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Title: Anthropological Survey in Alaska
Author: Hrdlička, Aleš
Language: English
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de France (BnF/Gallica) at http://gallica.bnf.fr)



                    ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA


                            By ALEŠ HRDLIČKA



CONTENTS


                                                                    Page
  Introduction                                                        29
      General remarks                                                 31
      Northwest coast--Juneau                                         32
          The Coast Indians                                           32
          Notes of archeological interest                             33
  The writer's trip on the Yukon                                      39
      Tanana--Yukon                                                   39
          Ancient man                                                 41
          The Indians at Tanana                                       42
      Ruby                                                            48
      Galena                                                          51
      Nulato                                                          53
      Kaltag                                                          54
      The Anvik people                                                57
      Bonasila                                                        60
      Holy Cross                                                      61
      Ghost Creek                                                     62
      Paimute                                                         66
      Russian Mission                                                 70
      Marshall                                                        72
      St. Michael                                                     84
      About Nome                                                      88
          Aboriginal remains                                          89
      Nome--Bering Strait--Barrow                                     90
      Savonga                                                         92
      The Diomedes                                                    94
  The Yukon Territory--Sites, the Indians, the Eskimo                123
      The Tanana                                                     123
          Brief historical data                                      123
          Population                                                 124
      Indian sites and villages along the Tanana                     125
          Lower Tanana, Nenana to Yukon                              126
      The Yukon below Tanana                                         126
          Brief history                                              126
      The Yukon natives                                              129
          Native villages                                            131
          Present conditions                                         133
      Archeology of the Yukon                                        134
          The random specimens                                       134
      Location of villages and sites on the Yukon                    136
      Pre-Russian sites                                              140
  Archeology of Central Alaska                                       144
      Ancient stone culture                                          144
          The pottery                                                146
          The Alaskan grooved stone ax                               147
  Anthropology of the Yukon                                          150
      The living Indian                                              150
          Pure bloods                                                150
          General type                                               151
          Color                                                      151
          Stature and strength                                       151
          Head form                                                  151
          Body                                                       151
          Photographs                                                151
      Skeletal remains of the Yukon                                  151
          Detailed measurements of skulls                            152
          Lower middle Yukon Indian crania                           153
      Skeletal parts                                                 156
      Skeletal remains from the bank at Bonasila                     156
          The crania                                                 157
          Additional parts                                           159
      The Yukon Eskimo                                               161
          The living                                                 161
          Measurements on living Yukon Eskimo                        162
          Skeletal remains of Yukon Eskimo                           162
          Skeletal parts of the Yukon Eskimo                         163
  Notes on the archeology of the Western Eskimo region               165
      Old sites in the region of the Western Eskimo                  168
      Present location of archeological sites                        171
      Sites and villages                                             176
      Burial grounds                                                 183
      Prince William Sound, Kodiak Island, Alaska Peninsula          184
          Kodiak Island and neighborhood                             184
          Alaska Peninsula                                           186
      Bristol Bay to Cape Romanzof                                   190
      Cape Romanzof to Northern (Apoon) Pass of the Yukon and
        northward                                                    195
          St. Michael Island                                         195
          Norton Sound                                               195
      South shore of Seward Peninsula west of Bluff                  196
      Scammon Bay, Norton Sound, south coast of Seward Peninsula, to
        Cape Rodney                                                  198
      The northern shore of the Seward Peninsula                     202
      Kotzebue Sound, its rivers and its coast northward to Kevalina 204
      Seward Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound, and northward                204
      Kevalina--Point Barrow                                         205
          Point Hope (Tigara)                                        205
          Point Hope to Point Barrow                                 206
          Barrow and Point Barrow                                    206
      The St. Lawrence and Diomede Islands                           209
          St. Lawrence Island                                        209
          The Diomede Islands and the Asiatic coast                  210
  Physical anthropology                                              213
      Earlier data                                                   213
      Older anthropometric data on the western Eskimo                228
          Stature and other measurements on the living               228
          The skull                                                  231
      Present data on the western Eskimo                             238
          The living                                                 238
          Measurements of living western Eskimo                      238
              Stature                                                238
              Height sitting                                         239
              Arm span                                               239
              The head                                               239
              The forehead                                           240
              The face                                               241
              Lower facial breadth                                   242
              The nose                                               242
              The mouth                                              243
              The ears                                               243
              The chest                                              244
              The hand                                               245
              The foot                                               246
              Girth of the calf                                      246
      Physiological observations                                     247
      Summary of observations on the living western Eskimo           249
      Remarks                                                        250
      Present data on the skull and other skeletal remains of the
        western Eskimo                                               254
          The skull                                                  254
          Skull size                                                 255
          Module and capacity                                        258
          Additional remarks on cranial module                       258
          Skull shape                                                258
          Height of the skull                                        261
          The face                                                   263
          The nose                                                   267
          The orbits                                                 270
          The upper alveolar arch                                    275
          The basion-nasion diameter                                 277
          Prognathism                                                282
  Skulls of Eskimo children                                          294
      Crania of Eskimo children                                      295
          Southwestern and midwestern Eskimo                         295
          Principal cranial indices in children compared with those in
            adults                                                   297
  The lower jaw                                                      299
      Strength of the jaw                                            301
      Breadth of the rami                                            303
      Other dimensions                                               303
      The angle                                                      305
      Résumé                                                         306
      Mandibular hyperostoses                                        306
      Main references                                                310
  Skeletal parts other than the skull                                313
      The long bones                                                 314
          Comparative data                                           315
      Long bones in Eskimo and stature                               316
      Length of principal long bones, and stature in the living,
        on the St. Lawrence Island                                   317
      Long bones vs. stature in Eskimo of Smith Sound                317
  A strange group of Eskimo near Point Barrow                        318
      Anthropological observations and measurements on the
        collections                                                  321
      Physical characteristics                                       323
  Origin and antiquity of the Eskimo                                 329
      Origin of the name "Eskimo"329
      Opinions by former and living students                         330
          Origin in Asia                                             330
          Origin in America                                          330
          Origin in Europe--Identity with Upper Palaeolithic man     331
          Other hypotheses                                           332
      Theories as to the origin of the Eskimo                        333
          Asiatics                                                   333
          American                                                   340
          European                                                   347
          Opposed to European                                        351
          Miscellaneous and indefinite                               351
          Discussion and conclusions indicated by present data       355
  Summary                                                            361
  Bibliography                                                       367
  Index                                                              629



ILLUSTRATIONS


PLATES

  Page 1. _a_, "Old Minto" on the Tanana. Indian village. (A. H.,
        1926.) _b_, Present Nulato and its cemetery (on hill to the
        right of the village) from some distance up the river. (A.
        H., 1926.) _c_, The Greyling River site, right bank, 22 miles
        above Anvik; site and graveyard (male skeleton) from top of
        knoll. (A. H., 1926.)                                         54

  2. _a_, View on the Yukon from above Kaltag. (A. H., 1926.) _b_,
        Indian burial ground, middle Yukon. (A. H., 1926.) _c_,
        Anvik, from the mission. (A. H., 1926.)                       54

  3. _a_, Midnight on the Yukon. _b_, Lower middle Yukon: painted
        burial box of a Yukon Indian (before 1884) said to have been
        a hunter of bielugas (white whales), which used to ascend far
        up the Yukon                                                  64

  4. _a_, Eskimo camp below Paimute, Yukon River. _b_, Old
        "protolithic" site 12 miles down from Paimute, right bank,
        just beyond "12-mile hill" (skull, bones, stones). _c_, "Old"
        site in bank seen in middle of picture, 12 miles down from
        Paimute, opposite that shown in preceding figure. (A. H.,
        1926.)                                                        64

  5. _a_, Cape Prince of Wales from the southeast. (A. H., 1926.)
        _b_, Village and cemetery slope. Little Diomede. (A. H.,
        1926.)                                                        96

  6. _a_, Asiatics departing for Siberia from the Little Diomede
        Island. (Photo by D. Jenness, 1926.) _b_, _c_, "Chukchis"
        loading their boat with goods on Little Diomede Island,
        before departure for Siberia. (Photos by D. Jenness, 1926.)   96

  7. _a_, Eskimos from East Cape arriving at Nome, Alaska. _b_,
        East Cape of Asia (to the southward). (Photo from Joe
        Bernard.)                                                     96

  8. A group of women at Shishmaref. (Taken at 2 a. m. by A. H.,
        1926.)                                                        96

  9. _a_, My "spoils," loaded on sled, Point Hope. (A. H., 1926.)
        _b_, The load is heavy and sledding over sand and gravel
        difficult. (A. H., 1926.)                                    136

  10. Characteristic stone axes, middle Yukon. (A. H. coll., 1926.)
                                                                     136

  11. Crude stone artifacts, found at Bonasila, lower middle Yukon.
        (A. H. coll., 1926.)                                         136

  12. Crude stone artifacts, found at Bonasila, lower middle Yukon.
        (A. H. coll., 1926.)                                         136

  13. Tanana Indian woman                                            150

  14. Chief Sam Joseph, near Tanana village, on the Yukon. (A. H.,
        1926.)                                                       150

  15. _a_, Yukon Indians, at Kokrines, Jacob and Andrew. Jacob
        probably has a trace of white blood. (A. H., 1926.) _b_,
        Yukon Indians at Kokrines. (A. H., 1926.)                    150

  16. Yukon Indians. _a_, Marguerite Johnny Yatlen, Koyukuk
        village. (A. H., 1926.) _b_, Lucy John, Koyukuk, daughter of
        a former chief. (A. H., 1926.)                               150

  17. Yukon Indians. _a_, George Halfway, Nulato on the Yukon. (A.
        H., 1926.) _b_, Jack Curry of Nulato, 41 years. (Now at Ruby,
        middle Yukon; Eskimoid physiognomy.) _c_, Arthur Malamvot, of
        Nulato                                                       150

  18. _a_, Indian children, mission school at Anvik, lower middle
        Yukon. _b_, Indian children, mission school at Anvik, lower
        middle Yukon. _c_, Two women of Anvik, on the Yukon, somewhat
        Eskimoid                                                     150

  19. Terminal piece of a lance or harpoon, northern Bering Sea.
        Black, high natural polish. Most beautiful piece of the
        fossil ivory art. (A. H., 1926, U.S.N.M.)                    174

  20. Fossil ivory specimens showing the old curvilinear designs.
        Northern Bering Sea. (A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.)           174

  21. Objects showing the old fossil ivory art, northern Bering
        Sea. (U.S.N.M., Nos. 1 and 3 coll., A. H., 1926.)            174

  22. Fossil ivory needle cases and spear heads, northern Bering
        Sea, showing fine workmanship. (A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.)
                                                                     174

  23. _a_, Small, finely made objects in fossil ivory and stone
        (the head), from the ruins at Point Hope. (A. H. coll.,
        1926.) _b_, Old fossil ivory objects, northern Bering Sea.
        The article to the right is almost classic in form; it is
        decorated on both sides. (A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.)       174

  24. Fossil ivory combs, upper Bering Sea. (A. H. coll., 1926)      174

  25. Fossil ivory objects from the upper Bering Sea region.
        Transitional art. (Museum of the Agricultural College,
        Fairbanks, Alaska.)                                          174

  26. Old black finely carved fossil ivory figure, from the
        northeastern Asiatic coast. (Loan to U.S.N.M. by Mr. Carl
        Lomen.)                                                      174

  27. Wooden figurines from a medicine lodge, Choco Indians,
        Panama. (U.S.N.M. colls.)                                    174

  28. Left: Two beautiful knives lately made of fossil mammoth
        ivory by a Seward Peninsula Eskimo. (Gift to the U.S.N.M.
        by A. H., 1926.) Right: Two old ceremonial Mexican obsidian
        knives. Manche de poignard en ivoire, avec sculpture
        représentant un renne. Montastruc (Peccadeau de l'Isle; in De
        Quatrefages (A.)--Hommes fossiles, Paris, 1884, p. 50.)      174

  29. Billings and Gall's map of Bering Strait and neighboring
        lands, 1811                                                  178

  30. Eskimo villages and sites, Norton Sound and Bay and Seward
        Peninsula, and the Kotzebue Sound, from Zagoskin's general
        map, 1847                                                    178

  31. Graves at Nash Harbor, Nunivak Island. (Photos by Collins and
        Stewart, 1927.)                                              214

  32. The school children at Wales                                   214

  33. _a_, Children, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and Stewart,
        1927.) _b_, Adults, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and
        Stewart, 1927.)                                              214

  34. King Island Eskimo; a family group                             214

  35. King Island native                                             214

  36. A fine full-blood Eskimo pair, northern Bering Sea region.
        _a_, Young Eskimo woman, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo
        by Lomen Bros.) _b_, Eskimo, northern Bering Sea region.
        (Photo by F. H. Nowell.)                                     214

  37. Typical full-blood Eskimo, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo
        by Lomen Bros.)                                              214

  38. Elderly man, St. Lawrence Island. (Photos by R. D. Moore,
        1912. U.S.N.M.)                                              214

  39. The Wales people. (Photo by Lomen Bros.)                       242

  40. The long broad-faced types, Wales. (Photo by Lomen Bros.)      242

  41. _a_, The broad-faced and low-vaulted Eskimo, St. Lawrence
        Island. (Photo by R. D. Moore, 1912. U.S.N.M.). _b_,
        Broad-faced type, St. Lawrence Island. (Photo by R. D. Moore,
        1912. U. S. N. M.)                                           242

  42. The long-faced type. _a_, A young man from Seward Peninsula.
        _b_, A boy from St. Lawrence Island                          242

  43. A "Hypereskimo," King Island. Excessively developed face       242

  44. Eskimo "Madonna" and child, northern Bering Sea region.
        (Photo by Lomen Bros.)                                       242

  45. Young woman, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen
        Bros.)                                                       250

  46. Young women, full-blood Eskimo, Seward Peninsula. (Photo by
        Lomen Bros.)                                                 250

  47. A Point Hope group                                             250

  48. _a_, Eskimo woman, Kevalina. (Photo on the "Bear" by A. H.,
        1926. U.S.N.M.). _b_, The body build of an adult Eskimo
        woman, upper Bering Sea                                      250

  49. Elderly woman, St. Lawrence Island. (Photos by R. D. Moore,
        1912. U.S.N.M.)                                              250

  50. _a_, Yukon Eskimo, below Paimute. (A. H., 1926.) _b_, Norton
        Sound Eskimo woman and child. (A. H., 1926.)                 250

  51. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photos by
        Lomen Bros.)                                                 250

  52. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photos by
        Lomen Bros.)                                                 250

  53. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by
        Lomen Bros.)                                                 250

  54. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by
        Lomen Bros.)                                                 250

  55. Eskimo, Indianlike, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by
        Lomen Bros.)                                                 250

  56. Eskimo, Indianlike, Arctic region. (Photo by Lomen Bros.)      250

  57. Siberian Eskimo and child, Indian type                         250

  58. _a_, Mrs. Sage, Kevalina. Fine Indian type. Born on Notak.
        Both parents Notak "Eskimo." (Photo by A. H., 1926.) _b_,
        Eskimo family, Indianlike, near Barrow. (Photo by A. H.,
        1926.)                                                       250

  59. Skulls from old burials, Point Hope; right skull shows low
        vault. (U.S.N.M.)                                            262

  60. Skulls from old burials, Point Hope; right skull shows low
        vault. (U.S.N.M.)                                            262

  61. Western Eskimo and Aleut (middle) lower jaws, showing lingual
        hyperostoses. (U.S.N.M.)                                     308


TEXT FIGURES

  1. The Tanana River between Nenana and Tanana, with Indian
        villages                                                     125

  2. The Yukon from Tanana to below Kokrines                         137

  3. The Yukon from below Kokrines to below Koyukuk                  137

  4. The Yukon from below Koyukuk to Lofkas                          138

  5. Old map of the Nulato district                                  139

  6. Map of Kaltag and vicinity. (By McLeod)                         139

  7. The Yukon from Bystraia to below Holy Cross                     140

  8. The Yukon from above Holy Cross to below Mountain Village       141

  9. The Yukon from below Mountain Village to near Marshall          141

  10. The Yukon from near Marshall to below Kavlingnak               142

  11. From above Kobolunuk to mouth of river                         143

  12. Conventionalized design from fossil ivory specimen shown in
        Plate 19                                                     174

  13. World map                                                      177

  14. Dall's map of the distribution of the tribes of Alaska and
        adjoining territory, 1875                                    178

  15. Nelson's map, Eighteenth Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 1898     179

  16. Linguistic map, United States census, 1920                     180

  17. Villages and sites on Kodiak Island                            185

  18. Villages and sites on the proximal half of Alaska Peninsula
                                                                     187

  19. Villages and sites on the distal half of Alaska Peninsula      188

  20. Eskimo villages and sites on Nushagak Bay to Kuskokwim Bay     191

  21. Eskimo villages and sites, Kuskokwim Bay to Scammon Bay        193

  22. Eskimo villages and sites, Scammon Bay to Norton Sound and
        Bay to Cape Rodney                                           198

  23. Eskimo villages and sites, Wales. (By Clark M. Garber, 1927)
                                                                     201

  24. Eskimo villages and sites, Seward Peninsula, Kotzebue Sound,
        and Arctic coast, to Kevalina                                203

  25. Eskimo villages and sites, Kevalina to Point Barrow            207

  26. Russian map of St. Lawrence Island, 1849. (Tebenkof)           209

  27. Eskimo villages and sites, St. Lawrence Island, the Diomedes,
        and the eastern Asiatic coast                                211

  28. The Bering Strait Islands                                      212

  29. Probable movements of people from northeastern Asia to Alaska
        and in Alaska. (A. Hrdlička)                                 360

                    ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY IN ALASKA

                            By ALEŠ HRDLIČKA



INTRODUCTION


Alaska and the opposite parts of Asia hold, in all probability, the key
to the problem of the peopling of America. It is here, and here alone,
where a land of another continent approaches so near to America that a
passage of man with primitive means of navigation and provisioning was
possible. All the affinities of the American native point toward the
more eastern parts of Asia. In Siberia, Mongolia, Tibet, Manchuria,
Formosa, and in some of the islands off southeastern Asia, living
remnants of the same type of man as the American aborigines are to this
day encountered, and it is here in the farthest northwest where actual
passings of parties of natives between the Asiatic coast and the Bering
Sea islands and between the latter and the American coasts have always,
since these parts were known, been observed and are still of common
occurrence.

With these facts before them, the students of the peopling of this
continent were always drawn strongly to Alaska and the opposite parts
of Asia; but the distances, the difficulties of communication, and
the high costs of exploration in these far-off regions have proven a
serious hindrance to actual investigation. As a result, but little
direct, systematic, archeological or anthropological (somatological)
research has ever been carried out in these regions; though since
Bering's, Cook's, and Vancouver's opening voyages to these parts a
large amount of general, cultural, and linguistic observations on the
natives has accumulated.

For these observations, which are much in need of a compilation and
critical analysis, science is indebted to the above-named captains;
to the subsequent Russian explorers, and especially to the Russian
clerics who were sent to Alaska as missionaries or priests to the
natives; to various captains, traders, agents, miners, soldiers,
and men in collateral branches of science, who came in contact with
the aborigines; to special United States Government exploratory
expeditions, with an occasional participation of the Biological Survey
and the Smithsonian Institution, such as resulted in the fine "Corwin"
reports and the highly valuable accounts of Leffingwell, Dall, Nelson,
and Murdoch; to the separate pieces of scientific work by men such as
Gordon and Jennes; and to Jochelson and Bogoras of the Jesup exploring
expedition of the American Museum.

As a result of all these contributions, it may be said that there
has been established a fair cultural and linguistic knowledge of the
Aleut, the Eskimo, and the Chukchee, not to speak of the Tlingit,
consideration of which seems more naturally to fall with that of the
Indians of the northwest coast.

There are also numerous though often very imperfect and occasionally
rather contradictory notes on the physical status of these peoples,
and some valuable cultural and even skeletal collections were made.
Since 1912 we possess also a good series of measurements on the St.
Lawrence Island natives, together with valuable cranial material from
that locality, made, under the direction of the writer, by Riley D.
Moore, at that time aide in the Division of Physical Anthropology in
the United States National Museum.

The need of a further systematic archeological and somatological
research in this important part of the world was long since felt,
and several propositions were made in this line to the National
Research Council (Hrdlička) and to the Smithsonian Institution (Hough,
Hrdlička); but nothing came of these until the early part of 1926,
when, a little money becoming available, the writer was intrusted
by the Bureau of American Ethnology with the making of an extensive
preliminary survey of Alaska. The objects of the trip were, in brief,
to ascertain as much as possible about the surviving Indians and
Eskimos; to trace all indications of old settlements and migrations;
and to collect such skeletal and archeological material as might be of
importance.

The trip occupied approximately four months, from the latter part
of May to the latter part of September, affording a full season in
Alaska. It began with the inside trip from Vancouver to Juneau, where
at several of the stopping places groups of the northwest coast
Indians were observed. At Juneau examination was made of the valuable
archeological collections in the local museum. After this followed a
trip with several stops along the gulf, a railroad trip with some stops
to Fairbanks, a return trip to Nenana, a boat trip on the Tanana to the
Yukon, and then, with little boats of various sorts, a trip with many
stops for about 900 miles down the Yukon. This in turn was followed by
a side trip in Norton Sound, after which transportation was secured
to the island of St. Michael and to Nome. From Nome, after some work
in the vicinity, the revenue cutter _Bear_ took the writer to the St.
Lawrence and Diomede Islands, to Cape Wales, and thence from place to
place of scientific interest up to Barrow. On the return a number of
the more important places, besides some new ones, were touched upon,
while the visit to others was prevented by the increasing storms, and
the trip ended at Unalaska.

Throughout the journey, the writer received help from the Governor,
officials, missionaries, traders, and people of Alaska; from the
captain, officers, and crew of the _Bear_; and from many individuals;
for all of which cordial thanks are hereby once more rendered. Grateful
acknowledgments are especially due to the following gentlemen: Governor
George A. Parks, of Alaska; Mr. Harry G. Watson, his secretary; Mr.
Karl Thiele, Secretary for Alaska; Judge James Wickersham, formerly
Delegate from Alaska; Father A. P. Kashevaroff, curator of the
Territorial Museum and Library of Juneau; Dr. William Chase, of
Cordova; Mr. Noel W. Smith, general manager Government railroad of
Alaska; Mr. B. B. Mozee, Indian supervisor, and Dr. J. A. Romig, of
Anchorage; Prof. C. E. Bunnell, president Alaska Agriculture College,
at Fairbanks; Mr. and Mrs. Fullerton, missionaries, at Tanana; Rev.
J. W. Chapman and Mr. Harry Lawrence, at Anvik; Father Jetté and
Jim Walker, at Holy Cross; Mr. C. Betsch, at the Russian Mission;
Messrs. Frank Tucker and E. C. Gurtler, near the mission; Mr. Frank P.
Williams, of St. Michael; Judge G. J. Lomen and his sons and daughter,
at Nome; Rev. Dr. Baldwin, Fathers La Fortune and Post, Captain Ross,
United States Coast Guard, and Mr. Elmer Rydeem, merchant, at Nome;
C. S. Cochran, captain of the _Bear_, and his officers, particularly
Mr. H. Berg, the boatswain; Rev. F. W. Goodman and Mr. LaVoy, at Point
Hope; the American teachers at Wales, Shishmareff, Kotzebue, Point
Hope, and elsewhere; Messrs. Tom Berryman, Jim Allen; and Charles
Brower, traders, respectively, at Kotzebue, Wainright, and Barrow; Mr.
Sylvester Chance, superintendent of education, Kotzebue, Alaska; the
United States marshals, deputy marshals, and postmasters along the
route; and the numerous traders, miners, settlers, and others who were
helpful with specimens, advice, guidance, and in other matters.


GENERAL REMARKS

The account of the survey will be limited in the main to
anthropological and archeological observations; but it is thought
best to give it largely in the form of the original notes made on the
spot or within a few hours after an event. These notes often contain
collateral observations or thoughts which could be excluded, but
the presence of which adds freshness, reliability, and some local
atmosphere to what otherwise would be a rather dry narrative. A
preliminary account of the trip and its results was published in the
Smithsonian exploration volume for 1926 (Washington, 1927, pp. 137-158).

Not much reference is possible to previous work of the nature here
dealt with in the parts visited, except in the Aleutian Islands, where
good archeological work was done in the late sixties by William H.
Dall,[1] and in 1909-10 by Waldemar Jochelson.[2]

The archeology and anthropology of the Gulf of Alaska, the inland, the
Yukon Basin, the Bering Sea coasts and islands, and those of the Arctic
coasts up to Point Barrow are but little known. The archeology is in
reality known only from the stone and old ivory implements that have
been incidentally collected and have reached various institutions where
they have been studied; from the excavations about Barrow, conducted
by an expedition of the University Museum, Philadelphia, in charge of
W. B. Van Valin, and by the trader, Mr. Charles Brower, the results
of which have not yet been published; and from the recent diggings at
Wales and on the smaller Diomede Island by Doctor Jenness.[3] Neither
Dall, Nelson, Rau, nor Murdoch conducted any excavations outside the
already mentioned work in the Aleutians.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Dall, Wm. H.: Alaska as it Was and Is; 1865-1895. Bull. Phil. Soc.
Wash., 1900, vol. XIII, 141. On Prehistoric Remains in the Aleutian
Islands. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., November, 1872, vol. IV, 283-287.
Explorations on the Western Coast of North America. Smiths. Rept. for
1873, Wash., 1874, 417-418. On Further Examinations of the Amaknak
Cave. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1873, vol. V, 196-200. Notes on Some
Aleut Mummies. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., October, 1874, vol. V. 399-400.
Deserted Hearths. The Overland Monthly, 1874, vol. XIII, 25-30. Alaskan
Mummies. Am. Naturalist, 1875, vol. IX, 433-440. Tribes of the Extreme
Northwest. Contrib. N. Am. Ethnol., vol. I, Wash., 1877. On the
Remains of Later Prehistoric Man Obtained from Caves in the Catharina
Archipelago, Alaska Territory, etc. Smiths. Contr. to Knowledge, No.
318, Wash., 1878.

[2] Jochelson, W., Archæological Investigations in the Aleutian
Islands. Carnegie Inst. of Wash. Publ. No. 367, Wash., D. C., 1925.

[3] Rau, Chas., North American Stone Implements. Smiths. Rept. for
1872, Wash., 1873. Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and North America.
Smiths. Contr. to Knowledge, Wash., 1884, vol. XXV. Thomas, Cyrus,
Introduction to the Study of North American Archæology. Cincinnati,
1898. Jennes, D. Archæological Investigations in Bering Strait. Ann.
Rep. Nat. Mus. Canada for 1926 (Ottawa 1928), pp. 71-80.


NORTHWEST COAST--JUNEAU


THE COAST INDIANS

Passage was taken on a small steamer from Vancouver. The boat stopped
at a number of settlements on the scenic "inside" route--which
impresses one as a much enlarged and varied trip through the
Catskills--permitting some observations on the Indians of these parts.

The main opportunity was had at Aleut Bay. Here many British Columbia
Indians were seen on the dock, belonging to several tribes. Names of
these, as pronounced to me, were unfamiliar. They have a large agency
here; engage in salmon industry. A minority, only, full bloods--of the
younger a large majority mixed (white blood). The full bloods all show
one marked type, of short to moderate stature, rather short legs, huge
chest and head, i. e., face. Color near onion-brown, without luster.
Indians, but modified locally. Remind one (chest, stature, stockiness,
shortness of neck and legs) of Peruvian Indians.

Indians at Prince Rupert same type; color pale brown; eyes and nose
rather small for the faces in some, in others good size. Look good deal
like some Chinese or rather some hand-laboring Chinese and Japanese
look like them.

Indians at Juneau (the Auk tribe) very similar, but most mixed with
whites.

_Juneau._--A week was spent at Juneau, gathering information, obtaining
letters of introduction, and making a few excursions. The city has
an excellent museum devoted to Alaskan history and archeology, under
the able curatorship of Father Andrew P. Kashevaroff, himself a part
of the history of the Territory. The archeological collections of
Alaska Indians and Eskimos are in some respects--e. g., pottery--more
comprehensive than those of any other of our museums; but they,
together with the valuable library, are housed in a frail frame
building, under great risks from both fire and thieves. Fortunately the
latter are still scarce in Alaska, but the fire risk is great and ever
present. The museum is a decided cultural asset to Juneau.


NOTES OF ARCHEOLOGICAL INTEREST

_Auk Point._--Thanks to Father Kashevaroff and Mr. Charles H. Flory,
the district forester, an excursion was arranged one day to Auk Point,
approximately 15 miles distant, a picturesque wooded little promontory
near which there used to be a settlement of the Auk Indians. On the
point were several burials of shamans and a chief of the tribe (all
other dead being cremated), and near the graves stood until a short
time ago a moderate-sized totem pole. Of all this we found but bare
remnants. The burials of three shamans and one chief had been in huge
boxes above ground; but they had all been broken into and most of the
contents belonging to the dead were taken away, including the skulls.
The skeletal parts of two of the bodies and a few bones of the chief
remained, however, with a few objects the vandals had overlooked. The
latter were placed in the Juneau Museum while the bones, showing some
features of interest, were collected and sent to Washington. A large
painted board near the graves of the shamans remained, though damaged.
The totem pole, however, had been cut down the year before by a young
man from Juneau, who then severed the head, which he carried home,
and left the rest on the beach, from where it was soon washed away.
Thus a group of burials, the only ones known of the once good-sized Auk
tribe, have been despoiled and their record lost to science. And such a
fate is, according to all accounts, rapidly overtaking similar remains
everywhere in southeastern Alaska.

_Rare stone lamp (?)._--At the museum one of the first and most
interesting objects shown the writer by Father Kashevaroff was a
large, heavy, finely sculptured oblong bowl, made of hard, dark
crystalline stone, decorated in relief on the rim and with a squatting
stone figure, cut from the same piece, near one of the ends. The
bowl looks like a ceremonial lamp, though showing no trace of oil or
carbon. Subsequently four other bowls of this same remarkable type
and workmanship were learned of, two, the best of the lot, in the
University Museum at Philadelphia; one in the Museum of the American
Indian, New York; and one, somewhat inferior and of reddish stone, in
the possession of Mr. Müller, the trader at Kaltag, on the Yukon (later
in that of Mr. Lynn Smith, marshal at Fairbanks). The localities where
the five remarkable and high-grade specimens have been found range
from the Kenai Peninsula in southwestern Alaska to the lower Yukon.
The Juneau specimen comes from Fish Creek, near Kuik, Cook Inlet (see
Descriptive Booklet Alaska Hist. Mus., Juneau, 1922, pp. 26, 27); that
in the Heye Museum is from the same locality; the one in Philadelphia
was found in the Kenai Peninsula; while that at Kaltag came from an old
Indian site on the Kaiuh slough of the Yukon. Locally, there is much
inclination to regard these specimens as Asiatic, especially Japanese,
and a bronze Japanese Temple medal has been found near that now at
Juneau. On the other hand, a strong suggestion of similarity to these
dishes is presented by some undecorated large stone lamps from Alaska,
and by a class of pottery bowls with a human figure perched on the
rim at one end from some of the Arkansas mounds, Mexico, and farther
southward. (See Mason, J. A. A remarkable stone lamp from Alaska. The
Museum Jour., Phila., 1928, 170-194.)

_Copper mask._--Shortly before leaving Juneau I became acquainted with
Mr. Robert Simpson, manager of the "Nugget" curio shop, and found in
his possession a number of interesting specimens made in the past by
the Tlingit Indians. An outstanding piece was an old copper mask, which
was purchased for the National Museum. Mr. Simpson obtained it years
ago from a native of Yakutat and stored it with native furs and other
articles of value. It originally belonged to a shaman of the Yakutat
tribe and was said to have been worn by him in sacrificial slave
killings, the shaman with the mask representing some mythical being. It
is an exceedingly good and rare piece of native workmanship.

_Copper "shield."_--Another interesting article secured from Mr.
Simpson is a large old shieldlike plate of beaten copper, decorated on
one side with a characteristic Tlingit engraved design. Mr. Simpson,
in a letter to Doctor Hough, dated June 26, 1926, says: "The shield,
or to speak more correctly the copper plate--for it was not used as a
shield--was the most valuable possession of the Tlingits. They were
usually valued in slaves, this one, at the last known exchange, having
been traded for three slaves. The possessor of four or five such plates
was a man of the utmost wealth. Some claim that they got these copper
plates from the early New England traders and others that they came
from the Copper River. Either is possible. Lots of the Copper River
nuggets were very large and flat and could have readily been hammered
into plate form. I bought this in the village of Klawak on the west
coast of Prince of Wales Island. I do not know of another one around
here. All of the local elderly natives are familiar with its previous
value, and when they have wandered into my shop to sell things they
always made deep obeisance to this plate."

_Talks._--While in Juneau the writer spoke before the Rotarians, who
honored him with a lunch; and later, in the auditorium of the fine new
high school, gave a public lecture on "The Peopling of America," etc.
The object of these and the many subsequent talks in Alaska was, on
the one hand, to reciprocate as far as possible the kindness and help
received on all sides, and on the other to leave wholesome information
and stimulus in things anthropological. The audience was invariably
all that a lecturer could desire, and many were left everywhere eager
for help and cooperation. The aid of some of these men, including
prospectors, miners, settlers, engineers, foresters, and various
officials, may some day prove of much value in the search for Alaskan
antiquities.

_Juneau--Seward._--June 8, leave Juneau. It has been raining every day,
with one exception, and is misting now, depriving us of a view of most
of the coast. Wherever there is a glimpse of it, however, it is seen to
be mountainous, wooded below, snowy and icy higher up, inhospitable,
forbidding.

June 10, arrive at Cordova, a former native and Russian settlement
of some importance. Will stay here large part of the day and go
to see about Indians, old sites, burials, and specimens, the main
hotel keeper, the assistant superintendent of the local railway, the
postmaster, the supervisor of the forests, and Dr. William Chase, who
has been connected with the work of the Biological Survey in these
regions. Mr. W. J. McDonald, the forester, takes me out some miles
into the very rugged country, where there are still plenty of bear and
mountain goat. After which Doctor Chase takes me to the old Russian
and Indian cemetery. There are many graves, mostly Indian, but also a
few whites, and even a Chinaman. Russian crosses are still common. The
older Indian part could be easily excavated. Learn of skulls and bones
on "mummy" island in Prince William Sound.

_Indians._--See quite a few. Nearly all appear more or less mixed;
color in these more or less pronounced tan with red in cheeks and
some tendency to paleness. Heads still all brachycephalic and of only
moderate height; faces broad, noses not prominent, in males tend to
large.

Two adult men, evidently full-bloods--pure Indian type of the
brachycephalic form, head moderate in size, medium short, face not
very large, nose slightly or moderately convex, not prominent, but
all Indian. Color of skin submedium to near medium brown, no trace of
whitish or pink. Stature and build medium; feet rather small; hair
typical Indian, black, straight; beard sparse and short; mustache
sparse, no hair on sides of the face.

The boat makes two or three more commercial and passenger stops
before reaching Seward, the main one at Valdez, the terminal of the
Richardson Trail to the interior. These stops permit us to see some
fish canneries, which are of both general and anthropological interest.
These establishments employ Japanese, Philippine, and Chinese labor,
and it was found to be quite a task to distinguish these, and to tell
them from the coast Indians. The Chinamen can be distinguished most
often, though not always, the Japanese less so, while the Filipino
usually can not be told from the Indian, even by an expert. Here was a
striking practical lesson in relationships.

_Seward--Anchorage._--Seward found to be a fine little town, full of
the same good brand of people that one finds everywhere in Alaska and
who go so far to restore one's faith in humanity. It is the terminus of
the Government railroad to Fairbanks and a port of some importance.

_Indian basketry._--No Indians were seen here, though some come
occasionally. But several of the stores, including that of the Seward
Drug Co. (Mr. Elwyn Swestmann), have an unexpectedly good supply of
decorated Alaska Indian baskets. It was found later, in fact, that the
Alaskan Indians, with the Aleutians, compare well in basketry with
those of Arizona and California.

_Anchorage._--June 12-13. Anchorage, on Cook's Inlet, is a good-sized
town for Alaska and the headquarters of the railroad. Here were met
some very good friends, particularly Mr. Noel W. Smith, general manager
of the railroad; Dr. J. H. Romig, formerly of the Kuskokwim; and Mr.
B. B. Mozee, the Indian supervisor. Here, at Ellis Hall, I lectured
on "The Origin and Racial Affiliations of the Indians," and the large
audience included seven male (some full blood) and two female (mix
blood) Indians--of the latter, one very pretty, approaching a Spanish
type of beauty. Near town I also visited with a launch two small Indian
fishing camps. From Doctor Romig information was obtained about the
Indians and some old sites of the Kuskokwim; and through the kindness
of Messrs. Smith and Mozee I was enabled to visit the Indian school at
Eklutna. Here at Anchorage I also was given the first and rather rare
old Indian stone implement.

The Indians at the camps included 6 full bloods--4 men, 2 women. One of
the men tested on chest. Typical full-blood results.

Type of full bloods: Color slightly submedium to medium brown, never
darker; heads, subbrachycephalic to full brachycephalic, rather small;
forehead in men more or less sloping in two; face, not large, Indian;
nose tends to convex but not high. Indian in features and behavior, but
features not as pronounced as general in the States tribes.

The full bloods in town: Medium to short stature, not massive frames,
moderate-sized faces, Indian type, but not the pronounced form; head
brachycephalic; hair all black; mustache and beard scarce, as in
Indians in general; color of skin submedium brown. Children in camp
(up to about 5 years) were striking by a relatively considerable
interorbital breadth, otherwise typical Indian.

_Birch-bark dishes._--At Anchorage, in several of the stores, but
particularly at one small store, were seen many nicely decorated
birch-bark dishes or receptacles. They are made by inland Indians, are
prettily decorated with colored porcupine quills, and evidently take
the place of the baskets of other tribes. It was difficult to learn
just what Indians made the best or most, though the Tanana people were
mentioned. No such fine assortment of these dishes was seen after
leaving Anchorage.

_Eklutna._--Sixteen miles from Anchorage, along the railroad, is the
Indian village and school Eklutna. Mr. Smith made it possible for me to
reach this place on a freight and to be picked up later the same day by
the passenger train.

At Eklutna was found an isolated but prettily located and well-kept
Indian school, with about fifty children from many parts of
southwestern Alaska. More than half of these children showed more
or less admixture of white blood, but there was a minority of
unquestionable full bloods. There were two children from Kodiak Island
and two or three southern Eskimo. The main impression after a detailed
look at the children was that, while they all showed clear Indian
affinities and some were typically Indian, yet on the whole there
was a prevalent trace of something Eskimoid in the physiognomies--an
observation that was to be repeated more than once in other parts of
Indian Alaska.

_Burials._--At a few minutes' walk from the school at Eklutna there
is in a clearing of the forest a small Indian village, with a late
graveyard showing Russian influence. A short distance farther, however,
according to the Indians, there is an old burial place of some
magnitude, with traces of graves, although quite obliterated.

_Eklutna--Fairbanks._--Since reaching Seward the almost incessant
drizzles have ceased and the weather has been fine and pleasantly warm.
Everything is green, grass is luxuriant, and there are many flowers.

The railroad journey is a regular scenic tour, with its crowning
point a glorious view of Mount McKinley. The trains run only in the
daytime. For the night a stop is made at a railroad hotel, in a quiet,
picturesque location, at the edge of a good-sized river. They have
foxes in cages here and a tame reindeer. There are no natives in this
vicinity.

There are two interesting passengers on the train, with both of whom I
became well acquainted. One is Joe Bernard, an explorer and collector
(besides his other occupations) in Alaska and Siberia. He furnishes
me with some valuable pictures and much information. The other man is
Captain Wilkins, the flier of Point Barrow fame, who strikes me as an
able and modest man.

The next day, as the train stops at Nenana, I am met, thanks to a word
sent by Mr. Noel W. Smith, by Chief Thomas and a group of his people.
These behave kindly and tell me of a potlatch to be held at Tanana
"after some days," where they will visit. The chief impresses me with
his rather refined though thoroughly Indian countenance.

_Fairbanks._--Before reaching Fairbanks, the inland capital of Alaska,
I am met by Prof. C. E. Bunnell, head of the Alaska Agricultural
College. This college, located on an elevation about 4 miles out of
the city, I visit with Professor Bunnell soon after arrival, to find
there some interesting paleontological and archeological collections.
Here are fair beginnings which well deserve the good will of the
Alaskans. Unfortunately the college has not yet the means for any
substantial progress or research in these lines, and the collections
are housed in a frame building where they are in serious danger from
fire. But their presence will aid, doubtless, in the saving of other
material of similar nature from the Tanana region, and specimens of
special scientific importance will doubtless be referred to scientific
institutions outside.

Fairbanks is a good-sized town, built on the wide flats of the Tanana
River. Its population, now reduced, includes some civilized natives,
most of whom, however, are mix breeds. A large petrified mammoth
tusk on the porch of one of the semi-log houses shows that these
are regions of more than ordinary biological interest. And there is
soon an occurrence which demonstrates this further. Mr. John Buckley,
the deputy marshal, takes me to an old Japanese resident, now a
rooming-house keeper, who has had a hobby of collecting fossils, and
who in the end is happy to donate to the National Museum a fine skull
of a fossil Alaskan horse, together with some other specimens, refusing
all payment. Such is the human Alaska, or at least the most of it.

Here, too, to a full hall in the library, a lecture is given on "The
Peopling of Alaska and America," after which follows a return to Nenana
to catch a steamer to the Yukon.



THE WRITER'S TRIP ON THE YUKON


TANANA--YUKON

June 17. Nenana: This is a small town on the Tanana, mostly railroad
buildings, with a hospital; there is one street of stores (three short
blocks), most of them now empty. About half a mile off a small Indian
settlement about an Episcopalian mission.

Country flat on both sides of the rather large river, except for some
hills back of the right shore beyond the railroad bridge, for a short
distance. The river flats seem scarcely 3 or 4 feet above water,
overgrown with brush and a few scrubby trees, later spruce thickets.
Purple flowers (fireweed) strike the eye.

No relics found at Nenana; no information concerning old sites or
abandoned villages along the stream.

Physically, the Indians seen at Nenana were submedium brown, good many
still full blood, pure Indian type, brachycephalic, faces (nose, etc.),
however, of but medium prominence. Moderate to good stature.

They are all fairly "civilized," wear white men's clothing, to which on
gala occasions are added bands or collars of beadwork, and speak more
or less English. The younger men are evidently good workers.

The distance from Nenana to Tanana is given as about 190 miles by the
river.

The government boat _Jacobs_, on which we shall go down the Tanana,
is a moderate-sized, shallow-bottomed stern-wheeler, and, like all
such boats on these rivers, will push a heavily laden freight barge
before it. There are about a dozen passengers, the boat labor, a trader
or two. All kindly, open. A few women--most of both sexes of the
Scandinavian type. On barge some horses, a cow, pigs, chickens.

Leave after lunch--very good, generous, and pleasant meal in a local
restaurant that would do credit to a large city; only the people are
better, more human. Meals $1, the almost universal price in Alaska.

Some quaint expressions: When anyone has been away, especially to the
States, they say he was "outside." I am an "outsider;" show it "by my
collar." Underdone bacon is "easy." To assent they say "you bet." In
a restaurant, to a decent, cheerful girl: "May I have a little hot
coffee?" "You bet!" Which bright answer is heard so often that one
finishes by being shy to ask.

Dogs, of course, do not pull, but "mush." This is from the Canadian
French "marche." Dogs do not understand "go" or "go on," only "mush."

Extensive flats. Below Nenana these flats, plainly recent alluvial, are
said to extend up to 60 miles to the left (southwestward) and to 20
miles to the right. As one passes nearer they are seen to range from 3
up to about 8 feet above the level of the river at this stage of water.

Cabins and fishing camps along the river, mostly flimsy structures,
with a few tents. Indians in some. The Indians are said by the whites
to be pretty lazy, living from day to day; yet they seem industrious
enough in their own camps and in their own way.

Storage or caches, little houses on stilts. Dog houses in rows. Curious
wheel fish traps, revolving like hay or wheat lifting machines, run
by the current. They scoop out the fish and let them fall into a box,
from which the fisherman collects them twice a day. It is the laziest
fishing that could be devised. The contraption is said to come from
the northwest coast, but has become one of the characteristic parts of
the scenery along the Tanana and the Yukon. An Indian camp--stacks of
cordwood--canoes.

The day is sunny, moderately warm and rather dry--about as a warm,
dry, fall day with us. The river shows bars, with caught driftwood;
also considerable floating wood. There are seagulls, said to destroy
young ducks and geese and water birds' eggs. Shores now wooded, mainly
poplar, not large. Farther back and farther down, spruce.

The river averages about 200 to 300 yards but differs much in places
and there are numerous side channels (sloughs). It is crooked; many
bends. The current is quite marked, stated to run 4 to 6 miles an hour.
The water is charged with grayish-brown silt, part from glaciers higher
above, part from banks that are being "cut." The banks are entirely
silt, no trace of gravel or stone. Indian camps getting very scarce.
Boat making good time, but now and then requires careful manipulation,
with its big, heavy barge in front. Once driven to shore, but no
damage, and after some effort gets away again. No trouble yet from
mosquitoes, but there are some horseflies.

Pass a large camp--a Finn married to a squaw, and three or four Indian
families--all snug in a clearing of the fresh-looking woods on the bank
of the river.

Bend after bend in the stream, and boat has to follow them all, and
more, for the current and deeper water are now near this bank and again
at the opposite bank.

The water in many places is undermining the bank, exposing frozen
strata of silt. The top often falls in without breaking, with trees and
all, and it then looks like heavy, ragged mats hanging over the bank,
with green trees or bushes dipping into the water, and perhaps a clump
of wild roses projecting from the sward. There are many low bushes of
wild roses in this country, pink and red kinds, now blooming. Also many
small bushes of wild berries--cranberries (low and high), raspberries,
dewberries or blueberries.

Meat is imported even to here from Seattle, and carried far down the
Yukon. When received they place it in a "cellar" or hole dug down to
the frozen ground and place the meat there--a natural and thoroughly
efficient refrigerator.

Past Old Minto, a little Indian village, a few little log houses in a
row facing the river, with a wheel fish trap in front (pl. 1, _a_).
Later a few Indian houses and a "road house" with a store at Tolovana.
Most Indians there (and elsewhere here) died of the "flu" in 1918, the
bodies being left and later buried by the Government. A few isolated
little Indian camps.

The boat ties to trees along the banks. No docks or anything of that
nature. Not many mosquitoes yet, more horseflies, which, however, do
not bother man very much.

After reaching Hot Springs (right bank), there is seen a long range of
more or less forested, fairly steep-sloped hills along the right bank,
coming right down to the water's edge for miles, with bush and forested
flats opposite. At the end of one of the ravines with a little stream,
right on the bank, remnants of a little glacier melting very slowly in
the sun. Strange contrast, ice and green touching. Boat making good
time along the hills.

June 18. Hardly any sleep. Sun set after 10 and rose about 2.30, with
no more than dusk between. Then heat in the cabin, and above all the
noises. The boat stuck five hours on a bar and there were all sorts of
jerks and shudders and calls.

Flats again on both sides, but hills beyond, with just one little spot
of snow. Will be warm day again.


ANCIENT MAN

Prospects of old remains of man all along the river are slight if
any. Old silt flats have doubtless been mostly washed away (as now)
and rebuilt. Only on the older parts, now often far from water,
could anything remain and there it is all a jungle of forest with
undergrowth, with all surface traces absent (no stone, no shell), and
no one here to find things accidentally. As to the hills that approach
the river, the slopes (shales, overlain by what looks like stratified
mud and silt rock) are mostly of recent exposure, and have doubtless
been receding slowly through erosion, so that the bank line along them
is not old; and their valleys are few, narrow, and were higher formerly
as well as more extended toward where the river flowed then. The only
hopeful spot is about Hot Springs, where fossil animal remains are said
to exist, but here nothing as yet has been noted suggesting ancient man.

June 18, 4 p. m. River getting broader. Some low dunes. In distance
a range of bluish hills before us--the hills along the Yukon. Boat
meandering from side to side. Every now and then a necessary steam
blow-out of mud, or a short whistle, hurry of a man over the top of the
barge and of two half-breeds along its side to the prow to test, with
long pointed and graduated poles, the depth of the water, calling it
out to the captain. The calls range from "no bottom" to "4 feet," at
the latter of which the boat begins to touch and back water.

5 p. m. Arrived at Tanana, a cheerful looking town, extending over
about half a mile along the right bank of the Yukon, here about 20
feet high; but now, with the gold rush over, rather "slack" on both
business and population, as are all other Yukon towns. Somewhat
disappointed with the Yukon--not as majestic here as expected. See
storekeeper--introduced by captain. Hear good news. The Indians have a
big potlatch at the mission, 2 miles above. Tanana Indians expected.
And there will be many in attendance. Rumors of this potlatch were
heard before, but this was the first definite information. Get on a
little motor boat with Indians who were making some purchases, and go
to the St. Thomas Episcopal Mission, Mr. Fullerton in charge.


THE INDIANS AT TANANA

The mission above Tanana is beautifully located on the elevated right
Yukon bank, facing Nuklukhayet island and point, the latter, according
to old reports, an old trading and meeting spot of the Kuchin tribes,
and the confluence of the Tanana with the Yukon. The mission house,
located on rising ground, the wooden church lower down, the cemetery a
bit farther up, and the Indian village a bit farther downstream, with
their colors and that of the luxuriant vegetation, form a picturesque
cluster.

I am kindly received by Mr. Fullerton and his wife and given
accommodation in their house. On the part of the good-sized Indian
village everything is life and bustle and we soon are over. Motor
launches owned and operated by the Indians in the river; dogs, scores
of the big, half-wild, noisy sled dogs tied to stakes along the slope
of the bank, fighting stray ones, barking in whole outbursts, feeding
on smelly fish, or digging cooling holes into the bank in which they
hide most of the body from the warm rays of the sun; and many Indians,
about 400 in all, in whole families, in houses, large canvas tents,
cooking, eating, visiting--a busy multitude, but with white man's
clothes, utensils, etc., not nearly so interesting as a group of more
primitive Indians would be.

Walk, visit, talk, and observe. Note many mix-bloods, especially among
the younger ones and the children. Among the full bloods, many, about
one-half, with features reminding more or less of Eskimoid; but a few
typically Indian, i. e., like most of the States Indians.

Medium stature, substantial but not massive build, quite a few of
the older women stout. Color of full bloods generally near medium
brown, features regular Indian but not exaggerated, noses rather
low especially in upper half, eyes and hair Indian. Epicanthus not
excessive in children, absent in adults (traces in younger women), eyes
not markedly oblique. Behavior, Indian.

The more pronounced Eskimoids have flatter and longer faces, more
oblique eyes, and more marked epicanthus. They should come, it would
seem, from Eskimo admixture. The Tanana Indians (Nenana) did not, so
far as seen, show such physiognomies.

Toward evening, and especially after supper, natives sing and dance.
Songs of Indian characteristics, and yet different from those in south;
some more expressive. A song "for dead mother," very sad, affects some
to crying aloud (a woman, a man). A wash song--a row of women and even
some men imitating, standing in a row, the movements in washing, while
others sing; humorous. A dance in a line, curving to a circle, of a
more typical Indian character. Late at night, a war dance, with much
supple contortion. Also other songs and dances up to 2.30 a. m.--heard
in bed.

June 19. With dogs barking and whining and Indians singing, got little
rest. All Indians sleep until afternoon. No chance of doing anything,
so go down to town to get instruments and blanks. Find that storekeeper
has an old stone ax--sells it to me for $1. Also tells of a farmer
who has one--go there with the boat and obtain it as a gift; told of
another one--a Finn--has two, sells them for $1. Come from the gravelly
bank of the river or are dug out in gardening. There may well have been
old settlements in this favorable location. After return, visit some
tents to see sick. Much sickness--eyes, tuberculosis--now and then
probably syphilis.

Indians relatively civilized, more than expected, and most speak
tolerable English. Have flags, guns, sleep in some cases on iron beds
and under mosquito netting, smoke cigarettes and cigars; and even play
fiddles. Of course some have also learned the white man's cupidity and
vices.

This day I met with something unexpected, due to perversity of
mix-breed nature. Seeing so many Indians present, and after a good
reception by them the evening preceding, I thought of utilizing the
occasion for taking some measurements. I therefore mentioned the thing
to some of the head men shortly after my arrival and receiving what
seemed assent, went to-day to Tanana to get my instruments. On coming
back and finding a few of the old men, who were quite friendly, I
invited them into the "kashim" (community house) and began to question
them on old sites, etc., when in came, probably somewhat under the
influence of liquor, a mix-breed to whom I had been introduced the
night before and who at that time acted quite civilly, but now coming
forward began rather loudly and offensively to question about what I
wanted here and about authority, giving me to understand at last quite
plainly that he wanted to "be paid" if I was to take any measurements.
He claimed to be one of the "chiefs," and I would not be allowed to
do anything without his help. His harangue quite disturbed the other
Indians, who evidently were both ashamed and afraid of the fellow. And
as I would not be coerced into employing and paying him, and there
being no one, as I learned, of supreme authority, the "chief" of these
Indians being little more than a figurehead, it was decided to give up
the attempt at measurements. The rest of the visit was therefore given
to further observations and to the witnessing of the potlatch. Chief
Joseph (pl. 14), nominally the head of these Yukon Indians, expressed
his sorrow and tried to make amends by offering himself.

The potlatch was evidently in the main a social gathering of the Yukon
Indians, with the Tanana natives as visitors. It consisted mainly of
eating, singing, and dancing, to be terminated by a big "give-away."
This latter was witnessed. It proved a disappointing and rather
senseless affair. The whole transaction consists in the buying and
gathering, and on this occasion giving away, of all sorts of objects,
by some one, or several, who have lost a husband, wife, mother,
etc., during the preceding year. The possessions of the deceased are
included in this and doubtless often transmit disease. All the color
of the observance is now gone. The goods--blankets, clothing, fabrics,
guns, and many other objects, even pieces of furniture, trunks, or
stoves--are gathered in the open and when the time comes are one after
another selected by those dispensing and brought to this or that man
or woman of those who have gathered around. No song, no ceremony,
no talks, no thanking, no "wake" following. Just a poor shadow of
something that formerly may have been a tragic, memorable, and meaning
occasion.

Returned to Tanana near 10 p. m. and found lodging with a storekeeper
who kept a "hotel." Got a big room, big bed, and when store closed was
alone in the house, the storekeeper sleeping elsewhere.

June 20. But, Alaska was evidently not made for sleepers. Had not a
wink until after 3 a. m.--daylight, people talking loud and walking on
the board walk outside, and heard so clearly in my room--loud-laughing
girls, the dogs, and at last another boat with its siren; and every
now and then a singing mosquito trying to get at me through even the
small opening left under the sheet for breathing--there being no
netting. Finally doze off, to wake near 9 a. m., but everything closed,
deadlike. However, go to a little frame house for breakfast, and in
waiting until it is made find myself with two elderly men who go to-day
down the river with their boats. One is a former store clerk, etc.,
and now an "optician"--peddles eyeglasses down the river; the other
was a prospector, miner, and blacksmith, now an itinerant "jeweler"
and a reputed "hootch" peddler. As the latter--otherwise a pretty good
fellow--has a good-sized though old boat, arrange to go down with him.
See the marshal, storekeeper, settle with my hotel man (had to go at 11
to awake him), and ready to start.

The outfit is largely homemade, not imposing, old, unpainted, and unfit
for the rough--but it could be worse. It consists of a scow, a low,
flat-bottomed boat, partly covered with canvas roof on birch hoops,
in which Peake (the owner) carries fresh meat to some one, a stove,
dishes, bedding, and many other things; and the motor boat proper, in
which there is little room except for the machine and its tender. The
latter sits on a soap box; I, on a seat extemporized from a cylindrical
piece of firewood with a little board across it, with my two boxes
and bedding within easy reach. Sit in front of the scow, except when
driven back by spray. But our motor works and so we start quite well
at some time after 11. The arrangement is to stop at every white man's
camp or settlement down to Ruby. I could have gone on a better boat
with its owner, but they charge here $15 a day, with "keep," and twice
the amount for the return of the man and the boat, which is beyond my
resources.

Tanana--Ruby. The river is clearer than the Tanana, and much broader.
It is a great fine stream and its shores, while mostly still low on the
left, on the right rise here and there into moderate loess bluffs, far
beyond which are seen higher elevations and bluish forested mountains.
All covered with poplar and spruce.

2.15 p. m. Wind has so increased that the scow bumps and squeaks and
there is danger of opening its seams. Therefore side to the beach and
make lunch--a roast of fat pork, over-salted, canned spinach, dry
bread, and black coffee. All on a simple, old, but efficient little
stove in the boat. Our companion, the oculist, rides not with us but in
a nice little green canoe with a plaything of a gasoline motor fastened
to the backboard, but we all eat and sleep together.

But a few small Indian camps seen, and no white man's house. Soon after
lunch, however, approach "The Old Station," where there are a few
Indian houses, and later a white man's place (Burchell's). Stop at the
latter. Learn that we are 20 miles from Tanana and on a 5-mile-long
channel. There are here 15 to 40 feet high loess-like (silt) bluffs
with a flat on the top, which latter was from far back one of the most
important sites of the Indians of these regions. Mr. Burchell and his
partner kindly take me back, with their better boat, to the main old
site. Many old graves there, a few still marked. Traces of dugouts
(birch-bark lined), houses, caches, etc., from Burchell's place to old
main site. Important place that deserves to be thoroughly excavated,
though this will entail no little work. Site was of the choicest,
dominant, healthy. Connects by a trail, still traceable, with the
Koyukuk region.

There are said to be no traces of pottery in any of these parts. But
average to very large stone axes are washed out occasionally from the
banks, and other articles are dug out (long ivory spear, bone scraper,
etc.). Promise of bones, etc., by Mr. Burchell.

One hundred miles more to Ruby. Near 8 p. m. start again--sun still
high, little wind--endeavor to get to the "bone yard," a great bank
bearing fossils. Fine clean scenery, flat on left, flat to elevated
with grey-blue mountainous beyond on right. Water now calm and we make
good progress. Very few camps--dogs on the beach, fish-drying racks
a little farther, then a little log cabin and perhaps a tent, with
somewhere near by in the river the inevitable fish wheel, turning
slowly with the current.

Had supper at Burchell's; white fish, boiled potato, coffee, some
canned greens.

Scenery in spots precious, virginal, flat at the river, elevated
behind, foreground covered by the lighter green of poplars and birches,
with upright, somber, dark spruce behind. Sun on the right, half moon
on the left, and river like a big glassy lake, just rippling a little
here and there. Cooler--need a coat. On right, getting gradually nearer
the mountains.

Near 10 p. m. Sun still above horizon. On left a long (several miles),
mostly wooded, but here and there denuded, palisade-like bank,
apparently 200-400 feet high--the "graveyard."

Monday, June 21. Just at sunset last night--after 10 o'clock--came to
the "bone yard" bank--a long curving line of loess bluffs 100 to 300
feet high, steep right to water's edge, riven by many ravines. Lowest
third (approximately) light compact loess; then a thick layer of river
sand (stratified more or less) and small gravel, then from one-third to
nearly two-fifths of darker loess. In spots quite dark, frozen, but on
surface melting, "running," also tumbling in smaller or larger masses.
Wherever darker there emanates from it and spreads far out over the
river a decided mummy-like smell. Too late to photograph from boat,
and no other place available. Also impracticable to explore with any
detail--would take several days and be a difficult work. The bluffs
become gradually lower downstream. No bones seen from boat, but mostly
were not near enough to discern. A remarkable formation, in many ways,
and in need of masterly study as well as description.

Night on a low gravelly and pebbly beach. Many mosquitoes. Mosquito
netting found bad--sides too short (gave directions, but they were
disregarded) and mesh not small enough. In a short time impossible to
stay under. Supplemented by old netting of Mr. Peake, who will sleep
under his canvas in the boat; but the old dirty net has holes in it
and the mosquitoes keep on coming through the two. Fighting them until
some time after midnight, then under all my things--netting, blanket,
clothes--find some rest, sleeping until 4.30 a. m. After that--full
day, of course--sleep impossible. The "optician," who slept well under
proper Alaska netting, gets up, wakes my man; we both get up, shake,
roll up bedding, have a cat-wash, then breakfast, and at 6.30 off once
more along the beautiful but not hospitable river.

Inquiry at a local white man's cabin about fossils and Indian things
negative--has paid no attention, and fossil bones that he sometimes
comes across generally not in good state of preservation.

Right bank now hilly, with greater hills and then mountains behind.
Warm, river smooth, just a light breeze. How puny we are in all this
greatness.

A lot of trouble develops with the engine to-day--bad pump. Will not
get to Ruby until evening. Meat, on which I must sit occasionally,
begins to smell, and there are numerous horseflies, probably attracted
by the smell.

Four p. m. Visit Kokrines, on a high bank, native village, cemetery.
Photograph some natives, are good natured, talk pidgin English. Clearly
considerable old Eskimo admixture, but the substratum and main portion
is Indian. All kind and cheerful here, glad to have pictures taken.
Only white man is a "road-house" keeper; i. e., storekeeper. Store,
however, poorly stocked, probably in all not over $200 worth of goods.
"Optician," who is hoggish, has headache, but eats and drinks all he
can nevertheless. "Jeweler" repaired his pump, and so we are once more
on the way--35 miles more to Ruby. No trace of any relics at Kokrines.

River now a mile wide, with many "slews" (side channels, sloughs), and
many low, flat, forested islands. Mountains to right, higher, traces
of snow. Smoke wall from forest fire advancing from the west--now
also smell. Islands beautiful, fresh colors and clean--light grass on
border, then green and grayish poplars, birches, and alder, from among
which rise the blackish green spruces. Little native fishing camps a
mile or two apart, right bank--on left wilderness of flats, as usual.

A few miles above Ruby conditions change--high bluffs (rocky) now
on left, flat on right side. Ruby, from a distance and after the
loneliness of the day, looks quite a little town on the left bank, at
the base of the higher ground.


RUBY

June 22-23. Our approach to Ruby was very modest. With Mr. Peake paid
off, we just sided against and tied to the bank, on which are the
lowest houses of the village, and carried out my boxes and bedding on
the bank. There two or three men were idly watching our arrival. I
asked about the local marshal, to whom I had a note, and had my things
carried to the combined post office and hotel. In almost no time I meet
Mr. Thomas H. Long, the marshal, become acquainted with the people
about, tell my mission, and begin to collect. It does not take long
for one properly introduced to be thoroughly and warmly at home in
Alaska. The first specimen I get is a fine fossilized mammoth molar. It
is brought to me by Albert Verkinik, who was about to depart for some
mines, but went back to get the tooth. And he asks no compensation.

The parts of two days spent at Ruby were quite profitable. Visiting,
and in the jail, were several Indians who could be noted and
photographed. At the old jail there were two skulls of Indians
that were donated. The teacher had two of the characteristic Yukon
two-grooved axes. The postmaster, Mr. H. E. Clarke, gave a collection
of fresh animal skulls. Mr. Louis Pilback donated two mammoth molars,
found 2 miles up the Yukon on Little Melozey Creek, about 8 feet deep,
in the muck right over the gravel. Mrs. Monica Silas brought me a
good old stone knife. Several of the men took me down to the beach to
see a damaged fossil elephant skull, also to see some fossiliferous
workings above the town. Another party took me a few miles up and
across the river to see an Indian camp and near by some old burials.
The collections were sent through parcel post; and the evening before
departure I gave a lecture to an attentive and respectful audience.

The town itself, however, is now a mere damaged and crumbling shell
of what it was in the heyday of its glory, during the gold rush. Many
of the frame dwellings and stores are empty; the board sidewalks are
rickety and with big holes; and in the air is a general lack of impetus.

June 23. Failing to find another suitable boat, I once more made an
arrangement to go farther down the river with Mr. Peake and his friend.
Peake's boat and scow were not much to look at, and the troubles with
the engine, and with its owner's raw swearing at times, were somewhat
trying; but for my purpose the outfit did well enough, and I was
treated very well and given all needed opportunity to examine what was
of importance on the banks. I was quite sorry when eventually we had to
part company, and I know Mr. Peake has not forgotten my quest, for I
heard of his talking about it to parties, with whom I was very glad to
come in contact, on the Kuskokwim.

June 23. The sunny evening of my second busy day at Ruby, near 10
p. m., Peake unexpectedly comes to the hotel to tell me he will be
ready to start to-night, on account of quiet water. His wash "is
being ironed" and will be ready soon. The marshal comes in, calls the
prisoners to take down my baggage, and at 10.15, after true, hearty
good-byes, I am once more in the old scow. Then Peake goes for his
wash, with an Indian woman, and does not come until near 11. River
peaceful, sun shortly set, sky somewhat cloudy, forest fire on opposite
shore below still smoking a great deal. Leaving good people at Ruby,
who promise to help in the future. It is getting much cooler after a
pretty warm day. Will lie on the hard boxes and try to get a little
sleep.

Thursday, June 24. We went long into the night, then stopped at a lone
cabin. Up timely, but slow start--it is 10.10 a. m. before we go.
The time gained at night lost now--bad habits. Breeze up the river,
occasionally strong, but not severe.

The cabin was the "Dutchman's," or Meyer's. He came out at 1 a. m. to
meet us, at the bark of his big dogs, a good-hearted, weather-seared
prospector, fisherman, and trapper of about 40, alone with his huskies.
Asked me into his little log hut, prepared a place for my bedding on
a frame, burned powder against the mosquitoes, brought out from cool
"cellar" a bottle of root beer he brews, and then we went to sleep. But
dogs kept waking us and Meyer went out several times to quiet them.
Fall asleep at 3.20 and oblivious until near 7. Meyer forces on me six
bottles of root beer, I leave him some prescriptions, and taking my bed
roll we go down to the boat. My men still sleeping, as I expected. And
then slow awakening, breakfast, and late starting.

Meyer never saw any Indian bones or stones, but promises cheerfully to
watch for them hereafter and to make inquiries. Of course, he also,
like so many in these lands, tells of a "prospect" of a gold find, and
is quite confident he'll "make good." As usual, also, it is a "lead"
that was "lost" and he believes he has found it. And all the time the
gold is inside, not outside, of these hunters of the yellow star.

Hills on the right again; flat islands, banks, etc., on the left.
Meyer's is 18 miles down from Ruby, right bank. About 5 miles farther
down on the slopes of the right bank is a pretty little Indian
graveyard (pl. 1, _b_), and a little lower down there are three now
empty Indian huts.

Hills and mountains seen also now beyond the wide flats of the left
bank. The hills on right, along which we pass, are more or less
forested, but often just bushy and grassy. They rise to about 600 to
700 feet and the slopes are seldom steep. Along their base there are
many elevated platforms, low swells, and nooks, that could have served
of old--as they serve here and there now--for native habitation, though
only few could have accommodated larger villages.

Pass an Indian camp--the inevitable staked dogs; a swimming boy--first
being seen bathing in the open.

Whiskey Creek next. Sixty-two dogs, all along the bank, and each
one-half or more in his own cooling hole; holes they dig down to near
the frozen ground. A settler, and two Indians--a photograph. No relics
or bones now, but will watch; promise also to save some animal skulls,
etc.

Twelve o'clock. Off again. Day better now, less squally, warm.

Hills above and below lower and earthy--loess, at least much of it. The
right shore is all along sunnier, higher, more beautiful, and more open
to wind (less mosquitoes). These are the reasons, doubtless, why it was
of old and is still the favored side for habitations by natives as well
as whites.

Just before reaching "Old Lowden," overtaken by a rather crazily driven
small motor boat with four young Indians, who hand us a crude message
for the storekeeper at Galena, telling him that a baby in the camp
is to die to-night. I offer to see the baby. Find a boy infant about
one year or a little over, ill evidently with bronchitis. Father and
mother, each about 30, sit over it brooding in dumb grief, each on one
side. Respond not to my presence, and barely so to my questions. And
when I begin to tell to the fellow who interprets and is some relative
that the baby need not die, and what to do--I note that he is somewhat
under the influence of liquor and a little flushed--to my dismay he
begins to rant against me as a doctor and against the Government, and
wants me perforce, seemingly, to say that the child is going to die
and die to-night. There are two guns around and I almost anticipate
his catching hold of one. The gist of the piecemeal talk is that they
believe I am a Government doctor, who ought to stay four or five days
with them and take over the child's treatment, and yet the fellow
insists that the child will die before next morning. I do not know what
they would say or do to the doctor if he undertook to stay and the
child died--or if it recovered. It is dismal. They have the idea that
the "Government" is obliged to do all sorts of things for them, without
being clear just what, and that it does not do them. They believe,
and try to say so, that I am sent and paid by the Government to treat
them. Probably they have heard about the Government medical party that
is to examine conditions along the river this summer, and think that I
do not want to do or give what is necessary. I give all the possible
advice, but there is plainly no inclination to follow it. I offer some
medicine; they sneer at medicine. Even the father says he does not
understand it or want it. They are all surly and in a dangerous, stupid
mood. So there is nothing left but to go away as well as one may.

On way down the bank a woman is seen cleaning and cutting fish--knife
steel, with wood or ivory handle, of the Chinese and Eskimo type. A
porcupine, bloated, and with flies and maggots on it already about
the nose, mouth, and eyes, lies next to the woman, and its turn will
probably come next after the fish.

Have modest lunch--canned pears, a bit of cold bacon left from morning,
a bit of cheese, and coffee; and start once more onward. So much beauty
here, and such human discord.

3.30 p. m. Passing on right bank a line of bluffs, wholly of loess,
about 200 feet high and approximately 4 miles long, and as if shaven
with knife from top to water's edge. After that flats only on both
sides, with but one hill far ahead of us.

Motor trouble again--same old pump; but not for long; in half an hour
on again. A steamer upward passes us--like a stranger, and power.


GALENA

A little town (village), on a flat promontory. An old consumptive
storekeeper--no knowledge of any old implements or skeletal remains.
Lowden village moved here due to mine opposite and better site. About
10 Indian houses here; inhabitants now mostly in fishing camps.

From Galena down, low shores and islands as on the Tanana, as far as
can be seen, with mountains, grayish blue, in far distance (and only
occasional glimpses). River never less than three-fourths of a mile and
sometimes together with its sloughs and islands several miles broad.
Some geese; occasional rabbit seen on land; otherwise but little life.
First gulls.

The Indians at Ruby and Galena show here and there an Eskimoid type,
with the younger nearly all mix bloods (with whites). Full bloods of
same type as all along the river, brachycephalic, low to moderate
high vault of head, moderate to medium (rarely above) stature, medium
brown, noses not prominent, concavo-convex, moderately convex or
nearly straight, Indian cast of the face, but quite a few more or less
Eskimoid. Not very bright.

Sit in the bottom of the scow, in front, before the stove and make
notes. When we stop, jump out to tie the boat; when leaving, push it
off. Getting sunburnt dark. Forgetting once again that I have a stomach
or any other organ. Only sleep, never fully, much less than ought to;
but even that is somehow much more bearable here than it would be at
home.

6.45 p. m. Suddenly, after a turn, confronted with a steep rocky
promontory about 500 feet high--stratified mud rocks. On side, high
above, a tall white cross; learn later an Indian murdered a bishop
here. A little farther, on a flat below the slope, a small settlement.
A remarkable landmark, known as the Bishop's Rock. Afterwards again
flats, but some more elevated than before to the left. River like a
great looking-glass. Same character of vegetation and colors as farther
above, but details varied.

At Ruby had made a genuine, effective, Alaska mosquito netting, and
so now feel quite independent of the pest; also have two bottles of
mosquito oil, which helps. Fortunately on the water we are not bothered.

Toward night reach Koyukuk River, and later on, Koyukuk village, a
pleasant row of houses, white and native, on a high bank. Here, at
last, pass one good night, sleeping under good mosquito netting in the
house and on the bed of an Italian trader. Also had good supper of
salmon, and good breakfast of bacon and eggs, and so feel rested and
strong.

Friday, June 25. But in the morning the sky is overcast and every now
and then there is a loose shower. Of course my boon companions are
not ready again until long after 9 o'clock, and then the engine will
not go again, so a longer delay. They were inclined, in fact, to "lay
over," but I urged them on. But they are determined if it rains a bit
more to "tie to" somewhere. Fortunately there is no wind. About 3 miles
below Koyukuk and its flats, the high bluffs with steep more or less
shaved-like barren slopes recommence. A gloomy day.

About 7 miles down, after a large rocky promontory, a small graveyard
on the side of a hill, with a little native camp about a third of a
mile beyond.

10.45 a. m. Beautiful wooded great hills, 400 to 800 feet high, all
along the right bank again, with large ~V~-shaped valleys between. A
fine, rounded, slightly more than usually elevated island ahead. Left
banks flat.

Sun coming out a little; cool, but not unpleasant. No more showers,
river smooth, boat making time. Blue hazy mountains far to the left
front.

Hills to right rocky, strata horizontal to warped, mud rocks, broad
banks of sandy, gravelly or mucky materials, not consolidated, between
hard strata.

Now and then a small Indian camp, usually two or three tents, Indians,
dogs, boats; some drying fish (not much).

11.00 a. m. Another isolated little graveyard, right slope, near an old
camp.

There is no possibility now of excavating any of these graveyards,
for the Indians are in unpleasant disposition toward the Government
for various reasons. But such a place as that near Burchell's could
be excavated as soon as conditions improve. Also that above Ruby
and another opposite and just below Ruby. There are no longer any
superstructures left at these (or but traces), and the graves, as seen
above Ruby, are near (within 2 feet of) the surface.

No trace or indication of anything older than the double-grooved ax
culture has thus far been seen anywhere in the valley; and large
stretches of present banks are quite barren.

As we approach Nulato the horizon before us becomes hilly and
mountainous. The sun is now fully out and its warmth is very pleasant.
Pass an Indian woman paddling a canoe; later an Indian family going
upstream in a motor boat. Most of these Indians possess a motor boat of
some sort, and know how to run it, though it is not in their nature to
be overcareful.


NULATO

(Pl. 1, _b_)

Arrive midday. Quite a village, as usual along the water front on a
high bank. Large fancy modern surface burial ground with brightly
painted boxes and flying flags on a hill to the right. Met by local
marshal and doctor; my things are taken to a little hospital. Natives
here have poor reputation, but now said to be better. Boys nearly all
mix bloods. Several men and women show Eskimo type, but majority
are Indian to somewhat Eskimoid. Soon find they are not very well
disposed--want pay for everything, and much pay. Have a few specimens,
but to obtain anything from them is difficult. Have been spoiled.

A visit with the marshal to the site of old Nulato on the proximate
point; nothing there, just a rabbit's skull and a lot of mosquitoes.
Photograph old graveyard (that of old Nulato), on the distal point
beyond the creek.

Mr. Steinhauser, trader, of Czech descent, helpful and kind. But
nothing further to do here. Steamer that was to be here to-night
or to-morrow will not arrive, just learned, until Tuesday (this is
Friday); and so must engage a little gasoline boat to the next station,
Kaltag, 40 miles down the river.

Sleep under my new netting in the hospital. In the morning, after
parting with doctor and marshal, start 8.30 a. m. Boat little, shaky,
run by a half-breed boy of about 18. My old scow with Peake and his
companion will stay a day longer. Partly cloudy, warm.

Pass flats, and come again to similar shaved-off bluffs like yesterday.
We are now running close to the shore so that I can see everything.
Flowers, but not many or many varieties.

9.50 a. m. Pass (about 8 miles from Nulato) a few burials (old boxes)
on right slope. (Pl. 1, _c_.) Indian camp about one-half mile farther,
and a few old abandoned huts and caches.

Everything on and along the river about the same as yesterday, except
in little details. Sky clouded; light clouds, however. The boy with me
has had good schooling (for a native) and is a good informer. But there
is little of archeological or anthropological interest hereabouts. (Pl.
2, _a_.)

12.10 p. m. Another rounded island ahead of us; far beyond it
grayish-blue hills and mountains. Six miles more to Kaltag. But little
life here--a few small birds, a lone robin, a lone gull.


KALTAG

1.00 p. m. Kaltag in view--a small modern village on right bank, less
than half the size of Nulato; a nearly compact row of log and plank
houses. Nothing of any special interest seen from distance, and but
little after landing. The old village used to be somewhat higher up the
river.

There is an old abandoned site also just opposite the present Kaltag.
Another site, "Klenkakaiuh," is, I am told, in the Kaiuh slough south
of Kaltag, in a straight line about 10 miles, but no one there; and
several other old villages in that region along that slough--same
Indians as those of Kaltag. All of Kaltag go there on occasions, but do
not live there permanently any more.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 1

_a_, "Old Minto" on the Tanana. Indian village. (A. H., 1926)

_b_, Present Nulato and its cemetery (on hill to right of village) from
some distance up the river. (A. H., 1926)

_c_, The Greyling River site, right bank, 22 miles above Anvik; site
and graveyard (male skeleton) from top of knoll. (A. H., 1926)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 2

_a_, View on the Yukon from above Kaltag. (A. H., 1926)

_b_, Indian burial ground, Middle Yukon. (A. H., 1926)

_c_, Anvik, from the mission. (A. H., 1926)]

At Kaltag Eskimoid features already predominate and some of those seen
are fully like Eskimo.

There is a tradition of an Asiatic (Chukchee) attempt at Kaltag once.

Later in the afternoon photograph some natives and go with Mr. Müller,
the storekeeper, and Mr. McLeod, the intelligent local teacher, on the
latter's boat, "hunting" along the banks up the stream. Meet an old
Indian (Eskimo type) paddling a birch-bark canoe, said to be the only
canoe of that sort now on the Yukon. About three-fourths of a mile
above the village see caved bank and find a skull and bones--"split"
old burial of a woman.

A canoe coming, so we all go farther up the beach, pretending to
examine stones. It is only the boy who brought me, however, going home
with some planks, and he grins knowingly.

After that we locate three exposed coffins, two undisturbed and covered
with sod. These two, for fear of irritating the natives, are left.
But the third is wrapped only in birch bark. It was a powerful woman.
With her a bone tool and a white man's spoon. With the burial that had
tumbled out of the bank there were large blue and gray beads and three
iron bracelets--reserved by the teacher.

I gather all the larger bones and we put them temporarily in a piece
of canvas. It is hard to collect all--the men are apprehensive--it
might be dangerous for them if detected. Everything smoothed as much as
possible, and we go across the river to examine two fish nets belonging
to the trader. One of these is found empty; but the other contains
five large king salmon, 15 to 20 pounds each, three drowned, two
still alive. The latter are hooked, hoisted to the edge of the boat,
killed with a club, and, full of blood, thrown into the boat--great,
stout, fine fish. To secrete our other findings from the natives the
storekeeper gets a large bundle of grass and ties it to my package. We
shall be bringing "medicine."

Arrive home, only to learn that against our information the river
boat has left Tanana on schedule time, is now above Koyukuk, and is
expected to arrive at Kaltag before 8 p. m. Hurriedly pack, a few more
photographs, supper, and the smoke of the steamer begins to be visible.
In a little while she is at the bank, my boxes are brought down, a
greeting with old friends on the boat--the same boat (_Jacobs_) on
which I went from Nenana to Tanana--and we start off for Anvik.

Mr. Müller, the trader at Kaltag, German by birth, has a young, fairly
educated Eskimo wife, a good cook, housekeeper, and mother of one
child. The child is an interesting white-Eskimo blend.

In his store Mr. Müller showed me a good-sized heavy bowl of red stone
with a figure seated in a characteristic way near one end. The specimen
was said to have come from an old site on the Kaiuh and is of the
same type as that at the museum in Juneau and the two in the east, one
at the Museum of the American Indian, New York, and the other at the
University Museum, Philadelphia. Regrettably Mr. Müller would not part
with the specimen. (See also p. 34.)

The natives of Kaltag, so far as seen, are more Eskimoid than those of
any of the other settlements farther up the river.

Fine evening; sit with a passenger going to Nome, until late. Learn
that the boat to St. Michael is waiting for this boat and will go right
on--not suitable for my work. Also we are to stop but a few minutes at
Anvik, where I am to meet Doctor Chapman, the missionary.

Sunday, June 27. About 5 a. m. arrive in the pretty cove of Anvik.
Received on the bank by Doctor Chapman, the head of the local
Episcopalian mission and school, and also the Anvik postmaster. The
doctor for the present is alone, his wife and daughter having gone
to Fairbanks, and so he is also the cook and everything. In a few
minutes, with the help of some native boys, I am with my boxes in
Doctor Chapman's house, and after the boat has left and the necessities
connected with what she left attended to we have breakfast. I am
soon made to feel as much as possible "at home," and we have a long
conversation. Then see a number of chronic patients and incurables;
attend a bit lengthy service in Doctor Chapman's near-by little church;
have a lunch with the ladies at the school; visit the hill graveyard.
They have reburied all the older remains and there is nothing left.
Attend an afternoon service and give a talk to the congregation of
about half a dozen whites and two dozen more or less Eskimoid Indians
on the Indians and our endeavors; and then do some writing, ending the
day by going out for about a mile and a half along the banks of the
Anvik River, looking in vain for signs of something older, human or
animal. (Pl. 2, _c_.)

There are many and bad gnats here just now--how bad I only learned
later, when I found my whole body covered with patches of their bites;
and also many mosquitoes, which proved particularly obnoxious during
the lunch. As the doctor is alone, the three excellent white ladies of
the school, matron and teachers, invited us, as already mentioned, to
lunch with them. We had vegetable soup, a bit of cheese, two crackers
each, a piece of cake, and tea. But I chose an outlandish chair the
seat of which was made of strips of hide with spaces between; and from
the beginning of the lunch to its end there was a struggle between the
proprieties of the occasion and the mosquitoes that kept on biting me
through the spaces in the seat. Chairs of this type, and I finally told
that to the ladies to explain my seeming restlessness during the meal,
should be outlawed in Alaska.


THE ANVIK PEOPLE

The Anvik people, it will be recalled, were the first Yukon natives
seen by a white man. They were discovered in 1834 by Glazunof, and
since then have occupied the same site, located favorably on a point
between the Anvik and the Yukon Rivers. They belonged to the Inkalik
tribe, a name given to them, according to Zagoskin, by the coast
people and signifying "lousy," from the fact that they never cut their
hair, which in consequence, presumably, harbored some parasites. Their
village was the lowest larger settlement of the Indians on the Yukon,
the Eskimo commencing soon after.

The Anviks to-day are clearly seen to be a hybrid lot. There are
unmistakable signs of a prevalent old Eskimo mixture. The men are
nearly all more or less Eskimoid, and even the head is not infrequently
narrower, fairly long, jaws much developed. The women, however, show
the Eskimo type less, and the children in a still smaller measure--they
are much more Indian. Yet even some women and an occasional child
are Eskimoid--face flat, long, lower jaw high, cheek bones prominent
forward (like welts on each side of the nose), whole physiognomy
recalling the Eskimo. The more Indianlike types resemble closely those
of the upper Yukon. There is perceptible, too, some mixture with
whites, particularly in the young.

To bed about 11. Attic warm and window can not be opened because of the
insects. Sleep not very good; some mosquitoes in room anyway. Wake up
after 3 and just begin to doze off again when the doctor gets up. About
4 he puts his shoes on--one can hear every sound throughout the frame
house, even every yawn--and then goes to the kitchen where there soon
comes the rattling of pots. At 4.30 comes up to bid me good morning and
ask me if I am ready to get up and have breakfast. A man with a boat is
to be ready at 6 to take me to some old site. So a little after 5 I get
up, shave, dress and go down. Another night to make up for sometime,
somewhere.

We finish breakfast and the doctor goes to look for the man, but
everything deadlike, no one stirring anywhere. So I pack my stone
specimens from the river above and the bones from Kaltag, etc. It is
8 a. m. and then at last Harry Lawrence, our man, appears--having
understood to come about that time--and before long we start, in a
good-sized boat, up the Yukon.

Day mostly cloudy but fairly good; no wind. Must use mosquito mixture
all the time, even after I get on boat, but they quit later. Am
standing on the back of the boat against and over the "house" over
it--inside things shake too much and I can not see enough.

Passing by fish wheels--heaps of fish in their boxes--some just being
caught and dumped in. Picturesque bluffs passed yesterday seen to
be of volcanic stone, near basalt, not granite, with indication of
minerals. Passing close to vertical cliffs of fissured and fragmented
rocks 200 to 500 feet high--dangerous. Consolidated volcanic ashes with
inclosure of many bowlders--fine lessons in geology. Slides of soil
and vegetation here and there. Large spruces and altogether a richer
vegetation since this particular rock region was reached. There was
in fact a plain line of demarcation in the vegetation where the rocks
changed.

Sleepy. Afraid to doze and fall off, so go inside. But there the motor
thumps and shakes too much for a nap to be possible.

About 12 miles upstream from Anvik, on the north bank, the mineralized
rocks and tufa suddenly cease, to be superseded by a line, several
miles long, of sheared-off loess bluffs about 200 feet high. Here the
vegetation changes very perceptibly. Two mammoth jaws obtained from
these deposits have a few years ago been given to Mr. Gilmore, of the
United States National Museum.

22 to 23 miles up the river, north bank, a fine large platform and an
old native site. Many signs still of pit and tunnel houses. A little
farther upstream a hill with abandoned burials. Excavate a grave on a
promontory over the river--not very old--wet and not much left of soft
parts, but succeed in getting the skeleton. Fine middle-aged adult,
somewhat Eskimoid, about typical for this region. Carry down in a bag,
dry on the beach gravel. Lunch on beach; cheese, bread, coffee. The
site is known as that of the Greyling River. (Pl. 2, _b_.)

Start back a little after 3. Very warm day. River smooth. Sky looks
like there might be a storm later.

Hear of pottery--40 years ago it was still made at Anvik. Was black,
of poor quality. The women used to put feathers in the clay "to
make the pots stronger." When buried it soon rotted and fell to
pieces. In shapes and otherwise it was much like the Eskimo pottery.
Its decorations consisted of nail or other impressions, in simple
geometrical designs, particularly about the rim. It was rather gross,
but better pieces did occur, though rarely.

It is becoming plain that there are no known traces of any really old
settlements along the present banks of the Yukon; nothing beyond a few
hundred years at most. If there was anything older no external signs of
it have been noted, and no objects of it have ever been found. It seems
certain that the stone implements thus far seen were used and made by
the pre-Russian and probably even later Indians. They all belong to the
polished-stone variety. No "paleolithic" type of instrument has yet
been seen.

It is also evident that the Eskimo admixture and doubtless also
cultural influence extended far up the river. The farther down
the river, particularly from Ruby, the more the Eskimoid physical
characteristics become marked and the Indian diluted, until at Anvik
most, or at least much, physical and cultural, is clearly Eskimo.

Have further learned quite definitely that native villages on the
Yukon were seldom if ever stable. Have been known (as at Kaltag and
elsewhere) to have changed location as much as three times within the
last few scores of years, though in general they keep to the same
locality in a larger sense of the word. Anvik alone seems to have
remained on the old site since the advent of the whites.

Anvik, Tuesday, June 29. Last night gave talk on evolution to white
teachers, etc. Quite appreciated, regardless of previous state of
mentality.

Caught up with some sleep, even though my attic room was so hot that
the gum from the spruce boards was dropping down on me. Good breakfast
with the doctor--canned grapefruit, corn flakes with canned milk, bread
toasted in the oven, and coffee.

Pack up my Greyling skeleton--much drier to-day--and dispatch by parcel
post, through the doctor as postmaster.

Photograph school children and village. Gnats bad and have to wear
substantial underclothing (limbs are already full of dark red itching
blotches where bitten by them) though it is a hot day again.

The full-blood and especially the slightly mixed children would be
fine, not seldom lovely, were they fully healthy; but their lungs are
often weak or there is some other tubercular trouble.

The color of the full-bloods, juvenile and others, on the body, is
invariably submedium to near medium brown, the exposed parts darker;
and the chest test (mine) for full-bloodedness holds true. The young
are often good looking; the old rather ugly.

All adults fishing now, the fish running much since a day or two; all
busy at the fish camps, not many, in the daytime especially, about the
mission.

At noon air fills with haze--soon recognized as smoke from a fire which
is located at only about a mile, and that with the wind, from the
mission. We all hasten to some of the houses in the brush--find enough
clearing about them for safety. The school here burned two years ago
and so all are apprehensive. Natives from across the river hasten to
their caches. Luckily not much wind.

After lunch children come running in saying they hear thunder; one girl
saying in their usual choppy, picturesque way, "Outside is thunder";
another smaller one says, "It hollers above." Before long a sprinkle
and then gradually more and more rain until there is a downpour
followed by several thunderclaps (as with us) and then some more rain.
That, of course, stops the fire from approaching closer and all is
safe. Such storms are rare occurrences hereabouts.

My limbs are a sight from the gnats. Must apply Aseptinol. Worse than
any mosquitoes; like the worst chiggers. Poisonous--some hemolytic
substance, which causes also much itching, especially at night.

Arrange to leave to-morrow. Good people these, unpretentious, but white
through and through.

Mr. Lawrence, the local trader, who with his boy was with me yesterday,
is going to take me to an old site down the river and then to Holy
Cross. Donates a fine old ivory arrow point from the site mentioned.
Doctor Chapman gives three old dishes and two stone axes--haft on one
of recent manufacture. The natives seem to have nothing of this nature,
and no old site is near. The nearest is Bonasila, where we go to-morrow.

This is truly a fish country. Along the placid Anvik River fish smell
everywhere--dead fish on shore here and there, or fish eggs, or offal.

Wednesday, June 30. Hazy and cool, 52° F. Take leave with friend,
Doctor Chapman, then at school, and leave 8 a. m. for Bonasila.

The gnat pest was bad this morning--could hardly load my baggage; had
to apply the smear again, but this helps only where put and for a time
only.


BONASILA

Close to 10 a. m. arrive at the Bonasila site. Not much--just a low
bank of the big river, not over 4 feet high in front, and a higher rank
grass-covered flat with a little stream on the left and a hill on the
right. But the flat is full of fossae of old barabras (pit and tunnel
dwellings), all wood on surface gone; and there is a cemetery to the
right and behind, on a slope.

Examine beach and banks minutely until 12. Modest lunch--two
sandwiches, a bit of cake and tea--and then begin to examine the
shore again. Soon after arrival finding bones of animals, some partly
fossilized; beaver, deer, caribou, bear, fox, dog, etc., all species
still living in Alaska, as found later, though no more in the immediate
neighborhood.

Mosquitoes and gnats bad--use lot of oil. Begin soon to find remarkably
primitive looking stone tools, knockers, scrapers, etc. Crawl through
washed-down trees and brush. Many stones on the beach show signs of
chipping or use. Very crude--a protolithic industry; but a few pieces
better and showing polished edge. Also plenty of fragments of pottery,
not seldom decorated (indented). Make quite a collection. And then, to
cap it, find parts of human skeleton, doubtless washed out from the
bank. Much missing, but a good bit recovered, and that bit is very
striking. (See p. 156.) Also a cut bone (clean cut, as if by a sharp
knife) in situ in the mud of the bank, and a little birch-bark basket
still filled with mud from the bank, with later a larger basket of same
nature in situ; could save but a piece. Conditions puzzling. Was there
an older site under one more recent?

2 p. m. About 2 p. m. go to the cemetery. About a dozen burials
recognizable. A pest of mosquitoes and gnats--Lawrence soon bleeds over
face and neck, while I keep them off only by frequent smearing. He
soon has to smear, too. Open five graves--placed above ground, wooden
(split and no nails) boxes covered with earth and sod. Skeletons all
in contracted position, head to the east and lying on right side. Some
in poor condition. Three women, one man, one child. Gnats swarm in the
moss and the graves, and with the smears, here and there a trickle of
blood, the killed pests and the dust, we soon look lovely. But there
is enough of interest. With each burial appears something--with the
man two large blue Russian beads; first woman--a pottery lamp (or
dish), iron knife; with the second two fire sticks, stone objects
(sharpeners), partly decayed clay dish; with the third, a Russian bead
and a birch-bark snuffbox; with the child a "killed" (?) glass bottle
of old form and an iron flask; in the grave of an infant (bones gone) a
Russian bead. A grave of a child--bones burned.

6.15 p. m. Rest must be left. Lawrence may be enabled to do some work
in the fall. Leave 6.15; carry quite a lot--in sacks, gasoline cans,
lard cans. Wonder how I shall be able to send things from Holy Cross,
and what next. Cool, sky overcast whole day.


HOLY CROSS

Thursday, July 1. Slept on the floor of a little store last night
at Ghost Creek. The Catholic mission at Holy Cross, with all sorts
of room, about 1½ miles down, and where, though late and tired, I
visited Father Jules Jetté, a renowned student of the dialects of the
Yukon Indians, did not offer to accommodate me, and the trader in
their village could only offer me a "bunk" in one little room with
three other people. So after 10 p. m. we went down to the "Ghost
Creek," where I was gladly given a little corner in the store of Alec
Richardson. Of course there were whining dogs outside, right next
to the store on both sides, and they sang at times (or howled) like
wolves, whose blood they seem to carry. And a cat got closed in with
me and was pulling dried fish about, which she chewed, most of the
night it seemed. So there was not much sleep until from about 5 a. m.
to 8.30, after the cat was chased out and the dogs got weary. Then no
breakfast till near 9.30.

Went to mission again to see Father Jetté--he is not of the mission--a
fine old Frenchman and scholar. He was not responsible for last night
and anyway I was spoiled farther up the river. His meritorious work
deserves to be known and published.

After a very simple lunch packed yesterday's collections from the
Bonasila site--five boxes. The parcel post here alone will cost $20.40.
How odd that the transportation of the collections of a Government
institution must be paid for from the little appropriation received for
scientific work to another department of the same Government.

It is cloudy, drizzly, cold. Am endeavoring to leave to-morrow, but
they want $35 to the next station, and the boat does not leave for
St. Michael until the 11th. Fortunately I am able to send away the
collections, and there will surely be some way down the river.


GHOST CREEK

July 1-2, 10.30 p. m. A night on the Yukon. (Pl. 3, _a_,) They have
lit a powder against the mosquitoes. Smear the many gnat bites with
Mentholatum--helps but for a while--and having now my fine meshed
netting, my own bedding, and a clean pillow, I feel fine, safe from all
the pests, and ready for a quiet night, all alone.

Commenced dozing off when a he-cat, who hid in the store at closing,
begins to make all kinds of unnamable noises. Stand it for a while, but
he does not stop and one could never sleep--so crawl out from the bed,
catch the beast, and throw him out.

In again and settling down, when another cat--did not know there were
two here--begins to mew and tries to force its way out under the door,
which is about 2½ inches above the floor. Persists until I have to get
up the second time. Throw that cat out and in bed once more.

In a minute, however, the dogs outside espied the cats and began a
pandemonium of howls and yelps and barks. Try hard, but can not stand
it. Moreover, the last cat got on the roof, where I hear him walking,
and he seems in no hurry to get off. So finally have to get out, catch
the cat on the edge of the roof, throw him back into the store, and
to bed for another trial. But soon have to smear the body; the bites
itch too much. The sleepiness is now quite gone. A mild amusement
as to what next. It must be midnight or later now, and it has grown
cold. One blanket is not sufficient. Doze off a little, wake up with
cold, readjust blanket and flaps of bag, doze off a little again--the
dogs commence to howl, just for a song this time, in two, three, then
a unison. The bites itch bitterly, now here, now there. The sun has
risen; it is real cold, probably no more than about 40° to 45° F. And
so on until 5.30, when at last fall into a deep, dreamless sleep,
regardless of light, cats, dogs, and everything and sleep until 8.30.

Wake up, can not believe my watch; but it goes, and so probably is
right. But no one anywhere yet stirring.

Dress, wash a bit in the muddy river; head feels as if it had been
knocked by something heavy. Make my "roll" of bedding and then work
on notes, putting down faithfully what has transpired. About 9.30, at
last, the storekeeper comes to say they overslept and that a cup of
coffee will be ready before long.

Friday, July 2. "Ghost Creek" was named so because of many burials
about the creek. The flat between the hills here is about three-fourths
of a mile long by the water front, with rising slopes, and used to
extend considerably farther out, but was "cut" or washed away by the
river. It has been used for a village site and burial ground by the old
Indians of the vicinity. As the banks tumble away, bone arrow points,
barbed and not, stone scrapers, and other objects wash out. Graves are
found in the ground as well as above it. Russian influence prevalent
in the objects buried with the bodies, but site extends to pre-Russian
time. Same type graves as at Bonasila, with slight local modifications.

At Bonasila the burials above ground were in boxes of hewn wood,
joined somewhat as the logs in a log house, and without any base. The
body inside was covered with birch bark (three or four pieces), then
covered with the top planks, unfastened, and these in turn covered
with about a foot of earth and sod. At Ghost Creek the same, but there
is an undressed-stake base or platform on which the sides of the
"coffin" rest and with somewhat less earth and sod on the top of the
box. But graves differ here from underground and birch bark alone (no
trace of wood, if any was ever there; but probably none used) to such
aboveground as have iron nails and sawed planks. Here, as at Bonasila,
a few simple articles are generally found buried at the head, and
for these many of the graves were already despoiled and the skeletal
remains scattered or reburied.

There appears to be no line of demarcation between the underground and
aboveground graves; possibly the latter were winter burials, but this
must be looked into further.

The bodies here, except the latest, are buried flexed. Exceptionally,
both at Bonasila and here, the planks surrounding the grave were
painted with some mineral pigments which resist decomposition better
than the wood, and decorated in a very good native way with series
of animals and men, caribou, bear, etc. Too faint to photograph, and
too bulky and decayed to take away; but decoration much superior to
ordinary Indian pictographs, and apparently connecting with the type
of art of the northwest coast. It is of interest that practically the
same decorated burials were seen by Dall among the Eskimo of Norton
Sound (Unalaklik).[4] In this case it was probably the Indian habit
that was adopted by the near-by Eskimo, for none of the more northern
Eskimo practiced such burials. The habit was also known in southeastern
Alaska. (Pl. 3, _b_.)

Jim Walker, the helpful local mix-breed trader, has dug out many of
these graves (alone or with Harry Lawrence), and a good many of the
objects are said to have been taken away by Father O'Hara, formerly of
the Holy Cross Mission.

According to all indications the stone culture of Bonasila and of Ghost
Creek (1½ miles upstream from Holy Cross) were related, both passing
apparently into the Russian period, and that at Ghost Creek continuing
down to our times, for there is still living here an old man who
belongs to this place which once had a large village. Much could be
done yet and saved in both places.

Saturday, July 3. At last slept, notwithstanding everything, and
succeeded even in being warm.

Breakfast 8.30, for a wonder. Two soft-boiled Seattle eggs, two bits
of toast with canned butter (not bad at all), some over-preserved
raspberries, and a faded-looking nearly cold "flapjack" with sirup,
also mediocre tea. But all goes here, and the stomach calls for no
other attention than to fill it.

Finishing work, getting further information from the old Indian,
writing, and waiting to go away with a trader to Paimute, the
first all-Eskimo village, 25 miles farther down the river. Rains
occasionally, but not very cold. Many gnats when wind moderates.

Lunch--canned sardines (in this land of fresh salmon!), a bit of toast,
some canned fruit, and that unsavory tea.

Have utilized this day in a profitable manner. Have learned that there
was another burial ground about half a mile farther upstream, behind
an elevation. So got a rowboat and with Jim Walker's young boy rowed
over. Had to wade through high grass over a wet flat, and then up the
rank grass and bush-covered slope, and there found a number of old
burials. All rifled, but most of the bones still there. So send boy
back, on the quiet--there is above the store the camp of the old man
with an old Indian woman and sick girl--for some boxes, and meanwhile
collect. It is an unceasing struggle with the mosquitoes and gnats in
the tall grass and weeds; but one after another I find what remains of
the usual old box burials. The bones are mostly in good condition.
The boy arrives with several empty gasoline boxes, we gather drier
grass and moss, and pack right on the spot, eventually get to the boat,
strike off as far as possible from the shore so none could see what is
carried, and proceed to Walker's storehouse. Old Indian and his old
crony nevertheless stand on bank and look long at us. In storehouse
boxes closed, later delivered by the boy to the mail boat, and so that
much is saved; for were it not collected, in a few years the weather,
vegetation, and animals, human and other, would destroy everything.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 3

_a_, Midnight on the Yukon

_b_, Lower middle Yukon: Painted burial box of a Yukon Indian (before
1884) said to have been a hunter of Bielugas (white whales), which used
to ascend far up the Yukon]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 4

_a_, Eskimo camp below Paimute, Yukon River

_b_, Old "protolithic" site 12 miles down from Paimute, right bank,
just beyond "12-mile hill." (skull, bones, stones)

_c_, "Old" site in bank seen in middle of picture, 12 miles down from
Paimute, opposite that shown in preceding figure. (A. H., 1926)]

Moreover, the utmost care is taken always to leave everything in as
good shape as found; and the remains taken will be treated so well and
may give us so much that we need that there is no more hesitation in
securing them than there would be on the part of a paleontologist in
securing old bones for his purposes.

For supper, though it is still early, am invited by Simel, an elderly
Jew mail carrier. Have fine meat-and-potato soup, lettuce-and-cucumber
salad (even if the cucumbers from the Holy Cross hothouse are overripe
and bitter), fresh (storage) meat, cooked dried apples, and poor
but hot coffee--all seasoned with the best will and genuine, simple
friendliness.

Max Simel, whose home is at Ophir, has been in this country 29 years,
and "never needed to buy a quarter's worth of medicine." Has a wife in
Seattle, also a daughter and a son; has not seen them for four years.
Wants me to call on them and tell them I met him. With his companion,
Paul Keating, of Holikachakat, gives me some interesting information.
They tell me independently and then together of an occurrence that
shows what may happen along this great river. A well-known white man
and woman, prospectors on their mail route, have last year thawed and
dug out a shaft, nearly 40 feet deep, through muck and silt, to the
gravel, in which they hoped to get gold; and just before they reached
the gravel they found a piece of calico, old and in bad condition, but
still showing some of its design and color.

7 p. m. It rains, but wind has moderated, and so near 7 p. m. we start
on our way farther down the river, stopping just long enough at Holy
Cross to attend to my reservation for St. Michael. The agent has no
idea when the boat will go--maybe the 11th, maybe not until the 14th or
later.

Going on an old leaky scow with an elderly, faded, chewing, not very
talkative but for all that very kindly and accommodating man, who with
one hand holds the steering wheel and with the other most of the time
keeps on bailing. He carries supplies for his store and I my outfit,
camera, and umbrella. Sky has here and there cleared, even patches of
sun appear on far-away clean-cut hills. Water not very rough; make fair
time downstream. Banks flat now, river broad, some hills in distance.

8.00 p. m. Hills nearer ahead of us. Some of the flats look from
distance like fine tree nurseries. Getting cool. Cloudy ahead. The
banks flat and low, no good site for habitation. Not even fishing camps
here--just long "cut-banks" (banks being cut by the river) and low
beaches. Here and there new bars and islands that are being built by
the river. No birds, no boats, just an occasional floating snag or a
rare solitary gull.

FOOTNOTES:

[4] Alaska and Its Resources, p. 19: "Our attention was attracted by
the numerous graves. These are well worth the careful attention of
the ethnologist; many of them are very old. The usual fashion is to
place the body, doubled up, on its side, in a box of plank hewed out
of spruce logs and about 4 feet long; this is elevated several feet
above the ground on four posts, which project above the coffin or box.
The sides are often painted with red chalk, in figures of fur animals,
birds, and fishes."


PAIMUTE

Paimute down river, I am told, has nothing but Eskimo; Holy Cross, but
a few natives now, mainly Indian; above Holy Cross, Indian, Eskimo only
as adapted or in admixture.

July 3, 8.30 p. m. Hills on right now right before us. Behind first a
fish camp of the Holy Cross Mission natives. River narrows and bends.
Two other fish camps become visible. Stop; damp, cold, smoke, fish
smell, a few natives, Eskimo. River now like molten glass, but air damp
and cold, and I must sit behind the engine and keep my hands over the
hot exhaust pipe to keep somewhat comfortable.

Pass bulging bluffs on right--old stratified shales.

11.00 p. m. Arrive at our destination about 11 p. m. But a few log huts
on the right side of the river, with few others and a primitive frame
church in the back. A little store and a big storehouse (with skins,
etc.), trader's house (log cabin) a few rods away. Open store, only to
find that a pup had been forgotten there, made a lot of mess and dirt
and ate most of one side of bacon.

12.00 p. m. Got to bed in the cabin at 12. Spread bed roll on two
reindeer skins which, with fire in the stove, keep me fairly warm. Rain
in night and several earth tremors--common in these parts; feel several
light ones every night and a stronger one occasionally even in daytime
(a big "fault" in the Alaskan range and a proximity to the Aleutian
volcanic zone).

Awake before 8, but as it still rains nothing can be done, while my man
within a few feet of me still snores; stay in blanket till 9. Modest
breakfast at 10 a. m.

10.00 a. m. A little house cleaning--watch kitten clean windows of
the many flies, which it eats; and then my man, a Swede by birth,
sailor, self-taught painter (of ships and sea scenes), and musician
(accordion), goes to bail out the boat. Still full of bites that
itch and need a lot of Aseptinol, which in turn makes underwear look
dreadful. And no bath possible.

Last night met some of the local Eskimo, full bloods, mostly from the
Kuskokwim River. Strong, kinder than the Yukon Indians. But they differ
but little in some cases from the latter. They are medium brown in
color, hair exactly like the Indian, beard also--only the rather flat
(not prominent) mid parts of the face, with rather long and narrow
(upper two-thirds) nose, and the cheek bones protruding more or less
forward, with face long (often), due to the vertical development of the
jaws, helps to distinguish them as Eskimo. There is no clear line of
demarcation between the Indian farther up the river and the Eskimo down
here, yet in some here the Eskimo type is unmistakable. They have more
epicanthus, flatter, longer, and stronger (more massive) face, stronger
frame, rather submedium length of legs, and less brachycephalic (or
more oblong) head, but not the characteristic, narrow and high,
keel-shaped dome that one is used to associate with the Eskimo.

1 p. m. A little lunch--just a cup of coffee and a few crackers.
Photograph two natives.

1.30 p. m. Start toward Russian Mission. Trader carries sugar in bags
and tea for camps.

Near 2. Stop at an Eskimo camp, see sick baby, photograph a few
individuals. Get an ax for a pocketbook--old man happy as a child
at the exchange. Made another one happy this morning in payment for
information with one of my steamer caps. (Pl. 4, _a_.)

Pass along the still continuing bulging hills on the right. They are
forested over lower parts, barren, though mostly greenish, above. As
usual flats on left, devoid of man. Occasionally a fish camp on right,
or a small village, somewhat different, though in essentials like the
Indian (more gregariousness noticeable--up river mostly individual or
at most two or three families). Every favorable higher flat or low
saddle among the hills on the right and facing the river (or a slough)
is utilized by the natives, but such places are scarce.

The ax obtained looks as if it had been broken after found, to make of
it a single-edge tool. Tumbled out of a bank. Old Eskimo knew not who
made it. Found some miles below Paimute by the old man. Others found,
but lost. Ivory arrow and spear points also known to natives, but no
one now has any.

A mountain ahead of us. Sky clouded mostly, high diffuse vapors and
low, heavy but separated cumuli in the east; one would expect soon
a heavy rain. Visibility exceptionally good, horizons far away,
uncommonly clear. Mountains sharply outlined against the sky.

About 12 miles below Paimute, on left, some higher banks (old silts and
dunes). The ax from the old man had been found here. Stop. Find pottery
12 feet, charcoal 15 feet from surface. Also polished and worked
stones. But most of bank has already been cut off and what remains
shows no signs of man on the top. (Pl. 4, _b_.)

Cross river obliquely to right bank, just beyond last ("12-mile") hill.
Find at once numerous evidences of stone work along the stony beach. In
an hour have a fair collection, mainly rejects, but interesting. On top
of bank find several mounds and ridges, doubtless dunes, though the one
farthest up the river looks very much like a large oval man-made mound.
Parts of two much-weathered skulls and one bone lay on the top of this.
No definite marks of graves excepting perhaps in one instance. A sign
of old clearing farther down, but no "barabras." A spot well worthy
of exploration. It was, I learned a little later from Nick Williams,
a native who used to act as a pilot on the river, the old mountain
village or "Ingrega-miut," and the site is 12 miles downstream from
Paimute. (Pl. 4, _c_.)

Beyond are flats and cut banks, both sides, but with hills (old water
front) behind on the right and mountains in front. River here very wide.

Many of the worked stones, and occasionally, according to native
information, skulls and bones, are washed out from the banks and
deposited (rolling, etc.) lower on the beach in something like strata,
and in that way evidence is being perverted. Some day a new bank or
even a dune may be formed over these secondary deposits and a great
source of possible future error be completed.

All the natives along the river (to here) like to bury on the lower
slopes of near-by hills.

To bed on floor of kitchen tent at the fine, clean little place of
Tucker's, at 10.30. At 1.30 the 20 dogs start a fine, sustained, unison
howl song, and I seem to hear an approaching boat. As the Governor of
Alaska is expected, slip on shoes and necktie, brush hair, and run out.
There is a little boat at the little "dock" (the only one seen so far
on the Yukon). Tucker and his son are already there, and I soon hear
that the governor is on the boat, which is that of Mr. Townsend, of the
Fish Commission. In a few minutes we meet, both in shirt sleeves. And
I learn the _Matanuska_, the boat that was to take me from the Russian
Mission to St. Michael, has broken down and is not coming. In her
place, but no telling as to time, will be sent the _Agnes_, a smaller
and slower boat, on which three people have already this season been
"gassed" (overcome by the exhaust gases), one of them jumping into the
river. She has accommodation for four persons at most, and that of the
most primitive, they say. The governor fortunately gives me some hope
that I may be picked up and taken down by the same boat which is taking
him to Holy Cross. He also tells me of a skull for me at one of the
stopping places, Old Hamilton. A frank, good, strong man.

Boat leaves in a few minutes. Back to bed, but now almost full
daylight--also cold, and so no more than a doze until 6.15, at which
time the boy comes to the kitchen where I was kindly accommodated
to start fire and breakfast. So up with a drowsy head. At 7
breakfast--coffee, oatmeal, flapjacks, and good company. Everything
about this place is neat, fresh, pleasing--the best individual place
on the river. Cloudy, blustery, cool; can not start, so go 1½ miles
down to Dogfish village, or I-ka-thloy-gia-miut--probably the same as
Zagoskin's I-ka-lig-vig-miut. Only three or four families there now;
nearly all the inhabitants died of influenza in 1900. But already
before reaching the village, in examining the stones along the beach, I
find some chipped ones, and they represent the same industry evidently
as those at the two sites yesterday. Later find numerous chipped
scrapers, pointed hammers, crude cutters and chisels, and a few axes.
Make quite a collection, including a few objects found in possession of
natives.

This is a good site, above high water. Must be old. Pottery also
encountered occasionally by present occupants, but not one bead;
little if any river cutting here for a long period. Worth exploration.
Photograph another Indianlike Eskimo. Want to buy an old dish from an
Eskimo, border inlaid with six white stones, shaped like an oblong
lozenge with rounded corners, but he wants $20. Lunch all together,
some Eskimo included, at Tucker's, and then as the wind moderates and
the sun comes out, start for the Russian Mission. Mostly still clouds
and cool, with some rain in the mountains to the right.

Finds and inquiries made at Dogfish village make it positive that the
stone culture there is Eskimo, i. e., of the Eskimo of this region
who are probably not a little mixed with Indians. Their head is but
moderately oblong, not keel shaped. The majority, however, have Eskimo
features.

But the cupid-bow (double-grooved) axes are not known to have been made
by these people, and when used after being found or brought down from
farther up the river they apparently were broken. One such example was
seen already at Ruby--another one at Anvik--secured; and one found
yesterday at Mountain village. The axes here are most often oblong,
quadrilateral, without groove, or approaching the single-grooved axes
of the Indians in the States.

July 6. Proceed down the river toward Russian Mission, examining the
banks as closely as possible. Toward evening stop at "Gurtler's," a
short distance above the mission.

Mr. Gurtler is a German by birth; his wife is half Indian, of Ruby.
She, as well as her 14-year-old daughter, are neat, apt, and very
industrious, quiet and nice mannered. With an Eskimo woman, she cleans
and cuts up--a whole art of its own--on the average over 200 good-sized
salmon a day. Clean place, very good smoking house--much superior to
those up the river, except Tucker's.

Sleep in a clean bed of theirs; would much prefer my own and the hard
floor, but fear to offend.


RUSSIAN MISSION

Pack my stones and bones collected between here and Holy Cross, and
after lunch go to Russian Mission. Meet Mr. Cris Betsch, the trader,
and find him both friendly and anxious to help. Teacher and her mother
invite me to supper. Before that Mr. Betsch calls in a number of the
older men, and we have a talk about ancient things, but they know
nothing worth while beyond a few score of years at most; they give me,
however, some data and names of old villages.

A few years ago some human bones and skulls were dug up here and
reburied. Eskimo readily agree to help us find them and to let me
take them. Moreover, they are quite eager to dig up an old medicine
man supposed to be buried under a good-sized (for this country) blue
spruce. They get shovels, soon find some of the old bones and a damaged
skull, and later on, with the help of information given by an elderly
woman, uncover also a female skull. Uncover further the end of two
birch-bark-covered coffins, from Russian time, and would readily dig
them out did I not restrain them; as also with the medicine man. We
shall probably get some such specimens from this locality later, so
there is no need of disturbing the burials.

Mrs. Barrick, the teacher, gives us a "civilized" supper, at which I
am introduced for the first time to a great and fine Yukon specialty,
namely, smoked raw strips of king salmon, and find them excellent. Then
a good talk with all, after which pack specimens--still somewhat damp,
but it would be difficult to wait--deliver to the post, and am sent to
my place around the hill at a little past 10 p. m. with an invitation
by Mr. Betsch to go to-morrow to "the slough of the 32 kashims (council
or communal house)," about 10 miles down the river. But I have already
been promised by Gurtler to take me down to this place, and so I can
not accept. Just now I need sleep.

July 7. After breakfast examine banks and beach along Gurtler's place
and find two stone implements, two pieces of decorated pottery, and a
bone of some animal. Wash, dry, and pack, then a cup of coffee--the
Gurtler's have a habit of drinking a second cup at about 10 a. m. each
day--and then, after some of the seemingly inevitable trouble with
motor, start down the river. It rained yesterday; the clouds show low
pressure; it is not warm and the water is somewhat rough.

Stop a bit at the mission to give Mrs. Barrick a fish and get a bag
or two from Mr. Betsch, and then proceed. From the river the Russian
Mission settlement is seen to be very favorably situated at the foot
of the southern slope of a big hill. But the recency of the flat below
and in front of the church and schoolhouse is clearly seen again. The
site about where the church and school are may--in fact must, it is so
favored--be a very old one, and doubtless a thorough excavation of the
slope from the back of the houses upward would be both easy and very
instructive. The place should by all means receive attention.

Reach and examine the "32 kashim slough," a beautiful side channel
about 7 miles long; reach about 1½ miles from its entrance, examine
banks and pass through jungle, find tracks of foxes and of a bear,
also see one big beautiful red fox trotting ahead of us on the other
beach--but not a trace of man. Examine also the "mounds" on Grand
Island, but find them to be only dunes.

Lunch on the beach; remarkably few mosquitoes and no gnats; smoked raw
salmon strips again, and coffee; and at 5 leave for home, it being
impossible so late to go down to the end of the channel.

On return all going nicely until 5. Then, in a slough 3½ miles from the
Russian Mission, after an examination of another likely site, breakdown
of the motor. Do everything possible to make it go until about 8, but
in vain. Then I take the crazy little rowboat that luckily we took with
us, bail out the water with our shovel, and row to the mission for
help. Get there about 9, send back a launch with some natives, have a
little supper with the teacher, and row home around the hill, reaching
Gurtler's near 11. In a few minutes the launch is towed in and all is
well once more. Mr. Betsch got for us two good native "kantágs" or
wooden dishes. Also we fix to go down to the "32 kashims" to-morrow
once more with Mr. Betsch and the teacher.

July 8. Up a little after 6; breakfast; and then comes in a native from
the mission with two letters and information that the _Agnes_, the
little mail-carrier boat, has arrived during the night and is waiting
for me to take me to Marshall and to Old Hamilton, whence another
boat will take me in a day or two to St. Michael. So get ready in a
minute, put my baggage on a native's boat, pay my bill, leave another
lot of good friends, and row to the mission. There is the little
dinghy _Agnes_ with its "accommodation" for three passengers already
two-thirds filled up, and towing two big logs as a freight. Put my
things partly in a "bunk," partly on the roof, give good-byes to Betsch
and the teacher, help to push off the boat which is stuck in the mud,
and we are off for another Yukon chapter.

We pass by the lower end of the "32 kashim" slough--no sign of any
site--all recently made flats. If there is anything left of the old
sites it must be at the foot of the hills, or has been covered with
silt. The site is so favorable that in all probability there was once
there a good-sized settlement, but due to river action and the jungle
it could not be located. Mr. Betsch visited the place that day, and
again with some old natives on another occasion, without being more
fortunate.

Cloudy, slightly drizzly day, no trace of sun, mists over the tops of
the hills. Could not stand it in the boat, so sitting on my box on the
roof of the boat, wrapped, due to the cold, in a blanket.

A little below the "32 kashim" slough a small stream enters from
inland--a place to be examined; but this boat can not stop for such a
purpose.

A half mile or so farther down a few graves and crosses, with remnants
of a native habitation.

Over 3 miles down, just beyond first bluff, fine site, with low hills
stretching far beyond it--now but a few empty, half-ruined native
houses. Should be explored.

South of second rocky bluff a live camp, and farther down another.

The left side of the river is still all flats as far as one can see,
but about 17 miles below Russian Mission human bones came out of a bank
there (on a slough).


MARSHALL

At 3 p. m. reach Marshall, a little cheerful-looking mining town,
high on a bank. See the place, identify the skeleton from the
above-mentioned bank as that of a missing white man, see telegraph
operator, postmaster, teacher, commissioner. Sun comes out, is warm.
Almost no mosquitoes here and no gnats. Hills above and beyond town
belong already to the coast range and are barren of trees, even largely
bare of shrubs and bushes. Leave 4.30.

Soon after Marshall--after passing by an Eskimo village (white man's
style of buildings)--leave the hills and enter flats on both sides.
This is the beginning of the delta region. River like glass, and it is
warm in the sun but very perceptibly cooler when sun is hidden.

The boat has only three bunks, and there are five of us with the two
pilots. But on the last trip up, there were, fortunately only for about
eight hours, seven, including two women and a child, and that without
any privacy or conveniences whatsoever. It is almost criminal, and they
charge a very steep fare. However, for me it will soon be over--only
about 36 hours. Still it is hard to believe this is yet in the United
States and presumably under some sort of supervision.

Which brings me to a realization that the first half of my journey--the
preliminary survey of the Yukon--is slowly closing; a little, and it
will be the sea and other conditions, which also brings the realization
that I have seen much but learned not greatly. What should be done
would be to own a suitable fast boat; to locate on each of the more
important old sites a party for careful, prolonged excavation; and to
try to locate, in the rear of or on the higher places on the present
river flats, more ancient sites than are known to date. These steps,
together with the enlisting of the interest in these matters of every
prospector, miner, and trader, would before many years lead to much
substantial knowledge.

Friday, July 9. Must keep up these notes, for they alone keep me posted
on the day and date; even then I am not always sure. There are no
Sundays in nature.

Slept in my bag on the roof of the _Agnes_. Her namesake must have been
one of these goodly but insufficient and but indifferently clean native
women, plodding, doing not a little work, but wanting in many a thing.
It was cold and dreary, but I found an additional blanket, and so, with
mosquito netting about my head--one or two got in anyway--would have
slept quite well had it not been for a dog. At about 1 a. m. we stopped
in front of a little place called also "Mountain Village." And almost
at once we began to hear a most piteous and insistent wail of a dog
who either had colic or thirst or hunger, and he kept it up with but
little stops for what seemed like two hours, making my sleep, at least,
impossible.

Saturday, July 9. Morning. Cold, cloudy, rough--head almost beginning
to feel uncomfortable, the boat is tossing so much. A teacher comes
aboard with an inflamed hand which I fix; a few questions, the mail
bag, and we are off again. Enter a slough where it is less rough and
warmer. Later the sun will probably come out again. This evening we
shall be at Old Hamilton and then a new anxiety--how to get to St.
Michael.

Just had a little walk over the roof--my roof, for the other two
passengers prefer to sleep in the gassy, dingy room below, though how
they can stand it is beyond my medical ken. It is four short steps
long, or five half steps in an oblique direction.

Every object in distance appears magnified all along the river for
many days now. An old snag will look like a boat or a man, hills look
higher, a boat looks much more pretentious than she proves to be on
meeting.

Firs and spruce have now completely disappeared, also forests of birch,
etc., are reduced to brush both on flats and lower parts of hills.
Very large portion of the hills in distance just greenish with grass
and lichens, not even a brush.

9.45 a. m. Meet the _Matanuska_ bound upward. Looked from distance like
an ocean steamer; from near, just a lumbering, moderate-sized river
boat with a barge in front. But a whole lot better than ours.

The scenery has become monotonous. The gray river, although only one
of the "mouths," is broad, and the country is all low. Nothing but
bushy or grassy cut banks on the right, and mud flats, "smoking" under
the wind, to low banks on left. It is a little warmer and the warm sun
shows itself occasionally, but I still need the wrapping of a double
blanket. The wind luckily is with us and the waves not too bad.

Noon. Passing "Fish village"; a few huts and tents.

No "camps" here outside the few villages; just an endless dreary waste
and water.

New Hamilton--a few native huts only now--no whites.

Reach Old Hamilton--about a dozen houses with a warehouse, a store of
the Northern Commercial Co., and a nice looking but now unoccupied
school.

Here the governor told me there was somewhere a skull waiting for me,
and the storekeeper would tell me of it. But when we arrive there are
only two or three natives to meet us. The storekeeper, who is also
postmaster, is said to be sick in bed. He is supposed to have an ulcer
or some other bad thing of the stomach. So we go to his house and find
him in bed, with a lot of medicine bottles on a table next to him. Is
alone; no wife. Shows no enthusiasm in seeing me, though heard of my
coming. Reads letters--no attention to me. Gets up--I ask him about his
illness--answers like a man carrying a chip on his shoulder. Goes to
store to attend to mail, and barely asks me to follow. I wait in store;
he finishes mail and goes out--orders the Eskimo present out gruffly,
and to me says, "You may stay in the store; I'll be back." But I wait
and wait, and finally decide the man for some reason is unwilling
to help me. Asked him before he went out about the _Matanuska_, but
he told me she might not be back from Holy Cross in a month, trying
doubtless to discourage me to stay. On going toward the _Agnes_ I find
him sitting on a log and talking to a couple of men from a tugboat that
has arrived--just talk, no business, judging from their laughing. So
I go on the boat, write a few words to Mr. Townsend of the Bureau of
Fisheries, who makes this place his headquarters, and with some feeling
hand this to the man, telling him at the same time that plainly he does
not wish to assist me in any way. This, of course, rouses him; he gets
red and says a few lame words, ending with, "Do you think I would touch
any of them dam things or that I would let any of my men (natives)
touch them? Not on your life!" So I leave Old Hamilton, for he is the
only white man there now. But the place had other distinctions. Until
recently, I am told, they have had a teacher, a young girl, who in her
zeal had the natives collect all the burial boxes with their contents
and had them all thrown into the river. Not long after she accomplished
that she left. The storekeeper told me that "If I want them so bad I
could pick them up (skulls and bones) along the river where the water
washed them out after the teacher threw them in." Luckily there were
not many "Old Hamiltons."

We met here a boat from St. Michael with Mr. Frank P. Williams, the
well-known postmaster and trader of St. Michael, who comes for the
two men, my fellow passengers. We get acquainted and, to escape the
gases of the _Agnes_, I go with them. The boat is heavier and free
from fumes, though without accommodation. At about 7 p. m. we arrive
at Kotlik, at the mouth of the river--an abandoned wireless station,
a store, and four tents of natives. But the old wireless building,
now the storekeeper's house, is the dwelling place of a clean white
man, Mr. Backlund, who is now "outside," but with whom Mr. Williams
is in some partnership; so we occupy the building. Outside the wind
has risen to half a gale and there are squalls of rain and drizzle.
The _Agnes_ has to "tie to," as she would be swamped in the open. My
boxes and bedding, which were on the roof of the _Agnes_, are soaked,
though the contents will be dry. So both boats are fastened to a little
"dock," and we soon have fire in the stove, supper, and then--it is 11
p. m.--a bed, not overclean, somewhat smelly, but a bed and free from
mosquitoes, rain, wind, and cold.

July 10. Up at 6.30. Outside a storm and rain--just like one of the
three-day northeasters with us, and cool. Both boats were to leave, but
are unable to do so. I find that Mr. Williams's tug will come back here
and go to St. Michael on the 13th, so arrange with Mr. Williams to take
me and leave the _Agnes_ for good. This partly because I learn of two
graveyards near, one 1½, the other 4½ miles distant.

After lunch, rain for a while ceasing, I set out for the nearer burial
place. This is already a tundra country--treeless and bush-less flats
overgrown with a thick coat of moss, into which feet bury themselves
as in a cushion, and dotted with innumerable swampy depressions with
high swamp grass. Walking over all this is very difficult--lucky I have
rubber boots. Even so, it is no easy matter, except where a little
native trail is encountered.

The graveyard, belonging to the now abandoned little village above
Kotlik, consists of only about half a dozen adult graves. These consist
of boxes of heavy lumber laid on a base raised above the ground
level, and covered with other heavy boards. Some of the burials are
quite recent. Open three older ones. In two the remains are too fresh
yet, but from one secure a good female skeleton, which I pack in a
practically new heavy pail, thrown out probably on the occasion of the
last funeral. Then back, farther out, to avoid notice, through swamps
and over moss, and with a recurring wind-driven drizzle against which
my umbrella is but a weak protection.

Reach home quite wet and a bit tired. Have to undress and, wrapped in a
blanket, dry my clothes and underwear about the stove.

Nothing further this day and evening--just wind and heavy low clouds
and rain.

July 11. Up at 4.40. Weather has moderated. The _Agnes_ left at 4
and Mr. Williams's boat, due to favorable tide, must soon go also.
Breakfast, and all leave me before 6.

Yesterday we brought up my needs--i. e., collection of skeletal
material--to the few natives here, explaining to them everything, and
they do not object in the least. One of them, in fact, is to take me
to-day to the more distant cemetery in a rowboat and help me in my work.

My man, after being sent for, comes at a little after 7. He is a
good-looking and well-behaving Eskimo of about 35. He brings a
good-sized tin rowboat--a whaling or navy boat probably; but "he leaks
a whole lot." The oarlocks are not fastened to the boat, the plate of
one is loose, and the oars are crudely homemade of driftwood and pieces
of lumber fastened on with nails; in one the shaft is crooked, while
the other is much heavier. But we start, with the sky still leaden and
gray but no wind and calm water. I row and he paddles; then he rows
and I paddle. We carry but the camera, a little lunch, a heavier coat
each, and a box and two bags for the specimens. We pass a number of
broods of little ducks, the mother prancing before us until the young
are in safety, and there are several species of new kinds (to me) of
water birds, some of which fly right above us, examining us. In the
distance we see a big abandoned dredge, then a few empty log houses and
"barabras" on the bank of a stream and the edge of the tundra. This
is Pastolik, our destination. There is no one anywhere near, an ideal
condition for work, if work there'll be. And there will be--for almost
immediately upon landing I see, beginning at a few rods distance on the
tundra, a series (about 50) of old graves, in all grades of mossiness
and preservation. A few are, we later find, quite late, but the
majority are old--60 years and over according to information given by
the natives of Kotlik. They do not, except perhaps the few late ones,
seem to belong to anyone still living. Yet "Pashtolik," as they wrote
it then, used to be a place of some importance in the Russian times,
and even later.

We settle in an empty native house, and I start investigation. The
older graves are found widely spread in several clusters, but a few are
isolated at a distance.

The graves are all aboveground and resemble in substance those along
the lower Yukon (Bonasila and downward). They consist of a base of
small logs or splits; a rude box about 3 feet long by about 2 feet
wide, of heavy, unpainted, unnailed, split boards; four posts near the
four corners; a cover, unjoined, of two to three heavy split boards;
two crosspieces over this, at head and base, perforated and sliding
over the upright posts, and a few half splits (smaller drift logs split
in two) laid over the top of the crosspieces.

On the first cover lies as a rule a stone--generally a piece of a slab
or a good-sized pebble--unworked, though now and then showing some
trace of use. The pebble is generally broken.

When the grave is opened there is usually over the body, as a canopy
on a light frame, a large (probably caribou) skin--rarely birch bark.
Neither covers or envelops the body but simply forms a covering over
it, with some space between it and the body. The body lies flexed, on
left or (rarely) right side, with the head toward (or near) the east
(same as at Bonasila). It is often covered with or enveloped in a
native matting. There are but few traces of clothing on women; none on
men. And very seldom is there anything else in the coffin.

Some of the oldest graves were found tumbled down and could not be
examined. The moss and roots envelop the bones, and it is a tough job
to get them out; also they eat the bones and destroy them. Even in the
older boxes, however, the downward part of the skeleton--generally the
left--is, due to moisture, usually in much worse state of preservation
than the upper.

Children have been buried in large native wooden dishes and these were
in some cases placed on the top of adult graves, but more generally
about these, or even apart.

Many household articles, from matches and pails to dishes, alarm
clocks, lamps, etc., are placed upon the ground near the more recent
dead. Excavation would probably recover here many older objects, though
wood decays.

The wind has died down and the flat is as full of mosquitoes as a
Jersey salt meadow, and there is an occasional gnat. They bite, and,
having been almost free of the pest at Kotlik, I failed to take my
"juice" along, so just have to do the best possible. The gnats enter
even the eyes, however.

Work as never before. Decide to utilize the rare opportunity to the
limit, and to take the whole skeletons, not merely the skulls, leaving
only the few fresher ones and those that are badly damaged. A great
Sunday; burial after burial; opening the wooden grave--taking out
and marking on the spot bone after bone--fighting mosquitoes all
the while--and packing temporarily in any convenient receptacle.
Fortunately there are quite a few boxes and pails and oil cans on the
spot, left by the dredge people and the few natives who evidently
sometimes come to the place. At about 2 eat lunch--coffee (the Eskimo
put what was for three cups into about two quarts of water, so there
is but a suggestion of coffee), raw smoked fish for me and eggs with
bacon (left over from breakfast) for my companion, and on again until
about 5 p. m. or a little later. Last two or three hours, however, work
with some difficulty. A gnat bit me in an eyelid, or got into my eye,
and that has now swollen so that I can hardly see with it. My Eskimo,
however, is about all I could wish. He just looks at me working in
a matter-of-fact way, and carries the filled boxes, or looks around
for something I could take with me, and even helps on a few occasions
with the bones, finding evidently the whole proceeding quite right
and natural. Brings me, among other things, an old copper teakettle,
but to his wonder I do not want it and leave it. I find a fine large
walrus-ivory doll and a handsome decorated "kantág" (wooden bowl),
besides smaller objects, and also a large piece of a poor quality clay
pot (no pottery now), with a fragment of a decorated border as on the
lower Yukon.

Pack up, we load on the boat--lucky now she is so spacious--get into
the shallow river--the tide has run out--push the boat out and start
for home.

Thus far we had but slight drizzles. But the clouds now grow heavier,
and as we have much farther to row than this morning, due to the low
water, we are caught by showers. The last mile or so we have to hurry,
see a big rain approaching. My man pushes her with a pole while I row
all I can, with both hands, with the heavy oar. Of course the whole
population of Kotlik has to see our arrival. And more, too, for in our
absence a schooner came in with wood and a number of the natives. They
talk, but no one is either angry or excited. We two carry the boxes,
pails, etc.--grass covered--into the house; how lucky I am now alone.
Inside I remove the wet grass from them--the bones, too, are somewhat
wet--then pay my Eskimo $5, which again is taken as a matter-of-fact
thing, without thanks, but he well deserved the amount, even if I rowed
a full half.

It is 9 p. m. My man comes again, we have a modest supper, he
some left-over meat and I again the smoked fish, which I feel is
strengthening me as well as agreeing with my stomach, and then
to rest, quite earned to-day. Seldom have done as much in a day.
Thirty-three graves collected, with over twenty nearly complete
skeletons, and all restored so that I had to take considerable care not
to go again into some already emptied. But this place should be dug
over. The tundra in a few years swallows up everything on the surface.
It literally buries or assimilates bones and all other objects, the
moss and other vegetation with probably blown dust covering them very
effectively. Finding anything below the surface and that even a foot
or more, as was actually experienced, means something quite different
under these conditions than it might elsewhere.

Monday, July 12. Slept fairly well and feel refreshed, but the eye
still badly swollen. The Eskimo believe, I think, I got it from the
bones. Yet they are quite sensible--a marked mental difference between
them and the Yukon Indians.

Breakfast before 7--cereal, raw smoked fish, and coffee. Then pack.
At the store buy empty gasoline boxes, but no nails to be had, and no
packing. Lunch at 1--macaroni, raw smoked fish, sauerkraut, coffee;
then pack again, fix boxes, break old ones to get nails, even pull a
few unnecessary ones from the boards of the house, go see my man's
wife, a hopeless consumptive, and at 6 through with all except
cleaning. Another fair work-day, 12 tightly packed boxes. Then clean
up, burn rubbish, and ready for departure early to-morrow.

Supper--macaroni, raw smoked fish, greengage plums, a little
sauerkraut, and coffee. Then a little walk outside, watch Eskimo women
and children jump the rope (hilariously, but awkwardly), and go in to
catch up with my notes. Nobody scowls at me, so that although they
probably fear me as a "medicine man" they are not at all resentful for
what I did yesterday. They are grown-up children, much more tractable
than the Indians. But otherwise they show so much in common with the
Indian that the more one sees of them the more he grows drawn to the
belief of the original (and that not so far distant) identity of their
parentage. It seems the Eskimo and the Indian are after all no more
than two diverging fingers of one and the same hand; or they were so
a bit farther back. Mental differences there are, yet these are no
more than may be found in different tribes of the Indians or different
groups of other races.

Tuesday, July 13. Rise a little after 6. Eye still sore after Sunday's
gnat and sweat and dirt; must use boric acid frequently. An Eskimo
actually said yesterday it was a sickness from touching the bones. A
little breakfast--have no more salmon strips, so just cereal, canned
plums, and coffee. And then with the help of two young Eskimo carry my
spoils and baggage on to the tug, which has come for me. By about 7
start. Good-by Kotlik, what little there is of it.

At 9 arrive at Mr. Williams's reindeer camp farther up the coast. There
are five tents and two small log houses of natives--the herders with
their families, dogs, and fish racks; and three whites, Mr. Williams,
owner of the boat and of most of the herd of about 8,000 animals;
Mr. Palmer, of the United States Biological Survey; and a Dane, Mr.
Posielt, here for the Biological Survey of Canada. All are already at
the corral some distance over the hill, branding, counting, etc., the
great reindeer herd, which belong to several owners.

A short walk along the shore brings me in sight of the herd. The
animals can be heard grunting a good distance off. The herd is so large
and so compact that it looks like a forest of horns. The animals keep
on moving in streams, but remain in the herd. They go to the shore to
drink some of the salty water, instead of salt. All is of interest,
even though the branding, the cutting off of big slices from the ears,
and castration, is rather cruel.

At lunch, for the first time, reindeer meat, a select steak. It is
tender and decidedly good. Has no special flavor and is poor in fat,
but tender and good.

Afternoon, once more to the corral, and then various things, including
a photograph of a little impromptu native group.

Supper once more on reindeer meat. This time prepared as a sort of a
stew with onions--again very good. But we were to leave after supper
for St. Michael and I see no intention to that effect. Instead they all
go once more to the corral to continue the work until about 11 p. m.
So I have to settle for the night, with some hope that we may leave in
the morning. We sleep four side by side in a tent 10 feet wide. Luckily
they had a spare clean blanket or two, and but one of the three snores,
and he like a lady; also the weather has cleared and is warmer, so the
night is fairly good.

Wednesday, July 14. Morning bright, calm. Breakfast, and all hurry off
to corral without even any explanation--just a few casual words, from
which I understand that we shall not go. So I write whole forenoon,
though feeling none too good about the delay. Had I my own boat, as
one should have in this country, all would be different. As it is I am
utterly helpless. At lunch speak to Mr. Williams; and though not much
willing, he half promises that we may go to St. Michael to-night.

Afternoon. Walk 8 miles along the beach, to a cape and back, looking
in vain for traces of human habitation and collecting along the beach
what this offers, which outside of some odd, flat, polished stones is
but little. Come back near 6--soon after supper--and hear with much
satisfaction that, after all, we will go to-night to St. Michael.

                                 RÉSUMÉ

So ends the Yukon and its immediate vicinity. What has been learned?

1. The great and easily navigable river, extending for many hundreds of
miles from west to east, could not but have played a material part in
the peopling of Alaska, and quite probably in that of the continent,
and all human movements along it must have left some material remains.
It seems, therefore, a justified inference that the valley of the Yukon
harbors human remains of much scientific value.

2. Such remains, judging from the present conditions, were left
exclusively along the banks of the river, on the flood-safe elevated
platforms of the banks, and especially about the mouths of the
tributaries of the Yukon of those times.

3. But the banks and mouths of the past are seldom, if ever, those
of to-day. The river, with its currents, storms, and ice pack every
spring, is changing from year to year. It is ever cutting and eroding
in places, and building bars and islands or covering with flood silts
in others. In many stretches no one can be sure where the banks were
500 or 1,000 years ago, not to speak of earlier periods.

4. The banks and islands of to-day, therefore, are for the most part
recent formations, in which it would be useless to expect anything very
ancient. And there is nothing like the successive ocean beaches at Nome
and elsewhere, which would guide exploration.

5. The right hilly side of the river alone seems to offer some hope of
locating some more ancient sites and remains; yet it is quite certain
that the river ran once far to the left, for all the vast flats on that
side are of its construction; so that the more ancient remains of man
may lie in that direction. But there everything is, from the point of
view of archeology, a practically unexplorable jungle and wilderness,
and there is no one there who might make accidental discoveries.

6. It would seem that the best hope for the archeologist along the
Yukon, so far as the more ancient remains are concerned, lies along the
tributaries of the stream, and that particularly at the old limits of
the more recently made lands.

7. Nevertheless the banks of the Yukon as they are now are not wholly
barren. Up from Tanana, at the Old Station, probably about Ruby and
Nulato, about Kaltag and the Greyling River, at Bonasila, Holy Cross
and Ghost Creek, and at the Mountain village, Dog village, Russian
Mission, and doubtless a number of other sites, they contain both
cultural and skeletal remains that, if recovered, will be invaluable to
the anthropological history of these regions.

8. The line of demarcation between the Indians of the Yukon and the
Eskimo, outside of language, is indefinite. Traces of old Eskimo
admixture are perceptible among the Indians far up the river, and the
cultures of the two peoples in many respects merge into each other;
while among the Eskimo of the lower river and farther on there are
physiognomies that it would be hard to separate from the Indian.
Whether all this means simply extensive past mixture, or whether, as
would seem, the Alaska Indians as a whole are nearer physically to the
Eskimo than are the tribes in the States, remains to be determined.
Among the Athapascan Mescalero Apache, who have reached as far south as
New Mexico, a somewhat Eskimoid tinge to the face, especially in young
women, was by no means very unusual 25 years ago when I studied this
tribe. This problem will be touched upon again in this volume.

9. All along the Yukon, from near Tanana (Old Station) to the mouth
of the river, in the Indian and in the Eskimo region, there prevailed
the same type of winter house, namely, a largely subterranean room
with a subterranean tunnel or corridor entrance; and also a similar
type of summer dwelling, formerly a skin, now a canvas, tent. The
winter dwellings were built within of stout posts and covered with
birch bark and sod, looking from outside much like the present-day
Navaho hogan; while the pits left by them remind one of the
southwestern "pit dwellings," the kashims of the Pueblo kivas. As a
hogan, so these largely subterranean dwellings along the Yukon had a
smoke-air-and-light hole in the center of the top, a fireplace in the
middle of the floor, and benches (of heavy hewn planks in the north)
along the sides. Each village, furthermore, had at least one larger
structure of similar nature, the "kashim," or communal house. All this
may still be traced more or less plainly on the dead sites along the
Yukon, and houses as well as a kashim of this type were seen at Kotlik
and Pastolik, at the mouth of the river.

10. The native industry of the river presents also much similarity,
though there are differences.

Pottery, of much the same type and decoration, was made at least as far
as the lower middle Yukon.

Stone implements were made and used all along the river, and were much
alike. But the double-grooved, cupid-bow ax of the Yukon Indian, hafted
in the center and used for chipping rather than cutting, is lower down
replaced by the same ax, in which one end has been broken off (or
has not been finished), and which is hafted as an adze; or by oblong
quadrilateral flat axes which have not been found up the river.

The peculiar and apparently very primitive stone industry of Bonasila
is, it seems, just a development of local conditions--nature of most
available stone, and essentially hunting habit of the people that
resulted in many skins which called for numerous scrapers. Nevertheless
the site deserves a thorough further exploration.

There was apparently not much basketry along the river, the place of
the baskets being taken by the birch-bark dishes of the Indian and the
kantág or ingeniously made wooden dish of the Eskimo part of the river.

Canoes among the Yukon Indians were mainly of birch bark, while the
Eskimo had mainly skin canoes.

11. Neither the Indians nor the Eskimo of the Yukon practiced
deformation of the head or of any other part of the body, or dental
mutilation. The Indians as well as the Eskimo occasionally pierced the
septum of the nose, for nose pieces, while the Eskimo cut on each side
a slit in the lower lip for the introduction of labrets. The Eskimo cut
their hair short in a characteristic way, reminding strongly of certain
monks; the Indians left their hair long. But at Anvik the Indians both
cut their hair and wore labrets. They also used the wooden dish.

12. From all the preceding it appears that there must have been long
and intensive contacts between the Yukon Eskimo and Indians; that,
through war or in peace, they became mutually admixed; and that there
were mutual cultural transmissions.

13. No further light for the present could be gained on the origin,
antiquity, or early migrations of the Yukon Indian. It was determined,
however, that he represents but one main physical type, and that this
type is the same as that of the Indians of the Tanana and most other
Alaskan Indians of the present time.

14. Exceptional skeletal remains were washed out from the bank at
Bonasila. They are of Indians (?), but appear to be not those of the
Yukon Indian of to-day. They present a problem which is to be solved by
further exploration of the site.

15. The Eskimo of the lower parts of the river are in general better
preserved and more coherent than the Indians. They are more tractable
people and are taking more readily to work and civilization.

16. These Eskimo show, in the majority of cases, fairly typical Eskimo
physiognomies. But their heads are not as those of the northern and
eastern members of the race. The head is less narrow, less high, and
has but now and then a suggestion of the scaphoid form that is so
characteristic of the Greenland, Labrador, or northern Eskimo cranium;
also, the angles of the jaws are less bulging and the lower jaws
themselves do not appear so heavy.

17. The Yukon Eskimo burials are in all essentials much like those
of the Indians up the river. Here again a cultural connection is
very evident, in this case there having in all probability been an
adaptation of methods by the Eskimo from the Indians.

18. Archeological prospects along the delta flats occupied by the
Eskimo appear very limited.


ST. MICHAEL

Thursday, July 15. In the morning, after a good trip, reach St.
Michael--quite a town from a distance, with many boats on the shore in
front of it; but soon find that it is largely a dead city and ships'
graveyard, not harbor. With the gold rush over, and the Government
railroad from Seward to the Tanana, men and business have departed.
Before the summer is over most of the large buildings and the fine
large boats are to be demolished, and there will be left but a lonely
village.

Unload my collections on the old dock. The postman kindly comes down
from his place, which, with Mr. Williams's store, is far up on the
hill above the harbor, the boxes are weighed and stamped for the
parcel post, and relieved of them I go to the hotel and spend the day
in visiting the teacher, the marshal, Mr. Williams's store, where
I see a whole lot of recent Eskimo ceremonial masks decorated with
colors and feathers, and the wireless station to send a message to
the Institution. All native (Eskimo) character is almost gone from
the place, what remains being mainly civilized mix bloods; and also
little, if anything, remains to be collected, particularly now when all
vacant land is thickly overgrown with grass and weeds. An occasional
skull appears, one having been seen recently on the beach and one on
Whale Island, but there is little besides, though things could be found
doubtless by excavation.

Items of interest in Mr. Williams's store, and also in that of the N.
C. Co., are various articles cut handsomely by the Eskimo from walrus
ivory, both fresh and "fossil" (old and nicely discolored). There are
beads, napkin rings, hairpins, cigar and cigarette holders, and other
objects, generally exceedingly well made and decorated. It is, of
course, well known that the Eskimo are very apt in this work; it is
not, however, so well known that every island or village has certain
specialties and types of decoration. This is so true that an observer
before long can tell in many instances just where a given article has
been made.

The fossil ivory industry is, it was soon learned, becoming a serious
detriment to archeological work in these regions; of which, however,
more later.

During the day I find that a small boat, the _Silver Wave_, belonging
to Lomen Bros., will leave St. Michael for Nome that same evening. As
this suits me very well I engage a berth on the boat, help to get my
baggage on deck over a broken landing place, and get ready to depart.

At 6 leave St. Michael. The _Silver Wave_ is a tub--too short--am
told if it were of proper length they would have to have more help.
Result--very unsteady. Fortunately the weather is fair, and the
captain gives me a berth in his cabin. I had originally a stateroom,
right in the back, with three bunks or beds, so small that one could
barely get into the beds; but there came two mix-breed women with a
girl and so they turned me out and put me in the "hole"--seven bunks
in an ill-ventilated cabin under the deck in the stern of the ship.
She is only about 60 feet long by about 15 broad. As it is I have a
bunk in what would have been a well-ventilated little cabin, had it
not been for rough weather which came on later in the night and which
necessitated the closing of the window.

Friday, July 16. The rougher weather came and the boat began to pitch
and roll. Luckily I slept for the most part. At about 6.30 the captain
called me to breakfast with him. I got up rather groggy from the sea,
but managed to wash my face and get to the little messroom, where the
cook started to bring eggs, bacon, coffee, etc.--and then I had enough
and had all I could do to reach my bunk again without getting seasick.
I was kept on the verge of it until after 10, when we arrived off Nome.

This, however, meant no relief. There was no bay, no dock, no shelter
for even such a small boat, and so we anchored a few hundred yards off
the shore along which stretch the long line of unpainted (mostly),
weather-beaten frame dwellings of this northern capital.

By this time I barely keep my feet, but they lowered a heavy rowboat,
and several of us--there were four other men passengers--are helped
to tumble in. I get back, and to steady myself catch hold of the
borders of the boat, only for this the next moment to be dashed against
the larger boat with my hand between. It was almost too much, the
seasickness and added to it the very painful hurt. Fortunately the
fingers were not crushed, just bruised badly--they might easily have
been mashed to a pulp.

They row us in and we tumble out on the sand, and there is no one to
receive anybody or take any notice. However, after a while there comes
accidentally an old two-seated Ford. Three of us crowd in, leave the
few bulkier things we brought along on the beach unguarded, and are
driven to the other end of the town, to the Golden Gate Hotel.

This is a big old frame building, out of plumb in several directions.
There is no one in the spacious lobby. However, after a time some one,
not looking much like a proprietor--more like a groom at work--comes
out from somewhere and without much ado shows us each to a room. Mine
smells musty, old sweat and blankets and mould, and looks out on a
dilapidated tin roof--must ask for another. Finally get one "front" for
$3--the other was only $2.50. Musty too, but fairly large, and with a
double bed with, at last again, clean covers.

Unshaven--in the khaki worse for rain and work--with fingers so sore
they can not bear a touch, feverish, and head still dizzy--I go to
lunch. On my way stop at Coast Guard building--no one there; at the
Roads Commission--office empty; at the Customs--not a soul. But at the
courthouse they tell me where Judge Lomen sometimes lunches, and so I
go there. It is near by--nothing here is far distant--and so I soon sit
at Mrs. Niebeling's, a justly famed Nome's "for everybody," at a clean
table and to a big civilized dinner. Order reindeer roast--find it this
time, in my condition, not much to boast of--one could hardly tell it
from similarly done beef--and begin on the coffee when in comes a young
man, asks me if I am the doctor, and introduces himself as Mr. Alfred
Lomen, the judge's son; and in a minute or two in comes the judge
himself, a kindly man of something over 70. It all makes me feel a lot
better, though still weak. Have rest of lunch together and talk, but
do not get very far in anything that interests me; but the judge takes
me to the Catholic Fathers here, who have an orphanage somewhere near
where I want next to go, and leaves me with Father Post. The father is
kindly, but himself does not know much, and so makes arrangements for
me to meet next day Father Lafortune, who works among the Eskimo.

Then I go once more to the Coast Guard building and meet Captain
Ross, in charge. The _Bear_, I learn, has just arrived here, and is
soon going north. She is my godsend, evidently. So Captain Ross sends
me over to see Captain Cochran. The meeting is good, and I have a
promise to be taken to the cape and some other stations. But the _Bear_
goes first to coal at St. Michael, and then will make a visit to St.
Lawrence Island. So I propose to go to Teller first, see what I can of
the Chukchee-Eskimo "battle field" near there, and be taken from there
by the _Bear_. The priests give me some hope for getting there over an
inland route, but later on tell me one of the boats of the orphanage
which is located in that region is away and the other has broken down,
so that there will be no possibility of making the trip through the
Salt Lake and to Teller. But the _Victoria_ (the Seattle boat to come
to-night) will go to Teller. Unfortunately, if weather is rough or
there are no passengers she will not stop at Nome, so all is again
uncertain. The _Silver Wave_ goes northward next Monday, but I have a
dread of her. All of which is put down merely to show slightly what an
explorer without a boat of his own may expect in these regions.

Nome, Saturday, July 17. Poor night again--it surely seems to be the
fashion in Alaska. The _Victoria_ came at night (or what should be
night). The ramshackle big frame hotel, with partitions so thin that
they transmit every sound, got about 40 guests, and next room to mine
came to be occupied by two women who had visitors, female and male,
were taken out for a ride after 12 and returned about 2 a. m. One of
them, or their visitor, had a perpetual vocal gush, the others chimed
in now and then, and a strong male voice added the bass from time to
time, with old Fords noisily coming and going outside, and people
going up and down the stairs. So sleep for some hours was out of the
question. And there was nothing to do about it.

After breakfast went to meet Father Lafortune, a Catholic missionary
priest to the Eskimo, who speaks their language well and who promised
to accompany me to their habitations; and together we spent the
forenoon on one side of the town, among the natives of the Diomedes,
and most of the afternoon on the other end among the people from King
Island. It was a good experience, resulting in seeing a good many of
the Eskimo and getting some information, a few photographs, and quite
a few old specimens. Then we went to the parsonage, where I got a few
good photos from Father Lafortune's collection. He is a matter-of-fact,
always ready to help, natural he-man, rather than a priest and teacher,
and a great practical helper to the natives, who all are his friends.

Also saw Judge Lomen, arranged for lecture to-morrow, saw Captain Ross
about the _Bear_, and various other people; but there is not much to be
obtained here about old sites and specimens. Telegraphed Institution,
and also to the Russian consul at Montreal for permission to visit the
Great Diomede Island. Evening packing. Natives bring walrus ivory, some
excellent pieces. Weather whole day cloudy, threatening, occasional
showers, cool but not cold.

Sunday, July 18. Heavy sleep 10 p. m. to 7 a. m., regardless of a
typewriter going in the next room and the women (now quieter, however)
on the other side.

Forenoon spent in talking with people and attending a little service,
for the natives mainly, at the Catholic Church of Fathers Post and
Lafortune. Poor, simple, but sincere and interesting.

After lunch more consultations, then a visit to bank where they smelt
gold dust (even to-day), and then a lecture on "The Peopling of
America," at the courthouse. Well attended, and many came to shake
hands after. Then a dinner, with examination of a number of interesting
and valuable specimens, at Judge Lomen's. Among other objects there is
a duplicate, in ivory, of the broken double ax from the Yukon, the two
grooves and even the break being well represented. Evening--examination
of specimens at Reverend Baldwin's. Cloudy, cool, threatening, but
stormy weather abating.


ABOUT NOME

Due to the delay with the _Bear_, the next few days until July 23 were
spent at and about Nome. They proved more profitable than was expected.
Numbers of interesting specimens were found in the possession of some
of the dealers, and more of those of scientific value were secured
either through gift or by purchase for the National Museum. These
collections consisted of objects of stone--i. e., spear points, knives,
axes, etc.--but above all of utensils, spear points, effigies, etc.,
some of them of remarkable artistry and decoration, were made of walrus
ivory that through age has turned "fossil."

Among the stone objects were several axes made of the greenish, hard
nephrite which came from the "Jade Mountain" on the Kobuk River. The
objects from fossil ivory came principally from the St. Lawrence
Island, the Diomede Islands, Cape Wales, unknown parts of the nearer
Asiatic coast, and here and there from the Seward Peninsula.

A large majority of these objects are now collected by the natives
themselves, who assiduously excavate the old sites, and are sold at
so much per pound as "fossil ivory" to crews of visiting boats or to
merchants at Nome and elsewhere, to be worked up into beads, pendants,
and other objects of semi-jewelry that find ready sale among the whites.

In addition a certain part of these objects is reserved by the natives,
especially those of the Diomede Islands, and worked up by themselves.
The more striking the coloration of the ivory, the more desirable it is
for the beads, etc., and the less chance of the object, regardless of
its archeological or artistic value, to be preserved. The most artistic
pieces, nevertheless, are usually disposed of separately, bringing
higher prices than could be obtained for beads.

In this way hundreds of pounds collectively of ancient implements,
statuettes, etc., are recovered each year from the old sites on
both the Asiatic and the American side of the Bering Sea, and are
cut up, their scientific value being lost. Most of the fossil
ivory, fortunately, consists of objects which, though showing man's
workmanship, are of relatively little scientific value; nevertheless
it was seen repeatedly that specimens of real archeological value and
artistic interest would be destroyed if their color and texture made
them suitable for some of the higher-priced jewelry.

The Eskimo, as repeatedly found later, have not the slightest
hesitation about excavating the old sites, and whatever they can not
use, which as a rule includes animal and human bones, and in fact
everything else except stone tools and ivory, is left in the excavated
soil and lost. The amount of destruction thus accomplished by the
women, children, and even men each year is large and promises to grow
from year to year as long as the supply lasts. This means that unless
scientific exploration of these old sites is hastened there will be
little left before long to study.

The fossil ivory trade has become such that many of the officers and
the crews even of the visiting vessels, including the revenue cutters,
engage in buying the ivory from the natives and cutting it up in their
spare time into beads and other ornaments. A captain of a well-known
boat who with his crew visited in the summer of 1926 a small island on
which there is an extensive frozen refuse heap containing many bones
and tools of the natives who once occupied the place, exclaimed, "Gad,
there's $50,000 of ivory in sight."

The boat crew took away about "2 bushels" of it, or all that could be
removed from the extensive frozen pile. I saw some of this ivory later,
all cut up, but with a number of the pieces still showing old human
handiwork, and some beads made of other parts of the lot were brought
later to my office in Washington.

If American archeology and ethnology are to learn what they need in
these regions it is absolutely essential that they take early steps
for a proper exploration of the old sites, besides which every effort
should be made by the intelligent traders, missionaries, teachers, and
officials to save the more artistic and characteristic pieces of human
workmanship in the old ivory, and bring them with such data as may be
available to the attention of scientific men or institutions. It would
in fact be of much value, and the writer has suggested this to the
Governor of Alaska, to establish a local museum at Nome, where such
objects could be gathered and saved to science.


ABORIGINAL REMAINS

The coast of which Nome is now the human center, up to Cape Wales,
together with the nearer islands, was occupied by the Maiglemiut
(Zagoskin), or Mahlemut (Dall et al.) subdivision of the Eskimo. They
were a strong group, and great traders. During the Russian times the
Aziags, from what is now the Sledge Island, with probably others from
the coast, visited yearly for trading purposes as far as St. Michael
and the Yukon, while the Wales people were known to trade up to fairly
recently as far as Kotzebue, both at the same time having trading
connections with Asia.

Of these natives, with the exception of those at Wales, there remains
but little. On Sledge Island there are only two dead villages, and on
the coast from Port Clarence to far east of Nome there is not a single
existing native settlement. A few remnants of the people live in Nome,
but they have lost all individuality.

Dead sites are known to exist from west to east, at Cape Wooley; at
the mouth of the Sonora or Quartz Creek; at the mouth of the Penny
River--some natives are said to still go to fish there in summer; at
the mouth of a small river 3 miles east of Nome; both west (a larger
village) and east (a small site) of Cape Nome; and 18 miles east of
Nome (the "Nook" village).

Most of these sites have been peopled within the memory of the oldest
inhabitants.

Thanks to the kind aid of the Reverend Doctor Baldwin, I was able to
visit several of the sites east of Nome, more particularly the Nook
village, and it was still possible to find two skeletons and a skull on
these sites.

The Nook site must have been one of considerable importance. It
was an especially large village, or rather two near-by villages,
in one of which I counted upward of 30 depressions, remnants of
the semisubterranean houses with vestibules, such as are elsewhere
described from the Yukon.

Here a clear illustration was had of what changes on sites of this
nature may be wrought in a short time by the elements.

Fifteen years ago, I was assured, there were still many burials and
skeletal remains scattered along the coast near the Nook village.
Then in 1913 came a great southwestern storm, which at Nome ripped up
the cemetery and carried away some coffins with bodies, scattering
them over the plains in the vicinity. Since that storm not a vestige
remains of any of the burials or bones near the large Nook village.
On prolonged examination I found nothing but sands overgrown with the
usual coast vegetation. Everything had been carried away or buried and
the pits of the houses were evidently themselves largely filled in.

The burials on this coast west of Golovnin Bay were evidently all of
a simpler nature than those on Norton Sound and the Yukon. There is
plenty of driftwood, but for some reason this was not hewn into boards
with which to make burial boxes. The dead were merely laid upon and
covered with the driftwood, though this was done, as later seen on
Golovnin Bay, rather ingeniously. One of the two skeletons found near
Cape Nome, an adult male, lay simply among the rocks on the lower part
of the slope of the hill.

Old sites, though often small, may be confidently looked for along all
these coasts in the shelter of every promontory, at the mouth of each
stream, and on the spits which separate the ocean from inland lagoons
(as in the case of the Nook village).


NOME--BERING STRAIT--BARROW

Friday, July 23. Received word to be on the _Bear_, which arrived
yesterday, before 10 o'clock this morning. Due to the shallowness of
the water the boat, though drawing only 18 feet, stands far out from
the shore and makes a pretty sight, looks also quite large in these
waters where there is nothing above a few hundred tons.

Am soon at home. The captain's cabin, with three beds, is nicely
furnished, but has the disadvantage of being situated at the very rear
of the vessel, above and beyond the screw. There is another passenger,
a teacher-nurse for Barrow. I take the isolated bunk on the right, and
this becomes my corner for the next six weeks. Toward 11 a. m. the wind
begins to freshen, soon after which we leave for St. Lawrence Island.
After midday the wind increases considerably, waves rise, and the
_Bear_ begins to plunge. Before the afternoon is over the wind blows a
half gale and we are being tossed about a great deal. Have to take to
bed. The boat is being tossed up and down and in all directions. Resist
in vain, then at last become ill, and this passes into a long spell of
about the worst seasickness I have ever endured. There were a good many
sick on the _Bear_ that evening and night.

Saturday, July 24. Wind and water slowly quieting down, and the boat
is approaching Cape Chibukak off St. Lawrence Island, where is located
the main of the two villages of the island, known as Gambell. The
_Bear_ gradually approaches to within about a half mile of the shore,
where we anchor. The water here is quieter, and before long a large
baidar (native skin boat) is shoved off from the land and approaches
our boat. This is the usual procedure when the sea permits. There are
no docks, and closer in there is danger from rocks and shallows. There
are a number of natives in the boat, together with the local teacher,
and each one, including the teacher, carries a smaller or larger bag
of fossil ivory, various articles made of fresh ivory, and some other
objects, for sale to the officers and crew of the boat. They climb on
our deck, where they evidently feel quite at home, and in a few minutes
carry on a busy trade and barter with everyone. I succeed in getting
a fine fossil ivory pick; but the main supply had evidently been
preempted and I only see it later in the possession of the officers,
who kindly let me have what is of less value to them and more to
science.

Some of the Eskimo bring, in addition to the ivory, other articles
for sale--fish, birds, and the meat of the reindeer, which are for
the ship's messes and constitute very welcome additions to the diet.
Besides all this the natives also frequently bring skins of foxes and
even bear, which also find buyers. In return the boats carry off the
mail and such supplies as they have obtained by barter or purchase.
These visits are mutually enjoyable as well as profitable occasions,
and afford one the opportunity of seeing many of the natives, even if
prevented, as in this case, from visiting their village.

The Eskimo impress one here as in every further locality as a lively,
cheerful, and intelligent lot, good traders, and advancing in many
ways in civilization. The latter is perhaps especially true of the St.
Lawrence Eskimo, who from what was seen now and later must have had
especially good missionaries and teachers as well as a considerable
freedom from bad influences from the outside.


SAVONGA

About 40 miles east-southeast of Gambell is the second and smaller
village of the St. Lawrence Island, known as Savonga, which was the
object of our next visit. It was here that we were to buy two or three
reindeer carcasses, the animals being killed and dressed for us by the
natives in an astonishingly short time. The little village is prettily
situated on the green flat of the elevated beach. It consists of less
than a dozen modern small frame dwellings. One of these, that of the
headman, Sapilla (who regrettably died during the following winter),
is of two stories--a unique feature for an Eskimo dwelling in these
waters. Here we were visited by three boats and the previous scenes
were repeated, only, due to the proximity of a rich old site, there
were more objects of old ivory.

The captain made me acquainted with Sapilla, whom I found remarkably
white-man-like in behavior. Then the ship doctor, not feeling very well
after yesterday's storm, filled my pockets with tooth forceps and I was
taken to the shore, to see the women and children who would not venture
out and to attend to any tooth extraction that might be needed.

We were considerably farther from the shore than even at Gambell,
but I was sent on one of our motor boats and so it did not take long
to land. Upon landing we came to bright and clean and smiling little
groups of women and children, full of color in their cotton dresses,
and I was soon in one of their houses. All these dwellings were built
by the Eskimo themselves, and it was a most gratifying surprise to find
them as clean and wholesome as any similar dwelling of whites could
be. Moreover, these houses were furnished with stoves, chairs, tables,
crockery and other utensils exactly as if they were those of a good
class of whites, with the smell of the seal, which as a rule is so
clinging to and characteristic of the Eskimo house, barely perceptible.

It was a busy and interesting hour that I spent at Savonga. I saw
probably all the inhabitants that were at home; pulled five teeth--the
teeth of these quite civilized people are no more as sound and solid
as were those of their fathers and mothers--and found and purchased
cheaply many smaller objects of fossil ivory, which they excavate from
a near-by old site.

These objects are obtained from an old village located on the coast
about 4 miles farther east, on or near the North Cape, visible from
our boat. The natives excavate in this site as far as it thaws every
summer, and find many objects. They, moreover, make an occasional trip
to the two little rocky Punuk islands located about 12 miles south of
the East Cape of the St. Lawrence, which, though accurately charted by
the Russians as early as 1849, yet until the summer of 1926 remained
practically unknown. On one of these islands there is now known to
exist an extensive frozen refuse heap, containing large quantities of
old ivory implements as well as other objects of scientific interest.

The land visit was a great tonic after the wild and mean preceding
night, and I did not relish at all the _Bear's_ whistle calling us
away. What a great thing it would be if a revenue cutter could for just
one season be given to science!

Sunday, July 25. Left St. Lawrence 9.30 last night, sea quieting. We
are now passing, on our right, King Island, isolated rocky mass. Day
fair, cool, water getting smooth.

About 50 miles north one can now see plainly Cape Prince of Wales (pl.
5, _a_), and to the left, hazy, the two Diomedes. We are now 95 miles
from St. Lawrence. On really clear days one could see from here even
the Asiatic heights. Therefore, from the latter on a clear day one sees
the Diomedes, the Cape, the highlands beyond, and King Island, while a
little farther south there is on such a day a good view from Asia of
the St. Lawrence Island. All this was in good weather easily reached
from Asia and must have been utilized from the earliest time in passing
onward from one continent to the other.

We can now see also much of the coast in the direction of Teller and
the York Mountains behind.

From hour to hour there is growing on one a profound appreciation
that the Bering Sea was a most favorable amphitheater of migration,
particularly from the less hospitable Asia eastward into America. And
practically the whole trend of native movements to this day is from
Asia toward America.

Later in the day, now a fine, bright summer day, arrive off Wales.
Here again anchor far out. Last year the _Bear_ grounded here and
our captain is apprehensive. Wales is a straggly village--or two
villages--located on a large, flat sandy spit, dotted with water
pools, and projecting from the Seward Peninsula toward Asia. Near by
are old sites, probably of much archeological value, and in these for
some weeks now excavations have been carried on by Dr. D. Jenness,
of the Victoria Memorial Museum of Ottawa. Here also is located an
exceptionally educated and observant teacher, Mr. Clark M. Garber.

A big umiak comes to us with many natives bringing the usual trade, and
on it, much to my pleasure, are both Doctor Jenness and Mr. Garber.
Doctor Jenness asks to go with us to the Little Diomede to do some work
there. He has had encouraging experience here, finding evidences of
occupation dating many centuries back, and has collected some valuable
specimens, including a few with the fine old curved-line decoration.
Mr. Garber gives me some valuable information about the skeletal
remains of this place and engages to collect for me, who can not leave
the boat, a few boxes of these specimens, which promise is fulfilled
later.

The natives are a jolly and sturdy lot, even though they bear, and that
since their earliest contacts with whites, a rather bad reputation.
That this is founded in some fact, at least, is told us in the annals
of the Russians, and is also shown by the little structure on the
hillside off which we are anchored. This has a tragic and at the same
time quaint history. It is the grave of a missionary Doctor Thornton,
who was killed, we are told, by two local young fellows. These were
apprehended, sentenced to die, and were to be shot by their relatives,
which all evidently found quite just. On the appointed day they were
taken out to the burial ground, helped to prepare their burials, one
asked yet to be allowed to go to the village to get a drink, went and
returned, and then both were shot. The executioner of the boy who went
to get the drink is said to have been his uncle.


THE DIOMEDES

Late that night we leave slowly for the Diomede Islands, the nearer
of which is only about 18 miles distant. The two islands lie, as is
well known, just about in the middle of the Bering Strait. One is
known as the larger or Russian, the other as the smaller or American
Diomede. The boundary line between Russia and the United States passes
between the two. Both islands have been occupied since far back by the
Eskimo. To-day there is one small village on the American and two small
settlements on the Russian island.

July 26. Up at 5.40, breakfast 6, and off in one of our staunch motor
boats, with Jenness, for the Little Diomede. Countless birds flying in
streams about the island.

The island is just a big rock, with barren flat top and steep sides,
covered where inclination permits with great numbers of larger and
smaller granite bowlders. There is neither tree nor brush here. The
village, if it deserves that name, with a school, occupies an easier
slope, facing the larger island across a strait seemingly about a
mile broad. There are but a few dwellings, due to local necessities
and conditions built above ground and outside of stone. One that was
entered showed a dark fore-room, a storage attic, and a cozy somewhat
lighted living and sleeping back room, entered through a low and narrow
entrance. The houses seem to be built on old débris of habitations, and
there are refuse heaps, one of which was eventually worked in by Doctor
Jenness, though without much profit.

The bowlder-covered slope above the village was the burial ground of
the natives. (Pl. 5, _b_.) Unfortunately most of the skeletal remains
have been collected by a former teacher and then left and lost. With
Doctor Jenness and the present teacher, himself an Eskimo, we climb
from bowlder to bowlder and collect what remains. The work is both
risky to the limbs and difficult in other respects. The large bowlders
are piled up many deep; and there being little or no soil, there are
all sorts of holes and crevices between and underneath the stones. Deep
in these crevices, completely out of sight or reach, nest innumerable
birds (the little auk), and their chatter is heard everywhere. But into
these impenetrable crevices also have fallen many of the bones and
skulls of the bodies that have been "buried" among the bowlders, and
also doubtless many of the smaller articles laid by the bodies.

The burials here were made in any suitable space among the rocks. The
body was laid in this space, without any coffin and evidently not much
clothing. About it and on the rocks above were placed various articles.
We found clay lamps, remnants of various wooden objects, the bone end
pieces of lances, and finally one or two pieces of driftwood to mark
the place. Here the bodies decayed and what was left had either tumbled
or was washed by rain into the crevices. It was suggested, however,
that much may have been taken by dogs and foxes. Some of the skulls
and here and there one of the larger bones remained, to eventually be
covered by moss and eroded. With the help of Doctor Jenness and the
teacher I was able to find five male and seven female crania in fair
condition, which will be of much value in the study of this interesting
contingent of the Eskimo.

No evidence in the graveyard among the rocks of any great antiquity,
nothing more than perhaps a few scores of years. But traces of older
burials would surely be completely lost among the rocks, though they
may lie in the deep crevices and holes where they can not be reached.

Upon return am treated to a cup of good hot coffee--never can get
a real hot cup of coffee on the boat--and excellent bread, made by
the Eskimo wife of the teacher; and see his family of fine chubby
children. Can not help but kiss his girl of about 10--she is so fresh
and innocent and pretty. Obtain also from the wife of the teacher a
good old hafted "jade" ax, though she hesitates much to part with
it--it used to belong to her grandmother; and from the teacher
himself a number of interesting articles in old ivory. Leave Doctor
Jenness. Have learned to like him much, both for his careful work and
personally, in our short association; and at 11 a. m. return to the
boat.

Cold, but calm and sunny. Sit on boxes at the very end of the good old
_Bear_. See Asia, the two Diomedes, and Seward Peninsula, all in easy
reach, all like so many features of a big lake. Pass around Greater
Diomede.

There never could have been any large settlement on the Diomede
Islands--they are not fit for it. The Great Diomede has just two
mediocre sites, which are occupied now each by about half a dozen
dwellings. A small old settlement, a few stone houses, has also once
existed, I am told, on the elevated top of the larger island opposite
the Little Diomede. On the latter only the one visited--everywhere else
the steep slopes or walls come right down into the water, and there
is even no landing possible (or only a precarious one at best) except
where we landed. The old natives of the Little Diomede are said to have
believed that another village had once existed farther out from the
present site and that it has become submerged. The evidence cited (told
by the native teacher) is not conclusive, and no indication of such
a settlement could be seen from the beach. But in front and possibly
beneath the native houses, in the old refuse, there may be remnants of
older dwellings.

Just passed from Monday to Tuesday, and then back to Monday, all in a
few hours--the day boundary. We are now just north of the Bering Strait
and see all beautifully, in moderate bluish haze.

A grand panorama of utmost anthropological interest. A big lake, scene
of one of the main migrational episodes of mankind. Sea just wrinkling
some, day calm, mostly sunny, mildly pleasant, with an undertone of
cold.

How trivial feel here the contentions about the possibilities of
Asiatic migrations into America. There can be no such problem with
those who have seen what we now are witnessing. Here is a great open
pond which on such days as this could be traversed by anyone having as
much as a decent canoe. As a matter of fact it has always been and is
still thus traversed. (Pl. 6, _a_.) The Chukchee carried on a large
trade with America, so much so that we find the Russians complaining
of their interfering with their trade. (Pl. 6, _b_, _c_.) The Diomede
people stand in connection on one hand with the northeastern Asiatics
and on the other hand with the whites as far as Nome, where most of
them go every summer to sell their ivory and its products and bring
back all sorts of provisions. And in the same way the King Islanders
come every summer to Nome, on the east end of which, as the Diomedes on
the west, they have their summer habitations. (Pl. 7, _a_, _b_.) Only
a year or two ago, the natives tell, an Eskimo woman of St. Lawrence
Island set out alone in a canoe with her child to visit a cousin on the
Asiatic coast, 50 miles distant, and returned safe and sound after the
visit was over.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 5

_a_, Cape Prince of Wales from the southeast. (A.H., 1926)

_b_, Village and cemetery slope, Little Diomede. (A.H., 1926)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 6

_a_, Asiatics departing for Siberia from the Little Diomede Island.
(Photo by D. Jenness, 1926)

_b_, "Chukchis" loading their boat with goods on Little Diomede Island,
before departure for Siberia. (Photo by D. Jenness, 1926)

_c_, "Chukchis" loading their boat with goods on Little Diomede Island,
before departure for Siberia. (Photo by D. Jenness, 1926)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 7

_a_, Eskimos from East Cape arriving at Nome, Alaska

_b_, East Cape of Asia (to the southward). (Photo by Joe Bernard)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 8

A GROUP OF WOMEN AT SHISHMAREF

(Taken at 2 a. m. by A. H., 1926.)]

To bed dressed--the captain tells me we shall soon be at Shishmaref,
on the north shore of the Seward Peninsula, and that he will have me
called, if I want to visit the village.

Awake 11.30 p. m. At 11.45 word comes that we have arrived and a boat
is getting ready. On deck in five minutes. Of course it is still
light--there is no real night any more in these regions.

Have a cinnamon roll--the night specialty for the crew on the
_Bear_--and a bowl of coffee. The natives, two boats full, already
coming, and a fine full-blooded lot they show themselves to be. They
are accompanied by Mr. Wegner, a big, pleasant young teacher.

Leave natives trading and set off in ship's boat. The _Bear_ is
anchored about 1⅓ miles off. Fortunately fairly quiet or we should not
be able to go ashore. Teacher and a young English-speaking native go
with us. We have the launch and the skin whaleboat. Anchor first off
shallow beach and transfer into the skin boat for the landing.

Tuesday, July 27. It is about 12.30 a. m. Many native women,
youngsters, and some men gather about us at the school. Talk to
them--explain what I want, which is mainly skulls and bones--all quite
agreed. Take two young natives, some bags, and proceed to where they
lead me.

Find, about half a mile from the present village, a big and important
old site, which existed up to the white man's time. But dunes on
which burials were made and house sites have been largely graded
by a fox-farm keeper and trader, Mr. Goshaw. He had gathered many
skulls--shows me a photo of two rows, at least 40--will not tell what
he did with them. Says he sent "many things to the Smithsonian," but
can give no details, "and to the universities," but will not mention
which. Also "buried a lot." Bad business.

Gathering what is possible from the débris thrown out by the Eskimo
working for the fox farm, we proceed rapidly from mound (dune) to
mound. Find burials still on the surface in situ--i. e., nearly
buried by the rising carpet of the vegetation--but skulls gone. Many
of those on remaining heaps imperfect, but at least something can be
saved. Collect all that is worth collecting. See Mr. Goshaw--get but
little out of him. Donates a few archeological specimens of no great
value--has no more.

We hurry on to the other village and burial ground, almost a mile west
of the present settlement. Find only a small pile of bones, with one
whole male skeleton of fairly recent date.

Then back, as fast as possible, the Indians carrying the bags with
bones, and load on boat. My shoes and feet have long since become
thoroughly wet, after which Mr. Wegner loaned me wool socks and native
shoes that protected my feet. But now these must be left behind and I
have to get into my wet, cold shoes--socks too wet. Officers in a hurry
to get back. It is now 3.00 a. m.; the sun rose about 1.30. Pay my men,
change shoes, photograph women (pl. 8) and then men--all pleasant and
willing. See a few poor articles of archeological nature--not worth
getting; and after a hearty handshake with the teacher we take off
through the somewhat rougher water to the whaleboat, then on to the
motor boat and the ship. Arrive with six bags of specimens, reaching
boat just a little after 4. Sleepy captain meets us, but luckily shows
no grudge, though this stop and his loss of sleep were essentially
for me. Though it would seem they could have readily waited for our
going ashore until morning, or have given me a little more time at the
Diomedes, which would have brought us here later. Am too much awake now
and worked up to sleep. Lie down a while but fully awake. Total sleep
last night 2½ hours. But it was worth it, except for the vandalism.

Pack--inadequate boxes--until 3.30 p. m. Whole collection made last
night put in order. But back and knees stiff. Weather two-thirds fair
(my own estimate), some wind, sea choppy. Lie down but can not sleep.

At 5.30 off Kotzebue. Due to shallowness of water must anchor far out
of sight. At 6 go to land in ship's larger launch. Waves rather bad,
much tossing about and spray, have to get behind the canvas canopy
that is raised over one seat. It is 15 miles from where the _Bear_ is
anchored to the Kotzebue village--over two hours of (at times) rather
violent tossing up and down and sidewise. Run for a part of the time
not far from beach--a number of isolated, orderly fish camps--lots of
fish drying. Wonder at not getting seasick again--it must be the open
air or difference of movement.

Kotzebue village lies around a point on a not very high, flat bank,
facing the bay of three rivers (Selavik, Kobuk, Noatak). As we approach
I count over 50 clean tents of Eskimos, about 15 frame houses and
stores, and many skin and other boats on beach or in water. Many
natives hurry to meet us.

Go ashore. Thomas Berryman, the trader, with the local judge and two
or three other whites come also to meet us. After getting acquainted
inquire about possibility of exploring the Kobuk and reaching the
Koyukuk and Yukon. But all that I learn is uncertain and discouraging.
There are but few native villages on the river, all Eskimo; and higher
up the water is rapid, necessitating much hauling of the boat by
the natives, which is costly; upon which follow three or four days'
portage. The trip would cost much, and no loads over 40 pounds to a man
could be carried.

Only a few old sites hereabouts are known by those whom I have a chance
to ask. Say there is a somewhat important one at Cape Krusenstern.
Mr. Berryman has from there a big stone (slate) lance. He also has a
huge piece of serpentine, over 80 pounds in weight, with a moderate
depression in top and some cutting (old native work), said to have
been used as a lamp. Wants to keep this and spearhead, but donates an
old rusty tin box full of smaller things and promises to obtain skulls
for us; and I get a similar promise from a man (probably one of Mr.
Berryman's storekeepers) from farther up the country.

Later meet here Mr. Chance, the school superintendent of these parts;
a young and not prepossessing man, but one who steadily improves on
closer acquaintance. Learn from him of a skeleton recently dug out from
the ground under the schoolhouse.

See many natives, all Eskimo, good looking, clean, and kind. Some
mix bloods, but the majority pure. Good to moderate stature, well
proportioned though not fat body, medium to somewhat lighter brown
color, physiognomies less typical Eskimo than hitherto and often
strongly like Indian. Too late and dusky to photograph.

Go to see the teacher and find that the skeleton he dug out was placed
by him in an open box, pushed as far as possible under the rafters of
the floor of the schoolhouse and covered with gravel and earth. There
are four of us--start hurriedly digging for it, remove with shovel, hoe
and arms about a ton of the "filling"--and can not reach the box. It is
10 p. m., the wind rising, officer comes and urges me to get back to
the boat. So must leave with promise that the box will be gotten out
and await me on our return from the north. Have by this time decided
the best policy will be to go with the _Bear_ as far as she may go.
Load empty boxes, some packing--and one of the young white men who have
been digging with us runs up from the distant schoolhouse announcing
that they "struck" the box. Urge him to run back as fast as he can
and get it. Luckily the postmaster and a good many others who came to
see us off delay us; also the transfer of the mail and boxes to the
larger boat. Finally, after a good many anxious looks, I see at last
the two young men appear, one with a wheelbarrow on which is the box
of bones. Bones look not very old, and Eskimoid at first sight, but
take box, which contains a good deal of gravel, carry it through the
very interested Eskimo to the boat, all get in, hurried good-bys to
everybody, and we are off.

A two and a half hours' trip once more, and the last more than half of
it very rough. Such tossing and dancing and dipping and twisting, with
the spray, fortunately not cold, shooting high up at times, or an angry
wave splashing over. But the boat is large and strong and so eventually
we reach the _Bear_, which was completely out of sight until about an
hour after we started, and in a few minutes off we go to the north. A
little fruit, bed, and know nothing more until near 7 the next morning.
It was a long day--over 25 hours in a stretch without a wink. Yet did
not feel bad; the work and good nature of people about and those met
with, with some success, are good tonics.

Wednesday, July 28. All of us have to consult the calendar to be sure
of the day and date.

Sort and wash Berryman's specimens--a nice lot of little things, mainly
of stone, slate, flint, etc.

Then go after my bones. Find the spray made the earth and gravel in the
box thoroughly wet, so that it is necessary carefully to excavate all
the bones. Find a male, rather short-statured, typically Eskimo. May
have been a burial of the Russian times. Wire for all details. Must
dry bones. Meanwhile try to catch up with notes. Toward evening expect
to be in another village. Weather fair. Have passed the Arctic Circle
during night, but it is not cold nor in any way strange here. Sunset
coloring lasts long and passes into that of sunrise--no real night, no
stars; but moon seen late at night and far to the south.

May this weather continue, for in rough weather landing at any of these
places--there are no harbors whatever and always shallows and bars and
shoals--would be extremely risky or impossible and my work, for which
I feel ever more eager, would suffer. If only I could see all worth
seeing, and stay a little longer when I find what I am after.

We reach Kevalina. It is just a schoolhouse and about seven sod houses.
Only a native school teacher, from whom I do not get much.

No remains or old site very near, but an old village, with "good many
things," exists on the Kevalina River within a few hours' distance (by
canoe) from Kevalina.

Natives bring old adzes (mounted by them, however), and a harpoon
handle from the old site--bought.

Spend rest of day in washing, sorting, and packing specimens.

After supper am invited to the officers' room and given by Lieut. M.
C. Anderson a fine selection of old ivory harpoon heads and other
things. Many of these are from the old site on the St. Lawrence Island,
and especially from little isles off that island named Punuk. All this
strengthens the importance of those islands for regular exploration.

Thursday, July 29. In anticipation of being called up again during the
night, at Point Hope, which is evidently another important spot for
archeological exploration, for the natives are said to bring many old
articles for sale each year, I do not undress and go to bed earlier,
but have, because of the anticipation, closeness of air, and a cat
jumping on my face just as I am dozing off, a very poor night; and no
call came after all. In the morning there are cold showers, the sky is
much clouded, and the wind keeps on blowing from the north-northwest,
threatening, the officers say, to drive the ice toward this shore,
which would be bad for us. It is cool and disagreeable. We have
anchored to the south of the spit on which stands the village and can
not unload or get ashore. Nor can the natives come here to us.

The village consists of a schoolhouse, a little mission (Rev. F. W.
Goodman), an accumulation of houses, semi-subterraneans, and tents. A
few tents are also seen a good distance to the right--a reindeer camp.
Otherwise there is nothing but the long, low, sandy, and grassy spit
projecting far out into the ocean.

Later. The north-northwest still blows, and so the ship has to anchor
to the south of the long spit on the point of which is the village. Of
this but little can be seen, just a few houses, and it seems near and
insignificant.

The captain is evidently waiting again for the natives to come out, and
I am helpless. Finally, however, a boat is made ready and I am taken
to the shore with the mail. This is piled on the beach, and with two
officers we start to walk toward the dwellings opposite to us, which
are the mission. Heavy walking in the loose sand and gravel of the
steep beach, and as we ascend it is seen the buildings which seemed so
near to the shore are about a mile or more away.

A man coming toward us--the missionary, Archdeacon Goodman. Tell him
my mission; says he has some business on the ship, but will come, and
there will be no trouble in helping me to a "good deal of what I want,"
which sounds fine.

In the absence of the missionary, go to see the teacher. The school is
over a mile in the direction toward the point. Find him at home and
helpful. In 15 minutes, with his aid, engage two native boys, give two
sacks to each, and send them out over the long flats (old beaches) to
pick up every skull and jaw they can find. They go cheerfully, and we
depart shortly after to see Mr. La Voy, a movie-picture man, who has
been staying here for some time making movie pictures of the natives,
and at the same time collecting all the antiquities they could bring
him. We go to see his collection, but find him not home; has gone for
mail. The rare mail in these regions is, of course, the most important
of events. So back to the school (a good many rods from the sod house
part of the native village to the left), and then--it is now near
noon--to the mission, a good mile from the school and more from the
village.

Road staked on one side with whale ribs about 2 rods distance. Flats
on both sides show many parts of bleached human bones. They are a part
of the old extensive burial grounds. Unfortunately, about two years
ago the predecessor of the present missionary had most of the skulls
and bones collected and put in a hole in the new cemetery, now seen
in the distance to the right of the mission. This new burial place
is surrounded by a unique whale-rib fence. Reach mission, but no one
there. Does not look good. Try one building and door after another--no
one--learn later that the missionary has no family. Twenty minutes to
1. Nothing remains but to go back to the school for some lunch. So
leave my raincoat, camera, and remaining bags (expecting to do main
work on the buried bones) and hurry back to the school, which I reach
just after 1, and, thanks to their late clock, just in time for a
modest lunch, but with a real hot cup of coffee. Queer that the only
genuinely hot cups of coffee I got on this journey were furnished by
Eskimo--for Mrs. Moyer, the wife of the teacher, is an Eskimo.

Then comes the mail and Mr. La Voy, and I go to see the latter's
collection.

Find a mass of old and modern material, of stone, bone, and wood.
All the older things are from an old site on the point. It is an
important and large site, as found later (at least 50 houses), which
the natives (getting coffee, tea, chewing gum, chocolate, candy,
etc., for what they find) are now busy digging over and ruining for
scientific exploration. Women dig as well as men, confining themselves
to from 2 to 3 uppermost feet that have thawed; but even thus finding
a lot of specimens. Bones, of course, and other things are left and no
observation whatever on the site is made. It is a pity.

Mr. La Voy donates some stone objects, mainly scrapers, and then I go
with a native he employs to the "diggings." Find much already turned
over--one woman actually digging--but very much more still remaining.
Examine everything--site evidently not ancient but of the richest--and
then return with the woman to get some of her "cullings."

On the way am called by a man whose sod house (semisubterranean) we
pass. We sit on the top of his house and soon establish a regular
trading place, with a big flat stone as a counter. One after another
the native women and men bring out a few articles, good, bad, or
indifferent, lay them on the stone, I select what I want, lay so much
money against the articles, and usually get them. Everybody in the best
of humor. The natives surely enjoy the sport, and so do I, if only I
was not hurried. Thus trade for at least an hour until my pockets are
bulging. Then once more to the school and once more to the mission. In
the latter get my things, as nobody is there yet, Doctor Goodman having
doubtless been delayed on the boat. I hear that there are prospects
of both him and Mr. La Voy going north with us on a little vacation.
Send the coat with spare bags to the school by a native I meet, while I
go to look at the rib cemetery and photograph it. Find the bones have
been interred in its middle and a low mound raised over them, so there
is for the moment nothing to do there. Therefore go over the plain a
little farther, picking up a few odds and ends, a damaged skull, and
finally, from a fairly recent burial box, a fine skull with its lower
jaw. Then attempt to pass a pool of water and sink in the mud to above
my rubber boots, so that the icy water runs in, wetting me thoroughly,
and gurgling henceforth with every step in the shoes. Try to get these
off but can not. The feet must be congested. So spill out all I can by
raising the feet, and then do some hard walking which takes away the
cold.

Evening, though no dusk approaching. Sit on gravel to empty more
water from shoes, but can still hardly get one off. And just as I
succeed I see, across another long pool, two men, one with a cap of
an officer of the ship, waving their arms, evidently signifying to
me that the time is up and I am to return. Call to them to wait.
Impossible to make them hear me or for me to hear them. All here is
elusive--enchanted-like--distances, sounds. Finally they stop. I catch
up with them after passing a broad ditch, and learn that the ship
is about to sail and they are waiting for me. My coat, however, and
collections are still at the school, over a mile away, so once more
it is necessary to hurry to the school and then back to the ship. So
things go when promises go wrong and one is alone under a constant
apprehension.

The boys collected four bags full. Moreover, they undertook to bring
them toward the boat, and are bringing the last two just as I approach
the beach. There are Eskimos on the beach with dog teams and sledges
waiting to cart off what was unloaded from the ship. Photograph one
of the teams and then on into the boat and to the _Bear_ with the
four bags, a box full, part of another bag, and all pockets full of
specimens. Only to learn when we reach the boat that both Doctor
Goodman and Mr. La Voy are going with us and that the former after
supper is still to go and get his things from the mission. I have no
boat to go back with, and so lose several hours.

July 30. Gloomy morning, windy, cool, sea not good. Do not feel easy.
But need to pack. One of the officers, Boatswain Berg, lends me his
short sheepskin coat, and I pack up to lunch. The sea is getting worse.
Have but little lunch and soon after have to take to bed or would again
be sick. To avoid the pitching of the end of the boat where my bed is
I go to the dispensary and lie until 6. From 6 on the sea moderates
somewhat, so that I am able to have a little supper. After that go to
officers' wardroom, play two games of checkers with the doctor, get
some more specimens from two of the officers, and retire.

When I boarded the _Bear_ it became plain to me that I must earn as
much as possible the sympathetic understanding of my work by both the
officers and the crew, and so I gave two talks, one to the officers and
the other to the men, telling them of our problems in Alaska, of the
meaning and value of such collections as I was making, and of other
matters that I felt would be useful on this occasion. As a result I had
throughout the voyage nothing but the friendliest feelings of all and
their cooperation. Sincere thanks to the officers and the crew of the
_Bear_, from the captain downward.

Saturday, July 31. At 4.30 a. m. suddenly a heavy bump forward,
followed by several smaller ones. Ship rises and shivers. Have struck
ice floes. Going very slowly. Further bumps at longer or shorter
intervals and occasionally the ship stops entirely. Sea fortunately
much calmer.

Up at 7. We are in a loose field of ice--aquamarine-blue ice covered
with hillocks of snow, all shapes and sizes, as after a hard winter on
the Hudson, only floes mostly larger and especially deeper.

Soon after breakfast hear walrus and seals had been observed on the
ice, and shortly before 9 the captain comes down hurriedly to tell us
they have just spied--they now have a man in the crow's nest up on the
foremast--a white bear.

Run up--everybody pleasurably excited--to the front of the ship. See a
black-looking head of something swimming toward a large ice floe about
500 yards in front of us. As we approach the head reaches the floe,
then a big yellowish paw comes out upon the ice, then the shoulders,
and finally the whole bear. The officers hurry forward, each with a
gun. Soon men all there. Some one fires. Bear stands broadside watching
us. The bullet goes way over. Then other shots--still missing--water
spouting high in many places. Bear bewildered, does not know what to
do, lopes off a little here and there, stops again, looking at us, and
now--we are less than 100 yards from him it seems--a bullet strikes him
above the loin--we can see him jerk and the red spot following. He
runs clumsily, but other shots follow, some seemingly taking effect,
and then he drops, first on his belly, then, twisting, turns over on
his back. A few more movements with his paws and head, and he lies
still, quite dead. Can not but feel sorry for the poor bear, who did
not know why he was being killed, and had no chance.

A motor boat is lowered and goes to get him. They find on the floe the
remains of a seal on which he fed. Tie a rope to him, drag him into the
water, tow him to the _Bear_, which has stopped and where all stand
on the bows in expectation and with all sorts of cameras, and prepare
to hoist the brute aboard. Captain says it is the second case of this
nature in 20 years. Ropes are fastened about the big body, attached to
a winch, and the big limp form is hauled up, though not without some
difficulty, due to its size and weight. All stand about him, examine,
photograph. They will let the natives at Wainwright skin it and give
them the flesh. It is a middle-sized, full-grown male. It shows only
two wounds, the one in the side and one where the bullet passed through
his mouth, knocking out one of the canines.

Cold--must put on second suit of underwear. Very gloomy, but storm
abated. No land in sight--above Cape Lombard all is flat. It rains in
that direction. We meander among the floes, now and then bumping and
shivering. Should a wind come up and blow the ice landward we would be
in danger of being closed in and stopped or delayed.

Evening. Arrive off Wainwright. Village recent--older site 20 miles
away. People the usual type of Eskimo. Visit the village, but soon
return.

After supper the boat stops--fear the ice. Another passenger is added
here, Jim Allen, the local trader, with a bagful of white fox skins and
a bear skin. Conditions becoming a bit crowded.

Sunday, August 1. No movement to-day. They are apprehensive of the
ice, and so we stay here, the one place of all where there is nothing
for me to do. Of course there are the natives, but with the constant
uncertainty as to when we shall start and a lack of facilities I can
not do much with them.

The weather is quiet but still cloudy, though the sun may possibly peep
out. Ice seen in the offing. Would be more interesting to be in it, as
yesterday. The bear has been skinned, cut up, and we shall try some of
its flesh at noon. Rest of day quiet but still mostly cloudy, though
occasionally a little of pale, lukewarm sun. At 3.30 give lecture
to the officers and fellow passengers on the subject of evolution.
Seems quite appreciated. Reading, writing, and walking the deck fills
the time. Ate a little of the bear meat--somewhat tough, otherwise
not much different from reindeer or even beef. If better prepared
(especially roasted on coals) would be quite palatable.

Yesterday there were several flurries of snow, none to-day, but air
cold enough to make a long stay outside disagreeable.

Toward evening Captain announces that he is going to try to reach
Barrow, about 80 miles northeastward, and soon after supper we start.
He also tells me we may be there at or not long after midnight and so
to be ready, for the boat will be unable to stop more than an hour or
two. As the only place where a few skulls and bones may be found is
about 1½ miles outside of the village and it takes a good 30 minutes to
make a mile over the tundras, I shall have to rush once more. But I am
promised a man to help me.

August 2. With clothes on, and anticipation, slept poorly. Ship stopped
about 1 a. m. and I imagined we were off Barrow. But on rising find
that we have gone on and then backward again, encountering ever more
ice. It is cold and foggy outside, and cloudy and gloomy. We now
meander among the big floes, now and then bump into one until the whole
ship heaves and shivers, and occasionally the siren, stop for a while
to diminish the shock. We are now on way back to Wainwright. If we only
could go as far back as Point Hope, where there is so much of interest.
I might have stayed over, but would surely have reproached myself for
missing the remainder of the coast.

Back off Wainwright, cold, windy, sky gloomy as usual.

Late in the afternoon go with the trader to land, to visit the site of
an older village, about a mile down the shore. Walk along the beach.
Cold wind, raincoat stiffens. Walrus meat and blubber chunks (slabs,
etc.) along the beach at several places, also a large skinned seal.
Traces, as one nears the village, of worked stones, but all waterworn
and no finished objects. At one place in bank, about 3 feet deep, a
layer of clear blue ice about 20 inches thick--strangely pure ice, not
frozen earth or even inclusion of any dirt or gravel.

Village site small, along the edge of the low (about 10 feet) bluff.
Count remains of eight dwellings. Some animal bones, but nothing else
on surface or in vicinity. Burial place not seen. Companion says there
is nothing.

A simple supper at the trader's, prepared by his Eskimo wife, and good
company: Doctor Smith, of the Geological Survey, with two of his men;
Jim Allen, the storekeeper, a big, good-hearted fellow; La Voy, the
big, active movie man, who knows all the gossip and enjoys telling
it with embellishment; and two men of the trader. Menu: Soup, boiled
reindeer meat, underdone biscuits, coffee.

After supper go to a meeting at the school, where our missionary,
Doctor Goodman, is to talk to the natives. Large schoolroom crowded.
I talk through an interpreter--a serious disadvantage--on cleanliness.
Fine study for me on the many present, though like elsewhere on such
occasions they are mainly women and children. Good many Indianlike
faces, though cheekbones more prominent and more flatness between them.
But hair, low foreheads, eyes (except in children where they are more
superficial, less sunken, and with more epicanthus than in Indians),
lips, and other characteristics the same as in Indians. Some of the
faces are strong, many among the younger pleasant, some of the young
women handsome. A moderate number of mix bloods, even among the adults.
Color of skin in full bloods medium to submedium brown, exactly as in
full-blood Indians along the Yukon, but cheeks more dusky red.

The behavior of these people is in all important points radically
that of the Indian, but they are more approachable and open and
matter-of-fact people. More easily civilized. Good mechanics. Less
superstitious, more easily converted to white man's religion. And good
singers. Their singing at the meeting in the schoolhouse would have
shamed a good many whites in this respect.

Except for epidemics, I am told, these natives would more than hold
their own in numbers. They are fecund, if conditions are right.
Sterility is rare. They marry fairly young.

August 3. Still standing, though we had to pull out farther south and
away from the shore. The water was pretty rough and I had to go to bed
again, but weather moderated.

We are in touch with the world through the ship's radio, but get more
trash--same all through the radio service in Alaska--than serious news.
Spend time in reading, talking; some play solitaire games; captain and
Allen play cribbage. Deck too small for any outside games, even if it
were not so cold.

Ice floes floating about us, now scarce, now thicker; water splashing
against them and wearing them out into pillared halls, mushrooms, and
other strange forms. Due to their snow covering, the water upon them,
so far as it results from melting, is sweet, and in it swim many small
fishes. It snowed a bit again to-day.

August 4. No change, except that the sea is somewhat calmer, and for a
while we have once more seen the sun, but it was hazy and just mildly
warm, while the same wind, from the sea, even though now subdued, has
an icy undertone. It snowed a little this morning.

Thursday, August 5. Sea calm, atmosphere hazy, but the wind has turned
at last slightly offshore and the sun penetrates through the mists,
until it conquers and shines, warm and bright if not wholly clear, once
more. Ice visible only on the horizon. At 7.15 we start on another
effort to reach Barrow.

Pass Wainwright, and all is well until after lunch, when fog (though
fortunately not thick) develops and the floes increase until they are
as thick as at the first attempt in this same region. Heavy bumps and
strains follow one another and the boat must often go very slow or
even stop altogether. Sometimes the heavy ship just staggers from the
impact, but the floes are generally broken by the shock and swirl away
out of our way, or scraping the ship pass to the rear. All aboard show
new interest and energy. The forced stops and inaction were dulling
even to the crew.

File a wireless to be sent from Barrow. It will reach Washington
to-morrow after we shall have started on the return journey.

Two dogs on board fight fiercely. An officer, the owner of one, trying
to separate them is bitten by his own through a finger.

A marine, in swinging the heavy lead with which they are constantly
sounding the depth, gets the cord caught about his hand and suffers a
bad sprain with fracture.

The captain's little black cat, Peter, helps to entertain us by his
antics. No wonder sailors in their often monotonous existence like all
sorts of mascots.

Friday, August 6. Of course our dates got mixed, and more than one has
to consult the calendar and count. The _Bear_ had to turn back once
more last night; ice too heavy. Anchored, however, not far to south.
This morning very cloudy, rainy, chilly, but wind from near to east,
and so from about 6 a. m. we are once more laboriously on our way.
Now and then a bump, heave, stagger, then again the screw resumes its
cheerful song. We are passing through the most dangerous part of all
the coast here where many vessels have been lost, sometimes whole small
fleets of whalers. But very few come here now--we have seen but one
since leaving Kotzebue. They call this stretch "the boat graveyard."

Saturday, August 7. Stalled, about 30 miles from Barrow. Anchored in
the protection of a great grounded flat, in a clear pond of water,
with ice all around it, but especially seaward, where the pack seems
solid. Some open water reported beyond it, but wind (wild) keeps from
the wrong quarter and the captain will make no further attempt until
conditions change. Of course it is cloudy again and has rained some
during the night and morning, but the temperature is somewhat higher,
so that one does not need an overcoat and gloves, although the officers
wear their sheep-lined short coats which are nice and warm.

After noon asked the captain for the skin whaleboat to explore the
shore. The latter is nearly a mile distant and shows about 60 feet high
dirt bluffs. Got the boat and went with the boatswain. Berg, a young
"hand," Weenie, and the movie man, La Voy. Rowed with La Voy. Had a
wholesome two and a half hours exploring. Found a little stream, with
traces of native deer camp (collected two seal skulls); a moderate
number of flowers and grasses (collected some mushrooms); some fossil
shells from the bluffs; and two Eskimo burials. One of these, a
woman, nearly all washed away and lost; of the other, a man, secured
the skull, jaw, one shoulder blade and part of a diseased femur with
corresponding socket (mushroom arthritis), also the two humeri. A good
specimen. Returned, rowing again, near 4. All there playing cribbage
and solitaire.

Am tempted to walk to Barrow; but there are some streams in the way
which it might be impossible to ford. Moreover, no one knows the
distance.

Sunday, August 8. Morning finds us once more thwarted, and standing
at our place of refuge. No change in conditions, but there will be a
change of moon to-night, so I at least have hopes. In my travels I
learned too much about the moon not to believe in it. Toward evening
ice begins to move out.

Monday, August 9. At 12.30 a. m., unexpectedly, a new start. The wind
has turned at last (new moon!) to northeast, but is mild. Soon in ice.
Many bumps and much creaking and shaking. Captain's collie gets scared
and tries to get into our beds, one after another. But very little
sleep under these conditions.

In the morning we find ourselves in a thicker ice field than any
before, with floes on all sides. Boat barely creeps. Toward 10 a.
m. further progress found almost impossible, and so forced to turn
backward once more. However, can not even go back and so, near 12,
anchor about a mile offshore opposite a small river with lagoon-like
mouth and two tents of natives--"Shinara," or "Shinerara."

Ask captain for a boat to visit and explore the coast. Consents, and
so at 1 we go forth, about eight of us, with the captain's dog. Reach
Eskimo, photograph the group. All look remarkably Indianlike. Then go
to look for skeletal material. Nothing near, so return for the Eskimo
boy. He leads me about a mile over the highland tundra to two burials
in boxes--not old. Look through crevices shows in one an adolescent, in
the other a female (or a boy) with hair and skin still on. Leave both.

Then into the boat once more after buying some fossil teeth, and with
the boy Isaac--his father is Abraham--try to go into the river, and
soon get stuck in the stickiest mud (oily shale) imaginable--great work
to clean even the oar with which we had to push ourselves off. Land
then on the beach and for the next two hours explore that side of the
basin. Find remains of two small settlements--seven huts in all, none
very old.

Gather five skulls with parts of four skeletons, most bones missing;
also some mushrooms, several interesting humeri of seals, and a piece
of pumice-like fossil bone. Near 4.30 begins to rain a bit so we hurry
to boat, and in a little while, after depositing Isaac near his camp,
reach the _Bear_.

Eskimo on shore had two skinned seal lying on the ground, and there
were many reindeer horns. A pile of them was over a fire, being smoked.

The wind has been the whole day from the northeast, the long-wished-for
wind, and the ice has moved out sufficiently to induce the captain to
make another start. So at 5 p. m. off we go again, and for quite a
while the screw sings merrily, until we reach some remaining ice, when
there are more bumps and staggers.

The waters about the ship show, whenever calmer, the heads of swimming
seal, grown and little. But they are wary and keep at a distance.
Otherwise the only live things are an occasional gull, and rarely a
couple of ducks. In the icy water, however, on and about the floes, are
seen again numerous small, dark fish (from the size of a big minnow
to that of a tomcod); and along the shore swim merrily hundreds of
very tame and graceful little snipes, lovely small birds, too little,
luckily, to be hunted.

Little enthusiasm about my collecting, but the boatswain and some at
least of the men are genuinely helpful. I believe some of the others
are a bit superstitious. But I get some chance at least, and that is
precious.

Expect to reach Barrow before 12 p. m., and to start back before
morning--a big chance for some sleep again if I want to do some
collecting. Sleep, through the frequent lack of it, has become a kind
of obsession in one's thoughts, yet when there were chances during the
days of waiting it would not come.

August 9, evening, to 10 next morning. This is a land of odds and
wonders. In the morning things looked hopeless; toward evening the wind
has driven away enough ice to make a narrow open lane near the shore,
and utilizing this we arrived without difficulty at 8 p. m. at the long
unreachable Barrow. At 9 boat takes us ashore. At 9.30 p. m. I start
with an Eskimo and a seaman (Weenie) from the _Bear_ on a collecting
trip over about 3 square miles of tundra behind Barrow, and at 12.30
return to ship with four bags of skulls and bones. But sleep! Hardly
any since 12.30 last night, and very little after return to-day, for
due to fear of ice they called in everybody from shore before 3 a. m.,
and the newcomers keep on walking and talking and banging with their
baggage until 5, when, fearing a return of the ice, we start once more
southward, toward--it feels strange, but it is so--home. It was a
remarkable good fortune, our getting there thus and getting out again,
as we did, without damage.

Barrow is a good-looking and rather important place. It stretches about
2 miles along the low shore, in three clusters, the two main ones
separated by a lagoon. It has a radio station, a mission hospital, and
a school. There are over 200 natives here, and also quite a few whites,
including Mr. Charles Brower, the trader, observer and collector, with
his native wife and their family, the teacher, the missionary and his
family, and the nurses.

The burial place here is the most extensive in the Eskimo territory.
Taking the older parts and the new, it covers over a square mile of the
tundra, beginning not far beyond the site of the hospital and extending
to and beyond a small stream that flows over a mile inland. But the
burials were grouped in a few spots, the rest being barren.

This extensive burial ground is now about exhausted for scientific
purposes, except for such skeletons and objects as may have been
assimilated--i. e. buried--by the tundra. That such exist became quite
evident during our search, and they naturally are the oldest and
most valuable. We secured two good skulls of this nature. They were
completely buried, only a little of the vault showing, and had there
been time we should doubtless have found also parts of the skeletons.
The skulls were discolored brown.

Of the later skeletal material we found but the leavings, the best
having been carried off by other collectors. There were remnants of
hundreds of skulls and skeletons, but for the most part so damaged as
not to be worth saving. Nevertheless our diligent midnight search was
not in vain, and we brought back four sacks full of specimens, the
Eskimo carrying his with the utmost good nature. The destruction here
is due to sailors and other whites and to dogs, foxes, and reindeer.

The reindeer herds, going in hundreds over the ground, help materially
to scatter and damage the bones. So, the older material gone, while
the more recent burials are, at least so far as the younger element
is concerned, quite worthless to science, containing many mix bloods
of all sorts--even occasionally with the negro (men from the wrecked
whaleboats). The collection now secured was the last one possible from
this locality, except through excavation.

Tuesday, August 10. The boat is now crowded. We lost one woman and got
three; also about five or six men--newspaper, movie, radioman, a dog
teamster, a trapper. Quite a variety, in every way, and most are to go
with us at least as far as Nome. They will have to hang up two hammocks
in our little cabin each night, and some must sleep elsewhere.

Packing the whole morning. Five boxes. My man of last night helping, a
fine, big young fellow. This aid in the work is a great boon to me,
and the transportation of the many specimens by the _Bear_ down to
Seattle or San Francisco will be a fine service to the Institution.

The older of us, that is those who have been longer on the ship,
feel like veterans and are drawn closer together. The new lot,
heterogeneous, do not attract, particularly one of the women. An older
one, evidently a well-liked nurse, goes off at Wainwright, which we
reach once more at 8 p. m. Here goes off also Jim Allen, the trader,
who is a good fellow in a rough shell and whom I learned to like. He
helped us all a good deal while in the ice.

The movie man from Point Hope is a somewhat spoiled, gossipy, and
roughshod, but otherwise, a good-hearted big kid--not very wise, but
not mischievous, and more than efficient in his own calling. Is 40,
but already aging, like a weather-beaten poplar--not pine or oak. Is
violently against all "kikes," or eastern money-lending Jews, from whom
he used to borrow at usurious interest and who sold him out once or
twice when he could not pay.

Lost Jim Allen and dropped the nurse, but are still too many. At 10 p.
m., just as the minister and I have retired, there comes a call for the
former to go up. A couple of Eskimos have arrived, with their friends,
to be married. So he dresses and performs the function. I am too weary
to rise and dress to go and look at it. He says it was quite tame. Then
the anchor, and once more we are off. No ice any more, and the sea has
again a swell, which was absent in the ice-covered waters.

Wednesday, August 11. Swell, but not bad, though one of the women,
another nurse, is ill, and the other, a "writer," etc., will not get up
for breakfast. Quite a problem now to get washed and shaved. Both the
minister (archdeacon) and the movie man like to use perfumed things,
and the former takes much time with his toilet, so I endeavor as before
to be first up.

August 12. A great day. Was called a little after 12.30 a. m., after
but little sleep (through anticipation), to examine a site ashore--a
coal mine, a water source, and possibly something human. Two miles to
shore, in semidarkness; no night yet in these regions. A long tramp
over the mossy and grassy tundra; mosquitoes. One native igloo, and
on a little elevation some distance off a grave of a child; otherwise
nothing. After examination of the coal strata, a curious secondary
inclusion in sand and gravel, and the stream of water (good to drink,
even if not clear), we depart and reach ship again after 4 a. m.

Beginning to be--in fact am already--a "night doctor," for sure.
Never thought I could stand such doings, but am standing it, and that
even with some cold and bothersome night cough. But am sure short on
sleeping, for it is impossible for me to catch up during the days; am
not a day sleeper. I suppose when one is most of the time half hungry
his mind naturally reverts to hunger, as mine does to sleep.

We are due to-day again at Point Hope, and I am anxious for a little
time there.

At night. This was a day of harvest. Reached Point Hope about 3 p. m.,
but had to go around again to the other side, due to the swell and surf
on the north. I went to shore in the first boat, about 4 p. m. Doctor
Goodman, with whom we are very friendly, was with me and promised to
go over and help me get some men with whom I want to excavate the
burial hole of his predecessor. But when on the shore stays behind
and remains. So we go on with my man from the ship to the whalebone
graveyard. Near there see two Eskimo men with some dogs. They smile;
so I tell them what I want; in two minutes have engaged them; in about
three more we begin to dig, and in about five minutes after strike
first bones.

My good friend the boatswain, Mr. Berg, comes to help, and as I now
have four to work I take a bag and go on collecting a little more
over the plains beyond where we are. Get a good bag. Find another
good-natured Eskimo, Frank, coming from fishing, engage him to help
carrying and eventually to take place of one of my first workers, who
is an old man. Then we see Doctor Goodman, far away, coming to the
mission. Borrow two more shovels from his stock and a few coal bags.
Meanwhile bone and skull pile is fairly exposed from one side and top
gravel partly removed, so I give up intended trip to old village site
and, as we were given only to 9.30 p. m., go to work on the pile.

A great deal here. More than anticipated, though all is a jumble, with
the long and other bones of the skeleton on the top. The work is to get
down in the moist gravel, disengage one bone and skull after another
as rapidly as possible, give it a rapid look-over, and either save, if
fairly well preserved or showing some special feature, or discard. If
saved, the specimen is handed to one of the Eskimo, who cleans it of
gravel, lays it out to dry a little, and then places it gently in a bag.

Many of the bones and skulls were found so damaged that they had to be
left. But much was also good. The strenuous work, however, had to go
on without interruption and at the fullest possible speed, if the main
part of what was there was to be saved. So no supper, no stop for even
a minute, until after 8 p. m. Sixteen bags full, and some of the sacks
quite spacious. At last had to give up--no more time, no sacks, and
lower down everything frozen as hard as flint. The main part, however,
secured--183 good skulls, several hundred lower jaws, and a lot of
long and other bones. This, together with the rest of the material from
this place, ought to give us data of much value.

But now, how shall the lot be got on the boat. Luckily, one of the
Eskimo that has been working for me has a dog team and sled. So I
engage these; and shortly after we finish putting everything in
order--in the presence now of Doctor Goodman, who comes to look at
us--the man arrives, with a good-sized sled and 13 whitish dogs. Load
all the bags on--and then a sight never to be forgotten--the dogs
pulling the load across the tundra, depressions, gravels, right down to
the water's edge and to the motor boat that is waiting for us. How they
strained, pulled with all will, and obeyed. A wise leader in front,
six pairs behind. No reins, only a few calls from the Eskimo, and they
knew just what to do. Tried to photograph them, but light already
poor--advancing season. (Pl. 9, _a._ _b._)

Then hurry to the teacher, not home; to La Voy, not home. Find teacher
in tent, sick, trembling; I fear beginning of typhoid. Did not get
anything for me in our absence. La Voy promised to give me some things
from his collections, but now is not here. A native woman, however,
meets me far out on the beach, and I learn she has dug out for me since
our first visit five good skulls from the ground--some, she shows, deep
to above the elbow. She has them near the ship--we go on--on the road
boys and women overtake me with a few things to sell. Then the woman
brings her skulls, in a bag on her back, in excellent condition. I pay
her for her trouble. Reach our boat, and the bell on the _Bear_ rings
9.30.

The bone pile--the sled and dogs and load over the tundra--the woman
carrying a native (seal) bag with skulls--will be three rare, indelible
pictures.

On the _Bear_ at 10. A little sandwich, fruit, and a cinnamon cake with
coffee, and to bed. But irritating tire-cough keeps me up for another
hour.

Friday, 13th. Packing. A nice day. Toward evening stop at Kevalina.
Obtain a few things and pictures. To bed soon, but cough still bothers.
I have nothing for it; there is but little on the boat in the way of
medicines outside of the most ordinary things.

Saturday, 14th. Up 5.30, early breakfast, and 6.45 start once more
for Kotzebue. The _Bear_ has anchored about 12 miles off, so do not
reach village until 8.35, and have to go back at 9.10. Rush to store,
get boxes, barrels, and packing. And then to the schoolhouse, where
I expect some information about the skeleton found under the house
and obtained on my former visit. Also promised information from Mr.
Chance, the supervisor, about old sites. But Mr. Chance is gone, and no
letter or message--it came later, to Washington. A few words with the
teacher, and one of the boys from our boat is already calling me.

Return at 11 a. m. and spend the rest of the day packing, finishing
just at supper. A curious sunset at 8, a horizontally banded sun,
several clear-cut, fairly broad, dark bands. Sea getting rougher.

Sunday, August 15. Bad sea, wind, waves, fog. Have to take to bed and
do without breakfast. Stay in until lunch. We could not stop again at
Shishmareff; could not get ashore. The next stop, late afternoon, is
to be at the Little Diomede, to take off Jenness; but if too rough we
shall go on to Teller. The wind is from the northwest and the foghorn
keeps on blowing.

The whole day continues rough, foggy, unfriendly. The ship can not stop
at the Diomede, nor go to Teller; obliged to go to Nome. After supper
all chairs and movable articles have to be tied up. Most day in bed,
but escaped real seasickness, and got some sleep.

Monday, 16. Weather moderated. We are in lee of the mountainous part of
Seward Peninsula. After breakfast off Nome, and at 11 a. m. in town.
First stop at Lomen's. Then from one to another till 4.55 p. m., when
Dan Sutherland, the Alaska Delegate to Congress, escorts me to the
boat. Saw many friends, got some mail, and, best of all, got a fine
deposit collection for the National Museum from Mr. Carl Lomen. The
judge asked me for another lecture for next Saturday, when we are to
see Nome for the last time.

About 5 a. m. arrive at Golovnin Bay to take water. At this place this
is generally a day of partial rest and recreation for the crew. The
water is taken from a small stream fed by a spring that comes out from
a cave of the mountain, and is put direct into the whaleboats, brought
to ship, and pumped into its tanks.

Shortly after breakfast the captain gives us the larger motor boat,
and with Mr. Berg and two of the seamen I start for a little survey
trip along the northern shore of the bay. In less than an hour we reach
a sheltered nook with a small stream, where there is an old frame
dwelling with some out-structures, all evidently abandoned, though
various articles of use hang or lie about, including several guns of
old patterns.

On a bluff to the left of the house are six burials, some old, wood
near all rotten, some more recent. The latter, two in number, both show
a large animal skin covering of the body, besides which the latter
shows remnants of clothing. Secure two good skeletons, practically
complete; also head and a few parts of a newborn (or near) child. A
unique feature--with one of the male skeletons is found a complete
skeleton of an eagle. Could have got also a female skeleton, but was
still unclean, and we perceived a small native motor boat coming
toward us from the reindeer camp about 1½ miles farther inward. So
we replaced everything (outwardly) and started off to meet the native
boat. Found in it two young men and three women. Inquired about old
sites and learned of one about 3 miles farther inward.

Stopped at the reindeer camp. Found there about a dozen individuals.
Got more information, also a young man to go with us, bought for the
_Bear_ a dozen good-sized silver salmon--caught this morning and lying
for protection against flies, in a pool of water--and left for the old
site "around the point."

A nice site, but small. Fine beach for bathing if it were in a warmer
climate. Remains of about a half dozen semisubterranean houses. A
copper nail from one shows they were not very ancient. And no burials
left, save one, more recent, of a child, most of which is gone. But
there is a green elevated plane rising from the beach and we soon find
several varieties of berries, especially large and good blueberries, a
variety of huckleberry, and a sort of wine-tasting dwarf blackberry.
Collect enough for immediate consumption--a most welcome diversion in
every way--and get some for the captain.

Leave near 1 p. m. A little lunch on boat, then once more the reindeer
camp, where the young women make us good hot coffee with as good
biscuits as one could find anywhere. Buy more berries from them, load
our fish (12 salmon ranging about 12 pounds each, for $3), and start
off for another site just around Stony Point.

Round up one point, then another and another, up to five, and by that
time the going has become so rough that we get much tossed about, ship
water, dog gets frightened and near sick, and just as we reach what we
thought must be the last point there juts out still another. It is now
so rough that the boatswain thinks we could not land, and so nothing
remains but to turn back to the mother boat. Reach there near 3.30 p.
m. Soon all boats are hoisted, and at 4 the _Bear_ is on her way to St.
Michael.

August 18. Arrived about midnight off St. Michael; must stay outside
due to shoal water. Somewhat rough.

In the morning boat coaling, dirty work, so all who can go ashore. Meet
Mr. Williams again; buy a few native articles in stores, visit Mrs.
Evans, the teacher-nurse, who has on an occasion successfully amputated
a native's finger. The deputy marshal takes me to his house, gives me
some dried deer meat and smoked salmon strips, and promises to be on a
lookout for specimens for us. Near noon return. Still rough.

At night a bad blow and the ship tossing a great deal, almost as during
the storm to St. Lawrence. Feel it considerably, but after 3 a. m. wind
and water moderate. Feel effects of it, however, whole morning. For an
explorer to be ever in rough weather subject to seasickness is a horrid
affliction.

August 19. Off Nome once more. Everything, city, mountains, appear
exceedingly, unnaturally clear--not a good sign. After 9 a. m. go to
town. Soon at the Lomens' headquarters, and the sons, particularly
Carl, bring out three smaller boxes full of things from St. Lawrence
and Nunivak Islands, and give me the choice of all. And after I am
through--near two hours' fast work--Carl adds one beautiful tusk
(carved) from Nunivak Island, and then adds another, and two big bones
of a mammoth, some as gifts, some as an addition to his loan to our
institution. Excellent men.

Lunch with Ralph and Carl; then a good walk in the open; and then
another lecture. All pleased, and two bring me specimens for our
museum. Slowly back to boat and 4.45 on the _Bear_ again. Nice day, but
getting cooler and blustery.

Captain Ross comes to port, the graphophone starts its usual jazz songs
next (ward) room, then the supper, all visitors gone, and the _Bear_
raises anchor to be off for the north once more.

August 19, evening. A new, final chapter begins with to-day. What will
it contain when over?

August 20. Rough. Go north until in plain sight of the Diomedes as well
as Cape Wales, and then the captain decides landing would be risky,
if not impossible; and so reluctantly we turn back and proceed toward
Teller. What a tantalizing experience this must have been to poor
Jenness, who is waiting for us on the Little Diomede, a most dreary
place, to be taken off; and I, too, expected collections at both the
Diomedes and the Cape.

Saturday, August 21. Port Clarence, off Teller. This proved a day never
to be forgotten; for failure of a rigid system, for bad weather, for
strain and endurance, and nearness to almost anything.

My purpose was to utilize the _Bear's_ visit to Teller for a survey of
a Chukchee-Eskimo battle field, of which I heard repeatedly from the
Yukon onward. Sometime during the earlier half of the last century the
Chukchee from Asia are said to have made an invasion of the peninsula
and to have reached as far as the Salt Lake, east of Teller, when they
were met by the united Eskimo and badly defeated. The exact spot where
this happened is, however, somewhat uncertain, and it was to locate it,
examine, and collect what might be possible of the remains that were
said to be still there that I asked Captain Cochran to let me have one
of the motor boats, to which he kindly consented, uniting the trip with
some topographical observations for his own purposes.

The evening before I was told by the second officer that we shall
start some time soon after midnight for that part of the old battle
field--there seemed to be two of them--at the eastern point of the Salt
Lake. As a result could not undress, and after ship stopped in Port
Clarence, near 11 p. m., had but a little rest. The call came at 4 a.
m. A little breakfast, a package of lunch, and start at 5.10.

First note. Ship about 7 miles from Teller. Water deep enough much
nearer, but we came at night. Here there are already dark nights
between about 9 p. m. and 4 a. m., and so they were cautious.

Second. The officer says he has orders not to stop at Teller, where
there is an old Indian (Dunak) from whom I expected to get exact
bearings, and where there is also a white trader, Mr. Peterson, who
knows the place and might possibly have accompanied us.

Third. Distances, as usual, longer than estimated. We find eventually
that the destination is about 32 miles from Teller.

Fourth. A brisk head wind and sea retarding us.

Fifth. As we approach our spot, a shoal water, with grass, preventing
us from going straight to the most likely place, and no other way
was tried. It is 11 a. m. and already I hear an intimation that we
shall not have time for anything except to make a lunch. This is the
same officer, a very good man at his post but rigid and without much
interest in anything else than his own field, who after 10 miles' trip
to Kotzebue gave us 25 minutes there, when it required 15 minutes alone
to reach the school from the boat.

So we end by landing on the extremity of a spit there to make lunch,
and I have only the time it takes to prepare the latter. I find, in
hurry, remains of five old semisubterranean dwellings on the northern
side of the point, and about as many low mounds with remnants about of
rotten driftwood--undoubtedly old burials. Probably the skeletons have
been assimilated by the tundra vegetation and blown material. A single
native skull, a female, without face, is lying about. Collected.

While lunch is being made ready the officer and the boatswain, Mr.
Berg, each shoot a duck. Then the lunch, a hurried loading, and
departure, after some delay in setting the sail, at 1.30 p. m. I saw
nothing that looked like a battle field. Its determination and survey
must be left for some future explorer.

Sail rapidly. Wind fresh, with us, also waves. Cross Salt Lake, and
Tussoc "River." About 4.30 reach Grantly Harbor and wind increases;
also waves. We run fast, and well enough, but the umiak (skin boat) we
are pulling begins to suffer. It rides crazily and is jerked over the
seething waves. The crossbar by which it is partly held breaks, and now
the boat goes more sidewise, with water lapping over its border and
getting in. Wind now quite a gale, breaking waves everywhere--every
now and then a big one--whitecaps all over. A dim view of Teller in
distance, when the skin boat begins to fill more rapidly and sag. Must
stop engine--waves toss us like mad--one could be thrown bodily out of
the boat if not careful in bending or moving and holding. The sail
comes down and the mast is laid down, a bad piece of work. Berg and
Pete Brant (an elderly trapper with us but formerly of Coast Guard
Service at Nome, a good sailor and knowing these waters) work very
hard and well. The skin boat has to be pulled alongside and bailed out
by young Weenie, a very hard and dangerous task. Mr. Berg's rain hat
("souwester") blows off and is lost in the seething waves. Later Weenie
nearly loses his--snatches it out between the boats with a narrow
escape for his head. Then Weenie climbs into the skin boat--a brave
act--and finishes the bailing, but is much "in" after getting back.
Then our big staunch motor launch starts again at reduced speed. But
the skin boat does great antics and threatens to fill again or break;
so Pete Brant holds the rope and is jerked every now and then, until I
fear that he may any moment be jerked out into the waves and watch to
catch his legs. Fortunately he succeeds in preventing it, but there was
a slim margin.

It has drizzled or rained, besides the wind, most of the afternoon,
and there is a lot of spray to splashes from the waves. All this has
to be taken as it comes, but the water is not cold, and our boots
and oilskins give protection. Nevertheless my right knee to hip gets
thoroughly wet and chilly, and I was not alone. But there is little
time to think of such things. We see at Teller the waves breaking high
on the shore, some boats already on the beach and others being driven
there, a few people looking helplessly on.

About 5.50 we round the Teller spit and come in the lee of it into
calmer water. But the visibility over the water is probably not over
a mile now, and we see no trace of the _Bear_. The gasoline supply
is getting rather low; and all are more or less cold, though dressed
warmer than I and, due to their hip-high rubber boots--mine reach only
to the knee--not wet. I now shake a lot with the cold, without being
able to stop it. So we skirt the protecting bluffs southward to where
everyone thinks the _Bear_ is, near a little stream from which they
were to take fresh water. But though we all strain our eyes to the
limit, there is no trace of the ship.

Thus reach Cape Riley and the stream, which is found dry, without a
drop of water. Get on the pebbly beach, turn skin boat over to get the
water out, and hurry to chop wood. No wood save the water troughs, so
chop these. Must have fire. I warm up a little by running around and
chopping. They pour gasoline on the wood, make a big fire, cook a pot
of coffee, and with bread and preserved meat make a supper, though it
is mainly coffee.

Near 8 and getting dark. Storm, outside of protection of cliffs,
unabated. There is a second watering place, 7 or 8 miles across the
bay, and our only chance to find the _Bear_ is to rush for this. But to
do this we must go diagonally across the waves and similarly against
the wind--a bad prospect. Also, we have only just about enough gasoline
to reach the place. But there is no help.

Thus a new start, and before long we are once more in the waves. It is
now quite obscure. The waves break now and then and splash over us.
Before long the skin boat is again sagging and in danger of sinking.
Once more pull alongside and dangerous, exhausting bailing by Weenie.

And so on, tossed, driven aside, but thanks to the good engine never
stopping. I hold to seat not to be thrown against things or even out;
the others are becoming gruff, irritable. And then Higsby makes out a
faint light far ahead. No one certain, but in a while it seems moving.
A solitary small light somewhere far on the shore, probably, not the
boat.

But soon another stronger light discerned, seemingly moving to the
left, and later several--the ship in all probability.

We toss and reel and stagger nearer, but motor still going strong.
For the skin boat they found at last a position in which it takes but
little water. Finally see decisively a blinking light, the mast signal.
We show our lantern a few times. Then the ship looms before us, but
there is still the risky task of getting alongside and aboard. However,
all is accomplished without real damage.

The cabin--the good and anxious captain--a little canned grapefruit,
and bed. But head falls and rises, the events of the day reappear,
wonder what has become of the trade schooner we saw being driven on the
beach--and so on until consciousness passes into deep sleep. The _Bear_
is fairly quiet, not in the brunt of the weather. And this eventually
moderates, so that a little after 4 we start again, only to anchor once
more at 6, a little below where last night we had our supper.

August 22. Cloudy, drizzly, rough still, and wireless news of
widespread bad storms, even in the States. So we shall wait. One more
hope for my collections at the Cape and with Jenness.

Captain says this morning the officer misunderstood his orders about
Teller. The trip demonstrated a number of things. One of the main and
most gratifying was the sterling quality of the men with me, officer,
boatswain, motorman. Weenie, Pete, in the teeth of real danger. They
were all that men should be under such conditions, which is the best
way I can express it. The trip may have been in vain so far as its
scientific object was concerned, but it brought a number of men face to
face with life's stresses and found their mettle of the truest quality,
without exception, to witness which was worth the whole experience.

August 22-23. During the night have left Port Clarence and endeavored
once more to reach Wales and the Diomedes, to be again turned away by
fog and rough weather. The captain doubts if there will be any more
decent "spells." The season for this stormy sea is too far advanced.
Unable to land anywhere.

The day is followed by another horrid night, again off the St. Lawrence
Island. Boat tossing and heaving and rolling, waves reaching and even
splashing over the level of the high upper deck in the back, everything
tied tip and cleared or fastened, a danger in making even a few steps
of being thrown against something, or on the deck of being thrown
overboard, and everything constantly cracking, creaking, with every
few minutes an impact big thud-like or a splash of a wave, the floor
heaving and twisting; and thus from before evening until morning.
Then a trace easier, but the whole day gloomy and rough and the night
again more unsettled. To-day better, wind which began east then
turned northwest, then almost north, now stopped, but a heavy swell
is running, heaving us nearly as much as yesterday. We have gone very
slowly.

Have arrived off Savonga. The sky is now clear and there is not much
wind, but the swell is and keeps on such that, notwithstanding the
repeated calls of our siren, the Eskimo whom we see above the beach
near their boats, do not dare to launch these and come, nor does the
captain care to risk one of our own launches, though we need fresh
reindeer meat and all would like once more to meet the nice lot of
natives of this village. After a prolonged wait and as conditions show
no improvement, nothing remains but to leave the island.

Our next stop, if the weather permits, is to be at Nunivak Island.
This is a large island off the Alaskan coast, well below the present
delta of the Yukon and some distance above Kuskokwim Bay. The island
is one of the least explored, and the people living upon it one of
the least known. It is only during the last few years that a trading
and a reindeer post has been established on this island, and only
the second year that there is a teacher. What little is known of the
natives, a branch of the Eskimo, shows that they have many different
habits from those farther north, in clothing, decoration, etc. They
make rather good black pottery, and from this island come the most
elaborate carvings in ivory, reminding strongly of small totem poles.
A photograph of a group of these people, seen at the Lomen Studio at
Nome, showed remarkably broad and short faces, unlike the Eskimo of the
north. All of which made me very anxious to visit the island.

To be brief such a visit, though promised to me by the captain, could
not be realized. The waters about the island are so imperfectly
charted that in weather that continued half rough it was thought
unwise to risk a landing. I felt this keenly, as the various other
impossibilities of the trip. But I could never forget all the
unexpected help I received from the Revenue Cutter Service, for
which I was deeply grateful, and had to acknowledge the justice of
the captain's position. We came so near that the land birds from the
island were already about us, but then turned toward the Pribilofs and
Unalaska....

Only little remains to be told. At the Pribilof Island, St. Paul, we
stopped at night, to take on four live fur seals for the Academy of
Sciences of San Francisco, and there we ran once more into stormy
weather. Here are a few notes from this period:

August 27. Toward evening again a gale, southwest. At night worse. Ship
tossing rather wildly. No possibility to me of either getting up or
resting. Barely keep from being horribly ill again.

Later in night ship had to be turned back and just drift.

August 28. All day the storm continues. I could take no meals, not even
a drop of water. In bed and barely standing it. Ship hove to at last
and just drifting.

August 29. Gale keeps on just as bad, howling till 1.30 a. m. Then it
moderates somewhat and ship starts going again. Last night we were only
60 miles from Unalaska, now a good deal farther out. Steam, still in
half a gale and big sea, until after midday, when, not without some
difficulty and danger, we reach the fine little protected harbor of
Unalaska. Feel weak, near worn out.

August 30, p. m. Rest, and all is well again. Secure a little rowboat
and go with old Pete Brant to near-by islands. Storm over for the
day and fair, though not entirely. Row, climb hills, pick berries
and mushrooms, watch a bearlike semiwild pig, out whole afternoon,
returning strengthened, refreshed. Only no appetite yet. Found no
traces of human occupancy, but heard of some in the "Captain's Bay" and
at other spots.

The few Aleuts in Unalaska at this time show physiognomies akin to the
brachycephalic Indian, and not the Eskimo type.

August 31-September 1. A new gale, with drizzles. Luckily we are at a
dock, but I can do little. They are cleaning the boilers and coaling.
Evening of 1st have a good dinner--captain and the rest of us from the
_Bear's_ cabin--at a friendly local trader, Louis Strauss, and after
that give lecture on "Man's Origin, etc." Introduction by Capt. Van
Buskirk, local commodore of the Revenue Cutter Service. Lecture well
received, make numerous friends, get good information. Strauss's supper
was the first I could eat with some taste and hunger. But the lecture
did me good.

September 2. Coaling and overhauling of boilers finished. Gale stopped.
Ship leaves 1 p. m. Day fairly sunny. Everyone sees us off. Harbor and
hills look fine, though sky again clouded. Outside quite a swell after
the gales. Pass the _Haida_, practicing with her cannon. The _Algonkin_
was here too, with the story of their visit to the Punuk Islands. The
fresh green steep mountains toward the entrance of the harbor are
refreshing to the eye.

Pass through Akitan. Pass picturesque, especially the outstanding
isolated rocks near the islands.

Toward evening, far to the left (east), see under the clouds a glorious
icy cone, the "Pogrovemoi," and later a lower but still great mountain
a little farther and to the right an old but not so very old volcano.
Other volcanoes there are, the captain tells me, now hidden by the low
clouds.

Have a new passenger, Mr. Charles Brower, the trader of Barrow. Came
from the _Brower_, ship of his own company, a little larger and faster
than the _Bear_, and going also to San Francisco, but with poorer
accommodations. Brings with him a box of archeological specimens from
the Barter Island, in the north. Examine them, but find little of
special interest.

It takes us a little less than 10 days of a fairly good journey to
reach San Francisco. Dock at Oakland late in the evening. The next
morning, after breakfast, the boxes and barrels with collections are
taken on the dock--a big pile. Then the Santa Fe officials kindly
run a flat freight car to the pile, the boxes, etc., are loaded on,
the main part taken to the freight depot, the most valuable ones to
express, shipped, and shortly after what remains of the expedition is
on the Santa Fe Limited for Chicago. It only needs to be added that,
notwithstanding the variety of receptacles and the difficulties of
packing, the collections reached the Institution without damage to
a single specimen. Thanks once more for the help received in making
all safe to the captain and officers of the _Bear_, to Mr. Berg, the
best of boatswains, to the carpenter, and to all those of the crew who
assisted.



THE YUKON TERRITORY--SITES, THE INDIANS, THE ESKIMO


THE TANANA


BRIEF HISTORICAL DATA

The Tanana is the largest tributary of the Yukon. It is over 600 miles
in length, and in its breadth, though not in its volume, it appears
to equal, if not to exceed, the Yukon at their junction. The first
white men to see the mouth of the Tanana were the Russian traders
(about 1860), followed before long by the employees of the Hudson Bay
Co. Dall says that it has long been noted on the old maps of Russian
America, under the name of the River of the Mountain Men, while the
Hudson Bay men called it the Gens-des-Buttes River. (Alaska and Its
Resources, 281-282.) Dall mapped the junction of the river with the
Yukon. The first who descended a part of its course were two traders,
Harper and Bates, who reached the river higher up, sometime in the late
seventies. The name of Harper is preserved by having been given to
the big bend of the stream, 12 miles above its mouth. Its scientific
exploration begins only in 1885, with the passage down nearly its
entire length of Lieut. Henry T. Allen, United States Army;[5] the main
work concerning the geography and geology of the river being done in
1898 by A. H. Brooks.[6]

FOOTNOTES:

[5] Allen, Henry T., Military Reconnaissance in Alaska. Comp. Narr.
Expl. Alas., 415-416, 446-452.

[6] Brooks, A. H., Reconnaissance in the Tanana and White River Basins.
Twentieth Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, 1900, pt. VII,
437-438; also the Geog. and Geol. Alas., U. S. Geol. Surv. Doc. 201,
1906.


POPULATION

The native population of the Tanana has always been remarkably
scarce. Dall obtained an estimate of their whole number as about 150
families.[7] Petrof, in 1880, thought they numbered perhaps seven
or eight hundred;[8] Allen in 1885 estimated them at between 550
and 600;[9] Brooks, in 1898, thought there were less than 400;[10]
and the 1910 United States Census gives the total number of the
"Tenan-kutchin," full bloods and mix bloods, as 415.[11]

According to Brooks (Reconnaissance, 490-491), the Tanana natives were
separated into two geographic contingents, the eastern or highland and
the northwestern or lowland groups. The most easterly group included
the Indian settlements in the vicinity of Forty-mile and Mentasta Pass
trail; the northwestern comprises to-day those from Nenana to the mouth
of the river.

The Tanana Indians were generally regarded by other natives as
warlike and dangerous, but so far as their relation with the whites
was concerned there was little justification for this notion.[12]
Physically they were reported by Brooks to "average rather better than
the Indians of the Yukon" (Reconnaissance, 492). There are but a few
and scanty other references to them in this connection.

FOOTNOTES:

[7] "Their numbers are supposed not to exceed 150 families." Alaska and
Its Resources, p. 108.

[8] Notes Alas. Ethn., 161.

[9] Brooks, op. cit, 493.

[10] Brooks, op. cit., 493.

[11] Population, III, 1137.

[12] See Castner, J. C., A Story of Hardship and Suffering in Alaska:
Comp. Narr. Expl. Alaska, 686-709.


INDIAN SITES AND VILLAGES ALONG THE TANANA

_Upper course._--On this much larger part of the river it is possible
to report but indirectly.

A. H. Brooks, in 1898, reports thus on this subject:[13] "Several
Indian houses are found on and near the Tanana between the Good-paster
and Salchakat and constitute a subgroup of the upper Tanana
Indians. * * * The most thickly settled part of the region is along the
sluggish portions of the lower Tanana. The largest villages are at the
mouth of the Cantwell and Toclat Rivers, and each of these consists
of a number of good cabins. In the intervening region there are a
number of isolated houses and fishing stations, which are marked on the
accompanying map."

[Illustration: FIGURE 1.--The Tanana River between Nenana and Tanana,
with Indian villages]

To which Lieutenant Castner, who explored the upper Tanana, adds the
following:[14] "On 750 miles of the Tanana proper and its tributaries I
saw seven small hamlets, and not to exceed 100 Indians--men, women, and
children."

From information obtained by me at Fairbanks, at the United States
marshal's office and from miners, it appears that the following
villages are better known:

  Village, 150 miles east of Fairbanks.

  Mansfield Lake village, 300 miles east of Fairbanks.

  Tetlen, 410 miles east of Fairbanks.

  East Tetlen, 7 miles southeast of Tetlen.

FOOTNOTES:

[13] Brooks, A. H., A Reconnaissance in the White and Tanana River
Basins, Alaska, in 1898: Twentieth Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1900,
pt. VII, p. 491.

[14] Castner, op. cit., p. 706.


LOWER TANANA, NENANA TO YUKON

No old sites were learned of on this part of the river, and few, if
any, are probably preserved, due to lowness of banks and extensive
destruction (cutting of the banks) by the river.

The present Indian villages on the river are as follows:

1. Nenana (or Tortella), about a mission, half a mile from the railroad
station and town of the same name, on the left bank of the Tanana and
near the mouth of the Nenana River. (Fig. 1.)

2. "Old Minto," 27 miles from Nenana, right bank; but a small number of
Indians there now.

3. Village at the mouth of the Tolovana, right bank (where the Tolovana
enters the Tanana); the village is on the distal (downstream) point.
Nearly abandoned; only two families there now. Summer (fishing) camp on
the opposite point.

4. A small settlement at mouth of Baker Creek, right bank, about 4
miles upstream from Hot Springs.

5. "Crossjacket village," on left bank, about 45 miles above Tanana, 40
miles below Hot Springs. Used to be called "Cosna." Occupied, though
only a few there.

6. Near 5, but on the opposite bank, a few habitations.

During the open season the Indians live scattered along the river in
fishing camps. This is especially true along the right bank downstream
from Nenana.


THE YUKON BELOW TANANA


BRIEF HISTORY

The Yukon is the principal river of Alaska. It is one of the greatest
and most scenic rivers in the world. It is approximately 2,300 miles
long (from the headwaters of the Lewes River), in its middle and lower
courses ranges at times with its sloughs to several miles in breadth,
and includes many hundreds of islands of its own formation. Its scenery
is still essentially primeval, affected but little by human occupation
or industry. It has, in fact, gone considerably back in these respects
since the gold rush was over.

This great stream has been known to the white man for less than a
century. Cook, in September of 1778, sailed near, discovering Stuart
Island and Cape Stephens of the St. Michael Island, but missed the
river.

In 1829 P. E. Chistiakof, director (1826-1830) of the Russian-American
colonies, sent the naval officer Vasilief to explore the coasts between
the Alexander Redoubt (at the mouth of the Nushagak) and the Shaktol
or Norton Sound, and in 1830 Vasilief explored the larger part of the
Kuskokwim River, of which the Russians knew already from their earlier
explorers. Here they heard of an even greater stream to the north.

In 1831, on the recommendation of Vasilief, Michail Dmitrievich
Tebenkof was sent to Norton Sound with the view of further exploration
and the establishing of a post in that region. Tebenkof discovered
that Cape Stephens was not a part of the mainland but of an island;
and he built here a fortified post which in honor of his patron saint
is called St. Michael, a name which subsequently passed to the whole
island. The post was to serve both trade and further exploration.

From St. Michael, at the end of 1834, a small party is sent out under
the leadership of an educated "kreol" (son of a native mother and
Russian father), Andrei Glazunof, and on January 26, 1835, they reach
the good-sized Indian village of Anvik, on the Kwikhpak, or Yukon.[15]
From here Glazunof travels down the river to the large village of
Aninulykhtykh-pak (above Holy Cross), the last Indian (as distinguished
from Eskimo) village down the river, whence Glazunof sends most of his
party back to St. Michael and himself proceeds to the Kuskokwim.

In 1836 the Russians effect the first settlement on the Yukon, at
Ikogmiut (Zagoskin, 6), later known as the Russian Mission.

In 1838 Malakof, over land portage, reaches Nulato and builds there
a trading post, which, during his absence the next winter, is burned
by the natives. In 1841 Dieriabin rebuilds and fortifies this post,
becomes its headman, and is there eventually (1851) killed by the
Indians.

In 1841 Lieut. Laurenti Alexief Zagoskin is delegated to explore the
"Kwikhpak," with its portages to the Kotzebue Sound, and the Kuskokwim
River; and in 1843 he navigates and maps 600 miles of the Yukon, or
from about the mouth of the Apkhun (northern) pass to the mouth of the
Novitna River, with approximately 100 miles of each, from their mouth,
of the Koyukuk and of the Ittege (or Innoko) Rivers.

The Russian post at Nulato remains until the sale of their American
dominions by the Russians to the United States in 1867. From it and
from St. Michael individual Russian traders ranged over the river and
its lower affluents, but there was no further noteworthy scientific
exploration. In 1863, however, Lukin, who after Vasilief and Kolmakof
helped to explore the Kuskokwim, reached to Fort Yukon.

Meanwhile the river has been visited by both the English and the
Americans. In 1847 Mr. Bell, of the Hudson Bay Co., having heard of the
great stream from some of the Indians who visited the fort on Peels
River, set out in quest of it, accompanied by a native guide, and
reached it by the Rat and the Porcupine Rivers.[16]

Between 1843 and 1867 the river in its lower and middle reaches is
freely traversed by the Russian traders. In 1851 Nulato is reached by
Lieutenant Barnard, of H. M. S. _Enterprise_, in search of Franklin,
only to be massacred there with some of the Russians and natives by the
offended Indians of the Koyukuk. In 1861 Robert Kennicott traverses
a part of the Yukon, and in 1865 he, with Capt. Charles S. Bulkley,
leads there the expedition of the Western Union Telegraph Co., which is
accompanied by William H. Dall and Frederick Whymper, and results in
much information. Already, however, in 1863, Strahan Jones, commander
of the Peels River Fort, has descended the Yukon to the mouth of
the Novitna River or the uppermost point reached by Zagoskin, thus
completing its identification as one and the same great stream. This
point and the Tanana mark the westernmost penetration by the English
(the Hudson Bay Co.).

In 1865 begin American explorations proper. In that year, under an
agreement with the Russians, Maj. Robert Kennicott, heading a party
of the Western Union Telegraph explorers, crosses from St. Michael to
Nulato. Kennicott dies in Nulato a year later, but the explorations are
carried on to result eventually in a series of valuable publications,
more particularly by Dall and Whymper.[17]

The researches under the auspices of the Western Union Telegraph Co.,
themselves backed by the Government, are followed by explorations under
the direct auspices of the American Government. Thus, in 1869 there is
a reconnaissance of the river by Capt. C. W. Raymond; in 1883, that by
Lieut. Frederick Schwatka; in 1885 by Lieut. Henry T. Allen; in 1898
by Capt. W. P. Richardson; and these are succeeded by the geological
surveys of A. H. Brooks and companions.[18]

From 1878 on commenced placer and mining explorations for gold in
Alaska leading gradually to the eventual great gold rush of the later
nineties, which brought a whole flotilla of large river steamers and
other craft to the Yukon and led to a rapid growth of some of the old
and the establishment of a number of new settlements along its banks.
The rash passed in turn, many of the miners and others departed, boats
became idle and were beached or taken to the St. Michael ship "bone
yard," where, together with most of the buildings, they are now (1926)
being broken up; and the Yukon has reverted in a large measure to its
former primeval, dormant, lonely state.

Such, in brief, is the white man's history of the Yukon, with all of
which the river remains but half known, at best. It has never been
fully surveyed, which would be a vast and unending task. It contains
a large number of barely known little tributaries that are lost in
the jungle-covered flats with their many pools and lakes. It has
innumerable islands and channels, in which the traveler is easily lost,
and it cuts and builds constantly during the open season. Its valley is
squally and rainy. The stream may one moment be like a great, liquid,
softly flowing mirror, to be in a few minutes churned into an ugly and
dangerous roughness from which every smaller boat must seek shelter.
Its shores are inhospitable, except for the native fisherman and
hunter, and torment man with swarms of gnats and mosquitoes.

But there is no malaria; no snakes or other poisonous things. And
when the weather is decent the water, the wooded shores, and the
fresh, clean virginal parklike islands have a greatness and charm that
compensate for much. Besides which there is the still more intensive
allure of original exploration. Botany, zoology, and above all
paleontology, find here still a fruitful field, while for anthropology,
and especially archeology, the land is still largely a terra incognita.

FOOTNOTES:

[15] There is some confusion about the exact date of Glazunof's
journey, partly due perhaps to the fact that he started on Dec. 30.
Wrangell (Stat. and Ethnog. Nachricht., 138) says that Glazunof's
expedition was outfitted the same year (1833) in which the St. Michael
redoubt was established. In Zeleny's abstract of Zagoskin's report
(p. 212) and by Zagoskin himself (pp. 6, 23) the departure of the
expedition is put a year later, or 1834, which is probably correct.
Dall's remarks (Alaska and Its Resources, 276, 338) on the subject
contain several errors, both of dates and facts. There is also
considerable confusion as to the names Kvikhpak and Yukon. The term
Kvikhpak (Kvikh, river; pak, large) is of Eskimo origin and was applied
by these to that part of the river which they occupied. The name Yukon,
or something near this, is of Indian derivation and was applied to
those parts of the river, below Tanana at least, that were peopled by
the Khotana or Indians.

[16] Richardson, J., Arctic Searching Expedition, London, 1851, II, 206.

[17] For details see Dall's Alaska and Its Resources, Boston, 1870.

[18] See Compilation of Explorations in Alaska, Senate Rept. 1023,
Washington, 1900; and reports on Alaska of the United States Geological
Survey.


THE YUKON NATIVES

Upon their arrival on the Kvikpak and Yukon, the Russians found the
banks of the stream peopled in its upper and middle courses by Indians
and lower down by the Eskimo.[19] The last Indian village downstream
was Aninulykhtykh-pak, since completely gone. Its site is identifiable
with one that used to exist in front of the present mission of Holy
Cross or just above. The first Eskimo village of some note was Paimute.

As to the Indians of the Yukon and its tributaries, there is a
considerable confusion of names, almost every author using his own
spelling and subdivisions. It is evident that there were two sets of
names of the various Indian contingents, namely the names, sometimes
contemptuous, given to them by outsiders, and the names in use
among themselves, which generally meant the people of this or that
locality. The facts are that they all belonged to the Tinné or Dené
family;[20],[21] that there were two probably related generic names for
them, namely Kutchin (used especially on the upper Yukon) and Khotana
(used mainly along the central and lower parts of the stream); and
that along the Yukon itself, with its channels, there were three main
subdivisions of the people: The Kutchin (with various qualifications)
on the upper parts of the river, down to Fort Yukon; the Yukonikhotana,
from Fort Yukon to Nulato;[22] and the Kain (Petrof) or Kaiyuh (Dall)
Khotana, or Inkaliks (of the Russians), from Nulato to Holy Cross.

In addition there were the Tenan-kutchin Tenan-khotana or Mountain-men
of the Tanana; and the Yunnaka-khotana (Zagoskin) or Koyukuk-khotana
(Dall), the people of the Koyukuk.

These groups were settled in a moderate number of permanent or winter
villages along the rivers, in the summer spreading along the streams in
camps. The population found by the first Russian explorer, Glazunof,
from Anvik to Aninulykhtykh-pak, was seemingly a rather large one. He
is reported by Wrangell to have counted, at Anvik, 240 grown males; at
Magimiut, 35; and at Aninulykhtykh-pak 300. At the last-named village
in particular there were present "many people," Glazunof estimating
altogether nearly 700. These figures, except for Magimiut, seem too
large and were not even approached later; but before the next count,
that by Zagoskin, all these settlements had been visited by smallpox;
and at the big village Glazunoff may have seen a potlatch, such as may
still yearly be witnessed at some settlements on the river.

Zagoskin in 1843 made a detailed and evidently reliable count of all
the villages that became known to him. His data in this respect, as in
others, being of fundamental value, are here given, the Eskimo, for
convenience, being included.

FOOTNOTES:

[19] See Auszug aus dem Tagebuche des Schiffer-gehülfen Andreas
Glasunow. In Wrangell. Ferd. v., Statistische und ethnographische
Nachrichten ü. d. Russichen Besitzungen a. d. Nordwestküste v. Amerika.
Ed. by K. C. v. Baer, St. Petersburg, 1839, 137-160. Zagoskin, A.,
Pes̆echodnaia opis c̆asti russkick vladenii v. Amerikě. 2 parts, St.
Petĕrsburg. 1847-1848, pp. 1-183, 1-120, and 1-43; with a map.

[20] Dall, Contr. N. A. Ethn., vol. 1, p. 17.

[21] Zagoskin: "* * * great family of the Ttynai nation, which occupies
the interior of the mainland of our colonies and known to us under
various names--Yug-elnut, Tutna, Golcanĕ or Kilc̆anĕ [according to the
pronunciation of those giving the information], Kenaici, Inkaliti,
Inkalich-liuatov [distant Inkaliks], and others--names given to them by
the neighboring coastal people."

[22] Petrof, Ivan, p. 161: "This tribe, comprising the Yunakhotana and
the Kutchakutchin of Dall, inhabits the banks of the Yukon River from
Fort Yukon westward to Nulato."


NATIVE VILLAGES ON THE YUKON AND IN THE VICINITY, 1843 (ZAGOSKIN, III,
39-41)[23]

  -----------------------------------------+-------+----------+-------
                  Villages                 | Total |  Adult   | Houses
                                           |       | males[24]|
  -----------------------------------------+-------+----------+-------
                  INDIANS                  |       |          |
  Inkalit-Iugelnut:                        |       |          |
      Inselnostlende                       |    33 |      8   |    2
      Khuingitatekhten                     |    37 |     11   |    3
      Iltenleiden                          |   100 |     30   |    6
      Tlego                                |    45 |     14   |    3
      Khuligichagat                        |    70 |     25   |    5
      Kvygympainag-miut                    |    71 |     25   |    3
      Vazhichagat                          |    80 |     18   |    5
      Anvig                                |   120 |     37   |    5
      Makki                                |    44 |      9   |    3
      Anilukhtakpak                        |   170 |     48   |    8
                                           +-------+----------+-------
        Total                              |   770 |    225   |   43
                                           +=======+==========+=======
  Inkiliks proper:                         |       |          |
      Kunkhogliuk                          |    11 |      5   |    2
      Ulukak                               |    35 |     10   |    4
      Ttutago                              |    32 |      8   |    2
      Kakoggo-khakat                       |     9 |      3   |    1
      Khutul-khakat                        |    16 |      4   |    2
      Khaltag                              |     9 |      3   |    1
      Khogoltlinde                         |    60 |     17   |    4
      Takaiak                              |    81 |     27   |    7
      Khuli-kakat                          |    11 |      3   |    1
                                           +-------+----------+-------
        Total                              |   264 |     80   |   24
                                           +=======+==========+=======
  Yunnaka-khotana:                         |       |          |
      Notaglit                             |    37 |      8   |    3
      Tlialil-kakat                        |    27 |      7   |    3
      Toshoshgon                           |    30 |      5   |    2
      Tok-khakat                           |     6 |      3   |    1
      Nok-khakat                           |    50 |     11   |    3
      Kakhliakhlia-kakat                   |    26 |      7   |    2
      Tsonagogliakhten                     |    11 |      4   |    1
      Tsogliachten                         |     7 |      2   |    1
      Khotyl-kakat                         |    65 |     19   |    4
      Unylgakhtkhokh                       |    17 |      2   |    2
      Nulato                               |    13 |      2   |    1
                                           +-------+----------+-------
        Total                              |   289 |     70   |   23
                                           +=======+==========+=======
  Tlegon-khotana:                          |       |          |
      Innoko natives seen on the Yukon     |    44 |     33   |    3
      Village totality                     |    45 |     14   |    3
                                           +-------+----------+-------
        Total                              |    89 |     47   |    6
                                           +=======+==========+=======
  All Indians counted on Yukon and Koyukuk | 1,359 |[25]422   |  132
                                           +=======+==========+=======
              ESKIMO                       |       |          |
  Kavliunag-miut                           |    11 |      3   |    1
  Nygyklig-miut                            |    13 |      4   |    1
  Kanyg-miut                               |    45 |     11   |    4
  Ankachag-miut                            |   122 |     32   |    6
  Takchag-miut                             |    40 |     12   |    3
  Ikuag-miut                               |   130 |     35   |    6
  Nukhluiag-miut                           |    60 |     17   |    4
  Ikogmiut                                 |    92 |     22   |    5
  Ikaligvig-miut                           |    45 |     14   |    3
  Pai-miut                                 |   123 |     35   |    5
                                           +-------+----------+-------
        Total of Kvikhpag-miut             |   681 |    185   |   38
  -----------------------------------------+-------+----------+-------

Dall, referring to 1866-67 (Contr. Am. Ethn., I, 23, 39), estimated the
number of the Yukon Eskimo at 1,000 and that of the Yukon and Koyukuk
Indians, from the mouth of the Tanana downward, at 2,800. Only a few
sites of villages are incidentally given by Dall.

Ivan Petrof, as a special agent for Alaska of the United States Census
for 1880, reports himself the following Indian settlements and numbers
of inhabitants on the Yukon (Compil. Narrat. Expl. Alaska, 68; gives
also data on Eskimo, but his arrangement and unidentifiable localities
prevent these data from being used here):

  Anvik station and village     94
  Single house                  20
  Single house                  12
  Single house                  15
  Tanakhothaiak                 52
  Single house                  15
  Chageluk settlements         150
  Khatnotoutze                 115
  Kaiakak                      124
  Kaltag                        45
  Nulato, station and village  163
  Koyukuk settlements          150
  Terentiefs station            15
  Big Mountain                 100
  Single house                  10
  Sakatalan                     25
  Yukokakat                      6
  Melozikakat                   30
  Mentokakat                    20
  Soonkakat                     12
  Medvednaia                    15
  Novo-kakat                   106
  Kozmas                        11
  Nuklukaiet                    27
  Rampart village              110
  Fort Yukon                    82

Later demographic records on the Yukon and its tributaries and on the
coast comprise additional data by Petrof, published as a part of the
Eleventh (1890) United States Census and arranged by districts and
linguistic groups; and the data of three subsequent United States
Censuses, 1900, 1910, and 1920, which are given in differing ways,
but in the main by major ethnic and territorial or jurisdictional
subdivisions.

Due to incomplete enumerations; to the use of native estimates for
actual count (as seems to have been the case with Dall's figures, as
well as others); the different methods and classifications employed;
and the inclusion of units now into one and now into another group
(as with Petrof, who includes three Indian villages below Anvik among
the Eskimo, etc.), the various counts are not comparable and give but
hazy ideas of the true conditions. Yet they are not without value,
particularly in showing the earlier population of the villages and the
relative proportion of the sexes and ages. The more helpful details are
given in the appendix; for still others see references in bibliography.

FOOTNOTES:

[23] See also Petrof (Ivan), Tenth Census Rep., Wash., 1880, VIII, 37;
but his transliteration of names is not always correct.

[24] This doubtless included many subadults.

[25] 31 per cent, or 1 in 3.2.


PRESENT CONDITIONS

To-day, judging from all the obtained evidence, which comprised
information, the witnessing of a potlatch at Tanana at which were
assembled practically all the Indians above Nulato, and a visit below
the Tanana of nearly all the villages where the Indians still live, the
total number of the Tinneh on the lower Tanana (from Fairbanks to the
mouth of the river) and on the Yukon from Tanana to Anvik, can scarcely
be estimated to reach 1,000. It is probably well below that number.
Moreover, not one-half of the adults and much fewer among the young
are still full bloods. Disease, bad liquor (Yukon), and mostly as yet
imperfect accommodation to changing conditions are steadily diminishing
the numbers. Since our visit many have died from influenza, especially
at Anvik. Their future is not hopeful. On the Tanana, however, and with
the more educated in general, conditions are better, and much good is
being done by the four missions on the two rivers (Nenana, Tanana,
Anvik, and Holy Cross).

The old Indian settlements along the Yukon are gone, with a few
exceptions. On some of the sites, as at Tanana, Nulato, Kaltag, etc.,
there are new villages bearing the old names but built by or in
imitation of whites and sheltering a mixed population. The very names
of not a few of the older Indian sites have gone into oblivion; or the
natives call those they still know by a corruption of a white man's
name, such as "Ulstissen" (for Old Station). Anvik alone has kept its
original site and some of its old character, the mission and the white
trader being across the river.

In the Eskimo part of the Yukon, below Holy Cross, conditions on the
whole appear to be somewhat better. There has also been a diminution
in population. The majority of the old villages have ceased to exist,
while under the influence of whites some new settlements or names
have appeared. Yet there are respectable remnants of the Eskimo, and,
being better workers than the Indian and seemingly more coherent,
they manage to sustain themselves somewhat better than he does. Their
greatest handicap is disease. The beneficial effect among them of the
old Russian Mission has declined, but there are a number of Government
schools which have a good influence. They are more tractable, sensible,
and in some respects perhaps more able than the Indians.

But there exists to-day no clear-cut demarcation, geographical,
cultural, or even physical, between the two people. Anvik, the last
Indian village downstream, is in every respect at least as much Eskimo
as Indian; more or less Eskimo-like physiognomies are seen again and
again among the Indians; and Indianlike features are common among the
Eskimo. There has either been an old and considerable admixture on both
sides, or there are some fundamental similarities of the two groups;
perhaps both.


ARCHEOLOGY OF THE YUKON

Up to 1926 no archeological work had been done along the Yukon or
its tributaries, and barring a few isolated specimens there were no
archeological collections from these regions.

The archeology of the river consists, (1) of the dead but formerly
known villages; (2) of older sites, "dead" and unknown before even
the Russians arrived; and (3) of random stone objects worked by man
that now and then are washed out from the river banks or are found in
working the ground. Except in details conditions are much alike along
the whole river and will best be dealt with as a whole.


THE RANDOM SPECIMENS

Wherever the beach of the river shows more or less of stones that are
not talus or just pebbles, there are generally found stones worked
by man. Such localities are scarce. The first exists between Tanana
(the village) and the mission above it. Here specimens are found
occasionally on the beach and occasionally in the soil of the local
gardens. Other such sites were located at Bonasila, below Anvik, and
in four places between Paimute and the Russian Mission. A few are also
present from Marshall seaward.

An examination of the terrain adjacent to such parts of the beach shows
mostly, but not always, traces of an old settlement.

The specimens consist of characteristic axes or adzes, stone scrapers,
hammers, stone knives (along the Eskimo part of the river), tomahawk
heads (probably), objects less well defined, and chips. There may be
semifossilized animal bones, and rarely a bit of charcoal, a piece of
pottery (for details see Narrative), or an object of ivory.

The ax proper is peculiar. It is a cupid's-bow ax, double-edged,
and with one or two grooves across its middle. (Pl. 10.) It is as a
rule made of heavy basaltic stone, and its edges are sharpened by
polishing. Rough parts may have been polished also on the body. Its
distal surface is convex (from sharp edge to sharp edge), its proximal
surface straight or mildly convex. I succeeded in getting a specimen
remounted recently by one of the Indians near Tanana. This form of an
ax is still remembered by the old Indians when in use. They cut trees
with it, cutting sidewise and detaching the wood in splinters. They
also remember clubs with stone heads, and told me they were carried
on the back over the right shoulder so as to be ready for instant and
effective use.

These axes have apparently been used by both the Indians and the
Eskimo, but there is an interesting difference. The several specimens I
obtained or saw from Tanana to Ruby were all complete. But from, about
the vicinity of Ruby downstream the bi-edged ax seems to disappear, or,
rather, one-half of it disappears, the butt henceforth either being
left unfinished or one-half of the double ax being broken off and the
remainder being mounted now as an adze on a shorter handle. This form,
and it exclusively, with various secondary modifications, is found over
a wide area among the Eskimo and may reach into Asia, for I obtained a
specimen of it from one of the Diomede Islands. It connects directly
with the Bering Sea Eskimo ivory adze and chisel. On the other hand the
bi-edged ax appears, in various modifications, to extend widely over
Indian Alaska.

The remaining stone implements need but little mention here. They will
be studied and reported separately by our archeologist. A special
note will, however, be necessary later about the very primitive stone
industry of Bonasila, below Anvik. (See p. 144.)

Of pottery I have seen no example above Anvik, but this can not be
taken as evidence of its absence above that point. At Anvik, Bonasila,
and farther down the pottery is like that of the western Eskimo. It
is coarse ware, hand shaped, and of rather poor quality. It consists
of small round bowls to fairly large, more or less conical, jars. It
is never painted but is frequently decorated with thumb marks and
especially with grooves running parallel with the border.

Ivory implements were encountered first at Bonasila and consisted of
a few fine long points barbed on one side, looking like those of the
Eskimo and probably of Eskimo origin. There were also a few tools of
bone, generally scrapers.

Russian beads, especially those of the large blue variety, are
occasionally encountered, usually singly or in small numbers,
especially in some spots.

A unique archeological specimen from the lower middle portion of the
Yukon Valley is the large stone dish obtained by Mr. Müller, the trader
at Kaltag. (See p. 34.)

Besides these random specimens, other cultural objects are found
along the Yukon in connection with old burials. These consist of an
occasional wooden dish, sharpening or polishing stones, rarely a
figurine (doll?) in ivory, Russian snuffboxes, fire sticks, dishes of
birch bark, etc. The cullings in this field are quite poor, but there
has been no excavation of older burials that have been assimilated by
the tundra and lie now in the earth beneath.

The archeology of the old habitation sites, on the other hand,
particularly perhaps on the Shageluk and between Holy Cross and
Marshall, is decidedly promising and invites careful excavation.


LOCATION OF VILLAGES AND SITES ON THE YUKON

Especial attention was given to the location of the numerous dead
villages and older sites along the Yukon. This task was found, in
most instances, fairly easy with villages that "died" since the
Russo-American occupation, for mostly they still show plain traces and
are generally remembered by the old Indians or even old white settlers.
Their precise allocation on a map, however, is not always easy or
certain. As to the prehistoric sites the search is much more difficult
and depends largely on chance discoveries.

The villages still existing give only a partial clue, in many cases,
to the old, even where these bore the same name, for on occasions a
village changed its location, though remaining in the same general
vicinity and retaining the same name. Thus there existed at different
times apparently, between the earliest contacts with whites and the
present, at least 2 Nuklukhayets, 2 Lowdens, 3 Nulatos, 3 Kaltags, 2
Anviks, etc.; besides which there were differences in recording the
names and changes due to efforts at translation of the native term, or
an application by the whites of a new name, often that of a trader or
settler, to an old site.

In places even late village sites, in others burials, were witnessed
being undermined by the river or the sea. Such sites with their
contents will probably sooner or later be completely lost from this
cause. Many doubtless have thus been lost previously.

The villages and sites located along the Yukon are here enumerated and
as far as possible charted. Information about them was obtained from
the older Indians or river Eskimo and from such whites as had direct
knowledge in that line. Most of these sites were examined personally,
but in some instances this was impossible. The details concerning those
seen will be found in the Narrative, but a few generalizations may here
be useful.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 9

_a_, My "spoils," loaded on sled, Point Hope. (A. H., 1926)

_b_, The load is heavy and sledding over sand and gravel difficult. (A.
H., 1926)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 10

CHARACTERISTIC STONE AXES. MIDDLE YUKON

(A. H. coll., 1926.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 11

CRUDE STONE ARTIFACTS, FOUND AT BONASILA, LOWER MIDDLE YUKON

(A. H. coll., 1926.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 12

CRUDE STONE ARTIFACTS, FOUND AT BONASILA. LOWER MIDDLE YUKON

(A. H. coll., 1926.)]

[Illustration: FIGURE 2.--The Yukon from Tanana to below Kokrines]

[Illustration: FIGURE 3.--The Yukon from below Kokrines to below
Koyukuk]

The dead village sites are much alike along the whole river. They are
generally located at the mouth, of some inland stream that carries
clear fresh water, particularly if on the other side there is the
protection of a hill. The dwellings were invariably on a flat and were
throughout semisubterranean and of the same general type; which applies
also to the larger communal houses or "cashims." The sites can often be
told from afar in summer by the rich grass that covers them.

[Illustration: FIGURE 4.--The Yukon from below Koyukuk to Lofkas]

The burials were as a rule not far from a village and preferably on
the slopes of the nearest hill. They were mostly above ground, but
under the influence of Russians there were also shallow-ground burials.
The latter can readily be told by the sawed planks of the coffins and
the iron nails by which they are fastened. In many places no surface
burials remain or there are mere traces. In such, places little mounds
may betray old burials assimilated by the tundra. Trenching in likely
spots would doubtless reveal others of which no trace remains on the
surface.

[Illustration: FIGURE 5.--Old map of the Nulato district]

No excavations of any of these sites have ever been attempted, but many
of the surface burials were disturbed or destroyed by seekers of relics
and the curious vandal, who is present on the Yukon as in other parts
of the country.

[Illustration: FIGURE 6.--Map of Kaltag and vicinity. (By McLeod)]

The maps shown here were made under my direction on the basis of
maps and charts provided by the Geological and Geodetic Surveys, in
Washington. Additional old sites will doubtless be located in the
future and may be added to these records.


PRE-RUSSIAN SITES

[Illustration: FIGURE 7.--The Yukon from Bystraia to below Holy Cross]

As already told in the Narrative, a search for truly ancient sites
along the Yukon has proven largely negative. A more intense and
prolonged archeological survey, with exploratory trenches wherever
there is promise, may one day prove more fruitful. But, as pointed out
before, much can never be expected. Man could at no time have occupied
the Yukon Valley and watershed in large numbers. He would not have
found enough sustenance. Even with fair resources he would hardly have
tarried in these inclement regions as long as the ways toward the south
were open. He never built here of lasting materials and had little
chance to develop or even keep up any higher culture, and since he is
gone the ever-cutting river has taken away whatever it could reach and
scattered it through its silts and gravels. There is nevertheless a
number of small elevated plateaus along the right bank that ought to
be sounded by exploratory pits or trenches, particularly perhaps where
there are traces of later habitations.

[Illustration: FIGURE 8.--The Yukon from above Holy Cross to below
Mountain Village]

[Illustration: FIGURE 9.--The Yukon from below Mountain Village to near
Marshall]

There are, of course, some sites that are older than others. The most
interesting of these was found at Bonasila, beneath the old site of
Makki or Magimute, 18 miles downstream from Anvik. (See Narrative.) The
main facts concerning this site are as follows:

[Illustration: FIGURE 10.--The Yukon from near Marshall to below
Kavlingnak]

At the above distance from Anvik, on the right bank of the river and
following a wooded hill, is a low flat backed by rising ground and cut
across by a little stream. The flat is narrow, at present about 300
feet; and the part above the stream is deeply pitted by the remains of
semisubterranean houses of a "dead" native village, which I believe is
identifiable with the Magimute of the Russians. On the slope behind
the village were still about a score of old surface burials, with an
article here and there of Russian derivation.

The bank of the flat rises at present only about 4 feet above the beach
of the river, but the flat behind is higher. The bank itself contains
many specimens showing human workmanship, consisting of objects of
stone, birch bark, bone, and rarely also of ivory, besides many
fragments of pottery, many bones of wild Alaskan animals, and here and
there a human skeleton. Some of these objects are low down in the bank.
All the bones from the bank, including the human, and even the rare
points of ivory, are semifossilized; the stone industry is peculiar;
and the human remains differ plainly from both those of the later Yukon
Indian and from those of the Eskimo. They are apparently Indian (see
section on physical characteristics), but a tall Indian of a type that
now is only met with much farther south.

[Illustration: FIGURE 11.--From above Kobolunuk to mouth of river]

The stone industry from the bank appeared at first sight so primitive
that even the term "paleolithic" would not fit and the only term
that seemed to meet the situation was "protolithic." It consists
predominantly of scrapers and knockers, with here and there a tool
sharpened for cutting. The scrapers look especially crude. They consist
simply of pieces of smaller or larger andesite-like volcanic slabs
broken to the desired size and chipped more or less roughly along what
was to be the scraping edge. A closer examination of the stones, which
were obtained from a base of a cliff farther down the river, showed,
however, that they were of material which is hard to work, and that the
chipping, under the circumstances, was not really bad. (Pls. 11, 12.)
Pottery must have been fairly plentiful and quite up to the average of
the river, both in make and decoration.

Two fine long, partly fossilized ivory points picked up formerly on the
site were obtained from Mr. Lawrence. They are handsomely barbed on
one side and show a high grade of skill. They must have come from the
Bering Sea and may belong to the old fine ivory culture of the western
part of that region, of which more later.

There are also some fairly ancient sites farther down the river (see
Narrative), but just what they are and how old remains to be determined.

A report on the archeological remains from the bank of Bonasila by Mr.
H. W. Krieger, one of the curators of the Department of Anthropology,
United States National Museum, follows:



ARCHEOLOGY OF CENTRAL ALASKA


ANCIENT STONE CULTURE

"Until the results of Doctor Hrdlička's Alaskan reconnaissance were
first made known to science it had been generally assumed that Alaskan
and Canadian subboreal regions were archeologically barren. It had been
currently accepted that only as one approached the great river valleys
of the Skeena, the Fraser, and the Columbia could anthropological
exploration be conducted to advantage. One might expect to uncover
cemeteries and ancient village sites only there where a dense and
sedentary population had long been established. Through the discovery
of ancient village sites and centers of population in the lower and
middle Yukon River Valley, Doctor Hrdlička has extended the northern
archeological horizon into the sub-Arctic.

"Of the many sites examined, the old village site at Bonasila, 18 miles
below the confluence of the Anvik and Yukon Rivers, yielded the most
interesting data. Crudely flaked implements of trap rock with cutting
edges showing evidence of chipping and grinding were uncovered. These
implements are unique among Alaskan artifacts and have no relationship
with known types of Eskimo or Indian stonework. In the shaping technic
employed by their aboriginal makers; in form, and in type; and,
generally, in their undeveloped character, the stone artifacts from
Bonasila and other ancient archeological sites on the middle Yukon may
be classified as primitive neolithic.

"The stone implements uncovered at Bonasila are so crudely fashioned
and are apparently of such an improvised nature as to suggest an
extreme conservatism in culture development, or perhaps a degeneration,
due largely to lack of better materials. Due to the lack of basalt,
jadeite, or other hard stone in the valley of the lower middle Yukon,
recourse was had to sandstone and trap rock by the primitive makers of
stone axes and celts.

"Crude pottery vessels and potsherds were discovered associated with
the objects of stone. This ware incorporates elementary decorative
designs distinct from the known historic Eskimo or Indian types of
pottery decoration. There can be no intimation that this ware is
archaic or that it belongs to any archaic culture offshoot from farther
south. It therefore becomes a question of some unknown earlier Asiatic
culture connection that manifested itself in crude forms of flaked and
ground stone implements and in unique pottery forms. It is uncertain
that the ancient fossil ivory culture of northwest Alaska, of which
Doctor Hrdlička has brought in some excellent examples, is in any
manner associated with the primitive neolithic stone and pottery forms
uncovered at Bonasila. It is established, however, beyond a doubt that
both cultures and types of artifacts are Asiatic in origin and have
little or no connection with the culture of the western Eskimo.

"The Eskimos of the lower Yukon Valley made extensive use of slate and
of jadeite in the production of their polished knives and celts. Slate
knives and polished celts of jadeite are characteristic of Eskimoan
culture throughout the whole of its extent in Alaska. Each of these
materials as well as the finished products shaped from them were
subjects of native barter. Eskimos often undertook long journeys for
their procurement. It is therefore noteworthy that no single object
fashioned from slate or jadeite and but few points of fossilized ivory
were recovered at any of the sites characterized by the primitive stone
culture and pottery of the Bonasila type.

"The most characteristic finds at Bonasila are the crudely flaked
implements of stone, some of which show incipient chipping and
grinding. The coarse type of pottery is unlike that of the modern
Eskimo in tempering, firing, and decorative design.

"The stone culture of the site, although rich in forms, is deficient
in technical development and is scarcely worthy of being classed
as neolithic. There were found in numbers the following types of
artifacts: Circular, discoidal stone pebbles with rim fractures due to
use; river wash pebbles of irregular form used as improvised scrapers
and hammerstones; basaltic, discoidal hammerstones with abraded edges
and pitted at the center; large flake saws of trachyte (trap rock)
triangular in section but provided with sharply fractured cutting
edges; slender flaked fragments of trap rock tapered to the form of
wedges with intentionally worked end sections and cutting edges;
crudely flaked stone knives with evidence of secondary chipping at
cutting edges; other knives of thin slabs of trap rock with flaked
and bilaterally ground beveled cutting edges; oblong axes of flaked
sandstone with hafting notches struck off at the edges midway from the
base; abrading tools of sandstone; celts of sandstone with ground and
beveled working edge and notched for hafting as an ax; stone scrapers
with ground and beveled cutting edges; fragmentary perforators of
stone; re-chipped, flaked knives shaped by grinding; roughly worked,
multiple-grooved hammers or mauls; and many stone objects unformed and
unworked but classified generally as hammerstones.


THE POTTERY

"About a hundred pottery shards and smaller pottery vessels were
recovered from the site at Bonasila. Pottery vessels representative of
the Bonasila culture were shaped out of the solid and show no trace of
coiling. In this respect they conform to the generalized north Asiatic
and Eskimo ware. There is, however, no check stamp decorative design
that is applied with a paddle by the Eskimo nor evidence that pottery
vessels had been built up about a basketry base. The paste is light
buff or gray in color, the buff ware being better fired and of the same
color on the inside, while the gray ware is either gray or black on
the inner surface. A well-defined unfired area covers one-half of the
sectional diameter. Both buff and gray wares show evidence of better
firing than in modern Eskimo pottery. Tempering is of coarse fragments
of steatite, which is much more durable than tempering materials such
as blood, feathers, and ashes formerly employed by the primitive Eskimo
potter.

"The pottery from Bonasila is utilitarian and consists of shallow
spherical lamps, globose bowls, and cooking pots without feet or
bases. The ware is coarse, side walls and bottom varying from 1 to 2
centimeters in sectional thickness. This type of pottery is practically
duplicated in shards recovered by Doctor Hrdlička from what is now
Eskimo territory in the Yukon Valley near the Russian Mission. It
is probable that further search would bring to light an extensive
region yielding this type of ancient pottery of distinctive design and
unrelated either to Tinné or Eskimo ware.

"Decorative attempts consist of bold incised parallel transverse
lines on the upper sector of the outer surface of the vessel. Deep
corrugations appear on the inside of the rim flare. Both corrugations
and incised line decorations were made with a paddle or wood splinter
shaped for the purpose. Some of the shards have deeply incised
punctations irregularly encircling the outer surface of the vessel just
below the rim extension.

"Shallow spherical pottery lamps accompanied surface burials at
Bonasila. These lamps have a less durable tempering material than the
other pottery fragments recovered. The paste is porous and is poorly
fired. Decorative designs incised on the interior surface of the lamps
are reminiscent of typical Eskimo punctate designs as traced on the
inner circumference of rectilinear or curvilinear etchings on ivory and
bone. It is very probable that these pottery lamps are of a later date
and are of Eskimoan handicraft.


THE ALASKAN GROOVED STONE AX

[Pl. 10]

"The grooved stone ax is a typical New World implement. Its
distribution is limited to tribes of the eastern maize area, the
Pueblo tribes of the Southwest, the Athapascans, and the northern
woodlands tribes. Elsewhere in America grooved stone implements of
any description are rare, although not unknown. The groove for the
attachment of cord or sinew binding is common also to the stone adze,
which is characteristic of Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest
and of the Eskimo of Arctic America. The distribution of the stone
adze is more intensive but is much less extensive than is that of the
grooved stone ax and appears to be an environmental form borrowed from
the Arctic tribes by the Indian of southeast Alaska and of British
Columbia.

"The double-bitted, multiple-grooved stone ax has two areas of
distribution in North America. One of these is the country of the
northeastern woodlands Indians, extending as far south as the Central
Atlantic States. The other area of distribution is the extreme
northwest, or the mainland of Alaska.

"In the collection brought to the National Museum from Alaska by
Doctor Hrdlička are eight grooved stone implements. All but one of
these have cutting edges for use as axes or adzes. The exception,
Cat. No. 332809, U.S.N.M., is a grooved spherical stone maul or club
9.5 centimeters (3.7 inches) long and 7.5 centimeters (2.9 inches)
in sectional diameter. This grooved object was found near Tanana on
the beach of the Yukon River. Like the grooved stone axes in Doctor
Hrdlička's collection, the groove is incomplete. A flattened space
of approximately 2 centimeters is left un-grooved for the hafting of
a flat surfaced handle end with binding, which is passed around the
transverse groove and then through a hole in the wooden handle.

"Three single-grooved, double-bitted stone axes were collected from
various points on the Yukon River. These are of interest because of
their similar grooving and double cutting edges. Each is identical in
form, each has been shaped by pecking, except in the sector near the
cutting edges where they have been sharpened and polished by grinding.
Between the raised borders of the centrally pecked groove and the
cutting edges the surface has been shaped to a slight concavity by
pecking. In Cat. No. 332805, U.S.N.M., this concavity is replaced by a
well-defined convex bevel. The pecked groove is at right angles to the
longitudinal axis and is comparatively shallow but has a wide diameter
of 2 centimeters or more. The material is uniformly of basalt. The axes
are 20 centimeters or more long, while the sectional diameter varies
from 6 to 10 centimeters according to whether the ax is flattened or
oval in section.

"Grooved, double-bitted stone axes similar to those collected by Doctor
Hrdlička from the Middle Yukon region have since become known also from
stations farther south in Alaska. One was plowed up in a field near
Matanuska and is now in the chamber of commerce exhibit at Anchorage,
while another was collected in 1927 by the writer from near Chitna,
Alaska. This Alaskan type of grooved ax is practically identical with
that of the central Atlantic seaboard States, as figured by Walter
Hough in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum, volume
60, article 9, page 14.

"Another grooved type of stone object brought to the National Museum
by Doctor Hrdlička is a stone war club of unusual type. It was found
on the Yukon River beach 1½ miles below the Mission at Tanana. It
is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) long and is slender, the maximum
sectional diameter being but 3.5 centimeters (1.4 inches). Like the
single-grooved axes, it was shaped by pecking, but much of the surface
was also ground. The reverse or hafting surface is flat; the obverse is
convexly tapered to sharp cutting edges which are at right angles to
the haft. The material is basalt. The hafting grooves, two in number,
are comparatively deep and closely spaced. As to form this stone weapon
is unique, appearing, so far as is known to the writer, nowhere else
on the American Continent. It has been entered on the records of the
National Museum as Cat. No. 332807, U.S.N.M.

"One form of the double-bitted, multiple-grooved stone axes resembles
closely ivory forms made from walrus tusks in the Bering Sea region.
This form also gives evidence of secondary modification, specimens
having been broken intentionally to reduce the tool to a simple adze.
The material is basalt and its range in the north is limited to the
Eskimo area, but becomes widespread to the south in southeastern Alaska
and in British Columbia. The form of this widely diffused stone adze
is approximated in a series of broken stone axes collected by Doctor
Hrdlička. Two such broken and originally double-bitted axes, Cat. Nos.
332806 and 332810, U.S.N.M., were collected from the banks of the Yukon
at an old village site below Anvik. These axes are broken with a crude
irregular fracture just above the upper transverse groove. Another
stone ax, Cat. No. 332812, U.S.N.M., is from Ruby, Alaska, and is
practically identical with the double-bitted but single-grooved stone
ax from Tanana.

"It would appear from this brief presentation that there is a
remarkable similarity of form, approaching identity, in the ancient
stone axes from the river valleys of central Alaska. Whether the
particular ax has one cutting edge or is double-bitted; whether it is
provided with one or with two parallel transverse hafting grooves, the
general identity of form remains. The striking thing about the presence
of the double-bitted ax among archeological finds from central Alaska
is that we do not find it represented in such numbers anywhere until it
again reappears in the Atlantic seaboard States. The very interesting
cultural objects discovered by Doctor Hrdlička and supplemented by
my collection in 1927 show that Alaska is far from sterile or fully
known archeologically and make further exploration both promising and
important."



ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE YUKON


Notes on the physique of the Yukon natives are found in the reports
of all the explorers of the river, but they are imperfect and of
little scientific value; the principal ones are given below.[26]
Anthropometric observations on the living people of the middle and
lower Yukon, with its tributaries, are nonexistent.[27] As to crania,
there are a few measurements on two "Yukon Indian" skulls (No. 7530,
and probably No. 7531), and on three crania of the Yukon Eskimo, by
Jeffries Wyman (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1868, XI, 452); on one
"Ingaleet" and three "Mahlemut" or Norton Sound Eskimo skulls by George
A. Otis (List of Specimens, etc., 35); and on four skulls collected
by Dall, one from Nulato and the rest presumably from St. Michael, by
Hrdlička (Catal. of Crania, p. 30, Nos. 242925, 242899, 242901, 242936).

FOOTNOTES:

[26] Glazunof (Wrangell, Stat. und Ethnog. Nachr., 146-147): "The men
are big, brunette, with bristly black hair."

Zagoskin (pt. II, 61-62): "The Tinneh belong in general to the American
family of redskins, but marked external differences are perceptible
in those who are mixed with the Eskimo. The Tinneh are of medium
stature, rather dry but well shaped, with oblong face, forehead medium,
upright, frequently hairy, nose broad and straight, hooked, eyes black
and dark brown, rather large * * * expression intelligent, in those
of more distant tribes somber, roving; lips full, compressed; teeth
white, straight; hair straight, black to dark brown, fairly soft; many
of the men hairy over the body and with fairly thick, short mustache
and beard; hands and feet medium, calves small; in general lively,
communicative, cheerful, and very fond of pleasure and song."

Dall, William H., Alaska and Its Resources, 53-54: "The Ingaliks are,
as a rule, tall, well made, but slender. They have very long, squarely
oval faces, high, prominent cheek bones, large ears, small mouths,
noses, and eyes, and an unusually large lower jaw. The nose is well
formed and aquiline, but small in proportion to the rest of the face.
The hair is long, coarse, and black, and generally parted in the
middle. * * * Their complexion is an ashy brown, perhaps from dirt in
many cases, and they seldom have much color. On the other hand, the
Koyúkuns, with the same high cheek bones and piercing eyes, have much
shorter faces, more roundly oval, of a pale olive hue, and frequently
arched eyebrows and a fine color. They are the most attractive in
appearance of the Indians in this part of the territory, as they are
the most untamable. The women especially are more attractive than those
among the Ingaliks, whose square faces and ashy complexion render the
latter very plain, not to say repulsive." (Some of these statements
were evidently somewhat in error.--A. H.)

Schwatka, F. (Milit. Reconn. (1883), Comp. Narr. Explor. Alas., 350):
"As regards these Ingaliks as a class, they are, as a rule, of average
height, tolerably well built, but slender, differing in this respect
from the natives farther down the river. They have long black hair and
a complexion brown by nature, but often verging toward black on account
of a liberal covering of dirt."

See also Richardson, J. (Arctic Search. Exp., I, 379). Jones, S., The
Kutchin Tribes (Smiths. Rept. for 1866, 320-327). Whymper, F., Travel
and Advent., etc.; and later writers (including Bancroft's "Native
Races," etc., I, 127 et seq.).

[27] Ten (8 m. 2 f.) Loucheux, or Kucha-Kuchin, from the upper Yukon,
were measured by A. J. Stone and reported by F. Boas (Bull. Am. Mus.
Nat. Hist, New York, vol. XIV, pp. 53-68, 1901).


THE LIVING INDIAN

Notes on the living Indians of the Yukon have already been given in the
Narrative. They will be briefly summarized in this place. Measurements
of the living were impracticable during the journey.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 13

TANANA INDIAN WOMAN]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 14

CHIEF SAN JOSEPH, NEAR TANANA VILLAGE, ON THE YUKON

(A. H., 1926.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 15

_a_. Jacob and Andrew, Yukon Indians at Kokrines. Jacob probably has a
trace of white blood.

(A. H., 1926.)

_b_, Yukon Indians at Kokrines. (A. H., 1926.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 16

_a_, Marguerite Johnny Yatlen, Koyukuk village. (A. H., 1926)

_b_, Lucy John, Koyukuk, daughter of a former chief. (A. H., 1926)

YUKON INDIANS]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 17

_a_, George Halfway, Nulato, on the Yukon. (A. H., 1926)

_b_, Jack Curry, of Nulato, 41 years old. (Now at Ruby, Middle Yukon;
Eskimoid physiognomy)

_c_, Arthur Malamvot, of Nulato

YUKON INDIANS]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 18

_a_, Indian children, Mission School at Anvik, Lower Middle Yukon

_b_, Indian children, Mission School at Anvik, Lower Middle Yukon

_c_, Two women of Anvik, on the Yukon, somewhat Eskimoid]

_Pure bloods._--The Yukon Indians are a sparse and largely mixed
population. The mixture is especially evident in the children and the
younger generation. It is mainly that with whites, but in the lower
settlements there is also a good deal of older mixture with the Eskimo.
There is fortunately as yet no Negro admixture.

_General type._--The full bloods are typically Indian, though not of
the pronounced plains type. The type is fairly uniform, but there is
not seldom, even up the river, as elsewhere in Alaska, a suggestion of
something Eskimoid in the physiognomy.

_Color._--The color in general is near medium brown, ranging to lighter
rather than darker. The hair is the usual full black of the Indian.

_Stature and strength._--- The stature and build are generally near
medium, rather slightly below than above.

_Head form._--The head is generally moderately rounded high meso- to
moderately brachycephalic. The face is medium Indian.

_Body._--The body proportions seldom impress one with unusual strength,
yet some of the men are by no means weaklings. The most fitting term
by which to characterize conditions in this respect is again "medium,"
with an occasional deviation one way or the other.

_Photographs._--The accompanying photographs, taken by the writer from
Tanana to Anvik, show a few of the physiognomies. Some of the girls and
women, as well as boys and men, are quite good looking. (Pls. 13-18.)

From Anvik downward along the river the type of the people becomes
plainly more Eskimoid and on the whole more robust. But as one can
frequently meet farther up the river individuals who remind one more or
less of the Eskimo, so here it is frequent to see faces that look like
Indian. Whether due to old mixture or to other reason, the fact is that
there is no line of somatological demarcation in the living populations
of the river, and the same applies, as will be seen later, to the
skulls.


SKELETAL REMAINS OF THE YUKON

The first Yukon Indian skull measured was that of a half-chief of
the Nulato group, collected in the early sixties by William H. Dall.
There are now three records of this skull, originally and again now a
Smithsonian specimen, one in Wyman ("Observations on Crania," Proc.
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1868, XI, 452, No. 7530), one in the Otis
"Catalogue" (35, No. 259), and one in Hrdlička's "Catalogue of Human
Crania in the United States National Museum Collections" (p. 30, No.
242925). It is a normal, well-developed male skull, which gives no
suggestion of mixture. The true measurements of this "type" specimen,
taken by present-day instruments and methods, are as follows:

      _Yukon Indian skull No. 242925_

  Vault:
    Length                       cm  18.4
    Breadth                      cm  14
    Height to bregma             cm  13.8
    Cranial index                   _76.1_
    Mean height index               _85.2_
    Height-breadth index            _98.6_
    Cranial module
     (mean diameter)             cm  15.40
    Cranial capacity          c. c.  1,520
  Face:
    Menton-nasion (teeth but
      slightly worn)             cm  12.1
    Alveolar point-nasion        cm   7.3
    Diameter bizygomatic
      maximum                    cm  14
    Facial index, total             _86.4_
    Facial index, upper             _52.1_
  Facial angle                       69°
  Alveolar angle                     53.5°
  Orbits:
    Right--
      Height                     cm   3.25
      Breadth                    cm   4.2
    Left--
      Height                     cm   3.45
      Breadth                    cm   4
    Mean index                      _81_
  Nose:
    Height                       cm   5.1
    Breadth                      cm   2.5
    Index                           _49_
  Upper alveolar arch:
    Length                       cm   5.7
    Breadth                      cm   6.7
    Index                           _85.1_
  Basio-facial diameters:
    Basion-alveolar point        cm  10.6
    Basion-subnasal point        cm   9.4
    Basal-nasion                 cm  10.5

The skull is seen to be mesocephalic, rather high, and of good brain
capacity; the face is of medium Indian proportions; the orbits are
unequal, rather low; the nose is of medium height and breadth; the
upper dental arch, the basic-facial diameters, and the facial and
alveolar angles, are all near medium Indian.

There was another Indian skull in the five Wyman reported, but its
identity is uncertain. A later collection by Dall included three Indian
female crania from Alaska, but their exact provenience is uncertain;
their measurements are given in my catalogue.

On the 1926 trip I succeeded in collecting directly from the burials
along the lower middle Yukon 17 adult skulls and skeletons. Such
material is both scarce and difficult to obtain, due to the attitude
of the Indians. All the specimens in the collection are from the
Russian times on the river. A few of the skulls show traces of Eskimoid
in their features, but none offer a suspicion of a mixture with the
whites. The measurements are given below. They partly agree, partly
disagree, with those of the Nulato skull. The vault, the breadth of
the nose, the dimensions of the dental arch, are much alike, but the
height of the face, nose, and orbits in the Nulato specimen is somewhat
lower. These may be tribal but also simply individual differences.
We may generalize by stating that the lower middle Yukon Indian was
mesocephalic, with a fairly high vault, and moderate capacity. The face
was of relatively good height but moderate breadth, resulting in a high
upper facial index. Facial and alveolar prognathism and other features
approach the prevalent Indian medium.

                     LOWER MIDDLE YUKON INDIAN CRANIA

                                 SEX: MALE

  ---------+----------+----------+-----------+----------------+--------
  Catalogue|Collection|Locality  |Approximate| Vault: Diameter|Diameter
  No.      |          |          |age of     |antero-posterior| lateral
           |          |          |subject    |         maximum| maximum
           |          |          |           |    (glabella ad|
           |          |          |           |        maximum)|
  ---------+----------+----------+-----------+----------------+--------
  332512   |A.        |Magi      |Adults     |            18.4|    13.8
           |Hrdlička  |(Bonasila)|           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332517   |do        |Ghost     |do         |            18.1|    13.8
           |          |Creek,    |           |                |
           |          |near Holy |           |                |
           |          |Cross.    |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332514   |do        |do        |do         |            18.0|    13.9
           |          |          |           |                |
  332503   |do        |Greyling  |do         |     [28] (17.3)|  (13.4)
           |          |River     |           |                |
           |          |(above    |           |                |
           |          |Anvik).   |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332507   |do        |Ghost     |do         |            18.2|    14.1
           |          |Creek     |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332526   |do        |do        |do         |            18.5|    14.4
           |          |          |           |                |
  339752   |H. W.     |do        |do         |            17.5|    13.9
           |Krieger   |          |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332502   |A.        |do        |do         |            17.8|    14.2
           |Hrdlička  |          |           |                |
                                             +================+========
                                             |             (7)|     (7)
                                             |                |
  Total                                      |           126.5|    98.1
                                             |                |
  Average                                    |         _18.07_| _14.01_
                                             |                |
  Minimum                                    |            17.5|    13.8
                                             |                |
  Maximum                                    |            18.5|    14.4
  ---------+----------+----------+-----------+----------------+--------

  ---------+-------------+-------+------+--------------+-------+-----------
  Catalogue|Basion-bregma|Cranial|  Mean|Height-breadth|Cranial|  Capacity,
  No.      |       height|  index|height|         index| module|   in c. c.
           |             |       | index|              |       |(Hrdlička's
           |             |       |      |              |       |    method)
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  ---------+-------------+-------+------+--------------+-------+-----------
  332512   |         14.0| _75.0_|_87.0_|       _101.4_|  15.40|      1,480
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332517   |         13.4| _76.2_|_83.8_|        _97.1_|  15.10|      1,375
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332514   |         14.0| _77.2_|_87.5_|       _100.7_|  15.30|      1,425
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332503   |       (12.7)| _77.5_|_82.5_|        _94.8_|(14.47)|    (1,220)
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332507   |         13.2| _77.5_|_81.5_|        _93.6_|  15.17|      1,480
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332526   |         13.7| _77._8|_83.5_|        _95.1_|  15.53|
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  339752   |         13.5| _79.4_|_86.0_|        _97.1_|  14.97|      1,515
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332502   |         13.3| _79.8_|_83.1_|        _93.7_|  15.10|      1,370
           |             |       |      |              |       |
            =============+=======+======+==============+=======+===========
                      (7)|  (_7_)| (_7_)|         (_7_)|    (7)|        (6)
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Total              95.1|       |      |              | 106.57|      8,645
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Average         _13.59_| _77.5_|_84.7_|        _96.9_|_15.22_|    _1,441_
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Minimum            13.2| _75.0_|_81.5_|        _93.6_|  14.97|      1,370
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Maximum            14.0| _79.8_|_87.5_|       _101.4_|  15.53|      1,515
  ---------+-------------+-------+------+--------------+-------+-----------

  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------
  Catalogue|  Teeth:|Alveolar|   Diameter|Facial|Facial| Basion-
  No.      |    Wear|  point-|bizygomatic|index,|index,|alveolar
           | menton-|  nasion|maximum (c)| total| upper|   point
           |  nasion|  height|           |  (a ×|  (b ×|
           |  height|     (b)|           |100/c)|100/c)|
           |     (a)|        |           |      |      |
  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------
  332512   |[28]12.3|     7.5|       13.4|_91.8_|  _56_|    10.2
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332517   |        |     7.4|       13.4|      |_55.2_|    10.2
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332514   |  [29]13|     7.7|       13.3|_97.7_|_57.9_|    10.2
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332503   |[30]12.8|     8.1|       13.6|_94.1_|_59.6_|    10.5
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332507   |    [31]|        |       14.1|      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332526   |        |        |           |      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332552   |    [32]|        |       13.6|      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332502   |  [28]13|     8.1|       14.1|_92.2_|_57.4_|    10.4
           |        |        |           |      |      |
           |     (4)|     (5)|        (5)| (_4_)| (_5_)|     (5)
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Totals   |    51.1|    38.8|       67.8|      |      |    51.5
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Averages | _12.78_|  _7.76_|    _13.56_|_93.9_|_57.2_|  _10.3_
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Minimum  |    12.3|     7.4|       13.3|  91.8|  55.2|    10.2
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Maximum  |      13|     8.1|       14.1|  97.7|  59.6|    10.5
           |        |        |           |      |      |
           |        |        |        (7)|      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Totals   |        |        |       95.5|      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Averages |        |        |    _13.64_|      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Minimum  |        |        |       13.3|      |      |
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Maximum  |        |        |       14.1|      |      |
  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------

  ---------+---------------+-------------+------+--------+---------
  Catalogue|Basion-subnasal|Basion-nasion|Facial|Alveolar|   Height
  No.      |          point|             | angle|   angle|       of
           |               |             |      |        |symphysis
           |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  ---------+---------------+-------------+------+--------+---------
  332512   |            8.9|         10.2|  68.5|      51|      3.9
           |               |             |      |        |
  332517   |            8.9|          9.7|  64.5|    51.5|        4
           |               |             |      |        |
  332514   |            9.4|         10.4|    69|    63.5|      4.5
           |               |             |      |        |
  332503   |            9.5|         10.4|  66.5|    59.5|      3.7
           |               |             |      |        |
  332507   |            8.6|         10  |      |        |      3.7
           |               |             |      |        |
  332526   |               |         10.4|      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  332552   |            8.8|         10.1|      |        |      3.8
           |               |             |      |        |
  332502   |            9.2|          9.7|    62|      53|      4.2
           |               |             |      |        |
           |            (7)|          (8)|   (5)|     (5)|      (7)
           |               |             |      |        |
  Totals   |           63.3|         80.9|      |        |     27.8
           |               |             |      |        |
  Averages |         _9.04_|      _10.11_|  _66_|    _55_|   _3.97_
           |               |             |      |        |
  Minimum  |            8.6|          9.7|    62|      51|      3.7
           |               |             |      |        |
  Maximum  |            9.5|         10.4|    69|    63.5|      4.5
           |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  Totals   |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  Averages |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  Minimum  |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  Maximum  |               |             |      |        |
  ---------+---------------+-------------+------+--------+---------

  --------+-------+------+------+------
  Cata-   |Orbits:| Brea-|   Or-| Nose:
  logue   |Height,|  dth,| bital|Height
  No.     | right,|right,|index,|
          |   left|  left|  mean|
          |       |      |      |
  --------+-------+------+------+------
  332512  |  {3.65|   3.8|} 96  |   5.3
          |  {3.65|   3.8|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  332517  |  {3.35|   3.9|} 88.3|     5
          |  {3.45|   3.8|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  332514  |   {3.5|   3.7|} 94.6|   5.5
          |   {3.5|   3.7|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  332503  |  {3.65|     4|} 91.2|   5.7
          |   {3.6|  3.95|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  332507  |  {3.75|  3.85|} 95.5|   5.2
          |   {3.7|  3.95|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  332526  |     --|    --|    --|    --
          |       |      |      |
  332552  |   {3.5|   3.9|}   --|  5.35
          |   {3.5|   3.9|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  332502  |  {3.45|  4.15|}   84|   5.8
          |   {3.4|     4|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  Right   |    (7)|   (7)|   (7)|
  Left    |    (7)|   (7)|   (7)|   (7)
          |       |      |      |
  Totals  |  24.85| 27.30|}   --| 37.85
  {r. {l. |  24.80| 27.10|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  Averages| _3.55_|_3.90_|  _91_|_5.41_
  {r. {l. | _3.54_|_3.87_|_91.5_|}
          |       |      |      |
          |       |      |      |
  Minimum |   3.35|   3.7|}   --|     5
  {r. {l. |    3.4|   3.7|}     |
          |       |      |      |
  Maximum |   3.75|  4.15|}   --|   5.8
  {r. {l. |    3.7|     4|}     |
  --------+-------+------+------+------

  --------+------+------+-------+--------+------
  Cata-   | Brea-| Nasal|Palate:|External|  Pal-
  logue   |  dth,| index| exter-|breadth,|  atal
  No.     |  max-|      |    nal| maximum| index
          |  imum|      | length|     (b)|  (b ×
          |      |      |    (a)|        |100/a)
  --------+------+------+-------+--------+------
  332512  |  2.55|  48.1|    5.5|     6.4|_85.9_
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  332517  |   2.6|    52|    5.6|     6.5|_86.2_
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  332514  |   2.3|  41.8|    5.3|       7|_75.7_
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  332503  |  2.45|    43|    5.4|     6.3|_85.7_
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  332507  |   2.5|  48.1|     --|      --|    --
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  332526  |    --|    --|     --|      --|    --
          |      |      |       |        |
  332552  |   2.5|    --|     --|      --|    --
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  332502  |  2.95|  50.9|    5.9|     6.5|_90.8_
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  Right   |      |      |       |        |
  Left    |   (7)|   (7)|    (5)|     (5)| (_5_)
          |      |      |       |        |
  Totals  | 17.85|    --|   27.7|    32.7|    --
  {r. {l. |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  Averages|_2.55_|_47.2_| _5.54_|  _6.54_|_84.7_
  {r. {l. |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  Minimum |   2.3|_41.8_|  _5.3_|     6.3|_75.7_
  {r. {l. |      |      |       |        |
          |      |      |       |        |
  Maximum |  2.95|  _52_|    5.9|       7|_90.8_
  {r. {l. |      |      |       |        |
  --------+------+------+-------+--------+------

                                SEX: FEMALE

  ---------+----------+----------+-----------+----------------+--------
  Catalogue|Collection|Locality  |Approximate| Vault: Diameter|Diameter
  No.      |          |          |age of     |antero-posterior| lateral
           |          |          |subject    |         maximum| maximum
           |          |          |           |    (glabella ad|
           |          |          |           |        maximum)|
  ---------+----------+----------+-----------+----------------+--------
  332506   |A.        |Magi      |Adults     |            18.2|    13.4
           |Hrdlička  |(Bonasila)|           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332520   |do        |Ghost     |do         |            17.9|    13.2
           |          |Creek     |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332508   |do        |Magi      |do         |            17.2|    12.8
           |          |          |           |                |
  332519   |do        |Ghost     |do         |            16.2|    12.3
           |          |Creek     |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332510   |do        |Magi      |do         |            17.6|    13.5
           |          |          |           |                |
  332504   |do        |do        |do         |            17.9|    13.8
           |          |          |           |                |
  332525   |do        |Ghost     |do         |            17.4|    13.5
           |          |Creek     |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  332525   |do        |Magi      |do         |            17.2|    13.4
           |          |          |           |                |
  332522   |do        |Novi      |do         |            16.7|    13.4
           |          |River     |           |                |
           |          |          |           |                |
  339751   |H.  W.    |Magi      |do         |            16.4|    13.4
           |Krieger   |          |           |                |
                                             +================+========
                                             |            (10)|    (10)
                                             |                |
  Totals                                     |           172.7|   132.7
                                             |                |
  Averages                                   |         _17.27_| _13.27_
                                             |                |
  Minimum                                    |            16.4|    12.3
                                             |                |
  Maximum                                    |            18.2|    13.8
  ---------+----------+----------+-----------+----------------+--------

  ---------+-------------+-------+------+--------------+-------+-----------
  Catalogue|Basion-bregma|Cranial|  Mean|Height-breadth|Cranial|  Capacity,
  No.      |       height|  index|height|         index| module|   in c. c.
           |             |       | index|              |       |(Hrdlička's
           |             |       |      |              |       |    method)
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  ---------+-------------+-------+------+--------------+-------+-----------
  332506   |         13.1| _73.6_|_82.9_|        _97.8_| 14.90 |      1,400
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332520   |         12.7| _73.7_|_81.4_|        _96.2_| 14.60 |      1,335
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332508   |         13.1| _74.4_|_87.3_|       _102.3_| 14.37 |      1,225
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332519   |         12.3| _75.9_|_86.6_|       _100.0_| 13.60 |      1,070
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332510   |         13.2| _76.7_|_84.6_|        _97.8_| 14.77 |      1,375
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332504   |         13.5| _77.1_|_85.4_|        _97.8_| 15.07 |      1,355
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332525   |         12.5| _77.6_|_81.2_|        _92.6_| 14.47 |      1,260
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332525   |         12.6| _77.9_|_82.4_|        _94.0_| 14.40 |      1,230
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  332522   |         12.8| _80.2_|_85.3_|        _95.5_| 14.30 |      1,210
           |             |       |      |              |       |
           |             |       |      |              |       |
  339751   |         12.6| _81.7_|_84.6_|        _94.0_| 14.13 |      1,210
           |             |       |      |              |       |
            =============+=======+======+==============+=======+===========
                     (10)| (_10_)|(_10_)|        (_10_)| (10)  |       (10)
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Totals            128.4|     --| --   |            --|144.6  |     12,670
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Averages        _12.84_| _76.8_|_84.1_|        _96.8_|_14.46_|    _1,267_
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Minimum            12.3| _73.6_|_81.2_|        _92.6_| 13.60 |      1,070
                         |       |      |              |       |
  Maximum            13.5| _81.7_|_87.3_|       _102.3_| 15.07 |      1,400
  ---------+-------------+-------+------+--------------+-------+-----------

  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------
  Catalogue|  Teeth:|Alveolar|   Diameter|Facial|Facial| Basion-
  No.      |    Wear|  point-|bizygomatic|index,|index,|alveolar
           | menton-|  nasion|maximum (c)| total| upper|   point
           |  nasion|  height|           |  (a ×|  (b ×|
           |  height|     (b)|           |100/c)|100/c)|
           |     (a)|        |           |      |      |
  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------
  332506   |[34]12.1|     7.5|       12.7|_95.3_|_59.1_|     9.9
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332520   |      --|     6.9|       13.3|    --|_51.9_|    10.6
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332508   |[35]10.8|      -7|       12.6|_85.7_|_55.6_|     9.6
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332519   |      --|     6.7|       12.1|    --|_55.4_|     9.3
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332510   |   +11.6|      -7|        -12|_96.7_|_58.3_|     9.7
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332504   |[34]13.1|      -8|       13.6|_91.8_|  _56_|    10.4
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332525   |    [36]|      --|       12.9|    --|    --|
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332505   |[37]11.8|     6.8|       12.8|_92.2_|_53.1_|     9.5
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  322522   |        |     7.1|       13.3|    --|_54.1_|     9.2
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  332751   |  [38]11|     6.7|       13.1| _-84_|_51.1_|     9.6
  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------
           |     (6)|     (9)|       (10)| (_6_)| (_9_)|     (9)
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Totals   |    70.4|    63.7|      128.4|    --|    --|    87.8
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Averages | _11.73_|  _7.08_|    _12.84_|_91.7_|_55.1_|  _9.76_
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Minimum  |    10.8|     6.7|        -12| _-84_|_51.1_|     9.2
           |        |        |           |      |      |
  Maximum  |    13.1|      -8|       13.6|_96.7_|_59.1_|    10.6
  ---------+--------+--------+-----------+------+------+--------

  ---------+---------------+-------------+------+--------+---------
  Catalogue|Basion-subnasal|Basion-nasion|Facial|Alveolar|   Height
  No.      |          point|             | angle|   angle|       of
           |               |             |      |        |symphysis
           |               |             |      |        |
           |               |             |      |        |
  ---------+---------------+-------------+------+--------+---------
  332506   |            8.8|          -10|   -69|     -54|      3.8
           |               |             |      |        |
  332520   |            9.4|          9.7|   -63|     -52|       --
           |               |             |      |        |
  332508   |            8.5|          9.9|   -71|     -51|       -3
           |               |             |      |        |
  332519   |            7.8|          8.8|  64.5|    42.5|       --
           |               |             |      |        |
  332510   |            8.4|          9.5|   -67|     -51|      3.7
           |               |             |      |        |
  332504   |            9.1|         10.5|   -68|    54.5|      3.9
           |               |             |      |        |
  332525   |            8.7|          9.9|      |        |      3.6
           |               |             |      |        |
  332505   |            8.4|          9.6|   -70|     -51|      3.7
           |               |             |      |        |
  322522   |            8.6|          -10|  74.5|     -64|
           |               |             |      |        |
  332751   |            8.5|          9.3|   -67|    48.5|     3.35
           +===============+=============+======+========+=========
           |           (10)|         (10)|   (9)|     (9)|      (7)
           |               |             |      |        |
  Totals   |           86.2|         97.2|      |        |    25.05
           |               |             |      |        |
  Averages |         _8.62_|       _9.72_| _-68_|   _-52_|   _3.58_
           |               |             |      |        |
  Minimum  |            7.8|          8.8|   -63|    42.5|       -3
           |               |             |      |        |
  Maximum  |            9.4|         10.5|  74.5|     -64|      3.9
  ---------+---------------+-------------+------+--------+---------

  --------+-------+------+------+------+------
  Cata-   |Orbits:| Brea-|   Or-| Nose:| Brea-
  logue   |Height,|  dth,| bital|Height|  dth,
  No.     | right,|right,|index,|      |  max-
          |   left|  left|  mean|      |  imum
          |       |      |      |      |
  --------+-------+------+------+------+------
  332506  | { 3.55|   3.8|_94.1_|   5.5|   2.2
          |  { 3.6|   3.8|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332520  |  { 3.3|   3.7|_90.5_|      |   2.4
          |  { 3.4|   3.7|}     |  4.75|
          |       |      |      |      |
  332508  |  { 3.7|     4|_92.5_|   5.2|   2.5
          | {     |      |}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332519  |  { 3.4|   3.7|_93.9_|   4.7|   2.3
          |  { 3.5|  3.65|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332510  |  { 3.3|  3.55|_91.6_|   4.7|   2.3
          |  { 3.2|  3.55|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332504  |  { 3.7|  3.95|_91.9_|   5.4|  2.15
          | { 3.65|  4.05|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332525  | {     |      |_85.5_|  5.15|   2.2
          | { 3.25|   3.8|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332505  |  { 3.8|  3.95|_94.0_|   4.9|  2.35
          |  { 3.6|  3.85|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332522  |  { 3.7|  3.95|_92.4_|  5.45|   2.3
          |  { 3.6|  3.95|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  332751  |  { 3.1|   3.8|} _84_|     5|   2.4
          |  { 3.2|   3.7|}     |      |
          +=======+======+======+======+======
  Right   |    (9)|   (9)| (_9_)|      |
  Left    |    (9)|   (9)| (_9_)|  (10)|  (10)
          |       |      |      |      |
  Totals  |  31.55|  34.4|}     | 50.75|  23.1
  {r. {l. |     31| 34.05|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  Averages| _3.51_|_3.82_|_91.7_|_5.07_|_2.31_
  {r. {l. | _3.44_|_3.78_|  _91_|      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  Minimum |    3.1|  3.55|}     |   4.7|  2.15
  {r. {l. |    3.2|  3.55|}     |      |
          |       |      |      |      |
  Maximum |    3.8|     4|}     |   5.5|   2.5
  {r. {l. |   3.65|  4.05|}     |      |
  --------+-------+------+------+------+------

  --------+------+-------+--------+------
  Cata-   | Nasal|Palate:|External|  Pal-
  logue   | index| exter-|breadth,|  atal
  No.     |      |    nal| maximum| index
          |      | length|     (b)|  (b ×
          |      |    (a)|        |100/a)
  --------+------+-------+--------+------
  332506  |  _40_|    5.2|     6.1|_85.2_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332508  |_50.5_|    5.4|       6|  _90_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332508  |_48.1_|    5.2|     5.8|_89.7_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332519  |_48.9_|    5.4|     5.5|_98.2_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332510  |_48.9_|    5.3|     6.4|_82.8_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332504  |_39.8_|    5.7|     6.7|_85.1_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332525  |_42.7_|     --|      --|    --
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332505  |  _48_|    5.3|     5.8|_91.4_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332522  |_42.2_|      5|     6.6|_75.8_
          |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  332751  |  _48_|    5.3|     6.5|_81.5_
          |      |       |        |
          +======+=======+========+======
  Right   |      |       |        |
  Left    |(_10_)|    (9)|     (9)| (_9_)
          |      |       |        |
  Totals  |      |   47.8|    55.4|    --
  {r. {l. |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  Averages|_45.5_| _5.31_|  _6.16_|_86.3_
  {r. {l. |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  Minimum |_39.8_|      5|     5.5|_75.8_
  {r. {l. |      |       |        |
          |      |       |        |
  Maximum |_50.5_|    5.7|     6.7|_98.2_
  {r. {l. |      |       |        |
  --------+------+-------+--------+------

FOOTNOTES:

[28] Premature occlusion of sagittal and subdevelopment of vault;
probably a moron, facial and skeletal parts all normal.

[29] Medium.

[30] Slight.

[31] Moderate.

[32] Cons.

[33] Unknown; all lost.

[34] Slight.

[35] Cons.

[36] Medium.

[37] Moderate.

[38] U. medium; l. moderate


SKELETAL PARTS

There are seven adult skeletons of males and seven of females. For
present purposes it will suffice to take the males alone and to
restrict consideration to the long bones. The essential data on these
are given on page 160, where they are contrasted with those of North
American Indians in general, and with those of the western Eskimo.

The bones show both relations to as well as differences from the bones
of Indians in general and fair distinctness from those of the Eskimo.

Contrasted with the long bones of miscellaneous North American tribes
taken together, the Yukon Indian bones show absolutely slightly
shorter humerus (or arm), somewhat shorter radius (or forearm), a
slightly shorter femur (or upper part of the leg), and a plainly
shorter tibia. These Indians had therefore relatively somewhat shorter
forearm and especially the leg below the knees than their continental
cousins. These facts are plainly evident from the radio-humeral and
tibio-femoral indices of the two groups. In this relative shortness of
the distal parts of the limbs the Yukon Indian approaches the Eskimo,
standing near midway between the Indian in general and the Eskimo.
There might be a ready temptation to attribute this to a mixture with
the Eskimo; but an examination of the records will show that the same
condition, so far at least as the upper limb is concerned (lower?), is
already present in the old Bonasila skeleton, which gives no suggestion
of an Eskimo mixture. It is more likely, therefore, that these are
generalized characteristics of functional origin such as a considerable
use of the small canoes. This view seems to be supported by the
relative strength of the bones. In the Yukon Indian the humerus is
stouter, the femur of the same strength, and the tibia very perceptibly
weaker than they are in Indians in general. In the Eskimo, with even
greater dependence on the canoe, both the humerus and the femur are
notably stouter, while the tibia is weaker, than are similar bones in
the Indians in general.

The humero-femoral index in the Yukon Indians is unusually high,
indicating a relative shortness of the femur. This character is not
present in the Eskimo, nor in the continental Indian. It is probably
also of old functional origin, though, this for the present must remain
a mere suggestion.

All of this shows clearly the interest and value of other skeletal
parts than the skull, and particularly of the long bones, for
anthropological studies.


SKELETAL REMAINS FROM THE BANK AT BONASILA

The skeletal material from the bank at Bonasila consists now of
portions of three adult skulls, one male and two females, and of 13
bones of the male skeleton. All the specimens are more or less stained
by manganese and iron and all are distinctly heavier than normal,
showing some grade of fossilization. They closely resemble in all these
respects the numerous animal bones from the bank and in all differ from
the later surface burials of the place.


THE CRANIA

The male skull, No. 332513, is represented by the frontal bone united
with a larger part of the face, a separated left temporal, and the
right half of the lower jaw. A large Inca bone, recovered from the
beach a year later, may also belong to the same specimen. The missing
parts are probably still somewhere in the sands of the beach where
there is going on a very instructive scattering and redeposition on a 4
to 6 feet lower level of the contents of the old bank.

The skull is that of a male of somewhat over 50 years of age, judging
from the moderate to marked wear of the remaining teeth. It is a normal
undeformed specimen, and the same applies to the bones of the skeleton.

_Notes and measurements._--The frontal shows a medium development, no
slope. The supraorbital ridges are rather weakly developed for a male,
leaving the upper borders of the orbits rather sharp.

                               Cm.

  Diameter frontal minimum      9.75
  Diameter frontal maximum     11.8
  Diameter nasion-bregma       11.5

The skull as a whole was evidently mesocephalic, and neither low nor
very high. The thickness of the frontal is about medium for an Indian.

The face is of medium proportions and strength, with rather large
orbits, good interorbital breadth, medium malars, medium broad nose,
and but moderate alveolar prognathism. The nasal bridge is not high,
nasal bones fairly broad, spine moderate, lower borders well defined
though not sharp. The sub-malar (canine) fossae are shallow.

                              _Measurements_

  Alveolar point-nasion height       cm  7.8
  Facial breadth about medium
    for an Indian.
  Nose:
      Height                         cm  5.5
      Breadth, near                  cm  2.75
      Index                             _50_
  Left orbit:
      Height                         cm  3.75
      Breadth                        cm  4
      Index                             _93.7_
  Minimum interorbital distance      cm  2.6
  Upper dental arch:
      Length, approximately          cm  5.6
      Breadth, approximately         cm  7
      Index, approximately              _80_
  Lower jaw:
      Height at symphysis
        approximately                cm  4.1
      Thickness at M₂ (with the
        tooth held midway between
        branches of compass)         cm  1.5
      Height of asc. ramus           cm  6.9
      Breadth minimum of asc. ramus  cm  3.7

The condyloid process of the lower jaw is high, mandibular notch deep.
The whole jaw is strong but not thick or massive. It is Indianlike, not
Eskimoid, in all its features. The teeth are of good medium size.

_Skull No. 333383._--Of this skull I brought the right parietal
with about one-third of the frontal; Mr. Krieger, a year later, the
remainder of the frontal. Other parts are missing.

The specimen was evidently, a good-size female skull, normal,
undeformed, probably mesocephalic in form, and moderately high. The
thickness of the bones is not above moderate.

                             Cm.
  Diameter frontal minimum   9.7
  Diameter frontal maximum  12.5
  Diameter nasion-bregma    11.1

_Skull No. 333950._--Of the third skull, recovered from the sands of
the beach at low water in 1927 by Mr. Lawrence, there are only the two
parietals. The specimen is that of a young adult female. The bones,
rather submedium in thickness, indicate a skull of slightly smaller
size and slightly shorter than the preceding but of much the same
general type.

_The skeletal parts of male No. 332513._--Humeri: The long bones all
give the impression of straightness, length, and of a certain gracility
of form combined with strength, but without massiveness. The right
humerus presents a small but distinct supracondylar process, a rarity
among Indians. The fossae are not perforated. Measurements:

  Length, maximum:
      Right                    cm 35.8
      Left                     cm 35.3
  Major diameter at middle:
      Right                    cm  2.5
      Left                     cm  2.4
  Minor diameter at middle:
      Right                    cm  1.65
      Left                     cm  1.6
  Index at middle:
      Right                      _66_
      Left                       _66.7_
  Type of shaft at middle,
    prismatic:
      Right                    cm  1
      Left                     cm  1
  Right radius:
      Length, maximum, near    cm 27
      Radio-humeral index,
        approximately            _75.5_

The shaft approaches type IV (quadrilateral). There is but small
curvature.

Right ulna: Lacks the olecranon; shaft prismatic, with anterior and
posterior surfaces fluted; but a moderate curvature backward upper
third.

  Femora:
      Length, bicondylar, right   cm 48.2
      Humero-femoral index          _74.3_
      Diameter antero-posterior
        maximum at middle--
          Right                   cm  3.05
          Left                    cm  3.2
      Diameter lateral maximum
        at middle--
          Right                   cm  2.5
          Left                    cm  2.65
      Index at middle--
          Right                     _82_
          Left                      _82.8_
      Diameter maximum at upper
        flattening--
          Right                   cm  3.5
          Left                    cm  3.7
      Diameter minimum at upper
        flattening--
          Right                   cm  2.1
          Left                    cm  2.25
      Index at upper flattening--
          Right                     _60_
          Left                      _60.8_
      Type shaft at middle--
          Right                       1
          Left, near                  1

The bones, especially the right, are remarkable for their graceful form
and approach to straightness. The linea aspera is high but not massive
or rough.

Right tibia: Length (?), extremities wanting. A moderate physiological
curvature forward, middle third.

  Diameter antero-posterior at middle, right   cm  3.25
  Diameter lateral at middle                   cm  1.95
  Index at middle                                _60_

The bone is distinctly platycnaemic, as the femora are platymeric and
the humeri platybrachic, a harmony of characters which is often met
with in the continental Indian.


ADDITIONAL PARTS

These include four ribs, the atlas and two lumbar vertebræ. The first
rib approaches the semicircular in type and is rather large, indicating
a spacious chest. Otherwise there is nothing special.

A comparison of the long bones of this interesting skeleton with those
of the later Indians from the same and near-by localities as well as
with those of the western Eskimo (see table, p. 160) shows a number of
striking conditions. The length of the bones of the skeleton is far
above the mean of both those of Indians and the Eskimo, indicating a
stature of at least 10 centimeters (4 inches) higher. In none of their
characteristics are the bones near to those of the Eskimo, making it
doubly certain that the subject was not of that affiliation. Compared
with those of the later Indians of the same territory, the bones show
in one line remarkable differences, in another remarkable likenesses.
The differences concern all the relative proportions of the shafts--the
bones of the old skeleton give without exception indices that are
markedly lower; they are distinctly more platybrachic, platymeric,
and platycnaemic. But the more basic humero-femoral and radio-humeral
indices are practically the same; showing fundamental identity. The
humero-femoral index is especially important in this case. It is
exceptionally high in the Yukon Indians, due to a relatively long
humerus, and the same condition is seen in the old skeleton. It seems
safe, therefore, to conclude that the owner of the old skeleton was
not only an Indian but an Indian of the same physical stock from which
were derived the later Indians of the Yukon; but he was evidently of
an earlier and different tribe or of a purer derivation than those who
followed. To more fully establish and then trace this type, both as to
its derivation and extension, will be tasks of future importance.

                      YUKON INDIANS: MAIN LONG BONES

                              SEX: MALES[39]

  -----------------------------+----------------+-------------+--------
                               | Yukon Indians  |             |
                               +--------+-------+             |
  Paired bones                 |   Older|   From|Miscellaneous| Western
                               |skeleton|Russian|        North| Eskimos
                               |      at|  times|     American|
                               |Bonasila|       |      Indians|
  -----------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+--------
  Humerus:                     |     (2)|   (10)|    [40](378)|[41](76)
                               |        |       |             |
    Mean length                |   35.55|  31.17|         31.8|   30.88
                               |        |       |             |
    At middle--                |        |       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter, major          |    2.45|   2.38|         2.22|    2.42
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter, minor          |    1.68|   1.67|         1.63|    1.82
                               |        |       |             |
      Index                    |  _66.4_|   _70_|       _73.1_|  _75.2_
                               |        |       |             |
    Radius:                    |     (1)|   (10)|        (378)|    (76)
                               |        |       |             |
    Mean length                |   n. 27|  23.61|         24.7|   22.85
                               |        |       |             |
    Radio-humeral index        |      n.| _75.7_|       _77.7_|    _74_
                               |  _75.5_|       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
    Femur:                     |     (2)|   (14)|    [40](902)|    (84)
                               |        |       |             |
    Mean length (bycondylar)   |    48.2|  41.92|         42.7|   42.70
                               |        |       |             |
    Humero-femoral index       |  _74.3_| _74.5_|    n. _72.5_|n. _-72_
                               |        |       |             |
    At middle--                |        |       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter,                |    3.12|   2.96|         2.95|    3.03
      antero-posterior, maximum|        |       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter, lateral        |    2.57|   2.58|         2.58|    2.71
                               |        |       |             |
      Index                    |  _82.4_| _87.1_|       _87.3_|  _89.5_
                               |        |       |             |
    At upper flattening--      |        |       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter, maximum        |    3.60|   3.25|         3.27|    3.37
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter, minimum        |    2.18|   2.30|         2.42|    2.48
                               |        |       |             |
      Index                    |  _60.4_| _70.7_|         _74_|  _73.5_
                               |        |       |             |
    Tibia:                     |     (1)|   (14)|        (324)|    (84)
                               |        |       |             |
    Mean length                |        |  34.19|         36.9|   33.61
                               |        |       |             |
    Tibio-femoral index        |        |   81.5|         84.4|    78.7
                               |        |       |             |
    At middle--                |        |       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter,                |    3.25|   3.04|         3.28|    3.10
      antero-posterior, maximum|        |       |             |
                               |        |       |             |
      Diameter, lateral        |    1.95|     2.|         2.16|    2.12
                               |        |       |             |
      Index                    |    _60_|   _66_|       _65.8_|  _68.5_
  -----------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+--------

FOOTNOTES:

[39] See also data in writer's "Physical Anthropology of the
Lenape," etc., Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., Washington, 1916; and his
"Anthropology of Florida," Fla. Hist. Soc. Pub. No. 1, Deland, Fla.,
1922.

[40] These numbers apply to length only; under the other items the
numbers are in some cases smaller, in some larger. The differences are
due to defects in some of the old bones.

[41] See also data on p. 165.


THE YUKON ESKIMO


THE LIVING

As with the Indians farther up the river, the necessities of the
writer's journey did not permit more than visual observations, but in
1927 Henry B. Collins, jr., succeeded in measuring six adult males at
Marshall.

In general, the people of the Yukon delta and from this to Paimute
are true Eskimo. By this is meant that in the majority of individuals
they can readily be told as a type apart from the Indian and belonging
plainly to that of the extensive family of the Eskimo. But when the
differences are to be defined the task is not easy; some of the
distinguishing marks, though well appreciated, are somewhat intangible.

The physical differences are essentially those of the physiognomy. The
head is neither narrow nor scaphoid, or even very high. The Indian
face is more prominent and more sculptured; that of the Eskimo appears
fuller, especially in the lower part, and flatter. Part of this is
due to the bony structure, part to the differing amounts of fat. An
eversion of the angles of the lower jaw, which is relatively frequent
and sometimes excessive in the Eskimo male while almost absent in the
Indian, may give the Eskimo face almost a square appearance. Take
with this the seemingly somewhat low Eskimo forehead, the not very
widely open and somewhat on the whole more slanting eye, and the
characteristic Eskimo nose with its rather narrow and not prominent
nasal bridge, the ridiculous monk-like cut of the hair (in the older
males), the often rather full lips with, in the males, a tuft of sparse
mustache above each corner of the mouth; add to all this a mostly
smiling or ready-to-smile "full-moon" expression, and it would be
impossible to take the subject for anything else than an Eskimo. The
Indian's face is more set, less fat, in the males at least, less broad
below, with seemingly a higher forehead, sensibly made-up hair, not
seldom a bit more mustache, and a nose that generally is both broader
and more prominent.

But the differences are less marked in the women and still less so in
the children, especially where similarly combed and clothed. And there
are, particularly on the Yukon, not a few of both Indian and Eskimo
who even an expert is at a loss where to class. They may be due to old
mixtures; no new ones are taking place; but it seems that there may be
present another important factor, that of a far-back related parentage.

In the color of the skin and eyes, in the color and nature of the hair,
there is no marked difference between the two peoples of the Yukon. In
stature the Eskimos are slightly higher.


MEASUREMENTS ON LIVING YUKON ESKIMO

The exact provenience of the six men measured at Marshall is uncertain,
but they seemingly were all from the lower Yukon and all were
apparently full-blood Eskimo. But the measurements are rather peculiar.
They are given, for comparison, with those of the western Eskimo
in general (p. 165). They approach nearest to those of the Togiak
Eskimo, well down below the Kuskokwim. They show a higher stature
than all of their relations farther south, except the Togiaks, and
they have a rounder head. They are, in fact, moderate brachycephals,
a very unexpected form in this strain of people. The Togiaks also
are brachycephalic. The vault is relatively somewhat higher than it
is in the other groups, though the height is not excessive. The nose
is slightly lower as well as narrower than it is in all the other
contingents. The face is close to those of St. Lawrence Island. The
ear is perceptibly smaller and especially narrower than elsewhere, but
perhaps the age factor enters into the case. The hand is much like that
of Togiak and St. Lawrence, the index being identical.

The brachycephaly of the group for the present is hard to explain. It
can not be ascribed to a mixture with the river Indians, for these, as
has been seen from the skulls, were meso- rather than brachycephalic.
There is need here for further inquiry.


SKELETAL REMAINS OF YUKON ESKIMO

As with the Indian, such remains are still rare. Some measurements
of three "Smithsonian Mahlemute" skulls from the Yukon, collected by
William H. Dall, are given by Jeffries Wyman, and probably the same
specimens appear in the Otis Catalogue, the measurements in which are
regrettably not very reliable. These specimens can not now be located,
and the scarce data are of but little value. The three skulls examined
by Wyman were all mesocephalic.

It is now possible to report on 40 adult skulls from the lower Yukon
and the delta. An abstract of the measurements is given in the
next table. The data indicate a considerable local variation. All
the skulls, or very nearly all, are mesocephalic; but they differ
considerably in height and in all the facial features. The Pilot
Station group, from the apex of the delta, and hence the midst of the
Eskimo territory on the Yukon, is especially peculiar. Both the vault
and the face, in the series as a whole, range from low to high, and
much the same is true of the height of the nose and that of the orbits,
while the palate is exceptionally broad, giving a low index, all of
which would seem to indicate instability or conditions in change,
together probably with admixtures from farther up the river. We need
more material, particularly from the stretch of the river between the
apex of the delta and Paimute.

                            YUKON ESKIMO CRANIA

                      UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM:

  ------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
                          |               17 males
                          +---------+---------+---------+---------
                          |  Pilot  | "Lower  | Kashunok| Kotlik
                          | Station |  Yukon" |   (of   |   and
                          |         |         |  Yukon) |Pastolik
  ------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
  Number of adult skulls  |   (3)   |   (1)   |   (2)   |  (11)
  Collector               |         |  [42]   |  [43]   |  [44]
  Vault:                  |         |         |         |
    Length                |   18.90 |   18.8  |   18.45 |   18.44
    Breadth               |   15.07 |   14.2  |   14.10 |   13.90
    Height                |   13.77 |   13.7  |   13.65 |   13.60
  Module                  |   15.91 |   15.57 |   15.40 |   15.31
  Capacity                |1,660    |1,535    |1,468    |1,486
  Cranial index           |  _79.7_ |  _75.5_ |  _76.4_ |  _75.4_
  Mean height, index      |  _81.6_ |  _83_   |  _83.9_ |  _84.1_
  Height-breadth, index   |  _91.4_ |  _96.5_ |  _96.8_ |  _97.8_
  Face:                   |         |         |         |
    Menton-nasion         |   12.40 |         |         |   12.67
    Alveolar point-nasion |    7.85 |    7.1  |    8.25 |    7.78
    Diameter              |         |         |         |
      bizygomatic maximum |   14.97 |   14.4  |   14.25 |   14.13
  Facial index, total     |  _82.4_ |         |         |  _90.1_
  Facial index, upper     |  _52.2_ |  _49.3_ |  _57.9_    _55_
  Orbits:                 |         |         |         |
    Mean height           |    3.58 |    3.55 |    3.80 |    3.67
    Mean breadth          |    4.07 |    4    |    3.91 |    3.98
    Mean index            |  _87.7_ |  _88.7_ |  _97.1_ |  _92.3_
  Nose:                   |         |         |         |
    Height                |    5.27 |    5.05 |    5.65 |    5.53
    Breadth               |    2.57 |    2.15 |    2.28 |    2.51
    Index                 |  _48.7_ |  _42.6_ |  _40.3_ |  _45.4_
  Upper alveolar arch:    |         |         |         |
    Length                |    5.70 |    5.4  |    5.4  |    5.57
    Breadth               |    7.40 |    6.6  |    6.65 |    6.70
    Index                 |  _77_   |  _81.8_ |  _81.2_ |  _83.4_
  Basi-facial diameters:  |         |         |         |
    Basion-alveolar point |   10.35 |n. 10.3  |   10.15 |   10.40
    Basion-subnasal point |    9.07 |    9.4  |    9.10 |    9.17
    Basion-nasion         |   10.60 |   10.8  |   10.15 |   10.41
  Facial angle            |   70    |   74    |   66    |   68
  Alveolar angle          |   55    |   60    |   60    |   52
  Height of lower jaw at  |         |         |         |
    symphysis             |    3.63 |         |         |    3.75
  ------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------

  ------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
                          |              23 females
                          +---------+---------+---------+---------
                          | Paimute |  Pilot  | Kashunok| Kotlik
                          |         | Station |  mouth  |   and
                          |         |         |         | Pastolik
  ------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------
  Number of adult skulls  |   (1)   |   (3)   |   (1)   |  (18)
  Collector               |  [44]   |         |  [43]   |   [44]
  Vault:                  |         |         |         |
    Length                |   18.7  |   17.80 |   18.7  |   17.72
    Breadth               |   14    |   14    |   13.9  |    3.62
    Height                |n. 13.5  |   13.20 |   12.4  |   13.04
  Module                  |   15.40 |   15    |   15    |   14.81
  Capacity                |         |1,442    |         |1,359
  Cranial index           |  _74.9_ |  _78.7_ |  _74.3_ |  _76.8_
  Mean height, index      |_n. 82.3_|  _83_   |  _76.1_ |  _83.2_
  Height-breadth, index   |_n. 96.4_|  _94.3_ |  _89.2_ |  _95.8_
  Face:                   |         |         |         |
    Menton-nasion         |         |   11.90 |         |   11.82
    Alveolar point-nasion |         |    7.40 |         |    7.49
    Diameter              |         |         |         |
      bizygomatic maximum |         |   13.47 |   13.90 |   13.26
  Facial index, total     |         |  _89.1_ |         |  _89_
  Facial index, upper     |         |  _55_   |         |  _56.5_
  Orbits:                 |         |         |         |
    Mean height           |         |    3.54 |    3.50 |    3.62
    Mean breadth          |         |    3.89 |    3.80 |    3.86
    Mean index            |         |  _91_   |  _92.1_ |  _94.1_
  Nose:                   |         |         |         |
    Height                |         |    5    |    5.50 |    5.19
    Breadth               |         |    2.33 |    2.45 |    2.31
    Index                 |         |  _46.7_ |  _44.5_ |  _44.5_
  Upper alveolar arch:    |         |         |         |
    Length                |         |    5.40 |         |    5.45
    Breadth               |         |    6.60 |         |    6.38
    Index                 |         |  _81.8_ |         |  _85.4_
  Basi-facial diameters:  |         |         |         |
    Basion-alveolar point |         |   10.17 |         |   10.09
    Basion-subnasal point |         |    8.80 |    8.90 |    8.86
    Basion-nasion         |         |    9.97 |   10.20 |    9.98
  Facial angle            |         |   67    |         |   67
  Alveolar angle          |         |   52    |         |   53
  Height of lower jaw at  |         |         |         |
    symphysis             |         |    3.67 |         |    3.56
  ------------------------+---------+---------+---------+---------

FOOTNOTES:

[42] Howgate & Schwatka Exp.

[43] Rev. P. I. Delon.

[44] A. Hrdlička.


SKELETAL PARTS OF THE YUKON ESKIMO

The next table gives the measurements of the long bones in both sexes
in the Yukon Indian (for comparison), in the Yukon Eskimo, and in the
western Eskimo, the latter coming mainly from the coast south of the
Yukon and from the Nunivak and St. Lawrence Islands. The Yukon Eskimo
material, collected from intact burials by the writer, is unfortunately
limited to the northern mouth of the river. The skeletons from St.
Lawrence Island were collected on the Smithsonian expedition to the
place in 1912 by Riley D. Moore, 1927 expedition by H. B. Collins, jr.,
and T. D. Stewart, all of the National Museum.

The Yukon Eskimo show perceptibly longer bones than do either the
Indians or the southeastern and midwestern Eskimo, indicating a
somewhat taller stature.

The humerus in the males is less broad than either in the Indians or
the midwestern and southwestern Eskimo and has as a consequence high
shaft index; but in the females the index in the Yukon and western
Eskimo series is identical. The radius is relatively even shorter in
the Yukon that it is in the other Eskimo, giving low radio-humeral
index.

The femur is notably less platymeric in the male and slightly less so
in the female Yukon Eskimo than it is in both the Indians and the rest
of the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo, giving a higher index at the
upper flattening. The meaning of these facts is not obvious and they
may undergo some modification with more material.

As to strength, measured by the mean diameter of the shafts, the Yukon
Eskimo in comparison to the southwestern and midwestern show a slightly
weaker humerus, and in the males a slightly weaker femur at middle,
but in the males again, a slightly stronger tibia. If, however, the
mean diameters of the bones are taken in relation to the length of the
bones, then in both sexes and in all the parts the southwestern and
midwestern Eskimo are slightly stronger. This would seem to indicate
more exertion, with harder life, among the coastal and insular than
among the river Eskimo. As a matter of fact Kotlik and the near-by
Pastolik, from which our skeletons came, were favorably situated at the
northern mouth of the river.

The Yukon Eskimo females, as compared with the males, have a somewhat
weaker and especially somewhat flatter humerus, with a consequently
lower shaft index; they have relatively even a shorter radius, giving
a lower radio-humeral index; their humerus itself is relatively short,
giving a lower humero-femoral index; their femur is relatively somewhat
flatter at the upper flattening, giving a lower index of platymery;
while their tibia is relatively less strong antero-posteriorly,
resulting in an index that is more than four points higher than that of
the males.

            YUKON INDIAN, YUKON ESKIMO, AND WESTERN ESKIMO LONG
                                 BONES[45]

  --------------+--------------------------+--------------------------
                |          Male            |         Female
  --------------+------+------+------------+------+------+------------
  Paired bones  | Yukon| Yukon|Southwestern| Yukon| Yukon|Southwestern
  of the two    |Indian|Eskimo|         and|Indian|Eskimo|         and
  sides         |      |      |  midwestern|      |      |  midwestern
                |      |      |      Eskimo|      |      |      Eskimo
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Humerus:      |  (10)|  (16)|       (143)|   (4)|  (16)|       (136)
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Mean length   | 31.17| 32.10|       30.69| 28.12| 28.31|       28.40
  (right        |      |      |            |      |      |
  and left)     |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  At middle--   |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter,     |  2.38|  2.83|        2.40|  1.90|  2.07|        2.10
  major         |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter,     |  1.67|  1.80|        1.80|  1.40|  1.51|        1.54
  minor         |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Index         |  _70_|_78.2_|      _75.1_|_73.7_|_73.2_|      _73.2_
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Radius:       |  (10)|  (16)|        (98)|   (4)|  (16)|       (109)
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Mean length   | 23.61| 23.44|       22.90| 21.10| 20.18|       20.50
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Radio-humeral |_75.7_|  _73_|      _74.5_|  _75_|_71.3_|      _72.2_
  index         |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Femur:        |  (14)|  (22)|       (195)|   (8)|  (27)|       (132)
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Mean length   | 41.92| 43.78|       42.50| 40.15| 41.11|       39.36
  (bicond.)     |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Humero-femoral|_74.5_|   _n.|      _72.2_|  _73_|   _n.|      _72.2_
  index         |      |   73_|            |      |   69_|
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  At middle--   |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter      |  2.96|  3.05|        3.08|  2.59|  2.74|        2.69
  antero-       |      |      |            |      |      |
  posterior     |      |      |            |      |      |
  maximum       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter      |  2.58|  2.67|        2.70|  2.45|  2.44|        2.46
  lateral       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Index         |_87.1_|_87.6_|      _87.6_|_94.7_|_88.8_|      _91.5_
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  At upper      |      |      |            |      |      |
  flattening--  |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter,     |  3.25|  3.31|        3.35|  2.84|  3.02|        3.02
  maximum       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter,     |  2.30|  2.57|        2.51|  2.16|  2.27|        2.26
  minimum       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Index         |_70.7_|_77.4_|        _75_|_75.8_|_75.4_|      _74.5_
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Tibia:        |  (14)|  (22)|       (141)|   (8)|  (27)|       (147)
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Mean length   | 34.19| 35.14|       33.86| 31.97| 32.01|       31.32
  (I. A.)       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Tibio-femoral |_81.5_|_80.3_|      _79.7_|_79.6_|_79.8_|      _79.6_
  index         |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  At middle--   |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter      |  3.04|  3.16|        3.12|  2.72|  2.61|        2.71
  antero-       |      |      |            |      |      |
  posterior     |      |      |            |      |      |
  maximum       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Diameter,     |     2|  2.15|        2.12|  1.82|  1.90|        1.89
  lateral       |      |      |            |      |      |
                |      |      |            |      |      |
  Index         |  _66_|_68.3_|      _67.9_|_66.9_|_72.8_|      _69.9_
  --------------+------+------+------------+------+------+------------

FOOTNOTES:

[45] See also data on p. 160.



NOTES ON THE ARCHEOLOGY OF THE WESTERN ESKIMO REGION


Archeological work in the vast area of the western Eskimo is still in
its infancy. Until the 1926 Smithsonian expedition nothing whatever had
been done in this line in the Eskimo parts of the southwestern coasts
of Alaska[46] or on the Kuskokwim or Yukon Rivers.

Some time between 1877 and 1881 E. W. Nelson made limited excavations
on St. Michael Island[47] (see p. 170) and also dug on Whale Island.

In 1912 V. Stefánsson excavated at Barrow.[48] Having two months to
spend at this place he engaged numerous Eskimo of the village and
had them excavate the native village sites in the neighborhood. He
says (p. 388): "It was a small army that turned out to dig wherever
there was a ruin or a kitchen midden, and they worked energetically
and well. While the excavations were not done as methodically and
scientifically as could have been wished, still we were able to get
from them a collection of over 20,000 archaeological specimens within
the space of six weeks. This collection (which is now safely stored in
the American Museum of Natural History) brings out many significant
and some revolutionary ideas with regard to the prehistoric history of
the Eskimo. My method was to dig as much as possible myself, and to
go around as best I could to see the others at work. In many cases I
was able to see the exact position from which the important finds were
taken." The specimens have since in part been described by Wissler.[49]
Stefánsson brought also some archeological specimens from Point Hope,
where, however, no excavations were made; and collected a valuable
series of crania from Point Barrow.

In 1917-19 excavations near Barrow were conducted by W. B. Van Valin,
leader of the John Wanamaker expedition to northwestern Alaska, for
the University Museum at Philadelphia. The excavations were made in
some mounds located about 8 miles southwest of Barrow and about 1,000
yards back from the beach on the tundra, and uncovered six old igloos
containing, aside from many cultural objects, the skeletal remains of
83 individuals. These remains have since been found to be those of an
intrusive group of people and to be of special interest.[50]

In 1924 Rasmussen during the last parts of his great journey gathered
numerous archeological specimens at Point Hope and from other
localities along the west coasts of Alaska.

In 1926, finally, the year of my survey, some careful initial
excavations, with very interesting results, were carried on at Wales
and on the Little Diomede Island by Dr. D. Jenness, of the National
Museum of Canada, Ottawa. A preliminary report on the results of this
work has been published in the annual report of the National Museum of
Canada for 1926.

Besides such more professional work a good deal of archeological
collection has been done in the regions under consideration by local
people, particularly traders and teachers; and the demand for specimens
has made assiduous excavators of some of the Eskimo themselves,
particularly at Point Hope and at St. Lawrence Island.

Beginning with the north, the first white man to be mentioned in
this connection is Charles Brower, the well-known trader at Barrow.
Mr. Brower has not only aided all the explorers who have reached
this northernmost point, but he has also been directly instrumental
in excavating and the making of archeological collections, though,
regrettably, some of these have been scattered.

During 1925-26 there lived at Point Hope a very active and interesting
man, sent there by the Fox Film Co. to photograph the Eskimo--Mr.
Merle La Voy. La Voy, whom I met at Point Hope and who for a time
became our fellow-passenger on the _Bear_, had not only succeeded
remarkably in his own line, but had also amassed during his stay a
large archeological collection. He did not excavate himself, and
unfortunately paid no attention to the scientific side of the case; but
by offering the natives sugar, tea, chocolate, chewing gum, tobacco,
etc. in exchange for specimens, he so stimulated them that they engaged
most assiduously in the excavation, or rather picking over as they
thawed, of their old ruins, and brought him thousands of objects, some
of which are of considerable interest. At the time of my visit there
were several barrels full of specimens, largely of stone and ivory.
Skulls and bones, regrettably, were neglected and reburied in the
débris. Later this collection was transported to San Francisco, where
it remains at the date of this writing, in Mr. La Voy's possession.

At Kotzebue Mr. Tom Berryman, the trader, has made some collections of
Eskimo archeological material, from which I benefited for the National
Museum; and the local teacher, Mr. C. S. Replogle, informed me that he
had a large collection at his home in the States.

At Nome I found a valuable lot of specimens in fossil ivory, pottery,
and stone, in the possession of the well-known Lomen brothers, members
of one of the foremost families in Alaska. The best parts of this
collection I was fortunate to secure for exhibit in the United States
National Museum.

A large and valuable collection of western Eskimo archeological
material was made some years ago by Dr. Daniel Neuman. A part of this
collection is in the museum at Juneau; the whereabouts of the rest and
of Doctor Neuman himself I was unable to discover. There are several
collections of archeological material from the western Eskimo region at
Seattle and San Francisco, but none represents scientific excavation.

The names of Joe Bernard, Prof. H. N. Sverdrup, and O. W. Geist should
be mentioned in this connection, all having collected archeological
objects in the western Eskimo region. Many specimens of value
collected by these men and others are in various museums or in private
hands in Fairbanks, along the west coast or in Europe.

My own small part in the archeology of Bering Sea and the northwestern
coast of Alaska was, as already stated, mainly that of making a survey
of conditions. The object was to obtain a good general view of what
there was in the line of archeological sites and remains, and thus
help to lay a foundation for more organized research in the future. In
addition all possible effort was made to collect and obtain specimens
of distinct archeological value. Both of these endeavors met with
results of some importance.

FOOTNOTES:

[46] Dall, W. H., and Jochelson, W., made, as is well known, valuable
excavations in the Aleutian Islands; but the Aleuts were not Eskimos.
(See Cat. of Crania, etc., U.S.N.M., 1924, 39.)

[47] Nelson, E. W., The Eskimo About Bering Strait; Eighteenth Ann.
Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., pt. 1, Washington, 1899, p. 263.

[48] My Life with the Eskimo, N. Y., 1913, 387, 388. See also his The
Stefánsson-Anderson Arctic Expedition: Preliminary Ethnological Report.
Anthrop. Papers Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIV, N. Y., 1914.

[49] Wissler, Clark, Harpoons and Darts in the Stefánsson Collection.
Anthrop. Papers Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1916, XIV, 401-443.

[50] See section devoted to this find, p. 318.


OLD SITES IN THE REGION OF THE WESTERN ESKIMO

The shores of the Alaska rivers, the littoral parts of Alaska, the more
northern Bering Sea islands, and those portions of the Asiatic coast
that were once or are still occupied by the Eskimo, are strewn with
"dead" villages and old sites. Many of these dead villages or sites are
historic, having been abandoned, or very nearly so, since the coming
of the whites; some are older, in instances doubtless considerably
older. Collectively they offer a large, almost wholly virginal and
highly important field to American archeology. They may contain much of
the secrets of Eskimo origin and of his cultural, as well perhaps as
physical, evolution. But these secrets are not to be given up easily.
They are held within a perpetually frozen ground, which on one hand
preserves everything, but on the other will not yield its contents
except to assiduous and prolonged labor.

Ruined or "dead" villages began to be encountered by the earliest
Russian and other explorers. Beechey (1826) tells us that between
approximately the latitude of Nelson Island and Point Barrow (60° 34´
to 71° 24´ N.) they noticed 19 (Eskimo) villages, some of which were
very small and consisted only of a few huts, and others appeared to
have been deserted a long time.[51]

Hooper, in 1884, reports Eskimo ruins on the Asiatic side:

"Near the extremity of the cape [Wankarem] we found the ruins of houses
similar to those now in use by the Innuits, half underground, with
frames of the bones of whales. Probably they were former dwellings
of Innuits, who for some reason crossed the straits and attempted to
establish themselves on the Siberian side. These houses have been found
by different travelers at many places along this coast, and various
causes assigned for the abandonment of the attempt to settle here by
the Innuits. * * *

"At Cape Wankarem and at other places on the Siberian coast we found
the ruins of houses similar to those now in use by the Innuits. These
houses, which have been found by different travelers at many places
along that coast, are not at all like those used by the Tchuktchis,
which, on account of the migratory habits of the reindeer tribes,
are so constructed that they can be taken down and put up again at
will."[52]

Ray and Murdoch both speak of old sites. The very spot they selected
for their observatory at Barrow was one of these. Ray says of it:

  "A point about 12 feet above the sea level, lying between the
  sea and a small lagoon three-fourths of a mile northeast from
  Uglaamie, was finally selected. The soil was firm and as dry as any
  unoccupied place in that vicinity, and as it was marked by mounds
  of an ancient village would be free from inundation."[53]

And farther on:

  "That the ancestors of those people have made it their home for
  ages is conclusively shown by the ruins of ancient villages and
  winter huts along the seashore and in the interior. On the point
  where the station was established were mounds marking the site of
  three huts dating back to the time when they had no iron and men
  'talked like dogs'; also at Perigniak a group of mounds mark the
  site of an ancient village. It stands in the midst of a marsh;
  a sinking of the land causing it to be flooded and consequently
  abandoned, as it is their custom to select the high and dry points
  of land along the seashore for their permanent villages. The fact
  of our finding a pair of wooden goggles 26 feet below the surface
  of the earth, in the shaft sunk for earth temperatures, points
  conclusively to the great lapse of time since these shores were
  first peopled by the race of man."[54]

The village of Sidaru, southwest of Cape Belcher, which in Ray's time
had a population of about 50, has since gone "dead."

The most direct attention to this subject has been given by Nelson. In
his excellent large memoir on "The Eskimo about Bering Strait"[55] he
states as follows:

"Ruins of ancient Eskimo villages are common on the lower Yukon
and thence along the coast line to Point Barrow. On the Siberian
shore they were seen from East Cape along the Arctic coast to Cape
Wankarem....

"On the shore of the bay on the southern side of St. Michael Island
I dug into an old village site where saucer-shape pits indicated the
places formerly occupied by houses. The village had been burned, as was
evident from the numerous fragments of charred timbers mixed with the
soil. In the few cubic feet of earth turned up at this place were found
a slate fish knife, an ivory spearhead, a doll, and a toy dish, the
latter two cut from bark. The men I had with me from the village at St.
Michael became so alarmed by their superstitious feelings that I was
obliged to give up the idea of getting further aid from them in this
place. I learned afterward that this village had been built by people
from Pastolik, at the mouth of the Yukon, who went there to fish and to
hunt seals before the Russians came to the country.

"On the highest point of Whale Island, which is a steep islet just
offshore near the present village of St. Michael, were the ruins of a
kashim and of several houses. The St. Michael people told me that this
place was destroyed, long before the Russians came, by a war party from
below the Yukon mouth. The sea has encroached upon the islet until a
portion of the land formerly occupied by the village has been washed
away. The permanently frozen soil at this place stopped us at the depth
of about 2 feet. Here, and at another ancient Unalit village site
which was examined superficially, we found specimens of bone and ivory
carvings which were very ancient, as many of them crumbled to pieces on
being exposed.

"Along the lower Yukon are many indications of villages destroyed by
war parties. According to the old men these parties came from Askinuk
and Kushunuk, near the Kuskokwim, as there was almost constant warfare
between the people of these two sections before the advent of the
Russians.

"Both the fur traders and the Eskimo claim that there are a large
number of house sites on the left bank of the Yukon,[56] a few miles
below Ikogmut. This is the village that the Yukon Eskimo say had 35
kashims, and there are many tales relating to the period when it was
occupied. At the time of my Yukon trips this site was heavily covered
with snow, and I could not see it; but it would undoubtedly well repay
thorough excavation during the summer months. One of the traditions
is that this village was built by people from Bristol Bay, joined by
others from Nunivak Island and Kushunuk. One informant said that
a portion of this village was occupied up to 1848, when the last
inhabitant died of smallpox, but whether or not this is true I was
unable to learn.

"Another informant told me that near the entrance of Goodnews Bay, near
the mouth of the Kuskokwim, there is a circular pit about 75 feet in
diameter, marking the former site of a very large kashim. A few miles
south of Shaktolik, near the head of Norton Sound, I learned of the
existence of a large village site. Both the Eskimo and the fur traders
who told me of this said that the houses had been those of Shaktolik
people, and that some of them must have been connected by underground
passageways, judging from the ditch-like depressions from one to the
other along the surface of the ground. The Shaktolik men who told me
this said that there were many other old village sites about there and
that they were once inhabited by a race of very small people who have
all disappeared.

"From the Malemut of Kotzebue Sound and adjacent region I learned that
there are many old village sites in that district. Many of these places
were destroyed by war parties of Tinné from the interior, according to
the traditions of the present inhabitants.

"On Elephant Point, at the head of the Kotzebue Sound, I saw the site
of an old village, with about 15 pits marking the locations of the
houses. The pits sloped toward the center and showed by their outlines
that the houses had been small and roughly circular, with a short
passageway leading into them, the entire structure having been partly
underground.

"The Eskimo of East Cape, Siberia, said that there were many old
village sites along the coast in that vicinity. These houses had stone
foundations, many of which are still in place. There is a large ruined
village of this kind near the one still occupied on the cape.

"On the extreme point of Cape Wankarem, and at its greatest elevation,
just above the present camp of the Reindeer Chukchi, a series of three
sites of old Eskimo villages were found."

To this, on pages 269 et seq., Nelson adds an account of the villages
that "died" on St. Lawrence Island during the winter of 1879-80.
Capt. C. L. Hooper, in the "Cruise of the Corwin in 1881, Notes and
Observations" (published in Washington, 1884, p. 100) gives the date as
1878-79, and adds further details about these villages.

FOOTNOTES:

[51] Beechey, F. W., Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Bering's
Strait. Phila., 1832, 474.

[52] Hooper, C. L., Report of Arctic Cruise of the Revenue Steamer
_Corwin_, 1881. Washington, 1884, 63, 99.

[53] Ray, Lieut. P. H., Report of the International Polar Expedition to
Point Barrow, Alaska. Washington, 1885, 22.

[54] Ray, P. H., Ethnographic Sketch of the Natives. Report of the
International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska. Washington,
1885, 37.

[55] Eighteenth Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Eth., pt. 1, Washington, 1900,
263 et seq.

[56] This is the "village of 32 kashims," which I mention in the
Narrative and of which I heard independently (p. 71). The present
Eskimo claim that it existed on the right bank, about 12 miles below
Russian Mission (Ikogmut). My visit and subsequently that of Mr. Chris
Betsch, the kind and interested trader at Russian Mission, the latter
with an old Eskimo, failed to definitely locate the site, but further
efforts are desirable.


PRESENT LOCATION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES

Through personal visits, wherever possible, and through information
from all available sources, an effort was made to locate and learn
the character of as many of the old sites as could be traced. In this
endeavor I was aided by many whose services are hereby gratefully
acknowledged. Especial thanks are due to Captain Cochran with the
officers and men of the _Bear_, particularly Boatswain H. Berg; to
the Lomen brothers and their esteemed father, at Nome; to Father B.
La Fortune and the Reverend Baldwin at Nome; to Mr. Sylvester Chance,
superintendent of the northwestern district, Bureau of Education; to
Mr. Charles D. Brower, trader at Barrow; to Mr. Jim Allen, trader at
Wainwright; and to Dr. E. P. Walker, head of the Biological Survey of
Alaska. The list to follow, supplemented by maps, will give in brief
the name, location, and description of the remains.

The old sites occur, (1) in the form of refuse heaps; (2) as late
village sites, smaller or larger areas of ground covered with mostly
circular elevations and depressions, with occasionally the wooden
remains of igloos or kashims, or only partly ruined dwellings; such
remains are the most common; (3) as old village sites in the form of
a long irregular ridge mound or of more or less separate heaps; (4)
as heaps or "mounds" of individual structures. And as "passed" sites,
covered completely by sand or silt and unknown until uncovered through
the washing away by the sea or rivers of some of the deposits.

In addition there are the remains of burial grounds which are
occasionally marked by small low mounds or hummocks produced by decayed
burials that have been more or less assimilated by the tundra. Stony
beaches with chips, implements, etc., such as are found off old sites
on the Yukon, have not been seen in the region now dealt with in any
instance.

The ruined dwellings and communal houses throughout this region,
with a few minor exceptions, were of one general type. They were
circular, yurta-shaped, semisubterranean structures, with a more or
less subterranean tunnel approach, built of hewn driftwood and earth.
These dwellings, when the wood decays and the dome falls in, leave
characteristic saucer-and-handle-like depressions. But where such
dwellings were close, and especially where they were heaped up or
superimposed on older ones, the remains, together with the refuse, may
form an irregular elevated ridge or a large irregular mound.

On the Diomede Islands the dwellings are built of stone, and ruins of
stone houses have been reported to me from inland of the westernmost
parts of the Seward Peninsula. Stone dwellings were also known on
Norton Sound.

Some of the ridges and heaps, as at Shishmaref, Point Hope, one of
the Punuk Islands, etc., are large and may be up to 15 feet and over
in depth, but mostly the remains are of moderate to small size. The
latter sometimes could easily be confounded with natural formations.
The older remains may superficially be indistinguishable even to an
experienced observer; and if there is anything still more ancient, it
lies somewhere in the old sands and beaches where, except through some
fortunate accident, it can not be discovered. Except for their surface,
the remains are generally frozen hard, and no excavation is possible
except through gradual exposure and the melting of layer after layer by
the warmth of the sun or a melting of the ground with water or by some
other artificial means.

Some at least of these ruins are rich archeologically. They greatly
exceed in this respect a large majority of village ruins and mounds
in the interior of the continent. This appears from their gradual
excavation by the natives at Barrow, Point Hope, St. Lawrence Island,
and elsewhere. The natives have now for many years been selling
thousands of articles thus obtained to traders, teachers, and crews of
visiting vessels. A regular and growing trade detrimental to archeology
is now being carried on in "fossil ivory," which generally consists of
pieces showing human workmanship and occasionally includes specimens of
rare beauty and importance.

The archeological contents of such old sites as that near Savonga on
the St. Lawrence Island, or those at Wales, Point Hope, Barrow, etc.,
are varied, and in instances exceedingly interesting. They comprise
a large variety of objects of stone, ivory, bone, and wood, while in
the more superficial layers are also found occasionally glass beads or
objects of metal. Some ruins, such as those at Point Hope and Kotzebue,
are very rich in stone objects; others, as those at the St. Lawrence
Island, are rich in articles of ivory and bone. Pottery is generally
scarce. Articles of stone comprise mainly points, knives, adzes, and
lamps; those of wood, goggles and masks; of bone, various parts of
sleds, a large assortment of snow and meat picks, and scrapers; of
ivory, barbed points, harpoons, and lance heads, and a large variety
of tools, fetishes, and ceremonial objects; of clay, a few dishes and
pots for culinary purposes. Traces of objects made of whalebone or even
birch bark may also appear.

The stones used were mainly slate and flint, but there may also be
met with quartz, quartzite, and especially the Kobuk "jade." The
workmanship is as a rule good to excellent. The arrow points show a
number of interesting, not yet fully known, types, the long blade with
parallel sides predominating. The stone lamps and rare dishes also need
further study. The knives all approach the Asiatic semilunar variety.

The bones and wooden objects and the pottery from this region are
fairly well covered by the writings of Ray, Murdoch, Nelson, Rau,
Thomas, and others; the masks need further study.

The most interesting archeological specimens from the region of the
western Eskimo, however, are some of those in "fossil ivory," the term
being applied to walrus ivory that through long lying in the ground
has assumed more or less of a pearly yellow, variegated, sepia-brown
or black color. These objects are known as yet very imperfectly. They
are scarce at and especially north of Point Hope, and again along the
west coast south of Norton Sound. Their center of frequency comprises
seemingly the St. Lawrence Island, some parts of the Asiatic coast, the
Diomedes, and parts of the Seward Peninsula. But they occur at least up
to Point Hope, while west of Bering Strait they are said to appear as
far as the river Kolyma.

Some of the objects in fossilized ivory show the well-known Eskimo
art, with geometrical design. But besides these there occur here and
there beautiful specimens, harpoon heads, figures, needle cases, etc.,
which are of the finest workmanship and which both in form and design
differ from the prevailing Eskimo types. They are examples of high
aboriginal art; and their engraved decorative lines are not geometrical
but beautifully curvilinear. (Fig. 12.) The accompanying illustrations
of specimens I succeeded in obtaining from different sources will show
the nature of this art. (Pls. 19-26.) Isolated specimens of this nature
have been secured before by Nelson, Neuman, Sverdrup, Stefánsson, and
others. Jenness in 1926 dug out a few from the old sites at Wales.
There are several in the Museum of the American Indian in New York. But
the largest and best collection of these remarkable articles is now
that of the United States National Museum.[57]

[Illustration: FIGURE 12.--Conventionalized design from fossil ivory
specimen shown in Plate 19]

The large fossil ivory figure (20.3 cm. maximum length, pl. 26)
collected by Mr. Carl Lomen and now in the National Museum is of
special interest. It comes from the Asiatic side. It is a handsomely
made piece, belonging in all probability to the high fossil ivory
culture. Its peculiarity is the bi-bevel face, a face made by two
planes rising to a median ridge. It is so far a unique specimen of its
kind. But with the aid of Mr. H. W. Krieger, curator of ethnology,
United States National Museum, we found similar bi-beveled faces in
wooden figures from northeast Asia, in wooden Eskimo masks from the
Yukon, and in wooden ceremonial figures from Panama. The latter are
shown herewith. (Pl. 27.) The whole presents evidently a nice problem
for the archeologist and student of culture.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 19

TERMINAL PIECE OF A LANCE OR HARPOON. NORTHERN BERING SEA

Black, high natural polish. Most beautiful piece of the fossil ivory
art. (A. H., 1926, U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 20

FOSSIL IVORY SPECIMENS SHOWING THE OLD CURVILINEAR DESIGNS. NORTHERN
BERING SEA

(A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 21

OBJECTS SHOWING THE OLD FOSSIL IVORY ART. NORTHERN BERING SEA

(U.S.N.M., Nos. 1 and 3, coll. A. H., 1926.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 22

FOSSIL IVORY NEEDLE CASES AND SPEAR HEADS, NORTHERN BERING SEA, SHOWING
FINE WORKMANSHIP

(A. H. coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 23

_a_, Small, finely made objects in fossil ivory and stone (the head),
from the ruins at Port Hope (A. H. coll., 1926.)

_b_, Old fossil ivory objects, northern Bering Sea. The article to the
right is almost classic in form; it is decorated on both sides. (A. H.
coll., 1926, U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 24

FOSSIL IVORY COMBS. UPPER BERING SEA

(A. H. coll., 1926)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 25

FOSSIL IVORY OBJECTS FROM THE UPPER BERING SEA REGION. TRANSITIONAL ART

(Museum of the Agricultural College, Fairbanks, Alaska.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 26

OLD BLACK FINELY CARVED FOSSIL IVORY FIGURE, FROM THE NORTHEASTERN
ASIATIC COAST

(Loan to U.S.N.M. by Mr. Carl Lomen.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 27

WOODEN FIGURINES FROM A MEDICINE LODGE, CHOCO INDIANS, PANAMA

(U.S.N.M. colls.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 28

Top: Manche de poignard en ivoire, avec sculpture représentant un
renne. Montastruc (Peccadeau de l'Isle; in de Quatrefages (A.), Hommes
fossiles, Paris, 1884, p. 50)

Left: Two beautiful knives of fossil mammoth ivory lately made by a
Seward Peninsula Eskimo. (Gift to the U.S.N.M. by A. H., 1926.)

Right: Two old ceremonial Mexican obsidian knives.]

I had further the good fortune to secure, through the kindness of
Reverend Baldwin, two handsome and remarkable knives from fossil
mammoth ivory. These knives were said to have been made recently by the
Eskimo of the Seward Peninsula. They are shown in Plate 28. They each
bear on the handle a nicely carved crouching animal figure. With them
are shown, somewhat more reduced, two probably ceremonial knives from
Old Mexico; and also the handle of a late palaeolithic poignard from
France, illustrated by De Quatrefages.[58] Regarding the latter form we
read the following in Mortillet:[59] "D'autres poignées de poignard,
faites dans des données pratiques et artistiques analogues, ont été
recueillies dans diverses collections. Les plus remarquables sont deux
poignées en ivoire trouvées par Peccadeau de l'Isle, à Bruniquel. L'une
se rattachait à la lame, comme dans la pièce précédente, par le train
de derrière; l'autre, au contraire, par la tête." Knives with similar
crouching animal figures on the handle are being made by the King
Islanders.

Here, evidently, is one more interesting problem for the archeologists.

The art shown by these objects, the conventionalization, and especially
the decorations, appear to show affinity on one hand to deeper eastern
Asia and on the other to those of the American northwest coast and
even lower. This may prove to mean much or little. The fact that these
specimens establish beyond question is that at one time and up to a
few hundreds of years ago there existed in the lands of the northern
Bering Sea native art superior to that existing there later and at the
present, and comparable with the best native Siberian or American.

The meaning of this fact seems to me to be of importance. The evidence
suggests, aside from other things, that American cultural developments
may after all not have been purely local or even American, but that
they may, in part at least, have been initiated or carried from Asia.
In view of these and other recent developments it seems rational to
consider that America may have been peopled by far eastern Asiatic
groups that not merely carried with them differences in language and
physique but also in some cases relatively high cultural developments.
But these for the present are mere hypotheses.

There is no definite indication as yet that the people of the high
fossil ivory art in the northern Bering Sea and neighboring parts were
any others than the ancestors of the Eskimo. The skeletal remains from
these regions, as will be shown later, rather support this view. But
those ancestors may not yet have represented the characteristic present
type of the people. Here, too, nothing definite can be said before the
results of sufficient scientific excavations become available.

FOOTNOTES:

[57] MacCurdy described the first specimen of this kind in 1921 as "An
Example of Eskimo Art," in Amer. Anthrop., vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 384-385.
See also Collins (H. B., jr.), Prehistoric Art of the Alaskan Eskimo,
Smith. Misc. Coll., vol. 81, No. 14, 52 pp., Washington, 1929.

[58] Quatrefages, A. de., Hommes fossiles et hommes sauvages. Paris,
1884.

[59] Mortillet, G. de., Le préhistorique origine et antiquité de
l'homme. Paris, 1900, 206-207.


SITES AND VILLAGES

The location of the western Eskimo villages has received more or less
attention by most of the explorers in their region from the Russian
time onward; but such efforts are generally limited to the living
villages in the area visited by the observers.

Perhaps the earliest Russian map of value in this connection on the
Bering Sea region is that which I find in Billings and Gall's Voyage or
"Putěshestvie" of 1791, printed in St. Petersburg 1811. The map bears
no date, but is evidently quite early. It gives three villages on the
western point and north coast of the Seward Peninsula, namely Kiemile
(later Nykhta, now Wales), Chegliukh, and Tykiak. (Pl. 29.)

The most notable and valuable of the Russian contributions to this
subject is that of Zagoskin. This refers to the period of 1842-1844 and
is contained partly in his "Peshechodnaia Opis," etc. (St. Petersburg,
1847), but especially on his maps. There are, I find, two of these
maps--the "Merkatorskaia Karta Časti Sieverozapadnago Berega Ameriky"
and the "Merkatorskaia Generalnaia Karta Časti Rossijskich Vladěnii v
Amerikě." I came across the first in one copy of Zagoskin's invaluable
account, which should long ago have been translated into English, and
the other in another copy. Part of the second is here reproduced.
(Pl. 30.) Both bear the statement that they were made by Zagoskin
as the result of his explorations on the Yukon in 1842-1844. The
second ("general") map is much the clearer and richer. Both maps, but
especially the second, give a good number of villages, especially about
Norton Sound and along the southern shore of Seward Peninsula. The
orthography differs somewhat on the two charts.

The Tebenkof Atlas of 1849 includes a remarkably good map of the St.
Lawrence Island. As on other Russian maps it gives the Punuk Islands,
that later are lost by most map makers, and indicates the location of
what probably were all the living settlements of that time, except on
the Punuk. (Fig. 27.)

Finally, in 1861, Tikhmenief, in his "Istoričeskoie Obozrenie" (history
of Russian America) gives a detailed map with many locations of Eskimo
villages.

The Aleutian Islands and Kodiak are excellently dealt with by
Veniaminof and also Tikhmenief, though little special attention is
given to the location of the settlements.

None of the Russian explorers, regrettably, report verbally on the
deserted sites or ruins. But their registration and location of many
villages that have since become "dead" is of much historical as well as
anthropological value.

[Illustration: FIGURE 13.--World map]

Of later and particularly American authors who gave attention to the
location of the western Eskimo settlements, the foremost is E. W.
Nelson. Beginning in 1877 with the St. Michael Island and ending with
the cruise of the _Corwin_ in 1881, Nelson made trips down the coast
to the Kuskokwim, up the Yukon to Anvik, over the Bering Sea, the St.
Lawrence Island and parts of the Chukchee Peninsula, and finally,
with the _Corwin_, along the northern coasts to Point Barrow. And
these journeys were devoted largely to biological and ethnological
observations and collections, the latter including the location of the
western Eskimo habitations of that time. His locations are given on the
accompanying map (fig. 15) taken from his classic memoir, "The Eskimo
about Bering Strait," published in 1900 in the Eighteenth Annual Report
of the Bureau of American Ethnology. This memoir contains a section of
"Ruins" (pp. 263-266), a brief account of the recently dead villages
on St. Lawrence Island (p. 269), and an instructive section on Eskimo
burials (pp. 310-322). Nelson brought also the first more substantial
collection of Eskimo crania.

The next deserving man in these connections is Ivan Petrof. Of
Russian-American extraction, Petrof was charged in 1880 with the
census enumeration of the natives in Alaska, and he later published[60]
a valuable report on his work, together with detailed demographic data
and a map on which are given all the living settlements of his time.
Nelson's map is partly based on Petrof's data.

Since Nelson and Petrof but little has been done in this field. But
the maps of these two observers have been utilized more or less by
the map makers of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the
Geological Survey, and other Government agencies concerned with Alaska.
The result is that some of these charts are exceptionally useful to the
anthropological explorer in Alaska; nevertheless the data they carry
are incomplete and the locations or names are not always exact, a good
many of the villages shown are now dead, and old ruins, as usual, have
received no attention.

[Illustration: FIGURE 14.--Dall's map of the distribution of the tribes
of Alaska and adjoining territory, 1875]

A very valuable supplement to all the maps has in 1902 been published
by the United States Geological Survey. It is the Geographic Dictionary
of Alaska, by Marcus Baker. This volume, besides brief but serviceable
historical data, gives in alphabetical order nearly all the then-known
names of localities in Alaska, including those of the Eskimo and
Indian settlements; and each name is accompanied by brief but in many
instances most helpful information. This highly deserving volume,
indispensable to every student of Alaska, has for many years been out
of print, but it is understood that a new revised edition is slowly
being prepared.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 29

BILLINGS AND GALL'S MAP OF BERING STRAIT AND NEIGHBORING LANDS, 1811]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 30

ESKIMO VILLAGES AND SITES. NORTON SOUND AND BAY AND SEWARD PENINSULA,
AND THE KOTZEBUE SOUND, FROM ZAGOSKIN'S GENERAL MAP, 1847]

[Illustration: FIGURE 15.--Nelson's map. (Eighteenth Ann. Rept. Bur.
Amer. Ethn., 1898)]

Other useful publications in these connections are the United States
Coast Pilots of Alaska, the various accounts of travelers, explorers,
and men in collateral branches of science (geology, biology, etc.),
the publications of the Alaska Division of the United States Department
of Education, the annual reports of the Governor of Alaska, and the
decennial reports on Alaska of the United States Census.

[Illustration: FIGURE 16.--Linguistic map, United States census, 1920]

The object of the following notes and data is some measure of
usefulness to future anthropological and archeological workers in
Alaska. They are surely incomplete and very imperfect, yet they may be
of some service.

Archeological and anthropological research in the highly important
western Eskimo region is bound to develop in a not far distant future;
for this is the region through which in all probability America was
peopled. It is this region that promises to solve the problem of the
antiquity of the Eskimo and may throw much light upon the origin of
these people, and one that, as shown, above, has begun to reveal highly
interesting old cultural conditions. And it is a region in which
destruction of the remains by nature, but most so recently by the
natives themselves, proceeds at an alarming pace.

The information on which these notes and the accompanying charts are
based has been obtained largely from the Russian and other maps, from
local traders, teachers, missionaries, and natives, and from a few
explorers.[61] Only in a minority of cases was it possible to visit
the places in person; to have visited all would have been a task of
pleasure, but would have required a staunch boat of my own and at least
three full seasons.

Many of the sites to be given are now "dead" and there may be several
old sites in the vicinity of a living village. Others combine ruins
with present habitations. Still others are partly or even wholly
abandoned a part of the year when the inhabitants go camping or
hunting, and are partly or wholly occupied during the rest of the
year. Finally, there are some new settlements, with modern dwellings
and ways, and their number will increase, the Eskimo taking kindly to
civilization and individual property.

The data to be given here are limited to the Eskimo territory in
southwestern and western Alaska, leaving out those in Siberia where
much is uncertain. Due to the uncertainties of the Prince William Sound
region they will begin with Kodiak Island. There are also on hand,
principally due to Dr. E. P. Walker, numerous locations of old sites
and villages in the Indian parts of southern and southeastern Alaska,
but these will best be reserved for another occasion.

The Eskimo area will be roughly seen from the accompanying map
published on the basis of the enumeration by the Fourteenth United
States Census of 1920. A very great part of the territory allotted to
the Eskimo, as well as that of the Indian, is barren of any population
or its traces; the divisions represent the hunting grounds or grounds
claimed by each people, not an occupied territory. The data will be
given in south-to-north order.

Nearly all the settlements in these regions are now, and have evidently
always been, on the shores of the seas and bays, as close to the water
as safety would permit. A few villages and sites occur also, however,
on inland lakes and rivers. The favored locations have been an elevated
flat near the mouth of a fresh-water stream or the outlet of a lagoon,
a sufficiently elevated spit projecting into the sea, or an elevated
bar between the sea and an inland lake. The essentials were an elevated
flat, a supply of fresh drinking water, and a location favorable for
fishing and hunting; if there was some natural protection, so much
the better. There were no inland settlements except on the lakes and
rivers. In a few cases, as at the Kings and the Little Diomede Islands,
very difficult locations were occupied only because outweighed by other
advantages.

Caves throughout the occupied region north of the Aleutian chain are
absent, and there was therefore no cave habitation.

None of the settlements were very large, though a few were much larger
than others. They ranged from one or two family camps or houses to
villages of some hundreds of inhabitants. A large majority of the
settlements had from but two or three to approximately a dozen families.

There were two main types of dwellings, the semisubterranean sod houses
for the winter and the skin tents for summer. In some places the two
were near each other; in others the summer dwellings were in another
and at times fairly distant locality.

The "zimniki" (in Russian) or winter houses were throughout
the region of one general type. They were fair-sized circular
semisubterranean houses, made of driftwood and earth, and provided with
a semisubterranean entrance vestibule. Their remains are characterized
everywhere by a circular pit with a short straight trench depression,
the same pot-and-handle type as found along the Yukon. Rarely for the
construction of the houses, where driftwood did not suffice, recourse
was had to whale ribs and mandibles. The "letniki," or summer houses,
were constructed on the surface of wood, sod and skins, or of whale
ribs and skins, approaching on one hand the summer huts of various
continental tribes and on the other the "yurts" of the north Asiatic
peoples. The "kashims," or communal houses, were built, much as on the
Yukon, like the family dwellings, but occasionally quadrilateral and
much larger. Smaller semisubterranean storage houses of driftwood and
sod near the winter dwellings were seemingly general.

Ruins of stone dwellings, without mortar, are said to exist in places
on Norton Sound and Bay and on a lagoon near the western end of the
Seward Peninsula. The few houses on the Little Diomede are made of
loose unhewn stone slabs. The dwellings of the King Islanders are built
on the rocky slope of the island on platforms supported by poles, all
of driftwood.

There is as a rule an absence of separate refuse heaps near the
villages. The refuse apparently has been dumped about and between the
houses rather than on separate piles.

Dead villages abound. On consulting the older Russian records, however,
it is seen that nearly all were still "living" as late as the early
forties of the last century. Yet there are sites that were "dead"
already when the Russians came, and the accumulations in other cases
denotes a long occupation.

The site of a dead village, in summer, is generally marked by richer
and greener vegetation; same as on the Yukon. The site itself is
usually pitted or humped in a line forming a more or less elevated
ridge, or the pits may be disseminated without apparently much order.
And there may be irregular mound-like heaps without external traces of
any structure.

In the older sites no trace of wood is visible; in the later rotten
posts, crosspieces, parts of the covering of the house or tunnel, or
even a whole habitation may be present. In the old sites the wood is
hewn with stone axes; in the later it is sawed, and there may be nails.

Older accumulations lie occasionally beneath more recent ones, though
no interruption of continuity may be traceable. Of a superposition of
villages no trace was observable.

FOOTNOTES:

[60] Tenth Census, VIII; reprinted in Compilation of Narratives of
Explorations in Alaska. U. S. Senate Rept. 1023, Washington, 1900,
55-281.

[61] I am especially indebted to the two maps of Zagoskin (one prepared
by himself, one from his data); to the 1849 Russian map of the St.
Lawrence Island; to the various maps of the U. S. Geological Survey
and the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; to the maps and data of W.
H. Dall, E. W. Nelson, and Ivan Petrof; to the various reports of the
_Corwin_ and other voyages in the Bering Sea and the western Arctic;
to the Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, by Marcus Baker, and to the U.
S. Coast Pilots of Alaska; to the data of the Alaska Division, U. S.
Department of Education; to Dr. E. P. Walker, of the Biological Survey;
to Father La Fortune, the Reverend Baldwin, and to Mr. Carl J. Lomen at
Nome; to Mr. Sylvester Chance, superintendent in 1926 of the schools of
the Kotzebue district; to Messrs. James Allen at Wainwright and Charles
Brower at Barrow; and to numerous other friends who aided me in this
direction.


BURIAL GROUNDS

Due to the impossibility of digging sufficiently deep into the frozen
ground the western Eskimo buried their dead near or on the surface or
among rocks. Occasionally they utilized also, it seems, old dwellings
for this purpose, and in more recent times at least the surface
burials, wherever there was driftwood, would be protected by heavy
rough-hewn planks put together in the form of boxes or by driftwood.
They bear close fundamental resemblance to those of the Yukon. On the
Nunivak Island occur graves made of rough stone slabs piled up without
much order. (Pl. 31, _a_, _b_.)

Throughout the region the burials were located near the village, but
the distance varied according to local conditions and habits. In some
of the Eskimo villages of the lower Yukon, as at Old Hamilton, some
burials were close to the houses of the living. In the Bering and
Arctic regions the burial grounds, though sometimes of necessity not
far from the houses, as at the Little Diomede, in other places, as at
Point Hope and Barrow, were at a distance extending to beyond a mile
and a half from the village.

As a rule the wood of burials older than about 80 years was found fully
decayed with the bones secondarily buried. Of earlier burials there is
generally no trace on the surface, but on excavation skeletal remains
are found at various depths below the surface. These characteristic
self-burials, or rather tundra burials, may prove of much importance
to anthropology in the future. As outlined before (see Narrative, pp.
77, 79) the process is a decay of the wood; the sagging down of the
bones, covered more or less by the decayed material; an encroachment of
moss or other vegetation on the little mound thus produced; and gradual
accumulation through wind or water carried materials of more covering
over the bones, until the mound disappears and the remains, generally
still in good condition, are buried as if intentionally inhumed.

The Eskimo everywhere were found to be exceedingly sensible about the
older, and even recent, skeletal remains, and assisted readily in their
collection, as well as in excavation, offering thus the best possible
conditions for anthropological and archeological work in these regions.

The notes, charts, and a detailed list of the sites and villages
follow. In numerous cases it was found impossible to say whether a site
was completely "dead" or still occasionally partly occupied, so that
distinctive markings had to be abandoned.


PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, KODIAK ISLAND, ALASKA PENINSULA

Very largely still a terra incognita for anthropology and archeology.
Partly occupied by Indians (Prince William Sound, Kodiak Island?),
partly by mix-blood Aleut (parts of Peninsula, and of Kodiak), partly
by Eskimo. There is but little skeletal or archeological material from
the whole extensive territory.


KODIAK ISLAND AND NEIGHBORHOOD

[FIG. 17]

1. _Litnik_ (probably the Russian "Lietnik," the name for a summer
village).--Indian village on Afognak Bay, Afognak Island. This name is
found on a map made by the Fish Commission in 1889. Apparently it is
the Afognak of other maps (G. D. A.).[62]

2. _Afognak._--On the southwestern part of Afognak Island. Village or
row of scattered dwellings on shore of Afognak Bay, in southwestern
part of Afognak Island. Population in 1890, 409. (G. D. A.) According
to Walker, "an important, occupied native village which has probably
been occupied for a long time. No doubt there are other native villages
in this immediate vicinity."

3. _Spruce Island._--Ouzinkie, or Uzinki; an occupied native village
and cannery. (E. P. W.).[63]

[Illustration: FIGURE 17.--Villages and sites on Kodiak Island]

4. _Eagle Harbour or Ugak Bay._--Possibly the native village "Orlova"
of the Russians. (G. D. A.)

5. _Kiliuda._--Native village, on the north shore of Kiliuda Bay,
Kodiak. Has been generally written Killuda. (G. D. A.)

6. _Nunamiut._--Native village, on the shore of Three Saints Harbor,
Kodiak. (G. D. A.) Better known locally as Three Saints Bay. There
was formerly an old native and Russian settlement at this point and
vicinity, and fishing operations are frequently now conducted here. (E.
P. W.)

7. _Kaguyak._--Village, at Kaguyak Bay, on the southwestern
shore of Kodiak. It may be identical with the Kaniag-miut of the
Russian-American Co., in 1849. (G. D. A.) An old native village at
present occupied by only one or two families. Possibly an old site. (E.
P. W.)

8. _Aiaktalik._--Village on one of the goose islands, near Kodiak.
Population in 1890, 106. (G. D. A.) An occupied native village
consisting of about a dozen houses, but which has probably been
occupied for a long time. (E. P. W.)

9. _Akhiok._--Native village on the northern shore of Alitak Bay,
Kodiak. Native name from Petrof, 1880. Apparently identical with
Oohaiack of Lisianski in 1805. (G. D. A.) An occupied native village
consisting of about a couple of dozen houses. This or possibly other
villages in the vicinity have undoubtedly been occupied for a long
time. It is possible that there was a native settlement at Lazy Bay
near this point, for Lazy Bay was formerly a native headquarters for
sea otter hunting. (E. P. W.)

10. _Karluk._--Village at mouth of Karluk River, Kodiak. Native name
from the Russians. (G. D. A.)

11. _Uyak._--Bay indenting the northwestern coast of Kodiak; also a
village. Native name from the Russians. Lisianski, 1805, spells it
Oohiack and the village Ooiatsk. Petrof, 1880, writes it Ooiak. Has
also been written Uiak. (G. D. A.)

12. _Larsen Bay._--A cannery has been located at this point for a
number of years, and there is an old native trail from Larsen Bay to
Karluk River, so presumably natives have frequented this section and
no doubt have at some time had settlements there. Definite information
regarding this is not available. (E. P. W.)

13. _Uganik._--Native village at head of Uganik Bay. Shown by
Lisianski, 1805, who spells it Oohanick. (G. D. A.) An occupied native
village and one which has apparently been in use for a considerable
period. (E. P. W.)

FOOTNOTES:

[62] G. D. A.: Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, by Marcus Baker, U. S.
Geol. Surv., Washington, 1902.

[63] E. P. W.: Dr. E. P. Walker.


ALASKA PENINSULA

[FIGS. 18, 19]

Native settlements or old villages at one or more points in Kamishak
Bay, Ursus Cove, or Iliamna Bay are reported, but there is nothing
definite on the subject. (E. P. W.)

14. _Iliamna._--An occupied native village, and undoubtedly there are
various village sites on Iliamna Lake regarding which information could
be obtained from parties in Iliamna. (E. P. W.)

15. _Ashivak._--Native village (population 46 in 1880), near Cape
Douglas, Cook Inlet. Native name reported by Petrof in 1880. (G. D. A.)

16. _Kayayak._--Village, on Svikshak Bay, Shelikof Strait, about
25 miles southwest of Cape Douglas. Tebenkof, 1849, has Kaiaiak
settlement, which has on many charts appeared as Kayayak. (G. D. A.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 18.--Villages and sites on the proximal half of
Alaska Peninsula]

17. _Kukak._--Native village on Kukak Bay. Lütke, 1835, has Koukak Bay
and village. (G. D. A.)

18. _Katmai._--Village, on Katmai Bay, Shelikof Strait, northwest of
Kodiak. This is one of the most important of the native villages.
Population in 1880, 218; in 1890, 132. (G. D. A.) A native village
which was occupied up to the time of the Katmai eruption but was
abandoned at that time. (E. P. W.)

19. _Cold Bay._--Small village.

20. _Kanatak._--A native village consisting of about half a dozen
houses until in 1922, when oil activity in the vicinity caused a small
white settlement to locate at this point. This, however, has since been
almost entirely abandoned by whites. (E. P. W.)

21. _Kuiukuk._--Small village.

22. _Chignik._--Fishing station on Chignik Bay, Alaska Peninsula.
Population in 1890, 193. (G. D. A.) There are three canneries in this
immediate vicinity, a number of natives, and undoubtedly some native
villages and probably old village sites. (E. P. W.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 19.--Villages and sites on the distal half of
Alaska Peninsula]

23. _Kaluiak._--Native village, on the southern shore of Chignik Bay,
Alaska Peninsula. So given by Petrof in 1880 and the Fish Commission in
1888. (G. D. A.)

24. _Mitrofania._--An old native village which has recently been
abandoned or practically abandoned; was apparently a rather important
village at one time. (E. P. W.)

25. _Perryville._--A recently established native village consisting of
natives from various points along the Alaska Peninsula who were moved
there primarily by the Bureau of Education since the Katmai eruption.
(E. P. W.)

26. _Kujulik._--Walker has been informed that there is an old village
site of that name either in this bay or on Kumlik.

27. Old village mentioned on this island; uncertain.

28. _Wosnesenski._--An old village site on this island reported. (E. P.
W.)

29. _Pavlof._--Rev. D. Hotvoitzky, of Belkofski, informed Walker that
there is a very old abandoned village site at the head of this bay.

30. _Belkofski._--Bay, cape, and village on south coast of Alaska
Peninsula. Named, by the Russians as early as 1835 and probably
earlier. (G. D. A.) The most important occupied native village on the
Alaska Peninsula. Quite an old village and a former headquarters for
sea-otter hunting. (E. P. W.)

31, 32. _Morzhovoi._--Native village at western end of Alaska
Peninsula. Named Morzhovoi (Walrus) by the Russians. Variously spelled.
There are or were two villages, one called Old Morzhovoi, the other New
Morzhovoi, being about 12 miles apart. Old Morzhovoi was at the head
of Morzhovoi Bay; New Morzhovoi is on Traders Cove, which opens into
Isanotski Strait. The Greek church here is named Protassof, and Petrof,
1880, called the settlement Protassof. (G. D. A.) An occupied native
village. The natives from this village also live during the canning
season at the cannery in False Pass directly across the strait from
Morzhovoi and at Ikatan a short way to the south. (E. P. W.)

33. _Herendeen._--Walker has been informed that there are some shell
mounds or kitchen middens about this bay. Walter G. Culver, formerly an
employee of the Bureau of Education, but who is at present in Anchorage
in care of the Alaska Railway, can give information regarding this and
can also give information regarding most of the other native villages
along the Alaska Peninsula. (E. P. W.)

34. _Port Moller._--Eskimo site somewhere in this vicinity; name and
exact location uncertain.

35. _Unangashik._--A native village, or portage, near Port Heiden.

36. _Meshik._--A village on Port Heiden.

37. _Ugashik._--A native village on the Ugashik River. Reported by
Petrof, 1880.

38. _Igagik (or Egegik)._--A village at the mouth of the Egegik River.

39. _Kiniak (or Naknak, or Suvorof)._--A village (of "Aleuts,"
Sarichef) at mouth of Naknak River, Bristol Bay, south side.

40. _Pawik (or Pakwik)._--Eskimo village, at mouth of Naknak River,
Bristol Bay, north side.

41. _Kogiunk._--Eskimo village at mouth of Kvichak River, Bristol Bay.
Native name, reported in 1880 by Petrof, who spelled it Koggiung. (G.
D. A.)

42. _Lockanok._--Small village.

43. _Kashanak._--Small old village.

44. _Kvichak._--Old Eskimo village on river of same name between
Kvichak Bay and Iliamna Lake.


BRISTOL BAY TO CAPE ROMANZOF

From the northern part of Bristol Bay to Cape Romanzof a partial survey
of the coast was made in 1927 by Collins and Stewart (U. S. National
Museum Expedition). In these regions and on the Nunivak Island it
was possible to locate a series of villages some of which are still
"living," others in ruins. In the late seventies of the last century,
as stated before, the coast between Kuskokwim Bay and St. Michael
Island was visited and its villages recorded by Nelson. A detailed
archeological survey of this coast remains for the future. Doctor
Romig, formerly a medical missionary at Bethel, told me of a number of
old sites on the river. Some notes of interest by T. D. Stewart are
given in the details. Mr. F. W. Bundy, for a time my companion on the
_Bear_, told of an old site on the Kuskokwim. In March, 1927, H. W.
Averill, writing from Bethel, tells of a deep-lying old site on the
southern coast of the Kuskokwim Bay. (See details.) And later the same
year Father Philip I. Delon, of the Holy Cross Mission, sent in three
skulls from Kashunuk, in the Yukon delta, with information of much
additional material in that locality.

45. _Nushagak._--Old Russian post, "Alexandrovsk." Eskimo village,
a few whites; a number of old native sites scattered about head of
Nushagak Bay.

46. _Ekuk._--Eskimo settlement near the mouth of Nushagak River. Name
from Lütke, 1928, who spelled it Ekouk. Has also been written Yekuk.
(G. D. A.)

46a. Reported site of Eskimo village.

47. _Ualik._--Native village, on the western shore of Kulukak Bay,
Bristol Bay, Bering Sea. Given by Petrof, 1880, as Ooallikh and by
Spurr and Post as Oallígamut; i. e., Oallik people. (G. D. A.)

48. _Togiak._--Old Eskimo settlement.

49. _Ekilik._--Possibly the same as Togiakmute, reported in 1880 by
Petrof. Eskimo village on the west bank of Togiak River, about 10 miles
from its mouth. Eskimo name obtained by Spurr and Post, in 1898, who
write it Ekilígamut; i. e., Ekilik people.

50. A small Eskimo village.

51. _Mumtrak._--Eskimo village at head of Goodnews Bays, Bering
Sea. Population in 1890, 162. Name from Petrof, 1880, who spelled
it Mumtrahamute. (G. D. A.) Visited 1927 by Collins and Stewart;
collections.

52. Site of a village, at junction of Bessie Creek and Arolic River.

53. _Arolik._--A village. H. W. Averill of Bethel writes me under date
of March 3, 1927, as follows: "I am sending you some old stone pieces
that came from the Aralic River, a tributary of the lower Kuskokwim
River, that were washed up by a bend in the river from an old village
that is now 6 feet underground."

[Illustration: FIGURE 20.--Eskimo villages and sites on Nushagak Bay to
Kuskokwim Bay]

54. _Kwinak._--Eskimo village on the eastern shore of Kuskokwim
Bay, at the mouth of the Kwinak or Kanektok River, Bering Sea. So
given by Sarichef, 1826, and Tebenkof, 1849. Petrof, 1880, writes it
Quinehahamute, or, omitting the termination _mute_, meaning _people_,
it would be Quene-a-ak. (G. D. A.)

55. _Apokak._--Eskimo village on the eastern shore of Kuskokwim Bay,
at the mouth of Apoka River. According to Nelson, 1878-79, its native
name is Apokagamute; i. e., Apokak people. In the Eleventh Census,
1890, it is called Ahpokagamiut. (G. D. A.)

56. _Eek._--Eskimo village at mouth of Eek River.

57. _Akiak._--Eskimo village on the right bank of the Kuskokwim, about
30 miles above Bethel. Petrof, 1880, wrote its name Ackiagmute; i.
e., Akiak people. Spurr and Post, 1898, write Akiagmut, following
Missionary J. H. Kilbuck. (G. D. A.) Reindeer camps in vicinity.

58. _Bethel._--White and Eskimo settlement and mission at or near the
old Eskimo village Mumtrelega.

59. _Napaiskak._--Eskimo village on the left bank of the Kuskokwim,
about 4 miles below Bethel. According to Nelson, 1878-79, its native
name is Napaskiagamute, and according to Missionary Kilbuck, 1898, it
is Napaiskagamut; i. e., Napaiskak people.

60. _Old sites._--Mr. Bundy, my companion for a time on the _Bear_,
gives the following details: "Specimens found about 12 miles below
Bethel, Alaska, at the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, beneath about 10
or 12 feet of alluvial soil deposits of sand and clay.

"Mr. Jack Heron, of Bethel, first noted the presence of old implements,
and upon returning with him about August 1, 1923, we found the river
had cut into the bank quite a bit and had brought to view, after the
high waters had receded, additional specimens.

"Those found included: A large copper kettle of perhaps 8 gallons
capacity of early Russian pattern, several arrowheads of slate or dark
gray flint, and two spearheads of bone with several broken knife blades
of slate and one or two small ivory ornaments resembling birds."

61. _Napakiak._--Eskimo village on the right bank of the Kuskokwim,
about 10 miles below Bethel. Nelson, 1878, reports the native name as
Napahaiagamute. (G. D. A.)

62. _Kinak._--Eskimo village on right bank of the lower Kuskokwim.
Visited by Nelson in January, 1879, who reported its native name to be
Kinagamiut; i. e., Kinak people. Its population was at that time about
175. Population in 1880, 60; 1890, 257. (G. D. A.)

63. Village site (?).

64. _Kuskovak._--Eskimo village, on the right bank of the Kuskokwim
River, near its mouth. Name from Nelson, who passed near it in January,
1879, and who writes it Kuskovakh. (G. D. A.)

65. _Popokak._--Native village.

66. _Kulvagavik._--Eskimo village, on the western side of Kuskokwim
Bay, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in January, 1879, and its native
name reported by him to be Koolvagavigamiut. (G. D. A.)

67. _Kongiganak._--Eskimo village (of about 175 people in 1878) on
north shore of Kuskokwim Bay. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G.
D. A.)

68. _Anogok._--Eskimo village, on the mainland shore just west of
Kuskokwim Bay, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D.
A.)

69. _Chalit._--Eskimo village, of about 60 people in 1878, on left bank
of the Kuguklik River, northwest of Kuskokwim Bay. Visited by Nelson in
December, 1878. (G. D. A.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 21.--Eskimo villages and sites, Kuskokwim Bay to
Scammon Bay]

70. _Chichinak._--Eskimo village on the mainland, east of Nunivak
Island, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.)

70a. Old village site.

71. _Sfaganuk._--Eskimo village, on the mainland, east of Nunivak
Island, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.)

72. _Agiukchuk._--Eskimo village, on the mainland, east of Nunivak
Island, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.)

73. _Kashigaluk._--Eskimo village, on Nelson Island, Bering Sea.
Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.)

74. _Kaliukluk._--Eskimo village, on Nelson Island, near Cape
Vancouver, Bering Sea. Visited by Nelson in December, 1878. (G. D. A.)

74a. Old village site.

75. _Tanunak._--Eskimo village, at Cape Vancouver, Nelson Island,
Bering Sea. Name from Nelson, who visited it in December, 1878. Visited
1927 by Collins and Stewart; collections.

75a. Village site.

76. _Ukak._--Eskimo village, in the Yukon Delta, on shore of Hazen Bay.
Visited by Nelson in December, 1878, and its name reported by him as
Ookagamiut; i. e., Ukak people. Petrof, 1880, calls it Ookagamute. (G.
D. A.)

77. _Unakak._--Eskimo village, in the Yukon Delta, near Hazen
Bay. Nelson, who visited it in December, 1878, reports its name
to be Oonakagamute; i. e., Unakak people. Petrof, 1880, calls it
Oonakagamute. (G. D. A.)

78. _Kvigatluk._--Eskimo village, in the Big Lake country, between the
Yukon and Kuskokwim. Nelson in 1879 passed near it and reports its name
to be Kvigathlogamute. (G. D. A.)

79. _Nunochok._--Eskimo village, in the Big Lake region. Visited
by Nelson in January, 1879, who reports its native name to be
Nunochogmute; i. e., Nunochok people.

80. _Nanvogaloklak._--Eskimo village, in the Big Lake country. Visited
by Nelson in January, 1879. Population in 1880, 100; in 1890, 107. (G.
D. A.)

81. _Nash Harbor._--Living village, Nunivak Island; school; Collins and
Stewart, 1927, anthropometric data, collections (also from other parts
of island).

82. _Koot._--Village, Nunivak Island, near Cape Etolin; partly
occupied. Population in 1890, 117.

83. _Inger._--(In Eleventh Census: Ingeramiut.) Dead village, in
southeast part of Nunivak Island. Population, 1890, 35.

84. _Kvigak_ (_or Kwik_).--Dead village, southern part of Nunivak
Island.

85. _Tachikuga._--Dead village, Nunivak Island, below Cape Mohican.

86. _Kashunuk._--Eskimo village; some collections; skeletal material
in vicinity reported 1927 by Father Delon, of the Holy Cross Mission,
Yukon.

87. _Askinuk._--Eskimo village on the southern shore of Hooper Bay,
Yukon Delta. Native name, from Nelson. Population 1878, 200. (G. D. A.)

87a. Village site.

88. _Agiak._--Eskimo village on promontory north of Hooper Bay.

88a. Village site.

89. _Igag._--Small village.

90. _Kut_ (_Kutmiut_).--Small village on Kut River, head of Scammon Bay.


CAPE ROMANZOF TO NORTHERN (APOON) PASS OF THE YUKON AND NORTHWARD

On this coast there is little information since the time of Nelson.
There are a number of occupied villages as well as of old sites. The
region is bleak and the Eskimo there are reported to live miserably.

The principal Eskimo villages and sites along the lowermost branch of
the Yukon have been given previously. (Fig. 11.)

From the northernmost pass of the Yukon to St. Michael Island the
coast is poor in Eskimo remains. A site of interest here is the old
camping ground, with a few permanent houses, of Pastolik, and there
are two small sites farther up the coast. Pastolik to the writer's
visit was still occasionally occupied by a few Eskimo families. There
are only three houses, but a relatively large and old cemetery speaks
of a larger population, probably camping here in tents during the
summer seasons of the past. The burial grounds were found to be rather
extensive and give indications of containing human bones as well as
artifacts below the present surface (buried by the tundra). The main
part of the burial grounds may well repay an excavation.

ST. MICHAEL ISLAND.--Eskimo remains exist on the northeastern point
of the island beyond the present white man's village, and also on the
rock (Whale Island) opposite this point. During my visit the ground
was so overgrown by high weeds that details were hidden. On this same
northeastern point near the extension of the white settlement is a
small living Eskimo village, most of the inhabitants of which are now
of mixed blood. Across St. Michael Bay are said to be some old traces
of Eskimo, and Nelson reported an old site in the southern part of
the island. Finally at Cape Stephens, in the western extremity of the
island, there is "Stebbins," another living village. Nothing could be
learned of any human remains on the opposite Stuart Island.

NORTON SOUND.--North of St. Michael Island is Norton Sound and Norton
Bay. Along the east coast of the Sound there are three villages still
occupied, but with old accumulations. It is reported that in this
region there are some ruined houses in which mammoth tusks had been
used in the construction, but nothing definite could be learned as
to the location of these houses and the whole may be but a story.
The village of Unalaklik was of importance in the past and its older
remains would probably repay excavation. Old sites are reported from
the vicinity of Shaktolik and at Cape Denbigh.

The Norton Bay region (fig. 22), now almost depopulated, had in 1840 a
whole series of moderate-sized living Eskimo settlements, both on the
east and the west shore. These shallows are but little visited, and it
is probable that the remains of the villages and some at least of the
skeletal material of their burying grounds are well preserved. They
call for early attention.

To the west of Norton Bay, on the southern coast of Seward Peninsula,
is Golovnin[64] Bay. On the eastern shore of this bay are now, as there
were in Russian times, two settlements, but the name of one has been
misplaced. On Zagoskin's map it is clearly seen that the village Ching
or Chinig corresponds in location to what now is the mission, while
what is now called "Cheenik" was in 1840 Ikalik or Ikalikhaig. There
will soon be seen another instance of such a misapplication of the
original names.

To the west Golovnin Bay is bounded by a large promontory ending in
Rocky Point. To the east of this point is a shallow bay, where I found
a late Eskimo house and on the elevated shore a little to the left four
fairly recent adult burials. Farther down the bay was an Eskimo camp,
without signs of anything older; but Zagoskin's map gives a settlement,
probably also a camp, at this place, named Knikhtak. From this a rocky
point projects eastward into the bay. Behind this point is a shallow
cove with elevated ground above the beach, and at the inland end of
this bay I found the remains of a small old village. Traces of burials
were seen on the elevated ground but skeletal remains were absent.

On the southwestern shore of the promontory that bounds Golovnin Bay on
the west the Russians (Zagoskin) recorded two villages, the one near
to Rocky Point being Chiukak, that on a point farther northwest being
named Chaimiut. Later the name Chiukak became applied to the former
Chaimiut, while Chiukak proper was dead and forgotten. On latest maps,
such as Chart 9302 United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, neither of
the old names appears. The name Bluff denotes a small settlement in
about the location of the former Chaimiut. Some Eskimo met in Golovnin
Bay said that there are skeletal remains near the original Chiukak, but
an attempt to reach the place failed through rough water.

FOOTNOTES:

[64] This is the correct orthography. See Russian maps.


SOUTH SHORE OF SEWARD PENINSULA WEST OF BLUFF

A number of dead villages are found along this coast. The first and
largest is located a few miles west of Port Safety, 18 miles east of
Nome. This was a large village extending for a considerable distance
along the elevated beach separating an inland lagoon from the sea. The
depressions of the dwellings, of the usual dipper-with-handle type,
are very plain. Old settlers at Nome remember when the village was
still occupied. Nearer the sea the beach is said to have been lined
with burials, but the storm of 1913 took or covered everything. (See
Narrative, p. 90.)

A small Eskimo settlement existed on a rocky elevation east of Cape
Nome. There are some house sites, but the place gives little promise
of archeological importance. We found evidence that the site must have
been occupied until fairly recently. Among the bowlders were found two
skeletons.

A larger dead village is located near the mouth of a little stream west
of Cape Nome. It is doubtless the Azachagiag of the Zagoskin general
map. It gives no great promise archeologically.

From Nome to Point Spencer there are several old sites, all "dead"; and
there are one or two recently "dead" villages on Sledge (the old Aiak
or Aziak) Island. Of the coast sites, the most important is reported to
be that at Cape Woolley. It is said to have been the stopping point of
the King Islanders and may have been their old mainland village.

A number of old sites and burial grounds have been seen or learned of
in Port Clarence and Salt Lake. They are marked on the map, and those
of the lake have been discussed in the Narrative (p. 117). Those on
Salt Lake (Imuruk Basin) deserve attention.

Between Port Clarence and Cape Prince of Wales only one, and that
evidently not a very large site, was learned of at Cape York.

The most important site of the peninsula region is doubtless that at
the cape. Thanks to the able local teacher of that time, Mr. Clark
M. Garber, I am able to present a detailed map of this locality. It
is here that Doctor Jenness in 1926 conducted some excavations with
interesting results. But the site has barely been touched. It is the
nearest point to Asia. There are ample indications that it has been
occupied for a long period and by relatively large numbers of people.
Besides the ruined parts and old heaps there are still the skulls and
bones of many burials among the rocks about the village, and there is
evidence that more are in the ground. It is one of the chief sites
of the far northwest for systematic thorough exploration, and such
exploration is a growing necessity for all branches of anthropology
interested in the problems of the Bering Sea and Asiatic-American
connections.


SCAMMON BAY, NORTON SOUND, SOUTH COAST OF SEWARD PENINSULA, TO CAPE
RODNEY

[FIG. 22]

91. _Melatolik._--A small coast village.

92. _Bimiut._--A small coast village.

93. _Kwikak._--Eskimo village on the outer coast in the Yukon Delta, a
little south of the mouth of Black River. Native name, from the Coast
Survey, 1898, which gives it as Kwikagamiut. (G. D. A.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 22.--Eskimo Villages and sites, Scammon Bay to
Norton Sound and Bay to Cape Rodney]

94. _Kipniak._--Eskimo village and Coast Survey tidal station at mouth
of Black River in the Yukon Delta. Nelson, 1879, reports its name to be
Kipniaguk and Dall writes it phonetically Kip-nai-ak. (G. D. A.)

95. _Kogomiut._--A small village.

96. _Waklarok._--A small village.

97. _Nunamekrok._--A small village.

97a. _Eleutak._--A small settlement.

98. _Nilak._--A small village.

99. _Kwikluak._--A small village near the mouth of the Kwikluak Pass of
the Yukon, south bank.

100. _Alakanuk._--A small settlement.

101. _Kwiguk._--A village on Kwikluak Pass of the Yukon, north bank.

102. _Kwikpak._--Village near mouth north bank of pass of same name,
Yukon River.

103. _Nakhliwak._--A small village, occupied part of time, about 2
miles from mouth of Apoon Pass, Yukon; visited by the writer; small
skeletal collection.

104. _Kotlik Point._--A store and Eskimo camp (summer) at mouth of
Apoon Pass, north bank. (A. H.)

105. _Pastolik._--Four Eskimo houses, occupied winter. Extensive burial
ground near. Collections, A. Hrdlička. Good prospects for excavation in
burial places.

106. _Pikmiktalik._--Eskimo village, near the mouth of Pikmiktalik
River, about 30 miles to the south of St. Michael, western Alaska. (G.
D. A.)

106a. _Pastoliak._--A site near mouth of next small stream to the
north. A few houses. Some burials.

107. _St. Michael and Whale Island._--Old sites, northeast end of St.
Michael and on Whale Island, opposite. A small living village near the
point of the main island, mostly mix bloods. (A. H.)

107a. Dead village. Nelson reports it had been peopled by the Pastolik
Eskimo ("Eskimo about Bering Strait," p. 263).

108. _Stebbins._--A living Eskimo village at Cape Stephens.

110. _Golsova._--A small camp at mouth of river of same name.

111. _Unalakleet_ (_or Unalaklik_).--Important old Eskimo village,
Norton Sound; western end of portage to Yukon. Population in 1880, 100;
in 1890, 175.

112. _Shaktolik._--Eskimo village, at mouth of Shaktolik River, Norton
Sound. Population in 1880, 60; in 1890, 38. (G. D. A.) Old settlement;
several old sites in this region.

113. _Nuklit._--Eskimo village, on the eastern shore of Norton Sound,
immediately behind Cape Denbigh. (G. D. A.) Originally given on
Zagoskin's general map. (A. H.)

113a. _Tapkhalik._--Old village on east shore of Norton Bay.

114. _Unakhtuglig or Unagtulig._--Originally given on Zagoskin's
general map. (A. H.)

115. _Kviguk._--Eskimo village, on north shore of Norton Bay, at mouth
of the Kviguk River. Eskimo name, from the Russians. Tikhmenief,
1861, has Kviegmiut and Kvieguk-miut; i. e., Kviguk people. (G. D. A.)
Originally on Zagoskin's general map.

116. _Kvig-miut._--Old village, above the preceding; originally on
Zagoskin's general map.

117. _Kvinkhak_ (_now Inglestat_).--Old village at head of Norton Bay.
Originally on Zagoskin's general map.

118. _Tulukhtulig_ (_at or near Elim_).--Old village on west coast of
Norton Bay.

119. _Atnik._--Old village below the preceding.

120. _Camp_ (_Reindeer_).

121. _Chinig._--Old village at or near the site of present mission;
name now erroneously applied to village at Point Golovnin.

122. _Ikalikhvig._--Present Cheenik, at Point Golovnin.

123. Old site; located 1926 (A. H.); a moderate-sized village; not
promising for excavation.

124. _Knikhtak._--Originally on Zagoskin's general map; now a camp,
no old remains in evidence; a house and four burials on same shore, 2
miles farther south; collection (A. H.).

125. _Chiukak._--Dead village; on Zagoskin's general map; some skeletal
material remaining; name now applied to a village farther up the coast.

126. _Chaimiut._--Dead village; originally on Zagoskin's general map;
name belonged to village nearer the point.

127. _Ukvikhtulig._--Dead village at Topkok Head; originally on
Zagoskin's general map.

128. Dead village, 18 miles east of Nome, near Port Safety. (A. H.)

129. _Azachagiag._--Dead village, west of Cape Nome; originally on
Zagoskin's general map.

130. _Nome._--Probably small native village at this site in the past.
Now principal white settlement in western Alaska. King Island, Diomede,
and some Wales natives reside on the outskirts during summer.

131. _Aziak Island_ (_Sledge Island_).--Two dead villages; the
principal one at the northern point of the island. Visited by Collins,
1928. Collections.

132. _Sinuk._--Small old site.

133. _King Island_ (_Ukiook_).--Old village, still occupied in winter;
in summer inhabitants live at Nome.

133a. A village site at Cape Woolley; said to be the stopping place of
the King Islanders.

134. Dead sites.

135. Burials.

136. _Siniak._--Now a Lutheran Mission for the Eskimo.

[Illustration:

  ·LEGEND·
  1 U·S· PUBLIC SCHOOL·
  2 PRESBY MISSION·
  3 SITE OF ANCIENT VILLAGES·
  I UMIAKS OR SKIN BOATS·
  X FOOD AND SKIN CACHES·
  ✛ NATIVE CEMETERIES·
  O IGLOOS OR INNIES·
  ⬛ FRAME BUILDINGS·
  ·1927·

FIGURE 23.--Eskimo villages and sites, Wales. (By Clark M. Garber,
1927)]

137. _Teller._--Old Eskimo site; some still live here with, a few
whites. A few Eskimo camps along Tuksuk Channel.

138. _Salt Lake_ (_Imuruk Basin_).--Ruins seen on north shore. (A. H.)

139. Old sites near eastern end of lake; a Chukchee-Eskimo battlefield
in vicinity. (A. H.)

140. Old village site on the St. Marys River.

141. Burials reported.

142. _Wales._--Old Nykhta, Zagoskin's maps; see special description;
collections.


THE NORTHERN SHORE OF THE SEWARD PENINSULA

This shore is but little known to science. It is dangerous of approach
to any except small boats. The only place that could be visited by me
was Shishmaref, a good-sized thriving Eskimo village, on both sides of
which along the sea are remains of old sites with burials. The more
important old settlement was that to the east of the village. Here
are found large and extensive heaps, the tops of which have recently
been leveled for fox cages, the whole site belonging, regrettably,
to a newly established fox farm. It is an old site, though probably
occupied up to white man's times, and is doubtless of some importance.
Excavations would still be possible, as the bulk of the remains is
intact; and though the surface skeletal material has been removed (part
saved for our collections), there are indications of surface burials
(assimilations by the tundra) in the ground.

Between Wales and Shishmaref are several dead sites, as shown on the
map, and some of them, judging from the information obtained, are of
promise. One of these settlements, "Tapkhaig," was evidently still a
living village at the time of Zagoskin (1840).

Northeast and east of Shishmaref the coast is known even less than that
to the west. A few miles off Shishmaref I saw from a distance--the boat
could not approach nearer--what to all appearances was a large ridge of
ruins, and from various maps and other sources information was obtained
of several other sites, all of which represent former villages. From
one of these sites on the Bucknell River Mr. Carl Lomen secured a fine
piece of fossil ivory carving, and the site is said to be of much
promise. The whole coast is a virgin field for archeology.

143. _Mitletukeruk._--Old village site. Visited by Collins, 1928;
collections.

144. _Tapkhaig or Ekpik._--Old village site, originally shown in
Zagoskin's general map.

145. _Sinrazat._--Old site.

146. _Karatuk or Shishmaref._--Living village, with ruins on both
sides. Visited by A. H.; collections.

147. _Kividlow._--Old site.

148. Old site reported.

148a. _Siuk._--Old site.

149. Old site (?).

150. _Paapkuk._--Old site.

151. _Deering._--Recent settlement, but old sites probable in vicinity.

151a. _Kualing._--Old village, now long dead, shown by Zagoskin.
(General map.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 24.--Eskimo villages and sites, Seward Peninsula,
Kotzebue Sound, and Arctic Coast, to Kevalina]

152. _Kiwalik._--A village at mouth of river of same name.

153. Dead villages reported on the two promontories; promising
archeologically. On Elephant Point Nelson saw the site of an old
village "with about 15 pits marking the locations of the houses."
(Eskimo of Bering Strait, 264.)

153a. Buckland River. Camp sites.

153b. Old village site.

154. Old whaling place, occupied summers only. (S. Chance.)

155. _Selawik._--Old village. Old igloos and camps at various places in
the Selawik Basin. (S. Chance.)

156. Camps. (S. Chance.)

156a. _Chilivik._--A village, now long dead, shown on the general map
of Zagoskin.

157. Fish camps. (A. H.)


KOTZEBUE SOUND, ITS RIVERS AND ITS COAST NORTHWARD TO KEVALINA

Figure 24 shows the village sites that it was possible to locate in
these regions. Nearly all these are now "dead villages," though some
Eskimo may still occasionally camp in their vicinity. A large present
settlement of the Eskimo, well advanced toward civilization, is found
at Kotzebue, and fish camps extend from here along the shore in the
direction of Cape Blossom. Another important recent living village and
school center is Noorvik on the lower Kobuk River.

Inquiries as to old sites in this region were greatly assisted by
Mr. Sylvester Chance, at the time of my visit the supervisor of the
Government schools of the district. At my request and with the aid
of the natives Mr. Chance has compiled a list of such sites and
settlements as could still be remembered, and the information has been
incorporated into these records.

Among the more important ruins of this vicinity are apparently those at
and near Cape Krusenstern, and again those near Kevalina farther to the
northward. Archeological specimens of considerable interest were seen
and partly secured from both localities. The old Kevalina especially
should receive early attention, for it is being excavated by the Eskimo
of the present village, though fortunately this is at some distance.


SEWARD PENINSULA, KOTZEBUE SOUND, AND NORTHWARD

158. _Kotzebue._--Old name: Kikikhtagiuk. (Zagoskin, general map.)
A small white with a large Eskimo settlement. Old burials in ground
(assimilated). A. H. collections.

159. _Noorvik._--White and native village; school center.

160. _Oksik._--Old camp, still occupied. (S. Chance.)

161. _Kiana._--Old village, still occupied. (S. Chance.)

162. _Shesoalik._--Old camp, still occupied in summer. (S. Chance.)

162a. _Kubok._--Old village shown on general map of Zagoskin.

163. _Aniyak._--Old camp, still occupied. (S. Chance.)

164. Old site reported here; said to be promising archeologically.

165. _Tikizat._--Eskimo village, at Cape Krusenstern, Arctic Ocean.
Eskimo name, from Petrof, 1880, who reported a population in that year
of 75.

166. _Kiligmak._--Old camp, still occupied.

167. _Noatak._--A living village.

168. Old camp, exact location not certain. (S. Chance.)

169. _Matthew or Aniyak._--Old camp.

170. _Ottala._--Camp, occupied. (S. Chance.)

171. Old site reported; exact location (?).

172. Old site, rich archeologically, exact location undetermined; small
collection. (A. H.)

173. _Kevalina._--Living Eskimo village.

174. _Pingo._--Old dead village. (S. Chance, Jim Allen.)


KEVALINA--POINT BARROW


POINT HOPE (TIGARA)

This is the most important ruin as well as living Eskimo village in
Arctic Alaska. It is unanimously declared by the Eskimo of the coast
to be one of the oldest settlements and has always been the largest
native center on the coast. The point was called Golovnin Point by the
early Russians; it was called Point Hope by Beechey in 1826 in honor
of Sir William Johnston Hope. At the time of its visit by the revenue
cutter _Corwin_, 1884, there are said to have been two villages;[65]
the second being possibly at the site of the old whaling station.
Rasmussen, who visited the village about 1924, speaks of it in part
as follows:[66] "Point Hope or Tikeraq, 'the pointing finger,' is
one of the most interesting Eskimo settlements on the whole coast of
Alaska, and has doubtless the largest collection of ruins. The old
village, now deserted, consists of 122 very large houses, but as the
sea is constantly washing away parts of the land and carrying off more
houses, it is impossible to say what may have been the original number.
Probably the village here and its immediate neighborhood had at one
time something like 2,000 souls, or as many as are now to be found
throughout the whole of the Northwest Passage between the Magnetic Pole
and Herschel Island."

The ruins are to the northwest and west of the present village. Those
to the northwest consist of imposing heaps, which together form an
elevated ridge facing the sea. It is said that this old settlement was
abandoned because of the encroachments upon it by the sea, particularly
during storms.

The ruins of this main compound have been for several years assiduously
excavated inch by inch by the local Eskimo, and thousands of articles
of great variety, of stone, bone, ivory, and wood, with here and there
in the uppermost layers an object of metal, are being gathered and
sold to all comers. With these are found a few human skulls and bones,
but especially the skulls and bones of various animals, all of which
unfortunately have hitherto been left behind in the mud. But the
probably most valuable central and lower portions of the piles remain.
The locality calls loudly for proper exploration, which will well repay
any museum by the quantity and value of the specimens that are sure to
be recovered.

FOOTNOTES:

[65] Healy, M. A. Cruise of the _Corwin_ in the Arctic Ocean 1884.
Washington, 1889, p. 27.

[66] Rasmussen, Knud, Across Arctic America. New York, London, 1927,
329-330.


POINT HOPE TO POINT BARROW

Information about this part of the northwesternmost coast of Alaska
was obtained principally from Jim Allen, the trader at Wainwright, and
Charles Brower, the trader at Barrow; but parts of the coast were also
examined in person. The number of old sites is rather large, but it
appears that there is not much of special promise until we reach near
Barrow.

Old "igloos" southwest of Barrow: From 5 to 8 miles southwest of
Barrow and at some distance (up to about 400 yards) from the shore
there existed, and in part still exist, a series of elevations which
the natives of Barrow always regarded as natural. On excavation the
larger of these elevations proved to be old structures with numerous
burials and cultural objects, and the remains, as shown elsewhere, are
exceptional for this coast. Six of these "mounds" have been excavated
by the University of Pennsylvania Expedition (Van Valin), while
several are still remaining. It is very important that these should be
carefully excavated before they are attacked by the natives of Barrow
for mercenary purposes.


BARROW AND POINT BARROW

Two large living villages, with old sites and inhumed (natural) burials
in their vicinity, and with some old remains between them. Barrow is
the most important present mixed settlement and center of civilization
in the Arctic. Besides the school, it contains a mission hospital and
recently a meteorological observatory and wireless station. The tundras
to the east of the village for about 1½ miles show patches of burials,
particularly in the more distant parts of this region on the elevations
to both sides of a small stream.

Much archeological work remains to be done about Barrow, particularly
in the remainder of the old "igloos." East of Point Barrow the
population is very sparse and no ruins of any note or settlements
are reported before those of the Barter Island and the mouth of the
Colville River.

175. _Pingishuguruk._--A small old site.

176. _Ketchemeluk._--A small old site.

176a. _Ipnot._--Eskimo village on the Arctic coast, near Cape Thomson,
a little south of Point Hope. Name from Petrof, who wrote it Ip-Not and
Ipnot, and reported a population of 40 in 1880.

177. Old whaling station.

178. _Point Hope or Tigara._--Eskimo village at Point Hope, Arctic
Ocean. It is Tiekagag-miut of Tikhmenief, 1861; Tikirak of Petrof,
1880, who reports a population in that year of 276. Spelled Tikera in
the Eleventh Census. Herendeen gives Tik-i-rah. The Eskimo name of the
settlement is said to be Tik-i-rah-mum. Visited by A. H.; important
collections.

179. _Wewuk_ (_or Wevok_).--Eskimo village on the Arctic coast, near
Cape Lisburne. Eskimo name, published by the Hydrographic Office in
1890. (G. D. A.) (Jim Allen.)

[Illustration: FIGURE 25.--Eskimo villages and sites, Kevalina to Point
Barrow]

180. _Iniktilik._--Small village, occupied. (S. Chance.)

181. _Pitmegia._--A small old site at the mouth of river of same name,
north side. (Jim Allen, S. Chance.)

    _e._ _Napayochak._--Old camp, two igloos. (S. Chance.)

    _f._ _Tolageak._--A small old site. (S. Chance.)

    _g._ _Emelik._--A small old site. (S. Chance.)

    _h._ _Pingasoogarook._--Old village, still occupied. (S. Chance.)

  182. _Umalik._   }
                   }
  183. _Koochik._  }
                   }  Trapping stations; igloos. (S. Chance.)
  184.             }
                   }
  185.             }

186. _Kokolik._--Eskimo settlement, at Point Lay, Arctic coast. (G. D.
A.) Old but still partly occupied village. (S. Chance.) Kelik. (Jim
Allen.)

187. _Napayochik._--Old camp, two igloos. (S. Chance.)

188. _Tolageak._--Old dead igloos. (S. Chance.)

189. _Utukok._--Old small settlement at northern mouth of Utukok River.

190. _Emelik._--Old deserted igloo. (S. Chance.)

191. _Kayakshulik._--A live village at Icy Cape. (Jim Allen, S. Chance.)

192. _Nokotlik_ (_?_).--Old igloo. (S. Chance.)

193. _Mitliktavik._--A dead moderate-sized village, about 5 miles below
Kilik. (Jim Allen.)

194. _Kilimantavic._--Eskimo village, near Wainwright Inlet, Arctic
coast. Tikhmenief, 1861, calls it Kilametagag-miut; Petrof, 1880, calls
it Kolumakturook; Hydrographic Chart 68 calls it Kelamantowruk, while
later charts omit it or call it Kilimantavic. According to Murdoch this
name is Ke-lev-a-tow-tin (sling). (G. D. A.) A large dead village about
20 miles below Wainwright. (Jim Allen.) Kilamitavic. (S. Chance.)

195. Old abandoned camp. (S. Chance.)

196. _Wainwright._--A large living native village; some remains of old
habitations on its eastern outskirts. (A. H.) About a mile south of
present settlements are the remains of the old village once occupied by
the Wainwright people. (Jim Allen.)

197. _Kululin._--Old site.

198. _Sedaru._--Old dead village.

199. _Atnik._--Old dead village. (S. Chance.) Possibly same with next.

200. _Itanik._--On maps Atanik. Old village, still partly occupied. (S.
Chance, Jim Allen.) Called Ataniek in Tikhmenief, 1861. (G. D. A.)

201. _Pinoshuragin._--Petrof, 1880, shows a native village of this name
(population 29) on the Seahorse Islands. On British Admiralty Chart 593
(ed. of 1882) it is called Pingoshugarun. (G. D. A.) Pingasoogarook:
Old village, still occupied. (S. Chance.)

202. _Kokolak._--Two old igloos, still occupied. (S. Chance.)

203. _Sakamna._--Small camp.

204. _Sinaru._--Small camp about 22 miles from Barrow; visited by A.
H.; small skeletal collection.

205. _Walakpa._--A small dead old settlement about 12 miles from Barrow.

206. _Nunava._--Small camp.

207. "_Old Igloos._"--A very important site archeologically. Explored
partly by Van Valin. (See special section devoted to this site.)

208. _Barrow._--Known also as Utkiavik, Uglaamie, or the Cape Smyth
village. Important white and Eskimo settlement. Old remains. Extensive
burial grounds east of village. (A. H. collections.)

209. _Nunawa._--Remains of old camping site, about 4 miles from Barrow.

210. _Point Barrow._--The Eskimo Nuwuk. Good-sized living village.
Remains of older habitations. Population in 1853, 309. (G.D.A.)


THE ST. LAWRENCE AND DIOMEDE ISLANDS


ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND

Ranking in archeological and anthropological importance with Wales and
in some respects perhaps even exceeding the latter, is the large island
of St. Lawrence, with the almost forgotten little Punuk group at its
eastern extremity.

[Illustration: FIGURE 26.--Russian map of St. Lawrence Island, 1849.
(Tebenkof)]

The main island was discovered by Bering on St. Lawrence Day, August
10, 1728, and it was found peopled by the Eskimo. In 1849 an excellent
map of it was published by Tebenkof in Novo-Archangelsk, and on this
map (fig. 26) are indicated about a dozen smaller or larger Eskimo
settlements, some of which, however, are not named and may already have
been "dead."

About 1878 there were still six settlements with somewhat less than
1,500 Eskimo inhabitants on the island. That winter (1878-79) not less
than 1,000 of the population died of famine (Hooper), three of the
villages becoming completely depopulated and a fourth nearly so. The
Punuk Island village may have become extinct about the same time.

To-day there are on the St. Lawrence Island but two living settlements,
the main one, now known as Gambell, at the old site of Chibukak on the
northwestern cape, and the other, Savonga, about 40 miles east of it,
near Cape North.

A number of the old sites on this island, and also that on one of the
Punuks, indicate a long occupation, antedating by far the advent of the
Russians. The accumulations rise in some places to imposing heaps or
ridges. Their frozen contents yield quantities of fossil ivory, all of
which shows the work of man, and among them occur specimens with fine
curvilinear designs and of high scientific as well as artistic value.

Through Nelson in 1881 and R. D. Moore in 1912 the Smithsonian
Institution has acquired a large quantity of human skeletal material
from the main island, and there is now (1928) an expedition of the
Institution under Collins on the Punuk as well as the St. Lawrence
exploring some of the principal ruins.


THE DIOMEDE ISLANDS AND THE ASIATIC COAST

[FIGS. 27 AND 28]

The smaller or American Diomede, though a very inhospitable place,
supports, and that evidently since long, a small Eskimo village
of stone houses, below and about which there is a considerable
accumulation of refuse. Doctor Jenness dug here for a short time in
1926.

The larger or Russian Diomede has two villages, each of which is larger
than the one on the smaller island. There are also said to be some
remains in a broad depression on the eastern side of the island, while
skeletal remains are reported by the natives to exist among the rocks
on the top. This island is in need of thorough attention. Its people
are reputed to be skilled ivory workers. They come yearly to Nome,
where they were visited and seen at their work by the writer. They
bring each year some fossil ivory, said to come mainly from the Asiatic
coast, and among this are occasionally articles of much interest.

Ruins of Eskimo villages are also present along the coasts of the
Chukchee Peninsula, both those facing the Bering Sea and those along
the Arctic. Very little is definitely known or can be found from the
American Eskimo about these ruins, and some of them may not be Eskimo.
Nelson in his book (p. 265) reports briefly on a few about Cape
Wankarem. Interesting objects of the fossil ivory culture are said
to occur in these old sites as far west as the Kolyma, but nothing
is certain except that there are ruins, that a good number of them
are probably Eskimo, and that fossil ivory, both worked (walrus) and
unworked (mammoth), comes from these coasts. A noteworthy report is
that of a large native cemetery on the Bering Sea side, with hundreds
of burials in rough stone-slab graves. Information of this was given me
by Joe Bernard, well known in connection with Bering Sea explorations,
who had seen the site in person.

[Illustration: FIGURE 27.--Eskimo villages and sites, St. Lawrence
Island, the Diomedes, and the eastern Asiatic coast]

211. _Gambell_ (_or Chibukuk_).--Old Eskimo settlement on the northwest
cape of St. Lawrence Island. United States National Museum expedition,
1912, by Riley D. Moore; anthropometric data; important collections.

212. Small sites, north bay, St. Lawrence Island, indicated on 1849
Russian map (q. v.).

213. _Savonga._--A small modern Eskimo village. A. H., 1926; some
collections.

214. Ruins of an old site 4 miles northeast of Savonga. Important
archeologically.

215. _Kukuliak._--Dead village.

216. Former summer site. Given on the 1849 Russian map.

[Illustration: FIGURE 28.--The Bering Strait Islands]

217. Important old site with large accumulations on one of the two
Punuk Islands. Explored 1928 by Collins; collections.

218. _Kialegak._--Dead village. Important archeologically. Partly
explored by Collins, 1928; collections.

219. _Chitnak._--One of the dead villages of 1879. (Nelson, Hooper.)

220. _Puguviliak._--One of the dead villages of 1879. (Nelson, Hooper.)

221. Old site; no details available.

222. Living small village on the smaller (American) Diomede Island.
Some old accumulations. A. H., 1926, collections; some excavations same
year by D. Jenness.

223. _Nunarbuk._--Village still occupied, on greater (Russian) Diomede,
located on an elevated slope around the southern cape of the island.
Skeletal and other remains reported on top of mesa.

224. Village, still occupied, on an elevated saddle near middle of west
coast of island.

225. Eskimo village, East Cape of Asia. Other villages indicated along
the coast of Chukchee Peninsula. Others on north coast. (See Nelson,
The Eskimo of Bering Strait, p. 265.)



PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY


EARLIER DATA

The previously published data on the western Eskimo are few in number
and mostly not as well documented as would be desirable. There are,
however, a good number of references to the physical characteristics
of the people by explorers. The main of these are given below. These
references in general are not of much scientific value, yet in some
instances they approach this closely and are of considerable interest
collectively.

1784, Cook:[67]

  The inlet which we had now quitted, was distinguished by Captain
  Cook with the name of Prince William's Sound. * * * The natives
  whom we saw were in general of a middling stature, though many of
  them were under it. They were square or strong chested, with short
  thick necks, and large broad visages which were for the most part
  rather flat. The most disproportioned part of their body appeared
  to be their heads, which were of great magnitude. Their teeth were
  of a tolerable whiteness, broad, well set, and equal in size. Their
  noses had full round points, turned up at the tip; and their eyes,
  though not small, were scarcely proportioned to the largeness of
  their faces. They had black hair which was strong, straight, and
  thick. Their beards were in general thin or deficient, but the
  hairs growing about the lips, of those who have them, were bristly
  or stiff and often of a brownish color; and some of the elderly men
  had large, thick straight beards. * * * The complexion of some of
  the females, and of the children, is white without any mixture of
  red. Many of the men, whom we saw naked, had rather a swarthy cast,
  which was scarcely the effect of any stain, as it is not their
  custom to paint their bodies.

  Vol. 3, page 31: All the Americans we had seen since our arrival on
  that coast (west coast of Alaska) had round, chubby faces, and high
  cheek bones, and were rather low of stature.

  Ibid., page 72: _Norton Sound._--The woman was short and squat and
  her visage was plump and round. * * * Her husband was well made and
  about 5 feet 2 inches in height. His hair was black and short, and
  he had but little beard. His complexion was of a light copper cast.
  * * * The teeth of both of them were black, and appeared as if they
  had been filed down level with the gums.

1821, Kotzebue:[68]

  _Kotzebue Sound._--The Americans [i. e., Eskimo] are of a middle
  size, robust make, and healthy appearance; their countenances * * *
  are characterized by small eyes and very high cheek bones.

1832, Beechey:[69]

  The western Esquimaux appear to be intimately connected with the
  tribes inhabiting the northern and northeastern shores of America,
  in language, features, manners, and customs. They at the same time,
  in many respects, resemble the Tschutschi, from whom they are
  probably descended. * * *

  They are taller in stature than the eastern Esquimaux, their
  average height being about 5 feet 7½ inches. They are also a better
  looking race, if I may judge from the natives I saw in Baffin's
  Bay, and from the portraits of others that have been published. At
  a comparatively early age, however, they (the women in particular)
  soon lose this comeliness, and old age is attended with a haggard
  and careworn countenance, rendered more unbecoming by sore eyes
  and by teeth worn to the gums by frequent mastication of hard
  substances.

1850, Latham:[70]

  Physically the Eskimo is a Mongol and Asiatic.

  The Eskimos of the Atlantic are not only easily distinguished from
  the tribes of American aborigines which lie to the south or west
  of them, and with which they come in contact, but they stand in
  strong contrast and opposition to them--a contrast and opposition
  exhibited equally in appearance, manners, language, and one which
  has had full justice done to it by those who have written on the
  subject.

  It is not so with the Eskimos of Russian-America, and the parts
  that look upon the Pacific. These are so far from being separated
  by any broad and trenchant line of demarcation from the proper
  Indians or the so-called red race, that they pass gradually
  into it, and that in respect to their habits, manner, and
  appearance, equally. So far is this the case that he would be a
  bold man who should venture, in speaking of the southern tribes
  of Russian-America, to say here the Eskimo area ends and here a
  different area begins.

1853, Hooper:[71]

  _Kotzebue Sound Esquimeaux._--The men generally were taller than
  the average of Europeans, strongly built and well formed; some
  had well-marked features * * *. The women, were generally short,
  the visages of the younger ones tolerably good but * * * the
  very reverse was the case with the dames of more advanced age.
  Their figures inclined to the squat, their mien and expression
  promised intelligence and good nature. Although both sexes had in
  most instances the round flat face of the Mongolian cast, a few
  individuals possessed well-defined, though petite features, and all
  had fine eyes.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 31

GRAVES AT NASH HARBOR, NUNIVAK ISLAND

(Photos by Collins and Stewart, 1927.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 32

SCHOOL CHILDREN AT WALES]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 33

_a_, Children, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and Stewart, 1927)

_b_, Adults, Nunivak Island. (Photo by Collins and Stewart, 1927)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 34

KING ISLAND ESKIMO: A FAMILY GROUP]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 35

KING ISLAND NATIVE]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 36

_a_, Young Eskimo woman, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by Lomen
Bros.)

_b_, Eskimo, northern Bering Sea region. (Photo by F. H. Nowell.)

A FINE FULL-BLOOD ESKIMO PAIR, NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 37

TYPICAL FULL-BLOOD ESKIMO. NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 38

ELDERLY MAN, ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND

(Photos by R. D. Moore, 1912. U.S.N.M.)]

1853, Seemann, vol. II, pages 49-51:[72]

  _The Eskimos._--By comparing the accounts transmitted by different
  writers we find that the various tribes, however widely separated
  geographically, differ but slightly from each other in appearance,
  manners, customs, or language. They are, however, by no means as
  uniform in size as might have been expected. Those inhabiting the
  vicinity of Norton and Kotzebue Sounds are by far the finest and
  tallest, while those living between Cape Lisburne and Point Barrow
  are, like the tribes of the eastern portions of America, much
  shorter in stature, and bespeak the inferiority of the districts in
  which they live.

  Both sexes are well proportioned, stout, muscular, and active.
  The hands and feet are small and beautifully formed, which is
  ascribed by some writers to their sedentary habits, but this
  cannot be the case, as probably no people take more exercise or
  are more constantly employed. Their height varies. In the southern
  parts some of the men are 6 feet; in the more northern there is a
  perceptible diminution, though by no means to the extent generally
  imagined.

  Their faces are flat, their cheek bones projecting, and their eyes
  small, deeply set, and, like the eyebrows, black. Their noses
  are broad; their ears are large, and generally lengthened by the
  appendage of weighty ornaments; their mouths are well formed, their
  lips are thin. * * *

  The teeth of the Eskimos are regular, but from the nature of
  their food and from their practice of preparing hides by chewing,
  are worn down almost to the gums at an early age. Their hair is
  straight, black, and coarse; the men have it closely cut on the
  crown, like that of a Capuchin friar, leaving a band about two
  inches broad, which gradually increases in length towards the back
  of the neck; the women merely part their hair in the middle, and,
  if wealthy, ornament it with strings of beads. The possession of a
  beard is very rare, but a slight moustache is not infrequent. Their
  complexion, if divested of its usual covering of dirt, can hardly
  be called dark; on the contrary, it displays a healthy, rosy tint,
  and were it not for the custom of tattooing the chin some of the
  girls might be called pretty, even in the European acceptation of
  the term.

1861, Richardson:[73]

  The Eskimos are remarkably uniform in physical appearance
  throughout their far-stretching area, there being perhaps no other
  nation in the world so unmixed in blood. Frobisher's people were
  struck with their resemblance in features and general aspect to the
  Samoyeds and their physiognomy has been held by all ethnologists
  to be of the Mongolian or Tartar type. Doctor Latham calls the
  Samoyeds Hyperborean Mongolidae, and the Eskimos he ranges among
  the American Mongolidae, embracing in the latter group all the
  native races of the New World. The Mongol type of countenance is,
  however, more strongly reproduced in the Eskimos than in the red
  Indians--the conterminous Tinné tribes differing greatly in their
  features, and the more remote Indians still more.

  Generally the Eskimos have broadly egg-shaped faces with
  considerable prominence of the rounded cheeks caused by the arching
  of the cheek bones, but few or no angular projections even in the
  old people, whose features are always much weather beaten and
  furrowed. The greatest breadth of the face is just below the eyes,
  the forehead tapers upward, ending narrowly, but not acutely, and
  in like manner the chin is a blunt cone; both the forehead and the
  chin recede, the egg outline showing in profile, though not so
  strongly, as in a front view. The nose is broad and depressed, but
  not in all, some individuals having prominent noses, yet almost all
  have wider nostrils than Europeans. The eyes have small and oblique
  apertures like the Chinese, and from frequent attacks of ophthalmia
  and the effect of lamp smoke in their winter habitations adults of
  both sexes are disfigured by excoriated or ulcerated eyelids. The
  sight of these people is, from its constant exercise, extremely
  keen, and the habit of bringing the eyelids nearly together when
  looking at distant objects has in all the grown males produced a
  striking cluster of furrows radiating from the outer corners of
  each eye over the temples.

  The complexions of the Eskimos when relieved from smoke and dirt
  are nearly white and show little of the copper color of the red
  Indians. Infants have a good deal of red on the cheeks, and when
  by chance their faces are tolerably clean are much like European
  children, the national peculiarities of countenance being slighter
  at an early age. Many of the young women appear even pretty from
  the liveliness and good nature that beams in their countenances.
  The old women are frightfully ugly * * *.

  The young men have little beard, but some of the old ones have a
  tolerable show of long gray hairs on the upper lip and chin. * * *
  The Eskimo beard, however, is in no instance so dense as a European
  one.

  The hair of the head is black and coarse, the lips thickish, and
  the teeth of the young people white and regular, but the sand that,
  through want of cleanliness, mixes with their food, wears the teeth
  down at an early age almost to the level of the gums, so that the
  incisors often have broad crowns like the molars.

  The average stature of the Eskimos is below the English standard,
  but they can not be said to be a dwarfish race. The men vary in
  height from about 5 feet to 5 feet 10 inches or even more. They
  are a broad-shouldered race, and when seated in their kayaks look
  tall and muscular, but when standing lose their apparent height by
  a seemingly disproportionate shortness of the lower extremities.
  This want of symmetry may arise from the dress, as the proportions
  of various parts of the body have not been tested by accurate
  measurements. The hands and feet are delicately small and well
  formed. Mr. Simpson (Blue Book, 1855) observed an undue shortness
  of the thumb in the western Eskimos, which, if it exists farther to
  the east, was not noted by the members of the searching expeditions.

1870, Dall:[74]

  Page 136: The Innuit, as they call themselves, belong to the same
  family as the northern and western Eskimo. I have frequently
  used the term Eskimo in referring to them, but they are in many
  respects very different people. * * * It should be thoroughly and
  definitely understood that they are not Indians nor have they any
  known relation, physically * * * to the Indian tribes of North
  America. Their grammar, appearance, habits, and even their anatomy,
  especially in the form of the skull, separate them widely from the
  Indian race. On the other hand, it is almost equally questionable
  whether they are even distinctly [distantly?] related to the
  Chukchees and other probably Mongolian races, of the eastern part
  of Siberia.

  The Innuit of Norton Sound and the vicinity are of three tribes,
  each of which, while migrating at certain seasons, has its own
  peculiar territory. The peninsula between Kotzebue and Norton
  Sounds is inhabited by the Kaviaks or Kaviagemut Innuit. The neck
  of this peninsula is occupied by the Mahlemut Innuit. The shore
  of Norton Sound south of Cape Denbigh to Pastolik is the country
  of the Unaleets or Unaligmut Innuit. The habits of these tribes
  are essentially similar. They are in every respect superior to any
  tribe of Indians with which I am acquainted.

  Their complexion I have described as brunet. The effect of the
  sun and wind, especially in summer, is to darken their hue, and
  from observing those who lived in the fort, I am inclined to think
  that a regular course of bathing would do much toward whitening
  them. They are sometimes very tall; I have often seen both men and
  women nearly 6 feet in height and have known several instances
  where men were taller. Their average height equals that of most
  civilized races. Their strength is often very great. I have seen a
  Mahlemut take a 100-pound sack of flour under each arm and another
  in his teeth and walk with them from the storehouse to the boat, a
  distance of some 20 rods, without inconvenience.

  Page 140: The women * * * are often of pleasing appearance,
  sometimes quite pretty. They preserve their beauty much longer
  than Indian women. Their clear complexion and high color, with
  their good humor, make them agreeable companions, and they are
  often very intelligent. A noticeable feature is their teeth. These
  are always sound and white, but are almost cylindrical, and in
  old people are worn down even with the gums, producing a singular
  appearance. The eyes are not oblique as in the Mongolian races, but
  are small, black, and almost even with the face. The nose is flat
  and disproportionately small. Many of the Innuit have heavy beards
  and mustaches, while some pull out the former.

  Page 17: I * * * made the acquaintance of a fine-looking young
  Mahlemut who * * * introduced me to his wife and child, the latter
  about 2 years old. The former was not particularly ugly or pretty.
  * * * The husband was a fine-looking, athletic fellow, standing
  about 5 feet 5 inches, with a clear brunet complexion, fine color,
  dark eyes, and finely arched eyebrows. The flat nose, common to
  all the Eskimo tribes, was not very strongly marked in him, and a
  pleasant smile, displaying two rows of very white teeth, conquered
  any objection I might have felt to his large mouth. The baby looked
  like any other baby. * * *

  Page 376: It has been frequently remarked that the Tuski and
  Innuit tribes have a Mongolian cast of countenance. This, upon an
  actual comparison, will be found to be much less than is usually
  supposed. The real points of resemblance are principally in the
  complexion, which is somewhat similar, and in the eyes. But the
  eyes of the Innuit are not oblique, as in the Chinese. They have
  an apparent obliquity, which is due to the peculiar form of the
  zygomatic arch, but the eyes themselves are perfectly horizontal.
  The prominent characteristics of the Orarian[75] skull are the
  strongly developed coronary ridge, the obliquity of the zygoma, and
  its greater capacity compared with the Indian cranium. The former
  is essentially pyramidal, while the latter more nearly approaches a
  cubic shape.

  The mean capacity (in cubic centimeters) of three Tuski skulls
  from Plover Bay, according to Doctor Wyman, was 1,505; that of
  20 crania of northern Eskimo, according to Doctor Davis, was
  1,475, and that of 4 Innuit crania of Norton Sound was 1,320; thus
  showing a wide variation. The mean capacity of 20 West American
  Indian crania was only 1,284.06. The mean height of all the Orarian
  skulls above referred to was 136.55 millimeters, against a breadth
  of 134.47 millimeters, while the height of the Indian skulls was
  120.14 millimeters, against a breadth of 100.025 millimeters. The
  zygomatic diameter of the Orarian crania was 134.92 millimeters,
  while that of 12 Indian skulls was 134.65 millimeters. The
  Orarian skulls were most dolichocephalic, and the Indian most
  brachycephalic. The latter averaged 378.71 cubic centimeters less
  capacity than the former. The average height of the Orarians,
  except among the stunted tribes of the extreme north, will average
  as great as that of their Indian neighbors. The strength and
  activity of the former far exceed that of any northern Indians with
  whom I am acquainted.

  Page 401: The Kaniagmuts are of middle stature and a complexion
  more reddish than that of the Aleutians or more northern Innuit.
  They are stoutly built, with large broad faces, and their hair is
  coarse, black, and straight.

  Page 407: The Magemuts * * * are tall, finely formed, and have very
  fair complexions. Blue eyes are not unknown among them, but their
  hair is black and their beards are very light.

  The Ekogmuts. * * * A noticeable feature in many of them is the
  extreme hairiness of their persons. Many have very strong black
  beards and hairy bodies.

  Page 410: The Point Barrow tribe are said by Richardson to be
  called Nuwungmëun. * * * These northern Innuit are very few in
  number. * * * Simpson mentions that their thumbs appeared to be
  disproportionately short. The same may be true of the Norton Sound
  Innuit; at all events, no white man can wear one of their mittens
  comfortably until the thumb is lengthened.

Doctor Otis, of the United States Army Medical Museum, says that
the skulls found in the northern mounds have the same peculiarities
which distinguish all Orarian crania, and that both are instantly
distinguishable from any Indian skulls.

1874, Bancroft (compilation):[76]

  "The physical characteristics of the Eskimos are: A fair
  complexion,[77] the skin, when free from dirt and paint, being
  almost white; a medium stature, well proportioned, thickset,
  muscular, robust, active,[78] with small and beautifully shaped
  hands and feet;[79] a pyramidal head;[80] a broad egg-shaped face;
  high rounded cheek bones; flat nose; small oblique eyes; large
  mouth; teeth regular, but well worn;[81] coarse black hair closely
  cut upon the crown, leaving a monk-like ring around the edge,[82]
  and a paucity of beard."[83]

Simpson, 1875:[84]

  These people are by no means the dwarfish race they were formerly
  supposed to be. In stature they are not inferior to many other
  races and are robust, muscular, and active, inclining rather to
  spareness than corpulence. The tallest individual was found to be 5
  feet 10½ inches, and the shortest 5 feet 1 inch. The heaviest man
  weighed 195 pounds, and the lightest 125 pounds. The individuals
  weighed and measured were taken indiscriminately as they visited
  the ship, and were all supposed to have attained their full
  stature. Their chief muscular strength is in the back, which is
  best displayed in their games of wrestling. The shoulders are
  square, or rather raised, making the neck appear shorter than it
  really is, and the chest is deep; but in strength of arm they can
  not compete with our sailors. The hand is small, short, broad,
  and rather thick, and the thumb appears short, giving an air of
  clumsiness in handling anything; and the power of grasping is not
  great. The lower limbs are in good proportion to the body, and
  the feet, like the hands, are short and broad with a high instep.
  Considering their frequent occupations as hunters, they do not
  excel in speed nor in jumping over a height or a level space,
  but they display great agility in leaping to kick with both feet
  together an object hanging as high as the chin, or even above the
  head. In walking, their tread is firm and elastic, the step short
  and quick; and the toes being turned outward and the knee at each
  advance inclining in the same direction, give a certain peculiarity
  to their gait difficult to describe.

  The hair is sooty black, without gloss, and coarse, cut in an
  even line across the forehead, but allowed to grow long at the
  back of the head and about the ears, whilst the crown is cropped
  close or shaven. The color of the skin is a light yellowish brown,
  but variable in shade, and in a few instances was observed to be
  very dark. In the young, the complexion is comparatively fair,
  presenting a remarkably healthy sunburnt appearance, through which
  the rosy hue of the cheeks is visible; before middle life, however,
  this, from exposure, gives place to a weather-beaten appearance, so
  that it is difficult to guess their ages.

  The face is flat, broad, rounded, and commonly plump, the cheek
  bones high, the forehead low, but broad across the eyebrows,
  and narrowing upwards; the whole head becomes somewhat pointed
  toward the crown. The nose is short and flat, giving an appearance
  of considerable space between the eyes. The eyes are brown, of
  different shades, usually dark, seldom if ever altogether black,
  and generally have a soft expression; some have a peculiar glitter,
  which we call gipsy-like. They slope slightly upwards from the
  nose, and have a fold of skin stretching across the inner angle to
  the upper eyelid, most perceptible in childhood, which gives to
  some individuals a cast of countenance almost perfectly Chinese.
  The eyelids seem tumid, opening to only a moderate extent, and the
  slightly arched eyebrows scarcely project beyond them. The ears are
  by no means large, but frequently stand out sideways. The mouth
  is prominent and large, and the lips, especially the lower one,
  rather thick and protruding. The jawbones are strong, supporting
  remarkably firm and commonly regular teeth. In the youthful
  these are in general white, but toward middle age they have lost
  their enamel and become black or are worn down to the gums. The
  incisors of the lower jaw do not pass behind those of the upper,
  but meet edge to edge, so that by the time an individual arrives
  at maturity, the opposing surfaces of the eye and front teeth are
  perfectly flat, independently of the wear they are subjected to
  in every possible way to assist the hands. The expression of the
  countenance is one of habitual good humor in the great majority of
  both sexes, but is a good deal marred in the men by wearing heavy
  lip ornaments. * * *

  While young the women are generally well formed and good looking,
  having good eyes and teeth. To a few, who besides possessed
  something of the Circassian cast of features, was attributed a
  certain degree of brunette beauty. Their hands and feet are small,
  and the former delicate in the young, but soon become rough and
  coarse when the household cares devolve upon them. Their movements
  are awkward and ungainly, and though capable of making long
  journeys on foot, it is almost painful to see many of them walk.
  Unlike the men, they shuffle along commonly a little sideways, with
  the toes turned inwards, stooping slightly forward as if carrying
  a burden, and their general appearance is not enhanced by the
  coat being made large enough to accommodate a child on the back,
  whilst the tight-fitting nether garment only serves to display the
  deformity of their bow legs. * * *

  The physical constitution of both sexes is strong, and they bear
  exposure during the coldest weather for many hours together without
  appearing inconvenienced, further than occasional frostbites on
  the cheeks. They also show great endurance of fatigue during their
  journeys in the summer, particularly that part in which they
  require to drag the family boat, laden with their summer tent and
  all their moveables, on a sledge over the ice.

  Extreme longevity is probably not unknown among them; but as they
  take no heed to number the years as they pass, they can form
  no guess of their own ages, invariably stating "they have many
  years." Judging altogether from appearance, a man whom we saw in
  the neighborhood of Kotzebue Sound could not be less than 80 years
  of age. He had long been confined to his bed and appeared quite
  in his dotage. There was another at Point Barrow, whose wrinkled
  face, silvery hair, toothless gums, and shrunk limbs indicated an
  age nothing short of 75. This man died in the month of April, 1853,
  and had paid a visit to the ship only a few days before, when his
  intellect seemed unimpaired, and his vision wonderfully acute for
  his time of life. There is another still alive, who is said to be a
  few years older.

1877, Dall:[85]

  Page 9: The Orarians are distinguished * * * by a light fresh
  yellow complexion, fine color, broad build, scaphocephalic head,
  great cranial capacity, and obliquity of the arch of the zygoma.

  Page 17: The Ekogmut inhabit the Yukon delta from about Kipniuk to
  Pastolik * * *. Their most noticeable personal peculiarity consists
  in their hairy bodies and strong beards.

1884, Hooper:[86]

  About 3,000 Innuits inhabit the northwest coast of America, from
  the Colville River, on the east, to Bering Strait, including
  the islands therein, on the west. Many of these came under my
  observation while cruising in the Arctic Ocean in command of the
  _Corwin_.

  In appearance they are tall and muscular, many being 6 feet in
  height, and some were seen that would exceed that even. Their
  peculiar dress gives them a squat appearance, and their stature
  seems less than it is in reality. The women are much shorter than
  the men, but both sexes are strong and active, though not equal
  in these respects to the Tchuktchis and other reindeer tribes of
  Siberia.

  The face of the Innuit is broad below the eyes, the forehead is
  narrow and receding, the chin and lower jaw broad and heavy. The
  nose is usually broad and flattened, but not always; occasionally
  one is seen whose features are well formed and handsome. In the
  young children this is the almost invariable rule; many of them
  are really beautiful. The eyes are small and black, and appear to
  be slightly oblique, and for this reason, perhaps more than any
  other, they have been classed with the Mongolidae. They have large
  mouths, thick, loosely hanging lips, and fine, strong teeth. These,
  however, from eating raw food, are usually very much worn. The
  labrets worn in the lips are hideous-looking things, made of bone,
  glass, stone, ivory, or in fact anything within the reach of the
  native which can be worked into the requisite shape.

  They have rather light skin, very different from the Indians of the
  plains; and in this also they differ from the Tchuktchis, being
  much lighter, and when cleansed from the dirt which usually covers
  them, and freed from the sunburn and tan due to long exposure, they
  become quite fair. They have small, well-formed hands and feet,
  much smaller in proportion than white men. This was particularly
  noticeable when buying boots and mittens from them for our use;
  only the largest sizes made by them could be used at all. They are
  generally without beard, but as the men grow old, they sometimes
  have a thin, straggling mustache and beard, but it is never full
  and regular. The hair is coarse and black.

1885, Ray:[87]

  Pages 37-38: The following table will show that physically the
  Inyu of North American coast does not conform to the typical idea
  of the Eskimo. They are robust, healthy people, fairer than the
  North American Indian, with brown eyes and straight black hair.
  The men are beardless until they attain the age of from 20 to 25
  years, and even then it is very light and scattering, and is always
  clipped close in the winter; at this season they also cut off
  their eyebrows and tonsure their crown like a priest, with bangs
  over their forehead. Their hands and feet are extremely small and
  symmetrical; they are graceful in their movements when unincumbered
  by heavy clothing.

  Page 46: Physically both sexes are very strong and possess great
  powers of endurance.

1888, Murdoch:[88]

  In stature these people are of a medium height, robust, and
  muscular, inclining rather to spareness than corpulence, though
  the fullness of the face and the thick fur clothing often gives
  the impression of the latter. There is, however, considerable
  individual variation among them in this respect. The women are
  as a rule shorter than the men, occasionally almost dwarfish,
  though some women are taller than many of the men. The tallest
  man observed measured 5 feet 9½ inches and the shortest 4 feet 11
  inches. The tallest woman was 5 feet 3 inches in height and the
  shortest 4 feet ½ inch. The heaviest man weighed 204 pounds and the
  lightest 126 pounds. One woman weighed 192 pounds and the shortest
  woman was also the lightest, weighing only 100 pounds. The hands
  and feet are small and well shaped, though the former soon become
  distorted and roughened by work. We did not observe the peculiar
  breadth of hands noticed by Doctor Simpson, nor is the shortness of
  the thumb which he mentions sufficient to attract attention. Their
  feet are so small that only one of our party, who is much below
  the ordinary size, was able to wear the boots made by the natives
  for themselves. Small and delicate hands and feet appear to be a
  universal characteristic of the Eskimo race and have been mentioned
  by most observers from Greenland to Alaska.

  The face is broad, flat, and round, with high cheek bones and
  rather low forehead, broad across the brow and narrowing above,
  while the head is somewhat pointed toward the crown. The peculiar
  shape of the head is somewhat masked by the way of wearing the hair
  and is best seen in the skull. The nose is short, with little or
  no bridge--few Eskimo were able to wear our spring eyeglasses--and
  broad, especially across the alæ nasæ, with a peculiar, rounded,
  somewhat bulbous tip, and large nostrils. The eyes are horizontal,
  with rather full lids and are but slightly sunken below the level
  of the face.

  The mouth is large and the lips full, especially the under
  one. The teeth are naturally large, and in youth are white and
  generally regular, but by middle age they are generally worn down
  to flat-crowned stumps, as is usual among the Eskimo. The color of
  the skin is a light yellowish brown, with often considerable ruddy
  color on the cheeks and lips. There appears to be much natural
  variation in the complexion, some women being nearly as fair as
  Europeans, while other individuals seem to have naturally a coppery
  color. In most cases the complexion appears darker than it really
  is from the effects of exposure to the weather. All sunburn very
  easily, especially in the spring, when there is a strong reflection
  from the snow.

  The old are much wrinkled, and they frequently suffer from
  watery eyes, with large sacks under them, which begin to form at
  a comparatively early age. There is considerable variation in
  features, as well as complexion, among them, even in cases where
  there seems to be no suspicion of mixed blood. There were several
  men among them with decided aquiline noses and something of a
  Hebrew cast of countenance. The eyes are of various shades of
  dark brown--two pairs of light hazel eyes were observed--and are
  often handsome. The hair is black, perfectly straight, and very
  thick. With the men it is generally coarser than with the women,
  who sometimes have very long and silky hair, though it generally
  does not reach much below the shoulders. The eyebrows are thin and
  the beard scanty, growing mostly upon the upper lip and chin and
  seldom appearing under the age of 20. In this they resemble most
  Eskimo. Back, however, speaks of the "luxuriant beards and flowing
  mustaches" of the Eskimo of the Great Fish River. Some of the older
  men have rather heavy black mustaches, but there is much variation
  in this respect. The upper part of the body, as much as is commonly
  exposed in the house, is remarkably free from hair. The general
  expression is good humored and attractive.

  The males, even when very young, are remarkable for their graceful
  and dignified carriage. The body is held erect, with the shoulders
  square and chest well thrown out, the knees straight, and the
  feet firmly planted on the ground. In walking they move with long
  swinging elastic strides, the toes well turned out and the arms
  swinging. * * *

  I should say that they walked like well-built athletic white men.
  The women, on the other hand, although possessing good physiques,
  are singularly ungraceful in their movements. They walk at a sort
  of shuffling half trot, with the toes turned in, the body leaning
  forward, and the arms hanging awkwardly.

  A noticeable thing about the women is the remarkable flexibility of
  the body and limbs and the great length of time they can stand in a
  stooping posture. * * * Both men and women have a very fair share
  of muscular strength. Some of the women especially showed a power
  of carrying heavy loads superior to most white men. We were able to
  make no other comparisons of their strength with ours. Their power
  of endurance is very great, and both sexes are capable of making
  long distances on foot. Two men sometimes spend 24 hours tramping
  through the rough ice in search of seals, and we knew of instances
  where small parties made journeys of 50 or 75 miles on foot without
  stopping to sleep.

  The women are not prolific. Although all the adults are or have
  been married, many of them are childless, and few have more than
  two children. One woman was known to have at least four, but
  investigations of this sort were rendered extremely difficult by
  the universal custom of adoption. Doctor Simpson heard of a "rare
  case" where one woman had borne seven children. We heard of no
  twins at either village, though we obtained the Eskimo word for
  twins.

1890, Murdoch:[89]

  The people who live on the extreme northwest corner of our
  continent are far from being an ugly or an ill-made race. Though
  they are not tall--a man of 5 feet 10 inches is a tall man among
  them--they are well proportioned, broad shouldered, and deep
  chested. The men, as a rule, are particularly well "set up," like
  well-drilled soldiers and walk and stand with a great deal of grace
  and dignity.

  The women do not have such good figures, but are inclined to
  slouchiness. They are seldom inclined to be fleshy, though their
  plump, round faces, along with their thick fur clothing, often
  give them the appearance of being fat. They generally have round,
  full faces, with rather high cheek bones, small, rounded noses,
  full lips, and small chins. Still, you now and then see a person
  with an oval face and aquiline nose. Many of the men are very good
  looking, and some of the young women are exceedingly pretty. Their
  complexion is a dark brunet, often with a good deal of bright color
  on the cheeks and especially on the lips. They sunburn very much,
  especially in the spring, when the glare of the sun is reflected
  from the snow. They have black or dark-brown eyes and abundant
  black hair. The women's hair is often long and silky. When they are
  young they have white and regular teeth, but these are worn down to
  stumps before middle life is reached. Cheerful and merry faces are
  the rule.

1890, Kelly:[90]

  _Personal appearance._--There are three types observable among the
  Arctic Eskimos of Alaska. The tall, cadaverous natives of Kangoot,
  Seelawik, Koovuk, and Kikiktowruk, on Kotzebue Sound, who live on
  fish, ptarmigans, and marmots. They always have a hungry look and
  habitually wear a grin of fiendish glee at having circumvented an
  adverse fate. There is a tendency among these people to migrate
  north.

  Then there is the tall, strongly knit type of the Nooatoks, a
  gigantic race, of a splendid physique that would be remarkable in
  any part of the world.

  Rugged as the mountains among which they live, vigorous and
  courageous, they stop at nothing but the impossible to accomplish
  a desired end. Their food supply is the reindeer, mountain sheep,
  ptarmigans, and fish. There are many of the coast natives of this
  type, but they lack the healthy glow and the indomitable will of
  the Nooatoks.

  The third type is the short, stumpy one, probably that of the old
  Eskimo before the admixture with southern tribes, now found on the
  Arctic coast. * * *

  The Eskimos have coarse, black hair, some with a tinge of brown.
  Many of the coast people of both sexes are bald from scrofulous
  eruptions. Males have the crown of the head closely cropped, so
  that reindeer may not see the waving locks when the hunter creeps
  behind bunch grass. They have black eyes and high cheek bones. The
  bones of the face are better protected from the severity of the
  climate by a thicker covering of flesh than southern races.

  Among the coast people the nose is broad and flat, with very little
  or no ridge between the eyes. The adult males have short mustaches,
  and some of the elder ones--more noticeable in the interior--have
  rough, scraggy beards. Generally their beard is very scant, and
  most of them devote otherwise idle hours to pulling out the hairs.

1900, Nelson:[91]

  The Eskimo from Bering Strait to the lower Yukon are fairly
  well-built people, averaging among the men about 5 feet 2 or 3
  inches in height. The Yukon Eskimo and those living southward
  from that river to the Kuskokwim are, as a rule, shorter and more
  squarely built. The Kuskokwim people are darker of complexion than
  those to the northward, and have rounder features. The men commonly
  have a considerable growth of hair on their faces, becoming at
  times a thin beard 2 or 3 inches in length, with a well-developed
  mustache. No such development of beard was seen elsewhere in the
  territory visited.

  The people in the coast region between the mouths of the Kuskokwim
  and the Yukon have peculiarly high cheek bones and sharp chins,
  which unite to give their faces a curiously pointed, triangular
  appearance. At the village of Kaialigamut I was impressed by the
  strong development of the superciliary ridge. From a point almost
  directly over the pupil of the eye and extending thence inward to
  the median line of the forehead is a strong bony ridge causing the
  brow to stand out sharply. From the outer edge of this the skull
  appears as though beveled away to the ears, giving the temporal
  area a considerable enlargement beyond that usually shown. This
  curious development of the skull is rendered still more striking by
  the fact that the bridge of the nose is low, as usual among these
  people, so that the shelf-like projection of the brow stands out in
  strong relief. It is most strongly marked among the men and appears
  to be characteristic at this place. Elsewhere in this district it
  was noted only rarely here and there.

  All of the people in the district about Capes Vancouver and
  Romanzof, and thence to the Yukon mouth, are of unusually light
  complexion. Some of the women have a pale, slightly yellowish
  color, with pink cheeks, differing but little in complexion from
  that of a sallow woman of Caucasian blood. This light complexion is
  so exceptionally striking that wherever they travel these people
  are readily distinguished from other Eskimo, and before I visited
  their territory I had learned to know them by their complexion
  whenever they came to St. Michael.

  The people of the district just mentioned are all very short and
  squarely built. Inland from Cape Vancouver lies the flat marshy
  country about Big Lake, which is situated between the Kuskokwim
  and the Yukon. It is a well-populated district and its inhabitants
  differ from those near the coast at the capes referred to, in being
  taller, more slender, and having more squarely cut features. They
  also differ strikingly from any other Eskimo with whom I came in
  contact, except those on Kowak River, in having the bridge of the
  nose well developed and at times sufficiently prominent to suggest
  the aquiline nose of our southern Indian tribes.

  The Eskimo of the Diomede Islands in Bering Strait, as well as
  those of East Cape and Mechigme and Plover Bays on the Siberian
  coast, and of St. Lawrence Island are tall, strongly built people
  and are generally similar in their physical features. These are
  characterized by the unusual heaviness of the lower part of the
  face due to the very square and massive lower jaw, which, combined
  with broad, high cheek bones and flattened nose, produces a wide,
  flat face. These features are frequently accompanied with a low
  retreating forehead, producing a decidedly repulsive physiognomy.
  The bridge of the nose is so low and the cheek bones so heavy that
  a profile view will frequently show only the tip of the person's
  nose, the eyes and upper portion of the nose being completely
  hidden by the prominent outline of the cheek. Their eyes are less
  oblique than is common among the people living southward from
  the Yukon mouth. Among the people at the northwestern end of St.
  Lawrence Island there is a greater range of physiognomy than was
  noted at any other of the Asiatic localities.

  The Point Hope people on the American coast have heavy jaws and
  well-developed superciliary ridges. At Point Barrow the men are
  remarkable for the irregularity of their features, amounting to
  a positive degree of ugliness, which is increased and rendered
  specially prominent by the expression produced by the short,
  tightly drawn upper lip, the projecting lower lip, and the small
  beady eyes. The women and children of this place are in curious
  contrast, having rather pleasant features of the usual type.

  The Eskimo from Upper Kowak and Noatak Rivers who were met at
  the summer camp on Hotham Inlet are notable for the fact that a
  considerable number of them have hook noses and nearly all have a
  cast of countenance very similar to that of the Yukon Tienné. They
  are a larger and more robustly built people than these Indians,
  however, and speak the Eskimo language. They wear labrets, practice
  the tonsure, and claim to be Eskimo. * * * Among them was seen one
  man having a mop of coarse curly hair, almost negroid in character.
  The same feature was observed in a number of men and women on the
  Siberian coast between East Cape and Plover Bay. This latter is
  undoubtedly the result of the Chukchi-Eskimo mixture, and in the
  case of the man seen at Hotham Inlet the same result had been
  brought about by the Eskimo-Indian combination. Among the Eskimo
  south of Bering Strait on the American coast not a single instance
  of this kind was observed. The age of the individuals having
  this curly hair renders it quite improbable that it came from an
  admixture of blood with foreign voyagers, since some of them must
  have been born at a time when vessels were extremely rare along
  these shores. As a further argument against this curly hair having
  come from white men, I may add that I saw no trace of it among a
  number of people having partly Caucasian blood. As a general thing,
  the Eskimo of the region described, have small hands and feet and
  the features are oval in outline, rather flat and with slightly
  oblique eyes.

  Children and young girls have round faces and often are
  very pleasant and attractive in feature, the angular race
  characteristics becoming prominent after the individuals approach
  manhood. The women age rapidly, and only a very small proportion of
  the people live to an advanced age.

  The Malemut and the people of Kaviak Peninsula, including those of
  the islands in Bering Strait are tall, active, and remarkably well
  built. Among them it is common to see men from 5 feet 10 inches to
  6 feet tall and of proportionate build. I should judge the average
  among them to be nearly or quite equal in height to the whites.

  Among the coast Eskimos, as a rule, the legs are short and poorly
  developed, while the body is long with disproportionately developed
  dorsal and lumbar muscles, due to so much of their life being
  passed in the kaiak.

  The Eskimo of the Big Lake district, south of the Yukon, and from
  the Kaviak Peninsula, as well as the Malemut about the head of
  Kotzebue Sound, are on the contrary very finely proportioned and
  athletic men who can not be equaled among the Indians of the Yukon
  region. * * * There were a number of half-blood children among the
  Eskimo, resulting from the intercourse with people from vessels and
  others, who generally show their Caucasian blood by large, finely
  shaped, and often remarkably beautiful brown eyes. The number of
  these mixed bloods was not very great.

1905, Jackson:[92]

  The Eskimos of Alaska are a much finer race physically than their
  kindred of Greenland and Labrador. In the extreme north, at Point
  Barrow, and along the coast of Bering Sea they are of medium size.
  At Point Barrow the average height of the males is 5 feet 3 inches
  and average weight 153 pounds; of the women, 4 feet 11 inches and
  weight 135 pounds. On the Nushagak River the average weight of the
  men is from 150 to 167 pounds. From Cape Prince of Wales to Icy
  Cape along the Arctic Coast and on the great inland rivers emptying
  into the Arctic Ocean they are a large race, many of them being 6
  feet and over in height.[93] They are lighter in color and fairer
  than the North American Indian, have black and brown eyes, black
  hair, some with a tinge of brown, high cheek bones, fleshy faces,
  small hands and feet, and good teeth. The men have thin beards.

1916, Hawkes:[94]

  The Alaskan Eskimo are a taller and more symmetrical people than
  their brethren of the central and eastern districts. They lack
  that appearance of stoutness and squatness inherent in the eastern
  stock, and for proportion and development of the various parts of
  the body they do not compare unfavorably with Indians and whites.
  It is not unusual to find in an Alaskan Eskimo village several
  men who are 6 feet tall, with magnificent shoulders and arms and
  bodily strength in proportion. The usual height, however, is about
  168 centimeters for men, which is some 10 centimeters above the
  height of the eastern Eskimo. * * * The average for women among the
  western Eskimo is 158 centimeters, which approximates the height
  of the men in the Hudson Bay region, 158 centimeters (Boas). The
  female type in Alaska is taller and slimmer than in the east, and
  the width of the face is considerably less. Eskimo women of large
  stature are often seen in the northern section of Alaska. The
  individual variation here is more conspicuous than in Labrador or
  Hudson Bay.

1923, Jenness:[95]

  In his report on the Copper Eskimos, D. Jenness gives excellent
  descriptive notes on this group with references to others. These
  notes, too voluminous to be transcribed, may well be consulted in
  these connections.

FOOTNOTES:

[67] Cook, Capt. James, and Capt. James King. A Voyage to the Pacific
Ocean. London, 1784, II, vol. 2, p. 300.

[68] Kotzebue, Otto von, A voyage of discovery into the South Sea and
Bering Strait, 1815-1818, vol. 1, p. 209. London, 1821.

[69] Beechey, F. W., Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific and Bering
Strait. Philadelphia, 1832, pp. 474-476.

[70] Latham, Robert G., The varieties of man. London, 1850, pp. 290-292.

[71] Hooper, W. H., Ten months among the tents of the Tuski. London,
1853, pp. 223-224.

[72] Seemann, Berthold, Narrative of the voyage of H. M. S. _Herald_.
London, 1853, vols. I-II. On the Anthropology of Western Eskimo Land
and on the Desirability of Further Arctic Research. J. Anthrop. Soc.,
London, 1865, vol. III, p. 301.

[73] Richardson, Sir John, The Polar Regions. Edinburgh, 1861, p. 301.

[74] Dall, W. H., Alaska and Its Resources. Boston, 1870.

[75] Orarian, a term used by the author to distinguish the tribes of
Innuit, Aleutians, and Asiatic Eskimo from the natives known under the
name of Indian, in allusion to the universal coastwise distribution of
the former.

[76] Bancroft, Hubert H., The Native Races of the Pacific States. Vol.
I, New York, 1874. Wild Tribes, p. 45.

[77] _Color._--"Their complexion, if divested of its usual covering
of dirt, can hardly be called dark."--Seemann's Voy. _Herald_,
vol. II, p. 51. "In comparison with other Americans of a white
complexion."--McCulloh's Aboriginal Hist. of America, p. 20. "White
complexion, not copper coloured."--Dobb's Hudson's Bay, p. 50. "Almost
as white as Europeans."--Kalm's Travels, vol. II, p. 263. "Not darker
than that of a Portuguese."--Lyon's Journal, p. 224. "Scarcely a shade
darker than a deep brunet."--Parry's Third Voyage, p. 493. "Their
complexion is light."--Dall's Alaska, p. 381. "Eyewitnesses agree in
their superior lightness of complexion over the Chinooks."--Pickering's
Races of Man, U. S. Ex. Ex., IX, 28. At Coppermine River they are "of
a dirty copper color; some of the women, however, are more fair and
ruddy."--Hearne's Travels, p. 166. "Considerably fairer than the Indian
tribes."--Simpson's Nar., p. 110. At Cape Bathurst "the complexion
is swarthy, chiefly, I think, from exposure and the accumulation of
dirt."--Armstrong's Nar., p. 192. "Show little of the copper color of
the Red Indians."--Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 303. "From exposure to
weather they become dark after manhood."--Richardson's Nar., I, 343.

[78] _Proportions._--"Both sexes are well proportioned, stout,
muscular, and active."--Seemann's Voy. _Herald_, II, 50. "A stout,
well-looking people."--Simpson's Nar., pp. 110, 114. "Below the mean
of the Caucasian race."--Doctor Hayes in Historic Magazine, vol. I, p.
6. "They are thick set, have a decided tendency to obesity, and are
seldom more than 5 feet in height."--Figuier's Human Race, p. 211.
At Kotzebue Sound "tallest man was 5 feet 9 inches; tallest woman 5
feet 4 inches."--Beechey's Voy., I, 360. "Average height was 5 feet 4½
inches"; at the mouth of the Mackenzie they are of "middle stature,
strong, and muscular."--Armstrong's Nar., 149, 192. "Low, broad set,
not well made nor strong."--Hearne's Trav., p. 166. "The men were in
general stout."--Franklin's Nar., I, 29. "Of a middle size, robust
make, and healthy appearance."--Kotzebue's Voy., I, 209. "Men vary
in height from about 5 feet to 5 feet 10 inches."--Richardson's Pol.
Reg., p. 304. "Women were generally short." "Their figure inclines to
squat."--Hooper's Tuski, p. 224.

[79] _Hands and feet._--"Tous les individus qui appartiennent à la
famille des Esquimaux se distinguent par la petitesse de leurs pieds
et de leurs mains, et la grosseur énorme de leurs têtes."--De Pauw,
Recherches Phil. I, 262. "The hands, and feet are delicately small and
well formed."--Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 304. "Small and beautifully
made."--Seemann's Voy. Herald, II, 50. At Point Barrow "Their hands,
notwithstanding the great amount of manual labor to which they are
subject, were beautifully small and well formed, a description equally
applicable to their feet."--Armstrong's Nar., p. 101.

[80] _Head._--"The head is of good size, rather flat superiorly, but
very fully developed posteriorly, evidencing a preponderance of the
animal passions; the forehead was for the most part low and receding;
in a few it was somewhat vertical but narrow."--Armstrong's Nar., p.
193. Their cranial characteristics "are the strongly developed coronary
ridge, the obliquity of the zygoma, and its greater capacity compared
with the Indian cranium. The former is essentially pyramidal, while
the latter more nearly approaches a cubic shape."--Dall's Alaska, p.
376. "Greatest breadth of the face is just below the eyes, the forehead
tapers upwards, ending narrowly but not acutely, and in like manner the
chin is a blunt cone."--Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 302. Doctor Gall,
whose observations on the same skulls presented him for phrenological
observation are published by M. Louis Choris, thus comments upon the
head of a female Eskimo from Kotzebue Sound: "L'organe de l'instinct de
la propagation se trouve extrêmement dévelopé pour une tête de femme."
He finds the musical and intellectual organs poorly developed, while
vanity and love of children are well displayed. "En général," sagely
concluded the doctor, "cette tête femme présentait une organization
aussi heureuse que celle de la plupart des femmes d'Europe."--Voy.
Pitt., pt. II, p. 16.

[81] _Face._--"Large, fat, round faces, high cheek bones, small hazel
eyes, eyebrows slanting like the Chinese, and wide mouths."--Beechey's
Voy., I, 345. "Broad, flat faces, high cheek bones."--Doctor Hayes in
Hist. Mag., I, p. 6. Their "teeth are regular, but from the nature
of their food and from their practice of preparing hides by chewing,
are worn down almost to the gums at an early age."--Seemann's Voy.
_Herald_, II, 51. At Hudson Strait, "broad, flat, pleasing face; small
and generally sore eyes; given to bleeding at the nose."--Franklin's
Nar., I, 29. "Small eyes and very high cheek bones."--Kotzebue's Voy.,
I, 209. "La face plate, la bouche ronde, le nez petit sans être écrase,
le blanc de l'oeil jaunâtre, l'iris noir et peu brillant."--De Pauw,
Recherches Phil., I, 262. They have "small, wild-looking eyes, large
and very foul teeth, the hair generally black, but sometimes fair,
and always in extreme disorder."--Brownell's Indian Races, p. 467.
"As contrasted with the other native American races, their eyes are
remarkable, being narrow and more or less oblique."--Richardson's Nar.,
I, 343. "Expression of face intelligent and good natured. Both sexes
have mostly round, flat faces, with Mongolian cast."--Hooper's Tuski,
p. 223.

[82] _Hair._--"Allowed to hang down in a club to the
shoulder."--Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 305. "Their hair is
straight, black, and coarse."--Seemann's Voy. _Herald_, II, 51. A
fierce expression characterized them on the McKenzie River, which
"was increased by the long, disheveled hair flowing about their
shoulders."--Armstrong's Nar., p. 149.

[83] _Beard._--"The old men had a few gray hairs on their chins, but
the young ones, though grown up, were beardless."--Beechey's Voy., I,
322. "The possession of a beard is very rare, but a slight mustache is
not infrequent."--Seemann's Voy. _Herald_, II, 51. "As the men grow old
they have more hair on the face than red Indians."--Richardson's Nar.,
I, 343. "Generally an absence of beard and whiskers."--Armstrong's
Nar., p. 193. "Beard is universally wanting."--Kotzebue's Voy., I,
252. "The young men have little beard, but some of the old ones
have a tolerable show of long, gray hairs on the upper lip and
chin."--Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 303. "All have beards."--Bell's
Geography, V, 294. Kirby affirms that in Alaska "many of them have a
profusion of whiskers and beard."--Smiths. Report, 1864, p. 416.

[84] Simpson, John, Observations on the Western Eskimo and the Country
They Inhabit. _In_ A Selection of Papers on Arctic Geography and
Ethnology, Pres. by the Roy. Geogr. Soc., London, 1875, pp. 238-246.

[85] Dall, W. H., Tribes of the Extreme Northwest. Contribution to
North American Ethnology, I, Washington, 1877.

[86] Hooper, C. L., Report of cruise of the revenue steamer _Corwin_,
1881. Washington, 1884, p. 101.

[87] Ray, P. H., Ethnographic sketch of the natives. Report of the
International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska. Washington,
1885.

[88] Murdoch, J., Ethnological results of the Point Barrow expedition.
Ninth Ann. Rept. Bur. Ethn., 1887-88, pp. 33-39, Washington, 1892.

[89] Murdoch, J., Dress and physique of the Point Barrow Eskimos.
Popul. Sci. Month., Dec., 1890, 222-223.

[90] Kelly, J. W., Arctic Eskimos in Alaska and Siberia. Revised and
edited by Sheldon Jackson. Bull. No. 3, Soc. Alaskan Nat. Hist. and
Ethnol., Sitka, 1890, p. 15.

[91] Nelson, Edward W., The Eskimo about Bering Strait. Eighteenth Ann.
Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., Washington, 1900, pp. 26-29.

[92] Jackson, Sheldon, Our barbarous Eskimos in northern Alaska. The
Metropol. Mag., Vol. XXII, New York, June, 1905, pp. 257-271.

[93] Either a bad misprint or bad error.--A. H.

[94] Hawkes, Ernest William, Skeletal measurements and observations of
the Point Barrow Eskimo, with comparisons with other Eskimo groups. Am.
Anthrop., n. s. XVIII, No. 2, pp. 206-207, Lancaster, 1916.

[95] Jenness, D., Physical characteristics of the Copper Eskimos. Rept.
Canad. Arct. Exp. 1913-1918. Ottawa, 1923, p. 38.


OLDER ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA ON THE WESTERN ESKIMO


STATURE AND OTHER MEASUREMENTS ON THE LIVING

The earliest actual measurements of the living among the western Eskimo
are those given in Captain Beechey's Narrative (1832, p. 226), where we
read that of the Eskimo of Cape Thompson (north of Kotzebue Sound) "the
tallest man was 5 feet 9 inches (175.3 centimeters), the tallest woman
5 feet 4 inches (162.6 centimeters) in height." As seen before, Beechey
also stated that the stature of the Eskimo increases from the east to
the west.

In 1881-82, Lieutenant Ray collects and in 1885 reports evidently
careful measurements of 51 men and 30 women from the villages of
Uglaamie, at Cape Smythe, now Barrow, and Nuwuk, on Point Barrow.[96]
An abstract of the data shows as follows:

  Average height: Male, 5 feet 3½ inches (161.3 centimeters); female,
    4 feet 11¾ inches (151.8 centimeters).
  Average weight: Male, 153⅗ pounds; female, 135⅔ pounds.
  Tallest male: 5 feet 8¾ inches (174.6 centimeters).
  Tallest female: 5 feet 3 inches (160 centimeters).
  Shortest male: 4 feet 11 inches (149.9 centimeters).
  Shortest female: 4 feet ½ inch (123.2 centimeters).
  Weight: Male, 126 to 204 pounds; female, 106 to 172 pounds.

In 1892, in connection with the preparation of the anthropological
exhibits for the World Exposition at Chicago, an extensive effort
was made under the direction of Frederick W. Putnam and Franz Boas
to secure, by the help of a group of specially instructed students,
physical data on many tribes of the American aborigines, and this
included a contingent of the western Eskimo. An abstract of the results
was reported by Boas in 1895.[97] The locality where the Eskimo were
measured is not given, but it was most likely Nome or St. Michael
Island. Thirty-four men gave the high (for the Eskimo) average of 165.8
centimeters, an unstated number of women an equally elevated average of
155.1 centimeters. No details are given. There is also given the mean
and distribution of the cephalic index on 114 living western Eskimo of
both sexes. (On chart, p. 395, the number is 141.) The mean index was
79.2. There are again, as under Stature, no details as to locality, and
none could be obtained from the author.

In 1901 Deniker, in his Races of Man (p. 580), reports the stature of
85 Eskimo of Alaska, doubtless males, as 163 centimeters. There are no
details, no references, and I have not been able to trace the source of
the measurement.

During the years 1897-1899 A. J. Stone made an extended journey along a
portion of the upper Yukon and through parts of northwestern Alaska and
the Mackenzie River basin, for the American Museum of Natural History.
On this journey he made some measurements of Indian and Eskimo, and
these were published in 1901 by Franz Boas.[98] The Eskimo measured
were the "Nunatagmiut" (11 males, 5 females), of the Noatak River,
Alaska, and the "Koukpagmiut," (12 males, 6 females), east of the mouth
of the Mackenzie. The Noataks, who alone interest us more closely here,
gave the relatively high (for Eskimo) stature of 167.9 centimeters in
the men and 155.6 centimeters in the women. The number of subjects is
small and there may possibly have been some unconscious selection;
yet it is clear that in this group there are numerous fairly tall
individuals.

                  STONE'S DATA ON THE NOATAK RIVER ESKIMO

  -------------------+-------+-------++-------------------+-------+-------
                     | Males |Females||                   | Males |Females
                     |  (11) |  (5)  ||                   |  (11) |  (5)
  -------------------+-------+-------++-------------------+-------+-------
  Stature            | 167.9 | 155.6 ||Height of nose     |  5.63 |  5.3
  Stretch of arms    | 173.0 | 159.2 ||Width of nose      |  3.76 |  3.34
  Height of shoulder | 139.7 | 128.4 ||Index of stretch of|       |
  Length of arm      |  73.9 |  66.0 ||  arms             |103.1  |102.4
  Height sitting     |  86.8 |  81.8 ||Index of arm       |       | 42.6
  Width of shoulders |  38.0 |  34.2 ||Index of height    |       |
  Length of head     |  18.9 |  18.1 ||  sitting          | 52.6  | 52.4
  Width of head      |  15.45|  14.26||Index of width of  |       |
  Width of face      |  15.57|  14.46||  shoulders        | 22.6  | 22
  Height of face     |  12.84|  11.98||Cephalic index     | 81.6  | 78.8
  -------------------+-------+-------++-------------------+-------+-------

In addition, Doctor Jenness, in 1913, measured 13 adult male Point Hope
Eskimo for stature, head length, and head breadth.[99] He obtained the
following records:

 +----------+-------+-------+--------++----------+-------+-------+--------+
 |  Stature | Head  | Head  |Cephalic||  Stature | Head  | Head  |Cephalic|
 |          |length |breadth| index  ||          |length |breadth| index  |
 +----------+-------+-------+--------++----------+-------+-------+--------+
 |   160.5  |  19.7 |  15.1 |  76.6  ||   174.3  |  18.6 |  15.1 |  81.1  |
 |   168.5  |  19.6 |  14.7 |  75.0  ||   158.3  |  18.7 |  15.4 |  82.3  |
 |   167.3  |  19.4 |  14.5 |  74.7  ||   168.2  |  19.2 |  16.3 |  84.9  |
 |   162.9  |  21.0 |  14.6 |  69.5  ||   167.3  |  18.7 |  15.9 |  85.0  |
 |   162.4  |  19.2 |  14.5 |  75.5  ||          |       |       |        |
 |   167.8  |  19.5 |  14.9 |  76.4  ||_Means_[100]       |       |        |
 |   170.2  |  18.8 |  14.7 |  78.2  ||          |       |       |        |
 |   170.4  |  18.8 |  14.8 |  78.7  ||   168.2  |  19.28|  15.06| _78.1_ |
 |   168.3  |  19.4 |  15.3 |  78.8  ||          |       |       |        |
 +----------+-------+-------+--------++----------+-------+-------+--------+

Doctor Jenness[101] also gives useful data on the stature and cephalic
index of living Eskimo from other localities which, with the addition
of the sources and a slightly different arrangement, are here
reproduced:

                                  STATURE

  -------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------
                                       |      Men        |     Women
  Place                                +-------+---------+-------+---------
                                       | Cases | Stature | Cases | Stature
  -------------------------------------+-------+---------+-------+---------
  Smith Sound (Steensby)               |     8 |   157.4 |    10 |    145.4
  S. W. Greenland (Hansen)             |    21 |   157.6 |    24 |    151.8
  Labrador (Duckworth and Pain)        |    11 |   157.7 |    10 |    149.7
  Smith Sound (Hrdlička)[102]          |     3 |   157.7 |       |
  S. E. Greenland (Hansen)             |    22 |   160.4 |    23 |    152.9
  Point Barrow (Ray)                   |    51 |   161.5 |    28 |    153.6
  Hudson Bay (South Island and Aivilik)|       |         |       |
    (S. I. 35, Tocher; A. 9, Boas)     |    44 |   162.0 |    12 |    151.8
  Mackenzie Delta (Jenness)            |     4 |   162.2 |       |
  N. E. Greenland (Hansen)             |    31 |   164.7 |    15 |    155.1
  Coronation Gulf (Jenness)            |    82 |   164.8 |    42 |    156.4
  Iglulik, Hudson Bay (Parry)          |    20 |   166.0 |    20 |    153.7
  Point Hope (Jenness)                 |    13 |   166.5 |       |
  Mackenzie Delta (Stone)              |    12 |   167.5 |     6 |    151.5
  Noatak River (Stone)                 |    11 |   167.9 |     5 |    155.5
  -------------------------------------+-------+---------+-------+---------

                            CEPHALIC INDEX[103]

  ------------------------------+----------------+----------------
                                |      Men       |     Women
  Place                         +-------+--------+-------+--------
                                | Cases | Index  | Cases | Index
  ------------------------------+-------+--------+-------+--------
  Mackenzie Delta (Stone)       |    12 |   73.9 |       |
  Mackenzie Delta (Jenness)     |     4 |   76.1 |     6 |   75.2
  Southeast Greenland (Hansen)  |    22 |   75.7 |    23 |   75.0
  Labrador (Duckworth and Pain) |    11 |   77.0 |    10 |   74.5
  Hudson Bay (Tocher and Boas)  |    35 |   77.2 |       |
  Coronation Gulf (Jenness)     |    82 |   77.6 |    42 |   76.6
  Northeast Greenland (Hansen)  |    31 |   77.8 |    15 |   76.5
  Smith Sound (Steensby)        |     8 |   78.0 |    10 |   77.4
  Southwest Greenland (Hansen)  |    21 |   78.1 |    24 |   76.8
  Point Hope (Jenness)          |    13 [104]78.3|       |
  Noatak River (Stone)          |    11 |   81.6 |     5 |   78.8

  ------------------------------+-------+--------+-------+---------


FOOTNOTES:

[96] Ray, Lieut. P. H., Report of the International Polar Expedition to
Point Barrow, Alaska. Washington, 1885, p. 50.

[97] Zur Anthropologie der Nordamerikanischen Indianer. Verh. Berl.
Ges. Anthrop., Sitz. Mai 18, 1895 (with Z. Ethnol. for same year).

[98] A. J. Stone's Measurements of Natives of the Northwestern
Territories. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1901, XIV, pp. 53-68.

[99] Physical Characteristics of the Copper Eskimo. Rep. Canad. Arch.
Exped. 1913-1918, Ottawa, 1923, Introd., also p. B37.

[100] By present writer.

[101] Rep. Canad. Arct. Exped., 1913-1918, B50.

[102] Added from author's Anthropology of Central and Smith Sound
Eskimo, 1910, 228; the stature of one woman was 146.7.

[103] Physical Characteristics of the Copper Eskimo. Rep. Canad. Arct.
Exped., 1913-1918, Ottawa, 1923, p. B55.

[104] The totals of the measurements give _78.1_--A. H.


THE SKULL

The first western Eskimo skull collected for scientific purposes was
apparently that of a female St. Lawrence Islander. It was taken from
the rocks of the island by the Kotzebue party in 1817. It was reported
upon phrenologically in 1822 by Gall.[105]

In 1839 Morton, in his "Crania Americana" (p. 248), gives measurements
and the illustration of a western Eskimo skull from Icy Cape, collected
by Dr. A. Collie, surgeon of H. M. S. _Blossom_. The principal
measurements of this evidently female skull were: Length, 17.02
centimeters; breadth, 12.70; height, 12.70. Cephalic index, _74.6_.

In 1862[106] and 1863[107] Daniel Wilson reports briefly on six
Tchuktchi skulls, which were probably those of Asiatic Eskimo. He says:

  My opportunities for examining Esquimaux crania have been
  sufficient to furnish me with very satisfactory data for forming
  an opinion on the true Arctic skull form. In addition to the
  measurements of 38 skulls, * * * I have recently compared and
  carefully measured six Tchuktchi [probably Asiatic coast Eskimo]
  skulls, in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, exhumed
  from the burial place of a village called Tergnyune, on the island
  of Arikamcheche, at Glassnappe Harbor, west of Bering Strait, and
  during a recent visit to Philadelphia I enjoyed the advantage of
  examining, in company with Dr. J. Aitken Meigs, a series of 125
  [eastern] Esquimaux crania, obtained by Doctor Hayes during his
  Arctic journey of 1860. The comparison between the Tchuktchi and
  the true Esquimaux skull is interesting. Without being identical,
  the correspondence in form is such as their languages and other
  affinities would suggest. Of the former, moreover, the number is
  too few, and the derivation of all of them from one cemetery adds
  to the chances of exceptional family features; but on carefully
  examining the Hayes collection with a view to this comparison, I
  found it was quite possible to select an equal number of Esquimaux
  crania closely corresponding to the Tchuktchi type, which indeed
  presents the most prominent characteristics of the former, only
  less strongly marked.

In Prehistoric Man, Volume II, Plate XV, this author gives also the
measurements of the Icy Cape skull recorded by Morton.

The principal mean measurements of the six Tchuktchi skulls (both
sexes) were: Height, 17.60 centimeters; breadth, 13.59; height, 13.77;
cranial index, _77.2_.

The next measurements on western Eskimo crania are those given in 1867
by J. Barnard Davis (_Thes. cran._). This author measured 6 skulls, 3
of which were from Port Clarence (Seward Peninsula), 2 from Kotzebue
Sound, and 1 from Cape Lisburne. The measurements, regrettably, are in
inches. They include the greatest glabello-occipital length, greatest
breadth, height (plane of for. magn. to vertex), height of face
(chin-nasion), and breadth of face (d. bizygom. max.). The cranial
index of the 4 specimens identified as male averaged _75.5_ (75-76),
that of the 2 females _77.5_ (77-78). On page 226 the author mentions
also an artificially deformed skull of a Koniag; this was in all
probability a wrong identification for no such deformations are known
from the island (Kodiak).

In 1868 Jeffries Wyman[108] published measurements of 5 skulls of
"Tsuktshi," the same as those of Daniel Wilson, and of 5 from the Yukon
River, "three of which are Mahlemuts."

The identification of the specimens was partly erroneous. The data with
corrected identification are republished by Dall (q. v.) in 1877. And
the same skulls figure in all future measurements.

In 1875 Topinard[109] gives the Barnard Davis measurements in metric
form without, so far as the western Eskimo are concerned, any additions.

The main measurements of Barnard Davis's western Eskimo skulls,
converted to metric values, follow. The sex identification in some of
the specimens is doubtful.

  ---------------------------------+--------+---------+----------+---------
                                   | Skull  | Breadth |Height (to| Cranial
                                   | length |         | vertex)  |  index
  ---------------------------------+--------+---------+----------+---------
  Port Clarence, male              |   17.8 |   13.45 |   -14    |  _75.7_
      Do                           |   17.8 |   13.45 |    14.2  |  _75.7_
  Port Clarence, female            |  -18   |  -14    |    13.45 |  _77.5_
                                   +--------+---------+----------+---------
        Means of the three         |  17.86 |   13.64 |    13.59 |  _76.4_
                                   +========+=========+==========+=========
  Kotzebue Sound, male             |   17.55|   13.2  |    13.45 |  _75.4_
  Kotzebue Sound, female           |   17.3 |   13.45 |    13.7  |  _77.9_
                                   +--------+---------+----------+---------
        Means of the two (probably |        |         |          |
          both females)            |   17.4 |   13.35 |    13.6  |  _76.6_
                                   +========+=========+==========+=========
  Cape Lisburne, male              |   18.3 |   14.2  |   -14    |  _77.8_
  ---------------------------------+--------+---------+----------+---------

The next records are those by George A. Otis, published in 1876 in
the Check List of the Specimens in the Section of Anatomy of the
United States Army Medical Museum, Washington (pp. 13-15). Aside from
those on Greenland crania the author gives here the measurements of 3
presumably Eskimo skulls collected by Dall; of 2 western Eskimo skulls,
no locality; and of 3 Mahlemut skulls, probably from Norton Sound (St.
Michael Island). In his later (1880) catalogue,[110] page 13, Otis adds
to the above three skulls from Prince William Sound, which, however,
were more probably Indian; the three Mahlemuts, on the other hand, are
given with the Alaskan Indians (p. 35). These data are of but little
value. The Eskimo skulls are the same Smithsonian specimens that were
reported upon in 1868 by Jeffries Wyman.

In 1878, Rae[111] mentions some measurements or observations on the
skulls of Western Eskimo by Flower, but no records of these could be
located. Rae says:

  I had the privilege of attending the series of admirable lectures
  so ably given by Professor Flower at the Royal College of Surgeons
  a few weeks ago on the "Comparative Anatomy of Man," from which I
  derived much useful information and on one point very considerable
  food for thought.

  I allude to the wonderful difference in form exhibited between
  the skulls of the Eskimos from the neighborhood of Bering
  Strait, and of those inhabiting Greenland, the latter being
  extremely dolichocephalic, whilst the former are the very
  opposite--brachycephalic, the natives of the intermediate coast,
  from the Coppermine River eastward, having mesocephalic heads.

In 1879 Lucien Carr, in his "Observations on the Crania from the Santa
Barbara Islands, California"[112] (p. 281), gives erroneously Otis's
measurements of Aleut skulls as those of "Alaskan Eskimo."

Meanwhile W. H. Dall has published (1877) his monograph on the "Tribes
of the Extreme Northwest,"[113] in which he includes Wyman's and also
some of Otis's data on the Eskimo (and Aleut) skulls from Alaska and
Asia. The Tshuktshi are now classed as Asiatic Eskimo, the Mahlemuts as
Eskimo from St. Michael Island. The total number of skulls described in
the former series is 11, in the latter series 6 (of Aleuts the number
of skulls measured is 27 adults and 7 children). The means of the
principal measurements of the Eskimo series, both sexes together, are
as follows:

  JEFFRIES WYMAN'S AND OTIS'S MEASUREMENTS OF WESTERN ESKIMO CRANIA

  --------------------------+--------+---------+--------+---------
     Crania (both sexes)    | Length | Breadth | Height | Cranial
                            |        |         |        |  index
  --------------------------+--------+---------+--------+---------
                            |   (11) |    (11) |    (7) |   (11)
  Asiatic Eskimo            |   17.8 |    14.1 |   13.2 |  _79.3_
                            |        |         |        |
                            |    (6) |     (6) |    (6) |    (6)
  Northwest American Eskimo |   17.5 |    13.2 |   13.1 |  _75.1_
  --------------------------+--------+---------+--------+---------

There were also taken the weight, capacity, circumference, longitudinal
arch, length of the frontal, parietal, and occipital, "zygomatic
diameter," and in two specimens of each series the facial angle. To-day
these data have but a historical value.

In 1882, Quatrefages and Hamy,[114] in their "Crania ethnica" (p.
440) give the measurements of two male Kaniagmiouts (Kodiak Indian,
A. Pinart, collector) and one female Mahlemiout. The principal
measurements of these skulls are as follows:

  ----------------------+----------+-----------
                        | Males (2)| Female (1)
  ----------------------+----------+-----------
  Skull:                |          |
      Length            |   18.6   |    17.9
      Breadth           |   14.2   |    13.9
      Height (bas.-bg.) |   14.3   |    13.2
  Cranial index         |  _76.34_ |   _77.65_
  Nose:                 |          |
      Length            |    5.9   |     5.1
      Breadth           |    2.3   |     2.3
  Nasal index           |  _38.98_ |   _45.09_
  Facial index, total   |  _77.69_ |   _70.37_
  Orbital index         |  _92.68_ |   _90.24_
  ----------------------+----------+-----------

In 1883 Dr. Irving C. Rosse, in his "Medical and Anthropological Notes
on Alaska,"[115] refers to his examination of a number of Eskimo
skulls from the St. Lawrence Island brought to the Army Medical
Museum.[116] There are no measurements outside of a reference to the
capacity, but there are two excellent chromolithographs showing two
female crania, besides a number of outline drawings.

The next data on the western Eskimo skull are in rather unsatisfactory
condition. They are those of Boas. In his report on the "Anthropologie
der nordamerikanischen Indianer,"[117] Doctor Boas mentions the cranial
index of the Alaska Eskimo to average _77_; and on page 397 he reports
the same index as secured on 37 "Alaska Eskimo" skulls, apparently of
both sexes. The only note relating to these figures is found on page
393, where it is stated that these results proceed from measurements
that had been made for the author at the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, the
American Museum, New York, the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, and
the United States Army Medical Museum, Washington; and that he utilized
also the measurements of Barnard Davis and Otis. On 22 of the above
western Eskimo skulls there is also given the length-height index of
_76.6_. There is no information as to either sex or locality. There are
no other measurements.

Deniker (1901) and later Martin (1914) repeat the data given by Boas.

In 1890 Tarenetzky[118] publishes measurements and observations on four
Koniag (Kodiak) skulls and one Oglemute (Aglegmute, Alaska Peninsula).
The main measurements (pp. 70-71) are:

  -----------------+----------+-------+-------+-------+---------+----------
                   Koneage[119]Koneage|Koneage|Koneage|Means[120]
                   |          |       |       |       | of the  | Aglegm-
                   |          |       |       |       |four from|   jute
                   |          |       |       |       | Kodiak  | (Alaska
                   |          |       |       |       | Island  |Peninsula)
  -----------------+----------+-------+-------+-------+---------+----------
  Skull:           |          |       |       |       |         |
      Length       |    17.1  |  16.4 |  17.2 |  16.8 |   16.88 |    19.0
      Breadth      |    13.8  |  15.7 |  15.8 |  14.4 |   14.93 |    13.7
      Height       |    13.1  |  14.4 |  14.0 |  13.2 |   13.68 |    14.1
      Cranial index|   _80.7_ | _95.7_| _91.8_| _85.7_|  _88.4_ |   _72.1_
  Nose:            |          |       |       |       |         |
      Length       |     4.7  |   5.3 |   5.7 |   5.9 |    5.40 |     5.8
      Breadth      |     2.4  |   2.5 |   2.6 |   2.3 |    2.45 |     2.3
      Nasal index  |   _51.0_ | _47.1_| _46.6_| _39.0_|  _45.4_ |   _39.6_
      Orbital index|   _87.5_ | _97.6_| _92.7_| _80.9_|  _89.7_ |   _88.1_
  -----------------+----------+-------+-------+-------+---------+----------


In 1900 Sergi[121] reports on four Kodiak skulls that he examined in
Paris. Two of these are probably Aleut (or Indian). The cranial indices
were, respectively, _75.8_, _78.3_, _88_, and _88.2_.

In 1916 E. W. Hawkes presented a thesis on the "Skeletal Measurements
and Observations on the Point Barrow Eskimo, with Comparisons from
other Eskimo Groups."[122] The number of skulls measured was 27,
of which 14 were identified as adult males, 5 adult females, 6
adolescents, and 2 infants. In addition there are measurements by Ralph
Linton of other skeletal parts than the skull of three skeletons.

The measurements, though the first taken by this author, have evidently
been taken in a painstaking manner and according to modern methods, and
are therefore of some value. An abstract of those on the adults follows:

  PRINCIPAL MEASUREMENTS OF POINT BARROW CRANIA, BY HAWKES

  -------------------+------------+-------------
                     | Males (14) | Females (5)
  -------------------+------------+-------------
  Vault:             |            |
      Length         |     18.91  |      17.86
      Breadth        |     13.73  |      13.58
      Basion-bregma  |            |
        height       |     13.86  |      13.30
      Cranial index  |    _72.65_ |     _76.06_
      Height-length  |            |
        index        |    _73.24_ |     _74.45_
      Height-breadth |            |
        index        |   _100.68_ |     _98.01_
  Face:              |            |
      Diam. bizygom. |            |
        max          |     14.10  |      13.40
      BF:BH          |            |
        proportion   |   _102.6_  |     _98.7_
      Chin-nasion    |      (6)   |        (3)
        height       |    13.15   |      11.60
      Alveolar       |     (14)   |        (5)
        point-nasion |     7.42   |       6.80
      Facial index,  |            |
        total        |   _92.13_  |     _52.48_
      Facial index,  |            |
        upper        |   _86.20_  |     _54.05_
  Nose:              |            |
      Height         |     5.66   |       5.24
      Breadth        |     2.30   |       2.18
      Index          |   _40.69_  |     _41.62_
  Orbits:            |            |
      Height         |     3.76   |       3.59
      Breadth        |     4.13   |       4.05
      Index          |   _91.3_   |     _88.5_
  Dental arch:       |            |
      Length         |     5.31   |       6.27
      Breadth        |     4.96   |       6.06
      Index          |   _93.4_   |     _96.7_
  -------------------+------------+-------------

In 1923 Cameron[123] published the following data on six western Eskimo
skulls from Port Clarence, collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedition:

              POST CLARENCE (SEWARD PENINSULA) ESKIMO CRANIA

  -------------------------------------+------------------------------
                 Vault                 |             Nose
  -------------+-------+------+--------+------+-------+------+--------
     Length    |Breadth|Height| Cranial|Length|Breadth|Nasal |Orbital
               |       |      |  index |      |       |index | index
  -------------+-------+------+--------+------+-------+------+--------
  Males:       |       |      |        |      |       |      |
      18.9     | 13.9  | 14.1 | _73.5_ | 5.9  |  2.5  |_42.4_| _86.4_
      18.7     | 14.3  | 13.7 | _76.5_ | 5.3  |  2.5  |_47.2_| _85.7_
      18.8     | 13.25 | 14.2 | _70.2_ | 6.0  |  2.2  |_36.7_| _86.4_
      17.8     | 13.0  | 13.3 | _73.4_ |      |       |      | _88.9_
      19.2     | 13.7  |      | _71.4_ |      |       |      |
  Mean: 18.68  | 13.63 | 13.82| _72.97_| 5.73 |  2.40 |_41.9_| _86.9_
  Female: 17.85| 13.1  | 12.8 | _73.1_ |      |       |      |
  -------------+-------+------+--------+------+-------+------+--------

The last contribution to the craniology of the western Eskimo before
the present report are the data embodied in my "Catalogue of Human
Crania in the United States National Museum Collections," published in
1924.[124] These data are embodied in those of the present report.

For ready survey the old records on western Eskimo crania are given
in the following table. A sex distinction in the earlier reports was
mostly impracticable or remained doubtful.

              PREVIOUS MEASUREMENTS OF WESTERN ESKIMO SKULLS

  ---------------------------------------+--------------------------------
                                         |             Vault
                                         +------+-------+------+----------
                                         |Length|Breadth|Height| Cranial
                                         |      |       |      |  index
  ---------------------------------------+------+-------+------+----------
  1 Icy Cape, ♀ (Morton, 1839)           | 17.02| 12.70 | 12.70|  _74.6_
  6 Asiatic Eskimo ("Tschuktchi"):       |      |       |      |
    mean (Daniel Wilson, 1862)           | 17.60| 13.59 | 13.77|  _77.2_
  3 Port Clarence (Barnard Davis,        |      |       |      |
    1867)                                | 17.86| 13.64 | 13.59|  _76.4_
  2 Kotzebue Sound, ♀ (Barnard           |      |       |      |
    Davis, 1867)                         | 17.40| 13.35 | 13.60|  _76.6_
  11 Asiatic Eskimo (Wyman and Otis,     |      |       |      |
    1868-1876)                           | 17.80| 14.10 | 13.20|  _79.3_
  6 N. W. Amer. Eskimo (St. Michael      |      |       |      |
    Island) (Wyman and Otis, 1868-1876)  | 17.50| 13.20 | 13.10|  _75.1_
  2 Kodiak Island, ♂ (Quatrefages and    |      |       |      |
    Hamy, 1882)                          | 18.60| 14.20 | 14.30|  _76.35_
  1 Kodiak, ♀ (Quatrefages and Hamy,     |      |       |      |
    1882)                                | 17.90| 13.90 | 13.20|  _77.65_
  (37 western Eskimo)[125] (Boas, 1895)  |      |       |      |  (_77_)
  4 Kodiak Island, ♀[126] (Tarenetzky,   |      |       |      |
    1900)                                | 16.88| 14.93 | 13.68|  _88.4_
                                         |      |       |      |{2:_77.1_
  4 Kodiak Island,[127] (Sergi, 1900)    |      |       |      |{2:_88.1_
  14 Point Barrow, ♂ (Hawkes, 1916)      | 18.91| 13.73 | 13.86|  _72.65_
  5 Point Barrow, ♀ (Hawkes, 1916)       | 17.86| 13.58 | 13.30|  _76.1_
  5 Port Clarence, ♂ (Cameron, 1923)     | 18.68| 13.63 | 13.82|  _73_
  1 Port Clarence, ♀ (Cameron, 1923)     | 17.85| 13.10 | 12.80|  _73.1_
  ---------------------------------------+------+-------+------+----------

  ---------------------------------------+---------------------+-------
                                         |          Nose       |
                                         +------+-------+------+Orbital
                                         |Length|Breadth|Index |index
                                         |      |       |      |
  ---------------------------------------+------+-------+------+-------
  1 Icy Cape, ♀ (Morton, 1839)           |      |       |      |
  6 Asiatic Eskimo ("Tschuktchi"):       |      |       |      |
    mean (Daniel Wilson, 1862)           |      |       |      |
  3 Port Clarence (Barnard Davis,        |      |       |      |
    1867)                                |      |       |      |
  2 Kotzebue Sound, ♀ (Barnard           |      |       |      |
    Davis, 1867)                         |      |       |      |
  11 Asiatic Eskimo (Wyman and Otis,     |      |       |      |
    1868-1876)                           |      |       |      |
  6 N. W. Amer. Eskimo (St. Michael      |      |       |      |
    Island) (Wyman and Otis, 1868-1876)  |      |       |      |
  2 Kodiak Island, ♂ (Quatrefages and    |      |       |      |
    Hamy, 1882)                          |  5.9 |  2.3  |_39_  |
  1 Kodiak, ♀ (Quatrefages and Hamy,     |      |       |      |
    1882)                                |  5.1 |  2.3  |_45.1_|
  (37 western Eskimo)[125] (Boas, 1895)  |      |       |      |
  4 Kodiak Island, ♀[126] (Tarenetzky,   |      |       |      |
    1900)                                |  5.4 |  2.45 |_45.4_|_89.7_
                                         |}     |       |      |
  4 Kodiak Island,[127] (Sergi, 1900)    |}     |       |      |
  14 Point Barrow, ♂ (Hawkes, 1916)      |  5.66|  2.30 |_40.7_|_91.3_
  5 Point Barrow, ♀ (Hawkes, 1916)       |  5.24|  2.18 |_41.6_|_88.5_
  5 Port Clarence, ♂ (Cameron, 1923)     |  5.73|  2.40 |_41.9_|_86.9_
  1 Port Clarence, ♀ (Cameron, 1923)     |      |       |      |
  ---------------------------------------+------+-------+------+-------

FOOTNOTES:

[105] Voyage pittoresque autour du Monde, by Louis Choris, Paris, 1822,
pp. 15, 16.

[106] Wilson, Daniel, Prehistoric man. Two vols. Lond., 1862; II, pl.
15; 3d ed., 1876, II, 192, 15.

[107] Wilson, Daniel, Physical ethnology. Smithsonian Report for 1862,
Washington, 1863, pp. 261-262. The measurements of the Tchuktchi are
given in the Prehistoric Man, vol. II, Table 16.

[108] Observations on Crania. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XI, 440-462.
Boston, 1868.

[109] Topinard, P., Mesures craniometriques des Esquimaux. Rev.
d'Anthrop., 1873, II, 499-522.

[110] List of the specimens in the Anatomical Section of the Army
Medical Museum. Washington, 1880.

[111] Rae, John, Eskimo skulls. J. Anthrop. Inst. Gr. Brit, London,
1878, VII, 142.

[112] Rep. U. S. Geogr. Surv. W. of 100 Merid., vol. VII.

[113] U. S. Geog. and Geol. Surv. Rocky Mt. Reg. Contributions to North
American Ethnology, I. Washington, 1877, p. 63 et seq.

[114] Quatrefages, A. de, and Hamy, E. T., Crania ethnica. Paris, 1882,
438, 440.

[115] Cruise of the _Corwin_ in 1881. Washington, 1883, p. 38.

[116] Now in the Division of Physical Anthropology of the U. S.
National Museum.

[117] 1895, Verh. Berliner, Ges. Anthrop. p. 367 et seq.

[118] Tarenetzky, Al., Beitrüge zur Craniologie der Ainos auf Sachalin.
Mem. Acad. imp. Sc. St. Pétersb., 1890, XXXVII, No. 13, 1-55.

[119] Most if not all the Kodiak skulls are doubtless females, the
Oglemute a male. Quite probably also the Kodiak skulls are those of
Aleuts and not of Eskimo.

[120] By present author.

[121] Sergi, G., Crani Esquimesi. Atti della società Romana di
antropologia, Roma, 1900, VII, 2, 93-102.

[122] Am. Anthrop., 1916, XVIII, 203-244.

[123] Cameron, John, Osteology of the western and central Eskimo. Rep.
Canad. Arctic Exp., 1913-1918. Ottawa, 1923. With a report on the teeth
by S. G. Ritchie and J. S. Bagnall. Table and means by the present
writer.

[124] No. 1: The Eskimo, Alaska and Related Indians, Northeastern
Asiatics. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1924, LXIII; sep., 51 pp.

[125] No details; series comprises specimens measured by Wyman, Otis,
and Barnard Davis.

[126] Probably Aleuts, not Eskimo.

[127] Not the same with those of Tarenetzky; two probably Aleut.


PRESENT DATA ON THE WESTERN ESKIMO


THE LIVING

Barring the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the south and the
Chukchee territory in the west, the Bering Sea is wholly the sea of
the Eskimo, the Indians occupying the inland but reaching nowhere to
the coast. There is doubtless much of significance in this remarkable
distribution. It is now quite certain that the Eskimo has not been
pressed out by the Indian; there are as a rule no traces of him farther
inland than where he has been within historic times. On the other hand
no Indian remnants or remains are known from any part of the coasts or
islands within the Eskimo region; though the study of the older sites
in these regions has barely as yet begun, besides which (see Narrative)
it is a serious question whether really old sites could now be located
in these regions at all even if they had once existed. At all events
the Eskimo appears from all indications to be the latest comer, and
judging from his remains his occupancy here is not geologically
ancient; it is one to be counted, apparently, in many hundreds of
years rather than in thousands. The Aleuts in the south are, as I have
pointed out in the Catalogue (No. 1, 1924, p. 39), not Eskimo but
Indians, related to the general Alaska Indian type; and the Pribilof
Islands appear never to have been occupied until fairly recently, when
a good number of Aleuts, mostly mixed bloods, have been transported and
established there in the interest of the seal fisheries.


MEASUREMENTS OF LIVING WESTERN ESKIMO

Thanks to Moore, Collins, and Stewart, all of the National Museum,
instructed by me and working with the same instruments, we now have
several small to fair series of measurements on the living western
Eskimo of both sexes. They are tabulated below. They are the first made
on these groups and will be of much interest both in general and in
connection with the measurements made on the skulls and bones of most
of the same people. The main points shown are as follows:

_Stature._--The stature of the males ranges from markedly to moderately
submedium. There is a considerable similarity. Only the Yukon group
and that of Togiak reach near or slightly above medium, the general
human medium for males approaching 165 centimeters. The female stature
on the St. Lawrence Island averages 12 centimeters less than that of
the males, which is about the difference found in most other peoples.
At Hooper Bay, and especially at the Nunivak Island, the difference is
less, indicating either that the males are slightly stunted or that the
growth of the females is somewhat favored.

_Height sitting._--The height-sitting-stature index ranges from
slightly to quite notably higher than it is in other races, indicating
a tendency toward a relatively long trunk and somewhat short limbs.
A study of the long bones shows that this is due especially, if not
wholly, to the relative shortness of the tibia; and the subdevelopment
of this bone may, it seems, be ascribed to a great deal of squatting
both at home during the long winters and in the canoes. The male Eskimo
show more difference from other males in this respect than the Eskimo
females show from other females.[128]

_Arm span._--Relatively to the stature the length of the arms in the
Eskimo males is shorter than it is in other racial groups, though there
appears to be some inequality in this respect. This shortness would be
especially marked if we compared the arm span with the height sitting.
It is due essentially to a shortness of the distal half of the upper
limbs. The males once more show this disproportion more as compared
to other males than the females compared with others of their sex.
(See comp. data in Old Americans.) This may be connected in some way
with the male Eskimo work and habits; or it may be an expression of a
correlative subdevelopment with that of the lower limbs. It is a good
point for further study.

_The head._--The head, especially when taken in relation to the
stature, is of good size, particularly on the Nunivak Island and on the
Yukon. This agrees with what is known of the Eskimo head, skull, and
brain elsewhere.

The size of the Eskimo head--which is not caused by a thick skull--will
best be appreciated by contrasting it with that of civilized whites.
In whites in general the mean head diameter or cephalic module ranges
in males from approximately 15.70 to 16.40; in the male western Eskimo
groups the range is 15.87 to 16.08, and 16.11 in the group at Marshall
on the Yukon. The percentage relation of the module to stature in 12
groups of male whites, including the old Americans, averages _9.31_
to _10.11_; in the male Eskimo groups it is from _9.57_ to _9.94_.
In females, the cephalic module is 15.57 in the old Americans, 15.36
to 15.68 in the Eskimo; the relation of the module to stature in the
former being _9.59_, in the latter _10.15_ to _10.25_.

In the western Eskimo woman the head dimensions are particularly
favorable. In the old American whites the mean head diameter in the
female is to that of the male on the average as _95_ to 100; in the two
main groups of the western Eskimo it is as _96.1_ and _96.7_ to 100.
Nothing is known as to the cause of this apparently favorable status of
the Eskimo woman; it is another interesting point for further inquiry.

In shape, the head of the western Eskimo is highly mesocephalic to
moderately brachycephalic and of only fair height, and it seldom
approaches the scaphoid or dome-shaped. It is not the narrow, high,
keeled skull of the northeastern and often the northern Eskimo. The
physiognomy, the characteristics of the body, and the mentality and
behavior, are in general typical Eskimo; but the form of the vault is
substantially different. It is a form which approaches on one side
that of the northwesternmost Indian, and on the other that of the
northeastern and Mongoloid Asiatics. More must be said about this when
we come to consider the skull.

_The forehead._--Anthropometric studies have shown repeatedly[129] that
the height of the forehead is not a safe gauge of intelligence, as
commonly believed, but is controlled by the variable height of the hair
line. Thus the common full-blood American Negro laborer and servant
show a slightly higher forehead than the educated old American whites.

Something of a similar nature is found in the Eskimo. As seen in
the following table, in the males the western Eskimo forehead is
absolutely, and especially relatively to stature, higher than it is
in the whites. In the females the absolute height in the two races is
identical, but relatively to stature the Eskimo again shows a clear
though somewhat lesser advantage. The condition is apparently not due
to the size of the head, for this is not greater than in the whites,
in the males; while in the females, where the Eskimo shows a slightly
larger head than the white in relation to stature, the forehead fails
to correspond.

                          DIMENSIONS OF FOREHEAD

  ---------------------------------------+---------------+----------------
                                         |Western Eskimo | Old Americans
                                         +-------+-------+-------+--------
                                         | Male  | Female|  Male | Female
  ---------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+--------
                                         | _cm._ | _cm._ | _cm._ | _cm._
  Height, nasion to hair line            |  6.86 |  6.45 |  6.59 |  6.45
  Percentage relation to stature         | _4.23_| _4.23_| _3.78_| _3.80_
  Breadth: Diameter frontal minimum      | 10.58 | 10.54 | 10.59 | 10.12
  Percentage relation of diameter frontal|       |       |       |
    minimum to breadth of face           | _71.1_| _73.7_|_76.4_ |_77.8_
  Forehead index (H × 100)/(B)           | _64.8_| _61.2_|_63.7_ |_62.1_
  ---------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+--------

With the lower breadth of the forehead, conditions are also
interesting. The absolute figures for the two races show a reversal.
The height of the forehead is larger in the Eskimo than in the white
males, equal in the females; the lower frontal breadth is equal
in the males but larger in the Eskimo than in the white female.
Proportionately to stature, which is so much lower in the Eskimo, both
sexes of the latter show an advantage in the dimension over the white.

The percental relation of the breadth of the forehead to that of the
face reflects the excess of the latter in the Eskimo, particularly the
male. There is evidently not a full direct correlation between the two
dimensions. Yet relatively to its height the face is broader in the
females than in the males (see below), which is doubtless not without
influence on the lower breadth of the forehead in the former.

To summarize, the western Eskimo forehead exceeds in area that of the
American whites, in both sexes, and that particularly in relation to
stature. As to the individual measurements, the male Eskimo forehead
as contrasted with that of the white is especially high, the female
especially broad.

To which should be added that in the Eskimo the spheno-temporal region
is often remarkably full, almost bulging, so that, contrary to what may
be observed in the Negro, the frontal maximum diameter is also probably
larger than in the whites, all of which doubtless has significance,
even though this is not yet fully understood.

_The face._--The principal measurements and relations are given below.
They show a face large and especially broad. Moreover, relatively
to its height the face is especially broad in the Eskimo female,
in connection doubtless with the well-known excess of the work (in
softening leather, etc.) of her jaws, with consequent development of
the muscles of mastication, which in turn broaden the zygoma.

                          DIMENSIONS OF THE FACE

  ----------------------------------+-----------------+--------------------
                                    | Western Eskimo  | Old American whites
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+--------------------
                                    | _Male_  _Female_|  _Male_  _Female_
  Height, menton-nasion             | 12.67     11.64 |  12.15     11.09
      Females to males (M = 100)    |     _91.9_      |      _91.3_
  Diameter bizygomatic maximum      | 14.88     14.30 |  13.87     12.99
      Females to males (M = 100)    |     _96.1_      |      _93.6_
  Facial index, anatomic            |_85.2_    _81.4_ | _87.6_    _85.4_
  Facial module (or mean diameter), |                 |
    anatomic                        | 13.77     12.97 |  13.01     12.04
      Female to male (M = 100)      |     _94.2_      |      _92.5_
  Percentage relation of female and |                 |
    male to stature                 | _8.49_    _8.50_|  _7.46_    _7.44_
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+--------------------

The great size of the Eskimo face is especially apparent in the
relations of the mean diameter of the face to stature; it is in this
respect no less than 12 per cent in excess of that of the whites in the
males and 12.5 per cent in the females.[130]

_Lower facial breadth._--Due to the great development of the masseter
muscles and the consequent frequent lesser or greater eversion of the
angles of the lower jaw, the bigonial diameter in the Eskimo is very
large, particularly when taken in relation to stature, and in such
relation it looms especially large in the females. Compared with the
old American whites, the bigonial breadth in its relation to stature is
higher in the Eskimo males by 15.5 per cent, in the Eskimo females by
17.7 per cent. And measurements of Eskimo lower jaws in general show
that this breadth in the western contingents is not exceptional.

                           LOWER FACIAL BREADTH

  --------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------
                                  |Western Eskimo (St.|    Old Americans
                                  |  Lawrence Island) |
  --------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------
                                  | _Males_  _Females_| _Males_  _Females_
  Diameter bigonial               | 11.78     11.18   | 10.63      9.84
  Female vs. male                 |     _94.9_        |     _92.6_
  Percentage relation to stature  | _7.21_    _7.39_  | _6.09_    _6.08_
  Percentage relation to breadth  |_80_      _79.5_   |_76.7_    _75.8_
    relation to breadth of face   |                   |
  --------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------

_The nose._--The nose of the western Eskimo promises to be of much
importance in the study of Eskimo origins in general. Nowhere in this
region is it like the nose of the northern or northeastern groups. It
is decidedly broader. Its breadth is intermediary between that of the
Alaska and other Indians and that of the northern and northeastern
Eskimo, connecting with both, and these characteristics are so
generalized throughout western Alaska and the Bering Sea islands that
they can not possibly be attributed to Indian or other admixture. Nor
can this relatively broad nose of the western Eskimo be well attributed
to environmental effects, i. e., to a broadening of a formerly narrow
nose through climatic conditions. There do not appear to be any such
conditions. The only rational explanation seems to be that this is the
more original condition of the Eskimo nose, and that the northern and
northeastern narrowness is a later derivation. More may be said on this
point when we come to consider the skeletal remains.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 39

THE WALES PEOPLE

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 40

THE LONG AND BROAD-FACED TYPES, WALES

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 41

_a_, Broad-faced and low-vaulted Eskimo, St. Lawrence Island. (Photo by
R. D. Moore, 1912. U.S.N.M.)

_b_, Broad-faced type, St. Lawrence Island. (Photo by R. D. Moore,
1912. U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 42

_a_, A young man from Seward Peninsula.

_b_, A boy from St. Lawrence Island.

THE LONG-FACED TYPE]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 43

A "HYPERESKIMO," KING ISLAND. EXCESSIVELY DEVELOPED FACE]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 44

ESKIMO "MADONNA" AND CHILD, NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

The Eskimo nose is also high, which goes with the height of the
whole face; that in turn evidently is attributable to more work and
demand--in brief, more mastication. The nose, face, lower jaw, and
other parts of the Eskimo anatomy offer rare opportunities for studies
in the heredity of acquired characters.

                             NOSE MEASUREMENTS

  --------+----------------------------+----------------------
          |      American whites       |
          +----------------+-----------+     Western Eskimo
          |  Old Americans |   Old     |
          | and immigrants | Americans |
          +----------------+-----------+-------------+--------
          |      Males     |  Females  |    Males    | Females
  --------+----------------+-----------+-------------+--------
          |  (13 groups)   |           |  (6 groups) |
  Height  |    4.95-5.4    |    4.94   |  5.47-6.03  |   5.03
  Breadth |    3.45-3.6    |    3.25   |  3.82-3.93  |   3.61
  Index   |   _62.5-73_    |  _66_     | _63.7-71.9_ | _71.9_
  --------+----------------+-----------+-------------+--------

_The mouth._--The western Eskimo mouth is large. It is considerably
larger (wider) than in the old American whites, though these are of
much higher stature. In relation to stature the width of the western
Eskimo mouth exceeds that in the white old Americans by 13 per cent
in the males and by nearly 14 per cent in the females, but there is
a close relation with that of a large group of Indians. The details
follow:

                                MOUTH WIDTH

  ---------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------
                       | Western Eskimo |  16 tribes of  |
                       |  (Nunivak and  | Indians of the | Old American
                       |  St. Lawrence  | Southwest and  |   whites.
                       |    Islands)    |northern Mexico.|
                       +-------+--------+-------+--------+-------+--------
                       |Males  | Females|Males  | Females|Males  | Females
  ---------------------+-------+--------+-------+--------+-------+--------
  Width                | 5.73      5.44 | 5.85      5.49 | 5.37      4.95
  Females versus males |     _94.9_     |     _93.8_     |     _92.3_
  Percentage relation  |_3.53_    _3.57_|_3.50_    _3.55_|_3.07_    _3.08_
    relation to stature|_3.53_    _3.57_|_3.50_    _3.55_|_3.07_    _3.08_
  ---------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------

_The ears._--The ears of the western Eskimo are large. They are
especially long. They exceed in both size and relative length those of
whites, but are in both respects much more like those of the American
Indian. The excess in length, both in the Eskimo and the Indian, is
especially marked when this measurement is taken in relation to stature.

Relatively to its length, the ear of the female Eskimo in all our
groups is somewhat narrow, giving a lower index. This is not observed
in the available whites and Indians.

None of the series below are affected seriously by the age factor;
though with an organ so much influenced by age as the ear the ideal way
would be to compare only groups of the same age.

                                   EARS

  -----------------------+---------------+---------------+---------------
                         |    Western    | Miscellaneous |  Old American
                         |     Eskimo    | North American|    whites
                         |               |    Indian     |  (Labor Ser.)
                         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
                         | Males |Females| Males |Females| Males |Females
  -----------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Height of left ear     |  7.05 |  6.61 |  7.25 |  6.95 |  6.69 |  6.10
  Breadth of left ear    |  3.82 |  3.49 |  3.90 |  3.70 |  3.79 |  3.47
  Ear index              |_54.2_ |_52.8_ |_53.2_ |_53.6_ |_56.7_ |_56.9_
  Percentage relation of |       |       |       |       |       |
    ear length to stature| _4.34_| _4.33_| _4.25_| _4.35_| _3.84_| _3.68_
  =======================+=======+=======+=======+===+===+=======+=======
                         |   Western Eskimo groups   | Whites in general
  -----------------------+---------------------------+-------------------
  Height of left ear     |   6.71- 7.40   6.49-6.73  |   6.20- 6.69
  Breadth of left ear    |   3.72- 4.04   3.45-3.57  |   3.58- 3.79
  Ear index              | _53.3 -58.9_ _52.3 -53.1_ | _56   -58.6_
  -----------------------+---------------------------+-------------------

_The chest._--The best measurements of the chest, experience has
shown, are the antero-posterior and lateral diameters at the nipple
height in the males and at the corresponding level of the upper border
of the fourth costal cartilages in the females. They give not merely
the individual dimensions but also their relation, which is of much
ontogenic as well as other interest, and their mean gives the chest
module which in relation to the stature is anthropologically as well as
individually (medically) important.

The table following gives the chest measurements in the western Eskimo,
in a large group of Indians (my older data), and in the old American
whites as well as others.

The Eskimo chest is large. In the males, in addition, it is very deep.
Compared to that of the white old Americans it is markedly deeper in
the males and broader in the females, notwithstanding the fact that the
Americans are much taller. It is even larger, besides being relatively
deeper in the males and somewhat broader in the females, than it is
in many tribes of the Indian. Only tall and bulky Indians such as the
Sioux show a chest that is absolutely somewhat larger, but in relation
to stature, with which the dimensions of the chest stand in close
correlation,[131] the Eskimo prevails even in this instance. This
excess in chest development in the Eskimo must be ascribed in the main
to his occupations and exertions, particularly again, it would seem, in
connection with the canoe.

                            CHEST MEASUREMENTS

  ------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------
                    |                 |   16 tribes of  |
                    | Western Eskimo, |   southwestern  |  Old Americans
                    | Nunivak Island  |  and New Mexico |
                    |                 |     Indians     |
                    +--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
                    |  Males | Females|  Males | Females|  Males | Females
  ------------------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------
  Stature           | 161.8  | 153.1  | 167.3  |-155.   | 174.3  | 161.8
  Breadth           |  29.97 |  28.63 |  29.89 |  28.21 |  29.76 |  26.62
  Depth             |  24.63 | -22.   |  22.77 |  21.91 |  21.70 |  20.03
  Index             | _82.2_ | _76.8_ | _76.15_| _77.66_| _72.9_ | _75.3_
  Module            |  27.30 |  25.32 |  26.33 |  25.06 |  25.73 |  23.32
  Module vs. stature| _16.87_| _16.53_| _15.74_| _16.17_| _14.75_| _14.41_
  ==================+=+======+========++=======+======+=+========+========
                      | 4 other groups |   72 Sioux   |
                      |   of western   |   Indians,   |  12 other groups
                      | Eskimo, males  |    males     |   of white males
  --------------------+----------------+--------------+-------------------
  Stature             |  -160.6-166.   |   -174.      |   163.4-171.6
  Breadth             |   -29.6-30.    |     31.92    |   -25.9-28.
  Depth               |    -23.-24.75  |    -26.      |    20.9-22.6
  Index               |   _76.7-83.3_  |    _81.4_    |   _72.9-81.5_
  Module              |         26.97  |     28.96    |    23.4-25.7
  Module vs. stature  |        _16.56_ |    _16.64_   |   _14.22-14.84_
  --------------------+----------------+--------------+-------------------

_The hand._--The hand of the Eskimo is small, both absolutely and
relatively to stature. But it is rather broad relative to its length,
giving a high index. The index is higher than that of any of the groups
available for comparison, white or Indian, excepting a few groups of
immigrant whites, laborers.

                                   HAND

  ----------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------
            |Western Eskimo, (group | 16 tribes of
            |        means)         | southwestern
            |                       |  and Mexican
            |                       |    Indians
  ----------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------
  Left hand:|   Males   |  Females  | Males |Females
  ----------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------
  Length    |17.35-18.42|16.60-16.85| 18.53 | 17.20
            |           |           |       |
  Breadth   | 8.60-8.90 | 7.78-8.20 | 8.51  | 7.71
            |           |           |       |
  Percentage|  _10.96_  |  _10.94_  |_11.07_|_11.13_
  relation  |           |           |       |
  of hand   |           |           |       |
  length to |           |           |       |
  stature   |           |           |       |
  ----------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------

  ----------+-------+-------+-----------
            | Old Americans | 12 groups
            |               |    of
            |               | immigrant
            |               |  whites
  ----------+-------+-------+-----------
  Left hand:| Males |Females|   Males
  ----------+-------+-------+-----------
  Length    | 19.28 | 17.34 |
            |       |       |
  Breadth   | 9.18  | 7.87  |
            |       |       |
  Percentage|_11.05_|_10.70_|_-11.-11.3_
  relation  |       |       |
  of hand   |       |       |
  length to |       |       |
  stature   |       |       |
  ----------+-------+-------+-----------

  -----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
       |Western Eskimo | Southwestern  |     Sioux
       |               |  and Mexican  |
       |               |    Indians    |
       +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
       | Males |Females| Males |Females| Males |Females
  -----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Hand | 49.5  | 47.5  | 45.9  | 44.8  | 47.6  |
  index|       |       |       |       |       |
  -----+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------

  -----+-------+-------+---------+-------
       | Old American  | 12 other groups
       |    whites     |    of whites
       |               |
       +-------+-------+---------+-------
       | Males |Females|  Males  |Females
  -----+-------+-------+---------+-------
  Hand | 47.6  | 45.4  |47.6-50.3|
  index|       |       |         |
  -----+-------+-------+---------+-------

  72 Sioux males: _11.40._

_The foot._--The foot of the western Eskimo, like his hand, is both
absolutely and relatively to stature rather short, but it is broad,
giving a high breadth-length index. Its actual breadth perceptibly
exceeds that of the much taller old American whites, though not
reaching that of any of the immigrant laborers.

Contrary to what was seen in the case of the hand, the relative
proportions of the Eskimo foot, as expressed by the index, are almost
identical with those of the southwestern and Mexican Indians. The Sioux
foot is relatively longer, and so is that of whites except southern
Italians, who, though their foot as a whole is larger, give the same
index as the Eskimo.

                                   FOOT

  ---------------+---------------+---------------
                 |               | 16 tribes of
                 |    Western    | southwestern
                 |    Eskimo     |  and Mexican
                 |               |   Indians
                 +-------+-------+-------+-------
                 | Males |Females| Males |Females
  ---------------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Left foot:     |       |       |       |
      Length     | 24.23 | 22.13 | 25.42 | 23.30
      Breadth    |  9.72 |  8.70 | 10.15 |  9.07
  Percentage     |       |       |       |
   relation foot |       |       |       |
   length-stature|_14.94_|_14.51_|_15.19_|_15.08_
  ---------------+-------+-------+-------+-------

  ---------------+---------------+-------------
                 |               | 12 groups
                 | Old Americans |of immigrant
                 |               |  whites
                 |               |
                 +-------+-------+-------------
                 | Males |Females|    Males
  ---------------+-------+-------+-------------
  Left foot:     |       |       |
      Length     | 26.12 | 23.33 |
      Breadth    |  9.49 |  8.36 |
  Percentage     |       |       |
   relation foot |       |       |
   length-stature|_14.97_|_14.42_|_15.36-15.73_
  ---------------+-------+-------+-------------

  -----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
             |               | Southwestern  |
             |    Western    |  and Mexican  |     Sioux
             |    Eskimo     |    Indians    |
             +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
             | Males |Females| Males |Females| Males |Females
  -----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Foot index | 40.1  |  39.3 |  39.9 |  38.9 |  37.1 |
  -----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------

  -----------+-------+-------+---------+-------
             |               |
             | Old American  | 12 other groups
             |    whites     |    of whites
             +-------+-------+---------+-------
             | Males |Females|  Males  |Females
  -----------+-------+-------+---------+-------
  Foot index |  36.3 |  35.8 |37.9-40.1|
  -----------+-------+-------+---------+-------

  72 Sioux males: _15.40._

_Girth of the calf._--The western Eskimo, like the American Indians,
are characterized by a rather slender calf. The size of the calf
correlates in a large measure with stature. Reducing our measurements
to calf girth-stature ratios, these are seen to be much alike in the
three racial groups used for comparison, namely the Eskimo, the Indian,
and the old American white. But this is deceptive. The correlation of
size of calf with stature is not uniform (see "Old Americans," p. 348)
for all stature groups; as the scale in stature descends the calf is
relatively stouter. If we take white Americans of approximately the
same stature with the Eskimo here considered, there appears a higher
ratio, showing that stature for stature the girth of the calf of the
Eskimo is smaller, notwithstanding his generally more ample supply of
adipose tissue. Once more his relation is closer with the Indian. The
Eskimo and the Indian women are especially much alike, while the white
women make a marked exception--their calfs (as well as thighs) have
more fat than is found in those of their Eskimo and Indian sisters.

                          MEASUREMENTS OF THE LEG

  ---------------------+------------------+------------------
                       |                  |   Southwestern
                       |     Western      |    and Mexican
                       |      Eskimo      |      Indians
                       |                  |    (16 tribes)
  ---------------------+------------------+------------------
                       | _Male_  _Female_ | _Male_  _Female_
                       |                  |
  Maximum girth of     |  33.6     31.4   |  34.1     32
  left calf            |                  |
                       |                  |
  Percentage relation  | _20.7_   _20.6_  | _20.52_  _20.54_
  to stature           |                  |
                       |                  |
  Percentage relation  |                  |
  to stature           |                  |
                       |                  |
  in those approaching |                  |
                       |                  |
  the Eskimo stature   |                  |
                       |                  |
  Females v. males     |      _93.5_      |      _93.9_
  (M=100)              |                  |
  ---------------------+------------------+------------------

  ---------------------+-----------------
                       |
                       |     Old white
                       |     Americans
                       |
  ---------------------+-----------------
                       | _Male_  _Female_
                       |
  Maximum girth of     |  36.1     35.5
  left calf            |
                       |
  Percentage relation  | _20.3_   _21.95_
  to stature           |
                       |
  Percentage relation  |
  to stature           |
                       |
  in those approaching |
                       |
  the Eskimo stature   | _21.6_   _22.3_
                       |
  Females v. males     |      _98.3_
  (M=100)              |
  ---------------------+-----------------

FOOTNOTES:

[128] For comparative data on these and other proportions see writer's
Old Americans, Baltimore, 1925; also Topinard's and Martin's textbooks.

[129] See Old Americans; also the writer's The natives of Kharga Oasis,
Egypt, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Washington, 1912; Anthropology of the
Chippewa, Holmes Anniv. Vol., Washington, 1916; and Measurements of the
Negro, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 1928, XII, No. 1.

[130] A word of slight caution is due here. In all these cases
the proper way would be to compare the Eskimo with whites of same
mean stature. But we have no such whites available. As it is the
comparisons must be taken merely as approximations, but they are so
close approximations that the substance of the conclusions is probably
correct.

[131] The chest dimensions correlate with stature, respectively the
trunk height, and the breadth correlates with the depth; but both are
influenced by function.


PHYSIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

Due to various difficulties which do not exist to that extent
elsewhere, the physiological observations on the Eskimo are neither
as numerous or extended as would be desirable; yet there are some
data of value. They extend to the pulse, respiration, temperature,
and dynamometric tests of hand pressure. They were made mainly on St.
Lawrence and Nunivak Islands, by Moore, Collins, and Stewart. They
quite agree, especially after elimination of some records that are
clearly erroneous or abnormal. The tests should be extended with even
more rigid precautions in future work among the Eskimo.

The results are given below. They were all made in the summer season
and on healthy subjects, yet there were numerous indications of
temporary disorders, pathological or functional. Even after a careful
elimination of the obvious cases of such disorders not a few minor
irregularities have doubtless remained, so that the data can not be
taken for more than fairly close approximations to the normal.

The data show remarkably low pulse, respiration rate and temperature
close to those of whites, with a submedium hand pressure. (For
comparative data see "Old Americans.") The low pulse is also
characteristic in the Indian, as I have repeatedly pointed out before
(see especially my "Physiological and Medical Observations among the
Indians," etc., Bull. 34, Bur. Amer. Ethn., Washington, 1908).

The dynamometric tests agree also better with those on the Indians
than with those on whites; they are valid only as to the hands, and
they embody not only the strength of the muscles but also that of the
conscious impulse behind them. The age factor, of importance, does not
here enter materially into the case.

               PULSE, RESPIRATION, TEMPERATURE, AND STRENGTH

                        ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND ESKIMO

                                MALES--ALL

  +----------+----------------+----------------+----------------------+
  |Pulse[132]|Respiration[133]|Temperature[134]|       Strength       |
  |          |                |                |(Collins dynamometer) |
  +          +                +                +-----------+----------+
  |          |                |                | Pressure  | Pressure |
  |          |                |                |right hand |left hand |
  +----------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------+
  |   (63)   |     (54)       |      (61)      |   (60)    |   (60)   |
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  |   62.1   |     20.1       |     98.64      |   34.36   |  28.75   |
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  | (40-78)  |    (15-25)     |  (97.6-99.4)   |(19.5-45.5)|(19.5-44) |
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  |   (47)   |     (47)       |      (47)      |   (57)    |   (57)   |
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  |[135]61.3 | [135]20.4      |  [135]98.84    |[135]34.34 |[135]29.78|
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  +----------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------+

                   FEMALES--SUSPICIOUS CASES ELIMINATED

  +----------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------+
  |   (25)   |     (25)       |      (25)      |   (47)    |   (47)   |
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  |   72.4   |      20        |      99.13     |   20.13   |  16.81   |
  |          |                |                |           |          |
  |  (54-84) |    (15-23)     |   (98.4-99.9)  | (14.5-29) |(12-22.5) |
  +----------+----------------+----------------+-----------+----------+

                           NUNIVAK ISLAND ESKIMO

  +----------+----------------+----------------+
  |Pulse[132]|Respiration[133]| emperature[134]|
  +----------+----------------+----------------+
  | _Males_  |                |                |
  |   (6)    |      (6)       |       (6)      |
  |  63.2    |     18.2       |      98.05     |
  | (52-68)  |    (16-21)     |   (97.8-98.4)  |
  +----------+----------------+----------------+

The details of these six records were:

  +------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------------+
  | Age (year) | Time of day | Pulse | Respiration | Temperature |
  |            |   (p. m.)   |       |             |             |
  +------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------------+
  |    40      |    4.40     |   60  |     21      |     98.1    |
  |    33      |    2        |   66  |     18      |     97.8    |
  |    19      |    2.30     |   68  |     18      |     98.2    |
  |    45      |    1.25     |   68  |     18      |     98.4    |
  |    40      |    1.30     |   64  |    (14)     |     97.8    |
  +------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------------+

In connection with the pressure tests in the two hands, some
interesting comparisons are possible between the Eskimo here dealt with
and the old white Americans. As all the tests were made with the same
instrument and method the results inspire confidence. It is in details
of this nature that the anthropologist finds again and again the most
striking proofs of the basal unity of the living races and their
necessarily common origin somewhere in the past.

      PRESSURE FORCE IN THE HANDS IN THE WESTERN ESKIMO AND OLD WHITE
                                 AMERICANS

  -------------------------------------+----------------+---------------
                                       | Western Eskimo | Old Americans
                                       +-------+--------+-------+-------
                                       |  Male | Female | Male  | Female
  -------------------------------------+-------+--------+-------+-------
  Pressure:                            | _Kg._   _Kg._  | _Kg._    _Kg._
      Right hand                       | 34.36   20.13  | 41.8     23.3
      Left hand                        | 28.75   16.81  | 36.1     19.4
  Percentage relation of left to right |_83.7_  _83.5_  |_86.4_   _83.6_
  Percentage relation of female to male|                |
    (M = 100)                          |                |
      Right hand                       |     _55.8_     |     _55.5_
      Left hand                        |     _53.7_     |     _53.7_
  -------------------------------------+----------------+---------------

FOOTNOTES:

[132] Sitting, at rest, no signs of any health disorder.

[133] Sitting, at rest.

[134] Sitting, at rest, sub lingua.

[135] Subjects where all three determinations were not possible and the
most suspicious ones (abnormally above or below the mean) eliminated.


SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS ON THE LIVING WESTERN ESKIMO[136]

These Eskimo are generally of submedium stature, occasionally reaching
medium. The distal parts of their extremities are relatively short.
Walk in adult males somewhat awkward.

In head form they are highly mesocephalic to moderately brachycephalic;
the height of the head averages about medium. The head is of good size,
especially when taken in relation to stature. The forehead is above
medium in both height and breadth.

The face is large in all dimensions, generally full and rather flat.
In men it not seldom approaches a square form. The lower jaw region is
largely developed, the angles of the lower jaw are broad to protruding.

The nose is of fair breadth, with bridge somewhat narrow above and on
the whole only moderately high. The mouth is large, lips medium to
somewhat above. The ears are long. Beard spare on sides of face, mostly
sparse on chin; mustache sparse and often limited to tufts above the
corners of the mouth. Expression generally good-natured, smiling.

The chest is large, in females broad, in males especially deep. There
is but a mild lumbar curve and no steatopygy. The lower limbs in
females are less stout and shapely than they are in whites. The hands
and feet are small, but, particularly the foot, relatively broad.

Temperature and respiration approach those in normal whites, though
they appear frequently to be slightly higher; pulse normally is slow.

Dynamometric tests of strength (pressure, both hands) give somewhat
lower records than in whites.

FOOTNOTES:

[136] Incorporated in this are writer's own observations.


REMARKS

The most noteworthy and important result of these studies on the living
western Eskimo is the evidence, coming to light again and again, of
their fundamental somatic relations to the Indian. These relations are
too numerous and weighty to be accidental. Nor can they be ascribed to
mixture with the Indian in such far-away groups as the St. Lawrence
Islanders, who so long as known have never had any direct or even
indirect contact with Indians. These relations in dimensions and
relative proportions of the body, and in physiological characteristics
such as the slow normal pulse, are supplemented by many phases of
behavior, and often by a more or less Indianlike physiognomy. They
inevitably lead to the conclusion that the Eskimo and the Indian are in
the root members of the same family. They are two digits of the same
hand, separate and diverging, yet at base joined to and derived from
the same source. And this source, according to many indications, is the
paleo-asiatic, "mongoloid," stem of northern Asia. The western Eskimo
shows to be nearer this source than his more northern and northeastern
relatives, indicating either that he is a later comer, or, which is
more probable, that he has changed less in the south than in the north.
It may be possible to say something more on this subject after the
skeletal remains have been considered.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 45

YOUNG WOMAN, NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 46

YOUNG WOMEN, FULL-BLOOD ESKIMOS, SEWARD PENINSULA

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 47

A POINT HOPE GROUP]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 48

_a_, Eskimo woman, Kevalina. (Photo on the _Bear_ by A. H., 1926.
U.S.N.M.)

_b_, The body build of an adult Eskimo woman. Upper Bering Sea]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 49

ELDERLY WOMAN, ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND

(Photos by R. D. Moore, 1912. U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 50

_a_, Yukon Eskimo, below Paimute. (A. H., 1926)

_b_, Norton Sound Eskimo woman and child. (A. H., 1926)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 51

ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE; NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photos by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 52

ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE; NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photos by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 53

ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE; NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photos by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 54

ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE; NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 55

ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE; NORTHERN BERING SEA REGION

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 56

ESKIMO, INDIANLIKE; ARCTIC REGION

(Photo by Lomen Bros.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 57

SIBERIAN ESKIMO AND CHILD, INDIAN TYPE]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 58

_a_, Mrs. Sage, Kevalina. Fine Indian type. Born on Notak. Both parents
Notak "Eskimo." (A. H., 1926.)

_b_, Eskimo family, Indianlike; near Barrow. (A. H., 1926.)]

                WESTERN ESKIMO: MEASUREMENTS ON THE LIVING

          [Measurements by Collins and Stewart, except as noted]

  -----------------------+-------------------------------------------------
                         |                      Males--Locality
                         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+---------
                         |       |       |Tanunuk|Nunivak| Hooper|Marshall,
                         |Kulukak| Togiak|(Nelson| Island|  Bay  |  Lower
                         |       |       |Island)|       |       |  Yukon
  -----------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+---------
  Date of record         | (1927)| (1927)| (1927)| (1927)|(1927) | (1927)
  Subjects measured      |    (8)|    (4)|    (4)|   (19)|  (20) |[137](6) )
  Age                    | Adult.| Adult.| Adult.| Adult.|Adult. |  Adult.
                         |       |       |       |       |       |
  Stature                |160.6  |166    |162.7  |161.8  |162.5  | 163.8
  Height sitting         | 86    | 89.75 | 90.62 | 88.86 | 89.48 |  90.22
  Height-sitting-stature |       |       |       |       |       |
    index                |_53.55_|_53.95_|_55.69_|_55.70_|_55.06_| _55.08_
  Arm span vs. stature   | +2.8  | +6.7  | +5.5  | +2.7  |  +.7  |  +5.1
  Head:                  |       |       |       |       |       |
      Length             | 19.06 | 18.95 | 19.37 | 19.70 | 19.13 |  19.05
      Breadth            | 15.56 | 15.70 | 15.37 | 15.48 | 15.57 |  15.85
      Height[140]        | 12.98 | 13.02 | 12.90 | 13.07 | 13.11 |  13.43
      Cephalic module    | 15.87 | 15.89 | 15.88 | 16.08 | 15.94 |  16.11
      Cephalic index     |_81.7_ |_82.9_ |_79.4_ |_78.6_ |_81.3_ | _83.3_
      Mean height index  |_75_   |_75.2_ |_74.3_ |_74.3_ |_75.6_ | _77_
  Face:                  |       |       |       |       |       |
      Menton-crinion     | 19.70 | 20.05 | 19.70 | 19.23 | 19.41 |  19.85
      Menton-nasion      | 12.89 | 12.87 | 12.58 | 12.74 | 12.47 |  12.78
      Diameter           |       |       |       |       |       |
        bizygomatic      |       |       |       |       |       |
        maximum          | 14.74 | 15.27 | 14.95 | 14.99 | 14.97 |  14.85
      Physiognomic       |       |       |       |       |       |
        facial index     |_72.3_ |_76.2_ |_75.9_ |_78.2_ |_77.1_ | _74.8_
      Anatomical         |       |       |       |       |       |
        facial index     |_87.4_ |_84.2_ |_85.7_ |_85_   |_83.3_ | _86.1_
  Height of forehead     |       |       |       |       |       |
    (nasion-hair line)   |  6.81 |  7.18 |  7.12 |  6.49 |  6.94 |   7.07
  Breadth of forehead    |       |       |       |       |       |
    (diameter            |       |       |       |       |       |
    front--minimum)      | 10.26 | 10.75 | 10.65 | 10.54 | 10.35 |  10.38
  Diameter bigonial      |       |       |       |       |       |
  Nose:                  |       |       |       |       |       |
      Height             |  5.65 |  6.03 |  5.57 |  5.58 |  5.48 |   5.42
      Breadth            |  3.88 |  3.82 |  3.85 |  3.89 |  3.89 |   3.60
      Nasal index        |_68.7_ |_63.7_ |_69.1_ |_69.8_ |_71_   | _66.4_
  Mouth: Breadth         |  5.64 |  5.82 |  5.70 |  5.87 |  5.74 |   5.70
  Ear (left):            |       |       |       |       |       |
      Height             |  6.71 |  7.17 |  7.18 |  7.05 |  6.79 |   6.52
      Breadth            |  3.76 |  3.82 |  3.72 |  3.91 |  3.69 |   3.38
      Ear index          |_56.4_ |_53.3_ |_58.9_ |_55.5_ |_54.3_ | _51.9_
  Chest:                 |       |       |       |       |       |
      Breadth            | 29.58 | 29.65 | 29.70 | 29.97 |       |
      Depth              | 24.10 | 24.35 | 24.75 | 24.63 |       |
      Chest index        |_81.5_ |_82.1_ |_83.3_ |_82.2_ |       |
  Hand (left):           |       |       |       |       |       |
      Length             | 17.35 | 17.87 | 17.55 | 18.42 | 17.61 |  18.12
      Breadth            |  8.68 |  8.60 |  8.90 |  8.81 |  8.76 |   8.70
      Hand index         |_52.9_ |_48.1_ |_50.7_ |_47.8_ |_49.7_ | _48_
  Foot (left):           |       |       |       |       |       |
      Length             |       | 24.82 | 24.05 | 24.31 | 23.88 |
      Breadth            |       |  9.88 |  9.90 |  9.81 |  9.40 |
      Foot index         |       |_37.8_ |_41.2_ |_40.4_ |_39.4_ |
  Leg: Circumference,    |       |       |       |       |       |
        maximum          |       | 32.62 | 34.42 | 33.56 | 33.64 |
  -----------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+---------

  ---------------------------------+---------------------------------------
                            Males  |             Females--Locality
                         +---------+-------------+--------+-------+--------
                         |    St.  |   Kanakanak,| Nunivak| Hooper|   St.
                         | Lawrence|    Bristol  |  Island|  Bay  |Lawrence
                         |  Island |      Bay    |        |       | Island
  -----------------------+---------+-------------+--------+-------+--------
  Date of record         |  (1912) |     (1927)  | (1927) |(1927) | (1912)
  Subjects measured      |[138](63)|  [139](10)  |   (24) |   (2) |[138](48)
  Age                    |  Adult. |      Near   | Adult. | Adult.| Adult.
                         |         |     adult.  |        |       |
  Stature                |  163.3  |     147.8   | 153.1  |153    |151.35
  Height sitting         |   88.4  |     (83.08) |  84.36 | 83.80 | 84.07
  Height-sitting-stature |         |             |        |       |
    index                |  _54.13_|    (_56.21_)| _55.10_|_54.77_|_55.55_
  Arm span vs. stature   |    +.6  |      +1.5   |   -.7  | (?)   |  -.7
  Head:                  |         |             |        |       |
      Length             |   19.33 |      18.10  |  18.85 | 18.85 | 18.56
      Breadth            |   15.40 |      15.26  |  15    | 15.30 | 14.77
      Height[140]        |   13.23 |      13.01  |  12.81 | 12.90 | 12.76
      Cephalic module    |   15.99 |      15.46  |  15.55 | 15.68 | 15.36
      Cephalic index     |  _79.7_ |     _84.3_  | _79.6_ |_81.2_ |_79.6_
      Mean height index  |  _76.2_ |     _79_    | _79_   |_75.5_ |_76.6_
  Face:                  |         |             |        |       |
      Menton-crinion     |   20.01 |      18.73  |  18.45 | 18    | 18.03
      Menton-nasion      |   12.68 |     (11.79) |  12.11 | 11.50 | 11.31
      Diameter           |         |             |        |       |
        bizygomatic      |         |             |        |       |
        maximum          |   14.73 |     (13.95) |  14.31 | 14.55 | 14.03
      Physiognomic       |         |             |        |       |
        facial index     |  _73.6_ |    (_62.9_) | _77.6_ |_80.8_ |_77.8_
      Anatomical         |         |             |        |       |
        facial index     |  _86.7_ |     _84.6_  | _84.6_ |_79_   |_80.6_
  Height of forehead     |         |             |        |       |
    (nasion-hair line)   |    7.33 |       6.94  |   6.34 |  6.50 |  6.72
  Breadth of forehead    |         |             |        |       |
    (diameter            |         |             |        |       |
    front--minimum)      |   10.94 |      10.62  |  10.38 | 10.65 | 10.58
  Diameter bigonial      |   11.78 |             |        |       | 11.18
  Nose:                  |         |             |        |       |
      Height             |    5.47 |      (5.02) |   5.17 |       |  4.89
      Breadth            |    3.93 |      (3.35) |   3.59 |       |  3.63
      Nasal index        |  _71.9_ |     _66.7_  | _69.4_ |       |_74.4_
  Mouth: Breadth         |    5.60 |      (4.81) |   5.56 |       |  5.32
  Ear (left):            |         |             |        |       |
      Height             |    7.40 |      (5.99) |   6.49 |  6.60 |  6.73
      Breadth            |    4.04 |      (3.49) |   3.45 |  3.45 |  3.57
      Ear index          |  _54.6_ |    (_58.3_) | _53.1_ |_52.3_ |_53_
  Chest:                 |         |             |        |       |
      Breadth            |   29.96 |    (27.43)  |  28.63 |       |
      Depth              |   23    |    (19.39)  |  22    |       |
      Chest index        |  _76.7_ |[141](_70.7_)|_76.8_  |       |
  Hand (left):           |         |             |        |       |
      Length             |   17.94 |    (15.90)  |  16.62 | 16.85 | 16.60
      Breadth            |    8.63 |     (7.53)  |   7.82 |  8.20 |  7.78
      Hand index         |  _48_   |    _47.4_   | _47.1_ |_48.7_ |_46.7_
  Foot (left):           |         |             |        |       |
      Length             |   24.07 |    (22.08)  |  22.27 | 22.15 | 21.98
      Breadth            |    9.61 |     (8.55)  |   8.85 |  8.65 |  8.59
      Foot index         |  _39.9_ |   (_38.7_)  | _40.6_ |_39.1_ |_39.1_
  Leg: Circumference,    |         |             |        |       |
        maximum          |   ----- |    (32.39)  |  32.12 | 29.70 | 32.33
  -----------------------+---------+-------------+--------+-------+--------

FOOTNOTES:

[137] Measurements by Collins.

[138] Measurements by R. D. Moore.

[139] Oldest girls of an orphanage.

[140] From the base line of the 2 meatus; this and all other
measurements, including those of 1912, were taken by Hrdlička's methods
and with his instruments. (See his "Anthropometry," Wistar Institute,
Philadelphia, 1920.)

[141] Subadult in chest.


PRESENT DATA ON THE SKULL AND OTHER SKELETAL REMAINS OF THE WESTERN
ESKIMO


THE SKULL

Until recently collections of skeletal remains of the western Eskimo
were confined largely to skulls. The material in our own institutions
comprised a small collection of Mahlemut (St. Michael Island) and
"Chukchee" (Asiatic Eskimo) crania made in the early sixties by W. H.
Dall; a larger series of crania gathered in 1881 on St. Michael and St.
Lawrence Islands by E. W. Nelson; 28 skulls with 3 skeletons brought in
1898 by E. A. McIlheny from Point Barrow; a valuable lot of skulls from
Indian Point, Siberia, with a few from St. Lawrence Island, collected
by W. Bogoras; and some scattered specimens by other explorers. To
this were added in 1912 an important collection of skulls, with a
few skeletons, made by Riley D. Moore, at that time my aide, on St.
Lawrence Island; an important lot of crania gathered a few years
later by V. Stefánsson at Point Barrow; and a third large and highly
interesting lot, this time of both skulls and skeletons, collected near
Barrow for the University Museum at Philadelphia in 1917-1919 by W.
B. Van Valin. But none of the later material was described excepting
the McIlheny collection which, in 1916, was reported upon by E. W.
Hawkes.[142]

During the survey which is the subject of this report a special effort
was made to collect all the older skeletal material along the Bering
Sea and Arctic coasts that could be reached, and the result was the
bringing back of some 450 crania, nearly 50 with skeletons, and many
separate parts of the skeleton; nearly all of the specimens proceeding
from localities thus far not represented in the collections. To which
were added in 1927 nearly 200 skulls with a good number of skeletons
gathered by H. B. Collins, jr., assistant curator in the Department
of Anthropology, United States National Museum, and my aide, T. D.
Stewart, on Nunivak Island and along the west coast of Alaska from
Bristol Bay to near the Yukon delta.[143]

We thus have now a relatively vast amount of skeletal material on the
western Eskimo; it is essentially a virginal material; it is well
identified as to locality; and the specimens are mostly in very good
condition.

Aside from Hawkes's thesis, nothing of note had been published on
these collections until 1924, when the first number of my Catalogue
of Human Crania in the United States National Museum Collections
appeared, which includes the principal measurements on 290 skulls of
the western Eskimo. Since then, in view of the growing importance of
the subject, I have remeasured every specimen reported before; have
measured personally all the new collections; and thanks to the kindness
of those in charge have been enabled to extend the measurements to
all the collections of Eskimo crania, both from Alaska and elsewhere,
that were preserved up to the spring of 1928 at the National Museum at
Ottawa, the American Museum of Natural History of New York, and the
Wistar Institute of Philadelphia, which now contains the University
Museum collections. The total records reach now to 1,283 adult skulls
from practically all important parts of the total Eskimo area, besides
a considerable quantity of other bones of the skeleton. The main
results of the work will be given here, the detailed measurements being
reserved for another number of the Catalogue.

To save repetitions and possible confusion and to show more clearly the
status of the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo, the entire cranial
material will be dealt with in this section, and previous records on
the northeastern and a few other groups of the Eskimo will not be drawn
upon to preserve the advantage of dealing with data obtained by the
same methods, instruments, and observer.

In presenting the records it is found expedient, both on geographical
and anthropological grounds, to make but three groupings. The first
of these comprises the Eskimo from their southernmost limit to Norton
Sound and the Bering Sea islands; the second group takes in Seward
Peninsula (or the larger part of it) and the Arctic coast to Point
Barrow; while the third embraces all the Eskimo east of Point Barrow.
The first of these three groups is remarkably homogeneous, the second
and third show each some exceptional units. It may be said at once that
the dialectic subdivisions of Dall, Nelson, and others, in a large
majority of cases are not found to be accompanied by corresponding
physical differences, so that in a somatological classification they
become submerged.

FOOTNOTES:

[142] Skeletal Measurements and Observations of the Point Barrow
Eskimo, Amer. Anthrop., n. s. XVIII, pp. 203-244, Lancaster, 1916.

[143] In 1928 Mr. Collins brought another important accession to these
collections.


SKULL SIZE

The external size of the skull is best expressed by the cranial
module or mean of the three principal diameters; the internal size,
respectively the volume of the brain, by the "cranial capacity."

The module among the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo averages 15.44
centimeters in the males and 14.77 centimeters in the females. For
people of submedium stature these are good dimensions. Fifty-two male
and 40 female skulls of the much taller Sioux (writer's unpublished
data) give the modules of only 15.25 and 14.27 centimeters; while 6
male and 9 female Munsee Indians, also tall,[144] give practically the
same values as these Eskimos, namely 15.48 centimeters for the males
and 14.75 centimeters for the females.

Not all the western groups, however, give equally favorable
proportions. In general, the coast people below Norton Sound, and
especially below the Yukon, give, so far as the males are concerned,
the lowest values. It is interesting to note that it is precisely
these people who among the western Eskimo are reputed to be about the
lowest also in culture. The Togiak and near-by Kulukak males showed,
as seen before, also about the smallest head in the living. The St.
Lawrence Island males stand just about the middle, but the females of
this island, as, interestingly, also in the living, show markedly less
favorably. The Nunivak skulls, as with the living, are somewhat above
the average, while in the small Pilot Station (Yukon) group, just as
in the near-by contingent of Marshall among the living, the males have
the largest heads in this western territory. The lower Yukon Eskimo
were also shown, it may be recalled, to be of a higher stature than
the majority of the coast people. It is a group that deserves further
attention.

The module of the female skull does not evidently stand always in
harmony with that of the male. The most striking example of this is
shown, as already mentioned, by the St. Lawrence Island females,
both skulls and the living. The females of this isolated island are
also unduly short, but their small head is not entirely due to the
defective stature. There must exist on this island, it would seem, some
conditions that are disadvantageous to the female. In the small groups,
such as that from the Little Diomede, the disharmonies are doubtless
partly due to small numbers of specimens, but there may also be other
factors, such as the bringing in of women from other places.[145]

Taking the mean of all the groups equalizes conditions, and it is seen
that the module in both sexes is almost identical with that of the more
northern groups, to Point Barrow. But the north Arctic and northeastern
groups give a cranial module that in both sexes is somewhat higher,
though their stature, according to the available data (Deniker, Boas,
Duckworth, Steensby, Thalbitzer), is not superior.

A very remarkable showing is that of the percentage relation of
the female to male skull size in the three large groupings. In the
first two it is identical, in the third it differs less than could
confidently be expected among the closest relatives. Another remarkable
fact is that this important relation is found to be much like that
in the Eskimo in various groups of Indians; thus it was _96_ in the
Indians of Arkansas and Louisiana,[4] _95.5_ in the Munsee of New
Jersey,[146] and _96.4_ in the Indian skulls of California.[147] But
it is only _93.6_ in the Sioux (52 male, 40 female skulls) and differs
more or less also in other tribes and peoples. A comprehensive study of
this relation, with due respect to age, will some day well repay the
effort.

                    ESKIMO: CRANIAL MODULE ((L+B+H)/3)

                         MALES IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                           Males      Females
                             (5)        (7)
  Togiak                   15.21      14.73
                             (4)        (6)
  Mumtrak                  15.22      14.68
                             (3)        (2)
  Southwestern Alaska      15.25      14.90
                             (9)        (4)
  Hooper Bay               15.30      14.68
                             (8)        (6)
  St. Michael Island       15.30      14.72
                             (5)        (7)
  Little Diomede Island    15.33      15.09
  Pastolik and Yukon        (14)       (20)
    Delta                  15.34      14.83
                           (145)      (128)
  St. Lawrence Island      15.42      14.27
  Golovnin Bay to Cape       (4)        (2)
    Nome                   15.52      14.65
                            (46)       (70)
  Nunivak Island           15.53      14.90
                            (13)       (16)
  Indian Point (Siberia)   15.54      14.88
                             (3)        (2)
  Chukchee                 15.56      15.05
                             (4)        (1)
  Port Clarence            15.57     (14.57)
                             (9)       (16)
  Nelson Island            15.59      14.64
                             (3)        (3)
  Pilot Station, Yukon     15.91      15
  General averages,        (275)      (290)
    approximately         _15.44_    _14.77_
  Females vs. males
    (M = 100)                   _95.7_

                              _Northwestern_

                             (2)        (1)
  Kotzebue Sound           15.05     (14.67)
                            (12)        (8)
  Shishmaref               15.19      14.71
                           (132)       (84)
  Point Hope               15.37      14.72
                            (47)       (52)
  Point Barrow             15.45      14.75
                            (35)       (34)
  Barrow and vicinity      15.46      14.66
                            (27)       (24)
  Old Igloos near Barrow   15.52      14.72
                            (19)       (14)
  Wales                    15.66      14.86
  General averages,        (274)      (217)
    approximately         _15.39_    _14.73_
  Females vs. males
    (M = 100)                   _95.7_

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                            (49)       (52)
  Greenland                15.51      14.72
  Hudson Bay and             (5)        (2)
    vicinity               15.55      14.57
  Baffin Land and           (16)       (17)
    vicinity               15.55      15.04
                             (6)       (10)
  Northern Arctic          15.63      14.85
                             (9)        (6)
  Southampton Island       15.65      15.18
                             (7)        (2)
  Smith Sound              15.81      15.15
  General averages,         (92)       (89)
    approximately         _15.62_    _14.92_
  Females vs. males
    (M = 100)                   _95.5_


FOOTNOTES:

[144] Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 22, Nos. 326-313.

[145] More or less danger in such cases as these lies in erroneous
sexing of the skulls. Due to experience, care, and especially to the
relatively numerous accompanying bones or skeletons, this danger in the
present series has been reduced to the minimum.

[146] Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 23.

[147] Cat. Crania, U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 2.


MODULE AND CAPACITY

A comparison of considerable interest is also that of the cranial
module or mean diameter, to the capacity of the same skulls. This
comparison reveals an important sex factor.[148] Relatively to the
module, the capacity is very appreciably smaller in the female than
it is in the male. This is a universal condition to which, so far as
known, there are occasional individual but no group exceptions. It
appears very clearly in the Eskimo. In 283 western male Eskimo skulls
in which we have so far measured the capacity,[149] the module averages
15.38 centimeters, the capacity 1,490 cubic centimeters; while in 382
female skulls thus far gauged the former averages 14.82 centimeters,
the latter 1,337 cubic centimeters. The percentage relation of the
capacity to the module, the numbers taken as a whole, is _96.8_ in the
males but only _90.2_ in the females. This means that relatively to the
external size of the skull the female Eskimo brain is 6.66 per cent
smaller. Similar sex disproportion exists in other American groups as
well as elsewhere. Some day when suitable data accumulate it will be of
much interest to study this condition on a wider scale.

FOOTNOTES:

[148] See writer's "Relation of the Size of the Head and Skull to
Capacity in the Two Sexes," Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 1925, VIII, No. 3.

[149] All measured de novo by my aide, T. D. Stewart; for procedure see
my "Anthropometry."


ADDITIONAL REMARKS ON CRANIAL MODULE

Before we leave this subject, it may be well to point out two
noteworthy facts apparent from the data on the northwestern and
northeastern groups. The first is that the figures on both sexes
from Barrow and Point Barrow are very nearly the same, suggesting
strongly the identity of the people of the two settlements; and the
Point Hope group is in close relation. The second fact is the curious
identity of the old Igloo group, 8 miles southwest of Barrow, with the
Greenlanders. The import of this will be seen later.


SKULL SHAPE

Utilizing the materials of the Otis and Barnard Davis Catalogues and
with measurements taken for him on additional specimens in several of
our museums, Boas, in 1895 (Verh. Berl. anthrop. Ges., 398), as already
mentioned, reported the cranial index of 37 "western Eskimo" skulls
of both sexes (without giving localities or details) as _77_. He also
reports in the same place (p. 391) the cephalic index of 61 probably
male living "Alaska Eskimo," again without locality, as _79.2_. These
rather high indices and the relatively elevated stature (61 subjects,
165.8 centimeters) lead him to believe (p. 376) that both are probably
due to an admixture with the Alaskan Indian, though the report contains
no measurements of the latter.

The data that it is now possible to present may perhaps throw a new
light on the matter. As was already seen in part from the data on
the living, the head resp. the skull tends to relative shortness and
broadness throughout the southwestern, midwestern, and Bering Sea
region (excepting parts of the Seward Peninsula). Important groups in
this region, particularly those on some of the islands, had little or
no contact with the Indian. The cranial index in most of the groups of
the southwestern and midwestern Eskimo equals or even exceeds that of
the Indian. And Eskimo groups with a relatively elevated cranial index
are met with even in the far north, as at Point Hope, Hudson Bay, and
Smith Sound.[150] Finally, the shorter and broader head connects with
that of the Asiatic Eskimo and that of the Chukchee, as well as other
northeastern Asiatics.[151]

The records now available show the highest cranial indices to occur on
the coast between Bristol Bay and the Yukon and on lower Yukon itself,
while the lowest indices of the midwest area, though still mesocranic,
occur in the aggregate of Nunivak Island and the mouths of the Yukon.
Another geographical as well as somatological aggregate is that of the
people of the St. Lawrence and Diomede Islands and of Indian Point,
Siberia, the cranial index in these three localities being identical.

                           ESKIMO: CRANIAL INDEX

     Mean of both sexes ((Male+Female index)/2) on 1,281 adult skulls.

                            IN DESCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                 (11)
  Togiak                         80.1
                                 (13)
  Hooper Bay                     79.7
                                 (10)
  Mumtrak                        79.6
                                 (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     79.3
                                 (5)
  Chukchee (Siberia)             78.6
                                 (26)
  Nelson Island                  78
                                 (6)
  Southwestern Alaska            77.7
                                 (32)
  Indian Point (Siberia)         77.4
                                 (12)
  Little Diomede Island          77.4
                                (299)
  St. Lawrence Island            77.2
                                  (5)
  Port Clarence                  76.6
                                 (34)
  Pastolik and Yukon Delta       76.1
                                 (14)
  St. Michael Island             75.7
                                (116)
  Nunivak Island                 75.6

                              _Northwestern_

                                (222)
  Point Hope                     76.0
  Kotzebue Sound and Kobuk        (3)
    River                        75.4
                                 (22)
  Shishmaref                     74.5
                                (101)
  Point Barrow                   74.1
                                 (73)
  Barrow                         73.5
                                 (33)
  Wales                          73.5
                                  (7)
  Golovnin Bay              [152]72.6
                                 (52)
  Igloos, southwest of Barrow    69.7

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        76.3
                                  (9)
  Smith Sound                    76.2
                                 (15)
  Southampton Island             74.8
                                 (15)
  Northern Arctic                73.6
                                 (33)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       73.2
                                (101)
  Greenland                      71.9

The Seward Peninsula shows sudden differences. There are a few
localities along its southern coast where the cranial type belongs
apparently to the Bering Sea and southern area. One site at Port
Clarence was one of these. But already at Golovnin Bay, which is
not far from Norton Sound and St. Michael Island, and according to
the evidence of the most recent collections (Collins 1928), also at
Sledge Island, there is a sudden appearance of marked dolichocrany,
which is repeated at Wales, on the western extremity of the peninsula,
approached at Shishmaref, the main Eskimo settlement on its northern
shore, and, judging from some fragmentary material seen at the
eastern end of the Salt Lake, also in the interior. The cause of this
distinctive feature in the Seward Peninsula is for the present elusive.
The little known territory urgently needs a thorough exploration.

The distribution of the cranial index farther north along the western
coast shows several points of interest. The first is the exceptional
position of Point Hope, one of the oldest and most populous settlements
in these regions, which by its cranial index seems to connect with the
Bering Sea groups. The second is the closeness, once more, of Barrow
and Point Barrow. The third and greatest is the presence, in a small
cluster of old igloos 8 miles down the coast from Barrow, of a group of
people that finds no counterpart in its cranial index and, as will be
seen later, also in some other characteristics, in the entire western
region; in fact, in the whole Eskimo territory outside of Greenland.
As noted before, the size of the head in this group is also closest to
that of Greenland. These peculiar facts indicate a problem that will
call for separate consideration.

The northern and northeastern groups, with the exception of the
mesocranic Hudson Bay and Smith Sound contingents, and the very
dolichocranic Greenlanders, show dolichocrany much the same as that of
Barrow and Point Barrow.

FOOTNOTES:

[150] Compare writer's "An Eskimo Brain," Amer. Anthrop. n. s.,
vol. III, pp. 454-500, New York, 1901; and his "Contribution to the
Anthropology of Central and Smith Sound Eskimo," Anthrop. Papers, Amer.
Mus. Nat. Hist., V, pt. 2, New York, 1910.

[151] Compare, besides present data, measurements by Bogoras in his
report on "The Chukchee," Mem. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1904-9, XI, 33; 148
male and 49 female adults gave him the mean stature of 162.2 and -152,
the mean cephalic index of _82_ and _81.8_.

[152] Including 4 female skulls collected by Collins in 1928 and
received too late for general inclusion into these series.


HEIGHT OF THE SKULL

This is a measurement of much value, both alone and as a supplement to
the cranial index, for skulls with the same index may be high or low
and thus really of a radically distinct type.

The height of the vault is best studied in its relation to the other
cranial dimensions, particularly to the mean of the length and breadth,
with both of which it correlates. But in the Eskimo it is also of
interest to compare the height with the breadth of the skull alone.
The former relation is known as the mean height index and the latter
as the height-breadth index. Both mean the percentage value of the
basion-bregma height as compared to the other dimensions.

The mean height index H/(Mean of L+B), advocated independently by the
writer since 1916 (Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 116), is proving
of much value in differentiation of types and has already become
a permanent feature in all writers' work on the skull. There is a
corresponding index also on the living.

In the American Indian the averages of the index range from
approximately 76 to 90. (See Catalogue of Crania, U. S. Nat. Mus., Nos.
I and II.) Where the series of specimens are sufficiently large the
index does not differ materially in the two sexes. Indices below 80 may
be regarded as low, those between 80 and 84 as medium, and those above
84 as high.[153]

The southwestern and midwestern Eskimo skulls show mean height indices
that may be characterized as moderate to slightly above medium. In
general the broader and shorter skulls show lower indices, approaching
thus in all the characters of the vault the Mongolian skulls of Asia.
(Compare Catalogue Crania, U. S. Nat. Mus., No. I.) The Indian Point,
St. Lawrence Island, and Little Diomede Island skulls are again, as
with the cranial index, very close together, strengthening the evidence
that the three constitute the same group of people. (Pls. 59, 60.)

The northwestern Eskimo and most of those of the northeast have
relatively high vault. Barrow and Point Barrow are once more almost
the same. The Point Hope group shows a high vault, though also rather
broad. The somewhat broad Hudson Bay crania are but moderately high,
like those of the southwestern Eskimo. The northern Arctic skulls give
smaller height than would be expected with their type; the Southampton
Island specimens give higher. The old Igloo group from near Barrow
stands again close to Greenland; its skull is even a trace narrower
and higher, standing in both respects at the limits of the Eskimo.
The whole, as with the cranial index, shows evidently a rich field of
evolutionary conditions.

                     ESKIMO: CRANIAL MEAN HEIGHT INDEX

                  (H-FLOOR-LINE OF AUD. MEATUS TO BG×100)
                  ---------------------------------------
                                MEAN OF L+B

                   MEAN OF BOTH SEXES IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                (11)
  Togiak                        81.8
                                (25)
  Nelson Island                 82.1
                                 (6)
  Southwest Alaska              82.3
                                 (6)
  Pilot Station, Yukon          82.3
                                (10)
  Mumtrak                       82.5
                                (13)
  Hooper Bay                    82.7
                               (116)
  Nunivak Island                83.3
                                 (5)
  Chukchee                      83.3
                                (34)
  Pastolik and Yukon Delta      83.4
                                 (4)
  Port Clarence                 83.4
                                (29)
  Indian Point (Siberia)        83.8
                               (279)
  St. Lawrence Island           84.1
                                (12)
  Little Diomede Island         84.5
                                (14)
  St. Michael Island            85.1

                              _Northwestern_

                                (69)
  Barrow                        83.8
                                (99)
  Point Barrow                  84.1
  Kotzebue Sound and Kobuk       (2)
    River                       84.4
                                (20)
  Shishmaref                    84.5
                                (33)
  Wales                         85.0
                               (216)
  Point Hope                    85.7
                                 (4)
  Golovnin Bay--Cape Nome       85.9
                                (51)
  Igloos, southwest of Barrow   86.3

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                 (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity       82.2
                                (15)
  Northern Arctic               82.7
                                (33)
  Baffin Land and vicinity      84.4
                                 (9)
  Smith Sound                   85.1
                               (101)
  Greenland                     85.1
                                (15)
  Southampton Island            85.5

The height-breadth index (H×100)/(B) of the Eskimo skull shows in
substance the same conditions as did the mean height index, but while
less informative or dependable on one side, on the other it accentuates
the relative narrowness of the skull in some of the groups.

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 59

SKULLS FROM OLD BURIALS, POINT HOPE; RIGHT SKULL SHOWS LOW VAULT.
(U.S.N.M.)]

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 60

SKULLS FROM OLD BURIALS, POINT HOPE; RIGHT SKULL SHOWS LOW VAULT.
(U.S.N.M.)]

                 ESKIMO: HEIGHT-BREADTH INDEX OF THE SKULL

                   MEAN OF BOTH SEXES IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                 (12)
  Togiak                         91.9
                                  (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     92.8
                                 (10)
  Mumtrak                        93.1
                                  (5)
  Chukchee                       93.1
                                 (13)
  Hooper Bay                     93.2
                                 (25)
  Nelson Island                  93.7
                                  (5)
  Yukon Delta                    94.7
                                  (5)
  Southwest Alaska               95.2
                                 (12)
  Little Diomede Island          96.3
                                (279)
  St. Lawrence Island            96.5
                                (116)
  Nunivak Island                 96.7
                                 (31)
  Indian Point (Siberia)         96.7
                                 (29)
  Pastolik                       96.8
                                  (6)
  Cape Nome and Port Clarence    97.0
                                 (14)
  St. Michael Island             98.2

                              _Northwestern_

                                 (99)
  Point Barrow                   98.7
                                 (69)
  Barrow                         98.8
                                 (20)
  Shishmaref                     98.9
                                (216)
  Point Hope                     99.2
  Kotzebue Sound and Kobuk        (3)
    River                        99.6
                                 (33)
  Wales                         100.3
                                 (51)
  Igloos, southwest of Barrow   105.0

                          _Northern and eastern_

                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        95.3
                                 (16)
  North Arctic                   97.8
                                  (9)
  Smith Sound                    98.3
                                 (15)
  Southampton Island             99.8
                                 (33)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       99.9
                                (101)
  Greenland                     101.8

FOOTNOTES:

[153] These subdivisions are somewhat arbitrary and may, as data
accumulate and are better understood, be found to need some
modification.


THE FACE

The facial dimensions of the Eskimo skull offer a number of points of
unusual interest. The face is absolutely and especially relatively to
stature very large in all measurements. It is particularly high between
the upper alveolar point and nasion.

The large size of the Eskimo face will best be appreciated from a few
figures.

     FACIAL DIMENSIONS OF THE WESTERN AND OTHER ESKIMO CRANIA COMPARED
              WITH THOSE OF THE SIOUAN AND ALGONQUIAN TRIBES

  -----------------+-------------------+---------------+------+----------
                   | Southwestern and  |     Eskimo    |Siouan|Algonquian
                   | midwestern Eskimo |   in general  |tribes|  tribes
                   +----------+--------+------+--------+------+----------
                   |Mean of 14|   10   |  27  |   22   |  12  |    15
                   |  groups  | groups |groups| groups |groups|  groups
                   |  (male)  |(female)|(male)|(female)|(male)| (female)
  -----------------+----------+--------+---------------+------+----------
  Total height     |          |        |      |        |      |
    (ment.-nas.)   |  12.60   | (11.63)| 12.52| (11.59)| 12.26|   12.11
  Upper height     |          |        |      |        |      |
    (alv. pt.-nas.)|   7.87   |  (7.29)|  7.79|  (7.21)|  7.52|    7.35
  Diameter         |          |        |      |        |      |
    bizyg. max.    |  14.25   | (13.27)| 14.26| (13.22)| 14.16|   13.89
  Module of        |          |        |      |        |      |
    upper face     |          |        |      |        |      |
    (U. H. + B)/2  |  11.06   | (10.28)| 11.03| (10.22)| 10.84|   10.62
  -----------------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------

So far as known there are no larger faces among the Indians than
those of the Sioux, yet they remain very perceptibly, in all three
measurements, behind the Eskimo. No face as large as that of the
Eskimo is known, in fact, from anywhere else in the world. In whites
the mean diameter of the largest faces (see data in Martin's Lehrbuch
Anthrop., 789-791) does not exceed 10.36 centimeters. The above showing
assumes especial weight when it is recalled that both the Siouan and
the Algonquian tribes are among the tallest there are on the American
Continent. The cause of the large size of the Eskimo face can only be
the excessive use of the jaws; no other reason even suggests itself.
But the character may already be more or less hereditary. It furnishes
another attractive subject for further investigation.

With its large dimensions the face of the Eskimo skull presents
generally also large orbits, large molars, submedium prominence and
breadth of the nasal bridge, shallow suborbital (canine) fossae,
large dental arch above medium teeth, and a large and stout lower jaw
with broad not seldom more or less everted angles, giving the whole a
characteristic appearance. With partial exception of the orbits and the
nose, which are subject also to other factors, all these features of
the Eskimo face are explainable as strengthenings resulting from the
increased function of mastication.

The main dimensions of the cranial face in the three large groupings of
the Eskimo are given in the next table.

         WESTERN AND OTHER ESKIMO: FACIAL DIMENSIONS IN THE SKULL

  ----------------+-----------------------------------
                  |               Males
                  +------+------+-------+-------------
                  |      | Alve-| Diam- |   Cranial
                  | Men- | olar |  eter |    facial
                  | ton- |point-| bizy- |    index
                  |nasion|nasion|gomatic+------+------
                  |      |      |maximum| Total| Upper
                  +------+------+-------+------+------
  Groups          |  (9) | (14) | (14)  |  (8) | (14)
  Southwestern    |      |      |       |      |
    and midwestern| 12.60| 7.87 | 14.25 |_88.2_|_55.3_
  Groups          |  (5) |  (7) |  (7)  |  (5) |  (7)
  Northwestern    | 12.58| 7.73 | 14.23 |_88.3_|_54.4_
  Groups          |  (5) |  (6) |  (6)  |  (5) |  (5)
  North Arctic and|      |      |       |      |
    northeastern  | 12.22| 7.69 | 14.32 |_85.9_|_53.7_
  ----------------+------+------+-------+------+------

  ----------------+-----------------------------------
                  |             Females
                  +------+------+-------+-------------
                  |      | Alve-| Diam- |  Cranial
                  | Men- | olar |  eter |   facial
                  | ton- |point-| bizy- |   index
                  |nasion|nasion|gomatic+------+------
                  |      |      |maximum| Total| Upper
                  +------+------+-------+------+------
  Groups          |  (8) | (10) |  (10) |  (8) | (10)
  Southwestern    |      |      |       |      |
    and midwestern| 11.63| 7.29 | 13.27 |_87.7_|_54.9_
  Groups          |  (2) |  (7) |   (7) |  (2) |  (7)
  Northwestern    | 11.55| 7.19 | 13.18 |_88.2_|_54.6_
  Groups          |  (3) |  (5) |   (5) |  (3) |  (5)
  North Arctic and|      |      |       |      |
    northeastern  | 11.61| 7.13 | 13.15 |_85.7_|_54.2_
  ----------------+------+------+-------+-----+-------

These data show a number of interesting conditions. The height of the
upper face (alveolar point-nasion) is greatest in the southwestern and
midwestern groups, is slightly lower in the northwesterners, and still
further slightly lower in the north Arctic and the northeast. On the
other hand the facial breadth is slightly higher in the north and east,
and that although the vault has become mostly decidedly narrower.

These facts are shown best by the upper facial index, which in the
males descends quite perceptibly in the west from the south to the
north and in the Arctic from the west to the east. In the females there
is a parallel gradual diminution in the upper facial height from the
south to the north and then east, but the facial breadth diminishes
very slightly also instead of increasing, as a result of which the
upper facial index shows only minor differences; yet these differences
are in the same direction as those in the males.

These matters are involved with a number of factors--the stature, the
breadth of the vault, and the development and direct influence of the
temporal muscles, besides hereditary conditions. Their proper study
will necessitate even more--in fact, much more--material than is now at
our disposal.

The following table gives the distribution of the upper cranial facial
index in the various groups. Of the two indices that of the whole face,
including the lower jaw, is the less valuable; first, because the jaw
is often absent; second, because it is influenced by the height of
the lower jaw, which does not correlate perfectly with the upper; and
third, on account of the wear of the teeth, which in such people as the
Eskimo is very common and diminishes more or less the total height of
the face. Its averages in the three main groupings have already been
given. Its figures are not very exceptional.

                    ESKIMO SKULLS: FACIAL INDEX, UPPER

                   MEAN OF BOTH SEXES IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and Midwestern_

                                  (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     53.6
                                  (5)
  Cape Nome and Port Clarence    54.0
                                 (10)
  Hooper Bay                     54.4
                                  (9)
  Mumtrak                        54.5
                                 (93)
  Nunivak Island                 54.6
                                (262)
  St. Lawrence Island            54.9
                                  (8)
  Togiak and vicinity            55.0
                                 (24)
  Indian Point (Siberia)         55.1
                                 (23)
  Nelson Island                  55.2
                                  (4)
  Southwestern Alaska            55.4
                                 (10)
  St. Michael Island             55.5
                                 (25)
  Pastolik                       55.7
                                  (4)
  Chukchee                       55.8
                                 (11)
  Little Diomede Island          56.0

                              _Northwestern_

                                (190)
  Point Hope                     52.8
                                  (2)
  Kotzebue                       53.7
                                 (17)
  Shishmaref                     54.1
                                 (42)
  Igloos north of Barrow         54.1
                                 (41)
  Barrow                         54.8
                                 (75)
  Point Barrow                   55.2
                                 (31)
  Wales                          55.4

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                  (9)
  Smith South                    51.7
                                 (14)
  Southampton Island             52.3
                                 (23)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       53.8
                                 (90)
  Greenland                      54.1
                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        54.3
                                 (11)
  Northern Arctic                56.6

The upper facial index of the Eskimo skull is high, though there
is considerable group variation. The reason is the height of the
upper face, for which the accompanying considerable expansion of the
zygomatic arches does not fully compensate. In the white groups this
index ranges from approximately _50_ to _54_; it averages _52.9_ in
15 Algonquian and _53.1_ in 12 Siouan tribes. The means in the large
Eskimo groupings are from a little below _54_ to a little over _55_.
Its regional differences have already been mentioned. Sex differences
in the index are very small. There are a number of points of
significant agreement, the foremost of which is once more that in the
case of Barrow and Point Barrow, and especially that of the Old Igloos
near Barrow and Greenland.


THE NOSE

Equally as engaging as the whole face of the Eskimo skull is the
cranial nose. Our data throw much light on this feature also.

Where the dimensions of the whole face are altered by some cause the
nose can not remain unaffected. This is especially true of its height,
which correlates directly and closely with that of the face proper;
the correlation of the breadth of the nose with that of the face is
weaker and more irregular, but not absent where not counteracted by
other factors. Accordingly with the high Eskimo upper face there is
found also a high nose, both being the highest known to anthropometry.
But the nasal breadth, instead of responding to the considerable facial
breadth, has become smaller, until in some of the Eskimo groups it is
the smallest of all known human groups. There is plainly another potent
factor in action here. This factor could conceivably be connected
simply with the above-average growth of the facial bones; but if this
were so then individuals with smaller development of these bones
ought to have broader noses, and vice versa. This point can readily
be tested. Taking the largest and best cranial series, that of St.
Lawrence Island, and selecting the skulls with the smallest and the
largest faces, the facts come out as follows:

  ----------------------+------------------------+------------------------
                        |  Smallest development  |  Largest development
                        |        of face         |       of face
                        +-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------
                        |  Face | Face  |Breadth |  Face | Face  |Breadth
                        | height|breadth|of nasal| height|breadth|of nasal
                        |(upper)|       |aperture|       |       |aperture
  ----------------------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------
  10 males              |  7.52 | 13.64 |   2.37 |  8.46 |  14.79|   2.49
  10 females            |  6.81 | 12.56 |   2.37 |  7.54 |  14.02|   2.40
  Percentage relation   |       |       |        |       |       |
    of breadth of nose  |       |       |        |       |       |
    to mean diameter of |       |       |        |       |       |
    face:               |       |       |        |       |       |
      Male              |       |       | _22.4_ |       |       | _21.4_
      Female            |       |       | _24.5_ |       |       | _22.2_
  ----------------------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------

The above data show that while the narrow nose in the Eskimo is to some
extent affected by the large development in these people of the facial
bones, yet there must be also other factors.

But if not wholly connected with the development of the facial bones,
then some of the causes of the narrow nose in the Eskimo must either be
inherited from far back or must be due to influences outside the face
itself.

Pushing the character far back would be no explanation of its original
cause, but it may be shown that such a procedure would not be
justified. In the following important table are given the now available
data on the breadth of the nasal aperture of the Eskimo, group by
group and area by area, and these data show that narrow nose is by no
means universal in this family. The nasal aperture is broader in the
southwest and midwest than in the northwest, and broader in the latter
region than in the Arctic north, and the northeast. In general it is
seen that the farther northward and northeastward the narrower the
nose, until it reaches beyond that of all other human groups; while in
the west and southwest it gradually approaches until it reaches the
nasal breadth of the Indian. And that this latter condition is not
due to Indian admixture is shown by the fact that among the broadest
noses are those of the Eskimo in Siberia and those on the St. Lawrence
Island, where there was no known contact with the Indian, while the
narrower noses are along the midwestern coast, where Indian admixture
might have been possible.

                   ESKIMO: BREADTH OF THE NASAL APERTURE

               BOTH SEXES TAKEN TOGETHER IN DESCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                  (5)
  Southwestern Alaska            2.50
                                 (31)
  Indian Point (Siberia)         2.48
                                  (5)
  Chukchee                       2.47
                                  (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     2.45
                                (280)
  St. Lawrence Island            2.42
                                 (29)
  Pastolik                       2.41
                                 (13)
  Hooper Bay                     2.39
                                 (10)
  Mumtrak                        2.38
                                  (6)
  Cape Nome and Port Clarence    2.38
                                 (23)
  Nelson Island                  2.37
                                  (9)
  Togiak and vicinity            2.36
                                  (4)
  Yukon Delta                    2.34
                                (107)
  Nunivak Island                 2.33
                                 (11)
  Little Diomede Island          2.32
                                 (13)
  St. Michael Island             2.21

                              _Northwestern_

                                  (3)
  Kotzebue                       2.41
                                 (34)
  Wales                          2.37
                                 (20)
  Shishmaref                     2.36
                                 (56)
  Barrow                         2.35
                                (211)
  Point Hope                     2.33
                                 (92)
  Point Barrow                   2.30
                                 (48)
  Igloos, north of Barrow        2.30

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                  (9)
  Smith Sound                    2.29
                                 (15)
  Northern Arctic                2.26
                                 (14)
  Southampton Island             2.25
                                 (29)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       2.25
                                 (98)
  Greenland                      2.23
                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        2.19

It is hardly possible, therefore, to assume that a narrow nose is an
_ancient_ inheritance of the Eskimo. From the facts now at hand it
seems much more probable that the Eskimo nose or respiratory nasal
aperture was not originally very narrow, but that it gradually acquired
this character as the people extended farther north and northeastward;
and there appears to be but one potent factor that could influence
this development and that increases from south to north, namely, cold.
A narrowing of the aperture can readily be understood as a protective
development for the throat and the organs of respiration.

It is not easy to see how the bony structures respond to the effects of
cold or heat, but that they do, particularly where these are aggravated
by moisture, has long been appreciated, and shown fairly conclusively
through studies on the nasal index by Thomson and later by Thomson
and Buxton.[154] An even more satisfactory study would have been that
of the nasal breadth alone. Perhaps the normal variation with the
elimination of the less fit are the main agencies.

The next two tables show other interesting conditions. The first of
these, seen best from the more general data, are the relations of the
nasal dimensions and index in the two sexes. The females in all the
three large groupings have a higher nasal index than the males. This is
a general condition among the Indians as well as in other races. It is
usually due to a relative shortness of the female nose. This condition
is very plain in the Eskimo. The female nose is actually narrower than
the male, due to correlation with shorter stature and lesser facial
breadth, yet the index is higher. The reason can most simply be shown
by comparing the general mean nasal breadth and height in the two
sexes. The breadth in the female is approximately 96.2 per cent of that
in the male; the height is only 92.7 per cent.

            NASAL DIMENSIONS IN WESTERN AND OTHER ESKIMO CRANIA

  ------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------
                    |         Males         |        Females
         Area       +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
                    | Height|Breadth| Index | Height|Breadth| Index
  ------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Groups            |  (14) |  (14) |  (14) |  (10) |  (10) |  (10)
  Southwestern      |       |       |       |       |       |
    and Midwestern  |  5.46 |  2.42 | _44.3_|  5.06 |  2.32 | _45.8_
  ------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Groups            |   (7) |   (7) |   (7) |   (6) |   (6) |   (6)
  Northwestern      |  5.42 |  2.37 | _43.7_|  5.06 |  2.30 | _45.4_
  ------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------
  Groups            |   (6) |   (6) |   (6) |   (5) |   (5) |   (5)
  Northern Arctic   |       |       |       |       |       |
    and northeastern|  5.38 |  2.28 | _42.4_|  4.95 |  2.18 | _44.0_
  ------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------

Detailed group data on the nasal index show that this ranges from _47.7_
on the Yukon to _41.8_ in the northernmost contingent of the Eskimo at
Smith Sound. The Kotzebue group that shows even a higher index than on
the Yukon is too small to have much weight. Barrow and Point Barrow are
once more nearly the same, as are the Old Igloos and Greenland; and
there are some other interesting relations.

                        ESKIMO SKULLS: NASAL INDEX

               BOTH SEXES TAKEN TOGETHER IN DESCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon   47.7
                                (5)
  Southwestern Alaska          47.5
                               (31)
  Indian Point (Siberia)       46.5
                               (13)
  Hooper Bay                   46.2
                                (6)
  Cape Nome and Port Clarence  46.0
                              (280)
  St. Lawrence Island          45.8
                                (5)
  Chukchee                     45.6
                               (10)
  Mumtrak                      45.2
                              (107)
  Nunivak Island               45.1
                                (9)
  Togiak and vicinity          45.0
                               (29)
  Pastolik                     44.9
                               (23)
  Nelson Island                44.6
                               (11)
  Little Diomede Island        44.5
                               (13)
  St. Michael Island           42.9
                                (4)
  Yukon Delta                  42.7

                              _Northwestern_

                                (3)
  Kotzebue                     49.0
                               (20)
  Shishmaref                   46.0
                               (34)
  Wales                        45.3
                              (211)
  Point Hope                   44.9
                               (56)
  Barrow and vicinity          44.0
                               (48)
  Igloos north of Barrow       44.0
                               (92)
  Point Barrow                 43.5

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity      44.6
                               (15)
  North Arctic                 44.1
                               (29)
  Baffin Land and vicinity     43.8
                               (98)
  Greenland                    43.6
                               (14)
  Southampton Island           43.0
                                (9)
  Smith Sound                  41.8

FOOTNOTES:

[154] Thomson, Arthur, The correlation of isotherms with variations
in the nasal index. Proc. Seventeenth Intern. Cong. Med., London,
1913, Sec. I, Anatomy and Embryology, pt. II, 89; Thomson, Arthur, and
Buxton, L. H. D., Man's nasal index in relation to certain climatic
conditions, Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst., LIII, 92-122, London, 1923.
Additional references in these publications; also in the latter an
extensive list of data on nasal index in many parts of the world.


THE ORBITS

In many American groups the orbits are notoriously variable, yet their
mean dimensions and index are of value.

The Eskimo orbits have long been known for their ample proportions.
Their mean height and breadth are larger than those of any other
known people and the excess is especially apparent when proportioned
to stature. Taking the family as a whole, the mean height of the two
orbits in males averages approximately 3.64 centimeters, the mean
breadth 4.03 centimeters; while the males of 23 Algonquian tribes give
for the same items 3.42 and 3.93, and those of 12 Siouan tribes 3.58
and 3.96 centimeters.

The general averages for the female Eskimo approach for orbital height
3.52 centimeters, for breadth 3.89 centimeters, dimensions which also
surpass those in the females of any other known human group.

These large dimensions of the Eskimo orbit are, however, on closer
examination into the matter, found not to be racial characters except
in a secondary way. They are the direct consequence of the high and
broad face. The correlation of the orbital height and breadth with the
height and breadth of the face are shown by the following figures.
These figures indicate also some additional details of interest.

                       ESKIMO ORBITS: RIGHT AND LEFT

                                   MALES

  ---------------------+--------------+--------------+---------------
                       |     Height   |    Breadth   |     Index
  ---------------------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+-------
                       | Right | Left | Right | Left | Right | Left
  ---------------------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+-------
                       |     (145)    |     (145)    |     (145)
  St. Lawrence Island  | 3.67    3.68 | 4.05    4.01 | _90.7_  _91.8_
                       |      (41)    |      (41)    |      (41)
  Nunivak Island       | 3.59    3.59 | 4.05    4.-- | _88.7_  _89.7_
                       |     (120)    |     (120)    |     (120)
  Point Hope           | 3.63    3.63 | 4.05    4.01 | _89.6_  _90.5_
                       |      (46)    |      (46)    |      (46)
  Greenland            | 3.64    3.65 | 4.02    3.96 | _90.6_  _92.1_
  ---------------------+--------------+--------------+---------------

                                  FEMALES

  ---------------------+--------------+--------------+---------------
                       |     (128)    |     (128)    |     (128)
  St. Lawrence Island  | 3.62    3.60 | 3.92    3.89 | _91.7_  _92.6_
                       |      (58)    |      (58)    |      (58)
  Nunivak Island       | 3.50    3.52 | 3.88    3.84 | _90.2_  _91.6_
                       |      (70)    |      (70)    |      (70)
  Point Hope           | 3.54    3.54 | 3.91    3.88 | _90.5_  _91.4_
                       |      (45)    |      (45)    |      (45)
  Greenland            | 3.55    3.56 | 3.86    3.83 | _91.9_  _92.9_
  ---------------------+--------------+--------------+---------------

The general orbital index of the Eskimo is close to _90_ in the males,
_90.5_ in the females. Such orbits are classed as also _relatively_
high or _megaseme_, a character in which they resemble many of the
American Indians. Thus the male crania of the Siouan tribes give the
practically identical general index of _90.5_.

The slightly higher index in the females is the rule to which there are
but few exceptions, and those in individual groups where the numbers
of specimens may not be sufficient. The same tendency is observable in
the Indians, and appears in fact to be panhuman. It is due to slightly
lesser relative height as compared to the breadth of the orbit in
the males, which condition is due in all probability to the greater
development in the males of the frontal sinuses and supraorbital arches.

    ESKIMO CRANIA: DIMENSIONS OF THE ORBITS IN RELATION TO THOSE OF THE
                                   FACE

                 ORBITAL HEIGHT VERSUS UPPER FACIAL HEIGHT

  +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                Males                                |
  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
  |        (10)           |        (10)         |        (10)           |
  |Lowest faces (7.2-7.4) | Average faces (7.8) | Highest faces (8.4-9) |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |   Face   |   Orbits   |   Face  |   Orbits  |   Face   |   Orbits   |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |   7.37   |     3.62   |   7.80  |     3.65  |   8.55   |     3.78   |
  +==========+============+=========+===========+==========+============+
  |                               Females                               |
  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
  |        (10)           |        (10)         |         (14)          |
  |Lowest faces (6.4-6.8) | Average faces (7.3) |Highest faces (7.8-8.4)|
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |   Face   |   Orbits   |   Face  |   Orbits  |   Face   |   Orbits   |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |   6.69   |     3.54   |   7.30  |     3.56  |   7.89   |     3.67   |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+

                  PERCENTAGE RELATIONS OF ORBITS TO FACE

  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
  |         _49.1_        |       _46.8_        |         _44.2_        |
  +=======================+=====================+=======================+
  |         _53_          |       _48.7_        |         _46.6_        |
  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+

                   ORBITAL BREADTH VERSUS FACIAL BREADTH

  +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                Males                                |
  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
  |          (10)         |       (17)          |         (10)          |
  |    Narrowest faces    | Average faces (14.2)|    Broadest faces     |
  |    (13.4 and below)   |                     |   (14.9 and above)    |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |   Face   |   Orbits   |   Face  |   Orbits  |   Face   |   Orbits   |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |  13.30   |     3.96   |  14.20  |     4.01  |  15.11   |     4.17   |
  +==========+============+=========+===========+==========+============+
  |                               Females                               |
  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
  |          (10)         |       (14)          |         (10)          |
  |    Narrowest faces    | Average faces (13.3)|    Broadest faces     |
  |    (12.7 and below)   |                     |   (13.9 and above)    |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |   Face   |   Orbits   |   Face  |   Orbits  |   Face   |   Orbits   |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+
  |  12.57   |     3.74   |  13.30  |     3.88  |  14.09   |     3.98   |
  +----------+------------+---------+-----------+----------+------------+

                  PERCENTAGE RELATIONS OF ORBITS TO FACE

  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+
  |         _29.8_        |       _28.4_        |         _28.2_        |
  +=======================+=====================+=======================+
  |         _29.8_        |       _29.2_        |         _27.6_        |
  +-----------------------+---------------------+-----------------------+

Individual variation in the orbital index of the Eskimo is extensive,
reaching from slightly below _80_ to well over _100_. It extends
more or less over the whole Eskimo area, without conveying definite
indication anywhere of either a mixture or of a special evolutionary
tendency. Yet it occasions group differences that eventually might
prove evolutionary, though they may merely represent the next or higher
order of variability, namely, that of groups within a family.

               ORBITAL DIMENSIONS AND INDEX IN ESKIMO SKULLS

  --------------------+---------------------+---------------------
                      |        Males        |       Females
         Area         +------+-------+------+------+-------+------
                      | Mean | Mean  | Mean | Mean | Mean  | Mean
                      |height|breadth|index |height|breadth|index
  --------------------+------+-------+------+------+-------+------
                      | (13) |  (13) | (13) | (13) |  (13) | (13)
  South and Midwestern| 3.63 |  4.01 |_90.6_| 3.56 |  3.87 |_92.1_
                      |  (6) |   (6) |  (6) |  (6) |   (6) |  (6)
  Northwestern        | 3.62 |  4.02 |_90.1_| 3.51 |  3.92 |_89.7_
  Northern Arctic and |  (5) |   (5) |  (5) |  (5) |   (5) |  (5)
    northeastern      | 3.65 |  4.07 |_89.5_| 3.54 |  3.91 |_90.6_
  --------------------+------+-------+------+------+-------+------

The group differences in the orbital index of the Eskimo skull are
shown in the next table. They elude a satisfactory explanation,
unless recourse is had to the above suggested theory of normal group
variability within a family. They have about the same range in the
three large areas, which would seem to support this theory.

Group relations are indicated in the cases of Pastolik-Yukon Delta-St.
Michael Island; Point Barrow-Barrow; and Old Igloos-Greenland.

                  ESKIMO SKULLS: MEAN INDEX OF THE ORBITS

               BOTH SEXES TAKEN TOGETHER IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                 (10)
  Mumtrak                        88.4
                                 (11)
  Little Diomede Island          89.4
                                  (6)
  Cape Nome and Port Clarence    89.7
                                (101)
  Nunivak Island                 90.1
                                 (31)
  Indian Point (Siberia)         90.3
                                  (5)
  Chukchee                       90.6
                                  (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     91.0
                                  (5)
  Southwest Alaska               91.4
                                (271)
  St. Lawrence Island            91.7
                                 (24)
  Nelson Island                  91.9
                                 (13)
  Hooper Bay                     92.5
                                 (29)
  Pastolik                       93.2
                                  (7)
  Togiak                         93.3
                                  (4)
  Yukon Delta                    93.8
                                 (13)
  St. Michael Island             94.4

                              _Northwestern_

                                  (3)
  Kotzebue                       86.1
                                 (20)
  Shishmaref                     88.9
                                 (34)
  Wales                          89.4
                                 (85)
  Point Barrow                   90.3
                                (200)
  Point Hope                     90.4
                                 (53)
  Barrow                         91.1
                                 (43)
  Igloos north of Barrow         91.1

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                  (9)
  Smith Sound                    87.6
                                 (13)
  Southampton Island             88.4
                                 (28)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       90.0
                                 (16)
  Northern Arctic                91.0
                                 (94)
  Greenland                      91.6
                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        92.3


THE UPPER ALVEOLAR ARCH

The dental arches correlate with function (use), with stature, with
the dimensions of the face, and with those of the teeth. The western
as well as other Eskimo show arches that are about equal in absolute
dimensions to those of our taller Indians, such as the Munsee,
Arkansas, and Louisiana;[155] but relatively to stature the Eskimo arch
is decidedly larger.

The upper dental arch index (L×100/B), now being used in preference
to the unwieldy "uranic index" (B×100/L) of Turner, is rather high,
showing that the arch is relatively, as well as absolutely, broad. The
same index in the Munsee averaged in the males _82.8_, in the females
_82.7_; in the Arkansas and Louisiana mound skulls _84.4_ in the males
and _85.1_ in the females. Data are needed here for more extensive
comparisons.

                       ESKIMO CRANIA: ALVEOLAR ARCH

  --------------------+-----------------------------------
                      |               Males
                      +--------+--------+---------+-------
                      |External|External| Module  | Index
                      | length | breadth| (mean   |L×100/B
                      |        |        |diameter)|
  --------------------+--------+--------+---------+-------
  11 groups:          |        |        |         |
      Southwestern and|        |        |         |
        Midwestern    |  5.56  |  6.66  |   6.11  | _83.5_
  6 groups:           |        |        |         |
      Northwestern    |  5.63  |  6.61  |   6.12  | _85.1_
  5 groups:           |        |        |         |
      Northern Arctic |        |        |         |
        and           |        |        |         |
        northeastern  |  5.68  |  6.75  |   6.21  | _84.2_
  --------------------+--------+--------+---------+-------

  --------------------+-----------------------------------
                      |          Females
                      +--------+--------+---------+-------
                      |External|External| Module  | Index
                      | length | breadth| (mean   |L×100/B
                      |        |        |diameter)|
  --------------------+--------+--------+---------+-------
  11 groups:          |        |        |         |
      Southwestern and|        |        |         |
        Midwestern    |  5.34  |  6.38  |   5.86  | _83.8_
  6 groups:           |        |        |         |
      Northwestern    |  5.38  |  6.31  |   5.85  | _85.2_
  5 groups:           |        |        |         |
      Northern Arctic |        |        |         |
        and           |        |        |         |
        northeastern  |  5.37  |  6.28  |   5.83  | _85.6_
  --------------------+--------+--------+---------+-------

      ESKIMO SKULLS: LENGTH-BREADTH INDEX OF THE UPPER ALVEOLAR ARCH

               BOTH SEXES TAKEN TOGETHER IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and Midwestern_

                                  (5)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     79.4
                                  (8)
  Togiak and vicinity            80.5
                                  (4)
  Chukchee                       81.1
                                 (12)
  Hooper Bay                     81.7
                                  (9)
  Mumtrak                        81.7
                                  (9)
  Little Diomede Island          82.2
                                (234)
  St. Lawrence Island            83.0
                                 (10)
  St. Michael Island             84.3
                                 (22)
  Pastolik                       84.4
                                 (90)
  Nunivak Island                 84.4
                                  (4)
  Southwest Alaska               84.7
                                  (5)
  Cape Nome and Port Clarence    84.9
                                 (22)
  Indian Point (Siberia)         85.0
                                 (22)
  Nelson Island                  85.5

                              _Northwestern_

                                 (39)
  Igloos north of Barrow         84.1
                                 (14)
  Shishmaref                     84.4
                                (171)
  Point Hope                     84.6
                                 (31)
  Wales                          84.9
                                 (38)
  Barrow                         85.8
                                 (66)
  Point Barrow                   87.1

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                  (9)
  Smith Sound                    82.7
                                 (13)
  Southampton Island             83.7
                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        84.4
                                 (23)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       85.7
                                 (89)
  Greenland                      85.9
                                 (10)
  Northern Arctic                86.5

Sex differences in the index are small, nevertheless the females tend
to show a slightly higher index, due to relatively slightly smaller
breadth of the arch.

The size of the arch and its index differ but little over the three
main areas of the Eskimo territory, yet there are slight differences.
They appear plainly in the following table. Notwithstanding the fact
that on the whole the southwestern and midwestern groups are somewhat
taller than those of the far north and northeast, the largest palate,
in the males at least, is found in the latter area.

In the southwest and midwest the upper alveolar arch is relatively
(as well as absolutely, barring one group) somewhat broad and short.
This may be in correlation with the broader head in this area, just
as the absolutely slightly longer palates over the rest of the Eskimo
territory and particularly (in males) in the northeast may correlate
with the longer heads in those regions. This point may be tested on
our splendid material from St. Lawrence Island. Taking the broadest
and the narrowest skulls from this locality, the following data are
obtained for the proportions of the upper dental arch:

               ESKIMO CRANIA: DENTAL ARCH AND FORM OF SKULL

                       ST. LAWRENCE ISLAND MATERIAL

  -----------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
                         |        Males         |        Females
  -----------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
                         | Narrowest|   Broadest|  Narrowest|   Broadest
                         |    skulls|     skulls|     skulls|     skulls
                         |    (C. I.|(80.6-83.1)|(70.3-74.2)|(80.9-83.8)
                         |70.7-73.5)|           |           |
  -----------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
  Length                 |      5.68|       5.58|       5.52|       5.20
                         |          |           |           |
  Breadth                |      6.83|       6.77|       6.66|       6.36
                         |          |           |           |
  Index                  |    _83.2_|     _82.4_|     _82.9_|     _82.7_
                         |          |           |           |
  Mean diameter          |      6.26|       6.18|       6.09|       5.78
                         |          |           |           |
  Mean cranial diameter  |          |           |           |
  (cranial module) of    |     15.61|      15.49|      14.97|      14.73
  same skulls            |          |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
  Percentage relation    |          |           |           |
  of mean dental arch    |          |           |           |
  diameter to the mean   |    _40.1_|     _39.8_|     _40.7_|     _39.2_
  diameter of the skull  |          |           |           |
                         |          |           |           |
  Length of same skulls  |     19.21|      18.10|      18.35|      17.25
                         |          |           |           |
  Percentage relation of |          |           |           |
  length of dental arch  |    _29.5_|     _30.8_|     _30.1_|     _30.1_
  to that of skull       |          |           |           |
  -----------------------+----------+-----------+-----------+-----------

The above figures show several conditions. The first is that the arch
is quite distinctly larger in the narrow than in the broad skulls
in both sexes. The second fact is that the skull (vault) itself is
slightly larger in the narrow-headed. The third is that the length of
the arch is somewhat greater in the narrow and long skulls than it is
in the broad and shorter, relatively to the skull size. The fourth
is that there appears a close correlation, more particularly in the
females, between the length of the arch and that of the skull.

FOOTNOTES:

[155] See Bull. 62, Bur. Am. Ethn., and writer's Report on an
Additional Collection of Skeletal Remains from Arkansas and Louisiana,
published with Clarence B. Moore's report on the Antiquities of the
Ouachita Valley, Philadelphia, 1909.


THE BASION-NASION DIAMETER

The anterior basal length (basion-nasion) is a measurement of
importance, though its full meaning in anthropology is not yet entirely
clear. From data quoted by Martin (Lehrb., 715-716) it appears to
average in whites up to 10.3 centimeters in males and up to 10.1
centimeters in females, and is known to correlate closely with the
length of the vault. Secondarily it also correlates with stature.

Data on American Indians are not yet generally available, though in
preparation. The Munsee skulls gave the writer for the diameter the
means of 10.27 for the males and 10.02 for the females; the mound
skulls from Arkansas and Louisiana gave 10.45 for the males and 9.77
for the females.

An abstract of the data on the Eskimo skulls is given in the next
table. The values for the measurement are rather high, especially for
such short people. The percentage relation of the measurement to the
length of the skull appears also to be high. Manouvrier (1882, quoted
in Martin, Lehrb., 716) found this relation in French skulls to be
_53.6_ in the males and _54.7_ in the females.

                    ESKIMO CRANIA: BASION-NASION LENGTH

  ---------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------
                                   |  Groups of males  |   Corresponding
                                   |                   | groups of females
                                   +--------+----------+--------+----------
                                   |        |    Its   |        |    Its
                                   | Basion-|percentage| Basion-|percentage
                                   | nasion | relation | nasion | relation
                                   |diameter|to length |diameter|to length
                                   |        | of skull |        | of skull
  ---------------------------------+--------+----------+--------+----------
                                   |   (13) |    (13)  |   (13) |    (13)
  Southwestern and Midwestern      |  10.38 |   _56.4_ |   9.85 |   _55.7_
                                   |    (6) |     (6)  |    (6) |     (6)
  Northwestern                     |  10.58 |   _56.4_ |  10.06 |   _56.3_
                                   |    (5) |     (5)  |    (5) |     (5)
  Northern Arctic and northeastern |  10.65 |   _56.2_ |  10.06 |   _55.4_
  ---------------------------------+--------+----------+--------+----------

The female measurement to that of the male, in the Eskimo, is as _94.9_
to 100. As a similar relation of the cranial modules in the two sexes
is close to _95.7_, the anterior basal length would seem to be at a
little disadvantage in the female Eskimo skull.

The same condition is seen also when the basion-nasion diameter is
compared with the length of the skull. In the males, notwithstanding
the fact that the length of the vault is increased through the
development of the frontal sinuses and not infrequently also through
that of the occipital ridges, the percentage relation of the
basion-nasion to the maximum total length of the vault is approximately
_56.3_, in the females but _55.8_. It seems therefore safe to say that
in the Eskimo, in general, that part of the brain anterior to the
foramen magnum is relatively somewhat better developed in the males
than in the females.

But to this there are some exceptions. Thus it may be seen in the
general table which follows that in the northwestern groups conditions
in this respect are equalized; and in the succeeding detailed table
it will be noted that while the males exceed the females in this
particular in 14 of the groups, in 5 groups conditions are equal
(or within one decimal), and in 5 the female percentage exceeds
slightly that in the males. In the numerically best represented groups
conditions are nearly equal, with the males nevertheless slightly
favored.

      ESKIMO SKULLS: BASION-NASION LENGTH AND ITS RELATION TO LENGTH
                                 OF SKULL

                    SEXES SEPARATELY IN ASCENDING ORDER

  -----------------------------+--------------+--------------
                               |     Males    |    Females
                               +--------------+--------------
                               |     B-N.     |    B-N.
                               |BN×100/Skull l|BN×100/Skull l
  -----------------------------+--------------+--------------
    _Southwestern              |              |
      and Midwestern_          |              |
                               |      (4)     |      (7)
  Little Diomede Island        | 10.18  _56.2_|  9.91  _54.9_
                               |      (3)     |      (2)
  Chukchee                     | 10.20  _54.8_| 10.00  _54.8_
                               |      (3)     |      (3)
  Pilot Station (Yukon)        | 10.27  _54.3_|  9.97  _56_
                               |      (9)     |      (4)
  Hooper Bay                   | 10.29  _57.6_|  9.70  _55.7_
                               |      (4)     |      (6)
  Mumtrak                      | 10.32  _57_  |  9.52  _55.1_
                               |     (146)    |     (133)
  St. Lawrence Island          | 10.36  _56.3_|  9.93  _56.1_
                               |      (3)     |
  Yukon Delta                  | 10.37  _55.8_|
                               |     (11)     |      (18)
  Pastolik                     | 10.41  _56.5_|  9.98  _56.3_
                               |      (8)     |      (6)
  St. Michael Island           | 10.44  _57.3_|  9.98  _56.3_
                               |      (9)     |      (15)
  Nelson Island                | 10.46  _55.8_|  9.73  _55.9_
                               |      (3)     |      (7)
  Togiak                       | 10.47  _57.2_|  9.56  _55.7_
                               |      (3)     |      (2)
  Southwestern Alaska          | 10.47  _57.6_|  9.80  _54.8_
                               |     (15)     |     (16)
  Indian Point and Puotin      | 10.54  _56.5_|  9.97  _56.5_
                               |     (46)     |     (69)
  Nunivak Island               | 10.55  _56.1_| 10.02  _56_
                               |              |
    _Northwestern_             |              |
                               |      (2)     |
  Kotzebue                     | 10.45  _57.3_|
                               |     (133)    |     (82)
  Point Hope                   | 10.48  _57_  | 10.00  _56.9_
                               |     (12)     |      (8)
  Shishmaref                   | 10.50  _56.8_| 10.20  _57.5_
                               |     (47)     |     (52)
  Point Barrow                 | 10.54  _56.2_|  9.94  _55.5_
                               |     (35)     |     (34)
  Barrow                       | 10.61  _55.9_| 10.01  _56.3_
                               |     (19)     |     (15)
  Wales                        | 10.64  _56.7_| 10.01  _55.5_
                               |     (27)     |     (24)
  Igloos north of Barrow       | 10.70  _55.6_| 10.18  _56.2_
                               |              |
    _Northern and northeastern_|              |
                               |     (16)     |     (17)
  Baffin Land and vicinity     | 10.51  _55.6_| 10.11  _55.2_
                               |      (5)     |      (2)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity      | 10.60  _56.4_|  9.75  _55.6_
                               |     (48)     |     (52)
  Greenland                    | 10.60  _55.9_| 10.13  _56.2_
                               |      (5)     |     (10)
  Northern Arctic              | 10.68  _56.1_| 10.07  _55.3_
                               |      (7)     |
  Smith Sound                  | 10.70  _56.4_|
                               |      (9)     |      (5)
  Southampton Island           | 10.83  _57.3_| 10.34  _56.9_
  -----------------------------------------------------------

An interesting point is that in the north and northeast, where the
skulls are longest, there is evidently a slightly greater relative
development of the occipital portion of the vault, or slightly lesser
development of the frontal portion.

Some additional points of interest appear when the basion-nasion:
skull-length index, taken collectively for the two sexes, is compared
in the different groups. All these comparisons suffer, naturally,
from unevenness and often insufficiency of the numbers of specimens,
yet some of the results are very harmonious with those brought out
repeatedly by other data. Thus the St. Lawrence material stands once
more close to the medium of the southwestern and midwestern groups;
Barrow and Point Barrow are almost identical; and so are the Old Igloos
from near Barrow and Greenland. The St. Michael islanders show very
favorably in the midwest, the Shishmarefs in the northwest and the
Southampton islanders in the northeast.

       ESKIMO SKULLS: BASION-NASION LINE IN RELATION TO SKULL LENGTH

                                (BN×100/SL)

                  BOTH SEXES TOGETHER IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and midwestern_

                                  (5)
  Chukchee                       54.8
                                  (6)
  Pilot Station, Lower Yukon     55.2
                                 (11)
  Little Diomede Island          55.6
                                 (24)
  Nelson Island                  55.9
                                (115)
  Nunivak Island                 56.0
                                 (10)
  Mumtrak                        56.1
                                (279)
  St. Lawrence Island            56.2
                                  (5)
  Southwestern Alaska            56.2
                                 (29)
  Pastolik                       56.4
                                 (10)
  Togiak                         56.5
                                 (31)
  Indian Point and vicinity
    (Siberia)                    56.5
                                 (13)
  Hooper Bay                     56.6
                                 (14)
  St. Michael Island             56.8

                              _Northwestern_

                                 (51)
  Igloos southwest of Barrow     55.9
                                 (99)
  Point Barrow                   55.9
                                 (69)
  Barrow                         56.1
                                 (34)
  Wales                          56.1
                                (215)
  Point Hope                     57.0
                                 (20)
  Shishmaref                     57.1

                        _Northern and northeastern_

                                 (33)
  Baffin Land and vicinity       55.4
                                 (10)
  Northern Arctic                55.7
                                  (7)
  Hudson Bay and vicinity        56.0
                                (100)
  Greenland                      56.1
                                  (7)
  Smith Sound (male)             56.4
                                 (14)
  Southampton Island             57.1

The next table gives the percentage relations of the basion-nasion
diameter to the mean diameter of the skull. The correlation of the two
is even closer than in the case of the skull length, and the grouping,
while in the main alike, seems in general even more in harmony with
that in previous comparisons. The St. Lawrence Island females are very
exceptional, as was also apparent in other connections. The unusual
smallness of their skull (compare section on Cranial module) is
evidently due to a poor development of its posterior half.

    ESKIMO CRANIA: PERCENTAGE RELATION OF THE BASION-NASION DIAMETER TO
                  MEAN CRANIAL DIAMETER (CRANIAL MODULE)

                                (BN×100/CM)

                  BOTH SEXES TOGETHER IN ASCENDING ORDER

                       _Southwestern and Midwestern_

  Pilot Station, Yukon    65.6
  Chukchee                66.0
  Little Diomede Island   66.1
  Hooper Bay              66.4
  Nelson Island           66.7
  Togiak                  66.9
  Southwest Alaska        67.3
  Indian Point, Siberia   67.4
  Mumtrak                 67.4
  Nunivak Island          67.6
  Pastolik                67.6
  St. Michael Island      68.0
  St. Lawrence Island:
      Male                67.2
      Female             (69.6)

  _Northwestern_

  Wales                   67.7
  Point Barrow            67.8
  Point Hope              68.1
  Barrow                  68.4
  Old Igloos              69.0
  Shishmaref              69.2

  _Northern Arctic and northeastern_

  Baffin Land             67.4
  Hudson Bay              67.6
  Smith Sound (male)      67.6
  North Arctic            68.1
  Greenland               68.5
  Southampton Island      68.7


PROGNATHISM

Since better understood, the subject of facial prognathism has lost
much of its allure in anthropology; yet the matter is not wholly
without interest.

Facial protrusion is as a rule secondary to and largely caused by
alveolar protrusion, which in turn is caused by the size and shape of
the dental arch; and the dental arch is generally proportional to the
size of the teeth. The form of the arch is, however, quite influential.
With the teeth identical in size a narrow arch will be more, a broad
arch less protruding, and a narrow arch with small teeth may protrude
more than a broad one with larger teeth. Another influence is that of
the height of the upper face, the same arch protruding more in a low
face than in a high one. And still another factor is the incline of the
front teeth, though this affects merely the appearance of prognathism
and not its measurements.

There are different ways of measuring facial prognathism, and with
sufficient care all may be effective; I prefer, for practical reasons,
linear measurements from the basion, which, together with the facial
and subnasal heights, give triangles that can readily be reconstructed
on paper and allow a direct measurement of both the facial and the
alveolar angle. The three needed diameters from basion are taken, the
first to the "prealveolar point," or the _most anterior_ point on the
upper dental arch above the incisors; the second to the "subnasal
point," or the point on the left (for convenience) of the nasal
aperture, where the outer part of its border passes into that which
belongs to the subnasal portion of the maxilla (the point where the
subnasal slant begins); and the third to nasion. The facial height is
that from the alveolar point (_lowest_ point of the upper alveolar
border in the median line) to nasion; while for the subnasal height,
which can not be measured directly, I utilize the difference between
the facial and nasal heights, which is very close to the needed
dimension.

The important basion-nasion diameter has already been considered. That
to the subnasal point needs no comment. That to the prealveolar point
shows in the western and other Eskimo as follows:

             ESKIMO CRANIA: BASION-PREALVEOLAR POINT DIAMETER

                                ALL ESKIMO

  Males:
      Mean diameter                        centimeters   10.54
      Mean relation to length of skull        per cent  _56.3_
  Females:
      Diameter                             centimeters    9.99
      Relation                                per cent  _55.8_

                                   MALES

  A = Basion prealveolar point diameter
  B = Its relation to length of skull

  +------------------+------------------+------------------+
  | Southwestern and |   Northwestern   | Northern Arctics |
  |    midwestern    |                  | and northeastern |
  +------------------+------------------+------------------+
  |    _A_     _B_   |    _A_     _B_   |    _A_     _B_   |
  |   10.38  _56.4_  |   10.58  _56.4_  |   10.65  _56.2_  |
  |                   Mean skull lengths                   |
  |       18.41      |       18.75      |       18.96      |
  +------------------+------------------+------------------+
  |                         FEMALES                        |
  +------------------+------------------+------------------+
  |    9.85  _55.7_  |   10.06   _56.3_ |   10.06  _55.4_  |
  |                   Mean skull lengths                   |
  |       17.69      |       17.86      |       18.15      |
  +------------------+------------------+------------------+

As in other details, so here there is a remarkable similarity between
the skulls from the three large areas, pointing both to the unity of
the people and to absence of heterogeneous admixtures. As the skull
length increases so does the basi-alveolar line, but the relative
proportions of the two remain very nearly the same.

The relative value of the basi-alveolar length in the males, compared
to the length of the skull, is in general about 0.5 per cent higher
than it is in the females. This is just about the excess of the
relative proportion of the length of the male dental arch when compared
to the same skull dimension. The general mean skull length in the
Eskimo male approximates 18.705, in female 17.899 centimeters; the mean
length of the arch is, in the male, close to 5.625, in the female 5.365
centimeters; and the percentage relation of the latter to the former
is _30.6_ in the males, _30_ in the females. The relatively slightly
greater basi-alveolar length in the males is evidently, therefore, at
least partly due to the relatively longer male dental arch, which in
turn is doubtless due to the somewhat larger teeth in the males.[156]

Notwithstanding the just discussed slight sex difference in the
Eskimo, the facial angle, i. e., the angle between the basi-alveolar
line and the line nasion-alveolar point, is equal in the two sexes.
This equalization is due largely, if not wholly, to the effect in the
males of the relatively longer basio-nasion diameter (v. a.), while
the alveolar angle, or that between the basi-alveolar and the subnasal
lines, is in general by about 1 per cent lower in the females (males,
56°; females, 55°), indicating a slightly greater slant of the subnasal
region in the female, which can only be due to a relatively slightly
shorter in this sex of the basion-subnasal point diameter. As a matter
of fact, the percentage relation of this diameter to the length of the
skull amounts in the males to _56.3_, in the females to but _55.6_.

Compared to that in the Indians, the facial angle in the Eskimo skulls
shows close affinities. Its value (69°) is very nearly the same as in
the mound skulls from Arkansas and Louisiana (males 70.7°, females
69°). In other Indians it ranges from close to 68° to 71.5°. In the
Munsee it reached 73.5°. In whites, according to Rivet's data,[157] it
ranges from about 72° to 75°; in a group of negroes it was 68.5°. In
American and other negro crania measured by me[158] it ranged from 67°
to 70.5°, in Melanesians from 66° to 68°, in Australians from 67° to
69°.

The _alveolar angle_ is more variable. It shows considerable
individual, sex, and group differences. It averages slightly to
moderately higher, which means a more open angle or less slant in the
males than in the females. In the Eskimo as a whole it was seen to
be approximately 56° in the males, 55° in the females; in the Munsee
Indians (Bull. 62, Bur. Amer. Ethn.) it was males 59°, females 57°;
in the Arkansas and Louisiana skulls (J. Ac. Sci., Phila., 1909, XIV)
it averaged males 55°, females 52°. In my catalogue material it shows
a group variation of 46.5° to 55.5° in the negro, 47.5° to 52.5° in
the Australians, 46.5° to 50.5° in the Melanesians. In the whites it
generally exceeds 60°.

Differences in facial and alveolar protrusion among the Eskimo
according to area are small, yet they are not wholly absent. The
figures below show that in the southwesterners and midwesterners, where
the skull is more rounded, the prognathism is smallest; and that toward
the north and northeast, where the skull is narrower and the palate
(dental arch) tends to become longer, prognathism increases. The "Old
Igloo" group shows once more such affinity with the Greenlanders that
it is placed with the third subdivision.

       ESKIMO SKULLS: FACIAL AND ALVEOLAR ANGLE WITH PRINCIPAL AREAS

  ----------------+---------------------------+---------------------------
                  |            Males          |           Females
                  +-------+---------+---------+-------+---------+---------
                  | South-|         |  North  | South-|         |  North
                  |  and  |Northwest|   and   |  and  |Northwest|   and
                  |midwest|         |northeast|midwest|         |northeast
  ----------------+-------+---------+---------+-------+---------+---------
  Groups          | (13)  |   (5)   |   (6)   | (13)  |   (5)   |   (6)
  Facial angle    |   68  |    69   |    70   |  67.5 |    69   |    70
  Alveolar angle  |   55  |    56   |    55   |  54   |    55   |    54.5
  ----------------+-------+---------+---------+-------+---------+---------

Individual group differences in the facial and alveolar angle are
moderate, yet evidently not negligible. (See next table.) The most
prognathic, especially in the subnasal region, are the skulls from
Nelson Island. A marked alveolar slant is also present in the Pilot
Station Yukon group, and in Greenland. The least prognathic are
the St. Michael Islanders, the Point Hope people, and those from
Southampton Island. St. Lawrence stands once more near the middle of
the southwesterners and midwesterners, and there are to be seen the
principal old relations.

The main points shown by the above conditions are the group
variability, particularly in the southwest and midwest; the tendency,
on the whole, toward a slightly greater prognathy, both facial and
alveolar, in this same area; and the evidence that the alveolar slant
has some individuality.

     ESKIMO SKULLS: GROUP CONDITIONS IN FACIAL AND ALVEOLAR ANGLE[159]

                            _South and Midwest_

                         Facial      Alveolar
                          angle       angle
                                (20)
  Nelson Island           66.3         51.5
                                 (4)
  Southwest Alaska        66.8         54.5
                                 (4)
  Chukchee                66.8         57.0
                                (21)
  Indian Point            67.0         56.5
                                 (8)
  Togiak                  67.0         54.0
                               (242)
  St. Lawrence Island     67.8         55.3
                                (86)
  Nunivak Island          67.8         56.5
                                (23)
  Pastolik                68.3         54.8
                                (10)
  Hooper Bay              68.3         55.3
                                (10)
  Little Diomede Island   68.5         57.5
                                 (9)
  Mumtrak                 68.8         55.3
                                 (5)
  Pilot Station, Yukon    68.8         52.0
                                (10)
  St. Michael Island      70.0         56.8

                                _Northwest_

                                (11)
  Sledge Island           69.5         54.9
                                (31)
  Wales                   67.8         56.0
                                (17)
  Shishmaref              68.3         55.8
                                (73)
  Point Barrow            69.5         56.0
                                (43)
  Barrow                  69.8         56.8
                               (181)
  Point Hope              70.5         56.5

                           _North and northeast_

                                (11)
  North Arctic            68.5         54.5
                                (24)
  Baffin Land             70.0         55.0
                                (87)
  Greenland               69.8         53.8
                                (35)
  Old Igloos near Barrow  70.3         55.8
                                (7)
  Hudson Bay              70.3         56.8
                                (12)
  Southampton Island      71           55

                               ESKIMO CRANIA

     SOUTHWESTERN AND WESTERN ALASKA, BERING SEA ISLANDS, AND ASIATIC
                                   COAST

                                   MALES

  -----------+-------+------+---------+---------+------+-------+-------+
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             | Prince|Kodiak| Unalaska| Nushagak|Togiak|Mumtrak|Nunivak|
             |William|Island|Peninsula|  Bay and|      |       | Island|
             |  Sound|      |         |Kanakanak|      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  -----------+-------+------+---------+---------+------+-------+-------+
  Vault:     |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (4)|    (4)|   (46)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Length     |   18.1|  18.6|     17.8|     17.4| 18.30|  18.10|  18.81|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (4)|    (4)|   (46)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Breadth    |   13.8|  14.4|     14.1|     14.4| 14.20|  14.20|  14.09|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (4)|    (4)|   (46)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Height     |   12.8|    14|     13.6|     13.4| 13.25|  13.35|  13.69|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (4)|    (4)|   (46)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Cranial    |  14.90| 15.67|    15.17|    15.07| 15.25|  15.22|  15.53|
  Module     |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|         |      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (46)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Capacity   |  1,380| 1,485|       --|    1,440| 1,447|  1,465|  1,504|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|    (_1_)|    (_1_)| (_4_)|  (_4_)| (_46_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Cranial    | _76.2_|_77.4_|   _79.2_|   _82.3_|_77.6_| _78.5_|   _75_|
  Index      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|    (_1_)|    (_1_)| (_4_)|  (_4_)| (_46_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Mean       | _80.3_|_84.8_|   _85.3_|   _84.3_|_81.6_| _82.7_| _83.2_|
  height     |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Index      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|    (_1_)|    (_1_)| (_4_)|  (_4_)| (_46_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Height-    | _90.7_|_97.2_|   _96.4_|     _93_|_93.3_|   _94_| _97.1_|
  breadth    |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  index      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Face:      |       |   (1)|         |      (1)|   (2)|    (3)|   (24)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Menton-    |     --|  11.8|       --|     12.6| 12.90|  12.17|  12.95|
  nasion     |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|         |      (1)|   (3)|    (3)|   (43)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Nasion-    |    7.5|   7.8|       --|      7.6|     8|   7.60|   7.83|
  upper      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  alveolar   |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  point      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (45)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Diameter-  |   13.4|  14.8|     14.1|     14.6| 14.07|  13.90|  14.32|
  bizygomatic|       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  maximum    |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       | (_1_)|         |    (_1_)| (_2_)|  (_3_)| (_24_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Facial     |     --|_79.7_|       --|   _86.3_|_95.6_| _88.8_| _90.3_|
  Index,     |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  total      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|         |    (_1_)| (_3_)|  (_3_)| (_43_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Facial     |   _56_|_49.3_|       --|   _52.1_|_56.9_| _55.5_| _54.6_|
  Index,     |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  upper      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Basio-     |    (1)|   (1)|      (3)|         |   (1)|    (3)|   (42)|
  facial:    |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Basion     |     11|  10.5|    10.43|         |    10|  10.43|  10.65|
  alveolar   |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  point      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (44)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Basion-    |    9.4|   9.4|        9|      8.6|  9.37|   9.12|   9.51|
  subnasal   |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  point      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (46)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Basion-    |   10.4|  10.8|     10.2|      9.9| 10.47|  10.32|  10.55|
  nasion     |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|         |    (_1_)| (_4_)|  (_3_)| (_41_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Facial     | _65.5_|  _72_|         |   _67.5_|  _68_|   _69_|   _68_|
  angle      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|         |    (_1_)| (_4_)|  (_3_)| (_41_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Alveolar   | _48.5_|_56.5_|         |     _49_|_56.5_|   _55_|   _58_|
  angle      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Orbits:    |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (42)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Mean height|   3.47|  3.55|     3.62|     3.67|  3.64|   3.45|   3.59|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (42)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Mean       |   3.85|  4.07|        4|      3.9|  3.95|   4.09|   4.02|
  breadth    |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|    (_1_)|    (_1_)| (_3_)|  (_4_)| (_42_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Mean index | _90.2_|_87.1_|   _90.7_|   _94.2_|_92.2_| _84.3_| _89.2_|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Nose:      |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (44)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Height     |    4.9|   5.1|      5.4|      5.3|  5.57|   5.49|   5.35|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|      (1)|      (1)|   (3)|    (4)|   (44)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Breadth    |    2.4|  2.45|     2.45|     2.45|  2.35|   2.54|   2.35|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|    (_1_)|    (_1_)| (_3_)|  (_4_)| (_44_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Index      |   _49_|  _48_|   _45.4_|   _46.2_|_42.2_| _46.3_| _43.8_|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Upper      |    (1)|   (1)|         |      (1)|   (3)|    (3)|   (44)|
  alveolar   |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  arch:      |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Length     |    5.9|   5.6|         |      5.5|  5.60|   5.40|   5.66|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |    (1)|   (1)|         |      (1)|   (3)|    (3)|   (44)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Breadth    |    6.9|   6.8|         |      6.6|  6.43|   6.63|   6.79|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |  (_1_)| (_1_)|         |    (_1_)| (_3_)|  (_3_)| (_44_)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Index      |   _87_|_82.4_|         |   _83.3_|  _87_| _81.4_| _83.4_|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
             |       |   (1)|         |      (1)|   (2)|    (4)|   (28)|
             |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  Lower jaw: |       |   3.3|         |        4|   3.8|   3.55|      4|
  Height at  |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  symphysis  |       |      |         |         |      |       |       |
  -----------+-------+------+---------+---------+------+-------+-------+

  -----------+-------+------+------+--------+--------+
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             | Nelson|Hooper| Lower|   Pilot|  Kotlik|
             | Island|   Bay| Yukon|Station,|     and|
             |Tanunok|      |   and|   lower|Pastolik|
             |Village|      | delta|   Yukon|        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  -----------+-------+------+------+--------+--------+
  Vault:     |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Length     |  18.73| 17.86| 18.57|   18.90|   18.44|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Breadth    |  14.44| 14.43| 14.13|   15.07|   13.90|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Height     |  13.60| 13.60| 13.67|   13.77|   13.60|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Cranial    |  15.59| 15.30| 15.46|   15.91|   15.31|
  Module     |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Capacity   |  1,556| 1,519| 1,490|   1,660|   1,486|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_9_)| (_9_)| (_3_)|   (_3_)|  (_11_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Cranial    | _77.2_|_80.8_|_76.1_|  _79.7_|  _75.4_|
  Index      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_9_)| (_9_)| (_3_)|   (_3_)|  (_11_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Mean       |   _82_|_84.2_|_83.6_|  _81.6_|  _84.1_|
  height     |       |      |      |        |        |
  Index      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_9_)| (_9_)| (_3_)|   (_3_)|  (_11_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Height-    | _94.2_|_94.2_|_96.7_|  _91.4_|  _97.8_|
  breadth    |       |      |      |        |        |
  index      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Face:      |    (7)|   (7)|      |     (3)|     (7)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Menton-    |     13| 12.44|    --|   12.40|   12.67|
  nasion     |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (8)|   (3)|     (2)|     (9)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Nasion-    |   8.19|  7.69|  7.87|    7.85|    7.78|
  upper      |       |      |      |        |        |
  alveolar   |       |      |      |        |        |
  point      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|     (9)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Diameter-  |  14.44| 14.17| 14.30|   14.97|   14.13|
  bizygomatic|       |      |      |        |        |
  maximum    |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_7_)| (_7_)|      |   (_2_)|   (_7_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Facial     | _90.5_|_87.4_|    --|  _82.4_|  _90.1_|
  Index,     |       |      |      |        |        |
  total      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_9_)| (_8_)| (_3_)|   (_2_)|   (_9_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Facial     | _56.7_|_54.1_|  _55_|  _52.2_|    _55_|
  Index,     |       |      |      |        |        |
  upper      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Basio-     |    (7)|   (8)|   (3)|     (2)|     (7)|
  facial:    |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Basion     |  10.61| 10.25| 10.20|   10.35|   10.40|
  alveolar   |       |      |      |        |        |
  point      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (10)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Basion-    |   9.28|  9.12|  9.20|    9.07|    9.17|
  subnasal   |       |      |      |        |        |
  point      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Basion-    |  10.46| 10.29| 10.37|   10.27|   10.41|
  nasion     |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_7_)| (_8_)| (_3_)|   (_2_)|   (_7_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Facial     |   _66_|  _68_|  _69_|  _70.5_|    _69_|
  angle      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_7_)| (_8_)| (_3_)|   (_2_)|   (_7_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Alveolar   |   _53_|_55.5_|_59.5_|    _53_|    _56_|
  angle      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Orbits:    |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Mean height|   3.75|  3.66|  3.76|    3.57|    3.67|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Mean       |   4.08|  3.92|  3.94|    4.07|    3.98|
  breadth    |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_9_)| (_9_)| (_3_)|   (_3_)|  (_11_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Mean index |   _92_|_93.4_|_95.5_|  _87.7_|  _92.3_|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Nose:      |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Height     |   5.59|  5.41|  5.45|    5.37|    5.44|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (9)|   (9)|   (3)|     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Breadth    |   2.41|  2.43|  2.23|    2.57|    2.51|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_9_)| (_9_)| (_3_)|   (_3_)|  (_11_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Index      |   _43_|_44.9_|  _41_|  _47.8_|  _46.2_|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Upper      |    (8)|   (8)|   (3)|     (2)|     (7)|
  alveolar   |       |      |      |        |        |
  arch:      |       |      |      |        |        |
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Length     |   5.73|  5.46|  5.40|    5.70|    5.57|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (8)|   (8)|   (3)|     (2)|     (7)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Breadth    |   6.68|  6.65|  6.63|    7.40|    6.70|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |  (_8_)| (_8_)| (_3_)|   (_2_)|   (_7_)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Index      | _85.8_|_82.1_|_81.4_|    _77_|  _83.4_|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
             |    (8)|   (8)|      |     (3)|    (11)|
             |       |      |      |        |        |
  Lower jaw: |   3.91|  3.63|      |    3.63|    3.75|
  Height at  |       |      |      |        |        |
  symphysis  |       |      |      |        |        |
  -----------+-------+------+------+--------+--------+

  -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+------+-------
             |       |        |       |  Northeastern Asia
             |       |        |       +------+------+-------
             |    St.|     St.| Little|Indian|Puotin|Chukchi
             |Michael|Lawrence|Diomede| Point|  (NW.| (in or
             | Island|  Island| Island|   (E.| of E.|   near
             |       |        |       | Cape)| Cape)| Bering
             |       |        |       |      |      |Strait)
  -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+------+-------
  Vault:     |    (8)|   (153)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Length     |  18.23|   18.40|  18.12| 18.59| 18.95|  18.63
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (153)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Breadth    |  13.84|   14.19|  14.28| 14.32| 14.45|  14.67
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (145)|    (5)|  (13)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Height     |  13.83|   13.68|  13.60| 13.68| 14.30|  13.37
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (145)|    (5)|  (13)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Cranial    |  15.30|   15.42|  15.33| 15.54| 15.90|  15.56
  Module     |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (142)|    (5)|      |      |    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Capacity   |  1,461|   1,462|  1,470|    --|    --|  1,490
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_8_)| (_153_)|  (_5_)|(_14_)| (_2_)|  (_3_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Cranial    | _75.9_|  _77.1_| _78.8_|  _77_|_76.3_| _78.7_
  Index      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_8_)| (_145_)|  (_5_)|(_13_)| (_2_)|  (_3_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Mean       | _86.2_|    _84_| _83.9_|  _83_|_85.6_| _80.3_
  height     |       |        |       |      |      |
  Index      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_8_)| (_145_)|  (_5_)|(_13_)| (_2_)|  (_3_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Height-    | _99.9_|  _96.4_| _95.2_|_95.2_|_98.9_| _91.1_
  breadth    |       |        |       |      |      |
  index      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Face:      |    (2)|    (24)|       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Menton-    |  12.20|   12.70|     --|    --|    --|     --
  nasion     |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (7)|   (139)|    (5)|  (10)|   (2)|    (2)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Nasion-    |   7.86|    7.82|   7.58|  7.91|  8.05|   8.10
  upper      |       |        |       |      |      |
  alveolar   |       |        |       |      |      |
  point      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (148)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Diameter-  |  13.99|   14.20|  13.52| 14.37| 14.65|  14.53
  bizygomatic|       |        |       |      |      |
  maximum    |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_2_)|  (_24_)|       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Facial     | _87.8_|  _88.8_|     --|    --|    --|     --
  Index,     |       |        |       |      |      |
  total      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_7_)|  (_13_)|  (_5_)|(_10_)| (_2_)|  (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Facial     | _56.4_|  _55.1_| _56.1_|_55.7_|  _55_|_55.7_
  Index,     |       |        |       |      |      |
  upper      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Basio-     |    (7)|   (131)|    (4)|   (8)|   (2)|    (2)
  facial:    |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Basion     |  10.21|   10.43|  10.25| 10.40| 10.95|  10.50
  alveolar   |       |        |       |      |      |
  point      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (143)|    (4)|  (13)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Basion-    |   9.04|    9.26|   9.12|  9.35|  9.80|   9.10
  subnasal   |       |        |       |      |      |
  point      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (145)|    (4)|  (13)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Basion-    |  10.44|   10.36|  10.18| 10.48| 10.90|  10.20
  nasion     |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_7_)| (_131_)|  (_4_)| (_8_)| (_2_)|  (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Facial     |   _69_|  _67.5_|   _68_|  _67_|  _68_|   _66_
  angle      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_7_)| (_131_)|  (_4_)| (_8_)| (_2_)|  (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Alveolar   | _56.5_|  _56.5_| _55.5_|  _57_|  _58_| _57.5_
  angle      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Orbits:    |    (8)|   (145)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Mean height|   3.74|    3.68|   3.45|  3.80|  3.60|   3.66
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (145)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Mean       |   4.04|    4.03|   3.88|  4.10|  4.25|   4.01
  breadth    |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_8_)| (_145_)|  (_5_)|(_14_)| (_2_)|  (_3_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Mean index | _93.3_|  _91.2_| _89.1_|_92.7_|_84.7_| _91.1_
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Nose:      |    (8)|   (148)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Height     |   5.36|    5.42|   5.30|  5.57|  5.47|   5.63
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (8)|   (148)|    (5)|  (14)|   (2)|    (3)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Breadth    |   2.26|    2.45|   2.36|  2.55|  2.50|   2.30
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_8_)| (_148_)|  (_5_)|(_14_)| (_2_)|  (_3_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Index      | _42.1_|  _45.2_| _44.6_|_45.7_|_45.7_| _40.8_
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Upper      |    (7)|   (121)|    (5)|   (8)|   (2)|    (2)
  alveolar   |       |        |       |      |      |
  arch:      |       |        |       |      |      |
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Length     |   5.44|    5.63|   5.38|  5.57|  5.70|   5.95
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (7)|   (121)|    (5)|   (8)|   (2)|    (2)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Breadth    |   6.63|    6.79|   6.46|  6.66|  6.60|   7.15
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |  (_7_)| (_121_)|  (_5_)| (_8_)| (_2_)|  (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Index      | _82.1_|  _82.9_| _83.3_|_83.6_|_86.4_| _83.2_
             |       |        |       |      |      |
             |    (2)|    (26)|       |      |   (2)|
             |       |        |       |      |      |
  Lower jaw: |   3.65|    3.62|       |      |  3.90|
  Height at  |       |        |       |      |      |
  symphysis  |       |        |       |      |      |
  -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+------+-------

        SEWARD PENINSULA TO POINT BARROW AND EASTWARD TO GREENLAND

                                   MALES

  -----------+--------+-------+-------+--------+------+----------+
             |Golovnin|   Cape| Sledge|    Port| Wales|Shishmaref|
             |     Bay|   Nome| Island|Clarence|      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  -----------+--------+-------+-------+--------+------+----------+
  Vault:     |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (4)|  (19)|      (13)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Length     |   19.23|     18|  19.16|   18.88| 18.75|     18.49|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (4)|  (19)|      (13)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Breadth    |   13.67|   13.5|  13.72|   13.78| 13.64|     13.65|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (12)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Height     |   14.13|   13.6|  14.02|   13.90| 13.92|     13.48|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (12)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Cranial    |   15.68|  15.03|  15.63|   15.57| 15.66|     15.19|
  module     |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|        |  (18)|      (11)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Capacity   |   1,483|  1,325|  1,498|        | 1,474|     1,395|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_4_)|(_19_)|    (_13_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Cranial    |  _71.1_|   _75_| _71.6_|    _73_|_72.8_|    _73.8_|
  index      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_3_)|(_19_)|    (_12_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Mean       |  _85.9_| _86.1_| _85.3_|  _84.8_|_85.9_|      _84_|
  height     |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  index      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_3_)|(_19_)     (_12_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Height-    | _103.4_|_100.7_|_102.2_|    _99_| _102_     _98.8_|
  breadth    |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  index      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Face:      |     (3)|    (1)|    (4)|     (1)|  (12)|       (6)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Menton-    |   12.67|   12.6|  12.73|      13| 12.74      12.30|
  nasia      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (16)       (10)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Upper alv. |    7.97|      8|   7.83|    7.73|  7.81       7.60|
  pt.-nasion |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (18)       (10)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Diameter-  |   14.37|   14.3|  14.20|   14.17| 14.16|     14.20|
  bizygomatic|        |       |       |        |      |          |
  maximum    |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_4_)|   (_1_)|(_12_)|     (_6_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Facial     |  _88.2_| _88.1_| _89.3_|  _89.7_|  _90_|    _87.2_|
  index,     |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  total      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_3_)|(_16_)|    (_10_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Facial     |  _55.5_| _55.9_| _55.2_|  _54.6_|_55.2_|    _53.6_|
  index,     |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  upper      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Basio-     |     (2)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (17)|      (10)|
  facial:    |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Basion-    |    10.4|   10.9|  10.62|   10.87| 10.55|     10.60|
  alveolar   |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  point      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (18)|      (11)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Basion-    |    9.57|    9.9|   9.58|    9.63|  9.43|      9.44|
  subnasal   |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  point      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (12)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Basion-    |   10.87|   10.8|  10.88|   10.77| 10.64|     10.50|
  nasion     |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_2_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_8_)|(_16_)|    (_10_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Facial     |  _69.5_| _67.5_|   _70_|    _68_|_68.5_|    _68.5_|
  angle      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_2_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_8_)|(_16_)|    (_10_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Alveolar   |  _60.5_|   _59_|   _57_|  _53.5_|  _57_|      _56_|
  angle      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Orbits:    |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (11)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Mean height|    3.66|   3.42|   3.64|    3.62|  3.67|      3.60|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (11)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Mean       |    4.20|   4.05|   4.03|    4.03|  4.09|      3.98|
  breadth    |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_3_)|(_19_)|    (_11_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Mean index |  _87.1_| _84.6_| _90.3_|  _89.9_|_89.8_|    _90.4_|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Nose:      |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (11)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Height     |    5.57|    5.7|   5.59|    5.37|  5.39|      5.35
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (19)|      (11)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Breadth    |    2.35|   2.55|   2.35|    2.35|  2.41|      2.39|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_3_)|(_19_)|    (_11_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Index      |  _42.2_| _44.7_|   _42_|  _43.8_|_44.8_|    _44.6_|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Upper      |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (17)|       (9)|
  alveolar   |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  arch:      |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Length     |    6.13|    6.1|   5.70|    5.90|  5.69|      5.74|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (5)|     (3)|  (17)|       (9)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Breadth    |       7|    6.9|   6.83|    6.80|  6.76|      6.79|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_5_)|   (_3_)|(_17_)|     (_9_)|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Index      |  _87.6_| _88.4_| _83.5_|  _86.8_|_84.2_|    _84.6_|
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  Lower jaw: |     (3)|    (1)|    (4)|     (1)|  (16)|       (7)|
  Height at  |        |       |       |        |      |          |
  symphysis  |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |        |       |       |        |      |          |
             |       4|   3.85|   3.61|     4.2|  3.91|      3.78|
  -----------+--------+-------+-------+--------+------+----------+

  -----------+--------+-------+--------+---------+------+--------+
             |Kotzebue|  Point|  Barrow|      Old| Point|Northern|
             |        |   Hope|     and|  Igloos,|Barrow|  Arctic|
             |        |       |vicinity|southwest|      |        |
             |        |       |        |of Barrow|      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  -----------+--------+-------+--------+---------+------+--------+
  Vault:     |     (2)|  (131)|    (37)|     (27)|  (49)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Length     |   18.25|  18.40|   18.90|    19.25| 18.74|   19.04|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (131)|    (37)|     (27)|  (49)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Breadth    |   13.50|  13.86|   13.73|    13.30| 13.84|   14.08|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (128)|    (35)|     (27)|  (47)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Height     |   13.40|  13.90|   13.78|    14.02| 13.78|   13.76|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (128)|    (35)|     (27)|  (47)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Cranial    |   15.05|  15.39|   15.46|    15.52| 15.44|   15.63|
  module     |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (126)|      --|         |   (5)|      --|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Capacity   |   1,398|  1,474|      --|         | 1,324|      --|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_2_)|(_131_)|  (_37_)|   (_27_)|_(49)_|   _(5)_|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Cranial    |    _74_| _75.3_|  _72.6_|   _69.1_|_73.9_|    _74_|
  index      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_2_)|(_128_)|  (_35_)|   (_27_)|(_47_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Mean       |  _84.4_| _86.2_|  _84.6_|   _86.2_|_84.7_|  _83._1|
  height     |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  index      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_2_)|(_128_)|  (_35_)|   (_27_)|(_47_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Height-    |  _99.3_|_100.3_|  _99.6_|  _105.5_|_99.6_|  _97.7_|
  breadth    |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  index      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Face:      |     (1)|    (4)|      --|     (16)|   (2)|     (1)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Menton-    |  (11.8)|  12.40|      --|    12.39| 13.10|      14|
  nasia      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (1)|  (118)|    (21)|    (261)|  (37)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Upper alv. |   (7.3)|   7.52|    7.89|     7.71|  7.86|    8.02|
  pt.-nasion |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (124)|    (26)|     (26)|  (44)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Diameter-  | (13.85)|  14.31|   14.34|    14.16| 14.26|   14.44|
  bizygomatic|        |       |        |         |      |        |
  maximum    |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_1_)|  (_4_)|      --|   (_16_)| (_2_)|   (_1_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Facial     |  _88.1_|  _6.7_|      --|   _86.9_|_90.7_|  _94.6_|
  index,     |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  total      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_1_)|(_114_)|  (_20_)|   (_24_)|(_36_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Facial     |  _54.5_| _52.5_|    _55_|   _54.5_|_55.1_|  _55.5_|
  index,     |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  upper      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Basio-     |     (1)|  (105)|    (21)|     (20)|  (36)|     (5)|
  facial:    |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Basion-    |    10.7|  10.31|   10.39|    10.45| 10.39|   10.46|
  alveolar   |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  point      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (123)|    (28)|     (27)|  (45)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Basion-    |  (9.20)|   9.28|    9.31|     9.33|  9.23|    9.20|
  subnasal   |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  point      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (128)|    (35)|     (27)|  (47)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Basion-    | (10.45)|  10.49|   10.61|    10.70| 10.54|   10.68|
  nasion     |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_1_)|(_105_)|      --|       --|(_36_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Facial     |  _68.5_|   _70_|      --|       --|  _69_|    _69_|
  angle      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_1_)|(_105_)|      --|       --|(_36_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Alveolar   |    _54_|   _57_|      --|       --|  _56_|    _55_|
  angle      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Orbits:    |     (2)|  (118)|    (28)|     (25)|  (43)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Mean height|    3.48|   3.63|    3.60|     3.62|  3.61|    3.82|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (118)|    (28)|     (25)|  (43)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Mean       |    4.05|   4.03|    4.04|     3.97|  4.02|    4.22|
  breadth    |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_2_)|(_118_)|  (_28_)|   (_25_)|(_43_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Mean index |  _85.9_| _90.1_|  _89.2_|   _91.3_|_89.9_|  _90.5_|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Nose:      |     (2)|  (126)|    (29)|     (27)|  (46)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Height        (4.95)|   5.36|    5.52|     5.45|  5.48|    5.44|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (2)|  (126)|    (29)|     (27)|  (46)|     (5)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Breadth    |    2.22|   2.39|    2.39|     2.37|  2.31|    2.32|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_2_)|(_126_)|  (_29_)|   (_27_)|(_46_)|   (_5_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Index      |  _44.9_| _44.6_|  _43.4_|   _43.6_|_42.2_|  _42.6_|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Upper      |     (1)|   (99)|    (15)|     (23)|  (33)|     (4)|
  alveolar   |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  arch:      |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Length     |     5.5|   5.55|    5.59|     5.57|  5.63|    5.80|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     (1)|   (99)|    (15)|     (23)|  (33)|     (4)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Breadth    |     5.8|   6.54|    6.45|     6.68|  6.47|    6.70|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |   (_1_)| (_99_)|  (_15_)|   (_23_)|(_33_)|   (_4_)|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Index      |  _94.8_| _84.9_|  _86.6_|   _83.4_|_86.9_|  _86.6_|
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  Lower jaw: |     (1)|    (4)|     (2)|     (22)|   (2)|     (1)|
  Height at  |        |       |        |         |      |        |
  symphysis  |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |        |       |        |         |      |        |
             |     3.8|   3.82|    3.95|     3.72|   3.9|     4.2|
  -----------+--------+-------+--------+---------+------+--------+

  -----------+---------+-----------+------+--------+------+---------
             | Melville|Southampton|Hudson|  Baffin| Smith|Greenland
             |Peninsula|     Island|   Bay|   Land,| Sound|
             |         |           |   and|northern|      |
             |         |           |Ungava|  Devon,|      |
             |         |           |   Bay|     and|      |
             |         |           |      |vicinity|      |
  -----------+---------+-----------+------+--------+------+---------
  Vault:     |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (49)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Length     |     19.6|      18.91| 18.78|   18.91| 18.96|     8.97
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (49)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Breadth    |     13.7|      14.03| 14.10|   13.83| 14.37|    13.61
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (49)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Height     |     13.6|      14.01| 13.76|   13.87| 14.06|    13.95
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (49)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Cranial    |    15.63|      15.65| 15.55|   15.55| 15.81|    15.51
  module     |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |        (9)|   (1)|        |   (7)|     (42)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Capacity   |         |      1,563| 1,450|        | 1,566|    1,518
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |    (_1_)|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_16_)| (_7_)|   (_49_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Cranial    |     _70_|     _74.2_|_75.1_|  _73.1_|_75.8_|   _71.8_
  index      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |    (_1_)|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_16_)| (_7_)|   (_49_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Mean       |   _81.7_|     _85.1_|_83.7_|  _84.9_|_84.4_|   _85.7_
  height     |         |           |      |        |      |
  index      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |    (_1_)|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_16_)| (_7_)|   (_49_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Height-    |   _99.3_|     _99.8_|_97.6_| _100.5_|_97.8_|  _102.5_
  breadth    |         |           |      |        |      |
  index      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Face:      |      (1)|        (6)|   (4)|     (6)|   (6)|     (12)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Menton-    |     12.8|      12.63| 12.18|   12.27| 12.13|    12.38
  nasia      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (12)|   (7)|     (46)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Upper alv. |        8|       7.67|  7.56|    7.61|  7.64|     7.61
  pt.-nasion |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (47)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Diameter-  |       --|      14.48| 14.06|   14.22| 14.69|    14.05
  bizygomatic|         |           |      |        |      |
  maximum    |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|      (_6_)| (_4_)|   (_6_)| (_6_)|   (_12_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Facial     |       --|     _87.2_|  _87_|  _85.9_|_82.4_|   _87.1_
  index,     |         |           |      |        |      |
  total      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_12_)| (_7_)|   (_45_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Facial     |       --|       _53_|_53.8_|  _53.7_|  _52_|   _54.1_
  index,     |         |           |      |        |      |
  upper      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Basio-     |       --|        (8)|   (5)|    (12)|   (7)|     (42)
  facial:    |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Basion-    |       --|      10.76| 10.58|   10.41| 10.26|    10.54
  alveolar   |         |           |      |        |      |
  point      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (47)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Basion-    |       --|       9.52|  9.52|    9.24|  9.39|     9.32
  subnasal   |         |           |      |        |      |
  point      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (48)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Basion-    |       --|      10.83| 10.60|   10.51| 10.70|    10.60
  nasion     |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|      (_9_)| (_5_)|      --| (_7_)|   (_42_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Facial     |       --|       _69_|_69.5_|      --|_71.4_|     _70_
  angle      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|      (_9_)| (_5_)|      --| (_7_)|   (_42_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Alveolar   |       --|       _53_|  _59_|      --|_57.7_|     _56_
  angle      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Orbits:    |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (15)|   (7)|     (47)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Mean height|      3.9|       3.67|  3.58|    3.56|  3.54|     3.64
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (15)|   (7)|     (47)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Mean       |      4.3|       4.06|  3.97|    3.98|  4.11|     3.99
  breadth    |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |    (_1_)|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_15_)| (_7_)|   (_47_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Mean index |   _90.7_|     _90.3_|  _90_|  _88.8_|_86.7_|   _91.4_
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Nose:      |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (48)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Height     |      5.4|       5.43|  5.14|    5.32|  5.73|     5.24
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |      (1)|        (9)|   (5)|    (16)|   (7)|     (48)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Breadth    |     2.45|       2.30|  2.23|    2.31|  2.27|     2.27
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |    (_1_)|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_16_)| (_7_)|   (_48_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Index      |     _45_|     _42.3_|_45.3_|  _43.4_|_39.7_|   _43.3_
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Upper      |       --|        (9)|   (5)|    (11)|   (7)|     (44)
  alveolar   |         |           |      |        |      |
  arch:      |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Length     |       --|       5.84|  5.78|    5.63|  5.50|     5.63
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|        (9)|   (5)|    (11)|   (7)|     (44)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Breadth    |       --|       6.94|  6.72|    6.72|  6.74|     6.63
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|      (_9_)| (_5_)|  (_11_)| (_7_)|   (_44_)
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Index      |       --|     _84.2_|  _86_|  _83.8_|_81.6_|     _85_
             |         |           |      |        |      |
  Lower jaw: |       --|        (6)|   (4)|     (7)|   (6)|     (16)
  Height at  |         |           |      |        |      |
  symphysis  |         |           |      |        |      |
             |         |           |      |        |      |
             |       --|       3.67|  3.56|    3.83|  3.52|     3.76
  -----------+---------+-----------+------+--------+------+---------

                   WESTERN, NORTHERN, AND EASTERN ESKIMO

                                  FEMALES

  -----------+---------+------+-------+-------+------+------+----------
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             | Unalaska|Togiak|Mumtrak|Nunivak|Nelson|Hooper|     Yukon
             |Peninsula|      |       | Island|Island|   Bay|     Delta
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |(Kashunok)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      | and lower
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |     Yukon
  -----------+---------+------+-------+-------+------+------+----------
  Vault:     |      (2)|   (7)|    (6)|   (70)|  (17)|   (4)|       (2)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Length     |    17.90| 17.17|  17.27|  17.89| 17.42| 17.42|      18.7
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (7)|    (6)|   (70)|  (17)|   (4)|       (2)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Breadth    |    13.70| 14.17|  13.92|  13.65| 13.71| 13.70|     13.95
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (7)|    (6)|   (70)|  (16)|   (4)|       (2)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Height     |    13.10| 12.86|  12.85|  13.15| 12.78| 12.62|        13
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (7)|    (6)|   (70)|  (16)|   (4)|       (2)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Cranial    |    14.90| 14.73|  14.68|  14.90| 14.64| 14.68|   (15.22)
  Module     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (6)|    (4)|   (66)|  (14)|   (4)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Capacity   |    1,352| 1,375|  1,376|  1,353| 1,334| 1,246|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_7_)|  (_6_)| (_70_)|(_17_)| (_4_)|     (_2_)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Cranial    |   _76.5_|_82.7_| _80.6_| _76.3_|_78.7_|_78.6_|    _74.6_
  Index      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_7_)|  (_6_)| (_70_)|(_16_)| (_4_)|     (_2_)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Mean       |   _82.9_|  _82_| _82.4_| _83.4_|_82.1_|_81.1_|  (_79.2_)
  height     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Index      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_7_)|  (_6_)| (_70_)|(_16_)| (_4_)|     (_2_)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Height-    |   _95.6_|_90.7_| _92.3_| _96.4_|_93.2_|_92.2_|  (_92.8_)
  breadth    |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  index      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Face:      |         |   (2)|    (4)|   (27)|  (10)|   (2)|
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Menton-    |         |  12.1|   11.3|  11.62| 11.62| 11.80|
  nasion     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  height     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (4)|    (6)|   (52)|  (14)|   (2)|
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Alveolar   |     7.80|  7.30|   7.05|   7.27|  7.18|  7.30|
  point-     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  nasion     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  height     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (4)|    (6)|   (63)|  (15)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Diameter-  |    13.40| 13.12|   13.1|  13.27| 13.37| 13.37|      13.9
  bizygomatic|         |      |       |       |      |      |
  maximum    |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |       --| (_2_)|  (_4_)| (_26_)|(_10_)| (_2_)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Facial     |       --|_93.1_| _84.8_| _88.2_|  _87_|_88.4_|        --
  Index,     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  total      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_4_)|  (_6_)| (_51_)|(_14_)| (_2_)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Facial     |   _58.2_|_55.6_| _53.6_| _54.8_|_53.6_|_54.7_|        --
  Index,     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  upper      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Basio-     |      (2)|   (4)|    (6)|   (45)|  (14)|   (2)|        --
  facial:    |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Basion-    |    10.05|  9.78|   9.53|  10.17| 10.06|  9.60|        --
  alveolar   |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  point      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (4)|    (6)|   (60)|  (15)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Basion-    |     8.80|  8.55|   8.50|   8.97|  8.76|  8.55|       8.9
  subnasal   |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  point      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (7)|    (6)|   (69)|  (15)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Basion-    |     9.80|  9.56|   9.52|  10.02|  9.73|  9.70|      10.2
  nasion     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_4_)|  (_6_)| (_45_)|(_13_)| (_2_)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Facial     |   _65.5_|  _66_| _68.5_| _67.5_|_66.5_|_68.5_|        --
  angle      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_4_)|  (_6_)| (_45_)|(_13_)| (_2_)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Alveolar   |   _54.5_|_51.5_| _55.5_|   _55_|  _50_|  _55_|        --
  angle      |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Orbits:    |      (2)|   (3)|    (6)|   (59)|  (15)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Mean height|     3.65|  3.59|   3.53|   3.51|  3.50|  3.56|       3.5
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (3)|    (6)|   (59)|  (15)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Mean       |     3.92|  3.85|   3.81|   3.86|  3.81|  3.89|       3.8
  breadth    |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_3_)|  (_6_)| (_59_)|(_15_)| (_4_)|     (_1_)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Index      |     _93_|_93.5_| _92.6_|   _91_|_91.8_|_91.7_|    _92.1_
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Nose:      |      (2)|   (5)|    (6)|   (63)|  (14)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Height     |     5.32|  5.06|   5.03|   4.99|  5.06|  4.95|       5.5
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (5)|    (6)|   (63)|  (14)|   (4)|       (1)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Breadth    |     2.58|  2.32|   2.23|   2.32|  2.34|  2.35|      2.45
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_5_)|  (_6_)| (_63_)|(_14_)| (_4_)|     (_1_)
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Index      |   _47.5_|_45.8_| _44.2_| _46.4_|_46.3_|_47.5_|    _44.5_
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Palate:    |      (2)|   (4)|    (6)|   (46)|  (14)|   (2)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Length     |     5.55|  5.18|   5.03|   5.39|  5.39|  5.25|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |      (2)|   (4)|    (6)|   (46)|  (14)|   (2)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Breadth    |     6.55|  6.40|   6.13|   6.31|  6.32|  6.45|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |    (_2_)| (_4_)|  (_6_)| (_46_)|(_14_)| (_4_)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Index      |   _84.7_|_80.9_| _82.1_| _84.4_|_85.3_|_81.4_|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
             |       --|   (2)|    (3)|   (32)|  (11)|   (4)|        --
             |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  Lower jaw: |       --|  3.50|   3.30|   3.48|  3.40|  3.40|        --
  Height at  |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  symph.     |         |      |       |       |      |      |
  -----------+---------+------+-------+-------+------+------+----------

  -----------+--------+--------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------
             |        |        |       |        |       | Northeastern
             |        |        |       |        |       |    Asia
             |        |        |       |        |       +------+--------
             |   Pilot|  Kotlik|    St.|     St.| Little|Indian|Chukchee
             |Station,|     and|Michael|Lawrence|Diomede| Point|
             |   lower|Pastolik| Island|  Island| Island|      |
             |   Yukon|        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  -----------+--------+--------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------
  Vault:     |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (140)|    (7)|  (16)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Length     |    17.8|   17.72|  17.72|   17.69|  18.04| 17.64|   18.25
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (140)|    (7)|  (16)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Breadth    |      14|   13.62|  13.38|   13.60|  13.71| 13.74|   14.30
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (128)|    (7)|  (16)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Height     |   13.20|   13.04|  13.07|   13.21|  13.50| 13.25|   13.60
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (128)|    (7)|  (16)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Cranial    |      15|   14.81|  14.72|   14.87|  15.09| 14.88|   15.38
  Module     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (120)|    (6)|    --|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Capacity   |   1,442|   1,359|  1,293|   1,335|  1,359|    --|   1,512
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_18_)|  (_6_)| (_140_)|  (_7_)|(_16_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Cranial    |  _78.7_|  _76.8_| _75.5_|  _77.4_|   _76_|_77.9_|  _78.4_
  Index      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_18_)|  (_6_)| (_128_)|  (_7_)|(_16_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Mean       |    _83_|  _83.2_|   _84_|  _84.2_|   _85_|_84.5_|  _83.6_
  height     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Index      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_18_)|  (_6_)| (_128_)|  (_7_)|(_16_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Height-    |  _94.3_|  _95.8_| _97.6_|  _96.5_| _98.4_|_96.4_|  _95.1_
  breadth    |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  index      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Face:      |     (2)|    (15)|    (3)|    (23)|     --|    --|     (1)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Menton-    |   11.90|   11.82|   11.5|   11.49|     --|    --|   11.40
  nasion     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  height     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (16)|    (3)|   (120)|    (6)|  (13)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Alveolar   |    7.40|    7.49|   7.13|    7.29|   7.38|  7.41|    7.40
  point-     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  nasion     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  height     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (16)|    (5)|   (128)|    (7)|  (14)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Diameter-  |   13.47|   13.26|  13.12|   13.31|  13.09| 13.34|   13.25
  bizygomatic|        |        |       |        |       |      |
  maximum    |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_2_)|  (_15_)|  (_3_)|  (_23_)|     --|    --|   (_1_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Facial     |  _89.1_|    _89_| _88.2_|  _86.9_|     --|    --|  _85.7_
  Index,     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  total      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_16_)|  (_3_)| (_120_)|  (_6_)|(_12_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Facial     |    _55_|  _56.5_| _54.7_|  _54.8_|   _56_|  _55_|  _55.9_
  Index,     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  upper      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Basio-     |     (3)|    (16)|    (3)|   (111)|    (6)|  (13)|     (2)
  facial:    |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Basion-    |   10.17|   10.09|   9.77|   10.04|   9.73| 10.14|   10.10
  alveolar   |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  point      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (119)|    (6)|  (15)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Basion-    |    8.80|    8.86|   8.80|    8.88|   8.78|  8.95|    9.05
  subnasal   |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  point      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (6)|   (128)|    (7)|  (16)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Basion-    |    9.97|    9.98|   9.98|    9.93|   9.91|  9.97|      10
  nasion     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_16_)|  (_3_)| (_111_)|  (_6_)|(_13_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Facial     |    _67_|  _67.5_|   _71_|    _68_|   _69_|  _67_|  _67.5_
  angle      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_16_)|  (_3_)| (_111_)|  (_6_)|(_13_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Alveolar   |    _51_|  _53.5_|   _57_|    _54_| _59.5_   _54_|  _56.5_
  angle      |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Orbits:    |     (3)|    (18)|    (5)|   (121)|    (6)|  (15)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Mean height|    3.54|    3.62|   3.61|    3.60|   3.60|  3.59|    3.41
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (5)|   (121)|    (6)|  (15)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Mean       |    3.89|    3.86|   3.78|    3.91|   4.01|  3.90|    3.79
  breadth    |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_18_)|  (_5_)| (_121_)|  (_6_)|(_15_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Index      |    _91_|  _94.1_| _95.5_|  _92.1_| _89.7_|_91.9_|  _90.1_
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Nose:      |     (3)|    (18)|    (5)|   (127)|    (6)|  (15)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Height     |       5|    5.19|   4.95|    5.13|   5.15|  5.16|    5.20
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (18)|    (5)|   (127)|    (6)|  (15)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Breadth    |    2.33|    2.31|   2.17|    2.39|   2.28|  2.45|    2.65
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_18_)|  (_5_)| (_127_)|  (_6_)|(_15_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Index      |  _46.7_|  _44.5_| _43.8_|  _46.6_| _44.4_|_47.4_|  _50.5_
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Palate:    |     (3)|    (15)|    (3)|   (109)|    (4)|  (12)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Length     |    5.40|    5.45|   5.40|    5.37|   5.30|  5.44|    5.45
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (3)|    (15)|    (3)|   (109)|    (4)|  (12)|     (2)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Breadth    |    6.60|    6.38|   6.23|    6.46|   6.52|  6.40|    6.90
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |   (_3_)|  (_15_)|  (_3_)| (_109_)|  (_4_)|(_12_)|   (_2_)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Index      |  _81.8_|  _85.4_| _86.6_|  _83.0_| _81.2_|  _85_|    _79_
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
             |     (2)|    (17)|    (4)|    (25)|     --|    --|     (1)
             |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  Lower jaw: |    3.67|    3.56|   3.39|    3.18|     --|    --|     3.2
  Height at  |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  symph.     |        |        |       |        |       |      |
  -----------+--------+--------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------

                                  FEMALES

  -----------+--------+-------+-------+--------+-------+----------+--------
             |    Seward Peninsula    |        |       |          |
             +--------+-------+-------+        |       |          |
             |Golovnin|   Cape| Sledge|    Port|  Wales|Shishmaref|Kotzebue
             |     Bay|   Nome| Island|Clarence|       |          |   Sound
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |     and
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |   Kobuk
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |   River
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  -----------+--------+-------+-------+--------+-------+----------+--------
  Vault:     |     (4)|    (2)|    (9)|     (3)|   (15)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Length     |   17.92|  17.70|  18.13|   17.63|  18.05|     17.73|    17.2
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (9)|     (3)|   (15)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Breadth    |   13.22|  13.25|  13.50|   13.50|  13.35|     13.29|    13.4
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (9)|     (3)|   (15)|       (9)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Height     |   13.20|     13|  13.22|   12.90|  13.21|     13.16|    13.4
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (9)|     (3)|   (15)|       (9)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Cranial    |   14.78|  14.65|  14.95|   14.68|  14.87|     14.72|   14.67
  Module     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (8)|     (1)|   (15)|       (6)|
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Capacity   |   1,345|  1,290|  1,374|   1,285|  1,359|     1,239|
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (9)|     (3)|   (15)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Cranial    |    73.8|   74.8|   74.5|    76.6|   73.9|        75|    77.9
  Index      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |   (_4_)|  (_2_)|  (_9_)|   (_3_)| (_15_)|     (_9_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Mean       |  _84.8_| _83.9_| _83.6_|  _82.9_|   _84_|    _84.9_|  _87.6_
  height     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Index      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |   (_4_)|  (_2_)|  (_9_)|   (_3_)| (_15_)|     (_9_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Height-    |  _99.8_| _98.1_| _97.9_|  _95.5_|   _99_|    _98.9_|   _100_
  breadth    |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  index      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Face:      |   (_3_)|       |  (_3_)|        | (_11_)|     (_1_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Menton-    | _12.03_|       |_11.93_|        |_11.85_|      _12_|  _11.9_
  nasion     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  height     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (7)|     (1)|   (16)|       (9)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Alveolar   |    7.40|    7.3|   7.30|     6.7|   7.39|      7.20|     7.1
  point-     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  nasion     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  height     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (1)|    (1)|       (8)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Diameter-  |  13.2 5|  13.15|  13.26|    13.1|  13.29|     13.21|    13.4
  bizygomatic|        |       |       |        |       |          |
  maximum    |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |   (_3_)|       |  (_3_)|        |  (_1_)|     (_1_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Facial     |  _90.9_|       | _90.9_|        | _89.6_|    _91.6_|  _88.5_
  Index,     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  total      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_7_)|   (_1_)|  (_1_)|     (_8_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Facial     |  _55.8_| _55.7_| _55.1_|  _51.1_| _55.6_|    _54.7_|    _53_
  Index,     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  upper      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Basio-     |     (3)|    (1)|    (6)|     (1)|   (15)|       (8)|     (1)
  facial:    |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Basion-    |   10.27|   10.3|  10.25|     9.8|  10.24|     10.38|     9.2
  alveolar   |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  point      |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (2)|   (16)|       (8)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Basion-    |       9|   8.85|   9.16|     8.8|   9.04|      9.25|     7.9
  subnasal   |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  point      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (8)|     (3)|   (16)|       (9)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Basion-    |   10.10|  10.05|  10.29|    9.93|  10.01|     10.16|     9.5
  nasion     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |  (_1_)|  (_6_)|   (_1_)| (_15_)|     (_8_)|
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Facial     |        |   _67_|   _69_|    _66_|   _67_|      _68_|
  angle      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |  (_1_)|  (_6_)|   (_1_)| (_15_)|     (_8_)|
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Alveolar   |        |   _54_|   _53_|  _41.5_|   _55_|    _55.5_|
  angle      |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Orbits:    |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (2)|   (16)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Mean height|    3.57|   3.52|   3.58|    3.55|   3.52|      3.43|    3.30
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (2)|   (16)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Mean       |    3.86|   3.92|   3.98|    3.95|   3.94|      3.90|    3.82
  breadth    |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (2)|   (16)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Index      |    92.5|   89.8|     90|    89.4|   89.3|      88.1|    86.3
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Nose:      |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (1)|   (16)|      (10)|
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Height     |    5.20|   5.02|   5.10|     4.9|   5.08|      4.93|     4.9
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (4)|    (2)|    (7)|     (1)|   (16)|      (10)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Breadth    |    2.32|   2.50|   2.26|     2.3|   2.32|      2.33|     2.6
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |   (_4_)|  (_2_)|  (_7_)|   (_1_)| (_16_)|    (_10_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Index      |  _44.6_| _49.8_| _44.3_|  _46.9_| _45.7_|    _47.3_|  _53.1_
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Palate:    |     (3)|    (1)|    (6)|     (1)|   (15)|       (6)|
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Length     |    5.77|    5.5|   5.61|     5.3|   5.61|      5.67|     5.5
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (6)|     (1)|   (15)|       (6)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Breadth    |    6.73|    6.4|   6.46|     6.6|   6.57|      6.67|     6.4
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |   (_3_)|  (_1_)|  (_6_)|  (_11_)| (_15_)|     (_6_)|   (_1_)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Index      |  _85.7_| _85.9_| _86.8_|  _80.3_| _85.3_|      _85_|  _85.9_
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
             |     (3)|    (1)|    (4)|        |   (14)|       (1)|     (1)
             |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  Lower jaw: |    3.73|    3.7|   3.60|        |   3.56|       3.8|     3.9
  Height at  |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  symph.     |        |       |       |        |       |          |
  -----------+--------+-------+-------+--------+-------+----------+--------

  -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------+-----------+--------
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |  Point|  Barrow|    Old| Point|Northern|Southampton|  Hudson
             |   Hope|     and|Igloos,|Barrow|  Arctic|     Island| Bay and
             |       |vicinity|  north|      |        |           |vicinity
             |       |        |     of|      |        |           |
             |       |        | Barrow|      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------+-----------+--------
  Vault:     |   (92)|    (36)|   (25)|  (52)|    (10)|        (6)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Length     | 17.5 7|   17.77|  18.11| 17.91|   18.21|      18.17|   17.55
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (92)|    (36)|   (25)|  (52)|    (10)|        (6)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Breadth    |  13.43|   13.23|  12.72| 13.32|   13.36|      13.70|   13.60
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (89)|    (34)|   (24)|  (52)|    (10)|        (6)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Height     |  13.20|   12.97|  13.21| 13.03|   12.99|      13.69|   12.55
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (89)|    (34)|   (24)|  (52)|    (10)|        (6)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Cranial    |  14.72|   14.66|  14.72| 14.75|   14.85|      15.18|   14.57
  Module     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (89)|        |       |   (3)|        |        (6)|
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Capacity   |  1,316|        |       | 1,235|        |      1,443|
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (92)|    (36)| (_25_)|(_52_)|  (_10_)|      (_6_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Cranial    | _76.4_|  _74.5_| _70.2_|_74.4_|  _73.4_|     _75.4_|  _77.5_
  Index      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_89_)|  (_34_)| (_24_)|(_52_)|  (_10_)|      (_6_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Mean       | _85.2_|  _82.9_| _86.4_|_83.4_|  _82.3_|     _85.9_|  _80.6_
  height     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Index      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_89_)|  (_34_)| (_24_)|(_52_)|  (_10_)|      (_6_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Height-    | _98.2_|  _98.1_|_104.6_|_97.8_|  _97.2_|     _99.9_|  _92.3_
  breadth    |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  index      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Face:      |    (2)|        |   (15)|      |     (1)|        (3)|
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Menton-    |  12.05|        |  11.21|      |    12.7|       11.7|
  nasion     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  height     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (78)|    (22)|   (18)|  (40)|     (7)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Alveolar   |   7.06|    7.18|   7.01|  7.22|    7.43|       7.14|    6.95
  point-     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  nasion     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  height     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (84)|    (23)|   (24)|  (46)|     (7)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Diameter-  |  13.32|   13.16|  13.08| 13.06|   12.96|      13.82|   12.65
  bizygomatic|       |        |       |      |        |           |
  maximum    |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |  (_2_)|        | (_15_)|      |        |      (_3_)|
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Facial     | _88.3_|        | _86.8_|      |        |     _84.8_|
  Index,     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  total      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_77_)|  (_21_)| (_18_)|(_39_)|   (_6_)|      (_5_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Facial     | _53.1_|  _54.7_| _53.8_|_55.3_|  _57.8_|     _51.7_|  _54.9_
  Index,     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  upper      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Basio-     |   (76)|    (22)|   (15)|  (37)|     (6)|        (4)|     (2)
  facial:    |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Basion-    |   9.72|    9.85|  10.13|  9.77|   10.03|      10.02|     9.4
  alveolar   |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  point      |   (83)|    (27)|   (21)|  (46)|    (10)|        (4)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Basion-    |   8.72|    8.86|   9.12|  8.73|    8.85|       9.02|    8.35
  subnasal   |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  point      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (89)|    (34)|   (24)|  (52)|    (10)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Basion-    |   9.89|   10.01|  10.18|  9.94|   10.07|      10.34|    9.75
  nasion     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_75_)|        |       |(_37_)|   (_6_)|           |   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Facial     |   _70_|        |       |  _69_|    _68_|           |  _71.5_
  angle      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_75_)|        |       |(_37_)|   (_6_)|           |   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Alveolar   | _56.5_|        |       |  _55_|    _54_|           |  _54.5_
  angle      |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Orbits:    |   (83)|    (25)|   (18)|  (42)|    (10)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Mean height|   3.54|    3.61|   3.47|  3.55|    3.50|       3.64|  (3.60)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (83)|    (25)|   (18)|  (42)|    (10)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Mean       |   3.90|    3.88|   4.01|  3.90|    3.83|       4.05|  (3.80)
  breadth    |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_83_)|  (_25_)| (_18_)|(_42_)|  (_10_)|      (_4_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Index      | _90.8_|    _93_|   _91_|_90.7_|  _91.4_|     _86.6_|(_94.7_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Nose:      |   (86)|    (27)|   (21)|  (46)|     (9)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Height     |   5.04|    5.19|   5.02|  5.11|    4.83|       5.06|    4.90
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (86)|    (27)|   (21)|  (46)|     (9)|        (5)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Breadth    |   2.28|    2.32|   2.23|  2.29|    2.14|       2.21|    2.15
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_86_)|  (_27_)| (_21_)|(_46_)|   (_9_)|      (_5_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Index      | _45.3_|  _44.7_| _44.4_|_44.9_|  _44.4_|     _43.7_|  _43.9_
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Palate:    |   (73)|    (23)|   (16)|  (33)|     (6)|        (4)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Length     |   5.21|    5.22|   5.34|  5.25|    5.38|       5.50|    4.85
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |   (73)|    (23)|   (16)|  (33)|     (6)|        (4)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Breadth    |   6.19|    6.13|   6.29|  6.01|    6.22|       6.60|    5.85
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             | (_73_)|  (_23_)| (_16_)|(_33_)|   (_6_)|      (_4_)|   (_2_)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Index      | _84.3_|  _85.1_| _84.9_|_87.4_|  _86.5_|     _83.3_|  _82.9_
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
             |    (3)|     (3)|   (17)|      |     (1)|        (2)|     (2)
             |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  Lower jaw: |   3.38|    3.27|   3.38|      |     3.7|       3.20|    3.15
  Height at  |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  symph.     |       |        |       |      |        |           |
  -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------+-----------+--------

  -----------+--------+------+---------
             |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |  Baffin| Smith|Greenland
             |   Land,| Sound|
             |   North|      |
             |  Devon,|      |
             |     and|      |
             |vicinity|      |
  -----------+--------+------+---------
  Vault:     |    (17)|   (2)|     (52)
             |        |      |
  Length     |   18.33|    18|    18.04
             |        |      |
             |    (17)|   (2)|     (52)
             |        |      |
  Breadth    |   13.44| 13.80|    12.98
             |        |      |
             |    (17)|   (2)|     (52)
             |        |      |
  Height     |   13.34| 13.65|    13.12
             |        |      |
             |    (17)|   (2)|     (52)
             |        |      |
  Cranial    |   15.04| 15.15|    14.72
  Module     |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |        |   (1)|     (43)
             |        |      |
  Capacity   |        | 1,510|    1,324
             |        |      |
             |  (_17_)| (_2_)|   (_52_)
             |        |      |
  Cranial    |  _73.3_|_76.7_|     _72_
  Index      |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |  (_17_)| (_2_)|   (_52_)
             |        |      |
  Mean       |    _84_|_85.8_|   _84.6_
  height     |        |      |
  Index      |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |  (_17_)| (_2_)|   (_52_)
             |        |      |
  Height-    |  _99.3_|_98.9_|    _101_
  breadth    |        |      |
  index      |        |      |
             |        |      |
  Face:      |     (5)|   (2)|      (5)
             |        |      |
  Menton-    |   11.60| 11.20|    11.52
  nasion     |        |      |
  height     |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |    (12)|   (2)|     (45)
             |        |      |
  Alveolar   |    7.10|  6.80|     7.05
  point-     |        |      |
  nasion     |        |      |
  height     |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |    (14)|   (2)|     (50)
             |        |      |
  Diameter-  |   13.27| 13.20|    13.03
  bizygomatic|        |      |
  maximum    |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |   (_5_)| (_2_)|    (_5_)
             |        |      |
  Facial     |  _86.6_|_84.9_|   _85.7_
  Index,     |        |      |
  total      |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |  (_11_)| (_2_)|   (_45_)
             |        |      |
  Facial     |  _53.9_|_51.5_|   _54.1_
  Index,     |        |      |
  upper      |        |      |
             |        |      |
  Basio-     |    (12)|   (2)|     (45)
  facial:    |        |      |
             |        |      |
  Basion-    |   10.13|  9.35|    10.09
  alveolar   |        |      |
  point      |    (13)|   (2)|     (50)
             |        |      |
  Basion-    |    9.05|  8.35|     8.94
  subnasal   |        |      |
  point      |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |    (17)|   (2)|     (52)
             |        |      |
  Basion-    |   10.11|  9.65|    10.13
  nasion     |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |        |      |   (_45_)
             |        |      |
  Facial     |        |      |     _70_
  angle      |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |        |      |   (_45_)
             |        |      |
  Alveolar   |        |      |     _54_
  angle      |        |      |
             |        |      |
  Orbits:    |    (13)|   (2)|     (47)
             |        |      |
  Mean height|    3.53|  3.51|     3.55
             |        |      |
             |    (13)|   (2)|     (47)
             |        |      |
  Mean       |    3.88|  3.96|     3.85
  breadth    |        |      |
             |        |      |
             |  (_13_)| (_2_)|   (_47_)
             |        |      |
  Index         _91.3_|_88.6_|   _92.4_
             |        |      |
  Nose:      |    (13)|   (2)|     (50)
             |        |      |
  Height     |    4.98|  5.30|     4.99
             |        |      |
             |    (13)|   (2)|     (50)
             |        |      |
  Breadth    |    2.20|  2.32|     2.20
             |        |      |
             |  (_13_)| (_2_)|   (_50_)
             |        |      |
  Index      |  _44.3_|_43.9_|     _44_
             |        |      |
  Palate:    |    (12)|   (2)|     (45)
             |        |      |
  Length     |    5.44|  5.20|     5.35
             |        |      |
             |    (12)|   (2)|     (45)
             |        |      |
  Breadth    |    6.22|  6.20|     6.16
             |        |      |
             |  (_12_)| (_2_)|   (_45_)
             |        |      |
  Index      |  _87.6_|_83.9_|   _86.8_
             |        |      |
             |     (5)|   (2)|     (13)
             |        |      |
  Lower jaw: |    3.46|  3.42|     3.40
  Height at  |        |      |
  symph.     |        |      |
  -----------+--------+------+---------

FOOTNOTES:

[156] Compare writer's Variation in the dimensions of lower molars
in man and anthropoid apes, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., VI, 423-438,
Washington, 1923.

[157] Rivet, P., Recherches sur le prognathisme. L'Anthropologie, XX,
pp. 35, 175; Paris, 1909. XXI, pp. 505, 637, 1910.

[158] Cat. Crania, U. S. Nat. Mus., etc., No. 3. Washington, 1928, 88,
105, 139.

[159] Lower angles mean higher, higher angles lower facial or alveolar
protrusion.



SKULLS OF ESKIMO CHILDREN


A special effort in our work has been made to secure well-preserved
skulls of children. As elsewhere, so among the Eskimo, more children
die than adults, but conditions are not favorable for the preservation
of their skeletal remains. Most of the bones are done away with or
damaged by animals (foxes, dogs, mice, etc.), while others decay, so
that generally nothing remains of the youngest subjects and but a few
bones and a rare skull of the older children. The total number of such
skulls in our collection now reaches 25. They are all of children
of more than 2 but mostly less than 6 years old, and are all normal
specimens. The principal measurements of their vault--a study of the
face is a subject apart and needing more material--are given in the
following tables.


                         CRANIA OF ESKIMO CHILDREN

  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------
           |         |           |           |        Vault
  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------
  Catalogue|Collector| Locality  |Deformation| Length|Breadth| Height
  No.      |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  U.S.N.M. |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  332563   |   A.    | Pastolik  |           |   16.4|   13.1|
           |Hrdlička |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  332566   |   do    |    do     |           |   15.6|     13|
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  332564   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.6|   13.8|     12
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339037   | Collins |  Togiak   |           |   16.5|   13.4|   12.2
           |   and   |           |           |       |       |
           | Stewart |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339087   |   do    |  Nelson   |           |   16.1|   13.5|   12.8
           |         |  Island   |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339088   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.2|   13.6|   11.6
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339056   |   do    |  Mumtrak  |           |   16.3|   13.8|   12.8
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339063   |   do    |    do     |           |   15.7|     14|   12.2
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339113   |   do    |Hooper Bay |           |   16.2|   13.8|
           |         |           |           |=======+=======+=======
           |         |           |           |    (9)|    (9)|    (6)
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  Total    |         |           |           |  144.6|    122|   73.6
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  Average  |         |           |           |_16.07_|_13.56_|_12.27_
  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------

  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------
           |       |      |       |       |
  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------
  Catalogue|Cranial|  Mean|Height-|Basion-| Basion-
  No.      |  index|height|breadth| nasion|  nasion
           |       | Index|  index|       |diameter
  U.S.N.M. |       |      |       |       |     vs.
           |       |      |       |       |  length
           |       |      |       |       |of skull
           |       |      |       |       |
  332563   | _79.9_|      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  332566   | _82.8_|      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  332564   | _83.1_|  _79_|   _87_|    8.4|  _50.6_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339037   | _81.2_|_81.6_|   _91_|    9.2|  _55.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  339087   | _83.8_|_86.5_| _94.8_|    9.2|  _57.1_
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  339088   |   _84_|_77.9_| _85.3_|    7.8|  _48.1_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339056   | _84.7_|  _85_| _92.7_|    8.9|  _54.6_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339063   | _89.2_|_82.2_| _87.1_|    8.6|  _54.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339113   | _85.2_|      |       |       |
           +=======+======+=======+=======+========
           |    (9)|   (6)|    (6)|    (6)|     (6)
           |       |      |       |       |
  Total    |       |      |       |   52.1|
           |       |      |       |       |
  Average  | _84.4_|_82.5_| _89.6_| _8.68_|    _54_
  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------+

                                        SOUTHWESTERN AND MIDWESTERN ESKIMO

  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------
           |         |           |           |        Vault
  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------
  Catalogue|Collector| Locality  |Deformation| Length|Breadth| Height
  No.      |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  U.S.N.M. |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------
  339172   |  H. B.  |  Nunivak  |           |   16.9|   12.6|     12
           |Collins, |  Island   |           |       |       |
           |jr., and |           |           |       |       |
           |  T. D.  |           |           |       |       |
           | Stewart |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339153   |   do    |    do     |           |   17.4|   13.4|   12.4
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339198   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.6|   12.8|   12.7
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339222   |  H. B.  |  Nunivak  |           |   16.8|   13.4|   12.2
           |Collins, |  Island   |           |       |       |
           |jr., and |           |           |       |       |
           |  T. D.  |           |           |       |       |
           |Stewart. |           |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339197   |   do    |    do     |           |     17|   13.6|   12.4
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339199   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.1|   13.3|
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  339152   |   do    |    do     |           |     17|   14.5|   12.6
           |         |           |           |=======+=======+=======
           |         |           |           |    (7)|    (7)|    (6)
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  Total    |         |           |           |  117.8|   93.6|   74.3
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  Average  |         |           |           |_16.83_|_13.37_|_12.38_
           |         |           |           |=======+=======+=======
  279569   |  R. D.  |    St.    |           |   17.6|   13.4|   12.2
           |  Moore  | Lawrence  |           |       |       |
           |         |  Island   |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279568   |   do    |    do     |           |   17.1|   13.2|   12.8
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279495   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.8|   13.1|   12.6
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279479   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.8|   13.2|   12.8
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279462   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.2|     13|   12.8
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279421   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.4|   13.4|   12.1
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279448   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.4|   13.5|
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279591   |   do    |    do     |           |   14.7|   12.4|
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  279443   |   do    |    do     |           |   16.4|   13.9|   12.4
           |         |           |           |=======+=======+=======
           |         |           |           |    (9)|    (9)|    (7)
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  Total    |         |           |           |  146.4|  119.1|   87.7
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  Average  |         |           |           |_16.27_|_13.23_|_12.53_
           |         |           |           |=======+=======+=======
  99-4106  |G. Comer |Southampton|           |   17.4|   13.3|   12.8
           |         |  Island   |           |       |       |
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  4657     |   do    |Hudson Bay |           |   16.9|   13.2|   12.2
           |         |           |           |       |       |
  7690     |  Capt.  |   Etah,   |           |   16.6|   13.4|   12.7
           |Bartlett |Smith Sound|           |       |       |
  ---------+---------+-----------+-----------+-------+-------+-------

  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------
           |       |      |       |       |
  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------
  Catalogue|Cranial|  Mean|Height-|Basion-| Basion-
  No.      |  index|height|breadth| nasion|  nasion
           |       | Index|  index|       |diameter
  U.S.N.M. |       |      |       |       |     vs.
           |       |      |       |       |  length
           |       |      |       |       |of skull
  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------
  339172   | _74.6_|_81.4_| _95.2_|    9.1|  _53.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  339153   |   _77_|_80.5_| _92.5_|    9.2|  _52.9_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339198   | _77.1_|_86.4_| _99.2_|    8.6|  _51.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339222   | _79.8_|_80.8_|   _91_|      9|  _53.6_
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  339197   |   _80_|  _81_| _91.2_|    9.1|  _53.5_
           |       |      |       |       |
  339199   | _82.6_|      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  339152   | _85.3_|  _80_| _86.9_|    8.7|  _51.2_
           +=======+======+=======+=======+========
           |    (7)|   (6)|    (6)|    (6)|     (6)
           |       |      |       |       |
  Total    |       |      |       |   53.7|
           |       |      |       |       |
  Average  | _79.5_|_81.6_| _92.5_| _8.95_|  _52.8_
           +=======+======+=======+=======+========
  279569   | _76.1_|_78.7_|   _91_|    9.3|  _52.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  279568   | _77.2_|_84.5_|   _97_|    9.3|  _54.4_
           |       |      |       |       |
  279495   |   _78_|_84.3_| _96.2_|    9.1|  _54.2_
           |       |      |       |       |
  279479   | _78.6_|_85.3_|   _97_|      9|  _53.6_
           |       |      |       |       |
  279462   | _80.3_|_87.7_| _98.5_|    9.2|  _56.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
  279421   | _81.7_|_81.2_| _90.3_|    8.4|  _51.2_
           |       |      |       |       |
  279448   |   82.3|      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  279591   |   84.3|      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  279443   | _84.8_|_81.8_| _89.2_|    8.6|  _52.4_
           +=======+======+=======+=======+========
           |    (9)|   (7)|    (7)|    (7)|     (7)
           |       |      |       |       |
  Total    |       |      |       |   62.9|
           |       |      |       |       |
  Average  | _81.4_|_84.1_| _94.1_| _8.99_|  _54.5_
           +=======+======+=======+=======+========
  99-4106  | _76.4_|_83.4_| _96.2_|    8.8|  _50.6_
           |       |      |       |       |
           |       |      |       |       |
  4657     | _78.1_|_81.1_| _92.4_|    9.1|  _53.8_
           |       |      |       |       |
  7690     | _80.7_|_84.7_| _94.8_|    9.2|  _55.4_
           |       |      |       |       |
  ---------+-------+------+-------+-------+--------

    PRINCIPAL CRANIAL INDICES IN CHILDREN COMPARED WITH THOSE IN ADULTS

  -----------+---------+-------+------+-------+------
             |         |       |      |       |
             |         |       |      |       |
             |         |       |      |       |
             |         |       |      |       |
  -----------+---------+-------+------+-------+------
             |         |Cranial|  Mean|Height-|   BN-
             |         |  index|height|breadth| skull
             |         |       | index|  index|length
             |         |       |      |       | index
             |         |       |      |       |
  South      |Children |   84.4|  82.5|   89.6|    54
  western    |         |       |      |       |
  and        |         |       |      |       |
  Midwestern |         |       |      |       |
  Eskimo[160]|Adults   |   79.3|  82.3|     93|    56
             |(both    |       |      |       |
             |sexes)   |       |      |       |
             |         |       |      |       |
  Nunivak    |{Children|   79.5|  81.6|   92.5|  52.8
  Island     |         |       |      |       |
             |{Adults  |   75.6|  83.3|   96.7|    56
             |(both    |       |      |       |
             |sexes)   |       |      |       |
             |         |       |      |       |
  St.        |{Children|   81.4|  84.1|   94.1|  54.5
  Lawrence   |         |       |      |       |
  Island     |{Adults  |   77.3|  84.1|   96.5|  56.2
             |(both    |       |      |       |
             |sexes)   |       |      |       |
             |         |       |      |       |
  All        |{Children| _81.8_|_82.7_| _92.1_|_53.8_
             |         |       |      |       |
             |{Adults  | _77.4_|_83.2_| _95.4_|_56.1_
             |         |       |      |       |
  -----------+---------+-------+------+-------+------

  -----------+------+-------+------+--------
             |    Percentage relation of
             |  dimensions of the vault in
             |adults and children (adults =
             |             100)
  -----------+------+-------+------+--------
             |Length|Breadth|Height| Basion-
             |      |       |      |  nasion
             |      |       |      |diameter
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
  South      |      |       |      |
  western    |      |       |      |
  and        |} 90.1|   96.7|  93.2|    86.5
  Midwestern |      |       |      |
  Eskimo[160]|      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
  Nunivak    |      |       |      |
  Island     |} 91.7|   96.4|  92.3|    87.1
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
  St.        |      |       |      |
  Lawrence   |} 90.2|   95.2|  93.2|    88.6
  Island     |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
             |      |       |      |
  All        |      |       |      |
            }|_90.8_| _96.1_|_92.9_|  _87.4_
  -----------+------+-------+------+--------

The main interest centers in the comparison of the relative proportions
of these skulls with those of the adults from the same localities.
These comparisons, given in the smaller table, are of considerable
interest.

The cranial index is considerably higher in the children. On analysis
this is found to be due almost wholly to a greater relative breadth
of the child's skull. During later growth the Eskimo cranium advances
materially more in length than in breadth. A further expansion in
breadth is evidently hindered by some factor outside of the bones
themselves, for nothing appears in these that could constitute such a
hindrance. And the only evident outside factor capable of producing
such an effect are the strong pads of the temporal muscles.

The mean height index (H × 100/(mean of L + B)) remains much the same
in the children and adults, indicating that the relative increase
during growth in skull length compensates for the lagging increase in
breadth, while the proportion of the height to the mean of the length
and breadth remains fairly stable.

The much greater growth in length than in breadth of the Eskimo skull
from childhood onward is shown even better in the second part of the
table by a direct comparison of the mean dimensions. The length of the
adult skull is by over 9 per cent, the breadth by less than 4 per cent,
greater than that in childhood in the same groups.

The adult Eskimo skull has also grown very perceptibly more in height
than in breadth, though somewhat less so than in length. The result is
a notably higher height-breadth index in the adult. Compared to that
in childhood the adult Eskimo skull is therefore relatively markedly
longer, higher, and narrower.

These facts are probably of more significance than might seem at first
glance; for it is precisely by the same characters, carried still
further, that some of the Eskimo differ from others. Let us compare
two of our largest and best groups, those of St. Lawrence Island and
Greenland:

  ---------------------+---------+--------+---------+---------
                       |  Number |  Skull | Breadth | Height
                       |of skulls| length |         |
                       |  (both  |        |         |
                       |  sexes) |        |         |
  ---------------------+---------+--------+---------+---------
  St. Lawrence Island  |  (293)  |  18.05 |  13.90  |  13.45
  Greenland            |  (101)  |  18.51 |  13.30  |  13.54
  ---------------------+---------+--------+---------+---------

The Greenland skull is longer, narrower, and somewhat higher. The
differences are less than those between a child and an adult western
Eskimo, but of the same nature. This apparently speaks strongly for
the development of the Greenland type of Eskimo cranium from the
western. On the other hand, the type of skull shown by the Eskimo child
approaches much more closely than that of the Eskimo adult to the type
of the skull of the Mongol.

The above are mere observations, not theories, and they carry a strong
indication that mostly we are still floundering only on the borders of
true anthropology, embracing all phases of life and development, which,
if mastered, would give us with beautiful definition many now vainly
sought or barely glimpsed solutions.

A highly interesting feature is the relatively great development in the
Eskimo, between childhood and the adult stage, of the anterior half of
the skull or basion-nasion dimension. This augments, it is seen, by
even 3.4 per cent more than the length. This growth must involve some
additional factor to those inherent in the bones themselves and in the
attached musculature, and this can only be, it seems, the development
of the anterior half of the brain. Evidently this portion of the brain
between childhood and adult life grows in the Eskimo more rapidly than
that behind the vertical plane corresponding to the basion. It is a
very suggestive condition calling for further study, and thus far
almost entirely wanting in comparative data on other human as well as
subhuman groups.

FOOTNOTES:

[160] Same group for adults as for children.



THE LOWER JAW


The lower jaw of the Eskimo deserves a thorough separate study. For
this purpose, however, more jaws in good condition are needed from
various localities, and particularly more jaws accompanying their
skulls. As it is, a large majority of the crania are without the lower
jaw, or the alveolar processes of the latter have become so affected
in life through age and loss of teeth that their value is diminished
or lost. Still another serious difficulty is that the measuring of the
lower jaw is difficult and has not as yet been regulated by general
agreement, so that there is much individualism of procedures with
limited possibilities of comparison.

One of the principal measurements taken on the available Eskimo
mandibles was the symphyseal height. This is taken by the sliding
calipers and is the height from the lower alveolar point (highest
point of the normal alveolar septum between the middle lower incisors)
to the lowest point on the inferior border of the chin in the median
line.[161] The results are given in the following tables.

                  ESK̅IMO LOWER JAW: HEIGHT AT SYMPHYSIS

  ---------+------------------------+------------------------
           |          Male          |        Female
  ---------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------

  Groups   | South-|North- |Northern| South-|North- |Northern
  (main)   |western|western|     and|western|western|     and
           |    and|       | eastern|    and|       | eastern
           |   mid-|       |        |   mid-|       |
           |western|       |        |western|       |
           |       |       |        |       |       |
           |    (9)|    (5)|     (5)|    (9)|    (5)|     (5)
           |       |       |        |       |       |
  Specimens|  (116)|  (143)|    (40)|  (121)|  (134)|    (25)
           |       |       |        |       |       |
  Average  |   3.75|   3.76|    3.67|   3.38|   3.34|    3.39
           |       |       |        |       |       |
  General  |     3.76      |        |     3.36      |
  mean in  |               |        |               |
  western  |               |        |               |
  Eskimo   |               |        |               |
           |               |        |               |
  Percental|                     _89.4_
  relation |
  of       |
  female   |
  to male  |
  (M = 100)|
  ---------+-------+-------+--------+-------+-------+--------

  ------------------------------------------------------+------+--------
                                                        |Males,|Females,
                                                        |  19  |   19
                                                        |groups| groups
                                                        | (399 |  (280
                                                        |jaws) | jaws)
  ------------------------------------------------------+------+--------
  General mean for all Eskimo (approximate)             | 3.73 |  3.37
                                                        |      |
  Percental relation of female to the male              |      | _90.4_
                                                        |      |
  General mean of total facial height                   |12.47 | 11.60
                                                        |      |
  Percental relation of height of jaw to total facial   | _30_ |  _29_
  height                                                |      |
                                                        |      |
  General mean of upper facial height                   | 7.76 |  7.20
                                                        |      |
  Percental relation of height of jaw to upper facial   | _48_ |  _47_
  height                                                |      |
  ------------------------------------------------------+------+--------

Just what these figures mean will best be shown by a table of
comparisons.[162] All these are my own measurements.

              LOWER JAW OF VARIOUS RACES: HEIGHT AT SYMPHYSIS

  -------------------------+------+------+-------------
                           |      |      |Female versus
                           | Male |Female|    male
                           |      |      |  (M = 100)
  -------------------------+------+------+-------------
                           | (399)| (280)|
  Eskimo (all)             |  3.73|  3.37|    _90.4_
  North American Indians:  |  (36)|  (26)|
    Sioux                  |  3.60|  3.22|    _89.4_
                           |  (52)|  (50)|
    Arkansas               |  3.66|  3.24|    _88.5_
                           |  (29)|  (21)|
    Florida                |  3.69|  3.38|    _91.4_
                           |   (9)|   (6)|
    Munsee                 |  3.70|  3.40|    _91.9_
                           |  (15)|  (14)|
    Louisiana              |  3.72|  3.29|    _88.4_
                           |  (44)|  (30)|
    Kentucky               |  3.49|  3.18|    _91.1_

| | |Female versus | Male |Female| male | | | (M = 100)
----------------------------------------+------+------+--------------
| (50) | (30) | U. S. whites (miscellaneous) | 3.29 | 2.87 | _87.2_ |
(41) | (8) | Negro, full-blood, African and American | 3.54 | 3.14 |
[163]_88.7_ |(261) |(191) | Australians | 3.44 | 3.07 | _89.2_

----------------------------------------+------+------+---------------


The table shows the Eskimo jaw to be absolutely the highest at the
symphysis of all those available for comparison, with the female nearly
the highest.[164] Relatively to stature it exceeds decidedly all the
groups, the Indians that come nearest matching it in the absolute
measurement being all much taller than the Eskimo. And the female
Eskimo jaw is relatively high compared with that of the male, being
exceeded in this respect only in three of the Indian groups, in two of
which, however, the showing is due wholly and in one partly to a lesser
height of the male jaw. The relative excess of the female jaw in this
respect seems particularly marked in the northern and northeastern
groups, though it must remain subject to corroboration by further
material.

The white, Negro, and Australian data have an interest of their own.

FOOTNOTES:

[161] Should there be a decided notch in the middle, as happens in rare
specimens, it is rational to take the measurement to the side of the
notch.

[162] From my Phys. Anthr. of the Lenape, etc., the Anthropology of
Florida, and the Catalogue of Crania.

[163] Approximately.

[164] Rudolf Virchow, as far back as 1870, in studying some mandibles
of the Greenland Eskimo, found that the height of the body in the
middle (3.5 centimeters) was greater than that of the lower jaws of
any other racial group available to him for comparison. Archiv. für
Anthrop., IV, p. 77, Braunschweig, 1870.


STRENGTH OF THE JAW

The Eskimo jaw is generally stout. Barring rare exceptions there
is nothing slender about it. The body, moreover, is frequently
strengthened by more or less marked overgrowths of bone lingually below
the alveoli and above the mylohyoid ridge. These neoformations will be
discussed later.

The strength of the mandible may be measured directly in various
locations on the body. Due to the peculiar build of the body, however,
and especially to its variations, these measurements are by no means
simple and wholly satisfactory. It is hardly necessary in this
connection to review the various attempted methods, none of which
has become standardized. As a result of experience I prefer since
many years to measure the thickness of the body of the jaw at the
second molars, and that in such a way that either the molars, if the
measurement is taken from above, or the lower border of the jaw if
it is taken from below, lies midway between the two branches of the
sliding calipers with which the measurement is taken. The two methods
(from above or below) give results that are nearly alike. In some cases
the one and in others the other is the easier, but wherever the teeth
are lost the measurement from below is perhaps preferable. The records
obtained on the lower jaws of the western Eskimo and other racial
groups are given in the next table.

    THICKNESS OF THE BODY OF THE LOWER JAW AT THE SECOND MOLARS IN THE
                      WESTERN ESKIMO AND OTHER GROUPS

  ----------------------------------+--------------+-------------+---------
                                    |     Male     |   Female    | Female
                                    +--------------+-------------+versus
                                    |Right  |Left  |Right |Left  | male
                                    | side  | side | side | side |(M = 100)
  ----------------------------------+--------------+-------------+---------
                                    |     (240)    |    (243)    |
                                    |              |             |
  Western Eskimo         millimeters|16.2      16.3|15.1     15.1|_92.9_
                                    |              |             |
                                    |      (29)    |     (28)    |
                                    |              |             |
  Florida Indians           do      |      16.6    |     15.5    |_93.4_
                                    |              |             |
                                    |      (21)    |     (16)    |
                                    |              |             |
  Louisiana Indians         do      |      16.3    |     15.3    |_93.9_
                                    |              |             |
                                    |      (58)    |     (47)    |
                                    |              |             |
  Arkansas Indians          do      |      15.2    |     14.7    |_96.7_
                                    |              |             |
                                    |      (40)    |     (22)    |
                                    |              |             |
  Kentucky Indians          do      |      14.7    |     14.2    |_96.6_
                                    |              |             |
                                    |      (50)    |     (20)    |
                                    |              |             |
  American whites (misc.)   do      |      14.5    |     12.8    |_88.3_
  ----------------------------------+--------------+-------------+---------

The figures show that the Eskimo jaw is very stout. It is exceeded
in thickness only by the jaws of Florida, which in general are the
thickest in America, and in males is about equaled, in females very
slightly exceeded by those of the prehistoric Indians of Louisiana,
who belong to the same Gulf type with the Indians of Florida. The
old Arkansas Indians, though closely related to those of Louisiana,
show a very perceptibly more slender jaw, particularly in the males;
while in an old Kentucky tribe (Green River, C. B. Moore, collector)
the jaws are still less strong. The lower jaws of the American whites
(dissecting-room material) are slightly less stout than even those of
the Indians of Kentucky in the males, and much less so in the females.
The interesting sex differences are shown well in the last column of
the above table.


BREADTH OF THE RAMI

Still another character that reflects the strength of the lower jaw
is the breadth of the rami. The most practicable measurement of this
is the breadth minimum at the constriction of the ascending branches.
A great breadth of the rami is very striking, as is well known, in
the Heidelberg jaw, and the Eskimo have long been known for a marked
tendency in the same direction. The measurements of the lower jaws of
the western Eskimo show as follows:

     LOWER JAWS OF THE WESTERN ESKIMO AND OTHER RACIAL GROUPS: BREADTH
                     MINIMUM OF THE ASCENDING BRANCHES

  ---------------------------+---------------+---------------+-------------
                             |               |               |Female versus
                             |     Male      |    Female     |    male
                             |               |               |  (M = 100)
  -----------------------    |----- -+-------+-------+-------+-------------
                             | Right | Left  | Right | Left  |
  ---------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------------
                             | (243) | (240) | (237) | (228) |
  Western Eskimo  centimeters|  3.99 |  4.03 |  3.68 |  3.70 |     _92_
                             |  (20) |  (20) |  (13) |  (13) |
  Florida Indians     do     |  3.82 |  3.85 |  3.39 |  3.34 |     _87.7_
                             |  (21) |  (19) |  (19) |  (16) |
  Louisiana Indians   do     |  3.72 |  3.72 |  3.29 |  3.27 |     _88.2_
                             |  (62) |  (60) |  (58) |  (61) |
  Arkansas Indians    do     |  3.47 |  3.47 |  3.24 |  3.23 |     _93.2_
                             |  (42) |  (40) |  (30) |  (29) |
  Kentucky Indians    do     |  3.44 |  3.44 |  3.18 |  3.21 |     _92.9_
                             |  (50) |  (50) |  (20) |  (20) |
  United States whites       |       |       |       |       |
  (miscellaneous) centimeters|  3.17 |  3.14 |  2.89 |  2.82 |     _90.5_
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Eskimo jaws, and particularly that of the female (relatively to
other females), have the broadest rami. Otherwise the series range
themselves in the same order as under the measurement of the stoutness
of the body.


OTHER DIMENSIONS

Four other measurements were taken on the jaws, namely the length of
the body (on each side); the height of the two rami; the bigonial
diameter; and the body-ramus angle. The results of the first three may
conveniently be grouped into one table.

                 ADDITIONAL MEASUREMENTS ON THE LOWER JAW

                                    MALE

  -----------------+---------------+-----------+---------------+--------
                   |Length of body,|Length of  |   Height of   |Diameter
                   |each side[165] |body as a  |   ramus[167]  |bigonial
                   +-------+-------+whole[166] +-------+-------+[168]
                   | Right |  Left |           | Right | Left  |
  -----------------+-------+-------+-----------+-------+-------+--------
                   | (236)   (236) |   (100)   | (132)   (131) | (201)
  Western Eskimo   | 10.28   10.28 |    8.03   |  6.45    6.38 | 11.42
                   |               |    (24)   |      (18)     |  (22)
  Florida Indian   |               |    8.45   |      6.72     | 10.75
                   |               |    (19)   |      (15)     |  (17)
  Louisiana Indian |               |    8.44   |      7        | 10.67
                   |               |    (62)   |      (52)     |  (57)
  Arkansas Indian  |               |    7.88   |      6.52     | 10.49
                   |               |    (42)   |      (37)     |  (38)
  Kentucky Indian  |               |    7.45   |      6.48     | 10.48
  U. S. whites     |               |    (50)   |      (50)     |  (50)
    (miscellaneous)|               |    7.57   |      6.53     | 10.11
  -----------------+---------------+-----------+---------------+--------

                                  FEMALE

  -----------------+---------------+-----------+---------------+--------
                   | (230)   (228) |   (100)   | (134)   (128) | (199)
  Western Eskimo   |  9.61    9.60 |    7.47   |  5.61    5.57 | 10.57
                   |               |    (19)   |      (18)     |  (17)
  Florida Indian   |               |    7.72   |      6.02     |  9.70
                   |               |    (16)   |      (15)     |  (15)
  Louisiana Indian |               |    7.38   |      5.77     |  9.90
                   |               |    (57)   |      (52)     |  (56)
  Arkansas Indian  |               |    7.46   |      5.85     |  9.58
                   |               |    (30)   |      (25)     |  (30)
  Kentucky Indian  |               |    7.12   |      5.64     |  9.45
  U. S. whites     |               |    (20)   |      (20)     |  (20)
    (miscellaneous)|               |    7.02   |      5.87     |  9.12
  -----------------+---------------+-----------+---------------+--------

                        FEMALES TO MALES (M = 100)

  -----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+---------
                               | Length | Length | Height | Diameter
                               |  each  |  as a  |of rami | bigonial
                               |  side  | whole  |        |
  -----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+---------
  Western Eskimo               | _93.4_ | _93.0_ | _87.3_ |  _92.6_
                               |        |        |        |
  Florida Indian               |        | _91.4_ | _89.6_ |  _90.2_
                               |        |        |        |
  Louisiana Indian             |        | _87.4_ | _82.4_ |  _92.8_
                               |        |        |        |
  Arkansas Indian              |        | _94.6_ | _89.7_ |  _91.3_
                               |        |        |        |
  Kentucky Indian              |        | _95.6_ | _87.0_ |  _90.2_
                               |        |        |        |
  U. S. whites (miscellaneous) |        | _92.7_ | _89.9_ |  _90.2_
  -----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+---------

The Eskimo lower jaw, which, as seen before, is characterized by a high
and stout body and the broadest rami, shows further that these rami are
remarkably low, and that the bigonial spread is extraordinarily broad.
The length of the body, on the other hand, is not very exceptional,
being perceptibly exceeded in some of the Indians.

FOOTNOTES:

[165] Sliding calipers: Separate measurement of each half of the
body, from the lowest point on the posterior border of each ramus not
affected by the angle to a point of corresponding height on the line
of the symphysis. The anterior point may, in consequence of a lower
or higher location of the posterior point, range from the chin to
above the middle of the symphysis, but the results are much alike. The
measurement leaves much to be desired, but is the best possible if the
two halves of the body are to be measured separately.

[166] The length of the whole jaw is measured on Broca's mandibular
goniometer, by laying the jaw firmly on the board, applying the movable
plane to both rami, and recording the distance of the most anterior
point of the chin from the base of the oblique plane. This measurement
is easier than the previous, though on account of the variation in the
angles and the lower part of the posterior border of the rami it is
also not fully satisfactory, and it does not show the differences in
the two halves of the body.

[167] Sliding calipers: One branch applied so that it touches the
highest points on both the condyle and the coronoid, while the other
is applied to the lowest point of the ramus anterior to the angle, if
the bone here is prominent; if receding, the branch of the compass is
applied to the midpoint on the lower border of the ramus.

[168] Sliding calipers: Maximum external diameter at the angles; the
maximum points may, exceptionally, be either anterior to or a little
above the angle proper.


THE ANGLE

The angle between the body and the ramus of the lower jaw is known to
differ with the age and sex as well as individually. Not seldom it
differs also, and that sometimes quite appreciably, on the two sides.
Racial differences are as yet uncertain.

The angle, especially in some specimens, is not easy to measure, and
the position of the jaw may make a difference of several degrees.
Numerous trials have shown that the proper way is to measure the angle
on the two sides separately, and to so place the jaw in each case that
there is no interference with the measurement by either the posterior
or the anterior enlarged end of the condyle.

Leaving out jaws in which extensive loss of teeth has in all
probability resulted in changes in the angle, the western Eskimo
material gives the following data:

                  WESTERN ESKIMO: ANGLE OF THE LOWER JAW

  -----------+-------+-------++----------+-------+-------
             |  Male | Female||          |  Male | Female
  -----------+-------+-------++----------+-------+-------
             | (224) | (217) ||          | (218) | (207)
  Right side | 119.6°| 124.5°||Left side | 119.5°| 124.3°
  -----------+-------+-------++----------+-------+-------

In the male Munsee Indians the angle was 118°; in those of Arkansas and
Louisiana, 118.5°; in those of Peru (Martin, Lehrb., 884), 119°. In the
whites, males, the average angle approximates 122°; in the Negro, 121°
(Topinard, Martin).

The angle in the female in the Eskimo is to that of the male as 104 to
100; in the Arkansas and Louisiana series it was 103. In the whites the
proportion seems to be a little higher.

There are evidently, if we exclude the whites in whom the shortness
of the jaw conduces probably to a wider angle, no marked racial
differences, but the subject needs a more thorough study on large
series of sexually well-identified specimens, carefully selected as to
age.

The average angle on the right differs in the Eskimo but very slightly
from that on the left, though individually there are frequent
unequalities.


RÉSUMÉ

The Eskimo lower jaw differs substantially in many respects from
that in other races, particularly from that of the whites. It is
characterized by a high and stout body; by broad but low rami; and by
excessive breadth at the angles. The body-ramus angle is moderate.
To which may be added that the chin is generally of but moderate
prominence, and that the bone at the angles in males is occasionally
markedly everted.


MANDIBULAR HYPEROSTOSES

These hypertrophies or hyperostoses are rarely met with also in
the jaws of the Indian and other people. They are symmetric and
characteristic, though often more or less irregular. They generally
extend from the vicinity of the lateral incisors or the canines
backward, forming when more developed a marked bulge on each side
opposite the bicuspids, which gives the inner contour of the jaw when
looked at from above a peculiar elephantine appearance. They may occur
in the form of smooth, oblong, somewhat fusiform swellings, or as a
continuous more or less uneven ridge, or may be represented by from
one to four or five more or less rounded or flattened hard "buttons"
or tumorlike elevations. In development they range from slight to very
marked.

These hyperostoses have been reported by various observers (Danielli,
Søren Hansen, Rudolf Virchow, Welcker, Duckworth & Pain, Oetteking,
Hrdlička, Hawkes). They received due attention by Fürst and Hansen
in their "Crania Groenlandica" (p. 178). They have been given the
convenient, though both etiologically and morphologically inaccurate,
name of "mandibular torus"; I think mandibular hyperostoses or simply
welts would be better. Fürst and Hansen found them, taking all grades
of development, in 182, or 85 per cent, of 215 lower jaws of Greenland
Eskimo; in 28 jaws, or 13 per cent, they were pronounced, the remainder
being slight to medium. A special examination of 62 lower jaws of
children and 710 lower jaws of adult western Eskimo (with a small
number from Greenland) gives the following record:

           LINGUAL MANDIBULAR HYPEROSTOSES IN THE WESTERN ESKIMO

                                 CHILDREN

     [62 mandibles, completion of milk dentition to eruption of second
                             permanent molar]

  ----------+-----------------+-------------+-------------+------------
            |None or          |  Slight to  |             |
            |indistinguishable|  moderate   |    Medium   | Pronounced
  ----------+-----------------+-------------+-------------+------------
  Specimens |       47        |  [169]10    |   [170]5    |
  Per cent  |      _75.8_     |     _16.1_  |      _8.1_  |
  ----------+-----------------+-------------+-------------+------------

                                  ADULTS

                        [Both sexes. 710 mandibles]

  ----------+-----------------+-------------+-------------+------------
  Specimens |     215         |     356     |     114     |     25
  Per cent  |     _30.3_      |     _50.1_  |     _16.1_  |     _3.5_
  ----------+-----------------+-------------+-------------+------------

                                  ADULTS

               [Sexes separately. M. 350; F. 360 mandibles]

  Column Headings
  A:
  B:
  ----------+-----------------+--------------+--------------+--------------
            |None or          |  Slight to   |              |
            |indistinguishable|  moderate    |    Medium    | Pronounced
  ----------+--------+--------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------
            | Males  |Females | Males|Females| Males|Females| Males|Females
  ----------+--------+--------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------
  Specimens |   71   |  144   |193   | 163   | 67   | 47    | 19   |  6
  Per cent  |   20.3 |   40.0 | 55.1 |  45.3 | 19.1 | 13.1  |  5.4 |  1.7
  ----------+--------+--------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------

The significance of these hyperostoses is not yet quite clear.
Danielli, who in 1884 reported them[171] in the Ostiaks, Lapps,
a Kirghiz, a Peruvian Indian, and four white skulls, offered no
explanation. For Søren Hansen,[172] who first suggested the resemblance
of these formations to the torus palatinus, "the significance of
this feature, which also occurs in other Arctic races not directly
related to the Eskimos, is not clear." R. Virchow,[173] who reports
"wulstigen und knolligen Hyperostosen" on both the upper and lower jaws
of a Vancouver Island Indian, restricts himself to a brief mention
of the condition with a suggestion as to its causation (see later).
Welcker[174] found them in the skulls of a German (Schiller?), Lett,
and a Chinese, but has nothing to say as to their meaning. Duckworth
and Pain[175] report the "thickening" in 10 out of 32 Eskimo jaws, but
do not discuss the causation; and the same applies to Oetteking,[176]
who reported on a series of Eskimo from Labrador. In 1909
Gorjanovič-Kramberger[177] somewhat indirectly notes the condition,
without a true appreciation of its meaning.

In 1910 I had the opportunity to report on the mandibular hyperostoses
in a rare collection of crania and lower jaws of the central and Smith
Sound Eskimo.[178] Of 25 lower jaws of adults and 5 of children, 18,
or 72 per cent, of the former and 2 of the latter showed distinct to
marked lingual hyperostoses, while in the remaining cases the feature
was either doubtful (absorption of the alveolar process) or absent. Two
of the five children showed the peculiarity in a well-marked degree. A
critical consideration of the condition leads me to the conclusion that
it is not pathological, and my remarks were worded (p. 211) as follows:
"A marked and general feature is a pronounced bony reinforcement of
the alveolar arch extending above the mylohyoid line from the canines
or first bicuspids to or near the last molars. This physiological
hyperostosis presents more or less irregular surface and is undoubtedly
of functional origin, the result of extraordinary pressure along the
line of teeth most concerned in chewing; yet its occurrence in infant
skulls indicates that at least to some extent the feature is already
hereditary in these Eskimo."

In 1912, Kajava[179] reported lingual hyperostotic thickenings on the
lower jaws of 68 adult Lapps, and found the condition in frequent
association with pronounced wear of the teeth. In 1915, finally, Fürst
and C.C. Hansen, in their great volume on "Crania Groenlandica,"
approach this question much more thoroughly. They, as also Kajava,
did not know of the writer's report of 1910. They found the "torus"
(p. 181), "also in the mandibles of some various Siberian races in a
not insignificant percentage * * * and also not infrequently among
European races, especially in the Laplanders (30 to 35 per cent)."
They also report the presence of the condition "in a Chinaman," and
saw indications of a good development of it in 17 per cent of 164
middle ages to prehistoric, and in 12 per cent of later Scandinavian
lower jaws. Their interesting comments on its possible causation,
though at one point seemingly not harmonizing, are as follows (p.
180): "The possibility is not precluded that we have here a formation
which, even though it has at first arisen and been acquired through
mechanical causes, has in the end become a racial character, albeit a
variable one." And page 181: "There seems to be no doubt whatever that
it is a formation connected with Arctic races or Arctic conditions of
life; and, accordingly, it can not safely be assumed to be a racial
character, however difficult it is to regard it as a formation only
acquired individually."

[Illustration: BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
PLATE 61

WESTERN ESKIMO AND ALEUT (MIDDLE) LOWER JAWS, SHOWING LINGUAL
HYPEROSTOSES. (U.S.N.M.)]

With both the previously published and the present data, I believe the
subject of these bony formations may now be approached with some hope
of definite conclusions.

These hyperostoses give no indication of being pathological. They are
formed largely, if not entirely, by compact bone tissues of evidently
normal construction. They never show a trace of attending inflammation
or of ulceration or of breaking down. They resemble occasionally the
osteomae of the vault of the skull, and more distantly the osteomae
of the auditory meatus, but in those cases where the bony swelling
is uniform and in many others they show to be of quite a different
category. (Pl. 61.)

As a rule these bony protuberances in the Eskimo are not connected
with evidence of pyorrhoea, root abscesses, or any other pathological
condition of the teeth, for those conditions are practically absent
in the older Eskimo skulls; therefore they can not be ascribed to any
irritation due to such conditions, and the Eskimo have no habits that
could possibly be imagined as favoring, through mechanical irritation,
the development of these bony swellings. Wear of the teeth, which
has been thought to stand possibly in a causative relation to these
developments, is common in many races and even in animals (primates,
etc.), without being accompanied by any such formations.

The development of such overgrowths is not wholly limited, as already
indicated from the cases reported by Danielli (1884) and Virchow
(1889), to the lower jaw, but somewhat similar growths may also be
observed, though much more rarely, both lingually and on the outer
border of the alveolar process of the upper jaw in the molar region.
When present in the latter position they interfere with the measurement
of the external breadth of the dental arch.

But, if neither pathological themselves nor due to any pathological or
mechanical irritation, then these hyperostoses can only be, it would
seem, of a physiological, ontogenic nature; and if so, then they must
be brought about through a definite need and for a definite purpose or
function.

These views are supported by their marked symmetry, which is very
apparent even where they are irregular; by the fact that in general
they are not found in the weakest jaws (weak individuals), or again in
the largest and stoutest mandibles (jaws that are strong enough, as it
is); and by the history of their development.

Our rather extensive present data on children show that these
formations are absent in infancy. They begin to develop in older
childhood, in adolescence, or even during the earlier adult life; they
stop developing at different stages in different individuals, and they
never lead to any deformity of the body of the mandible.

These overgrowths are further seen to be more common and to more
frequently reach a pronounced development in the males than in the
females.

What is the effect of these hyperostoses? They strengthen the dental
arch. With them the arch is stronger; without them it would be weaker.
The view is therefore justified that they augment the effectiveness
of the dental arch; which is just what is needed or would be useful
in such people as the Eskimo where the demands on the jaws exceed in
general those in any other people.

All these appear to be facts of incontrovertible nature; but if so
then we are led to practically the same conclusion that I have reached
in the study of the central and Smith Sound Eskimo, which is that the
lingual mandibular hyperostoses are physiological formations, developed
in answer to the needs of the alveolar portions of the lower jaw. They
could be termed synergetic hyperostoses.

The process of the development of these strengthening deposits of
bone is probably still largely individual; yet the tendency toward
such developments appears to be already hereditary in the Eskimo, as
indicated by their beginning here and there in childhood. But their
absence in nearly one-third of the Eskimo mandibles, their marked
differences of occurrence and development in the two sexes, and their
occasional presence in the jaws of various other peoples, including
even the whites, speak against the notion of these hyperostoses being
as yet true racial features.

Taking everything into consideration, the writer is more than ever
convinced that the lingual hyperostoses of the normal lower (as well
as the upper) jaw, in the Eskimo as elsewhere, are physiological,
ontogenic developments, whose object and function is the strengthening
of the lower alveolar process in its lateral portions. Only when
excessively developed, which is very rare, they may, mechanically,
perhaps cause discomfort and thereby approach a pathological condition.

FOOTNOTES:

[169] None in the younger children.

[170] All in older children or adolescents.

[171] Danielli, J., Arch. p. l'antrop. e l'etnol., 1884, XIV.

[172] Meddel. om. Grønl., 1887, No. 17.

[173] Beitr. Kraniol. d. Insul. w. Küste Amer., 1889, 398.

[174] Arch. Anthrop., 1902, XXVII, 70.

[175] J. Anthr. Inst., 1900, XXX, 134.

[176] Abh. und Ber. Zool. und Anthr. Mus., Dresden, 1908, XII.

[177] Sitzber. preuss. Ak. Wiss., LI-LIII.

[178] Anthrop. Pap's. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V, pt. II.

[179] Verh. Ges. Finn. Zahnärzte, 1912, IX.


MAIN REFERENCES

Danielli,[180] 1884: "Saw the condition in lower jaws of 1 Swede, 1
Italian, 1 Terra di Lavoro jaw, 1 Slovene, 1 Hungarian, 1 Kirghis, 1
ancient Peruvian."

Found hyperostoses in 9 out of 14 Ostiak lower jaws.

Material: Young 2, adult 6, old 6.

Hyperostoses in young 1, adult 3, old 5.

Mantegazza, at his request, examined some Ostiak and Eskimo skulls in
Berlin and found the hyperostoses in 2 Ostiak lower jaws (slight) and
in 1 Eskimo skull from Greenland (marked).

Found also smaller hyperostoses in the upper jaw ventrally to the
molars ("situate quasi sempre dalla parte interna in corrispondenza dei
molari"):

Skulls: 2 Italians, 1 Hungarian, 7 Norwegians, 2 Lapps, 5 Ostiaks.

Plate shows 8 lower jaws, 1 with slight, 7 with marked hyperostoses (1
symphyseal swellings, 3 tumorlike).

Refrains from interpretation (could not reach conclusion).

Virchow,[181] 1889, page 392: In upper jaws of three Santa Barbara
skulls: "An den Alveolarrändern der weiblichen Schädel Nr. 3-6 von
S. Barbara besteht eine höchst eigenthümliche und seltene, knollige
Hyperostosis s. Osteosclerosis alveolaris, wie ich sie in gleicher
Stärke früher nur bei Eskimos gesehen hatte. Ein leichter Ansatz dazu
zeigt sich auch bei dem männlichen Schädel Nr. 4 von S. Cruz. Es dürfte
dieser Zustand, der mit tiefer Abnutzung der Zähne zusammenfält, durch
besonders reizende Nahrung bedingt sein."

Vancouver Island skulls: "dagegen sehen wir dieselbe alveolare
Hyperostose, die wir bei den Leuten von S. Barbara und weiterhin bei
Eskimos kennen gelernt haben."

Virchow,[182] 1892: "Der Alveolarrand gleichfalls mit hyperostotischen
Wülsten besetzt, jedoch mehr an der inneren Seite, besonders stark in
der Gegend per Prümolares und Canini, weniger stark in der Gegend der
Incisici."

Welcker,[183] 1902: "Exostosen der Alveolarränder. Von erheblicher
Beweiskraft können Eigenthümlichkeiten und Abnormitäten des
Knochengewebes under der Knochenoberfläche werden, wenn dieselben, bei
an sich grosser Seltenheit ihres Vorkommens, an einem Oberschädel und
Unterkiefer zugleich vorkommen.

"So fand ich am Unterkiefer der Gypsabgüsse des sogenannten
Schillerschädels sehr merkwürdige, bis dahin nirgends erwähnte,
erbsenförmige Exostosen an den Alveolen der Eck- und Schneidezähne.
Ganz ähnliche, wenn auch etwas flächere Exostosen zeigen die Alveolen
eben derselben Zähne des Oberschädels, und es beweist dieses seltene
Vorkommen bei dem Zutreffen aller übrigen Zeichen das Zusammengehören
beider Stücke mit hoher Sicherheit.

"In einer etwas anderen Form, in der dieselben einen geschlossenen,
exostotischen Saum bilden, fand ich Alveolarexostosen bei einem
Lettenschädel (G. Gandras, 47 J., Halle Nr. 52). Hier sind die
Alveolarränder der Schneide-und Eckzähne mit flachen, am Oberkiefer
streifenförmigen (senkrecht gestellten), am Unterkiefer mehr rundlichen
Exostosen besetzt, so dass der sonst papierdünne Zahnflächenrand
beider Kiefer in einen, die Zahnhälse begrenzenden wulst-förmigen
Saum umgewandelt ist. Der gleiche Charakter dieser nicht häufigen
Abnormität an beiden Kiefern giebt die vollste Ueberzeungung der
Zusammengehörigkeit.

"In schwächerem Grade zeigt diesen Zustand ein Chinesenschädel der
Halle'schen Sammlung (Lie Assie)."

Fürst,[184] 1908: "Wir haben hier auf diese interessante anatomische
Bildung aufmerksam machen wollen, die, wenn nicht konstant, doch in
sehr hohem Prozentsatze und in bestimmter charakteristischer Form
bei den Eskimos auftritt und in verschiedenen Variationen auf dem
Unterkiefer anderer Rassen, speziell nordischer oder arktischer,
vorkommt.--Wir wollen später eine ausführlichere Beschreibung über den
Torus mandibularis mitteilen."

Gorjanovič-Kramberger,[185] 1909: "Durch die Ausbiegung der seitlichen
Kieferflächen würde ferner die Druckrichtung der M und P eine gegen die
innere Kieferwandung gerichtete. Als direkte Folge dieses Druckes hat
man die starke Ausladung der entsprechenden lingualen Kieferseiten im
Bereiche der P und M anzusehen, die da eine auffallende Einengung des
inneren Unterkieferraumes bewerkstelligte."

Hrdlička (A.), 1910. See text.

Hansen,[186] 1914: "The lower jaws attached to the skulls are
powerfully formed, high, and, above all, very thick, their inner
surface being markedly protruding, rounded, and without any special
prominence of linea mylohyoidea. This peculiarity, which is common
enough, among the Eskimo and certain Siberian tribes, but is otherwise
exceedingly rare, must be regarded as a hyperostosis of the same nature
as the so-called torus palatinus. It is a partly pathological formation
due to a peculiar mode of life rather than a true morphological mark of
race."

Fürst, C. M., and Hansen, C. C., 1915. See text.

Cameron,[187] 1923: "In some instances the bony thickening was
excessive. For example, in mandible XIV H-8 the inward bulging of the
bone was so marked that the transverse distance between the inner
surfaces of the body opposite the first molars was reduced to 21.5
millimeters. This jaw had therefore an extraordinary appearance when
viewed from below. (See fig. 5.) The writer would regard these bulgings
as bone buttresses built up by nature to resist the excessive strain
thrown upon the alveoli of the molar teeth. He exhibited the mandibles
to Prof. H. E. Friesell, dean of the dental faculty, University of
Pittsburgh, and this authority concurred in the opinion expressed
above." A disagreement with this view is expressed by S. G. Ritchie,
pages 64c-65c, same publication.

FOOTNOTES:

[180] Danielli, Jacopo, Iperostosi in mandibole umano specialmente
di Ostiacchi, ed anche in mascellari superiore. Archivio per
l'antropologia e l'etnologia, 1884, XIV, 333-346.

[181] Virchow, E., in Beiträge zur Craniologie der Insulaner von der
Westküste Nordamerikas. Zeitschr. f. Ethnol. Verhandl., 1889, XXI, 395,
401.

[182] Virchow, R., Crania Ethnica Americana. Berlin, 1892, Tafel XXIII.
A "long-head" male adult of Koskimo, Vancouver Island.

[183] Welcker, H., Die Zugehörigkeit eines Unterkiefers zu einem
bestimmten Schädel, nebst Untersuchungen über sehr auffällige,
durch Auftrocknung und Wiederanfeuchtung bedingte Gröben und
Formveränderungen des Knochens. Arch. f. Anthropol., 1902, XXVII, 70.

[184] Fürst, Carl M., Demonstration des Torus mandibularis bei den
Askimos und anderen Rassen. Verhandlungen der Anatomischen Gesellschaft
in Berlin, 1908, Ergänzhft z. Anatom. Anz., 1908, XXXII, 295-296.

[185] Gorjanovič-Kramberger, K., Der Unterkiefer der Eskimos
(Grönländer) als Träger primitiver Merkmale. Sitzungsberichte der
königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1909, LI.

[186] Hansen, Søren, Contributions to the anthropology of the East
Greenlanders. Meddelelser om Grønland, Copenhagen, 1914, XXXIX, 169.

[187] Cameron, John, The Copper Eskimos. Report of the Canadian Arctic
Expedition, 1913-1918. Ottawa, 1923, XII, c. 55.



SKELETAL PARTS OTHER THAN THE SKULL


The skeletal parts of the western Eskimo, outside of the skull, are but
little known. The only records are those on two skeletons (one male,
one female) from Point Barrow by Hawkes,[188] and those on a few bones
from Port Clarence by Cameron.[189] The data on the skeletal parts of
the northern and eastern Eskimo are only slightly richer, being for the
most part fragmentary and scattered.[190] Nor has the time arrived yet
for a comprehensive study of such material, for notwithstanding the
relative abundance in crania and the more resistant individual skeletal
parts, the securing of anywhere near complete skeletons is very
difficult. Nevertheless there is now a good number of the long bones
of the western Eskimo in the possession of the National Museum and
the main data on these, all secured personally by the writer, will be
given. They must for the present remain essentially as so many figures
without adequate discussion and comparisons. Nevertheless a few facts
appear so plainly that they may well be pointed out before concluding
this section.

FOOTNOTES:

[188] Amer. Anthrop., 1916, LVIII, 240-243.

[189] Rep. Canad. Arct. Exp., 1913-1918, Pt. C, 1923, 56-57.

[190] Mainly by Turner (London, 1886); Duckworth (Cambridge, 1904);
Hrdlička (New York, 1910); Cameron (Ottawa, 1913-1918); also a series
of incidental references and comparisons.


                      WESTERN ESKIMO: THE LONG BONES

  -------------+---------------------------------------------
               |                    Males
  -------------+------------+---------+--------+------------
  Bones of     |Southwestern|   Seward|   Point|      Seward
  both sides   |         and|Peninsula|    Hope|   Peninsula
  taken        |  midwestern|    [192]|        |         and
  together     |groups [191]|         |        |northwestern
               |            |         |        |   Eskimo in
               |            |         |        |     general
               |            |         |        |       [193]
  -------------+------------+---------+--------+------------
  Humeri:      |       (143)|    (261)|    (67)|       (100)
               |            |         |        |
  Length       |       30.69|    31.42|   31.07|       31.17
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  At middle--  |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.40|     2.46|    2.46|        2.46
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        1.80|     1.81|    1.86|        1.85
  minimum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |        75.1|     73.8|    75.8|        75.1
  middle       |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Radii:       |        (98)|     (20)|    (15)|        (37)
               |            |         |        |
  Length       |       22.90|    23.63|   23.44|       23.50
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Radio-       |            |         |        |
  humeral      |      _74.5_|   _75.2_|  _75.4_|      _75.4_
  index        |            |         |        |
  (approximate)|            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Femora:      |       (195)|     (44)|    (10)|        (60)
               |            |         |        |
  Length,      |       42.50|    43.20| (44.06)|       43.46
  bicond.      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Humero-      |            |         |        |
  femoral      |      _72.2_|   _72.7_|   [195]|      _71.7_
  index        |            |         |(_70.5_)|
  (approximate)|            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  At middle--  |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |            |         |        |
  antero-      |        3.08|     3.17|  (3.33)|        3.21
  posterior    |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.70|     2.72|  (2.68)|        2.72
  lateral      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |      _87.6_|   _85.8_|(_80.4_)|      _84.8_
  middle       |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  At upper     |            |         |        |
  flattening-- |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        3.35|     3.34|  (3.27)|        3.32
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.51|     2.57|  (2.58)|        2.59
  minimum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |            |         |        |
  upper        |        _75_|     _77_|  (_79_)|      _78.1_
  flattening   |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Tibiae:      |       (141)|     (35)|    (41)|        (79)
               |            |         |        |
  Length (in   |       33.86|    34.52|   36.40|       35.52
  position)    |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Tibio-       |            |         |        |
  femoral index|            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  (approximate)|      _79.7_|   _79.9_|   [194]|      _81.7_
               |            |         |(_82.6_)|
  At middle--  |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  antero-      |        3.12|     3.13|    3.26|        3.19
  posterior    |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.12|     2.12|    2.20|        2.16
  lateral      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |      _67.9_|   _67.7_|  _67.4_|      _67.8_
  middle       |            |         |        |
  -------------+------------+---------+--------+------------

  -------------+---------------------------------------------
               |                  Females
  -------------+------------+---------+--------+------------
  Bones of     |Southwestern|   Seward|   Point|      Seward
  both sides   |         and|Peninsula|    Hope|   Peninsula
  taken        |  midwestern|         |        |         and
  together     |      groups|         |        |northwestern
               |            |         |        |   Eskimo in
               |            |         |        |     general
               |            |         |        |
  -------------+------------+---------+--------+------------
  Humeri:      |       (136)|     (26)|    (55)|        (83)
               |            |         |        |
  Length       |       28.40|    28.75|   28.83|       28.83
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  At middle--  |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.10|     2.14|    2.16|        2.15
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        1.54|     1.59|    1.63|        1.62
  minimum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |        73.2|     74.4|    75.4|        75.1
  middle       |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Radii:       |       (109)|     (16)|     (8)|        (24)
               |            |         |        |
  Length       |       20.50|    21.26|   [194]|       21.25
  maximum      |            |         | (21.58)|
               |            |         |        |
  Radio-       |            |         |        |
  humeral      |      _72.2_|     _74_|(_74.8_)|        _74_
  index        |            |         |        |
  (approximate)|            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Femora:      |       (132)|     (26)|        |        (31)
               |            |         |        |
  Length,      |       39.36|    40.12|        |       40.44
  bicond.      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Humero-      |            |         |        |
  femoral      |      _72.2_|   _71.7_|        |      _71.3_
  index        |            |         |        |
  (approximate)|            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  At middle--  |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |            |         |        |
  antero-      |        2.69|     2.85|        |        2.88
  posterior    |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.46|     2.55|        |        2.56
  lateral      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |      _91.5_|   _89.6_|        |      _88.9_
  middle       |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  At upper     |            |         |        |
  flattening-- |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        3.02|     3.04|        |        3.06
  maximum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        2.26|     2.37|        |        2.40
  minimum      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |            |         |        |
  upper        |      _74.5_|     _78_|        |      _78.4_
  flattening   |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Tibiae:      |       (147)|     (18)|    (17)|        (36)
               |            |         |        |
  Length (in   |       31.32|    31.90|   32.90|       32.50
  position)    |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Tibio-       |            |         |        |
  femoral index|            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  (approximate)|      _79.6_|   _79.5_|        |      _80.4_
               |            |         |        |
  At middle--  |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  antero-      |        2.71|     2.71|    2.80|        2.75
  posterior    |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Diameter     |        1.89|     1.93|    1.92|        1.92
  lateral      |            |         |        |
               |            |         |        |
  Index at     |      _69.9_|   _71.3_|  _68.8_|        _70_
  middle       |            |         |        |
  -------------+------------+---------+--------+------------

The first fact shown by the preceding figures is the slightly greater
length of all the long bones in the midwestern and northwestern groups
as compared with those of the Bering Sea (midwestern and southwestern).
This means naturally that the people of the Seward Peninsula and
northward average somewhat taller in stature.

The second evident fact is that the people of the Seward Peninsula and
the more northern groups (so far as represented in these collections)
show a slightly greater stature of all the bones than the groups
farther south, showing that they were both a somewhat taller and
somewhat sturdier people.

The next fact of importance is the remarkable agreement in some
respects in the relative proportions of the main skeletal parts between
the people of the more southern and the more northern groups. The
males are more regular in this respect than the females. The relative
proportions of the humerus and again the tibia at their middle are
identical in the males of the southwestern and midwestern groups and
those farther northward; and the radio-humeral, humero-femoral, and
tibio-femoral indices are all very closely related. Why there should be
less agreement in these respects among the females it is difficult to
say; in all probability the series of specimens are not sufficiently
large.

The next table presents data and some racial comparisons. Here the
western Eskimo are taken as a unit. They are seen to considerably
resemble the Yukon Indians, but somewhat less so other Indians in
the radio-humeral and tibio-femoral indices, and they resemble all
the Indians in the relative proportions of the femur at its middle.
In other respects there are somewhat more marked differences,
especially between the western Eskimo and the Indians in general. Some
irregularities in the Yukon series may be due to insufficiency of
numbers.

When compared with the bones of the whites and the negroes the Eskimo
and Indians separate themselves in many respects as a distinct group,
while the white and the negro bones are particularly distinct through
the greater relative thickness of the humerus and tibia at their
middle, and of the femur at its upper flattening; in other words the
Eskimo as well as the Indians are more platybrachic, platymeric and
platycnemic than the whites or the negroes.

The basic relation of the Eskimo to the Indian bones is quite evident;
though the Eskimo, when compared to Indians outside of Alaska, show a
relatively shorter radius and tibia, indicating the already discussed
relative shortness of the forearm and leg.

FOOTNOTES:

[191] Principally Hooper Bay, Nunivak Island, Pastolik, and St.
Lawrence Island.

[192] Mainly Shishmaref, Wales and Golovnin Bay.

[193] Including Point Hope.

[194] Number of radii insufficient.

[195] Number of femora insufficient.


WESTERN ESKIMO, LONG BONES: COMPARATIVE DATA

                                   MALES

  ---------------+--------+-------+------+----------+-------+------+-------
                 |        |       |    Femur        |       |      |
  ---------------+--------+-------+------+----------+-------+------+-------
                 |Humerus:| Radio-| Index|  Index of|Humero-|Tibia:| Tibio-
                 |   Index|humeral|    of|  shaft at|femoral| Index|femoral
                 |      of|  index| shaft|     upper|  index|    of|  index
                 |   shaft|       |    at|flattening|       | shaft|
                 |  at the|       |middle|          |       |    at|
                 |  middle|       |      |          |       |middle|
                 |    (all|       |      |          |       |      |
                 | groups)|       |      |          |       |      |
  ---------------+--------+-------+------+----------+-------+------+-------
                 |   [196]|  (135)| (255)|     (255)|  (243)| (220)|  (220)
                 |   (243)|       |      |          |       |      |
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  Western Eskimo |    75.1|     75|  86.2|      76.5|     72|  67.9|   80.7
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |    (10)|   (10)|  (14)|      (14)|   (10)|  (14)|   (14)
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  Yukon Indians  |      70|   75.7|  87.1|      70.7|   74.5|    66|   81.5
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |   (448)|  (370)| (902)|     (902)|  (378)|(1259)|  (324)
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  Other Indians  |    73.3|   77.7|  87.3|        74|   72.5|  66.1|   84.4
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |  (1930)| (1052)| (207)|     (836)|  (800)|(1400)| (1216)
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  United States  |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  whites         |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  (miscellaneous)|      83|   73.6|    97|        83|   72.5|  71.1|   82.1
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |   (112)|   (74)| [197]|      (48)|   (50)|  (63)|   (68)
                 |        |       |  (14)|          |       |      |
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  United States  |    84.1|   77.3|(91.2)|      86.8|   71.6|  73.9|   84.9
  negroes        |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  ---------------+--------+-------+------+----------+-------+------+-------

                                  FEMALES

  ---------------+--------+-------+------+----------+-------+------+-------
                 |   (213)|  (133)| (153)|     (153)|  (153)| (183)|  (183)
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  Western Eskimo |    74.1|   73.1|  90.2|      76.5|   71.8|    70|     80
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |   (348)|  (200)| (327)|     (248)|  (200)| (910)|  (384)
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  Other Indians  |    70.1|   76.6|  91.8|        70|   72.5|    70|   84.3
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |   (770)|  (424)| (100)|     (192)|  (290)| (600)|  (520)
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  United States  |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  whites         |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  (miscellaneous)|    79.3|   72.7|    97|      77.7|   71.6|  71.9|   81.5
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
                 |    (52)|   (34)| [197]|      (48)|   (52)|  (44)|   (48)
                 |        |       |  (17)|          |       |      |
                 |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  United States  |    79.2|   77.2| (100)|      81.1|   70.2|  75.9|   83.7
  negroes        |        |       |      |          |       |      |
  ---------------+--------+-------+------+----------+-------+------+-------

FOOTNOTES:

[196] Bones of both sides.

[197] Numbers insufficient.


LONG BONES IN ESKIMO AND STATURE

One of the most desirable of possibilities in the anthropometry of any
people, but particularly in groups now extinct, is a correct estimation
of their stature. For this purpose the most useful aid has been found
in the long bones, and various essays have been made by Manouvrier,
Rollet, Topinard, Pearson, and others[198] at preparing tables or
arriving at methods that would enable the student to promptly and
satisfactorily obtain the stature as it was in life from the length
of the long bones. But all these essays were based on observations on
white people, and it has always been recognized that they could not
with equal confidence be applied to other racial groups. They would
in all probability be especially inapplicable to the Eskimo with his
relatively short forearms and legs; yet the possibility of estimating
the stature in many localities of the Eskimo territory, where no living
remain, would be of real value. Fortunately for this purpose there are
now some data on hand which make this possible.

In 1910, in my Contributions to the Anthropology of the Central and
Smith Sound Eskimo, I was able to report both the stature and the
length of the long bones in two normally developed adult males and
one adult female from Smith Sound. To this it is now possible to add
larger though less direct data from the group of St. Lawrence Island.
We have the stature of many of the living from this place and also the
measurements of numerous long bones from the dead of the same group.
The relations of the two are given below, together with corresponding
data from Smith Sound. There is in general such a striking agreement in
the relative proportions that the latter may, it would seem, be used
henceforth for stature estimates also in other parts of the Eskimo
region.

FOOTNOTES:

[198] See section on Estimation of Stature from Parts of the Skeleton,
in author's Anthropometry, Wistar Inst., Philadelphia, 1920.


LENGTH OF PRINCIPAL LONG BONES, AND STATURE IN THE LIVING, ON THE ST.
LAWRENCE ISLAND

  ---------+---------------------+----------------------
           |        Male         |       Female
           +---------------------+----------------------
           |        (63)         |        (48)
           | Mean stature: 163.3 | Mean stature: 151.3
           +----------+----------+----------+-----------
           |          | Percental|          | Percental
           |   Mean   | relation |   Mean   | relation
           |dimensions|to stature|dimensions|to stature
           |          | (S = 100)|          | (S = 100)
  ---------+----------+----------+----------+-----------
           |   (58)   |          |   (49)   |
  Humerus  |    30.41 |   _18.6_ |    27.77 |   _18.3_
           |   (23)   |          |   (35)   |
  Radius   |    23.03 |   _14.1_ |    20.77 |   _13.7_
           |  (100)   |          |   (38)   |
  Femur    |    32.54 |   _27.8_ |    38.12 |   _25.1_
           |   (58)   |          |   (50)   |
  Tibia    |    34.16 |   _20.9_ |    31.13 |   _20.5_
  ---------+----------+----------+----------+-----------


LONG BONES VS. STATURE IN ESKIMO OF SMITH SOUND[199]

  ---------------------------------+---------------+--------
                                   |      Male     | Female
  ---------------------------------+-------+-------+--------
                                   |  _a_  |  _b_  |
  Stature                          | 155.0 | 164.0 | 146.7
  Humerus:                         |       |       |
    Mean length (of the two)       |  28.95|  29.0 |  26.55
    Percental relation to stature  | _18.7_| _17.7_|  _18.1_
  Radius:                          |       |       |
    Mean length                    |  21.3 |  23.2 |  19.85
    Percental relation to stature  | _13.7_| _14.1_|  _13.5_
  Femur:                           |       |       |
    Mean length                    |  39.1 |  42.1 |  38.55
    Percental relation to stature  | _25.2_| _25.7_|  _26.3_
  Tibia:                           |       |       |
    Mean length                    |  30.25|  34.45|  30.9
    Percental relation to stature  | _19.5_| _21.0_|  _21.1_
  ---------------------------------+-------+-------+--------


FOOTNOTES:

[199] Hrdlička, A., Contribution to the anthropology of central and
Smith Sound Eskimo. Anthrop. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V, pt. 2, 280.
New York, 1910.



A STRANGE GROUP OF ESKIMO NEAR POINT BARROW


In 1917-1919, in the course of the John Wanamaker Expedition for the
University Museum, Philadelphia, W. B. Van Valin, with the help of
Charles Brower, the well-known local trader and collector, excavated
near Barrow a group of six tumuli, which proved in the opinion of Van
Valin to be so many old igloos, containing plentiful cultural as well
as skeletal material. The collections eventually reached the museum,
but due to lack of facilities they were in the main never unpacked.

I heard of this material first from Mr. Brower, with whom I sailed in
1926 from Barrow southward, and later with Dr. J. Alden Mason I saw
the collection still in the original boxes, at the University Museum.
In April of this year the skeletal remains were transferred to the
Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, and after their transfer I obtained
the permission of Dr. Milton J. Greenman, director of the Wistar
Institute, to examine the material, which was of importance to him in
connection with his own collections from Barrow and southward. A due
acknowledgment for the privilege is hereby rendered to both Doctor
Greenman and Doctor Mason.

The study proved one of unexpected and uncommon interest. The material
was found to consist of two separate lots. The first of these consisted
of a considerable number of brown colored, more or less complete
skeletons with skulls, proceeding from the "igloos"; while the second
lot comprised a series of whitened isolated skulls, without other
skeletal parts and mostly even without the component lower jaws,
gathered on the tundra near Barrow. At first sight, also, the skulls of
the two groups were seen to present important differences.

The "igloo" crania, while plainly pure Eskimo, proved to be of a
decidedly exceptional nature for this location. The skulls, in brief,
were not of the general western Eskimo type, but reminded at once
strongly of the skulls from Greenland and Labrador. And they were
exceptionally uniform, showing that they belonged to a definite and
distinct Eskimo group.

After writing of this to Doctor Mason, he kindly sent me a copy of the
notes and observations on the discovery of the material by W. B. Van
Valin, who was in charge of the excavation. The detailed notes will
soon be published by Doctor Mason. The main information they convey is
as follows:

The excavations by Van Valin date from 1918-19. They were made in six
large "heaps," approximately 8 miles southwest of Barrow and about
1,000 yards back from the beach on the tundra. Two of the heaps were on
the northern and four on the southern side of a ravine or draw formed
by a drain flowing from inland to the sea. The Eskimo at Barrow knew
nothing about these remains or their people.

Each of the heaps inclosed what in the excavator's opinion was an
"igloo" made of driftwood and earth; and all contained evidently
undisturbed human skeletons. The total number of bodies of all ages
was counted as 83, and they ranged from infants to old people. There
were many bird and other skins (for covers and clothing), and numerous
utensils. The hair on the bodies was in general "black as a raven."
Most of the bodies lay on "beds" of moss or "ground willows," or
rough-hewn boards. There was no indication of any violence or sudden
death. The bodies at places were in three levels, one above the other;
but there was but moderate uniformity in the orientation of the
bodies. There were found with the burials no traces of dogs (though
there were some sled runners), and no metal, glass, pipes, labrets,
nets, soapstone lamps or dog harness; but there were bows and arrows,
bolas, and ordinary pottery. The cultural objects, Doctor Mason wrote
me, resemble in a smaller measure those of the older Bering Sea, to
a larger extent those of the old northern or "Thule" culture. There
were some jadeite axes, indicating a direct or indirect contact with
Kotzebue Sound and the Kobuk River.

Some of the bearskin coverings were "as bright and silvery" as the day
the bear was killed (Van Valin); and the frozen bodies were evidently
in a state of preservation approaching that of natural mummies.

Notwithstanding indications to the contrary, Van Valin reached the
opinion that these remains were not those of regular burials, though
offering no other definite hypothesis.

Desiring additional information about this highly interesting find, I
wrote to Mr. Brower, who assisted at the excavations, and received the
following answer:

  These mounds are from 5 to 8 miles south of the Barrow village
  (Utkiavik). The largest that were opened were the farthest south,
  and seemed more like raised lumps on the land than ruins. No doubt
  that is the reason no one had bothered them.

  The Eskimo have no traditions of these people. In fact they did not
  even suspect the mounds contained human remains until Mr. Van Valin
  started to investigate them.

  While Van Valin thought they might be houses, I have always thought
  they were burial mounds, as there seemed no family to have been
  together at the time of death as often has happened. When whole
  families have died from some epidemic, then the man and wife are
  together under their sleeping skins. In these mounds each party was
  wrapped separate, either in polar bear or musk ox skins; none were
  wrapped in deer skins. If male, all his hunting implements were
  at his side, and if a female her working tools were with her, as
  scrapers, dishes of wood, and stone knives. The men had their bows,
  arrows, spears, and often a heavy club, for what purpose unless
  used in fighting I could not make out. At the head of each person
  was a small receptacle, made of whalebone, and in it or alongside
  was a long wing bone that had been used as a drinking tube. In some
  cases there seemed to be the remains of food in the platters, but
  that was impossible to identify. Most of the bodies were laid on
  the ground, a few had the remains of scrub willow under them, while
  only in two or three cases had there been driftwood planks under
  the bodies; these were crudely hewn with their old stone adzes.

  There seems to have been some sort of driftwood houses over these
  bodies at some time, but they decayed and have fallen on the
  remains, which were in some cases embedded in the ice. Often before
  the frame had broken down earth must have accumulated and covered
  the bodies. In these cases the flesh has the consistency of a fine
  meal. While with those in the ice in some cases part of the flesh
  still remained. In both cases when exposed to the air they rapidly
  disintegrated, leaving nothing except the bones. By measurements
  they must have been a larger race than the present people.

  When your letter reached here I at once started making inquiries as
  to what mounds were still intact; and I find that as far as known
  only two of the larger ones have not been opened. The Eskimo have
  been opening the mounds ever since they were found, taking from
  them all the hunting implements and other material and selling them
  aboard the ships for curios. It seems a shame that all this should
  be lost to science, and if no one takes an interest in these places
  in a year or two they will all be gone.

  I have again made inquiries as to what the present Eskimo think of
  these people, but they tell me they have no tradition regarding
  them and that they do not know if they were their ancestors or not.
  In fact, they are ignorant of where they came from or when they
  died.

  To date I do not know of any whaling implement being found with
  these old people, neither is any of the framework of these mounds
  made from the bones of whales. In some of the implements ivory has
  been used. The mounds farthest from the shore were about 400 yards,
  those that remain are closer to the beach. Some of the smaller ones
  are on the banks of small streams but never very far from shore.
  Undoubtedly, however, they were at one time considerably farther
  from the sea, but the sea is every year claiming some of this land,
  especially where the banks are high along the beach. There the
  beach is narrow and during a gale the waves wash out the land at
  its base. This is about all that I can tell you of these people.
  All credit for finding these mounds belongs to Van Valin.

  Yours truly,
                                                CHAS. D. BROWER.


_The material._--The collection as received at the Wistar Institute was
notable for its general dark color, enhanced in many of the specimens
by dark to black remains of the tissues. There was no mineralization
and but little bone decay, though the bones were somewhat brittle.

There is a scarcity of children and adolescents; there are in fact only
two skulls of subjects less than 20 years of age in the collection.

The skulls and bones that remain show no violence.

The remains show a complete freedom from syphilis or other
constitutional disease; the only pathological condition present in some
of the bones being arthritis. This speaks strongly for their preceding
the contact with whites. The surface series, though smaller, shows
three syphilitic skulls. An additional fact of interest is the absence
in both the igloo and the surface series of all marks of scurvy. Such
marks are fairly common farther southward. Finally, none of the skulls
are deformed, either in life or posthumously.


ANTHROPOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS ON THE COLLECTIONS

_Age._--The first observations made on the igloo material were those as
to the individual ages of the bodies. Such observations are necessarily
rough, yet within sufficiently broad limits fairly reliable. The
criteria are principally the condition of the teeth and that of the
sutures. The possible error in such estimates is, experience has shown,
as a rule well within 10 years in the older and within 5 years in the
young adults or subadults.

One of the objects of these observations on the "igloo" material was
to get some further light on whether the remains were those of a group
that perished of an epidemic, famine, or some other sudden agency, or
whether they represented just burials. The age distribution of the dead
would differ considerably in the two cases.

                          ESTIMATED AGES AT DEATH

                              IGLOO MATERIAL

  ------------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------
                          | 20 to 25 | 30 to 40 | 45 to 55 | Above 55
  ------------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------
                          |_Per cent_|_Per cent_|_Per cent_|_Per cent_
  Males (27)              |    11    |    15    |    41    |    33
  Females (25)            |    16    |    24    |    44    |    16
  Mean, both sexes        |    13.5  |    19    |    42.5  |    25
  ------------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------

                              SURFACE SERIES

  ------------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------
  Males (21)              |    --    |     5    |    48    |    48
  Females (14)            |    29    |    36    |    36    |    --
  Mean, both sexes        |    11.5  |    17    |    43    |    29.5
  ------------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------

The above table shows the data obtained, with those on the surface
material from the same collection and known to be that of ordinary
burials.

The results do not agree with the composition of the living population
but are apparently near to what might be expected in burials. Taking
the sexes apart, the series from the surface shows a somewhat more
favorable condition for the men, but worse for the women. Taking the
materials, however, regardless of sex, the proportions of ages in
the earlier igloos and in the late surface burials are practically
identical. This points strongly against the idea of the igloo remains
being those of people who either died there of starvation, of an
epidemic, of being smothered, or of some other sudden affliction, and
to their having been just ordinary burials.

To arrive at something still more definite, if possible, I appealed on
the one hand to the United States Census and on the other to Doctor
Dublin of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York, for data as to
the distribution of ages among the dead, using the same age-categories
as in the case of the "igloo" material. The data furnished by Miss E.
Foudray through Dr. Wm. H. Davis, Chief Statistician of the Bureau of
the Census, are particularly to the point. They are as follows:

     PER CENT AGE DISTRIBUTION OF INDIAN POPULATION IN ALASKA AGED 20
              YEARS AND OVER, ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1900

  -----------------------+----------+----------+----------+-------------
                         | 20 to 24 | 25 to 44 | 45 to 54 | 55 and over
  -----------------------+----------+----------+----------+-------------
  Males                  |   17.8   |   54.2   |   15.9   |   12.1
  Females                |   19.4   |   53.3   |   15.9   |   11.4
  Both sexes             |  _18.6_  |  _53.7_  |  _15.9_  |  _11.8_
  -----------------------+----------+----------+----------+-------------

    PER CENT AGE DISTRIBUTION AT DEATH (ESTIMATED) OF INDIAN POPULATION
    OF ALASKA IN 1900, WHO, HAD THEY LIVED, WOULD HAVE APPEARED IN THE
                 CENSUS OF 1910 AT AGES 20 YEARS AND OVER

  -----------------------+----------+----------+----------+-------------
                         | 20 to 24 | 25 to 44 | 45 to 54 | 55 and over
  -----------------------+----------+----------+----------+-------------
  Males                  |   13.2   |   43.9   |   21.3   |   21.6
  Females                |   11.9   |   47.0   |   19.5   |   21.6
  Both sexes             |  _12.6_  |  _45.4_  |  _20.4_  |  _21.6_
  -----------------------+----------+----------+----------+-------------

There is a remarkable agreement of these figures with those obtained
on both the Igloo and the Barrow surface burial material, except that
for the two middle age series the figures are reversed. This may mean
an error in the two respective estimates on the Indians, or it may mean
that for these two ages the conditions among the Eskimo concerned were
better than they were in 1900 among the Alaska Indians.

All the above, together with the details on the orderly treatment of
the bodies, and the absence of such conditions as were encountered in
the dead villages on St. Lawrence Island (Hooper, Nelson), inclines
one to the conclusion that the Igloo remains, however exceptional the
method for the Eskimo, were just burials.


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

_The skull._--The most noteworthy feature about the Igloo remains is
the marked distinctiveness of the skull. This strikes the observer
at the first sight of the specimens, and the impression is only
strengthened by detail examination. The skulls are very narrow,
long, and high. They differ plainly from anything except occasional
individual specimens, either about Barrow or along the rest of the
west coast of Alaska, with the possible exception of a few groups of
Seward Peninsula. They recall strongly the crania of Labrador and south
Greenland. It is the Labrador-Greenland type throughout, men, women,
and even the two children. It is a group outside of the range of local
variation. It is a strange Eskimo group, either developed here in
former times as it developed in Greenland and Labrador, and possibly
the Seward Peninsula, or one that had come here from places where such
type had already been realized.

The following data (the individual measurements will appear in a later
number of the Catalogue of Crania) show the differences between the
Igloo and the surface material, the latter both of the Van Valin and
of the author's collections, and the valuable Stefánsson material,
now at the American Museum, from Point Barrow. They need but little
comment. They show clearly on one hand the wholly Eskimo nature of the
Igloo skulls, and on the other their distinctness from those of the
later burials, both of Barrow and Point Barrow. The vault especially is
characteristic--narrow, long, high, more or less keel-shaped. The face
in general is much more alike in the three groups; nevertheless its
absolute height and breadth in the Igloo series are slightly smaller
than in the other two, and there are minor differences in the orbits
and the palate.

                    ESKIMO CRANIA, BARROW AND VICINITY

  --------------------+-------------------+-----------------
                      |     Old Igloos    | Surface burials,
                      |                   |      Barrow
  --------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------
                      |  Males  | Females | Males  |Females
                      |   (27)  |  (25)   |  (37)  |  (36)
  --------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------
  Vault:              |         |         |        |
    Length maximum    |  19.25  |  18.11  | 18.90  | 17.77
    Breadth maximum   |  13.30  |  12.72  | 13.73  | 13.23
    Basion-bregma     |         |         |        |
      height          |  14.02  |  13.21  | 13.78  | 12.97
    Cranial index     |  _69.1_ |  _70.2_ | _72.6_ | _74.5_
    Height-breadth    |         |         |        |
      index           | _105.5_ | _104.6_ | _99.6_ | _98.1_
    Mean height index |  _86.2_ |  _86.4_ | _84.6_ | _82.9_
    Cranial module    |  _15.52_|  _14.72_| _15.46_| _14.66_
  Face:               |         |         |        |
    Height: menton-   |         |         |        |
      nasion          |  12.4   |  11.21  |   --   |   --
    Height: upper     |         |         |        |
      alveolar        |         |         |        |
      point-nasion    |   7.7   |   7.01  |   7.89 |   7.18
    Breadth: Diameter |         |         |        |
      bizygomatic     |         |         |        |
      maximum         |  14.2   |  13.08  |  14.34 |  13.16
    Facial index,     |         |         |        |
      total           |  _86.9_ |  _86.8_ |   --   |   --
    Facial index,     |         |         |        |
      upper           | _54.5_  | _53.8_  | _55_   | _54.7_
    Basion-nasion     |  10.70  |  10.18  |  10.61 |  10.01
    Basion-subnasal   |         |         |        |
      point           |   9.33  |   9.12  |   9.31 |   8.86
    Basion-upper      |         |         |        |
      alveolar point  |  10.45  |  10.13  |  10.39 |   9.85
    Lower jaw: Height |         |         |        |
      at symphysis    |   3.72  |   3.38  |   3.95 |   3.27
    Orbits:           |         |         |        |
      Mean height     |   3.62  |   3.47  |   3.60 |   3.61
      Mean breadth    |   3.97  |   4.01  |   4.04 |   3.88
      Mean index      | _91.3_  | _91_    | _89.2_ | _93_
    Nose:             |         |         |        |
      Height          |   5.45  |   5.02  |   5.52 |   5.19
      Breadth         |   2.37  |   2.23  |   2.39 |   2.32
      Index           | _43.6_  | _44.4_  | _43.4_ | _44.7_
    Alveolar arch:    |         |         |        |
      Length          |   5.57  |   5.34  |   5.59 |   5.22
      Breadth         |   6.68  |   6.29  |   6.45 |   6.13
      Index           | _83.4_  | _84.9_  | _86.6_ | _85.1_
  --------------------+---------+---------+--------+--------

  --------------------+-----------------
                      | Surface burials,
                      |   Point Barrow
  --------------------+--------+--------
                      | Males  | Females
                      |  (49)  |  (52)
  --------------------+--------+--------
  Vault:              |        |
    Length maximum    | 18.74  | 17.91
    Breadth maximum   | 13.84  | 13.32
    Basion-bregma     |        |
      height          | 13.78  | 13.08
    Cranial index     | _73.9_ | _74.4_
    Height-breadth    |        |
      index           | _99.6_ | _97.8_
    Mean height index | _84.7_ | _83.4_
    Cranial module    | _15.44_| _14.75_
  Face:               |        |
    Height: menton-   |        |
      nasion          |   --   |   --
    Height: upper     |        |
      alveolar        |        |
      point-nasion    |   7.86 |   7.22
    Breadth: Diameter |        |
      bizygomatic     |        |
      maximum         |  14.26 |  13.06
    Facial index,     |        |
      total           |   --   |   --
    Facial index,     |        |
      upper           | _55.1_ |  _55.3_
    Basion-nasion     |  10.54 |   9.94
    Basion-subnasal   |        |
      point           |   9.23 |   8.73
    Basion-upper      |        |
      alveolar point  |  10.39 |   9.77
    Lower jaw: Height |        |
      at symphysis    |   3.9  |   --
    Orbits:           |        |
      Mean height     |   3.61 |   3.55
      Mean breadth    |   4.02 |   3.90
      Mean index      | _89.9_ | _90.7_
    Nose:             |        |
      Height          |   5.48 |   5.11
      Breadth         |   2.31 |   2.29
      Index           | _42.2_ |  _44.9_
    Alveolar arch:    |        |
      Length          |   5.63 |   5.25
      Breadth         |   6.47 |   6.01
      Index           | _86.9_ |  _87.4_
  --------------------+--------+---------

Let us now contrast the Igloo skulls with those of southern Greenland
from the collection of the United States National Museum.[200] The size
of the series is such that they are nicely comparable. And to the two
is added a small recent series (A. H., 1926, and Collins, 1928), from
Golovnin Bay and Sledge Island (Seward Peninsula).

      MAIN MEASUREMENTS OF THE BARROW "IGLOO" AND OF GREENLAND ESKIMO
                                  CRANIA

  ---------+--------------------------+--------------------------
           |         Males            |         Females
  ---------+--------+-------+---------+--------+-------+---------
           |Golovnin| Igloos|Greenland|Golovnin| Igloos|Greenland
           | Bay and|       |         | Bay and|       |
           |  Sledge|       |         |  Sledge|       |
           |  Island|       |         |  Island|       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Number   |     (8)|   (27)|     (49)|    (13)|   (25)|     (52)
  of       |        |       |         |        |       |
  specimens|        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Vault:   |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Length   |   19.20|  19.25|    18.97|   18.03|  18.11|    18.04
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Breadth  |   13.70|  13.30|    13.61|   13.36|  12.72|    12.98
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Height   |   14.08|  14.02|    13.95|   13.21|  13.21|    13.12
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Cranial  |  _71.3_| _69.1_|   _71.8_|  _74.1_| _70.2_|     _72_
  index    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Height-  |        |       |         |        |       |
  breadth  | _102.8_|_105.5_|  _102.5_|  _97.9_|_104.6_|    _101_
  index    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Mean     |  _85.6_| _86.2_|   _85.7_|  _84.2_| _86.4_|   _84.6_
  height   |        |       |         |        |       |
  index    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Module   |   15.66|  15.52|    15.51|   14.87|  14.72|    14.72
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Face:    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Menton-  |        |       |         |        |       |
  nasion   |   12.70|  12.39|    12.38|   11.98|  11.21|    11.52
  height   |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Alveolar |        |       |         |        |       |
  point-   |        |       |         |        |       |
  nasion   |    7.90|   7.71|     7.61|    7.35|   7.01|     7.05
  height   |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Breadth  |   14.29|  14.16|    14.05|   13.25|  13.08|    13.03
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Facial   |  _88.9_| _86.9_|   _87.1_|  _90.4_| _86.8_|   _85.7_
  index,   |        |       |         |        |       |
  total    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Facial   |        |       |         |        |       |
  index,   |  _55.3_| _54.5_|   _54.1_|  _55.4_| _53.8_|   _54.1_
  upper    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Orbits:  |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Mean     |    3.65|   3.62|     3.64|    3.58|   3.47|     3.55
  height   |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Mean     |    4.11|   3.97|     3.99|    3.92|   4.01|     3.85
  breadth  |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Mean     |  _88.8_| _91.3_|   _91.4_|  _91.2_|   _91_|   _92.4_
  index    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Nose:    |        |       |         |        |       |
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Height   |    5.58|   5.45|     5.24|    5.15|   5.02|     4.99
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Breadth  |    2.35|   2.37|     2.27|    2.29|   2.23|     2.20
           |        |       |         |        |       |
  Index    |  _42.1_| _43.6_|   _43.3_|  _44.5_| _44.4_|     _44_
  ---------+--------+-------+---------+--------+-------+---------

A comparison of the Igloo and Greenland series shows striking
similarities; hardly any two geographically separate groups originating
from a single source could reasonably be expected to come nearer. The
Igloo skulls are even narrower in the vault than the Greenlanders,
which means so much farther away from the southwestern, midwestern, and
Asiatic Eskimo; and offer a few other differences, but all these are of
small moment, not affecting the essential relations of the two groups.

A comparison of the Igloo and Greenland series with the material
from Golovnin Bay and Sledge Island shows also numerous similarities
but with them some rather material differences. The differences are
especially marked in the females, whose characteristics approach
more those of the midwestern Eskimo, which suggests that an important
proportion of them may have been derived from the latter. However,
even the males tend to differ. Both sexes show absolutely a somewhat
broader skull than that of the northerners; in both sexes the skull,
as seen from the cranial module, is slightly larger in the Seward
Peninsula series than in either of the other groups; but the principal
differences are seen in the face, which in the Seward Peninsula group
is perceptibly larger and especially higher than it is in either the
Igloo or the Greenland series. The orbits also in the southerners are
larger and the nose is slightly higher.

On the whole it may be said that the resemblance of the Igloo crania to
those of Greenland is closer than that to either or both of the series
of Golovnin Bay and Sledge Island. This suggests the possibility that a
similar though not quite the same differentiation in the skull may have
taken place both in the Seward Peninsula and in the far north; though
the possibility of a derivation of any one of the three groups from any
of the others can not be discarded. So far as the skull is concerned a
definite solution of the identity of the Igloo material would have to
be, it would seem, postponed to the future.

The used data on the Greenland Eskimo skulls agree closely with those
of Fürst and Hansen (Crania Groenlandica, fol., 1915), and also with
the much fewer and scattered records of Virchow, Davis, Duckworth,
Oetteking, Pittard, etc.,[201] on Eskimo skulls from Labrador.

_Stature and strength._--The bones of the skeleton of the Igloo series
show the people to have been of good height and of above medium Eskimo
robustness. The principal measurements are given below, together
with the corresponding ones on the western and the Yukon Eskimo. The
material is not all that could be wished for, either in numbers or
representation, but it will suffice for rough comparisons. Regrettably
nothing for comparison is available as yet from Greenland or other
parts of the far northeast where we meet with long, narrow, and high
skulls.

     THE LONG BONES OF THE IGLOO PEOPLE AND OTHER ESKIMO BONES OF THE
                            TWO SIDES TOGETHER

  Column headings:
    A:
    B:
    C:

  -----------+---------------------------+---------------------------
             |            Males          |           Females
  -----------+---------------------------+---------------------------
             |  Igloo|      Seward| Yukon|Igloo  |      Seward| Yukon
             |       |   Peninsula|Eskimo|       |   Peninsula|Eskimo
             |       |         and|      |       |         and|
             |       |northwestern|      |       |northwestern|
             |       |      Eskimo|      |       |      Eskimo|
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Humerus:   |   (35)|       (100)|  (16)|  (27) |        (83)|  (16)
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Length-    |  31.17|       31.17| 32.10|  28.41|       28.82| 28.31
  maximum    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  At middle: |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |   2.47|        2.46|  2.33|   2.11|        2.15|  2.07
  major      |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |   1.86|        1.85|  1.80|   1.60|        1.62|  1.51
  minor      |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Index      | _75.2_|      _75.1_|_78.2_| _76.1_|      _75.1_|_73.2_
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Radius:    |   (31)|        (37)|  (16)|  (17) |        (24)|  (16)
  Length,    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  maximum    |  23.53|       23.50| 23.44|  20.98|       21.35| 20.18
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Radio-     | _75.5_|      _75.4_|  _73_| _73.8_|        _74_|_71.3_
  humeral    |       |            |      |       |            |
  index      |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Femur:     |   (33)|        (60)|  (22)|  (25) |        (31)|  (27)
  Length,    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  bicondylar |  43.86|       43.46| 43.78|  40.31|       40.44| 41.11
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Humero-    | _71.1_|      _71.7_|  _73_| _70.5_|      _71.3_|  _69_
  femoral    |       |            |      |       |            |
  index      |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  At middle: |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |       |            |      |       |            |
  antero-    |   3.37|        3.21|  3.05|   2.88|        2.88|  2.74
  posterior  |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |   2.90|        2.72|  2.67|   2.51|        2.56|  2.44
  lateral    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Index      | _86.1_|      _84.8_|_87.6_| _87.3_|      _88.9_      |
             |       |            |      |       |            |_88.8_
  At upper   |       |            |      |       |            |
  flattening:|       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |   3.51|        3.32|  3.31|   3.09|        3.06|  3.02
  maximum    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |   2.71|        2.59|  2.57|   2.30|        2.40|  2.27
  minimum    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Index      | _77.2_|      _78.1_|_77.4_| _74.4_|      _78.4_|_75.4_
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Tibia:     |   (29)|        (79)|  (22)|  (24) |        (36)|  (27)
  Length in  |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  position   |  35.60|       35.52| 35.14|  31.94|       32.50| 32.01
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Tibio-     | _81.2_|      _81.7_|_80.3_| _79.2_|      _80.4_|_79.8_
  femoral    |       |            |      |       |            |
  index      |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  At middle: |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |       |            |      |       |            |
  antero-    |   3.26|        3.19|  3.16|   2.80|        2.75|  2.61
  posterior  |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Diameter,  |   2.20|        2.16|  2.15|   1.87|        1.92|  1.90
  lateral    |       |            |      |       |            |
             |       |            |      |       |            |
  Index      | _67.5_|      _67.8_|_68.3_| _66.7_|        _70_|_72.8_

The above table shows some remarkable and interesting conditions.

The first of the most apparent facts is that the type of the Yukon
Eskimo stands well apart from both of the other series in a number of
essentials, showing that it is not very nearly related and that it may
be left out of consideration.

On the other hand the long bones from the Seward Peninsula and the
northwest coast, especially those of the males, show very closely to
those of the Igloo group. The male bones of the two series are almost
identical, except that the Igloo bones are somewhat stronger.

Such close resemblances can hardly be fortuitous. They speak strongly
for the basic identity of the old Igloo people with those of at least
parts of the Seward Peninsula and parts of the northwest coast. If we
take the bones from the Seward Peninsula alone (see p. 314) it is found
that these resemblances still hold.

The evidence thus shown constitutes a strong indication that the old
Igloo group may be inherently related to that part of the Eskimo
population of Seward Peninsula which shows the long and narrow skull;
but the data offer no light on the questions as to whether the Igloo
group may have been derived from that of the Seward Peninsula or vice
versa, and on the true relation of either or both of these to the
Eskimo of Baffin Land, Greenland, and Labrador.

To definitely decide the problem of the Igloo group there are needed
data on the long bones of the northeasterners; in the second place it
is highly desirable to know how large and how ancient was the group of
the narrow-headed people on the Seward Peninsula and Sledge Island; and
in the third place it is important that the cultural history of the two
groups be known as thoroughly as possible. All of which are tasks for
the future.

The possibility of a development of the Igloo cranial type on the
northwest coast itself can not be denied, in view of the facts that
all its characteristics are within the ranges of normal individual
variations on that coast, and that similar developments have evidently
been realized elsewhere. But in such a case it would be logical
to expect, locally or not far away, some ancestry of the group,
and the group would not probably be limited to a little spot and a
few scores of persons. Had the group developed incidentally from a
physically exceptional family, it could not be expected to have been
anywhere nearly as uniform as the group under consideration. The
high degree of uniformity of the Igloo contingent speaks for a well
accomplished differentiation; and as there is no other trace of this
in the conditions near Barrow, and there are no ruins denoting a long
occupation, the evidence is against a local development and for an
immigration of the group. A coming of a small-sized contingent from the
Seward Peninsula would be easy; its coming from Greenland or Labrador
or Baffin Land would surely be difficult, but not impossible to the
Eskimo, who is known to have been a traveler.

Whatever may be the eventual solution of the Igloo problem, it is plain
that the presence of that group near Barrow, together with the presence
of evidently closely related groups in a part of the Seward Peninsula
and again in the far east of the Eskimo region, offers much food for
thought and investigation. The most plausible possibility would seem
to be a relatively late (within the present millennium) coming of a
physically already well differentiated small group, from either the
south or the east, with a relatively short settlement at the Barrow
site, some local multiplication in numbers, and then extinction partly
through disease, partly perhaps through absorption into a stronger and
newer contingent derived from the western people.

FOOTNOTES:

[200] The measurements of this series have been published by the
writer in the first part of the Catalogue of Human Crania in the U. S.
National Museum (Proc. U.S.N.M., 1924, LXIII, art. 12, p. 26), but as a
few errors crept in, the whole series was remeasured by the writer.

[201] For more exact references see writer's Contribution to the
Anthropology of Central and Smith Sound Eskimo, Anthrop. Papers Am.
Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1910, V, pt. 2; and the bibliography at the end
of this volume.



ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF THE ESKIMO


All anthropological research on the Eskimo has naturally one ultimate
object, which is the clearing up of the problems of the origin and
antiquity of this highly interesting human strain; and it may well be
asked what further light on these problems has been shed by the studies
here dealt with. To show this with a proper perspective it will be
requisite to briefly review the previous ideas on these problems.


ORIGIN OF THE NAME "ESKIMO"

According to Charlevoix (Nouv. France, III, 178), the term "Eskimo"
is a corruption of the Abenaki Indian Esquimantsic or the Ojibway
Ashkimeg, both terms meaning "those who eat raw flesh." In the words
of Captain Hooper,[202] "Neither the origin nor meaning of the name
'Esquimaux,' or Eskimo, as it is now spelled, is known. According to
Doctor Rink, the name 'Esquimaux' was first given to the inhabitants of
Southern Labrador as a term of derision by the inhabitants of Northern
Labrador, and means raw-fish eater. Dall says the appellation 'Eskimo'
is derived from a word indicating a sorcerer or shaman in the language
of the northern tribes."

For Brinton,[203] as for Charlevoix, the term "Eskimo" is derived
from the Algonkin "Eskimantick," "eaters of raw flesh." According to
Chamberlain,[204] Sir John Richardson (Arctic Searching Exp., p. 203)
attempts to derive it from the French words ceux qui miaux (miaulent),
referring to their clamorous outcries on the approach of a ship.
Petitot (Chambers Encyc., Ed. 1880, IV, p. 165, article Esquimaux)
says that at the present day the Crees, of Lake Athabasca, call them
Wis-Kimowok (from Wiyas flesh, aski raw, and mowew to eat), and also
Ayiskimiwok (i. e., those who act in secret). In Labrador the English
sometimes call the Eskimo "Huskies" (loc. cit., p. ix. 7. Chambers
Encyc., article Esquimaux. See Hind. Trav. in Int. of Labr., loc.
cit., and Petitot loc. cit., p. ix.) and Suckemos (Richardson, Arctic
Searching Expedition, p. 202) and Dall (Proc. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci., 1869,
p. 266) says that in Alaska the Tinneh Indians call them "Uskeeme"
(sorcerers).

The Eskimo call themselves "Innuit," said to be the plural of in-nu,
the man, hence "the people"; the same being as a rule the meaning of
the name by which the various tribes of the Indian call themselves.

On the Asiatic coast the Eskimo is known as the "Yuit," "Onkilon,"
"Chouklouks," or "Namollo"; while in the east appears the name
"Karalit."

None of this has thrown any light on the origin of the Eskimo.

FOOTNOTES:

[202] Hooper, C. L., Cruise of the U. S. revenue steamer _Corwin_,
1881. Washington, 1884, p. 99.

[203] Brinton, D. C., Myths of the New World, 1868, p. 23. New York.

[204] Chamberlain, A. F., The Eskimo race and language. Proc. Canadian
Inst., 3d ser., vol. VI, pp. 267-268. Toronto, 1889.


OPINIONS BY FORMER AND LIVING STUDENTS

_Origin in Asia._--Many opinions on the origin of the Eskimo have been
expressed by different authors. Among the earliest of these were those
of missionaries, such as Crantz (1779), and of the early explorers,
such as Steller, v. Wrangell, Lütke and others. They were based on the
general aspect of the Eskimo, particularly that of his physiognomy; and
seeing that in many features he resembled most the mongoloid peoples
of Asia they attached him to these, which meant the conclusion that he
was of Asiatic derivation. Quite soon, however, there began to appear
also the opinions of students of man. The first of these was that of
Blumenbach, as expressed in his Inaugural Thesis of 1781. In this
thesis, more particularly its second edition, he classifies the Eskimo
expressly as a part of the Caucasian or white race. But after obtaining
an Eskimo skull and an Eskimo body he changes his opinion and in
1795-1806 he comes out with a definite classification of the Eskimo as
a member of the Mongolians; and a similar conclusion, with its implied
or expressed consequence of a migration from Asia to America, has been
reached since, mainly on somatological but also in part on linguistic
and cultural bases, by a large number of authors, including Lawrence,
Morton, Pickering, Latham, Flower, Peschel, Topinard, Brinton, Virchow
(1877), Quatrefages and Hamy (1882), Thalbitzer, Bogoras and numerous
others. With all of this, the conception of the Asiatic origin of the
Eskimo has not passed the status of a strong probability, lacking a
final conclusive demonstration.

A chronological list of the more noteworthy individual statements is
given at the end of this section.

_Origin in America._--Since the earlier parts of the nineteenth century
the opinion began to be expressed that the Eskimo is not of Asiatic but
of American origin. Already in 1847 Prichard tells us that there are
those who "consider them as belonging to the American family," and he
plainly favors this conception.

Between 1873 and 1890 the American origin of the Eskimo is repeatedly
asserted by Rink, who for 16 winters and 22 summers lived with the
eastern Eskimo, first as a scientific explorer and later as royal
inspector or governor of the southern Danish settlements in Greenland
(preface by R. Brown to Rink's Tales and Traditions, 1875). In this
opinion, briefly, the Eskimo were derived from the inland Indian tribes
of Alaska; without referring to the origin of the Indian.

Rink's authoritative opinion was followed or paralleled by Daniel
Wilson (1876), Grote, Krause, Ray, Keane, Brown, and others. In
1887 Chamberlain expresses the somewhat startling additional theory
that it was not the Eskimo who was derived from the Mongolians but
the Mongolians from the Eskimo or their American ancestors. And in
1901-1910 Boas comes to the conclusion that the Eskimo probably
originated from the inland tribes (Indian?) in the Hudson Bay region.

An interesting case in these connections is that of Rudolf Virchow. In
1877 (see details at the end of this section) he expresses the belief
in the Eskimo coming from Asia; in 1878 he seems to be uncertain;
and in 1885 he comes out in support of the opinion that the original
home of the Eskimo may have been in the western part of the Hudson
Bay region. Among later students of the problem, Steensby[205] and
Birket-Smith[206] incline on cultural grounds to this hypothesis.

Wissler, not explicit as to the Eskimo in 1917 (The American Indian),
in 1918 (Archæology of the Polar Eskimo) finds, after Steensby, the
most acceptable theory of the Eskimo origin to be that "they expanded
from a parent group in the Arctic Archipelago"; but in 1922, in the
second edition of his The American Indian, he repeats word for word his
opinion of 1917, which appears to favor an Asiatic derivation.

_Origin in Europe--Identity with Upper Palaeolithic man._--About the
sixties of last century growing discoveries in France of implements,
etc., of later palaeolithic man brought about a realization that
not a few of these implements and other objects, particularly those
of the Magdalenian period, resembled like implements and objects
of the Eskimo; from which, together with the considerations of the
similarities of fauna (reindeer, musk-ox, etc.), and of climate,
there was but a step to a more or less definite identification of the
Magdalenians and Solutreans with the Eskimo. In 1870 Pruner-Bey[207]
claims a similarity between Solutrean and Eskimo skulls. In 1883 these
views received the influential support of De Mortillet (see details).
In 1889 the theory receives strong support from the characteristics
of the Chancelade (Magdalenian) skeleton which Testut declares are in
many respects almost identical with those of the Eskimo. And within
the next few years the notion is upheld by Hamy and Hervé. It remains
sympathetic as late as 1913 to Marcellin Boule, and finds most recent
champions in Morin and Sollas.

However, there were also many who opposed the effort at a direct
connection of the upper palaeolithic man of Europe and the Eskimo.
Among these were Geikie, Flower, Rae, Daniel Wilson, Robert Brown,
Déchelette, Laloy. At present the theory is supported mainly by Morin
and Sollas, opposed by Steensby, Burkitt, Keith, MacCurdy, and others;
while most students of the Eskimo ignore the question.

_Other hypotheses._--Besides the preceding ideas which attribute the
origin of the Eskimo to Asia, or America, or old Europe, there were
also others that failed to receive a wider support; and there were
authors and students who remained undecided or were too cautious to
definitely formulate their beliefs. Some of the former as well as the
latter deserve brief mention.

Gallatin, in 1836, mainly on linguistic grounds, recognizes the
fundamental relation of the Eskimo and the Indian and seems inclined to
the American origin of the former, but makes no clear statement to that
effect. For Meigs (1857), who probably followed an earlier opinion, the
Eskimo came "from the islands of the Polar Sea." C. C. Abbott (1876)
saw Eskimo in the early inhabitants of the Delaware Valley. To Grote
(1875, 1877), the Eskimo were "the existing representatives of the
man of the American glacial epoch"; they were modified Pliocene men.
Nordenskiöld (1885) follows closely Meigs and Grote; the Eskimo may be
"the true autochthones of the Polar regions," having inhabited them
from before the glacial age, during more genial climate. Keane (1886)
believed the Eskimo developed from the Aleuts. For De Quatrefages
(1887), man originated in the Tertiary in northern Asia, spread from
there, and some of his contingents may have reached America and been
the ancestors of the Eskimo; the western tribes of the latter being a
mixture of the Eskimo with Asiatic brachycephals. Nansen (1893) avoids
a discussion of the origin of the Eskimo; and the same caution is
observable more or less in most modern writers.

The following chart of the more noteworthy opinions regarding the
origin of the Eskimo will show at a glance the diversity of the views
and their lack of conclusiveness.

FOOTNOTES:

[205] Contr. Ethn. and Anthropogeog. Polar Eskimos, Med. om Grönl.,
XXXIV, Copenhagen, 1910; also, Origin of the Eskimo culture, _ibid._,
1916, 204-218.

[206] Internat. Congr. Americanists, New York, 1928.

[207] In Ferry, H. de, Le Maconnais préhistorique, etc., 1 vol, Macon,
1870, with a section by Pruner-Bey.


THEORIES AS TO THE ORIGIN OF THE ESKIMO

  Asiatic:
      Steller                 1743
      Cranz                   1779
      Blumenbach              1795
      Lawrence                1822
      Von Wrangell            1839
      Morton                  1839
      McDonald                1841
      Latham                  1850
      Pickering               1854
      Wilson                  1863
      Rae                     1865, 1877-78, 1886
      Markham                 1865, 1875
      Whymper                 1869
      Peschel                 1876
      Kuhl                    1876
      Petitot                 1876
      Topinard                1877
      Virchow                 1877
      Dall                    1877
      Palmer                  1879
      Henry                   1879
      Dawson                  1880
      Quatrefages             1882, 1887
      Elliot                  1886
      Flower                  1886
      Brown                   1888
      Ratzel                  1897
      Hrdlička             1910, 1924
      Thalbitzer              1914
      Fürst and Hansen        1915
      Wissler                 1917
      Mathiassen              1921
      Bogoras                 1924, 1927

  American:
      Prichard                1847
      Rink                    1873, 1888
      Holmes                  1873
      Wilson                  1876
      Grote                   1877
      Krause                  1883
      Ray                     1885
      Virchow                 1885
      Keane                   1886, 1887
      Brown                   1888
      Murdoch                 1888
      Chamberlain             1889
      Quatrefages             1889
      Boas                    1907, 1910
      Wissler                 1917

  European or connected with Europe:
      Lartet and Christy      1864
      Dawkins                 1866
      Hervé                   1870
      Abbott                  1876
      De Mortillet            1883
      Testut                  1889
      Boule                   1913
      Sollas                  1924, 1927

  Opposed to Europe:
      Brown.
      Burkitt.
      Déchelette.
      Flower.
      Geikie.
      Keith.
      Laloy.
      MacCurdy.
      Rae.
      Steensby.
      Wilson.
      Hrdlička (1910).

  Miscellaneous and indefinite:
      Gallatin                1836
      Richardson              1852
      Meigs                   1857
      Grote                   1875
      Abbott                  1876
      Nordenskiöld            1885
      Keane                   1886
      Quatrefages             1887
      Nansen                  1893
      Tarenetzky              1900
      Nadaillac               1902
      Jenness                 1928


ASIATICS

Steller, 1743:[208] Several references which indicate that Steller
regarded the Eskimo as related to the northeastern Asiatics.

Cranz, 1779:[209] Points out the resemblances of the Eskimo (and their
product) to the Kalmuks, Yakuts, Tungus, and Kamchadales, and derives
them from northeastern Asia (forced by other peoples through Tartary to
the farthest northeast of Asia and then to America).

Blumenbach, 1781:[210] The first of the five varieties of mankind
"and the largest, which is also the primeval one, embraces the whole
of Europe, including the Lapps, * * * and lastly, in America, the
Greenlanders and the Esquimaux, for I see in these people a wonderful
difference from the other inhabitants of America; and, unless I am
altogether deceived, I think they must be derived from the Finns."

But in his "Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte," 2d ed., Göttingen, 1806,
Blumenbach classes both the Lapps and the Eskimo with the Mongolians
(Anthr. Treatises of Blumenbach, Lond., 1865, p. 304): "The remaining
Asiatics, except the Malays, with the Lapps in Europe, and the
Esquimaux in the north of America, from Bering Strait to Labrador and
Greenland. They are for the most part of a wheaten yellow, with scanty,
straight, black hair, and have flat faces with laterally projecting
cheek bones, and narrowly slit eyelids."

Von Wrangell, 1839:[211] "* * * ihre sclavische Abhängigkeit von den
Rennthier-Tschuktschen beweist, dass die letztern spätere Einwanderer
und Eroberer des Landes sind, welches sie jetzt inne haben."

       *       *       *       *       *

Lawrence, 1822:[212] "The Mongolian variety * * * includes the numerous
more or less rude, and in great part nomadic tribes, which occupy
central and northern Asia; * * * and the tribes of Eskimaux extending
over the northern parts of America, from Bering Strait to the extremity
of Greenland. * * *

"The Eskimaux are formed on the Mongolian model, although they inhabit
countries so different from the abodes of the original tribes of
central Asia."

       *       *       *       *       *

Latham, 1850:[213] "Our only choice lies between the doctrine that
makes the American nations to have originated from one or more separate
pairs of progenitors, and the doctrine that either Bering Strait or the
line of islands between Kamskatka and the Peninsula of Alaska, was the
highway between the two worlds--from Asia to America, or vice versa. *
* * Against America, and in favor of Asia being the birthplace of the
human race--its unity being assumed--I know many valid reasons. * * *
Physically, the Eskimo is a Mongol and Asiatic. Philologically, he is
American."

       *       *       *       *       *

1851:[214] "Just as the Eskimo graduate in the American Indian, so do
they pass into the populations of northeastern Asia--language being the
instrument which the present writer has more especially employed in
their affiliation. From the Peninsula of Alaska to the Aleutian chain
of islands, and from the Aleutian chain to Kamskatka is the probable
course of the migration from Asia to America--traced backwards, i. e.,
from the goal to the starting point, from the circumference to the
center."

       *       *       *       *       *

Pickering, 1854:[215] "The Arctic Regions seem exclusively possessed by
the Mongolian race."

       *       *       *       *       *

Wilson, 1863:[216] "The same mode of comparison which confirms the
ethnical affinities between the Esquimaux and their insular or Asiatic
congeners, reveals, in some respects, analogies rather than contrast
between the dolichocephalic Indian crania and those of the hyperborean
race."

       *       *       *       *       *

Markham, 1856:[217] "The interesting question now arises--whence
came these Greenland Esquimaux, these Innuit, or men, as they call
themselves, and as I think they ought to be called by us? They are
not descendants of the Skroellings of the opposite American coast, as
has already been seen. It is clear that they can not have come from
the eastward, over the ocean which intervenes between Lapland and
Greenland, for no Esquimaux traces have ever been found on Spitzbergen,
Iceland, or Jan Mayen. We look at them and see at once that they have
no kinship with the red race of America; but a glance suffices to
convince us of their relationship with the northern tribes of Siberia.
It is in Asia, then, that we must seek their origin."

       *       *       *       *       *

Whymper, 1869:[218] "That the coast natives of northern Alaska are but
Americanized Tchuktchis from Asia, I myself have no doubt."

       *       *       *       *       *

Peschel, 1876:[219] "The identity of their language with that of the
Namollo, their skill on the sea, their domestication of the dog, their
use of the sledge, the Mongolian type of their faces, their capability
for higher civilization, are sufficient reasons for answering the
question, whether a migration took place from Asia to America or
conversely from America to Asia, in favor of the former alternative;
yet such a migration from Asia by way of Bering Strait must have
occurred at a much later period than the first colonization of the New
World from the Old one * * *.

"It is not likely that the Eskimo spread from America to Asia, because
of all Americans they have preserved the greatest resemblance in
racial characters to the Mongolian nations of the Old World, and
in historical times their migrations have always taken place in an
easterly direction."

       *       *       *       *       *

Kuhl, 1876:[220] "Bilden so die Eskimo in der Sprache das Bindeglied
zwischen America und Asien, so ist dies noch viel mehr der Fall in
Bezug auf ihren Typus: dieser stimmt bei den Polarvölkern diesseits und
jenseits der Beringsstrasse 'zum Verwechseln' überein, wie denn auch
ein beständiger Verkehr hinüber und herüber stattfindet. Hierin liegt
der unwiderstehliche Beweis, dass diese Polarvölker wenigstens von
einer Herkunft sind und dass eine Einwanderung von einem Continente in
das andere hier stattgefunden hat. Haben wir nun die Wahl, entweder die
Eskimo aus Asien nach America, oder die Tschuktschen, die dort auf der
Asiatischen Seite wohnen, aus America einwandern zu lassen--wofür sich
auch Stimmen erhoben haben--so werden wir keinen Augenblick zweifelhaft
sein: eine spätere Rückwanderung eines einzelnen Stammes in das Land
der Väter wäre immerhin denkbar; aber wer über die Tschuktschen hinweg
die Sache in's Grosse sieht, kann für die Urzeit nur eine Einwanderung
von Asien nach America, nicht umgekehrt, annehmen, und hierfür finden
wir ausser den allgemeinen Gründen, welche uns der Verlauf unserer
Untersuchungen nahe gebracht, noch zwei besondere Beweise bei den
Eskimo: einmal können wir die Spur ihrer Wanderungen historisch
verfolgen, und diese wären nach Osten gerichtet, sodass sie Grönland,
mit dem heute ihr Name so eng verbunden ist, zuletzt erreichten
(S. 209); sodann haben die Eskimo allein unter den Americanischen
Stämmen das Mongolische Gepräge ganz unversehrt bewahrt--dies bliebe
unerklärlich, wenn sie Americanische Autochthonen wären * * * Einen
deutlichen Hinweis auf die Urheimath Asien enthalten auch die
Wanderungen der Stämme durch das Americanische Continent, soweit wir
dieselben verfolgen können."

       *       *       *       *       *

Dall, 1877:[221] "I see, therefore, no reason for disputing the
hypothesis that America was peopled from Asia originally, and that
there were successive waves of emigration.

"The northern route was clearly by way of Bering Strait; * * *
Linguistically, no ultimate distinction can be drawn between the
American Innuit and the American Indian. * * * I shall assume, what
is also assumed by Mr. Markham, that the original progenitors of the
Innuit were in a very primitive, low, and barbarous condition. * * *

"I assume, then, that the larger part of North America may have been
peopled by way of Bering Strait. * * * I believe that this emigration
was vastly more ancient than Mr. Markham supposes, and that it took
place before the present characteristics of races and tribes of North
American savages were developed. * * *

"My own impression agrees with that of Doctor Rink that the Innuit
were once inhabitants of the interior of America; that they were
forced to the west and north by the pressure of tribes of Indians from
the south; that they spread into the Aleutian region and northwest
coast generally, and possibly simultaneously to the north; that their
journeying was originally tentative, and that they finally settled in
those regions which afforded them subsistence, perhaps after passing
through the greater portion of Arctic America, leaving their traces
as they went in many places unfit for permanent settlement; that
after the more inviting regions were occupied, the pressure from
Indians and still unsatisfied tribes of their own stock, induced still
further emigration, and finally peopled Greenland and the shores of
northeastern Siberia; but that these latter movements were, on the
whole, much more modern, and more local than the original exodus, and
took place after the race characteristics and language were tolerably
well matured. * * *

"I conclude that at present the Asiatic Innuit range from Koliuchin Bay
to the eastward and south to Anadyr Gulf. * * *

"To the reflux of the great wave of emigration, which no doubt took
place at a very early period, we may owe the numerous deserted huts
reported by all explorers on the north coasts of Asia, as far east as
the mouth of the Indigirka. At one time, I thought the migration to
Asia had taken place within a few centuries, but subsequent study and
reflection has convinced me that this could not have been the case. No
doubt successive parties crossed at different times, and some of these
may have been comparatively modern."

       *       *       *       *       *

Rae, 1878:[222] "All the Eskimos with whom I have communicated on the
subject, state that they originally came very long ago from the west,
or setting sun, and that in doing so they crossed a sea separating the
two great lands.

"That these people (the Eskimos) have been driven from their own
country in the northern parts of Asia by some unknown pressure of
circumstances, and obliged to extend themselves along the whole
northern coast line of America and Greenland, appears to be likely, and
that the route followed after crossing Bering Strait was of necessity
along the coast eastward, being hemmed in by hostile Indians on the
south, and driven forward by pressure from the west * * *.

"Such were my opinions 12 years ago, and their correctness has been
rather confirmed than otherwise, by all that we have since learned. * *
*"

       *       *       *       *       *

1887:[223] "Professor Flower said that his investigation into the
physical characteristics of the Eskimos led him to agree entirely with
Doctor Rae's conclusions derived from other sources. He looked upon
the Eskimos as a branch of the North Asiatic Mongols (of which the
Japanese may be taken as a familiar example), who in their wandering
across the American continent in the eastward direction, isolated
almost as perfectly as an island population would be, hemmed in on
one side by the eternal polar ice, and on the other by hostile tribes
of American Indians, with whom they rarely, if ever, mingled, have
gradually developed special modifications of the Mongolian type, which
increase in intensity from west to east, and are seen in their greatest
perfection in the inhabitants of Greenland. * * *

"Doctor Rae also thinks that the Eskimos came from across Bering
Strait from Asia. Their traditions and many other things point in that
direction, and they are in no way related to the ancient cave men of
Europe."

       *       *       *       *       *

Dawson, 1880:[224] Eskimo: "On the eastern side of the continent these
poor people have always been separated by a marked line from their
Indian neighbors on the south, and have been regarded by them with the
most bitter hostility. On the west, however, they pass into the Eastern
Siberians, on the one hand, and into the West-coast Indians, on the
other, both by language and physical characters. They and the northern
tribes at least of West-coast Indians, belong in all probability to a
wave of population spreading from Bering Strait."

       *       *       *       *       *

Quatrefages et Hamy; 1882:[225] "Les Esquimaux ou Eskimos, qui se
nomment eux-mêmes Innuits, constituent dans la série mongolique un
groupe exceptionnel, qui diffère à maints égards de ceux qui viennent
de passer sous nos yeux, mais dont l'origine asiatique n'est plus
aujourd'hui contestée et dont les affinités occidentales frappent de
plus en plus les observateurs spéciaux."

       *       *       *       *       *

Brown, 1888:[226] "It is only when we come to the region beginning
at Cape Shelagskii and extending to the East Cape of Siberia that we
find any traces of them. This tract is now held by the coast Tchukchi,
but it was not always their home, for they expelled from this dreary
stretch the Onkilon or Eskimo race who took refuge in or near less
attractive quarters between the East Cape and Anadyrskii Bay."

       *       *       *       *       *

Ratzel, 1897:[227] "If we ask whence they came, Asia seems most
obvious, since between the American and Asiatic coasts of Bering
Straits, intercourse has always been ventured upon even in the rudest
skin-boats. * * *

"Ethnographic indications also point predominantly to the west. * * *

"But we have an equal right to suppose a migration from America into
Asia."

Thalbitzer, 1914:[228] "I still believe (like Rink), that the common
Eskimo mother-group has at one time lived to the west at the Bering
Strait, coming originally from the coasts of Siberia."

       *       *       *       *       *

Fürst and Hansen, 1915:[229] "We are to some extent acquainted with
the diffusion of the Eskimos over the earth, and know that they could
not have come directly from Europe and that Greenland was populated
from the west, one may naturally conclude, as has often been concluded
before, that their descent is from the west, in other words from Asia,
though the time at which such an immigration took place and the racial
type which they then possessed must remain still more hypothetical than
immigration itself."

       *       *       *       *       *

Mathiassen, 1927:[230] "We must therefore imagine that the Thule
culture, with all its peculiar whaling culture, has originated
somewhere in the western regions, in an Arctic area, where whales were
plentiful and wood abundant, and we are involuntarily led toward the
coasts of Alaska and East Siberia north of Bering Strait, the regions
to which we have time after time had to turn in order to find parallels
to types from the Central Eskimo finds. There all the conditions have
been present for the originating of such a culture, and from there
it has spread eastward right to Greenland, seeking everywhere to
adapt itself to the local geographical conditions. And it can hardly
have been a culture wave alone; it must have been a migration. The
similarities between east and west are in many directions so detailed
that it is difficult to explain them without assuming an actual
migration of people from the one place to the other."

       *       *       *       *       *

Jochelson, 1928:[231] "In discussing the question of former Eskimo
occupation of the Siberian Arctic coast a very remote period of time is
not meant, so that in this sense the assumed recent Eskimo migrations
from Asia into America and vice versa do not interfere with the general
theory of the Asiatic origin of the American population."

FOOTNOTES:

[208] Steller, G. W., Journal, 1743. Transl. and repr. in Bering's
Voyages, Am. Geog. Soc. Research, ser. I, 2 vols., vol. II, p. 9 et
seq. New York, 1922.

[209] Cranz, David, Historie von Grönland, Frankf. and Leipz., 1779,
300-301.

[210] Blumenbach, J. F., Be generis humani varietate nativa. 2d ed.,
Goettingen, 1781; in The anthropological treatises of J. F. Blumenbach,
Anthr. Soc. Lond., 1865, p. 99, ftn. 4.

[211] Von Wrangell, in Baer and Helmersen's "Beiträge zur Kenntniss des
Russischen Reiches," pp. 58-59. St. Petersburg, 1839.

[212] Lawrence, W., Lectures on physiology, zoology, and the natural
history of man, pp. 511-513. London, 1822.

[213] Latham, Robert Gordon, The Natural history of the varieties of
man, pp. 289-291. London, 1850.

[214] Latham, Robert Gordon, Man and his migrations, p. 124. London,
1851.

[215] Pickering, Charles, The races of man, p. 7. London, 1854.

[216] Wilson, Daniel, Physical ethnology. Smithsonian Report for 1862,
p. 262. Washington, 1863.

[217] Markham, C. R., On the origin and migrations of the Greenland
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[220] Kuhl, Dr. Joseph, Die Anfänge des Mensc