp. =friaþwa=) + suff. =-þ-=. OE. friðian, _to
make peace, treat kindly, protect_, ME. friðie, _to keep in peace,
preserv_. Cp. =freidjan=.]

=frius=, n. (94; or m., 91?), _frost, cold_. [< =*friusan= = OE.
frêosan, ME. frêse, NE. freez.]

=frôdei= (74, n. 3), f. (113), _wisdom, understanding_; Lu. II, 47. 52.
[< =frôþs=.]

=frôþs= (35), adj. (124, n. 2), _wise, prudent, skilful_. [< =fraþjan=
(prt. =frôþ=). OE. frôd, _wise_.]

=frôþun=, prt. of =fraþjan=, stv.

=fruma=, superl. adj. (139 and n. 1), _the first_ (146). [< the adv.
stem =fru-= (cp. OHG. fru-o, MHG. vruo, NHG. fruh, früh (by influence
of the adj. früh), _erly_), + suff. =-ma-n-=. Cp. =frum=, n. (or
=frums=, m.?), and OE. fruma, m., ME. frume, frome, _beginning_.]

=fruma-baúr= (88ᵃ), m. (101, n. 2), _a first-born_; Lu. II, 7.

=frumists=, superl. adj. (139 and n. 1), _foremost, first_ (146);
=frumist=, adv. (212, n. 3), _first_. [< =fruma= + suff. =-ista-=.]

=fugls=, m. (91), _fowl, bird_; Mk. IV, 4. 32. [OE. fugol, m., ME.
foᵹel, fowel, NE. fowl.]

=fulgins= (66, n. 1), adj. (124), _hidn_; Mk. IV, 22. [< the stem of
the pp. of =filhan=.]

=fulhsni=, n. (95), _that which is hidn, a secret_; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18.
[< =filhan= + suff. -=snja-= < =-sni-= + =-ja-=. ON. fylsne, fylgsne,
_a hiding-place_.]

=fulla-fahjan=, wv. (188), _to please fully, to satisfy_, w. acc.;
Skeir. VII, d.

=fulla-fraþjan=, wv. (185), _to be fully in right mind, be sober_; II.
Cor. V, 13.

=fulla-tôjis= (88ᵃ), adj. (126), _perfect_; Mt. V, 48.

=fulla-weisjan=, wv. (188), _to inform fully, to persuade_, w. acc.;
II. Cor. V, 11. [< =fullaweis= < stem of =fulls= + =-weis= (s.

=fulleiþ(s)=, f. (? 103, n. 2), _fulness_; Mk. IV, 28.--Cpds. =ga-=,
=us-f.= [< =fulljan= + suff. =-þi= (for =-ei-=, cp. vB., 79). OE.
fylleð, f. (?), _fulness_.]

=fulljan=, wv. (188), _to fil, fulfil_.--Cpds. =ga-=, =us-f.= [<

=fullnan=, =fulnan= (80), wv. (195), _to becum ful, to fil_ (intr.), w.
gen.; Lu. II, 40.--Cpds. =ga-=, =us-f.= [< =fulls=.]

=fullô=, f. (112), _fulnes_; Mk. II, 21. [< =fulls=.]

=fulls=, adj. (122, n. 1), _ful_. [< an old pp. in-no-, =fulla-= <
ful-no-. OE. ME. full, NE. ful.]

=fûls= (15), adj. (124), _foul_. [OE. fûl, ME. foul, NE. foul.]

=funins=; s. =fôn=.

=Ga-=, inseparabl particl prefixt to vs., sbs., adjs., and advs. For
its various meanings, s. my 'Comparativ Glossary', p. 113, or 'First
Germanic Bible', p. 343. [OE. ge-, ME. ᵹe-, i- (in handiwork), e- (in

=ga-aggwjan=, wv. (188), _to constrain, distress_; II. Cor. IV, 8.

=ga-aiginôn=, wv. (190), _to take possession of, get an advantage of_;
II. Cor. II, 11.

=ga-arman=, wv. (192), _to hav pity on, to pity_, w. acc.; Mk. V, 19;
in pass., _to be pitied, receiv mercy_; II. Cor. IV, 1.

=ga-baíran=, stv. (175), w. acc., _to bring together, compare_; Mk. IV,
30; _to bear_ (_a child_); Lu. II, 7; in pass. the nom.; Lu. II, 11.

=ga-baírhtjan=, wv. (188), _to make bright_ or _clear, to manifest,
show_, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 14; in pass. the nom.; Mk. IV, 22.

=ga-bar=, prt. of =gabaíran=.

=ga-bauan= (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193, n. 1), _to dwel_; Mk. IV, 32.

=ga-baúr=, m. (91, n. 4), _a festiv meal_. [Lit. _that which is brought
together_, < =ga-baíran=, _to bring together_.]

=ga-baúrþs=, f. (103), _birth_. [< =ga-baíran=, _to bear_, + suff.
=-þi-=. OE. ge-byrd, f., ON. burðr > ME. burth, birth, burþ, NE. birth.]

=gabei= (34), f. (113), _riches_; Mk. IV, 19. [< =giban=.]

=ga-beistjan=, wv. (187, n. 3), _to levn_.

=gabigs=, =gabeigs= (17, n. 3), adj. (124), _rich_. [< =giban= + suff.
=-i-ga-=, =-ei-ga-=.]

=ga-binda= (32), f. (97), _band, bond_. [< =ga-bindan=.]

=ga-bindan=, stv. (174), _to bind_, w. acc.; Mk. III, 27. V, 4 (gloss);
and instr. dat.; Mk. V, 3; in pass. w. a subj. nom.; Mk. V, 4.

=ga-biugan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to bow, bend_; Mk. V, 4 (s. note).

=ga-blindjan=, wv. (187), w. acc.; _to make blind, to blind_, w. acc.;
II. Cor. IV, 4.

=ga-blindnan=, wv. (194), _to becum blind_; II. Cor. III, 14 (gloss in

=ga-brak=, prt. of =gabrikan=.

=Gabriêl= (6), pr. n., =Gabriel=. [< Γαβριήλ.]

=ga-brikan= (33, n. 1), stv. (175, n. 1), w. acc., _to break_; Mk. V, 4.

=ga-bruka= (33, n. 1), f. (97), _a broken bit, fragment_; Skeir. VII,
d. [< =ga-brikan=.]

=ga-bundi= (32), f. (98), _bond_. [< =ga-bindan=.]

=ga-daban=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to becum, fit, befall, happen_.

=ga-daila=, m. (108), _partaker_; II. Cor. I, 7. [< =*ga-dails=, adj.,
_partaking_; =-dails= < sb. =dails=.]

=ga-dailjan=, wv. (188), _to divide, separate_, w. acc. (in pass. the
nom.); Mk. III, 26; w. =wiþra= w. acc.; Mk. III, 24. 25.

=ga-daúrsan=, prt.-prs. (199), _to dare_.

=ga-dauþnan=, wv. (194), _to die_; Mk. V, 39.

=Gaddarênus=, pr. n. [< Γαδαρηνός.]

=*ga-dôfs= (56, n. 1), adj. (130, n. 2), _becuming, fit_. [< =ga-daban=
(prt. =gadôf=). OE. ge-dêfe, adj.; _suitabl, fit_. See also =-daban=.]

=ga-draban=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to hew out_.

=ga-draus=, prt. of =gadriusan=.

=ga-drausjan=, wv. (188), w. acc., _to thrust down, cast down_; pp.
=gadrausiþs=; II. Cor. IV, 9.

=ga-driusan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to fall_, w. =ana= (_upon_) w. dat.;
Mk. IV, 5; =du= (_at_) w. dat.; Mk. V, 22; =faúr wig=, _by the way
side_; Mk. IV, 4; =in= w. acc., _into, among, on_; Mk. IV, 7. 8; so in
a pass. sense, _to be cast_; Mt. V, 29. 30.

=gaf=, prt. of =giban=.

=ga-fâhs= (5 b), m. (91), _a cach, haul_. [< =ga-fâhan=.]

=ga-fáihôn=, wv. (190), _to defraud_; II. Cor. II, 11. [< =*gafáihs=
adj., _deceitful, hostil_, < =ga= + =-fáihs= (= OE. fâh, adj.,
_hostil_; ge-fâh, m.) < =fáih=; s. also =-fáihôn=.]

=ga-fastan=, wv. (193), _to hold fast, keep_; Lu. II, 19. 51.

=ga-fáurs=, adj. (130), _sober, wel behaved_.

=ga-fraíhnan=, stv. (176, n. 4), _to find out by inquiry_, w. an obj.
clause; Mk. II, 1.

=ga-frêhun=, prt. of =gafraíhnan=.

=ga-frisahtjan=, wv. (188), _to make an image, engrave_; II. Cor. III,

=ga-frisahtnan=, wv. (194, n. 1), _to be formd_.

=ga-friþôn=, wv. (190), _to make peace, reconcile_, w. dat. of the
pers. to whom one is reconciled, and acc. of the pers. reconciled; II.
Cor. V, 18. 19.

=ga-friþôns=, f. (103, n. 1), _reconciliation_; II. Cor. V, 18. 19. [<

=ga-fulljan=, wv. (188), _to fil_, w. acc., the th. w. which anything
is fild, occurs in the gen., Skeir. VII, d.

=ga-fullnan=, wv. (194), _to becum ful, to fil_ (intr.), _fil up_
(intr.); hense _to be fild_; Mk. IV, 37.

=ga-gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to cum together, gather together_;
so w. the refl. =sik=; Mk. III, 20.

=ga-ga-waírþnan=, wv. (194, n. 1), w. dat., _to reconcile one's self
to, be reconciled to_; II. Cor. V, 20. [< =*ga-waírþs=; s. =gawaírþi=.]

=gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to go, go one's way, walk, cum_; Mk.
II, 9. III, 6. V, 42; w. inf.; Mt. V, 24. Mk. I, 44; w. =afar= w. dat.
(_to go after, follow_); Mk. II, 14. 15. V, 24; =du= w. dat.; Mk. I,
38. 45. II, 11. 13. V, 19; =in= w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 2; or acc.; Mt.
VI, 6. Mk. V, 34; =miþ= w. dat.; Mt. V, 41. VI, 6. Lu. II, 51; =þaírh=
w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 7; a final clause; Lu. II, 3.--Cpds. =af-=,
=afar-=, =at-=, =du-at-=, =inn-at-=, =ga-=, =þaírh-=, =us-g.= [OE.
gǫngan, gangan, ME. gange, NE. (Sc.) gang.]

=ga-grêfts=, f. (103), _decree_; Lu. II, 1. [=-grêfts= < √ =grêf= (+
suff. =-ti-=) seen in OHG. grâvo, MHG. grâve, NHG. graf, m., _erl,

=ga-gudei=, f. (113, n. 2), _piety, godliness_. [< =gaguþs=, adj.,
_godly, pious_, < =ga-= + =-guþs= < =guþ=.]

=ga-haban=, wv. (192), _to hav, possess, hold; to lay hold on_; w.
acc.; Mk. III, 21.

=ga-hâhjô= (5 b), adv., _in order, connectedly_. [< =*gahâhs=, adj.,
_connected_, lit. _hanging together_, < =ga-= + =*-hâhs= < =hâhan=.]

=ga-hailjan=, wv. (188), _to heal_, w. acc. of pers.; Mk. I, 34. III,

=ga-hailnan=, wv. (194), _to becum hole, be heald_; Mk. V, 29.

=ga-hait=, n. (94), _promise_; II. Cor. I, 20. [< =ga-haitan=. OE.
ge-hât, n., _promise_, ME. hat, hôt, _promise_, OHG. gaheiȥ, m., MHG.
geheiȥ, m., geheiȥe, n., NHG. geheiss, n., _command_.]

=ga-hardjan= (14, n. 1), wv. (197), _to harden_.

=ga-hausjan=, wv. (187), _to hear_; Mk. II, 17. IV, 9. 15. Lu. II, 18;
w. acc.; Mk. V, 36. Lu. II, 20 (s. note); =bi= w. acc.; Mk. V, 27.

=ga-hôrinôn=, wv. (190), _to whore, commit adultery with_, w. dat.; Mt.
V, 28.

=ga-hraineins=, f. (103, n. 1), _a clenzing_; Mk. I, 44. [<
=ga-hrainjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=ga-hrainjan=, wv. (188), _to clenz_; Mk. I, 40.

=-gâhts= (5 b), f. (103), _a going_, in cpds. [Stem =-gâhti-=
(=for-ganhti-=) < =gangan= + suff. =-ti-=.]

=ga-hugds= (81, n. 1), f. (103), _thought, mind; conscience_. [<
=(*ga-)hugjan= + suff. =-di-= (cp. Brgm., I, p. 405). OE. gehygd, f.
n., _thought, mind_.]

=ga-huljan=, wv. (187), _to cuver, hide, conceal_, w. acc. (in pass.
the nom.), II. Cor. IV, 3.

=ga-ƕeilains=, f. (103, n. 1), _a staying for a while, rest_; II. Cor.
II, 13. [< =ga-ƕeilan= + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=ga-ƕôtjan=, wv. (188), _to threten, rebuke, charge_, w. dat.; Mk. I,

=ga-iddja=, prt. of =ga-gaggan=.

=Gaíaínna=, m. (108), _Gehenna_; Mt. V, 22. 29. 30. [< γέεννα.]

=gailjan=, wv. (187), _to make glad_, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 2. [<
=*gails=, adj., = OE. gâl, ME. gal, gol, adj., _proud, wanton_, OHG.
MHG. geil, _wanton, merry, gay_, NHG. geil, adj., _lascivious, lewd,

=Gaina= (21, n. 1; 65, n. 1), pr. n.

=Gaínnêsaraíþ= (23), pr. n., _Gennesaret_. [< Γεννησαρέθ.]

=gaírda=, f. (97), _girdl_; Mk. I, 6. [< √ of =-gaírdan=. ON. gjǫrð,
f., _girdl, girth_, > ME. gerth, NE. girth.]

=-gaírdan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to gird_, in =bi-g.= [Cp. OE. gyrdan,
wv., ME. girde, NE. gird.]

=gaírnjan=, wv. (188), _to yern for, cuvet, desire, wish_; II. Cor. V,
2. [< =-gaírns= (= OE. georn, adj.) (georne, adv.), ME. ᵹern, adj.,
_zelous, eager_ (ᵹerne, adv.), OHG. MHG. gern, adj., _desirous, eager_,
> OHG. gernô, MHG. gerne, NHG. gerne, gern, adv., (_gladly, willingly,
eagerly_.) OE. geornian, ME. ᵹerne, NE. yern.]

=gairu= (cp. 20, n. 2), n. (106, n. 1), _sting_.

=-gaisjan=, wv. (188), in =us-g.= [ME. (< Scand.) gâse, NE. gaze. Cp.
aghast for agast for agasted, pp. of ME. agasten [Sk.] < OE. â- (=
Goth. =us-=) + gæ̂stan, _to terrify_, < a lost sb. gæ̂st < *gâs- (=
Goth. =gais-=) + suff. =-ti-=.]

=ga-juk=, n. (94), _that which is joind in a yoke, a pair_; Lu. II, 24.

=ga-jukô=, f. (112), _that which is put together for the sake of
comparison_, hense _a comparison, parabl_; Mk. III, 23. IV, 2. 10. 11.
13. 30. 33. 34. [< =gajuk=.]

=ga-jukô=, f. (110, n. 3), _a female cumpanion_. [< =gajuk=.]

=ga-kannjan=, wv. (188), _to make known_, w. acc. of pers. and dat. of
th.; Lu. II, 15; _to make known abroad_, w. =bi= w. acc.; Lu. II, 17.

=ga-krôtôn= (12, n. 1), wv. (190), _to crush, grind_.

=ga-kunnan=, prt.-prs. (199, n. 1), _to acknowledge one's inferiority_
or _subjection, to subject one's self_.

=ga-kunnan=, wv. (193; 199, 1), _to recognize, know, consider_, w.
acc., Mt. VI, 28. II. Cor. I, 14.

=ga-kusts=, f. (103), _proof, test_. [< =ga-kiusan=, _to prove, test_,
+ suff. =-ti-=. =-kusts= = OE. cyst, f., ME. cust, _choice, quality_.]

=ga-qêmun=, prt. of _gaqiman_.

=ga-qiman=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to cum together_; Mk. II, 2; w. =sik=
and =du= w. dat.; Mk. V, 21.

=ga-qiss=, adj. (124, n. 1), _consenting_. [< =ga-qiþan= + suff. =-ta-=
(=qissa-= < *qiþ-to-).]

=ga-qiujan= (42), wv. (187), _to quicken, giv life_; II. Cor. III, 6.

=ga-qiunan= (42, n. 3), wv. (194), _to becum alive_.

=ga-qumþs=, f. (103), _a cuming together, assembly, council_; Mt. V,
22; _synagog_; Mt. VI, 2. 5. [< =gaqiman= + suff. =-þi-=. =-qumþs= =
OHG. MHG. kumft, kunft (w. eufonic f before which m changed to n), _a
cuming, arrival_, NHG. -kunft (in cpds.).]

=ga-lagjan=, wv. (188), _to lay, lay down_, w. acc. and =in= w. dat.;
Lu. II, 7. 12; or acc., _to cast into_; Mt. V, 25. VI, 30.

=ga-laista=, m. (108), _follower, cumpanion_; =g. waírþan= w. dat., _to
follow_; Mk. I, 36. [< =*ga-laists=, adj., _following_; =-laists= < the
sb. =laists=; s. =laistjan=.]

=ga-laiþ=, prt. of =ga-leiþan=.

=ga-laubeins= (31), f. (103, n. 1), _belief, faith_; Mk. II, 5. IV, 40.
V, 34. II, Cor. I, 24. IV, 13. V, 7. [< =galaubjan= + suff. =-eini-=.]

=ga-laubjan= (31), wv. (188), _to believ_, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 24. V, 36.
II. Cor. IV, 13. (2) w. =in= w. dat.; Mk. I, 15.--=leitil galaubjands=,
_litl-believing, of litl faith_; Mt. VI, 30.

=*ga-laufs= (56, n. 1), adj. (124), _precious, valuabl_. [Cp. =liufs=.]

=ga-lausjan=, wv. (188), _to loose, loosen_, w. acc. of th. and =af= w.
dat.; Mk. V, 4; _to deliver_, w. acc. of pers. and =us= w. dat.; II.
Cor. I, 10.

=ga-leikan=, wv. (193), _to please_; =waíla g.=, w. dat., _to please,
be acceptabl to_; II. Cor. V, 9; or =in= w. dat., _to take great
plezure in, be wel pleased in_; Mk. I, 11.

=ga-leikô=, adv. (211), _like, alike_. [< =ga-leiks= (= OE. ge-lîc, ME.
i-lik, lik, NE. like, _similar_) < =ga= + =-leiks= (= OE. -lîc, ME.
-lich, -li, NE. -ly) < =leik=. OE. ge-lîce, ME. iliche, ylyke, NE. like.]

=ga-leikôn=, wv. (190), (1) tr., w. acc. of th. and =ƕê= (_whereunto_),
_to liken_; Mk. IV, 30. (2) intr., w. dat., _to be like unto, be
conformd to_; Mt. VI, 8.

=Galeilaia=, pr. n., f., _Galilee_; gen. =-as=; Mk. I, 9. 16. 28; dat.
=-a=; Mk. I, 14. III, 7. Lu. II, 4; acc. =-an=; Mk. I, 39. Lu. II, 39.
[< Γαλιλαία.]

=ga-leiþan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to go, cum_; Mk. V, 20; w. =afar= w.
dat.; Mk. I, 20; =ana= w. acc.; Mk. I, 35; =du= w. dat.; Mk. III, 13;
=faírra= w. dat.; Lu. II, 15; =faúr= w. acc.; Mk. II, 13; =hindar= w.
acc.; Mk. V, 17; =in= w. acc.; Mk. I, 21. 45. II, 1. 26. III, 1. 27.
IV, 1. V, 12. 13. 38. Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. I, 16. II, 13; =miþ= w.
dat.; Mk. V, 24; =inn=; Mk. V, 40.

=ga-lêsun=, prt. of =galisan=.

=ga-lêwjan=, wv. (188), w. acc., _to betray_; Mk. III, 19.

=ga-ligri=, n. (95), _consummation of marriage_, lit. _a
lying-together_. [< =*ga-ligrs=, _having the same bed with_, < =ga= +
the sb. =ligrs=. OE. geligere, _adultery_.]

=ga-lisan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to gather, gather up_; Skeir. VII, d; w.
=sik= and =du= w. dat., _to gather, congregate unto_; Mk. IV, 1.

=ga-liþun=, prt. of =galeiþan=.

=ga-liug=, n. (94), _a lie_; =g. taujan=, _to falsify_; II. Cor. IV, 2.

=ga-lûkan= (15), stv. (173, n. 2), _to shut, close_, w. (instr.) dat.;
Mt. VI, 6.

=ga-mainduþs=, f. (103), _communion, fellowship_. [< =ga-mains= + suff.

=ga-mains=, adj. (130), _common_. [OE. ge-mæ̂ne, ME. (i-) mene, NE.

=*ga-maiþs= (74, n. 2), adj. (124), (bodily) _weak, bruised_.

=ga-man=, n. (94; 117, n. 1), _fellow-man, cumpanion, partner,

=ga-manwjan=, wv. (188), _to prepare, make redy_, w. acc.; Mk. I, 2.
Skeir. VII, c; and =du= w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 5.

=ga-marzjan=, wv. (188), _to offend_; Mk. IV, 17.

=ga-maudjan=, wv. (188), _to remind_, w. acc. of pers. and an inf.;
Skeir. VII, d.

=ga-mêleins=, f. (103, n. 1), _a writing, the scripture_; II. Cor. III,
7. [< =ga-mêljan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=ga-mêljan=, wv. (187), _to write_, (1), w. dat. of the pers. addrest;
II. Cor. II, 4. (2) the th. writn is indicated by the acc., _to enrol
for taxation, to tax_; Lu. II, 1. (3) w. dat. of pers. and acc. of th.;
II. Cor. II, 3. (4) w. =in= w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 2; and =swê=; Mk. I,
2; or =swaswê=; Lu. II, 23. (5) w. a final clause w. =duþþê...ei=; II.
Cor. II, 9; or =ei=; II. Cor. II, 3. (6) =inn g.=, _to inscribe_; II.
Cor. III, 3.--=þata gamêlidô= (pp. uzed as sb.), _that which is writn_;
II. Cor. IV, 13.

=ga-môstêdun=, prt. of =gamôtan=.

=ga-môtan=, prt.-prs. (202), _to hav_ or _find room, hav place_; Mk.
II, 2.

=ga-môtjan=, wv. (188), _to meet_, w. dat.; Mk. V, 2.

=ga-munan=, prt.-prs. (200, n. 1), _to mind, remember_, w. =þatei=; Mt.
V, 23.

=ga-nasjan=, wv. (185), _to make hole, to heal, save_; Mk. V, 34.

=ga-naúha=, m. (108), _sufficiency, contentment_; Skeir. VII, b. [<

=ga-naúhan=, prt.-prs. (201), _to suffice_; =ganah=; _it is enuf, it is
sufficient_, w. dat. of pers.; II. Cor. II, 6.

=ga-niman=, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., _to take, take with one_; Mk. V,
40; _to receiv_; II. Cor. V, 10; _to conceiv_; Lu. II, 21 (pass.).

=ga-nisan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to becum hole, be heald_; Mk. V, 23. 28;
_to be saved_; II. Cor. II, 15.

=ga-nists= (34), f. (103), _a becuming hole, recuvery, salvation_. [<
=ga-nisan= + suff. =-ti-=.]

=ga-niþjis=, m. (92), _kinsman_; Lu. II, 44.

=ga-nôhjan=, wv. (188), _to satisfy_, w. acc. of pers. and (instr.)
dat.; Skeir. VII, b. [< =ga-nôhs=.]

=ga-nôhs=, adj. (122, n. 1), _enuf_. [Cf. =ga-naúhan=. OE. ge-nôh, ME.
inôh, inough, inow, NE. enuf.]

=ga-raíhtei=, f. (113), _righteousness_; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. III, 9. V,
21. [< =garaíhts=.]

=ga-raíhts=, adj. (124), _right, righteous, just_; Mt. V, 45. Lu.
II, 25. [OHG. gi-reht, _right_ (not _righteous_), MHG. gereht, NHG.
gerecht, adj., _right, righteous_.]

=*ga-raiþs= (=-raids=; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), _commanded, appointed_.
[OE. (ge-)ræ̂de (w. umlaut), ME. rede, adj., _redy_, > (or < the
Scand.) ME. (i-) rædi, rædiᵹ, redy, w. suff. -iᵹ, -i, OE. (ig), NE.

=*ga-raþjan=?, stv. (177, n. 2), _to reckon, number_.

=garda-waldands= (88ᵃ, n. 2), m. (115), _master of the house_.
[=-waldands= is prsp. of =waldan=.]

=gards=, m. (101), _house, yard, household, family_; Mk. I, 29.
II, 1. 11. 15. 26. III, 20. 25. 27. V, 19. 38. Lu. II, 4. II. Cor.
V, 1. [Properly an _enclosure_, with or without a building; < √ of
=-gaírdan=. OE. geard, m., _enclosure, yard, dwelling_, ME. ᵹerd, ᵹard,
_yard, garden_, NE. yard (for yard, _a mezure_ s. =gazds=).]

=ga-rinnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to run together, cum together, gather
together_, w. =at= w. dat.; Mk. I, 33.

=*ga-riuþs= (=-riuds=; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), _honest, honorabl, wel
behaved_. [Prop. _shamefully blushing_; < √ of =rauþs=.]

=ga-rûni=, n. (95), _counsel, consultation_; Mk. III, 6. [< =ga= +
=rûna= extended by suff. =-ja-=.]

=ga-runs=, f. (103, n. 3), _a place where peple run together, street_;
Mt. VI, 2. [< =ga-rinnan= + suff. =-si-=.]

=ga-saƕ=, prt. of =ga-saíƕan=.

=ga-saíƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), _to see, behold_, w. acc.
(sumtimes understood); Mk. I, 10. 16. 19. II, 5. 12. 14. 16. III, 11.
V, 6. 15. 16. 38. Lu. II, 17. 20 (s. note). 48; in pass., _to appear_,
w. pred. nom.; Mt. VI, 16. 18; --=þô gasaíƕanôna=, _the things seen_;
II. Cor, IV, 18.

=ga-sakan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to reprove, ebuke_, w. dat.; Mk. IV,
39; in pass. w. nom.; Skeir. VII, a.

=ga-sandjan= (74, n. 3), wv. (187), _to unite in sending_; hense _to
accumpany_, w. acc. of pers. and =in= w. acc. of place; II. Cor. I, 16.

=ga-satjan=, wv. (187), _to set, place_, w. acc.; =namô g.= w. dat.
(indir. obj.), _to giv a name_ or _surname_; Mk. III, 16 (s. note). 17.

=ga-sêƕum=, prt. of =gasaíƕan=.

=ga-sibjôn=, wv. (190), w. dat., _to reconcile one's self to, be
reconciled to_; Mt. V, 24.

=ga-siggqan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to sink_ (said of the sun); Mk. I, 32;
w. (instr.) dat., _to sink under, be swallowd up_; II. Cor. II, 7.

=ga-sinþja= (=gasinþa=), m. (108), _(traveling) cumpanion_, in pl.
_cumpany_ (for the Grk. συνοδία); Lu. II, 44. [< =*ga-sinþs=, adj.;
=-sinþs= < the sb. =sinþs=. OHG. gi-sindo (for gasindjo), MHG. gesinde,
m., _traveling cumpanion, servant_, while OHG. gi-sind, MHG. gesint(d),
OE. ge-sîd (s. =sinþs=), m., _cumpanion, attendant_, are strong sbs.]

=ga-sitan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to set one's self down, sit down, sit_,
w. =in= w. dat.; Mk. IV, 1.

=ga-skafts= (51, n. 2), f. (103), _creation, creature_; II. Cor. V, 17.

=ga-skaidnan=, wv. (194), _to becum parted, to depart_.

=ga-skapjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), w. acc., _to shape, make, create_; in
pass. w. nom.; Mk. II, 27.

=ga-skeirjan=, wv. (188), _to make clear, explain, interpret_; Mk. V,

=ga-slawan=, wv. (193), _to be silent_; Mk. IV, 39.

=ga-smeitan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to besmear, annoint_.

=ga-sôk=, prt. of =gasakan=.

=ga-staldan=, rv. (179), _to win, gain, possess_.

=ga-standan=, stv. (177, n. 3), (1) lit., _to stand, stand stil, stop_;
w. =in= w. dat., _to tarry, stay behind_; Lu. II, 43. (2) trop., (a)
_to take position, rize up_, w. =ana= w. acc.; Mk. III, 26 (the first);
_to stand_; Mk. III, 26 (the second); w. (loc.) dat.; II. Cor. I, 24;
(b) _to be restored_; Mk. III, 5.

=gasti-gôþs= (88ᵃ), adj. (124), _good to a stranger, hospitabl_.

=ga-stôjan= (26), wv. (186), _to judge, determin_, w. acc. and =at= w.
dat.; II. Cor. II, 1.

=ga-stôþ=, prt. of =gastandan=.

=gasts=, m. (101), _stranger_. [OE. gæst, ME. gest, _stranger, gest,
enemy_, NE. gest.]

=ga-suljan=, wv. (188), _to found, ground_.

=ga-swalt=, prt. of =ga-swiltan=.

=ga-swikunþjan=, wv. (188), _to make known, manifest_, w. acc.; Mk.
III, 12.

=ga-swiltan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to die_; Mk. V, 35. II. Cor. V, 15
(the second); w. =faúr= w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 15 (three times).

=ga-taíhun=, prt. of =ga-teihan=.

=ga-taíran=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to tear, tear to pieces, break,
destroy_; Mt. V, 17. 19; in pass., _to be dissolvd_; II. Cor. V, 1; _to
be destroyd, be done away_; II. Cor. III, 14.

=ga-tamjan= (33), wv. (187), w. acc., _to tame_; Mk. V, 4.

=ga-taujan= (26), wv. (187), _to do, make, commit_, (1) w. acc.;
Mk. II, 25. II. Cor. V, 10 (s. note); =astans g.=, _to shoot forth
branches_; Mk. IV, 32; =garûni g.=, _to take counsel_, w. =bi= w. acc.;
Mk. III, 6; w. two accs., _to make_; Mt. V, 36; and =faúr= w. acc.; II.
Cor. V, 21; _to do_. (2) w. dat. of pers. and =ƕan filu=; Mk. V, 19.
20. (3) w. acc. and inf., _to make_; Mk. I, 17. Skeir. VII, b. c.

=ga-taúra=, m. (108), _tear, rent_; Mk. II, 21. [< =ga-taíran=.]

=ga-taúrnan=, wv. (194), _to rend_ (intr.), _becum void, be done away,
be abolisht_; =þata gataúrnandô=, _that which is transitory_ or _void_;
II. Cor. III, 7. 11. 13.

=ga-taúrþs=, f. (103), _destruction_. [< =ga-taíran= + suff. =-þi-=.]

=ga-teihan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to tel, report, announce_; w. =in= w.
dat. of place; Mk. V, 14; w. dat. of pers. and a clause introduced by
=ƕan filu=; Mk. V, 19; or, in the pass., an inf. frase as subj.; Lu.
II, 26.

=ga-têmiba= (33), adv. (103, n. 3; 210), _fitly_. [< =*ga-têms= (=
OHG. gi-zâmi, MHG. gezæ̂me, adj., _fit, suitabl_) + =-ba=; < √ of

=ga-timan=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to suit_.

=ga-timrjô=, f. (112), _building_; II. Cor. V, 1. [=-timrjô= < =-timra=
(w. suff. =-ra-=) = OE. timber (w. inorganic b), n., ME. NE. timber,
_wood for building_; +-suff. =-jôn-=.]

=ga-trauan= (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193), _to hav confidence, be
confident, to trust_; II. Cor. V, 6. 8; w. =in= w. dat.; II. Cor. II, 3.

=ga-tulgjan=, wv. (188), _to confirm, establish_; pp. =gatulgiþs=,
_firm, stedfast_; II. Cor. I, 6.

=gatwô=, f. (112), _street_. [ON. gata (acc. gǫtu), f., _street_, > ME.
gate, NE. (Sc.) gate, _way, path_.]

=ga-þaírsan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to wither_; Mk. III, 1. 3.

=ga-þaúrbs= (56, n. 3), adj. (124), _temperate_. [< √ of

=ga-þaúrsnan= (32), wv. (194), _to dry up, wither away_; Mk. IV, 6. V,

=ga-þiuþjan=, wv. (187), w. acc., _to bless_; Skeir. VII, b.

=ga-þláihan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to cumfort, console_; II. Cor. II, 7;
_to exhort_; II. Cor. V, 20.

=ga-þláihts=, f. (103), _a pleasing with kind words, cumfort;
consolation_; II. Cor. I, 3. 4. 6. 7. [< =ga-þláihan= + suff. =-ti-=.]

=ga-þlaúhun=, prt. pl. of =ga-þliuhan=.

=ga-þliuhan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to flee_; Mk. V, 14.

=ga-þrafsteins=, f. (103, n. 1), _cumfort, consolation_; II. Cor. I, 5.
[< =gaþrafstjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=ga-þrafstjan=, wv. (188), _to cumfort, console_, w. acc. of pers. and
=ana= w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 4; or =þaírh= w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 4; in
pass. the nom. (exprest or implied), w. (instr.) dat.; II. Cor. I, 4;
or =in= w. gen.; II. Cor. I, 6.

=ga-þrask= (32), n. (94), _threshing floor_. [< √ of =(*ga-)þriskan=.]

=ga-þulan=, wv. (193), _to suffer, endure_, w. acc. and =fram= w. dat.;
Mk. V, 26.

=ga-þwastjan=, wv. (188), _to confirm, restore, establish_, w. acc. and
=in= w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 21.

=gaumjan=, wv. (188), _to see, perceiv, observ, behold_, (1) abs.;
Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. a clause w. =þatei=; Skeir. VII, d.--in pass., _to
appear, be seen_, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 5. [OHG. goumen and goumôn, MHG.
goumen, _to pay attention to, observ_.]

=gaunôn=, wv. (189), _to lament_.

=gáurjan=, _to make sorry, to griev_, w. acc.; II. Cor. II, 5 (the
second); also abs., _to cause grief_; II. Cor. II, 5 (the first).--=sa
gáurida= (pp.; 134), _he who is made sorry_, w. =us= w. dat.; II. Cor.
II, 2. [< =gáurs=.]

=gáurs= (24, n. 3), adj. (124), _sorry, sorrowful, sad, grievd_; w.
=in= w. gen.; Mk. III, 5; _of a sad countenance_; Mt. VI, 16. [< √
=gau=, in =gau-n-ôn=, _to mourn, lament_. Cp. OHG. gôrag (w. suff.
-a-ga-), adj., _wreched_.]

=ga-waírþi=, n. (95, n. 1), _peace_; Mk. V, 34. Lu. II, 29. II. Cor.
I, 2. [< =*ga-waírþs=, adj., _taking the same turn_; hense _agreeing_,
< =(*ga)-waírþan= (=waírþan=, orig., _to turn_) = OE. geweorðan, _to
please, agree_, OHG. giwerdan, MHG. gewerden, NHG. (dial.) gewäede, w.
'lassen', _to let alone_.]

=ga-waknan= (35), wv. (194), _to awake, awaken_.

=ga-wandjan=, wv. (188), _to turn, cause to cum back_, (1) intr., w.
=du= w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 16. (2) tr., w. =sik=, _to turn, turn
back_; Mk. V, 30; _to be converted_; Mk. IV, 12; _to return_; Lu. II,
20; w. =in= w. acc.; Lu. II, 39. 45; w. =aftra=; Lu. II, 43.

=ga-wasjan=, wv. (187), _to clothe_, w. =sik=, _to clothe one's self_;
Mt. VI, 29; =gawasiþs= (pp.), _clothed_; Mk. V, 15. II. Cor. V, 3.
=gawasiþs wisan=, _to be clothed_, w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 6.

=ga-waúrki=, n. (95), _work, business_. [< =ga-= + =waúrk= extended by
suff. =-ja-=.]

=ga-waúrkjan=, anv. (209), _to work, make to do_; w. acc. of pers. and
=du= w. inf., _to appoint, ordain_; Mk. III, 14.

=ga-waúrstwa=, m. (108), _fellow-worker_; II. Cor. I, 24. [< =ga-= +
=waúrstw= extended by suff. =-an-=.]

=gawi=, n. (95), _region, district, province, cuntry_. [OHG. gewi,
gouwi, MHG. göu, gou, n., NHG. gau, m., _district_.]

=ga-widan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to join together_.

=ga-wigan=, stv. (176, n. 2), _to shake, shake together_.

=ga-wiljis=, adj. (126), _willing, unanimous_. [=-wiljis= < =wiljan=.]

=ga-wiss=, f. (103), _connection, joint_. [< =ga-widan=, _to join
together_, (s. =-widan=) + suff. =-ti-= (=ss= < dt).]

=ga-wrisqan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to produce fruit_.

=gazds=, m. (91), _sting_. [OE. gierd (stem geardjâ-< gardjâ-, while
=gazds= is an =a=-stem), gird, f., ME. yerde, _twig, rod_, NE. yard.]

=-geisnan=, wv. (194), in =us-g.=, _to becum amazed_. [Cp. =-gaisjan=.]

=Gelimêr=, pr. n. (6, n. 2).

=giba=, f. (96), _gift_; Mt. V, 24. II. Cor. I, 11. [< =giban=. OE.
giefu, gifu, f., ME. gife, _gift_; cp. =-gifts=.]

=giban= (56, n. 1), stv. (176), _to giv_, w. acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 7.
8. Lu. II, 24; two accs.; II. Cor. I, 22; w. dat. of pers. and acc. of
th.; Mt. V, 31. VI, 11. II. Cor. V, 12. 18; or two accs.; II. Cor. V,
5; for the acc. an inf.; Mk. V, 43; w. dat. of pers.; Mt. V, 42. Mk.
II, 26; so in pass.; Mk. IV, 25.--Cpds. =at-=, =fra-=, =us-g.= [OE.
giefan, gifan, ME. gyve, NE. giv.]

=gibands=, m. (115), _giver_. [Prop. prsp. of =giban=.]

=gif=, imper. of =giban=.

=-gifts= (56, n. 4), f., _a giving_, in =fra-g.= [< =giban= and suff.
=-ti-=. OE. gift, f. n., ME. NE. gift.]

=-gildan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to pay_, in cpds. only. [OE. gyldan,
geldan, _to pay, requite_, ME. ᵹelde, NE. yield.]

=gilstr= (75, n. 1), n. (94), _tribute_. [< =-gildan= + suff. =-tra=
(=st= < dt.)]

=gilstra-mêleins=, f. (103, n. 1), _enrolment for taxation_; Lu. II, 2.
[< stem of =gilstr= + =-mêleins= < =mêljan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=gilþa=, f. (97), _sickl_; Mk. IV, 29. [Cf. ON. gelda > ME. gelde, NE.

=-ginnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), in =du-g.=, _to begin_. [OE. -ginnan, ME.
ginne, NE. gin (obs.), cpd. begin (be-) = Goth. =bi-=.]

=Gisaleicus= (21, n. 1), pr. n.

=gistra-dagis=, adv. (214), _to-morrow_; Mt. VI, 30. [Either an error,
for =afar-daga=, or it means both _yesterday_ and _to-morrow_; cp. ON.
ígær, _to-morrow, yesterday_; OHG. êgestern, _day after to-morrow, day
before yesterday_; =gistra= < =gis-= (cp. Lt. hes-ternus, _yesterday_)
+ =-tra=; =dagis= is gen. of =dags=.]

=-gitan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to get_, in =bi-g.= [OE. gietan, getan,
ME. gete, NE. get (also in cpds.).]

=giutan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to pour_, w. acc. and =in= w. acc.; Mk.
II, 22. [OE. gêotan, ME. ᵹete, _to pour_, OHG. gioȥan, MHG. gieȥen,
NHG. giessen, _to pour, cast_.]

=glaggwô=, adv., (211), _diligently, perfectly, accurately, wel_. [<
=*glaggwus= + adv. suff. =-ô=.]

=glaggwuba= (4, b), adv. (131, n. 2; 210 and n. 1), _diligently,
accurately_. [< =glaggwus= + =-ba=.]

=*glaggwus= (68), adj. (131, n. 2). [OE. glêaw, ME. gleu, adj.,
_sagacious, skild_.]

=glitmunjan=, wv. (187), _to glitter, shine_. [< =*glitmuni=, _shine,
splendor_, < =*glitmun-= (+ suff. =-ja=), _splendor_, < =*glit-= (=
glit-in E. glit-ter) + suff. =-mun-=.]

=gôljan=, wv. (188), _to greet, salute, welcum_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 47.

=gôþs= (gen. =gôdis=), adj. (124, n. 2; 138), _good, meet, suitabl_;
Mt. V, 45. Mk. IV, 20. Lu. II, 14. [OE. gôd, ME. gôd, god, NE. good.]

=graba= (35), f. (97), _dich, trench_. [< √ of =graban=.]

=graban= (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), _to dig_.--Cpds. =uf-=, =us-g.=
[OE. grafan, ME. grave, _to dig_, NE. grave, _to entomb_ (obs.), _to
cut, engrave_.]

=gras= (gen. =grasis=), n. (94), _grass, blade of grass, herb_; Mk. IV,
28. 32. [OE. græs, n., ME. gras, gress, NE. grass.]

=grêdags=, adj. (124), _greedy, hungry_; Mk. II, 25. [< =grêdus= (=
OE. græ̂d, orig. u-stem, m., _greed_), m., _greed, hunger_, + suff.
=-a-ga-=. OE. græ̂dig (w. suff. -ig-), ME. gredi, NE. greedy.]

=greipan=, stv. (172), _to seiz, take_.--Cpds. =faír-=, =und-g.= [OE.
grîpan, ME. gripe, NE. gripe.]

=grêtan=, rv. (181), _to weep, lament_; Mk. V, 38. 39. [OE. græ̂tan,
ME. grête, NE. greet, _to weep, lament_.]

=grêts=, m. (101, n. 1), _weeping_. [< =grêtan=.]

=grinda-fraþjis=, adj. (126), _feebl-minded, pusillanimous_.

=*griþs= (=grids=; 74, n. 2), f. (103), _step, grade, degree_.

=grôba= (35), f. (97), _hole_. [< √ of =graban=. OHG. gruoba, MHG.
gruobe, NHG. grube, f., _pit, hole, dich_.]

=guda-faúrhts= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (124), _God-fearing, devout_; Lu. II,

=guda-laus= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (124), _godless, without God_.

=gud-hûs= (88ᵃ, n. 1), n. (94), _house of God, templ_.

=Gudi-lub= (56, n. 1; 88ᵃ, n. 2), pr. n.

=gudja=, m. (108), _priest_; Mk. I, 44. II, 26. [< =guþ= + suff.

=gulþ=, n. (94), _gold_. [OE. gold, n., ME. gold, NE. gold.]

=guma=, m. (107), _man_. [OE. guma, ME. gome, NHG. -gam (in bräutigam,
_bridegroom_) < MHG. gome, OHG. gomo, m., _man_.]

=guma-kunds= (88ᵃ), adj. (124), _of the male kind, male_; Lu. II, 23.

=Gumundus= (65, n. 1), pr. n.

=-gutnan=, wv. (194), _to pour_ (intr.), in =us-g.= [< pp. stem of

=guþ= (1, n. 4), m. (94, n. 3; 118, n. 1), _God_ (in pl. =guda=,
_gods_); Mt. V, 34. Mk. II, 7. IV, 11. 26. 30. Lu. II, 13. 20. 28. 40.
52. II. Cor. I, 1. 2. 3. 9. 12. 19. II, 15. 17. III, 4. IV, 2. 4. 6. 7.
15. V, 1. 5. 11. 18. 19. 20. 21. [OE. god, m., _God_; n., _god_, ME.
god, NE. God, god.]

=guþa-skaunei= (88ᵃ, n. 1), f. (113), _the form of God_. [=-skaunei= <

=guþ-blôstreis= (88ᵃ, n. 1; cp. 69, n. 2), m. (92), _wurshipper of

=Haban=, wv. (192), (1) _to hav, possess_, (a) abs.; Mk. IV, 25; (b)
w. acc.; Mt. V, 46. VI, 5. Mk. I, 22. 32 (s. =unhulþô=). 40. III, 1.
3. 11. 15. 22. 26. 29. 30. IV, 5 (the first). 6. 9. 23. 40. V, 15. II.
Cor. I, 15. II, 13. III, 4. 12. IV, 1. 7. 13. Skeir. VII, a; and =bi=
w. acc.; Mt. V, 23; =fram= w. dat.; Mt. VI, 1. II. Cor. II, 3; =in= w.
dat.; Mk. IV, 17. V, 3. II. Cor. I, 9; =miþ= w. dat.; Mk. II, 19; =us=
w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 1; =wiþra= w. acc.; II. Cor. V, 12. (2) _to hold,
take, take hold of, keep_; =habaiþ wisan=, _to be held, be redy for_;
Mk. III, 9. (3) _to 'hav evil', be sick_; Mk. I, 32 (the first). 34.
II, 17; =waírs h.=, _rather to be wurse_; Mk. V, 26; =aftumist h.=,
_to lie at the point of deth_; Mk. V, 23; =ufarassau h.=, _to hav in
abundance_; II. Cor. II, 4.--Cpds. =dis-=, =ga-h.= [OE. habban, ME.
habbe, have, NE. hav.]

=hafjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to heav, lift up, bear_; Mk. II, 3.--Cpds.
=and-=, =us-h.= [OE. hebban, ME. hebbe, heve, NE. heav.]

=-hafnan= (35), wv. (194), _to heav_ (intr.), in =ufar-h.= [< pp. stem
=haf-ans= < =hafjan=.]

=hâhan= (5, b), rv. (179), _to hang_. [OE. hôn (< *hôan < *hôhan <
*hanhan; prt. hêng, pp. hangen; cf. hangian, wv.), ME. *hôn (prt. heng,
pp. hange), and hange, NE. hang (by infl. of the forms w. ng and ang).]

=Haíbráius= (23; 61), pr. n., _Hebrew_. [< Ἑβραῖος.]

=haíhait=, prt. of =haitan=.

=háihs= (20, n. 2), adj. (124), _with one ey_.

=hailags= (21, n. 1), adj. (124), _holy_. [< =hails= + suff. =-ga-=.
OE. hâliᵹ (w. suff. iᵹ for eᵹ), ME. hali, holi, NE. holy.]

=hailidêdi-u=, prt. of =hailjan= + =-u=.

=hailjan=, wv. (188), _to heal_, (1) abs.; Mk. III, 2. (2) w. acc. of
disease; Mk. III, 15.--Cpd. =ga-h.= [< =hails=. OE. hæ̂lan, ME. hele,
NE. heal.]

=-hailnan=, wv. (194), _to heal_ (intr.), in =ga-h.= [< =hails=.]

=hails=, adj. (124), _hale, hole, sound_, w. =af= w. dat.; Mk. V, 34.
[OE. hâl, ME. hol, NE. hole.]

=haims=, f. (103, n. 4), _village, town, cuntry_; Mk. I, 38. V, 14.
[OE. hâm, m., ME. hôm, _home, dwelling_, in acc. uzed as adv., NE.
home, -ham, Ham-, in names of places.]

=háiraísis= (23), _heresy_, in nom. pl. =-eis=. [< αἵρεσις, pl. -εις.]

=haírda=, f. (97), _herd, flock_; Mk. V, 11. 13. Lu. II, 8. [OE. heord,
f., ME. herde, NE. herd.]

=haírdeis=, m. (90), _herd, shepherd_; Lu. II, 8. 15. 18. 20. [<
=haírda=. OE. hierde, hyrde, and heorde (without uml.), ME. herde, NE.
herd, -herd (in shepherd = 'sheep-herd').]

=haírtô=, n. (109), _hart_; Mt. V, 28. VI, 21. Mk. II, 6. 8. III, 5.
IV, 15. Lu. II, 35. II. Cor. I, 22. II, 4. III, 2. 3. 15. IV, 6. V, 12.
[OE. heorte, f., ME. herte, hert, NE. hart.]

=haírus=, m. (105), _sword_; Lu. II, 35. [OE. heoru, m., ME. here,

=haitan=, rv. (170; 179), _to name, call; to call, bid, invite_; Mk. I,
20. III, 31; _to command_, w. inf.; Mk. V, 43; in pass., _to be calld_,
w. pred. nom.; Mt. V, 19. Lu. II, 21. 23.--Cpds. =ana-=, =and-=,
=at-h.= [OE. hâtan (in pass. hât-te = Goth. =haitada=), prt. heht (=
Goth. =haíhait=), ME. hate, hote, prt. hêt, (for)heht, hight (< OE.
*hiht; i for ie < eo by influence of the palatal, orig. guttural, h; eo
< e before ht) > NE. hight (poet.); hense, prop., a prt. form.]

=haiþi=, f. (98), _heath, field_; Mt. VI, 28. 30. [OE. hæ̂ð, f., ME.
hêth, NE. heath.]

=haiþiwisks=, adj. (124), _wild_; Mk. I, 6. [< =haiþi= + suff.
=-i-ska-= (= E. -ish), the =w= between the two vowels being intrusiv.]

=halba=, f. (97), _the half, a part_; =in þizai halbai=, _in this
respect, in this behalf_; II. Cor. III, 10. [Prop., f. of =halbs=
uzed as sb. OE. healf (< *half), ME. half (behalfe, for be halfe, NE.
behalf), NE. half, _side_.]

=halbs=, adj. (122, n. 1), _half_. [OE. healf, ME. half, NE. half.]

=haldan=, rv. (179), _to hold, keep, feed_; Mk. V, 11. 14. [OE.
healdan, ME. halde, holde, NE. hold (notice its various meanings).]

=haldis=, adv. (212), _rather, more_. [Prop. compar. adv. Cp. OE.
ge-healdre, ME. helder, G. halt (w. loss of suff.), _rather, more_.]

=halja=, f., (97, n. 1), _hel_. [Apparently < √ of =*hilan= (s.
=huljan=) + suff. =-jô-=. OE. hell (< *halja), f., ME. helle, NE. hel.]

=hals=, m. (91, n. 4), _neck_. [OE. heals, hals, m., ME. hals, NE.
halse (obs.), OHG. MHG. NHG. hals, m., _neck_.]

=hamfs= (53), adj. (124), _maimd_. [OHG. hampf, adj., _maimd_.]

=-hamôn=, wv. (190), _to clothe_, in =af-=, =ana-=, =ufar-h.= [< a
sb. = OE. hǫma, hama, m., ME. hame, _coat, cuvering_ (lic-hame, OE.
lîc-hama, _body_), NHG. -am, for ham, in leichnam, m., _corpse_, MHG.
lîchname, OHG. lîhhinamo (lîhhin is gen. of *lîhho, prop. weak adj. =
Goth. =-leika=, in =man-leika=, m., OE. man-lica, m., ME. manliche,
_human form_; Goth. =-leika= < =-leiks=; s. =ga-leikan=), m., _corpse_.]

=hana=, m. (108), _cock_. [OE. hǫna, hana, m., _cock_, ME. *hane, han-
(in cpds.), OHG. hano, MHG. han, NHG. hahn, m., _cock_.]

=handugei=, f. (113), _wisdom_; Lu. II, 40. II. Cor. I, 12. [<

=handugs=, adj. (124), _wise_. [< =hand-= (not allied to =handus=; s.
Kluge, Stammbildungslehre, 203) + suff. =-u-ga= (the =u= by influence
of =handus=). OE. hendig (w. suff. -ig), ME. hendi, NE. handy (a for e
by influence of hand), adj. _skilful_.]

=handus=, f. (105), _hand_; Mt. V, 30. Mk. I, 31. 41. III, 1. 3. 5. V,
23. 41. [OE. hǫnd, hand, f., ME. hand, NE. hand.]

=hansa=, f. (97), _multitude, cumpany, band of men_. [OE. hôs (ô < ǫn
< an), f., _band of men_, OHG. hansa, f., _multitude_, MHG. hanse, _a
commercial leag_, NHG. hanse, f., _Hanseatic leag_.]

=hardjan= (14, n. 1), wv. (187), _to harden_, in =ga-h.= [< =hardus=.]

=harduba=, adv. (210 and n. 1), _hard, severely, grievously_. [<
=hardus= + =-ba=.]

=hardu-haírtei=, f. (113), _hard-hartedness_. [< stem of =hardus= +
=haírtei= < =-haírts=, adj.; s. =armahaírtiþa=.]

=hardus=, adj. (131), _hard, severe_. [OE. heard, ME. hard, NE. hard,
-ard (as in drunkard).]

=harjis=, m. (90), _army, multitude, legion_; Lu. II, 13. [OE. here (<
*heri < *hæri < *hari), m., _army, multitude_, ME. here, _host, army_,
NE. her- (in heriot), har- (in harbor).]

=hatis=, n. (gen. =hatizis=; 94 and n. 5), _hate, hatred, wrath,
anger_. [< =hatan= + suff. =-iz-a=. OE. hete (=i=-stem, orig.
=iz=-stem; s. however Brugm., II, 421), m. (orig. n.), _hate,
persecution_, ME. hete, hate, NE. hate.]

=hatizôn= (78), wv. (190), _to be angry_. [< =hatis=.]

=hatjan= (and =hatan=; 193, n. 1), wv. _to hate_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 44.
[< =hat-=, consonantal stem of =hatis=. OE. hatian, ME. hate, NE.

=haubiþ=, n. (93), _hed_; Mt. V, 36. VI, 17. [OE. heafod, n., ME.
heaved, heved, NE. hed.]

=háuhei=, f. (113, n. 1), _height_. [< =háuhs=. OHG. hôhi, MHG. hœhe,
NHG. höhe, f., _height_.]

=háuheins=, f. (103, n. 1), lit. _a heightening, a raizing on high_;
hense _honor, glory, praise_. [< =háuhjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=háuhis=, compar. adv. (212), _higher_. [< =háuhs=.]

=háuhisti=, n. (95), _the highest height, the highest_; Lu. II, 14. [<
=háuhista-=, superl. stem of =háuhs=.]

=háuhjan=, wv. (188), _to raiz on high, exalt, glorify_, w. acc.; Mt.
VI, 2. Mk. II, 12. [< =háuhs=. OE. hêan, hêgan, ME. heie, OHG. hôhjan,
hôhen, MHG. hœhen, NHG. (er-)höhen, _to make high, raiz_.]

=háuhs=, adj. (124), _high_; superl. =háuhista=, _the highest_; Mk. V,
7. [OE. hêah, ME. heigh, NE. high.]

=háuns=, adj. (130, n. 2), _humbl, base_. [OE. hêan, ME. hêne, adj.,
_base, vile, poor_; cp. G. hohn, m., _scorn, disgrace_.]

=haúrds=, f. (103), _door_; Mt. VI, 6. II. Cor. II, 12. [OHG. hurt, pl.
hurdi, f., _hurdl_, MHG. hurt, pl. hürte, hürde, f., _hurdl, door_, >
NHG. hürde, f., _hurdl, pen, fold_; cp. also OE. hyrdel (w. l-suff.),
m., ME. hurdel, NE. hurdl.]

=haúrn=, n. (94), _horn_. [OE. ME. NE. horn, n.]

=haúrnja=, m. (108), _horn-blower, trumpeter_. [< =haúrn= + suff.

=haúrnjan=, wv. (187), _to blow a horn_; Mt. VI, 2. [< =haúrn=.]

=hausjan=, wv. (187), _to hear, listen, harken_, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 3.
9. 12. 23. (2) w. gen. of pers.; Lu. II, 47. (3) w. dat. of pers. (_to
listen to, hear_); Lu. II, 46. (4) w. acc. of th.; Mk. IV, 16. 18. 20.
24. (5) w. =fram= w. dat.; Mk. III, 21. (6) w. =þatei=; Mt. V, 21. 27.
33. 38. 43.--Cpds. =and-=, =ga-=, =uf-h.= [OE. hîeran, hŷran, hêra(n)
(ie, etc., < êa (= Goth. =au=) before orig. j), ME. here, NE. hear.]

=hausjôn=, wv. (187, n. 3; 190), _to hear_; Mk. IV, 33. [= =hausjan=
having gone over to the second weak conjugation.]

=hawi=, n. (dat. =hauja=; 95), _grass_; Mt. VI, 30. Skeir. VII, b.
[Prop., _a thing to be cut_ (< √ =hau=, seen in OE. hêawan, rv., ME.
hewe, NE. hew). OE. hêg, n., ME. hei, hai, NE. hay.]

=hazeins=, f. (103, n. 1), _praise_. [< =hazjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=hazjan=, wv. (187), _to praise_, w. acc.; Lu. II, 13; and in w. gen.;
Lu. II, 20. [OE. herian, ME. herie, NE. herry (obs.), _to praise_.]

=hêr= (8), adv. (213, n. 1), _here, hither_. [OE. hêr, ME. hêr, NE.

=Hêrôdês= (61), pr. n., _Herod_. [< Ἡρώδης.]

=Hêrôdianus=, pr. n. m., _Herodian_; dat. pl. =-um=; Mk. III, 6. [<

=hêþjô=, f. (112), _chamber_; Mt. VI, 6.

=hidrê=, adv. (213, n. 1), _hither_. [< pronominal stem =hi-=, in
=himma=, + suff. =-drê=. Cp. OE. hider, ME. hider, ON. heðra (to which
seems due the th of) NE. hither.]

=Hildericus= (61, n. 1), pr. n.

=Hildibald= (54, n. 2; 61, n. 1).

=hilpan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to help_; w. (instr.) dat. and =bi= w.
acc.; II. Cor. I, 11. [OE. helpan, ME. helpe, NE. help.]

=himina-kunds= (88ᵃ), adj. (124), _hevenly_; Lu. II, 13.

=himins=, m. (91), _heven_; Mt. V, 18. 19. 20. 34. 45. 48. VI, 1. 9.
10. 14. 20. 26. 32. Mk. I, 10. IV, 32. Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. V, 1. 2.
[ON. himinn, m., _heven_. Cp. OHG. himil (w. suff. -l-), MHG. himel,
NHG. himmel, m., _heven_.]

=himma=, =hina=, =hita= (155), forms of a defectiv prn., _this_;
=himma daga=, _to-day_; Mt. VI, 11. 30. Lu. II, 11; =und hina dag=,
_until this day_; II. Cor. III, 14. 15. [< a pronominal stem =hi-=,
_this_, as in OE. him, dat.; hine, acc. m.; hit, n., ME. hin and him
(by confusion with the dat.), hit, it, NE. him, it.]

=hindana=, adv., uzed as a prep. w. gen., _behind, on the further side
of, beyond_; Mk. III, 8. [< =hin-= (= OE. hin-, in cpds., = G. hin,
_away_) + =-dana=; =hin-= < a pronominal stem =hi-=, as in =himma=. OE.
hindan, adv. (be-hindan, adv., _behind_, and prep., _behind, after_),
ME. hinde- (in cpds. behinde, adv. and prep.), NE. hind, hind- (in
cpds.; behind, adv. and prep.).]

=hindar=, prep. (217), _behind, on the further side of, on that side
of, beyond_, (1) w. dat.; so after =qiman=; Mk. V, 1. (2) w. acc.; Mk.
V, 17. 21. [< =hin-= (s. =hindana=) + compar. suff. =-dar=. OE. hinder,
adv. and prep., _behind_, ME. hinder- (in cpds.), _hind_, OHG. hintar,
MHG. NHG. hinter, prep., _behind_.]

=hindumists=, superl. adj. (149, n. 1), _hindmost, uttermost_. [A dubl
superl. form, < =hinduma= (+ suff. =-ist-a-=) < =hin-= (s. =hindana=) +
suff. =-dum-a(n)-=. OE. hin-dema, superl. adj., _hindmost, last_. NE.
hindmost < hind (s. =hindana=) +-most, for *-mest; s. =aftumists=.]

=-hinþan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to cach_, in cpds. only. [Cf. OE. hendan
(wv.), ME. hende, NE. hend (obs.), _to seiz_.]

=hiri= (20, n. 1), interjectional imper. (187, n. 4; 219), _cum here!_
dual =hirjats=, _cum here (you two)_; Mk. I, 17. [< =*hirjan= (cp.
Brgm., 'Morph. Unters.', p. 414 et seq.) < =*hir=, adv., < =hi-= (+
suff. =-r=); s. =himma=.]

=hiufan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to mourn, lament_. [OE. hêofan (str. and
wv.), _to lament_.]

=hiuhma= (=hiuma=; 62, n. 4), m. (108), _crowd, multitude_. [< √ of
=háuhs= + suff. =-man-=.]

=hlahjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to laf_.--Cpd. =bi-h.= [OE. hliehhan (ie
< ea, by i-uml., < a before h, which was dubld before the orig. j),
hlæhhan, ME. laghe, laughe, lauᵹwe, NE. laf.]

=hlaifs= (gen. =hlaibis=; 56, n. 1), m. (90), _bred, loaf of bread_;
Mt. VI, 11. Mk. II, 26. III, 20. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. [OE. hlâf, m.,
ME. lôf, NE. loaf.]

=hlaiw= (42), n. (94), _tomb, grave_. [Stem =hlaiwa-=, orig.
=*hlaiwaz=, =-iz=. OE. hlâw and (w. i-uml.) hlæ̂w, ME. lawe, lowe,
_mound, hil, cave_, NE. low, _hil_. Its √ appears (w. abl.) in OE.
hli-n-ian, intr., hleonian, _to lean_, hlæ̂nan, tr., _to make to lean_,
ME. leonie; læne, lene, NE. lean, _to incline_.]

=-hlaþan=, stv. (177, n. 1), in =af-h.= [OE. hladan, ME. lade (stv.),
NE. lade (wv., but str. is the pp. laden).]

=-hlaupan=, rv. (179, n. 1), in =us-h.= [OE. hlêapan, ME. lêpe, lepe
(stv.), NE. leap (wv.).]

=hleiduma=, superl. adj. (139), _left_; uzed as sb., _left hand_; Mt.
VI, 3. [Lit. _hanging down most_, < √ hlei (cp. =hlaiw=). For the
suff., s. =hindumists=.]

=hleis=, m., (only in acc. pl., =hlijans=), _tent, tabernacl_. [< √
=hlei=; cp. =hlaiw=. Cp. OE. hlêo, hlêow, m., _protection, roof_, ME.
lêwe, lew, _shelter_, NE. lee, lew (prov.), _a shelterd place, a place_
defended from the wind, (a nautical term, probably due to) ON. hlé,
_lee_ (of a ship).]

=hleiþra=, f. (97), _hut, tent_; II. Cor. V, 1. 4. [< √ =hlei= (cp.
=hlaiw=) + suff. =-þrô-=. ON. hleiþra, _tent_.]

=hleiþra-stakeins= (88ᵃ), f. (103, n. 1), _feast of tabernacls_, lit.
'_tent-sticking_' [=-stakeins= < a lost v. =*stakjan= (= OHG. MHG.
NHG. stecken, wv., _to stick, put, set_), _to stick, put, put up_.]

=hlifan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to steal_; Mt. VI, 19.

=hlijans=; s. =hleis=.

=hliuma=, m. (108), _hearing, ear_. [< =hliu-= (+ suff. =-man-=) = OE.
hlêo-, in hlêoðor, n., _that which is herd, a sound, voice_. Its √ is
containd also in OE. hlûd (orig. pp., _herd_), ME. lud, loud, NE. loud;
and in OHG. Hludwîg (-wîg < √ of Goth. =weihan=), NHG. Ludwig, _Louis_.]

=hlûtrei=, f. (113), _purity, sincerity_; II. Cor. I, 12. [< =hlûtrs.=
OHG. hlût(t)rî, lût(t)ri, MHG. liuter, f., _purity_.]

=hlûtriþa=, f. (97), _purity, sincerity_; II. Cor. II, 17. [< =hlûtrs=
+ suff. =-i-þô-=.]

=hlûtrs= (15), adj. (124), _pure_. [< √ =hlût= + suff. =-ra-=. OE.
hlût(t)or, ME. lutter, OHG. (h)lût(t)ar, MHG. lûter, NHG. lauter, adj.,
_pure, clean_, etc.]

=hnaiwjan=, wv. (187), _to abase_. [Caus. of =hneiwan= (prt. =hnaiw=).
OE. hnæ̂gan (< hnâg, prt. of hnîgan), OHG. MHG. NHG. neigen, wv., _to
bend, press down_.]

=hnaiws=, adj. (124), _low, humbl_. [< √ of =hneiwan= (prt. =hnaiw=).]

=hnasqus=, adj. (131, n. 1), _soft, tender_. [OE. hnæsce, hnesce, ME.
NE. nesh (obs.), _soft, tender_.]

=hneiwan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to bend downwards, decline, bow_.--Cpd.
=ana-h=. [OE. hnîgan (For Goth. =w= and OE. g, s. Brgm., I, §§ 443 and
444). OHG. nîgan (for hnîgan), MHG. nîgen, stv., _to bow, incline_,
NHG. neigen, wv. (due to neigen = Goth. =hnaiwjan=.)]

=-hniupan=, stv. (173, n. 1), in =dis-hn.=, _to tear_ or _break to
pieces, to break_.

=hnûþô= (15; =hnûtô= in B), f. (112), _thorn, sting_. [ON. hnúða.]

=hôrinôn=, wv. (190), _to whore, commit adultery_; Mt. V, 27. 32.--Cpd.
=ga-h.= [< =hôrs=.]

=hôrs=, m. (91), _whoremonger, adulterer_. [ON. hórr, m., _adulterer_,
hóra, f., _adulteress_, > ME. hôre, NE. whore (w. inorganic w).]

=hraineins=, f. (103, n. 1), _purification_; Lu. II, 22. [< =hrainjan=
+ suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=hrainja-haírts= (88ᵃ, n. 2), adj. (124), _pure in hart, pure-harted_.
[=-haírts= < =hairt-= in =haírtô=; s. =armahaírtiþa=.]

=hrainjan=, wv. (187), _to purify, clenz_.--Cpd. =ga-h.= [< =hrains=.
OHG. hreinnan (for hreinjan), reinen, MHG. reinen, _to make clean_.
NHG. MHG. reinigen, _to clean_, < reinic(g), adj., < reine + suff.
-ic, -g; s. =hrains=.]

=hrains=, adj. (130), _pure, clean_; =h. waírþan=, _to becum clean, be
clean_; Mk. I, 41. _to be clenzd_; Mk. I, 42. [OHG. reini (r for hr),
MHG. reine, NHG. rein, adj., _clean_.]

=hraiwa-dûbô=, f. (112), _turtl-duv_; Lu. II, 24. [Stem =hraiwa-= is in
form = OE. hrâ(w), beside hræ̂(w), OHG. hrêo (ê before w = Goth. =ai=;
o < w final), rê(o), MHG. rê, _corpse_.]

=hrôpjan=, wv. (188), _to call, cry, cry out_; Mk. III, 11. V, 5; w.
(instr.) dat.; Mk. I, 26. V, 7.--Cpd. =uf.-h.= [< =hrôps=, m., _outcry,
clamor_. (< √ of OE. hrôpan, rv., ME. rôpe, NE. (Sc.) roup, _to cry,
shout_, OHG. ruofan, MHG. ruofen, NHG. rufen, _to call, cry_). OHG.
ruofen, MHG. rüefen, wv., _to call, cry out_.]

=hrôt=, n., (94), _roof_; Mk. II, 4. [Cf. OE. hrôst (st < t-t), m., ME.
rôst, NE. roost, _a perch_ (for fowls).]

=hrôþeigs=, adj. (124), _victorious, triumfant_; II. Cor. II, 14. [<
=*hrôþi-= (< √ =hrô=, seen in OHG. (h)ruom, MHG. ruom, NHG. ruhm,
m., _fame, glory_, + suff. =-þi-=) = OE. hrêð, f., _fame_, + suff.
=-ei-ga-=. OE. hrêðig, adj., _triumfant_.]

=hrûkjan= (15), wv. (188), _to crow_. [Cf. OE. hrôk, m., ME. rôk, NE.
rook, _a kind of crow_.]

=huggrjan= (66, n. 1; 67, n. 1), wv. (188), _to hunger_. [< stem
=hungru-=; s. =hûhrus=. OE. hyngran, ME. hungre, NE. hunger.]

=hugjan=, wv. (188), _to think, be minded, believ_, w. acc.; Skeir.
VII, a; w. acc. and inf.; Lu. II, 44; w. =ei=; Mt. V, 17; =waíla h.=,
_to think wel towards, agree with_, w. dat.; Mt. V, 25. [< =hugs=,
m. (= OE. hyge, m., ME. hyᵹe, hiᵹe, _mind, thought_). OE. hycgean (<
*huggjan), ME. huᵹie, _to think_.]

=hûhrus= (15; 66, n. 1), m. (105), _hunger_. [< stem *hunhru-
(*hungru-; s. =huggrjan=). OE. hungor (transferd to the a-declension),
m., ME. hunger, NE. hunger.]

=hulistr=, n. (94), _a cuvering, veil_; II. Cor. III, 13-16.--Cpds.
=and-=, =ga-h.= [< =huljan= + suff. =-s-tra-=. ON. hulstr, m., _case,
cuvering_, Du. holster, _case for a pistol_, > NE. holster.--OE.
heolstor, _cuvering, cave_, is a primary formation < √ of helan; s.

=huljan=, wv. (187), _to cuver, veil_. [< =*hulja= (= OHG. hulla, MHG.
hülle, f., _cuvering, raiment_, NHG. hülle, f., _cuvering, veil_,
< =*hilan=, OE. helan, ME. hele, OHG. helan, MHG. heln, stv., NHG.
hehlen, wv., _to conceal_, but verhohlen, adj., orig. pp., _conceald_,
unverhohlen, _unconceald, frank_). OHG. hullan, MHG. NHG. hüllen, _to
envelop, cuver, veil_.]

=-hun=, enclitic particl (163), _any_. [Cp. =-gin= = OE. -gen in
hwergen, hwærgen (ƕær, _where_), _anywhere_. OHG. *hwargin, wergin, io
(= =aiw=) wergin > iergen, MHG. (MG.) iergen, NHG. irgend (w. inorganic
d), _anywhere_. Cp. Kl. W., irgend.]

=hund=, n. (144), _a hundred_; occurs in the pl. only, =hunda=; cp.
also =hunda-faþs=, _chief of hundred men, centurion_. [OE. ME. hund,
NE. hund-, in hundred, < ME. OE. hundred (-red = Goth. =*raþ= in

=hunsl=, n. (94), _sacrifice_; Lu. II, 24. [OE. hûsl (< *hunsl), n.,
_offering, eucharist_, ME. hûsel, NE. housel.]

=hunsla-staþs= (88ᵃ), m. (101), _a place where sacrifices ar offerd, an
altar_; Mt. V, 23. 24. [< stem of =hunsl= + =staþs=.]

=hups=, m. (101), _hip, loin_; Mk. I, 6. [OE. hype, m. f., ME. hupe,
hipe, NE. hip.]

=-hûs= (15), n. (94), _house_, in =gud-hûs=, _house of God_. [OE. hûs,
n., ME. hus, hous, NE. house.]

=huzd=, n. (94), _trezure_; Mt. VI, 19. 20. 21. II. Cor. IV, 7. [OE.
hord, n. m., ME. hord, NE. hoard, _store, trezure_.]

=huzdjan=, wv. (188), _to lay up trezure_, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [<

=Ƕa=, n. of =ƕas=.

=ƕaírban=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to walk_. [OE. hweorfan (eo < e = Goth.
=aí=), ME. hwerfe, _to walk about_, OHG. werban, MHG. werben, _to walk
about, pursue_, NHG. werben, _to sue for, woo_, etc.]

=ƕaírnei=, f. (113), _skul_. [Cf. the meaning of OHG. hirni (<
*hirzni), MHG. hirne, NHG. hirn, n., _brain_.]

=ƕaiteis=, m. (92), _wheat_. [OE. hwæ̂te, m., ME. whete, NE. wheat.]

=ƕaiwa=, adv. (and conj.; 218), _how_; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. II, 26. III, 23.
IV, 13. 40. V, 16; =ƕaiwa mais=, _how much more_; Mt. VI, 30; rel.:
=ƕaiwa managai= (=-ôs=, =-a=), _how many, as many as_; II. Cor. I, 20.
[< stem of =ƕas=. OHG. (h)wêo (< hwêwu), later (h)weo, wio, MHG. NHG.
wie, adv. and conj., _how, as_.]

=ƕammêh=, dat. sg. m. n. of =ƕazuh=.

=ƕan=, adv. (214, n. 1), (1) in negativ sentences: =ibai=, or =nibai,
ƕan=, _lest at any time_; Mt. V, 25. Mk. IV, 12. (2) w. adjs. and
advs., _how_, (a) in dir. questions or exclamations: =ƕan filu=, _how
great_; Mt. VI, 23; (b) in indir. questions: =ƕan filu=, _how much,
what great things_; Mk. III, 8. V, 19. 20. [< stem of =ƕas=. Cf. OE.
hwanne, hwænne, ME. hwanne, whan, hwen, NE. when.]

=ƕan-hun=, adv. (163), _ever, at any time_.

=-ƕapjan=, wv. (188), in =af-ƕ.=

=-ƕapnan=, wv. (194), in =af-ƕ.=

=ƕar=, adv. (213, n. 1), _where_. [< stem of =ƕas= + loc. suff. =-r=.
OE. hwær-, hwer- (s. -hun), beside hwæ̂r, hwâr, ME. hwer, wher, NE.

=ƕarbôn=, wv. (190), _to go about, walk_; Mk. II, 14; w. =faúr= w.
acc.; Mk. I, 16. [OE. hwearfian, ME. wharfen, _to turn, wander about_.
Cp. =ƕaírban=.]

=ƕarjis=, interr. prn. (160), _who? which?_ (of several). [< =ƕar= +
suff. =-ja-=.]

=ƕarjiz-uh=, indef. prn. (147, n. 1; 165), _every one, every_; Lu. II,
3. II. Cor. V, 10.

=ƕas= (=ƕaz-=), prn. (159), (I) interrogativ, _who?, what?, which?,
what sort of?_ =ƕê= (instr.), _wherewith, in what degree, by what,
whereunto_, (1) in dir. questions; Mt. VI, 31. Mk. I, 24. 27. II, 7.
III, 33. IV, 30. 41. V, 7. 9. 30. 31. II. Cor. II, 16. Skeir. VII, a;
w. a prn. in the gen. pl.; Mt. VI, 27; --=ƕê managizô=, _what greater_
(or _more_)? Mt. V, 47.--Sumtimes = Gr. τί, Lt. quare, quomodo,
_why?_; Mt. VI, 28. Mk. II, 16. 24. V, 35. 39. Lu. II, 48. 49; (2) in
indir. questions; Mt. VI, 3. 25. Mk. II, 25. IV, 24. V, 14. (II) indef.
(116, n. 2), _any one, any thing_; Mt. V, 23. 39. 41. Mk. IV, 23. II.
Cor. II, 5. 10. III, 5. V, 17; w. an adj. (uzed as sb.) in the gen.
sing.; Mk. IV, 22. [OE. hwâ, m. f., whæt, n., ME. hwa, hwo, who, m. f.,
hwæt, hwat, what, n., NE. who, what.]

=ƕas-hun=, indef. prn. (163), _any one_.

=ƕassei= (76, n. 1), f. (113), _sharpness, severity_. [< stem =*ƕassa=
(in =ƕassaba=, adv., _sharply_) = stem of OE. hwæs, OHG. (h)was, MHG.
was, adj., _sharp_. Stem =ƕassa-= < *ƕat-ta-< *ƕat (= OE. hwæt, ME.
hwat, hwæt, _sharp_) + suff. -ta-.]

=ƕaþ=, adv. (213, n. 1), _whither_. [< stem of =ƕas= + suff. =-þ=.]

=ƕaþar=, interr. prn. (124, n. 1. 4; 160), _whether, which of two?_;
Mk. II, 9. [< stem of =ƕas= + suff. =-þar=. OE. hwæðer, _which of two_,
ME. hweðer, wheðer, NE. whether.]

=ƕaþar-uh=, indef. prn. (166), _each of two, each_.

=ƕaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 1), _whense, from whense_. [< stem of =ƕas-= +

=ƕaz-uh=, indef. prn. (147, n. 1; 164), f. =ƕôh=, n. =ƕah=, _each,
every_, (1) as sb.; Mt. V, 22. Lu. II, 23. (2) as attrib.; Lu. II, 41;
= =ƕ. saei=, _whoever, whosoever_; Mt. V, 28. 31. 32.--See also =sa-ƕ.=
and =þis-ƕ.= For [=ƕaz-=: =ƕas=, s. 78, c.]

=ƕê=, instr. of =ƕas=.

=ƕêh=, instr. of =ƕazuh= (164, n. 2), uzed as adv., _at least, only_.

=ƕeila=, f. (97), _while, hour, time, season_; Mk. II, 19.

=ƕeilaƕaírbs=, adj. (124), _enduring but for a while, transitory_.
[=-ƕaírbs= < √ of =ƕaírban=.]

=ƕeilô-hun=, adv. (97, n. 2; 163, n. 1), _for a while_. [=ƕeilô-= is
the stem of [=hv]eila=.]

=ƕeits=, adj. (124), _white_; Mt. V, 36. [OE. hwît, ME. whyte, hwit,
NE. white.]

=ƕêlauþs=, interr. prn. (161), _how great, what?_ [< =ƕê= + =-lauþs=,
adj., _grown up_, < √ of =liudan=.]

=ƕileiks=, interr. adj. and prn. (161), _what, what sort of?_, in dir.
questions; Mk. IV, 30. [< =ƕi-= (161, n. 1) + =-leiks=. OE. hwilc (<
*hwi-lîc), ME. hwilc, hwilch, which, NE. which.]

=ƕô=, f. of =ƕas=.

=ƕôftuli= (51, n. 2), f. (98), _rejoicing, boasting, glory_; II. Cor.
I, 12. 14. V, 12. [< =ƕôpan= + the composit suff. =-tul-jô-=.]

=ƕôpan=, rv. (179), _to boast, glory_; II. Cor. V, 12.

=ƕôtjan=, wv. (188), _to threten, rebuke, charge_.--Cpd. =ga-ƕ.= [<
=ƕôta=, f., _thret, thretening_. Cp. =-ƕatjan=, _to sharpen, incite_, <
=*ƕat=; s. =ƕassei=.]

=Iaírusalêm=, pr. n. f., _Jerusalem_; dat. =-êm=; Lu. II, 22. 25. 43;
acc. =-êm=; Lu. II, 41. 45. [< Ἱερουσαλήμ.]

=Iaírusaúlyma=, pr. n. f., _Jerusalem_; gen. =-ôs=; Lu. II, 38; dat.
=-ai=; Mt. V, 35. Mk. III, 22; acc. =-a=; Lu. II, 42. [< Ἱεροσόλυμα.]

=Iaírusaúlymeis=, pr. n. in pl., _Jerusalem_; also _the peple of
Jerusalem_; Mk. I, 5. [< Ἱεροσολυμίτης, _inhabitant of Jerusalem_ (cp.
=Iaírusaúlymeitês= in Jo. VII, 25).]

=Iakôb= (54), pr. n., _Jacob_. [< Ἰακώβ.]

=Iakôbus=, pr. n., _James_; gen. =-aus=; Mk. III, 17; or =-is=; Mk. V,
37; dat. =-au=; Mk. I, 29. III, 17; acc. =-u=; Mk. I, 19. III, 18. V,
37. [< Ἰάκωβος.]

=Iarêd= (6), pr. n., _Jared_. [< Ἰαρέδ.]

=Iaúrdanês=, pr. n., _the river Jordan_; dat. =-ê=; Mk. I, 5. 9; also
nom. =-us=; gen. =-aus=; Mk. III, 8. [< Ἰορδάνης, Ἰόρδανος.]

=ibai= (=iba=), (1) interr. particl (216), in dir. questions, a negativ
answer being expected, _perhaps_, but uzually remains untranslated in
English; Mk. II, 19. IV, 21. II. Cor. III, 1; so w. =auftô=; II. Cor.
I, 17. (2) conj. (218), _lest, lest by any means_; Mk. II, 21; =ibai
auftô=, _lest perhaps_; Mk. II, 22. II. Cor. II, 7; =iba ƕan=, _lest at
any time_; Mt. V, 25. [OE. *if (in gif; s. =jabai=), OHG. ibu, conj.
(prop. instr. of iba, f., _dout_; cp. Kl. W., ob), beside oba, MHG.
obe, ob, NHG. ob, _if, whether_.]

=ibnassus=, m. (105), _evenness, equality_. [< =ibns= + suff. =-assus=.]

=ibns=, adj. (124), _even, flat_. [< =ib-= (apparently = =ib= in
=ib-dalja=, _descent_, =ibuks=, _backwards_) + suff. =na-=. OE. efn,
ME. even, NE. even.]

=iddja= (73, n.), weak prt. (207), _I went_; Mk. I, 45. II, 13. 15.
V, 24. 42. Lu. II, 3. 51.--Cpds. =af-=, =at-=, =ga-=, =us-i.= For
citations, s. the respectiv cpds. of =gaggan=. [OE. êode, ME. eode,
ᵹede, ᵹeode, NE. yede, yode, (obs.).]

=idreiga=, f. (97), _repentence_; Mk. I, 4.

=idreigôn=, wv. (190), _to repent, do penance_; Mk. I, 15. [<

=Idumaia=, pr. n. f. in dat., _Idumea_; Mk. III, 8.

=Iêsus= (1, n. 4), pr. n., _Jesus_ (_Christ_); Mk. I, 9. 14. 17. 25.
41. 42. II, 5. 8. 17. 19. III, 7. IV, 1. V, 13. 20. 30. 36. Lu. II, 21.
43; gen. =Iêsuis=; Mk. I, 1. V, 22. II. Cor. I, 1. IV, 5; dat. =Iêsua=;
Mk. II, 15. V, 15. 21; or =Iêsu=; II. Cor. I, 2; acc. =Iêsu=; Mk. V,
6. 27. Lu. II, 27. II. Cor. IV, 14; voc. =Iêsu=; Mk. I, 24. V, 7. [<

=iftuma=, superl. adj. (139), _the next_. [< =if= + superl. suff.

=igqara= (=iggqara=; 67, n. 1), pers. prn. 2nd pers. du. gen.; dat.
acc. =ig(g)qis=; s. =þu=. [OE. gen. incer, dat. inc, acc. inc(it); ME.
gen. incer, dat. acc. inc(k).]

=igqis=, acc. du. of =þu=.

=ija=, acc. sg. of =si=.

=ik=, pers. prn. 1st pers. nom. sing. (150), _I_, (1) emfatic, w. vs.;
Mt. V, 22. 28. 32. 34. 39. 44. Mk. I, 2. 7. 8. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 2;
=jah ik=, _and I, I also_; Lu. II, 48. II. Cor. II, 10; gen. =meina=;
dat. =mis=; Mk. I, 7. 17. II, 14. V, 7. 30. 31. II. Cor. I, 17. II, 1.
2. 12; acc. =mik=; Mk. I, 40. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I, 16. 19. II, 2.
5; dual nom. =wit=, _we two_; dat. =ug(g)kis=; acc. =ug(g)kis=, =ugk=;
pl. nom. =weis=, _we_, (1) w. vs. (emfatic); Mt. VI, 12. II. Cor. I, 4.
6. IV, 11. 13. V, 16. 21; (2) =jah weis=, _and we, we also_; II. Cor.
I, 6; =weis allai=; II. Cor. III, 18; or =allai weis=; II. Cor. V, 10;
gen. =unsara=; dat. =uns=; Mt. VI, 11. 12. Mk. I, 24. Lu. II, 48. II.
Cor. I, 8. 9. 11. 19. III, 2. 3. 5. IV, 12, V, 5. 12 (in B). 18. 19;
or =unsis=; Lu. II, 15. II. Cor. IV, 7. 17. V, 5 and 12 (in A); acc.
=uns=; Mt. VI, 13. Mk. I, 24. V, 12. II. Cor. I, 4. 5. 8. 10. 11. 14.
19. 20. 21. 22. II, 14. III, 1. 6. IV, 2. 5. V, 5. 11. 12. 14. 18. 20.
21; or =unsis=; Mk. V, 12. II. Cor. I, 21. IV, 14. V, 14. 18 (in A B).
[OE. ic, ME. ic, ich, i, y, NE. I. See also =meina=, =weis=, =unsara=.]

=im=, anv. (204), 1st pers. sing. pres. indic.; s. =wisan=. [OE. eom,
eam, am, ME. eom, æm, am, NE. am. The remaining forms of the prs.
indic. and opt. (Goth. =is=, =is-t=; =sijau=, etc., OE. ear-t, is; sîe,
etc.) ar from the same √.]

=im=, prn.; s. =is=.

=imma=, prn.; s. =is=.

=in=, prep. (217), (1) w. gen., _on account of, for ... sake, about,
thru, by_; Mk. II, 27. III, 5. 9. IV, 17. Lu. II, 20. II. Cor. I, 6.
II, 10. 12. III, 7. IV, 5. 11. 15; =in þis=, =in-uh þis=, _on this
account, for this cause_; II. Cor. II, 8. IV, 16. V, 9; =in þiz-ei=,
_because, for the reason that_; Mk. IV, 5. II. Cor. IV, 13. (2) w.
dat., both concrete and abstr., and after vs. of motion and rest, (a)
local, _in, into, within, among, on, at, towards, to, before_; Mt. V,
19. 20. 25. 28. 45. 48. VI, 1. 2. 5. 9. 10. 13. 18. 23. Mk. I, 2. 4. 9.
11. 13. 14. 15. 19. 20. 23. 29. 39. II, 1. 6. 8. 15. III, 3. IV, 1. 17.
28. 36. V, 1. 3. 5. 13. 14. 20. 27. 30. Lu. II, 3. 7. 8. 11. 12. 14.
16. 19. 21. 22. 24. 25. 27. 34. 38. 43. 44. 46. 49. 51. II. Cor. I, 8.
9. 11. 19. 20. 23. II, 3. 8. 14. 15. III, 2. 3. 7. 10. 14. IV, 3. 4.
11. 12. V, 1. 4. 6. 11. 19. Skeir. VII, b. d; (b) temporal, _in, at,
during, within, by, for_; Mk. I, 9. II, 20. III, 4. IV, 35. II. Cor. I,
14; (c) in other relations of which sum may be regarded as belonging
under (2), (a), chiefly in an abstr. sense, indicating a 'state' or
'condition', _in, of, with_; Mt. VI, 6. 13. 18. 29. Mk. I, 23. 30. V,
25. II. Cor. I, 4. 12. II, 1. III, 8. V, 17; or 'manner', _in, with_;
Mt. VI, 4. 6. 29; or 'instr.', 'means'; Mk. I, 5. 8. IV, 2. 24. V, 13.
21. Lu. II, 27. II. Cor. I, 21. II, 12. 17. III, 7. 14. V, 19. Skeir.
VII, c (the first); or 'reason', 'cause', _because of, for_; Mt. VI, 7.
II. Cor. V, 2. =in þammei= (= =þamma ei=), _because_; II. Cor. II, 13;
_with regard to, according to, in, after_; Mk. I, 11. 15. II. Cor. II,
3. 9. IV, 8. Skeir. VII, e. (the second). (3) w. acc., (a) of place,
_in, into, on, among, to, toward, down to, up to_; Mt. V, 25. 29. 30.
VI, 6. 26. 30. Mk. I, 12. 21. 45. II, 1. 22. 26. III, 1. 13. 20. 27.
IV, 1. 7. 8. 18. V, 12. 13. 18. 38. Lu. II, 4. 15. 39. 41. 42. II. Cor.
I, 16. II, 13. III, 13. 18; (b) of time, _in, for_; Mt. VI, 13. Lu.
II, 1; (c) in other relations, expressing 'disposition', 'feeling',
'direction', or 'action towards', _toward, against, to, unto, in_;
Mt. V, 22. Mk. V, 34. II. Cor. I, 5. 11. IV, 11.--Occurs often in
composition w. vs., sbs., and adjs. [OE. in, ME. in, inn, NE. in.]

=ina=, prn., s. =is=.

=in-brannjan=, wv. (187), _to set on fire, set fire to, burn_.

=in-feinan=, wv. (193), _to be moved with compassion, to pity_, w. =du=
w. dat.; Mk. I, 41.

=in-ga-leikôn=, wv. (190), _to change into the likeness of_; II. Cor.
III, 18.

=in-kilþô=, f. adj. (132, n. 2), _with child_; Lu. II, 5. [=-kilþôn-= <
a sb. = OE. cild, n. (m.), ME. child, NE. child.]

=inn=, adv. (213, n. 2), _in_; Mk. V, 40.--Occurs in many cpds. [<
=in=. OE. in(n), ME. NE. in, adv.]

=inna=, adv. (213, n. 2), _within, in_; II. Cor. III, 3. [< =inn= +
=-a=. OE. ME. inne, NE. in, adv., coinciding with in = Goth. =inn=.]

=innana=, adv. (213, n. 2), _within, inside_. [< =inna= + =-na=. OE.
innan, ME. innen, NE. in (coinciding with in = Goth.) =inn=, =inna=.]

=inn-at-gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to enter, enter into, go_ or
_cum into_; Mk. IV, 19. V, 39.

=inn-at-tiuhan=, stv. (173), w. acc., _to bring in_; Lu. II, 27.

=innaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from within, within, inwardly_. [< =inna=
+ suff. =-þrô=.]

=inn-gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to go in, enter_, w. =in= w.
acc.; Mk. V, 18; =inng. framis=, _to go on_; Mk. I, 19.

=innuma=, superl. adj. (139), _inner, innermost, inward_; II. Cor.
IV, 16. [< =inn= + suff. =-u-ma-n=. Cf. OE. ME. innem-est (= Goth.
=*innumist-s=, a dubl superl.; cp. =hindumists=), NE. inmost (-ost
for-est by influence of most; s. =maists=).]

=ins=, prn.; s. =is=.

=in-saian= (=-saijan=; 22, n. 1), rv. (182), _to sow into_, w. acc. and
=in= w. dat.; Mk. IV, 15.

=in-saíƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), _to look upon, behold_, w.
=du= w. dat.; Mt. VI, 26.

=in-sailjan=, wv. (188), _to let down by means of a rope, let down with
cords_; Mk. II, 4.

=in-sandjan=, wv. (188), _to send into, send off_ or _forth, send_, (1)
w. acc.; Mk. IV, 29; and =faúra= w. dat.; Mk. I, 2; or =in= w. acc.
and a clause w. =ei=; Mk. V, 12; or inf. of purpose; Mk. III, 14. (2)
without obj., w. =du= w. dat.; Mk. I, 2.

=inuh=, prep. w. acc. (217), _without_; Mt. V, 32. Mk. IV, 34. Skeir.
VII, b. [Also =inu=. Cf. OHG. âno, MHG. ân, âne, NHG. ohne, prep.,

=in-wait=, prt. of =inweitan=.

=in-weitan=, stv. (172, n. 1; 197, n. 1), _to wurship_; Mk. V, 6.

=in-winds=, adj. (124), _turnd aside_; hense _distorted from the right;
perverse, unjust, unrighteous_; Mt. V, 45. [=-winds= < √ of =-windan=.]

=Iôdas= (11, n. 2), pr. n., _Juda_. [< Ἰούδας.]

=Iôhannês= (61, n. 3), _John_; Mk. I, 4. 6. 14; gen. =-is=; Mk. II, 18;
dat. =-ê=; Mk. I, 9. III, 17; or =-ên=; Mk. I, 29; acc. =-ên=; Mk. V,
37; or =-ê=; Mk. I, 19. [< Ἰωάννης.]

=Iôsêf=, pr. n., _Josef_; Lu. II, 4. 33. 43; acc. =Iôsêf=, pr. n.,
_Josef_; Lu. II, 16. [< Ἰωσήφ.]

=is=, pers. prn. 3d pers. sg. m. (152), nom., uzed alone and w. vs.,
for emfasis, _he_; Mk. I, 8. 45. II, 15. 25. III, 8. 13. IV, 27. 38.
V, 4. 34. 40. Lu. II, 28. Skeir. VII, d; gen. =is=; Mt. V, 35. Mk. I,
7. 16. 19. 22. 28. II, 15. 16. 23. III, 5. 27. IV, 32. V, 27. 28. 31.
Lu. II, 21. 33. 34. 41. 43. 47. 48. 51. II. Cor. II, 11. III, 7. Skeir.
VII, a. c; dat. =imma=; Mt. V, 25. 39. 40. 41. Mk. I, 5. 13. 18. 26.
27. 30. 36. 37. 40-45. Lu. II, 24; acc. =ina=; Mt. VI, 8. Mk. I, 12.
25. 26. 34. 37. 40. 43. Lu. II, 7. 45. II. Cor. V, 16; pl. nom. =eis=;
Mk. III, 4. Skeir. VII, b; gen. =izê=; Mt. VI, 14. 15. Mk. I, 23. 39.
II, 5. III, 5. IV, 15. V, 37. Skeir. VII, d; dat. =im=; Mt. VI, 1. 7.
Mk. I, 31. 38. 44. III, 4. II. Cor. IV, 4. Skeir. VII, b; acc. =ins=;
Mt. VI, 26. Mk. I, 20. 21. 22. Skeir. VII, b. c; f. sg. nom. =si=; gen.
=izôs=; Mt. V, 28. Mk. I, 31. V, 29; dat. =izai=; Mt. V, 28. 31. Mk.
V, 34. 41. 43. Lu. II, 6. 7; acc. =ija=; Mk. I, 30. V, 33; neut. sing.
nom. =ita=; Mk. IV, 37; acc. =ita=; Mt. V, 29. Mk. IV, 16; pl. nom.
=ija=; Lu. II, 50; dat. =im=; Lu. II, 42 (?). 49. 50. 51. [All but =si=
< a pronominal stem of the 3d pers., =i-=.]

=is=, =ist=, anv. (204), 2nd and 3d pers. sing. prs. indic. of =wisan=.

=Iskariôtês=, pr. n., _Iscariot_; acc. =-ên=; Mk. III, 19. [<

=Israêl=, pr. n., _Israel_; gen. =-is=; Lu. II, 25. II. Cor. III, 7.
13; dat. =-a=; Lu. II, 32. [< Ἰσραήλ.]

=Israêleitês=, pr. n. (120, n. 2), _Israelite_. [< Ἰσραηλίτης.]

=ist=, 3d pers. prs. ind. of =wisan=.

=ita=, prn.; s. =is=.

=itan=, stv. (176, n. 3), _to eat_.--Cpd. =fra-i=. [OE. etan, ME. æte,
ête, NE. eat.]

=iþ=, conj. (218), continuativ and more or less adversativ; so always
at the beginning of the sentence, (1) _but_; Mt. V, 19. 21. 22. 29. 32.
33. 37. 39. VI, 3. 6. 15. 17. 20. 23. 27. Mk. I, 8. 14. 30. 41. 45. II,
18. III, 4. IV, 10. 11. 34. V, 33. 34. 36. 40. Lu. II, 19. 40. II. Cor.
I, 12. III, 6. IV, 5. 18. V, 11. 16. Skeir. VII, a. b. (2) _and_; Mt.
VI, 24. (3) =iþ...nu=, _then, therefore_; Mt. V, 19.

=Iûdaia=, pr. n., _Judea_; dat. =-a=; Mk. III, 7; acc. =-an=; Lu. II,
4; or =-a=; II. Cor. I, 16. [< Ἰουδαία.]

=Iûdaia-land=, pr. n., _the cuntry of Judea_; Mk. I, 5.

=Iûdas= or =Jûdas=, pr. n., _Judas_; acc. =-an=; Mk. III, 19. [<

=iup=, adv. (213, n. 2), _upwards, up_. [Cf. OE. ûp, upp, ME. up, NE.

=iupa=, adv. (213, n. 2), _abuv, on high_. [< =iup= + suff. =-a=.]

=iupana=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from abuv, again_. [< =iup= + suff.

=iupaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from abuv_. [< =iupa= + suff. =-þrô=.]

=izai=, =izê=, =izô=, =izôs=, prn.; s. =is=.

=iz-ei= (78, c; =izê=), rel. prn. (157, n. 3), _he who, he that_; II.
Cor. I, 10. III, 6; f. =sei= (< =si ei=); Lu. II, 4. 5. 10; =þana
izei=, _him who_; II. Cor. V, 21. =sa izê=, _he who_; Mt. V, 32.

=izô=, =izôs=; s. =izai=.

=izwar=, poss. prn. (124, n. 1. 4; 151), m.; =izwara=, f.; =izwar=, n.,
_your_, in our 'Selections' always w. a sb., (1) preceding and, (a)
without the art.; Mt. V, 37. 44. 45. 48. Mt. VI, 1. 8. 14. 15. 21. 25.
26. 32. Mk. II, 8. II. Cor. I, 14. 24. II, 9. IV, 5. V, 11. (b) w. the
art.; Mt. V, 47. (2) following; so always without the art.; Mt. V, 20.
II. Cor. I, 6. 24. [< stem of =izwara=. OE. êower, ME. NE. your.]

=izwara=, =izwis=, pers. prn.; s. =þu=. [2nd pers. gen. and dat. acc.,
respectivly. OE. gen. êower, dat. êow, acc. (êowic), êow, ME. gen.
ᵹure, dat. acc. ᵹou, ᵹow, > NE. you.]

=izwizei= (i. e. =izwiz-ei=), rel. prn.; s. =þu-ei=.

=Ja=, adv. (216), _yes_; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 17. 18. 19. 20. [OE.
iâ, geâ, ME. ᵹea, ᵹe, NE. yea.]

=jabai=, conj. (218), _if, whether, even if, altho_, (1) w. prs.
indic.; Mt. V, 46. 47. VI, 14. 15. 22. 23. Mk. III, 24. 25. IV,
26. V, 28. II. Cor. II, 2. 10. III, 9. 11. IV, 3. V, 1. 17; =untê
jabai...aíþþau=, _for either ... or_; Mt. VI, 24. (2) w. prs. opt.; Mt.
V, 29. 30. 39. 41. Mk. IV, 23.--=jabai swêþauh jah=, _if only, even
tho_; II. Cor. V, 3. (3) w. pret. indic.; Mk. III, 26. II. Cor. II, 5.
III, 7. V, 16. [< pron. stem =ja-= (cp. Brgm., I, § 123) + =-bai= (for
=ibai=?); cp. OE. gif (for ge-if), gief, ME. yif, yf, NE. if. S. also

=Jaeirus=, pr. n., _Jairus_; Mk. V, 22. [< Ἰάειρος.]

=jah= (the =h= being often assimilated to a follg. sound; 62, n. 3),
conj. (217), (1) _and_ (καί); Mt. V, 18. 19. 20. 23. 24. 25. 29. 30.
32. 38. 41-45. 47 (the 1st). VI, 2. 4. 5. 6. 12 (the 1st). 13. 17-20.
25. 26. 28. Mk. I, 4-7. 9-13. 15-26. 27 (the 1st). 29 (the 1st)-38 (the
1st and 2nd). 39-45. II, 1-4. 6. 8. 9. 11-14. 15 (all but the 2nd)-25.
26 (the 1st and 2nd). 27. III, 1-8. 9. 11-19 (the 1st). 20-28. 31-34.
IV, 1. 2. 4-9. 11. 12. 13. 15-21. 24. 25 (the 1st). 26. 27. 30. 32. 33.
35-41 (all but the 3d). V, 1-7. 9. 10. 12-26. 29-34. 37-43. Lu. II,
3. 7-10. 12. 13. 14. 15 (1st and 3d). 16. 18. 20. 21. 22. 24-28. 30.
33-40. 42-52. II. Cor. I, 1. 2. 3. 6. 10. 12. 15-22. II, 2. 3. 4. 7.
12. 14. 15. 16. III, 2. 13. IV, 7. 14 (the 2nd). 16. 17. V, 2. 6. 8.
12. 15. 18. 19. Skeir. VII, a (the 1st and 3d). b. c (the 3d). d. (2)
_also_ (καί); sumtimes it is merely emfatic: _even_, _indeed_, or may
remain untranslated in E.; Mt. V, 39. 40. 46. 47 (the 2nd). VI, 10. 12
(the 2nd). 14. 21. 24. Mk. I, 27 (the 2nd). 38 (the 3d). II, 15 (the
2nd). 26 (the 3d). 28. III, 19 (the 2nd). IV, 25 (the 2nd). 41 (the
3d). Lu. II, 15 (the 2nd). II. Cor. I, 5. 7. 8. 11. 13. 14. II, 10.
III, 6. IV, 6. 11. 13 (the 2nd). 14 (the 1st). V, 3. 4. 5. 11. Skeir.
VII, a (the 2nd). c (the 1st and 2nd). (3) _and_, _but_ (δέ); Mt. VI,
30.--=in þizei jah=, _and therefore_; II. Cor. IV, 13.--=jah...jah=,
_both ... and_; II. Cor. V, 5 (But s. note). Cp. also Mk. III, 35.
[OHG. joh (ahd gr., 25, n. 1), MHG. joch, _and, also_.]

=jainar=, adv. (213, n. 1), _there_; Mt. V, 23. 24. Mk. I, 35. 38. II,
6. III, 1. V, 11. Lu. II, 6. [< =jains= + loc. suff. =-r=.]

=jaind=, adv. (213, n. 1), _there_, _thither_. [< =jains= + loc. suff.
=-d=. Cf. OE. geond, ME. yond, NE. yond (obs.), adv., _yonder_.]

=jaindrê=, adv. (213, n. 1), _there_, _thither_. [< =jains= + suff.
=-drê=. ME. NE. yonder.]

=jains= (20, n. 4), dem. prn. (156), _that_, w. a sb., (1) without the
art.; Mk. I, 9. II, 20. IV, 35. Lu. II, 1; =jainis stadis=, _to the
other side_; Mk. IV, 35. (2) w. the art.; Mk. III, 24. 25; =jainaim
þaim ûta=, _to them (that ar) without_; Mk. IV, 11. [OE. geon, ME. ᵹon,
NE. yon.]

=jainþrô=, adv. (213, n. 1), _thense_; Mt. V, 26. Mk. I, 19. [< =jains=
+ suff. =-þrô=.]

=jaþþê= (62, n. 3), conj. (153, n. 2; 218), _and if_, =jaþþê...jaþþê=,
_either ... or_, _whether ... or_; II. Cor. I, 6. V, 9. 10. 13. [<
=jah= (=þ= for =h=; s. =jah=) + =þê=, instr. of =þata=; s. =sa=.]

=jau=, interr. adv. (216), _whether_, _if_.

=jêr=, n. (94), _year_; Mk. V, 25. 42. Lu. II, 36. 37. 41. Skeir. VII,
d. [OE. geâr, gêr, ME. yêr, NE. year.]

=jôta=, m. (108), _iota_, _jot_; Mt. V, 18. [< ἰῶτα, _iota_.]

=ju=, adv. (214, n. 1), _now_, _alredy_; Mt. V, 28. Lu. II, 15. [OE.
iû, giû, adv., _alredy_, _onse_, _formerly_.]

=juggs= (124), adj. (124), _new_, _fresh_; Mk. II, 22. _yung_; Lu. II,
24.--=sa jûhiza= (15; 66, n. 1), compar. (135, n. 1), _the yunger_.
[OE. geong, giung, ME. ᵹong, ᵹung, NE. yung.]

=juk=, n. (94), _yoke_, _pair_. [OE. geoc, gioc, n., ME. ᵹok, NE. yoke.]

=jus=, pers. prn. 2nd pers. pl.; s. =þu=. [Cf. OE. nom. gê, gen. êower,
dat. êow, acc. êowic; ME. nom. yê, gen. your, dat. you, acc. you (prop.
dat.), NE. nom. ye, you (prop. dat.), (gen. your, poss., s. =izwara=),
dat. you, acc. you (prop. dat.).]

=ju-þan=, adv., _alredy_; Mk. IV, 37; =juþan ni=, _no longer_, _no
more_; Mk. I, 4. 5. II, 2.

=Kafarnaum=, indecl. pr. n., _Capernaum_, in acc.; Mk. I, 21. II, 1. [<

=kaisar=, m. (91, n. 4; 119), _Cesar_; dat. =-a=; Lu. II, 1. [< καῖσαρ.]

=Kajafa= (52), pr. n., _Cajaphas_. [< Καϊαφάς.]

=kalbô=, f. (112), _female calf_, _hefer_. [OHG. chalba, kalba, MHG.
kalbe, f. Its orig. stem appears in OE. cealf-ru, pl., but cealf, sing.
(without the orig. s: z: r-suff.), ME. cælf, kalf, NE. calf.]

=kalds=, adj. (124), _cold_. [Orig. a ptc. (=da-= being suff.), < √
=kal=, in OE. ME. côle, w. abl., NE. cool, OE. ceald, ME. cald, cold,
NE. cold.]

=kalkinassus=, m. (105), _adultery_, _fornication_; Mt. V, 32. [<
=kalk-= (seen in =kalk-jô=, or =kalk-i=, _harlot_, _whore_) + suff.

=Kananeitês=, pr. n. m., _Canaanite_; Mk. III, 18. [< Κανανίτης.]

=kann=, =kan(n)t=; s. =kunnan=, prt.-prs.

=kannjan=, wv. (188), _to make known_.--Cpds. =ga-=, =us-k.= [Factit.
of =kunnan=. OE. (ge-)cennan, ME. (i-) kenne, _to make known_, and
(by influence of ON. kenna, _to know_) _to know_, NE. ken, _to know_,

=kara=, f. (97; =karist=; 204, n. 3), _care_; =kara wisan=, _to
concern_, w. acc.; Mk. IV, 38 (without =ist=). [OE. cearu, f., ME.
care, _care_, _grief_, NE. care.]

=karkara=, f. (97; 119), _prison_; Mt. V, 25. [< Lt. _carcer_, m.,

=kas=, gen. =kasis=, n. (94), _vessel_, _picher_, _pot_; II. Cor. IV,
7; in pl. also _goods_ (so in the E. version; gerät in G.). Mk. III,
27. [OHG. char, MHG. kar, n., _vessel_, _dish_.]

=kaupatjan=, wv. (187, n. 1), _to strike with the palm of the hand, to
cuf, buffet_.

=Kaúrazein= (57), pr. n., _Chorazin_. [< Χοραζείν.]

=kaúrei=, f. (113), _weight_, _burden_; II. Cor. IV, 17. [< =kaúrus=.]

=Kaúrinþaíus=, pr. n., _a Corinthian_; dat. pl. =-aíum=; II. Cor.
superscr. (in B); or =-ium= (in A). [< Κορίνθιος.]

=Kaúrinþô=, pr. n., _Corinth_; dat. =-ôn=; II. Cor. I, 1. 23. [<

=kaúrjan=, wv. (188), _to press_, _burden_, _trubl_, w. acc., in pass.
the nom. (implied); II. Cor. I, 8. V, 4.--Cpd. =ana-k=. [< =kaúrus=.]

=kaúrn=, n. (94), _corn_, _grain_; Mk. IV, 28. [OE. corn, n., _a
grain_, _corn_, ME. NE. corn.]

=kaúrnô=, n. (110), _corn_, _grain of corn_; Mk. IV, 31. [< =kaúrn=.]

=kaúrus=, adj. (131, n. 1), _hevy_, _weighty_, _burdensum_.

=kawtsjô= (39, n. 1), f. (112), _security_. [< Lt. cautio, _security_.]

=Kêfas= (6), pr. n., _Cephas_.

=keinan=, stv. (172, n. 2; 195, n. 2), _to germinate_, _spring up_,
_grow_; Mk. IV, 27. [OE. cînan, ME. chine, _to split_, _crack_,
_burst_, > NE. chink (w. k-suff.).]

=kilþei=, f. (113), _womb_. [S. =inkilþô=.]

=kindins=, m. (91), _guvernor_; =k. wisan=, _to be guvernor_, _to
guvern_; Lu. II, 2.

=kinnus=, f. (105), _cheek_; Mt. V, 39. [OE. cin- (in composition),
_chin_ (but _cheek_ in cin-bân, n., _cheek-bone_, cintôð, m.,
_cheek-tooth_), ME. chin, NE. chin.]

=kintus=, m. (105), _farthing_; Mt. V, 26. [Perhaps < a vulgar form
of Lt. quintus, _one fifth_ (of an 'as'); cp. MHG. quentîn (quintîn)
_one fourth_ (perhaps orig. _one fifth_ of a 'lot' = about ½ ounce), <
Vulgar Lt. quintînus < Lt. quintus, _fifth_.]

=kiusan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to test, prove, choose_. [OE. cêosan, ME.
chese, chose > NE. choose.]

=kniu=, n. (94, n. 1), _knee_; Mk. I, 40. [OE. cnêo, ME. kne, NE. knee.]

=knôþs= (74, n. 2), f. (103), _race, stock_. [OHG. chnôt, chnuat, f.,
_race_. Its stem, =knô=, = OE. cnô-, in cnôsl (w. suff. -sla-), _race,

=knussjan=, wv., _to kneel down_; Mk. I, 40. [< =*knussus=, _a
kneeling_, < stem =knu-:kniw-=, extended =kniwa-= > =kniu=.]

=Krêks= (8), m. (119), _a Greek_. [< Lt. Græcus.]

=Krêta= (6), pr. n., _Crete_. [< Κρήτη.]

=kriustan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to gnash_.

=-krôtôn= (12, n. 1), wv. (190), in =ga-k.=

=krusts=, m. (101, n. 1), _gnashing_. [< =kriustan=.]

=-kumbjan= (54, n. 1), wv., in =ana-=, =miþ-ana-k.= [< Lt. -cumbere, in
ac-c., _to lie down, recline_.]

=kûmei=, _arise!_; Mk. V, 41 [< κόυμι, _arise!_, < the Syrian.]

=-kunds=, adj. (124), denoting origin or kind, in =aírþa-=, =guma-=,
=himina-=, =qina-kunds=. [Prop. an old ptc. < √ of =kuni=. OE. -cund
(as in god-cund, _divine_), extended cynde, ME. kynde, kinde, _natural,
suitabl, kind_, NE. kind.]

=kuni=, n. (93), _kin, race, tribe_; Lu. II, 36. [OE. cyn(n), n., ME.
kin, kun, NE. kin.]

=kunnan=, prt.-prs. (199), _to know_, w. acc.; Mk. I, 34. IV, 11. 13.
II. Cor. II, 4. (in pass. the nom.) III, 2. V, 16. 21. Skeir. VII,
a; and an indir. question; Mk. I, 24; or =bi= w. dat.; II. Cor. V,
16.--Cpds. =fra-=, =ga-k.= [OE. cunnan; prs. sing. can, cǫn, ME. cunne,
kunne, conne; prs. con, kan, can > NE. can.]

=-kunnan=, wv. (199, n. 1), in =ana-=, =at-=, =ga-=, =uf-k.= [<
=kunnan=, abuv. OE. cunnian, ME. cunne, _to try to find out, to try,
test_, NE. con (obs.), _to consider_, cun (Sc.).]

=kunþa=, prt. of =kunnan=, prt.-prs.

=kunþi=, n. (95), _knowledge_; II. Cor. II, 14. IV, 6. [< =kunþs=. OE.
cŷð(ð), f. (?), ME. kith, MHG. künde, n., _knowledge_.]

=-kunþjan=; s. =-swi-kunþjan=.

=kunþs=, adj. (123; prop. pp.), _known_; II. Cor. III, 2; =kunþa=, sb.
m. (107), _acquaintance_; Lu. II, 44. [< =kunnan=. OE. cûð (û < un),
ME. cuth, adj., _known_, NE. -couth, in uncouth.]

=kustus=, m. (105), _proof, trial, test_; II. Cor. II, 9. [< =kiusan=
+ suff. =-tu-=. OE. cost (for cyst, s. =ga-kusts=), m., _manner_, ME.
cost, cust, _choice, quality, manner_, OHG. chost, m., _judgment,
decision_, > chostôn, MHG, NHG. kosten, _to taste, try_.]

=Kyreinaíus=, pr. n., _Cyrenius_; dat. =-au=; Lu. II, 2. [< Κυρήνιος.]

=-Qaírnus= (105), in =asilu-qaírnus=, _milstone_ (lit. _'ass-mil'_, i.
e. _a mil turnd by an ass_), _mil_. [OE. cweorn, cwyrn, f., _mil_, ME.
cwern, quern, NE. quern, _hand-mil_.]

=qaírrus=, adj. (131), _meek, gentl_. [ON. kvær (stem *kverru-) beside
kvirr (stem *kvirria-), _stil, quiet_, OHG. *churri, *cwirri, MHG.
kürre, MG. kurre, kirre, NHG. kirre, adj., _tame, familiar, submissiv_.]

=qam=, prt. of =qiman=.

=Qartus= (59), pr. n., =Quartus=.

=qaþ(-uh)=, prt. of =qiþan= (+ =-uh=).

=qêmjau=, =qêmun=, prt. of =qiman=.

=qêns= (=qeins=; 7, n. 2), f. (103), _woman_, _wife_; Mt. V, 31. 32.
Lu. II, 5. [OE. cwên, f., ME. quene, _wife_, _woman_, _queen_, NE.
queen. Cp. =qinô=.]

=qêþun=, prt. of =qiþan=.

=qiman=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to cum_, _arrive_, both lit. and trop.; Mt.
VI, 10. Mk. I, 7. 9. III, 31. IV, 4. 15. 17. V, 22. 23. 33. II. Cor.
II, 3; w. =af= w. dat.; Mk. III, 22. II. Cor. I, 16; =at= w. dat.; Mk.
I, 40. II, 3. III, 8. II. Cor. I, 15. 16. II, 1; =fram= w. dat.; Mk. V,
35; =hindar= w. dat.; Mk. V, 1; =in= w. dat.; Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 14. 29.
V, 1. Lu. II, 27. 51. II. Cor. I, 23. II, 12; =nêƕa= w. dat.; Mk. II,
4; =us= w. dat.; Mk. I, 11; =duþê= (_therefore_); Mk. I, 38; a final
clause w. =duþê ei=; Mk. IV, 21; inf. of purpose; Mt. V, 17. Mk. I, 24.
II, 17. V, 14; a ptc.; Mk. I, 14. 40. II, 3. V, 35. Lu. II, 16; an acc.
of time; Lu. II, 44.--Cpds. =ana-=, =fra-=, =ga-=, =us-q.= [OE. cuman
(< *cwuman < *queman), ME. cume, come, NE. cum.]

=qina-kunds= (88ᵃ), adj. (124), _female_.

=qinô=, f. (112), _woman_; Mt. V, 28. Mk. V, 25. 33. Skeir. VII, a.
[OE. cwene, f., _woman_, _lady_, ME. quene, _wife_, _woman_, _quean_,
NE. quean, OHG. quena, chone, MHG. kone, f., _woman_. Cp. =qêns=.]

=-qiss= (76, n. 1), f., in cpds. [< =qiþan= + suff. =-ti= (=ss= < þt).
OE. -cwiss, in gecwiss, f., _harmony_.]

=qistjan=, wv. (188), _to destroy_, in =fra-=, =us-q.= [< stem
=*qis-ti=, _destruction_, = OHG. quist, f., _destruction_.]

=-qistnan=, wv. (194), in =fra-q=. [Cp. =qistjan=.]

=qiþan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to say_, _speak_, _tel_, _name_, _call_,
(1) w. acc. of the th. said; Mk. I, 42 (in pass. the nom.). Lu. II, 21;
(2) w. a dependent sentence or frase, (a) dir.; Mt. V, 27. 38. 43. VI,
31. Mk. I, 7. 24. 25. 27. III, 30. 33. 34. IV, 9. 26. 30. V, 7. 30. Lu.
II, 13. 28. Skeir. VII, a; (b) w. =þatei=; Mt. V, 31. Mk. I, 11. 15.
II, 12. III, 11. 21. 22. V, 23. 28. 35. (3) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor.
IV, 6. (4) w. dat. of the pers. addrest and, (a) an acc. of th.; Mk. V,
33; or a voc.; Mt. V, 22 (=raka=, indecl.); (b) a dir. obj. sentence;
Mt. V, 18. 21. 26. 33. 44. VI, 2. 25. Mk. I, 17. 41. II, 9. 11. 19. 27.
IV, 2 (and =in= w. dat.). 11. V, 8. Skeir. VII, d; (c) an obj. clause
w. =þatei=; Mt. V, 20. 22. 28. 32. 33. VI, 5. 16. 29. Mk. III, 28; (d)
a final clause w. =ei=; Mk. III, 9; (e) an inf.; Mt. V, 34. 39; (f)
=bi= w. acc.; Mk. I, 30. (5) w. =du= w. dat. of the pers. addrest, and,
(a) a dir. sentence; Mk. I, 38. 44. II, 5. 8. 10. 14. 16. 17. 18. 24.
25. III, 3. 4. 5. 23. 32. IV, 13. 21. 24. 35. 38. 39. 40. 41. V, 9.
19. 31. 34. 36. 39. 41. Lu. II, 10. 15. 34. 48. 49; (b) an obj. clause
w. =þatei=; Mk. I, 37. 40. (6) w. =swaswê= and =in= w. dat.; Lu. II,
24.--Cpd. =us-q=. [OE. cweðan (prt. cwæð), ME. queðe (prt. quað, quoð),
NE. (be-)queath (prt. quoth).]

=qiþus=, m. (105), _womb_; Lu. II, 23. [ON. kviðr, m., _stomach_.]

=-qiujan= (42), wv. (187), _to quicken_, in =ga-q=. [< =qius=. OE.
cwicjan, ME. quike, _to make alive_, OHG. quicchan in ir-qu., MHG.
erquicken, _to cause to revive_, _to refresh_, NHG. erquicken, _to

=-qiunan= (42, n. 3), wv. (194), in =ga-q.=, _to becum alive_. [<

=*qius=, adj. (124, n. 3), _quick_, _living_, _alive_. [< stem =qiwa-=.
Cf. OE. cwic (o-stem); cwicu and cucu (< stem in -u), NE. quick.]

=qrammiþa=, f. (97), _moisture_.

=qums=, m. (101, n. 1), _a cuming_, _arrival_. [< =qiman=. OE. cyme,
m., ME. cume, kime, _a cuming_.]

=Lag=, prt. of =ligan=.

=laggei=, f. (113), _length_. [< =laggs=. OE. lengu (str., for *lengî,
weak, by change of declension), f., ME. lenge, OHG. lengî (likewise
str.), MHG. lenge, NHG. länge, f., _length_.]

=laggs=, adj. (124), _long_ (said of time only); Mk. II, 19. [OE. lǫng,
lang, ME. NE. long.]

=lagjan=, wv. (187), _to lay_, _lay down_, _put_, _place_, _giv_, w.
acc. and =ana= w. acc.; Mk. V, 23. II. Cor. III, 13; _to communicate_,
_commit_, w. acc. and =in= w. dat. (or acc.?); II. Cor. V, 19.--Cpd.
=ga-l=. [Caus. of =ligan=. OE. lecᵹan, ME. legge, leie, NE. lay.]

=laígaíôn=, _legion_; Mk. V, 9. 15. [< λεγεών, _legion_.]

=laikan=, rv. (179), _to leap_, _leap for joy_. [OE. lâcan, _to leap_,
_play_, ME. lake, _to play_.]

=laíktjô= (57), f. (always in the margin, in B, opposit the passage to
be red in church); II. Cor. III, 4. V, 11. [< L. lectio, _a reading_.]

=laílôt=, prt. of =lêtan=.

=laílôun=, prt. of =lauan=.

=lais= (30), prt.-prs. (197), _I know_. [Cp. =laisareis=, =laisjan=.]

=laisareis=, m. (92), _teacher_, _master_; Mk. IV, 38. V, 35. Lu. II,
46. Skeir. VII, a. [< =*laisa= (= OE. lâr, f., _a teaching_, ME. lare,
lore, NE. lore) < =lais=. OHG. lêrari, MHG. lêrære, lêrer, NHG. lehrer,

=laiseins=, f. (103, n. 1), _a teaching_, _doctrin_; Mk. I, 22. 27. IV,
2. [< =laisjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=laisjan= (30), wv. (188; 197), _to teach_, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 1. (2) w.
acc. of pers.; Mt. V, 19. Mk. I, 21. 22. II, 13; and acc. of th.; Mk.
IV, 2. [Caus. of =lais=. OE. læ̂ran, _to teach_, ME. lere, _to teach,
lern_, NE. lear (obs.). OHG. MHG. lêren, _to teach_, _lern_ (rare),
NHG. lehren, _to teach_.]

=laistjan=, wv. (188), _to follow_, _follow after_, w. =afar= w. dat.;
Mk. I, 18. III, 7. [< =laists= (< =lais= + suff. =-ti-= = OE. lâst,
m. o-stem, ME. last, lest, NE. last), m., _foot-print_, _track_. OE.
læ̂stan, _to perform_ (by following a track), _stand by_, ME. laste,
leste, NE. last.]

=Laíwweis=, pr. n., _Levi_; acc. =-i=; Mk. II, 14. [< Λευίς.]

=lamb=, n. (94), _lamb_, _sheep_. [OE. ME. lǫmb, lamb, n., NE. lam.]

=land=, n. (94), _land_, _cuntry_, _region_; Mk. V, 1. 10, Lu. II, 8.
(=þata bisunjanê land=, _the cuntry round about_; Lu. IV, 37); =landis=
(215), gen. uzed adverbially, _a portion of land, far away_. [OE. lǫnd,
land, n., ME. land, NE. land.]

=lasiws= (42, n. 1), adj. (124), _feebl_, _weak_. [< stem =las-=. Cf.
OE. læ̂ssa, compar. adj., ME. lesse, NE. less.]

=laþôn=, wv. (190), _to invite_, _call_, w. acc.; Mk. II, 17. [OE.
laðian, ME. laðie, OHG. ladôn, MHG. NHG. laden, _to invite_, _summon_.]

=laþôns=, f. (103, n. 1), _a calling, invitation, consolation_; Lu. II,
25. _redemption_; Lu. II, 38. [< =laþôn=.]

=*lauan= (22, n. 2; 26, n. 2), rv. (179, 4), _to revile_.

=-laubjan= (31), only in =ga-=, =us-l.= [< a sb. = OE. lêaf, f., ME.
lêve, NE. leav, _permission_, (ge-)liefan, -lêfan, (< *-lêafian), ME.
(i-, be-)lêve, NE. believ.]

=laufs= (56, n. 1), m. (91), _leaf_, _the leavs_, _foliage_. [OE. lêaf,
n., ME. lêf, NE. leaf.]

=laugnjan= (31), wv. (188), _to deny_. [< =-laugns= (in =ana-l=.),
adj., _hidn_. OE. lêgnian(?), lŷᵹnian, (< *lêagnian), ME. leine, laine,
OHG. louginen, lougnen, MHG. löugenen, NHG. läugnen, _to deny_.]

=lauhatjan=, wv. (187, n. 1), _to lighten_.

=lauhmuni= (=-moni=; 14, n. 3), f., (98) _lightning_. [< =lauhmun-= (+
suff. =-jô=) < √ of =liuhaþ= + suff. =-mun-=.]

=Lauidja= (26, n. 1), f. (97) pr. n.; in dat. =-ai=. [< Λωίς, dat.

=laun=, n. (94), _pay, reward_; Mt. VI, 1. [OE. lêan, n., ME. lean,
OHG. MHG. lôn, m. n., NHG. lohn, m., _pay, reward_.]

=laus= (78, n. 2), adj. (124), _empty_. [< √ of =liusan=. OE. lêas, ME.
lês, _empty, free from, false_, NE. -less, ON. lauss, _free_, > ME.
los, NE. loose.]

=lausa-waúrds= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (124), _speaking loose words, talking
vainly_. [=-waúrds= < =waúrd=.]

=laus-handus= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (131, n. 1), _empty-handed_.

=lausjan=, wv. (188), _to loose, redeem, deliver_, w. acc. and =af= w.
dat.; Mt. VI, 13.--Cpd. =ga-l.= [< =laus=. OE. lŷsan, lêsan, ME. lese
(NE. loose, ME. lose < los; s. =laus=), OHG. lôsen, MHG. lœsen, NHG.
lösen, _to loose_.]

=laus-qiþrs= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (124), _with empty stomach, fasting_.

=-leiban= (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), in =bi-l.= [OE. (be-)lîfan,
OHG. (bi-)lîban, MHG. blîben, NHG. bleiben, _to remain, stay_.]

=leihts=, adj. (124), _light_; II. Cor. IV, 17. [OE. lîht, ME. liht,
NE. light.]

=leihts=, m. (? 90), _lightness_; II. Cor. I, 17. [< =leihts=, adj.]

=leiƕan=, stv. (172), _to lend_; =l. sis=, _to borrow_; Mt, V, 42. [OE.
lêon (< lîhǫn), _to lend_, OHG. lîhan, MHG. lîhen, NHG. leihen, _to
lend_, also _borrow_.]

=leik=, n. (94), _body_; Mt. V, 29. 30. VI, 22. 23. 25. Mk. V, 29. II.
Cor. IV, 10. V, 6. 8. 10; _flesh_; II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 11. V, 16. [OE.
lîc, n., ME. lik, lich, NE. like (obs.), _person, corpse_, lich- (in
lichgate, lichwake, etc.), Lich- (in Lichfield), OHG. lîh (hh), f. n.,
_body, flesh_, MHG. lîch, lîche, f., _body, corpse_, NHG. leiche, f.,
_corpse_, leich- (in leichdorn, _corn on a toe_, leichnam, _corpse_; s.

=-leikan=, wv. (193), _to please_, in =ga-l.= [< =-leiks=. OE. lîcian,
ME. like, NE. like (obs.), _to please_. The signification of the simpl
v. seems due to the compound (s. =galeikan=).]

=leikeins=, adj. (124), _bodily, fleshly_; II. Cor. I, 12. III, 3. [<
=leik= + suff. =-eina-=.]

=-leikjan=, wv. (188), in =silda-l.= [< =-leiks=.]

=-leikôn=, wv. (190), in =in-ga-l.= [< =(ga-)leiks=; s. =galeikô=.]

=-leiks=; s. =galeikô=.

=leitils=, adj. (124; 138), _litl, short_; Mt. VI, 30. Mk. I, 19. [Cf.
OE. lŷtel, lîtel, ME. litel (infl. litl-), NE. litl.]

=-leiþan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to go_, in =af-=, =bi-=, =ga-=, =us-l.=
[OE. lîðan, ME. liðe, _to go_, > the OE. caus. læ̂dan, ME. lede, NE.

=leiþu=, n. (? 106; n. 1), _a strong drink_. [OE. lîð, m. (o-stem),
_potion, wine_, OHG. lîd, MHG. lît, lîd-, n. m., _a wine-like drink_.]

=lêkeis= (=leikeis=, 7, n. 2), m. (92), _fysician_; Mk. II, 17. V,
26. [OE. læ̂ce, m., ME. lêche, NE. leech, _fysician_ (now obs.), _a
blud-sucking wurm_.]

=lêtan= (=leitan=, 7, n. 2), rv. (181), w. acc., _to let, suffer,
permit, allow, leav_; Mk. V, 19.--Cpds. =af-=, =fra-l.= [OE. læ̂tan,
ME. lete, NE. let, _to permit_ (let, _to hinder_, = Goth. =latjan= <
=lats=, _slothful, lazy_).]

=lêw=, n. (94, n. 1), _opportunity, occasion_; II. Cor. V, 12. [Cf. OE.
læ̂wa, m., _betrayer_; s. =lêwjan=.]

=lêwjan=, wv. (188), _to betray_.--Cpd. =ga-l.= [< =lêw=. OE. læ̂wan,
ME. be-lewe, _to betray_.]

=libains=, f. (103, n. 1), _life_; II. Cor. II, 16. IV, 11. 12. V, 4;
_world_; Mk. IV, 19. [< =liban= + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=liban=, wv. (193), _to liv_; Mk. V, 23. II. Cor. I, 8. III, 3. IV, 11.
V, 15 (the first); w. dat. of advantage; II. Cor. V, 15 (the second);
w. =miþ= w. dat.; Lu. II, 36. [OE. libban, lifian, ME. libbe, livie,
live, NE. liv.]

=-lifnan=, wv. (194), _to remain_, in =af-l.= [Cf. =-leiban=, pp.

=ligan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to lie_, w. =ana= w. dat.; Mk. II, 4. II.
Cor. III, 15; =du= w. dat.; Lu. II, 34; =in= w. dat.; Mk. I, 30. Lu.
II, 16; =þarei=; Mk. V, 40. [OE. licgan, ME. ligge, lie, NE. lie.]

=ligrs=, m. (91), _couch, bed_; Mk. IV, 21. [< =ligan= + suff. =-ra-=.
OE. leger, m., _couch_, ME. leir, NE. lair.]

=-linnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to cease_, in =af-l.= [OE. linnan, ME.
linne, NE. lin (obs.; cpd. blin = *be-lin, OE. blinnan, ME. blinne),
_to cease_.]

=lisan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to gather, collect_, w. =in= w. acc.; Mt.
VI, 26.--Cpd. =ga-l.= [OE. lesan, ME. lese, NE. lease, _to glean_, = G.
lesen, _to gather, read_.]

=lists= (30), f. (? 103, n. 2), _wile, craftiness_. [< =lis-= (seen
in =lis-ans=, pp. of =lais=) + suff. =-ti-=. OE. ME. list, _skil,
cunning_, OHG. MHG. list, m. (f.), _wisdom, craftiness_, NHG. list, f.,
_craft, cunning_.]

=liþus=, m. (105), _lim, member_; Mt. V, 29. 30. [< √ of =leiþan=. OE.
lioðu- (only in cpds.), m., lið, n. (o-stem), ME. lith, NE. (Scot.)
lith, _lim_.]

=liudan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to grow, grow up_; Mk. IV, 27. [OE.
lêodan, _to grow_. Its √ appears also in OE. lêod, m. f., pl. lêode,
ME. leode, lede, OHG. liut, m. n., pl. liuti, MHG. liute, NHG. leute,
_peple, men, servants_.]

=liufs= (gen. =liubis=; 31; 56, n. 1), adj. (124, n. 2), _beluvd,
dear_; Mk. I, 11. [OE. lêof, ME. lêf, NE. lief (poet.), OHG. liob, MHG.
liep, lieb-, NHG. lieb, _beluvd, dear_.]

=liugan= (31), stv. (173, n. 1), _to lie_. [OE. lêogan, ME. lyᵹe, liᵹe,
NE. lie.]

=liugan=, wv. (192, n. 1; 193), _to marry_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 32. [<
=liuga=, f., _marriage_.]

=liugn= (31), n. (94), _lie_. [< =liugan= + suff. =-na-=.]

=liugnja= (31), m. (108), _liar_. [< =liugn= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=liuhadei=, f. (113 and n. 2), _light, illumination_; II. Cor. IV, 4
(=-eins=, partit. g., in A; =-ein= in B; s. note). 6. [< =liuhaþ=.]

=liuhadeins=, adj. (124), _ful of light, shining, bright_; Mt. VI, 22.
[< =liuhaþ= + suff. =-eina-=.]

=liuhaþ=, gen. =liuhadis=, n. (94), _light_; Mt. VI, 23. Lu. II, 32.
II. Cor. IV, 6. [< √ =liuh= + suff. =-ada-=.]

=liuhtjan=, wv. (188), _to giv light, to light, shine_; II. Cor. IV, 4.
6. [< =*liuhts= (< √ of =liuhaþ= + suff. =-to-=), adj. (= OE. lêoht,
ME. licht, NE. light). OE. lŷhtan, ME. lihte, NE. light.]

=-liusan=, stv. (173, n. 1), in =fra-l.= [OE. (for-)lêosan, ME.
(for-)lêse, NE. leese (obs.), _to lose_, pp. (for-)lorn.]

=liuta=, m. (108), _dissembler, hypocrit_; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 16. [Prop.
weak form of the adj. =liuts= < √ of OE. lûtan, ME. lute, loute, NE.
lout (obs.), _to bend, bow, stoop_. Cf. also OE. lyteg (w. suff. -eg),
ME. luti, _shrewd, cunning_.]

=lôfa=, m. (108), _the palm of the hand_. [ON. lófi, Scot. loof, _the
palm of the hand_.]

=lubains= (31), f. (103, n. 1), _hope_. [< *=luban=, _to hope_, (+
suff. =-ai-ni-=), < √ of =liufs=.]

=lubja-leisei= (30), f. (113), _wichcraft_. [< =lubjaleis=, adj.,
_skild_, < =lubja-= (= OE. lyb, f.?, _poison_; cf. also cêse-lib, ME.
cheselep, NE. cheeselep. The orig. meaning of =lubja-= was probably
'_a strong essence_, _vegetabl juice_') + =-leis= < √ of =lais=.]

=-lubô= (31), f. (111), in =brôþru-=(=-a-=?)=lubô=, _brotherly luv_. [<
√ of =liufs=. OE. lufe (later lufu, a-declension), f., ME. lufe, luve,
love, NE. luv.]

=ludja=, f. (97), _face_, _countenance_; Mt. VI, 17. [< √ of =liudan= +
suff. =-jô-=.]

=luftus=, m. (105), _air_. [OE. lyft (i-stem), m. f. n., ME. luft,
lift, NE. lift (Scot.), _air_.]

=-lûkan= (15), stv. (173, n. 2), _to lock_, in =ga-=, =us-l=. [OE.
lûcan, ME. louke, luke, _to lock_. Its √ occurs w. abl. in =-luks=, m.,
_an opening_; cf. OE. loc, n., loca, m., ME. loke (> the vb. lokke, NE.
lock), _inclozure_, _lock_, NE. lock.]

=lukarn=, n. (94), _light_, _candl_; Mt. VI, 22. Mk. IV, 21. [< Lt.
lucerna, f., _lamp_, _candl_.]

=lukarna-staþa=, m. (108), _candl-stick_; Mk. IV, 21. [< stem of
=lukarn= + =-staþa= < =staþs=, _sted_, _place_, < √ of =standan= +
suff. =-þi-=.]

=lûns= (15, n. 1), f. (102), or =lun=, n. (94, n. 2), _ransom_.

=-lusnan=, wv. (194), in =fra-l=. [< pp. stem of =liusan=.]

=lustôn=, wv. (190), _to desire, lust after_, w. gen.; Mt. V, 28. [<
=lustus=. OHG. lustôn, MHG. lusten, _to desire_, NHG. lüsten, MHG.
lusten, lüsten, (OHG. lustjan, lusten, = OE. lystan, ME. liste, NE.
list, _to please_, < lust, f., OE. lyst, f., _desire_).]

=lustus=, m. (105), _lust_, _desire_; Mk. IV, 19. [OE. lust (a-stem),
m., ME. lust, NE. lust.]

=Magan=, prt.-prs. (201), _to be abl_, _be abl to do_, w. inf.; Mt. V,
36. VI, 24. 27. Mk. I, 40. 45. II, 4. 7. 19. III, 20. 23-27. IV, 32.
33. V, 4. II. Cor. I, 4. III, 7. [OE. *magan, prs. mæᵹ; prt. meahte
(Goth. =mahta=), mihte, ME. prs. mai, may, prt. miht, NE. prs. may,
prt. might.]

=magaþei=, f. (113), _virginity_; Lu. II, 36. [< =magaþs=.]

=magaþs=, f. (103), _maid_, _virgin_. [< stem =mag-a-= (s. =magus=,
stem =mag-u-=) + suff. =-þi-=. OE. mægð, f., _virgin_, OHG. magad,
_virgin_, MHG. maget, _virgin_, _maid_, _female servant_, NHG. magd,
f., _female servant_.]

=magula=, m. (108), _litl boy_, _lad_; Skeir. VII, a. [< =magus= + dim.
suff. =-lan-=.]

=magus=, m. (105), _boy_, _child_, _servant_; Lu. II, 43. 48. [< √ of
=magan=. OE. magu (-o), m., _sun_, _servant_.]

=mahta=, prt. of =magan=.

=mahteigs=, adj. (124), _mighty_, _strong_. [< =mahts= + suff.
=-eiga-=. OE. meahtig, mihtig, ME. mihty, NE. mighty.]

=mahts= (66, n. 1), f. (103), _might_, _strength_, _power_, _virtue_;
Mt. VI, 13. Mk. V, 30. II. Cor. I, 8. IV, 7. Skeir. VII, a. c. [< √ of
=magan= + suff. =-ti-=. OE. meaht, miht, ME. miht, NE. might.]

=maidjan=, wv. (188), _to corrupt_, _deform_, _falsify_; II. Cor. II,
17. [< =-maiþs= (in =ga-maiþs=; cp. ME. mad, NE. mad). OE. mæ̂dan, _to
deform_, _confuse_, ME. mæde (madde), _to confuse_, _derange_, NE. mad
(Shak.), _to make mad_.]

=maíhstus=, m. (105), _dung_, _dung-hil_. [< √ of OE. mîgan, ME. miᵹe,
_to urin_. OHG. MHG. NHG. mist (for *mihst), m., _manure_.]

=mais=, adv. (212), _more_, _rather_; II. Cor. II, 7. V, 8; w. dat.,
_more than_; Mt. VI, 25; w. another compar.; Mt. VI, 26. Mk. V, 26.
=filu m.=, _much more_; Skeir. VII, d; =und filu m.=, _much more_, _so
much the more_; II. Cor. III, 9. 11; =ƕaiwa m.=, _how much more_; Mt.
VI, 30; =ƕaiwa nei m.=, _not much more_; II. Cor. III, 8. [< =ma-=
+ adv. compar. suff. =-is=. OE. mâ, ME. ma, mo, NE. mo(e) (obs.),

=maist=, adv. (212, n. 3), _most_. S. =maiza=.

=maitan=, rv. (179), _to cut_, _cut off_, _cut down_.--Cpds. =af-=,
=bi-m.= [OHG. meiȥan, MHG. meiȥen, _to cut_, _hew_. Cf. also G. meissel
(w. l-suff.), m., _chisel_.]

=maiþms=, m. (91, n), _gift_. [< verbal stem =maiþ-= + suff. =-ma-=.
OE. mâðum, ME. maðem, _gift_, _trezure_.]

=maiza=, compar. adj. (138), _more_, _greater_; =filaus maizô=, _much
more_; Skeir. VII, b; superl. =maists= (138), _greatest_. [< stem =ma-=
+ suff. =-iza=. OE. mâra, superl. mâst, ME. mare, more, superl. most,
NE. more, superl. most.]

=Makaídonja= (or =i= for =aí=, 11, n. 1), pr. n., _Macedonia_; dat.
=Makaídonjai= (in B; =i= for =aí= in A); II. Cor. I, 16; acc. =-a=; II.
Cor. I, 16. II, 13 (in A; =i= for =aí= in B). [< Μακεδονία.]

=malan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to grind in a mil_. [OHG. malan, MHG. maln,
NHG. mahlen, _to grind_.]

=malô=, f. (112), _moth_; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [Lit. '_grinding insect_', <
√ of =malan=.]

=mammôna=, m. (108), _mammon_, _riches_; Mt. VI, 24. [< μαμμωνᾶ(ς) <
the Hebrew.]

=managduþs=, f. (103), _abundance_ [< =manags= + suff. =-du-þi-=.]

=managei=, f. (111; 113), _crowd_, _multitude_, _the peple_; Mk. II, 4.
III, 9. IV, 36. V, 27. 30. An adj., ptc., or prn., referring to =m.=,
uzually agrees w. it in gender and number; Mk. V, 31. Lu. II, 10. 31.
32. The v. either agrees w. =m.=; Mk. III, 20. Lu. II, 13. Skeir. VII,
c; or =m.= stands in the sg. and the v. in the pl.; Mk. III, 32; so
=all=, or =filu=, _m._, Mk. II, 13. III, 7. 8. IV, 1. V, 21. 24. [<
=manags=. OE. menigu (orig. -î), f., ME. manye, NE. many (sb.; as, a
great 'many').]

=managnan=, wv. (194), _to increase_, _abound_; II. Cor. IV, 15. [<

=manags=, adj. (124), often uzed as sb., _much_, _many_; Mk. I, 34. II,
2. 15. III, 10. IV, 2. 5. V, 9. 26. Lu. II, 34. 35. 36. II. Cor. I, 11.
II, 4. III, 12. Skeir. VII, a. b; =swa m.=, _so many_; Skeir. VII, b;
=swa m. swê=, _as many as_; Mk. III, 11; =swa m. swaswê=, _as many as_;
Mk. III, 28; =swaleikai m. swaswê=, _many such as_; Mk. IV, 33; =ƕaiwa
m.=, _how many_; II. Cor. I, 20.--compar. =managiza= (136), _more_,
_greater_; Mt. V, 20. II. Cor. II, 6. 7. IV, 15; w. dat. (as abl.); Mt.
V, 37; =ƕê m.=, _what_ (i. e. _in what degree_ or _manner_) _more_; Mt.
V, 47. [OE. manig, mǫnig, ME. mani, NE. many. Cp. =managei=.]

=mana-maúrþrja= (88ᵃ, n. 3), m. (108), _man-slayer_, _murderer_.
[=-maúrþrja= < =maúrþr= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=mana-sêþs= (88ᵃ, n. 3; gen. =-sêdais=), f. (103), '_man-seed_',
_peple_, _multitude_; _world_; II. Cor. V, 19. [=sêþs= < √ of =saian= +
suff. =-þi-= (=-di-=). OE. sæ̂d, m. n., ME. sêd, NE. seed.]

=man-leika= (88ᵃ, n. 3), m. (108), _image_. [Prop. weak adj. uzed as
sb.; =-leika= < =-leiks=. OE. manlîca, m., ME. manliche, _effigy_,

=manna=, m. (117), _man_; Mt, V, 19. VI, 1. 2. 5. 14. 15. 16. 18. Mk.
I, 17. 23. II, 10. 27. 28. III, 1. 3. 5. 28. IV, 26. V, 2. 8. Lu. II,
14. 15. 25. 52. II. Cor. III, 2. IV, 2. 16. V, 11. Skeir. VII, b; =ni
m.= or =m. ni=, _no man_, _nobody_; Mt. VI, 24. Mk. II, 21. 22. III,
27. V, 3. 4. 43. [< stem =mann-=. OE. mǫnna, manna, and mǫn(n), man(n),
ME. man, NE. man.]

=manna-hun=, indef. prn. (163), always in neg. sentences: =ni m.=, _no
one_; Mk. I, 44.

=manwjan=, wv. (188), _to prepare, make redy_, w. acc.; Mk. I, 3. 19.
Lu. II, 31. Cpd. =ga-m.= [< =manwus=.]

=manwuba=, adv. (210), _in rediness_. [< =manwus= + adv. suff. =-ba=.]

=manwus=, adj. (131), _redy_.

=marei=, f. (113), _sea_; Mk. IV, 41; =du marein=, _to the sea_; Mk.
III, 7; =faúr=, or =faúra=, _marein_, _near the sea_; Mk. I, 16. II,
13. V, 21; =hindar marein=, _on the other side of the sea_; Mk. V, 1.
21; =in marein= (dat.), _in the sea_; Mk. IV, 1 (the second), acc.,
_to_, or _into the sea_; Mk. I, 16. IV, 1 (the first). [OE. mere, m.
(orig. n.), ME. mere, _sea, lake_, NE. mere, _a pool_ or _small lake_,
OHG. mari, meri, m. n., MHG. mere, NHG. meer, n., _sea_.]

=Maria= (=Marja=), pr. n., _Mary_; Lu. II, 19. dat. =Mariin=; Lu. II,
5. 34; acc. =Marian=; Lu. II, 16. [< Μαρία.]

=marikreitus=, m. (119), _perl_. [Coind < μαργαρίτης, _perl_. So,
also, OE. meregreot < the Lt. margarita > ME. margarite, NE. margarite
(obs.), _perl_.]

=marka=, f. (97), _border, boundary, coast_; Mk. V, 17. [OE. mearc, f.,
ME. merk, mark, NE. mark, _border, boundary_.]

=Markus=, pr. n., _Mark_; acc. =-u=; Mk. superscr. [< Μάρκος.]

=martyr= (39), m., _martyr_. [< μάρτυρ, _witness_.]

=marzjan=, wv. (188), _to offend_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 29. 30.--Cpd.
=ga-m.= [OE. -merran, -myrran, in â-m., _to provoke, offend_, ME. merre,
marre, NE. mar.]

=matjan=, wv. (188), _to eat_; (1) abs.; Mk. V, 43 (=matjan= as obj.).
Skeir. VII, c. (2) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 25. 31. Mk. I, 6. II, 26. III, 20;
=miþ= w. dat.; Mk. II, 16. [< =mats=.]

=mats=, m. (101), _meat, food_. S. also =nahta-m.= [OE. mete, m., ME.
mete, NE. _meat_.]

=Matþaius=, pr. n., _Matthew_; acc. =-u=; Mk. III, 18.

=maþl=, n. (94, n. 2), _assembly, market, market-place_. [OE. mæðel,
n., _council, meeting_.]

=maudjan=, wv. (188), _to remind_.--Cpd. =ga-m.=

=maúrgins=, m. (91, n. 1; 214), _morn, morning_. [OE. morgen, mergen,
ME. morᵹen, morn (> morning, w. suff. -ing, NE. morning), morwe, NE.
morn, morrow.]

=maúrnan=, wv. (194), _to be anxious_ or _trubld_; Mt. VI, 27. 31; w.
dat.; Mt. VI, 25. [OE. murnan, ME. murne, mourne, NE. mourn.]

=maúrþr=, n. (94), _murder_. [< √ =maúr= + suff. =-þra-=. OE. morðor
(murðor), n., ME. morther, morder, NE. murder, murther (obs.).]

=maúrþrjan=, wv. (188), _to murder, kil_; Mt. V, 21. [< =maúrþr=. OE.
myrðrian, ME. murd(e)re, NE. murder.]

=mawi= (42), f. (94), _maid, maiden, damsel_; Mk. V, 42. [< =magw-= =
=magu-=, stem of =magus=.]

=mawilô=, f. (112), _yung maiden, damsel_; Mk. V, 41. [< =mawi= + suff.
=-lôn-=. OE. mêowle (< *mewilô), _yung maiden, maid_.]

=mêgs=, m. (91, n. 1), _sun-in-law_. [OE. mæg, m., mæ̂i, mai, OHG. mâg,
MHG. mâc (g-), NHG. mage, m., _kinsman_.]

=meina=, pers. prn. in gen.; s. =ik=. [OE. mîn, dat. mĕ; acc. mec, mĕ
(prop. dat.); ME. gen. wanting; dat. acc. me; NE. dat. acc. me.]

=meins=, poss. prn. (151), (alone or) w. a following or preceding sb.,
w. or without the art.; Mk. I, 2. III, 33. 34. 35. V, 23. Lu. II, 30.
49. [< =meina=. OE. ME. mîn, mî, NE. mine, my.]

=mêl=, n. (94), (orig. _point_ or _mezure of time_ or _space_), _time_
(_hour, season_, in pl., _writings, scriptures_); Mk. I, 15. [OE. mæ̂l,
n., _time, mezure_, (_food taken at one time_; hense) _meal_, ME. mêl,
NE. meal.]

=mêla=, m. (108), _mezure, bushel_; Mk. IV, 21.

=mêljan=, wv. (187), _to write_, w. acc.; in pass. the nom. (implied);
Lu. II, 3; and dat. of pers. (indir. obj.); II. Cor. I, 13.--Cpds.
=ana-=, =ga-m.= [< =mêl=, pl. =mêla=, _writings_. OE. mæ̂lan, _to
mark_, OHG. malôn, -ên, (of different conjugations), _to mark, paint_,
MHG. mâlen, _to paint, write_, NHG. malen, _to paint_.]

=mêna=, m. (108), _moon_. [OE. mǫ̂na, m., ME. mone, NE. moon. Cf.
=mênôþs= and Brgm., II, § 123, p. 393.]

=mênôþs=, m. (117), _month_. [OE. mǫ̂nað, ME. moneð, m., ME. month.]

=mêriþa=, f. (97), _fame, report_; Mk. I, 28. [< =-mêrs=. OE. mæ̂rðu,
mæ̂rð, f., _fame, glory_.]

=mêrjan=, wv. (188; =mêrjands=, m.; 115), _to make known, proclaim,
noiz abroad, preach_, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 7. 38. 39. III, 14. V, 20; w.
=in= w. dat.; Mk. I, 39. (2) w. acc.; Mk. I, 4. 14. 45. II. Cor. IV,
5. (3) w. an obj. clause and =in= w. dat.; Mk. V, 20.--Cpds. =waíla-=,
=waja-m.= [< =-mêrs=. OE. mæ̂ran, OHG. mâren, MHG. mæ̂ren, _to make
known, praise_.]

=*mêrs=, adj. (130, n. 2), _known, famous_, in =waíla-m.=,
_praisewurthy, of good report_. [OE. mæ̂re, ME. mere, _famous_, OHG.
mâri, _famous_, > mârî, f., mâri, n., _rumor, fame_, MHG. mæ̂re, n. f.,
_tale_, NHG. märe, f., _news, tidings, report_, > märchen (w. dimin.
suff. -chen), n., _tale, story, fable_.]

=mês= (8), n. (94), _table_. [Cf. OE. mêse (gen. -an), f., _table_,
perhaps < Lt. mensa (mêse < *mense), f., _table_.]

=midjis=, adj. (122, n. 1; 125), _midl_; Lu. II, 46. [OE. ME. mid(d),
adj., _midl_, NE. mid- (as in midday, midnight, etc.).]

=midjun-gards=, m. (101), _erth, world_; Lu. II, 1. [Prop.
'_midl-world_', between heven and hel. =midjun-= < stem of =midjis=.
OE. middaneard for middangeard, m., ME. middaneard, _world_.]

=*miduma=, f. (97; 139, n. 1), _midst_; Mk. III, 3. [Prop. superl. adj.
uzed as sb., < =mid-= (cp. =midjis=) + superl. suff. =-u-ma-n-=. OE.

=midumônds=, m. (115), _mediator_. [Prop. prsp. of =*midumôn= <

=mik=; s. =ik=, =meina=.

=mikilduþs=, f. (103), _greatness_. [< =mikil-= (< =mikils=) + suff.

=mikilei=, f. (113), _greatness_. [< =mikils=.]

=mikiljan=, wv. (185), _to magnify, glorify, praise_, w. acc.; Mk. II,
12. Lu. II, 20. [< =mikils=.]

=mikilnan=, wv. (194), _to becum great_. [< =mikils=.]

=mikils=, adj. (138), _great, much_; Mt. V, 19. 35. Mk. IV, 32. 37. 39.
41. V, 42. Lu. II, 9. 10. Skeir. VII, a. b; _strong, loud_; Mk. I, 26.
V, 7. [OE. micel, mycel, ME. mikel, mychel, muchel, NE. mickle (Sc.).]

=mildiþa=, f. (97), _mildness, kindness_. [< =-milds= (in =friaþwa-=,
=un-m.=), adj., _mild, kind_, + suff. =-i-þô-=.]

=milhma=, m. (108), _cloud_.

=miliþ=, n. (94), _huney_; Mk. I, 6. [Cf. OE. mele-, mil-, _huney_, in
mele-, mil-dêaw, m., ME. mildew, NE. mildew.]

=miluks=, f. (116), _milk_. [OE. meolc, f., ME. NE. milk.]

=*mims= (=mimz=; 78, n. 1), n. (94), _flesh, meat_.

=minnists=, superl. adj. (138), _very small, least_; Mt. V, 19. 26. Mk.
IV, 31. [< stem =minn-= (< minw-; cp. Brgm., I, § 180) + superl. suff.
=-ista-=. OHG. minnist, MHG. minnest, NHG. mindest (the d from the
compar.; cp. Kl. W., minder), _least_.]

=minniza=, compar. adj. (138), _smaller, less_. [< stem =minn-= (s.
=minnists=) + compar. suff. =-iza=. OHG. minniro, MHG. minner, minre,
NHG. minder (w. eufonic d), _smaller, less_.]

=mins= (=minz=; 78, n. 1), adv. (212, n. 1), _less_. [< =minn-= (s.
=minnist=) + adv. compar. suff. =-s= for =-is=.]

=mis=; s. =ik=, =meina=.

=*missa-dêþs= (=-dêds=), f. (103), _misdeed, trespass, sin_; Mt. VI,
14. 15. II. Cor. V, 19. [=miss(a)-= = OE. ME. NE. mis- (not = mis-, as
in mischief, < Lt. minus).]

=missa-leiks=, adj. (124), _various, divers_; Mk. I, 34.

=missô=, adv. (211, n. 1), _reciprocally, one another_, w. a pers.
prn.; =sis m.=; Mk. I, 27. IV, 41. Lu. II, 15. [< =missa-= + adv. suff.

=mitan=, stv. (176), _to mezure_; Mk. IV, 24.--Cpd. =us-m.= [OE. metan,
ME. mete, NE. mete.]

=mitaþs=, f. (116), _mezure_; Mk. IV, 24. [< =mitan= + suff.

=mitôn=, wv. (190), w. acc., _to consider, reason upon, think over,
think_; Mk. II, 8; and refl. dat.; Mk. II, 8; _to purpose, intend_; II.
Cor. I, 17. [Perhaps < a lost sb. OHG. meȥôn (< meȥ, n., _mezure, way,
manner_), _to mete, moderate_.]

=mitôns=, f. (103, n. 1), _consideration, thought_; Lu. II, 35. [<
=mitôn= + suff. =-ô-ni-=.]

=miþ= (=mid=; 74, n. 1), (1) prep. w. dat. (217), (a) denoting
'accumpaniment, community, connection', _with, together with, among,
amid_; Mt. V, 25. 41. Mk. I, 13. 20. 29. 36. II, 16. 19. 25. 26. III,
6. 7. 14. IV, 10. 36. V, 18. 24. 40. Lu. II, 5. 13. 36. 51. II. Cor.
I, 1. 21. IV, 14; (b) 'way' and manner'; Mk. III, 5. IV, 16. (2) adv.,
_along (with)_. [Cf. OE. ME. mid, prep. and adv., _with, along_, NE.
mid- (in midwife).]

=miþ-ana-kumbjan= (54, n. 1), wv. (188), _to lie down together with,
sit at table with_; Mk. II, 15.

=miþ-garda-waddjus= (88ᵃ, n. 2), f. (105), _partition wall, midl wall_.

=miþ-þan-ei=, conj. (218), (lit. '_with that that_'), _when, while,
as_; Mk. IV, 4. Lu. II, 6. 27. 43. II. Cor. III, 15. 16.

=miþ-wissei= (30), f. (113), _a 'knowing with', conscience_; II. Cor.
I, 12. IV, 2. V, 11. [< =*miþwiss= < =miþ= + =-wiss= (in =un-wiss=,
_not known, uncertain_), prop. an old ptc. in-to-, < stv. =witan= (=ss=
< tt < d-t). =-wiss= = OE. -wis, in ge-wis (ge = Goth. =ga=), adj.,
_certain_, ME. (i-) wiss, adj., _certain_, and adv., _certainly_, NE.
ywis (obs.), _certainly_.]

=mizdô=, f. (112), _reward_; Mt. V, 46. VI, 2. 5. 16. [OE. meord, mêd
(by lengthening of e + z to ê; cp. Brgm., I, § 538), ME. mede, mêde,
NE. meed.]

=môdags=, adj. (124), _wroth, angry_; Mt. V, 22. [< =môþs= + suff.
=-aga-=. OE. môdig (w. later suff. -ig, for orig. -eg = Goth. =-ags=.
Cp. my remarks on this point in 'Transactions of the Wis. Academy of
Sciences, Arts, and Letters', vol. VIII, p. 167), adj., _proud, brave_,
ME. mody, NE. moody.]

=*môjan= (26), wv. (187), in =af-m.= [OHG. muo(j)an, MHG. müe(j)en, _to
trubl, make angry_, NHG. mühen, _to trubl_.]

=Môsês=, pr. n., _Moses_; Mk. I, 44. II. Cor. III, 13 (in B). 15;
=Môsêz=; II. Cor. III, 13 (in A); gen. =Môsêzis=; Lu. II, 22. II. Cor.
III, 7. [< Μωσῆς.]

=môta=, f. (97), _toll, custom; the place where customs ar paid,
receipt of custom_; Mk. II, 14. [OHG. *muoȥa, MHG. muoȥe, NHG.
(Bavarian) mŭess, _toll, multure_, (LG. mûta >) OHG. mûta, MHG. mûte,
NHG. maut, f., _toll, custom_.]

=-môtan=, prt.-prs. (202), in =ga-m.= [OE. *môtan, prs. ind. môt,
_may_; prt. môste, ME. prs. mot, môt, _may, must_, 2nd prs. most (OE.
môst); prt. most(e) > NE. must.]

=môtareis=, m. (92), _toll-taker, publican_; Mt. V, 47. Mk. II, 15. 16.
[< =môta= + suff. =-arja-=.]

=-môtjan=, wv., _to meet_, in =ga-m.= [< =*môt= (= OE. môt, n., ME.
môt, _meeting_). OE. mêtan, ME. mete, NE. meet.]

=môþs= (gen. =môdis=; 74, n. 2), m. (91, n. 2), _wrath, anger_; Mk.
III, 5. [OE. môd, n., _mind, curage, pride_, ME. môd, NE. mood.]

=mûka-môdei= (15), f. (113), _meekness_. [=mûka-= = ON. mjúkr > ME.
meoc, meke, NE. meek.]

=-mûljan= (15), wv. (188), in =faúr-m.= [< =mûla-=, n., _mouth_, cf.
OHG. mûla, f., MHG. mûl, mûle, n., mûle, f., NHG. maul, n., _mouth_.]

=munan=, prt.-prs. (200), _to mean, suppose, think_.--Cpd. =ga-m.= [OE.
(ge-)munan, prs. ind. man, mǫn, prt. munde, ME. (i-) mune, prs. man,
prt. munde, _remember, think_.]

=munan=, wv. (200, n. 1), _to think, intend_. [< =muns=. OE. mynnan,
ME. mynne, munne, _to remember_.]

=muns=, m. (101), _thought, mind, purpose; counsel, device_; II. Cor.
II, 11. [< stv. =munan=. OE. myne, _memory, luv_, ME. mune, _mind,

=Naen= (6), pr. n., _Nain_. [Ναΐν.]

=-nah=, in =bi-=, =ga-=; s. =-naúhan=.

=nahta-mats= (88ᵃ, n. 3), m. (101), _supper_ (lit. '_night-food_');
Skeir. VII, b.

=nahts=, f. (116), _night_; gen. =nahts=, _in the night, by night_; Lu.
II, 8; dat. sg. =naht=, _by night_; Mk. IV, 27; dat. pl. =nahtam=, _by
night_; Mk. V, 5. Lu. II, 37. [OE. neaht, niht, ME. niht, NE. night.]

=naiteins=, f. (103, n. 1), _blasfemy_; Mk. II, 7. III, 28. [<
=-naitjan= (in =ga-n.=), _to blasfeme_, + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=naqaþs=, gen. =naqadis=, adj. (124), _naked_; II. Cor. V, 3. [OE.
nacod (w. an unlabialized guttural), ME. naked, NE. naked.]

=namnjan=, wv. (187), _to name, call_. [< stem of =namô= (for the =mn=,
s. Brgm., I, § 215). OE. nemnan (beside namian, ME. name, NE. name),
ME. nemne, OHG. MHG. nemmen, nennen, NHG. nennen, _to name, call_.]

=namô=, n. (110, n. 1), _name_; Mt. VI, 9. Mk. III, 16. 17. V, 9. 22.
Lu. II, 21. 25. [OE. nǫma, nama, m., ME. nome, name, NE. name.]

=naseins=, f. (103, n. 1), _salvation_; Lu. II, 30. II. Cor. I, 6. [<
=nasjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=nasjan=, wv. (185), _to save_; Mk. III, 4.--Cpd. =ga-n.= [Caus. of
=-nisan=. OE. nerian, nergan, _to save_, OHG. ner(j)an, MHG. nerigen,
nern, NHG. nähren, _to nurish_.]

=nasjands=, m. (115), _the Savior_; Lu. II, 11. [Prop. prsp. of
=nasjan=. OE. nergend, m., _savior_.]

=nati=, n. (95), _net_; Mk. I, 16. 18. 19. [OE. net(t), n., ME. NE.

=Naþan= (70), pr. n., _Nathan_. [< Ναθάν.]

=Naúbaímbaír= (54, n. 1), _November_. [< Lt. November.]

=naudi-bandi= (88ᵃ), f. (96), _fetter_, lit. '_need-band_'; Mk. V, 3.
4. [=naudi-= < stem of =nauþs=.]

=Naúêl= (26, n. 1), pr. n. [< Νῶε.]

=naúh=, adv., _stil, yet_; Skeir. VII, c; =ni naúh=, _not yet, not as
yet_; Mk. IV, 40. [< =nu= + =-uh=. OHG. MHG. noh, NHG. noch, _yet,

=-naúhan=, prt.-prs. (201), in =bi-=, =ga-n.= [OE. -nugan, in 3d pers.
sg. -neah (= Goth. =-nah=), in be-, ge-n., _it suffices_.]

=naúh-þanuh=, adv., _stil, yet_; Mk. V, 35.

=naus=, m. (101, n. 3), _a ded man, corpse_.

=nauþjan=, wv. (188), _to force, press, compel_, in =ana-n.= [<
=nauþs=. OHG. nôtan, nôten, MHG. nôten, nœten, _to urge, compel_.]

=nauþs=, f. (103), _need, necessity_. [OE. nîed, nêad, nêd, f., ME.
nede, nêd, NE. need.]

=Nazaraiþ=, indecl. pr. n., _Nazareth_; Mk. I, 9. Lu. II, 4. 39. 51. [<

=Nazôrênus=, pr. n., _one of Nazareth_. voc. (onse in) =-ai= (Gr.
infl.); Mk. I, 24. [< Ναζωρηνός.]

=nê=, adv. (216), _no, nay_; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 17. 18. 19. [Cf.

=nêƕ= (64), adv., _near_. [OE. nêah, nêh, ME. neih, neiᵹe, NE. nigh.]

=nêƕa=, adv. (216), _near_; uzed as prep. w. dat., _near_; Mk. II, 4.
[< =nêƕ=.]

=nêƕis=, compar. adv. (212), _nearer_. [< stem of =nêƕ= + adv. compar.
suff. =-is=.]

=nêƕjan (sik)=, wv. (188), _to draw near, approach_.--Cpd. =at-n.= [<
=nêƕ=. OHG. nâhan, nâhen, MHG. næhen, _to bring near_, beside nâhen,
NHG. nahen, _to approach, be near_.]

=nêƕundja=, m. (108, _neighbor_; Mt. V, 43.) [< stem of =nêƕ= + suff.

=nei=, interr. particl, _not?_; II. Cor. III, 8. [< =ni= + =ei=.]

=neiwan=, stv. (172, n. 3), _to hav a quarrel against_.

=ni=, neg. part. (216), _not_, (1) joind to vs. (a) in declarativ
sentences; Mt. V, 17. 18. 26. 34. 36. 39. VI, 1. 15. 18. 26. Mk. I, 7.
34. 45. II, 2. 12. 17. 18. 19. III, 9. 12. 20. 24. 25. 26. IV, 5. 6.
12. 13. 17. 22. 25. 27. 34. V, 19. 37. 39. Lu. II, 7. 26. 37. 43. 50.
II. Cor. I, 8. 9. 23. II, 1. 3. 5. 11. 13. 17. III, 7. 10. 13. IV, 1.
2. 4. 16. V, 4. 16. 21. Skeir. VII, b. d; so also w. a pred. ptc.; Mk.
II, 24. 26; or a prs. ptc.; Mk. II, 4. Lu. II, 45. II. Cor. IV, 18. V,
19; (b) in prohibitiv sentences; Mt. V, 7. 8. 17. 21. 27. 33. 42. VI,
2. 3. 5. 7. 13. 16. 19. 25. 31. Mk. V, 7. 36. Lu. II, 10. (2) joind
to other words (sbs., adjs., ptcs. uzed as adjs., etc.), chiefly in
antithesis and hypothetical sentences, and often w. other particls; Mt.
V, 20. 30. VI, 15. 24. Mk. I, 22. II, 27. IV, 40. V, 26. II. Cor. I,
12. 13. 24. II, 4. 5. III, 3. 5. 6. IV, 5. 7. 8. 9. V, 3. 7. 12. 15.
16. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. [OE. ME. ne, NE. ne (obs.), adv., _not_. Also
containd in no, neither, not, etc.]

=niba=, =nibai= (10, n. 2), conj. (218), _except, but, if not, unless,
save_; (1) w. sbs.; Mk. II, 7. 26. V, 37. II. Cor. II, 2. (2) w. vbs.;
Mt. V, 20. Mk. III, 27; =nibai ƕan=, _lest at any time_; Mk. IV, 12. [<
=ni= + =iba=, =ibai=.]

=nidwa=, f. (97), _rust_; Mt. VI, 19. 20.

=nih= (20, n. 1; 62, n. 3), conj. (218), _and not, not even_; Mt. VI,
29; in a negativ sentence it merely intensifies the negation or is
either copulativ or disjunctiv: =ni..nih=, _not ... and not, not ...
nor_, (or _not even, not as much as_); Mt. VI, 20. 25. Mk. II, 2. III,
20. Skeir. VII, a; =ni..nih..nih=, _not ... nor ... nor_; Mt. VI, 26;
=nih..ak=, _not ... but_; II. Cor. I, 19. Skeir. VII, a; =nih þan..ak
jah=, _for not ..., but also_; Skeir. VII, c; =ni..nih..ak=, _not ...
nor ... but_; II. Cor. IV, 2; =nih allis ƕa..nih..ak=, _for
nothing ... neither ... but_; Mk. IV, 22; =nih..nih=, _neither ... nor,
not ... nor_; Mt. VI, 20. 28; =ni..allis ni ..nih..nih..nih=, _not at
all, neither ... nor ... nor ... neither_; Mt. V, 34. 35. 36. [< =ni=
+ =-h=, i. e. =-uh=. OHG. nih-, in nih(h)ein, nechein, MHG. nehein,
nechein, nekein, short hein, kein, NHG. kein, adj., _not any, no_.]

=Nikaúdêmus= (23, n. 1), pr. n., _Nicodemus_.

=niman=, stv. (170; 175), _to take, accept, receiv, take away_, w.
acc.; Mt. V, 40. Mk. II, 9. 11. IV, 16. Skeir. VII, b.--Cpds. =af-=,
=and-=, =ga-=, =us-n.= [OE. niman, ME. nime, _to take, seiz_, NE. nim
(Shak.), _to steal_.]

=-nisan=, stv. (176, n. 1), in =ga-n.= [OE. gi-nesan, _to be saved_,
OHG. gi-nesan, MHG. genesen, _to remain alive, be saved, be deliverd
(of a child)_, NHG. genesen, _to recuver_.]

=niþan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to help_. [Its √ (w. abl.) appears in
OHG. ginâda, f., _mercy, grace_, MHG. gnâde, genâde, NHG. gnade, f.,
_grace_, etc.]

=niþjis=, m. (92), _kinsman, cuzin_. [OE. nið-in pl. niððas, m.,
_persons, men_.]

=niþjô=, f. (112), _female cuzin_. [Extended < stem of =niþjis=.]

=ni-u=, interr. part. (216), in dir. questions, _not?_ (= Lt. 'nonne');
Mt. V, 46. 47. VI, 25. 26. Mk. IV, 21. 38. Lu. II, 49; =ni aiw=,
_never?_; Mk. II, 25.

=-niujan=, wv. (187), _to renew_, in =ana-n.= [< =niujis=.]

=niuja-satiþs= (88ᵃ, n. 1), pp. uzed as sb., m. (134), _a novice_.
[=satiþs= < =satjan=.]

=niujis=, adj. (126), _new, yung_; Mk. I, 27. II, 21. 22. II. Cor. III,
6. V, 17. [OE. nîewe, nîwe, < nêowe (+ suff. -ja-), ME. niwe, new(e),
NE. new.]

=niu-klahei=, f. (113), _puerility, pusillanimity_; Skeir. VII, a.
[< =niuklahs=, adj., _under age, childish_; =niu-= = OE. nêo-we; s.

=niun=, card. num. (141), _nine_. [OE. nigon (the g being intrusiv),
nigen, ME. niᵹen (infl. niᵹene > the contracted) nine, NE. nine.]

=niunda=, ord. num. (146), _ninth_. [< =niun=. OE. nigoða (< *nigonða),
ME. nieþe, nynt, NE. ninth (by influence of 'nine').]

=niuntêhund=, num. (143), _ninety_. [< =niun= + =-têhund=. Cp. Brgm.,
III, § 179.]

=niutan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to enjoy_. [OE. nêotan, OHG. gi-nioȥan (=
Goth. =ga-n.=), MHG. genieȥen, NHG. geniessen, _to enjoy_.]

=-nôhjan=, wv. (188), in =ga-n.= [< =(ga)-nôhs=.]

=nôta=, m. (108), _hinder part of a ship, stern_; Mk. IV, 38.

=nu=, (1) adv. (214, n. 1; 218), _now, even now, just now_; Lu. II, 29;
uzed as sb.: =fram þamma nu=, _henseforth_; II. Cor. V, 16. (2) conj.
(218: so never at the beginning of a sentence), _now, then, therefore_;
Mt. V, 19. 23. 48. VI, 2. 8. 9. 22. 23. 31. II. Cor. I, 17. III, 12.
IV, 12. 13. V, 6. 11. 20. [Cf. OE. nû, ME. nu, nou, NE. now.]

=nuh=, adv. (216; 218), occurring always in questions, _now, then,
therefore_. [< =nu= + =-h=, i. e. =-uh-=.]

=-numja= (33), m., _one who takes_, in =arbi-numja=, _heir_. [< =niman=
+ suff. =-jan-=.]

=nunu=, conj. (218), _now, then, therefore_. [< =nu= + =nu=.]

=nuta=, m. (108), _cacher, fisher_; Mk. I, 17. [< =niutan=.]

=Ô=, interj. (219), _o! oh!_

=ôgan= (35), prt.-prs. (202), _to fear, be afraid_, (1) abs.; Mk. V,
15. 33. Lu. II, 10; =ôgan agisa mikilamma= (instr. dat.), _to fear
exceedingly_; Lu. II, 9. (2) w. refl. dat. (=sis=) and a cognate acc.
(=agis mikil=), _to fear exceedingly_; Mk. IV, 41. [< =*agan=; s.

=ôgjan= (35), wv. (188), _to terrify, frighten_. [Caus. of =ôgan=.]

=ôhtêdun=, prt. of =ôgan=.

=ôsanna= (61), _Hosannah_. [< ὠσαννά, _pray, help!_, < the Hebrew.]

=Paida= (51), f. (97), _coat_; Mt. V, 40. [Prob. a foren w. (51, a).
OE. pâd, f., OHG. pheit, MHG. pheit, pfeit, f., _gown_.]

=paíntêkustê= (13, n. 1), _Pentecost_. [< πεντηκοστή, _fiftieth_ (i. e.
the 50th day after the Passover.)]

=Paítrus=, pr. n., _Peter_; Mk. III, 16; acc. =-u=; Mk. V, 37. [<

=paraskaíwê= (39), f. (113), _the day of the preparation_. [<
παρασκευή, f., _preparation_.]

=paska=, f. (97), _(the feast of) the Passover_; Lu. II, 41. [< πάσχα <
the Hebrew.]

=Paúntius= (24, n. 5), pr. n., _Pontius_. [< Πόντιος.]

=paúrpura=, =paúrpaúra= (24, ns. 2. 5), f. (97), _purpl_. [< Lt.

=Pawlus=, pr. n., _Paul_; II. Cor. I, 1. [< Παῦλος.]

=peika-bagms= (51), m. (91), _date-palm_.

=Peilâtus= (5, a), pr. n., _Pilate_. [< Πειλᾶτος.]

=Phaeba= (52), pr. n.

=pistikeins= (51), adj. (124), _genuin, pure_. [< πιστικός, _faithful,
honest_, + Goth. suff. =-eina-=.]

=plapja=, f. (97, n. 1), _street_; Mt. VI, 5. [Occurs only onse, in
gen. pl. =plapjô=, which is prob. an error, for =*platjô= < Lt. platea
< Grk. πλατεῖα, _a broad way, street_.]

=plats=, m. (91, or 100? or =plat=, n., 94?), _a piece of cloth, pach_;
Mk. II, 21. [< Old Slavonic platu, _pach_.]

=plinsjan= (51), wv. (188), _to dance_. [< Old Slavonic plesati, _to

=-praggan= (51), rv. (178), in =ana-p.= [< Old Slavonic. Cf. Dutch
prangen, _to press_.]

=praitôriaún=, n. (120, n. 2), _Pretorium_. [< πραιτώριον, _Pretorium_.]

=praúfêteis=, f. (92), _profetess_; Lu. II, 36. [< προφήτις,

=praúfêtus= (=praúfêtês=), m. (105; 91), _profet_; dat. =-au=; Mk. I,
2; acc. pl. =-uns=; Mt. V, 17. [< προφητής, _profet_.]

=puggs= (51), m. (91; or =pugg=, n., _purse_.) [Borrowd  also
=ragineis= (92), m., _counselor_). OE. regnjan, _to plan, arrange_.]

=rahnjan=, wv. (188), _to reckon, count_, w. acc. of th. and dat. of
pers., _to impute anything to_; II. Cor. V, 19.

=raíhtis=, adv. conj. (218) uzed as an enclitic, _for, however,
indeed_; Mk. IV, 4. [< =raíhts= + adv. compar. suff. =-is=; s. 212.]

=raíhts=, adj. (124), _straight, right_; Mk. I, 3. [Prop. an old ptc.
in-to-, < √ of =reiks=. OE. riht, ME. ryght, riht, NE. right.]

=-raisjan=, wv. (188), _to cause to rize, to raiz_, in =ur-r.= [Caus.
of =-reisan=. OE. ræ̂ran (r < z < s), ME. rere, NE. rear.]

=raka= (indecl.), _raca_; Mt. V, 22. [< ῥακά < Hebrew râkâ, _wurthless

=-rakjan=, wv. (188), _to strech_, in =uf-r.= [OHG. recchen, MHG. NHG.
recken, Du. rekken, _to strech_, > NE. rack.]

=rann=, prt. of =rinnan=.

=-rannjan= (32), wv. (188), _to cause to run_, in =ur-r.= [Caus.
of =rinnan=. OHG. rennan, rennen, MHG. rennen, _to cause to run_
(especially a horse), NHG. rennen (intr.), _to run, race_.]

=rasta=, f. (97), _stage (of a jurney), mile_; Mt. V, 41. [< √ ras,
_to stay_ (> also =razn= (w. suff. =na=), n., _house_) + suff. =-tô-=.
OHG. rasta, MHG. raste, rast, f., _rest, stage of a jurney_, NHG. rast,
f., _rest, repose_. Cf. OE. rest, ræst (w. suff. -ti-), ME. NE. rest.]

=-raþjan= (?), stv. (177, n. 2), in =ga-r.=

=raþjô=, f. (112), _number, account_. [< √ of =-raþjan= + suff.
=-jôn-=. OHG. redia, reda, MHG. rede, f., _account, speech_, NHG. rede,
f., _speech_. =ra-þ-= = E. -red; s. =hund=. (Cp. Brgm., I, § 214; II, §

=-raubôn=, wv. (190), _to rob_, in =bi-r.= [OE. (bi-)rêafian, ME.
(bi)reve, NE. (be-)reav.]

=raupjan=, wv. (188), _to pluck_, w. acc.; Mk. II, 23. [OHG. roufen,
MHG. roufen, röufen, NHG. raufen, _to pluck, pul_.]

=*rauþs= (gen. =raudis=; 74, n. 2), adj. (124), _red_. [OE. rêad, ME.
rêd, NE. red.]

=Reccarêd= (6, n. 2), pr. n.

=-rêdan=, rv. (181), (only in cpds.), _to counsel, deliberate_. [OE.
ræ̂dan, ME. rede, reade, _to advise, rule_, NE. rede, read (Shak.),
> OE. ræ̂d, m., ME. rede, reade, NE. (obs.) read, rede, _advice,
counsel_, > OE. ræ̂dan (wv.), ME. rêde, _to interpret_, NE. read.]

=reiki=, n. (95), _power, authority, rule_. [< =reiks=, sb. OE. rîce
(rîci), n., ME. riche, rike, _reign, kingdom_, NE. -ric (ME. -rich, OE.
-rîce), in bishopric.]

=reikinôn=, wv. (190), _to rule, guvern_. [< =reiks=, sb.]

=reiks=, m. (117), _ruler, prince_. [Stem reik-, reika-, < Keltic rîg-,
_ruler_. Cp. =reiks=, adj.]

=reiks=, adj. (130, n. 2), _mighty, noble, honorabl_; superl.
=(sa)reikista=, _(the) mightiest, prince_; Mk. III, 22. [OE. rîce,
_powerful, mighty, of high rank_, ME. riche, rice, _powerful_, also
_rich_ (by confusion w. the Fr. riche), NE. rich. Cp. =reiks=, sb.]

=reiran=, wv. (193), _to trembl_; Mk. V, 33.

=-reisan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to rize_, in =ur-r.= [OE. rîsan, ME.
rise, NE. rize.]

=rignjan=, wv. (188), _to rain_; Mt. V, 45. [< =rign=, n. (= OE. regn,
m., ME. rein, NE. rain). OE. regnian, ME. reine, NE. rain.]

=rikan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to heap up, collect_. [Its √ appears
(w. abl.) in OE. raca, m. (or racu, f.?), ME. rake, NE. rake, _an
instrument for scraping erth_.]

=riqis=, =riqiz= (78, n. 1), n. (94), _darkness_; Mt. VI, 23. II. Cor.
IV, 6. [ON. rökkr, n., _darkness_.]

=riqizeins=, adj. (124), _dark, darkend_; Mt. VI, 23. [< =riqis= +
suff. =-eina-=.]

=rinnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to run_; Mk. V, 6; w. =in= w. acc.; Mk. V,
13.--Cpds. =ga-=, =ur-r.= [OE. rinnan, uzually irnan, eornan, iernan,
ME. rinne, renne, rynne, eorne, NE. run.]

=rinnô= (32), f. (112), _brook_. [< =rinnan=. OHG. rinnâ, f.,
_aqueduct_, MHG. rinne, f., _aqueduct, gutter_, NHG. rinne, f.,

=*riureis= (127; or =riurs=?; 130 and n. 2), adj., _temporal, mortal_;
II. Cor. IV, 11. 18. [ON. ryrr, adj., _small, poor_.]

=rôdjan=, wv., (188), _to speak_, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 34. V, 35. II. Cor.
IV, 13; so w. dat. of pers.; Mk. IV, 34; or =bi= w. acc., and =in= w.
dat.; Lu. II, 38; or =us= w. dat., and =in andwaírþja= w. gen.; II.
Cor. II, 17; or =du= w. dat. of pers.; Lu. II, 20. (2) w. acc. of th.
(in pass. the nom.; s. also below); Mk. II, 7. V, 36; and =bi= w. acc.;
Lu. II, 33. (3) w. acc. of th. and dat. of the pers. addrest; Mk. II,
2; or =du= w. dat. of the pers. addrest; Lu. II, 17. 18. 50; and instr.
dat.; Mk. IV, 33. [OE. rêdan, ME. rede, to _speak_.]

=Rûma= (15, n. 2), pr. n., _Rome_. [< Ῥώμη.]

=Rûmôneis= (15, n. 2), pr. n., _Romans_. [< Ῥωμαῖοι.]

=-rûmnan= (78, n. 4), wv. (194), in =ur-r.= [< =rûms=.]

=rûms= (15), m. (? 91), _room, place_; Lu. II, 7. [OE. rûm, n., ME.
roum, NE. room. Cp. Brgm. I, § 59.]

=rûna= (15), f. (97), _mystery, counsel_; Mk. IV, 11. [OE. rûn, f.,
_mystery, counsel_, rûne, ME. roune, NE. roun (obs.; rûne < the

=runs= (32; 49), m. (101, ns. 1. 2), _a running, issue_; Mk. V, 25. [<
=rinnan=. OE. ryne, m., _a running, course_, ME. rune, NE. run.]

=Sa=, m., =sô=, f.; =þata=, n. (153), (1) dem. prn. (for οὕτος,
ἐκείνος, etc.), _this, that_, (for αὐτός) _he, she, it, -self_--(S. my
Gothic Syntax, § 63 et seq.)--, (a) uzed alone; Mt. V, 30. 32. 37. VI,
8. 26. 29. 32. Mk. I, 19. 25. 27. 31. 42. II, 7. 8. 21. III, 35. IV, 4.
7. 18. 20. 30. 41. V, 12. 23. 32. 43. Lu. II, 6. 12. 34. II. Cor. I,
12. 17. II, 16. V, 2. 5. 15. Skeir. VII, a. d. For =in þis inuh þis=,
s. =in=, (1); (b) w. sbs. or adjs. (follg. or prec.); Mt. V, 19. Mk.
IV, 13. Lu. II, 15. 17. 19. 25. 38. 51. II. Cor. I, 15. III, 10. IV,
1. 4. 7.--=þata silbô=, _this same thing_; II. Cor. II, 1. 3; (c) w.
a rel. prn.; Mt. V, 32. Mk. V, 15. Lu. II, 33. II. Cor. V, 21. Skeir.
VII, d. (2) art. (for ὁ, ἡ, τό), _the_, (a) w. sbs. (unmodified; cp.
b, β, and e, β, below), (α) appellativs; Mt. V, 20. 25. 47. VI, 2. 23.
Mk. I, 10. 13. 15. 20. 22. 29. 31. 34. 42. 45. II, 4. 5. 6. 9. 10. 16.
20. 21. 22. 28. III, 9. IV, 7. 15. 16. 17. 19. 20. 27. 28. 33. 36. 39.
V, 4. 8. 11-14. 22. 29. 31. 35. 36. 38-42. Lu. II, 7. Skeir. VII, b.
c; (β) pr. ns. (where the E. often omits it, especially when the pr.
n. occurs alone); Mt. V, 20. Mk. I, 16. III, 6. 17. Lu. II, 7. 10. 13.
15. 17. 20. 25. 27. 40. 43. 50. II. Cor. I, 4. 11. 12. III, 16. IV, 1.
2. 7. V, 1. 4. 5. 8. 17; (b) w. adjs. (poss. prns. or =is=), (α) alone
(chiefly uzed as sbs.; so, sumtimes, w. other adjs. or ptcs.); Mt. V,
21. 33. 37. 39. 47. Mk. III, 27. V, 15. 16. II. Cor. II, 6. 7. III,
10. IV, 15. 17. V, 10. 17; (β) w. sbs. (the art. prec. the adj. and
its sb.); Mt. V, 26. 35. Mk. I, 24. II, 21 (sc. =plat=). Lu. I, 8. II.
Cor. I, 6. III, 13. 18. IV, 13. V, 1. Skeir. VII, d. (the art. standing
between the sb. and its adj.) Mt. V, 19. 29. VI, 11. Mk. I, 11. 26. 27.
II, 22. IV, 20. V, 7. 13. Lu. II, 26. II. Cor. I, 6. (or between the
adj. and its sb.) Mk. V, 33. Lu. II, 19. (the art. standing before the
sb. and its adj.) Mk. II, 9. III, 5. 9. 27. V, 34. Lu. II, 41. 48. II.
Cor. I, 18. III, 5. (the art. prec. the first of two qualifying adjs.)
Skeir. VII, d; (c) w. nums., (α) alone; Mk. IV, 10; (β) attributivly;
Skeir. VII, b; (d) w. advs. or adv. (prep.) frases, (α) without sb.:
Mk. I, 7. 19. 36. 38. II, 25. 26. IV, 10. 11. 15. 16. 18. 31. V, 40.
II. Cor. I, 4. 20. V, 2. 16; (β) w. other words; Mt. V, 45. 48. VI, 1.
23. Mk. I, 38. IV, 19. 31. V, 4. II. Cor. III, 10. IV, 16; (e) w. a
ptc. (chiefly uzed as sb.; so sumtimes w. an adj.), (α) without sb.;
Mt. V, 40. 44. 46. Mk. I, 32. II, 17. III, 22. 34. IV, 3. 14. 16. 20.
24. V, 14. 32. Lu. II, 18. 21. 38. 47. II. Cor. I, 1. 20. II, 2. 14.
15. III, 11. 13. IV, 3. 4. 13. 14. 18. V, 4. 12. 18; (β) w. sbs. or
adjs. uzed as sbs. (the art. preceding the sb. and its ptc.) Mk. V, 30.
33. 36. Lu. II, 16. (and another art. before the ptc.) Mk. III, 3. II.
Cor. I, 1. (or the ptc. and its sb.) Skeir. VII, d. (the art. standing
between the sb. and its ptc.) Mk. III, 22. IV, 15. Lu. II, 15. 21. II.
Cor. I, 1. 8. 9. III, 7; (f) w. a sb. or prn. in the gen., a sb. being
easily understood; Mt. V, 46. VI, 7. Mk. I, 19. II, 14. III, 17. 18.
Lu. II, 49; (g) a n. art. may precede any word or words and even a hole
sentence uzed substantivly (cp. b, α, and d, abuv); II. Cor. I, 17.
20. II, 6. [This prn. refers to two Indo-Germanic stems, so-: sâ- and
to-d. The former is found in =sa=, =sô=, and in OE. sĕ (chiefly art.,
but occasionally and orig. dem. prn.), m., ME. se. See also =si= and

=sabbatô= (indecl.) or =sabbatus=, m. (120, n. 1), _the Sabbath_; Mk.
II, 27; dat. sg. =-ô=; Mk. II, 28; gen. pl. =-ô=; Mk. I, 21. II, 23.
27. III, 2. [< σάββατον < Hebrew shabbáth, _rest, sabbath-day_.]

=sa-ei=, rel. prn. (157) m.; f. =sôei=, =sei= (157, 3); n. =þatei= (for
=*þataei=); _that, who, whosoever_, (1) for ὅς; Mt. VI, 8. Mk. I, 2. 7.
44. II, 4. 24. 26. III, 13. 17. 19. IV, 9. 16. 24. 31. V, 3. 33. 41.
Lu. II, 11. 15. 20. 25. 31. 50. II. Cor. I, 4. 6. 10. 13. 17. 19. II,
3. 4. 10. IV, 4. V, 4. 10. Skeir. VII, a. b. c. d. (2) for ὅς ἄν (w.
subj.), w. prs. indic.; Mt. V, 21. 22. Mk. III, 35. IV, 25; w. prs.
opt.; Mk. IV, 22. (3) for ὅστις; Mk. IV, 20. Lu. II, 4. 10. (4) for the
Gr. art. (w. prs. ptc.), w. prs. or prt. indic. or opt.; Mt. VI, 4. 18.
Lu. II, 33. II. Cor. I, 4. II, 2; (w. aor. ptc.) w. prt. indic.; Mk.
V, 16. 18. Lu. II, 17. II. Cor. IV, 6. V, 5. (w. sb.), w. prs. opt.;
Mt. VI, 12.--When a rel. clause contains two vs., both may occur in
the indic. mood, or the first stands in the indic. and the second in
the opt.; Mt. V, 19.--The rel. =saei= is sumtimes preceded by the dem.
(art.) =sa=; see =sa=, (1), (c).--It is uzually assimilated to the case
of its antecedent; Lu. II, 20.--For its function as a conj., s. =afar=;
=in=, (1) and (2), (c); =þaírh=; =und=; also =þammei=, =þizei=, and

=saggws=, m. (101), _song, singing_. [< =siggwan=. OE. sǫng, m., ME.
songe, sang, NE. song.]

=sa-h=, dem. prn. (154) m.; f. =sôh=; n. =þatuh= (for =þata-uh=),
_and this, and that, and he; this, that, the same; he; who, which_,
(1) referring to a prec. rel. clause; Mt. V, 19. (2) follg. sum other
antecedent; Lu. II, 38; so often as a connectiv before accessory
clauses; Lu. II, 36. 37.--=sah= occurs frequently with =þan=; Mk. III,
11. Lu. II, 2. 37. II. Cor. I, 17. IV, 15. [< =sa= + =uh=.]

=sa-ƕaz-uh=, indef. rel. prn. (164, n. 1); s. =þisƕazuh=.

=sai=, interj. (204, n. 2; 219), _see! behold! lo!_; Mk. I, 2. II, 24.
III, 32. 34. IV, 3. V, 22. Lu. II, 10. 34. 48. II. Cor. V, 17; =suns
sai=, _immediately_; Mk. I, 12. [< =sa= + =-i= (a mutilated form of
=-ei=), prop. a dem. particl attacht for emfasis.]

=saian= (=saijan=; 22 and n. 1), rv. (182), _to sow_, (1) abs.; Mt.
VI, 26. Mk. IV, 4. (2) w. acc. (nom. in pass.); Mk. IV, 14. 15 (nom.
implied). 32. (3) w. instr. dat. (=fraiwa=); Mk. IV, 3.--Followd by
=ana= w. dat.; Mk. IV, 16. 20; or acc.; Mk. IV, 31; =in= w. acc.;
Mk. IV, 18; --prs. ptc. (uzed as sb.) =saiands=, _sower_; Mk. IV, 3.
14.--Cpd. =in-s.= [OE. sâwan; (cp. =waian=), ME. sowe, NE. sow.]

=saíhs=, card. num. (141), _six_. [OE. seox, six, ME. NE. six.]

=saíhsta=, ord. num. (146), _sixth_. [< =saíhs=. OE. sixta, ME. sixte,
NE. sixth (the th by influence of the numerals w. regular th).]

=saíƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), _to see, look, behold, take
heed, take heed to_, (1) abs.; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18. Mk. IV, 12. (2) w.
acc.; Mt. V, 28. Mk. IV, 24. V, 22. 32. Lu. II, 15. 26. 30; and a ptc.
in acc.; Mk. V, 31. (3) w. =faírraþrô= (_afar, afar off_); Mk. V, 6.
(4) w. =du= w. inf.; Mt. V, 28. (5) w. an indir. question; Mk. IV, 24.
V, 14. (6) w. a clause introduced by =ei=; Mk. I, 44.--Cpds. =at-=,
=bi-=, =ga-=, =in-=, =þaírh-=, =us-s.= [OE. sêon (< *sehwǫn), ME. see,
NE. see.]

=-sailjan=, wv. (188), _to cord_, in =in-s.= [< =*sail= (= OE. sâl, m.,
ME. sôl, OHG. MHG. NHG. seil, n., _rope, cord_). OE. sæ̂lan, _to fasten
with a cord_.]

=sáir= (20, n. 2), n. (94), _sorrow, travail_. [Prop. n. adj. uzed as
sb. (m. =*sairs= = OE. sâr, ME. sore, NE. sore, _painful_, >) OE. sâr,
n., _pain_, ME. sore, NE. sore.]

=saiwala=, f. (97), _soul, life_; Mt. VI, 25. Mk. III, 4. Lu. II, 35.
[OE. sâwol, sâul, f., ME. sawle, soule, NE. soul.]

=saiws=, m. (101, n. 1), _sea, lake, marsh_. [OE. sæ̂ (infl. also
sæ̂w-), m. f., _sea, lake_, ME. sê, NE. sea.]

=sakan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to strive, quarrel, rebuke_.--Cpds. =and-=,
=ga-s.= [OE. sacan, ME. -sake (in cpds.), _to strive, contend_. Cp.
=frisahts= and =sakjô=.]

=sakjô= (35), f. (112), _strife_. [< =sakan= + suff. =-jôn-=. Cf. OE.
sæc(c), f. (jâ-stem), _strife, contest_; sacu, f. (â-stem), _strife,
hostility_, ME. sake, _strife, litigation, gilt, cause_, (for ... sake
=) NE. (for ...) sake.]

=sakkus= (58, n. 1), m. (105), _sack, sackcloth_. [< Lt. saccus (or) <
Grk. σάκκος < Hebrew saq, _sackcloth, sack for corn_.]

=salbôn=, wv. (189), _to salv, anoint_; w. acc.; Mt. VI, 17. II. Cor.
I, 21. [< =*salba= (= OE. sealf, f., ME. salfe, salve, NE. salv, sb.).
OE. sealfian, ME. salfe, salve, NE. salv, vb.]

=salbôns=, f. (103, n. 1), _salv, ointment_. [< =salbôn= + suff.

=saltan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to salt_. [OE. sealtan, OHG. salzan, MHG.
salzen, (NHG. salzen, wv., but pp. gesalzen), rv., _to salt_. Cf. OE.
sealt, ME. salt, n. (also adj.), NE. salt > ME. salte, NE. salt, wv.]

=sama=, adj. prn. (132, n. 3; 156), _same, the same_, (1) without sb.,
and with the art.; Mt. V, 46. 47. Skeir. VII, d. (2) w. a sb., and with
the art.; Lu. II, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. III, 14. IV, 13. [ON. samr, adj., >
ME. same, NE. same. Cf. OE. sǫme, same, adv.: =swâ s.=, _just as_.]

=sama-fraþjis=, adj. (126), _like-minded_.

=sama-lauþs= (74, n. 1), adj. (124), _of the same size_ or _quantity,
as much_. [=-lauþs= < √ of =liudan=.]

=sama-leikô=, adv., _equally, likewise_; Mk. IV, 16. Skeir. VII, c.
[< =sama-leiks= = OHG. samolîh, samelîh, MHG. same-, seme-, sem-lîch,
_alike, agreeing together_. For =-leiks=, s. =galeikô=.]

=samaþ=, adv. (213, n. 2), _to the same place, together_. [< =sama= +
suff. =-þ=. OE. sǫmod, samod, ME. samed, OHG. samet, MHG. NHG. samt,
adv., _together_, and prep., _together with_.]

=sandjan= (74, n. 3), wv. (187), _to send_.--Cpds. =in-=, =us-s.=
[Causal of =*sinþan=, _to go_. OE. sendan, ME. sende, NE. send.]

=Satana=, pr. n., _Satan_; Mk. III, 26; or =Satanas=; Mk. III, 23. IV,
15; dat. =-in=; Mk. I, 13. II. Cor. II, 11; acc. =-an=; Mk. III, 23.
[< Σατανᾶς < Hebrew sátán, _enemy_.]

=satjan=, wv. (187), _to set, place, put_; Mk. IV, 21.--Cpds. =af-=,
=at-=, =ga-=, =faúra-ga-s.= [Causal of =sitan=. OE. settan, ME. sette,
NE. set.]

=saþs=, gen. =sadis= (74, n. 3), adj. (124), _sated, ful_; =s.
waírþan=, _to be fild_; Skeir. VII, d. [Prop. an old ptc. in-to-. OE.
sæd, ME. sad, sed, NE. sad (obs.) _satiated_.]

=saúhts= (58, n. 2), f. (103), _sickness, disease_; Mk. I, 34. III, 15.
[< √ of =siuks= + suff. =-ti-=. OE. suht (?), f., ME. suht, _disease,
ilnes_, OHG. MHG. suht, NHG. sucht, f., _disease, malady_.]

=sauil= (26), n. (94), _sun_; Mk. I, 32.

=Saúlaúmôn=, pr. n., _Solomon_; Mt. VI, 29. [< Σολομών.]

=-sauljan= (24, n. 1), wv. (188), _to soil_, in =bi-s.= [Cp. OE. sylian
(< sol, orig. *sul-, n., _mire_), ME. sulie, NE. sully.]

=-saulnan= (24, n. 1), wv. (194), in =bi-s.=

=Saúr= (24, n. 5), pr. n., _a Syrian_; dat. pl. =-im=; Lu. II, 2. [<

=saúrga=, f. (97), _care_; Mk. IV, 19. _sorrow, grief_; II. Cor. II, 1.
3. 7. [OE. sorh, sorg, f., ME. sorwe, NE. sorrow.]

=saúrgan=, wv. (193), _to sorrow, be grievd_; II. Cor. II, 4; w. =bi=
w. acc., _to be anxious about, take thought for_; Mt. VI, 28. [<
=saúrga=. OE. sorgian (transferd to the Second Conjugation), ME. sorwe,
NE. sorrow.]

=sauþs=, m. (101), _sacrifice_. [ON. sauðr, m., _sheep_, prop. _an
animal to be immolated, a victim_, < √ of sjóða (prt. sauð) = OE.
sêoðan (prt. sêað), ME. sethe, NE. seeth.]

=sei=, f. prn. (157, n. 3); s. =saei=.

=Seidôna=, pr. n. f., _Sidon_; acc. =-a=; Mk. III, 8. [< Σιδών.]

=Seimôn=, =Seimônus=, pr. n., _Simon_; Mk. I, 36; gen. =-is=; Mk. I,
16. 29. 30; dat. =-a=; Mk. III, 16; acc. =-a= (Gr. infl.); Mk. III, 18;
or =-u=; Mk. I, 16. [< Σίμων.]

=seina=, refl. prn. gen.; dat. =sis=, acc. =sik=, uzed for all genders
and numbers, (I) alone, (1) where the Gr. has no corresponding prn.,
(a) m., (α) sing.; Mt. V, 42. VI, 29; (β) pl. Mk. II, 6. IV, 12. 41.
Lu. II, 20. 43; (b) fem., (α) sg.; Mk. III, 20; (β) pl.; Mk. IV, 1. V,
21; (c) n., (α) sg. (not found in our 'Selections.') (β) pl.; Lu. II,
39. 45; (2) for ἑαυτῴ, αὑτῴ, αὐτῴ, etc., (a) m., (α) sg., Mk. II, 26.
III, 14. 25. 34. V, 4. 5. 30. 37. 40. II. Cor. V, 19. Skeir. VII, a;
(β) pl.; Mk. II, 8. 19. IV, 17. II. Cor. V, 15. (II) w. =silba=, m.,
(α) sg.: =sis silbin=, =sik silban=, _himself_; Mk. III, 26. V, 30; (β)
pl.: =sis silbam=, (=sik silbans=), _themselvs_; II. Cor. V, 15. (III)
w. =missô=: =seina missô=, _one another_; =sis missô=, _one another_;
m. pl.; Mk. I, 27. IV, 41. Lu. II, 15. [Wanting in E., but see under
=seins=.] OHG. gen. sg. (only m. n.) sîn; dat. wanting; acc. sih (sg.
and pl.), MHG. gen. sg. sîn, acc. sg. and pl. sich, NHG. gen. sg. sein
(poet.); dat. acc. sich (for all genders and numbers).

=seins=, poss. prn. (151), uzed for all genders and numbers, _his,
theirs, their_, etc., (1) alone, referring to a f. in sg.; Mk. V, 26.
(2) w. a sb., referring, (a) to a m. in sg.; Mt. V, 22. 28. 32. 45. VI,
27. 29. Mk. I, 6. 41. III, 7. 9. IV, 2. 3. 34. Lu. II, 3. 28. II. Cor.
II, 14. Skeir. VII, c. d; (b) to a m. in pl.; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 7. 16. Mk.
I, 5. 20. II, 6. V, 17. Lu. II, 8. 39; (c) to a f. in sg.; Lu. II, 7.
19. 36. 51. [< stem of =seina=. OE. sîn (referring to all genders and
numbers;) OHG. sîn (referring to a m. or n. sg. only), MHG. sîn, NHG.
sein, _his, its_.]

=seiteina= (17, n. 2).

=seiþus=, adj. (131), _late_. [Cf. =-seiþs= (s. =þanaseiþs=).]

=sêls=, adj. (130), _good, kind_. [OE. sæ̂l, ME. sel, adj., _good_,
>-sæ̂lig, ME. seli, _happy, blessed_, (NE. silly), OHG. sâlig, MHG.
sæ̂lec (-g-), NHG. selig, adj., _happy, blessed_.]

=sêtun=, prt. of =sitan=.

=si=, pers. prn.; s. =is=. [Cf. OE. sêo (< si + the fem. ending-u), ME.
sche, NE. she. (Cp. Brgm., II, § 110.)]

=sibja=, f. (97, n. 1), _relationship_. [OE. sib(b), f., ME. sib,
sibbe, NE. sib (obs., but dial.), _relationship, frendship, luv,

=-sibjôn=, wv. (190), in =ga-s.= [< stem of =sibja=. OE. ge-sibbian,
wv., _to appease, please_.]

=sibun=, indecl. num. (141), _seven_; Lu. II, 36. [OE. seofon, ME.
seven, NE. seven.]

=sibuntêhund=, num. (143), _seventy_. [< =sibun= + =têhund=. Cp. Brgm.,
III, § 179.]

=sidôn=, wv. (190), _to practis_. [< =sidus=. OHG. (gi-)sitôn, _to do,

=sidus=, m. (105), _custom, manner_. [OE. siodu, m., _custom, manner,
morality_, ME. side-, in side-ful, adj., _modest_, OHG. situ, m., MHG.
site, m., f. (rare), NHG. sitte, f., _custom, manner_.]

=siggwan= (68), stv. (174, n. 1), (1) abs., _to sing_. (2) w. acc.
(nom. in pass.), _to read (aloud)_; II. Cor. III, 15.--Cpd. =us-s.=
[OE. singan, ME. singe, NE. sing.]

=sigis=, n. (94), _victory_. [OE. sigor, m. (from stem in =-iz=; hense
orig. n.), beside sige, m. (as if < =sigi-z=; cp. Brgm., II, § 132,
Rem. 2), ME. siᵹe, _victory_, OHG. sigi, -u, m., MHG. sige, sic (-g-),
NHG. sieg, m., _victory_.]

=Sigis-mêres= (6, n. 2), pr. n.

=sigqan= (=siggqan=), stv. (174, n. 1), _to sink_.--Cpd. =ga-s.= [OE.
sincan (intr.), ME. sinke, NE. sink (tr. and intr.).]

=sigljan=, wv. (188), _to seal_, w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 22. [< Lt.
sigillare, _to seal_.]

=sigljô=, n. (110), _seal_. [< =sigljan=.]

=sihu=? (20, n. 1), acc. n. (106), _victory_. [Cf. =sigis=.]

=sijau=, =siju=, =sijum=, etc., v. (204).

=sik=, refl. prn.; s. =seina=.

=-silan=, wv. (193), in =ana-s.= [Cognate with, or < Lt. silere, _to be

=silba=, prn. (132, n. 3; 156), _self_, (1) uzed alone; II. Cor. I, 4.
9. (2) w. a poss. prn., where it stands in the gen. (like Lt. ipsius w.
a poss. prn.); Lu. II, 35. (3) w. a pers. prn.; Mk. I, 44. III, 26. V,
30. II. Cor. I, 9. III, 1. 5. IV, 2. 5. V, 12. 15. (4) w. a dem. prn.;
as, =þata silbô=, _this very thing_; II. Cor. II, 1. 3. (5) w. a sb.
Mk. IV, 28. [OE. seolf, self, ME. seolf, self (infl. -v-), NE. self.]

=Silbânus= (5, a; 54, n. 1), pr. n., _Silvanus_; acc. =-u=; II. Cor. I,
19. [< Σιλουανός.]

=silba-wiljis=, adj. (92, n. 4), _of one's own accord_. [=-wiljis= <

=silda-leikjan=, wv. (188), _to be astonisht, be amazed, to wonder,
marvel_; Mk. I, 27. V, 20. Lu. II, 48; w. =ana= w. dat.; Lu. II, 33;
=bi= w. acc.; Lu. II, 18. [< =sildaleiks= (= OE. sellîc, for seld-lîc,
ME. sellich), adj., _strange, wonderful, marvelous_, < =silda-= (OE.
seld, adj., _rare, strange_, ME. selde, pl., _few_; cp. OE. seldan, ME.
selde, prop. dat. of seld) + =-leiks=.]

=silubr=, n. (94), _silver, muney_. [OE. seolfor, siolfur, ME. seolver,
silver, NE. silver.]

=simlê=, adv. (214, n. 1), _onse, formerly_. [OE. simle, symle, ME.
simle, adv., _ever, always_.]

=sinaps=, m. (91; or =sinap=, n.? 94), _mustard_; Mk. IV, 31. [<
σίναπι, n., _mustard_.]

=sineigs= (10, n. 5), adj. (138 and 139), _old, elder_. [< =*sina-= (s.
=sinteins=), adj., _old_, + suff. =-eiga-=.]

=sinteinô=, adv., _ever, always, continually_; Mk. V, 5. II. Cor. IV,
10. 11. V, 6. [< =sinteins= + suff. =-ô=.]

=sinteins=, adj. (124), _daily_; Mt. VI, 11. [< =sin-= (for =sina-=;
s. =sineigs=), _ever_, + =-teina-=; =sin-= = OE. sin-in sin-niht, f.,
_eternal night_; sin-grêne, ME. sin-, sen-grene, NE. sengreen, _the
houseleek_, lit. '_evergreen_'.]

=sipôneis=, m. (92), _pupil, disciple_; Mk. II, 15. 16. 18. 23. 24.
III, 7. 9. IV, 34. V, 31. Skeir. VII, d.

=sipônjan=, wv. (187; 188), _to be a disciple_. [< =sipôneis=.]

=sis=, prn.; s. =seina=.

=sitan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to sit_; Mk. II, 6. V, 15; w. =at= w.
dat.; Mk. II, 14; =bi= w. acc.; Mk. III, 32. 34; =in= w. dat.; Lu. II,
46.--Cpds. =bi-=, =ga-s.= [OE. sittan (< *sittjan; the j occurs in the
prs. tense only; prt. sæt, etc.), ME. sitte, NE. sit.]

=siujan=, wv. (187), _to sew_; Mk. II, 21. [< a lost sb. OE. siowian,
seowian, ME. sewe, NE. sew.]

=siukan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to be sick, be il, be weak_.

=siuks=, adj. (124), _sick, il, diseast, weak_. [OE. sêoc, ME. sêk,
sek, sic, NE. sick.]

=siuns= (42, n. 3), f. (103), _the sense of sight, sight_; II. Cor. V,
7. [< =saíƕan= + suff. =-ni-=; cp. Brgm., I, § 441.]

=siuþ= = =sijuþ=; s. =sijau=.

=skaban=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to shave_. [OE. sceafan, scafan, ME.
schave, NE. shave.]

=skadus=, m. (105), _shade, shadow_; Mk. IV, 32. [OE. sceadu (follg. a-
or wa-stems, but orig. < stem in -u-), f., ME. schadowe, schade, NE.
shadow, shade.]

=-skadweins= (14, n. 1), f. (103, n. 1), _a shading_, in =ga-sk.= [<
=skadwjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=-skadwjan= (14, n. 1), wv. (188), _to cast a shade or shadow_, in
=ufar-sk.= [< =skadus=. OE. sceadwian, ME. schadowe, NE. shadow.]

=skaidan=, rv. (179), _to sever, separate, put asunder_. [OE.
sc(e)âdan, ME. shede, wv., NE. shed, _to part, pour, spil_.]

=-skaidnan=, wv. (194), _to becum parted_, in =ga-sk=. [< =skaidan=.]

=skalkinôn=, wv. (190), _to serv, do service_; Mt. VI, 24. [< =skalks=.]

=skalks=, m. (91), _servant_; Lu. II, 29. II. Cor. IV, 5. [OE. scealc,
m., ME. schalk (= NE. -shal, in marshal < French < G.), OHG. scalch,
_servant_, MHG. schalc, _servant, bondman_, NHG. schalk, m., _wag,

=skaman=, wv. (193), always w. =sik=, _to be ashamed_, w. inf.; II.
Cor. I, 8. [< =*skama=, f. (= OE. sceomu, sceamu, ME. schame, NE.
shame). OE. sceǫmian (of the Second, orig. Third Class), sceamian, ME.
schame, NE. shame.]

=-skapjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to shape, make_, in =ga-sk.= [OE.
scieppan (< scieppjan; ie < ea < a), scyppan, ME. scheppe, schape,
stv., schapie, wv., NE. shape.]

=skattja= (80), m. (108), _muney-changer_. [< =skatts= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=skatts= (69, n. 1), m. (91), _muney, coin_. [OE. sceat(t), scat, m.,
ME. scat, OHG. scaz, m., _coin, muney_, MHG. schaz (-tz-), NHG. schatz,
m., _trezure, sweet-hart_.]

=skaþjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to do scath, do wrong_. [OE. sceððan,
sceaðan, str. and wv., _to harm_, > sceðð, n., sceaða, m., ME. scathe,
NE. scath, _harm_.]

=skauda-raips=, m. (91; or =-raip=, n.? 94), _shoe-lachet_; Mk. I,
7. [Lit. _a string for fastening a cuver_, < =skauda-= (cp. MHG. NHG.
schôte, f., _husk, pod_) + =-raips= = OE. râp, m., ME. rôp, NE. rope.]

=skauns=, adj. (130, n. 2), _beutiful_. [Lit. _wurth seeing, noticeabl_
(cp. Brgm., § 95; also =us-skaus= and the follg. w.), OE. scêone (for
*scêane) > scîene, scêne, ME. schene, adj., NE. sheen, adj. (_beutiful,
fair_; poet.) and sb.]

=-skawjan= (42, n. 2), wv. (188), _to behold, see_, in =us-sk.= [<
=-skaus=; s. =us-skaus=.]

=skeinan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to shine_; II. Cor. IV, 6.--Cpd. =bi-sk.=
[OE. scînan, ME. schine, NE. shine.]

=skeireins=, f. (103), _a making clear, explanation, interpretation_.
[< =skeirjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=-skeirjan=, wv. (188), _to make clear_, in =ga-sk.= [< =skeirs=.]

=skeirs= (78, n. 2), adj. (129, n. 1), _clear, evident, plain_. [< √ of
=skein-an=. OE. scîr, ME. shire, _bright, clear, pure_; cp. ON. skærr,
sheer, _bright_, > ME. schere, NE. sheer.]

=skêwjan=, wv. (188), _to go, walk_; Mk. II, 23. [Cf. ON. skæva, _to
go, stride along_.]

=skip=, n. (94), _ship, boat_; Mk. I, 19. 20. III, 9. IV, 1. 36. 37. V,
2. 18. 21. [OE. scip, n., ME. schip, NE. ship.]

=-skiuban= (56, n. 1), stv. (173, n. 1), _to shuv, push_, in =af-sk.=
[OE. scûfan (irreg. only in the pres., but later also scêofan), ME.
shuve, (NE. shuv < ME. (schowwyn =) schove, OE. scofian, to _shuv_),
OHG. scioban, MHG. schieben, NHG. schieben, _to shuv_.]

=skôhs=, m. (91?), _shoe_; Mk. I, 7. [OE. sceôh, scôh, m., ME. shô, NE.

=-skreitan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to shred, tear, rend_ (tr.), in
=dis-sk.= [OS. scrîtan, _to tear_. Cp. Swiss schrîssen, _to pull,

=-skritnan=, wv. (194), _to rend_ (intr.), in =dis-sk.= [< =-skreitan=.]

=skuggwa= (68), m. (108), _mirror_. [< √ of =skaus=, which is containd
also in OE. scûwa, m., _shade_, and in OHG. scûchar, _mirror_.]

=skula=, m. adj. (132), _gilty_; sb. (108), _detter_; Mt. VI, 12; =sk.
wisan= w. acc. of th.: =þatei skulans sijaima=, _that for which we ow,
our dets_; Mt. VI, 12; the crime being indicated by the gen.: _to be
gilty of, be in danger of_; Mk. III, 29; the punishment being indicated
by the dat.; Mt. V, 21. 22; or =in= w. acc.; Mt. V, 22. [< =skulan=.
OE. (ge-)scola, OHG. scolo, MHG. schol, ge-schol, m., _detter_.]

=skulan=, prt.-prs. (200), (1) w. inf., _to be about to be, to be one's
duty, to be obliged, ow, shal, must_; Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. II, 3. V,
10. (2) =skuld ist=, _it behoovs, it is lawful_; Mk. II, 24. III, 4.
26. [OE. sculan, prs. indic. sceal, prt. sceolde, ME. schal, prt.
scholde, schulde, NE. shal, should.]

=skûra= (15), f. (97), _shower_; =sk. windis=, _storm of wind_; Mk. IV,
37. [Cf. OE. scûr, m., ME. shur, schowre, NE. shower.]

=slahan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to strike, beat, smite_. [OE. slêan <
*slahǫn < *slahan, _to strike, slay_, ME. slê (= slæ̂), NE. slay.]

=slahs=, m. (101), _stroke, stripe; plague_; Mk. V, 29. 34. [<
=slahan=. OE. slege, m., ME. sleᵹe, _blow_; OHG. slag (a-stem; in comp.
also i-stem: slegi-), MHG. slac (-g-), NHG. schlag, m., _blow, stroke_.]

=-slauþjan=, wv. (188), _to cause to slide_, in =af-s.=

=-slauþnan=, wv. (194), in =af-s.= [Correlativ to =-slauþjan=.]

=slawan=, wv. (193), _to be silent, hold one's peace_.--Cpd. =ga-s.=

=slêpan= (78, n. 3), rv. (179), _to sleep, fall asleep, be asleep_;
Mk. IV, 27. V, 39; w. =ana= w. dat.; Mk. IV, 38. [OE. slæ̂pan (st.
and wv.), ME. slepe (st. and wv.), NE. sleep (wv.), OHG. slâfan, MHG.
slâfen, NHG. schlafen, stv., _to sleep_.]

=slêps=, m. (91, n. 2), _sleep_. [< =slêpan=. OE. slæ̂p, m., ME.
slep(e), NE. sleep.]

=-slindan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to devour_, in =fra-s.= [OHG.
(far)-slintan, MHG. ver-slinden, NHG. verschlingen (ng for nd by
influence of schlingen, _to wind, twist_), _to devour_.]

=sliupan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to slip_. [OE. slûpan (for *slêopan;
cp. =-skiuban=), ME. (æt)-slupe, OHG. sliofan, MHG. sliefen, NHG.
schliefen, _to slip_. Cp. also E. slip.]

=smakka= (58, n. 1), m. (108), _fig_. [A foren word. Cp. Old Bulgarian
smoky, _fig_.]

=smals=, adj. (124), _small, litl_. [OE. smæl, ME. smal, NE. small.]

=-smeitan=, stv. (172, n. 1), in =ga-s.= [OE. smîtan, _to strike_,
be-s., _to soil, pollute_, ME. smite, _to strike_, be-s., _to soil,
pollute_, NE. smite.]

=snaga=, m. (108), _garment_; Mk. II, 21.

=snaiws=, m. (91, n. 1), _snow_. [OE. snâ(w), m., ME. snow, NE. snow.]

=sneiþan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to cut, reap_; Mt. VI, 26. [OE. snîðan,
ME. sniðe, OHG. snîdan, MHG. snîden, NHG. schneiden, _to cut_.]

=sniumjan=, wv. (188), _to hasten, make haste_; Lu. II, 16. [< an adj.
= OHG. sniumi, _quick, fast_ (sniumo, adv., = OE. snêome, snîome, adv.,
_quickly, immediately_), < √ of =sniwan=.]

=sniumundôs=, compar. adv. (212, n. 2), _more quickly_. [< =sniumundô=,
adv., _quickly_, (< adj. stem =sniumunda-= + adv. suff. =-ô=) + compar.
suff. =-is=, < =sniumun-= (+ suff. =-da-=) < √ of =sniwan= + suff.

=sniwan=, stv. (176, n. 2), _to hasten, go_. [Cf. ON. snúa, stv., _to
turn_; and OE. sneowan, wv., _to hasten_.]

=snutrs=, adj. (124), _wise_. [< stem =snut-= + suff. =-ra-=. OE.
snot(t)or, snoter, ME. snoter, adj., _wise, prudent_.]

=sôh=, f. of =sah=.

=sôkjan= (35), wv. (186), _to seek, seek for, ask for, desire, long
for_, (1) w. acc.; Mt. VI, 32. Mk. I, 37. III, 32. Lu. II, 44. 45. 48.
49. IV, 42. (2) w. =miþ= w. dat., _to question with_; Mk. I, 27. [OE.
sêkan, ME. seke, (bi)seche, NE. seek, beseech. Cp. =sakan=.]

=sôkns= (35), f. (103), _serch, inquiry, question_. [< √ of =sôkjan=
+ suff. =-ni-=. OE. sôcen (w. suff. -na-), f., ME. soken, _a seeking,

=spaíkulâtur= (5, a; 24, n. 2), m., _spy, executioner_. [< Lt.
speculator, _spy_.]

=sparwa=, m. (108), _sparrow_. [OE. spearwa, ME. spar(o)we, NE.

=spaúrds=, f. (116), _stadium, furlong, race-course_. [OHG. spurt, f.
(?), _a stadium_.]

=spêdumists=, superl. adj. (139, n. 1), _the last_. [< stem
*=spêduma(n)-= (< =spêþs= + suff. =-u-ma-n-=) + suff. =-ista=; =spêþs=
= OHG. spâti, MHG. spæ̂te, NHG. spät, adj., _late_.]

=speiwan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to spit_. [OE. spîwan, ME. spiwe, OHG.
spîwan, spîan, MHG. spîen, NHG. speien, _to spit_. Cp. also OE.
spiwian, speowan, ME. spewe, NE. spew.]

=spilda=, f. (97), _(writing-) tablet_; II. Cor. III, 3. [Cf. OE.
speld, n., ME. speld, _splinter, chip_.]

=spillôn=, wv. (189), _to tel a tale, tel, narrate_; Mk. V, 16; _to
bring (good) tidings_; Lu. II, 10. [< =spill= (= OE. spell, n., _a
saying, narrativ, story_, ME. _spell, speech, preaching_, NE. spel, _an
incantation_). OE. spellian, ME. spelle, NE. spel.]

=spinnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to spin_; Mt. VI, 28. [OE. spinnan, ME.
spynne, NE. spin.]

=sprautô=, adv. (211, n. 1), _quickly, soon_; Mt. V, 25.

=stafs= (56, n. 1), m. (101), _element, rudiment_. [OE. stæf, m., ME.
staf, _twig, staff, letter_, NE. staff.]

=staiga=, f. (97), _path, way, highway_; Mk. I, 3. [< =steigan=. OHG.
steiga, MHG. steige, f., _an ascending road_, NHG. steige, f., _stile,

=stainahs=, adj. (124), _stony_; Mk. IV, 5. 16. [< =stains= + suff.
=-ha= (:=ga=). OHG. steinag, -ac, MHG. steinec (-g-), NHG. steinig,
adj., _stony_.]

=staineins=, adj. (124), _of stone, stony_; II. Cor. III, 3. [<
=stains= + suff. =-eina-=. OE. stæ̂nen, ME. stenen, OHG. steinîn, MHG.
steinen, NHG. steinen (uzually steinern, w. dubl suff. -er-n), _of

=stains=, m. (91), _stone, rock_; Mk. V, 5. II. Cor. III, 7.--Also
uzed as a pr. n., _Peter_; Skeir. VII, a. [OE. stân, m., ME. stôn, NE.

=staírnô=, f. (112), _star_. [OE. steorra (rr < rn), m., ME. sterre,
NE. star, OHG. sterno, sterro, MHG. sterne, sterre, also stern, a-stem,
m., NHG. stern, m., _star_.]

=-staldan=, rv. (179), in =ga-st.=

=standan=, stv. (177, n. 3), _to stand, stand firm_; Mk. III, 24.
25; w. =in= w. dat.; Mt. VI, 5; w. =ûta=; Mk. III, 31.--Cpds. =af-=,
=and-=, =at-=, =ga-=, =twis-=, =us-st.= [A nasalized form < √ stat
extended < sta. OE. stǫndan, standan, ME. stande, NE. stand. The orig.
√ is seen in OHG. MHG. stân, stên, NHG. stehen, stv., _to stand_; and
in =staþs=.]

=staþs=, gen. =stadis= (74 and notes), m. (101), _sted, place_; Mk. I,
35. 45. II. Cor. II, 14. Skeir. VII, b; _an inn_; Lu. II, 7; --=jainis
stadis= (215), _unto the other side (of the lake)_; Mk. IV, 35. [< √ of
=standan= + suff. =-þi-=. OE. stede, m., ME. stede, NE. sted (insted =
in sted).]

=*staþs=, gen. =staþis=, m. (? 91, n. 2), _shore, land_; Mk. IV, 1.
[< √ of =standan= + suff. =-þa-= or =-þi-= (?). OE. stæð, n., _bank,
shore_, ME. staðe, NE. staith.]

=staua= (26), f. (97), _judgment_; Mt. V, 21. 22. [< √ stâw: stôw; cp.

=staua= (26), m. (108), _judge_; Mt. V, 25. [< =staua=, f., + suff.

=staua-stôls=, m. (91), _judgment-seat_; II. Cor. V, 10.

=-staúrran=, wv. (193), in =and-st.= [< a lost adj. (cp. OE. styrne, =
Goth. =*staúr-ni-=, ME. sterne, NE. stern). OHG. storrên, MHG. storren,
_to be rigid, stand forth stif_.]

=stautan=, rv. (179, n. 1), w. acc. and =bi= w. acc., _to strike,
smite_; Mt. V, 39. [OHG. stôȥan, MHG. stôȥen, NHG. stossen, _to thrust,

=steigan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to mount, climb up_.--Cpds. =ufar-=,
=us-st.= [OE. stîgan, ME. stie, styᵹe, NE. sty, _to mount, ascend_.]

=stibna=, f. (97), _voice_; Mk. I, 3. 11. 26. V, 7. [OE. stefn, f., ME.
steven, _voice_, NE. steven (obs.), _an outcry_.]

=-stiggan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to sting_, in =us-st.= [OE. stingan, ME.
stinge, NE. sting.]

=stigqan= (gg; 67, n. 1), stv. (174, n. 1), _to thrust, strike_. [ON.
stökkva (for *stekkva), _to jump, leap_.]

=stilan=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to steal_; Mt. VI, 20. [OE. stelan, ME.
stele, NE. steal.]

=stiur= (78, n. 2), m. (91, n. 4), _steer, calf_. [OE. stêor, m., ME.
stêr, NE. steer.]

=stiwiti=, n. (95), _endurance, patience_; II. Cor. I, 6.

=-stôdjan=, wv. (188), only in the cpds. =ana-=, =du-st.= [< √ of

=stôjan= (26), wv. (186, n. 2), _to judge_, in =ga-st.= [< =staua= (cp.
Brgm., I, § 179). OHG. stôwan, stouwan (prt. stôwida), MHG. stouwen,
_to scold, accuse_.]

=stôls=, m. (91), _stool, seat, throne_; Mt. V, 34. [< √ of =standan= +
suff. =-la=. OE. stôl, m., ME. stôl, NE. stool.]

=straujan= (42), wv. (187), _to strew, spred_. [< a sb. = OE. strêa(w),
North. strê, n., ME. strâ(we), NE. straw. OE. strêge, strêawian, ME.
streᵹe, strewe, NE. strew.]

=striks=, m. (91 or 100?), _stroke, title_; Mt. V, 18. [< √ of
=*streikan= (= OE. strîcan, _to move, go_, ME. strike, NE. strike).
OHG. strih, MHG. NHG. strich, m., _stroke, line_.]

=stubjus=, m. (105), _dust_. [OHG. stuppe, MHG. (ge)stüppe, (ge)stuppe,
NHG. gestüpp, n., _dust_.]

=-suljan=, wv. (188), in =ga-s.= [< √ of OE. syll, f., ME. sille, NE.
sil; and of Goth. =suljô= (prob. not < Lt. solea).]

=suman=, adv. (214, n. 1), _onse, in times past_. [< stem of =sums=.]

=sums=, indef. prn. (162), (1) alone, _sum one_, pl. _sum_; II. Cor.
III, 1. (2) adj., _certain, sum_. (3) w. partit. gen., _certain, sum_;
Mk. II, 6. V, 25.--=sums..sums-uþ þan=, _the one ... the other_; II.
Cor. II, 16; =sum raíhtis..anþaruþ-þan..jah sum=, _sum ... other ...
and sum_; Mk. IV, 4-8.--=bi-sumata=, _in part_; II. Cor. I, 14. II, 5.
[OE. ME. sum, NE. sum.]

=sundrô=, adv., _asunder, alone, privately_; Mk. IV, 10. 34. [Cf.
OE. sundor, ME. sunder, adv., _especially, apart_, OHG. suntar, MHG.
sunder, adv., _separately, especially_; conj., _but, rather_; prep.,
_without_, NHG. sonder, prep., _without_.]

=sunja=, f. (97, n. 1), _truth_; Mk. V, 33. II. Cor. IV, 2; acc. sg. is
uzed adverbially (215). [< =sunjis=.]

=sunjaba=, adv. (210), _truly, verily_. [< =sunjis= + suff. =-ba=.]

=Sunjai-friþas= (88ᵃ, n. 2), pr. n.

=sunjis=, adj. (126), _tru_. [stem =sunja-= for *sundja-< *sund- (<
√ of =im=, =sijau=; s. =wisan=) = OE. sôð (for sǫnð), ME. sôth, NE.

=sunjôn=, wv. (190), _to verify, excuse_. [< =sunja=.]

=sunnô=, f. (112), n. (? 110, n. 2), _sun_; Mt. V, 45. Mk. IV, 6. [OE.
sunne, f., ME. sunne, NE. sun.]

=suns=, adv., _soon, at onse, suddenly, immediately_; Mk. I, 10. 12.
18. 20. 21. 28-31. 42. 43. II, 2. 8. 12. IV, 5. 15. 16. 29. V, 2. 13.
42. [Prop. compar. adv., < =*sunis= (cp. =mins=) < stem =suna-= + adv.
compar. suffix =-is=. Cf. OE. sǫ̂na, ME. sone, NE. soon.]

=suns-aiw=, adv., _soon, immediately, straightway_; Mk. III, 6. V, 29.
30. 36.

=suns-ei=, conj. (218), _as soon as, when_.

=sunus=, m. (104), _sun_; Mt. V, 45. Mk. I, 1. 11. II, 10. 19. 28. III,
11. 17. 28. V, 7. Lu. II, 7. II. Cor. I, 19. [OE. sunu, m., ME. sune,
sone, NE. sun.]

=suts= (15, n. 1), adj. (130), _sweet, suitabl, patient_. [OE. swête
(jo-stem), ME. swete, NE. sweet.]

=swa=, adv., _so_, (1) alone; Mt. V, 19. VI, 9. 30. Mk. II, 7. 8. 12.
IV, 40. Lu. II, 48. (2) correlativ: =swaswê..swa jah=, _as ... so
also_; II. Cor. I, 5; =swa..swaswê=, _so ... as_; Mk. IV, 26. (3) w. an
adj. or adv.; Skeir. VII, a. b. c. (4) =swa swê=, w. an adj. or adv.
between them: =swa filu swê=, _as much as_; Skeir. VII, c; =swa lagga
ƕeila swê=, _as long as_; Mk. II, 19; =swa managai swê=, _as many as_;
Mk. III, 10; =swa managôs swê=, Mk. III, 28. [OE. swâ, ME. swa, swo,
so, NE. so.]

=swa-ei=, conj. (218), _so that, that, therefore_, (1) w. prs.
indic.; Mk. II, 28. (2) w. prt. indic.; Mk. I, 27. Skeir. VII, c. (3)
w. prt. opt.; II. Cor. III, 7. (4) w. acc. and inf.; II. Cor. II,
7.--_wherefore, therefore_; II. Cor. IV, 12. V, 16. 17.

=-swaggwjan=, wv. (188), _to cause to swing_, in =af-sw.= [Caus. of
=*swiggwan= (= OE. swingan, ME. swinge, NE. swing). OE. swengan, ME.
swenge, NE. swinge (for *swenge, as singe for *senge).]

=swaíhra=, m. (108), _father-in-law_. [Cf. OE. swêor (< sweohor
< *swehur, a-stem), m., _father-in-law_, OHG. swehur, m.,
_father-in-law_, later also _brother-in-law_, MHG. sweher, NHG.
schwäher, m., _father-in-law_.]

=swaíhrô=, f. (112), _mother-in-law_; Mk. I, 30. [Extended < stem
=*swaíhrô-=. Cf. OE. sweger, f., OHG. swigar, MHG. swiger, NHG.
schwieger (rare; uzually schwiegermutter), f., _mother-in-law_.]

=-swaírban=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to wipe_, in =bi-sw.= [OE. sweorfan,
_to rub, file, polish_, ME. swerve, NE. swerv, _to turn aside_.]

=swa-lauþs=, adj. (161), _so great, so much, such_. [For =-lauþs=, s.

=swa-leiks=, adj. (161), (1) alone; so w. the art., _such a one_; II.
Cor. II, 6. 7. (2) w. a sb., without the art., _such_; Mk. IV, 33. II.
Cor. I, 10. III, 4. [OE. swelc, swilc, < swâ-lîc, ME. swiche, swuch,
NE. such.]

=swamms= (=swams=; 48; 80, n. 1), m. (91), _spunge_. [OE. swam, m.,
_fungus_, OHG. MHG. swam (mm), NHG. schwamm, m., _spunge, fungus_.]

=swaran=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to swear_, w. =bi= w. dat.; Mt. V, 34. 35.
36.--Cpds. =bi-=, =ufar-s.= [OE. swerian (the i, = j, occurs in the
prs. tense only; prt. swore, pp. sworen), ME. swere, NE. swear.]

=swarê=, adv., _without a cause, in vain_; Mt. V, 22.

=swartis= (in A) or =swartizl= (in B), n. (? 94), _that which is black,
ink_; II. Cor. III, 3. [< =swarts= + suff. =-iz-= (=-zla-= = NHG.
-sal, -sel).]

=swarts=, adj. (124), _black_; Mt. V, 36. [OE. sweart, ME. NE. swart.]

=swa-swê=, (1) adv., _as, just as, as it wer, in like manner as, like_,
(a) uzed alone; Mt. V, 48. VI, 2. 5. 7. 12. 16. Mk. I, 22. II. Cor. II,
17. III, 5. Mk. I, 22. IV, 33. Lu. II, 20. 23. II. Cor. I, 5. 14. II,
17. III, 5. 13. 18. IV, 1; =swaswê jah=, _even as, as also_; II. Cor.
I, 14; =swaswê qiþan ist=, _as (= according to that which) is said_;
Lu. II, 24; (b) correlativ: =swaswê..jah=, _as ... (so) also_; II. Cor.
I, 7. (2) conj. (218), _so that, insomuch that_, (a) w. prt. ind.; Mk.
I, 45. II, 2. 12. III, 10. 20. IV, 32. 37; (b) w. prt. opt.; II. Cor.
I, 8; (c) w. acc. and inf.; Mk. IV, 1.

=swê=, (1) adv., (a) in comparison, _as, just as, like_; Mt. VI, 29.
Mk. I, 2. 10. 22. IV, 27. 31. II. Cor. II, 17. III, 1. V, 20. Skeir.
VII, b; --=analeikô swê=, _in like manner_; Skeir. VII, a; =swê..jah=;
Mt. VI, 10; (b) before numerals, _about_; Mk. V, 13. (2) conj. (218;
temporal), _as, when_; Mk. IV, 36.

=swêgnjan=, wv. (188), _to rejoice, triumf_. [< a lost adj. or sb.
=*swêgna-= < =sweg-= (cf. OE. swôgan, _to sound, rustl_; swêg, m.,
_sound_) + suff. =-na-=.]

=sweiban= (56, n. 1), stv. (172, n. 1), _to cease_. [Cf. OHG.
(gi)-swiftôn, _to be stil, be quiet_; MHG. swiften (= OHG. *swiftjan),
_to silence, appease, stil_; NHG. be-schwichtigen (prop. Low G., w. ch
for f), _to silence, appease, stil_.]

=swein=, n. (94), _swine, pig_; Mk. V, 11-14. 16. [Orig. adj., < *sû
(= OE. sû, f., ME. sowe, NE. sow) + suff. -îna-. OE. swîn, n., _hog,
(wild) boar_, (pl. swine), ME. swin, NE. swine.]

=swêrs= (78, n. 2), adj. (124), _hevy, weighty_; hense, _grave,
honord_. [OE. swæ̂r, adj., _hevy, difficult_, OHG. swâri, MHG. swæ̂re,
adj., _hevy, grave, noble_, NHG. schwer, adj., _hevy, difficult,

=swês=, adj. (124, n. 1), _one's own_; II. Cor. V, 10 (see note). [<
=swê-= (allied to =sei-na=) + suff. =-sa-=. OE. swæ̂s, adj., _one's
own, domestic, intimate_.]

=swê-þáuh=, adv. and conj. (218), _yet, indeed, however_; =jabai sw.
jah= (s. =jabai=); II. Cor. V, 3; =untê sw.=, _for indeed_, II. Cor. V,

=-swikunþjan=, wv. (188), in =ga-sw.= [< =swikunþs=.]

=swikunþs=, adj. (124), _evident, manifest, open_; II. Cor. V, 11; =sw.
waírþan=, _to becum_ or _be made manifest, appear_; Mk. IV, 22. II.
Cor. IV, 11. [< the pref. =swi-= (allied to =swês=) + =kunþs=.]

=swiltan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to die_.--Cpd. =ga-sw.= [OE. sweltan,
_to die_, ME. swelte, _to faint, die_, > the freq. sweltere, _to faint
away_, NE. swelter, _to be overcum with heat_.]

=swinþnan=, wv. (194), _to grow strong_; Lu. II, 40. [< =swinþs=.]

=swinþs=, adj. (124), _strong_; Mk. III, 27. _hole, helthy_; Mk. II,
17.--Compar. =swinþôza=, _mightier_; Mk. I, 7. [OE. swîð (< *swinð),
ME. swiþ, _strong_, OHG. *swind (in pr. ns.), MHG. swint (d-), _strong,
quick_, NHG. schwind (obs., but dial.), ge-schwind, _quick_.]

=swistar=, f. (114), _sister_; Mk. III, 32. 35. [OE. sweostor, swustor,
ME. suster and sister (by influence of ON. systir), NE. sister.]

=swôgatjan=, wv. (188), _to sigh, groan_; II. Cor. V, 2. 4. [Intensiv
v. < =swôg-= in (OE. swôgan, ME. swowe > swoᵹne, swoune, NE. swoon)
=-swôgjan=, _to sigh_; =-atjan= = OE. -ettan, NHG. -ezzen.]

=swumfsl= (80), n. (94), _swimming-bath, pool_. [For =swumsl= (so in
MS., an amended form of =swumslf=. But the =f= is merely eufonic) <
=swimman= (+ suff. =-sla=) = OE. swimman, ME. swimme, NE. swim.]

=Symaíôn= (39), pr. n., _Simeon_; Lu. II, 25. 34. [< Συμεών.]

=synagôga-faþs=, gen. =-fadis=, m. (101), _ruler of a synagog_; Mk.
V, 22. 35. 36. 38. [< =synagôgê= + =-faþs= (only in cpds.), _chief,
master_; s. =brûþ-faþs=.]

=synagôgê= (39), f., _synagog_; (gen. =-ais=;) dat. (=-ai=; or) =-ein=;
Mk. I, 29 (=-ên= for =-ein=; 17, n. 1); or =-ê= (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 23;
acc. (=-ein=; or) =-ên= (Gr. infl.); Mk. I, 21. III, 1; dat. pl. =-im=;
Mk. I, 39. [< συναγωγή, _congregation_.]

=Syria=, pr. n., _Syria_; gen. =-ais=; Lu. II, 2. [< Συρία.]

=Tagl=, n. (94), _a singl hair, hair_; Mt. V, 36. Mk. I, 6. [OE.
tæᵹ(e)l, m., ME. tayl, NE. tail.]

=tagr=, n. (94), _tear_; II. Cor. II, 4. [OE. têar, teagor (< *taur,
for *tahur), m., _drop, tear_, ME. tere, têr, NE. tear.]

=tahjan=, wv. (188), _to tear, rend_, w. acc.; Mk. I, 26.

=taíhswa=, f. (prop. str. adj.; Mk. XVI, 5. Col. III, 1), _the right
hand_. [< =taíhsws=.]

=taíhsws=, adj. (124; uzually weak; 132; so also without the art.; cp.
prec. word), _right_ (not _left_); Mt. V, 29. 30. 39.--=taíhswô= (sc.
=handus=), _the right hand_; Mt. VI, 3. [OHG. zeso (infl. zesw-), MHG.
zese (infl. zesw-, zesew-), adj., _right_.]

=taíhun=, card. num. (141), _ten_. [OE. tên (< *teen for *tehen), têo
(North.), ME. ten, NE. ten (-teen; s. =fimf=).]

=taíhunda=, ord. num. (146), _the tenth_. [< =taíhun= + suff. =-da=.]
[OE. têoða (for *têonða), ME. tenþe (by influence of ten), NE. tenth.]

=taíhun-têhund= and =-taíhund=, card. num. (143; cp. 148), _a hundred_.

=taiknjan=, wv. (188), _to betoken, point, show_.--Cpd. =us-t.= [<
=taikns=. OE. tâcnian, ME. tokne, _to show, betoken, signify_, NE.
token (Shak.), _to foretel, betoken, to make known_.]

=taikns=, f. (103), _token; sign, wonder, miracl_; Lu. II, 12. 34. [<
=taik-= (= OE. tâc-in *tâcian, _to show_, = tæ̂can, ME. teche, teache,
NE. teach) + suff. =-ni-=. OE. tâcen (w. suff. -no-), n., _token, mark,
wonder_, ME. tokne, NE. token.]

=tainjô=, f. (112), _a basket of twigs, basket_; Skeir. VII, c. d.
[< =tains= + suff. =-jôn-=. OHG. zein(n)â, f., MHG. zeine, f. m., _a
basket of twigs_.]

=tains=, m. (91), _twig, branch_. [OE. tân, m., _twig, rod, staf_, ON.
teinn > ME. tein, _staff_.]

=taíran=, stv. (175, n. 1), only in =dis-=, =ga-t.= [OE. teran, ME.
tere, NE. tear.]

=taítôk=, prt. of =têkan=.

=taleiþa=, f. (97), _damsel_; Mk. V, 41. [< ταλιθά < the Chaldean.]

=talzjan=, wv. (188), _to teach, instruct_.--=talzjands=, m.
(prop. prsp.; 115), _teacher_. [< =-tals= (in =un-tals=, _indocil,
disobedient_) < √ tal seen in OE. talu, _number, narrativ, speech_, ME.
tale, NE. tale.]

=-tamjan= (33), wv. (187), _to tame_, in =ga-t.= [< an adj. = OE. tam,
ME. tame, NE. tame; < √ of =-timan=. OE. tamian, temian, ME. tame,
teme, NE. tame.]

=taui= (gen. =tôjis=; 26), n. (95), _deed, work_. [< =taujan=.]

=taujan= (26), wv. (187), (1) w. acc. (sumtimes understood), _to do,
make_; Mt. V, 19. 46. 47. VI, 3. Mk. II, 24. III, 8. V, 32; =armaiôn
t.=, _to do alms_; Mt. VI, 1. 2. 3. (2) w. dubl acc., _to make_; II.
Cor. IV, 2. (3) =waíla t.=, _to do wel, do good_; Mt. V, 44. (4) w.
=bi= w. acc., _to do, make_; Lu. II, 27. (5) w. acc. and inf., _to
make, cause_; Mt. V, 32. (6) =þiuþ t.=, _to do good_; Mk. III, 4;
=unþiuþ t.=, _to do evil_; Mk. III, 4; =galiug t.=, _to falsify, handl
deceitfully_; II. Cor. IV, 2.--Cpd. =ga-t.= [< √ of OE. tôl (w. instr.
l-suff.), n., ME. tôl, NE. tool. Cf. OE. tawian, _to prepare, dress,
get redy_, ME. tawe, _to work, act upon_, NE. taw, _to prepare skins,
curry, toil_.]

=-taúrnan=, wv. (194), _to rend_ (intr.), in =ga-t.= [< pp. stem of

=tawidêdeina=, prt. of =taujan=.

=-teihan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to show_, in =ga-t.= [OE. têon (for tîon,
for *tîhǫn), OHG. zîhan, MHG. zîhen, NHG. zeihen, _to accuse of, charge

=Teimaúþaîus=, pr. n., _Timotheus_; II. Cor. I, 1; acc. =-u=; II. Cor.
I, 19. [< Τιμόθεος.]

=Teitus=, pr. n., _Titus_; acc. (=-u= or) =-aún= (Gr. infl.); II. Cor.
II, 13. [< Τίτος.]

=têkan= (=ei= for =ê=; 7, n. 2), rv. (181), _to tuch_, w. two dativs;
Mk. V, 30.--Cpd. =at-t.= [ON. táka (prt. tók) > ME. take, NE. take.]

=Theodemîr=, _Theodomirus_ (6, n. 2; 70, n. 1), pr. n.

=Theodoricus= (18, n. 1; 70, n. 1), pr. n.

=Theudes= (18, n. 1), pr. n.

=Theudicodo= (18, n. 1), pr. n.

=*tigus=, m. (142), _a decad_, in num. cpds. [OE. -tig, ME. -tiᵹ, -ti,
NE. -ty.]

=-tilôn=, wv. (189), _to aim, fit_, in =and-t.= [< =-tils= (in
=ga-tils=, adj., _convenient_; < √ ti + suff. =-la-=. Cp. =til=, n.,
_aim, fit time, opportunity_, = OE. til, n. _fitness_; and ON. til,
prep., _to_, > ME. NE. til) = OE. til, adj., _fit, suitabl_. OE.
tilian, _to aim, strive for, labor_, ME. tile, NE. til, _to cultivate_.]

=-timan=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to be fit_, in =ga-t.= [OHG. (ga)-zeman,
MHG. (ge)zemen, stv., NHG. (ge)ziemen, wv., _to be fit, behoov_. Cp.

=timrja=, m. (108), _builder, carpenter_. [< =*timr= (= OE. timber
(the b being eufonic), n., _material to build with, building_, ME. NE.
timber) + suff. =-jan-=.]

=tiuhan=, stv. (173), _to pul_.--Cpds. =at-=, =inn-at-=, =us-t.= [OE.
têon (< *têohan), ME. te, _to pul, draw_, OHG. ziohan, MHG. ziehen,
NHG. ziehen, _to pul, draw, bring up_.]

=-tôjis= (26, a), adj. (126), _doing_, only in cpds. [< √ of =taujan=.]

=trauains=, f. (97), _trust, confidence_; II. Cor. I, 15. III, 4. [<
=trauan= + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=trauan= (26), wv. (179, n. 2; 193), _to trust_; w. =du= (_in_) w.
dat.; II. Cor. I, 9.--Cpd. =ga-tr.= [OE. trûwian (26, b), orig.
*trûwan, (the w being eufonic, as in) OHG. trûwên, beside trûên, MHG.
trûwen, NHG. trauen, _to trust, believ_. OE. trêowian, _to trust,
believ_, < trêowe = Goth. =triggws=.]

=Trauas= (26, n. 1), pr. n., _Troas_; dat. =Trauadai=; II. Cor. II, 12.
[< Τρῳάς, gen. Τρῳάδος.]

=trausti=, n. (95, n. 1), _cuvenant_. [Extended < stem =*trausta-= (in
OHG. MHG. NHG. trôst, m., _consolation_), < √ =traus-= (by-form of
=trau-=; cp. =trauan=) + suff. =-ta-=.]

=triggwa=, f. (97, n. 1), _cuvenant_; II. Cor. III, 6. 14. [OE.
trêow, f., ME. trewe, OHG. triuwa, MHG. triuwe, NHG. treue, f.,

=triggws= (68), adj. (124), _tru, faithful, reliabl_; II. Cor. I, 18.
[OE. trêowe, ME. trewe, NE. tru. Cp. =trauan=.]

=-trimpan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to tramp, tred_, in =ana-tr.= [Its
corresponding prt. stem occurs in ME. trampe, NE. tramp.]

=triu=, n. (94, n. 1), _tree_. [OE. trêo(w), ME. tre, NE. tree.]

=trudan=, stv. (175, n. 2), _to tred_. [Cf. OE. tredan (Fifth Ablaut
Class), ME. trede (pp. also troden, as if belonging to the Fourth
Ablaut Class), NE. tred.]

=tuggl=, n. (94), _constellation, star_. [OE. tungol, n. m.,
_constellation, star_.]

=tuggô=, f. (111), _tung_. [OE. tunge, f., ME. tunge, NE. tung.]

=tulgjan=, wv. (188), _to confirm, establish_, w. acc.; II. Cor. II,
8.--Cpd. =ga-t.= [< =tulgus=.]

=tulgus=, adj. (131), _stedfast, firm, strong_. [Cf. OS. tulgo, adv.,

=tunþus=, m. (105), _tooth_; Mt. V, 38. [< √ of =itan= (cp. Brgm., II,
§ 126). OE. tôð (ô < ǫn < an; pl. têð), m., ME. toþ (pl. teþ), NE.
tooth (pl. teeth).]

=twai=, card. num. (140), f. =twôs=, n. =twa=, _two_; Mt. V, 41. VI,
24. Mk. V, 13. Lu. II, 24. Skeir. VII, a. b. d (=·b·). [Cf. OE. twegen,
m., twâ, f., tû, twâ, n., ME. tweien, two, twa, for all genders, NE.
twain, two. Cp. Brgm., I, § 142; III, § 166.]

=twalib-wintrus= (88ᵃ, n. 1), adj. (131), _twelv years_ (lit.
'_winters_') _old_; Lu. II, 42. [=-wintrus= < =wintrus=, m. (= OE.
winter, m. n., ME. NE. winter). OE. twelfwintre, _twelv years old_.]

=twalif= (56, n. 1), card. num. (141), _twelv_; Mk. III, 14. IV, 10. V,
25. 42. Skeir. VII, c (=·ib·; so in) d. [OE. ME. twelf, NE. twelv.]

=tweifls=, m. (91, n. 2), _dout_. [OHG. zwîfal, MHG. zwîvel, m.,
_uncertainty, distrust, despair_, NHG. zweifel, m., _dout_.]

=tweihnai=, distrib. num. (147), _two apiece_. [< =tweih-= (= OE. twîh,
uzually betwîh, _between_) + suff. =-na-=. Cf. OE. twêone, _dubl, two_,
> twêonum (prop. dat. pl.), uzually betwêonum, -an, ME. betwenen, NE.

=twis-standan= (=twistandan=; cp. 78, n. 5), stv. (177, n. 3), w. dat.,
_to depart from one, bid farewel to_; II. Cor. II, 13.

=Tykêkus= (6, n. 1), _Tychicus_. [< Τυχικός.]

=Tyra=, pr. n., _Tyre_; acc. =-a=; Mk. III, 8. [< Τύρος.]

=Þaddaius=, pr. n., _Thaddeus_; acc. =-u=; Mk. III, 18. [< Θαδδαῖος.]

=þadei=, adv. (213, n. 1), _where, wheresoever, whither_. [< =*þaþ=
(=-d-=; < stem of =þata= + =-þ=; cp. =ƕaþ=) + =-ei=.]

=þagkjan= (gg; 67 and n. 1), anv. (209; prt. =þâhta=; 5, b), _to think,
consider, ponder, reason_; w. acc. and =af sis silbin=; II. Cor. III,
5; w. a dir. question (so w. =sis=); Mk. II, 6; w. acc. (understood)
and =in haírtin seinamma=; Lu. II, 19; w. a dependent clause introduced
by =þatei=, and =bi= w. dat., _to purpose_; II. Cor. I, 17.--Cpd.
=and-þ.= [OE. ðencan, (prt. ðǫ̂hte; ǫ̂ < ǫn < an), ME. þenche, þenke
(prt. þohte), NE. think (by influence of ME. þinke, NE. methinks; s.

=þahan=, wv. (193), _to be silent, be stil, hold one's peace_; Mk. I,
25. III, 4. [OHG. dagên, MHG. dagen, _to be silent, be stil_.]

=þâhô= (5, b), f. (112), _clay_, πηλός. [OE. ðǫ̂ (< *ðǫ̂-e < ðǫ̂he <
*ðanhe), f., OHG. dâha, MHG. dâhe, tâhe, (weak) f., NHG. (than, tahen,
then < the oblique cases; later) thon (str.), m., _clay_.]

=þai=, =þaiei=, =þaih=, nom. pl. of =sa=, =saei=, =sah=.

=þaim=, =þaim-ei=, dat. pl. of =sa=, =saei=.

=þaírh=, prep. w. acc. (217), (1) of space: _thru, thru the midst of_;
Mk. II, 23. II. Cor. I, 16. IV, 15. (2) indicating the 'instrument' or
'means', 'author' or 'agent': _thru, by, by means of_, (a) w. names of
persons; Mk. superscr. II. Cor. I, 5. 11. 19. 20. II, 14. III, 4. IV,
14. V, 18. 20; (b) w. names of things; II. Cor. I, 1. 4; --=þ. þôei=,
_because of_; Skeir. VII, a; (c) denoting a state or condition: _with,
by_; II. Cor. II, 4. III, 11. V, 7.--Occurs also in eight compound vs.
[Cf. OE. ðurh, ME. þurᵹ, þuruh, NE. thru, thuro.]

=þaírh-gaggan=, anv. (173, n. 3; 207), _to go thru, to pierce thru_;
Lu. II, 35; w. =þaírh= w. acc., _to go thru_; Mk. II, 23; w. =und= w.
acc., _to go on, proceed to_; Lu. II, 15.

=þaírh-saiƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), _to see thru, behold as in
a glass_, w. acc.; II. Cor. III, 18.

=þaírh-wakan= (63, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), _to keep wach (thruout)_;
Lu. II, 8.

=þaírkô=, n. (110), _a hole thru (anything), the ey of a needl_.
[Allied to =þaírh=.]

=-þaírsan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to wither_, in =ga-þ.= [The
corresponding √-form (=þars=) of the pret. occurs in OHG. darra (rr <
rz: rs), MHG. NHG. darre, f., _a kiln for drying grain, meal_, etc. Cp.

=þamma=, =þamm-uh=, dat. sg. m. and n. of =sa=, =sah=.

=þamm-ei=, dat. s. m. and n. of =saei=. Sumtimes uzed as conj.; so w.
=in=, _because_; II. Cor. II, 13.

=þan=, adv. and conj. It is often preceded by the enclitic =-uh= (s.
especially under (II), below). There is no distinction in sense between
=þan= and =-uh þan=; the latter, like =þan= (which occurs oftener),
stands after verbal forms of any kind; =-uh þan=, never =þan=, is
inserted between a sb. and its prep., also between a prep. and a v.,
and is frequently found after =sums=, =anþar=, =ni=, rarely after sbs.
or adjs. (I) adv., (1) dem., _then, thereupon_; Lu. II, 42; =jah þan=,
_and then_; Mk. II, 20; (2) rel., _when, whenever, as long as_, (a) w.
prs. ind.; Mk. II, 20. IV, 16. 31. 32. (Cp. Lu. II, 42); --=jah þan=,
_and when, but when_; Mk. IV, 15; (b) w. prt. ind.; Mk. I, 32. II, 25.
III, 11; (c) w. prs. opt.; Mt. VI, 2. 5. 6. (II) conj. (continuativ),
_therefore, then; but, farther, also_; Mt. V, 31. 37. VI, 7. 29. Mk. I,
6. 28. 32. II, 5. 6. III, 32. IV, 5. 6. 35. V, 6. 11. 13. Lu. II, 1. 4.
6. 17. 47; --=jah þan=, _and then_; Mk. III, 6. 31; _and also_; Lu. II,
35; _for_; II. Cor. II, 10; _and_; Mk. IV, 36; --=-uh þan=, _for_; Mt.
VI, 32; _but, and, now_; Mt. V, 31. 37. VI, 7. 29. Mk. I, 6. II, 6. IV,
5. V, 11. 13. II. Cor. II, 16. Skeir. VII, c; --=sah þan=, _and this,
and he_, etc.; Lu. II, 2. 37. II. Cor. I, 17; _for this_; II. Cor. IV,
15. [< stem of =þata=. Cf. OE. ðǫnne (for ðanne), ðǫn (for ðan), ME.
þanne, ðan, NE. than, then.]

=þana=, =þanei=, acc. s. m. of =sa=, =saei=.

=þana-mais=, adv. (153, n. 2), _further, henseforth, yet, stil_; Mk. V,
35. [=þana-= < stem of =þata=.]

=þana-seiþs=, adv. (212, n. 1), _longer, stil_; =ni þ.=, _no more, no
longer_; =niþ (= nih-h) þan þ.=, _no more, no longer_; II. Cor. V, 15;
=ni þ. ni=, _no more, no longer_; II. Cor. V, 16. [=þana= < stem of
=þata=; =-seiþs= (for =*seiþis=, compar. adv. to =seiþus=) = OE. sîð (<
*sîðiz), compar. adv., _later, late_; also prep., _sinse_, ME. sið, NE.
sith (Shak.), OHG. sîd, adv., later, MHG. sît, prep., adv., conj., NHG.
seit, prep. and conj., _sinse_.]

=þandê= (=þandei=), conj. (218), (1) _if_ (prop. causal: _sinse_); Mt.
VI, 30. (2) _because, sinse, for_; Lu. II, 30. ((3) _while, until_).
[OHG. dantâ, _therefore, because_. Cf. OE. ðenden, ðendǫn, _while,
until, meanwhile_.]

=-þanjan=, wv. (187), _to strech_, in =uf-þ.= [OE. ðennan, ME. þenne,
OHG. MHG. den(n)en, NHG. dehnen, _to strech_.]

=þan-nu=, conj. (218), _then, so then, therefore, so that, for_; Mk.
IV, 41. II. Cor. V, 15.

=þan-uh=, adv. and conj. (218), (1) adv., _then_. (2) conj., _but_; Mk.
IV, 29. Skeir. VII, d; _therefore, then_; Skeir. VII, d.

=þans=, acc. pl. m. of =sa=.

=þanz-ei=, acc. pl. m. of =saei=.

=þar=, adv. (213, n. 1), _there_. [< stem of =þata= + loc. suff. =-r=.
Cf. OE. ðæ̂r (= Goth. =*þêr=), ME. þere, NE. there.]

=þar-ei=, adv., _where_; Mt. VI, 19. 20. 21. Mk. II, 4. IV, 5. 15. V,
40. II. Cor. III, 17.

=þarihs= (20, n. 1), adj. (124), _not yet fuld, new_.

=þar-uh=, adv. and conj. (218), (1) adv. _there_; Mt. VI, 21. II. Cor.
III, 17. (2) conj. (continuativ, for καί, οὖν, δέ), _and, then, so,
therefore, but_; Lu. II, 25.

=þata=, dem. prn. n.; s. =sa= [< stem =þa-t-= + =-a= (as in =þan-a=,
=in-a=, =ƕana=), which caused the retention of the originally final =t=
(see =sa=; cp. also =þar=). OE. ðæt, ME. þat, NE. that.]

=þat-ain-ei=, adv., _only_; Mt. V, 47. Mk. V, 36. Skeir. VII, b. [<
=þatain= (< =þat-a= + the n. sg. of =ains=), _that one, that only_, +

=þata-ƕa-h=, nom. sg. n. of =saƕazuh=.

=þat-ei=, n. sg. of =saei=, uzed as conj. (218), (1) _that_; so after
vs. of 'saying, thinking, knowing, perceiving (seeing, hearing, etc.)',
and the like, chiefly w. ind. Like ὅτι, it often introduces a dir.
discourse; Mt. V, 20-23. 27. 28. 31. 32. 33. 38. 43. VI, 5. 16. 29. 32.
Mk. I, 15. 37. 40. II, 1. 8. 10. 12. III, 11. 21. 22. 28. V, 23. 28.
29. 35. Lu. II, 11. 23. 49. II. Cor. I, 7. 12. II, 3. III, 3. IV, 14.
V, 1. 6. 15. Skeir. VII, d. (2) causal, _because, for, that_; Mk. II,
16. Lu. II, 49; --=ni þatei= w. opt., _not that, not because, not as_;
II. Cor. I, 24. III, 5. (3) =afar þatei= w. a finite v., _after_; Mk.
I, 14. Skeir. VII, c.

=þaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 1), (1) local, _thense_. (2) temporal,
_afterwards, then_. [< stem of =þata= + suff. =-þrô=.]

=þaþrô-h=, adv. (213, n. 1), (1) local, _thense_. (2) temporal, _sinse
that time, afterwards, then_; Mk. IV, 17. 28. [< =þaþrô= + =-h= =
=-uh=. (Cp. also 62, n. 3).]

=þau=, =þáuh= (i. e. =þau= + =-uh=), (1) conj. (218), (a) after a
compar., _than_; Mt. V, 20; (b) introducing the second part of a
disjunctiv question, _or_; Mk. II, 9. (2) adv. (216), _perhaps, stil_;
or untranslatabl; in the apodosis of a conditional sentence (in most
cases for ἄν): =ni þau= w. prs. ind.; Mt. V, 20. VI, 15. [OE. ðêah, ME.
þeh, ðeh, ðoh (by influence of ON. þó, contracted < þáuh), NE. tho.]

=þáuh-jabai=, conj. (218), _even if, tho_; II. Cor. IV, 16.

=þaúrban=, prt.-prs. (199), _to hav need, to need, want, lack_, (1)
abs.; Mk. II, 25. (2) w. gen.; Mt. VI, 8. 32. Mk. II, 17. II. Cor.
III, 1. [OE. (be)ðurfan (cp. 56, n. 3), ME. (be)þurfe, _to hav need,
to need, want_, OHG. (bi)durfan, _to hav need, to want, lack_, MHG.
dürfen, durfen, _to hav reason_ or _cause, to need, want, dare,
be permitted_, be-d., _to need, want_, NHG. dürfen, _to dare, be
permitted_, be-d., _to want, need_.]

=þaúrfts= (56, n. 4), f. (103), _need, necessity_. [< =þaúrban= + suff.
=-ti-=. OHG. MHG. durft, f., NHG. -durft (in composition), f., _need,

=þaúrnus=, m. (105), _thorn_; Mk. IV, 7. 18. [OE. ðorn, m., ME. þorn,
NE. thorn.]

=þaúrp=, n. (94, n. 2), _field_. [OE. ðorp, n., _village_, ME. þorp,
NE. thorp, _a small village_, now chiefly uzed in names of places
(-thorp, also -throp).]

=-þaúrsnan= (32), wv. (194), _to dry, wither_, in =ga-þ.= [< =þaúrsus=.
ON. þorna, _to wither_.]

=þaúrstei= (32), f. (113), _thirst_. [< =*þaúrst=, adj., _thirsty_,
+ suff. =-ein-=, < √ of =-þaírsan=, =þaúrsus=, =-þaúrsnan=, + suff.
=-ta-=. Cf. OE. ðurst (w. orig. tu-suff.), ðyrst (w. suff. -ti-), m.,
ME. þurst, NE. thirst.]

=þaúrsus= (32), adj. (131), _dry, witherd_. [< √ of =-þaírsan= (pp.
=-þaúrsans=). OE. ðyr, OHG. durri (ja-stem), MHG. durre, NHG. dürr,
adj., _dry, witherd_.]

=þê=, instr. of =þata=. [Cf. the OE. instr. ðŷ, North. ðy, ðê, ME. ði,
þê, NE. the in 'the more'.]

=þê-ei=, conj. (157, n. 1; 218), _that, for the reason that_, always w.
=ni=, _not that_; II. Cor. II, 4.

=þei=, (1) rel. prn. (= =þatei=; 157, n. 2); so after =þataƕah=,
=þisƕaduh=, =þisƕah=, =þisƕaruh=, =þisƕazuh= (164, n. 1). (2) conj.,
_that; in order that_; Mt. VI, 26. [< =*þa= (a by-form of =þata=) +

=þeihan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to thrive, profit, increase, advance_, w.
(loc.) dat.; Lu. II, 52. [OE. (ge)ðêon (for *ðîon, contr. < *ðîhǫn),
ME. þee, NE. thee (Spenser), _to thrive, prosper_.]

=þeiƕô=, f. (112), _thunder_; Mk. III, 17.

=þeina=, gen. sg. of =þu=.

=þeins=, poss. prn. (151); f. =þeina=; n. =þein=, =þeinata=, _thy,
thine_, (1) alone (predicativ); Mt. VI, 13. Mk. V, 19. (2) w. a prec.
sb., (a) without the art.; Mt. V, 23. 29. 30. 33. 36. 40. 43. VI, 3. 4.
6. 10. 17. 18. 22. 23. Mk. I, 44. II, 5. 9. 11. 24. III, 32. V, 19. 34.
35. Lu. II, 29. 30. 32; =ƕa namô þein=, _what (is) thy name?_; Mk. V,
9; (b) w. art.; =sa..þeins=; Mt. V, 24. VI, 4. Mk. II, 9. 11. III, 5.
V, 34. Lu. II, 48. (3) w. a follg. sb., (a) without art.; Lu. II, 35;
(b) w. art.; Mk. II, 18; (c) between adj. and sb.; Mt, V, 30. 39. [<
=þeina=. OE. ðîn, ME. þin, þi, NE. thine, thy.]

=-þinsan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to draw_, in =at-þ.= [OHG. dinsan, MHG.
dinsen, _to draw, pul, expand_, NHG. *dinsen, pp. gedunsen (uzed as
adj.), _bloated, puft up_.]

=þis=, gen. sg. m. n. of =sa=, =þata=.

=þis-ƕaduh=, adv. (164, n. 2); w. =þadei= or =þei=, _withersoever,
wheresoever_. [< =þis= (here adv.), < stem of =þata=, + =ƕaduh= < =ƕaþ=
(=-d-=) + =-uh=.]

=þis-ƕammêh=, dat. s. m. n. of =þisƕazuh=.

=þis-ƕaruh=, adv. (164, n. 2); w. =þei=, _wheresoever_. [< =þis= (s.
=þisƕaduh=) + =ƕaruh= < =ƕar= + =uh=.]

=þis-ƕazuh=, prn. (164, n. 1) m.; =þisƕah=, n. (164, n. 1); folld. by
the rel. =ei=, =þei=, or =saei=; uzually w. opt.: =þ. ei=, _whoever_;
=þ. þei=, _whosoever_, n. _whatsoever_; =þ. saei=, _whosoever,
whatsoever_; Mk. IV, 25. [< =þis= (s. =þisƕaduh=) + =ƕazuh=.]

=þiubjô=, adv. (211), _secretly, in secret_. [< stem =þiubja-=,
_secret_; cp. =þiufs=.]

=þiubs=, s. =þiufs=.

=þiuda=, f. (97), _peple, nation_; in pl. (uzually) '_the Gentiles_';
Mt. VI, 32. Lu. II, 32; =þai þiudô=, _those of the heathen_; Mt. V,
46. VI, 7. [OE. ðêod, ðiod, f., ME. þede, _peple, population_, OHG.
diot(a), MHG. diet, _peple_, NHG. *diet; cp. Diedrich, pr. n.]

=þiudan-gardi= (88ᵃ, n. 1), f. (98), _kingdom_; Mt. V, 19. 20. VI, 13.
Mk. I, 14. 15. III, 24. IV, 11. 26. 30. [=-gardi= < =gards=.]

=þiudanôn=, wv. (190), _to be king, to rule, reign_. [< =þiudans=.]

=þiudans=, m. (91), _king_; Mt. V, 35. [< =þiuda= + suff. =-ana-=, OE.
ðêoden, m., _king_.]

=þiudinassus=, m. (105), _kingdom_; Mt. VI, 10. [< =þiudanôn= (=-in-=)
for =-an-= by influence of the sbs. in =-in-assus= w. regular =-in-=,
formd < vs. in =-in-ôn= the =-in-= of which refers to the weakend suff.
of stems in =-an= (cp. =fraujinassus=) < =fraujinôn= < =frauj-in-=,
weakend stem of =frauja=.]

=þiufs=, =þiubs= (56, n. 1), m. (91), _thief_; Mt. VI, 19. 20. [OE.
ðêof, m., ME. þêf, NE. thief.]

=þiu-magus= (88ᵃ, n. 1), _servant_.

=*þius=, m. (91, n. 3), _servant_. [OE. ðêo (contr. < *ðe-u, for *ðew
< ðewo-, gen. ðeowes, contr. < ðe-uwes, the u having developt itself
before the w; hense also nom.) ðêow, m., ME. þeow, _servant_, OHG. deo,
m., _servant_, cpd. deo-muoti, MHG. demuot, NHG. demut, f., _humility,

=þiuþ=, n. (94), _good_, in pl. _good things_; II. Cor. V, 10; =þ.
taujan=, _to do good_; Mk. III, 4.

=þiuþi-qiss= (88ᵃ, n. 2), f., _blessing_.

=þiuþjan=, wv. (187), _to bless_, (1) w. acc.; Mt. V, 44. Lu. II,
34. (2) w. dat.; Lu. II, 28; --pp. =þiuþiþs=, _blest_; II. Cor. I,
3.--Cpd. =ga-þ.= [< =þiuþ=.]

=þiwi=, f. (98, n. 1), _maid-servant, hand-maid_. [< stem of =þius= +
suff. =-jô-=.] [OE. ME. ðêowe, f., _female servant, maid_.]

=þizai=, =þizai-ei=, dat. sg. f. of =sa=, =saei=.

=þizê=, =þizê-ei=, gen. pl. m. n. of =sa=, =sa-ei=.

=þiz-ei=, gen. sg. m. n. of =sa-ei=; s. also =in= (1).

=þizô=, =þizôs=, gen. pl. and sg. f. of =sa=.

=þiz-uh=, gen. sg. m. n. of =sa-h=.

=-þláihan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to cherish, fondl_, in =ga-þl.= [Cf. OHG.
flêhan, flêhôn (fl < þl), _to caress, flatter, entreat_, MHG. vlêhen,
_to entreat_, NHG. flehen, _to beseech, entreat_. Root flaih is also
seen in OE. flâh, adj., _deceitful, crafty_.]

=þlaqus=, adj. (131), _soft, tender_.

=þliuhan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to flee_.--Cpd. =ga-þl.= [OE. flêon
(contr. < *flêohan; fl < þl; cp. =þláihan=), ME. flee, NE. flee.]

=þô=, =þô-ei=, acc. s. f. and nom. acc. pl. n. of =sa=, =sa-ei=.

=þôs=, =þôz-ei=, nom. acc. pl. f. of =sa=, =sa-ei=.

=Þômas=, pr. n., _Thomas_; acc. =-an=; Mk. III, 18. [< Θωμᾶς.]

=þrafstjan=, wv. (188), _to console, cumfort_.--Cpd. =ga-þr.=

=þragjan=, wv. (188), _to run_. [OE. ðrægan, _to run, race_.]

=þraíheina=, prt. of =þreihan=.

=þramstei=, f. (113), _locust_; Mk. I, 6.

=þreihan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to throng, crowd round, press upon,
afflict_; Mk. III, 9. V, 24. 31. II. Cor. I, 6; pp. =þraíhans=,
_trubld_; II. Cor. IV, 8. [< *þrinhan. OE. ðringan, ME. þringe, OHG.
dringan, MHG. NHG. dringen, _to urge, press_.]

=þreis=, card. num. (140), _three_; Lu. II, 46. [OE. ðrî, m., ðrêo, f.
n., ME. þrê, NE. three.]

=þridja=, ord. num. (146; 149, n. 1), _third_. [< (þri-, the short form
of the stem of =þreis=) + =-dja=. OE. ðridda, North. ðirda, ME. þridde,
thyrde, NE. third.]

=þriskan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to thresh_. [OE. ðerscan (for *ðrescan),
ME. þreshe, NE. thresh.]

=-þriutan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to urge, trubl_, in =us-þr.= [OE.
â-ðrêotan (â = =us=), _to be weary_, OHG. bi-, ir-drioȥan, MHG. be-,
er-, beside ver- (= Goth. =faír-=), drieȥen, _to excite disgust_ or
_weariness_, NHG. ver-driessen, _to griev, vex_. The √ of OE. ðrêat
(prt., = Goth. =*þraut=) occurs also in OE. ðrêat, m., ME. þrete, NE.

=þruts-fill= (15, n. 1; 88ᵃ, n. 3), n. (94), _leprosy_; Mk. I, 42; =þr.
habands= (for λεπρός), _leper_, lit. _(one) having leprosy_; Mk. I,
40. [< =þruts=, prob. < √ of =-þriutan=. Cf. OE. ðrûstfell; also ON.
þrútinn, _swoln_.]

=þu=, pers. prn. 2nd pers. (150), _thou_, uzed alone or w. vs., for
emfasis, (1) sg., (a) nom. =þu=; Mt. VI, 6. 17. Mk. I, 11. 24. III, 11;
w. a prec. voc.; Mt. VI, 9; (b) gen. =þeina= (or, tho for σοῦ, poss.
prn.; s. note); Mt. VI, 13; (c) dat. =þus=; Mt. V, 26. 29. 30. 40. 42.
VI, 2. 4. 6. 18. 23. Mk. I, 2. 24. II, 5. 9. 11. V, 7. 19. 41; (d)
acc. =þuk=; Mt. V, 23. 25. 29. 30. 39. 41. 42. VI, 3. Mk. I, 24. 37.
44. III, 32. IV, 38. V, 7. 19. 31. 34. Lu. II, 48. (2) dual, (a) nom.
(wanting); (b) gen. =iggkara= (wanting in our 'Selections'); (c) dat.
=igqis=, =iggkis= (wanting in our 'Selections'); (d) acc. =igqis=; Mk.
I, 17. (3) pl., (a) nom. =jus=, _ye, you_; Mt. V, 48. VI, 8. 9. 26. II.
Cor. I, 14. III, 2; (b) gen. =izwara=; Mt. VI, 27. II. Cor. I, 23. II,
3. 10. IV, 15; (c) dat. =izwis=; Mt. V, 18. 20. 22. 28. 32. 34. 39. 44.
VI, 2. 5. 14. 16. 19. 20. 25. 29. Mk. III, 28. IV, 11. 24. Lu. II, 10.
11. 12. II. Cor. I, 2. 11. 12. 13. 15. 16. 18. 19. 21. II, 1. 3. 4.
III, 1. IV, 12. 14. V, 12. 13; (d) acc. =izwis=; Mt. V, 44. 46. VI, 30.
Mk. I, 8. II. Cor. I, 6. 8. 16. II, 2. 5. 7. 8. [OE. ðû, gen. ðîn, dat.
ðê, acc. ðec, ðê (prop. dat.); ME. þou, þu, gen. þin, dat. acc. þe,
the; NE. thou, dat. acc. thee.--For du. and pl., s. =igqara= and =jus=.]

=þugkjan=, anv. (209), (1) impers.: =þugkeiþ mis=, '_methinks_',
_I think_; so w. =ei=, _that_; Mt. VI, 7. (2) pers. (not in our
'Selections'): _to think, suppose, intend, seem_. [OE. ðyncan (<
*ðuncjan), prt. ðûhte (< *ðunhte, pp. ðûht); mê ðynceð, _it seems
to me_, ME. þunche, þinche, ðinche; me ðincð, NE. methinks (cp.

=-þûhts= (15, b), adj., _thinking_; s. =háuh-=, =mikil-þûhts=. [Prop.
pp. of =þugkjan=.]

=þûhtus= (15, b), m. (105), _thought, wisdom_. [< =*þunhtus= < √ of
=þugkjan= + suff. =-tu-=.]

=þuk=; s. =þu=.

=þulains=, f. (103, n. 1), _sufferance, patience, suffering_; II. Cor.
I, 5. 6. 7. [< =þulan= + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=þulan=, wv. (193), _to tolerate, suffer, bear_.--Cpd. =ga-þ.= [OE.
(ge)ðolian (transferd to the Second Weak Conjug.), ME. (i)ðole, _to
suffer, endure_. Cp. the verbal abstr.: OHG. gedult (w. t-suff.), MHG.
(ge)dult (-d-), NHG. geduld, f., _patience_.]

=þus=; s. =þu=.

=þûsundi= (15), card. num. (145), _a thousand_, uzually f. sb. (98);
Mk. V, 13. Skeir. VII, b. [OE. ðûsend, n., ME. þusend, NE. thousand.]

=þûsundi-faþs= (88ᵃ), m. (101), _leader of a thousand, captain, high

=þuz-ei=, dat. of =þu-ei= (158).

=þwahan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to wash_, w. acc.; Mt. VI, 17; _to wash
one's self_. [OE. ðwêan (contr. < *ðwaǫn, for ðwahǫn), OHG. dwahan,
MHG. twahen, zwahen, zwagen, NHG. (dial.) zwagen, _to wash_ (cp.
zwehle, w. l-suff., f., _towel_).]

=-þwastjan=, wv. (188), _to secure_, in =ga-þw.=

=-u=, an enclitic uzed in asking a question (216 and n. 1), (I) in
simpl questions, (1) dir., (a) attacht to a v.: =skuldu= (ptc.)
=ist=, _is it lawful?_; Mk. III, 4; (b) to a prn.; (c) to an adv. (2)
indir., w. opt., affixt to a v.; II. Cor. II, 9. (II) in disjunctiv
questions, both dir. and indir.; --=abu= (= =af= + =u=) =þus silbin
þu þata qiþis=, _sayest thou this (thing) of thyself?_; Jo. XVIII,
34.--After the pref. =ga-=: =ga-u-laubjats=, _believ ye?_; Mt. IX, 28;
=ga-u-ƕa-sêƕi=, _if he saw aught_; Mk. VIII, 23.--Cp. =niu=.

=Ubadamirus= (40, n. 1), pr. n.

=Ubadila= (40, n. 1), pr. n.

=ubilaba=, adj. (210), _evilly, il_; =u. haban=, _to be il, be sick_;
Mk. II, 17. [< =ubils= + suff. =-ba-=.]

=ubils=, adj. (124; 138), _evil, il, bad, useless_; Mt. V, 45.--The n.
=ubil= is often uzed as sb.; so also =þata ubilô=, _the evil, an evil
thing_; Mt. V, 37. VI, 13; =ubil haban=, _to be il, be sick_; Mk. I,
32. 34. [OE. yfel, ME. yfel, ivel, evel, NE. evil.]

=ubil-tôjis=, adj. (126), _evil-doing, mischievous_.

=ub-uh=, i. e. =uf-uh=.

=uf= (56, n. 2), prep. (217), (1) w. dat., (a) local, _under, beneath_;
Mk. IV, 32; (b) temporal, _in the time of_; Mk. II, 26. (2) w. acc.,
local, _under_; Mk. IV, 21.--Occurs also in numerous cpds. [Cf. OE.
ufe- (in ufeweard, _higher_), OHG. oba, MHG. obe, ob, NHG. ob, prep.
(rare), _over_, ob-, prefix in cpds., _over_.]

=uf-aiþeis= (56, n. 2), adj. (130, n. 2), _under an oath_.

=ufar=, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., local, _over, abuv, beyond_; =u.
himinam=, '_over (the) hevens_', _hevenly_; Mt. VI, 14. 26. 32. (2) w.
acc., trop., _abuv_; II. Cor. I, 8. Skeir. VII, b; =u. filu wisan=, _to
be 'over much', to abound_; II. Cor. I, 5.--Occurs also in numerous
cpds. [< =uf= + compar. suff. =-ar=. OE. ofer, ME. ofer, over, NE.

=ufarassjan=, wv. (188), _to cause to abound, increase excessivly_, w.
acc.; II. Cor. IV, 15. [< =ufarassus=.]

=ufarassus=, m. (105), _overflow, abundance, excellency_; II. Cor. IV,
7. 17. =u. wulþaus=, _abundance of glory, glory that excels_; II. Cor.
III, 10.--The dat. =ufarassau= is uzed adverbially: _abundantly_; II.
Cor. I, 8. 12. II, 4.--=ufarassus wisan= w. gen. and =in= w. dat.,
_to abound in_ (the gen. becuming the subj. in E.); II. Cor. I, 5. [<
=ufar= + suff. =-assu-=.]

=ufar-hafnan= (35), wv. (194), _to exalt one's self_.

=ufar-hamôn=, wv. (190), _to put on clothes over, be clothed upon_, w.
(instr.) dat.; II. Cor. V, 2.

=ufar-ist=, 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. of =ufarwisan=.

=ufarô=, (1) adv. (211, n. 1), _abuv, thereon_. (2) uzed as prep.
(217), (a) w. gen., _upon, abuv_; (b) w. dat., _over, abuv_; Lu. II, 8.
[< =uf= + compar. suff. =-ar= + adv. suff. =-ô=. Cf. OHG. obaro, MHG.
obere, NHG. ober(e), _upper_.]

=ufar-skadwjan= (14, n. 1), wv. (188), _to overshadow_.

=ufar-steigan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to mount over, grow higher, grow
up_; Mk. IV, 7.

=ufar-swaran=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to overswear, forswear_; Mt. V, 33.

=ufar-wisan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to be over, exceed, abound_; II. Cor.
III, 9.

=uf-bauljan= (24, n. 1), wv. (187), _to pul up, blow up, be highminded_.

=uf-blêsan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to blow up, puf up_.

=uf-brinnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to burn up, scorch_, (intr.); Mk. IV,

=uf-graban= (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), _to dig up, dig after, dig
thru_; Mt. VI, 19. 20.

=uf-hausjan=, wv. (187), _to listen with submission, to obey, be
subject to_, w. dat.; Mt. VI, 24. Lu. II, 51; --=uf-h. in allamma=, _to
be obedient in all (things)_; II. Cor. II, 9.

=uf-hrôpjan=, wv. (188), _to cry out, cry_; Mk. I, 23. w. (instr.)
dat.; Mk. I, 26.

=uf-kunnan=, wv. (prt. =ufkunþa=, onse =ufkunnaida=; 199 and n. 1), _to
recognize, acknowledge, know_, (1) abs.; II. Cor. I, 13 (second). (2)
w. acc. of th.; II. Cor. I, 13 (first); and an interr. sentence; II.
Cor. II, 9; or =in= w. dat.; Mk. V, 30. (3) w. acc. of pers. and =bi=
w. dat.; II. Cor. V, 16. (4) w. =þatei= and =ana= w. dat.; Mk. V, 29;
or (loc.) dat.; Mk. II, 8.

=uf-rakjan=, wv. (188), _to strech out, strech forth, put forth_, w.
acc.; Mk. I, 41. III, 5.

=ufta=, adv. (214, n. 1), _oft, often_; Mk. V, 4. [Cf. OE. oft, ME.
oft, extended ofte, often, NE. oft, often.]

=uf-þanjan=, wv. (187), _to strech_.

=uf-wôpjan= (63, n. 1), wv. (187), _to cry out_.

=-uh=, =-h= (the h being frequently assimilated to the initial
consonant of a follg. word; 24, n. 2; 62, ns. 3 and 4), enclitic
particl (218), _but, and, now, therefore_; Mk. II, 11. V, 41; =inuh
þis=, _on this account_; II. Cor. II, 8. IV, 16. V, 9.--With prns.
and other particls it often ads intensity to the signification; s.
=andizuh=, =duhþê= (s. =duþê=), (=ƕanuh=), =nih=, =nuh=, =sah=,
=sumzuh= (= =sums-uh=), (=swah=), =þaþrô-h=, =þanuh=, =þaruh=,
=þau-h=.--Modifications by means of =-uh= (164 et seq.) ar seen in
=ƕarjizuh=, =ƕaþaruh=, =ƕazuh=, =ƕêh=, =þisƕaduh=, =þisƕaruh=.--For =uh
þan= (or =uþ þan=), s. =þan=.

=ûhteigô= (15, n. 3), adv. (211), _in season, at a fit time_. [<
=ûhteigs= +-suff. =-ô=.]

=ûhteigs=, =ûhtiugs= (15; 19), adj. (124), _in season, at leisure for_.
[< =ûht-= (s. =ûhtwô=) + suff. =-eiga-=, =-iuga-=.]

=ûhtwô= (15), f. (112), _daybreak, dawn_; =áir ûhtwôn=, _before
daybreak_; Mk. I, 35. [< *unhtwô-, -twô-n-being suff. (cp. Brgm. III, §
61). OE. ûhte (ûht-, in cpds.), n., ME. uhte, _dawn_.]

=ulbandus=, m. (? 105), _camel_; Mk. I, 6. [< Lt. elephantus <
ἐλέφαντ-, stem of ἐλέφας, _elefant_, < Hebr. aleph, eleph, _ox_.]

=un-=, inseparabl particl, in meaning = our _un-_, _in-_, _dis-_,
_-less_. [OE. ME. un-, NE. un-.]

=un-agands= (35), ptc. adj. (202, n. 2), _not fearing, fearless_.
[=-agands=, inf. =*agan=, stv., prt. =*ôg=; s. =ôgjan=.]

=un-and-huliþs=, ptc. adj. (134), _not uncuverd_; II. Cor. III, 14.

=un-and-sôks= (35), adj. (130, n. 2), _irrefutabl_. [=-sôks= < √ of
=sakan= (prt. =sôk=).]

=und=, prep. (217), (1) w. dat., _in return for, for_; Mt. V, 38. (2)
w. acc., denoting 'direction toward', or 'the point' or 'goal at which
anything, in its direction, arrives', _unto, to, until, as far as, up
to, down to_, (a) of space; Lu. II, 15; (b) of time; II. Cor. I, 13.
III, 14. 15; --=und þatei= (218), _til, until, as long as, while_; Mt.
V, 18. 25. Mk. II, 19; (c) of degree; =und filu mais=, _so much the
more, much more_; II. Cor. III, 9. 11. [OE. un- (for *und; s. Sk.,
unto), ME. un-, NE. un- (as in unto, until).]

=undar=, prep. w. acc. (217), _under_; Mk. IV, 21. [< =und= + compar.
suff. =-ar=. OE. ME. under, NE. under.]

=undarô=, adv. (211, n. 1), _below, beneath_; uzed as prep. w. dat.
(217), _under_. [< =undar= + adv. suff. =-ô=.]

=und-greipan=, stv. (172), _to gripe, seiz, take, lay hold on_, w.
acc.; Mk. I, 31.

=un-fáurs=, adj. (130), _not wel-behaved_ (for φλύαρος, _tatler_).

=un-frôþs= (35; 74, n. 4), adj. (124, n. 2), _unwise, foolish_.

=un-ga-hôbains= (35), f. (103, n. 1), _incontinency_. [=gahôbains= <
=gahaban= (w. ô-abl) + suff. =-ai-ni-=.]

=un-ga-laubjands=, ptc. adj. (133), _unbelieving_; II. Cor. IV, 4.

=un-ga-saíƕans=, ptc. adj. (134), _not seen, invisibl_; II. Cor. IV, 4.
18. [OHG. ungesehan, MHG. NHG. ungesehen, _not seen_.]

=un-handu-waúrhts=, ptc. adj. (124), _not wrought by hand, not made
with hands_; II. Cor. V, 1. [=-handu-waúrhts= < stem of =handus= + pp.
of =waúrkjan=.]

=un-hrains=, adj. (130), _unclean_; Mk. I, 23. 25. 26. 27. III, 11.
30. V, 2. 8. 13. [OHG. un-(h)reini, MHG. unreine, NHG. unrein, adj.,

=un-hulþô=, f. (112), _evil spirit, unclean spirit, devil_; Mk. I, 32.
34. 39. III, 15. 22. V, 12. [Prop. weak form of the adj. =*unhulþs=
(< =un-= + =hulþs=, _gracious_, = OE. ME. hold, OHG. hold, MHG. holt
(-d-), NHG. hold, adj., _gracious, affectionate_) = OE. ME. OHG.
unhold, MHG. unholt (-d-), adj., _ungracious, hostil_, NHG. unhold,
adj., _disaffectionate, ungracious_. OHG. unholdâ, MHG. unholde, f.,
_fiend, sorceress, wich_.]

=un-karja=, weak adj. (132, n. 3), _careless, neglectful_; Mk. IV, 15.
[=karja= < =kara= + suff. =-ja-n=.]

=un-kaúreins=, f. (103, n. 1), _a refraining from being a burden, a
thing without charge_. [=-kaúreins= < =kaúrjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=*un-lêþs= (74, n. 2), adj. (124), _poor_. [OE. un-læ̂d(e), ME. unlede,
adj., _poor, wreched_.]

=un-mana-riggws= (68), adj. (124), _inhuman, fierse_.

=uns=; s. =ik=.

=unsar=, poss. prn. (124, ns. 1 and 4; 151), _our_, (I) uzed alone.
(II) w. sbs., (1) prec., (a) without art.; Mt. VI, 9. 11. Mk. I, 3. II.
Cor. I, 2. 3-6. 8. 12. 14 (=ƕôftuli= understood). 22. III, 2. IV, 3. 6.
10. 11. 17. V, 2; (b) w. art.: =sa..unsar=, _our_; Mt. VI, 12. II. Cor.
I, 18. III, 5; (2) follg., (a) without art.; (b) w. art., II. Cor. V,
1. [< stem of =unsara= (= OE. ûser, ûre; dat. ûs; acc. ûsic, us (prop.
dat.), ME. gen. ure; dat. acc. us; NE. us. OE. ûser, ûre, ME. ure,
oure, NE. our).--Cp. =ik=, =weis=.]

=unsara=; s. =ik=, also =unsar=.

=un-sêls=, adj. (130), _wicked, evil_; Mt. VI, 23; uzed as sb.; Mt. V,

=unsis=; s. =ik=.

=untê=, conj. (218), (1) temporal, (a) _til, until_, (_as long as,
while_), w. prs. ind.; Mt. V, 18. 26; (2) causal, _because, for,
sinse_; Mt. V, 34. 36. 45. VI, 5. 13. 14. 24. Mk. I, 22. 34. 38. III,
30. IV, 6. 25. 29. 41. V, 4. 8. 9. 28. Lu. II, 10. II. Cor. I, 5. 8.
12. 13. 14. 19. 24. II, 2. 11. 15. 17. III, 6. 10. 14. IV, 6. 17. 18.
V, 2. 7. 10. 13. 14. 19. 21.--=ni untê..ak untê=, _not because ... but
because_; Lu. II, 7.

=un-þiuþ=, n. (94), _evil_; Mk. III, 4. II. Cor. V, 10.

=un-wâhs= (5, b), adj. (124), _blameless_. [=-wâhs= < stem =*wanha-=.
OE. wǫ̂h (wǫ̂g), ME. woh, adj., _crooked, wrong_, > wǫ̂gian, _to woo_,
lit. _to incline_, ME. wowe, NE. woo.]

=un-weis=, adj. (124), _unlernd, ignorant_; II. Cor. I, 8. [< =un= +
=-weis= (= OE. ME. wîs, NE. wise.--Germanic stem wîso-< wît-to, prop.
verbal adj. to =witan=, _to know_). OE. ME. unwîs, NE. unwise.]

=un-witands=, ptc. adj. (133), _unknowing, ignorant_; II. Cor. II, 11.
[=witands= is prsp. of =witan=, _to know_.]

=ur-=; s. =us=.

=ur-raisjan=, wv. (188), _to raiz up, raiz, lift up_, w. acc.; Mk. I,
31; _to rouse up, wake_; Mk. IV, 38; _to raiz, raiz up_ (_the ded_);
II. Cor. I, 9. IV, 14.

=ur-rann=, prt. of =urrinnan=.

=ur-rannjan=, wv. (188), _to cause to rize_ (lit. _to cause to run
out_); Mt. V, 45.

=ur-reisan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to arize_; Mk. II, 9. 11. 12. III, 3.
IV, 27. 39. V, 41. 42. II. Cor. V, 15.

=ur-rinnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to run out, go out_, w. =du= w. inf.;
Mk. IV, 3; w. =us= w. dat. and =in= w. acc.; Lu. II, 4; _to go up,
rize_ (said of the sun); Mk. IV, 6; _to spring up, grow up_ (said of
seed); Mk. IV, 5. 8. 32; _to go out_ (i. e. _to be issued_); Lu. II, 1.

=ur-rists= (30), f. (103), _arizing, resurrection_. [< =ur-reisan= +
suff. =-ti-=. OHG. urrist, f., _resurrection_.]

=ur-rûmnan= (78, n. 4), wv. (194), _to expand, enlarge_ (intr.).

=ur-runs= (78, n. 4), m. (101, n. 1), _a running out_; hense _outlet,
draft_; also _dayspring, east_.

=us= (=uz-= before =ê=, =ô=, =u=; 78, c; =ur-= before =r=; 78, n. 4;
sumtimes =u-= for =us-= before =s=; 78, n. 5), prep. w. dat. (217),
(1) of space, _out, out of, from, forth from_; Mk. I, 10. 11. 25. 26.
29. III, 7. 8. V, 2. 8. 10. 30. Lu. II, 4. 35. II. Cor. I, 10. V, 8.
(2) indicating a going out or forth, a cuming or springing out of any
thing, and the like, _from, of, out of, with, by_; Lu. II, 4. 36. II.
Cor. II, 2. 16. 17. III, 1. 5. IV, 6. 7. V, 1. 18. Skeir. VII, d. (3)
designating 'circumstances, way, and manner in which anything takes
place or with which it is connected', _of, out of, with, in_; Mt. V,
37. II. Cor. II, 4. III, 9 (in B). V, 2.--Occurs also in many cpds.
[OE. or-, â-, ME. or-, a-, NE. or- (cp. ordeal), a- (cp. arize).]

=us-agjan= (35; 78, n. 4), wv. (188), _to frighten utterly_.

=us-agljan= (14, n. 1), wv. (188), _to trubl exceedingly_.

=us-alþan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to grow old_.

=us-anan= (78, n. 4), stv. (177, n. 1), _to breath out, giv up the

=us-baíran=, stv. (175), _to carry out, bring forth; to exclaim,
answer_; Skeir. VII, a.

=us-beidan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to expect patiently, abide for_, w.
acc.; Lu. II, 38.

=us-beisns= (75, n. 1), f., _expectation_. [< =usbeidan= + suff.
=-sni-=; cp. Brgm., II, § 95.]

=us-bruknan=, wv. (194), _to break off_ (intr.), _be broken off_.

=us-daudjan=, wv. (188), _to strive, endevor, labor_, w. inf.; II. Cor.
V, 9. [< =usdauþs=.]

=us-dauþs= (74, n. 2), adj. (124), _diligent, zelous, forward_.

=us-dreiban= (=-drêbi=; 10, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), _to drive out,
cast out, send away_, w. (instr.) dat. and =us= w. dat.; Mk. V, 10.

=us-drusts=, f. (103), _a falling away_, (said of) _a ruf way_. [<
=us-driusan=, _to fall out, fall away_, + suff. =-ti-=.]

=us-faírina=, wa. (132, n. 2), _without fault, blameless_.

=us-filma=, wa. (132, n. 2), _amazed, astonisht_, w. =ana= w. dat.; Mk.
I, 22. [=-filma-=, =-an-=, < =-fil-= (s. =-fill=) + suff. =-ma-=.]

=us-fulljan=, wv. (188), _to (fil completely, fil up, supply,
accomplish) fulfil_; Mt. V, 17.

=us-fullnan= (180), wv. (194), _to becum ful; to be fulfild,
accomplisht_; Mk. I, 15. Lu. II, 6. 21. 22.

=us-gaggan=, anv. (179, n. 3; 207), _to go out, cum out, go forth, go
up, cum up_; Mk. I, 35. 45. II, 12. V, 13; w. =and= w. acc.; Mk. I, 28;
=du= w. dat.; Mk. I, 5; =in= w. acc.; Lu. II, 42; =us= w. dat.; Mk. I,
10. 26. 29. V, 2. 8. 30; =ût us= w. dat.; Mk. I, 25; =jainþrô=; Mt. V,
26; w. inf.; Mk. III, 21.

=us-gaisjan=, wv. (188), _to strike agast_; in pass. _to be beside
one's self_; Mk. III, 21.

=us-geisnan=, wv. (194), _to becum_ or _be amazed, agast, astonisht,
affrighted_; Mk. II, 12. II. Cor. V, 13; w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. V, 42;
w. =ana= w. dat.; Lu. II, 47.

=us-giban= (56, n. 1), stv. (176), _to giv out, giv away_, w. dat.
(indir. obj.), _to reward_; Mt. VI, 4. 6. 18; w. acc. (dir. obj.), _to
giv, pay_; Mt. V, 26; w. both dir. and indir. obj., _to giv, render,
perform_; Mt. V, 33.

=us-graban= (56, n. 1), stv. (177, n. 1), _to dig out, to break up_ or
_thru_; Mk. II, 4.

=us-grudja=, wa. (132, n. 2), _weary, faint_; II. Cor. IV, 1. 16.

=us-gutnan=, wv. (194), _to be pourd out, be spild, flow out_; Mk. II,

=us-hafjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to take up, lift up_, w. acc.; Mk. II,

=us-haista= (69, n. 2), wa. (132, n. 2), _very poor_.

=us-hlaupan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to leap up, rize quickly_.

=us-iddja=, prt. of =us-gaggan=.

=us-kannjan=, wv. (188), _to make known_; w. dat. (indir. obj.) and
acc. (dir. obj.), _to commend one to one_; II. Cor. V, 12.

=us-kunþs=, adj. (124), _wel known, evident, manifest_; II. Cor. IV, 10.

=us-qiman=, stv. (175, n. 1), _to kil_, (1) abs.; II. Cor. III, 6. (2)
w. (instr.) dat.; Mk. III, 6.

=us-qistjan=, wv. (188), _to destroy, kil_, w. acc.; Mk. III, 4.

=us-qiþan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to proclaim_, w. acc.; Mk. I, 45.

=us-laubjan= (31), wv. (188), _to permit, suffer, giv leav_, w. dat.;
Mk. V, 13.

=us-leiþan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to go out, cum out, go away from_, (1)
w. gen. of aim; Mk. IV, 35. (2) w. =hindar= w. acc.; Mk. V, 21; =us= w.
dat.; II. Cor. V, 8; --_to pass away_; Mt. V, 18. II. Cor. V, 17.

=us-liþa=, m. (108), _one with useless lims, one sick of the palsy_;
Mk. II, 3. 4. 5. 9. 10. [Prop. wa. uzed as sb.; cf. =liþus=.]

=us-lûkan= (15), stv. (173, n. 2), _to unlock, open_, w. acc.; Mk. I,
10. Lu. II, 23. II. Cor. II, 12; pp. =uslukans= (uzed as adj.), _opend,
open_; Mk. I, 10.

=us-mêt= (34), n. (94), _manner of life, conversation, behavior_. [<
=us-mitan=. =-mêt= = late MHG. mâȥ, NHG. mass, n., _mezure, degree,

=us-mitan=, stv. (176), _to behave_; II. Cor. I, 12.

=us-niman=, stv. (170; 175), w. acc., _to take out, take away_; Mk. IV,

=us-saíƕan= (34, n. 1), stv. (176, n. 1), _to look out, look round
about on_, w. acc.; Mk. III, 5.

=us-sandjan= (74, n. 3), wv. (187), _to send out, send forth_, w. acc.;
Mk. I, 43.

=us-siggwan= (68), stv. (174, n. 1), _to read_ (lit. '_to sing out_'),
w. an indir. question; Mk. II, 25.

=us-skaus= (42, n. 2; 124, n. 3), _cautious, wakeful, awake_. [Its √
appears in OE. scêawian (tr. and intr.), ME. schewe, NE. shew, show.]

=us-skawjan= (42, n. 2), wv. (188), w. =sik=, _to awake_; in pass. _to
recuver one's self_.

=us-standan=, stv. (177, n. 3), _to stand up, rize up, arize_; Mk. I,
35. II, 14; w. =ana= w. acc., _to rize up against_; Mk. III, 26.

=us-stass=, f. (=ustass=; 78, n. 5), f. (103, n. 3), _a rizing up_ or
_again, resurrection_; Lu. II, 34. [stem =-stassi-= < stat-ti-< √ stat
(s. =standan=) + suff. -ti-.]

=us-steigan= (=ust-=; 78, n. 5), stv. (172, n. 1), _to mount up, go up,
ascend_, w. =in= w. acc.; Mk. III, 13.

=us-stiggan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to pluck out_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 29.

=ustaig= = =us-staig= (s. =us=), prt. of =us-steigan=.

=us-taiknjan=, wv. (188), (1) w. acc. of pers., _to point out,
appoint_.--=us-t. sik du= w. dat., _to commend one's self to_; II. Cor.
IV, 2. (2) w. acc. of th. and =ana= w. dat., _to show, designate_;
Skeir. VII, c. (3) w. dubl acc., _to show, expose, make_; II. Cor. II,

=us-taúhun=, prt. of =ustiuhan=.

=us-tiuhan=, stv. (173), w. acc. (sumtimes understood; in pass. the
nom.), (1) _to lead out, put forth_; w. acc. and =in= w. acc., _to
drive into_; Mk. I, 12. (2) _to perform, finish, accomplish, fulfil_;
Lu. II, 39. 43.

=us-þriutan=, stv. (173, n. 1), _to trubl, uze despitefully_, w. acc.;
Mt. V, 44.

=us-waírpan=, stv. (174), _to cast out_, (1) w. acc. (in pass. the
nom., or pers. pass.); Mk. I, 34. 39. III, 15. 23. (2) w. (instr.)
dat.; Mk. III, 22. V, 40.

=us-wakjan=, wv. (187), _to wake up, awake from sleep_.

=us-wandjan=, wv. (188) w. dat., _to turn one's self away from_; Mt. V,

=us-waúrhts=, adj. (124), _just, righteous_; Mk. II, 17.

=us-waúrpa= (32), f., _a casting away_.

=ût= (15), adv. (213, n. 2), _out_, always w. vbs. of motion; Mk. I,
25. [OE. ût, ME. out, ut, NE. out.]

=ûta=, adv. (213, n. 2), _out, without_; Mk. I, 45. III, 31. 32. IV,
11. [OE. ûte, ME. ute, NE. out, _without, abroad_.]

=ûtana=, adv. (213, n. 2), _without, on the outside, from without_; =sa
ûtan unsara manna=, _our outward man_; II. Cor. IV, 16. [OE. ûtane,
ûtan, ME. uten, _outside, externally_, NE. -out, in about, ME. abute,
abouten, OE. a-, ǫn-bûtan (ǫn < an = Goth. =ana=), prep., _about_.]

=ûtaþrô=, adv. (213, n. 2), _from without_. [< =ûta= + suff. =-þrô-=.]

=-uþ-=; s. =-uh=.

=uz-êta= (=us-êta=? 78, n. 4), m. (108), _manger_, lit. '_a thing to
eat out of_'; Lu. II, 7. [< =us= + =-êta= < √ of =itan=.]

=uz-u=, =uz-uh=, i. e. =us= + =-u=, =-uh=.

=-Waddjus= (73, n.), f. (105), _wall_, in =baúrgs-=, =grundu-=,
=miþgarda-w.= [< primitiv Germanic wajus (w. suff. =-ju-=). Cf. ON.
veggr (m. i-stem); OE. wâg, wâh, m., ME. waghe, wowe, _wall_. Cp. Brgm.
I, § 142, p. 127.]

=wadi=, n. (95), _pledge, ernest_; II. Cor. I, 22. V, 5. [OE. wed (for
*wedd, stem *wadjo-), n., ME. wed, _pledge_, NE. wed- (in wedlock).]

=wadja-bôkôs= (88ᵃ), f., _bond, handwriting_.

=*waggareis=, m. (92; or =waggari=, n., 95--?), _pillow_; Mk. IV, 38.
[< =*waggô= (= OE. ME. wange, wǫnge, n., _cheek, jaw_, NE. wang, rare
or vulgar; cpd. wang-tooth, obs., _jaw-tooth_) + suff. =-arja-=.] [OE.
wangere, m., ME. wonger, _pillow_.]

=wahsjan=, stv. (177, n. 2), _to wax, grow, increase_; Mt. VI, 28. Mk.
IV, 8. Lu. II, 40. [OE. weahsan, ME. waxe, NE. wax, _to grow_.]

=wahstus=, m. (105), _a waxing, growth, increase_; Mt. VI, 27. Lu.
II, 52. [< =wahsjan= + suff. =-tu-=. ON. vǫxtr, m., _growth_. Cf. OE.
wæstm (for *wæhstm, w. an additional m-suff.), m., ME. wastme, _growth,

=*wahtwô= (58, n. 2), f. (112, or =-a=; 97--?), _wach_; Lu. II, 8. [<
wakan + suff. =-twôn-= (or =-twô-=). OHG. wahta (by loss of w), MHG.
wahte, waht, NHG. wacht, f., _wach_.]

=wai=, interj. (219), _woe!_ [OE. wâ, ME. wa, wo, NE. wo.]

=waian= (22), rv. (182), _to blow_. [OE. wâwan (cp. =saian=). Cf. OHG.
wâjan, wâen, MHG. wæ̂jen, wæ̂n, NHG. wehen (wv.), _to blow_.]

=wai-dêdja= (21, n. 2), m. (108), _woe-doer, evil-doer, malefactor_.
[=-dêdja= < =dêþs= + suff. =-jan-=.]

=wai-faírƕjan=, wv. (188), _to wail_; Mk. V, 38.

=waíhsta= m. (108), _corner_; Mt. VI, 5.

=waíhts=, f. (116 and n. 1), _a whit, thing_, (in our 'Selections')
always w. =ni= (or a negativ v.): =ni w.= or =w. ni=, sumtimes
separated by other words, _no whit, naught, nothing_; Mk. I, 44.--=ni
(in) waíhtai= or =w. ni=, _in nothing, nothing at all_; Mk. V, 26.
Skeir. VII, b (=ni..w.=). c. d. =ni waíht= (116, n. 1) =mikilis=, _no
great thing_, lit. '_nothing of great_'; Skeir. VII, a. [OE. wiht,
wuht, f., ME. wight, wiᵹt, NE. wight, _person, creature_. To the Goth.
=waíht=, n. (s. =waíht= in my 'Compar. Glossary'), answers OE. wiht,
n., ME. wiht, NE. whit (for *wiht the h of which had lost its sound).]

=waíla= (20, n. 3), adv., _wel_; s. under =galeikan=, =hugjan=,
=taujan=. [Cf. OE. ME. NE. wel.]

=waíla-mêrjan=, wv. (188), _to bring glad tidings, proclaim, preach the
gospel_; w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), _to preach_, w. =in= w. dat.; II.
Cor. I, 19 (=mêrjada=, as in A, seems preferabl).

=waíla-wizns=, f. (103), _wel-living_, _food_; Skeir. VII, b. [=-wizns=
< =wisan=, _to eat_, _feast_, _be merry_, + suff. =-ni-=; cf. =wizôn=,
_to liv_ (I. Tim. V, 6).]

=waír=, m. (91, n. 4), _man_; Skeir. VII, b. [OE. wer, m., ME. were,
wer-, NE. wer-, were- (in werewolf, ME. werwolf, OE. were-wulf, lit.

=waírpan=, stv. (174), _to cast_, _throw_, (1) w. acc. and =in= w.
acc.; Mk. I, 16; and =af= w. dat. (the dir. obj. being understood);
Mt. V, 29. (2) w. (instr.) dat. and =ana= w. acc.; Mk. IV, 26.--Cpd.
=us-w.= [OE. weorpan, ME. werpe, OHG. werfan, MHG. NHG. werfen, _to
cast_, _throw_.]

=waírs=, compar. adv. (212, n. 1), _wurse_; Mk. V, 26. [For =*waírs-s=
(cp. 78, n. 2), i. e. =*waírs-is= (=-is= being adv. compar. suff.), OE.
wiers, wyrs, ME. wurs, wers, NE. wurse.]

=waírsiza=, compar. adj. (138), _wurse_, _wurser_; Mk. II, 21. [<
=waírs-= + compar. suff. =-iz-an-=. OE. wiersa, wyrsa, ME. wurse,
werse, NE. wurse (> wurser, a dubl comparison).]

=waírþan=, stv. (174, n. 1), (I) principal v., (1) _to be born_,
_arize_, _becum_, _cum forth_, _appear_; Mk. IV, 37. 39. (2) _to cum to
pass_, _happen_, _be done or fulfild_; Mt. V, 18. VI, 10. Mk. IV, 11.
V, 14. 16. Lu. II, 15 (second). Skeir. VII, c; sumtimes the prs. must
be renderd by the future in E.; Lu. II, 10; the impers. =warþ= (prt.)
often introduces a narration, either without a connectiv or folld. by
=jah=: _it came to pass_; Mk. I, 9. II, 15. IV, 4. Lu. II, 1. 6. 15.
46; so w. dat. and inf.; Mk. II, 23.--Of time: _to cum_, _cum on_; Mk.
I, 32. IV, 35.--With dat., _to be givn to_, _cum to_; II. Cor. I, 8.
(3) to be, w. =in= w. dat.; II. Cor. III, 8; =miþ= w. dat.; Lu. II, 13.
(4) _to becum, be_, (a) w. a pred. adj. (especially wa. discharging
more or less the function of a sb.); Mt. V, 20. 21. 22. VI, 16. 22.
23. Mk. I, 22. 36. 41. 42. II, 21. IV, 22. 32. Lu. II, 2. II. Cor. I,
7. III, 7. IV, 1. 11. 16. V, 17. Skeir. VII, d; --=w. twalib-wintruns=
(sc. =alþeis=), _to be twelv years old_; Lu. II, 42; (b) w. a pred.
sb.; Mt. V, 45. Mk. I, 17. II. Cor. V, 21. Skeir. VII, c; (c) w. adv.:
=sundrô=; Mk. IV, 10; =ja jah nê..ja=; II. Cor. I, 19. (II) auxiliary
v., w. a pp.; Mk. I, 14. II. 27. III, 26. II. Cor. IV, 1.--Cpd.
=fra-w=. [OE. weorðan, ME. wurðe, worthe, NE. wurth, _to becum_, _be_,
as in frases: 'woe _wurth_ the day', or 'the man' (indir. obj.).]

=waírþida=, f. (97), _wurthiness_, _dignity_, _sufficiency_; II. Cor.
III, 5. Skeir. VII, a. [< =waírþs= + suff. =-i-dô-= (72). OHG. wirdida,
f., _wurthiness_.]

=-waírþnan=, wv. (194, n. 1), in =ga-ga-w=.

=waírþs=, adj. (124), _wurth_, _wurthy_, _able_, w. =du= w. dat.; II.
Cor. II, 16; w. inf.; Mk. I, 7. II. Cor. III, 5; w. a clause introduced
by =ei=; Mt. III, 11; --=waírþana briggan= w. gen., _to make or count
wurthy_, _make able_; II. Cor. III, 6. [OE. weorð, wurð (the u by
influence of the w), adj., ME. worth, wurth, NE. wurth.]

=wait=, prs. of the prt.-prs. =witan=.

=waja-mêreins=, f. (103; 113, n. 1), _a blasfeming_, _blasfemy_. [<
=waja-mêrjan= + suff. =-ei-ni-=.]

=waja-mêrjan= (21, n. 2), wv. (188), _to blasfeme_, w. acc.; Mk. III,
28. 29. [=waja-= < =wai=.]

=wakan=, stv. (177, n. 1), _to wake_, _wach_.--Cpd. =þaírh-w=. (63,
n. 1). [OE. wacan, _to arize_, _cum to life_, _be born_, ME. wake,
NE. wake. The wv. refers to OE. wacian, prt. wacode, ME. wakie, prt.

=-wakjan=, wv. (187), _to wake_ (tr.), in =us-w=. [OE. (â)wecc(e)an (<
*wacjan), ME. (a)wecche, OHG. (ir)wecchen, MHG. NHG. (er)wecken, _to
wake up_, _rouse from sleep_.]

=-waknan= (35), wv. (194), _to awake_, in =ga-w=. [< pp. stem of
=wakan=. OE. wæcnan (intr.), _to arize_, _be born_, ME. wakne (intr.),
NE. waken (tr. and intr.).]

=Valamir= (6, n. 2; 40, n. 1), pr. n.

=waldan=, rv. (179, n. 1), _to wield_, _rule_, _guvern_. [OE. wealdan,
ME. wealde, welde (rv.), NE. wield (wv.).]

=waldufni=, n. (95, n. 1), _power_, _might_, _authority_; Mk. I, 22.
27. Skeir. VII, a; =--w. haban= w. inf.; Mk. II, 10; or =du= w. inf.;
Mk. III, 15. [< =waldan= + suff. =-ufnja-=.]

=waljan=, wv. (187), _to choose_, _be willing_, w. inf.; II. Cor. V, 8.
[OHG. wellen, MHG. weln, wellen, NHG. wählen, _to choose_, _elect_.]

=waltjan=, wv. (188), _to roll_, _beat upon_, _dash_; Mk. IV, 37. [OE.
wyltan, weltan (< weoltjan < weolt, prt. of wealtan, ME. walte, = OHG.
walzan, MHG. walzen, stv., NHG. walzen, wv., _to roll_, _revolv_), OHG.
MHG. welzen, NHG. wälzen, _to_ (_cause to_) _roll_.]

=wamba=, f. (97), _womb_, _belly_; Lu. II, 21. [OE. wamb, wǫmb, ME.
wombe, NE. womb.]

=wamm=, n. (94), _spot_. [Prop. n. adj. (cf. =ga-=, =un-wamms=). OE.
wamm, n. m. (adj. wam, wǫm), _spot_, > OE. wemman, ME. wemme, _to
stain_, _defile_, < wemme, wem, NE. wem (obs.), _spot_, _blemish_.]

=wandjan=, wv. (188), _to wend_, _turn_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of
th.; Mt. V, 39.--Cpds. =ga-=, =us-w=. [Caus. of =-windan=. OE. wendan
(prt. wende, for *wend-de), ME. wende (prt. wende, wente), _to turn_,
_turn one's self_, _go_, NE. wend (rare; prt. went), _to go_.]

=waninassus=, m. (105), _want_; Skeir. VII, c. [Like =wanains= (w.
suff. =-ai-ni-=), _a waning_, _diminishing_, < =*wanan= (< =*wans=,
_lacking_, _wanting_, = OE. wan, wǫn, ME. wan, ON. vanr, n. vant,
_deficient_, > ME. want, adj., _deficient_, and sb., NE. want) + suff.

=*war= (s. 78, n. 2), adj. (124, n. 1), _wary_, _cautious_, _sober_.
[OE. wær, ME. war, adj., _cautious_, NE. ware (obs., but in beware =
be-ware), extended wary (w. suff. -y).]

=-wardjan=, wv. (188), in =fra-w=. [Caus. of =fra-waírþan=, _to go to
ruin_, _corrupt_ (intr.)] [OE. wyrdan (< *weardian), werdan, ME. werde,
_to spoil_.]

=warei=, f. (113), _wariness_, _craftiness_; II. Cor. IV, 2. [< war +
suff. =-ein-=.]

=wargiþa=, f. (97), _condemnation_, _judgment_; II. Cor. III, 9. [<
=-wargs= (in =launa-wargs=, _an unthankful person_. =-wargs= = OE.
wearg, m., _outlaw_, _criminal_, _wolf_, ME. wari, weri, _villain_.) +
suff. =-iþô-=. OE. wergðu, f., _condemnation_, _punishment_.]

=warjan=, wv. (187), _to forbid_, _thwart_. [OE. werian, ME. wer(i)e,
_to defend_, _ward off_, OHG. werian, weren, MHG. wern, _to hinder_,
_protect_, _defend_, NHG. wehren, _to protect_, _defend_.]

=warmjan=, wv. (188), _to warm_, _cherish_. [< *warms (= OE. wearm, ME.
warm, NE. warm). OE. wyrman (< *wearmjan), ME. werme, warme, NE. warm.]

=warþ=, prt. of =waírþan=.

=was=, prt. of =wisan=.

=wasjan=, wv. (187), _to vest_, _clothe_, _put on_, _dress_, (1) tr.,
w. acc. and =swa=; Mt. VI, 30. (2) intr., w. instr.; Mt. VI, 25.
31.--Cpd. =ga-w=. [OE. werian (< *wazian), ME. were, wv., NE. wear
(stv., by influence of bear).]

=wasti=, f. (98), _garment, cloak_; Mt. V, 40. Mk. V, 27. 28. 30; in
pl. also _raiment_; Mt. VI, 25. 28. [< =wasjan= + suff. =-tjô-=.]

=was-uþ-þan=; s. the components.

=watô=, n. (110, n. 1), _water_; Mk. I, 8. 10. [Cf. OE. wæter (w.
r-suffix), n., ME. water, NE. water.]

=waúrd=, n. (93), _word_; Mt. V, 37. Mk. I, 45. II, 2. IV, 14-20. 33.
V, 36. Lu. II, 15. 17. 19. 29. 50. 51. II. Cor. I, 18. II, 17. IV, 2.
V, 19. [OE. ME. word, n., NE. word.]

=-waúrdjan=, wv. (188), in =filu-w=. [< =waúrd=. OHG. -wurten, in
ant-wurten (= Goth. =and-waúrdjan=), MHG. and-würten, NHG. antworten
(by influence of antwort, f., _answer_), _to answer_.]

=waúrkjan=, anv. (209), (1) abs., _to work_ (intr.), _becum effectiv_,
w. =in= w. dat.; II. Cor. IV, 12. (2) w. acc. (in pass. the nom.), _to
work_ (tr.), _do_, _make_, _produce, prepare_, and dat. of pers.; Mk.
III, 35. II. Cor. IV, 17; w. dubl. acc.; Mk. I, 3. Skeir. VII, b.--Cpd.
=ga-w=. [OE. wyrcan (prt. worhte, pp. worht), ME. werke, worche (prt.
wrohte, pp. wrocht, wrogt), NE. work (prt. and pp. wrought and worked).]

=waúrms=, m. (101), _serpent_. [OE. wyrm, wurm, _serpent_, ME. worm,
wurm, NE. wurm.]

=waúrstw=, n. (94), _work, deed_. [For =*waúrhstw= < =waúrkjan= + suff.

=waúrstweigs=, adj. (124), _effectiv, effectual_; II. Cor. I, 6. [<
=waúrstw= + suff. -=ei-ga-=.]

=waúrstwja=, m. (108), _workman, laborer_. [< =waúrstw= + suff.

=waúrts=, f. (103), _wurt, root_; Mk. IV, 6. 17. [OE. wyrt, f., _herb_,
_plant_, _root_, ME. wort, NE. wurt.]

=waúrþum=, prt. of =waírþan=.

=wêgs=, m. (91, n. 5), _a violent movement_, as of billows; hense
_tempest_; in pl. _billows_, _waves_; Mk. IV, 37. [< =wigan=. OE. wæ̂g,
m., _wave_, _billow, flud, sea_, OHG. wag, MHG. wâg(-g-), m., _flud,
wave, river, sea_, NHG. woge, f., _wave, billow_.]

=weiha=, m. (108), _priest_. [< =weihs.=]

=weihan=, stv. (172), _to fight, strive_, _contend_. [OE. wîgan (the
g, for h, being due to the forms with grammatical change), OHG. wîhan
(wîgan), MHG. wîgen, _to contend, fight_. The prsp. (uzed as a m. sb.,
= Goth. =weihands=) is seen in OE. wîgend, OHG. MHG. wîgant, NHG.
weigand, m., _warrior_; cp. also OE. wîg, m., ME. wiᵹ, _fight, batl_.]

=weihnan=, wv. (194), _to becum holy_, _be hallowd_; Mt. VI, 9. [<

=weihs=, adj. (124), _holy_; Mk. I, 8. III, 29. Lu. II, 25. 26. II.
Cor. I, 1; w. gen.; Mk. I, 24. Lu. II, 23. [OHG. wîh, MHG. wîch (-h-),
NHG. weih-, adj., _holy_, in weihnachten, _Christmas_, (lit. 'holy
nights'), weihrauch, _incense_ (lit. '_holy smoke_').]

=wein=, n. (94), _wine_; Mk. II, 22. [< Lt. vinum > also OE. wîn, n.,
ME. win, NE. wine.]

=weina-basi= (88ᵃ, n. 1), n. (95), _wineberry_. [=-basi= = OHG. beri (r
< s = z), n., MHG. bere, n. f., NHG. beere, f., _berry_; an extended
form is OE. berige, f., ME. berie, NE. berry.]

=weina-triu= (88ᵃ, n. 1), n. (94, n. 1), _'wine-tree', vine_.

=wein-drugkja= (88ᵃ, n. 1), m. (108), _wine-drinker, wine-bibber_.

=weipan=, stv. (172, n. 1), _to crown_. [OHG. *wîfan, MHG. wîfen
(stv.), _to swing_, _wind_, prt. weif > the caus. weifen, _to swing,
reel_, NHG. weifen, _to reel_.]

=weis=, pl. of =ik=.

=-weisjan=, wv. (188), _to make wise_, in =fulla-w.= [< =-weis= (s.
=unweis=). OE. wîsian (prt. wîsode; Second Weak Conj.), ME. wise, OHG.
wîsen (< wîsjan), MHG. wîsen, NHG. weisen, _to direct, gide, show,
instruct_, lit. '_to make wise_'.]

=-weitan=, stv. (172, n. 1; 197, n. 1), _to see_, only in =fra-=,
=in-w.= [OE. wîtan, ME. wîte, _to see, look, rebuke_, NE. wite (Sp.),
_to reproach, blame_.]

=-weitjan=, wv. (188), in =faír-w.= [< =-weit=, in =fraweit= (<
=fra-weitan=), n., _revenge_, MHG. ver-wîȥ, NHG. verweis, m., _rebuke,
reproof_; and =id-weit=, n., _reproach_, = OE. idwît, n., ME. edwit,
_reproach, blame_.]

=weitwôdei=, f. (113), _witness, testimony_; II. Cor. I, 12. [<

=weitwôdiþa=, f. (97), _witness, testimony_; Mk. I, 44. [< =weitwôþs= +
suff. =-iþô-=.]

=*weitwôþs=, =weitwôds= (30; 74, n. 2), m. (117), _witness_. [< √ of
=-weitan=, =witan=. Cf. Brgm., II, § 136, 5.]

=wênjan=, wv. (188), _to hope, trust, expect_, (1) w. acc. and inf.;
II. Cor. V, 11. (2) w. a clause introduced by =ei=; II. Cor. I, 13; so
w. =du= w. dat.; II. Cor. I, 10. [< =wêns=. OE. wênan, ME. wene, wêne,
_to suppose_, NE. ween (obs. or poet.).]

=wêns=, f. (103), _expectation, hope_; II. Cor. I, 6. III, 12. [OE.
wên, ê is i-uml. of ô, for (West-Germanic) â = Goth. =ê=, f., _hope,
expectation_, ME. wene, OHG. MHG. wân, _opinion, belief, hope_, NHG.
wahn, m., _delusion, fancy_.]

=wêsi=, =wêsun= (=-uþ= = =-uh=); prt. of =wisan= (204).

=-widan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to bind_, in =ga-w.= [OHG. wetan, MHG.
weten, _to bind, join, yoke_. Its √ is containd also in OE. wæ̂d, f.,
wæ̂de, n., ME. wêde, NE. weed, _garment_.]

=widuwô=, f. (112), _widow_; Lu. II, 37. [OE. widewe, widwe, f., ME.
widewe, NE. widow.]

=-wigan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to move, shake up_, in =ga-w.= [OE. wegan,
ME. weye, _to carry, bear, move, weigh_, NE. weigh.]

=wigs=, m. (91), _way_; Mt. V, 25. Mk. I, 2. 3. IV, 4. 15. Lu. II, 44.
[OE. weg, m., ME. wei, wey, NE. way.]

=wileis=, prs. opt. of =wiljan=.

=Wilia= (40, n. 1), pr. n.

=wilja=, m. (108), _wil_; Mt. VI, 10. Mk. III, 35. Lu. II, 14. II. Cor.
I, 1. [< wiljan. OE. willa, m., ME. wille, NE. wil.]

=wilja-halþei= (88ᵃ), f. (113, n. 2), _special favor_. [<
=*wiljahalþs=, adj., < =wilja-= (stem of =-wiljis=, in cpds.,
_willing_, < =wiljan=) + =-halþs= = OE. heald, adj., _inclined_; cp.
OHG. halda, MHG. NHG. halde, f., _declivity_.]

=wiljan=, anv. (205), _to wil, wish_, (1) abs.; Mk. I, 40. 41. (2) w.
acc.; Mt. V, 40. Mk. III, 13. (3) w. =swa filu swê=; Skeir. VII, c. (4)
w. inf.; Mt. V, 40. 42. II. Cor. I, 15. V, 4. Skeir. VII, c; w. acc.
and inf. (=wisan= being understood); II. Cor. I, 8. [OE. willan (prt.
wolde, wulde), ME. wille (prt. wolde), NE. wil (prt. would).]

=wilþeis=, adj. (127), _wild_; Mk. I, 6 (gloss). [OE. wilde, ME. wild,
NE. wild.]

=wilwan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.; Mk. III,
27.--Cpd. =dis-w.=

=-windan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to wind_, only in =bi-= (=du-=, =ga-=,
=us-=) =w.=, _to wind round, inwrap, swathe_, w. acc.; Lu. II, 7; pp.
=biwundans=, _wrapt_; Lu. II, 12. [OE. windan, ME. winde, NE. wind.]

=winds=, m. (91), _wind_; Mk. IV, 37. 39. 41. [OE. wind, m., ME. NE.

=winnan=, stv. (174, n. 1), _to suffer, sorrow_, (1) abs.; Lu. II, 48.
(2) w. acc.; II. Cor. I, 6. [OE. winnan, _to fight, strugl, toil_,
ge-w., _to (obtain by fighting), win_, ME. winne, _to fight, acquire,
win_, NE. win.]

=wis=, n. (94), _a calm_; Mk. IV, 39. [< =wisan=.]

=wisan=, stv. (176, n. 1), (1) _to dwel, abide, remain_; II. Cor. III,
11. 14. V, 6. (2) _to be, be present, exist, liv_. (In this and the
follg. senses =wisan= supplies the defects of the sb. v.: =im=, =is=,
=ist=, =sijau=, etc.; s. 204. It is frequently understood.--For =nist=,
etc., s. 10, n. 2; 4, n. 1); Mt. VI, 30. Lu. II, 25. 36. II. Cor. IV,
7. Skeir. VII, b. =ufarassus w.=, _to abound_; II. Cor. I, 5. (3) w.
dat. (as in Gr. which sumtimes has the gen.), _to be, belong_ or
_pertain to_; hense _to hav_; so occasionally folld. by a partit. gen.;
Mk. I, 24. V, 7. Lu. II, 7. (4) w. a gen. in the pred., _to be of,
belong to_, (a) poss.; II. Cor. II, 3, (b) qualitativ; Mk. V, 42. (5)
_to be anything_ or _in any manner_, (a) w. an adv. in the pred.; Mt.
VI, 25. Mk. IV, 26. 36; (b) w. a prep. in the pred.; Skeir. VII, a; (c)
the pred. is a complete sentence or an elliptical frase (as in Gr.),
(α) in a dir. quotation; Mt. V, 37. II. Cor. I, 18; (β) introduced by a
rel. particl: =þatei=; Mk. II, 16; =þarei=; Mk. IV, 15; =swaswê=; Mt.
VI, 5; (d) the pred. is a prsp. denoting duration; Mt. V, 25. Mk. I, 4.
22. 39. II, 6. 18. IV, 38. V, 5. 40. Lu. II, 8. 33. 51. II. Cor. I, 9.
II, 9. 11. 17. V, 19; (e) the pred. is a pp., (α) w. an act. meaning;
Mk. I, 33; cp. II, 24. 26. III, 4. II. Cor. IV, 10. V, 10; (β) w. a
pass. meaning; Mk. I, 6. V, 11. Lu. II, 26. II. Cor. IV, 3; preceded by
the art.; Mk. IV, 16. 18. 20. V, 14; =wisan= being auxiliary v.; Mt.
V, 21. 27. 31. 33. 38. 43. Mk. I, 2. 5. 9. III, 9. 21. IV, 11. V, 4.
Lu. II, 3. 11. 17. 20. 21. 23. 24. 33. II. Cor. I, 4. 8. Skeir. VII, c;
(f) the pred. is a rel. clause (cp. (c), abuv); Mk. IV, 22. II. Cor.
II, 2. Skeir. VII, d; (g) the pred. is an adj.; Mt. V, 29. 30. 48. VI,
22. 23. 26. Mk. I, 7. II, 9. 25. III, 29. IV, 17. 31. 40. V, 18. 34.
Lu. II, 5. 25. II. Cor. I, 18. II, 16. III, 3. 5. 10. IV, 18. V, 6.
8. 11.--Cp. also 5, e, α, abuv; (h) the pred. is a sb., either alone
or w. an attribute; Mt. V, 34. 35. VI, 12. 22. 23. Mk. I, 11. 16. II,
28. III, 11. 35. IV, 38. V, 9. Lu. II, 2. 11. 12. 25. 37. II. Cor. I,
7. 12. 14. 19. 24. II, 15. III, 2. 3. 9. 17. IV, 4; (i) the pred. is
a prn., (α) interr.; Mk. I, 24. 27. III, 33. IV, 41. V, 9; (β) poss.;
Mt. VI, 13; (j) the pred. is a num., (α) def.; Mk. V, 13; (β) indef.;
Mk. II, 15. V, 9. (6) _to be, be calld, mean_: =þat' ist=, _that is
(to say)_; =þatei ist=, _which is, that is (to say)_; Mk. III, 17.
V, 41; =ƕa ist þatei=, _how is it that?_; Mk. II, 16. (7) _to be, be
present, be found_, (a) w. an adv.: =hêr=; Skeir. VII, a; =jainar=;
Mk. III, 1. V, 11. Lu. II, 6; =þarei=; Mk. II, 4. V, 40. II. Cor. III,
17; =þaruh=; Mt. VI, 21. II. Cor. III, 17; =ûta=; Mk. I, 45; (b) w. a
prep.: =ana=; Mk. I, 45. IV, 1. 38. Lu. II, 25. 40; =at=; II. Cor. I,
17; =faúra=; Mk. V, 21; =fram=; II. Cor. I, 2; =in=; Mt. V, 25. VI, 4.
Mk. I, 13. 23. II, 1. IV, 36. V, 5. 25. Lu. II, 5. 8. 25. 44. 49. II.
Cor. I, 1. V, 4. Skeir. VII, b; =miþ=; Mk. I, 13. II, 19. 26. III, 14.
IV, 36. V, 18; =ufar filu wisan=, _to abound_; II. Cor. I, 5; =us=;
Mt. V, 37. Lu. II, 4. II. Cor. III, 5; =wiþra=; Mk. IV, 15.--Cpds.
=at-=, =ufar-w.= [Goth. =wisan=, prt. =was=, etc., < √ wes. OE. wesan,
prsp. wesende, imper. sg. wes, pl. wesað; prt. 1st and 3d pers. sg.
wæs, 2nd pers. wæ̂re, pl. wæ̂ron; subj. sg. wæ̂re, pl. wæ̂ron; ME.
inf. wese, prt. 1st and 3d pers. sg. wæs, was, 2nd pers. wære, were,
pl. wæren, weren; subj. wære, were; NE. prt. sg. was, pl. wer.--Goth.
=im=, =siju=, =sijau=, etc., < √ es:-s. OE. 1st pers. sg. eom, eam, am
(North.), 2nd pers. eart, 3d pers. is, pl. sind (t), siondun, sindun,
North. aron beside sint (d), sindon; subj. sg. sîe, sî, etc.; ME. 1st
pers. sg. eom, eam, am, 2nd pers. eart, art, 3d pers. is, pl. sind,
sinden, aren, are; subj. sg. seo, si, pl. seon, sion, sien; NE. 1st
pers. sg. am, 2nd pers. art, 3d pers. is, pl. ar.]

=wissêdun=, prt. of =witan=, prt.-prs.

=wit=, dual of =ik=.

=witan=, wv. (197, n. 1), _to look at, giv attention, observ, wach_,
w. dat.; Mk. III, 2; =w. wahtwôm ufarô= w. dat., _to keep wach over_;
Lu. II, 8. [< √ of =witan=, _to know_. OHG. (ga-, ir-) wiȥên, _to pay
attention, observ_.]

=witan= (30), prt.-prs. (197), _to know_, (1) abs.; Mk. IV, 27. Lu. II,
43. (2) w. acc.; Mk. IV, 13. V, 33. II. Cor. V, 11. (3) w. a clause
introduced by =þatei=; Mt. VI, 32. Mk. II, 10. Lu. II, 49. II. Cor. I,
7. IV, 14. V, 1. 6. (4) w. an indir. question; Mt. VI, 3. [OE. witan,
1st and 3d pers. sg. prs. ind. wât (Goth. =wait=), prt. wiste, ME.
wite, prs. wot, prt. wiste, NE. wot, wist; to wit < ME. to wite(n), OE.
tô witanne, gerund.]

=witôþ= (gen. =witôdis=), n. (94), _law_; Mt. V, 17. 18. Lu. II, 22.
23. 24. 27. 39. [< a lost v. =witôn= (= OE. witian, ME. witie, _to
destin_) + suff. =-da=; < √ of =witan=, _to know_.]

=witubni= (30), n. (95), _knowledge_. [< =witan=, _to know_, + suff.

=witum=, pl. of =wait=.

=wiþra=, prep. w. acc., (1) local, _over against, by, near, to_; Mk.
IV, 1. 15. II. Cor. V, 12. (2) metaforical, (a) in a frendly sense,
_to, toward_; (b) in a hostil sense, _against, to, for_; Mk. III,
24. 25. [OE. ME. wiðer, prep., _against_, NE. wither- (in the cpd.
withernam, a law term in England, _a second_ or _reciprocal writ, a
writ of reprisal_; -nam < niman = Goth. =niman=), OHG. widar, MHG.
wider, NHG. wider, prep., _against_, wieder, adv., _again, back_.]

=wiþrus=, m., _lam_. [OE. weðer, m., ME. NE. wether.]

=wlaitôn=, wv. (190), _to look round about_; Mk. V, 32. [< a lost sb.
(= ON. leit, f., _inquiry, serch_) < =*wleitan=. OE. wlâtian, _to

=wlits=, m. (101, n. 1), _face, countenance_; II. Cor. III, 7. [<
=*wleitan= (s. =andawleizn=). OE. wlite, m., ME. wlite, _figure, look_.]

=wôkains= (35), f. (103, n. 1), _waching_. [< =*wôkan= (+ suff.
=-ai-ni-=), _to wach_, < a lost sb. < =wakan=.]

=wôkrs=, m. (91, n. 2), _uzury_. [Apparently < √ of =wakan= (prt.
=wôk=) + suff. =-ra-=. OE. wôcor, f., _progeny, posterity_, OHG.
wuohhar, MHG. wuocher, m. n., _produce, fruit, profit, uzury_, NHG.
wucher, m., _uzury_.]

=wôpjan=, wv. (187), _to cry aloud, cry out, cry_; Mk. I, 3.--Cpd.
=uf-w.= (63, n. 1). [OE. wêpan (stv., w. the prs. in-jo-), _to cry
aloud, complain, bewail_, ME. wepe (stv.), NE. weep (wv.).]

=wôþeis=, adj. (128), _sweet, mild, plezant_; =dauns wôþi=, _sweet
savor_; II. Cor. II, 15. [OE. wêðe, adj., _sweet, mild_.]

=*wôþs=, =wôds= (74, n. 2), adj. (124), _mad, possest_; Mk. V, 15. 16.
18. [OE. ME. wôd, NE. wood (obs.), _mad, possest, furious_.]

=wrakja=, f. (97), _persecution_; Mk. IV, 17. [< =wrikan= + suff.

=wratôn=, wv. (190), _to go, jurney_; Lu. II, 41. [ON. rata, _to
jurney, travel_.]

=wrêþus= (=wriþus=; 7, n. 3), m. (205), _herd_. [OE. wræ̂ð, f., _herd,

=wrikan=, stv. (176, n. 1), _to persecute_, w. acc.; Mt. V, 44;
=wrikans=, _persecuted_; II. Cor. IV, 9. [OE. wrecan, _to drive, urge;
avenge, punish_, ME. wreke, NE. wreak.]

=-wrisqan=, stv. (174, n. 1), in =ga-wr.=, _to produce fruit_. [ON.
*reskva, pp. roskenn, _grown_.]

=wrôhjan=, wv. (187), _to accuse_, w. acc.; Mk. III, 2. [< =wrôhs=, f.,
_accusation_. OE. wrêgan (< wrôgian), ME. wreie, OHG. ruogen (< ruege,
f. jô-stem), MHG. rüegen, _to accuse_, NHG. rügen, _to reprove_.]

=wulan=, stv. (173, n. 2; 175, n. 2), _to wallop, boil; be fervent_.
[Cf. OE. weallan (prt. wêoll), ME. walle, OHG. wallan (prt. wial),
MHG. wallen (prt. wiel), NHG. wallen (wv.), _to bubl, boil_; also OE.
wellan, wv., ME. welle, NE. well, _to issue forth, spring_.]

=wulfs=, m. (91), _wolf_. [OE. wulf (pl. wulfas), m., ME. wulf (pl.
wulves, wolves), NE. wolf (pl. wolves).]

=Wulfila=, pr. n. (108; 221). [Prop. '_litl wolf_', < =wulfs= + suff.

=wulla=, f. (97), _wool_. [OE. wull, f., ME. wulle, wolle, NE. wool.]

=wulþags=, adj. (124), _gorgeous, honorabl, glorious_; II. Cor. III, 7.
10. [< =wulþus= + suff. =-a-ga-= (a for the stem-vowel u).]

=wulþrs=, adj. (124), _of wurth, of consequence_; =mais wulþriza
wisan=, _to be of more wurth, be better_; Mt. VI, 26. [< =wulþus= +
suff. =-ra-=.]

=wulþus=, m. (105), _glory_; Mt. VI, 13. 29. Lu. II, 9. 14. 32. II.
Cor. I, 20. III, 7-11. 18. IV, 4. 6. 15. 17. [< stem wul (cf. ON.
Ullr--ll < lþ--, name of a god) + suff. =-þu-=.]

=wundufni=, f. (98), _wound, plague_; Mk. III, 11. [< =wundôn= (<
=wunds=, adj., = OE. ME. wund, OHG. wunt, MHG. wunt, -d-, _sore,
wounded_, NHG. wund, adj., _sore_; =-wundôn= = OE. wundian, ME. wounde,
NE. wound) + suff. =-ufnjô-=.]

=Xristus= (1, n. 4), pr. n. m. (105 and n. 2), _Christ_; Lu. II, 11;
gen. =-aus=; II. Cor. II, 10. 12. 15. III, 3. IV, 4. V, 10. 14; dat.
=-au=; II. Cor. I, 21. II, 14. 17. III, 14. V, 19; acc. =-u=; Lu. II,
26. II. Cor. I, 5. III, 4. V, 16. 18. 20.--=Iêsuis-aus= (gen.); Mk.
I, 1. II. Cor. I, 1. 3. 14. IV, 6; =Iêsu-au= (dat.); II. Cor. I, 2;
=Iêsu-u= (acc.); II. Cor. IV, 5. [< Χριστός.]

=Y=; s. § 39.

=Zaíbaídaius=, pr. n., _Zebedee_; gen. =-aus=; Mk. I, 19. III, 17; acc.
=-u=; Mk. I, 20. [< Ζεβεδαῖος.]

=Zakarias= (43), pr. n., _Zacharias_. [< Ζαχαρίας.]


  AND GERMAN, _bound_                                               $5.00

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    _G. H. BALG,
        623 FIFTH ST.
               MILWAUKEE, WIS._


  PM. Note: Balg's translation is a bit awkward. He knew quite a
  number of languages so well that he wrote books about them, but he
  had is own view of English orthography. He frequently left out "e"
  when the "e" was not pronounced, like in "ar" (for "are"), "hav",
  "givn" etc. He did this consistently, so this was his deliberate

  On p. x the reference "Brugm., Grundriss der vergleichenden
  grammatik der indog. sprachen von K. Brugmann (Engl. edition).
  Strassburg 1886-92" is the German ed.; the English one, to which
  refs. in this book apply, is _Elements of the Comparative Grammar
  of the Indo-Germanic Languages_, New York 1888-95.

  The characters used in the table on p. 11 are approximations of
  the gothic characters as unicode gothic fonts are not generally
  supported. A table with the actual unicode gothic symbols follows

    1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9
    a     b     g     d     e     q     z     h     þ
   10    20    30    40    50    60    70    80    90
    i     k     l     m     n     j     u     p     —
   100   200   300   400   500   600   700   800   900
    r     s     t     w     f     χ     ƕ     o     —

  Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical

  Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

  Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.

  Enclosed bold font in =equals=.

  Enclosed distinctive font in ~tildes~.

  Enclosed letter-spaced characters in +plus signs+.

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