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Title: Encyclopedia of Diet, Vol. 5 (of 5)
Author: Christian, Eugene
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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    ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
    DIET

    _A Treatise on the Food Question_

    IN FIVE VOLUMES

    EXPLAINING, IN PLAIN LANGUAGE, THE
    CHEMISTRY OF FOOD AND THE CHEMISTRY OF
    THE HUMAN BODY, TOGETHER WITH THE ART OF
    UNITING THESE TWO BRANCHES OF SCIENCE IN THE
    PROCESS OF EATING SO AS TO ESTABLISH NORMAL
    DIGESTION AND ASSIMILATION OF FOOD AND
    NORMAL ELIMINATION OF WASTE, THEREBY
    REMOVING THE CAUSES OF STOMACH,
    INTESTINAL, AND ALL OTHER
    DIGESTIVE DISORDERS

    BY

    EUGENE CHRISTIAN, F. S. D.

    VOLUME V

    NEW YORK CITY
    CORRECTIVE EATING SOCIETY, INC.
    1917
    COPYRIGHT 1914
    BY
    EUGENE CHRISTIAN
    ENTERED AT
    STATIONERS HALL, LONDON
    SEPTEMBER, 1914
    BY
    EUGENE CHRISTIAN, F. S. D.
    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

    PUBLISHED AUGUST, 1914



CONTENTS

VOLUME V


    _Lesson XVI_                                           _Page_

    ADAPTING FOOD TO SPECIAL CONDITIONS                     1145

      Infant, Old Age, and Athletic Feeding;
      Sedentary Occupations, Climatic Extremes              1147

      Normal Diet                                           1152

      Infant Feeding                                        1154

      General Rules for the Prospective Mother              1157

      Special Rules for the Prospective Mother              1159

      The Nursing Mother                                    1162

      Care of the Child                                     1164

        Constipation                                        1169

        Exercise                                            1171

        Clothing                                            1171

        Temperature of Baby's Food                          1173

        Bandage                                             1173

        Emaciation                                          1173

      General Instructions for Children after One Year      1174

        General Diet from Ages One to Two                   1174

        Simplicity in Feeding                               1175

      Old Age                                               1178

        Three Periods of Old Age                            1181

      Athletics                                             1188

      Sedentary Occupations                                 1194

        General Directions for Sedentary Worker             1198

      Climatic Extremes                                     1199


    _Lesson XVII_

    NERVOUSNESS--ITS CAUSE AND CURE                         1209

      Causes                                                1213

      The Remedy                                            1217

      Suggestions for Spring                                1220

      Suggestions for Summer                                1222

      Suggestions for Fall                                  1223

      Suggestions for Winter                                1224


    _Lesson XVIII_

    POINTS ON PRACTISE                                      1231

      Introduction to Points on Practise                    1233

      Suggestions for the Practitioner                      1236

      Value of Experience                                   1239

      Value of Diagnosis                                    1241

      Educate Your Patient                                  1242

      Effect of Mental Conditions                           1245

      Publicity                                             1247

      Be Courteous and Tolerant                             1250


    _Lesson XIX_

    EVOLUTION OF MAN                                        1253

      What is Evolution?                                    1255

      The Three Great Proofs of the Evolution of
        Animal Life                                         1261

      Man's Animal Kinship                                  1265


    _Lesson XX_

    SEX AND HEREDITY                                        1277

      The Origin of Sex                                     1279

      A Rational View of Sexual Health                      1285

      Embryological Growth--Prenatal Culture                1289

      Heredity                                              1293

      What Heredity Is                                      1295

      Summary of Facts regarding Sex and Heredity           1297


    _Lesson XXI_

    REST AND SLEEP                                          1299

      Rest                                                  1301

      The Old Physiology                                    1305

      Rest and Recreation                                   1306

      Sleep                                                 1308

      Some Reasons                                          1310

      Oxidation and Air                                     1312


    _Lesson XXII_

    A LESSON FOR BUSINESS MEN                               1315

      A Good Business Man                                   1320

      The Routine Life of the Average Business Man          1322

      Some Suggestions for a Good Business Man              1324


    _Lesson XXIII_

    EXERCISE AND RE-CREATION                                1327

      Exercise                                              1329

        Constructive Exercises                              1330

        Exercise for Repair                                 1331

        Physiology of Exercise                              1333

      Systems of Physical Culture                           1338

      Program for Daily Exercise                            1343

      Re-creation                                           1346



LESSON XVI

Adapting Food to Special Conditions

INFANT, OLD AGE, AND ATHLETIC FEEDING,
SEDENTARY OCCUPATIONS, CLIMATIC
EXTREMES


Diet may be divided into three distinct classes--normal, preventive, and
curative. In order to understand the application of diet to these
several conditions, it is necessary to observe the following rules:

    1 Foods must be selected which contain all the desired nutritive
     elements.

    2 They must be so combined as to produce chemical harmony, or
     should at least produce no undesirable chemical action.

    3 They must be proportioned so as to level or balance their
     nutritive elements; that is, to prevent overfeeding on some elements
     of nourishment, and underfeeding on others.

Many fine specimens of men and women have been produced without
knowledge of these laws, but in nearly every case it may have been
observed that the person was normal as to habits, and temperate in
eating, therefore led aright by instinct.

If one lives an active life, spending from three to five hours a day in
the open air, the body will cast off and burn with oxygen much excess
nutrition, and will also convert or appropriate certain nutritive
elements to one purpose, which, according to all known chemical laws,
Nature intended for another. Much better results, however, will be
obtained by giving Nature the right material with which to work, thus
pursuing lines of least resistance.

What foods to select, how they should be combined and proportioned, is
determined mainly by laws dependent upon the following conditions:

    1 Age.

    2 Temperature of environment--time of year or climate.

    3 Work or activity.

    (1) As to age:

If we wish the best results we must select and proportion our food
according to age, because the growing child or youth needs much
structural material--calcium phosphates--with which to build bone,
teeth, and cartilage. This is found in cereals and in all grain foods.
The middle-aged person needs but little of these--just enough for
repair, and the aged person needs practically none.

While the growing child needs calcium phosphate, he also needs milk and
natural sweets, which named in the order of their preference are honey,
maple-sugar, dates, figs, and raisins. This does not mean that a
generous quantity of vegetables and fruit cannot be taken, but that the
articles first mentioned (cereals and starchy foods) should form a
conspicuous part of the child's diet.

The adult needs a much less quantity of the heavier starchy foods,
because the structural part of the body has been built up. The diet of
the adult should consist of vegetables, nuts, and a normal quantity of
sweets, a normal quantity of fruits, milk and eggs, with rather a
limited amount of cereal or bread products, while the aged, or those
having passed sixty, could subsist wholly upon a non-starch diet
(non-cereal starch), such as vegetables, milk, nuts, eggs, salads, and
fruits, including bananas, which is not a fruit, but a vegetable, and
which contains a splendid form of readily soluble starch.

     (2) As to time of year:

In selecting and proportioning our food we should observe the laws of
temperature or time of the year. We should not eat foods of a high
caloric or heating value at a time when the sun is giving us this heat
direct, thus building a fire inside, while the sun is giving us the same
heat outside. The violation of this simple law is the cause of all
sunstroke and heat prostrations. On the contrary, if we are going to be
exposed to zero weather, we should build a fire inside by eating foods
of a high caloric value.

     (3) As to work or activity:

We should select and proportion our food according to the work we do,
because eating is a process of making energy, while work is a process
of expending energy, and we should make these two accounts balance.


THE NORMAL DIET

[Sidenote: Effects of overfeeding on starchy foods and sweets]

While in some respects each body is a law unto itself, there are a few
fundamental rules and laws that apply to all alike. For instance,
overeating of starchy foods, in every case, will produce too much uric
acid, and finally rheumatism. Also the overeating of sweets and starches
will cause the stomach to secrete an over-supply of fermentative acids,
the effects of which have been discussed in a previous lesson.

[Sidenote: Temporary disturbances caused by radical changes in diet]

In laying out the diet, under all conditions, the practitioner must be
governed by the above-named rules. He should exercise his judgment,
however, in each case according to the prevailing conditions. In
prescribing diet it is well to remember that Nature will not tolerate,
without protest, any radical change. It often occurs, therefore, that
the most correct and thoroughly balanced menu will cause violent
physical disturbances which the inexperienced may consider as
unfavorable symptoms, but in a majority of cases this is merely the
adjusting process, similar to that which occurs when the body is
suddenly deprived of narcotics and stimulants after their habitual use.

The practitioner should exercise much care in diagnosis. He should study
all symptoms and lay out the diet so as to counteract prevailing
conditions, and to produce normality.

[Sidenote: The stomach should agree with natural food]

The tendency of the body, that has been incorrectly fed for many years,
to protest against the right kind and the right combinations of food, is
often very deceptive. It is not always correct to say that the food did
not agree with the stomach, but more correct to say that the different
foods did not agree with themselves. The patient should be thoroughly
acquainted with these facts, and mentally prepared for some temporary
discomforts or physical protest against the new system.


INFANT FEEDING

[Sidenote: Large percentage of infant mortality due to incorrect
feeding]

The tremendous mortality among infants and children is due to incorrect
feeding more than to all other causes. In the process of reproducing
animal life, nearly all abnormal conditions are eliminated. The best
that is in the mother is given to the child. The trend of Nature is
upward toward higher intelligence and more perfect physical development.
For this reason infants are usually healthier than their parents, though
millions of babies are rapidly broken in health by improper feeding.

The economy of Nature is perfect, therefore all natural forces conspire
to preserve the life of the young. This is the natural law governing the
preservation and the development of human life, and that this condition
does not obtain is the most striking evidence of our lack of knowledge
in feeding the young.

[Sidenote: Point of view to be considered in infant feeding]

Infant feeding must be considered from two points of view: (1) Dealing
with the child or infant as we find it, where the mother has so violated
Nature's laws of nutrition and hygiene as to afford no breast-milk for
her child; (2) where this condition does not prevail, and the child
receives ample nourishment from the breast of the mother.

We will first consider the diet and the conduct of the mother during
pregnancy and prior to it.

Preparation for motherhood is one of woman's most sacred duties, because
it involves not only the happiness and health of herself, but it
shapes, in a large degree, the mental and the physical conditions of
another being which will wield an influence over its whole life.

[Sidenote: The unwelcome child]

The common error of most women is that they do not desire children when
they are first married, and in the pursuit of other pleasures they
violate and disregard the laws of Nature; the baby is a mere
accident--probably unwelcome. During the entire embryonic period the
same old habits and diet are indulged in; the mental and the physical
condition of the being-to-be has received no consideration, and,
unwelcome in a strange world, the little eyes are opened. Then the
instinctive love of the mother is kindled and lavished; the child's
every want is law; it needs maternal nourishment and the mother desires
to give it, but the natural fountain is insufficient, and probably dry.
The mother's thoughts and inspirations can no longer become a part of
the child, except through education in later years--they are two
separate beings; the opportunity to endow it with a part of her life is
forever gone.

[Sidenote: Resistance to infant life should be removed as much as
possible]

Under the most favorable conditions we meet a constant resistance to
life, and the higher we ascend in the scale of civilization the greater
is the resistance encountered. It is therefore the duty of the mother,
as also of the father, to remove every obstacle that would offer
resistance to the physical and mental growth of the child. In order to
do this it is necessary to carry out certain well-established laws
concerning diet, exercise, fresh air, sunshine, and mental training.


GENERAL RULES FOR THE PROSPECTIVE MOTHER

From the time conception is recognized the following general rules
should be observed:

    1 The corset or all tight-fitting garments that would in any way
    interfere with freedom of exercise and thorough development of the
    abdominal muscles should be discarded.

    2 As much time as possible--at least two hours each day--should be
    spent in the open air, and a system of moderate trunk exercises
    followed, together with deep breathing, calculated to expand the
    lungs to their fullest cell capacity, which is Nature's method of
    burning or oxidizing waste matter, and thereby keeping the blood
    pure.

    3 The mental occupation should be an important factor in the daily
    regimen. Some congenial study should be chosen with the view of
    making it useful, while some remunerative employment should be
    sought and indulged in for a portion of each day. Avoid idleness
    by all means, or an idle roaming of the mind and spirit. Learn to
    think, to concentrate, to work, and to do something for others, as
    it is from these things that all happiness is gained.

    4 The diet of the future mother should be governed somewhat by the
    laws laid out in the first part of this lesson; that is, age,
    temperature of environment, and occupation should be considered in
    its selection.


SPECIAL RULES FOR THE PROSPECTIVE MOTHER

[Sidenote: Suggestions for the diet]

There are some specific rules in regard to diet, however, which every
mother should observe. The diet should be balanced so as to contain all
the needed elements of nourishment in approximately the right
proportions. The proportions, however, should differ in many cases from
that which she would take if she were in a normal state, especially in
regard to starchy foods or calcareous matter. An abundance of green
salads, sweet ripe fruits, fresh vegetables in season, eggs, milk, nuts,
and not more than two ounces of bread, potatoes, or dried beans should
be taken daily. If flesh food or something salty is craved, tender
chicken, or fish, may be allowed in small quantities.

[Sidenote: Abnormal appetite during pregnancy]

It should be borne in mind that I do not advocate the use of flesh
foods, but during pregnancy the appetite is varying and sometimes
tyrannical, and it has been found better to compromise with this
condition than to combat it. The use of a limited quantity of tender
meat, or any other article of good food for which there should arise a
craving, is therefore advisable.

[Sidenote: Flesh of young animals preferred]

In the selection of meats, the flesh of young animals is best, for the
reason that young animals are more healthy and less liable to
contamination by dis-ease. The meat of either fowl or fish is rather
appetizing, and often satisfies the craving that many pregnant women
have for the heavier meats such as pork or veal, which are, of course,
very much more difficult to digest.

There is, notwithstanding the opinion foolishly held by many doctors, no
difference in the nutritive qualities of white or dark meat, as either
variety is nourished by identically the same blood supply, and contains
the same sort of protoplasm.

So it is a mistaken idea to think that there is any appreciable
difference in the digestibility of white meat as compared with dark,
except as the effect of mental suggestion may be operative. Of course,
we know that if you tell a person often enough that a certain thing is
true, eventually he will act upon it automatically. And so it is with
the white and dark meat fetich.


THE NURSING MOTHER

[Sidenote: Breast milk vs. artificial foods]

If the mother supplies enough milk, this is infinitely superior to any
artificial combination of so-called infant foods. Unfortunately a large
majority of children are not breast-fed, and must depend upon the
various commercial infant-foods, or upon the judgment of the untrained
nurse, or the mother.

[Sidenote: The lives of babies often depend upon the mother's diet]

The majority of mothers, if so disposed, could, by studying their own
diet, supply the most robust child with ample breast-nourishment until
it is ten or twelve months old, after which period the infantile crisis
would be passed, and millions of little lives would thereby be saved.
However, the confinement and the trouble to which the mother is
subjected by the nursing baby causes the majority of infants to be
weaned within a few weeks after birth, and turned over to the hazard of
prepared food, soporific drugs, and nurses.

[Sidenote: Child-love stimulated by nursing]

If mothers could realize the love that is daily kindled and
strengthened; if they could be made to know how much more their children
would love them, and they would love their children; if they could look
into the years and see how the link of love between them and their
children had been shaped, molded, and fashioned by the simple act of
nurturing them from the breast (to say nothing of the lives that would
be saved), the artificially-fed baby would be a rarity, and the mother
would be queen in the hearts of the nation's children.

The most beautiful thing that ever graced the canvas of art, or shed its
love into the cold realism of nature, is a nursing baby pushing from
its satisfied lips the mother's breast, and smiling its sweet content
into her face.

It is almost criminal to withdraw the breast from an infant, and to turn
it over to the treachery of prepared foods, when, by devoting a little
time each day to the study of the science of eating, it is possible for
the mother to supply the child with her own milk.


CARE OF THE CHILD

The following are general rules for feeding the infant from birth to
about one year of age.

These rules cannot be made inflexible because all children differ in
temperament, vitality, and as to prenatal influences, but if the mother
will observe these instructions with reasonable care, her child can be
brought healthfully through the most critical period of its life, and
will enter the solid food age with good digestion, a strong body, and an
excellent chance to withstand all children's dis-eases.

Where artificial feeding becomes necessary, then the preparation of the
baby-food is of primary importance. Cow's milk is, of course, the
logical food, but taken whole, that is, the entire milk, it is too high
in proteids, and deficient in sugar; therefore, in order to make a
healthful infant-food, it must be modified according to the requirements
of the infant body.

The nurse or the mother should prepare a quantity sufficient for only
one day's supply at a time, after the following formula:

    Cream        2 ounces
    Milk         2 ounces
    Water       15 ounces
    Milk-sugar   4 level teaspoonfuls
    Lime-water   2 teaspoonfuls or 1/2 ounce

This should be thoroughly mixed, placed in the bottle, and set in warm
water until it is brought to the temperature of breast-milk. The above
formula may be used during the first month of the baby's life.

The quantity and the frequency of feedings should be according to the
following table:

    AGE                      FEEDINGS    OUNCES    INTERVALS OF

    1st day                  5 to  6     1         3 or 4 hours
    2d day                   7 to  8     1         2-1/2 to 3 hours
    3d to 7th day            9 to 10     1-1/4     2 to 2-1/2 hours
    2d, 3d, and 4th weeks        10      2 to 3    2 hours

Formula for the second and the third months:

    Cream       3-1/2 ounces
    Milk        1-1/2 ounces
    Water      14 ounces
    Milk-sugar  5 teaspoonfuls
    Lime-water  2-1/2 teaspoonfuls

Quantity and frequency of feeding should be about as follows:

    MONTHS       FEEDINGS    OUNCES    INTERVALS

    2d and 3d    7 to 8      3 to 4    2 or 3 hours

Formula for period from the fourth to the twelfth month:

    Cream        6 to 8 ounces
    Milk         2 to 3 ounces
    Water       10 ounces
    Milk-sugar   5 to 6 teaspoonfuls
    Lime-water   2 to 3 teaspoonfuls

Quantity and frequency of feedings should be about as follows:

    MONTHS                  FEEDINGS    OUNCES    INTERVALS

    4th, 5th, and 6th       5 to 6      4 to 6    3 to 3-1/2 hours
    7th, 8th, and 9th       5           6 to 7    4 to 4-1/2 hours
    10th, 11th, and 12th    5           6 to 8    4 to 4-1/2 hours

The above formulas for infant-food are the best that can be made from
ordinary cow's milk.

The milk-sugar and the lime-water herein named can be purchased at any
first-class drug store.

[Sidenote: Avoid too frequent feeding]

These tables are not given as exact. The mother should exercise careful
vigilance and judgment, especially in reference to the quantity of each
feeding, and the frequency. The moment the child shows symptoms of
overfeeding, which symptoms are usually evidenced by vomiting or
discomfort, the quantity of cream and the amount at each feeding should
be reduced. In fact, it is healthful, and often necessary for the child
to allow it the opportunity to get hungry. The digestion of many a baby
is totally ruined by continuous feeding, which is done out of motherly
sympathy, or merely to keep it quiet.

[Sidenote: Importance of cleanliness in preparing child's food]

The mother or the nurse should exercise great care in the cleanliness
and the hygienic preparation of children's foods. Milk should be fresh,
and of the very best. It should not be left uncovered or exposed. It
should be kept continually on ice until ready for use. The cream should
be taken from the top of the bottle, or from fresh milk. This insures
better quality of butter-fat than is generally supplied in ordinary
commercial daily cream.

As the child advances in age, whole milk, cereal gruel, and egg mixture
(two whites to one yolk) may be administered according to the child's
normal appetite and digestion. The egg may be prepared by whipping the
whites and the yolks separately, adding to the yolk a teaspoonful of
cream and one of sugar, then whipping the beaten whites into this, and
serving.


CONSTIPATION

The stools of natural, healthy children should be bright yellow and
perfectly smooth. If grainy and soft, food should be made richer. If in
curds, it evidences too rapid coagulation; therefore an alkali should be
added. If the stools are white and oily, it indicates an excess of
cream. If hard and dry, it indicates an insufficient amount of cream.
If green, reduce the quantity of milk, or omit it altogether, and
increase the quantity of barley-water.

The majority of bottle-fed children suffer greatly from constipation,
caused largely by the milk, or the failure to modify the milk properly,
or to make it contain the constituent elements of breast-milk. This
condition can be relieved by giving the child sweet orange juice every
night and morning, or the juice from soaked prunes, if preferred. This
should be administered in quantities ranging from a dozen drops to two
or three teaspoonfuls, according to the age of the child and the
severity of the condition. Intestinal congestion can often be relieved,
however, by giving the abdomen gentle massage, preferably with a rotary
or kneading motion.

In cases of diarrhea, infants from three to eight months old should be
given first an enema, and then a diet entirely of boiled milk mixed
with rice or barley-water.


EXERCISE

All infants need some exercise. They should be gently rubbed and rolled
about after the morning bath, before they are dressed. There is nothing
more healthful than exposure of the baby-skin to fresh air in a normal
temperature.


CLOTHING

Next in importance to the food of the infant is its clothing. The usual
style of dressing babies the first three months of their lives is
positively barbaric; not that it imitates uncivilized people, but
because it evidences the grossest ignorance and cruelest vanity. The
mother seems to have no way of expressing her pride in her child except
by bedecking it with elaborate garments. These usually consist of three
long skirts, two of them attached to bands which are fastened around
the body. The weight of this clothing prevents the free use of the
baby's feet and legs, putting it into a kind of civilized strait-jacket,
thus preventing it from exercising the only part of its anatomy that it
can freely move.

It is nothing uncommon to see a beautiful baby sore, irritated, and
broken out with heat all over its little body by being heavily enveloped
in barbaric rags. The child, therefore, is made to suffer merely that it
may please a proud mother, and conform to an ignorant custom a thousand
years old.

The only purpose clothing should serve is that of bodily warmth. When it
is made the instrument of painful adornment it is serving the same
purpose as "rings in the ears and bells on the toes," and the mind of
the mother who thus afflicts her child is in the same class as that of
the ignorant barbarian whom she imitates.


TEMPERATURE OF BABY'S FOOD

It should be remembered that all liquid food for a child up to twelve or
fifteen months old should be administered at a temperature no lower than
blood-heat. The liquid mixtures named herein may be made in advance of
the needs, and placed upon ice merely to preserve them, but should be
warmed to a temperature of at least ninety-nine degrees Fahrenheit
before administering to the child.

Pure water should be given to all children from the time they are two
weeks old.


BANDAGE

The bandage should be removed about the close of the third month.


EMACIATION

In case of slight emaciation or lack of fat, the child should be given
an olive-oil rub once or twice a week, rubbing gently into the skin
about one teaspoonful of oil.


GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CHILDREN AFTER ONE YEAR

All children, whether breast-fed or bottle-fed, are subject to
practically the same health rules after they are about one year old.
Therefore I will now consider all children in the same class, and lay
out for them what may be termed general instructions in health and
hygiene.

Care should be exercised to omit from the diet of children just
beginning to take solid food, all articles that will not dissolve
readily without mastication.


GENERAL DIET FROM AGES ONE TO TWO

The diet from the first to the second year should consist of:

    Baked apples
    Baked potatoes--sweet or white
    Cereal--limited quantity (thoroughly cooked)
    Cream soups--home-made, such as:

        Cream of celery    Onion
        Potato             Rice
        Tomato, etc.

    Eggs
    Milk
    Pulp of soft ripe fruits
    Vegetables--thoroughly mashed, such as:

              {Asparagus
        Fresh {Squash
              {Spinach

The above vegetables contain much cellulose or pulp which should be
entirely discarded, leaving only the meat or purée; but to the child
from eleven to fifteen months old, they should be administered in very
limited quantities.


SIMPLICITY IN FEEDING

Especial attention should be given to simplicity in feeding:

    1 Avoid giving too many things at the same meal; from three to four
    articles at one time are sufficient

    2 Mothers should be especially cautioned against giving a child
    bread made with yeast, or baking powder, and against the old diet of
    milk toast

    3 All meat, flesh food, stimulants or narcotics of every kind should
    be omitted from the diet of children

    4 The crowning mistake of the doting mother is often made in feeding
    her child from the conventional table, on such things as weakened
    coffee or tea, meats, and condiments

    5 The custom of giving children an excess of sweets has ruined
    millions of little stomachs, and has given them a heritage of
    dis-ease and suffering before they have entered their 'teens

    6 All condiments, such as pepper, salt, vinegar, pickles, and all
    pungent things should be eliminated from the diet of children--the
    taste of the child is very susceptible to cultivation, and with very
    little encouragement it will accept things that have no place in the
    human economy, and which are positively harmful

    7 When a child begins teething, it may be given a small piece of
    hard water-cracker with safety

If the above rules are observed, it is reasonable to assume that normal
hunger of the child will guide it very correctly in selecting,
proportioning, and combining its food through the period of childhood
until it enters the period of youth.


OLD AGE

[Sidenote: Necessity for old age diet]

There seems to be two critical periods in every life--the ages of thirty
and sixty. If the sixtieth year can be turned with good digestion,
normal assimilation and excretion, it is fair to assume that with
reasonable care the century mark may be easily reached. It is also
reasonable to assume that experience will have taught most thoughtful
people what to eat and what not to eat, but the mortality tables of
nearly all civilized countries, of which the writer has made a careful
study, prove that a majority of people do not reach their sixtieth year,
and but a very small per cent of those who do are blessed with good
digestion. Therefore an old age diet is quite as important to the
student as infant feeding.

For purposes of convenience, I will put all cereal products, legumes,
and white potatoes in the starch or bread class, and henceforth they
will be referred to as such.

[Sidenote: Meat and bread produce old age]

The majority of disorders that mark the difference between youth and age
may be traced directly to the overconsumption of meat and bread,
especially cereal starch. The hardening of the arteries, the stiffening
of the cartilage, the enlargement of the joints, and the general lack of
flexibility throughout the body is due almost wholly to the
overconsumption of these two staples.

[Sidenote: Uric acid in rheumatic conditions]

Uric acid is always present in gouty and rheumatic conditions, but it is
there as Nature's defense against our sins, and not as a primary cause.
Meat is not the cause of uric acid as has been popularly taught. Uric
acid is one of the constituent elements of all animal bodies, and when
the normal supply in the human body is supplemented by that which is
contained in the body of the animal upon which we prey, we are
oversupplied. This is as far as meat-eating contributes toward uric acid
poisoning.

[Sidenote: Soluble starches desirable]

When the body is young and growing, it can consume and appropriate a
considerable quantity of starchy or structural material, but when it is
fully grown, or has turned forty, it can subsist healthfully upon a diet
containing only from three to five per cent of starch, and as one
becomes older the more soluble forms of starch should be taken, such as
the starch contained in green peas, beans, and corn, which, immature, is
readily soluble and assimilable. The starch in the banana is also easily
appropriated and easily oxydized, and will be found to agree with many
who cannot eat starch in any other form without producing fermentation.

After the fiftieth year the diet becomes more and more a factor needing
special attention in the daily regimen, both as to selection and
quantity; and with advancing age the quantity of food should be
gradually reduced until the minimum which will support life healthfully
is reached.

[Sidenote: Importance of diet with advancing age]

In old age the diet should be governed by the same general rules as
those of younger people; that is, elderly people should select, combine,
and proportion their food according to temperature of environment,
labor, and age. Those performing manual labor can use and eliminate food
material which would produce uric acid and other poisons in the body of
the sedentary worker.


THREE PERIODS OF OLD AGE

[Sidenote: Diet from fifty to sixty]

Old age may be divided into three periods. From fifty to sixty the diet
should consist of a very limited quantity of bread products (not more
than two per cent); fresh green vegetables, fresh mild fruits, nuts, a
normal quantity of milk and eggs, a limited quantity of sugar, and a
moderate amount of fats.

[Sidenote: Diet from sixty to seventy]

From sixty to seventy the amount of cereal starch should be reduced to
one per cent, or not more than two per cent, while the other articles
named may be taken as suggested from fifty to sixty, gradually
eliminating starchy foods, and increasing foods containing proteids,
casein, and albumin.

[Sidenote: Diet from seventy to one hundred]

Between the ages of seventy and one hundred, the same general
suggestions as those above laid out should be followed, eliminating
entirely all cereal products. The more soluble forms of starchy or
carbohydrate foods, such as potatoes, bananas, and green peas, beans,
corn, etc., may be taken. (See Lesson XIII, Vol. III, p. 632.)

The necessary amount of fats, albumin, casein, and proteids must be
governed by activity and temperature of environment.

The following are suggestions for one day's menu, in spring and summer,
age between fifty and sixty. Choice of menus may be exercised, but each
menu should be taken in its entirety.

          MENU I                          MENU II

                          BREAKFAST

    Melon or subacid fruit          One or two very ripe bananas,
    One egg--coddled                with figs, cream,
    A potato or a very little       and nuts
    coarse bread                    Choice of fruit--non-acid
    A glass of clabbered milk or    Two glasses of milk
    buttermilk
    Two tablespoonfuls of raisins,
    with cream and nuts

                          LUNCHEON

    Choice of peas, corn, beans,    Choice of carrots, parsnips,
    or creamed onions               beans, squash, or asparagus
    Eggs or buttermilk              A baked sweet or a white
    A baked potato                  potato
    A salad or something green,     A glass of buttermilk
    with nuts                       Cream cheese, dates, and
    A banana, with cream, nuts      nuts
    and dates                       A very small portion of
                                    green salad, with grated
                                    nuts

                              DINNER

    One fresh vegetable--spinach,   A green salad
    cooked ten minutes              Two fresh vegetables
    One egg or a very small         A sweet or a white potato,
    portion of fish                 with sweet butter
    A baked potato                  A glass of sour milk
    Choice of dates, figs, or
    raisins, with cream cheese
    and nuts

In cases of constipation, two or three tablespoonfuls of coarse wheat
bran (cooked, if desired) should be taken with the breakfast and the
evening meal, and a spoonful just before retiring, taken in a glass of
water. Such fruits as plums, peaches, or berries should be taken daily,
just after rising and just before retiring.

The following are suggestions for fall and winter menus, for a person
between the ages of fifty and sixty:


BREAKFAST

    Oranges, apples, pears, or soaked prunes
    An egg and a small portion of either plain boiled wheat or rice
    A very ripe banana, with nuts and raisins

NOTE: Sweet fruits may be taken instead of the acid fruits suggested,
and milk instead of eggs.


LUNCHEON

    One or two fresh vegetables, such as carrots, onions, turnips,
      cabbage, or beans
    Celery or any coarse plant
    A potato or a very small portion of corn

If not very active, the luncheon may consist of two glasses of
buttermilk and a spoonful of wheat bran.


DINNER

    Choice of two fresh vegetables
    A baked potato
    Choice of fish, eggs, or buttermilk
    Corn bread or a very small portion of coarse cereal

All fresh, watery vegetables should be cooked in a casserole dish.

A sufficient quantity of water should be drunk at each of these meals to
bring the moisture up to about sixty-six per cent of the meal--two to
three glasses.

These meals are mere suggestions, and are therefore subject to many
variations.

All green salads may be substituted for one another; all starchy
products--grain, potatoes, and legumes--may also be substituted for one
another.


ATHLETICS

[Sidenote: Every diet should be an athletic diet]

The diet for the athlete really differs but little from that which
should be taken by every person in normal health, the object in all
cases being to secure the greatest degree of energy from the least
quantity of food. In order to do this, the laws governing the selecting,
the combining, and the proportioning of foods should be observed. When
the digestive, the assimilative, and the excretory organs are properly
performing their functions, the object should be to gain the highest
efficiency in food with the least amount of loss or waste. Every diet,
therefore, should be made an athletic diet.

In dealing with the public at large, the work of the practitioner will
be confined very largely to prescribing for those who, by violation of
Nature's laws, have become dis-eased, or in some way physically
abnormal, and in these cases, of course, a remedial or counteractive
diet first becomes necessary.

[Sidenote: General diet for normal athlete]

In dealing with the athlete as a special class, however, we must
consider him as a normal creature, somewhere between the ages of twenty
and forty. We must also consider that his digestion and assimilation of
food, and elimination of waste are normal. Under these conditions, the
diet should consist of highly nitrogenous and proteid compounds, leveled
or balanced by the requisite amount of carbohydrates and fats.

[Sidenote: Quantity of fat required at different seasons]

If the athlete is training for action in summer, the quantity of fat
should be reduced according to temperature or climate. When the
thermometer ranges in the seventies and eighties, one ounce of fat each
twenty-four hours would probably be sufficient, while if the mercury is
down in the twenties or thirties, from two or three ounces may be
required to keep up bodily heat.

The following are suggestions for summer athletic diet:


BREAKFAST

    Fruit or melon
    *Corn, or boiled wheat, with nuts and cream
    Eggs, whipped, with sugar and cream--lemon juice flavor


LUNCHEON

    Break from four to six eggs into a bowl, adding a heaping
     teaspoonful of sugar to each egg; whip five minutes; while
     whipping, add slowly one teaspoonful of lemon juice to each egg; to
     this add half a glass of milk to each egg, and drink slowly

    *Corn or a potato


DINNER

    Fruit, berries, or melon
    A salad of lettuce, tomato, and grated carrots; serve with dressing
     of lemon juice, grated nuts and olive-oil
    One fresh vegetable
    An egg or tender fish
    A baked potato
    Buttermilk

[Footnote: NOTE: Corn to be prepared as follows:

Cut lightly from cob with a sharp knife and scrape down with a dull one;
serve uncooked with a little salt, sugar and cream.]

The following are suggestions for winter athletic diet:


BREAKFAST

    A baked apple or an orange
    One coarse cereal, with nuts and cream
    Two eggs, either whipped or boiled two minutes
    Very ripe bananas, with dates, nuts and cream (If bananas are not
      very ripe, they should be peeled and baked) See recipe, Vol. III,
      p. 677


LUNCHEON

   Beans or lentils
   Carrots, turnips, squash, or corn
   Fish or eggs
   A baked potato
   Buttermilk


DINNER

   Two fresh vegetables
   A green salad, with oil
   Omelet, with grated nuts
   A banana, with nuts and cream, and either dates or raisins
   Buttermilk

These menus, like those given for summer, are merely for the purpose of
suggesting selections, combinations, and proportions of food that will
meet the exigencies of temperature, environment, and work. The quantity
of food required will depend largely upon the size (physique) of the
individual, the severity of training, and the feats to be performed. It
is especially important that these suggestions be well considered at
least one day before engaging in any athletic event or work requiring
extraordinary physical effort, as the human body appropriates or uses
food from twenty-four to thirty-six hours after it is eaten.

[Sidenote: Exposure to extreme cold or exertion]

If one is to be exposed to extreme cold, an excess of fats should be
taken, beginning thirty-six hours before exposure. If much physical
effort is to be exerted, the diet should be balanced as to all nutritive
elements, with an excess of nitrogenous foods. In fact, these rules
should be observed by every one who desires to make feeding scientific,
and to make food his servant instead of his master, as our civilized
habits have a tendency to do.


SEDENTARY OCCUPATIONS

[Sidenote: Cessation of activity means disintegration]

Nature demands from every form of life a certain amount of activity or
motion. Any transgression of this law means disintegration. Rest is
merely the process adopted by Nature to reconvert matter into its
original elements. To whatever extent one ceases activity, Nature, under
normal conditions, inflicts this penalty.

[Sidenote: The penalty of civilization]

Man's civilized habits and customs have produced a class of workers who,
while at work, are deprived of their requisite amount of motion, and
who, therefore, pay the penalty by shortened periods of life, and by
numerous disorders which we have come to characterize as dis-ease. There
is but one method known to science by which these penalties may be
avoided, and by which the worker whose occupation must be sedentary may
become as healthful as his brother who can order his life in conformity
with Nature's laws. That method lies in the ordering of his diet.

[Sidenote: Dis-ease is merely congestion]

All dis-ease may be called _congestion_, or the failure of the body to
eliminate poisons and waste matter. The process of elimination is
assisted by activity (work or play). The accumulation of waste and
poisons in the body is measured or determined almost wholly by the diet.

[Sidenote: Diet governed by work]

The man who is swinging a pick or a sledge hammer in the open air may
eat or drink almost anything, because his powers of eliminating waste
are aided by his work. It follows, therefore, that those whose work is
of a sedentary nature must procure their nutrition from substances
containing the minimum of waste, and producing the maximum of energy,
and the quantity must be measured accurately by the demands of the
body, or autointoxication (self-poisoning) will result.

Intestinal congestion (constipation), which is almost universal among
sedentary workers, is caused in nearly all cases by consuming a quantity
of food in excess of the physical demands, and which cannot be thrown
off owing to the lack of exercise. It is at this point that science must
lay out the dietetic regimen so as to make it conform to the occupation,
or to the lack of physical activity.

The following are suggestions for a spring or summer diet for the
average sedentary worker:


BREAKFAST

    Cantaloup, berries or peaches, with sugar and cream
    An egg
    One or two bananas, with nuts, cream, and raisins (Bananas should
      be baked, if not very ripe)


LUNCHEON

    Peas, beans, or asparagus
    A heaping tablespoonful of nuts
    A salad of lettuce and tomatoes, with nuts
    A baked potato, tender corn, or a very little coarse bread


DINNER

    Melon or cantaloup
    Two tablespoonfuls of nuts
    One or two fresh vegetables, including an ear of tender corn
    Fish, eggs, or buttermilk
    Plain ice-cream, if something sweet is desired


GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR SEDENTARY WORKER

The student will recognize that in these menus the heavier foods are
prescribed sparingly, while the lighter or the more readily soluble
articles predominate. From these suggestions a fair idea of a fall and
winter diet can be drawn.

Indigestion, sour stomach (hyper-chlorhydria), constipation,
malassimilation, and general anemia are the disorders with which the
sedentary worker is most commonly afflicted.

In dealing with each and all of these conditions, including obesity,
which is often the result of sedentary habits, the first thing to be
done is to limit the quantity of food to the normal requirements of the
body, and in extreme cases a diet below the normal should be observed;
no one was ever made ill by underfeeding. Then, with proper care as to
the selection, combination, and proportions of food, and an increased
amount of exercise and deep breathing, the person of sedentary habits
should be made as healthy and strong as the outdoor worker in the fields
of manual labor.


CLIMATIC EXTREMES

In considering a diet to meet the requirements of climatic extremes,
either hot or cold, it is necessary to reckon from normality, both as to
climate and as to the health of the individual.

All the foregoing lessons, taken as a whole, are designed to teach one
method or theory, involving two principles:

    1 Selections, combinations, and proportions of food that will
      counteract and remove the causes of unnatural conditions called
      dis-ease

    2 Selections, combinations, and proportions of food that will bring
      the body up to its highest degree of development and there maintain
      it

Under normal conditions the temperature of the body may be thoroughly
controlled by feeding. The principal process of metabolism is that of
making heat out of the fuel given to the "human boiler." The amount of
heat, therefore, that a given quantity of food will produce is
determined very largely by the amount of resistance that is met from
natural environment.

[Sidenote: Amount of fat required in different temperatures]

The human body, under ordinary conditions, in a temperature of 60°
Fahrenheit, will use about two ounces of pure fat every twenty-four
hours. If the temperature should drop to 30° Fahrenheit, it would
require about three ounces of fat every twenty-four hours to keep the
temperature of the body at normal. Under certain conditions of exposure
it might require as much as five and even six ounces of pure fat to
maintain normal temperature of the body, and in the extreme north, where
the temperature ranges in winter from 25° to 30° below zero, the natives
often take as much as sixteen ounces of fat during the day. Fat being
the principal heat-producing element, it is, therefore, the most
necessary thing to consider in a temperature of extreme cold.

The student will readily understand that, in order to maintain a normal
standard of vitality and endurance, the selection of foods must be made
according to age, activity, and temperature.

For a person undergoing a reasonable amount of exposure, and working in
a climate where the temperature is ranging between 20° and 30°
Fahrenheit, the following menus, covering one day, may be suggested:

Immediately on rising, drink a cup of hot water, then take vigorous deep
breathing exercises, followed by a cool sponge bath and rub down.


BREAKFAST

(An hour later)

     Add half an ounce of sugar to two or three eggs, and whip five
       minutes; add a tablespoonful of lemon juice while whipping; mix
       with this two glasses of rich milk
     A tablespoonful of nuts
     One very ripe banana, with cream


LUNCHEON

     One fresh vegetable
     Lima or navy beans
     A salad, with either olive-oil or nuts
     A baked potato or boiled wheat (A liberal supply of butter or
       cream)


DINNER

     A baked sweet potato
     One or two vegetables
     Eggs, or buttermilk, unskimmed
     A baked white potato, with either olive-oil or butter
     Dates, with cream cheese, or gelatin, with cream

As the temperature becomes lower, the amount of fats and proteids should
be increased according to exposure and activity.

The student should bear in mind that carbohydrates, proteids, and fats
are the most important factors in the winter dietary. Other articles can
be held level over a wide range of temperature, provided these three
staple nutrients are taken in the requisite proportions.

[Sidenote: Summer diet requires scientific consideration]

Nearly all people in normal health instinctively avoid heat-producing
foods in hot weather, and as in warm or hot climates people live more in
the open air, oxidation is therefore more perfect, and has a tendency to
aid elimination, so the errors of diet are not so serious. Nevertheless,
the food to be taken in hot climates, or the heated term of summer,
should receive scientific consideration.

Anthropoid life, of which man is the highest type, originated in the
tropics, and nearly everything necessary for his highest physical
development grew prodigally in that country. His natural or primitive
diet was nuts, fruits, and salads (edible plants).

Civilization has transplanted him in the north, and has laid heavier
burdens upon him, therefore he needs, in many instances, heavier and
different foods, such as the carbohydrates, proteids, fats, and the
albumin and the phosphorus in eggs.

As the temperature becomes warmer, the heat-producing factors, such as
fats and carbohydrates (starch and sugar), should be gradually reduced.

The following menus are suitable for the average person, in normal
health, between the ages of thirty and sixty, when the temperature is
ranging from 70° to 90° Fahrenheit:


BREAKFAST

     Cantaloup, peaches, or berries
     Very ripe bananas, with grated nuts and cream
     A glass of milk


LUNCHEON

     One whipped egg
     A fresh vegetable
     A teaspoonful of nuts
     A lettuce and tomato salad
     A baked sweet or white potato


DINNER

     Peas, beans, asparagus, or corn
     A salad, with grated nuts and carrots
     A potato
     One whipped egg
     Half a glass of milk
     A service of gelatin

These menus are mere suggestions, not invariable, and in following them
it should be remembered that all green salads may be substituted for one
another, and as a general rule such underground articles as beets,
carrots, turnips, and parsnips may be substituted for one another. Also
green corn, peas, and beans are in the same general class. (See
"Constipation," Vol. III, p. 761.)

Observation of these rules will give the student rather a wide range of
articles to draw upon in selecting a diet for the normal person.



LESSON XVII

NERVOUSNESS ITS CAUSE AND CURE


The nerves of the human body are the most important, the most complex,
and probably the least understood of any part of the human anatomy. In
conditions of health they are never heard from, therefore every
expression of the nervous system is a symptom of some abnormal physical
condition.

[Sidenote: True meaning of nervousness]

The usual term "nervousness" conveys to the mind of the average person
such conditions as sleeplessness, restlessness, lack of mental and
physical tranquillity, but to the trained mind of the food scientist or
physician, it means mental aberration, hallucinations, morbidity, mental
depression, lack of self-confidence, uncertainty, loss of memory, fear
of poverty, anticipation of accident, tragedy, death, insanity, and a
multitude of things that never happen. Language cannot adequately
describe or convey to the mind of another person the strange impressions
that sweep o'er the mind--the mental anguish caused by an ordinary case
of nervous indigestion. Those only who can understand why many good men
and women sometimes take their own lives, or commit some great crime,
are those who have experienced the same affliction.

If we could correctly interpret the various symptoms given to the brain
from the nervous system, and would heed these symptoms, the body might
be kept in almost perfect health under all conditions of civilized life.

[Sidenote: Relation of nutrition to nervousness]

The lack of fresh air and exercise is always told by nervous expression,
but the most important and significant message conveyed by the nerves at
the brain is that concerning food and general nutrition. Instinct often
leads us to fresh air and exercise, but with our food it is vastly
different. We acquire a taste for certain things; the habit grows upon
us, and though the nerves tell the story to our senses over and over, we
heed it not because we are held behind the bars of habit by the tyranny
of appetite. In this respect the tobacco fiend, the drug fiend, and the
food fiend are all in the same class.


CAUSES

Nervousness usually has its origin in disorders of the functions of
metabolism, assimilation and elimination. In other words, somewhere
between the time the food is first taken into the system, and the time
the poisonous débris of the food and the body waste is finally
eliminated, there are some grievous faults of function.

Some deficiency in the activity and in the secreting power of any of
the digestive organs; some defect in the assimilation of the finished
pabulum; some short-coming in the process by which oxygen is carried
through the system to convert the "end-products" into less toxic
substances for final excretion--any or all of these causes may conspire
to produce nervousness. These may again, in their turn, be due to causes
that arise within the mind, inhibiting the proper functional activity of
the body.

But overfeeding, or eating the wrong combinations of food, and lack of
proper elimination, are probably the most frequent causes of
nervousness. When we take into the system more food than the body
requires, there is bound to be a certain amount of it which cannot be
utilized to build tissue, or furnish heat, or supply mineral salts.

This excess food, under the influence of fermentative processes, breaks
down into various poisonous products. This is especially true of the
albuminous elements of the food. For these, in the heat and moisture of
the small intestine, rapidly undergo a process of rotting--this is
exactly what it is--and develop some of the most virulent organic
poisons known to man.

They exercise a profound depression upon all the physiological
functions, and cause an actual toxic degeneration of the nervous
protoplasm. This, in turn, causes nerve irritability, insomnia, and many
of those protean symptoms roughly grouped under the head of
neurasthenia.

To completely relieve the condition means that a thorough reform in
habits,--and particularly in dietetic habits--must be undertaken.

Excesses of every kind--even of play or work--must be stopped. All
possible sources of worry must be removed. Rest and recreation should be
made quite as important--in fact more so, than house-work or business.

Sleep, and plenty of it, should be secured at all costs. Eight hours are
none too many--although ten would be better.

Needless to say, the question of diet is of prime importance. The use of
tea, coffee, tobacco, alcohol, and all stimulant beverages, as well as
condiments, should be discontinued.

Plain, wholesome food--with an ample supply of lecithin (or nerve fat)
such as eggs, milk, olive oil, etc., should be taken liberally.

All sources of fermentation--especially those forms due to an excess of
starch, sugars, and acids, should be avoided. Careful attention should
be given to securing free bowel movement.

And, above all, an equable frame of mind should be cultivated; the way
to defeat this purpose is to overwork and worry in order to accumulate
the thing called property.

[Sidenote: Working for wealth alone defeats its purpose]

The desire to accumulate property has for its excuse immunity from work
at some future time so that we can enjoy life, but experience teaches
us that the physical cost of this effort defeats the very purpose for
which we are striving.


THE REMEDY

The victim of nervousness should first seek a complete change of
environment, and engage in pleasant, and, if possible, profitable
occupation.

[Sidenote: Therapeutic value of working for the public good]

Thousands of people become nervous wrecks by pursuing work for which
they have no natural taste or ability, and many become nervous from the
monotony of environment. This is especially true with women, and while
it is exceedingly difficult for countless housewives and mothers to
escape from this monotony, yet they can secure relief by becoming
interested in some work of a public or quasi-public nature, or by taking
up a "hobby" that has for its purpose some form of public good.

All people love the plaudits and esteem of their fellow-creatures, and
there is nothing that will relieve the monotony and bring that
satisfaction which all of us desire more quickly than earnest labor in a
worthy cause. Therefore, this is one of the first and the best remedies
for that character of nervousness caused by the monotony and narrowed
life of the average woman.

[Sidenote: The effects of wrong eating and drinking]

The most prolific cause of nervousness, however, is incorrect, unnatural
habits of eating and drinking, therefore, the logical remedy must be
found in simplifying, leveling, and making the diet conform to the
requirements of the body governed, of course, by age, occupation, etc.

The nervous person should eliminate from the diet acids, sweets (see
Lesson VIII, Vol. II, pp. 313 and 332), flesh foods, and all stimulating
beverages.

The following menus, with variations according to the available supply
of fruits and vegetables in season, should be adopted:


SUGGESTIONS FOR SPRING

Choice of the following menus:

MENU I MENU II


                           BREAKFAST

    A cup of hot water           Very little farina or oatmeal,
    Two baked bananas              with cream
    Steamed wheat--cream         A glass of buttermilk


                           LUNCHEON

    Corn hominy, with butter     A white potato, baked
      or cream                   A large, boiled onion
    Raisins, nuts, cream cheese  Corn bread
    One or two glasses of water  A glass of milk


                             DINNER

    A pint of junket             One egg or a morsel of fish
    Bran gems                    A baked potato
    A coddled egg (For bran      Choice of carrots, parsnips,
      meal and coddled eggs,       or onions
      see Vol. III, pp. 677 and  (A green salad or spinach
      683)                         may be eaten at this
    Hot water                      meal, if desired)

One or two glasses of water should be drunk at each of these meals.

If there is a tendency toward constipation, a liberal portion of wheat
bran, thoroughly cooked, should be taken at both the morning and the
evening meal.

Bran possesses valuable nutritive properties, such as mineral salts,
iron, protein and phosphates, and it harmonizes chemically with all
other foods.


SUGGESTIONS FOR SUMMER

BREAKFAST


     Melon, or any mild subacid or non-acid fruit, such as pears, baked
     apples, sweet grapes, very ripe peaches, Japanese plums, or
     persimmons
     Choice of whipped egg or junket
     A banana--natural, or baked, if the digestion is slightly impaired


LUNCHEON

     A fresh green salad, such as celery or lettuce, with oil or nuts
     Onions, uncooked
     A whipped egg
     Carrots, peas, or beans


DINNER

     Corn, carrots, peas, beans, or squash
     Half a cup of plain wheat bran, cooked
     A baked potato
     A glass of water


SUGGESTIONS FOR FALL

In adopting the two-meals-a-day system, the noon meal should be omitted.
This gives the stomach and the irritated nerves a rest, and creates
natural hunger which augments both digestion and assimilation. (See
Lesson XIII, p. 630).


BREAKFAST

     Melon or peaches
     A very ripe banana, with soaked prunes and cream
     A spoonful of nuts
     One or two spoonfuls of whole wheat, cooked very thoroughly
     One egg, prepared choice--preferably whipped
     One glass of water

A green salad or some sweet fruit may be eaten at noon if very hungry.


DINNER

     Squash or pumpkin, cooked en casserole
     Fresh string beans
     A baked sweet potato
     One or two tablespoonfuls of nuts--choice
     Junket or gelatin
     A glass of water


SUGGESTIONS FOR WINTER

FIRST DAY: On rising, drink two cups of cool water, and devote from five
to ten minutes to vigorous exercises and deep breathing.


BREAKFAST

     A cup of hot water or thin chocolate
     A small portion of boiled wheat
     One exceedingly ripe banana, eaten with cream
     One or two eggs, whipped--cream and sugar added
     One or two figs, with cream and either nuts or nut butter


LUNCHEON

     Two eggs, whipped; add a flavor of sugar, orange juice, and a glass
     of milk
     A cup of hot water


DINNER

     Turnips, carrots, parsnips, onions--any two of these
     A baked potato or baked beans
     A small portion of fish, white meat of chicken, or an egg

Just before retiring, take exercises as prescribed for the morning, and,
if constipated, two or three tablespoonfuls of wheat bran.

SECOND DAY: The same as the first, slightly increasing the quantity of
food if hungry.

THIRD DAY: The same as the second, adding one or two baked bananas to
the morning meal, and varying the vegetables according to the appetite
for the noon and the evening meal. Nearly all vegetables such as
turnips, beets, carrots and parsnips may be substituted for one
another.


FOURTH DAY:

BREAKFAST


     Tokay or Malaga grapes
     A cup of hot water
     Two eggs, lightly poached, or a very rare omelet
     A whole wheat muffin or a bran gem
     A cup of chocolate
     A liberal portion of wheat bran (one-fourth oatmeal), cooked and
     served as an ordinary cereal, eaten with butter


LUNCHEON

     Choice of either _a_ or _b_:

     _a_ Two eggs, prepared as follows: Break into a bowl. Add a
     teaspoonful of sugar to each egg. Whip five minutes very rapidly
     with a rotary egg beater. Add a glass of milk and a teaspoonful of
     orange juice to each egg

     _b_ A quart of milk and half a cup of bran
     One baked banana


DINNER

Any green salad--celery or shredded cabbage (very little), with salt and
nuts

    Choice of any two fresh vegetables

    Choice of:

    _a_ One or two exceedingly ripe bananas, baked, eaten with butter or
    cream

    _b_ Figs or raisins, with cream
    A glass of water


Exercise the same as prescribed for the first day.

FIFTH DAY: The same as the fourth day.

SIXTH DAY: The same as the first, repeating these menus for a period of
three or four weeks.

The nervous person should eat very sparingly of bread and cereal
products, with the exception of bran and a few coarse articles, such as
flaked or whole wheat or rye, and these should be taken sparingly while
under treatment.

A generous quantity of water should be drunk at meals, and mastication
should be very thorough.

If the body is overweight or inclined toward obesity, the diet should
consist of fewer fat-producing foods, such as grains, potatoes, milk,
eggs, and an excess of vegetable proteids. If underweight or inclined
toward emaciation, the fat-producing foods should predominate.

Under all conditions of nervousness the patient should take an abundance
of exercise and deep breathing in the open air, and sleep out of doors,
if possible. An abundance of fresh air breathed into the lungs is the
best blood purifier known, and if the blood is kept pure, and forced
into every cell and capillary vessel of the body by exercise, the
irritated nerves will share in the general improvement.

The cool shower or sponge bath in the morning, preceded and followed by
a few minutes' vigorous exercise, is a splendid sedative for irritated
nerves.


RECREATION

The nervous person should divide the day as nearly as possible into
three equal parts--eight hours' pleasant but useful work; eight hours'
recreation, and eight hours' sleep.

[Sidenote: Necessity for true recreation]

Under modern civilized conditions the majority of people do not seem to
understand recreation. The summer seashore resorts, with their expensive
attractions and whirling life, the great hostelries in the hills and
mountains, and the lakes where thousands of people congregate, entail
upon them certain duties, anxieties, expectations, disappointments, and
often financial strain that deprive these places of all features of
recreation, and make the sojourn there one of labor and strife. The real
purpose that takes most people to these resorts is to be seen; to "star"
themselves before the multitude, which in its last analysis is a kind of
vanity, and it is obvious that from any effort in this direction no
recreation can be obtained.

The nervous person should seek a few congenial and thoughtful
companions, and get back into the great heart of nature where
everything moves in obedience to supreme law. Associate intimately with
animals; study their habits, and notice how they respond to kindness;
admire their honesty; analyze the love and fidelity of a dog. This is
true diversion and recreation. This defines the purpose of life, if
there be purpose behind it. This draws a sharp distinction between the
condition that makes nervousness and the condition that makes honest,
thoughtful, useful human beings.



LESSON XVIII

POINTS ON PRACTISE


INTRODUCTION TO POINTS ON PRACTISE

The preceding lessons were written through a period of many years'
active practise in treating dis-eases by scientific feeding. They were
intended as a normal course to qualify doctors, nurses, and those who
wished to treat dis-ease by this method. However, the demand for this
class of information has come from people in every walk of life,
therefore the lessons, and all technical matter composing this entire
work have been most carefully revised and rewritten in simple language
so that any person of ordinary intelligence can comprehend them.

The following lesson is intended for the guidance of the practitioner in
beginning his work in this branch of the healing art.

Inasmuch as nearly all human ills are caused by errors in eating, the
preceding lessons have been confined almost wholly to dis-eases that
originate in the digestive organs.



Lesson XVIII

POINTS ON PRACTISE


[Sidenote: Dietetic treatment is reconstructive]

There are a great many abnormal conditions of the human body classed as
dis-eases that bear a very remote relation to diet, but in practise the
student will soon learn that many of these conditions, which have not
been considered in these lessons, will entirely disappear when the diet
is perfected. This is true because dietetic treatment, based upon the
fundamental laws of nutrition, is reconstructive, hence every part of
the anatomy shares in the general improvement.

[Sidenote: Scope of scientific feeding]

There are many logical arguments to support the theory that there are no
incurable dis-eases. There are many cases, however, where the vitality
has become so low that recovery from dis-ease is impossible, but if the
patient could be taken in time, the correct diagnosis made, and the
proper food, air, and exercise given, Nature would begin her work of
rebuilding at once. In view of these facts it is somewhat difficult to
fix a limit to the scope of scientific feeding.


SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PRACTITIONER

[Sidenote: The value of letters]

The science of prescribing diet is a work that can be best conveyed to
the patient in writing, hence one of the first and most important things
for the new practitioner to do is to study the art of polemics--acquire
the ability to write plain, convincing literature and letters. This is
one of the greatest arts within the scope of human learning, and is
probably susceptible of greater development than any other branch of
human endeavor.

Every person has his own individual method of expression that should be
preserved and cultivated. Select some good author and copy his logic,
but not his language. For this purpose I would recommend the works of
Henry George, the great economic philosopher--and probably one of the
greatest polementitians that ever lived.

[Sidenote: Writing is mental calisthenics]

The student should begin by taking up some simple branch or certain
subject of his work, and writing a short argument or essay upon it,
using every fact that he can possibly command to convince imaginary
readers of the correctness of his theories. Select a new subject and
write something on it every day. This is merely mental calisthenics, and
after a month's training the thoughts and the language will flow with a
freedom that will enable the student to write just as he feels.

[Sidenote: A booklet describing your work]

It would be well to arrange an argument based upon each lesson
separately, dividing it into short chapters. These arguments or essays
should be logically arranged to form a booklet, with proper title, as
such representative literature is vitally necessary to the growth and
the success of your work. It will also be found that this will be
splendid mental exercise, and will serve well in presenting your work,
either orally, or by letter.

[Sidenote: The personality of the writer]

Every one should endeavor to be original in his literature; in other
words, no special effort should be made to quote any "authority" or to
copy the style of other writers. Put your own personality into your
work, for the most successful writer is not always the one who uses the
most learned, polished or scholarly language, but the one who can convey
his thoughts to the minds of others in the simplest and the most
comprehensive language.

Language at best is but a vehicle for conveying the thoughts of one
person to the mind of another, and while there are accepted standards in
literature and letters, from which one should not make too radical a
departure, yet the ability to present one's convictions, or position
convincingly should be of first consideration.

The most important thing in writing is to have something to say; then to
say it so that it can be understood.


VALUE OF EXPERIENCE

Experience is the only method by which theory can be converted into
knowledge. The best possible source of information, therefore, is
personal experimentation. If the student should have any disorder,
especially of digestion and assimilation of food, or elimination of
waste, he should experiment upon himself along the lines laid out in
this course. He should keep an accurate record of selections,
combinations, and proportions of food, with results or symptoms. He may
thus be able to arrange menus for himself, even more effective than
those given as examples or guides throughout the course.

If there are no personal disorders that will permit of such experiments,
then they should be made upon some other person with whom the student is
sufficiently familiar in order that accurate information concerning the
results may be secured.

Though the student may be normal and healthy, it is possible to make
many valuable experiments in regard to special adaptations of diet, such
as combinations to induce natural sleep; to produce and to relieve
constipation and diarrhea; to produce excessive body-heat when exposed
to cold, or the minimum of heat in summer, or in warm climates.


VALUE OF DIAGNOSIS

Correct diagnosis is one of the most important factors in the practise
of applied food chemistry, and when a correct diagnosis has been made
the remedy will suggest itself if the student has a thorough
understanding of causes.

[Sidenote: Causes sometimes very remote]

In diagnosis it is often necessary to ascertain the patient's general
habits of eating during the few years prior to the appearance of the
disorders. As an example, rheumatic conditions are often superinduced by
an overconsumption of starch, usually cereal starch and acids. This
overindulgence may have continued for several years before the
appearance of any rheumatic symptoms. The primary causes being residual
in the body, exposure, low vitality, or extreme climatic changes may
give expression to them in the form of rheumatism, or some kindred
trouble.

[Sidenote: Value of limited feeding]

After determining the causes, a diet should be designed which will
counteract existing conditions. This may usually be accomplished by
limiting the quantity of food somewhat below the demands of normal
hunger. This will give the digestive organs less work to do, and the
body an opportunity to take up or consume any excess of food matter that
may have become congested. In cases accompanied by loss of hunger, it is
sometimes necessary to put the patient upon an absolute fast from one to
three days, but in the majority of cases a semi-fast is best,
prescribing light, nutritious foods of a remedial character.


EDUCATE YOUR PATIENT

In beginning treatment each patient should be made acquainted with the
fact that the radical change in diet may bring slight discomfort. While
the system is adjusting itself to the new regimen, there is usually a
slight loss of weight and a feeling of weakness or lassitude.

[Sidenote: Curing a slow process]

It should be impressed upon the mind of the patient that regaining
health and strength is in reality a process of growth or evolution,
hence slow and gradual; that when one has violated the laws of health
for many years, Nature will not, or probably cannot forgive all these
sins and repair all these wrongs in a month or two. However, when one
gets in harmony with the physical universe, and conforms to the laws of
his organization, Nature will construct (cure) much more rapidly than
she formerly destroyed (produced dis-ease).

[Sidenote: The patient should agree with the diet]

The practitioner may have many cases that for some seemingly mysterious
reason will not respond to a perfectly natural diet and will, therefore,
be called upon to change the diet from time to time in the vain hope of
finding combinations of food that will agree. In these cases the student
should not be led to deviate too far from what he knows to be a natural
and chemically harmonious regimen. If such a diet does not produce the
desired results, it is not always the fault of the food, but the fault
of the patient. If the food is right, and does not agree, it is the
patient that is wrong, hence the logical thing to do is to make the
rebellious patient agree with the food, instead of searching for a food
to agree with the patient.

These facts should be impressed strongly upon the mind of the one under
treatment, and he should be prevailed upon, if possible, to conform
strictly to a correct diet until Nature is given time and opportunity to
bring about an adjustment between the individual and his food.

It has been the custom of the medical profession for centuries to shroud
its work in mystery, to write prescriptions in a dead language, to keep
patients in ignorance of the remedies being applied. This seems to be
necessary, probably because an intelligent discussion of allopathic
drugs, their sources and their constituent elements would, no doubt,
prove fatal to their administration. The food scientist should follow
exactly the opposite course. He should make a very careful diagnosis,
taking into account the diet, habits of exercise and exposure to fresh
air prior to the appearance of the dis-ease, as well as at the time of
treatment. By giving the patient a thorough understanding of your work,
you gain his confidence and faith, which wield a very powerful influence
over the body.


EFFECT OF MENTAL CONDITIONS

[Sidenote: Worry or fear causes stomach trouble]

A very careful examination should also be made of the mental conditions.
Worry, fear, or anxiety often produce serious digestive trouble which
is generally attributed to other causes, and which should be treated
very differently from the same trouble caused by errors in eating.

During my professional work many patients have come to me laden with
fear, caused by the thoughtless or perhaps reckless statement of some
physician. It is indeed as great a crime for a doctor to pass the
"sentence of death" upon a man who comes to him for help as it would be
for the judge of a court to pronounce the death sentence upon a prisoner
without hearing the evidence, and some day when the power of the mind or
suggestion is understood, it will be so considered.

[Sidenote: What Christian Science has done]

It is impossible to fully estimate the effects of fear on the human
body. Each year, I become more and more impressed with the fact that
fear is one of the most potent factors in the cause of dis-ease.
Christian Science has relieved thousands of people through the simple
presentation of a philosophy that induces the individual to throw off
this burden of fear. It matters not whether this burden is cast upon the
Gentle Nazarene or John Doe, the fact that it has been disposed of often
leads to relief and recovery. Christian Science has done the world a
great service--it has put out the fires of an orthodox hell by pouring
into it orthodox medicine.

With a clear knowledge of the powerful psychological law, and the laws
of human nutrition, the student has at his command two of the greatest
forces in Nature for the relief of human suffering.


PUBLICITY

[Sidenote: Value of truthful advertising]

Judicious and truthful advertising is another important factor in the
success of the food scientist. Advertising has been considered unethical
by medical men for years. It has been discredited, not because it is
wrong, or because there is any harm in telling the public the truth
about one's business, but because so many spurious nostrums and patent
medicines were exploited by "quack" doctors, that the respectable
physician deemed it best to adopt the other extreme in his effort to
keep entirely out of this class.

Advertising, however, is rapidly acquiring a more honest and upright
character. The best magazines and some weekly newspapers will no longer
accept advertisements of a questionable character, especially regarding
medical remedies. Many of these excellent publications go so far as to
vouch for and guarantee the honesty of everything exploited in their
pages. Such methods are gradually purifying the advertising atmosphere.

[Sidenote: Advertising both virtuous and necessary]

There is no logical reason why anybody who has a virtuous and useful
article, or who has discovered anything in the realm of science that
would be a benefit to humanity, as well as a profit to himself, should
not make it known as widely as possible through the instrumentality of
advertising.

In preparing advertising literature, whether for magazines, booklets, or
letters, facts and truth concerning your work are all that is necessary.
No statement should be made that can in any way jeopardize your
reputation; nothing should be stated or claimed that cannot actually be
made good.

For many years it has been my policy to keep my advertising
conservatively below the full limit of facts; in other words, the whole
truth concerning that which can be accomplished by scientific feeding
sometimes seems so startling to the lay mind that the experienced
advertiser will not state it as it really is.

A patient of mine who had been in a wheel chair for twelve years, and
afflicted for twenty years with locomotor ataxia, was so much improved
within a year's time that he walked from Brooklyn to my office in New
York City to exhibit himself. He gave me a testimonial letter and the
privilege of using it in my advertisements. I wrote up the facts in
regard to his case and submitted them to my agent, who was an expert
advertiser, and he advised me not to state the facts as they were; the
public, he contended, would not accept them as true.


BE COURTEOUS AND TOLERANT

It is almost impossible to estimate the moral effect of a broad-minded,
tolerant and courteous attitude toward others engaged in the practise of
the healing art. Medical doctors seldom agree, especially those of
different schools. They accuse each other of ignorance and
incompetence, and the public is sometimes inclined to concede that they
are right.

In certainty and in truth one has confidence and strength which is
always conducive to tolerance. The food scientist, knowing the laws of
cause and effect in regard to nutrition, and knowing the proper use of
natural methods of diet and hygiene in the prevention and the cure of
specific dis-eases, needs neither to dispute with a fellow practitioner,
nor to argue with his patient. He can afford to state his position and
quietly allow Nature to prove his claims.



LESSON XIX

EVOLUTION OF MAN


The following lessons, while they do not treat
directly of either the chemistry of food or the chemistry of the body,
are so closely allied to these subjects that this work would not be
complete without them.



LESSON XIX

EVOLUTION OF MAN

WHAT IS EVOLUTION?


If a resident of a city, who is not familiar with modern farm machinery,
should see a grain-binder at work, he would be impressed with the skill
and the ingenuity of man. In all probability he would think that the
machine was the product of one inventive mind. In this, however, he
would be mistaken. The reaper in its modern form is the result of
gradual development or growth.

[Sidenote: An example of evolution]

The earliest method of gathering grain was pulling it up by the roots.
Later, as cutting tools were invented, a rough knife was used to sever
the stalks just above the ground. An improvement upon this method was
the cycle; then came the scythe, then the cradle; and next came the
mower which was operated by horse-power. From the mower was developed
the self rake, which bunched the grain so that the hand-binders could
work with greater facility. The next improvement was a self-binding
machine. In the present machine we have all of these and many other
improvements, which give greater speed with less waste of labor and
time.

This development of the grain-binder is a process of evolution. In order
to understand a machine so as to use it intelligently, or to make
improvements upon it, it is necessary not only to know the machine as it
actually is, but also to know the history of its development up to its
present form.

[Sidenote: To know man is to know evolution]

The story of the evolution of a machine is, at best, but a crude
illustration of the evolution of man. Nevertheless, the conclusion is
the same. If we are to understand man, we must study not only his
present physical and mental state, but also the history of his
development. Yet those whose work is concerned directly with
man--whether they be teachers, guiding the growth of the child;
statesmen, formulating the laws and regulations by which men are to be
controlled in their public actions; or physicians, who are supposed to
instruct and to guide men in the care of their physical well-being--are
often densely ignorant of the most rudimentary knowledge of the
evolution of man as it is now known and understood by the leading
scientists of the world.

Our entire system of education, our ideas of health and dis-ease, our
social customs, the principles of our form of government; our ideas of
right and wrong, of rewards and punishments, are all fundamentally
concerned with the evolution of man, and when this knowledge is studied
with as much application as are the ancient languages, we may expect to
see humanity progress at a rate hitherto unknown.

[Sidenote: Significance of the term "evolution"]

The evolution of man has been very much misunderstood. The term
"evolution" is a broad one. It may refer to the growth of the
individual, or to the race. It may mean the development of strictly
physical organs, or of mental habits, of social customs, or of material
products of man's genius, as the great works of civilization in the form
of recorded learning, and the wonderful products of man's building
ingenuity as seen in modern cities.

The subject of the evolution of the human race may be grouped into three
general kinds of development or growth:

    1 The development of the physical man

    2 The development of the mind

    3 The development of custom and of external civilization

Evolution in these three directions has taken place simultaneously. The
mind and the body depend upon each other for their life and actions;
while customs are merely the product of many minds working together and
communicating their ideas to each other.

       *       *       *       *       *

The human race is but the sum of the individuals composing it. We cannot
consider the development of the individual without considering him in
his relation to the race, neither can we understand the development of
the race without understanding the growth of the individual.

[Sidenote: Difference between inherited and acquired characteristics]

One distinction too often overlooked by those who are not familiar with
physiological science is the difference between actual physical
inheritance and external customs. I wish to dwell at length upon this
distinction, because a lack of understanding upon this point has been
the source of many errors of judgment on the part of those who have been
interested in the subject of physical training and food science.

At birth the individual inherits an organism with certain tendencies,
both physical and mental, but this inheritance should not be confused
with the physical habits which the child acquires by training from its
parents and its associates. Thus, the child may inherit a brilliant
mind, a weak stomach, or a sixth finger, but the child does not inherit
a liking for broiled lobster, or a fondness for golf, or for driving an
aeroplane. These are acquired and developed as habits, the same as the
child would learn English or French, or would cultivate a fancy for
parting his hair in the middle, or on the left side.


THE THREE GREAT PROOFS OF THE EVOLUTION OF ANIMAL LIFE

At the present time scientists are agreed upon the general theory of the
evolution of man. The discussions pro and con regarding this, which
exist today, are either discussions of minor points which have not yet
been clearly worked out, or are the discussions of people who have
grasped only a portion of the idea of evolution, and who are ignorant of
its broader conception and of the facts which science has brought to the
light of day.

The three great proofs of evolution are:

    1 The actual history of the past recorded as fossils in the rocks
    and in the relics of pre-historic races

    2 The existence in the world today of a range of animals and plants
    which shows living examples of earlier types

    3 The repetition of the development of man as found in the growth of
    the individual

These three separate records of the development of living beings are
considered by scientists as a most conclusive proof of the truth of
evolution. Recorded as fossils in the rocks, we find the story of the
development of all life upon the earth, from its simplest to its highest
forms of plants and animals that live today, among which is man.

[Sidenote: The earliest forms of animal life]

The first forms of animal life were, in all probability, minute
one-celled organisms; these left no visible fossil remains. As soon as
animals developed hard parts in their bodies, such as shells and bones,
we find a record of their existence as fossils. The earliest recorded
forms of life were various kinds of sea-creatures, of which the modern
crustacea (lobsters, etc.), snails, clams, and various shell-fishes are
types. Later were developed boneless fishes, on the order of skates.
After these came true fishes; then amphibia (frogs, etc.); then
reptiles, birds, and, last of all, mammals, including man.

The facts are the same, whether we take the history of the successive
forms as recorded as fossils in the rocks, or the living representatives
that remain to tell the story in another form.

[Sidenote: The single cell is the nucleus]

The third proof, which is the story of evolution recorded in the growth
and development of the individual, is yet more interesting. As life
developed from simpler forms, each individual animal or plant became
more complex, or carried a little further the process of growth. But the
method of reproduction of new individuals remained fundamentally the
same. Each individual began, like its ancestors, as a single-cell being.
By the process of nutrition these single cells in each case would grow,
divide, and produce various tissues and organs, but always repeating
the general story of the development of the race.

[Sidenote: Gills in the human embryo]

The growth of the human embryo offers many proofs of evolution, which
are wholly unexplainable upon any other theory of the origin of man, and
would in themselves prove the truth of this view of man's creation were
the proofs of geology entirely lacking. A single example will serve as
an illustration. The human embryo at a certain period develops gill
slits in the neck, the same as the embryo of a fish. This formation of
unused or rudimentary organs which are afterwards outgrown, is very
common throughout the animal world. In the upper jaw of a calf there are
formed at a certain period incisor teeth, which never grow through the
gums, but are reabsorbed and disappear as the calf develops.

I will not go further into the proofs and facts of the general theory of
the evolution of animal life, but will now consider the later period of
the development of man, which will show us his relation to other
animals, and from which we can derive much valuable information
regarding his natural physiological requirements.


MAN'S ANIMAL KINSHIP

The conception of man being descended from a monkey has been the subject
of much wit and mirth.

[Sidenote: Man's relation to anthropoid apes]

The scientist is not concerned with this theory; he only claims that man
is very closely related to certain monkey-like forms known as anthropoid
apes. The proofs of this assertion are abundant and conclusive. In fact,
anthropoid apes, such as gorillas, chimpanzees and orang-outangs, are
much more closely related to man than they are to other kinds of
monkeys. This relation is shown by very close resemblance between the
anatomy of man and apes, especially as to the teeth and digestive
organs. Other facts are now known, of which Darwin and early
investigators were ignorant, which prove this relation in a much more
striking manner.

[Sidenote: Comparison of blood from man and apes]

Late studies upon the growth of the embryo of anthropoid apes have shown
that they were at certain periods almost indistinguishable from human
embryos. Another proof, quite striking and interesting, is in the
similarity of the parasites and dis-eases of men and apes. Scientists
have, within the past few years, made a series of comparative
investigations upon the blood and serum of men and apes, which have
resulted in most remarkable discoveries. There are certain accurate
tests known to the physiological chemist by which human blood may be
distinguished from the blood of all other animals, but the blood of
these man-like apes is an exception to this, and cannot be distinguished
from human blood.

[Sidenote: Difference in the development of man and apes]

From these facts it is clear that the earlier types of men were
creatures whose physical development and whose habits were not very
different from those of apes. The development that has taken place since
that time is truly very wonderful and has resulted in a widening gap
between man and apes that today seems very great. The truth remains,
however, that this gap is not so much one of anatomy and physiology as
it is one of mentality and of external habits and material aids to
living that have resulted from man's greatly developed mental faculties.

[Sidenote: Power of speech a factor in man's evolution]

Thus, when the mind of man reached the stage of development in which the
use of articulate speech became possible, the evolution of intelligence
proceeded at a very much more rapid pace than had been possible before.
He could communicate his ideas to his fellow-creatures; concerted action
became possible, and the faculty of reason, or the ability to think was
multiplied by the number of beings who could communicate with each
other.

The power of reason and the ability to communicate ideas resulted in the
formation of those habits which distinguish man from other animals. When
one primitive man learned the use of a club as a weapon, found how to
use sharp-edged stones as cutting tools, or discovered the wonders and
power of fire, he communicated his new-found knowledge to the other
members of his tribe, with the result that new ideas became common
property.

[Sidenote: Man's bad habits have kept pace with his progress]

This spreading of habits or customs took place very rapidly among men
and was the source of the various changes which distinguished civilized
life from savage life. But we must here point out that not only good
habits were so spread, but bad ones as well. The origin and the use of
opium and of alcohol, the injuries of fashionable dress and the
economic wrongs of tyrannical government originated along with the birth
of language, art, science, and all that uplifts and benefits mankind.

Clearly, then, that man is misinformed who defends a wrong by referring
to its age and reasons that, if certain things were harmful, they would
not have survived. To the young thinker the existence of harmful ideas
and habits among mankind may at first seem inconsistent with the
principles of the survival of the fittest, but this difficulty will
disappear upon further investigation.

[Sidenote: Factors that determine the survival of races]

Since the beginning of recorded history many factors have helped to
determine what kind of individuals and races should survive. War,
economic wealth and poverty, intellectual beliefs, religions, and social
institutions have all been potent factors in determining who should
survive. With wealth and conquest came the opportunity to gratify
tastes and passions of which the poor individuals of weaker races could
not avail themselves.

[Sidenote: Many habits and customs detrimental to life and health]

Many of the habits and customs which man has developed are not necessary
to life, and may be positively detrimental to health and longevity. They
have been handed down from generation to generation, not because of
their benefit to man, but in spite of their detriment.

Such condition of affairs would not be possible if man were not the
dominant animal. Man's intellectual supremacy has given him power over
the rest of nature, which has resulted in making his struggle for
existence much less severe. His use of weapons and of artificial
protection from natural destructive forces, as severe heat or cold, has
made it possible for him to live and to produce offspring in spite of
wrong habits and wrong methods of living, and the natural resistance of
life.

[Sidenote: Man's organs have a limited power of adaptation]

A prevalent error that is due to an incomplete knowledge of the facts of
evolution is the belief that organs readily change or adapt themselves
to the habits or environment of the individual. This is not true to the
extent that it is ordinarily believed. Each individual has a certain
limited power of adaptation. He may develop his lungs to a greater
breathing capacity, or train his hand for certain skilled work, but
these particular acquired habits of the individual are not inherited.

Evolution of the race proceeds by the law of natural selection. Thus, if
those who are born with great vigor and strong lungs are enabled to live
where their weak-lunged neighbors will die, the result will be that
their offspring, having greater lung capacity, will form a race with
increased lung capacity. But the individual training of the lungs, or of
the hand, or of any other organ of the body, will not of itself change
the inherited tendency, or, to use a common term of the scientist, the
germ-plasm of the race.

Organs and functions will change or become evolved by natural
selections; that is, where it is a matter of life and death. But where
the selective agencies depend upon other things, an organ may be used or
abused for thousands of successive generations, and yet the natural
inherited organ of the new-born child will be identical in development
and function to that of the remote ancestor.

[Sidenote: Acquired characteristics are not inherited]

There are abundant proofs that so called "acquired characteristics" are
not inherited. Were acquired characteristics inherited, Chinese women
would be born with small feet and the babies of the Flathead Indians
would inherit the flat head which has for generations been produced by
binding a flat stone on the soft skull of the new-born infant.

In the light of this fact we may understand how it has been possible for
man to live through the varying dietetic habits and customs that the
constantly changing ideas and tastes of civilization have thrust upon
his physical organism. Each individual has transmitted to his offspring
the same type of digestive organs and functions that he himself
inherited from his remote anthropoid ancestors.

[Sidenote: Meaning of expression "natural" diet]

Thus, such terms as "back to nature," "natural diet," etc., only mean to
the food scientist the habits of life or the dietary which is most
suited to the unperverted physical organism of man. They do not imply
the meaning that is popularly given to the term, of casting aside all
the habits and customs of civilized man, but only the adapting of these
customs to the inherited physiological organism of man.

Indeed, science may actually improve upon primitive conditions, and
still not be inconsistent with the requirements of the inherited
physiological machine. No intelligent man will dispute the advantage of
a house in a snowstorm. Yet the house is artificial. It is not "natural"
in the sense that the term is commonly used.

Or, again, man has by the aid of civilization rendered it possible for
us to use foods far removed from their source of production, or, by
preservation, to have them at seasons of the year when nature does not
provide them. These artificial results of civilization are good. They
are a part of the story of evolution, the benefit of which no one can
question.

[Sidenote: Man's dietetic development]

But the great majority of the dietetic "frills" of modern man are
actually unsuited to his physiological make-up, and exceedingly harmful.
They have been developed as have habits of drink or personal adornment
and may be in direct antagonism to the ultimate well-being of the human
race.

I have briefly reviewed the history of the evolution of man. The facts
to be remembered are:

    1 That men are descended from earlier and more primitive types of
    beings and are governed by the same general laws of heredity and
    nutrition as are other forms of animals

    2 Man, being a distinct species of animal, has particular laws that
    apply only to him, and therefore we should be careful not to judge
    him too closely by facts regarding other forms of animal life

    3 Man has changed very materially in the few thousand years of his
    civilization, in his external habits and customs, but very little in
    his fundamental physiological processes; therefore we should be able
    to judge what will be best suited for his needs by studying the
    process of the development of his organs during the millions of
    years that preceded the historic period. This plane of life is best
    seen today in the case of savages unacquainted with fire, and in the
    case of anthropoid apes.

With this general survey of evolution, and a clear understanding of the
principles involved, I trust the reader will consider the facts here
presented in the unprejudicial spirit of the true scientist.



LESSON XX

SEX AND HEREDITY


THE ORIGIN OF SEX

That part of human life and living that is associated with the functions
of sex and reproduction is at once the cause of the world's greatest
misery and the world's greatest happiness. It is the subject of the
greatest popular ignorance and superstition, and at the same time the
field of the most wonderful of all scientific knowledge.

For the origin of sex we must look back into the remote ages of creation
in the early stages of organic evolution.

[Sidenote: Fundamental function of the cell]

The first essential property of matter that makes life possible is the
power of nutrition, which means the ability of the living cell to
transform other chemical substances into its own protoplasm or living
substances.

But this world would have remained a barren mass of igneous rock if
nutrition had been the only function with which the earlier forms of
life were endowed. Not only must the living cell be enabled to grow by
absorbing other substances, but it must reproduce itself, or multiply
the number of living individuals.

[Sidenote: First form of reproduction]

The first method by which this was accomplished was undoubtedly one of
simple division; that is, the living cell grew by absorbing other
substances and when sufficient size had been attained, divided, forming
two daughter-cells. This division process of reproduction is the form by
which all bacteria (so-called dis-ease germs) and many other lower forms
of life increase their numbers.

[Sidenote: Second form of reproduction]

[Sidenote: Strength in fusion of cells]

This process of reproduction, by simple division, was early supplemented
by another process of reproduction in which two living cells first fused
or combined and then divided to form two or more daughter-cells. This
form of reproduction seems to have added stimulus or vitality to the
organisms. The supposed reason for this is that the isolated cell was
inclined to weaken or lose its chemical balance or tone. The exact
nature of this deterioration is not very clearly understood, but in a
higher form of life it is well illustrated by the tendency of certain
plants to "run out" when grown continually in the same soil, or of
animals to become weakened when inbred. At least, all scientists concede
that with the process of fusion or the combining of two cells there is
added a stimulating and invigorating force which enables life to combat
more successfully the unfavorable elements of its environment, and to
change or evolve into higher forms.

[Sidenote: Sexual reproduction in plants]

[Sidenote: Fertilization of orchids]

Throughout the range of plant and animal life this process of cell
union, or sexual reproduction, has grown and become elaborated into most
varied and wonderful forms. Large volumes could be written describing
the many wonderful adaptations of plant and animal life, the purpose of
which is to secure sexual reproduction. All those who have studied
botany are familiar with the many ways in which the seeds of plants are
fertilized by pollen. For instance, certain species of orchids have a
receptacle in the blossom, shaped like a teapot, which is filled with a
fluid resembling water. This little teapot has an entrance and an exit.
Near the entrance is sweet-scented nectar which attracts the bee. As the
bee passes through this gateway he is tripped up on a little trap-door
arrangement and precipitated into the fluid. His wings having become
wet, he is obliged to crawl out through the exit.

[Sidenote: The wonderful process of flower fertilization]

The object of this elaborate device is as follows: In the entrance
passageway is located the stigma (female organ), while in the exit
passageway the male or pollen-bearing organ of the orchid is found. The
bee visits several of these flowers consecutively, and, as he makes his
exit from each flower, he bears away on his body a portion of the
pollen, which is transferred to the stigma of the next flower visited;
while the bee, being forced to go through a "plunge bath" before
visiting another flower, acquires a fresh load of pollen in each case.
This scheme is a certain means of securing fertilization or sexual
reproduction, and positively prevents inbreeding (the fertilization of a
flower by its own pollen). This is merely one of the wonderful
adaptations of nature in the solution of the sex problem.

[Sidenote: Reproduction among fishes]

[Sidenote: Nature's wasteful methods]

In the animal kingdom the methods of sexual reproduction are also varied
and wonderful. In many of the lower forms of animals, such as the
various sea-creatures, the methods of reproduction may be those of
division, as first mentioned, or a method combining division with true
sexual reproduction. In the case of fishes, the eggs of the female are
deposited in the bottom of a stream and are later fertilized by the
sperm-cells of the male fishes. This involves a tremendous waste of
reproductive cells, scarcely less extravagant than the waste of pollen
in plants, such as is seen in a corn-field when the ground becomes
yellow, during the tasseling season, with the myriads of pollen grains
that failed to secure lodgment upon the silks of the young ears of corn.

[Sidenote: Reproduction in higher forms of life]

In the types of animals that are of higher form than fishes, that is,
reptiles, birds, and mammals, the fertilization of the germ-cell (egg)
takes place within the body of the female. In the case of the latter
group--mammals--the true egg is hatched within the body of the female,
and the offspring, or embryo as it is known to scientists, grows there
for a considerable period before birth.


A RATIONAL VIEW OF SEXUAL HEALTH

The anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will not be considered in
detail in this work, as this would require a very lengthy and technical
treatise. The remainder of the lesson will be devoted to the relation of
the reproductive functions to general health and happiness.

[Sidenote: Development of reproductive instincts]

In the process of evolution this function of reproduction was vitally
essential to the life of the race. As a result there developed in all
animal life strong sexual or reproductive instincts. As is plainly
evident, all animals, including man, with such instincts most strongly
developed would be the most successful in producing young, and through
these offsprings the race or species would inherit like reproductive
desires.

[Sidenote: Kinship of the sexual, paternal and social instinct]

In the case of man and the higher form of animals, this general
instinct, the purpose of which was to produce offspring, became
diversified in to many instincts. Not only does the reproductive
instinct in this broad sense include what is commonly known as sexual
passion in man, but it may very truly be said to be the essence of
sexual love and parental love. Broad-minded scientists are even inclined
to believe that the so-called social instinct or love for our fellowmen
is but a distant reflection or shadow, as it were, of the original or
natural instinct to produce offspring.

There has arisen among civilized man a tendency to separate and class as
two distinct things the strictly physical element of sexual desire, and
the associate emotion of intellectual love between the sexes. As a
matter of fact there is no distinct line of demarcation.

[Sidenote: Overindulgence, degenerating and destructive]

That the former instinct has grown into disrepute and has come to be
considered a forbidden topic in polite society, is due to the fact that
sexual passion, like all other human acts which may be a source of
gratification, can degenerate by overindulgence into a destructive and
demoralizing vice. This is equally true of other forms of appetite, but
the reason that the instinct of sex, when degenerated, becomes such a
tremendous source of destruction and death is because of the important
part played in the game of life by the reproductive function.

[Sidenote: Relation of sexual functions to the nervous system]

The functions of reproduction are, in both sexes, very intimately and
closely associated with the nervous or vital mechanism of the entire
body. For this reason, when the sexual function are perverted or abused
the result is serious injury to the general nerve tone or vital force of
the system. Likewise the contrary proposition is true; therefore, when
for any reason, the general nervous tone or vital force of the body is
deranged, the associated result is frequently abnormal passion or
weakened sexual functions.

[Sidenote: Necessity for popular knowledge concerning sex]

A great deal of literature has been written and circulated throughout
the country by well-intentioned individuals purporting to give popular
knowledge regarding the subject of sex. But such literature has greatly
exaggerated the evils and the dangers connected with sexual health.
Outside of specific germ dis-eases transmitted through the sexual
organs, and which, while serious, have been painted much darker than the
facts justify, there is little excuse for all this horror and scare
about sexual weakness and perversion.

[Sidenote: Relation of nutrition to sexual health]

Sexual health, like mental or muscular health, is a matter of common
sense and right living. Proper feeding, proper oxidation, proper
circulation (exercise), perfect elimination of waste-products, and a
suitable distribution of both mental and physical work will result in
perfect nutrition. This means normal, wholesome body-fluids and
body-cells. With these things gained, the sexual organs and sex-function
will have a fair opportunity for normal existence, and the matter of
sexual health, and the consequent happiness which accompanies it, is
then simply a matter of temperance, common decency, and self-control.


EMBRYOLOGICAL GROWTH--PRENATAL CULTURE

[Sidenote: Superstition concerning prenatal culture]

Upon the growth of the human embryo, or so-called prenatal culture,
there exists a great deal of popular superstition, which is utterly
groundless from the standpoint of accurate science. The views that have
been promulgated regarding prenatal culture are for the main part
harmless, and, for that matter, may be productive of good.

[Sidenote: Theory of prenatal culturists]

The idea of the prenatal culturist is that the mental as well as the
physical growth and development of the unborn child can be controlled by
the mother. The only ground for this belief is as follows: The child is
nourished from the blood or nutritive fluid of the mother, with the
result that the growth and the development of the child may be very
readily influenced by the nutrition of the mother.

[Sidenote: Influence of fright, anger, etc.]

The mental condition of the mother has an influence on the growth of the
child, but it is indirect. All organs and functions of the human body
are controlled by the nervous system, and if the nervous impulse be
deranged or weakened it may result in a serious impairment of nutrition.
For this reason fright, anger, and other strong passions may result in
lasting injury to the unborn child, but this injury is at most a matter
of stunting or malnutrition, and cannot result in the voluntary mental
life of the mother being transmitted to the child.

[Sidenote: Mother's nutrition the only factor in influencing her child]

As evidence of these assertions, I would call the reader's attention to
the fact that there is no nervous connection whatever between the embryo
and the mother, but after the fertilization of the germ-cell, the only
way in which the mother can influence the growth of the child is by the
nutrition which her blood supplies to the growing tissue of the embryo.

[Sidenote: Birthmarks]

As further proof of these statements, I will cite the investigations of
Darwin in regard to the popular superstition of birthmarks. At the
instance of Mr. Darwin, some seven or eight hundred women of a London
hospital were very carefully questioned before the birth of the child,
as to any incidents which had happened that, according to popular
notions, might result in birthmarks or deformities. In no instance was
any incident given which resulted in the expected deformity; but the
most interesting feature of the investigation was that several women
whose children were born with birthmarks recalled, upon seeing the
deformity, some incident which seemed to give a possible explanation,
thus showing to the mind of anyone familiar with psychology that the
true explanation of all so-called remarkable incidents of birthmarks and
of prenatal influence is merely one of superstition or self-deception.


HEREDITY

How often we hear someone remark upon the wonders of heredity. People
are astonished because John should look like John's father. As a matter
of fact, the astonishment should come the other way. The child is but a
continuation of the life of the parents. The cells from which the child
develops have within them the power to grow and to produce individuals
like the parents. This is wonderful, but it is only another form of the
wonder of a willow twig growing into a willow tree when placed in moist
earth.

[Sidenote: Why the child is not identical with parents]

To the scientist, then, the wonder comes, not in the fact that the child
resembles the parent, but in the fact that the child is not identical
with the parent. Part of the explanation of this lack of identity, or,
as it is known to science, variation, is due to the fact of sexual
reproduction; that is, to the fact that the child has two parents
instead of one.

[Sidenote: Microscopic study of reproductive cells]

The physiological process which takes place in the union of two
reproductive cells is truly most wonderful. Of late years this has been
studied under powerful microscopes and has resulted in some very
wonderful revelations of the mysteries of Nature.

[Sidenote: Chromosoms in different species]

The nucleus (center of growth) of the parent cells contains little
thread-like structures known as chromosoms. These chromosoms are
considered to be the physical basis of heredity. In each species of
animal there is a definite and a different number.

[Sidenote: Action of the chromosom]

When the sperm-cell unites with the female or germ-cell, these
thread-like chromosoms pair off and unite each chromosom with the
corresponding structure from the other cell. The combined structures
then divide, and half of each chromosom is cast out of the cell-nucleus,
and plays no part in the life of the future being; the other half is
retained and divides as each new cell is formed.

Thus we see that every part of the new individual is the result of the
fusion or combination of the two parents. This explains the variation of
inheritance, and through this source must be traced all traits of
heredity. After the original fusion of these microscopic physical
elements of heredity, the future development of the individual is wholly
a matter of environment and nutrition.


WHAT HEREDITY IS

[Sidenote: General characteristics due to heredity]

What heredity is and what it is not will now be considered in a
practical way. It is clearly a matter of heredity that a man is born a
man and not a monkey. Likewise, it is clearly a matter of heredity that
distinguishes the various races of men. We could go farther and trace
out and describe many of the physical distinctions which mark families,
and even individuals, such as general size of frame, form of
countenance, color of hair and eyes, etc.

[Sidenote: Characteristics not attributed to heredity]

Among mental traits we can safely ascribe to heredity only general
distinctions. Intellectual parents are more likely to give birth to
intellectual children than are parents whose natural mental faculties
are less developed. There is also no doubt that certain natural
characteristics of mind, such as quick temper, musical ability, etc.,
may be inherited. The belief, however, in the inheritance of many less
distinct features, both physical and mental, is not well established by
scientific investigation. Strength of muscle, control of the nervous
system, susceptibility to, or freedom from dis-ease, etc., are more
matters of nutrition and environment than of inheritance. The idea that
consumption, alcoholism, etc., are inherited, or that the education or
training of parents along certain lines will result in children with
faculties adapted to similar education, is not in accordance with
scientific knowledge.


SUMMARY OF FACTS REGARDING SEX AND HEREDITY

    1 The function of sex has been developed in the process of evolution
    for the purpose of perpetuating life.

    2 The sexual functions are very closely related to the life of the
    individual, and can be normal only when the laws of nutrition and of
    general hygiene are observed.

    3 The idea of prenatal culture as commonly taught is a delusion; the
    only method that the mother can employ to control the growth of her
    unborn child is to live a wholesome, normal life, physically and
    mentally, and thus supply her own body and that of the child with
    perfect material for the building of living cells.

    4 The powers of heredity are often overestimated, and many of the
    weaknesses and disorders of life supposed to be inherent can be
    overcome by proper nutrition and environment. All life, whatever be
    the inherited tendencies, will be developed to the highest possible
    capacity by obeying the laws of individual growth, for in the
    individual, as in the race, Nature is always striving to bring the
    products of her work to the highest degrees of perfection.



LESSON XXI

REST AND SLEEP


REST

[Sidenote: Opposing forces in nature]

Throughout all nature we observe the phenomena of universal rhythm,
manifested in opposing forces, such as heat and cold, light and
darkness, construction and destruction, etc. The human body is as much
affected by this rhythm as is any other form of life.

[Sidenote: Opposing forces in human system]

There are two forces continually at work within us, one toward
destruction and disintegration, and the other toward construction and
upbuilding. The common physiological terms for these activities are
"waste" and "repair," and we observe them as one of the distinct
manifestations of the universal laws of growth, progress, and evolution.

History moves in cycles. Even the life of nations depends somewhat upon
this same principle of the interplay of the positive and negative forces
of life.

[Sidenote: Life and death in changes of seasons]

We see the same thing in the changes of the seasons upon the face of the
earth. Throughout autumn and winter there is a process of decay, death,
and disintegration; leaves fall; plants and vegetables die; fruits
ripen, fall and decay. This process continues until former beautiful and
symmetrical bodies of matter are thoroughly disintegrated, and the
particles once composing them are separated into their original
elements, to be appropriated in new manifestations of life in springtime
and summer.

[Sidenote: Human body compared to a machine]

We are inclined to think of the human body as a machine--a marvelous,
intricate, and complex mechanism which serves our will and our desires;
as a tool with which we work out our earthly destiny. But unlike
man-made machines, it is self-repairing, self-adjusting, and contains
within itself the forces of construction, which are constantly tending
toward perfection, while our industrial machines are constantly tending
toward their own disintegration and destruction.

[Sidenote: Constant changes in body-tissue]

Every movement of the body, conscious or unconscious, even thought and
emotion, use up some part of the body-tissue which must be replaced by
new material. This constant change in the texture and the make-up of the
body we call "metabolism," involving the functions of digestion,
absorption, assimilation, and elimination.

While we may regard the body as a machine, there are many points in
which the favorite comparison to a steam-engine is not exact.

[Sidenote: Favorite comparison of the body with the steam-engine]

The inert metal composing the steam-engine has no power in itself, nor
does power act through the different particles of metal, but it is
controlled by the external application of force, which is the result of
chemical changes caused by combustion in the fire-box. The metal of the
engine has no part in the production of this energy. It does not need to
take periods for rest, and if it were possible to supply it continually
with water and fuel, it could run steadily from the time it was started
until one or more of its essential parts were destroyed through
friction.

[Sidenote: Necessity for rest]

But the engineer and the fireman who drive the engine find it necessary
to rest from their labors at certain intervals, not merely for fuel and
water, but to prevent serious destruction of body-tissue. This is true
because man is compelled by hitherto unrecognized laws to give his body
an opportunity, not only for readjustment in its composition, but also
for the actual renewal of that power which animates him and makes him an
intelligent, self-adjusting, and self-controlled being.


THE OLD PHYSIOLOGY

[Sidenote: The stomach as a fire-box]

[Sidenote: Phenomenon of rest and sleep]

According to the teachings of the old physiology, our stomachs were
fire-boxes of the human engine; food was fuel, and the stomach was
supposed to transform this fuel into work or energy by a process not
entirely clear. Just as it is impossible for the lifeless iron and
steel, within itself to transform coal and water into dynamic power, and
to apply that power to its own locomotion, so it is impossible and
entirely incompatible with reason for mere muscular tissue of the body
to extract enough energy from the food we eat to perform the work
necessary for that transformation itself, besides enough more to carry
on all the functional activities of the system, and at the same time to
do hundreds of foot-tons of physical labor. In this fact lies the key to
some understanding of the phenomenon of rest and sleep.

The old physiology was really never able to explain how it was possible
for the digestive apparatus to extract, from the amount of food
consumed, the enormous amount of energy which the average person expends
each day.


REST AND RE-CREATION

[Sidenote: Change of occupation not re-creation]

These terms are often confused. When one is engaged in some occupation
or activity other than his regular vocation, it is commonly called
"re-creation." This is a misconception, because it is merely a change
in activity and must also be more or less destructive to other sets of
nerves or muscular tissue. It is not in reality re-creation--it simply
throws the life-power into a new channel, which is more responsive, and
calls for less action from those parts of the mechanism which have been
employed in the work from which one is seeking relief. It is for this
reason that we find some pleasure in a new and different activity,
though it, too, may be destructive to the human cell.

[Sidenote: Specialization in business not conducive to health]

One may alternate from one kind of activity to another indefinitely,
which would be better than _no_ change, but the human mechanism would
finally give way under such violation of fundamental law. The mental
worker may change, however, to any manual labor requiring little
thought, and the physical worker to some form of mental labor, with far
better effect. But, in our present civilization, specialization has
become so far advanced that the physical laborer is seldom qualified
for mental work, and the mental worker has almost neglected manual
training.

_True rest and re-creation is found in mental tranquility and sleep._


SLEEP

From observation and study of the state we call sleep, we notice that as
night approaches and the activities of the day wear upon us, both the
nervous and the muscular organisms relax, so that it becomes more and
more difficult to maintain a positive and an active attitude of mind.
There is a tendency toward cessation and rest, which gradually brings
upon us that passive condition called sleep.

[Sidenote: Evidence of acquired energy during sleep]

In spite of the fatigue often experienced before we retire, we awake
again on the morrow with renewed strength and power. From these and
other reasons we are led to believe that during the hours of activity
the body is constantly expending vital energy in both internal and
external work, and that during the hours of sleep, through some unknown
process, the body is charged with vital energy which is stored up and
used gradually for carrying on the various functions and activities of
the system.

[Sidenote: The mystery of energy]

Just what this energy is, just where it comes from, just how it is
stored, just the manner in which it is delegated to the body, we cannot
say. We can only observe its workings, or effects, and formulate
therefrom a theory. We are led to believe, however, that this energy is
stored in the nervous organism, perhaps most largely in the brain, as
brain tissue is the last to break down or waste away in sickness, ill
health, dis-ease, or starvation, often maintaining its full weight up to
the point of death.

[Sidenote: Vital processes expend energy during sleep]

Even in sleep the expenditure of energy in the vital processes continues
vigorously, depending upon conditions immediately preceding sleep, but
usually in a much more passive degree than in the waking hours. These
activities, however, are no more pronounced in their constructive action
or repair, than in ordinary periods of rest during the waking hours.


SOME REASONS

[Sidenote: Food furnishes but a fraction of the total body-energy]

The processes of nutrition, alone, demand the expenditure of much
energy, and the degree of energy available from foods, even by perfect
combustion, would yield but a fraction of the energy expended by the
body.

[Sidenote: Energy required for work in excess of energy obtained from
food]

The average laborer in shoveling coal, swinging an axe or a pick,
expends energy far in excess of the amount that could possibly be
obtained from his food. A day laborer may eat a piece of beefsteak, two
or three potatoes, and a few slices of bread, and will shovel twenty
tons of earth to a height of five feet; a Japanese soldier will carry a
heavy load and walk all day, subsisting only on a handful of rice, and
besides this, will do some thinking, which consumes energy.

[Sidenote: Evidence gained from "fasts" and "no breakfast" plan]

We also have on record fasts, of from thirty to forty days, which, in
some cases, show a slight gain in strength. There are also hundreds of
students of natural living who adopted the "no breakfast plan" and again
many, only one meal a day, limiting their consumption of food to
comparatively small quantities of nuts, fruits, and vegetables, who have
found thereby a remarkable increase in vitality, strength, and general
physical and mental power.

[Sidenote: Relation of sleep to expenditure of energy]

Since the processes of nutrition, including digestion, circulation,
assimilation and excretion consume energy, and notwithstanding this we
are able to perform hundreds of foot-tons of labor a day besides; since
we have found it possible to continue to live, and in some cases to even
increase the amount of strength and work-power on a very limited diet;
since it is a mathematical impossibility to produce as much energy from
the food consumed as the body expends, we are forced to the conclusion
that we do not obtain all our energy from food. Therefore, from a
careful analysis of the phenomenon of sleep, we conclude that it is very
closely connected with this mystery.


OXIDATION AND AIR

[Sidenote: Relative importance of air, food and water]

One of the most important of the vital functions is breathing.
Physiologists, teachers, and lecturers continually remind us of the
comparative time we could live without food or water, and the remarkably
short time we could live if entirely deprived of air.

[Sidenote: Oxygen not the only required element in breathing]

Oxygen is vitally necessary for the purpose of purifying the blood and
supplying the various tissues and fluids in the body, of which oxygen
forms an important constituent. However, oxygen is not the only
necessary element which is utilized by the system in the process of
breathing, as human beings die immediately upon being placed in a
receptacle of undiluted oxygen. Just what this other factor is, science
has not clearly defined, but that it is concerned with rest and sleep we
have at least unconsciously recognized, as shown by our often referring
to periods of rest as "breathing spells"; from the fact that we have
found it of great importance to keep the air we are breathing moving
constantly about us, especially while asleep. From all these facts we
are forced to believe that sleep plays an important part in producing
and maintaining body-energy, besides constantly recharging the system
with oxygen.



LESSON XXII

A LESSON FOR BUSINESS MEN


That which tends to make a good business man, in the popular mind, is
the establishment of great industries and enterprises, coupled with
accumulation of money by the individual.

A careful review of the history of business men who have made a success
along these lines shows that the majority of them sacrificed their
health and their lives to their business. In the last and final
analysis, therefore, these were not good business men.

The best musician is he who can bring more sounds into harmony. The best
artist is he who can best harmonize colors and reproduce nature.
Likewise, the best business man is he who can best harmonize or balance
the affairs under his control.

Health being entirely under and within his control, if he disregards
it--gives it no thought--violates the laws that govern it, and finally
wrecks it, he is not a good business man, as all business depends upon
the power of the individual, and the powers of the individual depend
upon his health.

[Sidenote: Examples of poor business men]

The man who, from a cheap tin store, founded "The Fair" in Chicago, and
allowed the business to dethrone his reason, and to send him to his
death before he was sixty, could hardly be considered a good business
man. Measured on the same scale, Marshall Field, the merchant prince,
was not a good business man. President Roberts, who arose from the ranks
of a car-wheel molder, to the presidency of the Pennsylvania railroad,
and died at the age of fifty, was not a good business man. J. P. Morgan,
who accumulated many millions of dollars, and who died when he should
have been in his prime, was not a good business man.

[Sidenote: Wealth at the expense of health]

The accumulation of money and the founding of great industries is only
one requisite of the business man, and by no means the most important
one. What profiteth a man to make a great fortune; to put in motion a
million spindles; to chain continents together with cables; to flash his
silent voice over oceans and continents on currents of common air; to
make the ocean's billowed bosom a commercial highway; to transform the
oxcart into a palace, and set it on wheels and hitch it to the
lightning; to build sky-scraping structures of stone and steel; to
transfix human figures and faces on sensitized glass; to direct the
methods of burrowing in the earth for coal and gold until his name is
known around the world, and his fortune is a power in the land?--what
boots it, I say, to know all these things and to glide blindly into the
shambles of unrest and dis-ease, or to furnish a fashionable funeral at
forty?

[Sidenote: The abnormal, or one-idea man]

The religious fanatic who robes himself in sackcloth and eschews the
razor; the food crank who cries out "back to nature," and takes to
grass; the one-idea social reformer who preaches on the curb, and the
business man who allows his business to become his absolute master and
governor, are in reality all in the same class. The unfortunate thing is
that the business man sits him down and weaves about himself the meshes
of a prison. Every year puts in a new bar, every month a new bolt, and
every day and hour a new stroke that rivets around him what he calls
business, until he feels and really thinks he cannot escape.


A GOOD BUSINESS MAN

A good business man is the man who can direct the wheels of industry,
who can draw a trial balance between his income and his expenses, and
who can measure his own ability on the yardstick of endurance.

[Sidenote: Qualities of a good business man]

He is a good business man who gives as much study to the laws of his own
physical organization as he does to the organization of his business,
and in the final analysis I doubt if he would not consider himself a
better business man, "Penniless," and in good health at ninety, than
sojourning in a sanatorium with a million at his call, but out of the
fight at fifty.

[Sidenote: Knowledge of health-laws a public necessity]

It is truly unfortunate that the general laws of health and hygiene are
not more universally taught and understood. We learn that best with
which we are thrown in most frequent contact. The business man would
absorb enough information on these subjects to extend his period of
longevity and usefulness many years, if they were taught in our public
schools, or were matters of general knowledge.


THE ROUTINE LIFE OF THE AVERAGE BUSINESS MAN

[Sidenote: Bad habits of the business man]

He rises between six and seven a. m., takes no exercise or fresh air;
eats a breakfast composed largely of acid fruit, cereal starch, meat,
and coffee. He then goes at once to his business, sits at a desk until
noon, takes luncheon at a neighboring cafe. This repast is composed of
meat, cereal, or potato starch, beer, or coffee. He hurries back to his
business, sits at his desk five or six hours longer, hurries home, takes
a dinner composed of more meat, more starch, more tea or coffee--no
exercise, no diversion, no association with the great authors; no music,
no poetry, no change.

[Sidenote: The ancient remedy for Nature's warnings]

A friend may come in, or he may go out to visit; then comes the soothing
and soporiferous cigar which may have been his companion since
breakfast. The market, the business, the chances for making or losing
dollars are the topics of discussion. He is in the power of his master,
"business," and must do him continual obeisance. Within the domain of
the tyrant he lives, moves, and has his being. If he has a headache,
sour stomach, indigestion, a tinge of rheumatism, dizziness, insomnia,
nervousness, or any one of the thousand symptoms or warnings that Nature
gives him for the violation of her laws, instead of thinking a little
and trying to ascertain the cause, he sends, with "chesty pride," for
His physician, and his physician writes out something in a dead
language--the only suitable language. The local druggist sends over the
"stuff," and it is swallowed with that childish confidence that fitly
becomes the modern business man who knows a great deal about business,
but nothing about himself.

The days and the months go on, the symptoms or signals become more
numerous, more expressive, more impressive, more painful. His physician
is called more often; the dead language paper goes to the druggist more
frequently, and with faith he still swallows the drugs; they relieve him
for a little while, usually by paralyzing the little nerve fibers that
are carrying to the brain the messages of warning.

[Sidenote: The ancient system declared a failure]

HIS physician finally acknowledges a trip, or a sanatorium. It is either
this procedure or the fate that befell Messrs. Roberts, Morgan, Colonel
Ingersoll, and the uncounted thousands who had no reputation beyond the
domain of their own locality, and of whom we never hear.


SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR A GOOD BUSINESS MAN

[Sidenote: Twelve health rules for the business man]

    Don't allow your business to become your master.

    Don't discuss business at home, or in social life.

    Immediately on rising, take a cool shower bath, followed by vigorous
    exercise before an open window.

    Eat a very light breakfast an hour after rising, eliminating tea,
    coffee, white bread and meat.

    Walk to your business, if possible; breathe deeply.

    Eliminate woolen underwear; dress as lightly as possible.

    Take an hour for luncheon. Omit tea, coffee, tobacco, beer, and
    sweets.

    Keep your office well ventilated.

    Secure competent help and trust them.

    Love some one or some thing--a dog will do.

    Leave your office early enough to walk home, or at least a part of
    the way.

    Masticate your food infinitely fine, and by all means _do not
    overeat_. This is the crowning sin of the civilized table.

Take from ten to fifteen minutes exercise before retiring; sleep in a
cold, thoroughly ventilated room. Spend as much time as possible in the
sunshine and open air. Drive an automobile, play golf, join a gymnasium,
dance, sing, kick and play with the boys, for it is infinitely better to
dig in the ditch for your dinner and be able to digest and enjoy it,
than to lie invalid in your self-made prison, and perhaps die. (Probably
if the truth were written on your tombstone, it would read:

    There was a fool who made a fortune, but he died;
    The world called him great, but it lied.)



LESSON XXIII

EXERCISE AND RE-CREATION


PROGRAM FOR DAILY EXERCISE

_Every morning, just after arising, take a cup of water, and go through
the following deep breathing exercises_:

EXERCISE No. 1

[Illustration]

Stand erect, feet about 30 inches apart, extend arms above head,
clasping hands and holding elbows rigid, inhale deeply. Bend toward the
left and try to touch the floor with the clasped hands as far from the
foot and to the rear as possible. Exhale while returning to position.
Inhale deeply, reversing motion to the right. This movement should be
repeated about 24 times.

EXERCISE No. 2

[Illustration]

Rest the body upon tips of toes and the palms of the hands. Move the
body up and down as far as possible, bending only at the waist line. If
this position is too strenuous the tension can be reduced by resting on
the elbows, knees, or both, while executing the movement. Inhale deeply
while taking this exercise, and exhaust the breath suddenly, as if
coughing, with the downward motion. This movement should be repeated
about 12 times.

EXERCISE No. 3

[Illustration]

Rest the hands on the rim of a bathtub or on two chairs placed about 2
feet apart. Assume position shown by cut. Lower the body until chest
touches the knee; rise, bringing the other knee under the chest,
repeating the movement. Execute this movement rapidly as if running,
rising first on one foot and then on the other, from 50 to 100 times.

If sufficiently strong, this can be taken without support for the hands.
This exercise is especially recommended for those suffering from
constipation.

_Every evening, just before retiring, take a glass of water and go
through the following movements and deep breathing exercises_:

EXERCISE No. 3.--Same as in the morning.

[Illustration]

EXERCISE No. 4

Stand erect, feet about 30 inches apart, inhale deeply and strike a blow
toward the left with the right fist, passing the left fist behind the
back. Alternate this movement, striking toward the right with the left
fist, giving the body a swinging and twisting movement.

EXERCISE No. 5

[Illustration]

Stand erect, feet about 30 inches apart, hands clasped over head, elbows
rigid, inhale deeply. Bend toward the left, describe a complete circle
with the clasped hands. Exhale when erect. Reverse, describing a circle
in the opposite direction completes the movement.



LESSON XXIII

EXERCISE AND RE-CREATION

EXERCISE


[Sidenote: Civilization prevents the play instinct]

The child from the time it begins to walk until it is ten or twelve
years old, or until the pressing hand of necessity forces upon it the
power of restraining duty, will in a great measure obey the play
instinct or the natural laws of exercise. However, our complex
industrial organism forces most of us into its vortex at the very time
we are beginning to change the body from the youth to the adult, and the
responsibilities with which we are laden, the struggles we carry on,
prevent the majority from giving attention to and maintaining a system
of development exercises which is so vitally important, and which would
provide a great store-house of energy to be drawn upon in after years.
Inasmuch, therefore, as the conditions under which we exist prevent the
free play of our instincts, and the exercise of our natural desire for
certain kinds of play or motion, it becomes necessary for us to devise a
method of overcoming the repressing influences that crush out the play
instinct of civilized man.


CONSTRUCTIVE EXERCISES

[Sidenote: Constructive period of life from ages 15 to 25]

Constructive exercises should be taken and practised regularly between
the ages fifteen and twenty-five. It is largely during this period that
the physical condition of the body for the balance of life is
determined.

[Sidenote: Poisoning and purifying the blood]

Many a college youth, endowed by Nature with a sound physical body and a
healthy brain, has irreparably injured both by sitting on the end of his
spine with his feet higher than his head, poisoning his blood with
tobacco narcotics from a stylish pipe and failing to keep it purified by
obeying the laws of motion and of oxidation. Constructive exercises
should employ every muscle in the body long enough once in every
twenty-four hours to generate sufficient heat to cause perspiration, or
at least to force twice the normal quantity of blood to the lungs for
purification. Exercise thus taken up to the point of fatigue, and of
sufficient duration to use all the nutrition taken in the form of food,
will, under favorable conditions, build the body to its highest degree
of physical strength, provided we keep Nature supplied with the right
kind of material (food) with which to do her work.


EXERCISE FOR REPAIR

[Sidenote: In mature life exercise only for repair]

After the body has reached maturity, or attained its full growth, the
only exercise needed is for repair. This it must have or Nature will
inflict her inexorable sentence in some form of congestion.

[Sidenote: Why the "trunk" requires exercise]

In various industrial and professional pursuits the legs, neck, and arms
are used enough to keep them in a fair state of repair. That part of the
body, therefore, that suffers most for want of motion, or exercise, is
the trunk. In this part of the anatomy are located the vital organs
controlling not only the circulation and the oxidation of blood, but
also those organs upon whose normal action depend solely the questions
of digestion, assimilation of food, and elimination of waste.

[Sidenote: If properly nourished the body will demand a certain amount
of exercise]

If the food is selected, combined, and proportioned so as to produce
chemical harmony in the stomach, and to meet the requirements of age,
temperature of environment, and work, the body will be kept sufficiently
charged with energy to demand a certain amount of exercise. If the
command is obeyed the body can be trained to work automatically, as it
were, but where the vocation is sedative, or prevents obedience to these
demands, the trunk should be exercised in the open air from thirty to
forty minutes daily by flexing, tensing, twisting and bending in every
possible way, long enough and rapidly enough to double the normal heart
action and inhalations of air.


PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE

[Sidenote: Necessity of motion for body development]

By motion (exercise) the muscles are stimulated in growth, becoming
larger and more firm, thus giving strength and symmetry to the body.
Food, without proper motion, will not develop muscular tissue to its
highest degree. Exercise must be taken to stimulate the growth of the
tissues forming the muscle-cells.

Among the benefits derived from exercise, the following may be noted:

[Sidenote: Growth produced by exercise]

First: Surplus nitrogen is usually cast from the body as waste matter
when it is not deposited as muscle tissue by proper exercise. If the
diet is balanced, regular exercise will add this nitrogenous substance
to the muscle-cells far beyond normal growth, thus causing an actual
increase in the size and the number of fibres.

[Sidenote: Brain and nerve force increased]

Second: A second benefit derived from muscle activity is the consequent
change that occurs in brain and in nerve activity. There are certain
cells in the brain and in the nervous system which control the movements
of the muscles. When these cells are not used, they degenerate, but
their use in exercise is not only beneficial in developing a
well-rounded nervous mechanism, but also in strengthening the
brain-cells that are used in intellectual work.

[Sidenote: Blood circulation increased]

Third: A third and perhaps most important of all the benefits to be
derived from exercise is the general increase in the circulation of the
blood. The muscles form a larger proportion of the body-weight than any
other group of organs. When general exercise involving the larger
muscles is participated in, the demand for food material in this
particular muscular tissue is so great as to cause a notable increase in
the strength and in the rapidity of the heart beat, and consequent deep
breathing. This acceleration of the circulation continues long after the
exercise has ceased, thus replenishing and building up the muscles. As a
result of the better circulation of the blood, all organs receive an
increased blood-supply, and every part of the body shares in the general
improvement. This explains why one can do better brain work, or digest
food with greater ease after taking moderate exercise.

[Sidenote: Evil effect of long-continued exercise]

Exercise is constructive up to the point of fatigue, but beyond that
point it is destructive. The waste products of all cell-metabolism are
harmful and poisonous. When exercise is long continued, the waste matter
accumulating therefrom weakens or poisons the cells that secrete them.

[Sidenote: Different forms of exhaustion]

The products of cell-metabolism are of two classes, and each class has
different effects. The first is due to oxidation. A runner, who falls
exhausted from shortness of breath, has simply been suffocated by the
excess of carbon dioxid in his muscles. After the breath is regained,
or, in other words, after the body has had time to throw off the carbon
dioxid, the runner is in nearly as good condition as before. A more
lasting and serious form of exhaustion is due to the accumulation of
nitrogenous decomposition products, which, not being in a gaseous form,
cannot be thrown off from the lungs, and hence are not as rapidly or as
easily removed from the tissues. The presence in the tissue of these
waste-products is the cause of extreme weakness and fatigue.

[Sidenote: The causes of soreness or stiffness of the muscles]

The well-trained muscles contain only healthy protoplasm, and give off
but a small percentage of nitrogenous decomposition products. Let the
well-fed person who takes but little exercise, run half a mile, or play
a simple game of ball, and the following day the muscles will be stiff
and sore; this unusual exertion has caused the breaking down of much
loosely organized tissue which could have been made firm and healthy by
daily muscular activity.

[Sidenote: Why vegetarians have more endurance than meat eaters]

Those subsisting upon a low nitrogenous diet, especially vegetarians,
are affected much less by fatigue than meat eaters whose muscles contain
larger quantities of unnecessary nitrogen and nitrogenous decomposition
matter.

[Sidenote: The diet governs the production and the accumulation of
body-waste]

The common laws of health demand that sufficient motion be taken every
day to prevent the accumulation of carbon dioxid or waste matter
throughout the body. Both the production and the accumulation of waste
matter depend very largely upon the diet. All animal flesh (food) is
undergoing gradual decomposition, and adds its waste matter to that of
the body, therefore meat eaters require a much greater amount of
exercise to maintain a given standard of blood-purity than do
vegetarians.


SYSTEMS OF PHYSICAL CULTURE

Numerous schools of physical culture and artificial methods of exercise
have flourished in all civilized countries within the past few years.
This fact emphasizes the pressing need for a general change in our
methods of living.

The various systems of indoor exercise popularly taught are at the best
weak substitutes for the more natural and wholesome forms of combined
exercise and re-creation found in outdoor life and outdoor sport. Some
of the methods referred to are as follows:

[Sidenote: Tensing]

Tensing, which consists of slow movements in which opposite muscles are
made to pull against each other. The student can easily grasp the
principle involved in this system, and from his own ingenuity extend it
as fully as he desires.

[Sidenote: Vibratory exercises]

Vibratory exercises, which are somewhat similar to the tensing system;
however, instead of slow movements, the arms or other portions of the
body are moved with a rapidly vibrating motion. The effect produced is
essentially the same as in the tensing system.

[Sidenote: Heavy-weight exercises]

Heavy-weight exercises, consisting in the use of heavy dumb-bells or
other apparatus in which the actual physical pull exerted by the body in
moving the weights is sufficient to try the muscles to their maximum
capacity. This system of exercise should be discouraged; while it may
add to the mere lifting strength, it takes from the muscles their
flexibility, and from the body its agile and supple activity.

[Sidenote: Indoor exercises]

Indoor exercise with light apparatus such as wooden dumb-bells, Indian
clubs, wands, Swedish and Delsartic movements. These forms of exercise,
which compose most physical culture drills, as given in schools and
gymnasiums, are to be highly recommended. For adults, however, such
exercises require considerable indulgence in order to gain much physical
benefit therefrom.

[Sidenote: Exercise for school children]

[Sidenote: Dancing as an exercise]

Exercises of this nature are especially well adapted to school children.
They depend upon the rhythm of the music, the good fellowship of their
companions, and the pride of keeping up with the class to make them
interesting. For this reason they are not suitable to the individual who
must exercise alone in his room. Dancing can well be considered in this
class, and could be highly recommended as an important exercise and
re-creation, were it not so frequently associated with loss of sleep and
other forms of intemperance.

[Sidenote: Importance of outdoor exercise]

[Sidenote: Exercise for the city dweller]

All of the above systems are not only at the best imperfect, but poor
substitutes for natural exercise, and not likely to be kept up by the
ordinary sedative worker. Every individual should, so far as possible,
indulge in some form of outdoor exercise, which gives all the advantages
of the indoor systems, together with the added advantages of fresh air,
mental pleasure, long range of vision, and the general exhilaration that
comes from close contact with nature. However, for the city man outdoor
exercises are too difficult to be practised with sufficient regularity
to bring the desired results; therefore, it is best to adopt some
definite daily program of vigorous muscular exercise which will keep the
body in fair physical condition. Exercises of this kind should be made a
regular daily habit, and though at times a little tiresome, can, by
practise, be made to become the expected thing, so that the day will not
seem complete until the daily exercises have been taken.

[Sidenote: Exercises giving the best results]

From long experience I have found that the following exercises give the
greatest benefits with the least expenditure of time and labor. They are
all especially designed to promote healthy action of the vital and the
abdominal organs which are so much neglected by the average person.


PROGRAM FOR DAILY EXERCISE

Every morning, just after rising, and every night, just before retiring,
take a glass or two of pure cool water and execute vigorously the
following movements:


EXERCISE NO. 1

EXERCISE No. 1--Stand erect, feet about thirty inches apart. Extend arms
above head; clasp the hands; hold elbows rigid, and inhale deeply. Bend
toward the left and try to touch the floor with the clasped hands, as
far from the foot, and as far to the rear as possible. Exhale while
returning to position. Inhale deeply, reversing motion to the right.
This movement should be repeated from 25 to 50 times.


EXERCISE NO. 2

EXERCISE NO. 2--Rest upon the tips of the toes and the palms of the
hands. Move the body up and down as far as possible, bending only at the
waist line. If the movement is too difficult in this position, the
tension may be reduced by resting on the elbows, or on the knees, or on
both. Inhale deeply, and exhaust the breath suddenly as if coughing,
with the downward motion. This movement should be repeated from 20 to 30
times.


EXERCISE NO. 3

EXERCISE NO. 3--Rest the hands on the rim of a bathtub, or on two chairs
placed about two feet apart. Assume position shown in cut. Lower the
body until the chest touches the right knee; rise, and lower the body
until the chest touches the left knee. Execute this movement rapidly as
if running, rising first on one foot and then on the other, swinging
the body from side to side with each step or movement.

This exercise is especially recommended for those suffering from
torpidity of the liver, or from constipation. It should be executed from
100 to 500 times.


EXERCISE NO. 4

EXERCISE NO. 4--Stand erect, feet about thirty inches apart. Inhale
deeply, and strike a blow toward the left with the right fist, passing
the left fist behind the back. Alternate this movement, striking toward
the right with the left fist, giving the body a swinging and twisting
movement.


EXERCISE NO. 5

EXERCISE NO. 5--Stand erect, feet about thirty inches apart, hands
clasped overhead, elbows rigid; inhale deeply. Bend toward the left,
describing a complete circle with the clasped hands. Exhale when erect.
Reverse; describing a circle in the opposite direction completes the
movement. This exercise should be executed from 25 to 50 times.


RE-CREATION

[Sidenote: Idleness contrary to natural law]

[Sidenote: Exercise necessary for assimilation and elimination]

The small boy who described work as "anything you don't want to do," and
play as "anything you do want to do," had in his mind the fragment of a
great truth. True re-creation should afford DIVERSION, ENTERTAINMENT,
and WORK. The average business man who is threatened with a breakdown,
and who goes away for a rest, should in reality go to work, but it
should be a different kind of work from his routine duties. No one was
ever benefited by idleness; it is contrary to nature--contrary to the
universal laws of construction which govern all forms of life. If
digestion and assimilation have been impaired, if, from errors in
eating, or from sedative habits, congestion has taken place in the
alimentary tract, then muscular work becomes absolutely necessary in
order to use more nutrition, to eliminate more poison and waste, and to
increase and normalize the peristaltic activity of the intestinal tract.

[Sidenote: Hunting and fishing]

The business man who likes to hunt and to kill innocent animals; who
runs, walks, and thinks, and perspires in the effort, is taking a good
kind of re-creation--perhaps the best he knows; but the fat man who sits
in a boat all day and catches fish that he cannot use, or slays a
cart-load of ducks that he has deceived with a decoy, has received
neither benefit nor re-creation; he has only yielded to his primeval
instincts to secure his food by slaughter and has been merely
entertained--probably debased.

[Sidenote: True re-creation]

[Sidenote: Worthless objects for which men struggle]

True re-creation for the mental worker is manual work--labor in the open
air that requires but little thought. Every business man who values the
sacred heritage of health, should provide himself with a place where he
can go one day out of each week and chop wood, prepare soil, plant or
harvest something, get close to Mother Nature, and receive the blessings
of her life-giving sun by day, and rest in her open arms at night. Men
are but big children, and, like the child who cries and reaches for the
bubble because it reflects the prismatic colors of the sun, most of the
things for which they struggle are equally as worthless and deceptive.

[Sidenote: The triad of all that is best in life]

Mental supremacy, which means the keenest sense of love, justice, and
mercy, that great triad of all that is best in man, is all that really
pays. If, at the close of every life, the question, "What has brought
most happiness?" could be answered, it would be, "THE GRATITUDE OF MY
FELLOW MEN." The average business pursuit is not conducive to this end.
It is unfortunate that commercial and financial success are too often
secured by methods that produce just the opposite results, therefore the
whole life-work of the average man is really reduced to no higher object
than that of securing food and shelter, which is the primitive
occupation of the lowest forms of life.

[Sidenote: Rest in solitude]

One day in the week spent close to the soil with gentle cows and horses,
affectionate cats and admiring dogs that have no "axe to grind," and one
night every week spent in thought and reflection under the wilderness of
worlds that whirl through the abyss of space, will sharpen the senses of
love, justice, and mercy, give true diversion, true entertainment, true
work, and true rest.



INDEX


    A

    ACETANILID                                            _Vol._   _Page_
      composition of,                                       II       358
      effects of,                                           II       358

    ACIDITY
      sub, symptoms of,                                     II       462
        ---- remedy for,                                    II       463
        ---- diet in,                                       II       464
      super, chart indicating dis-eases caused by,           I         9

    ACIDS
      nitric,                                                I        62
        ---- properties of,                                  I        63
      hydrochloric,                                          I        64
        ---- uses of,                                        I        65
        ---- preparation of,                                 I        66
        ---- elements of,                                    I        67
        ---- purpose of,                                     I       149
        ---- formation of,                                   I       149
      bases of,                                              I        68
        ---- tests for,                                      I        69
        ---- neutralization of,                              I        70
      Relation of bases to,                                  I        69
      organic,                                               I        94
        ---- properties of,                                  I        94
      acetic,                                                I        95
        ---- process of making,                              I        95
      oxalic,                                                I        97
      lactic,                                                I        97
      malic,                                                 I        97
      tartaric,                                              I        97
      citric,                                                I        98
      uric, in rheumatism,                                   V      1179

    AIR
      composition of,                                        I        32
      liquefaction of,                                       I        35
      and oxidation,                                         V      1312
      relative importance of food, water and,                V      1313

    ALBUMIN
      sources of,                                            I       129
      solubility of,                                         I       129
      coagulation of,                                        I       129

    ALCOHOL
      varieties of,                                          I        91
      effect of,                                            II       367
      a poison,                                             II       368

    ALDEHYDES
      and ethers,                                            I        93

    ALKALIS
      principles of neutralization of,                       I        71
      rules governing neutralization of,                     I        71

    AMIDO
      compounds,                                             I       128

    AMMONIA
      composition of,                                        I        60
      uses of,                                               I        60

    AMYLOPSIN
      properties of,                                         I       154

    APPENDIX (VERIFORM)
      dis-eases of (see Appendicitis),                      II       580
      functions of,                                         II       581

    APPENDICITIS
      symptoms of,                                          II       582
      treatment of (mild cases),                            II       583
      a natural remedy for,                                 II       583
      diet in,                                              II       584
      list of foods for,                                    II       585
      chronic cases of,                                     II       586
        ---- treatment for,                                 II       587
        ---- causes of,                                     II       588
      diet a factor in,                                     II       589
      coarse food a factor in,                              II       590
      old diagnosis of,                                     II       582
      menus for,                                            IV      1029

    APPETITE
      lack of,                                              IV      1081
      difference between hunger and,                        IV      1081

    ARTERIO-SCLEROSIS
      causes of,                                             I       170
      food in,                                               I       171

    ASSIMILATION
      definition of,                                       III       630

    ASTHMA
      described,                                            II       519
      causes of,                                            II       533
      symptoms of,                                          II       533
      remedy for,                                           II       634
      diet in,                                              II       534
      foods to eat in,                                      II       535
      foods to omit in,                                     II       535

    ATHLETES
      selection, combination and proportioning of food for,
                                                             V      1188
      summer diet for,                                       V      1191
      winter diet for,  V  1192
      suggestions regarding diet in exposure to extreme
                                 cold or for exertion,       V      1201

    AUTOINTOXICATION
      defined,                                               I       247
      bacteria in,                                           I       247
      meat a factor in,                                      I       247


    B

    BACTERIA
      discussed,                                             I       166
      origin of,                                             I       167
      not all harmful,                                       I       168
      species of,                                            I       168
      producers of,                                          I       168
      fermentation produced by,                              I       169
      growth of,                                             I       169
      meat a producer of,                                    I       259

    BANANAS
      varieties of,                                        III       675
      how to select and ripen,                             III       676
      how to bake,                                         III       677

    BILE
      defined,                                               I       153
      function of,                                           I       153
      purposes of,                                           I       153

    BILIOUSNESS
      cause of,                                             II       466
      symptoms of,                                          II       466
      remedy for,                                           II       466
      what to eat,                                          II       467
      what to omit,                                         II       467

    BRAN
      meal, composition of,                                III       683
        ---- bread made from,                              III       683
      wheat, composition of,                               III       681
        ---- medicinal properties of,                      III       681

    BLOOD, THE
      Antipepsin in,                                         I       152
      glucose in,                                            I       204
      process of oxidation of,                              II       346
      corpuscles of,                                        II       386
      automatic action of,                                  II       388
      incorrect feeding cause of impurity of,               II       397
      defective circulation of,                             II       398
      exercise a factor in poisoning and purification of,    V      1331
      increase of circulation of,                            V      1335

    BRIGHT'S DIS-EASE
      described,                                            II       550
      causes of,                                            II       551
      symptoms of,                                          II       551
      prevention of,                                        II       552
      treatment for,                                        II       553
      general suggestion in feeding in,                     II       554
      foods to eat in,                                      II       555
      foods to omit in,                                     II       555

    BROMIN
      defined,                                               I        73

    BUSINESS MAN
      a lesson for,                                          V      1317
      examples of poor,                                      V      1318
      wealth at the expense of health for the                V      1319
      the abnormal,                                          V      1320
      what is a good,                                        V      1320
      qualities of a,                                        V      1321
      routine life of the average,                           V      1322
      bad habits of the average,                             V      1322
      the ancient remedy for the average,                    V      1322
      the physician of the average,                          V      1324
      twelve rules of health for the,                        V 1324-1326

    BUTTER
      composition of,                                        I       283
      its value as a food,                                   I       284
      caloric value of,                                      I       285
      cocoa, how made,                                      II       338
      cocoanut, composition of,                             II       339
      home-made, how to make,                              III       674

    BUTTERMILK
      how made,                                            III       674

    BUTYRIN
      defined,                                               I       123


    C

    CALORIES
      definition of,                                         I       199
      method of determining numbers of,                      I       202

    CARBOHYDRATES
      classification of,                                     I       106
      monosaccharids,                                        I       109
      disaccharids,                                          I       112
      polysaccharids,                                        I       114
      purpose of,                                          III       625

    CARBON
      sources of,                                            I        81
      forms of,                                              I        82
      properties of,                                         I        83
      monoxid, properties of,                                I        87
      combining power of,                                    I        88
      and hydrogen compounds,                                I        88
      dioxid of,                                             I        83
      nature of,                                             I        81

    CASEIN
      sources of,                                            I       130
      vegetable,                                             I       130

    CATARRH
      described,                                            II       519
      causes of,                                            II       527
      symptoms of,                                          II       528
      remedy for,                                           II       528
      diet for,                                             II       529
      foods to eat in,                                      II       530
      foods to omit in,                                     II       530
      nasal,                                                IV       922
        ---- food a factor in,                              IV       922
        ---- water drinking in the treatment of,            IV       923
        ---- menus for,                                     IV       925

    CELLULOSE
      in nutrition,                                          I       119
      value of,                                              I       119

    CHART
      showing number of so-called dis-eases caused by
        superacidity,                                        I         9

    CHEESE
      processes of making,                                   I       282
      ripening of,                                           I       283
      digestive value of,                                    I       283
      limburger,                                             I       283
      manufacture of,                                        I       283

    CHEMISTRY
      its relation to food science,                          I        25
      combustion in,                                         I        26
      common elements of,                                    I        27
      number of elements in,                                 I        28
      examples of changes due to,                            I        29
      symbols of,                                            I        31
      list of elements in,                                   I        32
      organic,                                               I        81
      of foods,                                              I       105
      of digestion,                                          I       139
      of metabolism,                                         I       193

    COLDS
      described,                                            II       519
      causes of,                                            II       520,
                                                            IV       915
      symptoms of,                                          II       521
      overeating a cause of,                                II       521
      exposure a cause of,                                  II       522
      remedy for,                                           II       523
      foods to use for,                                     II       524
      turkish baths for,                                    II       525
      value of fresh air for,                               II       525
      foods to eat for,                                     II       526
      foods to omit for,                                    II       526

    COCAIN
      habit,                                                II       354
      uses of,                                              II       354
      in medicines,                                         II       355

    COFFEE
      composition of,                                       II       363
      effect of drinking,                                   II       364

    COOKING
      chemical changes produced by,                        III       593
      starch, reasons for,                                 III       598
      of food, an excuse,                                  III       599
      food for animals, government experiments on,         III       602
      a habit of civilization,                             III       603
      object of,                                           III       669
      grains,                                              III       669
      vegetables,                                          III       670
      en casserole,                                        III       671
      rice and macaroni,                                   III       672
      fruits,                                              III       672
        ---- canned,                                       III       672

    CHLOROFORM
      uses of,                                              II       372

    CHLORIN
      sources of,                                            I        63
      properties of,                                         I        64
      uses of,                                               I        64

    CHOCOLATE
      see (cocoa),                                          II       366

    COAL TAR PRODUCTS
      evil effects of,                                      II       359

    COCOA
      analyzed,                                             II       366

    COMPOUNDS
      chemical,                                              I        29
        ---- derivatives,                                    I        31
      carbon,  I  83
        ---- inorganic,                                      I        83
        ---- action of,                                      I        85
        ---- organic,                                        I        87
        ---- and hydrogen,                                   I        88
        ---- organic, classification of,                     I        89
        ---- hydro,                                          I        89
      alcohols,                                              I        91
      glycerin,                                              I        92
      aldehydes,                                             I        93
      ethers,                                                I        93
      organic acid,                                          I        94
        ---- nitrogenous,                                    I        99
        ---- ---- importance of,                             I       100
      amido,                                                 I       128
      vegetable,                                            II       373

    CONFECTIONS
      evil effects of,                                      II       332
      from the standpoint of food value,                    II       333
      allowable,                                            II       333
      prohibited,                                           II       334

    CONGESTION
      defined,                                               V      1195

    CONSTIPATION
      milk a relief for,                                     I       188
      relation of milk to,                                   I       278
      milk diet for,                                         I       278
      wheat bran, laxative effects in,                      II       299
      whole rye a remedy for,                               II       300
        ---- wheat, a remedy for,                           II       300
        ---- barley, a remedy for,                          II       300
        ---- oats, a remedy for,                            II       300
      causes of,                                            II       434
      remedy for,                                           II       436
      suggestions for relief of,                            II       437
      menus for,                                            II       438
      exercise in,                                          II       444
      beverages causing,                                    II       446
      what to eat for,                                      II       447
      what to omit for,                                     II       447
      in infants,                                            V      1169
      a factor in nervousness,                               V      1214

    CONSUMPTION
      conflicting opinions regarding the cause of,          II       560
      conditions and occupations predisposing causes of,    II       561
      modern treatment of,                                  II       563
      general diet in,                                      II       564
      spring and summer diet in,                            II       565
      special suggestions for treatment in mild cases of,   II       566
      hygienic rules in,                                    II       567
      breathing in,                                         II       567
      sleep in,                                             II       568
      what to eat in,                                       II       568
      what to omit in,                                      II       568
      nature's remedy for,                                  IV       989
      foods in,                                             IV       990
      the use of the spirometer in,                         IV       990


    D

    DIABETES
      described,                                            II       556
      causes of,                                            II       556
      symptoms of,                                          II       557
      remedy for,                                           II       557
      diet for,                                             II       558
      diet in extreme cases of,                             II       558
      foods to eat in,                                      II       559
      foods to omit in,                                     II       559
      special instructions regarding,                       II       560

    DIAGNOSIS
      purpose of,                                           II       381
      only correct,                                         II       382
      of "lump" in the stomach,                             II       419

    DIARRHEA
      causes of,                                            II       474
      cathartics in,                                        II       475
      treatment of,                                         II       476
      diet in,                                              II       476

    DIET
      important considerations regarding,                    I       164
      importance of correct standards in,                    I       221
      of primitive man,                                      I       238
      flesh, unnecessary,                                    I       238
      milk and eggs not a balanced,                          I       272
      wheat,                                                II       290
      for constipation,                                     II       429
      for nervous indigestion,                              II       458
      in subacidity,                                        II       464
      suggestions in obesity,                               II       496
      in neurasthenia,                                      II       509
      in catarrh,                                           II       529
      in hay fever,                                         II       531
      in asthma,                                            II       534
      in influenza,                                         II       537
      in insomnia,                                          II       541
      in rheumatism,                                        II       547
      in diabetes,                                          II       560
      in consumption,                                       II       564
      in heart trouble,                                     II       573
      in dis-eases of the skin,                             II       579
      in appendicitis,                                      II       584
      errors in,                                            II       586
      for cold weather,                                     IV      1133
      for hot weather,                                      IV      1134
      three classes of,                                      V      1147
      the normal,                                            V      1152
      radical changes in,                                    V      1152
      make patient agree with,                               V      1153
      during embryonic period,                               V      1156
      FOR CHILDREN (ages 1 to 2 years),                      V      1174
      special instructions regarding simplicity in feeding,  V 1176-1177
      in old age,                                            V      1178
        ---- importance of,                                  V      1181
      for normal athlete,                                    V      1189
      (summer) for athletes,                                 V      1191
      (winter) for athletes,                                 V      1192
      in climatic extremes,                                  V 1193-1199
      under normal conditions,                               V      1200

    DIGESTION
      chemistry of,                                          I       139
      uses of,                                               I       139
      malt in,                                               I       140
      energy required in,                                    I       161
      mental influence upon,                                 I       162
      secretion of juices in,                                I       163
      important rules to observe to insure good,             I       164
      experiments in,                                        I       175
      mechanics of,                                          I       180
      action of enzyms during,                               I       181
      food prepared for,                                     I       186
      during sleep,                                          I       188
      how affected,                                          I       188
      x-ray experiment in,                                   I       188
      comparative, of cooked and uncooked grain,           III       597
      true interpretation of the word,                     III       630
      necessity for thorough mastication an aid to,          I       181
      "bolting" of food in,                                  I       181
      secretion of enzyms in,                                I       182

    DIGESTIVE EXPERIMENTS
      to determine the amount of food the body uses,         I       175
      to determine percentage of waste in food,              I       176
      to determine amount of time required to pass through
         the body,                                           I       176
      to measure what percentage of food taken is digested,  I       177
      to determine what foods aid digestion,                 I       178
      to determine what foods hinder digestion,              I       178
      to determine the laws governing the production of
         chemical harmony,                                   I       178
      to approximately determine the amount of undigested
         food,                                               I       179
      to determine the digestibility of each particular food,
                                                             I       179

    DIGESTIVE JUICES
      gastric juice,                                         I       144
        ---- composition of,                                 I       147
        ---- formation of,                                   I       148
        ---- action of,                                      I       148
      pancreatic juice,                                      I       153
        ---- composition of,                                 I       153
        ---- action of,                                      I       154
      amylopsin, properties of,                              I       154
      trypsin, properties of,                                I       164
      steapsin, properties of,                               I       154
      bile,                                                  I       153
        ---- function of,                                    I       153
      pepsin,                                                I       155
        ---- action of,                                      I       155
      saliva,                                                I       161
        ---- secretion of,                                   I       161
      the influence of the mind upon the action of the,      I       162

    DIGESTIVE ORGANS
      chemical changes in,                                   I       165
      peristaltic action of,                                 I       187

    DISACCHARIDS
      cane sugar,                                            I       112
      beet sugar,                                            I       112
      maltose,                                               I       113
      lactose,                                               I       113

    DIGESTIVE TABLES
      inaccuracy of,                                         I       145

    DIS-EASE
      difference between ease and,                           I        14
      indications of,                                       II       394
      true diagnosis of,                                    II       396
      defined,                                              II       407
      classification of,                                    II       412
      nature's warning,                                     II       674

    DIS-EASES OF THE SKIN
      kinds of,                                             II       575
      causes of,                                            II       575
      eczema,                                               II       577
        ---- treatment of,                                  II       578
        ---- diet for,                                      II       579

    DISORDERS (COMMON)
      their causes and cure,                                 I       405

    DRUGS
      analysis of,                                          II       343
      declining use of,                                     II       346
      alkaloids in,                                         II       349
      opium,                                                II       350
      morphin,                                              II       351
      cocain,                                               II       353
      nux vomica,                                           II       356
      strychnin,                                            II       356
      quinin,                                               II       356
      acetanilid,                                           II       358
      laudanum,                                             II       360
      paregoric,                                            II       360
      codein,                                               II       360
      lyoscine,                                             II       360
      atropin,                                              II       360
      hellebore,                                            II       360
      chloroform,                                           II       372
      ether,                                                II       372
      chloral,                                              II       372
      mercury,                                              II       373
      potassium iodid,                                      II       374
      purgatives and cathartics,                            II       375
      authentic information on,                             II       377
      supposed magical effect of,                           II       384


    E

    EATING
      flesh produces appetite for stimulants,                I       243
        ---- habit disappearing,                             I       249
      correctly a cure for the drink habit,                 II       369
      over,                                                 II       413
        ---- causes of,                                     II       414
      scientifically,                                      III       667

    ECZEMA
      described,                                            II       577
      treatment of,                                         II       578
      chronic, diet in,                                     II       579
      menus in,                                             IV      1023

    EGGS
      food value of,                                         I       269
      composition of,                                        I       271
      nutritive contents of,                                 I       271
      as a diet for convalescents,                           I       272
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of,   III       610
      how to coddle,                                       III       677
      uncooked,                                            III       678
      baked omelet (how made),                             III       678

    ELEMENTS
      chemical, in the body,                                 I         3
      chemical,                                              I        27
        ---- number of,                                      I        28
      mineral sulphur,                                       I        73
      hydrogen sulfid,                                       I        74
      carbon disulfid,                                       I        74

    EMACIATION (UNDERWEIGHT)
      effects of,                                           II       477
      causes of,                                            II       479
      mental factors in,                                    II       480
      symptoms of,                                          II       481
      remedy for,                                           II       482
      important factors in,                                 II       483
      foods in,                                             II       484
      milk and eggs in,                                     II       484
      constipation a factor in,                             II       485
      chronic, its cause and remedy,                        II       486
      extreme, diet in,                                     II       489
      weight, tables in,                                    II       492
      in infancy,                                            V      1173

    ENERGY
      food, a producer of,                                   I       199
      how measured,                                          I       200
      fat chief source of,                                   I       209
      grain a source of,                                    II       295
      explained,                                           III       639
      determined,                                          III       640
      the mystery of,                                        V      1309
      food and,                                              V      1310
      required for work,                                     V      1311
      relation of sleep to expenditure of,                   V      1312

    ENZYMS
      properties of,                                         I       139
      fermentation due to,                                   I       140
      malt, a digestive,                                     I       140

    ETHER
      uses of,                                               I        94

    EVOLUTION OF MAN
      evolution, what it is,                                 V      1255
      study of man in the,                                   V      1255
      significance of the term,                              V      1258
      difference between inherited and acquired
        characteristics in the,                              V      1260
      the three great proofs of the,                         V      1261
      early forms of animal life in the,                     V      1262
      the single cell, nucleus in,                           V      1263
      development of the human embryo in the,                V      1264
      animal kinship in,                                     V      1265
      blood comparisons in man and apes,                     V      1266
      difference in the development of man and apes,         V      1267
      power of speech a factor in,                           V      1267
      habits and progress in,                                V      1268
      factors that determine survival of races during the,   V      1269
      habits and customs detrimental to life in,             V      1270
      changes of organs in,                                  V      1271
      "natural" diet in,                                     V      1273
      dietetic development in,                               V      1274
      facts regarding the,                                   V      1275

    EXERCISE
      a necessity,                                          II       444
      in infancy,                                            V      1171
      in childhood,                                          V      1329
      constructive ages 15-25,                               V      1330
      for purifying the blood,                               V      1331
      properly nourished body demands a certain amount of,   V      1332
      physiology of,                                         V      1333
      growth produced by,                                    V      1334
      brain and nerve force produced by,                     V      1334
      blood circulation increased by,                        V      1335
      evil effects of long continued,                        V      1336
      different kinds of exhaustion produced by,             V      1336
      the causes of soreness or stiffness of the muscles
        due to,                                              V      1337
      endurance of vegetable composition with meat eaters,   V      1337
      body waste in,                                         V      1338
      tensing as an,                                         V      1339
      vibratory,                                             V      1339
      heavyweight,                                           V      1340
      indoor,                                                V      1340
      for school children,                                   V      1341
      dancing as an,                                         V      1341
      importance of outdoor,                                 V      1341
      for the city dweller,                                  V      1342
      that give best the results,                            V      1342

    EXERCISE
      PROGRAM FOR DAILY EXERCISES
        exercise No,  1,                                     V      1343
        exercise No,  2,                                     V      1344
        exercise No,  3,                                     V      1344
        exercise No,  4,                                     V      1345
        exercise No,  5,                                     V      1345

    EXHAUSTION
      causes of,                                            II       399


    F

    FASTING (AND NO BREAKFAST PLAN)
      data secured from,                                     V      1311

    FATS
      composition of,                                        I       122
      formation of,                                          I       122
      mineral,                                               I       123
      olein,                                                 I       123
      butyrin,                                               I       123
      butter dairy,                                          I       123
      butter artificial,                                     I       123
      stearin,                                               I       123
      oleomargarin,                                          I       123
      rancid,                                                I       125
      digestion of,                                          I       156
      unwholesome,                                           I       157
      metabolism of,                                         I       205
      absorption of body,                                    I       206
      human,                                                 I       207
      distinction between tallow, lard, olive oil,           I       207
      animal,                                                I       254
      chemical change in frying,                             I       255
      chemical difference in,                                I       256
      effects of heat on,                                  III       595
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of,   III       609
      purpose of,                                          III       626
      a source of heat,                                      I       209
      the chief source of energy,                            I       209

    FERMENTATION
      causes of,                                             I       172,
                                                            II       425
      symptoms of,                                          II       426
      results of,                                           II       427
      remedy for,                                           II       428
      diet for,                                             II       428

    FISH
      nutrients in,                                          I       260
      as brain food,                                         I       261
      superior to flesh food,                                I       261
      selection of,                                        III       678
      preparation of,                                      III       678

    FLUORIN
      a gas,                                                 I        73
      action of,                                             I        73

    FOOD
      preparation of,                                        I        15
      chemistry of,                                          I        15,
                                                             I        21
      how to select,                                         I        16
      how to combine,                                        I        16
      how to proportion,                                     I        16
      how to determine quantity,                             I        16
      science,                                               I        19,
                                                             I        20
      importance of,                                         I         4
      classes of,                                            I       105
      analysis of,                                           I       106
      maltose in,                                            I       118
      predigested,                                           I       141
      manufacture of,                                        I       141
      predigested, comparison of,                            I       146
      mastication of,                                        I   150-183
      digestibility of, comparative,                         I       159
      fermentation of,                                       I       164
      decomposition of,                                      I       173
      determining quantity of,                               I       177
      values,                                                I       178
      breakfast,                                             I       182
      tissue builder as,                                     I       195
      importance of protein in,                              I       209
      standards of,                                          I       217
      endurance tests of,                                    I       219
      government standards of,                               I       220
      dietary standards of,                                  I       222
      correct dietary standards of,                          I       225
      quantity required,                                     I       226
      proportion of fat required in,                         I       228
      fallacy of nitrogenous,                                I       229
      influence of religion on,                              I       235
      a factor in producing physical and mental power,       I       240
      unscientific to use meat as,                           I       241
      rare meat unfit for,                                   I       258
      in contagious dis-eases,                               I       258
      fish as a,                                             I       260
      superiority of fish as a,                              I       261
      oysters as a,                                          I       262
      clams as a,                                            I       262
      shell-fish as a,                                       I       262
      poultry as a,                                          I       262
      superiority of poultry as a,                           I       263
      comparative analyses of,                               I       264
      feeding of poultry for,                                I       265
      cheese as a,                                           I       282
      butter considered as a,                                I       283
      wheat considered as a,                                II       290
      grain as a remedial,                                  II       298
      white potato as a,                                    II       321
      relative value of salads as,                          II       321
      relative value of water melon as a,                   II       323
      relative value of musk melon as a,                    II       323
      honey compared as a,                                  II       330
      life dependent upon,                                  II       345
      substitution of,                                      II       439
      staples,                                              II       440
      list of constipating,                                 II       446
      list of laxative,                                     II       446
      that reduces fat,                                     II       498
      in obesity,                                           II       502
      in locomotor ataxia,                                  II       519
      to eat in case of colds,                              II       524
      to eat in catarrh,                                    II       530
      in hay fever,                                         II       532
      combinations,                                        III       602
      quantity an important factor,                        III       604
      instinct a safe guide in selecting,                  III       605
      tables, how to interpret,                            III       607
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies,      III       609
      fats,                                                III       609
      eggs,                                                III       610
      milk,                                                III       611
      nuts,                                                III       612
      grains,                                              III       613
      vegetables,                                          III       614
      acid fruits,                                         III       615
      sweet fruits,                                        III       616
      sugars,                                              III       617
      simple classification of,                            III       621
      based on principal nutritive substances,             III       624
      purposes of different classes of,                    III       625
      difference between digestibility and assimilability
         of,                                               III       630
      table showing comparative assimilability carbohydrate
         and water content of various classes of food,     III       632
      purpose of the vieno table in,                       III       634
      vieno system of,                                     III       645
      values, measurement of,                              III       639
      values, measurement of--(old system),                III       642
      amount of nitrogen in, incorrect standards,          III       645
      incorrect standards of measurement of,               III       646
      what constitutes a true,                             III       647
      explanation of vieno system of food measurement,     III       648
      edible portion of,                                   III       650
      how to reduce foods to vienos,                       III       651
      nitrogen factor in,                                  III       651
      direct method of calculating available nitrogen in,  III       655,
                                                           III       663
      curative value of,                                   III       668
      for children (see menus for children),               III       687
      in cirrhosis of the liver,                           III       823
      in consumption,                                       IV   989-990
      in pregnancy,                                         IV      1033
      selection, combination and proportion of,              V      1149,
                                                             V      1152
      according to age,                                      V      1149
      according to time of year,                             V      1151
      according to work or activity,                         V      1151
      and energy,                                            V      1310
      relative importance of air, water and,                 V      1313

    FORMALDEHYDE
      uses of,                                               I        93
      an artificial preservative,                            I        93
      a poison to the human system,                          I        93

    FOWL
      selection of,                                        III       678
      preparation of,                                      III       678

    FRUITS
      composition of,                                       II       309
      dietetic value of,                                    II       310
      effect of acid,                                       II       312
      classification according to acidity,                  II       312
      evils of acid,                                        II       314
      value of sub-acid,                                    II       315
      value of non-acid,                                    II       316
      canned,                                               II       316
      evaporated,                                           II       316
      fresh,                                                II       317
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of
         acid,                                             III       615
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of
         sweet,                                            III       616
      bananas,                                             III       675


    G

    GALACTOSE
      formation of,                                          I       111

    GAME
      as a food,                                             I       268

    GAS DILATATION (GASTRITIS)
      symptoms of,                                          II   432-447
      what to eat in,                                       II       432
      what to omit in,                                      II       433
      causes of,                                            II       449
      remedy for,                                           II       450
      food to be used in treatment of,                      II       452

    GASTRIC JUICE
      composition of,                                        I       147
      formation of,                                          I       148
      its action on fat,                                     I       148
      rennet of the,                                         I       151

    GASTRITIS
      (also see gas dilatation),                            II       432
      causes of,                                            II       449
      symptoms of,                                          II       449
      diagnosis of,                                         II       450
      treatment of,                                         II       450
      diet in,                                              II       450
      food in,                                              II       452
      what to eat in,                                       II       452
      what to omit in,                                      II       452

    GLOBULINS
      sources of,                                            I       129
      properties,                                            I       129
      types of,                                              I       130

    GLUCOSE
      percentage in the blood,                               I       204
      function of,                                           I       204
      manufacture of,                                       II       328
      composition of,                                       II       328
      uses of,                                              II       329
      an article of food,                                   II       329

    GLYCOGEN
      sources of,                                            I       118
      formation of,                                          I       118

    GOUT
      causes of,                                            II       546
      symptoms of,                                          II       547
      remedy for,                                           II       547
      diet in,                                              II       548
      what to eat in,                                       II       550
      what to omit in,                                      II       550

    GRAIN
      cooked,                                                I       184
      government experiments with,                           I       185
      uncooked,                                              I       185
      nutritive value of,                                   II       289
      wheat,                                                II       290
      rye,                                                  II       291
      barley,                                               II       292
      oats,                                                 II       293
      corn,                                                 II       293
      rice,                                                 II       294
      buckwheat,                                            II       294
      uses of,                                              II       295
      as a remedial food,                                   II       298
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of,   III       613

    GUMS
      varieties of,                                          I       120


    H

    HABITS
      man a creature of,                                     I       223

    HAY FEVER
      described,                                            II       519
      symptoms of,                                          II       531
      remedy for,                                           II       531
      diet for,                                             II       531
      foods to eat in,                                      II       532
      foods to omit in,                                     II       532

    HEALTH
      influence of mind on,                                 II       385
      laws of,                                              II       396
      definition of,                                        II       405

    HEART TROUBLE
      gas, a cause of,                                      II   448-572
      early symptoms of,                                    II       570
      medical misconceptions of,                            II       570
      causes of,                                            II       571
      diet for,                                             II       573
      exercise for,                                         II       574

    HEAT
      production of,                                         I        41
      body determination of,                                 I        42
      a measure of energy,                                   I       198
      units,                                                 I       199

    HEMOGLOBIN
      component parts of,                                    I       130

    HEMORRHOIDS
      (see Piles),                                          II       471

    HEREDITY,                                                V      1293
      so-called wonders of microscopic study of reproductive
         cells in,                                           V      1294
      chromosoms in different species,                       V      1294
      action of,                                             V      1294
      what it is,                                            V      1295
      characteristics not due to,                            V      1296
      summary of facts regarding sex and,                    V      1297

    HERNIA
      causes of,                                            II       443

    HONEY
      food value of,                                        II       330
      composition of,                                       II       331

    HUMAN ILLS
      chiefly due to dis-eases and conditions originating in
          the stomach,                                       I         4
      (see chart showing dis-eases caused by superacidity),  I         9

    HYDROCARBONS
      definition of,                                         I        89
      uses of,                                               I        89
      where found,                                           I        89
      how formed,                                            I        90

    HYDROCHLORIC ACID
      how formed,                                            I        64
      action of,                                             I        65
      its importance in digestion,                           I        66
      chemical symbols of,                                   I        67

    HYDROGEN
      where found,                                           I        42
      physical properties,                                   I        43
      chemical properties of,                                I        43
      gas,                                                   I        45


    I

    INDIGESTION (ACUTE)
      important suggestions regarding,                     III       807
      treatment for,                                       III       807
      what to eat in,                                      III       807

    INFANT FEEDING
      great mortality due to wrong,                          V      1154
      two points of view on,                                 V      1155
      mothers' milk in,                                      V      1162
      general rules to be observed in,                       V      1164
      modification of milk in,                               V      1165
      preparation of food in,                                V      1165
      quantity of food in,                                   V      1166
      frequency of feeding,                                  V      1166
      disastrous results of too frequent,                    V      1168
      importance of cleanliness in preparation of food,      V      1168
      constipation in,                                       V      1169
      composition and color of stools in,                    V      1169
      temperature of food in,                                V      1173
      general instructions in health and hygiene,            V      1174

    INFLUENZA
      described,                                            II       519
      causes of,                                            II       536
      symptoms of,                                          II       537
      remedy,                                               II       537
      diet for,                                             II       537
      food in,                                              IV       939

    INSOMNIA
      causes of,                                            II       538
      remedy for,                                           II       539
      diet for,                                             II       541
      foods to eat in,                                      II       542
      foods to omit in,                                     II       542
      similarity of symptoms in nervousness and,            II       542

    INTESTINAL JUICES
      definition of,                                         I       157
      action of,                                             I       158

    INULIN
      value of,                                              I       121

    IODIN
      description of,                                        I        73

    IRON
      salts of,                                              I        77
      in patent medicines,                                   I        78


    L

    LACTOSE
      where found,                                           I       113
      indigestion,                                           I       114

    LAWS
      natural,                                               I        11

    LAXATIVES
      loss of vitality due to,                              II       376
      harmful results due to use of,                        II       436

    LEGUMES
      defined,                                              II       307
      familiar types of,                                    II       307
      rich in nitrogen,                                     II       307
      require thorough mastication,                         II       308

    LEVULOSE
      composition of,                                        I       111
      defined,                                               I       111

    LITMUS SOLUTION
      tests for,                                             I        69

    LIVER, THE,                                              I       137
      functions of,                                          I       203
      cirrhosis of,                                         II       468
        ---- causes of,                                     II       468
        ---- symptoms of,                                   II       468
        ---- treatment for,                                 II       469
        ---- stimulants in,                                 II       469
        ---- what to eat in,                                II       469
        ---- atrophic,                                     III       822
        ---- hypertrophic,                                 III       822
        ---- food in treatment for,                        III       823

    LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA
      causes of,                                            II       511
      drug treatment harmful in,                            II       513
      symptoms of,                                          II       514
      remedy for,                                           II       515
      diet for,                                             II       516
      exercise in,                                          II       517
      massage in,                                           II       517
      cured, obstinate case of,                             II       518
      foods to eat,                                         II       519
      foods to omit,                                        II       519

    LUNGS, THE
      functions of,                                         II       390


    M

    MALNUTRITION
      cause of,                                             II       511
      remedy for,                                           II       511

    MALTOSE
      composition of,                                        I       112
      how formed,                                            I       113

    MEAT
      fallacy of lean,                                       I       228
      source of autointoxication,                            I       247
      classified,                                            I       250
      composition of lean,                                   I       250
      extractives of,                                        I       252
      prejudice against pork,                                I       253
      cold storage of,                                       I       256
      decomposition of cold storage,                         I       257
      "ripened",                                             I       257
      scientific objections to use of,                       I       258

    MEDICINES
      effects of,                                           II       343
      ancient belief concerning,                            II       344
      unscientific uses of,                                 II       377

    MENUS

    FOR NORMAL CHILDREN

    (_From 2 to 5 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       687
      summer,                                              III       688
      fall,                                                III       689
      winter,                                              III       690

    (_From 5 to 10 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       692
      summer,                                              III       693
      fall,                                                III       694
      winter,                                              III       695

    (_From 10 to 15 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       696
      summer,                                              III       697
      fall,                                                III       698
      winter,                                              III       699

    FOR NORMAL PERSONS

    (_From 15 to 20 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       700
      summer,                                              III       701
      fall,                                                III       702
      winter,                                              III       703

    (_From 20 to 33 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       704
      summer,                                              III       705
      fall,                                                III       706
      winter,                                              III       707

    (_From 33 to 50 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       708
      summer,                                              III       709
      fall,                                                III       710
      winter,                                              III       711

    (_From 50 to 65 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       712
      summer,                                              III       713
      fall,                                                III       714
      winter,                                              III       715

    (_From 65 to 80 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       716
      summer,                                              III       717
      fall,                                                III       718
      winter,                                              III       719

    (_From 85 to 100 Years of Age_)
      spring,                                              III       720
      summer,                                              III       721
      fall,                                                III       722
      winter,                                              III       723

    MENUS, CURATIVE
      introduction,                                        III       724

      FOR SUPERACIDITY
    (ABNORMAL APPETITE)
      spring,                                              III       726
      summer,                                              III       728
      fall,                                                III       729
      winter,                                              III       730

    FOR SOUR STOMACH AND IRRITATION OF STOMACH AND
    INTESTINES
      spring,                                              III       731
      summer,                                              III       733
      fall,                                                III       734
      winter,                                              III       736

    FOR SOUR STOMACH, INTESTINAL GAS AND CONSTIPATION
      spring,                                              III       738
      summer,                                              III       740
      fall,                                                III       742
      winter,                                              III       745

    STOMACH AND INTESTINAL CATARRH
      spring,                                              III       747
      summer,                                              III       750
      fall,  III  751
      winter,  III  752

    FERMENTATION, INTESTINAL GAS, FEVERED STOMACH AND LIPS,
    CANKERS ON TONGUE
      spring,                                              III       753
      summer,                                              III       755
      fall,                                                III       757
      winter,                                              III       759

    CONSTIPATION (CHRONIC) NERVOUSNESS
      spring,                                              III       761
      summer,                                              III       765
      fall,                                                III       767
      winter,                                              III       769

    CONSTIPATION, AUTOINTOXICATION, LOW VITALITY
      spring,                                              III       771
      summer,                                              III       773
      fall,                                                III       775
      winter,                                              III       777

    GASTRITIS
      spring,                                              III       779
      summer,                                              III       781
      fall,                                                III       782
      winter,                                              III       783

    NERVOUS INDIGESTION
      spring,                                              III       784
      summer,                                              III       785
      fall,                                                III       786
      winter,                                              III       787

    NERVOUSNESS
        FOR BUSINESS MAN, THIN, NERVOUS,
        IRRITABLE--INSOMNIA--STOMACH AND INTESTINAL TROUBLE
      spring,                                              III       789
      summer,                                              III       790
      fall,                                                III       793
      winter,                                              III       798

    FOR SUBACIDITY
        INDIGESTION (CHRONIC)
      spring,                                              III       801
      summer,                                              III       803
      fall,                                                III       804
      winter,                                              III       805

    BILIOUSNESS
     HEADACHE--SLUGGISH LIVER
      spring,                                              III       809
      summer,                                              III       811
      fall,                                                III       812
      winter,                                              III       813

    HEADACHE--TORPID LIVER
      spring,                                              III       814
      summer,                                              III       815
      fall,                                                III       816
      winter,                                              III       820

    CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER
       general remarks,                                    III       822
       food to be used in,                                 III       823

    MENU NO,  1
      spring,                                              III       824
      summer,                                              III       825
      fall,                                                III       826
      winter,                                              III       827

    MENU NO,  2
      spring,                                              III       828
      summer,                                              III       829
      fall,                                                III       830
      winter,                                              III       831

    DIARRHEA
      spring,                                              III       832
      summer,                                              III       833
      fall,                                                III       834
      winter,                                              III       835

    DIARRHEA--DYSENTERY
      spring,                                              III       836
      summer,                                              III       840
      fall,                                                III       841
      winter,                                              III       842

    EMACIATION--UNDERWEIGHT--RATHER ANEMIC
      spring,                                              III       845
      summer,                                              III       847
      fall,                                                III       848
      winter,                                              III       850

    RUN DOWN CONDITION--FLATULENCY--UNDERWEIGHT
      spring,                                              III       852
      summer,                                              III       856
      fall,                                                III       858
      winter,                                              III       861

    LOW VITALITY--UNDERWEIGHT--WEAK DIGESTION
      spring,                                               IV       863
      summer,                                               IV       864
      fall,                                                 IV       865
      winter,                                               IV       866

    OBESITY--IRREGULAR HEART ACTION--NERVOUSNESS
      spring,                                               IV       870
      remarks,                                              IV       871
      summer,                                               IV       872
      fall,                                                 IV       872
      winter,                                               IV       877

    ABNORMAL APPETITE--OBESITY--DROWSINESS
      spring,                                               IV       882
      summer,                                               IV       884
      remarks,                                              IV       885
      fall,                                                 IV       886
      remarks,                                              IV       887
      winter,                                               IV       891

    DECREASING WEIGHT--INCREASING STRENGTH
      spring,                                               IV       893
      summer,                                               IV       894
      fall,                                                 IV       895
      winter,                                               IV       896

    NEURASTHENIA
      spring,                                               IV       897
      summer,                                               IV       898
      fall,                                                 IV       899
      winter,                                               IV       900

    MALNUTRITION
      spring,                                               IV       901
      summer,                                               IV       902
      fall,                                                 IV       903
      winter,                                               IV       904

    FOR A YOUTH

    ANEMIA--MALASSIMILATION--UNDERWEIGHT--NO APPETITE
      spring,                                               IV       905
      summer,                                               IV       907
      fall,                                                 IV       908
      winter,                                               IV       910

    LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA
      spring,                                               IV       911
      summer,                                               IV       912
      fall,                                                 IV       913
      winter,                                               IV       914

     COLDS
      spring,                                               IV       917
      summer,                                               IV       918
      fall,                                                 IV       920
      winter,                                               IV       921

    NASAL CATARRH
      late spring },                                        IV       925
      early summer}
      late summer },                                        IV       927
      early fall  }
      late fall   },                                        IV       928
      early winter}
      late winter },                                        IV       930
      early spring}

    HAY FEVER
      spring,                                               IV       931
      summer,                                               IV       932
      fall,                                                 IV       933
      winter,                                               IV       934

    ASTHMA
      spring,                                               IV       935
      summer,                                               IV       936
      fall,                                                 IV       937
      winter,                                               IV       938

    INFLUENZA
      Foods in,  IV  939
      Menus for
       (see menus for colds, catarrh, hay fever and asthma),
                                                            II       519

    INSOMNIA--NERVOUSNESS--LOW VITALITY
      spring,                                               IV       940
      summer,                                               IV       942
      fall,                                                 IV       943
      winter,                                               IV       945

    RHEUMATISM--GOUT--LUMBAGO--SCIATICA--ARTHRITIS
      spring,                                               IV       947
      summer,                                               IV       949
      fall,                                                 IV       951
      winter,                                               IV       953

    ANEMIA--SLUGGISH LIVER--RHEUMATIC TENDENCY
      spring,                                               IV       955
      summer,                                               IV       957
      fall,                                                 IV       962
      winter,                                               IV       964

    STIFFNESS AND PAIN IN JOINTS--STOMACH TROUBLE--CONSTIPATION--INTESTINAL
    GAS--IRREGULAR HEART ACTION
      spring,                                               IV       967
      summer,                                               IV       968
      fall,                                                 IV       970
      winter,                                               IV       975

    BRIGHT'S DIS-EASE
      spring,                                               IV       979
      summer,                                               IV       980
      fall,                                                 IV       981
      winter,                                               IV       982

    DIABETES
      spring,                                               IV       983
      summer,                                               IV       985
      fall,                                                 IV       987
      winter,                                               IV       988

    WEAK LUNGS--CONSUMPTION
      general menu,                                         IV       991

    TUBERCULAR TENDENCY--CONSTIPATION--NERVOUSNESS--CATARRH
      spring,                                               IV       994
      summer,                                               IV       998
      fall,                                                 IV      1000
      winter,                                               IV      1003

    TENDENCY TOWARD INTESTINAL CONGESTION
      spring,                                               IV      1005
      summer,                                               IV      1007
      fall,                                                 IV      1008
      winter,                                               IV      1011

    DIS-EASES OF THE SKIN--ECZEMA
      spring,                                               IV      1013
      summer,                                               IV      1015
      fall,                                                 IV      1016
      winter,                                               IV      1019

    WEAK DIGESTION--NERVOUSNESS--SLIGHT ECZEMA
      spring,                                               IV      1023
      summer,                                               IV      1025
      fall,                                                 IV      1026
      winter,                                               IV      1027

    APPENDICITIS
      spring,                                               IV      1029
      summer,                                               IV      1030
      fall,                                                 IV      1031
      winter,                                               IV      1032

    FOR THE PREGNANT WOMAN
      food in pregnancy,                                    IV  1033-1035

    MENUS
      spring,                                               IV      1036
      summer,                                               IV      1037
      fall,                                                 IV      1038
      winter,                                               IV      1039

    FOR THE NURSING MOTHER
      foods to omit,                                        IV      1040
      foods to use,                                         IV      1041

    MENUS FOR THE NURSING MOTHER
      spring,                                               IV      1042
      summer,                                               IV      1043
      fall,                                                 IV      1044
      winter,                                               IV      1045

    MISCELLANEOUS

    WEAK DIGESTION (ALMOST INVALID)
      spring,                                               IV      1046
      summer,                                               IV      1048
      fall,                                                 IV      1049
      winter,                                               IV      1051

    BUILDING UP THE NERVOUS SYSTEM--INCREASING VITALITY
      spring,                                               IV      1053
      summer,                                               IV      1056
      fall,                                                 IV      1058
      winter,                                               IV      1060

    FOR AGED PERSON--BUILDING GENERAL HEALTH
      spring,                                               IV      1061
      summer,                                               IV      1065
      fall,                                                 IV      1066
      winter,                                               IV      1068

    (Healthy Person)  STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE
      spring,                                               IV      1069
      summer,                                               IV      1070
      fall,                                                 IV      1071
      winter,                                               IV      1073

    MALASSIMILATION AND AUTOINTOXICATION
      spring,                                               IV      1074
      summer,                                               IV      1076
      fall,                                                 IV      1078
      winter,                                               IV      1080

    NO APPETITE
      distinction between appetite and hunger,              IV      1081
      spring,                                               IV      1081
      summer,                                               IV      1084
      fall,                                                 IV      1085
      winter,                                               IV      1086

    ATHLETIC DIET
      spring,                                               IV      1088
      summer,                                               IV      1089
      fall,                                                 IV      1090
      winter,                                               IV      1091

   (Chiefly Uncooked)
      spring,                                               IV      1093
      summer,                                               IV      1094
      fall,                                                 IV      1095
      winter,                                               IV      1097

    FOR INVALID CHILD--MAKING MUSCULAR TISSUE--REGULATING
    BOWELS
      spring,                                               IV      1098
      summer,                                               IV      1100
      fall,                                                 IV      1101
      winter,                                               IV      1104

    FOR MENTAL WORKER--TO INCREASE BRAIN EFFICIENCY
      spring,                                               IV      1106
      summer,                                               IV      1108
      fall,                                                 IV      1110
      winter,                                               IV      1113

    FOR SCHOOL TEACHER--ANEMIA--SLUGGISH LIVER--UNDERWEIGHT--NERVOUSNESS
      spring,                                               IV      1115
      summer,                                               IV      1117
      fall,                                                 IV      1118
      winter,                                               IV      1120

    LABORING MAN UNDERWEIGHT--ANEMIC (LUNCH IN SHOP)
      spring,                                               IV      1122
      summer,                                               IV      1124
      fall,                                                 IV      1126
      winter,                                               IV      1129
      diet for cold weather,                                IV      1133
      diet for hot weather,                                 IV      1134
      hot weather menu for the prevention of sunstroke and heat
        prostration,                                        IV      1135
      suggestions for the prevention of sunstroke,          IV      1136

    MENUS FOR BUILDING UP SEXUAL VITALITY
      spring,                                               IV      1138
      summer,                                               IV      1139
      fall,                                                 IV      1140
      winter,                                               IV      1141

    SUGGESTIONS FOR PERSONS UNDERGOING MODERATE AMOUNT OF
    EXPOSURE,
                                                             V      1201

    MENUS
      between temperature 20 and 30° F,                      V      1203
      between temperature 70 and 90° F,                      V      1206

    MENUS FOR NERVOUSNESS
      spring,                                                V      1220
      summer,                                                V      1222
      fall,                                                  V      1223
      winter,                                                V 1224-1227

    MENUS
      Curative and Remedial,                               III       667,
                                                            IV      1143
      for constipation,                                     II       438
      for obesity,                                          II       500
      choice of,                                           III       683
      normal,                                              III       685
      introduction to,                                     III       685

    MERCURY
      and its salts,                                        II       373

    METABOLISM
      chemistry of,                                          I       193
      process of,                                            I       193
      described,                                             I       194
      liberation of energy through,                          I       199
      carbohydrates in,                                      I       202
      of fat,                                                I       205
      of proteids,                                           I       209

    METALS
      salts of,                                              I        76
      uses of,                                               I        77
      iron,                                                  I        77

    MILK
      sour, discussed,                                       I       174
      mothers,                                               I       246
      food values of,                                        I       270
      a perfect food,                                        I       273
      cows,                                                  I       274
      composition of cows,                                   I       274
      varieties of cows,                                     I       274
      nutritive value of,                                    I       275
      coagulation of casein in,                              I       276
      harmonies,                                             I       276
      adulteration of,                                       I       276
      in sour stomach,                                       I       277
      preservatives in,                                      I       280
      pasteurization of,                                     I       280
      natural souring of,                                    I       281
      why constipating,                                     II       442
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies,      III       611

    MORPHIN
      habit,                                                II       351
      uses of,                                              II       352

    MOTHER, THE PROSPECTIVE
      general rules for,                                     V      1157
      the corset,                                            V      1158
      exercise,                                              V      1158
      deep breathing,                                        V      1158
      mental occupation,                                     V      1158
      special rules for,                                     V      1159
      suggestions for the diet for abnormal appetite during
        pregnancy,                                           V      1160
      selection of food,                                     V      1161
      starchy foods during pregnancy,                        V      1161


    N

    NARCOTICS
      classification of,                                   III       349

    NASAL CATARRH,                                          IV       922

    NERVOUSNESS
      true meaning of,                                       V      1211
      relation of nutrition to,                              V      1212
      causes of,                                             V      1212
      constipation a factor in,                              V      1214
      primary causes of,                                     V      1215
      effect of stimulants in,                               V      1215
      overwork not a factor in,                              V      1216
      remedy for,                                            V      1217
      effects of wrong eating and drinking in,               V      1218
      special instructions for persons suffering from,       V      1227
      recreation in,                                         V      1228
      relation of sexual functions to,                       V      1228

    NERVOUS INDIGESTION
      described,                                            II       453
      causes of,                                            II       454
      symptoms of,                                          II       455
      remedy for,                                           II       458
      diet for,                                             II       458
      remarks on,                                          III       784

    NEURASTHENIA
      described,                                            II       503
      a final warning,                                      II       503
      causes of,                                            II   505-507
      symptoms,                                             II       506
      remedy,                                               II       506
      importance of diet in,                                II       508
      mental attitude in,                                   II       508
      what to eat in,                                       II       510
      what to omit in,                                      II       510

    NITROGEN
      described,                                             I        58
      properties of,                                         I        59
      compounds of,                                          I        59
      daily amount required,                                 I       231
      body requirement of,                                   I       232
      grain a source of,                                    II       297
      proportion in lean meat,                             III       641
      in food, how to compute,                             III       645
      a factor in food,                                    III       651
      method of calculating available amount in food,      III       655

    NUTRITION
      science of,                                            I        14
      relation of sexual health in,                          V      1289

    NUTS
      pine,  II  301
        ----, composition of,  II  301
      almonds,  II  303
      pecans,  II  304
      brazil,  II  304
      walnut, English,  II  304
      hazel,  II  305
      butter,  II  305
      beech,  II  305
      cocoa,  II  305
      peanuts,  II  306
      as heat producers,  II  301
      nitrogen factor in,  II  302
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of,  III  612


    O

    OBESITY
      prevention of,  I  208
      remedies for,  I  208,  II  495
      unnatural,  II  491
      the law governing,  II  491
      weight tables in,  II  492
      causes of,  II  493
      eating in,  II  494
      drinking in,  II  494
      exercise in,  II  495
      use of fats in,  II  496
      chronic, diet suggestions in,  II  496
      foods that produce,  II  497
      foods that prevent,  II  498
      foods in,  II  500
      menus for,  II  500
      symptoms resulting from change of food in,  II  502
      foods to eat in,  II  502
      foods to omit in,  II  502

    OILS
      formation of,  I  122
      composition of,  I  122
      olive,  I  123
      cotton seed, manufacturing of,  I  123,  II  337
      vegetable,  I  123
      vegetable, value of,  II  335
      poisonous,  I  124
      grades of olive,  II  336
      peanut, value of,  II  338
      palm,  II  339
      linseed,  II  340

    OLD AGE
      meat and bread as articles of diet in,  V 1179
      uric acid in rheumatic conditions in,  V 1179
      soluble starches desirable in,  V 1180
      importance of diet in,  V 1181

    DIET FOR THE THREE PERIODS IN OLD AGE
      From 50-60 years of age,  V 1181
      From 60-70 years of age,  V 1182
      From 70-100 years of age,  V 1182

    SPECIAL SPRING AND SUMMER MENUS
      For ages 50-60,  V  1184

    FALL AND WINTER MENUS
      For ages 50-60,  V  1186
      How food should be prepared for people between ages of 50-60,
                                                            V  1186

    OLEIN
      defined,  I  123

    OLEOMARGARIN
      described,  I  285
      how made,  I  286

    OPIUM
      composition of,  II  350
      effect of,  II  351

    OXYGEN
      a substance,  I 32-33
      manufacture of,  I  33
      production of,  I  36
      properties of,  I  36
      chemical action of,  I  36
      effect of,  I  36
      a heat determiner,  I  40
      not the only required element in breathing,  V  1313

    OXID
      nitrous,  I  62

    OXIDATION
      of the blood,  I  39
      of waste matter,  I  39
      laws governing,  I  41
      and air,  V  1312

    OYSTERS (AND CLAMS)
      unfit for food,  I  262


    P

    PANCREAS, THE
      functions of,  I  138

    PAIN
      a warning,  I  12

    PATENT MEDICINES
      Defined,  II  347
      why alcohol is used in,  II  370
      per cent of alcohol in,  II  371

    PENTOSES
      from the standpoint of human food,  I  110

    PEPSIN
      action of,  I  155

    PHOSPHORUS
      uses of,  I  75

    PHYSICAL CULTURE
      systems of,  V  1333
      tensing in,  V  1339
      vibratory exercise,  V  1339
      heavy weight exercise,  V  1340
      indoor exercises,  V  1340

    PHYSIOLOGY
      the old,  V  1305

    PILES
      causes of,  II  471
      symptoms of,  II  472
      treatment for,  II  472
      diet for,  II  473

    POISONS
      body,  I  245
      generated by fear,  I  246
      alkaloid,  II  349
      narcotic,  II  349

    POLYSACCHARIDS
      starch,  I  114
      glycogen,  I  118
      cellulose,  I  119
      gums,  I  120
      inulin,  I  121

    POTASSIUM IODID
      effect of,  II  374

    POULTRY
      method of fattening domestic,  I  265
      marketing undrawn,  I  266
      "hanging",  I  267

    PRACTISE OF DIETETICS, THE
      Introduction,  V 1233
      general treatment in,  V 1235
      scope of scientific feeding in,  V 1236
      the value of letters in,  V 1236
      the art of polemics in,  V 1236
      value of booklet describing your work,  V 1238
      ability to prepare your own copy,  V 1238
      value of experience in,  V 1239
      diagnosis in,  V 1241
      diet in,  V 1242
      educate your patient in,  V 1242
      patient should agree with the diet,  V  1243
      mental factors in,  V  1245
      publicity necessary in,  V  1246
      value of truthful publicity,  V  1248
      some cures too remarkable to advertise,  V  1250
      courtesy an asset in,  V  1250

    PRENATAL CULTURE
      embryological growth in,  V  1289
      superstition concerning,  V  1290
      theory on,  V  1290
      influence of fright, anger, etc, in,  V  1291
      mother's nutrition the only factor in,  V  1291
      birthmarks,  V  1292

    PROTEIDS
      defined,  I  125
      classified,  I  128
      peptones,  I  130
      proteoses,  I  130
      uses of,  I  211
      replace worn-out cells,  I  212
      action of,  I  213
      converted into peptones,  I  214
      composition of,  I  215
      form body fat,  I  215
      excess of,  I  216
      animal requirements of,  I  230
      digestibility of grain,  II  298
      effect of heat on,  III  595
      purpose of,  III  626

    PTOMAINS
      formation of,  I  128

    PURGATIVES
      salts as,  II  375


    Q

    QUININ
      uses of,  II  357


    R

    RECIPES
      for coddled eggs,  III  677
      uncooked eggs,  III  678
      baked omelet,  III  678
      for preparing green peas in the pod,  III  679
      pumpkin,  III  680
      vegetable juice,  III  680
      sassafras tea,  III  680

    REST
      forces at work during,  V  1301
      changes during,  V  1302
      human body at,  V  1303
      change in body tissue during,  V  1303
      comparisons regarding necessity for,  V  1304
      confusion of terms,  V  1306

    REST AND RE-CREATION
      necessity for,  II  400
      phenomenon of sleep and,  V  1306
      where found,  V  1308
      idleness in,  V  1346
      exercise necessary for assimilation and elimination,  V  1347
      hunting,  V  1347
      fishing,  V  1347
      true re-creation,  V  1348
      worthless objects for which men struggle fail to give,  V  1348
      the triad of all that is best in man the goal to strive for,
                                                              V  1348
      in solitude,  V  1349

    RHEUMATISM
      described,  II  543
      causes of,  II  544
      symptoms of,  II  545
      remedy for,  II  547
      diet in,  II  548
        ---- natural versus artificial,  II  548
      perspiration in,  II  549
      what to eat in,  II  550
      what to omit in,  II  550


    S

    SACCHARIN
      food value of,  I  91

    SALIVA
      secretion of,  I  142
      mastication and,  I  142

    SALT
      common,  I  69
      in the body,  I  73
      magnesium,  I  77
      mineral origin of vegetable,  I  131

    SEX
      relation of sexual functions to the nervous system,  V  1288
      necessity for popular knowledge concerning,  V  1288
      relation of nutrition to sexual health,  V  1289
      summary of facts regarding heredity, and  V  1297

    SILICON
      in the body,  I  76

    SLEEP
      evidence of acquired energy during,  V  1308
      the mysterious production of energy during,  V  1309
      expenditure of energy during,  V 1310
      and its relation to the expenditure of energy, V 1312

    SOAP
      process of making,  I  96

    SOLUTION
      in nutrition,  I  50
      in assimilation,  I  51
      examples of,  I  51

    STARCH
      sources of,  I  114
      potato,  I  115
      solubility of,  I  116
      corn,  I  116
      changing of,  I  117

    STOMACH, THE,  I  137
      functions of,  II  389
      disorders originating in,  II  417
      "lump" in,  II  419
      catarrh of,  III  747

    STRYCHNIN
      effect of,  II  356

    SUGAR
      grape,  I  109
        ---- sources of,  I  109, II  327
      pentose,  I  110
      levulose,  I  111
      galactose,  I  111
      cane,  I  112
      maltose,  I  112
      lactose,  I  113
      effects of heat on,  III  594
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies,  III  617
      food value of,  II  324
      beet sugar,  II  325
      cane, value of,  II  326
      process of refining,  II  326
      maple, genuine,  II  327
        ---- imitation,  II  327
      milk,  II  327

    SULFUR
      in the human body,  I  75

    SUNSTROKE
      prevention of,  IV  1136

    SUPERACIDITY
      chart indicating dis-eases caused by,  I  9
      cause of,  I  7,  II  421
      diagnosis of,  II  418
      symptoms of,  II  421
      remedy for,  II  423
      despondency produced by,  II  430

    SWEETS
      relative order of,  II  332
      application of term,  II  334

    SYMPTOMS
      comparison of,  II  389


    T

    TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES,  III  664

    TEA
      composition of,  II  365

    TEMPERATURE
      fat requirements according to,  V  1200

    TISSUE BUILDING
      food a factor in,  I  195
      process of,  I  196
      generation of heat and energy in,  I  197
      proteids a factor in,  I  210

    TOBACCO
      effect of nicotin in,  II  361
      general effect of,  II  362

    TREATMENT
      by disinfection,  II  347

    TRICHINOSIS
      described,  I  259

    TRYPSIN
      action of,  I  155


    V

    VEGETABLES
      groups of,  II  318
      succulent,  II  319
        ---- value of,  II  320
      juices of,  II  321
      white potato,  II  321
      sweet potato,  II  322
      carrots,  II  322
      parsnips,  II  322
      turnips,  II  322
      beets,  II  322
      tomatoes,  II  323
      tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies of,  III  614

    VEGETARIANISM
      from animal standpoint,  I  236
      from standpoint of scientific living,  I  237


    W

    WATER
      composition of,  I  44
      properties of,  I  45
      rain,  I  46
      hard, I   46
      mineral,  I  47
      salt,  I  47
      effervescent,  I  47
      sulphur,  I  47
      distilled,  I  48
      as a solvent,  I  49
      chemical uses of,  I  48
      proportion in the body,  I  52
      uses in the body,  I  54
      drinking,  I  54
      necessity for drinking,  II  434

    WHEAT
      composition of,  II  291

           *       *       *       *       *

  +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                    Transcriber's notes:                             |
  |                                                                     |
  | Added 'D' to index heading of D words.                              |
  | 'shall fish' in index need be 'shell-fish', changed.                |
  | Added 'G' to index heading of G words.                              |
  | Added 'H' to index heading of H words, misplaced.                   |
  | Index HUMAN ILLA 'orginating' need be 'originating' in the stomach. |
  | Taken out hyphen in 'Re-creation' from index.                       |
  | Put in hypen in 'diseases' in index as in main text.                |
  | Both 'Re-creation' and 'Recreation' present, leaving.               |
  | Taken out hyphen in 'stand-point'.                                  |
  | Taken out hyphen in 'tea-pot'.                                      |
  | P.1145. Removed duplicate chapter heading in html file.             |
  | Index, O - Old Age: From 70-100 years of age V '1181'               |
  | need be '1182', changed.                                            |
  | Fixed various punctuation.                                          |
  | Note: underscores to surround _italic text_.                        |
  +---------------------------------------------------------------------+





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