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Title: History of the Thirty-sixth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers. 1862-1865
Author: Burrage, Henry S., Hodgkins, William H., White, Alonzo A., Ranlett, S. Alonzo, Noyes, Edmund W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                                HISTORY

                                OF THE

                         THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT

                       MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS.

                              1862-1865.


                   _BY A COMMITTEE OF THE REGIMENT._

                                BOSTON:
                   PRESS OF ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL.
                            89 ARCH STREET.
                                 1884.

                                  TO

                             Our Comrades

                                OF THE

                _THIRTY-SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS_

                  THIS RECORD OF A COMMON EXPERIENCE

                                  IS

                      _AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED_.

    _Ah, never shall the land forget_
      _How gushed the life-blood of her brave,--_
    _Gushed, warm with hope and courage yet,--_
      _Upon the soil they sought to save._

    _Now all is calm, and fresh, and still;_
      _Alone the chirp of flitting bird,_
    _And talk of children on the hill,_
      _And bell of wand'ring kine, are heard._

    _No solemn host goes trailing by,_
      _The black-mouthed gun and stag'ring wain;_
    _Men start not at the battle-cry;_
      _Oh, be it never heard again!_

                                  --WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT.



PREFACE.


Not long after the close of the war a plan was proposed, by some of
the officers of the regiment, for the preparation of a history of the
Thirty-sixth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers; but the plan was
not carried into execution. At the regimental reunions, in subsequent
years, parts of such a history were read by Comrades White, Ranlett,
and Hodgkins, and the desire for a complete history of the regiment,
which found expression on these occasions, was so strong that, at the
reunion of the regiment at Worcester, in September, 1876, a committee,
consisting of Comrades White, Ranlett, Burrage, and Hodgkins, was
appointed to procure materials for a history of the regiment.

Some progress was made by the committee in the performance of the
work thus assigned to them; but it was not so great as they, or their
comrades of the Thirty-sixth, desired. At the reunion, September 2,
1879, the matter was again considered, and it was finally voted, "that
Comrades White, Ranlett, Hodgkins, Burrage, and Noyes, be chosen a
committee to have charge of the compiling, revising, and printing the
history of the regiment, to be ready for delivery at our next reunion;
and that the committee have power to procure any help they may need."

Many difficulties were encountered in the progress of the work, and it
was found that it would be impossible to prepare, within the limit of
time prescribed, such a history as would be worthy of the regiment. The
different members of the committee, amid the activities of busy lives,
could give to the work only such intervals of leisure as they could
find amid their daily tasks. At the annual reunions of 1880, 1881, and
1882,--testing the patience of their comrades who had entrusted to them
this important task,--they were compelled to report progress only. In
September, 1883,--the last reunion,--however, they were able to say
that the work was already in press, and would be ready for delivery in
the course of a few weeks.

In the table of contents will be found the names of the authors of
the different chapters. The work of Comrades White, Ranlett, Olin,
and Noyes, entitles them to the hearty thanks of all their companions
in arms. Especially, however, are such thanks due to Comrade W. H.
Hodgkins, not only for his own contribution to the history, but
also for his careful attention to the innumerable details which the
preparation of such a work required. Indeed, without his unwearied
endeavors in gathering materials, securing the coöperation of others,
and attending to the business of publication, the history would not so
soon, and might never, have been completed.

To the writer of these lines was assigned the editorial supervision
of the work. From the materials placed in his hands he arranged the
history of the regiment as it now appears. Two proofs of the entire
work have passed under his eye, and in this part of his task he has had
the invaluable assistance of Major Hodgkins. The history, of course,
is not free from errors of statement; and it will doubtless be found
that there are omissions which the writers of the different chapters,
as well as their comrades, will deeply deplore. Yet, with all its
imperfections, this volume is believed to be substantially a faithful
history of the part which the regiment had in the great conflict for
the preservation of the National Union, which was waged during the
years 1862-1865; and, as such, it is certainly a history of which all
those who participated in it may well be proud.

                                                                 H. S. B.
  PORTLAND, ME., Sept. 26, 1883.



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER I.                                                        PAGE

  ORGANIZATION OF THE REGIMENT.--ALONZO A. WHITE                    1-10


  CHAPTER II.

  TO THE FRONT.--ALONZO A. WHITE                                   11-18


  CHAPTER III.

  IN VIRGINIA.--ALONZO A. WHITE                                    19-36


  CHAPTER IV.

  THE KENTUCKY CAMPAIGN.--S. ALONZO RANLETT                        37-48


  CHAPTER V.

  IN THE REAR OF VICKSBURG.--S. ALONZO RANLETT                     49-57


  CHAPTER VI.

  THE MOVEMENT ON JACKSON.--S. ALONZO RANLETT                      58-72


  CHAPTER VII.

  THE RETURN TO KENTUCKY.--S. ALONZO RANLETT                       73-78


  CHAPTER VIII.

  IN EAST TENNESSEE.--S. ALONZO RANLETT                            79-87


  CHAPTER IX.

  THE RETREAT FROM LENOIR'S AND THE BATTLE OF CAMPBELL'S
  STATION.--HENRY S. BURRAGE                                      88-100


  CHAPTER X.

  THE SIEGE OF KNOXVILLE.--HENRY S. BURRAGE                      101-122


  CHAPTER XI.

  SUBSEQUENT OPERATIONS IN EAST TENNESSEE.--HENRY S. BURRAGE     123-134


  CHAPTER XII.

  REORGANIZATION.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                           135-145


  CHAPTER XIII.

  IN THE WILDERNESS.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                        146-159


  CHAPTER XIV.

  AT SPOTTSYLVANIA.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                         160-177


  CHAPTER XV.

  ON THE NORTH ANNA AND THE PAMUNKEY.--WILLIAM H.
  HODGKINS                                                       178-187


  CHAPTER XVI.

  AT COLD HARBOR.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                           188-200


  CHAPTER XVII.

  THE MOVEMENT ON PETERSBURG.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS               201-215


  CHAPTER XVIII.

  IN THE TRENCHES.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                          216-222


  CHAPTER XIX.

  DIARY OF THE SIEGE.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                       223-232


  CHAPTER XX.

  THE MINE AFFAIR.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                          233-241


  CHAPTER XXI.

  THE SIEGE CONTINUED.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                      242-252


  CHAPTER XXII.

  IN THE PINES.--EDMUND W. NOYES                                 253-257


  CHAPTER XXIII.

  THE ACTION AT PEGRAM FARM.--EDMUND W. NOYES                    258-265


  CHAPTER XXIV.

  AGAIN IN THE TRENCHES.--EDMUND W. NOYES                        266-275


  CHAPTER XXV.

  IN WINTER QUARTERS.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                       276-281


  CHAPTER XXVI.

  THE FINAL ASSAULT AT PETERSBURG.--WILLIAM M. OLIN              282-291


  CHAPTER XXVII.

  CLOSING SCENES.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                           292-311


  CHAPTER XXVIII.

  CONCLUSION.--WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                               312-315


  ROSTER AND RECORD OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT OF
  MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS, COMPILED AND CORRECTED
  BY WILLIAM H. HODGKINS                                             316

  RECAPITULATION                                                     385

  NAMES OF MEMBERS OF THE REGIMENT WHO DIED IN REBEL
  PRISONS                                                            386

  NARRATIVE OF ISRAEL H. SMITH                                       387

  INDEX                                                              391

                         THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT,
                       MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS.



CHAPTER I.

ORGANIZATION OF THE REGIMENT.


Early in July, 1862, when the war of the rebellion had been in progress
a little more than a year, President Lincoln issued an order for three
hundred thousand volunteers, to serve three years, or during the war.
It was a time of sore discouragement and general depression throughout
the loyal States. Our army in Virginia, under General McClellan, during
a seven days' fight near the Chickahominy, had met with such reverses
that it had been compelled to "make a change of base," and fall back
to the James river, near Harrison's Landing. Nobly, however, and
cheerfully, did the people of the North respond to the President's call
for reinforcements. On every hand was heard the chorus:--

"We're coming, Father Abraham, three hundred thousand more."

Massachusetts was not behind her sister States in raising her quota,
which was fifteen thousand men. In a general order, dated July 7, 1862,
Governor Andrew announced the call which had been made upon him by the
President, stated the number of men which every city and town would
be required to furnish, and closed with these words: "The government
demands new regiments, and our brave men who have so nobly upheld
the honor of Massachusetts call loudly from the battle-fields of the
South to their brethren at home to come forward at once and fill their
decimated ranks, and take the places of the brave men who have fallen
and suffered in the cause of the Union and of American Constitutional
Liberty." Like the blast of a trumpet this order stirred the hearts
of the people in all parts of the state, and cities and towns vied
with each other, in patriotic endeavors to hurry forward the work of
enlistment.

A subsequent order, dated July 16, 1862, containing instructions
relative to the new recruitment, designated Camp John E. Wool, at
the city of Worcester, as the general rendezvous for the counties of
Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, and Worcester. Colonel George
H. Ward, of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Volunteers, who had lost a
leg at the battle of Ball's Bluff, and was now at home on account of
disability, was placed in command of the camp.

The order of July 7th contained this announcement: "The new regiments
now partly formed, and to be formed, are the Thirty-second,
Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, and
Thirty-seventh. To complete these regiments to the maximum standard,
the Thirty-second regiment requires 300 men; the Thirty-third, 650
men; the Thirty-fourth, 800 men; and the Thirty-fifth, 850 men." It
was accordingly ordered that recruiting for the Thirty-sixth and
Thirty-seventh regiments should not commence until the four first named
were filled. The order, however, was not strictly observed.

The first detachment for the Thirty-sixth entered Camp Wool August 1st,
and was a part of the quota of the town of Fitchburg. This detachment
consisted of sixty-four men, under the command of Captain T. L. Barker.
Recruits for the regiment had been received at Camp Wool previous to
August 1st; but this was the first organized company in camp, and, in
the organization of the regiment, it was assigned to the right of
the line, and known as Company A. As early as August 6th this company
had its minimum number of recruits; and, in a few days, others, from
Fitchburg, Leominster, and adjacent towns, raised the number to the
maximum.

Company B, Captain John B. Norton, was recruited in Charlestown during
the month of July. It was at first intended that this company should
be attached to the Thirty-fourth Regiment as a flank company, and
the officers at first received commissions in that regiment; but the
requisite authority for such a company could not be obtained at the
War Department, and the company was transferred to the Thirty-sixth,
and the officers recommissioned. For a time, very naturally, it was
a disappointment to the members of this company that they could not
remain in the Thirty-fourth; but of the survivors there is, doubtless,
not one who is not satisfied that the record of the company was made
with the Thirty-sixth.

Recruiting for Company C was commenced in the city of Worcester, August
8th, and on the 12th the company was full. Eight days after, under the
command of Captain Arthur A. Goodell, the company entered Camp Wool. No
other company in the regiment was raised in so brief a space of time.

Company D was recruited principally in the towns of Templeton and
Winchendon. The first detachment entered Camp Wool, August 4, under the
command of Captain Amos Buffum, of Baldwinville, late second lieutenant
in the Twenty-fifth Massachusetts Volunteers. In a few days the ranks
of this company were full.

The men of Company E were recruited from the towns of Palmer, Monson,
and the western towns of Worcester County. The first detachment entered
Camp Wool, August 10th, under the command of First Lieutenant R. M.
Cross. Captain S. C. Warriner, who had been discharged from the Tenth
Massachusetts Volunteers, in order to accept a captain's commission
in the Thirty-sixth, arrived in camp about the 20th of August, and
assumed command of the company, and completed its organization.

Company F was formed principally of recruits from Milford and vicinity,
with a detachment from Sutton. The first detachment arrived at Camp
Wool August 10th, under the command of Second Lieutenant A. S. Tuttle.
He remained in command of the company until September 17, when Captain
William F. Draper, promoted from first lieutenant in the Twenty-fifth
Massachusetts Volunteers, joined the regiment then in the field, and
assumed command of the company.

Company G was organized from unassigned recruits, representing the
eastern towns of Worcester County. S. Henry Bailey, of Northboro', was
commissioned captain of the company August 22d.

Company H was formed by adding to the quotas of Gardner and Orange
the unassigned recruits then in camp; and Christopher Sawyer, of
Templeton, who had entered Camp Wool as first sergeant of Company D,
was commissioned captain of this company August 22d.

Company I was recruited in Berlin, Marlboro', Upton, Uxbridge, and
adjoining towns, and entered Camp Wool in the early part of August,
under the command of Captain Christopher Hastings, of Berlin. The
company was filled to the maximum a few days after entering camp.
Indeed, Captain Hastings recruited men enough nearly to fill two
companies.

Company K, like G and H, was formed of unassigned recruits from the
various towns whose quotas reported at Camp Wool. James B. Smith, late
first lieutenant in the Twenty-fifth Massachusetts Volunteers, was
commissioned captain of the company.

On the 27th of August these ten companies, constituting the
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts Volunteers, having completed their
organization, were mustered into the United States service, for three
years, unless sooner discharged.

The field, staff, and line officers were not mustered into the service
until September 2d, the day the regiment left Camp Wool for the seat of
war. Indeed, for the most part, the field officers were not appointed
until after the mustering in of the regiment.

Lieutenant-Colonel John W. Kimball, of Fitchburg, then serving in the
Fifteenth Regiment,--a true and accomplished officer,--was commissioned
colonel of the Thirty-sixth, August 11th, and application was made
by Governor Andrew for his discharge from the Fifteenth, in order to
accept promotion. But, in the critical state of affairs at that time,
it was not deemed advisable by the authorities at Washington to grant
the governor's request. Consequently, on the 22d of August, Major Henry
Bowman, of the Thirty-fourth regiment, then at Camp Casey, on Arlington
Heights, was promoted to the colonelcy of the Thirty-sixth; and,
receiving his discharge from the Thirty-fourth, he at once joined his
command at Camp Wool.

Captain John B. Norton, of Charlestown, who entered Camp Wool as
captain of Company B, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, August 28th,
and on the same day, James H. Barker, of Milford, was commissioned
major.

James P. Prince, of Lynn, was commissioned surgeon, with Warren
Tyler, of North Brookfield, and Albert H. Bryant, of Natick, as
assistant-surgeons. Rev. Charles T. Canfield, of Worcester, was
commissioned chaplain, and F. B. Rice, also of Worcester, as first
lieutenant and quartermaster. An adjutant was not appointed until a
later date.

The regiment was now nearly ready for the field. Most of the men had
been hurried into camp, with the promise of a few days' furlough
before leaving the State. Many of them had left their business affairs
unsettled and their families unprovided for. But all applications for
furlough were denied by the United States officer at Boston, who was
in charge of mustered regiments. Colonel Ward endeavored to secure
a furlough for the men; but his efforts proved unavailing. Colonel
Bowman, on joining the regiment, and learning the condition of affairs,
renewed these efforts, stating his unwillingness to leave the State
until the pledge which had been given to the men had, in a measure at
least, been redeemed.

On Saturday, August 30th, Colonel Bowman received orders to have
the Thirty-sixth Regiment ready to leave for Washington as early as
September 2d. At the same time he was given permission to grant to his
men furloughs for twenty-four hours, one-half of the regiment only to
be absent from camp at the same time. This order was not received by
Colonel Bowman until late Saturday afternoon. Accordingly, furloughs
were granted first of all to those men whose homes were at the greatest
distance from the camp. These were to return Monday morning, when the
rest of the men would receive their furloughs. This second half of
the regiment, by some mysterious process, became very small Saturday
evening and on Sunday. The sentinels paced their beats, but in some
instances so absorbed in their duties as seemingly to have lost the
sense both of sight and hearing.

A sergeant, with a comrade, making the rounds of his guard late on one
of these nights, found a faithful son of Erin walking his beat with
soldier-like precision. As they approached he promptly challenged:
"Who goes there?" and was as quickly answered, "Friend, with the
countersign." As they approached to give the countersign, the sergeant
asked, in confiding tones, "Could anyone get out here?" The sentinel,
as confidingly, asked, "Would ye bring a little whiskey? Be jabbers a
pint of whiskey might make a man both blind and _dafe_!" He then turned
his back, and marched away.

But while it was a great disappointment to the men to lose the few
days' furlough which had been promised to them, and especially to those
who had important business interests that demanded attention, leading
in some cases to a seeming disregard of discipline, yet all of the
companies were in camp on Tuesday morning. At an early hour on that
day the company commanders drew arms (Enfield rifles) and equipments
for their men, and these were at once distributed among them. All was
bustle and confusion throughout the camp. Few of the men had had any
experience as soldiers, and the selection and adjustment of their arms
and equipments, as well as the brief space of time allotted for these
and other preparations for moving, made it look still more difficult
and annoying.

Late in the forenoon the regimental line was formed, and a beautiful
national flag was presented to the regiment by Honorable P. Emory
Aldrich, Mayor of Worcester. In presenting the flag the Mayor said:--

  "_Colonel Bowman_,--Your friends, and the friends of your command
  in this city, have procured this beautiful banner, and requested me
  to present it to you as the worthy commander of the Thirty-sixth
  Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers for the war. It will be seen
  that its azure fold is studded with the full constellation of
  stars, representing the undivided Union, and that not one of the
  original stripes is omitted or erased, showing that, however much
  your friends may deplore the present unhappy condition of our
  distracted and bleeding country, they still firmly believe that,
  when the clouds of war that now lower upon us shall have passed
  away, these stars will again shine as from a clear and cloudless
  sky with none of their ancient lustre lost or obscured. And permit
  me to say that this flag, still unchanged and radiant, signifies,
  in the truest and highest sense, the kind of service expected
  of you and this noble regiment you are about to lead from this
  comparatively peaceful camp of preparation to the stern and heroic
  duties of the field; that you are to aid, by force of arms, in
  restoring the Union, which traitors have temporarily impaired, and
  in reestablishing the supremacy of the constitution and laws over
  every portion of territory lying within the acknowledged boundaries
  of the Union, from the great lakes to the gulf, and from the
  Atlantic to the Pacific oceans, so that, when you and your brave
  comrades return, as we trust you will, with this flag, soiled and
  rent it may be by the smoke and leaden hail of battle,[1] you
  shall bring it back, not as the sign of a shattered constitution,
  and dissevered Union, but as the proud emblem of a reunited and
  indivisible republic, and then it shall continue to be known and
  honored throughout the civilized world, and everywhere become a
  free and safe passport to all men of every race who have the right
  to claim protection beneath its ample folds.

[1] "Soiled and rent," its staff shattered, this flag, which was
carried by the regiment throughout its entire period of service, is
now preserved in the State House, in Boston, with the flags of the
Massachusetts regiments.

  "In delivering this proud ensign of our nationality into your
  hands, your friends know they are entrusting it to one who is not
  only familiar with the ordinary duties of the soldier, but to one
  who has been tried and not found wanting amidst the perils and
  carnage of the battle-field, and who has suffered what is more
  intolerable to every true soldier than any dangers of field or
  camp, and that is captivity and confinement for weary months in
  the loathsome prisons of the enemy; and now, after protracted
  and vexatious delays, you have but recently been relieved from
  your parole, so that you can, without dishonor, enter again the
  military service of your country; and, having availed yourself
  of the earliest opportunity to return to avenge your own and
  your country's wrongs, may a propitious Providence and all good
  influences attend you, and protect you, and your command in every
  hour of trial and danger.

  "Yours is the fourth regiment which has been organized within
  this enclosure, which may now very properly be called our _Campus
  Martius_, and the fifth that has gone out from our city within
  the last twelve months. The Fifteenth, beginning its brilliant
  career at Ball's Bluff,--where, indeed, it encountered a repulse
  for which neither its officers nor men were responsible,--has
  with signal gallantry fought its way over many a bloody field
  to a high position on the roll of fame. And the Twenty-first
  and Twenty-fifth, being with each other in the performance of
  patriotic duty, and in the memorable race for military renown, have
  made Roanoke and Newberne, and other fields, wherein they have
  exhibited the highest qualities of the soldier, ever memorable both
  to friend and foe. And it is not altogether improbable that the
  Thirty-fourth, which took up its line of march but a few days since
  from this camp, under the accomplished Wells,[2] may have already
  found itself involved in the smoke of its first battle, and taking
  its first lesson in the art of war. And scarcely will your regiment
  have left our presence, before another will encamp within the
  limits of the city. And we bid you tell our brethren in the field
  that thus shall regiment after regiment, in endless succession,
  be sent to their aid until this accursed rebellion is utterly
  extinguished.

[2] Colonel Wells was killed near Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 13, 1864.

  "The lateness of the hour, the necessity of your moving at once,
  admonish me that I should omit a portion of what I had proposed to
  say on this occasion; but this is of little account, and I would
  not delay your march for a single moment to listen to any poor
  words of mine. Words in this hour are simply air. Action--instant,
  resistless, heroic action--is the only thing that can avail us
  in this perilous crisis. And I can only add that, while you and
  these brave men who are to follow you, will do your full duty in
  upholding and restoring the authority of the constitution and its
  laws, you can never fail in loyalty, and the great idea of liberty
  which now inspires the hearts and nerves the hands of all the loyal
  men of the land; and that, when you have marched through rebel
  districts, none but loyal and _free men_ shall be found. And now
  accept this standard, proffered by friendly hands, and let it be
  borne in your regiment as the emblem of liberty and law. And should
  you or any of those, your comrades in arms, fall in its defence,
  your memories shall be held in grateful remembrance, and history
  will preserve their names among those of heroes and martyrs who
  have died to defend or consecrate a great and noble cause. Remember
  that the life is longest which best answers life's great end, and
  that to die upon the battle-field in defence of the liberties of
  mankind is the most cherished road to immortality."

The band played the "Star-Spangled Banner," and Colonel Bowman
responded in patriotic terms.

The several companies of the regiment then marched to Agricultural
Hall,--a large building on the camp ground,--where a bountiful
collation had been provided by the friends of the regiment. Then
followed the filling of haversacks, the packing of knapsacks, and all
were soon in readiness for the order to move.



CHAPTER II.

TO THE FRONT.


There was no delay. At noon, Tuesday, September 2d, the assembly was
sounded, the line was formed, and the Thirty-sixth, with a large number
of the friends of the regiment, who had come to say a long and perhaps
a last farewell, left Camp Wool amid the cheers of a great throng of
people assembled along the line of march to witness the departure of
the regiment, and moved up Highland street, through Main street, to
the Common. There cars were in waiting. These were soon filled, the
horses and baggage were taken aboard, the last farewells were spoken,
and, about two o'clock, followed by the loud cheers of the multitude,
and the waving of adieus, the long train drew out of the station, and
hurried toward Boston. On the arrival of the regiment in Boston the
line was again formed, and the Thirty-sixth, receiving a brilliant
ovation from the citizens, marched through Washington street, down
State street to Battery wharf, where the steamer "Merrimac," a new and
large ocean steamer, was in readiness to receive us. One-half of the
steamer had been assigned to the Twentieth Maine, Colonel Adelbert
Ames, and his regiment was already on board, having arrived from
Portland earlier in the day. In the crowded condition of the steamer
there was, necessarily, some delay in getting the companies into the
places to which they were assigned, and also in transferring the
horses and baggage; and it was not until late in the evening that the
embarkation was accomplished; then the steamer dropped out into the
stream. Early the next morning, September 3d, the "Merrimac" left her
anchorage and steamed down the harbor into the bay.

We soon learned that our destination was Alexandria, Va. The voyage
throughout was a pleasant one, and the men of the two regiments mingled
in friendly companionship. On the second day out, on the quarter-deck,
some of the men of Company B gave an exhibition, consisting of
singing, declamations, etc., which was greatly enjoyed by a large
and enthusiastic audience. Friday noon we reached the capes of the
Chesapeake, had a glimpse of Fortress Monroe, and, moving up the bay,
many of us looked upon the "sacred soil" for the first time; the
steamer entered the Potomac river about ten o'clock in the evening, and
shortly after midnight came to anchor. At five o'clock Saturday morning
we again were under way, and had a most delightful sail up the Potomac,
with both shores in full view. At length we passed Mt. Vernon, once the
home and now the grave of Washington, and soon after, about noon, we
were at the wharf in Alexandria.

Here we learned that the Thirty-fourth Massachusetts, which left
Worcester August 15th, was doing guard duty and building fortifications
near Alexandria. The Twentieth Maine was landed, but we remained on
the steamer during the night. The next morning, Sunday, September 7th,
we were transferred to the steamer "City of Norwich," in which we
proceeded up the river to Washington, and landed not far from the Navy
Yard.

Lee, in the last days of August, had defeated Pope within sound of the
capitol, and was now pushing his victorious columns northward with
the purpose of carrying the war into the Union States. The forces
under General McClellan, who was again in command of the army, were
also moving northward, but through Maryland, in order to intercept
Lee's columns and give him battle. We encamped near the capitol until
September 9th, when, having been assigned to General Burnside's
command, the Ninth Corps, we left Washington, and marched to
Leesboro'. But Burnside was no longer there, and several days were lost
in obtaining further orders. September 12th the regiment left Leesboro'
at an early hour, and marched about twelve miles, to Brookville, near
which we went into camp on a beautiful grassy slope belonging to the
estate of Hon. John Hall, formerly of the United States Post-Office
Department. Near us was the camp of the First Rhode Island Cavalry.

On Sunday, September 14th, we held our first religious service in the
field, and the chaplain preached. On that day the distant sound of
artillery was heard, and we knew that, somewhere beyond us, the two
armies had again met. It was the day of the battle of South Mountain,
in which General Burnside, it will be remembered, gained an important
battle, carrying the mountain pass which Lee had directed his forces to
hold "at every hazard."

On Monday, September 15th, Colonel Bowman received from a mounted
orderly a note written in pencil, which purported to be an order from
General McClellan, signed "R. B. Marcy, Chief of Staff," directing all
troops on the road to hurry forward as rapidly as possible. Colonel
Bowman doubted the genuineness of this hasty scrawl, and the more so
on account of the appearance of suspicious persons about the camp the
night before. Not knowing the result of the battle of the previous
day, and afraid that an attempt might be made to capture his regiment
in its isolated position, he decided not to move his command until he
received further instructions or had better information concerning the
state of affairs at the front. This delay undoubtedly prevented our
participation in the battle of Antietam, which was fought September
17th. On that day, having learned that the road was open, we left
Brookville, and, moving forward rapidly, we encamped at night about
three miles beyond the village of Damascus. On the following day
we marched through Unity, Monrovia, Newmarket, and Frederick, and
encamped about a mile beyond the latter place. During the day, while
on the march, we passed the men of Colonel Miles' command at Harper's
Ferry, who, on the 15th, were surrendered to Stonewall Jackson and
paroled,--in all, five or six regiments, containing about five thousand
men. They were now on their way to Annapolis. It was not a pleasant
sight to see so many of our soldiers going to the rear; but they
cheered us with reports of the battle on the 17th, in which our army
was victorious.

September 19th we resumed the march about ten o'clock in the forenoon,
crossed the Catoctin mountains to Middletown, enjoying the magnificent
prospect at the summit, and encamped beyond the town at the place
where, on the Sunday before, General McClellan and General Burnside had
their head-quarters during the battle of South Mountain.

On the following day we crossed South Mountain. Here and there
by the roadside were newly-made graves,--in one place we counted
twenty-six,--and the trees and fences bore marks of the recent fight.
We passed also long trains of ambulance wagons, loaded with wounded
men from the battle-field at Antietam, and also many of the wounded on
foot, who were on their way to the hospitals in Frederick. Places of
interest were pointed out to us on our way. One was the spot where,
just at the close of the action on Sunday, General Reno fell. Another
was the ground where the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts formed, and over
which it made its brilliant charge, driving the enemy from the woods
beyond.

Descending into a valley, we passed through Boonsboro', where was a
hospital full of wounded rebels, and encamped at Keedysville, about
two miles east of the Antietam battle-ground. Everywhere around us
were the sad memories of the terrible conflict that was waged on that
hard-fought field. Houses, barns, sheds, places of shelter of all
kinds, were filled with the wounded, and on the field where the battle
was fought, hundreds of the dead still lay unburied, although a large
force had been steadily engaged in this service since the preceding
Wednesday. Looking upon these scenes we were brought face to face with
the dread realities of war. Among the wounded we found many friends and
acquaintances who belonged to other Massachusetts regiments, and whose
sad condition enlisted our warmest sympathies, and drew from many the
expression, "If there be glory in war, it is dearly bought."

September 21st we left Keedysville in the afternoon, crossed the famous
stone bridge from which Burnside, on the 17th, gallantly dislodged the
enemy, passed through Sharpsburg, which bore the marks of our shot and
shell, and encamped a short distance beyond, near General Burnside's
head-quarters.

Here the Thirty-sixth was assigned to the Third Brigade of the first
division of the Ninth Corps. In the brigade were the Forty-fifth and
One Hundredth (Roundheads) Pennsylvania regiments, to which we soon
became warmly attached, and with which we were to be associated during
nearly our whole period of service. Than these two regiments there
were no better in the Ninth Corps; and our regard for both officers
and men increased as common experiences drew us nearer together.
Indeed, they became to us almost as brothers, and we have reason to
believe that this feeling was mutual. Colonel Welch, of the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, commanded the brigade, and General O. B. Willcox, the
division.

September 23d, about half-past three o'clock in the morning, there was
a general alarm. "Fall in! Fall in!" resounded through the camp, and
for two hours we stood in line of battle on the edge of an adjoining
cornfield; but it was only an alarm, and about half-past five we
returned to our quarters.

On the 25th we were ordered to be in readiness to march. The tents were
struck, our regimental baggage was packed, all of our preparations for
a movement were completed; but about four o'clock in the afternoon the
order was countermanded, and we pitched our tents on our former camp
ground.

The next morning we received orders to be ready to march at one o'clock
P.M. We were in line at that time, but as the whole corps was in
motion, and we were in the rear, there was some delay for us. It was a
beautiful sight, as the several brigades and divisions of the corps,
with the long train of baggage-wagons, moved over the hills. At length
our brigade started. We crossed Antietam Creek at Isabella Furnace,
the troops passing over the bridge, and the wagons fording the stream.
Just at sundown we encamped near Antietam Iron Works, about five miles
above Harper's Ferry. The tents of the men were soon up, and the
camp-fires lighted. A more brilliant scene can hardly be imagined than
that presented by these fields around us, illuminated by innumerable
camp-fires.

By order of General Willcox, Sunday, September 29th, was observed by
the division as a day of special religious service, to give thanks
to God for our recent victories in Maryland. The whole division was
brought together, and the services were conducted by Chaplain Canfield,
of the Thirty-sixth, and other chaplains of New York and Pennsylvania
regiments. The band first played "Old Hundred." The 46th Psalm was then
read, and a hymn sung to the well-known tune of Balerma. Remarks were
then made by four chaplains belonging to the division. The services
were very interesting and solemn throughout. In the afternoon Chaplain
Canfield preached.

On Tuesday, September 30th, there was a division review in the
forenoon, and monthly regimental inspection in the afternoon. On
Friday, October 3d, the corps was reviewed by President Lincoln and
General McClellan. We formed our regimental line at seven o'clock,
then marched to a field in the rear of our camp, and were assigned to
a position on the left of our brigade. The President arrived on the
ground shortly after nine o'clock, and passed us in review about ten.
This visit gave many in the regiment their first opportunity to see Mr.
Lincoln, and the day was one of great interest.

On Tuesday, October 7th, the Thirty-sixth experienced what was as yet
its most difficult and trying march. We had received orders to move
at daylight. The _reveillé_ was sounded at three o'clock. At half-past
five we left camp. The head of the column was toward Maryland Heights,
which we were to cross into Pleasant Valley. The road was a narrow
mountain road, in many places quite steep, and during the recent
movements it had been obstructed by fallen trees. At length we reached
the summit, where there was a magnificent view; and then we commenced
the equally difficult descent. The day was intensely hot, and the men,
completely exhausted, fell out in large numbers, and at a halt about
half-past two, Colonel Welch ordered the roll to be called. About
four o'clock we encamped in a most delightful and beautiful locality
in Pleasant Valley, on a wooded bank, which sloped gradually down to
a clear stream of running water, ten or twelve feet wide, near which
were cool springs of pure water sufficient for all our wants. Harper's
Ferry, above us, was about ten miles distant, and Knoxville the same
distance below us, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

While the regiment was at dress parade on Saturday, October 11th,
we received orders to be ready to move immediately, with haversack,
canteen, and overcoat, and without blankets. The line was formed at
once. The guns were loaded, and with the Forty-fifth and One Hundredth
Pennsylvania, and a section of artillery, we marched down the road
to Weverton, a little station on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,
where platform cars were awaiting us. The Thirty-sixth took a train
by itself, and left the station at seven o'clock. When the cars
stopped, about midnight, we found that we were at Frederick. Leaving
the cars we marched into the town, and were ordered to make ourselves
as comfortable as we could upon the cold sidewalks. No fires were
allowed, and it was impossible to keep warm in the chilly night air.
At six o'clock we marched to a field on the edge of the town, where
we took breakfast, and where we remained until noon, when we took a
new position on the Washington road. We now learned the object of this
movement. Stuart's cavalry were on their return from a raid into
Pennsylvania, and it was supposed that they would attempt to destroy
the government stores at Frederick, of which there was a considerable
quantity. At five o'clock they were at Newmarket, eight miles distant;
and the presence of our brigade at Frederick undoubtedly led them to
turn aside. Moving toward the Potomac they at once crossed the river,
and so made their escape, with the loss of a few prisoners brought in
by our cavalry.

Late in the afternoon, while we were awaiting orders upon the
Washington road, it began to rain, and there was the promise of a
cheerless night. Just at dark we marched to the station. The train left
about seven o'clock, our destination unknown. At length we reached
Point of Rocks, where the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad strikes the
Potomac. Leaving the cars we marched up the road a short distance in
the darkness and rain, and halted. Companies A, B, and C were advanced
to picket the heights above the station. The rest of the regiment,
officers and men alike, sought shelter wherever it could be found. The
morning revealed some of these luckless sleepers emerging from the
two apologies for houses near at hand; some from beneath them; some
from the pigsty and hen-house; many from beneath the shocks of corn in
adjacent fields; while others had made no attempt to sleep, but had
travelled about all night, stumbling over their comrades. The line was
formed, and we moved out about half a mile, to a pleasant field near
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and encamped. There we remained until
Wednesday, October 15th, when we had orders to return to our camp in
Pleasant Valley. We left Point of Rocks at half-past ten o'clock in the
forenoon, and, following the towpath of the canal, we reached Weverton
at half-past three. After some delay in waiting for the rest of our
brigade we reached our old camp about five o'clock.

On Tuesday, October 21st, the regiment was inspected by an officer on
Gen. McClellan's staff. On Friday following there were indications of a
forward movement, which, it seemed, could not now long be deferred.



CHAPTER III.

IN VIRGINIA.


Sunday morning, October 26th, we were aroused at half-past three
o'clock, and ordered to be ready to move at daylight. We struck our
tents in a pouring rain, had breakfast, but did not leave our camp
until after seven. Then we marched down the river to the little
village of Berlin, where a pontoon bridge had been thrown across the
Potomac. There we halted until afternoon. It was a general movement.
Not only were the regiments of our own brigade with us, but a large
number of other regiments. For hours, while the cavalry was crossing,
we were obliged to stand in a drenching rain awaiting the crossing of
the infantry, which was to follow. At length our line was in motion,
and the long column of infantry, having reached the Virginia shore,
continued the march, dragging its weary length through the mud, ankle
deep, and such mud as only Virginia can boast. About four o'clock, and
after advancing several miles from the river, we turned into a field
which had been sown with winter wheat, and on which the wheat was two
or three inches high. A more disagreeable and uncomfortable place could
hardly have been found; and there, in the mud, wet, cold, and weary, we
were ordered to halt, stack arms, and make ourselves comfortable for
the night. This order, however, was at length countermanded, and the
men removed to the fences and the grassy fields adjoining. Although
it was still raining, and a cold north wind was blowing a gale, the
orders were not to take rails for fires. But there was no other wood
at hand, and it was not long before bright fires, made of the rails
from the fences around, were blazing along the whole line, and every
man was doing his best to make his condition tolerable. For fatigue,
discomfort, and vexation, that first day's experience on Virginia
soil was rarely exceeded in the history of the regiment. It is but
just to state that for the selection of this camp the officers of the
Thirty-sixth were in no way responsible.

About ten o'clock the next forenoon the clouds parted, and the sun came
out bright and beautiful. With warmth and rations came good cheer to
the men. On the following day large numbers of troops joined us, and
we were expecting to move at any moment. But we remained in camp until
the next day, Wednesday, October 29th, when, about two o'clock in the
afternoon, we received orders to march. We advanced through a beautiful
country, the farms looking more like New England farms than any we
had seen; and, passing through the village of Waterford in the early
evening, we encamped a short distance beyond the village, and about ten
miles from Snicker's Gap. Here we remained until Sunday.

Pleasant days were those which we spent at Waterford. Saturday
afternoon, November 1st, we had orders to be in readiness to move on
the following day. Our preparations were made in the early morning, but
we did not move until eleven o'clock. It was a bright, sunny day, and
quite warm. We reached Hamilton about two o'clock in the afternoon;
and, after a short rest, continued our march until eight o'clock,
when we encamped in an oak grove at Philemont. Ahead of us there was
cannonading throughout the day.

On Monday, November 3d, we continued our march at one P.M., our course
being nearly parallel to the Blue Ridge. At Union, Gen. Burnside
passed us with his staff. At seven o'clock we halted for the night.
The next day some quartermaster's stores were issued to the men, and
one day's rations. About noon there was heavy firing in advance of
us, but still distant. Wednesday, November 5th, the bugles sounded at
five o'clock, and we were ordered to be in readiness to march; but
it was eight o'clock before the column moved. Heavy firing was heard
most of the forenoon. About half-past one in the afternoon, having
arrived at Manassas Gap Railroad, we encamped a short distance beyond
Rectortown. While on this march Corporal Parker, of Company D, died in
the ambulance, probably of apoplexy. He died within sound of cannon,
yet not on the field of battle. About sunset he was buried under a tree
near our camp, his company and the officers of the regiment following
his remains to the grave. It was the first death in the regiment; and
this, with the circumstances of his lonely burial, cast a shadow of
sadness over us all.

On Thursday, November 6th, we resumed our march at an early hour. As we
passed through Salem there were so many evidences of disloyalty that
the bands played Yankee Doodle for the edification of the inhabitants.
The afternoon march was a severe one. There were few rests, and those
were short; and toward night many of the men fell out from exhaustion.
About six o'clock we encamped at Orleans. The night that followed was
intensely cold, and water froze. In the morning, November 7th, it
began to snow. At noon, when we received orders to march, it was still
snowing, and there were two or three inches of snow on the ground. We
advanced only a few miles, and encamped on the north bank of a branch
of the Rappahannock, not far from Waterloo.

Late that night a special messenger from the War Department arrived at
Gen. McClellan's head-quarters, with the following order:--

                                               WASHINGTON, Nov. 5, 1862.

  By direction of the President of the United States, it is ordered
  that Major-General McClellan be relieved from the command of the
  Army of the Potomac, and that Major-General Burnside take command
  of that army.

  By order of the Secretary of War,
           E. D. TOWNSEND, _Ass't Adj't Gen._


We remained in camp on Saturday and Sunday, November 8th and 9th,
suffering from the cold, and knowing nothing of the important change
thus announced. On Sunday, morning and afternoon, special religious
services were held among the regiments of our division, by order of our
commanding general. Gen. Burnside's order, assuming command of the Army
of the Potomac, was now prepared, and was as follows:--

                     HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
                          WARRENTON, VA., Nov. 9, 1862.

  GENERAL ORDERS NO. 1.

  In accordance with General Orders No. 182, issued by the President
  of the United States, I hereby assume command of the Army of the
  Potomac.

  Patriotism and the exercise of my every energy in the direction of
  this army, aided by the full and hearty coöperation of its officers
  and men, will, I hope, under the blessing of God, ensure its
  success.

  Having been a sharer of the privations, and a witness of the
  bravery, of the old Army of the Potomac in the Maryland campaign,
  and fully identified in their feelings of respect and esteem for
  General McClellan, entertained through a long and most friendly
  association with him, I feel that it is not as a stranger that I
  assume this command.

  To the Ninth Corps, so long and intimately associated with me, I
  need say nothing; our histories are identical.

  With diffidence for myself, but with a proud confidence in the
  unswerving loyalty and determination of the gallant army now
  entrusted to my care, I accept its control with the steadfast
  assurance that the just cause must prevail.

  A. E. BURNSIDE,
      _Major-General Commanding_.


This order was not received by us until Tuesday, November 11th, and
while we were still in camp near Waterloo. We shared in the general
esteem in which General McClellan was held throughout the army; but we
loved Burnside, and had confidence in his ability to lead us on to
victory. On this day there was no bread for the men. Our supply-train
had been delayed, and for several days the ration for each man was two
ears of corn and a small piece of fresh meat. This place will always be
known to the survivors of the Thirty-sixth by the suggestive name of
"Hungry Hollow."

On Thursday, November 13th, the supply-train arrived, and the
Thirty-sixth received eight boxes of hard bread. In the morning of that
day Corporal Perry, of Company G, died. He had been sick only since
Saturday. The burial occurred that night.

November 15th, while at breakfast, we received orders to march; and,
with the rest of our division, now under the command of General W.
W. Burns (Colonel Welch commanding the brigade), we moved forward to
White Sulphur Springs,--a noted watering-place, whose buildings had
been nearly destroyed by General Sigel's troops in an engagement with
the enemy in passing through the place in August. While on the march
we heard sharp musketry ahead, and as we approached the Springs a few
shots were fired. We accordingly left the main road, and formed in line
of battle behind a hill; but the enemy fell back, and in a little while
we received orders to go into camp.

Sunday, November 16th, we were aroused early with orders to march. The
teams were sent off before light, but the regiment did not leave camp
until ten o'clock. At noon we rested at Fayetteville. The afternoon's
march was a most wearisome one; and it was not until after dark, when
near Warrenton Junction, that we halted for the night.

The next day, November 17th, we marched at noon, and were four hours on
the road without any rest. The whole corps seemed to be in motion. The
artillery and wagons occupied the road, while the infantry moved in two
columns, one on each side of the road. A rainy night followed.

Tuesday, November 18th, we were called by the bugles at half-past
three, and at quarter-past five we were on the march. At twelve we
encamped, having advanced about fourteen miles toward Fredericksburg.
General Willcox, now our corps commander, passed us on the road,
and was warmly cheered. An order was received from General Burnside
assigning the Ninth Corps to the right grand division of the Army
of the Potomac, under the command of Major-General Sumner. General
Burnside and staff encamped near us about two o'clock.

November 19th we commenced our march about eight o'clock. Private
Pierce, of Company D, died just before we left our camp, and the
pioneer corps were directed to remain and bury the body. It was a
rainy, drizzly day, and the march was a wearisome one. We had a fine
view of the camp of the Second Corps as we approached Falmouth. About
one o'clock we were opposite Fredericksburg, and encamped in an open
field, in the mud. A part of the regiment received orders to go on
picket. For two days and nights it continued to rain, and our camp
became one vast mud-puddle.

On Sunday, November 23d, at the regular service, the chaplain read
the Thanksgiving proclamation of Governor Andrew to the Massachusetts
soldiers in the field, and also his proclamation to the people of the
State. The day before Thanksgiving, Wednesday, November 26th, the Ninth
Corps was reviewed by General Sumner. It had rained the night before,
and it was somewhat uncomfortable standing three hours in mud and water
waiting for the appearance of the general. At length he passed us in
review, and we were dismissed.

Thursday, November 27th, was Thanksgiving. The day opened gloriously,
the sun rising unclouded. Many were the efforts which the men made to
prepare from army stores a suitable feast for the day. About eleven
o'clock, in the midst of these efforts, we received orders to change
the location of our camp. We moved only a few hundred yards, but to
a young pine forest, which proved to be a much more agreeable spot
than that which we had hitherto occupied. The day closed as brightly
as it opened. Having arranged our new camp, the regiment resumed daily
drills, and the usual routine of camp duty. On Friday, November 28th,
we had our first dress-parade since leaving Waterford.

November 30th, which was Sunday, special religious services were held,
by request of President Lincoln. In our brigade the services were
conducted by Chaplain Canfield and the chaplain of the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania. At night Companies E and H went out on fatigue duty, and
worked on fortifications near the Lacy House. Private Sager, of Company
B, died in the regimental hospital this morning.

December 1st, S. Alonzo Ranlett, orderly sergeant of Company B, was
commissioned first lieutenant, and subsequently was appointed adjutant
of the regiment.

Meanwhile General Lee was fortifying the heights back of
Fredericksburg; and on the part of our soldiers there was not a little
of impatience expressed at General Burnside's delay in advancing upon
the enemy. This delay, however, could not be avoided, on account
of the necessity of opening communications with Aquia Creek, and
also of procuring pontoons with which to cross the river. Indeed,
the preparations for the movement upon the enemy, urgent as General
Burnside was, were not completed until December 10th. On that day
the Thirty-sixth received orders to be ready to move. At night, the
Stafford Heights, and the left bank of the Rappahannock opposite
Fredericksburg, were occupied by one hundred and forty-seven pieces
of artillery; and before dawn our pontoniers were busily employed in
preparations for laying five bridges, upon which the troops were to
cross.

The Thirty-sixth was early in line on the morning of the 11th, and,
with the brigade, moved down toward the river, and there remained
during the rest of the day, while the attempt was made to lay the
bridges under cover of our artillery. But the workmen near the Lacy
House were greatly hindered in their efforts by sharp-shooters
advantageously posted on the opposite bank of the river; and a
terrific shelling of the city did not succeed in dislodging them. At
length, from the regiments near at hand, volunteers were summoned to
cross the river in boats, and drive the rebel sharp-shooters from their
position. Men from the Seventh Michigan, Nineteenth and Twentieth
Massachusetts, answered the summons; and with men from the Fiftieth
New York, as boatmen, crossed the river. Then, darting up the bank,
in a few minutes they compelled the enemy to withdraw. The work of
laying the pontoons was soon pushed rapidly forward, and late in the
afternoon the bridges were completed. The army then began to cross,
Lee being unable to oppose its advance on account of the commanding
position afforded our batteries by the Stafford Heights. Franklin's
grand division crossed below the city, and formed the left wing of the
army. Sumner's crossed at the upper bridges, and formed the right wing.
Hooker's grand division was held in reserve on the northern bank of
the river, ready to reinforce either Sumner or Franklin. Most of the
troops crossed on the 12th. That morning the several divisions of the
Ninth Corps were early in line; and, as they reached the Fredericksburg
side of the river, they were placed in position on the left of Sumner's
grand division, and just below the city. In the crossing, a few men
were killed or wounded by the enemy's shells that fell short of our
batteries, at which they were aimed. Two men of the Thirty-sixth were
in this way slightly wounded.

That night we moved up into the city, and, stacking arms in the street,
spent the night on the sidewalk and in the deserted houses in rear of
the guns. Early in the morning of December 13th preparations were made
for the approaching battle. Burns' division of the Ninth Corps, to
which our brigade belonged, was assigned to a position below the city.
There, across Hazel Run, behind a rise of ground, we remained under
arms in reserve, listening to the roar of artillery and musketry as the
battle raged along the line from left to right, expecting every minute
to be called to participate in the terrible conflict; but no orders
came until afternoon, when we moved further down the river, crossed
Deep Run, and were placed in position in front of the Barnard House,
covering the lower pontoon bridge. At dark the Thirty-sixth moved
forward, and supported a battery in front of the Sligo House.

During the day General Meade, with his division, won a temporary
success on the left, but was at length compelled to fall back, for
the want of adequate support. In rear of the city the divisions of
French, Hancock, and Humphrey successively endeavored to carry Marye's
Heights, but were repulsed with great loss. General Burnside was
greatly disappointed at the result of the day's fighting. It seemed
to him that there was lack of spirited leadership, and he accordingly
determined to renew the battle early in the morning, and lead his
old corps, the Ninth, in person, in an assault on Marye's Heights,
with the right and left vigorously supporting. In reference to this
proposed attack, Colonel Leasure of the One Hundredth Pennsylvania,
who commanded our brigade, says: "I received an order, through General
Burns, from General Willcox, stating that the Ninth Corps would assault
the enemy's works on the next day, and that my brigade, the Third,
would lead the attack; and I was requested to submit a plan of attack,
subject to the approval of the commanding general. Consequently,
I submitted the following: I would advance my own regiment, the
One Hundredth Pennsylvania, or Roundheads, in the darkness of
night, as close as possible to the enemy's works, as skirmishers
and sharp-shooters, supporting them as nearly as possible with the
remainder of my brigade,--the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania and Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts,--which, in turn, were to be supported by the remainder
of the division and the other divisions of the corps. In the gray of
the morning the One Hundredth should advance suddenly, driving in the
enemy's pickets, or capturing them, and as much as possible pick off
their gunners, then charge their works in the confusion, throwing
in brigade after brigade. This plan was sent to General Burns as the
one most feasible; but with it went my most solemn protest against
the inevitable destruction of my brigade if it should be adopted,
and it was sent to General Burnside with the protest endorsed on it
by the commanding officer of the corps and also by General Sumner.
But, notwithstanding, it was early morning before the assault was
abandoned." In fact, the Third Brigade took position at the front in
accordance with the above plan, the Thirty-sixth, with the Forty-fifth
on its right, being in line of battle behind a steep, wooded bank,
above which, in the early dawn, the outlines of the enemy's works were
plainly visible. The One Hundredth was well up toward the enemy's
lines, lying low. And here we remained on our arms, expecting every
moment to charge the rebel works on the left of the open field,
where so many of our brave comrades had fallen the day before, when,
unexpectedly to all, we were ordered back to our old position below
the city. At daylight, after rations were issued, our whole division
moved up to the city, where the Ninth Corps was massed in five lines,
near the river. No further advance was made, and there we remained
throughout the day. At night we moved back again to our old position
below the city, where we remained during the night and all the next day.

It is easy to criticise General Burnside's plan of battle. It is plain,
however, that, if our soldiers had carried Marye's Heights, Burnside
could not have occupied them, as they are commanded by still higher
ground in their rear. But it should be remembered that General Burnside
designed that the weight of his assault, December 13th, should fall
upon General Lee's right, and his mistake seems to have been that his
force at that point was not greatly increased, and placed under the
command of an officer from whom he could expect the most hearty support.

About dark on the 15th we were again in line. The One Hundredth
Pennsylvania and the Second Michigan, old and tried regiments, were
ordered out, while the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania and the Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts remained under arms awaiting orders. To secure strict
silence, the men were not to speak, and to avoid coughing as much
as possible. This, together with the ominous injunction of Colonel
Leasure to his old regiment, as they joined him: "Now do your duty,
Roundheads," was interpreted as meaning serious work near at hand.
About ten o'clock in the evening the rest of our brigade moved up into
the city quietly, where, to our surprise, we found the place was nearly
deserted, there being in the streets, at this point, only one regiment,
the Eighty-ninth New York, and that had just been withdrawn from the
picket-line. Several batteries were near the river, limbered up and all
ready to move. The Thirty-sixth relieved the Eighty-ninth New York, and
waited for the One Hundredth Pennsylvania, which was on the extreme
front of the picket-line. So we were among the last troops to leave the
city. We crossed unharmed, and returned to our old camp, back of the
Phillips House, on the morning of December 16, sharing, with the rest
of the army, the disappointment that was felt on account of the repulse
and the serious losses sustained by many of our regiments, yet feeling
that, while the fruitless task that was assigned to others had not
fallen to our lot, we had done all that was required of us as faithful
soldiers.

On the 17th general inspection was ordered. The Thirty-sixth mustered
about six hundred and fifty guns. Of the remaining three hundred and
fifty of our comrades who left Massachusetts with us, quite a large
number were detailed on special duty, many were on the sick-list, and
ten had died.

As soon as the men had arranged their quarters, and with as much
comfort as they were able, the usual round of camp and picket duty was
resumed. The pickets of both armies had hitherto been very friendly,
and they now became more friendly than ever, often exchanging
courtesies, and chatting freely on matters pertaining to the war.
Many of the soldiers received boxes from home, and there were a few
Massachusetts visitors at our camp.

January 16th orders were received to be ready to move the next day,
at an early hour, with three days' rations, and sixty rounds of
ammunition. It was also announced that General Sedgwick had been
assigned to the command of the Ninth Corps. The following day was clear
and cold, but there were no orders to move. Nor were any received on
the 18th, and we had a quiet Sunday. On Monday, too, all was quiet
on the Rappahannock. At noon on Tuesday, January 20, however, orders
came for us to be in readiness to move early the next morning. It was
now evident that another movement was to be made across the river.
General Hooker's and General Franklin's grand divisions of the army
were already in motion in our rear. At dress parade that night, an
order from General Burnside was read by Colonel Bowman to the regiment,
informing us that the Army of the Potomac was about to meet the enemy
once more, and calling upon officers and men to coöperate with him in
securing a victory. When the order had been read, three cheers were
given for our commanding general. Just at night a cold, north-east
storm set in, the wind increased to a gale, and the rain fell in
torrents. Late in the evening orders came for the Thirty-sixth to be
ready to move at three o'clock the next morning, January 21st. At
that time the men were in line, and remained standing four hours in
the drenching rain, with the mud ankle-deep. At about ten o'clock the
regiment was ordered on picket. The storm continued through the day.
Tuesday, January 22d, it was still raining, and the mud deeper than
ever. Hooker and Franklin were literally "stuck in the mud." Artillery
caissons, guns, ambulances, and army wagons were immovable. To go
forward was impossible; and finally, from sheer necessity, all hope of
further advance was abandoned.

Thus again was Burnside compelled to witness the defeat of his plans.
Never did the Army of the Potomac suffer more severely, and never was
experience more demoralizing than during these three days of constant
exposure to wet and cold, in midwinter, without shelter of any kind.
Weary and disheartened, the men of Franklin's grand division struggled
back to camp, singly or in squads. Many had thrown away everything but
haversack and canteen, and curses on everything and everybody filled
the air. It is said that the army in Flanders swore terribly. So did
the demoralized soldiers of the Army of the Potomac as they struggled
back to their old camp.

In the meantime the rebels appeared on the opposite bank of the river,
greatly elated at the discomfiture of our army, and amused themselves
by offering to come over and extricate our men from the mud, to aid
them in crossing, and to show them around on the other side.

A few days of sun, rations, and rest, however, brought about a better
state of feeling among our men; and the Army of the Potomac settled
back into its old quarters, and resumed the usual routine of duty.

Now there followed another change in commanders. General Burnside had
become convinced not only that he did not have the coöperation of a
large number of his subordinate officers of high rank, but that some of
them were doing all in their power to thwart his plans. He accordingly
prepared an order dismissing from the service Generals Hooker, Brooks,
Cochrane and Newton, and relieving from their commands, Generals
Franklin, W. F. Smith, Sturgis, Ferrero, and Col. Taylor. Proceeding
to Washington, he asked the President to approve of this order or
to accept his resignation. The President referred the order to his
military advisers, who declined to recommend its approval. Accordingly,
unwilling to accept his resignation, the President relieved General
Burnside of the command of the Army of the Potomac, and not long after
assigned him to the command of the Department of the Ohio. General
Hooker was made General Burnside's successor, and the change was
announced to the army January 26th.

In taking leave of the army Gen. Burnside issued the following order:--

                              HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
                                 FALMOUTH, VA., Jan. 26th, 1863.

  GENERAL ORDERS NO. 9.

  By direction of the President of the United States, the commanding
  general this day transfers the command of the army to Major-General
  Joseph Hooker.

  The short time that he has directed your movements has not been
  fruitful of victory or any considerable advancement of our lines;
  but it has again demonstrated an amount of courage, patience, and
  endurance that, under more favorable circumstances, would have
  accomplished great results. Continue to exercise these virtues, be
  true in your devotion to your country and the principles you have
  sworn to maintain, give to the brave and skilful general who has
  so long been identified with your organization, and who is now to
  command you, your full and cordial support and coöperation, and you
  will deserve success.

  In taking an affectionate leave of the entire army, from which he
  separates with so much regret, he may be pardoned if he bids an
  especial farewell to his long-time associates of the Ninth Corps.

  His prayers are that God may be with you, and grant your continual
  success until the rebellion is crushed.

  A. E. BURNSIDE,
           _Major-General_.


Mr. Lincoln's letter to General Hooker, informing the latter of his
appointment, did credit alike to the President's head and heart, and is
worthy of a place here:--

                                         EXECUTIVE MANSION,
                           WASHINGTON, D.C., January 26th, 1863.

  _Major-General Hooker_:--

  I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. Of course
  I have done this upon what appear to me to be sufficient reasons.
  And yet I think it best for you to know that there are some things
  in regard to which I am not quite satisfied with you. I believe
  you to be a brave and skilful soldier, which, of course, I like.
  I also believe you do not mix politics with your profession, in
  which you are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is a
  valuable, if not an indispensable, quality. You are ambitious,
  which, within reasonable bounds, does good rather than harm. But
  I think that, during General Burnside's command of the army, you
  have taken counsel of your ambition, and thwarted him as much as
  you could, in which you did a great wrong both to the country and
  to a most meritorious and honorable brother officer. I have heard,
  in such way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the
  army and the government needed a dictator. Of course it was not for
  this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only
  those generals who gain successes can set up dictators. What I now
  ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship.
  The government will support you to the utmost of its ability,
  which is neither more nor less than it has done and will do for
  all commanders. I much fear the spirit you have aided to infuse
  into the army, of criticising their commander and withholding
  confidence from him, will now turn upon you. I shall assist you, as
  far as I can, to put it down. Neither you nor Napoleon, if he were
  alive again, could get any good out of an army while such a spirit
  prevails in it. And now, beware of rashness! beware of rashness!
  but, with energy and sleepless vigilance, go forward and give us
  victories.

  Yours, very truly,
         A. LINCOLN.


January 27th we received General Hooker's address to the army, also
General Sumner's farewell, he having been relieved of the command
of the right grand division at his own request. January 29th,
our Major, James H. Barker, also at his own request, received an
honorable discharge, and on the following day he left for his home in
Massachusetts. He was a faithful officer, a man of sterling integrity,
of upright life, and his departure we greatly regretted.

On Thursday, February 5th, we received orders for the Ninth Corps to
proceed forthwith to Fortress Monroe, under General Smith. On the
following day the Third Division took cars for Aquia Creek. On Sunday,
February 8th, General Willcox assumed command of the First Division,
General Burns having been ordered West. In the afternoon Colonel
Ward, of the Fifteenth Massachusetts, who was in command of Camp Wool
during the organization of the Thirty-sixth, visited our camp, and
was cordially greeted by officers and men. February 10th, about noon,
orders came for us to pack up and be ready to move immediately. At
ten o'clock we marched to the station, the Thirty-sixth leading the
brigade. The cars left at five o'clock, and at half-past six we were
at Aquia Creek, where we embarked on steamer "South America." About
eight o'clock the next morning we started down the Potomac; but, on
account of a storm, the captain found it necessary to anchor in the
middle of the afternoon at the mouth of the St. Mary's river. The next
morning we started again; and at night, just at dark, we arrived off
Fortress Monroe, and anchored. Early the next morning Colonel Bowman
went ashore with the captain of the steamer, and reported our arrival.
On their return, about ten o'clock, we weighed anchor, passed the
steam-frigate "Minnesota" and the iron-clad "Nahant," and landed at
Newport News, a few miles above. About the middle of the afternoon we
went into camp about a mile and a half from the landing, and on a high
bluff overlooking the James river. All of the regiments of the corps
were furnished with ~A~ tents, and the camp throughout was the most
perfect in its arrangements of any that we occupied during the war. The
quarters of the Thirty-sixth were regarded by the men with especial
pride.

Here the regiment remained for six weeks. During this time much
attention was given to regimental, brigade, and division drills. About
five hours each day were devoted to these exercises, and they were of
great value in perfecting the discipline and adding to the efficiency
of the regiment.

On Wednesday, February 18th, we learned that Captain Goodell, of
Company C, had been commissioned major of the regiment, vice Barker,
resigned. February 25th, General Dix, who was in command at Fortress
Monroe, reviewed the Ninth Corps. The day was a beautiful one, and
the review a most brilliant and successful affair. Colonel Bowman and
Lieutenant-Colonel Norton both being absent, Major Goodell commanded
the regiment,--his first appearance in his new rank.

On Sunday, March 1st, Chaplain Canfield preached on the character
of Washington. It was our first religious service since New Year's.
March 11th, with other regiments in our brigade, we attended a flag
presentation at the quarters of the Eighth Michigan. Unexpectedly, on
the evening of March 18th, we received orders to be in readiness to
move with five days' cooked rations.

Great had been our enjoyment of the sunny side of a soldier's life
which we experienced at this place; and it was not without regret that
we received the order to leave the comfortable quarters on which so
much time and labor had been expended. Many pleasant circumstances
had combined to make this a most desirable encampment. In the first
place, we were in convenient communication with our friends at home;
some of them visited us, also the wives of several of the officers,
and the camp had quite a home-like appearance. Then, too, we received,
from time to time, many well-filled boxes, and numerous other tokens
of regard which friends at home had prepared for us. A severe and
protracted storm delayed our departure, and some of these boxes which
had been anxiously awaited, and which we should have failed to receive
had it not been for the delay, made the closing days of our camp-life
at Newport News almost a continual feast. The scenes that followed the
arrival of these boxes were often amusing as well as touching. For
example: a day or two before our departure several boxes were received
by a squad of about fifteen men from one town. At the opening of the
boxes all were present, and as their contents were distributed these
sun-browned and apparently rough men, in the gladness of their hearts,
laughed, sung, and chatted like children. Impromptu speeches were made,
abounding in the most extravagant praise of those who had joined in
filling these richly-laden boxes. In the midst of this hilarity one
proposed seriously that God should be acknowledged in this reception of
these generous gifts. In a moment all heads were uncovered and bowed in
reverent silence, while one of the number gave thanks to the Giver of
all good for favors so kindly bestowed; and then, in tenderest words
and choked utterance, commended to His protection and care, the loved
ones at home who had been so thoughtful of them.

The storm having passed, we struck our tents on the afternoon of
March 22d, and marched to the landing at Newport News. There seven
of the companies embarked on the steamer "Kennebec," the remaining
three companies,--B, C, K,--on the steamer "Mary Washington," with the
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania.



CHAPTER IV.

THE KENTUCKY CAMPAIGN.


We left Newport News early the next morning, March 23d, and sailed
up the bay to Baltimore, where we arrived about three o'clock on the
morning of the 24th. The "Kennebec" hauled in at Pier No. 1, but we
did not land until afternoon. Cars then were in waiting for us, and we
learned that we were to go west by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,
Cincinnati, Ohio, being our destination. At Eutaw street soft bread
was issued to the men, and then, about six o'clock, we started on our
long journey. The freight-cars in which we were packed were crowded
with rough board seats, so that there was no room in which to lie
down; but the scenery through which we passed was of the wildest and
grandest description, and the journey throughout was one of thrilling
interest to all. In the early part of it we passed through Point of
Rocks, Berlin, Sandy Hook, and Harper's Ferry,--all familiar places. At
Harper's Ferry, where we arrived early in the morning of the 25th, we
had bread and coffee. For miles beyond the track had been torn up by
the rebels in the preceding year, and here and there the rails, twisted
by fire, lay in heaps by the roadside, unfit for further use.

The country grew mountainous as we advanced. We reached Cumberland
about four o'clock in the afternoon. At Piedmont, which we reached
at six o'clock, we were most cordially entertained by the Fourteenth
Virginia regiment, which was guarding the railroad at this point. The
utmost good feeling was manifested; and, as we left our Virginia
comrades, to resume our journey, all joined in three rousing cheers.
After a most fatiguing ride, with little rest or sleep, we arrived at
Parkersburg on the Ohio river, about five o'clock in the afternoon
of the following day, March 26th. There we embarked on the steamer
"Bostonia," a fine, commodious boat. We left the landing about ten
P.M. It was a beautiful moonlight evening, and all greatly enjoyed the
change from the crowded cars. The next day was cool, but pleasant, and
we were delighted with the charming scenery through which we passed
as we rapidly glided down the river. At almost every place on the
Ohio side, and at some points on the opposite shore, we were greeted
with much enthusiasm. The people flocked _en masse_ to the banks of
the river, cheering and waving flags, and bidding us God-speed in our
efforts to win victory and peace.

We reached Cincinnati about seven o'clock in the evening. The regiment
remained on the boat during the night, only the officers being allowed
to go ashore. Nor were the men allowed to land the next day. That they
were moved to indignation by this restriction was a natural result.
Other regiments of the corps, which had preceded us, had been most
cordially received by the citizens, and most hospitably entertained.
The sons of Massachusetts resident in the city were prepared to
give the Thirty-sixth a no less hearty welcome, and had provided a
breakfast to which the regiment was invited on the morning of the 28th.
Expectation ran high, and the regiment was putting on its finest airs
in anticipation of the reception, and especially at the prospect of
one good "square meal" after the long and tedious journey, when, for
some then unaccountable reason, the colonel declined the invitation,
and peremptorily refused to allow the men to go ashore. When this
became known the indignation of the men was almost unbounded, and their
disappointment found expression in words of bitter complaint, more
especially as this refusal seemingly cast a reflection on the good name
and discipline of the regiment. In this feeling of disappointment
the citizens most heartily shared, many of them visiting the boat,
and expressing their regrets. It was afterwards ascertained that, on
account of the bad conduct of some regiment that preceded us, General
Burnside had issued an order that no more regiments should stop in
the city. This relieved Colonel Bowman of the responsibility for the
disappointment of the men of his command; but the disappointment was no
less keenly felt.

March 28th we crossed the river to the Kentucky shore, and landed at
Covington. There was some delay in procuring transportation; and, as
there was a large amount of whiskey near the station, some of the men
became not a little demoralized. One of this number had complained for
some time of severe lameness, and the surgeon, who had been puzzled
by his case, after watching him carefully, was about to secure his
discharge from the service. But, under the exhilaration of the hour,
forgetting his lameness, the man marched off so smartly that Colonel
Bowman informed him that the game was up; and, providing him with a
gun, ordered him back to his company.

Leaving Covington at night, we found ourselves the next morning,
Sunday, March 29th, at Lexington, ninety-eight miles from Covington.
Here we encamped in a grove of black walnut trees, adjoining the
beautiful cemetery, in which a magnificent monument has been erected
over the remains of Kentucky's illustrious son, the brilliant orator
and statesman, Henry Clay. The shaft is of gray limestone, one hundred
and thirty-two feet in height, and is surmounted by Clay's statue.
Ashland, the residence of Henry Clay, is about a mile and a half
distant.

Colonel Leasure, commanding the Third Brigade, was assigned to the
command of the post. In the days that followed, the Thirty-sixth was
engaged in doing provost duty in the city, and in building a fort. The
camp, although very attractive, and kept scrupulously clean, did not
prove a healthy one. The cold April weather, and the naturally moist
ground, as we were without fires in our tents, caused much sickness
from colds, chills, and intermittent fevers.

On the 30th of March a pleasant surprise was given to the colonel, in
the presentation of an elegant equipage for his horse, by the sergeants
of the regiment. The horse had previously been presented to the colonel
by the commissioned officers.

Nothing of especial interest occurred until Sunday, April 5th. On
that day a brigade service had been appointed, and at three o'clock
in the afternoon the Thirty-sixth and the One Hundredth Pennsylvania
assembled. In the midst of the service, orders came for us to break
camp immediately. We struck our tents, and marched to the depot, where
cars were in waiting. Our baggage was put on board, and we were off
for Cincinnati at half-past five. We reached Covington shortly after
midnight, but remained in the cars until morning. We then marched to an
open field near the station, and stacked arms. The colonel reported the
arrival of the regiment to General Burnside, and learned that it was
election day in Cincinnati, and we were there to quell any disturbance
that might arise at the polls. But no disturbance occurred. We remained
all day in the field near the depot, suffering not a little from the
cold, bleak wind. Tuesday morning, about half-past seven o'clock, we
left Covington, and reached Lexington about half-past three in the
afternoon, when we marched to our old camp-ground, and spent the rest
of the day in rearranging our quarters. On the journey we received a
hearty greeting from the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, at Paris, where the
regiment was stationed, and also from the One Hundredth Pennsylvania,
at Lexington, on our return.

The next morning, April 8th, greatly to our surprise, we received
orders, about eight o'clock, to strike tents. All was soon in
readiness, and the brigade, the One Hundredth Pennsylvania in advance,
marched through Lexington. The Thirty-sixth never made a better
appearance than in the streets of Lexington that day. We reached
Nicholasville about five o'clock in the afternoon, and encamped just
beyond the town. The next morning we resumed our march, about seven
o'clock. The men became quite footsore as we advanced, and many fell
out. About one o'clock we crossed the Kentucky river. The scenery was
most attractive, high rocky cliffs overhanging the river. We reached
Camp Dick Robinson, near Bryantsville, about four o'clock. The camp had
been occupied by the rebel General Bragg, who retreated on the approach
of the Union troops, having been informed by a citizen that a large
force was approaching.

April 13th, General Welch, formerly colonel of the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, but recently promoted, arrived at Camp Dick Robinson,
and assumed command of the First Division. On the same day, Rev. C. M.
Bowers, of Clinton, Mass., reached our camp, on a visit to the company
from that town. When he returned home, a few days after, many of the
men sent by him money which the paymaster had just left in their hands,
and most kindly and faithfully he attended to the many little details
of business thus confided to him.

The Forty-fifth Pennsylvania rejoined the brigade at this place. April
20th, Colonel Norton, who had been home on leave of absence, arrived
in camp. The next day, April 21st, Colonel Bowman received orders to
select four hundred men from his command, and to be ready to move
the next morning in light marching order. The battalion, commanded
by Colonel Bowman, left camp about six o'clock A.M., April 22d, in a
drenching rain, which continued until noon, when the sun came out very
warm, and made the march in the mud a fatiguing one. But the change
from the routine of camp-life to a march through a wild and beautiful
country was most exhilarating. At about three o'clock in the afternoon
the battalion reached Harrodsburg, an aristocratic town, largely in
sympathy with the rebellion, and encamped for the night on a beautiful
green slope just outside of the town. In the morning we marched through
the town again, exciting much curiosity and some enthusiasm. From
Harrodsburg the march was continued ten or twelve miles, through a most
delightful country, to the beautiful town of Danville, where we arrived
about two o'clock in the afternoon, and halted for dinner. A leisurely
march of about eight miles brought us, in the early evening, to our
quarters at Camp Dick Robinson. The purpose of this march has never
been disclosed. Colonel Bowman was not told. He was ordered to move;
the roads, the halting-places, etc., were designated, but concerning
the end in view he was not informed.

The regiment, with the brigade, remained at Camp Dick Robinson until
April 30th, when we were aroused at four o'clock A.M., with orders
to move at six. At the appointed time we were on the march. It was a
beautiful day, and the roads were in excellent condition. We passed
through Lancaster about noon, and halted for dinner. Later in the
afternoon we encamped about a mile beyond Stanford. On the next day,
May 1st, we remained in camp until one o'clock P.M., when we continued
our march, and encamped about a mile beyond Hustonville. May 2d we
advanced about ten miles in the afternoon, and encamped at Middleburgh,
which is situated on a branch of the Green river.

On these marches amusing incidents were of frequent occurrence. One
day the Twenty-seventh Michigan, a new regiment, had the advance;
and, like all new troops, the men marched too fast, and too long a
distance without rest. The next day the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania had
the lead, and the Twenty-seventh Michigan was sandwiched in between
the Forty-fifth and the Thirty-sixth. These two regiments had an
agreement in reference to the day's march. The Forty-fifth started off
with a long swing, and the Thirty-sixth followed up "right smart," in
rear of the Twenty-seventh. The result was that the Twenty-seventh
had a hard day of it. Many of the men fell out on the march, and
laid down by the roadside, exhausted. Of course it was a good pull
for the old regiments. One man in the Thirty-sixth fell down and
fainted apparently. His eyes closed, and he seemed to be in a bad way.
However, his case was not considered a serious one. The next morning
the surgeon, who had some suspicions that the man was "playing it,"
asked him some amusing questions, and dismissed him without giving any
decision in his case. "What shall I mark him?" asked the sergeant;
"excused from duty, or not?" "Mark him for the land of Canaan," said
the surgeon.

May 3d, the day after we reached Middleburgh, two colored boys came
into camp, one of whom Captain Raymond hired, and the other was hired
by the non-commissioned staff. The boys had just been arrayed in
United States blue when the master of Captain Raymond's boy made his
appearance with a cavalry officer, and, showing a writing, demanded
his slave. The boy was frightened at the sight of his master, and said
he would rather be shot where he was than go back to the whipping that
awaited him. But we had no authority to detain him, and the master took
him by the collar, and led him off. After he had gone, the other boy,
finding that we could give him no protection, thought he had better go
home voluntarily. So he started. Such, at that time, was the "peculiar
institution" in Kentucky.

On the same day a Mr. Markham and three daughters--refugees from East
Tennessee--visited our camp. In September, 1861, they were living in
Scott County. One day a party of rebels approached the house in search
of the father, who was a Union man. One of the rebels came forward to
reconnoitre, and asked one of the daughters where her father was. She
declined to answer. He then advanced toward her with bayonet fixed. To
defend herself she seized an axe, and endeavored to parry his thrusts,
but he succeeded in forcing the bayonet into her skull, just above
the eye, putting out the eye, and causing the brain to protrude. The
father, hearing her cries, rushed from his hiding-place, and shot the
rebel dead. He then made his escape immediately. One of the sisters ran
to the house to warn her cousin to flee also; but, the rest of the
rebels coming up, he was soon killed. Two of their neighbors they hung,
and left on the tree. This was a new side of the war to us,--a side of
which we were to see more at a later period, when the regiment was in
East Tennessee.

May 4th we moved our camp forward about a mile, in order to get
upon better ground. On the following day our regimental baggage was
reduced. Only three tents were allowed at head-quarters, while the
line officers had five tents instead of ten, as heretofore. Wednesday,
May 6th, at dress-parade a despatch from General Willcox to General
Welch, announcing cheering news from the Rappahannock, was read. Not
until two days later did we receive the tidings of Hooker's defeat
at Chancellorsville. On Sunday, May 10th, there were rumors of the
capture of Richmond. The first came early in the afternoon. Not long
after dress-parade Colonel Bowman received a despatch, stating that
Hooker, reinforced, had recrossed the Rappahannock, and that Stoneman
and Dix had raised the stars and stripes on the rebel capitol. The
news was at once communicated to the regiment, and was received with
the wildest enthusiasm. Fires were built on a high hill near the camp,
candles were issued to the men, and soon the camp of the Thirty-sixth
was all ablaze. Then the several companies, under command of Captain
Smith, with candles fixed on their bayonets, marched to the camp of the
Twenty-seventh Michigan and One Hundredth Pennsylvania, cheering and
receiving cheers from both regiments, which were in line to receive
us. When the regiment returned to camp there were congratulatory
speeches by Colonel Bowman, Acting Adjutant Hodgkins, Captain Warriner,
Lieutenant Brigham, and others. It was a fourth of July occasion. We
soon learned that we had exulted too soon.

On Wednesday, May 13th, rumors of a rebel raid by Morgan reached us.
The pickets were strengthened and thrown farther out. Two days later
a limited number of furloughs were granted in each company, and the
men under Captain Raymond left for Stanford on their way home. There
was no further information concerning the rebel raid. The division
supply-trains moved back to Hustonville, also Edmunds' Battery.

We remained at Middleburgh until Saturday, May 23d. On that day, at
noon, orders were received to move. The Thirty-sixth led the brigade
column. We encamped at night, about nine miles beyond Liberty, on the
banks of the Green river. There we remained over Sunday. On Monday,
May 25th, the bugles called us out at half-past three in the morning,
and at five we were on the road. Our march was through a thick forest
during a greater part of the day. About three o'clock in the afternoon
we encamped a short distance from Neatsville. On the following day, May
26th, the _reveillé_ was sounded at half-past two in the morning, and
we marched at half-past three. As on the preceding day, our route lay
through an almost unbroken forest. At half-past nine o'clock in the
forenoon we encamped about a mile from Columbia.

May 27th we had orders to be in readiness to march at seven P.M., in
light marching order. At that time we left camp, with the One Hundredth
Pennsylvania and a section of Edmunds' Battery, Colonel Leasure in
command. Before reaching Columbia a squadron of cavalry joined us. It
was understood that we were in pursuit of Morgan's guerillas. Passing
through the town, we took the Waynesburgh road; but, after marching
a mile or so, we faced about, returned to town, and took the road to
Glasgow. It was a beautiful moonlight evening. The road was somewhat
rough, and mostly through woods. We reached Gradyville about one
o'clock on the morning of the 27th, and bivouacked for the rest of
the night. Later in the morning we marched to a grove of magnificent
beeches, on a hillside near by. There we remained all day, while the
cavalry scoured the neighborhood. About noon they brought in two rebel
officers. At night it commenced to rain, but we made ourselves as
comfortable as possible.

The next day, Friday, May 29th, we marched about eight o'clock, and
found the road very rough as we advanced. Notwithstanding the rain, we
pushed on to Breedingsville, fourteen miles from Columbia and sixteen
from Burkesville, on the Cumberland river. Weary and wet, we sought
shelter for the night in the out-buildings of a farm-house, while our
cavalry scouts set out for the river.

The next day, May 30th, the scouts having returned, we turned our faces
toward Columbia, which we reached between eleven and twelve o'clock in
the evening, having marched forty-seven miles during our absence from
camp, and captured twenty-five prisoners.

Meanwhile a serious accident had occurred at the camp. The armorer was
repairing some guns. One, which was not supposed to be loaded, he put
into the fire for some purpose, and the gun was discharged. The ball
entered the tent of Quartermaster-Sergeant Joseph H. Sawyer, and struck
one of his knees. The wound was so severe that amputation was deemed
necessary, and the operation was skilfully performed by Surgeon Prince.

Monday, June 1st, Colonel Bowman was assigned to the command of the
brigade, which now consisted of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts,
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, Seventeenth and Twenty-seventh Michigan
regiments. That night we received orders to march, and at once
proceeded to Jamestown, commonly called "Jimtown," on the Cumberland
river. It was twenty miles from Columbia, and we reached the place
about four o'clock Tuesday morning. We had hardly stacked arms on a
wooded hillside near the town when a sharp skirmish fire was heard on
the road at our right, and presently a squad of our cavalry dashed
up the road toward the town, followed closely by a company of rebel
horsemen. Our men were quickly in line of battle, under a ridge running
parallel with the road, and Companies A and F were thrown out as
skirmishers. But the rebels, at the first sight of our men, wheeled
and made good their escape. They had evidently intended to make a dash
into the town, but the timely arrival of our brigade was an unexpected
episode in the morning's adventure.

One of the rebels a citizen soon brought in as a prisoner. It was found
that he had been thrown by his horse, and that the horse had escaped.
The citizen met the rebel as he was crossing a brook, after losing his
horse, and kindly offered to hold his gun--one of Colt's revolving
rifles--until he was over. The rebel innocently handed the gun to the
citizen, who at once informed him that he was his prisoner, and marched
him into our camp. Colonel Bowman gave the citizen the rifle as a
reward for his strategy. According to the prisoner, his party consisted
of three hundred men. He was a conscript from East Tennessee, he said,
and belonged to Pegram's command.

Upon assuming command of the new brigade, which had been formed in
consequence of the reorganization of the division, Colonel Bowman
appointed First Lieutenant Raymond as acting assistant inspector
general, and Second Lieutenant Hodgkins as acting assistant adjutant
general of the brigade. The last-named officer had performed the duties
of adjutant of the regiment during the illness of Adjutant Ranlett,
from January 19th, until his appointment upon the brigade staff, when
the latter resumed his duties as adjutant.

We remained at Jamestown until Thursday, June 4th, when at noon, to
the surprise of all, we received orders to proceed at once to Lebanon,
which was sixty miles away, our nearest railroad connection with the
North. Although we had had little or no rest for a week, in forty-eight
consecutive hours, including halts and sleep, we made the sixty miles,
arriving at Lebanon at noon, June 6th. And this long journey was
accomplished in heavy marching order, under a scorching sun, and in
dust which was almost insufferable.

As his limb had not sufficiently healed, we were obliged to leave
Quartermaster-Sergeant Sawyer at Columbia. Private James E. Spear, of
Company B, remained with him, and both eventually succeeded in reaching
our lines in safety, having been paroled by John Morgan, who, with his
cavalry, drove out our cavalry two days after we left.

At Lebanon we learned that our destination was Vicksburg, Miss., Grant
being in need of reinforcements. On the afternoon of the following
day, June 7th, we took the cars for Louisville, where we arrived late
at night, and the regiment was paid off in the depot. The next day we
crossed the Ohio, by ferry, to Jacksonville, Ind. There cars were in
waiting, and we proceeded to Cairo, Ill., by way of Seymour, Ind., and
Sandoval, Ill. All the way we were received with kindest attentions, in
many instances ladies remaining all night at the stations to serve us
with refreshments, and cheer us with loyal words. We reached Cairo on
the 9th of June.



CHAPTER V.

IN THE REAR OF VICKSBURG.


Late in the afternoon of Wednesday, June 10th, the fine steamer
"Meteor," with the regiment (numbering about 760 officers and men), all
its camp equipage, and horses, cast off from the levee at Cairo, and
steamed down the river. The boat, though large, was somewhat crowded,
and deeply laden. A large part of the regiment was quartered on the
hurricane deck, which was the most comfortable part of the boat. The
officers had the use of the state-rooms and the cabin, and had no
reason to find fault with their accommodations.

Many of the regiment had provided themselves with little maps of the
river, and, with true Yankee curiosity, studied the various points of
interest with the skill and style of veteran tourists. And truly these
points were not rare, for this region had already become famous in the
war's history. Before sunset the boat had passed the battle-field of
Belmont, Mo., the scene of General Grant's first battle of the war,
and Columbus, Kentucky. At the latter place the boat was brought to by
a shell across its bows, the captain, through neglect or ignorance,
failing in compliance with the rules of the river to report to the
commander of the place before passing. A short distance below Columbus
the boat was moored to the shore for the night, it not being considered
safe, at this season of low water, to move a heavily laden boat at
night.

The following day passed somewhat slowly, the country through which
the Mississippi winds being low, monotonous, and with few features of
interest, Island No. 10 alone being worthy of note. Officers and men
amused themselves in various ways,--reading, writing, cards, etc. All
military duties being necessarily abandoned, it was a season of welcome
rest to all.

At nine o'clock P.M. the boat arrived at Memphis, Tenn., where it
remained three days to await the remainder of the corps, which was
delayed up the river. This time passed rather heavily. On two occasions
the regiment landed, and the boat was thoroughly policed, the change
serving as a rest for all. General Potter, with his staff, came aboard
at Memphis. At six P.M. of June 14th the boat cast off, and steamed
down the river until dark, and then lay to for the night. All day of
the 15th moving rapidly South we reached Helena, Ark., where a brief
landing was made for forage and provisions. At night the boat stopped
near White River; and, being now in a thoroughly hostile region, a
picket was posted on shore, Captain Sawyer, of Company H, being in
command. Not long after dark, by some nervous sentry, an alarm was
given, which proved needless. "All quiet on White River" was the
watchword as the men lay down to rest for the night.

The fleet, on leaving Memphis, consisted of five heavily laden
steamers, carrying the entire First Division of the corps, with all its
artillery, baggage, and animals. As the river, at certain points, is
narrow and densely wooded, affording excellent positions for ambuscades
of hostile parties, a guard was mounted on the upper deck of each boat,
with loaded rifles, and orders to scan the shore carefully at such
points. This was called the "guerilla guard."

On the morning of the 16th, when the fleet got under way, a river
gun-boat joined us as escort, bringing up the rear of the line. Its
importance was soon felt by all. These boats were iron-clad, having
roofs slanting like the gable-roof of a house, with port-holes, out
of which grimly peeped the muzzles of some 10-pounder Parrott guns.
About eleven A.M., while in the neighborhood of Columbus, Ark., the
"Meteor," being in the van of the fleet, suddenly received from
the western shore a sharp volley, the bullets striking the boat
in several places, fortunately doing no serious injury. The boat
following the "Meteor," at the same time, was also fired on, and was
less fortunate, one man of the Seventeenth Michigan being wounded, and
two horses killed. The gun-boat and the "guerilla guards" immediately
opened a heavy fire. The enemy found the place rather hot, and soon
their gray-clad forms could be seen running "helter-skelter" from
their ambush. Whatever damage was done them we never knew; but it is
doubtful if they all escaped the Minies and bursting shells which for
a few minutes flew in volleys after them. This incident tended to
vary the monotony of life on board, and the usual good fortune of the
Thirty-sixth seemed to attend it still. Late in the afternoon the fleet
arrived at Lake Providence, and remained over night. This place was
famous for the feat of engineering which, by means of a short canal,
had shortened the river very much, by diverting the channel from one
of its great bends. The First Kansas and Sixteenth Wisconsin regiments
were stationed here, and the Massachusetts boys were soon fraternizing
with the hardy Western pioneers, armed in the same good cause.

June 17th the boat entered the Yazoo river, and, at eleven A.M.,
arrived at Snyder's Bluff, where the regiment debarked, and then
marched about four miles, passing Haines' Bluff. On every hand were
fortifications crowned with cannon, encampments of troops, army wagons,
etc., etc.

This day, to a part of the regiment, was one of peculiar import.
Company B, of Charlestown, had in its ranks many who were lineal
descendants of the men who made the 17th of June glorious in our
history; and to them the booming of the cannon, heard from early in
the day, was a grim reminder of many a holiday at Bunker Hill, where,
to use a trite expression, "the day was ushered in with the ringing of
bells and firing of guns."

The first impressions of the men upon landing, far from favorable,
were never changed, except for the worse. In many places the soil was
so dry and parched with the heat that it seemed to have cracked open
like a blistered skin beneath the tropical rays of the sun. The wind
blew hot from every point of the compass, bringing clouds of dust
along with it. Gnats and flies made night hideous, and drove sleep
from the weary. Venomous snakes and other reptiles infested the woods
and thickets. Lizards soon became no novelty, and even the resort of
keeping them out of one's boots, by wearing them day and night, would
not prevent their crawling down one's back occasionally, causing a
sensation like an animated icicle.

But these were minor inconveniences. It is not pleasant to have a
thunder-squall burst almost from a clear sky and find the guys of one's
tent slacked up for air. Any old soldier knows the result of such
negligence. It means a sudden breaking up of house-keeping, and a wet
day to move.

During the 18th, 19th, and part of the 20th of June, the regiment lay
quietly in camp in a wood somewhere in the township of Milldale, a very
pleasant and picturesque spot. The wild magnolia trees, now in full
bloom, filled the air with their fragrance. From many of the trees hung
the "Spanish moss," which was gathered in large quantities and used for
beds, and it proved an agreeable variation from the hard, limestone
beds of Kentucky. At three o'clock P.M., of June 20th, the regiment
marched about three miles, and went into camp at a cross-road, which
proved to be its permanent location during the rest of the siege of
Vicksburg. The One Hundred and Fourteenth Illinois Regiment, which had
been stationed here, gave way to the Thirty-sixth, and went down into
the trenches at Vicksburg.

This point was considered an important one, and the camp of the
regiment was arranged in a kind of semicircle, crossing the road
leading to Vicksburg, with a strong picket thrown out for about a mile
through the forest road which led to the Big Black river. Rifle-pits
were dug, and trees cut away to give sweep for a long distance to
the artillery. At this point Durrell's Battery of the First Division
was placed in position commanding the different approaches. These
precautions were rendered necessary by the presence of a large rebel
force, under General Joe Johnston, just across the Big Black; and it
appeared that to the Ninth Corps was assigned the important duty of
watching him and protecting our men before Vicksburg from an attack in
the rear. Grant's army, therefore, presented the singular and rather
precarious military spectacle of facing in two directions, the one
portion attacking Pemberton, shut up with over thirty thousand in
Vicksburg, and the other facing Johnston, who, with a force estimated
at between thirty and forty thousand, was manœuvring to break in and
raise the siege. The latter was liable to be heavily reinforced at any
moment, and there was no little anxiety in the mind of the commanding
general lest this should come to pass.

As the Thirty-sixth Regiment was not a part of the line attacking
Vicksburg, it is not perhaps necessary to say much concerning the city
and its defences.

The Mississippi river, about six miles above Vicksburg, bends suddenly
to the north-east, runs in this direction six miles and then turns
as suddenly to the south-west. By this bend in the river a tongue of
land reaches out from the Louisiana shore, and near the end of this
tongue, just below the bend, on the left bank of the river, stands
Vicksburg, on a bluff of some two hundred feet or more in height.
Being also higher than any ground in its rear, it was a position of
unusual strength, completely controlling the river, though Admiral
Porter had succeeded, with considerable loss, in running the batteries
with a part of his fleet. Stretching away from Vicksburg to the
north-east is a range of hills, called Walnut Hills, which terminate
at Haines' Bluff, on the Yazoo river. Here the rebels had erected
heavy batteries commanding the river, and had forced General Grant to
approach Vicksburg from the south. In the great battles at Champion
Hill, Raymond and Baker's Creek, Grant had succeeded in separating the
forces of Pemberton and Johnston; and, following up the former, had
driven him into Vicksburg, at this time getting possession of Haines'
Bluff. This gave him a good base for supplies, and direct communication
by river with the north. Before commencing a regular siege, it was
determined to try and carry Vicksburg by assault. It was thought that
the demoralized condition of Pemberton's army, whipped from place to
place, would render them hopeless of success, and a long and tiresome
siege be avoided. The commanding general, officers, and men, were all
of one mind in this matter, and the soldiers were eager for the assault.

On the 22d of May an attempt was made along the entire line to
storm the city, but without success. The rebels, at last driven to
desperation, and protected by their ramparts, fought well, and after
heavy loss it was found impossible to break through at any part of
their lines.

Regular approaches were now commenced by sappers, and General Grant,
finding his ranks thinning by the severity of the trench service,
the increasing heat of summer, and Johnston, with a large force,
threatening his rear, called for reinforcements. Such, briefly, was the
condition of affairs, and such were the reasons which found the Ninth
Corps and the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts in their present position.

The history of the regiment for the fortnight ending with the fall of
Vicksburg can be briefly written. It is a story of discomforts, from
causes before enumerated, against which the men fortified themselves by
all the means possible. Tents were made comparatively comfortable by
cane-pole shades and beds of moss and grass. No duties were required
except picket and such as were absolutely necessary. Parties were
detailed from time to time to help dig rifle-pits, for it was thought
best to be well prepared for any sudden and violent attack of Johnston.
A large part of the line held by the Ninth Corps was fortified in this
way. But the work was done as much as possible during the cooler parts
of the day, morning and night. There was not a dress-parade of the
regiment during the Mississippi campaign. Not much can be said of the
rations, though they were, perhaps, as good as the men had been in the
habit of receiving. On the 26th of June Quartermaster Francis B. Rice
was discharged, and Lieutenant Cutter, of Company D, was appointed
quartermaster.

June 29th the whole First Division, with the exception of the
Thirty-sixth Regiment and Durrell's Battery, moved out several miles to
the front, and the head-quarters of the brigade were about five miles
distant. Company F was at this time on duty at corps head-quarters.
Cases of sickness became more numerous every day. Captains Bailey,
Sawyer, and Lieutenant Howe, were all sick at this time, the latter
with small-pox, which he was supposed to have contracted in visiting
a hospital at Memphis. He died July 7th. He was a graduate of
Amherst College, where he achieved distinction in the department of
mathematics. In character and conduct, during his connection with the
regiment, he showed that he was a true man and a faithful soldier.
When it became known that this dire disease had broken out among us
there was much anxiety and alarm in the regiment, for the possibility
of its spreading was great, and there was no way to meet it with usual
precaution, the medical department being poorly supplied. A hospital
was established at some distance from the regiment, and as soon as any
man showed symptoms of the disease he was removed to it. In this way
the spread of the disease was checked.

July 2d, burial service, with military honors, was performed over the
remains of Private Boswell, of Company C, who died in the regimental
hospital, July 1. Each day seemed to have some event of more or less
importance to vary the monotony of camp life, which was now about to
be disturbed by events of great moment, and from the dull routine of
daily life to be changed to the more severe duties of the march and
battle-field. Even now, in the distant North, the two great armies of
the Potomac and Northern Virginia, under Meade and Lee, were grappling
with each other on the soil of Pennsylvania, and the fate of the nation
was trembling in the balance on the slopes of Cemetery Ridge, at
Gettysburg. Massachusetts was pouring out her blood freely on that now
historic field, while far away, in the south-west, her sons stood ready
to uphold her fame and carry her white flag, side by side with the
stars and stripes, to victory. The moment pregnant with heroic effort
and sacrifice was at hand.

For a week prior to the 4th of July rumors of the impending surrender
or storming of Vicksburg prevailed in the camp. The last extremity
of famine was nearly reached by the beleaguered rebels, who boasted
from their ramparts of the tenderness of mule steaks. No hope remained
for them save from without, and Lee was too closely occupied with his
movement into Pennsylvania to despatch any of his force to Pemberton's
relief. Johnston clung to the east bank of the Big Black river. General
McPherson's corps had pushed the lines of investment up under the very
forts of the enemy, and there seemed to be nothing left but to carry
their works by assault, or wait for famine to do its work. The roar
of artillery was incessant. Day and night, with scarcely a moment's
interval, the heavy booming of the siege guns was heard, and a thick
cloud of smoke hung ever like a pall over the doomed city. If a rebel
showed so much as a hand above the fortifications he became the target
of our vigilant riflemen, and the enemy found it impossible to man
and serve his artillery, so deadly was the fire. If morning revealed
some place where the rebels had repaired the ramparts and brought some
guns into position, ten minutes sufficed for our artillery utterly to
destroy the work of the night. Their works were mined; but, wherever
they suspected a mine, resort was had to countermining, and for a time
spades were trumps at Vicksburg.

At three o'clock P.M., of July 3d, Generals Grant and Pemberton met
under a flag of truce. Pemberton proposed that his army be allowed
to march out with the honors of war, carrying their muskets and
field-pieces, but leaving their heavy artillery. Grant smiled at this
proposal. The interview terminated in an hour, with the understanding
that Grant should send in his _ultimatum_ before ten o'clock that
night. This _ultimatum_ was, that Pemberton should surrender Vicksburg
with all its property, his officers being allowed to retain their
side-arms, and the officers and men should be paroled as prisoners of
war. It was accepted, and, on the morning of the 4th of July, General
Logan's division of McPherson's corps took possession of the works of
Vicksburg, the rebels marching out, stacked their arms, and laid their
colors on the stacks. The Forty-fifth Illinois Regiment marched at the
head of Logan's column, and placed its flag upon the Court-House. The
magnitude of this victory is apparent from the fact that it comprised
in its results 31,600 officers and men (2,153 of whom were officers,
and 15 of these generals), munitions of war sufficient for an army of
60,000, 172 cannon, many locomotives, cars, and steamboats, and large
quantities of cotton and other valuable merchandise.



CHAPTER VI.

THE MOVEMENT ON JACKSON.


Hardly had the news of the surrender become known to the regiment,
however, before orders came to break camp and prepare for field service
in light marching order.

This was in accordance with an order which General Sherman had received
directing him to take his own corps, the Fifteenth, the Ninth Corps,
to which was temporarily assigned General Smith's division of the
Sixteenth Corps, and the Thirteenth Corps, now under General Ord,
pursue Johnston, and capture or destroy his army. General Grant's order
read as follows: "I want you to drive Johnston out in your own way, and
inflict upon the enemy all the punishment you can. I will support you
to the last man that can be spared."

Before ten o'clock A. M., July 4th, Sherman's army was in motion, and
by various roads moving rapidly toward the Big Black river. Johnston,
finding himself suddenly an object of particular interest, commenced
a precipitate retreat toward Jackson, feebly disputing our advance
in some places where the ground was favorable. Upon the receipt of
marching orders the picket of the Thirty-sixth was hastily called in,
and the regiment was soon on the march to overtake the brigade, which
it did not do, however, until the next day.

A considerable part of the 6th was occupied by the regiment, and men of
other regiments in the brigade, in constructing a bridge across the Big
Black river at a place called Birdsongs Ferry. This was a good, strong
piece of work, and over it a large part of the army passed in safety.
General Ord's two divisions crossed at the railroad some distance
below, and the Fifteenth Corps at Messenger's Bridge.

From the 4th to the 10th of July the army pushed steadily on,
overcoming many obstacles, skirmishing sharply day and night with
Johnston's rear guard, and encountering sufferings from the heat and
exposure to sun and tempest and malarial swamps, that are well-nigh
indescribable. The rebels, as they retreated, poisoned the wells,
or killed animals in the ponds or streams, their putrid carcasses
rendering the water unfit for use. Such acts only reacted upon
themselves, for it enraged the army from the commanding general down to
the private soldier, and they would have saved themselves the pillage
and devastation that marked our line of march, had they adopted the
rules of honorable warfare. But it seemed, in their case, as if the old
proverb was true, that "whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make
mad."

The rapid advance of the army made it impossible for the supply-trains
to keep up, and for days the rations consisted of the unripe corn,
roasted in the husks. All fared alike, officers and men. The tents
and all the baggage, save blankets, had been left behind, and, during
this campaign of three weeks, the regiment slept with the sky for a
canopy, exposed to the deadly night-air and frequent tempests. Nights
when no humane man would drive a dog out of doors found this entire
army in the open field. Late in the afternoon of July 7th, while on the
march, a thunder-storm burst upon us that no man of this regiment, then
present, will ever forget, and one that the natives call the severest
known in that region for years. The storm came apparently from all
directions, and lasted over two hours. The lightning struck all around,
and the roar of thunder was incessant. The horses became terrified, and
officers were forced to dismount and lead them. The mud was ankle-deep,
and finally impeded the movement of the artillery, which stuck in the
roads up to the hubs and blocked the passage of the infantry. About
10 P.M. the storm lulled, and the regiment went into bivouac in an
open field, and the men were ordered to make themselves comfortable.
Then came a second edition of the storm,--if possible, worse than the
first,--and there, shelterless in that open field, the boys stood in
grim despair and let it pelt. Finally, with the stolid indifference of
desperation the men laid down in the mud of that old stubble-field and
made themselves comfortable. But all things come to an end, and so at
last did the storm, when the field was quickly ablaze with camp-fires,
and a dipper of hot coffee, innocent of milk or sugar, revived the
spirits of the men.

Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, is situated on the west or right
bank of the Pearl river, in a very fertile and pleasant region. Being
at the juncture of the Vicksburg and Meridian and Mississippi Central
Railroads, it is a position of great strategical importance. The State
House, which cost half a million dollars, Executive Mansion, State
Lunatic Asylum, and Penitentiary are the principal buildings; but
being the seat of government, as well as a considerable commercial
mart, there are many fine residences in the town and its suburbs. The
site of the town itself is rather level, but back of it the country is
undulating and well adapted for defence. It was expected that Johnston
had been preparing for the present emergency, and had fortified the
place extensively. The moral effect of the loss of the town would be
great, and the idea was quite prevalent that it would be desperately
defended. Indeed, as the army approached it, the more stubborn
resistance of Johnston's forces indicated that they intended to dispute
possession of their capital.

In the afternoon of July 10th the Ninth Corps came out into open
country in sight of the town. As the different regiments and batteries
debouched from the woods the colors were unfurled. It was a beautiful
sight, that "battle's magnificently stern array." The sun was about an
hour high, and its slanting rays glanced brightly from the muskets and
the brass field-pieces. A gentle breeze stirred the silken folds of
the standards, and made them float proudly and defiantly. Conspicuous
among them could be seen the white flag of Massachusetts, carried by
the Twenty-ninth, Thirty-fifth, and Thirty-sixth regiments. Sloping
away in front was the valley along which extends the track of the
Mississippi Central Railroad. Beyond, the ground rose gradually for
about an eighth of a mile, and the crest was crowned with a dense
wood, in the edge of which could be seen the rebel gray uniforms, and
the gleaming of bayonets. The lines were formed. The Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts held the extreme right of the First Division, having
on its left the remainder of the First Brigade, the Seventeenth and
Twenty-seventh Michigan, and the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania deployed as
skirmishers along the entire brigade front. On the right was Smith's
division of the Sixteenth Corps, and connecting with the Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts was the Forty-sixth Ohio. What a glorious sight! The
old Bay State, with Ohio on her right, and Michigan on her left,
Pennsylvania leading, about to close in conflict with Mississippi,
and far away on the right stretch the dark blue lines of Sherman's
veterans, famous in later times from "Atlanta to the Sea." And now
there was a pause, a silence that was ominous. Meanwhile, the intervals
were closed, and alignments rectified. Curiously we peered into the
distant wood, wondering whether it masked the rebel artillery. Where
could they find a better place to use grape and canister? In the rear
the splendid battery of the First Division was preparing for action.
Lieutenant Benjamin's famous twenty-pounder rifled Parrotts, Battery E,
Second United States Artillery, whose iron throats had carried dismay
and death into the rebel ranks in other fields, far away in Virginia,
Maryland, and North Carolina, were about to speak. Breathlessly all
awaited the puff and the angry flash. It came, and over the valley,
with a scream and whir-r-r, was hurled the iron messenger of death.
It struck exactly on the crest of the hill, and exploded. Scarcely
had the reverberation ceased, when the order was passed along the
line: "Battalion forward! Guide centre, march!" With a simultaneous
movement the lines advanced, slowly at first, but more rapidly as
they approached the railroad. Behind us the Parrotts were talking in
thunder tones that shook the very earth, and the shells were screaming
overhead. The gallant Forty-fifth crossed the railroad, and their thin
line was soon seen pushing up the hill. The Thirty-sixth followed in
steady line of battle. The suspense was awful. Why don't they open
fire? On the rebel side, save a few scattering Minies, that sang
harmlessly by, all was silent. Suddenly the men became enthusiastic.
With a "Hurrah," the men rushed up the hill. The rebels fired a
scattering volley, and fell back upon their second line. The wood was
gained, and with no loss. A few moments sufficed to re-form the lines,
which again moved forward, passing the State Lunatic Asylum,--a large,
white marble building, whose inmates, wild with the excitement of the
unusual scene, raved at the regiment from the iron-barred corridors. A
guard was placed upon the building, to protect the unfortunates. The
lines moved cautiously forward, until the skirmishers were checked, and
the rebel line developed. But the shades of night were now darkening
the landscape, and orders were received to establish a strong picket,
and hold the position until morning. Weary with the march and exciting
close of the day, all gladly improved the opportunity for rest, laid
down with loaded rifles by their side, or gathered in groups, and
discussed the events of the day, or speculated upon the morrow. And
some, alas! laid down that night to happy sleep, who, ere another came,
were lying in a soldier's grave. Save occasional sharp firing by the
pickets, the night passed quietly.

At three o'clock A.M. of the 11th the men were noiselessly aroused,
and coffee, prepared by the company cooks, was served out. With
the earliest streak of dawn the lines again moved forward, and the
skirmishing opened sharply. The rebels yielded ground stubbornly, but
were forced back into their main line of defence,--a formidable work
constructed of cotton bales. Here they opened a heavy fire of grape and
canister, against which it was impossible to advance. But not an inch
was yielded. The brigade laid flat on the ground, and the iron storm
passed over, doing little damage. The line was formed in a wood, in
front of which was an open field, the other side of which, about two
hundred yards distant, was held by the rebels, and their riflemen were
in trees, picking off our men, wherever exposed. The skirmishers of the
Forty-sixth Ohio suffered considerable loss, being less sheltered by
the wood than those of our brigade. Nothing farther could be done until
artillery could be brought up; but the ground was unfavorable for it,
and matters came to a pause.

Lieutenant Benjamin reconnoitred the ground and the position of the
enemy, but could not find any position which gave him room to work
his guns. All day the regiment lay under a constant and galling fire
awaiting orders.

Companies A and F were sent out to skirmish, relieving the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania. Captain Draper was ordered to connect with the
skirmishers of Smith's division, who were said to be in position in a
wood at our right, and several hundred yards to the front. In our own
front was an open field, sloping toward the enemy's position. The two
companies promptly deployed, and went forward on the double-quick,
driving in the rebel pickets, only to find that the line supposed to
be General Smith's skirmishers was the rebel main line. They opened
fire, killing two and wounding six of Company F, who, with Company
A, returned the fire. Seeing that some mistake had been made, and to
prevent needless sacrifice, Captain Draper ordered a retreat, halting
at a point midway between the enemy's line and our own, where the
ground afforded some protection. Here the two companies held their
position nearly all day until relieved.

The rebels during this time were unable to send out any more pickets,
owing to our fire; but several adventurous men among them tried to
observe our movements, and take an occasional shot by climbing trees
inside their lines. Our boys had the good fortune to bring two or
three of them to the ground during the day, Sergeant Daniel Wright,
afterwards lieutenant, making one of the successful shots. The loss in
Company F was two killed and six wounded. George H. Ellis, of Milford,
one of the killed, was shot through the breast. This young man, the
only son of a widowed mother, was a favorite in his company and with
all who knew him. He had been acting as clerk at head-quarters until
just prior to the commencement of this movement, and by his cheerful
and gentlemanly conduct had won the regard of all the officers there.
His death was deplored by all. Amos Hoyt was also killed, shot through
the stomach. O. Howard, James Smith, T. L. Ellsworth, J. C. Higgins, D.
Perham, and E. W. Anson, were wounded. Company A, being less exposed,
met with no loss, though it also received a heavy fire from the rebel
sharp-shooters.

This loss in Company F can only be considered as an unnecessary one. No
impression was made upon the enemy; the main line was not advanced, for
the First Division was now close upon the enemy, and any advance would
have brought on a general engagement, which, it seems, General Sherman
did not desire. There was evidently some misunderstanding between
Generals Sherman and Parke, for the latter had made all his disposition
for an assault on the morning of the 11th. This may have been caused by
the check met with by the Thirteenth Corps, on the right. One division
of this corps, General Lauman's, had been roughly handled, and repulsed
with a loss of over five hundred men and some colors. The position of
Johnston's forces was stronger than had been expected, and his troops
fought well. There was much anxiety on the part of both Colonel Bowman,
commanding the brigade, and Lieutenant-Colonel Norton, commanding the
Thirty-sixth Regiment, when Companies A and F were ordered out without
supports, and only positive orders prevented Colonel Norton from going
out with his regiment to the support of these companies when it was
learned what their position was. If a reconnaissance was the object it
was eminently successful; but otherwise the brave advance of Company F
can only be cited as a proof of the good fighting qualities of the men,
and a credit to their discipline.

The skirmishers upon the right of the First Brigade were not more
than two rods in advance of the position held by the Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts, and it was with this line that Companies A and F were to
connect. There were some very dangerous intervals between the different
brigades, considering the near proximity of the rebel force, and only
good luck, or the concealment afforded by the woods, prevented their
being observed and taken advantage of by the enemy.

Toward night a thunder-squall came up, and for over an hour the battle
raged with even greater fury, the booming of man's artillery seeming
to vie with Heaven's. It was a perfect pandemonium of sound. The rain
fell in torrents, the lightning flashed, thunder pealed incessantly,
and shot and shell from the rebel guns fell and burst around. It
seemed as if "man fought on earth, and fiends in upper air." At four
P.M. Companies A and F were relieved by E and K. The latter had hardly
taken position when they were handsomely charged upon by the rebel
skirmishers, who were as handsomely repulsed, Captain Warriner being in
command of the picket. That night the men lay on their arms quietly,
and on the morning of the 12th the brigade was relieved by a brigade of
the Second Division, and marched to the rear, taking a position near
the Lunatic Asylum.

The movement now settled down into the nature of a siege. General
Sherman, being desirous of saving life, resolved upon regular
approaches by rifle-pits to force a surrender of the city. During the
12th and 13th the regiment lay quietly in the rear, resting and keeping
as cool as possible in the shelter of a piece of wood. Occasionally the
rebels would throw a thirty-two pound shot over into our neighborhood,
creating some excitement, but doing no harm.

On the 14th and 15th the regiment was again at the front, and occupied
the rifle-pits, Major Goodell being in command. No loss was suffered
during these two days, the men having good shelter and having learned
not to expose themselves unnecessarily. The heaviest fighting seemed
to be upon the extreme right, the lines of investment having the Pearl
river on both flanks.

Some exciting incidents occurred, from time to time, to vary the
monotony. One day the men of the Second Michigan lost their temper; and
with the idea, perhaps, of taking Jackson alone, made a gallant charge,
breaking through two lines of rebels, greatly to the astonishment of
the second line, whose arms were stacked and the men here and there,
not expecting callers. Not being supported, they were compelled to fall
back, which they did, very coolly, bringing their killed and wounded.

Even a battle is not without its laughable side. One day, while the
regiment was in reserve, the men occupied in various ways to kill time,
suddenly shouting and firing were heard on the right. The noise rapidly
increased and approached, and, its cause being doubtful, the men fell
in on the stacks. Presently there came dashing along a black pig, one
of the semi-wild species which wander about in this region, and had
rashly approached the lines, not being aware that pork was a favorite
dish. He met with a warm reception. A sharp fusillade was opened upon
him, and piggy fell, covered with glory, having almost attained the
honor of breaking through the lines of the Fifteenth Corps. Ere the
echo of his dying squeal had fairly ceased he was broiling in steaks
over the camp-fires.

July 12th news was received of the fall of Port Hudson, the battle of
Gettysburg, and the defeat of Lee. The cheering along the lines was
deafening, and the drooping spirits of all were roused by the glorious
tidings. Early on the morning of the 13th the rebels made a sudden
and vigorous sortie in front of Colonel Griffin's command. They were
repulsed with severe loss, and did not repeat the attempt.

On the 16th General Potter, with the Second Division and Smith's
division, made a reconnoissance. They advanced until the enemy
opened heavily with shell and canister, when they fell back, having
accomplished the desired end of discovering the exact position and
strength of the enemy. This day General Sherman received a large supply
of ammunition, of which he had run very short, and it was determined to
bombard the works and assault them on the 17th; but during the night
the enemy's artillery and wagons could be distinctly heard moving
through the town, and, when morning dawned, a white flag was seen on
the rebel earthworks. General Ferrero's brigade, in which was the
Thirty-fifth Massachusetts, entered Jackson, placed guards over the
public property, and sent out parties to pick up stragglers from the
retreating rebels. One thirty-two pounder was found in their works,
about one thousand stand of arms, and a large quantity of munitions of
war. One officer and one hundred and thirty-seven men were captured.
The railroad depot, and a few buildings containing public property,
were destroyed. The flag of the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts waved from
the dome of the capitol of Mississippi.

General Johnston, in his "Narrative" (page 209), says his army
retreated east, to Brandon, where some soldiers, who had been asleep
when he evacuated Jackson rejoined him late in the day, "and reported
that at the time they left Jackson, at seven or eight o'clock, the
enemy had not discovered his [Johnston's] retreat." This is incorrect.
In the report of the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, 1863, the
Thirty-fifth Massachusetts reports as follows: "_At about daylight_,
discovering that the enemy's works were evacuated, moved forward," etc.
The writer of these pages recorded, in a diary written on the spot, the
following: "_At daylight_ this morning the Second Division, being in
front, heard loud cheering, and learned that the rebels had evacuated
Jackson." In a letter written home at the time, I also find these
words: "_At six o'clock_ this morning it was found that the enemy had
abandoned Jackson, and General Ferrero's brigade _at once_ entered the
city." Certainly this should dispose of the charge of lack of vigilance
on our part. It seems that these men did not report how they got
across Pearl river, the bridges of which were destroyed by Johnston's
rear guard before daylight, and if they were not aroused by their own
comrades movements it is not very strange that the retreat was not
discovered by our pickets. In this engagement Johnston had about 28,000
by his own admission,[3] though the rebel Secretary of War reported
his force at 34,000. Johnston reported his army drawn from different
commands, as follows: From Pemberton, 9,831; Bragg, 7,939; Beauregard,
6,283; in all, 24,053. He also had a force of about 2,500 cavalry under
General Jackson. These figures are no doubt nearly correct. The lines
around Jackson were defended by these troops in four divisions,--the
right, under General Loring, extending from Pearl river to the Canton
road; General Walker's division, from the Canton road to across the
Clinton road; General French's division, from the Clinton road to
the New Orleans Railroad, and the left, under General Breckenridge,
extended from the railroad to the river. That part of the line held by
General Walker was in front of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts.

[3] Johnston's "Narrative," page 195.

General Johnston reported his loss in the battle 71 killed, 504
wounded, and 25 missing. As we captured 138 prisoners, there seems to
be a wide discrepancy between their _missing_ and our _captures_. It
is, therefore, quite probable that the rebel losses were much greater
than their general admits in killed and wounded.

The losses on our part, according to General Sherman's report, were
as follows: Thirteenth Corps, 762 killed wounded, and missing; Ninth
Corps, 37 killed, 258 wounded, 33 missing; Fifteenth Corps, a few;
number not stated. General Sherman also adds that he captured, in all,
over 1,000 prisoners during the battle. These captures must have been
made by the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Corps. The latter, Sherman's own
corps, consisted of the First and Third Divisions, under Generals
Steele and Tuttle, and held the centre; the Thirteenth Corps, as before
remarked, being on the right. Why this fine corps, the Fifteenth, was
held back, and allowed to take so little part in this battle, as is
evident from their slight loss, is among the mysteries of the war.
The battle seemed to be one of disjointed attacks, first in one place
and then another. It was the general opinion among the officers that
a simultaneous and vigorous assault of Johnston's lines on the first
day of the fight would have carried them. It is possible that General
Sherman feared to risk the consequences of a repulse so far from any
base or reinforcements. The movement up to the attack upon Jackson was
a bold one, and boldly pushed. Much dissatisfaction was expressed that
an affair that might have been settled in a day should have dragged
along a week in this most trying season of the year for such work.
General Johnston felt well satisfied to be able to draw off his army
safely from what might have been made a second Vicksburg.

It was hoped that the capture of Jackson would be the close of the
campaign, the impolicy of pursuing a demoralized enemy further at
this season being apparent to all. But there was hard work yet to do.
Scarcely was it known that the city was in possession of our forces ere
marching orders were received, and together with the other regiments of
the First Division the Thirty-sixth marched about eight miles north, to
a place called Grant's Mills, where we bivouacked for the night. Early
on Saturday, the 18th, we marched five miles and struck the Mississippi
Central Railroad. During this day and until ten A.M. of the 19th the
regiment was engaged in destroying this railroad. Tough work it would
have been, even in the coolest weather and under the most favorable
circumstances; but under a burning July sun, with no shelter, the work
was terribly exhausting. The method of proceeding was to tear up the
rails and lay them crosswise with alternate rows of sleepers. When a
pile was built as high as the rails could be lifted, a fire was kindled
beneath, and the rails, red-hot, were warped and ruined by the weight
of the mass of rails and sleepers above. Another way was to heat the
middle of a rail red hot and twist it around a tree. In this way about
ten miles of this railroad were destroyed by the division in two days,
rendering a main line of transportation useless and seriously crippling
the rebel communications.

At noon of the 19th, after setting fire to a depot which burned like a
tinder-box, we commenced the return march to Jackson. The fatigues and
sufferings of this march were partially forgotten in the glad tidings
which there awaited us, that the Ninth Corps was under orders to
proceed North at once.

At three A.M., July 20th, the regiment was on the march, and with the
exception of a halt from eleven A.M. to three P.M. marched till dark,
in all a distance of eighteen miles.

In recalling this day and the one following no man of the Thirty-sixth
can fail to be overcome with the memories to which it will give rise.
The regiment was a mere wreck. When it halted for the night, on the
20th, one man of Company E dropped down and died of exhaustion, and
while on the march one of Company H died from the same cause in an
ambulance. When the regiment halted at noon of the 21st it did not
stack one hundred guns, and, for no apparent reason whatever, on these
two days, the regiment marched a distance of thirty-two miles. The
heat and dust were overpowering, and officers forgot all discipline
and straggled with the rest. The ambulance and teams were crowded with
exhausted men. At nine P.M. of the 21st the regiment halted about a
mile from the Big Black river, bivouacking in a cornfield; a delightful
place in some respects, because lying between the hills one could not
easily roll out of bed, and the savory diet on which the regiment had
regaled for about three weeks could be picked in all its luxuriance
from the bed-posts. The single objection to cornstalks two or three
inches in diameter for bedding is that they have a depressing influence
upon the bones of the hips and back.

July 22d the regiment did not move until noon, and then only four
miles, crossing the Big Black river, and camped in a shady wood, with
plenty of water at hand. It appeared to have dawned upon some one
in command of this division or corps that there is a limit to man's
endurance. July 23d _reveillé_ was sounded at two A.M. and, marching at
four, we pushed on rapidly, the day being unusually comfortable, and at
eleven o'clock A.M., after a march of fourteen miles, arrived at the
old camp at Milldale.

The condition of the regiment at this time was miserable indeed.
Sixteen cases of small-pox and varioloid, three being officers, were
under treatment, and the regimental hospital was filled with sick. The
adjutant's morning report of July 24th was as follows: 6 officers and
98 men present sick, and 63 men absent in hospitals, 25 officers and
343 men present for duty.

It was a season of general depression among all, and the only thing
to relieve the gloom was the prospect of a speedy departure for the
North,--an event most anxiously awaited and desired. To add to the
general discouragement, a number of officers of the regiment who had
resigned received their discharge. Colonel Bowman, Lieutenant-Colonel
Norton, and Lieutenants Tucker and Holbrook left for the North August
2d, making six officers lost to the regiment since its arrival in
Mississippi. Major Goodell took command of the regiment July 30th. The
resignation of Colonel Bowman left the brigade in command of Colonel
David Morrison, of the Seventy-ninth New York "Highlanders," and the
brigade was now composed of the Seventy-ninth New York, Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, Eighth and Seventeenth Michigan, and Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts,--the entire brigade numbering hardly five hundred men
fit for service.



CHAPTER VII.

THE RETURN TO KENTUCKY.


The days between our arrival at Milldale and the departure for the
North were devoted to rest and recruiting the shattered strength of the
men. Never was rest so welcome, never so necessary, as now. Various
diseases prevailed. Mumps and chills and fever spread rapidly, and it
is safe to say that there was not an officer or man in the regiment who
could call himself well and hearty. Whiskey, doctored with quinine, was
served out at this time as a protection against chills. Although it was
of the genuine "lightning" brand "commissary" it probably did little
good, the mischief being already done, and the "ounce of prevention"
came too late.

August 2d all the sick who could be moved were sent off to a hospital
boat, and Surgeon Prince went in charge of them. On this day also the
following Special Order was received from General Grant:--

          HEAD-QUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE TENNESSEE,
               VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI, July 31st, 1863.

  SPECIAL ORDER NO. 207.

  In returning the Ninth Corps to its former command, it is with
  pleasure that the general commanding acknowledges its valuable
  services in the campaign just closed. Arriving at Vicksburg
  opportunely, taking position to hold at bay Johnston's army, then
  threatening the forces investing the city, it was ready and eager
  to assume the aggressive at any moment. After the fall of Vicksburg
  it formed a part of the army which drove Johnston from his position
  near the Big Black river into his entrenchments at Jackson, and,
  after a siege of eight days, compelled him to fly in disorder from
  the Mississippi valley. The endurance, valor, and general good
  conduct of the Ninth Corps are admired by all, and its valuable
  coöperation in achieving the final triumph of the campaign is
  gratefully acknowledged by the Army of the Tennessee. Major-General
  Parke will cause the different regiments and batteries of his
  command to inscribe upon their banners and guidons "Vicksburg and
  Jackson."

  By order of Major-General U. S. GRANT.
                T. S. BOWERS, _A. A. General_.


At eight o'clock A.M., August 4th, orders were received to break camp
and proceed to the landing. Never was an order obeyed with more joy
and alacrity than this. The regiment was quickly on the march, and,
though the day was hot and the road dusty, the march of seven miles was
cheerfully borne, for we could not be sufficiently thankful to get away
from Mississippi. Upon arriving near the landing, it was found that
the boats had not arrived, but were taking in fuel at Vicksburg, and
another night must be spent here. A worse, more uncomfortable night the
regiment did not experience in Mississippi. As if to improve their last
opportunity, swarms of gnats, of the most savage description, attacked
the regiment, and few will ever forget that sleepless night. It was
indeed a fitting close of the campaign.

The boat arrived in the night, and the forenoon of the 5th was employed
in loading her with the baggage, horses, and guns, of Battery E, Second
United States. At three o'clock P.M. the regiment marched aboard the
fine steamer "Hiawatha," in company with the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania,
Twenty-seventh Michigan, and the regulars of Battery E, which crowded
the boat most uncomfortably, though her accommodations were large.
About four P.M. the boat cast off, and, steaming down the Yazoo,
entered the Mississippi at sunset, and as her course was directed
northward a worn but happy band of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts laid
down to rest, thankful, after all their trials, to have been spared
through that short but fatal campaign.

All night of the 5th the boat moved slowly North, being very heavily
laden, and her crowded condition made it very tedious for all. Late in
the afternoon of the 6th the boat passed Columbus, Ark., noteworthy as
the place where the regiment received a "guerilla" salute, on its way
down the river.

August 7th, all day we were moving slowly up river, and at sunset we
stopped about twenty minutes at Helena, Ark., for provisions.

We arrived at Memphis on the forenoon of the 8th, and the men were
landed on an island a short distance above the city, where they
remained while the boat was thoroughly cleansed, and at five P.M.,
we reëmbarked, and were off again. August 9th was Sunday, and in the
forenoon divine services were held by the chaplain of the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania. Private M. H. Fay, of Company G, died this day on board,
and at night the boat stopped at New Madrid, Mo., while his body was
buried ashore.

Monday, August 10th, at nine o'clock A.M., two months to a day from
the time the regiment left Cairo, it arrived there and landed, glad
enough to step once again on Northern soil. Late in the afternoon the
regiment was transferred to cars of the Illinois Central Railroad, rode
all night, all the next day, and late in the evening reached Vincennes.
All along the road the troops were received with great enthusiasm. The
well-known old Ninth Corps, fresh from its new triumphs, received the
cordial greeting of a grateful people. This was most gratifying to the
soldiers, and partially repaid them for their sufferings. Flowers were
literally showered by fair ladies upon the bronzed veterans, collations
were provided wherever the cars stopped, and the course of the regiment
through Illinois was one continuous ovation.

At noon, August 12th, the regiment arrived at Cincinnati, and after a
bountiful collation at the Fifth-street Market, provided by generous
citizens, we crossed the river to Covington, Ky., and went into
quarters in some barracks. The baggage was delayed, and many of the
officers slept this night on as soft a board as they could find, with
no covering, and did not suffer with the heat.

Major Goodell, having left for home "on leave" for twenty days, the
regiment was now under command of Captain Barker, of Company A. For
four days the regiment lay in camp at Covington, and had its first
dress-parade for a period of three months. The adjutant's walk from the
right to the centre was a very short one.

Every day the effect of the southern campaign was shown in the
increasing number of the sick. Many were sent to hospitals, and the
regiment rapidly decreased. Chills and fever were most prevalent, and a
disease similar to scurvy broke out, and caused the death of several,
whose flesh actually fell from their limbs before death relieved them
from their sufferings. All complained of a feeling of exhaustion, and
officers and men dragged themselves painfully and slowly about the camp.

Of the officers who had been left behind on account of sickness two
died. Second Lieutenant Frederick H. Sibley, of Company A, died in
hospital at Louisville, Ky., August 17th. He had been commissioned
First Lieutenant, but died before receiving his commission. Captain
Christopher S. Hastings, of Company I, died September 8th, in hospital
at Mound City, Ill. Both were true, faithful men, and their loss was
deeply lamented.

August 17th the regiment took cars, and, after riding all night,
arrived at Nicholasville at daylight. Marching out about three miles
from the town, we encamped in a fine shady grove, with plenty of water
at hand. Here we remained ten days, and enjoyed a most welcome rest.

The paymaster arrived, and paid off the regiment, August 19th, and more
than $3,000 of their pay was sent to Worcester, by the men, for their
families. Dr. Bryant, the only surgeon present, being sick, the surgeon
of the Seventy-ninth New York was detailed to attend the sick of the
Thirty-sixth.

The regimental musicians, from the ravages of small-pox and other
diseases, were now all gone, and for a time it became necessary to
obtain the services of musicians of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania to
sound the calls for the Thirty-sixth.

August 27th _reveillé_ sounded at three A.M., and at half-past five
the regiment was on the march, a large number being left behind, too
weak to march. We passed through Bryantsville at half-past nine o'clock
A.M., and when the regiment halted for a rest, at ten o'clock, it
stacked ninety-eight muskets.

One year ago this day the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts was mustered into
the United States service, 1,040 strong. At eleven o'clock we went into
camp, at Camp Dick Robinson where the regiment was encamped in the
spring.

August 28th we were early on the march, and a very hard one it was for
what was left of the regiment, and that was not much. We marched eleven
miles, passing through Lancaster with colors flying, and the regiment
stacked sixty-eight guns, when it halted at noon four miles beyond
Lancaster.

This bare fact seems to render needless all further comment as to the
condition of the regiment. It was no longer a regiment, but a worn and
weary band, a squad of each company struggling on, fighting bravely
against fatigue, and heat, and illness. But what was now left may well
be called the very heart and soul of the Thirty-sixth,--men who had
never flinched; who had borne all, thus far, cheerfully and bravely,
with indomitable spirit. Very many were gone; but enough still remained
to guard the colors, to escort them on many a long and weary march, and
carry them in the front of many a battle yet to come.

August 29th the march was continued about six miles, to Crab Orchard,
where the regiment encamped in the edge of a wood, and remained
until September 10th. This brief period was occupied in various camp
duties, and preparations for an active campaign, for the corps was
under marching orders for Tennessee, and this halt was only to allow
the remainder of the corps to come up. Each day there were drills
and dress-parade, and men who had been left behind were constantly
rejoining the regiment until it began again to present quite a
respectable front.

Saturday, September 5th, the regiment was inspected by Captain Simcoe,
Division Inspector General, and the report thereon was briefly:
"Equipments much worn, and clothing poor, but muskets in fine order."
With the cooler weather of autumn, better rations, and rest from
fatiguing marches, the men rapidly improved in health and spirits.
Crab Orchard is quite a favorite resort of the people of Kentucky, and
is celebrated for its mineral springs, and as a very healthy region.
Whether the men tried the waters of the springs or not the writer
cannot say; they certainly were not delectable to the taste, and it is
very doubtful whether they were used medicinally. Twenty very happy men
left here for home, on a furlough for twenty days, greatly envied by
their comrades.

It was long ere any of these rejoined the regiment, and some never
returned. Lieutenant-Colonel Goodell, having exchanged the golden
leaves of Major, for the well-earned silver leaves, rejoined the
regiment, August 31st, and was heartily welcomed, as was also Major
Draper, upon whom the golden leaves had deservedly fallen, and who
returned September 9th, with Dr. J. H. Prince.



CHAPTER VIII.

IN EAST TENNESSEE.


At an early hour in the morning of September 10th, the familiar call
of "assembly" sounded once more. Camp was quickly broken, and at eight
o'clock the regiment was on the march for Tennessee. Having the head
of the column we did not find the march a severe one, though the roads
were rough; and at five o'clock P.M., after a tramp of eleven miles,
we halted for the night at Mount Vernon. More than one hundred and
fifty of the regiment were left at Crab Orchard on the sick list, too
feeble to march, but most of them rapidly gaining strength; and if the
regiment could have remained there a week longer many of them would
have been in the ranks again, for active service.

September 11th _reveillé_ was sounded at half-past three o'clock A.M.,
and we marched at five. The sun was hot and the roads rough; country
mountainous, and thinly settled. We marched fifteen miles, and at night
bivouacked on the bank of Little Rockcastle river. A courier from
General Burnside brought stirring news from the front, of the capture
of Cumberland Gap, and its garrison of over two thousand rebels.

September 12th the regiment marched eight miles, and went into camp at
noon. A severe thunder-shower came up at night; the baggage being far
behind, and the field and staff without any tents, Lieutenant Tuttle,
in charge of the division ambulance corps, kindly provided a tent for
the use of the head-quarters.

September 13th, Sunday, we lay quietly in camp,--a very welcome
rest,--for the men were getting very footsore from the rough Kentucky
roads. It would be hard to find worse ones even in rocky New England.

September 14th we were on the march at five A.M., and moving rapidly
until after one P.M., a distance of fourteen miles. Between eleven
and twelve o'clock the regiment halted by the roadside and witnessed
the passage under guard of the rebel prisoners captured at Cumberland
Gap. They numbered about twenty-two hundred, and consisted of the
Sixty-second and Sixty-fourth North Carolina, Fifty-ninth Georgia, and
a Virginia regiment of infantry and some artillery. It was generally
conceded that they were a very forlorn-looking set, and would fare
much better as prisoners than as fire-eaters. General Frazer, their
commander, was with them, riding in an ambulance. It appeared that
they had been led to believe that the Ninth Corps had surrounded them,
and they were much disgusted to find they had surrendered to the
Twenty-third Corps, which was composed of new troops.

Between sunrise and noon of the 15th we marched fourteen miles, and
encamped at Barboursville, on the Cumberland river. Before marching
this morning, a detail of three officers (Captain Holmes, Lieutenants
Hodgkins and Davis), and six men left us, for the purpose of returning
to Massachusetts, and bringing out the conscripts assigned to the
Thirty-sixth Regiment, according to orders received at Nicholasville.

September 16th the regular order for some days had been _reveillé_ at
half-past three and move at five A.M., and this day was no exception
to the rule. The march was slow and quite easy,--only ten miles. The
regiment was in camp by ten o'clock A.M., and had a good long day to
rest.

There is very little level ground in Eastern Kentucky, and the luck
of the regiment seemed to be to camp on side-hills, where some care
had to be exercised to avoid rolling off. To prevent sliding down hill
endwise, a log or rail was laid at the foot of the tent and secured.
This proved a very good foot-board. We remained at this place until
the 19th, and the paymaster arrived. No person was more welcome in
camp, or received such general attention. The adjutant gave checks, on
the city banks of Worcester, for the large sum of $3,917.50. This fact
is very creditable, and a good index of the solid, frugal character of
the men, who, though their wants were numerous and our popular sutler
was present with a good stock, did not forget the little family of
loved ones at home; but in many cases, to the writer's knowledge, sent
home their hard-earned pay to the last dollar.

September 18th it rained in torrents all day, and seemed very much
like the equinoctial storm. The order to march at six this morning was
countermanded, though the regiment was up at half-past four o'clock,
and all ready.

September 19th, on the march at six A.M. The roads were badly washed by
the storm, or rather the places where the roads were; for they could be
called little better than cow-paths. We crossed the Cumberland river at
Cumberland ford, and encamped at noon. The weather began to be cold and
raw as we approached the high region of the Cumberland mountains.

Sunday, September 20th, as usual we were in line at six A.M., and
marched until noon, much of the distance up hill, a rather toilsome
march of nine miles. Passed through Cumberland Gap at half-past eleven
A.M., and encamped in Tennessee at noon. The march was relieved of much
of its tediousness by the grandeur of the scenery. As the regiment
moved from one height to another of the ranges of hills the scene in
every direction was magnificent; and when, at length, the Gap was
reached, there was an universal expression of admiration. Standing in
the Gap is a large, square, white stone, of the native limestone, which
marks the corner boundaries of three States, and at this point the view
is grand; the ranges of hills and the valleys of Tennessee stretching
away as far as the eye could reach, the great Smoky range of North
Carolina bounding the southern horizon. It seemed incredible to all
that this place, a perfect Gibraltar, should have been surrendered as
it was. Fortified extensively with bomb-proofs, having only a narrow,
winding approach on either side, it seemed as if a few resolute men
could hold it against an army. And so they could; but, alas for the
South, Frazer was no Leonidas!

Between five A.M. and five P.M. of the 21st, with a rest of two hours
at noon, the regiment marched nineteen miles, and camped near the
Clinch river. We passed through Tazewell, a considerable town, but
showing signs of its recent occupation by the rebel and Union troops
alternately. The absence of the top rails in this region was especially
remarked, now that the season for evening camp-fires had arrived.

A long march of twenty-two miles was made on the 22d (a mile for every
day of the month), and during the day the Clinch and Holston rivers
were forded. This was a very interesting sight, especially to those who
had got safely over and looked back to see some luckless wader lose his
footing and take an involuntary bath, which, the water being shallow,
was attended with no great peril. The bare-legged "Highlanders"
seemed to enjoy the temporary necessity for their native costume. The
line of march this day was through the most attractive part of East
Tennessee. No State in the Union can boast of more beautiful scenery,
and the regiment must have been inspired by it; for though one of the
longest day's marches on its record, up hill and down and across broad
rivers, there was no straggling, and the entire command stacked arms at
sunset at Morristown, Tennessee, on the line of the Virginia and East
Tennessee Railroad.

On the 23d and 24th the regiment made an unnecessary march of twenty
miles, owing to the blunder of a telegraph operator, and at ten A.M.
of the 24th reëntered Morristown, where it was found that the division
had gone to Knoxville, and the Thirty-sixth was ordered to remain and
garrison the town in company with the Twelfth Michigan Battery, which
it did until the afternoon of the 26th, when it was relieved by the
Twelfth Kentucky.

At ten o'clock P.M. the regiment embarked in the cars, and, riding all
night, arrived at Knoxville, marched a half mile, and encamped in a
wood in the suburbs, where we remained until October 3d. Captain Smith,
of Company K, rejoined the regiment here on the 28th of September, and
was warmly received. Rumors prevailed of a severe battle at or near
Chattanooga, and the defeat of Rosecrans; and it was also reported that
a large force of rebels was concentrating at Greenville for an attack
upon Burnside. The few days of rest here were enjoyed by all, and the
men improved them in repairing their wardrobes and preparations for
more hard work.

Before daylight, October 3d, orders were received to march at eight
A.M., in "light marching order, with five days' rations and forty
rounds of ammunition per man," the destination being "a point beyond
Greenville." As this "point" was known to be the rebel force, the
affair savored strongly of a fight. As the regiment passed through
Knoxville on its way to the cars, with drums beating and colors flying,
it passed the head-quarters of General Burnside, and gave him a
marching salute.

We had a long day in the cars, going slowly, as the road was a pretty
rickety affair in many places, and about sunset we arrived at Bull's
Gap, sixty miles from Knoxville, where a small force was found,
consisting of the One Hundred and Third Ohio Infantry and Second East
Tennessee Regiment. Large numbers of men were constantly coming in
from the east, many of them refugees, and some rebel deserters. The
former were mostly anxious to enlist in the Union ranks, and seemed
bitterly in earnest in their desire to drive the rebels from here.
Their sufferings and privations since the war broke out had been
terrible,--their homes destroyed, families scattered or forced to
hide in caves in the hills. It is no wonder they welcomed the Union
army as their saviors and liberators. Old men and women stood by the
roadside and audibly thanked God and blessed the soldiers as they
marched past. Little Union flags, made of the roughest material, but
with the true colors, that had long been hidden sacredly away, were
waved triumphantly, and were greeted with cheers by the Yankee boys,
who no less proudly displayed the beloved silken standard that they
had followed so long, and which, like them, was beginning to have a
war-worn, veteran look.

A march of four miles, October 4th, brought the regiment to a place
called "Lick Creek," where it remained until the 10th, awaiting
the arrival of other troops and the Commanding General. The Eighth
Tennessee Infantry, and the Ninth Michigan and Seventh Ohio Cavalry
were already here, the enemy being in force at Blue Springs, about
three miles from this place, closely watched by the cavalry pickets.
Probably all who went into camp with the Thirty-sixth this day recall
the amusing incident of the grand rabbit-hunt when the regiment broke
ranks. The field seemed to be alive with the little animals, and the
men, never averse to variety in their bill-of-fare, turned into Nimrods
like magic. The bewildered rabbits, headed off in every direction,
rushed upon their fate, and game suppers were "_à la mode_."

The Second Brigade of the First Division, and four large regiments and
three batteries of new troops under General Willcox, arrived on the
8th, and on this day the cavalry captured a rebel foraging train of
thirteen wagons and nine drivers. From them it was learned that a large
force, under Generals Breckenridge, Jones, Crittenden, Courcy, and
Ransom, was at Blue Springs, in a strong position, and meant fight. The
regiment was now small in numbers, but tough and healthy, and certain
to give a good account of itself whatever service it might be called on
to perform.

The nature of the country about Blue Springs was such that it was easy
to conceal a large force of troops, and difficult to reconnoitre.
Strips of dense woodland, alternating with open and some hilly country,
gave good opportunity for planting and masking artillery, and it was
necessary to approach the rebel position cautiously, it being difficult
to develop. Early on the morning of October 10th the entire force was
on the march, Burnside being present in command, and as usual, when he
showed himself to his boys, he was warmly and vociferously greeted.
The regiment moved slowly until, at about noon, it appeared to be
checked, and heavy firing of artillery showed that the engagement was
opened. Until about 3 P.M. the fighting was left to the Twenty-third
Corps, which, however, seemed to make little or no impression upon
the enemy, and was meeting with considerable loss. Up to this hour
the First Brigade, of which the Thirty-sixth was a part, was in
reserve, within easy rifle-shot of the rebel line, awaiting orders.
Not far from the left of the brigade a section of Osborn's New York
battery was engaged in shelling a piece of wood at a distance of about
one hundred and fifty yards in front, where the rebel soldiers were
posted, and had all day very obstinately resisted the efforts of the
artillery and Twenty-third Corps to dislodge them. Generals Burnside,
Willcox, Ferrero, and other officers were near this section, watching
the effect of the firing. About half-past three o'clock P.M., General
Burnside ordered General Ferrero to advance with his division and clear
out this wood at the point of the bayonet. The First Brigade was at
once in motion, the Seventy-ninth New York on the right, Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts in the centre, and Eighth Michigan on the left; the
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, as usual, was deployed as skirmishers. After
moving a short distance by the right flank to get the shelter of a
wood, the right of the brigade struck the rebel line, and received
a heavy fire, from which the Seventy-ninth New York sustained some
loss. The brigade then "changed front forward," which brought the
Thirty-sixth and Eighth Michigan out into an open field, when the enemy
opened a sharp fire of musketry from behind a fence that bordered the
strip of wood. But no sooner did the brigade front their position than
it dashed forward, and in less time than it takes to tell it drove
back the rebel force, killing some and capturing fifteen men of a
Georgia regiment. Their entire line broke, fled through the woods over
a hill, and took shelter behind their artillery, which now opened fire
at short range.

The brigade followed the retreating enemy until ordered to halt
by General Ferrero and await further orders, having done all it
was expected to do in a very short space of time. The halting of a
charging line of infantry under a heavy fire is a delicate manœuvre.
The men, excited by the charge, can more easily be led forward than
held steadily in the position taken. At such a moment the example
of the officers is indispensable, and it was while in front of the
colors, calling upon the regiment to keep the line "steady," that
Lieutenant-Colonel Goodell fell, severely wounded by a piece of shell
in the thigh. He was carried to the rear, and the command devolved
upon Major Draper. There was much sorrow at the loss of the young and
favorite colonel, and a desire was expressed to get at the battery that
threw the shell.

The regiment lay quietly and coolly under the fire of the rebel guns
until dark, and, being sheltered by the slight rise of ground along
its front, did not suffer much loss. Lieutenants Holmes and Robinson
were wounded, the latter in the head, and three men of Companies A,
D, and H; only one severely,--Woodward, of Company H. Considering the
severe fire to which the regiment was exposed for more than an hour,
its escape from great loss was noteworthy. General Burnside sent an aid
down to congratulate the brigade upon the manner in which it carried
the wood and unmasked the rebel batteries.

It was thought that the rebels, being so strongly posted and in large
force, would hold their ground. During the night earthworks were thrown
up along the ridge held by the brigade, and before daylight two guns of
Roemer's battery were brought up and trained. With the earliest morn
the Eighth Michigan skirmished forward, and found that the rebels had
retreated, evidently in haste. The pursuit was at once commenced and
pushed rapidly; the regiment marched nineteen miles, and a little after
dark halted at a place called Rheatown, eight miles beyond Greenville.
All along the route were seen the evidences of the hasty retreat of the
enemy, who abandoned their wounded and much baggage. Their rear was
harassed by our cavalry, who killed and captured many.

All day, October 12th, orders were expected to continue the pursuit,
and the regiment lay in line. But the cavalry reported the enemy
so scattered and broken up that General Burnside concluded not to
follow them further with infantry, and the corps was ordered back to
Knoxville. The next day the regiment marched sixteen miles, passing
through Greenville again,--a considerable town, which is noteworthy as
the home of Andrew Johnson, and the place where he is now buried.

October 14th, the Seventy-ninth New York, Forty-fifth Pennsylvania,
and Companies H and F of the Thirty-sixth, took cars for Knoxville at
noon. The rest of the regiment, with the Eighth Michigan, marched to
Bull's Gap to take the cars,--a march of fourteen miles,--and arrived
at Knoxville late in the night. There was a general idea now prevalent
that the corps would go into winter-quarters here; but, after a rest
of five days, the regiment marched to Loudon, about thirty miles
south-west of Knoxville, on the south bank of the Little Tennessee
river, an attack by the enemy from this quarter being threatened.



CHAPTER IX.

THE RETREAT FROM LENOIR'S AND THE BATTLE OF CAMPBELL'S STATION.


From October 22d to October 28th the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts was
encamped at Loudon, but the enemy failed to appear. At half-past two
o'clock, on the morning of the 28th, the baggage was sent across the
river, the regiment followed, and the pontoons were taken up. The
regiment then marched to Lenoir's, about twenty-three miles south-west
of Knoxville, and halted for the night. On the following day orders
were received to establish a permanent camp for the winter. Never was
such an order more welcome. A year of varied and arduous toil was to be
followed, it was supposed, by a season of grateful rest.

The place selected for the winter-quarters of the regiment was a
thrifty young oak grove, nearly a quarter of a mile east of the little
village of Lenoir's. The camp was laid out with unusual care. In
order to secure uniformity throughout the regiment, the size of the
log-houses--they were to be ten feet by six--was announced in orders
from regimental head-quarters. The work of construction was at once
commenced. Unfortunately we were so far from our base of supplies--Camp
Nelson, Kentucky--that nearly all our transportation was required
by the Commissary Department for the conveyance of its stores.
Consequently the Quartermaster's Department was poorly supplied,
and the only axes that could be obtained were those the pioneers
and company cooks had brought with them for their own use. These,
accordingly, were pressed into the service, and their merry ringing,
as the men cheerfully engaged in the work, could be heard from early
morning until evening. Small oaks, four and five inches in diameter,
were chiefly used in building these houses. The logs were laid one
above another, to the height of four feet, intersecting at the corners
of the houses like the rails of a Virginia fence. The interstices were
filled with mud. Shelter tents, buttoned together to the size required,
formed the roof, and afforded ample protection from the weather, except
in very heavy rains. Each house had its fireplace, table, and bunk.

On the 13th of November the houses were nearly completed throughout
the camp; and as we sat by our cheerful fires that evening, and looked
forward to the leisure and rest of the winter before us, we considered
ourselves the happiest of soldiers. Unless something unforeseen should
happen, we thought we were sure of a quiet and pleasant winter at
Lenoir's.

That something unforeseen, however, was at hand, and our pleasant
dreams were destined to fade away like an unsubstantial pageant,
leaving not a rack behind. At four o'clock, on the morning of the
14th, the sergeant-major hurried to the officers' quarters with the
order, "Be ready to march at daybreak." The order was at once repeated
to the orderly sergeants of the several companies. Forthwith the camp
was astir. Lights flashed here and there through the trees. "Pack up!
pack up!" passed from lip to lip. "Shall we take everything?" was the
eager inquiry on every hand. "Yes, everything," was the reply from
head-quarters. Reluctantly the shelter-tents were stripped from the
well-built houses, which were justly the pride of both officers and
men. Knapsacks and trunks were packed. The wagon for the officers'
baggage came, was hurriedly loaded, and driven away. A hasty breakfast
followed; then, forming our line, we stacked arms, and awaited further
orders.

The meaning of all this is not so dark now as it was then.
Lieutenant-General Longstreet, who was in command of the best corps
in Bragg's army at Chattanooga, received instructions, November
3d, at a counsel of war, to move his command against Burnside.
Bragg's formal letter of instructions was dated November 4th, and
on that day Longstreet put his troops in motion, with orders "to
drive Burnside out of East Tennessee first; or, better, to capture
or destroy him." He had with him more than fifteen thousand men,
besides Wheeler's cavalry,--"portions of five brigades" (perhaps five
thousand more),--and eighty pieces of artillery. General Grant, who
at that time was mustering his forces for an assault on Bragg, at
once was informed of the movement. As early as October 26th he had
thought of the possibility of such a movement, and had telegraphed to
Burnside, "Do you hear of any of Bragg's army threatening you from the
south-west?" He now, November 5th, announced to Burnside the departure
of Longstreet, saying, "I will endeavor, from here, to bring the enemy
back from your right flank, as soon as possible." Accordingly, two
days later, he ordered Thomas to attack Bragg. "The news is of such a
nature," he said, in his order, "that it becomes an imperative duty for
your force to draw the attention of the enemy from Burnside to your own
front." But Thomas had no horses with which to move his artillery, and
the attack was necessarily delayed. November 12th Burnside telegraphed
to Grant: "We will endeavor to hold in check any force that comes
against us, until Thomas is ready."

This force, under Longstreet, was close upon us. The next day,
November 13th, Burnside ascertained that Longstreet had reached the
Tennessee river at Hough's Ferry, a few miles below Loudon. He at
once informed Grant, and proposed to concentrate his forces and fall
back on Knoxville, so as to draw Longstreet as far from Bragg as
possible. And this was the reason why we were so suddenly called to
leave our comfortable winter-quarters at Lenoir's. Longstreet had
thrown a pontoon across the river, and was moving across his entire
command, except the cavalry under Wheeler, which he had sent by way
of Marysville, with orders to seize the heights on the south bank of
the Holston river, opposite Knoxville. Knoxville was Longstreet's
objective. It was the key of East Tennessee. Should it fall into
the enemy's hands we should be obliged to retire to Cumberland Gap.
Lenoir's did not lie in Longstreet's path. If we remained there
he would push his columns past our right, and get between us and
Knoxville. It was evident, therefore, that the place must be abandoned,
and there was need of haste. The mills and factories in the village
were accordingly destroyed, and the wagon-train started north.

The morning had opened heavily with clouds, and as the day advanced the
rain came down in torrents. A little before noon our division, then
under the command of General Ferrero, moved out of the woods, but,
instead of taking the road to Knoxville, as we had anticipated, the
column marched down the Loudon road. Grant had telegraphed Burnside:
"If you can hold Longstreet in check until Sherman gets up, or, by
skirmishing and falling back, can avoid serious loss to yourself,
and gain time, I will be able to force the enemy back from here, and
place a force between Longstreet and Bragg that must inevitably make
the former take to the mountain passes by every available road, to
get to his supplies." We, then, were to watch the enemy, and so not
only secure the safety of our trains and material, then on the way
to Knoxville, but also to have a part in the great work Grant had
undertaken in the campaign upon which he had just entered.

A few miles from Lenoir's, while we were halting for rest in a
drenching rain, General Burnside passed us on his way to the front;
under his slouched hat there was a sterner face than there was wont to
be. "There is trouble ahead," said the men; but the cheers which rose
from regiment after regiment, as with his staff and battle-flag he
swept past us, told the confidence which we all felt in Old "Burnie."

One incident of that march is still fresh in memory. Captain Buffum's
mess had secured several goodly turkeys, which were still fattening for
the approaching Thanksgiving. They were entrusted that morning to Jim,
the captain's colored servant, with many injunctions to faithfulness.
Late in the afternoon Jim was discovered empty-handed. "Where are those
turkeys?" thundered the captain. "I don't know, sah," replied Jim; "I
was tired, and lef' 'em by the road." "O Jim," added the captain, "I
knew you would yet ruin me!"

Chapin's brigade of White's command (Twenty-third Army Corps), was in
the advance; and, about four o'clock, his skirmishers met those of the
enemy, and drove them back a mile and a half. The country became hilly
as we advanced, and our artillery moved with difficulty. At dark we
were in front of the enemy's position, having marched nearly fourteen
miles. Our line was formed in a heavy timber, and we there stacked
arms, awaiting orders. It still rained hard; but here and there, we
hardly know how, fires were made, to prepare the ever-welcome cup of
coffee; and then, weary and wet, we laid down on the well-soaked ground.

During the evening a circular was received, notifying us of an intended
attack on the enemy's lines, at nine o'clock P.M., by the troops of
White's command; but, with the exception of an occasional shot, the
night was a quiet one. The rain ceased about ten.

Two additional despatches had been sent by Grant that day. The first
asked, "Can you hold the line from Knoxville to Clinton for seven
days?" And again, at ten o'clock, he added, "It is of the most vital
importance that East Tennessee should be held. Take immediate steps to
that end."

The next morning, at daybreak, our line was noiselessly formed, and we
marched out of the woods into the road. But it was not an advance as we
anticipated. During the night Burnside had issued orders for his troops
to return to Lenoir's. Such was the state of the roads, however, on
account of the heavy rainfall of the day before, that it was almost
impossible to move our artillery. At one time our whole regiment was
detailed to assist Roemer's battery. Near Loudon we passed the Second
Division of our corps, which, during the night, had moved down from
Lenoir's, in order to be within supporting distance. But the enemy did
not seem to be disposed to press us. We reached Lenoir's about noon.
Sigfried, with the Second Division, followed later in the day. Our
brigade (Morrison's) was now drawn up in line of battle on the Kingston
road, to check any movement the enemy might make in that direction. A
small force appeared in our front about three o'clock, and drove in the
pickets. The Eighth Michigan was at once deployed as skirmishers. The
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts and Forty-fifth Pennsylvania at the same
time moved forward to support the skirmishers, and took a position in
the woods, on the left of the road. Just at dark, to feel our position,
the enemy made a dash, and pressed our skirmishers back nearly to our
line, but declined to advance any further.

Burnside now made preparations to withdraw from Lenoir's, and fall back
on Knoxville. About the station nearly one hundred wagons were drawn
up, and as the mules were needed in order to move the artillery, the
spokes of the wheels were cut, and the stores and baggage in the wagons
were destroyed. At the same time a portion of the Ninth Corps, under
Colonel Hartranft, and a body of mounted infantry, were sent toward
Knoxville, with orders to hold the junction of the road from Lenoir's
with the Knoxville and Kingston roads, near the village of Campbell's
Station. The distance was only eight miles; but the progress of the
columns was much retarded. Such was still the condition of the roads
that the artillery could be moved only with the greatest difficulty.
Colonel Biddle dismounted some of his men and hitched their horses to
the guns. In order to lighten the caissons, some of the ammunition was
removed from the boxes and destroyed; but as little as possible, for
who could say it would not be needed on the morrow? Throughout the long
night officers and men faltered not in their efforts to help forward
the batteries. In the light of subsequent events, as it will be seen,
they could not have performed any more important service. Colonel
Hartranft that night displayed the same spirit and energy which he
infused into his gallant Pennsylvanians at Fort Steadman in the last
agonies of the rebellion, when, rolling back the fiercest assaults
of the enemy, he gained the first real success in the trenches at
Petersburg, and won for himself the double star of a major-general.

Meanwhile the Thirty-sixth and the other regiments of Morrison's
brigade remained on the Kingston road in front of Lenoir's. The
enemy, anticipating an evacuation of the place, made an attack on our
lines about ten o'clock P.M.; but a few shots from our pickets were
sufficient to satisfy him that we still held the ground. Additional
pickets, however, were sent out to extend the line held by the Eighth
Michigan. The Thirty-sixth Massachusetts and Forty-fifth Pennsylvania
still remained in line of battle in the woods. Neither officers nor men
slept that night. It was bitter cold, and the usual fires were denied
us, lest they should betray our weakness to the enemy. The men were
ordered to put their canteens and tin cups in their haversacks, and
remain quietly in their places, ready for any movement at a moment's
notice. It was a long, tedious, anxious night; what would the morrow
bring? It was Sunday night. The day had brought us no rest, only
weariness and care. No one could speak to his fellow; and in the thick
darkness, through the long, long night, we lay on our arms, waiting for
the morning. How many hearts there were among us which, overleaping
the boundaries of States, found their way to Pennsylvania and New
England homes; how many which, on the morrow, among the hills of East
Tennessee, were to pour out their life's blood even unto death!

At length the morning came. It was cloudy as the day before. White's
division of the Twenty-third Corps was now on the road to Knoxville;
and, besides our own brigade, only Humphrey's brigade of our division
remained at Lenoir's. About daybreak, as silently as possible, we
withdrew from our position on the Kingston road, and, falling back
through the village of Lenoir's took the Knoxville road, Humphrey's
brigade, consisting of the Second, Seventeenth, and Twentieth Michigan
regiments, covering the retreat. The enemy, Hood's division, at once
discovered this movement, but, lingering around the burning baggage
and stores, did not press us till we were within about two miles of
Campbell's Station. Humphrey, however, held them in check with the loss
of a few killed and wounded,--among the former Colonel Smith, of the
Twentieth Michigan,--and Morrison moved rapidly on to the point where
the road from Lenoir's unites with the road from Kingston to Knoxville.
It was evidently Longstreet's purpose to cut off our retreat at this
place. For this reason he had not pressed us at Lenoir's, the afternoon
previous, but had moved the main body of the force under his command to
our right. But the mounted infantry, which had been sent to this point
during the night, and which had moved out on this road, were able to
hold his advance in check till Hartranft came up.

On reaching the junction of the roads Morrison ordered us into an
open field on our left, and the Thirty-sixth was directed to take
position in rear of a rail-fence, with our right resting on the
Kingston road. The Eighth Michigan was on our left. The Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania was deployed as skirmishers. Meanwhile the rest of the
troops on the road from Lenoir's, and those which had preceded us,
were moving to a position selected by Burnside, a little way beyond
the village of Campbell's Station; and we were left to cover the
movement. Unfurling our colors we awaited the advance of the enemy.
There was little delay. In our front there was an occasional shot,
and also to our right; but it was soon evident that the enemy were
moving to our left, in order to gain the cover of the woods and obtain
a more favorable position for attack. Moving off by the left flank,
therefore, we took a second position in an adjoining field. Finding now
the enemy moving rapidly through the woods, and threatening our rear
with increasing numbers,--Hood's division, that had followed us from
Lenoir's, being now up,--we executed a left half-wheel, and, advancing
on the double-quick to the rail-fence which ran along the edge of
the woods, we opened a heavy fire. The manner in which Major Draper
handled the regiment in these trying circumstances was worthy of the
highest praise. From this new position the enemy at once endeavored
to force us. His fire was well directed, but the fence afforded us a
slight protection. Lieutenant J. B. Fairbank and a few of the men were
here wounded. For a while we held the enemy in check, but at length
the skirmishers of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, who were watching
our right, discovered a body of rebel infantry pushing toward our
rear from the Kingston road. Colonel Morrison, our brigade commander,
at once ordered the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts and Eighth Michigan
to face about, and establish a new line in rear of the rail-fence on
the opposite side of the field. We advanced on the double-quick, and,
reaching the fence, our men, with a shout, poured a volley into the
rebel line of battle, which not only checked its advance, but drove
it back in confusion. Meanwhile the enemy in our rear moved up to the
edge of the woods, which we had just left, and now opened a brisk fire.
We at once crossed the fence, in order to place it between us and his
fire, and were about to devote our attention again to him when orders
came for us to withdraw, it being no longer necessary for us to hold
the junction of the roads, as all our troops and wagons had now passed.
The enemy, too, was closing in upon us, and his fire was the hottest.
We moved off in good order; but our loss in killed and wounded was
quite heavy, considering the time we were under fire.

Among the killed was Lieutenant P. Marion Holmes (Co. B), of
Charlestown, Massachusetts, of whom it might well be said,

             "He died as fathers wish their sons to die."

Lieutenant Holmes had been wounded in the foot at the battle of Blue
Springs, October 10th, and, as the wound was not fully healed, had
made the march from Lenoir's that morning with great difficulty. But
he would not leave his men. On his breast he wore the badge of the
Bunker Hill Club, on which was engraved the familiar line from Horace,
which Warren quoted just before the battle of Bunker Hill: "_Dulce et
decorum est pro patria mori_,"--It is sweet and glorious to die for
one's country. In the death of Lieutenant Holmes the regiment sustained
a great loss. Frank, courteous, manly, brave, he had won all hearts;
and his sudden removal from our companionship, at that moment, will
ever remind us of the great price with which that morning's success was
bought. His men made a noble endeavor to bear the body from the field;
but the enemy were pressing us so hard that they were reluctantly
compelled to leave it near the spot where the lieutenant fell. There he
was buried, and his grave marked, so that, a few weeks after, friends
from home found the spot, and took up the remains, and brought them to
Charlestown, Mass., where funeral services were held January 18, 1864.

As we left the open field, and entered the woods between us and
Campbell's Station, the enemy manœuvred to cut us off from the
road, so that we were obliged to oblique to the left. Moving on the
double-quick, receiving an occasional volley, and barely escaping
capture, we at length emerged from the woods on the outskirts of the
village. Our formation by fours was well preserved in this movement,
and Major Draper afterwards learned from a rebel officer, that the
order and steadiness displayed by the Thirty-sixth under these trying
circumstances, prevented an attack upon us which might have led to
a serious disaster to our brigade. He said they thought there was a
"Regular" regiment among the rest, upon which the others might form.

Passing through the village of Campbell's Station, we were soon under
cover of our artillery, which General Potter, under the direction of
General Burnside, had placed in position on high ground, just beyond
the village. Campbell's Station is situated between two low ranges of
hills, which are nearly a mile apart. Across the intervening space our
infantry was drawn up in a single line of battle. Ferrero's division of
the Ninth Corps held the right; White's division of the Twenty-third
Corps held the centre; and Hartranft's division of the Ninth Corps held
the left. Benjamin's, Buckley's, Getting's, and Von Schlein's batteries
were on the right of the road. Roemer's battery was on the left. The
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts supported Roemer.

Longstreet, meanwhile, had disposed his forces for an attack on our
position, but was delayed on account of the difficulty experienced in
moving his artillery. At noon the rebels came out of the woods just
beyond the village, in two lines of battle, with a line of skirmishers
in front. The whole field was open to our view. Benjamin and Roemer
opened fire at once; and so accurate was their range that the rebel
lines were immediately broken, and they fell back into the woods
in confusion. The enemy, under cover of the woods on the slope of
the ridge, now advanced against our right. Christ's brigade, of our
division, at once changed front. Buckley executed the same movement
with his battery, and, by a well-directed fire, checked the enemy's
progress in that direction. The enemy next manœuvred to turn our left.
Falling back, however, to a stronger position in our rear, selected
by General Burnside, we established a new line about four o'clock
in the afternoon. This was done under a heavy fire from the enemy's
batteries. Ferrero was now on the right of the road. Morrison's brigade
was placed in rear of a rail fence, at the foot of the ridge on which
Benjamin's battery had been planted. Several of the Thirty-sixth were
wounded by the packing of the shells fired by Benjamin; and by a piece
of a shell from the same battery, that burst prematurely, Sergeant
Gallup, of Company A, was so severely wounded that he died in a short
time. The position for the regiment was a very trying one. The enemy,
however, did not seem inclined to attack us in front, but pushed along
the ridge, on our left, aiming to strike Hartranft in flank and rear.
He was discovered in this attempt; and, just as he was moving over
ground recently cleared, Roemer, changing front at the same time with
Hartranft, opened his three-inch guns on the rebel line, and drove it
back in disorder, followed by the skirmishers. Longstreet, foiled in
all these attempts to force us from our position, now withdrew beyond
the range of our guns, and made no further demonstrations that day.
Our troops were justly proud of their success; for, with a force not
exceeding five thousand men, they had held in check, for an entire day,
three times their own number, and with a comparatively small loss.[4]
In the Ninth Corps there were twenty-six killed, one hundred and
sixty-six wounded, and fifty-seven missing. Of these the Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts had one officer and three enlisted men killed, three
officers and fourteen enlisted men wounded, and three enlisted men
missing.

[4] General Longstreet, in his official report of this action, says:
"As soon as McLaws got up he was ordered to deploy three of his
brigades in front of the enemy, and to put the other brigade upon a
ridge on our left, so as to threaten the enemy's right. At the same
time, Colonel Alexander put his artillery in position, and General
Jenkins was ordered with Hood's division around the enemy's left, and,
upon arriving opposite the enemy's position, to make an attack upon
their flank, while General McLaws was advancing against the enemy's
front to follow General Jenkins' attack. The flank movement and the
fire of our batteries caused the enemy to retire in some haste. McLaws'
division advanced promptly, and brought the enemy to a stand about a
mile further toward his rear, in a more commanding position. If General
Jenkins could have made his attack during this movement, or if he
could have made it after the enemy had taken his second position, we
must have destroyed this force, recovered East Tennessee, and in all
probability captured the greater portion of the enemy's forces. He
attributes his failure to do so to some mismanagement of General Law.
Before I could get a staff officer to him to ascertain the occasion of
the delay, night came on and our efforts ceased."

At six o'clock P.M. Ferrero's division, followed by Hartranft's,
moved to the rear, taking the road to Knoxville. White's division of
the Twenty-third Corps covered the retreat. Campbell's Station is a
little more than sixteen miles from Knoxville; but the night was so
dark, and the road so muddy, that our progress was much retarded, and
we did not reach Knoxville till about four o'clock the next morning.
We had now been without sleep forty-eight hours. Moreover, since the
previous morning, we had marched twenty-four miles and fought a battle.
Halting just outside the town, weary and worn, we threw ourselves on
the ground, and snatched a couple hours of sleep. Captain O. M. Poe,
Burnside's engineer, had been sent from Campbell's Station to select
the lines of defence at Knoxville. This, from his familiarity with the
ground, he was enabled readily to do; and early in the day--it was the
17th of November--General Burnside assigned the batteries and regiments
of his command to the positions they were to occupy in the defence of
the place.



CHAPTER X.

THE SIEGE OF KNOXVILLE.


Knoxville is situated on the northern bank of the Holston river. For
the most part the town is built on a table-land, which is nearly a
mile square, and about one hundred and fifty feet above the river.
On the north-east the town is bounded by a small creek. Beyond this
creek is an elevation known as Temperance Hill. Still further to the
east is Mayberry's Hill. On the north-west this table-land descends
to a broad valley; on the south-west the town is bounded by a second
creek. Beyond this is College Hill; and still further to the south-west
is a high ridge, running nearly parallel with the road which enters
Knoxville at this point. Benjamin's and Buckley's batteries occupied
the unfinished bastion-work on the ridge just mentioned. This work
was afterwards known as Fort Sanders. Roemer's battery was placed in
position on College Hill. These batteries were supported by Ferrero's
division of the Ninth Corps, his line extending from the Holston river
on the left to the point where the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad
crosses the creek mentioned above as second creek. Hartranft connected
with Ferrero's right, supporting Getting's and the Fifteenth Indiana
batteries. His lines extended as far as first creek. The divisions
of White and Hascall, of the Twenty-third Corps, occupied the ground
between this point and the Holston river, on the north-east side of the
town, with their artillery in position on Temperance and Mayberry's
hills.

Knoxville at this time was by no means in a defensible condition. The
bastion-work, occupied by Benjamin's and Buckley's batteries, was
not only unfinished, but was little more than begun. It required two
hundred negroes four hours to clear places for the guns. There was also
a fort in process of construction on Temperance Hill. Nothing more had
been done. But the work was now carried forward in earnest. As fast as
the troops were placed in position they commenced the construction of
rifle-pits in their front. Though wearied by three days of constant
marching and fighting, they gave themselves to the work with all the
energy of fresh men. Citizens and contrabands, also, were pressed into
the service. Many of the former were loyal men, and devoted themselves
to their tasks with a zeal which evinced the interest they felt in
making good the defence of the town; but some of them were bitter
rebels, and, as Captain Poe well remarked, "worked with a very poor
grace, which blistered hands did not tend to improve." The contrabands
engaged in the work with that heartiness which, during the war,
characterized their labors in our service.

It was not till after his arrival in Knoxville that General Burnside
received a despatch from General Grant, dated November 15th, two
days before. It evinced the great anxiety which the General felt in
reference to events transpiring in the vicinity of Knoxville. He
said, "I do not know how to impress on you the necessity of holding
on to East Tennessee in strong enough terms. It would seem that you
should, if pressed to do it, hold on to Knoxville, and that portion
of the valley you will necessarily possess, holding to that point.
Should Longstreet move his whole force across the Little Tennessee, an
effort should be made to cut his pontoons on that stream, even if it
sacrificed half the cavalry of the Ohio army.... I should not think it
advisable to concentrate a force near the Little Tennessee to resist
the crossing, if it would be in danger of capture; but I would harass
and embarrass progress in every way possible, reflecting on the fact
that the Army of the Ohio is not the only army to resist the onward
progress of the enemy." On the same day this despatch was received,
November 17th, General Grant sent another to General Burnside. He said,
"I have not heard from you since the 14th. What progress is Longstreet
making, and what are your chances for defending yourself?" Later, on
the same day, Grant wrote, "Your despatch received. You are doing
exactly what appears to me to be right. I want the enemy's progress
retarded at every point, all it can be, only giving up each place when
it becomes evident that it cannot longer be held without endangering
your force to capture." At ten o'clock that night Grant learned of
Burnside's return to Knoxville, and telegraphed to Halleck, "Burnside
speaks hopefully." On that day Grant issued orders to Sherman and
Thomas for the battle of Chattanooga.

Longstreet followed our troops very cautiously. At noon his advance was
a mile or two from our lines, and four companies of the Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts--A, B, D, G--were thrown out as skirmishers, the line
extending from the Holston river to the Kingston road. But the enemy
was held in check at some little distance from the town by Sanders'
division of cavalry. The hours thus gained for our work in the trenches
were precious hours indeed. There was a lack of intrenching tools, and
much remained to be done; but all day and all night the men continued
their labor undisturbed, and on the morning of the 18th our line of
works around the town presented a formidable appearance.

Throughout the forenoon of that day there was heavy skirmishing on the
Kingston road; but our men--dismounted cavalry--still maintained their
position. Later in the day, however, the enemy brought up a battery,
which, opening a heavy fire, soon compelled our men to fall back. The
rebels, now pressing forward, gained the ridge for which they had been
contending, and established their lines within rifle range of our
works. It was while endeavoring to check this advance that General
Sanders was mortally wounded. Our picket line was now advanced so as
to make our position as strong as possible. There was some firing on
both sides for a short time, and then all was quiet. The night that
followed was cold, but clear.

The enemy did not seem inclined to attack our position, but proceeded
to invest the town on the north bank of the Holston. He then commenced
the construction of a line of works.

On the morning of the 19th the four companies of the Thirty-sixth
Massachusetts, which had been detailed for picket duty on the morning
of the 17th, were relieved by the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania. The
companies relieved were ordered to College Hill to support Roemer's
battery. While on this duty the officers and men were quartered in the
buildings of East Tennessee College. Prior to our occupation of East
Tennessee these buildings had been used by the rebels as a hospital;
but, after a vigorous use of the ordinary means of purification, they
afforded us pleasant and comfortable quarters.

The other companies of the Thirty-sixth--C, E, F, H, I, K--took
possession of the rifle-pits in front of the Powell house, a short
distance to the left of the Kingston road. This was an elegant
residence, built of brick, and when the siege commenced fresco-painters
were at work ornamenting its parlors and halls. Throwing open its
doors, Mr. Powell, a true Union man, invited Colonel Morrison and Major
Draper to make it their head-quarters. He also designated a chamber for
the sick of our regiment. Early during the siege the south-western and
north-western fronts were loopholed by order of General Burnside, and
instructions were given to post in the house, in case of an attack,
two companies of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts. When the order was
announced to Mr. Powell, he said, "All right. Lay this house level with
the ground, if it is necessary." A few feet from the south-western
front of the house a small earthwork was thrown up by our men, in which
was placed a section of Buckley's battery. This work was afterwards
known as Battery Noble.

Throughout the siege both officers and men were on picket duty every
third day. During this twenty-four hours of duty no one slept. The
rest of the time we were on duty in the trenches, where one-third, and
sometimes one-fourth, of the men were kept awake. The utmost vigilance
was enjoined upon all.

Meanwhile, day by day, and night by night, with unflagging zeal,
the troops gave themselves to the labor of strengthening the works.
Immediately in front of the rifle-pits a _chevaux de frise_ was
constructed. This was formed of pointed stakes, thickly and firmly set
in the ground, and inclining outwards at an angle of about forty-five
degrees. The stakes were bound together with wire, so that they could
not easily be torn apart by an assaulting party. They were nearly five
feet in height. In front of Colonel Haskins' position, on the north
side of the town, the _chevaux de frise_ was constructed with the two
thousand pikes which were captured at Cumberland Gap early in the fall.
A few rods in front of the _chevaux de frise_ was the _abatis_, formed
of thick branches of trees, which likewise were firmly set in the
ground. Still further to the front were wire entanglements, stretched a
few inches above the ground, and fastened here and there to stakes and
stumps. In front of a portion of our lines another obstacle was formed
by constructing dams across first and second creeks, so called, and
throwing back the water. The whole constituted a series of obstacles
which could not be passed, in face of a heavy fire, without great
difficulty and fearful loss.

Morrison's brigade held the line of defences from the Holston
river--the extreme left of our line--to Fort Sanders. The following was
the position of the several regiments of the brigade. The Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania was on the left, its left on the river. On its right was
the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts. Then came the Eighth Michigan. The
Seventy-ninth New York (Highlanders) formed the garrison of Fort
Sanders. Between the Eighth Michigan and Fort Sanders was the One
Hundredth Pennsylvania (Roundheads).

On the evening of November 20th the Seventeenth Michigan made a sortie
and drove the rebels from a house and out-buildings on the Kingston
road, a short distance from Fort Sanders. It was a brick house, and
afforded a near and safe position for the enemy's sharp-shooters,
who of late had become somewhat annoying to the working parties at
the fort. The movement was a hazardous one, but was successfully
accomplished, with the loss of two men killed. This sortie waked up the
rebel batteries, and a few shells were thrown into our lines; but soon
all was quiet, and at length the light of the burning buildings went
out.

In the afternoon of the 21st the four right companies of the
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts,--A, B, D, G,--on duty at the East
Tennessee College, moved out to the rifle-pits. The siege had now
continued several days. The rebels had constructed works, offensive
and defensive, in our front; but the greater part of their force
seemed to have moved to the right. On the 22d of November, however,
they returned, not having found evidently the weak place in our lines
which they sought. It was now thought they might attack our front that
night, and orders were given to the men on duty in the outer works to
exercise the utmost vigilance. But the night--a beautiful moonlight
night--passed quietly.[5]

[5] In his official report General Longstreet says: "On the 22d General
McLaws seemed to think his line near enough for an assault, and he was
ordered to make it at dark on that night. General Jenkins was ordered
to be prepared to coöperate. After night General McLaws reported
against the assault, saying that his officers would prefer to attack at
daylight."

With each day our confidence in the strength of our position increased,
and we soon felt able to repel an assault from any quarter. But the
question of supplies was a serious one. When the siege commenced there
was in the Commissary Department at Knoxville little more than a day's
ration for the whole army. Should the enemy gain possession of the
south bank of the Holston our only means of subsistence would be cut
off. Thus far his attempts in this direction had failed, and the whole
country from the French Broad to the Holston, was open to our foraging
parties. In this way a considerable quantity of corn and wheat was
soon collected in Knoxville. Bread, made from a mixture of meal and
flour, was issued to the men, but only in half and quarter rations.
Occasionally a small quantity of fresh pork was also issued. Neither
sugar nor coffee was issued after the first days of the siege.

The enemy, foiled in his attempts to seize the south bank of the
Holston, now commenced the construction of a raft at Boyd's Ferry,
above Knoxville. Floating this down the swift current of the stream,
he hoped to carry away our pontoon, and thus cut off our communication
with the country beyond. To thwart this plan an iron cable, one
thousand feet in length, was stretched across the river above the
bridge. This was done under the direction of Captain Poe. Afterwards
a boom of logs, fastened end to end by chains, was constructed still
farther up the river. The boom was fifteen hundred feet in length.

On the 23d the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts moved a little to the left,
in order to make room for another regiment in the pits to our right.
In the evening the rebels made an attack on our pickets in front of
the left of the Second Division, Ninth Corps. In falling back our men
fired the buildings on the ground abandoned, lest they should become
a shelter for the enemy's sharp-shooters. Among the buildings thus
destroyed were the arsenal and machine-shops near the depot. The light
of the blazing buildings illuminated the whole town.

The next day, November 24th, the Twenty-first Massachusetts
and the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, the whole under command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Hawkes of the Twenty-first, drove back the rebels at
this point, and reoccupied our old position.

Early in the morning of the same day, an attack was made by the Second
Michigan--one hundred and ninety-seven men--on the advanced parallel,
which the enemy had so constructed as to envelop the north-west bastion
of Fort Sanders. The works were gallantly carried; but, before the
supporting columns could come up, our men were repulsed by fresh
troops which the enemy had at hand. Our loss was severe, amounting to
sixty-seven, including Major Byington, commanding the Second Michigan,
who was left on the field mortally wounded.

That night we had orders that neither officers nor men should sleep.
It was a long night of watching. There was a total eclipse of the moon
during the night, and we were in shadow from two o'clock until four.

On the 25th of November the enemy, having on the day previous crossed
the Holston at a point below us, made another unsuccessful attempt
to occupy the heights opposite Knoxville. He succeeded, however, in
planting a battery on a knob about one hundred and fifty feet above
the river, and twenty-five hundred yards south of Fort Sanders. This
position commanded Fort Sanders, so that it now became necessary to
defilade the fort.

November 26th was our national Thanksgiving day, and General Burnside
issued an order, in which he expressed the hope that the day would be
observed by all, as far as military operations would allow. He knew
that the rations were short, and that the day would be unlike the
joyous festival we were wont to celebrate in our distant New England
homes; and so he reminded us of the circumstances of trial under which
our fathers first observed the day. He also reminded us of the debt
of gratitude which we owed to Him who during the year had not only
prospered our arms, but had kindly preserved our lives. Accordingly
we ate our corn bread with thanksgiving; and, forgetting our own
privations, thought only of the loved ones at home, who, uncertain of
our fate, would that day find little cheer at the table and by the
fireside.

Allusion has already been made to the bastion-work known as Fort
Sanders, which was named for the gallant commander of the cavalry who
laid down his life in front of Knoxville at the beginning of the siege.
A more particular description of this fort is now needed. The main
line, held by our troops, made almost a right angle at the fort, the
north-west bastion being the salient of the angle. The ground in front
of the fort, from which the wood had been cleared, sloped gradually
for a distance of eighty yards, and then abruptly descended to a wide
ravine. Under the direction of Lieutenant Benjamin, Second United
States Artillery, and Chief of Artillery of the Army of the Ohio, the
fort had now been made as strong as the means at his disposal and the
rules of military art admitted. Eighty and thirty yards in front of
the fort rifle-pits were constructed. These were to be used in case
our men were driven in from the outer line. Between these pits and
the fort were wire entanglements, running from stump to stump, and
also an _abatis_. Sand-bags and barrels were arranged so as to cover
the embrasures. Traverses, also, were built for the protection of
the guns, and in passing from one position to another. In the fort
were four twenty-pounder Parrotts (Benjamin's battery), four light
twelve-pounders (of Buckley's battery), and two three-inch steel
rifle-guns.

November 27th all was quiet along the lines, except an occasional shot
from the rebel pickets, until evening, when cheers and strains of
music enlivened the enemy's camp. We now know that the arrival of two
brigades of Buckner's command, reinforcements from Bragg's army, was
the occasion of their rejoicing; but at the time we could not solve
the mystery. Was it possible that Grant had met with a reverse? we
hesitatingly asked. Or had the enemy received reinforcements? While on
picket that night our men could distinctly hear the rebels chopping on
the knob that they had so recently occupied on the opposite bank of the
river. They were clearing away the trees in front of the earthwork
which they had constructed the day before. Would they attack at
daybreak? So we thought, connecting the fact with the cheers and music
of the earlier part of the night; but the morning opened as quietly
as any of its predecessors. Late in the afternoon the enemy seemed to
be placing his troops in position in our front, and our men stood in
the trenches awaiting an attack; yet the day wore away without further
demonstrations.

A little after eleven o'clock P.M., November 28th, we were called to
our places in the trenches by heavy musketry to the right. It was
a cloudy, dark night, and at a distance of only a few feet it was
impossible to distinguish any object. The firing soon ceased, with
the exception of an occasional shot on the picket line. An attack had
evidently been made on our rifle-pits; but at what precise point, or
with what success, was as yet unknown. Reports soon came in. The enemy
had first driven in the pickets in front of Fort Sanders, and had then
attacked our line, which was also obliged to fall back. The rebels in
front of the Thirty-sixth, however, did not advance beyond the pits
which our men had just vacated, and a new line was at once established
by Captain Buffum, of Company D, our brigade officer of the day. We
afterwards learned that the enemy had advanced along the whole line and
established themselves as near as possible to our works.

It was now evident that the enemy intended an attack; but where
would it be made? All that long, cold night--our men were without
overcoats--we stood in the trenches pondering that question. Might not
this demonstration in our front be only a feint to draw our attention
from other parts of the line, where the chief blow was to be struck? So
some thought. Gradually the night wore away.

A little after six o'clock the next morning the enemy suddenly opened
a furious cannonade. This was mostly directed against Fort Sanders;
but several shells struck the Powell House, in rear of Battery
Noble. Roemer immediately responded from College Hill. In about
twenty minutes the enemy's fire slackened, and in its stead rose the
well-known rebel yell in the direction of the fort. Then followed the
rattle of musketry, the roar of cannon, and the bursting of shells.
The yells died away, and then rose again. Now the roar of musketry
and artillery was redoubled. It was a moment of the deepest anxiety.
Our straining eyes were fixed on the fort. The rebels had reached the
ditch, and were now endeavoring to scale the parapet. Whose will be the
victory,--oh, whose? The yells again died away, and then followed three
loud Union cheers,--"Hurrah! hurrah! hurrah!" How those cheers thrilled
our hearts, as we stood almost breathless at our posts in the trenches!
They told us that the enemy had been repulsed, and that the victory was
ours. Peering through the rising fog toward the fort, not a hundred
yards away,--oh, glorious sight!--we dimly saw that our flag was still
there.

Let us now go back a little. Longstreet had learned of the defeat of
Bragg, and, in opposition to the advice of his generals, determined
to make an assault on General Burnside's lines. "Our only safety," he
said to them, "is in making the assault on the enemy's position." Port
Sanders was made the point of attack, as it was evidently the key of
the defences. Accordingly, having seized our rifle-pits, Longstreet,
under the cover of the ridge on which Fort Sanders was built, formed
his columns for the assault. The men were picked men,--the flower of
his corps. "The force which was to attempt an enterprise which ranks
with the most famous charges in military history," says Pollard, in
his "Third Year of the War," pages 161, 162, "should be mentioned in
detail. It consisted of three brigades of McLaws' division: that of
General Wolford, the Sixteenth, Eighteenth, and Twenty-fourth Georgia
Regiments, and Cobb's and Phillip's Georgia Legions; that of General
Humphrey, the Thirteenth, Seventeenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second,
and Twenty-third Mississippi Regiments; and a brigade composed of
General Anderson's and Bryant's brigades, embracing, among others,
the Palmetto State Guard, the Fifteenth South Carolina Regiment, and
the Fifty-first, Fifty-third, and Fifty-ninth Georgia Regiments."
One brigade was to make the assault, two brigades were to support
it, and two brigades were to watch our lines and keep up a constant
fire. Five regiments formed the brigade selected for the assaulting
column. These were placed in position "in column by division, closed
in mass." When the fire of their artillery slackened, the order for
the charge was given. The salient of the north-west bastion was the
point of attack. The rebel lines were much broken in passing the
_abatis_. But the wire entanglements proved a greater obstacle. Whole
companies were prostrated. Benjamin now opened his triple-shotted guns.
Nevertheless, the weight of their column carried the rebels forward,
and in two minutes from the time the charge was commenced they had
reached the ditch around the fort, and were endeavoring to scale the
parapet. The guns, which had been trained to sweep the ditch, now
opened a most destructive fire. Lieutenant Benjamin also took shells
in his hand, and, lighting the fuse, tossed them over the parapet into
the crowded ditch. "It stilled them down," he said. One of the rebel
brigades in reserve, with added yells, now came up in support, and the
slaughter was renewed. The ditch was filled, and several rebel flags
were planted on the parapet. But the Highlanders and the Twenty-ninth
Massachusetts Volunteers in the fort swept off with their muskets those
who attempted to scale the parapet. The men in the ditch, satisfied of
the hopelessness of the task they had undertaken, now surrendered. They
represented eleven regiments, and numbered nearly three hundred. Among
them were seventeen commissioned officers. Over two hundred dead and
wounded, including three colonels, lay in the ditch alone. The body of
General Humphrey was found near the ditch, while the ground in front of
the fort was strewn with the bodies of the dead and wounded. Over one
thousand stands of arms fell into our hands, and the battle-flags of
the Thirteenth and Seventeenth Mississippi and Sixteenth Georgia. Our
loss was eight men killed and five wounded.[6] Never was a victory more
complete, and achieved at so slight a cost. Never, too, were brighter
laurels won than were laid that morning on the brow of the hero of Fort
Sanders, Lieutenant Benjamin, Second United States Artillery.[7]

[6] Longstreet gives his total loss from November 14th to December 4th
as 198 officers and men killed, 850 wounded, 248 missing; total 1,296.
His loss in the assault on Fort Sanders, November 29th, he gives as 129
killed, 448 wounded, and 226 missing; total, 803.

[7] The following account of this assault is taken from a history of
the Sixtieth Alabama Regiment, published at Montgomery, Ala., in 1867:--

"At about three or four o'clock in the morning the regiment was gotten
under arms. The atmosphere was damp and penetratingly cold; the men
were thinly clad, and numbers of them barefoot. Their sufferings while
standing under arms, clasping with numbed hands the cold barrels of
their muskets, can be appreciated by those alone who have experienced
similar hardships. But, despite of cold, hunger, nakedness, and
approaching peril, the brave fellows were full of spirit, and stout
hearts beat hopefully beneath each ragged gray jacket. General Gracie,
while riding through his brigade on the day before, had pointed
significantly towards Knoxville, and remarked, 'There are shoes over
there, boys,' and visions of comfortable brogans were floating through
the minds of those barefoot Confederates.

"There was no noise, save the low hum of subdued voices, the rumbling
of moving artillery, and the steady tramp of different bodies of troops
advancing to their allotted positions. The night was dark; but the
enemy, anticipating our movement, filled the heavens with streams of
artificial light, which threw the shadow of our columns far to the
rear, and was reflected back by many an unsheathed sword and burnished
barrel.

"At length, the ominous silence was broken by the discharge of a single
piece of artillery from the brow of a hill to our right. Artillery had
been planted on each of the hill-tops in the vicinity,--some being
occupied by the enemy, and some by ourselves,--and now, in a few
moments after the discharge of this pioneer piece, a brisk fire was
opened from them all. Thunder peals burst forth and answered each other
in quick succession; and, like destroying angels, the huge missiles
flew through the dense atmosphere with an unearthly shrieking. Under
the exhilaration of this stirring martial serenade, and the animating
words of the colonel of the regiment (who seemed everywhere present),
the line was put in motion, and, encountering a creek, plunged through,
regardless of the cold.

"After ascending a hill, and advancing a few hundred yards in the
open field beyond, the command was suddenly ordered to fall back,
and accordingly faced about and moved in retreat to the brow of the
hill just passed, where it occupied a line of rifle-pits located at
that point. This retrograde movement, suggestive of ill, and at first
inexplicable, was soon accounted for in a manner that filled every
heart with sorrow, and shrouded every countenance in gloom. We had been
in the rifle-pits but a short time when day began to dawn. The firing
ceased for the most part; only a stray shell now and then ricocheted
through our line, or burst above our heads. While thus waiting in the
rifle-pits, expecting, with much solicitude, the denouement, a solitary
litter was seen advancing toward us over the field in our front; then
another and another, and anon a sad procession was silently threading
its way to the rear. No words were required to convey the sad tidings.
The blood dripping from the litters, and the occasional groans of their
mangled occupants, who had led in the charge, as they passed through
our line on their way to the rear, apprised us, more unmistakably than
language could have done, of the woful fact of the morning's disaster.
The charge, though gallant, was unsuccessful, and five hundred noble
Mississippians lay dead or dying in the moat that surrounded the fort
upon which the attack had been made. A truce had been early secured,
and all day long the sad procession moved on, silently and mournfully,
in the discharge of its duty.

"Among the many inexpressibly sad days of our military career, no
member of the regiment will, I am sure, fail to recognize this, the
29th day of November, 1863, as one of the most sad. All through that
dismal day the words were ever recurring--'These are they who have
passed through great tribulation.'"--pp. 24-27.

Our only loss in the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts was private Haven, of
Company G, who died of wounds received from a shell.

Longstreet had promised his men that they should dine that day in
Knoxville. But, in order that he might bury his dead, General Burnside
now tendered him an armistice until five o'clock P.M. It was accepted,
and our ambulances were sent to assist the rebels in removing the
bodies to the enemy's lines. At five o'clock two additional hours
were asked, as the work was not yet completed. At seven o'clock a gun
was fired from Fort Sanders, the rebels responded from an earthwork
opposite, and the truce was at an end.

General Longstreet, in his official report, says: "On the 26th and 27th
we had various rumors of a battle having been fought at Chattanooga,
the most authentic being from telegraph operators. There seemed to
be so many reports leading to the same conclusion that I determined
that I must attack, and, if possible, get possession of Knoxville.
The attack upon the fort was ordered on the 28th, but, in order to
get our troops nearer the works, the assault was postponed until
daylight of the 29th. The line of sharp-shooters along our entire
front were ordered to be advanced at dark to within good rifle-range
of the enemy's lines, and to sink rifle-pits during the night in their
advanced positions, so that the sharp-shooters along our whole line
might engage the enemy upon an equal footing, whilst our columns
made the assault against the fort. Our advance at night was very
successful, capturing sixty or seventy prisoners without any loss. The
assault was ordered to be made by three of General McLaws' brigades,
his fourth being held in readiness for further operations. General
Jenkins was ordered to advance a brigade a little later than the
assaulting columns, and to pass the enemy's lines east of the fort, and
to continue the attack along the enemy's rear and flank. Two brigades
of Major-General Buckner's division, under Brigadier-General B. R.
Johnson, having arrived the day before, were ordered to move in rear
of General McLaws, and, at a convenient distance, to be thrown in, as
circumstances might require. On the night of the 28th General McLaws'
letter of that date was received. General McLaws' letter was shown to
General Leadbetter, and my answer was read to him. General Leadbetter
then suggested the postscript which I added to the answer. The assault
was made, at the appointed time, by Generals Wofford's, Humphrey's,
and Byron's brigades. The troops were not formed as well to the front
as they should have been. Their lines should have been formed close
upon our line of rifle-pits, which would have given them about two
hundred yards to advance under fire. Instead of this, the lines were
formed several hundred yards in rear of the pits. My orders were that
the advance should be made quietly until they entered the works, which
was to be announced by a shout. The troops moved up in gallant style.
As I approached the troops they seemed to be in good order at the edge
of the ditch, and some of the colors appeared to be on the works.
When in about five hundred yards of the fort I saw some of our men
straggling back, and heard that the troops could not pass the ditch
for want of ladders or other means. Almost at the same moment I saw
that the men were beginning to retire in considerable numbers, and
very soon the column broke up entirely and fell back in confusion. I
ordered Buckner's brigades halted and retired, and sent the order for
Anderson's brigade, of Hood's division, to be halted and retired; but
the troops of the latter brigade had become excited, and rushed up to
the same point from which the others had been repulsed, and were soon
driven back. Officers were sent to rally the men, and good order was
soon restored."[8]

[8] Rev. J. William Jones, D.D., Secretary of the Southern Historical
Society, kindly permitted the writer, when in Richmond, Va., in April,
1880, to copy from General Longstreet's letter-book two letters, which
are of interest in this connection. The first is as follows:--

  "HEAD-QUARTERS, Nov. 28, 1863.

  "GENERAL,--Your letter is received. I am not at all confident that
  General Bragg has had a serious battle at Chattanooga; but there is
  a report that he has, and fallen back to Tunnel Hill. Under this
  report I am entirely convinced that our only safety is in making
  the assault upon the enemy's position to-morrow at daylight; and it
  is the more important that I should have the entire support, and
  all the force that you may be possessed of, in the execution of my
  views. It is a great mistake to suppose that there is any safety
  for us in going to Virginia, if General Bragg has been defeated,
  for we leave him at the mercy of his victors; and with his army
  destroyed, our own had better be also, for we must not only be
  destroyed, but disgraced. There is neither safety nor honor in any
  other course than the one that I have already chosen and ordered.

         "Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
                               "J. LONGSTREET, _Lieutenant-General_.

  "MAJOR-GENERAL MCLAWS, _Commanding_.

  "The assault must be made at the time appointed, and must be made
  with a determination which will ensure success.               J. L."


The second letter is as follows:--

  "HEAD-QUARTERS, Nov. 28, 1863.

  "GENERAL,--Your letter is received. The work of the enemy is not
  enclosed. The ditch is probably at some points not more than three
  feet deep, and five or six feet wide. At least, we so judged it
  yesterday in looking at a man walk down the parapet and over the
  ditch. I thought that you saw the man, as you had been with us. I
  have no apprehension of the result of the attack, if we go at it
  with a determination to accomplish it. We should avail ourselves of
  everything, however, that may aid or relieve us.

  "After our first brigade has gained the enemy's lines, I desire
  that it should wheel to the left, and pursue the attack to the left
  along the enemy's rear, and on to his right, and your other brigade
  should conform to this movement. Johnson's division will be ordered
  to follow it.

  "Keep your men well at their work, and don't listen to the idea of
  failing, and we shall not fail. If we go in with the idea that we
  shall fail, we will be sure to do so. But no men who are determined
  to succeed can fail.

  "Let me urge you not to entertain such feelings for a moment. Don't
  let any one fail, or anything.

                 "Most respectfully,
                               "J. LONGSTREET, _Lieutenant-General_.

  "GENERAL M. JENKINS, _Commanding Division_."



We spent the day following the attack on Fort Sanders in strengthening
our rifle-pits. The lines were now much nearer to those of the enemy.
In some places not more than one hundred yards separated them. Our
shells troubled the rebels when they relieved their picket in the
forenoon. In the afternoon we received official notice of Bragg's
defeat at Chattanooga. The night that followed was bitter cold, and our
thinly clad men suffered much.

The next day, December 1st, General Burnside issued an order thanking
his troops for their endurance and bravery, and congratulating them on
their recent successes, and the success of Grant at Chattanooga. At
noon, by order, a single gun--we were short of ammunition--was fired
from Battery Noble, and the troops, standing in the trenches, gave
three cheers for the victories we had won. They were hearty cheers, as
the rebels across the ravine could testify. And they knew, too, what
those cheers meant. Having defeated Bragg, General Grant was hurrying
troops forward to relieve the besieged in Knoxville. Finding General
Granger, whom he had selected for that task, lacking in energy, he
turned the command over to General Sherman, November 29th, with orders
to push on as rapidly as possible.[9] At the same time he sent a
despatch to General Burnside congratulating him on the tenacity with
which he had held out against vastly superior forces, and informing
him of the movements in progress for his relief. By order of General
Grant a copy of this despatch was suffered to fall into the enemy's
hands, and from it, December 1st, Longstreet learned of Sherman's
advance. Burnside did not receive the despatch till the following day.
Longstreet now saw that the siege must be raised at once, and he made
his preparations accordingly.[10]

[9]

              HEAD-QUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
                              CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE, Nov. 29, 1863.

  MAJOR-GENERAL W. T. SHERMAN:--

  News was received from Knoxville to the morning of the 27th. At
  that time the place was still invested, but the attack on it was
  not vigorous. Longstreet is evidently determined to starve the
  garrison out; Granger is on the way to Burnside's relief, but
  I have lost all faith in his energy or capacity to manage an
  expedition of the importance of this one. I am inclined to think,
  therefore, I shall have to send you. Push as rapidly as you can to
  the Tennessee, and determine for yourself what force to take with
  you from that point; Granger has his corps with him, from which you
  will select in conjunction with the force now with you. In plain
  words, you will assume command of all the forces now moving up the
  Tennessee, including the garrison at Kingston, and from that force
  organize what you deem proper to relieve Burnside. The balance send
  back to Chattanooga. Granger has a boat loaded with provisions,
  which you can issue, and return the boat; I will have another
  loaded to follow you. Use, of course, as sparingly as possible from
  the rations taken with you, and subsist off the country all you can.

  It is expected that Foster is moving, by this time, from Cumberland
  Gap, on Knoxville. I do not know what force he will have with him,
  but presume it will range from three thousand five hundred to five
  thousand. I leave this matter to you, knowing that you will do
  better acting upon your discretion than you could trammelled with
  instructions. I will only add, that the last advices from Burnside
  himself indicated his ability to hold out with rations only to
  about the 3d of December.

  Very respectfully,
              U. S. GRANT, _Major General Commanding_.

[10] In his report, General Longstreet says: "As our position at
Knoxville was somewhat complicated, I determined to abandon the siege,
and to draw off in the direction of Virginia, with an idea that we
might find an opportunity to strike that column of the enemy's forces
reported to be advancing by Cumberland Gap. The orders to move in
accordance with this view were issued on the 2d of December."

December 2d it was rumored that General Burnside's resignation of his
command had been accepted at Washington, and that he was to be relieved
by General Foster, who was said to be at Tazewell,--a rumor by no means
pleasing to the Ninth Corps. At nine o'clock in the evening there was
an alarm, and we stood in our places in the trenches expecting an
attack.

On the following day the enemy were very quiet, and we thought there
were some indications that they were preparing to raise the siege. The
number of their pickets was manifestly less than usual. The fact was
that their wagon-trains were that day put in motion, and on the night
of December 4th the rebels withdrew from their lines around Knoxville,
crossed the Holston, and moved up the north bank of the river. The
retreat was discovered early in the morning by the pickets of the
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, under Captain Ames, of Company B, who had
the honor of first reporting that the siege of Knoxville was raised.

Sherman was then at Marysville, and December 5th sent the following
note to Burnside: "I am here, and can bring twenty-five thousand men
into Knoxville to-morrow; but Longstreet having retreated, I feel
disposed to stop, for a stern chase is a long one. But I will do all
that is possible. Without you specify that you want troops, I will
let mine rest to-morrow, and ride in to see you." Accordingly Sherman
halted his troops, except two of Granger's divisions, and December 6th
he entered Knoxville, and reported in person to General Burnside.

In his official report General Sherman says: "On the morning of
December 6th I rode from Marysville into Knoxville, and met General
Burnside. General Granger arrived later in the day. We examined his
lines of fortifications, which were a wonderful production for the
short time allowed in their selection of ground and construction of
work. It seemed to me that they were nearly impregnable. We examined
the redoubt named 'Sanders,' where, on the Sunday previous, three
brigades of the enemy had assaulted and met a bloody repulse. Now, all
was peaceful and quiet; but a few hours before the deadly bullet sought
its victims all round about that hilly barrier."[11]

[11] _Memoirs of W. T. Sherman_, Vol. I., pp. 382, 383.

The emergency having passed, General Burnside was of the opinion that
General Sherman should return to Grant, leaving Granger's command. The
necessary orders were given, and General Sherman put his columns in
motion southward again. Too much praise cannot be awarded to General
Sherman for the promptness with which he came to our relief; as General
Burnside said, it was Sherman's approach that raised the siege.

In his official report of this campaign General Grant said: "The armies
of the Cumberland and Tennessee, for their energy and unsurpassed
bravery in the three days' battle of Chattanooga, their patient
endurance in marching to the relief of Knoxville, and the army of the
Ohio, for its masterly defence of Knoxville and repeated repulses of
Longstreet's assaults upon that place, are deserving of the gratitude
of their country." That gratitude they received. Thanks to Grant and
his officers and men were voted by Congress, and a gold medal was
struck, to be presented by the President to General Grant "in the name
of the people of the United States of America." It was also voted
that "The thanks of Congress be, and they hereby are, presented to
Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside, and through him to the officers
and men who have fought under his command, for their gallantry, good
conduct, and soldier-like endurance." On the 7th of December President
Lincoln issued a proclamation referring to the raising of the siege of
Knoxville, "under circumstances rendering it probable that the Union
forces cannot hereafter be dislodged from that important position," and
recommending that "all loyal people do, on receipt of this information,
assemble at their places of worship, and render special homage and
gratitude to Almighty God for this great advancement of the national
cause."

The noble bearing of General Burnside throughout the siege won the
admiration of all his troops. December 11th he transferred the command
of the Department of the Ohio to General Foster, the announcement of
which was made in the following order:--

                               HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE OHIO,
                                    KNOXVILLE, TENN., Dec. 11, 1863.

  GENERAL FIELD ORDERS NO. 38.

  In obedience to orders from the War Department, the Commanding
  General this day resigns to Major-General John G. Foster the
  command of the Army of the Ohio.

  On severing the tie which has united him to this gallant army
  he cannot express his deep personal feeling in parting from men
  brought near to him by their mutual experiences in the eventful
  scenes of the past campaign, and who have always, regardless of
  every privation and of every danger, cheerfully and faithfully
  performed their duty. Associated with many of their number from
  the earliest days of the war, he takes leave of the army not only
  as soldiers, to whose heroism many a victorious battle-field bears
  witness, but as well-tried friends, who in the darkest hours
  have never failed him. With the sincerest regret he leaves the
  department without the opportunity of personally bidding them
  farewell.

  To the citizen soldiers of East Tennessee, who proved their loyalty
  in the trenches of Knoxville, he tenders his warmest thanks.

  With the highest confidence in the patriotism and skill of the
  distinguished officer who succeeds him, with whom he has been long
  and intimately connected in the field, and who will be welcome as
  their leader by those who served with him in the memorable campaign
  in North Carolina, and by all as one identified with some of the
  most brilliant events of the war, he transfers to him the command,
  assured that under his guidance the bright record of the Army of
  the Ohio will never grow dim.

  By command of Major-General BURNSIDE,
             LEWIS RICHMOND, _A.A.G._


In a speech at Cincinnati, a few days after, with that modesty which
characterizes the true soldier, Burnside said that the honors bestowed
on him belonged to his under-officers and the men in the ranks. Those
kindly words his officers and men will ever cherish; and in all their
added years, as they recall the widely separated battle-fields, made
forever sacred by the blood of their fallen comrades, and forever
glorious by the victories there won, it will be their pride to say,
"We fought with Burnside at Campbell's Station and in the trenches at
Knoxville."

The following general orders are inserted as a fitting conclusion to
this chapter:--

                HEAD-QUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, NINTH ARMY CORPS,
                                     KNOXVILLE, TENN., Dec. 4, 1863.

  GENERAL ORDERS NO. 82.

  The General Commanding has again the proud pleasure of
  congratulating the officers and men of this division upon their
  splendid behavior. During the campaign of the last three weeks
  they have endured privations and fatigue that soldiers are seldom
  called upon to experience.

  Leaving their comfortable quarters at Lenoir's at a moment's notice
  and seeking the enemy in his own camp; the return to Lenoir's, and
  checking him at that place; the rapid march to Campbell's Station,
  at which place they repulsed with heavy loss a superior force;
  the wearying night march, after a hard day's march and fight, to
  this place, where, hemmed in for nearly three weeks by a large
  army full of determination to drive us from East Tennessee or
  capture us,--they have borne the brunt of nearly all the fighting,
  and endured days and nights of labor and watching, on a scanty
  allowance of provisions, without complaint.

  The conduct of those who were fortunate enough to be of the small
  number that repulsed the determined assault on Fort Sanders, on
  the 29th, ult. cannot be too highly praised. They drove back two
  brigades of the enemy with terrible slaughter, captured three
  stands of colors, and maintained the high reputation of their
  division. Fortunate is the country that can produce such soldiers,
  and proud of his position is the general commanding them.

  Our work is not yet done. We will be called on to fight more
  battles and probably to endure more hardships. Let us go forward
  with strong hearts and willing hands, and we cannot fail.

  By command of Brigadier-General FERRERO,
              GEO. A. HICKS, _Captain and A.A.G._


                               HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY OF THE OHIO,
                                     KNOXVILLE, TENN., Dec. 6, 1863.

  GENERAL FIELD ORDERS NO. 36.

  The Army of the Ohio will commemorate the series of victories, all
  culminating in the redemption of a loyal district, by inscribing on
  their colors and guidons the comprehensive words, expressive of the
  grand result,

    "EAST TENNESSEE."

  By command of Major-General BURNSIDE,
             LEWIS RICHMOND, _A.A.G._



CHAPTER XI.

SUBSEQUENT MOVEMENTS IN EAST TENNESSEE.


There was some delay in following up the retreating enemy. On the
morning of December 7th, however, we were called early, and notified
that orders had been received to march at seven o'clock. At that hour
we were in motion, marched through the town, and advanced twelve miles
on the Newmarket road, the whole of the Ninth Corps with us. About
two o'clock we went into camp, found plenty of forage, and built good
fires. The march was continued on the 8th; and on the 9th, shortly
after noon, we went into camp about a mile south of Rutledge.

December 11th, while we were still near Rutledge, Lieutenant Hodgkins,
who had been home on leave of absence and detached service at
Cumberland Gap, rejoined the regiment, and brought not a little cheer
to all hearts by the announcement that a large mail and supplies were
at Tazewell. The supply-train arrived on the 13th, and once again we
had a taste of bread, coffee, and sugar. The mail reached us on the
following day.

We had orders during the night to be ready to march at early dawn;
yet the 14th passed and we still remained at Rutledge. But there was
trouble ahead. Longstreet had attacked our cavalry at Bean's Station,
and had compelled it to fall back, leaving a wagon-train in his hands.
At the close of the day we had orders to march at a moment's notice.
About midnight a part of the Twenty-third Corps passed our camp, moving
to the front.

December 15th tents were struck soon after breakfast, and about eleven
o'clock we moved back a few hundred rods and formed in line of battle.
There we remained during the day, ready for the enemy if he should
appear, and about nine o'clock in the evening we took the road to
Knoxville. On account of the bad state of the roads we were nearly six
hours marching six miles. It was a bitter cold night, and the men built
fires of fence-rails at our numerous halts. At length we bivouacked in
a field at the roadside, where we managed to get about an hour's sleep
in front of our fires.

About half-past nine, December 15th, we renewed our march, and halted
at noon at Blain's Cross Roads. The enemy followed, and there was some
skirmishing at the outposts. About three o'clock in the afternoon
we formed a line of battle, and constructed a breastwork of rails.
Companies A and B, of the Thirty-sixth, were sent out on picket. But
the enemy did not attempt to advance. Indeed, as we soon learned,
Longstreet withdrew his forces to the other side of the Holston, and,
marching to Morristown, ordered his men to make themselves comfortable
for the winter.

We, too, at Blain's Cross Roads, which has well been called the Valley
Forge of the Rebellion, endeavored to make ourselves comfortable; but
it was not an easy matter. Very few of our men had overcoats; indeed,
they were poorly clothed in every respect. For the lack of shoes many
were obliged to protect their feet with moccasins made of rawhide.
Rations, too, were short. A few spoonfuls of flour were served out as
the daily allowance, and, had it not been for the corn picked up here
and there, sometimes where the mules were corralled, the men would have
suffered severely. Foraging parties were sent out on every hand, but
the natives generally "were plumb out"; there was "not a dust of meal"
in the house, they said.

December 27th we moved our camp a short distance, and built as
comfortable houses as the means at hand would allow. The days that
followed were uneventful, for the most part. January 8th the Eighth
Michigan started home, the men having reënlisted on the promise of a
furlough. The One Hundredth Pennsylvania followed January 12th. No more
inspiring sight can be imagined than that of the remnant of a once full
regiment at the expiration of its three years of service, and living
on quarter rations of corn-meal, with occasionally a handful of flour,
standing forth under the open skies amid a thousand discomforts, and,
raising loyal hands toward heaven, swearing to serve the country yet
three years longer!

January 15th clothing arrived and was issued. Though the quantity was
small, there was enough to be of much benefit to our shivering men. On
the following day the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania started home, its term
of service also having nearly expired. At ten o'clock we broke camp and
marched to Strawberry Plains, about sixteen miles north of Knoxville.
It is at this place that the railroad crosses the Holston river. We
went into camp, and on the following day built houses.

But on the 17th there were rumors of an approach of the enemy, and we
had orders to march the next morning at seven. When the morning came,
however, these orders were countermanded, and we were then ordered to
hold ourselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice. That night
two or three inches of snow fell. On the following day, January 19th,
we remained at our quarters until night, when we were ordered to the
station to load cars with batteries and ammunition. January 21st no
rations, except of fresh beef, or rather of bones, as the men said,
were issued. About midnight we were ordered to be ready to march at
daybreak. Wagons came at two o'clock, and our baggage was packed and
sent off to Knoxville. About noon on that day, the 21st, we moved
into the woods. Not long after, the rebels appeared on the opposite
side of the river and opened fire from a battery, to which our guns
responded. No rations were issued that day, but our men obtained some
corn and pork which the Twenty-third Corps Commissary had left at the
station. The bridge across the river was destroyed by our troops, also
about forty wagons. Early the next morning we set out for Knoxville,
Morrison's brigade forming the rear guard. The rebel cavalry followed
us closely, and we were obliged to form in line of battle frequently,
and offer fight, in order to keep the enemy at a respectful distance.
Late in the afternoon we halted about three miles from Knoxville, and
bivouacked for the night.

The next day, January 23d, the rebels retired and we moved into
the woods for protection from the cold. Here we hoped to have a
little rest; but in the morning--it was the Sabbath--we found that a
Sabbath-day's journey was before us. We marched through Knoxville,
passed Fort Sanders and the trenches that the siege had made so
familiar to us, and went into camp near Erin's Station, about five
miles from the city.

Rumors now became rife that the Ninth Corps was soon to leave Tennessee
and go east, to be under the command once more of General Burnside. The
thought was an inspiring one to both officers and men.

Having completed our camp preparations, company and battalion drills
were resumed January 27th. January 31st the Thirty-sixth received about
one hundred recruits from the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts,--the portion
of the regiment that had not reënlisted. The remainder of their period
of service these men were to fill out with us. That evening we received
orders to be ready to march at a moment's notice. We did not move,
however, until late in the afternoon of the following day, February
1st, when our whole division marched through Knoxville, crossed the
Holston, and encamped on the heights beyond. It was very muddy, and
we had much difficulty in climbing the hills in the dark. Our bivouac
that night was a cheerless one, and the next morning, it having been
discovered by somebody that there were no rebels within thirty miles,
we were ordered back to our camp at Erin's Station.

General Foster, about this time, asked to be relieved of the command
of the Department of the Ohio, on account of the reöpening of an old
wound; and February 9th General J. M. Schofield reached Knoxville,
having, at General Grant's request, been appointed to succeed Foster.

February 15th we broke camp at Erin's Station in a pouring rain, and
marched to Knoxville, where we encamped just outside of the city, and
not far from Fort Sanders. The rifle-pits occupied by the rebels during
the siege extended along the rear of our camp. The object in making
this change in such a storm was not apparent; and, as this was our
first acquaintance with General Schofield, the impression received was
not a very favorable one. Yet, like good soldiers, we made ourselves as
comfortable as the circumstances would allow.

Three days later orders came for us to move in the afternoon. This time
it was a mile only, to a position between the Jacksboro' and Tazewell
roads. Here we had again made ourselves as comfortable as possible
when, February 20th, shortly after dress-parade, we received orders
to be ready to march at a moment's notice. The next morning we were
up early, the mules were harnessed to the wagons all day; but night
came, and we still remained in camp. February 22d most of the regiment
were engaged in strengthening the fortifications at Knoxville. On the
following day Captain Smith, Lieutenant Brigham, and ten men were
detailed to go to Massachusetts for recruits. At night we were told to
hold ourselves in readiness to march at daybreak, in light marching
order, with sixty rounds of ammunition per man. This looked like
business.

A little after sunrise the next morning, February 24th, we left our
camp, and took the road to Strawberry Plains, General Willcox being in
command of our division. On the march we passed the Twenty-third Corps.
General Schofield and his staff accompanied the troops. We marched
about twenty miles, and at night encamped in the woods three miles
beyond the railway station at Strawberry Plains. On the following day
we received orders to lay out a camp, as it would be necessary for us
to remain where we were several days. A pontoon came up on the train
from Knoxville, and everything indicated a vigorous movement against
the enemy.

February 27th we broke camp about eight o'clock in the morning, and
marched to the river. As there was neither time nor men to construct a
pontoon bridge, preparations had been made to carry the troops across
the Holston in barges. Two ropes were stretched from bank to bank,--a
distance of about one hundred yards,--and by means of these the barges,
filled with men, were drawn across the stream. There were seven barges
in all, and in less than three-quarters of an hour our brigade was
transferred to the opposite shore. The passage of the entire command
occupied the whole forenoon. When we had crossed, we moved down the
road two miles and halted in an oak grove. Meanwhile our supply train
and artillery were crossing at the ford below. Late in the afternoon,
when we had pitched our tents for the night, orders came for the
regiment to pack up, as we had been assigned to picket duty. So we
packed up and moved out to the front.

The next morning, Sunday, February 28th, nine deserters came into our
lines. They reported Longstreet as falling back; said they were tired
of the war, and that there was much dissatisfaction in the rebel ranks.
We marched about eleven o'clock, Morrison's brigade in advance, and
halted late in the afternoon about a mile beyond Mossy Creek, having
advanced thirteen miles.

That night it rained, nor did the rain cease with the darkness. We
marched at seven in the morning, February 29th, the rain still falling.
The roads were very muddy, and we had a toilsome, disagreeable march.
Early in the afternoon we reached Morristown,--a march of thirteen
miles,--and encamped just beyond the town. The ground was well-watered,
but we pitched our shelter-tents, obtained some boards from an old
camp near by, and endeavored to make ourselves comfortable for the
night. A flag of truce came in from the rebels, and it was understood
that they were in force about six miles distant.

We expected to advance the next morning, March 1st, but it still rained
in torrents. Our shelter-tents afforded little protection in such a
deluge, and officers and men drew largely on the hospitality of the
town in seeking comfortable quarters. Some curious expressions were
caught up from the people in this region, and long lingered in the
regiment. A few of our men were at a farm-house, and, as they sat down
at the supper-table, the good mistress of the house apologized for the
quality of the fare in these terms: "Our butter is gin out, but you can
wobble your corndodgers in the ham-fat if you choose." A forager asked
a woman if she had any molasses. "Well," she replied, "we haven't many,
but we have a few!"

To our great surprise, the next day, March 2d, we moved back to Mossy
Creek. Why, we knew not, as there was no enemy threatening us. We
reached Mossy Creek about ten P.M., and encamped on the same spot where
we pitched our tents when on the way to Morristown. We were snug in our
blankets that night when orders came for us to be ready to march at
a moment's notice. A little after midnight Col. Morrison rode up and
startled us all with the order, "Fall in, Thirty-sixth!" In less than
five minutes we were on the march. We moved down to the creek and there
halted. The troops of the Twenty-third Corps were crossing. Citizens
and contrabands had reported that Longstreet was advancing. We built
fires and awaited further orders. Not long after daylight we returned
to the camp we had left so suddenly.

March 5th a brigade of rebel cavalry was reported near, and Companies
B, C, and F of the Thirty-sixth went out on a reconnoissance. After
feeling of our position, however, the cavalry left. While our men were
out they were drawn up in a line of battle under the brow of a hill,
well concealed. Col. Morrison, who accompanied the scouting party, was
a slight distance in advance, reconnoitring, when a rebel lieutenant,
who had lost his reckoning, being overcome with whiskey, rode up to the
brow of the hill. The colonel drew his revolver and ordered the drunken
lieutenant to dismount. He had on one of our overcoats, and when Gen.
Parke came up, not long after, he gave orders that it should be given
to one of our own men. A goodly-sized knife was the only weapon that
the lieutenant carried.

On the following day we again had orders to be ready to march at
a moment's notice. March 7th we changed our camp, though we still
remained at Mossy Creek.

Orders for a movement were received March 11th, and the _reveillé_
was sounded at three o'clock the next morning. We marched at five,
Morrison's brigade having the advance. It was a beautiful winter's day,
and we reached Morristown about eleven o'clock. Passing through the
town, we encamped about two miles beyond, on the Chucky Valley road.
The railroad bridge at Strawberry Plains had now been repaired, and the
trains were running to Morristown.

March 13th we had a quiet Sunday, and were to have a brigade
dress-parade at night, when word came from our cavalry pickets that the
rebels had appeared. The Thirty-sixth was ordered out in the direction
indicated; but the enemy had already retired, and we returned to our
camp.

The next morning our cavalry had a short fight. One rebel was killed,
two were wounded, and nine were taken prisoners. About eleven o'clock
we had orders to fall in, and our brigade moved out on the Chucky
Valley road. The Seventy-ninth New York was left at the cross-roads,
about five miles from our camp. We halted at the river, while the
Twentieth Michigan, throwing off their knapsacks, advanced a couple of
miles further. The cavalry sent in one prisoner. As he joined us he
said he had never fought against "you-uns." The Twentieth Michigan at
length returned, and the brigade marched back to Morristown, where we
arrived about dark. Several corn-cribs along the line of march that
day, and one especially at the river, added somewhat to the daily
ration.

The 15th was a cold, raw March day. Just at night there was an alarm,
and our brigade moved out hastily to support the cavalry pickets; but
we were not needed, and soon returned to camp.

The following day brought a confirmation of the rumors which for some
time had been rife among us. The Ninth Corps was ordered to Annapolis,
Md., and we were to commence our eastward journey on the morrow. We
could hardly credit the good news, and joy beamed in every countenance.
Had it been possible for us to forecast the future our joy would have
been considerably lessened.

March 17th the _reveillé_ was sounded at four o'clock, and we marched
at six. It was a morning without clouds, and we were all in excellent
spirits. The Thirty-sixth Massachusetts led the brigade; and as we left
our old camp the brigade band, which was with us, struck up a lively
air, and we were as happy almost as if we were marching homeward. That
night we encamped at Newmarket,--a march of twenty miles.

The next morning the _reveillé_ was sounded at half-past four, and we
marched at half-past six. Our brigade was still in advance. We crossed
the Holston, at Strawberry Plains, on a pontoon. At half-past four we
pitched our tents seven miles from Knoxville, having marched nineteen
miles.

Early the next morning we resumed our march, and about half-past ten
in the forenoon, having passed through Knoxville, we encamped near
Fort Sanders. That day and the next we remained at Knoxville. We now
learned that we were to march over the mountains into Kentucky, leaving
the sick and the shoeless to be transported by cars. An inspection of
the regiment was accordingly ordered, and the names of the men whose
shoes were in such condition as not to allow them to make so long a
journey were placed in the list of those for whom transportation was
to be furnished. The rest--about two hundred officers and men--were the
toughened remnant of the one thousand who left Massachusetts a year and
a half before. All were animated with high hopes, and the rough road
before us was one which, even at that inclement season of the year, we
were exceedingly eager to travel.

The next morning, March 21st, we took our last look of scenes with
which we had become so familiar since November 17th, and commenced our
long march. The Thirty-sixth Massachusetts led the corps. We advanced
eighteen miles, and encamped at Clinton.

The next day, in a snow-storm, we were ferried across the Clinch river
in scows. Then, in a raw wind and over icy roads, we marched seventeen
miles, and encamped about four miles from Jacksboro'. Some of us
remembered that it was just a year before that we left Newport News.
The next morning, March 23d, we marched through Jacksboro', and soon
after commenced to ascend the mountains back of the town. It was a
beautiful sight, as the long line of troops moved up the zigzag road,
with muskets glittering in the bright sunlight. We marched that day
thirteen miles. March 24th we advanced eighteen miles. The road led us
up and down mountains without number. The next morning snow covered the
ground. We marched at half-past six. About eleven o'clock we reached
the Kentucky line. Rain set in early, but we pushed on and advanced
eighteen miles. A rainy night was followed by snow on the morning
of March 26th. During the forenoon the clouds broke and we had fair
weather. At noon we met a wagon-train, loaded with rations which had
been sent out to us from Camp Burnside. That day we marched nineteen
miles. The next morning, at half-past six, we were again on the road,
and about ten o'clock we reached Camp Burnside. From Jacksboro' to
this place our march had led us through an almost unbroken wilderness,
and over the worst of roads, and through brooks and streams without
number. Leaving Camp Burnside we crossed the Cumberland river about
noon, and encamped that night about a mile beyond Somerset, having
marched sixteen miles. March 28th we advanced eighteen miles, and
encamped at Waynesborough. The next day, a little past noon, we
encamped at Hall's Gap, three miles south of Stanford. Snow fell during
the night. March 30th we passed through Lancaster at noon, and at night
we pitched our tents not far from Camp Dick Robinson, having advanced
eighteen miles. The next morning we marched at the usual hour, passed
Camp Nelson about eleven o'clock, and encamped three miles beyond.
The Second Brigade of our division took cars at Nicholasville in the
afternoon. In the morning, April 1st, we marched to Nicholasville in
a pouring rain. Cars arrived about eleven o'clock, and we embarked
at once. There were delays on the road, so that we did not arrive at
Covington until about midnight. It was a cold, cheerless ride.

The next morning, April 2d, we marched to the barracks, where we
remained until the following day. Transportation having at length been
provided, we marched to the depot in Cincinnati, where we took the
train about eleven A.M. We reached Columbus, O., about eleven P.M.
There we were notified that a lunch had been provided for the regiment;
but it proved to be a mean affair. At Steubenville, O., which we
reached about noon, April 4th, we found a large crowd of ladies at the
depot, with baskets of bread, cakes, and pies. There we remained about
an hour and a half. Resuming our journey, we reached Pittsburgh, Penn.,
at midnight. Leaving the cars, we marched to the City Hall, where a
bountiful collation had been prepared. The men had all they wanted,
and that, too, of the best. At three A.M. we were again on the cars.
We crossed the mountains in a snow-storm. Altoona was reached about
eleven o'clock. At nine o'clock A.M., April 6th, we were in Baltimore.
The regiment marched to the rooms of the relief committee and had
breakfast. We remained in the city until late in the afternoon, and
reached Annapolis, Md., about midnight. Our orders were to remain in
the cars until morning, when we went into camp just outside of the
town. The Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, which had rejoined the corps, its
furlough having expired, furnished the Thirty-sixth with coffee on
our arrival at the camp,--one of many instances of friendly regard
manifested toward us during the war by our old companions in arms.

And so closed, not only our long journey, but a memorable chapter in
our history. What the future had in store for us we little imagined.



CHAPTER XII.

REORGANIZATION.


The preceding chapters of this regimental history have recorded the
story of the year of preparation and discipline, and the year of trial,
suffering, and winnowing. We now approach what may well be called the
year of sacrifice and martyrdom. We are to recount the story of the
organization so dear to all our hearts, so much, in fact, a portion of
our very existence, which was now to undergo its most fearful trials,
and, by the sacrifice of its noblest blood, to maintain and enhance a
reputation for courage and devotion which had been won in summer's heat
in the fields and swamps of Mississippi, and in the winter's cold in
the mountain wilds of East Tennessee.

At Annapolis we found a large force encamped, the post being commanded
by Colonel Hartranft, of the Fifty-first Pennsylvania Volunteers, as
Provisional Commander. The Ninth Army Corps, relieved from duty in the
Department of the Ohio, had been ordered to rendezvous at this place
for reorganization. On the 7th of January, soon after his departure
from East Tennessee, General Burnside was reassigned to the command
of the Ninth Corps, with instructions to "recruit and fill up the
old regiments," and to increase the strength of the corps to fifty
thousand men, for such service as the War Department should especially
designate. The great popularity of General Burnside in New England,
and the other States represented in the old Ninth Corps, secured the
cordial coöperation of the authorities, and recruiting was carried
forward with gratifying success. Massachusetts pledged her four
veteran infantry regiments, already in process of organization, and
all the New England States, Pennsylvania, New York, and Michigan,
sent forward many new regiments which had been recruited during the
winter under the personal supervision of General Burnside. Although
the destination of this force remained a mystery, it was confidently
expected throughout the corps that General Burnside was to be assigned
to an independent command, and that a coast expedition was to be
organized. The general impression prevailed that the corps was to be
sent to North Carolina, or to the Virginia peninsula to coöperate
with the Army of the Potomac in the campaign about to open. With this
prospect in view the men were highly elated.

The camp at Annapolis was delightful, and revived the pleasant memories
of Newport News and Camp Dick Robinson,--the only places where we had
ever "played soldier." It was laid out with military precision, in
accordance with army regulations. The company streets were wide and
well-policed, the new white A tents were decorated with evergreen and
holly, and the grounds, laid out in tasty squares and centre-pieces,
presented a beautiful appearance. Contrasted with what had preceded,
and what was about to follow, it was a genuine holiday camp,--a
bright oasis in the desert of a soldier's life. The burning sun of
Mississippi, the deadly malaria of the Yazoo, the freezing cold and
corn-cob rations of Tennessee, were soon forgotten in the general
happiness and comfort of this delightful camp. Following those long
and rigorous campaigns, the rest and abundant rations were gratefully
enjoyed. Many of the "absent sick" who had been left in general
hospitals in Kentucky and Ohio to recover from the effects of the
former severe campaigns, returned to duty. New clothing and equipments
were issued, and the regiment soon regained something of its familiar
appearance. Company and regimental drills, inspections, parades,
and reviews, together with the work of reorganizing and equipping
the regiment, caused the time to pass rapidly and pleasantly. We
were also visited by many citizens of Massachusetts,--friends of the
regiment,--who brought with them, not cheering words only, but many
substantial tokens of the good-will and affectionate remembrance of the
dear ones at home. Here, also, many of the officers and men received
furloughs for a few days' visit home; and the fact is worthy of record,
that all the men who were accorded this privilege returned promptly and
cheerfully to duty.

In obtaining these furloughs some amusing incidents occurred. One
member of Co. B, impatient at the long delay attending his application,
determined to see "Old Burnie," as he called him, in person, and plead
his own cause. By a little shrewd management, or strategy, as it was
termed, he surprised the General at his breakfast one Sunday morning.
Being outflanked, the General listened patiently to the veteran's
story, then called for the papers and endorsed on the application,
"Approved for seven days. A. E. Burnside," in characters that defied
forgery, doubtless little dreaming that this man was only a skirmisher
from quite a line of men outside, waiting to "see how the thing
worked." The happy soldier "retired in good order," and, as soon as
the success of his daring attack was known, the General's house was
besieged by many others who could not wait for "red tape" and "regular
channels." There were but few general officers against whom it would be
prudent or safe to advance a second such line; but the boys said they
knew their man, and that "Burnside remembered Knoxville!"

On the 13th of April the entire corps then in camp was reviewed by
Generals Grant and Burnside. The day was delightful, and, as they rode
in front of the long, imposing lines, greeted by cheers and strains of
martial music, and the waving of tattered and blood-stained banners,
the enthusiasm of the men was unbounded.

On the 15th, Lieut.-Col. Goodell, who had been with the regiment during
the journey from Cincinnati, was obliged, on account of the troublesome
nature of his wound, to return to Massachusetts, receiving leave of
absence for fifteen days, leaving the regiment in command of Major
Draper.

On the 19th the corps was reorganized. The old First Division, with
which we had been identified during all our service, was almost
entirely broken up. General Ferrero, our former commander, was assigned
to command the new Fourth Division, composed entirely of colored
troops, and most of the regiments were assigned to the new Second
and Third Divisions. The new First Division was composed chiefly of
regiments recently organized, and those not previously connected with
the corps. The Seventy-ninth New York, One Hundredth Pennsylvania,
and Seventeenth Michigan, were sent to the Third Division, commanded
by General Willcox. It was a severe disappointment to be thus
separated from the brave men with whom we had shared a common danger
and won a common glory; but, as if to compensate us for this trial,
and to render the separation less painful, we were not parted from
our old, well-proved, and dearly beloved comrades,--the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania. These two regiments, the Forty-fifth and Thirty-sixth,
henceforth to be more closely attached, and more than ever brothers,
were assigned to the First Brigade, Second Division. Major-General John
G. Parke was announced as Division Commander and Brigadier-General
Robert B. Potter as Commander of the brigade, consisting of the
Forty-eighth and Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, Thirty-sixth Massachusetts,
Seventh Rhode Island, Fifty-first New York, and Fifty-eighth
Massachusetts,--the latter not yet reported,--six regiments, numbering,
present for duty, one hundred and seven officers, and two thousand five
hundred fifty-one enlisted men. With the exception of the Fifty-eighth
Massachusetts, all these regiments had served long in the Ninth Corps,
and had made enviable records. The Fifty-first New York had been
commanded by Generals Ferrero and Potter as Colonels, and at Antietam
Bridge, with the Fifty-first Pennsylvania, had won a reputation for
distinguished bravery and soldierly bearing second to none in the
army. Of our division and brigade commanders we were justly proud. They
had been identified with the corps during its entire existence, and
both had commanded the corps, reflecting credit upon themselves, the
corps, and the service.

At the date of the reorganization of the division both Generals Parke
and Potter were absent, on account of sickness; and that portion of the
order relating to commanders in the Second Division was never carried
into effect. Colonel S. G. Griffin, Sixth New Hampshire Volunteers,
commanding the Second Brigade, was placed in temporary command of
the division, and Colonel Joshua K. Sigfried, of the Forty-eighth
Pennsylvania Volunteers, assumed command of our brigade. Both these
officers were able and distinguished soldiers. Upon his return to
duty, at the close of the month, General Potter was placed permanently
in command of the division, and General Parke returned to duty to be
assigned as chief of the Ninth Corps staff.

Under date of April 21st, Surgeon James P. Prince was assigned to duty
as Chief Medical Officer of the Fourth Division; Captain Raymond as
Inspector of First Brigade, Second Division, on the staff of General
Potter; and Lieutenant Emory as Assistant Commissary of the Fourth
Division. On the 23d of April, Captain S. C. Warriner, Company E, and
First Lieutenants Samuel A. Goodspeed and John A. Rice, tendered their
resignations, which were accepted, and they left for Massachusetts,
much to the regret of their commands and their comrades in the regiment.

The work of reorganization went forward very rapidly. Although the
destination of the corps remained as great a mystery as ever, it
was evident that preparations for an important movement were being
perfected, and that we might be ordered suddenly to leave. On the
evening of the 22d the command was ordered to be in readiness to march,
and before daylight of the 23d the delightful camp was broken up,
and the corps took up its line of march, not toward the harbor, but
in the direction of Washington, following the line of the Elk Ridge
and Annapolis Railroad. After a march of thirteen miles the corps
bivouacked in the fields for the night. Very early on the 24th the
march was resumed. In about six hours we reached the Baltimore and
Washington turnpike, and at nightfall the corps went into camp near
Bladensburg, distant about eight miles from the city of Washington.
At four o'clock on the morning of Monday, the 25th, _reveillé_ was
sounded; but, owing to a severe shower, the regiment did not march
until about eight o'clock. When the march was resumed the corps passed
through Bladensburg and continued in the direction of the city. We
reached the outskirts of the capital about noon, and halted on New
York avenue for the command to close up, as we were to pay a marching
salute to the President and General Burnside, who were to review us
from a balcony of Willard's Hotel. It soon became known that the corps
was to pass through the city, and the streets along the line of march
were densely packed. The column was greeted with cheers and applause.
Many spirited descriptions of this imposing scene were published at
the time in the journals of the day; but none is more graphic than
the following, taken from a Memorial-Day Address, at Beverly, Mass.,
by Honorable R. S. Rantoul, May 30, 1871, seven years after the scene
narrated:--

  "On the 25th of April, 1864, I stood, at high noon, on a thronged
  sidewalk of the city of Washington. Across the street, and raised
  on a balcony above the surging crowd, a lank, sad man stood gazing
  wistfully down--his head uncovered--upon the passing scene beneath.
  An unutterable sadness seemed to have fixed itself upon his face.
  For the most part he was unnoticed by the long procession, which,
  hour after hour, with frequent pauses, but with elastic tread,
  pushed on through dust and sweat, for Long Bridge, a few rods
  off--then over the Potomac and into Virginia. In dull succession,
  company on company, battalion by battalion, brigade after brigade,
  wearily yet cheerfully, they tramped on under that Southern sun,
  sometimes singing, oftener thoughtful, never seemingly regretful.
  It was one of those soft, vernal days, whose very air, as if
  breathed from groves of oranges and myrtle, seemed able to melt
  all hearts. Music there was; but strangely, as it seemed, not of
  that martial strain, associated, in piping times of peace, with the
  rush of battle. Exquisite music there was from martial bands, but
  for the hour they seemed to have attuned themselves to melodies
  of home and love. Shoulder to shoulder, looking not back, asking
  not whither, marched the bronzed veteran of East Tennessee and
  Carolina, with regiments of raw recruits,--tradesmen and mechanics
  from the towns, the farmer and frontiersman of the West, the
  lumberman from his Eastern forest, Indian sharp-shooters attached
  to Western infantry, favored sons of culture and wealth, the first
  black division, five or six thousand strong, following the white
  State flag of Massachusetts, batteries of artillery, squadrons of
  cavalry; mingling with these or pressing hard upon them, commissary
  wagons, ambulances, and quartermasters' trains, stuffed with the
  equipage of hospital and camp; and, last of all, as far as the
  eye could reach, fat beeves choked up the dusty way. Solemnly the
  mighty mass moved forward to confront its fate. Many a brave man
  felt that day that he was crossing Long Bridge never to return.
  Little heed paid they that the eye of Lincoln was upon them; little
  ardor they caught from sad, sweet music or the cheers and greetings
  of the thronging streets! Little was there for them of pride, pomp,
  or circumstance of glorious war! Grim resolve and cheerful devotion
  were the lessons of the hour!

  "Ask where you would, you got no clue to their destination, for no
  one knew it! They had waited long at Annapolis, expecting to be
  ordered off by sea. Not a man, that day, of all those marching
  legions, knew whither he was going!

    "'Theirs not to reason why!
    Theirs but to do and die!'

  "Only the lank, sad man, who gazed from his high place upon them,
  hat in hand, as though with a friend's last look, and the few high
  officials about him, knew more than that the Ninth Army Corps,
  twenty-five thousand strong, had been ordered from Annapolis to
  Alexandria! The veil of the future was not yet lifted."

Chaplain Woodbury says, "It was a spectacle which made many eyes grow
moist and dim. And thus the corps that had never lost a flag or a
cannon marched through Washington. Crossing Long Bridge the troops went
into camp about two miles from Alexandria."

Even then many of the men still cherished the hope that transports
would be in readiness for them at Alexandria. But these notions were
soon put to flight. To the corps was assigned the duty of guarding the
Orange and Alexandria Railroad from the Potomac to the Rapidan; and
reluctantly the fond hopes of a coast expedition and an independent
movement were abandoned.

On Wednesday, April 27th, at ten o'clock A.M., the brigade left
Alexandria to follow the divisions which had been advanced toward the
Rappahannock, and after a fatiguing march of sixteen miles encamped
at night three miles beyond Fairfax Court-House. The next day the
march was continued over the ground made historic in 1861, through
Centreville, and past the old earthworks at Manassas. At noon we halted
an hour for dinner on the Bull Run battle-field. Afterwards we forded
the Run, and at six o'clock, having marched eighteen miles, went into
camp at Bristow Station, on the field where the Second Corps achieved a
brilliant victory the autumn before.

At six o'clock the next morning the brigade was in line, but did not
move out of camp until half-past nine; marched then about half a mile,
and countermarched, and marched again, until finally, about three
o'clock, we went into camp near the railroad, on new ground, which
was ordered to be laid out according to army regulations. The corps
was being distributed along the line of the railroad in supporting
distance, and the progress was very slow.

On the 30th it became necessary to make another change, and our
"Regulation Camp" was abandoned to others. We marched at half-past five
o'clock in the morning, crossed Kettle Run at noon, and relieved the
Seventeenth Regular Infantry, of the Fifth Corps, taking possession
of the splendid camp near Catlett's Station, which they had occupied
during the winter. Captain Morse, with Co. C, was sent forward to
Catlett's, to guard the station and water-tanks, while the remainder
of the regiment went into camp. The larger portion of the regiment was
accommodated in the barracks of the Seventeenth Regulars, but the three
left companies were obliged to occupy their shelter-tents.

Upon reaching this place, it being the last day of the month, the
regular monthly return of the regiment was made up and forwarded to
head-quarters. As being the inventory of the effective strength with
which we entered the campaign it may be interesting, for the purpose
of comparison, to include a synopsis of the report. At that date we
had present for duty fourteen commissioned officers, and four hundred
and twenty-six enlisted men, belonging to the regiment, including
ninety-one men transferred from the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts
Volunteers, or four hundred and forty in all. In addition we had
fifty-six effective men belonging to the Forty-sixth New York,
assigned for duty to our regiment, making a total of four hundred and
ninety-six, of whom three hundred and thirty-five were members of the
Thirty-sixth. In addition there were forty-two enlisted men on extra or
daily duty, and thirteen sick in the hospital, making a total present
with the brigade of five hundred and fifty-one. Three officers and
eighty-five enlisted men were on special duty with the corps, and five
officers and two hundred and ninety-two enlisted men were absent beyond
the limits of the department, making the whole number on the regimental
rolls, present and absent, twenty-two commissioned officers, and nine
hundred and fourteen enlisted men.

The following officers were present for duty with the regiment: Major
Draper, Adjutant Hodgkins, Assistant Surgeon Bryant, Quartermaster
Tuttle, Captains Barker, Smith, Buffum, Bailey, Morse, Holmes, and
Ames; First Lieutenants Daniels, Fairbank, Burrage, and Marshall,
or the average of but one commissioned officer for each company in
the line. Company I was commanded by Orderly Sergeant Alonzo A.
White, who had received a commission as Second Lieutenant and was
awaiting muster-in. Second Lieutenants White, Hancock, Wright, and
Davidson had been unable to muster in the grade to which they had been
commissioned, their companies being below the minimum, and had already,
under date of April 26th, been recommended for promotion to fill the
vacancies caused by the promotion of First Lieutenant Daniels (who
was to succeed Captain Warriner), and the resignations of Lieutenants
Cross, Goodspeed, and Rice. The following officers were absent from
the regiment: Lieutenant-Colonel Goodell, from disability resulting
from wounds; Surgeon Prince, Captain Raymond, and Lieutenant Emory,
on special duty with the corps; Captain Smith, Lieutenants Davis and
Brigham, on special duty, recruiting; First Lieutenant Robinson, absent
by reason of wounds.

The Ninth Corps was now in position, scattered along the line of
railroad from Fairfax to the Rappahannock, and had relieved all the
troops of the Army of the Potomac which were now concentrated near
the Rapidan. The duty of guarding the railroad was not arduous, but
it required constant vigilance, and the troops were continually on
the alert lest a band of rebel guerillas which infested the region
should make a sudden dash, destroy a portion of the road, and thereby
seriously interrupt communication with the main army, encamped near
Brandy Station. To guard against an incursion of this body, a strong
picket force was stationed along the railroad, and a portion of the
troops in camp were kept in readiness to repel an attack. The defences
consisted of a formidable abatis surrounding the entire camp. The
situation was very pleasant, and the daily duties and routine of camp
were performed. On the 2d of May a large reconnoitring party was sent
out, under command of Captain Holmes; but no trace of an enemy could be
discovered.



CHAPTER XIII.

IN THE WILDERNESS.


On the morning of the 4th all doubts as to our destination or the
length of our stay at this point were removed by the receipt of an
order from General Burnside for the corps to concentrate, and move
forward to the Rapidan. At ten o'clock that forenoon the tents were
struck, the line was formed, and we left our pleasant camp, little
realizing the terrible scenes immediately awaiting us. In our march we
followed the line of the railroad, and were joined at Catlett's Station
by the command of Captain Morse. At noon a halt was made at Warrenton
Junction, where the Second Division concentrated. Our brigade was now
commanded by Colonel Zenas R. Bliss, of the Seventh Rhode Island, as
Colonel Sigfried had been assigned to command a brigade of the colored
division. The march was continued all the afternoon, and at nightfall
we bivouacked at Bealeton Station, having marched thirteen miles.

On that day we received information of the resignation of our esteemed
commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Goodell, in consequence of the wound he
received at Blue Springs. His ability as a soldier and his reputation
as a man were well established in the corps, and recognized by its
commander, who desired him to remain in the service, and requested the
Secretary of War to assign him to special duty. But the nature of his
wound prevented him from rendering active service in the field, as he
desired, and he was compelled reluctantly to resign.

At daylight of the 5th the command was in motion. At nine o'clock we
crossed the Rappahannock on a pontoon bridge. Here we saw the monument
of wood, bearing the inscription, "Erected in memory of the brave sons
of Maine who fell while gallantly charging these heights, November 7th,
1863. Fifth, Sixth, and Twentieth Maine." The monument bore the names
of the fallen heroes, among which we read the names of several members
of the Twentieth,--our fellow-voyagers of the "Merrimac" in 1862.

As soon as the division had crossed the river the march was resumed
over fields, through forests, and along dusty roads. The halts became
less frequent, and the steadily increasing heat was severely felt. At
noon we ate our dinner amid deserted camps, which but a day or two
before were occupied by our comrades of the Army of the Potomac; and we
knew that the terrible struggles of the past were soon to be renewed.
Indeed, only an hour passed, and the deep booming of artillery was
heard beyond the Rapidan. The lagging pace was now quickened, and dull
hearts were stimulated to fresh life and courage. "Grant has found his
objective!" "Hark! There it is again!" "They're at it, boys!" "Grant's
found the Johnnies!" "Go it! We'll be in to-night!"--these and many
like expressions were uttered by the men, excited for a moment at the
sound of battle; while the clenched hands and compressed lips proved
that the hour of great endeavor--for victory or death--was near. No
lagging now; no more halting for rest; but on--forward! The sounds of
the battle grew louder and nearer, the din of musketry mingling with
the roar of artillery. As we neared the conflict the spirits of the men
seemed to grow lighter and more elastic and buoyant. The speed, of the
march was not abated until the Rapidan, at Germanna Ford, was reached.
There, in the confusion of trains, artillery, and massing battalions,
we were allowed a moment's rest. The halt, however, was brief. Soon
the order--_Forward!_ was given; and away we marched over the pontoon
bridge, which swayed beneath our tread, with the sound of battle more
appalling in front, and the apparent confusion more startling in
rear. As we crossed that sluggish stream, to many minds recurred the
well-known lines:--

    "Part of the host have crossed the flood,
      And part are crossing now!"

The regiment was now south of the Rapidan; and, upon halting, we had an
opportunity of looking about, and many and earnest inquiries were made
of every one coming from the front. We learned that the entire army
had crossed the river the day before,--the Fifth and Sixth Corps at
Germanna Ford; the Second Corps, and the immense supply train of more
than four thousand wagons, at Ely's Ford, six miles below; and that
the whole army had pushed southward on the two available roads leading
toward Spottsylvania,--Grant's plan being to avoid the intrenchments of
the enemy behind the Rapidan, turn his right, and by a rapid movement
get between him and Richmond, and force him to retire, or fight a
decisive battle on open and more advantageous ground.

Lee, from his signal-stations, observed the movement, offered no
opposition to the passage of the river, but, instead of falling back,
put his columns in motion by two parallel roads (the Orange and
Fredericksburg Plank Road and Turnpike), to strike the Army of the
Potomac at right angles with its line of advance, when it was well on
its march through the tangled Wilderness. He moved from his works over
roads and cart-tracks perfectly familiar to him, with the intention
of assailing Grant's flank, separating the several corps, and then
defeating them in detail.

The movement was a bold one, made with great celerity and with Lee's
entire army; and General Grant was forced to accept battle in this
unlooked-for place at the very commencement of the campaign. He
did not expect, or rather did not desire, to be attacked in such a
wilderness, and the order of march for this day, if executed, would
have carried his army beyond the Wilderness into the open country
around Spottsylvania Court-House. But with characteristic promptness
and resolution Grant faced to meet the enemy; the lines were pushed
into the dense forests, and the terrible battle which will live in
history as the "Battle of the Wilderness" now raged around us.

This region, known as the Wilderness, was densely covered by a second
growth of low, scraggy pines, scrub-oaks and hazel,--a wild, uneven,
tangled thicket, with but few openings that would permit the use of
artillery, or clearings for formation and movement of troops. It is
a region of gloom and the shadow of death. The advantage of position
was entirely with the enemy, who were familiar with every ravine and
ridge and cow-path throughout the dense jungle. Neither superiority
of numbers nor the most skilful generalship could counterbalance the
great advantages of the enemy. "In that horrid thicket lurked two
immense armies, and there came out of its depths the crackle and roll
of musketry like the noisy boiling of some hell-cauldron that told the
story of death."

General Burn side ordered the division forward. We were worn and weary.
Nearly twenty-five long miles lay between us and our resting-place of
last night. The march had been severe and tedious, and yet with willing
feet and hopeful hearts we pushed on, feeling the magic influence of
that presence which, at Antietam, Campbell's Station, and Knoxville,
had inspired the heroism of the men of the Ninth Corps. The march was
continued for two miles over the narrow, dusty road, now crowded with
wagons, guns, and troops; and just at dusk we filed to the right into
the woods, and, after receiving orders to be in constant readiness to
move, we stacked arms. Soon the groups gathered around little fires,
kindled marvellously quick, attested the sharp appetites of the men.
Although the march had been forced and exhausting but very few of the
men had fallen out. Major Draper's quarters were established on the
left flank, very near the road, in order that there should be no delay
in finding him should the regiment be needed in the night.

The night was passed in a state of anxious suspense. What a night!
The continuous fire of the skirmishers swelled now and then into a
crashing volley which extended along the lines, the shouts of teamsters
urging on their jaded beasts, the music of bands far in the rear, and
the tramp of passing troops,--all blended in one strange, discordant
strain. How many of our brave men sat by the smouldering fires,
thinking of the loved ones in homes they should never enter again! How
many lay down to catch the last few hours' sleep left for them on earth
before closing their eyes in the sleep of death! Thus the few weary
hours of the night dragged on.

Between one and two o'clock we were aroused, and before three o'clock
we moved out quietly by the left. Marching along the road in rear of
the line of battle, at daybreak we reached a clearing, within which was
situated the Old Wilderness Tavern. Here the brigade was halted, and
ordered to load and prepare for action.

The battle was renewed at quarter before five. Grant had ordered
an attack along the whole line to be delivered at five o'clock.
Lee anticipated him, and was fifteen minutes earlier. The battle
soon became general. Far on the left was heard the terrific fire of
Hancock's advancing line. On the right Sedgwick was beating back
the enemy's fierce attack; while in our front the fire raged along
the Fifth Corps line. Being ordered forward, we continued our march
toward the left of the Fifth Corps line, over a road leading in the
direction of Parker's store, the Second Brigade having the right of the
column. After marching about half a mile the men of the Forty-eighth
Pennsylvania were deployed as skirmishers, to cover the flank of our
brigade. After moving about half a mile further a line of battle was
formed, and here the regiment breakfasted. The enemy's skirmishers
soon opened fire, but retired before General Griffin's advance. In
moving forward we crossed a small stream called Wilderness Run, and
continued to advance until we encountered a brisk fire of artillery
from a rebel battery, and a sharp musketry fire at close range. The
line advanced to the edge of a small clearing, across which the enemy
was strongly posted with a battery. The Second Brigade was warmly
engaged, the action had become quite brisk, and General Potter was
making preparations to charge the battery, when orders were received to
withdraw, move farther to the left, and attack on the right of General
Hancock's line, near the Plank Road, that portion of the line being
then hard pressed.

Hancock's attack had been very successful. He had driven the
enemy fully a mile and a half back on the trains, artillery, and
head-quarters of the Confederate Army, which were in imminent danger
of capture; but in the rapid advance his line of battle had become so
broken in the dense forest as to require readjustment before he could
press forward and secure the prize almost within his grasp. While this
was being done the enemy was reinforced by Longstreet's troops, who had
been pushed forward rapidly to the threatened point. When, therefore,
Hancock's line advanced to resume the attack he was confronted by a
superior force, and was not only unable to make any impression on the
enemy, but was in turn pressed back over all the ground he had gained,
and was himself now in need of assistance.

The story of the Battle of the Wilderness is one of the most intensely
interesting of the war; but it will be referred to in this record
only to describe intelligibly the action taken by the regiment in its
relation to the engagement as a whole. We received the orders to retire
about ten o'clock in the forenoon, and moved by the left flank through
the dense forest and underbrush, which were almost impenetrable,
through swamps deep with water, back to the clearing, to the assigned
position, which was in rear of a gap said to exist between the left of
the Fifth Corps and the right of the Second. Our position was about a
mile and a half in front of the Old Wilderness Tavern, facing nearly
south, and not far from the Plank Road which runs south-east from
Germanna Ford. Our division was ordered to advance and fill the gap,
and to attack the enemy as soon as found. Each regiment was to skirmish
along its own front. On our right was Wadsworth's division of the Fifth
Corps, and it was expected we would connect our left with Barlow's
division of the Second Corps. With a detail from each regiment, Captain
McKibben, of General Potter's staff, rode into the woods to establish a
skirmish line. He had not proceeded far when he was fired upon by the
enemy, and his horse was killed.

It being evident that the enemy was in strong force along our immediate
front a general advance was ordered. The regiments were ordered to
advance as rapidly as possible, keeping close connection on the right
and left, and to attack without delay. The Fifty-first New York was
formed on our left; the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania joined our right;
beyond this we could not see the brigade line and knew nothing of its
formation. A strong skirmish line was sent out from our front, under
Captain Bailey, of Company G, and when all was in readiness the line of
battle pushed forward into the dense forest. The heat was intense; the
men were almost exhausted from their long march of the previous day,
were famished and weary; but the thought of the burden of battle borne
thus far by our brave comrades caused them to march with steady tread
as they moved onward toward the foe. In a few moments the line received
a tremendous volley, and the advance was checked for an instant, but
only long enough for us to ascertain the exact position of the enemy
and strengthen the skirmish line. This being done, Captain Bailey
advanced very rapidly, driving the enemy's skirmishers through a swampy
ravine into his entrenchments. The line of battle halted and closed up,
while the Thirty-sixth and Forty-fifth made nearly a half wheel to the
right, in order that our line might conform more nearly to the line
of the enemy, which, as far as we could determine, crossed our line of
battle diagonally.

During all this time the fire from the rebel line was very sharp and
close, but the casualties were few. The left flank was found to be very
much exposed, and the Fifty-first New York was drawn back to cover the
flank and rear, leaving the Thirty-sixth on the extreme left of the
division line of battle.

In front of our line, across the swampy ravine, on the crest of a
wooded slope, were the breastworks of the enemy, made of felled trees
and brush and the bodies of their dead. Behind these rude intrenchments
stood Anderson's brigade, Field's division (Hood's old division) of
Longstreet's veteran corps. It was composed of troops from South
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Texas. Surely they were no mean foe.
At Antietam Bridge, on the Heights of Fredericksburg, at Campbell's
Station, and in the defences of Knoxville, the Ninth Corps had engaged
with them in deadly conflict, and knew full well the devotion of these
men to their cause, and the desperate valor with which they would
defend their works. Once more these old antagonists stood face to face,
about to renew the fearful struggle of other days on bloody fields. The
foeman was worthy of our steel. The order, "Forward, double quick!"
was shouted, and with loud and ringing cheers our lines advanced. The
enemy poured in terrific volleys; their bullets whistled around us and
thinned our ranks; but the advance was not checked. The left of our
regiment first struck the rebel line, and received the severest fire,
but pressed on through it, and the Thirty-sixth and Forty-fifth broke
the line, went over the breastworks with a rush, and drove out the
enemy in our front. The attack had been most determined and successful,
and the regiment had complete possession of the rebel works in its
front. Thus far all had gone well. The Fifty-first New York, however,
had broken in the attack and failed to carry the line with which it
was confronted, and, in a brief time, though to us it seemed an age,
the enemy rallied, moved upon our left flank, swept round toward our
rear, and we were subjected to a fearful fire of musketry at short
range. Having no supports, and being outflanked and overpowered on
the left, that portion of the line was unable to hold the position,
and began to retire in some confusion. The position was too valuable
to abandon without a desperate struggle, and Major Draper leaped
upon the log breastworks in the centre, and endeavored by words and
motions to turn back the left wing, in order to present a front to the
enemy attacking on that flank. Captain Barker, in command of the left
wing, vainly endeavored to persuade a regiment of the Third Division
sent forward to support the attack, to swing to the left and attack
the enemy. In the most critical moment of the fight, while gallantly
rallying the line, Major Draper was shot through the shoulder and
carried senseless from the field.[12] The regiment was loth to give
up the great advantage it had gained, and the fighting was hand to
hand,--terrible and bloody. The men fought gallantly; but the force
upon our left was too strong, and our line was compelled to retire.
Falling back slowly, with their faces toward the enemy, the regiment
preserved a good line, returning the enemy's fire, and retired but a
short distance. Sergeant Henry Todd, who bore the State color, although
wounded in the arm, refused to the last to fall back, and received a
bullet in the head, which laid him low in death. The flag was seized
from his dying grasp by Corporal Michael Long, of Company A, who
himself was wounded a moment later, and before it reached the ground
was seized by Sergeant Gilbert Rawson, who bore it through the battle,
and the subsequent campaign.

[12] Sergeant Kimball, of Company F, saved Major Draper's life during
the battle. One of the enemy, a soldier of the South Carolina Rifles,
was lying behind a log, and had deliberate aim on Major Draper, who
was standing exposed to his fire, and was in the act of firing when
Sergeant Kimball struck up the musket with his own, and the ball passed
through the Major's hat. Soon after this Major Draper received a wound
from a rebel sharp-shooter.

In the midst of this terrific fight Colonel Curtin, of the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, assumed command of the brigade. Hartranft, with his
brigade of the Third Division, came up at the same moment, when the
whole line advanced in the face of a furious fire; and although the
enemy was severely handled, and his line forced at several points,
yet the opposition was so determined as to prevent complete success.
Through all these trying scenes the regiment behaved with great
gallantry, and held its position to the last moment. The brigade now
retired a short distance, re-formed, and corrected the line. Here
Lieutenant Marshall, of Company A, was badly wounded and carried to the
rear. During this temporary lull, amid the cries of the wounded, and
the burning undergrowth that added horror to the scene, our comrades
of the Forty-fifth struck up the chorus: "We'll rally round the flag,
boys, rally once again." The Thirty-sixth took up the strain, and made
those smoking woods ring with the chorus and cheers of the undaunted
men.

During the afternoon new dispositions were made for a third attack.
As our ammunition was exhausted we were relieved in the front line by
the Third Division, and closely supported its attack, which was made
with great vigor soon after five o'clock. The charge was gallant and
determined, and they who heard that terrific musketry will never forget
it. The enemy's skirmish line was driven in, and their main line of
battle, which had come out of the works, was broken and forced back. A
portion of the line on the left was again carried, but it could not be
held. The enemy's fire was of the heaviest; but the main line held the
ground up to the teeth of the enemy until dusk, when our division took
position to the right of the Third Division in the front line, within
close musket range of the enemy. A strong skirmish line was deployed,
and the regiment intrenched.

While these changes of position were being made it became necessary to
leave many of our wounded between the opposing lines, and volunteers
were called for to go out under the enemy's fire, and bring in such
as could be removed. Several gallant men of the Thirty-sixth offered
to perform this perilous service. While thus employed, Corporal
George E. Nourse, of Company I, was struck by the fatal bullet of a
sharp-shooter, and was himself borne away upon the stretcher with which
he had assisted to carry others to the rear. He was buried near the
spot where he fell, and sleeps, like many of his comrades, in that
far-off grave in the lonely Wilderness, or in the National Cemetery at
Fredericksburg, where so many of our comrades buried on the Wilderness
battle-ground have since been laid to rest.

Thus closed in blood and gloom the second day of the sanguinary battle
of the Wilderness. When darkness settled on those smouldering forests
the roll-call bore witness to the sacrifice we had offered that day
on the altar of Freedom. Eighty-five were absent. Of this number,
twelve were known to have been killed, fifty-three wounded, and of
the twelve reported "missing in action" several were supposed to have
been killed or wounded, and consumed in the burning of the underbrush
between the contending lines. The brigade lost five hundred and four
in killed, wounded, and missing; the heavy loss of the Thirty-sixth
being occasioned by our great exposure, and the severe fire on our
left flank and rear. The scenes and events of the day were recounted,
and entrusted to the keeping of faithful memories. Sergeant Rawson had
his story to tell of the coolness and thoughtfulness of Color-Sergeant
Todd. As they were about to enter the battle he said to Rawson, "If
anything happens to me, take good care of the State color." But for
this timely charge the flag might have fallen into the enemy's hands,
for Rawson, deeply impressed with the words of his friend, was near him
when he fell, ready to take the flag from Todd's dying grasp.

In the line the severest loss was sustained by Company I, commanded by
Orderly Sergeant White, losing three killed and ten wounded (three of
them mortally) out of thirty-five taken into action.

The following is the list of casualties:--


_Commissioned Officers._

_Wounded._--Major William F. Draper, Lieutenant Joseph A. Marshall.


_Enlisted Men._

_Company A._ _Killed._--Corporal Albert H. Carter. Wounded.--Corporal
Michael Long, Private Henry A. Thompson.

_Company B._ _Killed._--Color-Sergeant Henry Todd, Private Charles M.
Westcott. _Wounded._--Sergeant John Lamont, Privates Louis P. Abbott,
Daniel Lamont, James H. Robertson, James E. Spear.

_Company C._ _Killed._--Private Myron M. Daniels. _Died of
Wounds._--Private Frank S. Kelley. _Wounded._--Corporal Walter
Chisold, Privates Jacob W. Bixby, Frederick S. Gates, William Harty.
_Prisoner._--Private Hartwell C. Twitchell (died August 21, 1864, at
Andersonville).

_Company D._ _Killed._--Privates Frank M. Fenno, Andrew J. Morgan.
_Wounded._--Privates James H. Day, George L. Chase (died of wounds).

_Company E._ _Wounded._--Sergeant Lucius L. Merrick, Privates Josiah B.
Davis, F. Daniel Hadley.

_Company F._ _Wounded._--Sergeant Daniel Wright (taken prisoner),
Corporal Lucius Lowell, Private Chester J. Smith (died of wounds).

_Company G._ _Killed._--Corporal Edward W. Stacy. _Died of
Wounds._--Corporal Joseph L. Haskell. _Wounded._--Privates James A.
Dadman, Aaron M. Williams, Emory Winchester.

_Company H._ _Killed._--Corporal Joshua Rich. _Died of
Wounds._--Corporal Henry H. Mayo, Privates Luther P. Reed, Edward O.
Young (captured). _Wounded._--Corporal William N. Smith, Privates
Joseph F. Hayward, John W. Pratt, Henry W. Wetherbee.

_Company I._ _Killed._--Corporals Isaac R. Patten, George A. Nourse,
Private Daniel V. Childs. _Died of Wounds._--Corporal William H.
Coburn, Privates Josiah Houghton, George W. Bardwell, Julius N.
Bellows. _Wounded._--Corporal James H. Barry, Privates Oscar H. Brown,
Truman Marble, Charles H. Wheeler, Israel F. Carter.

_Company K._ _Died of Wounds._--Private Algernon S. Mandell.
_Wounded._--Privates Robert Stevens, Silas J. Howell, Jr., Henry Noi,
Samuel G. Vaughn.

_Twenty-ninth Massachusetts._ _Wounded._--Privates Rawson, Swift,
Alexander, and Leavitt.

With the first ray of daylight on the 7th the men were astir, in
expectation of orders for a general advance. The skirmishers exchanged
a few shots with the enemy at daybreak, but neither party manifested
any disposition to attack. The firing along Hancock's front, on our
left, was very severe at times, and word was passed down the lines that
his corps was to make an attack at right angles with our front; but the
morning wore away and no attack was made. A death-like quiet pervaded
our lines. The silence of the enemy was considered ominous, and the
picket force under Captain Morse was doubled, and then cautiously
advanced toward the enemy's skirmish pits, but only to find them
deserted. The enemy had withdrawn.

Small parties were now sent out to remove the wounded lying in our
front, and to recover the bodies of the dead. As the sad procession
moved to the rear the hearts of many were made sad in recognizing
among the mangled dead and wounded the forms of dear comrades whom
we fondly hoped had met the less sad fate of capture. The dead were
carefully buried, and their graves marked. While this sad work was
being performed the regiment erected a strong breastwork of logs, and
every precaution was taken to guard against a sudden attack of the
enemy. Here we were visited by Colonel Morrison, of the Seventy-ninth
New York,--our former brigade commander,--who was about to be mustered
out of the service, the term of his regiment having expired. He had
been wounded in the arm the day before, but refused to go to the rear.
He came over to say good-by to his former "pets" before leaving for his
home.



CHAPTER XIV.

AT SPOTTSYLVANIA.


Toward noon it became evident that a new movement was contemplated.
About one o'clock we marched by the flank to the rear, and halted near
the road for the rest of the brigade to withdraw, and concentrate. We
then moved rapidly to the open ground near the Old Wilderness Tavern,
where the Ninth Corps was massed. There we saw our immense artillery
and ammunition trains moving in the direction of Chancellorsville.

We remained at the tavern until dark, and had supper there. For
forty-eight hours our only food had been bread and water. As soon
as the trains were on the road we were ordered to follow them in
the direction of Chancellorsville. The march was very tedious and
vexatious, owing to the darkness and the slow movement of the wagons.
At every few rods we were obliged to halt, and the weary men threw
themselves upon the ground for a few moments' rest, only to be aroused
to move a little distance and repeat the same experience. At ten
o'clock the picket-firing ceased, and we lay down by the roadside for
the night. At daylight we resumed the march. At nine o'clock we reached
Chancellorsville, and halted in an open field, at the intersection
of the Gordonsville Plank and Orange County roads. Here stood the
ruins of the house used by General Hooker as head-quarters during the
great battle fought one year before, and all around us traces of the
bloody struggle could be seen. Without shelter from the scorching
sun, and covered with dust raised in great clouds by the passing
trains and troops, we remained at Chancellorsville during the entire
day. The Fifth and Second Corps had moved on the Brock road toward
Spottsylvania; the Sixth was with us. As the last division filed past
us down the Plank road, and the fire of the Wilderness died away, the
distant booming of artillery in our front announced that the enemy was
in position across the advance of the Fifth Corps.

The firing increased all the afternoon, and at sunset was very heavy.
The brigade bivouacked at Chancellorsville, and remained until nearly
noon of the next day, when orders were received to move down the Plank
road in the direction of the conflict. During the afternoon we moved
from one position to another, and at dusk were put in line of battle
upon a high crest west of the Richmond and Potomac Railroad, on the
extreme left of the army. We were not permitted to remain long in this
fine position, where we expected to pass the night, but were moved out
to the road again, and marched rapidly through deserted camps and past
smouldering camp-fires, until late at night we bivouacked near General
Burnside's head-quarters, and upon the left of the army of the Potomac,
which during the day had been closing around the strong position of the
enemy at Spottsylvania Court-House. Three divisions of our corps were
now concentrated at this point, the Fourth Division being detailed as
guard for the supply train of the army.

The 10th of May was clear and intensely hot. The burning sun drove us
from the open fields to seek the shelter of the woods. There we lay
during the long and tedious hours, listening to the sounds of battle on
our right, with orders to be ready to move at a moment's notice. Thus
far during the campaign but little artillery had been used, owing to
the nature of the country; but on this day the action was on more open
ground, and much of the artillery of both armies was brought into use,
the cannonading resembling one continuous peal of thunder.

Reports came to us that Lee's army was being forced from its strong
defences; in fact, rumors of the wildest description reached us. They
were soon to be dispelled, however, for, at four o'clock, marching
orders were received, and in another moment we were on the road,
marching in the direction of the conflict. The route lay over a good
road, through noble forests, until at length we reached the open
country along the banks of the Ny river. After halting at the Harris
house for the command to close up, the march was continued to the
river, which we crossed by the turnpike bridge. Here we filed to
the left into an open field, and the division was formed in line of
battle, and ordered to advance rapidly. On reaching a rise of ground
in our front we received a severe fire from the enemy's artillery;
but the advance was not checked. The troops on the right of the road
soon encountered the skirmishers of A. P. Hill's corps, and pressed
them back, our regiment threatening their flanks. The artillery was
now brought to bear on the enemy's line, and the whole division
advanced gallantly in face of a heavy fire, and continued until
darkness compelled a halt. This movement was made in support of the
famous charge of twelve picked regiments of the Sixth Corps, upon the
right centre of the enemy's position. The assault was made with great
gallantry, and the works were carried with a loss to the enemy of
six cannon and nine hundred prisoners; but the rebels were strongly
reinforced, and the great advantage which was gained could not be
secured. At nightfall the remnant of the noble column returned, leaving
their dead and wounded and the six pieces of cannon, which could not be
removed, in the enemy's hands.

The division passed the night in line of battle, without fires or
coffee. The picket line was attacked several times; but no serious
demonstration was made, and there were no casualties on our front. At
daylight of the 11th the line advanced to the crest of a ridge directly
in our front, from which we obtained a fine view of the enemy's
position. We were about a quarter of a mile from the Court-House,
around which stood the enemy's earthworks, bristling with cannon,
and surrounded by a formidable abatis and slashing of timber. They
seemed to be alive with troops, who, doubtless from our close advance,
expected an immediate attack. The enemy evidently desired our approach,
and were ready to give us a hot reception. The position was strong
naturally, and the fortifications and obstructions rendered it
well-nigh impregnable. Our pickets held a very advanced position and
kept up a lively skirmishing all the morning. Being seriously exposed,
we were ordered to build a line of breastworks along our whole front,
maintaining at the same time the utmost vigilance lest the enemy should
attack our left and flank. Notwithstanding a close and annoying fire
we were able to construct a strong line of intrenchments during the
forenoon; but we were not allowed the privilege of defending them,
for at three o'clock orders were received to withdraw with the utmost
speed and caution. This was a perilous undertaking in the face of a
watchful and powerful enemy. The movement was made against the earnest
remonstrance of the corps commander, and the mistake was afterwards
seen when too late to be corrected. The day had been intensely hot, and
now the sky was black with clouds. As the movement commenced the rain
began to fall. Soon it descended in torrents, and during the drenching
rain which followed, the works were evacuated without exciting the
attention of the enemy.

The brigade was now hurried to the rear, the direction of the march
being toward the right of our line, and in another hour the corps was
massed in a large open field near the Harris house. Here we remained
more than an hour, exposed to the full fury of the drenching rain,
which caused the men to shiver with cold. It was the first rain that
had fallen during the campaign, and, however welcome it might have
been in allaying the stifling dust and cooling the heated air, it was
decidedly unpleasant to be obliged to encounter its full force in
the open field, without shelter of any kind. Here the wearied men
partook of the first nourishment during the day. At dusk the corps
was again ordered forward to a new position in the advanced line,
more to the right of that occupied during the day. We crossed the
broad meadows bordering the Ny river, and as we moved forward an aid
reported to Captain Barker that, Colonel Bliss having been injured, he
had been directed to notify the senior officer to take command of the
brigade, and that Lieutenant-Colonel Pleasants, of the Forty-eighth
Pennsylvania, was in command. He was soon succeeded, however, by
Colonel Curtin, who had been temporarily absent.

The shower settled into a steady rain, and the night was cold and
cheerless. The advance was continued in the darkness until we
reached a line of breastworks around a deserted farm-house. Here we
remained during the night. The head-quarters of the regiment were in
a dilapidated barn, and nearly all the officers lay down upon the
wet ground, which constituted the floor. The place was filthy and
disagreeable; but any shelter was welcome on such a night. The hours
dragged drearily. The men were under arms, and the pickets, though
almost exhausted, were alert and vigilant. We were ignorant of the
enemy's position, yet conscious that the morning light would reveal it,
and be the signal for a determined assault.

The morning of Thursday (the 12th) dawned cold and dismal. A curtain
of gray mist enshrouded the earth as with a pall. The men shivered
as they awoke from unrefreshing sleep, and the order to advance was
promptly responded to. Without food we moved forward, continuing the
line of advance of the previous evening, and, after a short march,
reached a large opening in the forest, where a portion of the corps was
being massed in column by brigades in line of battle. During the night
the Second Corps had been massed on our right, and were ordered to
assault at daylight, with a portion of our corps to support the left.
We were to advance by brigade front, formed _en echelon_. The Second
Brigade was in front, the First Brigade had the second line, with the
Thirty-sixth again on the extreme left. The Second Brigade was ordered
to advance to the right, to uncover the front of our brigade, when we
were to advance rapidly to the front, connect our right with the left
of the Second Brigade, and push forward. While forming for the attack
we heard the loud cheers of the troops on our right, who were charging
the enemy, followed by the thunder of artillery. This was the signal
for our attack, and the division advanced rapidly toward the woods,
the brigades deployed to the right and left, and a heavy skirmish line
was thrown out. We drew the first fire from the rebel skirmishers at
half-past four o'clock.

The line of our advance to the woods lay over a steep knoll, which
descended into a swampy thicket just in front of the woods, and while
crossing this exposed ground the regiment encountered a very severe
fire of musketry at short range from the enemy posted in the edge
of the woods; but he retired rapidly before our advance, and, as we
entered the woods, attempted to swing around our left, with the evident
intention of outflanking us. To prevent this movement Companies C, B,
and K were deployed to the left of the line of battle, to cover the
flank and protect the rear. The division which had been expected to
prolong the line of battle on the left had not come into position, and
it seemed to us that the dire experience of the Wilderness was now to
be repeated. But the enemy suddenly fell back, and appeared to abandon
the attempt to double our left flank. By five o'clock the engagement
had become very hot, and as the division advanced the cheering on the
right was renewed, and the firing became terrific. The lurid flash of
musketry lighted up the dim woods, and the din of battle resounded on
every side.

Connection was established with Griffin's brigade, which joined the
left of the Second Corps near their point of attack at the famous
"death angle," thereby securing our right; but the left was badly
exposed, and the advance of the promised support in that direction was
anxiously awaited. We were in a dense forest, and it was impossible
to distinguish the position of the enemy or his approach, should he
attack, until the skirmishers should come in contact. The firing in our
immediate front was very sharp and close, indicating the presence of
a large force, and our skirmish line was reinforced preparatory to a
charge which we had been ordered to make, and also to resist any attack
of the enemy.

In a few minutes intelligence was passed along the line that Hancock
had just finished a successful charge on the right, carrying the
enemy's line, near the McCool House, capturing four thousand
prisoners and twenty cannon. Soon after, a large force of the enemy
was discovered moving from the right toward the left, in column,
across our front. The skirmishers opened a sharp fire, which was not
returned, but instead we heard the cry, "For God's sake, don't fire!"
At the same time word came from the right of our division, "Cease
firing! Hancock's prisoners are passing along your front." The firing
ceased, when in a few minutes a horrible cry came from the left of the
Thirty-sixth,--"The rebels are on our flank!" The fatal impression
seemed to prevail that this body of the enemy was the division just
captured by General Hancock. A sergeant came in from the skirmish
line and reported that a Union officer had ordered the line to cease
firing, and that the rebels carried a white flag; and the impression
was general that these were rebel prisoners moving toward the rear.
They were formed squarely across our flank, and Captain Buffum, Acting
Major, who had command of the left wing, walked out on the narrow
wagon-track which diagonally crossed our left, across which these
rebels had formed, and waving his sword toward them, cried out, "Come
in, Johnnies! We won't hurt you. Come in!" We could look into their
very faces. We could almost see the whites of their eyes. They were
the veterans of A. P. Hill, Lane's brigade,[13] of Heth's division.
As far as we could distinguish weapons they were standing at ordered
arms. Captain Buffum was but ten yards from them, and going toward
their line, when he was answered by a murderous volley, which will
never be forgotten by any who survived it. And never shall we forget
the splendid coolness and courage of Captain Buffum as he came back
to the line, and amid the confusion which followed this terrible
attack, calmly faced two or three companies to the left, and gave the
order,--"Let them have it!" Though suffering fearfully the regiment
behaved nobly. The attack was terrific. It was the most awful moment
of our history. Yet the regiment was equal to the emergency, and its
stand, it is believed, saved the division from panic or capture. The
left was gradually drawn back from the colors, and soon the entire left
wing presented a front to the enemy. Lying upon the ground, loading
and firing rapidly, pouring upon the enemy a low fire which was most
effective and deadly, they maintained the unequal contest until an
order came down from the right for the whole line to charge. Then,
rising to their feet in the midst of the awful fire, with an alacrity
and courage beyond this feeble praise, the regiment was rushing toward
the enemy, when loud cheers were heard upon our left, and in another
moment we were joined by the gallant Twenty-first Massachusetts,--the
right regiment of the First Division line,--which came up on the double
quick to prolong the line of battle. Cheer answered cheer, and both
regiments charged the enemy, who was driven back to his intrenchments
with great loss, leaving his killed and wounded in our possession. Two
lines of detached rifle-pits were taken, with some prisoners, and the
right brigade carried a portion of the enemy's main line and captured
two pieces of artillery; but in a little while the enemy made a most
furious attack, and the connection with the Second Corps on the right
was broken; the right was turned and forced out of the works.

[13] Lane's brigade was composed of the Seventh, Eighteenth,
Twenty-eighth, Thirty-third, and Thirty-seventh regiments of North
Carolina troops. The operations of the brigade on the morning of the
12th are detailed in the "History of Lane's North Carolina Brigade,"
Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. IX., No. 4, pp. 146, _et seq._

Soon after, a general attack along the whole line was ordered, and the
regiment advanced; but the enemy's works at this point were too strong
to be carried. The rebels made several attempts to regain the ground
we had occupied, but were driven back each time with severe loss.
Several times orders were given from the right or left to attack, but
the assaults were successful only at isolated points. Along the Third
Division front the fighting was unusually desperate and bloody. Charges
and counter-charges were made and repulsed. In the "death angle" on
the right of our division the fighting was the most sanguinary of the
war. The enemy made the most desperate attempts to recover the works,
but every attack was repulsed with great slaughter. About noon we
strengthened our skirmish line, which was very close to the enemy's
position, and a temporary line of rifle-pits was thrown up, which
afforded partial shelter. Slowly the terrible day of Spottsylvania
dragged on. The mist of the morning was but the prelude to a heavy
storm; at times the rain fell in torrents.

After the excitement of the attack had somewhat subsided a spirit of
deep sadness pervaded the regiment. Comrades and friends had been
stricken in death. Those dismal woods had been the scene of their last
conflict; and many a companion of weary marches and lonely picket, many
a tried and trusted comrade, was sleeping in death. Of the commissioned
officers, Captain Bailey, the beloved commander of Co. G, had received
a mortal wound. Corporal Hall, of his company, was one of the first
to fall in our close conflict with the enemy, when we received the
volley with which the battle for us opened, and some of his comrades
carried him a few steps to the rear of our line of battle. Captain
Bailey moved at once to the spot, and as he was bending over the dying
corporal, a minie ball entered the captain's forehead, and he fell
forward upon the corporal's body. Some of his men carried him to the
field hospital; but nothing could be done for him. He breathed all
day; but consciousness did not return, and at nightfall he died. And
so we were called to part with a faithful officer and a noble-hearted
companion. He had entered the service with a patriotic desire to serve
his country; and his last words to those whom he loved, written after
the battle of the Wilderness, showed that he had counted the cost, and
was willing, if need be, to lay down his life in the endeavor to secure
the great objects for which on our part the war was waged.

Captain Morse, of Company C, and Orderly Sergeant White, commanding
Company I, had both been badly wounded, and taken to the rear. The
loss of the regiment in its non-commissioned officers was especially
severe. They were rising steadily from the ranks to fill the vacancies
in the line to which their bravery and capacity entitled them. These
men had conferred honor upon the regiment, and many of them had won
the highest respect and affection of their commanding officers.
Under any circumstances their loss to the regiment would have been
deplorable; at such a time it seemed to us irreparable. The day had
been to the regiment a literal baptism of fire and blood; but before
its close we were destined to sustain another severe loss in the death
of First Lieutenant Henry W. Daniels, commanding Company H. He had
been in command of the skirmish line all day, and toward evening came
in to report the condition of the line, get ammunition and receive
instructions for the night. He said he had fired considerably during
the day and had attracted the attention of the enemy. He left us
with the repeated caution from Captain Barker not to expose himself
unnecessarily. He had been at his post but a little while when
Sergeant Woodward, who was standing in the main line, saw him fall,
and cried out, "My God! the lieutenant is shot!" His head was pierced
by a minie ball, and he who but a few moments before had left us in
the full strength and courage of early manhood was brought back a
corpse. Comrade Bartlett, who was on the skirmish line, thus relates
the circumstances of his death: "I was on the line about two rods
distant from him. He had just come out with ammunition for us. A rebel
sharp-shooter in a tree on our right had troubled us exceedingly.
Lieutenant Daniels took a musket to bring him down, as he could see by
the smoke when he fired about where he was. After discharging the piece
without effect, he had reloaded and raised it to his shoulder to fire
the second time when he was shot by the sharp-shooter, and fell dead."
This event was a sad ending of a terrible day, and cast a gloom upon
all. We were pained at the recollection that the last days of his life
were saddened by the death of his brother Myron in the Wilderness, only
six days before, and our hearts went out in sympathy toward the kindred
of all our slain in northern homes; and, as we thought of the many
scenes of peril through which we must pass, and the certainty of death
which awaited many, we cried, in the anguish and bitterness of heart,
"How long, O Lord, how long?"

The loss in the regiment in this action, including the Twenty-ninth
men, was, killed, twenty-seven; wounded, seventy; missing,[14] ten;
total, one hundred and seven.

[14] Courtland A. Allen, of Company D, who was among the missing, was
wounded in the hand, and in going to the rear, as he supposed, was
captured. He was in several rebel prisons, and was in Andersonville
while Sherman was on his "March to the Sea." While being removed from
Andersonville, he with five or six others jumped from the railroad
train and escaped to the swamps, where they remained for several weeks
subsisting on roots and berries, and were on the verge of starvation,
when they found a _dug-out_, and made their way down the Altamaha river
to the blockading squadron, and were taken on board one of the vessels
about six weeks after their escape.

       *       *       *       *       *

The list, as far as can be ascertained, is as follows:--


  _Commissioned Officers._

  _Killed._--Captain S. Henry Bailey, Lieutenant Henry W. Daniels.
  _Wounded._--Captain Edwin A. Morse.


  _Enlisted Men._

  _Company A._ _Killed._--Privates James Alexander, Levi Chamberlain,
  Franklin Howe. _Wounded._--Corporal Barney Sheridan, Privates
  Frederick C. Battles, Andrew Coyle, John A. French, Francis A.
  Perkins.

  _Company B._ _Killed._--Corporal James N. Doughty, Private Obed R.
  Davis. _Wounded._--First Sergeant Thomas H. Haskell, Sergeant Edwin
  F. Crosby, Corporal George W. Paine, Private John T. Priest.

  _Company C._ _Killed._--First Sergeant A. Fernando Bailey, Sergeant
  George E. Freeman, Corporal Fanning T. Merritt, Private Michael
  Loughlin. _Wounded._--Corporal Stephen F. Logee, Privates Luke K.
  Davis, Edwin Searles.

  _Company D._ _Killed._--Sergeant Stephen T. Brooks (commanding
  Company), Corporal Alden J. Sawtell, Privates Samuel B. Hale, Peter
  Breen, Dennis Hare. _Died of Wounds._--Private Sanford Giles.
  _Wounded._--Corporal Courtland A. Allen, Privates John M. Demary,
  Edwin W. Lund, Augustus S. Whitney, William L. Renouf.

  _Company E._ _Wounded._--Privates William F. Whitney, Joseph B.
  Wheelock.

  _Company F._ _Wounded._--Corporals Ammiel Littlefield, Orrick H.
  Adams.

  _Company G._ _Killed._--Corporal William H. Hall. _Died of
  Wounds._--Private John S. Emerson. _Wounded._--Private Andrew B.
  Fletcher.

  _Company H._ _Killed._--Sergeant Jerome Pierce, Private Lewis
  D. Winslow. _Died of Wounds._--Private Eugene W. Hodgman.
  _Wounded._--Sergeant John A. Fisher, Private Augustus F. Colburn.

  _Company I._ _Died of Wounds._--Private Franklin Farnsworth.
  _Wounded._--First Sergeant Alonzo A. White (commanding Company),
  Privates Savillion Arnold, Luke Lavin, Hazen D. Leighton, John A.
  Bosworth.

  _Company K._ _Died of Wounds._--Private Samuel G. Vaughn
  (wounded in Wilderness, but had returned to duty). Private
  Matthew Hudson (captured and died in rebel prison at Florence,
  S.C.). _Wounded._--Sergeant Edward Chamberlain, Privates Silas
  Chamberlain, Henry Noi (wounded May 6, but had returned to duty).

  Names of killed and wounded of Twenty-Ninth Massachusetts
  Volunteers, serving with the Thirty-Sixth Regiment May 12th, 1864.

  _Killed._--Sergeants Hamer and Mosher, Privates Alexander, Fisher,
  Ward, Morton,[15] Murphy, and Mansfield. _Wounded._--Privates
  Adams, Willett, Feeney, Little, Guiney, Mitchell, Hamlin, Parsons,
  McAloney, Hoxie, Thresher, and Thompson.

[15] Lemuel Morton had a presentiment that he should be killed in this
battle. He had but two days more to serve to complete an honorable
record of three years. He was the first man killed in the engagement,
falling at the first fire, before the regiment entered the woods.

The most severe loss was sustained by Company D,[16] which lost seven
killed and nine wounded,--a total of sixteen. The loss in the brigade
in killed, wounded, and missing was four hundred and fifty-one; in the
division one thousand one hundred and ninety-three.

[16] In this action Captain Buffum acted as Major, and his Company [D]
was commanded by Sergeant Brooks until he was killed. The company was
then under command of Sergeant Liberty W. Foskett, until the arrival
of First Sergeant John A. Stearns, from recruiting service, May 15th.
Sergeant Foskett was wounded at Petersburg, June 17th, 1864.

During the entire night of the 12th the men were hard at work
felling trees and erecting breastworks, and by daylight we had a
strong defensive line. The 13th passed without special incident. The
skirmish-firing was sharp and unremitting, and one man, Private William
H. Doyle, Company B, was badly wounded. A feeling of dread uncertainty
pervaded the troops. An assault upon the enemy's works was ordered, but
before any movement could be made the order was countermanded. At times
the rain fell in torrents, and our position was very uncomfortable.

On the 14th the men belonging to the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts,
whose term of service expired that day, were sent to the rear to be
transported to Washington for muster-out. They were followed, on the
16th, by the remainder of that regiment, seventy-six in number, whose
terms of service expired at various dates between the 14th and 21st of
May. Immediately after the action of the 12th the attention of General
Burnside was called to the circumstances of the case, and he at once
ordered that the survivors should now have their discharge, and caused
them to be sent to Washington. The departure of these comrades caused a
material reduction of our effective strength; but we rejoiced in their
good fortune, and bade them God-speed homeward. We regarded them as
brothers, and parted from them with deep regret. They were transferred
to our regiment on the 30th of January, 1864, while in Tennessee, under
circumstances of peculiar hardship, owing to what has always been
considered a too literal interpretation of a general order. For more
than three months they had been identified with our command in all the
hardships and privations of the spring of 1864. They evinced the spirit
of true Massachusetts soldiers, and nobly performed their duty to the
last hour of their service. Their courage and devotion at Spottsylvania
are worthy of the highest praise. Eight of these men, Sergeants Mosher
and Hamer, Privates Mansfield, Alexander, Fisher, Ward, Morton, and
Murphy, having but a few, some of them only two, days longer to serve
to complete the honorable record of three years' service, went into
that battle and sealed their devotion by pouring out their blood and
dying in defence of the nation's honor. To us it seemed hard, indeed,
that these men could not have been sent to the rear on the morning of
that day, or assigned to some duty whereby that sacrifice need not have
been extorted. But, like good soldiers, they went forward as ever under
the folds of the flag that before nightfall was to be crimsoned with
their blood. All honor to the noble band, also, twelve in number, who
were wounded on that day; and all honor to the gallant regiment in
which they were trained to such performance of duty!

The storm continued throughout the 14th. In the night the enemy drove
in our pickets three times, and the men were under arms, hoping that
the enemy would attack the main line. This, however, they declined to
do. Sunday, the 15th, was stormy and dismal. The long rain rendered our
position very trying and uncomfortable. We had but little shelter, and
the exposure to the constant bad weather, the scarcity of food, the
want of sleep, and the mental strain, now began to have perceptible
effect. Many cases of sickness were reported, and Assistant-Surgeon
Bryant, the only medical officer with the regiment, afforded what
relief the limited means at hand would permit. The supply of ammunition
was replenished, and the lines were thoroughly inspected by General
Potter, who ordered a traverse built in rear of our regiment. Although
the weather was dark and gloomy, and there were many discouraging
circumstances, the day was rendered comparatively happy by the arrival
of Captain Smith, First Lieutenant Brigham, and nine non-commissioned
officers, who had been absent since February on recruiting service in
Massachusetts. They received a soldier's welcome, and proved to be a
timely and valuable reinforcement.

On the 16th Captain Buffum, in charge of the skirmish line, advanced
the pickets, and strengthened and improved the front line. This was not
agreeable to the enemy, who made several ineffectual attempts to force
us back. A strong demonstration was made on our part, and the firing
was severe. The enemy was found to be in full force, and no attack was
made. Cannonading and skirmishing continued through the 17th, and the
position of some of the corps was changed. The Fifth and Sixth Corps
moved to the left, leaving only Birney's division of the Second Corps
on the right of the Ninth. Corporal Marcus Keep, of Co. E, was mortally
wounded. During the night it became evident that a new movement was on
foot. Troops were in line of battle in our rear, and we were ordered
to be in readiness to move in any direction at a moment's notice. At
four o'clock, on the morning of the 18th, the artillery opened along
the entire line, under cover of which a portion of the Second Corps,
with the Second Brigade of our division, made a vigorous attack upon
the enemy's line. The enemy had slashed timber along his front, and
the abatis was almost impenetrable, and by eleven o'clock, after
three attempts to storm the works, the effort was abandoned, although
considerable ground was gained, and a good position secured. The
enemy's artillery fire was very severe, and directed especially against
our division; but the loss in our brigade was very slight. Toward
evening the attacking column was withdrawn, and the Second Brigade was
massed in our rear.

The newly commissioned chaplain, Rev. Nathaniel Richardson, reported
on the 18th, and was assigned to duty in the Field Hospital, among the
sick and wounded.

At midnight the regiment was aroused by an aide-de-camp, and ordered to
move silently and rapidly to the rear. Upon reaching the open ground,
where we formed on the morning of the 12th, we filed toward the left of
the line, and after a very tedious march, over rough corduroy, stumps,
and fallen timber, halted at daylight near the Anderson house, where
a large portion of the army was massed. At eight o'clock the corps
marched by the flank toward the left, in a southerly direction, and
while on the march were passed by Generals Grant, Meade, and Burnside,
who were greeted with loud cheering. It soon became evident that a
general movement was in progress. After marching three or four miles
a halt was ordered, and the division filed into a large open field,
and went into line of battle on the left of the corps; afterwards the
division was faced to the left, and formed in two lines of battle,
the First Brigade in front. The brigade was then formed in column by
regiments, the Thirty-sixth being in front, and moved forward across
the field to the edge of a forest, where companies A and G were
deployed as skirmishers under the eye of General Potter. We moved
through a belt of fine woods, and halted in front of a broad, open
plain, at a point where three roads intersected. Here we were ordered
to intrench. A high rail fence formed the basis of the line, and in a
little while we had a strong defence. Jones' Eleventh Massachusetts
Battery was put in position on our left, and by noon the line was
firmly established, and the men lay down to enjoy the much-needed rest.

That afternoon we received the first mail since leaving Catlett's,
fifteen days before; and many hearts were made happy by loving words
from home. The dangers and fatigues of the past two weeks were soon
forgotten or transcribed to paper, for we now had our first opportunity
for writing as well as receiving letters. Scattered through the woods
in all directions could be seen the brave soldiers, who but yesterday
were engaged in deadly conflict, recounting to the loved ones at home
the story of the marches, bloody battles, and sad losses of the past
two weeks. Ours was, proverbially, a "letter-writing" regiment, and the
mail for our single regiment often exceeded that of the remainder of
the brigade.

The camp at this place was greatly enjoyed. Baggage was brought up from
the rear, shelter tents were pitched, and the men improved all the
opportunities for rest. A strong force reconnoitred toward Stannard's
Mills, on the Po river, and returned safely, having found no enemy
within five miles of our position. Heavy firing continued on our right,
and an attempt of Early's corps to turn the right flank, and seize the
Fredericksburg road, was splendidly repulsed by a division of heavy
artillery regiments on their way to the front to reinforce the army.

But, like all other pleasant experiences in a soldier's life, this rest
was soon to end. At half-past three o'clock, on the afternoon of the
21st, we received orders to break camp, and the brigade, with Jones'
battery, was ordered to take possession of the crossing of the Po river
at Stannard's Mills. After marching about five miles the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, which was in the advance, encountered the enemy's
pickets, and after a lively fight drove them across the river. Upon our
further advance we uncovered a battery of three guns, posted near the
river, which opened upon us with a heavy fire of shell and canister.
Colonel Curtin formed his line of battle in the woods near the river,
and the skirmishers became briskly engaged along the river's banks.
General Potter came up at this time to examine the position of the
enemy, which was found to be strongly intrenched. While searching for
a ford by which to cross and attack, orders were received to suspend
the attack, and our brigade and Jones' battery were left in position,
to prevent the enemy from crossing, while the remainder of the column
moved, by way of Smith's Mills, to Downer's bridge.

The day had been pleasant and very hot; but at dusk, just as we had
completed our movement, a heavy rain set in. We were in close proximity
to a watchful enemy, and were obliged to maintain the utmost vigilance
and quiet. We had no blankets nor shelter of any kind, and were not
allowed to kindle fires, and, in consequence, passed a most dreary
and uncomfortable night. Troops were marching in rear of our line all
night, and before daylight our brigade was withdrawn and moved forward
on the Telegraph road southward.



CHAPTER XV.

ON THE NORTH ANNA AND THE PAMUNKEY.


The great army was once more on the march, and another "left-flanker"
was in progress. At six o'clock, on Sunday morning, we halted an hour
for breakfast. At seven the march was resumed. The day was pleasant
and very hot, relieved by a half hour's rain at noon. Our brigade was
separated from the remainder of the corps, which had marched during
the previous night while we had been holding the river fords. During
our noon halt all the trains of the army passed us, together with the
head-quarters' guard, and the rebel prisoners captured in the recent
battles. The noon halt was at Guiney Station. In the afternoon we
marched in the direction of Bowling Green, toward the North Anna river,
and our brigade had the rear of the column on this road. The march that
day was very pleasant. We had emerged from the dense forests of the
Wilderness and Spottsylvania to an open and beautiful farming country,
abounding with well-tilled fields and fine dwellings, which bore
evidences of comfort and plenty, unscathed by the desolations of war.
As we advanced southward the roads improved, and our march was very
rapid. At five o'clock we came up with the remainder of our division,
and continued the march until nightfall, when we bivouacked near Bethel
Church, having marched sixteen miles.

Early the next morning the march was resumed, but the roads were so
crowded with the wagon-trains and artillery that the progress was very
slow, and we did not fairly commence our day's work till three o'clock
in the afternoon. The roads having by that time been partly cleared
we pushed along with great rapidity, our ears being every few minutes
greeted with the distant booming of artillery. Our speed was not abated
until about dark, when we approached the North Anna river at Ox Ford.
We bivouacked for the night by the roadside near Chesterfield Church,
and were lulled to sleep by the din of moving battalions and the steady
fire of the skirmishers.

Grant's movement to the North Anna had been observed by Lee. The
operation, which in the presence of a wary foe is one of the most
hazardous, had been conducted with great skill and complete success;
yet the enemy, possessing the direct road to the river, had been
enabled to move with great rapidity, while the march of our army
had to be made cautiously over comparatively unknown roads. When,
therefore, we reached the river we found the enemy prepared to dispute
its passage. The army of the Potomac reached the North Anna on the
afternoon of the 23d, at three points,--the Fifth and Sixth Corps, on
the right, at Jericho Ford; the Ninth near Ox Ford; and the Second, on
the left, at the Chesterfield bridge. The river at the points where the
army reached it makes a bend to the south, and then immediately to the
north-east, thus nearly forming two sides of a triangle. Lee's army was
in a strong position, the centre resting opposite General Burnside's
position at Ox Ford, with his flanks drawn back, the line of battle
being nearly in the form of the letter V; or, as a rebel author aptly
writes, Lee had "inserted a wedge of gray tipped with steel," in the
centre of Grant's line. The Fifth and Sixth Corps crossed the river to
the right, and the Second, after sharp fighting at the bridge on the
left.

When the passage at Ox Ford, between the two wings of our army, was
attempted by General Burnside, it was resisted with great spirit; and
it being impracticable to attack at that point, although a portion
of the corps crossed the river, the Ninth Corps was divided, and our
division assigned to General Hancock to coöperate in the movement on
the left. The 24th was excessively hot. The men were obliged to lie in
an open field exposed to the sun, and suffered much from the heat. Soon
after daylight the picket fire deepened into a heavy and continuous
discharge of musketry, mingled now and then with artillery. At two
o'clock came the order "Fall in!" and in a moment we were on our way
toward the river which separated us from General Lee's position. Just
before we reached the river a brief halt was ordered. We had moved out
in column, and the Thirty-sixth had the left. When we resumed the march
we faced by the left, and moved by a circuitous route through the woods
to Chesterfield bridge, passing the hospitals of the Second Corps. Upon
reaching General Hancock's head-quarters Colonel Curtin reported to
that officer in person, who ordered us to cross the river at once. We
were, however, obliged to wait for some time, while other troops and
batteries were crossing, and were exposed to a severe artillery fire,
which would have been very destructive had the guns been better served.
We also encountered a severe fire as we crossed Chesterfield bridge,
but fortunately no one was injured.

After crossing the river Captain Barker was directed to push on
without waiting for the brigade, with orders to report to any officer
of General Hancock's staff. We passed through a strong line of works
captured early in the day by Birney's division of the Second Corps,
and were ordered to relieve a Pennsylvania regiment of Mott's brigade,
which had been deployed in the woods as skirmishers. This duty was at
once performed, when General Hancock, who had come out to look at the
ground, ordered us to push forward, with the remark, "See if you can
find any rebels." The regiment advanced gallantly with a fine line,
considering its length and the dense forest. In a few minutes a sharp
rattling fire proved that we had found the enemy and in strong force.
We continued the advance until we neared a large clearing,--an open,
level field, across which, in the edge of the woods, could be seen
the enemy's entrenched picket line and the strong main line beyond. A
charge across this field would entail fearful loss, for the rebels were
burrowed in their works and could pour a most destructive fire upon our
line. By this time the remainder of the division had come into line in
our rear, and in a little while had a line of log breastworks erected.
We were ordered to cover the front of our division, and it became
necessary to extend our right to the bank of the river, which at this
point was very high and steep. The enemy were well posted, and the fire
of their sharp-shooters was very annoying and fatal. Company A lost
Sergeants May and Derby, two of its best men, within five minutes after
the line was extended. At the same time the left was extended, and our
line, though thin, was in good position.

While these movements were in progress a most furious thunder-shower,
which had threatened for some hours, burst upon us in great violence.
The rain poured in torrents, and the blinding lightning and rolling
thunder mingling with the volleys of musketry and crash of artillery
produced an impression calculated to inspire terror in the stoutest
heart. The storm was so severe as for a time to put a stop to the
firing while the battle of the elements continued. After the fury of
the tempest had somewhat abated the picket-firing was actively renewed.
Just before dark General Potter came out to examine the position, and
while inspecting the picket line narrowly escaped death from the fire
of the sharp-shooters. He was mounted, and presented a good target for
their fire. He was cautioned of his danger and the nearness of the
enemy, but answered only with an indifferent "Humph!" and after he had
completed his inspection, which seemed unnecessarily long, turned and
rode leisurely away, to the evident relief of his companions.

Notwithstanding a heavy rain, which continued the greater part of the
night, and our cheerless and exposed position, a steady fire was kept
up all along the picket line, and the enemy's fire was unusually
hostile. The returning daylight revealed the entrenchments of the enemy
across the clearing in our front to be much nearer than we had realized
in our advance in the previous twilight. They were very strong,
protected by a formidable abatis, and were well filled with troops, who
poured upon us a very close and effective fire. Our position, although
somewhat protected by detached rifle-pits thrown up the night before,
was greatly exposed and very dangerous. Soon after daylight the left
of the regiment was advanced a short distance, for the purpose of
correcting the formation of the picket line. The work was accomplished
under a severe fire, by which Luke Doyle of K, and Corporal Rice of C,
were badly wounded. By slow degrees the picket-pits were extended, and
by noon the line was made continuous and afforded a good protection. At
four o'clock that afternoon the regiment was relieved, and posted in
rear of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania in the line of battle, having lost
one man killed and four wounded.

During the 26th the brigade was under arms all day. The Second Brigade,
supported by a portion of our own, attacked and drove back the whole
line of the enemy's skirmishers in our front, and established a new
line farther in advance. The works of the enemy were now reconnoitred,
and found to be so strong as to make an attack impracticable;
accordingly the anticipated assault was not made. The rain continued;
but the arrival of an unusually large mail caused much joy in camp, and
more than compensated for the drenching we sustained. At nine o'clock
that evening Captain Smith, brigade officer of the day, advanced the
entire skirmish line, under a sharp fire of musketry and artillery.
Our brigade was then relieved by a brigade of Birney's division, and
quietly withdrawn across the river, the Thirty-sixth leading the
division line. After stumbling about in the mud and darkness for some
five miles, the brigade, at two A.M., bivouacked near Mount Carmel
Church, on the same ground occupied by us on the night of the 23d.
The operations of the last four days had been extremely exhausting.
The constant strain by day and night, the exposure to storm, and all
the dangers and fatigue incident to such a campaign, began to tell
seriously upon the command. The effective strength of the regiment now
was ten commissioned officers and two hundred and thirty-six enlisted
men.

On the 27th orders bearing date of May 25th were promulgated from
General Grant's head-quarters, consolidating the Ninth Army Corps with
the Army of the Potomac. Heretofore it had been an independent command,
receiving directions from General Grant. By this arrangement General
Burnside, although senior in rank to General Meade, placed himself
voluntarily under his command, and, with characteristic unselfishness,
generously waived all considerations of rank and military etiquette for
the good of the service.

During the forenoon of the 27th the corps was concentrated near Mount
Carmel Church. Early in the afternoon the third flanking movement
commenced. Each of these movements had brought us face to face with
the enemy strongly intrenched to dispute our further progress. Each
time, after days of toil and bloodshed, without gaining any material
advantage, we had been withdrawn to renew the struggle at some other
point. This movement was secretly and successfully accomplished. Not
a picket shot was fired, and the enemy did not seem to be aware of
the withdrawal. In the march the Second Division had the rear of the
column, and we moved in a south-easterly direction, toward the Pamunkey
river. The roads were so obstructed by wagon trains and artillery
that it cannot be said that we _marched_ until night. We caught two
or three hours' sleep at intervals during the evening, but after nine
o'clock the halts were less frequent until about one o'clock, when we
bivouacked by the roadside, after a toilsome march of about twelve
miles.

At daylight on the 28th the camp was astir. At seven o'clock the march
was resumed, and we passed through a fine, open country, level and
well cultivated. The march, however, was as tedious as that of the day
before. The regular roads were given up to the immense trains, and
the troops were obliged to make their way across fields and bottom
lands. At noon we had an hour's rest for dinner, and at half-past two
we halted on the grounds of an extensive plantation, where the corps
was massed. Corps head-quarters were at the mansion-house. It was a
princely establishment, surrounded by the cabins of the slaves, and
from appearances "all the hands" were at home. We expected to camp at
this place; but, after an hour's halt, greatly to our disappointment we
were ordered forward.

The Second Division now had the right. The march was severe, and
many fell out exhausted. Occasionally a halt was ordered, and the
men dropped in the road for rest, and many had to be aroused to
prevent them from being run over by the galloping artillery. It was
emphatically a forced march. The roads were ablaze with burning rails,
and the tall pines on fire presented a most picturesque and brilliant
scene for those who could keep their eyes open long enough to enjoy
it. Soon after midnight, near Hanover Town, we reached the Pamunkey
river, which we crossed on the pontoon bridge at one o'clock, and half
an hour later bivouacked about two miles from the river. It was noticed
that there was no playing "High, Low, Jack" to determine who should
go for the water or cook the coffee. Every man dropped in his place,
completely exhausted from the effects of a night march of more than
twenty miles.

At four o'clock on the 29th we were again aroused, moved forward a few
miles, and halted in the woods by the roadside while the Fifth Corps
passed to the front. Soon after noon we were ordered to the rear, and
halted for rest in a pine grove, through which flowed a stream of
water in close proximity to the wagon train. It was Sunday; surely
rest was never more welcome to wearied, jaded men. It was the first
rest deserving the name since the 20th, at Spottsylvania. Here we
pitched our tents, and the men availed themselves of a fine opportunity
for washing clothes, and overhauling their sadly diminished wardrobe.
The evening was bright and beautiful. The head-quarters' band near us
discoursed patriotic and sacred music and songs of home, and the memory
of that pleasant Sabbath is undimmed even at this lapse of time. To
many it was the last Sabbath on earth. The next dawned upon their lowly
graves in the swamps of the Chickahominy!

At eight o'clock on Monday, the 30th, we moved out of camp, and soon
joined the remainder of the division at Hawes' shop. An intelligent
guideboard informed us we were only twelve miles from Richmond. Line
of battle was soon after formed, and an advance ordered. The enemy was
in a strong position, and the skirmishing was very sharp. The division
halted in the road while the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania cleared the
ground in our front by a gallant charge, when the division crossed a
creek, and advanced about half a mile by the right flank into an open
plain, where we formed line of battle under the personal direction of
General Potter, who himself placed the guides. Here we were ordered
to intrench, and soon had a good line of rifle-pits, while a heavy
skirmish line was deployed in the woods in our front. The Second Corps
was upon our right, our corps occupying a position between the Second
and Fifth Corps. Strong reconnoissances were made on the roads leading
toward the Chickahominy and Richmond. The firing was very heavy, and
the rebel army was found to be in strong position on the line of
the Totopotomoy. Again having the direct road they were enabled to
confront us with their entire army strongly intrenched. The result of
the movements of this day was to secure ground well up to the enemy's
lines; but no decisive action was fought.

On the 31st, in the afternoon, an advance was ordered. We left our
strong works in the plain, and moved forward in line to the woods, and
supported a gallant attack of the Second Brigade, made in connection
with the Second Corps. We advanced about three-quarters of a mile over
what General Potter reported to be the worse ground he ever knew.
The firing was very brisk, but being in the second line our loss was
slight. The enemy was found to be strongly intrenched; but the attack
forced him out of a line of skirmish pits, which were captured by our
division, and the troops pushed closely up to the enemy's main line.
The picket line was established with great difficulty, after severe
fighting. The line of battle was now in a dense forest, reminding us
of the Wilderness, and we occupied the remainder of the afternoon in
preparing for a general attack. We connected on the right with Birney's
division of the Second Corps, and were ordered to advance with the
right or left, as the occasion might demand. On our right General
Hancock attempted to force the enemy's line; but the resistance was so
determined that no advantage was gained. A strong line of works was
erected, and the men slept on their arms, ready to repel an attack.

Early the next morning a battery of six Napoleon guns was brought up
and put in position immediately in rear of our regiment, and opened
fire on the enemy. At the same time heavy skirmishing was resumed,
and the line was prepared to assault the works in our front. General
Birney was to attack on the right, and our movement was to conform to
his. His troops moved out; but the works in his front were found to
be very formidable, protected in front by marshy ground and a strong
abatis, and the approaches enfiladed with artillery. In moving forward
General Birney uncovered a battery, and he was obliged to suspend the
attack. The men were under arms all day, ready to move forward or to
the right or left. It was a long day of anxiety and suspense. Later the
enemy made a fierce attack upon the two divisions on our left, but was
handsomely repulsed, with heavy loss. Toward night he advanced a strong
line to attack our division. He advanced in fine order, under a heavy
fire; but, not liking the appearance of our works, prudently retired.
The fighting all along the line was very severe. Much artillery was
used, but no special advantage was gained.

About midnight we were aroused by whispered orders to move by the right
flank, and with the utmost secrecy, to the rear. Long before daylight
we were in position in the line of works built by us on the 30th of
May. The Second Corps had been withdrawn from our right and moved to
the left of the army. We were ordered to be in constant readiness
for a rapid movement. While waiting here some of our comrades of the
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, seized with a sudden attack of the Eastern
Tennessee foraging mania, visited a recently deserted house in our
rear. Upon searching the premises they found some hams and bacon
sides buried in the cellar, and, on pursuing their investigations
further, dug up, not hams, but bags of silver coin, which the owner had
secreted. The amount found, it is said, was more than $3,000, besides a
considerable amount in gold. The lucky miners carried on a profitable
brokerage business for an hour, and soon the silver coin, exchanged for
currency, was everywhere throughout the camp.



CHAPTER XVI.

AT COLD HARBOR.


At one o'clock we were ordered to the left, and moved by the left
flank. The heat was intense, and the roads dusty. After marching about
two miles that portion of the corps which had left the line was massed
in an open field near General Meade's head-quarters, in rear of the
Fifth Corps right. Almost as soon as we halted we were overtaken by a
furious shower, which soon settled into an easterly storm. The rain
poured in torrents, and each one was sheltering himself as much as
possible, when the enemy made an attack. Rhodes' division of Ewell's
corps, supported by Hill and Gordon, had been thrown forward along
the road from Hundley's Corner, and had struck the skirmish line that
covered our flank. The corps was at once put in position to resist
the enemy's advance. The movement was on open ground, and the only
corps manœuvre we had witnessed during the campaign. It was directed
by General Burnside in person. The corps moved in three long lines by
division fronts, and presented a splendid spectacle. It was a review
under fire. When we came into position the First Division was in the
front, on high ground near Bethesda Church. The Second and Third
Divisions supported the First. Two batteries of artillery opened upon
the advancing enemy, who replied with artillery and musketry, and for
a time there was a brisk duel. The attack of the enemy was handsomely
repulsed, although, in the surprise occasioned by his first attack upon
the skirmish line of the First Division, he succeeded in capturing a
large number of prisoners. Toward dusk the division was moved by the
right flank to extend the line of battle in that direction, and a line
of rifle-pits was thrown up. Later in the evening we advanced farther
to the right and front, where the brigade was massed, and ordered to
bivouac for the night. The men had hardly time to roll themselves in
their blankets when the Thirty-sixth was sent for to prolong the line
of the Second Brigade. It was raining hard when the regiment moved out.
We halted in rear of the left of the Second Brigade line, which formed
the extreme right of the army. In front of us and to the left was a
line of deserted intrenchments, which the regiment was now ordered to
occupy. This was a very hazardous operation. We were ignorant of the
position, but knew that the enemy was in the immediate vicinity, if
not in the very works we were ordered to occupy. Not a ray of light
illumined the more than midnight darkness. The trees were dripping with
moisture and every drop sounded like a footfall. As discovery would
frustrate the entire plan, the men were sent in singly, each being
cautioned to move quietly. We were obliged to use the utmost vigilance,
and as it was, we drew some shots in moving in. We soon discovered the
enemy to be on the other side of our line of pits, but a little on our
left. A long, anxious night followed, a fitting prelude to the fearful
day to follow.

We now fully comprehend what then we could not clearly understand.
Of the previous movements we had been able to form some conception;
but the operations since crossing the Pamunkey, conducted rapidly in
jungles, swamps, and labyrinths of forest; in storm and darkness; by
marches and countermarches, advances and withdrawals,--all seemed to
us to be without consistent plan or purpose. But these operations
had been necessary to develop the strong position of the enemy along
the line of the Chickahominy, covering the railroad approach and the
principal roads leading to Richmond. The only direct path to the
Confederate capital lay across this noted stream, which one writer says
may be regarded as a wet ditch in front of the outer fortifications
of Richmond. In order to further advance upon his chosen line, it was
necessary for General Grant to force a passage of this stream. The
enemy's position along its front was so strong and unassailable that no
course seemed open except to extend the left, and, by a movement lower
down, outflank his right, and endeavor to pass the Chickahominy at Cold
Harbor.

On the first day of June Grant sent the Sixth Corps and other troops to
take possession of Cold Harbor at the left extremity of the line, it
being the junction of important roads leading to White House Landing,
Dispatch Station, Hanover, and Richmond. It commanded these divergent
roads, and was of particular importance, as it covered the road leading
to the base of supplies at White House. The place was occupied after
a sharp struggle, and the severe attack of the enemy to repossess
the place had been handsomely repulsed. That evening General Grant
determined there to force the passage of the Chickahominy, and drive
Lee's army within the intrenchments of Richmond. For this purpose the
Second Corps had been withdrawn from our right, and massed on the left
during the night of the 1st. The enemy had detached correspondingly
to his right, and the terrific shower in the afternoon, while it
interrupted Grant's plan of attack, did not prevent the enemy from
crowding all his available troops toward Cold Harbor, and perfecting
his arrangements for defence. Our line was now being contracted and
prepared to attack. Though the manœuvre during the afternoon had been
intercepted, the enemy had gained no special advantage in following up
our movement. Our line extended from near Bethesda Church on the right,
to the Dispatch Station road at Barker's Mills on the left, a distance
of about six miles. The Second Corps was now on the extreme left, the
Second Division of the Ninth Corps held the extreme right. We were on
historic ground. Two years before this had been the scene of several
of the great battles between the armies of Lee and McClellan, with the
positions, however, somewhat changed. That soil had drank the blood of
thousands of our gallant comrades; it was again to drink the blood of
thousands more.

The orders had been issued for a general assault along the entire line
at daybreak, and the final preparations were now being made. As we have
already said, the night was stormy and intensely dark. The men had
no shelter, and could not sleep, and suffered much discomfort. Just
before day the regiment, with one or two others of the Second Brigade,
was withdrawn from the woods and ordered to construct a new line of
breastworks. This work was prosecuted with all possible despatch,
and was nearly completed when, most unexpectedly, the regiment was
ordered to join our own brigade, then forming for attack. Without
a moment's delay, though weary, hungry, and cold, these brave men
leaped the breastworks and formed on the extreme left of the brigade,
joining it on the double-quick. The line was short. The brigade had
dwindled to a handful compared with its former numbers, but for the
beauty and military precision with which it moved across the field
it could challenge no superior in any corps of the army. The enemy's
heavy skirmish line was posted in the edge of the forest, and, as we
approached the woods, opened a sharp fire. Our rapidly advancing line
caused them hurriedly to withdraw. As we neared the woods a withering
volley swept the line. At the first fire the brave Color-Sergeant,
Adams E. French, of Company D, who had borne the national colors in
all the battles of the campaign, received a mortal wound, and fell
in the line. The hands of the gallant Corporal Stevens, of Company
K, caught the flag, and it did not reach the ground. The regiment
pressed forward under a galling fire, pressing toward the right, and
the enemy was driven rapidly across a creek, through a swampy morass,
over a ridge, and into their strong intrenchments, within a few yards
of the Shady Grove road, upon which was their main line. It was with
great difficulty that a line could be maintained in the dense jungle
under such a deadly fire. It was Spottsylvania over again. We were
even nearer to the enemy's works. Captain Barker, commanding the
regiment, looked to the connection on the right, while Captain Smith
gave attention to the left. As we moved forward, a rise of ground in
our front afforded slight protection; but when we reached the crest the
fire was terrific. The men held up to the work nobly. Comrades were
falling on every side, and very few escaped without slight bruises, or
having clothing cut by flying balls.

The right of the brigade encountered a strong line of works in open
ground, covered by artillery in position, which could not be overcome.
We on the left were exposed to the fire from the enemy's intrenched
line, not ten rods distant, and our flank was entirely exposed to a
heavy cross-fire. Having no support, it was impossible to advance
or retire. As at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, we were on the
extreme left, with no protection on that flank. The enemy's line was
longer than ours, and as the shots came in from the flank, with the
recollection of those dread days fresh in mind, two companies, B and K,
were deployed far to the left to keep up a show of numbers, and prevent
a surprise on the part of the enemy. The ammunition was soon exhausted,
and the cartridge-boxes of the killed and wounded comrades were emptied
for a fresh supply. We were ordered not to give an inch of ground. Men
crawled to the rear and rolled fallen trees and logs up the slope to
the top of the crest, and loosened the soil with their bayonets, and
scooped up the earth with tin cups and plates, until inch by inch they
secured some protection. As soon as a slight cover was raised, and the
supply of ammunition replenished, a close and deadly fire was opened
on the rebel line in response to their murderous volleys. The colors
were placed upon the works, and during the day were flying in the face
of the enemy. In our advance the enemy opened upon us with four pieces
of artillery posted in an earthwork. Our attack was made with so much
dash and vigor that the right of the brigade secured a position which
commanded the enemy's guns and prevented them from using the pieces.
Two caissons were blown up, many of the men and horses were killed by
our fire, and the guns stood silent and harmless throughout the day.

Meanwhile we were exposed to a merciless fire from the rebel
sharp-shooters, who were stationed in the tops of trees within their
works; but after a few hours we got their range, and were enabled to
inflict some damage, which had the effect to slacken their fire. Late
in the forenoon General Griffin's brigade, in moving around our right,
secured a position from which it could make a successful advance, and
force the enemy across the Shady Grove road. An attack was ordered, to
be delivered at one o'clock, and preparations were made to advance at
that time, in connection with an attack by our entire corps; but before
that hour the order was countermanded on account of the failure of the
assault along the left, at Cold Harbor.

Early in the afternoon, and again toward night, the enemy opened a
furious fire on our brigade, under cover of which they attempted to
draw off their artillery by _prolonge_; but our men had such perfect
range, and poured in such a close fire, that their object could not
be accomplished. At sunset a brigade of the First Division moved up
and connected with our left, and Companies B and K returned to their
original position in the line of battle. At nightfall videttes were
posted, and thus ended a dark and bloody day.

The loss in our brigade had been especially severe. Many of its
best officers and bravest soldiers had fallen before that fearful
fire, and had fought their last battle. The loss in the regiment was
proportionately greater than at the Wilderness or Spottsylvania; in
fact, it was the most destructive battle in which we were ever engaged.
As nearly as can be ascertained we carried into action that morning
eight commissioned officers and two hundred enlisted men. From that
short line we lost eight killed and forty-nine wounded, ten of them
mortally--a total of fifty-seven. Seven of this number belonged to the
Forty-sixth New York detachment. Of the commissioned officers Captain
Barker, commanding regiment, and First Lieutenant Burrage were wounded
by minie balls, the former in the arm, the latter in the shoulder.
Captains Smith and Ames were struck, but not seriously injured. The
proportion of non-commissioned officers, killed and wounded, was very
large. The regiment was deprived, also, of some of its bravest and most
faithful men. One of the first to fall was Color-Sergeant French, of
Company D. He had won a reputation for bravery and coolness of which
any soldier might be proud. During the entire campaign he had carried
the national color through leaden hail, and on long and weary marches,
never for a moment flinching in the face of danger, hunger, thirst,
or weariness. While the line was securing a foothold in front of the
enemy's works, we experienced the most terrific fire, and sustained
the severest loss. It was there that nearly all the brave men who fell
went down. It was there that we lost Acting Sergeant Major Humes, who
was struck down by a mortal wound in the chest, while he was bravely
cheering on the men. He had rejoined the regiment but three weeks
before, having been on recruiting service at home; but in that brief
time he had won the esteem and confidence of all by his cool, intrepid
bearing. The heaviest loss fell upon Company D. Its loss of nine men,
four of whom were mortally wounded, was a repetition of Spottsylvania.

Although inured, as the regiment was, to scenes of blood and carnage,
to loss and toil and suffering, the sacrifices of this dark day could
not be recounted in any spirit other than that of deep sorrow and pain.
The "faithful unto death" were mourned as on no previous day by the
little remnant who survived. It seemed to us that they were too brave
and good and noble to fall in the dark hour of battle in those dripping
woods, without the knowledge or the hope even of success. Every company
had lost some of its best and most faithful men; some who had been in
every scene of strife hitherto, and whose calm, hopeful, and even happy
spirits had often cheered and sustained the despondent, and imparted
fresh life and courage to those who were ready to faint. They would be
missed in every added battle, in every hour of future trial and gloom.
The regiment would never again seem quite the same without them; the
lonely picket would be more lonely, the long marches longer and more
fatiguing, the camp-fire and bivouac less cheerful, because they had
gone. But the sudden rupture of earthly ties could not and cannot sever
the bond that united the living and the valiant dead; and we thought
of them that night as more than ever comrades bound to us by ties of
battle-blood.

It had been a disastrous day, not alone to our regiment, but to the
entire army. The assault along the whole line had been repulsed. No
advantage had been gained, and the loss was upwards of ten thousand men.

The names of our killed and wounded in this battle are as follows:--

_Wounded._--Captain Thaddeus L. Barker, commanding regiment, arm;
Lieutenant Henry S. Burrage, shoulder.

_Company A._ _Died of Wounds._--Joseph A. Humes, (acting
Sergeant-Major). _Wounded._--Privates Charles H. Robinson, John J.
Thornton, Joseph W. Chase.

_Company B._ _Killed._--Private John S. Rackliffe. _Wounded._--Sergeant
Charles Raymond; Corporals John Lamont, L. Porter Abbott; Private John
T. Priest (leg amputated).

_Company C._ _Wounded._--Private George W. Wood.

_Company D._ _Died of Wounds._--Sergeant Adams E. French
(Color-Sergeant); Corporal Roland N. White; Privates George A. Raymond,
Francis L. Whitney. _Wounded._--Corporal Cyrus Alger; Privates Stephen
H. Patterson, William J. Barrus, J. Monroe Rich, Daniel W. Chase.

_Company E._ _Wounded._--First Sergeant Bela B. Tiffany; Corporal
Henry Macomber; Privates George Fletcher, George D. Shaw, Edward Waters.

_Company F._ _Killed._--Corporal Edwin A. Martin; Private John Keenan.
_Wounded._--Sergeant Benjamin F. Montague; Corporals John J. Higgins,
Orrick H. Adams.

_Company G._ _Killed._--Corporal Andrew Moore; Privates Frank Chenery,
William A. Dunn. _Died of Wounds._--First Sergeant Livingston Mower;
Private Estes E. Elliott. _Wounded._--Privates Andrew Adams, Lyman F.
Partridge.

_Company H._ _Wounded._--First Sergeant, Philip G. Woodward (commanding
company), Sergeant J. Hervey Miller; Private Josiah Foster.

_Company I._ _Killed._--Private Elijah H. Woodbury.
_Wounded._--Corporal Watson Wilson; Privates, Davis B. Engly, John
McGrath, George I. Carter.

_Company K._ _Died of Wounds._--First Sergeant Charles K. Avery;
Privates Albert C. Smith, John Flynn. _Wounded._--John Doyle.

  Killed and died of wounds:--
    Enlisted men                     17

  Wounded,--Commanding officers       2
    Enlisted men                     31
                                     --
      Total                          50

The detachment of the Forty-Sixth New York Regiment serving with the
Thirty-Sixth Regiment lost one man killed and six wounded.

We expected to be relieved at night, having had no sleep for
forty-eight hours; but, after waiting two hours for a fresh brigade to
arrive, we received orders that no relief could be furnished, and that
we must hold the line.

At daylight our videttes reported that the enemy had retired or was
lying low for an attack. They cautiously advanced and found the works
deserted, and a strong reconnoitring party, under Captain Ames, was
sent out to discover their whereabouts. No trace of the enemy could
be discovered; but they had left many dead unburied, and several
wounded on the field, together with much artillery, ammunition, and
several hundred muskets. From the wounded we learned that we had fought
Cook's brigade (five North Carolina regiments), of Heth's Division,
A. P. Hill's corps, and that the regiment opposed to us was the North
Carolina Tigers. Their losses had been more severe than ours. Our fire
had been very destructive, judging from the new-made graves and the
dead found upon the ground. Large numbers of dead horses were found
near the position occupied by their artillery, and the vain endeavor to
drag off the guns must have been very costly to the enemy.

In the afternoon the brigade was withdrawn to the left, and relieved
a portion of Birney's division of the Second Corps, near the Tucker
house. On that day the German detachment of the Forty-sixth New York,
which had been connected with the Thirty-sixth since March 19th,
rejoined their regiment, which had returned to the corps, leaving the
effective strength of our regiment six commissioned officers and one
hundred and sixty-eight enlisted men.

On the evening of the 5th the brigade line was changed. The right was
drawn back and extended, holding the ground near Tucker's. The regiment
worked all night, and by daylight had built a strong breastwork. The
enemy opened a furious artillery fire in the morning from the two
batteries near the Tucker house, but the loss was slight, considering
the range and rapidity of the firing. Among the wounded in this fire
was Solon Carter, of Company A, whose foot was torn off by a shell. He
was one of the coolest and bravest men in the regiment, and bore his
terrible wound with wonderful calmness. A heavy attack was made on the
extended picket line, and the pickets were driven out; but toward night
Captain Holmes went out with a reinforcement and restored the line,
after a sharp skirmish, in which he captured four prisoners belonging
to a North Carolina regiment.

The operations of the 7th were a repetition of those of the 6th on
a more extended scale. The division was exposed to a most furious
shelling from the batteries on the hill, which, however, caused no
loss in our regiment. Captain Smith was brigade officer of the day,
and while out in the afternoon with a large working-party was suddenly
attacked by a strong force of the enemy, who drove in the skirmish
line with a rush. They advanced a line of battle, broke our line, and
captured a portion of the working party, consisting of details from the
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania and Fifty-eighth Massachusetts. Captain Smith
narrowly escaped capture. In the attack Aaron Edmister, of Company B,
was mortally wounded. The enemy did not advance beyond the skirmish
line, and at six o'clock the line was reinforced, and ordered forward,
and General Potter detailed our regiment to support the attack, and
went out with us to retake the hill. We were exposed to a severe fire,
but took shelter behind a rise of ground in our front as we lay in
reserve, and suffered no loss. As we advanced the enemy fell back.
At sunset a truce of two hours prevailed along the contending lines,
excepting on our front, for the purpose of burying the dead. A white
flag was sent out from our brigade head-quarters; but the bearer met
with such a hot fire that he was obliged to return. After the truce the
firing became general along the line.

The regiment remained in line of battle outside our works all night,
and in the morning advanced to support the attack of our skirmish
line. The rebel skirmishers were driven out of the pits, and across
a field, over the top of the hill, into the woods beyond. The hill
was then fortified and held, the entire brigade moving out and going
into position. Later in the day the brigade was moved to the right,
and after several halts went into line on the extreme right of the
division, at nearly a right angle with the line of battle, facing a
wide, open plain, the right resting on an impenetrable swamp. At night
the fire was very sharp and close, and the men were under arms several
times; but, with the exception of the burning of three houses in front
of the lines, nothing unusual occurred.

For four days the regiment occupied this line. Being but little exposed
to the enemy's fire we enjoyed a season of comparative rest and
quiet, when not detailed for duty in the skirmish line. The country
around us was traversed with intrenchments and field-works of every
description, extending in all directions. The duty in the picket pits
was severe. The enemy evidently expected another assault, and were
extremely hostile, narrowly watching every movement within our lines,
and constantly on the alert to detect any changes in our position.
During these days the company had been gradually moved to the left, and
concentrated behind strong intrenchments, until at length preparations
had been completed for another change of base.

On Sunday, the 12th, indications of a general movement prevailed
throughout the corps. Baggage was packed, teams were loaded, rations
issued and cooked. The long, hot summer day passed wearily, and at
dusk Captain Smith was detailed as division officer of the day, and
placed in charge of the picket line, with orders to hold it until
midnight and then withdraw. At half-past eight o'clock the brigade
silently withdrew to the rear, and was soon on the march. The night was
excessively hot, the roads dusty, and the halts were so brief and at
such long intervals that many of the men fell out exhausted. The road
was crowded with troops. The Ninth and Eighteenth Corps marched side by
side,--the latter destined for White House Landing, to embark for City
Point, on James river. About two o'clock in the morning the regiment
lost the right of the brigade, and became merged with the troops of the
Eighteenth Corps, and kept on with them until daylight found us near
White House. At half-past five, after an hour's search, we rejoined the
brigade near Tunstall's Station.

We rested during the forenoon while the corps was concentrating, and
were joined by Captain Smith, and the picket detail. At one o'clock
that afternoon we resumed our march in a southerly direction, through
forest and swamps and across bottom lands. The march was very rapid
and well conducted. We halted at seven o'clock for supper, resumed the
march at eight, and bivouacked at half-past twelve about three miles
from the Chickahominy. Early on the 14th the command was in motion.
At nine o'clock we crossed the Chickahominy, at Jones' bridge, twenty
miles from Richmond. We halted on its banks until noon, when the march
southward was resumed, through a splendid farming country. The elegant
mansions and well-tilled lands presented a beautiful contrast to the
battle-scarred and fortified fields of Cold Harbor. The noble forests
had not yielded to the axes of the engineers, and the blight and
desolation of war were nowhere visible. We marched by way of Charles
City cross-roads and court-house, and halted for supper on the splendid
plantation once the home of ex-President Tyler.

At sunset we were again on the road. At half-past eight we passed the
camps of the Sixth Corps, and the first and third divisions of the
Ninth. The men were gathered in groups around piles of blazing rails,
busily cooking their evening meal; the bands were discoursing patriotic
music, and the whole scene was one of the most striking and magnificent
of war. At half-past nine we went into bivouac on the bank of the
historic James, at a point about three miles below Wilcox's wharf,
having made a laborious and painful, yet most successful, march of
fifty-five miles in less than forty-eight hours.



CHAPTER XVII.

THE MOVEMENT ON PETERSBURG.


The movement of the army to the James was one of the most brilliant and
successful of the war. It is one of the few of Grant's manœuvres which
commands the unanimous approval of his enemies and severest critics.
Swinton, in his "Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac," says: "The
resolution to cross the James necessitated the total abandonment of
that system of action which aimed, while operating against the enemy
offensively, to directly defend the national capital. Moreover the
operation was in itself one of great delicacy, a change of base being
pronounced by Napoleon the foremost master of war, 'the ablest manœuvre
taught by military art.' General Grant manifested as much moral
firmness in adopting a line of action which ... he felt prescribed by
the highest military considerations, as he showed ability in executing
this difficult operation. The measure itself was not only entirely
conformable to the true principles of war, but its execution reflects
high credit on the commander, and merits the closest study."

The 15th of June was passed by our brigade quietly in camp, awaiting
the completion of the pontoon bridge, from Douthard's to Windmill
Point,--a distance of 2,200 feet, across a river navigable by the
largest ships. At sunset we were ordered to draw four days' rations
and be in readiness to move at short notice. At eight o'clock
marching orders were received, and at nine o'clock we crossed on
the pontoon bridge. The river was filled with vessels of every
kind, at anchor,--transports, steamers, gunboats,--and presented a
most spirited scene. Upon reaching the southern bank the march was
prosecuted with great vigor; and as only two brief halts were made that
night it proved to be one of the most wearisome of the campaign. Soon
after daylight we halted near Prince George Court-House, for an hour,
to make coffee. While engaged in that pleasant and refreshing task our
ears were saluted by the sound of distant cannonading in the direction
of Petersburg. This was a signal that our rest was to be of short
duration.

It is no part of our purpose to criticise, or even narrate, the chapter
of mishaps and blunders which attended the movement for the capture of
Petersburg. It is sufficient to state that the golden opportunity was
now passing,--the city which was defended by the militia had not been
captured, and the army of the Potomac was being hurried forward, soon
to cope once more with its old opponent, the veterans of the army of
Northern Virginia.

At half-past eight the march was resumed in the direction of
Petersburg. At ten o'clock we passed the line of earthworks which
constituted the outer defences of the city, which were captured the day
previous by the troops of the Eighteenth Corps. At one o'clock we came
up with the advanced divisions of our own corps, already formed in line
of battle on the left of the Second Corps. At three o'clock we were put
in position on the extreme left, in the edge of a pine forest. Directly
in front, across an open plain about half a mile in extent, stood the
strong intrenchments of the enemy. Their outposts were well advanced,
and heavy skirmishing was kept up on the right, and soon extended along
the entire line. We were ordered to attack at six o'clock. At that hour
the artillery opened, and the line moved forward across the plain. The
Second Brigade supported the attack made by Barlow's Division of the
Second Corps. Our regiment and the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania were held
in reserve, to cover and protect the left flank, and extend the line
should it be necessary. The advance was most gallant and determined,
but was met by a fire of musketry and artillery which was fearfully
effective. The ground was quickly traversed, and Barlow's division and
Griffin's brigade succeeded in effecting a lodgment in some rifle-pits,
and this was the only important result accomplished. Night came down
upon the bloody plain, but did not put an end to the terrible conflict,
for the enemy made several ineffectual attempts to regain the works
he had lost. The musketry fire was terrific at times, and the battle
throughout was fierce and bloody. Some ground was gained on the right,
but no impression was made on the left. It was, however, determined to
renew the assault at daylight, and the Ninth Corps was selected to make
the attack.

After the assault on the 15th, which resulted in the capture of
a portion of his line, the enemy constructed a new line in rear,
connecting the enclosed works and redoubts of the old line still in
his possession, which were on our left. The principal work, known as
the Shand House redoubt, was very strong, and able to resist a most
determined assault. It was nearly half a mile in front of his new main
line, projected as a salient. The only promise of successful assault
seemed to lie in capturing the line of breastworks connecting this
redoubt with those on the left. The portion of the rebel lines in
our front extended along the crest of a deep and narrow ravine near
the Shand house. The position was very strong, and defended, as we
afterwards learned, by five Tennessee regiments, composing the Third
Brigade of Bushrod Johnson's Division of Infantry, supporting a battery
of artillery. On our left two guns in a redoubt completely enfiladed
the line of approach. The position seemed impregnable, and failure
would doubtless be attended with fearful loss of life. A successful
assault, however, would force the enemy to abandon the redoubts; and
General Burnside believed the works could be stormed if the troops
could be formed in the ravine without the knowledge of the enemy.

To General Potter, the gallant commander of the Second Division, was
this most arduous and desperate task assigned. He immediately prepared
for its execution. In order to reach the position it was necessary to
make a wide detour to the right. This of itself was a most difficult
matter. The slashing of pine timber presented a serious obstacle, and
the ground was full of gullies and ravines, and in moving over them the
command was much scattered. The enemy kept up an annoying and incessant
picket fire, which increased the difficulties of the movement. Aware
that a hazardous undertaking was being executed, the men maintained the
utmost quiet, and obeyed every order with promptness and precision.

At length, nearly an hour past midnight, the column reached the head
of the ravine, and the hungry and thoroughly exhausted men threw
themselves on the ground, to gain, if possible an hour's rest. They
had enjoyed no rest for more than forty-eight hours, and realized full
well the terrible business the returning light would bring. Many in
the brief half of that summer night closed their eyes in what proved
to be their last earthly sleep. Many, doubtless, saw in dreams for the
last time the faces of the dear ones at home. But all did not sleep.
These thought of the past, of their childhood and homes, of the day
whose dawn they were awaiting,--a day to receive its second baptism
of patriot's blood! And who shall say that these true souls were not
filled with the same exalted devotion to Freedom and Country which
animated the heroes of Bunker Hill as they toiled on that memorable
night of June, 1775?

But to sleeping and waking, the night waned apace. The moon which had
been shining brightly now cast long shadows, and darkness settled in
the ravines. The rebel pickets in our front grew drowsy, and through
weariness ceased their firing. No sounds were heard save the distant
rumble of wagons and artillery, the trickling of the brook in the
ravine, and the subdued breathing of the worn and weary men. The
mists from the stream ascended cold and gray, completely obscuring the
troops. The favorable moment had arrived. Now if the lines could be
formed in the ravine success seemed certain. This, however, was most
delicate business. The enemy's pickets were on the hillside only forty
feet distant, while above, upon the crest of the ravine, seventy-five
feet beyond, stood the intrenchments filled with men. The least noise
or indiscretion would betray our presence, and draw a murderous fire
from the works above. Success depended on secrecy. Profound silence was
enjoined. The tin dippers and canteens were placed in the haversacks,
to prevent the telltale jingle. Muskets were loaded, but not capped,
bayonets fixed, and orders given that not a shot must be fired until
the works were reached.

The men were now thoroughly aroused, and all signs of weariness
disappeared. The regiments were one by one moved down the brookside
into the dark ravine, and soon the lines were formed. Griffin's brigade
was on the right, with the Seventeenth Vermont, Eleventh New Hampshire,
and Thirty-second Maine, in the front line; the remainder supporting;
Curtin's brigade on the left, with the Second New York Rifles,
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, and Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, in the front
line. The Second New York Rifles had the right, the Thirty-sixth the
centre, and the Forty-eighth the left. The remainder of the brigade
were to support the front line. Griffin was to charge toward the house
bearing to the right; Curtin to bear to the left, toward the redoubt.

The hour fixed for the assault--three o'clock--drew on. The word
"Forward!" was whispered, and with cat-like steps the men advanced.
A fence obstructed the advance of our brigade, and in attempting to
remove it a rail was accidentally dropped, and instantly a half-dozen
shots from the works above revealed the fact that the enemy was on the
alert. For a moment the plan seemed frustrated; but a death-like quiet
reigned in our line, and soon the enemy became reassured.

Again, cautiously and quietly, the men crept forward. At the given
signal they rose erect, rushed for the picket line, and carried it
in an instant. Then, with one loud, ringing cheer, like a billow of
the ocean, irresistible and deadly, they dashed on up the hill. On
they went, right into the hot flash of musketry and smoke of cannon,
regardless of the wounded and the dead, regardless of the fire, without
a shrub to shield them from the withering blast.[17]

[17] In "The Virginia Campaign of '64 and '65," page 217, note, General
Humphreys, describing this action, quotes as follows, from a paper
contributed to the Massachusetts Military Historical Society, by
General S. G. Griffin, commanding Second Brigade:--

"One gunner saw us approaching and fired his piece. That was all we
heard from them, and almost the only shot fired on either side. The
rebels were asleep with their arms in their hands, and many of them
sprang up and ran away as we came over; others surrendered without
resistance."

While this statement is doubtless correct with reference to that
portion of the line attacked by General Griffin's brigade, it does
not convey a true idea of the stubborn, though short, resistance
encountered by Curtin's brigade. The fire at this point was very
severe. The Second New York Rifles broke under it, leaving only the
Thirty-sixth Massachusetts and Forty-eighth Pennsylvania in the
front line. Between the brow of the hill and the enemy's line the
Thirty-sixth lost nineteen out of less than ninety men engaged, and the
loss reported by the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania was seventy-five killed
and wounded.

A fierce, though brief, struggle ensued at the works. As the rebel
commander was pulled over the breastworks as a prisoner he shouted to
his men, "Stand firm! Their right is all gone!" The Second New York
had broken in the first fire, and left our right badly exposed. The
Forty-fifth was sent forward to protect the right, and the Fifty-eighth
Massachusetts extended the line to the left. The enemy discovered the
break in our line, and commenced a sharp cross-fire upon the regiment.
At this critical moment, Captain Smith, commanding the regiment, with
wonderful presence of mind, turned toward the left, and shouted, at
the top of his voice, "Fairbank! bring up your brigade!" at the same
moment yelling "Charge!" The ruse had its desired effect, and before
Lieutenant Fairbank could hurry his brigade of eight men, of Company
K, from the left the enemy wavered, our men leaped the works at a
bound, and captured all the defenders who did not take to their heels.

In the desperate struggle acts of individual gallantry and heroism were
performed which time would fail to recount.

The line was carried and the enemy were driven from the breastworks,
the redoubts, and from a second line where they attempted to rally.
Four pieces of artillery were captured,--two by the Forty-eighth
Pennsylvania and our regiment; one by the Seventeenth Vermont; and one
by the Eleventh New Hampshire; also the colors of the five regiments
defending the line, six hundred prisoners, and more than fifteen
hundred muskets and equipments and ammunition. The colors of the
Fourteenth New York Heavy Artillery, lost in the attack the night
before, were recaptured, nor were these the only trophies of the
victory,--an important point had been carried; the rebels had been
forced to take a new position; the Shand house, Avery house, and more
than a mile of ground, were now in our possession. It was a great
victory, but not what it might have been. It was the old story over
again,--a most spirited and gallant attack without adequate supports.
Had a single corps been on the ground in position, or had the divisions
which were ordered to support us been ready to advance, the fearful
carnage of the two succeeding days would doubtless have been prevented,
and the long, tedious, wasting, bloody siege of Petersburg might have
been avoided.

None who participated in that attack will fail to remember the morning
of the 17th of June while life shall last. It was the most brilliant
and successful engagement in which the regiment had ever had a part;
and yet in many respects it was one of the saddest days of our history.
Though the victory was ours, it had been purchased at a heavy cost. The
number of the regiment engaged was less than ninety men, many having
fallen out exhausted in the forced march from the James; yet from that
small number three were killed, and sixteen wounded,--four of them
fatally. In the thickest of the fight, amid the terrible energies of
the battle, these brave men fell martyrs to the cause of their country.

One of the first to fall was Captain Otis W. Holmes, of Milford,
commanding Company B, who received a mortal wound. The regiment
sustained no severer loss during its term of service. Few men possessed
in so marked and special degree the respect and affection of his men.
Strong and vigorous in body and mind; a brave, fearless soldier; a
cool, sagacious adviser; careful and prudent of his men,--he was a
noble specimen of manhood, and an ideal soldier. It is much to say of
an officer that he was cool and brave, equal to any emergency; but far
more to say truly of him that he was pure, good, and noble. All this
can be truly said of Holmes. The entire regiment had learned to love
and esteem him, and his untimely death was mourned by all who knew him.

The non-commissioned officers contributed more than their proportion to
the loss sustained that day, and among the killed and wounded were some
of the bravest and best soldiers of the regiment. The little line of
battle was sadly dwindled, and, after detailing a portion of the guard
required in sending the prisoners to the rear, there remained in the
ranks but forty-six enlisted men.

The loss of the regiment in killed and wounded, June 17th, was as
follows:--


  COMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

  _Died of Wounds._--Captain Otis W. Holmes.


  ENLISTED MEN.

  _Company A._ _Killed._--Sergeant George E. Keyes.

  _Company B._ _Wounded._--Private J. Wesley Packard.

  _Company C._ _Wounded._--First Sergeant Frederick W. Briggs,
  Sergeant Albert B. Whipple, Corporal Clark Robinson.

  _Company D._ _Killed._--Private John Shepardson.
  _Wounded._--Sergeant Liberty W. Foskett, Corporals Cyrus Alger,
  Adolph Bussenius.

  _Company E._ _Wounded._--Corporal Joseph V. Clark.

  _Company F._ _Died of Wounds._--Private Fred C. Ames.

  _Company H._ _Died of Wounds._--Private Edmund S. Ward.
  _Wounded._--Corporal Nathan F. Cutting, Private Franklin Wallace.

  _Company I._ _Wounded._--Privates George F. Fletcher, Ashael
  Wetherbee.

  _Company K._ _Killed._--Corporal Max Hoffman. _Wounded._--Corporal
  Joseph H. Stevens (acting Color-Sergeant).

  Killed and Died of Wounds,--
    Commissioned Officer            1
    Enlisted Men                    5
                                   --    6
  Wounded,--Enlisted men                13
                                        --
                                        19


After the wounding of acting Color-Sergeant Stevens, the colors were
taken by Corporal William Macomber, Company E, and carried by him
during the remainder of the regiment's term of service.

But no time was allowed us to mourn over our fallen comrades; the
wounded were sent to the rear while preparations were made for an
advance. We pressed forward until the enemy was found to be in a new
position. The division also formed a new line, in advance of the
position we had carried, the left resting on a redoubt in that line.
The enemy advanced a battery down the plank road and opened a severe
fire. Soon after, the front regiments of our brigade were relieved in
the advanced line, and found shelter from the artillery fire in the
ditch of the redoubt on the left, where we were exposed to a severe
shelling. Here we remained until half-past nine, when the regiments
which had formed the front line in the assault were withdrawn to the
woods half a mile in the rear for rest, after receiving warm words of
praise from General Potter and Colonel Curtin.

The battle raged almost without intermission during the day. Charges
were made by the First and Third Divisions of our corps, and the tide
of battle surged along the entire front. About eight o'clock in the
evening the regiment was sent for, and moved across the plain to the
front line. The evening was very clear, the moon shone brightly, and as
we neared the works we attracted the attention of the enemy, who opened
upon us with artillery; but our batteries replied and soon silenced the
enemy's guns. We were put in position in a line of works captured by
the First Division, and were engaged nearly all night in facing them
about. The enemy attempted to interrupt the work, without success. A
strong line of skirmishers was deployed, and the digging was continued
under an annoying fire of musketry.

On the morning of the 18th, at nine o'clock, we moved out by the right
flank to support an assault about to be made by the Third Division. The
attack was to have been general along the entire line; but the enemy
had fallen back to a new line, and the assault was delayed until new
dispositions of the troops could be made. The line advanced toward
noon, through a belt of pine woods, into a clearing. A portion of our
brigade was in the front line. The Forty-eighth Pennsylvania and our
own regiment supported. After leaving the woods the line advanced
through a field of grain toward the Taylor house, the rebel skirmish
line falling back to a cut of the Norfolk Railroad which afforded a
deep cover. The enemy was found to be strongly intrenched beyond the
railroad, with a winding ravine in front, through which flowed a small
creek, the banks of which immediately in our front were covered with
a dense thicket. Artillery was ordered forward to cover the attack of
the infantry, and our regiment supported the gallant advance of Captain
Roemer's battery. The fire of the enemy was so close and hot that he
was obliged to leave his horses in the edge of the wood. He then put
his guns in position in the open field, run two guns by hand to a
dilapidated building on our right, and, although he lost several men,
soon secured some protection, got good range, and opened a rapid and
effective fire on the enemy.

Jones' Eleventh Massachusetts battery was soon after put in position in
rear of our left, and fired at such short range that for a time we were
obliged to "hug the ground," being exposed to two fires,--from front
and rear. His shells inflicted great damage on the enemy, although they
passed uncomfortably near our own heads.

It being of the utmost importance to secure the railroad-cut, the
batteries opened a furious fire, under cover of which the brigades
in the front line, led by Generals Hartranft and Griffin and Colonel
Curtin, made a splendid charge, and succeeded in driving the enemy out
of the railroad-cut into their works beyond.

The portion of our brigade was between Griffin and Hartranft. The line
of the railroad crossed our front diagonally, and on our right, at the
point where the enemy's main line crossed the railroad, a small redoubt
had been erected, in which was placed a single piece of artillery. This
gun had perfect range of the railroad-cut, and completely enfiladed
our line with a severe fire of grape and canister. While our line in
this position was well protected from the fire in front, it was exposed
to this hot fire from the right flank. The attention of our batteries
was soon bestowed upon this gun in the redoubt; and the men tore up
the railroad-ties, and erected a barricade which afforded them ample
protection from the fire.

It was now comparatively easy to hold the railroad-cut, but to advance
was quite another matter. The railroad-bank was high, and so steep
that the men had to dig holes in the side of it to place their feet,
and as soon as a man showed his head above the bank he was a target
for the rebel sharp-shooters. On the left the troops moved forward as
far as the ravine. At three o'clock a general attack was ordered, but
the difficulties to be overcome were so great that a long delay ensued
in preparing the line for advance. At half-past five the whole Third
Division, and Second Brigade, and four regiments of our brigade, made
a determined attack on the works, then defended by Kershaw's division
of Longstreet's veteran corps. Nothing could exceed the heroic daring
of the advance, under the fearful fire of the enemy at point-blank
range, covering every inch of the ground from the railroad-cut
to their earthworks. The line was strong and well defended, yet,
notwithstanding, all the ground from the railroad to the ravine was
carried; the ravine was crossed and the crest beyond secured, and the
ground held up to within a little more than a hundred yards of the
enemy's works.

During this gallant attack Colonel Curtin, our brigade commander,
was severely wounded in the shoulder, and the command devolved upon
Lieutenant-Colonel Pleasants of the Forty-eighth. At half-past five
the regiment, being in support of the batteries, was ordered to throw
up a line of intrenchments for protection from the sharp-shooters, who
were picking off the gunners. The loss during the afternoon had been
severe, considering the numbers of the regiment and its position in the
battle,--two men killed and seven wounded.

After the last attack the firing slackened somewhat, and was confined
to the front line of battle, and it was fondly hoped that the record
of sacrifice and bloodshed for that day was fully made up. The company
cooks brought up the coffee,--the only refreshment the regiment had
received since daylight. The men were huddled behind the low breastwork
eating supper, when the attention of Captain Buffum was attracted by
some movement in front, and he rose to ascertain the cause. He had just
remarked that he was the only member of the large mess that crossed
the Rapidan who had escaped death or wounds, and laughingly said, "It
is the rule for all to be struck; but every rule has an exception."
He had scarcely risen to his feet when the fatal bullet, directed by
the unerring aim of the watchful rebel sharp-shooter, struck him. He
uttered a piercing cry, sprang into the air, fell back, and in a few
moments passed beyond the reach of pain. The scene was witnessed by
nearly all the regiment, and sent a thrill of horror to every heart.

At any time his death would have been a severe loss; at such a moment
it came with almost crushing weight, and seemed irreparable. He
was the senior officer in years, and then the second in rank of a
fast-dwindling band. He was beloved and respected by all, and his death
cast deep gloom over the entire regiment. We recalled his patience
and bravery during the entire campaign, the sorrow which seemed to
pierce his heart as he referred to the great losses of his company,
and especially the wonderful coolness he displayed at Spottsylvania,
when, in advance of the line, he received the rebel fire, and returned
to draw back the left wing and save the regiment, if not the entire
division, from capture or death.

After dark, when the line had been established for the night, the
Adjutant was sent to corps head-quarters to beg permission that the
Captain's remains might be sent at once to City Point for shipment to
Massachusetts. General Burnside was found lying prone on the ground
under a tree. The case was briefly stated. "Buffum," said he,--"is
Buffum dead? Why, he was in North Carolina with us! He was a brave
man--I remember him well. Oh!" he added, with much emotion, "how fast
these brave men are going!" Then calling his Adjutant-General, the
order necessary for the removal of the body was given in terms which
revealed his noble, sympathetic nature.

The loss of the regiment, June 18th, was as follows:--


  COMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

  _Killed._--Captain Amos Buffum.


  ENLISTED MEN.

  _Company A._ _Wounded._--Sergeant Thomas J. Ames, Private Caleb
  Winch.

  _Company B._ _Wounded._--Private William Turnbull.

  _Company D._ _Wounded._--First Sergeant John A. Stearns.

  _Company E._ _Killed._--Dwight Colburn.

  _Died of Wounds._--Josiah W. Davis.

  _Company G._ _Wounded._--Sergeant Hiram W. Olcott. Corporal
  Alexander Cooper.[18]

  [18] Corporal Alexander Cooper was killed November 22, 1866, at
Warwick, Mass., by the falling of a derrick at the raising of the
Soldiers' Monument in that town.

  Killed and Died of Wounds,--
    Commissioned Officers        1
    Enlisted Men                 2
                                --      3
  Wounded,--Enlisted Men                6
                                       --
  Total Casualties                      9


That evening there were in the line less than one hundred men, with
four commissioned officers,--Captains Smith and Ames, First Lieutenant
Fairbank and Adjutant Hodgkins,--all that remained for duty of the
four hundred and ninety-five men in line on the morning of the 6th
of May. Assistant Surgeon Bryant, who had not been absent from the
line an hour, was on duty at the Field Hospital, and Quartermaster
Tuttle was in charge of the wagons and baggage. On the 6th of May
we had twelve officers in the line of battle; we were joined at
Spottsylvania by Captain Smith and Lieutenant Brigham. From this number
four--Captains Bailey, Holmes, Buffum, and Lieutenant Daniels--had been
killed in action. Five--Major Draper, Captains Morse and Barker, and
Lieutenants Marshall and Burrage--had been wounded, and were absent on
that account; and one--Lieutenant Brigham--had been sent to General
Hospital at Annapolis. Of the four in the line, three--Captains Smith
and Ames and Lieutenant Fairbank--had been struck by the bullets of the
enemy, but not seriously injured. The total loss of the regiment, as
officially reported to the Adjutant-General, including the men of the
Twenty-ninth Massachusetts and Forty-sixth New York, was--

              Com. Officers.   Enlisted Men.   Total.
  Killed             4               45          49
  Wounded            5              191         196
  Missing                            22          22
                     -              ---         ---
  Total              9              258         267

Late that evening General Potter relieved the Third Division, and
occupied the entire front of the corps, connecting with the Second
Corps on the right, and the Fifth Corps on the left, holding the
advance as a skirmish line.[19]

[19] On the evening of the 18th the following order was issued by
General Burnside:--

                                   HEAD-QUARTERS 9TH ARMY CORPS,
                                                       June 18, 1864.

  GENERAL ORDER NO. 24.

The Commanding General takes great pride in assuring this command of
the high appreciation in which their services, after the fatigues of
the recent movement, are held at the Head-quarters of the Army, and
quotes with pleasure the expression used by the Commanding General of
the Army of the Potomac in speaking of the brilliant assault on the
morning of the 17th. He writes: "It affords me great satisfaction to
congratulate you and your gallant corps on the successful assault on
the morning of the 17th. Knowing the wearied condition of your men from
the night march of over twenty-two miles, and the continued movement
through the night of the 16th, their persistency and success is highly
creditable."

The Commanding General can only add that in this, as in the previous
and succeeding events of this unexampled campaign, the Ninth Corps has,
through every trial, invariably proved true to its history and to its
promise.

  By command of Major-General Burnside.
                           LEWIS RICHMOND,
                               _Ass't Adj't Gen'l._



CHAPTER XVIII.

IN THE TRENCHES.


On the morning of June 19th the regiment was relieved from duty in
the front line, and withdrew to the pine woods from which we advanced
the day before. We were soon joined by most of the men who had fallen
out on the march, or had failed to find the regiment in the constant
changes of position, and the effective strength reported at brigade
head-quarters was one hundred and fifty-one; commissioned officers
four, enlisted men one hundred and forty-seven. A strong line of
intrenchments was erected on the high ground near the railroad. One
hundred men were detailed for fatigue duty on the line, and worked
through that hot June day with pickaxe and shovel. The enemy's firing
was very close, and during the night was quite severe. Our batteries
kept up a steady fire on the rebel lines.

The operations of the last two days had been conducted in the hope
of capturing Petersburg before the whole army of Northern Virginia
could be brought to the rescue. The enemy had taken up a new line
on commanding ground nearer the city. The attack and repulse of the
18th had developed the great strength of that line, and convinced
the commanding-general that further assault would be hopeless. The
heroic courage and desperate valor of the troops had availed only to
secure a strong position near the enemy's line. "No better fighting
has been done during the war," said General Burnside in his report;
but either the attacks had not been properly directed or adequately
supported. Orders were now issued for the troops on the right to hold
and strengthen the lines.

The 20th was but a repetition of the 19th. It was a noisy day in the
front; but being one of comparative quiet to us in the woods, the time
was improved in making up regimental reports for the campaign from
Spottsylvania, and a list of casualties. Several vacancies existed
among the commissioned officers, in consequence of the deaths and
resignations since April 23d, and seven of the companies were commanded
by non-commissioned officers. On the 5th of June, at Hanover Town,
Captain Smith forwarded to Governor Andrew a list of recommendations
for promotion; but as no commissions had been received, and the
exigencies of the service required additional officers, the duties
devolving upon the few commissioned officers present being onerous and
severe, another list was made up this day, and transmitted through the
regular channels to the Governor of the State. This list included the
following non-commissioned officers:--

  Sergeant Major Davidson to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Ranlett,
  resigned.

  First Sergeant Woodward to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Cross,
  resigned.

  First Sergeant Stearns to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Goodspeed,
  resigned.

  First Sergeant Haskell to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Hodgkins,
  promoted.

  First Sergeant Hancock to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Fairbank,
  promoted.

  Sergeant Olcutt to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Daniels, killed.

  Sergeant Cross to be First Lieutenant, _vice_ Burrage, promoted.

Sergeants White, Hancock, Wright, Woodward, and Stearns had previously
been recommended for commissions as second lieutenants, but no officers
in that grade could be mustered, on account of the reduced numbers of
enlisted men. Major Draper, who at this time was in Massachusetts,
submitted to the Governor another list of recommendations about this
date; but before either list could receive attention other changes
became necessary, and all of the sergeants recommended in the foregoing
list, with the addition of First Sergeant Harwood, were commissioned
as first lieutenants. Some of these brave and deserving men, who
had nobly earned their rank, were at this time absent on account of
serious wounds received during campaign, and before they could recover
and rejoin the regiment circumstances had arisen which prevented
their being mustered into the service in the rank to which they were
commissioned.

June 20th Captain Smith was detailed for court-martial duty at division
head-quarters, and the regiment was in command of Captain Ames. At
dusk a colored regiment from the Fourth Division came up in our rear,
and we anticipated a night attack in force; but the men quietly laid
aside their equipments, and being furnished with pickaxes and shovels
went on fatigue duty in the front line. During the night the firing
was very severe. Our position, though not subjected to the exposure of
the front line, was under fire continually. The bullets of the enemy
rattled among the trees, singing their death-song by day and night. On
the night of June 20th private John McGrath, Company I, was wounded and
sent to the rear. It was the third wound he had received during the
campaign. During these days the front, or main line, was strengthened
with abatis, and traverses, and a covered way built to the rear.

On the 21st the regiment remained in the woods preparing for a review,
which had been ordered for the afternoon. At four o'clock we were in
line, and moved to the wide open plain in rear of the woods, the scene
of the action on the 17th. The First Brigade was reviewed by General
Potter. The Seventh Rhode Island was on the right of the line, and the
Second New York Mounted Rifles, acting as infantry (recently assigned
to this brigade), on the left. The review was well conducted, and,
considering the circumstances of the occasion, the troops presented a
fine appearance. To all of us it was a novel parade,--marching to the
music of the bands, the discordant barking of the dogs of war, and the
distant screeching of the death-laden shells.

At midnight we were ordered to the main line to relieve the Second
Brigade, and the regiment was sent out on picket. The night was very
clear, and the moon being at the full revealed everything about us
as clear as daylight. The duty of relieving the picket line was
extremely hazardous, and it was half-past two o'clock A.M. before the
work was completed. The men were obliged to crawl out singly from
the railroad-cut, and the men relieved were exposed to a close and
merciless fire in leaving the line. It was daylight before our line was
fairly in position, and we settled down to the first day of the long
siege-life before us. About sunrise the cooks came out with coffee, and
John L. Finney, cook of Company K, received a shocking wound in the
face, in consequence of raising his head a little too high. His escape
from instant death was miraculous. After daylight it was impossible for
a man to look over the top of the pits. The rebels fired twenty shots
where we fired one, and their sharp practice enabled them to skim the
tops of the pits; their shots were well aimed, and the bullets flew all
about us.

The picket line itself was found to be very peculiar. It was separated
from the main line by the deep cut of the Norfolk Railroad, which
crossed our rear diagonally. The ground on the right at the railroad
was quite high, falling off rapidly toward the swampy ravine on the
left; the slope being toward the enemy's line, which enabled them to
command all the ground between the railroad-cut and their own line.
The troops of the Second Brigade had worked industriously to establish
good cover for the picket-line; but the position on the left was so
dangerous, and so near the enemy, that but little progress had been
made in erecting a line of pits at that point. There was a space of
five or six rods between Companies H and C, which could not be crossed
by daylight on account of its nearness to the rebel lines. During the
day the men on the right took up railroad sleepers from the track,
and laid them on the tops of the pits; small loop-holes were then made
under the logs, and in this way the men secured some protection for
their heads while watching a chance to fire upon the enemy. They were
soon able to inflict some damage on the sharp-shooters opposite.

By degrees some improvement was made on the left, but the progress
was very slow and tedious, as only one man from each company, C and
H, could work toward each other, on account of the close fire. The
left was in a bad and dangerous condition. In the event of an attack
which we should fail to repulse, the whole line would be exposed to
capture, as it would be madness to attempt to escape to the railroad
and over the rising ground in our rear. The enemy seemed to know that
new troops were in the pits, and were unusually hostile. They evidently
anticipated an attack, as a heavy movement was in progress on the left
by the Second and Fifth Corps, and a fierce fight raged about three
miles beyond the Jerusalem Plank road for the possession of the Weldon
Railroad.

It was thought in our lines that the enemy would make a counter-attack,
and the batteries in our rear lines kept up a steady fire, while the
men were constantly on the alert, crouched in the narrow pits, ready to
resist an attack. It was a day long to be remembered,--our first day in
the front line of trenches. It was one of the longest and most tedious
days of our service; but how many such days were we to experience!
There we lay in the dust, under the blazing, broiling midsummer sun,
which beat full upon us, without a leaf of intervening shade. The water
in the canteens was hot and sickening, and, to add to our discomforts
the offensive odors from unburied corpses around us were borne to us on
every breath of that sultry summer air. But the longest day must end,
and at last the sun declined, and the welcome shades of evening settled
on us. Quiet reigned for a little while, but about ten o'clock the
rebels were discovered crawling up toward our left. A severe musketry
fire was opened upon them, and they were forced to retire. After
midnight the firing ceased, and our pioneers buried some of the dead
bodies near us, and made some progress in perfecting the picket line on
the left. Jno. H. Barton, of Company E, badly wounded in the abdomen,
and Abiel Fisher, of G, wounded in the arm, were the casualties in the
trenches that day.

At two o'clock on the morning of the 23d the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania
commenced to relieve our regiment in the picket pits. Owing to the
sharp firing the process was slow and dangerous, but we reached the
main line about half-past two, and were allowed an hour's rest. At
half-past three we were aroused by orders to be ready to attack at any
moment. We were under arms throughout the day, and were exposed to the
fire of the enemy, by which Orin Taylor, of F, was severely wounded,
and the Adjutant of the Fifty-eighth Massachusetts, standing near our
right, was killed. At nine o'clock in the evening the brigade was
relieved by the Second Brigade, and returned to the line in the pine
woods, after forty-eight hours' duty in the front.

During these few days, to quote from Captain McCabe's "Defence of
Petersburg," "the enemy [the Union army] plied pick, and spade, and
axe with such silent vigor that there arose, as if by the touch of
the magician's wand, a vast cordon of redoubts of powerful profile,
connected by heavy infantry parapets, stretching from the Appomattox
to the extreme Federal left,--a line of prodigious strength, and
constructed with amazing skill, destined long to remain, to the
military student at least, an enduring monument of the ability of the
engineers of the Army of the Potomac."

Siege operations had now fairly commenced on the right, extending
along the line from the Appomattox to the Jerusalem Plank road, and
we had entered upon the daily round of life which was to continue for
the next fifty days,--the regular routine of duty in the picket line
and the main line,--a routine which, in the history of the campaign,
can be expressed in the simple, yet significant, phrase, "The Siege
of Petersburg." But in that daily routine there transpired much that
is interesting and painful to the survivors of our regiment, and the
account of our operations during those eventful days will be embodied
in a diary of the siege.



CHAPTER XIX.

DIARY OF THE SIEGE.


The next two days, June 24th and 25th, were passed in comparative quiet
in the woods. We were under arms nearly all the time, as an attack upon
the enemy from our right was anticipated. The firing on that line, held
by the Eighteenth Corps, was very heavy, but no attack was made. The
heat was intense, and the men in the trenches suffered greatly. Our
diet was somewhat improved by the arrival of some supplies of ale and
porter, with a little ice thrown in, from the United States Sanitary
Commission Depot, which had just been established at City Point.

On the night of the 25th we were ordered to the front, and relieved
the Ninth New Hampshire in the trenches. During the night most of
the men were busy with the pickaxe and shovel. We were subjected
to a severe artillery fire all day, and the picket fire was close.
Large bodies of colored troops were at work filling gunny-bags and
ammunition-boxes with sand, to be used on the top of the parapets for
the protection of loop-holes. Private Hezekiah Hall, of Company I,
was severely wounded, and the Adjutant of the Second New York Rifles,
while passing through our line, was killed. At midnight we relieved
the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania in the picket line, getting fairly into
the pits about daylight. The duty was about the same as when we were
there on the 22d. The line had been made continuous and much improved.
Abatis had been placed in front, and a covered way continued from the
main line. This covered way was very deep, and protected with high
embankments and gabions. The firing was very constant and the range
perfect. Corporal Charles Gilbert, of Company H, and Private George
F. Bradford, of Company B, were wounded, the former mortally. We had
our first experience under the mortar-firing of the enemy. They fired
twenty-four-pound shells with great precision.

The advanced position which we occupied was but little more than
one hundred yards from that portion of the main line of the enemy
known as the "Elliott salient." The line occupied by our brigade was
directly in front of this work. In rear of this portion of our line
the ground declined suddenly into a narrow ravine, which widened into
a meadow, which afforded a position for massing troops, and screened
working-parties from the observation of the enemy in the salient in
front. After Colonel Curtin had been wounded in the attack of the
18th, which secured this position, the command of the brigade devolved
on Lieutenant-Colonel Pleasants, of the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania.
Being frequently on the front line he had observed this ravine, and
as he was by profession a practical civil and mining engineer it
occurred to him that a mine could be successfully excavated there. He
carefully examined the ground, and having satisfied himself that the
work could be accomplished he unfolded his plan to General Potter, who
approved it, and he in turn conferred with General Burnside, who was
much pleased with the proposal, and ordered that the work should be
commenced.

This was done at noon of the 25th, by Col. Pleasants, with his own
regiment, the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, which had been detailed for
this purpose. Most of these men were miners from Schuylkill County, and
familiar with such operations. Colonel Pleasants entered upon the work
with great enthusiasm, although he received but little encouragement
outside the Ninth Corps. Generals Burnside and Potter seemed to be
the only high officers who believed in its success. There were many
discouragements attending its commencement, as it was ridiculed at
army head-quarters. Col. Pleasants was denied mining picks, but
straightened out army picks. His instruments were poor and old. He
was obliged to make his surveys and measurements on the front line,
exposed to the fire of the sharp-shooters. He had no wheelbarrows; but
the men nailed strips of boards for handles on old cracker-boxes, and
brought out the earth in these. He had also to contend with official
indifference and coolness; yet the brave man toiled on with undaunted
spirit. As we lay in our picket pits this 27th day of June we could
distinctly hear our comrades delving beneath us. The earth as it was
brought out was piled up in the ravine, and covered with fresh bushes
to conceal it from the observation of the enemy. The mortar shells from
the enemy's bombs dropped continually in the ravine around the entrance
to the mine, causing great annoyance to the men, but not interrupting
the work. The day passed without special incident. We were relieved at
night and went back to the woods.

June 28th. We prepared muster-rolls for two months' pay at our camp
in the pine woods. Some of the regiment went to City Point to obtain
from the regimental baggage the necessary blanks for muster, and met
Captain Levi N. Smith, formerly First Lieutenant of Company D, who
was now forwarding commissary, feeding the entire army of the Potomac
and General Butler's command. He warmly welcomed his old comrades in
arms, and gave expression to his abiding interest in the regiment.
The regimental sutler was also found at City Point, with a cargo of
supplies to be forwarded to the front as soon as he should be permitted
to land.

The next day we relieved the Second Brigade in the trenches. In placing
the pickets, Sergeant C. Henry Moseley, commanding Company B, was
seriously wounded by being shot through the right hand.

The 30th was passed at the front in the heat and dust. The firing was
very sharp, especially on the right, where much artillery ammunition
was used. Captain Ames was again slightly wounded in the left hand. He
went to the rear to have the wound dressed, and returned immediately
to the front. Effective strength this day, five commissioned officers,
including assistant surgeon and one hundred and seventy-three enlisted
men; total, one hundred and seventy-eight. Twenty-three were sick in
hospital.

July 1st. On duty in the trenches; pickets unusually lively. They are
extremely hostile toward us. On the left, along the Fifth Corps line,
there is no firing by day, and the men from both armies get water from
a spring between the lines. Here there is no cessation by day or night.
It may be caused by the nearness of our line, the suspicion of a sudden
attack, or because of the presence of colored troops in our working
parties. Our losses are severe, averaging fifteen a day on our division
line. Corporal James H. Barry, of Company I, a gallant soldier, who was
wounded May 6th, was killed in the trenches to-day by a sharp-shooter.
At night the regiment retired to the woods.

July 2d and 3d. On duty in the rear. Heavy siege guns were sent to the
front to be placed in a new battery to be built in our line. On the 3d
we were mustered for pay. The line was short, indeed, compared with
our last muster, at Catlett's Station. How many in that brief time
have gone from the toils and pains and hardships of a soldier's life
to sleep in soldiers' graves! How many names are to-day transferred
from the rolls of these companies to the roll of the honored dead!
To-day the Sanitary and Christian Commissions sent a generous supply of
hospital and other stores, to aid in celebrating the national holiday
to-morrow. These were distributed equally among the companies. The
staff of our national color was shattered by a bullet to-day. Both
staves are now broken, and the flags are riddled with bullet-holes.
They are also stained with the blood of heroes who have borne them unto
death. At dark we relieved the Second Brigade.

July 4th. Regiment in the trenches. The heat was intense, and the
men pitched their shelter-tents over the top of the trenches. This
kept out the sun, but excluded also the air. General Burnside and the
division commanders were on the front line together in the afternoon,
and the regimental prophets predicted an immediate attack; but the
hours dragged along, and the day proved to be remarkably quiet. A
request was transmitted to the State authorities for a new stand of
colors. One year ago we commenced the Jackson campaign, which proved so
disastrous to the regiment. The anniversary was frequently mentioned by
the men. Then we hoped to spend this day in peace at home. Now we dare
not hope for a speedy ending of the war. Then Gettysburg and Vicksburg
encouraged the belief that the weight of the struggle had passed. Now
Atlanta, Petersburg, and Richmond, bid prolonged defiance. But the end
is coming!

July 5th. Passed without incident. Firing less severe than usual. The
monotony of siege life unbroken. Regiment relieved at nine in the
evening.

July 6th. First Lieutenant Fairbank received his commission as Captain,
_vice_ Warriner, resigned, and was mustered in. Information was
received that all the vacancies among the commissioned officers have
been filled by promotions from the ranks. This information was received
with pleasure, as it will increase the working-force and efficiency of
the regiment. To-day private H. A. Murdoch, of Company H, was wounded
in the arm.

July 7th. To-day the Fourth Rhode Island arrived from Yorktown _via_
City Point, and was assigned to our brigade. Its commander, Colonel
W. H. P. Steere, being the senior officer, assumed command of the
brigade. More sanitary supplies, consisting of twenty-five pounds of
white sugar, a dozen cans of milk, vegetables, a few bottles of sherry,
brandy, etc., were received from the Commissions, and distributed among
the sick. There is much sickness in the command. The extreme heat,
arduous duty, and constant exposure to danger, are wearing on men who
up to this time have borne all the hardships of the campaign. At
night the regiment relieved the troops in the picket line, in the old
position. The works daily show the labor expended upon them. They are
now very strong, and their condition much improved. Rumors prevail that
an assault is to be made to-morrow.

July 8th. The duty in the trenches to-day was very severe, owing to
the intense heat, and the sharp, incessant firing. Our men had good
range, and replied to the enemy shot for shot. Enemy on the alert, and
asking about the mine. They regard it as a great joke, and threaten to
countermine. More rumors of an assault from our front. Lately our men
discovered an ice-house in front of our line, a little to the left of
our position, and for a while it has been neutral ground for one or two
men from the opposing lines to get ice, to the extent that if any one
has been seen near the ice-house they have not been fired upon. To-day,
however, Corporal Lucius Lowell, of Company F, in endeavoring to get
some ice, was fired upon, and received two bad wounds in the breast and
wrist.

July 9th. Still on duty in the trenches. Intensely hot. To-day we
received the cheering news of the sinking of the rebel pirate "Alabama"
by the United States Steamer "Kearsarge." This information was received
with loud cheering. The rebels across the way wanted to know the cause
of our joy, and were answered by a double-shotted salute from all
our artillery, which made them burrow for an hour. At night we were
relieved.

July 10th. In the woods, suffering from intense heat, and tormented by
myriads of flies, which were as hostile as the rebel pickets in our
front. Sergeant Thomas H. Haskell, who was wounded in the right hand at
Spottsylvania, and yesterday, though not fully recovered, returned to
duty with a First Lieutenant's commission, was mustered and assigned
to the command of Company B. Several enlisted men also returned, and
the effective strength at night was one hundred and ninety; six
commissioned officers and one hundred and eighty-four enlisted men,
with fourteen sick in the hospital.

July 11th. The day was very hot, relieved by showers at night. At nine
o'clock the regiment went to the front and relieved the Seventeenth
Vermont on picket. To-day a siege order was issued from army
head-quarters, regulating the operations of the siege.

July 12th and 13th. Regiment on duty in the trenches. The firing has
been very light, and entirely suspended at times. For the first time
since the opening of the campaign the enemy has been friendly, even to
the extent of sitting upon the rifle-pits and talking across to our
men. Some have waved papers, and have come half way to our lines to
proffer an exchange. It soon transpired that their object was to obtain
northern papers for intelligence concerning the rebel invasion of
Maryland under General Early, and the destruction of northern property.
Their anxiety was very great; but we received imperative orders
forbidding any exchange of papers, or holding any communication with
the enemy. Captain Smith fired upon some men of another regiment who
went out to exchange papers, and refused to obey his orders to return.
At night artillery and mortar firing was resumed. At midnight we were
relieved.

July 14th and 15th. In the pine woods. Many rumors in circulation of an
immediate attack to be made from our front. The work of constructing
forts and batteries goes on night and day. At half-past eight P.M., on
the 15th, we relieved the Seventeenth Vermont in our old position in
the trenches. The night was dark and misty, and the enemy kept up an
incessant firing. Corporal Albert Foskett, Company H, was wounded and
taken to the rear. The sick belonging to the Ninth Corps were removed
to the hospital at City Point,--a fact which caused other rumors of
attack to be circulated.

July 16th. The regiment was in command of Captain Ames, as Captain
Smith was detailed as division officer of the trenches.

July 17th. The regiment was exposed to a very close fire throughout
the day. The mortar shells dropped all around us, the practice being
unusually good. Private Jerry Harrigan, of Company K, was mortally
wounded. The only consolation while we are under this trying fire is
that our practice is as good as the enemy's.

July 18th. In the woods. Captain Barker, who was wounded at Cold
Harbor, June 3d, returned to duty, with a commission as Major,--_vice_
Draper, who has been commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel,--and assumed
command of the regiment. Lieutenant Marshall, who was wounded at the
Wilderness, also returned to duty, with a commission as Captain, and
was assigned to Company A. In leaving the trenches this morning private
Leonard A. Chapman, of Company K, was fired at by a sharp-shooter and
instantly killed.

July 19 and 20th. The weather was rainy, rendering the trenches very
uncomfortable. A large fort, called "The Fourteen-Gun Battery," has
been constructed in our division line, and garrisoned by a regiment of
Connecticut Heavy Artillery.

July 21st. Private Martin Maynard, of Company D, was wounded in the
leg and suffered amputation. There has been no change in our tour of
duty. The system has been reduced to a science; so, also, has been
the hostility of the enemy. Notwithstanding the strong condition of
our works, and the great improvements constantly made, the watchful
sharp-shooters of the enemy have unerring aim upon the loop-holes,
and the least exposure on the part of any of our men is sure to
draw a murderous fire. In the rear we are out of the range of their
sharp-shooters, but exposed to the chance shots which every moment are
sent into the woods.

July 22d. To-day Captain Morse, who was severely wounded at
Spottsylvania, returned to duty and resumed command of Company C.
Lieutenant Davidson also returned from the hospital. Private Judson
Maynard, of Company H, was wounded July 23d. The regiment went to the
front at night, and resumed its duty in the trenches. To-day the mine
was completed, and our comrades of the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania are
rejoicing. In spite of obstacles and discouragements the great work has
been successfully accomplished. The men report that they can distinctly
hear the enemy in the fort over their heads. With proper tools the work
which has consumed four weeks could have been performed in ten days.
Colonel Pleasants received many congratulations on the success of his
undertaking. His report of his operation is intensely interesting.
The main gallery is five hundred and ten feet long, with two lateral
galleries,--the left thirty-seven feet, the right thirty-eight feet in
length, averaging about four and one-half feet high by the same width,
and will require eight magazines, four in each lateral gallery, or
about twelve thousand pounds of powder. Eighteen thousand cubic feet of
earth have been excavated. Whatever may be the result of the explosion,
and the attack which may be made, there can be no doubt of the great
success which has crowned the determined efforts of Colonel Pleasants
and his hard-working regiment.

July 24th. A regiment of colored troops was at work all day building
a new covered way through our camp in the woods, which necessitated
a change of some of our quarters and bomb-proofs. Captain Smith on
duty as brigade officer of the day. A heavy storm set in and the rain
poured in torrents nearly all the night, and the weather was very cold.
The men were soaked and chilled, and it was a rough night to stand
at a loop-hole and watch. The sufferings of the troops in the front
lines during this siege--from hunger, thirst, protracted watching,
constant danger, from burning heat by day and chills by night, from
sudden changes in the temperature that rack the strongest frames, from
the numberless exposures and hardships and privations--can never be
adequately portrayed. They will live, however, in the memories of those
who endure and survive them.

July 25th. After a very stormy night we were blessed with a cool,
comfortable day. An invigorating breeze soon dried the mud in the
trenches, and restored the buoyant spirits of the men. This morning
private Jesse Gleason, of Company F, a brave and faithful soldier, was
killed by a sharp-shooter, and was buried in the woods near regimental
head-quarters, where so many of his comrades sleep. Thus, one by one,
they go, just when we need them most. To-day, Colonel Steere, our
brigade commander, went home on account of sickness and disability,
and Colonel Bliss, of the Seventh Rhode Island, assumed command of the
brigade. The regiment returned to the woods at night. The covered way
through our camp was finished.

July 26th. In the woods all day. Large fatigue parties at work.
Lieutenant Davidson was mustered in, and assigned to Company G. News
was received of a great battle at Atlanta, and the death of General
McPherson.

July 27th. The regiment was marched to the open ground in rear of the
woods, and treated to the luxury of an hour's battalion drill! The
mine was charged with powder, eight thousand pounds being placed under
the rebel fort. General Burnside asked for a charge of twelve thousand
pounds, but received only eight thousand pounds. Troops put under
orders to be in constant readiness to move. Perhaps our siege days are
nearly ended. The regiment went to the trenches at night. The weather
was rainy and cold.



CHAPTER XX.

THE MINE AFFAIR.


July 28th. A day of anxiety and suspense. The troops expected an
explosion of the mine, and an assault upon the enemy's lines. A great
force on fatigue duty, carrying out bags, barrels, gabions, and
stakes, and preparing the covered ways and traverses to facilitate the
movements of troops. During the afternoon three pieces of the Third
Vermont Artillery bombarded a house just inside the rebel works in our
front, and finally demolished it. It was a busy day along the lines.

July 29th. Another long, anxious day. The regiment was on duty in
the front line. The weather was excessively hot. The position of the
enemy was examined and our own works were visited by many general and
staff officers, and there were certain indications all around us of an
impending attack. All sorts of rumors prevailed, and various theories
were advanced; but toward night we received positive information that
the mine will be exploded at half-past three to-morrow morning. The
Ninth Corps is to attack as soon as the explosion occurs. General Meade
has overruled General Burnside's plan of attacking with the colored
division, and ordered him to select one of his white divisions to lead
the assault. The position has been determined by lot, and fallen to
General Ledlie and the First Division. Our men would be more hopeful of
the result had the choice fallen upon General Potter. Our division is
to support the attack. We are to be relieved in the trenches by colored
troops of the Eighteenth Corps, and form with the division as soon as
relieved. Toward evening troops were massed in our rear, filling all
the covered ways and passages leading to the front line. Reserves from
other corps filled our camp in the woods. The troops were under arms
all night.

Before daylight on the 30th the regiments on our right and left had
been relieved. Notice was sent two or three times that no relief had
been sent to our regiment, and each time the order came back to hold
the line until relieved. All our efforts to have the relief on our
right and left extend so as to cover our front having failed, we were
obliged to remain on duty in the pits. Before the sun had reached the
meridian we were satisfied that what we regarded a great misfortune
proved to be our salvation. Colonel Pleasants was directed to explode
the mine at half-past three o'clock A.M. The First Division was ordered
to charge through the aperture which would be made in the enemy's works
and advance directly to the crest, or Cemetery Hill. The Third Division
was ordered to cover the left. The Second Division was ordered to
advance, if possible, to the right of the explosion, and to establish
a line on the crest of a ravine running nearly at right angles to the
enemy's line, and protect the right flank from the enemy's attack.
At the appointed hour the fuse was lighted, and all waited in deep
silence for the expected explosion. On account of dampness the fuse
was extinguished, and the valuable time slipped rapidly away. We all
know the story of the brave Lieut. Doughty and Sergeant Reeves, of the
Forty-eighth, who nobly volunteered to go into the mine to ascertain
the cause of failure to explode. The break in the fuse was found and
relighted. At forty-two minutes past four we witnessed a volcano and
experienced an earthquake. With a tremendous burst, which shook the
hills around, a column of earth shot upwards to an enormous height,
bearing the "Elliot salient," its guns and garrison, and making a
crater or chasm one hundred and thirty-five feet long, ninety-seven
feet wide, and more than thirty feet deep. The garrison, consisting of
two hundred and seventy-eight men of the Eighteenth and Twenty-second
South Carolina and Pegram's Petersburg Battery, were completely buried.
Pleasants' work had been terribly successful. Before the deafening
report of the explosion had subsided more than one hundred pieces of
artillery along the line opened a terrific fire, adding grandeur to
the scene. Under cover of this fire the First Division charged over
the intervening space into the crater, but halted there instead of
moving forward. General Griffin's brigade of our division began to move
almost at once, passing through and into a portion of the line from
which the rebels were driven, and moved to the right. The smoke and
dust were so dense at this time that nothing could be seen, and the
leading regiments got farther to the left than was intended, coming
thus in contact with some of the troops of the First Division. The
movement was also embarrassed by some of the First Division moving to
the right and huddling in the vacant works instead of moving forward.
When our brigade moved forward through the covered way, the men became
intermixed with troops of another corps, who were moving out. Still the
main portion kept on its way, crossed the cornfield and passed into
the crater, under a fearful fire of the enemy, who had now somewhat
recovered from the first alarm, and had returned to man their deserted
works.

The troops of the Second Division moved forward as best they could; but
as the First Division had halted, and would not move forward, it was
almost impossible to make any progress. The ground to the right of the
crater was found to be much cut up with small pits and traverses, which
were now filled by the enemy, who kept up a severe fire from these
as well as from a line of pits on the ravine. Finding that General
Griffin's brigade, which had lost heavily, was being thrown into
confusion by being mixed with the troops of other divisions, and that
the enemy was rallying rapidly, General Potter directed him to move
forward without any reference to other troops and attack the enemy in
front. In passing his command over and through the troops which were
in confusion Griffin's brigade became much broken up. The fire by this
time was very hot, and it was impossible to properly re-form his ranks.
However, several pits of the enemy were charged and some ground was
gained.

Our brigade commander was ordered to follow on, with such troops as he
had, and closely support and cover the right flank. He sent forward
the Fifty-eighth Massachusetts, Fourth Rhode Island, and Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, to form on the right, leaving the Seventh Rhode Island
in reserve, and holding the Second and Fifty-first New York to send
forward if there was room. Finding that he could not get in, in
consequence of the stopping of troops, and the great confusion caused
by a crowd of troops in such limited space, he was ordered to move
a portion of the brigade to the right, and charge down the enemy's
line, and also, at the same time, to attack the enemy at the ravine.
The Fifty-eighth Massachusetts, Fourth Rhode Island, and Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania were formed to charge down the enemy's line to the right,
and the two New York regiments to attack near the ravine. This last
attack was to instantly follow the first, as soon as the colors of the
leading regiments could be seen moving forward.

The ground over which the first three regiments was to charge was an
open field, fully in range of the enemy's musketry and artillery. Just
as the troops were moving forward, the direction of these regiments
was changed, in compliance with a peremptory order from General
Burnside to attack the crest. Accordingly these three regiments charged
directly up the hill toward the battery in the woods. The charge was
a gallant one, under a murderous fire of grape and canister from the
enemy's artillery, which was brought to bear from every direction; yet
the little band kept on, and the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania had nearly
reached the house on the top of the hill, when the line wavered, and,
for want of support, was obliged to fall back to the covered way or
ditch leading to the work which had been previously taken.

While this was being done the two New York regiments charged the enemy
at the ravine: the Second New York on the right, and the Fifty-first on
the left of it, some considerable distance intervening. The line was
carried and some prisoners captured. The position reached by the Second
New York was within twenty yards of the rebel fort at the old barn.
By this time Griffin's brigade had been extricated from the terrible
confusion near the crater, and had moved forward slowly, under a hot
fire, a step at a time, and the whole of the Second Division was beyond
the enemy's line and to the right of the exploded fort. As General
Potter was re-forming and connecting his lines preparatory to charging
the hill, the Fourth Division (colored) unexpectedly advanced, and
attempted to pass over the men in the crater, and charge the enemy's
lines through our division. In this they were but partially successful.
General Potter, at the time the colored division moved out, had the
right of his division nearly connected with the Fifty-first New York,
near the ravine, and partly covered the three regiments which had
charged the hill and fallen back into the covered way. Soon after the
arrival of the colored troops the enemy, with two divisions, under
Generals Mahone and Ransom, made an assault, when these troops broke
and fled in confusion into the crater. The situation, difficult enough
before their arrival, now became alarming. An indescribable scene of
confusion followed. Colors of our regiments, which had been planted on
the parapets, were thrown down and trampled under foot in the dirt as
the lines came crowding into the crater, or sought shelter wherever it
could be found from the terrible fire that was poured upon them. White
men and colored lay indiscriminately together.

The enemy's fierce assault was repulsed by our division. It was,
however, immediately renewed, and a desperate hand-to-hand fight
ensued. The brigade fought as men seldom fight. The Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania captured a rebel flag, and Captain Gregg had a personal
encounter with a rebel officer, which made him famous throughout the
division. The color-bearers of the Fifty-eighth Massachusetts were both
wounded and captured. The colors of two other regiments which had been
planted on the parapet were literally torn to pieces and the staves
broken. The losses in killed and wounded were very great, and more than
one hundred prisoners were captured from the Fifty-eighth Massachusetts
and Forty-fifth Pennsylvania.

The fighting up to this time was as desperate as any during the
war. For five long hours of that intensely hot day the troops of
our division had been actively engaged, exposed to a severe fire of
artillery and musketry, which steadily increased until it became as
terrible as any endured in the campaign. The enemy brought artillery to
bear from every direction, commanding the front and flanks, sweeping,
also, the rear of the line, and commanding all the approaches,
inflicting great damage. The heat was overpowering. In addition to
the killed and wounded more than two hundred in our division had
been prostrated by heat. Hundreds of men, besides, were so exhausted
physically that it was simply impossible for them to load and fire.
They suffered greatly from thirst, as it was impossible to obtain any
water. The fire from our line had slackened considerably, while that
of the enemy steadily increased. A steady concentric fire was poured
into the crater, and the horrors of that place cannot be adequately
portrayed.

The enemy had been so roughly handled in their assault after the
colored troops had fallen back that they did not seem inclined to
renew it, but kept up a continuous fire at short range which was very
effective. Although it had been a lost battle since morning, General
Potter at noon was making preparations to connect the line and intrench
it, when he received orders to withdraw his troops at discretion. But
this was a most difficult movement to execute, on account of the
mingled mass of troops in the crater, and an attempt to retire was to
run the gauntlet of almost certain death. There were some brave spirits
there who endeavored to restore order, and inspire courage to make
a stand to cover the withdrawal. While the troops were retiring the
enemy made a furious assault with a fresh division, in overwhelming
numbers, on the lines about the crater, and forced the troops holding
them to give way and fall back or surrender. Those escaped who could,
and at two o'clock those remaining in the crater surrendered. Most of
the troops of the Second Division were withdrawn, the last regiment to
retire being the Second New York Rifles, at four o'clock, two hours
after the surrender of the crater.

The loss of the division in the action was nine hundred and three
killed, wounded, and missing, including seventy-five commissioned
officers, out of less than three thousand rank and file, including two
batteries of artillery. The brigade lost two hundred and seventy-one,
which was very severe, considering the numbers engaged. The Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania lost sixty-eight out of eighty[20] taken into the fight,
and the Fifty-eighth Massachusetts brought out only twenty-eight
muskets out of nearly two hundred engaged. The losses in the other
three regiments engaged were less severe. The heroic bravery of the
brigade was never more conspicuously displayed than amid the trials
of that dreadful day. "All the officers and men of the command," says
General Potter, in his official report, "fought with the greatest
courage and determination."

[20] The losses of the rebels in their charges upon our lines was
no less severe. The Sixth Virginia carried in ninety-eight men and
lost eighty-eight. The Sharp-shooters carried in eighty men and lost
sixty-four, their commander falling, while leaping upon the parapet,
_pierced by eleven bayonet wounds_. The Forty-first Virginia lost
one-fourth its number; the Sixty-first within a fraction of half
its number. The loss in the Sixteenth was nearly as great as in the
Sixth, proportionally. See McCabe's "Defence of Petersburg," _Southern
Historical Society Papers_, Dec., 1876, pp. 293, 294.

At four o'clock in the afternoon, as the Second New York Rifles
returned from the rebel lines and marched through our pits with
colors flying high above the top of the pits, our men told them they
had better lower their colors unless they wanted to draw the enemy's
fire and receive a shelling. They gave no heed to the caution and kept
the flags flying. The words were scarcely uttered before we heard the
never-to-be-forgotten whistle of a mortar shell, and the next instant
it struck squarely in the pits and exploded within three feet of the
colors. None were killed; but one of the Second New York had a hand
blown off, and one of our men had his face filled with the hard dirt
from the bottom of the pits. The shot had the effect to bring down the
flags to a trail, and the regiment, with bowed heads, passed out of the
pits.

That evening the remnant of the brigade resumed its position in the
trenches, and picket-firing was renewed. During the evening Private J.
Wesley Packard, of Company B, was shot in the head and instantly killed
while standing as sentinel at a loop-hole from which he had fired
several shots which attracted the attention of the sharp-shooters. He
had returned from the General Hospital only three days before, had
picked up a musket and equipments in the rear, and this was his first
day's duty in the trenches. Private J. L. Walker, of Company E, was
badly wounded in the thigh.

Thus ended a day which proved to be the saddest in the history of
the Ninth Corps. Its total loss was three thousand eight hundred and
twenty-eight men. We have not attempted to describe the action, or even
to give a complete narrative of the part taken by our own division.
The action has been the subject of investigation and discussion by
Congressional Committees, Military Courts, historians, and critics.
Hundreds of pages of testimony and reports have been printed. Wide
differences of opinion have existed, and still exist. It is no part
of our duty to attempt to reconcile these differences, but only to
record our part in the great drama, and leave to future historians the
task of weighing arguments and the incidents of that dreadful day,
and the responsibility of awarding praise and censure. Of one fact,
however, we may be certain. Other troops than the white divisions of
the Ninth Corps should have been selected to enter the breach and make
the assault. Not that these were wanting in courage and devotion to the
cause. The record of their bravery from the Rapidan to Petersburg is
unsurpassed in the annals of that campaign; but from the commencement
of the siege they had become much worn down by constant labors in the
trenches, under an almost incessant fire for a period of forty days,
in which they lost on the average one man in eight. During all these
days, from a distance of less than two hundred yards, they had surveyed
the powerful works of the enemy becoming stronger and stronger by
day and by night. The fire of the rebel sharp-shooters had been so
close and unerring that no portion of the body could be for a moment
exposed without drawing the deadly bullet. The labor under a broiling
midsummer sun had been most exhaustive. Many of the men were enfeebled
by disease, all were weakened by confinement, and the experiences of
such a life as we had led for six weeks, had, in a measure, weakened
the vigor and spirit of all. It was General Burnside's plan to assault
with the colored division, which had been drilled for weeks for that
special purpose. They were fresh, and had taken but little part in the
campaign. The fighting at Petersburg on the 15th of June by the colored
troops of the Eighteenth Corps had aroused a spirit of emulation, and
they were anxious for the opportunity of taking part in the campaign.
Many who saw their advance on the 30th were satisfied that, if they
had been permitted to lead the assault, they would have secured the
crest of Cemetery Hill, and achieved a brilliant victory. Such was the
opinion of the lieutenant-general before the Committee on the Conduct
of the War.



CHAPTER XXI.

THE SIEGE CONTINUED.


After the Battle of the Crater, the brigade settled down to the former
round of siege duty. On the morning of the 31st the regiment mustered
for duty twelve commissioned officers, and one hundred and seventy-nine
enlisted men. It was a day of sadness throughout the corps. The intense
heat continued. The dead in front of our lines resembled a heavy
skirmish line lain down to rest. A flag of truce was sent out several
times to endeavor to obtain a brief armistice for the removal of the
wounded and the burial of the dead; but all efforts were unavailing.
The enemy was busy repairing his demolished works, and hundreds of our
brave men found a grave in the crater, where the concentric fire of
the enemy had been most deadly. Among this number was the brave and
gallant Major Prescott, of the Fifty-seventh Massachusetts, formerly
captain of our Company B. Major Barker was on duty as brigade officer
of the day. Dr. Bryant was detailed for service at the Fourth Division
Hospital, to assist Dr. Prince in caring for the hundreds of wounded of
that division. At eleven o'clock that night, after four days' incessant
duty in the trenches, the regiment was relieved and returned to the
pine woods. The monthly return of the regiment made that day bore upon
the rolls as the total strength, present and absent, five hundred and
thirty-two,--a decrease, from all causes, of four hundred and four
men since the 31st of May, when we numbered, present and absent, nine
hundred and thirty-six.

August 1st. A truce of several hours' duration prevailed along our
front, and the dead between the lines were buried and all the wounded
were removed. The regimental sutler arrived with a large stock of
goods. Lieutenant Davidson was mustered as Captain and assigned to
Company G. The weather continued intensely hot.

August 2d. The heavy siege guns were removed from the batteries to-day.
The firing continued incessantly on the front line. A thunder-shower
tempered the heat.

August 3d. We were aroused at three o'clock, and waited a long time
in line, ready to move at a moment's warning. A rebel attack was
anticipated, but their line did not advance. By way of exercise we had
a battalion drill in the open field from eight to nine, and found it
hot work. To-day all the vacancies in non-commissioned officers were
filled by appointment and the warrants were issued. At eight o'clock
the regiment went to the trenches. The firing all night was unusually
severe, the enemy being more hostile than ever since the explosion of
the mine.

August 4th. A day of fasting and prayer throughout the northern
States, by proclamation of the President. By order of General Meade
all unnecessary work was suspended. But the work of death was not
suspended. Private Thomas Oakes, of Company A, was shot through the
head while on duty at a loop-hole, and died in a few moments. He was a
brave soldier, and always at his post.

August 5th. The intense heat continued, and the last day has recalled
vividly the hot temperature of Mississippi, which we were enduring
one year ago. In the afternoon one of our mortar shells exploded a
magazine in the enemy's fort near the railroad, causing great commotion
in Rebeldom. They immediately opened with musketry and artillery,
making a great noise, which continued for a long time, but their firing
gradually settled down into an ordinary picket fire. The regiment was
relieved at night.

August 6th and 7th. Regiment in the woods. The troops electrified with
the news of Farragut's great victory in Mobile Bay. Heavy artillery,
and mortar firing.

August 8th. Regiment on duty in the trenches. Major Barker division
officer of the trenches. Our head-quarter baggage was sent to City
Point. Private Henry Russell, Company D, was mortally wounded by a shot
in the head while at his post of duty. Our artillery practice to-day
was very effective, and a great fire was seen inside the rebel lines
near sundown, caused probably by the explosion of some of our shells.
The Seventh Maine Battery is now used as a mortar battery, and its
practice is very effective. The rebel picket fire during the entire
night was uncomfortably hot.

August 9th. On duty in the trenches. Seventeen boxes of good things
arrived from home, for men in our regiment. At half-past seven P.M.
Lieutenant-Colonel Draper arrived in camp, and upon the return of the
regiment from the picket-line assumed command. He had been absent since
May 6th, and had recovered from the severe wound received that day in
the first charge in the Wilderness. He received a soldier's welcome
from the remnant of the gallant regiment he that day commanded. A smart
thunder-shower at night cooled the heated atmosphere, and afforded
great relief. Rumors are afloat that we are soon to be relieved in this
position by another corps. Private Henry E. Graves, of Company K, while
on duty at a loop-hole, was badly wounded in the eye by the explosion
of his musket.

August 10th. Our effective strength this morning was twelve
commissioned officers, one hundred and sixty-two enlisted men;
total, one hundred and seventy-four, with twenty sick in hospital.
Lieutenant-Colonel Draper and Major Barker were mustered in on their
new commissions. A court of inquiry is to investigate the circumstances
attending the disaster of July 30th, and we shall probably get the
"facts." Corporal Fred L. Perry, of Company E, was dangerously shot in
the right arm, and narrowly escaped bleeding to death. He will have to
suffer amputation at the shoulder.

August 11th. The victories of Admiral Farragut at Mobile confirmed, and
the intelligence was passed to the enemy in a double-shotted salute.
The regiment went to the front at night. Large fatigue parties at work,
constructing new and powerful works on the hill between the woods and
the picket. Great quantities of lumber, gabions, poles, and building
material, were hauled up at night, and the work was pushed rapidly. The
enemy's rifles command this crest, and they made music all night.

August 12th. On duty in the trenches. The enemy opened from a
new battery on Cemetery Hill, the shells from which reach corps
head-quarters. Much artillery was moved from the works on our left to
the rear, and aided to put in circulation a rumor of a new movement
toward Richmond.

August 13th. Very heavy cannonading was heard on the right, from
General Butler's front, across the James. The Second Corps went over
last night, and there are indications of a heavy movement. Our men were
under arms and ready. It was a happy day in our camp, on account of the
arrival of the paymaster with four months' pay.

August 14th. On duty in the trenches. For the past fortnight the
weather has been intensely hot and dry, and to-day is no exception.
Charles H. Wheeler, of Company I, wounded in the shoulder. Exposed to
severe thundershowers in the afternoon. General Burnside relinquished
the command of the Ninth Corps, and with his personal staff left for
Washington, leaving General Willcox in command.[21] The corps under
orders to be ready to move at a moment's notice. At half-past nine our
line was relieved by troops of the Eighteenth Corps, and the regiment
moved back to the woods in the midst of a pouring rain. At half-past
eleven the regiment was aroused and under arms, and at one o'clock on
the morning of Monday, August 15th, we left our camp in the woods and
moved to the rear. Upon reaching the open plain we marched toward the
left, and it was reported that we were to support an assault to be made
by the Fifth Corps. The night was black as ink, and as we floundered
about in the darkness among the stumps we soon lost all traces of the
road, and continued moving to the left and rear until daylight revealed
our position. We then countermarched to General Warren's head-quarters.
The Fifth Corps was quietly withdrawn soon after daylight, and their
lines occupied by our corps.

[21] General Willcox was soon relieved by Major-General John G. Parke,
who was assigned to the command of the corps.

Our brigade relieved the Third Brigade, First Division, Fifth Corps,
and our regiment took possession of the splendid line of works
occupied by the One hundred and eighteenth Pennsylvania. The works
were bomb-proof, and the camp regular and perfectly clean, reminding
us of the camp of the Seventeenth regulars, at Catlett's Station. The
enemy was found to be comparatively peaceful here. There was no firing
whatever during the day, and our pickets were relieved by daylight
without any molestation. The "Johnnies" were plainly seen walking about
within their lines with impunity, and the regiment we relieved informed
us that the utmost harmony and good-feeling prevailed on the picket
line. To us who for sixty days had been exposed to an incessant and
hostile fire it was a great relief to be able to stand upright without
the certainty of being shot. The enemy, however, had frequently opened
upon the main line with artillery, and to resist the fire the main
works had been strengthened and elaborated to the perfection of field
fortifications. During the afternoon and evening the rain came down in
a deluge, filling the bomb-proofs and trenches, inundating the camp,
and making everybody generally miserable. The Fifth Corps, after being
relieved, concentrated for a movement to the left, to be supported by
the First and Third Divisions of our corps, which were in reserve.

Our little regiment, which could ill afford depletion, had lost while
in the trenches on the right, from the 20th of June to the 14th of
August, seven men killed or mortally wounded, and eighteen wounded;
a total of twenty-five,--a slow but sure wasting of some of the most
valuable material of which the regiment could boast.

August 16th. The weather continued rainy and uncomfortable. Not a
shot was fired on our line. Dr. Bryant to-day received a fully earned
and well-deserved promotion, and was commissioned Surgeon of the
Fifty-eighth Massachusetts Volunteers. There is, however, some doubt
as to his being able to muster in on account of the greatly reduced
numbers of that regiment, it being below the minimum, and having two
assistant surgeons. It will be a calamity to lose the services of Dr.
Bryant. During the entire campaign he has been at his post, and his
duties have been very arduous and unremitting, from the fact that he
has been the only medical officer with the regiment. He has remained
constantly with the regiment, always in close proximity during an
advance, and ready and willing to perform any duty in the camp or on
the field.[22]

[22] For the reason given above Dr. Bryant was not able to muster in on
his commission as Surgeon of the Fifty-eighth, and remained with the
Thirty-sixth until the close of the war.

August 17th. A day of frequent heavy showers, settling at night
into a cold storm, making the ground soft and miry. It was a day of
comparative quiet, but we had a heavy force on picket. A vigorous
movement is in progress on the right, and the cannonading throughout
the day was severe. General Hancock has crossed the James with the
Second and Tenth Corps, and a division of cavalry, and has had a
spirited engagement.

August 18th. The day was quiet within the lines, with rain at short
intervals and heavy showers at times. The trenches and bomb-proofs were
very uncomfortable, and required much baling out to keep the water
down. General Lee having sent a considerable force from his lines to
resist General Hancock's advance north of the James, advantage was
taken of his movement to send General Warren and the Fifth Corps to
the left, to extend that flank across the Weldon Railroad, about three
or four miles distant. General Warren reached the railroad early in the
forenoon, and while moving toward Petersburg was met by the enemy, and
a fierce battle ensued, attended with considerable loss to the Fifth
Corps; but the railroad was secured and held, and at nightfall General
Warren established his line across it.

About nine o'clock that evening we were ordered to prepare three days'
cooked rations, and be ready to move at daylight. The meaning of that
order was well understood. During the night the enemy seemed to be
aware of some unusual movement in our lines, and subjected us to a very
severe artillery fire, which was general along the entire line.

At ten o'clock on the 19th we were relieved by Mott's division of the
Second Corps, which had just recrossed the James, and the division
moved to the left, following the other two divisions of our corps,
which had been ordered to reinforce General Warren. We were exposed to
a hot fire while leaving the pits, but none in the Thirty-sixth were
injured. The rain poured in torrents nearly all day, and the men were
thoroughly drenched. The route was circuitous, and we marched nearly
six miles over very bad roads. As we neared the lines, the artillery
and musketry fire of the troops in our front indicated that a heavy
battle was in progress. The division of the enemy which General Warren
encountered yesterday had been heavily reinforced, and had broken
through the skirmish line, extending from the right of the Fifth Corps
toward the left of the main line of works in front of Petersburg,
with a heavy column, and turned Warren's right flank, causing great
confusion and heavy loss, especially in prisoners. In the midst of this
exciting battle the First and Third Divisions of our corps reached
the ground at a most critical moment, and, forming hastily on General
Warren's right, pushed rapidly forward with the troops of the Fifth
Corps, and drove the enemy in great confusion to his intrenchments. The
fighting was desperate and bloody. The rebel troops consisted, among
others, of Mahone's division of A. P. Hill's corps.

In the rapid advance of our lines a gap was created between the Ninth
and Fifth Corps, and our division was at once deployed to fill it.
We formed in a clearing and pushed forward into the woods for about
a quarter of a mile, and went into position across a wood road. In
less than ten minutes we had a good protection of logs; but were
not allowed to remain long in possession, the brigade being ordered
to deploy as skirmishers. The Thirty-sixth first formed on the left
of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, but were soon filed to the extreme
right, when, by General Potter's order, we were at once returned to our
original position on the left of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, near the
wood road. Captain Raymond, of the brigade staff, was sent by General
Potter down this road to reconnoitre. In a few moments he rode into a
large party of the enemy's skirmishers, and narrowly escaped capture.
His orderly was killed, and as he attempted to return to the line the
pursuit was so close that several of the enemy were captured. It was an
exciting event, and proved that the enemy was in force in our front.
Owing to the marching and countermarching in deploying, it was nearly
dusk before the line was fairly established. General Potter ordered an
advance, but upon moving forward it was discovered that we had broken
connection with the First Division on our left, and were obliged to
extend in that direction. Accordingly the Fifty-first New York was
deployed between us and the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania. Owing to the
storm, the darkness, and the low, dense undergrowth, we were unable to
advance beyond a short distance, and remained through the night in this
position, widely deployed in the dense wood, without intrenchments or
fires. The storm was quite severe, the rain fell in torrents, and the
ground was soaked with water. It proved to be one of those cheerless,
dismal nights, of which we had experienced so many during the eventful
campaign,--nights the recollection of which causes a shudder, even
after the flight of years.

The first glimmer of daylight found the line of battle ready to
advance; but no trace of the enemy could be discovered. Company D,
the Color Guard, and Pioneers were formed as a reserve under charge
of the Adjutant, and ordered to support the centre and keep well up
to the skirmish line in the advance. At half-past eight o'clock the
order was given "Forward! Guide Left!" The dense undergrowth rendered
it very difficult to maintain a good line, as the regiment covered
considerable ground. After advancing about three hundred yards we
reached a cornfield about one hundred yards wide, with woods beyond.
We moved across this field and halted in the edge of the forest, and
connected our left with the right of the First Division. We were then
ordered to build a line of breastworks. We had just completed a fine
line of works, and were eating our dinner of roasted corn, gathered
from the cornfield, when we were ordered to the left to reinforce that
portion of the line, as an attack was anticipated. We accordingly
moved a distance of about a hundred yards to the left, to that portion
of the line which had been held by the Second New York Rifles, which
had moved further down. Although they had occupied the position two
hours, not a tree had been cut, and no protection whatever had been
secured. Our men went to work with a will and soon had a good line
of breastworks. We had just nicely settled down for the second time
when the Adjutant-General came up at a gallop to order the regiment to
extend to the right, as the enemy was threatening the extreme right,
and it had been found necessary to extend in that direction. We moved
back to the first line of breastworks we had built, not a little angry
at being obliged to build intrenchments for the Second New York.

The portion of line we now occupied was the scene of the fearful
struggle the previous day, when the charging enemy, under Mahone,
encountered the advance of our troops under General Willcox. Both
lines were charging and met at short range, when a desperate fight
ensued, in which the enemy was obliged to retire. His dead lay thickly
all about us, and the ground bore evidence of the heavy loss sustained
by the enemy at this point.

The men were under arms all the afternoon, expecting an attack.
There was sharp musketry both on our right and left, but no unusual
disturbance along our front. During the evening Lieutenant-Colonel
Draper was temporarily in command of the brigade, in consequence
of the absence of Colonel Bliss. At nightfall Captain Hodgkins,
acting Adjutant, was detailed upon the staff of General Ferrero, and
Lieutenant Haskell, of Company B, was assigned to duty as Adjutant and
entered at once upon this service. The tri-monthly report of this date
showed the effective strength to be thirteen commissioned officers
and one hundred and seventy-six enlisted men; total, one hundred and
eighty-nine, with four commissioned officers and ninety-five enlisted
men on extra or special duty with the corps.

The movement for the possession of the Weldon Railroad, although
attended with heavy losses, had thus far been successful. General
Warren's line was now firmly across the railroad, and the position
strongly fortified. Our corps was on his right flank, covering much
ground between him and the main line of works; a large cavalry force
guarded the flanks, and artillery had been put in position to repel any
attack the enemy might be disposed to make. It was felt that another
attempt would be made by the rebels to drive out or break our line. The
night shut in cold, dark, and rainy. The men were under arms, prepared
for any emergency.

Early the next morning there were indications of another attack, and
the enemy soon renewed his efforts to regain the railroad. A heavy
cannonading from thirty pieces of artillery, which crossed their fire
over Warren's position, was kept up for an hour, when a desperate
assault was made by Haygood's South Carolina brigade, on the extreme
left, with the intention of turning that flank while a heavy attack was
made in front. The charge was made with great vigor, but was handsomely
repulsed, with heavy loss in killed and wounded. Five hundred prisoners
and three battle-flags were captured, with comparatively little loss to
the Fifth Corps. The attempt was not renewed, but the enemy retired to
his works, and our line was so strengthened as to render any further
attack a matter of little probability.



CHAPTER XXII.

IN THE PINES.


The excitement and activity caused by the successful operations at the
Weldon Railroad subsided in a great degree by the 22d, the enemy having
abandoned the futile task of striving to regain his lost ground, and
we were left in quiet and complete possession of this important line
of communication. The regiment was leisurely employed during the day
in strengthening the intrenchments, and skirmishers were advanced for
half a mile or more into the wooded swamp in its front, but without
developing the rebel position.

On the 23d the whole division line was drawn back a short distance, and
works of a more permanent character than those first thrown up were
begun.

The camp sheltered by these defences became known as that "In the
Pines," and deserves more than passing notice. The Ninth Corps now
held that part of the line which extended from the right of the Fifth
Corps on the Weldon Railroad to the left of the Second Corps, near the
Jerusalem Plank road,--a distance of about four miles. At the point
occupied by the regiment the line ran along the edge of a belt of
pine timber fronting an open field of varying width, which separated
it from a deep, swampy forest, the trees in the border of which were
felled at random, forming with their prostrate trunks and interlacing
branches that formidable barrier known as a "slashing." Through this
maze were narrow winding paths for the passage of the pickets who were
posted in the standing timber beyond. The breastworks were higher than
was customary, the earth being thrown up from the front, leaving a
ditch, just outside of which was planted a bristling abatis. Well-built
earthworks for artillery were thrown up at available points, the open
ground in front of the regiment being swept by an enfilading fire
from two. An observer standing upon the works in front of the tents
of the Thirty-sixth commanded a far-reaching view of the defences,
which, as they stretched away on either hand until hidden by the trees,
presented one of the best specimens of entrenchment to be seen on that
wonderful line, which extended for more than thirty miles, and which,
with the opposing works of the enemy, nearly as long, made the greatest
achievement in field fortification the world ever saw.

This position was held by the regiment from August 23d until September
25th; and relieved from the harassing duty in the trenches to which
we had been so long subjected, and confident in the security of our
defences, we joyfully improved a period of needed and grateful rest.

The regimental camp was laid out in an orderly manner, the absence of
underbrush and large size of the pine growth giving it the appearance
of a picnic grove, and was in striking contrast to the dusty and
sun-scorched quarters it had frequently been our lot to occupy.

The weather, although cool at times, was generally delightful, and the
duties were light. Beyond the regular details for picket and police,
and an occasional bloodless reconnoissance, there was little call for
service, and the men at their leisure washed and mended their war-worn
garments, and dealt out long-deferred vengeance to predatory vermin;
guns were cleaned, and brasses polished; barbers' chairs of marvellous
construction, attended by thrifty veterans, were well patronized;
long-absent sutlers returned with their wagons groaning beneath heavy
burdens; in short, we were once more "in camp."

The terrible losses sustained by the Ninth Corps during the bloody
campaign of the summer had sadly thinned its once crowded ranks.
Regiments, that in April marched from Annapolis in all the pride and
confidence which strength inspires, now mustered around their tattered
colors meagre and skeleton battalions. The loss in commissioned
officers was especially large, and the need of a reorganization of
the corps was painfully apparent. In furtherance of this object
General White, commanding the First Division, was relieved, by orders
dated September 1, and the regiments composing that division were
transferred to the Second and Third Divisions. On the 13th of September
the designation of the several divisions of the corps was changed as
follows: the Third to be First, under command of Brigadier-General
O. B. Willcox; the Second to remain unchanged, under command of
Brigadier-General R. B. Potter; the Fourth (colored) to be the Third,
under command of Brigadier-General Edward Ferrero. The corps was under
the command of Major-General John G. Parke.

This change strengthened our brigade by the addition of the
Twenty-first (now a battalion) and Thirty-fifth Regiments Massachusetts
Volunteers.

The following is a list of the regiments composing the brigade after
the reorganization, with the number (commissioned officers and enlisted
men) present for duty in the latter part of September:--

  Fourth Rhode Island Volunteers    217
  Seventh Rhode Island        "     165
  Forty-eighth Pennsylvania   "     491
  Forty-fifth Pennsylvania    "     291
  Fifty-first New York        "     368
  Thirty-sixth Massachusetts  "     228
  Fifty-eighth Massachusetts  "     123
  Thirty-fifth Massachusetts  "     514
  Twenty-first Massachusetts  "     102

Soon after its arrival at the pines the Thirty-fifth Massachusetts
received over three hundred and fifty recruits, entirely made up
of substitutes from Germany. The camp of these exiles was near that
of the Thirty-sixth, and their ignorance of the language and queer
foreign manners caused an amused interest in them; but when at night,
as became their custom, they gathered around the camp-fires, and, in an
isolation almost pathetic, sung the songs of _Faderland_, the effect
was striking, and we could not but listen with feelings of sympathy and
sadness as the grand old chorals resounded through the solemn pines.

September 14th, First Lieutenant Henry S. Burrage, who was wounded at
the battle of Cold Harbor, returned to the regiment, and was mustered
in as Captain of Company D.

During this peaceful month the ornamental duties of a soldier assumed
prominence, and the frequent sharp command "Fall in!" became more
suggestive of a drill and dress-parade than of hurried march or
wearisome watch in the trenches. On the 15th the regiment paraded for
brigade inspection, and on the 21st participated in a review of the
brigade by General Potter, presenting on both occasions a steady and
soldierly appearance that cast no discredit on its past record.

Lieutenant-Colonel Draper, as President, and Captain Smith, as
Judge-Advocate, of a court martial convened at division head-quarters,
gave attention to the trial of deserters, most of the cases being those
of either ignorant foreign substitutes or unscrupulous bounty-jumpers.

On the morning of the 16th the prevailing quiet was broken by the
unusual sound of firing in our front, followed by the hasty falling
back of a portion of the picket line. The breastworks were hurriedly
manned in anticipation of an assault; but after some desultory firing
the enemy prudently withdrew, evidently satisfied as to the strength of
our position, for no further attempt was made to disturb the line at
this point. In the forenoon of September 25th the Third Division was
reviewed, and a large number of interested spectators from our regiment
were in attendance, criticising with veteran keenness the military
bearing of the "colored troops."

But the easy life in which the luxury of idleness was broken only by
the routine of camp duty was to be rudely ended; the friendly shelter
which for a while we had enjoyed was to be exchanged for the deadly
exposure of the battle-field. It was our last day "in the Pines."



CHAPTER XXIII.

THE ACTION AT PEGRAM FARM.


On the afternoon of September 25th, about five o'clock, orders to move
were suddenly received, and immediately the quiet camp became a scene
of bustling activity. Tents were hastily stripped from their poles,
knapsacks packed in a hurry, and in half an hour, having been relieved
by the Fifth Corps, we left our camp. After moving some four miles
to the right a halt was ordered about nine o'clock, and the regiment
bivouacked in the woods in the rear of the Second Corps.

On the following day tents were pitched, and the men remained idle in
camp, the air thick with rumors, until the morning of the 28th, when
the brigade marched to the "Gurley House," half a mile from "Yellow
Tavern," "in such a manner that the enemy would notice the movement,"
to quote from the order received from regimental head-quarters.

The 29th was passed in feverish uncertainty, a move being expected at
any moment. Staff officers and orderlies were riding to and fro, and
cavalry in force moved toward the left; but the regiment did not leave
its position. At night the excitement was heightened by the reading of
a despatch from General Grant, announcing that the railroad between
Petersburg and Richmond had been taken by General Ord, and that General
Birney had defeated the enemy north of the James.

The morning of September 30th dawned upon a day of perfect autumnal
beauty; but the balmy air, fragrant with the scent of the pines,
the clear sunlight, and cloudless sky left little impress of their
loveliness upon the minds of men who, after the broken slumbers of the
night, were early astir preparing for battle.

The expected advance began about nine o'clock, the troops passing
over the works of the Fifth Corps on the extreme left, and into the
debatable land beyond. The column consisted of Ayer's and Griffin's
divisions of the Fifth Corps, followed by Potter's and Willcox's
divisions of the Ninth Corps. We followed the road through woods for
about a mile, when a small country meeting-house, known as Poplar
Spring Church, was reached. There our brigade line of battle formed
at right angles to the road. Meanwhile the advance of the Fifth Corps
had developed near the Peebles house, an outlying fortification of the
enemy, consisting of a redoubt and flanking rifle-pits, upon which an
assault was made, about ten o'clock, by Griffin's division, and easily
carried, with trifling loss. The enemy, not having sufficient strength
to resist after the loss of his entrenchments, promptly retreated to
his main line, leaving about fifty prisoners and a piece of artillery
in our hands.

The divisions of the Ninth Corps were now ordered to the front, and
immediately advanced, passing the troops of the Fifth Corps, who were
quietly resting with stacked arms near the captured redoubt.

The regiment moved forward in brigade line of battle in excellent form,
and a rapid advance on the enemy's main line was anticipated; but, soon
after passing the Peebles house, a halt was ordered, and the movement
came to a complete stand-still.

For three or four hours this fatal and inexplicable delay continued,
although it was evident that the advantage of a surprise was thus being
thrown away, as the enemy must necessarily have been warned of our
presence by the men who had withdrawn from the redoubt. At last, about
the middle of the afternoon, the impatient and well-nigh disgusted
soldiers were again ordered forward.

Our regiment moved by the flank toward the Boisseau house,--an
abandoned dwelling that became prominent during the operations of
the ensuing days,--gathering, in wayside gossip with adventurous
sharp-shooters who had been looking after an opportunity for fancy
shooting at the front, the cheering news that the rebel works, toward
which we were advancing, had been strongly reinforced during our long
halt. About five o'clock the Second Brigade, General Griffin, which
was pushing forward on our right, slightly in advance, became engaged
with the enemy's skirmish line, and General Curtin was ordered to make
connection with that command. This was immediately done, our brigade
forming in two lines of battle, as follows: Thirty-fifth Massachusetts,
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, Fifty-eighth Massachusetts, and Fifty-first
New York, in the first line; Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, Twenty-first
Massachusetts, and Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, in the second, though
extending further to the left than the first line. The Seventh Rhode
Island were in the rear with entrenching tools, and the Fourth Rhode
Island acted as provost guard, their term of service having nearly
expired.

By this formation the Thirty-sixth came into position on the extreme
left of the brigade, and halted for a few moments near the Boisseau
house, at a fence running along a sorghum field. Captain Burrage, with
the skirmishers of the regiment, covered the front and left of the
regiment, the line extending from the woods to the Boisseau house. The
firing on our right now increased as the Second Brigade became hotly
engaged, and our line was ordered over the fence, which was hastily
crossed, and an advance of a few yards made into an open field, which
extended a long distance to the right, exposing to view a large part of
the brigade line of battle, while the enemy was concealed in the woods
beyond. Here the regiment first met the whizzing rebel bullets, which
became so troublesome as to cause the men to lie down; and, although
the prostrate attitude was eminently adapted to the situation, the
recumbent warriors may have been shamed, and were certainly encouraged,
by the example of General Curtin, who at this juncture reached the
front, and, followed by a single orderly, rode along the line of his
brigade, as coolly as if on review. His horse was soon after shot under
him, and a valuable saddle, sent as a present from his friends in
Pennsylvania, fell into the hands of the enemy.

We momentarily expected an order to charge, but found that the
situation was changing on the right, to which attention was drawn from
the fact that at that point the line seemed to be falling back, which
soon proved to be the case. Our regimental line stood inactive, no
special pressure being brought to bear by the enemy in our front, until
the retrograde movement became communicated to the regiment on our
right, when we realized that the rebels, tired perhaps of waiting for
our assault, had boldly sallied from their works and, sheltered by the
surrounding wood, had successfully flanked our line.

As the whole force covering our right vanished, the regiment was
subjected to a galling fire from that direction as well as the front.
Colonel Draper then ordered a change of front, but seeing that the
enemy's movement threatened to cut us off from our forces in the rear
he changed the order to a movement by the left flank in the same
direction.

The sorghum before mentioned save us a slight shelter, and we hurriedly
made our way through it, the vicious "zip" of the rebel bullets giving
us an incentive to haste. Reaching the ravine between the Boisseau
house and the sorghum field we found remnants of several regiments of
the First Division, which had fallen into disorder, still gallantly
holding their ground, gathered in little groups around their colors.
Here a stubborn stand was made, and the chief conflict of the day on
the part of our regiment was fought. Many acts of individual gallantry
might be mentioned, the officers, and in some noticeable instances
the enlisted men, doing brave and serviceable work in rallying the
scattered squads and endeavoring to check the advance of the enemy.
But the force was unequal to the task, the Thirty-sixth being the only
regiment that retained its organization; and the position soon became
extremely critical.

A line of the enemy's skirmishers now appeared at the mouth of the
ravine, on our left flank, and coolly picked off our men without
opposition, our fire being mainly directed at the greater body of
the rebel force, which had meanwhile pressed well around to our
right, having cut off and captured a part of our brigade and driven
back the remainder. The regiment could hold its ground but a short
time under the demoralizing effect of a sharp fire from three sides,
and Lieutenant-Colonel Draper, seeing that further resistance would
be useless sacrifice, seized the colors, against the protest of
Color-Sergeant Rawson, and gave the order to retire.

A lively scattering over the fences and through the grounds of the
Boisseau house ensued, each man doing his level best to preserve a life
for future usefulness to his country, and little breath was taken until
the shelter of a reserve line and a section of Roemer's battery was
secured. Here General Potter was found sitting gloomily on his horse,
to whom Colonel Draper reported with fifty-two men of our regiment and
twenty men of the Fifty-sixth Massachusetts as "the remains of his
division." The men of the Fifth Corps and that part of the Ninth held
in reserve had by this time been so disposed as to check any further
advance of the enemy, and the battle ceased as darkness came on. The
remnant of our regiment proceeded to the new line, which was found with
difficulty in the dark, and remained for a short time in position at
the edge of a piece of woods, picking up occasional stragglers.

During the evening we were ordered back to the line of works taken
by the Fifth Corps in the morning, where we were soon joined by a
detachment of about sixty men, under Captains Ames and Morse, which
became separated from the colors in the retreat. As each party had
for a time good reason for supposing the other to be in the hands of
the enemy, the reunion was a joyful one. At roll-call the regiment
mustered one hundred and forty-three men, the largest number by far
of any regiment in the division, although some had three times that
number in the ranks before going into action. The casualties in the
Thirty-sixth were four killed, sixteen wounded, and sixteen missing,--a
surprisingly small number in view of the perilous position in which the
regiment was placed. The killed were Corporal Robert F. Webb, Company
A, Privates Lyman H. Gilbert, Company E, Rufus H. Carter, Company I,
and Belthezar Margenot, Company K,--the last two being transferred men
from the Twenty-first Regiment. Sergeant Lucius L. Merrick, Company E,
who rejoined the regiment the night before, was mortally wounded and
died ten days later. Merrick was known throughout the regiment, and
respected by all for his manly Christian character. He was a graduate
of Amherst College, and at the time of his enlistment was preparing
for the ministry. He had been twice wounded, at Knoxville and in the
Wilderness, and was about to receive a commission in a regiment of
colored troops. He was one of the best soldiers in the regiment, and
his death caused sincere grief. Sergeant Charles Underwood, of Company
D, was wounded in the knee near the Boisseau house, and fell into the
hands of the enemy. His leg was amputated, and in a short time he was
sent through to our lines. A second and third amputation followed
a year or two later, and he died. Sergeant-Major Washburn was shot
through the face, receiving a very severe wound, and Captain J. B.
Smith, serving on the staff of General Potter, was shot in the hand,
and suffered amputation of a finger.

Of the four divisions engaged the loss fell chiefly on ours, the number
of missing being very large. The official report of casualties in the
division was,--killed fifty-one; wounded two hundred and eighty;
missing, one thousand three hundred and thirteen. A large proportion
of the missing were from the First Brigade, as the regiments in its
first line were cut off by the enemy's flank movement, and nearly all
of the Fifty-first New York, and a large number of the Forty-fifth
Pennsylvania, and Fifty-eighth Massachusetts were captured.

The Second Brigade of our division first received the shock of the
evening's charge, and when it was seen that it could not withstand
it, the Seventh Rhode Island, in reserve, was ordered to form a new
line near the Pegram house, and an order which, unfortunately, was
not received by him, was despatched to General Curtin to fall back
to the line thus established. If this movement had been made it is
probable that the heavy loss in the brigade would have been avoided.
Speculation as to the causes which occasioned this disaster to our
corps is, perhaps, unprofitable, and can afford but little consolation;
but one fact seems clear, that the delays and blunders of general
officers, rather than cowardice or misconduct of the men fighting at
the front, brought about the mortifying result. The vexatious and
apparently needless halt after the first success of the Fifth Corps in
the morning has been alluded to. This gave the enemy time to reinforce
his threatened line, and the rebel commanders, thoroughly familiar with
the ground, had their customary advantage of being able to direct their
movements understandingly.[23]

[23] This action is called by the Confederates the battle of Jones'
Farm. Lane's North Carolina brigade formed the enemy's right; one of
Wilcox's brigades the left, with McRae's North Carolina brigade as a
support. The latter, however, "rushed forward to participate in the
fight." See History of Lane's North Carolina Brigade, in _Southern
Historical Society Papers_, 1881, pp. 354-356.

During the night a storm began, and the day following was one of the
most dismal and uncomfortable ever experienced by the regiment. No
movement was attempted, but details were employed in reversing the
works behind which we were bivouacked, so they might afford protection
in case of an advance by the enemy. The work was very difficult, as
the constant rain gave the freshly turned earth the consistency of
mud. The aspect of the men, as they painfully prodded the moist ground
with sticky shovels or crouched around smoky and sputtering fires, was
lugubrious in the extreme, and their feelings corresponded with their
looks. Occasional shots were exchanged by the pickets, and one man of
the regiment, while sitting near a fire, was wounded by a stray bullet.



CHAPTER XXIV.

AGAIN IN THE TRENCHES.


The morning of October 2d was bright and clear, and the lines were soon
formed for an advance. We moved forward about a quarter of a mile,
to a point not far distant from the Boisseau house, where we fell to
in earnest and began the construction of a line of works which were
destined to be our protection for many weeks.

We were greatly annoyed during the forenoon by a sharp-shooter,
evidently posted in a tree, and by the raking fire of a battery, also
screened by trees, which occasionally caused a lively scattering by
sending a shell whizzing diagonally across our line. One of these burst
in the ranks of Company K, wounding three men and killing two; one of
the killed being Sergeant Daniel A. Burton. The fire from the battery
slackened in the afternoon, but the "reb" sharp-shooter kept at work so
persistently that it seemed extremely desirable to put a stop to his
fun. Accordingly, Colonel Draper detailed James Knowlton, of Company E,
and Corporal Frank Bell, of Company F, two good shots, to relieve us
from this annoyance if possible.

They crept out some distance beyond the picket line, found cover,
and waited for indications. They had not long to wait, for soon the
crack of a rifle was heard, and from a tree in the edge of the woods
back of the enemy's picket line rose a telltale puff of smoke. Both
took careful aim, fired, and to their delight saw a gray-clad Johnny
come tumbling heels over head out of the tree. The next morning
the rebel pickets told ours that the man shot was a lieutenant of
sharp-shooters. After this successful shot the work in the trenches
was pursued with more safety and peace of mind, and by nightfall a
strong rifle-pit stood between us and the enemy, behind which we
pitched our tents and sought repose with a pleasant consciousness of
being once more "in camp."

The day had been full of work and interest. The part of the new line
built by the Thirty-sixth was on open ground, while the rebel position
was masked by thick woods, and the fire from unseen batteries and
sharp-shooters was harassing in the extreme. During the morning General
Meade, accompanied by a brilliant staff, passed along the line and
halted in the rear of the regiment, probably furnishing an additional
inducement to the rebel gunners to serve their pieces well. In the
evening Major Barker, Captain Fairbank, Captain Burrage, and some of
the men, went over the ground in front of our lines, under cover of the
darkness, and buried our dead, whom the enemy had stripped of their
clothing and left where they fell.

October 3d passed more quietly. Shots were occasionally fired on
the picket line, but no hindrance was experienced in the work of
strengthening the fortifications, which was the principal business of
the day. Engineers were engaged in laying out forts, two of which,
named Fort Fisher and Fort Welch, were in time completed, and formed a
prominent feature of the defences, as the line here made an angle, the
works to the left of these forts being the protection for the extreme
left of the army of the Potomac.

October 4th. Comparative quiet prevailed until the afternoon, when
there was a lively breeze on the picket line. In our immediate front,
and held by our pickets, was a deserted house, to which reference has
already been made, lately occupied by Dr. Boisseau. As this house stood
on rising ground, and commanded a view of the enemy's line, it was
surmised that it might be made the object of an attack. In anticipation
of such an event, Captain Morse, with his company, was, on the 3d
instant, detailed as a reserve picket force, and took up a position
in a small rifle-pit near the house a short distance to the rear of
the picket line. The rebels had during the day kept up a desultory
fire, which made the position of the few men stationed in the building
somewhat uncomfortable; but nothing unusual was noted until about four
o'clock, when the enemy attacked the picket line of the Second New
York, of our brigade. The capture of this line let the enemy into the
rear of the picket pits of the Thirty-Sixth, and those adjacent to the
house were precipitately evacuated; but the reserve force held its
ground until convinced that the enemy was present in superior numbers,
when it fell back, leaving the house and a few men in his possession.
Our loss was four men captured,--Corporals Charles Bottomley and George
H. Mills, of Company C, and privates Reuben Jackson and Lyman McDowell,
of Company E. Mills and Bottomley were shortly afterwards paroled;
but Jackson and McDowell were fated to swell the ranks of that mighty
army the story of which is sadly told by the words, "Died in rebel
prisons." The picket line was at once reinforced, and the captured
posts were retaken. A second attack of the enemy was unsuccessful.
After dark, in accordance with orders, Captain Burrage, who was brigade
officer of the day, gave directions for the burning of the building.
It was soon a mass of flame, and presented a brilliant spectacle, the
weird effect being heightened by the sharp crack of the rifles as the
outposts on both sides blazed away at random, each desirous to show
to his antagonist that he was not to be caught napping. At daylight
on the morning of the 5th the disputed property was a heap of ruins,
and our pickets who had been drawn back, on account of the fire, took
possession of their old pits without opposition.

We were now for several days kept busy in the construction of
earthworks, and the regimental camp was twice moved; but by the 7th
instant we were well settled, and were made happy by the ever-welcome
appearance of the paymaster.

This day was also marked by the arrival of a new stand of colors.
The old flags, which in the wanderings of over two years of active
service had been borne in ten States of the Union, and in both
victory and defeat had been zealously guarded as the emblems of our
organization, State and National, were now returned to the care of
the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts. Stained by the elements and
blood, and torn by shot and shell, with both staves shattered by rebel
bullets, they gave silent but faithful testimony to the vicissitudes
through which the men who followed them had passed.

During this month an unexpected loss befell the regiment, caused by
the retirement from the service of Lieutenant-Colonel Draper and
Captain Morse, who left for home October 13th, to the great regret of
their comrades of the Thirty-sixth, whether officers or enlisted men.
Although young men, both were veteran officers of tried courage and
recognized ability, and we would gladly have retained them; but their
term of service had now expired, both having served in the Twenty-fifth
Massachusetts before entering the Thirty-sixth. Lieutenant-Colonel
Draper was soon after brevetted Colonel and Brigadier-General "for
gallant and meritorious service."

Major Barker succeeded to the command of the regiment, and soon after
received a commission as Lieutenant-Colonel, dating from October 12th,
1864. The command of Company C devolved upon First Lieutenant P. G.
Woodward.

On the 14th inst. the regiment was for the first time in its history
ordered out to witness a military execution. The condemned was a
private of the Second Maryland, named Merlin, who by the division
court-martial, of which Lieutenant-Colonel Draper was president, had
been found guilty of an attempt to desert to the enemy. The division
was formed in an open field on three sides of a square, in the centre
of which the doomed man was seated, blindfold, on a coffin placed at
the side of an open grave. Familiar with death as the spectators were,
it was an impressive scene as the firing detail silently drew up
before the criminal, and at a preconcerted signal (the dropping of a
handkerchief) discharged a volley which sent the soul of the deserter
to its final account.

With the exception of the removal of the camp to a point nearer the
breastworks there was continued quiet until the 25th when rumors of a
movement became rife, and toward night orders were received to pack up
and be ready to march at dusk. We were soon in readiness, but the night
passed without the arrival of the expected order. The next day brought
additional indications of a contemplated movement of considerable
magnitude, and at one o'clock P.M. tents were struck, and the regiment
marched to a large field near by, where, after participating in a
brigade drill, it bivouacked for the night. The time allowed for rest
was brief, however, as the sleeping soldiers were aroused at two
o'clock on the morning of the 27th. While we awaited in the darkness
the momentarily expected order to "Fall in," a mail arrived and was
distributed by the flickering light of the army candle, and many a man
as he read the welcome message from home felt, as he thought of the
morrow, that it might be for him the last.

The movement in which the regiment was about to engage we found to be
one of great importance, from the result of which much advantage to
our arms was hoped. General Grant, it appeared, had decided to make
one more attempt to turn the enemy's right flank, and, if possible,
interrupt his communications, before the weather should become so bad
as to render the roads impracticable for aggressive warfare. A large
part of the troops attached to the Second, Fifth, and Ninth Corps were
withdrawn from the entrenched line for this purpose. The duty assigned
to the Fifth and Ninth Corps was to advance upon the extreme right
of the enemy's works, and capture them if possible, thus turning his
flank; while the Second Corps was to make a detour to the west, cross
Hatcher's Run in the vicinity of Burgess' Mills, and operate against
the Southside Railroad.

At four o'clock we were on the road, and soon reaching the left of our
line marched through an opening made in the works for our passage. The
column then moved forward over an uneven country, heavily wooded in
parts, and quite unfamiliar to the officers in command. The Fifth Corps
worked its way with difficulty to a position to the left of the Ninth,
and a general advance was attempted. The Third Division (colored) of
the Ninth Corps led in this movement, and struck the enemy's line about
two miles from our intrenchments. The black men behaved admirably,
driving the rebels to the shelter of their fortifications, which
were found to be so formidable and well garrisoned that an escalade
was deemed unadvisable; and the position gained was simply held, for
a time, to await the result of the movement to the left. The other
divisions of the Ninth Corps remained in support of the Third Division,
and the regiment busied itself during the day in throwing up a line of
rifle-pits, behind which it bivouacked at night. The night was rainy,
and our condition anything but comfortable, as we wearily waited for
the day.

The weather improved on the morning of the 28th, but, instead of the
anticipated assault, we found that preparations were being made for the
withdrawal of our forces, as it transpired that the operations of the
two corps on our left had proved unsuccessful. Crawford's division,
of the Fifth Corps, had crossed Hatcher's Run, with the intention of
gaining a position behind the rebel right flank; but became separated
in the thick forest, and had remained all night in a dangerous plight,
but was fortunately withdrawn without serious loss. The Second Corps
had advanced, as directed, to Burgess' Mills, where it was thrown into
some confusion by an assault of the enemy, from which it soon rallied
and drove back the assailants, capturing many prisoners, and, although
partial success was gained at this point, the evident strength of the
rebel forces made further offensive operations unadvisable.

Our division was ordered to retire about noon, and, in conjunction with
a division of the Fifth Corps, executed a very pretty manœuvre. The
troops of the Ninth Corps formed in line of battle, leaving an opening
through which those of the Fifth passed by the flank; the latter then
in turn formed in line and in like manner guarded the passage to the
rear of the other column. The movement was conducted with the coolness
and regularity of a parade, notwithstanding the rattling fire of the
skirmishers, which furnished an exciting accompaniment. After reaching
our old line of defence we marched quietly back to our lately abandoned
camp, and reoccupied it.

Soon after the return from this unprofitable excursion the regiment
received a material addition to its strength by the consolidation with
it of the Twenty-first Battalion Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers. This
command was the remnant made up of reënlisted men of the Twenty-first
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, and was justly proud of its long
and brilliant record. On account of the smallness of its numbers it
was ordered to join our larger force; but its veteran members were
naturally averse to the change, as by it their old regiment lost its
identity in a younger one; neither did the men of the Thirty-sixth
regard with favor the accession of recruits in this wholesale
manner, as their ten companies were now compacted into seven, and
their accustomed formation lost. Military necessity is regardless of
sentiment, however, and the change was peacefully made, the new-comers
being pleasantly received; and they faithfully served with the regiment
until its departure for home, when they were transferred to the
Fifty-sixth Massachusetts Volunteers.

The following regimental order in reference to this consolidation and
organization was issued:--

                         HEAD-QUARTERS THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT,
                       MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS, November 1st, 1864.

  REGIMENTAL ORDERS NO. 28.

  In obedience to Special Orders from War Dept., A.G.O. No. 358,
  the Thirty-sixth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers is consolidated
  into seven companies, and the Twenty-first Battalion Massachusetts
  Volunteers is transferred to the Thirty-sixth Regiment to complete
  the organization.

  The Thirty-sixth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers is consolidated
  as follows:--

  Companies  K and B to B.
      "      G and I to G.
      "      C and H to C.

  The Twenty-first Battalion to be H, I, and K.

  Commissioned officers are assigned as follows:--

  Co. A,  Capt.  J. A. Marshall;  1st Lieut.  Saml. Osborne.
   "  B,   "     Wm. H. Hodgkins,  "          Austin Davis.
   "  C,   "     J. B. Smith,      "          P. G. Woodward.
   "  D,   "     H. S. Burrage,    "          E. F. Emory.
   "  E,   "     J. B. Fairbank,   "          G. W. Harwood.
   "  F,   "     T. E. Ames,       "          J. Hancock.
   "  G,   "     A. S. Davidson,   "          W. H. Brigham.
   "  H,   "     E. F. Raymond,    "          J. R. Davis.
   "  I,  1st Lieut. F. M. McDermott; 2d Lieut. A. R. Mott.
   "  K,  Capt. C. W. Davis;      1st Lieut.  W. H. Sawyer; 2d
  Lieut. W. H. Morrow.

                             By order of T. L. BARKER,
  Thomas H. Haskell, _Adj't._              _Maj. Comd'g Reg't._


Many of the officers were absent from the regiment, serving in various
capacities: Captain Hodgkins was A.C.M. Third Division, Ninth A.C;
Captain Smith, Provost Marshal, Second Division, Ninth A.C; Captain
Ames. A. Aide-de-camp, First Brigade, Second Division, Ninth A.C;
Captain Raymond, Assistant Inspector General, Second Division, Ninth
A.C; Captain Davis, on detached service; Lieutenant Austin Davis, on
detached service, recruiting in Massachusetts; Lieutenant Brigham,
absent, sick at Annapolis, Md.

The uncertain and disagreeable weather, characteristic of a Virginia
winter, had now set in, and stormy days came with such frequency
that the more enterprising and active men began the work of "fixing
up their tents." The experience gained at Falmouth and Lenoir's
Station was of value, now that the erection of mud chimneys and log
underpinnings became a frequent occupation. The hospitality of the
thrifty ones who first became the happy owners of fireplaces was often
subjected to a severe strain, when their improvident friends crowded in
to view the improvements, and, beguiled by the genial warmth, outstayed
their welcome.

Little of severe duty fell to our lot at this period, the work of
picketing the front constituting the main employment; and this was
quite a peaceful pursuit when compared with that of the summer, as
there was no firing on the line, and our relations with the enemy's
outposts were generally friendly.

This feeling of confidence, however, was broken, November 1st, by
the capture of Captain Burrage. He was on duty as brigade officer of
the day, and his instructions allowed him to exchange papers, if an
opportunity offered,--an exchange having taken place at this point
almost daily for some time. In visiting the picket posts, in company
with the division officer of the day, Captain Burrage found a rebel
officer waiting to exchange papers on a road which ran through the
woods where our division had suffered so severely September 30th.
Leaving the division officer of the day, Captain Burrage walked down
the road and met the rebel officer. The latter had with him three
Richmond papers, and these Captain Burrage, who had only a single
Washington paper, received, promising to bring out another paper in the
afternoon. Having made his rounds of the picket posts on our brigade
front, Captain Burrage carried the papers he had received to General
Curtin's head-quarters. On revisiting his lines, in the afternoon, he
learned that the rebel officer had not appeared. After waiting a while,
wishing to fulfil his promise even to an enemy, he concluded to call
some one out from the rebel line. Unfolding the paper, and waving it
in his hand, he walked down the road to the point where he exchanged
in the morning. Then passing an angle in the wood he came in sight of
the rebel picket line, which was about fifty yards distant. Halting,
and still waving his paper, he saw a rebel soldier leave his post as
if to go for an officer. In a minute or two the soldiers stood up in
the rebel pits, levelled their muskets, and an officer called out,
"Come in, or we'll fire!" To attempt to escape was useless, and Captain
Burrage was compelled to go in.

General Curtin at once gave orders to capture, in retaliation, the
first rebel officer found approaching our lines to exchange papers.
For a while the enemy made no efforts in this direction; but, about a
fortnight later, Roger A. Pryor, formerly a General in the Confederate
service, but now a courier attached to General Lee's head-quarters,
came over to exchange papers near the place where Captain Burrage was
captured. A captain of the 11th New Hampshire, who had not forgotten
General Curtin's order, met him, and, drawing his revolver on him,
marched him into our lines. Pryor was at once sent to Fort Lafayette,
in New York harbor, and after some negotiations, continued through
several months, both Captain Burrage and General Pryor were at length
exchanged.



CHAPTER XXV.

IN WINTER QUARTERS.


During the latter part of November the Ninth Corps was ordered to
the right of the line to relieve the Second Corps, which had been on
duty in the trenches in front of Petersburg since the movement of the
Ninth Corps to the Weldon Railroad, in August. On the 29th the brigade
marched to the vicinity of Hancock Station, on the military railroad,
and was assigned to the main line of trenches, the Thirty-sixth being
detailed for duty in Fort Rice as its permanent garrison. Thus, after
an absence of nearly three months, the regiment was again on duty in
the old line, a little to the left of the position it occupied during
the summer months. Though in a new location all the scenes around
us were familiar. Immediately on our left stood the celebrated Fort
Sedgwick, better known in military histories as Fort "Hell,"--a name
given to it by the soldiers on account of its exposed situation, which
invited the fire of the enemy's artillery. It was frequently subjected
to terrific cannonading from the guns opposite.

In front of us stood the grim batteries in the enemy's main line of
defence. The principal battery in that portion of the line was in Fort
Mahone,--called by the rebel soldiers Fort "Damnation," for the same
reason which won for Fort Sedgwick its profane sobriquet. The brigade
extended from Fort Meikle on the right, held by the Fifty-eighth
Massachusetts, connecting with the left of the First Division, to
Fort Davis, about forty rods to the left of Fort Sedgwick, held by
the Seventeenth Vermont, Fifty-Sixth Massachusetts, and Thirty-first
Maine, which constituted the right of General Griffin's (Second)
brigade.

The principal duty devolving upon the regiment during the winter was
picket duty in the trenches. The picket line was an intrenched work
about one hundred and fifty yards in front of the fort, and about the
same distance from the rebel picket line. Little of an exciting nature
occurred during the day, but at night the picket-firing was kept up by
both sides. There was more or less artillery firing from the main lines
on each side, the shells going over our heads. When the enemy became
aware of the change of troops in their front, and the substitution of
the Ninth Corps for the Second, they supposed that the colored troops
still belonged to the Ninth Corps, and their firing was sharp and
continuous; but after being told that the colored regiments had been
transferred to another department they subsided into their usual round
of firing. At times the batteries indulged in lively duels. Almost
directly in front of the line occupied by the regiment was a battery
containing one or more eight-inch columbiads, which threw its shells to
a great distance in the rear of our main lines, and annoyed the signal
station at the Avery house, the range of which they had obtained. In
one of the artillery duels our guns in Fort Sedgwick poured such a
fierce fire into this battery as not only effectually to silence it,
but finally, by a lucky shot, to burst the gun which had caused so much
trouble.

During the raid which General Warren made with the Fifth Corps to
Nottaway, in December, the regiment was ordered to be in readiness to
march, but was not withdrawn from the fort; and again, in February,
during the movement to Hatcher's Run, it was expected that the regiment
would be ordered to the left; but the order to be prepared for movement
was not followed by orders to leave.

Now and then an incident transpired to enliven the spirits of the men.
On one occasion, after some days of extremely cold weather, firewood
became very scarce on the picket line, and one of our sergeants called
out to the enemy that he proposed to cut down a large tree which stood
midway between the picket lines. He accordingly went out, followed by
five men with axes; but before he could begin the work of chopping, he
was joined by a rebel lieutenant and four men with an axe, who had come
out for the same purpose. As each side claimed the tree it was agreed
that both parties should assist in cutting it down, and then divide
it as equally as possible. The top fell toward the enemy's lines, and
two men stood on the trunk, back to back,--they who had stood so often
face to face,--and cut through the trunk, our men taking the butt and
the enemy the branches. That night the blaze of the little fires in the
rear of each picket line added to the comfort of the men in their weary
watches.

On the 31st of January a truce was declared during the passage of
Vice-President Stephens and the Peace Commissioners from Petersburg
to City Point. Many of the men along the entire Petersburg front
crossed the lines to "confer with the enemy" in the peaceable exchange
of coffee and sugar for tobacco and such other commodities as the
"Johnnies" had.

During a portion of the month of January the regiment was commanded by
Captain Fairbank, in the absence on leave of Lieutenant-Colonel Barker.
Adjutant Haskell also received a leave of absence, and some of the
enlisted men were permitted to go home on furlough.

Once or twice battalion drill was ordered on the open ground in
rear of the fort; but, as the enemy had perfect range of the place,
they did not propose to allow any show or parade in force, and
their well-directed shots rendered any exposure for such a purpose
impracticable.

Tidings of the steady and successful march of General Sherman's army
were frequently received, and information of the capture of Fort
Fisher, Wilmington, and Charleston was communicated to the enemy in
shotted salutes of one hundred guns from all the batteries in the main
line of works.

Toward the close of February there were many indications that the enemy
contemplated the evacuation of Petersburg, and attempt a junction
with the army of General Johnston in North Carolina. Desertions from
the troops along our front became very frequent, and the statements
made by these men tended to arouse the apprehension of the commanding
officers lest the enemy should elude our grasp. The pickets were kept
constantly alert, and on dark and foggy nights scouts were sent out to
ascertain if any movement was being made by the enemy. For the month
succeeding the 25th of February there were numerous indications of
changes in the enemy's position. These movements were accompanied with
much yelling and firing on the part of the confederates, and whenever
the scouts or skirmishers advanced they were followed to our lines
by large numbers of deserters. One night, early in March, we saw the
flames of an extensive fire in Petersburg, and heard distinctly the
ringing of the bells. The reserves were under arms, and moved up to the
main line, prepared to follow any withdrawal of the enemy. After the
excitement had subsided the rebel pickets informed us that the fire in
the city was accidental. Thus week by week, and month by month, the
winter passed away, and the warmer sun and opening ground and balmy
air proclaimed the approach of spring, that season for more active
and exciting work. Toward the middle of March enormous quantities
of supplies were forwarded to the left. The trains were loaded with
provisions, and the tops of cars covered with men returning to their
regiments from hospitals and convalescent camps.

Old soldiers needed not to be reminded that an active campaign would
soon be inaugurated, and with the proverbial instinct begotten of
experience began that personal preparation for effective work and rapid
marching in selecting what things to throw away. Inspections became
more frequent and exacting, and the fact of a speedy movement "was in
the air." Sutlers were ordered to City Point. The reserve division
was moved to the left of Fort Davis, to stake out and fortify a new
defensive line covering the left and rear of the Ninth-Corps line, and
in a few days had a strong line of intrenchments.

While these preparations were in progress, in fact, while the army
of the Potomac was under marching orders, the enemy suddenly and
unexpectedly assumed the offensive. On the night of the 24th of March,
the day General Grant issued his orders for a forward movement of his
armies, a strong force of the enemy, consisting of Gordon's corps and
Bushrod Johnson's division, the whole commanded by General Gordon, was
prepared for an attack on the right of the Ninth Corps. Before daylight
on the morning of the 25th three heavy columns of the enemy charged and
captured the main line on our right from Battery Nine to Fort Haskell,
including Fort Stedman, the principal work in that portion of the line.
The columns after reaching the works charged to the right and left
of the aperture, and advanced a heavy line to the rear to seize the
military railroad and sever connections with City Point. By this time
a portion of the Third Division, under General Hartranft, reached the
scene of action, and attacked the enemy with such vigor as to drive him
into Fort Stedman and the adjoining lines. With the reinforcements from
this division the troops on the right and left of the works held by the
enemy were enabled to form a line perpendicular to the main line, and
not only successfully resisted any attempt of the enemy to advance, but
confined him to that portion of the line already occupied.

Preparations were at once made to retake the captured line; and General
Hartranft's division, by a gallant charge, succeeded in reoccupying
the works, and captured more than nineteen hundred prisoners. While
this movement was in progress on the right, the troops of the Second
and Fifth Corps, on the left of the Ninth, attacked and captured the
enemy's strongly intrenched picket line in their front, gaining very
valuable ground, capturing nearly a thousand prisoners, repelling
several desperate attacks of the enemy to recapture the works.

In the action at Fort Stedman the regiment was represented by Captain
Hodgkins, who was serving on the staff of General Hartranft, commanding
Third Division. It was an action in which the Ninth Corps won deserved
credit, exacting from the enemy a bloody price for his temerity, and
fully avenging the disaster at the explosion of the mine eight months
before.

Comparative quiet was maintained by the enemy for a few days following
their repulse on the 25th. On the 27th General Sheridan and the Cavalry
Corps arrived in rear of our lines, and moved to the left. On the 29th
the surplus artillery of the army of the Potomac, two hundred pieces,
was sent to the Ninth Corps, and the several corps designated for the
turning movement on the left moved out. The operations of the army had
begun on a grand scale.



CHAPTER XXVI.

THE FINAL ASSAULT AT PETERSBURG.


The enemy's works from the Appomattox to a point in front of Fort
Sedgwick were part of the old interior line of defences. At this point
the old line turned to the enemy's right, forming an angle, but the
works were continued parallel with our front by a kind of spur, which
diverged from an old line and swept down toward Hatcher's Run. The
Ninth Corps fronted the whole of this old line to the angle and about
two miles of the spur. When the main army moved to the left, on the
29th of March, the corps was disposed so as to hold our front line
to Fort Davis, and a line of works running back from that point and
covering our left and rear. In other words our left was curved backward
into a fish-hook shape, and our position became isolated.

On the night of the 29th a considerable detail of the regiment was
sent out to level a disused parapet, some two or three hundred yards
in front of the fort. While at work the men were startled at about ten
o'clock by the sound of rapid cannonading on the right. Looking toward
the Appomattox they saw the air filled with shells, the burning fuses
appearing like gigantic fireflies. It was an attractive spectacle,
and for a few moments the men leaned on their spades and gazed; but
as the firing ran rapidly down the line, and mortar-batteries and
pickets began to open in their immediate front, there was a sudden and
unanimous decision that a view from the _inside_ of the fort was not
only preferable, but of the most pressing importance. The regiment
turned out and took position in the fort ready for action, but nothing
occurred beyond the noise and a few casualties.

General Parke received orders on Thursday afternoon, the 30th, to
assault the enemy's works at some point in his front, at four o'clock,
the following morning. The point of attack was left to his discretion.
He had already selected the position in front of Fort "Hell"
(Sedgwick), on the Jerusalem Plank road, and at nightfall Hartranft's
division and Potter's division, except the Thirty-sixth and the other
regiments garrisoning the forts, were massed in rear of Fort Sedgwick.
Before midnight, however, orders were received suspending the assault,
the troops were returned to their camps, and, although everything was
constantly on the _qui vive_, there was no movement for the ensuing two
days.

Shortly before five o'clock on Saturday, the 1st of April, General
Parke received orders to assault at four o'clock the next morning, and
the same dispositions were made as before. At ten minutes before ten
in the evening came a telegram from General Meade, directing Parke to
open all his artillery at once, push forward skirmishers, and follow
them up with columns of assault. Before the necessary arrangements were
completed these orders were modified by instructions that the assault
in force should be contingent on developments of weakness on the part
of the enemy. The artillery opened, and the skirmishers demonstrated
all along the line. The enemy was found to be in force and everywhere
prepared except opposite the line between Forts Hays and Howard, where
Griffin's brigade of our division surprised and captured two hundred
and fifty pickets. The original plan was accordingly adhered to, and
preparations for assaulting at four o'clock the next morning were made.

At three o'clock General Parke entered Fort Rice, and established
his head-quarters for the coming battle. Potter's and Hartranft's
divisions, and Harriman's brigade of Willcox's,--all of which had been
lying massed behind Fort Sedgwick for two hours,--moved forward at
the same hour and formed a column between our main line and picket
line. The enemy's pickets were in close proximity to ours, but the
movement was executed so quietly as to give no warning to them. The
formation was in column of regiments. On the right of the Jerusalem
Plank road, its left resting on the road, was Hartranft's division of
Pennsylvanians, six regiments, the Two hundred and seventh leading;
the Two hundredth and Two hundred and ninth were held in reserve. On
the right of Hartranft was a second column, consisting of Harriman's
brigade, of Willcox's division, five regiments, with the Thirty-eighth
Wisconsin leading, and the Twenty-seventh Michigan and Thirty-seventh
Wisconsin in reserve. On the left of the Jerusalem Plank road,
right resting on the road, was a third column, our own division,
minus the Thirty-sixth and five other regiments which were in the
forts. Griffin's brigade, six regiments, led by the One hundred and
seventy-ninth New York, had the advance, supported by our own brigade,
Curtin's, with the Thirty-ninth New Jersey in front, followed in order
by the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, and
Fifty-eighth Massachusetts. At the head of each of these three columns
was a storming party, flanked by pioneers with axes to cut away abatis,
etc.; and a detail of one hundred men from the First Connecticut Heavy
Artillery accompanied them to serve captured guns. Ely's brigade, of
Willcox's division, occupied our line from the Appomattox to near Fort
Morton, opposite the Crater, and the Fifty-first Pennsylvania, of
Harriman's brigade, was stretched along the part of the line at the
Crater vacated by its brigade on the moving to the left to join in the
main assault. To mislead the enemy as to the real point of attack,
these troops on the right were ordered to make a strong demonstration
at four o'clock, which was to be followed by the advance of the three
columns along the Jerusalem Plank road.

Such was the situation in the trenches at Petersburg just before dawn
on that eventful April day. Only a few hundred yards in our front,
veiled partly by darkness and partly by the morning mist, stood the
grim fortifications which had so long defied us that they had begun
to seem impregnable. Behind them lay the left wing of that army whose
right had been driven the day before, reeling and bleeding, from
the field of Five Forks. Upon the valor of this unscathed remnant
depended the salvation of Lee, and, knowing the quality of that valor,
there were few in Fort Rice whose hearts did not beat anxiously
for the columns in blue out there in front of Fort Hell, silently
awaiting the signal to advance. Along the opposing line our chief
of artillery counted ninety-one guns, ranging from six-pounders to
eight-inch columbiads (one of which we remember as making some very
poor practice at our signal station in the rear of Fort Rice), and
thirty-five mortars, from Coehorns to ten-inch. Against them we had
four four and one-half inch Parrotts, eleven thirty-pounder Parrotts,
forty-two light twelve-pounders, thirty-four three-inch Rodmans, four
ten-inch, fourteen eight-inch, and twenty-two Coehorn mortars,--in all
ninety-one guns and forty mortars. Just what troops were in our front
it is impossible to tell. The prisoners brought into Fort Rice during
the day were Alabamians; and a rebel colonel, who was interviewed at
Farmville by a member of the Thirty-sixth, said he commanded an Alabama
brigade occupying the line opposite Fort Rice. The salient opposite
us (Miller's or Reeves') appears to have been manned by a battery
from Mobile. Our old friends of the Thirty-fourth Virginia (Bushrod
Johnson's division) were relieved several days before the assault, and
were at Five Forks. The difficulty is that the rebels made no official
reports of the closing engagements of the war, and such unofficial
accounts as are accessible are meagre in details.

At four o'clock the artillery opened and fired vigorously for several
minutes. Then Willcox made his demonstrations on the right. The
Fifty-first Pennsylvania captured some of the pickets at the Crater,
and Ely's brigade carried about two hundred yards of the enemy's main
line; but were finally compelled to fall back. At half-past four the
main attack began. The columns moved at quick time and very little
cheering. The picket line was broken instantly. As we stood at the
parapet in Fort Rice, peering into the mist, we could see little or
nothing of the assault; but we could hear the blows of the pioneers'
axes on the _chevaux de frise_, and the shouts of command. The musketry
fire of the enemy increased, and following the flash of their cannon
we could distinguish the "whish" of the double charges of canister.
Presently new sounds came over the field. Exultant Yankee cheers told
us our boys were inside the works. Then we heard short, sharp summons
to surrender, coupled with epithets and rifle-shots, as the "Johnnies"
took the chances of flight. The first gray-back we saw was a short,
jaunty chap, who trudged across the field, toward the fort, alone and
quite unconcerned, passed through a little gap in the abatis, climbed
the parapet, and, coolly bidding us good-morning, asked if we had some
hard bread and coffee. As he sat in the bomb-proof and regaled himself
he told us he belonged to a Mobile battery in position opposite us,
and that when he heard the Yanks coming he prudently retired to the
magazine, only to emerge after his battery had been cleaned out, and
the Yanks were in full possession. Afterward a considerable party of
prisoners were brought in,--Alabamians, a sullen, indomitable-looking
crowd, boasting of how they would have whipped us if they had had
nearer our numbers. The captures in this charge were twelve guns and
eight hundred prisoners. Describing the assault, General Parke says in
his official report:--

"The stormers and pioneers rushed on, and under a most galling fire cut
away and made openings in the enemy's abatis and _chevaux de frise_.
They, now closely followed by the assaulting columns, which, undeterred
by an exceedingly severe fire of cannon, mortar, and musketry from the
now aroused main line, pressed gallantly on, capturing the enemy's
works in their front. Colonel Harriman's column, reinforced by the
two reserve regiments, swept up to the right until the whole of what
was called by the enemy 'Miller's salient' was in our possession.
Potter's column swept down to the left. This part of the enemy's line
was heavily traversed, affording him a strong foothold, and he fought
from traverse to traverse with great tenacity. We drove him slowly back
for about a quarter of a mile, when, being reinforced and aided by
strong positions in the rear, he checked our further progress in that
direction. A most gallant, but unsuccessful, attempt was made to carry
his rear line. The captured guns were at once turned upon the enemy,
served at first by Infantry volunteers, and then by details from the
First Connecticut Heavy Artillery volunteers from the batteries in the
rear.

"Just after we broke through the enemy's lines, and at a most critical
time, I was deprived of the valuable services of Brevet Major-General
Potter, who was severely and dangerously wounded. I directed
Brigadier-General S. G. Griffin to assume command of his division, and
by him the division was ably and gallantly commanded during the rest
of the day. It being by this time fully daylight, no further attempt
was made to advance; but attention was turned to securing what we had
gained, and restoring the organization of the troops, unavoidably much
shattered by the heavy fighting and the advance over broken ground in
the darkness.

"This was rendered the more difficult by the great loss we had
sustained in officers, especially field officers, and by the very
exposed position occupied by our troops. The captured line was promptly
recovered, and made tenable as possible, the difficulty being increased
by the forts and batteries on that line being open in the rear.

"By reason of these untoward circumstances much time elapsed before I
considered the troops in sufficiently good shape for another forward
movement, and in the meantime I received, at 7.30 A.M., the following
despatch:--

  "'HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY POTOMAC,
            7.26 A.M., April 2d, 1865.

  "'_Maj. Gen. Parke_,--General Meade sends for information the
  following from the Lieut. Gen.

  "'As I understand it, Parke is attacking the main line of works
  around Petersburg, whilst the others are only attacking an outer
  line which the enemy might give up without giving up Petersburg.
  Parke should either advance rapidly, or cover his men and hold all
  he gets.

        'ALEX. S. WEBB,
  _Bvt. Maj. Gen. and Chief of Staff_.'


  "At 7.45 I received the following despatch:--

  "'HEAD-QUARTERS ARMY POTOMAC,
                  April 2d, 1865, 7.40.

  "'_Maj. Gen. Parke_,--The General Commanding directs that you hold
  on to all you have got, and not to advance unless you see your way
  clear.

        'ALEX. S. WEBB,
  _Bvt. Maj. Gen. and Chief of Staff_.'


"About this time the enemy made an attempt to get up a charge on us,
but our fire was so hot that they did not get many men outside their
lines.

"We then held a distance of about four hundred yards on each side of
the Jerusalem Plank road, including several forts and redans. The enemy
made no further movements, with the exception of being very busy,
planting more guns, and keeping up an incessant and murderous fire of
sharp-shooters, until just before eleven o'clock, when he made a heavy
and determined assault on the captured line; but we repulsed him at
all points, with much loss. It being evident to me that the enemy was
resolved to regain, at all hazards, the portion of their lines held
by us, and nearly all my reserve being in, and learning from General
Wright that he was moving toward Hatcher's Run, leaving a wide gap
between us, I deemed it advisable to report the state of affairs to
army head-quarters, and request reinforcements.

"The request was promptly complied with, and Benham's and Collis'
brigade from City Point, and Hamlin's brigade of the Sixth Corps, were
ordered to my support. The enemy continued to make heavy and desperate
attempts to recapture his lost works, but without success. But, though
my men stood up nobly to their work, this long and wearisome struggle
was beginning to tell upon them."

At about three P.M. the enemy succeeded in regaining a few of the
traverses on the left, which gave them a flank fire upon a small
detached work on the left of Plank road, held by one of the regiments
of Curtin's brigade, and occasioned its temporary abandonment; but,
General Collis reporting to me with his brigade about this time, I at
once put him in under direction of General Griffin, and the enemy was
again driven from the portion of the line he had just retaken.

Between four and five o'clock P.M. General Hamlin arrived, with his
brigade from the Sixth Corps, and I directed him to report to General
Hartranft, by whom he was placed in support of the left of his line.
These reinforcements having rendered my line secure I was disposed to
make another effort to drive the enemy from his position in the rear,
but the exhausted condition of my troops forced me to reluctantly
abandon the idea.

"We accordingly strengthened ourselves as much as possible, whenever
practicable transferring the enemy's _chevaux de frise_ to the front
of the reversed line and on the right, connecting by a cross-line the
extreme point we held with our main line."

General Hartranft speaks in his report of three rebel charges to retake
the works,--one at quarter past eleven A.M., one at five minutes past
one P.M., and one at three P.M. These charges were delivered from
the line of works in the rear of and commanding the captured line.
The assault at three o'clock was in plain view from Fort Rice, and
seemed to us the most formidable. Collis' brigade, consisting of
the Sixty-eighth and One hundred and fourteenth Pennsylvania, the
Twentieth New York State Militia, and the Sixty-first Massachusetts,
was just going up to the line, when the rebels emerged from their works
and came on with such steadiness and determination that a portion
of our line wavered, as we could plainly see, and many men broke
precipitately to the rear. Collis' line appeared to waver too, as if
undetermined whether to go forward to the line or fall back. It was
a critical moment. General Parke and his staff watched, with evident
anxiety. All day long the boys had laid along that line under a galling
fire from front and flank. A heavy mortar, planted at our right,
between the enemy's first and second line, in a pit fifteen or twenty
feet deep, as we afterward discovered, had kept up a fatal practice
upon them in spite of all our gunners' efforts to silence it. Traverse
by traverse they had driven the "Johnnies" down the line, paying for
every foot of ground with their blood; and now it looked as if all
might be lost. But no! Where one man quailed, a dozen stood undaunted,
answering the rebel yell with Yankee cheers and bullet. We saw some of
our color-bearers leap upon the works and wave the flags. It was like
an inspiration. The line became firm. Collis' brigade wavered but for
a moment, and then swept forward magnificently and opened fire. The
gallant Connecticut Heavies, who were serving the guns in the captured
works, stuck to business unflinchingly, only piling in the canister a
little faster when the infantry line showed signs of weakening. There
was a mighty cheer as we saw the column of gray break and surge back
whence it came. We could hardly have been more exultant, indeed, had
we known then that the last armed rebel we were destined to behold had
disappeared forever from our view.

Although the Thirty-sixth took no active part in this engagement, as a
regiment, many of the men performed laborious and dangerous service in
carrying ammunition up to the captured line. Major Raymond, of General
Potter's staff, Major Hodgkins, of General Hartranft's, and Captain
Ames, of General Curtin's, were of course actively engaged. As a matter
of general interest, a tabular statement of the losses in the corps are
appended:--

  -----------------+---------+----------+---------+----------+----------
                   | Killed. | Wounded. | Missing.|   Total. |Aggregate.
       Command.    +---------+----------+---------+----------+
                   |C.O.|E.M.|C.O.| E.M.|C.O.|E.M.|C.O.| E.M.|
  -----------------+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+-----+----------
  First Division   |  1 | 28 | 22 |  206|  1 | 22 | 24 |  256|   280
                   |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |     |
  Second Division  | 10 |110 | 37 |  564|  3 | 94 | 50 |  731|   781
                   |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |     |
  Third Division   |  7 | 91 | 25 |  430|  1 | 40 | 35 |  561|   594
                   |    |    |    |     |    |    |    |     |
  Artillery Brigade|    |  6 |  1 |   20|    |    |  1 |   26|    27
  -----------------+----+----+----+-----+----+----+----+-----+----------
    Total          | 18 |235 | 85 |1,210|  5 |156 |110 |1,574| 1,682
  -----------------+---------+----------+---------+----------+----------



CHAPTER XXVII.

CLOSING SCENES.


Heavy skirmishing was kept up during the night along the Ninth-Corps
line, and the batteries on our right opened at short intervals,
according to orders. The regiments of our brigade which had borne the
brunt of the fighting the day before were relieved, and returned to
their former positions in the main line about midnight. The evacuation
of Petersburg was anticipated, and General Parke instructed the troops
to exercise the greatest vigilance, in order to detect at the earliest
possible moment any movement of the enemy. Soon after midnight the
skirmishers advanced, but found the enemy's pickets still out in strong
force. Explosions occurred in the city, and all indications pointed to
a speedy retreat.

After an anxious, wakeful night to the garrison of Fort Rice, the
morning of the 3d of April dawned clear and beautiful. With the first
approach of day the troops in front advanced, found the enemy's works
deserted save by a few pickets, who were captured, and pushed forward
toward the city only to find that it had already been abandoned. The
first sound that greeted our ears was the glad cry, "Our flag waves
over Petersburg!" It was, indeed, true. The sound of battle had died
away. The enemy, who had withstood our advance for so many months, had
vanished from our view. Ely's brigade of the First Division was the
first to enter Petersburg. The formal surrender was made to Colonel
Ely at twenty-eight minutes past four A.M., and the flag of the Second
Michigan was hoisted over the Court-House. Great cheering followed,
which was renewed later by the receipt of the glorious tidings that
our army was in possession of Richmond, and that the enemy was in full
retreat.

Soon after daylight the troops returned from the city to their former
positions, to prepare for a forward movement. Orders were received to
break camp, and be ready to march at a moment's notice. Haversacks were
filled, and everything was prepared for an immediate advance. Never
were marching orders more cheerfully obeyed. The day, for which we had
toiled, and fought, and prayed so long, had dawned upon us, and few,
indeed, of that garrison resisted the impulse to ascribe all the glory
to the God of battles. Soon after sunrise the regiment partook of its
last breakfast in the bomb-proofs of Fort Rice, which had been its home
for four months. At nine o'clock orders were received to move in the
direction of Petersburg, and in a short time the command moved over
the breastworks, across the picket line, through the enemy's defences
which had been the scene of the sanguinary battle of the day before,
and marched to Cemetery Hill, where a halt was ordered. While resting
here a cavalcade approached. It was the escort of Abraham Lincoln,
President of the United States. As the men recognized Mr. Lincoln their
enthusiasm could not be restrained, and amid the thundering cheers
which he graciously acknowledged, the President rode on toward the
city, where he received a grand ovation.

At eleven o'clock the column marched into the city, by the main street,
and we were soon surrounded by the colored people, who gave expression
to their joy in tears and smiles and shouts of welcome. Hundreds of
children thronged around the soldiers, and many asked for bread, which
was freely given to them by the happy men. Many of the soldiers divided
their substance with the poor whites remaining in the town, and one
of our men was seen feeding five little children at one time with the
rations which he carried, leaving him a short supply for the next
three days. We were soon informed that the reason of this keen desire
for food was owing to the fact that for some time previous the price
of flour had been $1,050 a barrel! At such a price, with scarcity of
Confederate scrip, it is not to be wondered at that many poor people
were made happy at the sight and taste of bread.

At noon the corps was concentrated in the city proper. The remainder of
the Army of the Potomac, without even entering the city which it had
besieged for ten weary months, had hurried westward, to intercept the
retreating enemy, and was marching on the river road. General Parke was
ordered to leave one division to guard Petersburg and the railroad,
and move with the rest of his corps, as guard for the wagon-trains,
on the Cox road. At one o'clock the preparations were completed, and
the Second and Third Divisions resumed the march, the Second having
the right, leaving the First Division to guard the city. About a mile
and a half west of the city the road forks: the northern road (nearest
the Appomattox) being called the river road; the southern, which runs
parallel with the Southside Railroad and crosses it many times, being
called the Cox road. Just west of Sutherland Station, where Sheridan's
force struck the railroad, the river road forks, the southern fork
being known as the Namozine road, named from the stream whose course
it follows. The regiment marched all the afternoon, and at night
bivouacked beyond Sutherland Station, twelve miles from Petersburg, on
the Southside Railroad. Generals Grant and Meade slept there that night.

On the 4th the march was resumed. The roads were badly cut up, and the
enormous trains, with the reserve artillery, moved slowly, rendering
the march difficult and tedious. The country improved in appearance
as we advanced westward. The peach-trees were in full blossom, and
everything about us tended to inspire hope and courage. We passed
several hospitals filled with the enemy's wounded, and during the day
many rebel prisoners passed to our rear _en route_ for Petersburg
under guard. Nearly all of them were worn down with hard fighting
and hunger, and many were fed from the commissary supply train. At
night the regiment bivouacked near Beasley's,--a great tobacco
plantation,--about twenty-five miles from Petersburg, the division
occupying a line seventeen miles in extent, covering an extended front,
and picketing all the roads leading south.

On the 5th the march was resumed. The movement was from left to right,
covering the entire line of road occupied by the moving trains.
The division on the left of the line moved first to the right, and
extended the line in that direction, covering the Southside Railroad.
At night the regiment bivouacked at Black's and White's Station,
thirty-five miles from Petersburg. On the sixth, at noon, the regiment
left camp and marched ten miles, to Nottaway Court-house, where corps
head-quarters had been established. Here the regiment was detailed
to guard a supply train to army head-quarters, which were supposed
to be at or near Jetersville, a station on the Richmond and Danville
Railroad, about fifteen miles north of Nottaway Court-house. We marched
all night over a rough road, and reached Jetersville at eight o'clock,
on the morning of the 7th, to find that army head-quarters had moved
during the night to High Bridge, on the Southside Railroad, and were
still some fifteen miles in advance of us.

After a short halt, for the men to make coffee and the teams to be
fed, we moved forward, following the line of the Danville Railroad
in the direction of Burkesville. Arriving within five miles of the
latter place, our direction was again changed to the north-west, and
the regiment proceeded across the country to Rice's Station, on the
Southside Railroad, which place was reached about eight o'clock on the
morning of the 8th. The regiment had now been marching two days and
nights in search of army head-quarters, without sleep, having halted
for refreshment but twice since leaving Black's and White's, and then
only long enough to make coffee. At Rice's Station the regiment was
relieved from further guard duty with the train, and went into camp.
In the meantime the remainder of the brigade had moved forward to
Burkesville, about eight miles in our rear. A despatch was at once
sent to General Curtin, commanding the brigade, informing him of
our position, and asking for orders; in reply to which we received
orders to proceed to Farmville, ten miles in advance, on the Southside
Railroad, and relieve the provost-guard at that place.

On the morning of the 9th, the regiment marched to Farmville, a town
situated on the Appomattox river, five miles west of High Bridge,
and fifteen miles north-west of Burkesville. We reached this place
about noon. The regiment was at once detailed as provost-guard, and
Lieutenant-Colonel Barker was appointed provost-marshal. The town
contained a population of about two thousand; and here we found a large
number of wounded Confederate soldiers, and many prisoners captured in
the movement to this place a day or two before. The troops relieved by
our regiment moved westward, to join their commands in the pursuit of
Lee's army. This was the ever memorable day when, at half-past three
o'clock in the afternoon, General Lee, at Appomattox Court-House,
twenty miles distant, surrendered the remnant of the army of Northern
Virginia to General Grant.

Intelligence of the surrender was quickly transmitted to head-quarters,
and no pen can portray the effect upon the men as the glorious news
spread from camp to camp like a conflagration. Men who in the stern
hour of battle had been unmoved and undaunted; in gloom and disaster
cheerful and hopeful; in hunger, privation, weariness, and sickness
calm and unruffled,--now shouted and wept in turns like children, and
gave expression to their feelings in yells of delight. The goal had
at length been won; the trials and hardships and sufferings of weary
years had culminated in victory. Some of the men of our regiment, on
duty at the church, entered it for the purpose of ringing the bell,
but could find no bell-rope. Not to be baffled in his purpose, Michael
Sullivan, of Company F, climbed up through a scuttle-hole over the
gallery, and found a ladder under the seats, by which he ascended into
the belfry. There remained about six inches of rope attached to the
tongue of the bell, which he seized and struck with all his force, his
head meanwhile being inside the bell. He rang the bell as long as his
strength would permit, and its joyful peal was heard with astonishment
by the town's people, and great delight by the troops. At night
bonfires were blazing everywhere, and a long time elapsed before quiet
was restored.

The next day the remainder of the brigade moved to Farmville, and
encamped south-west of the town. General Curtin was assigned to duty
as post commander. Division and corps head-quarters remained at
Burkesville. Lieutenant-Colonel Barker, as provost-marshal, established
his head-quarters in a large building formerly used as a store,
situated on the main street, in the central part of the town. The
regiment was quartered in the town, and furnished safeguards of from
one to five men to protect the property of the citizens in various
places in the surrounding country. Guard duty in the town was also
performed by the regiment. The duty was arduous and wearisome, as it
included not only the regular guard duty, but the labor of issuing
rations to the impoverished citizens, who poured into the town from
all directions for food. A careful record was preserved of all to
whom relief was afforded, with the quantity of rations issued to
each, involving a vast amount of clerical labor. In addition to this
duty paroles were made out for all the Confederate prisoners found in
the place, and for hundreds of others who came to the village from
Appomattox Court-House. During the stay of the regiment at this place
the following number of Confederate soldiers were paroled by the
provost-marshal:--

  Officers and men in the General Hospital     582
  Officers in the Institute                     22
  Detailed Hospital Attendants                  34
  Hospital Stewards                              4
  From the field of Appomattox               1,742
                                            ------
    Total                                    2,384

On Saturday, April 15th, Captain Henry S. Burrage, who had been absent
since November 1st, when he was captured in front of Petersburg,
returned to the regiment, and on the following day he was appointed
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General on General Curtin's staff. Late in
the afternoon of that day a telegram was received from Washington,
announcing the assassination of President Lincoln. At first this
information was regarded as a hoax or a camp rumor; but all doubt was
soon banished, and the sad intelligence was confirmed in the formal
announcement of his death by General Meade.

The sad intelligence cast a shadow of gloom over the entire nation;
but nowhere was the sorrow more profound than among the soldiers of
the army of the Potomac. The closing days of that wonderful life had
been spent in its camps, and within sound of some of its last terrible
battles. The heart almost crushed by the burden of responsibility and
care, borne throughout the long years of war, had been lightened and
cheered by its glorious victories, and the men were bound to him by
ties of admiration and affection. The general sorrow which pervaded the
army was shared by the citizens of Virginia. They felt that the South
had lost its best friend, and while they appreciated and applauded the
magnanimity of General Grant, now that the war was virtually ended,
they relied upon the warm heart of the President to inaugurate measures
for reconstruction which should unite the hearts of the people of
the North and the South. Nowhere was this feeling more general than
among the people of Farmville. As soon as the death of the President
was formally announced the Mayor, in accordance with the generally
expressed wish of the citizens, convened the Common Council, and the
following official action was taken:--

  TOWN HALL, FARMVILLE, VA., April 18th, 1865.

  A called meeting of the Common Council of Farmville was held this
  day at Town Hall.

  The object of the meeting being explained, and an official
  communication from General Curtin, commanding this post, having
  been read, announcing the death by assassination of President
  Abraham Lincoln, and the orders of the General commanding this
  department as to the proper observance of the day of the funeral
  obsequies of the late President, the following action was taken:--

  _Resolved_, That the Common Council of the Town of Farmville have
  heard with profound regret the tragic fate of the late President
  of the United States; that we regard the event as a great national
  calamity, particularly and especially to the South; and while we
  deplore the country's loss, we at the same time feel the warmest
  sympathy for the family whose head has been so suddenly and
  ruthlessly hurried into eternity.

  _Resolved_, That we cordially approve and will conform to the order
  of the Commanding General in the proper observance of the day of
  the burial of the late President, and recommend to the citizens
  suspension of all business operations, and unite in the common hope
  that this afflictive dispensation of Providence may not impede the
  restoration of peace and happiness to our country.

  _Resolved_, That a copy of these resolutions be furnished General
  Curtin, commanding post.

                               (Signed) W. W. H. THACKSTON, _Mayor_.

  J. H. MOTTLEY, _Clerk_.


The day following (April 19th) being the day appointed for the
funeral obsequies of the lamented President at the national capital,
in accordance with general orders from the commanding General, all
unnecessary labor was suspended. It was a day of sadness in the camps,
though the sun shone brightly and the songs of birds filled the air. In
the afternoon a memorial service was held in the Presbyterian church,
which was very largely attended by the citizens and soldiers, and a
memorial discourse was delivered by Rev. Mr. Severance, of Farmville.
As the congregation sat in reverent attitude, listening to the solemn
music and the words of prayer and eulogy, it was hard to realize
that the beloved President had indeed finished the work of life. We
remembered him then as we had seen him on that triumphant morning,
only sixteen days before, when, in response to our thundering cheers,
the careworn face was lighted with joyful smiles as he rode into the
city which the victorious army of the Potomac had won.

Now a whole nation was in tears. In one short week it had been plunged
from the summit of happiness into the valley of mourning. Flags, lately
mast-head high in every breeze, were trailing, and joyful hearts were
in sorrow at the great calamity which had befallen the nation. Nowhere
was Lincoln more beloved and honored than in the army, and nowhere that
day were there deeper expressions of sincere and poignant grief.

On the 21st of April our stay at Farmville came to a sudden end,
upon the receipt of orders to march to Petersburg and City Point.
The brigade, with the exception of the Thirty-sixth, had marched the
day before. At half-past seven A.M. the regiment left Farmville and
marched, _via_ Rice's Station, to Burkesville, where we arrived at four
P.M. Here we received the gratifying intelligence that the remainder
of the journey was to be made in cars, and not on foot. A train was
soon in readiness, and at eight o'clock P.M. we left Burkesville, and,
at a rate not exceeding five miles an hour, proceeded to City Point,
which place was reached at four o'clock on the morning of the 22d. As
the journey was made direct, passing through Petersburg in the night
by rail, we had no opportunity of looking again upon the scenes of
our battles and hardships for ten weary months. It would have been
gratifying had we been permitted to survey the scene of the battles
in June, the crater and the lines of earthworks, undisturbed and in
security from the deadly bullet; but it was destined that our latest
recollection of that war-scarred ground should be associated with the
scenes of strife and carnage.

Upon reaching City Point the regiment went into camp not far from
the landing, to await the arrival of the remainder of the brigade,
which was marching by the highway. On the 24th, at noon, the brigade
arrived, and went into camp near by, and on the 26th, at ten o'clock
at night, we went on board the steamer "Vidette," and lay at the wharf
until daylight, when we steamed down the James river, past historic
scenes, reaching Fortress Monroe at two P.M. The journey was continued,
and Alexandria was reached at noon of the 28th. The brigade marched
through Alexandria in column of companies, and proceeded to the high
ground beyond the city, in front of Fort Lyon, where we found, in a
comfortable camp, that portion of the corps which had preceded us.

On the 30th, Private James Dolligan, of Company K, one of the men
transferred from the Twenty-first, was instantly killed, while sitting
in his tent, by the careless firing of some colored troops, who were
discharging their pieces near by. This was the last casualty in the
regiment.

Camp-life near Alexandria was comparatively easy and pleasant. Many of
the restraints of the service were removed, although the discipline was
fully maintained. The men were allowed more personal liberty; many were
permitted to visit Washington, and many others availed themselves of
the opportunity of visiting Mount Vernon, which, throughout the war,
had been regarded as sacred ground, and had not been molested by either
Confederate or Union troops.

Occasionally the camps were brilliantly illuminated at night. On the
night of the 12th of May an unusual scene was witnessed in a torchlight
parade. The men had carefully saved all the candles that could be
obtained. These were placed in the muzzles of their guns, the muskets
being used as torches. After forming in line of battle many evolutions
were executed, and the various movements presented a novel and
beautiful spectacle to all beholders.

On the 21st of May the long-expected and eagerly awaited orders were
received from the War Department for the speedy muster-out of all
regiments whose term of service should expire before October 1st.
Preparations for this happy event began immediately. Soon the camp was
in a state of busy excitement. Cracker-boxes and barrel-heads were
converted into use as tables, and all the camp-writers were busily
engaged in preparing muster-out rolls and discharge papers.

This agreeable employment was interrupted temporarily by orders to
proceed to Washington, and participate in the grand reviews of the army
of the Potomac and the West. Early on the morning of the 22d of May
the regiment, with the entire corps, proceeded in light marching order
to Washington, and bivouacked for the night on the open ground east
of the capitol. On the morning of the 23d the men were astir early,
preparing for the review. The Ninth Corps followed the cavalry, having
the right of the column of infantry. The corps marched in column of
companies at half distance, with a front of eighteen files. The First
Division, constituting the garrison of the defences of Washington, had
the extreme right, and was followed by the Second and Third Divisions,
with their respective brigades, in numerical order. The day was superb.
Not a cloud obscured the sun, and none who marched in the ranks of the
veteran and victorious army of the Potomac on that brilliant day will
ever forget the splendid pageant.

The infantry, being in light marching order, presented a fine
appearance. The men were dressed in their best, wore white gloves,
and nearly all carried bouquets in the muzzles of their guns. The
tattered, blood-stained banners were garlanded with flowers, and many
of the officers' horses wore brilliant wreaths. Great preparation
had been made for this magnificent pageant. Stands for spectators
had been erected at every convenient spot, and the great crowds in
attendance were excited to the highest pitch of enthusiasm by the
martial display. Thousands of school-children sang patriotic songs and
showered bouquets of flowers as the column passed. At the White House
great stands had been erected on both sides of the avenue, and at this
point, amid immense cheering and the thunder of artillery, the army
passed in review before President Johnson, the leading Generals, and
the Governors of the States. Here one face was missing. Here all that
seemed wanting to complete the sense of triumph was the form of Abraham
Lincoln, at whose call these veterans had left their homes in defence
of their country, and who, since the close of the fighting, had been
called to his reward. Recollections of him, and the memory of comrades
who had fallen rushed upon us. Our feelings found fitting expression in
the language of Brownell's poem:--

    "And in all our pride to-day,
      We think, with a tender pain,
    Of those who are far away;
      They will not come home again.

    "And, lo! from a thousand fields,
      From all the old battle-haunts,
    A greater army than Sherman wields,
      A grander review than Grant's!

    "Gathered home from the grave,
      Risen from sun and rain,
    The legions of our brave
      Are all in the ranks again.

    "The colors ripple o'erhead,
      The drums roll up to the sky,
    And with martial time and tread
      The regiments all pass by,--
    The ranks of our faithful dead
      Meeting their President's eye."

For more than six hours the march continued through the streets of
Washington, amid scenes as magnificent as those when the armies of Rome
carried their victorious eagles through the streets of the Eternal
City. After passing in review, the regiment continued its march through
Georgetown, and at night occupied its regular camp.

After this all was bustle and activity in preparation for our
muster-out and return home. Day after day the air was filled with
the music, and cheers, and good-byes of the troops who had been
mustered-out, as they left their comrades in battle and the scenes of
war, to go to their homes and engage in the pursuits of peaceful life.
Reviews and parades were substituted for guard duty and drill. On the
3d of June, the anniversary of the terrible day at Cold Harbor, General
Parke reviewed the Second Division, and on the 5th General Curtin,
temporarily in command of General Hartranft's division, was tendered a
complimentary review by the regiments of his old (First) brigade. This
was the last parade of this veteran brigade, and elicited the following
commendation from General Curtin:--

                  HEAD-QUARTERS THIRD DIVISION, NINTH ARMY CORPS,
                                 NEAR ALEXANDRIA, VA., June 6, 1865.

  _To the Officers and Men of the First Brigade, Second Division,
      Ninth Army Corps_:--

  I desire to express to you, one and all, my heartfelt appreciation
  of the kindly feelings which prompted the review of last evening.
  On that occasion your appearance was as gratifying to me as
  honorable to yourselves. In your movements you exhibited that true
  soldierly bearing which, on the field and in the camp, has ever
  distinguished the soldiers of this brigade. In the Carolinas,
  in Maryland, in Kentucky, in Mississippi, in Tennessee, and in
  Virginia, your valor and heroic endurance have won for you an
  imperishable name. Victory has at length crowned your efforts, and
  the efforts of the brave men associated with you.

  In parting with you who are about to repair to your homes allow me
  to express my sincere thanks for the prompt and cheerful manner in
  which you have at all times performed every duty while under my
  command. To those of you who remain allow me to say, be patient.
  I trust the day is not far distant when it will be practicable
  for you, also, to return to your homes. Until that day arrives
  let your bearing be such as not to detract from, but to add to,
  your present well-earned reputation. As you go to your homes you
  will bear with you the proud consciousness of duty successfully
  performed, and will receive from your countrymen the applause of a
  grateful people; while in all the years to come, as you revert to
  the scenes now so rapidly closing, it will be your pride to say,
  "I fought with Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps," and there will
  be associated with all this your part in the history of the First
  Brigade, Second Division.

  To the families and friends of your comrades, who have so nobly
  fallen in the defence of their country, I tender my heartfelt
  sympathy.

  JOHN I. CURTIN,
    _Brevet Brigadier-General_.


On the 6th all preparations for muster-out having been completed,
orders were received for the regiment to be in readiness to depart on
the following day. That evening the regiment organized a torchlight
procession, and, escorted by the brigade band, marched to the camp of
our comrades of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania. It was the last time
these organizations, which had been so intimately associated since
September, 1862, were to meet as regiments. During the entire term of
the Thirty-sixth, through all the vicissitudes of its service, this
gallant regiment of Pennsylvanians had never been separated from it;
and in every battle in which we had been engaged we had felt their
strong support upon our right or left.

After a season of fraternal conversation Colonel Gregg, of the
Forty-fifth, delivered the following address:--

  "_Officers and Men of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts Volunteers_:--

  "Nearly three years of toil and blood have passed since our first
  acquaintance with you. Thinned in numbers, we had then just left
  the victorious fields of South Mountain and Antietam. From that day
  to the present--in camp, on the toilsome march, and in the conflict
  of battle--you have stood side by side with us, contending for our
  country against treason and oppression. Your record is one of which
  the glorious old Bay State may well be proud; and we are sure she
  will ever count your organization one of the noblest she has sent
  to the field.

  "Amid scenes of conflict we have learned to love and honor you;
  and as the blood of our heroes has there mingled together, so have
  our hearts been united in one fraternal bond of union, which time
  cannot sever. With the brave men of the Thirty-sixth by our side,
  we were always sure of hearty support and final victory; each vied
  with the other in deeds of valor and trials of endurance, and both
  shared equally the honors won.

  "Together we have thus fought, together we have rejoiced and
  wept,--rejoiced at the success of our united arms, wept for the
  fallen brave around us.

  "Now all is changed. The white-winged messenger of Peace beckons
  us from scenes of conflict to once more resume the avocations
  of industry and domestic tranquillity. You are about to leave
  us and return to your homes in the old Bay State. We have met
  probably for the last time. Here, under the folds of our colors,
  let us strengthen these feelings of love and affection which have
  so closely united our destinies in the field. Let us, also, in
  remembrance of our comrades who have so nobly fallen, and whose
  memory we will always cherish, pledge ourselves anew to the flag
  and the country we love.

  "Brave and faithful sons of Massachusetts, the victory is won!
  Return to your homes, and, as you recount the valor of your arms,
  say that the Keystone boys of the Forty-fifth, sons of your ancient
  sires, defended with you the liberties of our fathers assailed by
  rebellion and wrong.

  "Comrades of the Thirty-sixth, we bid you an affectionate farewell!"

This address was received with great applause. Appropriate responses
were made by members of the Thirty-sixth; and we returned, late
at night, with the conviction that we bore with us the esteem and
affection of that gallant regiment.

On the march back to their quarters the regiment halted at the camp
of each regiment of the brigade, and exchanged farewell cheers and
greetings with our comrades, who were to remain in the service yet a
little longer.

On the eighth of June, in accordance with orders, the recruits and the
Twenty-first men were transferred to the Fifty-sixth Massachusetts,
and the regiment was mustered-out of the service of the United States
by Lieutenant Rose, division mustering-officer. At three o'clock
P.M., escorted by the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, Colonel Gregg, and
the brigade band, we marched to Alexandria. The Forty-fifth had
made special preparations for this parade. All the non-commissioned
officers carried small American flags on their bayonets, and the
regiment presented a splendid appearance. At Alexandria we bade our
comrades good-by with cheers, and embarked for Washington. After
considerable delay at the latter place cars were loaded with the
troops and baggage, and the homeward journey commenced. Many delays
and discomforts attended this journey; but they were all borne with
a spirit of equanimity and resignation, because we knew this to be
the last excursion of the kind we should ever make. Philadelphia was
reached at noon of the 9th, and the regiment enjoyed the hospitality
of the city at the famous Cooper Shop refreshment-rooms, receiving a
warm greeting, and obtaining abundant cheer, and much-needed rest. Late
in the afternoon the journey was resumed. New York was reached during
the night, and the regiment marched to the battery, where quarters
were provided. The next day, about noon, the regiment took the cars on
the Shore line. Soon we were within the limits of the dear old mother
Commonwealth, and on the evening of the 10th we arrived at Readville,
where we pitched our tents for the last time. During the following day,
Sunday, many friends and former comrades visited the camp, and warm
welcomes were extended. On Monday, the 12th, Company B received an
ovation from the citizens of Charlestown, and on Tuesday, the 13th,
the entire regiment visited the city of Worcester, and received a most
hearty and generous public greeting. The little band of bronzed and
hardy veterans presented a strange contrast to that regiment of more
than one thousand men, who, nearly three years before, had marched the
same streets on the journey to the front; but the reception compensated
for these years of toil and hardship.

The following account of the reception is taken from the "Worcester
Spy" of June 14:--

  RECEPTION OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT.

  The Thirty-sixth Massachusetts Regiment, Colonel T. L. Barker,
  arrived in this city yesterday, and were formally received and
  welcomed home by the city authorities in the afternoon. The State
  Guard, Captain Fitch, and Captain Chamberlain's Company of State
  Militia, with Goddard and Riedle's band, performed escort duty. The
  line was formed on Front street, and the procession, accompanied by
  the city government and a large number of past officers who have
  been in the service from this city, marched down Main street and
  countermarched to Mechanics' hall, where the formal reception took
  place, and the returned veterans partook of a collation provided by
  Hudson, under the direction of the city government.

  Many of the buildings on Main street were decorated with the
  national colors, and flags were flying in all directions. The
  returned soldiers were welcomed with hearty cheers along the line
  of march, and on entering the hall were greeted with waving of
  handkerchiefs and prolonged applause by the crowd of ladies that
  filled the galleries. After the veterans and their escort had taken
  their places at the tables, His Honor Mayor Ball addressed the
  regiment as follows:--

  _Officers and Soldiers of the Thirty-sixth Regiment_:--

  GENTLEMEN,--We are assembled to congratulate you upon your
  auspicious return from the field of conflict, honor, and danger
  which has witnessed your daring, your valor, and your heroism, for
  the past three years. Now we see, consummated in your return, the
  ardent longing of your hearts when you left us. In this we share
  with you your joy. Joy, that you should have been preserved to
  return once more to enjoy the blessings and humanities of civil
  life, the fruits of your labors. For the honorable part you have
  borne in the great civil war, accept our acknowledgments of high
  appreciation of the noble service you have rendered a noble and
  just cause. Allow us to share with you some of your intense joy at
  the victories, in achieving which you have borne such a memorable
  part. In these victories we have rejoiced, as the pealing bell, the
  booming cannon, and the glaring bonfire have attested. These have
  been our oratory and have furnished our eloquence. At your success
  our joy has been too deep for human speech, and our elation too
  excited to be bounded or measured by mere human speech. We know
  this to be your joy, and in its realization we congratulate you
  most cordially, most earnestly; and here we welcome you, in behalf
  of the city, to this hospitality, in token of our appreciation of
  the high service you have rendered the city, the State, and the
  country. We welcome you cordially again to the bosom of civil life.
  With you we rejoice again in the return of so many of you safe from
  the perils of the camp and the battle-field to your homes and your
  friends. With you we join in your sorrow for the noble and the
  brave that you have left on the battle-field. Their eyes longed
  to see this hour,--a privilege they have been denied. You have
  been blessed in the seeing, and with you we will honor their names
  and respect their memories. We welcome you again to the pursuits
  of civil life, where victories attend activity, resolution, and
  energy, as well as in the exciting scenes and service of the camp;
  and we rejoice with you that you have aided in giving a new meaning
  to the dear old flag, in whose defence you have endured so much. Be
  it ours to cherish it evermore with vastly more increased love than
  ever we did before. Great is our rejoicing that yours is the memory
  of that great day when Richmond fell. Proud may you be of the
  recollection of that mighty event; and long may the years remain to
  you in which to enjoy the peace of your labors; and may we all be
  one in purpose and aim, hero and civilian, to rightfully cherish
  these memories, and to use, with pure motives, these blessings
  vouchsafed to us by kind and indulgent Heaven, through your valor,
  your sufferings, your patriotism.

  The divine blessing was then invoked by Rev. Nathaniel Richardson,
  Chaplain of the Thirty-sixth, after which the company did ample
  justice to the collation. During the repast Mr. C. C. Starring
  performed upon the organ a variety of national and patriotic music,
  and a quartette of male voices from Dale Hospital, members of the
  Warren Phalanx of Charlestown (Company B), gave two patriotic
  songs, which were warmly applauded.

  At the close of the repast, in behalf of the regiment,
  Lieutenant-Colonel Smith returned thanks to the city authorities
  for the courtesies and welcome extended to them. He said it
  was a proud day for American soldiers, and a proud day for the
  Thirty-sixth to return and to receive the approbation of the city
  from which they went away three years ago to fight the battles of
  the Republic. When we then left this city we received our flag from
  the ladies of Worcester, and our commander pledged himself and us
  that it should be honorably defended and returned. He has long
  since left us; but the promise was binding, and to-day we return
  it without dishonor. We count it a matter of pride that in all our
  arduous service and on many hard-fought fields the Thirty-sixth
  Regiment has never lost a color or a flag.

  On account of the lateness of the hour the speech-making was
  abbreviated; and after the soldiers had cheered for the mayor, the
  ladies, and the citizens of Worcester, and the spectators had given
  nine hearty cheers for the Thirty-sixth Regiment, the assembly
  dispersed.

  The following is a list of the officers who have returned with the
  regiment:--

  _Colonel._--Thaddeus L. Barker.

  _Lieutenant-Colonel._--James B. Smith.

  _Major._--Edward T. Raymond.

  _Adjutant._--Thomas H. Haskell.

  _Quartermaster._--Augustus H. Tuttle.

  _Surgeon._--Albert H. Bryant.

  _Chaplain._--Nathaniel Richardson.

  _Captains._--Ames, Marshall, Hodgkins, Fairbank, Burrage, Davidson,
  and Woodward.

  _First Lieutenants._--Harwood, Perley, Cross, Osborne, Austin
  Davis, Jonas H. Davis, Morrow, Mott, and Field.

  _Second Lieutenants._--Goodell, Phelps, Babcock, and Howe.

On Monday, June 19th, at four o'clock P.M., the regiment assembled at
Readville, was paid in full, and discharged from the service of the
United States, and its record in the suppression of the Great Rebellion
passed into history.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

CONCLUSION.


This narrative of the prominent events in the campaigns of the
regiment, its enrolment, journeys, marches, battles, camps, and final
discharge, conveys but little idea of its interior history, the
associations of its members with each other, the routine of army life,
and the daily experience of the individual soldier. All this is a
portion of that unwritten history impressed indelibly upon the memory
of the surviving members.

A spirit of fraternity and good-will pervaded the regiment throughout
its term of service. It was a compact, homogeneous body of men,
remarkably free from envy, strife, and jealousy. It came into the
service under the second call for three hundred thousand men for three
years. The early enthusiasm, caused by the breaking out of the war, had
in a measure subsided. The military service was known to be arduous,
dangerous, and severe. Hardship, hunger, disease, battle, and death
must be confronted, and this very fact was the inspiration of the
hour. Men knew that the war was likely to continue for the full term
of their enlistment. The regiment was composed of good material. While
there were many men above the age of thirty-five, and many even above
the age of forty-five, yet the number of young men was so largely in
excess of these that the average age of the entire regiment was hardly
twenty-four years.

It was composed, in the main, of men of good moral character. But few
were addicted to the vice of intemperance. The hard-earned pay was
carefully husbanded, and sent to those who needed it at home. Not an
officer or man was dismissed the service, or dishonorably discharged;
not an officer or man was court-martialled. The high standard of moral
character was due doubtless, in a great degree, to the influence of
home; but the example of many men of strong religious character,
prominent among whom were Orderly Sergeant White and the lamented
Sergeant Merrick, had much to do in maintaining the tone of morality.
All the vacancies existing among the commissioned officers were filled
by promotion from the rank and file. After the muster-in, in 1862,
not a commission, excepting to a chaplain, was issued to a person
outside the regiment, nor was there an appointment made from civil
life. Officers and enlisted men of the Thirty-sixth were commissioned
in other regiments, and many others, of all grades, were detailed to
various positions of trust and responsibility in the several divisions
and corps of the army. As we recall the names of those who received
appointments to honorable positions in other organizations we cannot
fail to remember and claim the following-named as our own: Captain
Prescott and Lieutenants Gird and Tucker were commissioned in the
Fifty-seventh Massachusetts. Prescott as Major, and Gird as Captain
sealed their devotion with their lives,--the first in the Crater, the
second in the Wilderness. Tucker rose to the command of his regiment,
after receiving fearful wounds, which hastened his death. Private
Swords of Company B, was commissioned Captain, was wounded at North
Anna, captured at Fort Stedman, and brevetted Major. Lieutenant Levi N.
Smith, of Company D, was called to a position of great responsibility
in the Commissary Department at army head-quarters, and was brevetted
Colonel for efficient services. Sergeant Brown, of Company B,--one of
the first of the Color Sergeants,--was commissioned Captain in the
Twelfth Kentucky, and won a medal of honor for gallantry at Franklin,
Tennessee. Private Snell, of Company E, and Corporals Benjamin Edmands
and Chapman, of Company B, were commissioned Lieutenants in different
regiments of colored troops, and rendered gallant service. The first
served upon the staff of General Crawford; the second won a good name
in South Carolina; and the third was killed in the great explosion
at Mobile, on the very day of our muster-out of service, leaving the
record of a gallant and faithful soldier. These are treasured as a part
of the contribution of the regiment to the cause of Freedom in other
organizations.

Nor do we forget the many brave and faithful men, as worthy as any
of these, who served their entire term without any of the honors
and privileges conferred by rank: Sergeants, capable of commanding
companies, who were wounded in battle, and unable to rejoin their
comrades in the field; or were, in some cases, commissioned, but not
able to avail themselves of the rank on account of the reduced number
of men in their companies and consequent inability to muster; or, as in
the case of others, mustered-out of service as supernumerary Sergeants
by reason of consolidation and transfers, and others equally brave
and trusted, who toiled, and labored, and fought in the ranks with no
incentive but a desire to render their full measure of loyal service,
and who made a record of which they and their comrades may well be
proud.

The associations born of common suffering and danger, and cemented by
battle-blood, have continued and strengthened with the lapse of time.
Soon after the war a Regimental Association was formed, which bears
the name of "The Burnside Association of the Thirty-sixth Regiment,
Massachusetts Volunteers." General Burnside, then Governor of Rhode
Island, acknowledged the receipt of an invitation to attend one of its
reunions in the following characteristic letter:--

  STATE OF RHODE ISLAND, EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT,
                         PROVIDENCE, Dec. 4, 1866.

  MY DEAR SIRS:--I am more than sorry not to be able to attend the
  meeting of your Association to-morrow. The occasion would be
  interesting to me, not only as the anniversary of the raising of
  the siege of Knoxville, but as a reunion with my old comrades of
  the Thirty-sixth. You know what good reasons I have for honoring
  your gallant regiment. It served in the Ninth Corps from its first
  arrival in the field until the close of the war, and made for
  itself a record second to none in the service. The affection in
  which I hold all its surviving members, and the reverence with
  which I cherish the memory of the departed, have been begotten by a
  long and pleasant acquaintance in the field as comrades in arms. My
  best wishes and prayers will follow you through life.

  For the honor conferred upon me by calling your Association after
  my name, please accept my warmest thanks.

  With the hope that I may have opportunities of meeting you at some
  of your future anniversaries, and with the wish that you may have a
  most joyful reunion, I remain, sincerely your friend,

  A. E. BURNSIDE.


The Annual Reunions of the regiment, held at Worcester on the 2d of
September, the anniversary of the departure of the Thirty-sixth for
the seat of war, have always been largely attended, and the sons of
the dead and the living comrades have been admitted to membership,
and participate in these seasons of festivity and cheer. At all these
gatherings we recall the memories of those who went forth with us never
to return.

        "How they went forth to die!
    Pale, earnest, from the dizzy mills,
    And sunburnt, from the harvest hills,
    Quick, eager, from the city's streets,
    And storm-tried, from the fisher's fleets,--
        How they went forth to die!"



                           ROSTER AND RECORD
                                OF THE
                  THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY,
                       MASSACHUSETTS VOLUNTEERS,
                               1862-65.


The roster of commissioned officers contains the names and, as far
as can be ascertained, the full military record of all who were
commissioned in the Thirty-sixth Regiment, and the officers transferred
to it from the Twenty-first Regiment. The record of the enlisted men is
based upon the original muster-in rolls of the regiment by companies,
as appeared on the 27th of August, 1862, the day the regiment was
mustered into the service of the United States. The names of recruits
have been added to the companies into which they were mustered. The
record accounts for those only who were enlisted for the Thirty-sixth
Regiment. The names of the men of the Twenty-first and Twenty-ninth
regiments appear in the histories of their respective regiments. The
roster and record have been carefully compared with the rolls in the
office of the Adjutant General, who has furnished every facility in
obtaining as complete a record as it is now possible to make.



ROSTER OF THE OFFICERS.


FIELD AND STAFF.


COLONELS.

HENRY BOWMAN. 28. Clinton.

Captain, 15th Mass. Vols., Aug. 1, 1861; captured at Ball's Bluff, Oct.
21, 1861; prisoner of war at Richmond, and hostage for Confederates
held in New York for trial as pirates; paroled Feb. 22, 1862; exchanged
August, 1862; Major, 34th Mass. Vols., Aug. 6, 1862; Colonel, 36th
Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; commanding First Brigade, First Division,
9th Army Corps, June 1, 1863; resigned July 27, 1863; recommissioned
October, 1863; on special duty, Chief of Staff of Gen. Willcox,
commanding at Cumberland Gap and in East Tennessee, Nov. 21 to Dec.
25, 1863; rejoined regiment at Blaine's Cross Roads, Tenn., Dec. 26,
1863, but was unable to muster as Colonel, the regiment being below
the minimum; appointed Asst. Q.M. U.S. Vols., Feb. 29, 1864; was on
duty with Third Division, 9th Army Corps, during the Virginia campaign
of 1864, and was afterwards stationed at Baltimore and Philadelphia;
served at the latter place until the close of the war.

THADDEUS L. BARKER. 36. Fitchburg.

Captain, Co. A, Aug. 19, 1862; Major, May 6, 1864; commanding regiment
from May 6, 1864, to June 3, 1864, July 18 to Aug. 10, 1864, and from
Oct. 12, 1864, to close of the war; Lieutenant-Colonel, Oct. 12, 1864;
Colonel, Nov. 13, 1864, but unable to muster, the regiment being below
the minimum; wounded at Campbell's Station, Tenn., Nov. 16, 1863, and
Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864; mustered out with the regiment, June 8,
1865, as Lieutenant-Colonel.


LIEUTENANT-COLONELS.

JOHN B. NORTON. 39. Charlestown.

First Lieutenant, 5th Mass. Vols. (3 months); Captain, July 8, 1861;
Captain, 34th Mass. Vols., Aug. 12, 1862; transferred to 36th Mass.
Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; Lieutenant-Colonel, Aug. 28, 1862; commanding
regiment, June 1 to July 30, 1863; resigned, July 30, 1863.

ARTHUR A. GOODELL. 23. Worcester.

Sergeant-Major, Third Battalion Rifles, M.V.M. (3 months), April 19,
1861; Adjutant, July 1, 1861; Captain, Co. C, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug.
16, 1862; Major, Jan. 29, 1863; Lieutenant-Colonel, July 31, 1863;
commanding regiment from that date until Oct. 10, 1863, when he was
severely wounded at Blue Springs, Tenn.; returned to regiment, April
1, 1864; resigned, May 5, 1864, in consequence of disability resulting
from wounds; Brevet Brigadier-General U.S. Vols., "for gallant and
meritorious conduct in the field during the war"; died at Worcester,
Mass., June 30, 1882, on his 43d birthday.

WILLIAM F. DRAPER. 21. Milford.

Private, 25th Mass. Vols., Sept. 9, 1861; Second Lieutenant, Oct. 12,
1861; First Lieutenant, April 25, 1862; on detached duty with U.S.
Signal Corps in North Carolina; Captain, Co. F, 36th Mass. Vols.,
Aug. 12, 1862; Major, July 31, 1863; Lieutenant-Colonel, May 6, 1864;
commanding regiment from Oct. 10, 1863, with the exception of a few
days in April, 1864, to May 6, 1864, when he was severely wounded at
the battle of the Wilderness; returned to the command of the regiment,
Aug. 10, 1864, and continued until his muster-out, Oct. 12, 1864, upon
the expiration of three years' service; Brevet Colonel and Brevet
Brigadier-General, U.S. Vols., "for gallant and meritorious services in
the field during the war."

JAMES B. SMITH. 23. Cambridge.

First Lieutenant, 25th Mass. Vols., Oct. 12, 1861; Captain, Co. K, 36th
Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; commanding regiment from June 3, 1864, to
July 18, 1864; Major, Oct. 12, 1864; Lieutenant-Colonel, Nov. 13, 1864,
but was unable to be mustered in that grade, the regiment being below
the minimum; Provost-Marshal, Second Division, 9th Army Corps, July 20,
1864, to close of the war; wounded in action at battle of Pegram Farm,
Sept. 30, 1864; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865, as Major;
Brevet Colonel, U.S. Vols., "for gallant and meritorious services in
the field during the war."


MAJORS.

JAMES H. BARKER. 44. Milford.

Major, Aug. 28, 1862; resigned, Jan. 29, 1863.

EDWARD T. RAYMOND. 20. Worcester.

Sergeant, Co. K, 25th Mass. Vols., Sept. 10, 1861; First Lieutenant,
Co. G, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; Captain, Jan. 30, 1863; Acting
Assist. Inspector-General, First Brigade, First Division, 9th Army
Corps, from June 3, 1863, until the reorganization of the Corps at
Annapolis, April 20, 1864, when he was assigned to the same position
in First Brigade, Second Division; Acting Assistant Inspector-General,
Second Division, 9th Army Corps, Oct. 13, 1864, to the close of the
war, serving temporarily for two months, in 1864, as Inspector-General
of the 9th Corps; Major, Nov. 13, 1864, but unable to muster, the
regiment being below the minimum; mustered out with the regiment,
June 8, 1865, as Captain; Brevet Major, U.S. Vols., "for gallant
and meritorious services during the operations around Richmond and
Petersburg, Va."


SURGEONS.

JAMES P. PRINCE. 24. Lynn.

Assistant Surgeon, 22d Mass. Vols., Oct. 1, 1861; Surgeon, 36th Mass.
Vols., Aug. 13, 1862; Division Surgeon, First Division, 9th Army
Corps, Feb. 11, 1864, and upon the reorganization of the Corps, April
20, 1864, was assigned to duty as Division Surgeon, Fourth Division,
9th Army Corps; appointed Surgeon, U.S. Vols., May 3, 1865; Brevet
Lieutenant-Colonel, U.S. Vols.

ALBERT H. BRYANT. 25. Natick.

Private, Co. H, 13th Mass. Vols., July 16, 1861; discharged, May 20,
1862, to receive appointment as Surgeon, 9th New York Vols.; declined
commission; Assistant Surgeon, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 29, 1862;
Surgeon, 58th Mass. Vols., Aug. 12, 1864; declined commission; Surgeon,
May 4, 1865; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865. From Feb.
11, 1864, until the close of the war he was the only medical officer on
duty with the regiment.


ASSISTANT SURGEONS.

WARREN TYLER. 42. North Brookfield.

Assistant Surgeon, Aug. 21, 1862; resigned, Oct. 20, 1863; appointed
Asst. Surgeon, 57th Mass. Vols., March 29, 1864; declined commission.

THOMAS C. LAWTON. 28. Sheffield.

Assistant Surgeon, Aug. 15, 1862; declined commission; commissioned
Assistant Surgeon, 37th Mass. Vols.


CHAPLAINS.

CHARLES T. CANFIELD. 38. Worcester.

Chaplain, Aug. 28, 1862; resigned, Oct. 20, 1863.

NATHANIEL RICHARDSON. 57. Somerset.

Chaplain, April 14, 1864; mustered out with the regiment.


ADJUTANTS.

SETH ALONZO RANLETT. 22. Charlestown.

Private, Co. B, July 24, 1862; First Sergeant, Aug. 27, 1862; First
Lieutenant, Dec. 1, 1862; appointed Adjutant, Dec. 17, 1862; mustered
out on account of physical disability from disease incurred in the
service February 20, 1864. Previous to the appointment of Adjutant
Ranlett, from Sept. 2 to Dec. 17, 1862, the field duties of Adjutant
were performed by First Lieutenant George L. Chipman, Co. A.

WILLIAM H. HODGKINS. 22. Charlestown.

Private, Co. B, July 23, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Oct. 17, 1862;
Acting Adjutant, Jan. 19, 1863, to May 31, 1863; Acting Assistant
Adjutant-General, First Brigade, First Division, 9th Army Corps, June
1 to July 30, 1863; First Lieutenant, Oct. 17, 1863; on special duty,
Aide-de-Camp to General Willcox, in East Tennessee, Nov. 22 to Dec.
26, 1863; Adjutant, from Jan. 1, 1864, to July 14, 1864, and Acting
Adjutant to Aug. 21, 1864; Captain, May 6, 1864; Aide-de-Camp to
General Ferrero, commanding Fourth Division, and Assistant Commissary
of Musters, Fourth Division, Aug. 21, 1864, and was transferred with
that Division to the Army of the James; Asst. Commissary of Musters,
Third Division, 9th Army Corps, General Hartranft, commanding, from
Jan. 11, 1865, to close of the war; mustered out with the regiment,
June 8, 1865. Brevet Major, U.S. Vols., "for valuable and distinguished
services at Fort Stedman, Va., March 25, 1865."

THOMAS H. HASKELL. 21. Charlestown.

Private, Co. B, July 24, 1862; Corporal, March 21, 1862; First
Sergeant, Nov. 8, 1863. Severely wounded at battle of Spottsylvania
Court-House, May 12, 1864. First Lieutenant, May 6, 1864; commanding
Co. B, July 10, to Aug. 21, 1864; Adjutant, Aug. 21, 1864, to close of
the war; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.


QUARTERMASTERS.

FRANCIS B. RICE. 28. Worcester.

First Lieutenant and Regimental Quartermaster, Aug. 8, 1862; resigned,
June 25, 1863.

JOHN C. CUTTER. 34. Winchendon.

Second Lieutenant, Co. D, Aug. 22, 1862; First Lieutenant, July 17,
1863; Regimental Quartermaster, from July 1, 1863; resigned, January 2,
1864.

AUGUSTUS S. TUTTLE. 38. Milford.

Second Lieutenant, Co. F, July 28, 1862; recruited the Company and
commanded it until the arrival of Captain Draper, Sept., 1862; Brigade
Ambulance Officer, from March 1 to June 17, 1863; First Lieutenant,
May 16, 1863; Division Ambulance Officer, June 17, 1863, to Dec.,
1863; Regimental Quartermaster, Jan. 2, 1864, declining Commission as
Captain, to July 1, 1864, when he was appointed Acting A.Q.M., First
Brigade, Second Division, 9th Army Corps, and served in that capacity
to the close of the war; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.

LUCIUS FIELD. 22. Clinton.

Private, Co. G, Aug. 18, 1862; Commissary Sergeant, Oct. 15, 1862;
Quartermaster Sergeant, May 25, 1863; Acting Quartermaster, Nov.
16, 1863, to Jan. 2, 1864; Second Lieutenant, Nov. 1, 1864; First
Lieutenant, Nov. 13, 1864; not mustered; Acting Quartermaster from July
1, 1864, to close of the war; mustered out with the regiment, June 8,
1865, as Second Lieutenant.


LINE OFFICERS.


CAPTAINS.

CHRISTOPHER SAWYER. 28. Templeton.

Captain, Co. H, Aug. 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Feb. 19, 1864.

STEPHEN C. WARRINER. 23. Monson.

Sergeant, 10th Mass. Vols., June 12, 1861; Captain, Co. E, 36th Mass.
Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; resigned, April 22, 1864.

CHRISTOPHER S. HASTINGS. 48. Berlin.

Captain, Co. I, August 22, 1862; died at Mound City, Illinois, General
Hospital, Sept. 8, 1863. He was the senior officer, in years, in the
regiment, and was universally respected. His age exempted him from
military service, but he obeyed the instincts of patriotism, and
yielded his life at his country's call. His fellow-citizens bestowed
upon him important trusts, which he fulfilled with rare fidelity. He
was a brave, cheerful, patriotic man, winning the affection of his men,
who regarded him as a father.

AMOS BUFFUM. 38. Templeton.

Second Lieutenant, 25th Mass. Vols., Oct. 12, 1861; resigned, March 31,
1862; Captain, Co. D, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; killed in action
near Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864.

S. HENRY BAILEY. 27. Northborough.

Captain, Co. G, Aug. 22, 1862; Acting Assistant Inspector-General, on
staff of General Ferrero, commanding First Division, 9th Army Corps,
Nov., 1863, to April 1, 1864; killed in action at Spottsylvania, Va.,
May 12, 1864.

ALBERT PRESCOTT. 33. Charlestown.

First Sergeant, Co. K, 5th Mass. V.M. (3 months), April 19, 1861, to
July 31, 1861; First Sergeant, Co. B, 36th Mass. Vols., July 30, 1862;
Captain Co. B, Aug. 28, 1862; resigned, April 29, 1863; Captain, 57th
Mass. Vols., March 2, 1864; Major, June 15, 1864; killed in the Battle
of the Mine, near Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864.

OTIS W. HOLMES. 27. Milford.

Sergeant, 25th Mass. Vols., Sept. 9, 1861; First Sergeant, April 15,
1862; First Lieutenant, Co. F, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 12, 1862; Captain
Co. B, May 2, 1863; died in Harewood General Hospital, Washington,
D.C., June 23, 1864, of wounds received in action in the assault upon
the enemy's works, near Petersburg, Va., on the morning of June 17,
1864.

T. EDWARD AMES. 24. Charlestown.

First Lieutenant, 34th Mass. Vols., Aug. 12, 1862; transferred to
Co. B, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; Acting Aide-de-Camp to
Brigadier-General Welsh, commanding 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 9th
Army Corps, in November, 1862; Captain Co. F, Aug. 2, 1863; Acting
A.A.G. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 9th Army Corps, Oct. 8, 1864, and
Acting Aide-de-Camp to Brevet Brigadier-General Curtin, commanding
brigade, to the close of the war; mustered out with the regiment, June
8, 1865; Brevet Major, U.S. Vols., "for gallant and meritorious conduct
before Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865."

EDWIN A. MORSE. 21. Worcester.

Private, Co. A, 3d Battalion Rifles, May 19, 1861; discharged for
disability, July 24, 1861; Corporal, 25th Mass. Vols., Sept. 14, 1861;
First Lieutenant, Co. C, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; Captain, Co.
C, Sept. 9, 1863; severely wounded at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864;
mustered out at expiration of three years' service, Oct. 12, 1864.

JOSEPH A. MARSHALL. 21. Fitchburg.

Private, Co. B, 15th Mass. Vols., July 12, 1861; Second Lieutenant, Co.
A, 36th Mass. Vols., Nov. 22, 1862; First Lieutenant, Sept. 1, 1863;
Captain, April 23, 1864; wounded at the Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864;
mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.

JOHN B. FAIRBANK. 23. Oakham.

First Sergeant, Co. K, Aug. 11, 1862; Second Lieutenant, May 2, 1863;
First Lieutenant, Oct. 23, 1863; Captain, May 13, 1864; wounded at
Campbell's Station, Tenn., Nov. 16, 1863; mustered out with the
regiment, June 8, 1865; Brevet Major, U.S. Vols., "for gallant and
meritorious services during the war."

HENRY S. BURRAGE. 25. Roxbury.

Sergeant, Co. A, Aug. 1, 1862; Sergeant-Major, Aug. 28, 1862; Second
Lieutenant, Co. D, May 16, 1863; First Lieutenant, Nov. 17, 1863;
wounded in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864; Captain, June
19, 1864; prisoner of war at Richmond and Danville, Va., from Nov. 1,
1864, to Feb. 22, 1865; Acting A.A.G., 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 9th
Army Corps, April 16, 1865, to June 8, 1865; Brevet Major, U.S. Vols.,
"for gallant and meritorious services in the campaign from the Rapidan
to the James, March 13, 1865"; mustered out with the regiment, June 8,
1865.

ALONZO S. DAVIDSON. 22. Clinton.

Sergeant, Co. G, Aug. 11, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Aug. 2, 1863; not
mustered; Sergeant-Major, Oct. 15, 1863; First Lieutenant, April 24,
1864; Captain, June 23, 1864; mustered out with the regiment, June 8,
1865.

PHILIP G. WOODWARD. 25. Orange.

Sergeant, Co. H, Aug. 6, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Oct. 26, 1863; not
mustered; First Lieutenant, May 15, 1864; wounded in action at Cold
Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864; Captain, Oct. 11, 1864; mustered out with
the regiment, June 8, 1865.

JOSEPH HANCOCK. 43. Milford.

Sergeant, Co. F, Aug. 5, 1862; First Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, July
8, 1863; First Lieutenant, Feb. 25, 1864; Captain, Oct. 12, 1864;
mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.

AUSTIN DAVIS. 35. Oxford.

First Lieutenant, Co. K, Aug. 22, 1862; Captain, Nov. 13, 1864; not
mustered; on detached service from Sept. 1, 1864; mustered out with the
regiment, June 8, 1865, as First Lieutenant.


FIRST LIEUTENANTS.

JOSEPH W. GIRD. 22. Fitchburg.

Private, Co. F, 25th Mass. Vols., Oct. 4, 1861; First Lieutenant, 36th
Mass. Vols., Aug. 11, 1862; resigned, May 19, 1863; Second Lieutenant,
57th Mass. Vols., Nov. 3, 1863; Captain, Dec. 31, 1863; killed in
action at battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864.

ROBERT M. CROSS. 21. Palmer.

First Lieutenant, Co. E, Aug. 22, 1862; on special duty, Acting
Aide-de-Camp to Colonel Leasure, commanding brigade, General Welsh
commanding division, and General Willcox commanding forces at
Cumberland Gap, 1863-1864; honorably discharged, July 24, 1864.

LEVI N. SMITH. 39. Templeton.

Sergeant, Co. A, 21st Mass. Vols., July 19, 1861; First Lieutenant,
Co. D, Aug. 22, 1862; on detached duty as Acting Commissary; appointed
Assistant Commissary of Subsistence, U.S. Vols., with rank of Captain,
June 30, 1863; on duty at Head-quarters, Army of the Potomac, and
served until the close of the war; Brevet Colonel, U.S. Vols., "for
faithful and meritorious services during the war."

GEORGE L. CHIPMAN. 28. Fitchburg.

Second Lieutenant, Co. A, Aug. 6, 1862; First Lieutenant, Aug. 22,
1862; Acting Adjutant, Sept. 7, 1862, to Dec. 20, 1862; resigned, Oct.
23, 1863.

WILLIAM F. BRIGHAM. 23. Marlborough.

First Lieutenant, Co. I, Aug. 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan.
20, 1865.

HENRY S. ROBINSON. 31. Clinton.

Second Lieutenant, Co. G, Aug. 22, 1862; First Lieutenant, Jan. 30,
1863; severely wounded in action at Blue Springs, Tenn., Oct. 10, 1863,
and was discharged for disability in consequence thereof, July 7, 1864.

P. MARION HOLMES. 22. Charlestown.

Private, Co. K, 5th Mass. Vols. (3 months), April 19 to July 31, 1861;
Second Lieutenant, 34th Mass. Vols., Aug. 8, 1862; transferred to 36th
Mass. Vols.; Second Lieutenant, Co. B, Aug. 22, 1862; First Lieutenant,
May 2, 1863; killed in action at Campbell's Station, Tenn., Nov. 16,
1863.

HENRY W. DANIELS. 23. Worcester.

Private, Co. A, 3d Battalion of Rifles (3 months), April 19, 1861;
discharged for disability, July 24, 1861; Second Lieutenant, Co. C,
Aug. 22, 1862; First Lieutenant, July 31, 1863; killed in action at
Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864.

FREDERICK H. SIBLEY. 24. Fitchburg.

Sergeant, Co. B, 15th Mass. Vols., July 12, 1861; Second Lieutenant,
Co. I, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 22, 1862; First Lieutenant, Aug. 2, 1863;
died in U.S. General Hospital, Louisville, Ky., of disease contracted
in the Mississippi Campaign, Aug. 17, 1863.

SAMUEL A. GOODSPEED. 38. Worcester.

Sergeant, Co. C, Aug. 13, 1862; Color Sergeant to June 27, 1863; First
Sergeant, June 27, 1863; Second Lieutenant, July 17, 1863; First
Lieutenant, Jan. 3, 1864; resigned, April 22, 1864.

JOHN A. RICE. 26. Worcester.

First Sergeant, Co. C, Aug. 8, 1862; Sergeant Major, June 28, 1863;
Second Lieutenant, Co. C, July 30, 1863; Acting Adjutant, Oct. 17,
1863, to Jan. 1, 1864; First Lieutenant, Feb. 20, 1864; resigned, at
Annapolis, Md., April 22, 1864.

EDWARD F. EMORY. 21. Fitchburg.

Private, July 17, 1862; Commissary Sergeant, Aug. 27, 1862; Second
Lieutenant, Aug. 1, 1863, on detached service in Commissary Department;
First Lieutenant, Feb. 21, 1864; Acting A.C.S., Fourth Division, 9th
Army Corps, Hospital Department, April 21, 1864, to close of war;
mustered out with the regiment June 8, 1865.

ALONZO A. WHITE. 29. Upton.

First Sergeant, Co. I, Aug. 8, 1862; commissioned Second Lieutenant,
Co. I, July 31, 1863, but before the commission was received another
Second Lieutenant had been mustered and assigned to that company; was
in command of Co. I, as First Sergeant, during the East Tennessee
campaign, and until May 12, 1864, when he was very severely wounded at
the battle of Spottsylvania. While absent from the regiment, on account
of wounds, he was commissioned First Lieutenant, dating from April 23,
1864, and could not muster in that grade on account of absence from
the command. When he returned, in November, 1864, though not recovered
from his wounds, the regiment had been consolidated into seven
companies, and the 21st Battalion, of Mass. Vols., with its officers,
transferred to it. Companies G and I had been consolidated; and the
company having a Captain and First Lieutenant (all the officers allowed
by the existing regulations), and also a First Sergeant, Lieutenant
White, much against his wishes, was mustered out as a Supernumerary
First Sergeant, Nov. 11, 1864. It was a case of extreme hardship, and
after the close of the war a statement of the facts was made to the
War Department, and General Sherman, Acting Secretary of War, issued a
special order in the case of Lieutenant White, amending his record, and
giving him rank and pay as a First Lieutenant from April 23, 1864, the
date of his commission in that grade.

DANIEL WRIGHT. 30. Clinton.

Corporal, Co. F, Aug. 6, 1862; Sergeant, Oct. 1, 1862; Second
Lieutenant, Sept. 1, 1863; not mustered; First Lieutenant, April 23,
1864; wounded and captured while in command of the detachment of the
46th New York Vols. assigned to the 36th Mass. Vols., at the battle of
the Wilderness, May 6, 1864; prisoner of war in rebel field-hospital
from May 6 to June 1, 1864; Lynchburg hospital to June 30; Salisbury,
N.C., July 1; thence to Andersonville, July 4 to Sept. 1; Florence,
S.C., Sept. 4 to Dec. 17, 1864, when he was paroled; exchanged March
29, 1865; rejoined regiment April 1, 1865; was mustered in as First
Lieutenant, and assigned to Co. F, which he commanded from April 1,
1865, to the close of the war; mustered out with the regiment, June 8,
1865.

JOHN A. STEARNS. 20. Templeton.

Sergeant, Co. D, Aug. 6, 1862; First Sergeant, Oct. 11, 1862; First
Lieutenant, May 13, 1864, but was unable to muster, being absent by
reason of severe wounds received June 18, 1864, near Petersburg, Va.,
and was discharged for disability caused by his wounds, Oct. 29, 1864,
as First Sergeant.

HIRAM N. OLCOTT. 21. Clinton.

Corporal, Co. G, Aug. 3, 1862; promoted Sergeant; Acting
Sergeant-Major, June 3, 1864, to June 18, 1864, when he was severely
wounded in action near Petersburg, Va.; First Lieutenant, June 19,
1864; not able to muster, absent wounded; discharged for disability
from wounds, Dec. 23, 1864, as Sergeant.

GEORGE W. HARWOOD. 20. North Brookfield.

Private, Co. E, Aug. 12, 1862; promoted Corporal; Sergeant, July, 1863;
First Lieutenant, June 23, 1864; mustered out with the regiment, June
8, 1865.

SAMUEL OSBORN. 29. Leominster.

Sergeant, Co. A, Aug. 2, 1862; First Sergeant; First Lieutenant, July
7, 1864; mustered out with the regiment.

GEORGE A. PERLEY. 31. Gardner.

Sergeant, Co. H, Aug. 28, 1862; First Sergeant, July 2, 1864; First
Lieutenant, Oct. 11, 1864; mustered out with the regiment.

ALLEN W. CROSS. 29. Westborough.

Sergeant, Co. K, Aug. 7, 1862; First Sergeant, May 2, 1863; First
Lieutenant, Co. B, Oct. 12, 1864. Mustered out with the regiment.


SECOND LIEUTENANTS.

JULIUS M. TUCKER. 21. Worcester.

Private, Co. B, 25th Mass. Vols., Sept. 16, 1863; Second Lieutenant,
Co. E, 36th Mass. Vols., Aug. 8, 1862; resigned, July 29, 1863; First
Lieutenant, 57th Mass. Vols., Jan. 1, 1864; Captain, Jan. 6, 1864;
Major, June 14, 1864; Lieutenant-Colonel, June 15, 1864; very severely
wounded in action; mustered out at the close of the war.

WILDER S. HOLBROOK. 21. Sutton.

Corporal, Co., 15th Mass. Vols., July 12, 1861; wounded in action
at Ball's Bluff, Va., Oct. 21, 1861; discharged for disability from
wounds, July 6, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Co. K, Aug. 22, 1862; resigned
on account of disability resulting from former wounds, July 31, 1863.

WILLIAM L. HOWE. 23. Orange.

Private, Co. H, Aug. 4, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Jan. 30, 1863; died of
disease at Milldale, Miss., July 7, 1863.

RUFUS HOWE. 24. Marlborough.

Sergeant, Co. I, Aug. 1, 1862; Second Lieutenant, Nov. 1, 1864; was in
command of Co. I, with rank of Sergeant, from May 12, 1864, to Nov. 1,
1864; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.

EDMUND W. NOYES. 18. Charlestown.

Private, Co. B, Aug. 11, 1862; Sergeant-Major, March 1, 1865; Second
Lieutenant, to date from Nov. 13, 1864; not mustered; mustered out with
the regiment, June 8, 1865, as Sergeant-Major.

CHARLES W. WHITNEY. 21. Ashburnham.

Private, Co. A, July 22, 1862; promoted Corporal and Sergeant; First
Sergeant, July 7, 1864; Second Lieutenant, Nov. 13, 1864; not mustered;
mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865, as First Sergeant.

EDWARD CHAMBERLAIN. 20. Oakham.

Private, Co. K, Aug. 4, 1862; promoted Corporal and Sergeant; First
Sergeant, Oct. 12, 1864; Second Lieutenant, Nov. 13, 1864; not
mustered; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865, as First
Sergeant.

LIBERTY W. FOSKETT. 22. Winchendon.

Private, Co. D, Aug. 2, 1862; promoted Corporal and Sergeant; Acting
First Sergeant from May 13, 1864; wounded in action, June 17, 1864;
Second Lieutenant, Nov. 13, 1864; not mustered; mustered out with the
regiment, June 8, 1864, as First Sergeant.

FREDERICK W. BOSWELL. 26. Worcester.

Corporal, Co. C, Aug. 12; Sergeant, Aug. 1, 1863; First Sergeant, Dec.
4, 1864; Second Lieutenant, to date from Nov. 13, 1864; not mustered;
mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865, as First Sergeant.

GILBERT N. RAWSON. 26. Worcester.

Private, Co. C, Aug. 4, 1862; Corporal, June 11, 1863; Color-Sergeant
from May 6, 1864; Second Lieutenant, Nov. 29, 1864, declined
commission; mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865, as Sergeant.


  COMMISSIONED OFFICERS OF THE TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT MASSACHUSETTS
    VOLUNTEERS TRANSFERRED TO THIRTY-SIXTH REGIMENT.

CHARLES W. DAVIS. 35. Templeton.

First Lieutenant, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 21, 1861; Captain, March 3,
1862; mustered out at expiration of three years' service as Captain,
March 3, 1865; Brevet Major, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Colonel, U.S.
Vols., "for gallant and meritorious service in the field during the
war."

WILLIAM H. SAWYER. 26. New Salem.

Sergeant, Co. K, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; First Sergeant, Oct.
26, 1862; First Lieutenant, April 26, 1863; Captain, Oct. 12, 1864;
mustered out with 36th Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865.

FELIX MCDERMOTT. 26. Auburn.

Sergeant, Co. F, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; First Lieutenant,
April 26, 1863; discharged from 36th Mass. Vols, for disability from
wounds, Nov. 21, 1864.

JONAS R. DAVIS. 20. Templeton.

Corporal, Co. A, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; promoted Sergeant and
First Sergeant; First Lieutenant, June 6, 1863; mustered out with 36th
Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865, expiration of service.

ABNER R. MOTT. 23. Ware.

Private, Co. I, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; promoted Corporal,
Sergeant, and First Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, Sept. 7, 1864; First
Lieutenant, Oct. 12, 1864; mustered out with 36th Mass. Vols., June 8,
1865, expiration of service.

WILLIAM H. MORROW. 22. Barre.

Private, Co. K, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 21, 1861; promoted Corporal,
Sergeant, and First Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, Sept. 7, 1864; First
Lieutenant, 36th Mass. Vols., Nov. 29, 1864; mustered out with the 36th
Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865, expiration of service.

MARCUS M. COLLIS. 20. Palmer.

Corporal, Co. H, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; promoted Sergeant and
First Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, 36th Mass. Vols., Nov. 13, 1864,
but being a prisoner of war, was not mustered; transferred to 56th
Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865; First Lieutenant, 56th Mass. Vols., June 26,
1865; mustered out with 56th Mass. Vols., July 12, 1865, expiration of
service, as First Sergeant.

BENTON PHELPS. 24. Barre.

Private, Co. K, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; promoted Corporal,
Sergeant, and First Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, 36th Mass. Vols.,
Nov. 1, 1864; mustered out with the 36th Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865,
expiration of service.

CHARLES L. GOODALE. 33. Amherst.

Private, Co. H, 21st Mass. Vols., Aug. 23, 1861; promoted Corporal and
Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, 36th Mass. Vols., Nov. 1, 1864; mustered
out with the 36th Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865, expiration of service.

CHARLES S. BABCOCK. 25. Leyden.

Private, Co. I, 21st Mass. Vols., March 12, 1862; promoted Corporal and
Sergeant; Second Lieutenant, 36th Mass. Vols., Nov. 29, 1864; mustered
out with 36th Mass. Vols., June 8, 1865, expiration of service.

       *       *       *       *       *

Commissions as Second Lieutenants were issued to Peter Dooley,
Cheshire, and Mason W. Tyler, Amherst, who were transferred to
Thirty-Seventh Regiment before joining for service; and to T. Sibley
Heald, Hubbardston; Edward A. Brown, Fitchburg; and William E. Shaw,
Shrewsbury, which were declined.


NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF,

NOT ENUMERATED IN ROSTER OF COMMISSIONED OFFICERS.

OSTENELLO WASHBURN. 19. Holyoke.

Private, Co. K, Aug. 5, 1862; Sergeant, May 3, 1863; Sergeant-Major,
July 24, 1864; discharged Feb. 15, 1865, for disability resulting from
very severe wounds received in action at Pegram Farm, Sept. 30, 1864.

JOSEPH H. SAWYER. 32. Bolton.

Quartermaster Sergeant, Aug. 22, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan.
19, 1864, in consequence of amputation of the right leg, resulting from
the accidental discharge of a musket in camp, May 28, 1863.

GEORGE T. PHELPS. 20. Harvard.

Private, Co. G, Aug. 13, 1862; Quartermaster Sergeant, Oct. 4, 1864;
mustered out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.

T. LYMAN ELLSWORTH. 29. Milford.

Corporal, Co. F, Aug. 6, 1862; wounded at Jackson, Miss., July 11,
1863; Commissary Sergeant, Jan. 19, 1864; wounded at Fort Rice, April
2, 1865; discharged on account of disability from wounds, May 29, 1865.

WILLIAM H. BLAKE. 29. Lynn.

Hospital Steward, Aug. 14, 1862; discharged for disability, July 1,
1863.

GEORGE F. PARISH. 42. Gardner.

Private, Co. G, July 25, 1862; Hospital Steward, July 5, 1863; mustered
out with the regiment, June 8, 1865.

ALFRED CHAFFIN. 43. Holden.

Principal Musician, Aug. 22, 1862; discharged Nov. 30, 1862, by
general orders War Department, relative to the muster-out of Principal
Musicians, and leaders of bands.

LORENZO C. STRICKLAND. 18. Palmer.

Musician, Co. E, Aug. 15, 1862; Principal Musician, Nov. 30, 1862;
on detached service in the general hospital, at City Point, during
the summer and autumn of 1864, and his position was vacated on that
account; returned to the regiment in January, 1865; Principal Musician
from Jan. 8, 1865, to close of the war; mustered out with the regiment.

JOHN GARDNER. 18. Worcester.

Musician, Co. G, Aug. 15, 1862; appointed Principal Musician in the
absence of Strickland, in compliance with Regimental Order No. 27,
1864, for conspicuous bravery, to date from Sept. 1, 1864. Upon the
return of Strickland to the regiment, in January, 1865, he voluntarily
resigned in order that Strickland might resume his original position;
served to the close of the war as Musician of Co. B, and was mustered
out with the regiment.

       *       *       *       *       *

                          ROSTER OF ENLISTED MEN.

  =============+====+=============+=============+==========================
  Name and     |    | Residence,  | Muster into |         Remarks.
  Rank.        |Age.|  or Place   |U. S.        | Termination of Service.
               |    |credited to. |Service.     |
  -------------+----+-------------+-------------+--------------------------
  =Company A.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Webb, Robert | 34 |Fitchburg.   |July 14, '62.|Killed in action, at
  F.           |    |             |             |Poplar Spring Church,
               |    |             |             |Va., Sept. 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Burrage,     | 25 |Roxbury.     |Aug. 1, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Henry S.     |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Foster,      | 20 |Ashburnham.  |July 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Waldo A.     |    |             |             |disability, May 30, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Keyes,       | 23 |Princeton.   |July 21, '62.|Killed in action near
  George E.    |    |             |             |Petersburg, Va., June 17,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Osborn,      | 29 |Leominster.  |Aug. 2, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Samuel       |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Bacon, John  | 36 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, January 17,
               |    |             |             |1863.
               |    |             |             |
  Bruce,       | 21 |Townsend.    |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
  Leonard O.   |    |             |             |disability, April 29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Goodrich,    | 20 |Leominster.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Dec. 31,
  Leonard.     |    |             |             |'62.
               |    |             |             |
  Hartwell,    | 21 |Groton.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Sergeant. Died
  Adam J.      |    |             |             |Jan. 21, '64, at Camp
               |    |             |             |Nelson, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Knights,     | 20 |Fitchburg.   |July 21, '62.|Promoted Sergeant.
  George E.    |    |             |             |Died Sept. 3, '63, at
               |    |             |             |Nicholasville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Mills,       | 30 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Hamilton A.  |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 24, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Thornton,    | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  John J.      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wetherbee,   | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 22, '62.|Promoted Sergeant.
  Aaron F.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Lamb,        | 18 |Groton.      |July 21, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Chester F.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lamb, Levi L.| 21 |Groton.      |July 21, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Whittemore,  | 34 |Groton.      |July 30, '62.|On detached duty from
  Charles F.   |    |             |             |Nov. 1, '62; discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Alexander,   | 21 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 11, '62.|Killed in action at
  James M.     |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Ames, Thomas | 19 |Leominster.  |July 14, '62.|Promoted Corporal and
  J.           |    |             |             |Sergeant. Wounded in
               |    |             |             |action, June 18, '64;
               |    |             |             |discharged, June 17, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Arnold,      | 18 |Leominster.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George S.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bachelder,   | 23 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Died, Nov. 16, '63, at
  Joseph H.    |    |             |             |Camp Nelson, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Barber,      | 26 |Fitchburg.   |July 26, '62.|Transferred to V. R. C.,
  Charles S.   |    |             |             |May 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Battles,     | 20 |Fitchburg.   |July 21, '62.|Discharged, June 8,'65,
  Frederick C. |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Beals,       | 22 |Lunenburg.   |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
  Foster E. L. |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bixby, Aaron | 23 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Transferred to V. R. C.,
  B.           |    |             |             |Sept. 30, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bradley,     | 22 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Transferred to V. R. C.,
  Oscar L.     |    |             |             |Sept. 30, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Brooks, Luke | 32 |Leominster.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Transferred to V. R. C.,
  W.           |    |             |             |Dec. 19, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown, John. | 44 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Burlingame,  | 22 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William H.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Carter,      | 18 |Leominster.  |Aug. 25, '62.|Promoted Corporal. Killed
  Albert H.    |    |             |             |in action at Wilderness,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Carter,      | 19 |Leominster.  |Aug. 21, '62.|Wounded in action, June
  Solon H.     |    |             |             |6, '64; discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability from wounds,
               |    |             |             |June, 16, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 24 |Holden.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Killed in action at
  Levi.        |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Chase,       | 19 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Died, Jan. 10, '65, of
  Joseph W.    |    |             |             |wounds received at Fort
               |    |             |             |Rice, near Petersburg, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Cook, Thomas | 37 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 17, '62.|Transferred to V. R. C.,
  J.           |    |             |             |April 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Coyle,       | 29 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 28, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Andrew.      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Damon,       | 18 |Leominster.  |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  George B.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 28, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Derby,       | 23 |Leominster.  |July 24, '62.|Promoted Corporal and
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |Sergeant. Killed in
               |    |             |             |action at North Anna
               |    |             |             |River, Va., May 24, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Farrar,      | 18 |Holden.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Charles E.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Fernald,     | 20 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 3, '62. |Died of disease, April
  William H.   |    |             |             |30, '64, at Hall's Gap,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Frederick,   | 23 |Townsend.    |July 30, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Elisha H.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Frederick,   | 25 |Fitchburg.   |July 30, '62.|Discharged for
  George H.    |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 21, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  French, John | 23 |Fitchburg.   |July 26, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  A.           |    |             |             |expiration of service;
               |    |             |             |absent, wounded.
               |    |             |             |
  Fuller,      | 20 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  Marshall.    |    |             |             |disability, March 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Gallop,      | 31 |Leominster.  |Aug. 3, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  Leroy R.     |    |             |             |Sergt. Killed in action
               |    |             |             |at Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Gibson       | 29 |Fitchburg.   |July 3, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Andrew C.    |    |             |             |May 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Gibson,      | 36 |Leominster.  |Aug. 2, '62. |On detached duty
  George P.    |    |             |             |in Commis'ry Dept.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Greenman,    | 26 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hamilton,    | 24 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  James R.     |    |             |             |July 1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hancock,     | 31 |Fitchburg.   |July 14, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Joseph       |    |             |             |June 8, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Howe,        | 22 |Leominster.  |July 22, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  Franklin     |    |             |             |Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Humes, Joseph| 20 |Ashburnham.  |July 28, '62.|Promoted Corp. and
               |    |             |             |Sergeant. Died of wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action at
               |    |             |             |Cold Harbor, Va., June 3,
               |    |             |             |'64. Acting Sergt.-Major.
               |    |             |             |
  Hurd,        | 32 |Fitchburg.   |July 22, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Charles E.   |    |             |             |May 2, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 19 |Leominster.  |July 29, '62.|Discharged for
  Windsor C.   |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Larkin,      | 20 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Michael      |    |             |             |March 29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Long, Michael| 20 |Fitchburg.   |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corp.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mack, George | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 21, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  W.           |    |             |             |March 5, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Mahan, Thomas| 24 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Died of disease, April
               |    |             |             |20, '64, at Annapolis,
               |    |             |             |Md. Prisoner of war.
               |    |             |             |
  Makepeace,   | 38 |Fitchburg.   |July 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Francis A.   |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 8, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Marshall,    | 24 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  James A.     |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 8,
               |    |             |             |'62; was left sick at
               |    |             |             |Worcester, Mass.
               |    |             |             |
  May, Thomas  | 21 |Fitchburg.   |July 29, '62.|Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 2, '65,
               |    |             |             |in consequence of wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action at
               |    |             |             |North Anna River, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 24, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  McIntire,    | 31 |Lunenburg.   |July 18, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George H.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Meads,       | 38 |Leominster.  |Aug. 3, '62. |On detached duty.
  Stillman A.  |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Morgan,      | 27 |Leominster.  |July 25, '62.|Appointed Wagoner.
  Lewis W.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65;
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Murphy,      | 20 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Patrick W.   |    |             |             |and discharged, July 2,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Oakes, Thomas| 36 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Killed in the trenches in
               |    |             |             |front of Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |Aug. 4, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  O'Brien,     | 32 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  William      |    |             |             |and discharged, July 2,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Osborn,      | 38 |Leominster.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  Andrew B.    |    |             |             |disability, April 22, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Osborn,      | 22 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Wesley J.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Page,        | 21 |Leominster.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Charles D.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Patch,       | 18 |Leominster.  |July 21, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Ebenezer     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Perkins,     | 20 |Ashburnham.  |July 24, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Francis H.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Petts,       | 18 |Westminster. |July 29, '62.|Taken prisoner in
  Augustus     |    |             |             |action, at Campbell's
               |    |             |             |Station, Tenn. Died at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., Aug.
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Phelps,      | 22 |Fitchburg.   |July 18, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Pitts,       | 18 |Lunenburg.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  George S.    |    |             |             |disability, June --, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Pitts,       | 21 |Lunenburg.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  Samuel, Jr.  |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Pollard,     | 35 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 4, '63. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Augustus     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Porter, S.   | 24 |Leominster.  |Aug. 3, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Dwight       |    |             |             |Oct. 7, 1863.
               |    |             |             |
  Prue, Aaron  | 24 |Fitchburg.   |July 13, '62.|Discharged for
  G.           |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Robinson,    | 18 |Leominster.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sherridan,   | 26 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Barney       |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sinclair,    | 19 |Leominster.  |July 25, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George A.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sinor,       | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 13, '62.|Discharged, March 21,
  William H.   |    |             |             |'64, for disability from
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 19 |Leominster.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Charles      |    |             |             |Jan. 20, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 21 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Promoted Sergt.
  George M.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith, Henry | 19 |Leominster.  |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged for
  R.           |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 27, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 19 |Fitchburg.   |July 22, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Orange F.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Stearns,     | 18 |Leominster.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Stearns,     | 19 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  George A.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Stockwell,   | 19 |Fitchburg.   |July 17, '62.|Died of disease, Sept.
  Orwell L.    |    |             |             |21, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Sullivan,    | 32 |Leominster.  |July 26, '62.|Promoted Corp. Died
  Eugene       |    |             |             |of disease, at
               |    |             |             |Nicholasville, Ky., Sept.
               |    |             |             |1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Sullivan,    | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 26, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  John         |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Taylor,      | 36 |Fitchburg.   |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
  Henry S.     |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Thompson,    | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 21, '62.|Discharged for disability
  Henry A.     |    |             |             |from wounds, Jan. 13, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Tucker,      | 37 |Holden.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Prisoner of war. Died at
  Alfred S.    |    |             |             |Salisbury, N. C., Feb.,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Whitney,     | 21 |Ashburnham.  |July 22, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Winch, Caleb | 36 |Fitchburg.   |July 25, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood, Aaron  | 18 |Westminster. |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  W.           |    |             |             |disability, Mar. 25, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood,        | 19 |Westminster. |July 28, '62.|Discharged for
  Francis A.   |    |             |             |disability, May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Worcester,   | 30 |Fitchburg.   |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  John         |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 3, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Banforth,    | 27 |Northampton. |Aug. 25, '64.|Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Frederick    |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Banforth,    | 21 |Lowell.      |Sept. 13,    |Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Herman L.    |    |             |'64.         |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Chiller,     | 18 |Winchendon.  |Jan. 4, '64. |Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Frank        |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Easler,      | 18 |Leominster.  |Dec. 7, '63. |Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Richard      |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Easler,      | 41 |Boston.      |Feb. 19, '64.|Transferred to 56th Mass.
  William A.   |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Merrick,     | 38 |Northampton. |Aug. 5, '64. |Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Michael      |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Merritt,     | 18 |Heath.       |Sept. 7, '64.|Transferred to 56th Mass.
  George S.    |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  =Company B.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Ranlett, S.  | 22 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  Alonzo       |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Brown, John  | 29 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Color-Sergt. Capt. 12th
  H.           |    |             |             |Kentucky Vols., Sept.
               |    |             |             |26, '63, and served to
               |    |             |             |the close of the war.
               |    |             |             |Received medal of honor
               |    |             |             |for gallantry in action
               |    |             |             |at Franklin, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Crosby,      | 27 |Charlestown. |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edwin F.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Goff, Peter  | 32 |Charlestown. |Aug. 10, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  M.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Simpson,     | 35 |Charlestown. |Aug. 9, '62. |Promoted 1st Sergeant.
  James W.     |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 26, '63.
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Ames,        | 22 |Stoneham.    |July 15, '62.|Promoted Sergt.
  William S.   |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Oct, 21, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Call, Wm. S. | 32 |Charlestown. |Aug. 10, '62.|Died of disease, at
               |    |             |             |Falmouth, Va., Jan. 21,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Crafts, G.   | 24 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Frank        |    |             |             |May 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis, Obed  | 24 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|Killed in action at
  R.           |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Dow, James A.| 34 |Charlestown. |July 19, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |and discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, June 29, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Patten,      | 21 |Charlestown. |July 15, '62.|Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, May 4, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Raymond,     | 22 |Charlestown. |Aug. 1, '62. |Promoted Sergt. In
  Charles.     |    |             |             |consequence of disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action was transferred to
               |    |             |             |V.R.C., Mar. 15, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Todd, Henry  | 25 |Charlestown. |July 26, '62.|Promoted Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Color-Sergt., March 1,
               |    |             |             |'64. Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Robinson,    | 18 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Discharged for
  Edward A.    |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 21, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Stocking,    | 19 |Charlestown. |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged for
  Edward       |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 4, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Kimball, A.  | 33 |Charlestown. |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  W.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Abbott,      | 26 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph W.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Abbott,      | 20 |Charlestown. |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Louis P.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Abbott,      | 29 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Nathan E.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Baxter,      | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Clarence     |    |             |             |disability, April 29, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Blanchard,   | 18 |Charlestown. |Aug. 1, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  E. M. R.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bradford,    | 19 |Charlestown. |July 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Burdett,     | 26 |Charlestown. |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Francis S.   |    |             |             |disability, Mar. 2, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Caldwell,    | 22 |Boston.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles A.   |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 24, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Chapman,     | 22 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
  Walter       |    |             |             |March 4, '65, for
               |    |             |             |promotion as Lt. U.S.
               |    |             |             |Colored Troops. Killed
               |    |             |             |in powder explosion at
               |    |             |             |Mobile, Ala., June --,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Chase,       | 25 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|On detached service in
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |Medical Dept. 9th A.C.
               |    |             |             |Discharged June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Costello,    | 41 |Charlestown. |July 16, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Lawrence     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Coughlin,    | 25 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Daniel J.    |    |             |             |disability, May 22, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Cragin,      | 19 |Boston.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles I.   |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 24, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Crocker,     | 26 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, at
  Benjamin F.  |    |             |             |Falmouth, Va., Dec. 13,
               |    |             |             |'62.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis,       | 19 |Boston.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Charles S.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Deming, A.   | 19 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|On detached duty in
  B. C.        |    |             |             |Commissary Dept.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Disney       | 30 |Charlestown. |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Thomas W.    |    |             |             |disability, March 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Doughty,     | 18 |Charlestown. |July 28, '62.|Promoted Corp. Killed in
  James N.     |    |             |             |action at Spottsylvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Edmands,     | 27 |Brookline.   |Aug. 16, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Benj. B.     |    |             |             |Discharged, Jan. 20, '64,
               |    |             |             |for promotion as Lt. 54th
               |    |             |             |Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Edmands,     | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Geo. R. B.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Edmister,    | 35 |Charlestown. |Aug. 9, '62. |Died of wounds received
  Aaron        |    |             |             |in action near Cold
               |    |             |             |Harbor, Va., June 7, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Edwards,     | 44 |Charlestown. |Aug. 7, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Henry        |    |             |             |Jan. 21, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Fiske, John  | 20 |Charlestown. |July 29, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  F.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Glazier,     | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '62.|Appointed Musician.
  Albert W.    |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 6, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Gould,       | 20 |Charlestown. |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles W. E.|    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hadley,      | 35 |Charlestown. |Aug. 27, '62.|Discharged for
  Henry F.     |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall, Joseph | 20 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Nov. 2,
  B.           |    |             |             |'63, at Crab Orchard, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall,        | 22 |Charlestown. |July 28, '62.|Discharged for
  William F.   |    |             |             |disability, June 17, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Haskell,     | 21 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  Thomas H.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Hodgkins,    | 22 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  William H.   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Hodgkinson,  | 27 |Charlestown. |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  William F.   |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 4, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Hopkins, S.  | 19 |Charlestown. |July 25, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  E. W.        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hyde, Warren | 29 |Charlestown. |July 30, '62.|Discharged, July 22, '65,
  G.           |    |             |             |expiration of service,
               |    |             |             |special order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 32 |Charlestown. |July 29, '62.|Died of disease, Feb. 11,
  Cephas R.    |    |             |             |'64, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Kemmick, John| 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 26, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Knowles,     | 19 |Charlestown. |Aug. 6, '62. |On detached service
  Francis W.   |    |             |             |in Adjt.-Genl. Dept.
               |    |             |             |with Maj.-Gen. Willcox.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lamont, John | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 1, '62. |Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lincoln,     | 19 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Discharged for
  George H.    |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 20, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Locke,       | 19 |Charlestown. |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
  Albert F.    |    |             |             |for disability, Sept. 5,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Mallon, Cad  | 20 |Charlestown. |July 28, '62.|On detached service,
  H.           |    |             |             |Clerk 9th Corps
               |    |             |             |Head-quarters. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mann, Henry  | 42 |Charlestown. |Aug. 10, '62.|Discharged for
  A.           |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 19, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  McNear,      | 17 |Charlestown. |July 28, '62.|On detached service,
  Frank E.     |    |             |             |Clerk 9th Corps
               |    |             |             |Head-quarters. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Merrill,     | 19 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Discharged for
  Henry S.     |    |             |             |disability, July 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Morrison,    | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 2, '62. |Died of disease, March
  Scott        |    |             |             |26, '63, at Baltimore, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Moseley, C.  | 25 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corp.,
  Henry        |    |             |             |Sergt. and 1st Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, Nov. 11, '64,
               |    |             |             |from wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, June 29, '64,
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Mousley,     | 25 |Charlestown. |Aug. 2, '62. |Died of disease, Sept.
  George W.    |    |             |             |27, '63, at Crab Orchard,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Newcomb,     | 23 |Charlestown. |Aug. 3, '62. |Discharged for
  Fred A.      |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 9, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Niles,       | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 13, '62.|Died of disease, July 17,
  Thomas A.    |    |             |             |'63, near Jackson, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Noyes,       | 18 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11 '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Edmund W.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Packard, J.  | 18 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Killed in the trenches in
  Wesley       |    |             |             |front of Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |July 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Paine,       | 19 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  George W.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Perkins,     | 18 |Charlestown. |July 27, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  John S.      |    |             |             |July 14, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Pippey,      | 25 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Edward W.    |    |             |             |disability, June 9, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Poole,       | 20 |Charlestown. |July 26, '62.|Discharged for
  William H.   |    |             |             |disability, July 26, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Prescott,    | 19 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Priest, John | 19 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  T.           |    |             |             |disability, June 17,
               |    |             |             |'65, by order of
               |    |             |             |War Department, in
               |    |             |             |consequence of wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action at
               |    |             |             |Cold Harbor, Va., June 3,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rackliffe,   | 19 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Killed in action at Cold
  John S.      |    |             |             |Harbor, Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Robertson,   | 18 |Charlestown. |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rogers,      | 25 |Charlestown. |Aug. 6, '62. |On detached service,
  Edmund M.    |    |             |             |recruiting. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 16, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rogers, S.   | 22 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '62.|On duty at Regimental
  Augustus     |    |             |             |Head-quarters.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rowe, George | 28 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '63.|Died of disease, Aug. 14,
               |    |             |             |'65, near Louisville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Sagar, Oscar | 26 |Somerville.  |Aug. 13, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 30,
               |    |             |             |'62, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Small, Frank | 20 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |On detached service in
  M.           |    |             |             |Adjt.-Genl. Department,
               |    |             |             |9th Corps Head-quarters.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Southwick,   | 33 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  George W.    |    |             |             |Jan. 19, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Spear, James | 27 |Charlestown. |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  E.           |    |             |             |disability, June 7, '65,
               |    |             |             |by order of War Dept.,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Spurr, E.    | 18 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Wells        |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Swift, Wm. H.| 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Nov. 14,
               |    |             |             |'62, near Warrenton, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Swords,      | 20 |Charlestown. |July 26, '62.|Discharged, Oct. 8, '63,
  Henry L.     |    |             |             |for promotion; Lieut, and
               |    |             |             |Capt. 59th Vols., Brevet
               |    |             |             |Major U.S. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Swords,      | 18 |Charlestown. |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  Thomas A.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Tibbetts,    | 21 |Charlestown. |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Stephen W.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Tufts, John  | 26 |Charlestown. |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Waitt, Moses | 23 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to U.S. Navy,
  S.           |    |             |             |March 1, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Walden, W. F.| 24 |Charlestown. |Aug. 11, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
               |    |             |             |during attack on Fort
               |    |             |             |Sanders, Knoxville,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 29, '63; died
               |    |             |             |at Andersonville, Ga.,
               |    |             |             |Aug. 29, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Webster,     | 39 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Reported as a deserter.
  George W.    |    |             |             |Transferred to 56th Mass.
               |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, to make
               |    |             |             |good the time lost by
               |    |             |             |absence.
               |    |             |             |
  Webster, Wm. | 20 |Charlestown. |July 25, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  N.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wellington,  | 18 |Charlestown. |July 26, '62.|Discharged for
  Arthur N.    |    |             |             |disability, March 11, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Westcott,    | 26 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|Killed in action at
  Charles M.   |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  White, Eben, | 18 |Charlestown. |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  Jr.          |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 6, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Whiting,     | 21 |Somerville.  |July 26, '62.|On detached service.
  George W.    |    |             |             |Discharged May 29, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Whiton,      | 18 |Charlestown. |July 28, '62.|Regimental Mail
  Joseph H.    |    |             |             |Messenger. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wilkins,     | 26 |Charlestown. |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James R.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Doyle,       | 18 |Charlestown. |Dec. 9, '63. |Transferred to V.R.C., in
  William H.   |    |             |             |consequence of disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Gartland,    | 35 |Charlestown. |Mar. 14, '64.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Michael.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Grenier,     | 19 |Greenfield.  |Nov. 9, '63. |Enlisted for one year.
  Godfrey      |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lamont,      | 19 |Charlestown. |Dec. 11, '63.|Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Daniel, Jr.  |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Turnbull,    | 39 |Charlestown. |Dec. 22, '63.|Transferred to V.R.C., in
  William      |    |             |             |consequence of wounds,
               |    |             |             |Feb. 1, '65.
  =Company C.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Rice, John A.| 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |See commissioned officers.
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Boswell,     | 29 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Prisoner of war.
  Chas. H.     |    |             |             |Captured, Dec. 15, '63,
               |    |             |             |near Rutledge, Tenn. Died
               |    |             |             |at Belle Isle, Richmond,
               |    |             |             |Va., Feb. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Freeman,     | 28 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Killed in action at
  George E.    |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Goodspeed,   | 38 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  Samuel A.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Stevens,     | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry C.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Bacon, John  | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Promoted Sergeant.
  W.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Boswell,     | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  Frederick W. |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Bowles,      | 22 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Clissold,    | 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Walter       |    |             |             |Jan. 19, '65, for
               |    |             |             |disability.
               |    |             |             |
  Fiske,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Frederick L. |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Noyes,       | 27 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles F.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rice, Henry  | 24 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Died at Washington, D.C.,
  H.           |    |             |             |June 1, '64, of wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action at
               |    |             |             |North Anna Riv., Va., May
               |    |             |             |24, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Whipple,     | 27 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Promoted Sergt., May
  Albert B.    |    |             |             |12, '64; Color Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |Dec. 19, '64, for
               |    |             |             |disability from wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action near
               |    |             |             |Petersburg, Va., June 17,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Blanchard,   | 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Ezra         |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rogers,      | 18 |Rutland.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Merrill C.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Bennett,     | 20 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Harrison A.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Adams,       | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George T.    |    |             |             |March 16, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Allen,       | 33 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Horace N.    |    |             |             |discharged, July 3, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bailey, A.   | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Promoted Corp., Oct. 11,
  Fernando     |    |             |             |'62; Sergt., June 11,
               |    |             |             |'63; 1st Sergt., Aug. 1,
               |    |             |             |'63. Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Bangs,       | 24 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edward P.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bassett,     | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65.
  George E.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bixby, Jacob | 35 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  W.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, wounded.
               |    |             |             |
  Blake,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  George P.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 8, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Blake, R.    | 21 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Promoted Corp., May 12,
  Elliott      |    |             |             |'64. Discharged, June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Boswell,     | 22 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Died of disease, at
  James S.     |    |             |             |Milldale, Miss., July 19,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bottomley,   | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 12,
  Charles S.   |    |             |             |'65, order of War Dept.,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bradley,     | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|On detached service.
  Thomas H.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Briggs,      | 30 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corp., Aug.
  Frederick W. |    |             |             |1, '63; Sergt., April,
               |    |             |             |'64; 1st Sergt., May 12,
               |    |             |             |'64. Discharged, Nov. 7,
               |    |             |             |'64, for disability from
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |June 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Brooks,      | 20 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Died of disease, Sept. 3,
  Lewis M.     |    |             |             |'63, at Cincinnati, O.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Archibald L. |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 33 |Milford.     |Aug. 16, '62.|Discharged for
  Dexter F.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 11, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bruso,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph, Jr.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Butterworth, | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Jonathan     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Buxton,      | 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Carpenter,   | 43 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edward M.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Chambers,    | 40 |Worcester.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 9,
  Hiram E.     |    |             |             |'63, at Cairo, Ill.
               |    |             |             |
  Connor,      | 21 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Thomas       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Converse,    | 41 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Died of disease, Oct. 14,
  Merrick B.   |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Curtis, Eben | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  T.           |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 4, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Cutting, Wm. | 32 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  A.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Daniels,     | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Killed in action at
  Myron M.     |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis, Luke  | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  K.           |    |             |             |Jan. 1, '65, for
               |    |             |             |disability from wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action.
               |    |             |             |
  Dixon,       | 37 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Died of disease, April
  Dwight I.    |    |             |             |12, '64, at Annapolis, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Duckworth,   | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Franklin     |    |             |             |March 16, '64, for
               |    |             |             |disability.
               |    |             |             |
  Fuller,      | 35 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Barnard      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gates,       | 20 |Worcester.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Frederick S. |    |             |             |Nov. 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Gleason,     | 33 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, May 25, '65,
  Levi L.      |    |             |             |order of War Dept., for
               |    |             |             |disability.
               |    |             |             |
  Harty, Edmund| 31 |Phillipston. |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Harty,       | 21 |Phillipston. |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Hodgkins,    | 32 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|On special duty as
  Daniel       |    |             |             |Regimental Armorer.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Humphreys,   | 22 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hyde, Charles| 42 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 2, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Jones,       | 26 |Milford.     |Aug. 15, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George C.    |    |             |             |May 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Kelley,      | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Died, May 8, '64, of
  Frank S.     |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Wilderness, Va., May
               |    |             |             |6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  King, Austin | 36 |New Salem.   |July 29, '62.|Discharged for
  W.           |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 13, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Ladd, Lyman  | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged for
  S.           |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 4, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Lawrence,    | 31 |Worcester.   |Aug. 27, '62.|On special duty in
  William      |    |             |             |Q. M.'s department.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Locke,       | 44 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Thomas W.    |    |             |             |disability, July 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Logee,       | 22 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Stephen F.   |    |             |             |and discharged, June
               |    |             |             |29, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Loring,      | 30 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for disability
  Charles F.   |    |             |             |from wounds, Nov. 27, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Loughlin,    | 19 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Killed in action at
  Michael      |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Lovell, Henry| 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65;
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Marshall,    | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Emanuel R.   |    |             |             |disability, May 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Merritt,     | 31 |Worcester.   |Aug. 1, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Fanning T.   |    |             |             |Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Merritt,     | 41 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Jesse S.     |    |             |             |disability, April 29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Miller,      | 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Riley A.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mills,       | 29 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corporal, May
  George H.    |    |             |             |12, '64. Prisoner of war.
               |    |             |             |Paroled. Discharged, June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Miner,       | 31 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Reported as deserter,
  Edward M.    |    |             |             |Oct. 27, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Nye,         | 22 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65;
  Frederick    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Olin,        | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William M.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Park, Daniel | 40 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Prisoner of war at
  H.           |    |             |             |Rutledge, Tenn., Dec.
               |    |             |             |15, '63. Died, at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., May
               |    |             |             |13, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Parker,      | 39 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Died of disease, Sept. 4,
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |'63, at Cincinnati, O.
               |    |             |             |
  Plaisted,    | 34 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|On detached duty.
  William A.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Putnam,      | 39 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Corporal, Oct. 11, '62.
  Alonzo S.    |    |             |             |Sergeant, Nov. 1, '62.
               |    |             |             |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |March 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson, Abel | 33 |New Salem.   |July 25, '62.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, March 2, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson,      | 24 |Springfield. |Aug. 20, '62.|Discharged for
  Charles B.   |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 14, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson,      | 27 |Worcester.   |Aug. 20, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George A.    |    |             |             |and discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, April 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson,      | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |See Commissioned officers.
  Gilbert N.   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson,      | 35 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Joseph D.    |    |             |             |Jan. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson,      | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Lewis N.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Reynolds,    | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Prisoner of war at
  Lucius A.    |    |             |             |Rutledge, Tenn., Dec.
               |    |             |             |15, '63. Died, at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., July
               |    |             |             |7, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Robinson,    | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Died, July 31, '64, at
  Clarke       |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |June 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Ruth,        | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Prisoner of war at
  Frederick    |    |             |             |Rutledge, Tenn., Dec.
               |    |             |             |15, '63. Died, at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., Aug.
               |    |             |             |17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Searles,     | 34 |Worcester.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Edwin        |    |             |             |for disability from
               |    |             |             |wounds. Discharged, June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Prisoner of war at
  Israel H.    |    |             |             |Rutledge, Tenn. Sole
               |    |             |             |survivor of ten captured.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 9,
               |    |             |             |'65, at Annapolis, Md.,
               |    |             |             |by order of War Dept.,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Died of disease,
  William A.   |    |             |             |Sept. 27, '63, at
               |    |             |             |Nicholasville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Stone,       | 34 |Worcester.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  Marshall     |    |             |             |disability, May 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Stowe,       | 23 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, May 5, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Taynton,     | 25 |Worcester.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Chas. H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Thompson,    | 38 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  John A.      |    |             |             |Jan. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Twichell,    | 38 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Hartwell C.  |    |             |             |at Wilderness, Va. Died,
               |    |             |             |at Andersonville, Ga.,
               |    |             |             |Aug. 21, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Ward, Hiram  | 29 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  G.           |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 24, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Ward, Israel | 27 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Promoted Corporal, Feb.
               |    |             |             |1, '64. Sergeant, Dec.
               |    |             |             |5, '64. In charge of
               |    |             |             |Pioneers. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Washburn,    | 32 |Orange.      |July 31, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Otis         |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wedge,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph H.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Wheelock,    | 40 |Milford.     |Aug. 18, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Calvin       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Whitcomb,    | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Calvin M.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood,        | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Maynard,     | 23 |Northfield.  |Dec. 31, '63.|Discharged for
  Joshua       |    |             |             |disability, May 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Murdock,     | 25 |Northfield.  |Jan. 1, '64. |Transferred, June 8, '65,
  Henry        |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Towne,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Feb. 29, '64.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  Charles E.   |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  =Company D.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Walker,      | 37 |Royalston.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Joseph       |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher,      | 22 |Templeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Died of disease, Sept. 8,
  Charles B.   |    |             |             |'63, at Covington, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Fosket,      | 42 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  Wellington   |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 30, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  French,      | 30 |Winchendon.  |July 28, '62.|Color Sergt. Died at
  Adams E.     |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., June
               |    |             |             |17, '64, of wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action at
               |    |             |             |Cold Harbor, Va., June 3,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Stearns,     | 20 |Templeton.   |Aug. 6, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  John A.      |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Brooks,      | 27 |Templeton.   |July 25, '62.|Promoted Sergt. Killed in
  Stephen T.   |    |             |             |action at Spottsylvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 12, '64,
               |    |             |             |commanding company.
               |    |             |             |
  Buffum,      | 28 |Templeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 12,
  Cyrus G.     |    |             |             |'63, at Louisville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Doane,       | 27 |Royalston.   |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  William C.   |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 22, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Foster,      | 28 |Athol.       |July 19, '62.|Died of disease, Feb. 13,
  Daniel W.    |    |             |             |'63, at Newport News, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Higley, Levi | 24 |Templeton.   |July 28, '62.|Promoted Sergt. Died of
  H.           |    |             |             |disease, May 17, '64, at
               |    |             |             |Annapolis, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Holman,      | 29 |Winchendon.  |July 19, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Albert G.    |    |             |             |Jan. 2, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Parker,      | 30 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Nov. 5,
  Cornelius G. |    |             |             |'62, at Rectortown, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Perry,       | 27 |Winchendon.  |July 23, '62.|Promoted Sergt., Nov.
  Francis D.   |    |             |             |1, '62. Color-bearer.
               |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 8, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Brooks,      | 18 |Templeton.   |July 24, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Benj. F.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Cobleigh,    | 18 |Templeton.   |July 24, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Byam,        | 25 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles F.   |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 18, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Alger, Cyrus | 30 |Winchendon.  |July 23, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
               |    |             |             |for disability, Jan. 12,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Allen,       | 34 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Austin E.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Allen,       | 27 |Gardner.     |July 27, '62.|Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  Courtland A. |    |             |             |Prisoner of war, May
               |    |             |             |12, '64, and escaped.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Baker,       | 18 |Royalston.   |July 30, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Harrison C.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Barrus,      | 27 |Royalston.   |July 30, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William D.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent; sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Bosworth,    | 18 |Winchendon.  |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  Henry A.     |    |             |             |disability, March 12, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bowker,      | 41 |Royalston.   |July 30, '62.|Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, June 12, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Breen, Peter | 44 |Winchendon.  |July 19, '62.|Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Spottsvlvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Brigham,     | 21 |Templeton.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  James L.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Brooks,      | 19 |Templeton.   |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  George A.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 12, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Brooks,      | 30 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, June 28, '65,
               |    |             |             |at Portsmouth Grove, R.
               |    |             |             |I., Gen'l Hospital.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 21 |Winchendon.  |July 28, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Frederick M. |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Buseunius,   | 24 |Royalston.   |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
  Adolphus     |    |             |             |for disability, March 17,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlin,  | 23 |Royalston.   |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Stillman     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Chase,       | 19 |Winchendon.  |July 28, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Daniel W.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent; wounded.
               |    |             |             |
  Chase,       | 24 |Winchendon.  |July 30, '62.|Died, June 8, '64, at
  George L.    |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action.
               |    |             |             |
  Chase,       | 29 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Promoted Corp. Discharged
  William D.   |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Coburn,      | 24 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 17, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Martin V.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Coombs, John | 18 |Winchendon.  |July 25, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  L.           |    |             |             |Oct., '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Damon,       | 21 |Winchendon.  |July 26, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 29,
  Theodore F.  |    |             |             |'62, at Washington, D. C.
               |    |             |             |
  Day, James H.| 30 |Templeton.   |July 28, '62.|Discharged for disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds, June 10,
               |    |             |             |'65, order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Demary, John | 28 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  M.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Felch,       | 43 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Samuel E.    |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 3, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Fenno, Frank | 21 |Templeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Killed in action at
  M.           |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Foskett,     | 22 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 2, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Liberty W.   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Foster,      | 21 |Gardner.     |July 25, '62.|Died of disease, Dec. 25,
  Addison      |    |             |             |'62, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  French,      | 19 |Royalston.   |July 22, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Lucius       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Frye,        | 21 |Royalston.   |July 21, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Benjamin A.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Giles,       | 36 |Royalston.   |July 21, '62.|Died, May 16, '64, of
  Sanford      |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Spottsylvania, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Gilman,      | 26 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  Jeremiah     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Goddard,     | 21 |Templeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Augustus A.  |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 16, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Godding,     | 25 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Edward       |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hale, Livsey | 18 |Winchendon.  |July 25, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  B.           |    |             |             |Nov. 19, '64, for
               |    |             |             |disability from wounds
               |    |             |             |received in action at
               |    |             |             |Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '64.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, July 12, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Hale, Samuel | 29 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Killed in action at
  B.           |    |             |             |Spottsvlvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Hare, Dennis | 58 |Phillipston. |July 30, '62.|Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Hayden,      | 19 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 30, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Hill, Salem  | 41 |Royalston.   |July 31, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Jewett,      | 18 |Gardner.     |July 31, '62.|Discharged for
  Charles      |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 25, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 38 |Templeton.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Chauncey N.  |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  King, Eugene | 18 |Royalston.   |July 24, '62.|Died of disease, Aug. 23,
  C.           |    |             |             |'63, at Nicholasville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Lund, Edwin  | 23 |Templeton.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  W.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Martindale,  | 30 |Templeton.   |July 30, '62.|Discharged for
  James A.     |    |             |             |disability, June 11, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Maynard,     | 20 |Athol.       |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
  Martin L.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 4, 65.
               |    |             |             |
  Merrill,     | 19 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Oscar        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Merritt,     | 20 |Templeton.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Brigade Postmaster.
  Irving L.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mills,       | 35 |Athol.       |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  Jonathan B.  |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 20, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Partridge,   | 42 |Winchendon.  |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  Greenwood    |    |             |             |disability, June 11, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Patterson,   | 33 |Templeton.   |July 21, '62.|Discharged for
  Stephen H.   |    |             |             |disability, April 18, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Perley,      | 18 |Gardner.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Lewis S.     |    |             |             |disability, May 18, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Pierce,      | 25 |Royalston.   |July 25, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 18,
  Arthur F.    |    |             |             |'62, at Hartwood, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Pierce,      | 20 |Warwick.     |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Dec. 11,
  Franklin     |    |             |             |'62, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Plummer,     | 24 |Winchendon.  |July 28, '62.|Killed in action at
  George E.    |    |             |             |Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Powers,      | 19 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Sept.
  Hiram E.     |    |             |             |23, '63, at Covington, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Potter,      | 33 |Royalston.   |July 21, '62.|Discharged for
  Benjamin F.  |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 21, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Rich, Munroe | 21 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corp.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rich, Robert | 45 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  T.           |    |             |             |Jan. 23, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Richardson,  | 19 |Phillipston. |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  Martin W.    |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 16, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Russell,     | 18 |Royalston.   |July 21, '62.|Died, Aug. 10, '64, of
  Henry        |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |Aug. 8, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawin, Emory | 44 |Athol.       |July 21, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawtell,     | 20 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corp. Killed in
  Alden J.     |    |             |             |action at Spottsylvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawtell,     | 32 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  John L.      |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 22, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawyer,      |    |             |             |
  Christopher  | 32 |Templeton.   |July 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  E. B.        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawyer,      | 19 |Phillipston. |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Oscar L.     |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 27, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Shepardson,  | 18 |Royalston.   |July 25, '62.|Killed in action near
  John         |    |             |             |Petersburg, Va., June 17,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 40 |Winchendon.  |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
  William      |    |             |             |disability, June 2, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Tandy,       | 18 |Royalston.   |July 25, '62.|Discharged for
  Nathan S.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 26, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Tatro, Marcus| 32 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Turner,      | 28 |Templeton.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Ephraim, Jr. |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Underwood,   | 24 |Templeton.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  Charles      |    |             |             |Sergeant. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65. Absent,
               |    |             |             |wounded.
               |    |             |             |
  Upham, Otis  | 19 |Royalston.   |July 30, '62.|Discharged for
  K.           |    |             |             |disability, June 21, '65.
               |    |             |             |Order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Upton,       | 29 |Templeton.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Julius G.    |    |             |             |Oct, 7, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Warner,      | 31 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edwin T.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Washburn,    | 42 |Athol.       |July 21, '62.|Died of disease, Sept. 5,
  William      |    |             |             |'63, at Nicholasville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Wheeler,     | 19 |Templeton.   |July 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wheeler,     | 39 |Templeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Ezra L.      |    |             |             |disability, Aug 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  White, Asaph | 22 |Royalston.   |July 21, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  M.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  White,       | 19 |Royalston.   |July 21, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  Roland N.    |    |             |             |Died June 25, '64, at
               |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  White,       | 33 |Royalston.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Died of disease, May 3,
  Stephen P.   |    |             |             |'64, at Annapolis, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Whitney,     | 18 |Templeton.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Augustus S.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Whitney,     | 22 |Winchendon.  |July 29, '62.|Died June 16, '64, at
  Francis L.   |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Williams,    | 35 |Winchendon.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry A.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wright,      | 21 |Templeton.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George S.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Bruce, Robert| 30 |Winchendon.  |Dec. 22, '63.|Prisoner of war, captured
               |    |             |             |on march, May 23, '64,
               |    |             |             |near North Anna river,
               |    |             |             |Va. Died at Richmond,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 9, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Doyle, Luke  | 36 |Winchendon.  |Dec. 29, '63.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, May 30, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Long, John   | 38 |Petersham.   |Aug. 23, '64.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, May 24, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Osborne,     | 37 |Royalston.   |Feb. 27, '64.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  Franklin A.  |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Raymond,     | 22 |Royalston.   |Jan. 5, '64. |Died June 4, '64, of
  George A.    |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Renef,       | 25 |Gt.          |Nov. 27, '63.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |Barrington.  |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Rogers,      | 20 |Athol.       |Aug. 1, '64. |Enlisted for one year.
  William J.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
  =Company E.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Tiffany,     | 27 |Monson.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Bela B.      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Merrick,     | 33 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Died Oct. 10, '64, of
  Lucius L.    |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Pegram Farm, Va.,
               |    |             |             |Sept. 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Snell, M.    | 23 |N.           |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, April 20,
  Porter       |    |Brookfield.  |             |'64, for promotion, as
               |    |             |             |Lieut. U. S. colored
               |    |             |             |troops.
               |    |             |             |
  Thompson,    | 26 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  Azel         |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 27, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Tupper,      | 31 |Monson.      |July 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Henry M.     |    |             |             |Jan. 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Boyden, David| 19 |Worcester.   |Aug 2, '62.  |On color-guard and
               |    |             |             |detached service.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Carpenter,   | 20 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Died of disease, Sept.
  Charles C.   |    |             |             |26, '63, at Crab Orchard,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Gilbert,     | 20 |Worcester.   |Aug. 2, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
  Charles      |    |             |             |Jan. 5, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Haskell, W.  | 34 |N.           |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James        |    |Brookfield.  |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Keep, Marcus | 21 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Died at Fairfax Seminary
               |    |             |             |Hospital, June 9, '64,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Spottsylvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Truden, John | 19 |Monson.      |July 15, '62.|Transferred to Battery E,
  B.           |    |             |             |2d U.S. Artillery, Sept.
               |    |             |             |2, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Wetherill,   | 23 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Died of disease, July 20,
  James A.     |    |             |             |'63, at Brownsville, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Whitcomb,    | 21 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  Leonard      |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 22, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Moore,       | 18 |Lowell.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Hubert O.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Strickland,  | 18 |Palmer.      |July 19, 62. |See non-commissioned
  L. C.        |    |             |             |staff.
               |    |             |             |
  _Teamster._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Nicholas,    | 23 |Monson.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Sept. 6,
  Alvin S.     |    |             |             |'63, at Camp Nelson, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Aldrich,     | 18 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corporal and
  John C.      |    |             |             |Sergeant. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Ballou,      | 35 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  George W.    |    |             |             |June 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Barrows,     | 19 |Sutton.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C,
  Homer A.     |    |             |             |April 10, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Barton, John | 21 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  M.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, wounded.
               |    |             |             |
  Beebe,       | 23 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged for
  Warren W.    |    |             |             |disability, March 9, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Benjamin,    | 21 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  Cyrus M.     |    |             |             |disability, March 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Blanchard,   | 20 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Thomas       |    |             |             |Discharged, March 10,
               |    |             |             |'63, for promotion as
               |    |             |             |Lieut. U. S. colored
               |    |             |             |troops.
               |    |             |             |
  Bond,        | 25 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged for
  Sanford C.   |    |             |             |disability, May 30, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Bowen, Henry | 32 |Sturbridge.  |Aug. 10, '62.|Reported as deserter,
               |    |             |             |June 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bumstead,    | 18 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  George F.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Burt, Geo. D.| 28 |Sutton.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died, of disease, Sept.
               |    |             |             |4, '63, at Baltimore, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Butler,      | 20 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Dwight E.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Chaffin,     | 43 |Heath.       |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Dec. 5,
  Nathan       |    |             |             |'62, at Washington, D.C.
               |    |             |             |
  Cheever,     | 41 |N.           |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Moses A.     |    |Brookfield.  |             |disability, May 19, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Clark,       | 23 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Joseph V.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Clough,      | 18 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged for
  Charles F.   |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 4, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Clough,      | 21 |Charlton.    |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to Battery E,
  Gilman J.    |    |             |             |2d U.S. Artillery, Sept.,
               |    |             |             |'62. Discharged, Feb. 15,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Colburn,     | 27 |Monson.      |July 14, '62.|Killed in action, near
  Dwight       |    |             |             |Petersburg, Va., June 18,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Colegrove,   | 18 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Cooper,      | 30 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Dearborn T.  |    |             |             |June 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis,       | 22 |Monson.      |Aug. 17, '62.|Discharged for
  Josiah B.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 23, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Drake,       | 18 |Upton.       |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, April 1,
  Alvarado D.  |    |             |             |'64, Covington, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Fletcher,    | 19 |Sutton.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  George F.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Fowles,      | 18 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Frost, Wm. S.| 18 |Brimfield.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gage, Lovell | 23 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  L.           |    |             |             |Jan. 5, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Gallivan,    | 18 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 15, '65,
  Henry        |    |             |             |for disability.
               |    |             |             |
  Gilbert,     | 25 |N.           |Aug. 6, '62. |Killed in action, at
  Lyman H.     |    |Brookfield.  |             |Pegram Farm, Va., Sept.
               |    |             |             |30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Green,       | 21 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 22,
  George M.    |    |             |             |'63, at Crab Orchard, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Hadley, F.   | 30 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  Daniel       |    |             |             |disability, June 17, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Harrington,  | 27 |Rowe.        |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
  J. H.        |    |             |             |disability, Aug. 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Harris,      | 19 |Charlton.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  Nelson       |    |             |             |disability, June 2, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Harris,      | 26 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged for
  Silas M.     |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 22, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Harris, Wm.  | 40 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  H.           |    |             |             |Sept. 19, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Harwood,     | 20 |N.           |Aug. 12, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  George W.    |    |Brookfield.  |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Henry,       | 22 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  George O.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Holloway,    | 40 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  William      |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 14, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Jackson,     | 21 |Palmer.      |July 17, '62.|Died of disease, June 15,
  Charles      |    |             |             |'63, at Louisville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Jackson,     | 20 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Reuben       |    |             |             |near Pegram Farm, Va.,
               |    |             |             |Oct. 4, '64. Died, at
               |    |             |             |Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 26,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Jenks, Frank | 18 |N.           |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  L.           |    |Brookfield.  |             |disability, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 30 |Monson.      |July 14, '62.|Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, June 15,
               |    |             |             |'65, order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |Absent, wounded.
               |    |             |             |
  Keyes, John. | 22 |Grafton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  King, Wiles  | 22 |Monson.      |July 14, '62.|Discharged for
  A.           |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 18, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  King, Wm. H. | 18 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Knowlton,    | 26 |Monson.      |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James M.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lathrop,     | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Walter D.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lester,      | 44 |Monson.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Macomber,    | 19 |Oakham.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Henry        |    |             |             |Discharged June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Macomber,    | 18 |Oakham.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  William      |    |             |             |Serg't. Discharged, June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service. Color-bearer
               |    |             |             |from June 17, '64, to
               |    |             |             |close of the war.
               |    |             |             |
  Mailhouse,   | 19 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged, June 8,'65,
  Lewis        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Maynard,     | 24 |Paxton.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disability, Mar.
  Solomon R.   |    |             |             |5, '63, at Newport News,
               |    |             |             |Va.
               |    |             |             |
  McDowell,    | 19 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Lyman        |    |             |             |near Pegram Farm, Va.,
               |    |             |             |Oct. 4, '64. Died at
               |    |             |             |Salisbury, N. C., Feb. 1,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Mitchell,    | 42 |Canton.      |July 19, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Edward       |    |             |             |Sept. 19, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Morgan,      | 29 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Killed in action at
  Andrew J.    |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Morgan,      | 20 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged for
  Romanzo A.   |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 25, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Nelson,      | 21 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Willard      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Nicholas,    | 19 |Sutton.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George H.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Norbry,      | 22 |Sutton.      |Aug. 3, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edward A.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Osborn, John | 21 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged, June 19, '65,
  Ward         |    |             |             |expiration of service,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Pepper,      | 27 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  George E.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Perry, Fred. | 19 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  L.           |    |             |             |Discharged for disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds (right arm
               |    |             |             |amputated), March 15, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Powers,      | 21 |Millbury.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  David A.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Powers,      | 18 |Millbury.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Died of disease, Oct. 2,
  George H.    |    |             |             |'63, at Camp Dennison,
               |    |             |             |Ohio.
               |    |             |             |
  Rider, Hiram | 31 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
               |    |             |             |June 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Rider, Hiram | 27 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  A.           |    |             |             |Oct. 3, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Shaw, George | 18 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Discharged for
  D.           |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 30, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Shepard,     | 28 |Sturbridge.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Horace C.    |    |             |             |June 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Sherman,     | 18 |Sutton.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles O.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Stebbins,    | 19 |Monson.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Justus       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sutcliffe,   | 38 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Died of disease, Oct. 19,
  Isaac        |    |             |             |'63, at Cincinnati, Ohio.
               |    |             |             |
  Thompson,    | 44 |Palmer.      |July 19, '62.|Died of disease, '63, at
  William      |    |             |             |Baltimore, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Tupper,      | 20 |Monson.      |Aug. 15, '62.|Died of disease, Jan. 14,
  Albert       |    |             |             |'64, at Portsmouth Grove
               |    |             |             |Hospital, R. I.
               |    |             |             |
  Varney, Frank| 21 |Millbury.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Died of disease, July 29,
               |    |             |             |'63, at Vicksburg, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Ward, George | 20 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Died of disease, Sept.
  E.           |    |             |             |5, '62, Worcester;
               |    |             |             |not muster'd with the
               |    |             |             |regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Walker,      | 38 |N.           |July 25, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  Joseph L.    |    |Brookfield.  |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Waters,      | 18 |Millbury.    |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Edward A.    |    |             |             |May 1, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Waters,      | 19 |Millbury.    |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
  Lyman S.     |    |             |             |Jan., 1865.
               |    |             |             |
  Wheelock,    | 29 |N.           |July 27, '62.|Discharged, for
  Joseph B.    |    |Brookfield.  |             |disability, Mar. 27, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Whitney,     | 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William F.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wilder,      | 37 |Ware.        |July 21, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Wales T.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood, Myron  | 23 |Monson.      |July 17, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  R.           |    |             |             |at Campbell's
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |Station, Tenn., Nov. 16,
               |    |             |             |'63. Date and place of
               |    |             |             |death unknown.
               |    |             |             |
  Bell, Leander| 19 |N.           |April 4, '64.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
               |    |Brookfield.  |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Bond, Elijah | 18 |Millbury.    |Dec. 29, '63.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Carter,      | 30 |Sunderland.  |Aug. 22, '64.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  Andrew       |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis,       | 37 |Monson.      |Feb. 15, '63.|Died of disease, July 11,
  Wareham      |    |             |             |'64, at Annapolis, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Holbrook,    | 18 |Bedford.     |Aug. 20, '64.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Warren C.    |    |             |             |Oct. 2, '64. Died Nov. 5,
               |    |             |             |'64, at Salisbury, N. C.
               |    |             |             |
  Lemon,       | 37 |Monson.      |Feb. 27, '64.|Discharged, for
  Francis L.   |    |             |             |disability, May 12, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  McManus, John| 24 |Palmer.      |Jan. 4, '64. |Prisoner of war. Captured
               |    |             |             |Oct. 2, '64. Exchanged.
               |    |             |             |Died April 1, '65, at
               |    |             |             |Annapolis, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Rider,       |    |Monson.      |June 9, '64. |Transferred, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 18 |Millbury.    |Jan. 1, '64. |Died of disease, Aug. 9,
  William H.   |    |             |             |'64, at Millbury, Mass.
               |    |             |             |
  Warriner,    | 18 |Monson.      |Mar. 14, '64.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  Alfred E.    |    |             |             |to '56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Waters,      | 18 |Millbury.    |Jan. 2, '64. |Died of disease, March
  Trueman B.   |    |             |             |16, '64, at Camp Nelson,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
  =Company F.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Legg, Edwin  | 25 |Milford.     |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 5, '63.
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 38 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted 1st Sergt.,
  George A.    |    |             |             |discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Cheever,     | 39 |Milford.     |July 22, '62.|Died of disease, Dec. 14,
  Nathaniel    |    |             |             |'63, at Milford, Mass.
               |    |             |             |
  Hancock,     | 43 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Joseph       |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Houghton,    | 38 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Nathan H.    |    |             |             |disability, July 30, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Carpenter,   | 39 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Died of disease, Jan. 14,
  Hiram        |    |             |             |'63, at Milford, Mass.
               |    |             |             |
  Cox, Nelson  | 28 |Milford.     |July 21, '62.|Promoted Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hawkins,     | 28 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George M.    |    |             |             |May 4, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Higgins,     | 27 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for disability
  John J.      |    |             |             |from wounds, May 16, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Littlefield, | 36 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Sergt.
  Ammiel       |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mascroft,    | 31 |Sutton.      |Aug. 7, '62. |On detached duty
  Henry C.     |    |             |             |in Quartermaster's
               |    |             |             |Dept. Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 13, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Montague,    | 31 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Sergt.
  Benj. H.     |    |             |             |Discharged for disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds, May 19, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Wright,      | 30 |Sutton.      |Aug. 6, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Daniel       |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Batcheller,  | 18 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Lindsay J.   |    |             |             |disability, April 3, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Metcalf,     | 27 |Ashland.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Charles O.   |    |             |             |disability, April 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Adams,       | 27 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles O.   |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 21, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Adams,       | 25 |Milford.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Orrick H.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Aldrich,     | 25 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry K.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |Absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Allen, Frank | 18 |Milford.     |Aug. 18, '62.|Discharged for
  E.           |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 21, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Anson,       | 25 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 24,
  Ezekiel W.   |    |             |             |'63, at Louisville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Balcom, Abel | 35 |Grafton.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  H.           |    |             |             |Feb. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Baldwin,     | 26 |New Salem.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Albrona      |    |             |             |May 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Bell, Frank  | 18 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  N.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bennett,     | 29 |Sutton.      |Aug. 3, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George R.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Blanding,    | 36 |Oxford.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Andrew M.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bliss, John  | 35 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Died of disease, July 23,
  G.           |    |             |             |'63, at Milldale, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Briggs,      | 33 |Sutton.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles J.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Cain, Michael| 33 |Milford.     |July 27, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Carlton, Wm. | 32 |Milford.     |July 21, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  G.           |    |             |             |May 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Carpenter,   | 37 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Oct. 24,
  Willard      |    |             |             |'63, at Camp Dennison,
               |    |             |             |Ohio.
               |    |             |             |
  Cummings,    | 23 |Lynn.        |Aug. 27, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Chas. S.     |    |             |             |May 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis,       | 42 |Milford.     |July 21, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Gaylon, Jr.  |    |             |             |May 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Day, Usher H.| 24 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Dore, John   | 45 |Oxford.      |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |March 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Eager, Calvin| 36 |Sutton.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |Jan. 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Eames,       | 28 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 16,
  George A.    |    |             |             |'63, at Louisville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Eccles, Roger| 39 |Clinton.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |'64. Died at Salisbury,
               |    |             |             |N. C., Jan. 9, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Ellis,       | 23 |Milford.     |Aug. 4, '62. |Killed in action, near
  George H.    |    |             |             |Jackson, Miss., July 11,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Ellsworth,   | 28 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |See non-commissioned
  T. Lyman     |    |             |             |staff.
               |    |             |             |
  Finn, John   | 20 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Fitzgerald,  | 26 |Milford.     |July 21, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Michael      |    |             |             |Oct. 31, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Frame, Henry | 29 |Lynn.        |Aug. 27, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
  L.           |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gassett,     | 18 |Mendon.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Alton G.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gleason,     | 32 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Killed in the trenches in
  Jesse D.     |    |             |             |front of Petersburg July
               |    |             |             |25, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Green, Wm. S.| 28 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Greenlaw,    | 30 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Oct. 27,
  Theophilus M.|    |             |             |'63, at Knoxville, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Greenwood,   | 26 |Milford.     |July 31, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall, John G.| 20 |Sutton.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
               |    |             |             |
  Handly, Levi | 26 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  L.           |    |             |             |April 1, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Hart, Edward | 18 |Charlton.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Haynes,      | 28 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Walter S.    |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 28, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Howard,      | 19 |Sutton.      |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George S.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Howard,      | 18 |Milford.     |July 28, '62.|Died of wounds received
  Olevan       |    |             |             |in action, near Jackson,
               |    |             |             |Miss., at Cincinnati, O.,
               |    |             |             |Sept. 24, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Howard,      | 25 |Sutton.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Died of disease at Camp
  William H.   |    |             |             |Dennison, Ohio, Sept. 6,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Howe, Samuel | 44 |Worcester.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged for
  G.           |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 28, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hoyt, Amos   | 20 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Killed in action, near
               |    |             |             |Jackson, Miss., July 11,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hussey,      | 28 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  George L.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 15, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 27 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Isaac        |    |             |             |May 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 34 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Napoleon B.  |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Jones,       | 22 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corp. Discharged
  Theodore     |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Keenan, Hugh | 38 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
               |    |             |             |Oct. 31, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Keenan, John | 19 |Milford.     |July 26, '62.|Killed in action, near
               |    |             |             |Cold Harbor, Va., June 3,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Kimball,     | 18 |Sutton.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  Herbert A.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lapham,      | 35 |Milford.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  James M.     |    |             |             |disability, July 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Leland,      | 20 |Mendon.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edward J.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Leyden, John | 44 |Milford.     |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Lowell,      | 19 |Mendon.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  Lucius       |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Macy, Edward | 19 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corp. Discharged
  B.           |    |             |             |for disability, Nov. 23,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Mann, Noyes, | 29 |Milford.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corp. Died of
  Jr.          |    |             |             |disease, at Knoxville,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., April 27, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Marble,      | 22 |Sutton.      |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Albert A.    |    |             |             |disability, March 3, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Markin,      | 22 |Milford.     |July 24, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Thomas       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Martin,      | 25 |Oxford.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Promoted Corp. Killed in
  Edwin A.     |    |             |             |action, at Cold Harbor,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Maynard,     | 20 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  George L.    |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 23, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  McCarty,     | 18 |Milford.     |July 24, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Dennis       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mitchell,    | 45 |Milford.     |July 21, '62.|Died of disease, at
  Riley        |    |             |             |Alexandria, Va., Feb. 11,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Moore, John, | 27 |Milford.     |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Jr.          |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Newton, Geo. | 24 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  B.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Penniman,    | 23 |Sutton.      |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, 65,
  Wm. C.       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Perham,      | 18 |Milford.     |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Willis D.    |    |             |             |Jan. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Perry, Enoch | 23 |Milford.     |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  J.           |    |             |             |disability, March 9, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Pierce, John | 38 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  A.           |    |             |             |May 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Roper,       | 18 |Princeton.   |July 26, '62.|Died of disease, at
  Francis      |    |             |             |Falmouth, Va., Jan. 18,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Rose, John L.| 25 |Milford.     |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 25, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Sanderson,   | 27 |Lynn.        |Aug. 27, '62.|On detached duty in
  George P.    |    |             |             |hospital. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sibley,      | 29 |Sutton.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  Franklin     |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 19, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Simons, Anson| 29 |Sutton.      |Aug. 3, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
               |    |             |             |Sept. 16, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 23 |Oxford.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Died, June 3, '64, of
  Chester J.   |    |             |             |wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Wilderness,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith, James | 34 |Clinton.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corp. Discharged
               |    |             |             |June 8, '65, expiration
               |    |             |             |of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Spear,       | 38 |Milford.     |July 28, '62.|Discharged for
  William R.   |    |             |             |disability, May 7, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Sprague,     | 23 |Milford.     |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Nathan K.    |    |             |             |Feb. 2,'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Sullivan,    | 40 |Milford.     |July 22, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65.
  Michael      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Taylor,      | 25 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease at Crab
  Jothan L.    |    |             |             |Orchard, Ky., Sept. 7,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Taylor,      | 18 |Milford.     |July 25, '62.|Died, June 23, '64, of
  Orren S.     |    |             |             |wounds received the same
               |    |             |             |day in the trenches in
               |    |             |             |front of Petersburg, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Titus, John  | 24 |Sutton.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  M.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Ward, Russell| 25 |Sutton.      |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, March 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Whipple,     | 23 |Sutton.      |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Richard M.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wilson,      | 28 |Milford.     |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  Samuel       |    |             |             |disability, March 14, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Winch, John  | 24 |Leicester.   |Aug. 2, '62. |Did not leave Worcester
  M.           |    |             |             |with the regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Ames,        | 19 |Stoneham.    |Jan. 27, '64.|Died, June 25, '64,
  Frederick C. |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, June 17, '64,
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Bell, Edward | 18 |Milford.     |Mar. 24, '64.|Promoted Corp.
  G.           |    |             |             |Transferred to 56th Mass.
               |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, July 12, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Legesay,     | 26 |Milford.     |Mar. 30, '64.|Transferred to 56th Mass.
  Joseph       |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 22, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  =Company G.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Cooper,      | 37 |Warwick.     |July 22, '62.|Discharged, Oct. 9, '64,
  Alexander    |    |             |             |for disability from
               |    |             |             |wounds received in
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |action near Petersburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 18, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Davidson,    | 22 |Clinton.     |Aug. 11, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  Alonzo S.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Horton,      | 35 |Berlin.      |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William H.   |    |             |             |expiration of service as
               |    |             |             |1st Sergeant.
               |    |             |             |
  King,        | 20 |Berlin.      |July 18, '62.|Promoted 1st Sergt.
  William H.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Partridge,   | 38 |Princeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Daniel W.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Boynton,     | 40 |Clinton.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Alonzo P.    |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 28, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Davis,       | 34 |Holden.      |Aug. 16, '62.|Promoted Sergt. and
  George D.    |    |             |             |acting 1st Sergt.
               |    |             |             |Wounded at Campbell's
               |    |             |             |Station, Tenn., Nov.
               |    |             |             |16, '63. Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, May 25, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Houghton,    | 38 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Ephraim W.   |    |             |             |disability, Aug. 8,
               |    |             |             |'64. Wounded in action
               |    |             |             |at Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '63,
               |    |             |             |while carrying the State
               |    |             |             |color.
               |    |             |             |
  Lesure,      | 35 |West         |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged for
  Lovell A.    |    |Boylston.    |             |disability, June 18, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Mower,       | 27 |Charlton.    |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Sergt. and 1st
  Livingston   |    |             |             |Sergt. Died, June 24,
               |    |             |             |'64, at Washington, D.C.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action at Cold Harbor,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Olcott,      | 21 |Clinton.     |Aug. 3, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Hiram W.     |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Perry,       | 40 |Clinton.     |Aug. 10, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 13,
  George W.    |    |             |             |'62, at Warrenton, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Underwood,   | 37 |Warwick.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Sylvester T. |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 28, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Gardner, John| 18 |Worcester.   |Aug. 15, '62.|See non-commissioned
               |    |             |             |staff.
               |    |             |             |
  Rogers,      | 37 |Holden.      |Aug. 12, '62.|Died of disease, July 25,
  Winslow B.   |    |             |             |'63, at Vicksburg, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Hubbard,     | 38 |Holden.      |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Stephen N.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Adams, Andrew| 25 |Millbury.    |Aug. 15, '62.|Promoted Corp.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Aldrich,     | 23 |Charlton.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
  Hezekiah     |    |             |             |near Rutledge, Tenn.,
               |    |             |             |Dec. 15, '63. Died at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., July
               |    |             |             |30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Alexander,   | 33 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 14, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  George E.    |    |             |             |Sept. 18, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Allen,       | 23 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Died, Oct. 28, '63, at
  Edmund M.    |    |             |             |Knoxville, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Bacon,       | 27 |Millbury.    |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged for
  William K.   |    |             |             |disability, April 9, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Beers, James | 24 |Charlton.    |July 28, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  A.           |    |             |             |March 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Bemis,       | 30 |Clinton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Daniel H.    |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 9, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bigelow,     | 34 |Princeton.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged for
  Abram G.     |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Blandin,     | 25 |Oxford.      |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Warren F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bridge,      | 35 |Warwick.     |July 22, '62. Discharged for
  Jesse F.     |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 13, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Burns,       | 25 |Clinton.     |Aug. 20, '62.|Did not leave Worcester
  Martin F.    |    |             |             |with the regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Chenery,     | 23 |Clinton.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Killed in action at Cold
  Frank A.     |    |             |             |Harbor, Va., June 3, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Cobb, George | 18 |Warwick.     |July 29, '62.|Discharged for
  B.           |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Coleman, John| 29 |Marlborough. |July 25, '62.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Comins,      | 29 |Charlton.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Lewis B.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Coughlin,    | 34 |Worcester.   |Aug. 10, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Frank        |    |             |             |June 9, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Cowan, Jason | 21 |Prescott.    |Aug. 3, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  B.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Daniels,     | 28 |Millbury.    |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  Sylvester A. |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 13, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Dorrison,    | 20 |Clinton.     |Aug. 12, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
  Oscar A.     |    |             |             |for disability, Dec. 23,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Dunn,        | 18 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Killed in action at Cold
  William A.   |    |             |             |Harbor, Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Emerson,     | 25 |Millbury.    |July 25, '62.|Died, June 6, '64, at
  John S.      |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Spottsylvania, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Engly, Davis | 31 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  B.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Farmer,      | 19 |Harvard.     |Aug. 14, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Nahum H.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Farnsworth,  | 36 |Warwick.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  John         |    |             |             |Mar. 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Fay, John    | 22 |Clinton.     |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Fay, Myron H.| 18 |Princeton.   |Aug. 26, '62.|Died of disease, Aug. 9,
               |    |             |             |'63, at New Madrid, Mo.
               |    |             |             |
  Field, Lucius| 22 |Clinton.     |Aug. 18, '62.|See commissioned officers.
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher, Abial| 18 |Clinton.     |Aug. 18, '62.|Promoted Corp. Discharged
               |    |             |             |for disability, Dec. 23,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Flagg, Fred  | 18 |Clinton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
  E.           |    |             |             |near Blain's Cross Roads,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Dec. 15, '63. Died
               |    |             |             |at Belle Isle, Richmond,
               |    |             |             |Va., March, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Flagg,       | 40 |Clinton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corp. and
  Frederick    |    |             |             |Sergt. Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Fletcher,    | 18 |Charlton.    |Aug. 3, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Andrew B.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Flynn,       | 26 |Milford.     |Aug. 4, '62. |Did not leave Worcester
  Charles      |    |             |             |with the regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Frazer, Peter| 43 |Oxford.      |Aug. 14, '62.|Did not leave Worcester
               |    |             |             |with the regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Fuller,      | 33 |Auburn.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Horace       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gifford,     | 41 |Clinton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry A.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gill, Emory  | 27 |Princeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  W.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gillespie,   | 22 |Charlton.    |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Michael      |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 27, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Gillespie,   | 21 |Charlton.    |Aug. 4, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
  Patrick      |    |             |             |near Rutledge, Tenn.,
               |    |             |             |Dec. 15, '63. Died at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., Aug.
               |    |             |             |28, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Goodwin,     | 26 |Warwick.     |July 22, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Ebenezer     |    |             |             |Jan. 21, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Grimley,     | 30 |Oxford.      |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Henry        |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall,        | 19 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Killed in action at
  William H.   |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Haskell,     | 20 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Died, June 10, '64, at
  Joseph F.    |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Wilderness, Va., May
               |    |             |             |6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Hastings,    | 21 |Clinton.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Jan. 16,
  Lyman H.     |    |             |             |'63, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Hastings,    | 20 |Clinton.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  William A.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Haven,       | 18 |Brookfield.  |July 25, '62.|Killed in action at
  George F.    |    |             |             |Knoxville, Tenn., Nov.
               |    |             |             |29, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hawks, Almon | 44 |Heath.       |July 22, '62.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Mar. 2, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Houghton,    | 26 |Warwick.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to Second
  Alfred E.    |    |             |             |U.S. Cavalry, Dec. 27,
               |    |             |             |'62.
               |    |             |             |
  Hubbard,     | 44 |Holden.      |Aug. 17, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Calvin       |    |             |             |near Rutledge, Tenn.,
               |    |             |             |Dec. 15, '63. Died at
               |    |             |             |Richmond, Va., Feb. 26,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Jennison, R. | 20 |Auburn.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
  B.           |    |             |             |Dec. 15, '63, near
               |    |             |             |Blain's Cross Roads,
               |    |             |             |Tenn. Died at Richmond,
               |    |             |             |Va., Mar. 10, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Jesman,      | 26 |Oxford.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Did not leave Worcester
  William      |    |             |             |with the regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Jewett,      | 24 |Clinton.     |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged for
  George H.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 28, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Kelley,      | 33 |Princeton.   |July 25, '62.|Died May 21, '64, at
  Daniel S.    |    |             |             |Fredericksburg, Va., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at the Wilderness, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Leavitt,     | 34 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Sullivan     |    |             |             |Sept. 12, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Lincoln,     | 39 |Princeton.   |Aug. 22. '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George W.    |    |             |             |Nov. 10, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Martin,      | 25 |Clinton.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Michael      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  McGee,       | 36 |Clinton.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Patrick      |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 13, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  McGrath,     | 25 |Clinton.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Died of disease, Oct. 10,
  Henry        |    |             |             |'63, at Crab Orchard, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  McInstry,    | 22 |Charlton.    |Aug. 9, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
  Van Buren    |    |             |             |near Blain's Cross Roads,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Dec. 15, '63. Died
               |    |             |             |at Andersonville, Ga.,
               |    |             |             |Feb. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Merriam,     | 23 |Princeton.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  John N.      |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 16, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Miner, Dwight| 18 |Clinton.     |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |Mar. 19, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Moore, Andrew| 26 |Charlton.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corporal. Killed
               |    |             |             |in action at Cold Harbor,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Morgan,      | 20 |Clinton.     |Aug. 14, '62.|On special duty at
  James A.     |    |             |             |Division Head-quarters.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8 '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Nelson,      | 35 |Warwick.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Died of disease, Oct. 22,
  Lafayette    |    |             |             |'63, at Crab Orchard, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Oakes, David | 27 |Prescott.    |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  J.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Palmer,      | 19 |Clinton.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Edward       |    |             |             |disability, June 28, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Partridge,   | 34 |Princeton.   |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  Lyman F.     |    |             |             |Serg't. Discharged, June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Phelps,      | 20 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  George T.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Priest,      | 25 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Ray, Daniel  | 29 |Sutton.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  H.           |    |             |             |Sept. 12, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Rich, Alonzo | 18 |Charlton.    |July 28, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  G.           |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Salmon, Hugh | 40 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 10, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawyer,      | 44 |Millbury.    |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Samuel       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 43 |Holden.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Thorret      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Stacy,       | 20 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Killed in action at
  Edward W.    |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Taylor, Amos | 18 |Warwick.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  A.           |    |             |             |disability, Mar. 6, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Vaughn,      | 21 |Prescott.    |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged for
  Marcus E.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 18, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Vibert, Hiram| 21 |Worcester.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
               |    |             |             |Sept. 2, '62. Did not
               |    |             |             |leave Worcester with the
               |    |             |             |regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Wheeler,     | 24 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Williams,    | 19 |Warwick.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph A.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Winchester,  | 24 |Sterling.    |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged for
  Emory        |    |             |             |disability, May 25, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood,        | 37 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Benjamin L.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Worcester,   | 20 |Harvard.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  George H.    |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 28, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Clifford,    | 45 |Lawrence.    |June 9, '64. |Transferred June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Dadman,      | 24 |Harvard.     |Dec. 8, '63. |Transferred June 8, '65,
  James F.     |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Davidson,    | 18 |Sterling.    |Dec. 26, '63.|Died of disease, Mar. 28,
  Lucius D.    |    |             |             |'64, at Covington, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Elliott,     | 21 |Shirley.     |Jan. 4, '64. |Died June 23, '64, at
  Estes E.     |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher,      | 26 |Berlin.      |Oct. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Francis H.   |    |             |             |Dec., '63. Discharged,
               |    |             |             |May 16, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall, Henry  | 44 |Harvard.     |Dec. 7, '63. |Transferred, June 8, '65,
  M.           |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Haynes, John | 29 |Lancaster.   |Jan. 2, '64. |Died of disease, Mar. 19,
  C.           |    |             |             |'64, at Camp Nelson, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Patrick, G.  | 21 |Worcester.   |Oct. 14, '64.|Promoted Corporal.
  Henry        |    |             |             |Transferred to 56th Mass.
               |    |             |             |Vols., June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  =Company H.= |    |             |             |Discharged, Aug. 7,
               |    |             |             |'65, by order of War
  _1st         |    |             |             |Department.
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher,      | 24 |Northfield.  |Aug. 10, '62.|Transferred to
  Theodore W.  |    |             |             |V.R.C., March 2, '64.
               |    |             |             |Commissioned 1st Lieut.
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |62d Mass. Vols. April,
               |    |             |             |26, '65. Discharged by
               |    |             |             |expiration of term of
               |    |             |             |service, May 5, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Miller, J.   | 30 |Westminster. |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged Nov. 7, '64,
  Hervey       |    |             |             |for disability from
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Perley,      | 31 |Gardner.     |Aug. 8, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  George A.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Whitney,     | 45 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  Asaph B.     |    |             |             |disability, June 1, '65.
               |    |             |             |Order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Woodward,    | 25 |Orange.      |Aug. 6, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Philip G.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher, John | 30 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Sergt.
  A., Jr.      |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 7, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Greenwood,   | 21 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Marston D.   |    |             |             |disability, May 18, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Hadley, Henry| 26 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, March 4, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Howard,      | 22 |Orange.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Sergt.
  Marcus M.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Howard,      | 26 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mayo, Henry  | 21 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Killed in action at
  H.           |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Pierce,      | 31 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Sergt. Killed in
  Jerome       |    |             |             |action at Spottsylvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawin,       | 31 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Died of disease, Aug. 9,
  Farwell      |    |             |             |'63, at Vicksburg, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Goodspeed,   | 21 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 1, '63,
  Thomas       |    |             |             |by reason of death of
               |    |             |             |both his parents.
               |    |             |             |
  Perley, L.   | 21 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Died of disease, Aug.
  Alonzo       |    |             |             |19, '63, at Mound City,
               |    |             |             |Illinois.
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Newton,      | 23 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  Sewell D.    |    |             |             |disability, March 18, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Atherton,    | 21 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
  Amos B.      |    |             |             |disability, May 15, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Baker, Joel  | 21 |Westminster. |Aug. 12, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  V.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Ballou,      | 42 |Gardner.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Ebenezer     |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Barnes,      | 21 |Westminster. |July 21, '62.|Discharged for
  George W.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bishop,      | 45 |Gardner.     |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  David N.     |    |             |             |disability, March 2, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bliss,       | 18 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, July 24,
  Augustus E.  |    |             |             |'63, at Milldale, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Boyden, Henry| 26 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 15,
               |    |             |             |'63, at Vicksburg, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Boyden,      | 37 |Northfield.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
  Loren C.     |    |             |             |disability, Sept. 6, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Briggs,      | 28 |Orange.      |July 26, '62.|Prisoner of war. Died at
  Waldo W.     |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga., May
               |    |             |             |10, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Buxton,      | 18 |Phillipston. |Aug. 19, '62.|Died of disease, July 23,
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |'63, at Milldale, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 23 |Athol.       |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Warren E.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 12, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Clapp, Asahel| 44 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Died of disease, July 20,
               |    |             |             |'63, at Clinton, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Clark, George| 30 |Northfield.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Jan. 17, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Colburn,     | 21 |Gardner.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Augustus F.  |    |             |             |Feb. 6, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Cruse,       | 19 |Westminster. |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  William H.   |    |             |             |disability, May 13, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Cutting,     | 26 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 12, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 9,
  Henry J.     |    |             |             |'63, Knoxville, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Cutting,     | 26 |Westfield.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Nathan F.    |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Drury, Lyman | 19 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  M.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Dutton,      | 25 |Northfield.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Samuel D.    |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher,      | 26 |Athol.       |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles D.   |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 18, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Fisher,      | 22 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George A.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Flint,       | 24 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Edward A.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Foskett,     | 22 |Orange.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Albert       |    |             |             |disability, May 25, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Foster,      | 39 |Westminster. |Aug. 9, '62. |Died, Oct. 4, '64, of
  Josiah       |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Gilbert,     | 32 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Charles      |    |             |             |Died, July 9, '64, at
               |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in the
               |    |             |             |trenches near Petersburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 27, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Goddard,     | 23 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Artemus W.   |    |             |             |Jan. 5, 1864.
               |    |             |             |
  Goddard,     | 21 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 17,
  William H.   |    |             |             |'63, at Louisville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Gurrell, Wm. | 18 |Westminster. |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Harris,      | 18 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died, Oct. 3, '64, of
  Caleb C.     |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Pegram Farm, Va.,
               |    |             |             |Sept. 30, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Harris,      | 28 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph A.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hastings,    | 32 |Princeton.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Elias O.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hayward,     | 24 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Joseph F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hills, James | 20 |Orange.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  E.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hobbie, John | 18 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, 62.  |Promoted Corp.
  D.           |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hodgman,     | 18 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 18,
  Eugene W.    |    |             |             |'64, at Washington, D.C.
               |    |             |             |
  Holden,      | 19 |Gardner.     |July 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Jason C.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Holton,      | 19 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Died of disease, April
  Eugene D.    |    |             |             |16, '64, at Camp Nelson,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Howe, Wm. L. | 23 |Southfield.  |Aug. 4, '62. |See commissioned officers.
               |    |             |             |
  Jacobs,      | 19 |Gardner.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Herbert L. P.|    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Kelton,      | 18 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles O.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Learned,     | 18 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 19, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Frank S.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mellen,      | 37 |Orange.      |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Jonathan W.  |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 8, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Merrill,     | 18 |Athol.       |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corp.
  Henry S.     |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Merrill, J.  | 19 |Athol.       |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corp. and Sergt.
  Arnold       |    |             |             |Discharged for disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds, Nov. 7, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Miller,      | 27 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Died of disease, April
  George W.    |    |             |             |17, '63, at Baltimore, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Moore, Sumner| 28 |Orange.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mossman,     | 26 |Westminster. |Aug. 18, '61.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Austin       |    |             |             |Nov. --, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Nichols,     | 21 |Gardner.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George B.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Parish,      | 43 |Gardner.     |July 25, '62.|See non-commissioned
  George F.    |    |             |             |staff.
               |    |             |             |
  Perry,       | 25 |Templeton.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles M.   |    |             |             |disability, July 30, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Perry, Wm. H.| 19 |Phillipston. |Aug. 18, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Pierce,      | 18 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Prisoner of war. Captured
  Joseph H.    |    |             |             |at Pegram Farm, Sept.
               |    |             |             |30, '64. Exchanged.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, June 21, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Pierce,      | 23 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Nelson P.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Pratt, John  | 20 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for
  W.           |    |             |             |disability, Oct. 18, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Pratt, Wm. H.| 36 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Died of disease, Oct. 6,
               |    |             |             |'63, at Crab Orchard, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Reed, George | 24 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  W.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Reed, Luther | 26 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Killed in action at
  P.           |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Remington,   | 34 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Dyer O.      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rich, Joshua | 32 |Athol.       |Aug. 5, '62. |Killed in action at
               |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rich, Osgood | 25 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, April 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rugg, Wm. B. | 40 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, April 26, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Saunders, B. | 40 |Gardner.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Frank        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawin,       | 21 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Died of disease, Nov. 24,
  Harrison P.  |    |             |             |'62, at Knoxville, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Seaver,      | 18 |Westminster. |Aug. 14, '62.|Discharged for
  Edward A.    |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 24, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 37 |Gardner.     |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged for
  Daniel J.    |    |             |             |disability, June 1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 20 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corp. Discharged
  William N.   |    |             |             |for disability, Dec. 23,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Stevens,     | 39 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Killed in action at
  Edwin        |    |             |             |Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Stone,       | 28 |Northfield.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Elliott D.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Stone, John  | 24 |Northfield.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  D.           |    |             |             |Jan. 15, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Thomas,      | 21 |Barre.       |July 29, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Samuel       |    |             |             |at Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '63. Died
               |    |             |             |in captivity. Date and
               |    |             |             |place unknown.
               |    |             |             |
  Turner,      | 30 |Northfield.  |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged for
  Frank H.     |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Underwood,   | 20 |Orange.      |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Samuel L.    |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 30, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Wallace,     | 33 |Gardner.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Franklin     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Ward, Edmund | 25 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died, June 18, '64, of
  S.           |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |near Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |June 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Ward, Nathan | 19 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Oct. 21,
  W.           |    |             |             |'63, at Knoxville, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Wetherbee,   | 23 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged for disability
  Henry W.     |    |             |             |from wounds, Sept. 27,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Winslow,     | 23 |N.           |Aug. 18, '62.|Killed in action at
  Lewis D.     |    |Brookfield.  |             |Spottsylvania, Va., May
               |    |             |             |12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood, Alden  | 37 |Gardner.     |Aug. 9, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
  B.           |    |             |             |Discharged, Nov. 10, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Woodward,    | 40 |Orange.      |July 31, '62.|Died of disease, Aug. 10,
  Hiram C.     |    |             |             |'63, at Camp Dennison,
               |    |             |             |Ohio.
               |    |             |             |
  Woodward,    | 42 |Westminster. |Aug. 13, '62.|Died of disease, Oct. 19,
  Horace S.    |    |             |             |'63, at Knoxville, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Woodward,    | 27 |Orange.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Warner C.    |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Young,       | 18 |Westminster. |Aug. 11, '62.|Died, May 14, '64, at
  Edward O.    |    |             |             |Fredericksburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action at the Wilderness,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Cochrane,    | 16 |Phillipston. |Mar. 21, '65.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  John         |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vol.
               |    |             |             |
  Grafton,     | 16 |Phillipston. |Mar. 18, '65.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  George       |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vol.
               |    |             |             |
  =Company I.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  White,       | 29 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Alonzo A.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Arnold,      | 37 |Oxford.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Russell      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Howe, Rufus  | 24 |Marlborough. |Aug. 1, '62. |See commissioned officers.
               |    |             |             |
  Moore, Henry | 27 |Marlborough. |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged, June 1, '65,
  S.           |    |             |             |for disability, by order
               |    |             |             |of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Sprague,     | 38 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George W.    |    |             |             |Jan. 21, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Arnold,      | 22 |Marlborough. |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Savillion    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 23 |Berlin.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Spencer C.   |    |             |             |disability, May 22, '65.
               |    |             |             |Order War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Houghton,    | 26 |Bolton.      |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Andrew J.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Russell, John| 32 |Marlborough. |Aug. 1, '62. |Promoted Sergeant.
               |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Snow, Ansel  | 31 |Berlin.      |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  L.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Southland,   | 28 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Judson       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Thompson,    | 22 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Jan. 29,
  Samuel C.    |    |             |             |'64, at Portsmouth Grove
               |    |             |             |Hospital, R.I.
               |    |             |             |
  Williams,    | 33 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Aaron M.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Houghton,    | 18 |Clinton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Nathaniel J. |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawyer,      | 32 |Berlin.      |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Oliver       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  _Wagoner._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Kimball,     | 35 |Berlin.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Joseph E.    |    |             |             |disability. Date unknown.
               |    |             |             |
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Adams,       | 28 |Worcester.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles B.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Allen,       | 31 |Berlin.      |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Nathan M.    |    |             |             |March 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Bailey,      | 38 |Upton.       |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William H.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bardwell,    | 30 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Died, May 10, '64, at
  George W.    |    |             |             |Fredericksburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Wilderness,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Barnard,     | 40 |Marlborough. |July 31, '62.|Discharged for
  Benjamin     |    |             |             |disability, Mar. 13, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Barnes, Edwin| 25 |Bolton.      |July 16, '62.|Died, Feb. 9, 1865, at
               |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in front
               |    |             |             |of Fort Rice, Petersburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., Dec. 29, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Barry, James | 18 |Berlin.      |July 12, '62.|Promoted Corporal. Killed
  H.           |    |             |             |in the trenches, near
               |    |             |             |Petersburg, Va., July 1,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Bartlett,    | 21 |Bolton.      |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry        |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bartlett,    | 18 |Bolton.      |July 23, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Theodore H.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Batchelder,  | 25 |W. Boylston. |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Arthur B.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bates,       | 21 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Junius D.    |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bean, Hiram  | 21 |Marlborough. |Aug. 13, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  P.           |    |             |             |Jan. 23, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Bellows,     | 26 |Oxford.      |Aug. 5, '62. |Died of wounds received
  Julius N.    |    |             |             |in action, at Wilderness,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Bigelow,     | 18 |Berlin.      |July 11, '62.|Discharged for
  Edwin J.     |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 21, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Bigelow,     | 40 |Worcester.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 25,
  Solomon S.   |    |             |             |'63, at Nicholasville, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Bolton,      | 27 |W. Boylston. |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry E.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bosworth,    | 28 |Upton.       |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  John A.      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Bowers,      | 34 |Shrewsbury.  |Aug. 12, '62.|Died of disease, Sept.
  George H.    |    |             |             |21, '63, at Camp
               |    |             |             |Dennison, Ohio.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 39 |Oxford.      |Aug. 1, '62. |Died of disease, July 26,
  Josiah G.    |    |             |             |'63, at Milldale, Miss.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 18 |Upton.       |Aug. 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Nelson H.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown, Oscar | 20 |Oxford.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  H.           |    |             |             |Aug. 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Brown,       | 26 |W. Boylston. |Aug. 8, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  William N.   |    |             |             |May 26, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Carter,      | 18 |Berlin.      |July 24, '62.|Wounded, and captured in
  George I.    |    |             |             |action, at Pegram Farm,
               |    |             |             |Va., Sept. 30, '64; died
               |    |             |             |at Petersburg, Va., same
               |    |             |             |day.
               |    |             |             |
  Carter,      | 23 |Berlin.      |July 22, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Israel F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 29 |Upton.       |Aug. 8,'62.  |Died of disease, Feb. 28,
  Lorenzo S.   |    |             |             |'64, at Knoxville, Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 18 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Orra         |    |             |             |Feb. 26, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Chase,       | 22 |Berlin.      |Aug. 7,'62.  |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Harvey J.    |    |             |             |expiration of service;
               |    |             |             |absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Childs,      | 23 |Oxford.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Killed in action, at
  Daniel V.    |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Childs,      | 18 |Oxford.      |Aug. 2, '62. |Died of disease, April 4,
  Jacob L.     |    |             |             |'64, at Covington, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Claflin,     | 24 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Myron W.     |    |             |             |disability, Mar. 28, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Clapp,       | 18 |Stow.        |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Reuben L.    |    |             |             |April 1, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Coburn,      | 20 |Berlin.      |July 7, '62. |Died, Sept. 18, '64, at
  William H.   |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at the Wilderness, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Cole, George | 18 |Marlborough. |July 27, '62.|On detached service in
  O.           |    |             |             |Provost-Marshal's Dep.,
               |    |             |             |Kentucky. Discharged Aug.
               |    |             |             |26, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service, having served
               |    |             |             |three years, and was the
               |    |             |             |last man mustered out of
               |    |             |             |the regiment.
               |    |             |             |
  Crocker, Ezra| 41 |Bolton.      |July 27, '62.|Died, Dec. 10, '63, of
               |    |             |             |disease, at Knoxville,
               |    |             |             |Tenn.
               |    |             |             |
  Crossman,    | 19 |Berlin.      |July 26, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  John F.      |    |             |             |expiration of service;
               |    |             |             |absent, sick.
               |    |             |             |
  Crouch,      | 22 |Marlborough. |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Elathan      |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Davenport,   | 32 |Upton.       |July 8, '62. |Discharged for
  William      |    |             |             |disability, June 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Farnsworth,  | 23 |Bolton.      |July 23, '62.|Died, May 23, '64, at
  Franklin     |    |             |             |Fredericksburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Spottsylvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 12, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Fletcher,    | 20 |Sutton.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Dec. 8,
  Francis      |    |             |             |'62, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Fletcher,    | 20 |Berlin.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Florence,    | 21 |Berlin.      |July 25, '62.|Died of disease, Mar. 5,
  William      |    |             |             |'63, at Falmouth, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Goddard,     | 20 |Berlin.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Sept.
  Silas E.     |    |             |             |10, '63, at Crab Orchard,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Goodnow,     | 34 |Marlborough. |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gould,       | 37 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 2, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall,        | 35 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Benjamin     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall,        | 30 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Died, July 26, '64, at
  Hezekiah     |    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received June 24,
               |    |             |             |'64, in the trenches in
               |    |             |             |front of Petersburg, Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Hall, William| 28 |Upton.       |Aug. 7, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
               |    |             |             |Discharged, Aug. 27, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Hill, Ezra J.| 22 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
               |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Holt, Oscar  | 19 |Berlin.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  W.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Houghton,    | 18 |Bolton.      |July 28, '62.|Died, May 8, '64, en
  Josiah       |    |             |             |route to Fredericksburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., of wounds received
               |    |             |             |in action, at Wilderness,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 6, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Howe,        | 18 |Clinton.     |Aug. 15, '62.|Prisoner of war,
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |captured, near Rutledge,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Dec. 15, '63.
               |    |             |             |Died, Aug. 27, '64, at
               |    |             |             |Andersonville, Ga.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 33 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  Alvah H.     |    |             |             |disability, June 5, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Lawrence,    | 22 |Harvard.     |July 21, '62.|Discharged for
  Henry        |    |             |             |disability, March 4, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Lavin, Luke  | 34 |Upton.       |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Leighton,    | 18 |Upton.       |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C,
  Hazen D.     |    |             |             |Sept. 4, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Magee,       | 21 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged for
  Johnson      |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 26, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Marble,      | 21 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  Truman       |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 7, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Martin, John | 19 |Berlin.      |July 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  T.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Maynard,     | 19 |Berlin.      |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  Emory T.     |    |             |             |Sergeant. Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  McGrath, John| 22 |Upton.       |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Moore,       | 25 |Marlborough. |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for disability.
  Hopkins E.   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Mundell,     | 29 |Marlborough. |Aug. 7, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 5,
  George H.    |    |             |             |'63, on board steamer
               |    |             |             |"Hiawatha," en route from
               |    |             |             |Vicksburg, Miss., to
               |    |             |             |Cairo, Ill.
               |    |             |             |
  Nourse,      | 18 |Marlborough. |Aug. 2, '62. |Killed in action, at
  George       |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Patten,      | 21 |Upton.       |Aug. 7, '62. |Killed in action, at
  Isaac R.     |    |             |             |Wilderness, Va., May 6,
               |    |             |             |'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Perham,      | 27 |Upton.       |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Lysander M.  |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, June 3, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Richardson,  | 40 |Auburn.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Aaron M.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Roberts,     | 32 |Marlborough. |July 27, '62.|Supposed killed in
  James H.     |    |             |             |action, at Spottsvlvania,
               |    |             |             |Va., May 16, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Rogers,      | 22 |Upton.       |Aug. 5, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  Stephen S.   |    |             |             |Sergeant. Discharged June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sawyer,      | 39 |Bolton.      |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George F.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Scarborough, | 29 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corp.
  Elias        |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Seagrave,    | 23 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 7, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
  Clinton      |    |             |             |Discharged, July 5, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Slocum,      | 32 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 6. '62. |Discharged for
  Erastus B.   |    |             |             |disability, March 5, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Thomas,      | 38 |Bolton.      |July 25, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George H.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  True, George | 24 |Marlborough. |July 25, '62.|Discharged for
  S.           |    |             |             |disability, March 12, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Wetherbee,   | 24 |Bolton.      |July 23, '62.|Discharged for disability
  Asahel C.    |    |             |             |from wounds, June 17, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Wetherbee,   | 18 |Bolton.      |July 22, '62.|Discharged, June 8,'65,
  Henry M.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wetherbee,   | 42 |Bolton.      |July 24, '62.|Discharged for
  Reuben L.    |    |             |             |disability, June 28, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Willis,      | 37 |Bolton.      |July 27, '62.|Discharged for
  George L.    |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 17, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Wheeler,     | 19 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wilson,      | 20 |Boylston.    |July 22, '62.|Died, June 28, '64,
  Watson       |    |             |             |at Washington, D.C.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Cold Harbor,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Woodbury,    | 38 |Bolton.      |July 23, '62.|Killed in action, at Cold
  Elijah       |    |             |             |Harbor, Va., June 3, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Wood, George | 22 |Upton.       |July 28, '62 |Discharged for
  A.           |    |             |             |disability, March 21, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  =Company K.= |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _1st         |    |             |             |
  Sergeant._   |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Fairbank,    | 23 |Oakham.      |Aug. 11, '62.|See commissioned officers.
  John B.      |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Sergeants._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Duncan,      | 40 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
  George H.    |    |             |             |disability, May 31, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Fish,        | 22 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for disability
  Charles I.   |    |             |             |from wounds, May 19, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Howell,      | 23 |Oakham.      |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for disability
  Silas, Jr.   |    |             |             |from wounds, June 22,
               |    |             |             |'65, order of War
               |    |             |             |Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Moore,       | 22 |Holden.      |July 28, '62.|Died of disease, March 1,
  Harlan P.    |    |             |             |'64, at Camp Nelson, Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Putnam,      | 18 |Warwick.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for disability.
  Joseph D.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  _Corporals._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Avery,       | 26 |Holyoke.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Sergeant and
  Charles B.   |    |             |             |First Sergeant. Died July
               |    |             |             |7, '64, at Washington, D.
               |    |             |             |C, of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Cold Harbor,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Cross, Allen | 26 |Westborough. |Aug. 7, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  W.           |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Green,       | 40 |Greenwich.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for disability
  Francis A.   |    |             |             |from wounds, Dec. 23, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Harty, John  | 18 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for disability.
  B.           |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Lansey, Eli  | 30 |Lunenburg.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
  S.           |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  McDonough,   | 19 |Rutland.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Charles E.   |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 18, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Metcalf, Otis| 45 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 5, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |April 18, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Wright,      | 28 |Holyoke.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Sergeant.
  Joseph W.    |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 23, '64.
  _Musicians._ |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Howe, Edson  | 44 |Rutland.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to Band of 2d
  H.           |    |             |             |Division, 9th A. C, Nov.
               |    |             |             |1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Merrill,     | 37 |Lunenburg.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  George H.    |    |             |             |disability, June 9, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
  _Privates._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Allard,      | 26 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Died of disease, Sept.
  Charles W.   |    |             |             |15, '62, at Worcester,
               |    |             |             |Mass.
               |    |             |             |
  Arley, Doctor| 28 |Northborough.|Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability. Date not
               |    |             |             |given.
               |    |             |             |
  Baxter, Adam | 19 |Fitchburg.   |July 17, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
               |    |             |             |Sept, 18, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Biron,       | 19 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  Frederick    |    |             |             |Died, Jan. 11, '64,
               |    |             |             |at Knoxville, Tenn.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Campbell's
               |    |             |             |Station, Tenn., Nov. 16,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Blake, John  | 26 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  H.           |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Burton,      | 23 |Douglas.     |Aug. 12, '62.|Promoted Corporal and
  Daniel A.    |    |             |             |Sergeant. Died, Oct. 19,
               |    |             |             |'64, of wounds received
               |    |             |             |in action at Pegram Farm,
               |    |             |             |Oct. 2, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Butters,     | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 28, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Henry W.     |    |             |             |and discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability.
               |    |             |             |
  Callihan,    | 26 |Fitchburg.   |July 23, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  James        |    |             |             |June 9, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Callihan,    | 40 |Douglas.     |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Patrick      |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 19, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 20 |Oakham.      |Aug. 4, '62. |See commissioned officers.
  Edward       |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 22 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged for
  Orrin S.     |    |             |             |disability, March 14, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Chamberlain, | 24 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
  Silas L.     |    |             |             |disability, May 29, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Chapman,     | 25 |Douglas.     |Aug. 10, '62.|Killed in the trenches in
  Leonard A.   |    |             |             |front of Petersburg, Va.,
               |    |             |             |July 18, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Cosgraves,   | 30 |Blackstone.  |Aug. 9, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Michael      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Cummings,    | 18 |N.           |Aug. 16, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  James B.     |    |Brookfield.  |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Cummings,    | 37 |Paxton.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Promoted Corporal.
  John A.      |    |             |             |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Dec. 27, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Cutting,     | 32 |Northfield.  |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Samuel, Jr.  |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Dean, Daniel | 19 |Braintree.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Died of disease, Nov. __,
  W.           |    |             |             |'62.
               |    |             |             |
  Dean, Seth   | 24 |Braintree.   |Aug. 8, '62. |Died of disease, Jan. 27,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Dewing,      | 26 |Worcester.   |Aug. 9, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Charles P.   |    |             |             |April 16, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Doyle, John  | 45 |Athol.       |July 19, '62.|Prisoner of war.
               |    |             |             |Captured, Sept. 30,
               |    |             |             |'64. Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, June 22, '65,
               |    |             |             |order of War Department.
               |    |             |             |
  Finney, John | 29 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for disability
  L.           |    |             |             |from wounds, Jan. 13, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Flynn, John  | 26 |Fitchburg.   |July 25, '62.|Died, June 5, '64, of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Cold Harbor, Va., June
               |    |             |             |3, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Foley, James | 24 |Greenwich.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corporal and
  O.           |    |             |             |Sergeant. Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Nov. 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Freeman,     | 29 |Douglas.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Elias H.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Foster,      | 18 |Fitchburg.   |July 23, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.
  George W.    |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Gale,        | 30 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 15, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Chester B.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Gillis, James| 44 |Fitchburg.   |July 12, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Graves,      | 32 |Marlborough. |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Henry E.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Greenwood,   | 23 |Webster.     |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Charles O.   |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Griswold,    | 44 |Fitchburg.   |July 26, '62.|Discharged for
  William W.   |    |             |             |disability, Jan., '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Gould, Moses | 35 |Milford.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Hair,        | 32 |N.           |Aug. 6, '62. |On detached service.
  Addison S.   |    |Brookfield.  |             |Discharged, June 16, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service,
               |    |             |             |order War Dept.
               |    |             |             |
  Harrigan,    | 16 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 6, '62. |Died, July 19, '64, of
  Jeremiah     |    |             |             |wounds received in the
               |    |             |             |trenches near Petersburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., July 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Haskell,     | 42 |Oakham.      |July 27, '62.|Mortally wounded in
  Charles L.   |    |             |             |action, near Petersburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., April 2, '65, and
               |    |             |             |died same day.
               |    |             |             |
  Hoffman, Max | 22 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Promoted Corp. Killed in
               |    |             |             |action, near Petersburg,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 17, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Hudson,      | 21 |Douglas.     |Aug. 20, '62.|Prisoner of war.
  Matthew      |    |             |             |Captured in action, at
               |    |             |             |Spottsylvania, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 12, '64. Died at
               |    |             |             |Florence, S.C., Nov.
               |    |             |             |23,'64.
               |    |             |             |
  Johnson,     | 28 |Oakham.      |Aug. 12, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  James D.     |    |             |             |July 7, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Joice,       | 39 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 16, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
  Bartholomew. |    |             |             |June 9, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Joice, David | 28 |Fitchburg.   |July 23, '62.|Reported as a deserter
               |    |             |             |from General Hospital,
               |    |             |             |May 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Keyes, Joel  | 22 |Deerfield.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, Feb. 11, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  King, Daniel | 19 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to Battery E,
               |    |             |             |Second U.S. Artillery,
               |    |             |             |Sept., '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Lahee,       | 21 |Lenox.       |July 29, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Jeremiah     |    |             |             |July 1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Larby,       | 23 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Mitchell     |    |             |             |Sept. 12, '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Lawrence,    | 26 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 11, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  John C.      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Malendy,     | 20 |Deerfield.   |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Alphonso H.  |    |             |             |Dec. '20, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Mandell,     | 42 |Heath.       |Aug. 1, '62. |Discharged for disability
  Algernon S.  |    |             |             |from wounds, June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  McCarty,     | 19 |Gardner.     |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Edward       |    |             |             |July 1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Merriam,     | 21 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.,
  Edward B.    |    |             |             |and discharged, July 5,
               |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Morey,       | 19 |Douglas.     |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  William      |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Mullen,      | 27 |Millbury.    |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to Battery E,
  Dennis       |    |             |             |Second U.S. Artillery,
               |    |             |             |Sept., '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Murphy,      | 28 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 1, '62. |Transferred to Battery E,
  Dennis       |    |             |             |Second U.S. Artillery,
               |    |             |             |Oct., '62.
               |    |             |             |
  Murphy,      | 30 |Fitchburg.   |July 26, '62.|Reported as a deserter.
  Morris       |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Nickerson,   | 36 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 11, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Cyrus W.     |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Oakes, Joseph| 18 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
               |    |             |             |disability, June 8, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Parker,      | 42 |Princeton.   |Aug. 14, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
  George       |    |             |             |Sept. 1, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Pellet, Lewis| 38 |Oakham.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Rawson,      | 38 |Oakham.      |Aug. 4, '62. |Died of disease, Aug. 4,
  Daniel, Jr.  |    |             |             |'63, at Baltimore, Md.
               |    |             |             |
  Reed, B.     | 28 |Oakham.      |Aug. 12, '62.|Died, Jan. 17, '64,
  Miles        |    |             |             |at Knoxville, Tenn.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Campbell's
               |    |             |             |Station, Tenn., Nov. 16,
               |    |             |             |'63.
               |    |             |             |
  Rice, John   | 38 |Westborough. |Aug. 18, '62.|Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |Jan. 3, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Ryan, Thomas | 19 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Discharged for
  H.           |    |             |             |disability, March 31, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Sampson,     | 18 |Holyoke.     |Aug. 7, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George D.    |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Sherbert,    | 36 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 6, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Charles      |    |             |             |Aug. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Sibley,      | 29 |Ashburnham.  |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged for
  Edward       |    |             |             |disability, April 12, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith,       | 22 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 13, '62.|Died, July 10, '64,
  Albert C.    |    |             |             |at Washington, D.C.,
               |    |             |             |of wounds received in
               |    |             |             |action, at Cold Harbor,
               |    |             |             |Va., June 3, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Smith, Silas | 26 |Grafton.     |Aug. 8, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  W.           |    |             |             |Sergt. Discharged, June
               |    |             |             |8, '65, expiration of
               |    |             |             |service.
               |    |             |             |
  Spaulding,   | 21 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Reported as a deserter,
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |Sept. 20, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Spooner,     | 38 |Oakham.      |July 30, '62.|Discharged for
  Edwin C.     |    |             |             |disability, March 25, '65.
               |    |             |             |
  Stearns,     | 26 |Oakham.      |Aug. 15, '62.|Died of disease, Sept.
  Charles H.   |    |             |             |15, '63, at Crab Orchard,
               |    |             |             |Ky.
               |    |             |             |
  Stevens,     | 26 |Greenwich.   |Aug. 4, '62. |Promoted Corporal and
  Joseph H.    |    |             |             |Sergt., color-bearer.
               |    |             |             |Discharged for disability
               |    |             |             |from wounds, Nov. 11, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Stevens,     | 41 |Leominster.  |July 14, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Robert       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Thompson,    | 39 |N.           |Aug. 11, '62.|Prisoner of war. Captured
  Alvin M.     |    |Brookfield.  |             |at Campbell's Station,
               |    |             |             |Tenn., Nov. 16, '63. Died
               |    |             |             |at Belle Isle, Richmond,
               |    |             |             |Va.
               |    |             |             |
  Tighe, John  | 32 |Fitchburg.   |Aug. 20, '62.|Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service
               |    |             |             |
  Vaughn,      | 32 |Lunenburg.   |Aug. 24, '62.|Died, May 29, '64, at
  Sam'l Gardner|    |             |             |Washington, D.C., of
               |    |             |             |wounds received in action
               |    |             |             |at Spottsylvania, Va.,
               |    |             |             |May 12, '64
               |    |             |             |
  Ware, William| 34 |Paxton.      |Aug. 7, '62. |Transferred to V.R.C.
               |    |             |             |
  Washburn,    | 19 |Holyoke.     |Aug. 5, '62. |See non-commissioned
  Ostenello    |    |             |             |staff.
               |    |             |             |
  Webster,     | 28 |Northfield.  |Aug. 8, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  George       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wilder,      | 22 |Braintree.   |Aug. 11, '62.|Promoted Corporal.
  Albert G.    |    |             |             |Transferred to V.R.C.,
               |    |             |             |May 31, '64.
               |    |             |             |
  Wilson, Hiram| 33 |Uxbridge.    |Aug. 22, '62.|Reported as a deserter,
               |    |             |             |May, '63.
               |    |             |             |
  Woodside,    | 42 |Westboro'.   |Aug. 5, '62. |Discharged, June 8, '65,
  Samuel       |    |             |             |expiration of service.
               |    |             |             |
  Wyman, Asa   | 43 |Athol.       |July 21, '62.|Died of disease, May 7,
               |    |             |             |'64.
  _Recruits._  |    |             |             |
               |    |             |             |
  Corey,       | 19 |Worcester.   |Mar. 20, '65.|Transferred, June 8, '65,
  Edward B.    |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Noi, Henry   | 18 |Millbury.    |Jan. 5, '64. |Transferred June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |to 56th Mass. Vols.
               |    |             |             |
  Oliver,      | 22 |Ashburnham.  |Jan. 5, '64. |Died of disease, Jan. 29,
  Sylvester F. |    |             |             |'65.
               |    |             |             |
  Parker,      | 21 |Lancaster.   |Dec. 29, '63.|Unassigned recruit.
  Leonard H.   |    |             |             |Discharged, June 8, '65,
               |    |             |             |expiration of service.
  -------------+----+-------------+-------------+--------------------------



RECAPITULATION.


Total number on the rolls of the regiment, including recruits,
musicians, and all non-combatants:--

  Commissioned officers (including 10 of 21st Mass.)              77
  Enlisted men                                                 1,031


                        CASUALTIES IN THE SERVICE.

  _Killed and died of wounds in battle_,--
      Commissioned officers                                        5
      Enlisted men                                               102

  _Died of disease_,--
      Commissioned officers                                        3
      Enlisted men                                               115

  _Died in captivity_,--
      Enlisted men                                                25

  _Discharged or transferred to V.R.C. for disability_,--
      Commissioned officers                                        9
      Enlisted men                                               360

  _Deserted_,--
      Enlisted men                                                37

  _Transferred to Regular Army and Navy_,--
      Enlisted men                                                 6

  _Transferred to 56th Mass. Vols. (Recruits)_,--
      Enlisted men                                                27

  _Transferred to Band, Second Division, 9th A. C._,--
      Enlisted men                                                 1

  _By special order War Department_,--
      Enlisted men                                                 1

  _Discharged for promotion_,--
      Commissioned officers                                        2
      Enlisted men                                                35

  _Resigned_,--
      Commissioned officers                                       15

  _Honorably discharged_,--
      Commissioned officers                                        2

  _Discharged, expiration of service_,--
      Commissioned officers                                       41
      Enlisted men                                               322

The number of deserters includes six who deserted at Worcester before
the regiment left that city, and six others before it reached the seat
of war,--reducing the number of desertions from the regiment while in
the service to twenty-five.

The loss in the Thirty-sixth Regiment during its term of service, by
deaths on the field and of wounds received in battle, and of disease
contracted in the service, was twenty and one-half per cent. of the
total number enrolled.



NAMES OF ENLISTED MEN WHO DIED IN REBEL PRISONS.


It is impossible to ascertain the names of all the members of the
regiment who were captured by the enemy and held as prisoners of war
during the regiment's term of service; but the following is believed to
be a complete list of those who died during their captivity:--

      =Company A.=
  Augustus Petts              Andersonville               Aug. 12, 1864.
  Alfred S. Tucker            Salisbury, N.C.             Feb., 1865.

      =Company B.=
  Wm. F. Walden               Andersonville               Aug. 29, 1864.

      =Company C.=
  Sergeant Chas. H. Boswell   Belle Isle, Richmond, Va.   Feb. 15, 1864.
  Daniel H. Park              Andersonville               May 13, 1864.
  Lucius A. Reynolds          Andersonville               July 7, 1864.
  Frederick Ruth              Andersonville               Aug. 17, 1864.
  Hartwell C. Twichell        Andersonville               Aug. 21, 1864.

      =Company D.=
  Robert Bruce                Richmond, Va.               June 9, 1864.

      =Company E.=
  Warren C. Holbrook          Salisbury, N.C.             Nov. 5, 1864.
  Reuben Jackson              Salisbury, N.C.             Nov. 26, 1864.
  Lyman McDowell              Salisbury, N.C.             Feb. 1, 1865.
  Myron R. Wood, date and place of death unknown.

      =Company F.=
  Roger Eccles                Salisbury, N.C.             Jan. 9, 1865.

      =Company G.=
  Hezekiah Aldrich            Andersonville               July 30, 1864.
  Frederick E. Flagg          Belle Isle, Richmond, Va.   March, 1864.
  Patrick Gillespie           Andersonville               Aug. 28, 1864.
  Calvin Hubbard              Richmond, Va.               Feb. 26, 1864.
  R. B. Jennison              Richmond, Va.               Mar. 10, 1864.
  Van Buren McInstry          Andersonville               Feb. 15, 1864.

      =Company H.=
  Waldo W. Briggs             Andersonville               May 10, 1864.
  Samuel Thomas               Captured at Campbell's
                                Station, Tenn.            Nov. 16, 1863.
                              Date and place of death unknown.

      =Company I.=
  Charles H. Howe             Andersonville               Aug. 27, 1864.

      =Company K.=
  Matthew Hudson              Florence, S.C.              Nov. 23, 1864.
  Alvin M. Thompson           Belle Isle, Richmond, Va.   Date unknown.

Private Israel H. Smith, of Company C, the sole survivor of ten members
of the regiment captured at Rutledge, Tenn., soon after the raising of
the Siege of Knoxville, has furnished the substance of the following
brief narrative of the circumstances attending the capture and the
sufferings endured by himself and the brave comrades who did not
survive the hardships and cruelty attending their confinement.

While the regiment was encamped at Rutledge, East Tennessee, during
the pursuit of Longstreet, after the Siege of Knoxville, Smith, with
nine other members of the Thirty-sixth, and a small detail from the
Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, under charge of Sergeant Charles H. Boswell,
of the Thirty-sixth, were ordered out on a foraging expedition, the
regiment being greatly in need of subsistence supplies. While out for
this purpose they took possession of an old mill about four miles from
camp. The detail of the Thirty-sixth was composed of Sergeant Charles
H. Boswell, Privates Daniel H. Park, Lucius A. Reynolds, Frederick
Ruth, and Israel H. Smith, of Company C; Hezekiah Aldrich, Calvin
Hubbard, and Patrick Gillespie, of Company G; and Charles H. Howe,
of Company I. These men were in the mill grinding corn, their rifles
stacked in one corner, when, early in the morning of December 15, a boy
came running into the mill saying that the rebels were approaching.
Smith glanced out of the window and saw a squadron of men whom he
supposed from their dress to be Federal Cavalry, but it afterwards
appeared that their blue uniforms had been taken from one of our supply
trains captured a day or two before. They numbered about four hundred,
and immediately surrounding the mill they demanded a surrender.
Resistance being hopeless, our men broke their rifle-stocks and gave
themselves up to the rebel band, which proved to be a detachment of
bushwhackers under General Wheeler. After the surrender the rebels
threatened to shoot their prisoners if they did not give up their
valuables. They took from them everything, money, rings, watches,
keepsakes, and then forced them to give up their clothing, receiving
for it in return the old clothes of the rebels. They were then taken
about two miles from the mill and turned into an open field, where
they spent the night, without shelter of any kind, the rain pouring
in torrents. No fires could be made, and the night was one of great
suffering.

The next day was extremely cold, and they were obliged to march without
covering to their feet, over the rough, frozen roads to Rogersville,
a distance of nearly thirty miles. Here they were turned into an old
brick building. The next morning, the second after their capture, Smith
received one biscuit and a small piece of maggoty bacon. They were then
marched twenty-five miles to Bristol, on the line of the Tennessee and
Virginia Railroad, and put on board the cars and taken _via_ Petersburg
to Richmond. Here they were placed in an old tobacco warehouse, called
Pemberton Castle. The first food given them was hailed with delight.
When first seen some of the men remarked that it appeared to be well
seasoned with pepper, but a closer inspection showed what was supposed
to be whole pepper was, in reality, small bugs, and the dish was termed
"bug" soup.

Smith remained in this place one week, and was then sent to Belle Isle.
Here, though snow lay on the ground, he had no shelter. During the
day he made himself as comfortable as possible on the sunny side of a
bank. At night he was obliged to walk nearly all the time to keep from
freezing. He remained on the island until March 10, 1864, when he was
sent to Andersonville.

Here he was summoned before the notorious Captain Wirz, who recorded
his name, company, and regiment, at the same time cursing him because
he came from Massachusetts. He was then marched into the Stockade, and
placed in the Fourth detachment. His daily rations consisted of one
pint of coarse meal and corn-cob, ground together, with a spoonful of
pea-beans occasionally. His shelter was a hole in the ground. Without
soap or towel or comb, or change of clothing, with nothing to read, and
surrounded by all the depressing scenes of that dreadful place, he soon
became ill, and was scarcely able to help himself; while his comrades
wasted away to skeletons and died before his eyes.

On the 25th of November, 1864, after spending nearly a year in
Southern prison pens, Smith was paroled at Savannah, Ga., and sent to
Annapolis, where he was placed in the hospital, and remained until he
was mustered-out of service. All the members of the regiment who were
captured with him died of disease in rebel prisons.



INDEX.


  Abbott (Private Louis P.), wounded at the Wilderness, 157;
    at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Adams (Private Andrew), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Adams (Corp. Orrick H.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171;
    at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Aldrich (Hon. P. E.), presents colors to the regiment, 7.

  Alexander (Private James), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Alger (Corp. Cyrus), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195;
    at Petersburg, 208.

  Allen (Corp. Courtland A.), wounded at Spottsylvania and captured, 171;
    note, 170.

  Ames (Col. Adelbert), of the Twentieth Maine, 11.

  Ames (Capt. T. Edward), reports siege of Knoxville raised, 118;
    at Cold Harbor, 194;
    commands reconnoitering party, 197;
    in the advance on Petersburg, June 17, 1864, 215;
    in command of regiment, 218;
    slightly wounded, 225;
    in command of regiment, 229;
    at the battle of Pegram Farm, 263;
    assigned to the command of Co. F, 273;
    in the action before Petersburg, April 2, 1864, 291;
    returns with the regiment to Mass., 310;
    record of, 321.

  Ames (Sergt. Thomas J.), wounded at Petersburg, 214.

  Ames (Private Fred C.), dies of wounds at Petersburg, 209.

  Andrew (Gov. John A.), calls for 15,000 men, 1;
    applies for discharge of Lieut.-Col. J. W. Kimball, of Fifteenth
        Mass., in order that he may accept promotion as Col. of the
        Thirty-sixth, 5;
    issues Thanksgiving proclamation to Mass. soldiers in the field, 24.

  Anson (Private E. W.), wounded at Jackson, Miss., 64.

  Antietam (Battle of), 13;
    the scene after the battle, 14.

  Antietam Iron Works, regiment encamps at, 16.

  Arnold (Private Savillion), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Avery (Sergt. Charles K.), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 196.


  Babcock (Lieut. C. S.), returns with the regiment to Mass., 310;
    record of, 328.

  Bailey (Capt. S. H.), commissioned Capt. Co. G.;
    sick in the rear of Vicksburg, 55;
    in command of the skirmish line at the Wilderness, 152;
    mortally wounded at Spottsylvania, 168, 170, 214;
    record of, 321.

  Bailey (Sergt. A. Fernando), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Ball (Mayor), makes an address at Worcester on the return of the
        regiment, 308.

  Bardwell (Private George W.), dies of wounds in the Wilderness, 158.

  Barker (Lt. Col. T. L.), enters Camp Wool, with first detachment for
        regiment, 2;
    in command of regiment, 76;
    commands left wing of the regiment at the Wilderness, 154;
    commands the regiment at Spottsylvania, 169;
    at the North Anna, 180;
    at Cold Harbor, 192;
    wounded at Cold Harbor, 194, 195, 214;
    returns to regiment, 230;
    brigade officer of the day, 242;
    mustered in as major, 244;
    aids in burying our dead, 267;
    receives commission as Lieut.-Col., 269;
    announces consolidation of regiment, 273;
    absent on leave, 278;
    provost-marshal at Farmville, 296, 297;
    in command of the regiment on the return of the Thirty-sixth to Mass.,
        308-310;
    record of, 317.

  Barker (Maj. James H.), commissioned Major of the regiment, 5;
    resigns, 33;
    record of, 318.

  Barrus (Private William J.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Barry (Corp. James H.), wounded in the Wilderness, 158;
    killed in trenches near Petersburg, 226.

  Bartlett (Private Henry), relates circumstances concerning Lieut.
        Daniels' death, at Spottsylvania, 172.

  Barton (Private John H.), wounded in the trenches at Petersburg, 221.

  Battery Noble, 105, 110, 117.

  Battles (Private Frederick C.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Bell (Corp. Frank), tries sharp-shooting at Petersburg, 266.

  Bellows (Private Julius N.), dies of wounds in the Wilderness, 158.

  Benjamin (Lieut.), at Fort Sanders, 109, 112, 113.

  Benjamin's Battery, 61, 98, 99, 101, 109.

  Bethesda Church, 188.

  Biddle (Col.), aids in moving the artillery from Lenoir's, 93.

  Birney (Gen. W.), in the action at the North Anna, 186.

  Bixby (Private Jacob W.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Blake (Hosp. Steward Wm. H.), record of, 328.

  Bliss (Col. Zenas R.), commands brigade, 146;
    injured at Spottsylvania, 164;
    again in command of brigade, 232.

  Blue Springs, battle of, 84, _seq._

  Boswell (Private James S.), dies in regimental hospital, 55.

  Boswell (Lieut. F. W.), record of, 326.

  Bosworth (Private John A.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Bottomley (Corp. Charles), captured at Petersburg, 268.

  Bowers (Rev. C. M.), visits the regiment, 41.

  Bowman (Col. Henry), commissioned Col., 5;
    receives orders to leave with regiment for the seat of war, Sept. 2, 6;
    responds at presentation of colors, 10;
    doubts the genuineness of one of Gen. McClellan's orders, 13;
    reads an order concerning a forward movement, 30;
    reports arrival of regiment at Fortress Monroe, 34;
    absent on leave, 35;
    at Cincinnati, 39;
    conducts a march from Camp Dick Robinson, 41;
    receives an exhilarating despatch in camp at Middleburgh, 44;
    assigned to the command of brigade, 46;
    in the assault on Jackson, 64;
    resigns, 71;
    record of, 317.

  Bradford (Private George F.), wounded in the trenches at Petersburg, 224.

  Bragg (Gen. Braxton), 90, 91, 111, 116, 117.

  Breckenridge (Gen. J. C.), 68, 84.

  Breen (Private Peter), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Brigham (Lieut. W. H.), makes a congratulatory speech in camp at
        Middleburgh, 44;
    goes to Mass. for recruits, 127;
    reported on special duty, 144;
    rejoins regiment, 174;
    in general hospital at Annapolis, 214;
    assigned to Co. G, 273;
    record of, 323.

  Briggs (Sergt. Frederick W.), wounded at Petersburg, 208.

  Brooks (Gen. W. T. H.), Gen. Burnside recommends his dismissal, 31.

  Brooks (Sergt. Stephen T.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Brown (Capt. John H.), receives a medal for gallantry, 315.

  Brown (Private Oscar H.), wounded in the Wilderness, 158.

  Bryant (Asst.-Surgeon Albert H.), commissioned, 5;
    sick at Nicholasville, 76;
    only medical officer with regiment, 174;
    on duty at the field hospital, 214;
    at Fourth Division hospital, 242;
    commissioned Surgeon of Fifty-eighth Mass., but unable to muster, 247;
    returns with regiment to Mass., 310;
    record of, 319.

  Buckley's Battery, 98, 101, 105, 109.

  Buckner (Gen. S. B.), 109, 115.

  Buffum (Capt. Amos), commissioned Captain Co. D, 3;
    in charge of the picket line at Knoxville on the night of the assault
        on Fort Sanders, 110;
    at Spottsylvania, 166;
    coolness in the action, 167;
    in charge of the skirmish line, 174;
    killed in front of Petersburg, 212;
    tribute from Gen. Burnside, 213;
    record of, 321.

  Burns (Gen. W. W.), assumes command of division, 23;
    at Fredericksburg, 26, 27, 28;
    ordered West, 34.

  Burnside (Gen. A. E.), wins a battle at South Mountain, 13, 14;
    head-quarters at Sharpsburg, 15;
    assigned to the command of the army of the Potomac, 21;
    issues order on assuming the command, 22;
    delays in attacking the enemy at Fredericksburg, 25;
    disappointed in the result of the battle at Fredericksburg, 27, 28;
    prepares for another movement against the enemy, 30;
    defeated in his plans, and is relieved at his own request, 31;
    farewell order, 32;
    summons the regiment to Cincinnati on election day, 40;
    saluted by the regiment at Knoxville, 83;
    in command at the battle of Blue Springs, 85;
    congratulates the brigade during the battle, 86;
    orders the Ninth Corps to Knoxville, 87;
    Bragg sends Longstreet against him, 90;
    is directed by Grant to hold Longstreet in check until Sherman
  can come to his relief, 91;
    moves down to Hough's Ferry, 92;
    returns to Lenoir's, 93;
    retreating toward Knoxville, repulses the enemy at Campbell's Station,
        95-98;
    assigns the troops their position at Knoxville, 100;
    in communication with Gen. Grant, 102-103;
    issues a thanksgiving order, 108;
    tenders Longstreet an armistice after the assault on Fort Sanders, 114;
    issues a congratulatory order, 117;
    receives a congratulatory despatch from Grant, 118;
    is notified by Sherman of his approach to relieve Knoxville, 119;
    receives the thanks of Congress, and transfers the command to Gen.
        Foster, 120;
    farewell orders, 120, 121, 122;
    reassigned to the command of the Ninth Corps, which is enlarged by
        recruitment under his supervision, 136, 137;
    reviews the corps with the President, 140-142;
    ordered to join the army of the Potomac, 146;
    order concerning men of the Twenty-ninth Mass., 173;
    at the North Anna, 179;
    waives his rank in favor of Meade, 183;
    at Bethesda Church, 188;
    before Petersburg, 203;
    tribute to Capt. Buffum, 213;
    congratulatory order at Petersburg, 215, note;
    compliments the troops, 216;
    expresses confidence in the plan of a mine suggested by Lieut.-Col.
        Pleasants, 224;
    visits his front line preparatory to the assault, 227;
    fails to get the amount of powder for which he asked, 232;
    his plan of attack overruled by Gen. Meade, 233;
    the plan, 241;
    relinquishes the command of the corps, 245;
    letter in response to an invitation to a meeting of the Burnside
        Association of the Thirty-sixth Regiment, 314, 315.

  Burrage (Capt. Henry S.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 194, 195, 214;
    receives a Captain's commission, 217;
    returns to the regiment, 256;
    in command of skirmish line, in the action at Pegram Farm, 260;
    aids in burying our dead, 267;
    brigade officer of the day, 268;
    assigned to the command of Co. D., 273;
    captured at Petersburg, 274, 275;
    returns to regiment, and appointed A.A.A.G. on staff of Gen. Curtin,
        298;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 322.

  Burton (Sergt. Daniel A.), killed in the trenches at Petersburg, 266.

  Bussenius (Corp. Adolph), wounded at Petersburg, 208.

  Byington (Maj. Cornelius), mortally wounded in front of Fort Sanders,
        108.


  Camp Dick Robinson, 41.

  Campbell's Station, battle at, 95-100.

  Canfield (Chaplain Charles T.), receives commission, 5;
    conducts special religious services at Antietam Iron Works, 16;
    also opposite Fredericksburg, 25;
    preaches on the character of Washington, 35;
    record of, 319.

  Carter (Corp. Albert H.), killed in the Wilderness, 157.

  Carter (Private George I.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Carter (Private Solon), wounded at Cold Harbor, 197.

  Carter (Private Rufus H.), killed in battle at Pegram Farm, 263.

  Cedar Creek, Col. G. D. Wells, Thirty-fourth Mass., killed at, 9.

  Chaffin (Principal Musician, Alfred), record of, 329.

  Chamberlain (Sergt. Edward), wounded at Spottsylvania, 172;
    record of, 326.

  Chamberlain (Private Levi), killed at Spottsylvania, 172.

  Chamberlain (Private Silas), wounded at Spottsylvania, 172.

  Chapin's brigade at Hough's Ferry, 92.

  Chapman (Corp. Walter), promoted to Lieutenant, 313.

  Chapman (Private Leonard A.), killed in the trenches at Petersburg, 230.

  Chase (Private Daniel), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Chase (Private George L.), died of wounds received in the Wilderness,
        157.

  Chase (Private Joseph W.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Chenery (Private Frank), killed at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Childs (Private Daniel V.), killed in the Wilderness, 158.

  Chipman (Lieut. George L.), record of, 323.

  Chisold (Corp. Walter), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Christ's brigade at Campbell Station, 98.

  Clark (Corp. Joseph V.), wounded at Petersburg, 209.

  Coburn (Corp. William H.), died of wounds received in the Wilderness,
        158.

  Cochrane (Gen. J.), dismissal recommended by Gen. Burnside, 31.

  Colburn (Private Augustus F.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Colburn (Private Dwight), killed at Petersburg, 214.

  Cold Harbor, battle at, 190-196.

  Collis (Lieut. Marcus M.), record of, 327.

  Confederate loss at Petersburg, 239, note.

  Confederate troops in the battle at Pegram Farm, 264, note.

  Cooper (Corp. Alexander), wounded at Petersburg, 214.

  Coyle (Private Andrew), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Crosby (Sergt. Edwin F.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Cross (Lieut. R. M.), 3; record of, 323.

  Cross (Lieut. A. W.), recommended for promotion, 217;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 325.

  Cumberland Gap, 85.

  Curtin (Gen. John I.), assumes command of brigade, 155;
    at Stannard's Mills, 177;
    reports to Gen. Hancock at the North Anna, 180;
    in the assault at Petersburg, 205;
    compliments the regiment at Petersburg, 210;
    in the action on the 18th of June, 211;
    where he is wounded in the shoulder, 212;
    coolness in the action at Pegram Farm, 261;
    appointed post-commander at Farmville, 297;
    issues farewell address, 304.

  Cutter (Lieut. John C.), appointed quartermaster, 55;
    record of, 320.

  Cutting (Corp. Nathan F.), wounded at Petersburg, 209.


  Dadman (Private James A.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Daniels (Lieut. H. W.), killed at Spottsylvania, 169-170;
    record of, 324.

  Daniels (Private Myron M.), killed in the Wilderness, 157, 170.

  Davidson (Capt. A. S.), receives commission as 2d Lieut., but is unable
        to muster, 144;
    recommended for promotion to 1st Lieut., 217;
    returns to regiment from hospital, 230;
    mustered in and assigned to Co. G, 232;
    mustered in as Capt., 243;
    in command of Co. G, 273;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 322.

  Davis (Capt. C. W.), assigned to regiment with 21st battalion, 273;
    record of, 327.

  Davis (Lieut. Austin), returns to Mass. on leave, 80;
    still on special duty, 144;
    assigned to Company H., 273;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 323.

  Davis (Lieut. Jonas R.), assigned to regiment with 21st battalion, 273;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 327.

  Davis (Private Josiah B.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Davis (Private Josiah W.), dies of wounds at
  Petersburg, 214.

  Davis (Private Luke K.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Davis (Private Obed R.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Day (Private James H.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Demary (Private John M.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Derby (Sergt. Charles H.), killed on the North Anna, 181.

  Dix (Gen. John A.), reviews the Ninth Corps at Newport News, 35.

  Dolligan (Private James), accidentally killed in camp near Alexandria,
        301.

  Doughty (Corp. James N.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Doyle (Private John), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Doyle (Private Luke), wounded on the North Anna, 182.

  Doyle (Private William H.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 172.

  Draper (Lieut.-Col. William F.), commissioned Capt. Co. F, 4;
    in command of skirmishers at Jackson, 63;
    commissioned Major, 78;
    in command of regiment at Blue Springs after Lieut.-Col. Goodell was
        wounded, 86;
    in command of the regiment at Annapolis, 138;
    wounded at the Wilderness, 154, 157;
    skilfully handles the regiment at Campbell's Station, 196;
    submits list of recommendations for promotions, 217;
    commissioned Lieut.-Col., 230;
    returns to the regiment, 244;
    in command of brigade, 251;
    president of court-martial, 250;
    in the action at Pegram Farm, 261, 262;
    mustered out at expiration of service, and returns to Mass., 269;
    record of, 318.

  Dunn (Private William A.), killed at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Durrell's Battery, 53, 55.


  Edmands (Corp. Benjamin B.), promoted to Lieutenant, 313.

  Edmister (Private Aaron), mortally wounded at Cold Harbor, 198.

  Edmunds' Battery, 45.

  Eighth Michigan, presented with a flag, 35;
    at the battle of Blue Springs, 85, 86;
    proceeds to Knoxville, 87;
    at Lenoir's, 93;
    at Campbell's Station, 94-96;
    in the trenches at Knoxville, 105;
    returns to Michigan, 124.

  Eighty-ninth New York at Fredericksburg, 29.

  Eighth Tennessee at Lick Creek, 84.

  Eleventh New Hampshire in the assault at Petersburg, June 18, 1864, 205;
    captures a piece of artillery, 207;
    a captain in the regiment takes Roger A. Pryor prisoner, 275.

  Elliott (Private Estes E.), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Ellis (Private George H.), killed at Jackson, 64.

  Ellsworth (Private T. L.), wounded at Jackson, 64;
    record of, 328.

  Ely (Col.), raises a flag of the 2d Michigan at Petersburg, 292.

  Emerson (Private John S.), dies of wounds received at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Emory (Lieut. E. F.), Asst. Commissary of the Fourth Division, 139;
    assigned to Co. D on consolidation of the regiment with the
        Twenty-first battalion, 273;
    record of, 324.

  Engly (Private Davis B.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Erin's Station, camp at, 127.


  Fairbank (Capt. John B.), wounded at Campbell's Station, 96;
    brings up his "brigade" in the assault at Petersburg, June 18, 1864,
        206;
    receives a Captain's commission, 227;
    aids in burying our dead, 267;
    assigned to the command of Co. E, 273;
    in command of regiment, 278;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 322.

  Farmville, 296; action of Common Council on death of President Lincoln,
        298, 299.

  Farnsworth (Private Franklin), dies of wounds received at Spottsylvania,
        171.

  Farragut's victory at Mobile saluted, 245.

  Fay (Private M. H.), dies on steamer between Memphis and Cairo, 75.

  Fenno (Private Frank M.), killed in the Wilderness, 157.

  Ferrero (Gen. Edward), dismissal ordered by Gen. Burnside, 31;
    in command of brigade at Jackson, 67, 68;
    Blue Springs, 85, 86;
    moves with his division against Longstreet, 91;
    at Campbell's Station, 98;
    falls back to Knoxville, 100;
    at Knoxville, 101;
    compliments his division, 121, 122;
    assigned to the command of the division of colored troops, 138;
    assigned to the command of Third Division, 255.

  Field (Lieut. Lucius), returns with regiment to Mass., 310;
    record of, 320.

  Fifteenth Mass., 8.

  Fifteenth Indiana Battery, 101.

  Fiftieth New York at Fredericksburg, 26.

  Fifty-first New York, assigned to brigade with Thirty-sixth Mass., 138;
    at the Wilderness, 152, 153;
    in the mine affair, 236, 237;
    at the Weldon R.R., 249;
    number present for duty at reorganization of brigade, 255;
    at Pegram Farm, 260;
    loss in that action, 264.

  Fifty-first Pennsylvania, at the "Crater" in the final assault on
        Petersburg, 284, 285.

  Fifty-sixth Massachusetts, position during winter of 1864-5, 276;
    receives the reënlisted men of the Twenty-first Mass., 307.

  Fifty-eighth Massachusetts, in brigade with the Thirty-sixth, 138;
    at Cold Harbor 198;
    at Petersburg, 206;
    at the mine, 236, 238, 239;
    number present at the reorganization of the brigade, 255;
    the action at Pegram Farm, 260, 264;
    position in the trenches during the winter 1864-5, 276;
    in the final assault at Petersburg, 284.

  Fifty-ninth Georgia, captured at Cumberland Gap, 80.

  Finney (Private John L.), wounded in the trenches at Petersburg, 219.

  First Connecticut Heavy Artillery, in the final assault at Petersburg,
        284, 287, 290.

  First Kansas, at Lake Providence, 51.

  First Rhode Island Cavalry, 13.

  Fisher (Private Abiel), wounded in the trenches at Petersburg, 221.

  Fisher (Sergt. John A.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Fletcher (Private Andrew B.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Fletcher (Private George), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Flynn (Private John), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Forty-fifth Illinois places its flag on the Court House at Vicksburg, 57.

  Forty-fifth Pennsylvania, in Third Brigade, First Division, Ninth Corps,
        17;
    sent to Frederick, Md., 17;
    at Fredericksburg, 27, 28, 29;
    on the journey west, 36;
    at Paris, Ky., 40;
    Col. Welsh promoted, 41;
    at Jackson, Miss., 61, 63;
    returns to Kentucky, 74;
    at the battle of Blue Springs, 85;
    proceeds to Knoxville, 87;
    at Lenoir's, 93;
    at Campbell's Station, 95, 96;
    in the trenches at Knoxville, 104, 105;
    returns to Pennsylvania, having received a furlough for reënlistment,
        125;
    rejoins the corps at Annapolis and gives the Thirty-sixth a welcome,
        134;
    in the Wilderness, 152, 155;
    at Stannard's Mills, 177;
    some of the men make a fortunate find, 187;
    at Cold Harbor, 198;
    on the 17th of June at Petersburg, 206;
    at the
  mine, 236, 238, 239;
    at the Weldon R.R., 249;
    number present for duty on reorganization of the brigade, 255;
    at Pegram Farm, 260, 264;
    in the final assault at Petersburg, 284;
    receives a visit from the Thirty-sixth, 305;
    escorts the Thirty-sixth to the wharf at Alexandria, 307.

  Forty-sixth New York, turns over its men who declined to reënlist to the
        Thirty-sixth Mass., 143;
    loss at Cold Harbor, 196;
    detachment returns to regiment, 197.

  Forty-sixth Ohio at Jackson, Miss., 61, 63.

  Forty-eighth Pennsylvania at Knoxville, 107;
    in the Wilderness, 150;
    at the North Anna, 182;
    in the movement on Petersburg, 202;
    in the assault of June 17th, 205, 207;
    June 18th, 210;
    in the trenches at Petersburg, 221;
    commences excavation of the mine, 224;
    completes the work, 231;
    number present for duty at the reorganization of the brigade, 255;
    in the action at Pegram Farm, 260;
    in the final assault at Petersburg, 284.

  Foskett (Corp. Albert), wounded at Petersburg, 229.

  Foskett (Sergt. Liberty W.), in command of company at Spottsylvania,
        172, note;
    wounded at Petersburg, 208;
    record of, 326.

  Foster (Gen. J. G.), moves to the relief of Knoxville, 117, note;
    reported at Tazewell, 118;
    takes command of the Department of the Ohio, 120;
    relieved by request, 126.

  Foster (Private Josiah), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Fourteenth New York Heavy Artillery, 207.

  Fourteenth Virginia, 37.

  Fourth Rhode Island, arrives at Petersburg, 227;
    at the mine affair, 236;
    in the action at Pegram Farm, 260.

  Franklin (Gen. W. B.), at Fredericksburg, 26;
    "stuck in the mud," 30;
    Burnside recommends his dismissal, 31.

  Frazer (Gen.), taken prisoner at Cumberland Gap, 80.

  Fredericksburg, battle of, 25-29.

  Freeman (Sergt. George E.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  French (Gen. W. H.), at Fredericksburg, 27.

  French (Sergt. Adams E.), mortally wounded at Cold Harbor, 191, 194, 195.

  French (Private John A.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.


  Gallup (Sergt. Leroy B.), mortally wounded at Campbell's Station, 99.

  Gardner (Principal Musician, John), record of, 329.

  Gates (Private Frederick S.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Getting's Battery, 98, 101.

  Gilbert (Corp. Charles), mortally wounded at Petersburg, 224.

  Gilbert (Private Lyman H.), killed at Pegram Farm, 263.

  Giles (Private Sanford), dies of wounds received at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Gird (Capt. J. W.), killed at the Wilderness, 313;
    record of, 323.

  Gleason (Private Jesse), killed at Petersburg, 232.

  Goodell (Lieut.-Col. Arthur A.), Captain of Co. C, 3;
    in command of regiment, 35;
    at Jackson, Miss., 66;
    at Milldale, Miss., 71;
    returns home on leave, 76;
    commissioned Lieut.-Col., 78;
    wounded at Blue Springs, 86;
    rejoins the regiment at Cincinnati, but is obliged to return home, 137;
    resigns, 146;
    record of, 317.

  Goodale (Lieut. Charles S.), returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 328.

  Goodspeed (Lieut. S. A.), resigns, 139;
    record of, 324.

  Gracie (Gen.), at siege of Knoxville, 113, note.

  Granger (Gen. Gordon), sent by Grant to the relief of Burnside at
        Knoxville, 117;
    arrives at Knoxville, 119.

  Grant (Gen. U. S.), scene of his first battle in the war, 49;
    at Vicksburg, 53, 54;
    receives surrender of Pemberton's army, 57;
    orders Sherman to pursue Johnston, 58;
    returns Ninth Corps with congratulatory order, 73;
    prepares to assault Bragg at Chattanooga, 90;
    notifies Burnside of Longstreet's advance, 91;
    impresses upon Burnside the importance of holding Knoxville, 102;
    approves of Burnside's movements, 103;
    hurries troops to relieve Knoxville, 117;
    congratulates the Army of the Ohio on its masterly defence of
        Knoxville, 119;
    receives thanks of Congress and a gold medal, 120;
    reviews Ninth Corps at Annapolis, 137;
    accepts Lee's proffer of battle at the Wilderness, 149;
    at Cold Harbor, 190;
    his passage of the James, 201;
    makes another attempt to turn the enemy's right flank at Petersburg,
        270;
    issues his order for the final assault at Petersburg, 280;
    receives the surrender of Lee, 296.

  Graves (Private Henry E.), wounded at Petersburg, 244.

  Gregg (Lieut.-Col. Theodore), delivers a farewell address to the
        regiment, 305, 306.

  Griffin (Gen. S. G.), at Jackson, Miss., 67;
    in command temporarily of Second Division, 139;
    in the Wilderness, 151;
    at Cold Harbor, 193;
    at Petersburg, June 17, 205;
    paper before Mass. Military Historical Society, 206, note;
    charge at Petersburg, June 18, 211;
    at the mine, 235, 237;
    at Pegram Farm, 260;
    at the final assault at Petersburg, 283;
    assumes command of the division when Gen. Potter was wounded, 287, 289.


  Hadley (Private F. Daniel), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Hale (Private Samuel B.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Hall (Private Hezekiah), wounded in the trenches at Petersburg, 223.

  Hall (Corp. William H.), killed at Spottsylvania, 168, 171.

  Hancock (Gen. W. S.), in the Wilderness, 150, 151;
    at Spottsylvania, 166;
    at the North Anna, 180, 186;
    on the north of the James, Aug. 17 and 18, 1864, 247.

  Hancock (Capt. Joseph), recommended for
    promotion, 217;
    assigned to Co. F, 273;
    record of, 323.

  Hare (Private Dennis), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Harrigan (Private Jerry), mortally wounded July 17, 1864, 230.

  Harriman (Col. Walter), in the final assault at Petersburg, 283, 287.

  Hartranft (Gen. J. F.), on the retreat from Lenoir's, 93, 94, 95;
    at Campbell's Station, 98, 99;
    in the trenches at Knoxville, 101;
    Provisional Commander at Annapolis, 135;
    in the Wilderness, 155;
    at Petersburg, June 18, 211;
    gallant charge at Fort Stedman, 280;
    in the final assault at Petersburg, 283, 284, 289.

  Harty (Private William), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Harwood (Lieut. George W.), record of, 325.

  Hascall (Gen. M. S.), in the trenches at Knoxville, 101.

  Haskell (Corp. Joseph L.), dies of wounds received in the Wilderness,
        157.

  Haskell (Lieut. Thomas H.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171;
    recommended for promotion, 217;
    returns to regiment with commission as First Lieutenant, 228;
    appointed Adjutant of regiment;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 320.

  Hastings (Capt. Christopher S.), commissioned Captain Co. I, 4;
    dies in hospital, 76;
    record of, 321.

  Haven (Private George F.), dies of wounds received at Knoxville, 114.

  Hawkes (Lieut.-Col. Geo. P.), leads assault at Knoxville, 107.

  Hayward (Private Joseph F.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Higgins (Corp. John J.), wounded at Jackson, 64;
    wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Hodgkins (Capt. William H.), makes a congratulatory speech in camp at
        Middleburgh, 44;
    appointed acting Assistant Adj.-General, 47;
    returns to Mass. on special service, 80;
    rejoins the regiment near Rutledge, Tenn., 123;
    on the staff of Gen. Ferrero, 251;
    assigned to command of Co. B, 273;
    at Fort Stedman on staff of Gen. Hartranft, 281;
    in the final assault at Petersburg, 290;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 320.

  Hodgman (Private Eugene W.), dies of wounds received at Spottsylvania,
        171.

  Hoffman (Corp. Max.), killed June 17, 1864, at Petersburg, 209.

  Holbrook (Lieut. W. S.), resigns, 71;
    record of, 326.

  Holmes (Capt. O. W.), returns to Mass. on special service, 80;
    in command of reconnoitring party, 145;
    killed at Petersburg, June 17, 1864, 208, 214;
    record of, 321.

  Holmes (Lieut. P. Marion), wounded at Blue Springs, 86;
    killed at Campbell's Station, 97;
    record of, 323.

  Hooker (Gen. Joseph), at Fredericksburg, 26;
    "stuck in the mud," 30;
    recommended for dismissal by Burnside, 31;
    assigned to the command of the army of the Potomac, and letter of
        President Lincoln, 32, 33.

  Houghton (Private Josiah), dies of wounds received in the Wilderness,
        158.

  Howard (Private O.), wounded at Jackson, Miss., 64.

  Howe (Lieut. W. F.), dies in camp, July 7 1863, 55;
    record of, 326.

  Howe (Lieut. Rufus), returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 326.

  Howe (Private Franklin), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Howell (Private Silas J.), wounded in the Wilderness, 158.

  Hoyt (Private Amos), killed at Jackson, 64.

  Hudson (Private Matthew), captured at Spottsylvania, 172.

  Humes (acting Sergt.-Major Joseph A.), mortally wounded at Cold Harbor,
        194, 195.

  Humphrey (Col. William), covers the retreat from Lenoir's, 95.

  Humphreys (Gen. A. A.), at Fredericksburg, 27.

  Hungry Hollow, 23.


  Jackson, Miss., operations at, 60, 70.

  Jackson (Private Reuben), captured at Petersburg, 268.

  Jackson (Gen. Thos. J.), receives surrender of Harper's Ferry, 14.

  Jackson (Gen.), in command of Johnston's cavalry, 68.

  Jenkins (Gen. M.), in Tennessee with Longstreet, 99, note; 106, note;
        115, 116.

  Johnson (Gen. B.), at Petersburg, June 15, 1864, 203.

  Johnson (Gen. B. R.), joins Longstreet at Knoxville, 115.

  Johnston (Gen. J.), in Grant's rear at Vicksburg, 53, 54, 56;
    Sherman sent in pursuit of, 58;
    at Jackson, 60, 64;
    retreats, 67;
    estimate of his force, 68.

  Jones (Rev. J. W., D.D.), Secretary of Southern Historical Society, 116.

  Jones's Eleventh Mass. Battery at Spottsylvania, 176;
     at Petersburg, 211.


  Keenan (Private John), killed at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Keep (Corp. Marcus), mortally wounded at Spottsylvania, 174.

  Kelley (Private Frank S.), dies of wounds in the Wilderness, 157.

  Keyes (Sergt. George E.), killed at Petersburg, 208.

  Kimball (Sergt. Herbert A.), saves Col. Draper's life, 154.

  Kimball (Col. J. W.), commissioned Colonel of the Thirty-sixth, 5.

  Knowlton (Private James), tries sharp-shooting at Petersburg, 266.

  Knoxville, 91, 101, _seq._


  Lamont (Private Daniel), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Lamont (Sergt. John), wounded in the Wilderness, 157;
    at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Lane's (Brigade), at Spottsylvania, 167;
    at Pegram Farm, 264, note.

  Lauman (Gen.), division of, at Jackson, 64.

  Lavin (Private Luke), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Law (Gen.), at Campbell's Station, 99.

  Leasure (Col. D.), submits plan of attack at
  Fredericksburg, 27;
    at Fredericksburg, 29;
    in command at Lexington, Ky., 39;
    in pursuit of Morgan, 45.

  Ledlie (Gen. J. H.), selected by lot to lead the assault at the mine,
        233.

  Lee (Gen. R. E.), directs the holding of South Mountain, 13;
    fortifies the heights of Fredericksburg, 25;
    in Pennsylvania, 56;
    defeated at Gettysburg, 66;
    prepares to attack Grant at the Wilderness, 148;
    at the North Anna, 179;
    surrenders at Appomattox, 296.

  Leighton (Private Hazen D.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Lenoir's, camp at, 88, 89;
    the retreat from, 93, _seq._

  Lexington, Ky., 39, 40.

  Lincoln, President, calls for 300,000 volunteers, 1;
    reviews the Ninth Corps at Antietam Iron Works, 16;
    directs special religious services to be held, 25;
    relieves Gen. Burnside, 31;
    places Gen. Hooker at the head of the Army of the Potomac, 32;
    letter to Gen. Hooker announcing his appointment, 32, 33;
    issues a proclamation, directing special religious services, 120;
    receives a marching salute from the Ninth Corps, 140, 141;
    enters Petersburg after the surrender, 293;
    announcement of his assassination, 298;
    action of the Common Council of the town of Farmville concerning his
        death, 298, 299.

  Littlefield (Corp. Ammiel), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Logan (Gen. J. A.), takes possession of the works at Vicksburg, 57.

  Logee (Corp. Stephen F.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Long (Corp. Michael), wounded in the Wilderness, 154, 157.

  Longstreet (Gen. J.), moves against Burnside, 90, 91;
    endeavors to cut off his retreat at Campbell's Station, 95;
    at the battle of Campbell's Station, 98, 99;
    follows Burnside to Knoxville cautiously, 103;
    extract from his official report, 106, note;
    prepares for an assault on Fort Sanders, 111;
    his loss from Nov. 14 to Dec. 4, 113, note;
    his official report of the assault on Fort Sanders, 114-116;
    letters to Gen. McLaws and Gen. Jenkins, 116, note;
    raises the siege, 118;
    attacks the cavalry at Bean's Station, 123;
    withdraws to Morristown, 124;
    and beyond, 128.

  Loughlin (Private Michael), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Lowell (Corp. Lucius), wounded in the Wilderness, 157;
    also in the trenches at Petersburg, 228.

  Lund (Private Edwin W.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.


  Macomber (Corp. Henry), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Macomber (Corp. William), is made color-bearer, 209.

  Mandell (Private Algernon S.), wounded in the Wilderness, 158.

  Marble (Private Truman), wounded in the Wilderness, 158.

  Marcy (Gen. R. B.), 13.

  Margenot (Private Belthezar), killed at Pegram Farm, 263.

  Marshall (Capt. J. A.), wounded at the Wilderness, 155, 157;
    returns to the regiment, 230;
    assigned to command of Co. A;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 322.

  Martin (Corp. Edwin A.), killed at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Maryland Heights, 17.

  May (Sergt. Thomas), wounded on the North Anna, 181.

  Maynard (Private Judson), wounded at Petersburg, 230.

  Maynard (Private Martin), wounded at Petersburg, and leg amputated, 230.

  Mayo (Corp. Henry H.), dies of wounds received in the Wilderness, 157.

  McCabe's "Defence of Petersburg," extract from, 221.

  McClellan (Gen. George B.), meets with a reverse on the Chickahominy, 1;
    again in command of the army of the Potomac, 12;
    orders troops forward, 13;
    reviews the Ninth Corps with President Lincoln, 16;
    is relieved from the command of the army of the Potomac, 21.

  McDermott (Lieut. F. M.), assigned to Co. I, 273;
    record of, 327.

  McDowell (Private Lyman), captured at Petersburg, 268.

  McGrath (Private John), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196;
    wounded at Petersburg, 218.

  McLaws (Gen.), at Campbell's Station, 99, note;
    at Knoxville, 106, note;
    force under his command in the assault on Fort Sanders, 111, 115;
    letter from Gen. Longstreet, 116.

  McPherson (Gen. J. B.), at Vicksburg, 56, 57.

  Meade (General George G.), at Fredericksburg, 27;
    at Gettysburg, 56;
    overrules Burnside's plan of attack at the mine, 233;
    order announcing President's day of fasting and prayer, 243;
    visits the line at the left, 267;
    directions for the Ninth Corps in the final assault at Petersburg, 283;
    announces the death of President Lincoln, 298.

  Merlin, Second Maryland, execution of, 269.

  Merrick (Sergt. Lucius L.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157;
    mortally wounded at Pegram Farm, 263;
    his religious character, 313.

  Merritt (Corp. Fanning T.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Miles (Col. D. S.), surrenders Harper's Ferry, 14.

  Miller (Sergt. J. Hervey), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Mills (Corp. George H.), captured at Petersburg, 268.

  Mine, the affair at the, 235-241.

  Montague (Sergt. Benj. F.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Monument for Maine soldiers on the Rappahannock, 147.

  Moore (Corp. Andrew), killed at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Morgan (Private Andrew J.), killed in the Wilderness, 157.

  Morgan (John), paroles Quartermaster-Sergt. Sawyer and Private James E.
        Spear, 48.

  Morrison (Col. David), assumes command of brigade, 71;
    at Lenoir's, 93, 94;
    at Campbell's Station, 95, 96, 98;
    at Knoxville, 104, 105;
    in pursuit of Longstreet, 128, 129, 130;
    visits the regiment at the Wilderness before being mustered out, 159.

  Morrow (Lieut. W. H.), assigned to Co. K, 273;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 327.

  Morse (Capt. E. A.), at Catlett's Station, 143;
    rejoins the regiment, 146;
    wounded at Spottsylvania, 169, 170;
    returns to the regiment, 230;
    at Pegram Farm, 263;
    mustered out at expiration of service, 269;
    record of, 322.

  Morton (Private Lemuel), killed at Spottsylvania, 172, note.

  Moseley (Sergt. C. Henry), wounded at Petersburg, 225.

  Mott (Lieut. A. R.), assigned to Co. I, 273;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 327.

  Mower (Sergt. Livingston), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Murdoch (Private H. A.), wounded at Petersburg, 227.


  Newport News, at, 34-36.

  Newton (Gen. John), Burnside recommends his dismission, 31.

  Nineteenth Massachusetts at Fredericksburg, 26.

  Ninth Michigan Cavalry in the East Tennessee campaign, 84.

  Ninth New Hampshire at Petersburg, 223.

  Noi (Private Henry), wounded in the Wilderness, 158;
    at Spottsylvania, 172.

  Norton (Lieut.-Col. J. B.), Captain Co. B, 3;
    commissioned Lieut.-Col., 5;
    rejoins the regiment, 41;
    at Jackson, Miss., 64, 65;
    resigns, 71;
    record of, 317.

  North Anna, battle at the, 178-182.

  Nourse (Corp. George E.), killed in the Wilderness, 156, 158.

  Noyes (Lieut. Edmund W.), record of, 326.


  Oakes (Private Thomas), killed at Petersburg, 243.

  Olcott (Sergt. Hiram W.), wounded at Petersburg, June 18, 1864, 214;
    recommended for promotion, 217;
    record of, 325.

  One-hundredth Pennsylvania, in Third Brigade, First Div., Ninth Corps,
        15;
    goes to Frederick, 17;
    at Fredericksburg, 27, 28, 29;
    at Lexington, 40;
    at Middleburgh, 44;
    at Columbia, 45;
    in the trenches at Knoxville, 106;
    reënlists and returns to Penn., 125;
    in the reorganization of the corps at Annapolis, 238.

  One hundred and third Ohio in East Tennessee, 83.

  One hundred and fourteenth Illinois at Vicksburg, 52.

  One hundred and fourteenth Pennsylvania in the final assault on
        Petersburg, 289.

  Ord (Gen. E. C.), in the pursuit of Johnston, 58.

  Organization of the Thirty-sixth Mass., 1-5.

  Osborn (Lieut. Samuel), record of, 325.

  Osborn's New York Battery, 85.


  Packard (Private J. Wesley), wounded at Petersburg, 208;
    killed in the trenches at Petersburg, 240.

  Paine (Corp. Geo. W.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Parke (Gen. J. G.), at Jackson, Miss., 64;
    assigned to command of Second Division Ninth Corps, 138;
    appointed chief of Ninth Corps staff, 139;
    in command of the corps,
  255;
    in the final assault on Petersburg, 283;
    official report of the assault, 286-289;
    anticipates the evacuation, 292;
    in subsequent movements, 294.

  Parker (Corp. Cornelius G.), dies Nov. 5, 1863, first death in the
        regiment, 21.

  Parrish (Hosp. Steward Geo. F.), record of, 329.

  Partridge (Private Lyman F.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Patten (Corp. Isaac R.), killed in the Wilderness, 158.

  Patterson (Private Stephen H.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 195.

  Peebles House, fight near the, 259.

  Pegram Farm, action at, 258-265.

  Pemberton (Gen. J. C.), in command at Vicksburg, 54;
    hopelessness of relief, 56;
    surrenders, 57.

  Perham (Private D.), wounded at Jackson, Miss., 64.

  Perkins (Private Francis A.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Perley (Lieut. George A.), returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 325.

  Perry (Corp. Geo. W.), dies in camp, 23.

  Perry (Corp. Fred L.), wounded in the trenches at Petersburg, 244.

  Petersburg, first assault on, 202-215;
    final assault, 282-291;
    surrender of, 292.

  Phelps (Lieut. B.), returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 328.

  Phelps (Quartermaster-Sergt. Geo. T.), record of, 328.

  Pierce (Private Arthur F.), dies in camp, 24.

  Pierce (Sergt. Jerome), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Pleasant Valley, camp in, 17.

  Pleasants (Lieut.-Col. Henry), in command of brigade, 212;
    suggests the excavation of a mine at Petersburg, 224;
    obstacles which he encountered, 225;
    the work successfully accomplished, 231;
    explodes the mine, 234.

  Poe (Capt. O. M.), selects the line of defence at Knoxville, 100.

  Pollard's account of the force of the Confederates in the assault on
        Fort Sanders, 111.

  Porter (Admiral D. D.), with a part of the fleet, joins the batteries at
        Vicksburg, 53.

  Potter (Gen. R. B.), on his way to Vicksburg, 50;
    at Jackson, Miss., 67;
    at Campbell's Station, 98;
    assigned to command of the brigade, 138;
    to the command of the division, 139;
    at the Wilderness, 151;
    at Spottsylvania, 174, 176, 177;
    at the North
  Anna, 181;
    at the Chickahominy, 185, 186;
    at Cold Harbor, 198;
    at the final assault on Petersburg, 204;
    compliments the regiment on the assault, 210;
    in the trenches, 215;
    reviews the brigade, 218;
    approves Lieut.-Col. Pleasants' plan of mining the "Elliott salient,"
        224;
    should have led the assault on the mine, 233;
    at the assault, 235, 237-239;
    at the Weldon R.R., 249;
    in command of the Second Division, 255;
    at Pegram Farm, 259, 262;
    in the final assault, 283;
    severely wounded, 287.

  Pratt (Private John W.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Prescott (Major A.), killed at the Crater, 242, 313;
    record of, 321.

  Priest (Private John T.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171;
    at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Prince (Surgeon J. P.), commissioned, 5;
    first amputation, 46;
    in charge of hospital-boat, 73;
    rejoins the regiment, 78;
    chief medical officer Fourth Division, 139, 242;
    record of, 319.

  Pryor (Roger A.), captured at Petersburg, 275.


  Rackliffe (Private John S.), killed at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Ranlett (Adjt. S. A.), receives his appointment, 25;
    resumes his duties after illness, 47;
    resigns, 217;
    record of, 319.

  Rantoul (Hon. R. S.), extract from Memorial-Day address, 140, 142.

  Rawson (Sergt. Gilbert), takes the State color, 154;
    remark of Color-Sergt. Todd, 156;
    at Pegram Farm, 262;
    record of, 327.

  Raymond (Capt. E. T.), returns to Mass. on special duty, 45;
    appointed on brigade staff, 47, 139, 144;
    at the Weldon R.R., 249;
    on Gen. Potter's staff, 290;
    commissioned Major, 310;
    record of, 318.

  Raymond (Sergt. Charles), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Raymond (Private George A.), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Reed (Private Luther P.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Reno (Gen. J. L.), killed at South Mountain, 14.

  Renouf (Private William L.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Rice (Quartermaster F. B.), commissioned, 5;
    resigns and receives his discharge, 55;
    record of, 320.

  Rice (Lieut. John A.), resigns, 139;
    record of, 324.

  Rice (Corp. Henry H.), wounded at the North Anna, 182.

  Rich (Corp. Joshua), killed in the Wilderness, 157.

  Rich (Private J. Monroe), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Richardson (Chaplain N.), joins the regiment, 173;
    returns to Mass. with regiment, 310;
    record of, 319.

  Robertson (Private James H.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Robinson (Lieut. H. S.), wounded at Blue Springs, 86;
    record of, 323.

  Robinson (Corp. Clark), wounded, June 17, at Petersburg, 208.

  Robinson (Private Charles H.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Roemer's Battery, at Blue Springs, 86;
    near Loudon, 93;
    at Campbell's Station, 98, 99;
    at Knoxville, 101, 104, 110;
    at Petersburg, 210;
    at Pegram Farm, 262.

  Rose (Lieut.), musters out the regiment, 307.

  Russell (Private Henry), mortally wounded at Petersburg, 244.


  Sanders (Gen. N. B.), mortally wounded before Knoxville, 103.

  Sanders (Fort), 101, 108, 109;
    assault on, 111-116.

  Sawtell (Corp. Alden J.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Sawyer (Capt. C.), commissioned Captain Co. H, in command of the picket,
        50;
    in hospital, 55;
    record of, 321.

  Sawyer (Lieut. W. H.), assigned to Co. K, 273;
    record of, 327.

  Sawyer (Quartermaster-Sergt. J. H.), accidentally wounded, 46;
    captured by Morgan, 48;
    record of, 328.

  Sager (Private), dies in regimental hospital, 25.

  Schofield (Gen. J. M.), receives command of the Army of the Ohio, 127.

  Searles (Private Edwin), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Second East Tennessee at Bull's Gap, 83.

  Second Michigan in Virginia, 29; at Jackson, Miss., 66;
    on the retreat from Lenoir's, 95;
    at Knoxville, 108;
    at Petersburg, 292.

  Second New York Rifles at Petersburg, 17th June, 205, 206;
    in review, 218;
    adjutant killed, 223;
    at the mine, 236, 237, 239;
    in the trenches, 250;
    picket line captured at the Boisseau house, 267.

  Sedgwick (Gen. John), assigned to the command of the Ninth Corps, at the
        Wilderness,150.

  Seventeenth Michigan in Kentucky, 46;
    on the Mississippi, 51;
    at Jackson, Miss., 61;
    at Milldale, 72;
    on the retreat from Lenoir's, 95;
    makes a sortie at Knoxville, 106;
    assigned to Willcox's Division, 138.

  Seventeenth Vermont in the assault at Petersburg, June 17, 1863, 205,
        207;
    in the trenches, 276.

  Seventh Maine Battery at Petersburg, 244.

  Seventh Michigan at Fredericksburg, 26.

  Seventh Ohio Cavalry in Tennessee, 84.

  Seventh Rhode Island assigned to Potter's Brigade, 138;
    in review, 218;
    at the mine, 236;
    number present for duty in Sept., 1864, 255;
    at Pegram Farm, 260, 264.

  Seventy-ninth New York (Highlanders) on the return from Jackson, Miss.,
        72;
    furnishes the Thirty-sixth with a surgeon, 76;
    at Blue Springs, 85, 87;
    at Knoxville, 106;
    in the assault on Fort Sanders, 112;
    on the Chucky Valley road, 130;
    assigned to Willcox's Division, 138.

  Severance (Rev. Mr.), delivers an eulogy on President Lincoln at
        Farmville, 299.

  Shaw (Private George D.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Shepardson (Private John), killed at Petersburg, 208.

  Sherman (Gen. W. T.), ordered to pursue Johnston, 58;
    at Jackson, 64, 65, 67;
    losses at Jackson, 68, 69;
    sent to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, 117;
    reaches Knoxville, 119;
    news of his success in piercing the Confederacy reaches the Army of
        the Potomac, 278.

  Sheridan (Gen. P.), on the left at Petersburg, 281.

  Sheridan (Corp. B.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Sibley (Lieut. F. H.), dies in hospital, 76;
    record of, 324.

  Sigel (Gen. F.), at White Sulphur Springs, 23.

  Sigfried (Col. J. K.), falls back to Lenoir's, 93;
    in command of the brigade, 139;
    transferred to the Fourth Division, 146.

  Simcoe (Capt.), inspects the regiment and reports, 78.

  Sixteenth Wisconsin at Lake Providence, 51.

  Sixtieth Alabama at Knoxville, 113, note.

  Sixty-first Massachusetts in the final assault at Petersburg, 290.

  Sixty-second North Carolina captured at Cumberland Gap, 80.

  Sixty-fourth North Carolina captured at Cumberland Gap, 80.

  Sixty-eighth Pennsylvania in the final assault at Petersburg, 289.

  Smith (Gen. W. F.), Burnside recommends his dismission, 31.

  Smith (Col. W. H.), of the Twentieth Michigan, killed on the retreat
        from Lenoir's, 95.

  Smith (Lt.-Col. L. N.), at City Point, 225;
    commissary at army head quarters, 313;
    record of, 323.

  Smith (Capt. J. B.), commissioned captain Co. K, 4;
    returns to regiment, 83;
    goes to Massachusetts on special duty, 127;
    welcomed back, 174;
    in charge of skirmish line on the North Anna, 182;
    at Cold Harbor commands the left of the regiment, 192;
    gets a scratch at Cold Harbor, 194;
    narrowly escapes capture, 198;
    division officer of the day, 199, 200;
    in command of the regiment at Petersburg, June 17, '64, 206, 214, 215;
    forwards to Gov. Andrew list of recommendations for promotion, 217;
    on court-martial duty, 218;
    division officer of the trenches, 229;
    brigade officer of the day, 231;
    judge-advocate of court martial, 256;
    wounded at Pegram Farm, 263;
    assigned to command of Co. C, 273;
    returns to Mass. with the regiment, 310;
    record of, 318.

  Smith (Private Albert C.), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Smith (Private Chester J.), dies of wounds received in the Wilderness,
        157.

  Smith (Private Israel H.), narrative of capture and prison experience
        of, 387.

  Smith (Private James), wounded at Jackson, 64.

  Smith (Corp. William N.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Snell (Private M. Porter), receives a Lieutenant's commission, 313.

  South Mountain, battle at, 13, 14.

  Spear (Private James E.), remains with Quartermaster-Sergt. Sawyer, at
        Columbia, and is captured, 48;
    wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Spottsylvania, battle at, 160-177.

  Stacy (Corp. Edward W.), killed in the Wilderness, 157.

  Stearns (Sergt. John A.), returns from recruiting service, 172;
    wounded June 18, 1864, at Petersburg, 214;
    recommended for promotion, 217;
    record of, 325.

  Stedman, action at Fort, 280, 281.

  Steere (Col. W. H. P.), in command of brigade, 227;
    returns home on account of disability, 232.

  Stephens (Alexander H.), with Peace Commissioners goes to City Point,
        278.

  Stevens (Corp. Joseph H.), wounded June 17, 1864, at Petersburg, 209.

  Stevens (Private Robert), wounded in the Wilderness, 158.

  Strickland (Principal Musician Lorenzo C.), record of, 329.

  Sturgis (Gen. S. D.), Gen. Burnside recommends his dismission, 31.

  Sullivan (Private Michael), celebrates the surrender of Lee, 296.

  Sumner (Gen. E. V.), reviews the Ninth Corps, 24;
    at the battle of Fredericksburg, 26;
    is relieved of his command at his own request, 33.

  Swords (Private Henry L.), receives a commission as Captain, 313.


  Taylor (Col.), Gen. Burnside recommends his dismission, 31.

  Taylor (Private Orin F.), wounded at Petersburg, 221.

  Thirty-first Maine in the trenches at Petersburg, 277.

  Thirty-second Massachusetts, organization of the, 2.

  Thirty-second Maine in the assault at Petersburg, June 17, 1864, 205.

  Thirty-third Massachusetts, organization of the, 2.

  Thirty-fourth Massachusetts, organization of the, 2;
    Maj. Henry Bowman receives commission as Colonel of the Thirty-sixth,
        5;
    leaves Worcester and is stationed near Alexandria, 12.

  Thirty-fifth Massachusetts, organization of the, 2;
    at South Mountain, 14;
    at Jackson, Miss., 61;
    enters the city, 67;
    number present for duty Sept., 1864, 255.

  Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, organization of the regiment, 1-6;
    presentation of national colors, 7-10;
    leaves for the seat of war, 11;
    arrives in Washington and is assigned to the Ninth Corps, 12;
    marches through Maryland and joins the army at Antietam, 13, 14;
    assigned to the Third Brigade, First Division, Ninth Corps, 15;
    encamps at Antietam Iron Works, 16;
    in Pleasant Valley, 17;
    hastens to Fredericksburg at the time of Stuart's raid into
        Pennsylvania, 17, 18;
    with the army crosses into Virginia, 19;
    at Waterford, 20;
    advances to Fredericksburg, 21-24;
    battle of Fredericksburg, 25-29;
    in camp opposite Fredericksburg, 30-33;
    at Newport News, 34-36;
    is transferred to the Army of the Ohio, 37, 38;
    at Lexington, Ky., 39, 40;
    at Camp Dick Robinson, 41;
    in Southern Kentucky, 42-47;
    ordered to Vicksburg, 48;
    on the Mississippi, 49-51;
    in the rear of Vicksburg, 52-57;
    in operations against Jackson, 58-70;
    returns to Vicksburg, 71;
    ordered North, 74, 75;
    condition of the regiment, 76;
    recruits at Crab Orchard, Ky., 77, 78;
    _en route_ to East Tenn. by way of Cumberland Gap, 79-83;
    in battle of Blue Springs, 84-87;
    in camp at Lenoir's, 88-89;
    in the movement against Longstreet, below Loudon, 90-92;
    again at Lenoir's, 93, 94;
    at the battle of Campbell's Station, 95-99;
    in the retreat to Knoxville, 100;
    at the siege of Knoxville, 101-122;
    in subsequent movements in East Tenn., 123-130;
    ordered to Annapolis, Md., 131;
    marches into Kentucky, 132;
    reaches Annapolis, 134;
    in camp at Annapolis, 135-139;
    marches to Alexandria, 140-142;
    at Catlett's Station, 143-146;
    rejoins the Army of the Potomac, 146-149;
    in the Wilderness, 150-159;
    at Spottsylvania, 160-177;
    on the North Anna and the Pamunkey, 178-187;
    at Cold Harbor, 188-200;
    in the movement on Petersburg, 201-203;
    gallant assault, 204-209;
    subsequent movements, 210-215;
    in the trenches, 216-230;
    during the mine affair, 231-241;
    still in the trenches, 242-247;
    at the Weldon R.R., 248-252;
    in the Pines, 253-257;
    in the action at Pegram Farm, 258-265;
    again in the trenches, 266-272;
    consolidation of Twenty-first Mass. with the regiment, 272, 273;
    in Fort Rice, 276-279;
    the action at Fort Stedman participated in by some of the officers,
        280-281;
    final assault at Petersburg, 282-291;
    the fall of Petersburg, 292;
    on the march, 293-295;
    at Farmville, 296-299;
    ordered to Alexandria, 300-301;
    at the great review, 302, 303;
    receives Gen. Curtin's farewell address, 304;
    farewell visit to Forty-fifth Penn., 305, 306;
    mustered out of the service and returns to Mass., 307;
    reception of the regiment at Worcester, 308-310;
    discharged from the service, 311;
    conclusion, 312-315.

  Thirty-seventh Massachusetts, organization of the, 2.

  Thirty-seventh Wisconsin in the final assault at Petersburg, 284.

  Thirty-eighth Wisconsin in the final assault at Petersburg, 284.

  Thirty-Ninth New Jersey in the final assault at Petersburg, 284.

  Thomas (Gen. G. H.), at Chattanooga, 103.

  Thompson (Private Henry A.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Thornton (Private John J.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 105.

  Tiffany (Sergt. B. B.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Todd (Sergt. Henry), killed in the Wilderness, 154, 156, 157.

  Tucker (Lieut. J. M.), resigns and returns to Mass., 71;
    serves subsequently in the Fifty-seventh Mass., and is severely
        wounded, 313;
    record of, 326.

  Turnbull (Private William), wounded at Petersburg, 214.

  Tuttle (Lieut. A. S.), arrives at Camp Wool with first detachment of Co.
        F., 4;
    in charge of division ambulance corps, 79;
    returns to Mass. with the regiment, 310;
    record of, 320.

  Twelfth Michigan Battery at Morristown, Tenn., 82, 83.

  Twentieth Maine accompanies the Thirty-sixth to Alexandria on the
        steamer Merrimac, 11, 12.

  Twentieth Massachusetts at Fredericksburg, 26.

  Twentieth Michigan in the retreat from Lenoir's, 95;
    beyond Morristown, 130.

  Twentieth New York in the final assault at Petersburg, 290.

  Twenty-first Massachusetts in North Carolina, 9;
    at Knoxville, 107;
    number present for duty in Sept., 1864, 255;
    at Pegram Farm, 260;
    consolidated with the Thirty-sixth, 272;
    transferred to the Fifty-sixth, 307.

  Twenty-fifth Massachusetts furnishes officers for the Thirty-sixth, 3, 4;
    in North Carolina, 9.

  Twenty-seventh Michigan in Kentucky, 42, 44;
    in brigade assignment, 46;
    at Jackson, Miss., 61;
    on the return from Vicksburg, 74;
    in the final assault at Petersburg, 284.

  Twenty-ninth Massachusetts at Jackson, Miss., 61;
    in the assault at Fort Sanders, 112;
    transfers its non-reënlisted men to the Thirty-sixth Mass., 126;
    these men mustered out at Spottsylvania, 173.

  Twitchell (Private Hartwell C.), captured in the Wilderness, 157.

  Tyler (Asst. Surgeon Warren), receives commission, 5;
    record of, 319.


  Underwood (Sergt. Charles), wounded at Petersburg, 263.


  Vaughan (Private Samuel G.), wounded in the Wilderness, 158;
    dies of wounds received at Spottsylvania, 171, 172.

  Vicksburg, operations at, 52-57.

  Von Schlein's Battery at Campbell's Station, 98.


  Wadsworth (Gen. J. S.), in the Wilderness, 152.

  Walker (Private J. L.), wounded at Petersburg, 240.

  Wallace (Private Franklin), wounded at Petersburg, 209.

  Ward (Col. George H.), in command of Camp John E. Wool, 2;
    endeavors to secure a furlough for the regiment, 5;
    visits the regiment in camp opposite Fredericksburg, 34.

  Ward (Private Edmund S.), dies of wounds received at Petersburg, June
        17, 1864, 209.

  Warren (Gen. G. K.), at the Weldon R.R., 248, 251;
    at Nottaway, 277.

  Warriner (Capt. S. C.), discharged from Tenth Mass., in order to accept
        a commission in the Thirty-sixth Mass., 3;
    in command of the picket at Jackson, 65;
    resigns and returns to Mass., 139;
    record of, 321.

  Washburn (Ostenello, Sergt.-Major), wounded at Pegram Farm, 263;
    record of, 328.

  Waterford, Va., camp at, 20.

  Waters (Private Edward), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Webb (Corp. Robert F.), killed at Pegram Farm, 263.

  Weldon Railroad, battle at, 248, 252.

  Wells (Col. G. D.), killed near Cedar Creek, 9, note.

  Welsh [not Welch, as on pages cited] (Gen. T.), in command of brigade,
        15;
    orders roll-call, 17;
    receives promotion and assumes command of the division, 41.

  Westcott (Private C. M.), killed in the Wilderness, 157.

  Wetherbee (Private Ashael), wounded at Petersburg, 209.

  Wetherbee (Private Henry W.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Wheeler (Gen.), with Longstreet in the movement against Knoxville, 90,
        91.

  Wheeler (Private Charles H.), wounded in the Wilderness, 158;
    wounded at Petersburg, 245.

  Wheelock (Private Joseph B.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Whipple (Sergt. Albert B.), wounded at Petersburg, June 17, 1864, 208.

  White (Gen.), with a division of the twenty-third Corps, advances
        against Longstreet, 92;
    on the retreat from Lenoir's, 95;
    at Campbell's Station, 98;
    at Knoxville, 101.

  White (Orderly Sergt. A. A.), in command of Co. I, and receives a
        commission as Second Lieutenant, 144;
    in the Wilderness, 156;
    wounded at Spottsylvania, 169;
    why he could not be mustered in, 217;
    moral influence in the regiment, 313;
    record of, 324.

  White (Corp. Roland N.), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Whitney (Private Augustus S.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Whitney (Lieut. Chas. W.), record of, 326.

  Whitney (Private Francis L.), dies of wounds received at Cold Harbor,
        195.

  Whitney (Private William F.), wounded at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Wilderness, battle of the, 149-159.

  Willcox (Gen. O. B.), in command of the First Division, Ninth Corps, 15;
    orders day of special religious service, 16;
    in command temporarily of the corps, 24;
    at Fredericksburg, 27;
    in command of First Division, 34;
    at Blue Springs, 84, 85;
    in pursuit of Longstreet, 127;
    in command of Third Division, 138;
    again temporarily in command of the Ninth Corps, 245;
    at the Weldon R.R., 251;
    in command of the First Division, 255;
    at Pegram Farm, 259.

  Williams (Private Aaron M.), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Wilson (Corp. Watson), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Winchester (Private Emory), wounded in the Wilderness, 157.

  Winslow (Private Lewis D.), killed at Spottsylvania, 171.

  Wood (Private George W.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 195.

  Woodbury (Chaplain A.), remarks on the march of the Ninth Corps through
        Washington, 142.

  Woodbury (Private Elijah H.), killed at Cold Harbor, 196.

  Woodward (Lieut. P. G.), wounded at Cold Harbor, 196;
    recommended for promotion, 217;
    in command of Co. C, 269;
    returns to Mass. with the regiment, 310;
    record of, 322.

  Wool, Camp John E., 2, 4, 5, 11.

  Wright (Sergt. D.), promoted, but unable to muster, 144;
    wounded and taken prisoner in the Wilderness, 157;
    reason why he could not be mustered in, 217;
    record of, 325.


  Young (Private Edward O.), wounded and taken prisoner in the Wilderness,
        157.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


  Corrected disabled date for Ostenello Washburn on p. 326 from
  Pegram Farm, Sept. 30, 1865 to Pegram Farm, Sept. 30, 1864 so that
  discharge date would be after casualty date. Agrees now with date
  from http://www.nps.gov/abpp/battles/va074.htm.

  Changed mustered date for Lincoln, George H. on p. 338 from July
  23, '64 to July 23, '62 so that discharge date would be after
  muster date.

  Changed discharged date for Bowles, George F. on p. 341 from June
  8, '56 to June 8, '65 so that discharge date would be after muster
  date.

  Changed mustered date for Sherman, Charles O. on p. 356 from Aug.
  4, '82 to Aug. 4, '62 so that discharge date would be after muster
  date.

  Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
  errors.

  Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

  Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.

  Enclosed bold font in =equals=.

  Enclosed bold sans-serif font in ~tildes~.





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