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Title: Historical Record of the Third, Or the King's Own Regiment of Light Dragoons - Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in - 1685, and of Its Subsequent Services to 1846.
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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                           HISTORICAL RECORD

                                OF THE

                   THIRD, OR THE KING'S OWN REGIMENT

                                  OF

                            LIGHT DRAGOONS:

                              CONTAINING

              AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
                               IN 1685,

                    AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
                               TO 1846.


                              COMPILED BY
                         RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.,
               ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS.

                       ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.

                                LONDON:
                     PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
                          30, CHARING CROSS.

                             M DCCC XLVII.

        LONDON: Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street,
                  For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.



GENERAL ORDERS.


                                                          _HORSE GUARDS,
                                                     1st January, 1836._

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who have
distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the Enemy,
an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British Army
shall be published under the superintendence and direction of the
Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the following
particulars, viz.,

---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of the
Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time employed;
The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations, in which it has
been engaged, particularly specifying any Achievement it may have
performed, and the Colours, Trophies, &c., it may have captured from
the Enemy.

---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of Non-Commissioned
Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the
Place and Date of the Action.

---- The names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the Enemy,
have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other Marks of His
Majesty's gracious favour.

---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and
Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in Action.

And,

---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been permitted
to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges or Devices, or
any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
                            GENERAL LORD HILL,
                                              _Commanding-in-Chief_.

                                                 JOHN MACDONALD.
                                                 _Adjutant-General._



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service are
animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that any
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which alone
great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the Military
History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright examples
to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to incite him to
emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have preceded him in their
honourable career, are among the motives that have given rise to the
present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the time
of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and admiration
to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions, the Houses of
Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on the Commanders,
and the Officers and Troops acting under their orders, expressions
of approbation and of thanks for their skill and bravery; and these
testimonials, confirmed by the high honour of their Sovereign's
approbation, constitute the reward which the soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which appears
to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies) for British
Regiments to keep regular records of their services and achievements.
Hence some difficulty has been experienced in obtaining, particularly
from the old Regiments, an authentic account of their origin and
subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty having
been pleased to command that every Regiment shall in future keep a full
and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth derive
information as to the difficulties and privations which chequer the
career of those who embrace the military profession. In Great Britain,
where so large a number of persons are devoted to the active concerns
of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and where these pursuits
have, for so long a period, been undisturbed by the _presence of
war_, which few other countries have escaped, comparatively little is
known of the vicissitudes of active service, and of the casualties of
climate, to which, even during peace, the British Troops are exposed in
every part of the globe, with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country derives
from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist and the
trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to reflect
on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on their
sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which so many
national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in spite
of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and steadiness
with which they have maintained their advantages against superior
numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the Corps
employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of individual
bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His Majesty's
special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk of the
Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them cannot fail
to be useful and interesting to military men of every rank, it is
considered that they will also afford entertainment and information to
the general reader, particularly to those who may have served in the
Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or are
serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment to everything
belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a narrative of the
services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove interesting. Authentic
accounts of the actions of the great, the valiant, the loyal, have
always been of paramount interest with a brave and civilized people.
Great Britain has produced a race of heroes who, in moments of danger
and terror, have stood "firm as the rocks of their native shore;" and
when half the World has been arrayed against them, they have fought the
battles of their Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a
record of achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising,
gained by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their gallant
deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished Officers
will be introduced in the Records of their respective Regiments, and
the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to time, been conferred
upon each Regiment, as testifying the value and importance of its
services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment will
be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall be
completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION.


The ancient Armies of England were composed of Horse and Foot; but the
feudal troops established by William the Conqueror in 1086, consisted
almost entirely of Horse. Under the feudal system, every holder of land
amounting to what was termed a "knight's fee," was required to provide
a charger, a coat of mail, a helmet, a shield, and a lance, and to
serve the Crown a period of forty days in each year at his own expense;
and the great landholders had to provide armed men in proportion to the
extent of their estates; consequently the ranks of the feudal Cavalry
were completed with men of property, and the vassals and tenants of the
great barons, who led their dependents to the field in person.

In the succeeding reigns the Cavalry of the Army was composed of
Knights (or men at arms) and Hobiliers (or horsemen of inferior
degree); and the Infantry of spears and battle-axe men, cross-bowmen,
and archers. The Knights wore armour on every part of the body, and
their weapons were a lance, a sword, and a small dagger. The Hobiliers
were accoutred and armed for the light and less important services of
war, and were not considered qualified for a charge in line. Mounted
Archers[1] were also introduced, and the English nation eventually
became preeminent in the use of the bow.

About the time of Queen Mary the appellation of "_Men at Arms_"
was changed to that of "_Spears_ and _Launces_." The introduction
of fire-arms ultimately occasioned the lance to fall into disuse,
and the title of the Horsemen of the first degree was changed to
"_Cuirassiers_." The Cuirassiers were armed _cap-à-pié_, and their
weapons were a sword with a straight narrow blade and sharp point, and
a pair of large pistols, called petronels; and the Hobiliers carried
carbines. The Infantry carried pikes, matchlocks, and swords. The
introduction of fire-arms occasioned the formation of Regiments armed
and equipped as infantry, but mounted on small horses for the sake of
expedition of movement, and these were styled "_Dragoons_;" a small
portion of the military force of the kingdom, however, consisted of
this description of troops.

The formation of the present Army commenced after the Restoration
in 1660, with the establishment of regular corps of Horse and Foot;
the Horsemen were cuirassiers, but only wore armour on the head and
body; and the Foot were pikemen and musketeers. The arms which each
description of force carried, are described in the following extract
from the "Regulations of King Charles II.," dated 5th May, 1663:--

"Each Horseman to have for his defensive armes, back, breast, and pot;
and for his offensive armes, a sword, and a case of pistolls, the
barrels whereof are not to be undʳ. foorteen inches in length; and each
Trooper of Our Guards to have a carbine besides the aforesaid armes.
And the Foote to have each soldier a sword, and each pikeman a pike
of 16 foote long and not undʳ.; and each musqueteer a musquet with a
collar of bandaliers, the barrell of which musquet to be about foor
foote long and to conteine a bullet, foorteen of which shall weigh a
pound weight[2]."

The ranks of the Troops of Horse were at this period composed of men of
some property--generally  the sons of substantial yeomen: the young
men received as recruits provided their own horses, and they were
placed on a rate of pay sufficient to give them a respectable station
in society.

On the breaking out of the war with Holland in the spring of 1672, a
Regiment of Dragoons was raised[3]; the Dragoons were placed on a lower
rate of pay than the Horse, and the Regiment was armed similar to the
Infantry, excepting that a limited number of the men carried halberds
instead of pikes, and the others muskets and bayonets; and a few men in
each troop had pistols; as appears by a warrant dated the 2nd of April,
1672, of which the following is an extract:--

  "CHARLES R.

  "Our will and pleasure is, that a Regiment of Dragoones which we
  have established and ordered to be raised, in twelve Troopes of
  fourscore in each beside officers, who are to be under the command
  of Our most deare and most intirely beloved Cousin Prince Rupert,
  shall be armed out of Our stoares remaining within Our office of
  the Ordinance, as followeth; that is to say, three corporalls, two
  serjeants, the gentlemen at armes, and twelve soldiers of each
  of the said twelve Troopes, are to have and carry each of them
  one halbard, and one case of pistolls with holsters; and the rest
  of the soldiers of the several Troopes aforesaid, are to have and
  to carry each of them one matchlocke musquet, with a collar of
  bandaliers, and also to have and to carry one bayonet[4], or great
  knive. That each lieutenant have and carry one partizan; and that
  two drums be delivered out for each Troope of the said Regiment[5]."

Several regiments of Horse and Dragoons were raised in the first year
of the reign of King James II.; and the horsemen carried a short
carbine[6] in addition to the sword and pair of pistols: and in a
Regulation dated the 21st of February, 1687, the arms of the Dragoons
at that period were commanded to be as follows:--

"The Dragoons to have snaphanse musquets, strapt, with bright barrels
of three foote eight inches long, cartouch-boxes, bayonetts, granado
pouches, buckets, and hammer-hatchetts."

After several years' experience, little advantage was found to accrue
from having Cavalry Regiments formed almost exclusively for engaging
the enemy on foot; and, the Horse having laid aside their armour, the
arms and equipment of Horse and Dragoons were so nearly assimilated,
that there remained little distinction besides the name and rate of
pay. The introduction of improvements into the mounting, arming, and
equipment of Dragoons rendered them competent to the performance of
every description of service required of Cavalry; and, while the long
musket and bayonet were retained, to enable them to act as Infantry, if
necessary, they were found to be equally efficient, and of equal value
to the nation, as Cavalry, with the Regiments of Horse.

In the several augmentations made to the regular Army after the early
part of the reign of Queen Anne, no new Regiments of Horse were raised
for permanent service; and in 1746 King George II. reduced three of
the old Regiments of Horse to the quality and pay of Dragoons; at the
same time, His Majesty gave them the title of First, Second, and Third
Regiments of _Dragoon Guards_: and in 1788 the same alteration was made
in the remaining four Regiments of Horse, which then became the Fourth,
Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Regiments of _Dragoon Guards_.

At present there are only three Regiments which are styled _Horse_ in
the British Army, namely, the two Regiments of Life Guards, and the
Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, to whom cuirasses have recently been
restored. The other Cavalry Regiments consist of Dragoon Guards, Heavy
and Light Dragoons, Hussars, and Lancers; and although the long musket
and bayonet have been laid aside by the whole of the Cavalry, and the
Regiments are armed and equipped on the principle of the old Horse
(excepting the cuirass), they continue to be styled Dragoons.

The old Regiments of Horse formed a highly respectable and efficient
portion of the Army, and it is found, on perusing the histories of the
various campaigns in which they have been engaged, that they have,
on all occasions, maintained a high character for steadiness and
discipline as well as for bravery in action. They were formerly mounted
on horses of superior weight and physical power, and few troops could
withstand a well-directed charge of the celebrated British Horse. The
records of these corps embrace a period of 150 years--a period eventful
in history, and abounding in instances of heroism displayed by the
British troops when danger has threatened the nation,--a period in
which these Regiments have numbered in their ranks men of loyalty,
valour, and good conduct, worthy of imitation.

Since the Regiments of Horse were formed into Dragoon Guards,
additional improvements have been introduced into the constitution of
the several corps; and the superior description of horses now bred in
the United Kingdom, enables the commanding officers to remount their
regiments with such excellent horses, that, whilst sufficient weight
has been retained for a powerful charge in line, a lightness has been
acquired, which renders them available for every description of service
incident to modern warfare.

The orderly conduct of these Regiments in quarters has gained the
confidence and esteem of the respectable inhabitants of the various
parts of the United Kingdom in which they have been stationed; their
promptitude and alacrity in attending to the requisitions of the
magistrates in periods of excitement, and the temper, patience,
and forbearance which they have evinced when subjected to great
provocation, insult, and violence from the misguided populace, prove
the value of these troops to the Crown, and to the Government of the
country, and justify the reliance which is reposed on them.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] In the 14th year of the reign of Edward IV. a small force was
established in Ireland by Parliament, consisting of 120 Archers on
horseback, 40 Horsemen, and 40 Pages.

[2] Military Papers, State Paper Office.

[3] This Regiment was disbanded after the Peace of 1674.

[4] This appears to be the first introduction of _bayonets_ into the
English Army.

[5] State Paper Office.

[6] The first issue of carbines to the regular Horse appears to have
taken place in 1684; the Life Guards, however, carried carbines from
their formation in 1660.--_Vide_ the 'Historical Record of the Life
Guards.'



ON THE INSTITUTION

OF

LIGHT CAVALRY

IN

THE BRITISH ARMY.


The records of the military events of the remote ages speak of
heavy-armed horsemen being accompanied by others mounted and equipped
for light services. The Barons and Knights, who rode the powerful
horses celebrated by historians, and took the field completely cased
in steel, had a few light-armed attendants; the feudal horsemen were
variously armed; and the practice of employing Light, as well as Heavy
Cavalry, was adopted, to a limited extent, by several commanders of
antiquity. Armour, proof against arrow, lance, and sword, and men and
horses of colossal appearance, in whom the greatest amount of weight
and physical power, consistent with a moderate share of activity,
could be combined, were however held in the highest estimation;
but eventually the great advantage of having a portion of Cavalry
in which lightness, activity, and celerity of movement, might form
the principal characteristics, was discovered. The introduction of
fire-arms occasioned armour to be gradually laid aside, or limited to
a few heavy horsemen; superiority of weight was no longer thought so
necessary; and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the use of
Light Cavalry became more general than formerly.

During the seventy years' war between Spain and the United Provinces of
the Netherlands, Prince Maurice of Nassau (afterwards Prince of Orange)
selected a few English and Dutch heavy-armed Lancers, and constituted
them _Carabineers_, for skirmishing, and other services of a similar
character. The Emperor of Germany formed regiments of Hungarian
_Hussars_, who were light men on small horses. The Carabineers were of
an intermediate class, being much heavier than the Hussars, and lighter
than the English Lancers and Cuirassiers, who rode powerful horses, and
wore armour on the head, body, and limbs. The French monarchs adopted
the practice of having a few Carabineers in each troop of Horse; and,
in 1690, Louis XIV. added a troop of Carabineers to each Regiment of
Cavalry. During the campaign of 1691, these troops formed a Carabineer
brigade; but their motley appearance, and the defects of the plan,
occasioned them to be constituted a regiment of Carabineers, and
clothed in blue. In 1693 the French King added a regiment of Hussars to
the Cavalry of his army.[7]

In England the same principle was partially carried out; the heavy
horse laid aside their armour, excepting cuirasses; they were mounted
on horses of less weight than formerly, and they were supplied with
carbines by King Charles II. In 1685, King James II. raised several
independent troops of _Light Horse_, and one of them (Sir Thomas
Burton's) was retained in his service until the Revolution in 1688,
when it was disbanded. In 1691-2 King William III. constituted the
Seventh Regiment of Horse, now Sixth Dragoon Guards, a corps of
Carabineers, as an honorary distinction, and for the performance of
services for which the other regiments of Horse, being Cuirassiers,
were not well adapted. The object was to combine with strength and
power a greater degree of activity and speed than was to be found
in the Cavalry at that period; and His Majesty appears to have
contemplated having several corps of this description in his service,
as he designated this _the First Regiment of Carabineers_; but no
second regiment was formed.[8] In 1694 a troop of foreign Hussars
formed part of the Army commanded by King William in Flanders.[9]

During the wars of Queen Anne the Regiment of Carabineers was again
supplied with cuirasses, and was mounted on the same description
of horses as the other regiments; retaining, however, the title of
Carabineers. The activity, size, weight, and strength of the horses
ridden by the British Cuirassiers and Heavy Dragoons, with the bravery
and muscular powers of the men, established their superiority in
continental warfare over the Cavalry of other nations; they acquired
great celebrity in the valley of the Danube and on the plains of the
Netherlands, in the early part of the eighteenth century, under the
renowned John Duke of Marlborough; and after the peace of Utrecht, in
1713, the reputation of the British Horse and Dragoons was so high that
no alteration was thought necessary, and many years elapsed without any
attempt being made to revive the practice of having either Carabineers,
or Light Horse, in the British Army.

The great utility of the Light Cavalry of the continental armies had,
in the mean time, become apparent. Improvements in military tactics,
and in the arming and equipment of corps, were taking place in various
countries; and a spirit of emulation extending itself to Great Britain,
on the breaking out of the rebellion in 1745, his Grace the Duke of
Montague evinced his loyalty and public spirit by raising a Regiment
of _Carabineers_ for the service of King George II.; at the same time,
his Grace the Duke of Kingston, with equal zeal and generosity, raised,
at his own expense, a Regiment of _Light Horse_. The latter regiment
approximated, in the lightness of the men, horses, and equipment,
to the Hussars of the continental armies; the Duke of Montague's
Carabineers were of a heavier description of Cavalry.

At this period the old Cavalry Regiments rode black horses (excepting
the Scots Greys) with docked tails; but the Duke of Kingston's Regiment
was mounted on light horses of various colours, with swish or nag
tails. The accoutrements were as light as possible: the men carried
short carbines slung to their sides by a moveable swivel, pistols, and
light swords inclined to a curve.

The usefulness of the Duke of Kingston's Regiment of Light Horse was
proved in Scotland, where it served under His Royal Highness the
Duke of Cumberland, and was found qualified for every description of
service; the light horses traversing hilly grounds with facility. It
distinguished itself on several occasions, particularly at the battle
of Culloden, on the 16th of April, 1746, when it charged the clans with
signal gallantry, and evinced great spirit and activity in the pursuit
of the rebel army upwards of three miles from the field of battle. The
Duke of Cumberland was highly pleased with its behaviour during the
period it was under his command; and the conduct of the Light Horse
throughout the contest reflected credit on the noble peer who had
raised them.

The rebellion being suppressed, the regiment was, in consequence of the
conditions on which the men had enlisted, directed to be disbanded;
but the Duke of Cumberland so highly approved of its conduct that he
obtained permission to embody as many of the men as would re-enlist, as
his own Regiment of Light Dragoons.

His Majesty's thanks and particular satisfaction were communicated to
His Grace the Duke of Kingston, for his zeal and affection for His
Majesty's person and Government; and His Grace was desired to convey to
the officers and soldiers His Majesty's high sense of their loyalty,
activity, and gallant behaviour, at a period of national danger. The
regiment was afterwards disbanded at Nottingham, and nearly every man
engaged in the Regiment of Light Dragoons, of which, as a signal mark
of honour and distinction, His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland
was appointed Colonel.

The Duke of Cumberland's Light Dragoons were mounted on active
nag-tailed horses, from fourteen and a half to fifteen hands high.
The men were from five feet eight to five feet nine inches in height;
and their equipment was upon a new and light plan, but retaining the
cocked hat of the Heavy Dragoon pattern. This regiment served in the
Netherlands, with the Army commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke
of Cumberland: its general usefulness was fully established, and it
distinguished itself at the battle of Val, in 1747. The treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle having put an end to the war, it returned to England,
and was disbanded in 1749.

From this period the value of light horsemen was more appreciated in
England than formerly; the general utility of this arm, on home and
foreign service, had been fully proved; and at the commencement of
hostilities with France, in 1755, King George II. resolved to possess
the advantage of a body of Light Cavalry in the approaching contest.
His Majesty accordingly commanded _a troop of Light Dragoons_ to be
added to the First, Second, and Third Regiments of Dragoon Guards,
and First, Second, Third, Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Tenth, and Eleventh
Regiments of Dragoons. The First, Second, Third, and Fourth Irish Horse
(now Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Dragoon Guards), and the Fifth,
Eighth, Ninth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth Dragoons, being on
the Irish establishment, did not receive the same addition.

These troops of Light Dragoons were mounted, armed, equipped, and
trained, according to specific instructions, calculated to render
them available for the services for which they were designed. Several
of them were reviewed in Hyde Park by His Majesty; and their neat
appearance, celerity of movement, and the spirited and exact manner in
which they performed their evolutions, were much admired.

Nine of these troops were formed into a brigade in 1758, under the
command of one of the King's aides-de-camp, Colonel George Augustus
Eliott, of the Horse Grenadier Guards; and they were employed in the
expeditions to the coast of France under Charles Duke of Marlborough
and Lieut.-General Bligh. They landed in France twice; skirmished with
the French Cavalry; and throughout these enterprises they evinced
activity, spirit, and general usefulness. After their return to
England, they were augmented to 125 men per troop.

At this period, the war on the Continent had involved most of the
European states; and the extended and active operations which were
taking place in Germany rendered it necessary for a British force
to join the Allied Army under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. This
gave rise to a further augmentation of the Army; and the increased
estimation in which Light Cavalry was held induced the King to give
directions for the raising of _entire Regiments of Light Dragoons_, in
addition to the five Regiments of Horse, three of Dragoon Guards, and
fourteen of Dragoons, already on the British and Irish establishments.
The following corps were accordingly embodied:--


LIGHT DRAGOONS.


_Incorporated in 1759._

FIFTEENTH, in England, by Colonel George A. Eliott;--now the Fifteenth,
or the King's Hussars.

SIXTEENTH, in England, by Lieut.-Colonel John Burgoyne;--now the
Sixteenth, or the Queen's Lancers.

SEVENTEENTH, in Scotland, by Captain Lord Aberdour;--disbanded in 1763.

EIGHTEENTH, in England, by Lieut.-Colonel John Hale;--now the
Seventeenth Lancers.

NINETEENTH, in Ireland, by Lieut.-Colonel Lord Drogheda;--numbered the
Eighteenth in 1763; constituted Hussars in 1807; and after performing
much valuable service at home and abroad, it was disbanded at
Newbridge, in Ireland, in 1821.


_Incorporated in 1760._

TWENTIETH, in Ireland, by Captain Sir James Caldwell;--disbanded in
1763.

TWENTY-FIRST, or Royal Foresters, in England by Lieut.-General the
Marquis of Granby, and Colonel Lord Robert Sutton;--disbanded in 1763.

After the peace of Fontainebleau, three of these corps were disbanded,
and the other four continued in the service. The light troops attached
to the heavy regiments were also disbanded, but a few men of each troop
were afterwards equipped as Light Dragoons.

A more perfect knowledge of the efficiency and capabilities of Light
Cavalry, acquired during the campaigns in Germany and Portugal, had
advanced the estimation in which that arm was held; and, in 1768, the
TWELFTH Dragoons (one of the heavy regiments raised by King George
I. in 1715), underwent a change of equipment and clothing, and was
constituted a corps of _Light Dragoons_, by General Carpenter, in
Ireland.

This alteration served as a precedent for subsequent changes; and
further experience, during the American war, from 1775 to 1783,
confirming the value of Light Cavalry, the SEVENTH, EIGHTH, NINTH,
TENTH, ELEVENTH, THIRTEENTH, and FOURTEENTH Regiments of Dragoons were
changed from _heavy to light_. The Light Dragoons attached to the heavy
regiments were incorporated into newly-raised corps, and the following
regiments of


LIGHT DRAGOONS


_Were embodied in 1779._

NINETEENTH,--by Major-General Russell Manners;--disbanded in 1783.

TWENTIETH,--by Major-General Richard Burton Phillipson;--disbanded in
1783.

TWENTY-FIRST,--by Major-General John Douglas;--disbanded in 1783.

TWENTY-SECOND,--by Lieut.-Colonel John Lord Sheffield;--disbanded in
1783.


_Embodied in 1781._

TWENTY-THIRD,--by Lieut.-General Sir John Burgoyne, Baronet, for
service in India, and was numbered the NINETEENTH after the peace
in 1783. This regiment signalized itself on numerous occasions in
India, and was rewarded with the honour of bearing on its guidons
and appointments the _Elephant_, with the words _Assaye_ and
_Seringapatam_. The word _Niagara_ was also added in commemoration
of the gallantry of two troops, in the year 1813, in North America.
In 1817 it was constituted a corps of LANCERS. It was disbanded in
Ireland in 1821.

Thus a few years had produced a great change in the British Army.
Twenty-five years previously to the termination of the American war
there was not a single Light Dragoon Regiment in the Service, and in
1783 there were seventeen; four of them were disbanded at that period,
and thirteen retained in the Service.

Soon after the termination of the American war, the French monarch
having, by aiding the rebellious British provincials, taught his own
subjects a lesson of insubordination, was deprived of the reins of
government; and the violent conduct of the French revolutionists in
the West Indies occasioned the TWENTIETH or JAMAICA REGIMENT OF LIGHT
DRAGOONS to be raised in 1791 by Colonel Henry F. Gardner, for service
in that island. Besides its services in Jamaica, detachments of this
regiment served at Malta; Sicily; at the taking of the Cape of Good
Hope, in 1806; at the capture of Alexandria, in 1807; at the attack on
Monte Video; in Portugal; at Genoa; and on the eastern coast of Spain;
and acquired the honour of bearing the word _Peninsula_ on its guidons
and appointments. It was disbanded in Ireland in 1818.

War with France commenced in 1793, and was followed by augmentations
to the Army. It was not found necessary to add a single Heavy Cavalry
Regiment; but the following Regiments of


LIGHT DRAGOONS


_Were incorporated in 1794._

TWENTY-FIRST,--by Lieut.-Colonel Thomas R. Beaumont. This regiment
served at the Cape of Good Hope and in India thirteen years; a
detachment was sent to do duty at St. Helena, when Napoleon Buonaparte
was removed thither. This regiment was disbanded at Chatham in 1820.

TWENTY-SECOND,--by Major-General William Viscount Fielding;--served in
Great Britain and Ireland;--disbanded in 1802.

TWENTY-THIRD,--by Colonel William Fullerton;--served in Great Britain
and Ireland;--disbanded in 1802.

TWENTY-FOURTH,--by Colonel William Loftus;--served in Great Britain and
Ireland;--disbanded in 1802.

TWENTY-FIFTH,--by Major-General Francis Edward Gwyn. This regiment
was numbered the TWENTY-SECOND after the Treaty of Amiens in 1802.
It served with reputation in India; was employed at the reduction of
Java; signalized itself on several occasions; and was rewarded with
the royal authority to bear the word _Seringapatam_ on its guidons and
appointments. It was disbanded in England in 1820.


_Raised in 1795._

TWENTY-SIXTH,--by Lieut.-General R. Manners;--numbered the TWENTY-THIRD
in 1803. This regiment served in Egypt, Portugal, Spain, Flanders, and
France; and its distinguished conduct was rewarded with the honour of
bearing on its guidons and appointments, the _Sphinx_, with the words
_Egypt_, _Peninsula_, and _Waterloo_. In 1816 it was constituted a
corps of LANCERS. It was disbanded in England in 1817.

TWENTY-SEVENTH,--by Major-General Wynter Blathwayte;--numbered the
TWENTY-FOURTH in 1804. This regiment served in India, distinguished
itself at the battles of Ghur and Delhi, and was permitted to bear
the _Elephant_, with the word _Hindoostan_, on its guidons and
appointments. It was disbanded in England, on its arrival from Bengal,
in 1819.

TWENTY-EIGHTH,--by Major-General Robert Lawrie;--served in Great
Britain, Ireland, and at the Cape of Good Hope;--disbanded in Ireland
in 1802.

TWENTY-NINTH,--by Major-General Francis Augustus Lord
Heathfield;--numbered the TWENTY-FIFTH in 1804. This regiment served in
India, and was at the reduction of the Isle of France. It was disbanded
at Chatham, on its arrival from India, in 1819.

_Raised in 1794._

THIRTIETH,--by Lieut.-Colonel J. C. Carden;--disbanded in 1796.

THIRTY-FIRST,--by Lieut.-Colonel William St. Ledger;--disbanded in
1796.

THIRTY-SECOND,--by Lieut.-Colonel H. J. Blake;--disbanded in 1796.

THIRTY-THIRD,--by Lieut.-Colonel J. Blackwood;--disbanded in 1796.

       *       *       *       *       *

Soon after the re-commencement of hostilities with France in 1803,
the SEVENTH, TENTH, FIFTEENTH, and EIGHTEENTH Light Dragoons were
equipped as HUSSARS. Since the termination of the war in 1815, the
THIRD and FOURTH Dragoons have been changed from _heavy to light_; the
NINTH, TWELFTH, SIXTEENTH, and SEVENTEENTH Light Dragoons have been
constituted LANCERS; and the EIGHTH and ELEVENTH Light Dragoons have
also been equipped as HUSSARS.

At this period (1847), the Cavalry of the British Army consists of
twenty-six regiments--thirteen Heavy and thirteen Light; and is
composed of three regiments of Cuirassiers, ten of Heavy Dragoons, four
of Light Dragoons, five of Hussars, and four of Lancers.


                              THE THIRD,

                                  OR

                        THE KING'S OWN REGIMENT

                                  OF

                            LIGHT DRAGOONS,

                       BEARS ON ITS APPOINTMENTS

                           THE WHITE HORSE,

                   ON A RED FIELD WITHIN THE GARTER,

                            WITH THE MOTTO

                        "_NEC ASPERA TERRENT_:"

                            ALSO THE WORDS,

           "SALAMANCA"--"VITTORIA"--"TOULOUSE"--"PENINSULA,"

  To commemorate its Gallant Conduct in Spain and France from 1811 to
                                 1814;

                             AND THE WORD

                            "CABOOL, 1842,"

        For its distinguished Services in Affghanistan in 1842.

FOOTNOTES:

[7] _Histoire de la Milice Françoise_, par le PÈRE DANIEL.

[8] National Records.

[9] The equipment of Hussars at this period is described by D'AUVERGNE,
in his _History of the Campaign of 1694_, pp. 22, 23.



CONTENTS.


  Year                                                      Page

  1685 Formation of the Regiment                               1

  ---- Styled the Queen Consort's Regiment                     3

  ---- Names of Officers                                       5

  ---- Reviewed by King James II. on Hounslow Heath           --

  1688 The Revolution                                          6

  1689 Proceeds to Ireland                                     7

  ---- Attacks the Enemy's out-posts at Ardee                  8

  1690 Storming of Bedloe's Castle                             9

  ---- Battle of the Boyne                                    11

  ---- Investment of Waterford                                12

  ---- Surrender of Youghal                                   --

  ---- Disperses the Rapparees--capture of Castle Martir      13

  ---- Siege of Limerick                                      --

  1691 Expedition to Streamstown                              14

  ---- Battle of Aghrim                                       --

  ---- Siege of Galway                                        15

  ---- Surrender of Limerick                                  16

  1692 Arrives in England                                     17

  1694 Reviewed in Hyde Park by King William III.             --

  ---- Embarks for Flanders                                   --

  1695 Augmentation of establishment                          18

  ---- Attack on the forts at Kenoque                         --

  ---- Siege of Namur--Surrender of Dixmude                   19

  1696 Reviewed by King William III.                          20

  1697 Operations in Brabant                                  21

  ---- Returns to England                                     --

  1698 Reduction of establishment                             --

  1702 Expedition to Cadiz under the Duke of Ormond           21

  ---- Attack on Vigo, and Capture of the Spanish fleet       22

  1706 Forms part of an expedition under Earl Rivers,
         and proceeds to Spain                                23

  1707 Battle of Almanza                                      24

  1708 Returns to England                                     25

  1712 Reduction of establishment                             --

  1713 Stationed in Scotland                                  --

  1714 Designated the King's Own Regiment                     --

  1715 Battle of Sheriffmuir                                  26

  1718 Reduction of establishment                             28

  1720 Establishment augmented                                --

  1723 Augmentation of establishment                          --

  1727 Establishment further augmented                        --

  1729 Reduction of establishment                             --

  1738 Augmentation of establishment                          --

  1742 Reviewed by King George II. on Blackheath              29

  ---- Proceeds to Flanders                                   --

  1743 Battle of Dettingen                                    31

  1745 Battle of Fontenoy                                     35

  ---- Returns to England                                     36

  ---- Proceeds to Scotland                                   --

  ---- Engagement at Clifton Moor                             37

  1748 Reduction of establishment                             39

  1751 Clothing, Appointments, Guidons, &c. regulated
         by Royal Warrant                                     --

  1754 Employed on coast duty in the South of England         41

  1756 A light troop added                                    --

  1758 The light troop forms part of the force for a
         descent on the coast of France                       --

  ---- Capture of Cherbourg                                   43

  1763 The light troop disbanded                              44

  1764 Marches to Scotland                                    --

  1765 Returns to England                                     --

  1766 The Drummers replaced by Trumpeters                    44

  1767} Employed on coast duty in Kent, Sussex, }
  and }   Suffolk, and Essex                    }             --
  1768}

  1770 Proceeds to Scotland                                   --

  1771 Returns to England                                     45

  1773 Employed on coast duty in Kent                         --

  1775 Marches to Scotland                                    --

  1776 Stationed in South Britain                             --

  1778 Employed on coast duty in Sussex                       --

  ---- An additional trumpeter authorised                     46

  1781 Reviewed by King George III. in Hyde Park              47

  1784 Proceeds to Scotland                                   --

  1785 Stationed in South Britain                             --

  1789 Reviewed by King George III. at Reading                --

  1791 Marches to Scotland                                    48

  1793 Augmentation of establishment                          --

  ---- Four troops detached to Scotland                       --

  1797 Reduction of establishment                             49

  1798 Alteration in the Arms and Clothing                    --

  1800 Augmentation of establishment                          50

  ---- Proceeds to Scotland                                   --

  1802 Reduction of establishment                             --

  ---- Embarks for Ireland                                    --

  1805 ---- for England                                    51

  1806 Augmentation of establishment                          --

  1807 Reviewed at Brighton by the Duke of York               --

  1809 Embarks for Holland                                    52

  1810 Reviewed at Guildford by the Duke of Cambridge         53

  1811 ---- on Wimbledon Common by the Prince
         Regent                                               --

  ---- Embarks for the Peninsula                              54

  1812 Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo                                55

  ---- ---- Badajoz                                       --

  ---- Affair near La Granja                                  56

  1812 Action at Llerena                                      57

  ---- Attack on the bridge of boats at Almaraz               58

  ---- Skirmish near Salamanca                                --

  ---- ---- on the heights of St. Christoval              --

  ---- ---- near Castrillos                               60

  ---- Battle of Salamanca                                    61

  ---- Siege of Burgos                                        65

  ---- Covers the mining party at Palencia                    66

  1813 Affair on the heights of Estepar                       68

  ---- Battle of Vittoria                                     69

  1814 Advance on Bayonne                                     71

  ---- Affair of La Mosquiere                                 --

  ---- Battle of Toulouse                                     72

  ---- Furnishes horses to mount the royal guard of
         France                                               73

  ---- Returns to England                                     74

  ---- Reviewed on Hounslow Heath by the Duke of
         York, Commander-in-Chief                             --

  ---- Reduction of establishment                             75

  ---- Authorised to bear the word "SALAMANCA"                --

  1815 Embarks for Ostend                                     76

  ---- Reinforces the Army in France                          --

  ---- Reviewed by the Emperor of Russia, King of
         Prussia, and the Duke of Wellington                  --

  1816 Forms part of the Army of Occupation                   --

  ---- Reviewed by the Duke of Kent, and the Duke of
         Wellington                                           77

  1818 Returns to England                                     --

  ---- Reduction of establishment                             --

  ---- Constituted _Light Dragoons_                           --

  ---- Attends the funeral of Queen Charlotte                 78

  ---- Proceeds to Ireland                                    --

  1820 Reviewed for the first time as a Light Dragoon
         Regiment                                             --

  1821 Escorts King George IV. on his entry into
         Dublin                                               79

  ---- Reviewed by His Majesty                                --

  ---- Furnishes the guard of honour on the embarkation
       of the King for England                                --

  ---- Authorised to bear the words "VITTORIA" and
         "TOULOUSE"                                           80

  1822 Returns to England                                     81

  1823 Reviewed by the Duke of York                           --

  1824 Again reviewed by his Royal Highness the
         Commander-in-Chief                                   82

  1825 Receives testimonials for its conduct in aiding the
         Civil Power at Sunderland                            83

  1826 Proceeds to Ireland                                    84

  1829 Returns to England                                     85

  1830 Establishment of horses augmented                      87

  1831 Proceeds to Scotland                                   --

  1833 Returns to England                                     --

  1834 Proceeds to Hounslow                                   --

  1835 Embarks for Ireland                                    --

  1837 Returns to England                                     88

  ---- Embarks for the East Indies                            --

  1842 Expedition to Affghanistan                             89

  ---- Storming of the heights of Jugdulluck                  90

  ---- Action at Tezeen                                       91

  ---- Arrives at Cabool, and plants the British colours
         in the Bala Hissar                                   93

  ---- Capture of Istalif                                     94

  ---- Authorised to bear the word "CABOOL"                   95

  ---- Returns to India                                       --

  1845 Forms part of the Army of the Sutlej                   --

  ---- Battle of Moodkee                                      96

  ---- ---- Ferozeshah                                   98

  1846 ---- Aliwal                                      100

  ---- ---- Sobraon                                     101

  1846 Occupation of Lahore                                  105

  ---- Returns to India                                       --

  ---- The Conclusion                                        107


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.

  1685 Duke of Somerset                                      109

  1687 Alexander Cannon                                      110

  1688 Richard Leveson                                        --

  1694 Thomas Lord Fairfax                                   111

  1695 William Lloyd                                          --

  1703 George Carpenter                                      112

  1732 Philip Honeywood                                      114

  1743 Humphrey Bland                                         --

  1752 James Lord Tyrawley                                   115

  1755 Earl of Albemarle                                     116

  1772 Charles Lord Southampton                              117

  1797 Francis Lascelles                                      --

  1799 Sir Charles Grey                                      118

  1807 William Cartwright                                    119

  1821 Viscount Combermere                                   120

  1829 Lord George Beresford                                  --

  1839 Lord Charles Somerset Manners                         121


PLATES.

  Costume of the Regiment                         _to face_    1

  Battle of Sobraon                                   "      106

[Illustration: 3rd Light Dragoons.

                                                        [To face page 1.]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF THE

THIRD, OR THE KING'S OWN, REGIMENT

OF

LIGHT DRAGOONS.


[Sidenote: 1685]

JAMES THE SECOND ascended the throne of England on the 6th of February,
1685, and four months only had elapsed, when his nephew, JAMES DUKE OF
MONMOUTH, erected the standard of rebellion on the western coast, and,
having been joined by upwards of three thousand men, proclaimed himself
king. To oppose MONMOUTH and his rash adherents, the King obtained from
Parliament a grant of four hundred thousand pounds, and augmented the
strength of his army. Among the loyal yeomen and artisans who arrayed
themselves under the banners of their sovereign, a number of young
men from Berkshire, Middlesex, Herts, and Essex, were formed into
five independent troops of Dragoons under Captains RICHARD LEVESON,
JOHN WILLIAMS, THOMAS HUSSEY, EDWARD LEA, and FRANCIS RUSSEL. These
five troops, with an old independent troop of Dragoons, commanded by
Colonel Strather, were attached to the Royal Dragoons under JOHN LORD
CHURCHILL, (afterwards the great DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH,) whose regiment
was thus augmented to nine hundred men, and from these additional
troops the corps which now bears the distinguished title of the "THIRD,
OR KING'S OWN REGIMENT OF LIGHT DRAGOONS," derives its origin.

Captain Russel's troop rendezvoused at Chelsea and Knightsbridge, and
having been speedily mounted and equipped, it was attached to the three
Scots regiments of foot which had arrived from Holland, and ordered
to join the army; but the insurgent bands having been overthrown at
Sedgemoor on the 6th of July, it halted at Bagshot; and proceeding
to London on the 13th, was present at the execution of the Duke of
Monmouth on the 15th of that month.

Although the insurrection was thus speedily suppressed, and the
executions which followed were sufficiently numerous to intimidate
the disaffected, and prevent a second appeal to arms of a similar
character, yet the King resolved to retain a considerable number of
the newly-raised forces in his service. On the 17th of July several
troops of Dragoons were formed into a regiment, (now the fourth
light dragoons,) under the command of Colonel John Berkeley; and in
the beginning of August, four of the additional troops attached to
the royal dragoons, with one troop from Berkeley's regiment, were
incorporated; at the same time another troop was ordered to be raised,
and the six were constituted a regiment of which HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF
SOMERSET was appointed Colonel, and ALEXANDER CANNON, from a regiment
of foot in the Dutch service, Lieutenant-Colonel, by commission dated
the 2nd of August, 1685. The regiment thus formed is the subject of
this memoir; its Colonel being Lord-Lieutenant of Somersetshire, had
commanded the militia of that county during the rebellion, and his
regiment was honoured with the title of the "QUEEN CONSORT'S REGIMENT
OF DRAGOONS;" and being composed of troops raised previously to those
of Berkeley's regiment, it obtained precedence of the last-mentioned
corps[10].

[Sidenote: 1686]

The establishment was fixed by warrant under the sign manual, bearing
date the 1st of January, 1686, from which the following is an extract.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |               THE QUEEN CONSORT'S REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS.                |
  +---------------------------------------------------+--------------------+
  |             STAFF-OFFICERS.                       |      Per Diem.     |
  +---------------------------------------------------+--------------------+
  |                                                   |  £.  | _s._ | _d._ |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Colonel, _as Colonel_, xiiˢ, iij horses iijˢ       |   0  |  15  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Lieutenant-Colonel, _as Lieut.-Colonel_, vijˢ, }  |      |      |      |
  |   and ij horses ijˢ                            }  |   0  |   9  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Major (_who has no troop_)                        |   1  |   0  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Chaplaine                                         |   0  |   6  |   8  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Chirurgeon ivˢ and j horse to carry his        }  |      |      |      |
  |   chest, ijˢ                                   }  |   0  |   6  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Adjutant ivˢ, and for his horse jˢ                |   0  |   5  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Quarter-Master and Marshal in one person        } |      |      |      |
  |   ivˢ, his horse jˢ                             } |   0  |   5  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Gunsmith ivˢ and his servant iˢ                   |   0  |   5  |   0  |
  |                                                   +------+------+------+
  |                                                   |   3  |   6  |   8  |
  |                                                   +------+------+------+
  |          THE COLONEL'S TROOP.                     |      |      |      |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | The Colonel, _as Captaine_, viiiˢ, and iij     }  |      |      |      |
  |   horses iijˢ                                  }  |   0  |  11  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Lieutenant ivˢ, and ij horses ijˢ                 |   0  |   6  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Cornett iijˢ, and ij horses ijˢ                   |   0  |   5  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Quarter-Master, for himself and horse             |   0  |   4  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Two Serjeants, each jˢ viᵈ, and ijˢ for horses    |   0  |   5  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Three Corporals, each jˢ, and iijˢ for horses     |   0  |   6  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Two Drummers, each jˢ, and ijˢ for horses         |   0  |   4  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Two Hautboys, each iˢ, and ijˢ for horses         |   0  |   4  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Fifty Soldiers, each at iˢ viᵈ for man and    }   |      |      |      |
  |   horse                                       }   |   3  |  15  |   0  |
  |                                                   +------+------+------+
  |                                                   |   6  |   0  |   0  |
  |                                                   |      |      |      |
  | Five Troops more, at the same rate                |  30  |   0  |   0  |
  |                                                   +------+------+------+
  |     TOTAL PER DIEM                                |  39  |   6  |   8  |
  |                                                   +------+------+------+
  |         PER ANNUM    £14,356. 13_s._ 4_d._        |      |      |      |
  +---------------------------------------------------+------+------+------+

  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |          NAMES of the OFFICERS of HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN              |
  |                 CONSORT'S REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS.                      |
  +------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  |         Captains.            |  Lieutenants.     |     Cornets.      |
  +------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  | Charles, Duke of Somerset, } | Thomas Pownell    | Thos. Brewerton   |
  |   (Colonel)                } |                   |                   |
  |                              |                   |                   |
  | Alexr. Cannon, (Lieut.-Col.) | Edward Sandys     | John Webb         |
  |                              |                   |                   |
  | Gustavus Philpot, (Major)    | had no troop      |                   |
  |                              |                   |                   |
  | Richard Leveson              | Willm. Stanniford | Francis De la Rue |
  |                              |                   |                   |
  | John Williams                | George Clifford   | Richard Folliott  |
  |                              |                   |                   |
  | Thomas Hussey                | William Hussey    | Peter Sutherland  |
  |                              |                   |                   |
  | Oliver St. George            | Francis Tankard   | Rupert Napier     |
  +==============================+===================+===================+
  |                Henry Packhurst                Chaplain.              |
  |                James Barry                    Adjutant.              |
  |                Noe L'Evesque                  Chirurgeon.            |
  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+

[Sidenote: 1687]

During the summer the regiment was encamped on Hounslow Heath, where it
was reviewed by the King; it was also encamped on the same ground in
the summer of 1687; and took part in several mock-engagements, which
were exhibited by an army of upwards of ten thousand men, in presence
of their Majesties, and a numerous concourse of people.

[Sidenote: 1688]

The King, having openly declared himself a Roman Catholic, resolved to
give public audience to a nuncio from the Pope, Ferdinand d'Adda, who
had been consecrated Archbishop of Amasia in the King's Chapel at St.
James's, and the DUKE OF SOMERSET, who was Lord of the Bedchamber in
waiting, was directed to attend the legate into His Majesty's presence.
This command his Grace refused to obey, with a laudable firmness which
astonished the King, alleging the laws of England made such attendance
treason; he was consequently deprived of his regiment and of his post
at court. The King conferred the Colonelcy on the Lieutenant-Colonel,
ALEXANDER CANNON, under whom it was again encamped on Hounslow Heath.

While pursuing a course of tyrannical and ill-advised measures against
the laws and religion of the country, the King learnt with astonishment
and indignation, that the Prince of Orange was embarking an army for
England to aid the noblemen and gentlemen who were opposed to papacy
and arbitrary government; the QUEEN'S DRAGOONS, with several other
corps, were ordered to Ipswich, under the command of Major-General Sir
John Lanier, to endeavour to preserve Landguard fort, and to oppose
the Prince if he should attempt to land there. His Highness, however,
landed at Torbay on the 5th of November, 1688, when the regiment
was ordered to Salisbury, and from thence to Warminster, where the
advance-post of the King's army was established.

While the regiment was stationed at Warminster, the Lieutenant-Colonel,
RICHARD LEVESON, Captain St. George, with several other officers and a
number of men, being stanch Protestants and zealous advocates for their
religion, and for the welfare of their country, quitted their post and
joined the Prince of Orange. The remainder of the regiment continued
with King James' army and retreated towards London. His Majesty having
quitted England and retired to France, the regiment was re-united
at Dunstable, and the Prince of Orange conferred the colonelcy on
Lieutenant-Colonel LEVESON, in succession to Colonel Cannon, who
adhered to the interest, and followed the fortunes of King James.

[Sidenote: 1689]

On the accession of King William III. and Queen Mary, the Regiment did
not lose its title of "THE QUEEN'S," but that designation was not used,
and numerical titles not having been then introduced, it was usually
styled LEVESON'S regiment; it was, however, again called "THE QUEEN'S,"
after its return from Ireland in 1692.

Under its new sovereign the regiment was quickly employed in active
service. King James proceeded from France to Ireland, and finding
an army, levied by Earl Tyrconnel, ready to support the Roman
Catholic interest, he soon reduced the greater part of that country
to submission to his authority. King William sent the veteran Duke
Schomberg with an army to Ireland, to rescue that country from the
power of papacy; and LEVESON'S dragoons embarked at Highlake on
the 21st of August, for the same destination. Having landed near
Carrickfergus, they joined Duke Schomberg's camp a mile beyond Belfast,
on the 30th of August, and were reviewed on the following day.

The army quitted Belfast on the 2nd of September, and advancing
towards Newry on the 3rd, found the town in flames, and the enemy
fled; LEVESON'S troopers and some Inniskilling horse, rode forward in
pursuit, but were unable to overtake the rear of the fugitive army.

A camp was afterwards formed at Dundalk, and, on the 13th of September,
as a party of the regiment was cutting forage in the fields, a
detachment of the enemy appeared; the dragoons instantly threw down
their forage and advanced to meet their opponents, who, though superior
in numbers, faced about and retired. On the 21st of September the enemy
appeared in force, displaying their royal standard, but retired without
venturing to attack the camp; when a party of LEVESON'S Dragoons
galloped forward in pursuit, and overtaking the enemy's rear, killed
five men. On the 17th of October, as a detachment of the regiment and
some Inniskilling horse, were reconnoitring, they advanced with great
audacity to the immediate vicinity of King James' camp, and a party of
Irish horse gained a pass in their rear to cut off their retreat; but
the gallant dragoons, by a determined charge forced their way through
the defile, killed four opponents, and brought off six prisoners.

These instances of bravery gave Duke Schomberg a high opinion of the
regiment, and about midnight on the 27th of October, he sent out two
hundred of LEVESON'S troopers with some Inniskilling horse and French
protestants, who dashed across the country to the neighbourhood of
_Ardee_, routed the enemy's out-guards, and captured a drove of oxen
and some horses, with which they returned in triumph to the camp at
Dundalk.

In November the army went into winter quarters in the north of Ireland,
and a party of LEVESON'S troopers was stationed at a frontier post
at Tandrogee. On the 26th of November, sixty men of the regiment
accompanied Colonel Cambron, while making a reconnoisance of the
enemy's post at _Charlemont_; when they discovered a party from the
garrison posted in the hedges near the place. The Dragoons, with their
characteristic intrepidity, dismounted, drove the enemy from the hedges
in gallant style, killed seven men upon the spot, and captured two
Irish musketeers, twenty horses, and a number of cattle, with the loss
of one man who was killed by a shot from the town, and eight men, whose
ardour led them too forward in the pursuit, and who were surrounded and
made prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1690]

In February, one squadron of the regiment formed part of a
reconnoitring party under Major-General Sir John Lanier; and
on arriving in the vicinity of Dundalk, LEVESON'S dragoons
dismounted,--stormed _Bedloe's Castle_,--killed ten of the
garrison,--took the remainder prisoners,--and burnt the building.
The same party captured about fifteen hundred head of cattle, and
afterwards returned to Newry,--having lost one lieutenant, three
dragoons, and four horses, killed, in this expedition.

Although no general engagement had occurred, LEVESON'S dragoons, by
their spirited conduct on all occasions, had become celebrated in
the army; Colonel LEVESON was foremost on every occasion of danger,
the men were proud of their commander, and the character of the corps
was already established, when King William III. arrived in Ireland to
command the Army in person. His Majesty landed at Carrickfergus on the
14th of June, and proceeded from thence to Belfast, where he was met by
the principal officers of the army. LEVESON'S troopers were, at this
time, at Newry, with a division of the army commanded by Major-General
Kirke; and on Sunday, the 22nd of June, a squadron of the regiment,
under the orders of Captain Crow, and a company of Kirke's (now second)
foot, commanded by Captain Farlow, were ordered forward to reconnoitre
the enemy's camp at Dundalk.

[Sidenote: 1690]

This party was on the march at an early hour, and having advanced
through a pass, to the grounds where the enemy had erected a fort in
the preceding campaign, but had afterwards abandoned it, they were
suddenly saluted by a volley from some infantry who had concealed
themselves in the fort; at the same time five hundred of the enemy's
horse were seen through the misty dawn advancing to charge them.
Never were men in greater danger than that to which this little
band was exposed; LEVESON'S troopers, being in advance, stood their
ground boldly, but were driven back by the superior numbers of their
antagonists. The enemy's horsemen being checked by the fire of Farlow's
musketeers, the dragoons returned to the charge and used their broad
swords with good effect; the pikemen joined in the charge and the Irish
were driven back; but not knowing the numbers of their opponents, the
dragoons and pikemen retired through the pass in good order. The loss
on this occasion was twenty-two men killed and several wounded, and
Captain Farlow, who commanded the foot, was taken prisoner. The enemy's
loss was greater, and their Commanding Officer was killed by one of
LEVESON'S troopers. Another party of the regiment was sent forward on
the following morning, and ascertained that the enemy had left the camp
at Dundalk, and were retreating towards Ardee.

King William advanced through Dundalk to Ardee, which town he entered
as the enemy's rear-guard abandoned the place. On the 30th of June
he arrived at the river _Boyne_, and Captain Pownell, of LEVESON'S
dragoons, was sent with a squadron to take post near Slane-bridge. King
James' army was strongly posted on the opposite bank of the river, with
his right near Drogheda and his left extending towards the village of
Slane.

On the 1st of July the river was crossed at three places, and a general
engagement was fought. After a severe struggle the enemy retreated
to the village of Donore, where they made such a determined stand
that the Dutch and Danish horse, though headed by the King in person,
gave way; when a squadron of LEVESON'S dragoons, commanded by Captain
Brewerton, and a party of Sir Albert Cunningham's dragoons (the sixth
Inniskilling) dismounted, and, lining the hedges, and an old house,
'did such execution upon the pursuers as soon checked their ardour.'
At the same time Colonel LEVESON, with the remainder of his regiment,
galloped forward, and, with admirable bravery, interposed between the
enemy's horse, and the village of Duleck. King William's horse having
rallied and returned to the charge, the enemy retreated, when they were
attacked in the rear by Colonel LEVESON with his dragoons, who made
great slaughter. The Irish abandoned the field with precipitation; but
their French and Swiss auxiliaries retreated in good order.

King James returned to France, yet the war was continued in Ireland.
On the 22nd of July, LEVESON'S dragoons proceeded, with other forces,
to _Waterford_, and invested the town. The garrison surrendered on
the 25th, and was conducted to _Youghal_ by a troop of the regiment
under Captain Pownell. Having delivered up his charge, the captain,
representing to the governor the ruin he would bring upon himself if
he held out, induced him to deliver up the place; and it was taken
possession of the same night by the dragoons, who found fourteen pieces
of cannon, 350 barrels of oats, and some provisions, in the town.
This troop remained in garrison at Youghal, with a company of foot;
and the commanding officer, having heard that bands of armed Roman
Catholic peasantry, called Rapparees, were committing ravages on the
Protestants, marched out with thirty-six dragoons and fifty foot. The
dragoons were in advance, and when they arrived near _Castle Martir_,
they encountered three hundred rapparees. Notwithstanding the disparity
of numbers, the gallant dragoons dashed forward sword in hand,--broke
in upon the enemy,--sabred sixty upon the spot, and took seventeen
prisoners. The foot having come up, the castle was summoned, and the
troops in the garrison delivered it up on condition of being allowed
to march unmolested to Cork, without horses and arms. The captain gave
the arms to the Protestant inhabitants, and took the horses with him to
Youghal.

At this time the remainder of the regiment was engaged in the siege of
_Limerick_, which failed, owing to the loss of the battering train.
From Limerick the five troops marched with other corps towards _Birr_,
to relieve the castle, which was besieged by the enemy; and, after
performing this service, encamped beyond the town.

On the 16th of September one troop of the regiment attacked an immense
number of rapparees who were proceeding from Cork to Lismore, and
having routed them and killed forty, took three prisoners. Two days
afterwards, as Lieutenant Kelly of the regiment was out with a small
party reconnoitring, he was surrounded and taken prisoner.

[Sidenote: 1691]

The regiment passed a part of the winter at Clonmel, and in February
1691, it was employed on an expedition to _Streamstown_, when the
advanced guard highly distinguished itself; and shortly afterwards
its colonel, the gallant LEVESON, was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general. In May it was encamped at Mullingar.

The Irish being strengthened from France, and the English from
Scotland, both armies took the field in the beginning of June, when
General De Ginkell, who was left in command by King William, advanced
through Mullingar,--captured Ballymore, and besieged Athlone, which
was gallantly stormed and taken on the 30th of June. The town having
been put in a posture of defence, the army advanced to Ballinasloe,
and on Sunday, the 12th of July, advanced in four columns against the
Irish, who were strongly posted near the village of _Aghrim_; their
right flank and centre being covered by a morass, and the remainder
of their front by enclosures, terminating at the castle of Aghrim, on
which their left rested. LEVESON'S troopers were formed in brigade with
the royal Irish dragoons commanded by Brigadier-General Villiers, and
posted on the right of the line. The action was well contested on both
sides. At length the Blues, Langston's, and Byerley's horse, a squadron
of Ruvigny's French Protestants, and LEVESON'S dragoons, forced the
pass at the castle of Aghrim, and, by a gallant charge, decided the
fate of the day. LEVESON'S gallant troopers rushed forward with their
wonted bravery, and overthrew all opposition. In opposing this attack
in person, the enemy's general, ST. RUTH, was killed by a cannon
ball, and the Irish giving way, were pursued with great slaughter
by the cavalry towards Loughrea. The regiment was thanked by the
Commander-in-Chief for its excellent conduct. It lost in this action
seven men killed, and five wounded.

LEVESON'S dragoons were afterwards employed in the siege of _Galway_.
On the 2nd of August they were detached, with twenty-four men from each
regiment of Horse, under the command of Brigadier-General Leveson, to
scour the country and drive in the enemy's parties; and they arrived
on the 4th, in the vicinity of _Nenagh_, where five hundred of the
enemy, under Brigadier-General Carrol (commonly called Tall Anthony)
were in garrison in an old castle, on the domain of the Duke of Ormond.
Part of the garrison occupied a pass half a mile in front of the
castle; but was driven from that post by the dragoons. The garrison
made a precipitate retreat towards Limerick, but were overtaken at
_Cariganlis_, and routed with the loss of several men, their baggage,
and four hundred head of cattle.

The siege of _Limerick_ commenced on the 25th of August, and the
regiment was before the town until the 31st, when it was detached
with a party of horse under Brigadier-General LEVESON, and Major Wood
of the eighth horse (now sixth dragoon guards) to reduce the small
garrisons in the county of Kerry, where the whole country was found
in arms, and Lords Merrion's and Bretta's regiments of Irish horse
there to assist the rapparees. LEVESON and WOOD[11] were both daring
aspirants for military fame, and had become celebrated for their zeal
and valour, and for their abilities on detached services.--Having
ascertained where the two Irish regiments were encamped, they marched
all the night of the 1st of September; and about one on the following
morning, rushed suddenly upon them with the horse and dragoons. The
enemy, surprised and confounded, fled in every direction, pursued by
the victorious dragoons, who sabred many men and captured a drove of
oxen. A reinforcement of three hundred horse and dragoons and six
pieces of cannon was afterwards sent to Brigadier-General LEVESON,
and he reduced several garrisons between Cork and Limerick, and sent
numbers of oxen and sheep to the army. On the 22nd of September this
gallant officer, with only two hundred and fifty horse and dragoons,
attacked and dispersed two regiments of Irish dragoons and a body
of rapparees nearly three thousand strong; when he again captured
some cattle and sheep. It appears that the principal part of the
provisions for the army encamped before Limerick was supplied by the
activity of LEVESON'S corps, which continued to act as an independent
force until the surrender of that city on the 3rd of October. In King
James's declaration from St. Germains, Brigadier-General LEVESON was
especially exempted from the general amnesty.

[Sidenote: 1692]

[Sidenote: 1693]

With the fall of Limerick ended the war in Ireland[12]; and the
regiment having embarked for England, landed at Barnstaple on the 18th
of March, 1692. Its establishment was six troops, 360 men, and its
expense 15,999_l._ 3_s._ 4_d._ per annum. During this and the following
year it was stationed in the south and western counties of England.

[Sidenote: 1694]

On the 19th of January, 1694, Brigadier-General Leveson was removed
to the third horse, now second dragoon guards; and the colonelcy of
the QUEEN'S dragoons was conferred upon THOMAS, LORD FAIRFAX, from
lieut.-colonel of the second troop (now second regiment) of life guards.

At this period King William was engaged in a war with France, and the
third horse and QUEEN'S dragoons having been reviewed by His Majesty
in Hyde Park, on the 26th of March embarked for foreign service. The
QUEEN'S dragoons landed at Williamstadt, in North Brabant, on the
16th of April 1694, joined the army encamped at Tirlemont on the
21st of June, and was again reviewed by His Majesty on the following
day. Its excellent conduct in Ireland appears to have raised the
regiment high in the King's estimation, and it was ordered to encamp
beyond the defiles of the village of Roosebeck, to cover His Majesty's
quarters[13].

The regiment served the campaign of this year in brigade with the
royals and royal Scots dragoons, and was employed in manœuvring and
skirmishing in the valleys of Brabant and in the verdant plains of
Flanders. No general engagement occurred, and in October it went into
quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1695]

In February, 1695, Lord Fairfax having retired, King William conferred
the colonelcy on Colonel _William Lloyd_: at the same time the
establishment was augmented to eight troops of thirty-eight officers,
seventy-two non-commissioned officers, and four hundred and eighty
privates, the annual expense being increased to 20,652_l._ 18_s._ 4_d._

Having passed the winter in barracks at Ghent and received a remount
from England, the QUEEN'S dragoons marched, in April 1695, to Dixmude
in West Flanders, and encamped on the plains of the Yperlee. A small
detached corps was assembled at this place under Major-General
Ellemberg, and in June an attack was made on the forts at Kenoque, to
draw the French troops that way, and to facilitate the siege of Namur,
which was undertaken immediately afterwards.

The QUEEN'S dragoons, with eight battalions of infantry, returned to
Dixmude, and the remainder of the division marched to the main army
before Namur.

While the army was besieging Namur, a French force, commanded by
General de Montal, invested Dixmude (15th July), and carried on
the approaches with great expedition. The governor, Major-General
Ellemberg, called a council of war, and suggested the expediency of
surrendering. This was opposed by Major Beaumont, who commanded the
QUEEN'S dragoons[14], and some other officers, but it was agreed to
by the majority, and the garrison was delivered up prisoners of war.
Thus, the gallant dragoons, after displaying the greatest valour in
former campaigns, were tamely consigned into the hands of the enemy,
by a timid, or treacherous, foreign general officer. The soldiers
were enraged at not being permitted to defend the place; many of the
men broke their arms before they delivered them up, and one British
regiment tore its colours to pieces.

An agreement had previously been made by the contending powers,
that all prisoners should be given up on certain conditions. These
conditions were complied with, and the return of the regiments which
had surrendered, was demanded; but the French court refused to give
them up. At length the citadel of Namur capitulated, and the French
garrison was permitted to march out without being made prisoners, but
as they passed through the allied army, their commander, Marshal
Boufflers, was arrested and detained until the conditions of the
agreement were complied with. The detention of the marshal produced the
release of the regiments; the QUEEN'S dragoons returned to the army,
and were ordered into barracks at Ghent. At the same time a general
court-martial assembled for the trial of the officers who had delivered
the regiments into the power of the enemy. The governor of Dixmude,
Major-General Ellemberg, was sentenced to be beheaded, and was executed
at Ghent on the 20th of November. Colonels Graham, O'Farrell, Lesly,
and Aver, were cashiered; two others were suspended, and the remainder
acquitted. After the army left the field, the QUEEN'S dragoons were
quartered in villages near the canal of Sluys.

[Sidenote: 1696]

The regiment again took the field in May 1696, and was reviewed by
King William on the 29th of that month, when it appeared complete in
numbers, and in excellent condition. During the summer it formed part
of a detached corps commanded by Major-General Fagel, and encamped
near Nieuport. The enemy made demonstrations of an attack on this part
of the country, when entrenchments were thrown up, the sluices were
opened, and the grounds in front of the French army were laid under
water. A few skirmishes were, however, all that occurred; and in the
early part of October the QUEEN'S dragoons marched into quarters on the
frontiers of Dutch Flanders.

[Sidenote: 1697]

[Sidenote: 1698]

After leaving its village cantonments in the early part of April 1697,
the regiment was encamped at Bois-Seigneur-Isaac; it was afterwards
employed in operations in Brabant, and on the 27th of May it formed
part of a detachment of seven squadrons, commanded by Major-General
de Bay, sent from the camp at Promelles towards Binche and
Herlaymonte-Capelle. When on the march, the advance-guard, consisting
of a squadron of the QUEEN'S, commanded by Colonel Lloyd, encountered
a squadron of French carabineers, whom the dragoons overthrew and put
to flight, killing and wounding many men, and taking an officer and
seventeen soldiers prisoners. The regiment was subsequently employed
in covering Brussels, until the treaty of Ryswick restored peace to
Europe; when it left the Netherlands and returned to England. In the
following year the establishment was reduced to six troops--286 private
men.

[Sidenote: 1702]

The regiment remained in England until the summer of 1702, when, war
having been declared against France and Spain, an expedition, commanded
by the Duke of Ormond, was sent against _Cadiz_, and a detachment
of the QUEEN'S dragoons, consisting of three field-officers, three
captains, four lieutenants, five cornets, three staff-officers, five
quarter-masters, five serjeants, fourteen corporals, eight drummers,
and one hundred and eighty-six private men[15], was embarked for this
service. A landing was effected on the coast of Spain, near Cadiz, on
the 15th of August; on the following day Rota, a town on the north side
of the bay seven miles from Cadiz, was taken, and on the 21st, Port
St. Mary's, situate at the mouth of the river Guadalete, was captured.
The QUEEN'S dragoons, being the only cavalry with the expedition, were
almost constantly employed on piquet and outpost duty. On the 25th of
August the army encamped at _Santa Victoria_, and in the early part of
September the attack of the Matagorda was commenced. 'On the 5th of
September a squadron of Spanish horse made bold to attack a small party
of the QUEEN'S dragoons, who behaved themselves so gallantly, that they
put the enemy to flight, having wounded and taken an officer and two
men with their horses, and on our side we had a cornet and a private
man killed, and a lieutenant taken, whom the Spaniards, against all the
laws of nations and arms, most barbarously cut in pieces[16].'

Cadiz was found better prepared for a siege than had been expected, and
the troops were re-embarked. A successful attack was afterwards made
on the fort of Vigo in Galicia, and a rich fleet was captured in the
harbour, for which the QUEEN'S dragoons received 187_l._ 3_s._ 4_d._
prize money[17].

[Sidenote: 1703]

On the 31st of December, 1703, Brigadier-General (afterwards LORD)
CARPENTER, was appointed to the colonelcy of the QUEEN'S DRAGOONS, by
purchase[18], in succession to Major-General Lloyd.

[Sidenote: 1706]

The regiment remained on home service until 1706, when another
detachment of about two hundred and forty officers and men embarked on
board the fleet of Sir Cloudesley Shovel; forming part of a force of
10,000 men commanded by the Earl Rivers, and designed to invade the
coast of France, on a plan suggested by the Marquis De Guiscard. The
descent was, however, rendered impracticable by contrary winds, and the
troops were ordered to Lisbon. In the meantime the English forces in
Spain had retired from Madrid to Valencia and Catalonia, and the troops
under the Earl Rivers were directed to proceed thither.

[Sidenote: 1707]

The QUEEN'S dragoons, and other forces, were accordingly re-embarked;
they left Portugal in the early part of January, 1707, and, having
landed at Alicant in Valencia on the 11th of February, commenced their
march to join the forces under the Earl of Galway,--the united camp
being formed at Caudete, on the 30th of March. The army soon afterwards
destroyed several of the enemy's magazines, and besieged Villena in
Murcia. Meanwhile the French and Spanish forces, commanded by the Duke
of Berwick, advanced to the plains of _Almanza_, where the allies
resolved to attack them on the 25th of April.

After a march of fifteen miles through a rugged and mountainous
country, the wearied British and Portuguese troops entered an open
plain between Caudete and Almanza, where the enemy, superior in numbers
and artillery, was formed in order of battle. After a short halt the
attack was commenced, and the detachments of the QUEEN'S and Essex's
(now the fourth) dragoons particularly distinguished themselves;
being ordered to charge a battery of guns, so placed on the brow
of a hill, that the artillery mules, though concealed from sight,
remained close to the guns and could be instantly attached to them.
The charge was made with determined gallantry, but the guns being
quickly withdrawn, ten squadrons of select Spanish cavalry charged the
British dragoons, amounting only to about two hundred and ninety men,
killing Lieutenant-Colonel Lawrence of the QUEEN'S, who led the attack,
also Captain Smith and Cornet Petty of the same corps, and nearly
annihilating the two squadrons. The greater part of the Portuguese
cavalry fled from the field in a panic, when the British infantry
were nearly surrounded, but the cavalry, by a desperate charge, in
which three generals (Brigadier-General Carpenter of the QUEEN'S being
one) and thirty-four officers fought in the front ranks, succeeded
in breaking through the enemy. The Earl of Galway was wounded, and
in danger of being taken prisoner; but the spirited conduct of the
dragoons enabled him to effect his escape[19]; and he retreated
with the remains of the English and Dutch cavalry to Alceira, where
he received information that the greater part of the infantry, after
retreating to the hills of Caudete, had been surrounded and compelled
to surrender prisoners of war.

After this disaster, the few troops which remained were employed in
defensive operations for the preservation of Catalonia. The QUEEN'S
dragoons were stationed a short time at Manresa on the river Cardener,
to refresh their horses; and after the fall of Lerida, the army went
into winter quarters. The Earl of Galway embarked for Lisbon, and
Brigadier-General Carpenter remained in command of the troops in
Catalonia.

[Sidenote: 1708]

The QUEEN'S dragoons had suffered so severely at the battle of Almanza,
that the officers were sent to England in March 1708, and the regiment
was ordered to be recruited to sixty men per troop. The recruiting
was carried on with rapidity, and the difference in the state of the
regiment may be seen from two different returns in one year; in the
first its numbers are 150, and in the second 303.

[Sidenote: 1709]

[Sidenote: 1710]

[Sidenote: 1711]

[Sidenote: 1712]

[Sidenote: 1713]

In 1709 the regiment mustered 443 men, and it continued at the same
number during the two following years; but in October 1712 a reduction
of ten men per troop took place. In 1713 it was quartered in North
Britain, and mustered 339 men.

[Sidenote: 1714]

After the accession of King George I. in 1714 there being no Queen
Consort on the throne, the regiment was honoured with the distinguished
title of THE KING'S OWN REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS.

[Sidenote: 1715]

In the summer of 1715 the regiment marched to Glasgow, in consequence
of disturbances in that neighbourhood; and on the 8th of September
it joined the camp at Stirling under Major-General Whetham, which
was formed to oppose the Earl of Mar, who had raised the standard of
rebellion, and proclaimed the Pretender at Aberdeen, Dundee, and Perth.
The Duke of Argyle afterwards reviewed the troops at Stirling, as
Commander-in-Chief in Scotland.

On the 10th of November His Grace, having intelligence of the design
of the rebels to endeavour to pass the Forth and to penetrate towards
England, resolved to prevent them, and immediately gave orders to his
troops to hold themselves in readiness. An order of battle was issued,
in which this regiment and Kerr's dragoons (the seventh) formed the
extreme left; and according to that order, the army marched from
Stirling on the 12th, and encamped on a rising ground to the east of
Dumblain, between the town and Sheriffmuir. On the 13th the battle of
SHERIFFMUIR was fought, when each party had one wing defeated and one
victorious. The KING'S OWN dragoons were in the left wing; about six
hundred highlanders surprised the infantry of that wing, in the act of
forming, and put it into confusion; but upon the dragoons charging and
defeating the rebel cavalry opposed to them, capturing their standard,
the rebel infantry pursued their advantage no further, and Captain
Armstrong, who was sent with orders from the Duke of Argyle, being
killed, the infantry retired in good order. Both sides claimed the
victory; but all the advantage remained with the Duke of Argyle, who
captured the royal standard of the rebels, called "The Restoration,"
also six pieces of cannon, four waggons, and a number of prisoners.
On the following day the army returned to Stirling, and awaited the
arrival of reinforcements from England.

[Sidenote: 1716]

On the 9th of January, 1716, the Duke called a council of war at
Stirling, where an order of battle was issued, in which CARPENTER'S
dragoons were again placed on the left of the front line. Owing to the
roads being rendered impassable by the snow, no advance was made till
Tuesday the 29th, when the whole army advanced to Dumblain, and thence,
on the 30th, to Tullibardine. At one in the morning of the 1st of
February, the Duke with his cavalry entered Perth, where he was joined
in the evening by his infantry; the next day he advanced to Errol,
and on the 5th, with all his cavalry, moved towards Brechin; General
Cadogan leading the infantry to Aberbrothock. On the 8th Aberdeen was
occupied, and it being ascertained that the Pretender had retired to
France, and that the rebel force had totally dispersed, the army went
into winter quarters, and the KING'S OWN dragoons were stationed at
Elgin.

[Sidenote: 1717]

[Sidenote: 1718]

[Sidenote: 1719]

[Sidenote: 1720]

[Sidenote: 1721]

[Sidenote: 1722]

From this time the KING'S OWN do not appear to have been engaged in
any service of importance for a period of more than twenty years.
They were usually stationed in the southern and western counties of
England; but occasionally occupied quarters, for short periods, in
Scotland. In 1718 the establishment was reduced ten men per troop; in
the following year the numbers were only 186; an addition of 21 men was
made in 1720, and during that and the two succeeding years the regiment
mustered 207 men.

[Sidenote: 1723]

[Sidenote: 1724]

[Sidenote: 1725]

[Sidenote: 1726]

[Sidenote: 1727]

[Sidenote: 1729]

In 1723 the establishment was augmented to 333 men, at which number
it remained, with an alteration only of six men, until 1727, when the
regiment was ordered to hold itself in readiness to embark for Holland,
as part of the complement of 10,000 men which England had engaged to
furnish the States; at the same time its establishment was augmented to
552 men. No embarkation, however, took place; and in 1729, the numbers
of the regiment were reduced to 309.

[Sidenote: 1732]

After the decease of General Lord Carpenter in 1732, King George II.
conferred the colonelcy on Major-General PHILIP HONEYWOOD, from the
eleventh dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1738]

[Sidenote: 1739]

An augmentation was made to the establishment in 1738; in 1739,
the breaking out of a war with Spain occasioned general orders for
recruiting to be issued:--the establishment of the KING'S OWN dragoons
was raised to 435 men, and in the summer they were encamped on Hounslow
Heath, where they were several times reviewed by the Duke of Cumberland.

[Sidenote: 1740]

[Sidenote: 1741]

During the summer of 1740, the KING'S OWN were encamped in Windsor
Forest; and in 1741, they were ordered, with several other regiments
and a train of artillery, amounting nearly to 10,000 men, to prepare
for embarkation for foreign service. This force encamped in July, on
ground cleared for the purpose, on Lexdon heath, near Colchester: no
embarkation, however, took place, and after a few weeks, the troops
went into quarters in the various towns in the neighbourhood.

[Sidenote: 1742]

In the meantime war was raging on the continent; the King of France
and the Elector of Bavaria had united to deprive the Archduchess Maria
Theresa of her hereditary dominions; and in 1742, His Britannic Majesty
sent sixteen thousand British troops to Flanders to make a diversion in
favour of the Austrians. The KING'S OWN Regiment of dragoons was one
of the corps selected for this service, and having been reviewed on
Blackheath by King George II., accompanied by the Duke of Cumberland,
it embarked shortly afterwards at Woolwich and Deptford; their colonel,
Lieutenant-General Honeywood, taking the command of the expedition
until the arrival of Field Marshal the Earl of Stair.

After landing at Ostend the KING'S OWN dragoons advanced a few leagues
up the country, but all active operations were prevented by the
tardiness of the Dutch.

[Sidenote: 1743]

Early in 1743, the British troops moved from their cantonments towards
the Rhine; the KING'S OWN, and four companies of the foot guards,
forming the advance-guard of the army, were at St. Trond, in the
province of Limburg, on the 9th of February, and on the 11th resumed
their march for Germany. In May, the regiment, with the Inniskilling
dragoons, and four battalions of the foot guards, formed a detached
camp a little below the town of Hochst, in the duchy of Nassau on the
Maine, and was afterwards encamped at Aschaffenburg in Franconia,
a town situate on a hill on the side of Maine. In the meantime
Lieut.-General Honeywood had been removed to the first dragoon guards,
and the colonelcy of the KING'S OWN conferred on Brigadier-General
HUMPHREY BLAND, from the thirteenth dragoons.

His Majesty King George II. having left England towards the end of May,
landed at Helvoetsluys on the 2nd of June, and joined the army on the
9th; when he found his forces under considerable embarrassment, from
the French commander having succeeded in gaining possession of several
important posts on the Maine, by which means he cut off the supplies of
provisions and forage.

Under these circumstances His Majesty resolved to march to Hanau, where
a reinforcement of 12,000 Hessians and Hanoverians had arrived; and at
daybreak on the 16th of June, the troops commenced the march along the
banks of the Maine: but scarcely had they proceeded three leagues when
it was ascertained that the enemy had crossed the river, and was drawn
up near DETTINGEN to dispute the march of the army.

The allies were immediately formed for action, with their left on the
river, and their right extending to a wood, in which the baggage was
placed. Shortly afterwards the action commenced, when Lieut.-General
Clayton, who commanded the left wing of infantry, requested some
squadrons to cover his flank, and the KING'S OWN dragoons were ordered
to this important post, where they suffered severely, being exposed
three hours to the fire of the French batteries, as well from their
front, as from the other side of the river, which commanded their flank
and rear. At length the regiment was led forward, and encountering nine
squadrons of household cavalry, the élite of the French army, charged
these celebrated horsemen with a degree of gallantry truly astonishing.
British valour was most conspicuously displayed; though over-matched
with numbers, and nearly surrounded by enemies, the KING'S OWN dragoons
were seen nobly contending for victory, and mingled in close fight
with their antagonists, the swift motion of their glittering sabres
showed with what vehemence the gallant troopers fought for the honour
of their King and country. They cut through their renowned opponents
three times; distinguishing themselves in the most signal manner under
the eye of their Sovereign, and contributing materially to the victory
gained on that occasion. Their loss was however great. Of the three
cornets who bore the standards, two were wounded, and the third, Mr.
Child, the brother of Lord Castlemaine, had two horses killed under
him. The standards were totally destroyed by shot and sabre-cuts,
and one of them was only preserved from capture by the heroism of a
private in the regiment, named THOMAS BROWN, a native of Kirkleatham,
in Yorkshire. This gallant soldier, on the cornet's receiving a wound
in the wrist, and dropping the standard, attempted to dismount in order
to recover it, but in so doing lost two fingers of his bridle-hand by
a sabre cut, and his horse ran away with him to the rear of the French
lines. Whilst endeavouring to regain his regiment he perceived the
standard, which the French had succeeded in capturing by overwhelming
numbers, in the custody of a _gendarme_, who was conveying it to the
rear. This man he attacked and killed, caught the standard as it fell,
and fixing it between his leg and the saddle, succeeded in cutting his
way back through the ranks of the enemy: but received, in so doing,
seven wounds in his head, face, and body, and three balls passed
through his hat.[20] A letter, in the Gazette of July 16th, states,
'that in this action Ligonier's horse, (the seventh dragoon guards,)
and the THIRD dragoons suffered most, and gained great reputation.' The
loss of the THIRD was Lieutenant Baily, one serjeant, two drummers,
thirty-eight private men, and one hundred and forty-one horses,
killed; Major Honeywood[21], Captain Brown, Lieutenant Robinson,
Cornets Dawson, Monteith and O'Carrol, with three quarter-masters, six
serjeants, five drummers, eighty-six private men, and fifty horses
wounded[22]. The victory was most decisive; the French were completely
defeated in their attempt, and were compelled to recross the Maine with
precipitation, with the loss of many standards, colours, and four pair
of kettle-drums.

The KING'S OWN dragoons passed the night near the field of battle,
surrounded by their ensanguined trophies, and, having marched to Hanau
on the following day, were encamped, for some time, on the banks of the
little river Kinzig, from whence they advanced with the army, in the
early part of August, for the Rhine; and, having crossed that river
above Mentz, were employed in operations in West Germany, where the
army was joined by the Dutch auxiliaries. The enemy's entrenchments
at Germersheim, in the Bavarian circle of the Rhine, were afterwards
destroyed, but no general engagement occurred; and in the middle
of October the army repassed the Rhine, and marched back to the
Netherlands in eight divisions[23]. The royals, greys, and KING'S
OWN dragoons, with the Scots highlanders, forming the first division,
proceeded through the duchy of Nassau, the provinces of Limburg,
Liege, and South Brabant, to Brussels, where they arrived on the 16th
of November, and on the following day continued their march for West
Flanders, to pass the winter in quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1744]

Notwithstanding its severe loss the regiment remained in Belgium, and
being joined by a number of recruits, in the spring of 1744, it took
the field, and in June it formed part of the army encamped on the banks
of the Scheldt, near Oudenarde, in East Flanders. During the summer it
was employed in operations in the province of Hainault, and in levying
contributions in the French territory towards Lisle. In October it
marched into quarters at Ghent: and by the Muster Rolls for this year
we find its numbers were 538.

[Sidenote: 1745]

After leaving their winter quarters about the middle of April, 1745,
the KING'S OWN were encamped a short time near Brussels, where they
were reviewed by his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland. They were
afterwards assembled with the army at Soignies. The French having
assembled a numerous army and besieged Tournay, the Duke of Cumberland
resolved to attempt the relief of that fortress; the army, accordingly,
advanced, and on the 28th of April took post at Leuse. On the following
day a squadron of the KING'S OWN was employed, with other troops, in
driving back the enemy's advanced-posts, and on the 30th the battle of
_Fontenoy_ took place; when the gallant efforts and brilliant success
of the British were rendered unavailing by the failure of the Dutch.
After an action of several hours the KING'S OWN dragoons were ordered
forward, and they charged the enemy with their accustomed gallantry;
but under such disadvantageous circumstances that their manly efforts
only retarded the fate of the day. The Duke of Cumberland ordered
a retreat, and the army marched to the vicinity of Aeth. The enemy
had great advantage in numbers, in artillery, and in the favourable
ground they occupied; the loss was nearly equal on both sides, and
the Allies lost no honour, though compelled to retire. The KING'S OWN
had nine private men, and twenty-eight horses, killed; Captain Wade,
Quarter-Master Corbidge, fourteen private men, and thirty-four horses
wounded;--and Cornet Bland, two non-commissioned-officers, fifteen men,
and twenty-three horses missing.

The regiment was afterwards encamped on the banks of the Dender, near
Lessines; from whence it proceeded with the army on the 30th of June,
to Grammont in West Flanders, and was subsequently encamped before
Brussels.

In the mean time Charles-Edward, eldest son of the Pretender, had
arrived in Scotland, and, being joined by several of the highland
clans, he asserted his father's pretensions to the throne. There being
few troops in Scotland at this time, the rebellion soon made alarming
progress; when orders were given for the return of several regiments
from the continent, and the KING'S OWN were among the first troops
ordered home.

Having embarked at Williamstadt, the regiment, after a boisterous
passage, arrived in the River Thames on the 25th of October, and
immediately landed and proceeded towards the north. On the 10th of
November it joined the army of Lieutenant-General Sir John Ligonier,
then assembling near Lichfield. On the advance of the rebels towards
Derby, the regiment formed part of the army commanded by his Royal
Highness the Duke of Cumberland; and when the highlanders retreated
towards Scotland, it was sent in pursuit. It left Lichfield on this
service on the 9th of November; on the 11th, it was at Macclesfield;
on the 13th at Wigan, and on the evening of the 19th--after ten hours'
march--it arrived on _Clifton Moor_, three miles from Penrith; at
the same time the rear-guard of the rebel army, consisting of two
battalions of highlanders and some hussars, occupied the village, and
lined the hedges on both sides of the road.

The sun had set; the shades of evening were gathering over the little
village of Clifton, and distant objects were scarcely discernible,
when the KING'S OWN, and a few detachments from other corps, forming
the advance-guard of the royal army, having dismounted, proceeded
in compact order to attack the rebels. As the troops approached the
enclosures, the highlanders opened a sharp fire, which re-echoed
along the vale, and was soon answered by volleys of musketry from the
dragoons. After several rounds, the KING'S OWN were ordered to retire a
few paces; when the highlanders, mistaking this for a flight, raised a
loud shout and rushed forward with sword and pistol; but they were well
received by the dragoons with their broad-swords, and a fierce combat
ensued, hand to hand, both sides displaying great bravery. Some of the
highlanders broke their swords on the steel caps of the dragoons, when
they drew their daggers, and continued the fight with great obstinacy.
Eventually, however, the dragoons proved victorious, and the rebels
made a precipitate retreat to Penrith. The loss of the King's forces on
this occasion was twelve men killed and twenty-five wounded, amongst
whom were four officers of the KING'S OWN, viz., Lieutenant-Colonel
Honeywood[24], Captain East, and Cornets Owen and Hamilton. The rebels
had about twenty killed, and Captain Hamilton of the hussars with about
seventy men taken prisoners[25].

The KING'S OWN afterwards marched in pursuit of the rebels to Carlisle,
and were stationed near the town during the siege, which was terminated
by the surrender of the place on the 30th of December.

[Sidenote: 1746]

[Sidenote: 1747]

[Sidenote: 1748]

The regiment continued to advance into Scotland, and is mentioned in
the list of the Duke of Cumberland's army in the spring of 1746. On the
14th of February it was detached to Dundee, and after the suppression
of the rebellion, returned to England, where it was employed in
guarding the rebel prisoners at York. The establishment continued the
same in this year, as it did in the following, but after the peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, the numbers were reduced to 285, the regiment
being then quartered at Bury St. Edmunds.

[Sidenote: 1751]

A regulation was issued on the 1st July, 1751, relative to the clothing
and standards of the several regiments; from which the following
particulars have been extracted relative to the KING'S OWN dragoons.

COATS--scarlet; double breasted; without lapels; lined with light
blue; slit sleeves turned up with light blue; the button-holes worked
with narrow yellow lace; the buttons of yellow metal, set on three
and three; a long slash pocket in each skirt, and a yellow worsted
aiguillette on the right shoulder.

WAISTCOATS and BREECHES--light blue.

HATS--bound with gold lace, and ornamented with a yellow metal loop,
and a black cockade.

BOOTS--of jacked leather.

CLOAKS--of scarlet cloth, with a light blue collar, and lined with
light blue shalloon; the buttons set on three and three upon yellow
frogs or loops, with a light blue stripe down the centre.

HORSE FURNITURE--of light blue cloth; the holster-caps and housings
having a border of royal lace, with a red stripe down the centre; the
white horse within the garter, embroidered on each corner of the
housing; and on the holster-caps, the King's cipher and crown, with
III.D underneath.

OFFICERS--distinguished by gold lace; their coats and waistcoats bound
with gold embroidery; the button-holes worked with gold; and a crimson
silk sash worn across the left shoulder.

QUARTER-MASTERS--to wear a crimson sash round the waist.

SERJEANTS--to have narrow gold lace on the cuffs, pockets and
shoulder-straps; gold shoulder-knots or aiguillettes, and yellow and
light blue worsted sashes tied round the waist.

DRUMMERS and HAUTBOYS--clothed in scarlet coats lined with light blue,
and ornamented with royal lace with a blue stripe down the centre;
their waistcoats and breeches of blue cloth.

GUIDONS--The first or King's guidon to be of crimson silk, embroidered
and fringed with gold and silver; in the centre the rose and thistle
conjoined, and crown over them, with the motto _Dieu et mon Droit_
underneath: the white horse in a compartment in the first and fourth
corners, and III.D in gold characters on a light blue ground in a
compartment in the second and third corners. The second and third
guidons to be of light blue silk, in the centre the white horse within
the garter on a crimson ground, and motto _Nec aspera terrent_: the
white horse on a scarlet ground in the first and fourth compartments,
and III.D within a wreath of roses and thistles upon a scarlet ground
in the second and third compartments.

[Sidenote: 1752]

In 1752 Lieut.-General Bland was removed to the King's dragoon guards,
and His Majesty conferred the colonelcy of HIS OWN DRAGOONS on James
Lord Tyrawley from the fourteenth dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1753]

[Sidenote: 1754]

In 1753 the KING'S OWN lay at Colchester, and in 1754 at Croydon. In
December of this year it was broken up into half troops, and employed
on coast duty: being scattered along the sea coast, from Shoreham to
the Isle of Wight.

[Sidenote: 1755]

In April, 1755, Lord Tyrawley was removed to the second foot guards,
and King George II. conferred the colonelcy of HIS OWN DRAGOONS on
GEORGE, EARL OF ALBEMARLE, from the twentieth foot.

[Sidenote: 1756]

In June, of the same year, the whole regiment assembled at Lewes, where
it remained till July, 1756. At this time the KING'S OWN, in common
with the other regiments of dragoons, received the addition, novel to
the British service, of a _light troop_. In July it marched to Reading,
and in December of the same year, to Northampton.

[Sidenote: 1757]

[Sidenote: 1758]

The regiment marched to Henley, Amersham, and High Wycombe in June,
1757; and war having been declared against France in May, 1758, the
light troop, then commanded by Captain St. Leger, was ordered into camp
on South Sea Common, for the purpose of forming, with the light troops
of eight other regiments, part of the force intended for a descent on
the coast of France, the whole forming a brigade, under Colonel Eliott,
afterwards Lord Heathfield. The troops embarked May 19th, sailed June
the 1st, and arrived on the French coast so as to land in Cancalle Bay
on the 5th. On the 7th the army moved on St. Maloes, the light troops
forming the advance guard, and encamping about a mile from the town.

As soon as night fell, the piquets and light dragoons were detached
against the harbour and the suburbs of St. Servan, being ordered,
if possible, to destroy the stores. This object they effected with
equal judgment and determination, setting fire to the storehouses and
vessels in the harbour, together with the magazines of tar, pitch,
rope, &c., so completely performing their work, as totally to ruin the
whole of the marine stores, and to destroy one man-of-war of 50 guns,
one of 36, and all the privateers, some of 30 guns each; the vessels
destroyed amounting to upwards of 100 sail, and the fire continuing
to rage all night. The light dragoons afterwards advanced to the town
of Dol, where, in several slight affairs, they showed great zeal and
activity. On the 11th, they re-embarked, and the fleet sailed on the
16th, remaining, however, some time longer on the coast of France, and
watching another opportunity to land. This being rendered impracticable
by the weather, the fleet returned, and arrived at Spithead on the
first of July. The light troops remained at Portsmouth for some time,
and many experiments were made with boats of different constructions,
in order to ascertain the practicability of landing men and horses in
rough weather.

[Sidenote: 1759]

In August the brigade of light dragoons proceeded on a second
expedition, and a landing having been effected in the Bay des Marées,
_Cherbourg_ was taken, and the fortifications, and vessels in the
harbour were destroyed. A descent was afterwards effected in the Bay
of St. Lunar, and an incursion made into the adjacent country; but on
re-embarking, the rear guard was attacked, and it sustained some loss.
In December, the light troops landed and went into quarters, the light
troop of the KING'S OWN being quartered at Maidenhead. So completely
had these troops answered the expectations entertained of them, that,
in the next year, the first English regiment of light dragoons (the
present fifteenth hussars) was raised under Brigadier-General Eliott;
and in June, 1759, each light troop received an augmentation of one
lieutenant, one serjeant, and twenty-nine privates. On the 7th of
November, the KING'S OWN marched to Hounslow and Brentford, relieving
the royals, who proceeded to Essex.

[Sidenote: 1760]

[Sidenote: 1761]

[Sidenote: 1762]

On the 21st of June, 1760[26], the regiment received orders to prepare
for embarkation for Germany, to join the army of Prince Ferdinand.
These orders were, however, countermanded, and in 1761 and 1762 the
regiment was successively quartered at Romford, Colchester, Uxbridge,
and Chelmsford.

[Sidenote: 1763]

Peace having been restored by the treaty of Fontainbleau; in April,
1763, the light troop was disbanded at Putney; but a few men of each
troop were afterwards equipped as light dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1764]

In June the KING'S OWN lay at York, and remained there till the spring
of 1764, when they marched to Scotland, and occupied Dalkeith, Leith,
Haddington, Musselburgh, and Linlithgow; and orders were received for
remounting with _long-tailed_ horses.[27]

[Sidenote: 1765]

[Sidenote: 1766]

In 1765, the regiment lay at Coventry and Warwick, and in the next
year passed the summer at Reading, where it was reviewed on the 10th
of May, afterwards taking up winter quarters at Dorchester, Blandford,
and Sherbourne. At the same time the drummers on the establishment were
ordered to be replaced by trumpeters.

[Sidenote: 1767]

[Sidenote: 1768]

The KING'S OWN were employed on coast duty in 1767 and 1768; in the
first year in Kent and Sussex, head quarters at Lewes; and the second
in Suffolk and Essex, head quarters at Ipswich.

[Sidenote: 1769]

[Sidenote: 1770]

Five troops lay at York and one at Hull in 1769, and in the next year
the regiment marched to Scotland, head quarters, with three troops,
being stationed at Hamilton, and detachments at Linlithgow, Irvine, and
Kilmarnock.

[Sidenote: 1771]

[Sidenote: 1772]

In the year 1771, the KING'S OWN lay at Preston, Blackburn, Wigan,
and Warrington; and in 1772 at Worcester, Pershore, and Bromsgrove.
In October of this year the colonelcy was conferred on the Honourable
Charles Fitzroy (afterwards Lord Southampton)[28], from the fourteenth
dragoons, in succession to the Earl of Albemarle, deceased.

[Sidenote: 1773]

[Sidenote: 1774]

[Sidenote: 1775]

[Sidenote: 1776]

In June, 1773, we find the regiment employed in aid of the revenue
service on the coast of Kent, with its head-quarters at Canterbury. The
year 1774 was spent at Northampton, and in April, 1775, the regiment
was again marched to Scotland, being at East Retford in August, and in
the autumn taking up quarters at Haddington, Dalkeith, and Musselburgh.
In December of the same year, one troop was detached as far as
Wakefield, and in the spring of 1776, the whole regiment followed to
the south, and was quartered at Coventry, Lichfield, and Birmingham.

[Sidenote: 1777]

[Sidenote: 1778]

In 1777, the KING'S OWN were reviewed at Newbury, and thence took up
winter quarters at Blandford, Dorchester and Sherbourne. Early in
1778 they were ordered to Salisbury, there to be reviewed, and thence
proceeded to Suffolk, and were encamped on Culford Heath, under the
command of Lieutenant-General Warde, finally going into winter quarters
in Sussex, and being employed there on coast duty during the remainder
of the year. The regiment had, for many years, been in possession
of a pair of KETTLE DRUMS, in consequence of having taken them from
the enemy, and on the 25th of December, 1778, an additional man and
horse was placed upon the establishment, which gave the regiment its
complement of Trumpeters besides the kettle drummer; being granted by
His Majesty in compliance with a memorial from the Colonel[29].

[Sidenote: 1779]

In the spring of 1779, the men of the regiment equipped as light
dragoons, were incorporated, with detachments from other corps, into a
regiment, which was numbered the twenty-first light dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1780]

In consequence of the alarming riots in London in 1780, the regiment
was ordered thither, and was quartered about Islington, furnishing the
piquets in Portman Square during the trial of Lord George Gordon, and
having a party stationed in Apsley House, then the property of Lord
Chancellor Bathurst.

[Sidenote: 1781]

[Sidenote: 1782]

[Sidenote: 1783]

In 1781, having been reviewed by His Majesty in Hyde Park, the
KING'S OWN marched into Suffolk; and in 1782, were quartered at
Derby, Leicester, and Nottingham, thence proceeding to Manchester
in the autumn. In 1783, after the spring review they marched to
Newcastle-on-Tyne and Durham, assembled at the latter place for
inspection in September, and then returned to their old quarters for
the winter.

[Sidenote: 1784]

[Sidenote: 1785]

[Sidenote: 1786]

The KING'S OWN, for the third time in fourteen years, entered Scotland
in 1784, and took up their old quarters at Dalkeith, Leith, and
Haddington. Here they were inspected by Major-General Mackay, and soon
after detached a troop to Dumfries. In July, 1785, the six troops
were at Manchester, and thence, in 1786, proceeded to Worcester, then
a general place of inspection for cavalry. At this station they were
inspected by Major-General Philipson, and, after a stay of about six
weeks, went into winter quarters at Hereford, Ludlow, and Leominster.

[Sidenote: 1787]

[Sidenote: 1788]

In May, 1787, the regiment assembled at Hereford to be reviewed by
Major-General Douglas. It was ordered, on the rumour of a Russian
armament, to hold itself in readiness to join any force that might be
assembled; but, nothing taking place, it went into winter quarters at
Dorchester, Blandford, and Poole. In 1788, it moved to Salisbury, was
there reviewed, and then quartered at Winchester.

[Sidenote: 1789]

[Sidenote: 1790]

Early in 1789, the regiment marched to Reading. It was there reviewed
by His Majesty, George III., on Ashford Common, and marched to
Ipswich, where it remained until 1790, and, being then reviewed at
Stamford, took up winter quarters at York and Lincoln.

[Sidenote: 1791]

[Sidenote: 1792]

At York all the troops assembled for inspection in the spring of
1791, and, for the fourth time marched to Scotland and were for two
years quartered at Dumfries, being in that period twice inspected by
Major-General Leslie.

[Sidenote: 1793]

[Sidenote: 1794]

In the spring of 1793, the KING'S OWN received an order to augment
three troops, and, after a short halt at Manchester, proceeded
to Birmingham. From this place, four troops, under the command
of Lieutenant-Colonel Waller, were detached back to Scotland, in
consequence of serious riots in that part of the kingdom. In 1794 the
regiment was ordered to furnish one hundred men, towards forming a
regiment of cavalry for service in the West Indies; the newly-formed
regiment was numbered the twenty-sixth light dragoons, and afterwards,
on a reduction of regiments taking place, the twenty-third. In the same
year a squadron from the troops in England, and one troop from those in
Scotland, were ordered to embark to join the troops on the continent.
The troop in Scotland marched a day or two, and was then recalled in
consequence of the disturbed state of the country; and the squadron
embarked at Blackwall, and was actually at sea, when it was recalled by
a king's cutter, landed, and sent to Watford.

[Sidenote: 1795]

[Sidenote: 1796]

In 1795, the troops returned from Scotland, having had most harassing
duty for two winters; and in the spring of 1796, the whole regiment
assembled at Salisbury under Lord Cathcart, thence proceeding to the
camp at Weymouth, and finally taking up winter quarters in Exeter.

[Sidenote: 1797]

The colonelcy of the KING'S OWN DRAGOONS was conferred in March 1797 on
Major-General Francis Lascelles from the eighth dragoons, in succession
to Lord Southampton, deceased.

During the summer, the KING'S OWN were again encamped at Weymouth; and
on the breaking up of the camp, marched to Northampton, where the ninth
troop was reduced.

[Sidenote: 1798]

In May, 1798, the regiment marched to Nottingham, where an entire
change took place in the arms and clothing; the long skirt was
abolished, and instead of the musket and brace of large pistols before
used, the men received the carbine and single pistol.

[Sidenote: 1799]

On the 10th of June, 1799, the regiment marched to form part of
the cavalry camp on Swinley Downs, near Windsor, at which place it
received orders to join the armament under Lieut.-General Sir Ralph
Abercromby, then about to proceed to the Helder. These orders, however,
were countermanded; and, at the breaking up of the camp, the regiment
marched to Reading. During the time of encampment, Lt.-Colonel
Callow[30] being appointed deputy governor of Quebec, was succeeded by
Lt.-Colonel Waller, and on the 4th of September, General Sir Charles
Grey from the eighth dragoons succeeded General Lascelles as colonel.
At this period the tails of the horses were again shortened, having
been worn of the natural length since 1764.

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 1801]

In February, 1800, the KING'S OWN marched to Trowbridge, but only
remained there a few weeks, and then proceeded to Chester to be
reviewed. At this place an augmentation of two troops took place,
making a total of ten; and on the 22nd of September, the whole
regiment marched to Lancashire, thence to Carlisle, and, in December,
to Scotland, the head-quarters being established at Hamilton; three
troops, under the command of Major Wade, being detached to Carlisle
and Penrith. At Hamilton, the regiment was reviewed by Major-Generals
Erskine and Vyse, and the present system of casting horses annually
first introduced; and as it was considered the peculiar privilege of
the regiment to have _black horses_ exclusively, those that had the
slightest shade of brown, were sent to the fourth dragoon guards, none
but black horses being retained, with the exception of one white for
the kettle-drums.

[Sidenote: 1802]

[Sidenote: 1803]

[Sidenote: 1804]

After the peace of Amiens in 1802, two troops were reduced; the number
of men in the others being also reduced from 100 to 64; and, on the
11th of August, the KING'S OWN embarked at Port-Patrick for Ireland,
proceeded to Dundalk, and in the spring of 1803 marched to Belturbet.
Here they were reviewed by Major-General Sir James Afleck, and were
actively employed in patrolling the country during the excitement
caused by the disturbances in Dublin, to which place they proceeded in
March, 1804, and were quartered in the royal barracks.[31]

[Sidenote: 1805]

[Sidenote: 1806]

On the 5th of April, 1805, the first division, immediately followed by
the others, embarked for Liverpool, and marched to Nottingham, where
the regiment remained for two years; the second year's halt being
at the express request of the magistrates of Nottingham and Louth.
The war having been resumed, two additional troops were added to the
establishment.

[Sidenote: 1807]

The regiment marched to Chichester in May 1807, and being there
reviewed by Major-General Hugonin, proceeded to Brighton, and was
encamped on the hills above the present barracks, for the purpose of
being reviewed, in conjunction with the first dragoon guards, by His
Royal Highness the Duke of York. On the breaking up of the camp, the
THIRD marched to Chichester, but were shortly ordered to Canterbury,
where a brigade was formed, consisting of the second dragoon guards,
and third and fourth dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1809]

In January, 1809, the regiment received orders to embark at Portsmouth,
for the purpose of joining the army in Spain, under Lieut.-General Sir
John Moore, and had advanced some days' march, when it was recalled, on
the arrival of the news of the retreat of the British troops to Corunna.

On the 20th of July, the regiment received orders to march to
Ramsgate, and was immediately embarked for Holland under the command
of Lieut.-Colonel Mundy, forming part of an expedition designed to
effect the destruction of the French shipping and arsenal on the
Scheldt. After remaining in the Downs for six days, the fleet sailed,
and arrived off Walcheren on the 29th, remaining there upwards of a
fortnight; and after the capture of Flushing, proceeded up the Scheldt
as far as Fort-Batz. The enemy's shipping had, in the meantime, been
removed higher up the river, and an immense force assembled to oppose
the British armament; at the same time an epidemic disease broke out
among the English soldiers. The fleet consequently retired down the
river, and sailed for England; the KING'S OWN disembarked at Ramsgate
in September following, and proceeded to occupy Canterbury, as before
the expedition.

[Sidenote: 1810]

In April, 1810, in consequence of the riots in London, occasioned by
the House of Commons having ordered Sir Francis Burdett to be lodged
in custody in the Tower, the regiment was hastily ordered thither,
marching all night, and arriving in Southwark at 7 A. M. The men were
billeted on the south side of the Thames; an hotel near Westminster
Bridge being the head quarters, and the Obelisk the alarm post. After
the suppression of the riots, the regiment was ordered to Guildford,
where it was reviewed by his Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, who
was pleased to express his entire approbation of its appearance and
discipline. On the release of Sir Francis Burdett from the Tower, the
regiment was again sent to London, but remained there a few nights
only, and then returned to Guildford.

[Sidenote: 1811]

Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, having conquered Portugal,
had placed his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain, supported by a
French army. The efforts of the Spaniards and Portuguese to regain
their liberty, which commenced in 1808, were continued to be aided by
the British government, and a force, amounting at this time to nearly
sixty thousand men, had been assembled in Portugal under the command of
Lieutenant-General the Viscount Wellington.

In June, 1811, the KING'S OWN DRAGOONS, having been reviewed on
Wimbledon Common by His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, were, on
their return to Guildford, completed to the field establishment by a
draft of a hundred horses[32] from the second dragoon guards, and
ordered forthwith to proceed to the Peninsula. On the 25th and 27th
of July the regiment embarked at Portsmouth, landed in the following
month at Lisbon, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Mundy, and having
met with favourable weather during the voyage, the Lieutenant-Colonel
commanding was enabled to cause particular attention to be paid to the
horses in regard to cleanliness, exercise, &c. The mode adopted for
this purpose was as follows: three or four horses were backed into the
hold, where they were walked round for a quarter of an hour; their feet
washed, and hand-rubbed; and they were shod, if necessary; by these
means their state of health and efficiency, on their disembarkation at
Lisbon, were such, that upon landing they were capable of undertaking
immediate service.

The regiment was reviewed at Belem by Major-General Le Marchant, and
mustered as follows:--1 Lieutenant-Colonel, 1 Major, 6 Captains,
9 Lieutenants, 1 Cornet, 1 Surgeon, 1 Assistant Surgeon, 5 Troop
Quarter-Masters, 1 Regimental Serjeant-Major, 1 Paymaster Serjeant,
1 Troop Serjeant-Major, 24 Serjeants, 24 Corporals, 6 Trumpeters, 6
Farriers, 480 Privates, and 518 Troop Horses.

The KING'S OWN left Belem on the 19th of September, under the command
of Major Clowes, (the Lieutenant Colonel having been compelled by
sickness to remain at Lisbon,) and marching through Villa Franca and
Santarem, arrived at Abrantes in Portuguese Estremadura on the 27th.
Here they remained until the 15th October, and then advanced through
Niza and Villa Velha to Castello Branco in the province of Beira, where
they were reviewed on the 7th of December, by Lieutenant-General Sir
Stapleton Cotton, who expressed his satisfaction at the very effective
state of the men and horses.

[Sidenote: 1812]

In consequence of the extreme difficulty of procuring forage, the
centre squadron moved, on the 21st of December, to Idanha a Nova on the
frontiers of Spain, and in these quarters the regiment remained till
the beginning of 1812, when it was ordered to the front to form part
of the army covering the siege of _Ciudad Rodrigo_, being quartered at
Aldea de Ponte and Fundao, and experiencing great inconvenience from
the scarcity of forage.

In February, Lord Wellington having resolved on the siege of Badajoz,
the capital of Spanish Estremadura, the KING'S OWN marched south with
their brigade (the fifth dragoon guards, and fourth dragoons,) and
arrived at Borba in the Alemtejo on the 5th of March. On the 16th, a
pontoon bridge was thrown over the Guadiana, and Badajoz was invested;
the day previous to which the brigade moved from Borba, and crossing
the bridge, formed the advance guard of the covering army, which
continued to advance till it arrived at the foot of an extensive chain
of mountains called the Sierra Morena. On the 26th, the KING'S OWN
marched at sunset from Medina to Campo, and at midnight joined a force
under Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Graham, destined to surprise three
battalions of French infantry and two regiments of cavalry lying in
Llerena. Owing to a mistake on the part of the Chasseurs Britanniques
(who formed the advance of the infantry column), the projected surprise
failed, and the French retired into the mountains during the night,
and took post at Azuaga, a town nine miles to the south of Llerena.
On the 29th of March, after a sharp affair, the French were driven
from Azuaga, and the head quarters of the BRIGADE were established
there. The authorities of this town gave a superb entertainment to Sir
Stapleton Cotton.

On the night of the 31st of March, a man deserted, who, it is supposed,
gave information of the situation and strength of the British outpost;
and on the 1st of April, a strong French force was detached to cut
off the piquets at La Granja. A patrol, commanded by Cornet Ratcliffe
of the THIRD, having met with the enemy's advance guard, was driven
in, and the two British squadrons were attacked by seven squadrons of
French cavalry, supported by infantry. After a severe struggle, the
enemy, perceiving their surprise had failed, retired, and the piquets
resumed their station.[33] In this affair the KING'S OWN lost thirteen
men and twelve horses.

On the 2nd of April, Marshal Soult's army having advanced from
Seville, with a view to raise the siege of Badajoz, the covering army
began to retire before the superior numbers of the French. This retreat
was continued through Usagre, Villa Franca, and Almandralejo, upon
Albuhera, where, being supported by the besieging force, the army went
into position on the 9th, and preparations were made for a general
action. Soult, however, having heard of the fall of Badajoz, commenced
a retrograde movement towards the frontiers of Andalusia on the 10th;
on which day Major General Le Marchant's brigade, (the fifth dragoon
guards, THIRD and fourth dragoons) forming the advance of the British,
proceeded to Los Santos, and again in the night to Bienvenida, with the
view of gaining the flank of the cavalry of a French corps (General
Drouet's) encamped between Usagre and Villa Garcia; but the enemy
retreated. The BRIGADE, however, defiled under cover of some heights,
and by a flank movement came up with the French on the 11th in front of
_Llerena_, charging and driving them into that town with the loss of
one hundred and fifty prisoners, including several officers.

Intelligence was received of the advance of Marshal Marmont, on the
north of Portugal. This general, leaving Ciudad Rodrigo and Almeida,
on his rear, had pushed on as far as Castello Branco, thus threatening
to destroy the communications of the British, by cutting the bridge
of boats at Villa Velha. It therefore became necessary to reinforce
the few troops left on that frontier, and Major General Le Marchant's
brigade was one of those ordered for this service. It marched through
Elvas, Estremos, Crato, Niza, and Villa Velha to Castello Branco, and
finally took up its quarters at Val-de-rosa; but Marmont having retired
into Spain on the approach of the British, the brigade returned to the
Alemtejo, and was, on the 12th of April, stationed at Cabeca de Vide,
Crato, and Fronteira, the KING'S OWN being at the former place. On the
29th they received a sudden order to join a brigade of light cavalry,
for the purpose of covering Lieut.-General Hill in his attack upon the
tête-de-pont and bridge of boats at Almaraz, which brilliant exploit
having been effected, the regiment returned to Cabeca de Vide on the
27th of May.

On the 1st of June the whole army, with the exception of Lieut.-General
Hill's corps, moved to the north. On the 11th, Major-General Le
Marchant's brigade arrived at _Ciudad Rodrigo_, and on the 12th was
reviewed by Lord Wellington. On the 13th, the brigade moved forward and
continued to advance till the 16th, when it found the enemy posted near
_Salamanca_, and a skirmish took place which lasted till night-fall. On
the 17th, the brigade crossed the Tormes, and was quartered near the
village of Cabrerizos, and on the advance of the French, on the 20th,
the whole army went into position on the heights of St. Christoval,
with its right on the Tormes, and its left near Villares de la Reyna.
On this day the brigade, being in front, sustained a cannonade of
about an hour, and the KING'S OWN lost twenty horses: the regiment
afterwards took post on the summit of the mountain.

On the night of the 23rd the French army retired, and was followed at
daybreak by the first and seventh divisions, and Le Marchant's brigade
of cavalry, which crossed the river by the fords of Santa Marta; when
Marshal Marmont, after a short delay, returned to his former position,
and manœuvred for some days on the Tormes, but after the reduction
of the forts at Salamanca, which took place on the 27th, he crossed
the Douro at Tordesillas, closely followed by Lord Wellington, who,
however, did not cross the river, but took up a position between Pollos
and La Seca; Major-General Le Marchant's brigade being stationed at
Pollos and Naval del Rey to watch the ford.

Marshal Marmont being strengthened by a division from the Asturias,
pushed a column across the river on the 16th of July, in consequence
of which the troops in Pollos fell back upon Fuente la Pena. On the
18th, it was understood that the enemy's army had passed the Douro
at Tordesillas, by which manœuvre the safety of two divisions, and
a brigade of cavalry, on the Trebancos, was much endangered, and
Major-General Le Marchant's, with two other brigades of cavalry, were
quickly moved up to cover their retreat, which was effected with
trifling loss. The brigade had entered its bivouac near Canizal, when
an order was received for a squadron of the KING'S OWN to proceed
to the support of two guns, intended to be placed on the hill above
Castrillos. This order was soon increased to the whole regiment, which,
on its march, discovered that the enemy was advancing in force, and
pressing Major-General Alten's brigade very closely. Major Clowes
immediately solicited, and received permission to go to their support,
and the regiment accordingly advanced, and though checked by the
fire of some French infantry, assisted in driving back the enemy's
cavalry; the French infantry continuing to advance were repulsed by
Lieut.-General Cole's division, and pursued with great loss. In this
affair the regiment sustained the following loss; one serjeant-major,
six privates, and four horses killed; lieutenant Branfell, and two
privates wounded.[34]

On the 19th, the BRIGADE retired to the table land above the villages
of Vallesa and El Olmo, and on the 20th, the hostile armies manœuvred
within cannon shot of each other, the French moving to their left, and
the British to their right. On the 21st the British went into their old
position on the heights of St. Christoval, and the French crossed the
Tormes at the fords of Alba and Huerta, marching to their left. To
oppose this manœuvre, the British crossed the river at _Salamanca_. In
the course of this day's manœuvres, Major-General Le Marchant's brigade
crossed the river at the ford of Santa Marta three times, and took
up its bivouac on the south bank opposite the town. In the course of
this night so dreadful a thunder-storm burst upon the British lines,
that the horses broke loose; many were lost by running into the French
lines, and the remainder could not be secured till daybreak. The KING'S
OWN had to send to the rear an officer and sixteen men, severely
injured by the horses, which were all linked together, running over
them.

The morning of the 22nd of July, found the hostile armies opposed to
each other. The British line was formed with its left on the Tormes,
and its right on the rocky hills called the Arapiles; Major-General Le
Marchant's brigade, quitting its bivouac ground, formed line in the
centre of the position, to check the advance of the enemy's cavalry.
The French marshal manœuvred to gain the road to Ciudad Rodrigo; his
dragoons, after some skirmishing, were compelled to retire, and the
KING'S OWN again took ground to their right, passing the village of
Arapiles, and forming in support of the fourth and fifth divisions.
Lord Wellington, taking advantage of an injudicious movement made by
his opponent, ordered his divisions forward, and the battle commenced.
The French, attacked while making a complicated evolution, were
instantly broken. A favourable opportunity for a charge of the British
heavy cavalry occurring, the fifth dragoon guards, KING'S OWN, and
fourth dragoons, advanced, and a most animated scene presented itself.
The din of conflict was heard on every side; clouds of dust and rising
columns of smoke darkened the air, and enveloped the British squadrons
as they rushed to battle. In front, the glittering bayonets and waving
plumes of the French infantry were dimly seen through the thickened
atmosphere; against these formidable ranks, the English horsemen dashed
with terrific violence, the weight and fury of their charge broke the
opposing lines, and in an instant the French musketeers were overthrown
and trampled down with a terrible clamour and disturbance. 'Bewildered
and blinded, they cast away their arms and ran through the openings
of the British squadrons, stooping and demanding quarter, while the
dragoons, big men, and on big horses, rode onward, smiting with their
long glittering swords in uncontrollable power, and the third division
followed at speed, shouting as the French masses fell in succession
before this dreadful charge.'

'Nor were these valiant swordsmen yet exhausted. Their own general, Le
Marchant, and many officers had fallen, but Cotton and all his staff
were at their head, and with ranks confused, and blended together in
one mass, still galloping forward they sustained from a fresh column
an irregular stream of fire which emptied a hundred saddles; yet
with fine courage, and downright force, the survivors broke through
this the third and strongest body of men that had encountered them,
and Lord Edward Somerset, continuing his course at the head of one
squadron, with a happy perseverance, captured five guns. The French
left was entirely broken, more than two thousand prisoners were
taken, the French light horsemen abandoned that part of the field,
and Thomiere's division no longer existed as a military body. Anson's
cavalry, which had passed quite over the hill, and had suffered little
in the charge, was now joined by D'Urban's troopers, and took the place
of Le Marchant's exhausted men; the heavy German dragoons followed in
reserve, and with the third and fifth divisions and the guns formed one
formidable line two miles in advance of where Pakenham first attacked,
and that impetuous officer, with unmitigated strength, still pressed
forward, spreading terror and disorder on the enemy's left[35].'

In this attack Major-General Le Marchant received a ball through
the body, which terminated the career of that brave and talented
officer. Lieutenant Selby, of the KING'S OWN, was likewise killed by a
musket-shot through the left breast.[36] The result of this day was the
entire overthrow of the French, 7,000 prisoners, eleven guns and two
eagles remaining in the hands of the victors. The KING'S OWN earned, on
this occasion, the royal permission to bear the word 'SALAMANCA,' on
their guidons. They sustained the following loss: Killed,--Lieutenant
Selby, one serjeant, nine privates, and two officers' horses, and 13
troop horses. Wounded,--one serjeant, eight privates, and fifteen
horses.

After the action the French retreated upon Alba, where they crossed
the Tormes, and thence through Arevalo, upon Valladolid, sustaining in
their march a severe loss from the German cavalry, which, having been
uninjured in the battle, was despatched in pursuit of, and overtook
their rear-guard three leagues beyond Alba, defeating it, and taking
nine hundred prisoners.

The British army advanced on the route of the French, and entered
Valladolid on the 30th of July; on the following day Cuellar was
occupied, and on the 6th of August, the army moved on Segovia, crossed
the Guadarama mountains on the 10th, and entered Madrid on the 12th;
the brigade, now commanded by Colonel Ponsonby, forming the personal
escort of Lord Wellington.

After halting seven days at Madrid, the brigade moved to St. Ildefonso,
where it was cantoned for a few days. Intelligence was received that
the army of General Clausel, who had succeeded Marmont, was advancing
on Valladolid, and the British in consequence assembled at Olivares and
its vicinity. An immediate attack was intended; but the artillery of
the fifth division not arriving in time, the enemy retired on the 7th
of September, having destroyed the bridge at Valladolid. They continued
retreating rapidly till the 17th, when the immediate vicinity of Burgos
induced Clausel to make a stand, and Colonel Ponsonby's brigade was
ordered to the front; but, before the army could be formed for attack,
the enemy again retired to Breviesca, leaving a strong garrison in the
castle of Burgos.

The castle was invested, and the covering army took up a position on
the heights of Quintana Palla, the KING'S OWN being at Villa Yerna.

On the 19th of October, the French General Souham, who now commanded
in the place of Clausel, being greatly reinforced, resolved to attempt
the relief of Burgos. About four P. M. the French attacked and carried
the village of Quintanapalla, but were repulsed in every attempt to
penetrate farther, and abandoned the village on the approach of a force
destined to retake it, consisting of the left wing of infantry, and
Ponsonby's brigade of cavalry.

It being ascertained that Marshal Soult and Joseph Bonaparte were
moving on the Tagus, and that Sir Rowland Hill, menaced by such
powerful forces, could not maintain his position on that river, at the
same time his retreat would leave the army before Burgos, already in a
critical situation, quite insulated, the Marquis of Wellington resolved
to retire so far as was necessary to form a junction with Sir Rowland
Hill; and at dusk on the 21st, the army withdrew with such celerity and
silence that the French were not aware of the retreat till the British
had reached Hormillas, and did not show in any force till the evening
of the 22nd of October. On the next morning the retrograde movement was
continued in two columns, Ponsonby's brigade covering the column from
Hormillas, and being threatened during the day by an immense body of
cavalry. Such was the steadiness of the troops, that the overwhelming,
force of the French could make no impression and the column went into
bivouac for the night on the hills above Cordovilla, with little or no
loss.

An hour before daylight on the 24th, the column, covered by Ponsonby's
brigade, filed over the bridge of Cordovilla, and in the course of the
day, the army crossed the Carrion, the head-quarters being established
at Duenas. Early on the morning of the 25th, two squadrons of the
fifth dragoon guards and THIRD dragoons were sent to the bridges of
Palencia, to cover the party employed in mining them for destruction,
but the French, advancing in force, gained possession of the bridges in
an unbroken state. At this place the KING'S OWN lost a man and horse
by a round shot, and the party returned in the evening to Duenas; the
army having in the meantime destroyed the bridges at that place, and at
Villa Muriel, and the enemy having been defeated in an attempt to cross
by the fords.

[Sidenote: 1813]

The army retired four leagues on the 26th of October, and crossed the
Pisuerga at Cabezon, in which town, and its vicinity, it remained till
the 29th, when it retired early, and crossed the Douro at Tudela and
Puente del Douro, the bridges at which places were blown up, as were
those at Toro and Zamora; but the French having possessed themselves of
the bridge at Tordesillas, the British on the following morning took
up a position in front of it. In this position they remained till the
6th of November, when, the enemy having repaired the bridge of Toro,
it became necessary to retire to Torrecilla de la Orden, and thence,
on the 7th and 8th, to Salamanca. On the 14th, the French crossed the
Tormes, and the British recommenced their retreat on the following
morning, and entered Ciudad Rodrigo on the 18th; they afterwards went
into winter quarters on the frontiers of Portugal, the enemy not
advancing beyond the Yeltes. On the 20th, Ponsonby's brigade was at
Albergaria, where it halted eight days, after which the KING'S OWN
proceeded by the route of Guarda, Celerico, and Penhancos, to Saixho.
Here the regiment was quartered until the 28th of December, then at
Arganil till February 11th, 1813, and afterwards at Soure, near the
mouth of the Mondego, until the 19th of April.

On the above day the KING'S OWN moved towards the north of Portugal,
and rejoined the brigade at Braganza, on the 21st of May. On the 24th
the brigade was at Tabara, and on the 26th it crossed the Esla at
Pozuela. The enemy made no resistance at the passage of the river, and
was compelled to abandon the line of the Douro, by Lord Wellington's
advance along their rear. The column to which Ponsonby's brigade was
attached, was directed on Valencia, and passing through that town,
advanced on Burgos. On the 12th of June, the brigade overtook the
enemy's rear-guard on the heights of Estepar, when the KING'S OWN
were detached to cut off part of the enemy's force, in which the
regiment completely succeeded, making its way to the high road from
Madrid, throwing the enemy into confusion on Burgos; a squadron of the
fourteenth, with a detachment of the KING'S OWN, charging the enemy's
rear, captured a gun: the regiment had captain Sitwell and one private
wounded, and five horses killed and three wounded.

During the night of the 12th, the French blew up the castle of Burgos
and retired behind the Ebro, which river the brigade, after marching
through a wild and difficult region of deep narrow valleys and rugged
defiles, crossed at Puente de Arenas on the 15th. Both armies were
concentrated, the British on the river Bayas, and the French on the
undulating grounds in the valley of _Vittoria_, where, on the 21st of
June, they were attacked by the allied army. The result of this attack
was a most decisive victory, the French only carrying from the field
two guns; the whole of their immense equipment fell into the hands of
the British. Owing to the nature of the field of battle the cavalry
could scarcely act,[37] and that _arme_ was principally employed in
supporting the infantry, and in the pursuit, which was continued until
the enemy had passed Pampeluna. The gallant bearing of the KING'S
OWN was rewarded in 1821, with the royal permission to bear the word
"VITTORIA" on their guidons.

At this period, General Clausel with fifteen thousand men was at
Logroño, and of course, was not engaged in the battle; nor was he aware
that an engagement had taken place, till he arrived near Vittoria,
and found the town in the possession of the British: he then returned
to Logroño, and marched upon Tudela, hoping to reach Pampeluna before
the British. On the 27th his scheme was discovered, and the Marquis
of Wellington detached the cavalry with two divisions of infantry to
intercept him. This detached force arrived on the same night at Tafalla
and Olieta, and on the next morning advanced upon Tudela, when it was
discovered that Clausel, upon receiving intelligence of the force
sent against him, had retreated to Saragossa, whence he returned to
France by the pass of Jaca, his artillery falling into the hands of the
Spanish troops.

On the 30th of June the infantry returned to Pampeluna, and
Major-General Ponsonby's brigade remained at Tafalla for eleven days,
when forage becoming scarce, it moved to Laraga, and halted there a
fortnight.

The cavalry received an order to move to the north on the 27th of July,
in consequence of the troops having been forced from the passes of
Roncesvalles and Maya in the Pyrenees. The army took up a position at
Huarte and Villarba, and the town of Pampeluna was illuminated at the
prospect of relief. On the 28th, Soult attacked the British position,
but was repulsed with loss; Count D'Erlon's division was compelled to
fall back upon Maya, and the British recovered their lost ground. On
the 8th of August, the KING'S OWN fell back upon Allo and Dicastello,
and on the 27th of December, removed for the convenience of forage
to the neighbourhood of Vittoria, occupying the villages of Alegria,
Aranjuez, and Troconiz, and remained there until the 24th of February
following.

[Sidenote: 1814]

An advance took place, Ponsonby's brigade marched through the Pyrenean
mountains by Salinas Bergara, Villa Franca and Tolosa, to St. Jean de
Luz in France, halted there two days, and then advanced through Bidart
to the Adour, crossing the river on a bridge of boats, and continued
to follow the route of the French, who were retreating on Bayonne. The
advance was continued through Peyrehorade to Castlenau, and on the
19th of March, 1814, Marshal Soult was discovered in position, with
his left at _Tarbes_, and his right at Rabastens. This right flank was
ordered to be turned by a division of infantry, and Ponsonby's brigade
of cavalry, and being thus threatened, Soult retired through a strong
country by St. Gaudens, upon Toulouse. The British, being obliged to
wait for stores, did not advance rapidly, and on the 25th, the KING'S
OWN lay at Fontenelle. On the next day the regiment advanced to _La
Mosquiere_, and there came up with a regiment of French _Chasseurs
à cheval_, which it charged and drove beyond Cuneva, taking several
prisoners and horses, and seizing a large quantity of bread prepared by
the French for their own use. Lieut. Burns' horse was killed, Lieut.
Jebb's wounded, and two troop horses killed, but the regiment sustained
no further loss.

The army arrived before _Toulouse_ on the 27th of March, and on the
31st, a pontoon bridge being laid at St. Roques, the brigade crossed
the Garonne, and seized the bridge on the Arriege, at Cintagabelle. The
roads were found so bad in this direction that no further attempt was
made, and the troops being recalled, the pontoon bridge was removed to
Grenade, a town below Bayonne, and there laid down on the 4th of April.
On this day Ponsonby's, with two other brigades of cavalry, and three
divisions of infantry, crossed the river, the brigade being quartered
at Grissolles, and having a strong piquet on the road to Montauban. In
the course of the night the river rose so considerably, that the bridge
was obliged to be removed, and the communication was cut off; Soult,
however, made no attack, but employed himself in strengthening his
position, which covered Toulouse.

On the 8th of April the current subsided, and the pontoons were again
laid down. On the 9th the troops were passing the river, and on Easter
Sunday (the 10th), Soult was attacked in his position. In this attack
the brigade, then commanded by Colonel Lord Charles Manners, was at
different periods employed in supporting the Spanish forces, the
hussar brigade, and General Clinton's division. It was not a cavalry
action, and the only casualties were--Captain Burn, one trumpeter,
four privates, wounded: two horses killed. The enemy abandoned his
entrenchments before dusk, and took post behind the canal. The KING'S
OWN were rewarded for their conduct on this occasion with the royal
permission, dated 20th September, 1821, to bear the word "TOULOUSE" on
their guidons.

Marshal Soult retired down the canal on the 12th towards Carcasonne,
and on the 13th, hostilities were terminated by the arrival of the news
of the abdication of Napoleon, and of the accession of Louis XVIII.
to the throne of France; Marshals Soult and Suchet, after a short
delay, gave their assent to the new order of affairs, and a line of
demarcation between the armies was agreed upon. The KING'S OWN went
into quarters at Lanta and Caraman, and remained there until the end of
May.

On the 10th of June, the brigade, having embarked its dismounted men at
Bourdeaux, commenced its march to the north by the following route:--

  June 1, Toulouse,
    " 2, Grissoles,
    " 3, Montauban,
    " 4, Caussade,
    " 5, Cahors,
    " 7, Frechisse,
    " 8, Souillac,
    " 9, Brives,
    " 11, Uzorches,
    " 12, Pierre Buffiere,
    " 13, Limoges,
    " 15, Bessines,
    " 16, St. Burnot,
    " 17, Argenton,
    " 18, Chateauroux,
    " 20, Vatan,
    " 21, Vierzon,
    " 22, Salbris,
    " 23, Lafecte,
    " 24, Orleans,
    " 26, Artenay,
    " 27, Angerville,
    " 28, Etampes,
    " 30, St. Aumal,
  July 1, Montfort,
    " 2, Mantes,
    " 4, Gisors,
    " 5, Gournay,
    " 6, Neufchatel,
    " 7, Blangy,
    " 8, Abbeville,
    " 10, Rue,
    " 11, Montreuil,
    " 12, Boulogne.

At Boulogne Major-General Sir Henry Fane inspected the three regiments,
and expressed his satisfaction at the efficiency of the brigade
after so long a march. He congratulated the commanding officers on
the excellent condition of their horses, and selected a number,
of which the KING'S OWN furnished fifteen, to be given up to the
French government for the purpose of mounting the royal guard. On
the 19th of July, the brigade, having received the highest praise
from Major-General the Hon. W. Ponsonby,[38] embarked at Boulogne and
arrived at Dover on the following day, the KING'S OWN having been
absent three years, from the time of their embarkation on the 25th of
the same month, 1811.

From Dover the KING'S OWN marched through Maidstone to Brentford,
and, on the 28th of July, were reviewed on Hounslow Heath by His
Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief, immediately afterwards
commencing their march to Northampton and joining the depôt (which
had marched thither from Canterbury) on the 3rd of August. On the 13th
two troops were reduced, and on the 16th, the regiment marched for
Newcastle-on-Tyne, arriving there on the 1st of September; two troops
were detached to Carlisle, and one to Durham.

On the 26th of September, the head-quarters marched into York
barracks,[39] troops being left at Newcastle, Morpeth, Carlisle,
and Workington. In these quarters the Regiment was reviewed by
Lieutenant-General Wynyard in the summer of 1815, and afterwards
marched for St. Albans.

[Sidenote: 1815]

In the meantime Napoleon Bonaparte had returned to France; a British
army had assembled in Belgium under the command of the Duke of
Wellington; the battle of Waterloo had been won, and the KING'S OWN
were ordered to form ten troops, four of which marched to Coventry, and
the remaining  six, consisting of thirty-two officers, thirty-four
serjeants, six trumpeters, three hundred and seventy-one rank and
file, and three hundred and eighty-two horses, proceeded to Dover and
Ramsgate, where they immediately embarked for Ostend to reinforce the
British army in France.

The KING'S OWN disembarked at Ostend on the 24th of July, and moving
up the country into France, were, on their arrival in the vicinity of
Paris, placed in cantonments at Chaton, near Malmaison. On the 2nd of
September, the Emperor of Russia reviewed the first and eighth brigades
of cavalry, consisting of the first and second life guards, royal horse
guards, first, second, and third dragoon guards, and THIRD dragoons. On
the 22nd of the same month, the allied army was reviewed by the Duke of
Wellington on the plain of St. Denis, and on the 11th of October, the
whole of the British, Hanoverian, Danish, and Saxon contingents, were
reviewed between Paris and St. Denis, by the Duke of Wellington, the
Emperor of Russia, and the King of Prussia; after the review the KING'S
OWN marched to Nantes, where they remained several months.

[Sidenote: 1816]

On the 25th of January, 1816, the KING'S OWN forming part of the Army
of Occupation left in France after the restoration of Louis XVIII. left
Nantes, and after successively making short halts at Bonnieres, Ligny,
and Bailleul, took up quarters at Steenvoorde, on the 1st of June.
Here the regiment remained till the 1st of August, and then marched to
Theronenne, where it was twice reviewed; on the 12th of October by the
Duke of Wellington, and on the 22nd by His Royal Highness the Duke of
Kent, and the Duke of Wellington. At this last review the whole of the
British army was assembled on the plains of Denain. After the review
the regiment marched to Audricq, and remained there all the following
year; occasionally, however, moving to different towns, as Bouberg,
Louches, and the vicinity of St. Omer, for the purpose of reviews and
inspections, or to make room for troops marching to the coast for
embarkation.

[Sidenote: 1818]

In the year 1818 the reviews went on in the same way and on the same
ground, until October 18th, on which day the KING'S OWN, being ordered
to return to England, embarked at Calais for Dover, landed there on the
following day, and marched to Canterbury. On the 24th, a considerable
reduction took place in the regiment, two troops being disbanded, and
the remaining eight ordered to consist of one serjeant-major, two
serjeants, three corporals, one trumpeter, one farrier, forty-two
privates, and thirty-four horses each.

In October, 1818, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in the name and
on the behalf of His Majesty, was pleased to direct, that the THIRD and
FOURTH Regiments of _Dragoons_ should be mounted, clothed, and equipped
as _Light Dragoon_ Regiments; the alteration of title, &c., to take
effect from the 25th December, 1818.

[Sidenote: 1819]

On the 26th October, two squadrons, under the command of Major
Davenport, marched to Salt Hill, to attend the funeral of Her
Majesty Queen Charlotte, and on the 7th of December, the remaining
troops marched for Bristol, on their route to Ireland, disembarked
at Waterford, and detaching one squadron to Tullamore, marched into
Newbridge barracks on the 7th of February, 1819. In these stations the
regiment was reviewed by Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Paget, who was
pleased to express his approbation of its appearance and discipline.

[Sidenote: 1820]

In January, 1820, in consequence of the disturbed state of the province
of Connaught, two squadrons of the regiment were hastily ordered to
march thither; one troop was quartered at Ballinasloe, one at Tuam, and
the other two at Ballinrobe. In March, Generals Sir Edward Paget and
Sir John Elley arrived with all the disposable force, and from their
exertions the country assumed some appearance of tranquillity.

The KING'S OWN returned to Newbridge, and was there, on the 22nd of
May, inspected by Major-General Sir Colquhoun Grant, who was pleased to
give them the highest praise.

On the 18th of June, the KING'S OWN marched to Dublin, and on the next
day was reviewed, for the first time, as a "LIGHT REGIMENT;" other
reviews took place on the 21st and 30th, before Lieut.-General Sir
David Baird, and the regiment returned to Newbridge.

On the 16th of August, the KING'S OWN marched into Dublin, relieving
the royal dragoons, who sailed for England, and in October, the
regiment was inspected by Major-General Sir Colquhoun Grant, who
issued the following order:--

                                                    'October 14th, 1820.

'The half-yearly inspection of the KING'S OWN LIGHT DRAGOONS affords
Major-General Sir C. Grant an opportunity of again expressing his
approbation of that corps. The interior arrangements, field movements,
attention of the officers, and steadiness of the men, all enable him to
make the most satisfactory report to the Commander of the Forces.'

[Sidenote: 1821]

The regiment remained in Dublin during the winter, and in January,
1821, the colonelcy was conferred on Lieut.-General Stapleton Cotton,
Viscount Combermere, K.C.B., G.C.H., in succession to General
Cartwright, who was removed to the first dragoon guards.

On the 17th of August the regiment had the honour of forming the
personal escort of His Majesty King George the Fourth, on his public
entry into Dublin. On the 18th, His Majesty reviewed the garrison,
then consisting of the THIRD and sixth dragoons, seventh hussars,
twelfth and nineteenth lancers, of the twenty-third, thirty-third,
forty-third, fifty-second, and seventy-eighth regiments of infantry.
The King remained in Dublin until the 2nd of September, on which day,
having been escorted to Powerscourt by a detachment of HIS OWN regiment
of dragoons, His Majesty embarked at Dunleary, the remainder of the
regiment forming a guard of honour at the harbour.

On the 4th and 5th of September, the KING'S OWN marched out of Dublin,
and took up quarters in the counties of Waterford and Wexford, at
Cahir, New Ross, and Fethard.[40] Here, however, they remained only a
short time, being ordered to Newcastle and Limerick, in consequence of
the disturbances which agitated that part of Ireland, particularly the
county of Limerick.

[Sidenote: 1822]

In these quarters the regiment was inspected on the 22nd of October, by
Major General Sir John Elley, and in January, 1822, the head-quarters
marched to Limerick, troops and detachments being stationed at nine
different places in the south of Ireland. The regiment was, in June,
again inspected by Sir John Elley, and being ordered to embark for
England, had the honour of receiving an order from Major-General Sir
John Lambert, commanding the district, in which the major-general was
pleased to state that 'he could not allow the regiment to leave the
district without expressing his entire satisfaction at the manner in
which most harassing duties had been performed by the head-quarters and
detachments in the disturbed part of the country.'

[Sidenote: 1823]

On the 19th and 22nd of June, the regiment embarked at Waterford, and
landing at Bristol, proceeded to Brighton, and on the 28th of October,
having marched to Chichester, was reviewed by Major-General Lord Edward
Somerset, one troop being detached to Hastings. On the 7th of November,
the regiment marched to Romford, where it remained till June, 1828, and
hence proceeded to Hampton Court and its vicinity. Here, on the 15th of
July, a grand cavalry review took place. The brigades were a cuirassier
brigade, first and second life guards, and royal horse guards,
commanded by Colonel Sir Robert Hill; a light brigade, KING'S OWN light
dragoons, seventh and fifteenth hussars, commanded by Colonel Lord
Charles Manners; and a brigade of horse artillery, commanded by Colonel
Sir Augustus Frazer. These troops, being commanded by Major-General
Lord E. Somerset, were reviewed by His Royal Highness the Duke of
York, Commander-in-Chief, and on the 22nd, an order was issued highly
flattering to the whole of the regiments present.

[Sidenote: 1824]

The KING'S OWN remained at Hounslow for some months, in the course of
which, on leaving the station of Hampton Court, the troops received a
most honourable testimonial of their character and conduct from His
Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence.[41]

On the 7th of July, 1824, the same brigades under the same officers,
were again reviewed by His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief, and
on the 12th the head-quarters of the KING'S OWN marched for Coventry,
troops being detached to Birmingham, Hinckley, and Abergavenny.

[Sidenote: 1825]

In May, 1825, the regiment having been inspected by Major-General
Lord Edward Somerset, the head-quarters moved to Newcastle-on-Tyne,
a squadron being detached to Carlisle. On the 22nd of July, a party
was detached to Sunderland, in consequence of the riots there, in
which the associated keelmen had gained such power as to prevent any
vessels putting to sea. On the 3rd of August, these disturbances grew
to such a height that it became necessary for the military, under the
direction of the magistrates, to make use of their arms, when seven
lives were unfortunately lost; but of so good effect was this salutary
severity, that from that time order was restored, and the troops
returned to Newcastle, receiving from Major-General Harris, commanding
the district, from the Horse-guards, and from the magistrates and
inhabitants of Sunderland, the highest praise for their coolness and
forbearance, under very trying circumstances.[42]

On the 27th of May, 1825, Colonel Lord Charles S. Manners was
promoted to the rank of Major-General, and was succeeded in the
Lieutenant-colonelcy of the THIRD, KING'S OWN, LIGHT DRAGOONS  by
Colonel Lord Robert Manners, from the half-pay of the Tenth Royal
Hussars.

[Sidenote: 1826]

[Sidenote: 1827]

On the 3rd of March, 1826, the KING'S OWN commenced their march for
Portpatrick, embarked there for Ireland, and took up their quarters at
Dundalk, Belturbet, and Longford, the squadron from which latter place
afterwards marched to Belfast. On the 23rd of September, the regiment
assembled at Dundalk, and was there inspected by Major-General Sir
Colquhoun Grant, the detached squadrons immediately returning to their
former quarters, and the whole marching into Dublin, in June 1827, and
occupying Portobello barracks. The regiment remained at Dublin nine
months, and then marched into Connaught, receiving the highest praise
from Lieutenant-General Sir George Murray. It was then quartered as
follows: one troop and head-quarters at Ballinrobe, two troops at
Athlone, two troops at Gort, and one at Loughrea.

[Sidenote: 1828]

[Sidenote: 1829]

The five detached troops received orders on the 30th of June to proceed
to Ennis, to assist in preserving the peace during the Clare election.
Two troops were quartered in a ruined distillery, two in the yards of
the infirmary, and one at Clare Castle, where Major-General Sir Charles
Doyle, who had arrived from Limerick, established his head-quarters.
The troops remained at Ennis ten days, and then returned to their
former stations, the regiment being stationed in Connaught for fifteen
months, and receiving on three several occasions the highest character
from Major-General Taylor, and Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot,
K.C.B., the inspecting general officers; the latter of whom was pleased
to express 'his regret at losing from his district a regiment which
had done itself such credit by its excellent conduct, while under his
command.' This order is dated 30th April, 1829; and in the beginning
of the next month, the regiment embarked at Dublin for England, being
ordered to proceed to Exeter; but on landing at Liverpool, it was
detained in the north, in consequence of some disturbances there, and
ordered to march on the evening of debarkation to Prescot, one squadron
being directed upon Manchester, and troops to Bury, Bolton, Blackburn,
and Haslingden. On the 15th of June, the head-quarters moved to
Sheffield, the troops from Bolton occupying Rochdale; and on the 5th of
July, in consequence of riots in the town of Barnsley, a troop was sent
thither, and remained there till the following spring.

In September General Viscount Combermere was removed to the first
life guards; and the colonelcy of the KING'S OWN was conferred on
Lieut.-General Lord George Thomas Beresford, G.C.H.

In the course of this year a squadron was detached to Doncaster, in
consequence of riots at the races there; and the regiment was inspected
by Major-General Sir H. Vivian, when Colonel Lord Robert Manners
received the directions of the Major-General to express his approbation
of the state of the regiment, and in addition to the flattering terms
in which the General expressed his opinion of the officers and men on
the parade, he directed the commanding officer to issue an order,
entirely approving of all he had seen, which order he desired might not
only be entered in the regimental order book, but likewise inserted in
the regimental records.

[Sidenote: 1830]

On the 6th of April, 1830, the KING'S OWN marched into York, detaching
one troop to Newcastle-on-Tyne: and on the 21st of May, they were
reviewed by Major-General Sir H. Bouverie, commanding the northern
district.[43] On the 25th of November, the regiment left York _en
route_ to Nottingham, being ordered there to replace troops employed
in quelling disturbances in the south of England. On the 6th of
December, one troop was detached to Loughborough, in consequence of
riots there, and returned on the 17th, receiving a vote of thanks from
the magistrates of Leicestershire for their readiness and promptitude.
On the 22nd, the regiment was ordered to complete its establishment to
the full numbers, and accordingly detached parties to Loughborough and
Derby; and on the 29th, the first division, immediately followed by the
others, left Nottingham and returned to York. At York an increase in
the number of horses took place, the number per troop being fixed at
forty-five.

[Sidenote: 1831]

In consequence of a sudden order received on the night of the 2nd of
March, 1831, for the regiment to march on the following morning, one
squadron moved to Leeds, and the second to Burnley; but on the 4th of
April, the latter squadron returned to Leeds to succeed the first,
which had marched to Newcastle. On the 25th of the same month, a troop
marched to Chester-le-Street, near Durham; and on the 5th and 6th of
May, the remaining part of the regiment left Leeds for Newcastle. In
this quarter the regiment was employed in the suppression of riots
among the colliers, and was inspected by Major-General Dalbiac.

[Sidenote: 1832]

On the 23rd of September, the KING'S OWN marched in three divisions to
Edinburgh, where they remained for eight months; and in April, 1832,
proceeded to Glasgow and Hamilton.

[Sidenote: 1833]

[Sidenote: 1834]

[Sidenote: 1835]

Returning to England in the spring of 1833, the regiment was stationed
at Ipswich and Norwich; in the summer of 1834 it was removed to
Hounslow and took the King's duty; and in the summer of 1835 it
embarked for Ireland, and occupied quarters at Cork, Ballincollig, and
Limerick.

[Sidenote: 1836]

[Sidenote: 1837]

In June, 1836, the KING'S OWN were stationed at Cahir and Clonmel;
and returning to England in the spring of 1837, they proceeded to
Canterbury. On the 19th May, 1837, Colonel Joseph Thackwell, late of
the 15th Hussars, exchanged from the half-pay with Lieutenant Colonel
Stisted.

The regiment, having been selected to proceed to the East Indies,
embarked in July, 1837, for Bengal, and landed at Calcutta on the 13th
of November following, under the command of Colonel Thackwell.

[Sidenote: 1838]

The regiment was encamped in January, 1838, at Calcutta; in February at
Burkee; in March at Kusseah; in April at Cawnpore, where it continued
until the end of the year.[44]

[Sidenote: 1839]

In February, 1839, the regiment was encamped at Chibbermold; in March
at Meerut, at which station it remained until December, when it
returned to Cawnpore.

The decease of Lieutenant-General Lord George Thomas Beresford, G.C.H.,
having taken place on the 26th October, 1839, Her Majesty was pleased
to confer the colonelcy of the THIRD, OR KING'S OWN LIGHT DRAGOONS,
on Lieutenant General Lord Charles Somerset Manners, K.C.B., on the
8th November, 1839: Lord Charles Manners had commanded the regiment as
Lieutenant-Colonel from 1812 to 1825, when he was promoted to the rank
of Major-General.

On the 13th December, 1839, Lieut.-Colonel Michael White was promoted
by purchase in succession to Lieut.-Colonel G. G. Tuite.

[Sidenote: 1840]

[Sidenote: 1842]

The regiment remained at Cawnpore until October, 1840, when it
proceeded to Kurnaul. It marched from thence on 28th January, 1842,
_en route_ for Ferozepore, having been selected to form part of the
force which had been ordered to proceed under Major-General Pollock to
relieve the troops under Colonel Sir Robert Sale, who had gallantly
defended Jellalabad; and also for the purpose of inflicting retribution
upon the Affghans, whose treachery had caused the loss of so many brave
officers and soldiers.

The THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS continued their advance on Peshawur, and
a squadron of the regiment, under Lieutenant Unett, protected the
column of attack under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor, of
Her Majesty's Ninth Regiment of Foot, which captured the heights on
the right entrance to the _Khyber Pass_, on the 5th April, 1842.
Major-General Pollock, in his despatch announcing the successful
advance of the troops into the Khyber Pass, states: 'there were some of
the enemy's horse in the vicinity of Ali Musjid, but I regret they did
not wait for Brigadier White (Lieutenant-Colonel of the KING'S OWN) and
his brigade to make an example of them.'

The regiment arrived at Jellalabad in April, 1842, where it remained
until the 14th August following, when it proceeded to Futteabad,
detaching one squadron to Mammoo Khail on the 23rd of that month. The
THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS left Futteabad on the 2nd September, and on
arriving at _Jugdulluck_, the summits of the hills, which command the
road through the pass, were perceived to be occupied by a considerable
number of the enemy, who were assembled in bodies under different
chieftains, each having a distinguishing standard; their position
was one of singular strength and difficulty of approach. The heights
occupied by the Ghilzies formed an amphitheatre, inclining towards
the left of the road, on which the troops were halted, while the guns
opened; and the enemy were thus enabled, on this point, to fire into
the column, a deep ravine preventing the troops coming in contact with
them.

The British troops, however, on attacking one of their hill-forts, gave
an animated and enthusiastic cheer, which so dismayed the enemy, that
they fled down the heights without waiting the collision, and were
thus enabled to escape chastisement by the nature of the ground, which
was so well calculated to favour their retreat. At this moment, Major
Lockwood with the THIRD, KING'S OWN LIGHT DRAGOONS, galloped up, and
nearly succeeded in overtaking the enemy's cavalry, who effected their
safety by flight.[45]

The loss of the regiment at the storming of the heights of _Jugdulluck_
on the 8th of September, 1842, was limited to two men wounded.

Major-General Pollock, in his despatch, speaks of the conduct of the
troops employed in the following terms:--

'It gratifies me to be enabled to state, that we have thus signally
defeated, with one division of the troops, the most powerful tribes,
and the most inveterate of our enemies, the original and principal
actors in those disturbances which entailed such disasters on our
troops last winter.'

The regiment was also engaged with the enemy in the _Tezeen_ valley,
which is completely encircled by lofty hills; the pass of Tezeen
affords great advantages to an enemy occupying the heights, and Mahomed
Akbar-Khan neglected nothing to render its natural difficulties
as formidable as possible; accordingly on the morning of the 13th
September, the Affghans appeared in great force on every height which
had not been occupied by the British army. Two squadrons of the THIRD
LIGHT DRAGOONS, a party of the first light cavalry, and of the third
irregular cavalry, with two guns, were left to guard the mouth of
the Tezeen pass. The enemy's horse appeared in the valley with the
intention of falling upon the baggage; but the Light Dragoons and
native cavalry made a most brilliant charge, and completely routed
the whole body of the enemy's force, cutting down a great number of
them. The fight continued during the greater part of the day, the
Affghans appearing resolved to prevent our ascending the _Huft Kotul_;
one spirit, however, pervaded all, and the determination to conquer
overcame the obstinate resistance of the foe, who were at length forced
from their numerous and strong positions, and the British troops
mounted the _Huft Kotul_, giving three cheers on reaching the summit.
Here Lieutenant Cunningham, with a party of sappers, pressed the enemy
so hard, that they left in their precipitation a twenty-four pounder
howitzer and limber, carrying off the draught bullocks. Information
being received that another gun had been seen, a squadron of cavalry
under Captain Tritton, of the THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS, and two horse
artillery guns, under Major Delafosse, were detached in pursuit; the
gun (a twelve-pounder howitzer) and bullocks sufficient for the two
guns, were soon captured. The Light Dragoons again got among the
enemy, and succeeded in destroying many of them. Captain Broadfoot,
with the sappers, advanced, and with the dragoons happened to fall
in with another party of Affghans, of whom upwards of twenty were
killed. It was ascertained, that the enemy numbered sixteen thousand, a
considerable portion being cavalry; and that Mahomed Akbar-Khan, with
several other powerful chiefs, was present[46].

The British thus gained a complete victory, and the enemy must have
suffered severely, several hundreds of them having been killed, and
their guns, and three standards, captured from them. A detachment of
the THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS formed part of the rear-guard of the army
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Richmond, of the 33rd Native
Infantry, and it being resolved to anticipate the evident intention
of the Affghans, by attacking them in the valley of Tezeen, on the
13th September, the guns were moved forward within range of the
enemy, supported by the front squadron of the THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS
under Captain Unett, with other corps, in order to charge the foe if
the ground proved favourable, and an opportunity offered; this soon
occurred, the guns having made good impression, and the other squadron
of cavalry, under Major Lockwood, was hurried forward as a support,
thus ensuring the success achieved by the spirited and gallant charge
of their comrades in front, which completely dispersed the enemy, who
left about fifty men on the field.[47]

Major-General Pollock, in his despatch of the action at _Tezeen_,
expresses his satisfaction with the exertions of Lt.-Colonel White of
the THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS, commanding the cavalry brigade, and also of
Major Lockwood, who commanded the regiment. The THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS
sustained but trifling loss in the _Tezeen_ valley, and on the Huft
Kotul, on the 12th and 13th September, having only one serjeant and
four rank and file wounded; two horses killed, and eleven wounded.

After these successes, the army moved on without opposition, and
arrived at CABOOL on the 15th September, where they encamped on the
race course. The THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS, under Major Lockwood, proceeded
with other corps to plant the British colours in the _Bala Hissar_, on
the spot most conspicuous from the city. On the colours being hoisted,
the band of Her Majesty's Ninth Regiment of Foot struck up 'God save
the Queen,' and a royal salute was fired from the guns of the horse
artillery, the whole of the troops present giving three cheers. The
colours in the Bala Hissar were hoisted daily as long as the army
remained at Cabool.

The head-quarters and two squadrons of the regiment, under Major
Lockwood, formed part of the force which was detached under
Major-General McCaskill (Lieutenant-Colonel of the Ninth Foot), for
the purpose of dispersing the enemy collected in the vicinity of
_Charekar_, and took part in the operations against the strong and
populous town of _Istalif_, which was considered by the Affghans as
totally inaccessible, but which was captured on the 29th September
1842; the numerous levies collected for its defence were totally
defeated, and property of every description (much of it plundered from
the army in 1841) was recovered; two brass field-pieces were captured,
one of which was seized with such promptitude, that its captor,
Lieutenant Elmhirst, of Her Majesty's Ninth Foot, turned its fire upon
the fugitives with some effect[48].

Among the gratifying results of these successes was the release
of several ladies and officers who had been detained prisoners by
Akbar-Khan.

The regiment, having been present during the whole of the operations
west of the Indus, leading to the occupation of Cabool, has received
the Royal permission to bear on its appointments the word '_Cabool
1842_.'

[Sidenote: 1843]

[Sidenote: 1844]

The regiment left Cabool on the 12th October, 1842, and arrived at
Ferozepore on the 18th December, from whence it marched to Kurnaul,
where it arrived on the 27th January 1843; it remained at Kurnaul until
November, when it marched for Umballa, and continued at that station
during the year 1844, and until the end of the following year.

[Sidenote: 1845]

On the 11th December, 1845, the regiment, consisting of 518 men, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Michael White, marched from cantonments
at Umballa, and formed a part of the leading division of the _Army of
the Sutlej_, hastily assembled, under the personal command of General
Sir Hugh Gough, G.C.B., Commander-in-Chief in India, for the purpose of
repelling an invasion by the _Sikhs_.[49]

On arriving at the village of _Moodkee_, a distance of one hundred
and fifty miles, on the 18th December, the army had just taken up its
encampments, when intelligence was received, that the enemy's forces,
consisting of twenty thousand cavalry, and about the same number of
infantry and artillery, were close at hand, and intended to surprise
the British camps. The cavalry were immediately turned out, and
advanced to cover the formation of the infantry, and the distinguished
part which the _Third, or King's Own Regiment of Light Dragoons_, took
in the sanguinary and memorable battle of the evening of that day may
be best judged from the words of His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief
in his despatch of the 19th December 1845:--'I directed the cavalry,
under Brigadiers White and Gough (of the KING'S OWN), to make a flank
movement on the enemy's left, with a view of threatening and turning
that flank, if possible.

'With praiseworthy gallantry, the THIRD LIGHT DRAGOONS, and the second
brigade of cavalry, consisting of the body-guard and Fifth Light
cavalry, with a portion of the Fourth Lancers, turned the left of the
Sikh army, and sweeping along the whole rear of its infantry and guns,
silenced for a time the latter, and put their numerous cavalry to
flight.'

In this action the regiment suffered severely, owing to the nature of
the ground, and the immense body of cavalry opposed to it. The loss,
out of four hundred and ninety-four men, on this occasion, was as
follows:--killed, 3 officers, 58 men; 5 officers' chargers, and 100
troop horses; wounded, 3 officers, 34 men; 2 officers' chargers, and 21
troop horses.

Brevet Major W. R. Herries, Captain G. Newton, and Cornet E. Worley,
were killed.

Lieutenant S. Fisher (Acting Major of Brigade), E. G. Swinton, and E.
B. Cureton, were severely wounded.

On the 21st December, the army again advanced; the Third Light Dragoons
had about four hundred men; and came up with the enemy, said to consist
of 70,000 men, who were strongly posted in and around the village of
"FEROZESHAH" their camp intrenched, and defended by a numerous and
powerful artillery.

At about four o'clock in the afternoon the action became general. The
_Third Light Dragoons_ were ordered to attack the enemy's position at
a point defended by some of the heaviest batteries, most of the guns
being of battering calibre: as the regiment advanced, it was assailed
with round shot and shell from several batteries. On arriving within
about two hundred and fifty yards of the guns, the regiment moved on at
top speed, under a most destructive fire of grape and musketry, whilst
their infantry held the trenches at the point of the bayonet. Nothing
dismayed, but determined on victory, the regiment pressed forward, and
never for a moment was checked in its career until it finally entered
the enemy's camp, and captured the whole of the batteries opposed to
it; many of the Sikh artillerymen remaining to be cut down at their
guns. Night having fallen, while the conflict was everywhere raging,
and several mines having been sprung, together with the exploding of
their field magazines, by which several men and horses were destroyed,
the regiment was withdrawn a short distance from the burning camp,
where it bivouacked for the night.

The enemy having held a portion of his position, and being strongly
reinforced in the night, the battle was renewed the next morning, and
the _Third Light Dragoons_ at daybreak joined the remainder of the
cavalry, and participated in the action of the 22nd of December, when
about three o'clock, P. M., the _Third Light Dragoons_ were again
ordered to charge the enemy, which he did not wait to receive, and
he was finally driven from the field, and the army bivouacked on the
ground they had won. The men and horses of the _Third Light Dragoons_
were upwards of forty hours without food or water, nearly the whole of
the time exposed to, and in conflict with, a powerful enemy; the days
were hot and the nights intensely cold.

In this great battle the regiment lost as follows:--killed, 2 officers
and 53 men; wounded, 7 officers and 86 men; total, 9 officers and 139
men: killed, 9 officers' chargers and 98 troop horses: wounded, 60
troop horses; total killed and wounded, 9 officers' chargers and 158
troop horses.

The officers killed, were Captain J. E. Codd and Cornet H. Ellis;
wounded, Colonel M. White, slightly: Major C. W. M. Balders, slightly:
Lieutenants, H. C. Morgan, severely; J. G. A. Beeston, slightly:
Cornets, W. H. Orme, severely; J. D. White and J. Rathwell, slightly.

The Commander-in-Chief, in his despatch of the 22nd December, 1845,
observes as follows: 'Although I brought up Major-General Sir Harry
Smith's division, and he captured and long retained another point of
the position, and Her Majesty's Third Light Dragoons charged and
took some of the most formidable batteries, yet the enemy remained in
possession of a considerable portion of the great quadrangle, whilst
our troops, intermingled with theirs, kept possession of the remainder,
and finally bivouacked upon it, exhausted by their gallant efforts,
greatly reduced in numbers, and suffering extremely from thirst, yet
animated by an indomitable spirit. In this state of things, the long
night wore away!'

The Right Honourable the Governor-General, (Lord Hardinge), who
personally witnessed the prowess of the regiment on the battle-field,
makes honorable mention thereof in his Orders, dated 30th December,
1845.

'The Governor-General offers his thanks more especially to Her
Majesty's Third Light Dragoons, who, on all these occasions, sought
opportunities of useful conflict with the enemy, and fought with that
superiority over their opponents which skill and discipline impart to
brave and determined men.'

The regiment was detached from the army at Sultan-Khan-Wallah, and sent
to _Ferozepore_, where it arrived on the 31st December 1845.

[Sidenote: 1846]

It remained at Ferozepore until the 18th January, 1846, and again
proceeded to, and joined, the head quarters of the army at Jelliwallah,
on the 20th of January.

The glorious action at _Aliwal_ took place on the 28th of January,
'when the enemy's camp was carried by storm; the whole of his cannon
and munitions of war were captured, and his army driven headlong across
the Sutlej; even on the right bank of which he found no refuge from the
fire of our artillery.'

The Third Light Dragoons were assembled on parade on the morning of the
29th of January to celebrate the victory of _Aliwal_, when the Right
Honourable the Governor-General, in the presence of the whole army,
was pleased to make use of the following words, most gratifying to the
feelings of every soldier:--'Colonel White, your regiment is an honour
to the British army; and I wish you to make known these my sentiments,
as head of this Government, to your officers and men.'

On the 10th of February, 1846, the regiment had the proud satisfaction
of sharing and taking a conspicuous part in that glorious and mighty
combat, _the Battle of Sobraon_, when the Sikhs were driven from their
stronghold, and precipitated in masses into the Sutlej, and those proud
invaders were expelled the soil of British India.

The Right Honourable the Governor-General, in his Order of Thanks
to the Army, was pleased to pass the following high encomium on the
conduct of the regiment in this fight:--

'Her Majesty's Third Light Dragoons, as usual, were in the foremost
ranks, and distinguished themselves under their commanding officer,
Lieut.-Colonel White.'

His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, in his despatch, dated 13th
February, 1846, thus expresses his unqualified approbation of the
conduct of the regiment on this occasion:--'The Sikhs, even when at
particular points their intrenchments were mastered by the bayonet,
strove to regain them by the fiercest conflict sword in hand; nor was
it until the cavalry of the left, under the command of Major-General
Sir Joseph Thackwell,[50] had moved forward and ridden through the
openings in the intrenchments made by our Sappers, in single files,
and reformed as they passed them, and the Third Light Dragoons, whom
no obstacle usually held formidable by horse, appears to check, had on
this day, _as at Ferozeshah_, galloped over, and cut down the obstinate
defenders of batteries and field-works, and until the full weight
of three divisions of infantry with every field artillery gun which
could be sent to their aid, had been cast into the scale, that victory
finally declared for the British.[51]

'The fire of the Sikhs first slackened, and then nearly ceased; and
the victors then pressing them on every side, precipitated them in
masses over their bridge, and into the Sutlej, which a sudden rise of
seven inches had rendered hardly fordable. In their efforts to reach
the right bank through the deepened water, they suffered from our
horse-artillery a terrible carnage: hundreds fell under this cannonade;
hundreds upon hundreds were drowned in attempting the perilous passage.
Their awful slaughter, confusion, and dismay, were such as would have
excited compassion in the hearts of their generous conquerors, if the
Khalsa troops had not, in the earlier part of the action, sullied
their gallantry by slaughtering and barbarously mangling every wounded
soldier, whom, in the vicissitudes of attack, the fortune of war left
at their mercy.

'I must pause in this narrative to notice, especially, the determined
hardihood and bravery with which our two battalions of Ghoorkhas, the
Sirmoor and Nusseeree, met the Sikhs, wherever they were opposed to
them: soldiers, of small stature but indomitable spirit, they vied in
ardent courage in the charge with the grenadiers of our own nation; and
armed with the short weapon of their mountains, were a terror to the
Sikhs throughout this great combat.

'Sixty-seven pieces of cannon, upwards of two hundred camel-swivels
(zumbooruks), numerous standards, and vast munitions of war, captured
by our troops, are the pledges and trophies of our victory.

'The battle was over by eleven in the morning; and in the forenoon I
caused our engineers to burn a part, and to sink a part, of the vaunted
bridge of the Khalsa army, across which they had boastfully come once
more to defy us, and to threaten India with ruin and devastation.

'The consequences of this great action have yet to be fully developed.
It has at least, in God's providence, once more expelled the Sikhs from
our territory, and planted our standards on the soil of the Punjaub.
After occupying their entrenched position for nearly a month, the
Khalsa army had perhaps mistaken the _caution_, which had induced us
to wait for the necessary materiel, for _timidity_: but they must now
deeply feel, that the blow, which has fallen on them from the British
arm, has only been the heavier for being long delayed.'

The following are the losses sustained by the Third Light Dragoons
in the action of _Sobraon_: killed, 5 men, 1 troop horse; wounded, 4
officers and 22 men, 2 officers' chargers and 13 troop horses.

The officers wounded were, Lieutenant-Colonel J. B. Gough (Acting
Quarter-Master General), very severely; Lieutenant J. B. Hawkes,
slightly; Cornet Kauntze, severely; and Quarter-Master A. Crabtree,
slightly.

The Third Light Dragoons crossed the Sutlej on the 13th February,
1846, and marched on _Lahore_, where the British army arrived on the
20th, and encamped on that soil held sacred by the Khalsa troops, the
'Plains of Myan Meer,' where it remained until the 24th March. The
object for which the army was assembled having been attained, the Third
Light Dragoons returned to their former quarters at Umballa on the 7th
April, having, in less than four months, marched upwards of six hundred
miles, and taken a conspicuous part in _three_ of the greatest actions
recorded in the annals of British India.

On the 22nd of February, 1846, the Right Honourable the
Governor-General made the following announcement in General Orders:--

'The British Army has this day occupied the gateway of the _Citadel of
Lahore_, the Badshahee Mosque, and the Huzzooree Bagh.

'The _Army of the Sutlej_ has now brought its operations in the field
to a close, by the dispersion of the Sikh army, and the military
occupation of _Lahore_, preceded by a series of the most triumphant
successes ever recorded in the military history of India.

'The British government, trusting to the faith of treaties, and to the
long subsisting friendship between the two states, had limited military
preparations to the defence of its own frontier. Compelled suddenly to
assume the offensive, by the unprovoked invasion of its territories,
the British Army, under the command of its distinguished leader, has,
in sixty days, defeated the Sikh forces in _four general actions_;
has captured _two hundred and twenty pieces_ of field artillery; and
is now at the _Capital_ dictating to the _Lahore Durbar_ the terms
of a treaty, the conditions of which will tend to secure the British
Provinces from the repetition of a similar outrage.'

On the 4th March, 1846, the Governor-General made the following further
announcement:--

'Early on the morning of the 22nd February, a brigade of British troops
took formal possession of the _Citadel of Lahore_, the Badshahee
Musjed, and the Huzzooree Bagh.

'I considered the occupation of Lahore, and the close of active
operations in the field, a proper opportunity for marking, by
substantial reward, the gratitude of the British Government to
its faithful and brave army, which had fought so gloriously, and
so successfully; and I was glad at being able thus to bring into
prominent contrast, the just reward of discipline and obedience, with
the certain penalty of insubordination and violence, as exemplified
in the fate of the two armies, which had been so long the objects of
mutual observation; the one, victorious in the field, and honoured
and bountifully rewarded by its Government; the other, in spite of
its exceeding numbers and advantageous positions, vanquished in every
battle, abandoned by a government it had coerced, and, with its
shattered remains, left, but for the intercession of its conquerors,
to disperse with no provision of any kind, and to seek a precarious
subsistence by rapine and crime.'

[Illustration: 3rd Light Dragoons in India.

                                                      [To face page 106.]

The following Regular Regiments formed part of the Anglo-Indian Army
engaged in the Punjaub in 1845 and 1846:--

  +------------------+----------------------------------------------+-------+
  |                  |     Actions at which each Regiment was       |       |
  |                  |                 engaged.                     |       |
  |                  +----------+-------------+----------+----------+       |
  |                  | Moodkee, | Ferozeshah, |  Aliwal, | Sobraon, | Total.|
  |                  | 18th Dec.| 21st & 22nd | 28th Jan.| 10th Feb.|       |
  |                  |  1845.   |  Dec. 1845. |   1846.  |   1846.  |       |
  |                  +----------+-------------+----------+----------+-------+
  |3rd Light Dragoons|    1     |      1      |    ..    |    1     |   3   |
  |9th Lancers       |   ..     |     ..      |    ..    |    1     |   1   |
  |16th    "         |   ..     |     ..      |     1    |    1     |   2   |
  |9th Foot          |    1     |      1      |    ..    |    1     |   3   |
  |10th "            |   ..     |     ..      |    ..    |    1     |   1   |
  |29th "            |   ..     |      1      |    ..    |    1     |   2   |
  |31st "            |    1     |      1      |     1    |    1     |   4   |
  |50th "            |    1     |      1      |     1    |    1     |   4   |
  |53rd "            |   ..     |     ..      |     1    |    1     |   2   |
  |62nd "            |   ..     |      1      |    ..    |    1     |   2   |
  |80th "            |    1     |      1      |    ..    |    1     |   3   |
  +------------------+----------+-------------+----------+----------+-------+

       *       *       *       *       *

THE KING'S OWN REGIMENT OF LIGHT DRAGOONS, from the period of its
formation in 1685, to the present time, has performed upwards of one
hundred and sixty years' faithful and meritorious service in the reign
of nine successive monarchs. It was employed in the several wars on
the continent of Europe during the reigns of King William III.,--of
Queen Anne,--and of King George II. It was again employed in Portugal,
Spain, and France, from 1811 to 1818. It has been since engaged in most
arduous duties in _Affghanistan_, and on the banks of the _Sutlej_,
where it has acquired additional honours by its bravery; it continues
to be employed in guarding the possessions of the British Crown in the
distant clime of India.

Whether confronting a foreign enemy in the field, or performing duties
of a painful character at home, its conduct has, on all occasions, been
such as to procure the acknowledgments of the Civil Authorities by whom
its assistance was required;--the commendations of the General Officers
under whose immediate command it has served;--the thanks of Parliament;
and the approbation of its Sovereign.

       *       *       *       *       *

  The compiler of the Records of the Army feels it his duty to
  acknowledge, that his labours have been greatly assisted by a
  memoir of the services of the Third, or the King's Own, Light
  Dragoons, which was printed, in 1833, by Lieutenant Colonel Charles
  Stisted, then lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. King William
  IV. expressed himself much satisfied with the manner in which
  the Colonel had executed a task, to which His Majesty attached
  great importance, and gave him credit for the zeal and industry
  with which he had undertaken and prosecuted it; a notification
  to the above effect was made to Lieutenant-Colonel Stisted by
  Lieutenant-General Sir Herbert Taylor, G.C.H. Lieutenant Colonel
  Stisted entered the Army in May, 1794, as an ensign in the 39th
  Regiment.--He was appointed to a lieutenancy in the 13th Light
  Dragoons in January, 1803, and was promoted to be captain of a
  troop in February, 1804: he exchanged to the Third Light Dragoons
  on the 7th of February, 1811; and was promoted to a majority on
  the 14th of October, 1819, and to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the
  Regiment on the 22nd of July, 1830: he continued in command of the
  Regiment until the 19th of May, 1837, when he exchanged to the
  half-pay: he was reappointed to the full pay in September, 1841,
  and retired from the service by the sale of his commission; he died
  at Torquay on the 24th of July, 1842.

FOOTNOTES:

[10] The Third, ranked as Second Dragoons; the Fourth as Third; and the
Second as Fourth; until the peace of Utrecht, when the claim of the
Greys to precedence was submitted to a board of general officers and
admitted.--_See the Historical Record of the Scots Greys._

[11] Major Wood rose to the rank of lieut.-general. See a memoir of
this distinguished officer in the record of the third dragoon guards.

[12] The account of the services of the regiment in Ireland has been
taken from the Official Records--London Gazettes--Accounts published by
authority in 1690, and 1691--State of Europe--Story's History of the
War in Ireland--Harris' Life of King William III.--and Boyer's Life of
King William III.

[13] D'Auvergne's History of the Campaign in Flanders.

[14] Colonel Lloyd being sick at Brussels and the Lieutenant-Colonel on
leave of absence.

[15] The original embarkation return, signed by the Colonel of the
regiment, is among the Harleian manuscripts in the British Museum, No.
7025.

[16] Annals of Queen Anne, page 93.

[17] Bibl. Harl. 7025.

[18] In Lodge's Peerage of Ireland it is stated that Brigadier-General
Carpenter gave 1800 guineas for the colonelcy of the QUEEN'S dragoons.

[19] Annals of Queen Anne.

[20] Two engravings were published of this brave man; one representing
him in the act of preserving the standard, and the other a half figure.
He recovered from his wounds in about six weeks, and as a reward for
his gallantry he was promoted to the post of a private gentleman in the
life guards; an appointment which, at that time, was usually obtained
by purchase.

[21] Major Honeywood received five wounds; he was thought dead, and
stripped, and in that state lay six hours on the field of battle. He
was, with Captain Brown, and Lieutenant Robinson, reported dead; but
all three recovered. We learn from a private letter from General Bland,
published in the Gentleman's Magazine, that all his officers were
wounded except two, but they gallantly refused to be reported so, and
remained with the regiment.

[22] The loss of the THIRD DRAGOONS was equal to that of the whole of
the other cavalry regiments, excepting Ligonier's horse, now seventh
dragoon guards.

[23] It is said that when the King reviewed his army, previous to
leaving them in 1743, he noticed the deficiency in the ranks of the
THIRD, by sharply asking whose regiment it was, and what had become of
the remainder of it. 'Please your Majesty,' was the reply of General
Bland, 'it is my regiment, and I believe the remainder of it is at
_Dettingen_.'

[24] The sword of Lieutenant-Colonel Honeywood, of the King's Own
dragoons, who led the attack at the affair of Clifton Moor, (December
19, 1746,) was, on that officer's being cut down, taken possession
of by the chief of the Macphersons, which clan formed part of the
rear-guard of the rebel army. It is still in existence.

[25] 'Lord George Murray, who always commanded the rear-guard of the
rebels, took possession of a village called Clifton, two miles short of
Penrith, and ordered Colonels John Stuart and Clunie Macpherson, with
their regiments, supported by the Macdonalds of Keppock, to take post
at the bottom of the moor, where they were covered by the hedges and
ditches. There were also some hussars in the village, who had just come
from Lowther Hall.

'About an hour after sunset the King's troops appeared upon the moor,
and three hundred of Colonel Honeywood's dragoons dismounted and
marched forward to attack the rebels, who fired from behind the hedges.
After a few volleys the dragoons were ordered to retire a few paces,
when the highlanders, mistaking this for a flight, rushed forward with
sword and pistol; but were well received by the dragoons, who had
drawn their swords. Now the shouts began, the clashing of swords is
heard, the pistols are fired, and the event seems doubtful. Some of the
rebel's swords broke upon the steel caps of the dragoons, whereupon
they draw their daggers and fight with great obstinacy.

'Thus they continued for about an hour, when the rebels, observing
the resolution of the dragoons, retired across the ditch with
precipitation, and carried consternation to Penrith. Such was the
skirmish at Clifton, in which twelve of the dragoons were slain and
twenty-four wounded. On the side of the rebels were slain twenty, and
seventy taken prisoners.'--_History of the Rebellion._

[26] In April, 1760, Lieut.-Colonel Dalrymple, of the KING'S OWN
DRAGOONS, published an essay dedicated to His Royal Highness the Prince
of Wales (afterwards George III.) on the raising, arming, clothing,
and disciplining of the British cavalry and infantry, in which the
re-introduction of _cuirassiers_ and _lancers_ was recommended.

[27] The regiment was originally mounted on long-tailed horses;
the fashion of the short dock was introduced a few years after the
Revolution in 1688, but the practice did not become general until about
1709.

[28] On his appointment his Lady presented to the regiment a silver
collar engraved with military devices to be worn by the kettle drummer.
This ornament is still preserved.

[29]

  'To the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Barrington His
          Majesty's Secretary at War, &c. &c. &c.

          'The memorial of Lieut.-General Charles
          Fitzroy, Colonel of the Third, King's Own,
          Regiment of Dragoons.

  'REPRESENTS

'That the sixth trumpeter, being a kettle drummer, is a great
inconveniency, one troop always remaining without a trumpeter: the
kettle drums being a mark of distinction allowed by royal favour, as
it is reported, for having taken them from the enemy at the battle of
Aghrim; your memorialist humbly prays that you will represent it to His
Majesty, that an additional trumpeter may be allowed, as in the Royal
Irish Regiment of Dragoons, and other regiments having kettle drums.'

N.B. Notwithstanding this document, there is every reason for believing
that the kettle drums were taken at Dettingen, and not at Aghrim.
Every endeavour has been made to discover positive information on the
subject, without success. It appears from official documents that
four pair of kettle drums were captured at Dettingen: but there is no
mention of any kettle drums at Aghrim taken.

[30] This officer entered the service July 26th, 1768.

[31] Lieut.-Colonel (now General) Godfrey Basil Mundy, who had been
promoted in 1795, to a lieutenancy in the Third Dragoons, was advanced
to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the regiment on the 2nd July, 1803,
and continued in the command of it until the 2nd July, 1812, when
ill-health obliged him to relinquish the cavalry service, and to
exchange to the infantry. In the year 1804 a collection of standing
orders for the Third King's Own Dragoons was compiled and issued
by Lieutenant Colonel Mundy, in which the duties of every rank of
officer, and non-commissioned officer, as well as private soldier, in
all situations of service, whether at home or abroad, are ably and
minutely defined, and in which the officers and soldiers are urgently
recommended to devote their hours of leisure to the study of the duties
of their profession. This code of discipline was uniformly acted upon
until the departure of the regiment for India in the year 1837, and is
probably maintained in this gallant corps at the present time.

[32] This is the first instance in which the King's Own took horses
of any colour, but black or brown; even the brown horses had been
transferred.

[33] The attack was made under the direction of Marshal Soult in
person, who himself endeavoured to gain information from the prisoners.

[34] Lieut.-Colonel G. B. Mundy was removed to the Second Regiment of
Foot on the 7th July, 1812, and was succeeded in the Third Dragoons by
Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Charles Manners from the Twenty-third Light
Dragoons: Lieut.-Colonel Lord Charles Manners immediately assumed the
command of the Regiment in Spain.

[35] Colonel Napier's History of the Peninsular War.

[36] 'The cavalry, under Sir Stapleton Cotton, made a most gallant and
successful charge upon a body of French infantry, which they overthrew
and cut to pieces. In this charge Major-General Le Marchant was
unfortunately killed at the head of his brigade, and I have to regret
the loss of a most able officer.'--_Lord Wellington's Despatch._

[37] The loss of the King's Own was small; 1 horse killed, 1 private
and 2 horses wounded.

[38] Extract of a brigade order issued by General Ponsonby.

                                             'Boulogne, July 19th, 1814.

'Major-General Ponsonby takes this opportunity of expressing to the
brigade the high sense he entertains of their uniformly excellent
conduct, both in quarters and in the field. It is a circumstance as
gratifying to him, as it is creditable to themselves, that, during
the whole period of their service, they have, in no one instance,
collectively or individually, incurred animadversion in general orders,
and that no individual of the brigade has been brought to a general
court-martial. With equal truth the major-general can assert, that
upon every occasion which has presented itself of acting against the
enemy, either regimentally, or in brigade, they have nobly sustained
the superiority of the British cavalry, and fully justified the
high opinion repeatedly expressed of them by His Grace the Duke of
Wellington. The three regiments[52] will ever have to congratulate
themselves on its having fallen to their lot to be in the brigade
employed on the 22nd of July, 1812 (battle of Salamanca), in that
glorious and effectual charge which contributed in so eminent a degree
to decide the fate of the day, and to secure the signal and complete
defeat of the French army.'

'The major-general concludes by stating, that he has applied to His
Royal Highness the Prince Regent for permission for the three regiments
to bear the word "SALAMANCA" on their standards and appointments, and
to be styled "Salamanca Regiments."'

[39] At York the regiment received the distinction before alluded to in
the following letter:--

                                         'Horse Guards, Nov. 16th, 1814.

'My Lord,--I have the honour to acquaint you, that His Royal Highness
the Prince Regent, in the name, and on the behalf of His Majesty, has
been pleased to approve of the Third, or King's Own Dragoons being
permitted to bear on their standards and appointments (in addition to
any other badges or devices which have heretofore been permitted to be
borne by that regiment) the word "SALAMANCA," in commemoration of the
distinguished gallantry displayed by that regiment in the battle fought
on the plains of Salamanca on the 22nd of July, 1812. I have the honour
to be, &c.

                                  'HENRY CALVERT, Adjt.-General.

      'To Lieut.-Col. Lord Charles Manners,    }
  Commanding the Third (King's Own) Dragoons.' }

[40] In this year, the regiment received the following letter:--

  'Sir,
                                      Horse Guards, 20th September, 1821.

'I have the honour to acquaint you, by direction of the
Commander-in-Chief, that His Majesty has been pleased to approve of
the Third (or King's Own) regiment of Light Dragoons, bearing on its
standards and appointments, in addition to any badges or devices which
may have heretofore been granted to the regiment, the words "VITTORIA"
and "TOULOUSE," in commemoration of the conduct of the regiment at the
battle of Vittoria, on the 21st of June, 1813, and in the attack of the
position, covering Toulouse, on the 10th of April, 1814.

                          'I have the honour, &c.
                                         'JOHN MACDONALD, D.A.G.

      'Officer Commanding the     }
  3rd King's Own Light Dragoons.' }

[41] March 31, 1824.

'The 3rd Light Dragoons, being about to leave their present quarters
at Hampton Court, His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence takes this
opportunity of expressing to Major Stisted his approbation of the
uniform and steady good conduct of the regiment, since it has been in
these quarters, and of assuring the King's Own, that they will ever
possess His Royal Highness's best and sincerest wishes for their honour
and welfare.'

[42] Extract of a letter, dated

  'My Lord,
                                              'Pontefract, Aug. 14, 1825.

'I am directed by Major-General the Honourable W. G. Harris to
announce to your Lordship, that H. R. H. the Commander-in-Chief, and
the Secretary of State for the Home Department, have expressed their
approbation of the conduct of Lieutenant Jebb, and the men composing
the party under his command, when employed in aid of the civil power at
Sunderland, on the 3rd instant.

  'I have the honour, &c.
                         'P. HAY, A.D.C.

  'Colonel Lord R. Manners.'

Extract from a letter dated

                                             'Sunderland, Aug. 26, 1825.

'I beg to have the honour of expressing my unqualified approbation
and thanks to the officers and men of the party, for their essential
services in the late riotous and melancholy events, and I derive great
consolation from having received the perfect concurrence of Government,
in the conduct of the military and magistrates, and particularly on the
3rd of August, when it became necessary to fire on the mob, by which
some lives were lost.

  'I have the honour, &c.
                   'T. ROBERTSON, J. P.'

A most handsome letter was likewise received from the Shipowner's
Society, which, after particularizing the cool and steady conduct
of the embarked party, proceeds to state that "they are confident
that every other individual of the regiment would have acted in a
similar manner." The thanks of the town are also offered to the
non-commissioned officers and privates for their exemplary conduct
during the time of their stay.

[43] Extract of an order, dated York, May 21st, 1830:--

'Major-General Sir H. Bouverie desires Major Stisted will express to
the officers his unqualified approbation of the regiment in every
respect. The appearance of the men, the high condition of the horses,
and the field movements, performed with so much precision and celerity,
reflect the highest credit on every individual. The regiment having
scarcely had an opportunity of assembling for the last three years, and
never having had any good drill-ground, the Major-General desires Major
Stisted to say, that the regiment performed the manœuvres this day as
steady, as correct, and as near perfection as cavalry can be brought,
notwithstanding all the disadvantages it has laboured under for such a
length of time.'

[44] On the "_Army of the Indus_" being assembled in 1838, for the
purpose of reinstating Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk in the sovereignty of
Cabool, Colonel Thackwell, K.H. (Lieutenant-Colonel of the THIRD light
dragoons), was selected to command the cavalry division, with the local
rank of Major-General, and Cornet Edmund Roche, of that regiment,
was appointed his aide-de-camp. Both served the arduous Affghanistan
campaign, and were present at the capture of the strong and important
fortress of Ghuznee, on the 23rd July, 1839.

[45] Major-General Pollock's Despatch.

[46] Major-General Pollock's Despatch.

[47] Lt.-Colonel Richmond's Despatch.

[48] Despatch of Major-General McCaskill.

[49] In narrating the services of the regiments which composed the
_Army of the Sutlej_ in the years 1845 and 1846, it may be desirable
that a brief account be given of the country of the Punjaub,
particularly of the SIKHS, the most powerful of the population. The
important results of the sanguinary and eventful conflicts in the
Punjaub in 1846, following so rapidly on each other, excited the
warmest interest throughout a great part of the world; and the heroic
deeds of the several regiments employed, added another page to the
records of the glorious achievements of the British Army.

The Punjaub, (Punj, five; aub, water,) deriving its name from the five
rivers which intersect it, is an extensive country to the northwest
of India. The chief of these rivers are the Indus and the Sutlej, by
which and by the lofty Himalayas, the whole of this fine territory is
bounded. At the period of the invasion of India by Alexander the Great,
the Punjaub is stated to have been a wealthy and populous country,
governed by numerous princes, whose subjects were characterised as
brave and warlike. The Sikhs, originally a religious sect, were founded
by Nanac, or Nanaïc, Shah, about four centuries ago; but, in after
years, in order probably to defend their doctrines, they were induced
by Govind, one of their high priests, to unite the warrior with the
priestly character, thus forming a military as well as religious
association, not dissimilar to the Templar Knights of the times of the
Crusades. They, however, for a time almost disappeared; but profiting
by the calamities of the Mogul empire during the last century, the
Sikhs threw off the yoke of Mussulman despotism, their Sirdars or
Chieftains spreading themselves over the country, ruling by might
rather than right, and each acting independently of the other, until
the death of Maha Singh in 1792. His son and successor Runjeet Singh
contrived, however, to make several of the Sirdars acknowledge him
as their leader, and by skilful management, in the course of a short
period, obtained possession of _Lahore_, the principal city of the
_Punjaub_, and eventually of Cashmere, Mooltan, and Peshawur. In the
end all the chiefs submitted to him; thus bringing the whole country,
from the Indus to the Sutlej, under his rule. He was greatly aided in
his views of aggrandisement by the assistance of a few Italian and
French officers, who trained his army upon the European model, and by
their instructions it attained a high degree of discipline, proving
one of the strongest enemies the British had ever contended with in
India. Since the death of Runjeet in 1839, anarchy and confusion
have prevailed; hatred of the English, which his influence checked,
manifested itself, finally inducing the Sikh forces to invade the
British territories, by crossing the Sutlej in great numbers in
December, 1845, actuated as much by the hope of plunder, as by the
desire of conquest.

[50] Lieutenant Francis, of the ninth lancers, acted as aide-de-camp to
Major-General Sir Joseph Thackwell, commanding the cavalry division,
in succession to Lieutenant Roche, of the THIRD light dragoons, who
was appointed to act as Assistant Quarter-Master-General: Lieutenants
Francis and Roche had their horses wounded at the battle of Sobraon.

[51] In the active movements performed in these severely contested
battles, it was found that the men of the _Third Light Dragoons_
afforded an additional proof of their usefulness and bravery, by
bringing up, and assisting in working, the Field-Artillery, in
positions where the guns could be effectively used against the enemy;
thus evincing, that the instruction they had previously received
under the system introduced at the Cavalry Depôt at Maidstone, by
Major-General Brotherton, in 1832, may be successfully applied on field
service.

[52] _The brigade consisted of the Fifth Dragoon Guards, the Third, and
Fourth Dragoons._



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

THIRD, OR THE KING'S OWN REGIMENT

OF

LIGHT DRAGOONS.


CHARLES, DUKE of SOMERSET, K.G.

_Appointed 2nd August, 1685._

This nobleman succeeded to the title of DUKE of SOMERSET on the decease
of his brother, who was murdered at Lerice, in Italy, on the 20th of
April, 1678. He was elected a Knight of the Garter in April, 1684, and
was one of the privy councillors who signed the proclamation of the
accession of King James II., on the 6th of February following. Being
Lord-Lieutenant of Somersetshire at the time of the rebellion of the
Duke of Monmouth, he called out the militia of the county, and was
rewarded for his fidelity to the Crown with the colonelcy of the QUEEN
CONSORT'S Regiment of Dragoons, and the appointment of lord of the
bed-chamber to His Majesty; but was removed from his regiment and court
appointment for refusing to attend a nuncio from Pope Innocent XI. into
the King's presence. At the Revolution in 1688, his grace joined the
Prince of Orange, afterwards William III., during part of whose reign
he presided at the council, and was one of the lords of the regency
when His Majesty made his last visit to the Continent. The Duke of
Somerset was also a privy councillor, and master of the horse during
part of the reign of Queen Anne; and, after Her Majesty's demise, he
was one of the guardians of the realm until the arrival of George I.
from Hanover. He died on the 2nd of Dec., 1748, and was buried in
Salisbury Cathedral: a fine marble monument of his grace was afterwards
placed in the senate-house of the University of Cambridge.


ALEXANDER CANNON.

_Appointed 2nd August, 1687._

ALEXANDER CANNON entered the service of the United Provinces of the
Netherlands, and held a commission in one of the English regiments in
Holland, with which he served under the Prince of Orange (afterwards
King William III.), and was promoted to the colonelcy of the corps.
Having arrived in England with his regiment in the summer of 1685,
to assist in suppressing the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, he
quitted the Dutch service, and was appointed, by King James II.,
Lieutenant-Colonel of the QUEEN'S Dragoons. He was a stanch adherent
to the Court, and was rewarded with the colonelcy of the regiment in
1687; but refusing to take the oath to the Prince of Orange, at the
Revolution in 1688, he was removed from his command.

Colonel Cannon proceeded to Ireland in 1689, where he was promoted by
King James to the rank of brigadier-general; he was sent with a small
body of men to Scotland, to assist the highlanders in their opposition
to the government of King William III. He was second in command at
the Battle of Killicrankie, and after the fall of Viscount Dundee, he
commanded the Highlanders and Irish. He was reinforced by another body
of troops from Ireland under Brigadier-General Buchan, and remained
in Scotland two years; but being harassed by the King's forces,
and defeated in several skirmishes, the highlanders tendered their
submission to King William, and their commanders followed King James to
France.


RICHARD LEVESON.

_Appointed 31st December, 1688._

In the reign of King Charles II. RICHARD LEVESON served as a volunteer
against the Moors at Tangier, in Africa; and on the breaking out of
the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth in June, 1685, he raised a troop
of dragoons in the county of Middlesex, which troop was eventually
incorporated in the QUEEN'S regiment, now THIRD, or KING'S OWN. In the
summer of 1687, he was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and having
joined the standard of the Prince of Orange, in November, 1688, he was
advanced, on the 31st of December following, to the colonelcy of the
regiment. He served at the head of the QUEEN'S Dragoons in Ireland;
evinced great personal bravery at the Battle of the Boyne, and on other
occasions, as detailed in the record of the THIRD Light Dragoons;
and acquired celebrity for his ability, activity, and gallantry on
detached services. After the decease of Brigadier-General Villiers,
King William rewarded the brave LEVESON with the command of a corps of
cuirassiers, now second dragoon guards. He served under His Majesty in
the Netherlands, and was promoted to the rank of major-general on the
11th of January, 1696. His decease occurred on the 3rd of March, 1699.


THOMAS, LORD FAIRFAX.

_Appointed 30th January, 1694._

LORD FAIRFAX having joined the Prince of Orange at the Revolution in
1688, was appointed lieutenant and lieutenant-colonel in the third
troop of life guards, which gave him the privilege of taking the court
duty of silver stick; he afterwards exchanged to the second troop (now
second regiment) of life guards, from which he was promoted to the
colonelcy of the QUEEN'S dragoons. He retired in the following year,
and was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in 1702. He died in
January, 1710.


WILLIAM LLOYD.

_Appointed 21st February, 1695._

This Officer served with distinction under King William III. in
Ireland and the Netherlands, and was promoted to the colonelcy of the
QUEEN'S Dragoons by purchase, in 1695. He served with his regiment
in Flanders until the peace of Ryswick; was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general in the spring of 1702; and, commanding a brigade of
infantry under the Duke of Ormond, in the expedition to Spain, was
engaged in the storming of the forts of Vigo. He was subsequently
advanced to the rank of major-general; but obtained permission to
dispose of the colonelcy of his regiment in 1703, to Colonel Carpenter.


GEORGE CARPENTER.

_Appointed 31st December, 1703._

GEORGE CARPENTER was born in February, 1657, and when fourteen years
of age he was page to the Duke of Montague in his grace's embassy to
France. In 1672, he entered the army as a private gentleman in the
Duke of York's troop of life guards, which corps was, at that period,
as a school where young gentlemen were qualified for commissions. In
1685 he was appointed troop quarter-master in a newly-raised corps
of cuirassiers, now second dragoon guards; in which regiment he rose
to the rank of cornet in 1687, and afterwards to that of lieutenant,
captain, and lieutenant-colonel. He served with his regiment in
Ireland, and in Flanders and Brabant, and was promoted to the rank
of colonel in the army in 1702. In the following year he purchased
the colonelcy of the QUEEN'S Dragoons and was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general on the 25th of December, 1705. He proceeded to Spain
in 1706, and serving with the allied army, signalized himself at the
unfortunate battle of _Almanza_ in 1707, where he repeatedly charged
at the head of the British cavalry, and, commanding one of the last
squadrons which left the field, saved the Earl of Galway, many wounded
men, and much of the baggage from falling into the hands of the enemy.
He continued with the army in Spain, acquiring additional honour by
his excellent conduct on all occasions, was promoted to the rank of
major-general in September, 1708, and to that of lieutenant-general
in January, 1710. In the brilliant cavalry action on the plains of
Almanara, on the 27th of July, 1710, he highly distinguished himself,
and was wounded: his spirited conduct on this occasion, procured him
the thanks of King Charles III. of Spain, afterwards Emperor of the
Romans, who was with the army. He acquired fresh laurels at Saragossa
and wrote an interesting account of that battle, which was published
at the time. After advancing to Madrid, the army retreated to Valencia
and Catalonia, and Lieutenant-General Carpenter was with the division
under General Stanhope, which halted at the little walled town of
Brihuega, in the mountains of Castile, and was there surrounded and
made prisoners by the French army. On this occasion he was wounded by
a musket-ball, which, having broken part of his jaw, lodged itself
under the root of his tongue, where it remained several months before
it could be extracted, during which time his life was in danger, and he
suffered great pain.

In the spring of 1715, he was appointed envoy extraordinary and
plenipotentiary to the court of Vienna. During the rebellion of the
Earl of Mar, he commanded a detached corps, prevented the insurgents
obtaining possession of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and afterwards, joining
Major-General Wills, took a division of the rebel army prisoners,
at Preston, in Lancashire. He was rewarded with the appointment of
governor of Minorca and Port Mahon, and commander of the forces in
Scotland; and in May, 1719, he was advanced to the peerage of Ireland
by the title of BARON CARPENTER of Killaghy in the county of Kilkenny.

LORD CARPENTER was many years a member of Parliament, first for
Whitchurch in Hampshire, and afterwards for the city of Westminster.
He published a highly useful work entitled 'A Dissertation on the
Manœuvres of Cavalry.' After serving the Crown a period of nearly sixty
years, in the reign of six successive sovereigns, he died, on the 10th
of February, 1732, in the seventy-fifth year of his age, and was buried
at Ouselburg in Hampshire, where a monument was erected to his memory.
He was ancestor of the Earls of Tyrconnel.


PHILIP HONEYWOOD.

_Appointed 29th May, 1732._

PHILIP HONEYWOOD entered the army in 1694, and served under King
William III.; he subsequently served Her Majesty Queen Anne, and became
an efficient officer under the celebrated JOHN, DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH.
Having attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the thirty-third
foot, on the 27th of May, 1709, he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
92nd regiment, which was disbanded in 1712. In 1715 he was commissioned
to raise, form, and discipline a regiment of dragoons, (now the
eleventh light dragoons), which he executed with ability, and was
afterwards instrumental in the suppression of the rebellion of the Earl
of Mar. In 1719 he commanded a brigade under Lord Cobham at the capture
of Vigo and Rondondella in Spain. On the 29th of May, 1732, he was
removed to the command of the THIRD dragoons, which he retained until
promoted to the King's Own regiment of horse in 1743. In 1742 a British
force was sent to Flanders, under General Honeywood, who held the chief
command of the troops, until the arrival of the Earl of Stair. At the
battle of Dettingen one division of the army was commanded by this
distinguished officer, and he led the royal horse guards and the King's
horse to the charge with great gallantry. He served in the subsequent
campaigns on the continent with distinction, and with the approbation
of his sovereign, by whom he was advanced to the dignity of a Knight
of the honourable order of the Bath. He died in 1752, and was interred
with military honours at Portsmouth, of which place he was governor at
the time of his decease.


HUMPHREY BLAND.

_Appointed 18th April, 1743._

HUMPHREY BLAND served several campaigns on the continent under
the celebrated JOHN, DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. He afterwards served as
lieut.-colonel in Spain, and in 1710 was wounded at the battle of
Almanara. In 1715 he was appointed lieut.-colonel to the eleventh
dragoons, and was afterwards lieut.-colonel of the second horse, now
first dragoon guards. In 1737 he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
thirty-sixth foot, from which he was removed in 1741, to the thirteenth
dragoons, and two years afterwards to the KING'S OWN dragoons. He had
his horse shot under him at Dettingen; displayed great gallantry at
Fontenoy, and highly distinguished himself at the battle of Culloden.
In 1752 he was removed to the first dragoon guards; and died in the
following year.


JAMES, LORD TYRAWLEY.

_Appointed 8th July, 1752._

THE HON. JAMES O'HARA was appointed lieutenant in the royal regiment
of fusiliers, commanded by his father, on the 15th of March, 1703, and
in 1706 he proceeded with his regiment to the relief of Barcelona.
In the following year he was aide-de-camp to the Earl of Galway,
whose life he is reported to have saved at the unfortunate battle of
Almanza, by interposing between his lordship and a dragoon, whom he
shot with his pistol, but was, himself, wounded by the dragoon. He
served several years at Minorca, and in 1713 obtained the colonelcy of
the royal fusiliers, in succession to his father, at whose decease,
in 1733, he succeeded to the dignity of BARON TYRAWLEY. The rank
of brigadier-general was conferred on his lordship on the 23rd of
November, 1735; that of major-general on the 2nd of July, 1739; and in
August, of the latter year, he was removed from the royal fusiliers
to the fifth horse, now fourth dragoon guards. In March, 1743, he was
promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and in the following month
obtained the colonelcy of the second troop of horse grenadier guards,
from which he was removed in 1745 to the third troop of life guards,
which gave him the privilege of taking the court duty of gold stick.
In 1746, when King George II. had resolved to disband the third and
fourth troops of life guards, his lordship was removed to the tenth
foot: he was again removed, in 1749, to the fourteenth dragoons; in
1752, to the THIRD or KING'S OWN regiment of dragoons; and in 1755, to
the second, or Coldstream regiment of foot guards. He was appointed
governor of Portsmouth on the 1st of May, 1759, and was promoted to
the rank of general on the 7th of March, 1761. He held the appointment
of governor of Minorca for several years; was employed as envoy and
ambassador to the courts of Portugal and Russia; and died at Twickenham
on the 13th of July, 1773.


GEORGE, EARL OF ALBEMARLE.

_Appointed 8th April, 1755._

VISCOUNT BURY commenced his military service as ensign in the second
foot guards in 1738; in 1741 he was captain-lieutenant in the royal
dragoons; in 1743 he held the same rank in his former regiment; and
on the 27th of May, 1745, he obtained the commission of captain and
lieut.-colonel in the same corps. He was aide-de-camp to the Duke of
Cumberland at the battle of Fontenoy; also attended His Royal Highness
at the battle of Culloden,--was sent with the news of that victory
to London, and was immediately afterwards appointed aide-de-camp to
the King with the rank of colonel. The colonelcy of the twentieth
foot was conferred on his lordship on the 1st of November, 1749. In
1754 he succeeded to the title of EARL OF ALBEMARLE; and obtained
the colonelcy of the KING'S OWN dragoons in the succeeding year.
The rank of major-general was conferred on his lordship in 1756,
and that of lieut.-general in 1759. In 1761 he was a member of the
privy council and governor of the island of Jersey; and in 1762, he
commanded the land forces employed in the reduction of the Havannah;
in the performance of which service he acquired great reputation, and
his conduct called forth the approbation of his sovereign and of the
British nation. He was elected a Knight of the Garter in 1766; and died
in 1772.


CHARLES, LORD SOUTHAMPTON.

_Appointed 20th October, 1772._

LORD CHARLES FITZROY, brother of Augustus-Henry, Duke of Grafton,
choosing a military life, obtained the commission of ensign in the
first foot guards on the 16th of March, 1752. In 1756 he was promoted
to the rank of lieutenant, and in 1758 obtained the command of a
company with the rank of lieut.-colonel. In 1762 he was promoted
to the colonelcy of the 119th, or Prince's Own, regiment of foot,
which was disbanded after the peace of Fontainbleau. The colonelcy
of the fourteenth dragoons was conferred on his lordship on the
11th of September, 1765, and in 1772 he was promoted to the rank of
major-general and removed to the KING'S OWN dragoons. He was further
promoted to the rank of lieut.-general in 1777; advanced to the peerage
by the title of LORD SOUTHAMPTON in 1780; and promoted to the rank of
general in 1793. He died on the 21st of March, 1797.


FRANCIS LASCELLES.

_Appointed 23rd March, 1797._

This Officer was appointed on the 13th of December, 1761, captain in
the seventeenth light dragoons, then commanded by captain-commandant
Lord Aberdour. In June, 1764, he was appointed major of the eighth
dragoons, and in May, 1768, obtained the lieut.-colonelcy of the
regiment, from which he was removed on the 8th of May, 1780, to
the lieut.-colonelcy of the KING'S OWN dragoons. He was appointed
major-general in 1782; colonel of the eighth dragoons in 1789; and
lieut.-general on the 12th of October, 1793. After the decease of Lord
Southampton the colonelcy of the KING'S OWN dragoons was conferred on
Lieut.-General Lascelles, who was also groom of the bed-chamber to King
George III.; and was advanced to the rank of general in 1798. He was
highly respected by the officers of the regiment, and was distinguished
for easy dignity, manliness, and good sense. He died in 1799.


SIR CHARLES GREY, K.B.

_Appointed 4th September, 1799._

CHARLES GREY, fourth son of Sir Henry Grey, Baronet, entered the army
in the reign of King George II., and was promoted to the command of a
company in the twentieth foot on the 31st of May, 1755. In 1758 his
regiment proceeded to Germany, and he was appointed aide-de-camp to the
Duke of Brunswick, in which capacity he served in 1759 at the glorious
battle of Minden, where he was wounded. In 1761, he was appointed
lieut.-colonel commandant of the ninety-eighth regiment, which was
then newly-raised, and was disbanded after the peace of Fontainbleau,
when he was placed on half-pay. In 1772 he was promoted to the rank of
colonel, and appointed aide-de-camp to King George III., who conferred
on him the colonelcy of the twenty-eighth foot in March, 1777, and
promoted him to the rank of major-general in August following. In 1782
he obtained the dignity of a knight of the Bath; was promoted to the
rank of lieut.-general, and appointed commander-in-chief in America;
but the war was terminated before he had an opportunity of proceeding
thither. In 1787 he was removed to the eighth dragoons; and in 1789
he obtained the colonelcy of the seventh or Princess Royal's dragoon
guards.

In 1793 Sir Charles Grey was appointed to the command of an expedition
to the West Indies; but while the armament was preparing the Duke of
York raised the siege of Dunkirk, and the French menaced Ostend and
Nieuport. The troops sailed for Flanders, and by his timely arrival
Sir Charles Grey preserved the two fortresses from the power of the
enemy. He subsequently proceeded to the West Indies, and the islands
of Martinico, St. Lucia, and Guadaloupe were captured: and his
services were recompensed with the government of Dumbarton, and the
colonelcy of the twentieth, or Jamaica, regiment of light dragoons, by
commission dated the 4th of November, 1795. After his return to England
he was promoted to the rank of general, sworn of the privy-council,
reappointed colonel of the eighth dragoons, and placed in command of
the troops stationed in the southern district, to repel the projected
French invasion. In 1799 he was appointed colonel of the THIRD, or
KING'S OWN dragoons. At length, being worn out with age and active
service, he retired to his country seat to pass the remainder of his
days in the bosom of his family. His services were not forgotten by his
sovereign, who created him BARON GREY DE HOWICK in 1801; and advanced
him, in 1806, to the dignity of Viscount Howick and EARL GREY: he held
also the government of the island of Guernsey. His decease occurred on
the 14th of November, 1807, at his seat called Fallowden, near Alnwick,
in Northumberland.


WILLIAM CARTWRIGHT.

_Appointed 28th November, 1807._

This Officer was appointed cornet in the tenth dragoons on the 22nd of
February, 1769, lieutenant in 1775, captain-lieutenant in the THIRD
dragoons in 1778, and exchanged in 1779 to the tenth dragoons, of which
corps he was appointed major in 1786, and lieut.-colonel in 1793. The
high condition of the tenth was a proof of his care and attention to
all the duties of commanding officer; and in 1796 he was appointed
colonel in the army, and aide-de-camp to King George III. Having been
promoted to the rank of major-general in April, 1802, he was employed
on the staff of South Britain during the succeeding six years, first in
the inspection of cavalry regiments in the western district, afterwards
in the command of the cavalry on the coast of Kent, in the command
of the cavalry in the home district, and subsequently in the command
of a brigade of cavalry in Kent, designed for foreign service. In
1804 he was promoted from the lieut.-colonelcy of the tenth, to the
colonelcy of the twenty-third dragoons, and in 1807 he obtained the
colonelcy of the KING'S OWN dragoons. He was advanced to the rank of
lieut.-general in 1808, to that of general in 1819, and in 1821 he was
removed to the colonelcy of the King's dragoon guards. He was a member
of the consolidated board of general officers: his decease occurred in
February, 1827.


STAPLETON COTTON, VISCOUNT COMBERMERE, G.C.B., and G.C.H.

_Appointed 25th January, 1821._

STAPLETON COTTON entered the army in 1790 as second lieutenant in the
royal Welsh fusiliers. His services, in command of a troop of the
sixth dragoon guards under the Duke of York in Flanders, under General
Harris in the East Indies, at the Cape of Good Hope, under the Duke of
Wellington in command of a brigade of cavalry at Talavera, in command
of the British cavalry at Fuentes d'Onor, Salamanca, Orthes, Toulouse,
&c. &c. &c., were rewarded with the dignity of VISCOUNT COMBERMERE,
grand cross of the military order of the Bath, and grand cross of the
royal Hanoverian Guelphic order. He was appointed to the colonelcy of
the twentieth dragoons in 1813, to that of the KING'S OWN dragoons in
1821, and was removed in 1829, to the first regiment of life guards, of
which corps he has retained the command to the present time.


LORD GEORGE THOMAS BERESFORD, G.C.H.

_Appointed 16th September, 1829._

LORD GEORGE BERESFORD entered the service as cornet of the 14th light
dragoons in April, 1794; he was shortly afterwards promoted, and, after
serving in the grades of lieutenant and captain in the infantry, he
obtained, in December, 1800, a majority in the 6th dragoon guards.
In the following three years he was employed with that regiment in
Ireland, and in attending Parliament as a member of the House of
Commons for the county of Waterford, of which he was Custos Rotulorum.
He was promoted to the rank of lieut.-colonel in Dillon's regiment in
1803, and when a second battalion was added to the 71st regiment, under
the Additional Force Act, in the year 1804, Lieutenant-Colonel Lord
George Beresford was selected for the command of it. In July, 1807,
Lord George Beresford reverted to the cavalry branch of the service,
and was appointed to the command of the 2nd, or Queen's Dragoon Guards,
which he retained until his promotion to the rank of major-general
on the 4th June, 1814. On the 16th September, 1829, his Lordship was
appointed to the colonelcy of the THIRD, KING'S OWN, Light Dragoons,
and attained the rank of lieut.-general in the army on the 22nd July,
1830. His Lordship was brother to the late, and uncle to the present,
Marquess of Waterford, and he died at the Palace at Armagh, the
residence of his elder brother, the Lord Primate of Ireland, on the
26th October, 1839.


LORD CHARLES SOMERSET MANNERS, K.C.B.

_Appointed 8th November, 1839._



APPENDIX

TO THE

HISTORICAL RECORD

OF THE

THIRD, OR THE KING'S OWN, REGIMENT

OF

LIGHT DRAGOONS.


The following is a list of the Officers of the Third, or the King's
Own, Light Dragoons, showing those who were engaged in the campaign on
the Sutlej in the years 1845 and 1846.

Copies of Brigadier White's Reports, dated 19th and 25th December,
1845, are annexed, respecting the conduct of the Officers and Men at
the memorable battles of Moodkee and Ferozeshah.

These testimonials are equally honourable to the Officers and Men, and
to their Commander, Brigadier-General White, by whose talents, bravery
and example, the excellent qualities of the regiment were drawn forth,
which are attested in the strongest terms of commendation, by the
Governor-General and by the Commander-in-Chief, in India, as detailed
in the Historical Record of the services of the Regiment.

To these reports are added copies of the Votes of Thanks of the House
of Lords, and of the House of Commons; Marks of Honour, which are
conferred only for great and glorious actions, and for special public
services.

Names and Distribution of the Officers of the Third, "King's Own" Light
Dragoons, during the campaign on the Sutlej, in 1845 and 1846.

  +----------------+---------------------+----------------------------------+
  |     Rank.      |       Names.        |            Remarks.              |
  +----------------+---------------------+----------------------------------+
  | Lieut.-Colonel | Colonel Sir Joseph  | Commanding the Cawnpore Station  |
  |                |   Thackwell, K.C.B. |   as Major-General; was present  |
  |                |   and K.H.          |   at Sobraon, where he commanded |
  |                |                     |   the Cavalry Division.          |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |      "         | Col. Michael White  | Brigadier commanding the Cavalry |
  |                |                     |   Division at Moodkee and 1st    |
  |                |                     |   Cavalry Brigade at Ferozeshah, |
  |                |                     |   where he was wounded.          |
  |                |                     |   Promoted Aide-de-Camp to the   |
  |                |                     |   Queen, with the rank of        |
  |                |                     |   Colonel, on the 3rd April,     |
  |                |                     |   1846.                          |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Major          | Lieut.-Colonel G.   | Absent on leave. Promoted on     |
  |                |   H. Lockwood       |   9th November, 1846. Rejoined   |
  |                |                     |   on 13th January, 1847.         |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | Lieut.-Col. C. W.   | Commanded the regiment at        |
  |                |   M. Balders        |   Moodkee and Ferozeshah until   |
  |                |                     |   wounded on the evening of      |
  |                |                     |   21st December.                 |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Captain        | J. Tritton          | Assistant Adjutant-General of    |
  |                |                     |   the Cavalry Division. Promoted |
  |                |                     |   in 10th Royal Hussars on 3rd   |
  |                |                     |   April, 1846.                   |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | J. W. Yerbury       | Absent on leave. Promoted on     |
  |                |                     |   9th November, 1846. Rejoined   |
  |                |                     |   5th April, 1847.               |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | J. R. B. Hale       | Commanded the regiment on the    |
  |                |                     |   night of the 21st December,    |
  |                |                     |   and during the action of the   |
  |                |                     |   22nd, _vice_ Major Balders;    |
  |                |                     |   wounded. Promoted to the rank  |
  |                |                     |   of Major on the 3rd April,     |
  |                |                     |   1846.                          |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | Lieut.-Colonel J.   | Commanding 2nd Cavalry Brigade;  |
  |                |   B. Gough.         |   severely wounded at Sobraon.   |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | W. Unett            | In charge of Depôt Troop at      |
  |                |                     |   Maidstone. Rejoined the        |
  |                |                     |   regiment 4th June, 1846.       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | Major W. R. Herries | Aide-de-Camp to the              |
  |                |                     |   Governor-General. Killed at    |
  |                |                     |   Moodkee.                       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | J. E. Dyer          | Absent on leave. Exchanged to    |
  |                |                     |   the 68th Regiment, on 3rd      |
  |                |                     |   April, 1846.                   |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | G. Forbes           | In charge of Detachments _en     |
  |                |                     |   route_. Joined the regiment    |
  |                |                     |   in January, 1846, and was      |
  |                |                     |   present at Sobraon.            |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |    "           | W. E. F. Barnes     | Present with the regiment.       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Lieutenant     | J. E. Codd          | Promoted Captain on 19th         |
  |                |                     |   December, 1845, _vice_         |
  |                |                     |   Herries. Killed in action at   |
  |                |                     |   Ferozeshah.                    |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | S. Fisher           | Major of Brigade of 1st Cavalry  |
  |                |                     |   Brigade; severely wounded at   |
  |                |                     |   Moodkee. Promoted Captain on   |
  |                |                     |   22nd December, _vice_ Codd.    |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | W. H. Hadfield      | In charge of Depôt Service       |
  |                |                     |   Troops at Umballa. Promoted    |
  |                |                     |   3rd April, 1846.               |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | G. Newton           | Killed in action at Moodkee.     |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | J. Martin           | At Cavalry Depôt, Maidstone.     |
  |                |                     |   Promoted on 9th November,      |
  |                |                     |   1846.                          |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | E. G. Swinton       | Severely wounded at Moodkee.     |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | J. D. Codwell       | Present with the regiment.       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | J. Sullivan,        | Appointed Officiating Major of   |
  |                |   _Adjutant_        |   Brigade of 1st Cavalry Brigade |
  |                |                     |   on 19th December, _vice_       |
  |                |                     |   Fisher; wounded.               |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | H. Wood             | On leave of absence. Rejoined    |
  |                |                     |   the regiment on 28th June,     |
  |                |                     |   1846.                          |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | E. Roche            | Aide-de-Camp to Major-General    |
  |                |                     |   Sir J. Thackwell; afterwards   |
  |                |                     |   Acting Assistant               |
  |                |                     |   Quarter-Master-General.        |
  |                |                     |   Present at Sobraon.            |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | G. Cookes           | Appointed Acting Adjutant to the |
  |                |                     |   regiment, on 19th December,    |
  |                |                     |   _vice_ Sullivan, Acting        |
  |                |                     |   Brigade Major.                 |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | C. Bowles           | On duty with Invalids. Joined    |
  |                |                     |   the regiment in January, 1846, |
  |                |                     |   and was present at Sobraon.    |
  |                |                     |   Exchanged to 7th Hussars on    |
  |                |                     |   27th August, 1846.             |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | J. H. Travers       | At Cavalry Depôt, Maidstone.     |
  |                |                     |   Rejoined the regiment on 1st   |
  |                |                     |   July, 1846.                    |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | R. Casement         | On leave of absence. Rejoined    |
  |                |                     |   the regiment on the 17th       |
  |                |                     |   September, 1846.               |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | E. B. Cureton       | Severely wounded at Moodkee.     |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | J. B. Hawkes        | Present;--wounded at Sobraon.    |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | T. Penton           | Present.                         |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | H. C. Morgan        | Severely wounded at Ferozeshah.  |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |     "          | F. G. Archer Burton | Present with the regiment;       |
  |                |                     |   received a contusion at        |
  |                |                     |   Ferozeshah.                    |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Cornet         | E. Worley           | Killed at Moodkee.               |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | H. Ellis            | Killed at Forezeshah.            |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | H. W. White         | Present. Wounded at Sobraon.     |
  |                |                     |   Promoted on 19th December,     |
  |                |                     |   1845, _vice_ Lieut. Codd.      |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | J. D. White         | Present. Received a contusion at |
  |                |                     |   Ferozeshah. Promoted on 19th   |
  |                |                     |   December, 1845, _vice_ Lieut.  |
  |                |                     |   Newton.                        |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | George Wyndham      | Exchanged to 16th Lancers, with  |
  |                |   Knight Bruce      |   Cornet Hodgson, on 31st        |
  |                |                     |   October, and continued on      |
  |                |                     |   service with the 3rd Light     |
  |                |                     |   Dragoons. Killed at Ferozeshah |
  |                |                     |   on the 21st December, 1845.    |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | J. Rathwell,        | Present. Received a contusion at |
  |                |   _Riding-Master_   |   Ferozeshah. Promoted on 22nd   |
  |                |                     |   December, 1845, _vice_ Lieut.  |
  |                |                     |   Fisher.                        |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | W. H. Orme          | Severely wounded at Ferozeshah.  |
  |                |                     |   Promoted on 3rd April, 1846.   |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | C. R. Colt          | _En route_ with Detachment;      |
  |                |                     |   joined the regiment in         |
  |                |                     |   February, 1846, and was        |
  |                |                     |   present at Sobraon. Promoted   |
  |                |                     |   on 9th November, 1846.         |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | R. Hodgson          | Exchanged from the 16th Lancers  |
  |                |                     |   on 31st October, 1845, with    |
  |                |                     |   Cornet Bruce. Joined the 3rd   |
  |                |                     |   Light Dragoons in January,     |
  |                |                     |   1846, and was present at       |
  |                |                     |   Sobraon.                       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "            | G. E. F. Kauntze    | Present. Severely wounded at     |
  |                |                     |   Sobraon.                       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Paymaster      | E. Cormick          | Present with the Regiment.       |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Adjutant       | Lieut. J. Sullivan  | Present.                         |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Quartermaster  | A. Crabtree         | Present. Wounded at Sobraon.     |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Surgeon        | J. Henderson (M.D.) | On duty with Invalids.           |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Assis. Surgeon | H. Franklin         | Present.                         |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  |   "      "     | F. Laing (M.D.)     | Present.                         |
  |                |                     |                                  |
  | Vet. Surgeon   | G. Edlin            | Present.                         |
  +----------------+---------------------+----------------------------------+

It is worthy of being recorded, that many of the Non-Commissioned
Officers and Men, who were wounded in the different engagements,
concealed the fact, that they might have an opportunity of sharing in
any further Actions in which the regiment might be engaged. Amongst
others, Troop Serjeant-major WALTER ELDRIDGE, who received a bayonet
wound through the calf of his leg, in charging over the enemy's
entrenched infantry on the evening of the 21st December, never reported
the circumstance, until from lameness, caused by inflammation of the
leg, the brave fellow could no longer conceal it. He was immediately
conveyed to the Hospital, where he died in a few days afterwards.


  _Copy of a Despatch of Brigadier M. White, C.B., Commanding
    the Cavalry Division on the 18th December, 1845, to the
    Adjutant-General of the Army in India._

                                      Camp, Moodkee, 19th December, 1845.

  SIR,

In forwarding the accompanying return of the casualties which occurred
in the Cavalry Division under my command in the Action of yesterday,
I have the honour to state, for the information of His Excellency the
Commander-in-Chief, that the whole of the regiments engaged performed
their duty to my entire satisfaction; but, consequent on the nature of
the ground and the numerous bodies of both Cavalry and Infantry that
were opposed to them, I regret to say the loss has been very heavy,
more particularly in Her Majesty's 3rd Light Dragoons, who bore the
brunt of the Action.

I further beg to bring to the notice of His Excellency, that
Captain Tritton of Her Majesty's 3rd Light Dragoons, my Assistant
Adjutant-General, captured one of the enemy's Standards with his own
hands, which he has delivered over to me as Commanding the Cavalry
Division.

It has also been reported to me by Lieutenant and Adjutant Sullivan of
Her Majesty's 3rd Light Dragoons, that Serjeant Hinds, and a party of
six or seven men of the regiment, succeeded in capturing two of the
enemy's Guns, after cutting down the whole of the armed party who were
with them. The Guns were marked by order of Lieutenant Sullivan, who
can identify them.

I have in conclusion to add, that the undermentioned Officers afforded
me every assistance, and conducted themselves throughout the Action to
my entire satisfaction, and I beg to bring them to His Excellency's
favourable notice:--

  Brigadier Gough, C.B., Her Majesty's 3rd Light Dragoons.

  Brigadier Mactier, 4th Native Cavalry (Lancers).

  Major Balders, Commanding 3rd Light Dragoons.

  Captain Dawkins, Commanding Governor-General's Body-Guard.

  Major Alexander, Commanding 5th Light Cavalry.

  Captain Nash, Commanding 4th Light Cavalry.

  Captain Christie, Commanding 4th Irregular Cavalry.

  Captain Tritton, Assistant Adjutant-General of Cavalry.

  Captain Quin, Deputy Quarter Master-General of Cavalry.

  Lieutenant Fisher, Brigade-Major.

  Captain Harrington, Brigade Major.

  Captain Wyld, Brigade Major.

I trust I may also be permitted to name Lieutenant and Adjutant
Sullivan, Her Majesty's 3rd Light Dragoons, who rendered me most
essential service, independent of his regimental duties, throughout the
action.

      I have, &c.,

              M. WHITE,

       _Lieut.-Col. 3rd Light Dragoons,
  Brigadier Commanding Cavalry Division,
               Army of the Sutlej_.


  _Copy of a Despatch from Brigadier M. White, C.B., Commanding the
    Cavalry Division, to the Adjutant-General of the Army in India._

                                   Camp, Ferozeshah, 25th December, 1845.

  SIR,

In compliance with instructions contained in the General Order by His
Excellency the Commander-in-Chief of yesterday's date, I have the
honour to report on the operations of the Cavalry Division under my
command during the Actions of the 21st and 22nd instant, as far as came
under my personal observation, and have the gratification to state, for
His Excellency's information, that every Individual of Her Majesty's
3rd Light Dragoons, both Officers and Men, performed their duty with
the highest credit to themselves and their country. This I had an
opportunity of witnessing, having charged at the head of the regiment
myself through a battery of the enemy's guns which met us with a most
galling fire of grape, and over their infantry entrenched in front of
their camp. This charge was a most gallant and successful one, as we
succeeded in completely driving the enemy from their guns, though, I
regret to say, our loss on this occasion has been very severe, both in
Officers and Men, as will be seen by the Casualty Return of the Corps.

I beg to bring to his Excellency's favourable notice the merits of the
following Officers who gallantly led the regiment into action:--Major
Balders, Commanding; Captain Tritton, Assistant Adjutant-General;
Lieutenant Sullivan, Officiating Major of Brigade; Captain Havelock,
and Brigade Major Wyld of the 4th Lancers; the two latter Officers were
at the time acting under my orders, and charged with the regiment.

I beg to add, that Major Balders having been wounded in the charge,
the command devolved on Captain Hale, who brought the regiment out of
Action.

During the 22nd, the brigade immediately under my command was engaged
manœuvring during the whole of the day, sometimes for the protection
of our own Artillery, and at others, with a view of cutting off the
enemy's retreat, and capturing their few remaining guns; in the latter
we were not successful, as, with the exception of about a squadron of
Her Majesty's 3rd Light Dragoons and the 4th Regiment of Lancers, the
whole of the Cavalry had been withdrawn off the field. On this day
our loss was comparatively small, having lost a few Non-Commissioned
Officers and Men, and having two Officers' chargers killed by round
shot, one of which was Lieutenant Sullivan's, my officiating Major of
Brigade, being the third horse shot under him during the Actions of the
18th, 21st, and 22nd December.

            I have, &c.,

                 M. WHITE,

      _Lieut.-Col. 3rd Light Dragoons,
  Brigadier Commanding Cavalry Division,
                Army of the Sutlej_.


_Extracts from Minutes of Proceedings of the House of Lords.--2nd
March, 1846._

"Order of the day read, _Moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this
House be given to the Right Honourable Lieutenant-General Sir Henry
Hardinge, Governor-General of India, Knight Grand Cross of the Order
of the Bath, for the energy and ability with which he directed the
military means at his disposal, to the repelling of the unprovoked
invasion by the Sikh Army, of the dominions of the British Government,
and of the Protected States upon the left bank of the Sutlej; and also
for the firmness and gallantry with which he directed the operations of
that portion of the Army under his immediate command, in the afternoon
and night of December 21st, 1845, and on the morning of the 22nd, upon
which occasion the enemy's defences were carried by storm, the greater
part of their Artillery captured, and their subsequent attempts to
regain what they had lost repeatedly defeated.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to General Sir Hugh Gough, Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of the Bath, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in the East Indies,
for the distinguished valour with which he directed and led the
several attacks upon the enemy, and for the eminent services rendered
by him in the Battles of the 18th, 21st, and 22nd of December, 1845;
displaying, as he did, in conjunction with the Governor-General, a
brilliant example to the Troops of perseverance and courage in critical
circumstances, and of irresistible ardour in the several attacks made
upon the enemy.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to Major-General Sir Henry George Smith, Knight Commander of the
Order of the Bath, to Major-General Walter Raleigh Gilbert, and to
Major-General Sir John Hunter Littler, Knight Commander of the Order
of the Bath, and to the several Officers, European and Native, under
their command, for the eminent services rendered by them in the recent
arduous and successful operations.

"On Question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the Non-Commissioned Officers and Private Soldiers, European
and Native, for the perseverance and fortitude maintained by them at
Moodkee, on the 18th December, 1845, and for the daring valour with
which they forced the enemy's entrenchments at Ferozeshah on the 21st
and 22nd of December, captured most of his guns, and finally compelled
the Sikh Army, of greatly superior numbers, to retire within their
own frontier; and that this Resolution be signified to them by the
Commanders of the several Corps.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_,--That the said Resolutions be transmitted by
the Lord Chancellor to the Governor-General of India, and that he be
requested to communicate the same to the several Officers referred to
therein.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_."


_Extracts from Minutes of Proceedings of the House of Lords.--2nd
April, 1846._

"Order of the Day read, _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of
this House be given to Major-General Sir Henry George Smith, Knight
Commander of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, for his
skilful and meritorious conduct, when in command of the British Troops
employed against a large portion of the Sikh Army, of greatly superior
numbers; and for the signal valour and judgment displayed by him in
the battle of the 28th of January, 1846, when the enemy's force was
totally defeated, and a new lustre added to the reputation of the
British Arms.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the several Officers, European and Native, under the command
of Sir Henry Smith, for the distinguished services rendered by them at
the battle of Aliwal.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That this House doth highly approve
of and commend the intrepidity and exemplary discipline displayed
by the Non-Commissioned Officers and Private Soldiers, European and
Native, on the 28th of January 1846, in their attack on the enemy's
position, by which the Sikhs were completely routed and driven in
confusion across the Sutlej, with the loss of all their Artillery and
Military Equipment; and that the same be signified to them by the
Commanders of the several Corps, who are desired to thank them for
their gallant behaviour.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That in requesting the
Governor-General of India to communicate these Resolutions to the
several Officers referred to therein, this House desires to acknowledge
the zeal and judgment evinced by the Right Honourable Lieut.-General
Sir Henry Hardinge, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath,
Governor-General of India, and also by General Sir Hugh Gough, Baronet,
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Commander-in-Chief of
the Forces in India, in supplying Major-General Sir Henry Smith with
such reinforcements and military means as enabled him, under Divine
Providence, to overcome all the obstacles thrown in his way by a brave
and determined enemy.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the Right Honourable Lieut.-General Sir Henry Hardinge,
Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath,
Governor-General of India, for the judgment, energy, and ability with
which the resources of the British Empire in India have been applied in
repelling the unjust and unprovoked invasion of the British Territory
by the Sikh Nation; and for the valour and indefatigable exertions
which he displayed on the 10th of February, 1846, at the battle of
Sobraon, when, by the blessing of Almighty God, which we desire most
humbly to acknowledge, this hostile and treacherous invasion was
successfully defeated.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the thanks of this House be
given to General Sir Hugh Gough, Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of the
Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Commander-in-Chief of the
Forces in India, for the signal ability and valour with which, upon
the 10th of February, 1846, he directed and led the attack, when the
enemy's entrenchments were stormed, their Artillery captured, their
Army defeated and scattered, and the Punjaub laid open to the advance
of our victorious troops.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to Major-General Sir Henry George Smith, Knight Commander of
the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath; Major-General Walter
Raleigh Gilbert; and Major-General Sir Joseph Thackwell, Knight
Commander of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath; and to the
other Officers, European and Native, for the distinguished services
rendered by them in the eminently successful operations at the Battle
of Sobraon.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_, _Nemine dissentiente_."

"Then it was _moved_ to resolve,--That this House doth highly approve
of and commend the invincible intrepidity, perseverance, and steady
discipline displayed by the Non-Commissioned Officers and Private
Soldiers, European and Native, on the 10th of February, 1846, by which
the glory of the British Arms has been successfully maintained against
a determined and greatly superior force: and that the same be signified
to them by the Commanders of the several Corps, who are desired to
thank them for their gallant behaviour.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_."

"Then it was _moved_,--That the said Resolutions be transmitted by
the Lord Chancellor to the Governor-General of India, and that he be
requested to communicate the same to the several Officers referred to
therein.

"On question, _Resolved_ in the _Affirmative_."


_Extracts from the Votes and Proceedings of the House of Commons.--2nd
March, 1846._


MILITARY OPERATIONS ON THE SUTLEJ.

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the Right Honourable Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hardinge,
Governor-General of India, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath,
for the energy and ability with which he directed the military means at
his disposal, to the repelling of the unprovoked invasion by the Sikh
Army of the dominions of the British Government, and of the Protected
States upon the left bank of the Sutlej; and also for the firmness and
gallantry with which he directed the operations of that portion of the
army under his immediate command, in the afternoon and night of 21st
December, 1845, and on the morning of the 22nd, upon which occasion
the enemy's defences were carried by storm, the greater part of their
artillery captured, and their subsequent attempts to regain what they
had lost, repeatedly defeated."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House
be given to General Sir Hugh Gough, Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of
the Order of the Bath, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in the East
Indies, for the distinguished valour with which he directed and led the
several attacks upon the enemy, and for the eminent services rendered
by him in the battles of the 18th, 21st, and 22nd of December, 1845,
displaying, as he did, in conjunction with the Governor-General, a
brilliant example to the Troops of perseverance and courage in critical
circumstances, and of irresistible ardour in the several attacks made
upon the enemy."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House
be given to Major-General Sir Henry George Smith, Knight Commander of
the Order of the Bath, to Major-General Walter Raleigh Gilbert, and to
Major-General Sir John Hunter Littler, Knight Commander of the Order
of the Bath, and to the several Officers, European and Native, under
their command, for the eminent services rendered by them in the recent
arduous and successful operations."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the Non-Commissioned Officers and Private Soldiers, European
and Native, for the perseverance and fortitude maintained by them at
Moodkee, on the 18th of December, 1845, and for the daring valour with
which they forced the enemy's entrenchments at Ferozeshah on the 21st
and 22nd of December, captured most of his guns, and finally compelled
the Sikh Army, of greatly superior numbers, to retire within their own
frontier."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That this Resolution be signified
to them by the Commanders of the several Corps."

"_Ordered_,--That the said Resolutions be transmitted by Mr. Speaker to
the Governor-General of India, and that he be requested to communicate
the same to the several Officers referred to therein."


_Extracts from the Votes and Proceedings of the House of Commons.--2nd
April, 1846._


BATTLE OF ALIWAL.

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House
be given to Major-General Sir Henry George Smith, Knight Commander of
the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, for his skilful and
meritorious conduct when in command of the British Troops employed
against a large portion of the Sikh Army, of greatly superior numbers;
and for the signal valour and judgment displayed by him in the battle
of Aliwal, on the 28th of January, 1846, when the enemy's force was
totally defeated, and new lustre added to the reputation of the British
Arms."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the several Officers, European and Native, under the command
of Sir Henry Smith, for the distinguished services rendered by them at
the battle of Aliwal."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That this House doth highly
approve of, and commend, the intrepidity and exemplary discipline
displayed by the Non-commissioned Officers and Private Soldiers,
European and Native, in the battle of Aliwal, on the 28th of January,
1846, in their attack on the enemy's position, by which the Sikhs were
completely routed, and driven in confusion across the Sutlej; with the
loss of all their Artillery, and Military Equipment; and that the same
be signified to them by the Commanders of the several Corps, who are
desired to thank them for their gallant behaviour."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That, in requesting the
Governor-General of India to communicate these Resolutions to
the several Officers referred to therein, this House desires to
acknowledge the zeal and judgment evinced by the Right Honourable
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hardinge Knight Grand Cross of the Most
Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Governor-General of India; and
also by General Sir Hugh Gough, Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of the
Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Commander-in-Chief of
the Forces in India, in supplying Major-General Sir Henry Smith with
such reinforcements and military means as enabled him, under Divine
Providence, to overcome all the obstacles thrown in his way by a brave
and determined enemy."

"_Ordered_,--That the said Resolutions be transmitted by Mr. Speaker to
the Governor-General of India, and that he be requested to communicate
the same to the several Officers referred to therein."--(_Sir Robert
Peel._)


BATTLE OF SOBRAON.

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to the Right Honourable Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hardinge,
Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath,
Governor-General of India, for the judgment, energy, and ability,
with which the resources of the British Empire in India have been
applied, in repelling the unjust and unprovoked invasion of the British
Territory by the Sikh Nation; and for the valour and indefatigable
exertions which he displayed on the 10th of February, 1846, at the
battle of Sobraon, when, by the blessing of Almighty God, which we
desire most humbly to acknowledge, this hostile and treacherous
invasion was successfully defeated."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House be
given to General Sir Hugh Gough, Baronet, Knight Grand Cross of the
Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Commander-in-Chief of the
Forces in India, for the signal ability and valour with which, in the
battle of Sobraon, upon the 10th of February, 1846, he directed and
led the attack, when the enemy's entrenchments were stormed, their
artillery captured, their army defeated and scattered, and the Punjaub
laid open to the advance of our victorious Troops."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That the Thanks of this House
be given to Major-General Sir Henry George Smith, Knight Commander
of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Major-General
Walter Raleigh Gilbert, and Major-General Sir Joseph Thackwell, Knight
Commander of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath; and to the
other Officers, European and Native, for the distinguished services
rendered by them in the eminently successful operations at the battle
of Sobraon."

"_Resolved_, _Nemine contradicente_,--That this House doth highly
approve of, and commend, the invincible intrepidity, perseverance,
and steady discipline displayed by the Non-Commissioned Officers and
Private Soldiers, European and Native, in the battle of Sobraon, on
the 10th of February, 1846, by which the glory of the British Arms has
been successfully maintained against a determined and greatly superior
force; and that the same be signified to them by the Commanders of
the several Corps, who are desired to thank them for their gallant
behaviour."

"_Ordered_,--That the said Resolutions be transmitted by Mr. Speaker to
the Governor-General of India, and that he be requested to communicate
the same to the several Officers referred to therein."--(_Sir Robert
Peel._)

     London:--Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street,
                  For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

         LONDON:--PRINTED BY W. CLOWES & SONS, STAMFORD STREET,
                  FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


  Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
  errors.

  Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

  Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.





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