Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Battlefields of the Marne 1914
Author: Cie, Michelin &
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Battlefields of the Marne 1914" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                      ILLUSTRATED MICHELIN GUIDES
                         TO THE BATTLE-FIELDS.



                             BATTLE-FIELDS

                                  OF

                               THE MARNE

                                 1914


                            [Illustration]

                              Published:

          in FRANCE; by +MICHELIN & Cⁱᵉ.+, Clermont-Ferrand.

                in ENGLAND; by +MICHELIN TYRE Cº Lᵗᵈ.+,
                     81 Fulham Road, London, S.W.

                 in the U.S.A.; by +MICHELIN TIRE Cº+,
                         Milltown, New Jersey.

_For all Information and Advice_--

                          MOTORISTS MAY APPLY
                 TO THE 'BUREAU DE TOURISME MICHELIN'
                     99, Boulevard Pereire--PARIS

       *       *       *       *       *

                        Hotels and Motor-agents.

  [** 5 hotels symbol]Palatial and luxuriously appointed hotels.
  [** 4 hotels symbol]Well-appointed, first-class hotels.
  [** 3 hotels symbol]Comfortable hotels with modern improvements.
  [** 2 hotels symbol]Well-managed hotels with good accommodation.
  [** 1 hotel symbol]Hotels with good service for luncheon and dinner.
  [** small hotel symbol]Small hotels or inns where good meals are
    provided.

  Compressed Air Depôt for 'bouteilles d'air Michelin' for inflation
    of tyres.

  [** wrench symbol]     Repair shop.

  _Agt de_               Manufacturer's Agent.

  [** 3 symbol]          Garage showing car capacity.

  [** pit symbol]        Repair Pit.

  [** electric symbol]   Electric installation for recharging accumulators.

  [** phone symbol] 104  Telephone number.

  [** telegraph symbol]  Telegraphic address.


=MEAUX= (Seine-et-Marne).

  [** 2 hotels symbol] de la Sirène, _34 r. St-Nicolas_. Ⓑ(wc) Gar
    [** 3 symbol] Shed [** 5 symbol] [** telegraph symbol] Sirène [**
    phone symbol] 83.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] des Trois-Rois, _1 r. des Ursulines and 30 r.
    St-Rémy_. (wc) Shed [** 4 symbol] Inner courtyard [** 10 symbol]
    [** phone symbol] 146.

  [** wrench symbol] =MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) Garage Central
    (A. Feillée)=, _17-21 r. du Grand-Cerf_. _Agt. de_: +Panhard+,
    +Renault+, +de Dion+. [** 30 symbol] [** pit symbol] G Petrol
    Depôt [** phone symbol] 59.

  -- =MICHELIN STOCK Auto-Garage de Meaux (E. Vance)=, _55-57 pl. du
    Marché_. _Agt de_: +Delahaye+. [** 20 symbol] [** pit symbol] G
    [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol] 84.


=SENLIS= (Oise).

  [** 3 hotels symbol] du Grand-Cerf, _47 r. de la République_.
    Central heating [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Inner coach-house [** 6
    symbol] [** pit symbol] [** telegraph symbol] Grandcerf [** phone
    symbol] 111.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] des Arènes, _30 r. de Beauvais_. (wc) Inner
    coach-house [** 7 symbol] ott [** phone symbol] 17.

  [** wrench symbol] =MICHELIN STOCK Guinot=, _8 pl. de la Halle_.
    _Stock_: +de Dion+. _Agt de_: +Peugeot+. [** 3 symbol] [** pit
    symbol] [** phone symbol] 46.

  -- =MICHELIN STOCK L. Buat and A. Rémond=, _2 r. de Crépy_. _Agts
    de_: +Panhard+, +Renault+, +Cottin-Desgouttes+, +Delahaye+,
    +Rochet-Schneider+, +Mors+. [** 10 symbol] [** pit symbol] G [**
    electric symbol] [** phone symbol] 38.


=CHANTILLY= (Oise).

  [** 4 hotels symbol] du Grand-Condé, _av. de la Gare_. Closed
    in 1917. Asc Central heating [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Gar [** 50
    symbol] [** pit symbol] [** phone symbol] 52.

  [** 3 hotels symbol] d'Angleterre, _r. de Paris and pl. de
    l'Hôpital_. [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Inner shed [** 8 symbol] [**
    phone symbol] 59.

  [** 3 hotels symbol] Noguey's Family Hotel, _10 av. de la Gare_.
    [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Inner coach-house [** 5 symbol] [** phone
    symbol] 146.

  [** wrench symbol] =MICHELIN STOCK Grigaut=, _72 r. du Connétable_.
    [** phone symbol] 1.14.

  -- =MICHELIN STOCK Garage Bourdeau=, _1 bis r. de Gouvieux_. [** 6
    symbol] [** pit symbol] G [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol]
    1.90.


=COULOMMIERS= (Seine-et-Marne).

  [** 1 hotel symbol] du Soleil-Levant, _62 r. de Melun_. Central
    heating, Inner coach-house [** 3 symbol] courtyard [** 15 symbol]
    [** phone symbol] 22.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de l'Ours, _r. de Melun_. Central heating.
    Inner coach-house [** 3 symbol] courtyard [** 10 symbol] [**
    phone symbol] 27.

  [** wrench symbol] =MICHELIN STOCK Doupé-Lejeune=, _42 r. de
    Paris_. _Agt de_: +Panhard+, +Delage+, +Darracq+. [** 10 symbol]
    [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [** phone
    symbol] 92.

  -- =Gautier=, _6 av. de la Ferté-sous-Jouarre_. _Agt de_:
    +Peugeot+, +Vinot-Deguingand+, +de Dion+. [** 4 symbol] [** pit
    symbol] Petrol Depôt [** phone symbol] 1.19.

  -- =P. Fritsch=, _51 av. de Strasbourg_. _Agt de_: +Brasier+, +Le
    Zèbre+. [** 6 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt.

  -- =Purson=, cycles, _1 r. de Melun_. _Agt de_: +Clément-Bayard+.
    [** 2 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt.

  -- =A. Gontier=, cycles, _Le Martroy_.

  -- =Doupé-Boucher=, cycles, _1 r. de la Ferté-sous-Jouarre_. Petrol
    Depôt.

'OFFICE NATIONAL DU TOURISME'

_17, Rue de Surène, PARIS (VIIIᵉ)_


The 'Office National du Tourisme' was created by an Act of April 8,
1910, and reorganised in 1917. It enjoys civil privileges and financial
autonomy.

It is directed by an administrative council chosen by the Minister of
Public Works.

Its mission is to seek out every means of developing travel; to urge
and, if necessary, to take any measure capable of ameliorating the
condition of the transport, circulation and sojourn of tourists.

It co-ordinates the efforts of touring societies and industries,
encourages them in the execution of their programmes and stimulates
legislative and administrative initiative with regard to the
development of travel in France.

It promotes understanding between the public services, the great
transport companies, the 'Syndicats d'Initiative' and the 'Syndicats
Professionnels.'

It organises propaganda in foreign countries; and arranges for the
creation of travel enquiry offices in France and abroad, with a view
to making known the scenery and monuments of France as well as the
health-giving powers of French mineral waters, spas and bathing places.

       *       *       *       *       *

                ALL ENQUIRIES WITH REGARD TO TRAVELLING
                          SHOULD BE ADDRESSED
                    TO THE 'TOURING-CLUB DE FRANCE'

                   65, Avenue de la Grande Armée, 65
                                 PARIS

'THE TOURING-CLUB DE FRANCE'


ADVANTAGES OF MEMBERSHIP

The 'Touring-Club de France' (founded in 1890), is at the present time
the largest touring association in the world. Its principal aim is
to introduce France--one of the loveliest countries on earth--to the
French people themselves and to tourists of other nations.

It seeks to develop travel in all its forms: on foot, horseback,
bicycle, in carriage, motor, yacht or railway, and, eventually, by
aeroplane.

Every member of the association receives a badge and an identity
ticket, free of charge, and also the 'Revue Mensuelle' every month.

Members have the benefit also of special prices in a certain number
of affiliated hotels; and this advantage holds good in the purchasing
of guide-books and Staff (Etat-major) maps, as well as those of the
'Ministère de l'Intérieur,' the T.C.F., etc. They may insert notices
regarding the sale or purchase of travelling requisites, in the 'Revue'
(1 fr. per line). The 'Comité de Contentieux' is ready to give them
council with regard to travelling, and 3,000 delegates in all the
principal towns are retained to give advice and information about
the curiosities of art or of nature of the neighbourhood, as well as
concerning the roads, hotels, motor-agents, garages, etc.

Members are accorded free passages across the frontier for a bicycle
or motor-bicycle. For a motor-car the association gives a 'Triptyque'
ensuring free passage through the 'douane,' etc.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    TO TOUR FRANCE IN COMFORT JOIN
                     THE 'TOURING-CLUB DE FRANCE'

  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                 |
  |    IN MEMORY OF THE MICHELIN EMPLOYEES AND WORKMEN WHO DIED     |
  |                  GLORIOUSLY FOR THEIR COUNTRY.                  |
  |                                                                 |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

                               THE MARNE
                             BATTLE-FIELDS
                                (1914)

                         [Illustration: JOFFRE

                Commander-in-chief of the French Army]

                   Copyright 1919 by Michelin & Cie.

        _All rights of translation, adaptation, or reproduction
            (in part or whole) reserved in all countries._



FOREWORD


_For the benefit of tourists who wish to visit the battlefields and
mutilated towns of France we have tried to produce a work combining a
practical guide with a history._

_Such a visit should be a pilgrimage, not merely a journey across a
ravaged land. Seeing is not enough, one must understand: a ruin is more
moving when one knows what has caused it; a stretch of country which
might seem dull and uninteresting to the unenlightened eye, becomes
transformed at the thought of the battles which have raged there._

_We have, therefore, prefaced the description of our journeys by a
short account of the events which took place in the vicinity, and we
have done our best to make this account quite clear by the use of many
illustrations and maps._

_In the course of the description we give a brief military commentary
on the numerous views and panoramas contained in the book._

_When we come across a place that is interesting either from an
archæological or an artistic point of view, there we halt, even though
the war has passed it by; that the tourist may realise it was to
preserve intact this heritage of history and beauty that so many of our
heroes have fallen._

_Our readers will not find any attempt at literary effect in these
pages; the truth is too beautiful and tragic to be altered for the sake
of embellishing the story. We have, therefore, after carefully sifting
the great volume of evidence available, selected only that obtained
from official documents or from reliable eye-witnesses._

_This book was written before the end of the war, even then the
country over which it leads the reader had long been freed. The wealth
of illustration in this work allows the intending tourist to make a
preliminary trip in imagination, until such time as circumstances
permit of his undertaking a journey in reality beneath the sunny skies
of France._


HISTORICAL PART

IMPORTANT NOTE.--On pages 4 to 16 will be found a brief summarized
account of the Battle of the Marne and of the events which immediately
preceded it. We recommend the reading of these few pages attentively,
and the consultation of the maps annexed to the same, before reading
the descriptive part which commences at page 17.

A clear understanding of the action as a whole is absolutely necessary
to comprehend with interest the description of the separate combats.

[Illustration: THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE

(1914)]

The above map gives a general view of the ground on which took place
successively: the battle of the frontier, the retreat of the Allies,
the victorious stand, and the pursuit of the retreating enemy.

The distance from Paris to Verdun is 140 miles as the crow flies; from
Charleroi to the Marne is 97 miles.

In consequence of the tearing up of that fateful "scrap of paper"
which preceded the invasion of Belgium by Germany, in violation of
the common rights of man, the Battle of the Frontier (also called
the Battle of Charleroi) was fought in August 1914 on the line
Mons--Charleroi--Dinant--Saint-Hubert--Longwy--Metz.

[Illustration: MAUNOURY]

On August 22, 1914, and the two succeeding days this Allied
offensive failed at Charleroi, in consequence of which the French
Commander-in-chief, General Joffre, broke off contact with the enemy
and ordered a general retreat.

It was impossible to do otherwise as the enemy forces were greatly
superior in numbers. Moreover, they were well equipped with powerful
artillery and machine-guns, whereas the Franco-British forces were
short of both. Lastly, the German soldier had long been trained in
trench warfare, whereas the Allies had yet to learn this art.

To help in readjusting the balance between the opposing forces, Joffre
fell back in the direction of the French reserves.

The respite thus afforded was utilized to re-arrange the commands, and
to train the reserves in the form of warfare adopted by the Germans.
Meanwhile, the latter greatly extended their line of communications and
more or less tired themselves.

Then began that heroic retreat, without precedent in history, which
attained a depth of 122 miles, and in the course of which the Allied
soldiers, though already fatigued, marched as much as thirty miles a
day facing about from time to time and counter-attacking fiercely,
often with success.

The Germans followed in pursuit, overrunning the country like a plague
of locusts. Using their left wing as a pivot, their right undertook a
vast turning movement taking in Valenciennes, Cambrai, Péronne, and
Amiens.

By August 27 Joffre had fixed up a plan according to which the
offensive was to be taken again at the first favourable opportunity. In
view of the execution of this plan an important mass of troops, under
the orders of General Maunoury, was formed on the French left.

General Maunoury's task was to outflank at a given moment the German
right wing while, at the same time, a general attack, or at least
unflinching resistance, was to be made along the rest of the front.

This was the Allies' reply to the turning movement of the German
general Von Kluck.

A first line of resistance offered itself on the River Somme, where
fierce fighting took place. It was, however, realized that the
battle front could not be reformed there successfully. Joffre wanted
a flanking position not only for his left wing, but also for his
right, which the Somme line did not offer. He therefore continued the
withdrawal of the whole front towards the River Marne and Paris.

On September 3 German cavalry patrols were signalled at Ecouen, only
eight miles from the gates of Paris. The inhabitants of the latter
were asking themselves anxiously whether they, too, would not have
to face the horrors of a German occupation. The suspense was cruel.
Fortunately, a great man, General Gallieni, was silently watching over
their destinies.

This great soldier had just been made Military Governor of Paris, with
General Maunoury's Army, mentioned a moment ago, under his orders.
The entrenched camp of Paris and this army were, in turn, under the
authority of the French Commander-in-Chief, Joffre, who thus had full
liberty of action from Paris to Verdun.

On September 3 General Gallieni issued his stirring proclamation which
put soldiers and civilians alike on their mettle:

"_Armies of Paris, Inhabitants of Paris, the Government of the Republic
has left Paris to give a new impulse to the National Defence. I have
received orders to defend Paris against invasion. I shall do this to
the end._"

The temptation to push straight on to the long-coveted capital must
have been very great for the German High Command. However, in view of
the danger presented by the Franco-British forces, which were still
unbroken, it was eventually decided first to crush the Allied armies,
and then to march on Paris, which would fall like 'a ripe pear.'

[Illustration: GALLIENI]

Seemingly ignorant of Maunoury's existence, Von Kluck's Army slanted
off eastwards in pursuit of the British force, which it had received
orders from the Kaiser to exterminate and which it had been harrying
incessantly during its retreat from the Belgian frontier.

There will be heated arguments for many years to come as to whether the
German High Command was right or wrong in giving up the direct advance
on Paris, but whatever the consensus of expert opinion on the point
may eventually be, one thing is certain--Von Kluck did not expect the
furious attack by the Army of Paris, which followed.

Later, he declared: "There was only one general who, against all rules,
would have dared to carry the fight so far from his base. Unluckily for
me, that man was Gallieni."

On September 3, thanks to the Flying Corps, General Gallieni learned
of the change of direction taken by Von Kluck's Army. Realising the
possibilities which this offered, he suggested a flank attack by the
Army of Paris. As previously mentioned, such an attack formed part of
Joffre's general plan, matured on August 27. It was, however, necessary
that the attack should be not merely a local and temporary success,
as would have been the case on the Somme line for instance, where the
remainder of the front was not in a favourable position for resistance,
or attack.

On September 4, after conferring with General Gallieni, Joffre decided
that conditions were favourable for a new offensive, and fixed upon
September 6 as the date on which the decisive battle should be begun
along the whole front.

[Illustration]


SEPTEMBER 5, 1914

[Illustration: VON KLUCK]

The map before you shows the respective positions occupied by the
opposing armies on September 5, 1914, the eve of the great battle.
The Allied forces are represented by a thick black line, those of the
Germans by a black and white line.

Joffre directed the operations first from Bar-sur-Aube and afterwards
from Romilly.

As you see, the half-circle formed by the Allies, into which the
Germans imprudently penetrated, was supported at the western extremity
by the entrenched camp of Paris and at the eastern extremity by the
fortified position of Verdun. The River Marne flows through the middle.

Although the battle was only to begin on the 6th, General Maunoury's
Army was already engaged the day before. Its orders were to advance to
the River Ourcq (see map), but, despite furious fighting, it was unable
to get there.

The British forces were to occupy a line running north and south,
with Coulommiers as point of support. Unfortunately, the exceedingly
fatiguing retreat it had just accomplished, retarded the execution of
the necessary _volte-face_. The map shows them on the 5th, still far to
the south of Coulommiers.

The fact that neither of these two forces was able to take up its
assigned position greatly increased the difficulties of the turning
movement planned by Joffre.

In front of the forces under Maunoury and French, were the right and
centre of the First German Army, under Von Kluck.

The Fifth French Army, under General Franchet d'Esperey, whose position
extended from the north of Provins to Sézanne, delivered a frontal
attack against the left wing of Von Kluck's army and the right wing of
the Second German army under Von Bulow.

At the right of Franchet d'Esperey's army was the Ninth French Army
under General Foch, whose task it was to cover his neighbour on the
left by holding the issues south of the Marshes of St.-Gond.

Opposing Foch was the left of Von Bulow's army, with the right of the
Third German Army commanded by Von Hausen.

The Fourth French Army, under General Langle de Cary, was minus two
army corps which had helped to form Foch's army. This diminution of
the forces of the Fourth Army prevented the latter from breaking off
contact with the enemy. While, at the extreme left, General Maunoury
had already begun his advance towards the River Ourcq, General Langle
de Cary received orders to hold up the opposing forces under the
Duke of Wurtemberg. Unfortunately, Langle de Cary's forces had not
sufficient liberty of movement to effect the necessary _volte-face_.

At the extreme right of the Allied front was the Third French Army,
under General Sarrail, established in a position extending from
the north-east of Revigny to Verdun, with a reserve group to the
west of Saint-Mihiel, to be moved either east or west, according to
circumstances.

The forces opposing General Sarrail were commanded by the future
"War-Lord": the Crown Prince.

While the French were preparing to thrust back the invader, "War Lord
the Second," drunk with victory, ordered the pursuit to be continued as
far as the line Dijon--Besançon--Belfort: triumphal dreams destined to
give place first to surprise, then to uncertainty, and finally to the
bitterness of defeat.

Posterity will compare this arrogant order of the Crown Prince's with
the stirring proclamation which Joffre caused to be made known to the
whole of the French army on the eve of the great battle:

[Illustration: FRENCH]

[Illustration: DOUGLAS HAIG]

"_On the eve of the battle, on which the future of our country depends,
it is important to remind all that there must be no looking back. Every
effort mast be made to attack and drive back the enemy. Troops which
can no longer advance must at all costs keep the ground they have won,
and die rather than fall back. Under present circumstances no weakness
can be tolerated._"


SEPTEMBER 6, 1914

On this and the succeeding maps, the Allied positions of the previous
evening and at the end of the next day are shown.

The German positions are not shown, as too many lines might create
confusion in reading the maps.

Maunoury's Army effected an advance of about six miles, but his
left was unable to accomplish its task, which was to outflank the
German right. Von Kluck who, till then, seeming to ignore Maunoury
had concentrated all his efforts against the British and Franchet
d'Esperey's Army, now perceived this manœuvre. With the promptitude and
audacity which particularly marked his character, he completely changed
his plans and rounded on Maunoury. Taking advantage of the state of
extreme fatigue of the British forces, Von Kluck withdrew one of the
army corps which were facing them and despatched it by forced marches
to the help of his right wing. It was these unexpected reinforcements
which enabled Von Kluck to hold up Maunoury's left.

On this day the British army finally recovered itself, and reached a
line running from the north-west to the south-east of Coulommiers.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: FRANCHET D'ESPEREY]

The armies of Generals Franchet d'Esperey and Foch fought with great
stubbornness. The former wrested several dominating positions from
the Germans and approached Esternay, but the latter was able only to
maintain himself on the line of resistance assigned to him south of the
Marshes of Saint-Gond.

General Langle de Cary was eventually able to hold up the bulk of the
troops under the Duke of Wurtemberg on positions extending from the
south-west of Vitry-le-François to Revigny.

The general plan of operations included an attack by the Third Army,
under General Sarrail, against the German left wing, such attack to
coincide with that of General Maunoury at the other end of the line.
This was, however, anticipated by the Germans who, under the Crown
Prince, and in far greater numbers, forced back Sarrail's left and
prevented all progress on his right.


SEPTEMBER 7, 1914

On September 7, Maunoury's army began to feel the effects of the German
heavy artillery, established out of range of the French 75's, and could
advance but very slowly.

However, at the end of the day, Maunoury still hoped to be able to
outflank the German right. Meanwhile, Von Kluck continued his risky
manœuvre, and detached a second army corps from the forces opposed to
the British, adding it to his right. Each was endeavouring to outflank
the other.

Fronting the British, there was now only a thin curtain of troops taken
from two of the German army corps opposed to Franchet d'Esperey.

This small force fought with great stubbornness, in order, if possible,
to give Von Kluck time to crush Maunoury, before the advance by the
British and Franchet d'Esperey could become really dangerous.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: VON BULOW]

The slow progress effected in the British sector is explained by the
extreme fierceness of the struggle.

General Franchet d'Esperey took advantage of the reduction of the
forces opposed to him. Vigorously pushing back the latter, he continued
his advance northwards, eventually reaching and crossing the River
Grand Morin.

This advance helped to lessen the effects of the furious attacks that
the Germans were then making against General Foch's army.

In front of the latter, Von Bulow, whose armies were still intact,
realised the danger which threatened Von Kluck, and, in order to avert
it, endeavoured to pierce the French front. He concentrated the whole
of his efforts against the 42nd Division, under General Grossetti,
whose arduous mission it was to maintain the connection between the
Fifth and Ninth Armies, under Franchet d'Esperey and Foch respectively.

A terrific struggle followed, as a result of which Grossetti was forced
to fall back. Fortunately, as we have just seen, the right of Franchet
d'Esperey's Army was able, thanks to its advance, to come to the rescue
and prevent the French front from being pierced.

Before Von Hausen, the whole line fell back slightly.

Meanwhile, the Duke of Wurtemberg and the Crown Prince attacked
fiercely at the junction of the Fourth and Third French Armies under
Langle de Cary and Sarrail respectively.

The aim of the attack was to separate these two armies and force what
is known as the _Revigny Pass_. The latter is a hollow through which
flow the Rivers Ornain and Saulx, and the canal from the Marne to the
Rhine.

While the Germans under the Duke of Wurtemberg attacked the right of
Langle de Cary's army, in the direction of Saint-Dizier, the Crown
Prince sought to drive back General Sarrail's left towards Bar-le-Duc.

The resistance of Langle de Cary's army began to weaken under the
weight of the greater opposing forces. On the other hand, General
Sarrail's army reinforced by an army corps sent by Joffre stood firm.
At this juncture General Sarrail learned that the Germans were getting
very active in his rear, on the heights above the River Meuse, and was
accordingly obliged to make dispositions to avoid being surprised by
German forces who were preparing to cross the river.


SEPTEMBER 8, 1914

During the night of September 7-8 Gallieni, who had been following
carefully the different phases of the battle, despatched a division
from Paris, in all haste, to Maunoury's left to assist in turning the
German right.

To do this with maximum rapidity, Gallieni made use of an ingenious
expedient, "a civilian's idea," as he termed it. He commandeered all
the taxicabs in Paris. Those running in the streets were held up by the
police, and the occupants made to alight. When the latter learned the
reason, instead of grumbling, they gave a rousing cheer. Eleven hundred
taxis made the journey twice during the night from Paris to the front
transporting, in all, eleven thousand men.

Unfortunately, the effect of these reinforcements was fully
counterbalanced by the troops which Von Kluck had brought up on the
two previous days from before the British front, and only the extreme
tenacity and courage of his troops enabled Maunoury to avoid being
outflanked.

However, Von Kluck could not with impunity reduce his forces opposed to
the British. The latter pulled themselves together, crossed the Petit
Morin river and reached La Ferté-sous-Jouarre.

The danger feared by the German generals became apparent.

[Illustration: FOCH]

[Illustration: VON HAUSEN]

On this day of September 8, a German officer wrote in his notebook:
"_Caught sight of Von Kluck. His eyes usually so bright, were dull. He,
who was wont to be so alert, spoke in dejected tones. He was absolutely
depressed._"

At the right of the British army, General Franchet d'Esperey continued
his rapid advance and occupied the outskirts of Montmirail.

Moreover, his troops co-operated efficiently in helping to check the
violent attacks of Von Bulow's army against Grossetti's division.

The Germans became more and more anxious, and rightly so, at the turn
events were taking on their right where Von Kluck's army was beginning
to be tightly squeezed between the armies of General Maunoury, the
British and General Franchet d'Esperey. Von Kluck was forced to retreat
and, in doing so, left exposed Von Bulow's army. The armies of Von
Bulow and Von Hausen received orders to crush Foch and break through
the French centre at all costs, so as to be able to turn Franchet
d'Esperey's army on the west, and that of Langle de Cary on the east.

The position was this: If the manœuvre succeeded, Joffre's entire
plan would fall to pieces. If, on the other hand, it failed a general
retreat on the part of the Germans would be inevitable.

Foch's army received a terrible blow. It was forced back in the
centre, and almost pierced on the right. However, Foch in no wise lost
confidence, but pronounced the situation to be 'excellent.' The fact
was, he clearly realised that these furious attacks were dictated
by the desperate position in which the Germans found themselves. He
rallied his troops, hurled them again against the Germans, but was
unable to win back the ground which he had just lost.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: DE LANGLE DE CARY]

Von Hausen's fierce thrust also made itself felt on Langle de Gary's
left; the connection between the latter's army and Foch's was in great
danger of being severed, and could only be maintained by the rapid
displacement of troops, and by the intervention of a new army corps
despatched by Joffre just in time to restore the balance.

While Von Hausen was striking on the left, the Duke of Wurtemberg
brought all his weight to bear on Langle de Cary's right, with the
Crown Prince executing a similar manœuvre against Sarrail's left.

The German plan was still the same, viz., to separate the two armies
and, if possible, isolate Sarrail's army, so that the latter, attacked
at the same time in the rear on the heights above the Meuse, where the
Germans had begun to bombard the fort of Troyon, would find itself
encircled and be forced to surrender.


SEPTEMBER 9, 1914

On September 9, the battle reached its culminating point along the
whole front.

Under pressure from the right wing of Maunoury's army, and before
the menacing advance of the British forces which had reached
Château-Thierry, the Germans were obliged to withdraw from both banks
of the River Ourcq.

In order to make this retreat easier along the banks of the Ourcq Von
Kluck, at the end of the day, caused an extremely fierce attack to be
made against the French left, which bent beneath the shock and was
almost turned.

At that time, the situation was truly extraordinary: the Germans were
already retreating, while the French, stunned by the blow they had just
received, were in anxious doubt whether the morrow would not bring them
disaster.

The struggle seemed so hopeless, that orders were asked for, in view
of a possible retreat on Paris. However, General Gallieni refused to
consider this possibility and, faithful to Joffre's instructions, gave
orders to "_die rather than give way_." Maunoury's left continued
therefore its heroic resistance.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: GROSSETTI]

Von Kluck's retreat along the Ourcq left Von Bulow's army completely
unprotected, and he was, in turn, obliged to give way before Franchet
d'Esperey's left.

The latter continued to co-operate actively in the heroic resistance of
the French centre, by taking in the flank the enemy forces which were
furiously attacking Foch. This general became the objective of the last
and most furious attacks of Von Bulow and Von Hausen who, realizing
that should they fail they would be forced to continue the retreat
begun on their right, decided to make one more attempt to crush in the
French centre.

They very nearly succeeded; all along the line, the French were forced
to fall back, and the southern boundary of the Marshes of Saint-Gond
was entirely abandoned.

The position, to the east of Sézanne, seemed hopeless. It was there
that the loss of ground was most dangerous, and it is perhaps necessary
to explain in detail this critical phase of the battle.

On the large-scale map below is shown the position of Foch's left and
centre on September 8 and 9.

It was in the region of Villeneuve and Soisy that General Grossetti's
Division had fought so heroically for four days. Absolutely decimated,
it was replaced on the morning of the 9th by one of the neighbouring
army corps under Franchet d'Esperey. This corps advanced during the
day but, further to the right, the Germans forced back the French from
the Woods of Botrait and from the crest of the Poirier, capturing the
heights of Mondement.

Mondement is situated on a narrow plateau, the last counterfort before
reaching the vast plain of the Aube. On the opposite side of this
plateau are to be seen the villages of Allemant and Broyes.

[Illustration]

If the Germans, in possession of Mondement, had succeeded in reaching
these two villages on the day of the 9th, they would have attacked in
the rear those forces under Foch which were fighting in the plain.
Mondement had, therefore, to be held at all costs. Thus the battle
pivoted on this axis. In accordance with Foch's instructions, the
Moroccan Division under General Humbert, was placed there and, with the
help of the 77th Infantry, not only held its ground but, recapturing
the castle during the day, forced the Germans back on the Marshes in
the evening.

At the foot of the villages of Allemant and Broyes, the vast plain of
the Aube spreads itself out, and it was there that things were going
badly with Foch, the loss of ground being serious. The colonials
under General Humbert, who were hanging on grimly to the Plateau of
Mondement, could see their comrades on the right falling back as far
as Mount Chalmont, while the enemy fire reached successively Linthes
and Pleurs.

[Illustration: ALB. VON WURTEMBERG]

If the centre had given way completely, the defenders of Mondement
would have been taken in the rear, and obliged to abandon the plateau.
In other words, it would have meant complete defeat.

To avert this terrible danger, Foch had only Grossetti's Division
which, as mentioned a few moments ago, had been decimated by four days
of the fiercest fighting, and which he had that morning taken from his
left wing and sent to the rear to rest.

Foch recalled this division, and hurled it against the most critical
point of his line between Linthes and Pleurs. He hoped it would be in a
position to attack about noon, but at three in the afternoon it had not
yet been reformed. These were hours of mortal suspense along the whole
front.

General Grossetti needed all his energy to reform the scattered units
of his division, and his men, who were on their way to the rear to
rest, when they were again ordered into the thick of the battle, had
need of superhuman courage to carry out the long fatiguing flank march
of twelve miles, which was to bring them that afternoon to Foch's
centre.

Finally, at about four in the afternoon, Grossetti appeared on the
scene and the situation rapidly changed.

With what feelings of intense relief the defenders of Mondement must
have seen Grossetti's men moving eastwards to the attack and driving
the Germans back again behind Mount Chalmont. The enemy was literally
demoralized by this unexpected arrival of reinforcements.

The objective of Grossetti's attack was the junction of the armies of
Von Bulow and Von Hausen, viz.: the weakest point of the German front.

The German generals had at that time nothing with which to counter this
last effort of Foch's, and, realising that the battle was indeed lost,
began to make preparations for retreat.

[Illustration]

Just as Franchet d'Esperey had supported Foch energetically on his
left, so, throughout this fateful day, Langle de Cary helped him not
less effectually on his right, where he violently attacked Von Hausen.
However, in the centre and on the right, the troops of Langle de Cary
could not do more than hold their ground against the furious attacks of
the Duke of Wurtemberg's army.

[Illustration: SARRAIL]

[Illustration: CROWN PRINCE]

Sarrail, in turn, supported Langle de Cary, by operating with his
left against the flank of the German forces, which were pressing that
commander. Meanwhile, his right was in a critical position, owing to
the operations in his rear by German forces on the heights above the
Meuse. In spite of the danger, and although he had been authorized
by the commander-in-chief to withdraw his right so as to escape this
menace, Sarrail clung with dogged tenacity to Verdun: he would not
abandon his position, so long as the Meuse had not been crossed, and
while there was still the slightest hope of being able to hold out.


SEPTEMBER 10 to 13, 1914

The morning of the 10th witnessed a theatrical change of scene on the
French left, where it will be remembered Maunoury's army was in a most
critical position. After a night of anxious suspense, it was seen that
the Germans had abandoned their positions, and were retreating hastily
towards the north-east, to avoid being caught in the pincer-like jaws
formed by the Franco-British forces the previous day.

[Illustration]

Thus Paris and France were saved, as Von Kluck's retreat carried away
Von Bulow's army with it, and Franchet d'Esperey crossed the Marne.
Von Hausen's right followed suit, pursued by Foch. The troops of the
former had crossed the Marshes of St. Gond during the night to avoid
disaster.

Langle de Cary precipitated the retreat of Von Hausen's army. His
right, still under heavy pressure, was however obliged to fall back.
Here, the Germans were only held up by the increasingly effectual help
rendered by Sarrail's army. The latter withstood the furious attacks
of the Crown Prince without flinching, while on the heights above the
Meuse, the fort of Troyon, the heroic defence of which has since become
famous, withstood the terrible onslaughts of the enemy forces which
sought to cross the river.

It was only on the 11th that the Duke of Wurtemberg followed the
retreat begun on his right the day before, and it was only during the
night of the 12th-13th that the German retreat became general.

On the 13th the Germans reached their line of resistance, and, as will
be seen on the map before you, their front extended from Soissons to
Verdun, passing by Rheims. This map also shows the positions at the
beginning of the battle.

The foregoing sketch gives a general idea of the character of this
great battle, which has been called "The Miracle of the Marne," and for
the winning of which the following factors were responsible: firmness
on the part of the commander-in-chief; the clear and well-laid plan
which he caused to be executed by highly capable army commanders
working in close collaboration with one another; and, above all, the
superhuman courage and endurance of the soldiers.

As time passes, these memorable days stand out more and more
gloriously. The study in detail of this stupendous event will continue
for centuries hence, but its main lines, which we have been at pains
to trace, already stand out clearly. They recall all the old French
traditions. The clearness of the plan, the suppleness of manœuvre,
the bold use of the reserves, remind one of the Napoleonic era. The
enthusiasm which galvanized soldiers and chiefs alike dates back to the
Revolution. And going back into the remote past, it was the remembrance
of the arresting on the soil of Gaul of the great barbarian invasions
which inspired the Victory of the Marne.

[Illustration: MARSHAL JOFFRE]


TOURIST SECTION


For the greater convenience of tourists, we have divided our guide
to the Marne Battlefields into the following sub-divisions, which
correspond to the three main sectors of the battle:

1, =THE OURCQ=.--Visit to =Chantilly=, =Senlis=, and =Meaux=.

2, =THE MARSHES OF SAINT-GOND=.--Visit to =Coulommiers=, =Provins=, and
=Sézanne=.

3, =THE REVIGNY-PASS=.--Visit to =Châlons-sur-Marne=,
=Vitry-le-François=, and =Bar-le-Duc=.


PRACTICAL INFORMATION


ITINERARY FOR MOTORISTS AND MOTOR-CYCLISTS

_This tour is comprised in the section 11-12 of the Michelin map,
Scale: 200,000 (see scale of kilometres on French map)._

The circuit is about 850 km. and can be covered in six days, i.e. two
days for each part:

  Ourcq;
  Marshes of Saint-Gond;
  Pass of Revigny.


I., OURCQ.

=1st day.=--Leaving Paris in the morning through the Porte de la
Chapelle by N. 1 we cross Saint-Denis, then passing Pierrefitte turn to
the right by N. 16 which leads straight to Chantilly (34 km. from the
gates of Paris) through Ecouen, Le Mesnil-Aubry and Luzarches.

We visit the town (see pp. 22-36): lunch either at Chantilly (palatial
hotel) or at Senlis (good hotel) 9 km. from Chantilly; afternoon, visit
Senlis (pp. 39-67); dine sleep and at Senlis or Chantilly.

_Tourists who wish to see the whole of the Castle and Park of Chantilly
must choose a Thursday, Saturday, or Sunday (see p. 31) and devote a
part of the afternoon to this visit._

       *       *       *       *       *

=2nd day.=--Leave Senlis or Chantilly in the morning and reach Meaux by
the route given on pp. 68-75. The distance from Senlis is 65 km. (by
the direct route only 37 km.); lunch at Meaux (good hotel).

+Afternoon.+--Do the tour of the Ourcq as indicated on pp. 84-118. This
tour may be increased from 53 to 92 km., according to the time the
traveller has at his disposal or the speed of his car.

Dine and sleep at Meaux.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Alternate routes.=--Tourists who consider the second day's distance
too great, as planned above, can leave Senlis in the afternoon and thus
dine and sleep at Meaux on the first day. They can visit Meaux in the
morning of the second day, lunch there and make the tour of the Ourcq
in the afternoon, returning to dine and sleep at Meaux.


II., MARSHES OF SAINT-GOND.

=3rd day.=--After mounting the course of the Grand Morin as far as La
Ferté-Gaucher _via_ Crécy, Couilly and Coulommiers, the tourist will
lunch at Provins. In the afternoon he may visit the town, after which
he will proceed to Sézanne to pass the night. =4th day.=--In the
morning make the tour of the Marshes of Saint-Gond. In the afternoon
proceed to Fère-Champenoise, Sommesous, ascending the valley of the
Somme and spend the night at Châlons-sur-Marne.


III., PASS OF REVIGNY (273 km.)

=5th day.=--In the morning cover the distance from Châlons to
Vitry-le-François and visit the latter town before lunch.

After lunch leave Vitry for Bar-le-Duc where the tourist can dine and
sleep.

=6th day.=--In the morning the tourist may visit the lower town
Bar-le-Duc and effect the circular tour which we indicate round the
town. He will come back to Bar-le-Duc for lunch.

In the afternoon the tourist will visit the upper town proceeding
thence to Verdun. The latter town and the surrounding battlefields
should be visited with the help of the separate guide which has been
dedicated to them.


IMPORTANT NOTE

For details concerning hotels and garages see insides of cover.

[Illustration: PLAN OF TOUR DESCRIBED IN THE PRESENT GUIDE]

On the above plan, towns, of which a map is given in the present guide,
are shown by a circle enclosed in a small square; the large rectangles
indicate the boundaries of the coloured maps inserted in the guide, on
which the reader will be able to follow the itinerary.


I. THE OURCQ


                        VISIT TO THE LOCALITIES
          in which were enacted the preliminary scenes of the
                          BATTLE OF THE OURCQ
                     from September 5 to 14, 1914
                               CHANTILLY
                        (See map on next page)


ORIGIN AND MAIN HISTORICAL FACTS

Chantilly derives its name from that of the Gallo-Roman _Cantilius_,
who was the first to establish himself in the locality. The Castle (a
fortress during the Middle Ages) passed to the family of Montmorency in
the fifteenth century and in the seventeenth to that of Condé. These
two illustrious families brought Chantilly to a height of splendour
which made it a rival of the royal residences.

In 1830 the Duc d'Aumale succeeded the last of the Condés and at his
death (1897) bequeathed the domain, with the Condé Museum, which he had
installed in the castle (_see pp. 24-35_), to the 'Institut de France.'

The town itself, built in the seventeenth century, was for a long time
dependent on the castle. In our day it has become a big centre for
horse training and racing, the great race meetings in May, July and
September attracting huge crowds.


CHANTILLY IN 1914-1916

The Germans, coming from Creil, entered Chantilly on September 3, 1914,
and occupied it for several days. The mayor was at once seized as
hostage but did not suffer the same tragic fate as the Mayor of Senlis.
The troops were billeted at the castle (_see p. 28_).

After the victory of the Marne, Chantilly became the seat of General
Joffre's headquarters and remained so until the end of 1916.

[Illustration: CHANTILLY]


VISIT TO THE TOWN

_Arriving by the Paris road the tourist will pass under the railway
bridge, then 600 yards further on turn to the right and come out on to
the "Pelouse" (Lawn). Turning round the Grand Condé Hotel on the left,
he follows the Boulevard d'Aumale as far as the =Maison de Joffre=,
shown in the photograph below_.

[Illustration: JOFFRE LEAVING GENERAL HEADQUARTERS]

Joffre lived here until he was made Marshal of France.

The hundreds of officers and secretaries employed in the tremendous
work incumbent on the Generalissimo were lodged in the Grand Condé
hotel, near which the tourist has just passed. In contrast with this
buzzing hive, Joffre's house seemed the embodiment of silence and
meditation.

Only two orderly officers lived with the generalissimo, and his door
was strictly forbidden to all unsummoned visitors, whoever they might
be.

On leaving his office Joffre had the daily relaxation of a walk in
the forest near by. It was thanks to the strict routine to which he
subjected himself that the generalissimo was able to carry the crushing
weight of his responsibility without faltering. We shall see, however,
when comparing the peace time photograph given _on p. 1_ with that _on
p. 22_ that these years of war have counted as double.

During the tragic hours of the Marne the general headquarters were
first at Bar-sur-Aube and then at Romilly. The commander-in-chief's
intense concentration of mind made him dumb and as though absent in the
midst of his colleagues, who received all his orders in writing. In a
few days his hair and moustache became perfectly white.

The Allies' grand councils of war were held in this house, which has
counted among its guests all the great actors of the war.

The military functions were held on the lawn. The photograph on the
next page was taken during a review.

_After having seen Joffre's house we pass the few villas which separate
it from the Rue d'Aumale and bear to the right, skirting the lawn;
next we turn to the left into the Avenue de Condé, then to the right
into the Rue du Connétable._ In front of the "Grandes Écuries" (great
stables), which border the extreme end of the road on the right,
stands the equestrian statue of the Duc d'Aumale, by Gérome (1899).

[Illustration: JOFFRE HOLDING A REVIEW ON THE LAWN]

_Leaving the church we turn to the right, passing through the
monumental gateway, and go towards the castle._ On the lawn (still
keeping to the right) we come to the principal façade of the "=Grandes
Écuries=", Jean Aubert's _chef-d'œuvre_, built between 1719 and 1740.
They are seen on the right in the above photograph.

On the opposite side of the lawn stands a little chapel, erected in
1535, by the high constable Anne de Montmorency, at the same time as
six others dotted here and there about Chantilly, in memory of the
seven churches of Rome which he had visited in order to obtain the
indulgences pertaining to this pilgrimage. He obtained the same grant
from the Pope for the chapels of Chantilly.

Of these only two now remain, that on the lawn--Sainte-Croix, and
another in the park--Saint-Paul.

The photograph below gives a view of the whole of the castle. The
little castle dates from the sixteenth century; the big castle is
the work of a contemporary architect, Daumet, who erected it on the
basement of the old dwelling, demolished during the Revolution. The
Castle of Enghien, built in the eighteenth century, is now occupied by
the guardians entrusted with its preservation. The water surrounding
the castle teems with centenarian carp. One can get bread from the
concierge and, on throwing a few crumbs into the moat, which passes
beneath the entrance bridge, watch the onrush of the huge fish.

[Illustration:

  Little Castle
  Chapel
  Great Castle
  The constable's Terrace
  Porter's Lodge
  Castle of Enghien

CASTLE OF CHANTILLY] In the pages which follow we give a short
historical account of the castle, referring the tourist for further
details to the extremely interesting work of the curator, Mr. Gustave
Macon: _Chantilly and the Condé Museum_.


SHORT HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CASTLE

In the Roman epoch Chantilly was the dwelling place of Cantilius. In
the Middle Ages it became a fortress belonging to the "Bouteiller"
(cupbearer), so named because of his hereditary functions at the court
of the Capets. (The "bouteille de France," originally in charge of the
king's cellars, became one of the greatest counsellors of the crown).

The castle then became the property of the d'Orgemonts, who rebuilt
it in the fourteenth century. In the fifteenth century it passed
to the Montmorency family. Towards 1528 the high constable Anne de
Montmorency had it transformed by Pierre Chambiges. Chambiges' work
no longer exists in Chantilly, but the tourist will be able to judge
of his talent when he sees the beautiful façades of the transept of
the cathedral of Senlis (_p._ 57). The little castle was built thirty
years later by Jean Bullant. From that time Chantilly has been famous.
Francis I. often stayed there. Charles V. declared that he would give
one of his Low Country provinces for such a residence. Henry IV. asked
his "compère," the high constable Henri, to exchange it for any one of
his royal castles. Montmorency, much embarrassed, extricated himself
from this awkward situation by answering, "Sire, the house is yours,
only let me be the lodge-keeper."

Henri II. of Montmorency, drawn into a revolt against Richelieu, died
on the scaffold in 1632. His property was confiscated and Louis XIII.,
attracted by the hunting at Chantilly, kept the place for his personal
use.

It was there that he drew up with his own hand the "communiqué" to the
press, concerning the taking of Corbie (1636): "_The king received
news, at 4 o'clock this morning, of the surrender of Corbie. He
immediately went to church to give thanks to God, then ordered all to
be ready by 2 o'clock to sing the_ Te Deum, _the queen and everyone
else to be present, and ordered despatches to be sent commanding
thanksgiving services in all the churches of this kingdom...._"

In 1643, the queen, Anne of Austria, wishing to make some recognition
for the splendid victories won by the Duc d'Enghien (the future "Grand
Condé") gave Chantilly back to his mother, Charlotte de Montmorency.
The latter, married at fifteen, had been obliged to leave France with
her young husband in 1609, to escape from the attentions of Henri IV.,
still gallant despite his fifty-six years.

[Illustration: THE CASTLE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY]

[Illustration: FESTIVITIES AT CHANTILLY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.]

A gay life began again in Chantilly, interrupted in 1650 by the revolt
of Condé, his exile and the confiscation of the domain, which then
returned to Louis XIV. until the Treaty of the Pyrénées (1659). The
prince then came into his own again but for long kept aloof from public
affairs and devoted himself to the embellishment of Chantilly with the
same ardour and mastery that he formerly gave to military operations.

In 1662, the transformation of the park and forest was placed in the
hands of the great architect, Le Nôtre. The work continued until
1684. The result was a masterpiece, of which a great part is still in
existence, but of which the finest features (particularly the Great
Cascades which spread over the actual site of the town) disappeared
during the Revolution. Below, we give a view of these "Jeux d'eau"
(fountains), which were considered one of the wonders of the day.

In 1671, Louis XIV. spent three days at Chantilly, with all his court.
Marvellous festivities were held on this occasion. The guests of the
château alone filled sixty large tables; all the adjoining villages
were full of officers and courtiers, boarded and lodged at the prince's
expense. In one of her letters, Mme. de Sévigné tells of the tragic
death of the superintendent, Vatel, who had the responsibility of this
vast organisation. Desperate at the thought that fish would be lacking
at the king's table, he went up to his room, leant his sword against
the wall, and transfixed himself upon it.

All the great men of the seventeenth century visited Chantilly.
Bossuet, the intimate friend of the great Condé, presented to him
Fénelon and La Bruyère, who became tutor to the Prince of Condé's
grandson. Molière and his company came to play (Condé was his patron,
by whose intervention the production of _Tartufe_ was allowed).
Boileau, Racine and La Fontaine were habitual guests.

The development of Chantilly continued under Condé's successors, and
the castle was modified by Mansart. The Duc de Bourbon caused the
"Grandes Écuries" to be built by Jean Aubert. He established the
manufacture of porcelain there (ceased in 1870), the remaining pieces
of which are greatly sought after in our day.

[Illustration: THE OLD CASCADES OF CHANTILLY]

In 1722, Louis XV. stayed at Chantilly on his way back from his
coronation at Rheims. The festivities lasted four days; 60,000 bottles
of wine and 55,000 lbs. of meat being consumed.

It was Prince Louis-Joseph who saw the Revolution. He had spent
enormous sums in embellishing Chantilly, besides the twenty-five
million francs which it cost him to build the Palais-Bourbon in Paris,
the present seat of the Chamber of Deputies. He erected the Castle of
Enghien, named after his grandson, the Duc d'Enghien, who was the first
to inhabit it. (Early marriages were usual in these great families: at
the birth of the Duc d'Enghien his father was sixteen years old and his
grandfather thirty-six.) The Duc d'Enghien died in 1804, shot in the
moat of Vincennes.

The English garden and the hamlet are due to Louis-Joseph.

In 1789, after the Prince of Condé had gone into exile, the Parisians
came and removed the cannon from the castle (see reproduction of
engraving below, in which the castle appears as altered by Mansart).
Thirty guns taken from the enemy during the Seven Years' War, which
were never used except for firing salutes during fêtes, were brought in
triumph to the Hôtel de Ville in Paris, whence La Fayette had them sent
to the arsenal.

The great cascades, the menagerie, the orangery and the theatre
disappeared during the revolutionary era.

Of the great castle nothing remained but the basement, whilst the town
grew and encroached on the park.

In 1814, the Prince de Condé returned to Chantilly and commenced the
restoration of the domain, a work continued by his son. The latter came
to a tragic end in 1830; he was found hanging from the fastening of a
window in his castle of Saint-Leu, and with him died the great family
of Condé.

In his will he bequeathed Chantilly to one of his great-nephews: Henri
of Orleans, Duc d'Aumale, fifth son of King Louis-Philippe. After
distinguishing himself in the Algerian campaign, where he carried off
the Smalah of Abd-el-Kader in 1843, the Duc d'Aumale was exiled in
1848. He established himself at Orleans House, at Twickenham, near
London, where he remained until 1871. It was during that time that he
began the splendid collections which later went to enrich the Condé
Museum. On his return to France he presided at the tribunal entrusted
with the trial of Marshal Bazaine.

[Illustration: THE PARISIANS AT CHANTILLY IN 1789]

[Illustration: PICTURE GALLERY WHERE THE GERMANS SLEPT (1914)]

In order to house his collections, the Duc d'Aumale had the big castle
rebuilt, on plans made by the architect Daumet, from 1875 to 1882.

He died in 1897, bequeathing to the "Institut de France" the domain of
Chantilly and the Condé Museum, of which he was the founder.


The Castle in 1914

About 500 Germans stayed at the castle for twenty-four hours. These
reserve troops had not yet fought and did not take part in the battle.
They committed no excesses during their short stay. The great moral
firmness shown by the curators, Messrs. Élie Berger and Macon had great
influence on the conduct of the German soldiers. The troops were lodged
in the big castle, whilst the officers established themselves in the
various suites of the small castle.

[Illustration: PICTURE GALLERY (1917)]

The curators had sent the gems of the collection to Paris and sheltered
as many of the works of art as possible in the basement. This
proceeding caused some ill humour on the part of the German officer
in command. As seen in the photograph (_page 28_) straw was spread in
the rooms of the museum, on which the Germans slept. At the end of the
room Chapu's touching _Jeanne d'Arc_ overlooks the scene of desolation.
The Germans were much impressed by the copy of the Duc d'Aumale's tomb
in the museum, where he is represented in the uniform of a divisional
general. Many gave the military salute when crossing the room. However,
this did not prevent the commandant from warning the curators that if
his troops were fired on, the castle would be burnt and they themselves
shot.


Sylvie's House

_If the tourist makes this journey on a day when the castle is closed,
or if he has not time to visit it, he will at least be able to glance
at the charming corner of the park where stands Sylvie's House. He need
only take the path of Avilly (it is the road which is on the right of
the main entrance) and skirt the park railings. After five minutes'
walk he will reach the place from where the view below is taken. He can
return to the gates by the same road._

This little shooting lodge, at first called the "Park House," was built
in 1604 by the high constable Henri de Montmorency for King Henri IV.

Sylvie is the poetical name given by Théophile de Viau to his patroness
Marie-Félicie Orsini, who in 1612, at the age of fourteen, married
Henri II. of Montmorency, aged sixteen. The poet, Théophile de Viau,
persecuted in 1623 for the licentious publication of the _Parnasse
Satirique_, was given shelter at Chantilly and lodged in the Park House.

Condemned to be burnt alive, he was only executed in effigy through the
intervention of the Montmorencys.

In his _Odes to the House of Sylvie_, he extolled the grace and
goodness of the young duchess:

    Mes vers promettent à Sylvie
    Ce bruit charmeur que les neveux
    Nomment une seconde vie....

The wish expressed by the poet in these lines was fulfilled and the
name of Sylvie became attached to the house and park surrounding it.
The great Condé rebuilt the house as it is to-day. (The rotunda seen in
the photograph, page 29, was added by the Duc d'Aumale.)

[Illustration: SYLVIE'S HOUSE AND THE PARK]

In the eighteenth century Sylvie's House was the scene of the romance
of Mlle. de Clermont and Louis de Melun. The head of the house of
Montmorency objected to the marriage of his sister, Mlle. de Clermont,
with this nobleman, whose rank he considered insufficient. The young
girl disregarded this and made a secret marriage, soon ended by the
tragic death of Louis de Melun, who was killed by a stag at bay in
the course of a hunt in Sylvie's park. These various episodes in the
history of Sylvie's House are recalled in the paintings of Luc-Olivier
Merson, installed by the Duc d'Aumale when he turned the old house into
a museum.


Visit to the Castle

The +Castle+, +Sylvie's House+, the +Jeu de Paume+, and the
"+Grandes-Écuries+" _are open to the public from April 15 to October
14_:

1, _On Sundays, Thursdays and legal holidays, from 1 to 5 p.m., free;_

2, _On Saturdays, the same hours, one franc charged for each visitor._

_The +Park+ is open to the public all the year round on Thursdays,
Sundays and holidays: from 1 to 6 p.m., from April 15 to October 14,
and till 4 p.m. for the rest of the year._

The Condé Museum is extremely interesting.

_We advise tourists to obtain the guide book sold at the entrance,
which gives all useful information for the details of the visit. The
plan (p. 31) makes it easy to find one's way about the museum. By
following the numbering in this plan the various rooms will be seen in
the order in which they are marked in the guide book._

The several photographs which follow can give but a faint idea of the
richness and interest of the collections made by the Duc d'Aumale.

The following view shows the Gallery of the Stags, formerly the dining
room.

The picture on page 32 represents the magnificent carved and inlaid
chest (the work of Riesener, the great cabinet-maker), which stands in
room 24 (_plan p._ 31).

The Duc d'Aumale gathered the gems of his collection together in the
room that he named the +Santuario+ (_No. 19 on plan, p. 31_).

[Illustration: GALLERY OF THE STAGS]

They are: +The Virgin+ by _Raphael_, described as "of the House of
Orleans," having belonged to that family for a very long time. This
little panel, painted about the year 1506, was bought for 160,000
francs in 1869. It is reproduced on _p. 32_.

+The Three Graces+, another small panel painted by _Raphael_ at about
the same time as The Virgin, was bought for 625,000 francs in 1885.

+Esther and Ahasuerus+, panel of a marriage chest, executed by
_Filippino Lippi_, was bought for 85,000 francs in 1892.

+Forty Miniatures+ by _Jehan Fouquet_, taken from the _Book of Hours_,
by Estienne Chevalier: this leading work of the French school of the
fifteenth century was acquired for the sum of 250,000 francs in 1891.

[Illustration:

  1  Entrance.
  2  Grand Vestibule.
  =3  Gallery of the Stags.=
  =4  Picture Gallery.=
  5  Rotunda of the Museum (Senlis Tower).
  6  Vestibule of the Museum.
  =7  Gallery of the House.=
  8  Small Gallery of the House.
  9  Vestibule of House.
  10  The Smalah.
  11  The Minerva Tower (Tower of the High Constable).
  12  The Antiquity Room.
  13  Giotto Room.
  14  Isabelle Room.
  15  Orleans Room.
  16  Caroline Room.
  =17  Clouet Room.=
  =18  Psyche's Gallery.=
  =19  Santuario.=
  =20  Treasure Tower.=
  21  The Tribune.
  22  The Anteroom.
  23  Guardroom.
  =24  La Chambre.=
  25  The Great Study.
  =26  The Monkey Parlour.=
  =27  The Prince's Gallery.=
  28  Library.
  29  Great Staircase.
  30  Gallery of the Chapel.
  =31  Chapel.=

  A  Statue of the High Constable.
  B  Entrance (portcullis).
  C  Court of Honour.
  D  Court of the Little Castle.
  E  Flower Garden of the Aviary.]

[Illustration: CHEST BY RIESENER]

We must also mention the collection of portraits painted or drawn in
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, divided between the Gallery of
the House (_7 on plan_), the Clouet room (_17 on plan_) and the Gallery
of Psyche (_18 on plan_). In the Gallery of Psyche, the visitor will
notice, besides the pictures, the forty-four sixteenth century windows,
representing the legend of Cupid and Psyche. There is also a cast of
the head of Henri IV.

Lovers of jewels should visit the treasure tower (_20 on plan_). Tn the
Monkey Parlour (_26 on plan_) will be seen the screen painted by Huet,
representing the Monkey's reading lesson, and on the panels a charming
eighteenth century decoration, attributed to the same painter.

In the Prince's Gallery (_27 on plan_) the great Condé had a series of
pictures painted representing the battles he had fought.

In the trophy containing his sword and pistols there is also a flag
taken in the Battle of Rocroi in 1643. It is the oldest standard
captured from the enemy that exists in France.

In the middle of the gallery stands the Table of the Vinestock, carved
out of one piece taken from an enormous vine, for the Connétable de
Montmorency.

[Illustration: THE VIRGIN OF ORLÉANS BY RAPHAEL]

In the modern chapel (_31 on plan_), the Duc d'Aumale placed a
beautiful altar, carved by Jean Goujon, also some sixteenth century
wainscoting and stained glass windows taken from the chapel of the
Castle of Ecouen.

In the apse stands the funeral urn which holds the hearts of the
princes of the House of Condé.


Visit to the Park

_This takes from three-quarters of an hour to an hour and a quarter._

_On coming out of the museum we cross the Terrasse du Connétable_,
in the middle of which stands the equestrian statue of Anne de
Montmorency, by Paul Dubois (1886). _Leaving the Château d'Enghien on
the right we enter the covered way by the avenue which passes before
the little chapel of Saint-Paul._ Saint-Paul and Sainte-Croix are all
that remain of the seven chapels erected by Anne de Montmorency (_see
p. 23_). A little further on, on the left, we come to the Cabotière, a
building dating from the time of Louis XIII. It derives its name from
that of the barrister Caboud, an enthusiastic amateur horticulturist,
who made a magnificent flower garden in the park for the great Condé.

_The avenue ends at =Sylvie's House= (see p. 29)._ In the interior
can be seen paintings, tapestries, pieces of furniture, and beautiful
panelling of the seventeenth century, which have been placed in the
rotunda. From Sylvie's House there is a lovely view of the pond and
park (_see p. 29_).

_Leaving Sylvie's House on the right we walk about 150 yards down the
path which skirts it, then turn to the left and follow the path which
leads straight to the +Hamlet+ (view on p. 35)._

The Hamlet, which recalls that of the Petit Trianon at Versailles,
dates from 1775. At this period, under the influence of J. J.
Rousseau's works, nature and country life became the fashion, and it
was the correct thing for princes to play at peasants in miniature
villages.

[Illustration: PLAN OF PARK]

An author of the eighteenth century thus describes the Hamlet of
Chantilly: "Seven detached houses, placed without order, with thatched
roofs, stand in the middle of a lawn that is always green. Here is an
ancient elm, there a well; further on a fence encloses a garden planted
with vegetables and fruit-trees; a mill, its wheel turned by the brook;
in front a stable, a dairy; one house is used as the kitchen, another
is the dining-room, so decorated as to resemble a hunting lodge. One
fancies one's self in the middle of a thick wood, the seats imitate
tree-trunks, green couches and clusters of flowers rise from the
ground; a few openings made between the branches of the trees admit the
light. A third cottage serves as billiard-room, a fourth is a library.
The barn makes a large and splendid drawing-room."

[Illustration: THE CASTLE SEEN FROM THE FLOWER GARDENS]

From the time when the hamlet came into being, there was never a big
fête at Chantilly without a supper in this pretty corner of the park.
Innumerable _pots de feu_ illuminated the thickets; on the canal the
guests drifted in gondolas to strains of dreamy music; fancy-dress
fêtes were held, and the singing and dancing continued until dawn.

The hamlet is now greatly fallen into decay, nevertheless, it is worth
a visit.

_Retracing our steps we bear to the left and, having crossed, the first
bridge, follow a pretty path which brings us into the flower_ garden of
Le Nôtre, where we get a good view of the castle _(photograph above).
One can go straight back to the entrance gates by the staircase shown
in the view._ It is called the +Grand Degré+ (great stair), and was
built in 1682 by the architect Gitard. The groups which adorn the base
of the Terrasse du Connétable, on each side of the stairs, were drawn
by Le Nôtre and carved by Hardy.

_This walk, from the time of leaving the museum until the return to the
entrance gates, takes about three-quarters of an hour._

_If one wishes to visit the +English Garden+ and the +Jeu de Paume+,
which will take about forty minutes longer, one must walk past the
north front of the castle and follow the walk which opens in the middle
of the thickets._

The English Garden was laid out in 1817 to 1819 by the architect
Victor Dubois, according to the orders of the last of the Condés, just
returned from exile. The site occupied by this garden, like the ground
on which stands the town of Chantilly, belonged to the ancient park,
devastated during the Revolution.

We pass near the +Temple of Venus+, which shelters a Venus Callipyge
of the seventeenth century, near the +Island of Love+, dating from
1765 and on which are statues of Aphrodite and Eros. In the eighteenth
century the Island of Love contained a luxurious pavilion, in which
nocturnal fêtes were held, the canals and park being illuminated. The
pavilion disappeared at the time of the Revolution.

[Illustration: THE HAMLET]

The ancient +Cascades of Beauvais+ that one sees before arriving at the
Jen de Paume are remnants of the old park. They were the work of Le
Nôtre.

The Jeu de Paume, constructed in 1757, is transformed into a museum. It
contains various curiosities, notably Abd-el-Kader's tent, carried away
when the Smalah was captured by the Duc d'Aumale in 1843.

_After 3 p.m. one can leave the park by the gate next to the Jeu de
Paume. We come out in front of the "+Grandes Écuries+" of the castle
and can go in and look round them. (Enter at the side that faces the
lawn.)_

[Illustration:

                                             (_Cliché André Schelcher._)

GENERAL VIEW OF THE CASTLE]


=FROM CHANTILLY TO SENLIS= (9 km.)

[Illustration: THE CASTLE SEEN FROM THE ROUTE DE VINEUIL]

_Returning through the monumental gateway, we cross the Rue de
Connétable and go straight on, skirting the castle park on the right.
We cross the Saint-Jean Canal, then the Great Canal, then turn to the
right into the High Street of Vineuil._ On the right one soon has a
beautiful vista of the castle and park (_view above_).

_We now go through Saint-Firmin._ The church, on the left, contains in
its choir Renaissance windows which are classed as historical monuments.

_From Saint-Firmin to Senlis the road is easy. We enter Senlis by the
Creil Gate (see plan inserted between pp. 36-37). Turn to the left by
the Avenue Vernois and the line of boulevards to reach the station,
where starts the itinerary described further on, in Senlis._

[Illustration: GENERAL VIEW OF SENLIS]

[Illustration: SENLIS]


SENLIS


ORIGIN AND CHIEF HISTORICAL EVENTS

Senlis is of Gallic origin: it was the capital of the _Sylvanectes_.
The Romans surrounded it with fortifications, a great part of which
still exist (_see view below_).

The first kings of France, attracted by the hunting in the surrounding
country, frequently stayed at Senlis.

It was in Senlis Castle (_see p. 61_) that Hugues Capet was elected
king by the assembly of lords in 987.

The Capetians often returned to the birthplace of their dynasty and it
is to them that the town owes its chief buildings.

Taken by the peasants in the war of the Jacquerie in 1358, besieged by
the Armagnacs in 1418, it fell into the hands of the English and was
delivered by Joan of Arc in 1429. Senlis knew great vicissitudes in the
fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.

After Henri IV., who interested himself greatly in Senlis and lived
in its old castle, the kings of France gradually forsook the town in
favour of Compiègne, Fontainebleau and Versailles.

Occupied in 1871 by the Germans, it reappears in history in September
1914. The burning of the town and the summary executions which took
place there will be recalled in the course of the visit (_pp. 38-52_).

[Illustration: SENLIS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.]


VISIT TO THE TOWN

(See plan inserted between pp. 36/37)

[Illustration: THE BURNT STATION

(Sept. 1914)]

At the +Station+ one gets one's first view of the havoc done to the
town by the events of September 1914. It was set on fire on the 3rd.

_Follow the station road (Avenue de la Gare), which leads to the
Compiègne Gate._

This is the road by which the Germans entered Senlis on September 2, at
about 3 o'clock in the afternoon.

[Illustration: BRITISH SOLDIERS IN THE PLACE DE LA GARE

(Sept. 1914)]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE BURNT STATION

(Sept. 1914)]

Whilst one part of the advance guard made the tour of the town,
following the boulevards and the ramparts which encircle it, other
groups descended directly south by the two main streets which cross
Senlis, thus making sure of a thorough exploration.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE RUE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE BEFORE THE WAR]

The entrance lo the +Rue de la République+ suffered a great deal, as
is shown by the two photographs, taken before and after the fire of
September 2, 1914.

[Illustration: PRISONERS IN FRONT OF THE GENDARMERIE

(Sept. 1914)]

On the left, the toll-house is completely burnt down; in the centre,
the Hôtel du Nord and the Restaurant Encausse are in ruins.

The building on the right is the Gendarmerie.

The German prisoners who appear in the picture opposite are leaning
against the wall of these barracks.

They were the few soldiers who, remaining in Senlis after the victory
of the Ourcq, were captured by Zouaves sent from Paris in motor-cars.

Only a few years ago the Rue de la République was called the Rue
Neuve-de-Paris, although it dated from 1753. It was made in order to
spare the Court of Louis XV. the circuitous way and steep ascent of the
old road, which followed the Rue Vieille-de-Paris and the Rue du Châtel.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE RUE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE AFTER THE FIRE]

[Illustration: GERMAN CYCLIST AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE RUE BELLOY (1914)]

_Descending the Rue de la République we come to the Rue Bellon, which
crosses it. We turn to the right, at the place shown on the opposite
photograph, and a few steps further on, reach the +Carrefour de la
Licorne+._ This is one of the most devastated places of the town. The
first view was taken during the German occupation, a German cyclist
being snapshotted while riding. The other views show the state of the
ruins in 1914 and the present condition.

[Illustration: RUE ROUGEMAILLE (1914)]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CARREFOUR DE LA LICORNE (1914)]

_We return to the Rue de la République._ A few yards down, on the
right, we see the charred house, the gable-end of which appears in the
view on the following page.

[Illustration: BURNT HOUSE RUE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE (1914)]

_We next reach the level of the Hôtel du Grand Cerf, of which the
signboard is seen on the view below._ The German headquarters staff
stayed there, and that is no doubt the reason for its remaining intact.
The Mayor of Senlis, M. Odent, was taken there on September 2, after
his arrest at the town-hall, just before being taken to Chamant to be
shot. The proprietor of the hotel having left the town, the German
officers commandeered a restaurant keeper and made him prepare a meal
for thirty people, with "ices and champagne."

[Illustration: FIRE RUE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE (1914)]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE NOTARY'S HOUSE (1914)]

The houses which face the hotel and which were still burning when the
above photograph was taken, are those of the local justice of the peace
and public notary.

Looking through the entrance gates of the latter residence, one beholds
the scene of desolation reproduced in the opposite picture.

[Illustration: BURNT COURT OF JUSTICE

(1914)]

_On the left of the Rue de la République_ we come to a building
which served as the sub-prefect's office and +Court of Justice+.
This building, formerly a hospital, dates from the beginning of the
eighteenth century.

The work of the incendiaries is seen by comparing the opposite view
with that given below.

All the ruins already pointed out, as well as those that will be seen
further on, were made systematically.

[Illustration: RUE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE

(1914)]

The soldiers to whom this work was assigned arrived in columns; at the
sound of an officer's whistle a certain number of men left the ranks
and smashed in the doors of the houses and the shop-fronts; then others
came who started the fires with grenades and fuses; lastly, the patrols
who followed fired incendiary projectiles into those buildings which
did not take fire quickly enough.

[Illustration: COURT OF JUSTICE BEFORE THE WAR]

The above view was taken during the German occupation. It shows the Red
Cross staff conveying the wounded from the overflowing hospital to the
College of Saint-Vincent.

[Illustration: RUINS AT THE CORNER OF THE RUE DU TEMPLE]

_After crossing the Nonette, one arrives at the junction of the Rue de
la République and the Rue Vieille-de-Paris._

_At the corner stands the inn "+Le Débit Simon+," of which a view is
given below._ Simon was without doubt the first victim of the German
occupation.

Tn the middle of the afternoon a German patrol, who had just been
drinking at the inn, was shot at by a French rearguard, who had left
Simon's a few moments before.

[Illustration: DÉBIT SIMON (SIMON'S INN) THE PROPRIETOR WAS KILLED BY
THE GERMANS]

The Germans immediately seized the innkeeper, accused him of having
fired, and shot him point-blank.

Other pretended reprisals were made, causing the death of twenty
unoffending civilians, of which the reader will learn the details
further on.

The view below shows the corner of the Place Saint-Martin where stands
the Café Simon. Two German cyclists are seen in the photograph, which
was taken on September 4, 1914. It will be noticed that the one on the
left has a lady's bicycle, which certainly did not come out of the Army
stores!

[Illustration: GERMAN CYCLISTS PLACE SAINT-MARTIN]

[Illustration: RUINS FAUBOURG ST. MARTIN]

[Illustration: BURNT BUILDING 17, FAUBOURG ST. MARTIN]

_Following the Rue du Faubourg St. Martin shown above_, the tourist
will pass a pretty estate (_view below_), the old quarters of the
Gardes du Corps, which was completely burnt and the ruins of which
produce a startling effect.

In front, partly burnt, are the headquarters of the Cavalry. Still
further on, at the exit of the town, is the +Hospital+.

It was there that the battle raged most fiercely.

The German advance-guards, beating back the French soldiers delayed
in the Faubourg St. Martin, were met by the fire of the machine-guns
stationed outside the town, along the road.

[Illustration: EQUIPMENTS ABANDONED DURING THE BATTLE]

The Germans penetrated into the hospital and the neighbouring gardens,
trying to outflank the French defences which they thought were placed
on the road, but a deadly fire from the transverse trenches made them
fall back. Furious at this, they seized the passers-by and made them
walk in the middle of the road, they themselves keeping close to the
walls.

[Illustration: MARKS OF GERMAN BULLETS IN THE HOSPITAL]

Among the hostages were a Mme. Dauchy and her young daughter. The
latter was shot in the leg. Georges Leymarie was killed; one of his
companions, Levasseur, while carrying the body along the pavement
beside the hospital wall, suffered the same fate. Two other hostages,
Audibert and Minouflet, the latter wounded, had also reached the
pavement of the hospital. A German officer discharged a revolver at
Audibert and left him for dead; he ordered Minouflet to show his wounds
and, finding them insufficient, put a bullet through his shoulder.
Three other people fell. The shrieks of the victims reached the French,
who ceased fire. The surviving hostages then slipped past the trees
along the road, under German fire, up to the French lines. The Germans
took advantage of this to make a fresh attack, but were repulsed.

The hospital, situated as it was in the midst of the fighting, was not
spared, A German officer, wounded by one of the first shots, entered
the hospital and meeting an old pensioner, M. Maumus, on the threshold,
shot him down in cold blood.

The ward where the French and Moroccan wounded lay was fired on with
machine guns, as shown in the above photograph. By a wonderful chance
no one was hit, the Crucifix also remained untouched in the centre of a
wreath of bullets.

_The tourist will now, retracing his steps, turn to the right into the
Rue des Jardiniers, whence he will have a good view of the whole town.
Always keeping to the left he will pass through the Meaux Gate into the
Rue de Meaux which borders the +College of St. Vincent+ (p. 64). (If on
foot, it would be better to follow the line of the ramparts Bellevue
and Saint-Vincent, instead of the Rue des Jardiniers. At the Meaux Gate
he will go down the steps into the Rue de Meaux.)_

_Back in the Rue de la République, he will go up as far as the Rue
Odent, which skirts the Hôtel du Grand Cerf. By this road he will
arrive at the Place de la Halle, continued to the right by the Rue
Saint-Hilaire, which leads to the church of +Saint-Pierre+ (see p.
60)._

[Illustration: TRACES OF SHELLS ON THE CATHEDRAL (Photograph by M. H.)]

_From the Place Saint-Pierre one goes to the left into the little
Rue aux Flageards which passes in front of the north doorway of the
cathedral, of which a view is given opposite._ The tower on the right
and the spire were struck by several shells.

_Continuing along the Place Mauconseil and turning to the left into the
Rue Villevert one reaches the charming square which lies in front of
the parvis of the +Cathedral+._

_(See pp. 53-59 for descriptions concerning the artistic features of
the cathedral.) Here we shall only give the incidents of September 1914
in which the building shared._

[Illustration: DÉBRIS AT THE FOOT OF THE CATHEDRAL TOWERS (Photograph
by M. H.)]

During the day of September 2, 1914, about fifty shells struck the old
church and caused rather serious damage, as shown in the following
photographs. The vicar of the cathedral, the Abbé Dourlent, went about
the streets of Senlis during the bombardment and had 125 inhabitants,
who had been unable to find shelter in the cellars, escorted out of the
town by one of his curates. On his return to the vicarage, which stands
at the foot of the tower (_the house visible in the photograph on p.
54, on the right, behind the two trees_), shortly after the Germans had
entered the town, the vicar heard violent and repeated blows in the
cathedral. Coming out into the square he saw cyclists, holding a large
fragment of a statue (which had been flung to the ground by a shell)
with which they had battered in the small door of the cathedral (_that
on the right in the view on p. 54_). Others, axes in their hands, were
attacking the door of the steeple on the south side of the tower.
The Germans, revolver in hand, rushed at the vicar, and their leader
commanded him to take them to the top of the steeple, accusing him of
having allowed machine guns to be placed there which had fired on them.

As they climbed the first step they heard the first shots fired in the
lower part of the town.

[Illustration: TRACES OF SHELLS ON THE CATHEDRAL]

The soldiers sprang up and declared the vicar their prisoner.

The visit to the steeple confirmed the Abbé Dourlent's declaration that
no one had been up and that no military preparations had ever been made
there. The men drew off, but a few moments later the porter of the
town-hall brought the vicar the order to render himself immediately as
hostage at the Grand Cerf Hotel.

When he arrived the Headquarters Staff had left, taking with them the
mayor, who was shot that evening.

The incendiarism had already started; the vicar saw incendiary bombs
thrown into the houses facing the hotel, which are shown in the
photograph _on page 41_. He entered the vicarage, then returned to the
Grand Cerf to learn what fate awaited him.

It was there that a German superior officer, who spoke French, said
these few words which throw light on the events at Senlis:

_Poor Curé, poor Senlis, your civilians have fired on us and we have
been shot at from the top of your church tower, therefore Senlis is
doomed. You see that street in flames_ (the Rue de la République),
_well! this night the whole town will be completely burned down._

[Illustration: TRACES OF SHELLS ON THE CATHEDRAL]

=We have orders to make of Senlis another Louvain. A terrible example
is needed for Paris and for the whole of France.=

The vicar implored for mercy for the town, and the officer promised
to intervene with his superiors in order to obtain a mitigation of
the sentence. Whether he gained his point or whether the giving up of
the direct march on Paris caused the part of scape-goat assigned to
the peaceful little town to appear of less immediate necessity, the
incendiarism was limited to the Rue de la République and the Quartier
de la Licorne.

_The tourist will visit the +Cathedral+ (see pp. 53-59),
+Saint-Frambourg+ (p. 60), the +Castle+ (pp. 61-63), and will then go
down the old Rue du Châtel._

[Illustration: ABBÉ DOURLENT]

This road was the scene of an outrage of 1789, famous in the annals of
Senlis. The clockmaker Billon, seeing beneath his windows the company
of musketeers from which, as usurer, he had been dismissed, raised
his musket and killed the commandant and several others. Trapped in
his house, he backed from room to room still adding to the number of
his victims. At the moment when they seized him the mine that he had
prepared exploded, destroying his house and leaving twenty-six dead and
forty injured.

_The Rue du Châtel ends in the Square Henri IV., in the corner of which
stands the +Town-hall+._ Its façade (_see below_) dates from 1495.
Above the door is the bust of Henri IV., with an inscription taken from
the letters-patent sent by the king to Senlis as thanks for the town's
resistance against the Leaguers:

"_Mon heur a prins son commencement en la ville de Senlis, dont il
s'est depuis semé et augmenté par tout le royaume._"

(_My good fortune had its beginning in the Town of Senlis, whence it
has since sown itself and spread over all the kingdom._)

The Square Henri IV. received the first shells of the bombardment in
September, 1914, which killed a fireman on guard at the town-hall.

When the Germans penetrated into Senlis, one of their superior officers
went to the town-hall and asked for the "burgomaster."

[Illustration: TOWN HALL]

[Illustration: LAST PHOTOGRAPH OF M. ODENT (in the middle)]

The mayor, M. Odent, came forward.

For three generations the Odents had been mayors of Senlis. The
grandfather of the present mayor distinguished himself during the
cholera epidemic in 1832; his father was seized as hostage in 1870 and
narrowly escaped being shot.

On the eve of the German occupation, M. Odent took his family to Paris
and on his return to Senlis wrote a postcard to M. Cultru, oldest
member of the municipal council, as follows:--

"Having at last placed my wife in safety, I now belong entirely to
Senlis."

M. Odent had the presentiment that he would not come out of German
hands alive; a fervent catholic, he performed his religious duties in
view of a swiftly approaching death, and fastened a crucifix on his
breast.

Above we give the last photograph of M. Odent. It was taken on August
5, 1914, during a military fête. M. Odent is in the middle.

The mayor was violently upbraided by the officer because of the
deserted aspect of the town--barely 1,000 inhabitants remained out of
7,000, and during the bombardment houses and shops were closed. He was
also blamed for the absence of proclamations exhorting the inhabitants
to deposit their arms at the town-hall and to offer no resistance....

M. Odent pointed out the rapidity of events, and the peaceable ways of
the old city. He was nevertheless led before the headquarters staff at
the Grand Cerf Hotel. Immediately after, came the sound of the first
shots fired by the French rearguard at the lower end of the town. The
officer was furious and vowed that he would hold the mayor responsible
and that his head should answer for the lives of the German soldiers.
The town-clerk suggested to M. Odent that the deputy mayor should be
fetched, but the latter refused, saying: "One victim is enough."

[Illustration: GERMAN SOLDIERS PHOTOGRAPHED AT SENLIS]

The resigned hostage was taken from the Grand Cerf to Chamant (_see
p. 66_). He was brutally treated, his gloves snatched from him and
flung in his face, his stick seized and brought down violently on his
head. M. Odent and some other hostages spent several hours of cruel
waiting for their fate. At last, at about 11 o'clock in the evening,
they were brought before several officers. After having been made to
stand at attention they were ordered to lie flat, their hands stretched
forward; they were then again told to stand at attention. The officers,
satisfied that they had thus asserted their authority, for form's sake
then proceeded to interrogate the mayor, and in spite of his denial
persisted in accusing him of having opened fire upon the German troops.
They then informed him that he would be shot.

[Illustration: M. ODENT'S GRAVE AT CHAMANT]

M. Odent returned to his companions in captivity, gave them his papers
and money, shook hands with them, and bade them a dignified farewell.
He then went back to the officers. At their command two soldiers
dragged him about ten yards further off and put two bullets through his
head.

The ground was hastily hollowed out and the body was laid under such a
thin layer of earth that the feet were not covered. It was here that
the cross shown in the above photograph was erected. The tourist can
visit it when passing through Chamant (_see p. 66_). A few hours before
the mayor's death six other hostages had been shot and buried in the
same field. M. Odent's companions were more fortunate, they were sent
back to Senlis the next day. On September 12 the bodies of the mayor
and the six other victims were exhumed and taken to the cemetery in the
town (_see p. 52_). Other hostages narrowly escaped death. At about
eight o'clock in the evening, in the tailor's shop at the corner of
the Rue du Châtel, in front of the town-hall, three inhabitants were
seized and taken to Chamant. To these, in the course of the journey,
were added a dozen others. They were about to share the fate of the
preceding hostages when one of them, who spoke German, succeeded in
inducing the Headquarters staff to set them free.

_By the Rue Vieille de Paris (a continuation of the Rue du Châtel) we
descend to the lower part of the town._ (In 1358 the "Jacques," masters
of Senlis, drove back the nobles who had entered the lower end of the
road by rolling down the slope heavily laden wagons which overturned
anything that happened to be in their way.)

_In front of the old Convent of the Carmes, No. 3 of the Rue Vieille
de Paris, stand +Megret's+ Baths, to which a café is attached._ In the
afternoon of September 2 some Germans smashed in the door and demanded
drink. It was no doubt at that time that other German soldiers entered
the café Simon, a little further on (_see p. 43_). The two proprietors
suffered the same fate. Mégret had barely finished serving the patrol
with a dozen bottles of wine when a shot, fired point-blank, felled him
to the ground.

On _page 49_ appears the photograph of three young German soldiers
belonging to that column of incendiarists and murderers who did so
much damage to Senlis. With threats they forced the photographer, M.
Rozycki, to whom we are indebted for the views taken during the German
occupation, to take the photograph we have reproduced.

[Illustration: PICTURE IN THE TOWN HALL [Execution of Hostages in 1418]]

_A little way past the Convent of the Carmes (which is turned into
barracks, its chapel being used as a clothing store), we follow, on the
right_, the line of ramparts that goes from the _Rue Vieille de Paris
(where the Paris gate used to be)_ to the _Place de Creil (where stood
the gate of the same name)_.

These ramparts were made in the thirteenth and fourteenth and
strengthened in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

The first portion is called +le Rempart des Otages+ in memory of the
executions of 1418, during the fight between the Burgundians, who
occupied Senlis, and the Armagnacs, who besieged it.

The town, reduced to famine, was to surrender on April 18 if no help
arrived, and six hostages were handed over as guarantee: two abbots,
two nobles, and two commoners. Help was signalled on the day of the
18th; but the Armagnacs, before leaving, decapitated four hostages at
the foot of the ramparts on which the tourist is standing. In return,
the besieged flung down from the walls the heads of twenty prisoners
captured during a sally.

Six centuries have elapsed, but it will be seen that, towards hostages,
the Germans still retain the mental attitude of the Middle Ages.

A picture by Mélingue (reproduced above), which hangs in the town-hall,
commemorates the execution of the hostages of Senlis in 1418.

The next rampart is called the +Montauban+, after the square tower
which was added to it in 1588. It was in the dry moat below that
the Archers' Company held their practice. The head of the company,
the "King of the Crossbow," was exempted by Henri III. from paying
taxes, and ever since that remote period archery has always been held
in honour at Senlis. At certain fêtes as many as 4,000 archers were
assembled, part of them belonging to the town, the others coming from
the surrounding country.

From the rampart, the view of old Senlis, spread out at the foot of the
cathedral, is particularly picturesque.

[Illustration: SOLDIERS' GRAVES IN THE CEMETERY]

_From the Creil Gate, where you come out on leaving the ramparts, the
+Arena+ can be visited (see p. 65). After that, turn down the Avenue
Vernois, at the end of which is seen the entrance to the cemetery._ The
monument raised in memory of the hostages who were murdered in 1914
(_view below_) is in the western part of the cemetery. In the northern
part is the grave of the soldiers who fell during the battles of Senlis
(_view above_).

[Illustration: MONUMENT OF THE HOSTAGES IN THE CEMETERY]

From the Boulevard Pasteur, which is a continuation of the Avenue
Vernois, there is a pretty view of the country.

At the corner of the Rue Saint-Joseph stands a convent where seventy
nuns remained during the German occupation. Some German soldiers made
them open the door and demanded wine: "Oh!" answered the Reverend
Mother, "the nuns only drink liquorice-water."

_The tourist now finds himself at the Compiègne gate, from where he
began his visit to the town. This is also the starting point fixed in
the itinerary for the journey to Meaux (see p. 66)._


ARTISTIC SENLIS

(See plan inserted between pp. 36-37)


=The Cathedral of Notre-Dame= (historical monument)

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL]

The cathedral was begun in 1153 on the site of a church which had
been destroyed and rebuilt several times since the third century. The
work of construction was slow, as funds were often lacking, despite
the help given by the kings of France. For several consecutive years
collections were repeatedly made throughout the country in order to
obtain resources for the bishop.

The consecration of the unfinished church took place in 1191.

Towards 1240, the transept was raised and the spire, which is still the
pride of Senlis, built.

In 1504, lightning set fire to the cathedral, which went on burning for
two days. Luckily the spire was saved. The reconstruction of all the
higher parts and of the façades of the transept lasted until 1560 and
completely transformed the appearance of the building.

During the Revolution it was used as a ballroom and afterwards as a
store-house for fodder. In 1801 it became once more a place of worship.

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL SEEN FROM THE STEEPLE OF ST. PIERRE]

It has been seen (_p. 46-47_) that the cathedral was not spared by the
German shells on September 2, 1914, and that its vicar very nearly
shared the mayor's tragic fate.

The opposite view is taken from the top of the steeple of St. Peter's
Church.

In the foreground are seen the buildings of the old bishop's palace,
standing on a Gallo-Roman site; one of the towers of this enclosure was
utilised in their construction.

After 1790 Senlis was no longer a bishopric, and an archæological
museum is now established in the old dwelling-place of the bishops.

The west façade of the cathedral, which escaped the fire of 1504, has
retained the simplicity and bareness of the twelfth century church and
is in remarkable contrast with the richness of the side façades built
in the sixteenth century.

[Illustration: PLACE DU PARVIS]

The great doorway, which will be fully described further on, is flanked
by two small doors surmounted by a tympanum, the arcading of which
forms a curious ornamentation.

The two towers were originally alike; it was only in the middle of the
thirteenth century that the spire was added to the south tower.

This +SPIRE+ is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture and for nearly
seven centuries has been the admiration of architects and archæologists
because of the science, audacity and solidity of its construction,
which was proof against fire, the inclemency of the weather, and German
shells.

[Illustration: THE SPIRE OF THE CATHEDRAL]

Its summit is 255 feet above the ground. Octagonal in shape, it rests
on the square base of the tower.

The transition from the square to the octagon is masked by the four
pinnacles (each supported by three small columns), which occupy the
four corners of the square.

The upper part of the spire is pierced with eight highly ornamented
dormer windows; the arrises of the spire are decorated with crockets.

This construction reveals the great art of the architect, who knew how
to break the monotony of the spire's long, sloping lines without making
them appear heavy.

The little Place du Parvis shown above is charming in its archaical
decoration.

The edifice seen on the left of the photograph is the old home of the
Vermandois family, modified in the fourteenth century. One can walk
round the courtyard of the old dwelling, entering through the door seen
between two big trees.

Between the house of Vermandois and the church stands the Chapter House
(_see p. 59_).

[Illustration: THE WEST DOOR OF THE CATHEDRAL]

The twelfth century doorway was damaged during the Revolution. The
great statues were decapitated but have since been restored. The
bas-reliefs suffered considerably, also.

This is the first doorway consecrated to the Virgin. Its design served
as a model for those of the Cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims, Amiens, and
Notre-Dame de Paris.

The bas-relief of the lintel, shown below, represents, on its left
side, the death of the Virgin. This part is much damaged. The apostles
encircle the bed on which the Virgin is lying, two of them swinging
censers. Two winged-angels bear away the Virgin's soul, portrayed as a
new-born babe wrapped in a swaddling cloth.

The right side, which represents the Resurrection of the Virgin, is
in a better state of preservation. An angel stands ready to crown
Mary, who is raised from her bed by three others, while a fourth leans
forward the better to see over those in front.

All this sculpture shows a truth and freedom of attitude of which very
few examples are found in the twelfth century.

Above the lintel, in the tympanum, is the Triumph of the Virgin; the
execution of this work is far from equal to that of the lintel.

In the niches of the arches are statues of the patriarchs, the prophets
and the kings of Judah.

The eight great statues which flank the door represent personages from
the Old Testament.

The one nearest the door, on the left, is Abraham. He holds his son by
the hair and stands ready to behead him, but an angel restrains his
sword.

Beneath the pedestals of the large statues is a "+Calendar+," _i.e._,
a set of symbolical scenes typifying the twelve months of the year, or
the seasons. That of Senlis is carved with much spirit.

[Illustration: LINTEL OF CATHEDRAL DOORWAY]

[Illustration: CALENDAR OF THE CATHEDRAL (right)

  =1.=    _January._  The month of feasts. The peasant, seated at table,
                        prepares to drink.
  =2.=   _February._  Work is at a standstill. The peasant is at the
                        fireside.
  =3.=      _March._  Work begins again. The peasant digs.
  =4.=      _April._  With the spring the time has come to care for the
                        trees.
  =5.=        _May._  The lord, his falcon on his wrist, goes forth to
                        hunt.
  =6.=       _June._  The peasant mows his meadows.
  =7.=       _July._  It is the beginning of the harvest.]

[Illustration: CALENDAR OF THE CATHEDRAL (left)

   =8.=     _August._  The peasant threshes the grain.
   =9.=  _September._  The peasant gathers the grapes.
  =10.=    _October._  The peasant gathers in his crops.
  =11.=   _November._  The peasant kills his pig.
  =12.=   _December._  The peasant puts cakes in the oven for the fêtes
                         at the end of the year.]

The south front of the cathedral has not the harmony of that of the
west.

The lower part of the apse dates from the twelfth century, with its
radial chapels and, above, the little semi-circular windows of the
galleries. The upper part of the church belongs to the sixteenth
century.

The rich façade of the transept also dates from the sixteenth century.

[Illustration: SOUTH FAÇADE OF THE CATHEDRAL]

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL: SOUTH FAÇADE OF TRANSEPT]

The opposite view shows the detail of the +SOUTH FAÇADE OF THE
TRANSEPT+ designed by Pierre Chambiges, son and pupil of Martin
Chambiges. The latter worked on the Cathedrals of Beauvais, Sens and
Troyes, and his son drew inspiration from his work for the execution of
that entrusted to him at Senlis; this explains the great resemblance
that various portions of those edifices bear to one another.

In comparing the south portal with the western façade one notes the
development of Gothic architecture from the twelfth century, when its
restraint and simplicity of line still recalled Roman art, to the
sixteenth century, when rich, flamboyant decoration flared in its final
splendour, making way for the art of the Renaissance that the Italian
wars brought into fashion.

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL: NORTH FAÇADE OF TRANSEPT]

The appearance of this fine _ensemble_ is spoilt by the adjacent
polygonal vestry erected on its right, which was rebuilt in the
nineteenth century. A part of it can be seen in the above photograph;
though one can judge still better of its ugly effect from the
photograph on the preceding page.

+The north façade of the transept+ is, in its general arrangement, the
same as that on the south, but it is less richly ornamented.

On the pediment which surmounts the entrance are carved the salamander
and the "F" of Francis I. On that of the south are the arms of France.

The tourist should not fail to look at the north side of the Cathedral,
which is very picturesque.

On the north tower the marks of German shells are still to be seen.

They are clearly shown in the photograph (_foot pp. 46-47_).

[Illustration: PLAN OF CATHEDRAL

  E, stairs leading to galleries.
  G, chapel of transept (vault with pendentives).
  M, aisles of choir.
  O, radial chapels of the twelfth century (modern windows).]

[Illustration: SECTION OF CATHEDRAL

  A, roof of nave. B1, B2, B3, B4, transept.

  C, piers supporting the vault on the nave by means of flying
    buttresses.

  D, first aisles of nave and ambulatory.

  G, second aisles of nave.

  T, galleries running round the church.]

[Illustration: GALLERIES OF THE CATHEDRAL]

[Illustration: HANGING BOSSES]

The galleries of the cathedral are among the most beautiful in France.
The above view, taken from the choir galleries which overlook the
southern part of the transept, shows those of the nave in enfilade.

_In order to visit these galleries the key must be obtained from the
vestry._

In the chapel seen on the right as one re-enters the church by the
south door, the visitor will notice the hanging bosses of the vault of
which a view is given opposite.

In the chapter house at the north-west end of the cathedral (_see plan,
p. 58_), is seen the curious capital of the central pillar, on which is
carved a feast of jesters.

The opposite view shows a fragment of it.

[Illustration: CAPITAL IN THE CHAPTER HOUSE (CATHEDRAL)]

Two of the figures are playing the organ, that on the right is working
the bellows, another with a stick beats the tambourine that he holds
between his legs; on the remainder of the capital other figures are
dancing.

The chapter house was used by the canons of the cathedral.


=Church of Saint-Frambourg= (historical monument)

_This stands in a little street which opens on the south of the
cathedral square. The church can be seen from the square._

[Illustration: SAINT-FRAMBOURG]

This church was founded on the site of a Roman temple, by Queen
Adelaide, wife of Hugues Capet. Rebuilt in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries, transformed into a "Temple of Reason" during the Revolution,
it now serves as a carpenter's workshop.

On the façade one can distinguish the place intended for a large rose
window, which, however, was never finished.

On the left side of the façade stood a tower, since demolished.

The church has no roof left above the vaulting. _To visit the interior
(consisting of a single nave of graceful proportions) apply to the
carpenter._ The entrance to the workshop is seen on the left of the
photograph.


=Church of Saint-Pierre= (historical monument)

_Market-day on Tuesdays and Fridays. If the tourist should wish to go
to the top of the belfry or to visit the church on other than market
days, he must apply to the concierge of the Tribunal (county court) in
the square._

This old town of Senlis is so rich in relics of the past that it puts
its ancient religious monuments to quite profane uses.

We have seen above that Saint-Frambourg shelters a carpenter.
Saint-Pierre serves as a market, another church as a theatre, a
fourth as a museum, and others as clothing stores or barns. Five have
completely disappeared; as for the Abbey of Saint-Vincent, it has been
turned into a college.

[Illustration: SAINT-PIERRE]

Saint-Pierre was founded in 1029 and reconstructed during the
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

The roof of the nave was begun in stone, but completed in timber-work.
The façade dates from the sixteenth century and recalls the work of
Pierre Chambiges in the cathedral.

The right-hand tower dates from the seventeenth century. From the upper
platform there is a splendid view of the town and the surrounding
forests. Another more ancient tower exists, the base of which is the
remains of the primitive Roman church. The spire (the top of which is
seen in the opposite photograph) was added in the fifteenth century.


=The Castle= (historical monument)

_The castle belongs to the Count Turquet de La Boisserie, who allows it
to be visited. Apply to the concierge._

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE CASTLE AND THE HÔTEL DES TROIS-POTS]

_The entrance shown in the above view is in the Rue du Châtel, quite
close to the square of Parvis-Notre-Dame._ On the left side stands the
old Hôtel des Trois-Pots, so called from the signboard which hangs from
the first floor, and formed of three pots which are being filled by a
thin stream of water.

This old dwelling recalls all the history of France from the
Gallo-Roman conquest to the reign of Henri IV.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CASTLE CHAPEL]

The castle itself, of which only a part exists (visible on the left in
the above photograph), was erected on the site of an old Roman fort.
At the foot ran the boundary line of the town, partly formed by the
wall which encloses this side of the estate and the tower which flanks
the north front of the buildings.

[Illustration: CASTLE AND PRIORY OF SAINT-MAURICE]

The Merovingian and Carlovingian kings often inhabited the castle,
situated as it was in the midst of their favourite hunting-grounds.

It was the theatre of numerous historical events: Pépin, Duke of
Aquitaine, grandson of Charlemagne, died imprisoned there, and Baldwin
of Flanders carried off from there the daughter of Charles the Bald.
In 987, the last Carlovingian king having died while out hunting, the
French lords assembled in the castle and elected, as king, Hugues Capet
whose dynasty reigned in France until the Revolution. Philippe-Auguste
held festivities there on returning from his wedding with Elizabeth of
Hainault. Saint Louis founded the priory of Saint-Maurice.

During the Hundred Years War, Catherine of France was married to Henry
V. of England at Senlis, in 1420.

After Henri IV., the castle, being very dilapidated, was gradually
abandoned. Justice was still administered there until the falling in of
the Audience Chamber in the eighteenth century.

The interior of the castle is in ruins. There is one room to be seen,
called Henri IV.'s room, which is shown on the following page. It dates
from the thirteenth century, and is covered with fine panelling. The
fireplace was altered in the fifteenth century, but the big circular
section flue remains just as it was two centuries earlier.

[Illustration: ROMAN ENCLOSURE]

On the left of this fireplace a thirteenth century window (now blocked
up) can still be distinguished. The one at the further end of the room
belongs to the sixteenth century.

In the photograph some tombstones are seen, resting against the wall;
on a fragment placed against the chimney-piece are the arms of Diane de
Poitiers (characterised by the crescent); the two cannon balls are of
stone; these were hurled from catapults and from the first bombarding
machines.

[Illustration: HENRI IV.'S ROOM IN THE CASTLE]

Of the chapel built in the beginning of the twelfth century nothing
remains but ruins, a view of which is given (_page 61_). It was
situated on the first floor; a "semi-circular" arcade of the nave is
still to be seen, on the right side. The ground floor, vaulted like an
arbour, formed a passage.

The priory of Saint-Maurice, of which one ivy-covered building still
exists (visible on the right of the photograph at the top of the
preceding page), was founded by Saint Louis in honour of Saint Maurice
who commanded the Theban legion, massacred under Diocletian for
refusing to worship false gods.

In 1234 the king succeeded in obtaining the bodies of several of these
martyrs from the vicar of Saint-Maurice-en-Valais.

A church, copied from the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, was built to
shelter these relics, but was destroyed during the Revolution.

Passing under the Roman enclosure by a subterranean passage, we arrive
at the old moat transformed into a kitchen garden. From here, there is
a very interesting view of the wall and the Roman towers, the cathedral
and the castle. A good idea of it is given by the photograph at the
foot of the preceding page.

The Roman enclosure continues towards the cathedral, passes by the
apse, from there to Saint-Frambourg, and its oval rejoins the castle
by the Place de la Halle, the Rue aux Fromages, and the Rue du
Puits-Tiphaine. It measured 312 m. (1,024 ft.) at its greatest diameter
and 242 m. (794 ft.) at its smallest diameter; twenty-eight towers
adorned the walls which were 7 m. (23 ft.) high and 4 m. (13 ft.) thick.

The town, having grown, was cramped in the limits of the Roman city,
so the new ramparts were raised between the thirteenth and sixteenth
centuries; the tourist has already travelled over a part of them.

The platform of the Roman fort, which was followed by the castle,
stood on the part which (with the Rue Villevert) forms a corner of the
estate. It is reached by the narrow passage, made in the thickness of
the sub-basement, which led to the dungeons. It was in one of these
(towards the year 870) that Pépin, King of Aquitaine, died, imprisoned
by order of Charles the Bald, against whom he had revolted.

Subterranean passages connected certain important points of the castle.
They were supposed to lead as far as the Castle of Montépilloy (_see p.
67_) and the Abbey of Châalis (_see p. 70_).


=The old Abbey of Saint-Vincent=

_To view, apply to the concierge in the Rue de Meaux._

[Illustration: ABBEY OF SAINT-VINCENT]

[Illustration: THE ABBEY CLOISTERS]

The Abbey of St.-Vincent was founded in 1065 by Anne of Russia, wife of
Henri I., King of France, in fulfilment of a vow.

The abbey church was rebuilt in the twelfth century.

The tower, which dates from that period, is square; it has two storeys
with very high dormer windows grouped in pairs on each front, which
give a very light appearance to the general structure.

The other buildings belonging to the Abbey were rebuilt in the
seventeenth century. Inside, an interesting cloister still exists, with
a Doric colonnade, shown on the opposite view.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE THE ABBEY (RUE DE MEAUX)]

After the Revolution the Abbey was turned into a hospital, then into
barracks, and after that into spinning mills. In 1836 it became the
College Saint-Vincent, counting among its pupils Marshal Canrobert and
the poet José-Maria de Hérédia.

Many inhabitants of Senlis took refuge in the Abbey cellars during
the bombardment of September 2, 1914. St.-Vincent soon served as an
annexe to the hospital, which was too small to hold all the wounded. In
the photograph (_page 42_) we see the transport of the wounded being
carried on by the Red Cross in September, 1914. This temporary hospital
remained after the departure of the Germans, which explains the
presence of the wounded seen in the foreground of the opposite view.


=The Arena= (historical monument)

_The gate at the entrance of the road leading from the Place de Creil
to the Arena is sometimes locked. Apply to the Syndicat d'Initiative
(Hôtel du Grand-Cerf) for the key._

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE ARENA]

The arena was discovered in 1864. It apparently goes back as far as the
third century.

The tiers encircle a track measuring 130 feet by 110 feet. Two large
entrances, which were vaulted, lead into the arena at each extremity
of the great axis. On the other axis are two little rooms, which were
no doubt reserved for the gladiators. In the southern one, niches are
hollowed in the wall: these probably served as cupboards.

[Illustration: VIEW OF ARENA]


FROM SENLIS TO MEAUX (65 km.)

(See maps inserted between pages 80-81)

via +Chamant+, +Montépilloy+, +Baron+, +Châalis+, +Ermenonville+.

_Starting from the Compiègne Gate, we leave the town by the Route
Nationale_ (N 17). _After having crossed the railway we turn to the
right and follow_ N 32 _as far as the first road on the right bordered
with trees, which leads to Chamant. A hundred yards this side of the
village we enter a field enclosed by hedges, on the right of the road
(2½ km.)._ In this field, which appears in the photograph (_p. 50_),
the German troops were encamped. M. Odent, the Mayor of Senlis, and
six other hostages were shot there (_pp. 49-50_). M. Odent's grave is
near the wood which skirts the side of the field opposite the one which
borders the road. Near the enclosing hedge is the grave of a German
captain.

_Go on to the village of =Chamant=, turn to the right, then to the left
as far as the church, the steeple of which can be seen_. This church
dates from the twelfth century, and was modified in the fourteenth
and sixteenth. The Roman spire, shown below, is remarkable. In the
interior, the capitals and vaulting decorated in many colours were
restored at the expense of Napoléon the Third, as was also the tomb of
Lucien Bonaparte's wife, which is to be found in the side chapel.

_Go round the church, turn to the left, then to the right, near the
firemen's gymnasium._

The road, planted with trees, which forms a continuation (on the other
side of the Route Nationale) of the road on which we stand, leads
(700 yards further on) to the Castle of Chamant, where the German
Headquarters Staff stayed. The cellar was pillaged, and more than 1,200
bottles of champagne were emptied.

This castle, which dates from the seventeenth century, was inhabited by
Lucien Bonaparte. Attached to it are important racing stables.

_Follow_ N 17 _for about 1,500 yards, then turn to the right towards
Ognon (8½ km.). Turn twice to the right in front of the church and go
towards Barbery, the factories of which can be seen from afar. Cross
the railway (12½ km.) near the station which was set on fire by the
Germans, and keep straight on towards the keep of =Montépilloy= (13½
km.)_, which stands on a neighbouring hill.

[Illustration: CHURCH OF CHAMANT]

[Illustration]

The castle, the entrance to which is shown on the opposite view, forms
part of a farm.

[Illustration: CASTLE OF MONTÉPILLOY]

Its name comes from _Mons speculatorum_ or "Mount of the watchers."
It was built in the twelfth century. On August 15, 1429, Jeanne d'Arc
occupied it. An English army commanded by the Duke of Bedford was
between Montépilloy and Senlis. The battle took place on August 16, and
enabled the troops of the king of France to retake Senlis. The castle
was dismantled under Henri IV.

To obtain a view of the whole and to realise the dominating position
of the castle one must, before entering it, walk a few steps along the
road which descends on the right of the farm.

The entrance door is flanked by two large towers. The bulky masses of
masonry, which supported the chains by which the drawbridge was worked,
are still to be seen. We cross the old moats, of which portions still
exist. On entering the courtyard we see the imposing ruins of the
two towers, one circular (of which only one large piece of the wall
remains) the other square.

_We retrace our steps._

_On leaving the village, near an iron shed we turn into the paved
road on the right and continue about 400 yds._ The German guns which
bombarded Senlis were placed in the hollow on the right. A German grave
will be noticed in the meadow.

_We return to the road and go down towards Barbery. After the level
crossing, turn to the right into the main road. Journey 4½ km. turn
again to the right, cross the railway line, then the village of Ducy;
climb a ridge and descend by zig-zags to =Baron= (27 km.)._

[Illustration: CASTLE OF MONTÉPILLOY]

[Illustration: HOUSE WHERE THE MUSICIAN MAGNARD PERISHED IN THE FIRE
(Sept. 1914)]

_Entering Baron, we turn to the left in the High Street and, 300 yards
further on, at the end of the block, reach the +house of Albéric
Magnard+._

It is marked by a marble tablet (visible in the opposite view), on
which is engraved the following inscription:

"Albéric Magnard, musical composer, born in Paris on the 9th of June,
1865; died on the 3rd of September, 1914, shot and burnt in his house
while trying to defend it."

    Celui-là qui, rebelle à toute trahison,
    Et préférant la Muse à toute Walkyrie
    A défendu son art contre la barbarie
    Devait ainsi mourir défendant sa maison

                           Edmond +Rostand+,
                       _de l'Académie Française_.

    (He who, revolting against treachery
    And preferring the Muse to any Valkyrie
    Defended his art against barbarity,
    Was doomed thus to die, defending his home)

His inspiration entirely French, Magnard (as Rostand recalls in the
above lines) had kept his art free from German influence.

His artist's sensitiveness made him suffer intensely from the horrors
of invasion; he warned his friends that he was resolved to die rather
than submit to the rule of the conqueror and that his revolver held
four bullets for the enemy and one for himself.

He had sent his family back to Paris, only keeping his young son-in-law
with him. The Germans entered Baron on September 2. On the 3rd at about
9 o'clock in the morning, a party of soldiers entered the grounds.
The composer had locked and barricaded himself in the villa. After
summoning him three times the Germans fired from the garden at the
façade shown in the view below.

[Illustration: MAGNARD'S HOUSE (inner façade)]

Magnard retaliated through the Venetian blinds of a window on the first
floor, killing one of the soldiers and wounding another. The composer's
son-in-law returning from a short walk, arrived at the beginning of
this scene. Seized and bound to a tree, he only escaped death by
passing himself off as the gardener. After having fired a few rounds
the Germans awaited the instructions of the commander. The latter at
first decided to burn the village as a reprisal but on the entreaties
of the Public Notary, Me. Robert, modified the sentence and ordered
that the incendiarism should be limited to the villa Magnard. After
having hurriedly pillaged the composer's study, the soldiers set fire
to the kitchen with straw and grenades. When the smoke began to rise
Me. Robert and Magnard's son-in-law heard a report from the interior of
the house. The author of _Guercœur_ and of _Bérénice_ had no doubt just
died by his own hand. An officer then said to the Notary "He takes the
best way out." Magnard's body was consumed in the fire. His revolver
was found with three chambers empty.

[Illustration: BARON CHURCH]

The village was looted. An officer ordered the Notary, Me. Robert, to
open his safe. As he at first refused to obey this order, the officer
told two of his men to load their weapons and Me. Robert was forced to
hand over the 8,300 francs the safe contained. While the Notary was
occupied in satisfying these demands, the Germans stole his silver, his
jewellery and that of his wife, even his personal linen, in exchange
for which they left him their dirty shirts. The cellar was entirely
emptied by the officers, who took 1,471 bottles of rare wine.

The same witness saw an officer wearing nine women's rings and three
bracelets.

_Returning from Magnard's house follow the High Street as far as the_
+Church+ (historical monument). This church is of the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries, with a fine steeple belonging to the fifteenth
(_view above_).

[Illustration: PANELLING OF CHURCH]

There is beautiful panelling to be seen inside (_view below_). Jeanne
d'Arc received the sacrament here on the eve of the battle against the
English below Montépilloy, in 1429.

_Follow the road which is a continuation of the High Street._ At this
point, and as far as Senlis, rearguard actions were fought in Sept.
1914. _After 3½ km., turn to the left._ In the field which forms the
corner of the two roads there is a German grave.

_3 km. further on, turn to the left again into the road to
Ermenonville, and after having proceeded about 1,200 yards, go down the
lane which leads, under the trees, to the entrance of the domain which
constituted the ancient abbey of =Châalis=._


=CHÂALIS=

At the very beginning of the twelfth century, on his return from the
First Crusade, a lord of Mello founded a priory at _Calisium_. In 1136
the king, Louis le Gros, wishing to honour the memory of his brother,
Charles le Bon, who was assassinated in Bruges, transformed this priory
into an abbey which was placed under the management of the Order of
Cîteaux, whose growing power was beginning to make itself felt.

The Abbey flourished under the protection of the kings of France, the
bishops of Senlis, and the lords of Chantilly, and became of great
importance.

Its present condition can only give a faint idea of its former
disposition and size.

The good king St. Louis often came to share the peaceful life of the
monks, cultivating the soil and the vine, looking after the bees,
fishing for pike in the ponds, and eating in the common refectory out
of a wooden bowl, amidst the tame birds that came from all the country
around to join in the meals.

At the time of the Renaissance the Abbey fell in commendam, that is
to say it was no longer the property of the community but that of the
abbot, who was thenceforth chosen by the king, instead of being elected
by the monks. The first commendatory abbot was the Cardinal Hippolyte
d'Este, son of Lucretia Borgia. Reducing the monks to a bare pittance,
the Cardinal made free use of the Abbey revenues, which enabled him to
build his famous Villa d'Este at Tivoli and its magnificent gardens.

In 1570, the great Italian poet Tasso spent several months at Châalis
and there worked at his _Jerusalem Delivered_.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE ABBEY CHURCH]

In the eighteenth century, the reconstruction of the Abbey was
undertaken. Jean Aubert, the architect of the "Grandes Écuries" at
Chantilly and the Hôtel Biron in Paris, was entrusted with the plans.
The work was begun but not completed. The abbatial building, which
to-day contains the museum and which can be seen on the left of the
beautiful avenue leading to the entrance gate, shows the dignified
style that Aubert wished to apply to the new edifice.

All these works ran the abbey into debt so Louis XVI. had it closed
and placed in liquidation. The Revolution completed its ruin. Sold as
national property, Châalis greatly suffered.

The buildings were for the greater part destroyed, the old church was
sold piecemeal at the rate of twelve sous (6_d._) per cartful of stones.

In the nineteenth century the successive proprietors did their utmost
to reconstitute the domain. The grounds were bought back and the ruins
consolidated. The abbatial building became a castle, and the park was
laid out again. In 1902, Mme. Jacquemart-André bought the estate for
1,200,000 francs. She bequeathed it to the "Institut de France" with
the museum that she had established in the castle. The "Institut" took
possession of it in 1912, at the donor's death.


+The Church.+

The church, built at the beginning of the eighteenth century, is of
great interest from an archæological point of view, for it shows
the first application (by the Cistercians) of the Gothic style of
architecture which had just made its appearance in the "Ile de
France." In the hundreds of abbeys created by the original abbey of
Cîteaux (situated near Dijon), the Roman style had hitherto held sway.
Beginning with Châalis, the Cistercians proceeded to spread the pointed
arch all over Europe, where soon more than 1,800 branch abbeys were
scattered.

The church of Châalis was vast, measuring 269 feet by 89 feet.

Its transept (the ruins of the northern part are seen in the view on
the preceding page) was remarkable for its enormous size, compared
with that of the choir, and for the seven radial chapels--one of
which is clearly visible on the right of the view--enclosed in each
of its branches. An outline of the nave remains (on the left of the
photograph); it had twelve bays, preceded by a porch. The steeple which
rose from the tower was destroyed by lightning in the seventeenth
century. The monastery was connected with the church, and the outline
of the storied galleries is seen in the view below. The abbot's chapel
appears in the middle distance, on the right of the view on the
preceding page. It is designed in the style of the Sainte-Chapelle in
Paris.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH SEEN FROM THE ROUTE DES ÉTANGS]


+Visit to the Domain of Châalis.+

_From April 15 to November 1, the museum and park are open on Thursday
afternoons, from 1 p.m. to 5 or 6 p.m. An interesting guide by the
Curator, Louis Gillet, is sold for 2 francs._

For the passing motorist the visit in detail is not indispensable. The
Museum, although interesting, is far from equal to that which Mme.
Jacquemart André established in her house in the Boulevard Haussmann,
Paris, and which she bequeathed to the "Institut" at the same time as
Châalis. As far as concerns the park and ruins, an adequate idea of
them will be obtained by following our itinerary.

From the entrance gate one sees: in front, the ruins of the church;
to the left, the castle, containing the museum. The whole is quite
imposing.

_At a moderate pace we take the road (on the right of the gate) which
leads to the ponds. After traversing them, through the enchanting
scenery, of which the photograph below gives some idea, the road runs
through woodlands and brings us back to the high road of Ermenonville,
down which we turn to the left._

On the other side of this road spreads the second portion of the
domain of Châalis: the Désert, which formerly belonged to the park
of Ermenonville. In the neighbourhood of this park it consists of a
lovely, wooded landscape, with two ponds in the background; but at the
other extremity there is a great contrast, for an arid stretch of land,
the "Sea of Sand," faces the ponds of Châalis.

The Désert, like the park of Ermenonville, teems with memories of
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (_see p. 73_).

_Skirting the ponds of the Désert we arrive at =Ermenonville= (40 km.)._

The castle, which belongs to Prince Radzivill, is on the left of the
road (_it is not open to visitors_). The park (_open to the public on
Sundays, Thursdays and holidays_) is on the right.

The castle was occupied in September 1914, by German staff officers,
who contented themselves with pillaging the wine cellar.

[Illustration: A CORNER OF THE PONDS OF CHÂALIS]

The park of Ermenonville was designed by the Marquis de Girardin.
This ardent disciple of J. J. Rousseau did his utmost to make the
park an illustration of the philosopher's work. In the part which now
pertains to Châalis, the Désert, he claimed to reproduce in miniature
the Alpine landscapes where were laid the scenes of _Julie ou la
Nouvelle Héloise_. This touching worship succeeded in dispelling the
misanthropy of Rousseau, who was living in Paris in gloomy solitude.
He accepted the Marquis's hospitality and settled down at Ermenonville
on May 20, 1778. On July 2, the "man of nature" passed away amidst
trees, flowers, and birds. He was buried in the Island of Poplars
("L'Ile des Peupliers," view below), in the middle of the pond that
comes into view on the right of the road level with the centre of the
castle. Rousseau's influence on his century was immense, and for a long
time his tomb was the goal of universal pilgrimage. The philosopher's
remains are no longer at Ermenonville; the Convention had them exhumed
and transferred to the Panthéon.

[Illustration: TOMB OF J. J. ROUSSEAU AT ERMENONVILLE]

_Cross the village, leaving the statue of J. J. Rousseau on the left,
and when at the top of the hill turn to the left. Four kilometres
further on is the Plessis-Belleville School of Aviation. From there go
straight on._

_At =Saint-Soupplets=, at the branching off of the road with that
of Dammartin (54 km.)_, stands the Belle-Idée Inn, which was the
scene of an interesting exploit in September, 1914. A German officer
and about fifteen men had stayed in the inn after the evacuation of
Saint-Soupplets, when a French patrol, composed of Sergeant Vannerot
and six men, entered. The officer immediately fired at the sergeant,
but missed. The latter then trans-pierced him with a bayonet thrust,
and the rest of the German troop were killed or put to flight.

_At Penchard (61½ km.) turn to the left beyond the town-hall. The road
descends towards Meaux, giving a beautiful view of the town, dominated
by its cathedral. In Meaux we turn to the left to go under the bridge
and arrive at the cathedral (65 km.) (see plan inserted pp. 74-75)._


MEAUX

(See plan inserted between pp. 74-75)


ORIGIN AND MAIN HISTORICAL EVENTS

Meaux was the centre of a little Gallic nation: the _Meldi_--the
inhabitants of Meaux are called Meldois--and afterwards the capital of
Brie. It was joined to the royal domain in 1284.

Religious life was always very active in Meaux: six assemblies of
prelates were held there from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries,
and two in the sixteenth century.

It was the Treaty of Meaux, in 1229, which put an end to the crusade
against the Albigeois. At the time of the Reformation the religious
wars in that region became extremely violent. In the seventeenth
century the diocese became famous on account of its bishop, Bossuet,
who was called the Eagle of Meaux.

The town was taken and set on fire several times in the course of its
troubled history.

In 1358, the peasants in revolt, who were called the _Jacques_, were
cut to pieces below the walls by the French and English nobles.


MEAUX IN 1914

Happier now than in 1814 and 1870, Meaux escaped in September, 1914,
the horrors of invasion; and it was only crossed by some German
patrols. A few shells fell in the Faubourg Saint-Nicolas and even in
the neighbourhood of the cathedral, but no serious damage was done.

The British troops in retreat crossed the town on September 2 and 3 and
blew up the Market bridge (_view below_) also the foot-bridge, further
down stream. The floating wash-houses, which might have served as
pontoons, had already been sunk.

Thirteen thousand out of the 14,000 inhabitants left Meaux with the
civilian authorities. The bishop, Mgr. Marbeau, showed great energy
in organising help for those who remained in the town and for the
wounded that poured in after September 5. In spite of the abnormal
circumstances, a _Te Deum_ was sung in the cathedral for the election
of the Pope Benoît XV.

[Illustration: MARKET BRIDGE AND WASH-HOUSES (Sept. 1914)]

[Illustration: MEAUX]


VISIT TO THE TOWN


=St.-Stephen's Cathedral= (historical monument)

_Beautiful panorama is visible from the top of the belfry. To visit,
apply to the verger (gratuity)._

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL OF MEAUX]

The building of the cathedral was begun at the end of the twelfth
century and continued until the sixteenth. It has just been completely
restored.

The left tower, the only one completed, has no spire. That on the right
is called the Black Tower, because of its covering of slates. The
façade is in the decorated Gothic style. A beautiful rose window in the
middle dominates the three doorways.

The middle doorway and that on the right are surmounted by acute
triangular gablets; that on the left, of a more obtuse ogive, is placed
under an arch in accolade. The church is preceded by a parvis dating
from 1610, which is reached by means of eight steps.

The stone used in the present building has, unfortunately, very little
resistance and is weather-worn. In the course of the revolutions
witnessed by the old cathedral, mutilations were added to the damage
caused by weather.

The three rows of statuettes which adorn each porch are much spoilt, as
are the bas-reliefs which decorate the tympanum.

The great statues which filled the niches have disappeared.

[Illustration: THE MARNE AT MEAUX]

[Illustration: THE LIONS' DOORWAY (Cathedral)]

_After having viewed the west façade, the tourist, keeping to the right
of the cathedral, should go and look at the_ +Lions' Doorway+, which is
on the south front.

This thirteenth century doorway, restored in the nineteenth by
Viollet-le-Duc, takes its name from the gargoyles, representing lions,
which flank it. It is a reproduction of the southern doorway of
Notre-Dame de Paris.

_Entering the Cathedral by the Lions' Doorway_, the tourist will be
struck by the lightness and richness of the decoration of the interior,
which has been subjected to extensive restoration.

The great height of the aisles is noticeable. It is explained by the
existence, in the original church, of vaulted galleries which were
raised above the aisles, as in Senlis and Notre-Dame de Paris. These
galleries disappeared in the great transformations which took place
at the end of the twelfth century and the aisles therefore remained
notably super-elevated.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE NAVE OF THE CATHEDRAL]

The +Tomb of the "Eagle of Meaux"+ is in the choir, on the right,
marked by a tablet of black marble.

The +PULPIT+ (see on the right in the opposite view) was made from
some of the panels from the old pulpit where preached the great
Bossuet. The bishop of Meaux, in spite of his cares at court, worked
very energetically in his diocese and preached in the cathedral many
sermons with that same inspiration that shone through the magnificent
discourses delivered, during his career as a preacher, before the royal
audience.

He maintained strict discipline among the clergy and religious orders
under his jurisdiction. His contests with the Abbess of Jouarre went as
far as a forcible seizure of the abbey buildings.

[Illustration: TRANSEPT AND CHOIR OF CATHEDRAL]

The opposite view shows the further end of the +TRANSEPT+, to which
corresponds the Lions' Door on the exterior. The decoration here is
particularly rich.

Above the transept rose a beautiful spire in timber-work covered
with lead, but as it was in a very precarious condition it was found
necessary to demolish it in 1640.

On the left of the view one sees the commencement of the +CHOIR+, the
execution of which shows to what heights of lightness and boldness of
construction Gothic architecture had arrived. The walls between the
piers are hollowed out by piercings and mouldings; it is a miracle of
equilibrium.

Originally the choir had only three chapels, but two intermediary
chapels were added in the fourteenth century.

_When making the tour of the choir_ the visitor will see opening on the
north into the courtyard of the old chapter house the beautiful +Porte
Maugarni+, dating from the fifteenth century. The name of Maugarni (a
gaolbird hanged on this spot in 1372, by order of the bailiff of Meaux)
came down to posterity by reason of the long lawsuit that the chapter
of the cathedral brought against the bailiff because of this execution,
carried out in ecclesiastical precincts.

[Illustration: PORTE MAUGARNI (Cathedral)]

Almost directly in front of the Porte Maugarni, with its back to the
choir, is a white marble statue representing the kneeling figure of
a young knight, Philippe de Castille. In 1603 his father founded the
barefoot order of Notre-Dame-de-la-Merci. The statue comes from the
church belonging to the convent of that order.

Beside the door is a stone figure of Christ, of the sixteenth century.

One can also see in the second chapel, beyond the great doorway in the
north aisle of the nave, the group (in high relief) of the Visitation
(seventeenth century) and the picture of the Adoration of the Wise Men,
attributed to Philippe de Champaigne. The symmetrical chapel, on the
south, contains the tombstone of Jean Rose and his wife. Jean Rose was
one of the great bourgeois of Meaux in the fourteenth century. His name
was given to one of the boulevards of the town.

At the entrance to the nave the seventeenth century organ is supported
by beautiful arcading.

[Illustration: BOSSUET'S MONUMENT (Cathedral)]

+Bossuet's Monument+, the work of the sculptor Dubois (1907), stands in
the north aisle, near the main entrance.

At the foot of the pedestal, on the right, are represented Turenne
and Mlle. de Lavallière, converted by Bossuet: Mlle. de Lavallière
appears in the garb of a nun. It will be remembered how, after Mme. de
Montespan had replaced her in the favour of the king, Louis XIV., she
withdrew to the convent of the Carmelites, under the name of Sister
Louise de la Miséricorde. On the left are Henrietta of France, queen of
England, whose funeral oration was delivered by the "Eagle of Meaux,"
and the Dauphin, whose tutor Bossuet had been.

Behind the pedestal is a bust of the Great Condé. Bossuet was his
friend, and frequently visited him in his beautiful castle of
Chantilly, and often received him at the Bishop's Palace. His death
inspired the "Eagle of Meaux" with one of his most magnificent funeral
orations.


=The Old Chapter House= (historical monument)

[Illustration: THE OLD CHAPTER HOUSE]

_Leaving the cathedral by the west door one walks into the courtyard
of the bishop's palace, the entrance to which is on the right of the
square._ At the further end of the courtyard is the old Chapter House.

This old dwelling-place of the canons of the cathedral dates from the
thirteenth century, and is in course of restoration. Its curious,
covered outside staircase, which is well seen in the opposite view, is
well known to archæologists.

We have seen already, in the case of the Porte Maugarni, how vehemently
the canons defended their prerogatives.


The Old Bishop's Palace

The old bishop's palace, the courtyard front of which faces the
cathedral, dates from the twelfth century, and was altered in the
sixteenth and seventeenth. On the ground floor are two fine vaulted
twelfth century rooms. An inclined plane leads to the second floor.
According to tradition, one of the bishops had it made that he might go
up to his rooms without dismounting from his mule.

[Illustration: THE OLD BISHOP'S PALACE]

Amongst the first-floor rooms are those of Marie-Antoinette and the
king. Meaux was in fact a halting place for Louis XVI. and the royal
family on their return from Varennes.

The king's room was also occupied by Napoléon I. when he came back from
the Russian campaign.

The town of Meaux is now establishing a museum in the buildings of the
bishop's palace.

The north front looks over a pretty garden, laid out by Le Nôtre
_(to be seen on Thursdays and Sundays. On other days apply to the
lodge-keeper in the entrance courtyard. Gratuity.)_

At the end of the garden, on the ramparts dating from the Middle Ages,
is a terrace. It is reached by a covered staircase placed at the
north-east angle. From there one has a beautiful view of the garden,
the bishop's palace and the cathedral (_view above_).

On the terrace stands a little pavilion known as +Bossuet's Study+. The
great bishop liked to work there, and often, by way of relaxation, took
a walk along an avenue of fine yew trees on the ramparts near by.


The Old Mills

_After visiting the bishop's palace we go through the Rue Martimprey to
the banks of the Marne._

The view is extremely picturesque; on one side are the mills which dam
the river; on the other, is the beautiful +Promenade des Trinitaires+,
with its old poplars. The mills shown in the view below were rebuilt in
the sixteenth century. The other side of the buildings looks on to the
market bridge (_view p. 74_). These buildings, in spite of their age,
withstood the blowing up of the bridge in 1914.

Slightly downstream are the modern mills of l'Échelle, which replaced
mills similar to those of the market bridge, burnt in 1843.

[Illustration: OLD MILLS]


VISIT

to the

OURCQ BATTLEFIELD

(September 5 to 9, 1914)


=FROM MEAUX TO MARCILLY= (28 km.)

(See plan inserted between pp. 78-79)

via +Chauconin+, +Neufmontiers+, +Monthyon+, +Penchard+, +Chambry+,
+Barcy+.

_Start from Meaux in front of the cathedral. Go down the Rue
Saint-Rémy, pass under the railway bridge, then turn to the left and
take the N 3 for about 2 km. Turn to the right in front of a beetroot
factory and follow the road planted with plane trees which leads to
+Chauconin+ (4 km.)._

After having a peep at the little country church, we take a few steps
along the path shown in the view below. The houses which border it
still show traces of the incendiary fires of September, 1914. The
Germans occupied the village for a few hours on the 5th, just long
enough to pillage the dwellings and partly burn them by means of
grenades flung on to the roofs, and sticks of resin thrust under the
doors.

_Having crossed the village, we have before us the buildings and high
chimney of Proffit Farm, situated at =Neufmontiers=. Take the road
which leads to it._ On reaching the level of the farm, some +French and
German graves+ (_of which a view is given on p. 81_) will be seen to
the right of the road.

[Illustration: BURNT HOUSES AT CHAUCONIN]

The German grave is on the left, isolated. It is marked by a black
cross on which is painted the letter A. In the background can be
distinguished the wooded heights of Penchard, in the conquest of which
fell the French and Moroccan soldiers here buried.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: GRAVES AT NEUFMONTIERS]

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: PROFFIT FARM BURNT BY THE GERMANS]

In front of the graves is one of the entrances of +Proffit Farm+. The
view opposite shows a part of the courtyard. This fine farmstead had
been marked down and condemned in advance.

The Germans had themselves specially guided there from Chauconin. They
looted the farmer's house: near the safe was found one of the skeleton
keys with which they tried to force it.

They then fired the stables and barns, where nearly 20,000 bundles of
straw made a gigantic blaze.

_Skirting the walls of the farm, the road leads to_ the +Church+,
where the Germans installed an ambulance during their short occupation
of September 5. The inhabitants who remained in the village were
commandeered and had to carry in the German wounded, on ladders, from
the surrounding neighbourhood.

On the morning of the 6th the French re-occupied Neufmontiers and
captured the ambulance (_view below_).

[Illustration: GERMAN AMBULANCE IN THE CHURCH]

_Running between Proffit Farm and the church, the road slopes down to
the brook le Rutel, which it crosses. At the fork of the road, turn
to the right. A hundred yards further on is the spot from which the
+Panorama A+ seen below_ (6½ km.) was taken, embracing the field of
action of September 5.

[Illustration:

  Road to Villeroy Iverny
  Heights of Cuisy
  Le Rutel
  Monthyon
  Road from Neufmontiers to Iverny Le Rutel
  Heights of Penchard
  Castle Park
  Neufmontiers

A. +PANORAMA OF MONTHYON PENCHARD. NEUFMONTIERS+]

The advance guard of the Fourth German reserve corps had placed
its artillery in the declivities of the heights of Monthyon and
Penchard; the infantry troops and machine-guns had advanced into the
plain, utilising le Rutel and the Neufmontiers to Iverny road as
entrenchments. The first cannon shot of the battle of the Marne was
fired on the 5th of September, at noon, from Monthyon at a French
battery which was coming out of Iverny, and killed the captain. The
fight was sanguinary all that day. The troops of the 55th division
tried their hardest to push the Germans back beyond Monthyon but were
stopped on the plain by the terrible fire of the machine-guns. At the
same time the Moroccan brigade attacked the heights of Penchard and
carried them with the bayonet, but it could not maintain its position
there and was forced back behind Neufmontiers and Chauconin, which the
Germans occupied. This occupation only lasted a few hours for, during
the night, the German troops, threatened with being outflanked by the
Seventh Corps further north, abandoned their formidable positions at
Monthyon--Penchard and the outposts at Neufmontiers--Chauconin. The
next morning the French took possession.

[Illustration: GREAT GRAVE OF VILLEROY]

_Continuing along the road to Villeroy_ we come, after about 2 km. to
the +GREAT GRAVE+ of which a view is given opposite. It contains the
bodies of numerous officers and men who fell in the surrounding fields.
At the extreme end of the grave on the right is buried the well-known
writer, Charles Péguy, whose death seems to have been the one he
desired when writing the following lines, now famous:

    Heureux ceux qui sont morts dans les grandes batailles
    Couchés dessus le sol à la face de Dieu....
    Heureux ceux qui sont morts pour leur âtre et leur feu
    Et les pauvres honneurs des maisons paternelles....
    Heureux ceux qui sont morts, car ils sont retournés
    Dans la première argile et la première terre.
    Heureux ceux qui sont morts dans une juste guerre,
    Heureux les épis mûrs et les blés moissonnés.

_At the fork of the road beyond the grave, go to the right towards
Iverny._ It is within 200 yards of these cross-roads, in the field on
the left of the road, that Lieutenant Péguy was killed, shot through
the head while standing amidst his soldiers of the 276th, whom he had
ordered to lie down. _On arriving at Iverny, turn to the right towards
Monthyon._ At the entrance to this village, near the farm de l'Hôpital,
there is a little pond where the cases of shells abandoned by the
Germans were emptied (_view on following page_).

These cases belonged to the three batteries of 77's which were
established on the right of the road behind the farm buildings, in
a depression of the ground. We have seen above that these batteries
started the cannonade which began the battle of the Marne. Marked down
by the French batteries they hastily abandoned the position.

[Illustration: POND WHERE THE GERMANS THREW THEIR SHELLS]

_Leaving the pond on the right we follow the road to the left which
brings us to the picturesque village of =Monthyon= (15 km.)._

Despite the difference in spelling, it was the patrimonial fief of the
celebrated philanthropist Baron de Montyon (1733-1820), founder of
several prizes for good conduct and literature awarded yearly in solemn
session by the "Institut de France."

We have seen that Monthyon, attacked without success on the 5th by the
French, was on the 6th abandoned by the Germans. General de Lamaze
established his headquarters there.

_On arriving at the church turn to the right and descend towards the
highway from Saint-Soupplets to Penchard._

Half-way down the slope will be seen on the left a villa which
overlooks all the countryside, and where the French staff had a
first-rate observatory during those hard days of September.

The view below, taken from the upper balcony, shows a corner of the
vast panorama seen from there.

[Illustration: THE PLAIN AT THE FOOT OF MONTHYON]

_At the foot of the slope turn to the right towards Penchard and follow
the railway lines on the road._

Two kilometres further, on the left, an avenue planted with trees leads
to the +Villa Automne+, belonging to M. Charles Benoist, member of the
"Institut" and deputy of Paris.

There the Germans installed an ambulance which received the wounded of
the first battles with the Moroccans at Penchard.

Those who succumbed, among them several officers, were buried in the
garden of the estate.

The Moroccans captured the ambulance when they re-took possession of
Penchard.

The villa had been ransacked; the most highly appreciated trophy being
the owner's peaceful academician's sword.

_At the entrance to =Penchard= (19 km.), keep to the right as far as
the town-hall square, where the motor can be left_.

_By the road which borders the town-hall on the right (about 150
yards from there and going past the church)_ we reach the edge of the
Penchard woods where the view on the following page was taken. The
tourist who enters these woods for a walk, or a rest, will find graves
here and there, the last traces of the furious battles that were fought
around.

Penchard was attacked the first time on September 5 by the Moroccan
brigade, which came from the Chauconin-Neufmontiersline, over which
the tourist has already travelled. The struggle was a desperate and
particularly bloody one on the edge of the wood now before us, as
also in the gardens of the neighbouring houses. The Moroccans had the
advantage in this hand-to-hand fight and towards noon succeeded in
taking the village, which they held for several hours under a violent
bombardment.

[Illustration: THE PLAIN AT THE FOOT OF PENCHARD]

But we know that during this time the 55th division's attack on
Monthyon had failed, and the Moroccans, unsupported on their left, had
to withdraw beyond Chauconin-Neufmontiers.

On the 6th the brigade, renewing its efforts, found Penchard evacuated
and went on to the village of Chambry, towards which we will now direct
our steps.

When leaving Penchard the Germans posted several spies in the woods,
their mission being to signal the positions of the French troops and
artillery to the aviators.

[Illustration: MONUMENT OF THE FOUR ROADS]

One of them was caught and shot at the entrance to the wood in the
evening of the 8th. He wore the red-cross armlet and on him were found
pennons and rockets which he used for signalling.

_We must retrace our steps as far as the fork of the road at the
entrance to the village and take the road that runs to the right._

_Immediately after this we come to the crossways of three roads; we
follow the middle one which goes towards Chambry._

We arrive at the +Monument des Quatre-routes+, so called because it
is placed at the crossing of the Barcy to Meaux road with that from
Penchard to Chambry.

[Illustration: PATRIOTIC CEREMONY AT CHAMBRY (_Photo from
l'Illustration_)]

This monument was raised by the engineers, by order of General
Gallieni, to the memory of the Army of Paris.

Every year, commemorative ceremonies take place at Meaux and on
the neighbouring battlefields, particularly at the monument of the
Quatre-Routes. The view opposite was taken in September 1916. The
bishop of Arras Mgr. Lobbedey, who some hours earlier preached a
touching sermon from Bossuet's pulpit in the Cathedral of Meaux, is
here seen placing the tricolour flag at the foot of the monument.

_At the crossing of the Quatre-Routes, the tourist coming from Penchard
continues straight on to Chambry_, which is seen a little further on in
a hollow (_see photograph below_).

=Chambry= (22 km.) is one of the points of the French right where the
fighting was fiercest. It was taken and retaken during the days of
September 6, 7 and 8. Alternately bombarded by the French 75's (which
at Penchard and Monthyon had taken the place of the German 77's, driven
from their first line), and by the light and heavy artillery that the
Germans had established on the heights of Vareddes and Gué-à-Tresmes,
Chambry, as shown by the great number of new roofs, suffered heavily.

The Germans were thrown back from the western ridge of the hollow
into the village, which they were forced to abandon after violent
hand-to-hand fighting in the streets. They then entrenched themselves
on the east flank and particularly in the cemetery, which is seen in
the view below.

[Illustration:

  Cemetery

CHAMBRY]

[Illustration: TOMB AT CHAMBRY]

Driven from the cemetery they fell back on their chief position,
visible on the panorama B (pp. 90-91), whence they made obstinate
counter-attacks. The soldiers of the 45th and 55th divisions fought for
the ground foot by foot, and finally remained masters of it at the cost
of heavy losses. Zouaves, Algerian sharp-shooters, and foot-soldiers of
the line vied with each other in heroism during these terrible days.

_Having entered Chambry we cross the square, leaving the main street on
the left, and go straight on._ We thus turn round the village by the
east--that is to say, on the front that had to withstand all the German
onslaught.

The gardens which border the road contain several graves of soldiers
who were killed in battle and buried where they fell. The upper
photograph shows one of these graves. Some Algerian sharp-shooters fell
there, as is indicated by the crescent drawn on the tombstone placed at
the head of the grave. The tricolour cockade pinned below is that of
"l'Œuvre du Souvenir."

On the slope of the road, to the right, the French troops had
established a trench and some precarious shelters (_see photograph
below_).

[Illustration: SHELTERS DURING THE BATTLE]

This chance installation at the beginning of the war contrasts oddly
with the scientific work that the struggle on fixed positions has now
made common. It seems as though it could not have afforded anything
more than moral protection against the German artillery, which for
three days riddled the position with shells of 77, 105, and even 150
calibre.

_The road followed by the tourist rejoins the main street which lay on
his left as he entered the village._

_400 yards from here, on the right, lies the +CEMETERY+ of Chambry._
Near the entrance, on the left, is a little chapel, whose doors were
riddled with bullets. It served as a temporary infirmary but was very
quickly filled up.

[Illustration: CHAMBRY CEMETERY]

We have seen already the importance of the position held by the Germans
in the cemetery.

Through embrasures pierced in the walls, rifles and machine-guns
directed a fierce fire on the French troops as they advanced to attack
from the direction of Chambry and Barcy. When the latter had taken
the cemetery they, in turn, made use of its defences. The bombardment
growing too violent, Zouaves and foot-soldiers took shelter in the
trench outside the cemetery walls, visible in the photograph on the
following page. A goodly number of these brave men remained there and
took up the space that would have sufficed for the dead of that small
parish for many long years.

The cemetery of Chambry has become a pilgrimage centre. Every year, in
the month of September, numerous delegations come to cover the little
graves with flowers. The photograph below was taken in 1915. In the
middle of the crowd can be distinguished in the foreground, kneeling
and leaning against the wire, Mgr. Chesnelong, Archbishop of Sens;
behind him Mgr. Marbeau, Bishop of Meaux. The lieutenant seen on the
left is the Abbé Dugoux, who had just celebrated mass in the Cathedral
of Meaux.

[Illustration: PATRIOTIC CEREMONY AT CHAMBRY (_Photo from
l'Illustration_)]

[Illustration: CHAMBRY CEMETERY]

_On leaving the cemetery_ one sees in front, on the slope of the road,
the remains of the trenches dug by the French to protect themselves
against counter-attacks from the heights of Varreddes.

_Following the road_, one soon sees the harrowing sight of the
+Plateau+ of Chambry-Barcy, covered with graves. To the right
especially, in the fields which were crossed by the troops rushing
to the attack from the hill visible in the photograph below, one can
reconstruct the progression of the lines under fire by glancing along
the succession of graves.

The principal line of the German defence during the days of September
7, 8 and 9 was established on a position leading from Étrépilly to
Varreddes, plainly visible on panorama B (_pp. 90-91_). The height
shown in the photograph below formed its southern extremity and its
most salient point. Trenches had been made there, supplied with
machine-guns and supported by batteries of 77's.

One realises what energy the French troops needed to advance thus,
over absolutely uncovered ground, under dropping fire. Several attacks
were unavailing; one of them reached the trenches, but the Germans,
who had every facility for bringing up their reserves, which were kept
sheltered in the declivity on the other side of the hill, thrust the
French back on Chambry.

At last, on September 9, the Germans having begun their retreating
movement, Zouaves, Moroccans, and foot-soldiers hustled their
rearguards and descended in pursuit of them into the hollow of
Varreddes.

[Illustration: GRAVES ON THE CHAMBRY PLATEAU]

_Continuing along the same road the tourist comes to a fork. Here he
turns to the left towards Barcy and soon comes to a group of poplars,
whence the panorama_ B _(below) was taken_.

This +PANORAMA+ shows the objective of the French right during the days
of September 7, 8, and 9. This was the little ridge which runs between
Étrépilly and Varreddes, followed by a road bordered here and there
with poplars. This road was filled with trenches and machine guns which
easily swept the uncovered ground that had to be crossed before they
could be reached.

The supporting artillery was in the middle distance, on the Trocy
Plateau and the sides of the Varreddes hollow.

[Illustration:

  Plateau north of Étrépilly
  Ridge from Étrépilly to Varreddes
  Torcy
  Ridge from Étrépilly to Varreddes
  Varreddes Road
  Heights of Varreddes

B. +PANORAMA OF THE ÉTRÉPILLY-VARREDDES LINE+]

The 55th (Reserve) Division, the 45th Algerian Division, and the
Moroccan Brigade hurled themselves against this redoubtable position
for three days, while the 56th (Reserve) Division attacked Étrépilly
and the plateau which stretches to the north. The line fell on the 9th,
but over the whole surface of this plain (which has been called "the
Calvary of the Reserve Divisions") lay numbers of dead who were buried,
some where they fell, others in common graves. These graves, with their
flags waving in the wind, give a veritable grandeur to this landscape
of gentle undulations.

In the view below, taken in front of one of these common graves on the
plateau, appears the then English premier, Mr. Asquith, who was anxious
to make the Ourcq pilgrimage during one of his visits to Paris. He
is seen standing on the right of the road, near the spot from where
panorama B was taken.

_Arriving at_ =Barcy= (26 km.) the tourist will see the site of the
great commemorative monument which is to be raised by subscription
after the war. _At the cross-roads near the entrance to the village,
take the middle road which goes through Barcy and leads to the church._

It was in the little square, opening out in front of the belfry and the
town-hall, that the second photograph (_reproduced on the following
page_) was taken, showing Mr. Asquith interrogating a little village
girl come to fetch water from the fountain.

[Illustration: MR. ASQUITH VISITING THE BATTLEFIELD]

Behind the fountain stands Colonel Hankey, secretary of the Allies' War
Council; beside him is the French officer who directed and expounded
the visit; Mr. Asquith is in the middle; to the right his son-in-law,
and on the extreme right Mr. O'Brien, Sir Edward Grey's colleague.

On September 4 Barcy was the headquarters of a German division. A
few people, among them the brother of the Bishop of Meaux, had been
arrested near Varreddes, in Mgr. Marbeau's car, and taken before the
general. The latter, announcing that he meant to keep their car, told
them to inform the inhabitants of Meaux that on the morrow, at the same
hour, his troops would be before Paris. But on the morrow Maunoury's
army had begun its flank attack, and on the morning of the following
day Barcy was carried by the French troops arriving from Monthyon.

[Illustration: MR. ASQUITH QUESTIONING A LITTLE GIRL]

[Illustration: BARCY CHURCH]

Barcy served as starting point for the assaults on Chambry and on the
line of defence of Étrépilly-Varreddes; very often also as a place for
defensive withdrawals. The fighting was desperate; on September 6 the
246th had nearly twenty officers, including the colonel, out of action,
whilst the 289th found it necessary to attack three times during the
day.

[Illustration: BARCY CHURCH]

For three days the bombardment was terrific: the batteries of
Étrépilly, Varreddes, and Gué-à-Tresmes rained shells on the village
and its approaches.

The church suffered heavily, as shown by the photographs on this page.
In the upper one is seen the hole made by the heavy projectile which
brought down the bell seen in the foreground of the second photograph.
Many houses, like those in the church square, still bear traces of the
cannonade.

Others, less heavily damaged, have been repaired. Indeed, to look at
the farm sleeping in the sunshine (_see following page_), one would
never dream that it had lived through such tragic days.

The new roofing of the building on the left is all there is to remind
one that it was not spared by the shells.

[Illustration: FARM AT BARCY]

_Following the road by which we arrived at the church, we go towards
Marcilly._

Before leaving Barcy, we pass the cemetery where lie buried many
officers and men who fell in the neighbourhood of the village.

The Germans entered =Marcilly= on the evening of September 4, and
abandoned it on the 6th, fearing the outflanking movement of the
Seventh Corps towards the north.

The village was the centre of operations for the 56th (Reserve)
Division. The photograph below shows General de Dartein's temporary
headquarters beside a haystack, not far from the village, whose church
can be seen in the background.

The tourist will have an opportunity of seeing in detail the objectives
of the division when passing through Champfleury, Poligny, and
Étrépilly. The struggle was very fierce and the bombardment incessant
for three days.

_The road crosses Marcilly but we do not go beyond the church_, which
is a very curious one, with its squat tower and rustic porch (_see
following page_). Beside it is the school where a light infantry
sergeant, mortally wounded, still found strength enough to write on the
blackboard: "The 23rd battalion Light Infantry, the 350th Infantry, and
the 361st Infantry have beaten the Prussians here. Vive la France!"

The few inhabitants who remained in the village also remember one
of the prisoners brought to the Pernet Farm, whose torn tunic gave
glimpses of a woman's chemise, trimmed with lace and little blue
ribbons.

_From the church square we turn back about 100 yards and take, on the
left, the road to Étrépilly._

_At the end of the village_ is a +GRAVE+ where foot-soldiers, light
infantry and artillerymen lie buried (_see photograph overleaf_).

[Illustration: GENERAL DE DARTEIN'S TEMPORARY HEADQUARTERS AT MARCILLY]

[Illustration: GRAVES AT MARCILLY (1917)]

[Illustration: MARCILLY CHURCH]

_We soon arrive at the top of the ridge which dominates Marcilly._

Turning round, the tourist will have a wide view of Barcy, Monthyon,
and Penchard; passing to the other side of the ridge he will see, on
the left, the prominent farms of Champfleury and Nongloire.

The view below was taken during the battles of September in a field on
the right of the road. We see a whole section, which thought itself in
safety behind a haystack, destroyed by the explosion of a shell.

[Illustration: SECTION DECIMATED BY A SHELL]


=FROM MARCILLY TO ÉTRÉPILLY= (45 km.)

Via +Puisieux+, +Nogeon+, +Acy+, +Étavigny+, +Betz+, +Acy+, +Vincy+

=Étrépilly= is 4 km. from Marcilly by the direct route, but we take the
tourist round a loop of 45 km. before reaching Étrépilly, so that he
may visit the front of the French left wing.

_Arriving at a beetroot factory we come to a fork in the road and take
the left branch._ Around this factory desperate battles were fought
between the troops of the 56th (Reserve) Division (who, having taken
Marcilly, were trying to take Étrépilly) and the Germans, who defended
this advance guard of their main position foot by foot.

_The road crosses the Thérouanne; 50 yards further on, at the
cross-roads, we take the road on the right which rises towards the_
=Farm of Champfleury= (5 km.). From this front, extending from the
factory to the Champfleury farm, the 56th Division made many attacks
on the strong line formed by Étrépilly and the plateau which spreads
out north of the village, being also successful in shattering all the
German counter-attacks.

[Illustration: CHAMPFLEURY FARM]

Champfleury, very important by reason of its dominating position (as
shown in the above photograph), was vigorously defended, but after two
unsuccessful assaults it was finally carried by the French. There they
were subjected for two days to a violent bombardment from Étrépilly,
Vincy, and Trocy, which made all their attempts to debouch both
difficult and costly.

The farm buildings suffered badly and the rooms of the farm-house were
reduced to ruins by shell-fire.

The view below shows the façade; the officers seen in the photograph
belonged to the staff of the 56th Division which took the farm. The
owners had evacuated Champfleury at the beginning of September; when
they returned they found in the billiard-room (which was smashed to
pieces) a jeering inscription signed by a German officer, regretting
that they (the owners) had not been there to take part in the cannoning
performed on their table.

[Illustration: CHAMPFLEURY FARM]

_To enter the farm follow a little lane on the right for about 100
yards._ Very likely it is still possible to see the various seats
hidden in the trees in the garden, which were used by the look-out men.

_From Champfleury the road descends towards_ =Puisieux=. The view below
shows the situation of this village, in a fold of the ground. In the
background, at the summit of the plateau, is seen the farm of Nogeon,
which will be visited in the course of the excursion.

On the tourist's left, and outside the limits of the photograph, is a
depression beyond which, in a position similar to Champfleury (_see
panorama_ D, _pp. 106-107_), appears the farm of Nongloire.

From the plateau on which stands this farm the French artillery
hammered Champfleury and the Étrépilly position.

[Illustration: PUISIEUX SEEN FROM CHAMPFLEURY]

On the right, also outside the photograph, is the +farm of Poligny+,
_towards which we go, turning to the right, in Puisieux, into the
Rue de Poligny_. The view below was taken from the Poligny road in
September, 1914. In it are seen guns, cartridges, and machine-gun belts
abandoned on the battlefield, and a French drum, which latter doubtless
sounded the charge when the troops of the Seventh Corps, starting
from Puisieux, and supported by the 56th Division coming down from
Champfleury, went to attack the farm.

The struggle was desperate, for Poligny, like Champfleury, was an
advanced position of the Vincy-Étrépilly line, and the Germans defended
it to the utmost. Before leaving they set it on fire.

[Illustration: DÉBRIS OF THE BATTLE IN FRONT OF PUISIEUX]

The view below shows to what a lamentable condition this large farm was
reduced by bombardment and incendiarism.

Only a part of the courtyard can be seen here, but all the buildings
belonging to the farm, including the beetroot factory, are in the same
state.

From Poligny the Germans fell back on their positions on the Étrépilly
Plateau, which is in the background of the photograph, and the farm
became a valuable point of support for the Seventh French Corps.

[Illustration: POLIGNY FARM]

The German battery defending Poligny could not withdraw in its
entirety, the fire of the French 75's having destroyed at least one of
the field-pieces, of which a photograph is given below.

_After this visit the tourist will return to the Puisieux Road (8½ km.)
following the road, he came by, and crossing the village by an S-shaped
route, leave the church on the right._

On the French front Puisieux formed the connecting point between the
right (group Lamaze) and the centre (Seventh Corps). It received many
shells from the batteries of 77's established on the Vincy-Étrépilly
line and from the heavy howitzers of the Trocy Plateau.

[Illustration: GERMAN FIELD-PIECE DESTROYED NEAR POLIGNY]

_Having passed the church, the tourist arrives at a little square, with
several roads opening into it. He takes the one on the right_, which
leads him to the plateau that dominates Puisieux on the north. On the
left can be seen the distillery of Fosse-Martin; straight ahead is the
Nogeon Farm with its beetroot factory.

West of +Fosse-Martin+, in a room in the Castle of Brégy, the flag of
the 72nd Thuringian regiment was found, abandoned.

[Illustration: NOGEON FARM]

The French artillery, installed between Fosse-Martin and Bovillancy,
maintained a terrific fight against the German batteries at Étavigny,
Vincy, and Trocy. Colonel Nivelle, future generalissimo, commanded the
Fifth Artillery Regiment which had just done great deeds in Alsace, and
whose daring and enthusiasm shone forth anew on the plateau of Multien.

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ACY]

=Nogeon Farm= was one of the principal centres of battle during the
days of September 6 to 9. Taken by the French after a hand-to-hand
fight, it was subjected to several counter-attacks which, supported by
violent bombardments, completely destroyed it. But labour soon claims
its rights, and the view above shows the rebuilding in progress.

From Nogeon, and the trenches around it, the troops of the Seventh
Corps gained Acy and attempted to reach Vincy. The progression towards
this last position, over open ground swept by an intense cannonade,
was particularly difficult. Many actions took place at night. It was
during one of these, in a bayonet charge on September 7, that the
soldier Guillemard, having transfixed with his bayonet the officer
standard-bearer, captured a flag belonging to the 36th Magdebourg
Fusiliers, decorated with the Iron Cross in 1870. Guillemard received
the Military Medal from the hands of General Gallieni.

The young fellow shook with emotion during the ceremony, and the
general said good-humouredly: "Now then, embrace me and imagine I'm a
pretty girl."

[Illustration: ACY CHURCH]

_From Nogeon the road descends to_ =Acy-en-Multien= (14½ km.) of which
the slender steeple can be seen.

_We cross the Gergogne and go through the village, following the
High Street_ up to the twelfth and thirteenth century church, which
is classed as an historical monument. This church came practically
unscathed through the struggle which drenched the village with blood.

[Illustration: SAFE DYNAMITED BY THE GERMANS]

Acy's situation in the hollow of a valley robbed its steeple of all
value as an observatory; it was therefore respected by the artillery on
both sides.

After glancing around the interior of the old church, with its squat
pillars, shown in the above view, _we go on along the High Street_,
passing the town-hall.

Opposite is a photograph of the town-hall safe, which was blown up by
the Germans during their occupation of the place.

_A little further on is the cemetery_, in front of which is a big
military grave.

Acy's churchyard was much too small to hold all the heroes who fell on
the territory belonging to that parish.

In front of the cemetery, on the other side of the road, stands the
castle where the Germans quartered themselves.

The view opposite gives but a slight idea of the state in which it was
found by its owners.

[Illustration: ROOM IN THE CASTLE WHERE THE GERMANS SLEPT]

The park was placed in a state of defence and the Germans made a
tenacious resistance there.

_The tourist will now take the road in front of the cemetery which
skirts the castle railings. Then turning to the left he will follow the
zig-zag road which climbs the Étavigny Plateau._

[Illustration: ACY SEEN FROM THE HEIGHTS OF ÉTAVIGNY]

The above panorama was taken from the last turn of the climbing path
and gives a good view of the valley in which Acy is built.

Here we can follow the course of the battle: the French held the Nogeon
Plateau, the Germans the valley and the heights where the tourist
stands. Troops belonging to the Seventh Corps descended on Acy from
Nogeon and came up in front of the village, others slipped along the
Gergogne and made a flank attack.

[Illustration: ÉTAVIGNY CHURCH]

After furious fighting in the streets, in the castle grounds and in the
little woods on the hillsides, the Germans were flung back from Acy to
the heights of Étavigny. They returned to the charge, and in their turn
drove the French back to the Nogeon Plateau.

The village thus changed hands several times, and this terrible beating
backwards and forwards caused great losses on both sides.

_Continuing his road to Étavigny_, the tourist will go over the
position that the Germans established on the plateau.

The infantry and the machine-guns were entrenched along the road
itself; the light and heavy artillery were in the hollow on the right.
They showered shells on the French positions at Nogeon, and in return
received the fire of the batteries placed, as before mentioned, between
Fosse-Martin and Bouillancy.

Arriving at =Étavigny= (18 km.) our attention is at once drawn to the
church, which suffered terribly.

[Illustration: ÉTAVIGNY CHURCH]

The part played in the battle by the church of Étavigny was very
different from the passive one assigned to the church of Acy. Its
dominating position afforded priceless views of the French lines to the
observer installed in its steeple. It was therefore by shells from the
75's that the church was damaged (_see pp. 100 and 101_).

Étavigny was taken and retaken in the course of the Battle of
the Ourcq. The struggle was hard, the Germans making a desperate
resistance, as a serious French advance in this locality would have
meant the outflanking of their whole line. They succeeded in forcing
the troops of the Seventh Corps off the plateau.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Taking the road to the right, beside the church, and continuing about
200 yards we come to the_ cemetery, which is in a state of upheaval
from the bombardment. The photograph below was taken through one of the
gaps.

The windmill pump, on the left of the view, was riddled with bullets.

_From Étavigny the tourist can either return to Acy by the same road,
or follow the itinerary that we now give, which forms a loop around the
northern part of the battlefield. In the first case, the distance to
Acy is 3½ km., in the second 14 km._

_Starting again from the church along the road which crosses the
village, continue straight on towards +Boullare+. Here keep turning
to the left and take the road to Betz._ In the hollow on the left
were placed the German batteries which joined in action with those of
Étavigny.

[Illustration: ÉTAVIGNY CHURCH SEEN FROM THE CEMETERY]

_The road descends into a rather picturesque valley. Through it runs
a small river, the Grivelle, which we must cross, then go through
Antilly, turning to the right on entering, and to the left at the fork
in the road just after leaving the village._

_We arrive at =Betz= (26 km.). Turn to the left near the church._

Betz did not suffer much from the guns, but some of its houses were
burnt by the Germans, notably the Hôtel du Cheval Blanc (_see p. 102_),
which can still be recognised by its signboard.

[Illustration: HÔTEL DU CHEVAL BLANC AFTER THE FIRE]

The castle was occupied by a German headquarters-staff, who left it in
a deplorable state.

During the pursuit the French officers had to abandon the idea of
lodging there: one of them records in his notebook: "The German
officers have left disgusting traces of their passage; we see slices of
melon, bearing the marks of their teeth, in the wash-hand-basins, and
enormous heaps of empty and broken wine bottles."

       *       *       *       *       *

_The tourist will cross Betz by the main street, which is seen
in the above illustration, and at the further end of the village
he will go straight on under the railway, leaving the road to
+Nanteuil-le-Haudouin+ on the right._

       *       *       *       *       *

This last-named town has not been included in the itinerary, although
it played an important part in the ultimate manœuvre attempted by Von
Kluck--that of outflanking the French left wing. The paved road which
leads to it is bad, and the other roads by which one could rejoin the
planned route are extremely rough. Below we give a view of a corner of
this battlefield. It gives some idea of the great plain which extends
from Betz to Nanteuil, where the 7th and 61st French Divisions resisted
with desperate energy the furious attacks of the Fourth German Corps.
The dead horses seen in the photograph belonged to a French battery.
The 75's, fully exposed, supported the foot-soldiers in their efforts
until they came almost into actual contact with the enemy.

       *       *       *       *       *

_After passing under the railway the road rises to the plateau_ and
soon brings us near a commemorative monument, on the right (_view on
following page_).

_Thence it passes through the Woods of Montrolles_, where the 61st
Division particularly distinguished itself on the evening of September
8. Worn out with fatigue, its reserve supplies exhausted two days
before, it yet, by a supreme effort, succeeded in driving back the
Germans.

[Illustration: THE PLAIN OF NANTEUIL-LE-HAUDOUIN]

[Illustration: MONUMENT AT BETZ]

_Having passed through the Woods of Montrolles, we soon come to a fork.
Here take the road on the left._

To the right are the Heights of Bouillancy, where the French artillery
was placed; on the left the Plateau of Étavigny on which were the
German batteries.

A hollow, where runs a river, separates the two positions, between
which the artillery duel was intense, preparing and accompanying
infantry assaults which succeeded one another from September 6 to 9,
with alternate advances and retirements.

_The road then returns to Acy, skirting the wall of the Castle park. We
again pass the church and, on leaving the village, cross the Gergogne.
Immediately after the bridge turn to the left towards_ =Vincy= (35½
km.). The photograph below shows that this village also suffered from
incendiarism and bombardment.

_After passing through Vincy, bear to the left in order to pass in
front of the Manœuvre distillery, leaving the hamlet of that name on
the left. =Étrépilly= (41 km.) will be reached by the middle road of
the crossways, which are about 1 km. further on past the distillery_.

This Vincy-Étrépilly line formed part of the defensive front
established by the Germans west of the Ourcq, marked out further north
by the localities of Betz, Étavigny, and Acy, which have just been
visited, and more to the south, by the position seen on panorama B
(_pp. 90-91_). The Germans had made trenches and machine-gun shelters
over the whole plateau, which stretches on the right of the road
towards the farms of Poligny and Champfleury. On the right slope of
the road one can still see the dug-outs where the snipers sheltered
themselves.

The position was attacked from September 6 to 9 by the 63rd Division
of the Seventh Corps and the 56th of the Lamaze Group which carried
the advance positions constituted by the farms of Nogeon, Poligny, and
Champfleury. They were stopped, however, on the line itself until the
general withdrawal of the German troops.

[Illustration: BURNT FARM AT VINCY]

_To reach the spot where the view below was taken, follow the track
which branches off the road from Vincy to Étrépilly, between the
memorial and the burnt hangar. This is the road we see across the
middle of the panorama._ The tourist finds himself at the southern
extremity of the Vincy-Étrépilly position, on the site of a German
battery which was severely treated by the French 75's.

[Illustration:

  Road from Vincy to Étrépilly
  Trocy
  Memorial
  Burnt Shed
  Church of Étrépilly
  Valley of the Thérouanne
  Heights of Penchard

C. +PANORAMA OF TROCY, ÉTRÉPILLY, LA THÉROUANNE.+]

In the background is seen the Trocy Plateau, separated from the road by
a hollow, in which flows a tributary of the Thérouanne. On the Trocy
Plateau, where this itinerary will in due course lead the reader, the
Germans had established their powerful artillery, composed of heavy and
light batteries, which swept the whole battlefield from Nogeon Farm
to Barcy, taking in Puisieux and Marcilly. Beyond the valley of the
Thérouanne, south of Étrépilly, stretches the position of which the
details appear in panorama B (_pp. 90-91_). The view extends to the
wooded Heights of Penchard, which are outlined against the horizon.

On the brow of the hill where stands the observer, fierce battles were
fought at the time of the attacks on Étrépilly. The 350th Infantry
did once, on the morning of the 7th, make their way into the village,
following the valley of the Thérouanne, but violent counter-attacks
forced them back. They returned to the charge at night and climbed
from the river's edge to the plateau. They were greeted by the fire
of a machine-gun section upon which two companies flung themselves
with fixed bayonets. Two field-pieces were taken. The French troops
maintained their position until ten o'clock in the evening, but
finally, as the German reinforcements poured in, were obliged to
descend the slope and cross back to the right bank of the Thérouanne.

_Returning to the Étrépilly_ road we pass in front of the memorial
raised by the engineers in front of the cemetery, at the place where
the battles of Étrépilly reached their climax. A military grave has
been made behind the memorial.

[Illustration: MEMORIAL AT ÉTRÉPILLY]

The Germans had entrenched themselves in the cemetery, where they
succeeded in checking the night attack of the Zouaves on September 7.
The Second Regiment, coming from Barcy, reached the village and carried
it at the point of the bayonet.

Without stopping, the Zouaves began to climb the height at the foot of
which Étavigny is built.

Their rush carried them as far as the cemetery, and here, met by a
terrific fire from the machine-guns, they tried to keep the position,
but German reinforcements having come up, they were forced to abandon
the plateau, evacuate the village, and return to their trenches at
Barcy. Lieutenant-Colonel Dubujadoux, commanding the regiment, was
killed; three-fourths of the officers and half the effective force fell
in the course of this heroic charge.

In front of the memorial the twisted metal framework of a burnt shed
is to be seen. According to certain accounts, the Germans, before
evacuating the position on September 9, used this shed to burn the
bodies of those of their soldiers who fell in the battles of Étrépilly.
Some of the inhabitants say that to these were added the badly wounded,
whose hurts were such that they could not be removed.

[Illustration: BURNT SHED]

We believe, as a matter of fact, that a large pyre of corpses was set
alight here by the Germans, who generally burn their dead when they
cannot carry them away. But the hangar was destroyed by the French
artillery which fired repeatedly on that side of the plateau at the
battery of 77's installed there, at the cemetery, and at the German
trenches.

In the cemetery lie the heroes who were killed in attempting to regain
it.

_From the cemetery the road descends towards Étrépilly._

_Turn to the right at the foot of the slope into Étrépilly and on
leaving the village take the road on the left; cross the river, turn
again to the left and follow the track which climbs the plateau. After
a few hundred yards the right slope disappears._ It was at this point
that panorama D was taken, showing, from the German side, the same
battlefield seen from the French side in panorama B (_pp. 90-91_).

[Illustration:

  Heights of Penchard
  Montheon
  Barcy
  Heights of Cuisy
  Factory at Marcilly
  Road from Marcilly to Étrépilly
  Farm of Nongloire
  Farm of Champfleury

D. +PANORAMA OF THE BATTLEFIELD OF THE FRENCH RIGHT+]

The road on which the tourist now stands goes on to the heights of
Varreddes. Bordered with trenches and machine guns, it constituted the
principal line of the German defence south of Étrépilly, the advance
lines resting thus: the first on Penchard--Monthyon--Heights of Cuisy;
the second on Chambry--Barcy--Marcilly. In this theatre of operations
fought, south of the Marcilly-en-Étrépilly road, the 55th (Reserve)
Division, the 45th Division and the Moroccan Brigade; at Marcilly and
on the plateau north of Étrépilly, which is outlined on the extreme
right of the panorama and crowned by the Champfleury Farm the 56th
(Reserve) Division.

[Illustration: A CORNER OF THE BATTLEFIELD]

Leaving the trenches hastily dug on the Chambry--Barcy--factory of
Marcilly line, the troops of the Lamaze group, before getting up to the
German trenches, had to cross two kilometres of uncovered ground, under
terrible fire. It was in one of these attacks, starting from Barcy,
that Major d'Urbal (brother of the general) fell at the head of his
Zouaves as, waving his cane, he drew them along. He was brought back to
the French lines, thanks to the devotion of one of the few officers who
survived the attack, helped by two Chasseurs d'Afrique. Because of his
great height the commander's body could not be carried back, and they
were obliged to place it on a horse. The group returned thus to Barcy
under a hailstorm of bullets, where a shell-hole in the cemetery served
for a grave.

[Illustration: A CORNER OF THE BATTLEFIELD]

In the counter-attacks, the Germans as they left their trenches
also suffered serious losses, as one can judge from the preceding
photograph, which was taken in front of the position.

_The tourist will return to Étrépilly by the road he came, leaving the
church (the roof of which was hit by several shells) on the right, and
taking the Trocy Road on the left._


=ÉTRÉPILLY TO MEAUX= (19 km.)

via +Trocy+, +Gué-à-Tresmes+, +Varreddes+.

[Illustration: FARM THAT WAS SHELLED]

_The beautiful shady road that leads from, Étrépilly to Trocy first
crosses a hollow, then winds up the hillside to the plateau on which
=Trocy= is built (3 km.). On arriving, turn to the left and so enter
the heart of the village._

Trocy did not actually suffer from the German attacks, but it was
bombarded by the French artillery. In front of the horse-pond, on the
left of the little church, stands a farm (_view opposite_) which in
1917 still showed traces of the "75" shell which damaged its roof.
Other houses were completely destroyed.

The Germans had concentrated their chief artillery forces on the
Trocy Plateau. Heavy and light batteries were in position north and
south of the village, the greater part being north, between Manœuvre,
Plessy-Placy, and Trocy.

The intense cannonade poured from this dominating platform very much
hampered the progress of the French centre.

The position was evacuated by the Germans on the 9th, not without
serious losses of light artillery, as shown by the photograph below and
that at the top of the following page.

[Illustration: GERMAN GUN DESTROYED ON TROCY PLATEAU]

[Illustration: GERMAN GUNS DESTROYED ON TROCY PLATEAU]

The limber (_shown below_), abandoned at the side of the road, is an
infantry limber which contained rifle and machine-gun cartridges.

The French artillery which swept the plateau hit it in the course of
the retreat.

[Illustration: GERMAN LIMBER ON TROCY PLATEAU]

[Illustration: GATE OF TROCY]

_Rounding the horse-pond, we take the road which runs under the
monumental gateway, a view of which is given above._

This gate is one of the chief remains of the fortifications which
guarded Trocy in the Middle Ages.

It will be seen that the strategic importance of the position has at
all times been appreciated at its full value.

_Having passed through the gate, we take, 100 yards further on to the
left, the road that dips into a hollow, on the opposite slope of which
stands out the fine farm of Beauvoir._

_We reach this farm by a zig-zag ascent which comes out on the Route
Nationale (N. 36). We then turn to the right and go down towards
=Gué-à-Tresmes=._

This little place played the part, in relation to the extreme German
left, that Trocy played in the centre. It was a heavy artillery
position supporting the advanced line of defence.

[Illustration: THE BILLIARD-TABLE OF THE CHÂTEAU]

At the entrance to the village, on the left side of the road, is a
large residence surrounded by a park. It was occupied by the Germans
and converted into a field hospital. In order to make room rapidly,
the furniture was flung outside. It was thus that the billiard-table
was found in the park. A soldier who was evidently a lover of fresh
air used it as a shelter. On the opposite photograph can be seen
a fish-kettle which did duty as a basin: frequent washing being
indispensable during those hot September days.

The façade shown in the view is the one which faces the road.

[Illustration: PERSONAL BELONGINGS LEFT AT GUÉ-À-TRESMES BY THE GERMANS]

A certain number of German wounded died in the hospital and were buried
in the garden; their belongings were left behind at the time of the
retreat, as shown in the opposite photograph.

This retreat must have taken the occupants unawares, for a meal was on
the officers' table when the French troops entered the château.

_At the cross-roads, about 300 yards beyond the château, go to the
left along the Thérouanne. 200 yards further along this road_ is
seen (on the right) the place where a group of German artillery was
hidden. Well-screened in the hollow shown in the view below, several
heavy batteries, for a long time out of reach of the 75's, made
extremely difficult the advance of the French right on the Plateau of
Chambry-Barcy. They also hampered the left, of the British army and the
8th French Division on the left bank of the Marne. In the course of
this tour, we have already seen several examples of the German battery
positions. Wherever the ground allowed of it, the guns were placed in
a hollow, visible only to aerial observers. Telephones linked them up
with the posts established on the ridges whence the firing was directed.

_Returning to the Route Nationale, turn to the left towards Varreddes._
On both sides of the road, which was their main way of retreat, the
Germans had made lines of defence: trenches were dug and furnished with
machine-guns, and light batteries were established as supports.

The whole, which joined up with the defence works of Trocy, constituted
a position of withdrawal for the Étrépilly-Varreddes line, seen in
panorama B (_pp. 90-91_). This was the first stage of the retreat on
September 9.

[Illustration: HOLLOW WHERE THE GERMAN ARTILLERY WAS PLACED.]

This panorama was taken at the intersection of the Meaux-Soissons road
(N 36) and a track which leads to Étrépilly, in the field bordering the
road and where German machine-guns were established in order to sweep
with their fire the Route Nationale and the bottom of the hollow.

[Illustration:

  Varreddes
  Road from Meaux to Soissons
  The Ourcq Canal
  Road to Étrépilly

E. +PANORAMA OF THE VARREDDES HOLLOW+]

It is easy to understand why the Germans attached so much importance to
the Varreddes position.

The slopes west of the hollow (they form the background on the left of
the panorama) were protected from the blows of the French artillery,
and by availing themselves of this protection the Germans could easily
bring up supplies or relieve the defenders on the crests, facing
Chambry-Barcy. This ensured their resistance until the moment when the
general trend of the action forced them to fall back.

After having examined panorama E, _continue the descent towards
=Varreddes= (12 km.). Before crossing the canal_ one can see, on the
right, a '75' shell which has remained fixed in the wall of an inn, of
which the sign has now become: "A l'obus."

_We now enter the High Street of Varreddes._

At the entrance of the village is a certain number of houses that were
damaged by the bombardment.

[Illustration: GERMAN WOUNDED IN FRONT OF VARREDDES TOWN-HALL]

The German wounded, forsaken during the hasty retreat of September
9, were sheltered and nursed at the town-hall. They are seen in the
opposite view. When leaving the village the Germans took twenty
hostages with them, all very old, among them being the vicar. Three
succeeded in escaping, but, for the others, the retreat proved (as will
be seen) a veritable torture. Seven of them were murdered.

On the first day they were forced to march seventeen miles. M.
Jourdain, aged 77, and M. Milliardet, aged 78, taken away with only
slippers on their feet, were the first to fail from exhaustion: they
were shot point-blank. Soon after, M. Vapaillé suffered the same fate.

The next day M. Terré, an invalid, fell, and was killed with
revolver-shots; M. Croix and M. Llévin stumbled in their turn and were
also shot.

[Illustration: TREE PIERCED BY A 75 SHELL]

All three were from 58 to 64 years of age. Finally, M. Mesnil, aged 67,
utterly exhausted, gave in: his skull was smashed in with blows from
the butt end of a rifle.

The other hostages, better able to endure, held on as far as Chauny and
were sent to Germany by rail. They were repatriated five months later.

_After having traversed Varreddes and before re-crossing the canal_, a
tree will be noticed on the left of the road (the 38th on the way out)
which has been pierced by a '75' shell as if by a punching-press.

[Illustration:

  Varreddes
  Road from Meaux to Soissons
  The Ourcq Canal
  Road to Étrépilly

F. +PANORAMA OF THE VARREDDES HOLLOW+]

_40 yards beyond the canal, on the right, are seen several tracks which
scale the heights. We climb the one on the right_ up to the summit,
where the above panorama was taken. This gives a view of the Varreddes
hollow in the opposite direction to that of panorama E (_pp. 112-113_).

Germigny, seen on the right of the photograph, is known through having
been Bossuet's summer residence. The Germans had a heavy battery there,
which bombarded Meaux in the early days of September. On the 8th they
re-crossed the Marne, blowing up the bridge behind them.

The appearance of a French reconnoitring party composed of a
sergeant-major and nine men had sufficed to cause the evacuation of
the position, which, with the river behind it, seemed a dangerous one.
These ten heroes were killed in the course of the battle and buried at
Germigny. On the 9th, the Marne was crossed on a pontoon bridge built
by British engineers, under fire, whose heroic tenacity triumphed after
seventeen fruitless attempts.

The Germans, attacked besides on the heights where the tourist now
stands, were obliged to retire rapidly from the hollow by the Soissons
Road, under fire from the French batteries.

_On the crest of the hill a track crosses the ascending one, near two
isolated walnut-trees._ On the right this road goes to Étrépilly; it
constituted the German line of defence which is the subject of panorama
B (_pp. 90-91_).

_The tourist will go to the left between the two walnut-trees_ and
explore the crest which formed the redoubtable position occupying the
background of the view on p. 89. It was well provided with trenches,
machine-guns and light batteries, and all attacks against it failed,
until September 9.

_Turning again to the left 1 km. further on, at the first fork in the
road, the reader will follow a little path which brings him back to the
Route Nationale at the point where he left it. The walk takes about
30 minutes._ The two paths, by which the ascent and descent have been
made, served the Germans as channels for bringing up supplies. Their
rearguard, which disputed the ground foot by foot, was routed there by
a bayonet attack.

_We now return towards Meaux._ The retreating Germans followed this
road, but in a contrary direction and pursued by the French shells.

At the highest point, on the right, is seen the trunk of a tree
decapitated by artillery fire, at the top of which the workmen of the
entrenched camp of Paris have fixed a branch to form a cross: humble
and touching tribute to the brave men killed in going up to the attack.

Before arriving at Meaux we have a beautiful view of the town. _We
pass under the railway; then, on the right, take the N. 3 or Rue du
Faubourg-Saint-Nicolas, which brings us back to the +Cathedral+ (19
km.)._



II

THE MARSHES OF SAINT-GOND

COULOMMIERS-PROVINS-SEZANNE


=FROM MEAUX TO COULOMMIERS= (44 km.)

(See map opposite)


FROM MEAUX TO CRÉCY-EN-BRIE

_Leaving Meaux Cathedral by the Rue Saint-Étienne, which skirts it and
is continued by the Rue Saint-Nicolas, turn to the right 100 yards
beyond the apse of the cathedral into the Rue du Grand-Cerf in order to
gain the "Pont du Marché." After crossing it, keep straight on along
the Rue du Marché, leaving on the right the market where the famous
Brie cheeses are sold wholesale. Take the Rue Cornillon and the Rue du
Faubourg-Cornillon, and at the top of the slope, look back in order to
have a general view of Meaux, dominated by its cathedral. On leaving
the town continue straight along N. 36 to =Couilly= (9 km.) where we
reach the valley of the Grand-Morin._

(The quickest road from Couilly to Crécy-en-Brie is N. 34, which turns
to the left into the paved street of Couilly before arriving at the
bridge, but the prettiest road is that indicated to the tourist, on the
opposite bank of the Morin.)

_Make for =Saint-Germain=, traversing the bridge and the
level-crossing, and turn to the left immediately beyond the railway
into the Rue de la Gare. Turn to the left again into the Rue de
Villiers, which is bordered by telegraph poles. The road follows the
railway which is on the left._

On the other side of the valley are to be seen the red-tiled roofs of
the modern buildings of the "Home" for actors, built on the site of
the old Abbey of Pont-aux-Dames. This abbey, which was founded in the
thirteenth century, was destroyed during the Revolution. Louis XIV.
sent the abbess of Port-Royal-des-Champs to end her days there, after
the destruction of the famous abbey of the Jansenists. Mme. du Barry,
favourite of Louis XV., after an eventful life, became acquainted with
the calm and self-denial of Pont-aux-Dames, when the king was no more.

[Illustration: BRIDGE OVER THE MORIN]

The "Home" was founded in 1903 by the comedian Coquelin _aîné_, who
died there in 1909 while on one of his visits to it. He is buried
in the grounds, where is also his statue. Pont-aux-Dames has room
for eighty inmates. There is also an open-air theatre used for
performances. It is open to visitors on Thursdays and Sundays from
2 p.m. to 5 p.m. (one franc each). The entrance is 1,200 yards from
Couilly bridge on N. 34 which follows the right bank of the river.

[Illustration]

_The road draws nearer to the Morin, and the railway changes over to
the right bank. One hundred yards beyond "La Picardie" (little rustic
inn) we arrive at =Villiers-sur-Morin= and turn sharply to the left at
the first street._

At this crossing, standing against the house on the right, is a
pyramidical monument to the memory of the painter Amédée Servin, who
died in 1884. His medallion was engraved by Falguière. It was Servin,
together with the native poet Jules Grenier, who introduced the Valley
of the Morin to the public. A little school of artists was formed
there, which recalled that of Barbizon in the Forest of Fontainebleau,
or that on the banks of the Yvette. The part known by the name of the
"Morin des Peintres" (the artists' Morin) stretches from Couilly to
Tigeaux (south of Crécy); many artists visit there each year.

_Traverse the bridge over the Morin and the level-crossing.
Immediately afterwards turn to the right (14½ km.) into N. 34 towards
Crécy-en-Brie_.

[Illustration: PLAN OF CRÉCY]

The Grand Morin was crossed on September 6, 1914, at the beginning of
the battle of the Marne by the British troops, who utilised the several
bridges between Villiers-sur-Morin and Coulommiers. The Germans offered
but a feeble resistance; their forces at this point consisting merely
of a screen of cavalry supported by a few artillery and infantry units.
Their task was to cover the retreat northwards of the two army corps
recalled by Von Kluck to resist the flank attack of the Army of Paris,
to the north-west of Meaux.

_Shortly before arriving at Crécy, the road traverses, by means of a
level-crossing, the little railway line already met with several times
since Couilly and which has its terminus at Crécy._


CRÉCY-EN-BRIE

The entrance to the burgh (16½ km.) is marked by a little brick belfry
surmounting a tower which belongs to the ancient fortifications. That
part of the Morin which flows at its foot forms the boundary of the
town, and also served as moat to the ramparts erected in the Middle
Ages. Of these important defences only a few scattered towers remain of
the original fifty-five.

From the bridge we have, on the right, a picturesque view of the
tanneries shown in the photograph opposite.

[Illustration: ARM OF THE MORIN]

_The tourist would be advised not to cross the bridge, but to follow on
the left the pretty avenue, planted with trees, which encircles Crécy
on the outside._

[Illustration: FOOT-BRIDGE OVER AN ARM OF THE MORIN]

_This avenue, however, is not accessible to motors. The latter may take
the Rue du Marché, the Rue Serret, and on the left of the Place Camus,
the Rue Barrois and its continuation, the Rue Jean-de-Compans. At the
bridge over the Morin, at the extremity of the town (view opposite),
the motor may await the tourists, who will rejoin it by the pretty
shady walk beside the Morin shown in the photograph above._

[Illustration: BRIDGE OVER AN ARM OF THE MORIN]

Each one of the houses bordering the river has communication with
the boulevard by means of a foot-bridge, some of which are also
draw-bridges. The little wash-houses fitted up in the lower storeys of
the houses add to the picturesqueness of this rustic corner.

[Illustration: TOWER BELONGING TO THE OLD WALL]

The ramparts, which in former times were reflected in the Morin, have
almost disappeared; the opposite view depicts a remaining vestige: and
during the walk others will be noticed.

_Having returned to the car and if it is intended to visit the
beautiful church of La Chapelle-sur-Crécy (see pp. 120-121), cross the
bridge over the Morin and follow the Route Nationale (N. 34) for about
1 km._

(This is also the road to take if, instead of following the tour by
the valley of the Grand Morin described hereafter, tourists prefer to
go straight on to Coulommiers, 14 km. from Crécy. The tour is much
prettier, but 11 km. longer.)

_After visiting La Chapelle-sur-Crécy return to Crécy by the same road,
cross the bridge over the Morin, follow the Rues Jean-de-Compans and
Barrois and come to a halt at the Place Camus. Take a few steps towards
the church in the Rue de Penthièvre_ and glance at the arm of the Morin
which crosses the street. On the right is an old mill; on the left the
charming scene reproduced below; in front is the tower of the church,
and its most interesting part.

_Returning to the car, take the Rue Dam-Gilles, immediately to the left
of the Rue de Penthièvre._

[Illustration: ARM OF THE MORIN]

_Cross the Morin (19½ km.), then at the fork in the road 50 yards
beyond the bridge turn to the left into G. C. 20 towards Tigeaux and
Dammartin._


La Chapelle-sur-Crécy

[Illustration: THE CHURCH SEEN FROM THE ROAD]

This beautiful church, classed as an historical monument, dates from
the thirteenth century and was restored in the fifteenth thanks to the
generosity of Jeanne de Navarre, wife of Philippe de Bel.

Its situation, on a lower level than the Route Nationale, has
necessitated the raising of the ground. At the present time, the height
of the building is diminished by about ten feet, a fact which destroys
the balance of its proportions.

This impression strikes us at once on entering, for the door is almost
reduced to its ogival part. In the interior, as the view below shows,
there is a flagrant disproportion between the height of the pillars and
that of the arcades.

The triforium encircling the nave and choir is worthy of notice. The
capitals of the pillars are finely carved; and the grimacing heads,
which terminate the vaulting shafts of the choir supporting the ribs of
the vault, show spirited workmanship. Before the window, at the end of
the church and on the right on entering, is a group in painted stone
dating from the Renaissance. It is reproduced in the photograph on p.
121.

[Illustration: NAVE OF THE CHURCH]


FROM CRÉCY-EN-BRIE TO COULOMMIERS

VIA THE VALLEY OF THE GRAND MORIN

[Illustration: GROUP REPRESENTING THE TRINITY]

_Turning to the left on leaving Crécy into G. C. 20, beyond the bridge
over the Morin, a mill is to be seen on an island in the middle of
the river. Then, on the other bank, standing out boldly against the
sky line, is the church of La Chapelle-sur-Crécy. Leaving the houses
behind, telegraph posts begin to mark the road, and on following them
we soon reach =Tigeaux= (24 km.), through which we pass to arrive at
=Dammartin=. Enter the latter and turn to the left beyond the cemetery.
Go up towards the church (26½ km.), but skirt it and leave to on
the left hand. Take the first road to the left beyond the church,
and follow the wall of the castle park. A little before the end of
the wall, take on the right the "Chemin Vicinal" to Guérard, which
dominates the Valley of the Morin. This road rejoins the railway,
and fringes it, leaving it on the right. A pretty descent through
woods leads down to the valley. When the road begins to mount, before
arriving at Guérard, take the road which goes up on the right (31 km.),
but without entering the village. 800 yards further on, at the cross
roads, turn to the left towards =La Celle=, through which we pass (32
km.)._

We leave on the left, in La Celle, the road which crosses the Morin,
and which, after following the right bank, rejoins, by way of Tresmes
and near Pommeuse (6 km. further on), D 16 coming from Faremoutiers.
We advise tourists to take the latter (D. 16) in order to give more
variety to the tour by climbing the height above the river.

_After passing through the lower part of La Celle, the road begins to
mount, traverses a level-crossing, and then by a series of zig-zags
reaches the height on which the other part of the village of La
Celle is built. Turn to the left in the Grand'rue (D. 16) towards
=Faremoutiers=, whose church, surmounted by a tiny steeple, may be
perceived in the distance. On arriving at the Place du Marché at
Faremoutiers, turn to the left into the Rue de Moutiers, then to the
right into the Avenue de Garenne, which runs between the church and the
town-hall, and descend into the valley._

Faremoutiers was the "moûtiers" (monastery) of Sainte-Fare, who founded
a convent there in the sixth century. Among its abbesses was a daughter
of Charlemagne. The nuns, who were much talked of, belonged to the
Order of St. Benedict. They had also many disputes with the bishops of
Meaux. The monastic building was destroyed during the Revolution.

_Still following D. 16, traverse a rather dangerous level-crossing,
after which turn to the right towards =Pommeuse=. At the cross roads
preceding the village, turn to the left, thus leaving the church on
the right. Cross the Grand-Morin, and 50 yards farther on, turn to the
right (38 km.). It is here that we once again meet the road which we
crossed at La Celle, and which follows the right bank of the Morin._

At Pommeuse, during the short German occupation at the beginning of
September, 1914, the inhabitants were obliged to erect a barricade
which was destined to bar the passage of the Morin against the British.
One of the workers not displaying sufficient ardour was tied to a
cart-wheel.

_D. 16 leaving =Mouroux= on the right joins N. 34 coming from Crécy;
turn to the right towards =Coulommiers= (44 km.)._

[Illustration: COULOMMIERS]


COULOMMIERS


ORIGIN AND PRINCIPAL HISTORICAL FACTS

[Illustration: LODGE OF THE GUARDIAN OF THE CASTLE]

The following is a poetical version of the origin of Coulommiers. When
Julius Cæsar arrived in the region, a tower dominating a few huts stood
on the site of the present town. A large number of doves had made their
nests in this tower, and flew around it, a fact which caused the spot
to be known as _Castrum Columbarium_, from which is derived Coulommiers
(the inhabitants are called Columériens).

Coulommiers developed greatly under the Counts of Champagne. The tower
was surrounded by ramparts, and protected by a moat fed by the waters
of the Grand Morin. These fortifications have disappeared, only a few
fragments, situated in the Avenue Victor-Hugo, remaining. Coulommiers
was occupied by the English in the fifteenth century, by the Russians
in 1814, and by the Germans in 1870.

On September 4, 1914, the retreating British army abandoned
Coulommiers, from which the greater part of the population had fled,
barely 600 inhabitants remaining in the town. The Germans entered on
the 5th and remained until the morning of the 7th. During this short
stay they pillaged methodically, and it was owing only to the energy
of the mayor, M. Delsol, 77 years of age, and of the "Procureur de
la République," M. Chatry, whose adventures are related below, that
Coulommiers did not experience the horrors of Senlis.


VISIT TO THE TOWN

_Enter Coulommiers by the Rue de Paris, which crosses the Rue de Melun
opposite the Hôtel de l'Ours. Cross this street in order to follow the
Rue des Capucins, which forms the continuation of the Rue de Paris._

_We arrive before a gateway, on the right, opening into the picturesque
grounds of the old castle. Enter by the gateway on the left of the
principal building._ A German Staff established itself here during the
occupation of September, 1914.

Of the eighteenth century castle, built by the Duchess of Longueville,
only the large moat and a few quaint ruins remain.

[Illustration: BRIDGE OVER THE CASTLE MOAT]

We cross the moat by the bridge shown in the photograph opposite,
and pass in between two little lodges, on which some curious carving
is still to be seen (_view above_). Enter the inner courtyard of the
castle, now transformed into a garden. On the right and on the left
a few ruins are to be seen. The view on p. 124 is of those on the
left. After having re-crossed the bridge turn to the left in order to
take a glance at the ancient chapel of the Capucins dating from the
seventeenth century. At the far end is a rood-loft whose rich wood
carvings contrast with the dismantled walls of the chapel.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CASTLE]

Leaving the grounds, _take the Rue des Capucins again, and on arriving
at the Hôtel de l'Ours_ (where the Germans held orgies as well as at
the Hôtel du Soleil Levant, a little lower down, in the Rue de la
Pêcherie,) _turn to the right into the Rue de Melun_.

We arrive at the bridge from which the photograph below was taken. The
building on the left, of which only a corner is to be seen, is the
town-hall. Further to the right, in the background and half-hidden by
the trees, is a large house, which lodged a German staff during the
occupation. Behind the trees is the theatre.

A little beyond the bridge is a green painted house, 7. Rue de la
Pêcherie, where M. Chatry, Procureur de la République, was held
prisoner. The latter, in his account before the Enquiry Commission,
recalled the incidents of his arrest and of his imprisonment.

"_In the evening I was at the town-hall, when a rough-looking Staff
Officer came up to me in the secretary's office, saying: 'Take your
casque_ (the magistrate's "toque") _and follow me,' continuing: 'You
said you did not know where to find any oats; we have just found some,
so you lied; you are a liar and a swine. Come with me and see.' I
accompanied him to the granary of the town-mill, which had been broken
into and pillaged by the Germans. I remarked that after all there were
oats there, and I became again the object of redoubled insults: 'Swine,
you will be shot.' And when I protested, declaring my ignorance of this
provision of oats, the officer shouted repeatedly: 'Swine, shut your
mouth'; at the same time, I was roughly handled and my arm and shoulder
bruised._

"_He then forced me to go round the town looking for more oats. I was
again insulted and roughly used in a shop where the officer kicked
those who were there. 'If, within an hour,' he told me, 'you have not
found more oats, you will be shot.'_

"_After a fresh search, I returned to the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville,
to be again insulted by the same officer, with whom was another,
tall, pale, and bareheaded, with a monocle in his right eye, who said
mockingly: 'You are responsible for this; it is all your fault.'_

[Illustration: THE MORIN]

"_The first officer then complained that the gas gave a bad light,
and it was in vain that I explained to him that all the men from the
gasworks had left us. He continued: 'We know that the town is rich, we
could ask for one million or even two million francs here, but if at
eight o'clock to-morrow morning you have not found 100,000 francs, you
will be shot, and the town bombarded and set on fire' I replied: 'You
can do what you like with me, but I cannot possibly find you this sum,
all the inhabitants having left and taken their money with them.' I was
then arrested, hungry and dinnerless._

[Illustration: M. CHATRY, PROCUREUR DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE]

"_Shortly after, the mayor, M. Delsol, and the town-clerk, M. Bard,
came to join me. Armed soldiers then conducted the three of us to the
Rue de la Pêcherie, to the house (No. 7) of a druggist named Couesnon.
This house had been broken into by the Germans, and served them as a
lock-up. We were led into the dressing room._

"_During the night I overheard the following conversation which took
place in German between the soldiers guarding us. I repeat it word for
word: 'The Procureur de la République will be shot; the "gay brothers"
of the Company have been fetched to kill him; and the street has
been swept to look nice.' Another soldier replied: 'Be careful, he
understands German and is listening to all you say, for he is awake.'_

       *       *       *       *       *

"_About 2 a.m. the platoon came to fetch us, and we descended the
stairs. Below, in the dining-room, a German soldier played Chopin's
'Funeral March,' and other pieces of music for our benefit. We were
ordered out into the street, and made to stand on the pavement, all
three of us on the same side, whilst the platoon, with arms ready,
stood on the opposite pavement facing us. We waited, thus for fully
twenty minutes, after which we were ordered to join the main body of
the army. At about 300 yards beyond Montanglaust_ (the hill overlooking
the town to the north) _a superior officer of the Death's Head Hussars
said to us: 'You are free.'_"

       *       *       *       *       *

The preceding minute account shows how heavy and painful was the task
of the civil authorities in the occupied towns.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: CHURCH OF SAINT-DENIS]

(_Leave M. Couesnon's house, and on coming to the Rue le Valentin,
turn to the right and continue for a few steps towards the Place de
l'Hôtel-de-Ville, in order to have a view of an arm of the Morin
bordered by picturesque old houses. Return to the Rue de la Pêcherie.)
We arrive at the Place Saint-Denis_, where is the old thirteenth and
seventeenth century church of that name, transformed into barracks
during the war (_view opposite_).

       *       *       *       *       *

_Turn to the right in front of the church and take the Rue du
Palais-de-Justice which leads to the Place Beaurepaire_, on which is
the statue to the hero of Verdun of 1792. (Major de Beaurepaire killed
himself rather than sign the capitulation of the town decided upon by
the communal council.)


=FROM COULOMMIERS TO PROVINS= (44 km.)

_Leave Coulommiers by the Avenue de Rebais skirting the new church, and
passing it on the right. Cross a little bridge after about 2 km., and
1,500 yards further on take the road on the right (G. C. 66), which
follows the Morin in the direction of La Ferté-Gaucher._

This part of the river was crossed by the Franco-British forces
only on September 7, the British crossing at Coulommiers and in the
neighbourhood, the 2nd French Cavalry Corps at La Ferté-Gaucher.

_Pass through =Chauffry= (8 km.) then =Jouy-sur-Morin= (17 km.). Turn
to the right in the latter village, and leaving the church on the left,
cross the Morin before turning to the left. Here the road passes over
the railway, then skirts it to rejoin N. 34, in which turn to the left
(19 km.) in order to descend towards =La Ferté-Gaucher=. At 400 yards
from this crossing, turn to the right into D. 4 in the direction of
Courtacon and Provins (a line of telegraph-poles breaks off from N.
34 to follow D. 4). The road ascends and gives a pretty view of La
Ferté-Gaucher shown in the photograph below._

An anecdote relating to the passage of the Grand Morin has been
recalled by Professor Delbet, whose mother's estate contains a bridge
over that river. A German general obliged Mme. Delbet, aged 77 years,
to be present at the passage of the troops over the bridge, a spectacle
which lasted seven hours. "Madame," said he, "when you become German,
for German you are going to be, you will feel very proud to have seen
my army pass through your gates. I have, besides, the intention to
order a handsome memorial tablet to be fixed here mentioning this
fact." As Mme. Delbet protested at the idea of becoming German, he
continued: "The French race is degenerate and worn out. As you belong
to a family of doctors, you must know that this is a fact. The French
are done for. I may as well tell you what we mean to do. We shall keep
the finest men and marry them to solid German girls; in this way, they
may be able to have healthy children. As for the other survivors, we
shall ship them off to America."

A few days after, Mme. Delbet had the pleasure of seeing the German
troops re-crossing the river in haste, pursued by French cavalry.

At the "Château de la Masure," at 3½ km. south of La Ferté-Gaucher,
much more tragic events took place, as the Enquiry Commission has
established. The occupants were M. Quenescourt, late mayor of Sézanne,
aged 77 years, with an old servant, and a lady from a neighbouring
hamlet who had come to seek refuge.

[Illustration: LA FERTÉ-GAUCHER SEEN FROM THE PROVINS ROAD]

[Illustration: BURNT HOUSES]

On September 5 several German soldiers and a non-commissioned officer
took possession of the estate. In order to protect one of the women
from the brutal attentions of the latter, M. Quenescourt sent her to
hide in the farm near by. The German hastened to look for her, found
her, brought her back to the castle and took her to an attic. The old
gentleman, wishing to save her, fired his revolver up the stairs. He
was killed point blank by the German officer who then ordered the woman
out of the attic, and handed her over to two soldiers who outraged her
in the room where lay the dead man; during this time the first brute
fell upon the old servant.

_At the cross roads, about 1 km. beyond the spot where the view was
taken, turn to the left, abandoning the line of telegraph poles._

_On arriving at_ +Courtacon+, we cross D. 8 (27½ km.) at the spot
where the view above was taken (the photographer standing before the
police station which was burned in September, 1914, but has since been
rebuilt).

_Continue straight on along D. 4, towards Provins_; on the left is the
group of burnt houses shown in the view below.

The Germans occupied Courtacon on September 6, and immediately set
fire to it, after having drenched the houses with paraffin oil. The
inhabitants were obliged to furnish the faggots of wood and the
matches. The mayor and five other hostages were led away, and guarded
in the midst of the troops during the combats which took place around
the village. After having pretended to shoot them, the Germans sent
them home again.

A young man named Rousseau, a conscript of the 1914 class, was torn
from his house with blows from the butt-end of rifles, and led with his
hands tied behind his back after the other hostages. Although the mayor
declared that the youth's "class" had not yet been called up, he was
shot at 50 yards from the village as a spy.

[Illustration: BURNT HOUSES]

On leaving we may see, if we look behind us, the line of heights
running eastwards from Courtacon to Esternay, and on which were
established the German positions when Franchet d'Esperey's army began
its offensive.

_We arrive without_ difficulty at Provins _(44 km.) after a zigzagging
descent, which_ gives us a charming view of the town (_see pp.
128-129_).


PROVINS

[Illustration:

  N.-D. du Val.
  St. Quiriace.
  Cæsar's Tower.

GENERAL VIEW OF PROVINS]

The Upper Town of Provins dates from the Gallo-Roman period. In the
third century a "castrum" was established there on the hill. The Roman
general Probus, afterwards emperor, halted there about the year 271,
and caused the walls of the fortress to be repaired. Domitien had
forbidden the cultivation of the vine in Gaul, but Probus, during
his sojourn at Provins, abolished this prohibition, and thus won the
gratitude of the inhabitants. This fact has given rise to one of the
versions of the origin of the word "Provins," which is supposed to mean
"the vine of Probus."


ORIGIN AND PRINCIPAL HISTORICAL FACTS

[Illustration: PROVINS IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY]

[Illustration: PROVINS]

The lower town is of monastic origin. In the seventh century some
monks, flying before the Norman invasion, took refuge in the forest
which stretched at the foot of the fortress, and there buried the
remains of the martyr St. Ayoul. The body was discovered in 996, and
a church was erected on the spot. The church was followed by a large
monastery of the Cistercian Order, around which grew up the lower town.

In the tenth century Provins passed from the royal domain into the
hands of the Counts of Champagne, under whose rule it flourished
exceedingly. Many buildings were erected--abbeys, churches, palaces,
and a hospital; also a new wall enclosed the town. Commerce and
industry flourished. Dye-works, tanneries, weaving, and the manufacture
of cutlery occupied thousands of workmen, and the town counted, we are
told, 80,000 inhabitants (there are now only 9,000). Its fairs were
famous and were visited by strangers from all parts of Europe; even
the silks and carpets of the East were to be found there. Business was
carried on by means of money struck at Provins. The "sou provinois" was
accepted far beyond the borders of France.

This brilliant period did not outlast the thirteenth century. In 1270
Count Henri-le-Gros established heavy taxes on commerce and industries
which the principal citizens refused to pay. The mayor, Guillaume
Pentecôte, to calm them, lengthened the hours of the workmen, who
revolted and put him to death. The English Prince, Edmund of Lancaster,
who had married the widow of Henri-le-Gros, cruelly repressed these
troubles. Provins finally lost its independence by the marriage of the
daughter of Henri-le-Gros with the King of France. Philippe-le-Bel
(1284).

In 1870 Provins was occupied by the Prussians and suffered many
requisitions, but in 1914 the German wave stopped at its gates.

Provins is also known under the poetical name of the "City of Roses,"
because of the profusion of these flowers, which formerly constituted
its beauty and its wealth. According to tradition, the red rose of
Provins was brought back from the Crusades by Thibaut IV. The Earl of
Lancaster introduced it into his coat-of-arms, and thus it became the
rival of the white rose of York during the War of the Roses which, in
the fifteenth century, drenched England with blood.

[Illustration: THE UPPER TOWN OF PROVINS]


VISIT TO THE TOWN

(See plan inserted between pp. 128-129)

[Illustration: SAINT-AYOUL]

_Enter Provins by the Courloison Gate and Bridge, and, take the Rue
Courloison which follows. At the end of the street, turn to the right
into the Rue Abailard in order to arrive at the Place St-Ayoul, on to
which fronts the façade of the church of that name. If it is considered
desirable to take lunch before visiting the town, go directly to one of
the hotels indicated, returning later to the Place St.-Ayoul._


=CHURCH OF SAINT AYOUL= (classed as historical monument)

We have seen on p. 129 that a monastery was erected on the spot where
the body of the Martyr Saint Ayoul was found.

[Illustration: APSE OF SAINT-AYOUL]

About 1122, the great theologian Abailard, cruelly mutilated by the
vengeance of Canon Fulbert, uncle of Heloïse, and persecuted on account
of the boldness of his views, took refuge in the monastery adjoining
the church of Saint-Ayoul. He continued to teach there, and gathered
round him as many as 2,000 students.

[Illustration: THE CRUCIFIXION AT SAINT-AYOUL]

Saint-Ayoul was burned, then rebuilt in the twelfth century, and
restored in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.

The façade is reproduced in the photograph on p. 130. In spite of
mutilations suffered during the Revolution, and the inclemencies of the
weather, the great doorway is still worthy of interest.

A Renaissance gallery, terminated by a lantern, flanks on the left the
great bare gable pierced by three windows which surmount the gate. The
whole has thus a very original appearance.

In order to see the choir (thirteenth and fourteenth centuries), the
chapel (fourteenth century) which adjoins it, and the transept (twelfth
century), _go round the church to the left of the façade_. This part of
the building, which appears in the view at the foot of the preceding
page, is now used by the military authorities as a fodder store.

The Roman tower, which rises at the intersection of the transept, no
longer possesses its belfry, which was destroyed by fire, The bells now
used are those of the Tower of Notre-Dame-du-Val (visible on the right
of the photograph on p. 130).

In the interior, in the part reserved for worship, the central nave and
the side aisles of the thirteenth century may be visited. The north
aisle was doubled in the sixteenth century by a second nave.

The most interesting objects are the seventeenth century pulpit, and a
fine reredos, also of the seventeenth century, in carved wood, above
the high altar. It contains a picture, _Jesus in the Temple_, painted
in 1654 by the artist Stella, of Lyons, who, falling ill whilst passing
through Provins, had been cared for in one of the convents in the town.

[Illustration: ANGEL MUSICIAN]

[Illustration: ANGEL MUSICIAN]

[Illustration: RENAISSANCE VIRGIN]

In the lady chapel, on the right of the high altar, is some beautiful
wood-panelling, dating also from the seventeenth century. It is by the
same hand as the carved reredos, and is the work of Pierre Blasser of
Amiens. Standing against the panelling is a delicate Virgin in ivory,
of the sixteenth century, reproduced on p. 131.

[Illustration: SAINTE-CROIX]

To the left of the high altar is a group representing the Virgin and
Christ crucified, between Mary Magdalene and St. John. These statues
belong to the sixteenth century; as do also the smaller ones in white
marble, representing angel-musicians, which ornament the altar placed
in the angle of the church, to be found on the left on entering (_see
photo, p. 131_).

_On leaving Saint-Ayoul take a few steps along the first street on the
right_ in order to glance at the tower of Notre-Dame-du-Val (classed as
historical monument). The tower may be seen in the view at the foot of
p. 130. It was built in the sixteenth century on the site of an ancient
gate. Its construction occupied four years and cost only 1,400 "livres"
(about £56), the workmen at this period receiving 2 sous (one penny)
a day. The church and the cloister belonging to the tower disappeared
during the Revolution.

_Returning to the Place Saint-Ayoul, cross it on the right side, and at
the far end take the Rue de la Cordonnerie, which is a continuation._

It was at No. 17 that the poet Hégésippe Moreau was brought up, and
where he worked as a typographer. He has sung of Provins and the
Voulzie in verses which are well-known:--

    La Voulzie, est-ce un fleuve aux grandes iles? Non,
    Mais, avec un murmure aussi doux que son nom,
    Un tout petit ruisseau coulant, visible à peine:
    Un géant altéré le boirait d'une haleine,
    Le naiu vert Obéron, jouant au bord des flots,
    Sauterait par-dessus sads mouiller ses grelots.

[Illustration: DOORWAY AT SAINTE-CROIX]

_Cross the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, and following the Rue du Val,
stop at the corner of the Rue Sainte-Croix in order to visit the church
of this name a few steps further on._

_Whilst the tourist continues his walk towards the Hospital-General and
the ramparts, which are not accessible to motor-cars, the latter may go
and wait at the Porte de Jouy. This is reached by following the Rue du
Val and its continuation the Rue St.-Thibaut, which brings one to the
upper town. Here cross diagonally the Place du Châtel, follow the Rue
Couverte and the Rue de Jouy till the porte is reached._


Church of Sainte-Croix

This Church was originally the Chapel of Saint-Laurent-des-Ponts (it
was impossible to enter it save by bridges thrown across the ditches,
which are now covered in).

[Illustration: STAINED GLASS WINDOWS, SAINTE-CROIX CHURCH]

It was enlarged in the thirteenth century, and took its present name
on the return from the crusades of Count Thibaut IV. of Champagne, who
presented it with a fragment of the Cross, which he had brought from
Jerusalem.

The church was destroyed by fire in the fourteenth century, and rebuilt
during the sixteenth. During the Revolution it became a saltpetre
factory.

The most interesting part of the façade is the doorway of the side
aisle (_see p. 132_) which is a beautiful specimen of sixteenth century
art.

Above the transept rises a twelfth century tower, whose semi-circular
belfry windows on the lower stage have been blocked up. The upper part
is surmounted by a modern spire.

In the interior, the nave and side aisles date from the thirteenth
century, but the vaulting has been restored in recent times. It is
noticeable that the pillars have not their normal height. The reason is
that the level of the ground had to be very much raised, in order to
protect the church from the floods, which were so frequent before the
construction of the "Fausse Rivière" which now drains the town.

[Illustration: PILLAR, SAINTE-CROIX CHURCH]

As at Saint-Ayoul, the north aisle was doubled in the sixteenth
century. This part of the church is interesting on account of its
moulded pillars whose carved capitals represent fantastic animals, as
may be seen in the opposite photograph.

The choir, which was rebuilt towards the middle of the sixteenth
century, is surrounded by a double ambulatory, and the screen which
shuts it off is a beautiful piece of wrought-iron work.

A chapel terminates the apse, where are to be seen three windows of
gray-toned stained glass, also dating from the sixteenth century.
In the photograph above is the one on the left of the chapel; it
represents the Annunciation.

[Illustration: CAPITAL OF PILLAR, SAINTE-CROIX CHURCH]

The baptistery (_in the left angle of the church on entering_) is
closed off by a railing which may be perceived in the above view. It
contains an interesting thirteenth century font, on which are carved a
series of figures taking part in a baptismal procession (_see p. 134_).

[Illustration: LECTERN, SAINTE-CROIX]

[Illustration: STOUP, SAINTE-CROIX]

Beside the railing of the baptistery is a fine wrought iron lectern,
dating from the seventeenth century and reproduced in the opposite
photograph.

Worthy of notice also is a small stone stoup, dating from the twelfth
century, which stands at the entrance to the south aisle (photograph
opposite).

_On leaving Sainte-Croix, turn to the right into the Rue Sainte-Croix;
then take the first street on the left. At the end of this is the Rue
de la Bibliothèque, on the right of which is the_ entrance to a public
garden left to the town by M. Garnier. _Before entering it, take a few
steps to the left_ as far as the little river, le Durteint, which,
flowing between houses, forms a picturesque sight.

_Cross the garden_, in the middle of which is the former residence of
the donor, now transformed into a public library and museum. Passing
alongside a monument to the memory of the sons of Provins killed in
action, _we leave the garden by the little entrance opening on to the
Boulevard d'Aligre_. This boulevard, constructed on the site of the
ramparts, forms a pretty walk. On the other side of it, opposite the
"Jardin Garnier," is the mineral water establishment. The ferruginous
waters of Provins were discovered in 1646; they may be drunk or bathed
in.

_On taking the Boulevard d'Aligre to the left_, we perceive, standing
out on the right, the "Hôpital-Général." _In order to reach it, cross
the canal by the foot-bridge, and follow the path which leads to the
foot of this building and to a gate giving access to the terraced
gardens. Turn to the right in front of the gate, keeping to the wall;
then take a steep path, half-way up which is the entrance door._ Ring
and ask permission to view the "hospital."

[Illustration: FONT, SAINTE-CROIX]


=Hôpital-Général= (classed as historical monument)

[Illustration: CLOISTER, HÔPITAL-GÉNÉRAL]

We must climb a double staircase to reach the upper terrace where is
the hospital proper.

The beautiful view of the whole town thus obtained is alone well worth
this visit.

The hospital was originally a convent of the "Cordelières," founded in
1237 by Thibaut-le-Chansonnier, Count of Champagne. Tradition relates
that he decided to build a convent because of a vision which came to
him one night in his palace in the upper town: he saw St. Catherine on
the hill opposite tracing the outlines of a building with her sword.

The convent was several times destroyed by fire.

[Illustration: CLOISTER, HÔPITAL-GÉNÉRAL]

Henry IV. made it his headquarters when he besieged Provins in 1592,
and he narrowly escaped death by a cannon-ball, which killed several of
his officers.

In 1748 Louis XV. turned the convent into a "Hôpital-Général." To-day
it is a home for old people and orphan children, managed by nuns, who
act as guides to tourists desirous of visiting the establishment.

The galleries of the cloisters, dating from the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, are interesting as showing specimens of very fine
timber-work. The foliage of the capitals of the pillars is also to be
remarked (see opposite photograph).

[Illustration: MONUMENT OF THIBAUT'S HEART]

In the old chapter-room some handsome vaulting is still to be seen.

In the centre of the chapel is a little stone monument, of the
thirteenth century (view opposite), which contains the heart of
Thibaut, the founder of the monastery; that of his wife, Isabel of
France, daughter of St. Louis; and that of her son. It consists of
a carved and gilded metal cover surmounting six panels, each one
containing, under a canopy, a monk reading a book.

The visit ended, _we retrace our steps to the Boulevard d'Aligre and
follow it to the right, crossing the Durteint_. The city wall begins at
this point.


=The Ramparts= (historical monument)

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE TURRET, THE TROU-AU-CHAT]

The line of the ramparts climbs upwards. At the summit is a doorway
pierced in a part of the wall which juts off from the principal line
of ramparts. It is the "Porte Faneron" and formed part of the original
wall which surrounded the upper town.

Under the Counts of Champagne the ramparts were considerably developed,
and in the thirteenth century were made to include the lower town.
The opening in the wall on the right of the above view leads to a
thirteenth century tower. The exit is by the "Trou-au-chat," so called
because it was formed during a siege by a "cat" (a form of catapult for
throwing heavy stones). The photograph below shows the picturesque view
obtained from the interior of the turret.

_Take the climbing path amidst the trees towards the top of the hill._
It is a pretty walk, and affords a good opportunity to judge of the
solidity of the walls, which are dotted here and there with towers.
_The path ends at the Porte de Jouy, where we shall find the car which
we left in the lower town, and which has followed the directions on p.
132._

[Illustration: THE RAMPARTS SEEN FROM THE TROU-AU-CHAT]

[Illustration: PORTE DE JOUY]

La +Porte de Jouy+ (the Jouy Gate) reproduced opposite was constructed
in the twelfth century and demolished in the eighteenth, as its keep
threatened to fall. It comprised two gates, two portcullises and a
drawbridge. A subterranean passage united the two sides; its entrance
is still to be seen on the interior of the left hand portion.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: BRÈCHE DES ANGLAIS]

Continue the visit of the walls _by the outer "boulevard" which is
accessible to motors_. This part of the fortifications is being
restored at present. The way leads past the "+Brèche des Anglais+" (the
English Breach) (photograph opposite), by which the English are said to
have effected an entrance in 1432. The great corner tower, the foremost
on the photograph below, is the "+Tour aux Engins+"; it is 65 feet high
and its walls are 8 feet thick.

[Illustration: THE RAMPARTS]

[Illustration: PORTE SAINT-JEAN]

_We arrive at the handsome Porte Saint-Jean by which we re-enter
Provins._

The +Porte Saint-Jean+ defended the old Paris road. It was built in the
twelfth century, strengthened in the thirteenth, and was surmounted by
a keep which has since disappeared. A drawbridge, a portcullis, and a
double door presented successive obstacles to assailants. The masonry
of the walls is worthy of note, the stones being dressed in embossment,
that is to say, instead of being flat, they are protruding. This
arrangement gave a greater force of resistance.

The guard rooms on the ground floor of the two towers communicate with
each other by means of a subterranean passage; those of the first floor
communicate by means of a gallery.

_Re-enter Provins by passing through the gateway and take the Rue
Saint-Jean._


La Grange-aux-Dîmes (Tithe Barn)

(historical monument)

[Illustration: GRANGE-AUX-DÎMES (TITHES)]

_At the end of the street on the left is the_ "Grange-aux-Dîmes" (view
opposite). An old military building, rebuilt before 1176, it became
in turn a market and then an inn. It was afterwards a store-house for
the tithes of the harvest, and it is to this last use that it owes its
present name.

[Illustration: MUSEUM IN THE GRANGE-AUX-DÎMES]

_To visit it, ask for the key from the guardian who lives opposite, in
the house at the corner of the Rue Saint-Jean and the Rue Couverte._
There is an archæological museum on the ground floor (photograph on p.
138).

[Illustration: CRYPT OF THE GRANGE-AUX-DÎMES]

We descend into the crypt, which resembles the ground floor in
disposition (view opposite), by a stairway whose entrance is hidden by
a sort of wooden trap-door. A great many of the houses in the upper
town have somewhat similar basements or cellars, with subterranean
passages giving access to the open country, for use in times of danger.

The upper hall, which is of no especial interest, is reached by an
outer stair, visible on the right of the façade.


Place du Châtel

_On leaving the_ Grange-aux-Dîmes, _take on the right, at the end of
the Rue Saint-Jean, the Rue Couverte leading to the picturesque_ Place
du Châtel _seen on the photograph below_. The old feudal well on the
left, with its wrought-iron top, is 120 feet deep. Beside it is the
Crois-aux-Changes, dating from the fourteenth century, on which the
"edicts and ordonnances" were posted up.

Beyond the Place may be seen the "+Cæsar's Tower+."

[Illustration: PLACE DU CHÂTEL]

[Illustration: THE HÔTEL DE LA COQUILLE AND THE RUINS OF ST.-THIBAUT]

_Turning to the left on the Place we reach in the north-west corner,
the old_ "+Maison-des-Petits Plaids+" where the provost meted out
justice. It may be seen in part in the background of the opposite
photograph. The curious low roof covers an interesting vaulted passage.
The house is built over fine thirteenth century cellars in which the
poet and songster Pierre Dupont (1821-1870) composed his "Chanson de la
Vigne" (song of the Vine), during a vine-dressers' festival.

In the centre of the above view is the old "+Hôtel de la Coquille+,"
which derives its name from the shell carved above its entrance.

The neighbouring ruins are those of the twelfth century +Church of
Saint-Thibaut+. _Motorists are advised to send their car to wait for
them in the lower part of the Rue Saint-Thibaut at the corner of the
Rue Christophe-Opoix, whither they themselves will return after having
visited the Cæsar's Tower and Saint-Quiriace._ The beginning of the
picturesque Rue Saint-Thibaut is to be seen in the photograph below.

_Tourists should walk to the south-east corner of the Place and there
take the Rue de l'Ormerie, then immediately on the right, the Rue
Pierre-Lebrun._ The house in which this writer lived is situated in a
charming little square, opening off the street.

[Illustration: RUE SAINT-THIBAUT]

[Illustration: CÆSAR'S TOWER AND ST.-QUIRIACE]

_The Rue Pierre-Lebrun makes a bend in order to rejoin the Rue
Jean-Desmare's, along which turn to the right._ From this spot there
is a fine view of Cæsar's Tower and of the Church of Saint-Quiriace
(see the above photograph). The ruined wall seen in the centre jutting
off from the tower belongs to the original fortifications. That piece
breaking off from the "Porte Faneron" (_p. 136_) rejoined Cæsar's Tower.

_Continue to descend_, passing before the "+Pinacle+," the old palace
of the mayors of Provins. It was there that Guillaume Pentecôte was
murdered by the workmen of the town (_see p. 129_). Further remains of
the city wall are encountered, which descend the slope of the hill to
the right before rising to the east in order to enclose the lower town.

[Illustration: THE EXECUTIONER'S HOUSE]

The steep path skirting the wall is called the "Chemin du Bourreau"
because the executioners of Provins lived here. Their house still
exists and may be seen at the foot of the slope, on the wall. Its last
inhabitant was Charlemagne Sanson, who, together with his brother the
executioner of Paris, guillotined King Louis XVI. in 1793. The opposite
photograph of the Executioner's House was taken from the foot of the
hill.

_Tourists after descending as far as the "Maison die Bourreau" should
remount the same steep path, then gain Cæsar's Tower by the path
leading to it._


=Cæsar's Tower= (historical monument)

[Illustration: CÆSAR'S TOWER]

This superb keep was built in the twelfth century on the site of a
Roman fort. The lower battlemented portion was added in the fifteenth
century by the English to serve for the installation of their
artillery. The pyramidical roof was added in the sixteenth century. The
entrance is on the left in the old city-wall, at the top of a little
stone staircase. The guardian shows visitors the rooms, the prisons,
and the bells which ring for the services in Saint-Quiriace. From the
summit a splendid view is obtained.

[Illustration: CÆSAR'S TOWER SEEN FROM ST.-QUIRIACE]


=Saint-Quiriace Church= (historical monument)

[Illustration: ST.-QUIRIACE SEEN FROM CÆSAR'S TOWER]

A pagan temple dedicated to the goddess Isis existed in early times
on the site of this church. It gave place in the third century to a
wooden chapel, which in its turn was succeeded by the present building,
erected in 1160 by Count Henri-le-Libéral.

Saint-Quiriace, a converted Jew, who became Bishop of Jerusalem in
the fourth century, indicated to Saint Helena, mother of the Emperor
Constantine, the spot where the three crosses of Calvary had been
hidden. He suffered martyrdom in 363, and the basilica which crowns the
upper town was built to receive the saint's skull.

[Illustration: THE CHOIR OF ST.-QUIRIACE SEEN FROM THE TRANSEPT]

[Illustration: THE AMBULATORY, ST.-QUIRIACE]

The original tower which rose above the centre of the transept,
was burned in the seventeenth century. It has been replaced by a
vast zinc-covered cupola, which, while giving the church a quaint
appearance, harmonises little with its style of architecture.

Saint-Quiriace is full of historical memories. King Philippe-Auguste
here stood godfather to Count Thibaut-le-Grand (1201); Jeanne d'Arc and
Charles VII. heard Mass in it (1429); and Louis XI., Francois I. and
Louis XIV. came to take part in "_Te Deum_."

[Illustration: ENTRANCE-GATE, ST.-QUIRIACE]

If the church had been finished it would be extremely large.
Unfortunately, in the thirteenth century, the construction of the nave
was interrupted at the second triforium, a fact which explains the very
marked disproportion existing between the choir and the transept on one
hand and the nave on the other.

The fabric of the choir is very imposing. It contains an elegant
blind-storey gallery extending into the north and south transepts (view
on p. 143), and is surrounded by an ambulatory (view above), terminated
at the east end by three square chapels.

The greater part of the church furnishings was destroyed at the
Revolution; but the fine Louis XV. gate of the principal doorway still
exists (view opposite), as does the wood-panelling at the end of the
church on the left (photograph below).

[Illustration: WOOD-PANELLING, SAINT-QUIRIACE]

[Illustration: HOUSE IN THE ROMAN STYLE]

_On leaving Saint-Quiriace, take on the right the Rue des Beaux-Arts
leading into the Rue du Palais._

_Take a few steps to the left in_ order to glance at a house in the
+Roman style+, dating from the tenth century (photograph opposite).
_The tourist will then retrace his steps in the direction of the_
+College+ installed in the ancient palace of the Counts of Champagne;
_then descend the Rue du Collège_, in which, on the right, are the
ruins of +St. Peter's Church+, built in the thirteenth century and
destroyed during the Revolution.

_At the head of the flight of steps leading to the lower town_, beside
St. Peter's, was the "Hôtel des Monnaies" (the Mint), which was founded
by Charlemagne. It was there that the "sous Provinois," so well known
in the Middle Ages, were struck (see p. 129).

_Descend St. Peter's steps, and the Rue des Petits-Lions, which lead
to the Rue des Capucins._ On entering the latter, one perceives the
old "Hôtel de la Croix d'Or," dating from the thirteenth century
(photograph below); _whilst a little to the right, on the opposite
side of the street, is the_ "Hôtel Vauluisant," also of the thirteenth
century. Its front, pierced by four fine mullioned windows with trefoil
tracery, may be seen in the photograph below and in that on p. 146.

_Retracing our steps we rejoin the Rue St. Thibaut by way of the Rue
Christophe Opoix, a continuation of the Rue des Capucins. Here motors
coming directly from the Place du Châtel by the Rue Saint-Thibaut may
wait._

[Illustration: HÔTEL DE LA CROIX D'OR]

[Illustration: WINDOWS OF THE HÔTEL VAULUISANT]

[Illustration: HÔTEL VAULUISANT]

_Before leaving, take a few steps up the Rue Saint-Thibaut_ to glance
at the "+Hôtel-Dieu+," the former palace of the Countesses of Blois and
of Champagne.

In the vestibule (view below), on the left is a Renaissance reredos in
stone. The donatrice (the wife of a bailiff of Provins) is represented
in the central panel kneeling to the Virgin.

The vaulted hall, which follows, is very large, and beneath is a crypt
of the same dimensions.

_This brief visit to Provins and its curiosities being over, regain
the hotel for dinner and bed by taking the Rue du Val, the Place de
l'Hôtel de Ville, and the Rue de la Cordonnerie. Turn to the right
at Saint-Ayoul into the Rue Edmond-Nocard continued by the Rue
Victor-Arnoul where stands the hotel._

[Illustration: VESTIBULE OF THE HÔTEL-DIEU]

_Next morning in leaving Provins make for the Place Saint-Ayoul, and
turn to the right into the Rue Abailard which skirts the church. Here
take the Rue Courloison on the left. After crossing the Courloison
Bridge, turn to the left into D. 4, which climbs in zig-zags the slope
of the hill to the north of Provins. We entered the town by this same
road._

[Illustration: REREDOS HÔTEL-DIEU]

_During the morning we shall visit the field of operations of the Fifth
French Army and arrive at Sézanne for lunch._


VISIT TO THE FIELD OF OPERATIONS

OF THE

FIFTH & NINTH FRENCH ARMIES

FROM

PROVINS TO CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE


=FROM PROVINS TO SÉZANNE= (80 km.)

(See map inserted between pp. 116-117)

+Via Voulton, Augers, Montceaux, Courgiveaux, Esternay, Champguyon,
Charleville, and La Villeneuve.+

[Illustration: VOULTON CHURCH]

_At the top of the zig-zag hill at the exit of Provins is a fork in the
road. Turn to the right; then take, on the left, the road not lined
with trees_ (G. C. 71) _going to =Voulton= (9 km.)._

On the right of the road, in the village, is the church (historical
monument) which dates from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The
interior is worth a visit as the photographs opposite indicate. If
the door of the church is locked, ask the "curé" for the key. (The
"presbytère" (rectory) is the house with a little garden before it,
lying to the left front of the church.)

When the battle of the Marne began on the morning of September 6 the
18th Corps was at Voulton and to the east of this village.

[Illustration: NAVE OF VOULTON CHURCH]

_After Voulton, cross through =Rupéreux=, when =Augers= may be seen in_
the distance, with its much damaged +CHURCH+ (photograph p. 148). The
heights which formed the principal German position shut in the horizon.
The task of the left of the 18th French Corps was to push back the
advance-guards of the Third German Corps between Voulton and Augers.

On the evening of the 6th, the French camped round Augers.

[Illustration: CAPITAL IN VOULTON CHURCH]

Arriving in the village, pay a visit to the church, which is to
the right of the road. Augers was bombarded in turn by the French
and by the Germans, each believing the other to be in the village,
whereas they were merely in the neighbourhood. The church suffered
particularly, as may well be realised by passing through the breach in
the wall shown in the photograph below. The interior presents a scene
of desolation.

_Returning to the road after visiting the church, turn to the right,
then immediately afterwards to the left, and take the "Chêmin vicinal"
leading to the main road from Courtacon to Sézanne (D. 8) in which turn
to the right._

The tourist now finds himself on the principal German position during
September 5 and 6. After a preparation by the artillery, the French
troops left the shelter furnished by the undulations of the plateau,
and attacked and carried the road on September 7. Following up the
pursuit of the retreating Germans, they reached La Ferté-Gaucher on the
same day, and crossed the Grand Morin, thus gaining more than 10 km.

_2 km. after the cross-roads at Augers, the road leaves on its left the
Village of Sancy._

Sancy was not bombarded, the fighting taking place some distance in
advance of the locality; but its inhabitants were obliged to submit to
the law of the conqueror during two days.

[Illustration: AUGURS CHURCH]

The following is the account given by the "curé" of Sancy before the
Enquiry Commission:--

"On Sunday, September 6, about 9 p.m., the Germans were carrying off
the remaining bottles of wine from my cellar, and I was about to sit
down to supper, when a non-commissioned officer announced to me and
to my guests that we were to 'Hurry to the Place'. We were put into
a sheep-fold to sleep. At 5 a.m. thirty of us were led as far as the
barn at Perrelez (_4 km. north of Sancy_). We were given a little
water and finally, to most of us, a small quantity of soup was doled
out. The barn had been turned into a German ambulance. A doctor spoke
a few words to the wounded who immediately loaded four rifles and two
revolvers. A French hussar, wounded in the arm and a prisoner, said
to me: 'Give me absolution, Sir; I am going to be shot. Afterwards it
will be your turn.' I did as he wished, then unbuttoning my cassock, I
placed myself against the wall between the mayor and my parishioner
Frederic Gillet. But two French mounted soldiers arriving at this
instant saved our lives, for the Germans surrendered to them."

[Illustration: MONTCEAUX CHURCH AND FARM]

_Without entering Sancy, continue to follow D. 8 which leads to
=Montceaux=. Turn to the left and go up the village as far as the
church (23 km.)._

Montceaux, on account of its dominating position, had been organised as
a defensive position by the Germans. The French artillery bombarded the
whole village vigorously and especially the large farm whose entrance
is visible at the end of the street in the above photograph. The
Germans had established a heavy battery there, directing its fire from
the top of the church tower. The church therefore received numerous
projectiles, whose effects may be seen in the photograph below, which
represents the chapel in the apse. The right of the 18th French Corps
attacked the village on September 6, on the south and on the west,
and carried it after a violent combat which lasted from 4 p.m. until
nightfall.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF MONTCEAUX CHURCH]

_We retrace our steps and turn to the left into_ D. 8 _in the
direction of Courgivaux_. On the right of the main road, the Germans,
holding the heights where stands the hamlet of =Les Châtaigniers=,
offered a desperate resistance to the efforts of the Sixth Division
of the Third French Corps commanded by General Pétain, afterwards
Commander-in-Chief. On September 6 this division succeeded in taking
the hamlet, but was not able to advance beyond it, in spite of the
fact that the 18th Corps held Montceaux. On the following morning,
the Germans counter-attacked unsuccessfully, and in the afternoon the
French (whose 123rd Regiment had particularly distinguished itself at
Montceaux) hurled their adversaries back on to the farther side of the
Grand Morin.

D. 8 _becomes_ G. C. 46 _on entering the Department of the Marne_.

_Before arriving at =Courgivaux=, pass over a level-crossing, then turn
to the right by the drinking-pond, and ascend the village, bearing
to the left towards the cemetery (29 km.)._ The latter occupies a
dominating position and played an important part in the actions
engaged in by the Fifth Division, commanded by General Mangin, for the
possession of Courgivaux.

[Illustration: FARM AT COURGIVAUX]

The German advanced defences around Escardes (about 2½ km. along this
road) were carried after a stiff fight in which the two colonels of the
Ninth Brigade were wounded. The Germans fell back on the line formed
by the cemetery of Courgivaux and the farm of Bel-Air visible in the
photograph above, and about 300 yards west towards the village.

After a bombardment by "75's," the troops of the Third Corps, leaving
the woods, crossed the open ground at a run, and after several
fruitless attempts dislodged the Germans from the cemetery, then from
the farm, and finally from the village. The French held these positions
in spite of a counter-attack at night, and on the 7th the Germans were
in retreat towards the north.

[Illustration: COURTYARD OF ESTERNAY CASTLE FARM]

_After having visited in the cemetery_ the graves of several officers
of the 39th, 74th and 129th Regiments, who fell here, _we retrace our
steps and turn to the right into the_ G. C. 46 _in the direction of
Esternay. A long climb leads to Retourneloup where_ G. C. 46 _rejoins_
N. 34 _coming from La Ferté-Gaucher_.

We are now entering the theatre of operations of the First French
Corps. =Retourneloup= was bombarded, as a German battery had been
established there to hold the road to the Esternay hollow. This battery
was hammered by the French artillery. The "curé" of Esternay, who had
been made prisoner at the very beginning of the German occupation, was
led to Retourneloup, and passed an anxious time during the battles of
the 6th and 7th. Each time that the French attacked--and they attacked
ten times during the day of the 6th, the "curé" was placed at the head
of the German column which advanced to resist them. He was also roughly
handled and given nothing to eat, besides being frequently threatened
with being placed against a wall and shot. The Germans took him with
them in the retreat and continued to put him in an exposed position
in all rearguard actions. They finally set him at liberty about ten
kilometres from Esternay.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE ESTERNAY CASTLE]

_A zig-zag descent leads down to =Esternay=, in the hollow. Go straight
on without entering, and gain the opposite slope. After crossing the
railway line, take the road on the left leading to the castle (36
km.)._

[Illustration: ESTERNAY CASTLE]

This last is preceded by a farm which still bears traces of the
bombardment which it suffered (_view p. 150_).

The castle, which belonged to Marshal Fabert, is now the property of
the Marquis de la Roche-Lambert. The opposite view gives a good idea of
its picturesqueness. It was occupied by a German staff, and its park
defensively organised. The castle suffered less than the farm.

_We retrace our steps over the 300 yards separating the entrance to
the castle from N. 34, which we cross in order to take the opposite
"Chêmin vicinal" leading down to =Châtillon-sur-Morin=. Pass over a
level-crossing in order to enter the village_, which was completely
destroyed by the bombardment and by the fires lighted by the Germans
before evacuation.

_Turn to the left in the village to_ arrive at the little church (_38½
km., view below_), which by a curious chance alone remained untouched
in the midst of ruins. The above view was taken from the church tower.

[Illustration: BURNT HOUSES AT CHÂTILLON]

Châtillon formed the advanced position of the defences of Esternay.
The troops of the First Division had the honour of being chosen to
attack, and fierce was the fighting in the burning streets of the
village. The 84th Infantry, many of whose officers and men are buried
in the churchyard, gave a brilliant example of stubborn courage. On the
evening of the 6th, Châtillon was in the hands of the French, who were,
however, for that day unable to advance further towards Esternay, being
held up by the defence works on N. 34 (_see panorama on p. 152_).

[Illustration: CHÂTILLON CHURCH]

_Return to the main road from Esternay to Sézanne_ (N. 34), stopping at
the last houses of Châtillon, the spot from whence the above photograph
was taken. The position which the French troops in possession of
Châtillon had to carry was formed by the plateau seen on the horizon,
along which passes D. 8 at the foot of Esternay castle.

[Illustration:

  Esternay Castle

PANORAMA OF THE ESTERNAY POSITIONS]

This frontal attack presented many difficulties, for even if the French
arrived as far as the railway line which runs along the bottom of the
valley, and were able to take cover under the embankment, they would be
mown down when they attempted to scale the bare slopes. The woods which
appear on the right in the above view afforded shelter to the troops
up to the main road, but when they attempted to advance into the open
they were met by a murderous fire. Being unable to force the frontal
defences, the commandant of the First Corps ordered the Second Division
to make a considerable detour to the east, under cover of the woods, in
order to take the positions on Esternay Plateau in the flank. On the
evening of the 6th, a first attack failed, but next morning the Second
Division carried the position which covered the German flank, and
combining its efforts with those of the First Division on the front,
entered Esternay about 10 o'clock in the morning.

[Illustration:

  Châtillon Church
  Spot from whence the above panorama was taken
  Railway line

PANORAMA OF THE CHÂTILLON POSITIONS]

_Once more on the_ N. 34, _turn to the right_. The slope served as a
protection for the Germans, who dug many individual shelters there. One
of these may be seen in the foreground of the preceding photograph. We
begin to realise the difficulties which the French had to surmount when
we remember that after the battle, on the front of a single battalion,
11 officers and 4 non-commissioned officers lay dead, killed while
leading their men.

[Illustration: COMMON GRAVE AT ESTERNAY]

_Leaving behind, on the left, the park which adjoins the road_, we
perceive on the right the great common grave of Esternay (view above),
where lie buried the heroes of the 73rd who fell during the attack. The
turning movement mentioned on page 152 led across the road at about 3
km. from this spot, at the other extremity of the wood. The village of
La Noue, to the north of the road, was carried, and the Second Division
then turned back towards Esternay.

(_Sézanne is only 10 km. from this point by_ N. 34, _but the tour
indicated hereafter, which leads across part of the line where the
direct attack on this town was broken, makes a circuit of 34 km. The
remainder of the line will be explored to-morrow._)

We retrace our steps. A little wood fringes the road on the right. The
German machine-guns were installed there, and cut down the French who
attempted to leave their shelter on the other side of the road. About
100 yards further on the wood gives place to a field, on the edge of
which, at about 20 yards from the road, in the midst of the trees, is
the grave of an unknown French soldier--a pathetic sight. A little
further on, in the field, are to be seen the isolated graves of two
German officers, one of them of the family of the Chief of the General
Staff, Von Moltke (view below). Between these graves and the border of
the castle park many Germans lie buried. The fighting was very violent
here in the trenches which the enemy had dug at right angles to the
road. Outflanked on the north by the turning movement we have spoken
of, the castle and the farm, as well as the park, were carried at the
point of the bayonet. From this moment, Esternay, situated in the
hollow, could offer no serious resistance, and the French entered it
without difficulty.

_Re-cross the railway line and take the first road on the right,
leading into Esternay and to the Place de l'Église (48 km.)._ The
church was transformed into an ambulance station by the Germans.

The following evidence given by the deputy-mayor and other witnesses
before the Official Enquiry Commission recalls painful incidents of the
occupation by the enemy.

[Illustration: GRAVES OF GERMAN OFFICERS]

"On September 6 the Germans pillaged nine-tenths of the houses in the
town. This pillage was organised, objects of all kinds, linen and other
belongings, being placed on carts."

Another witness declared: "About 3 o'clock in the afternoon,
thirty-five or forty Germans came out of the church shouting, and
leading with them M. Laurenceau, aged 52 years. The latter on arriving
at the road made a movement as if to escape and was immediately felled
to the ground. Then, although he lay quite still, he received three
bullets."

[Illustration: FARM SET ON FIRE AT CHAMPGUYON]

A third witness declared: "On the night of September 6 I was with my
two daughters and Mme. Lhomme in hiding under the stairs of the cellar
of Mme. Macé, a widow. Groups of German soldiers kept passing round
the house, and some had even come into the cellar without discovering
us. Between 11 p.m. and midnight, one of these bands having found
women's clothes in a cupboard, came towards our hiding-place. As they
had seen us, Mme. Macé exclaimed: 'Do you wish to kill old women?' To
which they replied: 'No, no harm to grandmother,' and pushed her on one
side. They next tried to push me aside, crying 'Fraulein all naked,'
but could not move me. One of them then shouldered his rifle. I raised
my arm to strike up the muzzle, but he was too quick for me, and,
taking advantage of the space thus disclosed between the young girls
and myself, lowered his arm and fired. Mme. Lhomme was wounded in the
left arm by a ball which then shattered the left arm of my daughter
Marcelle, aged 27 years. She died between 4 and 5 o'clock on the
afternoon of September 7."

_In the Place de l'Église, turn to the right, then immediately
afterwards to the left towards Champguyon. The road_ (G.C. 48) _shortly
afterwards traverses a level-crossing and passes alongside the
cemetery_ which contains the remains of many French soldiers. This road
was the one followed by the Germans when they fell back on Montmirail,
before the French.

_Traverse the long street of =Champguyon= (53 km.)_ which suffered much
from the bombardment, but more from the fire started by the enemy. The
view above was taken in the courtyard of a farm, which stands on the
left of the road, a little this side of the church. The view below
shows a ruined house, being one of a group about 1 km. further on.

Several of the inhabitants were murdered. The widow of one, Mme.
Louvet, thus related the death of her husband:

[Illustration: BURNT HOUSES, CHAMPGUYON]

"About 5 p.m. on September 6, my husband, whom the Germans were
dragging along and striking with sticks, called to me, exclaiming: 'My
wife, my poor wife.' I ran and kissed him through our garden gate, but
was roughly repulsed by his captors, and fell. My poor husband was in
a piteous state, blood streaming from his ears. He begged for mercy
and asked: 'What harm have I done you?' He also cried out: 'Colonel,
colonel.' I could not help him, for the Germans who were torturing
him were from ten to fifteen in number, and kept their rifles pointed
at my throat. They bore off their victim to the end of the village,
doubtless to put an end to him. The next evening about 5 p.m., I found
the unfortunate Louvet. His head was horribly smashed, one eye was
out of its socket, and one of his wrists was broken. He was almost
unrecognisable."

_Continue to follow_ G. C. 48, _then take, on the right at the
cross-roads_, G. C. 46 _leading to =Morsains= (56 km.). Arrived at the
latter, turn to the right beyond the church. This road is the_ G.C.
47. _Cross through the village, and before arriving at Perthuis, turn
to the left at the cross-roads. At Perthuis (58 km.) turn to the right,
and, traverse the locality, turning again to the right on leaving it._
We thus leave the theatre of operations of the First French Corps and
enter that of the Tenth Corps. On the right of the horizon may be seen
the Forest du Gault, on the borders of which the Tenth Corps engaged
furious combats with the Tenth German (Reserve) Corps.

[Illustration: GRAVE IN A SAND-PIT]

_On reaching =La Rue-le-Comte= (59½ km.) traverse it throughout, as
also a level-crossing, in order to arrive at =Le Gault-la-Forêt=
(60½ km.). Pass through it._ Several of its houses were burnt by the
Germans, who also shot the old rural policeman.

[Illustration: BATTLEFIELD OF CHARLEVILLE]

_At the cross roads at the end of the village, turn to the right, then
immediately afterwards to the left, going round the church. After
reaching the hamlet of_ =Le Recoude= (63 km.), the western portion of
which was damaged by bombardment, _turn to the left on entering and
traverse the village from one end to the other_.

[Illustration: CHARLEVILLE CHURCH]

During the morning, on September 6, the left of the Tenth French
Corps, after penetrating the Forest du Gault, reached the road which
the tourist has been following between La Rue-le-Comte and Le Recoude.
In the afternoon it was obliged to retire into the forest, but on the
following day it attacked again, took numerous prisoners in the forest,
and carried the line which it had occupied the day before. It was from
this line that it set off on the 8th to continue its advance to the
north-east. G. C. 47 _continues in the direction of Charleville. Before
entering the village, stop the car at the mile-stone "6 km. 2," 20
yards before arriving at the first isolated house._

_Take on foot the path on the left, which leads_ to the grave seen in
the photograph on p. 155, and which is about 150 yards distant. This
grave made in a sand-pit contains the bodies of 180 officers and men
who fell in the engagements at Charleville. 50 _yards further on_ may
be seen from the path and to the left, the view shown in the photograph
on p. 155.

[Illustration: CHARLEVILLE CHURCH]

The French occupied a trench dug under the line of trees seen on
the left; the Germans were installed on the hills which shut in the
horizon. It was only on September 8, after three days' fighting, that
the 20th Division was able to dislodge the enemy from these slopes.

_Return to the car and enter_ =Charleville= (66½ km.). The church, seen
in the photographs on p. 155 and opposite, was much damaged by the
German bombardment. _Walk round it, then enter._

Although the neighbouring villages of La Villeneuve and Le Recoude
changed hands several times, Charleville, which had been taken on the
6th by the 20th Division, remained in the possession of the French. The
fighting was extremely fierce all round the village, and particularly
on the spot indicated above where the 2nd Infantry Regiment
distinguished itself.

_Continue to follow G. C. 47, leaving on the right the road which leads
through the village. At the next cross-roads bear to the right and
continue until =La Villeneuve= (68½ km.) is reached_.

Numerous houses were destroyed by the French and German bombardments.
The church, as may be seen in the photograph below, is in ruins. La
Villeneuve was where the Fifth and Ninth French Armies joined. It was
occupied by the 42nd Division on the evening of September 5. On the
6th it passed from hand to hand: lost at 8 a.m., retaken at 9 a.m.;
lost again towards midday, and finally re-conquered at nightfall by the
French.

[Illustration: LA VILLENEUVE CHURCH]

On the 7th the struggle was equally obstinate and violent. La
Villeneuve was again taken and retaken. It was only on the 8th that
the 42nd Division succeeded in breaking the German resistance, and
advanced northwards. The principal obstacle had been a howitzer battery
installed beyond the Morin, near Le Thoult (5 km. from La Villeneuve.)
It rained shells on this locality and also prevented the Tenth Corps
from advancing from Charleville.

This battery was marked down, thanks to the knowledge of the country
possessed by the "curé" of La Villeneuve, l'Abbé Laplaige. From
an attic window he discovered, by means of field-glasses, the spot
from which the shots were fired, and pointed it out to the officer
commanding the French batteries. The Germans were soon reduced to
silence, and progress became possible for the 42nd Division at La
Villeneuve and the Tenth Corps at Charleville.

[Illustration: WINDMILL WATER-PUMP AT LA VILLENEUVE]

_Near the middle of the village, take on the left, skirting the
drinking-pond, the "Chemin vicinal" leading to Corfélix and Le
Thoult._ The windmill pump, seen in the photograph above, will soon
be perceived, near a group of ruined houses. It was from the upper
platform of the pump that the officer commanding the French artillery,
guided by the Abbé Laplaige, directed the fire which destroyed the
German battery at Le Thoult, The rising ground of the left bank of
the Morin, which attains a height of 670 ft. directly north of La
Villeneuve, hid the whereabouts of the German guns on the right bank on
Hill 189. The elevated structure of the pump made an ideal observatory
and compensated for the height of the ground on the left bank of the
river.

_Return by the same path to the drinking-pond and take, on the left_,
G. C. 47, _leading to Chapton_. On the right of the road are the woods
of Bois-de-la-Ville, on the left those of La Braule. The troops of
the 42nd Division fought desperate engagements in these woods during
the alternatives of retreat and advance from September 6 to 8. _Pass
through_ +Chapton+ (_72½ km._), which marked the utmost limit of the
direct German advance on Sézanne.

[Illustration: SÉZANNE CHURCH]

_Shortly afterwards, on arriving at the main road_ (N. 51), _turn to
the right and descend into Sézanne_, which suddenly comes into view at
the foot of the hill, and makes a pretty picture. It was to attain this
edge of the plateau, which commands a wide horizon, that the Germans
made such desperate efforts on either side of N. 51, efforts which
were, however, rendered vain by the admirable resistance of the 42nd
Division.

_Enter Sézanne (80 km.) by the Rue d'Épernay, then turn to the right
into the Rue de la Halle leading to the Place de la République._ Here
is the church (view opposite). _From thence we seek out the hotel where
we intend to dine and sleep (see plan, p. 158)._


SÉZANNE


VISIT TO THE TOWN

The most interesting sight is the church (historical monument), a view
of which is given on p. 157. It dates from the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries. To visit the interior, enter by the little door opening on
to the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, and opposite an old well enclosed
within a wrought-iron railing.

The stone reredos, against the wall on the left on entering, is
worthy of note. An interesting walk is to follow the line of the
ancient fortifications now changed into a public promenade. The most
interesting part is the "Mail des Cordeliers" to the north.

[Illustration: SÉZANNE]


THE MARSHES OF SAINT-GOND


=TOUR IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF SÉZANNE= (65 km.)

via +Broyes+, +Allemant+, +Broussy+, +Bannes+, +Coizard+, +Congy+,
+Champaubert+, +Baye+, +Saint-Prix+, +Oyes+, +Reuves+, +Mondement+.

[Illustration: CHÂTEAU DES PUCELLES]

_This part of the tour should be done in the morning, for the region
of the marshes is devoid of hotels, even of inns, and, tourists
must therefore return to Sézanne for lunch. After lunch, we set out
for Fère-Champenoise, ascend the valley of the Somme, to arrive at
Châlons-sur-Marne for dinner and bed._

_Leaving the hotel, re-cross the Place de la République and take on the
left the Rue de la Halle, continued by the Rue de Broyes. The latter
turns suddenly to the left (the street which continues in the former
direction is the Rue de Châlons). The road_ (G. C. 39) _skirts the
cemetery and mounts towards =Broyes=, through which we pass, leaving
the church on the left (5½ km.). On a level with the church, take the
street on the right, and 300 yards further on we encounter the old
"Castle des Pucelles," seen in the photograph above._

General Humbert, commanding the Moroccan Division, established his
headquarters in this castle on September 7, Mondement Castle having
become uninhabitable. It was from here, when Mondement had been taken
by the Germans, that he directed the counter-attacks which drove them
from it. The "Castle des Pucelles" is perched on the edge of the
plateau dominating almost vertically the immense plain of the Aube.
Mondement is only 3½ km. distant. One can easily realise how tragic was
the situation during the days of September 8 and 9, 1914, of the troops
standing at bay at Broyes, and understand the savage fury with which
they attacked Mondement.

_Quitting the "Castle des Pucelles," continue straight along_ G. C.
39, _leaving on the left the "Chemin vicinal" leading to Mondement (we
shall follow it in the opposite direction on our return)_.

_Traverse =Allemant Woods= and the village of that name, through which
we pass, leaving the church (9 km.) on the right_. From its steeple in
1814 Napoléon watched the battle which was raging in the plain below.
_After the first group of houses comes a fork in the road; the one on
the right descends into the plain, that on the left goes towards the
marshes of Saint-Gond._

_Before taking the latter, turn to the right on the crest for a few
steps in order to contemplate in its entirety the beautiful view
reproduced in the_ panoramas on pp. 160 to 163.

[Illustration:

  Allemant
  Broyes Church-Tower
  Allemant Church-Tower

I. +PANORAMA OF ALLEMANT+

  This part of
  the panorama
  fits on to
  the right of
  panorama II (p.
  161).]

The plain which stretches at our feet, as far as the eye can reach,
right up to the Aube, and of which the panoramas on pages 160 to 163
give a good idea, was the stake in the battle which for five days
engaged the army of Foch and those of Von Bulow and Von Hausen. The
heights whose crest we have been following since leaving Sézanne
assured its control. From there the Germans with their powerful
artillery would have been able to destroy the French Corps which had
withdrawn to the plain. They would also have been able to manœuvre
freely in order to fall on the rear of the army of Espérey on the west,
and that of Langle de Cary on the east. The whole plan of the battle of
the Marne would have collapsed. The nature of the ground permits us to
understand the particular violence of the struggle at this point: the
Germans ready to sacrifice everything in order to attain the heights,
the French disputing fiercely every inch of the ground.

[Illustration:

  N. 34 between Fère and Sézanne
  N. 34 between Fère and Sézanne
  Allemant
  Péas

II. +PANORAMA OF THE PLAIN OF THE AUBE.+

                                                    This part of the
                                                    panorama fits on
                                                    to the left of
                                                    panorama I (p.
                                                    160).]

[Illustration:

  Mont Chalmont
  N. 34 between
  Fère and Sézanne
  Linthes
  Pleurs
  Linthelles
  N. 34 between Fère and Sézanne
  Saint-Loup

III. +PANORAMA OF THE PLAIN OF FÈRE-CHAMPENOISE.+

                                                    This part of the
                                                    panorama fits on
                                                    to the left of
                                                    panorama II (page
                                                    160).]

While attacking the height on its front, from the south bank of the
Marshes (see the panorama on pages 182-183), the Germans also tried to
outflank it on the east.

We have seen in the general account of the battle how prodigious were
their efforts to cross the Somme, which formed a covering line, and
then to debouch from Fère-Champenoise. This locality is hidden behind
Mont Chalmont, on the left of the panorama above. This manœuvre very
nearly succeeded. During the day of September 9, the soldiers occupying
the promontory, where stands the tourist, saw to the north in the
direction of the Marshes, the advancing Germans arrive within firing
distance of the farthest trench. If they turned their eyes eastwards,
they saw the 17th Division falling back on Mont Chalmont (panorama
above) and the artillery take up its position on the western slope.
Further south, debouching from the screen formed by this ridge, the
firing line came into view spreading towards Linthes and Pleurs. The
terrible anxiety of these hours of waiting only ceased when the 42nd
Division came into action.

The fine strategic movement of the 42nd (_see p. 14_) is easy to
follow. The Division gained the plain from the plateau north of Sézanne
which we traversed yesterday. The infantry descended the slopes of
Broyes and Allemant. The military wagons followed the N. 34 and the
railway which skirts this road. The batteries stopped on the way at
Broyes, in order to take part in the bombardment of Mondement Castle.
The division formed up between Linthes, Linthelles and Pleurs, and it
was from this point that it began its attack. The tourist may picture
to himself these red and blue columns marching eastwards under a
violent artillery fire, and causing the German troops, bewildered by
the arrival of these unexpected French reinforcements, to disappear
again behind the ridge. The villages of Péas (panorama II) and
Saint-Loup (panorama III) served as shelters for the reserves of the
Ninth Corps. Much-tried companies withdrew there to reform. It was
from Saint-Loup that the 77th Infantry Regiment started forth to take
Mondement. Leaving their dinner which was warming, these gallant
fellows stormed the slopes of Allemant and of Broyes in order to take
in this action the heroic part explained on p. 117.

_Rejoin_ G. C. 39. _The long dike of the marshes of Saint-Gond becomes
visible almost immediately._ From this distance nothing indicates the
marshes, whose reeds are lost to view among the crops; one can only
distinguish the line of the Petit Morin, marked by poplar trees, which
traverses the depression from one end to the other.

After passing a small group of houses, take, at the cross-roads, the
road on the left descending towards the marshes. We can perceive
Mont-Août first in front, then to the right. This solitary little hill
played an important part in the battle. There, until September 9, the
17th Division resisted all attacks from the north and from the east.

_Follow_ G. C. 39, _and arriving at =Broussy-le-Grand= (16 km.), pass
through it._ Held first by the Moroccan Division, Broussy was carried
by the Germans after a fierce struggle. The French troops were thrown
back on the slopes of Allemant which we have just descended. There are
still many ruined houses in Broussy.

_The road now turns towards =Bannes= (19 km.)._ Across the plain which
stretches south and east of Bannes, the 17th and 52nd Divisions fought
desperate engagements to prevent the Germans from breaking through the
marshes. On the 8th, the French front, which followed the boundary
of the marshes from east to west, was pushed back with violence. The
left remained in the neighbourhood of Bannes, but the centre drew back
to Mont-Août, and the right to the south of this hill. On the 9th,
Mont-Août fell in its turn. Between Bannes and Mont-Août, in a trench,
numerous letters and telegrams and a box bearing the address of Prince
Eitel, son of Wilheim II., were found.

Many new roofs are to be seen in Bannes, a proof of the violence of the
bombardment.

_At the cross-roads at the entrance to the village, turn to the left
towards the Marshes and Coizard, to which_ G. C. 43 _leads us_.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE MARSHES]

The above photograph gives an aspect of this marshy region. The line
of poplars crossing it follows the course of the Morin. The heights
on the horizon are those of Toulon-la-Montagne and Vert-la-Gravelle.
They were occupied on September 6 by the outposts of the 17th Division,
who, however, could not hold them. The Germans then installed batteries
there which swept all the south-east portion of the marshes. In spite
of this fact, on the same day a battalion of the 77th Line Regiment
tried to retake the heights.

We are now following the course of the attacking troops who left Bannes
under a murderous fire from the heavy artillery and machine-guns. When
the road became too dangerous, they entered the marshes and advanced
painfully up to their waists in water. Some disappeared suddenly,
swallowed up by the bogs. They succeeded eventually in reaching Coizard
and, after fighting in the streets and houses, drove off the Germans,
and began to assail the slopes which dominate the village. But the
enemy had here a crushing superiority, and after a seven-hours' fight
the French were obliged to retire across the marshes, pursued by the
dropping fire of the batteries on the northern bank which raked the
narrow causeways. The Germans wished to push home their advantage and
take foot on the southern bank, and accordingly began to cross the
marshes by the Coizard-Bannes road. Their losses were heavy, for the
machine-guns and "75's" directed a cross-fire on them. They came on
nevertheless and reached Bannes, but when they endeavoured to advance
on Mont-Août, they were met by so fierce a fire that they were obliged
to draw back into the village. Mont-Août did not fall until September
9, having been outflanked on the south.

[Illustration: DESTROYED BRIDGE OVER THE MORIN]

Cross the Morin, whose bridge was destroyed at the beginning of the
battle (photograph opposite), then leaving the soft ground of the
marshes, cross one of the drained parts whose number increases every
year; thus reducing considerably the original swamp which comprised all
the hollow.

[Illustration: COIZARD CHURCH]

_On reaching =Coizard=, turn first to the left, then to the right in
order to arrive at the church (24 km.)._

The villages on the north of the marshes suffered less than those on
the south, for the French bombardment was less intense than the German.
A few houses were however destroyed in Coizard (view above).

_Turn to the left this side of the church (the road, is visible in the
above photograph) and continue to follow_ G. C. 43 _for 1 km. as far
as =Joches=. At the corner of the farm_, of which the view below shows
the interior, and which was burnt by the Germans, _turn to the right
towards Congy, thus leaving the marshes_.

(_If pressed for time, instead of turning to the right, continue on the
road, along the marshes by Courjeonnet and Villevenard, thus reaching
Saint-Prix. The distance by the direct road is about 6 km.; going round
by Congy it is 16 km._).

_In =Congy= (30 km.) follow the main street, turning to the right
before reaching the town-hall, then to the left to cross the railway._

On September 5 and 6 the Ninth Corps, who still had outposts at Toulon
and at Vert, tried to extend its line towards Congy. Blondlat's Brigade
of the Moroccan Division crossed to the north bank and attempted to
gain Congy by Joches and Courjeonnet. The difficulties were great, for
the German artillery swept the slopes. The attack failed in the end and
the brigade was obliged to re-cross the marshes. During the battle the
German heavy guns on the heights commanding Congy pounded the French
positions on the opposite side of the marshes.

_About 2 km. beyond Congy we meet the "Route nationale" 33 and turn
into it, to the left, towards =Champaubert=, which is 2.7 km. further
on._

[Illustration: BURNT FARM AT JOCHES]

On the left is the column commemorating Napoléon's victory in 1814.
Champaubert Farm where he slept is a grey house with red-brick facings
standing opposite the column on N. 33.

_On arriving at the column, turn to the left into N. 51, in the
direction of Baye._

[Illustration: BAYE CHURCH]

In Baye (37½ km.) on the left is to be seen the interesting thirteenth
century church, which has recently been restored (photograph opposite),
900 _yards further on is the castle, of which a view is given below_.
It was the birthplace of Marion Delorme, who there passed a tranquil
childhood before becoming acquainted with the feverish life of the
courtesan.

The castle is the property of the Baron de Baye, and contained many
rich archæological and artistic treasures. It was inhabited by a member
of the German Imperial family from September 5 to 9, and was pillaged
methodically.

The following is the report of the Inquiry Commission:

_"Having repaired to Baye Castle, we verified the traces of the pillage
which this edifice has suffered. On the first floor, a door leading
to a room which adjoins the gallery where the proprietor had amassed
valuable works of art had been broken in; four glass cases had been
broken, another opened. According to the declarations of the caretaker,
who, in her master's absence, was not able to inform us of the full
extent of the damage, the principal objects stolen were Russian gems
and gold medals. We noticed that tablets covered with black velvet,
belonging doubtless to the glass cases, had been dismantled of part of
the jewels which they formerly bore._

_"The Baron of Baye's room was in a state of great disorder. Numerous
objects were strewn about on the floor and in drawers which had been
left open. A flat-topped secrétaire had been broken into. A Louis XVI.
'commode' and round-topped desk of the same period had been rifled.
This room was doubtless occupied by a person of high rank, for on the
floor still remained chalked the following inscription: 'I. K. Hoheit.'
Nobody could tell us exactly who was this 'Highness,' but a general who
lodged in the house of M. Houillier, one of the town councillors, told
his host that the castle had sheltered the Duke of Brunswick (William
II.'s son-in law) and the staff of the Tenth Corps."_

[Illustration: BAYE CASTLE]

N. 51 now descends into the valley of the Petit Morin. From September
5 to 9, the German reserves followed closely on each other along this
road, hastening to the attack on the Plateau of Sézanne.

_After having passed the little station of Talus-Saint-Prix, we arrive
at the bridge over the Morin._

[Illustration: THE MORIN NEAR THE MARSHES]

This bridge, forming the narrow bottle-neck in which the German attack
was to be precipitated, constitutes one of the most interesting points
of the battlefield. It is here that the marshes come to an end, and the
Morin continues its course along a gradually narrowing valley. The view
above, taken from the bridge eastwards, shows the river leaving the
marshes. The tree stump in the foreground, which has now disappeared,
recalls the successive bombardments, French and German, which the
bridge experienced. The other view is taken westwards.

From the heights which form the background of the two photographs, the
German cannon rained shells on the French positions on the southern
edge of the marshes.

[Illustration:

  Road from Corfélix
  Talus-Saint-Prix

THE MORIN LEAVING THE MARSHES]

[Illustration:

  Crête du Poirier
  The Chapel of Saint-Prix

THE HEIGHTS OF SAINT-PRIX (to the west of the road)]

The heights of Saint-Prix form the northern edge of the Plateau of
Sézanne, on which depended the liaison between the Fifth and Ninth
French Armies. The Germans had bitten into the plateau on the west and
on the north-west at Esternay, Charleville, and La Villeneuve, which we
have already visited. They tried to complete their success by attacking
also on the point now before us.

On the left of the road (view above) may be seen the little Chapel of
Saint-Prix, below Botrait Woods. On the bare part of the summit are the
remains of the trenches in which the Germans had placed machine-guns.
Further to the left is the "Crête du Poirier" which was so bitterly
disputed. To the right of the road (view below) appear the woods of the
Grandes-Garennes which clothe the heights towards Corfélix.

[Illustration:

  Woods of Grandes-Garennes
  Valley of the Morin towards Corfélix
  Petit Morin

THE HEIGHTS OF SAINT-PRIX (to the east of the road)]

[Illustration: CHAPEL AT SAINT-PRIX.]

On N. 51, in the Woods of Botrait and the Grandes-Garennes, attacks and
counter-attacks followed each other during four days. The thickets were
the scene of fierce hand-to-hand struggles. In the rare clearings the
combatants sheltered themselves in hastily-dug trenches. This stubborn
resistance exasperated the Germans; and after the battle witnesses
found a company of Algerian sharp-shooters whose brains had been beaten
out by blows from the butt-end of rifles. This fact is vouched for by
the Inquiry Commission. Other corpses belonging to the same regiment
had been placed in a ring round a fire which had burnt all the heads.

The battle continued until the French, after having silenced the German
guns at Le Thoult and Corfélix (see p. 157), finally reached Corfélix
and the Morin. Advancing along the valley (seen in the views at the
foot of p. 167, and at the top of p. 168), they debouched on the flank
of the enemy's troops deeply engaged in the interior of the Plateau of
Sézanne.

The manœuvre of September 9 was decisive. Attacked on flank and
front, and driven from the woods, the Germans re-crossed the Morin;
while their rearguards fought desperate covering engagements, of
which the chapel and its little cemetery (seen in the view above),
the machine-gun trench (seen in the photograph at the top of p. 167),
and the neighbourhood of the station of Talus-Saint-Prix were, in
particular, witnesses. The retreat however continued briskly, and on
September 10 the Tenth Corps, which had performed the outflanking
movement, was able, setting forth from the Champaubert-Saint-Prix
front, to sweep the whole of the north of the marshes.

[Illustration: GRAVES AT SOIZY.]

_Follow the zig-zags which_ N. 51 _makes to climb the slope and
continue towards =Soizy-aux-Bois= (45 km.)._ On this road, and in
the woods which border it, the 42nd Division met with a repulse at
the hands of the German troops who, on the 7th, took Soizy and even
pushed on to Chapton (we passed through this village before arriving
at Sézanne). On the 8th, the 162nd Line Regiment counter-attacked and
carried Soizy at the point of the bayonet; and on the 9th, as we have
seen above, the Germans were driven back across the Morin.

Soizy still shows the ruins of houses destroyed by bombardment or fire.
_After glancing at them return to the entrance to the village and take
(on the left looking towards Soizy) G. C. 44 in the direction of Oyes._

[Illustration:

  Botrait Woods.
  Crête du Poirier.
  North bank of Marshes.

I. +PANORAMA OF THE "CRÊTE DU POIRIER" AND BOTRAIT WOODS+]

Almost immediately after, on the left, below the level of the road, may
be seen two large graves, where the French soldiers who fell during the
combats at Soizy were buried (view p. 169). The Germans were buried to
the right of these graves.

_Cross through the woods of Saint-Gond._ Sign-posts indicate that
military graves exist in the thickets, and recall the hand-to-hand
struggles which took place here during the fluctuations of the battle
round Soizy.

_Descend again towards the marshes_ between the "Crête du Poirier" on
the left and the heights on Montgivroux on the right. Before arriving
at Oyes there appears on the left a chalky road with a quarry on its
right, leading to the top of a hill.

[Illustration:

  Courjeonnet
  Petit Morin
  Petit Morin
  Coizard
  Toulon-la-Montagne

II. +PANORAMA OF THE MARSHES AND THEIR NORTH BANK+]

[Illustration:

  Broussy-le-Grand
  Mont-Août
  Reuves
  Oyes

III. +PANORAMA OF THE MARSHES AND THEIR SOUTH BANK+]

_Follow this road_, on the left of which are remains of trenches. _150
yards from its commencement may be seen an interesting view, of which
the photographs on pp. 170-171 give fragments._

The summit on which we now stand is connected by a little valley
with the summit of the Poirier seen on panorama I. These two heights
constituted on the north the advanced line of defence of the heights
of Mondement. Panorama IV. shows the position of Mondement which will
be visited in due course. The castle and the church may be perceived.
The road in the foreground, in the centre of this panorama, is the one
which we took to climb the hill.

[Illustration:

  Allemant Woods
  Mondement Castle
  Mondement Church

IV. +PANORAMA OF MONDEMENT+]

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE PRIORY OF SAINT-GOND]

The line of the Poirier was the object of furious combats. The
"tirailleurs" of the Moroccan Division had dug trenches there in order
to protect themselves against the withering fire of heavy and light
artillery which the Germans directed from the north of the marshes.
When the Germans had succeeded in crossing the Morin by the bridge
at Saint-Prix, they penetrated into Botrait woods (panorama I.) and
attacked the Poirier. They drove the sharp-shooters from the summit,
and then from the southern slopes where the latter had made a stand.
On September 8 a bayonet charge brought the Poirier again into the
possession of the sharp-shooters, but the German artillery rendered the
position untenable, and they were obliged to evacuate it and fall back
on the heights of Mondement-Montgivroux. At the same time Blondlat's
Brigade which held Oyes and Reuves (panorama III.), was thrown back on
the Allemant Woods by superior forces which had managed to cross the
marshes.

The position of Mondement had thus lost all advanced protection and
so fell on the following day, but the same evening it was retaken
(_see pp. 176-178_), and from this moment the battle was lost for
the Germans. The Tenth Corps, by means of its outflanking movement
described on p. 169, obliged them to re-cross the Morin at Saint-Prix
(below Botrait Woods, panorama I.). The flank of the marshes was thus
turned. During the night of the 9th-10th, the German troops hurriedly
regained the northern edge by the causeways running from Oyes, Reuves,
and Broussy (panorama III.).

_Rejoin_ G. C. 44 _and turn to the left towards Oyes (50 km.)._ The
village still bears traces of the bombardment during its heroic defence
by Blondlat's Brigade. _Turn to the right, thus leaving the church
on the left, and, passing through the village, turn to the left to
regain the marshes_, in the middle of which stands the old =Priory of
Saint-Gond=. The entrance, seen in the photograph above, is on the
right of the road (51 km.).

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE PRIORY OF SAINT-GOND]

Saint-Gond, who gave his name to the marshes, was a seventh century
hermit. Charmed by the solitude of the spot, he there founded a little
monastery. Destroyed during the barbaric invasions, then rebuilt,
it became an abbey and later a priory, after which its decline was
rapid. All that remains to-day consists of the entrance (view above),
and in the interior, a door (seen on the opposite view behind the
Abbé Millard). The Abbé Millard who occupied the priory is an elderly
ecclesiastic who divides his time between studies and rural tasks. In
the photographs on this page he is seen in the simple apparel which he
prefers. He is a distinguished historian and member of several learned
societies.

[Illustration: REUVES CHURCH AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT]

The Abbé Millard, who was recovering from a long illness, reluctantly
left his hermitage a little before the arrival of the Germans. The
sharp-shooters had established on the road opposite his house a
barricade flanked by machine-guns behind which they tried to stem the
German advance; but the latter surmounted this obstacle and advanced on
Oyes.

_Leaving the priory, we come across the road which runs from
Villevenard, on the right of the marshes, to Oyes and Reuves, on the
left._ This was the road taken by the Germans who attacked Oyes and
Reuves for three days. They suffered heavy losses from the fire of the
French artillery which swept Villevenard and the causeways, but came
resolutely on and carried the two villages on September 8, in spite of
the heroic defence of Blondlat's Brigade.

_At the cross-roads turn to the right towards =Reuves= (53 km.) and
traverse its length._ It suffered terribly. The views on this page show
the state of the church after the bombardment.

_Turn to the right at the end of the village, leaving on the left the
road which continues to follow the edge of the marshes in the direction
of Broussy._ This village fell at the same time as Oyes and Reuves,
having been attacked by the German troops coming down from Joches and
Coizard. _Immediately on leaving the village, take, on the left_, G. C.
45 _and make towards =Mondement=._

[Illustration: REUVES CHURCH AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT]

We are following the last stage of the German advance. On the morning
of September 9, the troops which had taken Oyes and Reuves, after
having been reinforced during the night, assailed the Heights of
Mondement and wrenched from the grasp of the few remaining Zouaves and
sharp-shooters the castle, the church and the village.

_The road passes before the castle_ (56 km.) whose fame since the war
has become worldwide.

[Illustration: THE CASTLE, NORTH FRONT]

On September 6, 1914, the owners, Mme. Jacob and one of her sons, were
still at Mondement. The bombardment by the German big guns on the north
of the marshes began on the morning of the 7th. The inhabitants of the
castle, together with the "curé" of Reuves, who had come to join them,
passed many anxious hours. The cellar, in which they had taken shelter,
almost fell in on them. It was useless to think of seeking refuge in
the neighbourhood of the castle, for the shells fell like hail. Their
motor-car had been destroyed (as may be seen in the photograph at the
foot of p. 178) and the only horse in the stable had been killed.

[Illustration: A CORNER OF THE CASTLE PARK]

There was nothing left for it but, at night, to set out on foot along
the road to Broyes, in spite of the feeble state of M. Jacob, who was
suffering from heart-disease.

They were picked up fortunately by a motor-car sent by General
Humbert, but M. Jacob died a few days afterwards, as a result of the
shock and of the fatigues which he had experienced.

[Illustration: THE MARSHES SEEN FROM A WINDOW IN THE NORTH-EAST TOWER]

On the 7th, General Humbert established his headquarters in the castle,
which made a splendid observation post. He followed the course of the
battle through his field-glasses from the foot of the towers.

[Illustration: NORTHWESTERN ANGLE OF THE CASTLE]

When the shells fell too thickly on the castle, he gained the little
church near at hand (from which the panorama on pp. 182-183 is taken),
and came back to the castle when the Germans began to direct their
fire on the church-tower. During these comings and goings, a shell
fell among his escort and killed several horsemen. As the bombardment
continued to increase in violence, the headquarters were transported to
the "Castle des Pucelles" at Broyes, which we have already seen (_p.
159_).

_The road goes round the castle._ The opposite photograph gives a side
view of the façade. The tower at the end has been cleared of the ivy
which covers it (in the photograph on p. 174), and completely restored.
The ruined roof has been removed, in order to give place to a new one.
In the foreground is a tree which has been felled by a shell. Shells
from the '105's' and '150's' laid low many others, sometimes killing at
the same time the persons who had sought shelter under them.

[Illustration: THE CASTLE, WESTERN FRONT]

[Illustration: PRINCIPAL ENTRANCE]

_Take the Broyes road_ which passes before the principal entrance
(photograph opposite). The two heraldic lions surmounting the pillars
of the gateway are worthy of notice. The roofs of the buildings were
destroyed by shells, and the main-building opposite the gate has a
temporary zinc covering.

[Illustration: GRAVE AT MONDEMENT]

In the field on the other side of the Broyes road is the grave where
the Zouaves and other foot soldiers, who fell during the attack on the
castle, were buried (photograph opposite). After the entrance gate come
the out-buildings, and then the kitchen-garden, whose wall we skirt.

[Illustration: THE CASTLE AS IT APPEARED TO THE ATTACKING TROOPS]

The above view shows the two sides on which the French attacked on the
afternoon of September 9. The trees behind the kitchen-garden are those
of the park. On the right of the horizon, and separated from Mondement
by a hollow, are Allemant Woods.

The castle was taken by the Germans at daybreak on the 9th, and was
immediately put into a state of defence. Loop-holes were made in the
walls, and machine-guns placed on the towers and at prominent windows.
The 77th line Regiment which was reforming at Saint-Loup (see pp.
162-163) was directed in all haste to Mondement to counter-attack.
Colonel Lestoquoi placed a battalion on either side of the Broyes Road
in the woods which come to an end a few hundred yards from the south
side of the kitchen-garden. The Zouaves and sharp-shooters of the
Moroccan Division, also hidden among the trees, were to attack on the
other side, by the principal entrance.

The artillery preparation was entrusted to the guns of the Moroccan
Division, aided by the batteries of the 42nd Division, which had halted
at Broyes before descending into the plain (see pp. 162-163).

[Illustration: BREACH IN THE SOUTHERN WALL OF THE CASTLE]

The attack began at 2.30 p.m. Major de Beaufort's battalion, composed
of Bretons, to whom one of their comrades, a soldier-priest, had just
given the absolution, left the woods, their bugles sounding the charge.
A murderous fire met them from the castle, but could not stop them.
A breach had been made in the wall by one of the French "75's," and
towards this Major de Beaufort rushed, only to fall struck by a ball
in the forehead. Officers and men succeeded him, but as soon as they
appeared in the opening the fire of the machine-guns and rifles, hidden
in the out-buildings (photograph above) was concentrated upon them,
and they succumbed before even reaching the garden. A few, hoisting
themselves on the shoulders of their fellows, gained the summit of the
wall, but an entry in mass, which alone could have ensured success, was
impossible.

[Illustration: THE CASTLE OUTBUILDINGS]

On the other side, the attack of the Zouaves and sharp-shooters had
met with equally great difficulties. Sheltering themselves behind the
trees on the road and the pillars of the railings, they sniped at the
occupants of the castle without being able to advance.

At the end of an hour of costly efforts, orders were given to fall
back, and the troops retired into the woods from which they had set out.

[Illustration: DÉBRIS OF THE CASTLE MOTOR-CAR]

Pieces of artillery were then dragged by the men to within three or
four hundred yards of the castle. The breaches in the wall increased,
the railing collapsed in parts, and the interior of the castle became
untenable. When the French renewed the attack at nightfall, they no
longer met with resistance, for the garrison had fallen back on the
marshes. The retreat had become general on the front of Von Hausen's
and Yon Bulow's armies.

The bombardments devastated the interior of the Castle. The views on
this page show to what a state were reduced the out-buildings from
which came the terrible fire rendering the passage of the breach so
difficult.

[Illustration: VISIT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC]

On September 6, 1917, the third anniversary of the Battle of the
Marne was celebrated at the castle of Mondement. The President of the
Republic, accompanied by the President of the Council and several
ministers, as well as by Field-Marshal Joffre, General Foch, and
General Pétain, stopped at Mondement on his way from Fère to Sézanne,
after having visited the Plateau of Rochelle near Fère-Champenoise (see
p. 188).

[Illustration: VISIT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC]

[Illustration: GENERAL FOCH DESCRIBING THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE]

In the photograph at the top of p. 179 we see the group leaving the
castle by the principal entrance. The walls, under their temporary
roof, still show traces of shot and shell. M. Poincaré may be seen
between M. Ribot, President of the Council, and M. Painlevé, War
Minister. Field-Marshal Joffre is behind.

The photograph at the foot of p. 179 was also taken during the official
visit of September 6, 1917. The tower on the left is the one seen on
p. 174 from the exterior. On comparing the two photographs, we realise
that the signs of war are fast disappearing at this point. In the
middle, near the wall, the group formed by M. Poincaré, M. Ribot, M.
Bourgeois, Field-Marshal Joffre and Generals Foch and Pétain, may be
distinguished.

[Illustration: MONDEMENT CEMETERY]

Those who took part in this pilgrimage had the good fortune to hear
an account of the events of September, 1914, from the lips of General
Foch. The above photograph was taken whilst, in quiet but moving terms,
he described the different phases of the desperate battle fought by the
Ninth Army from September 6 to 10. This extempore military lecture took
place at the foot of a walnut-tree which stands in the meadow before
the castle. On pp. 182-183 may be seen the view of the marshes which
appeared to the eyes of the audience.

[Illustration: MONDEMENT CHURCH]

_Opposite the turret seen in the photograph at the foot of p. 175
take a path leading to the church_, which suffered much from the
bombardments, but whose breaches have now been repaired.

In the little graveyard (photograph p. 180) which surrounds it are
buried the officers who fell at Mondement; among them Major de
Beaufort, who commanded the attack, and Dr. Baur, killed by a shell
which at the same time split the tree against which he was leaning.

General Humbert followed the march of events from the foot of the
church, on the side facing the marshes (view above), when the castle
became untenable. It is from this point that the panorama on pp.
182-183 was taken, and which will now be described.

In the foreground of panorama I (pp. 182-183) may be seen the houses of
Mondement, which village was carried by the Germans at the same time as
the castle and church, at daybreak on September 9. The French on their
victorious return the same evening, drove out the remaining occupants,
firing on them as they hastened down the slopes to the Marshes.

On the right may be seen Reuves and the road connecting it with
Mondement. Oyes is visible on panorama II. We can easily follow the
course of the German attack. After having crossed the marshes, the
Germans drove Blondlat's Brigade of the Moroccan Division from these
villages on the 8th. The following day the handful of Zouaves and
sharp-shooters remaining in the castle, church and village, were forced
to retire into the woods near Broyes.

On panorama II, the hill-top from which the panorama on pp. 170-171
was taken may be distinguished, as also the "Crête du Poirier" which
carries it to the left towards Botrait Woods. This advanced line was,
as we have seen, fiercely disputed, the bombardment being terrible. In
his fine work on the Marshes of Saint-Gond, in which he relates the
memoirs of M. Roland, schoolmaster at Villevenard, M. Le Goffie tells
us that the percentage of German shells as compared with the French,
was five to one, and he cites a detail which illustrates the German
character. "The great '150' shells made a noise like a siren, and drew
shrieks of joy from those assembled. 'Oh, Germany,' bleated an old
doctor, lifting his eyes to heaven each time that one of these steel
monsters went bellowing forth."

[Illustration:

  Petit Morin
  Toulon-la-Montagne
  Reuves
  Petit Morin

I. +PANORAMA OF THE MARSHES OF SAINT-GOND.+

  This portion of
  the panorama
  fits on to
  the right of
  panorama II (p.
  183).]

[Illustration:

  Botrait Woods
  Saint-Gond Woods
  "Crête du Poirier"
  Point from which was taken the panorama of Mondement (p. 171)
  Oyes

I. +PANORAMA OF THE MARSHES OF SAINT-GOND.+

                                                    This portion of
                                                    the panorama fits
                                                    on to the left of
                                                    panorama I (p.
                                                    182).]

When the Germans had taken "Le Poirier," they advanced on the Woods
of Saint-Gond, in whose thickets violent combats took place. A final
effort carried them on September 9 on to the plateau at Montgivroux
(see p. 184), a little to the west of Mondement, which fell likewise
in its turn, under the direct attack from the marshes. This important
success, however, came two days too late. The Tenth Corps was menacing
Mondement on the flank, and the intervention of the 42nd Division
(see p. 14) destroyed the Germans' hope of taking the plateau on
the Broyes-Allemant side. The counter-attack of the 77th (see p.
177-178) precipitated their retreat. Driven from the castle, the
Germans re-crossed in haste during the night of September 9-10 the
great dike of Saint-Gond. They left baggage and numerous wounded
along the causeways. The Germans of 1914 were more fortunate than
the conscripts of 1814, for whom the marshes formed a grave. In the
darkness they escaped the fire which the French batteries at Mondement
and Allemant would have poured on them in daylight. When the Tenth
Corps began its march eastwards on September 10, starting from the
Champaubert-Saint-Prix front, it was able to sweep the north of the
marshes and pick up the laggards and heavy beer-drinkers, to whom the
champagne had rendered bad service.

[Illustration: MONDEMENT FARM]

_After having examined the panorama of the marshes, return to the road
which leads to the church and continue it in the direction of the
farm_, seen in the photograph above. It suffered much from successive
French and German bombardments. As may be observed, the work of
reparation has begun.

The French, when driven from the farm, took shelter in the wood a few
hundred yards away on the other side of the road. It was from the wood
that they began the counter-attack which gave them back the farm, as
well as the castle and the church.

_We retrace our steps to the castle, leaving the road which continues
to follow the edge of the plateau in the direction of Montgivroux, and
rejoins No. 51, below Soizy._ This part of the plateau was carried by
the German attacks coming from the Poirier and the Woods of Saint-Gond
(see p. 170). The "tirailleurs" fought heavy engagements at this point.

_On returning to the castle take the Broyes road_ (G. C. 45) _which
passes before the gates, then pass through the woods_ in which the 77th
and the troops of the Moroccan Division which took Mondement found
shelter, and _so on to =Broyes= and the Castle des Pucelles which we
saw at the beginning of our excursion_.

_Turn to the right into_ G. C. 39 _and cross the village. At the
cross-roads beyond Broyes, turn to the left and return to =Sézanne=,
down a long slope which offer a fine view of the plain and of the
heights surrounding it. At the crossing beyond the cemetery take the
Rue de Broyes. In the middle, turn to the right and regain the hotel
(65 km.) for lunch, by way of the Rue de la Halle and the Place de la
République._


FROM

SÉZANNE TO CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE

(106 km.)

via +Connantre+, +Fère-Champenoise+, +Connantray+, +Sommesous+,
+Haussimont+, +Vassimont+, +Lenharrée+, +Normée+.

_Return to the Place de la République and descend towards the lower
part of the town by the Rue des Lombards; without crossing the railway
turn to the left along a road planted with trees. This is N. 34, which
traverses the plain in a perfectly straight line, and which is to be
seen in the panorama on pp. 160-163._ On the left, on the horizon the
heights of Sézanne, Broyes, Allemant, and Mont-Chalmont are once more
visible.

_After a run of 10 km. we reach the villages of =Linthes= and
=Linthelles=_, from which the counter-attack of the 42nd Division
started on September 9.

At that time, in the plain stretching to the left of the road, the
French troops, which had been driven from the edge of the marshes and
even from Mont-Août, were falling back southwards. With them, too,
were those who had been pushed back from the line of the Somme on to
Fère-Champenoise, Connantre, and still further beyond. These troops,
although worn out by four days' fighting, and exposed to violent
artillery fire from the north, east, and south, would not give in, and
took every opportunity for rearguard actions.

The coming into the line of the 42nd Division braced up their forces
for the supreme effort asked by Foch.

We are following the axis of the French march during this counter
offensive, the first result of which was the relief of =Connantre=.
_This village may be seen from the road, on the right, before
traversing the level crossing. 100 yards further on is the entrance to
Connantre Castle_, in which the Light Infantrymen took prisoner several
hundred Guards.

[Illustration: GRAVES IN FÈRE STATION]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE ELECTRIC POWER STATION]

_The road goes straight towards Fère-Champenoise across the
plain, which is dotted here and there with clumps of trees. At
=Fère-Champenoise= (21 km.) turn to the left into the "Grand-Place"
in order to reach the station, which is about 900 yards away_. This
was much damaged by bombardment. _About 300 yards on the right, by
following the railway lines, may be seen_ the grave in the photograph
below.

The fighting around the station was very violent.

_We retrace our steps to the Grand-Place Square, turn to the left
before the town-hall, and, passing it, take the first street on the
right in the direction of Sommesous and Vitry-le-François._ In this
street, on the left, are the ruins of the electric power station (view
above), and on the right a few burnt houses.

[Illustration: PLATEAU OF ROCHELLE SEEN FROM THE ROAD]

Fère-Champenoise fell into the hands of the Germans on September 8
when the heroic defence of the Eleventh Corps had been broken on the
line of the Somme, over which we are about to travel. The reserve of
the guards pillaged as a matter of course, and celebrated noisily
the German victory. Near the town-hall a piano was brought into the
street to accompany the dance of the soldiers, attired in all sorts of
headgear, taken from the window of a neighbouring hatter. Wine flowed,
and the streets were strewn with empty bottles. It was in the midst of
these rejoicings that the order to retreat arrived like a thunderbolt
on September 9. On the 10th, General Foch made Fère his headquarters.

_On leaving the town we come across fan-shaped cross-roads and take
the road farthest to the left. 200 yards along this, take the lane on
the right, following the edge of the hill which dominates the Vaure._

[Illustration: REVIEW ON THE PLATEAU OF ROCHELLE]

_After climbing 2½ km. the summit of the hill is reached._ On the right
of the road stretches the plateau of Rochelle, dotted with clumps of
pine and covered with graves. _Leave the car at the spot indicated in
the photograph at foot of p. 186 and set out on foot towards the centre
of the plateau._

The third anniversary of the victory of the Marne was celebrated on
the plateau on September 7, 1917. In the photograph above may be seen
(from right to left) the President of the Republic, General Pétain
(half hidden by M. Poincaré); M. Ribot, President of the Council; M.
Painlevé, War Minister; M. Chaumet, Marine; M. Bourgeois, Public Works.
Field-Marshal Joffre is in the background.

The tourist who, during the tour of the Ourcq, visited the plateau
of Barcy-Chambry, will experience with even greater intensity the
impression of sadness which is evoked by the calm landscape and the
numerous graves, signs of the fierceness and obstinacy of the battle.

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE PLATEAU OF ROCHELLE]

A remnant of the Eleventh Corps, which had been driven on the 8th from
the woods to the west of Normée (_see p. 194_), made a gallant stand
on the summit and sides of the plateau in the pine thickets and in
improvised trenches which still exist here and there.

One of the most moving incidents was the defence of the standard of
the 32nd. Two hundred men belonging to the 66th and the 32nd Regiments
were hemmed in a little wood near the Vaure, having with them the
standard of the 32nd, whose bearer had been killed. All the officers
were dead or missing, only a few adjutants and sergeants remained.
These asked Sergeant-major Guerre of the 66th, a man of energy and
resource, to take command. The handful of heroes then formed a square
and succeeded in repulsing the attacks of the enemy, until the arrival
of a field-piece rendered the position in the wood untenable. Guerre
divided his remaining troops into small companies, then charged with
the bayonet where the enemy was strongest. A machine-gun soon laid the
brave fellow low. The other companies took advantage of this diversion
to rejoin the French lines. Thirty men in all were able to do so.
Private Malvau and his comrade Bourgoin brought back the standard. They
lost themselves in the German lines, but were put on the right path by
an officer of the guards, suffering from a bad wound which they dressed
for him.

_After visiting the Rochelle plateau we retrace our steps towards Fère
and at the entrance to the village take, on the left_, N. 34 _in the
direction of Sommesous_.

_Pass straight through =Connantray= (33½ km.)_ to arrive, after
traversing _a level-crossing, at =Sommesous= (44½ km.)_.

The station is on the left of the level-crossing. It changed hands
several times during the desperate encounters which took place here.
Graves were dug in the little station garden on the left to receive the
bodies of the soldiers of the 60th (reserve) Division who fell on this
spot.

_Follow_ N. 34 _for about 200 yards in Sommesous, then turn to the left
into_ N. 77. The combats were particularly violent at the junction of
these two roads. _Next, take the second street on the left, seen in
the photograph below, in order to reach the centre of the village._
Sommesous was entirely destroyed by bombardment and by fire, but is
slowly rising again from its ashes.

[Illustration: RUINED HOUSE AT SOMMESOUS]

[Illustration: THE CHURCH AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT]

The church, of which the photographs on this page show the state after
the bombardment, is on the right of the street, towards the end of the
village. It is now being restored.

[Illustration: THE CHURCH AFTER THE BOMBARDMENT]

In going from Sommesous to Écury-le-Repos we traverse the line of the
Somme which the Eleventh Corps and the 60th (reserve) Division defended
so energetically. This line was formed by the river, and by the railway
which follows it at a little distance, along the plateau of the left
bank. On September 6 and 7 this position was held by the French against
furious attacks by Saxons and Guards supported by artillery. On the 8th
the French troops, heavily outnumbered, were obliged to withdraw to
Connantray and Fère-Champenoise.

September 9 witnessed Foch's counter-attack, which reached the Somme on
the 10th and crossed it, on the 11th, in pursuit of the enemy.

[Illustration: VASSIMONT]

Naturally at the bridge-heads of Sommesous, Haussimont, Vassimont,
Lenharrée, Normée, and Ecury some of the most obstinate fighting took
place; thus the ruins there are numerous.

_On leaving Sommesous, the road crosses the railway on the level and
goes towards Haussimont, skirting the Somme, the valley of which lies
to the left. At =Haussimont=, cross the Somme and turn to the right
into G. C. 18 in order to enter and pass through the village._ A few
houses are still in ruins, but many have been rebuilt.

[Illustration: CASTLE OF CHAPELAINE]

[Illustration: ROAD IN HOLLOW, LENHARRÉE]

G. C. 18 _continues between the Somme and the railway towards
=Vassimont= (where we cross the river again). Turn to the left in order
to traverse this locality_, which was much damaged, as may be seen in
the view on p. 190.

_Leaving the village, take the first road on the left and cross the
Somme. 500 yards further on is the hamlet of =Chapelaine=, with its
castle of the same name (photograph p. 190)._ The fighting was intense
at this point.

_Return to_ G. C. 18 _and turn to the left towards =Lenharrée= (54
km.)._ Arriving there, we have on the left (_on the right in the view
above_) the road, which descends to the river. The many graves around
indicate the fierce struggle for the possession of the ford.

[Illustration: GRAVE IN A FARM-YARD, LENHARRÉE]

[Illustration: GRAVES NEAR THE SOMME]

Lenharrée formed a bridgehead on the right bank. The French held it on
September 6 and 7 under a heavy fire, but on the morning of the 8th the
two companies of the 225th, who, by good shooting and frequent bayonet
charges, had held at a respectable distance a much superior German
force, were obliged to withdraw towards Connantray. The Saxons and the
Guards, holding Normée, had managed to advance down the left bank and
thus threatened to take the defenders of Lenharrée in the rear. Of this
small force all the officers and non-commissioned officers were lying
dead or wounded around Captain de Saint-Bon, who himself fell as he
gave the order to retire. "Never mind me," he said to his soldiers, who
wanted to carry him away with them, "Don't be killed trying to save me."

[Illustration: TRENCH NEAR THE SOMME]

[Illustration: RUINS, NORMÉE]

After their withdrawal on September 8 and 9 the French returned to the
neighbourhood of Lenharrée. This they reached on the 10th and entered
the next day. They found in a barn 450 wounded Germans and 150 French.
The terrible struggle had drenched the village with blood and reddened
the waters of the river. "_There are heaps of German dead everywhere_,"
wrote a witness, "_in the streets, in the cellars, in the church, and
in the cemetery. One walked on them without being aware of it. Behind a
hedge ten yards in length I counted twenty-two; a hole in a rock five
to six metres deep was a regular charnel-house._"

Graves in the courtyards of the houses recall the hand-to-hand
fighting. There is one in the large ruined farm seen in the photograph
on p. 191. This farm is on the right after the first group of houses at
the entrance to the village, fifty yards beyond the cross-roads seen in
the view at the top of p. 191.

During the German occupation an old inhabitant, M. Félix, was killed by
blows from the butt-end of the rifles of the German soldiers whom he
tried to prevent from pillaging his house.

_Going through the village, leave the church on the right. We come to
the bridge_ around which are the graves of the men who fell during the
combats on this bitterly disputed spot (photograph p. 192).

_Cross the bridge and turn to the right; 50 yards further on, take, on
the left, the road leading through a cutting to +Lenharrée+ railway
station (800 yards)._ Numerous graves border the railway and the road,
for the struggle, which began at the Somme, continued on the railway
before spreading under German pressure to Fère-Champenoise, Connantray,
and beyond.

[Illustration: LEVEL-CROSSING, NORMÉE]

_Return to_ G. C. 18, _in which turn to the left_. The road commands
the Somme, and here the troops of the eleventh Corps established
trenches along the river bank in order to obstruct the passage. The
_view on p. 192_, taken _about 1 km. beyond Lenharrée_, shows one of
these trenches in which is a German grave.

On the left, the plateau of which G. C. 18 follows the edge, is dotted
throughout with graves, the fighting being particularly desperate here
on the 6th and 7th. Engagements also took place on the plateau on
the opposite bank. The 91st line Regiment, coming up from Lenharrée,
particularly distinguished itself during a night attack on the guards.

[Illustration: OLD TRENCH NEAR THE SOMME AT ÉCURY]

_We arrive at =Normée= (59 km.)_, which suffered much from bombardment
(_see p. 193_). Shells fell so thickly that the village was evacuated
on the 6th, the troops retiring to the railway line and to the woods
around.

_In order to visit this portion of the battlefield, turn to the left
immediately after leaving Normée, into_ G. C. 5, _which goes towards
Fère-Champenoise. 2 km. further on is the level-crossing (view p. 193)_
which became famous after the events of September 6-8.

_Leaving the car at the gate, cross the line on foot._ In a clearing
on the left (view below) may be seen the old French trenches and the
graves which were afterwards made near by. Other trenches are to be
seen in the pine woods which line the road.

The Colonel commanding the 42nd Brigade was killed whilst defending
this level-crossing.

The German attacks, violent enough on the 7th, redoubled in fury on the
8th; the line of defence was pierced and the 35th Brigade, stationed in
the woods adjoining the plateau of Rochelle, previously visited (_see
p. 187_), had to fight under difficult conditions. Certain sections
were surrounded, and only fought their way out with heavy loss, all the
officers being killed. It was under these circumstances that the fine
defence of the standard of the 32nd line Regiment, related on p. 188,
took place.

_Return to_ G. C. 18 _and turn to the left in it towards
=Écury-le-Repos=. 200 yards before arriving at the village_, in a field
on the right of the road overlooking the Somme, is an old trench which
has been used as a grave (view above).

[Illustration: TRENCHES AND GRAVES NEAR THE LEVEL-CROSSING AT NORMÉE]

[Illustration: HOUSES BEING REBUILT AT MORAINS]

_In Écury (67 km.) turn to the left beyond the church, then take the
first street on the right towards Morains-le-Petit._ A few trenches are
to be seen here and there, and graves are still numerous.

=Morains-le-Petit= (70 km.) is rising from its ruins, as the photograph
above shows. _Turn to the right in the village, then to the left on
leaving it, into_ G. C. 9 _in the direction of Bergères-lès-Vertus._ We
are now in the theatre of operations of the 17th Division and of the
52nd (reserve) Division. The task of the troops forming the right wing
of the Ninth Corps was to prevent the marshes from being outflanked on
the east. They held on bravely, but were obliged to retire to Mont-Août
on September 8, their right having been left exposed by the withdrawal
of the Eleventh Corps.

_At 100 yards from Morains_ is the source of the Morin, which at this
point is a tiny rivulet, often dry in the summer. The ditch in which it
flows was used as a trench in the battles of 1914.

The view below, taken on the left of the wood, shows this ditch
bordered by a few shrubs and surrounded by graves.

[Illustration: TRENCH AT THE SOURCE OF THE MORIN]

_The road continues towards Mont-Aimé, which we reach about 5 km.
beyond Morains._ This hill, 750 feet high, appears a veritable mountain
as it rises solitary in the midst of the great Plain of Champagne.

_Leave the car on the road and set out to climb the hill, an easy task.
It is possible to climb direct, or to follow the zig-zag path which
begins at the road._ From the top there is a very fine view of the
marshes and of the whole Plain of Champagne. _The entire journey, up
and down, takes about twenty-five minutes._

_Return to_ G. C. 9 _and continue to =Borgères-lès-Vertus= (78
km.), where we meet with_ N. 53, _where turn to the right towards
Châlons-sur-Marne._

The Germans traversed this road in both directions within six days.
They advanced in all the excitement of a victorious pursuit: they
returned in the gloomy disappointment of defeat.

_The journey to =Châlons= (106 km.) presents no difficulties, it being
merely necessary to follow_ N. 33, _which passes through Chaintrix and
Thibie. We enter Châlons by the Avenue de Paris, then take the Rue du
Faubourg-de-la-Marne on the left. Cross the railway, then the Marne,
and continue straight along the Rue de la Marne. Here cross the canal,
leaving the cathedral on the right. Before arriving at the Place de
Ville turn to the right into the Rue des Lombards, which leads to the
Place de la République, where the hotels will be found._

[Illustration: GRAVES BETWEEN ÉCURY-LE-REPOS AND MORAINS-LE-PETIT]



III

THE PASS OF REVIGNY

CHÂLONS--VITRY--BAR-LE-DUC


CHÂLONS

[Illustration: CHÂLONS IN THE SIXTH CENTURY]


ORIGIN AND CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS

Châlons is of very ancient origin and was in the third century the
capital of the "Catalauni." In that part of the Plain of Champagne
which surrounds it, known as "the Catalaunian Fields," numerous
invasions were brought to nothing. The invasion of 1914 recalled the
epoch of Attila's Huns, who were beaten here in 451 by the Roman
General Actius; Merovic, King of the Franks; and Theodoric, King of the
Visigoths. It is between Châlons and Troyes, rather nearer the latter
town, that the most eminent authorities assume this great victory over
barbarism to have taken place.

Up to the eighteenth century the bishopric of Châlons was one of the
most important in France.


CHÂLONS IN 1914

The town, which had been evacuated by three-quarters of its
inhabitants, received a few shells on September 4. Some of the stained
glass windows of the cathedral were smashed; a part of the roof of
the Hôtel-Dieu was broken in, and the children's ward, which was
fortunately empty, received a 4·2 shell.

Saxon troops entered the town at 4 p.m., and the Mayor, M. Bernard,
having left, M. Servas--his deputy--took over the direction of
municipal affairs. The bishop, Mgr. Tissier, and the Abbé Laisnez, his
chaplain, were equally heroic during these tragic times. A contribution
of £1,200,000 was demanded for the Department of the Marne by the
Germans. Mgr. Tissier was able to persuade them to lower it to £20,000
for Châlons.

From September 7 to 11, great numbers of German wounded came in, and
were treated in the military hospital, the Hôtel-Dieu, the town-hall,
and, when these overflowed, in the barracks, the college, and even
in private houses. On September 11 the Saxon troops left the town
hurriedly, and on the 12th the French re-took possession.


VISIT TO THE TOWN

(See map opposite)

Of great interest: the Cathedral (_pp. 199-202_); Notre-Dame (_pp.
203-205_); Notre-Dame-de-l'Épine (_pp. 210-212_).

Of interest: Saint Alpin (_pp. 206-207_); to archæologists: Saint-Jean
(_p. 207_); pretty walk: the Jard (_p. 208_).

[Illustration: CHÂLONS-S.-MARNE]


=Cathedral of Saint-Stephen= (historical monument)

(See map opposite)

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL

(_Photo L. L._)]

The Cathedral has had a very eventful history. It dates from the
Carolingian times, and was destroyed in 963, when the town was taken
by Robert of Vermandois. It was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again
in 1138 by a fire, caused by lightning. It was once more rebuilt and
enlarged, but in 1230 a similar disaster overtook it. The rebuilding
this time took many years to accomplish, for at the beginning of the
fifteenth century the nave was unfinished and the western doorway not
yet begun.

[Illustration: NORTH TRANSEPT OF THE CATHEDRAL]

In 1520 there was set up in the north tower of the transept (see
photo below) a wooden spire covered with lead and richly ornamented,
about 310 feet in height. In 1628 the two final bays of the nave
were completed and the western doorway entirely built (photo above).
Unfortunately, its style jars with the Gothic of the rest of the
church. In 1668 the cathedral was struck by lightning for the third
time; the spire fell and drove in the vaulting and the crypt. After
another restoration, the two towers of the transept were embellished
with stone spires, which were reconstructed in 1821, but, later,
removed. In 1850 the south front of the transept was entirely rebuilt.
In 1862 all the sixteenth century chapels in the aisles off the nave
were done away with. Quite recently the two towers, together with the
doorways of the transept, have been restored.

On the whole the cathedral is an imposing edifice. We have seen
above that the west front dates from the seventeenth century and is
in the Classical style. Corinthian columns and pilasters flank a
Gothic rose-window. A balcony runs along each storey, and a pediment
surmounts the whole. A much damaged bas-relief above the entrance-door
represents the stoning of Saint Stephen. The long nave, with its lines
of elegant flying-buttresses, rejoins the transept, of which the north
front (photo opposite) is the most interesting. The southern one was
completely rebuilt in the nineteenth century.

[Illustration: APSE AND TRANSEPT OF THE CATHEDRAL]

The north tower of the transept is the older. The lower part of it
dates back to the ancient Romanesque cathedral. The walls are pierced
by round-arched bays. The south tower belongs to the thirteenth
century. Its bays are Gothic in style. Three radial chapels, dating
probably from the fourteenth century, open off the apse.

In the interior the nave comprises nine bays, the first two of which,
starting from the west front, date from the seventeenth century; the
others, and also the choir and transept, are of the thirteenth century.

As in the Cathedral of Rheims, the choir advances into the nave,
of which it occupies two bays. The high altar, under a canopy (see
photograph below), supported by marble pillars, belongs to the
seventeenth century. In the north branch of the transept is a fine
sixteenth century bas-relief representing Christ lying in His tomb
(_see p. 201_), which is attributed to Ligier-Richier, the Lorraine
master, whose masterpiece we shall see in St. Peter's Church at
Bar-le-Duc (_p. 245_). The cathedral is paved with tombstones. The
most beautiful ones are to be seen in the ambulatory, especially two
adjoining the pillars of the choir.

[Illustration: NAVE OF THE CATHEDRAL]

In the sacristy, which opens off the south branch of the transept,
may be seen the treasure (_see p. 201_). This is composed of a little
thirteenth century enamelled brass shrine called Saint Rémy's, with
medallions representing the apostles; and a twelfth century mitre and
shoe, said to be Saint Malachy's. The mitre is of red silk embroidered
in gold and silver; the shoe is of red leather inlaid with gold.

The stained glass windows of the cathedral are very remarkable,
although most of them have been restored. The three upper windows at
the back of the apse belong to the thirteenth century, as also the
rose-window in the north arm of the transept dedicated to the childhood
of Christ, and the twelve panels of the triforium representing the
apostles.


=Lights in the first south window= (fifteenth century stained glass)

[Illustration: CREATION OF THE ANIMALS]

[Illustration: CREATION OF MAN]

The stained glass windows of the north aisle are almost all modern, and
in imitation of the style of the thirteenth century. Those of the south
aisle belong to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, except the ninth
window nearest the transept, which dates from the thirteenth century.
Our illustration give an idea of the simple yet skilful composition of
these little masterpieces, but cannot reproduce the beauty of their
colouring.

[Illustration: ADAM AND EVE BEFORE THE TREE]

[Illustration: ADAM AND EVE HIDING THEMSELVES]


=Lights in the first south window= (fifteenth century stained glass)

[Illustration: THE CONDEMNATION]

[Illustration: ADAM AND EVE DRIVEN OUT OF PARADISE]

The second window on the south represents scenes from the life of
the Virgin. The third and fourth are devoted to Christ; the fifth to
the life and stoning of Saint Stephen; the sixth to the Virgin, and
different saints and donors; the seventh to the life of Christ; the
eighth to the life and miracles of Christ; the ninth to the baptism of
Christ and to various saints. All this stained glass has been removed
and put into a place of safety for the duration of the war.

[Illustration: ADAM BEGINS TO WORK]

[Illustration: CAIN KILLS ABEL]


=Notre-Dame de Vaux= (historical monument)

(See map inserted between pp. 198-199)

[Illustration: NOTRE-DAME]

Like the cathedral, Notre-Dame dates back to Carolingian times. In the
eleventh century it possessed no transept, but included a semi-circular
apse flanked by two towers, on the site of which rise the two present
ones (_see p. 205_), which date from the twelfth century and recall
those of the cathedral. There remains of the twelfth century Romanesque
church, besides almost the whole of the transept, the south door under
the porch, the pillars and the aisles of the nave, as well as the
ground floor of the west front.

In 1157 Notre-Dame collapsed, and was partly reconstructed. The apse
was rebuilt with three radial chapels. In the nave and choir the round
arches of the tribunes and arcades were replaced by pointed ones: the
walls were raised in height and pierced by windows, below which was
established a triforium (photo below). Gothic vaulting in the nave and
transept replaced the wooden roof. The two storeys and the pinnacle of
the west front, between the towers, belong also to this period.

[Illustration: NAVE OF NOTRE-DAME]

In the fourteenth century the four towers were surmounted by wooden
spires covered with lead, painted and gilded. To the fifteenth century
belongs the beautiful porch in the Flamboyant style which precedes
the south door of the twelfth century. The Revolution destroyed three
of the four spires in order to utilise the lead, and mutilated the
sculptures of the doors. Notre-Dame was completely restored about 1852.
The steeple of the north tower of the west front was reconstructed,
but the towers of the apse remained despoiled of the elevated pyramids
which gave to Notre-Dame a very characteristic silhouette recognisable
in the centre of the old engraving reproduced on _p. 198_.

[Illustration: PORCH AND SOUTH TRANSEPT OF NOTRE-DAME]

The south porch, visible in the opposite photograph, was built in
1469. The bay is surmounted by an angular pediment, and the gable is
ornamented by graceful arcading in the Flamboyant style.

The south front of the transept (photograph opposite) which adjoins the
Gothic porch, is a fine piece of work in the Romanesque style, with its
round arches and its sculptured rose-windows. The little thirteenth
century sun-dial on the buttress in the middle-front below the windows
is worthy of note. It is one of the oldest known.

The interior of Notre-Dame is simple and dignified (see below and on
p. 203). It has been completely restored. The pillars which support
the arcades are those of the early Romanesque church (see photograph
p. 205). Their capitals are finely sculptured. Above the lower arcades
runs a gallery which opens on to the choir and nave by means of bays
composed of twin lights. A little triforium separates this gallery from
the higher windows (see below).

[Illustration: CHOIR OF NOTRE-DAME]

The windows of the aisles of Notre-Dame are filled with beautiful
sixteenth century stained glass, which at the beginning of the war was
taken down and put away for fear of damage from air-raids. We reproduce
a panel from one of them, which represents the donor kneeling in prayer
to Saint Martha, her patron saint, who is trampling under foot the
"Tarasque," a mythical monster of Tarascon. The saint is subduing it by
sprinkling it with holy water.

The principal stained-glass windows in the north aisle are: in the
first window beginning at the great doorway, the battle of "las Novas
de Tolosa" won by the Spaniards over the Moors in the thirteenth
century; donors; patrons; the transfiguration. The next window deals
with the death and coronation of the Virgin and represents the donors
(_the panel reproduced on p. 205 belongs to this window_). The third
window is dedicated to the life of Saint Anne and the Virgin; the
fourth represents the Adoration, the Massacre of the Innocents, the
Flight into Egypt, the last Supper; the fifth, the Passion; the sixth,
the Ascension, the Virgin, Christ crowned; patrons and donors. In the
south aisle, the first window represents the life of Saint James, the
Transfiguration, Christ appearing to his disciples; the second, scenes
from the life of the Virgin; the third, the Last Supper; the fourth,
the life of the Virgin and the legend of Saint James.

[Illustration: APSE OF NOTRE-DAME]

As in all the churches in the neighbourhood, mortuary stones are
numerous.

[Illustration: DONOR AND SAINT MARTHA

(Sixteenth century stained glass)]

[Illustration: ROMANESQUE PILLAR IN THE NAVE]


=Church of Saint Alpin= (historical monument)

(See map inserted between pp. 198-199)

[Illustration: SAINT ALPIN]

This was at first merely a chapel dedicated to Saint Andrew. In the
ninth century it was placed under the patronage of Saint Alpin, when
the body of this Bishop of Châlons was transported there.

Saint Alpin, like Saint Loup at Troyes, and Saint Geneviève in Paris,
went out to confront Attila, and succeeded in obtaining a promise that
the town should be spared by the "Scourge of God." A sixteenth century
stained-glass window (the first in the south aisle) commemorates this
episode in the life of the saint (photograph below). The bishop, his
mitre on his head, the cross in his hand, surrounded by clergy and
laymen, is pleading the cause of the town before the King of the Huns,
seated on a sumptuous throne amidst his warriors. At the foot of the
throne are captives in chains.

[Illustration: SAINT ALPIN BEFORE ATTILA (sixteenth century stained
glass)]

As we have seen on p. 198, fifteen centuries later the same scene was
enacted. In September, 1914, Mgr. Tissier, Saint Alpin's successor in
the bishopric of Châlons, was obliged to plead for his town with the
invaders.

The Church of Saint Alpin was reconstructed and enlarged in the twelfth
century. From this period date the west front (see above), the nave
and its side aisles. The north branch of the transept belongs to the
fourteenth century, the south branch to the sixteenth.

The apse goes back to the sixteenth century, as does the tower
surmounting the middle of the transept, also the chapels of the side
aisles. At the same period, doors leading into each aisle were pierced
on either side of the doorway of the West Front.

The church was subjected to important repairs in the nineteenth
century, and statues of Saint Andrew and Saint Alpin, its two patrons,
were installed in niches on either side of the central doorway.

[Illustration: LIFE OF THE VIRGIN (sixteenth century stained glass)]

In the interior we find a fine collection of sixteenth century stained
glass in the windows of the south aisle and of the ambulatory. As in
the other churches in Châlons, the war caused them to be removed to a
place of safety. We reproduce two of them: Saint Alpin before Attila
(see p. 206), and the life of the Virgin (photo opposite).

In the latter the top of the right hand light represents the birth of
the Virgin; the lower portion of the middle light, the Presentation
in the Temple. Saint Anne and Saint Joachim, bringing the sacrificial
lambs and doves, lead Mary to the high priest. The upper portion of
this light depicts the glorification of the Virgin. On the left of
the window is Saint Martha, in a rich Renaissance costume, holding in
her hand the vessel of holy water and the sprinkler which she used to
subdue the "Tarasque" (_see p. 205_).

Mortuary stones are also to be seen here; and let into the wall of the
ambulatory is a beautiful sixteenth century bas-relief of the Virgin
and Child; two donors and their patrons. On one of the southern pillars
of the transept is a fine "_Ecce homo_" on a background of gold, also
of the sixteenth century.


=Church of St. John= (historical monument)

(See map inserted between pp. 198-199)

[Illustration: SAINT JOHN'S]

This church is the most ancient building in Châlons. The nave dates
from 1050; the choir, the apse, and the transept belong to the
thirteenth century; the principal front to the fourteenth. The tower of
the transept was built in the seventeenth, when the side aisles were
vaulted and reconstructed. The Romanesque nave with its round arches,
has a seventeenth century wooden vault; but above it, the wooden
framework of the interior of the roof contains some skilful fourteenth
century carpentry. The capitals and the pillars are very plain and
some seem to be anterior to the eleventh century; the branches of
the transept are doubled by side-aisles transformed into chapels,
which flank the choir. The apse terminates in a flat wall. Important
restorations were carried out in this old church in the nineteenth
century.


The Jard

(See map inserted between pp. 198-199)

[Illustration: SAVINGS BANK SEEN FROM NAU CANAL

(_Photo L. L._)]

The Jard is a very pretty park of extremely ancient origin, being
mentioned in thirteenth century documents. The marshy ground was
drained, raised, and planted with trees. In the eighteenth century it
was laid out as it is to-day. The walks were bordered with elms which,
after a century of existence, were cut down in 1870 and replaced by
horse-chestnut trees. _On Sundays and Thursdays concerts are given
here._

The garden, which occupies the north-east portion of the Jard
and reaches the banks of the Nau Canal, was made in 1861 for a
horticultural exhibition. The old seventeenth century castle of Marché,
now transformed into the savings bank, looks on to this canal. The
photograph opposite gives an idea of its picturesque aspect.

The English garden stretches between the canal and the Marne. It was
laid out in the beginning of the nineteenth century. A foot-bridge
(photo below) connects it with the Jard. From the top of this bridge
there is a pretty view of the canal which divides at this point to
surround a wooded isle.


Other Monuments and Objects of Interest

(See map inserted between pp. 198-199)


Church of Saint Loup

This dates from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but was
rebuilt in the nineteenth. The front, the tower, and the spire which
rises above the transept are entirely modern, and the old seventeenth
century doorway has been removed to the courtyard of the museum in the
town-hall.

In the interior, in the second chapel of the right aisle, is a little
sixteenth century Flemish triptych representing the "Adoration of
the Wise Men." At the end of the right aisle, near the branch of the
transept, is a fifteenth century wooden carving of Saint Christopher.


Hôtel de Ville

[Illustration: FOOT-BRIDGE CONNECTING THE JARD WITH THE ENGLISH GARDEN]

The present building replaced at the end of the eighteenth century the
old Renaissance town-hall. It contains the library and the museum,
the latter looking on the Place Godart. Enter by the Rue d'Orfeuil
(_open to the public on Thursdays and Sundays, from noon to 5 p.m. and
every day to visitors to the town_). The museum contains interesting
collections of sculpture, ancient paintings, and a natural history
section.


Préfecture

This, built in the eighteenth century, was formerly the hôtel of the
"Intendance de Champagne." The north wing was built in 1846. The
préfecture contains a remarkably fine fifteenth century chimney-piece
(photo below), on which is carved a mythological triumphal procession,
flanked by figures representing faith and charity.


Sainte-Croix Gate

Here is a triumphal arch erected in 1770 for the passage of
Marie-Antoinette, on her arrival in France to wed the Dauphin. It was
never finished.


National School of Arts and Crafts

This institution, founded by Napoléon in 1806, is one of the five
important State schools for turning out engineers and skilled foremen.
The buildings are of the eighteenth century. The school possesses fine
laboratories and industrial collections.


Sainte-Croix and Saint-Jean Avenues

Both are fine avenues, remains of the boulevards which surrounded the
town.


The Military Cemetery

Rue Kellerman, in the eastern part of the town, near the cavalry
quarters, is on a lower level than the old civilian cemetery. It
contains the remains of several thousand soldiers who died in the
hospitals of the town.

[Illustration: CHIMNEY-PIECE IN THE PRÉFECTURE (FIFTEENTH CENTURY)]


=Notre-Dame de l'Épine= (historical monument)

(See plan inserted between pp. 198-199 and map between pp. 212-213)

[Illustration: NOTRE-DAME DE L'ÉPINE IN THE MIDST OF RUINS]

In order to reach Notre-Dame de l'Épine, which is eight kilometres
from Châlons, _leave Châlons by the Avenue de Metz, which begins
at Saint-Jean Square. This avenue rejoins_ N. 3, _in which turn to
the right. It is a straight road to l'Épine._ Notre-Dame comes into
view suddenly at the entrance to the village, which, as the above
photo shows, has suffered greatly. A large number of its houses have
been destroyed by fire, but the old church had a miraculous escape.
Notre-Dame, which dates from the fifteenth century, replaced an earlier
edifice built on the spot where, according to legend, a heavenly light
disclosed a statue of the Virgin in a bush. From the beginning of the
thirteenth century, pilgrims flocked to say their prayers at the foot
of the miraculous statue. Although now seven hundred years old this
pilgrimage still retains its famous reputation.

[Illustration: FRONT OF NOTRE-DAME DE L'ÉPINE]

The church was built by the inhabitants of the district, pious workmen
coming from as far as Bar and Verdun; and the expression "aller à
l'Épine," meaning to work for nothing, still exists. The church was
finished in the sixteenth century. Three doorways in the fifteenth
century front open on the ground floor, and are surmounted by angular
pediments. The central doorway, the largest and most interesting of the
three, is dedicated to Christ. A crucifix is to be seen in the centre
of the pediment. In the tympanum is represented the Birth of Christ;
and scenes from the Passion are carved on the lintel. A sixteenth
century Virgin, holding in her arms the Infant Jesus, stands with her
back to the pier which supports the tympanum and divides the entrance
into two parts. The curve of the arch and the side doors of the porch
were ornamented with sculptures, of which many now are missing or
mutilated. A beautiful rose-window and two large windows light the
front below the towers.

The spires of unequal height are of stone, and are formed of eight
branches united in a crown in their middle: that on the right is a
royal crown with the lilies; that on the left is an imperial one,
bearing eight eagles. In 1798 Claude Chappe, the inventor of aerial
telegraphy, installed an apparatus on the left spire. This was
destroyed, but was restored again in the nineteenth century.

[Illustration: SOUTH FRONT OF NOTRE-DAME DE L'ÉPINE]

Walk round the exterior of the church in order to examine the
succession of gargoyles projecting from the buttresses. They have been
carved in a keen, satirical spirit.

[Illustration: ROOD-LOFT OF NOTRE-DAME DE L'ÉPINE]

The south doorway is flanked by two turrets, each containing a
stairway. All the statues which ornamented the curve of the arch,
the jambs and the pier are missing. On the much-damaged lintel is a
representation of the life of Saint John the Baptist. The doorway is
dominated by a beautiful window. The chapels round the apse were added
in the sixteenth century.

The interior of Notre-Dame de l'Épine, which has been completely
restored, is very interesting. The most striking parts are the transept
and the choir. In the north arm of the transept, visible in the photo
opposite, the Renaissance woodwork of the organ is noteworthy. In
the sculptured figures with which it is decorated, Greek divinities,
Jupiter, Venus, Apollo, etc., are side by side with the apostles.

A well, with fine wrought-iron fittings, seen in the photograph, dates
from the origin of the edifice. It is the Virgin's Well, from which
pilgrims drink and carry away the water.

The curious rood-loft at the entrance to the choir shelters the
miraculous statue. One obtains access from the choir to the rood-loft
by two spiral stairways. It was from the upper gallery that in former
times the epistle and gospel for the day were read. The name of "Jubé"
is derived from the formula by which the reader previously besought the
blessing of heaven: "_Jubé, Domine, benedicere_."

The Virgin is in a modern gilded shrine, which may be seen under the
first arch in the photograph at the foot of p. 211. The statue has been
restored in modern times. The choir is surrounded by a stone cloister
whose style varies from Gothic to Renaissance.

On the left side of this cloister is a beautiful Gothic edifice which
contained sacred relics. It may be seen in the photograph below.

Five chapels adorn the apse. The first on the right, shut off by a
stone balustrade, is used as a sacristy; the next one contains a
sixteenth century stone carving representing the Entombment.

_After visiting Notre-Dame de l'Épine, return to Châlons by_ N. 3, _the
road along which we came_.

_If it is desired to begin at once the tour of which indications are
given on p. 19, turn to the right at Saint-Jean Square, taking the
Rue du Général-Compère. Follow the tram-lines which cross the Place
des Ursulines, and take Rue Pasteur on the left. Cross the canal, and
by the Rue d'Orfeuil reach the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville. Turn to the
left, then following the Rue de Marne, leave the town by the Faubourg
de Marne._

[Illustration: INTERIOR VIEW OF NOTRE-DAME DE L'ÉPINE]

[Illustration]


VISIT TO THE FIELD OF OPERATIONS

OF THE

FOURTH FRENCH ARMY


I--FROM CHÂLONS TO VITRY-LE-FRANÇOIS

(62 km.)

via +Vatry+, +Bussy-Lettrée+, +Dommartin-Lettrée+, +Soudé+, +Sompuis+,
+Humbauville+, Huiron, +Courdemanges+, +Frignicourt+.

(See map inserted between pp. 212-213)

[Illustration: DOMMARTIN CHURCH]

_Leave Châlons by the Faubourg de Marne, taken on arrival there. At the
end of the Faubourg, turn to the left into the Avenue de Paris, then to
the right into_ N. 77 _in the direction of =Vatry= (18 km.). In this
village, leave the "route nationale" in order to take, on the left_, G.
C. 12 _going towards =Bussy-Lettrée=, reached after having crossed a
level-crossing. Enter the village as far as the middle; there, turn to
the right, then to the left, leaving the church on the left (20½ km.).
The road next leads to =Dommartin-Lettrée= (26 km.)_ and passes before
the quaint church reproduced above. Its two doorways are interesting;
the western one which faces the road is reproduced on p. 215; the
southern one may be remarked under the porch in the general view of the
church.

_Continue straight on, arrive at =Soudé=, pass through it, turning
to the right in the Square, and come out into_ N. 34 _(30 km.). Turn
to the left in it, then leave it almost immediately to take, on the
right_, G. C. 12, _which continues as far as =Sompuis= (38 km.), after
passing under the railway embankment._ We are entering the field of
operations of the extreme left of Langle de Cary's Army. Several graves
have been made in the embankment; one of them, visible in the photo on
p. 214, marks the place where, on September 10, the same shell killed
General Barbade and Colonel Hamon, who were commanding the two Brigades
of the 23rd Division, as well as their aides-de-camp. The body of
General Barbade is buried in the cemetery.

On the right of the road, closing in the horizon, are the wooded
heights on which the Germans had organised strong positions. They were
taken from the Saxons on September 9-10 by the 21st Corps.

_Cross straight through =Sompuis=, passing before the church, which is
surrounded by a graveyard (see p. 214)._

[Illustration: DOORWAY OF DOMMARTIN CHURCH]

On the evening of September 6 the Germans entered the village
unopposed, a fact which did not prevent them from setting fire to
several houses, or from taking a number of hostages under various
pretexts. One of them, M. Arnould, was taken because he had set up on
the roof of his house a chimney-pot to replace one destroyed during
the bombardment. Some soldiers passing at this very moment saw in this
humble domestic task an attempt to signal to the French troops.

Abbé Oudin, Rector of Sompuis, aged 73 years, and his servant, aged 67
years, were also arrested, the installation of electric bells in the
rectory causing suspicion. They were shut up in their cellar, where
several other hostages were soon sent to join them. Here they were
left without any food until the afternoon of September 8. The abbé had
been taken out for a short period in the morning in order to assist at
the celebration of Mass in his church, where Abbé Prince Max of Saxe
officiated.

The hostages were led away towards Châlons. "_It was evident_," said
one of them in his statement before the Commission of Enquiry, "_that
on account of his age and feebleness, Abbé Oudin could not walk far. We
were obliged to carry him, so to speak. Near Coole (7 km. to the north
of Sompuis) our escort made us halt, and two soldiers who had seen a
butcher's cart standing abandoned in a field, dragged it on the road,
and said: 'Get in, Curé.' The poor man was so feeble that he was unable
to do so. The Germans tipped up the cart, and as the back did not open,
they made the old priest sit on the edge, then raised the shafts so
quickly that he fell on his back into the bottom of the cart, his feet
in the air. The old servant got up beside him, and the Germans made
signs to us to put ourselves between the shafts and to drag the cart.
As we set out, they all threw their haversacks on the top of the Abbé
and his servant, as they would have thrown them on to a bundle of hay._"

The hostages thus traversed Châlons and arrived at Suippes, where, in
the rain, they spent the night out of doors, in the playground of the
school. "_At Vouziers, during the whole of Sunday, the 13th_," declared
a witness, "_Abbé Oudin was unceasingly ill-treated by the German
officers, as well as by the soldiers, but principally by the officers.
The latter came in large numbers, and each of them, in passing, spat in
the Abbé's face or struck him with their riding whips. I saw officers
and soldiers kick the poor man with their spurs. He was so weak that he
no longer stirred, in spite of all that he must have been suffering. I
saw soldiers, too, strike him with the butt-end of their rifles; but I
insist that the officers were worse than the men. These atrocities only
ended in the evening. Abbé Oudin passed the night lying on the ground
like us; we hardly heard him once complain._"

[Illustration: GRAVES AT SOMPUIS]

The Abbé's old servant did not escape ill-treatment either. On the
Sedan Road, in Tannay Church, four soldiers seized her, threw her into
a blanket of which they held the four corners, and tossed her on to the
altar steps; then, laying hold of her again, they threw her into the
midst of the seats, not troubling about the piercing cries which her
many bruises drew from her. Sedan was Abbé Oudin's last stage; there
death put an end to his sufferings. His servant, after careful nursing
in the hospice, recovered, but another victim, a hostage named Mougeot,
aged 72, succumbed to the results of German brutality. He was brought
in a hand-cart to Pafert barracks, with four ribs broken by kicks, and
thrown on to a bundle of straw, where he soon expired.

[Illustration: HOUSES DESTROYED IN HUIRON]

While these events were in progress the battle of the Marne had been
won. Sompuis was retaken amidst fierce fighting at 5 p.m. on the 10th
by the 21st Corps, which freed another victim in the village itself:
an old man of 70, named Jacquemin. He had been tied to his bed by a
German officer and left there without food for three days. "_Each time
that he asked for food or water_," declared his daughter-in-law, "_he
was struck_." A shell fell on the house and killed the tormentor on the
spot. The corpse of the officer was found in the house of his victim,
who died two or three days after his deliverance as the result of the
ill-treatment he had received.

[Illustration: DOORWAY OF CHURCH HUIRON]

_On leaving Sompuis, continue straight along_ G. C. 12 _to
=Humbauville=._

On September 8 the heights seen on the right were gallantly defended
against Saxon attacks by a detachment of Bretons.

On the 9th the latter were thrown back in disorder by the 13th
Division, which had been sent as a reinforcement.

[Illustration: CHURCH AND ANCIENT ABBEY HUIRON]

_At the entrance to Humbauville (42 km.) turn to the right, then, at
the church, take on the left_ G. C. 14 _in the direction of =Huiron=._
We are now on the battlefield of the 17th Corps. G. C. 14 formed the
French position at the beginning of the battle; on the 6th the road
was left behind, and the Germans driven back northwards as far as the
railway line going from Sompuis to Huiron. But on the 8th the 17th
Corps was repulsed in its turn, and G. C. 14 became the German line.
The French troops clung to the heights to the south of the road and
particularly to Certine Farm, where General Dupuis was killed. The
fighting was of a desperate character. The Germans, in their fury,
revenged themselves on the wounded; eight badly hurt soldiers of the
88th Infantry Regiment, whom Sub-Lieutenant Baudens had been obliged to
leave behind, were afterwards found with hands tied behind their backs,
their bodies riddled with bullets and bayonet wounds.

On the 9th and 10th the 17th Corps counter-attacked vigorously and,
with the aid of the Goullet Division which had been attached to it,
succeeded on the night of the 10-11th in re-crossing the railway line.

[Illustration: NAVE OF CHURCH HUIRON]

[Illustration: RUINS AT COURDEMANGES]

We reach =Huiron= (53 km.) which was completely destroyed by the fire
kindled by the Germans on September 7, after having taken the village
from the 12th Corps. The interesting twelfth century church, and the
ruins of the abbey buildings backing up to it, have been ravaged by
the flames. The pillars of the nave have crumbled away, and in the
photograph opposite fragments of broken columns may be seen scattered
about. Huiron was only retaken on the night of the 10-11th.

[Illustration: FLOODS AT FOOT OF MONT-MORET]

_400 yards from the church turn to the right into_ G. C. 2; _then after
about 700 yards, turn to the left in order to enter the village of
=Courdemanges=._ This has suffered much from fire and bombardment. On
the right of the street stood the castle, which has been completely
destroyed.

[Illustration: GRAVES NEAR FRIGNICOURT]

Courdemanges, which was occupied on the 6th by the 12th Corps, was
attacked with great violence. It was abandoned at 5 p.m., and retaken
during the night. Continuously shelled by the Germans on the 7th
and 8th, it fell on the latter day into their hands. The 12th Corps
counter-attacked energetically, but succeeded only on the 11th in
re-entering the village.

_After going as far as the church, return again by the same road to_
G. C. 2 _and cross it in order to go straight towards Frignicourt_. On
the right is Mont-Moret which played an important part in the fighting
in this region. The batteries of the 12th Corps were installed there on
September 6. After heavy shelling and infantry attacks, Mont-Moret fell
on the morning of the 8th, but units of the 12th Corps, aided by the
Colonial Corps, counter-attacked with determination, and in the evening
obtained possession of the ridge, capturing a few machine-guns. They
remained there in spite of fierce assaults, which caused heavy losses
to the Germans and gave no result.

_The road crosses the railway_ in a low-lying plain often flooded by
the Marne, as seen in the photograph on p. 216; Mont-Moret can be
distinguished in the background.

100 yards before arriving at Frignicourt, on the right and on the left
of G. C. 14, are the graves depicted in the photos on this page. The
soldiers who lie buried there are those who gallantly defended the
passage of the Marne on September 6. The French troops, overwhelmed by
the fire of the German artillery at Vitry, were obliged to fall back on
Courdemanges and Mont-Moret. The Germans in their turn were violently
shelled by the French guns, but succeeded in holding out in Frignicourt
until the 11th.

[Illustration: GRAVES NEAR FRIGNICOURT]

_After crossing the Marne, enter =Frignicourt= (60 km.)_, whose
ruins are being gradually reconstructed. _Turn to the left to reach
Vitry-le-François_ (plan p. 218). _Passing through the toll-gate, take
the Rue du Passage-Supérieur on the left, then, after crossing the
railway, turn again to the left into the Avenue du Colonel-Moll. Cross
the Boulevard François I, and take the Petite-Rue de Frignicourt on the
left, which leads into the Rue de Frignicourt. Along this main road
turn to the right to reach the hotel (62 km.)._

[Illustration: VITRY-LE-FRANÇOIS]


VITRY-LE-FRANÇOIS


ORIGIN AND CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS

[Illustration: NOTRE-DAME]

Vitry-le-François dates from the sixteenth century. The town was built
in 1545 by order of Francis I. in order to replace Vitry-en-Perthois,
burned the year before by Charles V. The ruins of old Vitry were
utilised for the construction of the new, which was named after its
founder. This complete rebuilding explains the remarkable regularity of
the town, plans of which were drawn up by an Italian architect, Marino.
Vitry was fortified, but its ramparts were condemned and demolished in
the nineteenth century.


VITRY-LE-FRANÇOIS IN 1914

At the beginning of the war, Vitry was the seat of the French General
Headquarters Staff. On September 5, almost the whole of the population
evacuated the town, together with the civil authorities. Out of a
population of 8,500, barely 500 to 600 persons remained. In the morning
a rearguard action commenced to the north and east of Vitry. About 5
p.m., German shells began to fall in the suburbs, and in the evening
Uhlans entered the town by the Châlons Road. In default of the mayor,
the curé, M. Nottin, and his curate were at once arrested as hostages,
and M. Nottin was directed to find two more. Two patriotic citizens,
M. Paillard and M. Bernat, offered themselves for this onerous duty.
Together with M. Foureur, the schoolmaster, they took upon their
shoulders the charge of maintaining order, ensuring requisitions, the
victualling of the inhabitants, and the treatment of the wounded. MM.
Nottin, Paillard and Foureur, were amongst the first civilians to be
mentioned in dispatches.

Up to September 10 the battle raged round Vitry. The allied and
enemy shells crossed one another over the town: the German batteries
established on the heights to the north replying to the French guns
on Mont-Moret. The wounded came crowding in. On the third day, they
numbered 2,500, of whom 200 were French. The hospital being full the
church was then transformed into one, as well as all the teaching
establishments and the savings bank.

On the evening of the 10th the evacuation by the Germans began. It took
place in an orderly manner. The next evening the French re-entered the
town.

Apart from the gas works, which suffered from the shelling, and a few
burnt houses, the events of September have left few traces at Vitry. A
few houses and shops were pillaged, but, thanks to the influence and
activity of Abbé Nottin and his companions, the town was spared the
horrors which the surrounding villages experienced.


VISIT TO THE TOWN

(See map p. 218)

_Leaving the hotel, follow the Rue de Frignicourt to the Place d'Armes_
in which is the Church of Notre-Dame, shown above. The first stone of
this edifice was laid in 1629. The king gave 300,000 livres (about
£12,000) towards the cost of construction, and numerous families in the
neighbourhood subscribed also. They bought, by means of a heavy burial
duty, the right to be buried in the church itself. The subsoil of
Notre-Dame became on this account a veritable ossuary.

[Illustration: GATEWAY OF BRIDGE]

When the high altar was moved about twenty skulls were unearthed. In
1850, when the present paving was laid, thirty-two mortuary stones were
removed from the nave. The chapels were built by rich parishioners, who
placed their tombs there and dedicated the altar to the patron saint
of their family. The apse was constructed in 1835, and the work of
building finished in 1895.

Notre-Dame recalls Saint-Sulpice in Paris, and its interior is worth
visiting. The first chapel on the left has a fine eighteenth century
railing. In the last chapel, off the nave on the left, the reredos
above the altar should be noted. A bas-relief depicts Saint-Jerome
kneeling beside a lion.

In the south branch of the transept is a fine mortuary stone in black
marble, showing a knight standing with hands joined, his foot on a
greyhound.

The four pillars at the intersection of the choir and of the transept
are decorated with sculpture.

[Illustration: MILLS AND OLD RAMPARTS]

_After having visited the church, take on the opposite side of the
Square the Rue du Pont leading to the monumental gateway_ reproduced
above, which dates from the seventeenth century and formed part of the
old enclosure. _Turn to the right along the side of the Marne by the
Quai des Fontaines as far as the mills. Turn to the right again, take
a few steps from the Place des Moulins alongside the river in order
to obtain the picturesque view of the old ramparts shown in the photo
below. Take the Rue des Moulins, which is continued by the Rue d'Enfer,
and at the barracks turn to the right into the Rue des Minimes, then
into the Rue des Sœurs. In the middle of the latter turn to the left,
in order to glance at the old wooden market-buildings. Pass round them
to the left and regain the Place d'Armes by the street opening on to
the market on the opposite side to that by which we entered. Cross the
"Place," and take the Rue Domine de Verzet which skirts Notre-Dame on
the left. Opposite the town-hall_ (the old monastery of the Récollets,
which dates from the end of the seventeenth century and contains
the Library and Museum), _turn to the right, into the Petite Rue de
l'Hôtel de Ville, then to the left into Boulevard Carnot. Leave this
in the middle of the Place Carnot in order to take the Faubourg de
Saint-Dizier on the left._


VISIT TO THE FIELD OF OPERATIONS

OF THE

FOURTH AND THIRD FRENCH ARMIES


=II.--FROM VITRY-LE-FRANÇOIS TO BAR-LE-DUC= (82 km.)

  Via +Vauclerc+, +Écriennes+, +Favresse+, +Étrepy+,
  +Heiltz-le-Maurupt+, +Pargny+, +Maurupt+, +Cheminon+,
  +Trois-Fontaines+, +Sermaize+, +Vassincourt+.

(See map inserted between pp. 212-213)

_After leaving Vitry by N. 4, crossing the Marne and a level-crossing_,
=Marolles= (3 km.) is reached. In this village an old man of 70 years,
M. Mathieu Coche, was seized by German cavalrymen and led away tied to
a horse, with which he was obliged to keep pace. On arriving in the
neighbourhood of Vitry-en-Perthois (_nearly 30 km. to the north of
Marolles_) the poor old fellow's strength gave out, he fell and was
dragged along by the horse until death ensued. His body was then left
behind, and could not be buried until after the German retreat.

_N. 4 next passes through =Vauclerc= (6 km.)._ On the left of the
road a great number of new roofs are to be seen, although many of the
houses are still in the same state as that in which the shelling and
the fire left them. During the whole of the battle this village was the
objective of the Lejaille Brigade. It was only retaken, by the Colonial
Corps, on September 11.

_About 1,300 yards beyond Vauclerc, where graves border the road on
either side, is, on the right, a road leading to Écriennes. Before
taking it, follow N. 4 for 400 yards further_, in order to see a
burying-place of the Colonials, shown in the photo below. The view
gives an idea of the immense plain, where furious encounters took place
between this crack corps and the troops of the Duke of Wurtemberg.

[Illustration: BURYING-PLACE OF THE COLONIALS ALONG N. 4]

In that part of the plain which lies to the right of the road, beyond
Écriennes, near Matignicourt, there took place in 1891 the famous
review of troops by President Carnot. It was the first important
military demonstration since the war of 1870. It signalised the
resurrection of the national spirit, and because of this fact it
produced a very deep impression both in France and in foreign
countries. Monuments to the memory of President Carnot have been raised
on the field of the review, at Vitry; in the Carnot Square; and at
Châlons in the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville.

[Illustration: CHURCH ÉCRIENNES]

_Taking the road leading to_ =Écriennes= (10 km.) we arrive at this
village, which has been completely devastated, as may be seen in
the photos on this page. The church, the upper part of which is of
timber-work, was blown in by shells.

Écriennes was hotly disputed from September 6 to 11. It was taken on
the 6th by the Germans, in spite of an heroic defence by the 21st
Colonials; then retaken only to be lost again by the French on the 8th,
and retaken finally on the 11th.

_After passing in front of the church, turn to the left in order
to rejoin N. 4, along which turn to the right in the direction of
Farémont._ The road is bordered on both sides by graves, for the
fighting here was very violent. On the road and to the south of it the
Colonial Infantry fought doggedly, sometimes gaining, sometimes losing
ground. To the north of N. 4 the Lejaille Brigade tried to push towards
Vauclerc.

       *       *       *       *       *

We enter =Farémont= (12½ km.), some of the houses of which have been
burned. _On emerging, leave N. 4 and turn to the left in order to
reach_ =Thiéblemont= (13½ km.). This village was also completely
devastated by shells and fire, but the church is still standing.
_This side of the church, turn to the left into G. C. 60 leading to
Favresse._ Graves may be seen along this road. On September 6, that
portion of the Colonial Corps which held Favresse followed G. C. 60 in
the opposite direction, falling back on Farémont, while the Lejaille
Brigade came to take their place at Favresse.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: RUINS OF ÉCRIENNES]

=Favresse= (16½ km) was gallantly defended on the 7th; taken and
retaken several times on the 8th, and finally remained in the
possession of the Lejaille Brigade, whose chief was wounded by a
shell-splinter during the afternoon.

       *       *       *       *       *

The village, which was violently shelled, suffered heavily, but has
been partly rebuilt. The beautiful little church, of which the photos
on this page give a general view, as well as a detailed one of the
Romanesque doorway, bears traces of numerous shells. As at Écriennes,
and in many little country churches in this region, the upper part of
the walls of the nave is of timber work.

[Illustration: DOORWAY OF CHURCH FAVRESSE]

_Turn to the right alongside the church and leaving it on the left,
take G. C. 16 to Haussignémont and Blesmes._

On this ground on September 8 the Eighth German (reserve) Corps tried
to break through between Favresse and Blesmes. At one time this
effort seemed about to be successful, but, reinforcements having been
opportunely sent to Haussignémont, the Lejaille Brigade was able to
hold the position.

[Illustration: CHURCH FAVRESSE]

_In =Haussignémont= (17½ km.), turn to the left near the church, and
continue along G. C. 16 to Blesmes, which is reached after passing over
a level-crossing._

_In the centre of =Blesmes= (20 km.), turn to the left in order to pass
in front of the church._ Numerous houses in the village were destroyed
by shells, and the roof of the church was damaged; but most of this
damage has been repaired.

[Illustration: SORTON FARM]

_On leaving Blesmes, pass over a level-crossing, then under the
railway. At the cross-roads immediately beyond turn to the right, then
at the fork in the road, turn to the right again into G. C. 14 in the
direction of Étrepy._

_Half-way_ thither, on the right, is =Sorton Farm=, which was fiercely
disputed. As may be seen in the photo on p. 223, it was completely
destroyed. The Eighth German (reserve) Corps managed to take it on
September 8, but, on the following day, the troops of the Second French
Corps re-took possession of the ruins and held them. Along the road in
front of the farm are the graves of some of its defenders.

[Illustration: CHURCH AND RUINS, ÉTREPY]

At =Étrepy= (25 km.), _we pass in front of the church (see above)_.
There are numerous ruins in this village, which was set on fire by the
Germans on September 7.

Of the seventy families who remained at Étrepy during the battle,
sixty-three were homeless after the incendiaries had passed by. Two
old people, more than eighty years of age, M. and Mme. Miliat, were
led away almost naked to a distance of 3 km. from the village and
horribly ill-used. In order to quicken their pace, rendered slow by
age, they were struck with the flat of swords. Mme. Miliat died four
days afterwards as a result of this treatment. On leaving the village,
on the right is the entrance to the castle of the Morillot family.
(The son of Count Morillot, a naval lieutenant and commander of the
submarine "Monge," went down with her, after having made the crew put
off in their boats, rather than surrender to the enemy.) The castle,
which is built at the meeting place of the Saulx and the Ornain, and is
surrounded by a moat, dates from the seventeenth century. It was set on
fire by the Germans.

The position of Étrepy is important, being a bridgehead on the waterway
formed by the Saulx, the Ornain, and the canal from the Marne to the
Rhine. The passage was defended on September 6 by the Third Division of
the Second French Corps, but the bridges were forced in the evening,
and at dawn on the 7th the village fell into the hands of the Germans.
It was only retaken on the 11th.

[Illustration: CHURCH, HEILTZ-LE-MAURUPT]

_After crossing in succession the Saulx, the canal, and then the
Ornain, which flows through a frequently flooded plain, we arrive at
=Heiltz-le-Maurupt= (29½ km.) and, after turning to the right, take the
left towards the church._

On September 6, on the arrival of the Duke of Wurtemberg's troops,
the beautiful Romanesque church was devastated by fire, at the same
time as the little town. Before setting fire to the houses, the
Germans pillaged them. The spoils were placed on waggons under the
superintendence of an officer. These removals having been effected,
German soldiers were next seen, two by two, carrying buckets slung
on poles and filled with inflammable liquid, which they threw on the
houses. The result was a huge outburst of fire, in which the church,
the town-hall, the school, and 187 houses out of 210, were destroyed.

[Illustration: NAVE OF CHURCH, HEILTZ-LE-MAURUPT]

The photos opposite show that the roof of the church has disappeared,
exposing the nave. The vaults of the transept and of the apse have
resisted the flames. The Romanesque apse is very interesting; the
vaulting is round-arched, and on the exterior are sixteen blind
windows, also round-arched, separated from each other by small pillars.
The old Romanesque tower was surmounted by a spire about 100 feet high
built in the sixteenth century. It collapsed in the flames. The western
doorway is also in the Romanesque style (photo below). The work of
restoration is in progress, as may be seen in the photo opposite.

[Illustration: APSE OF CHURCH]

The Germans had installed at Heiltz-le-Maurupt an important heavy
battery which, during the whole of the battle, seriously tried the
French troops entrusted with the defence of Pargny, Maurupt, and
Sermaize.

_In order to regain the line of the Ornain and the Saulx, take the
street on the right a little to the east of the church. On reaching the
fork, again take the right, and follow the line of telegraph posts as
far as Pargny._

[Illustration: DOORWAY OF CHURCH]

[Illustration: THE CANAL AT PARGNY (looking westwards)]

[Illustration: THE CANAL AT PARGNY (looking eastwards)]

_The road passes over the Ornain then over the canal from the Marne to
the Rhine, of which the two photographs opposite_ and _below_ give two
views: the first to the west, the second to the east. The struggle was
violent on the banks of the canal. The infantry of the Third Division
was guarding the bridges, which were taken by the Germans on September
6, but the French, entrenched in Pargny (_towards which the road leads
the tourist_), held out during the whole of the day of the 7th in spite
of the terrific shell fire, which completely destroyed the little town.
On the 8th, attacked on the north and east, Pargny fell. The next day,
the valiant troops of the Second Corps re-took it. On the 10th it fell
again into the hands of the Germans, to be definitely retaken by the
French on the 11th.

[Illustration: CHURCH AND RUINS OF PARGNY]

=Pargny= church (33½ km.), in front of which we pass, had its roof
pierced, and the vaulting broken in. The spire was truncated by shells.

_After having passed the church, we reach the principal street, in
which we turn to the left._ The scene is very desolate (_see pp.
226-227_).

[Illustration: RUINS OF PARGNY]

_Having followed the principal street, we take the first turning on the
right towards the level-crossing. Immediately beyond the crossing, we
turn to the right in order to reach =Maurupt= by_ G. C. 61.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF CHURCH, PARGNY]

Before reaching the village, the +tile-field of Pargny+ comes into
view, as seen in the photograph at the foot of this page. The fighting
here assumed a particularly violent character, as the French, having
lost Pargny, endeavoured to check the German advance on Maurupt. A
large grave contains the remains of the brave fellows of the 72nd Line
Regiment who fell on this part of the battlefield. The tile-field was
for many days an important position of the French artillery which swept
the line of the Saulx and the Ornain from this point.

The supplying of the tiles and bricks necessary for the reconstruction
of the whole region gives occupation to these works, now reorganised.

[Illustration: TILE-FIELD, PARGNY]

Maurupt is separated from the tile-field by a dip in the ground,
clearly visible in the panorama on p. 228. The road, bordered by
telegraph poles, which traverses the region from right to left, is G.
C. 61, which the tourist is following. It is thus easy to realise the
importance of the tile-field as an advanced position. Whilst the French
held it they were able to utilise the valley (out of sight of the enemy
coming up from Pargny) for massing reserves of troops and artillery.
The position once captured, Maurupt became singularly exposed.

In point of fact, Maurupt fell on September 8, the same day as the
tile-field. The German attack came, not only from Pargny, but from
the east; the loss of Sermaize by the right of the Second Corps
having made this flanking movement possible to the enemy. On the
9th, the French threw the Germans back on Pargny, but on the 10th,
the tile-field and the village were lost anew. Violent hand-to-hand
fighting took place in the streets of Maurupt, and in one hour the
ruins were taken and retaken. The Germans were making progress to the
west of Maurupt, however, and the French troops, in order to avoid
being enveloped, were obliged to abandon the position and retire
towards Cheminon. On the 11th Maurupt was definitely regained.

[Illustration: MAURUPT SEEN FROM THE TILE-FIELD]

[Illustration: CHURCH, MAURUPT]

[Illustration: RUINS OF TOWN-HALL, MAURUPT]

G. C. 61 _comes out into =Maurupt= opposite the church (36½ km.);
visible in the photo on p. 228._ This fine Romanesque edifice, restored
in the fifteenth century, is classed as an historical monument.

It has suffered greatly.

[Illustration: GRAVES, MAURUPT]

The spire has been smashed, the tower torn open, the roof and the
barrel-vaulting have given way. The town-hall, near the church, met
with the same fate (view above).

_Turn to the right opposite the church, and then proceed for 800 yards
towards the Hill of Le Montois._

[Illustration: GRAVES, MAURUPT]

Half-way up is to be seen the burial-place reproduced below. Farther
along the load other graves are visible on the left, for at this point
the 128th Line Regiment put up a splendid resistance against superior
German forces.

[Illustration: VIEW OF CHEMINON (looking east)]

These attacks on the west, joined to those on the north and east, led
as we have seen to the fall of Maurupt.

_Return to the village_, which is in course of reconstruction, _and at
the church go straight on, then turn to the right, towards Cheminon,
into_ G. C. 16, _which follows the line of telegraph posts_.

_On arriving in =Cheminon= (43 km.), turn to the left to descend
the principal street, shown in the photo above_. Cheminon did not
experience the German invasion, and, after the desolation of the
villages which we have traversed, this little township gives an
impression of repose, with its picturesque houses sloping down towards
the old thirteenth-sixteenth century church, which is classed as an
historical monument.

_We pass under the market (beware of the depression in the ground),
then turn to the right towards Trois-Fontaines._

_Reaching the fork in the road, go straight on. Pass through =Le Fays=
(47½ km.). 800 yards further on, leaving the road to Saint-Dizier on
the right, turn to the left to enter the village of =Trois-Fontaines=
(49 km.)._ At the end of it the monumental doorway of the old abbey of
Trois-Fontaines is visible, as shown in the photograph on next page.

[Illustration: VIEW OF CHEMINON (looking west)]

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE OLD ABBEY]

The Germans did not get as far as Trois-Fontaines, but fighting took
place to the north and to the north-east, in the forest.

This region, where the Fourth and Third French Armies linked up, was
particularly important. At Trois Fontaines, the Germans would have
been 9 km. from Saint-Dizier, from whence they would have been able to
outflank the whole of the Army of Langle de Cary. The Second Corps'
admirable resistance, and the aid given by the flank attack of the
Fifteenth Corps of Sarrail's Army, brought about the German defeat.

The abbey is at the present time the property of the Count of Fontenoy.
_After asking permission to visit, cross the court to the left, in
order to view the ruins of the church which are still standing in the
corner of the park._

The photos on pp. 231, 232 and 233 depict the interior and the exterior.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH]

The abbey was founded in the beginning of the twelfth century by Saint
Bernard.

The major portion of the church dates back, however, a century earlier.
It was sacked during the Revolution, but the ruins now covered with
verdure have an impressive grandeur.

Enter the principal nave by the doorway seen on the left in the view
opposite.

After traversing the body of the church, consisting of the central nave
and two side aisles, we see enormous fragments of the arches strewn on
the ground. As seen in the photographs on p. 232. Nature has resumed
her sway, and tall trees rise from what was the choir and the apse of
the old church.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH]

_By way of the small but charmingly planned park, we arrive at the
abbey buildings proper_ (_see p. 233_), which form the habitation of
the proprietor. They are formed of two wings, built in the eighteenth
century, and united by a charming arched gallery covered with climbing
plants. These buildings were much more extensive before the Revolution,
and several hundred monks devoted themselves in the calm of this remote
forest-valley to a life of contemplation, interrupted only by rural
tasks.

A river traverses the abbey from one end to the other, but the monks
made important works in order to render it subterranean for a portion
of its length. Thus it passes under the buildings and crosses the
centre of the park, flowing through underground arches, so solidly
constructed that the passage of centuries has left no apparent weakness.

[Illustration: EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH]

At the end of the park, the river comes again to the surface in order
to form part of a skilfully arranged decorative scheme in which water,
trees, and lawns combine to make a harmonious whole.

After this short inroad into the far past, _the tourist takes once more
the road to =Cheminon= (55 km.). In this village, pass under the market
again, then turn to the right into the road_ (visible in the photograph
at the foot of p. 230) _opposite the inn_.

_Cross the river Bruxenelle, then, on reaching the fork, turn to the
left towards Sermaize._ The way lies through woods into which part
of the extreme right of the Second Corps retreated after abandoning
Sermaize. The pursuing Germans began to creep towards Cheminon and
Maurupt, and, as we have seen, succeeded in reaching the latter
village, but Cheminon did not fall into their hands.

[Illustration: OLD ABBEY BUILDINGS]

[Illustration: RUINS OF SERMAIZE]

_Affording a fine view of the Valley of the Saulx, the road enters
=Sermaize= (61 km.)._

The town was occupied on September 6 by the Fourth Division of the
Sixth Corps. Violently attacked on the north and east, and threatened
with being cut off from the rest of the French line by the German
advance from the west, Sermaize, already set on fire by shells, was
evacuated on the 7th by the French troops, who retired towards Maurupt
and Cheminon. The Germans entered the little town and completed the
work of the shells, but first they pillaged the houses. It was proved
to the Enquiry Commission that "German Red-Cross nurses came with
carts, in which they piled up the goods which the soldiers passed
to them from the drapery and millinery establishment of M. Mathieu,
a merchant serving with the colours." 505 houses were completely
destroyed; only forty-four remained standing.

Numerous personal outrages were committed. About fifty hostages were
taken; some, rigged out in cloaks and casques, were obliged thus to
guard the bridges. Here is the declaration of the road-man of the
district, Auguste Brocard: "_My son and I, together with my grandson
aged 5½ years, were led away on September 6 by the Germans, who shut
us into the sugar factory, and kept us there under guard for four
days. When they arrested us, my wife and my daughter-in-law, insane
with fear, ran to drown themselves in the Saulx. I managed to run
after them, and tried three times to rescue the unhappy creatures, but
the Germans forced me away, and left the poor women struggling in the
water. I ought to add that when we were set free four days afterwards,
and went to find the corpses, the French soldiers who helped to bury
them pointed out to us that both my wife and my daughter-in-law had
bullet wounds in the head._"

[Illustration: THE GRAND SQUARE, SERMAIZE]

_On arriving in the town, turn to the right. The street leads to the
central square_, which is adorned by a fountain (see below). The
enormous rubbish heap which the town represented after the battle is
gradually being cleared. The inhabitants have returned, and bravely set
about the rebuilding of their homes. Helped by various organisations,
French and foreign, and above all by bodies of Quakers known as the
"Society of Friends," who have set up numerous wooden houses throughout
the countryside, they are bringing this desolate region back to life.

[Illustration: RUINS AROUND THE GRAND SQUARE]

_Take the Rue Bénard, on the left of the Square_, in order to visit the
church, which is in the lower part of the town, near the Saulx. The
photo below was taken from the right of this street. In the foreground
is the doctor's house, of which only the brass plate remains; in the
background is a temporary shanty run up by the chemist.

[Illustration: RUINS, RUE BÉNARD]

_We reach the Saulx_, on the opposite side of which stands the church,
which was shelled and then burned by the Germans. The Romanesque porch,
which stood out from it, has been destroyed; the nave is open to the
sky; and the spire has collapsed. The Romanesque vaulting of the
transept and of the apse has alone survived.

[Illustration: CHURCH, SERMAIZE]

A fine fifteenth century wooden carving of Christ has been burned, or
perhaps more probably taken away by the Germans.

_Retracing our steps, we take, on the left before arriving at the
Place, the Rue d'Andernay_, from number 35 of which the central
photograph on the following page was taken. _A little further on
we rejoin the road (G. C. 15, which becomes G. C. 1 on leaving the
county), and follow it out of the town. On the right, two kilometres
further, is the_ "Établissement thermal," whose waters are used for
drinking purposes, as well as for baths and shower-baths. _Pass through
=Andernay= (64½ km.)_, where a few houses were burned down. _Cross over
the Saulx, then, without entering Contrisson, turn to the right (66
km.) and follow the railway along the road._

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]

_Two kilometres further take the level-crossing, and then, leaving
the railway, which breaks off to the right, follow G. C. 20. Continue
straight along G. C. 1._

G. C. 20 follows the Valley of the Saulx, which, gradually narrowing,
stretches southwards. The Germans came up the valley, driving in a
wedge between the Fourth and Third French Armies. During September 9
and 10 the Fifteenth Corps was working astride this valley, trying to
re-establish connection. On the evening of the 10th, the 30th Division
of this Corps took =Mognéville= (_2 km. distant along G. C. 20_), and
practically reached the spot where the tourist is now standing. The
danger of a break through was thus averted.

[Illustration: RUINS, RUE D'ANDERNAY]

G. C. 1 _leads the tourist to_ =Vassincourt= (71 km.), which has been
entirely destroyed by fire and shells. The photo below depicts the
entrance to the village, those of p. 237 the sacked church.

[Illustration: RUINS OF VASSINCOURT]

On the evening of September 6 Vassincourt was the extreme left of
Sarrail's Army. It was attacked furiously by the German troops which
had just carried Revigny, and sought to take possession of the plateau
commanding the valleys of the Saulx and the Ornain, by which they
hoped to push on towards Bar-le-Duc and Saint Dizier. On the 7th, the
46th Line Regiment was clinging to the edge of the village. Colonel
Malleterre, commanding this fine body of men, inspired them with his
own indefatigable energy. On the 8th the 57th Brigade of the Fifteenth
Corps, attacking from Mognéville tried to free the west of Vassincourt,
and to drive back the Germans towards Revigny. Two dashing attempts,
resulting in heavy losses to two Light Infantry Battalions of the 57th
Brigade, failed before the German resistance, supported by a great
superiority of guns. The 46th maintained its positions from Vassincourt
to the Ornain. On the 9th the attack began again at dawn, and by the
evening the burning village was closely surrounded on the east and
to the south by trenches which the French troops had dug hastily. In
the course of this day, Colonel Malleterre, who had taken over the
command of the 19th Brigade and was directing operations, was seriously
wounded. It was only on the 11th that the Plateau of Vassincourt was
completely cleared of the German troops who had entrenched themselves
there.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]

_Turn to the left in the middle of the village_, in order to visit the
church, of which the spire has been brought down and the interior laid
waste, _then return to the road_.

[Illustration: EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]

_After Vassincourt, G. C. 1 passes through =Mussey= (74 km.)._ Varney
and Fains, further up-stream, constituted with Mussey three passages
which were covered by the Fifth French Corps. The Crown Prince had
given orders to the Thirteenth German Corps to make themselves masters
of the bridges, but the splendid resistance of the French troops did
not allow the enemy to cross this part of the waterway, which, however,
had been crossed further down, at Revigny.

_After leaving Mussey cross over the canal, which the road follows on a
lower level, and pass Varney on the left. At =Fains= (79 km.) the canal
has to be crossed again, turning to the right. Then turn to the left,
along the canal bank. This leads to the high road to Bar-le-Duc G. C.
(D. 4). Follow it, and enter the town by the Boulevard de la Banque,
the Rue d'Entre-deux-Ponts, and the Boulevard de La Rochelle, where the
hotel will be found (82 km.)._

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]


BAR-LE-DUC


ORIGIN AND CHIEF HISTORICAL FACTS

[Illustration: ENVIRONS OF NOTRE-DAME BRIDGE AFTER AN AIR-RAID]

Bar-le-Duc is of Gallo-Roman origin. The name of Bar is very probably
derived from the bar which the Ornain forms at the spot where the
Notre-Dame Bridge now stands. The few dwellings erected at the edge
of the river were called _Barrivilla_, and occupied the site of the
present "faubourg" of Couchot, where the "Rue des Romains" still
exists. At a later date, and on the opposite bank of the Ornain, rose a
fortified township named _Burgum Barri_, which is to-day the district
traversed by the Rue du Bourg. In the middle of the tenth century
Frederick I., Count of Bar, built a castle on the hill overlooking
the Ornain, to the west, and thus the upper town was created. When
Frederick I. became Duke of Haute-Lorraine the name of the town was
changed into _Barro Ducis_, whence Bar-au-Duc, then Bar-le-Duc.

In the middle ages Bar-le-Duc experienced the restless life of
fortified places. In the twelfth century Henry V., Emperor of Germany,
then, in the fourteenth century, the King of France, Philippe le Bel,
declared their suzerainty over the Counts of Bar. In the fifteenth
century Anne of Beaujeu gave up the district of Bar to the Dukes of
Lorraine. During the seventeenth century Bar changed hands ten times.
The most celebrated siege was that by Turenne in 1652, the lower town
being taken at the end of a fortnight and the upper town succumbing
two days later. In 1670 Louis XIV. caused all the fortifications, with
the exception of the "Tour de l'Horloge," to be razed to the ground.
In 1737 the last hereditary Duke of Lorraine, Francis II., ceded the
province to Stanislas Leczinski, the dethroned King of Poland, on whose
death it was to return to France. When this occurred in 1766 Bar was
definitely incorporated in French territory.

Francis, Duke of Guise, and Marshals Oudinot and Exelmans, were born at
Bar.

The town was occupied from 1870 to 1873 by the Germans. In 1914 the
Crown Prince thought he would be able to enter it without difficulty,
but Sarrail's Army undeceived him very decidedly, and the battle of the
Marne spent itself a few kilometres from the gates of the town. During
the period of trench warfare there were numerous air raids, although
Bar is an unfortified town (photo above).

[Illustration: LÉGENDE

  1.  PRÉFECTURE
  2.  HOTEL DE VILLE
  3.  TRIBUNAL CIVIL
  4.  ARCHIVES
  5.  ST ANTOINE
  6.  TEMPLE PROTEST.
  7.  SYNAGOGUE
  8.  THEATRE
  9.  BANQUE DE FRANCE
  10. CAISSE D'ÉPARGNE
  11. HALLES
  12. GENDARMERIE
  13. TOUR DU BEFFROI
  14. ANCIEN CHÂTEAU DES DUCS DE BAR
  15. HOSPICE CIVIL ET MILITAIRE
  16. --      DES VIEILLARDS
  17. COUVENT DES DOMINICAINES
  18. ANCIEN COLLÈGE GILLES DE TRÈVES

BAR-LE-DUC]


VISIT TO THE TOWN

(See plan p. 239)

[Illustration: LIBERTY BRIDGE AND CHURCH OF NOTRE-DAME]

Lower Town.--See +Notre-Dame Bridge+ and Church of Notre-Dame.

Upper Town.--See +The Castle+; +Gilles-de-Trèves College+; +The
Clock-Tower+ (tour de l'Horloge); +The Esplanade+; +The Place and
Church of Saint Pierre+.

This town is famous for its celebrated red-currant jam; the pips of the
fruit being removed one by one before cooking. Also "Vin gris."


THE LOWER TOWN


Notre-Dame Bridge

This was first built of wood, then towards the middle of the fourteenth
century, of stone. The Chapel to the Virgin on one of the piles has
been in existence since the seventeenth century. It escaped destruction
in the troubled times of the Revolution in consequence, it is said, of
the prudent substitution of the busts of Marat and Robespierre for the
statue of the Virgin.

There is a pretty view of the Ornain from the bridge; but in order to
see the bridge itself in its most picturesque aspect, take a few steps
along the edge of the south bank, whence the photo below was taken.


Notre-Dame

This church may be seen from the bridge. Parts of it date from the
thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, whilst one front and one tower
belong to the eighteenth. The bas-relief of the façade representing the
Assumption belongs to 1750. In the interior, in the right branch of the
transept, is an interesting fifteenth century bas-relief representing
the Virgin and symbolic figures.

[Illustration: NOTRE-DAME BRIDGE

(_Photo L. L._)]


THE UPPER TOWN

[Illustration: PLACE REGGIO AND THE UPPER TOWN]

The upper town is the most interesting part of Bar-le-Duc.

The two photographs on this page show it as it appears from the lower
town.

Motors can reach it easily _by following the Boulevard de la Rochelle,
then taking, on the right, the Rue Lapique, which passes before the
town-hall and leads to the Avenue du Château_.

_At the top of this avenue after passing, on the left, the Romanesque
entrance to the old ducal castle_ (reached by about twenty steps) _by
turning to the right one can follow on foot the Rue Gilles-de-Trèves
for about one hundred yards, as far as_ the ancient college of the same
name, which is classed as an historical monument. It has an interesting
Renaissance front looking on to the courtyard.

_Return to the Avenue du Château, which is continued on the left by the
Rue du Baile._ It is from there that the photographs on p. 242 were
taken, the one looking towards the lower town, along the castle walls,
the other towards Old Bar.

At the end of the Rue du Baile, on the left is the Clock Tower shown in
the photograph on p. 243.

[Illustration: RUE ROUSSEAU AND THE UPPER TOWN]

_Pedestrians need not follow the above itinerary, but can gain the
Clock Tower directly by taking the Rue d'Entre-deux-Ponts and the Rue
Rousseau, visible in the foreground of the_ photo on p. 241. _The Rue
Rousseau after skirting the Place Reggio_ (see page 241), _crosses the
Canal des Usines. In doing so_, the little Church of Saint-Anthony
may be seen astride the canal. It dates from the fourteenth century.
_Turn next to the left into the Rue Oudinot. After about_ 200 yards,
_take on the left the Rue Saint-Antoine as far as the bridge over the
Canal des Usines_, from whence there is a picturesque view of the old
houses which throng this narrow stream of water. _We retrace our steps
and go beyond the Rue Rousseau in order to take the Rue de l'Horloge
on the left._ This street mounts to the upper town and passes at the
foot of the Clock Tower. One rejoins the latter by means of a stair,
the beginning of which is seen on the left in the photo at the top of
page 243. The fourteenth century Clock Tower is all that remains of the
fortifications of Bar, which, as we have seen on p. 238, were destroyed
by order of Louis XIV. in 1670. From the top of the stair, to the left
of the tower, there is a fine view of the lower town and of the valley.
The photo at the foot of p. 243 was taken from this spot. If one wishes
to climb the tower, the guardian must be consulted. _Turn to the right
on leaving the Clock Tower, in order to reach the Castle Esplanade_,
which is planted with ancient trees. From this point there is a view of
another part of Bar-le-Duc (see photo p. 244).

[Illustration: THE OLD CASTLE]

[Illustration: OLD BAR]

[Illustration: THE CLOCK TOWER]

To the left of the esplanade are the remains of the old ducal castle.
The photo at the foot of p. 244 depicts the Romanesque doorway which
is the oldest part of it. We saw this doorway from the other side when
ascending the Avenue du Château. It was formerly on the level, but in
1871, when the carriage road was made, it was united to the avenue by
steps.

The castle occupied formerly the whole of the plateau. It was built
in 964 by Frederick I., Count of Bar, and altered in succeeding
centuries. All that remains are a few sixteenth century buildings, seen
in the photo at the foot of p. 244, and of which the external view is
reproduced at the top of p. 242. The buildings and the chapel seen
between the Clock Tower and the esplanade belong to an old Dominican
convent built in the nineteenth century.

[Illustration: VIEW OF BAR FROM THE CLOCK TOWER]

_After going round the esplanade, return to the Rue du Baile and follow
it towards Old Bar. Take, on the right of the Place-de-la Fontaine,
Rue des Ducs de Bar_, which has preserved some quaint sixteenth and
seventeenth century houses. _Turn to the left in this street in order
to enter Place Saint-Pierre_, at the extremity of which stands the
church of this name, classed as an historical monument.

The Place has retained its old world aspect. Sixteenth and seventeenth
century houses, of which the most beautiful, No. 21, is a museum, form
a fitting frame to the old church.

[Illustration: BAR SEEN FROM THE ESPLANADE]

_The museum is open to the public on Sundays, from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m.,
and at any time to strangers to the town (gratuity)._

It contains collections of painting, sculpture, and natural history.

Saint-Pierre is the oldest church in Bar-le-Duc.

It was begun in the fourteenth century; the front, reproduced on p.
245, dates from the sixteenth century, with the exception of the
quadrangular cupola surmounted by a lantern, which crowns the tower.

This portion, which jars with the transitional Gothic of the rest of
the edifice, was added in the seventeenth century. The plans for the
right hand tower were never executed.

[Illustration: THE OLD CASTLE SEEN FROM THE ESPLANADE]

In the interior, in the right branch of the transept, is the
masterpiece of the great Lorraine sculptor of the sixteenth century,
Ligier-Richier, pupil of Michael Angelo. It is the funeral monument
of René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, and is commonly known as "the
Skeleton."

[Illustration: ST. PETER'S CHURCH]

René de Châlon, who was killed in 1544 at the siege of Saint-Dizier, is
said to have expressed the wish to be impersonated on his tomb as he
would be three years after his death. It was in order to conform to his
wish that his widow, Louise of Lorraine, ordered Richier to execute the
strikingly realistic monument seen in the photo below. The "Skeleton"
was carved in stone, then placed in a bath of oil and wax which gave it
the appearance of old ivory.

Opposite the pulpit and suspended from the pillars in the nave, is
a carving of Christ between the two thieves. This crucifixion-group
dates from the sixteenth century and is in walnut wood, but has been
repainted in modern times.

It has sometimes been attributed to Ligier-Richier. In a chapel to
the left of the choir there is kept a sixteenth century bas-relief
representing St.-François d'Assises, patron saint of François Brûlé,
rector of Saint-Pierre, between Saint Peter and Saint Max, Abbot of
Chinon.

In the right aisle there is a beautiful Renaissance chapel and the
baptistry.

_Motors descend again into the lower town by the same road taken in
coming up._


Other secondary places of interest

[Illustration: THE SKELETON]

+Monument des Michaux+, at the corner of Rue Rousseau and Rue du Bourg,
was erected in 1894. The two Michaux were the carriage-builders who
invented the fitting of pedals to bicycles.

+The+ "+Café des Oiseaux+," in the theatre in the Rue Rousseau, the
hall of which is surrounded by glass cases containing more than 50,000
natural history specimens.

+The Rue du Bourg+ is famous for its old Renaissance houses.

+The Public Garden+ lies behind the town-hall.

+The Church of Saint-Jean+ at the end of the Boulevard de la Rochelle
was begun in 1882 in the Romanesque style.

+The "Porte de la Couronne"+ (Place de la Couronne) dates from 1751.


FIELD OF OPERATIONS OF THE THIRD FRENCH ARMY


=III.--TOUR ROUND BAR-LE-DUC= (66 km.)

(See map inserted between pp. 212-213)

  +Via Villers-aux-Vents+, +Brabant-le-Roi+, +Revigny+,
    +Nettancourt+, +Sommeilles+, +Laheycourt+, +Louppy-le-Château+,
    +Louppy-le-Petit+, +Génicourt+, +Vavincourt+

[Illustration: CHURCH, LAIMONT]

_Leave by the Boulevard de la Banque. Cross the Canal des Usines,
then take on the right the road to Revigny or G. C. D. 4, 1,500 yards
further. Cross the railway by a level-crossing and then the Marne-Rhine
Canal._

_The road dips down to the left in order to follow the railway, and
then crosses the Ornain, of which it follows the right bank. We come
to the hamlet of =Venise=, but continue in the direction of =Laimont=
(12 km.)._ Half-way thither, on the right, may be seen the woods which
constituted the ultimate line of resistance of the Fifth Corps during
the violent attacks which it experienced on September 6, and in which
it lost about ten kilometres. Snatched from the Tenth Division of the
Sixth Corps on the night of the 6th, Laimont was only retaken on the
11th by the Fifteenth Corps. As may be seen in the above photo, the
church was damaged by shells. Many houses were destroyed. When they
left Laimont the Germans took away seven hostages, among them the
rector.

_G. C. D. 4 branches off to the left to cross through Laimont, and
passes in front of the church; but instead of following it, leave the
village on the left and continue straight along the road which becomes
G. C. D. 15._

_2 km. 4 further on, take the "Chemin vicinal" to the right leading
to Villers-aux-Vents. After crossing a stream, turn to the left at
the entrance to the village, following a winding road which leads to
the church._ =Villers-aux-Vents= (16 km.) was completely destroyed by
the fire which the Germans kindled before leaving. It was attacked
on September 6 by masses of infantry coming up from the north and
north-west, and gallantly defended by the Tenth Division, which
occupied the village and its neighbourhood. Violent fighting took place
to the north of Villers, near the Grand-Morinval Pond, in the course
of which General Roques, who was commanding the Division, was mortally
wounded. Giving way under force of numbers, the Tenth Division was
obliged to evacuate Villers and fall back on Laimont. As we have seen
above, this village also was lost during the night, and the line of
defence was taken up in the woods to the east.

The Germans took three hostages at Villers, under circumstances of
which one of them, M. Vigroux, gave details before the Commission of
Enquiry. He was coming out of his house when he perceived another
resident, M. Minette, surrounded by soldiers. "_At the same time_,"
he declared, _"a Prussian came up to me, seized me, and led me away,
his revolver pointed at my head, without my having threatened or
gesticulated. I next saw the Prussians strike Minette with their fists
and with the butt-end of their rifles; they also tore off his clothes,
finally leaving him naked._

[Illustration: CROWN PRINCE'S DUG-OUT]

_"They then secured his hands with an iron chain."_

The hostages were led one kilometre from the village. Minette was
separated from the group and made to kneel. He was then shot. As far as
his companions were able to understand, the Germans appeared to have
found in his house an old and useless revolver. After the death of
Minette, the other hostages were set free.

[Illustration: RUINS OF VILLERS]

_At the other end of the village from the church, in a field on the
left_, is a subterranean shelter, known in the village under the name
of the "Crown Prince's Dug-out," the photo at the top of this page
shows the entrance to it. This shelter was dug during the German
occupation, and the armchairs from the church were placed in it to
make it more comfortable. According to local authority, the Crown
Prince stayed for a time at Villers, and the shelter was made for his
convenience.

_Descend from the plateau on which the village is built, and at the
foot of the hill, after having crossed the river, take on the right the
"Chemin vicinal" which leads back to G. C. D. 15._ It is the little
road which is seen in the above photograph. G. C. D. 15, planted with
trees, appears on the horizon.

[Illustration: RUINS OF BRABANT-LE-ROI]

[Illustration: DÉBRIS OF THE ZEPPELIN BROUGHT DOWN AT REVIGNY]

_At the meeting of the roads, turn to the right towards
=Brabant-le-Roi= (20 km.). In this village, turn to the left near the
church and continue straight forward to =Revigny= (22 km.) by G. C. 20,
which crosses the picture at the foot of p. 247._

[Illustration: THE GUN WHICH BROUGHT DOWN THE ZEPPELIN]

It was between Brabant and Revigny, near the railway which follows
the road on the right, that the Zeppelin L.Z. 77 was brought down on
February 21, 1915, at 9·15 p.m. The carcase of the great air-ship is
visible in the above photo; opposite is the photo of the motor-cannon
which brought it down. It was under the orders of Adjutant Gramling (on
the right in the photo) and was pointed by the Chief-Pointer Pennetier
(at his post of observation behind the shield).

Revigny, like Brabant-le-Roi, fell on September 6, in spite of
a brilliant defence by the Fifth Corps. On September 12 it was
re-occupied by the Fifteenth Corps. _In Revigny, after passing a
level-crossing and continuing straight on, turn to the left, in order
to reach the church shown in the photograph below._

[Illustration: CHURCH, REVIGNY]

[Illustration: VIEW OF RUINS OF TOWN-HALL]

The Church of Revigny is classed as an historical monument. It is a
fifteenth and sixteenth century edifice, the most interesting part of
which is the apse. The gargoyles on the buttresses are curious. The
steeple was destroyed by the fire lighted by the Germans; the roof fell
in and the interior was ravaged by the flames.

[Illustration: RUINS AROUND THE CHURCH]

_On returning to the street by which we entered, continue towards the
centre of the town, then turn to the left into the principal street_,
from which, over the ruined houses, the photo (below) of the church
was taken. At No. 21, at the corner of the Rue du Four, is the bakery
of which we give photographs, both of the interior and the exterior,
at the foot of the page. Hundreds of houses are in this state or have
completely disappeared.

_We reach next the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville_; the town-hall has been
completely destroyed.

The fire was preceded by pillage. Numerous waggons were laden with
articles deemed of interest, and sent down the line. The walls of the
houses were then sprayed with paraffin from hand syringes. Packets of
tablets made of compressed gunpowder, and sticks of inflammable matter
thrown into the burning houses, stimulated the flames. During three
days the fires which died out were thus relighted. Only the houses
where the officers were staying were spared. As they declared to the
rector, the Germans did this from no other motive but to spread terror,
and they did it systematically.

[Illustration: INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR OF A BAKERY]

[Illustration:

  Brabant-le-Roi
  Revigny

PANORAMA OF THE PASS OF REVIGNY.

1,200 yards beyond Brabant may be seen, on the left, the panoramic
view of the valley of the Ornain shown in the photographs above. The
river, the railway from Bar-le-Duc to Vitry-le-François, and the canal
from the Marne to the Rhine pass through it, and take up the south
of the depression behind Revigny. On the left beyond Brabant-le-Roi
the valley narrows towards Bar-le-Duc; on the right it widens in the
direction of Sermaize and meets the Valley of the Saulx. The whole
constitutes what is known as the Pass of Revigny, and was the object
of furious attacks by the Germans who sought to separate the Third and
Fourth French Armies in this region. As early as September 6 under a
violent offensive, the Fifth Corps lost Brabant and Revigny, and was
thrown back on the plateau in the centre of which is Vassincourt, where
the tourist has already passed. The German advance was stayed in the
neighbourhood of this village, thanks to the admirable resistance of
the Fifth Corps, aided by the Fifteenth.]

_On arriving at the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, we shall retrace our
steps as far as the Church of =Brabant-le-Roi=, then turn to the left
towards Nettancourt by C. G. D. 15._

_Continue along the road and go over a level-crossing, then follow the
valley of the Chée to reach =Nettancourt= (30 km.), and turn to the
left to reach the chapel._ The church is not in the village, but on a
hill to the west. It dates from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries,
and is classed as an historical monument. It has suffered from fire and
from shells.

[Illustration: RUINS OF SOMMEILLES]

Nettancourt fell into the hands of the Germans on September 6. _On
leaving the village, strike off G. C. D. 15 and take on the right
the Sommeilles Road or G. C. 27. Go over a level-crossing and turn
immediately to the left. At =Sommeilles= (34 km.), turn to the left to
reach the church, then to the right in order to visit the town-hall._
The church is capable of restoration, but of the latter only the front
remains. As for the houses, they were completely destroyed by fires
lighted by the Germans under the same conditions as at Revigny--by
spraying them with paraffin from hand-pumps.

It was on the 6th, when the 51st German Infantry Regiment arrived,
that fires broke out in the whole of the village. The inhabitants
fled before the flames, but the soldiers seized them and asked for
information regarding the movements of the French troops, threatening
at the same time to shoot them. Eight hostages were led as far as
Brabant-le-Roi, where they were released after having been made to
kneel, whilst their captors made a dumb show of firing at them.

[Illustration: TROOPS VISITING THE RUINS OF SOMMEILLES]

The Germans committed still more inexcusable crimes at Sommeilles. On
September 12, when the Light Infantry entered the village, the officers
and the doctor found in the cellar of the Adnot family's house, seven
corpses. Death had taken place under particularly atrocious conditions.
The Official Report gives the following details:

[Illustration: RUINS OF SOMMEILLES]

"We discovered the body of a man of about sixty (_M. Adnot_) who had
been shot, he had two wounds in his chest, and his eyes were still
bandaged; that of a woman of about the same age (_Mme. Adnot_) with no
visible wounds; another of a woman of about thirty-five years, whose
right fore-arm, entirely severed from the rest of her body, had been
thrown at some distance. Her clothing had been torn off (this woman
appeared to have been violated). Then that of a little girl of about
twelve years, who seemed to have met the same fate; those of three
children of from five to ten years, two of whose heads had been cut off
and thrown near the bodies."

[Illustration: TOWN-HALL, SOMMEILLES]

After visiting Sommeilles, _we retrace our steps as far as the
cross-roads, which we met on arriving at the village, and continue
straight on towards Laheycourt by G. C. 35. In =Laheycourt= (39 km.),
through which we pass_, the monumental town-hall on the right, shown
in the photo below, is worthy of note. It was burned by the Germans.
The church opposite was turned into a hospital, and was spared for this
reason. A certain number of houses were burned, or destroyed by shells.

_On leaving Laheycourt, pass a level-crossing, then follow the railway
for about 2 km. The railway then leaves the road and goes towards
Villotte and Lisle-en-Barrois, while the road continues along the
Valley of the Chée towards Louppy-le-Château._

The right wing of the Fifth Corps experienced violent fighting in this
region on September 6. After having lost Sommeilles and Laheycourt, it
turned to bay at Louppy-le-Château, as also at Villotte on the 8th.

[Illustration: TOWN-HALL, LAHEYCOURT]

_Traversing_ =Louppy-le-Château= (44 km.), three-quarters destroyed by
fire, the church will be noticed on the right, in a piteous condition
from shelling, as shown in the photographs on p. 253. It dates from the
thirteenth century and was restored in the nineteenth. The steeple was
destroyed and the roof has fallen in. The bell, which was recovered
from amidst the ruins, has been set up on the ground, and still summons
the inhabitants to the services held in the roughly repaired choir.

[Illustration: RUINS OF LOUPPY-LE-CHÂTEAU]

The Germans committed revolting acts of brutality and immorality at
Louppy-le-Château during the night of September 8-9, in a cellar where
women and children had taken refuge from shell-fire. Two married women
of 74 and 70 years, a spinster of 71 years, and a mother of 44 years
and her children were odiously misused. The mother made the following
declaration before the Commission of Enquiry:

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]

"_I was in M. Raussin's cellar with my five children and other persons
from the village, when three Germans, with revolvers in their hands,
entered. One of them commanded me to lie down on the ground. I was
obliged to obey.... Meanwhile, I received numerous blows. The Germans
left the cellar, but two came back again. I made a dash for the stair
and was not again mishandled, but I heard sounds of the scenes of
violence to which the women who remained in the cellar were subjected.
Among them were my two daughters aged thirteen years and eight years
respectively. Both were violated, the latter, who was killed by a shell
splinter on the following day, being unable to walk._"

[Illustration: EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH]

The brother of the little victims, a boy aged eleven, made the
following declaration: "_I was sleeping in M. Raussin's cellar, when
two Germans woke me, and tore my trousers. I cried out_: '_I am a
little boy.' They gave me a sound thrashing and struck my head with
their fists._"

_On leaving Louppy-le-Château, turn to the left into I. C. 55 in
the direction_. _of Louppy-le-Petit. Cross the Chée, then turn
immediately to the right. 2½ km. further on cross a tributary of this
river, and thus reach_ =Louppy-le-Petit= (49 km.). The defenders of
Louppy-le-Château, subjected to a violent shell-fire, were obliged to
abandon the village on September 8, and fall back on Louppy-le-Petit,
which they were compelled to abandon likewise on the 9th. The line of
defence was removed further east to Génicourt, which the tourist will
pass after Louppy.

[Illustration: BELL OF CHURCH LOUPPY-LE-CHÂTEAU]

_In Louppy, turn to the right towards the church_, where the
bombardment has caused much havoc. _Descend towards the Chée and, cross
it. Immediately afterwards, I. C. 55 turns to the left in the direction
of =Génicourt-sous-Condé= (51½ km.)._

[Illustration: CHURCH, LOUPPY-LE-PETIT]

_Pass straight through Génicourt, go over a level-crossing, then over
the river, and 200 yards beyond, at the entrance to Condé, turn to the
right into G. C. 28 leading to =Hargeville= (54½ km.)._

We are leaving the zone of the fighting of September. _Turn to the
right in Hargeville to cross the river, then to the left towards the
church and continue straight on._

_On leaving Hargeville, cross the railway twice by level-crossings. At
=Vavincourt= (58 km.), turn to the right in order to pass the church,
and go through the village to the far end. On leaving it, take the
road on the right (I. C. 16), which branches off from G. C. 28. I.
C. 16 goes through =Behonne= then descends into the valley of the
Ornain and =Bar-le-Duc=. At the foot of the slope, cross the railway
and the canal, then again the railway. Turn to the left immediately
afterwards into the Rue des Romains; then take the Rue Couchot (3rd
on right). Leave it to follow the Rue de l'Hospice on the left, which
passes Notre-Dame. On arriving at the church, turn to the right
towards Notre-Dame Bridge by Rue de Bar-la-Ville. After crossing the
bridge take the Rue Notre-Dame which is a continuation, then Rue
d'Entre-deux-Ponts on the left. On the left is the Boulevard de la
Rochelle, where the hotel will be found (65 km.)._

[Illustration: RUINS OF LOUPPY-LE-PETIT]


FIELD OF OPERATIONS

OF THE

THIRD FRENCH ARMY


=IV.--FROM BAR-LE-DUC TO VERDUN= (63 km.)

(See map inserted between pp. 212-213)

  Via +Naives+, +Vavincourt+, +Marats+, +Rembercourt-aux-Pots+,
    +Vaux-Marie+, +Beauzée+, +Amblaincourt+, +Seraucourt+,
    +Issoncourt+, +Heippes+, +Souilly+.

_Leave Bar-le-Duc by the Boulevard de la Rochelle, at the east end
of which, before St. John's Church, turn to the left and cross the
Pont-Neuf. Then turn to the right into the Rue Ernest Bradfer; 300
yards further on, turn to the left into the Rue du Passage-Inférieur.
After crossing the railway, turn to the left into the Rue de Popey. 250
yards farther on the Rue de Saint Mihiel will be found on the right,
and this is continued by the G. C. S. 1 bis._

_At =Naives= (5 km.), turn to the left and take G. C. 28, which climbs
the plateau, at whose foot we have been travelling since leaving
Bar-le-Duc. Pass straight through =Vavincourt= (8 km.) and take I. C.
16, a hilly road, leading to =Marats-la-Grande= (14½ km.). Descend into
the village, turn to the left; and on leaving it by its western end,
take, on the right, I. C. 48 leading to =Rembercourt-aux-Pots= (18½
km.)._

We are entering the zone of action of the Sixth Corps. Rembercourt was
attacked on September 7, but held out, thanks to the defences which
had been strongly organised round it. It was abandoned on the 10th and
retaken on the 12th.

_The road passes in front of the church, which is classed as an
historical monument (photo below)._ It is one of the most remarkable in
the Department of the Meuse. It dates from the fifteenth century, but
its beautiful front is Renaissance. The roof of the nave and that of
the left aisle have been destroyed by German shells, but fortunately
the front only suffered slightly. _Take the street on the right on
leaving the church; it leads out of Rembercourt by G. C. 35._

[Illustration: CHURCH, REMBERCOURT-AUX-POTS]

[Illustration: WEST FRONT OF CHURCH, REMBERCOURT]

_3 km. farther, turn to the left in order to pay a visit to
=Vaux-Marie= Farm (22 km.)_, which was one of the most important
centres of resistance in this part of the battlefield.

[Illustration: GRAVES NEAR VAUX-MARIE]

A few yards from the cross-roads, on the right, is a large common
grave, of which the photograph is given below. Soldiers belonging to
the 132nd Line Regiment and the 26th Battalion Light Infantry are
buried there. _The farm stands at a distance of 1,500 yards from the
cross-roads._ As shown in the photos on pp 256-257, its buildings
have suffered badly from the violent shell-fire to which they were
subjected, particularly on September 8. The attacks were fierce, but
the defences which the Light Infantry had established round the farm
enabled them to hold out until the 10th. The farm was abandoned at
the same time as Rembercourt, and retaken on the 12th with the latter
village. The whole of the plateau extending from Rembercourt to
Vaux-Marie was the scene of combats which were among the most violent
of the Battle of the Marne.

[Illustration: FARM, VAUX-MARIE]

_Continuing along the road, after leaving the farm, go over first one
level-crossing, then another._ The line runs between embankments, and
was utilised as a line of defence. French and German graves (seen in
centre of this page) were dug along the slope. On the right of the road
is Hill 302, on the left Hill 293, which were comprised in the line of
resistance of the Twelfth Division of the Sixth Corps on September 6,
and of the 107th Brigade on September 7.

Before descending from the plateau into Beauzée, there is a very
fine view. The photograph at the foot of this page shows the valley
of Seraucourt, which the tourist will visit after Beauzée. It was
there that the 40th Division of the Sixth Corps manœuvred. The photo
at the top of p. 258 was taken looking towards Beauzée, whose steeple
is visible. The numerous graves on either side of the road recall the
violence of the struggle on September 6, when German pressure obliged
the Twelfth Division to evacuate Beauzée and fall back on Hills 302 and
293, which the tourist has just passed.

[Illustration: COURTYARD OF FARM VAUX-MARIE]

[Illustration: GRAVES NEAR VAUX-MARIE]

_Before entering =Beauzée=, go over two level-crossings. Follow the
principal street, and turn to the right in order to arrive at the
church (27 km.)._

[Illustration: VIEW OF THE VALLEY OF SERAUCOURT]

[Illustration: VIEW LOOKING TOWARDS BEAUZÉE]

The photographs on pp. 258-259 give some idea of the state in which
the German bombardment left this fine building. The church dates from
the sixteenth century, as is shown by the rich ornamentation of the
west front (see at the top of p. 259). This part of it received several
shells, and in the photograph the shattered fragments resulting from
this may be seen strewn on the ground. The nave, the apse, and the
transept suffered most of all. The tower, restored in modern times and
crowned by a spire, escaped destruction. It will, perhaps, be possible
to save the panellings of the stalls and confessionals, which date from
the eighteenth century.

A large number of houses in the village, and particularly around the
church, were destroyed by shells.

[Illustration: CHURCH BEAUZÉE]

_Turn to the right in front of the church, into the street shown in the
photograph at the foot of p. 259. Then turn to the left towards the
river and cross it. There is a very picturesque view of the village
from this spot (photograph p. 260)._ Immediately after passing the
Aire, turn to the right into I. C. 26, which goes up the valley towards
=Amblaincourt= (29 km.).

This little village was destroyed. The view in the centre of p. 260
shows what remains of the town-hall, which was formerly a church. _In
Amblaincourt, turn first to the right and then to the left, without
crossing the railway. I. C. 26 going to Seraucourt follows the valley
which appears on the panorama on p. 257._ A tributary of the Aire and
the little railway from Bar-le-Duc to Verdun follow the windings of
this valley.

[Illustration: FRONT OF CHURCH]

The 40th Division of the Sixth Corps fought on the two heights which
command the valley to the north and to the south. The southern one
(and especially Chanet Wood, which we can see on the right) served as
a place of retreat when the attacks of September 6-10, which aimed at
taking the northern crest, failed. On the 10th, in spite of an heroic
resistance, the 40th Division was obliged to abandon Chanet Wood and to
retire for several kilometres. On the night of the 12-13th the Germans,
having been completely beaten on all other points of their front,
evacuated their positions, which the French re-occupied the next day.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF CHURCH]

_Pass straight through =Seraucourt= (31½ km.)._ Part of its houses were
destroyed by shell-fire.

From Seraucourt to Lemmes we are going over the battlefield of the
reserve divisions placed at the disposal of the Third Army, in order to
strengthen and prolong its right wing, and to attempt to outflank the
enemy's left.

Tn the neighbourhood of Seraucourt the 65th (reserve) Division linked
up with the 40th Division of the Sixth Corps.

[Illustration: RUINS AROUND CHURCH]

_Still following the valley, we reach_ =Rignaucourt= (33½ km.). To
the north of the village, on the plateau, is Blandin Wood, which was
occupied until September 10 by the 65th (reserve) Division. From there
it hurled its daily attacks to the west against the flank of the enemy.
On the 10th it was thrown back violently to the south-east, beyond
Landlut Wood, which crowns the plateau to the south, and lies to the
right of the road. The German retreat took place on the night of the
12th.

[Illustration: VIEW OF BEAUZÉE]

_In Rignaucourt, turn to the right in order to pass in front of the
church; descend towards the railway, and beyond the level-crossing
go over the river, and turn at once to the left towards Issoncourt
(35½ km.). At the entrance to the village, turn to the left into G.
C. D. 6, which is the main road from Bar-le-Duc to Verdun. After two
railway-crossings we arrive at_ =Heippes= (39½ km.). The 65th and
75th (reserve) Divisions fought desperately to the west of this road
in Ahaye Wood, until September 10, endeavouring to give relief to the
Sixth Corps by an attack on the German flank.

[Illustration: TOWN-HALL, AMBLAINCOURT]

_Leaving Heippes church behind_, I. C. 24 leading to Saint-André comes
into view on the left. This road formed the pivot of the attacks of
the 75th Division, one part of which was operating to the south, with
the 65th Division in Ahaye Woods; the other to the north in the Woods
of Châtel and Moinville. After a fierce struggle the reserve divisions
were forced to retire. Whilst the 65th Division clung for a time to
Hill 342 or the Signal d'Heippes, which commands the village to the
south-west beyond the railway, the 75th held out in Heippes, but on the
10th both were driven back to the east of G. C. D. 6.

_After Heippes the road goes towards_ =Souilly= (43½ km.). On the
heights to the left of the road the 75th (reserve) Division fought,
Souilly was abandoned by it on September 10.

[Illustration: JOFFRE AND PÉTAIN AT SOUILLY]

During the great battle of Verdun in 1916 General Pétain had his
headquarters at Souilly Castle. The photograph opposite shows the
victor of Verdun in company with General Joffre.

_Go straight through Souilly to reach =Lemmes= (48 km.), after twice
crossing the railway._ To the west of the road is the battlefield of
the 67th (reserve) Division and the mobile defences of the entrenched
camp of Verdun which, during the Battle of the Marne, worried the
German communications by frequent raids against their flank.

[Illustration: TROOPS DISMOUNTING FROM MOTOR-BUSES]

_G. C. D. 6 rejoins N. 3 beyond the hamlet of =Moulin-Brûlé= (54 km.).
The railway is again traversed by two level-crossings._

This little line, which comes from Bar-le-Duc, and which we have
followed from Beauzée, was at the beginning of the Battle of Verdun
the only one possible for victualling the troops. The main line from
Châlons to Verdun was under the fire of the German artillery, and that
from Bar-le-Duc or from Toul to Verdun was occupied in its centre, at
Saint-Mihiel, by the enemy. The capacity of this single branch was so
small that all the heroism of the defenders would have been vain, and
the Germans would have entered as conquerors into the old city, if,
by a remarkable feat, motors had not been able to replace the feeble
railway. The road which the tourist followed on leaving Bar-le-Duc, and
which he rejoined at Issoncourt, has been known since that epoch as the
"Voie Sacrée" (the Holy Way). An average of 1,700 motors transporting
troops, ammunition and stores, went by each day in both directions,
making one vehicle every twenty-five seconds. The view below gives an
idea of this line of cars winding across the country.

_At the junction with N. 3, shortly after passing the spot where
the railway crosses the road, turn to the right in the direction of
=Verdun= (63 km.)._ This town and its entrenched camp, whose renown has
become worldwide, are the subject of a special volume.

[Illustration: FLEET OF MOTOR-BUSES BRINGING TROOPS BACK FROM VERDUN]



INDEX OF NAMES AND LOCALITIES MENTIONED IN THIS WORK

_The figures in heavy type indicate the pages on which there are
illustrations._


                   PAGES

  Acy-en-Multien, =99=, =100=, =103=

  Allemant, 13, =159=, =161=, =163=, 184

  Andernay, =236=

  Asquith, =90=, =91=


  Barcy, =90=, =93=, 104, 106, 111, 113, 114

  =Bar-le-Duc=, 10, 17, 19, 236, =238= to =255=

  Baron, =68=

  Beaufort (Commandant de), 177, 178, 181

  Beauzée, =257= to =260=

  Brabant-le-Roi, 247, =248=, 250

  Broyes, 13, =159=, 162, 163, 172 to 184


  Chambry, =85= to =89=, 92, 107, 108, 113

  =Châlons-sur-Marne=, 17, 19, 196, =198= to =209=

  Champaubert, 165, 169, 184

  Champfleury (Ferme de), =93= to =95=, 103, 106

  =Chantilly=, =20= to =37=

  Cheminon, 228, =230=, 233

  =Coulommiers=, 7, 8, 17, =115= to =126=

  Courdemanges, =216=

  Crécy-en-Brie, 18, 48, =116= to =121=


  Dourlent (Abbé), =46= to =48=


  Écury-le-Repos, 189, 190, =194=

  Esternay, 9, =150=, =153=, 168

  Étrepy, =224=

  Étrépilly, 95, 97, 103, 105, =107=, =113=, =114=


  Favresse, =222=, =223=

  Fère-Champenoise, 19, 162, 163, 170, 185, 189, 193, 194

  Ferté-Gaucher (La), 18, 126, 148, 150

  Ferté-sous-Jouarre (La), 11

  Foch (Général), =7= to =16=, 160, 180, 186, 189

  Franchet d'Esperey (Général), =7= to =16=, 161

  French, =7= to =16=

  Frignicourt, =217=


  Gallieni (Général), 5, =6= to 16, 98

  Grossetti (Général), =10= to =16=

  Guerre (Sergeant-major), 188


  Haig, (Douglas) (Général), =8=

  Hausen (Von), =7= to =16=

  Hauts de Meuse, 11 to 16

  Heiltz-le-Maurupt, =224=, =225=

  Huiron, =215=, =216=

  Humbauville, 215

  Humbert (Général), 13 to 16, 159, 175, 181


  Joffre, =5= to =16=, 187, 260


  Kluck (Von), =5= to =16=

  Kronprinz, =7= to =16=, 237, 238, 247


  Laimont, =246=

  Langle de Cary (Général), =7= to =16=, 213, 231

  Lenharrée, =191=, =193=, =194=

  Linthes, 14, 163, 185

  Louppy-le-Château, =252= to =254=

  Louppy-le-Petit, =254=


  Magnard (Albéric), 68, 69

  Mangin (Général), 149

  Marcilly, 93, =94=, =95=, 104 to 107

  Maunoury (Général), =5= to =16=

  Maurupt, =225= to =233=

  =Meaux=, 17, 18, =74= to =80=, 114, 116

  Mondement, 13, 14, 159, 162, =171= to =184=

  Mont-Août, 162 to 164, 185, =195=

  Monthyon, =82= to =86=, 91, 106

  Montgivroux, 170, 172, 182, 184

  Montmirail, 11

  Mont-Chalmont, 14, 162, 163

  Morains, 195

  Moret (Mont), =216=, 217, 219

  Morin (Grand), 10, 18, 117

  Morin (Petit), 162 to 167


  Nanteuil-le-Haudouin, =102=

  Neufmontiers, =80= to =83=

  Nogeon (Farm), =98=, 104

  Normée, 187, 190, 192, 194

  Notre-Dame-de-l'Épine, =210= to =212=


  Odent (M.), =48= to =50=, 66

  Oudin (Abbé), 214

  Oyes, 170 to 173, 181


  Pargny, =226= to =229=

  Péguy (Ch.), 82

  Penchard, 73, =82= to =86=, 106

  Pétain (Général), 179, 180, 187, 260

  Pleurs, 14, 162, 163

  Poirier (Signal du), 13, 168 to 172, 181 to 184

  =Provins=, 7, 17, =126= to =146=

  Pucelles (Château des), 159, 175 to 178, 184

  Puisieux, =96=, 97, 104


  Rembercourt-aux-Pots, =255=, =256=

  Reuves, 172, =173=

  Revigny, 9, 236, 237, =248= to =251=

  Rochelle (Plateau de), 179, =187= to =190=, 194


  Saint-Gond (Bois de), 170, 182 to 184

  Saint-Gond (Prieuré de), 172

  Saint-Dizier, 231, 236

  Saint-Mihiel, 7

  Saint-Prix, 165, =167= to =169=, 172, 184

  Sarrail (Général), =10= to =16=, 231, 236, 238

  =Senlis=, 17, 18, =36= to =65=

  Sermaize, =225= to =235=

  Sézanne, 7, 13, 17, 18, 148, 153, =157=, 158, 162, 163, 166 to 169, 184

  Sommesous, 19, 188 to 190

  Sommeilles, =250= to =252=

  Sompuis, =213= to =215=

  Soizy-aux-Bois, 13, 169, 170, 184

  Souilly, =260=


  Toulon-la-Montagne, 164, 165

  Trois-Fontaines, =230= to =233=

  Trocy, 90, 95 to 98, 104, =108= to =111=

  Troyon, 12


  Varreddes, 86, 90, 92, 106, =111= to =118=

  Vassimont, =190=, 191

  Vassincourt, =236=, =237=

  Vauclerc, 221, 222

  Vaux-Marie (Farm), =256=, =257=

  Verdun, 4, 7, 15, 16, 260, 261

  Villeneuve-les-Charleville (La), 13, =156=, =157=, 168

  Villers-aux-Vents, =246=, =247=

  Villeroy, =82=

  =Vitry-le-François=, 9, 17, =218= to =226=


  Wurtemberg (Duc de), =7= to =16=



CONTENTS


  =Foreword=                                                           2


  HISTORICAL PART                                                3 to 16

  =Day of September 5, 1914=                                           7

  =  "    September 6, 1914=                                           8

  =  "    September 7, 1914=                                           9

  =  "    September 8, 1914=                                          11

  =  "    September 9, 1914=                                          12

  =Days of September 10 to 13, 1914=                                  15


  TOURIST'S GUIDE                                              17 to 261

  =Practical Information=                                       18 to 19


  =I.--THE OURCQ=                                              20 to 114

  =Chantilly=                                                   20 to 35

  =From Chantilly to Senlis=                                          35

  =Senlis=                                                      37 to 65

  =From Senlis to Meaux=                                        66 to 73

  =Meaux=                                                       74 to 79

  =Visit to the Ourcq Battle-Fields=                           80 to 114


  =II.--THE MARSHES OF St.-GOND=                              114 to 196

  =From Meaux to Coulommiers=                                 116 to 121

  =Coulommiers=                                               122 to 125

  =From Coulommiers to Provins=                               126 to 127

  =Provins=                                                   128 to 146

  =From Provins to Sézanne=                                   147 to 157

  =Sézanne=                                                          158

  =The Marshes of St.-Gond=                                   159 to 184

  =From Sézanne to Châlons-sur-Marne=                         185 to 196


  =III.--THE PASS OF REVIGNY=                                 197 to 261

  =Châlons-sur-Marne=                                         198 to 212

  =From Châlons to Vitry-le-François=                         213 to 217

  =Vitry-le-François=                                         218 to 220

  =From Vitry-le-François to Bar-le-Duc=                      221 to 237

  =Bar-le-Duc=                                                238 to 245

  =Tour round Bar-le-Duc=                                     246 to 254

  =From Bar-le-Duc to Verdun=                                 255 to 261


  =Index of Names and Localities mentioned in this work=             262


PLANS AND MAPS

  Plan of Bar-le-Duc (black)                                         239

     "    Châlons (2 colours)                            between 198/199

     "    Chantilly (black)                                           21

     "    Coulommiers (black)                                        122

     "    Crécy (black)                                              117

     "    Meaux (2 colours)                                between 74/75

     "    Provins     "                                         128/129

     "    Senlis      "                                            36/37

     "    Sézanne (black)                                            158

  Map of the Region of Senlis (4 colours)                  between 66/67

   "          "    the Ourcq    "                                  80/81

   "  of the Excursion described in the part "The Marshes
  of St.-Gond" (4 colours)                               between 116/117

    "  of the Excursion described in the part "The Pass of
  Revigny" (4 colours)                                   between 212/213

       *       *       *       *       *

     PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
                                LONDON

                           Vc--2,109-6-1925

  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                       =The MICHELIN= Maps                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                         [Illustration]                          |
  |                                                                 |
  |              _Invaluable to Motorists & Tourists_.              |
  |                                                                 |
  |                             FRANCE.                             |
  |                                                                 |
  |                      (_Scale--1:200,000_)                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                    Published in 47 Sections.                    |
  |                                                                 |
  |              Beautifully printed in Five Colours.               |
  |                                                                 |
  |                      The =BRITISH ISLES=.                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                (_Scale 3·15 miles to the inch._)                |
  |                                                                 |
  |  Published in 31 Sections. Beautifully engraved and printed in  |
  |                          six colours.                           |
  |                                                                 |
  |        =Price of Maps (English or French) per Section=:         |
  |                                                                 |
  | On Paper -=1=/- or post free =1/(1½)=                           |
  | On Canvas-=2=/- " " =2/2=                                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |           =MICHELIN TYRE CO., 81, Fulham Rd., S.W. 3=           |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  | [Illustration]                                                  |
  |                                                                 |
  |                  THE _MICHELIN_ Touring Office                  |
  |                                                                 |
  |                         [Illustration]                          |
  |                                                                 |
  |   =Open to all those seeking information and advice regarding   |
  |                             Tours.=                             |
  |                                                                 |
  |  Its purpose is to save the intending Tourist time and trouble  |
  |  and to generally assist him in mapping out his tour, _free of  |
  |     charge and irrespective of the make of tyres he uses_.      |
  |                                                                 |
  |  The latest information relating to Tours, in any part of the   |
  |                    World, can be furnished.                     |
  |                                                                 |
  |   If you are unable to pay a visit to this office, send us a    |
  |   rough draft of your next proposed tour, and we will prepare   |
  |   a complete and detailed Itinerary and forward it to you by    |
  |                         return of post.                         |
  |                                                                 |
  |                  =The MICHELIN Touring Office,                  |
  |                81, Fulham Road, LONDON, S.W. 3.=                |
  |                                                                 |
  | _Tel.: Kensington 4,400._                                       |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+


=FERTÉ-GAUCHER= (=LA=) (Seine-et-Marne).

  [** small hotel symbol] du Sauvage, _25 r. de Paris_. (wc)
    coach-house [** 4 symbol] [** phone symbol] 19.

  [** wrench symbol] MICHELIN STOCK =H. Bourgeois=, _faub. de Paris.
    Agt de_: +Charron+. [** 12 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt
    [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol] 38.

  -- =Liévaux=, _5 r. de Strasbourg_. [** 10 symbol] [** pit symbol]
    Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol].


=PROVINS= (Seine-et-Marne).

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de la Fontaine, _10 r. Victor-Arnoul._ Central
    heating [** dial symbol] Shed [** 4 symbol] courtyard [** 20
    symbol] [** phone symbol] 10.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de la Boule-d'Or, _22 r. de la Cordonnerie_.
    [** dial symbol] Inner shed [** 6 symbol] [** phone symbol] 12.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] =Louis Pouget=, _3 r. Christophe-Opoix_. Agt
    de: +Renault+, +de Dion+, +Chenard et Walcker+, +Darracq+. [**
    20 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [**
    phone symbol] 1·31.

  -- =Métivier=, _38 r. Hugues-le-Grand_. Petrol Depôt [** electric
    symbol].

  -- =Boucher=, _19 r. Félix-Bourquelot_. _Agt de_: +Delahaye+. [**
    20 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt.

  -- =Thiriot=, _40 r. du Val_.


=SÉZANNE= (Marne).

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de France, _25 Grande-Rue_. Central heating
    Ⓑ (wc) coach-house [** 3 symbol] shed [** 5 symbol] [** phone
    symbol] 12.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] A la Femme-sans-Tête, _9 et 11 r. de Broyes_.
    Central heating Ⓑ (wc) coach-house 50 m. [** 4 symbol] [** phone
    symbol] 16.

  [** wrench symbol] MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) =Victor Quinet=,
    _29 Grande-Rue_. _Agt de_: +Corre La Licorne+. [** 10 symbol] [**
    pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol] 9.

  -- =Brochet Georges=, _20 et 31 r. Notre-Dame_. [** 5 symbol] [**
    pit symbol] Petrol Depôt.

  -- =F. Mayet=, _19 et 21 r. Notre-Dame_. _Agt de_:
    +Vinot-Deguingand+. [** 6 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt.


=CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE= (Marne).

  [** 2 hotels symbol] de la Haute-Mère-Dieu, _26 pl. de la
    République_. Central heating [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Gar [** 6
    symbol] [** pit symbol] [** telegraph symbol] Hôtel-Meunier [**
    phone symbol] 4.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] du Renard, _24 pl. de la République_. Central
    heating [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Coach-house [** 4 symbol] Inner
    courtyard [** 8 symbol] [** phone symbol] 1·48.

  [** wrench symbol] MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) =Maurice
    Leblanc=, _5 pl. Godard_. _Agt de_: +Berliet, de Dietrich+. [**
    15 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [**
    phone symbol] 85.

  -- MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) =G. Jacotin=, _1 r.
    Faubourg-de-Marne_. Agt de: Delahaye. [** 20 symbol] [** pit
    symbol] Petrol Depôt [** phone symbol] 2·65.

  -- MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) =Hauser=, _13 pl. de la
    République_. _Agt de_: +Peugeot, Delage, Darracq.+ [** 10 symbol]
    [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** phone symbol] 2·28.

  -- =A. Viéville=, _15 r. de Vaux_. [** 4 symbol] [** pit symbol]
    Petrol Depôt.

  -- =Ch. Rouche=, cycles, _36 r. de Marne_.


=VITRY-LE-FRANÇOIS= (Marne).

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de la Cloche, _r. de Frignicourt_. Central
    heating (wc) Shed [** 6symbol] [** phone symbol] 66.

  [** wrench symbol] MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) _E. Greux, 11
    Faub. St-Dizier_ (_rte de Nancy_). _Agt de_: +Clément-Bayard+,
    +Chenard et Walcker+. [** 30 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt
    [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol] 134.

  -- MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) =Gillet fils=, _Pl. de la
    Glendarmerie_. _Agt de_: +Charron, Darracq+. [** 40 symbol] [**
    pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol]
    138.

  -- =Ollinger=, _15 r. du Pont_. _Agt de_: +Peugot+. [** 4 symbol]
    [** pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol].

  -- =Kremer=, cycles, _7 r. de Frignicourt_.


=PARGNY-SUR-SAULX= (Marne).

  [** small hotel symbol] de la Gare. Inner coach-house [** 4 symbol].

  [** wrench symbol] MICHELIN STOCK =Luiné=, _r. de la Chavée_. _Agt
    de_: +Delage, Unic+. [** 4 symbol] [** pit symbol] [** electric
    symbol].


=SERMAIZE-LES-BAINS= (Marne).

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de la Source (2 km.). [** dial symbol] [**
    circled Ⓑ (wc) Inner coach-house [** 20 symbol] [** pit symbol]
    [** phone symbol] 8.

  [** 1 hotel symbol] de la Cloche, _16 r. de Vitry_. [** dial
    symbol] (wc) Inner coach-house [** 2 symbol] [** phone symbol] 7.


=Bar-le-Duc= (Meuse).

  [** 2 hotels symbol] de Metz et du Commerce, _17 et 19 boul. de
    la Rochelle_. Central heating [** dial symbol] Ⓑ (wc) Shed [** 10
    symbol] [** phone symbol] 1.10.

  [** wrench symbol] MICHELIN STOCK =J. Petit=, _44 boul. de la
    Rochelle_. Agt de: Unic. [** 20 symbol] [** pit symbol] Petrol
    Depôt [** electric symbol].

  -- MICHELIN STOCK =L. Henrionnet=, _126 boul. de la Rochelle_. _Agt
    de_: +Clément-Bayard+, +Chenard et Walcker+. [** 5 symbol] [**
    pit symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol]
    1.71.

  -- MICHELIN STOCK (Compressed Air) =L. Antoine=, _8 boul. de la
    Rochelle_. _Agt de_: +Darracq, Peugot+. [** 4 symbol] [** pit
    symbol] Petrol Depôt [** electric symbol] [** phone symbol] 156.

  -- =Guillemin et Muriot=, _7 r. du Cygne_. [** 6 symbol] [** pit
    symbol] Petrol Depôt.

_The above information, dating from January 1, 1919, may possibly be no
longer exact when this falls under the reader's eyes. It would be more
prudent, therefore, before making the tour described in this volume, to
consult the latest French edition of the 'Guide Michelin._'



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


  Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
  errors.

  Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

  Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.

  Enclosed bold unitalicised font in =equals=.

  Enclosed small-caps unitalicised font in +tildes+.

  [** ?? symbol] describes font sized characters with no unicode
  equivalent.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Battlefields of the Marne 1914" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home