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Title: Tagalog Texts with Grammatical Analysis
Author: Bloomfield, Leonard
Language: English
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                        LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

             Vol. III      May-November, 1917      Nos. 2-4

                            Board of Editors

                             George T. Flom
                          William A. Oldfather
                           Stuart P. Sherman

                Published by the University of Illinois
               Under the Auspices of the Graduate School
                            Urbana, Illinois

                            Copyright, 1917
                     By the University of Illinois.

                             TAGALOG TEXTS
                            WITH GRAMMATICAL

                     PART I: TEXTS AND TRANSLATION
                     PART II: GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS


                           LEONARD BLOOMFIELD

                         UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS



    Preface                                                       9
    List of Books and Articles consulted                         13
    Texts in Phonetic Transcription and Translation              16


    A. PHONETICS                                                134

        1. Distinctive sounds                                   134
        2. Syllabication                                        138
        3. Accentuation                                         141

    B. SYNTAX                                                   146

        1. Sentence and word                                    146

            a. Syntactic relations                              146
            b. Parts of speech                                  146
            c. Static and transient words                       147
            d. Personal names                                   147
            e. The object construction                          148
            f. Expressions of indefinite quantity               150

        2. Subject and predicate                                151

            a. Non-predicative sentences                        151
            b. The subject                                      153
            c. The predicate                                    153
            d. Subordinate predications                         159
            e. Omission of predicate                            160

        3. Attributes                                           160

            a. Conjunctive attributes                           162
            b. Disjunctive attributes                           170
            c. Local attributes                                 177
            d. Absolute attributes                              180

        4. Serial groups                                        205

    C. MORPHOLOGY                                               210

        1. Composition                                          210
        2. General features of word-formation                   211
        3. Description of formations                            218

            I. Primary groups (zero, pag-, pang-)               218

                A. Simple static forms                          218

                    (1) Root-words                              218
                    (2) Doubling                                223
                    (3) Reduplication                           224
                    (4) Prefix pang-                            224

                B. Transients, abstracts, and special static
                   words                                        226

                  (1) Active with -um- and abstract with pag-   226
                  (2) Active with mag- and abstract with pag- r 231
                  (3) Active with mang- and abstract with
                      pang- r                                   239
                  (4) Special static words                      241
                  (5) Direct passive, with -in                  243
                  (6) Special static words                      247
                  (7) Instrumental passive, with i-             247
                  (8) Special static words                      250
                  (9) Local passive, with -an                   250
                 (10) Special static words                      257

            II. Secondary groups                                262

                1. Prefix si-                                   262
                2. Prefix paki-                                 263
                3. Prefix ka-                                   265

                  (1) Simple static forms                       265
                  (2) Normal transients, abstracts, and
                      special static forms                      268
                  (3) Additional transients, abstracts, and
                      special static forms                      280

                4. Prefix pa-                                   298

                  (1) Simple static forms                       299
                  (2) Normal transients, abstracts, and
                      special static forms                      301
                  (3) Transients and abstracts with pa- and ka- 309

                5. Prefix pati-                                 313

            III. Irregular derivatives                          314


    LIST OF FORMATIONS                                          317
    INDEX OF WORDS                                              320
    CORRIGENDA                                                  406


This essay is purely linguistic in character and purpose.

In taking phonetic notes on Tagalog I noticed that the pronunciation
of the speaker to whom I was listening, Mr. Alfredo Viola Santiago
(at present a student of architectural engineering in the University
of Illinois) presented certain features of accentuation not mentioned
in the descriptions familiar to me. With the intention of briefly
describing these features, I took down more extensive notes and
asked Mr. Santiago to tell me in Tagalog the stories of "The Sun"
and "The Northwind and the Sun," used as models by the International
Phonetic Association.

The data so obtained showed that the features of accentuation I had
observed were in part distinctive (expressive of word-meaning), and,
further, that certain other features, which were but imperfectly
described in the treatises I knew (so especially the use of the
"ligatures"), appeared in Mr. Santiago's speech in a regular and
intelligible manner. A more extensive study was thus indicated.

The results of this study were subject to two obvious limitations. The
utterances I had transcribed were either translations or isolated
sentences, and I could not determine to what extent the features of
Mr. Santiago's speech which I had observed were general in Tagalog.

The former of these limitations was fully overcome when I asked
Mr. Santiago to tell me connected stories. In addition to fortunate
endowments of a more general kind Mr. Santiago possesses, as I found,
that vivacity of intellect and freedom from irrelevant prepossessions
which we seek and so rarely find in people whose language we try
to study. This latter quality may be due in part to the fact that,
as Mr. Santiago's education has been carried on entirely in Spanish
and English, his speech-feeling for his mother-tongue has not been
deflected by the linguistic, or rather pseudo-linguistic training
of the schools, so familiar to us. However this may be, I cannot
be grateful enough to Mr. Santiago (and I hope that the reader
will join me in this feeling) for the intelligence, freshness, and
imagination with which he has given us connected narratives in his
native language,--stories he heard in childhood and experiences of
his own and of his friends. It is to be hoped that some of these
will be of interest to students of folk-lore (as, for instance,
Nos. 9, 10, 11, the old Hindu fable in No. 4, and the Midas story,
much changed, in No. 5); the texts are here given, however, only for
their linguistic interest.

The second limitation could not be overcome. As there exists at present
no adequate description of the dialectal differentiation of Tagalog,
nor even an adequate description of any one form of the language,
I can make no definite statement as to the relation of Mr. Santiago's
speech to other forms of Tagalog.

What is here presented is, then, a specimen of the speech of an
educated speaker from Mr. Santiago's home town, San Miguel na Matamés,
Bulacán Province, Luzón. It would have been possible to include in the
description the speech of at least one other educated Tagalog from a
different region (uneducated speakers are unfortunately not within
my reach), as well as such data as might be gathered from printed
Tagalog books: I have refrained from this extension because, at the
present state of our knowledge, a single clearly defined set of data
is preferable to a necessarily incomplete attempt at describing the
whole language in its local and literary variations. Comparison of
literary Tagalog (chiefly the translation of José Rizal's "Noli me
Tangere" by Patricio Mariano, Manila, Morales, 1913 [1]) shows that
Mr. Santiago's speech is not far removed from it. In most cases where
my results deviate from the statements of the Spanish grammars, the
evidence of printed books (and not infrequently the internal evidence
of the grammars themselves) shows that the divergence is due not
to dialectal differences but to the fact that the grammars are the
product of linguistically untrained observers, who heard in terms of
Spanish articulations and classified in those of Latin grammar.

This study presents, then, the first Tagalog texts in phonetic
transcription and the first scientific analysis of the structure of
the language [2]. Although the nature of the problem forbade the use
of any material other than that obtained from Mr. Santiago, I have
examined all the treatises on Tagalog accessible to me. No experience
could show more clearly than the reading of these books the necessity
of linguistic and especially phonetic training for anyone who wishes
to describe a language. Not one of the works in the following list
[3] contains an intelligible description of the pronunciation of
Tagalog. The only general work of scientific value is the excellent
second volume of P. Serrano Laktaw's dictionary. Much as one may admire
the pioneer courage of Totanes and the originality of Minguella,
these venerable men were as little able to describe a language as
one untrained in botany is to describe a plant. Among the authors of
monographs are several good names and one or two of the greatest in
our science: nearly all of these authors mention the difficulty under
which they labored for want of an adequate description of the language.


Alter, F. C., Über die tagalische Sprache. Wien 1803.

Blake, F. R., Contributions to comparative Philippine Grammar. (Journal
of the American Oriental Society, vols. 27, 28, 29, 30).

Brandstetter, R., Tagalen und Madagassen, Luzern 1902. (= his
Malayo-polynesiche Forschungen, ser. 2, no. 2).

Conant, C. E., The names of the Philippine languages. (Anthropos,
vol. 4).

The pepet law in the Philippine languages. (Anthropos, vol. 7).

de Coria, J., Nueva gramática tagalog. Madrid 1872.

Cue-Malay, G., Frases usuales para la conversacion en español tagalo
é ingles. Manila 1898.

Doherty, D. J., The Tagalog language. (Educational Review, vol. 24).

Durán, C. G., Manual de conversaciones en castellano tagalo é
inglés. Manila 1900.

Fernandez, D. E., Nuevo vocabulario ó manual de conversaciones en
español, tagalo y pampango. Binondo 1901.

Francisco [Blancas] de San Josef, Arte y Reglas de la lengua
Tagala. Manila 1832.

Garcia, F., at Herrera, V., Manga onang turo sa uikang inglés. Maynila

Gaspar de San Agustin, Compendio de la Lengua Tagala. Manila 1879.

Hévia Campomanes, J., Lecciones de gramática Hispano-Tagala. Manila
1872. 3d ed. 1883. 4th ed. 1888.

von Humboldt, W., Die Kawi-Sprache, vol. 2, pp. 315 ff., 347 ff. (=
Berlin Academy Transactions, 1832, vol. 3).

Kern, J. H. C., Over zoogenaamde verbindingsklanken in het
Tagala. (Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van
Nederlandsch-Indië, ser. 3, vol. 11).

Sanskritsche woorden in het Tagala. (ib., ser. 4, vol. 4).

Kirk, May, The Baldwin primer. Tagalog edition. New York [1899 and
1902 copyright].

Lendoyro, C., The Tagalog language. Manila 1902.

MacKinlay, W. E. W., A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog
language. Washington 1905.

Marre, A., Grammaire tagalog (Bijdragen, ser. 6, vol. 9).

Merrill, E. D., A dictionary of the plant names of the Philippine
Islands. Manila 1903. (Publications of the Bureau of Government
Laboratories, Department of the Interior, Philippine Islands, no. 8).

Miles, J., Método teórico-práctico y compendiado para aprender el
lenguaje Tagálog. Barcelona 1887.

Minguella, T., Ensayo de gramática Hispano-Tagala. Manila 1878.

Método práctico para que los niños y niñas de las provincias tagalas
aprendan á hablar Castellano. Manila 1886.

Neilson, P. D., English-Tagalog Dictionary. Manila 1903.

Tagalog-English Dictionary. Manila 1903.

Nigg, C., Tagalog English and English Tagalog Dictionary. Manila 1904.

de Noceda, J., y de Sanlucar, P., Vocabulario de la lengua
Tagala. Manila 1860.

Paglinawan, M., Balarilang Tagalog [on cover: Gramatikang Tagalog]
Maynila 1910.

Pardo de Tavera, T. H., Consideraciones sobre el origen del nombre
de los números en Tagalog (La España oriental 1889).

El Sánscrito en la lengua Tagalog. Paris 1887.

Rizal, José, Die Transcription des Tagalog. (Translated by
F. Blumentritt, Bijdragen, vol. 42).

de los Santos, Domingo, Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala. Manila 1835

Serrano, R., Diccionario de terminos comunes
Tagalo-Castellano. Ed. 3. Binondo 1869.

Nuevo diccionario manual Español-Tagalo. Manila 1872.

Serrano Laktaw, P., Diccionario Hispano-Tagalog. Primera parte. Manila

Diccionario Tagalog-Hispano. Segunda parte. Manila 1914.

de Totanes, S., Arte de la lengua Tagala. Manila 1745. Sampaloc
1796. Manila 1850. Binondo 1865 (reimpreso).

Wolfensohn, L. B., The infixes la, li, lo in Tagalog. (Journal of
the American Oriental Society, vol. 27).



Mínsan ang pagòng hábang nalìlígo sa ílog, ay nakàkíta syà nang isa
ng púno-ng-ságing na lumùlútang at tinátangày nang ágos. Hiníla niya
sa pasígan, dátapwat hindí nya madalà sa lúpa`. Dáhil díto tináwag
nya ang kaybígan niya ng unggò` at iniyálay nyà ang kapútol nang
púno-ng-ságing kung itátanim nyà ang kanyà ng kapartè. Tumangò` ang
unggò` at hináte nilà sa gitnà` mulá sa magkábila ng dúlo ang púno
nang ságing. Inangkìn nang unggò ang kapútol na máy manga dáhon,
dáhil sa panukálà nya na iyòn ay tùtúbo na mabúti káy sa kapútol na
wala ng dáhon.

Nang makaraàn ang ila ng áraw, ang púno nang unggò` ay namatày, yámang
ang sa pagòng ay tumúbo hanggàng sa magbúnga. Ang manga ságing ay
nahinòg, dátapwat hindí maakyàt nang pagòng. Dahil díto tináwag nyà
ang kanya ng kaybíga ng unggò` at inyálay nya ang ila ng búnga nang
ságing kung àakyatin nyà ang púno`. Ang unggò` ay umakyàt at kumáin
nang makàkáya.

Sinábi nang pagòng: "Hulúgan mo akò."

Dátapuwat isinagòt nang unggò`: "Balat màn at malinamnàm ay hindí
kita hùhulúgan."

Ang pagòng ay nagálit at nagsábug sya nang tinìk sa palígid nang
púno`. Nang lumuksò ang unggò ay nátinik syà. Pinagbintangan nyà ang
pagòng at kanya ng hinánap úpang parusáhan niyà. Nàhúli nya ang pagòng
sa kabilà nang isa ng toòd.

Sinábi nya sa pagòng: "Kità ay áki ng parùrusáhan. Mamíli ka sa
dalawà. Dikdikìn kità sa lusòng o lunúrin kità sa ílog?"

Ang marúnong na pagòng ay nagumpisà nang pagsisigàw at hinilìng nya
sa unggò` na, kung maàáre`, ay dikdikìn siya sa lusòng.

Dátapwat isinagòt nang unggò`: "Ibíbigay kò sa iyò ang parúsa na
hindí mo gustò."

At inihágis nya sa ílog ang pagòng.

Nang dumápo ang pagòng sa túbig ay nagsisigàw sya at sinábi nyà sa
unggò`: "Salámat, kaybígan. Itò ang áki ng tìráhan!"


Isà ng usà ng nangìngináin sa gúbat ay nakátagpò nang isa ng susò` na
gumàgápang sa dáhon nang búho`. Ang usà ay naghintò nang pangingináin
at pinagmasdàn nyà ang mabágal na paggápang nang susò`.

Makaraàn ang ila ng sandalì` ay sinábi nyà sa susò`: "Ano ng hína mo
ng lumákad! Bákit hindí ka magáral na lumákad nang matúlin? Gáya ko,
akù y paráti ng nàhàhábul nang manga áso, dátapwat ang matúlin ko ng
pagtakbò ay sya ng naglíligtàs sa ákin nang áki ng búhay. Dátapwat
gáya mò, kung ikàw ay habúlin nang káhit anò ng kaáway, papáno ang
mangyàyári sa iyo ng búhay? Pího ng ikàw ay màpàpatày."

Pagkárinig nang susò` sa manga salità ng itò ay tiningnàn nya ang usà
at kanya ng pinagarálan ang maínam nya ng pangangatawàn, ang kanya ng
mahahába ng paà, at ang malalakàs nya ng lamàn. Iníbig nya na siya màn
ay gaya rìn nang usà úpang siyà ay makatakbò nang matúlin. Dátapwat
kanyà ng inakálà` na, kung pilítin nya na sya y tumakbò, ay hindí
sya màhùhulè nang malakì sa usà.

Sa gayòn ay isinagot nyà sa usà: "Ikàw ay mapangmatà. Hindí
mo hinìhinálà` kung anò ang magágawa nang isa ng may matíbay na
paggustò. Hinàhámon kità na makipagtakbúhan sa ákin mula ríto hanggàng
sa ílog na nása bandà ng kalunúran mulà ríto."

Ang usà ay tumáwa nang malakàs at isinagòt sa susò`: "Bákit mo inakála
ng tàtalúnin mo akò? Sigúro ng ikàw ay magdàdáya`!"

Isinagòt nang susò`, na hindí siya magdàdáya`, at, úpang máy-roo
ng tumingìn sa kanilà at magìng hukòm sa kanila ng pagtatakbúhan,
ay sinábi nyà na tumáwag silà nang isà sa manga kayibígan nilà,
na sya ng magíging hukòm.

Ang usà ay pumáyag, at tináwag nilà ang isa ng kálaw, úpang siya ng
magìng hukòm.

Nang magumpisà silà nang pagtakbò ay malakì ang nagìng pagkáhuli nang
susò`. Sa kanyà ng pagtakbò ang usà ay nakáraàn nang isa ng mayábung
na damúhan. Naghintú sya úpang mangináin, yámang malakì ang pagkáuna
nya sa susò`. Binálak nyà na pagkátanaw nya na dumárating ang susò`
ay tátakbo syà ng mulì`. Dátapuwat, nang sya y makapangináin, ay
sinumpòng sya nang katàmáran. Natúlug sya sa panukálà na màgìgising
syà bágo dumatìng ang susò`.

Dátapwat, hábang sya y natùtúlog, ay nakaraàn ang susò`. Nang mágising
syà ay malálim nà sa hápon. Tumakbo syà nang úbus-lakàs patúngu sa
ílog, at doòn ay sinalúbong sya nang susò` at nang kanila ng hukòm
na kálaw.

"Ikàw ay talúnan," winíka pagdáka nang kanila ng hukòm.


Si Hwàn at ang kanyà ng kaybíga ng si Pédro ay namámangká sa ílug
patúngo sa báya-ng-Balíwag. Sa bangkà` ay máy-roon silà ng isà ng
laráwan nang Krísto na kanila ng iniháhatid sa páre`, úpang magámit sa
pagdadáus nang isa ng Pitù ng Wíka`. Si Hwàn ay sinìsiglàn nang tákot.

Sinábi nya kay Pédro: "Ang táwu nátin sa bangkà` ay tadtàd nang súgat
at hindí humíhingà. Sa akálà ko y patày ang táo ng iyàn. Baká táyu
ang pagbintangàn nang pári ng áti ng paghàhatdàn sa kanyà."

Isinagòt ni Pédro: "Sàsabíhin nátin sa kanyà na, nang màlúlan sa
áti ng bangkà` ang táo ng itò y ganyan nà ang kanya ng anyò`. Táyu
y marámi ng tagapagpatotoò, kanyá hwag kà ng matákot."

Nang dumatìng sila sa páre`, ay ibinigày nila ang laráwan. Pinagsabíhan
silà nang páre` na pumaroòn sila sa simbáhan kinàbukásan nang hápon,
úpang makinìg nang sèrmon.

Si Hwàn ay siniglà ng mulí nang tákot, sapagkàt hindí nya màpagkúro
kung bákit íbig nang páre` na silà ay pása simbáhan. Paráti sya ng
nakárinig nang manga táo ng kinumbidà sa simbáhan at doòn ay hinúli
nang gwàrdya-sibìl. Dátapuwat hindí sya nagwíka nang anu màn kay Pédro,
sapagkàt nàkìkíta nya na itò y walà ng tákot.

Kinàbukásan nang hápun ay naparoòn sila sa simbáhan, at doòn ay nàkíta
nilà ang isa ng Krísto ng nàpàpákù sa krùs.

Winíkà ni Hwàn: "Ang táu ng yaòn, kung iyò ng natàtandaàn, ay sya
náti ng inihatìd sa páre`. Mabúti táyo y dumoòn sa isa ng lugàr na
hindí maáabut nang matà nang páre`."

Kanyá silà ng dalawà ay naparoòn sa ilálim nang pùlpito, úpang doòn
nilà pakinggàn ang sèrmon. Nagumpisà ang Syéti-Palábras, at ang párì
ay dumárating nà sa bandà ng hulì nang kanya ng sèrmon.

Winíkà nang pári sa kanya ng sèrmon: "Magsísi kayò sa inyù ng manga
kasalánan, malulupìt na táo. Masdàn ninyò ang manga súgat na hiníwa
ninyù sa katawàn nang áti ng Mànanákop."

Pagkárinig nitò ni Hwàn ay sya y siniglà ng mulí nang tákot, sapagkàt
inakálà nya na siya y nàpàpagbintangàn.

Kanyà` ang ginawá nya ay umalìs sya sa ilálim nang pùlpito, hinaràp nya
ang páre`, at sinábi nya: "Ámong, hindí po kamì ang sumúgat sa táo ng
iyàn. Nang sya y ilúlan sa ámi ng bangkà`, ay sugatan nà sya antimáno."

Pagkawíkà nya nitò ay bumalìk sya sa ilálim nang pùlpito. Hindí
pinansìn nang párì` ang manga nárinig nya ng salità`, at ipinatúluy
nya ang kanya ng sèrmon.

"Dumating nà ang áraw na kayò ng manga makasalánan ay dápat
magsipagsísi. Ang manga pintúan nang lángit ay nábuksan nà sa
pagkamatày nang áti ng Mànanákop, at káhit na sínu ng makasalánan ay
makapàpásuk sa lángit, kung sila y magsipagsísi. Dátapwat, kung hindí
kayo magsipagsísi, ay màpàparusáhan kayò nang hírap na wala ng hanggàn
sa manga apùy sa infyèrno, dahilàn sa manga hírap na ipinasákit ninyò
sa áti ng Mànanákop. Masdàn ninyò ang kanyà ng katawàn na pumàpáwis
nang dugò`, ang kanya ng paà t kamày na nàpàpáko sa krùs, at ang kanyà
ng manga súgat mulá sa paà hanggàng úlo. Wala ng ibà ng nagpàpahírap
sa kanyà at sumúgat sa kanyà ng mahàl na katawàn, kung hindí kayò,
manga táwo ng makasalánan, at, kung hindí kayo magsipagsísi, ay
mahùhúlug kayo sa infyèrno!"

Si Hwàn ay hindí màpalagày, at inakálà nya na ang pári ay
sinìsilakbuhàn nang gálit lában sa kanyà.

Kanyà` hinarap nyà ng mulí ang páre`, at sinábi nya nang úbus-lakàs:
"Ámong, sinábi ko na pò` sa inyò kanína na hindí ako kasále ng sumúgat
sa táo ng iyán, kanyá hwag pò ninyo akò ng ipadalà sa impyèrno."

Ang pári ay siniglàn nang malakì ng gálit, kanyá sinábi nya sa mangà
nakíkinìg: "Anu ba kayò, manga ungàs na táo? Walá baga ní isa sa inyò
na makaháwak sa táo ng itò úpang bigtihìn?"

Pagkárinig nitò ni Hwàn ay tumakbo syà nang úbus-lakàs at sinagasáa
ng walà ng patumanggà ang manga táo ng nàlùluhòd at umíiyàk sa
pagsisísi nang kanilà ng kasalánan. Sinundan syà ni Pédro at silà ng
dalawà ay nagtakbúhan nang wala ng hintò hanggàng sa dumatìng sila
sa kanila ng báyan. At doòn ay ipinamalítà nila ang bútas-karáyum na
niligtasàn nilà.


Isa ng kúba` at isa ng bulàg ay matálik na magkaybígan. Kung sila
y naglálakàd ang kúba` ang umàákay sa bulàg. Ang bulàg namàn ay syà
ng pumápasàn sa kúbà kung máy-roon silà ng mahírap na nilàlakáran,
sapagkàt ang kúba` ay mahína` ang katawàn.

Mínsan sila y nakáraàn nang isà ng púno-ng-nyòg. Íbig nila ng pumitàs
nang búnga, dátapuwat hindí nila màláman kung síno sa kanilà ng
dalawà ang áakyàt sa púnò`. Sinábi nang bulàg na hindí sya makaáakyàt,
sapagkàt hindí nya màkìkíta kung alìn ang pìpitasín, yámang máy-roo
ng manga múra ng búnga. Ang kúba` ay hindi rìn íbig umakyàt, dahilàn
sa kanyà ng kahináan. Dátapuwat malakì ang pagkágusto nyà na kumáin
nang nyòg. Kanyà`, sa katapusàn ay sinábi nya na siyà ang áakyàt.

"Úpang huwag kà ng mànakáwan nang manga ilálaglag kò ng búnga, ay
bìbilángin mo nang malakàs ang kalabùg sa lúpa nang manga búnga na
ilálaglag kò, úpang áki ng matandaàn ang bílang."

Ang kúba ay nagumpisà nang pagakyàt, dátapwat pangangalahátì nya ay
nahúlug syà.

"Isà!" ang sábi nang bulàg.

Sinábi sa kanyà nang kúbà` na siyà ang kumalabòg at hindí ang búnga
nang nyòg.

Umakyàt sya ulè`. Pagkaraàn nang ila ng sandalì` ay nahúlog ulí sya.

"Dalawà!" isinigàw nang bulàg.

Ang kúba ay nagálit, at sinábi nya sa bulàg na syà ay maúlit.

Winíkà nya: "Iyo ng úna ng kumalabòg ay akò, ang ikalawà ay ako
rìn. Kanyà`, wala pà ng niyòg akò ng nàpìpitàs."

Dátapuwat ang bulàg ay nagakála ng gawì ng katatawanàn ang pagkahúlog
nang kúba`. Kanyá binálak nya na, kung makárinig syà ulè nang kalabòg,
ay sísigaw syà nang "Tatlò!"

Ang kúba ay umakyàt na mulì`, dátapwat nahúlog dìn syà. Ang bulàg
ay sumigàw nang "Tatlò!" at tumáwa sya. Ang kúba ay nagínit nang
gálit. Nilapítan nya ang bulàg at kanyà ng sinampàl sa mukhà`. Ang
sampàl ay tumáma sa manga matà nang bulàg, at dáhil díto ay nadílat
ang kanyà ng manga matà.

Úpang manghigantì sya ay sinípà nya ang kúba`. Tinamaan nyà itò sa
likòd at dáhil díto ay nàúnat ang kanya ng kúba`.

Silà ng dalawà ay natwá sa nangyári at lálo ng tumíbay ang kanila ng
pagkakaybígan sa lugàr nang magkasirá silà.


Sa isà ng kapuluwàn naghàhári ang isa ng táwu ng may dalawà ng maiiklì
ng súngay na nàtàtágù sa malagú nya ng buhòk. Hindí itò nàlàláman nang
kanya ng manga pinaghàharían. Dátapwat ang líhim na ytò y nagumpisà ng
nàibadyà sa madlà` sa pamamagítan nang manga manggugúpit na nakàpútul
nang kanyà ng buhòk.

Kanyá sya y nagkaroòn nang malaki ng gálit sa manga barbéro, at inakálà
nya ng lipúlin ang manga barbéro sa kanya ng kaharyàn. Iniyútus nya ng
humúkay nang ápat na malálim na balòn sa harapàn nang kanya ng tìráhan,
at sa gitná nang ápat na húkay na yitò ay nagpalagày sya nang isa ng
ùpúan. Isa ng áraw naupó sya sa taburéte sa gitná nang ápat na húkay,
at báwat táo ng nagdaàn ay tinanùng nya kung marúnung manggupìt. Ang
báwat sumagòt nang "Óo" ay pinahintú nya úpang bigyàn nya nang guntìng
at syà y gupitàn. Pagkaraàn nang ilà ng sandalì` ay itinanùng nya sa
báwat manggugúpit kung anò ang nàkìkíta nya sa úlo nang háre`. Ang
manga manggugúpit ay nagsipagsábi nang katotohánan at báwat isà
sa kanilà ay sumagòt nang súngay ang kanila ng nàkìkíta. Ang báwat
sumagòt nang ganitò ay ibinulìd nang háre` sa isà sa manga húkay sa
palígid niyà.

Nakaraàn ang ila ng áraw at ang dalawà ng húkay ay napunú nà nang manga
barbéro at pinatabúnan na nyà. Dumálang ang manga tao ng nagdádaàn
na marúnung manggupìt, at ang háre ay nagakála ng nápatay nà niya ng
lahàt ang manga barbéro sa kanyà ng kaharyàn.

Isa ng áraw ay naghintày sya sa kanya ng ùpúan hanggàng katanghalían
bágo nagdaàn ang isa ng táo na nagsábi ng sya y marúnung gumupìt
nang buhòk.

Itinanùng sa kanyà nang háre`: "Anò ang pangálan mo?"

Isinagòt nang táo: "Ang pangálan ko pò` ay Hwàn."

"Gupitàn mo akò, Hwàn," iniyútus nang háre`.

Lumápit si Hwàn sa háre` at inumpisahan nyà ang panggugupìt.

Makaraàn ang ila ng sandalì` ay itinanùng nang háre`: "Anò ang nàkìkíta
mo sa úlo ko, Hwàn?"

Ang kanya ng sagòt ay ganitò: "Ang iyo pò ng Kamàhálan, nàkìkíta ko
sa úlo ninyò ang koróna."

Itò ay ikinatuwá nang háre`. Kanyá nagtindig syà sa ùpúan at inákay
nya si Hwàn sa kanya ng palásiyo at ginawá nya si Hwàn na barbéro nang
háre`. Malakì ang suwèldu na ibinigày nya kay Hwàn, at pinatabúnan
nya ang manga nàtìtirà ng húkay.


Si Hwàn, si Pédro, at si Andrès ay tatlò ng magkakayibíga ng estudyànte
ng magkababáyan. Nang dumatìng ang pagbubukàs nang manga pàaralàn ay
nàláman nilà na silà ay magkàkahiwá-hiwalày. Iba t ibà ng báyan ang
kapàpatungúhan nang báwat isà sa kanilà. Bágo silà naghiwá-hiwalày
ay nagtìpánan silà nang pagtàtagpuàn nila ng lugàr paguumpisà nang

Nakaraàn ang isa ng taòn at dumatìng ang pagsasarà nang kláse at ang
manga estudyànte ay naguwían sa kaní-kanilà ng báyan, at ang tatlò
ng magkakaybíga ng si Pédro, si Hwàn, at si Andrès ay nagtatagpò sa
báya ng tinubúan ni Pédro, úpang doòn sila magpalípas nang bakasyòn.

Nang silà y magkikíta, pagkaraàn nang iba t ibà ng bágay na kanilà ng
pinagusápan, ay nagsiyásat silà kung ganò ang nàtutúhan nang báwat
isà sa kanila ng pagaáral nang wíka ng Kastíla`. Sinábi ni Pédro na
syà ay marámi ng nàlàláma ng salità ng Kastíla`, dátapuwat ang maígi
nya ng natàtandaàn ay ang salità ng "Bámos."

Sumagòt namàn si Hwàn: "Ako màn ay marámi rì ng nàlàláman, dátapuwat
sa ngayòn ang nààalaála ko ay ang salità ng 'Matàr.'"

Si Andrès namàn ay nagwíka ng walá sya ng nàtutúhan kung hindí ang
salità ng "Sì."

Makaraàn ang kanila ng pagsasàlitáan ay nagyayá si Pédro na sila
ay mamangká sa ílog at magsipalígo tulòy. Nang sila y namámangká na
sa ílog, sa pangpàng ay nakátanaw silà nang isà ng Kastílà` na íbig
malígo`. Sinábi ni Pédro na mabúti ay makipagúsap silà sa Kastíla`,
úpang sa gayù y màipakíta nilà ang kaní-kanilà ng dúnong.

Nagumpisà si Pédro at sinábi nya ng "Bámos!"

Si Hwàn namàn ay sumagòt: "Matàr!"

At sa hulè ay si Andrès ang kanya ng "Sì!"

Nang márinig itò nang Kastíla`, ay siniglàn sya nang tákot, sapagkàt
inakálà nya na pàpataìn sya nang tatlò ng namámangkà`. Kanyá, káhit na
hindí sya marúnung lumangòy, ay nagtalòn sya sa ílog at sya y nalúnod.


Tatlò ng magkakayibígan, isa ng párè`, isa ng manggagámut, at isa
ng sundálu, ay magkakasáma ng nagsipamarìl nang maiílap na háyup sa
isà ng maláwak na gúbat. Ang gúbat ay maláyù sa báyan. Kanyà` silà
ay nagdalà nang marámi ng báon, úpang hwag silà ng gutúmin.

Nakaraàn ang ila ng áraw, dátapuwat walá pa sila ng nàhùhúli káhit
anò. Ang kanila ng báon ay umuntí nang umuntì` hanggàng sa walà ng
nátira kung hindí isa ng hilàw na itlòg. Dumatìng sa kanilà ang áraw
nang malaki ng gútom, dátapuwat sila ng tatlò ay walà ng pagkáin kung
hindí ang itlòg lámang na nàtìtirà.

Sinábi nang páre` na, kung paghatían nilà ang isa ng itlòg, ay hindí
makabùbúti sa kanilà, sapagkàt hindí makapàpáwi` nang kaní-kanila ng
gútom. Kaniyà` ipináyu nang párì` na isà lámang sa kanilà ng tatlò ang
kumáin nang itlòg na nàtìtirà,--at sa kanya ng kasakimàn ay ipináyu
nya na kung sínu sa kanilà ang pinakamahúsay na magsalitá nang Latìn
ay sya lámang kàkáin nang itlòg. Inakálà nya na ang sundálu ay hindí
marúnung nang Latìn at ang médiko lámang ang sya nyà ng màkàkatálo,
at ang dúnong nitò y kanya ng minámatà.

Ang médiko y umáyun sa hátul nang párì`, dátapuwat ang sundálu ay áyaw
pumáyag, sapagkàt hindí sya nagáral na gáya nang pári` at nang médiko;
ngúnit walá sya ng magawà`.

Kinúha nang párì` ang itlùg at itinuktòk nya sa isa ng batò. Nang
mabásag ang itlòg ay sinábi nyà: "Koronátum est," at tiningnàn nyà
ang dalawà nya ng kasáma.

Inabùt nang médiko ang basàg na itlòg, inalis nyà ang balàt na basàg
at nilagyan nyà nang asìn at kanya ng sinábi: "Sàltum est."

Iniyabùt nang manggagámot sa sundálu ang itlùg, at ang páre at siyà ay
naghintày nang sàsabíhin nang sundálo. Itò y walà ng màláma ng sabíhin,
sapagkàt katunáya ng walá sya ng nàlàláman káhit isa ng hóta tungkùl sa
Latìn. Sa kanya ng pagiisìp ay nàalaála nya na, mínsan pumásuk sya sa
simbáhan úpang makinìg nang Syéti-Palábras, ay nárinig nyà sa párì` na
ang kahulugàn nang salità ng "Konsumátum est" ay "Tapus nà ang lahàt."

Kanyà ibinúhos nya sa kanyà ng bibìg ang itlòg, at pagkalaguk nyà ay
kanya ng sinábi: "Konsumátum est."

Ang dalawà nya ng kasáma ay nàpagúlat nang malakì sa hindí nila
hininála ng dúnung nang sundálo.


Isà ng magasáwa ay máy-roo ng pitù ng anàk na dwènde. Ang amà ay walà
ng trabáho at hindí rìn siya makàkíta nang trabáho. Ang inà namàn ay
hindí kumìkíta nang salapì`, sapagkàt mahína` ang kanyà ng katawàn
at paráti sa sakìt.

Isa ng tangháli` sila y nàùupú sa isa ng bangkò` at pinagùusápan nilà
ang kanila ng pamumúhay na pinagdàdaanàn. Itinanùng nang laláke kung
anò ang mabúte nila ng gawìn sa kanila ng maràmi ng anàk. Ipináyu
nang babáye na kanilà ng ihánap nang trabáho ang manga báta`, úpang
kumíta silà nang kwaltà. Dátapuwat isinagòt nang laláki na sa akálà
nya ay hindí sila makàkìkíta nang trabáho, sapagkàt siya rìn ay
wala ng màkíta. Kanyà` ipináyu nyà na ang mabúti ay itápun nilà ang
manga báta`.

Itò y ikinalungkòt at ikináiyàk nang babáye. Áyaw sya ng pumáyag
na itápon ang manga báta`. Dátapuwat ipinakíta sa kanyà nang kanyà
ng asáwa na, kung hindí nila gawìn iyòn, sila ng lahàt ay mamámatay
nang gútom. Sa kalaúnan ay pumáyag ang babáe at pinagkàsunduàn nila
na dalhìn nila ng magpasyàl ang manga báta` at kanila ng íwan sa daàn.

Hábang pinagùusápan nilà itò, ang ikapitù ng bátà ay nása isà ng
bitàk nang bangkò na kanila ng inùupàn at nárinig nya ng lahàt ang
gàgawin sa kanilà nang kanila ng magúlang. Pagkaraàn nang kanilà ng
sàlitáan ay hinánap pagdáka nang báta ang kanyà ng manga kapatìd at
ibinalítà nya ang kanya ng nárinìg. Silà ay nagìyákan, sapagkàt hindí
ipinaálam sa kanilà nang kanila ng magúlang na silà ay nakabíbigat
sa kanila ng pamumúhay. Inakálà nila na, kung itò y nàláman nilà,
káhit na papáno tùtúlong sila ng maghánap nang kabuháyan. Dátapuwat
pinagkàsunduwan nilà na silà y sumáma pag niyáyà sila ng magsipagpasyàl
at paligàw silà.

Kinàbukásan hinánap silà nang kanilà ng amà, pinapagbíhis
sila, binigyàn sila nang manga púto, at sinábi ng sila y
magsísipagpasyàl. Nang silà y magumpisà ang ikapitò ng báta ay
hindí kináin ang kanya ng tinápay, dátapuwat magmulá sa kanila ng
tàrangkáhan ay dinúrog nya ang tinápay at ibinudbòd nya sa daà ng
kanila ng nilakáran. Nang sila y málayú nà ay naubúsan sya nang
tinápay, kanyá nanghingí sya sa kanya ng manga kapatìd. Dátapwat
hindí nila syà binigyàn. Itò namàn ay hindí sinábi sa kanilà kung
bákit sya naubúsan agàd nang tinápay. Nang hindí sya makáhingì nang
tinápay ay namúlot sya nang manga batò, at itò y sya nyà ng isa-isà
ng inilaglàg sa kanila ng pinagdaánan.

Nang dumatìng sila sa isa ng gúbat ay iníwan silà nang kanilà
ng magúlang at pinagsabíhan silà na hantayìn sila doòn, at silà y
bábalik agàd. Silà y naíwan, dátapwat nàlàláman nilà na hindí sila
pagbàbalikàn nang kanila ng magúlang.

Nang makaraàn ang ila ng sandalì`, ay nakárinig silà nang isa ng
íngay. Pinuntahàn nilà ang lugàr na pinanggàgalíngan nang íngay. Doòn
ay nàkíta nilà ang isa ng malakì ng higànte na nalìlígo sa tabi nang
isa ng balòn. Tiningnàn nila ang palígid-lígid nang lugàr, at sa
tabì nang isa ng káhuy ay nàkíta nilà ang pananamìt nang higànte. Ang
ikapitù ng bàta ay pinaalìs ang kanya ng manga kapatìd at sinábi nya
na magtágo silà at kanyà ng nànakáwin ang sapátos nang higànte. Itò
ay kanila ng ginawà`, at ninákaw nang báta ang sapátos.

Nang makapalígo` ang higànte at siyà y nagbìbíhis ay hindí nya màkíta
ang kanya ng manga sapátos. Sya y nagálit at nagmurà. Tumáwag sya nang
túlong. Nang itò y márinìg nang numákaw nang sapátos ay dali-dáli sya
ng dumalò. Nang màkíta sya nang higànte ay hindí sya pinagbintangàn,
sapagkàt dahilàn sa kanya ng kaliitàn ay inakálà nang higànte ng
hindí nya madádala ang sapátos.

Kanyà` itò y nagwíka sa kanyà: "Kung iyo ng dàdalhìn ito ng súpot ko
nang kwaltà sa áki ng asáwa at pabilhìn mo syà nang sapátos at ihatìd
nya sa ákin, ay ùupáhan kità nang marámi ng kwàlta."

Sinábi tulòy nya na sya y hindí nakalàlákad nang wala ng sapátos,
kanyá sya y magmadalì`. Nang màkúha nya ang súpot nang kwaltà ay
ipinangákù nya ng bábalik syà agàd. Dátapwat, nang málayo sya, ay
tináwag nya ang manga nàtàtágù nya ng kapatìd, at nang sila y maípon ay
nagyayá sya ng umuwè`. Dátapwat isinagòt nang kanya ng manga kapatìd
na hindí nila nàlàláman ang daà ng pauwè`. Ngúnit kanyà ng isinagòt
na tùtuntunìn nilà ang kanya ng inilaglàg na batò at tinápay sa daàn.

Sinábi nang isà nyà ng kapatìd na, kung nàláman nya kung anò ang
kanya ng ginawà` sa tinápay, ay binigyàn sána nya syà nang syà y
manghingì`. Kanilà ng ikinalungkòt ang ipinakíta nila ng karamútan
sa kanila ng kapatìd.

Hindí naláon at nàtagpuan nilà ang hiléra nang manga batò sa daàn. Itò
y tinuntòn nila at nakaratìng sila sa kanila ng báhay, dalà nilà
ang súpot nang kwaltà na kanila ng ibinigày pagdáka sa kanila ng
magúlang. Silà y nangatwá at nangalungkòt dahilàn sa kanilà ng malì
ng inásal sa manga anàk,--sila y natwá sapagkàt máy-roon sila ng
ikabùbúhay sa maláo ng panahòn.


Noò ng tagáraw nang taò ng míle-nobisyèntos-dòs, hábang ang manga
hinòg na búnga nang káhoy ay nangakabiyábit sa manga sangà, lumagánap
ang balíta sa boo ng báyan nang San-Antónyo na máy-roo ng aswàng na
naglílibot sa báyan.

Ang manga táo-ng-San-Antónyo sa manga taò ng iyòn ay may paniniwála`
sa manga núno`, aswàng, dwènde, at iba pà ng katatakutàn. Karamíhan sa
kanilà y hindí nagkapálad na makapagáral, dátapwat, káhit na ganitò ang
kalàgáyan nila, sila y manga táwo ng mababaìt, matahímik, at masisípag.

Ang manga báhay sa báya ng itò ay maliliìt at nayàyárì nang páwid at
kawáyan. Máy-roon dì ng ila ng báhay na tablà. Karamíhan ay nàtàtayò
sa malalakì ng bakúran, at ang dulúhan nang bakúran ay nàtàtamnàn
nang manga púno-ng-káhoy na masasaràp ang búnga, gáya nang tsíko,
súha`, santòl, mabúlo, manggà, at iba pà.

Kasalukúya ng nagkàkahinòg ang manga búnga-ng-káhuy na ytò nang
lumagánap ang balíta na may-roòn nà ng ila ng gabì na nàmatáan nang ila
ng babáe ang aswàng sa ibà t iba ng dulúhan. Ang manga báta at manga
babáe ay siniglàn nang malakì ng tákot, kanyá pagkagàt nang dilìm ay
agad-agàd silà ng nagsipanahímik sa loòb nang báhay. Karamíhan nang
manga laláki ay nangatákot dìn, dátapwat máy-roo ng ila ng nagsipagsábi
na sila y hindí natàtákot, sapagkàt hindí pa sila nakátagpo nang
aswàng, at sa ganitò y hindí nila nàlàláman kung dápat katakútan
ang aswàng.

Ang aswàng ay isa ng táo ng malakì ang kapangyaríhan. Nakapagìiba-t-ibà
sya nang pangangatawàn. Kung mínsan ay may katawàn siya ng pára ng táo,
dátapwat maitèm, kung mínsan siya y isa ng malakì ng áso o báboy. Sya
y nangàngáin nang táo, lálù nà nang manga báta`. Dátapuwat ang lálo ng
mahalagà nya ng pagkáin at sya rìn namàn nyà ng karanyúa ng kinàkáin
ay ang báta ng hindí pa naipangánganàk at násàsa tiyàn pa lámang nang
kanya ng inà. Kanyá ang manga buntìs na babáye sa báya ng yaòn ay
lálo ng malakì ang tákot. Hindí nila pinatúlog ang kanila ng asáwa
sa pagbabantày sa kanila ng tabì. Ang aswàng ay mahírap mápatay nang
patalìm o barìl, sapagkàt máy-roon sya ng íisa lámang na lugàr na
dápat màtamaàn o masugátan úpang sya y mápatày, at ang lugàr na ytò
ay lihìm. Ang bágay lámang na kanya ng inìilágan ay ang báwang. Kanyá
itò y malakì ng kagamitàn sa pagpapaláyas nang aswàng.

Dátapwat isà ng bágay na nakapagtátakà sa aswàng na iyòn ay ang kanyà
ng inugáli ng pagtitirà sa manga dulúhan nang bakúran. Katakà-takà rìn
ang bágay na manga dalága ang karamíhan nang nagsipagsábi ng nàmatáan
nilà sa dulúhan sa itaàs nang súha` o iba pà ng púno-ng-káhoy ang
aswàng na iyòn. Ila ng táo ng matalíno ay nagsábi ng ang bintàng nilà
y isa ng magnanákaw at hindí aswàng ang pinagkàkatakutà ng iyòn.

Isa ng polìs na may hindí karanyúa ng tápang ay siya ng tumiktìk sa
aswàng na itò sa dulúha ng bágo ng kinakitáan sa kanyà. Pagdilìm ay
nároon na syà sa kanya ng kublíhan. Hindí nalaúnan at dumatìng ang
aswàng, umakyàt sa isa púno-ng-súha`, at nárinig niya ng pumitàs nang
marámi ng búnga. Itò y bumába` at umalìs, dátapwat sya y sinundàn
nang pulìs hanggàng sa báhay na kanya ng pinasúkan.

Malakì ang nagìng pagkàgúlat nang polìs, nang díto nàmálas nya ng ang
kápwa nya polìs nabàbálot nang maitìm na kúmot, at ang súpot na itìm
na punò nang súha` ay kasalukúyan pa lámang niya ng inilálapàg.

Niyáyà nya sa munisípyo ang kápwa nya polìs, at doòn kinàbukásan
ipinagsumbòng nyà sa presidènte. Ang polìs na nagaswang-aswángan ay
nábilanggò dahilàn sa sála ng pagnanákaw.


Isà ng gabì sa isà ng báhay na pàngaserahàn nang ilà ng manga
nagsìsipagáral sa báya-ng-Malólos ay nárinig ko ng isinalaysày nang
isà ng matandà` na may gúlang na siyàm na pù ng taòn sa isà ng umpúkan
ang sumúsunòd.

Noò ng sya y bágo ng táwu pa lámang ay sa búkid sya nagtítirà. Íilan
lámang silà ng magkakápit-báhay. Isa ng áraw ay namatayàn ang isa nyà
ng kápit-báhay. Sa pagsunòd sa isa ng matandà ng kaugaliàn ay dumalo
syà sa kápit-báhay na may hápis.

Nang dumatìng sya doòn ay hindí nalaúnan at nàbalitáan nyà na may
aswàng sa kanila ng lugàr. Syà ay may malakì at katutúbo ng gálit sa
manga aswàng, kaniyá inakálà nya ng magbantày nang gabì ng iyòn.

Nang malálim nà ang gabì ay nanáog sya sa báhay at sa isa ng karitò
ng dí maláyo sa báhay, doòn sya nahigà`. Kabilúgan nang bwàn nang
gabi ng iyòn, kanyà malínaw ang pagkàkíta nya sa manga bágay sa
palìgid-lígid. Walá sya ng nàmálas na màpaghìhinaláa ng isa ng aswàng,
kanyá sya y natúlog.

Kinàháti-ng-gabihàn ay nágising syà at ang úna ng tinamaàn nang kanyà
ng manga matà ay isà ng bágay na maitìm sa bubungàn nang báhay nang
kinamatayàn. Ang maitìm na iyòn ay walá roon bágo sya natúlog, kaniyá
nagbintang syà na iyòn ay ang aswàng na nàbalitáan nyà. Ang aswàng
ay nangàngáin nang patày na táo, kanyà sinapantáhà nya na ang patày
ang sadyá doòn nang aswàng na iyòn.

Pumanhìk sya sa báhay at dalà nyà ang isa ng gúlok. Ang manga táo
y natùtúlog. Sa itaàs ay may-roon syà ng nàkíta ng isa ng bágay na
nakalawìt mulá sa bubungàn nang báhay. Itò y gáya nang bitúka nang
manòk. Humábà nang humába`, hanggàng sa ang dúlo y pumások sa bibìg
nang patày. Ang patày ay nagtindìg sa kanyà ng kinàlàlagyàn pagkapások
sa kanya ng bibìg nang bágay na iyòn.

Ang ginawá nang bágo ng táo ay lumápit siya sa nakatindìg na patày at
sa pamamagítan nang dala nyà ng gúlok ay pinútol niya ang bágay na iyòn
na pára ng bitúka nang manòk. Nang itò y mapútol ay may kumalabòg sa
tabì nang báhay. Nanáog siya at doòn ay nàkíta nya ang patày na aswàng.


Sa ilà ng poòk sa Filipínas ay may lubòs na paniniwálà sa mangkukúlam
ang manga táo. Áyon sa kanila ng paniwála` ang mangkukúlam ay isa ng
táo ng may malakì ng kapangyaríhan at ang kapangyaríha ng itò y gáling
sa dimóniyo o kayà y mána sa magúlang. Bágo màkamtàn ang kapangyaríha
ng iyòn ang isà ay dápat múna ng makipagkayibígan at magsilbè sa
dimóniyo. Dátapwat may ilan dì ng nanìniwála ng nàpùpúlot o naàágaw
ang kapangyaríha ng iyòn sa gúbat o ilàng na lugàr na mahírap puntahàn
at karanyúwa y pinagkàkatakutàn.

Ang kúlam ay siyà ng naàágaw, nàmàmána, o ibiníbigay nang dimóniyo, at
iyò y sya ng pinanggàgalíngan nang kapangyaríhan nang nagmème-áre`. Ang
hitsúra nang kúlam ay hindí parè-parého. Kung mìnsan ay isa ng batò o
isa ng maníka ng maliìt at masamà` ang hitsúra. Kung madilìm ang kúlam
na itò y nagníningnìng na pára ng alitaptàp, dátapwat ang ningnìng
na itò y nawáwalà namàn pag inìbig nang kúlam. Ang kúlam at ang táo,
káhit laláki o babáe, na nagàári sa kanyà ay hindí naghíhiwalày káhit
isà ng sandalè` at káhit na sa pagpalígo` ay dinádala nang mangkukúlam
ang kanya ng kúlam. Dáhil díto ang manga táo ng mapagsyásat, pag
íbig nilà ng màpagkilála kung mangkukúlam ngà` o hindì` ang isa ng
táo ng kanila ng pinaghìhinaláan, ay sinùsubúkan nila itò sa kanyà
ng pagpalígo`. Kung hindí maíngat at walà ng hinálà ang mangkukúlam
na syà y sinùsubúkan, kung mínsan ay nagkàkapálad ang nanùnúbok na
màkíta nya ang kúlam.

Ang mangkukúlam ay may kapangyaríhan dì ng itágo` sa loòb nang kanyà
ng katawàn ang kúlam, at hindi bihíra` ang manga táo ng nakàkíta nang
mangkukúlam sa kanya ng pagkamatày. Sa kàhulì-hulíha ng sandalì`,
bágo malagòt ang hiningà, inilúluwa nilà ang kúlam.

Itò y nangyàyári lámang kung áyaw ipamána nang mangkukúlam ang kanyà
ng kúlam. Kung ipinamàmána namàn itò, malwat pà bágo mamatày ang
mangkukúlam ay tinàtáwag na nyà ang kanyà ng íbig pamanáhan, at díto
y líhim na líhim nya ng ibiníbigay ang kúlam.

Ang malakì ng kapangyaríhan nang mangkukúlam ay ginàgámit nya lában sa
kanya ng manga kaáway, sa manga táo ng kanyà ng kinagàgalítan, o kayà
y sa manga háyop nilà, kung siya nyà ng íbig panghigantihàn. Gayon
dìn ginàgámit nya ang kanya ng kapangyaríhan sa pangbibíro` sa isa
ng táo o háyop na kanya ng màkatwaàn.

Ang kanyà ng pinasàsakítan kadalasà y nagáanyo ng pára ng ulòl. Kung
mínsan ang kanya ng kinùkúlam ay dumádaing na masakìt ang kanya ng buò
ng katawàn, nagsísisigàw, at hindí màtahímik káhit isà ng sandalè`. Sa
háyop namàn karanyúwa y ang bábuy na pinakamahalagà sa may ári`,
ang kanya ng ibiníbigay na parúsa ay gáya nang sakìt na kólera,
dátapuwat lálu ng mabagsìk káy sa ríto. Ang pagdumì nang háyop ay
wala ng patìd, at pagkaraàn nang ilà ng óras, káhit na gáno katabà`
ang háyop, ay nagíging butò t balàt. Ang táo ng nàkùkúlam nya ay
malakàs kumáin, katimbàng nang dalawà katáo, at mapanghilìng nang
masasaràp na pagkáin. Dáhil díto ang paniwála nang manga táo y kasálo
ng kumàkáin nang máy sakit ang mangkukúlam na nagpàparúsa sa kanyà.

Ang mangkukúlam ay may kapangyaríha ng pumaloòb sa katawàn nang
kanyà ng kinùkúlam. Itò y sya ng paniwála`, dátapuwat kung papáno
ang paraàn nang pagpások nang mangkukúlam at kung saàn sya pumàpások
sa katawàn nang kanya ng kinùkúlam ay walà ng nakààalàm. Ngúnit ang
kanya ng nilàlabasàn ay ang hintutúro`. Ang bágay na itò ay malakì ng
kabuluhàn úkol sa paggamòt sa nàkùkúlam at gayon dìn sa pagpaparúsa
sa mangkukúlam.

Káhit na malakì ang kapangyaríhan nang mangkukúlam ay mayroon dìn sya
ng kinatàtakútan, karanyúwa y ang manga táo ng malalakàs, matápang,
at wala ng paniwálà sa kapangyaríhan nang mangkukúlam at iba pà ng
pinagkàkatakutàn nang manga iba ng táo. Dáhil díto y hindí bihíra`
na ang isà ng táo y pamagatà ng "médiko-ng-mangkukúlam" pagkaraàn
nang úna o ikalawà nya ng pagpapagalìng nang táo sa sakìt na itò.

Mínsan ay nárinig ko ng magbalíta` ang isa ng táo ng nakàkíta
nang panggagamòt nang táo ng nàkùkúlam. Ang táo ng itò y may isa
ng kápit-báhay na may anàk na dalága. Sa dalága ng itò y marámi ng
manglilígaw, at ang isà sa kanilà y pinaghìhinaláa ng mangkukúlam. Sa
kasamaà-ng-pálad nitò ay nagìng isa syà sa manga hindí nátanggàp. Sa
malakì nya ng gálit ay magkasunòd nya ng kinúlam ang babáye at laláki
ng magkaìbígan.

Inúna nya ang babáye at ito namà y agàd na itináwag nang
médiko-ng-mangkukúlam nang kanyà ng manga magúlang. Nang dumatìng ang
médiko at nàkíta nya ang máy sakìt, ay sinábi nya ng nàkùkúlam ngà`
ang babáye.

Sinábi nya sa manga táo doòn na hwàg paàaláman sa nàkùkúlam na syà y
nàròroòn sa báhay. Pag itò y nàláman nang máy sakìt, ay màlàláman dìn
nang mangkukúlam na nása loòb nang kanya ng katawàn, at makaáalis agàd
ang mangkukúlam. Ang médiko y lumápit na hindí nàmaláyan nang babáye,
at pagdáka y tinangnan nyà nang mahigpìt ang dalawà ng hintutúro`
nang babáye. Itò y lálo ng inilakàs ang pagsigàw, at kuminìg na pára
ng isa ng natàtákot.

Ang mangkukúlam, áyon sa paniwálà nang manga táo, ay sya ng
nakàràramdàm nang ano mà ng pasákit na ibigày sa katawàn nang kanyà
ng kinùkúlam hábang sya y násàsa loòb nang katawàn nitò. Gayon dìn,
kung kausápin ang máy sakìt, ay siyà ang sumásagòt.

Dáhil díto y itinanòng pagdáka nang médiko: "Anò ang ginágawá mo
ríto, salbáhe?"

Ang máy sakit ay hindí kumibò`, dátapwat nagpílit na magkawalà`. Ang
ipinakíta nya ng lakàs ay hindí karanyúwa ng lakàs nang babáye.

Dátapuwat hindí sya pinawalàn nang médiko, at itò y tumanòng na mulì`:
"Anò ang ginágawá mo ríto? Bákit ka naparíto? Pag hindí ka sumagòt,
ay pahìhirápan kità."

Ang babáye ay nagmàmakaáwa ng sumagòt: "Walá po`, hindí na po` úulè`,
pawalan pò` ninyo akò, at akò y nahìhirápan nà."

"Pawalàn kità?" itinanòng agàd nang médiko, "Mangákù ka múna sa ákin
na hindí ka na bábalik."

"Hindí na pò` akò bábalik," ang sagòt nang babáye.

"Pag nàhúle kità ulè` díto, ay pàpatayìn kità. Hwag kà ng
salbáhe. Tumahímik ka sa iyò ng báhay."

"Ó po`, ó po`, hindí na pò` akò bábalik. Pawalàn na pò ninyo akò!"

Hábang ang sàlitáa ng itò y nangyàyári ang babáye ay nagpìpílit
na magkawalà`, íbig nya ng mabitíwan nang médiko ang kanya ng
hintutúro`. Pagkapangáko nang babáye ay binitíwan nang médiko
ang dalawà nya ng hintutúro`. Ang mukhá nang babáye na dáti ay
nagpàpakilála nang malakì ng paghihírap ngayò y nàhúsay, at sya y pára
ng gága na pinagsa-ulàn nang pagiísip. Sya ay tumahímik, pinútol ang
pagsisigàw, at nàkaúsap nang matwìd.

Ang laláki namàn ay nàtìtirà sa isa ng báya ng malápit. Nang sya y
kinùkúlam nà ay itináwag sya nang manggagámot nang kanya ng kapatìd
na laláke. Sa kalakhàn nang gálit nang kapatìd na ytò ay sya nyà ng
tináwag ang manggagamòt na mabagsìk at malupìt sa pagtaráto nya sa
mangà mangkukúlam.

Líhim na dumatìng ang manggagámot sa báhay nang máy sakìt. Mulá sa
kanya ng kublíhan ay piního múna nya kung ang mangkukúlam ay násàsa
katawàn ngà` nang máy sakìt. Itò y nàpagkìkilála sa pagsisigàw,
pagkílos, at pananalità ng hindí tulà-tulà` nang máy sakìt. Ang
manggagamòt ay nagpatalìm nang isà ng gúlok at pagkatápos ay maligsì
sya ng tumakbò sa tabì nang máy sakìt. Tinangnan nyà ang dalawà
ng hintutúro nitò, dinaganàn nya ang katawàn, at tinagá nya ng
makáilan ang mukhá nang máy sakìt. Itò y nagsisigàw at nagkawalà`,
dátapwat nang makawalá sya y may manga súgat na ang kanyà ng mukhà`
at ang dugò y umàágos na wala ng patìd. Walà ng kibú sya iníwan nang
manggagamòt. Hinánap nitò ang kapatìd nang sugatàn at kanya ng sinábi
na hwag pansinìn ang manga súgat nang kanya ng kapatìd, at kinàbukása
y mawáwala` iyòn at màlìlípat sa mangkukúlam, sapagkàt dinatnàn nya
itò sa katawàn nang kanyà ng kapatìd. Kinàbukásan ay pinarunàn nang
médiko ang kanya ng ginamòt nang patalìm, at malakì ang tuwá nya nang
itò y màkíta nya ng mahúsay at wala ng bakas-súgat sa mukhà`. Pagkaraàn
nang ila ng áraw nàbalitáan nilà na isa ng mangkukúlam sa kápit-báyan
nilà ay malubhà` ang lagày dahilàn sa pagdudugò ng hindí maampàt nang
manga súgat nya sa mukhà`.

Máy-roon dìn namà ng mangkukúlam na maligsì at hindí na paaábot
sa manggagamòt. Ang manggagamòt namàn ay kinàkayilánga ng bihása`
at maligsì. Ang káhit síno y maàári ng gumamòt sa isà ng nàkùkúlam,
yámang walá namà ng ibà ng panggamòt kung hindì` ang pagpapahìrap
sa katawàn nang nàkùkúlam. Dátapuwat malakì ang pangánib, sapagkàt,
kung hindí maligsì, dahilàn sa kawalàn nang sánay, ang gumágamòt,
maàári ng makawalà` ang mangkukúlam. Kung magkágayo y ang nàkùkúlam
mìsmo ang maghìhírap dahilàn sa parúsa. Mínsan ay máy nàbalíta ng
nangyári na gáya nitò ng sumúsunòd.

Ang isà sa dalawà ng magkapatìd na laláki ay kinúlam nang kanya ng
karibàl sa paglígaw. Walà ng màtáwag na médiko-ng-mangkukúlam. Sa
malakì ng áwà sa kanyà nang kanya ng kúya ay tinalagà nitò ng
gamutìn sya káhit na walá sya ng pagkasánay. Hindí ngá sya sanày,
dátapwat madalàs nya ng nàpakinggàn sa manga manggagamòt ang paraàn
nang paggamòt. Isa ng hápon, nang inakálà nya ng nása loòb na namàn
nang katawàn nang kanyà ng kapatìd ang mangkukúlam, ay sinunggabàn
nya agàd ang isa ng gúlok at pagkálapit nyà sa kanya ng kapatìd ay
tinagá nya itò nang walà ng tuòs. Kinàbukásan sa lugàr nang màkíta
nya ng magalìng at wala ng súgat ang kanyà ng kapatìd itò y bangkày
na lámang. Ang mangkukúlam ay nakawalà`.


Ang laro ng sípà sa Estádos-Unídos at sa Filipínas ay lubhà ng malakì
ang pagkakáibà. Sa lugàr nang dalawà ng pangkàt na nagtàtálo ang
nagsìsipaglarò` na gáya nang fùtbol, sa sípà ay isà ng pangkàt lámang
ang naglálarò`. Sa sípà ang hangàd nang nagsìsipaglarò ay hindí ang
talúnin ang isa ng kaáway, dátapuwat ang huwàg bayáa ng lumagpàk sa
lúpà ang bóla o sípa`.

Ang bóla ng gámit ay malakì ng malaki rìn ang kaibhàn. Itò y nayàyárì
nang yantòk na tinilàd at nilála ng pabilòg. Walà ng lamàn ang loòb,
at ang manga matà nang sulihiyà ay malalakè. Dáhil díto ay magaàn
ang sípa`, hindí gáya nang bòla ng gámit sa bèsbol.

Mulá sa dalawà hanggàng sa dalawà ng pù` ang bílang nang
nagsìsipaglarò`. Kung silà ay marámi ang áyos ay pabilòg. Úpang
umpisahàn ang paglalarò` isà sa manga kasále ay ihiníhitsà ang sípa
na paitaàs at patúngo sa isà sa manga nagsìsipaglarò`, karanyúwa y sa
isà ng katapàt nyà. Ang táo ng hinitsahàn nang sípa` ay ipinabábalik
itò sa naghágis sa kanyà, hindí nang kanya ng kamày, dátapwat nang
kanya ng paà.

Kung ang manga nagsìsipaglarò ay marurúnong, napapúpunta nilà ang
pelóta sa káhit na síno sa manga kasále, kayà t báwat isà sa kanilà
ay nakaabàng at naghíhintay nang pagdatìng nang sípa`. Ang báwat isà
ay nagìíngat na hwàg bayáa ng lumagpàk sa lúpa ang pelóta. Kadalasàn
ang manga nagsísipaglarò ay nagpàpakíta nang sarì-sári ng áyus nang
pagsípa`. Ang manga magandà ng pagbabaluktòt nang paà sa harapàn
o likuràn, ang maligsì at magaà ng lundàg, ang banáyad at magaà ng
pagsípà sa pelóta, at ang pagpapadalà nang sípà sa káhit na alì ng
bandà ay manga bágay na nagpàpagandà sa laro ng sípa`. Hindi rìn
bihíra na ang balíkat, ang síko, ang túhod, o ang kamày ay sya ng
ginàgámit sa pagpapabalìk nang pelóta.

Papáno ang pagkakatalò sa larò ng itò? Itò y maàári lámang sa
pagpapàtagálan nang hindí paglagpàk nang sípà sa lúpa`.

Kung halimbáwa y íbig makipaglában nang isa ng pangkàt nang manga
màninípa o sipéros sa ybà ng pangkàt, ang úna y manghàhámon sa alin mà
ng pangkàt na kanila ng màpíle`. Kung itò y tanggapìn, ang áraw, óras,
at lugàr nang paglalarò ay agad nà ng nàbàbalíta sa manga pàhayagàn.

Sa óras nang paglalarò` ay hindí íilan lámang na líbo ng táo ang
nagsísipanoòd. Ang manghahámun karanyúwa y umùúpa nang isa ng
bànda-ng-músika at tinùtugtugàn ang báwat pangkàt sa kanilà ng
paglalarò`. Karanyúwa y dalawà ng bànda ang músika, sapagkàt, kung
ang hinámon ay may kauntì ng gílas, ay íbig dìn namàn nilà ng ipakíta,
at dáhil díto y nagdádala silà nang saríle nilà ng bànda nang músika.

Pagkaraàn nang larò` ang hukòm ay syà ng nagpàpaháyag sa manga nanúnoòd
kung alì ng pangkàt ang nanálo. Pagkárinig nilà nang paháyag nang
hukòm ay agad-agàd inùumpisahàn ang pagisìgáwan at manga pagpúri sa
nanálo ng pangkàt. Ang mànanalò ng pangkàt at ang kanila ng manga
kaybígan magkakasáma ng tinùtugtugàn nang kanila ng bànda nang músika
ay agàd-agàd na nagpàpaséyo sa manga lugàr na malápit sa kanilà
ng pinaglaruàn. Kinàbukásan ang lahàt nang nangyári ay nàkìkíta sa
manga pàhayagàn.

Ang ganitò ng manga paglalarò nang sípa ay hindí karanyúwan sa manga
báya ng maliliìt sa provìnsiya, dátapuwat sa malalakì lámang na báyan,
gáya nang Mayníla` at iba pà.


Sa báya-ng-San-Migèl ay máy-roo ng nagtirà ng isa ng táo noò ng manga
hulì ng áraw nang panahòn nang Kastìla`. Ang táo ng itò y nagáral
at sa kanya ng katalinúhan ay nàintindihan nyà ang manga masamà ng
palákad nang manga kúra na sya ng manga maliliìt na háre sa kanila
ng bayàn-bayàn.

Sa San-Migèl ang kúra ng nàdistíno ay isa ng mabagsìk at maínit ang
úlo. Ang táwag sa kanyà nang manga táo ay "si Patúpat."

Isa ng linggo ang táwu ng nábanggìt sa itaàs nitò ay naparoòn sa
simbáhan úpang makinìg nang sèrmon nang páre`. Sapagkàt ang pári ng
itò ay nagakála ng manga walà ng pinagarálan ang kanyà ng sinèsèrmunan
ay hindí sya nagpílit na makapagsalità ng matwìd nang Tagálog. Ang
kanya ng pananalità` ay walà ng púno t dúlo, at halù-hálo ng pára
ng kalámay. Gayon dìn ang kanya ng isinèsèrmun ay hindí nàìibà sa
infiyèrno, purgatóriyo, manga salbáhi ng táo-ng-báyan, at katapusàn
nang mundò.

Nang ang sèrmon nya ay nagumpisa nà, pumások sa simbáhan ang áti ng
kaybíga ng si Pransìsko.

Gáya nang karanyúwan inumpisahàn nang kúra ang kanya ng sèrmon sa
ganitò ng pananalità`: "Manà kapatìr-konkristyános!"

May ápat na pu ng taòn na sya sa lúpa ng Katagalúgan, ay hindí pa
nya nàtutúha ng sabíhi ng matwìd ang "Mangà kapatìd-Kongkristyános."

Si Pransìsko ay nàtàtayú sa isa ng lugàr na malápit sa pùlpito,
pinakinggàn nya ng mabúte ang sèrmon na noò y wala ng ibà kung hindí
ang makàlìlíbo nà ng inúlit nang pári ng itò, at iyò y úkul sa manga
hírap sa infiyèrno at purgatóriyo at pagtutúlus nang kandíla` at
pagbibigày nang kwàlta sa simbáhan úpang màligtasàn ang manga hírap
na iyòn. Si Pransìsko ay siniglàn nang malakì ng gálit, sapagkàt
nàpagkilála nya na nilòlóko nang páre ang kanyà ng manga táo, at walá
sya ng ibà ng pákay kung hindí ang takútin lámang ang manga namàmáyan
úpang kanilà ng payamánin ang simbáhan at manga kúra.

Pagkaraàn nang sèrmon ay hindí umwé si Kíko na gáya nang karanyúwan,
dátapuwat hinantày nya ng matápus ang mísa. Pagkaraàn nitò y nagpáiwan
syà sa simbáhan. Kumúha sya nang manga papèl at sumúlat sya sa páre
nang ganitò:

"Ámong, nárinìg ko pò` ang inyu ng sèrmon kanína ng
umága. Nàpagkìkilála ko na kayò y nanìniwála ng may infiyèrno at
may purgatóriyo. Akò y walà ng paniwála díto. Sa linggo ng dárating,
kung íbig mo, prubahàn mo sa iyo ng sèrmon sa manga táo na máy-roo
ng infyèrno at purgatóriyo. Pagkatápos pùprubahàn kò namàn sa kanilà
na walà ng infiyèrno ni purgatóriyo. Kung ikàw ang paniwaláan nang
manga táo hindí báli ng ipabítay mo akò dahilàn sa áki ng pagkatálo
at hindí paniniwála`. Dátapuwat, kung akò y manálo ang hiníhiling ko
lámang sa iyò ay pabayaàn mo akò ng makapagsábi sa madlà` na walà ng
infyèrno ni purgatóryo."

Ang ilà ng kópya nang súlat na ytò ay idinikìt nya sa manga padèr
nang simbáhan at ang isà y ipinaabòt nya sa kúra.

Nang itò y màbása ni Patúpat sumubò ang kanya ng dugò`, at
walà ng pagkàsyahàn ang kanya ng gálit. Ipinatáwag nya ang manga
gwàrdya-sibìl, at sa gabi dìn nang linggò ng iyòn ay pinapanhikàn at
pinahanápan nya ang manga bahày-bahày sa boo ng báyan, úpang hulíhin
si Kíko`. Dátapuwat si Kíko ay hindí nila nàhúle. Nang hápon dì ng
iyòn ay ibinalíta ni Kíko sa ilàn nya ng matálik na kaybígan ang kanyà
ng ginawà`, at silà y nangàpamanghà`. Itinanòng nilà kung bákit niya
ginawá iyòn at kung hindí nya napagkùkúro ang mangyàyári sa kanyà.

Ang isà sa kanilà y nagsábi nang ganitò: "Magbalòt ka nà nang damìt,
at umalìs ka ngayon dìn, kung hindí mo gustò ng màhúli ka nang manga
sundálo ni Patúpat at maipabarìl ka kinàbukásan."

Si Kíko ay áyaw sumunòd sa kanyà ng páyo, sapagkàt inakálà nya ng
tàtanggapìn ni Patúpat ang kanya ng hámon tungkòl sa pagpapakilála
sa manga táo na walà ng infiyèrno ni purgatóriyo at ang manga itò y
panghúle lámang nang manga páre nang kwàlta. Kanyá sya y nagpaábot
nang gabì sa báhay nang isa nyà ng kaybígan.

Nang dumilim nà at ang báya y nagúgulo dahilàn sa paghahanàp nang
manga gwàrdya-sibìl ay saká pa lámang nya nàpagkilála ang malakì ng
pangánib na kanyà ng kinàbìbingítan. Sapagkàt itò y nàbalitáan nya
agàd, kanyá nagkaroòn sya nang panahò ng makapagtágo sa isa ng líhim
na súlok sa báhay nang kanya ng kaybígan.

Nang makaraàn ang manga paghahanapàn sya y lumabàs sa kanya ng
taguàn, umwí sya, nagbalòt nang ilà ng damìt, nagpasingkàw nang isa
ng karumáta, at pagkakúha nya nang manga bála nang barìl, binitbìt
nya ang barìl, sumakày sya sa karumáta, at napahatìd sa labàs nang
báyan. Pagkaraàn nang ila ng áraw ay namundok syà, kasáma nang ilà
ng manga táo-ng-báyan na hindí makatirà sa loòb nang báyan, sapagkàt
nàkagalítan sila nang kúra o nang iba pà ng Kastíla ng may katungkúlan
sa báyan.

Díto sa pamumundok nyà sya y inabútan nang paghihìmagsíkan lában sa
manga Kastíla` nang taò ng isa ng líbo walo ng daàn walò ng pu t ánim.


Si Maryáno ay isà sa íila ng botikáriyo sa báya-ng-San-Migèl. Sya
y nagìng isà sa manga nasawi-ng-pálad dahilàn sa pagswày sa manga
kautusàn nang kúra ng si Patúpat. Sya y may famíliya; bukòd sa asáwa
ay may dalawà sya ng anàk, isà ng dadalawáhi ng taòn at isà ng kabàbágu
ng panganàk pa lámang.

Isa ng áraw ang kanyà ng alíla ay nagkasakìt. Sya y may bayàw na
médiko, kanyá ang alíla` ay ipinagamùt nya díto na walà ng báyad,
at ang gamòt namàn ay ibinigày nya na walà ng báyad sa alíla`. Nang
makaraàn ang ilà ng áraw ay gumalìng ang alíla` at itò y nagakála
ng magpahingà ng sandalì` sa búkid. Kanyà` binayáran nya ang kanya
ng útang at napaálam sya kay Maryáno úpang magtirà sa búkid. Hindí
nalaúnan ang pagtitira nyà sa búkid at ang alíla ng itò y nagkasakìt
na mulì`, at ang naging dúlo y ang kanya ng pagkamatày.

Sa Filipínas nang manga panahò ng yaòn ay hindí maàári ng huwàg
pabendisyunàn ang isa ng patày bágo mábaòn. Itò y hindí ipinahìhintúlot
nang manga kúra, dátapuwat ang pagsasáma na hindí kasàl nang isa ng
babáye at laláki ay hindí nila masyádo ng pinápansìn, palibhása y
gawá rin namàn nilà.

Ang patày na alílà ni Maryáno ay lubhà ng mahírap at ang kanyà ng
manga kamagának ay mahihírap dìn at walà ng ikakáya ng magbáyad sa
halagà na sinísingìl ni Patúpat. Dáhil díto y walà ng magpabaòn sa
katawàn nang alíla`.

Nang màláman itò ni Patúpat ay ipinatáwag nya si Maryáno at sinábi
nya ng siyà ang dápat magpabaòn sa patày at siyà ang magbáyad
nang gàstos. Sa akálà ni Maryáno ay lumálampàs ang kasalbahíhan ni
Patúpat. Kanyá sinábi nya na hindi nyà sya bàbayáran sa pagbabaòn
nang patày, káhit na anò ang mangyáre.

Si Patúpat ay sinubhàn nang gálit. Ipinabaòn niya ang patày at sa
áraw di ng iyòn ay naparoòn sya sa hùkúman at ipinagsakdàl nya si
Mariyáno úpang pagbayáran siyà nang gàstos sa pagbebendisyòn sa patày.

Nang dumatìng ang paghuhùkúman si Maryáno y naparoòn at nang itinanòng
nang hukòm kung anò ang íbig nya ng sabíhin tungkòl sa sakdàl na iyòn,
ay sinábi nya itò ng sumúsunòd:

"Ginoò ng Hwès, ang namatày na iyòn ay walá na sa áki ng kapangyaríhan,
sapagkàt hindí ku nà sya alíla nang sya y namatày. Noo ng syà
y máy sakit pa lámang ay ipinagamòt ko syà ng wala ng báyad, at
binigyàn ko syà ng wala ng báyad nang gamòt. Nagawá ku nà ang áki ng
katungkúlan sa áki ng kápuwa táo at ang katungkúla ng iniyátas sa
ákin ni Bathála`. Isà sa manga katungkúlan nang manga párè` ay ang
magpabaòn nang manga patày. Ngayò ng ang táo ng iyòn ay patay nà,
bákit namàn hindí magawá nang pári ng itò ang kanya ng katungkúlan
na walà ng úpa, yámang ito namàn ay hindí mangyàyári kung may káya
ang manga kamagának nang namatày?"

Pagkaraàn nang manga ilan pà ng manga tanòng nang hukòm sa kúra at
kay Mariyáno ay tinápus nya ang paghuhùkúman, at ipinaháyag nya ng
si Mariyáno ay nása katwíran at ang kúra y dápat magpasyènsya sa
pagkábendisyon nyà nang patày na wala ng úpa.

Nang makaraàn itò y lálu ng lumakì ang gálit ni Patúpat kay Maryáno,
at pagkaraàn nang ilà ng áraw ay ipinagsakdàl niya ng mulí si
Mariyáno. Ngayòn ay iba namàn ang kanya ng sakdàl. Isinakdàl niya sa
hùkúman na si Maryáno ay isà ng Masòn, sapagkàt sya y hindí nagsísimbà
nì hindí nangúngumpisàl nì hindí rin nagmàmáno sa páre`. Ang manga
Masòn ay kaáway nang Romanìsmo at sa makatwìd ay kaáway dìn nang
pàmahalaàn sa Filipínas nang manga panahò ng iyòn, at dáhil díto y
kanya ng ipináyo na si Maryáno y ipatápon sa ibà ng lupaìn.

Nang màbalitáan ni Maryáno ang sakdàl na yitò ni Patúpat ay inakálà
nya ng walá na sya ng pagása kung hindí ang magtagò o umílag sa mangà
manghuhúli sa kanyà. Kanyà` ang ginawá nya ay lumwàs sya sa Mayníla`
at doòn sya nagtagò`.

Dátapuwat doon màn ay nàhúli rìn syà nang manga gwàrdya-sivìl. Kasáma
nang pitò o walò ng taga iba t ibà ng báyan sya y inilúlan sa isà
ng bapòr at dinalà sila sa ibabá nang kapuluà-ng-Filipínas. At doòn
pagdatìng nilà ang ibà sa kanila ng magkakasáma ay pinagbábarìl nang
manga sundálo ng naghatìd sa kanilà, sapagkàt iyòn ang útos nang
pinúno ng nagpatápon sa manga táo ng iyòn.

Dátapuwat si Maryáno y hindí naging isà sa manga nábaril na iyòn. Doòn
sya nátirà hanggàng sa pananálo nang manga Amerikáno ay nagkaroòn sya
nang kalayáa ng makabábalik sa kanya ng famíliya. Nang itò y datnan
nyà ang isa nyà ng anàk ay pitò na ng taòn ang gúlang at ang ikalawà
namàn ay limà na ng taòn.


Si Hwàn ay isa ng alwáge na may kápit-báhay na Intsèk na aluwáge
rìn. Ang Intsèk na ytò ay isa ng magalìng na alwáge at ang kanya ng
kínis ay nàpagkìkilála sa magalìng nya ng paggámit nang katàm. Isa
ng áraw nakábili syà nang isa ng piráso-ng-káhoy na may ápat na
pu ng paà ang hába`. Itù y kanya ng nilínis. Sinubúkan nya kung
makakùkúha syà nang pinagkatamàn na walà ng patìd sa boò ng hábà
nang káhoy. Dahilàn sa húsay nang kanyà ng kasangkápan at sa kanyà
ng kabutíhan sa pagaalwáge, ang bágay na yòn ay nagìng pára ng walà
ng ano màn sa kaniyà. Twì ng isùsúlung niya ang katàm ay nakakùkúha
nang pinagkatamàn na walà ng patìd, ápat na pu ng paà ang hába`. Úpang
ipakilála nya sa kápit-báhay niya ng aluwági ng Tagálog ang kanyà ng
galìng, itò y kanyà ng pinadalhàn nang isa ng pinagkatamàn áraw-áraw.

Ang aluwági ng Tagálog na si Hwàn ay nàpagúlat sa galìng nang
Intsèk. Úpang gantihìn nya ang kanyà ng manga tinanggàp na
pinagkatamàn, sinubúkan dìn nyà ng kumatàm at ipadalà sa Intsèk ang
pinagkatamàn. Dátapuwat ang pinakamahábà nya ng nàkúha na pinagkatamàn
ay may-roon lámang na labì ng limà ng paà. Itò y kahyá-hiyà ng ipadalà
sa Intsèk.

Si Hwàn ay magalìng gumámit nang daràs at siya y nakapagpàpakínis
nang tablà sa pamamagítan lámang nang daràs. Hindí na kayilánga ng
gamítan nang katàm ang ano mà ng káhoy na kanya ng darasìn, dátapuwat
ang pinagdarasàn ay manga tátal na maiiklí lámang, hindí súkat
pagkàkilanlàn nang kanyà ng galìng, at hindí nya màipadalà sa Intsèk.

Hábang si Hwàn ay walà ng màláma ng gawìn, ang Intsìk namàn ay hindí
naglúlubày nang pagpapadalà nang pinagkatamà ng mahahába`. Siniglàn
si Hwàn nang gálit. Sinunggabàn nya ang kanya ng daràs at pinarunàn
nya ang Intsèk. Itò y nàpagúlat at natákot nang màkíta si Hwàn.

Sinábe nitò: "Anò ang gustu mu ng sabíhin sa manga ipinagpapadalà
mo ng pinagkatamàn sa ákin? Akò y binuwísit mo at itò y iyo ng
pagbàbayáran. Pùputúlin ko ang buhuk mò sa pamamagítan nang daràs
na itò."

Ang Intsèk ay natákot, sapagkàt, pag ang úlo nya y tinamaàn na nang
daràs na iyòn, ay pího ng hindí sya mabùbúhay. Sya y nagkàkawalà`,
dátapuwat sinunggabàn sya ni Hwàn, iginápus sya sa bangkò`, at
inumpisahàn nya ng dinaràs ang úlo nang Intsèk.

Ang daràs ay isa ng kasangkápa ng malakì, gáya nang isà ng píko, at
mabigàt, dátapuwat sa magalìng na kamày ni Hwàn itò y naging pára ng
isa ng guntìng lámang. Ang lagpàk nang daràs sa úlo nang Intsìk ay
lubhà ng banáyad, at ang manga buhòk lámang ang pinùpútol nang patalìm.

Sa tákot nang Intsèk itò y nagsisigàw na sinábe: "Wapélo! Daluhàn
ninyò kò, masamà táo si Hwàn, hindí Kilistyáno!"

Itò y nárinig nang manga kápit-báhay at ibà ng nagsìsipaglakàd.

Kanyá pumások silà sa gàwáan nang Intsèk at doòn ay sinábi sa kanilà
ni Hwàn: "Hwag kayù ng makialàm díto! Ang Intsìk na yitò y hindí ko
sinàsaktàn. Ákin lámang pinùputlàn nang buhòk."

At patúluy dìn ang kanyà ng pagdaràs.

Nang mapútul na nya ng lahàt ang buhòk nang Intsèk ay malakì ang
nagìng pagkámanghà nang nagsìsipanoòd, sapagkàt ang buhòk nang Intsèk
ay pára ng ginupìt nang guntìng nang isa ng bihasà ng barbéro. Ang
Intsìk namàn, nang màkíta nya sa salamìn na wala ng súgat ang kanya
ng úlo, ay malaki rìn ang nagìng pagkámanghà`, at hindí mapatìd ang
pagpúri nya sa galìng ni Hwàn sa paggámit nang daràs.


Mínsan sa isa ng báyan sa kapuluà-ng-Filipínas ay náhayàg ang pangálan
nang isa ng táo sa kanya ng manga kababáyan at manga kápit-báyan,
dahilàn sa hindí karanyúwa ng lakàs nya sa pagtakbò at pagluksò.

Sya y isa ng táo ng hindí mayábang, dátapuwat may kauntì ng talíno
sa paghahánap at gayon dìn may kauntì ng tápang. Ang kanya ng hindí
karanyúwa ng kapaláran ay hindí nya ipinagmayabàng ní hindí nya
ipinagkayilà` kung anò ang pinanggàgalíngan nang kanyà ng dí karanyúwa
ng lakàs. Sinábi nya sa mangà mapagusísa` na ang pinanggàgalíngan
nang kanya ng lakàs ay ang angkìn niya ng birtùd nang usà. Hindí nya
sinábe kung papáno ang pagkápasa kanyà nang birtùd na iyòn, dátapuwat
siya y hindí marámot sa pagbibigày-loòb úpang ikatúlung niya sa mangà
kakilála o hindì` ang kanya ng lakàs.

Sya y may pagíbig na yumáman, gáya nang karamíhan nang táo, at díto
nya ginámit ang kanya ng lakàs. Paráti sya ng nakìkipagtakbúhan, at
ang manga takbúha ng itò y lágì na ng pinagkatalunàn nang marámi ng
salapè`. Sya ay lágì na ng may malakì ng pustà. Walá sya ng itinángì na
pinakìkipagtakbuhàn. Kung mìnsan nakìkipagtakbúhan sya sa kápwa táo,
kung mínsan ay sa kabáyo, sa áso, at sa iba pà ng háyop na matúli
ng tumakbò.

Pagkaraàn nang ila ng áraw ay dumámi ang naípon nya ng salapì`
na pinanalúnan sa pustáhan. Gayon dìn ang kanya ng manga kaybígan
na nagsipustà sa kanyà ay nagkaroòn nang marámi ng kwàlta. Nang
màpagaláman nang manga táo na syà y may birtùd nang usà ay hindí
na sya íbig labánan sa takbúhan. Dáhil díto y úpang hwag máhinto`
ang kanya ng pananálo at pagkíta nang kwaltà, ay nagbíbigay syà
nang malalakì ng palúgit sa kanya ng kinàkalában. Dáhil sa kalakhàn
nang manga palúgit na ibinigay nyà ay marámi rì ng táo ng lumában
sa kanyà. Dátapuwat tuwí nà y sya ang nagìng mànanalò. Gayon dìn sa
manga pakikipagluksúhan paráti nà ng syà ang nanànálo.

Dátapuwat, kung malaki màn ang kabutíha ng nàkamtan nyà sa birtùd
na ytò, ay máy-ron dì ng ilà ng kahirápan na nàkamtan nyà dahilan
díto. Dahilan dìn sa kahirápa ng itò ay hindí nya natagalà ng angkinìn
hábang búhay nya ang birtùd na iyòn. Dahilàn sa birtùd na iyòn sya
y nagìng lubhà ng magugulatìn. Ang manga kalabòg, íngay, at tahòl
nang áso kung gabì ay hindí nagpatúlug sa kanyà. Dahilàn sa manga
íngay na yitò, kung natùtúlug sya ay palági ng nàpàpaluksò. Lálù na,
kung isa ng tahòl nang áso, halimbáwa`, ang makàgísing sa kanyà,
sya y nàpàpaluksò nang lubhà ng mataàs sa kanyà ng hihigàn, at bágo
sya pagsa-ulàn nang saríle, ay nagtàtatakbò na syà. Sa pagluksu
nyà ng itò na hindí sinásadya` ay walá sya ng nagíging pagiíngat at
karanyúwa y umáabot syà sa ituktòk nang bubungàn, at sa kababáan nitò
y lági ng nalálamog ang kanya ng katawàn o kayà y nagkàkabúkul syà sa
úlo, dahilàn sa pagkáhampas nyà sa bubungàn. Gayon dìn sa kanya ng
hindí sinásadya ng pagtakbò pagkágising nyà dahilàn sa pagkàgúlat,
ay nagkàkaumpòg-umpòg ang boò ng katawan nyà sa manga dindìng nang
kanya ng báhay.

Itò y isà ng mahírap na tìísin, at inakálà nya ng hindí sya mabùbúhay
nà ng malwàt dahilàn sa hindí pagkàkatúlog kung gabì. Kanyá inakálà nya
ng itápon ang birtùd na ytò pagkaraàn nang ilà ng áraw. Nang sumápit
ang ikapitù ng áraw nang kanya ng pagaáre` sa birtùd ay sya y lubhà
ng hirap nà at inakálà nya ng sya y mamámatay nà sa hírap. Ang úlu
nya ay bukulàn. Ang mukhá nya ay marámi ng pasà` at káhit na hindí
sya nabalían nang butò, ang manga lamàn namàn nya ay lubhà ng lamòg.

Dáhil díto y walà ng kibú sya ng naparoòn sa isa ng párang at itinápon
nya doòn ang birtùd na nàpúlut nya, yámang marámi na rìn lámang siya
ng salapì ng pinanalúnan.


Siy Andrès ay máy-roo ng isa ng alíla ng unggò na kanyà ng lubhà ng
minámahàl, sapagkàt ang unggu ng itò y nagbíbigay sa kanyà nang malakì
ng serbísyo. Kung gabì ipinaglàlátag sya nang banìg nang unggo ng itò;
kung umága ay iniháhandà` ang kanyà ng panghilámos, at ang ano mà ng
kanya ng iyútos ay sinúsunod nang unggò`.

Gabì-gabì ang unggu ng itò y natùtúlog sa ilálim nang kátri ng
tinùtulúgan nang kanya ng panginoòn. Itò y hindí gustò nang kanya
ng panginoòn, sapagkàt, dahilàn sa kanya ng malakì ng kabuluhàn,
ay íbig ni Andrès na syà y bigyàn nang isa ng mabúte ng lugàr na
tulugàn. Dátapuwat, káhit na gánu ng pagpílit ang gawìn ni Andrès,
ay hindí nya mapatúlog sa ibà ng lugàr ang kanya ng alíla ng unggò`.

Siy Andrès ay isa ng táwu ng may tákot at pagíbig sa Dyòs. Kanyá
gabi-gabì bágu sya matúlog ay nagkúkurus syà at tumàtáwag sya sa
Dyòs. Sa óras nang kanya ng paghigà gabi-gabì ay dinàratnan nà nyà
na nása ilálim nang kanya ng kátri ang unggò`. Mínsan màn ay hindí
sya náuna sa paghigà` sa unggu ng itò.

Isa ng áraw ang párì sa báyan ay dumálaw kay Andrès sa kanya ng
báhay. Pagkaraàn nang ilà ng sandalì ng pagsasàlitáan ay ibinalítà niy
Andrès sa páre` na sya y máy-roo ng isà ng alíla ng unggò na lubhà
ng malakì ang kabuluhàn, sapagkàt sya y pinagsìsilbihà ng mabúte,
at káhit na anò ang iyútos nya ay sinúsunod, at sinábi pa nyà ng
masípag pa káy sa manga iba nyà ng alíla` ang unggo ng iyòn.

Malakì ang nagìng pagtatakà nang páre`, at hiniling nyà ng ipakíta sa
kanyà ang unggò ng iyòn. Kanyá tináwag ny Andrès ang unggò`. Hindí gáya
nang dáti, na sa isà ng táwag lámang niy Andrès ay lumàlápit agad-agàd
ang unggò`, ngayòn makása-m-pu ng táwag nà ay walá pa syà. Siy Andrès
ay nagálit, nagtindìg, at hinánap nya sa manga sulok-sulòk nang báhay
ang unggò`.

Ito y nàkíta nya sa isa ng súlok at nakakápit na mabúte sa isa ng
halíge. Tináwag nya at kanya ng pinaáalis sa súlok, dátapuwat ang
unggò y áyaw umalìs doòn, káhit na anò ang gawìn sa kanyà. Dáhil díto
ay tináwag nya ang páre`, úpang itò y doòn tingnàn sa súlok ang alílà
nya ng unggò`.

Pagkálapit nang páre` ang unggò y kuminìg sa tákot. Nagkaroòn nang
hinálà ang párè` na ang unggù ng iyòn ay isà ng dimónyo. Kanyà` ang
ginawá nya y nagkurùs sya at pagkabendisyòn nya nang kauntì ng túbig
ay niwisikàn nya ang unggò`.

Pagdápo` sa katawàn nitò nang túbig ay pumutòk na pára ng isa ng barìl,
at sa lugàr nang unggò` ay walá silà ng nàkíta kung hindí asu lámang
na agàd nawalà`.

Pagkaraàn nitò siniyásat nang páre si Andrès tungkùl sa kanya ng
paniniwála sa Diyòs. Sinábi ny Andrès na hindí nabàbágo ang matíbay
nya ng paniniwála` at gabi-gabì nagdádasal syà bágo matúlog. Siniyásat
dìn nang páre` kung saàn tumùtúlog ang unggò`. Sinábe ni Andrès na
itò y tumúlog gabi-gabì sa ilàlim nang kanyà ng kátri ng tulugàn.

Pagkaraàn nitò y ipinakilála sa kanyà nang páre` na ang unggù ng
iyòn ay isà ng dimónyo na umáabàng sa kanyà, at kung syà y sumála
nang pagtáwag sa Diyòs bágu matúlog, sa gabì di ng iyòn ay ihùhúlug
sya nang dimónyo sa infyèrno.


Si Pédro ay isà ng matápang na laláke. Paráti sya ng nakárinig nang
manga kwènto tungkùl sa asuwàng, duwèndi, mangkukúlam, at mangà matandá
sa punsò, dátapuwat ang ipinagtátakà ni Pédro ay kung bákit hindí sya
makátagpo nì káhit isà nang mangà bágay na itò. Íbig niya ng makàkíta
nang isa man lámang sa kanilà, úpang màláman nya kung túnay ngà` na
silà y máy-roo ng manga kapangyaríha ng hindí karanyúwan sa karamíhan
nang táo.

Sya y naglálakàd na isa ng gabì sa isà ng lugàr na madilìm at
pinagkàkatakutàn, sapagkàt díto y marámi ng nakàkíta nang matandá
sa punsò.

Ang tabáko nang matanda ng itò y nakatàtákot ang lakì, at kung itò
y hititin nyà ang liwánag na nangyàyári ay pára ng liwánag nang isà
ng sigà`.

Sa gabi ng iyòn sa kanyà ng paglalakàd maláyù pa syà y nakàkíta na
syà nang isà ng liyàb. Ang buhuk nyà y nagsitindìg at inakálà nya
ng bumalìk, dátapuwat nàpigílan nya ang kanyà ng tákot at ipinatúloy
din nyà ang kanya ng paglákad.

Sya y sinalúbong nang nagtàtabáko. Pagkálapit nya y inanínaw nya
ang katawàn nang matandà ng iyòn, dátapuwat hindí rin nasyahàn ang
kanya ng pagsisyásat, kanya iníbig nya ng màkíta sa síkat nang áraw
ang matandà ng iyòn. Úpang itù y mangyári dápat nya ng pigílin ang
matandà`, sapagkàt ang manga ispíritu ng itò ay bumábalik sa kanilà
ng tàhánan sa impyèrno o iba pa mà ng lugàr sa paglápit nang umága.

Kanyà` ang ginawá nya y hinawákan nya agàd ang matandà`. Ito y
nakipagbunò sa kanyà. Kung mínsan sya y nása ilálim, kung mínsan sya
y nása ibábaw, dátapwat hindí nya pinakawalàn ang matandà`. Mahigpìt
na mahigpìt ang kanya ng kápit at tinalaga nyà ng sumáma káhit na
saàn sya dalhìn nang matandà kung itò y malakàs káy sa kanyà.

Silà y nagbunò hanggàng alastrès. Si Pédro sa óras na itò ay pagòd na
pagod nà at malakì ang panglalatà`, dátapuwat hindí rin nya binitáwan
ang kanyà ng kabunò`. Nang magàalaskwàtru nà ay naglubày nang pagkílos
ang kanya ng háwak. Nang makaraàn ang kalaháti-ng-óras ang sínag nang
áraw ay nagumpisa nà nang pagtanglàw sa kanilà, dátapuwat hindí pa
rìn lubhà ng maliwánag úpang màpagkilála ni Pédro kung anò ang kanyà
ng tángan. Nang dumatìng ang alasìngko ay malaki nyà ng pagkámangha`,
nang màkíta nya ng sya y nààákap sa isà ng halígi ng hindí lubhà ng
mataàs káy sa kanyà, dátapuwat nàtùtúlus sa lúpà at sunòg na sunòg.


Isa ng gabè si Hwàn ay tumawìd sa ílog sa kanya ng paglilibòt. Nang
sya y nása pasígan pa lámang, nakáramdam syà nang sábuy nang buhángin
sa kanya ng likòd, nang sya y mátuntung nà sa kabuhangínan.

Nang úna ng gabè itò y hindí nya ininò. Nang ikalawà ng gabè, nang
magdaàn sya ng ulè sa pasíga ng itò, nakáramdam sya ng mulí nang sábuy
nang buhángin sa kanya ng likòd. Inakálà nya ng subúkan at hulíhin
ang nagsàsábuy sa kanyà nang buhángin, kanyà` sa kanya ng paglákad
ay pamínsan-mínsan sya ng pumìpíhit na pabiglà` sa kanya ng likuràn,
dátapwat walá sya ng màkíta káhit na anò.

Dáhil díto y siniglàn siya nang kaunti ng tákot at inakálà nya ng baká
kung anù ng matandá sa punsò o tiyának ang kanya ng nàkàkatúngo. Kanyá`
tinulínan nya ang pagtakbò, dátapuwat hábang nagtùtúlin sya ay lálu
namà ng dumádalas ang pagdápù nang buhángin sa kanya ng likòd. Lumakì
ang kanya ng tákot at dáhil díto y bumalik syà sa kanya ng báhay na
patakbò nang úbus-lakàs.

Nang dumatìng sya doòn ay hinàhábul nya ang kanya ng hiningà at hindí
sya makaúsap. Nang sya y makapaghinga nà nang kauntè` ay saká pa lámang
sya nakasagòt sa marámi ng manga tanòng nang kanya ng amà at iba pà
ng kasa-ng-bahày. Sinábi nya sa kanya ng amà na sya y sinùsundàn nang
manga dwènde sa kanya ng paglalakàd at sinàsabúyan sya nang buhángin.

Itinanòng nang kanya ng amà kung saàn ang lugàr na iyòn at sinábi nya
ng sa pasígan nang ílog. Ang kanya ng amà ay nápahalakhàk nang táwa
at sinábi nya ng iyòn ay hindí dwènde, dátapuwat ang kanyà lámang
paà ang nagtátangày nang buhángin sa kanya ng likòd sa báwat kanya
ng paghakbàng.

Dátapuwat si Hwàn ay áyaw maniwála` at máy ila ng áraw na hindí
sya nanáog nang báhay. Dáhil díto y iníbig nang kanya ng amà na
màipakilála sa kanyà ang katotohánan nang kanya ng sinábe, at isa ng
gabè ay sinábi nya kay Hwàn na sya y magpasyàl at magdaàn sa lugàr
di ng iyòn at sya y kanyà ng sàsamáhan.

Pumáyag si Hwàn at sila ng dalawà y naparoòn sa pasígan. Nang dumatìng
na sila doòn ay nagpahúle ang ama ni Hwàn. Nang itu namàn ay naglálakad
nà sa kabuhangínan at nang sya y nakáramdam nang sábuy nang buhángin
sa likòd, siniglàn sya ng mulí nang tákot at isinigàw nya sa kanya
ng amà na nagumpisa nà nang pagsábuy nang buhángin sa kanya ng likòd.

Pinabalìk nya si Hwàn at kanya ng pinalákad na mulè`. Ngayòn ay
sinùsundan nyà sa likuràn. Dáhil díto y nàkíta nang ama ni Hwàn na
twì ng sya y háhakbàng ang sinélas na soòt nya ay nagtátangày nang
buhángin, at sa pagaalsà nitò nang paà ang buhángi ng tangày ay
napàpasábuy sa likòd ni Hwàn.

Ang ginawá nang kanya ng amà ay ipinaalìs ang soòt nya ng sinélas at
pinalákad sya ng mulì`. Ngayòn, káhit na gáno kaláyo` ang lakáran ni
Hwàn ay walá na sya ng nàràramdamà ng sábuy nang buhángin sa kanya
ng likòd.

Mulá noon ay nawalàn sya nang tákot sa manga matandà`, duwènde,
asuwàng, at iba pà ng pinagkàkatakutàn.


Ang dalága ng si Maryà ay balíta nang gandà sa kanya ng
báriyo. Dátapuwat walà ng manglilígaw sa kanyà, líban na lámang kay
Hwàn. Ngúnit ang amà ni Maryà ay malakì ang pagkáayaw kay Hwàn. Hindí
màkaúsap ni Hwàn ang nilìligáwan kung hindí palihìm, sapagkàt pag
nàláman nang amà ni Maryà, itò y sinàsaktan silà kápwa` sa pamamagítan
nang pamálò`. Kung mìnsan at malakì ang gálit nang amà ay bambò ang
ginàgámit nya kay Hwàn, at sa ganitò y malápit sya ng mabalían nang
butò káylan man at sila y màhúli sa paguúsap.

Isa ng gabì ng madilìm ang amà ni Mariyà ay naglibòt. Nang itò y
màláman ni Hwàn pinarunàn nya si Mariyà úpang kausápin. Nalibàng
sila sa paguúsap, kanyá sila y dinatnàn nang amà ni Maryà sa kanya
ng pagwè`.

Siniglàn sya agàd nang gálit at pasigàw nya ng kinaúsap si Hwàn:
"Anu kà, salbáhe? Sinábi ku nà sa iyò ng hwag kà ng tútuntong díto
sa áki ng pamamáhay. Ano ang íbig mo t nàrìrito kà?"

At pagkasábe nitò y sinunggabàn nya ang isa ng bisìg nang kawáyan at
inakmaàn nya ng bambuhìn si Hwàn. Sa malaki ng tákot nitò ay nagtalòn
sya sa bintánà`, dátapuwat sinundàn din syà nang amà. Kanyá ang ginawá
nya y tumakbò sya nang úbus-lakàs.

Ang gabì ay madilìm na pára ng úling, at hindí nya màtumpakàn kung saàn
ang parunàn, dátapuwat patúloy rin sya nang pagtakbò. Nagkangdadápà
sya sa pagtakbò, dátapwat maligsi syà ng nagbàbángon at patúluy din
sa pagtakbò.

Hindí naláon at nakádaan sya nang isà ng malakì at maitìm na
bágay. Nàkilála nya ng iyòn ay isa ng kalabàw, kanyá sya y lumundàg
agàd sa likòd nitò, at kanya ng pinatakbò.

Ang pagsakày sa kalabàw ay hindí lubhà ng mahírap sa kalapáran nang
likòd nitò at sa kahináan nang takbò. Kanyà`, káhit na walà ng pamitìk
si Hwàn ay dí natákot na sumakày. Sa kadilimàn nang gabì sa kanya
ng pagsakày ay nangyári ng náharap sya sa buntútan nang kalabàw at
hindí sa uluhàn.

Pinatúlin nya ang kalabàw. Nangyári namà ng ang kalabàw na itò ay
árì nang amà ni Maryà. Hindí nalaúnan at nakátanaw sya nang báhay na
maílaw sa pinatùtungúhan nang kalabàw. Ang boò ng ása nyà ang báhay
na iyòn ay sa kanya ng kápit-báhay. Kanyá bumabá sya sa kalabàw at
patakbo syà ng pumanhìk sa báhay.

Malakì ang nagìng pagkalitò nya at pagkatákot nang pagkápanhik nya y
sinalúbong sya nang amà ni Maryà, at binambò sya sa katawàn at sinábi:
"Anò t nagbalìk ka pà? Hindí ba pinaláyas na kità, wala ng hyà`?"

Nang pagsa-ulàn si Hwàn nang kanya ng saríli ay nagtalòn sya sa
batalàn at tumakbò sya ng mulí patúngo sa kanya ng báhay, dátapuwat
ngayò y hindí na sya sumakày sa káhit anò pa màn.


Nang nabùbúhay pa si Mariyà ay nátira syà sa kanya ng maínam na báhay
sa gitná nang isa ng maláwak na bakúran na may magagandà ng hardìn
at manga púnu-ng-káhoy. Sya y lubhà ng mayáman, kanyà` ang búhay nya
y isa ng panày na kaginhawáhan.

Hindí sya nakaratìng nang ápat na pu ng taòn sa gúlang at sya y
namatày. Ang lahàt nang kanya ng yáman ay hinátì nya sa kanya ng
kapatìd at sa simbáhan. Hindí nya nàalaála ang mahihírap nya ng
kakilála at ilà ng kápit-báhay.

Ang kapatìd na naíwan ay nagpamísa nang sunòd-sunòd sa loòb nang pito
ng áraw, úpang ang káluluwa ni Mariyà ay papasúkin ni Sam-Pédro sa
pintúan nang lángit.

Nang ang kanya ng kapatìd ay nabùbúhay pa itò y balíta ng balítà
sa karamútan. Siya mìsmo ay bihíra ng magpamísa o magpatúlos nang
kandíla`. Ang manga pulúbi ng nagpàpalimòs, kung tumáwag sa kanyà,
ay pinalàláyas nya at hindí nilìlimusàn. Kadalasàn ay ipinahàhábul
pa nyà sa áso. Ang kanya ng manga kasamà ay pinapagtàtrabáho nya
nang walà ng úpa, at kung kanya ng pakánin, ay wala ng úlam,--asìn
at kánin lámang. Sa panunúyo sa kanyà nang kanya ng manga kasamà,
twi ng silà y nagsìsiuwè` ay nagdádala sila nang manga manòk, itlòg,
biìk, at manga búnga nang gúlay o haláman, úpang ibigày kay Maryà. Ang
manga alaála ng itò ay hindí nila ibiníbigay dahilàn sa kanilà ng
pagmamahàl kay Maryà, dátapwat pára ng isa ng súhol, úpang sila y hwag
masiyádu ng alipustaìn sa kanilà ng pagparoòn sa kanya ng báhay. Kung
si Maryà namàn ay lumálabas sa búkid sa kanya ng manga kasamà, ang
báwat màkíta nya sa pamamáhay nila na kanya ng màgustuhàn ay kinùkúha
nya nang wala ng kibò` at hindí nya binàbayáran. Kung halimbáwa y
makàkíta sya sa kanya ng manga kasamà nang isà ng bágu ng yári ng
bákol, biláo, bistày, bayòng, banìg, palayòk, lumbò, sandòk, kalàn,
o iba pà ng kasangkápan sa báhay, ay kinùkúha nyà at ipinadádala nyà
sa kanya ng báhay. Kung hindí nya magámit ang manga pinagkúkuha nyà
ay ipinagbíbili nyà. Gayon dìn ang gawá nya sa manga háyop nang kanya
ng manga kasamà. Dáhil díto y yumáman sya ng agàd.

Nang sya y máy-roon nà ng tatlu ng áraw na namámatày, ang kanyà
ng kapatìd ay nàròroòn sa kanyà ng báhay at doòn nagpàpalípas nang
pagdadalamháte`. Isa ng hápun nang sya y naglálakad sa hàlamanàn,
nátabi syà sa balòn na nása bakúran. Nàpagúlat sya, sapagkàt
sa ilálim nang balòn ay may nárinig syà ng tumàtáwag sa kanya ng
pangálan. Itinungu nyà ang kanya ng úlo sa balòn at doòn ay lálu ng
nárinig nyà ng mabúte ang pagtáwag, dátapuwat walá sya ng màkíta ng
táo na káhit anò.

Sinábi nang bóses: "Áki ng kapatìd, akò ay si Mariyà. Ang ginawá
ku ng pamumúhay na karamútan, kasakimàn, at kalupitàn ay áki ng
pinagbàbayáran ngayòn. Akò ay nàrìrinè sa pàrusahàn ni Bathálà sa lahàt
nang makasalánan. Kung maàárì ay hwàg mu akò ng tuláran, at ikaw sána
y humánap nang paraàn úpang mahángo mo akò díto sa kumúkulu ng langìs
na áki ng tìráhan ngayòn."

Ang kanya ng kapatìd ay lubhà ng malakì ang nagìng pagkahápis,
at sya y naparoòn agàd sa páre`, úpang ipagtanòng kung papáno ang
paraà ng magágawà nyà úpang mahángo nya sa infyèrno ang kanyà ng
kapatìd. Ipináyo nang pári` na sya y magsadyá sa isa ng báyan na
máy-roo ng laráwan ni Sam-Pédro na milagróso. Ang laráwa ng itò ni
Sam-Pédro ay nakìkipagúsap sa manga táo at naghàhátol nang sarì-sári
ng paraàn úpang makapások sa lángit. Iyùn ang kanya ng milágro.

Ang kapatìd ni Maryà ay nagsadyá agad-agàd sa báya ng kinàdòroonàn
nang Sam-Pédro ng milagróso. Nang dumatìng sya roòn at nakìkipagúsap na
syà kay Sam-Pédro, sinábi nya ang lahàt-lahàt. Sinábi nya ng ang sábi
sa kanyà nang kanyà ng kapatìd ay ang kanya ng ginawà ng karamútan,
kasakimàn, at kalupitàn ay sya nyà ng ikinahúlog sa infyèrno.

"Kung gayòn," ang wíkà ni Sam-Pédro, "humánap ka nang káhit íisa ng
táo, háyop, o haláman na ginawaàn nang iyo ng kapatìd nang isà ng
kabàítan. Kung ikàw ay makàkíta nà, bumalik kà ng mulí sa ákin, at
bìbigyàn kità nang paraà ng ikahàhángo mo sa hírap sa iyo ng kapatìd."

Ang kapatìd ni Maryà ay umuwí agàd sa kanila ng báyan, at díto y
nagusísà sya sa lahàt nang namàmáyan kung síno ang may útang na loòb sa
kanya ng kapatìd o kayá kung síno ang kanya ng ginawàn o pinagsalitaàn
nang mabúti. Dátapuwat káhit isà ay walà ng makasagòt. Ang manga
háyop namàn sa manga kápit-báhay at sa bakúran ni Maryà ang kanya ng
pinagusisà`, dátapuwat walá rin syà ng nàkíta na ginawaàn nang mabúti
nang kanyà ng kapatìd.

Ang isa ng áso ng buto t balàt ay nagsábi sa kanyà: "Isa ng hápon akò y
gutòm na gutòm. Nakádaan akò sa kanyà ng bakúran nang isa ng butò. Itò
y kinagat kò at áki ng dinádala, nang màkíta nya akò. Ipinahábol
nya akò ng agàd, at nang bitíwan ko ang butò itò y ipinabaon nyà sa
lúpa`. Iyan bà y isa ng kabàítan?"

Lálu ng lumakì ang hápis nang kapatìd ni Mariyà at untì-untì
ng nawáwalà ang kanya ng pagása na mahángo sa hírap ang kanya ng
kapatìd. Inumpisahan nyà ng usisáin ang manga haláman sa bakúran nang
kanya ng kapatìd. Inisa-isà nya ng lahàt ang manga kalabása, úpo,
pipíno, síle, milòn, singkamàs, manè`, talòng, sítaw, at sibúyas,
báwang, at iba pà ng gúlay. Sa kanilà y walá sya ng nàkíta nang kanya
ng hinàhánap. Isinunòd namàn nyà ang manga púno-ng-káhoy. Siniyásat
nya isà-isà ang manga púnò nang síko, anúnas, átis, mabúlo, súhà`,
dalandàn, dáyap, at balúbad. Ngúnit walá ri ng nagìng katuturàn ang
kanya ng págod; íisa na lámang pangkàt nang manga haláman ang hindí pa
nya naùusísa`, at kung díto y hindí sya makàkíta nang kanya ng hánap,
ay walá sya ng magágawà sa pagdudúsa nang kanya ng kapatìd. Nalíbot
nya sila ng lahàt, dátapuwat walà ng nakapagsábi na tumanggàp sila
nang isà ng gawà ng kabàítan sa kay Maryà.

Sa kàhuli-hulíhan pumaroòn ang kapatìd sa tabì nang balòn, at doòn
inusísà nya ng lahàt ang manga damò. Nang dumatìng ang gabì ay íisa
na lámang na púnu-ng-damò ang hindí nya naùusísa`. Itò y nilapítan
nya na punò ng punú nang tákot at pagása.

Itinanùng nya sa púno nang damò na nàtàtanìm sa tabì nang balòn:
"Nang nabùbúhay ba ang áki ng kapatìd, ay ginawàn ka nyà nang isà
ng kabàítan?"

Isinagòt nang damò: "Ó! Ang iyo bà ng kapatìd? Siyà ngà`, siyà ang
nagbigày sa ákin nang bágo ng búhay. Noò ng tagáraw na nagdaàn, lantà
ng lanta nà ang áki ng manga dáhon at akò y malápit na ng mamatày,
dátapuwat ang iyò ng kapatìd ay nalígo` isa ng hápon sa tabì nang
balo ng itò. Sa kanya ng pagpalígo` ay nàwisikan akò nang túbig at
dáhil díto y lumakàs ako ng mulì`, at ang manga lantà ku ng dáhon ay
nanaríwa ng muli`."

Wala ng pagkàsyahàn ang naging tuwá nang kapatìd ni Maryà, at sa gabì
ri ng iyòn ay nagbalìk sya kay Sam-Pédro. Binigyan syà ni Sam-Pédro
nang isa ng dàsálan, at sinábi sa kanyà na umuwé sya at iláwit nya
sa balòn ang dàsála ng iyòn. Tawágin nya si Maryà at pakapítin nya sa
dàsálan, at dáhil díto y mahàhángù nya sa hírap ang kanya ng kapatìd.

Nagbalìk sya ng agàd at sumìsíkat pa lámang ang áraw nang sya
y dumatìng sa bakúran ni nasíra ng Maryà. Lumápit sya sa balòn,
inilawit nyà ang dàsálan, at tináwag nya ang kanya ng kapatìd. Itò y
lumitàw sa ibábaw nang túbig at humáwak sa dàsálan. Inumpisahàn nang
kanyà ng kapatìd ang paghátak sa dàsálan at sya y nátaas nà untì-untè`.

Sa paghángo ng itò sa kanyà ay máy-roo ng ibà ng káluluwa na íbig
di ng makaalìs sa infyèrno. Kanyá silà y nagsikápit sa paà ni Maryà,
nang màkíta nilà na itò y nahàhángù sa hírap. Dátapuwat nang ang paà
ni Maryà ay sya na lámang nàlùlubòg sa túbig ang ginawá nya y ikinawàg
nya ang dalawa ng paà, úpang ang manga káluluwa ng nàkàkápit sa kanyà
ay mangàkabitàw.

Nang itù y gawin nyà ay napatìd ang dàsálan at agad-agàd sya ng lumubùg
sa balòn, at mulá noon ay hindí nà sya nàkaúsap nang kanya ng kapatìd.

Bumalìk itò kay Sam-Pédro at ibinalíta` ang nangyáre, dátapuwat sinábe
ni Sam-Pédro na walá na sila ng magágawa úpang mahángo sa infyèrno
ang kanyà ng kapatìd.


Si Hwàn ay isa ng bágu ng táwu ng makísig. Dátapuwat nang dumatìng
sya sa gúlang na dalawa ng pù t dalawà, sya y nagkasakìt nang malubhà`
at dí nalaúnan at namatày siyà. Ang kanya ng káluluwa ay naparoòn sa
lángit at tumuktòk sa pintúan nitò.

Si Sam-Pédro ay sumagòt sa kanya ng pagtuktòk at itinanòng nitò:
"Sínu ka? Anò ang sadyá mo ríto?"

Isinagòt nang káluluwa ni Hwàn: "Akò ang káluluwa ni Hwàn. Buksan mò
ang pintò`, at íbig ko ng pumások."

Binuksàn nang bantay-pintò` ang pintúan, at bágu nya binayáa ng
makapások ang káluluwa ni Hwàn ay sinyásat múna nya nang ganitò:
"Ano ang dáhil at naparíto ka? Ano ang kabànála ng ginawá mo sa lúpa`
at nagakálà ka ng nàbàbágay sa yò ang kaginhawáhan sa lángit? Ikàw
bagà y may iníwa ng asáwa?"

Ang káluluwa ni Hwàn ay nagsábi: "Nang akò y nása lúpà pa, madalàs
aku ng magsimbà, magdasàl, at maglimòs, dátapuwat hindí ako nagkapálad
na magasáwa."

Isinagòt nang bantay-pintò`: "Hindí ka dápat magtamò nang kaginhawáhan
sa lángit."

At pagkàsábi nya nitò ay isinara nyà ang pintò`. Ang káluluwa ni Hwàn
ay hindí nakapások sa lángit.

Pagkaalìs ni Hwàn ay dumatìng namàn ang isa pa rì ng káluluwa.

"Sínu ka? At bákit mo gustò ng pumások sa lángit? Ikaw bà y nagasáwa
nang násàsa lúpà pà?" ang manga tanùng nang bantay-pintò`.

Isinagòt nang káluluwa: "Akù y ang káluluwa niy Andrès. Nagasáwa akò
nang akò y násàsa lúpà pa. Buksan mò ang pintò` at íbig ko ng pumások."

Agad-agàd na binuksàn ni Sam-Pédro ang pintú nang lángit at pagkàkíta
nya sa káluluwa niy Andrès ay sinábi nya: "Ó! Kàwáwa ng káluluwa! Sa
mangà gáya mo nàtàtaàn at nàràrápat ang manga kaginhawáhan sa
lángit. Pumásuk ka!"

Ang káluluwa ni Andrès ay tuwa ng twá at pumások sa masayà ng tàhánan.

Pagkásara nang pintò ay máy-roon na namà ng tumuktòk.

"Sínu ka?" ang tanong ulí nang bantày.

"Akò y ang káluluwa ni Mariyáno," ang sagòt nang tumuktòk.

"Bákit ka naparíto? Bákit ka nagakála ng marápat ka ng magtamò nang
lángit? Ikàw bagà y nagasáwa nang násàsa lúpa ka pà?"

Sa manga tanùng na itò y isinagòt nang káluluwa ni Mariyáno: "Nang akò
y násàsa lúpà pa madalàs akù ng magpamísa. Ang kalahátì nang yáman
ko ay ibinigay kò sa simbáhan sa pagpapamísa at manga pagpapatugtòg
nang kampána`. Ang nàipatúlus kò ng kandílà ay hindí mahìhíla nang
tatlò ng kalabàw, at kung sa pagaasáwa namàn," idinugtung nyà,
"akò y nagkaroòn nang dalawà. Nabáo akù at nagasáwa ng mulì`."

"Áki ng ikinalúlungkot ang hindí ko pagkaári ng papasúkin kità. Ang
manga lóku ng gáya mo ay wala ng lugàr díto sa kahariyàn nang lángit."

At isinara nyà ang pintò`.


Isa ng áraw isa ng Kastíla` ay napatátawìd kay Hwàn sa kanya ng
bangkà` sa ibáyo nang ílog. Ang Kastíla ng sakay nyà ay marúnung
magsalitá nang Tagálog. Kanyà`, nang silà y nàlàlayú na sa pasígan,
ay nagumpisa syà nang pakikipagúsap kay Hwàn.

Ang Kastíla ng itò ay isa ng marúnong na táo, sigúro ng isa ng gurù ng
balítà sa Espánya, at itò y nàpagkìkilála sa pagsasalitá nya kay Hwàn
tungkùl sa heyugrafíya, aritmétika, at iba t ibà ng wíkà sa Ewrúpa.

Nang matápus ang kanya ng pagsasalità`, ay nagtanùng syà kay Hwàn
nang ganitò: "Ikàw ba y nagáral nang hewgrafíya?"

"Hindí pò`," ang sagòt ni Hwàn,--at katunáya y uwalà ng mwàng si Hwàn,
sapagkàt sya y lumakì sa hírap at sa gayò y panày na pagtatrabáho
lámang ang pinagdàdaanan nyà ng búhay.

Ang Kastílà ay nàpagúlat sa sagòt ni Hwàn at sinábe niya ng agàd:
"Dináramdam ko, kaybígan, ang hindí mu pagkáalam nang hewgrafíya,
sapagkàt dáhil díto y pára ng nawalà` ang kalahátì nang iyo ng búhay."

Si Hwàn ay hindí kumibò` at patúluy dìn ang pagsagwàn.

Hindí nalaúnan at tumanùng namàn ang Kastíla`: "Nagáral ka bà nang

"Hindí pò`," ang sagòt ni Hwàn.

"Kung gayòn, kaybígan, ay pára ng nawalá sa iyò ang ikápat na baháge
nang iyo ng búhay."

Si Hwàn ay natákot nang kauntì`, sapagkàt hindí nya màpagkúro ang
íbig sabíhin nang Kastíla`.

Sinábi nya sa kanya ng saríli: "Kàwáwà ka, Hwàn, walá nà ng nàtìtirà
nang iyu ng búhay, kung hindí isa ng ikápat na partè lámang."

Nang ang bangká nila ay násàsa malálim na lugàr na nang ílog, at
hábang ang Kastílà namàn ay pinagkùkúro ang malakì ng kamangmangàn
nang manga táo ng trabahadùr sa Filipínas, si Hwàn ay tumanùng nang
ganitò sa kanya ng sakày: "Marúnong pú ba kayo ng lumangòy?"

"Hindì`!" ang sagut agàd nang Kastíla`.

"Kung gayòn," ang sagot ni Hwàn, "ay hindí lámang pára kayù ng nawalàn
nang boò ng inyo ng búhay, dátapwat nawalá na ngà ng túnay."

At sinabayàn nya itù nang pagtataòb nang bangkà ng sinàsakyan nilà. Si
Hwàn ay lumangùy sa pasígan at ang Kastílà namàn ay tinangày nang ágos.


Isà ng gabì ng madilìm ay naglálakad si Hwàn sa manga kaparánga
ng malaláyo` sa manga báyan. Sya y patúngo sa kanya ng báyan. Bágu
sya makaratìng díto ay kinàkayilánga ng magdaàn sya sa manga ilàng
na lugàr.

Isa ng gabì na sya y naglálakad sa ganitò ng lugàr biglá sya
ng nàpagúlat sa pagdatìng nang isa ng púsa ng itìm na humúni
at kinámot ang kanya ng paà. Ang ginawá nya y úbus-lakàs nya ng
sinípa ang púsa`, at itò y nàpahitsà nang maláyo`. Ipinatúluy nya ang
paglalakàd, dátapuwat hindí nalaúnan at nagbalìk na namàn sa kanyà ang
púsa`. Lálu ng lumakì ang kanya ng gálit at sinípà nya ng mulì` ang
púsa`. Inakálà nya ng ang púsa ng iyòn ay isà ng laruwàn nang tyának
o asuwàng. Ipinatúluy nya ang paglákad. Hindí naluwatàn at ang púsa
ng itèm ay nagbalìk na mulí sa kanyà. Ngayòn, sa lugàr nang sipáin
nya ang púsa`, itò y hinawákan nyà at dinala nyà sa kanya ng bisìg,
kanya ng hinagòd, at pinagtátapìk, at sinábi nya sa púsa`: "Mabaìt
na púsà`, anò ang gusto mò? Sàsáma ka ba sa áki ng paglalakàd?" at
ipinatúluy nyà ang kanyà ng paglákad.

Hindí nalaúnan at sya y sinumpòng nang antòk. Sa daàn ay máy nàkíta
sya ng isa ng báhay, dátapuwat ang manga táo sa báyan ay may paniwála
ng ingkantádo ang báhay na iyòn. Dátapuwat walà ng iba ng màtulúgan
si Hwàn, kaniyà` ang ginawá nya y pumanhik syà sa báhay úpang doòn

Sya y náhimbìng, dátapuwat nang naghàháti-ng-gabi nà ay nágising sya
sa kàluskúsan nang manga dagà`. Ang ginawá nya y pinagsisipá nya
at pinagdadagukàn ang manga dagà` úpang kanya ng patayìn o kayà y
palayásin. Dátapuwat ang manga dagà` ay dumámi nang dumámi hanggàng
sa napunò` ang kuwàrto at sya y kanilà ng pinagkakagàt.

Ang ginawá ni Hwàn ay kinúha nya ang kanya ng púsa ng itìm at sinábi
nya ríto ng patain nyà ang manga dagà`. Ang púsà` ay ngumiyàw at
inumpisahàn ang paghábol sa manga dagà`. Malakì ang nagìng tákot nang
manga dagà`, at ang manga hindí nápatay nang púsa ay nagsipagtakbò sa
kaní-kanilà ng lunggà`. Nang màkíta ni Hwàn na walá na ng nàtìtirà
sa manga dagà kung hindí dádalawa lámang, ay pinapaghintú nya ang
púsa`. Kanya ng hinúli ang dalawa ng dagà` at kanya ng inámo` at
inakálà nya ng isáma rìn silà na gáya nang púsà sa kanya ng paglalakàd.

Kinàbukásan ay ipinatúluy nya ang kanya ng paglalakàd. Inabútan
sya nang gabè sa isa ng lugàr na wala ng báhay, kanyá ang ginawá
nya y ipinatúluy nya ang paglalakàd papuntà sa isa ng báhay na árì
nang isa ng matandà`. Nagkátaon namàn na ang matanda ng itò y isà
ng engkantadòr. Pinatúluy nya si Hwàn at pinatúlog nya sa isa ng
silìd. Si Hwàn ay natúlog nang walà ng paghihinálà nang anu màn.

Dátapuwat, nang mágising syà kinàbukásan, ay nàpagúlat sya at
natákot nang màkíta nya ng sya y nàkùkulòng sa isa ng kahòn na walà
ng bùkásan. Pinagsipá nya ang manga dingdìng nang kahòn, dátapuwat
walá sya ng magawà`, itò y hindí nya mabuksàn. Malakì ang kanya ng
pagdadalamháte` at walá sya ng màláma ng gawìn, nang màalaála nya
ng sya y may kasáma ng isà ng púsa at dalawà ng dagá sa kanya ng
kùlúngan. Kinúha nya ang dalawa ng dagà`, inamù-amú nya, at sinábi nya
ng bumútas silà sa kahò ng kanila ng kinàkùkulungàn. Ang manga dagà ay
nagumpisà nang pagkagàt sa tablà at untì-untí sila ng nakagawá nang
húkay sa makapàl na tablà, hanggàng sa itò y nabútas. Nang makabútas
na silà ay bumalìk silà ng mulí kay Hwàn at si Hwàn namàn ay pinabútas
silà ng mulì` sa dindìng nang kùlúngan. Sa paguúlit-úlit nang kanila
ng paggawá nang manga bútas, sa kalaúnan ay nakagawá silà nang isà
ng malaki ng bútas, at si Hwàn ay nakawalà`.

Ang matandà ay hinánap ni Hwàn, dátapuwat itò y hindí nya màkíta káhit
saàn. Kanyà ipinatúluy nyà ang pagwè`, at doòn nang dumatìng sya ay
ipinamalítà nya ang malakì ng serbísyo na ginawá sa kanyà nang kanya
ng tatlò ng kaybíga ng isà ng púsa` at dalawa ng dagà`.


Nàbása ku sa isa ng nobéla ng Kastíla` na ang pamagàt ay "La tùmba
de yèrro" ang sumúsunòd.

Si Hwàn ay isa ng báta ng lilimáhi ng taòn, anàk nang isà ng kasamà
nang mayáma ng si Andrès. Si Hwàn mulá pa sa pagkabátà` ay pípe,
dátapuwat hindì` bingè. Gayon dìn ang pagkapípe nya ay hindí malubhà`,
sapagkàt kadalasàn sya y nakasísigàw, dátapuwat hindí ngà` lámang
gáya nang tinìg nang karanyúwa ng báta` ang sa kanyà.

Isa ng gabì si Andrès ay dumálaw sa báhay nang kanyà ng kasamà na
ama ni Hwàn, at sa kanya ng pagdálaw na ytò y isináma nya ang kanya
ng anàk na babáye, lilimáhin dì ng taòn ang gúlang. Káhit na pípe
si Hwàn ay nakipagkayibígan sya sa anàk nang kanya ng panginoòn,
at silà ng dalawà y nagsipaglarò` hábang ang kanilà ng manga amà
ay nagsàsàlitáan nang tungkòl sa pananìm. Ipinakíta nya kay Maryà
(na sya ng pangálan nang kanya ng kalarò`) ang manga larwan nyà na
gawá nang kanya ng saríli ng kamày at talíno.

Ang kanya ng manga laruwàn ay sarì-sári ng mukhá nang táo na ginawá
nya at nayàyárì nang pútik. Marámi rin díto ang manga buò ng táo na
may sarì-sári ng anyò`. Ang ibà y nagtátanìm, ang ibà y nagsásayàw,
ang ibà y nakahigà`, at gayon dìn may manga nagbúbunò`, nagtàtakbúhan,
at iba t iba pà ng anyò`. Gayon dìn máy manga háyop syà; ang ibà y
nayàyárì nang pútek at ang ibà y nayàyári nang káhoy.

Tumálik ang pagkakaybígan nang dalawa ng báta` at nàwíli sila sa
paglalarò`. Nang makatápus nà ang kanila ng amà sa pagsasàlitáan ay
tináwag ni Andrès si Maryà úpang umwí na silà, dátapuwat niyáyà múna
ni Maryà ang kanya ng amà sa lugàr na kinàlàlagyàn nang manga larwàn
ni Hwàn, at úpang itò y màkíta nyà. Nang màmasdan ny Andrès ang manga
larwa ng yòn ay nàpagúlat sya sa lakì nang talíno na ipinakìkilála
nang dumúkit sa manga tao-taóha ng iyòn. Sinábi ny Andrès sa ama ni
Hwàn na itò y matalíno at dápat ipadalà sa pàaralàn. Dátapwat isinagòt
nang ama ni Hwàn na syà y wala ng kwàrta úpang ipapagáral kay Hwàn.

"Kung gayòn," sinábi ni Andrès, "ay akò ang ùúpa sa mayèstro. Búkas
ay páparoon sa ámi ng báhay ang gurò ni Maryà. Sya y papagtùtuluyìn
ku díto sa iyò, úpang umpisahàn nya ang pagtutúro` at pagbubukàs nang
ísip ni Hwàn."

Napasalámat nang marámi ng marámi ang ama ni Hwàn at silà y
naghiwalày. Malakì ang ikinalungkòt ni Hwàn nang umalis nà ang kanyà
ng kalarò`.

Mulá sa áraw na itò kadalasàn si Hwàn ay ipinasúsundò nang ama ni
Maryà úpang doòn siyà sa kanya ng báhay makipaglarò` kay Maryà.

Isa ng hápon na silà ng dalawà y naglálaro sa hàlamanan nang maláwak
na bakúran ni Andrès ay nagdaà ng lumílipàd sa tabì nang dalawa ng
báta` ang isa ng paruparò. Itò y kanila ng hinábol. Nàùunà si Maryà
at sumúsunòd si Hwàn. Sa pagtatakbò nilà ay nahúlog si Maryà sa isa
ng sápa ng mabábaw na pàbyáyan nang manga isdà` niy Andrès. Si Hwàn
ay nàpasigàw nang malakàs at pagsigàw nya ng itò y napatiràn sya
nang lamàn sa lalamúnan at nagdudugò` ang kanya ng bibìg. Hindí nya
itò inalintána at tumalòn din sya sa sápa` úpang iligtàs si Maryà sa
pagkalúnod. Sa kababáwan nang sápa` ay hindí nangalúnod ang dalawà
ng báta`, dátapuwat siniglàn lámang si Maryà nang malaki ng tákot na
sya nyà ng ipinaghimatày nang násàsa túbig na syà. Kanyà` ang ginawá
ni Hwàn ay hinawákan nya si Maryà sa likòd at itinaas nyà úpang hwàg
makáinom nang túbig, hábang syà ay nàsìsísid sa túbig. Ganitò ang anyú
nila nang màdatnan silà nang isa ng alíla ny Andrès at silà y hinángo
sa sápà`. Malakì ang pagkàgúlat niy Andrès at malakì ang naging twà`
nang ama ni Hwàn nang si Hwàn ay márinig nila ng magsalità` at ibalítà
sa kanilà ang nangyári.

Dáhil sa pagsasalitá ni Hwàn ay lálu ng lumakàs ang kanya ng pagsúlong
sa pagaáral, at gayon dìn lálu ng tumálik ang pagkakaybígan nila
ni Maryà. Dumatìng ang áraw na sinábi nang gurú nya na sya y dápat
lumípat nang báyan úpang ipatúluy ang pagaáral, sapagkàt sya y walá
na ng màitúro sa kanyà. Itò y sinábi rin nyà kay Andrès. Ang ginawá
ny Andrès ay ipinadalà si Hwàn sa isa ng eskwèlhan nang pangdudúkit,
at díto sya nagáral na may ánim na taòn.

Si Hwàn at si Maryà ay nagsilakì at ang kanila ng pagkakaybígan ay
nagìng pagiìbígan. Twì ng bakasyòn ay umuwè` si Hwàn sa kanilà ng
báhay sa búkid ni Andrès at doòn sya nagpàpalípas nang áraw sa píling
ni Mariyà.

Dumatìng ang isa ng áraw nang pagtatanyágan nang manga dinúkit nang
manga artísta, at dáhil díto y pinagarálan ni Hwàn ang isa ng áyos
na kanya ng dápat dukítin parà sa áraw na itò. Ang manálo sa manga
kasále ay bìbigyàn nang isa ng ganti ng pálà na may malaki ng kasáma
ng kwàlta, bukòd sa pagdiríwang sa karàngálan nang mànanalò. May isà
ng taò ng nagtrabáho si Hwàn sa kanya ng kumpusisyòn.

Dumatìng ang áraw nang pagtatanyàg nang manga dinúkit. Si Hwàn,
ang kanya ng amà, si Andrès, at si Maryà ay naparoòn sa báhay na
kinàdòroonàn nang manga dinúkit. Lubhà ng marámi ang manga táo,
dátapuwat ang pinagkàkalipumpunàn nilà ay ang dinúkit ni Hwàn. Si
Maryà ay nápaiyàk sa twà` sa gandà nang dinúkit ni Hwàn. Si Andrès
namàn ay walà ng màláma ng sabíhin sa pagpúri. Dumatìng ang óras nang
pagpapaháyag nang manga hukòm kung síno ang nanálo, at ang dinúkit
ni Hwàn ay sya ng binanggìt na nakakúha nang gantì ng pála`.

Itò y isa ng grúpo ng máy-roo ng isa ng babáye ng nakatindìg. Ang
kaliwà ng kamày ay may háwak na isa ng sulò` at ang kánan namàn ay
isa ng koróna ng dáhon. Sa banda ng kánan nang babáe at sa ilálim
nang koróna ng olíva ay may isà ng bináta ng nàlùluhod ang kána ng
paà. Sa kanya ng kaliwà` ay may háwak sya ng librò at sa kánan ay
isa ng pamukpòk. Sa kanilà ng paánan ay nàsàsábug ang iba t iba ng
kasangkápan nang isa ng nagàáral.

Nang silà y umuwè` ipinagtapàt nang dalawa ng nagkàkàibígan sa kanila
ng manga magúlang ang kanila ng líhim. Ang ama ni Hwàn ay nalungkòt
lámang, sapagkàt nàlàláman nya na ang pagkakasàl sa kanila ng dalawà
ay hindí maàári`, sapagkàt ang kanila ng lagày ay gáya nang sa isa
ng busábos o alípin at isa ng panginoòn o háre`. Pagkáalam ni Andrès
sa bágay na itò ay siniglàn sya nang malaki ng gálit. Ipinatáwag
nya si Hwàn at kanya ng minúra. Sinábi nya ng sya y walà ng hyà` at
hindí marúnong tumanàw nang útang na loòb, hindí marúnong kumilála sa
nagparúnong sa kanyà, at sinábi nya ng hindí sya maàári ng màpakasàl
kay Mariyà. Dáhil díto y sya y umalìs agad-agàd na walà ng nakààalàm
káhit síno nang kanya ng patùtungúhan.

Nagdaàn ang limà o ánim na taòn at si Hwàn sa kanya ng pangdudúkit
ay káylan ma y hindí nalìlimútan si Maryà.

Si Mariyà namàn ay nagpalípas nang ánim na tao ng itò sa kanya ng
báhay. Nàlùlugmok syà hábang panahòn sa isa ng malálim na kalungkútan
at tuwí na y si Hwàn ang kanya ng nààalaála. Si Maryà y nagkasakìt
nang malubhà` at malápit na ng mamámatày.

Ipináyu nang manggagámot nya kay Andrès na, kung íbig nya ng
máligtas ang kanya ng anàk, ay sundìn nya ang gusto nitò tungkòl sa
pagaasáwa kay Hwàn. Dátapuwat nang pumáyag siy Andrès ay lubhà ng
huli nà. Palalá nang palalà` ang sakìt ni Maryà, at si Hwàn namàn ay
hindí nya nàlàláman kung saàn ang kinàdòroonàn. Marámi sya ng inutúsan
sa malalaki ng báyan úpang hanápin si Hwàn, dátapuwat nakaraan nà
ang marámi ng áraw ay walá pa ng nagkapálad káhit isà sa kanilà na
makátagpò` kay Hwàn.

Sa kalaúnan ang isa sa kanilà y nàtagpuan itò sa báya-ng-Kamálig sa
kanya ng gàwáan. Nang màbalitáan nya na ipinasúsundo syà ni Andrès
úpang ipakasàl sila ng dalawà ni Maryà, ay lubhà ng malakì ang kanyà
ng naging twà`. Dátapuwat gayon dìn malakì ang kanya ng tákot na
baká hindí nya abúta ng buhày ang kanya ng inìíbig. Sya y matúli ng
matúli ng umwè` at nang dumatìng sya sa báhay niy Andrès ay nàkíta nya
doòn ang butò t balàt na pangangatawàn ni Maryà nàlàlátag sa kanya ng
hihigàn. Nang sandalí ri ng iyòn ay nagpasundú si Andrès nang isa ng
páre`, at si Hwàn at si Maryà y ipinakasàl. Hábang ang pagkakasàl ay
idinàdaos nang páre` ang hiningà namàn ni Maryà ay pumàpánaw. Nang
mákasal na silà ay nagkaroòn lámang si Hwàn nang panahò ng mahagkàn
ang kanya ng asáwa, at itò y pinanáwan nang hiningà na ang mukhá y
masayà at nàngìngitì ang bibìg.


Si Markíta ay isà ng dalága ng mabaìt at magandà, dátapuwat
mahírap. Sya y máy-roo ng isa ng nóbyo na mahírap dìn, dátapuwat may
empléyo sa gobyèrno sa Mayníla` at máy-roo ng mabúti ng swèldo.

Si Markíta ay máy-roo ng isa ng kápit-báhay na mayáman. Ang báhay
ay tablà, at yéro ang bubungàn, malápad ang kanya ng bukirìn. Ang
kápit-báhay na ytò y malakì ang pagkágusto kay Markíta, dátapuwat hindí
nátin màsàsábe kung túnay ang kanya ng pagíbig, sapagkàt maluwàg ang
kanya ng tornílyo. Lahàt nang pagsúyo` ay ginawá nya kay Markíta,
dátapuwat si Markíta y isa ng dalága ng hindí sa-lawáhan ang loòb,
at ang lahàt nang kanya ng pagsúyo` ay hindí pinansìn.

Sa kalakhàn nang pagíbig nang manglilígaw na si Markíta ay mápasa
kanyà, ang ginawá nya y gumámit nang lakàs. Isa ng hápon pumások sa
bakúran nila Markíta at nagkubli syà sa isa ng púno-ng-ságing. Nang
hápu ng yoòn ay nagkátaon namà ng ang bakúran nilà Markíta ay
marumì. Kanyà itò y nanáog at niwalisàn ang bakúran. Pagkátabi nyà sa
púno-ng-ságing na pinagkùkublihàn nang laláke, itò y lumápit pagdáka,
tinangnàn sya sa kamày at kanyà sya hinagkàn.

Nàlàláman na ninyò na sa manga mahihinhì ng táo doòn sa átin ang isa
ng halìk ay isa ng malakì ng kasiraàn nang púri. Dáhil díto nang si
Markíta ay pumanhìk sa báhay na umíiyàk, at nang màláman nang kanya ng
manga magúlang na syà y tinampalásan o hinagkàn nang laláki ng iyòn,
inakálà nila na walà ng iba ng pangtakìp sa kasiraà-ng-púri ng itò
kung hindí ang ipakasàl nilà sa laláki ng iyòn ang kanilà ng anàk
na si Markíta. Káhit anò ng pagayàw ang ginawá ni Markíta at káhit
na nàlàláman nilà na itò y may kaìbígan, ay kanila rì ng ipinatúloy
ang pagkakasàl.

Si Markíta ay isa ng báta ng lubhà ng masùnúrin sa kanya ng manga
magúlang, kanyá hindí sya makasuwày nang tòtohánan ngayòn. Ang ginawá
na lámang niyà ay isinúlat nya sa kanya ng nóvyo ang manga nangyári
at mangyàyári at sinábi nya ng ang magíging pagkakasàl sa kanyà ay isa
lámang pagsunòd sa manga magúlang at siya rìn ay kanya ng inìíbig. Sa
manga magúlang namàn ni Markíta ay kanya ng sinábi na sya ay hindí
nila pakìkinabángan, sapagkàt ang pagkakasàl nya sa táu ng kanya ng
kinabùbuwisítan ay kanyà ng ikamámatay na madalì`.

Ikinasàl silà. Hindí nalaúnan at inapuyàn si Markíta nang lagnàt. Mulá
sa áraw nang kanya ng pagkakasàl ay hindí sya makakáin nang káhit
anò, at áraw-gabì sya y lumùlúha`. Ang manga magagalìng na médiko sa
báyan, ang lahàt nang yáman nang kanya ng asáwa, at ang lahàt nang
manga panalángin nang kanya ng manga magúlang ay hindí makapagligtàs
sa kanyà sa kamàtáyan. Pagkaraàn nang pitù ng áraw nang kanya ng
pagkákasàl ay sya y namatày. Itò y nagìng malakì ng kalungkútan nang
kanya ng nagìng nóbyo at isa ng nakatúlong sa nagìng kasawià-ng-pálad
nitò sa kanya ng búhay na dumatìng.


Sa báya-ng-Balíwag ay máy nàdistíno ng isa ng pári ng wala ng muwàng
káhit anu màn. Hinìhinála` nang manga táo na syà y isa ng sakatéro
lámang sa Espánya na nápadpad doòn at idinistíno sa kanilà ng báyan
úpang magkaroòn nang swèldo at sa gayò y máligtas sa pagkamatày nang
gútom. Linggo-linggò syà y nagmìmísa, dátapwat ang manga nakíkinig
nang mísa ay wala ng márinig sa kanyà kung hindì` ang salità ng
"Mísa, mísa, mísa," at iba pà. Papasí-pasyal sa harapàn nang altàr;
kung mínsan ay humáharap sa manga táo, pinagdódoop ang kamày, at sa
lahàt nang pagkílos nya ng itò y wala ng patìd nya ng sinàsábi ang
"Mísa, mísa, mísa," at iba pà.

Ang manga táo y nagálit at ipinagsumbòng sya sa arsubìspo. Ang sagòt
nang arsubìspo ay páparoon sya ng isà ng linggò at makíkinig nang mísa,
úpang màkíta kung túnay ngà` ang sumbong nilà.

Dumatìng doòn ang arsubìspo. Sa kanyà y sinábi nang pári` na sya y
hindí makapagmísa, sapagkàt ang manga ulòl na táo ay nagààlísan sa
simbáhan paguumpisà nya nang mísa.

"Búkas," sinábi pa nyà, "ay màmàmasdàn ninyò ang kanila ng
pagtatakbúhan sa pagbebendisyòn ko pa lámang."

Kinàbukásan ay linggò at sa pagmimísa nya ay háharap ang
arsubìspo. Umísip sya nang paraàn nang pagliligtàs sa kanya ng
saríle. Kanyà`, bágu sya nagumpisà nang pagmimísa ay nagpakuló sya nang
langìs. Hábang sya y nagbìbíhis ang manga táo namàn at ang arsubìspo
ay nàùupú na sa simbáhan. Ang arsubìspo ay malápit sa altàr at hábang
sya y nagbìbíhis ang langìs namàn ay kasalukúya ng kumúkulò`. Nang
makapagbíhis na syà ay ibinúhus nya sa lalagyàn nang túbig na bendíta
ang kumúkulu ng langìs. Ang ugálì nya ay magbendisyòn múna bágu
magmísa, kanyà` pagpások nya sa simbáhan ay sya nyà ng iniwisìk sa
manga táo ang kumúkulu ng langìs sa lugàr nang àgwa-bendíta. Ang manga
táo ng dinapúan nang maiínit na patàk nang langìs ay nagsipagtindìg at
úbus-làkása ng nagsipagtakbúhan papalabàs sa simbáhan. Nang màkíta itò
nang arsubìspo ay hindí nya ipinatulòy ang pagmimísa sa áraw na iyòn,
sapagkàt wala ng nátira sa simbáhan ní isa màn sa manga táo.

Sinábi nang arsubìspo sa párì` na sya y hindí mààalìs sa báya ng iyòn
at hindí na nyà pàpansinìn ang anu mà ng ipagsumbòng nang manga táo.


Si Párì Mundò ay sya ng nàdistínu ng ilà ng taòn sa
báya-ng-Marikína. Sya y isa ng táo ng maibigìn sa pagliliwalìw. Sa
pagtupàd sa kanya ng manga tungkúlin sya y hindí nagkùkúlang
káylan màn. Araw-áraw sya y nagmìmísa at kung linggò ay makálawa
sya ng magmísa. Gayon dìn sya y nagbíbinyàg nang manga báta`,
nagbèbendisyòn nang patày, nagháhatid nang biyátiko, nagpàpakumpisàl,
at nagpakinábang. Ang lahàt nang kanyà ng tungkúlin ay sinúsunod
nyà ng mabúte, dátapuwat ang pagpapakumpisàl ay nilalúan nya nang
kauntì`. Sa ganà ng kanyà sigúro ng itò y mabúte úpang pauntiìn ang
manga kasalánan nang kanya ng kinúkumpisàl, dátapuwat sa ibà sa kanya
ng manga kinúkumpisal itò y may nagìng masamà ng dúlo.

Mínsan máy-ro ng isà ng babái ng dalága na mapagsimbà at
mapagkumpisàl. Nang dumatìng ang dalága ng itò sa dalawa ng pù ng taòn
ang gúlang ay iníwan na nyà ang kabànála ng pagkukumpisàl, gayon dìn
bihíra ng magsimbà. Nang mínsan usisáin ang babáye ng itò ay nagsábi
nang ganitò:

"Noo ng úna ang boò ng akálà ko si Párì Mundò ay isa ng sànto, dátapwat
ngayò y nàpagkìkilála nang marámi na sya y isa ng buwísit na táo. Kung
bahà` at ang manga táo y nagsìsipamangkà` sa bahà`, sya y sa bangkà`
nang manga babáe nakíkisakày at hindí sa manga laláki. Kung umága
pagkamísa nya ay màkìkíta na sya ng nakatalungkò sa kanya ng pátyo na
ang ábito y nagùgúmun sa lúpa` at sya y humàhágod nang manòk kaharàp
nang ibà ng sabungéro.

"Noo ng úna akò y madalàs magkumpisàl sa kanyà, dátapwat dumatìng
ang isa ng áraw na panày na kaululàn lámang ang ipagtatanòng nya sa
ákin sa kumpìsálan. Súkat ba ng itinanòng nya sa ákin kung ilàn ang
manlilígaw sa ákin, kung síno ang áki ng inìíbig, at kung saàn akò
makìkipagtagpò`? Sa loob-loòb ku lámang ay nàpakawala-ng-hyà` ang
pári ng itò. Kanyà` iníwan ku sya agàd sa kumpìsálan at mulá noon ay
hindí na akò nangumpisàl."


Si Hwàn ay isa táo ng mapaggawá nang kaululàn, dátapuwat itò y hindí
nya sinásadyà` úpang magpagálit nang kápwa táo, kung hindí yon ay
talagà ng sya nyà ng ugáli` na átas sa kanya nang kanya ng pagiísip.

Mínsan sya y naparòn sa fiyèsta nang isa ng báyan. May pasàn sya
ng tatlò ng biìk, úpang ipagbilè sa báyan. Nang sya y dumating nà,
nàkíta nya sa pátyo nang simbáhan ang marámi ng táo ng nalìlípon at
nakíkinìg nang biníbigkas na talumpáti` nang kápitan sa báyan. Masikìp
ang pagkakátayo nang manga táo, dátapwat sya y nálapit dìn sa
paanàn nang entabládo na kinàtàtayuàn nang nagtàtalumpáti`. Hábang
nakìkipagsiksíkan syà, ang tatlò ng biìk ay wala ng lubày nang
pagyàk. Nang syà y makarating nà sa harapàn nang kápitan, tinúkup
nya ang manga bibìg, úpang silà y patahanìn, dátapwat walá sya ng
magawà`. Náino nang kápitan ang manga ìyákan nang biìk at tiningnan
nyà kung síno ang máy dala doòn nang manga biìk.

Nang màkíta nya si Hwàn ay sinábi nya ang ganítò: "Huwán! Anò
ang gustu mò ng sabíhin sa pagpapaiyàk mo díto nang iyo ng manga
biìk? Lumáyas ka ngayon dìn, at hwag kà ng makàtuntong-tuntòng káylan
màn sa lúpa-ng-Bùstos!"

Si Hwàn ay umalìs at umwè` sa kanya ng báyan sa San-Ildepònso. Nakaraàn
ang isa ng taòn at dumatìng na mulì` ang fyèsta sa báyan nang
Bùstos. Iníbig ni Hwàn na pumaroòn, dátapuwat nàalaála nya na tinangáan
sya nang kápitan sa báya ng iyòn na, pag sya y nàkíta ng mulì` sa
lúpa-ng-Bùstos, ay sya y ipabíbilanggò` at pahìhirápan. Umísip si
Hwàn nang paraàn úpang makaparòn.

Nang dumatìng ang fiyèsta ay máy-roo ng isà ng mísa ng malakì na
dinaluhàn nang líbo-líbo ng táo. Si Hwàn ay isà sa manga táo ng itò at
syà ang nàpàpansìn nang marámi ng táo, dahilàn sa anyò nang pagkálagay
nyà doòn sa loòb nang simbáhan. Dí nalaúnan at isà sa manga táo ng
nagmámasid sa kanyà ay nagsumbùng sa kápitan at sinábi na si Hwàn ay
násàsa loòb nang simbáhan at nakasakày sa isa ng karéta na hinìhíla
nang kalabàw, at ang lahàt, karéta, kalabàw, at si Hwàn ay násàsa
loòb nang simbáhan. Si Hwàn ay hindí nanànáog sa karéta ng kanya
ng tinùtuntungàn.

Pumarùn ang kápitan sa simbáhan úpang hulíhin si Hwàn. Nang málapit
syà díto ay sinábi nyà: "Huwán! Sumunòd ka sa ákin at ibíbilanggú
kità. Hindí ba sinábi ko nà sa iyò t hwàg kà ng tútuntong nang

Isinagòt namàn ni Hwàn: "Ginoò ng Kápitan! Sinábi ngà` po ninyò sa
ákin iyàn. Kanyà` akò y hindí makaalìs sa áki ng karéta. Nàkìkíta
pú ba ninyò itò ng lúpa ng lúlan nang áki ng karéta at sya kò
ng tinùtuntungàn? Ito pò` ay hindè lúpa-ng-Bùstos kung hindí
lúpa-ng-San-Ildepònso. Doòn ko pò` sa áki ng báyan kinúha ang lúpa
ng itò."

Pagkàsábi ni Hwàn nitò ay hindí nàpigílan nang kápitan ang pagtáwa,
at sinábi na lámang nya sa kanya ng saríli na syà y wala ng magágawa
kay Hwàn, sapagkàt itò y nása katwíran.


Si Hwàn, si Andrès, at si Dyégo ay tatlò ng magagalìng na
magnanákaw. Silà y balíta ng balíta`, at marámi ng táo ang nagsìsihúle
sa kanilà, dátapuwat sa galìng nilà nang pangingílag at pagnanákaw
ay hindí sila màhúle. Ang tatlò ng itù y nagtìpána ng mínsan na
magtatagpò` sila sa isa ng lugàr na tahímik at líhim úpang pagusápan
nilà ang kanilà ng pamumúhay at manga mabubúti ng bágo ng paraàn nang
pagnanákaw. Silà ng tatlò ay nabùbúhay sa pagnanákaw lámang. Ní isa
màn sa kanilà ay walà ng paghahánap na mabúte. Mulá pa sa pagkabátà`
ay ganito nà ang kanila ng pamumúhay, kanyà` silà y nagìng matalíno
at lubhà ng makínis sa gawa ng itò.

Nang dumatìng ang áraw nang kanilà ng tìpánan, madali ng áraw pa
lámang ay nàròroòn na silà. Malakì ng pamamalíta` nang báwat isà at
hindí magkàmáyaw ang kanila ng pagbabàlitaàn.

Itinanòng ni Hwàn kay Dyégo: "Gánu ka na bà kakínis ngayòn sa áti
ng trabáho?"

"Sa damdam kò," ang sagòt ni Dyégo, "ay akò ang pinakamakínis sa áti ng
tatlò, sapagkàt akò y nakapagnànákaw nang manga itlòg na hinàhalimhimàn
nang manòk na hindí nàlàláman nitò. At hindí itu lámang," idinugtung
nyà, "ang manga háyop màn na mababagsìk ay nànànakáwan ku nang kanila
ng inakày nang walá sila ng málay."

"Ganyàn ba lámang ang kínis mo?" isinabàd pagdáka ni Andrès, "Akò
ay nakapagnànákaw sa háyop at gayon dìn sa táo. Ang manga aláhas
nang táo na íbig ko ng nakáwin ay ninànákaw ko, káhit na natùtúlog o
naglálakad ang may áre`. Mínsan ay ninákaw ko ang isa ng singsìng na
hinìhigàn nang may ári` úpang hwag mànákaw, dátapwat itò y nànákaw
ko nang walá sya ng málay."

"Ganyàn ba lámang ang kínis ninyò?" itinanùng ni Hwàn, "Walá sa
kalahátì nang kínis ko sa pagnanákaw ang inyù ng manga nagágawà`. Akò
y nakapagnànákaw nang táo mìsmo at hindí nang kanila lámang na manga

Nàpagúlat ang dalawà nya ng kaúsap, sapagkàt hindí nila inakála ng ang
isa ng táo ng buhày ay maàári ng mànákaw nang hindí nito nàlàláman,
at úpang subúkan nilà ang galìng ni Hwàn ay nakipagpustáhan silà
ng dalawà kay Hwàn. Sinábi nilà ng nakáwin nya ang párì` sa báyan
at ihatid nyà sa lugàr na kanila ng kinàdòroonàn ngayòn. Kung itù y
magawá nya, bàbayáran sya ni Andrès at ni Dyégo nang limà ng daà ng
píso. Dátapuwat kung hindí nya magawà`, bàbayáran nya si Andrès at
si Dyégo nang isa ng daà ng píso. Umáyon si Hwàn sa pustáha ng itò
at silà y naghiwá-hiwalày.

Si Hwàn ay napatúngu sa báyan at pinakibalitáan nya kung saàn nàtìtirà
ang párè`. Nang màláman nya itò ay nagisìp sya nang paraà ng gágawin
nyà na pagnákaw sa párè`. Sya y pumásuk na alíla` sa pári ng itò. Sa
kanya ng pagkàpaalíla ng itò ay nàkilála nya ang manga ugáli nang
páre`. Isà sa kanya ng ugáli` na hindí nabàbáli` káylan màn ay ang
pagdadasàl nang rosáriyo sa harapàn nang isa ng poòn. Ang poò ng itò
ay nayàyárì nang káhoy, at itò y si Sang-Hwàn. Ang lakì nang poò ng
itò ay kasingpantày nang isa ng táo.

Ang ginawá ni Hwàn ay nagpagawá sya sa isa ng mandurúkit nang isa ng
poò ng gáya rin nitò, dátapuwat hukày at wala ng lamàn ang loòb. Ang
bútas na itò sa loòb nang katawàn nang poò ng itò ay maàári ng
sootàn nang isa ng táo. Nang mayárì na ang poò ng pagawá ni Hwàn,
ay pinalitan nyà ang poò ng si Sang-Hwàn na túnay naárì nang párè`.

Isa ng hápun bágu dumatìng ang orasyòn ay kumúha sya nang isa ng
sáko nang bigàs at napaloòb sya sa loòb nang sànto ng ipinagawá
nya. Pagkahápon nang párì` itò y pumaroòn sa kwàrto ng kanya ng
pinagdàdasalàn úpang magrosáryo. Nang magkákalahatí na ang kanya ng
pagdadasàl at kátaon namà ng nangàngáwit na si Hwàn sa pagkátayò`, ay
nagsalità ito: "Ihintú mu nà, Párì Lúkas, ang iyo ng pagdadasàl. Ako
y pinàparíto sa iyò úpang ihatìd kità sa lángit."

Nang úna ay siniglàn nang tákot ang páre`, dátapuwat inakálà nya ng
ang kanya ng poòn ay nagmìmilágro at totoo ngà ng sinúsundú sya úpang
ihatìd sa kalangitàn.

Sa kanyà ng hindí pagkibò` ay nagsalità ng mulí si Hwàn nang ganitò:
"Marámi nà ang kabànála ng iyù ng ginawà`. Matagàl ka nang namùmúhay
nang mabába`, at dáhil díto y nàtàtaàn sa iyò ang lahàt nang
kaginhawáhan sa lángit. Sumáma ka sa ákin at iháhatid kità."

Isinagòt nang páre`: "Papáno ang gàgawin kò ng pagsáma sa iyò? Akù
y matandá na at hindí ako makalàlákad mulà díto sa lúpa` hanggàng
sa lángit."

Isinagòt namàn ni Hwàn: "Yòn ay hwag mù ng alalahánin. Máy-ron ako ng
isa ng sáko. Sumilìd ka díto at pàpasanin kità sa pagpuntà sa lángit."

At pagkàsábi nya nitò y iniladlad nyà ang sáko nang bigàs. Pagkásilid
nang páre` ay tinalía ng mahigpìt ni Hwàn ang sáko. Lumabàs sya sa
loòb nang poòn at pinasan nyà si Párì Lúkas patúngo sa báhay na kanya
ng pinagtipanàn sa dalawa ng kaybígan. Tiwalà ng tiwalá si Párì Lúkas
na sya y papuntà sa lángit, kanyà` walá sya ng kibò` sa loòb nang sáko.

Dátapwat, nang nagbàbátis na si Hwàn sa isa ng mabábaw na ílog, ay
inakálà nya ng sya y nàlòlóko lámang at hindí sa lángit ang punta nilà.

Kanyà itinanùng nya kay Hwàn: "Anu ng ílog itò, at bákit táyo dápat
tumawìd nang ílog sa pagpuntà sa lángit?"

Isinagòt ni Hwàn: "Sssst! Hwag kà ng maíngay! Itò y ílog nang Hòrdan."

Ang párì ay nagtahàn nang pagsasalità`. Ipinatúloy ni Hwàn ang

Nang sya y pumápanhik nà sa báhay na kanila ng tagpúan, nàpagúlat na
mulì` ang páre`, at tumanùng sya ng mulì`: "Anu ng hagdánan itò? Ganito
bà ang hitsúra nang hagdána ng papuntà sa lángit?"

"Sinábi ko nà sa iyò at hwag kà ng maíngay", ang isinagòt ni Hwàn,
"Ito ngà` ang hagdána ng paakyàt sa lángit."

Nang mápanhik nà silà sa báhay ay sinalúbong silà ni Dyégo at ni
Andrès. Inilapàg ni Hwàn ang kanya ng dalà, at sinábi nya sa dalawà:
"Dala ko ríto ang iniyútos ninyo sa áki ng nakáwin. Dala ba ninyò
ang lima ng daa ng píso?"

Ang dalawà y hindí naniwála ng agàd. Kanyà` ang ginawá nila y binútas
nilà ang sáko at sinílip nilà ang lamàn. Sa loòb ay nàkíta nila ang
úlo nang párì` na may satsàt. Kanyà` iniyabòt nila kay Hwàn ang lima
ng daa ng píso, at sila ng lahàt ay nanáog pagdáka. Iníwan nilà ang
páre` úpang sya ay magpakawalà` sa kanya ng saríle.


Hindí bihíra` sa manga gúbat na màtagpuàn ang malalakì ng káwal nang
manga unggò`. Kung walà ng armàs ang isà ng nàpápasa kanila ng lugàr,
silà y mababagsìk, at may pangánib na patayìn nilà ang táo ng kanila
ng màpagkalipumpunàn. Silà kung nagàgálit ay nagsìsipanáog sa manga
púnù nang káhoy at pinagtùtulùng-tulúnga ng kinákagat ang táo ng
násàsa kapangyaríhan nilà. Dáhil díto ang isa ng táo ng naglálakad
sa manga gúbat na marámi ng unggò` ay hindí magpàpabáya ng magdalà
nang barìl. Ang manga unggò` kung pinùputukan nà nang barìl ay wala ng
tákot. Karamíhan ay hindí nagtàtakbúhan, dátapuwat tinìtingnan nilà ang
pinanggàgalíngan nang íngay at nang asò. Ang manga dinàratnan namàn
nang bála ay sinásangga itò nang kanya ng kamày, pára ng sumásangga
sa isa ng pukòl lámang. Kanyà` ang manga pálad nilà ay nàbùbútas dìn
nang bála kung silà y tamaàn.

Hindí bihíra` ang manga táo y nanghùhúle nang buhày na unggò` úpang
kanila ng aliláin at ipagbilì sa manga taga iba t ibà ng lupaìn
na nagsìsipuntà sa Filipínas. Ang panghuhúle nang buhày na unggò`
ay hindí nangàngailángan nang malakì ng págod, dátapuwat ang paraàn
nang paghúle sa kanila ay isà ng panglolóko lámang sa kanilà. Ito ng
sumúsunòd ay isa ng halimbáwà nang paghúle sa kanilà.

Kung ang isa ng táo ay íbig humúle nang unggò`, karanyúan ay
naglùlúto` o nagpàpalúto sya nang kakanìn, at itò y hinàhalúan o
pinahàhalúan niya nang balasìng. Ang balasìng ay isa ng butò nang
haláman na nakalálasìng o nakapagáantòk nang malálim na antòk sa
manga háyop na makàkáin. Gayon dìn ginàgámit itò sa panghuhúle
nang isdá sa ílog. Pagkalútò nang kakanìn itò y dinádala nang táo
sa lugàr na kinàdòroonàn nang káwal nang manga unggò`. Dátapuwat
kung itò y ilagay nyà nang mahúsay sa lúpà` ang manga unggò` ay
hindí magsìsipanáog úpang kumáin. Hinìhinálà nilà na ang kakanì ng
iyòn ay páin lámang sa kanilà úpang silà y hulíhin o patayìn. Dáhil
díto ang ginágawa nang táo ay nagtàtakut-takútan pagkátanaw nyà sa
manga unggò`, at sya y nagtátakbò na súnong ang biláo nang kakanì
ng may balasìng. Sa kanya ng pagtakbò ay nagdàdapa-dapáan syà, at
dáhil díto y ang súnung nya ng kakanìn ay nàpàpalagpàk at nàsàsábog
sa lúpa`. Kung itù y mangyári nà, ipinatùtúloy din nyà ang kanya ng
pagtakbò, at sya y nangúngublè sa isa ng lugàr, úpang tanawìn nya ang
pagkakàínan nang manga unggò`. Pagkàkíta nang manga unggò` sa patakbò
ng pagalìs nang táo at pagkákubli nitò, silà y nagsìsipanáug sa manga
púno-ng-káhoy at nagsìsipagagawàn nang kakanìn. Nagkàkàdagàn-dagàn
silà sa pagaagawàn, at lubhà ng malakì ang íngay, sapagkàt ang báwat
isa ng káwal nang unggò ay máy-roo ng limà ng daàn o isà ng líbo ang
bílang. Pagkakáin nilà hindí nalàláon at sinúsumpong silà nang antòk,
nagsìsipanghína` at hindí makaakyàt sa káhoy. Isa ng nakàtàtawa ng
panoorìn ang manga unggò ng itò, matandà` at bátà`, ay nangàtàtalungkò
sa lúpa` at nagsìsipagyukayòk báwat isà. Ang ibà ng hindí nagkapálad na
makàágaw nang kakanìn ay nagsísiyakyàt sa púno-ng-káhoy at pinanónood
ang kanila ng manga lasìng na kasamahàn. Pagaanyò` nang ganitò nang
manga unggò`, ang táo ng nàkùkublì ay saká pa lámang lumàlápit at
isa-isà ng sinùsunggabàn ang manga natùtúlug na unggò`. Hindí maláo
ng panahòn ang pagubrà nang balasìng na itò, at ang manga unggò y
nagsìsihúsay pagkaraàn nang ilà ng áraw.

Ang ikalawà ng karanyúa ng gawìn sa panghuhúli nang unggò` ay ang
pagpapáin sa kanila nang nyòg. Ang isa ng boò ng nyòg ay nilàlagyan
nang bútas. Ang lakì nang bútas na itò ay hustò lámang na màipásuk
nang unggò` ang kanya ng kamày kung walà ng tángan. Sa loòb nang
báo nang nyòg ay inilálagay ang isa ng pirásu-ng-lamàn nang nyùg, at
ang lahàt na itò y inilálagay sa lugàr nang manga unggò`. Ang manga
unggò` ay magustúhin sa nyòg, at pagkàkíta nilà díto ay dinùdúkot
nilà ang lamà ng nása loòb nang báo. Kung masunggabàn na namàn nilà
ang lamàn nang nyòg, ang kanila ng kamày ay hindí nila màilabàs sa
bútas, ní íbig namàn silà ng bitíwan ang lamàn nang nyòg. Dáhil díto
silà y pára ng nakapangàw at paglápit nang táo ng manghuhúle ay hindí
sila makaalìs, sapagkàt ang niyog namàn ay mabigàt at kung mínsan
ay máy-roo ng pabigàt. Kanyà` paglápit nang manghuhúle, ay wala ng
hírap nya ng nasùsunggabàn ang manga unggò` o matsìng na nangàpàpangàw.


Ang abéynte-kwátru nang Húnyo ay sya ng áraw na kapyestáhan
ni Sang-Hwàn, at itò y ipinagdìdíwang sa manga bayàn-bayàn sa
lalawígan nang Bulakàn. Sa bwàn nang Húnyo ay kasalukúyan ang ulàn
at mapútik. Ang paniwálà nang manga táo si Sang-Hwàn ay sya ng sànto
ng nagpàpaulàn, dáhil díto y maibigìn sa túbig at pútik. Kanyà`
ang manga pagdiríwang na ginágawà` sa kanya ng kaarawàn ay lubhà
ng malakì ang pagkáiba sa pagdiríwang na ginágawa sa kaarawàn nang
ibà ng sànto. Sa báya ng malalápit sa dágat kung bwàn nang Húnyo ay
bumábahà`, at ang túbig ay umàáhon sa báyan. Sa manga báya ng malaláyo`
sa dágat ay lubhà ng maulàn dìn, at karanyúwa y ang manga pagbahà ng
itò at pagulàn ay nàtàtaòn sa kaarawàn ni Sang-Hwàn. Ang manga táo
ng kasáli sa pagdiríwang ay nagsìsipagbasà` sa bahà` o sa ulàn. Sa
manga báyan nang Malólos at Hagúnoy kung nàtàtaòn ang fyèsta ng itò sa
isa ng bahà ng malakì, hálos lahàt nang táo ay naglúlublob sa túbig
o kayà y nagsìsipamangkà`. Kung hindí namàn bahà`, ang manga táo y
nagsìsipaglibòt lámang sa ulàn. Marámi ng taga búkid at taga báriyo ay
nagsìsipagpalimòs sa kaarawà ng itò. Karamíhan sa kanilà ay manga báta`
o kayà y manga bináta`. Bihíra ng máy manga babáye. Pangkat-pangkàt
sila ng nagsìsipagpalimòs, at báwat isa ng pangkàt ay máy manga kasáma
ng músiku ng bungbòng. Ang manga hindí nagsísitugtòg ang katungkúlan ay
kumantà o kayà y sumayàw. Sila ng lahàt ay uwalà ng pamamáro` hálos,
gáya nang manga Igoróte, dátapuwat ang boò ng katawàn mulá sa paà
hanggàng úlo, patì manga matà at taínga, ay nàkùkulapúlan nang pútek.

Ang manga pangkàt na itò ay tumàtáwag sa bahay-bahày. Naghíhintó sila
sa harapàn nang báhay, at díto y tumútugtog silà o kayà y nagsìsikantà
o nagsásayàw. Ang karanyúa ng kanila ng kantahìn ay úkol sa nagìng
pamumúhay ni Sang-Hwàn o kayà y nang iba ng sànto ng kaybígan nitò. Sa
kanila ng pagtutugtúgan ang kanila ng áyos ay makahiléra ng pabilòg,
kung mínsan ay nakatayò`, kung mínsan ay nakatalungkò`, o kayà y
nakaluhòd. Kung máy-roo ng nagkákantà o sumásayàw, itò y násàsa loòb
nang bílog nang manga mànunugtòg, at doòn nya ginágawà ang kanya
ng pagkantà o pagsayàw. Pagkaraàn nang dalawà o tatlò ng tugtúgan,
kantáhan, o sàyáwan, sila y nagsìsipaghintò` at sabày-sabày na
nagsìsipanghingì` nang limòs sa manga táo ng nanúnood sa kanilà. Kung
sila y hindí limusàn, kumùkúha silà nang pútik sa kanila ng katawàn
at pinúpukul nilà ang manga táo ng mararámot.

Ang boò ng maghápun ay inùúbus nilà sa ganitò ng pagdiríwang. Ang manga
manglilímos na itò ay lubhà ng marámi rìn, kanyà` silà y nakatùtúlung
na magpasiglà sa báyan káhit na lubhà ng maulàn.

Sa manga pagbabangkáan namàn ay hindí bihírà` ang magkalunòd ang
manga táo. Kanyà ang ugáli ng itò ay unti-untì ng nawáwalà`. Gayon
dìn sa manga panahò ng itò ang manga táo y nagíging kuríput at bihíra
ng maglimòs. Kanyà` ang manga manghihingí nang limùs sa kaarawàn ni
Sang-Hwàn ay untì-untì ng nawáwalà`.


Ang isà ng angkà ng namàmatayàn ay hindì` ang kanila ng loòb at
káluluwa lámang ang nagtátamu nang hírap, kung hindì` patì ang bulsà
rìn nilà. Itù y dahilàn sa lubhà ng malalakì ng dámi nang ginùgúgul
nang namàmatayàn sa pagdadáos nang sarì-sári ng kaugaliàn.

Sa áraw nang pagkamatày nang isa ng táo, sa angkàn nitò ay marámi ng
lubhà` ang nagsìsidálaw, at ang manga nagsìsidálaw namà ng itò ay hindí
nasìsyahàn nang pakikipagdalamhátì lámang sa kamaganákan nang namatày,
dátapuwat silà y nagtútumirà sa báhay nang namatayàn. Dáhil díto
ang angkàn nang namatày ay napìpilíta ng maghandá nang pangpakáin sa
manga dálaw. Karanyúwa y hindí inilílibing agàd ang patày, dátapuwat
ibinùbúrol múna ng dalawà o tatlo ng áraw mulá sa pagkalagùt nang
hiningà. Sa manga áraw na itò áraw-gabì ay walà ng patìd ang dálaw
nang manga táo. Karamíhan ay manga kamagának at ibà y manga kaybígan,
kápit-báhay, o ibà ng kakilála sa báyan. Kung ang namatày ay isa ng
táo ng marámi ng kaybígan o kamaganákan sa iba ng báyan sila màn ay
dumàdálaw rìn, at silà y dápat na bigyàn nang tìráhan at pagkáin nang
angkàn nang namatày. Itò y ganitò sapagkàt sa manga bayàn-bayàn sa
provìnsiya ay walà ng báhay-tùlúyan.

Sa pagpapakáin sa marámi ng dálaw na itò hindí bihíra ng nakaùúbus
silà nang kabyàk na báka at ilà ng túpa, kambèng, at hindí mabílang
na manga manòk. Ang kosinéro karanyúwa y upahàn, at ang malalápit
na kamagának nang namatày ay nagsìsitúlung na maglúto`. Dáhil díto
sa báhay nang namatayàn ang lugàr na kinàbùburúlan nang patày ay
tahímik na tahímik at káhit na marámi ng táo ang nàròroòn, pabulòng
lámang kung silà y magsàlitáan. Dátapuwat sa kainàn at lutuàn ang
íngay ay hindí karanyúan. Isa t isà y nagùútos sa manga alíla`, may
naghùhúgas nang pinggàn o kayà y manga palayòk, may nagpàpakintàb
nang manga tinidòr at kutsílyo, may nagháhandà` sa lamésa, at iba
pà. Sa kusínà namàn ang sagitsìt nang kawále` ay wala ng lubày. Ang
pagtatadtàd nang karnè ay wala ng patìd at ang tinìg nang kosinéro
at kanya ng alagàd ay sya na lámang nàrìrinìg.

Dátapuwat sa isa ng silìd namàn nang báhay ay doòn nàròroòn at
nàlùlugmòk sa pagdadalamháte` ang manga angkàn nang namatày. Sila y
nagsísiyàk nang úbus-lakàs at kung mínsa y nagdúduklày-duklày silà
nang kung ano-anò ang mangyàyári sa kanila ng pamumúhay dahilàn sa
pagpánaw nang namatày.

Kung mayáman ang namatày, itò y ipinadàdápit sa párè` at iniháhatid
sa simbáhan. Pagdatìng doòn sa simbáhan binèbendisyunàn nang párè` ang
patày at pagkatápos ay iniháhatid dìn nya sa lìbíngan. Ang lahàt nang
manga dálaw ay kasáma sa paglilibìng na itò at kadalasà y nàsàsakay
silà sa manga karumáta. Ang manga karumáta ng itò namàn ay upahàn,
líban na lámang sa ilà ng árì nang manga dálaw.

Pagkálibing nang patày ang manga dálaw na taga iba ng báyan ay doon
dìn ang wè` sa báhay nang namatày. Kadalasàn silà y nagsìsialìs agàd,
dátapuwat kung magkàbihíra` ay silà y nagtítira na tatlu ng áraw úpang
makàsále sa pagtatatlo-ng-gabè. Ang tatlù ng gabè ay idinàdáos sa
báhay nang namatày. Díto ay dumàdálaw ang manga kamaganákan at silà y
nagsísipagdasàl. Sa pagdadasàl na itò ay ang manga matatandá lámang
ang kasáli, at ang manga binátà at dalága ay nagsìsipagbugtúngan
namàn. Ang ganitò ng pangingílin ay ginágawa sa loòb nang tatlu ng
gabè. Sa katapusà ng gabè karanyúa y lubhà ng marámi ang táo, at ang
handà` ay malakì káy sa dalawà ng gabì ng nagdaàn. Marámi rìn namàn
sa manga nagsísidalò ang nagbíbigay nang limùs sa namatayàn. Karanyúwa
y manga pangpakáin sa manga dálaw.

Sa manga angkà ng mahihírap ang manga pangingíli ng ito ay ginágawá
rìn, dátapuwat ang pagdápit at paghahatìd lámang nang pári sa patày
ay walà`. Sa pagbebendisyòn nang patày ang isa ng táo y makabàbáyad
sa páre` nang gustuhìn nyà. Ang pinakamúra ay ang pagbebendisyòn
sa patày sa pintúan lámang nang simbáhan at sa sahìg nàlàlapàg. Ang
sumúsunòd ay ang pagbebendisyòn nang patày sa pintúan dìn, dátapuwat
nàpàpátung lámang ang ataòl sa isa ng altàr. Ang manga mahahalagà ng
pagbebendisyòn ay ginágawà` sa tabì nang altàr. Mulá sa isa ng daà
ng píso hanggàng sa lima ng daàn ang manga halagà nitò.


Ang manga táo sa San-Migèl ay nagìng pára ng manga káwal nang háyop
na umìílag sa manga pamálo` nang manga pastòl at panghahábol nang
manga áso ng mababagsìk. Silà y lubhà ng maibigìn sa katahimíkan
at kapayapaàn. Gayon dìn sila y lubhà ng pàniwalaìn sa sabi-sabì,
at itò ng manga bágay na yitò ay sya ng hindí ikinàpátag nang marámi
sa kanilà sa báyan sa panahòn nang manga paghihìmagsíkan lában sa
Kastíla` at sa Amerikáno. Totoò rìn namàn na marámi sa kanilà ay
nangagsipagtakbò dahilàn lámang sa katakútan o kadwágan.

Nang mangyári ang paghihìmagsíkan lában sa Kastíla` nang taò ng isa
ng líbo walu ng daàn at siyàm na pu t ánim, akò y àápat na taòn pa
lámang sa gúlang. Áyon sa sinábi sa ákin nang áki ng nánay, kamì ay
nagsipuntà sa Mayníla` sa lugàr nang umáhon sa bundòk. Walá ako ng
marámi ng natàtandaàn nang manga nangyári sa panahò ng yaòn, kung
hindí ang bágay nang ámi ng pagpuntà sa estasyòn nang trèn. Pagdatìng
sa Mayníla` ay hindí kami nakapások sa loòb nang báyan kung hindì`
may pahintúlot nang isa ng pinúno` sa báya ng iyòn.

Ang sumúsunod na bágay na nátalà` sa áki ng pangalaála ay ang
pagkátira námin sa Bigaà, sa báhay nang isa ng mànananggòl na ang
pangála y si Don-Nasáryo. Ang dahilàn nang ikinalípat námin sa báya
ng itò ay ang pagílag sa paglalabanàn nang manga Katipúnan at manga
Kastíla` sa Mayníla`. Sa Bigaà ay manga sundálo ng Tagálog sa kanila
ng pagsasánay sa pakikipaglában.

Hindí nalaúnan at kamì ay nápasa báyan nang Bùstos. Ang báya ng itò
ay nasàsákup dìn sa manga panahò ng iyòn nang manga Katipunéros. Ang
báya ng iyòn ay lubhà ng magandà dahilàn sa sarì-sáre ng hitsúra
nang manga bágay-bágay na nàkìkíta. Ang ílug ay lubha ng maláwak,
ang pasígan ay malápad, may manga buntòn nang batò at buhángin sa
pasígan. Ang ámi ng manga kaybíga ng tinulúyan ay mababaìt na táo. Akò
at ang áki ng kapatìd na babáye ay kanila ng paráti ng ipinalílibàng,
at ang paglilibàng na itò ay ang pagpapasísid nang páto sa malínaw
na túbig sa ílog.

Kung anò ang nangyári sa manga paglalabanàn nang manga panaho ng iyòn
ay hindí ku nàalamàn, dahilàn sa kaliitàn at kawalàn pa nang málay.

Nang dumatìng ang takbúhan sa Amerikáno, akò y may gúlang na
nang kauntì`, at marámi akù ng natàtandaàn sa ámi ng pagtakbò sa
bundòk. Nang ang manga Amerikáno ay nagsìsipanálo na lában sa manga
sundálo ni Aginàldo ang manga táo sa báya-ng-San-Migèl ay pinagsisiglàn
nang tákot. Lumagánap sa báyan ang balíta` na ang manga Amerikáno ay
manga táo ng salbáhe, malulupìt, at mababagsìk at wala ng pìtágan
sa káhit anu pa màn. Itò y sigúru ng isa ng balíta ng pakálat nang
manga Kastíla` at lálù na nang manga kúra sa Filipínas.

Dáhil sa pagkatákot nang manga táo sa manga Amerikáno hálus kami ng
lahàt na namàmáyan ay nagsipagbalùt at nagsiáhun sa bundòk. Kamì ay
nàtìtirà noòn sa báhay nang isa ng áli nang áki ng nánay, at doòn
ay kasúno rìn námin ang angkàn nang kúya nang áki ng nánay. Áki ng
natàtandaàn na máy-roò ng mahigìt na sà m pu ng áraw ang pagbabastáan
at ang paghahàkútan nang manga kasangkápan námi ng magkakasúno`. Ang
manga karitòn na máy lúla ng kasangkápan ay gabì kung ipalákad, úpang
ang manga kalabàw na humìhíla ay huwàg magsisáyad sa kainítan nang
áraw. Ang manga karitòn ay pùnúan hanggàng sa ituktòk nang kárang nitò
at ang manga kalabàw ay lubhà ng nahirápan sa paghíla nang mabibigàt
na lúlan. Nang walá na ng nàtìtirà sa manga abúbot ay kamì namà ng
manga táo ang nagsilúlan sa karitòn úpang ihatìd sa bundòk.

Ang lugàr na ámi ng pinarunàn ay tinàtáwag na Paà-ng-Bundòk,
kalaháti-ng-áraw na lakárin mulá sa Sibòl. Doòn ang dinatnàn
námi ng titirhàn ay isa ng kúbo lámang na may atìp na kúgon at
lubhà ng maliìt. Ang sahìg ay manga sangà nang káhoy na pinutúlan
nang manga maliliìt na sangà, dátapuwat hindí makikínis ní hindí
pantay-pantày. Gayon dìn lubhà ng maliìt at pinàpások nang hángin at
lamìg. Ganoòn ang ámi ng tinirhàn na may ila ng bwàn, sa lugàr nang
báhay na tablà nang áli nang áki ng nánay.

Doòn sa Paà-ng-Bundòk ay nakátagpu kamì nang maràmi ng kababáyan na
nagsiílag dìn, at ang manga náhuli ng nagsidatìng ay nagbalíta ng ang
lahàt nang táo sa báyan ay nangása bundok nà o kayà y nangása ibà
ng báyan nà. Ang báya-ng-San-Migèl ay nawalà`, dátapuwat ang manga
báhay ay sya lámang nàròroòn.

Pagkaraàn nang ila ng bwà ng pagtitirà námin sa Paà-ng-Bundòk ay
lumípat kamì sa isa ng lugàr na líhim. Ang lugàr na iyòn ay isà
ng kaingìn sa kagubátan. Walà ng nakààalam ní sínu man sa ámin ang
pangálan nang lugàr, at ang ibà ng nakààalàm ay inilíhim na lubhà`,
úpang hwag màpagalamàn nang iba ng táo ang ámi ng kinàtàtagúan. Iyòn ay
paraàn nang pangingílag hindí sa kaáway lámang, dátapuwat sa tulisàn at
magnanákaw dìn. Ang báhay na tinirhàn námin doòn ay lubhà ng malakì,
mahába ng mahába` sa ilálim nang isà ng bubungàn. Ang kabahayàn ay
hináti nang magkakasinglakì ng kwàrto. Máy-roo ng walò ang bílang
nitò. Sa báwat kwàrto ay isà ng angkàn ang nátirà. Díto ay máy-roon
dì ng ila ng bwàn ang ámi ng ikinàpagtirà.

Nang màlàlapit nà sa báya-ng-San-Migèl ang manga Amerikáno, nàbalitáan
námin na ang manga táo ng itò y hindí gáya nang manga sabì-sabè, kanyà`
umuntí nang umuntì` ang ámi ng tákot sa kanilà. Dáhil díto y umalìs
kamì sa ámi ng malálim na taguàn, at naparoòn kamì sa Páho`. Itò y isà
ng lugàr sa bundok dìn, dátapuwat malápit nang kauntì` sa báyan. Díto
y lubhà ng marámi kamì ng dinatnàn nang manga kababáyan at tagà iba
t ibà ng lugàr. Karamíhan sa kanilà ay máy manga sakìt, dahilàn sa
pagtitirà sa bundòk. Díto nagkaroòn nang malakì ng kagamitàn ang manga
gamòt na ipinaáhon ni Nánay sa bundòk, at hindí iníwan sa báyan. Ang
manga gamòt na itò y árì ni Tátay at kanya ng iníwan sa pagkapatápun
sa kanyà nang manga kúra sa Holò. Isa ng umága máy-roo ng tumáwag sa
ámi ng báhay úpang bumilì nang gamòt. Hinánap ni Nánay ang kahò ng
kinàlàlagyàn nang gamòt. Nang itò y mabuksan nà ay nàkíta námin ang
isà ng áhas na nakaíkid at natùtúlog sa ibábaw nang ipà na nàtàtábon
sa manga bóte. Malaki ng twà` nang ibà ng táo ng nakàkíta, dátapuwat
si Nánay ay natákot lámang. Hindí nya nàlàláman ang kahulugàn nang
áhas na iyòn. Pagkaraàn nang kàtwáan ay itinanùng ni Nánay kung
anò ang dáhil at silà y nagkàkàtwáan. Isinagòt nilà kay Nánay na
ang kahulugàn nang áhas na iyòn ay ang pagpatúngo sa pagyáman nang
may árì nang gamòt. Si Nánay ay nàpatawà lámang sa kanilà ng sábi,
at hindí sya nanìniwálà sa manga bágay na iyòn.

Nang makaraàn ang ilà ng bwàn ay iníwan námin ang Páho` at umwí kamì sa
báyan. Nang kamì ay dumatìng na doòn, marámi sa ila ng kasangkápan na
naíwan námin ay pinagnakàw nang ila ng táo ng nangaíwan sa báyan. Ang
tablà na sahìg nang báhay nang áli ni Nánay ay walá na, at hindí nila
nàláman kung síno ang kumúha.

Hindí nalaúnan ang ámi ng pagdatìng sa báyan at nàbalíta ng ang
manga sundálo ng Amerikáno ay malápit na sa báya-ng-San-Migèl. Kamì
ay hindí nabagábag sa balíta ng itò, at hinintày námin ang kanila
ng pagdatìng. Isà ng katanghalían ay matahímik ang báyan. Ang manga
sundálu ng nangása báyan ay nangagsialìs at ang ibà ng hindí umalìs
ay ipinagtapòn ang kanila ng manga barìl. Ang dahilàn nang bágay na
iyòn ay ang pagpások nang manga sundálo ng Amerikáno. Sa dulúhan nang
bakúran nang báhay na ámi ng kinàtirhàn ay nàkíta ko ang paglápit nang
manga sundálo. Ang salawàl nilà ay káki at ang kamiséta asùl. Bitbìt
nilà ang manga barìl at nakahiléra sila nang pagtakbò sa bukirìn at
patúngo silà sa daàn.

Nang ang manga Amerikáno y sya nà ng namàmahála` sa báyan, may ila ng
bwà ng ang manga útos ay mahihigpìt. Ang manga ílaw ay ipinapápatay
sa alasès nang gabì, at wala ng táo ng pinahìhintulúta ng maglakàd
pagkaraàn nang óras na itò. Sa manga bundòk na malápit sa San-Migèl
ay marámi ng manga sundálo ng Tagálog at madalàs nila ng sinalakáyan
ang báya-ng-San-Migèl. Dáhil sa manga pagsalákay na itò, ang manga
báhay sa San-Migèl ay pinagsunòg nang manga Amerikáno. Kung gabi-gabì
ang pagsalákay nang manga sundálo, gabi-gabì rìn namàn ang ginawà
ng panunúnog nang manga báhay. Ang ámi ng manga kápit-báhay ay
nagsìsilípat sa ámin gabi-gabì úpang doòn makitúlog, sapagkàt sa ámi
ng báhay ay hindí lubhà ng malakì ang pangánib sa manga bála nang
nagsìsipaglabanàn. Ang manggagamòt nang manga sundálo ng Amerikáno
na násàsa báya-ng-San-Migèl ay nagìng kaybígan nang áki ng tátay,
at dáhil díto y náligtas sa súnog ang ámi ng tìráhan. Mínsan ay
sinábi nang manggagámot na itò kay Tátay na madalàs sya ng sumáma
sa manga patrúlya at sinàsábi nya ríto na hwag sunúgin ang ámi ng
báhay. Sa kalaúnan, nang hindí mapaalìs nang manga sundálo ng Tagálog
ang manga Amerikáno sa báyan, ay hinintuàn na nilà ang pananalákay,
at ang báya y tumahímik nà.



Once upon a time, when the turtle was swimming in the river, he
saw a banana-tree adrift and being carried along by the current. He
dragged it to the beach, but was not able to carry it up to the solid
ground. Therefore he called his friend, the monkey, and offered him
a half of the banana-tree, if he would plant his part for him. The
monkey agreed, and they divided the banana-tree at the middle,
half-way from either end. The monkey took the half which had leaves,
because he thought it would grow better than the half which had none.

When a few days had passed, the monkey's tree died, while that of the
turtle grew until it bore fruit. The bananas grew ripe, but the turtle
could not climb for them. Therefore he called his friend, the monkey,
and offered him some of the fruits of the banana, if he would climb
the tree. The monkey climbed up and ate for all he was worth.

Said the turtle: "Throw me some."

But the monkey answered: "Though sweet the skins, I'd throw you none."

The turtle got angry and scattered spines round the foot of the
tree. When the monkey jumped down, he landed on the spines. He
suspected the turtle and looked for him, in order to punish him. He
found the turtle behind a stump.

Said he to the turtle: "I am going to punish you. Choose between the
two: shall I bray you in a mortar or drown you in the river?"

The clever turtle began to shout and begged the monkey, if it were
possible, to bray him in a mortar.

But the monkey answered: "I shall give you the punishment you don't

And he threw the turtle into the river.

When the turtle arrived in the water, he set up a shout and said to
the monkey: "Thank you, friend! This is my home."

Note. p. 16, l. 2 ang pagòng hábang nalìlígo` is unusual and no
doubt traditional for hábang ang pagòng ay nalìlígo`. Similarly,
p. 16, l. 18 Balat màn at malinamnàm ... is traditional (proverbial)
for modern Káhit na malinamnàm ang manga balàt.


A deer, grazing in the jungle, came upon a snail that was creeping
over the leaf of a bamboo-plant. The deer ceased from his grazing
and watched the slow creeping of the snail.

When a few moments had passed, he said to the snail: "How slowly you
walk! Why don't you learn to walk faster? Look at me,--I am often
pursued by dogs, but my swift running is what saves my life. But
look at you,--if you should be pursued by any foe, what will ever
save your life? Surely you will get killed."

When the snail had heard these words, he looked at the deer and scanned
his fine physique, his long legs, and his strong muscles. He wished
that he too might be like the deer, so that he could run fast. However,
he thought that if he forced himself to run, he should not remain
far behind the deer.

Accordingly he answered the deer: "You are overweening. You do not
suspect what can be done by one who has a strong will. I challenge
you to race with me from here to the river that lies west of here."

The deer laughed loudly and answered the snail: "How can you think
you will defeat me? I suppose you are going to cheat."

The snail answered that he was not going to cheat, and, so that
there might be someone to watch them and be judge over their race,
he suggested that they call one of their friends to be judge.

The deer agreed, and they called an owl to be judge.

When they began to run, the snail was soon left far behind. On his
course the deer came upon a flourishing grass-field. He stopped to
graze, since his start over the snail was so great. He planned that
when he saw the snail coming, he would start running again. However,
when he had done feeding, he was attacked by laziness. He went to
sleep, with the thought that he would wake up before the snail arrived.

However, while he was asleep, the snail passed by. When he awoke,
it was already late in the afternoon. He ran with all his might to
the river, and there he was met by the snail and their judge, the owl.

"You are defeated," said their judge at once.


Juan and his friend Pedro were canoeing on the river toward the town
Baliwag. In their canoe they had an image of Christ which they were
conveying to a priest to be used in the celebration of a Good Friday
Mass. Juan was filled with terror.

Said he to Pedro: "This man of ours in the canoe is all chopped up
with wounds and no longer breathing. I think this man is a corpse. I
am afraid we shall be suspected by the priest to whom we are delivering

Pedro answered: "We shall tell him that when this man was loaded into
our canoe, he was already in this condition. We have many witnesses,
so don't be afraid."

When they reached the priest they gave him the image. The priest
told them to come to church the next day in the afternoon to hear
the sermon.

Juan was again filled with terror, for he could not make out why the
priest wanted them to go to the church. He had often heard of men being
summoned to the church and there seized by the gendarmes. However, he
did not say anything to Pedro, for he saw that the latter had no fear.

On the next day in the afternoon they went to church, and there they
saw a Christ nailed to the cross.

Said Juan: "That man, if you remember, is the one we delivered to
the priest. We had better go to some place out of sight of the priest."

So the two of them went under the pulpit, to hear the sermon from
there. The Good Friday Mass began, and the priest was already getting
to the last part of his sermon.

In his sermon the priest said: "Repent ye of your sins, cruel
people! Behold the wounds which you struck in the body of our Savior!"

When Juan heard this, he was again filled with terror, for he thought
that he had fallen under suspicion.

Therefore, what he did was to come out from under the pulpit, face
the priest, and say: "Father, we are not the ones who wounded this
man! When he was loaded into our canoe he was already wounded."

When he had said this, he went back under the pulpit. The priest paid
no attention to the speech he had heard, and went on with his sermon.

"The day has come now, when ye sinners must repent. The portals
of Heaven are open now through the death of our Savior, and every
sinner can enter Heaven, if he repent. But if ye do not repent, ye
shall come to be punished with sufferings without end in the flames of
Hell for the sufferings which ye caused our Savior to undergo. Behold
His body sweating blood, His hands and feet nailed to the cross, and
His wounds from head to feet. No one other caused Him to suffer and
wounded His dear body, than you, ye sinners, and if ye do not repent,
ye shall fall into Hell."

Juan could not remain in his place, for he thought that the priest
was overflowing with anger against him.

So he again faced the priest and said, as loudly as he could: "Father,
only a moment ago I told you that I had no part in wounding this man,
so do not send me, sir, to Hell."

The priest was filled with great anger and said to the congregation:
"What sort of people are you, foolish folk? Is there not one among
you who can take hold of this fellow and choke him?"

When Juan heard this, he ran with all his might, trampling without
regard the people who were kneeling and weeping in repentance of
their sins. He was followed by Pedro, and the two ran together,
without stopping, until they reached their home town. And there they
told the story of their narrow escape.


A hunchback and a blindman were close friends. When they walked, the
hunchback led the blindman; the blindman, on the other hand, carried
the hunchback on his shoulders, when they had a hard road to travel,
for the hunchback was weak of body.

Once they came upon a cocoanut-tree. They wanted to pick some of the
fruits, but they did not know which of the two of them should be the
one to climb the tree. The blindman said that he should not be able
to climb, because he should not be able to see which fruits to pick,
since there were many unripe fruits. The hunchback also did not want
to climb, on account of his weakness. However, he was very eager to
eat of the cocoanuts, so, finally, he said to the blindman that he
would do the climbing.

"To prevent your being robbed of the fruits which I shall throw down,
do you count out loud the thud on the ground of the fruits as I drop
them, so that I may keep track of the number."

The hunchback began to climb, but when he was half-way up, he fell

"One!" said the blindman.

The hunchback told him that it was he who had made the thud and not
a cocoanut.

He climbed again. After a few moments he took another fall.

"Two!" shouted the blindman.

The hunchback got angry and told the blindman that he was stubborn.

He said: "That first thing that made a thud was I, and the second
one was I again; I haven't yet picked any cocoanuts."

But the blindman planned to make fun of the hunchback's falls. So he
decided that, when he again heard a thud, he would cry "Three!"

The hunchback climbed again, but again fell. The blindman cried
"Three!" and laughed.

The hunchback grew hot with anger. He went up to the blindman and
slapped him in the face. The slap hit the blindman's eyes, and through
it his eyes came open. To take revenge he kicked the hunchback. He
struck him on the back, and through this his hump was straightened out.

They both rejoiced at what had happened, and their friendship grew
all the closer, instead of their becoming enemies.


On a group of islands there ruled a man who had two short horns hidden
in his thick hair. This was not known to his subjects, but the secret
began to spread among the people by way of the barbers who had cut
his hair.

On account of this he conceived a great anger against barbers and
planned to exterminate the barbers in his kingdom. He ordered four
deep wells dug in front of his residence, and in the center between
the four pits he had a seat placed. One day he sat down on the chair
between the four pits, and asked everyone who passed whether he knew
how to cut hair. Whenever anyone said "Yes," he stopped him, gave
him a pair of shears, and had him cut his hair. After a little while
he asked each hair-cutter what he saw on his, the king's, head. The
hair-cutters all told the truth, and each one of them answered that
he saw horns. Every one who answered thus was pushed by the king into
one of the pits that were round him.

A few days passed and two of the pits were already filled with barbers
and were ordered by the king to be filled up with earth. The passers-by
who knew how to cut hair grew scarce, and the king thought he had
already killed all the barbers in his kingdom.

One day he waited on his seat until mid-day, before a man came by
who said he knew how to cut hair.

The king asked him: "What is your name?"

The man answered: "My name, sir, is Juan."

"Cut my hair, Juan," commanded the king.

Juan approached the king and began to cut his hair.

After a short time the king asked: "What do you see on my head, Juan?"

His reply was thus: "Your Majesty, I see on your head the crown."

This made the king glad. Therefore he got up from his seat and led
Juan into his palace and made Juan barber royal. He gave Juan large
wages and had the remaining pits filled up.


Juan, Pedro, and Andrés were three students from the same town who were
friends. When the opening of the schools came, they knew that they
would part: each one of them was to go to a different town. Before
they parted, they appointed a place where they would meet at the
beginning of the vacation.

A year passed, the closing of the schools arrived, the students
returned to their home towns, and the three friends, Pedro, Juan,
and Andrés met in the town where Pedro had been brought up, to spend
the vacation there.

When they came together, after discussing various matters, they
inquired how much each of them had learned in his study of the Spanish
language. Pedro said that he knew a great many Spanish words, but
that which he remembered best was the word "Vamos."

Juan in turn answered: "I too know a great deal, but what I recall
just now is the word 'Matar.'"

Andrés said that he had learned nothing except the word "Si."

After their conversation Pedro suggested that they go boating on the
river and take a bath.

When they were boating on the river, they saw on the bank a Spaniard
who wanted to bathe. Pedro said it would be a good idea to speak to
the Spaniard, so that each one of them might show his knowledge.

Pedro began and said "Vamos!"

Juan answered "Matar!"

And last came Andrés with his "Si!"

When the Spaniard heard this, he was filled with terror, for he thought
that the three canoers were going to kill him. Therefore, even though
he did not know how to swim, he jumped into the river and was drowned.


Three friends, a priest, a physician, and a soldier, went together to
shoot wild game in a deep jungle. As the jungle was far from the town,
they carried plenty of provisions, so as not to be in want of food. A
few days passed without their bagging anything. Their provisions grew
less and less, until there was nothing left except one raw egg. There
came to them the day of great hunger, but the three had no food except
the egg that was left.

The priest said that, if they divided the one egg, it would do them
no good, for it would not slacken their hunger. Therefore the priest
suggested that only one of them should eat the remaining egg, and
in his selfishness he suggested that whichever of them was best at
speaking Latin should eat the egg all by himself. He thought that the
soldier did not know Latin, and the doctor alone would be his opponent,
and his knowledge he held in contempt.

The doctor agreed to the advice of the priest, but the soldier did
not want to consent, for he had not studied like the priest and the
doctor, but there was nothing for him to do.

The priest took the egg and tapped it against a stone. When the egg
was broken, he said: "Coronatum est," and looked at his two companions.

The doctor took the broken egg, removed the broken part of the shell,
put on some salt, and said: "Saltum est."

The physician handed the egg to the soldier, and the priest and he
waited for what the soldier would say.

The latter did not know what to say, for he really did not know a
single iota of Latin. In his cogitation he remembered that once,
when he went to church to hear the Good Friday Mass, he heard from
the priest that the meaning of the words "Consummatum est" was "It
is all over now." So he poured the egg into his mouth and, when he
had swallowed it, he said: "Consummatum est."

His two companions were greatly astonished at the learning of the
soldier, which they had by no means suspected.


A certain married couple had seven children who were dwarves. The
father was out of work and could not find any. The mother also was
not earning any money, for her body was weak and often sick.

One noon they were sitting on a bench and discussing the life they
were leading. The man asked what they had better do with their many
children. The woman suggested that they should look for work for their
children, so that they might earn money. But the man answered that,
in his opinion, they would not be able to find any work, since he
himself had not been able to find any. Therefore he suggested that
they had better abandon their children.

This made the woman grieve and weep. She would not consent to abandon
the children. But her husband made it clear to her that, if they did
not do this, they would all die of hunger. Finally the woman consented
and they agreed that they would take their children for a walk and
leave them on the way.

While they were discussing this, the seventh child was in a crack
of the bench on which they were sitting and heard what their parents
were going to do to them. After they had finished talking, the child
at once looked for his brothers and sisters and told them what he
had heard. They all wept, because their parents had not told them
that they were a burden to their life. They thought that, if they had
known this, they would have done anything whatever to help them gain
a living. However, they agreed that they would go along, if they were
asked to go walking, and would allow themselves to be led astray.

On the next day their father came to them, told them to get dressed,
gave them some cakes, and told them that they should all go for a
walk. When they started out, the seventh child did not eat his bread,
but, starting at their gate, he crumbled it and scattered it along
the road which they were walking. When they had gone some distance,
he ran out of bread and asked his brothers and sisters for some. But
they did not give him any. He did not tell them why he had run out
of bread so soon. When he could get no bread, he picked up stones
and these he dropped one by one on their path.

When they came to a jungle, their parents left them, telling them
to wait for them there and that they would soon come back. Their
parents left them, but they knew that their parents would not come
back to them.

When a short time had passed, they heard a noise. They went toward the
place from which the noise came. There they saw a great giant bathing
by the side of a well. They looked round about the place, and by the
side of a tree they saw the clothes of the giant. The seventh child
sent his brothers and sisters away and told them to hide, and he would
steal the giant's shoes. They did this and the child stole the shoes.

When the giant had finished bathing and was getting dressed, he
could not find his shoes. He got angry and cursed. He called for
help. When the one who had stolen the shoes heard this, he quickly
approached. When the giant saw him, he did not suspect him, for,
on account of his smallness, the giant thought that he would not be
able to carry the shoes.

Therefore the giant said to him: "If you will carry this bag of money
of mine to my wife and tell her to buy some shoes and to bring them
to me, I shall pay you much money."

He said further that he could not walk without shoes, and therefore
he should hurry. Taking the bag of money, the child promised to
return at once. However, when he had gone some distance, he called
his hidden brothers and sisters, and when they were assembled, he
suggested that they go home. But his brothers and sisters answered
that they did not know the way home. He however answered that they
should follow the stones and bread he had dropped on the way.

One of his brothers said that, if he had known what he had done with
the bread, he would have given him some when he asked for it. They
were sorry for the stinginess they had shown toward their brother.

It was not long before they came upon the trail of stones along their
way. This they followed and arrived at their house, bringing with
them the bag of money, which they at once gave to their parents. The
latter rejoiced and were sorry for their bad conduct toward their
children,--they rejoiced because they had now the means of living
for a long time to come.


In the summer of the year 1902, when the ripe fruits of the fruit-trees
were hanging from the branches, there circulated all through the town
of San Antonio the rumor that a vampire was going about the town.

The people of San Antonio in those years believed in ghosts, vampires,
dwarves, and other objects of terror. Most of them had not been
fortunate enough to get an education, but, in spite of this, they
were kindly, quiet, and industrious people.

The houses in this town were built of nipa-fibre and bamboo. There
were also some frame houses. Most of them stood in large enclosures,
and the rear part of these yards was planted with trees that have
tasty fruits, such as the custard-apple, grape-fruit, santol, mabolo,
mango, and the like.

These fruits were just getting ripe, when the rumor spread that,
for several nights back, some women had caught sight of the vampire
in various back yards. The women and children were filled with great
terror; accordingly, as soon as darkness came down, they staid still in
their houses. Most of the men also were afraid, but there were some who
said that they were not afraid, because they had not yet come across a
vampire and therefore did not know whether it was really to be feared.

A vampire is a being of great power. It changes its body into
various forms. At some times it has a body like a human being,
but black, at others it is a large dog or pig. It eats people,
especially children. But its favorite food, by far, and that which
it most commonly eats, is the child yet unborn and still in its
mother's womb. Therefore the pregnant women in the town had great
fear. They did not allow their husbands to sleep, for watching at
their side. A vampire is hard to kill with knife or gun, because it
has but one place which one must hit or wound in order to kill it,
and this place is secret. The only thing it flees from is garlic,
which therefore is much used in driving off vampires.

A surprising thing, however, about this vampire was its habit of
keeping itself in back yards. Strange was also the fact that it was
mostly young girls who said that they had caught sight of this vampire
in back yards, up in grape-fruit trees and other trees. A few bold men
said that they suspected that this spook was a thief and no vampire.

It was a certain policeman of more than usual courage who spied upon
this vampire in a back yard in which it had recently been seen. When
darkness came, he went to his hiding-place. It was not long before
the vampire came and climbed on a grape-fruit tree, and he heard it
picking many fruits. It came down and went away, but was followed by
the policeman to a house which it entered.

Great was the surprise of the policeman, when he saw here his fellow
policeman wrapped up in a black sheet and just putting down on the
floor a black bag full of grape-fruit.

He summoned his fellow policeman to the town hall and there on the
next day accused him before the judge. The policeman who had played
vampire was put in jail for the crime of theft.


One evening in a students' boarding-house in the town of Malolos I
heard an old man, ninety years of age, tell a company the following

When he was still a young unmarried man, he lived in the country. There
were only a very few neighbors. One day there was a death in the
house of a neighbor. Following an ancient custom, he went to the
house of mourning.

When he arrived there it was not long before he was told that there
was a vampire in the place. He had a great and inherited hatred of
vampires and therefore decided to watch that night.

Late in the evening he left the house and in a wagon not far from
the house, there he lay down. There was a full moon that night, so
that he had a clear view of things round about. As he saw nothing
that could be suspected of being a vampire, he went to sleep.

At midnight he woke up, and the first thing that struck his eyes
was a black object on the roof of the house where there had been a
death. This black thing had not been there before he went to sleep, so
he suspected that this was the vampire he had been told about. Vampires
eat dead people, so he concluded that the dead person was the thing
for which the vampire had come there.

Carrying a bolo-knife, he went up to the house. The people were
asleep. Up above he saw something hanging down from the roof of
the house. It was like the intestine of a chicken. It got longer
and longer, until the end of it went into the mouth of the dead
person. The corpse stood up from the place where it lay, when this
thing went into its mouth.

What the young man did was to walk up to the upright corpse and, with
the bolo he was carrying, cut the thing that was like the intestine
of a chicken. When he had cut this, something came down with a thud at
the side of the house. He went down, and there he saw the dead vampire.


In some places in the Philippines the people have a firm belief in
sorcerers. According to their belief a sorcerer is a person of great
power, and this power comes from a demon or else is inherited from
one's parents. Before one may gain this power one must first become
friends with a demon and serve it. However, there are some also who
believe that one may find or snatch up this power in a jungle or some
uncanny place that is hard to reach and usually full of terror.

The kulam is that seized, inherited, or given by the demon, and it is
the source of the possessor's power. The appearance of the kulam is
not always the same. Sometimes it is a stone or a small doll of ugly
appearance. In the dark this kulam glows like a firefly, but this
glow disappears when the kulam desires it. The kulam and the person,
man or woman, who possesses it, do not separate even for a moment,
and even when bathing the sorcerer carries his kulam. Therefore,
curious people, when they wish to find out whether a person whom they
suspect is really a sorcerer or not, watch him at his bath. If the
sorcerer is not careful and has no suspicion that he is being watched,
the watcher sometimes succeeds in seeing the kulam.

The sorcerer has also the power of concealing the kulam inside his
body, and the people are not rare who have seen a sorcerer at his
death. At the last moment, before breathing ceases, he spits out
the kulam.

This happens only when the sorcerer does not wish to bequeath his
kulam. If, however, he wishes to bequeath it, then, long before the
sorcerer dies, he calls the person to whom he wishes to bequeath it
and in all secrecy gives him the kulam.

The great power of the sorcerer is used by him against his enemies,
against people who have incurred his anger; or against their live
stock, in case he wishes to make this latter the object of his
vengeance. He also uses his power in playing jokes on a person or
animal that has gained his liking.

His victim usually acts like crazy. Sometimes the person he has
bewitched complains that his whole body is sore, keeps shouting, and
cannot keep quiet even for a moment. In the case of animals,--usually
the pig most valued by the owner,--the punishment he gives is like
the disease of cholera, but more severe than this. The bowel-movement
of the animal does not stop, and after a few hours, no matter how
fat the animal, it becomes skin and bone. The bewitched person eats
mightily, like two men, and keeps asking for tasty food. Therefore
people believe that the sorcerer who is punishing him shares in the
eating of the sick person.

The sorcerer has the power of entering the body of the person
bewitched. This is the belief, but in what way the sorcerer effects
his entrance or at what point he enters the body of the person he
is bewitching, there is no one who knows. However the place where he
comes out is the forefinger. This fact is of great importance for the
cure of people who have been bewitched and also for the punishment
of sorcerers.

Although the power of the sorcerer is great, yet there are some
things which he fears, usually strong people who are bold and have no
faith in the powers of sorcerers and other things that terrify other
people. Therefore it is not rare that, after the first or second time
he cures a person of this disease, some man receives the title of

I once heard someone who had seen the cure of a bewitched person tell
the story. The narrator had a neighbor who had a young daughter. This
young lady had many suitors, and one of them was suspected of being
a sorcerer. He had the bad fortune to be one of those who were not
accepted. In his great anger he bewitched, one after the other,
the betrothed man and woman.

He began with the woman, and her parents at once called in a
witch-doctor for her. When the doctor arrived and saw the patient,
he said that the woman was really bewitched.

He told the people who were there not to let the bewitched person know
that he was in the house. If the patient knew this, the sorcerer who
was inside her body would have a chance to go away at once. The doctor
went up to the woman without her being aware of it and suddenly seized
her two forefingers in a tight grip. She shouted all the louder and
trembled like one in terror.

The sorcerer, according to people's belief, feels any pain that is
given to the body of the person he is bewitching while he is within
the latter's body. Likewise, when one speaks with the patient, it is
he who answers.

Therefore the doctor suddenly asked: "What are you doing here,
you brute?"

The patient did not utter a word, but tried to get free. The strength
she displayed was not the usual strength of a woman.

But the doctor did not let her go, and asked her again: "What are
you doing here? Why have you come here? If you do not answer, I shall
torture you."

The woman answered in a pitiful tone: "No, sir, I shan't do it again;
let me go, sir; you are torturing me already."

"Shall I let you go?" asked the doctor at once. "Promise me first
that you won't come back."

"No, I shan't come back, sir," answered the woman.

"If I catch you here again, I shall kill you. Don't be
troublesome. Stay still in your house."

"Yes, sir; yes, sir; I shan't come back, sir. Please, let me go!"

While this dialogue was taking place, the woman was struggling to get
loose and trying to make the doctor let go of her forefingers. When
the woman had made her promise, the doctor let go of her two
forefingers. The face of the woman, which just before had been
expressing great suffering, now became quiet, and she was like a
madwoman who has got back her reason. She became quiet, stopped
shouting, and was able to converse intelligently.

The man lived in a near-by town. When he was bewitched his brother
called a physician for him. In his extreme anger, this brother called
a physician who was fierce and cruel in his treatment of sorcerers.

The physician came secretly to the sick man's house. From his
hiding-place he first determined at what time the sorcerer was in the
body of the sick man. This showed itself in the shouting, movements,
and senseless talking of the patient. The physician sharpened a
bolo-knife and, when he had done this, quickly ran to the side of the
patient. He then seized the latter's two forefingers, leaned over his
body, and cut several deep gashes in his face. The patient screamed
and tried to get away, but when he did get away there were wounds in
his face and the blood was flowing in a stream. The physician left
him without a word. He sought out the brother of the wounded man and
told him not to heed his brother's wounds, for tomorrow they would
go away and be transferred to the sorcerer, for it was the latter
whom he had reached in the body of his brother. On the next day the
doctor went to the man whom he had cured with the knife and was much
pleased when he found him well and without the marks of wounds in his
face. A few days later they heard that a sorcerer in the neighboring
town was in a serious condition, owing to the unceasing flow of blood
from some wounds in his face.

There are also, however, some sorcerers who are quick and have not
been caught by physicians. The physician, too, must be skilful and
quick. Anyone at all can cure a person who has been bewitched, since
there is no other method of cure than that of inflicting pain on the
body of the bewitched person. The danger, however, is great, since,
if the one who is attempting the cure is not quick, owing to lack of
practice, the sorcerer will be able to get away. In this event it is
the bewitched person himself who will suffer from the punishment. It
is related that there once happened something like this which follows.

One of two brothers was bewitched by his rival in courtship. There
was no witch-doctor within call. In his great pity for him, the older
brother decided to cure him, even though he had had no practice. He
was not practised, to be sure, but he had often heard from physicians
the manner of cure. One evening, when he thought that the sorcerer was
inside his brother's body, he quickly seized a bolo, and, stepping up
to his brother, cut him without care. On the next day, instead of his
finding his brother well and unwounded, the latter was a corpse. The
sorcerer had got away.


The games of football in the United States and in the Philippines are
very different. Instead of the players belonging to two contending
sides, as in American football, in "sipa" the players form but one
party. In sipa the aim of the players is not to defeat an opponent,
but to prevent the ball or sipa from falling to the ground. The ball
used is also very different. It is made of split rattan woven into the
shape of a sphere. The inside is hollow and the eyes of the weave are
large. Therefore the sipa, unlike the ball used in baseball, is light.

The number of players is from two to twenty. When they are many,
they stand in a circle. To begin the game, one of the party throws
the sipa ball up into the air and toward one of the players, usually
toward one opposite him. The one to whom the ball is tossed returns it
to the one who threw it to him, not with his hand, but with his foot.

When the players are skilful, they direct the ball to each one
of the party, so that each one of them is alert and ready for the
coming of the ball. Each one is careful not to let the ball fall to
the ground. Often the players display various manners of sending
the ball. The graceful bendings of the legs forward and backward,
the quick and light leaps, the gentle and light kicking of the ball,
and the sending of the ball in every possible direction, are features
which give beauty to the game of sipa. Sometimes the shoulder, the
elbow, the knee, or the hand is used in returning the ball.

How is there any contest in this game? This can consist only in the
test of endurance in keeping the ball from falling to the ground.

When, for instance, one team of football-players or siperos wants
to contend with another team, the former challenges whatever team
it has picked out. If the challenge is accepted, the day, hour,
and place of the game are at once announced in the newspapers.

At the time of the game thousands of people look on. The challenging
party usually hires a band of musicians, and each team is played for
during its innings. Usually there are two bands, for, if the challenged
party has any pride, it wants to show it and so brings its own band.

After the game the judge announces to the spectators which team has
won. When the announcement of the judge has been heard, there begins at
once the yelling and the honoring of the victorious team. The winning
team and their friends and followers, accompanied by the music of their
band, at once begin to parade through the places near to the field
of the game. On the next day the whole story appears in the newspapers.

Such games of sipa as these are not common in the little towns in
the provinces, but only in the large cities, such as Manila.


In the last years of the Spanish time there dwelt in the town of
San Miguel a certain man. This man was educated and was intelligent
enough to understand the evil ways of the priests, who were really
little kings in their towns.

In San Miguel the priest who had the parish was a violent and
hot-headed man. The people called him "Patupat."

One Sunday the man above mentioned went to church to hear the sermon
of the priest. As this priest thought that the people to whom he was
preaching were uneducated people, he took no pains to speak Tagalog
correctly. His speech had neither beginning nor end and was mixed up
like rice-pudding. Moreover, what he preached about was never other
than Hell, Purgatory, what brutes the people of the town were, and
the End of the World.

When the sermon began, our friend Francisco entered the church.

As usual, the priest began his sermon with this utterance: "Brezren
and faylow-Christiannes!" Although he had been for almost forty years
now in the Tagalog country, he had not yet learned to say correctly
"Brethren and fellow-Christians."

Francisco stood in a place near the pulpit and listened carefully
to the sermon, which on that day contained nothing except what had
already been a thousand times repeated by the priest, namely about
the sufferings in Hell and Purgatory, the offering of candles and the
giving of money to the church in order to escape from these sufferings.

Francisco was filled with great anger, for he saw that the priest
was fooling his people and had no other aim than to frighten the
townspeople so that they should enrich the church and priests.

After the sermon Kiko did not go home as usual, but waited until mass
was over. After mass he staid in the church until he was alone. He
took some pieces of paper and wrote to the priest as follows:

"Father, I heard your sermon this morning. It is apparent to me that
you believe that there is a Hell and that there is a Purgatory. I do
not believe in these things. Next Sunday, if you wish, you may prove to
the people in your sermon that there is a Hell and a Purgatory. When
you are done, I shall try to prove to them that there is no Hell and
no Purgatory. If the people believe you, I do not mind if you have
me hanged for my defeat and my unbelief, but, if I am the victor,
all I ask of you is to allow me to say to the people at large that
there is neither a Hell nor a Purgatory."

Several copies of this letter he pasted to the walls of the church,
and one he sent to the priest.

When Patupat read it, his blood boiled and his anger knew no bounds. He
had the gendarmes called, and on the evening of that very Sunday he
had all the houses in the town entered and searched, so as to catch
Kiko. But they did not catch Kiko. That same afternoon Kiko told
some of his intimate friends what he had done, and they were all
astonished. They asked him why he had done this thing and whether he
could not see what would happen to him.

One of them spoke thus: "Pack up some clothes and go away right now, if
you don't want to be caught by Patupat's soldiers and shot tomorrow."

Kiko refused to follow his advice, because he thought that Patupat
would accept his challenge about showing the people that there was
neither a Hell nor a Purgatory and that these things were merely a
device of the priests for getting money. Therefore he allowed himself
to be overtaken by night in the house of a friend of his.

Not until it was dark and the town was upset with the searchings
of the gendarmes did he recognize the great danger which he was
incurring. Since he had heard of this at once, he had time to hide
in a secret corner of his friend's house.

When the house-searchings were over, he went out from his hiding place,
went home, wrapped up some clothes, had a wagon hitched up, and,
taking some rifle-bullets, shouldered his gun, got into the wagon,
and had himself driven out of town. After a few days he went to the
mountains together with several townsmen who could not stay in the
town because they had incurred the anger of the priest or of some
other Spanish official of the town.

There, in his stay in the mountains, he was overtaken by the revolution
against the Spaniards in the year 1886.


Mariano was one of the very few apothecaries in the town of San
Miguel. He was one of the people who fell into misfortune through
disobeying the orders of the priest Patupat. He had a family; beside
his wife he had two children, one two years old and one new-born.

One day his servant fell sick. He had a brother-in-law who was a
doctor, so he had him treat the servant without charge, and he gave
the servant medicine without charge. After some days the servant got
well and decided to rest for a while in the country. Accordingly
he paid his debt and took his leave of Mariano for a stay in the
country. His stay in the country did not last long, before he fell
sick anew, and the end was his death.

In the Philippines in those days it was not allowable to bury a dead
person without first having him blessed by a priest. The priests did
not allow this, but they did not much mind the living together of a man
and woman not married, for the reason that they did this themselves.

The deceased servant of Mariano was very poor and his relatives
also were poor and had not the means to pay the price demanded by
Patupat. Thus there was no one to see to the burial of the servant's

When Patupat learned this, he had Mariano called and said that
it was his place to have the dead man buried and to pay the
costs. In Mariano's opinion Patupat's insolence was getting beyond
bounds. Therefore he said that he would not pay him for the burying
of the dead man, no matter what happened.

Patupat boiled with rage. He had the dead man buried and on the
same day went to court and sued Mariano for the cost of blessing the
dead man.

When the session of the court came, Mariano was present, and when the
judge asked what he had to say to this accusation, he spoke as follows:

"Your Honor, this man who died was no longer in my care, for he was
no longer my servant when he died. When he was still sick, I had him
treated without charge and gave him medicine without charge. I have
done my duty to my fellow-man and the duty placed upon me by the
Lord. One of the duties of the priests is to provide burial for the
dead. Now this man is dead, why cannot this priest do his duty without
receiving pay, since even this would not happen, if the relatives of
the deceased had means?"

After asking some further questions of the priest and of Mariano,
the judge closed the hearing and announced that Mariano was in the
right and that the priest would have to put up with having blessed
the dead man without payment.

When this had happened Patupat's wrath against Mariano greatly
increased, and after a few days he again entered a charge against
Mariano. This time he made a different accusation. He complained to
the court that Mariano was a Mason, because he did not come to church,
did not confess, and did not kiss the priest's hand. The Masons are
enemies of the Catholic Church and, in consequence, were enemies also
of the government in the Philippines in those days; and therefore he
suggested that Mariano be deported.

When Mariano heard of this accusation of Patupat, he decided that
his only hope was to hide or to escape from those who were to arrest
him. Accordingly what he did was to go down to Manila, and there
he hid.

But even there he was caught by the gendarmes. Together with seven
or eight men from various towns he was put into a steamboat and they
were taken to the southern part of the Philippine Islands. And when
they arrived there some of their number were shot by the soldiers
who accompanied them, for this was ordered by the officials who sent
these men into banishment.

However, Mariano was not one of those who were shot. He staid there
until, after the victory of the Americans, he was given the liberty
of returning to his family. When he came back to the latter, his one
child was seven years old and the second, five.


Juan was a carpenter who had for neighbor a Chinaman who also was a
carpenter. This Chinaman was a skilled carpenter and his cleverness
showed itself in his skilful use of the plane. One day he bought a
piece of wood forty feet in length. This he proceeded to smoothe. He
tried to see if he could obtain shavings without a break for the
whole length of the wood. What with the excellence of his tools and
his skill at carpentry, this feat went off as if there was nothing
to it. Every time he pushed his plane he obtained a shaving without
a break, forty feet in length. In order to show this his skill to
his neighbor, the Tagalog carpenter, he sent him one shaving every day.

The Tagalog carpenter, Juan, marvelled at the skill of the Chinaman. In
order to make return for the shavings he had received, he too tried
to use the plane and to send the shavings to the Chinaman. However,
the longest shavings he succeeded in getting were only fifteen
feet. These it would have been humiliating to send to the Chinaman.

Juan was skilled in the use of the daras, and he was able to smoothe
boards by the use of the daras alone. Any piece of wood which he had
chopped smooth with the daras did not require the use of the plane;
but the pieces he chopped off were only short splinters, not suited
to show his skill, and he could not send them to the Chinaman.

While Juan did not know what to do, the Chinaman did not stop sending
long shavings. Juan was filled with anger. He took his daras and went
over to the Chinaman's. The latter was surprised and frightened when
he saw Juan.

The latter said: "What do you mean to say by sending me those
shavings? You are offensive to me and you shall pay for it. I am
going to cut your hair with this daras."

The Chinaman was frightened, for he knew that if that daras struck
his head, he would surely not survive. He tried to escape, but Juan
seized him, tied him to a bench, and began to use the daras on the
Chinaman's head.

The daras is a large tool, the size of a pick, and heavy, but in Juan's
skilful hand it was like a mere pair of scissors. The descent of the
daras on the Chinaman's head was very gentle, and only the hair was
cut by the edge.

The Chinaman in his fright shouted and said: "Wapelo! Come helpee me,
Juan bad man, not Chlistian!"

This was heard by the neighbors and passers-by.

Accordingly they came into the Chinaman's workshop, but there Juan
said to them: "Don't you mix in here! I am not hurting this Chinaman. I
am just cutting his hair."

And he kept on with his chopping.

When the Chinaman's hair was completely cut, the onlookers were greatly
astonished, for the Chinaman's hair was as if cut by the shears of a
skilful barber. The Chinaman too, when he saw in the looking-glass
that his head was unhurt, was greatly astonished and did not stop
praising Juan's skill in the use of the daras.


In a certain town in the Philippine Islands there once became
celebrated the name of a certain man, both among his fellow-townsmen
and the people of the neighboring towns, on account of his unusual
strength in running and jumping.

He was not a proud man, but he had some astuteness in money matters
and also some courage. He did not let his rare good fortune make him
proud, nor did he lie about the source of his unusual strength. He
told those who were curious that the source of his strength was the
power of the deer which he had made his own.

He did not tell how this power had come into his possession, but he
was not stingy about doing favors by helping with his strength both
friends and strangers.

Like most people, he wanted to get rich, and it was toward this end
that he used his strength. He often entered into races, and these
races were always means of winning much money. He always made large
bets. He refused no one that wanted to race with him. Sometimes he
ran races with people, sometimes with horses, with dogs, and with
other animals that are fast at running.

After a few days the money he had won in bets made up a large sum. His
friends also, who had bet on him, got much money. When people came
to know that he had the power of a deer, they did not want to run
against him. Therefore, so as not to stop winning and making money,
he gave large handicaps to his opponents. The handicaps which he gave
were so great that many people contended with him. Still he always
came out the winner. In jumping-matches also he was always victorious.

However, though the advantages which he gained through this power
were great, yet there were also some disadvantages which he obtained
through it. On account of these disadvantages he did not manage to
keep this power as his own through all his life. Through this power
he had become very nervous. The sounds of falling bodies, noises,
and the barking of dogs at night, did not allow him to sleep. These
noises often made him start up with a jump from his sleep. Especially
when the barking of a dog, for instance, woke him up, he jumped high
up from his bed, and before he recovered his wits he was running at
full speed. He could exercise no care about his involuntary jumping
up and usually went way up to the ceiling, and, since this was low,
his body got full of bruises and his head full of bumps from striking
against the ceiling. Likewise in his unintentional running whenever
he woke up with a start, his whole body got knocked again and again
against the walls of his house.

This was hard to bear, and he thought that he should not live long,
what with not sleeping of nights. Therefore he decided to get rid of
this power in a few days. When the seventh day of his possession of the
power came, he was very sore and thought he should die of soreness. His
head was covered with bumps. His face was full of black and blue marks,
and though he had broken no bones, his muscles were badly bruised.

Therefore, without saying a word, he went to a forest and there
abandoned the power which he had got hold of, seeing that he had
already won much money.


Andrés had a pet monkey which he prized very highly, because this
monkey gave him much service. At night the monkey spread out his
sleeping-mat for him; in the morning it handed him his water for
washing, and whatever order he gave was obeyed by the monkey.

Every night this monkey slept underneath the bedstead on which
its master slept. This was not pleasing to the latter, for owing
to its great value, Andrés wanted to give it a good place to sleep
in. However, no matter what efforts Andrés made to force it, his pet
monkey could not be brought to sleep in any other place.

Andrés was a man who feared and loved God. Therefore, every night,
before he went to sleep, he made the Sign of the Cross and called
upon God. At his bed-time every night he found that his monkey was
already under his bedstead. Not once did he get ahead of the monkey
in going to bed.

One day the priest of the town visited Andrés in his house. After some
time had elapsed in conversation, Andrés told the priest that he had
a pet monkey which was very useful, because it served him well and
obeyed his every command, and he also said that this monkey was more
diligent than his other servants.

The priest was much surprised and asked that the monkey be shown to
him. So Andrés called the monkey. Usually the monkey came at once at
a single call by Andrés, but on this occasion it did not appear even
when he had called ten times. Andrés got angry, arose, and looked
for the monkey in the nooks and corners of the house.

He found it in a corner, clinging tightly to a post. He called it and
tried to get it out of the corner, but the monkey would not come away,
no matter what Andrés did to it. Therefore he called the priest to
look at his pet monkey there in the corner.

At the approach of the priest the monkey trembled with fear. The priest
conceived the suspicion that this monkey was an evil spirit. So he
made the Sign of the Cross, and blessing a little water, sprinkled
it over the monkey.

When the water struck the latter's body, there was a report like that
of a gun, and in the place of the monkey they saw only some smoke,
which soon disappeared.

Thereupon the priest questioned Andrés concerning his faith in
God. Andrés said that his firm faith had not changed and that he
prayed every night before going to sleep. The priest then asked where
the monkey used to sleep. Andrés answered that it slept every night
under his bedstead.

Thereupon the priest informed him that this monkey was an evil spirit
which had been lying in wait for him, and that if he had ever failed
to call upon God before he went to sleep, on that very night the evil
spirit would have thrown him into Hell.


Pedro was a brave man. He had often heard stories about vampires,
dwarves, sorcerers, and old men of the ant-hill, but what made Pedro
wonder was why he had never chanced to meet even a single one of
these creatures. He wanted to get a sight of at least one of them,
so that he might know whether it was true that they had powers not
common to most persons.

One night he walked about in a dark and haunted place, because he
had heard that many people had there seen an old man of the ant-hill.

The cigar of such an old man is of terrifying size, and when he draws
at it, the light given forth is like the light of a bonfire.

On this night he had gone some distance on his ramble, when he saw a
flare of light. His hair stood on end and he thought of going back,
but he overcame his fear and continued on his walk.

He was met by the smoker. When he approached, Pedro examined the old
man's figure, but as he did not succeed in gratifying his curiosity,
he was taken with the desire of seeing the old man by daylight. To
bring this about, he would have to hold the old man fast, for these
spirits return to their abode in Hell or some other place of the kind
as soon as morning comes.

Therefore what he did was suddenly to seize hold of the old man. The
latter began to wrestle with him. Sometimes Pedro was below, sometimes
he was on top, but he did not let go of the old man. He held him as
tightly as possible and made up his mind that he would follow no matter
where the old man bore him, should the latter prove stronger than he.

They wrestled till three o'clock. By this time Pedro was as tired
as can be and ready to sink to the ground, but he did not let go of
his fellow-wrestler. When four o'clock came his opponent ceased to
move. When another half hour had passed, the rays of the sun began
to fall upon them, but it was not yet light enough for Pedro to make
out what sort of thing it was he had hold of. When five o'clock came,
he was greatly surprised to see that he was embracing a post which
was not much higher than he. It was, however, firmly fixed in the
ground and completely charred.


One night Juan while rambling about, crossed a river. While he
was still on the bank and just walking on the sandy beach, he felt
some sand being showered on his back. He thought he would watch for
the person who was throwing sand on him and catch him, so, while
walking, he kept turning suddenly right about at short intervals,
but he saw nothing.

This frightened him a little, and he began to wonder if he was
not perhaps dealing with some old man of the ant-hill or some
goblin. Therefore he hastened his running, but the faster he went,
the more frequent grew the striking of sand on his back. His fear
increased and he returned home running with all his might.

When he got there he was out of breath and unable to speak. It was
only when he had rested a while that he was able to answer the many
questions of his father and the other members of the household. He
told his father that he had been pursued by dwarves on his walk and
showered with sand.

His father asked him where the scene of this was, and he said on the
bank of the river. His father burst into peals of laughter and said
that these were no dwarves, but only his own feet, which sent the
sand up on his back at every stride he made.

But Juan refused to believe this, and for several days he did not
leave the house. His father therefore wanted to show him the truth
of what he had said, so one night he told Juan to go for a walk to
that same place, and he would accompany him.

Juan consented and they both went to the river-bank. When they got
there, Juan's father dropped behind. When Juan walked on the sandy
beach and felt the sprinkling of sand on his back, he was again filled
with terror and shouted to his father that they were already starting
to throw sand on his back.

He made Juan come back and walk on again. This time he followed at his
back. Accordingly Juan's father saw that every time Juan took a step,
the sandals he was wearing carried along some sand, and when he raised
his foot the sand thus carried along was sprinkled on his back.

His father now had him take off the sandals he was wearing and made
him walk on again. This time, no matter how much ground Juan walked
over, he felt no scattering of sand on his back.

From this time on he had no more fear of old men, dwarves, vampires,
and other spooks.


Young Maria was famed for beauty in her district. She had no suitors,
however, except only Juan. But Maria's father had a great dislike
for Juan. Juan could converse with the girl he was courting only in
secret, for when Maria's father knew of it, he would punish them both
with his stick.

Sometimes, when the father's anger was great, he used a club on Juan,
so that he was in danger of getting his bones broken whenever they
were caught talking together.

One dark night Maria's father had gone out. When Juan found this out,
he went to Maria's to talk with her. They forgot themselves in their
conversation, and so were surprised by Maria's father on his return.

He was at once filled with anger and in a loud voice addressed Juan:
"What do you want, you brute? I've told you not to set foot in my
house here. What do you mean by coming here?"

And when he had said this he seized a bamboo cane and made ready to
give Juan a caning. In his terror the latter jumped out of the window,
but he was followed by the father. So he took to running with all
his might.

The night was dark as coal and he could not make out which way to go,
but he kept running nevertheless. He fell on his face again and again
as he ran, but he got up quickly and kept on running.

It was not long before he came upon a large black object. He recognized
it as a carabao, so he leaped quickly on its back and made it run.

Riding on a carabao is not very difficult, owing to the breadth of
its back and the slowness of its pace. Therefore, even though he had
no reins, Juan was not afraid to ride. Owing to the darkness of the
night it happened that in his mounting he faced the tail-end of the
carabao and not the head.

He urged on the carabao. Now it happened that this carabao was owned
by Maria's father. It was not long before Juan saw a lighted house
in the direction toward which the carabao was going. He confidently
expected that this house was his neighbor's. Therefore he got down
from the carabao and went up into the house on the run.

Great was his surprise and terror when, upon entering, he was met by
Maria's father and beaten all over his body and addressed: "What have
you come back for? Haven't I got rid of you yet, you shameless rascal?"

When Juan came to himself he jumped from the porch and ran toward home,
but this time he did not ride on anything.


When Maria was still alive, she lived in her pleasant house in the
middle of wide grounds with beautiful gardens and trees. As she was
very rich, her life was one constant pleasure.

She had not reached the age of forty years, when she died. All
her wealth she divided between her sister and the church. She did
not remember the poor acquaintances and those of her neighbors who
were poor.

The sister who was left had a series of masses said during the seven
days after death, so that Maria's soul might be admitted by Saint
Peter at the gates of heaven.

When her sister Maria was still alive, she was known far and wide for
her avarice. She herself rarely had masses said or made offerings of
candles. When beggars asking for alms called on her, she had them
driven away and gave them no alms. Often also she had them chased
with dogs. She forced her peons to work without pay, and when she
gave them rations it was without meat or vegetables,--only boiled
rice with salt. To propitiate her, her peons, whenever they went home,
brought chickens, eggs, young pigs, and vegetables or fruits to give
to Maria. They did not make these presents for love of Maria, but as
a kind of bribe, so that they might not be too harshly treated during
their stay in her house. But when Maria went to the country to her
workmen, she appropriated without saying a word and without paying
for it, everything she saw in their house that took her fancy. When,
for instance, she saw at her workmen's a new basket, tray, sieve,
sack, mat, pot, cup, dipper, brazier, or other household utensil,
she took it and carried it off to her house. When she could not make
use of the things she had taken, she sold them. She acted in the same
way about animals that belonged to her servants. In this way she had
quickly grown rich.

When she had been dead about three days, her sister was at her house,
spending the period of mourning. One evening, when she was walking in
the garden she came to the side of a well that was in the yard. She was
surprised, for from the depth of the well she heard someone calling
her name. She turned her head toward the well and there she again
clearly heard the calling, although she could see nobody whatever.

The voice said: "My sister, I am Maria. I am paying now for my life
of avarice, selfishness and cruelty. I am here in the Lord's place of
punishment for all sinners. If it may be, do not follow my example,
but seek some means to save me from the boiling oil here which is
now my place of dwelling."

Her sister was much grieved then and went at once to the priest
to ask to what means she could resort to rescue her sister from
Hell. The priest advised her to go to a certain town where there was a
wonder-working image of Saint Peter. This image of Saint Peter talked
with people and advised various means of getting into Heaven. This
was its miracle.

Maria's sister went immediately to the town where stood the miraculous
Saint Peter. When she got there and talked with Saint Peter, she
told him the whole story. She said that her sister had told her that
her avarice, selfishness, and cruelty had caused her to be thrown
into Hell.

"In that case," said Saint Peter, "find you but one single person,
animal, or plant that was the object of an act of kindness on the part
of your sister. When you have managed to find it, come back to me,
and I shall give you a means to rescue your sister from damnation."

Maria's sister went home to their town at once and there she inquired
of all the townspeople which of them owed any debt of gratitude to
her sister, or which of them had been well treated or kindly spoken
to by her. But not one of them was able to answer. The animals also
of the neighbors and on Maria's own grounds were interrogated by her,
but here she found none that had been done a kindness by her sister.

One dog, a creature of skin and bones, said to her: "One afternoon
I was very hungry. I found a bone in her yard. I seized it and was
carrying it off, when she saw me. She had me chased at once, and when
I dropped the bone she had it buried in the ground. Was that an act
of kindness?"

The grief of Maria's sister became much greater, and her hope of
rescuing her sister from damnation was gradually failing. She began to
question the plants in her sister's yard. She took one by one all the
gourds, pumpkins, cucumbers, chile peppers, melons, sincamas, peanuts,
egg-plants, cow-peas, and onions and garlic, and other vegetables. She
did not find among them that which she sought. She also went through
the trees. She made inquiry, one after the other, of the chico, anona,
custard-apple, mabolo, grape-fruit, orange, lime, and casoy trees. But
here too her labor gave no result; only the group of the garden-plants
she had not yet questioned, and if here she did not find what she
sought, there would be nothing for her to do about the punishment
her sister was undergoing. She went to them all, but there were not
any who could say that they had received any kindness from Maria.

At the very last the sister went to the side of the well, and there
she questioned all the blades of grass. When night came there was only
one head of grass which she had not yet questioned. Full of fear and
hope she approached it.

She asked the head of grass which grew by the side of the well:
"When my sister was alive, did she ever do you an act of kindness?"

"Oh, your sister?" answered the grass, "Yes, it was she who gave me new
life. Last summer my blades were all withered and I was near to dying,
but your sister bathed one evening by the side of this well. As she
bathed, some water was sprinkled on me, so that I grew again and my
withered blades became fresh once more."

Maria's sister could not contain the joy which arose in her, and
that very night she returned to Saint Peter. Saint Peter gave her
a rosary and told her to go home and to hang this rosary down into
the well. She was to call Maria and let her take hold of the rosary;
by this means her sister could be rescued from damnation.

She went home at once, and hardly was the sun shining, when she came
to the yard of the deceased Maria. She approached the well, let down
the rosary, and called her sister. Maria emerged from under the water
and took hold of the rosary. Her sister began to pull at the rosary
and she was slowly lifted up.

As she was thus being rescued, some other souls too wanted to escape
from Hell. So they all took hold of Maria's feet, when they saw that
she was being rescued from damnation. But when only Maria's feet were
still under water, she shook her two feet, so that the souls who had
hold of her should have to let go.

When she did this the rosary broke and she at once fell into the well,
and from that time on her sister was never again able to communicate
with her.

The sister went back to Saint Peter and told him what had happened,
but Saint Peter said that there was no longer anything that they
could do to save her sister from Hell.


Juan was a gay bachelor. But when he reached the age of twenty-two
he fell very sick and it was not long before he died. His soul went
to Heaven and knocked at its gate.

Saint Peter answered his knock and asked: "Who are you? What brings
you here?"

Juan's soul answered: "I am Juan's soul. Open the door, for I want
to come in."

The door-keeper opened the gate, but before he allowed Juan's soul to
enter, he questioned him as follows: "Why have you come here? What
acts of piety have you performed on earth that you think you are
entitled to the joys of Heaven? Have you left a wife behind you?"

Juan's soul said: "When I was still on earth I often went to church,
prayed, and gave alms, but I did not have the good fortune to get

The door-keeper answered: "You are not fit to partake of the joys
of Heaven."

And when he had said this he closed the door. Juan's soul was not
able to enter Heaven.

When Juan had gone away, another soul arrived.

"Who are you? And why do you wish to come into Heaven? Did you get
married when you were still on earth?" asked the door-keeper.

The soul answered: "I am the soul of Andrés. I took a wife when I
was yet on earth. Open the gate for I want to come in."

At once Saint Peter opened the gate of Heaven, and when he saw the
soul of Andrés he said: "Oh, pitiable soul! For such as you the joys
of Heaven are reserved and fitting. Enter!"

The soul of Andrés was overjoyed and entered the abode of bliss.

When the door was closed there was another knock.

"Who are you?" the keeper asked again.

"I am the soul of Mariano," answered the one who had knocked.

"Why have you come here? Why do you think that you deserve to partake
of Heaven? Did you get married when you were still on earth?"

To these questions the soul of Mariano answered: "When I was still
on earth I often had masses said. Half of my wealth I gave to the
Church for the saying of masses and the ringing of bells. The candles
I offered up could not be drawn by three carabao, and as to getting
married," continued the soul, "I was married twice. I became a widower
and married again."

"I am very sorry that I am not able to let you in. There is no place
for madmen like you in the Kingdom of Heaven."

And he closed the door.


One day a Spaniard was having Juan ferry him across the river
in his canoe. The Spaniard, Juan's fare, was able to speak
Tagalog. Accordingly, while they were still far from shore, he began
a conversation with Juan.

This Spaniard was a learned man, no doubt a famous scholar in Spain,
and this showed itself in his discourse to Juan regarding geography,
arithmetic, and various languages of Europe.

When his discourse was ended, he asked Juan: "Have you studied

"No, sir," answered Juan,--and in truth, Juan had no education,
for he had grown up in poverty, so that his life at all times was
nothing but ceaseless work.

The Spaniard was astonished at Juan's answer and said at once: "I
am sorry, friend, that you do not know geography, for in consequence
half your life, as it were, is lost."

Juan did not utter a word, and kept on paddling.

It was not long before the Spaniard again asked: "Have you studied

"No, sir," answered Juan.

"If that is the case, friend, a fourth of your life is lost to you,
as it were."

Juan became a little frightened, for he could not make out what the
Spaniard was trying to say.

He said to himself: "You poor fellow, Juan, only a fourth of your
life is left now."

When their canoe had got to a deep part of the river, and while
the Spaniard was reflecting upon the great ignorance of the working
people in the Philippines, Juan asked his passenger this question:
"Do you know how to swim, sir?"

"No," answered the Spaniard at once.

"In that case," answered Juan, "you have lost your whole life, not
only as it were, but you have lost it in all truth."

And while he spoke these words he tipped over the canoe they were
riding in. Juan swam to the shore, but the Spaniard was carried away
by the stream.


One dark night Juan was walking in some forests far from any towns. He
was on his way to his home town. Before he could arrive there, he had
to pass through some uncanny places. One night, when he was walking
in such a place, he was suddenly startled by the arrival of a black
cat which purred and scratched at his leg. What he did was to kick
the cat with all his might, and it was tossed a good distance. He
kept on walking, but it was not long before the cat came back to
him. His anger greatly increased, and he kicked the cat again. He
thought that this cat was the plaything of some goblin or vampire. He
kept on walking. It was not long before the black cat again came back
to him. This time, instead of kicking the cat, he took hold of it,
lifted it up on his arm, stroked it and patted it, and said to it:
"Good little cat, what do you want? Are you going to come along with
me on my journey?" and he continued walking.

After a while he was attacked by sleepiness. He saw a house by
the way, but the people in his town believed that this house was
enchanted. However, Juan had no other place to sleep, so he entered
the house to sleep there.

He fell sound asleep, but at midnight he was awakened by the pattering
of rats. He set about kicking and striking at the rats to kill them
or drive them away. But the rats became more and more numerous until
the room became full and they bit him and gnawed at him.

It was then that Juan took his black cat and told it to kill the
rats. The cat miewed and began to chase the rats. Great fear seized
the rats, and those that were not killed by the cat ran to their
holes. When Juan saw that there were no rats left except only a single
pair, he stopped the cat. He caught the two rats and petted them and
decided to take them along on his journey, just like the cat.

On the next day he continued his journey. He was overtaken by night
in a place where there were no houses, so he walked on toward a house
owned by a certain old man. Now it happened that this old man was an
enchanter. He took Juan in and gave him an alcove to sleep in. Juan
went to sleep without suspecting anything.

However, when he woke up on the next day, he was surprised and
frightened when he saw that he was locked up in a box without any
opening. He kicked at the walls of the box, but was not able to do
anything: he could not open it. Great was his despair, and he did not
know what to do, when he remembered that he had a cat and two rats with
him in his prison. He took the two rats, petted them, and told them to
make a hole in the box in which they were confined. The rats began to
gnaw at the boards, and gradually they succeeded in making a hole in
the thick board, until it was pierced through. When they had pierced
it, they returned to Juan, and Juan had them again pierce the wall
of the prison. When they had made holes again and again, they finally
succeeded in making a large opening, and Juan was able to escape.

Juan looked for the old man, but did not find him anywhere. So he
continued on his way home, and when he arrived there, he told of
the great service which had been done him by his three friends,
a cat and two rats.


I once read, in a Spanish novel entitled La tumba de hierro, the
following story:

Juan was a child of five years, the son of a workman of the wealthy
Andrés. Juan was dumb from birth, but not deaf. Moreover, his dumbness
was not complete, for often he was able to cry out, though his voice
was not like that of a normal child.

One evening Andrés visited the house of his workman, Juan's father,
and on this visit he brought along his daughter, who also was five
years old. In spite of his dumbness, Juan made friends with his
master's child, and the two played together while their fathers were
discussing matters of farming. He showed Maria (this was the name of
his playmate) his toys, which he had made by his own hand and skill.

His toys were all kinds of faces of people which he had made, and
they were made of clay. There were also many whole figures of people
in all kinds of positions. Some were planting, some were dancing,
some were lying down, and there were also some wrestling, running,
and in many other positions. He also had animals; some were made of
clay and others were made of wood.

The two children became good friends and were engrossed in play. When
their fathers had finished their conversation, Andrés called Maria
to go home, but Maria first asked her father to come to where Juan's
toys were, so that he might see them. When Andrés beheld the toys, he
was astonished at the great ability shown by the one who had shaped
these manikins. Andrés told Juan's father that Juan was gifted and
ought to be sent to school. But Juan's father answered that he had
no money with which to let Juan study.

"In that case," said Andrés, "I will pay the teacher. Tomorrow Maria's
teacher is coming to our house. I shall have him go on here to you,
to begin the teaching of Juan and the opening up of his mind."

Juan's father thanked him profusely, and they parted. Juan was very
sorry when his playmate left.

From that day on Maria's father often sent for Juan that he might
play with Maria there in his house.

One afternoon when the two were playing in the garden in the wide
grounds of Andrés, a butterfly came flying past the two children. They
ran after it. Maria ran ahead and Juan followed. As they were running,
Maria fell into a shallow pool which Andrés used as a fishpond. Juan
gave a loud cry, and, as he cried out, a muscle in his throat broke
and his mouth bled. He paid no attention to this and jumped into the
pool to save Maria from drowning. As the pool was shallow, the two
children did not drown, only Maria was filled with great fear, which
caused her to faint while still in the water. So what Juan did was to
take hold of Maria by her back and lift her up, so that she should
not swallow any water,--he himself meanwhile being immersed. They
were in this position when a servant of Andrés came upon them and
rescued them from the pool.

Great was the surprise of Andrés and great was the joy which came
to Juan's father, when they heard Juan talk and tell them what had
happened. What with Juan's talking, his progress in his studies became
much greater and his friendship with Maria grew much stronger.

There came the day when his teacher said that he ought to go to another
town to continue his studies, for he could teach him nothing more. He
told this also to Andrés. Andrés sent Juan to a school for sculptors,
and there he studied for about six years.

Juan and Maria grew up and their friendship turned into love. Every
vacation Juan went home to their house on Andrés' estate, and there
he passed the days at Maria's side.

There came a day for the exhibition of the sculptures of the artists,
and Juan had planned a design which he was going to carry out for that
day. The victor among the contestants was to be given a prize that
was to be accompanied by much money, in addition to a celebration in
honor of the winner. For about a year Juan worked at his composition.

The day for presenting the statues arrived. Juan, his father, Andrés,
and Maria went to the building where the statues were. Many people
were there, but they were all crowding round Juan's statue. Andrés
did not know what to say in his admiration. The hour came when the
judges announced who was the winner, and Juan's statue was that named
as having won the prize.

It was a group with a standing woman. Her left hand held a torch and
her right a crown of leaves. At the right of the woman and under the
crown of olive a youth was kneeling on his right foot. In his left
hand he was holding a book, and in his right a hammer. At their feet
lay scattered various implements of a student.

On the way home the two lovers revealed their secret to their
parents. Juan's father was merely grieved, for he knew that the
marriage of the two was not possible, for their position was like
that of a slave or thrall and a lord or king. When Andrés learned of
the matter, he was filled with great anger. He had Juan called to him
and scolded him. He told him he was shameless and did not know how to
appreciate favors,--did not know how to repay the man who had given him
his education, and told him that he could not marry Maria. Accordingly
Juan at once went away without anyone's knowing his destination.

Five or six years passed, and Juan at his sculpture did not forget

Maria passed these six years in her house. She was sunk at all times
in a deep grief, and it was always Juan of whom she was thinking. Maria
fell seriously ill and was near to death.

Her physician advised Andrés that, if he wanted to save his daughter,
he would have to follow her desire regarding marriage to Juan. But
when Andrés consented, it was already too late. Maria's sickness went
from bad to worse, and he did not even know where Juan was. He sent
many messengers to the large towns to look for Juan, but even when
many days had passed, not one of them had succeeded in finding Juan.

At last one of them came upon him in the town of Kamalig in his
workshop. When he was told that he was being sent for by Andrés that
he and Maria might be married, his joy was very great. But he was also
much afraid that he might not find his loved one alive. He went home
with all possible speed, and when he arrived at the house of Andrés,
he found there the body of Maria, mere bone and skin, stretched out
on her couch. That very moment Andrés sent for a priest, and Juan and
Maria were married. While the marriage-ceremony was being performed
by the priest, Maria's breath ceased. When they were married, Juan
had but time to kiss his wife before her breath left her, her face
glad and her mouth smiling.


Marquita was a good and beautiful young woman, but poor. She was
betrothed to a man who also was poor, but had a position with the
Government in Manila and received good pay.

Marquita had a rich neighbor. His house was of wood, with an iron
roof, and his estate was large. This neighbor had a great liking for
Marquita, but we cannot say whether his love was true, for he had a
screw loose. He paid every attention to Marquita, but Marquita was
not a girl of fickle heart and paid no heed to all his attentions.

So great was the desire of this suitor to win Marquita that he
decided to employ force. One afternoon he went into the yard of
Marquita's family and hid in a banana-tree. It happened that on this
afternoon Marquita's yard was dirty. Accordingly she went and swept the
yard. When she came near the banana-tree in which the man was hiding,
he suddenly dropped down, seized her by the hand and kissed her.

As you know, among reputable people in our country a single kiss is
a great stain on a girl's honor. Therefore, when Marquita came into
the house weeping and her parents found out that she had been roughly
handled or kissed by this man, they decided that there was no other way
of covering up this disgrace than marrying their daughter Marquita to
this man. No matter how much Marquita objected, and although they knew
that she had a sweetheart, they nevertheless prepared for the marriage.

Marquita was a daughter very obedient to her parents, so she could
not actually disobey them now. All she did was to write her betrothed
what had happened and what was going to happen and to tell him that
her coming marriage was only an act of obedience to her parents, and
that she loved only him. To her parents Marquita said that they would
get no joy from her, for her marriage to the man whom she abhorred
would soon be the death of her.

They were married. It was not long before Marquita was stricken with
fever. From the day of her marriage she was not able to eat anything,
and she shed tears day and night. The skilful physicians of the town,
all the wealth of her husband, and all the prayers of her parents,
failed to save her from death. Seven days after her wedding she
died. This caused much grief to her former betrothed and contributed
to his misfortune in his later life.


To the town of Baliwag there was once assigned a priest who had no
education whatever. The people surmised that he was only a grass-cutter
in Spain, who had been cast hither by chance and assigned as priest
to their town so that he might have some income and so be saved from
dying of hunger. Every Sunday he said mass, but those who heard the
mass could hear nothing from him, except only the word "Mass, mass,
mass," and so on. He would walk round in front of the altar; at times
he faced the people, brought his hands together, and, while making
all these movements, he would keep saying his "Mass, mass, mass,"
and so on.

The people got angry and reported him to the archbishop. The answer
of the archbishop was that he would come some Sunday and hear the
mass to see if their accusation was really true.

The archbishop arrived. The priest told him that he was not able to
perform mass, because the silly people all left the church as soon
as he began mass.

"Tomorrow," he added, "you will see how they all run away as soon as
I give the blessing."

The next day was Sunday and at his mass the archbishop was to be
present. He planned a way of saving himself. Accordingly, before
beginning the mass, he caused some oil to boil. While he was putting
on his vestments the people and the archbishop were seated in the
church. The archbishop was near the altar, and, while the priest
was putting on his vestments, the oil was boiling. When he had put
on his vestments, he poured the boiling oil into the vessel for holy
water. It was his custom to give the blessing before saying mass, so,
when he entered the church, he sprinkled the boiling oil on the people
instead of holy-water. The people, struck by the drops of hot oil,
all jumped up and ran with all their might out of the church. When the
archbishop saw this, he did not have the mass gone on with on that day,
for there was not a single one of the people left in the church.

The archbishop said to the priest that he would not have to leave
the town and that hereafter he would not heed any accusation that
the people made.


Father Mundo was the priest assigned for some years to the town of
Mariquina. He was a man who liked amusements. He was never deficient
in the fulfilment of his duties. Every day he said mass, and on Sunday
he said mass twice. Also, he christened children, said blessings over
the dead, carried the sacrament, heard confession, and gave holy
communion. He performed all his duties well, but the confessing he
overdid a little. From his point of view this was perhaps useful in
lessening the sins of those whom he confessed, but for some of the
latter it had its bad side.

Once there was a young woman who was fond of going to church and to
confession. When this young woman reached the age of twenty years,
she abandoned the pious duty of going to confession, and also went
to church but rarely. Once when this woman was questioned, she spoke
as follows:

"At first I really thought that Father Mundo was a saint, but now the
people realize that he is a horrid man. At flood-time, when the people
are all canoeing on the flood, he rides along in the women's canoe,
and not with the men. In the morning, after saying mass, he is seen
squatting in his courtyard with his vestments trailing on the ground,
petting fighting-cocks, in company with the other cock-fighters.

"At first I often confessed to him, but there came a day when
the things he asked me in the confessional were nothing but
foolishness. Was it right for him to ask me how many suitors I had,
whom I liked, and where I met them? What I thought was that this priest
was extremely impudent. So I left him at once in the confessional,
and since that time I have not been going to confession."


Juan was a man given to doing nonsensical things, but he did not do
them intentionally to anger his fellow-men; it was merely his natural
habit, prompted by his character.

Once he went to the festival of a certain town. He was carrying three
young pigs to sell in the town. When he got there, he saw many people
gathered in the courtyard of the church and listening to a speech
which the mayor of the town was delivering. The people stood in a dense
crowd, but he succeeded in getting close to the foot of the platform
on which the orator was standing. While he took part in the crowding,
the three pigs kept squealing. When he had arrived in front of the
mayor, he held his hand over their mouths to make them keep quiet,
but he did not succeed. The mayor took notice of the squealing of
the pigs and looked round to see who had brought the pigs there.

When he saw Juan he addressed him as follows: "Juan! What do you mean
by making your pigs squeal here? Get out of here at once and never
again dare to set foot on the ground of Bustos!"

Juan departed and went home to his town of San Ildefonso. A year
passed, and the festival in the town of Bustos came round again. Juan
wanted to go there, but he remembered that the mayor of that town had
threatened him that, if he were seen again on the ground of Bustos,
he would have him imprisoned and tortured. Juan thought of a way of
going there none the less.

When the festival arrived, there was a high mass, which was attended by
thousands of people. Juan was one of these people, and he it was whom
all the people were watching, owing to the manner of his appearance
there in the church. It was not long before one of the people who
were watching him complained to the mayor, saying that Juan was in
the church mounted on a wagon drawn by carabao, and that the whole
thing, wagon, carabao, and Juan, was inside the church. Juan had not
got down from the wagon on which he was standing.

The mayor went to the church to arrest Juan. When he got there he said:
"Juan! Follow me, I am going to imprison you. Didn't I tell you not
to set foot on the ground of Bustos?"

But Juan answered: "Mr. Mayor! You certainly did tell me that. That
is why I cannot get out of my wagon. Do you see this earth, sir, with
which my wagon is loaded and on which I am standing? This is not the
ground of Bustos, sir, but earth of San Ildefonso. I got this earth
in my town."

When Juan had said this, the mayor could not restrain his laughter
and only said to himself that he could do nothing to Juan, for the
latter was in the right.


Juan, Andrés, and Diego were three expert thieves. They were
very famous, and many people were trying to catch them, but their
cleverness at dodging and stealing kept them from being caught. The
three once made an appointment to meet at a certain quiet and secret
place to discuss their means of livelihood and new good methods of
thievery. Not one of them had an honest trade. This had been their
mode of life from childhood on, so they had become skilful and very
clever at this activity.

When the day of their meeting came, they were there already at
dawn. Each one of them had much to tell, and, as they were all talking
at once, their stories were indistinguishable.

Juan asked of Diego: "How skilled are you now at your work?"

"In my opinion," answered Diego, "I am the most skilful of us three,
for I am able to steal the eggs a hen is brooding on without its
knowing it. And not only this," he continued, "I am able to rob wild
animals of their young without their noticing it."

"Is that all your skill?" Andrés quickly interrupted, "I am able to
rob animals and men too. I have stolen all of people's jewelry that I
wanted to steal, whether the owner was asleep or up and about. Once
I stole a ring that the owner was sleeping on to keep it from being
stolen,--but I stole it without his noticing."

"Is that all the skill you two have?" asked Juan. "The things you
do don't come halfway up to my skill at stealing. I can steal people
themselves, and not only their property."

The two he was talking to were surprised, for they did not think
that a live man could be stolen without his knowing it, and, to test
Juan's ability, the two made a bet with Juan. They told him to steal
the priest of the town and to bring him to the place where they now
were. If he succeeded in doing this, Andrés and Diego would pay him
five hundred pesos. But if he could not do it, he was to pay Andrés
and Diego one hundred pesos. Juan agreed to this bet, and they parted.

Juan went to the town and found out by inquiry where the priest
lived. When he had found this out, he figured out the plan he would
pursue in stealing the priest. He entered the priest's household as
a servant. During his stay as a servant he became acquainted with the
habits of the priest. One of his habits, from which he never deviated,
was praying a rosary before the image of a saint. The image was made of
wood, and it represented Saint John. The size of this image was equal
to that of a man. Juan had a carver make an image just like this one,
but with an opening, and hollow inside. This opening inside the body
of the image of the saint was such that a man could enter it. When
the image which Juan had had made was ready, he replaced with it the
image of Saint John which belonged to the priest.

One afternoon before prayers he took a rice-sack and went into the
inside of the saint he had had made. When the priest had eaten supper
he went into the room in which he prayed, to say a rosary. When he
was halfway through his prayers, and just about as Juan was getting
tired of standing up, the latter spoke: "Cease your praying, Father
Lucas. I have been sent here to conduct you to Heaven."

At first the priest was filled with fear, but then he thought that his
saint was doing a miracle and was really calling for him in order to
take him to Heaven. As he did not say anything, Juan again spoke as
follows: "Many are the works of piety which you have done. You have
been patient in living a lowly life, therefore all the joys of Heaven
have been reserved for you. Come with me, and I shall conduct you."

The priest answered: "How shall I manage to come with you? I am old
and cannot walk from here on earth as far as Heaven."

Juan answered: "Never you mind that, I have a bag here. Get into it
and I will carry you on my way to Heaven."

When he had said this, he spread out the rice-sack. When the priest
had got into it, Juan tied the bag tightly. He got out from inside
the image and carried Father Lucas on his shoulder toward the house
where he had his appointment with his two friends. Father Lucas
really believed that he was going to Heaven, and so he staid still
in the sack.

However, when Juan was wading through a shallow river, it occurred to
him that he was being fooled and that they were not going to Heaven
at all.

Therefore he asked Juan: "What river is this, and why must we cross
a river on the way to Heaven?"

Juan answered: "Shhh! Don't make any noise! This is the river Jordan."

The priest desisted from speaking. Juan kept on walking. When he was
already going up into the house that was their place of meeting,
the priest was again surprised and again asked: "What stairway is
this? Is this the way the staircase of Heaven looks?"

"I have told you already that you must not make any noise," answered
Juan, "This is the stairway that leads to Heaven."

When they had come up into the house, they were met by Diego and
Andrés. Juan dropped his burden and said to them: "I have brought here
what you told me to steal. Have you brought the five hundred pesos?"

The other two did not believe him at once. So what they did was to
make a hole in the bag and peep at the contents. In it they saw the
head of the priest with the tonsure. Accordingly they handed Juan
the five hundred pesos and they all quickly left the house. They
abandoned the priest, leaving him to get free as best he could.


In the jungle one not rarely meets with large herds of monkeys. When
the one who comes into their haunts is unarmed, there is danger of
their killing the man whom they overpower by their numbers. When angry,
they climb down from the trees and all bite at the man who is in their
power. Therefore a man who is going into jungles where there are many
monkeys will not neglect to carry a gun. When the monkeys hear the
noise of the gun, they are unafraid. Most of them do not run away,
but look at the place where the noise and smoke come from. Those
who are reached by a bullet try to ward it off with their hand, like
one who is warding off a mere throw. Therefore, when they are shot,
their palms too are pierced by the bullet.

Not infrequently people catch live monkeys, so as to domesticate
them and sell them to the various foreigners who come to the
Philippines. The catching of live monkeys does not involve much labor,
for the method of catching them is simply to trick them.

When one wants to catch monkeys, one usually cooks or has cooked
some sweetmeats, and into these one mixes or has mixed some
balasing. Balasing is the seed of a plant which intoxicates or puts
into a deep sleep the animals which eat it. It is used also in
catching fish in rivers. When these sweetmeats have been cooked,
the man carries them to where the herd of monkeys is. However,
if he should place it carefully on the ground, the monkeys would
not climb down to eat it. They suspect that these sweetmeats are
only a bait for them, that they may be caught or killed. Therefore
what the man does is to pretend that he is frightened and when he
sees the monkeys, he starts running, carrying on his head the tray
of drugged sweetmeats. While running he pretends to take a fall on
his face, so that the sweetmeats he is carrying on his head fall
down and are scattered over the ground. When this happens, he keeps
on running just the same, and hides somewhere or other to watch the
monkeys eat. When the monkeys see the man running away, and when he
is hidden, they climb down from the trees and all start grabbing the
sweetmeats. They all crowd on top of one another in their greed, and
the noise is very great, for each herd of monkeys is about five hundred
or a thousand strong. When they have eaten it is not long before they
are attacked by sleepiness. They get weak and cannot climb into the
trees. It is a laughable sight to see these monkeys, old and young,
squatting on the ground and nodding, everyone of them. The ones who
did not succeed in grabbing any sweetmeats climb up into the trees
and look down at their drunken companions. When the monkeys are in
this state, and not before, does the man who is hidden come up and
take the sleeping monkeys one by one. The effect of the drug is not
of long duration, and the monkeys get well after a few days.

Another common way of catching monkeys is to use cocoanuts as bait. A
hole is made in an unopened cocoanut. The size of this hole is just
large enough for a monkey to put in his hand when it is not holding
anything. Inside the cocoanut-shell is placed a piece of the meat
of the cocoanut, and the whole thing is placed in a spot where there
are monkeys. Monkeys like cocoanut, and when they see it, they grasp
the meat that is inside the shell. But when they have hold of the
cocoanut-meat, they can no longer take their hand out through the
opening, but they will not let go of the cocoanut-meat. Consequently
they are as though in stocks, and when the man who is catching them
approaches, they cannot get away, for the cocoanuts are heavy and
sometimes are weighted in addition. So when the catcher comes up,
he is able without difficulty to capture the handcuffed monkeys,
grown or young.


The twenty-fourth of June is the festival of Saint John, and it is
celebrated in the various towns of the province of Bulacán. In the
month of June there is usually rain and mud. The people believe that
Saint John is the saint who makes the rain fall, and therefore is fond
of water and mud. Hence the celebrations performed on his day are
very different from those performed on the days of other saints. In
the towns near the sea there are floods in the month of June and the
water comes up into the town. In the towns farther from the sea it is
also very rainy, and usually these floods and rains fall on the day of
Saint John. The people who take part in the celebration get themselves
drenched in the flood or in the rain. In the towns of Malolos and
Hagúnoy, when this holiday falls into a time of large flood, almost
all the people get into the water or else go canoeing. If there is no
flood, the people walk about in the rain. Many people from the country
and the suburbs go about collecting alms on this holiday. Most of them
are boys or young men; rarely are there any women. In separate groups
they go about collecting alms, and each group has with it a band that
plays on bamboo instruments. Those who do not play are supposed to
have the task of singing or dancing. All of them are almost without
clothing, like Igorots, but their whole body, from head to foot,
including even the eyes and ears, is caked over with mud.

These groups go calling from house to house. They stop in front of a
house and there they play music or sing or dance. They usually sing
about the life of Saint John or of some other saint who was a friend of
his. While their music is playing, their order is in single file in a
circle, sometimes standing, sometimes squatting or kneeling. When there
is a singer or dancer, he is within the circle of musicians and there
performs his singing or dancing. After two or three pieces of music,
songs, or dances they stop and all go round asking alms of the people
who are watching them. If they receive no alms, they take mud from
their body and throw it at the stingy people. They spend the whole
day in such celebration. As these alms-gatherers are very numerous,
they help to make the town gay, even though it is very rainy.

When there is canoeing it is not uncommon for people to get
drowned. Consequently this custom is gradually disappearing. Moreover,
in these days people are getting stingy and rarely give alms. Hence
the gatherers of alms on the festival of Saint John are gradually


A family that has suffered a loss by death suffers not only in its
mind and soul, but also in its purse. This is on account of the great
expense borne by the bereaved ones in conforming with various customs.

On the day when someone has died very many people call on his
family, and these visitors do not content themselves with condoling
with the dead person's family, but make a long stay in the house of
mourning. Consequently the bereaved family is compelled to serve food
to the visitors. Usually the dead person is not buried at once, but
is first placed in state for two or three days from the time when he
ceased to breathe. During these days people's visits stop neither by
day nor by night. Most of them are relatives and others are friends,
neighbors, and other acquaintances in town. If the deceased had
many friends or relatives in other towns, they too come to visit,
and they have to be given board and lodging by the dead person's
family. This is because in the small towns in the provinces there
are no hotels. In feeding all these guests they often use up half
a cow, several sheep and goats, and innumerable chickens. The chef
is usually hired, and the near relatives of the deceased help with
the cooking. For this reason in the house of death the place where
the deceased is lying in state is very quiet, and even when many
people are there, when they talk it is only in whispers. But in
the dining-room and kitchen the noise is extraordinary. Everyone
is giving orders to the servants, some are washing dishes or pots,
some are polishing knives and forks, some are serving at the table,
and so on. In the kitchen the sputtering of the frying-pans never
stops, and one can hear only the voices of the chef and his assistants.

But in one chamber of the house stays the immediate family of the
deceased and is plunged in grief. They all cry as hard as they can
and from time to time blurt out questions as to what will happen to
them because of the departure of the one who has died.

If the deceased is wealthy, a priest comes to get him and escorts
him to the church. Arriving at the church, the body is blessed by the
priest and after this the priest escorts it also to the cemetery. All
the visitors are present at the burial, and usually they ride in
carriages. These carriages are hired, except for a few which belong
to some of the visitors.

When the dead has been buried the guests who come from other towns
go along back to the house of mourning. Most commonly they soon
depart, but sometimes they stay three days, to take part in the
Three Nights' Celebration. The Three Nights are celebrated in the
house of the deceased. At this time the relatives call and all pray
together. In this praying only the older people take part, and the
young men and young women tell each other riddles. These ceremonies
are performed during the Three Nights. On the last night there are
usually many people, and the entertaining is more elaborate than on
the two preceding nights. Many of those who come give presents to
the bereaved ones. Usually these are things to eat for the guests.

In poor families these ceremonies are also performed, but the priest's
calling for and escorting the corpse does not take place. For the
blessing of the corpse one may pay the priest whatever one desires. The
cheapest thing is the blessing of the corpse at the door of the church
and placed on the ground. The next in order is the blessing of the
corpse also at the door of the church, but with the coffin placed
on an altar. The most expensive blessings are performed right by the
altar. The price of these is from one-hundred to five-hundred pesos.


The people of San Miguel were like herds of animals fleeing before the
whips of the herdsmen and the pursuit of savage dogs. They are very
fond of peace and quiet. Also they are very credulous toward hearsay,
and these circumstances are what did not allow most of them to stay
at ease in the town during the time of the revolutions against the
Spaniards and the Americans. It is also true, however, that many of
them ran away merely from fright or cowardice.

When the revolution against the Spaniards of the year 1896 took place,
I was only four years old. According to what my mother has told me,
we went to Manila instead of going up into the mountains. I do not
remember much of what happened at that time, except the fact that
we went to the railroad station. When we arrived at Manila we were
not able to enter the city unless we had a permit from an official
of this city.

The next thing which has become fixed in my memory is our stay in
Bigaá, in the house of an attorney, whose name was Don Nasario. We went
to this town to escape the fighting of the forces of the Katipunan
and the Spaniards in Manila. In Bigaá were Tagalog soldiers drilling
to take part in the fighting.

A little later we went to the town of Bustos. This town also was at
that time in the hands of the Katipunan. This town is very pretty
because of the various aspect of the things one sees. The river is
very broad, the banks are wide, and on the banks are hills of stone
and sand. The friends with whom we stayed were kind people. They
often played with my sister and me, and the game was to make ducks
dive in the clear waters of the river.

What took place in the fighting of those times I did not find out,
for I was still small and had not yet any understanding.

When the flight from the Americans came, I was already a little older,
and I remember much of our flight to the mountains. When the Americans
had defeated the soldiers of Aguinaldo the people of San Miguel
were filled with terror. The report circulated in the town that the
Americans were wild people, cruel and fierce, and without respect for
anything. This no doubt was a rumor which the Spaniards caused to be
spread, and especially the Spanish priests in the Philippines. Owing
to people's fear of the Americans, almost all of us townspeople packed
up our belongings and went up into the mountains. We were living at
that time in the house of an aunt of my mother's, and there dwelt
with us also the family of my mother's oldest brother. I remember
that the packing and hauling of the goods of all of us who lived in
the house took more than ten days. The wagons laden with our goods
were despatched at night, so that the carabao that drew them should
not get exhausted in the heat of the sun. The wagons were filled up
to the top of the covering, and the carabao were much wearied by the
drawing of the heavy loads. When no belongings of ours were left,
we ourselves got into the wagon to be carried to the mountains.

The place we went to was called Paang-Bundóc, half a day's walk from
Sibul Springs. The dwelling we came to there was a mere hut with a
roof of cugon-grass, and very small. The floor consisted of branches
of trees with the twigs cut off, but not smooth or even. It was very
small and was penetrated by wind and cold. Such was the place we lived
in for several months, instead of the frame house of my mother's aunt.

There in Paang-Bundóc there came to us many fellow-townspeople who
were also fleeing, and the last comers reported that all the people
of the town were by now in the mountains, or at any rate gone, and
only the houses were left.

After several months' stay at Paang-Bundóc we went from there to a
secret place. This place was a clearing in the jungle. Not one of
us was allowed to know the name of the place, and those who knew it
kept it very secret, so that our hiding-place should not be known by
any outsider. This was a way of escaping not only the enemy, but also
robbers and thieves. The house we lived in there was very large, a very
long building, all under one roof. The building was cut up into rooms
of equal size. The number of these was about eight. In each room one
family lived. Here too we were compelled to stay for several months.

When the Americans were already near the town of San Miguel, it was
reported to us that these people were not as hearsay described them, so
that our fear of them gradually gave way. Accordingly we left our deep
concealment and went to Paho. This too is a place in the mountains,
but nearer to the town. There we were met by many fellow-townsmen
and people from various other places. Most of them were sick from
staying in the mountains. Here the medicines which Mother had taken up
into the mountains instead of leaving them in the town, were of great
use. These medicines belonged to Father; he had left them behind when
he was banished to Sulu by the Spanish priests. One morning someone
called at our house to buy some medicine. Mother went to the chest in
which the medicine lay. When it was opened, we saw a snake coiled up
and sleeping on the rice-hulls that covered the bottles. The people
who saw this rejoiced greatly, but Mother was only frightened. She
did not know the meaning of the snake. When the rejoicing was over,
Mother asked why they were all so glad. They answered that the
meaning of the snake was that the owner of the medicine was going
to get rich. Mother only laughed at what they said, for she did not
believe in these things.

After a few months we left Paho and went home to our town. When we got
there, most of the few belongings we had left there had been stolen
by the few people who had been left in the town. The boards of the
flooring of the house of Mother's aunt were gone, and they did not
know who had taken them.

Not long after our arrival in town it was reported that the American
soldiers were now near to the town of San Miguel. We were not made
uneasy by this news, and awaited their arrival. One noon the town was
quiet. The soldiers who were in the town went away and those who did
not go away threw away their guns. The reason for this was the entry
of the American soldiers. From the back yard of the house in which
we were living I saw the approach of the soldiers. Their trousers
were khaki and their shirts blue. They carried their guns and ran in
single file across the fields and came toward the road.

When the Americans were in possession of the town, orders for some
months were strict. Lights were ordered extinguished at six o'clock
in the evening, and no one was allowed to walk about after this
hour. In the mountains near San Miguel were many Tagalog soldiers,
and they often attacked the town of San Miguel. On account of these
attacks the Americans set fire to houses in San Miguel. Night after
night when the soldiers attacked, the houses were regularly set fire
to. Our neighbors came to us every night to sleep with us, because in
our house the danger from the bullets of the contestants was not so
great. The doctor of the American soldiers who were in the town of
San Miguel had become a friend of my father's, and for this reason
our house escaped being burned. Once this doctor told Father that
he often accompanied the patrols and told them not to burn down our
house. Finally, as the Tagalog soldiers did not succeed in driving
the Americans out of the town, they stopped their attacks, and the
town became quiet.


Note.--The following grammatical analysis of Mr. Santiago's speech
can, of course, lay no claim to completeness: he surely uses some
constructions and very many forms which I have not heard or have
failed to note. Such fulness as will be found is due to Mr. Santiago's
intelligence and patience under questioning and in conversation. A
very few of the examples represent his form of sentences in MacKinlay's
Handbook. The full representation of derivatives of the root pútol cut
is due to Mr. Santiago's kindness in listing these forms, wherever they
seemed possible to his speech-feeling, in accordance with my list of
morphologic elements, and in then forming sentences to illustrate them.

In the use of accent-marks and of the symbol y I have deviated from the
practice of the International Phonetic Association. Where roots did
not occur as independent words, I have prefixed a hyphen and given a
theoretical meaning. In the explanation of constructions I have allowed
myself the use of distorted English; although this time-honored device
does not really reproduce the foreign expression (substituting, as
it does, impossible constructions for natural ones), it does enable
the reader to follow the general trend of the foreign idiom.


1. Distinctive sounds.

1. The distinctive sounds are the following:

                        Labial   Dental   Palatal   Velar    Laryngeal

  Stops: unvoiced          p        t                 k          `
  Stops: voiced            b        d                 g
  Spirants (unvoiced)               s                            h
  Nasals (voiced)          m        n                 ng
  Trill (voiced)                    r
  Lateral (voiced)                  l

  High vowels                    i(e,y)             u(o,w)
  Low vowel                               a

2. a is a low unrounded vowel, as in Standard English far, but more
tense and with the corners of the mouth (lips) slightly drawn back:
hàlamanàn garden.

3. i and u, in what may be regarded as the normal form, are about
as high as the Standard (American) English vowels in pit and put,
but more tense; moreover, the lips are well drawn back for i and well
rounded for u: ínit heat, lutúin be cooked.

4. In the final syllable of a phrase (or of a word spoken alone)
the tongue position of i and u is as a rule lowered, often all the
way to mid position; the tenseness and lip position are, however,
kept, so that the resulting sound often resembles French è and lower o.

5. u is nearly always so lowered: bágo new, buhòk hair. It is not
lowered in pù` ten.

6. i is not lowered before dentals: káhit though, ákin my, pígil
compulsion. It is usually kept high also before velars: sahìg flooring,
singsìng ring. Some words ending in velars more or less regularly
have the lowering: pútik, pútek mud; so especially some proper names:
Intsèk Chinese, Lóleng Lola.

Even in other cases the higher variants of i are commoner than the
lower; hindì` not, kamì we, gabì night, mulì` again are commoner
than these words with e; a very few words, such as ulè` again have
oftener e than i; others, such as itèm black are fairly regular in
their variation.

7. Within a closely unified phrase the lowering is as a rule omitted:
ulí sya again he (ulè`), Hintú na! Stop! (hintò`). In this regard the
habits are variable; the form chosen depends mostly on the speaker's
momentary attitude toward the closeness of joining of the words.

A dissimilative factor also seems to be involved: a following i or
u favors the lowering:

Natùtúlug ang áso. The dog is sleeping.

Natùtúlog si Hwàn. Juan is sleeping.

8. o occurs in a number of words as the vowel in the last two
syllables: in all of them the intervening consonant is the glottal
stop: ó`o yes, do`òn there; bo`ò` whole has occasionally bu`ò`. The
raised variant is not used within the phrase: Ó`o pò`. Yes, sir. Yes,
ma'am. do`òn sya there he.

e occurs in the same way in le`èg neck, beside li`ìg.

9. In word-formation, when, by the addition of suffixes, the i or u is
no longer final, it is not lowered: lúto` cook, lutúin be cooked; itèm
black, itimàn be made black. Occasionally, however, the lowered vowel
is retained: táo human being, ka-taó-han mankind, beside kataúhan,
tao-taó-han manikin, pupil of the eye, beside tautaúhan.

The words with o`o (§ 8) keep the lowered vowel when uncontracted:
pina-ro`on-àn was gone to (do`òn there); these words are also
reduplicated with o: kinà-dò-ro`on-àn is been in.

10. e and o occur also in unassimilated loan-words: bèsbol baseball,
Silà y nag-bè-bèsbol, They are playing baseball, estudiyànte,
istudiyànte student, polìs, pulìs policeman, sipéro football player,
bangkéro canoer (both with Spanish suffix -éro added to Tagalog words:
sípa` football, bangkà` canoe).

For e see also § 29.

11. As the variation between i and e and between o and u is thus never
distinctive, there is no need of indicating it in transcription; I
have, however, used the characters e and o wherever I heard markedly
lowered variants.

12. i and u occur also as non-syllabics; I use, respectively, the
characters y and w: yaòn that, gáya like, wíka` speech, word, táwag
call. In final position they are always lowered: thus in patày dead
person, ikàw thou, y represents non-syllabic e, w non-syllabic o.

13. In word-formation before suffixes vowels are in certain cases lost,
see Morphology: kánin be eaten, -káin eat with suffix -in.

14. The laryngeal (glottal) stop occurs as a distinctive sound only
after a vowel at the end of words: báta` child, boy, girl, hindì`
not, hintò` stop.

As a non-distinctive sound it is used as a vowel-separator wherever
syllabic vowels follow each other without an intervening distinctive
non-syllabic. In this use I shall not indicate it in transcription, as
it may be taken for granted wherever vowels are written together. Such
words as those in § 8 will therefore from now on be transcribed without
the sign for glottal stop: doòn, óo, boò`. So táo (§ 9) means tá`o,
etc. Cf. below.

15. The distinctive final glottal stop is usually lost before a
following word in the phrase: hindí sya not he, Hintú na! Stop!

It is always lost before the words ng, t, and y: ang báta ng mabaìt
the good child.

16. p, t, k are unvoiced fortis stops; they differ from the
corresponding English sounds primarily in that they are only slightly
aspirated. In sentence-final the implosion only is made.

t (in contrast with the English sound) is postdental, often near
to interdental.

k is always articulated in back velar position (as in English coo), no
matter what sound follows. The closure of k is occasionally imperfect,
so that a rather open velar spirant (resembling Slavic x) is heard:
malaxàs for malakàs strong; this variation has not been noted in

In word-formation p, t, k alternate, respectively, with m, n, ng;
see Morphology.

17. b, d, g correspond in position to p, t, k. They are fully voiced
lenis stops; in sentence-final often implosive only, and then weakly

The closure of b is occasionally imperfect, so that a bilabial spirant
is produced: túVig for túbig water; this variation has been ignored
in transcription.

In word-formation b alternates with m; see Morphology.

Final d in word-formation is always replaced by r before the vowel
of a suffix: lákad walk, lakar-àn walking-party.

Initial d becomes r in the sentence frequently after the final vowel
of a preceding word and occasionally even after a final non-syllabic,
in the words daàn hundred (not in daàn road), damò, dàw, dìn, díne,
díto, diyàn, doòn; e. g. ako rìn I too.

In word-formation some words frequently change d to r after the vowel
of a prefix or a reduplication, and others do not: pa-raàn means
(daàn road, way), but i-pa-dalà be sent (dalà bring, carry). The
words (or roots) that have changeable d- are those mentioned in the
preceding paragraph and daàn, -dáka, damdàm, dámi, dámot, dangàl,
dapà`, dápat, dáti, -dátig, -datìng, dikìt, -dinìg, -díwang, -dúkit,
-dumè, dúnong, dúsa.

18. s is the normal unvoiced sibilant, spoken in postdental
position. Before y and iy it is somewhat palatalized (more, for
instance, than Russian palatalized s),--a variation that is not
distinctive and need not be noted in transcription: siyà, syà he,
she, pronounced with palatalized s.

s alternates in word-formation with n; see Morphology.

In the affricate combination ts, which is felt and treated as a single
sound, the s is always palatalized: Intsèk Chinese.

19. h is the unvoiced glottal spirant; as in English, it occurs only
in syllable-initial: hindì` not, báhay house, mukhà` face.

In word-formation h is often spoken before the initial vowel of a
suffix that is added to a final vowel: -bása read, basa-hàn reading
room. See Morphology.

20. The nasals m, n, ng correspond in position to the stops. In
word-formation they alternate, respectively, with p, t, k; m also
with b, and n also with s; ng is often prefixed to an initial vowel;
see Morphology.

Both in word-formation and in the phrase the nasals are occasionally
assimilated in position to a following consonant: sà m pù` ten (m
for ng), Saàng ka páparon? Where are you going? (for saàn).

In the sentence, final n is lost before the words ng, t, and y:
ang áki ng amà my father (for ákin my).

21. r is the voiced tongue-tip trill, postdental. It occurs between
vowels within simple, underived words: áraw sun, day,--no doubt as
a substitute for d, which never occurs in this position; everywhere
else r is merely a variant of d (§ 17).

22. l is postdental; the timbre is much as in Standard French or
German, the mid-tongue not lowered.

23. f and v (both labiodental) occur in unassimilated foreign words;
they are occasionally replaced (especially in derivatives) by p and
b. Filipínas the Philippines, infiyèrno, impiyèrno Hell, fiyèsta,
piyèsta fiesta, but always ka-piyestá-han day of a festival, sivìl,
sibìl civil, provìnsiya province, bintána` window, báso drinking-glass.

r occurs freely in all positions in foreign words (cf. § 21): trèn
train, trabáho work, krùs cross, relòs watch, sombréro hat, beside
Tagalized sambalílo.

The occurrence of ts (§ 18) is probably limited to foreign words.

24. When in word-formation a vowel is lost before a suffix (§ 13),
the non-syllabics thereby brought together are subject to various
changes: sigl-àn be filled, silìd with suffix -an. See Morphology.

2. Syllabication.

a. In the word.

25. If a single non-syllabic follows a stressed vowel, the latter
is spoken with open syllable accent, and the non-syllabic begins the
following syllable: bá-hay house, sù-sú-lat will write.

If a single non-syllabic follows an unstressed vowel, the latter has
close syllable accent,--that is, no stress-division is made between
the syllables (just as in English): itò this, kasakimàn selfishness,
sumú-lat wrote.

If two non-syllabics intervene between two syllabics, the
syllable-division is made between the non-syllabics: luk-sò jump,
muk-hà` face, In-tsèk Chinese. Stressed ay seems, however, to have
open syllable accent: káy-lan when?

Syllabics never follow each other without an intervening
non-syllabic. If no other non-syllabic intervenes, a non-distinctive
glottal stop is spoken. I have not written the glottal stop in this
position, as it may always be taken for granted (§ 14). Hence daàn
road is pronounced da`àn, siìk young pig si`ìk, doòn there do`òn,
táo human being tá`o.

Nor do more than two non-syllabics ever follow each other in a native
word. The following are examples of unusual combinations in foreign
words: An-drès, Pé-dro, beside Tagalized Píro, ká-tre bedstead,
sèr-mon, trabá-ho work, but in reduplication mag-tà-trabá-ho will
work, krùs cross, but in reduplication nag-kú-kurùs crosses himself,
cf. baráso arm, lóbo balloon (Sp. globo).

26. In frequently used words, especially in more rapid speech, the
intervocalic glottal stop is often lost.

If like vowels thus meet, they coalesce into a single vowel of no
more than normal length: pumaròn went there beside pumaroòn. When
oo is thus contracted, the resulting o may be raised to u (cf. § 9):
pinarunàn was gone to, beside pinaronàn and pinaroonàn.

If unlike vowels meet, the non-syllabic corresponding to the higher
vowel (i. e. y with i, e and w with u, o) takes the place of the
glottal stop. So táwo beside táo. The combinations so resulting are
treated in every way like those discussed in the next §.

27. If the non-syllabic intervening between two vowels is y or w,
the combination involves no peculiarity, provided that neither
of the vowels is homogeneous with the non-syllabic: bá-yan town,
pag-dirí-wang celebration, gayòn thus.

If, however, one of the vowels is homogeneous with the non-syllabic
(i. e. i, e with y and u, o with w) and is not stressed, it is
spoken shorter than a normal unstressed vowel: in such words as iyòn
that, buwàn moon, month the i, u are spoken shorter than in other
positions. So also in táwo (see preceding §) the o.

After consonants these short vowels are often entirely omitted: bwàn
beside buwàn, syà he, she beside siyà. The syllable-division remains,
however, as in the longer form: kápwà` fellow- beside kápuwà` is
pronounced ká-pwà` (not kap-wa`).

Even in other positions these reduced vowels are often omitted,
especially in frequently used combinations: Ano yòn? What's
that? beside Ano iyòn?, occasionally táw for táwo, táo.

28. Conversely, one hears now and then a superfluous short i, e with
a y, and an u, o with a w: iyaòn for yaòn that, máye for máy having,
uwalà` for walà` without.

29. The combinations ay and ai are occasionally replaced by a long
open e: kélan beside káylan when?, mé báhay beside máy báhay wife,
housewife, me áre` beside may áre` master, owner, ténga beside
taínga car.

b. In word-formation.

30. When in word-formation affixes or reduplicative syllables are
added to a root, the syllabication is as in a simple word: sulá-tan
be written to (súlat writing with suffix -an), sumú-lat wrote (same,
with infix -um-), umuwè`, umwè` (§ 27) went home (-uwè` go home,
with prefixed -um-).

When vowels meet, they are as a rule separated by the non-distinctive
intervocalic glottal stop: maà-á-re` will be possible (áre` property
reduplicated and with prefix ma-).

31. The intervocalic glottal stop is rarely reduced, except in
certain much-used combinations, the commonest being those with the
prefix i- and with the prefix ka- and the suffix -an in certain uses
(see Morphology): iniútos was commanded (útos command with prefixes
in- and i-), usually iniyútos; laruàn, toy (larò` play, game with
suffix -an), usually laruwàn, larwàn, but (with a different use
of the suffix -an) làrúan playground; kayibígan, kaybígan friend
(íbig love, desire, with prefix ka- and suffix -an), but kaìbígan
sweetheart and kaibigàn affection. For -íwan abandon with prefix i-
only the contracted form íwan be abandoned is spoken. Cf. further
ikaápat, ikápat fourth (ápat four with prefixes i- and ka-).

32. Conversely, an original y or w is sometimes under emphasis
replaced by glottal stop; thus, for patayìn be killed (patày dead
person, kill with suffix -in), occasionally pataìn.

33. When a word is doubled, when two words are united in a compound
word, and after the prefixes that end in g, the syllable-division is
however made as though separate words were meeting in a sentence,--that
is, according to the rules in the following paragraphs.

c. In the phrase.

34. When words come together in the phrase, the word-division is
maintained (as in English) as a syllable-division.

In the case of initial consonants the division is thus like that within
a word: Sumúlat ka. Write (thou), Sumúlat siyà, Sumúlat syà. He wrote,
Sumáma ka. Go along, Sumáma siyà, Sumáma syà. He went along.

Before a vowel-initial the word-division is maintained as a
syllable-division by the use of a non-distinctive glottal stop (as
in German): Sumúlat akò. I wrote, i. e. sumú-lat-`akò; Sumáma akò. I
went along, i. e. sumá-ma-`akò.

Doubled words, compound words, and forms with prefixes ending in
g (namely, mag-, nag-, pag-, tag-) are similarly treated (§ 33):
agàd-agàd immediately (agàd at once doubled), i. e. agàd-`agàd;
báhay-aklátan library-building (compound of báhay house and aklátan
place for books), i. e. bá-hay-`ak-lá-tan; pagsúlat an act of writing
(súlat writing with prefix pag-), i. e. pag-sú-lat; nagáral studied
(áral teaching with prefix nag-), i. e. nag-`á-ral.

Occasionally, in emphatic speech, the same division is made within
other formations: umakiyàt, umakyàt climbed (-akiyàt climb with
prefixed -um-), occasionally, but rarely, um-`akiyàt, usually umakiyàt,
umakyàt (by § 30).

35. Reduction of the glottal stop and contraction of vowels occur
only in a few much-used combinations of words: si Andrès (si is the
article of proper names), also siy Andrès, sy Andrès; Ano iyàn? What's
that?, also Ano yàn? and even An yàn?; na itò this (na is a particle
expressing attribution), also na yitò, na ytò.

36. Occasionally such reductions go even farther, as in anò in the
preceding paragraph, and occur where the glottal stop is not involved:
as, sà for isà one in sà m pù` ten, for isà ng pù`.

37. The words at, ay, and na have also a shorter form, t, y, and ng,
respectively, which occurs only (but not always) after a final vowel,
glottal stop, or n. When these forms are used, the final glottal stop
or n is lost (§§ 15, 20) and the t, y, or ng is treated in every
way exactly as though it were part of the preceding word: butò at
balàt, butò t balàt bone and skin, i. e. butòt-balàt; Iyòn ay mabúti,
Iyò y mabúti. That's good, i. e. iyòy-mabú-ti; ang báta` na mabaìt
(clumsy, as in the speech of a child just learning to speak, for:)
ang báta ng mabaìt the good child, i. e. ang-bá-tang-maba`ìt.

3. Accentuation.

a. Word-accent.

38. In a word of more than one syllable at least one syllable is
normally spoken with a greater degree of stress than the others.

The unstressed syllables have short vowels (about as long as the
vowel in English pit or put) and close syllable-stress (§ 25).

39. A non-final syllable ending in a non-syllabic (i. e. a closed
non-final syllable) never has the stress; such words as luk-sò jump,
muk-hà` face, ak-làt book are therefore always oxytone. The only
exceptions are syllables ending in ay; this combination seems to
be felt as a unit capable of open syllable-stress: káy-lan, ké-lan
when; further, the words mín-san once, pín-san cousin, and nàn-don,
by-form of ná-roòn is there; and, finally, unassimilated foreign
words: bès-bol, sèr-mon, kwàr-ta, kwàl-ta money (Spanish cuarto),
but also Tagalized kwaltà.

Words like ká-pwà` (beside ká-puwà`) are not exceptions, for the
first syllable is not closed (§ 27).

40. The stressed syllables fall into two grammatical classes which
are only in part phonetically distinct; we may call them primary and
secondary word-accent.

41. The primary word-accent on a final syllable or (in the cases
mentioned in § 39) on a closed non-final syllable, consists merely in
greater stress than that of an unaccented syllable, accompanied by
a pitch-rise of about half a note. [4] I use the grave accent-sign:
gabì night, hindì` not, kamày hand, buhòk hair, nàndon is there,
sèrmon sermon.

42. On a non-final open syllable the primary word-accent involves an
increase of stress (less than in English), a pitch-rise of two notes,
lengthening of the vowel to about one and one-half times the duration
of an unstressed vowel, and open syllable-stress (§ 25). I use the
acute accent-mark: báhay house, báyan town.

So also, irregularly, syllables in ay: káylan, kélan when?, and even
finally: káy, ké than, máy, mé having; also mínsan, pínsan.

If an unaccented syllable precedes, the pitch-rise really begins on
the latter: in sumúlat wrote, for instance, the first syllable is
spoken above the usual pitch, and the two-note pitch-rise is merely
completed in the accented syllable.

43. The secondary word-accent on a final syllable has weaker stress
than the primary accent in the same place, and ordinarily lacks the
pitch-rise. Grammatically, it is recognizable by the presence of
the primary accent on another syllable; I use the grave accent-mark:
áakiyàt, áakyàt will climb, nárinìg was heard.

44. On a non-final open syllable the secondary accent differs from the
primary accent in similar position in two respects: its pitch-rise is
less marked, varying from three-quarters to one and three-quarters
notes, and its vowel-lengthening is greater, reaching twice the
length of an unstressed vowel. I use the grave accent-mark: sùsúlat
will write.

When the primary accent is on the last syllable and therefore weak (§
41), the secondary accent often approaches a non-final primary accent
in character: the first syllable of a word like nàbuksàn came open is
often phonetically the same as that of a word like nárinìg was heard.

If an unaccented syllable precedes the secondary accent, the pitch-rise
really begins in the former: in such a word as sumùsúlat is writing
the first syllable is spoken with higher than normal pitch, in the
second syllable the pitch is brought up to a note and three-fourths
above normal, and in the third the two-note rise is completed.

Of two secondary accents following each other the preceding is
the more marked: nàràramdamàn is felt (nà- has more marked accent
than rà-). This helps to make the primary accent distinct, for it
is stronger than a preceding secondary accent: sùsúlat will write
(the second su- is stronger, not weaker, than the first); nàlàláman
is known (if the third syllable had a secondary accent, it would be
less marked than the first and second, but its pitch and stress are
actually higher).

b. Sentence-accent.

45. Certain words are atonic, i. e. are always spoken unstressed in
the phrase: e. g. ang áso the or a dog, sa ákin to me.

The atonic words are: ang, at, ay, kay to (not káy, ké than), kung,
na attributive (not nà already), nang, ni of (not nì nor), o or
(not ò oh), pag, sa, si.

The short variants of at, ay, and na, namely t, y, and ng (§ 37),
having no vowel, cannot be stressed; they are treated in every way
as though they formed part of the preceding word.

46. In closely united phrases the last word keeps its accent, while
the preceding ones often weaken theirs. Especially a final syllable
often loses its accent before another word in the phrase:

dáhil díto on account of this, often: dahil díto,

ang mangà báhay the houses, often: ang manga báhay,

ang kanyà ng báhay his or her house, ang kanya ng báhay,

ang malakì ng báhay the large house, ang malaki ng báhay.

47. Opposed to the preceding rule is the treatment of certain words
which we may call enclitics. These very frequently, to be sure,
receive the normal treatment: that is, they are stressed and the
preceding word either keeps its stress or, if oxytone, often loses it;
but frequently, instead, the enclitic loses its accent:

Umakyàt siyà, Umakyat syà. He climbed, but also Umakyàt sya.

Áakyàt siyà, Áakyat syà. He will climb, but also Áakyàt sya.

Gánu ka na bà kakínis? How clever are you now? (kà, nà, bà are all

Enclitics have the further (and more easily recognized) peculiarity
that they follow the first orthotonic (i. e. neither atonic nor
pretonic, § 48) word of the expression to which they belong (either
as modifiers or as subject):

ang mahahába nya ng paà his (niyà, enclitic) long legs.

When several enclitics come together the last one is often
stressed. Monosyllabic enclitics precede disyllabic:

Nahánap na nyà ang sombréro. He has already looked for the hat. (nà
and niyà are enclitics; the latter is treated as disyllabic even when
in the contracted form nyà).

The enclitics are:

(1) always: the monosyllabic forms of the personal pronouns, namely
kà, kò, mò, and the words (particles) bà, bagà, dàw, dìn, màn, múna,
nà, namàn, nawà`, ngà`, pà, palà, pò`, sána, tulòy.

(2) frequently or in certain senses: the disyllabic forms of the
personal pronouns (including siyà, syà and niyà, nyà) except ikàw
(which is never enclitic), the demonstrative pronouns, and the words
díne, díto, diyàn, doòn, kayà`, lámang, ulè`; occasionally short
phrases (§ 88).

For details about these words see Syntax.

48. Opposed to the rule in § 46 are also certain words (particles)
which we may call pretonics. Their treatment is often regular: that
is, the pretonic as well as the following word keeps its accent, or
the pretonic loses its accent before a following word; but sometimes
the pretonic keeps its accent and the following word, if oxytone,
is unaccented:

máy sakìt, may sakìt having sickness, i. e. sick, but also máy
sakit. Only máy and nása actually appear with this accentuation.

The other pretonics are so classed because they share with these
two words the peculiarity that an enclitic belonging to the phrase
follows not the pretonic word, but the first orthotonic word:

Máy katawàn sya ng pára ng táo. He has a body like a human being. (siyà
he, enclitic follows not máy, which is pretonic, but katawàn body,
the first orthotonic word of the predicate).

The pretonics are the particles báwat, káhit, kapàg, kinà, mangà,
máy, nagìng (together with its other forms, § 250), nása (together
with its other forms, § 212), nì nor (not ni of), ninà, pagkà, sinà,
tagà (tigà). See Syntax.

49. A final syllable ending in glottal stop (§ 14) often receives
a higher degree of stress than a corresponding syllable with a
different final.

If the syllable ending in glottal stop has not the word-accent, it
often receives an accent resembling the secondary accent on a non-final
syllable; this is especially common if the glottal stop is lost before
another word in the phrase: páre`, párè` priest, Párì Hwàn Father Juan.

If the syllable has a word-accent and the glottal stop is lost in the
phrase, its accent is often spoken like a primary word-accent on an
open syllable: Walá sya. He has none (walà`), Naglálarú sya. He is
playing (naglálarò`).

If, however, the glottal stop is lost before t, y, or ng, this
heightening of accent does not take place, since the syllable
is then treated as ending in t, y, or ng: Syà y walà ng aklàt
(i. e. walàng-`ak-làt), Sya y wala ng aklàt. He has no book or
no books.

50. In a succession of otherwise unstressed syllables a rhythmical
movement is usually produced by means of grammatically insignificant
stresses weaker than a secondary word-accent; the distribution, and,
indeed, the occurrence of these is so variable that I have not tried
to indicate them in transcription, especially as they are never
distinctive. Thus, in the phrases in § 46 an accent of this kind
may fall on the next-to-last syllables of the words that lose their
normal word-accent: ang mànga báhay, ang kànya ng amà his father,
ang malàki ng báhay.

51. The successive accents in a sentence bear a well-marked relation
to each other: the early and especially the middle ones have higher
absolute pitch than the last; an accent on the last syllable of a
sentence often entirely loses its pitch-rise. As a consequence of
this rather fixed melody, the differences of pitch-movement between
statements, questions, commands, and exclamations of various kinds are
not so marked as in English; the higher stress of emotionally dominant
(emphatic) words, also, is less marked than in English.

In exclamation or under emphasis the accent of a final syllable may
be like that of a medial syllable, and may, in addition take on a
falling accent after the rise: Hwán! (with rising-falling stress and
pitch) Juan!, for normal Huwàn, Hwàn. Other disturbances of accent
also occur in exclamation.


1. Sentence and word.

a. Syntactic relations.

52. The sentence consists of one or more words:
Aráy! Ouch! Umúulàn. It's raining. Ina kò! Mother of mine! (as
exclamation). Sya y sumùsúlat. He or she is or was writing.

53. The relations between the words in a sentence are the usual ones:
(1) Attribution: Ina kò! Mother (of) mine! (2) Predication: Sumùsúlat
syà. Literally: Is-writing he. (3) The serial relation: butò t balàt
bone and skin.

54. Some of the particles (§ 55) seem, however, to stand in none of
these relations, but rather to express these relations themselves. Thus
the particle t and in the preceding example is expressive of the serial
relation. So further: malakì ng báhay large house; the particle ng
expresses the attributive relation; Sya y sumùsúlat. The particle y
expresses the predicative relation.

It is to be remarked, further, that the sphere of attribution includes
some cases in which the attribute markedly alters the sense: sakìt
sickness: máy sakìt (máy is an attribute) having sickness, sick. [5]

b. Parts of speech.

55. Tagalog distinguishes two parts of speech: full words and

The particles either express the syntactic relations between full words
(as illustrated in § 54) or act as attributes of full words (so máy
in the example in § 54): Hindí sya sumùsúlat. He is not writing. The
particle hindì` not is an attribute of sumùsúlat.

In contrast with the particles, full words act not only as attributes,
but also as subject or predicate, and any full word may, in principle,
be used in any of these three functions:

(1) Subject: Ang sumùsúlat ay si Pédro. The person writing is
Pedro. Ang pulà nang panyò ay matingkàd. The red of the handkerchief
is intense.

(2) Predicate: Sya y sumùsúlat. He is writing. Pulà ang panyo ng
itò. This handkerchief is red.

(3) Attribute: ang báta ng sumùsúlat the writing child, the child
who is writing; ang pulà ng panyò the red handkerchief.

56. Independent of this classification into parts of speech are
certain less important groupings of words and certain phrase types,
some of which will appear in the course of the analysis. Others,
however, demand mention at the outset.

c. Static and transient words.

57. Transient words express an element of experience viewed as
impermanent, i. e. belonging to some limited portion of time, so
sumùsúlat above, as opposed, e. g., to siyà, pulà, panyò, báta`,
Pédro. Words which are not transient may be called static. Only a few
particles are transient; among the full words the transient group is
large and important.

d. Personal names.

58. Except in exclamations and in address, names of persons (or
animals) are distinguished from other words by being always (but see
§ 78) preceded by the atonic particle si: Hwàn! Juan! si Hwàn Juan,
si Salamìn Glass, Mirror (as name of a dog).

59. Many terms of relationship and titles may be used in place of the
name of an individual and then belong to the personal name class: ang
amà the father, ang áki ng amà my father, but: si Amà Father. Thus
are used, further: si Inà Mother, si Tátay Papa, si Nánay Mama, si
Kúya or si Kúyang Oldest brother, si Atè Oldest sister, si Ingkòng
Grandfather, si Indà` or si Impò Grandmother, si Áli or si Tiyà Aunt,
si Máma` Uncle; si Bathála` God, but: ang Dyòs.

So also phrases in which these and other titles as attributes precede
a name, see § 256.

60. The particle sinà or silà, pretonic, in place of si forms an
expression denoting the person named together with his family or group
of adherents: sina Hwàn or sila Hwàn Juan and his family or Juan and
his crowd. With a series of names sinà implies that those named form a
group: si Hwàn, si Andrès, at si Mariyáno Juan, Andrés, and Mariano;
sina Hwàn, Andrès, at Mariyáno the group consisting of Juan, Andrés,
and Mariano; sina Hwàn, sina Andrès, at sina Mariyáno Juan, Andrés,
and Mariano, each with his group.

e. The object construction.

61. When a word or phrase denotes an element of experience viewed
as an object, it is, with certain exceptions, preceded by the atonic
particle ang: ang báta` the or a child, boy, girl; children, ang báhay
the, a house; houses, ang báyan the, a town, ang kabàítan goodness,
kindness; an act of kindness, ang kataúhan mankind, ang pagsúlat the
or an act of writing, ang mabúte that which is good, the best thing.

The following are the exceptions:

62. Personal names preceded by si or sinà (silà) do not take ang; they
always, of course, denote an object idea. See the examples in § 58 ff.

63. The personal pronouns (which always express an object idea) do
not take ang. They are: akò I; kità we, i. e. thou and I, inclusive
dual; táyo we, i. e. thou (or ye) and I (or we), inclusive dual and
plural; kamì we (but not you), exclusive dual and plural; ikàw, kà
thou (singular); kayò ye, you (dual, plural, and polite singular);
siyà he, she; silà they.

All of these except ikàw are often enclitic; kà is always so: Ikàw
ay talúnan. You are defeated. Sumúlat ka. Write (thou).

Siyà is used only of living beings, except for a single peculiar
construction to be described below (§ 106 f.).

Kità in the sense here given is not much used, táyo being commoner:
Palìt kità nang sombréro. Let's trade hats. Kità ay pumaroòn sa
teyátro. Or, more commonly: Táyo ay pumaroòn sa teyátro. Let us go
to the theatre. Kità is more used in another meaning, as we shall see
(§ 182).

Kamì differs from these two words in excluding the person or persons
addressed: Kàkáin táyo. We shall eat. Nakitúluy kamì kina Pédro. We
asked hospitality of Pedro's. In both of these sentences (as also
in that with táyo already given) two or more people may be meant. It
will be seen, therefore, that the distinction between dual and plural
is not categoric (obligatory).

That between singular and plural is categoric in these pronouns;
everywhere else it is not obligatory; the idea of plurality is inherent
in many words and forms, but these are used only where the idea of
plurality is explicitly prominent.

64. The demonstrative pronouns as object expressions also reject
ang. They are: irè this (on the person of the speaker or within his
immediate reach); itò this (more generally, of anything nearer to the
speaker than to the person addressed); iyàn, yàn that (nearer to the
person addressed); iyòn, yaòn, yoòn, yòn that (of things distant from
both speaker and person addressed).

Itò and iyòn are used also anaphorically: the former--the latter.

The demonstrative pronouns are often enclitic.

Ang is omitted also before an object expression in which a
demonstrative pronoun stands first as a modifier, see § 130.

65. Similarly before object expressions in which an interrogative
pronoun stands first as a modifier, see §§ 131.168.

66. The use of ang is optional before the numerative pronouns. The use
of ang seems sometimes to lend these greater definiteness, sometimes
to be indifferent.

The numerative pronouns used as object expressions are: ibà other,
ilàn few, karamíhan most, lahàt all. (The other numerative pronouns,
namely boò` whole and the particles bála any and báwat every are not
used as object expressions).

ibà others; ilàn a few; Ang ilàn ay malalakàs at ang ibà ay
mahihína`. Some are strong and others are weak. Lahàt nang táo
sa báya ng itò ay dápat umalìs. All people (who are) in this town
ought to leave (nang táo of people, of the people is an attribute
of lahàt). Ang lahàt nang táo sa báya ng itò ay máy sakìt. All the
people in this town are diseased. karamíhan sa kanilà most of them;
ang karamíhan the majority.

The use of ang is optional also before object expressions in which
a numerative pronoun stands first as an attribute, see § 132.

67. The use of ang is optional before the cardinal numerals: isà sa
kanilà, or: ang isà sa kanilà one of them.

The simple cardinal numerals are: isà one, dalawà two, tatlò three,
ápat four, limà five, ánim six, pitò seven, walò eight, siyàm,
syàm nine.

Similarly, the use of ang is optional before an object expression in
which a cardinal numeral stands first as a modifier, see § 133.

In dates and for the hours of the day the Spanish numerals are commonly
used; these demand ang: ang abéynte-kwátru nang Húnyo the twenty-fourth
of June.

68. Ang is omitted, further, before object expressions beginning with
the particle nì (§ 253) and optionally before those beginning with the
particle káhit (§ 248). All object expressions lack ang when forming
an indefinite object predicate (§ 109), in expressions of indefinite
quantity (§ 69), when used indefinitely after pára (§ 275), hanggàng
(§ 293), patì (§ 305), and in exclamation or address (§§ 75.78). [6]

f. Expressions of indefinite quantity.

69. Object expressions are used (without ang, § 68) to express
indefinite objects (roughly speaking such as would lack the article
the in English) or indefinite quantities of objects, when preceded
by certain modifiers. These modifiers are the pretonic particle
máy, expressing existence or forthcomingness (§ 252), and the
full words máy-roòn, equivalent with máy; walà` the negative of
these; malakì great; maláon long; marámi much, many (§ 138). The
phrases so formed may be described as expressions of indefinite
quantity. Beside the omission of ang before the object expression,
they have the peculiarity that in certain constructions they express
(without further accompaniments) the possessor of that designated:
may súngay there are horns or having horns, horned; máy-roo ng aklàt
there are books or having a book, books; wala ng aklàt there are no
books or without a book, having no books; malakì ng kagamitàn great
usefulness, there is great use, or having great usefulness; maláo
ng panahòn long time or taking a long time; marámi ng salapè` much
money, there is much money or having much money; marámi ng kaybígan
many friends, there are many friends or having many friends.

Máy expresses also approximateness (where the object expression is
one of number): may ápat na pu ng paà about forty feet or having,
measuring about forty feet.

70. An expression of indefinite quantity may, as a unit, stand in
object construction; in this case the first three have possessive
value, but not the others: ang máy sakìt the or a person having
sickness, the or a sick person; ang máy-roo ng aklàt the (a) person
who has a book or books; ang wala ng hiyà` the (a) shameless person;
but: ang malakì ng báhay the, a large house; ang marámi ng bágay the
many things.

71. Marámi may by itself stand in object construction; it then has
the meaning: ang marámi the many, the crowd, the people, hoi polloi.

2. Subject and predicate.

72. Most sentences consist of a subject and a predicate, showing the
construction of Sumùsúlat syà, Sya y sumùsúlat (§§ 53, 54). Indeed,
this goes farther than in English; many commands, for instance,
have the subject-and-predicate structure: Sumúlat ka. Write thou,
i. e. Write.

Nevertheless, much of the syntax is determined by the use of
constructions which lack subject-and-predicate structure.

a. Non-predicative sentences.

73. The sentences which lack subject-and-predicate structure are of
two general types: (1) exclamatory, and (2) impersonal-anaphoric.

74. To the exclamatory type belongs the use in independent
sentences of certain particles, the primary interjections:
Abà! Ah! Aráy! Ouch! Ó! Oh!

As in other languages, some of these violate the normal phonetic
structure, that is, are "inarticulate": Sss! Whew!, uttered when the
weather is very hot. One whistles when one wants the wind to blow.

75. To the exclamatory type belong, further, words and phrases used as
secondary interjections: Anò! What! (unpleasant surprise). Inà ko! or:
Ina kò! Mother of mine! Ano ng hína mo! What weakness of-you! i. e. How
weak you are!

As the second example shows, object expressions are here used without
ang (§ 68).

76. Certain words with the prefix ka- expressing high degree of
a quality (see Morphology), with their attributes: Kaitìm nang
gabi! What-blackness of-the night! i. e. How black the night is!

77. Certain words with the prefix ka- and reduplication expressing
recent completion of an act (see Morphology), with their modifiers:
Karárating ko pa lámang! Just-arriving by-me still only! i. e. I have
only just arrived.

78. Vocatives, in calling or address: Kayò ng manga makasalánan! Ye
sinners! In this use personal names lack si and all object expressions
lack ang (§ 68): Hwàn! Juan! Máma`! Sir! Áli! Madam! Wala ng
hiyà`! Shameless one!

79. Commands of certain brusque or familiar types, used, e. g.,
to children, servants, animals, in haste or excitement: Hintú
na! Stop! Ílag na! Get out of the way! Súlong! Go ahead! Hurry
up! Panáog nà sa báhay! Come down from the house! Come on out! Tàbí po`
Look out please! (Cry of drivers to people on the street. The accent
is irregular by § 51 for tabì).

80. Certain set expressions, such as greetings: Maganda ng áraw
pò`! Good-morning! Salámat. Thanks. Salámat sa iyò. Thank you.

81. Expressions of affirmation and negation: Óo. Yes. Oo ngà`. Yes
indeed. Táma`. That's right, Exactly. Hindì`. No. Walà`. None, Nothing,
There isn't.

82. The mere naming of an idea, as in counting or giving the title
of a story: Isà, dalawà, tatlò, ápat, limà.... One, two, three,
four, five....

83. (2) Of the impersonal-anaphoric type are many answers to questions
or continuations of dialogue: Kahápon. Yesterday. Akò. I, It's I,
It was I. (Never "Itò y akò," or the like).

84. Certain occurrences, especially meteoric phenomena,
are not analyzed into subject and predicate: Umúulàn. It's
raining. Kabilúgan nang bwàn. Roundness of-the moon, i. e. There is
a full moon. Bumábahà`. There is a flood. Naàáre`. It is possible,
allowable. Hindí nalaúnan. It did not take long, It was not
long. Taginit nà. It is summer already.

85. Very common in impersonal construction are expressions of
indefinite quantity (§ 69). In this use they express existence or
forthcomingness (or the opposite) of indefinite objects: Mày manga
babáye. There are women. Máy-roo ng aswàng sa báyan. There was a
vampire in the town. Walà ng papèl. There is no paper. Walà ng anu
màn! There is nothing. Also: Not at all! You're welcome! Malaki ng twà`
nang iba ng táo. There was great rejoicing by the other people. Sa
dalága ng itò y marámi ng manglilígaw. For this young woman there
were many suitors.

86. Less common in impersonal construction are expressions of
occurrences involving indefinite or indifferent persons or things:
Humúkay. One should dig. Nagumpisa nà nang pagsábuy. "They" have
already begun to throw.

87. There is great freedom as to presence or absence of anaphorically
determined elements (i. e., such as have been recently mentioned or,
less commonly, are about to be mentioned), including the subject;
when this is wanting, the subject-and-predicate structure is, of
course, lost: Hiníla nya sa pasígan. Was-dragged by-him to-the shore,
i. e. He dragged it or the tree (sc. itò, or: ang púno`, from the
preceding sentence) to the shore. Hindí makabùbúti sa kanilà. (It,
the scheme mentioned) will do them no good.

Many constructions later to be noticed depend on this habit of
omitting anaphorically determined elements, cf. e. g.: Ang púno`
ay tumúbo hanggàng sa magbúnga. The tree grew until (sc. it) bore
fruit. Pagdatìng niya ay sabíhin mo ng maghintày. At-the-coming of-him
be-said (impersonal) by-you that (sc. he) should-wait, i. e. When he
comes, tell him to wait.

b. The subject.

88. The subject of a sentence is always an object expression. The
only exceptions are complex sentences with entire predications (§
115) or quotations (§ 329) as subject.

89. The subject may have two positions:

(1) Non-enclitic: it precedes or follows the predicate; in the
former case the predicate is introduced by the atonic particle ay,
y (y often after syllabic vowel, n, or `; see Phonetics): Sumùsúlat
ang báta`. The child is writing; or: Ang báta` ay sumùsúlat. Ang
báta y sumùsúlat. Siyà ay sumùsúlat. Sya y sumùsúlat. He, she is
writing. Here siyà, syà is not enclitic.

(2) Enclitic: it follows the first orthotonic word of the
predicate: Hindí sya sumùsúlat. Not he is-writing, i. e. He is not
writing. Sumùsúlat sya nang líham. He is writing a letter, letters. In
these examples siyà is enclitic.

Not only enclitically used pronouns (§§ 63. 64), but even short phrases
are thus used: Pinapútol nila si Hwàn nang káhoy. Was-ordered-to-cut
by-them Juan (subject) some wood, i. e. They ordered Juan to cut
wood. Here the position of si Hwàn after the first orthotonic word
of the predicate (pinapútol) but before the rest of the predicate
(nang káhoy) shows it to be (like nilà) an enclitic element. With the
same subject not enclitically used the sentence would be: Pinapútol
nila nang káhoy si Hwàn, and this, indeed, is the more usual locution.

90. On the use or non-use of an anaphoric subject (siyà, silà, itò)
see § 87.

c. The predicate.

91. The predicate may be (1) a transient word with its modifiers,
(2) a static word with its modifiers, or (3) an object expression.

(1) Transient predicate.

92. Transient words fall into four classes according to the four
relations which a subject may bear to them when they are used as
predicate. We may designate these classes by the following names:

1. active: the subject is viewed as an actor: Sumùsúlat sya nang
líham. He (subject) is writing a letter, letters. Sya y pumútol nang
káhoy. He (subject) cut some wood. Umalìs syà. He went away.

2. direct passive: the subject is viewed as an object fully affected
or produced: Sinúlat nya ang líham. Was-written by-him the letter
(subject), i. e. The letter was written by him, He wrote the
letter. Pinútol nya ang káhoy. Was-cut by-him the wood (subject),
i. e. He cut the wood.

3. instrumental passive: the subject is viewed as a means, an
instrument, something given forth or parted from: Isinúlat nya ang
kwènto. Was-written-down by-him the story (subject), i. e. He wrote
the story. Ipinútol nya ang gúlok. Was-cut-with by-him the bolo
(subject), i. e. He used the bolo for cutting, He cut with the bolo.

4. local passive: the subject is viewed as an object partly
or less fully affected, as a place or sphere: Sinulátan nya
akò. Was-written-to by-him I (subject), i. e. He wrote me. Pinutúlan
nya ang káhoy. Was-cut-from by-him the wood (subject), i. e. He cut
a piece off the wood.

For a detailed description of these classes of transient words,
see Morphology.

93. In general the choice between these four constructions is made
in accordance with the logical situation: the definite, known object
underlying the predication as starting-point of discourse is chosen
as subject: Binigyàn nya akò nang aklàt. Was-given-to (local passive)
by-him I (enclitic subject) a book, books, i. e. He gave me a book,
books. Ibinigay nyà sa ákin ang aklàt. Was-given (instrumental passive)
by-him to me the book (subject), i. e. He gave me the book. In the
first example the speaker is talking about himself, in the second
about a certain book.

94. However, the active construction is avoided whenever any object
other than the actor is available as subject. Especially are active
constructions with an anaphoric subject (siyà, silà, itò) avoided
wherever a passive construction is at hand. Thus, in the instance in §
93, even if "he", the actor, were the real subject of discourse, one
would rarely use the active construction: Sya y nagbigày sa ákin nang
aklàt. He (subject) gave (active) me a book, books. Even elements which
we should look upon as somewhat indefinite are preferred as subjects
to an actor: Kinúha nya ang isa ng aklàt. Was-taken (direct passive)
by-him a book (subject), i. e. He took a (certain) book (he knew,
or I know which one or what kind).

The active construction is thus confined to instances in which the
object-ideas other than the actor are entirely vague and undetermined
or lacking: Umalìs syà. He went away. Sya y kumúha nang aklàt. He
took a book, some books (no matter to him or to me which one or what
kind). Sumùsúlat sya nang líham. He is writing a letter, letters. Sya
y pumútol nang káhoy. He cut some wood. Kumáin sya nang kánin. He ate
some boiled rice; but: Kináin nya ang kánin. Was-eaten (direct passive)
by him the boiled rice (subject), i. e. He ate the boiled rice.

If, in spite of the presence of other definite objects, the actor is
very decidedly emphasized, a different construction (§§ 104.107.) is

(2) Static predicate.

95. The predicate may consist of a static word with its modifiers:
Ang bátà ay mabaìt. The child is good. Iyà y masamà`. That's bad,
wrong. Pulà ang panyo ng itò. This handkerchief is red.

96. This type of predicate is regular in word-questions: the
question word is used as predicate; it precedes the subject: Páno
ang pagkágusto ninyò sa trabáho-ng-kanyunéro? How (predicate) your
liking for (i. e. How did you like) the artillery-service? Papáno ang
pagsasábi sa wíka ng Tagálog nang salità ng Inglès na "scissors"? How
(predicate) the saying in the Tagalog language of the English word
"scissors"? i. e. How does one say "scissors" in Tagalog? Gaáno
ang pagkakagalìt nila? How great, How serious was (predicate)
their quarrel?

97. This is the construction of the interrogative pronouns in questions
asking for the identity of an object,--unless, indeed, these belong
rather under type (3). The interrogative pronouns are the following:

(a) síno who? (singular and plural), síno-síno (explicit plural, § 63,
end) is used of persons only, and then only when the answer expected
is a name or the equivalent; it asks for the identity of a person:
Sínu ka? Who are (predicate) you (subject)? Sínu yàn?--Akò. Who's
that? i. e. Who's there?--I. Sínu ya ng tumútuktók? Who's that
knocking? Síno ang nagbigày sa iyò? Who (predicate) the one-who-gave
(sc. it, anaphoric) to you (subject)? i. e. Who gave it to you? Síno
ang nagsábi sa iyò? Who told you? Who told you so? Síno sa kanila ng
dalawà ang nagnákaw? Which of the two committed the theft? The two are
known by name or, at any rate, as personalities. Síno-síno sa manga
báta` ang iyo ng nàhúle sa panguumìt? Which ones of the children
(predicate) did you catch pilfering? literally: the ones caught by
you at pilfering, subject.

(b) anò what? what kind of? how?, explicit plural anò-anò, asks for
the identity of a thing or for the description, character, condition
of a person or of a thing: Ano yàn?--Itò y librò. What (predicate)
is that you have there (subject)?--This is a book. An yòn?--Yo y
súnog. What's that over there?--It's a fire. Anò ang ngálan mo? What
is your name? Ano ang sábi mo? What do you say? Ano ang íbig mo? What
do you want? Ano-anò ang pinagsabè ni Hwàn sa iyò? What things did
Juan tell you?, literally: What things (predicate) the things said
by Juan to you? Anu kà? What sort of person are you? Anò ang lagày
nang manga báta`?... nang asáwa mo? ... nang mé báhay? What (or How)
is the condition of (i. e. How are) the children? ... your husband
or wife? ... your wife?

(c) alìn which? which one? which ones?, explicit plural alìn-alìn,
is used of persons and things; it asks neither for identification
(persons, síno; things, anò) nor for characterization (anò), but
for indication, by pointing or by description of the place or some
other unessential feature, of persons or things: Alìn ang gustu
mò? Which one, Which ones do you want? Alìn sa kanila ng dalawà ang
nagnákaw? Which of the two (e. g., of these two strange men) committed
the theft? Alin-alìn sa manga púnu-ng-káhoy ang iyo ng tinagà`? Which
ones of the trees did you cut down?

98. Of the numerative pronouns (§ 66), boò`, ibà, and ilàn (in this
use interrogative) are used as static predicates: Itò y buò`. This
is entire, complete, unbroken. Hindí ko gusto iyàn; ibà ang áki ng
gustò. Not by-me wanted (static predicate) that (subject); different
(predicate) that by-me wanted (subject), i. e. I don't want that; what
I want is different, I want something else. Ilàn ang manglilígaw? How
many are the suitors?

99. Of the modifiers of indefinite quantity (§ 69) several are used
as static predicates: Sya y walá na. He is or was gone already. Itò y
walà`. This does not take place, does not appear, falls away. Malakì
ang súnog. The fire was great. Marámi ang nagsàsábi nitò. Many are
they who say this.

100. For the disjunctive forms of personal pronouns and of síno as
static predicates, see § 169. For local expressions, see § 211. For
entire predications as static predicates, § 112 f., quotations, § 114.

(3) Object expression as predicate.

101. If the predicate is an object expression, it may have three
different forms: (A) definite, (B) circumlocutory definite, and
(C) indefinite.

102. (A) A definite object predicate consists simply of a word or
phrase in the object construction (§ 61 ff.); it has therefore the
same structure as a subject. Usually this predicate precedes and
is emphatic (emotionally dominant): Itò ang áki ng tìráhan. This is
(predicate) my dwelling (subject), i. e. Why, it's here I'm at home!

103. The definite object predicate is especially emphatic in sentences
that have as subject a transient word (with or without modifiers)
in object construction: Si Hwàn ang nagnákaw. It was Juan who did
the stealing. Siya rìn ang kanya ng inìíbig. It was he whom she
loved. Both nagnákaw and inìíbig are transient.

104. When an emphatic actor cannot be used as subject of a transient
predicate (owing to the presence of other definite object ideas, §
94), it is often used as the predicate in this construction,--the
transient part of the sentence being put into object construction and
used as subject. Thus, if, in the sentence: Itò y ginawá ni Hwàn. This
(subject) was-done (direct passive) by Juan, the idea of "Juan", the
actor, should become dominant, one would not use the active transient
predicate ("Si Hwàn ay gumawá nitò"), for the idea of "this" is too
definite to allow of the actor's functioning as subject; one says
instead: Si Hwàn ang gumawá nitò. It was Juan who did this, with
"Juan" as definite object predicate and the rest of the sentence,
objectivized, as subject. So: Siyà ang nagbigày sa ákin nang aklàt. It
was he that gave me the (or a) book, books. (cf. § 93). Ikaw ngà`
ang nagsábi niyàn. It was you yourself who said that.

105. Less commonly the subject precedes the predicate. In this
case the construction is quite normal and unemphatic; if there is a
transient element it usually stands in the predicate: Itò y ang áki ng
tìráhan. This (subject) is my dwelling. Si Hwàn ay ang nagnákaw. Juan
is the one who did the stealing.

106. (B) In the circumlocutory definite object predicate the
central element is the pronoun siyà (in this use never enclitic),
which is followed by modifiers which express the real content of the
predicate. In this use siyà may apply to inanimate objects and to
two or more objects (§ 63). The subject, which has always a moderate
degree of emphasis, usually precedes: Itò ay sya kò ng tìráhan. This
is what is my home, i. e. This is where I live. In most cases the
real content of the predicate is a transient word (with or without
modifiers): Si Pédro ay sya ng tumútuktòk. Pedro is the one (siyà)
who is knocking. (Less emphatic than the violently transposed Si
Pédro ang tumútuktòk. It's Pedro who is knocking, of type A). Ang
pagkátahol nang áso ay syà ng ikinágising nang báta`. The barking of
the dog is what woke up the child. Ang manga pangparikìt ay sya kò ng
pinamutúlan. The kindlings are what I have cut up. Occasionally the
predicate precedes: Baká sya ng ikapútol nang pinggà ang kabigatàn nang
buhángin. Perhaps that which may break the carrying-pole (predicate)
the weight of the sand (subject), i. e. See that the weight of the
sand doesn't break the carrying-pole.

107. This construction, like that of type (A), is often used when a
transient predicate is not permissible with an actor-subject; here,
however, the sentence is not, as in (A), reversed, but the actor
is used as subject and the rest of the sentence as true content of
the circumlocutory predicate: Si Hwàn ay syà ng gumawá nito. Juan
is the one who did this. Si Pédro ay syà ng nagbigày sa ákin nang
aklàt. Pedro is the person who gave me the book.

108. A predicate of this type may, in its entirety and as a unit,
be objectivized with ang and used as subject of a sentence of type
(A): Ang médiko lámang ay sya nyà ng màkàkatálo. The doctor alone will
be the one to oppose him (literally: he by-him who will-be-opposed,
direct passive): Ang médiko lámang ang sya nyà ng màkàkatálo. It is
the doctor alone who will be the one to oppose him. Ang bintána ng
iyàn ang syà ng kahùhulúgan nang báta`! It's that window that will
be the place where the child will fall out!

109. (C) The indefinite object predicate has the structure of an object
expression, but lacks ang (§ 68). In meaning it corresponds, roughly,
to an English noun-predicate without the: Itò y librò. This (subject)
is a book (predicate). Yo y súnog. That's a fire. Itò y mabúti ng
librò. This is a good book. Si Hwàn ay isa ng magnanákaw. Juan is
a thief. Masípag na táo itò. Industrious people (predicate) these
(subject), i. e. These are industrious people.

110. As indefinite object predicates occur especially the expressions
of indefinite quantity (§ 69). In this use they have possessive
value: Sya y máy famílya. He has a family. May ápat na pu ng paà ang
hába`. Having forty feet (predicate) the length (subject), i. e. The
length is about forty feet. Sya y máy-roo ng aklàt. He has a book,
books. Sya y wala ng aklàt. He has no book, no books. Sya y marámi
ng salapè`. He has much money. Hindí maláo ng panahòn ang kanya ng
paghihimatày. Her fainting-spell did not last long. Itò y malakì ng
kagamitàn. This has great use, is much used.

It is to be noted that all the modifiers of indefinite quantity, except
máy, which is pretonic, are orthotonic and therefore followed by an
enclitic subject (§ 89): Máy-roon sya ng aklàt. He has no book. But:
May dalawà sya ng anàk. He has two children.

d. Subordinate predications.

111. An entire predication may be used as subject, predicate,
or attribute in a longer sentence. The use of such subordinate
predications is, however, limited (as opposed, e. g., to English usage)
by the habit of freely using transient words (with their modifiers)
as attributes: ang súpot nang kwaltà na kanila ng ibinigày pagdáka
sa kanila ng magúlang the bag of money by-them given at once to their
parents, i. e. ... which they gave.... It is limited, further, by the
freedom of omitting anaphoric elements (§ 87): Ang púno` ay tumúbo
hanggàng sa magbúnga. The tree grew until (sc. it, subject) bore fruit.

112. Predications as predicates occur very frequently. Ang ginawá
nya ay umalìs sya. That done by-him (subject) was went-away he
(predication, as predicate), i. e. What he did was, he went away. Ang
mabúti ay itápun nilà ang manga báta`. The best thing (to do) was
that they should abandon the children. Ang ísip ko y balat lámang nang
itlòg itò. My thought was (i. e. I thought) this was only an egg-shell.

113. Especially common is a whole predication as a predicate describing
or characterizing the subject: Ang kúba ay mahína` ang katawàn. The
hunchback was: weak was his body, i. e. was weak of body. Ang ikapitu
ng báta` ay hindí kináin ang kanya ng tinápay. The seventh child
was: not was-eaten his bread, i. e. did not eat his bread. Ang isa
nyà ng anàk ay pitò nà ng taòn ang gúlang. His one child was now
seven years of age. This construction, together with the use of
impersonal expressions (§ 84) makes possible such a sentence as:
Ang manga karitòn ... ay gabì kung ipalákad. The wagons ... were:
it-was-night when (sc. they, anaphoric subject) were-made-to-go,
i. e. The wagons were driven at night.

114. Direct quotations as predicates are frequent: "Isà!" ang sábi
nang bulàg. "One!" was what the blindman said. "Túnay bagà ng akò y
inìíbig mo?" ang tanòng nang dalága ni Andrès sa kanyà. "Is it really
true that you love me?" was the question of Andrés' young lady to him.

115. A predication as subject is rare: Mabúti táyo y dumoòn sa isa
ng lugàr.... It is best (predicate) that we go to a place.... Hindí
bihíra` ang manga táo y nanghùhúle nang buhày na unggò`. It is not
rare that people go catching live monkeys. It will be noted that
these predications are not objectivized, cf. § 88.

116. Occasionally, however, the predication used as subject is
objectivized: Hindí bihíra` ang magkalunòd ang manga táo. It is
not rare that people get drowned, or The occurrence that people get
drowned is not rare. Súkat nà ang ikàw ay magpasalámat. It is fitting
now that you be thankful.

117. For predications as attributes see the section on attribution.

e. Omission of predicate.

118. The use of a predicate, or of the central element of a predicate
is (like that of any other element, § 87) optional when, if used, it
would be anaphoric: (Si Hwàn namàn ay sumagòt: "Matàr!" at sa hulè)
si Andrès ang kanya ng "Sì!" (Then Juan answered "Matar!" and last)
Andrés his "Si!" The form of the sentence with the predicate (which
is anaphoric from the preceding sumagòt answered) would be: ... si
Andrès ay isinagòt ang kanya ng "Sì!" ... Andrés was: was-answered
his "Si!", i. e. Andrés answered his "Si!",--a sentence of the kind
described in § 113.

3. Attributes.

119. We may distinguish four constructions in which an attribute
may stand: 1. Conjunctive attribution: the attribute is joined by
means of the particle na or ng: isa ng táo a person, one person;
2. Disjunctive attribution: the attribute, which is always an object
expression, stands in a special disjunctive form, ang, for instance,
being changed to nang: ang púno nang unggò` the tree of the monkey;
3. Local attribution: the attribute, which is always an object
expression, stands in a special local form, ang, for instance,
being always changed to sa: nalìlígo sa ílog bathing in the river;
4. Absolute attribution: the attribute merely precedes or follows:
hindí táma` not correct.

In a sense the last three constructions, which do not employ the
particle na, ng, stand opposed to the first, which does. Constructions
2 and 3 make it possible to speak, in a very wide sense, of three
"cases" in which an object expression may stand: "subjective" ang
ílog the river, "disjunctive" nang ílog of the river, and "local"
sa ílog in the river; but it is to be observed that these "cases"
are not confined to any class of words, but appear in any word or
phrase when it stands in the object construction. [7]

120. In position attributes may be:

A. Loosely joined. In this position occur only attributes of a
predicate (or of an entire non-predicative sentence). Their treatment
resembles that of a non-enclitic subject (§ 89): they either precede
the rest of the sentence with ay, y, or follow at the end of the
sentence: Doòn ay syà y nahigà`. There (doòn, loosely joined) he lay
down. Nahánap ko nà ang sombréro sa lahàt nang súlok. I have looked
for the hat in every corner. The phrase beginning with sa is loosely
joined; it follows all the rest of the sentence, including even the
subject, ang sombréro.

In the placing of enclitics a loosely joined attribute is ignored:
Pagulàn ay gamítin mo ang kapóte. When it rains use your rain-coat. The
enclitic mò follows the first orthotonic word of the predicate (which
it modifies), not counting the loosely joined pagulàn.

When a loosely joined attribute precedes, the ay, y is in some cases
left off: Dahil díto tináwag nya ang kaybígan nya. Therefore he called
his friend. The position of the enclitic niyà shows that dahil díto
is loosely joined, but ay, y is not used.

Occasionally a loosely joined attribute is preceded by the subject
and only one ay, y is used: Karanyúwa y ang kosinéro y upahàn. Usually
(loosely joined) the cook is hired; but also: Ang kosinéro karanyúwa
y upahàn.

B. Closely joined. The attribute immediately precedes or follows that
modified: hindí táma` not correct; ang púno nang unggò` the tree of
the monkey.

C. Enclitic. They follow immediately on the first word of the
expression modified, counting closely joined attributes, but not
loosely joined: Hindí ko nàlàláman. Not by-me (it) is-known, i. e. I
don't know. ang mahahába nya ng paà his (niyà enclitic) long legs.

121. Some attributes always precede (so e. g. hindì`, § 239); others
always follow (so, for instance, disjunctive attributes, § 171).

a. Conjunctive attributes.

122. A conjunctive attribute is connected with the word or phrase
which it modifies by the atonic particle na. Normally ng takes the
place of na after a vowel, n, or the glottal stop (see Phonetics):
mabúti ng aklàt good book, or: aklàt na mabúti.

However, na and ng are not exactly equivalent. Predications, longer
phrases, and, frequently, transient expressions are joined with na
even where ng is possible: isa ng malakì ng higànte na nalìlígo`
a big giant who was bathing.

On the other hand, some constructions use na rarely or not at all:
where ng cannot be used the particle is then omitted and we have
absolute attribution. These constructions will be described under
the latter heading.

In the formation of compound words (see Morphology) na is never used,
while ng is a regular element. This latter circumstance sometimes
makes it difficult to determine whether a given expression is a
conjunctive phrase or a compound word.

123. Conjunctive attributes are closely joined and either precede
or follow; for this reason it is sometimes undetermined which of the
elements connected is the attribute, which the element modified.

124. The elements connected by conjunctive attribution are viewed
as constituting a single larger element. Conjunctive attribution is
the normal and general relation between modifier and modified and
includes relations that in many other languages (such as English)
are viewed in manifold ways. We may divide the construction roughly
into three types, although these actually merge into each other:
(1) quality, (2) manner, and (3) complement.

Not included in this division are the cases where conjunctive
attribution alternates with absolute (§ 122), which will be treated
of under the latter heading, and a type which in meaning is so closely
parallel with disjunctive attribution that it will be more economical
to treat it under this head (§§ 165.168).

(1) Conjunctive attributes of quality.

125. Conjunctive attributes of the quality type are used chiefly in
object expressions. They have no fixed order: ang mabúti ng aklàt the
(a) good book, or: ang aklàt na mabúti. ang sumùsúlat na báta` the
writing child, the child that is writing, or: ang báta ng sumùsúlat.

126. When they precede a personal name the whole expression is preceded
by ang, but when they follow si suffices: ang báta ng si Hwàn the
child Juan, little Juan, si Hwà ng Talúnan Juan who is always defeated
(as a nickname).

127. Conjunctive attributes of quality tend to precede when they are
emphatic or in contrast; when fixed they tend to follow: Ang marúnong
na pagòng at ang ulòl na unggò`. The clever turtle and the foolish
monkey. Si Hwà ng Pípe ay nàkíta námin sa tulày. We saw Dumb Juan on
the bridge. ang báo ng babáye the lower half of the cocoanut shell, ang
báo ng malambòt the soft shell of the cocoanut, ang wíka ng Kastíla`
the Spanish language. Especially those expressing material tend to
follow: ang báhay na batò a stone house, ang koróna ng tinìk a crown
of thorns, ang atsára ng papáya papaw salad, pickled papaw, ang tinóla
ng manòk chicken stew, ang sáko ng pálay a sack of rice. A modifier
expressing the special kind always follows: ang sála ng pagnanákaw
the crime which is (i. e. of) theft, ang bísyo ng paginòm the vice
of drinking, ang larò ng taguàn the game which consists of hiding,
the game of hide-and-seek, kanína ng umága a little while ago in the
morning, i. e. this morning, ilà ng óras na pagsasàlitáan a few hours
of conversation, ang bandà ng kataasàn (or: itaàs) the direction
(which is) north, i. e. the north; so: ang bandà ng kababáan (or:
ibabà`) the south, silángan (or: sìlangánan) the east, kalunúran the
west, ang gawì ng kánan the right-hand side, kaliwà` the left.

128. Titles and the like precede: ang báo ng si Maryà the widow Maria.

129. The personal pronouns precede their conjunctive attributes:
sila ng tatlò they three, Si Pédro ay syà ng tumútuktòk. Pedro is
the one who is knocking (§ 106 ff.).

130. The demonstrative pronouns as conjunctive attributes usually
follow: ang táo ng itò this person, this man, ang tatlò ng itò these
three, Ang korbáta ng irè ay bágo. This necktie is new.

Occasionally, however, they precede, especially with a longer
expression. In this case ang is not used (§ 64, end): ito ng súpot ko
nang kwàlta this bag of money of mine; iyo ng úna ng kumalabòg that
first thing which made a thud; Itò ng báhay ang binili kò. This house
is what I bought, It's this house I've bought, This is the house I've
bought (§ 102 ff.).

Under emphasis the demonstrative pronoun may both precede and follow:
ito ng táo ng itò this man here, iyo ng táo ng yaòn that man over

131. The interrogative pronouns precede; ang is not used (§ 65). See
also kaníno, § 168. The meanings of the interrogative pronouns as
conjunctive attributes are:

síno which? (of several known people): sínu ng táo? which one? which

alìn which? (of several known things): alì ng lugàr which place,
which places? alì ng bandà? which way? (e. g. at a cross-roads)
alì ng manga búnga? which fruits? which ones of the fruits?

anò what? what kind of? (of persons or things not known), also, in
exclamations, what...! what great...! Anu ng ílog itò? What river
is this? ano ng bandà? what direction? which way? (of all possible
points of the compass) anu ng táo what sort of a person? what sort
of people? who? Ano ng hína`! What weakness!

132. The numerative pronouns mostly precede, and the use of ang
is optional (§ 66, end); ibà other, however, requires ang when, as
conjunctive attribute, it begins an object phrase. Of the others,
karamíhan most and the particle báwat every are not used in this
construction, and lahàt all occurs only as modifier of the personal
pronouns, which (by § 129) precede. The particle bála any, on the
other hand, occurs only as conjunctive attribute: ang iba ng báhay
the other house, another house, sila ng lahàt they all, all of them,
bála ng táo any person, anyone, ang bála ng táo any one (of a given
group), boò ng báyan all the town, everybody in town, ang boò ng báyan
the entire town, everybody in the town, ilà ng táo ng matalíno a few
intelligent men, ang ilà ng sandalè` a few moments.

133. The cardinal numerals usually precede; ang is optional (§ 67):
isa ng itlòg one egg, an egg; ang isa ng itlòg the one egg.

134. The tens, hundreds, etc. of the cardinal numerals are always
modified by isà one or a higher unit. The phrase so formed precedes
that counted. The higher numerals are: pù` ten, daàn, raàn hundred,
líbo thousand, laksà` million, yúta` billion: isa ng pù ng táo,
sà m pu ng táo ten men, ápat na raà ng báhay four-hundred houses.

135. The teens are expressed by labì preceding the simple numerals
as conjunctive modifier: labì ng isà ng aklàt eleven books, labì ng
tatlò ng áraw thirteen days.

136. The Spanish numerals, however, (used in dates, § 67) follow:
ang taò ng míle-nobisyèntos-dòs the year 1902.

137. saríle self (see § 175) is used as a conjunctive attribute in
the sense of own: Walá sya ng saríli ng baìt. He has no self-respect
(literally: own respect).

138. Of the modifiers that form expressions of indefinite quantity
all except máy precede as conjunctive attributes; for examples see §
69 f. In object expressions maláon, malakì and marámi do not differ
from normal conjunctive attributes; examples in § 70.

139. Expressions of indefinite quantity as units may stand in
conjunctive attribution. They then have possessive value: ang háre
ng may súngay the king who had horns; ang kapútol na wala ng dáhon
the part without leaves.

140. Conjunctive attribution includes many cases which in English
would be envisaged rather as appositions of two objects: ang báta
ng si Hwàn the boy Juan, si Hwà ng Bíbas Juan the Jester, Sya y may
tánga ng pamálo`. He has hold of a stick. Tángan that grasped, thing
grasped is conjunctive attribute of pamálo` club, stick. ang magának
na sina Bantòg the Bantog family, tatlò ng magkakayibíga ng estudyànte
ng magkababáyan three friends (ng) students (ng) fellow-townsmen,
i. e. three student friends from the same town; ang tatlú ng
magkakaybíga ng si Pédro, si Hwàn, at si Andrès the three friends,
Pedro, Juan, and Andrés; ang salità ng "bámos" the word "vamos".

141. When a longer expression is used as a conjunctive attribute
of quality, it usually follows, and na is often preferred to ng:
ang parúsa na hindí mo gustò the punishment not by-you liked,
i. e. the punishment you don't like; isà ng usà ng nangìngináin sa
gúbat a deer grazing in the jungle; ang isà (sa manga kaybígan nilà)
na sya ng magíging hukòm one (of their friends) who will be judge;
cf. the predicates described in § 106. ang manga kúra na sya ng manga
maliliìt na háre` the priests (who are) those (who are) little kings,
i. e. the priests, those veritable little kings.

142. An object expression is frequently followed by an entire
predication of the type described in § 113, as conjunctive attribute:
Ang tagahúle ay isa ng táo ng ang katungkúlan ay humúle nang ano màn o
síno màn. A catcher is a person (whose) duty is to catch anything or
anyone. ang manga púno-ng-káhoy na masasaràp ang búnga trees (whose)
fruits are tasty; isa ng táo ng malakì ang kapangyaríhan a person
(whose) power is great.

(2) Conjunctive attributes of manner.

143. Conjunctive attributes of manner precede or follow. When they
precede a predicate they stand as the first orthotonic word and are
immediately followed by enclitics (such as an enclitic subject pronoun,
§ 89), after which comes the na or ng, and then the central element of
the predicate: Syà y mabúte ng tumugtòg. She plays (music) well. This
example illustrates the identity of conjunctive attributes of manner
and of quality, for mabúte ng tumugtòg may be looked upon indifferently
as a transient predicate (§ 92) with mabúte well as attribute of
manner, or as an indefinite object predicate (§ 109) a good player,
in which mabúte good is an attribute of quality. Other forms of
the same sentence are: Mabúti sya ng tumugtòg. (siyà enclitic),
Syà y tumugtòg na mabúti. So further: Isípin mo ng mabúti. Consider
it well. Literally: Be-considered by-you (mò enclitic) well. Iyòn
ay tùtúbo na mabúti. It will grow well. Silà y magkakasáma ng
nagsipamarìl. They as-companions (i. e. in company, together) went
hunting. Or: They were companion (quality) hunters. Madalí sya ng
tumakbò. Quickly he ran. Talagà ng mahigpìt ang tapòn nang bóte ng
iyàn. The stopper of that bottle is certainly tight. Mahigpìt tight,
as central element of the predicate, is modified by talagà fated,
by fate, by nature, certainly. Putikà ng dumatìng si Salamìn sa
báhay. "Mirror" (as name of a dog) came home all muddy. Or: ... was a
muddy comer. Paputòl nya ng tinagà` ang bisìg ni Hwàn. He cut Juan's
arm transversely. Kinalaykay kò ng patipòn ang manga sangà ng maliliìt
nang káhoy. I raked into-a-heap the twigs of-the trees.

144. A phrase of more than one word usually follows that modified;
frequently na is used instead of ng: Nádala nyà na hindí sinásadyà`
sa kanya ng pagalìs ang áki ng páyong. Was-taken by-him not intendedly
in his departing my umbrella, i. e. In leaving he inadvertently took
my umbrella.

145. The numerative pronoun lahàt is used as a conjunctive attribute of
manner in the sense of entirely, completely. It follows that modified:
Ang manga lalagyàn ay pùnúa ng lahàt. The containers are entirely full.

146. Expressions of indefinite quantity as conjunctive attributes
of manner follow: Ang manga táo ay nagtakbúha ng walà ng túto. The
people all ran without order, in disorder.

147. The particles lubhà` very and lálo` more usually precede: Lubhà
ng malakì ang gálit ni Pédro. Pedro's wrath was very great. Lálu ng
lumakì ang kanya ng gálit. His wrath grew still greater.

148. The particle mulí` again follows: Tátakbo sya ng mulì`. He will
run again. Ang kamakalawà ay hindí na dárating na mulè`. The day
before yesterday will never come again.

149. A conjunctive attribute of manner may express the time throughout
which: Syà y nanggupìt at nangáhit na maláo ng panahòn. He did
hair-cutting and shaving for a long time. Silà y nagtítira na tatlu
ng áraw. They stay three days. May ila ng bwà ng ang manga útos ay
mahihigpìt. For several months (literally: having several months, §
69, end) the orders were strict.

150. A word repeated as its own conjunctive attribute of manner
expresses a high degree (intensity): Sya y bingì. He is deaf. Sya
y bingì ng bingì. He is stone deaf. Inìt si Pédro. Pedro is hot,
is angry. Inìt na inìt si Pédro. Pedro is in a rage. líhim na líhim
very secretly, malakì ng malakì very large.

(3) Conjunctive attributes as complements.

151. The general sphere of conjunctive attribution includes cases where
one element involves another as result or content. The latter follows
and is in many instances plainly viewed as the attribute. In some
instances, however, the former may just as well be looked upon as a
modifier, usually of quality, sometimes also of manner. The transition
from these latter types to that of the complement appears, indeed,
in all possible stages, and no real boundary can be drawn. Sya y
mabúti ng tumugtòg (nang piyáno). She is a good player (of the piano),
or She plays (the piano) well,--see § 143--can be analyzed also: She
is good that (she, anaphoric subject omitted, § 87) plays the piano;
and in some instances this last analysis is the only possible one.

Other examples illustrating the merging of the three types we
have set up are the following: Malápit na siya ng makatápos nang
karéra. He was already near that (he) end his course, i. e. near
ending his course, almost through his course; or: a near ender,
cf. isa ng báya ng malápit a near-by town. Ang pagmamarúnong ni Hwàn
ay ginágawa ng katatawanàn nang manga nakàkàkilála sa kanyà. Juan's
pretending to be wise is made fun of by those who know him, literally:
... is-being-made (ginágawà`) that (it) is a laughing-stock, or else:
... a being-made laughing-stock. Cf. ang gawì ng húkay the to-be-made
ditch, i. e. the ditch that is to be made, where only the quality
interpretation is possible. Magtúlin ka ng lumákad. Walk faster. This
can be interpreted as Be a fast walker, or Walk faster, or Be-quick
that (you) walk; and this last interpretation comes nearest to the
original in so far as magtúlin is an active transient form used
in commands rather than an expression suited to an idea of quality
or of manner. Sya y nagdàdahilà ng may sakìt. He alleges that (he)
is sick. Ang pagsakày sa kabáyo ay hindí magaà ng pagarálan. Riding
horseback is not easy that (it) be-learned, i. e. not easy to learn,
or: not an easy thing-to-be-learned. ang pinakamahúsay na magsalità`
nang Latìn the best that (he) should speak Latin, or: the best speaker
of Latin; Hwag kà, Hwàn, pumásuk na sekréta. Don't go as a spy (or to
be a spy), Juan. Ginawá nya si Hwàn na barbéro nang háre`. Was-made
by-him Juan that (he) be barber of-the king, i. e. He made Juan barber
royal. Si Hwàn ay pinamàmagatàn nang marámi na isa ng doktò. Juan is
reputed by the people that (he) is (i. e. as) a learned man.

152. The simplest cases are those where both of the expressions
connected by na, ng refer to the same person or thing, as in the
above examples. The following are less doubtful cases of complement
construction of this kind: Nagpùpumílit sya ng màtúto. He strives to
get educated. Si Hwàn at si Maryà ay nagkásundo ng pakasàl. Juan and
Maria have agreed that they (i. e. to) get married. Inanyáhan silà
ni Hwàn na magpasyàl. They were invited by Juan that they (i. e. to)
go walking. Maári mo ngà ng ihúlug sa koréyo ang áki ng súlat? Can
you please mail my letter? Literally: maári ... ng ihúlug a possible
thing-to-be thrown or capable that (it) be thrown. Naàári akò ng malígo
makálawa maghápon. I am able that (I) bathe (i. e. to bathe) twice
a day. Pinabayáan niya kamì ng umalìs. We were permitted by him to
depart. Hinantày nya ng matápus ang mísa. The mass was-awaited by-him
that it end, i. e. He waited until the mass was ended. Anò ang gustu mu
ng sabíhin? What is desired by-you that (it) be-said? i. e. What do you
mean to say? Hindí ko gustò ng màkatálo si Hwàn. Not by-me desired that
(he) be-opposed is Juan, i. e. I don't want Juan to be my opponent.

153. Clear cases of the complement construction are those in which
the two elements connected refer to different persons or things:
Nagyayá sya ng umuwè`. He advised that (they, anaphoric) go home. (34,
12.) Ang pagkámasìd nya sa lángit ay syà ng nagpakilála sa kanyà na
úulàn. His glance at the sky was what showed him that (it, see § 84)
was going to rain.

154. When the former of the two elements is an object expression (or
similar element) the complement construction is evident: ang kaibigà
ng màtúto the desire that (he) get educated, i. e. the desire to
get an education. ang pagkágusto nyà na kumáin nang nyòg his desire
that (he) should-eat cocoanuts, i. e. to eat.... Anu ng tagàl nya ng
sumísid! What endurance of-him that (he) stay under water! i. e. How
long he stays under water! Ano ng hína mo ng lumákad! What slowness
of-you that (you) walk! i. e. How slowly you walk! Ang tagasulsè ay
isa ng babáye ng may katungkúla ng manahì` o manulsè nang manga púnit
nang damìt. A darning-woman is a woman having the duty that (she) patch
or mend the small holes in clothing, i. e. ... whose duty is to....

155. A further sign that the speech-feeling envisages the complement
construction as different from the constructions of quality or
manner appears when enclitics follow the first word of the complement
(i. e. of the second of the connected elements) rather than the first
word of the sentence: this shows that the complement is viewed as a
relatively independent element within the sentence: Maári ngà ng ihúlug
mo sa koréyo ang áki ng súlat? Should-be-capable that (it) be-thrown
by-you into the mail (predicate) my letter (subject)? i. e. Can you
please mail my letter? Cf. under § 152 above.

156. Very frequently the complement is an entire predication: ang
panukála` na ang púno` ay tùtúbo` the thought that the tree will
grow; pagkátanaw nyà na dumárating ang susò` (at the) seeing by-him
i. e. when he sees that the snail is arriving; ang áraw na kayò ay
dápat magsipagsísi the day that (i. e. when) you ought to repent;
Nagkàkapálad ang manùnúbok na màkíta nya ang kúlam. The spier has the
good fortune that be-seen by-him the magic principle, i. e. ... to

157. A predication as complement is often parallel with a disjunctive
object modifier, i. e. with an object expression used as direct,
instrumental, or local object (§ 184 ff.): Sya y nagsábi ng sya
y marúnong gumupìt nang buhòk. He said that he knew how to cut
hair. Ang bulàg ay nagakála ng gawì ng katatawanàn ang pagkahúlog nang
kúba`. The blindman thought that the falling of the hunchback should
be made (sc. niyà by-him, anaphoric) that (it) be a laughing-stock,
i. e. decided to make fun of the falling ...; that which one says or
thinks, with sábi and akála`, is also expressed as a direct object.

158. Similarly, predications as complements are, in impersonal
constructions, parallel with a subject: Sinábi nya ng sya y marúnong
gumupìt nang buhòk. Was-said by-him that he was able to cut hair,
i. e. He said he knew how to cut hair. Hindí bihíra` na ang isa ng
táo y pamagatà ng médiko-ng-mangkukúlam. It is not rare that a man is
reputed as a witch-doctor. Cf. the example of predication as subject
in § 116. Hinilìng nya sa unggò` na dikdikìn sya sa lusòng. It was
begged by him of the monkey that he be brayed in the mortar, i. e. He
begged the monkey to bray him in the mortar. Pinabayáan niya na kamì
y umalìs. It was allowed by him that we depart, i. e. He allowed us
to depart, a less usual form than that in § 152. Totoo ngá na akò
y naparoòn sa Balíwag. It is true that I went to Baliwag. Maàári pú
ba ng kayò y maghintò`? Will it be possible please that you should
stop? i. e. Can you please stop? Inísip nya ng magnákaw sa isa
ng tindáhan. It was planned by him that (he) rob a shop, i. e. He
planned to.... Iniyútus nya ng humúkay. It was ordered by him that
(one, see § 86) should dig, i. e. He ordered people to dig. Hindí
mo gustò ng màhúle ka. Not by-you it-is-desired that you be-caught,
i. e. You don't want to be caught.

159. A direct quotation may have the same construction as a
predication: Sinábi nya ng "Bámos!" It-was-said by-him, namely
"Vamos!" i. e. He said "Vamos!"

b. Disjunctive attributes.

160. Only object expressions are used as disjunctive attributes,
and all object expressions have a special form for this use.

161. Those beginning with ang substitute for this particle the atonic
particle nang: ang púno nang unggò` the tree of the monkey, ang laruwàn
nang báta ng si Hwàn the toy of the boy Juan; little Juan's toy, toys.

162. Those beginning with si (§§ 59. 126) substitute for this
the atonic particle ni; those beginning with sinà (or silà, § 60)
substitute nilà (or ninà), pretonic: ang amà ni Hwàn Juan's father,
ang báhay nila Hwàn the house of Juan and his family.

163. The personal pronouns as disjunctive attributes take the
following forms: kò my, nità of us two, nátin our (inclusive),
námin our (exclusive); mò thy, niniyò, ninyò your; niyà, nyà his,
her, nilà their.

The monosyllabic forms kò and mò are always enclitic, the others
usually: Hindí ko nàlàláman. I don't know, literally: Not by-me (it)
is-known. ang báhay nya his, her house, ang mahahába nya ng paà his
long legs, ang hindí karanyúwa ng talíno nyà his unusual talents
(niyà not enclitic).

164. When these enclitics meet an enclitic subject, they precede,
unless by the general rule (§ 47) the monosyllabic subject kà
precedes a disyllabic disjunctive (including niyà, nyà): Saàn mo sya
nàkíta? Where by-you he was-seen? i. e. Where did you see him? Binigyàn
nya akò nang aklàt. Was-given by-him I a book, i. e. He gave me
a book. Baká mo iyàn màbúlag. Perhaps by-you it might-be-blinded,
i. e. See that you don't blind it. Hindí ka námin dinatnàn. Not you
by-us were found-there, i. e. We did not find you in.

165. The personal pronouns have another form, which is used as
a conjunctive attribute of quality (cf. § 124, end) and always
precedes that modified: its meaning, however, is the same as that of
the disjunctive forms just given. These prepositive forms are: ákin
my, kanità thy and my, átin our (inclusive), ámin our (exclusive);
iyò thy, iniyò, inyò your; kaniyà, kanyà his, her, kanilà their,
kaní-kanilà their respective, several, various.

Examples: Anò ang iyo ng ngálan? What is your name? or: Anò ang ngálan
mo? ang áki ng amà my father, or: ang ama kò, ang kanya ng báhay his,
her house, ang kanyà ng mahahába ng paà his long legs, ang kanità
ng kwaltà our money (i. e. thine and mine), ang kaní-kanilà ng báhay
their several houses.

Only a demonstrative pronoun modifier precedes these prepositive forms:
iyà ng iyo ng sambalílo ng lúma` that old hat of yours. Exceptions
are rare: ang karanyúwa ng kanila ng kantahìn their usual song;
what they usually sing.

166. The demonstrative pronouns, whether standing alone (§ 64)
or as modifiers at the beginning of an object expression (§ 130),
have the following disjunctive forms: nirè of this (right here),
nitò of this, niyàn, nyàn of that, niyòn, nyòn, noòn of that (over
there). Ang kúlay nirì ng korbáta ng irè ay nàpàpagítan sa itèm at
sa pulà. The color of this necktie (I have on) is between black and
red. ang dúlo nitò the end of this, ang anàk niyòn that one's child
(e. g. with pointing gesture), ang báhay niyo ng táo ng yaòn the house
of that man over there, ang anàk noo ng táo ng iyòn the child of that
man over there. The form noòn is used chiefly when the disjunctive
attribute expresses time (§ 192).

167. The interrogative pronoun síno, whether used alone or standing
first in an object expression as attribute (§ 131), has the disjunctive
form níno whose? This form, however, is little used, for, while the
interrogative pronoun is usually emphatic and tends to come first
(§ 96), a disjunctive attribute follows that modified (§ 171). Hence
the form níno is used only under peculiar conditions of emphasis: Ang
sambalílo níno? Whose hat (did you say)? Ibinigày sa iyò níno? Given
to you by whom? Sinábi sa iyo níno? Told to you by whom?

168. Instead of níno a prepositive form, kaníno, explicit plural
kaní-kaníno, is ordinarily used; like the prepositive forms of
the personal pronouns it stands in conjunctive attribution and
precedes that modified. Before it the use of ang is optional (§§
65.131); when ang is used the expression is more definite: Kaníno
ng sambalílo? Whose hat? (the ownership of a given hat is inquired
after) Ang kaníno ng sambalílo? Whose hat? (the ownership of each
hat is known; the question asks merely which of them is involved)
Kaníno ng aklàt iyàn? Whose book have you there?

169. The prepositive forms of the personal pronouns and of síno are
used also as static predicates expressing possession: Ang librò ng
binàbása mo kahápon ay ákin. The book you were reading last night is
mine. Kaníno ang aklàt na iyàn? Whose is that book? Kaní-kaníno ang
manga báhay na itò? Whose are these houses? The personal pronouns
may be followed by saríle own (cf. § 137): Ang laruwà ng itò y áki
ng saríle. This toy is my own.

170. All other expressions which lack ang,--that is, the remaining
interrogative pronouns, the numerative pronouns, the cardinal numerals,
and object expressions in which these as modifiers stand first (§
131 ff.),--prefix nang, atonic, when used as disjunctive attributes:
Sa itaàs nang anò? On top of what? Takìp nang alì ng kahòn itò? Of
which box is this the cover? ang panukálà nang karamíhan the opinion
of the majority; Nakàkíta akò nang isa ng táo. I saw a man.

171. All disjunctive attributes are closely joined and follow that
which they modify. The only exceptions are the enclitic pronoun forms
and expressions of time (§ 192). A disjunctive attribute precedes a
subject: Binigyàn nya nang aklàt si Hwàn. He gave Juan some books. When
the subject is enclitic, it of course precedes: Binigyàn nya si Hwàn
nang aklàt. Real exceptions, in which a non-enclitic subject precedes
a disjunctive attribute, are not common: Ipinakìkipagpútol ni Hwàn si
Pédro nang labòng. Juan is asking someone to cut some bamboo-shoots
for Pedro.

172. In meaning disjunctive attribution includes almost all cases
in which an object element is viewed as the attribute of another
element in the sentence. The only exception is the sphere of relations
expressed by local attribution (§ 195 ff.). The meanings may, very
roughly, be divided into seven groups: (1) possessive-partitive, (2)
agent, (3) direct object, (4) instrumental object, (5) local object,
(6) manner, (7) time.

173. (1) Possessive-partitive modifier: ang kanya ng báhay, ang
báhay nya his house, ang púno nang unggò` the tree of the monkey,
ang púno nang káhoy the tree (literally head of wood), ang púno nang
ságing the banana-tree, Sa itaàs nang anò? On top of what? Nasúnog
ang kalahátì nang púno`. Half of the tree got burned up. Ang báyad
sa útang ni Pédro ay lábis nang dalawà ng píso. The payment made to
settle Pedro's debt is too great by two pesos. ang óras nang alaskwátro
the hour of four o'clock, Isà ng sundálo ng marúnung nang Latìn. A
soldier who knew Latin, literally: having-knowledge of Latin. ang
sáko nang pálay a rice-sack (cf. § 127), ang larú nang baráha a game
of cards, cf. ang larò ng taguàn (§ 127) a game consisting of hiding,
hide-and-seek, ang katapusàn nang gabì the end of the night; cf. ang
katapusà ng gabì the night which was the end, the last night, ang
ilà ng sandalì nang pagsasàlitáan a few moments of the conversation;
cf. ang ilà ng sandalì ng pagsasàlitáan a few moments (which consisted)
of conversation. Note: ang báyan nang Balíwag the town of Baliwag,
ang provìnsya nang Pampànga the province of Pampanga.

174. The pronoun lahàt as an object expression is followed by this
kind of attribute: lahàt nang táo all (of) the people.

175. As an object expression saríle self is modified by disjunctive
pronouns: ang kanyà ng saríle his self. Similarly saríle as conjunctive
attribute, in the sense of own: Walá sya ng baìt sa kanya ng saríli. He
does not do even himself any good. ang saríle nila ng bànda nang
músika their own band of music; Ang kanya ng saríli ng barìl ang
kanya ng ginámit. It was his own gun he used, What he used was his
own gun. Cf. §§ 137 and 169, end.

176. The modifier may be an entire predication: sa lugàr nang magkasirá
silà in place of the (occurrence that) they should become enemies,
i. e. instead of their becoming enemies.

177. Here belongs further the disjunctive attribute with words
expressing association, companionship, or equality: Si Hwána ay
siyà ng kabùlúngan ni Maryà. Juana is the one with whom Maria is
whispering. Ang mésa ng itò ay kasingkúlay nang kahòn. This table is
of the same color as the chest. Si Hwàn ay kapantày ni Pédro. Juan
is of the same height as Pedro. Kalákip nang súlat ko ng itò ay limà
ng píso. Enclosed with this my letter are five pesos. gáya ko like me.

178. Similar is the use of a disjunctive modifier expressing one of
the objects, with expressions involving dual or plural ideas: silà
ni Maryà they with Maria, i. e. Maria and he (88,42), silà ng dalawà
ni Maryà (92,17).

179. Here belongs the disjunctive attribute in exclamatory sentences
expressing the high degree of a quality; these are formed with anò
(§ 131) and with words with prefix ka- (§ 76): Ano ng hína mo! What
weakness of-you! i. e. How weak you are! Anu ng luwàt nang hindí
nya pagdatìng! What duration of his not arriving! i. e. How long he
is getting here! Kapulà nang panyo ng iyòn! What-great-redness of
that handkerchief! i. e. How red that handkerchief is! Karúnong nang
báta ng si Hwàn! How much little Juan knows! Kaytipìd na báta` ni
Hwàn! How-saving a child of Juan! i. e. What an economical boy Juan is!

180. In the preceding and related constructions the attribute may be an
entire predication: Kamuntí nang màtamaàn ang báta`! What-little-lack
of the (occurrence that) the child should-be-hit! i. e. How near
the child came to being hit! Muntí nang máliguwak ang dala nyà ng
pulòt. Little-wanting of-the (occurrence that) should-be-spilled
the borne by-him honey, i. e. The honey he was carrying came near
being spilled.

181. (2) A disjunctive attribute expressing the agent corresponds
in sense to the subject of an active transient predicate. When it
modifies a transient word, the corresponding active can be formed:
Sinúlat nya ang líham. He wrote the letter; literally: Was-written
by-him (agent) the letter. Isinúlat nya ang kwènto. He wrote down the
story. Sinulátan nya akò. He wrote to me. The corresponding active
is: Syà y sumúlat.... He wrote.... Cf. § 92. So further: Pinútol
nya ang káhoy. The wood was cut by him; active: Syà y pumútol nang
káhoy. He cut some wood. Kinúha nya ang librò. The book was taken
by him; active: Syà y kumúha nang librò. He took some book. Áki ng
binitíwan ang bóte. By-me was-let-go-of the bottle, i. e. I let go of
the bottle; active: Bumitìw akò.... Ang hiniràm nya ng kampìt ay iyo
ng kúnin. The borrowed by-him (agent) kitchen-knife by-you (agent)
is to be taken, i. e. Take the kitchen-knife he borrowed.

When the word modified is not transient no clear line can be drawn
between disjunctive attributes of agent and of possessor: ang kanyà
ng pagdatìng his arrival, his arriving, or: the arriving by him,
ang gámit nya ng librò the book used by him, ang paupó ni Hwà ng
sùgálan the gambling-party invited by Juan, ang dala nyà ng pulòt
the honey he is or was carrying, Ang larò ng taguàn ay gustò nang
manga báta`. The game of hide-and-seek is liked by children. Hindí ko
gustò ang librò ng itò; ibà ang áki ng gustò. I don't want this book;
it is a different one I want.

182. When disjunctive agent is the speaker (kò by me or its substitute
áki ng) and the subject is the person addressed (ikàw, kà thou), the
pronoun kità usually takes the place of both. This is the commoner
value of kità (cf. § 63): Sùsungangáin kità. I'll smash your face; the
subject of this direct passive expression is the person addressed, the
agent the speaker: Ikàw ay áki ng sùsungangáin would be an unidiomatic
equivalent. Ipaglálaba kità nang damìt. I shall wash your clothes for
you. The predicate is instrumental passive, with you, the person for
whom, as subject. Hàhatdan kità nang gátas. I shall deliver milk to
you; local passive.

Occasionally the agent is redundantly added: Kità ay áki ng
parùrusáhan. I shall punish you.

183. A disjunctive agent is used with the words expressing recent
completion of an act with prefix ka- and reduplication: (§ 77):
Karárating ko pa lámang! I have only just arrived. Kakàkáin ko pa
lámang! I have only just finished eating.

184. (3) A disjunctive attribute expressing the direct object
corresponds to the subject of a direct passive transient predicate: Sya
y kumáin nang kánin. He ate some boiled rice. Passive: Kináin nya ang
kánin. Was-eaten by-him the boiled rice, i. e. He ate the boiled rice.

It will be seen that when the direct object is definite it is more
likely to serve as subject of a passive predicate (§ 94); hence
the disjunctive attribute expressing a direct object has often an
indefinite partitive value. Syà y sumúlat nang líham. He wrote some
letters. Syà y pumútol nang káhoy. He cut some wood. Bigyàn mo akò
niyà ng túbig. Give me some of that water. Katátagpi ko niyòn! I
have just finished mending that! Sya y naghintày nang sàsabíhin nang
sundálo. He awaited that which was going to be said by the soldier.

185. (4) A disjunctive attribute expressing the instrument corresponds
to the subject of an instrumental passive transient predicate:
Syà y sumúlat nang kwènto. He wrote down a story, stories. Passive:
Isinúlat nya ang kwènto. Was-written-down by-him the story, i. e. He
wrote down the story.

The indefinite value of the disjunctive attribute is here due to the
same relation as in the preceding type. Pinútol nya nang gúlok ang
káhoy. The wood was cut by him with a bolo; instrumental passive:
Ipinútol nya nang káhoy ang gúlok. Was-used-for-cutting by-him of
wood the bolo, i. e. He cut wood with the bolo. Binigyàn nya akò nang
aklàt. He gave me a book.

186. So a direct quotation or an entire predication: Ang bulàg
ay sumigàw nang "Tatlò!" The blindman shouted "Three!"; passive:
Isinigàw nang bulàg ang "Tatlò!" Ang báwat isa sa kanilà ay sumagòt
nang súngay ang kanila ng nàkìkíta. Each one answered that horns were
what they saw.

187. (5) Disjunctive attributes of place correspond to the subject of
a local passive transient predication: Syà y pumanhìk nang báhay. He
entered a house; passive: Pinanhikàn nya ang báhay. He entered the
house. Ang pagòng ay nagumpisà nang pagsisigàw. The turtle began (a)
shouting; passive: Inumpisahàn nang pagòng ang pagsisigàw.

These attributes are in meaning rather close to local attributes
(§ 203); as opposed to the latter they are, however, the real
correspondents of the subject of a local passive transient predication,
expressing a real participation of the object in the action or
occurrence,--whereas the local attributes express the place of the
action as something more or less unaffected and independent.

188. (6) Disjunctive attributes of manner do not correspond to any
kind of subject. When they are used with a transient word the sentence
may, however, be reversed so as to make of the attribute a transient
predicate of a sentence in which the action (as subject) is spoken
of as being "made such and such". Tumakbò sya nang matúlin. He ran
fast. The words nang matúlin are the disjunctive form of an object
expression, ang matúlin, which would resemble German das schnelle. Our
sentence corresponds to: Tinulínan nya ang pagtakbò. Was-made-fast
by-him his running, He ran fast. Syà y tumáwa nang malakàs. He
laughed aloud, cf. Inilakas nyà ang pagtáwa. He made his laughing
loud. ... mànákaw nang hindí nito nàlàláman should be stolen in the
manner of not by-him known, i. e. should be stolen without his knowing
it. mataàs nang kauntè` higher by a little, a little higher.

189. Expressions of indefinite quantity are used in this way: Silà
y nagtakbúhan nang wala ng hintò`. They ran without stopping. This
construction is in rivalry with that of conjunctive attribution
(§ 146).

190. The demonstrative pronouns and the interrogative pronoun anò are
not used as attributes of manner; for this value they have separate
derivatives: ganitò, ganiyàn, gayòn or ganoòn, and gaáno or gáno. These
forms, moreover, occur also as static predicates and as conjunctive
attributes of quality: ang báwat sumagòt nang ganitò every one who
answered in this way; this could be viewed also as an instrumental
object. Ganitò ang kalàgáyan nilà. Their condition was like this. ang
ganitò ng manga paglalarò` such games as this; Ganyàn ba lámang ang
kínis mo? Is your skill merely like that? Nakàsúlat akò kay Hwàn nang
gayòn dahilàn sa malakì ko ng pagkagálit. I came to write like that
(or such things, cf. instrumental object) to Juan through my great
anger. Ganoòn ang áki ng pagkárinìg. That was the way (i. e. the form
in which) I heard the thing. Ang gayù ng pananalità` that manner of
speaking, that expression. gánu ng pagpílit? how much effort? Gaáno ang
pagkakagalìt nila? How great, how serious is their quarrel? (Cf. § 96).

191. A special case of the disjunctive attribute of manner is the
repetition of a word as its own disjunctive modifier, expressing
continuity or insistence of action: Humábà nang humába`. It grew
longer and longer. Ang kanila ng báon ay umuntí nang umuntì`. Their
provisions grew less and less. Si Hwàn ay táwa nang táwa. Juan laughs
and laughs. Bilì nang bilì si Hwàn nang pálay. Juan keeps buying rice.

192. (7) Disjunctive attributes of time express the time when of an
occurrence in the past. They differ from other disjunctive attributes
in being often loosely joined, in which case they may precede. Pumaroòn
sila nang hápon. They went there in the afternoon. So: nang umága
in the morning, noò ng tagáraw (nang taò ng míle-nobisyèntos-dòs)
in the summer (of the year 1902). Nang umulàn ay ginámit ko ang
kapóte. When it rained I used my rain-coat. Nàlákad sina Pédro nang
hindì óras. Pedro and his party had to start at a time not planned;
literally: when not time.

193. Complete predications as disjunctive attributes of time are
common. It is as though the whole predication were objectivized:
Nang dumatìng ako doòn ay sya y walá na. When I arrived there he
was already gone. Noo ng sya y bágo ng táo pa lámang.... When he was
still but a young man....

194. Anaphorically determined disjunctive attributes are often
omitted. Íbig nya ng kánin ang súha`. Desired by-him that
be-eaten (by-him) the grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat the
grape-fruit. Nanghingí sya sa kanya ng manga kapatìd. He asked his
brothers and sisters (for some). Hindí nila sya binigyàn. He was not
given (any) by them, They did not give him any.

c. Local attributes.

195. An object expression in local attribution expresses a local
circumstance of that which is modified, such as the place in, to,
or from which, that from whose midst, that about which or owing to
which, the person to whom, etc.

196. In this construction initial si is replaced by kay (atonic),
sinà by kinà (pretonic), and ang by sa (atonic); object expressions
which begin with none of these particles take sa: Si Pédro ay galìt
kay Hwàn. Pedro is angry at Juan. Nakitúluy kamì kina Pédro. We asked
hospitality of Pedro's family. Syà y nanáog sa báhay. He came out of
his house. sa boo ng báyan in the whole town.

Rarely both sa and kay precede a personal name: Itò y nàtúto sa kay
Mayèstro ng Hwàn. This one got his training from Teacher Juan. ang
pagkàbúhay nang médiko sa kay Hwàn the doctor's saving of Juan's life.

197. The personal pronouns and síno take their prepositive forms after
sa: Ibinigày nya sa ákin ang aklàt. Was-given by-him to me the book,
i. e. He gave me the book.

198. In a peculiar construction these prepositive forms are preceded
by the particle ganà as a conjunctive attribute, in the sense of so
far as ... is concerned: Sa ganà ng ákin sya y maàári ng umalìs. So
far as I am concerned he may leave.

199. The demonstrative pronouns and anò never stand in local
attribution, see § 263 f.

200. Whole predications are rarely used as local attributes:

Dumatìng ang dalága ng itò sa dalawa ng pù ng taòn ang gúlang. This
young woman arrived at (the time when) her age was twenty years,
i. e. reached the age of twenty years.

201. Local attributes are mostly closely joined and as a rule follow
that which they modify, taking precedence of a disjunctive attribute
or of a subject: ang nagbigày sa ákin nang aklàt na itò the giver to
me of this book, the one who gave me this book (Bayad nà) ang útang
sa ákin ni Hwàn. Juan's debt to me (has been paid). Ibigày mo kay Hwàn
ang librò. Be-given by-you to Juan the book, i. e. Give Juan the book.

Often, however, a disjunctive attribute which is felt to belong closely
to what precedes, comes before a local attribute: Bayad-útang ni Hwàn
sa ákin ang relòs na itò. This watch is Juan's debt-payment to me.

Occasionally the local attribute precedes the expression modified:
Syà y sa bangkà` nang manga babáe nakíkisakày. He goes along into the
canoe of the women. Sa kabilà ng bandà mo ibwàl ang púno ng iyàn. Make
that tree fall in the direction away from me.

202. Very frequently, however, local attributes are loosely joined,
preceding or following; in the former case ay, y is sometimes omitted:
Sa Báya-ng-San-Migèl ay nangyáre ang isa ng nakawàn. In the town of San
Miguel a robbery took place. Hindí makadádala si Pédro nang kahòn sa
kabigatàn nilà. Pedro will not be able to carry any boxes, on account
of their heaviness. Sa ganà ng ákin sya y maàári ng umalìs. So far
as I am concerned he can go. (§ 198).

203. We have seen that disjunctive attribution expresses the relation
of objects (direct object, local object, instrumental object, §§
184, 185, 187) to an action, provided that these objects are more
or less indefinite. If they are quite definite, they are preferably
made subjects in a passive construction. Frequently, however, they
are instead put into local attribution, which thus competes with these
types of disjunctive attribution, but involves a more definite object:
Ang báhay na batò ay ang áki ng pinaghàhatdàn nang gátas. The stone
house is the place to which I am delivering milk (instrumental object),
i. e. I am delivering milk to the stone house; but: Ang báhay na batò
ay ang áki ng pinaghàhatdàn sa báta`. The stone house is where I am
bringing the child. (nang báta` would be a child or children).

It follows that the personal pronouns, which always refer to definite
persons, cannot stand as disjunctive objects of transient words,
but stand instead in local attribution: Ang báhay na batò ay ang áki
ng pinaghàhatdàn sa kanyà. The stone house is the place where I am
taking him.

Similarly a personal name: Ibigày mo kay Hwàn ang librò. Give Juan
the book; cf. Bigyàn mo nang librò si Hwàn. Give Juan a book; "Juan"
could not figure as disjunctive local object.

204. In many cases, however, these local attributes differ from
disjunctive attributes and from the corresponding subjects of passive
constructions: the local attribute represents the object as more
externally involved and less thoroughly concerned in the occurrence:
Humúkay sila nang bakúran. They dug up some yards. Hinukáyan nilà ang
bakúran. They dug up the yard. In both sentences a serious change,
such as unauthorized tampering, is implied; but: Humúkay sila sa
bakúran. They dug in the yard, merely tells where they did their
digging. Sya y pumanhìk nang báhay. He entered a house (or houses),
perhaps illicitly; the house is viewed as in some way affected
or intimately involved in the action; so also: Pinanhikàn nya ang
báhay. He entered the house; but: Sya y pumanhìk sa báhay. He went
into the house, He went into his house.

205. In other cases, where a transient predicate is not involved,
the same difference appears: the local attribute is a mere scene or
attendant circumstance, the disjunctive a real factor: Ang pagtatábon
nang manga húkay na itò ay tapus nà. The filling up of these ditches
is now finished, i. e. These ditches are filled up now; but: Ang
pagtatábon sa manga húkay ay mahírap. Filling earth into ditches is
hard work. karamíhan nang manga táo most of the people; karamíhan sa
kanilà most of them; sa ganitò under these circumstances; nang ganitò
(§ 190) thus, in this manner.

206. Expressions of time as local attributes denote future time when;
occasionally also past time: Páparoòn akò sa makalawà. I shall go
there the day after tomorrow. So: sa lúnes next Monday, cf. noò ng
lúnes last Monday. Pího akò ng páparoòn sa alasìngko. I will surely
go there at five o'clock. Sa gabi ng iyòn.... That night....

207. With jussive words with prefix pa- (see Morphology) the person
ordered to do so-and-so is viewed as a local feature: Ipinagupìt ko sa
barbéro ng si Hwàn ang buhòk ni Andrès. Was-ordered-to-be-cut by-me
of-the barber Juan the hair of Andrés, i. e. I ordered the barber
Juan to cut Andrés' hair.

208. Rarely an expression in local attribution is used as a conjunctive
attribute in an object expression: it precedes and has the meaning
of a disjunctive attribute of possessor: ang sa ibà ng táo ng kawáyan
other people's bamboo, or: ang kawáyan nang ibà ng táo.

209. This construction is much commoner when that owned is
anaphorically omitted: ang sa pagòng that of the turtle, the turtle's,
i. e. ang púno nang pagòng. So: ang sa kanyà his, hers.

210. In other cases anaphoric omission of an element modified by a
local attribute is less common: ang pagsakày sa trèn sa lugàr nang sa
karumáta the riding on the train in place of the (sc. pagsakày riding)
in the carriage.

211. A static predicate may have the form of a local attribute: Sa
linggò ang áki ng lúlan sa trèn. On (next) Sunday my embarking on the
train, i. e. Next Sunday I shall take the train. Ang uupà ng itò ay
sa háre`. This seat is for the king.

212. The particle sa has a number of derivatives which are transient
in meaning, but otherwise have the same construction as sa; they are
pretonic. Sya y nása Mayníla`. He is in Manila. Sya y nása kanya
ng báhay. He is in his house. Ang tinterúhan ay nása bíngit nang
lamésa. The inkwell is at the edge of the table. For these forms
see Morphology.

d. Absolute attributes.

213. Absolute attribution, in which no particle is used, is confined to
certain expressions and types of expressions. Some absolute attributes
and some of the particles introducing absolute attributes end in -ng
or -t; these may contain the particle ng or at (§ 313).

We may divide the cases of absolute attribution into six types,
although these are not fully distinct from one another: (1) enclitic
particles, (2) prepositive particles, (3) single words used as
attributes of manner and time, (4) absolute complements, (5) words
used with disjunctive and local attributes, (6) words introducing
subordinate phrases or predications.

(1) enclitic particles.

214. The enclitic particles which are used as absolute attributes
follow a monosyllabic enclitic pronoun (kà, kò, mò) but precede a
disyllabic enclitic pronoun (including niyà, nyà, siyà, syà). Among
themselves they follow the general rule: monosyllabic enclitics
precede disyllabic enclitics (§ 47).

215. bà is expressive of interrogation in yes-and-no questions
and often in others: Máy-roon ba silà ng ginawà`? Have they
done anything? Máy-roon ka bà ng gàgawìn? Have you anything to
do? Ipinùpútol mo ba akò nang tubò? Will you cut some sugar-cane for
me? Pinapagpùpútol ba nila syà nang káhoy? Does he get ordered by them
to cut wood? i. e. Do they have him cut wood? Ano bà ang inilùlútu
mo? What is it you are cooking? Anu ba kayò? What sort of people are
you? Hindí mu ba nàkíta si Hwàn sa teyátro? Didn't you see Juan at
the theatre? Ang iyo bà ng kapatìd? Your sister? See §§ 223. 229.

216. bagà throws more stress on the interrogation: Ikàw bagà y
nagasáwa? Did you (ever) get married? See §§ 290. 317.

217. dàw, ràw expresses that the sentence represents the saying of
someone other than the speaker; the person so quoted may be the agent
of the sentence itself: Pagkà pinapagpútol mo ràw sya nang kawáyan ay
làláyas syà. When he is ordered by you to cut bamboo, he will leave,
I am told, or: he will leave, he says. Ang paguupú raw nya sa damò ay
mabúti sa kanyà. He says (or: They say) his habit of sitting on the
grass is good for him. It is sometimes used pleonastically, see the
example in § 278.

218. dìn, rìn expresses that the expression modified (which may
be the whole sentence or an element within the sentence) is like a
corresponding earlier idea: Ako rìn ang nagpalígo sa báta`. It was I,
too, that bathed the child (beside the other things I did), i. e. I
also bathed the child. Si Hwan dìn ang naglínis nang kabalyerésa. Juan
also cleaned a stable or stables (beside the other things he did). Si
Hwàn ay naglínis rìn nang kabalyerésa. Juan, too, cleaned stables. Here
dìn is an attribute of naglínis nang kabalyerésa: this act has been
performed by Juan even as by others previously spoken of or known
of. Si Hwána ay naglúto nang estopádo; kamakalawà naglútu rin akò
nang estopádo. Juana cooked meat-stew; day-before-yesterday I too
cooked meat-stew. Iyo ng úna ng kumalabòg ay akò, ang ikalawà ay ako
rìn. That first thing which came down with a thud was I, the second
was I again. Nahúlog dìn syà. He fell down again. Káhit na madilìm
ang gabì ay nagpasyal dìn si Pédro. Although the night was dark,
Pedro none the less (i. e. even as at other times) took a walk.

Thus dìn is especially common in expressions of identity: Kahápon
ay nakàkíta ako nang isa ng táo sa Mayníla`, at ngayòn ay nàkíta ko
ang táwo rì ng iyòn sa báya ng itò. Yesterday I saw a man in Manila,
and today I saw the same man in this town.

In some instances dìn modifies an element not actually identical
with another. Nagtalòn sya sa bintána`, dátapuwat sinundàn din syà
nang amà. He jumped out of a window, but he was followed, too, by
the father. See §§ 221. 227. 238. 239. 262, (11).

219. kayà` expresses doubt or possibility of choice: Anò kayà`
ang ipinagútos mo sa kanyà? What perchance did you order him to
do? Màpàpagkúro` kayá nya sa súlat na iyàn ang íbig mo ng gawìn
nya. Perhaps he may be able to make out from this letter of yours what
you want him to do. Baká kayà` magkaputòl ang manga tubò sa kalakasàn
nang hángi ng itò. I am afraid that perhaps the sugar-cane may all
break off, what with the strength of this wind.

For another use of kayà` see § 297; cf. §§ 317. 321.

220. lámang only: Isà lámang ang mansánas na nátira sa lamésa. Only one
apple is left on the table. So: íisa lámang only a single one. Sila ng
tatlò ay walà ng pagkáin kung hindí ang itlòg lámang na nàtìtirà. The
three had no food except only the egg that was left.

Occasionally lámang follows the expression it modifies: isa ng ikápat
na partè lámang only a fourth part.

Sometimes a na is left off after lámang: Ákin lámang pinùputlàn nang
buhòk. By-me (for ákin ... na, ng) only (he, anaphoric) is-getting-cut
of hair, i. e. I am only cutting his hair. siya lámang kàkáin nang
itlòg he (who; normally this relation is expressed by na, ng) will-eat
the egg, i. e. the one who is alone to eat the egg. See §§ 227. 243.

221. màn expresses contrast with what precedes; it is the opposite of
dìn, and the two are often used in one sentence to emphasize the point
of difference and that of identity: Si Hwan màn ay naglínis (rìn)
nang kabalyerésa. Juan, too, cleaned stables (as did others). Lálù
nà lumakì ang gálit ni Hwàn, nang màbalitáan niya ng ang ikalawà màn
nya ng anàk ay nagsundálo rìn. Juan's anger grew even greater when he
learned that his second son too had (like the other) become a soldier.

With interrogatives màn produces indefinites: Walà ng anu màn. There
is nothing at all; also: Not at all, i. e. You're welcome. ang ano
mà ng pasákit any kind of injury; ang alin mà ng pangkàt any team;
sínu màn any person whatever, anyone at all. See §§ 227. 248. 262,
(7. 10). 290. 317.

222. múna expresses that that modified precedes another thing:
Magàwítan múna táyo, bágo táyo maghiwá-hiwalày. Let's sing a song
together (first) before we part. Mangáko ka múna... First promise....

223. nà takes into view the maturity of a situation (cf. German
schon): Ang librò y gamit nà. The book is used already, i. e. is
second-hand. Agad nà ng lálamìg. It will soon be cold now. Paálam na
akò (sa iyò). Good-bye (to you). Nahánap ko nà ang sombréro. I have
already looked for the hat. Nahánap na nyà ang sombréro. He has.... ang
maláon na nila ng pagpupuyàt gabi-gabì their long staying up now
every night, i. e. the fact that they have staid up late every night
now. íisa na lámang pangkàt only a single group now. It precedes bà (§
215): Nakahandá na ba ang áki ng pangpalígo`? Is my bath ready? Gánu
ka na bà kakínis? How clever are you by this time?

It is used also in brusque or familiar commands: Pálù na sa
kanya ng kamày! Hit him on his hand! Sáma na sa ákin. Come
to me (to a child). Ílag ka na riyàn! Be off there! See §§
224. 226. 227. 229. 242. 244.

224. namàn expresses transition to another subject, hence often
also mild contrast: Hábang si Hwána ay naglùlúto`, si Hwàn namàn
ay naglìlínis nang báhay. While Juana is cooking, Juan cleans the
house. Anu ka ba namà ng táo? What sort of person are you, anyway? Ibà
namàn ang gawìn mo ng lúto sa manòk. You are to cook the chicken in a
different way. siya rìn namàn nyà ng karanyúwa ng kinàkáin that which,
however, is usually eaten by him.

The combination nà namàn means again: Maínit na namàn. It's hot again.

225. nawà` pray, please expresses imprecation: Kaawaàn nawà` ninyo
kamì, poo ng Dyòs! Take pity on us, O Lord!

226. ngà` is assertive and emphasizing: Oo ngà`. Yes indeed. Ikaw
ngà` ang nagsábi niyàn. You yourself are the one who said that. It
is used in polite requests: Itúru nga ninyò sa ákin ang daàn. Please
show me the way. Ipakipútol mo ngà`, Hwàn, ang tinibàn sa áki ng
bakúran. Please, Juan, cut down for me the banana-stump in my yard. It
follows nà: Pakipútol na ngà` ang sinúlid na itò. Please cut this
string for me. See § 229.

227. pà expresses the immaturity or continuance of a situation
(cf. German noch) and stands in contrast with nà. Its meaning is
often emphasized by lámang: mabúti pà better yet, Íbig ko pà nang
kánin. I should like some more rice. Hampasìn mo pa syà. Whip him some
more. Saríwà pa ang damìt. The clothes are still wet. It precedes dìn
and màn (cf. § 248): ang isa pa rì ng káluluwa another (i. e. one more)
soul; Hindí pa rìn lubhà ng maliwánag. It was, however, not yet light
enough. Kagìgísing ko pa lámang. I have only just waked up. See §§
243. 248.

228. palà, used after hindì` (§ 239), expresses contrast with one's
expectation, reversal: Ang ísip ko y balat lámang nang itlòg itò, hindí
palà, kun dí` itlòg na boò`. I thought this was only an egg-shell,
but no, it was a whole egg.

229. pò` is expressive of politeness toward the person addressed:
Oo pò`. Yes, sir; Yes, ma'am. Patàtawárin pò`! Pardon me; used also
in refusing to give alms. Patàtawárin po nang ilà ng sandalè`. Excuse
me for a few moments, please. Maghintú pu kayò. Please stop (plural
or polite singular). Magsihintú pu kayò. Please stop (explicit
plural). Umupú po kayò. Please sit down. Maupú po kayò. Please be
seated. Ikinalúlungkot ko pò` ang kasawià-ng-pálad na nangyáre sa
inyò. I lament the misfortune which has come to you. ang iyo pò
ng Kamàhálan your Majesty. pò` precedes bà and follows nà and ngà`:
Kaawaàn na pò` ninyo kamì, poo ng Dyòs! Take pity on us, O Lord! Maàári
pu bà ng kayò y maghintò`? Can you please stop? Occasionally pò`
follows that modified: Magandà ng áraw pò`! Good day; How do you do?

230. sána expresses unreal futurity in the past or doubtful futurity
in the present; in the latter sense it expresses modesty in a request:
Ipaglálaba sána kità nang iyo ng damìt, ngúnit walà` ako ng sabòn. I
would wash your clothes for you, but I have no soap. Isinúlat ko sa
kanyà ng pilítin sána niya ng màparíto sa átin, pag sya y nàrìritò
sa báya ng itò. I wrote to him to try to get round here to us when
he gets to this town.

231. tulòy further, in continuation: Sinábi tulòy niyà.... He said

232. ulè` again, equivalent with mulì` (§ 148), has two irregularities:
it is often not enclitic but closely joined postpositive, and, in
this case, it may, entirely like mulì`, be conjunctive instead of
absolute: Nahúlog ulí sya. He fell again; but: Umakyàt sya ulè`. He
climbed again; and even: ... nang magdaàn sya ng ulè` sa pasíga ng
itò.... when he again walked on this beach.

(2) prepositive particles.

233. Certain particles used as absolute attributes always precede
that modified. They fall into two groups: (A) regular closely joined
modifiers, and (B) particles which immediately precede single words
or short phrases.

234. (A) The closely joined particles usually receive regular
treatment, being followed, for instance, by enclitics. Occasionally,
however, the feeling seems to be that the particle is, as it were,
placed before the whole sentence; in this case a non-enclitic subject
or a loosely joined attribute or a second closely joined attribute may
follow the particle, and the last-named may (instead of the particle)
be followed by some or all of the enclitics.

In the case of huwàg (§ 240) we meet for the first time alternation
of absolute and conjunctive attribution, which mostly follows the
principle that the latter construction is used where ng (as opposed
to na) is possible (§ 122).

235. bakà` is expressive of an undesired contingency; it is the
negative of wishes and fears: Baká ka maputúlan nang dalíri`, Hwàn. You
might get your finger cut off, Juan, i. e. See that you don't ... or I
hope you won't.... Baká nya ikátawà ang iyo ng sàsabíhin. Perhaps what
you intend to say will only make him laugh. Baká táyu ang pagbintangàn
nang páre`. I am afraid the priest may suspect us. See § 317.

236. bákit why? Bákit ka naparíto? Why have you come here? Bákit
mo inakála`...? Why do you think...? Bákit hindí ka magáral...? Why
don't you learn...?

237. dì` not is often used instead of hindì` (§ 239) before shorter
expressions: dí maláyo` not far, dí karanyúwan unusual, Si Hwàn ay
dí natákot na sumakày. Juan was not afraid to mount. See § 301.

238. gayòn (§ 190), in this use always followed by dìn (§ 218), also,
furthermore: Sya y isa ng táo ng may kauntì ng talíno at gayon dìn
may kauntì ng tápang. He was a man of some cleverness and also of
some courage.

239. hindì` not is used where the specific negatives áyaw (§
267), bakà` (§ 235), huwàg (§ 240), and walà` (§§ 61. 81. 89)
are not applicable. Occasionally it is replaced by dì` (§
237). Hindì`. No. Hindí akò. (It is, was) not I; I don't, didn't,
etc. Hindí bále. It doesn't matter. Hindí ko nàlàláman. I don't
know. Hindí ko sya nàkíta. I didn't see him. Hindí ko mabása iyàn. I
can't read that. Ang túnay na lakì nang buwàn ay hindí sya ng nàkìkíta
nang manga táo kung gabè. The real size of the moon is not that which
people see at night. ang kanya ng tákot na baká hindí nya abúta ng
buhày ang kanya ng inìíbig his fear that (perhaps) he should not see
his loved one alive.

Hindì` negates only the material part of a word, not its grammatical
(affixal) elements: Ang kamahalàn nang manòk ay sya ng hindí ikabilì
nitò nang marámi ng táo. The high price of chicken is that which
not causes-to-buy it many people, i. e. causes many people not to
buy it; the idea of buying is the material element of i-ka-bilì (see
Morphology); the causal idea, which is expressed by the prefixes i-ka-
is not negated. Ang pagkukublì nang manga sundálo ay siyà nilà ng
hindí ikinamatày. The hiding of the soldiers is what caused them not
to be killed, i. e. saved them from death.

Note hindí rìn (§ 218) also not, nor, and gayòn dìn hindì` (§ 238):
Ang dalága ng si Mariyà y sumayàw sa bála ng táo ng humilìng sa kanyà
sa sàyáwa ng pinaroonàn niya kagabè: sya y hindí namíli nang kanya ng
sinamáhan at hindí rin namàn namíli nang tugtòg na kanya ng sinayawàn;
gayon dìn hindí nya ininò ang bílang at ang kadalasàn nang kanyà
ng pagsayàw. Miss Maria danced with any man that asked her at the
dance to which she went last night: she chose neither her partners
nor the music to which she danced; nor did she mind the number and
the frequency of her dances. See §§ 228. 237. 301. 319.

240. huwàg, hwàg is the negative of commands, purpose,
obligation. Where ng is possible conjunctive attribution takes the
place of absolute: Ang hangàd ay ang huwàg bayáa ng lumagpàk sa lúpà
ang bóla. The aim is not to let the ball fall to the ground. (46,
36) Sinàsábi nya ríto na hwàg sunúgin ang ámi ng báhay. He told
them not to burn our house. Ang túro sa ákin nang mayèstro ay hwàg
akò ng mapagawày. The teacher's order to me is that I must not be
quarrelsome. Hwag mò ng tawánan si Hwàn. Don't laugh at Juan. Hwag
kà ng umyàk. Don't cry. Hwag kà, Hwàn, pumásuk na sekréta. Don't go
as a spy, Juan. See § 239.

241. kaniyà`, kanyà` therefore, as a result, consequently: Bumitìw
ang báta` sa lúbid, kanyá náparapà` ang kanyà ng kahatakàn. The
child let go of the rope, and so the one he was pulling against
fell. Kanyà` hindí tulà` ang kanya ng kinantà. Therefore what he sang
was disconnected. Kanyà` sa katapusàn ay sinábi nya... Therefore in
the end he said.... Occasionally it is loosely joined: Kanyà y sya
y umalìs. Therefore he went away. See §§ 295. 324.

242. lálo` (§ 147), in this use always followed by nà (§ 223),
especially, very: Lálù na kung isa ng tahòl nang áso ang makàgísing sa
kanya, sya y nàpàpaluksò. Especially when the barking of a dog awoke
him, he would involuntarily jump. Sya y nangàngáin nang táo lálù nà
nang manga báta`. It makes its food of people, especially children.

243. sakà` after that, then: Pagkà pinapagpùpútol ko nà sya nang
káhoy ay saká sya nagdàdahilà ng may sakìt. As soon as I order him
to cut wood, (then) he alleges that he is sick.

Especially saká pa lámang (§ 227) only then, not till then: Kapag
ipinamùmútol na nya nang káhoy ang lagári` ay saká mo pa lámang kúnin
itò sa kanyà. When he uses the saw for cutting wood, only then do
you take it from him.

244. tuwè` when followed by nà (§ 223) is used as a loosely
joined prepositive attribute: every time: Tuwí nà y syà ang nagìng
mánanalò. He turns out victorious every single time. See §§ 307. 317.

245. (B) The particles of the second group are mechanically prefixed,
as it were, to that modified.

246. The pretonic particle báwat every precedes that modified, forming
an object expression with or without ang (§ 66, end): Báwat marúnung
nang leksyòn ay makaáalìs pagdatìng nang alasìngko. Everyone who knows
the lesson will be allowed to leave at five o'clock. Ang báwat hindí
marúnung nang leksyòn ay màtìtirà hanggàng alasès. Every one of those
who do not know the lesson will have to stay till six o'clock. báwat
táo everyone, each person.

247. gaáno, gáno how? (§ 190) is used absolutely before words with
prefix ka- expressing high degree of a quality (see Morphology and
cf. §§ 76. 179): gáno katabà`? How fat? gáno kaláyo`? How far? Gánu
ka na bà kakínis? How clever are you now?

248. The pretonic particle káhit precedes interrogatives and isà one
absolutely or with na; its force is generalizing, more emphatically
than màn (§ 221). The expression so formed is an object expression
used with or without ang (§ 68): ang káhit na síno, ang káhit síno,
káhit na síno, káhit síno anyone, anyone whatever, no matter who,
káhit anò anything whatever, káhit na anu ng táo any sort of person
whatever, káhit na sínu ng táo any person whatever, sa káhit alì ng
bandà in any direction, káhit isà anyone whatever, even one.

These expressions are often strengthened by màn (§ 221) or pà màn (§
227): Hindí na sya sumakày sa káhit ano pa màn. This time he did not
ride on anything. káhit sínu màn anyone at all.

Expressions beginning with káhit have the peculiarity that in the
two normally conjunctive constructions in which they stand na, ng is
often omitted before them:

After walà` (§ 138): Walá káhit anò. There isn't a thing. Walá
sila káhit anò. They haven't a thing. So even when walà` does not
immediately precede: Nàbuksàn ang pintú nang wala ng nakàmálay káhit
sínu màn. The door came open without anyone noticing it. Walá pa sila
ng nàhùhúli káhit anò. They had not yet caught anything, literally:
anything that was caught. Walá sya ng nàlàláman káhit isa ng hóta. He
did not know a single iota. Occasionally na, ng is used: Walá sya ng
màkíta ng táo ng káhit anò. He saw no person whatever.

As (normally conjunctive, § 149) attribute of time during which:
Sya y hindí màtahímik káhit isà ng sandalè`. He cannot keep quiet
even for a single moment. See §§ 253. 294.

249. kápuwà`, kápwà` fellow-, equally, applied to one of a pair,
is sometimes used with personal pronouns: in this case it follows
(cf. § 129): Si Pédro at si Hwàn ay dalawa ng kápwa magnanákaw. Pedro
and Juan are two fellow thieves. ang kápwa nya magnanákaw his
fellow-thief, Kápuwa maínam ang tinìg nila ng dalawà. The voices of
the two are equally pleasant. Kápwa sila malakàs. They are equally
strong. Sinàsaktan silà kápuwa`. They both get hurt. Redundantly:
Namílog si Hwàn nang úlo nang kápwa nya kalarò`. Juan fooled
(literally: rounded the head of) his (fellow) playmate.

The word modified may be anaphorically omitted: Ang táwo y hindí
dápat sumakìt nang kanya ng kápwa`. One must not injure one's fellow
(sc. táo man).

250. The transient pretonic particle magìng and its other transient
forms (see Morphology) express that the word or phrase modified is
something coming into being, arising, at the time specified by the
tense-form of the particle: Sya y nagìng hukòm. He became judge. ang
nagìng pagkáhulè the falling-behind which arose, Nagìng isa syà sa
manga hindí nátanggàp. He turned out to be one of those who were
not accepted.

251. The pretonic particle mangà is the sign of explicit plurality
with object expressions. It precedes the central element immediately,
not even the na, ng necessitated by a preceding conjunctive attribute
comes between; only ibà may come after mangà: ang kanyà ng magúlang,
or: ang kanyà ng manga magúlang his, her parents, ang manga ibà
ng táo other people. Redundantly: Sa tapàt nang báhay ni Pédro ay
marámi ng manga bulaklàk. In front of Pedro's house there are many
flowers. Ang áraw ay sya ng pinópoon nang ilà ng manga salbáhe sa
Áfrika. The sun is worshipped by some savages in Africa. And even:
ang manga ilan pà ng manga tanòng several further questions. With
mangà compare the prefix of the same form, see Morphology.

252. The pretonic particle máy belongs here. For examples see §§
69. 70. 85. 110. 139.

253. nì pretonic, is a frequent substitute (Spanish) for káhit (§
245) in negative sentences. The object expressions which begin with it
never take ang (§ 68): Ní isa y walà ng nátira. There isn't a single
one left. Walá ní isa. There isn't a single one. Nàbuksàn ang pintú
nang wala ng nakàmálay nì sínu màn. The door came open without anyone
noticing it. Walà ng nátira ní isa nang manga péras sa mésa. Not one
was left of the pears on the table.

Occasionally nì seems to take the place of nang before káhit: Bákit
hindí sya makátagpo nì káhit isà nang manga bágay na itò? Why could
he not meet even a single one of these things? Cf. § 319.

254. The pretonic particle tagà, tigà preceding an expression of place
forms an expression denoting a person from that place: Sya y isa ng
taga Kapampángan. He is a Pampangan. ang taga búkid, ang tiga búkid:
ang isa ng táo ng túbo sa búkid a country-man: a person raised in the
country, ang mayáma ng taga iba ng báyan the rich man from another
town, stranger, foreigner, ang manga taga iba t ibà ng lupaìn people
from various countries. So: taga báyan, tiga báyan townsman, taga
Filipínas Filipino, taga Amérika American, taga Espánya Spaniard
(beside Amerikáno, Kastíla`). Cf. in Morphology, the prefix taga-.

255. Numerative pronouns and cardinal numerals are used as absolute
attributes before katáo persons, men: sa m pú katáo ten people, ten
men; or: sa m pù ng táo; Ilàn katáo (or: Ilà ng táo) ang bumúhat sa
báhay? How many men lifted at the house?

256. The terms of relationship and titles which are treated as personal
names (§ 59) precede a name as absolute attributes; after most of those
that end in a syllabic, n, or `, ng is however used. Some titles occur
only in this construction: si Kúya ng Pédro my oldest brother Pedro,
si Atè Lóleng my oldest sister Lola, si Ingkòng Píro Grandfather Pedro,
si Indà ng Hwána, or: si Impò ng Hwána Grandmother Juana, si Áli ng
Maryà, or: si Tiyà Maryà Aunt Maria, si Mà ng Andrès Uncle Andrés,
Don Andrés, si Ginoò ng Polikàrpiyo Mr. Policarpio, si Gíning Màrkes
Miss or Mrs. Marques, si Párì Hwàn Father Juan, si Mayèstro ng Pédro
Teacher Pedro, Master Pedro, si Báo ng Mariyà Widow Maria, si nasíra
ng Mariyà the deceased Maria.

(3) words used as absolute attributes of manner and time.

257. The words used as absolute attributes of manner and time resemble
in meaning conjunctive attributes and are frequently used in the latter
construction. As a rule they are loosely joined and absolute. In this
way are used:

258. Derivatives by doubling of words of time, in the sense of every
(day, night, etc.). With these goes the compound áraw-gabè day and
night. For both formations see Morphology. Hinàhatdan nyà akò nang
gátas áraw-áraw. He delivers milk to me every day. Gabi-gabì ay
tinùtulúgan nang bantày ang áki ng báhay. Every night the sentry
makes our house his sleeping-place.

259. Words with prefix ka- referring to past time (see Morphology):
Ang pàtáya ng nangyári kagabì ay paglalasìng ang nagìng sanhè`. The
killing that occurred last night had drunkenness as its cause. Ang
manga áso sa báya ng itò ay nagtàhúlan kagabè. The dogs in this town
all bayed last night. Ang kabáyo ay namatày kahápon. The horse died
yesterday. Pumaroòn akò kamakalawà. I went there day before yesterday.

These may be followed by a disjunctive attribute telling the specific
time when: Nagsipútol kamì nang tubò kahápon nang hápon. We cut
sugar-cane yesterday afternoon. So: kahápon nang umága yesterday

260. Words of time with prefix kinà- and suffix -an expressing actual
past time (see Morphology): Kinàháti-ng-gabihàn ay nágising syà. When
midnight came he woke up. Kinàbukásan hinánap silà nang kanila ng
amà. On the next day they were called by their father.

With disjunctive attribute telling the special time: Kinàbukásan nang
hápun ay naparoòn sila sa simbáhan. On the next day in the afternoon
they went to church.

261. Words of time preceded by the pronouns boò` and isà as conjunctive
modifiers: Sila y nagsipagsugàl gabi-gabì boò ng magdamàg. They
gambled all night every night. Isa ng áraw naupó sya sa taburéte. One
day he sat down on his chair. Ang iyò ng kapatìd ay nalígo isa ng
hápon. Your sister bathed one afternoon. Isa ng gabì ay nárinig
ko.... One evening I heard.... So: isa ng katanghalían one midday,
isa ng linggò one Sunday, isa ng tanghále` one noon, isa ng umága one
morning. As conjunctive attributes: Sya y naglálakad na isa ng gabì. He
was walking one night. Páparoon sya ng isa ng linggò. He will come
one Sunday. Those with boò` also as local attributes: Nakatahul nà
ang manga áso sa boò ng magdamàg. The dogs have been barking all night.

262. Various words of time:

(1) antimáno beforehand (Spanish).

(2) búkas tomorrow: Magpàpapútol ba táyo nang káhoy búkas? Are we
going to have some wood cut tomorrow? With disjunctive attribute of
specific time: Magsìsipútol kamì nang tubò búkas nang umága. We are
going to cut sugar-cane tomorrow morning.

(3) dáti for a long time already; formerly; it is sometimes closely
joined: ang mukhá nang babáye, na dáti y nagpàpakilála nang malakì ng
paghihírap the face of the woman, which before had been showing great
suffering; Dáti náriyàn ang mansà ng iyàn. That spot has been there
for a long time. As conjunctive attribute: Dáti sya ng napàparíto sa
áki ng báhay. He has been coming to my house since long ago.

(4) kadalasàn often, usually: Ang kanya ng pinasàsakítan kadalasà y
nagáanyo ng pára ng ulòl. The person he is injuring usually acts as
if crazy.

(5) kanína a little while ago, just now: Sinábi ko na pò sa inyo
kanína, na.... I just told you a little while ago that....

With a conjunctive attribute of the specific time in the phrase
kanína ng umága this morning, which may be closely joined: Kumáin ka
ba kanína ng umága nang karnè?--Hindí ako kumáin nang karnè kanína ng
umága. Did you eat meat this morning?--I did not eat meat this morning.

(6) karanyúwan mostly, usually: Ang kosinéro karanyúwa y upahàn. The
cook is usually hired.

(7) káylan, kélan when? Káylan ako malìlígo`? When shall I
bathe? Káylan pa kayà panghìhinayángan nang manga táo ang manga áni
ng taòn-taò y nàsìsíra nang luktòn o nang túyot? When, pray, will
the people regret the harvests every year destroyed by locusts or
by drought? So káylan màn at any time, ever, always (§§ 221. 317):
Káylan mà y hindí nilìlimútan si Maryà. Maria was never forgotten.

(8) makálawà twice, when with maghápon per day: Naàári ako ng malígo
makálawa maghápun, dahilàn sa kainítan. I can bathe twice a day
on account of the heat. Alone makálawà is a conjunctive attribute:
Makálawa ko ng itinanùng kung saàn sya páparoòn, dátapuwat hindí nya
ako sinagòt. I asked him twice where he was going, but he did not
answer me. Maghápon does not occur alone.

(9) mámayà`, mámyà` after a while, soon, with a disjunctive attribute
of the specific time when: Mámyá nang kauntì` ay áalis akò. In
a little while I am going. As conjunctive modifier; the phrase so
formed is used like mámayà` alone: Mámaya ng gabì ay pàpások táyo sa
teyátro. This evening we shall go to the theatre.

(10) mínsan once, once upon a time: Mínsan sila y nakáraàn nang isa ng
púno-ng-nyòg. Once upon a time they came across a cocoanut-tree. With
màn at any one time (§ 221): Mínsan màn ay hindí sya náuna. Not a
single time did he succeed in getting ahead. As conjunctive attribute:
Ang tatlo ng itù y nagtìpána ng mínsan. These three once made an

(11) ngayòn now, just now, today (cf. § 302): Sya y nása Mayníla
ngayòn. He is in Manila today. Ngayòn ay mangàkàkatúlog silà. Now
they will be able to sleep. So ngayon dìn right now (§ 218): Umalìs
ka ngayon dìn. Go away this minute.

(12) paráti often: Mahína ang kanyà ng katawàn at paráti sa sakìt. Her
body was weak and often in sickness. Also conjunctive: Akò y paráti
ng nàhàhábol. I am often pursued.

(13) siyèmpre (Spanish) always: Ang paggalàw na pagtagílid ay syèmpre
(or: káylan màn ay) sa kaikliàn nang bangkà`, dátapuwat ang pagtikwàs
ay sa kahabáan. The movement of rocking is always along the short
axis of a boat, but pitching is along its length.

263. Four words of place, which serve also as local forms of the
demonstrative pronouns (§ 199). They are, corresponding to the four
demonstrative pronouns: díne, ríne; díto, ríto; diyàn, dyàn, riyàn;
doòn, roòn. They occur in every position which an attribute can have:

Loosely joined, preceding: Doòn ay sinalúbong sya nang susò`. There
he was met by the snail. Díto nàmálas nya ng.... Here he perceived

Loosely joined, following: Taginit nà nang sya y dumating díto. It
was already summer when he arrived here. Ang alíla` ay ipinagamùt
nya díto. The servant was-ordered-to-be-cured by-him of-the-latter,
i. e. He had the latter cure the servant. Alis dyàn! Get away
there! (e. g. to a dog). Alìs na riyàn, Pédro. Go away from there,
Pedro. Mátira ka dyàn. Stay there.

Closely joined, preceding: Díne ako maúupò`. I am going to sit right
here. Díto ka na makikáin sa ámin. Eat here with us. Díto nya ginámit
ang kanya ng lakàs. For this he used his strength. Doòn sila magpalípas
nang bakasyòn. There they are to spend the vacation.

Closely joined, following: Hwag mò ng ilagay díto ang palatòn. Don't
put the plate here.

Enclitic: Dalhìn mo ríto iyò ng librò ng binàbása ko kagabì. Bring
here the book I was reading last night. Magdalà ka díto nang
kasapwégo. Bring some matches.

These words often precede a local attribute: Ílag ka dyàn sa daàn. Get
out of the road there. Nakitúloy silà sa ámin doòn sa búkid. They
asked us to take them in out there in the country. Note also: Sa isa
ng karitò ng dí maláyo sa báhay, doòn sya nahigà` In a cart not far
from the house, there he lay down.

264. Similarly saàn where? which serves also instead of a local form
of anò (§ 199). It is closely joined and, as a question-word, precedes:
Saàn nároon ang kanya ng kapatìd?--Hindí ko nàlàláman kung saàn nároon
ang kanya ng kapatìd. Where is his brother?--I don't know where his
brother is. Saan nàndon sya? Where is he? Saàn mo sya nàkíta? Where
did you see him? Saàng ka maúupò`? Where are you going to sit? Saàng
ka gáling? Where do you come from? (Cf., for the local value, the
answer, e. g.: Gáling ako sa Mayníla`. I come from Manila.) Saàn ka
nanggàgáling? Where are you coming from? Saàn ka nanggáling? Where
have you come from? Saàng ka páparon? Where are you going? Saàn ka
púpunta? Where are you bound for? So: káhit saàn anywhere at all
(§ 248): Itò y hindí nya màkíta káhit saàn. He could not find the
latter anywhere.

As local form of anò, saàn stands also in conjunctive attribution (§
131): Saà ng gawè` mulá ríto ang báya-ng-Kamálig?--Sa gawì ng kánan
mulá ríto ang báya-ng-Kamálig. In what direction from here is the town
of Camalig?--The town of Camalig is to the right of here. Pagkaísip mo,
Hwàn, kung saà ng báyan ka maghàhánap-búhay ay sabíhin mo sa ákin. When
you have decided, Juan, in what town you will try to earn your living,
tell me.

As a question-word, further, saàn may form a static predicate (§
96): Saàn ang làgáyan mo nang iyo ng sapátos? Where is your place
for putting away your shoes?

265. Several words of manner:

(1) The particle agàd at once and its doubled form agad-agàd
immediately (see Morphology) are closely joined; where ng can be
used, they are mostly conjunctive: Tumakbò sya agàd. He ran at once,
or: Tumakbò sya ng agàd. Minulàn nya agàd ang pagtatalumpáte`. He
at once began his speech. Agad nà ng lálamìg. It will soon be cold
now. Agad-agàd inùumpisahàn ang pagsisìgáwan. At once the yelling

(2) halimbáwa` for example, for instance is loosely joined: Kung
halimbáwa y makàkíta sya nang isa ng bákol.... When, for instance,
she saw a basket ... isa ng tahòl nang áso halimbáwa` the barking of
a dog, for instance.

(3) hálos almost is closely joined: hálos lahàt nang táo almost all
the people, walà ng pamamáro` hálos almost without clothing.

(4) isa-isà one by one is closely joined; it is more often conjunctive
than absolute: Siniyásat nya isa-isà ang manga púno`. She questioned
the trees one by one. Itò y sya nyà ng isa-isà ng inilaglàg. These
he dropped one by one.

(5) karáka-ráka right away, quickly (cf. pagdáka, pagkaráka, below):
"Hindí akò!" winíka nya karáka-ráka. "It wasn't I!" he said at once.

(6) katunáyan truth, as absolute attribute, loosely joined, truly; in
this sense also conjunctive: Katunáya y uwalà ng mwàng si Hwàn. Really
Juan was ignorant. Katunáya ng walá sya ng nàlàláman káhit isa ng
hóta. He really did not know a single iota.

(7) mìsmo (Spanish) himself, herself, intensive: ang nàkùkúlam mìsmo
the bewitched person himself; siya mìsmo he himself, she herself.

(8) palibhása` is loosely joined and precedes. It expresses that
what follows is stated as a reason; the construction is apparently
not subordinating, but parallel with that of halimbáwa` above: Ang
pagsasáma ... ay hindí nila pinápansìn, palibhása y gawá rin namàn
nilà. The living together ... was not minded by them, the reason
being that they did it themselves.

(9) pagdáka and pagkaráka immediately, quickly (synonymous with
karáka-ráka above): Pagdáka y tinangnan nyà ang dalawà ng hintutúro`
nang babáye. He quickly seized the woman's two forefingers. Also
closely joined: Itinanòng pagdáka nang médiko.... The doctor at
once asked....

(4) absolute complements.

266. After certain words which are followed by a complement
construction, as described in § 151 ff., the conjunctive particle is
often omitted, especially where the form na is required; where ng is
possible its use is preferred. They are:

267. íbig desired, synonymous with gustò (of whose regular construction
examples have been given in §§ 152. 158), and áyaw the negative
of íbig. These are usually accompanied by a disjunctive agent:
Anò ang íbig nya ng sabíhin? What is that desired by-him that
(sc. by-him it, both anaphoric) be said? or: What is the desired
by-him thing-to-be-said? i. e. What does he want to say? Anò ang
íbig mo ng gawìn nya? What do you want him to do? Hindí na sya íbig
labanàn. He was no longer sought as an opponent. Itò y íbig na gawì
ng úna. This is desired to be done first, i. e. One wants to do this
first. Ang áyaw ko ng màkíta ay isa ng núno`. What I don't want to
see is a ghost. Itò y áyaw nya ng gawìn. He does not want to do this.

Very frequently the construction is impersonal, in which case
the complement (and quasi-subject, § 158) may consist of an entire
predication: Íbig nya ng kumáin nang súha`. It-is-desired by-him that
(he) eat some grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat some grape-fruit. Íbig
nya ng kánin ang súha`. It-is-desired by-him that be-eaten (by-him)
the grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat the grape-fruit. Áyaw ipamána
nang mangkukúlam ang kanya ng kúlam. The sorcerer does not want to
bequeath his magic power.

When the person desiring is at the same time the agent of the
complement, the whole expression may serve as predicate or attribute
of the person desiring; this construction is rarely used with other
than active complements: Sya y íbig kumáin nang súha`. He is desired
(by-him) that (he) eat some grape-fruit, i. e. He wants to eat some
grape-fruit, equivalent to Íbig nya ng kumáin nang súha`. Ang kúba` ay
hindi rìn íbig umakyàt. The hunchback too did not want to climb. isa ng
Kastíla` na íbig malígo` a Spaniard who wanted to bathe. Ang sundálo
ay áyaw pumáyag. The soldier did not want to consent.

Without complement (or with anaphorically omitted complement): Anò ang
íbig mo? What is it you want? Íbig ko pà nang kánin. There-is-desire
by-me still of boiled rice, i. e. I want some more boiled rice. Ang
larò ng taguàn ay íbig nang manga báta`. Children like the game of
hide-and-seek. Áyaw ko. I don't want to; less commonly: Áyaw akò.

268. dápat proper, necessary and súkat fitting, right: Itò y dápat
gawìn. This ought to be done. Sya y dápat palúin. He ought to be
thrashed. Anò ang dápat nya ng gawìn? What ought to be done by
him? i. e. What ought he do? Ang isà y dápat múna ng magsilbè sa
dimóniyo. One must first serve the demon. Hindí mo súkat ikagálit ang
manga tuksò. It is not right for you to get angry at jokes, literally:
Jokes are not by-you a fitting cause of anger.

Without complement: Itò y súkat nà. This is right, sufficient.

269. Words with prefix ma-, expressing the possessor of a quality,
and their derivatives (see Morphology), have occasionally an absolute
instead of a conjunctive complement. Those so used are:

(1) madalàs often, frequent, regular: Akò y madalàs magkumpisàl. I was
regular at going to confession, or: a regular confessor. But: Madalàs
nila ng sinalakáyan ang báyan. They frequently attacked the town.

(2) magalìng skilful, clever, polite: Si Hwàn ay magalìng gumámit
nang daràs. Juan was clever at using the adze, or: a clever user of
the adze, or: cleverly used the adze. But: Magalìng sya ng tumugtòg
nang piyáno. She plays the piano well.

(3) mahírap suffering, destitute, difficult (i. e. having hardship,
actively or passively): Ang aswàng ay mahírap mápatay. A vampire
is hard to-be-killed, i. e. hard to kill. Regular constructions:
Ang pagabùt nang búnga ng itò ay mahírap. The reaching this fruit
is hard, i. e. The fruit is hard to reach. ang mahírap na kasamà the
poor laborer.

(4) mahúsay able, good (at doing something), in good shape: Ang manga
táo sa báyan ay mahuhúsay sumunòd sa kautusàn. The people in the town
are good law-abiders. But: ang pinakamahúsay na magsalità` the best
at speaking; Ang lípà nang lúpa` ay mahúsay. The smearing (with sticky
mud) of the ground (in the threshing-room for rice) is well done.

(5) maínam pleasant, tasty, good: Ang manòk na kawalà` ay hindí maínam
patayìn. Chickens that run free are not good for killing. Cf.: isa
ng maínam na singsìng a pretty ring.

(6) malakàs strong, powerful, loud: Sya y malakàs kumáin. He is
great at eating, or: a great eater; also: malakàs na kumáin. Cf.:
ang manga táo ng malalakàs strong men, Sya y tumáwa nang malakàs. He
laughed aloud.

(7) maluwàt, malwàt long (in time), slow: Ang pagpútol nang buhòk
ay maluwàt màtutúhan. Hair-cutting takes long to learn. Cf.: Syà
y nagkalatimbà ng maluwàt. He squatted on heels (as exercise or
punishment) many times. Natùtúlog akò nang maluwàt. I sleep late.

(8) marúnong wise, knowing how: Sya y marúnung gumupìt nang buhòk. He
knew how to cut hair. But: Marúnong sya ng sumakày sa kabáyo. He
knows how to ride horseback. ang marúnong na pagòng the clever turtle;
Isa ng sundálo ng marúnung nang Latìn. A soldier who knew Latin.

(5) words used with disjunctive and local attributes.

270. Certain words form with their attributes phrases that are
used as absolute attributes, for the most part loosely joined. The
phrase-forming attributes are either (A) disjunctive or (B) local.

271. (A) akála` a thought followed by a disjunctive possessor: as
so-and-so thinks: Akála ko y gamit nà ang sombréro ng itò. I think
this hat has been used already, is second-hand. More commonly these
phrases are used as local attribute: Ang harangà ng iyòn na nangyári
kagabè sa akála ko y pahárang ni Andrès. The hold-up which took place
last night was, in my opinion, planned by Andrés.

272. gáya like, resembling, in the manner of; for the disjunctive
attribute cf. § 177: ang manga púno-ng-káhoy, gáya nang tsíko trees
like the custard-apple; Gáya nang karanyúwan inumpisahàn nang kúra
ang kanya ng sèrmon. As usual, the priest began his sermon. Magaàn
ang sípa`, hindí gáya nang bóla ng gámit sa bèsbol. The football
is light, unlike the ball used in baseball. These phrases occur
also as conjunctive attributes: Hindí umuwé si Kíko na gáya nang
karanyúwan. Kiko did not go home as usual. Normal constructions: Ang
húni nang íbo ng pipìt ay gáya nang isa ng sutsòt. The chirp of the
humming-bird is like a whistling. ang manga gáya mo those like you,
people like you.

273. kasáma (in normal constructions companion): as companion of,
in company with: Namundok syà kasáma nang ilà manga táo-ng-báyan. He
took the mountains along with a few fellow-townsmen.

274. Abstracts of action with prefixes in p- (see Morphology) express
the time when or (so pagka- and pagkà-) the time immediately after
which. They sometimes occur without a disjunctive modifier. Cf. §
300. Pagulàn ay gamítin mo ang kapóte. When it rains use your
raincoat. Pagdatìng niya ay sabíhin mo ng maghintày. When he arrives
tell him to wait, literally: At the arriving of him be-it-said by-you
that (he) wait. Pagkasúnog nang báhay ay hinánap nilà ang aláhas. When
the house had burned down they looked for the jewelry. Pagakpakan
mò si Hwàn pagkaraàn nang kanyà ng talumpáte`. Applaud Juan when his
speech is done.

275. pára like is followed by a conjunctive (instead of a disjunctive)
object expression whenever an indefinite object is meant (§ 68). The
phrase so formed is often a conjunctive attribute. It is closely
joined: Si Pédro màn pára ni Hwàn ay nábilanggò`. Pedro too, like Juan,
was put in jail. But: May katawàn sya ng pára ng táo. He has a body
like a human being. Normal constructions: Pára ka ng kúra. You are
like a priest. Ang lamìg nang kanya ng kamày ay pára ng sa patày. The
coldness of his hand is like that of a dead person. (Cf. § 209).

276. sábi saying, that said: Sábi daw nyà ay malakì ang súnog. He says,
I am told, that the fire was big.

277. (B) alintána despite: Nàbálot ko nà ang manga librò, alintána
sa karamíhan nitò. I have managed to pack the books, in spite of
their number.

278. áyon according to (giving the source of a statement): Áyon sa
sábi nang marámi ay màpàpaghuli na ràw ang manga magnanákaw. According
to what people say, the robbers are now near to being caught.

279. bukòd beside, in addition to: Bukòd sa asáwa ay may dalawà sya
ng anàk. Beside his wife, he had two children.

280. dáhil reason, cause and its derivative dahilàn, both here in
the sense: on account of: Hindí nakatahòl ang áso dáhil sa kanya ng
kahináan. The dog was not able to bark, on account of his weakness,
i. e. was so weak that he could not bark. Hinúle si Hwàn nang pulìs
dahilàn sa paghárang na ginawá nya kina Andrès at kanila ng manga
kaybígan. Juan was arrested by the policeman for having held up Andrés'
party and their friends. Dahilàn sa kanya ng pagkàgúlat ay nápaupú
sya. In his surprise he sank down on his chair.

Note especially dáhil díto, dahil díto on account of this, therefore;
the omission of ay, y is especially frequent, see § 120, A, and
the example there given. Dáhil díto ay nadílat ang kanya ng manga
matà. Through this his eyes were opened.

281. The particle káy, ké than, more than: Ang búnga ng itò y matamìs
káy sa asúkal. This fruit is sweeter than sugar. malakàs ké sa kanyà
stronger than he.

The combination káy sa has so much unity that the sa is often repeated
or used where unnecessary: so always before a proper name: Ang báta
ng si Pédro ay mataàs nang kauntè` káy sa sa lamésa. Little Pedro
is a bit taller than the table. lálu ng mabagsìk káy sa ríto more
fierce than this; Ang báta ng si Pédro ay mataàs nang kauntè` káy
sa kay Hwàn. Little Pedro is a bit taller than Juan. Sya y mabúte
ng tumugtùg ké sa kay Hwána. She plays better than Juana. Si Hwàn ay
magúlang káy sa kay Pédro. Juan is older than Pedro.

Owing to the construction described at § 120 this construction may be
ambiguous: Lálo ng malakì ang gálit ni Hwàn káy sa kay Pédro. Juan's
anger is greater than Pedro's.

282. lában against: ang gálit lában sa kanyà anger against him, Ang
kapangyaríhan ay ginàgámit nya lában sa kanya ng manga kaáway. He
uses his power against his enemies.

283. líban except: Ang manga karumáta ng itò ay upahàn, líban na
lámang sa ilàn. These carriages are hired, except only for a few.

284. The particle mulà` from and its derivative magmulà` starting from:
ang gitnà` mulá sa magkábila ng dúlo the middle from both ends; ang
kanyà ng manga súgat mulá sa paà hanggàng úlo his wounds from feet to
head; mulá ríto from here. With disjunctive attribute of time instead
of local attribute: mulá noòn from then on, from that time.

285. Words of manner with prefix pa- (see Morphology): Ang manga táo
ay nagsipagtakbúhan papalabàs sa simbáhan. The people ran leaving
(i. e. out of) the church. Ipinatúluy nya ang paglalakàd papuntà sa
isa ng báhay. He continued walking (directed) toward a certain house.

Commonest is patúngo directed towards, aiming for: Tumakbo syà patúngu
sa ílog. He ran towards the river.

Regular construction: Sya y papuntà sa lángit. He was on the way
to Heaven.

286. The particle parà, pára (Spanish) for, equivalent to úkol (§ 288):
Nagbwàl sila nang isa ng báka pára sa fiyèsta. They slaughtered a cow
for the fiesta. Humúkay sila nang malálim parà sa patày. They dug a
deep pit for the corpse. Pumútol ka bà nang damò parà sa kabáyo? Have
you cut any grass for the horse? Also as conjunctive attribute,
modifying an object expression: Sulat nà ang líham na pára kay
Hwána. The letter for Juana is written.

287. tungkòl about, concerning: Nasiyásat nang hukòm ang lahàt nang
bágay tungkòl sa kanila ng úsap. The judge inquired into all the
matters relating to their suit. Cf.: ang tungkùl sa súnog the details
about the fire.

288. The particle úkol is synonymous with parà (§ 286) and tungkòl:
Humúkay sila nang malálim úkol sa patày. This phrase as predicate:
Iyò y úkol sa manga hírap sa infiyèrno. This was about the sufferings
in Hell.

(6) words introducing subordinate phrases or predications.

289. Certain words precede words, phrases, and whole predications which
are thereby subordinated to the main sentence as absolute attributes,
loosely joined.

The syntactic relation of these words to the expressions which they
introduce seems to be the peculiar one described in § 54. However,
some of them are plainly joined to their phrase by na, ng, and others
end in -ng or -t. Most of them merely precede the phrase, others are
closely joined.

Finally, in a few cases predications apparently not introduced by
any subordinating word are used as absolute attributes.

290. bagà (§ 216), in this sense always followed by màn (§ 221),
although, is less used than káhit (§ 294). See also § 317. Baga màn
nakapagpasyàl si Pédro, nátira kamì sa báhay. Although Pedro managed
to take a walk, we staid home.

291. bágo, in this use before (in point of time), has closely joined
position as regards its phrase: Ang manga kabáyo ng ginàgámit nang
manga kanyunéros nang gubyèrno ay pinaíinum múna, bágo pakánin. The
horses used by the artillery of the government are watered first,
before they are fed. Nagkantáhan silà bágo naguwían. They sang
together before they went home. Bágo sya y sumúlat ay makipagúsap
ka sa kanyà. Before he writes have a talk with him. Magísip ka bágo
ka sumagòt. Think before you answer. Balatan mò ang manggà bágu mo
kánin. Peel the mango before you eat it. maluwat pà bágo mamatày ang
mangkukúlam long before the sorcerer dies.

In normal constructions bágo has the sense of new, recent: ang bágu
ng báhay the new house; ang bágo ng táo an unmarried man, a youth;
ang manga manòk na bágo ng bilè the chickens just bought; Bágu ng
gáling sya sa sakìt. He is recently recovered from an illness.

292. hábang throughout, during, while probably consists of hába` length
plus ng. Hábang sya y natùtúlog ay nakaraàn ang susò`. While he was
sleeping the snail passed. Hábang pinagusápan nilà itò ang ikapitù ng
báta` ay nása isa ng bitàk nang bangkò`. While they were discussing
this, the seventh child was in a crack of the bench. Nàlùlugmok
syà hábang panahòn sa isa ng malálim na kalungkútan. She was sunk
constantly (literally: throughout time) in a deep sadness. A short
phrase with hábang may be closely joined: Hindí nya natagalà ng
angkinìn hábang búhay nya ang birtùd na iyòn. He did not succeed in
keeping this quality as his own throughout (his) life. [8]

293. hanggàng as far as, to, until may be hanggàn limit, end plus ng;
instead of the absolute construction the phrase is, however, often
in local form. For lack of ang in the phrase see § 68. Naghintày
sya hanggàng katanghalían. He waited till noon. Ang púno` ay tumúbo`
hanggàng sa magbúnga. The tree grew until (it) bore fruit. Silà ay
nagtakbúhan hanggàng sa dumatìng sila sa kanila ng báyan. They both ran
until they arrived in their town. As predicate: Ang kúlang nang gátas
ay hanggàng sa leèg nang bóte. The lack of milk is as far as the neck
of the bottle, i. e. The milk goes only up to the neck of the bottle.

294. káhit (§ 245), with or without na, in the sense of although, no
matter (cf. §§ 290. 317). The subordinate word or phrase has usually
the form of a question; when it is an entire predication the predicate
stands first: Tinalaga nyà ng sumáma, káhit na saàn sya dalhìn. He
decided to go along, no matter where he was carried. Káhit na anò ang
iyútos nya ay sinúsunòd. No matter what it was he ordered, (it) was
obeyed. Káhit na madilìm ang gabì ay nagpasyal dìn si Pédro. Though
the night was dark, Pedro nevertheless took a walk. Káhit na bahagyà
ang ulàn ay nakabasà` nang karsáda. Though the rain was scanty,
it sufficed to wet the streets. Káhit ulòl ang áso ay áyaw nya ng
patayìn. Although the dog was mad, he did not want to kill it.

Note the following instance, in which káhit na precedes its phrase as
a closely joined attribute: Nàramdaman kò ang kalabìt nya sa ákin,
káhit na akò natùtúlog. I felt his touch against me, even though I
was asleep.

Phrases with káhit may be closely joined to the main sentence:
Nàpùpútol nya káhit na walá sya ng kasangkápan ang bákal nang kanya
ng bìlanggúan. He managed, even though he had no tools, to cut the
iron of his prison. ang táo káhit laláki o babáye na nagàári sa kanyà
the person, man or woman, who owns it.

295. kaniyà`, kanyà` (§ 241) expressive of result, may with its phrase
be subordinated. It then stands as a closely joined attribute of its
phrase: Kanyá nya iníwan ang páyong ay sapagkàt nagtígil ang ulàn at
lumiwánag ang lángit. The reason he left his umbrella (quasi-subject)
was because the rain let up and the sky cleared. Accordingly we may
analyze as subordinate such clauses as the following: Náupó sya sa
tinìk, kanyá sya nápatindìg agàd. He sat down on a spine, so as to jump
at once, i. e. that is why he jumped up at once. Cf., however, § 324.

296. The particle kapàg if, in case (of single events viewed as
completed in the future, synonymous with pagkà, § 304), see § 300:
Ang hiniràm nya ng kampìt ay iyo ng kúnin, kapag ipinùpútol na nyà
nang káhoy. Take away the knife he borrowed if he uses it to cut wood.

297. kayà` (§ 219) is sometimes used exactly like kaniyà` (§ 295):
Kayà` aku naparíto ay kùkúnin ku ang hiniràm mo ng librò. I am going
to take the book you have borrowed, so that I have come here, i. e. I
have come here to.... The act is expressed as a subordinate element,
the purpose as the principal sentence. Nagpùpútol si Hwàn nang káhoy,
kayá sya y wala ríto. Juan is cutting wood now, that is why he is
not here.

298. The atonic particle kung preceding an expression of time
states the time when of repeated occurrences: Gumàgámit kamì nang
makapàl na damìt kung tagulàn. We use thick clothing in the rainy
season. Nagtìtípon nang pagkáin ang manga langgàm kung tagáraw. The
ants collect food in summer. Ang hùníhan nang manga íbon kung
umága ay nakalìligáya. The chirping of the birds in the morning is
gladdening. Ang iba ng táwo y mabúti pa ng makisáma káy sa isà ng
kapatìd kung mínsan. An unrelated person is better to associate
with than a brother at times. So: kung gabè at night, of nights,
kung fiyèsta nang báyan during the (periodic) fiesta of the town,
kung madilìm at dark, when it is dark, kung bahà` at flood-times,
kung buwàn nang Húniyo in June.

Occasionally the phrase with kung is closely joined: Hindí hasà`
kung mínsan ang manga bágu ng patalìm sa Filipínas. In the Philippines
new cutlery is sometimes without an edge (i. e. sold without an edge,
to be sharpened by the purchaser).

299. With phrases in the form of a question (minus bà § 215 or bagà §
216) kung expresses indirect question. The expression so formed stands
as quasi-subject or quasi-object (cf. §§ 157. 158) or as predicate:
Naalaála nya kung papáno ang paggawà` nang salamangkà. He managed
to recall how the trick was done. Ipináyu nya na kung sínu sa kanilà
ang pinkamahúsay na magsalità` nang Latìn ay siya lámang kàkáin nang
itlòg. He advised that whoever (kung síno) among them was the best at
speaking Latin should be the one who alone ate the egg. Si Pédro ay
nagíisìp kung saàn nya naíwan ang kanya ng páyong. Pedro is trying
to recall where he left his umbrella. Nàlàláman mo bà kung saàn sya
nároon? Do you know where he is? Ang manga táo-ng-báyan ay nagsiyásat
kung maàári sila ng magtayò nang isa ng mákina nang bìgásan sa kanila
ng báyan. The townspeople considered whether they could put up a
machine for thrashing rice in their town. Ang siyásat ni Hwàn sa kanya
ng pagparíto ay kung ilà ng kúra ang nàrìritò sa áti ng báyan. Juan's
inquiry when he got here was how many priests there are in our town.

300. Introducing other phrases kung has the sense of if, whenever
(of non-actual occurrences viewed as unreal, hypothetical, or
repeated); compare disjunctive attributes of time (§ 192, single actual
occurrence), pag (§ 303, single non-actual occurrence, simultaneous),
kapàg and pagkà (§§ 296, 304, single non-actual precedent occurrence),
words with prefixes in p- (§ 274, single occurrence, actual or
non-actual), tuwè` (§ 307, repeated actual): Kung dumatìng si Hwàn
ay umalis kà. If Juan comes, go away. Kung dumatìng sya ay sabíhin mo
ng maghintày. If he comes, tell him to wait. Kung úulàn ay gamítin mo
ang kapóte. If it rains, use your raincoat. Bìbilhin kò ang kabáyo ng
iyòn kung máy-roon akò ng marámi ng kwaltà. I should buy this horse,
if I had enough money. Note: Kung sa pagaasáwa namàn, akò y nagkaroòn
nang dalawà. And as to (literally if) taking a wife, I had two.

301. In the same sense kung with dì` (§ 237) or hindì` (§ 239) if not,
precedes the second, positive member of a contrast: unless, but rather,
beside, except (Cf. palà § 228): Hwag kà ng makàpakikáin-káin kung
hindí ka inàanyáhan. Don't be taking meals with people unless you are
invited. Walà ng ibà ng nagpàpahírap sa kanyà kung hindí kayò. There
is no one else who causes suffering to him, beside you.

302. ngayòn (§ 262), when subordinating, is conjunctively joined to
its clause: Ngayò ng áraw na yitò y dárating silà. On this very day
they will arrive. Ngayò ng táo ng iyòn ay patay nà, bákit namàn...? Now
that this man is dead, why...?

303. The atonic particle pag gives the time when of a single
non-actual occurrence; cf. § 274 and see § 300. Pag akò ay pagòd,
natùtúlug akò nang maluwàt. When I am tired, I sleep late. Pag paputòl
mo ng hiníwa` ang pakuwàn ay hindí màbìbilì ang banda ng púno`. If
you cut the watermelon crosswise, you will not be able to sell the
stem-end. Magmùmurahàn sila ng dalawà pag nagkíta. The two will revile
each other when they meet.

304. The particle pagkà (synonymous with kapàg, § 296) gives the
time immediately after which of a single non-actual occurrence; cf. §
274 and see § 300. Pagka ikàw ay nahúlog ay masàsaktan kà. When you
have taken a fall you will be hurt.

305. The particle patì including; cf. § 68. ang boò ng katawàn patì
manga matà at taínga the whole body, including eyes and ears.

306. The particle sapagkàt (sa pagkà at ?) because, for: Sapagkàt ang
pári ng itò ay nagakála ng manga walà ng pinagarálan ang kanyà ng
sinèsèrmunan ay hindí sya nagpílit.... Because this priest thought
his hearers were uneducated people, he took no pains.... Ipinapútol
nya ang kanya ng dalíre`, sapagkàt tinubúan nang kànser. He had his
finger amputated because there was a cancer on it. For a phrase with
sapagkàt as predicate see example under kanyà`, § 241.

307. The particle tuwè` (§ 244) in this use tells the time when
always of actual repeated occurrences: whenever, every time. It
is conjunctively joined to its clause: Pinaghàhatdan nyà nang
gátas ang báyan twì ng umága. He delivers milk in the town every
morning. Pumàparíto ang médiko twi ng makalawà. The doctor comes
every other day. Si Hwàn ay nakìkipagluksúhan twi ng idinàdáos ang
manga palarò` kung fyèsta nang báyan. Juan takes part in the jumping
contest whenever games are held in the fiesta of the town. Twì ng
papásuk akò sa síne sa áki ng kúyang ay áyaw sya. Every time I ask
my brother to take me to the moving-picture show, he refuses.

308. úpang in order to, so that (úpa pay, wages ?): Sila y naúupo pa
lámang úpang mananghále`. They are just sitting down to eat the noon
meal. Syà y tumayò` sa bubungàn nang báhay úpang tanawìn ang súnog. He
stood up on the roof of the house to watch the fire. Kantahàn ninyò ang
máy sakit úpang sya y malibàng. Sing for the sick man so that he may be
cheered. Tináwag nilà ang isa ng kálaw úpang siya ng magìng hukòm. They
called an owl so that (it) might be the one who served as judge.

309. yámang while, as: Ang púno nang unggò ay namatày yámang ang
sa pagòng ay tumúbo`. The tree of the monkey died while that of the
turtle grew.

310. Predications and similar phrases (impersonal or anaphoric) as
absolute attributes, in the meaning of disjunctive attributes of time,
are not uncommon: Madali-ng-áraw pa lámang ay nàròroòn na silà. (When)
it was still but dawn, they were already there. Makása-m-pu ng táwag nà
ay walá pa syà. (At) the tenth call he was still not there. Makaraàn
ang ila ng sandalì` ay sinábi nya sa susò`.... (When) a few moments
had passed, he said to the snail.... May ápat na pu ng taòn na
sya sa lúpa ng Katagalúgan ay hindí pa nya nàtutúhan ... (When)
he had already been in the Tagalog country for about forty years,
he had not yet learned.... Mínsan pumásuk sya sa simbáhan ay nárinig
nya.... Once (when) he went to church, he heard.... Other examples
at 26,21. 28,11. 66,15. 9213.

4. Serial groups.

311. The serial relation is expressed in part explicitly by particles
and in part by parataxis, parenthesis, and anacolouthic constructions.

(1) coordinating particles.

312. The most important of the coordinating particles is at, t; as
some of the others end in -t, they may be felt to contain at; cf. the
similar ending in other particles, § 213; t is used after syllabics,
n, and ` (see Phonetics), but even here at is commoner.

When a sentence begins with a coordinating particle, the latter
gives expression to the connection with the preceding sentence (as
in English sentences beginning with And ... or But ...)

313. at, t and connects words, phrases, or entire predications. báro
t salawàl blouse and trousers (native costume), ang tapunàn nang
béha at upòs the place for throwing cigarette-ends and cigar-stubs,
dalawa ng, pù t dalawà twenty-two, kung mínsan at malakì ang gálit
nang amà ... sometimes, when the father's anger was great ... (kung
goes with both of the members connected by at).

When more than two elements are connected, at is used generally between
the last two: sina Pédro, Hwàn, at Andrès the group consisting of
Pedro, Juan, and Andrés. isa ng líbo, walo ng daàn, walo ng pu t
ánim 1886.

314. at is used in a few common phrases: isà t isà everyone ibà t ibà
various: ang mangà taga ibà t iba ng báyan people from various towns;
Iba t ibà ang kúlay nang kanya ng pananamìt. His clothes are of various
colors. at ibà pà and so forth, and other; ang tsíko, súha`, santòl,
... at iba pà the custard-apple, grape-fruit, santol, and so forth;
ang manga háyop at iba pà ng árì nang pàmahalaàn the live stock and
other belongings of the government.

315. at has occasionally a decidedly adversative tone; so, for
instance, at 78,31.

316. Frequently at has subordinative coloring, the second of the
members joined expressing:

cause: Hintày ka múna t hindí pa akò nakapápahingà. Make a halt first,
for I am not yet rested. Íbig mo bà ng kumáin sa ámin?--Salámat, áyaw
ko t kakàkáin ko pa lámang. Do you want to eat with us?--Thank you,
no, for I have only just eaten. Buksan mò ang pintò` at íbig ko ng
pumások. Open the door, for I want to go in.

result: Ano t dí ka lumákad nang matúlin? Why don't you walk
fast? Ano ang íbig mo t nàrìrito kà? What do you want that you have
come here? i. e. What have you come here for? So especially: anò ang
dáhil at...? what is the reason that...?

purpose: Umalìs sya t makìkipútol nang damò. He has gone to help
cut grass.

temporal succession: Hindí sya nakaratìng nang ápat na pu ng taòn sa
gúlang at sya y namatày. She had not reached forty years in her age,
when she died.

a subordinate quasi-subject: Sinábi nang manghuhúla sa iyò t hindi
maláyo ríto ang kawàwalan nang iyo ng singsìng. The fortune-teller
told you that the place where you would lose your ring is not far
from here. Sinábi ko nà sa iyò at hwag kà ng maíngay. I have told
you already not to make any noise. [9]

317. The subordinating value of at appears especially in certain
expressions which it forms with other particles:

(1) at bakà` lest (cf. § 235): Hwag kà ng magpatihúlog diyàn sa
kátre at baká ka masaktàn. Don't throw yourself from that bed, for
you might hurt yourself.

(2) at nang so that (cf. § 192 f.): Magiinùm ka nang gátas at nang
ikàw ay tumabà`. Drink milk so that you may grow stout.

(3) bagà màn at although (cf. § 290): Baga màn at umúulàn ay
nagsísipaglarò silà. Although it is raining they are at play.

(4) kayà` at so that (cf. § 297): Napapúpunta nilà ang pelóta kayà t
báwat isa sa kanilà ay nakaabàng. They direct the ball so that every
one of them is on guard.

(5) káylan màn at every time that, whenever, synonymous with tuwè ng,
§ 307 (cf. káylan màn § 262): Si Hwàn ay táwa nang táwa káylan mà t
márinig nya ang manga katatawanà ng bahági nang kwènto. Juan laughs
and laughs every time he hears the funny parts of the story.

318. dátapuwat but is the commonest adversative coordinating
particle. It is used also when the two members are not logically
but only formally in contrast: Ang húni nang pipìt ay mahína`,
dátapuwat mataàs ang tóno. The chirping of the stone-sparrow is
weak, but high-pitched. Pùputúlin ko ang lúbid kung máy-roon akò ng
laséta, dátapuwat walá ako. I should cut the rope if I had a knife,
but I have none. Si Pédro ay hindí dumatìng, dátapuwat iba ng táo
ang naparíto. Pedro did not arrive; it was someone else who came here.

319. The particles nì hindì` (§§ 253. 239) connect coordinate
elements in the sense of nor: Sya y hindí nagsísimbà nì hindí
nangúngumpisàl nì hindí rin nagmàmáno sa páre`. He neither went to
church nor confessed nor kissed the priest's hand. The hindì` may,
as an anaphoric element, be left off after another hindì`: Ang kanila
ng kamày ay hindí nila máilabàs sa bútas nì ibig namàn sila ng bitíwan
ang lamàn nang nyòg. They cannot take out their hands from the opening,
nor are they willing to let go the cocoanut-meat.

320. The particle ngúnit is equivalent with dátapuwat, but is less
common: Hindí sya nagísip, ngúnit sumagòt karáka-ráka. He did not
reflect but answered at once.

321. The atonic particle o or (probably Spanish): isa ng malakì ng
áso o báboy a large dog or pig; Dikdikìn kità sa lusòng o lunúrin
kita sa ílog? Shall I bray you in a mortar or drown you in the
river? Frequently the combination o kayà` (§ 219) is used; it is
loosely joined: Ang kapangyaríha ng itò y gáling sa dimóniyo o kayà y
mána sa magúlang. This power comes from a demon or else is inherited
from one's parents.

322. The particle subálit but is less common than its equivalents
dátapuwat and ngúnit: Aku sána y páparoon sa Balíwag, subálit hindí
ako nátulòy, dahilàn sa isa ng karamdáman. I was going to Baliwag,
but I did not keep on, on account of an illness.

(2) paratactic sentences.

323. A vocative joins another sentence: Hintú na kayò, manga
báta`! Stop, children! Té na, baláe! or: Tara nà, baláe! Come on,
old man!

324. Contrast, cause, result, detail, etc. are sometimes paratactically
expressed; in some cases it seems uncertain whether the second element
is paratactic or subordinate, so especially when it begins with kaniyà`
(§§ 241. 295): Sina Pédro, Hwàn, at Andrès ay magkakasamahà ng nagtánod
sa isà ng dúlo nang tulày; sina Felípe, Andùy, at Mariyáno sa ikalawà
ng dúlo. Pedro, Juan, and Andrés are standing guard together at one
end of the bridge; Felipe, Andoy, and Mariano at the other. Hindí ko
gustò iyàn, ibà ang áki ng gustò. I don't like that, I want something
else. Hwag kà ng umyàk, Maryà, baká ka himatayìn. Don't weep, Maria,
you might have a fainting-fit. Ang kantà nang báta ng si Hwàn ay kanya
ng nalimútan, kanyà hindi tulà` ang kanya ng kinantà. Little Juan
forgot his song, that is why what he sang was disconnected. Siya ngà`,
siyà ang nagbigày sa ákin nang bágo ng búhay. Yes, she; it was she
who gave me new life. Sya y may famíliya; bukòd sa asáwa ay may dalawà
sya ng anàk. He had a family; beside his wife he had two children.

(3) parenthesis.

325. Not infrequently explanatory elements are inserted into a
sentence parenthetically: Tatlò ng magkakaybígan, isa ng páre`,
isa ng manggagámut, at isa ng sundálo ... Three friends, a priest,
a physician, and a soldier ... sa háyop namàn, karanyúwa y ang bábuy
... against animals, usually a pig ... wala ng ulàm, asìn at kánin
lámang there was no meat, only salt and boiled rice. Further cases
at 54,5. 86,21. 100,23. 108,29.

326. Often the parenthetic element is descriptive: malakàs kumáin,
katimbàng nang dalawà katáo great at eating, a match for two persons;
nang pinagkatamàn na walà ng patìd, ápat na pu ng paà ang hába`
shavings without a break, forty feet in length. Similar cases at
80,39. 86,29. 118,43. 120,2.

327. Especially common are parentheses describing the temporary
state or situation of something: Ang mànanalò ng pangkàt at ang
kanila ng manga kaybígan, magkakasáma ng tinùtugtugàn nang kanila ng
bànda nang músika, ay agad-agàd na nagpàpaséyo. The winning team and
their friends, all together accompanied by the playing of their band,
at once form a parade. Nakaratìng sila sa kanila ng báhay, dalà nila
ang súpot nang kwaltà. They arrived at their house, bearing the bag
of money. Other cases at 92,22. 98,21. 114,42.

(4) anacolouthon.

328. In other cases a breaking off of the construction rather than
an insertion seems to take place: Ang manga hindí nagsísitugtòg
ang katungkúlan ay kumantà. Those who do not play, their duty is to
sing. Gáya ko, akò y paráti ng nàhàhábul nang manga áso. Like me, I am
often pursued by dogs. Pabulòng lámang kung silà y magsàlitáan. In
whispers only (predicate) when they talk together. The organic
construction would probably be: Pabulòng lámang ang kanila ng
pagsasàlitáan. Their conversation is only in whispers. Kung kanya
ng pakánin ay wala ng ulàm. When (they, anaphoric) are fed it is
without meat.

329. While direct quotations often enter into normal constructions
as predicate (§ 114), as conjunctive complement (§ 159), or as
disjunctive object (§ 186), they are often joined by a breaking
off of construction. In this case their relation to the rest of a
sentence may resemble that of a subject; this happens especially
when the sentence begins with the quotation or with part of it. If
ay, y were used many of these sentences would be regular: "Magáral
ka ng mabúti," sinábi ni Hwàn sa kanya ng anàk. "Study well" was
said by Juan to his son. "Dalawà!" isinigàw nang bulàg. "Two!" was
shouted by the blindman. "Sa damdam kò," ang sagòt ni Dyégo,
"ay akò ang pinakamakínis." "In my opinion," was Diego's answer,
"I am the cleverest." Similarly their relation may resemble that
of a disjunctive object (instrumental type, § 186), but nang is not
used. This happens if the quotation follows active words of saying:
Si Hwàn namàn ay sumagòt: "Matàr!" Juan then answered: "Matar!"

330. This peculiar construction of direct quotations is extended to
some cases that are not exactly quotations but may be viewed as such:
Ang boò ng ása ko ang kandidáto ng si Manikìs ang nàgùgustuhàn nang
manga táo; hindí palà, kung hindí ang kandidáto ng si Sàntos. It
was my whole expectation that the candidate Maniquís would be the
one chosen by the people; but no, it was the candidate Santos. Ang
paniwála nang manga táo si Sang-Hwàn ay sya ng sànto ng nagpápaulàn. It
is the belief of the people that San Juan is the saint who makes rain.


1. Composition.

331. Compound words (i. e. words resembling in form a succession of
two or more words, but diverging in meaning from such a succession) are
treated phonetically like groups of words in the phrase (§§ 33. 34).

If the first member ends in syllabic, n, or glottal stop, the particle
ng appears before the second member.

In meaning, compound words resemble a phrase in which the word
corresponding to the first member is modified, in disjunctive
attribution, by the word corresponding to the second: báhay-aklátan
library-building: báhay nang aklátan. The meaning of the compound is,
however, more specialized than that of the phrase.

Exceptions as to meaning are: (1) the copulative compound áraw-gabì,
formed on the model of doubled words, such as áraw-áraw, gabi-gabì
(§§ 258. 343.); (2) kapatìd-kongkristiyános, a foreign product;
(3) máy-roòn, equivalent to máy, which has been viewed as a compound
because its construction (§ 138) differs from that of the phrase máy
roòn (which would not require the particle ng, §§ 252. 263).

Similar in form to compound words are words derived from a phrase
(§ 332).

Examples of regular compounds: ang báhay-báta` the womb, báhay-gúya`
the womb of an animal (gúya` the young of an animal), báhay-pàhayagàn
newspaper office, publishing house, Báhay-Paníki Bat-House (name of a
town, paníki a bat), báhay-pintáhan paint-shop; Itò y bigay-loòb lámang
nya sa ákin. This is merely a concession he makes to me as a favor; ang
lalawíga-ng-Pampàngga, ang provìnsiya-ng-Pampàngga Pampanga Province,
cf. ang provìnsiya nang Pampàngga; pilìk-matà eyelash (pilìk fin,
lash); ang Sàmáha-ng-Sumúlong the Sumulong Company; ang tánud-báhay
the watchman of a house, tánud-pálay watchman of a rice-field.

A member of a compound may consist of an entire phrase (cf. §
332): Bìgása-ng-Sumúlong-at-Kasamahàn Rice-mill of Sumulong and
Company (equivalent to Bìgásan nila Sumúlong at Kasamahàn); ang
dúlo-ng-bandà-ng-kánan the right-hand end (ang bandà ng kánan the

Specialization and transference of meaning are especially marked
in hampas-lúpa` (literally: beating of the ground) tramp, vagabond;
kápit-báhay not only neighboring house, but also neighbor: Ang báhay
ni Hwàn ay áki ng kápit-báhay, but also: Si Hwàn ay áki ng kápit-báhay;
kápit-báyan neighboring town, but also person from a neighboring town;
Sawi-ng-pálad siyà. He is unlucky (literally unhandy of the palm).

For the other occurrences of compounds see Index under báhay, bakàs,
bànda, bantày, básag, báyad, báyan, búnga, bútas, daàn, hánap, ílog,
kalabàw, kapuluàn, kasamaàn, kasawiàn, kasiraàn, kinamatayàn, lúpa`,
médiko, paà, pamatày, pantày, piráso, púno`, sàmáhan, táo, trabáho,

2. General features of word-formation.

332. Many words are analyzed into (1) recurring affixes, (2) doubling,
(3) reduplication, and (4) a recurring unanalyzable element bearing
the material meaning, the root. The place of the root may be taken by
a word in turn showing derivation by these processes, or by a compound
word, or even by a phrase. Other words, root-words, contain only the
unanalyzable element.

Other modifications affecting the meaning are shifting of the accent
toward the end of the word, and the use of secondary accents.

Modifications not affecting the meaning, but merely accompanying those
already named, are sound-variation and retraction of the accent toward
the beginning of the word.

The same morphologic elements may be variously distributed; it is
most convenient and corresponds most nearly to the speech-feeling
to describe these differences as though they were due to different
successions in which the modifications are applied: sumùsúlat is
súlat reduplicated and with infix -um-; but (nag-)tùtumirà is tirà
with infix -um-, then reduplicated (plus prefix nag-).

The part of a word to which a modification is (in this sense)
said to be added will be called the underlying word (or phrase): in
sumùsúlat the infix -um- is added to the underlying word sùsúlat, in
(nag-)tùtumirà reduplication is added to the underlying word tumirà;
in ikasa-m-pù` the tenth the prefixes ka- and i- are successively
added to the underlying phrase sa m pù` ten.

Roots not actually occurring in this book as independent words will
be written with a hyphen prefixed (-káin), except in unmistakable
lists of roots.

333. The root. Except for some pronoun forms and particles, the roots
have two or more syllables and are almost always accented either on
the last (oxytone roots) or on the next-to-last (barytone roots):
báhay house, kamày hand.

Some disyllabic roots are formed as though a single syllable were
repeated: bitbìt, budbòd, bungbòng piece of unsplit bamboo, damdàm,
dibdìb chest (part of body), dikdìk, dingdìng (dindìng, § 20), gága,
hinhìn, ladlàd, laglàg, lingkìng, lublòb, mangmàng, ningnìng, padpàd,
pangpàng, pukpòk, satsàt, siksìk, singsìng, sísi, súso breast, nipple,
sutsòt, tadtàd, tiktìk, tingtìng (tintìng), tugtòg, tuktòk, tungtòng
(tuntòng), ulòl.

Of the roots of more than two syllables some similarly repeat one
or two syllables: alaála, babáye (see § 345), bulaklàk, lipumpòn
(beside lípon).

Others appear as though a syllable -al- or -ag- were infixed (or
prefixed) before the first syllabic: alagàd (cf. agàd`), balahíbo
fur, hair on the body, balíkat, balíta`, Balíwag, balúbad, baluktòt,
dalága, dalamháte`, dalandàn, dalanghíta`, dalángin, halakhàk,
haláman, halíge, halimbáwa`, halimhìm, kalabòg, kalákal, kalasìng,
kalaykày, kaluskòs, palakà`, salakàb, salákay, salakòt a rain-hat of
palm-leaves, salapè`, salawàl, salaysày, salità`, salúbong, salúkoy,
talastàs, talungkò`,--bagábag, bagáso bare stalk, of sugar-cane or corn
(Spanish brazo, whence Tagalog baráso arm, assimilated to this type?),
Hagúnoy, lagablàb, lagánap, pagakpàk, sagása`, sagitsìt.

In some instances roots of the same or similar meaning resemble each
other in form. This is commonest in loan-words, where different degrees
of assimilation exist side by side: biróke, bitóke blow-gun bullet
(Spanish bodoque); palànsa, pirìnsa flatiron (Spanish plancha). It
occurs also, however, in native (or anciently assimilated) roots:
aniyáya`, yáya`; ánib, sánib (for sa ánib?); balíta`, salità`; bitàw,
bitìw; bugòk, bulòk; bungánga` mouth, maw (nang hurnò of the oven,
nang kalàn of the stove), sungánga` a blow on the mouth; dinìg,
kinìg; ípon, lípon (lipumpòn, above), típon; laàn, taàn; luhòd, túhod;
manghà`, tanghà`; matày, patày; hantày, hintày.

When syllables of a root resemble affixes, there is always
possibility that the root may be interpreted as a derived word by
the speech-feeling, no matter whether historically it be such or
not. Thus the Index will show many roots whose initial syllables are
identical with prefixes; the other cases will be mentioned under the
various affixes.

334. Affixation. Prefixes are added to the initial of the underlying
word: nag-tirà; infixes before the first syllabic: t-um-irà, um-alìs;
suffixes to the end: tìrá-han.

Affixes are occasionally accompanied by retraction of accent: itò,
d-íto. See §§ 343,c. 358,c.e. 481,c. 485,a. 523. 528,d.

In the following cases affixes are accompanied by sound-variation:

(a) prefixes:

(1) The prefixes ending in g are treated phonetically as though they
were separate words; this happens occasionally with other prefixes
(§ 34).

(2) Initial d of the underlying word becomes r after the syllabic of
a prefix in the roots listed in § 17. The change is constant only
in the commonest formations: always pa-raàn, but naká-daàn beside
naká-raàn. Striking irregularities at §§ 407,a. 468.

(3) The prefix i- and in some formations the prefix ka- contract with
a following syllabic (§ 31): iy-ánib (for i-ánib), íwan (for i-íwan),
ka-yibíg-an (for ka-ibíg-an), kàwáwa` (for ka-áwa-áwa`). See §§
368. 401. 421. 426,b. 475,a. 481,c. 485,a.

(4) The prefixes ending in ng (mang-, nang-, pang-) alter a following
initial, always in much-used words, frequently in others.

Before an initial syllabic the ng is treated as though it belonged
to the underlying word and not to the prefix. This appears in
reduplication (§ 336).

Initial p, b, t, d, s, are often, initial k is always changed
to the corresponding nasal: pamálo` (pálo` with pang-), but also
pang-pa-rikìt; pamilmìt (bilmìt), but also pang-bambò; panáli` (táli`),
but also pang-takìp; panalángin (dalángin), but also pang-dilìg;
na-naríwa` (saríwa`), but also pang-sakày; nangapà` (kapà`). Where
the change is not made, the ng may be assimilated to dentals (§ 20):
mandurúkit beside mangdudúkit.

Before nasals the ng is usually lost: namahála` (mahála` with nang-).

See pang- and mang- in List of Formations.

(5) The prefix hin- and its compounds give rise to a few similar
changes, see §§ 357,b. 376,a. 518.

(6) For occasional irregularities of prefixes see §§ 347,b. 481,d. 528.

(b) infixes:

(1) Where -in- is infixed in a word beginning with l, w, or y, this
initial is usually interchanged with the n, so that, practically,
we have a prefixed ni- instead of an infixed -in-: ni-lúto` (beside
less common l-in-úto`), ni-walìs (beside w-in-íka`), ni-yáya`. See §§
359 ff. 374 ff.

(2) Where words beginning with syllabic, h, l, w (and y) have
the prefix i- and the infix -in-, the latter is almost always
used as a prefix, preceding the i-: in-iy-útos, in-íwan (for
in-i-íwan), in-i-hatìd, i-ni-lúto` (beside less common i-l-in-úto`),
in-i-wisìk. See § 368.

(3) On -um- see § 348,b.

(c) suffixes:

(1) The suffixes (-an and -in) after a syllabic take an initial h:

(2) Final d always becomes r before a suffix: lakar-àn (lákad).

(3) When used in the formation of transient derivatives, as well as
in some other of their uses, the suffixes are accompanied by irregular
modifications of certain roots.

Some roots ending in syllabic are treated as if they ended in glottal
stop; they are amà, kíta, matà: ama-ìn, kitá-an, matá-an.

Others are treated as though they ended in n; they are paà, tálo,
táwa: paa-nàn (beside regular paa-hàn), talú-nan, tawá-nan.

Other roots lose the syllabic of the last syllable, as well as a
final glottal stop which may follow this; if the syllabic is final,
the suffix adds h: asìn asn-àn, bigày bigy-àn, bilì bil-hàn, mulà`
mul-àn. The roots so treated are: asìn, bigày, bilì, bukàs, dalà,
hatìd, higà`, ibà (but also regular iba-hàn), eskuwéla, gawà`, káin,
kamìt, lagày, lakì, likòd, masìd, mulà`, punò`, pútol (but also
regular putúl-an), sakày, sákit, subò, sunòd, tángan, tibà`, tingìn,
tirà (but also regular tirá-han), ulì`, upò`, walà`.

Still other roots add assimilation, dissimilation, or metathesis of
consonants to the loss of vowel: ának angk-àn, atìp apt-àn, danìw
(? see § 421) ka-raniyúw-an, datìng datn-àn, gílid ta-ligd-àn (beside
regular ta-gilír-an), halìk hagk-àn, hanggà hangg-àn (i. e. the
h of -han is lost), kinìg kingg-àn, silìd sigl-àn, tanìm tamn-àn,
tuwìd ka-tu-tur-àn.

Entirely irregular are the following: alaála alala-hánin (-hánin
for -hin), aniyáya anyá-han, hári` ka-hariy-àn ka-hary-àn (beside
regular pag-harí-an), íhip híp-an, ílag inlag-àn (for ilag-nàn? but
also regular ilág-an), kawáyan kwayan-àn (beside regular kawayan-àn),
kilála kilan-làn (for kilal-nàn?), kúha kú-nin, larò` laruw-àn larw-àn
(beside regular laru-àn), pulò` ka-puluw-àn ka-pulw-àn (beside regular
ka-pulu-àn), sála sang-làn (for sal-nan? also ka-salá-nan and regular
salá-han), sundò` pagkà-sunduw-àn (beside regular -sundu-àn), táo
ka-taw-àn (? see § 422, also regular ka-taú-han), totoò tòto-hánan
(-hánan for -hàn).

335. Doubling. In certain formations the underlying word,
if disyllabic, is repeated; the phonetic treatment is the same as
that of successive words in a phrase (§ 34): agad-agàd, gabi-gabì,
ápat-ápat, pa-lígid-lígid.

If the underlying word has more than two syllables, only the beginning
of it, inclusive of the second syllabic, is repeated, and the final
syllabic of this repeated part has a primary accent: kaní-kaníno,
kaní-kanilà, nag-kagá-kagalìt (underlying word ka-galìt).

336. Reduplication. In some formations the beginning of the
underlying word, including the first syllabic, is repeated, sù-súlat,
á-akiyàt. Words with reduced i or u (§ 27) reduplicate with i, u:
maka-sí-siyà, maka-sí-syà.

Note the foreign words: krùs nag-kú-kurùs, trabáho nag-tá-trabáho.

Initial d of the roots listed in § 17 often becomes r after the
reduplication: k-in-à-dò-roon-àn (doòn), nag-dá-daàn (daàn).

When a prefix which involves change of initial comes before a
reduplicated form, the latter has the changed initial both in the
reduplicative syllable and in the underlying part: nà-rò-roòn (doòn),
pa-ngu-ngumìt (umìt with pang-, § 334, a, 4; also: pang-u-umìt)
pútol pa-mu-mútol (pútol with pang-).

337. Accent-shift. In certain formations the accent is displaced one
syllable toward the end of the word: súlat sulàt. This is especially
the case before suffixes forming transient words: súlat sulát-an. In
some formations with suffixes the accent moves two syllables toward
the end of the word: súlat sulat-àn.

Certain roots are especially given to this change and show it in
formations where it is not regular. In these roots the accent-shift
is more or less clearly and regularly connected with a modification
of meaning. The roots are: ábot overtake, with shift: reach for,
take hold of, pass, hand; e. g. pa-ábot let oneself be overtaken,
pa-abòt something caused to be handed, ákay, álam, áwa`, áyaw, bába`,
báhay, báya`, búlag, gálit, gísing, háyag, húli, lápit, láyo`, múra,
sákit, sáma, síra`, tálo, táma`, táwa, túloy, úna. See Index. A few
pairs of roots differing only in accent may possibly belong here,
e. g. -ának family and anàk child.

338. Secondary accents. (1) In some formations a secondary accent is
spoken on the initial syllable of the underlying word: alìs àlís-an,
ka-galìt kàgalít-an, iyàk ìyák-an. If the first syllable is closed, the
secondary accent is omitted: luksò luksú-han; so also if it is followed
by consonant plus reduced vowel (§ 27): taniyàg tanyàg tanyág-an; and
also if its own vowel is reduced: niyòg nyòg niyúg-an nyúg-an. There
are some irregularities. See §§ 377,b. 383. 421. 421,b. 426,b.

(2) Prefixes and reduplications often take a secondary accent: nà-pútol
(different in meaning from na-pútol), sù-súlat.

These secondary accents have phonetically the quality of primary
accents when they come before short oxytone underlying words: ná-rinìg,
á-akiyàt. If, however, the word is accented on a suffix, the accent on
this is more audible and the secondary accent remains: nà-buks-àn. So
also if there are two secondary accents: nà-rì-rinìg. Longer oxytone
words not accented on a suffix vary; they have been transcribed as
heard in each case: nag-sì-si-pag-larò` nag-sí-si-pag-larò`.

339. Indications. In the following description formations will be
indicated as follows:

prefixes thus: nag-; infixes: -um-; suffixes: -an; secondary accent
on prefixes: nà-;

doubling by "D", e. g. nag- D -an represents the formation seen in

reduplication by "r", with secondary accent by "R", e. g. pag- r
(pag-pu-pútol), nag- R (nag-pù-pútol), -um- R (s-um-ù-súlat), nag-
R -um- (nag-tù-t-um-irà);

secondary accent on the first syllable of the underlying word by "S",
e. g. S -an (àlís-an);

accent-shift by "(1)" or "(2)", e. g. (1) describes the formation of
sulàt from súlat; (1) -an (sulát-an); (2) -an (sulat-àn).

340. Summary of formations. The various formations group themselves
into eight classes: 1. simple formations without characteristic
prefix, expressing simple actions, objects, etc.; 2. formations with
characteristic prefix pag-, expressing chiefly transitive actions;
3. characteristic prefix pang-, deliberate actions; 4. si-, action
by more than one actor; 5. paki-, action along with others; 6. ka-,
reciprocal, involuntary, and accidental; 7. pa-, causative; 8. pati-,

These indications are a mere rough guide: neither the characteristic
prefix nor the meaning indicated runs through the entire group. The
first three groups are the most important, and, to a large extent,
each formation of the other five groups belongs also to one of the
three primary groups.

In each group there are four types of words: simple static, transient,
abstracts of action, and special static. The simple static words
involve no idea of active or passive; the transients are accompanied
by abstracts, in which the transient occurrence is viewed as a
static concept, and by special static words, which, though static,
involve the idea of voice: simple static súlat a document, writing,
letter; transient sumúlat wrote, sulátan is to be written to; abstract
pagsúlat an act of writing; special static sulatàn a writing-desk
(with idea of local passive).

Each (active or passive, § 92) transient formation exists in two modes,
actual and contingent, and each of these has two aspects, punctual
and durative; the durative always has accented reduplication. The
actual mode envisages the occurrence as actually having taken place
or taking place: in the punctual aspect the occurrence is viewed in
its entirety, without regard to duration, and hence always as past:
nagáral studied, learned; in the durative aspect of the actual
the occurrence is viewed as a process going on in time, past or
present: nagàáral was studying, is studying, used to study, studied
(repeatedly), studies. The contingent mode views the occurrence as
not having actually taken place: the punctual aspect views it as
possible, hypothetical, or commanded: magáral should study, study
(as command); the durative as future from the point of view of the
past or present: magàáral will study, was going to study. The punctual
contingent form is used not only in commands and hypothetical clauses,
but in subordinate predications and complements generally, even, for
instance, after nang (§ 192 f.), and often, in such constructions, in
competition with actual forms. It is often used, further, after hindì`
(§ 238). When objectivized with ang, it expresses the possibility or
circumstance of the occurrence: ang magáral a hypothetical studier,
the circumstance that one might study.

The abstracts of action are much used in the construction described
at § 274.

In addition to these more or less regular and systematized forms,
there are various isolated formations, which will be discussed after
the others.

A systematically arranged list of formations precedes the Index.

3. Description of formations.

I. Primary groups (zero, pag-, pang-).

A. Simple static forms.

(1) Root-words.

341. The uses of root-words cover a wide range of meanings, the
diversity of which is due to the various material meanings of the
roots. The rough grouping here made is a matter of convenience; the
speech-feeling seems not to distinguish classes of roots or diverse
employments of root-words.

While a complete list of the examples occurring in the Texts and
illustrative sentences will be given for nearly all other formations,
the root-words are so numerous that it will be expedient merely to
refer to the Index.

(1) Root-words in many cases express object-ideas which are viewed
as simple: ang báhay house, ang táo human being.

(2) If the words containing a root have in common the idea of a
quality rather than of an object, the root-word may express either
the quality itself, or an object possessing the quality.

(a) In the former case, it is generally a single occurrence of the
quality that is expressed, not the quality in general, which is
expressed rather by a collective with ka- and -an (§ 421 ff.), but
this distinction is not fully carried out. The root-word generally
stands in object construction. Examples: Ang búte ni Hwàn ay walá sa
kanya ng úlo, dátapuwat násàsa kanya ng púso`. Juan's good quality
lies not in his head, but in his heart. Si Pédro ay táo ng wala ng
dangàl. Pedro is a person without honor. ang ínit nang tagáraw the heat
of summer. Ang lálim nang balòn ay isà ng pantay-kawáyan. The depth
of the well is the length of a bamboo-tree. Ang lamìg sa Amérika ay
masyádo. The cold in America is excessive. Ang ligsè nang usà ay hindí
gáya nang sa áso. The speed of the deer is not equal to that of the
dog. Ang samá nang ságing na itò ay nása ugàt. The trouble with this
banana-tree is at the root. ang taàs nang káhoy the height of the tree.

(b) When expressing an object endowed with a quality, the root-word
is in competition with words formed with the prefix ma- (§ 454). It
usually stands as a predicate or as conjunctive attribute of another
word. ang túbig na álat salt-water, ang dágat na álat the salt-sea, the
ocean. Ang páko` ay baluktòt. The nail is crooked. Ang patalìm ay báwal
sa manga báta`. Children are not allowed to have sharp tools. Ang itlùg
na yitò y bugòk (or: bulòk). This egg is rotten. Sya y bugòk. He is
crazy. ang buwísit na alíla` a repulsive servant. Ikàw ay bwísit. You
are a bore. Manga gíliw ko ng ginoò! Honored sirs! isa ng táu ng
hámak a no-account person. ang táu ng lasìng the drunken man. Sya
y lasìng. He is drunk. ang pulúbe ng lumpò the lame beggar. Sya y
lumpò. He is lame. Si Hwàn ay isa ng mahàl na báta` sa kanya ng manga
magúlang. Juan is a child dear to his parents. Múra ang manga síle sa
panahò ng itò. Peppers are cheap at this time. Hindí pansìn ang piklàt
sa mukhà nang dalága ng si Maryà. The scar on young Maria's face is not
noticeable. ang táo ng panòt a bald-headed man. isa ng báya ng payápa`
a tranquil town. Sya y pípe. He is dumb. Ang pintà nang bintána` ay
putè`. The window is painted white. Sagàd ang kanya ng gupìt. His
hair-cut is close. Sina Hwàn ay salàt sa pananamìt. Juan and his
family are short of clothing. Akò y sawí sa pagsusúbo` sa báta`. I
am in an awkward position for feeding the child. Sáyang ang báta ng
si Hwàn. Little Juan is to be regretted. Isa ng táo ng sinungáling
si Pédro. Pedro is a liar. Si Hwàn ay isa ng táo ng tanyàg. Juan is
a renowned man. Tanyàg sya sa kanya ng kláse. He is at the head of
his class. ang tigàs nang káhoy the hard part of the log. ang daà ng
tumpàk the right road. si Untè` Shorty (as nickname).

(3) If the words containing the root refer rather to an action or
occurrence, the uses of the root-word are more varied.

(a) The root-word may refer to the action itself; it is used of
a single instance rather than of the action in general, which is
expressed rather by abstracts of action, though the distinction
is not always clear. The root-word so used is mostly in object
construction. Examples: Ang anyáya sa ákin ni Hwána ay áki ng
tinanggàp. I accepted Juana's invitation. May bálì` ang kawáyan. The
bamboo has a break in it. May búhay pa ang púsa ng itò. This cat is
still alive. Ang dalamhátì nang kanya ng inà ay malakì. His mother's
grief is great. Sa damdam kò y nagumpisa nà ang malalamìg na áraw. I
think (literally: In my feeling) the cold days have begun. Si Hwàn ay
sya ng pumáyag sa hilìng nilà sa kanya ng sasakyàn. Juan was the one
who acceded to their request for his vehicle. Ang húgas nang pinggàn
ay marumè. The washing of the dishes is dirty, i. e. The dishes have
been poorly washed. Ang kantà nang íbon ay maínam. The bird's song is
pleasant. Ang kasàl ni Pédro at ni Maryà ay sa linggò. The wedding
of Pedro and Maria will be on Sunday. ang áki ng lúlan sa trén my
embarking (with all my goods) on the train. Ang pagakpàk nang manga táo
ay nakabíbingi. The applause of the people was deafening. Ang páso`
sa paà ni Pédro ay malakì. The burn on Pedro's foot is large. Ang
pútol nang buhòk ni Hwàn ay bakìl-bakìl. Juan's hair-cut is uneven. Sa
lúnes ang tagpú nila sa daà-ng-Balíwag. They are to meet on the Baliwag
road next Monday. ang tahòl ni Batò ng Bákal the barking of Iron Stone
(name of a dog). Ang támà nang báta` ay sa úlo. The child was struck
on the head. Binigyàn ni Hwàn nang isà ng tapìk ang kaybígan nya ng
si Pédro. Juan gave his friend Pedro a nudge. Ang kanya ng túlog ay
mabábaw. His sleep is light. Ang upú nang Intsìk ay patalungkò`. The
Chinese sit squatting. Butíhan mo ang yárì nang sambalílo. Put a good
finish on (the making of) the hat.

(b) The root-word may express an object by virtue of which the
action becomes possible or has concrete manifestation; this use
closely approaches transient passives of various kinds. Root-words
in this use are most commonly conjunctive attributes, but the object
construction, especially in the predicate, is frequent. Ang ágaw nya
ng laruwàn ay inilagay nyà sa kahòn. The toys he snatched were put by
him into a box. Síno sa manga táo ang ináko ni Mariyáno? Ang áko ni
Mariyáno ay si Pédro. Which one of the men did Mariano relieve?--The
one whom Mariano relieved is Pedro. Hwag kayò ng mamútol nang kawáya
ng hindí ninyo ári`. Don't make a cutting of bamboo not owned by you;
ang ári` property, ang may ári` the owner or master. Ang bigay nyà sa
ákin nang Paskò nang Panganganàk na nagdaàn ay isa ng tabakéra. For
last Christmas he gave me a tabatiere. ang bíhis nya ng damìt the
(good) clothes she has put on (in place of her others). isa ng bíro`
a joke. ang byày na isdà` sa palàisdáan the fish allowed to swim
free in the fish-reservoir. ang dalà that carried; Dalà ni Hwàn ang
lumbò. Juan is carrying the cup. ang dikìt nang apòy the blazing of the
fire. Ang orasàn ni Hwàn ay gáling sa Parìs. Juan's watch comes from
Paris. Ang tornìlyo ng itò y gámit sa mákina. This screw is used in
the machine. ang gantì nya ng pála` the gift he gave in return. Ang
kwáko ng itò ay ganti ng pála` sa ákin ni Hwàn. This cigar-holder
is a return-gift to me from Juan. May hálo ng iba ng bágay ang gátas
na itò. This milk has something else mixed in with it. háti ng gabì
midnight. Ang hampàs na tinanggàp ni Hwàn sa kanya ng panginoòn ay
isà ng kabàn. The whipping Juan got from his master was twenty-five
strokes. May hárang na púno-ng-káhoy ang daà ng patúngo sa báriyo
nang San-Visènte. The road toward the district of San Vicente has a
tree obstructing it. Húle si Hwàn nang pulìs. Juan was arrested by the
policeman. Ang igìb nya ng túbig ay marumè. The water he dipped from
the spring is dirty. Ang binàbása nya ng librò ay kathà ni Risàl. The
book he is reading was written by Rizal. Laàn (or: taàn) kay Pédro ang
alaála ng itò. This present is reserved for Pedro. Ang lákad ni Hwàn
ay ang panghihiràm. Juan's errand is to borrow something. Ang lúlan
ni Hwàn sa kanya ng karitòn ay manga kahòn nang álak. Juan's load
on his wagon is cases of liquor; ang lúla ng kasangkápan the loaded
utensils. Ang manòk na yitò y lúto sa durúan. This chicken is roasted
on the spit. Nàhúle si Hwàn sa tabì nang kanya ng nákaw na kabáyo. Juan
was caught with the horse he stole. Ang pásak nang bangkà` ay bunòt
nang nyòg at pagkìt. The boat is calked with cocoanut fibre and
wax. Ang pígil ni Hwàn ay ang kabáyo. Juan is trying to restrain the
horse. Ang pintàs ko kay Hwàn ay ang kanya ng bísyo ng paginòm. What
I don't like about Juan is his vice of drunkenness. ang púlot anything
picked up; an adopted child. ang isa ng pútol na púno-ng-káhoy a tree
that has been cut up; Ang pútol nang káhoy ay nàpakaiklè`. The wood has
been cut too short. Ang librò ay ang sadyá ko sa báhay ni Hwàn. The
book is what I went to Juan's house for. Ang sakày sa trèn ay limà
ng kompanyà ng sundálo. The people in the train are five companies
of soldiers. Ang sangkàp nang manòk ay kalabása. The chicken is
cooked with pumpkin. "Magsipagsísi kayò, manga táo ng makasalánan,"
ang sigàw nang kúra mulá sa pùlpito. "Repent, ye sinners," was the cry
of the priest from the pulpit. isa ng súbo` a mouthful. Marámi sya ng
tágo ng kwaltà. He has much money saved away. Ang tanìm nang búkid
ay pálay na malagkìt. The field is planted with a sticky rice. Ang
tanggàp nya ng bílin ay lubhà ng marámi. The commissions he received
were numerous. Malakàs ang táwa ni Hwàn. Juan's laughter was loud. Ang
táwag sa lugàr na itò ay Kinamatayà-ng-Kabáyo. They call this place
Dead Horse. ang tungtòng that on which something stands; a mat on
which dishes are set (specific name: dikìn). Ang túrù nang báta`
ay ang mansánas sa mésa. The child is pointing at the apple on the
table. Ang usísa` sa ákin ni Hwàn ay kung saan nàndon ang kanya ng
sombréro. What Juan asked me was where his hat was. Walá sya ng uwì
ng manga librò. He did not bring home any books. Ang talìm nang gúlok
ay yári sa Yurúpa. The cutting-edge of the bolo is made in Europe.

(c) Especially with the particle nà (§ 223) the root-word often
expresses a brusque command; in this use it is in competition with
transient forms. Dalí ka nang iyo ng pagtakbò. Hurry your running,
i. e. Run faster. Hampàs na kayò, manga báta`, sa manga langgàm. Whip
at the ants, boys. Hátì na nang mansánas. Divide up the apples. Hintú
na kayò, manga báta`. Stop, children. Ísip na kayò kung anò ang
kahulugàn nang áki ng bugtòng. Guess the meaning of my riddle. Láyas
na! Get out! Lígù na! Take a bath! Luksu nà sa tinìk na iyàn. Jump
across those spines. Sáma nà sa kanyà. Go to him. Táwag na nang manga
polìs. Call the police. Tayò`. Stand up. Upú na. Sit down.

(d) Repeated with nang (§ 191) root-words, as predicates, denote an
actor in repeated and continuous action: Nàkíta ko ng pútol nang pútol
si Hwàn nang tubò. I saw Juan cutting away at the sugar-cane. Similarly
(see Index) bilì and táwa.

342. Root-words with accent-shift. Barytone roots are used as
root-words with shift of accent to the last syllable to denote
something which has been affected by the action, quality, or (in
fewer cases) thing, which is denoted by the root. The particle nà
is usually added. Agaw nà sa súnog ang manga laruwàn. The toys have
been snatched from the fire. Awá na si Hwàn sa kanya ng pinarùrusáha
ng anàk. Juan is already overcome with pity for his child, whom he
is punishing. Ang áso ni Hwàn ay bahày. Juan's dog is grown up in the
house, is completely domesticated. Ang báta ng si Hwàn ay bahày. Little
Juan is shy, is unused to strangers. Bayad nà ang útang sa ákin ni
Hwàn. Juan's debt to me is paid now. Bihis nà ang báta`. The child's
clothes have been changed, The child is dressed up now. Bilang nà
ang manga itlòg na itò. These eggs are already counted. Ang úlo
ni Hwàn ay bilòg. Juan's head is round; or: Juan has been fooled;
ang bilòg na tábo` the round dipper. Buhày ang áki ng inà. My mother
is living. Sya y bulàg. He is blinded; or: He is blind; ang babáye
ng bulàg the blind woman. Daing nà ang isdà`. The fish has been laid
open. isa ng táo ng gutòm a hungry (or: gluttonous) person. Hatí na ang
tubò. The sugar-cane is cut in two. Huli nà si Hwána sa trén. Juana is
late for the train. Ang karnè ay ihaw nà. The meat is done. Init nà ang
gátas. The milk is heated. Kayas nà ang kawáya ng itò. This bamboo is
already smoothed. Ang pagkùkúnan nya nang itlòg ay ang kahò ng kulang
nà. He will take eggs from the box that is already started (literally:
incomplete, cf. Ápat na sèntimos ang kúlang nitò. This lacks four
cents, is four cents too little). Lakàd kamì ng umwè`. We went home
on foot. Lipas nà ang gamòt (ang pabangò`). The medicine (the perfume)
is stale, has lost its strength. Lipas nà ang áki ng gútom. My hunger
has disappeared. Pasò` ang lugàr na itò nang kanya ng kamày. This spot
on his hand is burned; ang pasò` a pottery dish. Ang pagkakàgalítan
ni Hwàn at ni Pédro ay pawí nà. The quarrel between Juan and Pedro is
now allayed. Pigil nà ang kabáyo. The horse is under control now. Ang
káhoy ay putul nà. The wood is now cut. Itò y sirá na. This is already
ruined. Sunòg ang damìt na kanya ng pinirìnsa. The clothes which she
ironed are scorched; sunòg na asúkal burnt sugar. Tamá na ang iyo
ng pagkwènta. Now you have figured it correctly. Tipun nà an manga
kalabàw. Now the carabao are rounded up. Tulis nà ang lápis. The
pencil is sharpened. Turò` ang kanya ng dalíre`. His finger is stiff.

This form occurs, in this book, also from the following roots (see
Index): básag, búnot, gálit, gámit, hása`, kilála, lápad, límang,
págod, sákop, sánay, súlat, tápos, tiwála`, túloy.

(a) In the case of some roots this form is used like a simple root-word
without accent-shift; these are roots in which the accent-shift
expresses a modification of the material meaning; see § 337. So:
alàm that known (see Index); Babá na riyàn sa iyò ng kinàùupàn! Come
down from your perch! Ang sakìt na kanya ng tinítiis ay ang lagnàt na
típus. The sickness from which he is suffering is typhoid fever. (ang
sákit na kanya ng tinítiìs the grief he is enduring). Sama táyo
sa pagbilì nang pálay. Let us be partners in buying rice. Cf. also
hulì, above.

(b) In oxytone roots, where the accent-shift cannot occur, our form
is homonymous with the simple root-word: Bigti nà si Pédro. Pedro
is now strangled. Bukas nà ang láta. The can is opened. Busug nà ang
manga háyop. The animals have been fed their fill. Hintú na ang trén
nang akò y sumakày. The train had stopped when I got on. Hubad nà ang
báta`. The child is undressed now. Ang manga Igoróte ay hubàd. The
Igorote go naked. Hungkuy nà ang bigàs. The rice is fanned now. Sya
y kasàl. He (she) is married. Pantay nà ang lúpa`. The ground has
been levelled. Nàkíta ko ng patìd ang sampáyan nang damìt. I saw that
the clothes-line was broken. Punú na ang bóte ng itò. This bottle is
already full. Tayú na ang báhay. The house is already erected. Tikwas
nà ang káhoy. One end of the log is down.

Similarly are used: angkìn, bilì, tadtàd, tuwà`.

(2) Doubling.

343. Simple doubling. Simple doubling expresses explicit plurality or
repetition, often with the idea of variation, intensity, or diminution:
ápat-ápat four by four, four at a time, ang mata-matà trellis-work. Ang
dúrù nya nang karáyom ay hindi parè-parého. Her stitches with the
needle are not even. Sabày-sabày sila ng umalìs. They all went away at
the same time. Similarly from: agàd, alìn, anò, áraw, bágay, bakìl,
baluktòt, barà, gabì, gibà`, halò`, isà, lahàt, líbo, linggò, loòb,
pantày, sári`, síno, sunòd, tulà`, untì`.

(a) The simple root does not occur and the meaning is discrepant in
paru-parò butterfly.

(b) From derived words, in the same meaning: kaní-kanilà (ka-n-ilà §
528), kaní-kaníno (ka-n-í-no § 528), dalá-dalawà two by two, two at
a time (da-lawà § 345), tatlu-tatlò three by three, three at a time
(ta-tlò § 345).

(c) With retraction of accent: Dálì-dáli sya ng tumakbò. He ran off
like a flash.

344. (1) D. In some cases the accent is shifted; the meaning is the
same: Putòl-putòl ang katawàn ni Hwàn nang áki ng màkíta. Juan's body
was all cut up when I saw it. This form from: báhay, báyan, púnit,
sábi, súlok.

(3) Reduplication.

345. Simple reduplication. In a very few cases the place of the
root-word is taken by the root with reduplication. The only clear
case is tutulè ear-wax, root -tulè. The numerals dalawà two and tatlò
three seem to be irregularly reduplicated forms of roots -lawà and -tlò
(for -talò?), as a few of the derivatives seem to indicate. A number
of words, treated in the following as simple roots, have, however,
the aspect of this formation: babáye, bibingkà, bubuwìt a kind of
mouse, gagambà, laláki, papáya (Spanish), tutubè, totoò.

346. Accented reduplication. Accented reduplication is used chiefly
in transient forms (§ 348); distinct from this use seems to be that
of numerals, in the meaning of only so many: àápat, íilàn, íisà;
similarly dá-dalawà only two (from da-lawà) (§ 345).

mámayà`, mámyà` seems to be felt as a simple root-word and has been
treated as such.

(4) pang-.

347. Of the two prefixes round which primary forms are grouped (§
340), pag- is used only for abstracts of action (§§ 348. 350. 351);
with pang- are formed words denoting the thing used for doing so
and so, or as such and such: Nawalà` ang kanyà ng pangakála`. His
power of thought left him. ang pangatìp that used for roofing, a
shingle. Magpapútol ka, Pédro, nang manga kawáya ng pangbákod. Have
some bamboo cut for a fence, Pedro. ang pangbambò a stick or club used
for beating. pangbayò instrument for pounding rice, pestle. pangdilìg
implements used for sprinkling. panggápas a slicer, a curved knife
with saw-toothed edge. Ang ginámit nya ng panggupìt na guntìng
sa damìt ay mapuròl. The scissors he used for cutting cloth were
dull; also simply: ang panggupìt scissors, shears, ang panghampàs
a whip. Ang ginawà ng panghárang sa daàn nang manga tulisàn ay
isa ng gibà ng karitòn. The robbers used a broken-down wagon to
make the obstruction on the road. Ang laséta ng itò ay pangháte`
nang dáyap. This knife is used for cutting limes. ang panglípa` the
sticky mud used for smoothing the threshing-floor. ang pangagínip a
dream. pamitìk a single rein (one guides the animal by flicking it
in various ways, cf. pitìk a fillip, a flick, a snap). pamatày in
pamatay-kúto thumb, literally: that with which one kills head-lice
(kúto). Pamútol nang buhòk ang guntìng na itò. These shears are
used for cutting hair. Ang salawàl na yitò y sya kò ng pangsakày sa
kabáyo. These are my trousers for horseback-riding. Ang manga pintò ng
may pangsarà na gámit ay sumásara ng kúsa`. Doors that have closing
attachments close themselves automatically. ang panáli` a halter or
rope for tying up an animal. Ang kulilìng na ytò y sya kù ng panáwag
nang alíla`. This bell is what I use for calling the servants; also:
pangtáwag. Ang pangtayò nang halíge ay hindí dumating. The instruments
for setting up posts (i. e. the cranes) did not arrive. Ang kalaykày
ay sya kò ng ginámit na pangtípon nang manga bunòt na damò. I used
the rake for piling up the uprooted grass. ang panúro` a pointer,
anything used for pointing. Sya y may salawàl na pangupò sa damúhan
at gayon dìn máy-roon syà ng pangupò sa sùgálan. He has trousers for
sitting on the lawn and others for when he sits at the gaming-table.

Similarly from, the following roots: áhit, áko`, alaála, anàk, bilì,
bilmìt, dalángin, gamòt, hilámos, húli, ísip, ngalán, pálo`, pukpòk,
sábong, takìp, tanìm, tiwála`.

(a) This derivative from numerals denotes a thing used to fill such
and such a place: ang pangápat that used as fourth, as: the fourth
horse in a team; of similar meaning: panglimà fifth, pangánim sixth,
pamitò seventh, pangwalò eighth, pangsiyàm ninth. From the ordinal
(§ 416,a) is formed pangúna first. From phrases the higher numbers:
pangsa-m-pù` the tenth (sa m pù` ten), panglabi-ng-isà the eleventh
(labi ng isà), pangdalawa-ng-pù` twentieth, pamito-ng-pù` seventieth.

(b) A few formations show irregularities: panukála` equivalent to
pangakála` above, is felt to belong with akála`; cf. the similar
insertion of u in paubáya` (§ 481,d); panginoòn master, does not seem
to be felt as a derivative of ginoò and has therefore been treated
as a separate root.

Second and third are derived from the reduplicated form (§ 345) and
show phonetic irregularity: ang pangalawà the second; one's second
in a duel; pangatlò third, third horse in a gun-carriage; similarly
pangatlo-ng-pù` the thirtieth.

(c) From root with accent shift (§ 337) only panghulè the last (of
an established series).

B. Transients, abstracts, and special static words.

(1) Active with -um- and abstract with pag-.

348. Of the active forms of the primary groups, that of the type with
prefix zero expresses the actor in a simple action or process. Both of
the punctual forms, actual and contingent, are made with infix -um-;
the actual durative consists of the root reduplicated, with infix
-um-; the contingent durative is reduplicated, but lacks the infix;
the reduplication is in both cases accented. The abstract of action
consists of the root with prefix pag-. Thus the forms are: p-um-útol,
p-um-ù-pútol, p-um-útol, pù-pútol, pag-pútol. Examples:

Umabang kà nang maglalakò nang gátas. Watch for a milkman. Sya y umágaw
nang manga laruwàn. He snatched some toys. Sya y umáhon sa ílog (sa
bundòk, sa gulòd). He went up the river (up into the mountains, up
the hill). Pumútol ka, Hwàn, nang búho`, pagáhon mo sa bundòk. When
you go up into the mountains, Juan, cut some slender bamboo. Umámin
sila Pédro sa harapàn nang hukòm. Pedro and his band confessed before
the judge. umámot sold, of other than a regular merchant. Umánib
ka kay Pédro. Let your mat overlap Pedro's, i. e. Sleep next to
Pedro. Umangkìn ka nang laruwàn. Take some toys for yourself. Ang
pagáyaw nya ng kumáin nang karnè ay sya ng nakabùbúte sa kanyà. His
not being willing to eat meat is what does him good. Ang halíge nang
báhay ay bumába` sapagkàt hindí káya nang lúpa` ang bigàt na kanya
ng dinádala. The post of the house sank because the weight it was
bearing was too great for the ground. Bàbábag si Hwàn nang kanya
ng kalarò`. Juan will fight with one of his playmates. Bumaluktot
kà nang yantòk. Bend a piece of rattan. Ang áhas ay bumaluktòt. The
snake doubled itself up. Bumálot ka nang súman (nang sigarìlyo, nang
kúmot). Roll up some suman (sticky rice cooked in banana-leaves; some
cigarettes, a blanket). Ang pagbása ay mahírap. Reading is hard. Sya
y bumigtì nang táo. He choked a man to death. Ang pagbigtì ay isa
ng pagpatày sa kápwa táo sa pamamagítan nang pagsakàl. Strangling
is killing a person by means of choking. Bumílog si Hwàn nang isa
ng turumpò. Juan turned out (on a lathe) a spinning-top. Bumíngit
sya sa malaki ng pangánib. He went (voluntarily) to the brink of a
great danger. Bumitìw sa lúbid ang isà sa inyò. One of you let go
of the rope. Bumúbukàs ang manga bulaklàk sa hàlamanàn. The flowers
in the garden are opening. Sya y bumúnot nang damò. He plucked up
some grass. Lahàt nang táo sa báya ng iyòn ay bumóto sa kandidáto
ng si Manikìs. All the people in that town voted for the candidate
Maniquís. Ang halíge ay dumádala nang tahílan. The post bears up
girders. Dumamdàm si Hwàn nang isa ng mabigàt na sakìt. Juan felt a
severe pain. Sya y dumapà`. He lay down on his face. Ang kanità ng
kwaltà sa bangkò ay kasalukúya ng gumàgána nang buwìs. Your money
and mine in the bank is even now earning interest. gumantì act
in retaliation. gumápas cut with the panggápas. Ang máy sakìt ay
guminháwa. The patient became more comfortable ... ay gumìginháwa
nà ... is getting more comfortable now. Sya y humalìk sa kanya ng
nánay. She kissed her mother. Ang báta ng si Hwàn ang humampàs sa
anàk ni Áli ng Maryà. It was little Juan who hit Aunt Maria's little
boy with a whip. ang paghánap a seeking (especially of one's daily
bread). Sya y humárang nang manga táo ng nagháhatid nang kabáyo sa
báya-ng-San-Migèl. He held up some people who were taking horses to
the town of San Miguel. Akò ay humátì nang mansánas. I cut an apple in
two. Humátì ako nang manga itlòg na binilè ni Hwána. I took half of the
eggs Juana bought. Ingátan mo ang pagháwak sa mákina ng iyàn, sapagkàt
baká ka maputúlan nang dalíri` na gáya nang nangyári sa ibà. Be careful
how you take hold of that machine, for you might get your finger cut
off like others before you. Humínà nang pagtakbò ang kabáyo. The
horse lost its speed as a runner. ang paghingì` a requesting, a
request. Híhiram kamì nang librò sa libreríya. We shall borrow books
from the library. humúla` predicted, prophesied. umigìb get water by
dipping from a well, spring, or stream. Akò y umìíhip nang píto. I
was blowing the small flute. Umìíhip ang hángi ng habágat. The spring
wind is blowing. Umílag ka. Get out of the way. Ang kanyà ng manga
pagilàng ay lubhà ng makínis. His little dodges are very clever. Umínit
ang plànsa. The flatiron became hot. Umínit ang túbig. The water got
hot. Ang paginùm nang álak ay masamà`. Drinking liquor is harmful. Sya
y uminùm nang gátas. He drank some milk. Umísip ka, Nánay, nang
isa ng kwènto. Try to think of a story, Mother. Ang pagísip nang
bugtòng na itò ay mahírap. This riddle is hard to solve. ang kanyà
ng pagiyàk her weeping. kumabiyàw press sugar-cane. Kumaluskòs sa
súlok ang dagà`. The rat pattered in the corner, i. e. I heard the
pattering of a rat in the corner. Ang íbon ay kumákantà. The bird is
singing. Kumapá si Hwàn nang itlòg sa púgad nang manòk. Juan felt out
some eggs in the hen's nest. Kumákapá sya nang isa ng palakà`. He felt
around for a frog. Sya y kumáyas nang isa ng kawáyan. He smoothed a
stick of bamboo. Hwag kà ng kumuròt ngayòn! Don't pinch now! Si Pédro
ay lumabàs. Pedro went out. Ang áso y lumàlámon. The dog is feeding. Si
Pédro ay lumàlámon at hindí kumàkáin. Pedro is eating like an animal,
not like a human being. Lumáyag si Manuwèl sa Amérika. Manuel sailed
(i. e. voyaged) to America (ang láyag a sail). Ang bantay-pálay ay
lumáyas. The watchman of the rice-field left his post. Isa ng sundálo
ay lumáyas sa ínit nang paglalabanàn. A soldier deserted in the heat
of the battle. Sya y lumíbot. He went for a walk. Magpútol ka, Pédro,
nang manga kúgon, úpang lumínis ang búkid. Cut the cugon-grass, Pedro,
so that the field may become clear. Si Pédro ay lumípat sa iba ng
báyan. Pedro moved to another town. Lumuhod kà, Hwán. Kneel down,
Juan. Si Hwàn ay lumuhòd sa haràp nang háre`. Juan knelt down before
the king. Sya y ngumíngitì`. She is smiling. Pumagítan sya sa dalawà
ng dalága. He placed himself between two young ladies. Akò y pumána
nang usà. I shot an arrow at a stag (pána` an arrow). Pumánaw ang
kanya ng hiningà. His breath departed, i. e. He gave up the ghost. Si
Hwàn ang pumáso sa áki ng kulugò. It was Juan who burned out my
wart for me. Huwàg kà ng pumatìd nang sampáyan! Don't you break
the clothes-line! Si Hwàn ay sya ng pumáyag sa paraà ng itò. It was
Juan who agreed to this plan. Sya y pumàpáyag. He is willing. Pumíli
akò nang malakì ng mansánas. I chose a big apple. Pumìpílit sya ng
magbukàs nang kabà ng bákal. He was trying hard to open an iron
safe. (But punctual: Pumílit sya ... He forced open...). pumitìk
give a fillip, snap at with one's finger. Sya y pumúpukpòk nang
bunòt nang nyòg. He is pounding cocoanut husks. Pumùpútol nang
kawáyan si Mariyáno. Mariano is cutting bamboo. Pùpútol ... will
cut.... Ang sumàsábuy na túbig ay nanggàgáling sa bubungàn nang
báhay. The water that was splashing on us came from the roof of the
house. sumagása` jostle. sumaguwàn paddle. sumáhod put something under
to catch what flows or falls. Sya y sumásakay sa bangka` nang akò y
dumatìng. He was getting into the canoe when I arrived. Sumála siyà
sa singsìng. He missed the ring (in the juego de anillo, in which
one tries to catch a ring on a stick). sumálok dip out water (ang
sálok a dipper, a basket for catching fruit when it is cut from the
tree; a net for catching insects). Sya y sumandòk nang sináing. She
dipped out some boiled rice. Sumánib ka kay Pédro, (same meaning
as umánib above). Sumíkad ang kabáyo. The horse struck out, gave a
kick. Sumikìp ang daàn sa karamíhan nang táo. The road became crowded
with the multitude of people. Sumikìp ang damìt. The garment shrank
and became tight. Sumiksìk si Hwàn sa púlong nang manga táo. Juan
crowded his way into the gathering of people. Sumilakbò ang apòy (ang
kanya ng gálit, ang kanya ng tuwà`). The fire (his anger, his joy)
welled up. Ang pagsintà ni Pédro ay hindí tinanggàp nang dalága. The
young lady did not accept Pedro's proffer of love. Siyà ang sumuklày
sa kanya ng anàk. It was she herself who combed her child's hair (ang
suklày a comb). sumúlid spin thread. sumúlong push ahead, progress;
also as family name: Sumúlong. Si Pédro ay sumundò` nang páre`. Pedro
fetched a priest. Hindí sya nagkapálad sa pagsundò nang médiko. He did
not succeed in fetching a doctor. Pagsuntok nyà ay tumakbo kà. When
he strikes you, run (suntòk a blow on the head). Sya y sumúsutsòt. He
is whistling. Ang báta y tumahímik. The boy quieted down. Tumátahòl
ang áso. The dog was barking. Sya y tumámà sa hwéting. He won in
the lottery. Tumátandá siyà. He is getting old. Sya y tumánod sa
báhay sa boò ng magdamàg. He guarded the house all night. Tumanùng
akò kay Hwàn. I asked Juan. Tumanùng akò nang kwàlta kay Hwàn. I
asked Juan for money. tumanghà` wonder. Sya y tumátangò`. He
is willing, He assents. Tumàtáwa siyà. He is laughing. Ikàw ang
tumáwag kay Hwàn. Do you call Juan. Nárinig ko ang iyò ng pagtáwag
sa ákin. I heard you calling me. Sya y tumayò`. He stood up. tumibà`
cut bananas off the tree. tumilàd cut wood small along the grain,
shave off, cut into small parts. Sya y tumimbá nang túbig. He drew
water with a bucket. ang pagtingìn the act of looking at something,
observation. Ang pagtipìd sa kwaltà ay ginágawa nang marámi. Many
people practise economy in the matter of money. Ang pagtípon sa manga
káhoy kung tagulàn ay mahírap, sapagkàt mapútik. It is hard to collect
logs in the rainy season, on account of the mud. Tumirà si Hwàn na
isa ng taòn sa báya-ng-Balíwag. Juan lived one year in the town of
Baliuag. tumukà` pick with the beak (tukà` the beak of a fowl). Sya y
tumúlak sa isinùsúlong na kahò ng bákal. He pushed (i. e. took part in
pushing) at the iron safe they were moving. Also: Sya y tumúlak. He
"shoved off", i. e. He went away. Si Hwàn ay tumúlog sa báhay ni
Pédro. Juan went and slept in Pedro's house. Ang kanya ng pagtúlog ay
mabábaw. His sleep is light. Tumúngo sya sa báya-ng-Balíwag. He went
toward Baliuag. Ang pagubrà nang manga barìl na ytò sa pamamarìl nang
kalabàw-ramò ay hindí pinakamabúte. These guns are not the best for
shooting wild carabao. Umubrà ang ininùm nya ng purgà. The purge he
drank took effect. Umubrà sa kakanàn ang kanya ng ginawà ng lamésa. The
table he made was suitable for the dining-room. Umubrà ng nagámit
ang tornìlyo ng bákal sa lugàr nang tansò. It was possible to use
the iron screw instead of the copper. Sya y umupò`. He sat down. Ang
pagupò` sa hángin ay isa ng mahírap na parúsa. "Sitting on the air"
(standing in sitting position with the forefingers pointing up) is
a hard punishment. Umùúrung ang trèn. The train is backing. Umútang
ka nang salapì kay Pédro. Borrow some money from Pedro. Umuwé si
Hwàn. Juan went home, Yumáyà si Hwàn nang kanya ng mangà kaybígan. Juan
invited some of his friends. ang pagyáya` the invitation.

Other roots occurring in these forms (and roots occurring above
out of their alphabetical order): abála, ágos, ákay, akiyàt, alìs,
ása, áyon, bábaw, bahà`, balìk, bílang, bilì, búhat, bútas, daìng,
dála, dalàs, dálaw, dalò, dámi, dápit, dápo`, daràs, datìng, dilìm,
dúkit, dumì, doòn, galàw, gámit, gamòt, gápang, gastà, gawà`, gúlang,
gupìt, gustò, hába`, hábol, hágod, hakbàng, hángo`, haràp, hátak,
higà`, híla, hilìng, hingà, húkay, húli, húni, íbig, kagàt, káin,
kalabòg, kápit, katàm, kibò`, kilála, kílos, kinìg, kíta, kúha,
kulòng, kuwènta, lában, lagánap, lagpàk, lákad, lakàs, lakì, lamìg,
lampàs, langòy, lápit, lígaw, lindòl, lipàd, litàw, liwánag, lubòg,
lúha`, luksò, luwàs, nákaw, ngiyàw, panhìk, pasàn, pások, patày, páwis,
píhit, pitàs, pukòl, púri, putòk, sagòt, sakàl, sákop, salákay, sáma,
sanggà, sápit, sarà, sayàw, sigàw, síkat, silìd, sípa`, sísid, subò,
súgat, súlat, sumpòng, sunòd, suwày, súyo`, tabà`, tagà`, takbò, tálik,
talòn, tanàw, tanglàw, taráto, tawìd, tíbay, tiktìk, tikuwàs, túbo`,
tugtòg, tuktòk, túlong, tungtòng, tupàd, ulàn, ulì`, untì`, úpa, yáman.

(a) Kumusta kà? How d'you do? may be felt to belong here. [10]

(b) An irregular inflection in which variation of the initial
consonant takes the place of the infix is known to Mr. Santiago from
a few traditional phrases: Hwag kà ng matày (for: pumatày) nang kápwa
táo. Thou shalt not kill.

(c) Forms with accent shift owe this feature to the root (§ 337):
Umabòt ka nang isa ng mansánas. Help yourself to an apple. Ang
sumunòd na silakbò nang lagablàb ay siya ng umabòt sa bubungàn. The
next leap of the flame reached the roof. Ang pagabùt nang búnga ng
itò ay mahírap. This fruit is hard to reach. Nárinig ko syà sa kanya
ng pagayàw sa sinábe ni Hwàn. I heard him disagree with what Juan
had said. Nagálit akò sa kanya ng pagayàw sa lamésa. I was angered
at his leaving the table. Si Pédro ay umayàw na. Pedro has left the
table. Similarly from bába` and sákit.

(d) From a phrase: Hindí marúnong gumanti-ng-pála` si Hwàn. Juan does
not know how to make return for kindness (gantì ng pála`).

(e) From derived words: tumagílid, pagtagílid (ta-gílid § 523);
tumalíkod, pagtalíkod (ta-líkod § 523). See also §§ 404. 488.

349. The doubled root with the same formation is used of actions
aimlessly repeated at intervals. Nátinik syà sa kanya ng pagtakbò-takbò
sa bakúran. In his constant running about the yard, he got a splinter
into his foot. Tumàtáwa-táwa si Hwàn hábang nagbíbigkàs nang talumpáte
si Pédro. Juan kept laughing at intervals while Pedro was making his
speech. Si Hwàn ay tumàtáwa-táwa nang sya y hampasìn ni Pédro. When
Juan kept laughing every little while, Pedro finally struck him with
the whip.

(a) From a root with accent shift (§ 337): Tumátawa-tawà si Hwàn twì ng
ákin sya ng màmasdàn hábang nagbíbigkas nang talumpáte si Pédro. Juan
kept snickering every time I happened to look at him while Pedro was
delivering his oration.

(2) Active with mag- and abstract with pag-r.

350. Many roots form their active with the prefix mag- for the
contingent, nag- for the actual mode; the durative is reduplicated
before the prefix is added. The corresponding abstract of action
has unaccented reduplication and prefix pag-. Thus: nagpútol,
nag-pù-pútol, mag-pútol, mag-pù-pútol, pag-pu-pútol. These actives
express, generally, a more deliberate action than those with -um-;
often also one involving more effect on external objects than do those
with -um-. We take up first those roots from which forms with -um-
do not occur in our material:

Akò y nagáantòk. I am sleepy. Ang lúsong kay Hwàn sa kanya ng pagaaráro
ay nagsidating nà. The helpers for Juan in his plowing have arrived
(ang aráro a plow). Si Pédro ay magàasáwa. Pedro is going to take
a wife. Si Pédro ay magàasáwa kay Hwána. Pedro is going to marry
Juana. Silà y nagàáway. They are fighting. magbáhay build a house. Akò
y nagbastà nang áki ng damìt. I packed up my clothes. Sya y nagbáyad
nang kanyà ng manga útang. He paid off his debts. magbayò pound rice
in a mortar. magbigàs hull rice (i. e. make bigàs, hulled rice, out
of pálay, rice in the grain). Sya y nagbigày nang librò sa ákin. He
gave me some books. Sya y nagbíhis kanína ng umága. She put on her
good clothes this morning. Ang pagbibiyábo ay isa ng ugáli nang
manga Intsèk. Swinging the feet when sitting is a habit of the
Chinese. Nagbiyày si Hwàn nang isdà` sa kanya ng palàisdáan. Juan
put some fish into his fishpond. magbuhòl tie a knot. Nagbwàl
sila nang isa ng púno-ng-káhoy. They felled a tree. Ang ságing ay
nagdàdáhon. The banana-tree is putting out leaves. Ang paghahása`
nang pangáhit ay mahírap. Sharpening razors is difficult. Sya y
nagháhatìd nang manga laráwan sa simbáhan. He is delivering images
to the church. Maghubad kà nang damìt. Take off your clothes. Sya
y naghùhúgas nang pinggàn. She is washing dishes. Naghungkòy
sya. He fanned rice. magíhaw roast (something). Nagkamìt sya nang
marámi ng túbo`. He obtained much profit. Sya y nagkúkuble. He is in
hiding. maglakò` peddle (something). Maglálarú na siyà. He is going to
play after all. Naglarú na akò. I have played enough now. Naglálaro
silà. They are playing. Naglawìt akò nang lúbid sa bintána`. I hung
a rope out of the window. maglúgaw prepare rice-broth. Naglùlúto
siyà nang gúlay. She is cooking vegetables. Sya y magpápasyàl. He
is going to take a walk. Nagpùpúnas sya nang sahìg. He is scrubbing
floors. Nagpúyat akò kagabì. I staid up last night. magsáing cook
rice dry (with little water). Nagsampày sya nang damìt. She hung
out some clothes. Sya y nagtábon nang isa ng húkay. He dammed up a
ditch. Magtahàn ka nang paglalarò`. Stop playing. Nang nárinig nya
iyòn ay malakì ang kanya ng nagìng pagtatakà. When he heard this,
his surprise was great. Sya y nagtálì nang bábuy sa halíge. He
tied a pig to the post. Magtúrù ka nang wíka ng Kapampángan sa
iyo ng pàaralàn. Teach the Pampanga language in your school. Sya y
nagtùtúro`. He is teaching. Támà ang kanya ng pagtutwìd. His reckoning
is correct. Sya y nagusísa`. He made inquiry. Sya y nagusísa nang
marámi ng bágay. He inquired into many things. Hindí ba akò nagútos
sa iyò ng gumawá itò? Didn't I order you to do this? Ang pagwawalá
nang mangà bíhag ay pinarùrusáhan nang kamàtáyan. The escaping of
captives is punished with death. Sya y nagwáwalìs. She is sweeping.

Other roots so used: akála`, alaskuwátro, alsà, aluwáge, aniyò`, ári`,
balíta`, bantày, bángon, bátis, baòn, bigkàs, bendisiyòn, biniyàg,
bintàng, bunò`, búnga, daàn, dalamháti`, dasàl, dáos, dáya`, díwang,
dugò`, dúsa, rosáriyo, hágis, handà`, hári`, hátol, hinála`, hintày,
hintò`, hírap, hiwalày, íngat, kasàl, kúlang, kumpisàl, kurùs,
kuwènto, lasìng, libàng, libìng, ligtàs, limòs, litsòn, liwalìw,
lubày, lublòb, mahàl, máno, masìd, milágro, mísa, mulà`, ningnìng,
pasiyènsiya, paséyo, sábi, sábog, sábong, sadiyà`, salità`, sánay,
silbè, simbà, sísi, siyásat, súbo`, sugàl, sumbòng, sundálo, tabáko,
tadtàd, tágo`, tálo, talumpáti`, tamò, taniyàg, tangày, tanggòl,
tígil, tindìg, trabáho, túlin, túlos, umpisà, úsap, wíka`.

351. When a root is used both with -um- and mag-, the latter form
usually differs by adding another object affected (dumalà bear, bear
up: magdalà carry to someone, to a place; bumalìk go back; magbalìk
return to a place, to someone); in some instances the added object
is the actor himself (reflexive); in others the mag- form expresses
a general activity, that with -um- a specific act (so, in part,
pútol). Examples:

Sya y nagàáral. He is studying (umáral is known as an archaic word
for teach morals, instruct; ang áral that taught, precept, moral
doctrine). Magbaluktot kà nang yantòk. Curve some pieces of rattan
(bumaluktòt, § 348, intransitive or of a single specific transitive
action). Magbálot ka nang súman, nang sigarìlyo. Roll up some suman,
some cigarettes (more general than -um-); Magbálot ka nang kúmot. Wrap
yourself up in a blanket (cf. -um-, § 348). Si Hwàn ay nagbigtì. Juan
hanged himself; ang pagbibigtì suicide by hanging. Nagbilè si Hwána
nang marámi ng sombréro. Juana sold many hats. Nagbíbile si Hwána
nang sombréro. Juana is selling hats (bumilì buy). Siya y nagdádala
nang túbig sa kabáyo. He is bringing water to the horse. Ang báta` ay
nagdádala nang káhoy. The boy is bringing wood. Hwag kà ng magdamdàm
sa hindí ko pagkatupàd nang áki ng pangáko`, sapagkàt iyò y hindí ko
sinadyà`. Don't feel bad about my not having fulfilled my promise,
for I did not do it intentionally (dumamdàm feel something). Si Hwàn ay
naghampàs noò ng Byerne-sànto ng nagdaàn. Juan performed flagellation
last Good Friday. Maghánap kayò nang inyo ng ikabùbúhay. Go and find a
living for yourselves. Sya y naghárang nang púno-ng-káhoy sa daàn. He
blocked the road with a tree. Ang paghahárang sa daàn ay báwal. It
is forbidden to make obstructions on the roads. Naghátì ako nang
manga bunga-ng-káhoy sa manga báta`. I distributed fruits among the
children; ... nang damò sa manga kabáyo ... grass to the horses. ang
paghaháti nang manga búnga-ng-káhoy sa manga báta` the distribution
of fruits to the children. Naghínà sya nang pagtuktòk sa pintò`. He
made his knocking at the door gentle. Sya y nagìínit nang gátas. She
is heating some milk. Magísip ka. Bethink yourself, Be reasonable. Si
Hwàn ay nagísip na nakáwan si Pédro. Juan planned to rob Pedro. Ang
kanya ng pagiísip ay matálas (mahína`). His thinking-power is acute
(weak). Silà y nagkàmáyan nang magkíta. They shook hands when they
met. Maglabas kà nang manga sìlya. Bring out some chairs. ang
paglalákad the drawing of something on foot; Naglákad ang manga
estudyànte nang isà ng karósa. The students drew a float. Sya y
naglíbot nang isa ng bandíla`. He walked about bearing a flag. Sya
y naglìlínis nang mésa. He cleans tables. Ang pagnanákaw ay isa
ng kasalána ng mabigàt. Thievery is a serious offense (numákaw of
a single theft). Nagpìpílit sya ng magbukàs nang kaba ng bákal. He
tries (often) to force open safes. Pagpupútol ni Hwàn nang búho` ay
pumaroòn ka t tulúngan mo syà. When Juan cuts bamboo (as an occupation
throughout a longer period of time), go along and help him. Magpùpútol
kamì nang manga kawáya ng gàgamítin sa pagtatayò nang báhay. We shall
cut bamboo for use in building houses. Magpùpútol akò nang kukò. I
am going to cut my fingernails (reflexive). Nagpútol nang buhòk ang
Intsèk na si Yàp. The Chinaman Yap cut his queue. Nagsakày sya sa kanya
ng bangkà nang dalawa ng estudyànte. He took two students into his
canoe. Nagsikìp ang daàn. The road grew crowded (apparently equal to
-um-, but cannot be used of a garment). Nagsísiksik si Hwàn nang bigàs
sa sáko. Juan was stuffing rice into the sack. Sya y nagsuklày. She
combed her hair. Ang pagtatahòl nang áso ng itò sa manga nagdàdàánan
ay masamà ng ugále`. This dog's way of barking at passers-by is a
bad habit. Ang Kastíla` ay nagtátanòng. The Spaniard was asking
questions. Nagtanùng akò kay Hwàn kung saàn ang daàn. I asked
Juan where the road was (mag- with indirect questions or questions
implied). Si Hwàn ay syà ng nagtáwag nang bágo ng léyi. It was Juan
who announced (as town crier) the new law. Ang pagtatáwag ni Hwàn ay
hindí márinig nang karamíhan dahilàn sa mahínà nya ng tinìg. Juan's
announcement was not audible to the majority, owing to his weak
voice. Sya y nagtayó nang bágu ng báhay. He built a new house. Ang
pagtatayó nang manga báhay díto ay lubhà ng mahalagà. The building
of houses here is very expensive. Nagtikwàs si Pédro nang manga
suléras nang báhay. Pedro put some of the joists of the house out of
level. Ang pagtitipìd nang kwàlta ay ginágawá nang maráme. Many people
save money. Nagtipìd si Hwàn sa kanya ng pananamìt. Juan was saving
of his clothing. Ang pagtitípon nang manga àrmas ay báwal. Storing up
arms is forbidden. Magtípun ka nang káhoy. Store up some wood. Sila y
nagtípon nang káhoy sa likòd nang kanila ng báhay. They stored up wood
in the rear of their house. Nagtípon siya nang manè` sa isa ng súlok
nang bakúran. He kept a pile of peanuts in a corner of his yard. Sya
y nagtúlak nang isinùsúlong na kahò ng bákal. He did the shoving of
the iron chest that was being moved (-um- shoved at, took part in the
shoving). Magúubra ang karitò ng itò sa mahírap na daàn. This wagon
will be suitable for difficult roads. Nagupó sya nang manga báta sa
bangkò`. He seated some children on the bench.

Similarly: balìk, bukàs, kantà, sáboy, sáma, sarà, sayàw, takbò,
talòn, tánod, tirà, yáya`.

352. Transients with mag- are much used with derived words; in so
far as these belong to secondary groups, they will be treated below;
see §§ 384. 405. 410. 427,a. 430,a.b.c. 453,a. 489. 489,a. 513.

(a) From phrases: Nagmàmadali-ng-áraw. The day is dawning (madalì ng
áraw proximate day, i. e. dawn, daybreak), nagmèmè-ári` is possessing,
has mastery of (may ári` owner, master). naghàháti-ng-gabì. It is
midnight (háti ng gabì midnight). pagtatatlo-ng-gabì the three nights'
celebration (tatlò ng gabì).

(b) From compound words: pagbibigày-loòb (bigày-loòb); Ang
maghampas-lúpa` ay nakasìsíra` nang púri. Being a vagabond is
dishonorable (hampàs-lúpa`); maghàhánap-búhay (hánap-búhay).

(c) From derived words: Transients with mag- from the contingent of
transients with -um- express insistent and prolonged action: Káhit na
walá sya ng talíno ay nagpùpumílit sya ng màtúto. Although he has no
gifts, he is trying very hard to get educated. Sya y nagpùpumílit na
pumaroòn sa pìknik. He is trying hard to be able to go to the picnic
(pumílit). Similarly, nagtùtumirà (tumirà).

From words with prefix ma- (§ 454) in the sense of making something
or making (claiming) oneself to have a quality: Magmámadalì táyo
nang paglákad, úpang hwàg táyo ng máhuli sa trèn. We will hurry our
pace, so as not to be late for the train (madalì`). Nagmámaligsì
si Kulàs sa pagsunòd sa manga útos sa kanyà. Nicolás is quick about
obeying the orders that are given him (maligsì). Nagmalwàt sya nang
pagparíto. He took a long time coming here. Hwag kà ng magmaluwàt nang
pagparíto. Don't take too long about coming here (maluwàt). Similarly,
pagmamarúnong (marúnong).

From various words: Sila y naghimagsìk. They came to an armed conflict
(-himagsìk § 518). Si Hwána ay naghíhimatày. Juana is fainting
(himatày). Si Hwána ay nagkàkakanìn. Juana makes sweetmeats (for
sale) (kakanìn, § 367,e). Sya y nagkalatimbà nang marámi. He did the
well-bucket exercise many times (kala-timbà`, § 519).

(d) Especially common are transients with mag- from special static
words with suffix -an; they express mutual or concerted action by
two or more actors.

From the forms in S -an (§ 377): Nagàlísan ang mangà aluwáge
no ng lúnes nan hápon. The carpenters all left last Monday
afternoon (àlís-an). Naglàlàbásan silà. They were all going
out. Silà y nagpìtásan nang manga biyábas. They all picked guavas
together. Magsìsìgáwan múna táyo bágo tapúsin ang míting. We will
all give a yell together before we close the meeting. Ang manga áso
sa báya ng itò ay nagtàhúlan kagabì. The dogs in this town all barked
last night. Similarly, from: bangkà`, bastà, daàn, hukòm, iyàk, kamày,
kantà, salità`, takbò, tampò, taniyàg, tipàn, tugtòg, uwì`. The form
in S -an is itself from a derived word in: Naghìmagsíkan ang mangà
sundálo ng Tagálog at Kastíla`. The Tagalog and Spanish soldiers
fought each other (hìmagsíkan from -himagsìk, § 518).

From the forms in S (1) -an (§ 378): Nagààwítan silà nang akò y
dumatìng. They were singing in chorus when I arrived. Magìbígan
kayò. Love one another. Nagììbígan si Pédro at si Hwána. Pedro
and Juana love each other. Ang ginawá nya ng pagmumùráhan nang
kanyà ng mangà kalákal ay dahilàn sa kanya ng pangangailángan nang
kwàlta. His putting down the prices of his goods was due to his need
of money. Similarly: hákot, káin.

From forms in (2) -an (§ 379): Hwag kayò ng magmurahàn sa daàn. Don't
abuse each other on the street. Nagmùmurahàn silà. They were engaged
in an abusive quarrel. Ang kàgalítan ni Pétra at ni Kulása ay natápus
sa hàyága ng pagmumurahàn. The hostility between Petra and Nicolasa
ended in an abusive quarrel in public. Nagpurihàn ang dalawa ng
magkaybígan sa kanila ng pagtatalumpáte`. The two friends praised
each other in their speeches. Nagpùpurihàn ang manga kaybíga ng
itò sa pàhayágan. This group of friends praise each other in the
newspapers. Si Hwána at si Maryà ay nagputulàn nang kukò. Juana and
Maria cut their fingernails. Silà y nagsàgasaàn. They all jostled
one another. Ang pagsasàgasaàn nang manga táo ay lubhà ng magulò. The
jostling of all the people was most confused. Nagsugatàn silà. They
inflicted wounds on one another. magtaanàn flee. Ang kanila ng
pagtutulungàn ay hindí nátulòy. Their plan to help each other was
not carried out. Similarly: ágaw, balíta`, dáhil, hánap, haráng, lában.

From diminutives in D -an (§ 381): Magàaswang-aswángan daw si
Pédro sa karnabàl. Pedro says he will dress up as a bogey-man
for the carnival. Hwag kà ng magaswàng-aswángan. Don't play
bogey-man. Nagmanòk-manúkan si Hwàn sa karnabàl. Juan masqueraded as
a rooster at the carnival. Silà y nagùunggú-unggúan. They are playing
at being monkeys. Nagusà-usáhan siyà. He pretended he was a deer. So
also: dapà`. From (1) D -an: Sya y nagbabá-babayíhan. He went dressed
as a woman. So also from tákot.

353. Transients with accent shift and mag- may owe the shift to the
root; so from ábot (§ 337): Nagáabòt si Hwàn nang sigarìlyo sa kanya ng
manga kaybígan. Juan is passing cigarettes to his friends. Ang pagaabòt
nang sigarìlyo ay isa ng ugáli ng magálang. Passing cigarettes is a
polite custom (umabòt, § 348,c, does not involve a person to whom). So
also múra.

In the great majority of instances, however, the accent shift is not
peculiar to the root, but constitutes a special formation, which
expresses a more plentiful and diverse action than the transient
with -um- or simple mag-. Silà y nagbábabàg. They are fighting
each other. Magbarú ka. Get dressed, Put on your clothes. Sya y
nagbunòt nang damò. He plucked up a lot of grass. Maghanàp kayò
nang manga bulaklàk sa párang. Go and look for flowers in the
woods. Pabayaàn nawá ninyò na sya y maghanàp. Please allow him to
make an inspection. Naghatí ako nang manga itlòg na pinatigasàn ni
Hwána. I halved a quantity of eggs which Juana had hard-boiled. ang
paghahatè nang manga mansánas the halving of the apples. Magisip kà
nang manga lugàr na maàári ng kinaiwánan mo nang iyò ng librò. Think
of the various places where you may have left your book. Si Hwàn ay
nagíisip nang manga iháhandá nya sa fiyèsta. Juan is thinking of
what things he will serve at the fiesta. Hwag kà ng magputòl nang
abakà, Hwàn. Don't cut up any hemp, Juan. Magpúputol kamì nang búho`,
yantòk, at bayúgin, pagdatìng námin doòn. We shall cut slender bamboo,
rattan, and thick bamboo when we get there. Nagputòl si Hwàn nang
tubò sa pinások nya ng tubúhan. Juan cut down a lot of sugar-cane in
the cane-field he got into. Nagpúputol nang kawáyan na hindí nya árì
si Hwàn. Juan cuts down bamboo that does not belong to him. Nagpuyàt
akò sa manga gabì ng nagdaàn. I have repeatedly staid up late the
last few nights. Hindí ko màputúlan nang tahìd ang kátyaw, sapagkàt
itò y nagsísikàd. I couldn't cut the rooster's spur, because it
kept struggling with its feet. Sya y nagsísinungalìng. He is telling
lies. Pagsusulàt nya nang manga súlat ay pumaroòn ka t linísin mo ang
kanyà ng aralàn. While he is writing all his letters, go and clean his
study. Ang panginoò y nagtawàg nang manga alíla`. The master called
various servants. Nagtátawag syà nang manga kitè`, nang ákin sya ng
datnàn sa bakúran. She was calling to a lot of little chicks when I
came upon her in the yard. Ang pagtatawag nyà sa manga kitè` at ang
manga pùtákan nang manga manòk ay nakabíbingì. Her constant calling
to the chicks and the clucking of all the hens made a deafening
noise. Ang báta y nagtúturó nang kanyà ng gustò. The child points
at the various things it wants. Hwag kà ng magutàng. Don't go about
asking for credit. Ang magutàng sa marámi ng tindáhan ay hindí maínam
na ugále`. Buying on credit in many shops is a bad habit. Similarly
from: bálot, íngay, lákad, láyag, líbot, tágo`.

(a) When transients with mag- are made from derived words, the
accent of the underlying word is occasionally shifted, apparently
without change of meaning: Sya y nagmayabàng. He boasted (mayábang,
§ 454). Similarly: magkákalahatè` (kalaháti` § 519).

(b) In one such case there is not only accent shift, but also
secondary accent on the first syllable of the underlying word: Sya
y nagmápuri. He praised himself. Sya y nagmàmàpurì. He is praising
himself. Ang pagmamápuri ay hindí magandà ng ugáli`. Praising oneself
is not a becoming habit (ma-púri, § 454).

354. The corresponding form from oxytone roots is made with unaccented
reduplication of the underlying word: mag-si-sigàw, mag-si-si-sigàw,
nag-si-sigàw, nag-sí-si-sigàw; the abstract, however, lacks the extra
reduplication, coinciding with that of §§ 350. 351: pag-si-sigàw.

Sya y naggugupìt nang manga papèl. He cut some pieces of paper
into bits. Sya y naggúgugupìt nang manga papèl. He is cutting up
some pieces of paper. Ang báta ng si Hwàn, kung walà ng mágawa`,
ay sya ng nagháhahampàs sa manga púnu-ng-ságing. It is little Juan
who goes whipping at the banana-trees when he can't find anything
to do. Hwag kà ng magpupukòl nang batò, sapagkàt baká mo tamáan ang
bintána ng salamìn. Don't be always throwing stones; you might break
a window. Nagpúpuputàk ang inahì ng manòk na nása kulungàn. The hen
in the crate keeps up a constant cackling. Ilágan mo ang dumárating
na kabáyo na nagtátatakbò. Look out for the horse that's coming there;
it's a run-away. Nagúuupú sya sa damò. He always sits on the grass. So
also: dugò`, inòm, lundàg, sigàw, tagpò`.

(a) In one instance a barytone root has this reduplication with
explicit plural meaning: magkikíta see one another, meet (of more
than two people, cf. magkíta).

355. Accent shift and reduplication of the root appear in barytone
roots in the same sense as accent-shift alone, with perhaps a
somewhat greater intensity of the action: Nagpúpuputòl nang retáso ang
báta`. The child was cutting some rags into small bits. Ang kátyaw
ay nagsísisikàd. The rooster kept struggling with its legs. Sya y
nagtátatawàg nang manga kitè`. She kept calling to the chickens.

356. With doubling of the root, transients in mag- express either
action repeated at intervals or reciprocal action of explicitly more
than two actors: Nagisà-isà ang manga báta` nang paglápit sa ákin. The
children came to me one by one. So from: duklày, hiwalày, úlit.

(a) In one instance the root has accent shift: Naguna-unà ang manga
báta` nang paglápit sa ákin. The children vied with each other for
the first place in coming to me.

(3) Active with mang- and abstract with pang- r.

357. The active with mang- has the forms: ma-mútol, ma-mù-mútol,
na-mútol, na-mù-mútol, pa-mu-mútol (from pútol); it expresses action
more deliberate, selective, or in larger quantity (professional,
habitual) than mag-; like the latter, but more clearly, it is used
for the making or using of such and such an object. Examples:

Sya y nangabála sa ámin. He made trouble for us. Nangano kà nang
iyo ng manga kalarò`? What did you do to your playmates? Nangáyap
lámang ang báta`. The child ate only relishes. Sya y nangbábambo
nang áso. He is a caning a dog. ang pamamangkà` canoeing. Namilì akò
sa báya-ng-Malólos. I shopped in Malolos. Sya y nangdídilig nang
karsáda. He sprinkles streets. ang pangdidilìg street-sprinkling
(as vocation). Ang kasalatàn nina Hwàn sa pananamìt ay nanggálin
sa pagsusugàl ni Hwàn. Juan's family's want of clothing is due to
his gambling. Hwag kà ng manghampàs. Don't go whipping people. Sya
y nanghárang nang manga táo. He made a practice of holding people
up. Sya y hinúli nang pulìs dahilàn sa panghahárang nang manga táo. He
was arrested by the police for highway robbery. Nangháte si Hwána nang
kalákal. Juana shared orders for goods. Ang panghaháte ni Hwána nang
kalákal na ipinagbíbili nyà ay sya nyà ng ikinalúge. Juana's getting
her stock of goods for sale by sharing in orders of fellow-retailers
is what made her lose money. Nanghínà nang pagtakbò ang kabáyo sa
kalaúnan nang pagkàgámit sa kanyà. The horse slackened its pace
because it had been driven too long. Silà y nanghína`. They grew
faint. Manghiràm ka nang palakòl. Go borrow a hatchet. manghúla`
practise fortune-telling. Nanghùhúli kamì nang isdà` sa kagamitàn nang
dála. We catch fish by means of nets. Ang kanya ng manga pangingílag
sa sakìt ay lubhà ng malakè. His precautions against sickness are
elaborate. Sya y nangàngabáyo. He rides horseback. Nangapá si Pédro
nang isdà`. Pedro caught fish in his hands (by feeling for them in
mud-holes). Sya y nangàngaséra. He eats in a boarding-house. mangáwit
cut twigs with the káwit (a small, hook-shaped pruning-knife);
also: get tired of a position or occupation. Ang báta ng si Hwàn
ay nangàngáya nang manga kápwa nya báta`. Little Juan lords it
over the other children. Sya y nangúngublè. He is keeping himself
in hiding. Hwag kà ng manguròt, Pédro. Don't be pinching people,
Pedro. Ang kanya ng pananagínip ay hindí nátuloy, sapagkàt nágising
syà sa kalabòg nang púsa`. His dream was interrupted by his being
awakened by the falling of the cat. Sya y nanànagínip. He is
dreaming. Akù y nanagínip kagabè. I had a dream last night. Namáso
sya nang dalíri nang kápwa nya báta`. He scorched his playmate's
finger. Pamumútol nya nang kawáya y sundàn mo syà t baká magliwalìw
lámang sa kalakhàn nang panahòn. When he goes bamboo-cutting, follow
him to see that he doesn't loaf most of the time. Ang pamumútol
nang kawáyan ay mahírap. Bamboo-cutting is hard work. Namútol si
Hwàn nang kawáyan. Juan cut bamboo. Namùmútol kamì nang damò úpang
ipagbilè. We are cutting grass for sale. Mamùmútol kamì nang tubò
sa bakúran ni Áli ng Pétra. We are going to cut sugar-cane in Aunt
Petra's yard. Ang báta ng may sakìt ay namùmúyat sa kanya ng inà. The
sick child keeps its mother awake. Ang maláwig na pananalità` ay
hindí maínam. Roundabout speeches are not pleasant. Pédro, hwag kà ng
manyásat nang gawá nang máy gawà`. Pedro, don't be inquiring into other
people's business. ang panunúlat writing in quantity, clerkship. ang
pananahè` the occupation of sewing, the being a seamstress. Silà y
nanahímik. They quieted down. Ang bàta y nanahímik. The boy quieted
down to take a rest. manáwag call, summon (people). ang panunúro` the
act of pointing things out. Sya y nangúna. He went first, He led. Sya
y mangùngúna. He will be in the lead. Ang báta y nangupò sa buntòt
nang sáya nang babáye. The boy went and sat right down on the lady's
train. Ang panguupò nang báta sa buntòt nang sáya ay ipinahintú sa
kanyà nang kanya ng nánay. The boy's trick of sitting down on people's
trains was put a stop to by his mother. Sya y nangusísa nang manga
babáye. She interrogated a number of women. Nangútang sya sa ákin
nang limà ng píso. He made a loan of five dollars from me.

Similarly from: áhit, áko`, anàk, báhay, balíta`, barìl, báro`,
báyan, bílog, bíro`, búhay, bundòk, damìt, dúkit, gamòt, gupìt, hábol,
hámon, hingì`, igìb, ílin, káin, kumpisàl, latà`, lóko, mahála`, noòd,
pagítan, píli`, púlot, salákay, saríwa`, singìl, súbok, sulsè, súnog,
súyo`, tálo, tangháli`, tiwála`, umìt, yári.

(a) From derived words: ang panghihìmagsíkan in the same meaning
as paghihìmagsíkan (from hìmagsíkan, § 377,a); so from kalaháti`
(§ 519), kináin (§ 365). See also §§ 421,a. 422,a.

(b) From words with prefix hin- (§ 518) we may derive, theoretically,
the transients with prefix manghin-, though the underlying word in most
cases does not exist. For the phonetic irregularities see § 334,a,5.

Sila y nanghimagsìk. They came to an armed conflict (bagsìk). Hwag
kà ng manghigantì sa kanilà, Hwàn; ang kababáan nang loòb ay lálo ng
magandà. Don't take revenge against them, Juan; meekness of spirit is
more becoming. Manghíhigantì kamì dahilàn sa manga kalupità ng ginawá
nila sa ámin. We will take vengeance on them for the many cruelties
they have committed against us. manghinukò cut the fingernails
(kukò). Nanghìhináyang silà sa pagkamatày ni Del-Pilàr. They were
mourning the death of Del Pilar. Malakì ang kanila ng panghihináyang
sa namatày na báta ng si Hwàn, dahilàn sa hindí karanyúwa ng talíno
nya. Their grief at little Juan's death was great, on account of
his unusual talents. (sáyang). manghiningà pick the teeth (ang tingà
foreign substance between the teeth). manghinulè clean out the ears
(tu-tulè earwax, § 343).

(c) In one instance the root is doubled; its accent shift is due
to the meaning of the root: Nanawà-nawà si Pédro nang márinig nyà
na sya y nàpíli ng magìng bóbo sa larò`. Pedro could not keep from
snickering when he heard that the choice had fallen on him to be
clown in the play.

(4) Special static words.

358. A few individual forms of the preceding group have static value;
of transients, umága morning (§ 348) and ang mamáso` a blister
(páso`); of abstracts, ang pagkáin food (beside the act of eating),
cf. also pagdáka, § 265,9. The following are the regular formations
of special static words of this type:

(a) Dual collectives with mag-: ang magáli aunt and niece
or nephew. Ang magamà ng si Maryà at si Pédro ay naparoòn sa
búkid. Pedro and his daughter Maria have gone to the country. Ang
magasáwa ng Pédro at Hwána ay naparoòn sa teyátro. Pedro and his
wife Juana have gone to the theatre. Ang magatè ng si Maryà at si
Maryáno ay nagsipagpasyàl. Mariano and his oldest sister Maria
went for a walk. Sila y magatè. She is his oldest sister. ang
magbaláe ng si Hwàn at si Andrès Juan and Andrés, whose children
have married each other. magbayàw two men, one of whom has married
the other's sister. magbilàs two men who have married two sisters
(ang bilàs the husband of one's wife's sister). maghípag two women,
one of whom has married the other's brother (each of the two is the
other's hípag). magimpò grandmother and grandchild. maginà mother
and child. magkúya the oldest brother and a younger brother or
sister. magnánay mother and child. magtátay father and child.

Slightly divergent is magának: it includes the whole family, a given
person plus his angkàn (§ 379): Nagsimbà ang boò ng magának. The
whole family went to church. ang magának na sina Hwàn Krùs the Juan
Cruz family. Irregular in meaning are also magdamàg and maghápon,
of periods of time.

From a compound word: ang magkápit-báhay two neighbors.

From a phrase: Sila y magkápwa-táo. They act toward each other as
fellow men should (kápuwà táo).

From a derived word: magamaìn uncle and nephew or niece (ama-ìn, §
367,a); see also §§ 408. 412,a. 490.

(b) mag- r similarly forms explicit plurals: ang magaamà the group
of a father with two or more of his children. ang magbabaláe a
group of three or more people whose children have intermarried. ang
magiinà mother and children. ang magkukúya a group of brothers
and sisters including the oldest brother. magnanánay mother and
children. magpipínsan a group of cousins. magtatátay father and

From a compound: magkakápit-báhay.

From a derived word: magkakasinglakì (kasinglakì, § 520). See also §§
412,a. 427,d.

(c) mag- r also forms static words denoting a professional agent:
ang magaaráro a plowman, magbibistày woman who sieves the rice in a
mill, magnanákaw thief.

From oxytone roots also with retraction of accent: ang magbabáyo a
rice-pounder, magbibígas a dealer in hulled rice.

(d) Barytone roots usually shift the accent: ang maghuhugàs a
dish-washer, maglalakàd traveller, maglilinìs a cleaner, maglilipà`
plasterer, maglulutò` cook; Si Hwàn ay isa ng magpuputòl nang
káhoy. Juan is a wood-cutter; ang magsusulàt a clerk scribe, magsusuyòd
a harrower (súyod a harrow), maguutàng a habitual borrower. So also
from: láko`, táwag.

(e) màng- r has the same value. The accent of the prefix can appear
only in an open syllable (§ 338); ang màngingisdà` a fisherman;
mànanalakàb fish-trapper (salakàb an inverted basket used as a
fish-trap). So: dúkit, hámon, húla`, kúlam, lígaw, sákop, sípa`,
tanggòl, tugtòg.

Oxytone roots often have retraction of accent: manggagámot manggagamòt;
manggugúpit manggugupìt; Sya y màngingínum nang álak. He is a drunkard;
also: mangiínom (with the prefix kept apart by glottal stop, § 34,
and no effect on initial vowel); mángangatàm màngangátam; mànglilímos;
ang mànanáhe` a seamstress (ang tahè` a seam); ang mànanánim a planter.

(f) Barytone roots usually have accent shift: ang manghuhugàs
a dish-washer, manglalagarì` a wood-sawer, mámumulòt a gleaner
(púlot); Ang manga mámumutòl nang káhoy ay nagsiáhon nà sa bundòk. The
wood-cutters have already gone up into the mountains. ang mánunulàt a
scribe, clerk, ang màngungutàng a habitual borrower, a "sponger". So
also from: káyo, tálo.

(5) Direct passive.

359. The simple direct passive has suffix -in with accent shift of
one syllable in the contingent, infix -in- (§ 334,b,1) in the actual:
putúl-in, pù-putúl-in, p-in-útol, p-in-ù-pútol. It corresponds to
actives with -um- and abstracts with pag- and, to a large extent,
also to actives with mag- and abstracts with pag- r. It expresses,
transiently, an object viewed as fully affected, taken in by the actor,
or created by a simple action.

Irregularities of form are as listed in § 334,c.

Ináko ni Hwàn ang útang ni Pédro. Pedro's debt was taken over (pledged
for) by Juan. Inàalaála ni Pédro ang kanya ng inà. Pedro was thinking
of his mother. Hindí nya inàalaála iyòn. He does not mind that. Hindí
nya àalalahánin iyòn. He won't mind that (§ 334,c,3). Inàámin nya
na ginawá nya iyòn. He admits that he did it. Àamínin nya ang
kanya ng kasalánan. He will own up to his misdeeds. Ináangkin
nang báta ng si Hwána ang manga laruwàn ni Maryà. Little Juana
appropriates Maria's toys. Angkinin mò ang laruwàn. Take the toy for
yourself. Pag úulàn ay ararúhin mo ang punláan. When the rains come,
plow the germinating-plot. Inàáso nang inà ang kanya ng báta`. The
mother is running and shouting after her child (áso a dog). Ináyap
námin ang atsára. We used the mixed pickles as a condiment. (ang
áyap condiment). Ang aklàt niya ng kaybígan mo ng binanggìt ay áki
ng nabása. I have read the book of that friend of yours whom you
mentioned. Binátis nya ang ílog. He forded the river. Ang gúlok na yàn
ay bàbawíin ko sa iyò, kapag ipinamútol mo nang kawáyan. I shall take
back this bolo from you, if you use it for cutting bamboo. Ang tábo`
ay binílog ni Hwàn. Juan turned the dipper (on a lathe). Ang úlo
ni Hwàn ay binìbílog nang kanya ng manga kalarò`. Juan's playmates
are fooling him (literally: turning his head). Binyàk ni Hwàn ang
kawáyan. Juan has split the bamboo. Dináing nya ang isdà`. He laid
open the fish. Ang manga isdà ng itò ay dinála niyà sa ílog-Pásig. He
caught these fish with the net in the Pasig river. Yòn ay áki ng
dináramdàm. I am very sorry, That's too bad. Diligìn mo ang manga
haláman. Sprinkle the plants. Durúin mo ang áki ng mamáso`. Prick my
blister for me. Ginágabi kamì. We were overtaken by night. Hanápin
mo ang magnanákaw. Look for the thief. Hinápis nya akò. He made me
sad. Hinátì ko ang manga búnga-ng-káhoy sa manga bátà`. I distributed
the fruits among the children. Iníhaw nya ang karnè. He roasted
the meat. Inísip nya ng magnákaw sa isa ng tindáhan. He thought
of stealing from a store. Isípin mo kung saàn mo naíwan ang iyo ng
sombréro. Think where you left your hat. Ang kabutì ng itò ay hindí
kinàkáin. One does not eat this mushroom. Ipatipìd mo sa bátà` ang
kinàkáin nya. Make the child be moderate in its eating. Kinapá ko
sa kadilimàn ang áki ng hìgáan. I fell out my bed in the dark. Kúnin
mo ang aklàt sa báta`. Take the book from the child. Hwag mò akò ng
kurutìn. Don't pinch me. Nilákad námin ang lahàt nang daàn. We walked
all the way. Laruin mò ang báta`. Play with the child. Nilìlínis nya
ang mésa. She is cleaning the table. Nilúsong mo bà ang balòn? Did
you go down into the well? Lusúngin mo ang balòn. Go down into the
well. Nilùlúto niya ang gúlay. She is cooking the vegetables (also:
linùlúto`). Minámahàl nang manga magúlang ang báta`. The parents love
the child. pinalànsa was ironed (palànsa). Pinána ko ang usà. I shot
the stag with an arrow. Hindí nya pinápansìn iyòn. He doesn't pay any
attention to that. Pinatày ko ang manòk. I killed the chicken. Ang
pinílì nya ng manòk ay matabà`. The chicken she picked out is a
fat one. Pinílit nya ng gumawá nang páyong ang alíla`. He forced
the servant to make an umbrella. Pitasin mò ang manga búnga nang
manggà. You pick the mangoes. Pinútol ni Hwàn ang tanikalà`. The chain
was cut by Juan. Pagka pinútol mo ang lúbid na iyàn ay lálagpak ang
tulày. When you have cut that rope the bridge will fall. Pag pinútol
mo ang buntòt nang túta` ay malápit iya ng mamatày. If you cut off
the puppy's tail, it is likely to die. Pinùpútol ko ang káhoy. I
was cutting the wood. Putúlin mo ang lúbid. Cut the rope. Pùputúlin
nya ang búho`. He will cut the bamboo. Pinúyat nya akò. He kept me
up late. Hwag mò ng sagasáin, Lúkas, ang kainítan nang áraw sa iyo
ng paglabàs sa búkid. Don't hit upon the hottest part of the day for
going out to the field, Lucas. Sinísintà ni Pédro ang dalága. Pedro is
in love with the young woman. Akò y sinípà nang kabáyo. I was kicked
by a horse. Sinuklày nya ang buhòk nang kanya ng anàk. She combed
her child's hair; also: Sinuklày nya ang kanya ng anàk. Ang gámit
nya ng librò ay sinúlat ni Daruwìn. The book he uses was written
by Darwin. Kung sinuntòk nya ang báta` ay suntukìn mo siyà. If he
hits the boy, do you hit him. Sinúsuntok nyà ang báta`. He hits the
boy on the head. Tagpuìn mo akò sa estasyòn nang trèn. Meet me at
the railroad station. Tanawin mò ang súnog! Look at the fire! Ang
tábon sa ílog ay tinangày nang ágos. The dam in the river was carried
away by the current. Hwag mò ng tanggapìn ang úpa. Don't accept the
pay. Tawágin mo si Hwàn. Call Juan. Tinipìd ni Hwàn ang ibinigày
ko ng ságing. Juan was saving with the bananas I gave him. Ang dúsa
ng kanya ng tinítiìs ay hindí lubhà ng mabigàt. The suffering he is
undergoing is not very severe. Tinísod ko ang bakyà`. I kicked away
the sandal. Inúna si Hwàn nang hukòm. Juan was dealt with first by the
judge. Inusísa akò ni Hwàn. Juan questioned me. Ang inusísa sa ákin
ni Hwàn ay kung saan nàndon ang kanya ng sombréro. What Juan asked
me was where his hat was. Inútang ko iyò ng salapì ng ibinigày ko sa
kanyà kahápon. I borrowed that money I gave him yesterday. Niwáwalis
nyà ang alikabòk sa mésa. She is sweeping the dust from the table
(also: wináwalìs). Ang niyáyà ko ng magpasyàl ay si Hwàn. The one I
invited to come for a walk was Juan.

Similarly from: ágaw, akála`, ákay, akiyàt, alíla`, alintána,
alipustà`, alìs, ámo`, anínaw, ásal, bálak, bambò, bása, batò, báwi`,
bigkàs, bigtì, bílang, bilì, bitbìt, búhat, bútas, buwísit, dalà,
daràs, dikdìk, dúkit, dúkot, gámit, gamòt, gantì, gawà`, gúgol, gupìt,
gustò, gútom, hábol, hágod, hampàs, hámon, hantày, hángo`, hárang,
haràp, hátak, híla, hilìng, hinála`, hintày, hiràm, hitìt, híwa`,
húkay, húli, íbig, inò, inòm, kagàt, kalaykày, kámot, kantà, kúlam,
kumbidà, kumpisàl, lála, lóko, lúnod, loòb, matà, múra, nákaw, pálo`,
pasàn, pások, pígil, pího, piráso, pirìnsa, pukòl, sábi, sadiyà`,
sagòt,  salúbong, sampàl, sanggà, sapantáha`, sílip, singìl, siyásat,
sumpòng, sundò`, sunòd, súnog, sungánga, tagà`, tákot, talagà, tálo,
tampálas, tápos, túkop, tuntòn, úbos, ugáli`, úlit, wíka`.

(a) From derived words: Inùumága silà sa kanila ng pagsasàlitáan. They
were being overtaken by their morning in their conversation (um-ága,
§ 358). Si Hwána ay hinimatày. Juana was attacked by a fainting-fit
(himatày, § 518).

(b) From root with shifted accent: Ináabùt nang báta` ang góra. The
boy was reaching for his cap.

(c) Accent shift lacking: Mínsanin mo, Hwàn, ang paginòm nang
gamòt. Take the medicine all at one swallow, Juan.

(d) From doubled root, with meaning of repeated action: see isà;
barytone root with accent shift: ámo`.

360. A few roots which have actives with mag- form the direct passive
from the root with pag- prefixed. On the analogy of other forms
(cf. § 369) one should expect this to be the case with roots whose
active with mag- stood in contrast with -um- (§ 351); this is clearly
the case, however, only in pag-isíp-in, pag-ì-isíp-in p-in-ag-ísip,
p-in-ag-ì-ísip: Pinagísip nya ng magnákaw sa isa ng tindáhan. He laid
plans for robbing a store (cf. in-ísip, § 359). The other roots which
have pag- in the direct passive are: barìl, doòp, kúro`, tapìk.

361. To the active with mag- (1) (§ 353) corresponds a direct passive
with pag- and accent shift: pag-putul-ìn, p-in-ag-putòl, etc. (pútol):
Pinaghatí ko ang manga itlòg na pinatigasàn ni Hwána. I halved each
of the eggs Juana had hard-boiled. Pinagisìp nya ang kahulugàn nang
manga sènyas na nàkíta nya ng ibiníbigay nang isa ng sundálo sa isa
nyà ng kasamahà ng nàhúle nang kaáway. He figured out the meaning of
the signals he saw a soldier make to a comrade who was captured by
the enemy. Pinagpúputul nang báta` ang sinúlid. The child is cutting
the thread to bits. Pagputulin mò, Hwàn, ang manga siìt. Cut out the
bamboo-spines, Juan. Pinagusisá nang hukòm ang manga magnanákaw. The
judge cross-examined the robbers. Similarly from kúha, nákaw, sábi,
sípa`, súnog.

362. Likewise, corresponding to the active with mag- r (§ 354),
is a direct passive with pag- r; see gawà`, kagàt.

Passive with pag- (1) r (cf. § 355) from sípa`.

363. Passive with pag- (1) D (cf. § 356): Pinagsabì-sabi nyà sa ibà
t ibà ng táo na si Pédro ay nàhúli sa pagnanákaw. He told various
people on various occasions, that Pedro was arrested for thievery.

364. The direct passive is made from the root with prefix pang- to
correspond to actives with mang- (§ 357): pa-mitas-ìn, pa-mì-mitas-ìn,
p-ina-mitàs, p-in-a-mí-mitàs (pitàs). Examples: Inamútan ko si Hwàn
nang pinamilì ko ng manga librò. I let Juan purchase from me some of
the books I had bought up. Pinamímitas nilà ang manga kamatsilè. They
picked the fruits of the tannic acid tree. Pamìmitasìn námin ang manga
búlak. We shall pick the capoc cotton. Pinamùlot námin ang manga
laglàg na búnga. We picked up the fallen betel-fruits. Pinangútang
ko iyà ng salapì` sa kanyà. I had to borrow that money you have there
from him. Also from noòd.

(6) Special static words.

365. The infix -in- produces static words denoting things which are
produced by such and such a process or treated so and so: ang pinítak
each of the small sections into which a rice-field is divided by the
irrigation trenches (pítak divide; as root-word, division). So from
báta`, hingà, káin, lúgaw, púno`, sáing, súlid.

(a) With accent shift: inakày.

(b) A number of roots (here treated as simple) have the form of words
with infix -in- (cf. § 333): hinála`, kinábang, linamnàm, sinungáling,
tinápay, tinóla.

366. -in- R: ang ináamà godfather, iníinà godmother; cf. § 412,a.

367. Suffix -in with secondary accent on the first syllable of the
underlying word forms static words denoting something which undergoes
such and such an action: Ang kalasìng nang kwàlta sa ibà y pára ng isa
ng tugtúgin. The clinking of money is for others (than the spender)
like music. So from bandà, damdàm, tiìs (only here does the S show
itself), tungkòl.

(a) Static words with (1) -in, with irregularities (§ 334,b), person
or animal like something: amaìn uncle; so from inà. Also of things
consumed: inumìn drinking water, kánin (káin) boiled rice ready to eat.

(b) The same with pang- in pa-naú-hin guest, if from táo.

(c) (2) -in, collective, of places: bukirìn estate, fields, terrain;
lupaìn country, part of the world. Of animate creatures, tendency:
gulatìn scary, shy.

From derived word, in the latter sense, with S on the first of three
syllables: pàniwalaìn credulous (paniwála`, § 347).

(d) -in with reduplication, from numerals, in the sense of with so
many: lilimáhin; from da-lawà (§ 345), da-dalawá-hin.

(e) r (2) -in, with irregularity: ka-kan-ìn sweetmeat (káin).

(f) The following roots end in -in (§ 333): bayúgin, buhángin,
dalángin prayer, kaingìn, muláwin, salamìn.

(7) Instrumental passive.

368. The instrumental passive corresponding to the active with -um-
and, to a large extent, to that with mag-, is formed with the prefix
i- (§ 334,a,3); the actual taking also the infix -in- (§ 334,b,2):
i-pútol, i-pù-pútol, i-p-in-útol, i-p-in-ù-pútol. It denotes,
transiently, an object given forth, parted from, or used as instrument
or the person for whom in such and such an action or process.

Iniyalìs nilà ang hárang nang daàn. They removed the obstruction on the
road. Iyánib (or: isánib) mo ang iyu ng banìg sa kay Pédro. Make your
sleeping-mat overlap Pedro's, i. e. Sleep next to Pedro. Ibinàbágay
nang mangkakayò ang damìt sa namímilè sa kanyà. The cloth-merchant
is suiting the cloth to her customer. Ibinàbágay ni Hwàn sa kanyà
ng kalàgáyan ang kanya ng paggastà. Juan adapts his expenses to his
situation. Ibinilanggò nang hukòm si Hwàn. The judge has put Juan
into prison. Ibiníngit nya sa lamésa ang orasàn. He put the clock
on the edge of the table. Idaan mò sa báhay ni Pédro ang bábuy na
itò. Leave this pig at Pedro's house as you pass. Ang bantáyan sa
púno nang tulày ay inihágis nang manga lasìng na táo sa ílog. The
sentry-box at the head of the bridge was thrown into the river by the
drunken men. Ihásà mo ang pangáhit na ytò. Sharpen this razor. Ihinúkay
nila nang malálim ang patày. They dug a deep grave for the dead. Íwan
mo díto ang báta`. Leave the child here (so: ì-íwan will be left,
in-íwan was left, in-ì-íwan is being left). Inilálaàn ko kay Pédro
ang ságing na itò. I am putting aside this banana for Pedro (also:
itinátaàn). Inilùlúto nya ang gúlay. She is cooking the vegetables
(also: ilinùlúto`). Ipinagítan sya sa dalawà ng dalága. He was placed
between two young women. Ipináyag ko sa hinilìng nilà ang áki ng
sasakyàn. At their request I let them have my vehicle. Ipinútol nya
akò nang sinúlid. She cut off some thread for me. Ipútol mo akò nang
maìs. Cut some corn for me. Ipùpútol nya ikàw nang tubò. He will cut
some sugar-cane for you. Ang kampìt na iyàn ay mapúpurol kapag ipinútol
mo nang káhoy. That kitchen-knife will grow dull, if you cut wood with
it. Kawáyan ang isinásahìg ni Pédro sa kanya ng báhay. Pedro is using
bamboo for flooring his house. Pag pinùpútol ko nà ang liìg nang manòk,
ay isáhod mo ang mangkòk na lalagyàn nang dugò`. When I am cutting the
chicken's neck, hold under the basin to catch the blood. Isinále nya si
Hwàn. He included Juan. Isáli mo si Hwàn. Take Juan along. Isinampày
nya sa kanya ng balíkat ang kúmot. He slung the blanket across his
shoulder. Isigang mò ang sináing. Put the rice on the fire. Isilid mò
sa bóte ang álak. Put the wine into the bottle. Pagulàn ay isoot mò ang
kapóte. When it rains put on the rain-coat. Itináwag nang magpapatawàg
ang bágo ng kautusàn. The crier cried out the new law. Itinayú nya
ang báhay. He erected the house. Itinira nyà sa ákin ang tinápay. He
left the bread for me. Itúru mu sa kanyà ang simbáhan. Show him the
church. Itúru mo sa ákin ang larò`. Teach me the game. Iwalá mo iyà
ng iyo ng sambalílo ng lúma`. Get rid of that old hat of yours.

Similarly, from: álay, átas, bagsàk, balíta`, bigày, budbòd, búhos,
bulìd, búrol, buwàl, dáos, dikìt, distíno, dugtòng, gápos, hánap,
handà`, hatìd, hintò`, hitsà, húlog, kasàl, kawàg, labàs, ladlàd,
lagày, laglàg, lákad, lakàs, lalà`, lapàg, lawìt, libìng, ligtàs,
líhim, lúlan, luwà`, páyo, sabàd, sáboy, sagòt, sakdàl, sánib, sarà,
sigàw, sèrmon, súlong, sunòd, taàn, taàs, tágo`, táli`, tanìm, tángi`,
tápon, tuktòk, túloy, túngo, úbos, útos, wisìk.

(a) From root with shifted accent: Iniyáabùt nya sa ákin ang librò. He
was handing me the book. Iyabùt mo sa ákin ang librò. Hand me the book.

369. The instrumental passive is made from the root with prefix pag-
when it corresponds to an active with mag- which stands in contrast
with an active with -um- from the same root (§ 351); it is used also to
express the instrumental relation more explicitly than the simple form,
especially the person for whom. Forms: i-pag-pú-tol, i-pag-pù-pútol,
i-p-in-ag-pútol, i-p-in-ag-pù-pútol.

Ito ng báhay ang ipinagbili kò. This house is the one I have sold
(cf. bumilì buy, magbilì sell). Ang áraw nang kapangànákan ni Risàl
ay ipinagdìdíwang sa boò ng Filipínas. Rizal's birthday is celebrated
all over the Philippines. Síno ang ipinaglùlúto mo? Whom are you
cooking for? (inilùlúto` in preceding section). Ipagpútol mo ngà`
akò nang yantòk. Please cut some bamboo for me. Ipagpùpútol kità
nang tubò. I will cut you some sugar-cane. Ipinagpútol mo ba akò
nang pamilmìt? Did you cut me a pole for fishing? Ipinagpùpútol niya
akò nang siìt na gàgawì ng pípa. He is cutting me some bamboo reeds
for cigarette-holders. Ang guntìng na iyàn ay mapúpurul agàd, kapag
ipinagpútol mo nang damìt. Those scissors will get dull very soon,
if you keep using them to cut cloth with. Iyo ng kúnin ang guntìng,
kapag ipinagpùpútol nya nang káyo. Take the scissors, if he uses them
for cutting cloth. Ang paupó ni Hwà ng sùgálan ay ipinagsábi sa pulìs
nang kanya ng kápit-báhay. The gambling party Juan invited was exposed
to the police by his neighbor (sinábi was said). Ipinagsakay kò si
Hwàn sa áki ng karumáta. I took Juan into my carriage. Ang bágo ng
léyi ay ipinagtáwag ni Hwàn. The new law was called out by Juan. Hindí
ko bà ipinagútos sa iyò ng gawìn mo itò? Didn't I order you to do this?

Also from: kayilà`, labà, látag, sakdàl, sumbòng, takà, tanòng, tapàt.

(a) From derived words: ipinaghimatày (himatày, § 518);
Ipinagúbus-làkásan niya ang pagtakbò. He exhausted all his strength
in his running (úbus-làkásan, § 377,b).

370. i-pag (1), corresponding to mag- (1), § 353: from tápon; also
from derived word ma-yábang (§ 454, cf. § 353,a).

371. i-pag r, corresponding to mag- r (§ 354), from tanòng.

372. The instrumental passive from the root with prefix pang-
corresponds to the active with mang-: Ipinanghárang nila Pédro ang
manga barìl na inágaw nilà sa manga pulìs nang báyan. In holding people
up Pedro's gang used the guns they had snatched from the police of
the district. Ipinamútol ko nang yantòk ang gúlok. I used the bolo for
rattan-cutting. Ipinamùmútol nya akò nang kawáyan. He is cutting bamboo
for me. Ipinamùmútol nya nang kawáyan ang bágo ng gúlok. He is using
the new bolo for bamboo-cutting. Ipamútol mo nang tubò ang kampìt na
itò. Use this kitchen-knife for cane-cutting. So also: áko`, balíta`.

(8) Special static words.

373. Special static words with prefix i- express the part of something
in such and such a direction, or the direction: ibábaw, ibáyo, ilálim,
itaàs, ituktòk; with shifted root: ibabà`.

(9) Local passive.

374. The simple local passive, corresponding to the active with -um-
and largely to that with mag-, has the suffix (1) -an with the
irregularities described in § 334. The forms of the actual mode
have also the infix -in-: putúl-an, pù-putúl-an, p-in-utúl-an,
p-in-ù-putúl-an. The local passive denotes the thing affected as
place in which or the person to whom.

Inabútan akò nang ulàn. I was caught by the rain. Agáhan mo ang
iyo ng pagparíto. Make early your coming here, i. e. Come here
early. Pagkagupìt nang áki ng buhòk ay inahítan nya akò. When he
had cut my hair he shaved me. Alisan mò nang manga tinìk ang áki ng
salawàl. Take the thorns out of my trousers. Inanyáhan silà ni Hwàn
na magpasyàl. They were invited by Juan to go for a walk. Arálan
mo ang manga Kapampángan. Teach morals to the Pampangas. Asnan
mò ang dáing na isdà`. Salt the fish you lay open. Aptan mò nang
páwid ang báhay. Roof the house with nipa-palm. Awítan mo ang manga
panaúhin. Sing for the guests. Bakúran mo ang sagíngan sa tabì nang
ílog. Fence in the banana-grove by the river. Bakúran mo ang báhay. Put
a fence round the house. Binalitáan ko si Hwàn nang manga nangyári sa
ákin sa labanàn. I related to Juan my adventures in the war. Bantayan
mò ang pálay. Guard the standing rice. Basáhan mo akò nang manga
kwènto. Read me some stories. Bigasan mò ang tinóla ng manòk. Make
the chicken-stew with rice. Si Pédro ang binilhàn ko nang kabáyo ng
itò. It was Pedro I bought this horse from. Sa katapusàn ay kanya
ng nàpagkilála ang malaki ng pangánib na kanya ng biningítan. In
the end he recognized the great danger into which he had betaken
himself. Binuksàn ni Hwàn ang pintò`. Juan opened the door. Dinaanàn
nang trèn ang báboy. The pig was run over by the train. Dinaanàn ko
si Hwàn. I called for Juan on the way (and took him with me). Dalhàn
mo nang túbig ang kabáyo. Bring water to the horse. Dalian mò ang
pagdadala ríto nang librò. Bring the book here soon. Ang pabása sa
bisíta nang San-Antònyo ay dinaluhàn nang marámi ng táo. The reading
at the chapel of San Antonio was attended by many people. Dinamíhan
nya ang kinúha nya ng ságing. He took many bananas. Dinamuhàn nyà
ang damúha ng malápit sa simbáhan. He cut grass on the pasture near
the church. Dinapúan nang manga íbon ang sangà nang káhoy. Birds
alighted on the branch of the tree. Dinatnàn kamì nang ulàn. We were
overtaken by the rain. Diniláan nya akò. She stuck out her tongue
at me (ang díla` the tongue); also: Diláan mo ang mansánas. Lick
the apple. Hwag mò ng durúan nang karáyom ang áki ng panyò. Don't
leave needles sticking in my handkerchief. Hagkan mò si Nánay. Kiss
Mother. Hinalúan nang álak ang gátas. Some wine was mixed into the
milk. Hinampasàn ni Pédro ang mukhá ni Hwàn. Pedro hit Juan in the face
with a whip. Ang daàn ay hinarángan. The road was obstructed. Hasáan mo
ang gúlok na itò. Sharpen this bolo. Hintuan mò ang iyo ng pagsusugàl,
Pédro, kung íbig mu ng yumáman ka. Put a stop to your gambling, Pedro,
if you want to get rich. Hinùhugásan niyà ang manga pinggàn parà sa
manga babáye. He is washing dishes for the women. Hulíhan mo nang
isdà` ang palàisdáan. Catch fish in the fish-pond. Ang manga sampày
na damìt ay hinípan nang hangin, kanyà` nahúlog sa lúpa`. The clothes
on the line were blown by the wind and fell to the ground. Hinípan ko
ang píto. I blew the whistle. Hinípan ko ang apòy úpang palakihìn. I
blew on the fire to make it larger. Inilágan nya ang simbáhan. He kept
away from the church. ... ang kabáyo. He got out of the way of the
horse. Inlagan mò ang dumárating na tumátakbo ng kabáyo. Get out of
the way of the horse that is coming on the run. Itiman mò ang lubòg
nang damìt. Make the dye of the garment black. Inìiyakàn ni Hwána
ang kanya ng namatày na kaybígan. Juana is weeping over her dead
friend. Hwag mò ng kurutàn, Pédro, ang isdà ng nása dúlang. Don't you
take a pinch from the fish on the table, Pedro. Hwag mù ng labánan,
Pédro, ang kapatid mù ng matandà`. Don't oppose your older brother,
Pedro. Ang landàs na gawì ng kaliwà` ay ang iyo ng lakáran. You
must take the path which goes to the left. Lakasan mò ang túlak sa
bangkà`. Push hard on the boat. Lakhan mò, Hwàn, ang pirasúhin mo ng
matamìs. Break off a big piece of the sugar, Juan. Nilalíman nilà ang
húkay nang patày. The grave for the corpse was made deep by them. Ang
bantày nang manga kanyòn ay nilayásan ang kanya ng lugàr. The guard
of the cannon deserted his post. Ligsihan mò ang pagílag sa lugàr
na iyàn. Get out of that place quickly. Hwag mò ng luksuhàn ang
tinìk na iyàn. Don't jump on that spine. Lulánan mo nang manggà ang
karitòn. Load up the wagon with mangos. Luluran mò si Pédro pagbababàg
ninyò. Kick Pedro in the shin when you fight him. Nilusúngan mo bà si
Pédro? Did you help Pedro? Lutúan mo nang bigàs ang manòk. Cook some
rice in with the (already cooked) chicken. Masdan mò ang bwàn. Look at
the moon. Minàmasdan kò ang manga nagdádaa ng táo. I am looking at the
people who pass by. Minuráhan nya akò sa pagbibilì nang talòng. He
made me a low price on the egg-plant. Muráhan mo ang pagbibilì
nang labanòs. Sell your large radishes cheap. Ang tanggápan nang
manga sanglà` sa báhay-sangláan ni Pédro ay ninakáwan kagabè. The
receiving-place of pledges in Pedro's pawn-shop was robbed last
night. Nakáwan mo syà nang kanyà ng salapè`. Rob him of his money. Sa
pagbubunò` ni Hwàn at ni Pédro si Pédro ay pinaahàn ni Hwàn. Juan
caught Pedro by the leg (or: hurt Pedro in the leg) as they wrestled
together; but: Pinaanan nyà ang kanya ng kapatìd na natùtúlog. He lay
down with his feet toward his sleeping brother. Hwag mò ng paanàn sa
iyò ng paghigà` ang kapatìd mo ng natùtúlog. When you go to bed don't
lie with your feet toward your sleeping brother. Pinanáwan sya nang
pagiísip. He lost his mind. Patayàn mo nang pitsòn ang nilúgaw. Kill
a pigeon for the stew. Patisan mò ang isdà` ng itò. Put shrimp-sauce
on this fish. Pinayágan nya ang paraà ng itò. He agreed to this
plan. Pilikàn mu ang isdà`. Cut the fins off the fish. Pintahan mò
ang padèr na ytò. Paint this wall. Hwag mò ng pintasàn ang damìt na
yàn. Don't find fault with that garment. Pitasan mò nang búnga ang
manggà. Pick some fruits from the mango tree. Ang pinulútan nilà nang
manè` ay ang bakúran ni Hwána. The place where they gathered peanuts
was Juana's yard. Pinùpunásan nya ang sahìg. She is scrubbing the
floor. Punan mò, Pédro, nang isà ng salapè` ang kwàlta ng ibinigày mo
sa ákin. Add half a dollar to the money you gave me, Pedro. Putíkan mo
ang kanya ng salawàl. Put mud on his trousers. Pinutúlan ko nang usbòng
ang manga kamóte. I cut shoots from the sweet-potatoes. Pinùputlan nyà
nang manga sangà ang káhoy na nabwàl. He is cutting the branches off
the tree that was blown down. Putúlan mo nang ténga ang áso. Cut the
dog's ears. Putlan mò nang súngay ang kalabàw. Cut the horns of the
carabao. Pùputúlan ko nang súngay ang usà. I shall cut off the stag's
horns. Pùputlàn dàw nya nang buntòt ang áso. He says he will cut off
the dog's tail. Sinakyàn námin ang bangká ni Hwàn. We rode in Juan's
canoe. Sakyan mò ang bangka ng itò. Get into this canoe. Hwag mù ng
saláhan ang iyo ng mangà pagpások sa eskwèlhan. Don't skip going to
school, Don't play hookey; but: Sinanglan nyà ang singsìng. He missed
the ring (in the juego de anillo). Hwag mù ng sanglàn ang usà. Don't
fail to hit the stag. Samáhan mo si Pédro. Go with Pedro. Sayawan
mò kamì, Hwána. Dance for us, Juana. Sinigawàn nang páre` ang kanyà
ng munisilyò. The priest yelled at his sacristan. Sinikáran nang
kabáyo ang karumáta. The horse kicked at the carriage. Siglan mò nang
álak ang bóte. Fill the bottle with wine. Untì-untí mo ng subúan ang
pitsòn. Feed the squabs little by little. Sinugátan sya ni Pédro. He
was wounded by Pedro. Sinukláyan nya ang kanya ng anàk. She combed
her child's hair. Sulátan mo si Pédro. Write to Pedro. Tinabúnan na
ni Pédro ang húkay. Pedro has already filled up the hole. Tagalan mò
ang pagkábitbit nang tablà. Keep holding the board that way. Tagalan
mò ang pagtitira díto sa ámin. Stay here with us a long time. Tagpian
mò ang báro ng itò. Mend this shirt. Tagpuan mò nang iba ng káyo ang
kaluwángan nang sáya. Fill out (literally: cause to meet) the width
of the skirt with other cloth. Tamnan mò nang manga púno-ng-nyòg ang
bakúran. Plant the yard with cocoanut trees. Tinanúran nya ang báhay sa
boò ng magdamàg. He guarded the house all night. Hwag mù ng tanggapàn
nang úpa ang kaybígan ko ng iháhatid mò sa estasyòn nang trèn,
sapagkàt akò ang ùúpa sa iyò. Don't take any fare from my friend whom
you will bring to the railroad station, for I shall pay you. Tapunan
mò ang bóte. Cork up the bottle. Hwag mò ng tawánan si Hwàn. Don't
laugh at Juan. Tawágan mo si Bathála`. Call on the Lord. Tinayuan nyà
nang kamálig ang bakúran. He erected a granary in his yard. Tigasan
mò ang lúto nang halayà. Cook the jelly hard. Tinirhàn nya akò nang
tinápay. He left some bread for me. Tirhàn mo akò nang inúyat. Leave me
some molasses; but: Hwag mò ng tirahàn ang báhay na iyàn. Don't live in
that house. Ang báhay na iyòn ay ang kanya ng tinìtirahàn. That house
over there is where he lives. Tinulínan nya ang paglákad. He hurried
his pace. Tulísan mo ang tasà nang lápis. Sharpen the point of the
pencil. Untian mò, Pédro, ang ibíbigay mò ng damò sa kabáyo. Give the
horse less grass, Pedro. Ùupàn nang manga panaúhin ang manga bangkù
ng itò. The guests will sit on these benches. Orásan mo ang iyo ng
pagkáin. Have your meals at stated times. Utángan mo nang salapí
si Pédro. Borrow money from Pedro. Oóhan mo ang tanòng. Answer the
question in the affirmative. Niwàwalisàn niyà ang sahìg. She is
sweeping the floor.

Other roots: akmà`, ámot, apòy, balàt, báya`, báyad, bigày, bendisiyòn,
búti, dagán, retráto, gámit, gawà`, gupìt, halimhìm, hatìd, háwak,
higà`, hitsà, húkay, húlog, íngat, kamìt, kantà, labàs, lagày, lálo`,
lápit, lígaw, ligtàs, limòs, mulà`, pagakpàk, palìt, panhìk, pások,
prubà, puntà, putòk, sabày, sáboy, sagása`, sákit, salákay, silakbò,
subò, súbok, sunòd, sunggàb, soòt, táli`, táma`, tánga`, tángan,
tíbay, tibà`, tingìn, túbo`, tugtòg, túlad, túlog, túlong, tungtóng,
umpisà, úpa, útos, wisìk.

(a) From derived words: Sya y tinagilíran ni Pédro. Pedro hit him in
the side (ta-gílid, § 523), but: Tinaligdàn ni Hwàn si Pédro pagdadaàn
nitò sa kanya ng harapàn. Juan turned away from Pedro when the latter
came before him. Tinalikdàn ni Hwàn si Pédro. Juan turned his back
on Pedro (talíkod, § 523).

(b) Irregularly without accent shift before the suffix: Áki
ng binitáwan (or: binitíwan) ang bóte. I let go my hold on the
bottle. Bitíwan mo ang lúbid. Let go of the rope. Dinaánan siyà nang
isa ng silakbò nang gálit. A fit of anger came upon him. ... nang
isa ng masamà ng pagiísip. An evil thought came to him. Dinàdaánan
sya nang isa ng malakì ng kalungkútan. A great grief is upon
him. ... nang pagkaulòl. He is under an attack of madness. Cf. daanàn,
above. Minatáan nang bágo ng táo ang aswàng. The young man looked
round for the vampire. Matáan mo ang magnanákaw. Keep an eye open
for the thief. So from: sèrmon.

(c) From root with accent shift (so that the total shift is two
syllables): Ang utusàn nang kapitàn ay tinamaàn nang bála. The
captain's orderly was hit by a bullet. Ang lulòd ni Pédro ay tinamaàn
nang bála. Pedro got shot in the shin. Tinamaàn nang kulòg (nang
lintìk) ang isa ng púnu-ng-manggà. A mango tree was struck by the
thunder (by lightning). Tamaàn ka nang lintìk! May the lightning
strike you! (curse.)

375. The local passive is formed from the root with pag- when it
corresponds to an active in which mag- is contrasted with -um-
(§ 351) or when the local relation, especially of person for whom,
is highly explicit: pag-putúl-an, pag-pù-putúl-an, p-in-ag-putúl-an,
p-in-ag-pù-putúl-an. Examples: Ang pagsakày sa kabáyo ay hindí magaà
ng pagarálan kung salbáhe ang kabáyo. Riding horseback is not easy
to learn if the horse is unruly. Hindí káya ni Hwàn ang kanya ng
pinagàarálan. Juan's studies are too hard for him. Pagbàbalikàn
kità. I will come back to you. Pagbalikàn mo akò. Come back to
me. Ang útang ni Maryà ay pinagbayáran nang kanya ng kapatìd na
babáye. Maria's debt was paid off by her sister. Ang áki ng kapatìd
na laláki ang pinagbilhàn ko nito ng báhay. I sold this house to my
brother. Napatìd ang lúbid na kanya ng pinagbìbiyabúhan. The rope
on which he was swinging broke. Ang pinagharángan kina Hwàn ay isa
ng lugàr na malápit sa manggáhan sa daà-ng-Balíwag. The place where
Juan and his company were held up was a spot near the mango-grove
on the Baliuag road. Pagharían mo ng mabúte ang pulò ng itò. Rule
righteously over this island. Paghasáan mo nang manga pangáhit ang
hasaà ng itò. Use this whetstone to sharpen razors on. Ang pinaghatdan
kò nang gátas ay maláyo`. The place to which I delivered the milk was a
long way off. Sa pasíga ng itò y walà ng lugàr na pinaghùhubaràn nang
damìt. At this beach there is no place for undressing. ang pinagibhàn
the point of difference, the difference. Pagingátan mo ng dalhìn ang
túbo ng kristàl na iyàn, sapagkàt baká magkàputòl-putòl iyàn kung
hindí ka maíngat nang pagdadalà. Carry that glass tube carefully,
because it might get smashed if you are not careful about the carrying
it. Pinagkabyawàn nilà ang lugàr na itò. This place is where they
pressed sugar-cane. Ang pinagkàkabyawàn námin ay isa ng lugàr na
mataàs káy sa tubúhan. The place where we press sugar-cane is a place
higher than the cane-field. Pagkabyawàn ninyò nang tubò ang bágo ng
kabyáwan. Press the cane in the new press. Pagkàbyawàn nilà ang bágo
ng tayò ng kabyáwan. They will press sugar-cane in the newly-erected
press. Ang hwátaw ang sya mò ng pagkánan. The Chinese bowl is what
you are to eat from. Si Pédro ang pinagkúnan nang manga kasangkápa
ng itò. Pedro is the one from whom we got these tools. Si Migèl ang
pinagkùkúnan nya nang kwàlta ng pangbilè nang kalabàw. Miguel is the
one from whom he gets money to buy carabao. Ang pagkúnan mo nang pálay
ay ang sáko ng may kúlang. The place for you to take rice is the sack
that is already broken. Hwag mò ng paglaruwàn, Hwàn, ang kutìng,
sapagkàt baká mo iyàn màbúlag. Don't play with the kitten, Juan,
for you might inadvertently blind it. Paglarwan mò ang bóla. Play
(with the) ball. Ang kutìng ay nàbálot sa pinaglàlaruwàn nya ng
damìt. The kitten got wrapped up in the piece of cloth with which it
was playing. Pagmasdan mò ang bwàn. Look carefully at the moon. Hwag
mò ng pagputúlan nang ano màn ang sangkála ng iyàn. Don't cut anything
on that cutting-block. Pinagsalitaàn ni Hwàn ang kanyà ng manga báta
ng kapatìd. Juan gave his little brothers a talking-to.

Similarly: bintàng, daàn, daràs, dasàl, háti`, hinála`, katàm, kublì,
patày, pílit, sábi, silbì, sísi, tagpò`, tipàn, úsap.

(a) From a phrase: pinagsa-ulàn (sa ulè`).

(b) From a derived word: Mangà pinagpìpìtagánan ko ng ginoò! Respected
sirs, Dear sirs (in oral or written address).

(c) Irregularly without accent shift: pinagdaánan (daàn), cf. § 374,b.

(d) With extra accent shift, corresponding to active with mag- (1):
Pagputulàn mo, Hwàn, nang manga usbòng ang kalabása. Cut a bundle of
shoots from the pumpkin, Juan.

As bitìw lacks the accent shift before -an (§ 374,b), the form with
pag- and shift of one syllable belongs here: Pinagbitiwan nyà ang
manga manùk na kanya ng tángan. She let go of all the chickens she
was holding.

(e) With reduplication of the root, corresponding to the active with
mag- r (§ 354): pinagsisiglàn (silìd).

(f) With both extra accent shift and reduplication, corresponding to §
355: Pinagdàdadagukàn nya ang manga kaáway niyà. He was dealing blows
to his enemies right and left (dágok a blow with the fist).

(g) From doubled root (cf. the active, § 356): pinagtùtulùng-tulúngan

376. The local passive with pang- corresponds to actives with mang-:
pa-mutúl-an, pa-mù-mutúl-an, p-in-a-mutúl-an, p-in-a-mù-mutúl-an.

Saàn ang pinanggalíngan mo?--Ang pinanggalíngan ko ay an
báya-ng-Mayníla`. Where have you come from?--I come from Manila. Ang
manga pinítak na kadátig nang sápa` ay sya nyà ng pinanggágapásan
(or: sya nyà ng pinamùmutúlan nang pálay). The sections of the
rice-field bordering on the ditch are the ones he is cutting rice
from. Pinangitlugàn nang manòk ang kahò ng itò. The hen laid its eggs
in this box. Hwag mò ng pamitasàn nang búnga ang átis na nása tabì
nang balòn. Don't pick the fruits from the atis tree by the side of
the well. Siya kò ng pamìmitasàn nang búnga ang byábas na nása gitná
nang bakúran. I shall pick fruits from the guava tree in the middle
of the yard. Ali ng lugàr ang iyo ng pinamutúlan nang damò? Which
place did you cut grass from? Sinundó ni Pédro ang kapatìd na babáye
sa báhay na pinanànahían. Pedro fetched his sister from the house
where she was working as seamstress. So also from: tálo, tiwála`.

(a) With pang-hin- the local passive corresponds to the active
with mang-hin- (§ 357,b); the reduplication affects the hin- which,
theoretically, we may regard as part of the underlying word. "Magáral
ka ng mabúti at panghinayángan mo ang mahalagà ng panahòn," sinábi ni
Hwàn sa kanya ng anàk. "Study hard and take account of the precious
time," said Juan to his son. Káylan pa kayá panghìhinayángan nang
manga táo ang manga áni ng taòn-taò y nàsìsírà nang luktòn o nang
túyot? When will the people at last regret the harvests that are
every year destroyed by locusts or by drought? Pinanghinayángan nilà
ang nálubog na bangkà`. They were sorry about the canoe that had
sunk. Pinanghìhinayángan námin ang marámi ng búhay na ginúgol nang
báyan sa pagtatanggòl sa katwíran. We regret the many lives lost by
the country in the defense of its rights. (sáyang); similarly from
gantì: panghigantihàn.

(10) Special static words.

377. With S -an special static words are formed from oxytone roots,
without the irregularities described in § 334. In meaning they fall
into two types, which, however, are not always clearly distinct.

(a) They express an action by two or more actors, a kind of plural of
root words of the type described at § 341,3,a. Ang àlísan nang manga
aluwáge ay sa lúnes nang hápon. The leaving of the carpenters is
fixed for Monday afternoon. ang ìnúman a drinking party. Ang ìyákan
nang manga báta` ay nárinig ko sa kalsáda. I heard on the street
the crying of the children. Ang kàlabúgan nang manga nalaglàg na
nyòg dahilàn sa malakàs na hángin ay nárinig hanggàng sa maláyo ng
lugàr. The thud of the cocoanuts that were thrown down by the strong
wind was audible for some distance away. Ang kàlasíngan nang manga
kwaltà ng laglàg sa bulsà ni Hwàn ay sya ng nakàgísing kay Pédro. The
rattling of the coins falling from Juan's purse was what woke Pedro
up. Ang kantáhan nang manga íbon ay ginágawà nila kung umága. The
birds sing together in the morning. Ang kùrútan nilà sa nilúto ko ng
isdà` ay lubhà ng madalàs. They often pinched pieces out of the fish
I had cooked. Ang litsúnan nila Hwàn ay hindí nátulòy. The barbecue
of Juan and his friends did not come off. Ang luksúhan nang manga
luktòn ay totoò ng maiiklè`. The leaps of the small grasshoppers are
very short. Ang pàgakpákan nang manga táo pagkaraàn nang talumpáte`
ay lubhà ng mahába`. The applause of the people after the speech
was very long. Ang pintásan ni Hwána at ni Maryà ay parého ng hindí
totoò. The criticisms of Juana and Maria make of each other are
equally untrue. Ang kanyà ng manga lalagyàn nang tuba` ay pùnúa ng
lahàt. His containers for the sap are all full. Ang kanila ng sàkáyan
sa trèn ay sa linggò nang umága. They are all to take the train Sunday
morning. Naparoòn akò kagabè sa isa ng sàyáwan. I went to a dance last
night. Ang sìgáwan nang manga báta` sa kalsáda ay nakabíbingì. The
shouting of the children on the street is deafening. ang tàhúlan
nang manga áso the baying together of the dogs. ang tàyáan a staking,
a putting up of stakes (ang tayà` a stake in a bet or game). Nárinig
sa isa ng ùpúan nang manga Intsèk ang kwènto ng itò. This story was
heard in a gathering of Chinamen.

Similarly, from: kaluskòs, patày, pustà, putàk, salità`, sugàl, takbò,
tipàn, tugtòg, umpòk.

From derived word: Ang hìmagsíkan sa Filipínas ay natápus nà. The
fighting in the Philippines is over. (as though from a form -himagsìk,
see § 518).

This formation underlies further derivatives, see §§ 352,d. 357,a.

(b) The other meaning of the formation S -an is that of an object
viewed, rather explicitly (cf. § 380), as the scene of plural action
or the place of things. So: ang bìgásan the place where hulled rice
is made, threshing floor for rice, rice-mill. Si Hwàn ang bìgáyan
nilà nang kanilà ng manga ninákaw na aláhas. Juan is the one to whom
they give the jewelry they have stolen. ang bìlangúan a prison (ang
bilanggò` a prisoner). Ang kanila ng bìlíhan nang pálay ay sa kamálig
ni Hwàn. The place where they buy rice is in Juan's storehouse. Ang
dàánan nang manga sundálo ay ang landàs na itò. The usual route of
the soldiers is this path. ang hampásan the whipping-bench. Ang manga
magkakápit-báhay na si Andrès, Kulàs, at Pédro ay nagtàtálo tungkùl
sa kaní-kanilà ng hanggáhan nang bakúran. The neighbors Andrés,
Nicolás, and Pedro are disputing about the boundaries of their
grounds. Sa pagítan nang báya-ng-Balíwag at báya-ng-San-Migèl ay
máy-roo ng isa lámang na hintúan ang manga naglálakad. Pedestrians
have only one stopping-place between the towns of Baliuag and San
Miguel. Si Pédro ay sya ng hìráman nang salapì` nang manga táo sa
báyan. Pedro is the one from whom the people in the town borrow
money. ang hungkúyan a machine for fanning the pounded rice. Ang isa
ng taburéte lámang ang ginawá nila ng làgáyan nang kanila ng manga
sombréro, sapagkàt ang sabitàn ay punú nà. A chair was all they had
to lay their hats on, for the hat-rack was already full. Ang làngúyan
sa ílog ay bumábaw. The swimming-place in the river grew shallow. ang
làrúan the playground. Ang lìbángan sa manga báta` sa manga bapòr na
naglálayag sa dágat nang Pasífiko ay lubhà ng malilínis na lugàr. The
play-rooms for children on the steamers that ply on the Pacific Ocean
are very neat places. ang nyúgan a cocoanut grove. Ang pàtáyan nang
bábuy ay nasúnog. The pork slaughter-house burned down. ang pàtísan
a factory for shrimp-sauce (patìs, made of the small shrimp called
hípon). Ang báro ng punìt-punìt ay sya nyà ng ginawà ng tagpían nang
manga retáso. She sewed the patches all on to the ragged blouse. Ang
kanila ng tagpúan ay ang daà-ng-Balíwag. Their meeting-place is the
Baliuag road. ang tanyágan an exhibition, exposition. ang timbángan
a pair of scales. ang tindáhan a shop, store (ang tindà the goods
for sale in a store).

Similarly, from: aklàt, bantày, bigtì, biniyàg, bukàs, buntòt, dasàl,
gawà`, hagdàn, higà`, hukòm, kabiyàw, kublì, kulòng, libìng, luksò,
manggà, pintà, pintò, pitàg, punlà`, sampày, sanglà`, simbà, sahàn,
tanggàp, tarangkà, tirà, upò`.

A very few show irregularities: eskwèl-han, paá-nan, tòto-hánan the
truth (totoò); the secondary accent is lacking in damú-han, tubú-han;
irregular in kumpìsál-an.

From a compound word: úbus-làkásan (úbos-lakàs).

From a phrase: sà-lawáhan changeable, fickle, as though from sa lawà;
for the latter see § 345.

From derived words: ang ìnumínan place for drinking-water, water-shelf
(inum-ìn, § 367,a); ang sìlangán-an the east (silang-àn, § 379.

378. The formation (1) S -an is made from barytone roots and
corresponds in meaning to (a) in the preceding type; the suffix is
added as a rule without irregularity.

Ang ìbígan ni Maryà at ni Hwàn ay natápus sa pagtatampúhan. The
love-affair of Maria and Juan ended through their contrariness. Ang
làyásan nang manga sundálo ay hindí maampàt nang kanila ng manga
pinúno`. The deserting of the soldiers could not be stopped by their
officers. Sa miyèrkules ang lùlánan nilà sa trèn. On Wednesday they
are to embark on the train. Ang pùlútan nilà nang kwaltà ay náhintò`
nang márinig nilà ang putòk. Their scrambling for money ceased when
they heard the crash. ang tìpúnan a meeting.

So: háyag, húni, káin, kílos, sáma, túloy.

Irregular in form is: Ang tàwánan nila Hwàn ay náhinto dahilàn sa
kanila ng pagkàgúlat. The laughter of Juan's crowd stopped on account
of their surprise (táwa).

Irregular in meaning, as though local instead of plural, is: Ang
gulòd na itò ay sya ng sìlángan nang áraw. This hill is the place
where the sun rises (sílang).

379. The form from barytone roots corresponding to the type in §
377,b and often also to type a, is: (2) -an, without irregularities:
Ang agawàn nang manga unggò` ay magulò. The grabbing by the monkeys
was confused. ang basahàn a reading-room, library. Bulakàn Bulacán
(name of a province, if from búlak a cluster of capoc cotton). Ang
maliìt na úna ng itò ay sya kò ng duruàn nang manga aspilè. This little
cushion is where I stick my needles. ang haluàn a mixing-vessel. ang
hugasàn a place for washing dishes. ang hulihàn nang isdà` a
fishing-expedition. Si Hwána ay isa ng babáye ng kutuhàn. Juana is a
lousy woman. Ang labanàn nang manga Tùrkos at Inggléses ay kasulukúyan
pa lámang. The warfare between the Turks and the English is only now
taking place. Ang kanila ng lakaràn ay lubhà ng masayà. Their walking
party is very merry. Ang kanila ng lusungàn ay hindí natápus na mabúte,
sapagkàt marámi sa manga táo ay matamàd. Their cooperative scheme did
not turn out well, because most of the people were lazy. Ang murahàn
ni Hwána at ni Maryà ay nárinig nang boò ng báyan. The revilings of
Juana and Maria were heard by the whole town. Sa báya-ng-San-Migèl
ay nangyáre ang isa ng nakawàn. In the town of San Miguel a robbery
took place. Ang tablà ng itò ay ginawà ng pakuàn nang manga báta`
sa manga páku ng aspilè na kinúha nilà. The children used this board
for hammering in the tacks they had taken. Ang bútas nang bangka`
ay sya ng ginawà ng pasakàn ni Pédro nang pagkìt. The leak in the
canoe was where Pedro calked in the wax. ang putikàn a clay-pit; a
person or thing covered with mud. Ang isà ng labangàn ay syà ng nagìng
silangàn kay Hesùs. Jesus was born in a manger; ang kátri ng silangàn
ni Hwána the bed in which Juana's children were born. Sya y sugatàn
He is wounded; ang sugatàn the wounded (as, after a battle). ang
sulatàn a writing-desk. Ang sílong nang báhay ay sya nyà ng taguàn
nang manga kasangkápan sa pagaalwáge. The ground-floor of his house
is where he keeps his carpentry tools. Ang kuwàrto ng itò ay sya kò
ng tulugàn. This room is my sleeping-place. Ang tulugàn nang báhay
ni Hwàn ay nása bubungàn. The sleeping-quarters in Juan's house are
on the roof. ang utusàn a servant, a waiter, an orderly.

Similarly: áral, búkol, dáhil, hárang, hása`, íhaw, ílaw, káin, lúto`,
sábit, sábong, tápon, túlis, úlo, úpa, óras.

With irregularities: hàlamanàn garden, flower-pot (haláman) has
secondary accent on the first of three syllables; angkàn the members of
a given person's immediate family, not including himself: ang angkàn
ni Hwàn Krùs Juan Cruz' wife and children (from -ának, cf. mag-ának,
§ 358,a); kwayanàn, beside kawayanàn (kawáyan).

With irregularity and reduplication: ka-kan-àn (-káin).

380. (1) -an with irregularities forms static words denoting objects by
the action for which they are locally used or by the things they are
the place of; the local meaning is less explicit, and the object has
more fixed identity apart from its local relation than is the case in
the preceding forms. This distinction is very clear where both forms
occur from the same root (cf. kulòng, lagày); it may disappear where
only one form is made (sagíngan, atísan have the same value as nyúgan).

ang atísan a grove of atis trees. Ang asuhàn nang báhay ni Pédro ay
nasúnog. The chimney in Pedro's house burned out. Bigasàn ang kanya ng
sináing. Her boiled rice has raw rice in it, is not done. Ang kanya ng
damìt ay pulahàn. Her clothes are all red. Sya y isà ng pulahàn. He
is a Red, a member of the Red party. ang silángan the east, also
Silángan Silangan (name of a town). ang taanàn a fugitive. ang manòk
na talúnan the defeated game-cock; lúto ng talúnan a dish in which the
defeated game-cock is cooked with ginger. Similarly: bákod, bubòng,
dúlo, gawà`, hanggà, haràp, kulòng, labàng, larò`, likòd, lulòd, paà,
ságing, tintéro.

(a) Some roots which begin with l and most of those whose irregularity
involves contraction, have reduplication in this form: Ang lalagyàn
ko nang librò ay ang mésa ng itò. This table is my bookstand. Ang
uupà ng itò ay gàgamítin nang manga panaúhin. The guests will sit
on these seats. Ang uupà ng itò ay sa háre`. This seat is for the
king. luluràn shin. Similarly: hihigàn (higà`), lalamúnan (lámon),
lalawígan (láwig), sasakyàn (sakày), titirhàn (tirà).

(b) From derived words: Napútol nilà ang púno-ng-káhoy sa
kalahatían. They cut the tree at the middle. Nalagòt ang lúbid sa
kalahatían. The rope broke at the middle. (kalaháti`, § 519). Ang
bútas nang bangkà` ay nása tagilíran. The leak in the canoe is in
the side. Nilagyàn ni Hwàn nang tagilíran ang kanya ng báhay. Juan
put side-walls on his house. (tagílid, § 523).

381. D -an, with accent shift if the root is barytone, forms words
denoting an object which is an imitation or miniature of such and
such: ang dagat-dagátan a lake; ang kabá-kabayúhan a play-horse; ang
tao-taúhan a manikin, doll; the pupil of the eye; ang baril-barílan
a toy-gun. Further derivatives from this formation, see § 352,d.

382. Many roots here treated, because felt, as simple, end in -an:
bangàn, batalàn, dalandàn, hagdàn, haláman, kánan, kápitan, kapitàn,
kawáyan, laráwan, pagítan, pakuwàn, pangnàn a hand-basket, pasígan
(Pásig is the name of a river), pinggàn, saguwàn a paddle, sangkálan,
tampalásan, tahílan.

383. Similar formations with pang- prefixed add the element of
meaning present in the transient formations with mang- and pang-;
they have secondary accent on the prefix, as though it formed part
of the underlying word:

(a) pàng- -an (cf. § 377): Ang kahò ng itò ay sya ng pàngitlúgan nang
manòk. This box is the place where the hen lays its eggs.

(b) pàng- (1) -an (cf. § 378): Si Hwàn ay sya ng paráti ng pàmunúan
nang básag-úlo. Juan is the one who always starts the fighting.

(c) pàng- (2) -an (cf. § 379): pàngaserahàn boarding-place.

II. Secondary groups.

1. Prefix si-.

384. The prefix si- is used only in active transient forms, and
is always preceded by mag- or nag-: mag-si-pútol, mag-sì-si-pútol,
nag-si-pútol, nag-sì-si-pútol. In meaning these forms are explicit
plurals of the primary active forms. Occasionally the plural value
is emphasized by infixation of -ang- into the mag- or nag-.

385. From the simple root the explicit plural with si- corresponds to
the primary actives with -um- or, in many cases, with mag-. Nagsiílag
sila sa báyan nang itò y pasúkin nang manga kaáway. They all fled from
the town when the enemy entered it. Ang manga áso ay nagsìsilámon. The
dogs are eating. Magsiligáya kayò. Rejoice, Be glad. Ang manga langgàm
ay nagsìsilipumpòn (or: nagsìsilípon) sa nápatay nila ng gagambà. The
ants are crowding all over the spider they have killed. Nagsìsipútol
sila ng lahàt nang tubò nang kamì ay dumatìng. They were cutting
sugar-cane when we arrived. Magsipútol kayò nang tubò. Do you all
cut sugar-cane.

So from: akiyàt, alìs, dálaw, dalò, datìng, húli, húsay, iyàk, kantà,
kápit, lakì, lípat, lúlan, pígil, puntà, pustà, sáyad, tindìg, tugtòg,
túlong, túngo, uwì`.

(a) Plurality emphasized: Nangagsiúrong ang manga sundálo. The soldiers
retreated. So also from alìs.

386. This formation is made from the root with pag- prefixed when
it corresponds to primary actives with mag- in contrast with -um-
(§ 351). Nagsìsipagáral silà. They are studying. Magsipagáral
kayò. Study. Ang manga báta` ay áyaw magsipagbíhis. The children don't
want to change their clothes, get dressed up. Ang manga langgàm ay
nagsìsipagípon (or: nagsìsipaglípon) nang pagkáin kung tagáraw. The
ants store up food in the hot season. Magsipagpútol kayò, Pédro, nang
káhoy na gàgamítin sa paglilitsòn. Pedro, do you folks cut some wood
to be used in the barbecue. "Magsìsipagpútol dàw sila nang dikóla,"
ang sábi ni Hwána. "They say they are going to cut off the trains
of their skirts," said Juana. Napsipagpútol nang buhòk ang manga
Intsèk. The Chinamen cut off their queues. Nagsìsipagpútol nang buhòk
ang manga Intsèk na si Yèng at Tsàng, nang sila y datnàn ko sa kanila
ng tindáhan. The Chinamen Yeng and Chang were cutting their queues
when I came upon them in their shop. Nagsipagtipìd ang sundálo. The
soldiers economized.

So from: basà`, dasàl, hintò`, larò`, pasiyàl, sísi, sugàl, takbò,
tindìg, yukayòk.

(a) Plurality emphasized: nangagsipagtakbò.

(b) The pag- is used when the underlying word is a derived word: Ang
manga sundálo ng Tagálog ay nagsipaghimagsìk. The Tagalog soldiers
revolted (-himagsìk, § 518). Nagsipaghìmagsíkan silà. They fought each
other (hìmagsíkan, § 377,a). So from: agawàn (§ 379), -bugtúngan (§
377,a), labanàn (§ 379), takbúhan (§ 377,a). Cf. § 406.

(c) The same formation with accent shift of the root corresponds
to primary actives with mag- (1), § 353. It occurs from: bálot,
lákad, líbot.

387. With pang- prefixed to the root, this formation corresponds to
the primary active with mang- (§ 357). Magsipamangká táyo. Let's all
go canoeing. Magsìsipamiyábas kamì sa manga gúbat na malápit. We are
going guava-picking in the jungles near here. Si Pédro at si Hwàn ay
umáhon sa bundòk úpang magsipamútol nang káhoy na asanà`. Pedro and
Juan went up into the mountains to cut asana. Àáhon kamì sa bundòk at
magsìsipamútol kamì nang muláwin. We are going up into the mountains
to cut molave.

So from: barìl, hína`, hingì`, noòd, tahímik, tálo.

(a) With pang-hin-, cf. § 357,b: Silà y nagsipanghimagsìk. They made
a revolution.

2. The prefix paki-.

388. The prefix paki-, which forms simple static forms, transients,
and abstracts, expresses that the subject of the sentence performs
or undergoes the action along with others that were involved in it
before,--this either through interference or by favor of someone else.

389. Simple static form: ang pakikinábang the obtaining of profit
(kinábang) in trade with others; also: holy communion. So pakipútol,
in command (cf. § 341,3,c), cut as a favor.

390. The active transient and the abstract have the forms: maki-pútol,
makì-ki-pútol, naki-pútol, nakì-ki-pútol, paki-ki-pútol, i. e. the
reduplication affects the syllable -ki-.

Ang kapitàn ay nagpadalà nang isa ng sekréta sa lúpà nang kaáway
úpang makiramdàm nang kanila ng kìlúsan. The captain sent a spy to
the enemy's country to spy out (literally: perceive along) their
movements. Makìkikáin akò kina Lílay. I am going to Lilay's for a
meal. Si Pédro ay nakikáin kina Hwàn. Pedro took a meal at Juan's
house. Nakipútol akò nang damò sa lúpà ni Mariyáno. I obtained
permission to cut grass from Mariano's land. Sila y nàròroòn sa búkid
ni Pédro at nakìkipútol nang damò. They have gone to Pedro's field
and are cutting grass there by his permission. Pumaroòn ka t makipútol
nang damò. Go and ask them to let you cut some grass. Pakikipútol díto
ni Hwàn nang damò ay singilìn mo ang útang nya. When Juan asks to be
allowed to cut grass here, dun him for his debt. Sila y nakisúno kay
Mariyà. They had Maria let them live in her house with her.

So: sakày, sáma, túloy, túlog.

(a) With accent shift of the root (§ 337): makialàm look after someone,
nose into others' affairs (álam).

391. The root has pag- when the formation corresponds to a primary
active with mag- in contrast with -um- (§ 351): Nakìkipagáway ang
báta ng itò, kanyà` hindí dápat pahintulúta ng madalàs na manáog
nang báhay. As this boy gets into fights, he should not often be
allowed to leave the house. Nakipagáway si Pédro. Pedro got into the
fight. Nasaktàn si Hwàn sa kanya ng pakikipaglarò`. Juan got hurt
when he joined into the game. So from: bunò`, dalamháti`, lában,
tagpò`, úsap.

(a) From derived words: Hwag kà ng makipaglàngúyan, Hwàn, at baká
ka malúnod. Don't go swimming with the crowd, Juan, I am afraid
you might get drowned. Makìkipaglàngúyan ka bà, Pédro? Are you
going along swimming, Pedro? Nakipagluksúhan si Hwàn nang idáos ang
manga larò`. Juan entered in the jumping-contest when the games were
held. Similarly, from: pustá-han, siksík-an, takbú-han. All these
belong under § 377,a. See also § 427,b.

(b) Corresponding to primary active with mag- (1) § 353: Nakipagbabàg
si Pédro. Pedro got into a free fight (bábag).

392. The root has pang-, corresponding to a primary active with mang-:
Sya y hindí pinahintulútan sa kanya ng pakikipamútol nang tubò. His
request to be allowed to cut cane was not granted.

393. In the passive the paki- expresses that the subject undergoes the
action along with others, often as a favor on the part of the actor. So
direct passive: paki-putúl-in be cut, as a favor on the part of the
one who does the cutting; the recipient of the favor is the speaker.

394. In the instrumental passive the meaning is similar; sometimes,
however, the instrumental passive is used with the person asking the
favor as agent.

Maárì mo ngà ng ipakihúlog sa kuréyo ang súlat? Will you please
mail my letter for me? (literally: Can my letter please be
thrown-along-with-yours or thrown-as-a-favor into the mail by
you?). Ipinakihúlog ni Pédro ang áki ng súlat. Pedro mailed my letter
(along with his or as a favor) for me. Ipinakìkihúlog ko lámang kay
Pédro ang áki ng manga súlat. I am asking Pedro to mail my letters
for me; here ipinakìkihúlog is not that thrown as a favor, but that
asked to be thrown as a favor. Ipakìkipútol daw ni Hwàn ang buhòk
nang alílà nya ng Intsèk. Juan says he will ask someone to cut his
Chinese servant's hair; ipakìkipútol is here that asked to be cut as
a favor, and the relation of asking is the only thing expressed by
the instrumental (rather than the direct) passive.

395. The root has pag-, corresponding to § 351: Ipakipagpútol mo ngà`
nang buhòk ang guntìng na itò, úpang áti ng masubúkan ang húsay nang
talìm. Please use this shears in cutting hair, so that we may test the
quality of the edge (genuine instrumental passive). Ipakìkipagpútol
daw nya akò nang búhò` pagáhon nya sa bundòk. He says he will cut
some bamboo for me when he goes up into the mountains. (genuine
instrumental passive). Ipinakipagpútol akò ni Hwàn nang tubò. Juan had
someone cut me some sugar-cane (literally: I was asked to be cut for
as a favor). Ipinakìkipagpútol daw ni Hwàn si Pédro nang labòng. Juan
says he is having someone cut bamboo-shoots for Pedro.

396. Local passive with paki-: pinakibalitáan was ascertained by the
actor getting people to tell him as a favor.

(a) From shifted root: pinakialamàn.

(b) With pag- (cf. § 352): pinakìkipagtakbuhàn.

3. The prefix ka-.

397. Secondary forms with the prefix ka- are of most varied meaning;
the principal types express association of two individuals or groups
and involuntary action. In accented form the prefix kà- expresses
chiefly accidental occurrence. In certain passives associated with
this group the prefix itself does not appear.

(1) Simple static forms.

398. Words with prefix ka- denote objects (or groups) standing in
such and such a relation to another object (or group). Sya y áki
ng nagìng kabaláe. He (she) has become my fellow-parent-in-law,
i. e. Our children have intermarried; the form ka-baláe merely
makes explicit the element of relation present in the simple word:
Si Bantùg ay áki ng baláe. Bantug's son (daughter) has married my
daughter (son). Ang manga áso ay nása kabilá nang bákod. The dogs
are on the other side of the fence (the simple -bilà` does not occur;
the idea of other side is always envisaged as relative). Ang búkid ni
Hwàn ay karátig nang kay Pédro. Juan's field borders on Pedro's. Ang
mésa ng itò y kakúlay nang kahòn. This table is of the same color
as the chest. Si Hwàn ang kalában ny Andrès sa larò ng dáma. Juan is
Andres' opponent at checkers. Kamatà si Hwàn ni Pédro. Juan and Pedro
took to each other from first sight. Ang tagpí nang báro ni Pédro ay
hindí kamukhá nang báro`. The patch on Juan's blouse does not match
the blouse. ang áki ng kapatìd na si Hwàn my brother Juan. ang áki
ng kapútol na si Hwàn my brother Juan; ang kapútol nang tubò a piece
(broken off) of the sugar-cane. Ang kasánib nang áki ng banìg ay ang
banìg ni Manuwèl. Manuel's sleeping-mat and mine overlap (kasánib
one of two things of which one overlaps the other). walà ng kasangkàp
without accompaniments, trimmings, affixes. Si Mariyáno ang kasunod kò
ng lumàlákad sa kalsáda. Mariano was the one who was walking behind
me on the street; ang kasunod kò ng naparoòn sa simbáhan the one who
followed me in going to church (kasunòd one of two persons one of whom
is following the other). ang katúngo the person one is dealing with,
the other party. Si Pédro ang kaugáli nang kanya ng kaybíga ng si
Hwàn. Pedro has the same habits as his friend Juan.

Similarly from: áway, báyan, biyàk, bunò`, ribàl, haràp, kilála, kláse,
lákip, larò`, pantày, partè, sabuwàt, sáli, sálo, sáma, súno`, tapàt,
timbà`, untì`, úsap, walà`.

Divergent in meaning are katáo (§ 255), kagabì, kahápon (§
259). Cf. also § 520.

(a) From derived words: Syà y isa kò ng kamagának. He is a relative
of mine (mag-ának, § 358,a), and kamakalawà (§ 259, from maka-lawà,
§ 453).

(b) From a phrase: ang kasa-ng-báhay a person dwelling in the same
house with another, a housemate (isà ng báhay).

(c) From shifted root (§ 337): Si Hwàn ay kagalìt ni Pédro at ni
Kulàs. Juan is at odds with Pedro and Nicolás. ang kanyà ng kagalìt
the person or persons with whom he is at odds. Si Pédro ang nagìng
kasirá ni Hwàn. It is Pedro with whom Juan is angry. Hindí ko katalò
si Párì Hwàn. I don't play winning-and-losing games with Father
Juan. Similarly from álam, sáma.

(d) The root is reduplicated in a few cases: Si Pédro ang áki ng
kababáyan. Pedro is my fellow-townsman (beside kabáyan); katutúbo`
native, ingrown, inborn, inherited.

399. kà-ka-. With accented reduplication of the prefix these forms
emphasize the incompleteness of the correlative object: Kàkapútol
lámang na tubò ang áki ng nàkúha. I got only a little piece of the
sugar-cane. So also kákauntè`.

400. ka- R. With accented reduplication of the underlying word ka-
forms words expressing the recent completion of an act; they are
used impersonally (§ 77) or as conjunctive attributes. Kaàáway pa
lámang ni Hwàn sa kanya ng kalarò`. Juan has only just now quarreled
with his playmate. Kabàbángon ko. I have just got up. Kagàgáling sa
báyan nang kapatìd ko ng babáye. My sister has just come back from
town. Kahíhiga ko pa lámang. I had just then lain down. Kalàlarú ku pa
lámang sa báta`. I have just finished playing with the child. Kapùpútol
ko pa lámang nang yantòk. I have only just now cut some rattan. So
gísing, káin.

(a) ka-pag- R, with the usual value of pag- (§ 369, etc.): Kapagpùpútol
lámang ni Hwàn nang kawáyan. Juan has just come from cutting bamboo.

(b) ka-pang- R, corresponding to active with mang- (§ 357): kapamùmútol

401. ka- D. With doubling of the root ka- has causative value: it
expresses that which causes such and such an involuntary action,
specifically, such and such an emotion: Ang dumatìng na bálang
ay katákot-tákot ang dámi. The locusts that came were frightful in
quantity. So from hiyà`, takà. Vowel-contraction in kàwáwa` pitiable,
piteous (for ka-áwa-áwa`). Slightly divergent in meaning is karáka-ráka
(§ 265,5).

402. In a different use ka- has the form kay- in some words; these
formations express a remarkable degree of a quality; they are used
impersonally (§ 76), as predicate (§ 247), occasionally as conjunctive
attributes: kaálat kayálat what saltiness! (of water); kay-asùl what
blueness! Katáyog nang púno-ng-niyòg na iyòn! How tall that cocoanut
tree is! Kayuntì` nang ibinigày nya ng laruwàn sa ákin! How few toys
he gave me! So: kay-dámot, ka-rámot, ka-rúnong, ka-itìm, kakínis,
ka-láyo`, ka-muntì`, ka-pulà, ka-tabà`, kay-tipìd.

(a) With reduplication of the root, this form refers to the quality
in an explicit plurality of objects: kaiitèm what blackness! (of
several things); Kalalamìg nang paà nang manga báta`! How cold the
children's feet are!

(b) With doubled root these forms intensify the quality: Kaydámot-dámot
nang báta ng itò! What a terribly stingy child! (kaydámot, karámot
what stinginess! ang dámot stinginess).

403. A few forms with accented ka- prefixed to the root envisage the
accidental nature of the reciprocal relation: Ang manga damìt na
itò ay kásiya sa baòl. These clothes will fit into the trunk. Akò
ang kásundo` ni Pépe sa pagpapalarò` nang bèsbol sa manga báta`. I
am at one with Pepe as to letting the children play baseball. Hábang
akò y nagdádaàn, kátaon namà ng isinábuy nya ang túbig. He threw out
the water at the very time, it happened, that I was passing by. ang
kàtiwála` a confidential agent, manager, overseer.

The words káluluwà and kápuwà`, which resemble this formation, seem
to be felt as simple roots and have been so treated here.

(2) Normal transients, abstracts, and special static forms.

404. k-um-a-. An active with -um- is made from ka-úsap as underlying
word: Si Hwàn ay kumàkaúsap sa ákin. Juan was talking at me,
haranguing me.

405. mag-ka- pag-ka-ka-. Actives with mag- and abstracts with pag-
r from underlying words with ka- express a partial affection of the
actor or of a group of actors; ka- here has its involuntary force:
the actor is not a rational and voluntary agent. Nagkaroòn ako nang
trabáho kanína ng umága, sapagkàt nagpasakày akò sa trèn nang manga
kamátis nang tátay ko. I was kept busy this morning, for I attended
to the shipping by train of my father's tomatoes. Nagkaroòn sya
nang gálit. He harbored ill-feeling. Nagkagulò ang manga Amerikáno
sa pagdatìng nang Dòytsland. The Americans were surprised at the
coming of the "Deutschland". Nagkagustò sya ng kumáin nang súha`. He
conceived a desire of eating grape-fruit. Nagkàkalípon ang manga
langgàm sa púto. The ants are getting all over the cake. Akò y
nagkamálay pagkaraàn nang ilà ng sandalì ng paghihimatày. I returned
to consciousness after a few moments' fainting-spell. Nagkapálad si
Hwàn na makaratìng díto ng maluwalháti`. Juan was fortunate enough to
get back here safe and sound. Ang pakwàn ay nagkasíra`. The watermelon
got partly spoiled. Ang manga ságing ay nagkasíra` sa kalaúnan nang
pagkàtágo` sa lalagyàn. Some of the bananas got spoiled on account
of the long time they were kept stored. Nása simbáhan. silà nang
magkasúnog. They were at church when a fire occurred. Twi ng papasúkin
ko sa kuràl ang manga kalabàw ay nagkákawalá silà. Every time I put
the carabao into the corral, they get away.

So: búkol, hinòg.

406. mag-ka- (1) pag-ka-ka- (1). Accent shift in this formation serves
various uses:

(a) It may be due to the root: Si Hwàn ay nagkasakìt noo ng bwà ng
nagdaàn. Juan had a sickness last month. Si Hwàn ay hindí makapútol
nang káhoy, sapagkàt mahínà pa sya dahilàn sa pagkakasakìt. Juan cannot
cut wood, because he is still weak on account of his recent illness.

(b) It expresses plurality: Magkákaputòl ang manga tubò. The sugar-cane
will get broken in numbers. Nagkaputòl ang manga tubò sa lakàs nang
hángin. The sugar-cane broke in quantity under the violence of the
wind. Nagkákaputòl ang manga tubò sa kalakasàn nang hángin. Much
sugar-cane is breaking under the force of the wind.

So also from lúnod.

(c) The form is really a simple active with mag- from an underlying
word of the form ka- (1), § 398,c; three words of this kind occur:
Sila y nagkagalìt. They quarreled. ang pagkakagalìt the quarrel. Ang
Hapòn at ang Tsína ay nagkasirà`. Japan and China had a break. Silà
y nagkatalò. They played a winning-and-losing game. Nagkatalu nà ang
manga nagsúsugàl. The gamblers have lost and won, have finished their
winning-and-losing game.

In accordance with § 356, the underlying word is doubled with
distributive plural meaning: Sila ng ápat ay nagkagá-kagalìt. The
four of them all got angry at one another.

Similarly, an explicit plural with mag-si-pag- is formed (cf. §
386,b): Nagsipagkasirá silà. They had a falling out.

407. (a) mag-ka- r pag-ka-ka- r. The reduplication of the root
expresses repeated action in a form with retraction of accent and
irregular insertion of ng after the prefix: Sya y nagkàkangdadápa`. He
kept falling on his face.

(b) mag-ka- D pag-ka-ka- D. Doubling of the root seems a more regular
expression of the same value: nagkàkaumpòg-umpòg.

408. Special static words with mag-ka- are simply dual collectives with
mag- (§ 358,a) from underlying words with ka- (§ 398): Ang banìg ni
Hwàn at ni Pédro ay magkaánib (or: magkasánib) sa pagkàlátag. Juan's
and Pedro's sleeping-mats overlap each other as they are spread. ang
magkabaláe a pair of persons related by intermarriage of their
children (more insistent on the relational element, but practically
equal to magbaláe, § 358,a). Ang dalawa ng manòk ay magkabukòd nang
kulungàn. The two chickens were in separate crates. Ang búkid ni Hwàn
at ni Pédro ay magkarátig. Juan's field and Pedro's border on each
other. Si Pédro at si Hwàn ay magkapantày. Pedro and Juan are of the
same height. ang magkapatìd two brothers or sisters, a brother and
a sister. ang magkapútol na si Andrès at si Rafayèl the brothers
Andrés and Rafael. Magkapútol kamì ni Hwàn nang báro`. Juan and I
have blouses made of the same cloth. dalawà ng bágay na gàgawi ng
magkasunòd two things that are to be done one after the other.

(a) From kababáyan (§ 398,d): dalawà ng estudyànte ng magkababáyan
two students from the same town.

409. mag-ka-ka. As the explicit plural corresponding to these duals
reduplicates the underlying word (§ 358,b), the syllable ka- is
repeated in this meaning: ang magkakapatìd a group of three or more
brothers and (or) sisters; in the same meaning ang magkakapútol. So
also from: bukòd, sáma, súno`.

(a) The form magkababáyan (§ 408,a) rejects the extra reduplication,
and is therefore plural as well as dual: tatlo ng estudyànte ng
magkababáyan three students from the same town.

410. mag-kà- pag-ka-kà-. The transient with mag- and abstract with
pag- r from underlying words with kà- have the accidental value of
the latter prefix, usually with a dual reciprocal meaning. Sa kabilà
ng bandà mo ibwàl ang púno ng iyàn, sapagkàt kung irè ay ibuwal kò y
baká magkádagan ang dalawa ng púno`. Fell your tree in the direction
away from me, so that if I fell this one, the two trees won't fall one
on top of the other. Magkàkàdagàn ang dalawa ng púno ng itò, kapag
hindí mo ibinwàl sa kabilà ng bandà iya ng pinùpútol mo. These two
trees will fall one on top of the other, if you don't make the one you
are cutting down fall the other way. Nagkádagan ang dalawa ng báta`
nang mahúlog sila sa hagdàn. The two children landed one on top of
the other when they fell from the ladder. Ilabas mò sa búkid, Kulàs,
ang dalawa ng sáko ng pálay na nagkàkàdagàn na nása bangàn. Nicolás,
take out to the field the two bags of rice that are lying one on top
of the other in the granary. Ang pagkakáiba nang ugáli ni Pédro at ni
Hwàn ay gáya nang pagkakáiba nang túbig at nang apòy. The difference
in character between Pedro and Juan is like the difference between
water and fire. magkáhiwalày part from each other (by force of
circumstances, of two people). Ang ikinahátì nang palayòk ay ang
masamà ng pagkakálagay nitò. What caused the rice-pot to break was
the bad way it was placed. magkàmáyaw harmonize. ang pagkakásabày the
happening at the same time of two events. Sya y nagkàsála. He sinned
(against the moral order, God, etc.) Ang pagkakàsála kay Bathála`
ay pinarùrusáhan sa infiyèrno. Sinning against God is punished in
hell. Bìbilhin kò ang kabáyo ng iyòn, kung magkàkàsya ang áki ng
kwaltà. I shall buy this horse, if my money is sufficient. Walá sila
ng pagkakásundò`. The two don't agree on anything. ang pagkakátaòn
the coincidence in time of one event with another, of two events. ang
pagkakátayò` the standing up together (even of more than two people).

(a) Somewhat different are kung magkàbihíra` at odd times; kung
magkágayòn when things turn out thus, when this is the state of
affairs. So also, with static value: Ang magkábila ng dúlo nang lápis
ay matúlis. Both ends of the pencil are sharpened.

411. mag-kà- D pag-ka-kà- D. With doubled root plurality is expressed:
Nagkàhiwá-hiwalày ang manga dáhun nang librò. The leaves of the book
came apart. Ang manga ginágawá nya ng pangísip nang manga makabuluhà
ng fétsa nang istòriya ay ang pagkakàsunòd-sunòd at pagítan nilà. He
remembers the important dates of history by their sequence and their

(a) With accent shift, from a barytone root: Nagkàputol-putòl ang
katawàn nang táo ng nàsagasáan nang trèn. The body of the man who
was run over by the train got all mangled. Nagkàkàputol-putòl ang
katawàn nang bála ng táo ng màsagasáan nang trèn. The body of a person
run over by a train is cut to pieces. Magkàkàputol-putòl ang túbo ng
kristàl na iyàn kapag iyo ng ibinagsàk. If you drop that glass tube,
it will break into a thousand pieces.

412. ka- (1) -in, k-in-a-. The simple direct passive is formed from
an underlying derived word with ka- with normal meaning. So from
ka-lában, ka-úsap.

(a) A special static word corresponding to those in § 366 is ang
kinákapatìd the child of one's godparents (from ka-patìd).

From it are derived the dual collective (§ 358,a) magkinákapatìd a
pair of such, and the plural (§ 358,b) magkikinákapatìd three or more,
as a group.

413. i-ka- i-k-in-a-. The instrumental passive with prefix ka-
has a specialized meaning: it expresses transiently, an inanimate,
or at least irrational and involuntary, object or circumstance which
causes such and such an action: and this latter action is in turn
also involuntary or out of control of the actor (as, for instance,
the ability to do a thing), see § 432 ff.

Ang kawalàn ni Andrès nang hánap-búhay sa báya ng itò ay sya nyà ng
ikinaalìs. Andrés' inability to make a living in this town is what
forced him to leave. Ang malì ng anyò nang pulúbe ay siyà ng ikinaáwa`
sa kanya ni Hwàn. The bad condition of the beggar was what made Juan
pity him. Ang pagsasakày nang kutséro nang manga táo ng may sakìt
na nakàhàháwa ay sya ng ikinabáwì nang kanya ng pahintúlot. The
driver's taking people with contagious diseases into his carriage
was what caused his license to be withdrawn. Ang ikinahárang nang
mangà naglálakàd ay ang pagkáalam nang manga tulisàn na silà y may
dalà ng kwaltà. What caused the wayfarers to be held up was the
robbers' happening to know that they had money with them. Ikinaháte
ni Hwàn sa búnga ang kanya ng laséta. Juan's knife enabled him to
cut the betel fruit. Ang pagkasála nya sa singsìng ay ang hindí niya
ikinakúha nang ganti ng pála`. His missing the ring is what kept him
from winning the prize. Yòn ay áki ng ikinalúlungkòt. I am sorry,
I am sorry to hear that. Ang pangungublì nang manga sundálo ay sya
nilà ng hindí ikinamatày. The soldiers' keeping in hiding is what
saved their lives. Ikinapútol nang yantòk na pamálo` ang pagkàpálu
kay Hwàn. The caning Juan got broke the rattan that was used on
him. Ikinapùpútol nang marámi ng tubò ang malakàs na hángin. The
strong wind is making much sugar-cane break. Ikapùpútol nang manga
sangà nang káhoy ang malakàs na hángi ng itò. This strong wind will
cause many branches of trees to break off. Ikapùpútol nya sa manga
kawáyan ang paggúlang nitò. The aging of the bamboo plants will force
him to cut them down. Ang pagkalúnod nang Kastíla` ay ikinatákot nang
tatlò ng magkakaybígan. The drowning of the Spaniard frightened the
three friends. Ang kanyà ng pagmamasìd sa manga tála` sa gabì ay sya
nyà ng malakì ng ikinatútuwà`. His observation of the stars at night
is his great source of pleasure.

Similarly, from: bingì, búhay, búti, gálit, hángo`, húlog, káya,
lípat, lúgi, túlong, walà`.

414. i-pag-ka- i-p-in-ag-ka. With pag- this instrumental passive
corresponds to the active with magka- (§ 405). The reduplication of
the durative forms affects the ka-.

Ang ipinagkagusto nyà ng kumáin nang sorbétes ay ang kainítan. It
is the heat which makes him want to eat ices. Ipagkákamatày nang
manga manòk ang masamà ng túbig. The bad water will make the chickens
die. Ang kalamigàn sa tagulàn ay sya ng ipinagkàkamuò nang túbig sa
ílog. The cold weather in winter is what makes the water in the river
congeal. Baká ipagkawalá nang manga manòk sa kulungàn ang pagpapapások
mo doòn niyà ng áso. See that your putting that dog into the enclosure
doesn't make the chickens try to get away. Ipagkákawalà nang bíhag
ang pagkàbalíta` sa kanyà nang parúsa ng kàkamtan nyà. The captive's
being told of the punishment he will get, will make him try to
escape. Ipinagkawalá nya sa kùlúngan ang pagpapahírap sa kanyà. Their
torturing him made him escape from his confinement. Ipinagkákawalà
nya sa bìlanggúan ang masamà ng pagpapakáin sa kanya díto. The bad
food they gave him in the jail made him try to escape.

415. Similarly, with accent shift this passive corresponds to the
active with mag-ka- (1), § 406,b. Ipinagkàkabalè` (or: ipinagkàkaputòl)
nang manga sangà nang káhoy ang bagyò ng itò. This hurricane is
breaking off many branches of trees. Nang ipagkaputòl nang áki ng
manga tubò ang hángin ay nalungkùt akò. When the wind broke down my
sugar-cane I was dismayed. Ipinagkaputòl nang manga tubò ang malakàs
na hángi ng nagdaàn. The recent strong wind broke down much sugar-cane.

Similarly: ipinagkasakìt (sákit).

416. Special static forms with i-ka- are made from the numerals,
with occasional contraction, forming ordinals and fractions: ikaánim
ikánim the sixth; ikaápat ikápat the fourth, a fourth, a quarter;
ikalawà the second; ikalimà the fifth; ikapitò the seventh; ikatlò
the third. Cf. § 347,a.

(a) The ordinal corresponding to isà one is however the independent
root úna first; half is kalaháte`, § 519.

(b) From phrases, of course, the higher numbers: ikaisa-ng-daàn
hundredth; ikaisa-ng-laksà` millionth; ikaisa-ng-líbo thousandth;
ikasa-m-pù` tenth; ikalabi-ng-isà eleventh; ikadalawa-ng-pù` twentieth;
ikadalawa-ng-pù-t-isà twenty-first.

417. i-kà- i-k-in-à-. The instrumental passive from the root with
accented kà- differs from that with unaccented ka- (§ 413) in that
the action or occurrence caused is not only involuntary but accidental
and entirely out of the control of the actor (see § 458 ff.).

Ang ikinàgùgusto kò sa kayibígan ko ng si Hwàn ay ang kanya ng mabaìt
na ugáli`. What makes me have a liking for my friend Juan is his
lovable character. Ang ginawá nya ng paggugupìt sa manga retáso ng
itinàtágo nang kanya ng nánay ay sya nyà ng ikinàpálo`. His cutting up
the patches his mother was saving is what made it necessary to thrash
him. Ang ikinásakay nyà sa kabáyo ng bara-barà ay ang kawalàn nya
nang iba ng kabáyo. What made him get on the wild horse was his lack
of other horses. Ikinátahol nang áso ang pagkádapá ni Hwan. Juan's
falling down made the dog bark.

So also from: iyàk, pátag.

(a) Accent shift is due to the root: Ang pagkátahol nang áso ay sya ng
ikinágising nang natùtúlug na báta`. The barking of the dog was what
made the sleeping child wake up. Ikàtàtawa nyà ang iyo ng sàsabíhin. He
won't be able to keep from laughing when you say that. Ikinàtàtawà ni
Hwàn ang sinábi ni Pédro. What Pedro said makes Juan laugh in spite
of himself.

418. Corresponding to primary actives with mag- contrasted with -um-,
and with mang-, we should expect pag- and pang- to be retained before
the root in these formations; the only example is: ikinápagtirà,
corresponding to magtirà, in contrast with tumirà (§§ 348. 351).

419. ka- (1) -an, k-in-a- (1) -an. The local passive with ka- is
used when the action is an involuntary one, especially an emotion,
of a rational actor, or when the actor is inanimate or irrational.

Ang hulihàn nang manga kinagalítan ni Patúpat ay idináos nang manga
gwàrdiya-sibìl kagabè. The arrest of the people who have incurred
Patupat's anger was carried out by the gendarmes last night. Kahiyaàn
mò ang táo ng matandà`. Reverence the aged. ang kinahulúgan nang báta`
the place from which the child fell. Ang bintána ng iyàn ang syà ng
kahùhulúgan nang báta`, pag hindí mo isinarà. The child will fall
out of that window, if you don't shut it. Baká ninyo kalunúran ang
ílog, manga báta`. See that you don't get drowned in that river,
children. Ang kanya ng kalùlunúran ay ang ílog na itò. He will
get drowned in this river some day. ang báhay na kinamatayàn the
house where someone died, ang báhay nang kinamatayàn the house in
which someone died, the house of the bereaved family. Kinapatiràn
nang lúbid ang lugàr na malápit sa dúlo-ng-bandà-ng-kaliwà`. The
rope broke at a point near the left-hand end. Ang kapàpatiràn nang
sinúlid ay malápit sa buhòl. The place where the thread will break
is near the knot there. Kinatakútan nya ang báhay na pinagpatayàn sa
kúra`. He was afraid of the house where the priest was killed. Ang
kinatàtakútan nang manga báta` ay ang núno`. The children are afraid
of the ghost. Katakútan ninyò ang núno`. You had better be afraid
of ghosts. Kinatamaràn ni Hwàn ang kanyà ng pagaáral. Juan became
neglectful about his studying. Nang katamaràn ni Hwàn ang kanya
ng pagaáral ay malápit na syà ng makatápos nang karéra. When Juan
became lazy about his studies, he was already near the end of his
course. Katàtamaran nyà ang kanyà ng pagaáral, pag binigyàn mo syà
nang marámi ng salapè`. He will be lazy about his studies, if you
give him too much money.

Similarly from: buwísit, íwan, kíta, walà`.

(a) With shifted root: Isa ng pulúbe ang kinaàawaàn ni Hwàn. It was
a beggar who aroused Juan's pity.

420. pag-ka- (1) -an, p-in-ag-ka- (1) -an; pag-ka- (2) -an, p-in-ag-ka-
(2) -an. Local passives with pag- before the ka- involve a plurality
of actors. The durative reduplication affects the ka-; barytone roots
have an extra accent-shift.

Ang kináin nang usà ay malakì ng pinagkàkagustuhàn nang
manga Ilóko. The Iloco are very fond of the contents of deers'
stomachs. Pinagkàkalipumpunàn nang manga langgàm ang púto. The ants
are swarming all over the cake. Ang pinagkamatayàn nang manga kambèng
ay ang lugàr na itò. This is the place where the goats perished. Hwag
mò ng dalhìn sa bundòk ang manga manòk, sapagkàt iyò y kanilà ng
pagkàkamatayàn. Don't take the chickens into the hills, for they
would die there.

Barytone roots: Pinagkatakutàn nilà ang báhay na pinagpatayàn
sa kúra`. They were afraid of the house where the priest was
killed. Pinagkàkatakutàn nilà ang manga mababagsìk na háyop. They
are afraid of wild animals. Hwag mò ng ipamalíta` ang nàkíta nátin
díto, sapagkàt baká ang lugàr na itò y pagkatakutàn. Don't tell what
we have seen here, for this place would be feared. Pagkàkatakutàn
nilà ang lugàr na itò, pag nàláman nilà ang nangyári ng paghaharangàn
díto. They will be afraid of this place when they know of the hold-ups
that occurred here. ang pinagkatalunàn that which was the occasion
of winning by many (tálo).

421. ka- S -an. Special static words, corresponding to those with S
-an (§ 377) are formed with prefix ka- from oxytone roots; in meaning
they are collectives and abstracts of quality: ang kasàyáhan gladness;
Ang katàmáran ni Patrísiyo ay katutúbo` sa kanya ng láhi`. Patricio's
laziness is inborn in his family. So from the roots: baìt, banàl,
damdàm, dangàl, duwàg, lagày, lungkòt, luwàng, mahàl, malì`, matày,
pintàs, sangkàp, tungkòl, tuwà`, tuwìd.

Divergent in meaning is ang Kapampángan a Pampanga, if from pangpàng.

The secondary accent is lacking, irregularly, in kalayáan (layà`); with
contraction in kayilángan, kaylángan (beside kailángan, from ilàng).

(a) This latter word underlies an active with mang-, an abstract with
pang- r, and a simple direct passive: nangàngayilángan requires; ang
pangangayilángan need, necessity; Kàkayilangáni ng magdaàn si Pédro
ríto bágu sya umalìs. Pedro will have to come here before he leaves.

(b) From a derived word, with the secondary accent irregularly
placed: Boo ng báyan ay nagdíwang sa kapangànákan ni Risàl. The whole
country celebrated Rizal's birthday; also: ang áraw nang kapangànákan
birthday,--from panganàk (§ 347).

422. ka- (2) -an. Barytone roots have, in the same sense, an accent
shift of two syllables, corresponding to § 379. Boò ng kabahayàn ang
nàkíta námin sa gitnà nang daàn. We saw a whole set of household goods
in the middle of the road; also: ang kabahayàn a house containing
several dwellings. Marámi sa manga táo ang nakàkìkilála nang kanila
ng karapatàn, dátapuwat nakalìlímot nang kanila ng katungkúlan. Many
are the people who know their rights but forget their duties. Ang
karamútan nang páre` ay nagìng kasabihàn. The stinginess of the priest
is proverbial. Ang katakutàn sa Dyòs ay isa ng kabàítan. Fear of
the Lord is a virtue. Ang pagbibigày nang sigarìlyo ay isa sa manga
matatandà ng kaugaliàn sa Filipínas. Giving cigarettes is one of the
old customs in the Philippines. ang kawikaàn a proverb.

So from abála, áraw, búlo, gámit, húlog, íbig, lángit, payápa`, síra`,
tápos, útos.

With contraction: kahariyàn, kaharyàn (hári`), and, if from táo,
katawàn body.

(a) From the latter word there is an abstract of action, with pang-
r: ang pangangatawàn physique (cf. pananamìt, etc., § 357).

423. ka- (1) -an. Corresponding to the formation (1) -an (§ 378), the
collective-abstracts of this type with ka- have formal irregularities
and, where there is any contrast (e. g. mahàl), less explicit and
more specialized meaning than the preceding two groups.

ang kaalátan saltiness (of water). Sa gabì ng itò ang kabilúgan nang
buwàn. The fullness of the moon is tonight. Ang kadalamhatían ay
isa ng damdámi ng hindí nàràrápat sa táo. Grief is an emotion not
becoming to a man or woman. ang karunúngan wisdom. ang kahangalàn
foolishness (ang hangàl a fool). ang kaibhàn the difference. ang
kalinísan cleanness, cleanliness. ang kamatsingàn monkey-tricks,
naughtiness. ang kamuráhan cheapness. Sawì` ang kanya ng kapaláran. His
luck is bad. Sa kapanayàn nang ulàn kung tagulàn ay hindí masiglà ang
báyan. The town is not cheerful during the unabated rains of the rainy
season. Ang manga táo y marámi ng kasalánan. People have many sins. ang
kasamaàn badness. kasawiàn poor position, awkwardness. kasinungalíngan
falsehood, a lie. kasipágan diligence. Ang desgrásya ng nangyári
kay Hwàn ay isa ng hampàs nang katalagahàn. The misfortune which
has come to Juan is a blow of fate. Ang kanila ng pagílag ay hindí
katapángan. Their fleeing was not a brave act. ang boò ng kataúhan
all mankind. ang katipúnan a meeting, Katipúnan a secret society
organized against the Spaniards; a member of this. kayabángan pride.

So from: bába`, bábaw, bigàt, buhángin, búhay, búti, dalàs, dámi,
dámot, dániw (if karaniyúwan is so to be analyzed), dilìm, ginháwa,
gúbat, hába`, hína`, hírap, iklì`, ínit, lakàs, lakì, lamìg, lápad,
láon, liìt, lóko, lúnod, lupìt, mahàl, mangmàng, párang, fiyèsta,
pulò`, sakìm, salàt, salbáhi, salúkoy, taàs, Tagálog, tahímik, tákaw,
tákot, talíno, tampalásan, tangháli`, túlin, túnay, totoò, ulòl,
walà`, yáman.

(a) From a phrase: Iyò y kawala-ng-hyaàn ni Pédro. That was a shameless
action of Pedro's (walà ng hiyà`).

(b) From derived words: ang Kakapampangánan the Pampanga country
(Kapampángan, § 421).

ang boò ng kamaganákan nina Krùs, Bantòg, at iba pà the whole
relationship of the Cruz's, Bantogs, and so on; ang boò ng kamaganákan
ni Pédro Vyóla the whole family of Pedro Viola (magának, § 358,a).

ang kapangyaríhan power (-pangyári, as though by § 347).

424. ka- r (1) -an, ka- r (2) -an. With reduplication of the root and
accent shift of one syllable for an oxytone root, of two in barytone
roots, ka- and -an form special static words denoting something
surprising or provocative of such and such an emotion.

Itù y kagagawàn ni Hwàn! This is some of Juan's work! cf. Itù y gawá
ni Hwàn. Juan did this, made this. Ang pagkáupo ni Pédro sa sùgálan ay
kagagawàn nang isa nyà ng kaybígan. Pedro's sitting at the gaming-table
was the work of one of his fine friends. Ang pàtáya ng nangyári kagabì
ay kagagawàn ni Pédro. The killing which occurred last night was some
of Pedro's doing. So: katuturàn a correct outcome (tuwìd).

Barytone roots: Ang katatakutàn nang báta` ay ang núno`. The thing
that arouses the child's fear is a ghost. Ang kanya ng katatawanàn
ay ang unggò`. His source of laughter is the monkey. ang salità ng
katatawanàn a jest-word, a funny expression.

425. With secondary accent on the first syllable of the underlying
word, ka- and -an form also words denoting one of two reciprocal
actors. This is the form for oxytone roots, ang kabìgáyan a person
with whom one exchanges gifts. Si Hwána ay siya ng kabùlúngan ni
Maryà. Juana is the one Maria whispers with. ang kahampásan one of
two who perform mutual flagellation, kahìráman one of two who borrow
from each other. kaìnúman person one drinks with. kakàlabítan one of
two who touch each other. Ang kapàtáyan ni Hwàn ay si Pédro. Juan is
engaged in a mortal conflict with Pedro. Ang kapàtíran ni Hwána nang
sinúlid ay ang kanya ng kaybíga ng si Maryà. Juana cuts thread with
her friend Maria. ang kasàlitáan the person with whom one converses. Si
Hwàn ay kaùlúlan ni Pédro. Juan and Pedro fool each other. ang kaùpúan
one of two who sit together.

426. Barytone roots add accent shift of one syllable. Ang kahùlúgan nya
nang súha` ay ang kanyà ng kapatìd. The one with whom he takes turns at
dropping down grape-fruit from the tree is his brother. ang kahùníhan
one of two birds that chirp at each other. ang kaìbígan one of two
who love each other. ang kakàínan one of two who eat together. Si
Hwána ay siya ng kapùtúlan ni Maryà nang kukò. Juana and Maria cut
each other's fingernails. ang kasùlátan one's correspondent. ang
katàlúnan one's opponent in a dispute.

(a) The shift is due to the root in: Si Maryà ay syà ng kaàbútan ni
Hwána nang manga mabangù ng bulaklàk. Maria and Juana hand each other
fragrant flowers (as in some ceremony or game).

(b) With contraction and lack of secondary accent: ang kayibígan,
kaybígan a friend (contrast kaìbígan above).

(c) In a few instances barytone roots have accent shift of two
syllables without secondary accent. Si Maryáno ay kahatakàn ni Kulàs
nang lúbid. Mariano is pulling at the rope against Nicolás. ang
kamurahàn one of two who curse at each other (with meaning ordinarily
peculiar to the shifted root, § 337). Sumúlong at Kasamahàn Sumulong
and Company. kasulatàn one's correspondent (equal to kasùlátan,
above). Ang katuruàn ni Pédro ay ang báta ng si Hwàn. Pedro and little
Juan are pointing at each other.

427. These formations serve as underlying words of a few derivatives:

(a) Active with mag- and abstract with pag- r (§ 352): ang
pagkakayibígan the joining in friendship of two people.

(b) Secondary active with maki- from the preceding: makipagkayibígan
win one's way into someone's friendship, become friends with someone.

(c) Dual collective with mag- (§ 358,a): Si Pédro at si Hwàn ay
magkahìráman nang sambalílo at sandàlyas. Pedro and Juan lend each
other hats and sandals. magkaìbígan a pair of lovers. magkaybígan a
pair of friends.

(d) Where the dual value of the underlying form is weak, explicit
plurals of the preceding with mag- r (§ 358,b) occur: ang magkakaybígan
a group of three or more friends. ang magkakasamahà ng si Pédro, si
Hwàn, at si Andrès the party consisting of Pedro, Juan, and Andrés. ang
magkakasamahà ng sina Pédro the party of Pedro and his followers. Ang
magkakasamahà ng nagsipagpasyàl ay sina Maryà, Hwána, Pédro,
at Kulàs. The party that went for a walk consisted of Maria, Juana,
Pedro, and Nicolás. Ang magkakasamahà ng napasa húlo` at napaluwásan
ay sinà Mariyáno, Pépe, at Kulàs at sina Pédro, Húlyo, at Andrès. The
groups that went upstream and downstream were, respectively, Mariano,
Pepe, and Nicolás and Pedro, Julio, and Andrès. Ang tatlo ng manòk na
ytò y magkakasamahà ng inihatid díto, ang ibà y magkakabukòd. These
three chickens were brought here together, the others each by itself.

428. kà- (1) -an, k-in-à- (1) -an. Local passives with kà- denote the
place where someone or something happens to be. Hwag kà ng kumibò`
sa iyò ng kinàdòroonàn. Don't stir from the spot (where you happen
to be). Sa alì ng bandà ang kinàdòroonàn nang báya-ng-Kamálig?--Sa
bandà ng kaliwà`. In which direction is the town of Camalig?--Toward
the left. Ang báya-ng-Balíwag ay ang kinàmahalà ng úna ng úna nang
pálay. The town of Baliuag was the first place where rice got dear. Ang
kàpàpatayàn sa táo ng iyàn ay ang bigtíhan. This man will end on the
gallows. Ang báya-ng-Balíwag ang iyu ng kàtùtungúhan pag tinuntùn mo
ang landàs na iyàn. You will get to the town of Baliuag if you follow
that path.

Similarly from: bíngit, búrol, kulòng, lagày, tágo`, tayò`, tirà, upò`.

Divergent in meaning are kinàbukásan (§ 260) and, from a phrase,
kinàháti-ng-gabihàn (§ 260, háti ng gabì).

429. pag-kà- (1) -an, p-in-ag-kà- (1) -an. Local passives of this
type with pag- reduplicate the kà-; they refer to other local passive
relations than place in which; so: pagkàkilanlàn be the occasion of
showing something; pagkàsyahàn be the container of something that
fits in; pagkàsunduwàn, pagkàsunduàn be agreed upon.

430. Special static words with kà- and -an are few and differ in

(a) Ang kàgalítan nila Andrès, Hwàn, at Mariyáno ay napáwì na. The
quarrel between Andrés, Juan, and Mariano has been appeased; this
is no doubt merely a plural with S -an (§ 377,a) from the underlying
word kagalìt (§ 398,c).

It forms the underlying word of a simple active with mag- and abstract
with pag- r: ang pagkakàgalítan a quarrel (of two or more people).

(b) Si Pédro ay kàibígan ni Maryà. Pedro is liked by Maria. Sina
Pédro, Kulàs, at Hwàn ay sya ng manga kàibígan ni Mariyáno. Pedro,
Nicolàs, and Juan are the ones whom Mariano likes. This is probably
a real special static word corresponding to the transient with kà-
(1) -an (§ 428).

Derived active with mag-: Nagkàkàibígan si Pédro at si Hwána. Pedro
and Juana are in love with each other, have come to like each other.

(c) Ang kàtwáan ay náhintò` sa pagdatìng nang isa ng magnanákaw. The
rejoicing was stopped by the coming of a robber. This is, in form
at least, a plural with S -an from an underlying -katuwà`, which is
not known.

Derived active with mag-: magkàtwáan rejoice together, be merry

The same form is seen in kàlingkíngan; little finger, fifth finger;
if this is from a root -lingkìng.

431. ka- (1) D -an. With doubling of the root and radical accent shift:
Kàunà-unáha ng dumatìng si Hwàn. Juan got there the very first. So:
kàhulì-hulíhan the very last.

(3) Additional transients, abstracts, and special static forms.

432. The prefix ka- in its involuntary meaning and the prefix kà- in
its accidental meaning appear in an additional set of transients and
abstracts with maka-, makà- prefixed for the active, ma-, mà- for the
passives, and pagka-, pagkà- for the abstract. The meanings of these
forms are most varied; especially in the direct passive, where the
involuntary or accidental character of the actor sometimes reaches
the point where an actor is entirely left out of view or lacking,
and the passive borders closely on active meaning. For this reason
it will be convenient to divide the uses into a number of somewhat
arbitrarily defined groups. The forms are as follows:

433. The active forms with ka- are: maka-, maka- R, naka-, naka- R;
abstract pagka-.

The active expresses an inanimate object or circumstance causing an
emotion or feeling; the meaning, then, is the same as in the forms
with i-ka- (§ 413), except that here the thing causing the emotion is
viewed as an actor. Nakabùbúlag ang ílaw. The light is blinding. Ang
gamòt na itò ang nakaginháwa sa máy sakìt. This medicine is what
relieved the patient. Itò y makapàpáwì nang gútom (úhaw, ginàw,
ínit, págod). This will relieve the hunger (thirst, cold feeling,
hot feeling, fatigue). Ang áwit nang manga íbon ay nakatútuwà`. The
song of the birds is gladdening. Similarly from: bigàt, bingì, búti,
lasìng, ligáya, síra`, tákot.

434. The active expresses, further, an inanimate object which has got
(in the past) into such and such a condition or position.

Ang bangkà` ay nakaáyon sa ágos. The canoe is righted with the
stream. Ang pagkáin ay nakahandá nà. Dinner is served. Nakasábit sa
páko` ang áki ng amerikána. My coat is hanging on the nail. Nakasigàng
ang palayùk nang sináing. The rice-pot is on the fire. Hindí
ko bìbilhìn ang kabáyo ng iyòn, káhit na makasísiya ang áki ng
kwaltà. I would not buy this horse, even if my money should be
sufficient. Similarly: daàn, lawìt, táli`, túlong.

435. Very similar is the use of the active to describe an animate
actor in such and such a position (into which he has got): Nakadapà`
ang manga táo sa kanila ng báhay hábang lumílindòl. The people lay
prone in their houses during the earthquake. Si Pédro ay nakaháwak
sa taburéte nang sya y retratúhan. Pedro had hold of a chair when
he was photographed. Nakasakày ang báta ng si Hwàn sa áso nang
sya y màkíta ko sa bakúran. Little Juan was mounted (i. e. riding)
on the dog when I saw him in the yard. Nakatayó si Pédro nang ákin
sya ng màkíta. Pedro was standing up when I saw him. Nakaupó sya sa
bangkò`. He was seated on the bench. So from: abàng, hiléra, íkid,
kápit, luhòd, pangàw, talungkò`, tindìg.

436. The active may denote an animate actor who is able, succeeds
in doing so and so; the involuntary element inheres in the matter of
ability, which is not dependent on the actor's will: Sa gana ng ákin
sya y makaáalìs. So far as I am concerned, he may go. Sa tigàs nang
kanya ng loòb ay walà ng makabále`. There is no one (or, under the type
in § 433, nothing) can break the firmness of his will. Nakagágawà` ang
alílà nang páyong. The servant is able to make umbrellas. Nakagupìt
sya nang makapàl na damìt. He succeeded in cutting thick cloth. Si
Pédro ay hindí makaháwak nang palakòl, sapagkàt masakìt ang kanya ng
kamày. Pedro cannot hold an ax, because his hand is sore. Naàári ng
sya y makahigà`. He may lie down. Hindí ako makahingí nang kwaltà kay
Hwàn. I cannot (bring myself to) ask Juan for money. Nakahúlog sya nang
isa ng nyòg sa kanya ng pagpukòl sa kumpòl. He succeeded in bringing
down a cocoanut, in his throwing at the cluster. Ang báta` ay hindí
makakáin, sapagkàt kumáin sya nang marámi ng kakanìn. The child can't
eat because he has eaten so many sweets. Si Pédro ay hindí nakapùpútol
nang káhoy, sapagkàt bágu ng gáling sya sa sakìt. Pedro cannot cut any
wood, for he has just recovered from sickness. Sa tantyà raw nyà ay
makapùpútol na sya nang káhoy, sapagkàt sya y malakas nà. He reckons
he will be able to cut wood, for he is strong again. Nakasásakay
syà sa kabáyo. He is able to mount the horse. Ang báta y nakasùsúlat
nà. The child is already able to write. Hindí ako makasúlat. I can't
write. Ang máy sakit ay nakatátayú nà. The patient is already able
to stand up. Hindí ako nakatípon nang manga dáhon, sapagkàt walá ako
ng kalaykày. I was not able to pile up the leaves, because I had no
rake. Ang húle ng isdá ni Hwàn ay nakawalà`. The fish Juan caught got
away. Similarly from: akiyàt, balìk, báyad, dalà, datìng, kílos, kúha,
lákad, pások, sagòt, sigàw, suwày, tahòl, takbò, tirà, úbos, úsap.

Abstracts: Ang mákina ay syà ng dahilàn nang pagkagawá ni Pédro
nang páyong. The machine is the cause of Pedro's ability to make
umbrellas. Ang pagkasakáy nyà sa kabáyo ng bara-barà ay hindí dahilàn
sa kanya ng tápang, dátapuwat dahilàn sa marámi ng iba ng táo ng
nagsipígil sa kabáyo. His ability to get on the wild horse was not
due to his courage, but to the many other people who controlled the
horse. Ang kanya ng pagkatípon sa manga kalabàw ay nanyári dáhil sa
marámi ng túlong. His success in rounding up the carabao was due to
much aid.

437. Closely bordering on the preceding type is the active,
mostly with the particle nà, expressing the actor of a completed
action. Nakaalìs na siyà. He has already (succeeded in going,
i. e.) gone away. Nakapútul nà si Pédro nang káhoy. Pedro has now
finished cutting wood. Si Pédro ay nakapútul nà nang káhoy, bágo ko
ng inutúsa ng mangigìb. Pedro had already cut the wood, before I asked
him to fetch water. Similarly from: bútas, datìng, kúha, límot, tápos.

The abstract lends itself especially to the use as absolute attribute
(§ 274): Pagkagawá nya nang bákod ay naglasìng siyà. When he had
finished making the fence, he got drunk. Pagkahárang nang manga
tulisàn sa koréyo ay nagsitúngo silà sa bundòk. When the bandits
had robbed the mail, they took to the hills. Pagkaháte ni Hwàn nang
manga mansánas ay umalìs sya. When Juan had distributed the apples,
he went away. Pagkahúli nang pulìs sa magnanákaw ay dinala nyà itò sa
bìlanggúan. When the policeman had caught the thief, he took him to the
jail. Pagkapatày nya sa táo ng kanyà ng hinárang ay tumakbo syà. When
he had killed the man he had held up, he ran away. Pagkapútol ni Hwàn
nang tahìd nang kátyaw ay nagdudugò` ang paà nitò. When Juan had cut
the spur of the rooster, its foot kept bleeding. Pagkasakày sa kabáyo
ay naparoòn akò sa hàlamanàn at pumitàs ako nang isa ng pakwàn úpang
áki ng kánin. When I had had my horseback ride, I went to the garden
and picked a melon to eat. Pagkasakày ni Hwàn sa trèn ay lumákad ito
ng agàd. When Juan had got on the train, it soon started to move. Ang
pagkasúnog nang báyan ay ikinalungkòt nang marámi. The people grieved
at their town having burned down. Pagkatanàw nang unggò` sa pagòng
ay nagbalik syà sa púno-ng-ságing. When the monkey had looked at the
turtle, he went back to the banana tree. Pagkatáwag nang pagòng sa
unggò` ay sumunòd itò agàd. When the turtle had called the monkey,
the latter came at once. Pagkatayó nya sa kanya ng ùpúan ay minulàn
nya agàd ang pagtatalumpáte`. When he had stood up from his seat he
at once began making his speech. Pagkatípon mo nang manga bayábas ay
umuwí ka. When you have piled up the guavas, go home. Pagkaúna nya
sa takbúhan ay naghintú sya. When he had got ahead in the running,
he stopped. Similarly from: alìs, bendisiyòn, gupìt, hápon, ísip,
káin, kúha, lagòk, lúto`, mísa, sábi, sánay, tápos, típon, tupàd.

438. The forms of the direct passive are: ma-, ma- R; na-; na- R.

The direct passive may correspond regularly to the active in § 436,
and denote the object directly affected by an action which an actor
is able to perform.

Hindí nya mabásag ang bóte. He did not succeed in breaking the
bottle. Sa kalakasàn ni Páblo ay nadala nyà ang kabà ng bákal. Pablo,
with his strength, managed to lift the iron chest. Nadalà nang báta`
ang káhoy. The boy managed to carry the wood. Hindí madalà ni Pédro ang
kahòn sa kabigatàn. Pedro cannot lift the box; it is too heavy. Hindí
ku magámit ang páyong na itò. I can't use this umbrella. Hindí nakáin
nang báta` ang matigàs na tinápay na iyàn. The child was not able
to eat that hard bread of yours. Nakáya ko ng buhátin ang isà ng
maliìt na púno-ng-káhoy. I managed to lift one small tree. Nakàkáya
ko ang pagaáral nang Ingglès. I manage to get along with the study of
English. Nakáyas ni Pédro ang báo. Pedro managed to smooth the cocoanut
shell. Nalákad námin ang lahàt nang daàn. We managed to walk the whole
way. Nalìlípon nang manga langgàm ang kanila ng pagkáin. The ants
succeed in amassing their food. Hindí ko mapatày ang báta ng itò. I
cannot (get myself to) kill this child. Hindí ko mapútol nang kamày ang
bákal na itò. I can't break this iron with my hand. Mapùpútol daw nyà
ng wala ng túlong ang lahàt nang kawáya ng magúlang. He says he will
be able to cut all the old bamboo without any help. Hindí nya masíra`
ang kandáro nang pintò`, káhit na iniyúbus nya ang kanya ng lakàs. He
did not succeed in breaking the lock of the door, although he used up
all his strength. Natátalastàs mo bà ang sinàsábi ko sa iyò? Do you
understand what I am saying to you? Similarly: ágaw, akiyàt, alaála,
ampàt, gawà`, hángo`, híla.

439. Similarly, the direct passive may correspond regularly to the
active of the type in § 437 and denote an object directly affected
by an action which has been (successfully) completed by an actor.

Naáso ko nà sa boo ng báyan ang báta`. I have hunted and called the
child all over town. Nabálot ko nà ang manga librò. I have already
wrapped up the books. Nabása ku nà ang diyáriyo. I have finished
reading the paper. Nahampàs ko nà ang báta`. I have already whipped
the child. Nahánap na nyà ang librò. He has already looked for the
book. Napatày ku nà ang manòk. I have already killed the chicken. Kapag
napùpútol na nyà ang púno-ng-káhoy ay saká mo hatákin ang lúbid na
nakatáli sa sangà nitò. When he is getting the tree cut, then do you
pull at the rope that is tied to the branch. Natipìd nya ang pagkáin
nang kánin. He has been saving of the rice. Natípon ko nà ang manga
dáhon. I have already heaped up the leaves. Natísod ku nà ang bakyà`. I
have kicked off the sandal. Naúnat ku nà ang baluktòt na káwad na
ibinigày mu sa ákin. I have straightened the bent wire you gave
me. Nausísà ku nà si Hwàn. I have already questioned Juan. Similarly
from: ágaw, gawà`, ípon, íwan, líbot, sákop, siyásat.

440. We come now to direct passives which do not correspond regularly
to any active; these have their own abstracts with pagka-.

The commonest type expresses an object which undergoes or has
undergone a process due to an inanimate actor or to no actor
in particular; it differs from the simple direct passive in the
involuntary and often perfectic nature of the action. Nabále` ang
sangà nang káhoy. The branch of the tree is broken. Ang túlis nang
lápis ay nabále`. The point of the pencil is broken. Hwag mò ng
ilagay dyàn ang palatòn, sapagkàt baká mabásag. Don't put the plate
there, for it might get broken. Ang kanila ng kàínan ay nagambála
sa pagdatìng nang manga pulìs. Their dinner-party broke up when the
police arrived. Ang boo ng báyan ay nagulò. The whole town became
riotous. Naháte` ang mansánas. The apple is in halves. Nalagòt ang
lúbid. The rope broke. Ang kanya ng dalíri` ay napáso`. His finger
is blistered. Napatìd ang lúbid. The rope broke. Ang batò ng hasaàn
ay napiráso. The whetstone went to pieces. Napitas nà ang manga
bulaklàk. The flowers have been picked. Napùpútol ang manga sangà
nang káhoy sa lakàs nang hángin. The branches of the trees are being
broken off by the force of the wind. Napútol nà ang káhoy. The tree
has been cut down. Napútol ang dúlo nang káhoy. The end of the log is
cut off. Napútol ang sangà nang káhoy. The branch of the tree broke
off. Nasáyang ang trabáho ni Hwàn. Juan's work went for naught. Ang
búkid ay nasíra`. The field is waste. Similarly, from: ári`, bágo,
buwàl, dílat, gúmon, hinòg, laglàg, lamòg, láon, páwi`, punò`, puròl,
súnog, tápos, úbos, utàs, walà`, yári`.

The abstract is regular: daàn, hinòg, lagòt, pások, súnog, walà`.

441. The passive is used, further, to denote the animate performer
of an involuntary act, which, then, is looked upon rather as an
undergoing than as a performing.

This is the clearest where the subject is undergoing an emotion or
sensation: Naáwà si Hwàn sa pulúbe. Juan pitied the beggar. Ang báta
ng si Hwàn ay nadúdungò. Little Juan is bashful. Naginàw sya sa kanya
ng pagpalígo`. He got cold while taking his bath. Akú y nagùgútom. I am
hungry; isa ng táo ng nagùgútom a hungry person. Nahàhápis siyà. He is
sad. Nahíhiyá ka bà? Are you ashamed? Nahíhiyá sya. He is ashamed. Akù
y nailàng. I was nonplussed, I didn't know what to do. Akò y naíinip nà
nang paghihintày kay Hwàn. I am impatient with waiting for Juan. Sya y
nalímang sa kanya ng pagbílang. He got confused in his reckoning. Sya
nalúlungkòt. He is sorry. Akò y naùúhaw. I am thirsty. So: bagábag,
gálit, libàng, tákot, tuwà`.

This form is used also of processes of life, especially physiological
and morbid: Nalumpò syà. He got lame. Napípe sya. He got dumb. So:
naári` got the ability, nabáo got widowed, nabúhay lived, naíngay was
noisy, nakinìg heard, nalúnod got drowned, namatày died, natúlog slept.

It is used, finally, in nahúlog fell (from a place to the ground),
and, strangely enough, for two voluntary actions which consist of a
relaxing of the muscles: Sya y nahigà` He lay down. Sya y nahíhigà`. He
was in the act of lying down. Naupó sya sa bangkò`. He sat down on
the bench. Naúupó sya sa taburéte. He was in the act of sitting down
on the stool.

Further, irregularly, in: Sya y nalígo`. He took a bath. Sya y
nanáog. He came down from the house. See § 488,c.

Abstracts: Ang pagkaáwà ni Hwàn sa pulúbe Juan's pity for the
beggar. ang pagkabáta` one's childhood. ang pagkabúhay ni Hesùs
the resurrection of Jesus. Ang pagkagúlat ni Hwána ay sya nyà ng
ipinagkasakìt. Juana's scare was what made her sick. Pagkalúnod
nang Kastíla` ay lumáyas ang manga estudyànte. When the Spaniard
had got drowned, the students hurried away. ang kanya ng pagkamatày
his death. ang kanya ng pagkasála sa singsìng. his missing the
ring. Pagkaupú nya sa bangkò` ay minulàn nya ang pagkukwènto sa manga
báta`. When she had sat down on the bench, she began her story-telling
to the children. So: ári`, hápis, húlog, litò, lóko, pípi, tákot,
tálo, ulòl.

442. An explicit plural of both active and direct passive is formed
by the infixation of -ang- into the prefix.

In the active the syllable after this infix often receives a secondary
accent: Nangàkaupú na silà sa pagkáin, nang kamì ay dumatìng. They
had already sat down to their meal when we arrived. So also from:
bitàw, biyábit.

With reduplication of the ka- instead of root initial: Nangàkàkaupó
silà sa pagkáin. They are able to sit up for their meals.

Direct passive: Ang dinala nyà ng manga manòk ay nangamatày. The
chickens he brought all died. Nangapútol ang tubò sa lakàs
nang bagyò. The sugar-cane broke under the strength of the
typhoon. Nangapùpútol ang karamíhan nang tubò nang kasalukúyan ang
bagyò. During the typhoon most of the sugar-cane got broken. So from:
bulòk, íwan, lúnod, lungkòt, tákot, tuwà`.

443. From a compound word, passive: nasawi-ng-pálad (sawì ng pálad).

From a derived word, active: makataanàn (taanàn, § 378).

444. Accent shift is due to the root. Si Pédro ay nakaayàw nà. Pedro
has left the table. So from ábot, sákit.

Passive: Naabut nyà ang ilawàn. He managed to reach the lamp. Hindí
nya maabùt ang itlòg. He can't reach the egg. Ang báta ng si Hwàn ay
nabábahày. Little Juan is shy.

Abstract: Pagkaabòt nang bátà nang kanyà ng laruwàn ay tumakbò sya
ng agàd. After reaching for his toys, the boy at once ran.

445. With pag- before the root, this active is made from roots whose
primary active has mag-. The reduplication affects either the ka-,
or the pag-, or the root initial: makà-ka-pag- or maka-pà-pag- or
maka-pag- R.

Ang báta` ay nakapagdalà nang káhoy. The boy managed to bring the
wood. Ang báta` ay nakapagdádalà (or: nakàkapagdalà, or: nakapàpagdalà)
nang káhoy. The boy is able to bring the wood. Nakàkapaglasìng
si Ánong, káhit na sya y hindí binàbayáan nang kanya ng asáwa na
makapagpabilè nang álak. Anong manages to get drunk, even though his
wife does not allow him to have liquor purchased for him. Nakapagpútol
na si Hwàn nang káhoy. Juan has finished cutting wood. Nakapagpùpútol
nà si Hwàn nang káhoy. Juan is already able to cut wood. Hindí
makapagpútol nang káhoy si Hwàn, dahilàn sa súgat nya sa kamày. Juan
cannot cut wood, on account of the wound on his hand.

Similarly: antòk, áral, bíhis, ligtàs, mísa, nákaw, pasiyàl, sábi,
salità`, tágo`, takà.

446. Direct passive: ma-pag-; ma-pag- R or ma-pà-pag-. Hindí ko
mapagáyos ang manga damìt na itò. I can't straighten out these
clothes. Mapàpagáyos nya ang manga lipàs sa úso ng damìt na itò. She
will be able to fix these out-of-date clothes. Hindí ko mapagkúro`
kung anò ang íbig nya ng sabíhin. I couldn't make out what he wanted
to say. Nang mapagkúrò ni Hwàn kung anò ang mangyàyári, ay hindí nya
itinúloy ang kanya ng bálak. When Juan saw what was going to happen,
he did not carry out his plan. Hindí ko mapagkúro ang kahulugàn nang
súlat na itò. I can't get at the meaning of this letter. Napagtalastàs
ko ang manga sinàsábi mo sa iyo ng súlat. I understand all you say
in your letter. Napagtátalastàs (or: napàpagtalastàs) kò ang íbig mo
ng sabíhin. I understand what you mean.

447. maka-pag- (1), cf. § 353. Nang nakapaghanap syà ay umuwé sya sa
kanya ng báhay. When he had finished searching, he went home. Kung
makapaghanap syà ay úuwé sya. When he has finished searching, he will
go home.

448. maka-pang-, corresponding to mang-, § 357. Nakàkapanghiràm
kamì nang kwaltà kay Áli ng Kulása. We can borrow money from
Aunt Nicolasa. Makàkapanghiràm ka ng wala ng sála kay Hwàn nang
isa ng sombréro. You will surely be able to borrow a hat from
Juan. Nakapangàngabáyo sya ng patayò`, sapagkàt hindí gulatìn ang
kanya ng kabáyo. He is able to ride standing up, because his horse
is not given to shying.

Abstract: pagkapangáko` (áko`).

(a) The root is reduplicated for plurality: Ang pagkapanghahárang
nila Hwán ay hindí nila sána magawà`, kung hindí sa karamíhan nang
táo nila na máy barìl. The highway robberies by Juan and his gang
could not have been perpetrated by them, if it had not been for the
number of them that had guns.

(b) From a derived word: makapangináin (kináin, §§ 365, 357,a).

449. ma- D; expressive of slow activity: Hindí sya mamatày-matày. He
is lingering on the death-bed. Ang pàgakpákan nang manga táo ay hindí
matápus-tápus. The applause of the people could find no end.

450. In the instrumental passive, which seems to occur only with pag-
and pang-, the i- follows the ma-: Ang pagkàtáwag nang kúra sa manga
pulìs ay hindí nya ikinabúte, sapagkàt silà y kàkauntí lámang úpang
maipagtanggòl sya sa manga magnanákaw. The priest's having called in
the police did him no good, for they were too few to defend him from
the thieves.

With pang-: naipangánganàk (anàk, cf. § 357).

451. The local passive has the prefix ma- and the suffix (1) -an.

Namatayàn sina Hwàn. Someone has died in Juan's family. Namatayàn
sa báhay ni Hwàn. There has been a death in Juan's house. Naputúlan
si Hwàn nang dalíre` sa pagpapalákad nang mákina. Juan got a finger
cut off in running the machine. Napùputúlan nang médiko ang manga táo
nang kanila ng kamày o paà kung kayilángan. When necessary, people get
their hands or feet cut off by a doctor. Mapùputúlan ka nang dalírì`,
pag hindí ka nagíngat sa iyo ng pagtatrabáho sa mákina ng iyàn. You
will get your finger cut off, if you aren't careful about the way you
work that machine. Nasakyàn ko nà ang kabáyo ng bara-barà. I have
succeeded in mounting the wild horse. Naskyàn ko nà ang bangka ng
itò. I have already been in this canoe. Nawalàn nang málay ang babáye
sa kanyà ng paghihimatày. The woman lost consciousness in her swoon.

Similarly: báli`, bukàs, halìk, hírap, láon, límot, luwàt, patìd,
pílit, sákit, síra`, siyà, súbok, súgat, sunggàb, tagàl, tandà`, úbos.

(a) bitìw lacks accent shift: mabitíwan, cf. § 374,b.

452. Local passive with explicative pag-: Hindí námin mapaglagarían
nang káhoy ang kabáyo ng káhoy na ginawá mo. We cannot saw wood on the
saw-buck you have made. Napagputúlan námin nang kawáyan ang bágo ng
gawá mo ng kabáyo ng káhoy. We were able to cut bamboo on the sawbuck
you have just made.

453. Special static words resembling the active; the following occur:
Si Bantùg ay isa ng táo ng makabáyan. Bantog is a patriotic man. damò
ng makahyà` the sensitive plant, Mimosa pudica.

Of irregular use are makalawà (§ 262,8), and makatuwìd (tuwìd).

(a) From a word of this kind an active with mag- is derived in:
nagmàmakaáwa` provoking pity (as though from makaáwa`).

(b) The abstract is like a special static word in: Ang bigàs ay sya ng
pinakamahalagà ng pagkabúhay nang táo sa Filipínas. Rice is the most
important staple food in the Philippines. Cf. also pagkaráka, § 265,9.

454. ma- forms special static words denoting that which by nature or
circumstance possesses such and such, usually a quality. Maalikabok
nà ang mésa. The table is dusty already. Maásim ang súka ng itò. This
wine is sour. ang púno-ng-káhoy na mabába` a low tree; isa ng mabába ng
táo a humble person. Ang labàng ay mabábaw. The trough of the manger is
shallow. Madálang ang manga lindòl díto. Earthquakes are rare here. Sya
y isa ng ginoò ng magálang. He is a polite gentleman. Maginháwa ang
umupó sa sìlya ng itò. This chair is comfortable to sit in. Si Maryà
ay isa ng babáye ng mapúri. Maria is a decent woman. Maluwàng ang
báro ng itò. This blouse is too loose. matamìs sweet, ang matamìs
sugar. Matipìd na báta` si Hwàn. Juan is a saving child.

The plural is made with ma- r: Ang manga táo sa báyan ay mahuhúsay
sumunòd sa kautusàn. The people of the town are all good law-abiders.

These forms are made from so many roots that the Index will be as
convenient as a list.

Derivatives: §§ 352,c. 353,a.b. 370. 499,a. 500,b.

(a) Note masiyádo excessive, extreme, as though from a root -siyádo
(and so listed), still felt by Mr. Santiago to be from Spanish

(b) Accent shift due to the root in masakìt.

(c) From derived words: Ang pagtayú sa bubungàn ay mapangánib. It is
dangerous to stand on the roof. So from kasalánan (§ 423), kabuluhàn
(§ 422).

455. ma-pag- someone given to doing so and so: Ang inà ni Pédro ay
mapagbigày sa kanya ng manga kaululàn. Pedro's mother always gives in
to his foolishness. Sya y mapagtipìd. He is very economical. So from:
gawà`, kumpisàl, simbà, siyásat, usísa`.

(a) From a phrase, probably: Ang táo ng si Hwàn ay
mapagpáku-m-babà`. That man Juan is overmodest (páko ng babà`
low peg?).

(b) With accent shift: Mapaghunì ang manga kabáyo ng itò, kanya
hindí dápat dalhìn sa labanàn. These horses are given to neighing
and therefore should not be taken to war. So also: mapagawày.

456. In the same sense, but transitive in value, ma-pang-: mapanggúlat
given to surprising or frightening people, mapanghágis given to
flinging things; Ang táo ng si Hwàn ay mapanghiràm. The fellow Juan is
a great borrower. mapanghiyà` given to embarrassing people. mapamukòl
given to throwing things. So from: hilìng, matà.

457. In similar meanings, with suffix -in:

(a) ma- S -in: So magustúhin, masùnúrin.

(b) ma- (2) -in: Ang manga táo y hindí maibigìn sa pagkakàsála. People
are not fond of sinning.

(c) ma- r (2) -in: matatawanìn easily made to laugh; Sya y
matutulugìn. He is a sleepy-head. So also: magugulatìn.

458. The transients with kà- refer to accidental actions. The active
has the forms: makà-, makà- R, nakà-, nakà- R, but the reduplication
sometimes affects the kà- instead of the root initial. The abstract
has pagkà-. The meanings are various, much like those of maka-.

459. The active sometimes expresses an inanimate object as the agent
of an accidental action: Ang guntìng nang manggagamòt ay nakágupit
nang isa ng ugàt na malakè, kanyà` namatày ang kanya ng ginágamòt. The
physician's scissors accidentally cut a large artery, in consequence
of which his patient died. Similarly, from gísing, háwa.

460. More frequent is a rational actor of an accidental action; as such
is viewed any action the exact form of which is out of the actor's
control. Si Pédro ay nakàháwak nang káwad na mày elektrisidàd. Pedro
got hold of a charged wire. Hindí nya kilalà ang manga kwayanà ng
iyòn, kaniyà nakàpútol sya nang sa iba ng táwo ng kawáyan. As he
did not know those bamboo-groves, he inadvertently cut some bamboo
that belonged to other people. Sundan mò silà sa kawayanàn, sapagkàt
baká sila nakàpùpútol nang kawáya ng hindí nasàsákop nang áti ng
lúpa`. Follow them to the bamboo-grove, for they may be cutting some
bamboo that is not included in our land. Hwàn, usisáin mo ng mabúti
ang hanggáhan nang kawayanàn, bágo ka tumagá nang kawáyan, sapagkàt
baká ka makàpútol nang kawáya ng hindí átin. Juan, find out exactly
the borders of the bamboo-grove before you cut any bamboo, for else
you might cut some bamboo that is not ours. Pího ng makàpùpútol
silà nang kawáya ng hindí sakòp nang lúpa`, kapag hindí mo sila
pinakialamàn, sapagkàt ang hanggáhan nang lúpa ng iyòn ay lubhà ng
balú-baluktòt. They will surely cut some bamboo not included in the
piece of ground, if you don't look after them, for the boundary of
the land is very irregular. Nakàtísod akò nang isa ng áhas. I hit a
snake with my foot. Nakàtúlog si Hwàn sa báhay na gibà-gibà`. Juan
hit upon a broken-down house as a place to sleep in, was constrained
by circumstances to sleep in a broken-down house. Nakàusísà sya nang
nawalà ng kwaltà. It came to her mind to inquire about the lost
money. Nakàusísà sya nang isa ng táo ng nakààalàm nang líhim. He
happened to ask a man who knew the secret. Similarly: bilì, daàn,
inòm, káin, súlat, tagpò`.

Abstract: In the abstract the element of accident often takes the form
of expressing the way something turned out. Limàng ang pagkàbílang
nya sa manga itlòg na itò. His count of these eggs has turned out
wrong. Ang pagkágawá ni Hwána sa páyong ay masamà`. The umbrella Juana
made turned out poorly. Ang pagkágupìt sa úlo nang báta` ay hindí
pantày-pantày. The boy's hair-cut isn't (hasn't turned out) even. Ang
pagkàháti nang mansánas ay hindí parého. The halving of the apple is
not exact. Ang pagkàísip nya sa bugtòng ay hindi táma`. His guess
at the riddle is not correct. Ang pagkálagok nyà sa itlòg ay kanya
ng pinagsisíhan. He repented his having (in a moment of weakness)
swallowed the egg. Ang pagkàpások ni Hwàn nang tapòn sa bóte ay
malálim. Juan got the cork too deep into the bottle. Ang pagkápatay
sa magnanákaw ay hindí sinadyà`. The killing of the thief was not
done on purpose. Ang pagkápatay sa manòk ay masamà`. This chicken has
not been slaughtered in the proper manner. Ang pagkàpútol nang pálong
nang kátiyaw ay hindí sagàd. The cock's comb is not cut off clean. Ang
pagkátahul nang áso ay sya ng inilalá nang sakìt nya sa lalamúnan. The
dog's barking made the pain in its throat worse. Ang pagkátanaw kò sa
púno-ng-káhoy ay itò y may madidilàw na dáhon. The way I looked at that
tree made it seem as if it had yellow leaves. Ang kanya ng pagkátayò`
(or: pagkátindìg) ay dahilàn sa kanya ng pagkàgúlat. He jumped to his
feet because of his surprise. Ang pagkàtípon nang manga dáho ng itò
ay hindí mabúte. These leaves have not been well heaped up. So from:
bendisiyòn, bitbìt, hampàs, higà`, pálo`, tágo`, tirà, upò`.

461. The active may denote a rational actor successful, thanks to outer
circumstances, in such and such an action. Nakáhampas ang báta ng si
Hwàn nang isa ng tutubè. Little Juan succeeded in hitting a dragon-fly
with his whip. Nakàháte si Hwàn nang manga mansánas. Juan got a chance
to divide up the apples. Nakàkàkapá sya nang isa ng palakà`. He has
got hold of a frog (as, in grasping for frogs in mud-holes). Nakàpána
akò nang usà. I hit a deer with an arrow. Nakàtípun nà akò nang
manga dáhon, nang pumaròn si Tátay. By the time Father got there,
I had already had time to get some leaves heaped up. So also: ágaw,
hingì`, sáli.

Abstract: Ang pagkàbúhay nang médiko sa kay Hwàn ay isà ng malakì ng
ikinatwá nang kanya ng kababáyan. The doctor's saving of Juan's life
was a cause of great gladness to his fellow-townsmen. Ang pagkàtáwag
nyà sa médiko ng nagligtàs nang búhay nang kanya ng anàk ay dahilàn
sa pagkàgámit nya nang teléfono. His chance of calling the doctor who
saved his child's life was due to the use he was enabled to make of the
telephone. Ang nagìng pagkágupit nyà sa makapàl na damìt ay nangyáre
dahilàn sa paggámit nya nang guntìng nang láta. The fact that he was
able to cut the thick cloth was due to his using the tin-shears. Ang
pagkáhampas nyà sa manga bátà` ay dahilàn sa kahabáan nang kanya
ng pamálo`. He can hit the children because of the length of his
stick. Ang pagkàhárang kina Hwàn ay sya nilà ng ikinawalá nang kanila
ng salapè`. Juan and his party's having been held up was what deprived
them of their money. Ang pagkàháti nya sa tubù ay hindí mangyàyáre
kung gumámit sya nang mapurùl na gúlok. He would not have been able
to slice the sugar-cane down its length (as a game or trick), if he
had used a dull bolo. Pagkàísip nya kung anò ang dápat nya ng gawìn
sa magnanákaw na nàhúli nya, ay ginawá nya iyòn agàd. When he had at
last hit upon the idea of what to do with the thief he had caught,
he immediately carried it out. Nanghináyang ang boo ng báyan sa
pagkápatay kay Risàl nang manga Kastíla`. The whole country mourned
over the killing of Rizal by the Spaniards. Ang ámi ng pagkásakay sa
bangkà` ay syà ng nagligtàs sa ámi ng búhay. Our having been able
to get into the canoe is what saved our lives. Ang pagkàsúnog nang
manga magnanákaw sa báyan ay pinarusáhan nang gubyèrno. The thieves'
burning the town was punished by the government. Ang pagkátayo nang
isa ng báhay-pàmahaláa ng batò ay dahilàn sa pagpapaalaála ni Hwàn
nang pangánib sa súnog. The fact that a stone government-building
came after all to be built, was due to Juan's calling attention to
the danger from fire. Anu ng pagkátipid ni Hwàn! How saving Juan has
been! So from: sábi, táwag.

462. The active is used of certain acts of sensation whose
occurrence is out of the control of the subject: ang nakàkìkilála,
ang nakàkàkilála one who has got knowledge of a person or thing,
has come to know his habits, recognizes his nature. Ang pagkàgúlat
ni Hwána ay syà ng ikinátawà nang marámi ng nakàkàkíta. Juana's
astonishment amused many who saw it. With kilála compare nakáramdàm
felt; with kíta, nakàmálay, nakátanàw, and nakárinìg heard.

Abstract: Malínaw ang pagkàkíta ko sa nangyáre. I had a clear view
of what took place. So: dinìg, masìd, tanàw.

463. The direct passive has the forms mà-, mà- R, nà-, nà- R.

It may correspond regularly to the active type in § 460, and denote
an object undergoing an accidental action of a rational actor.

Nàáso ko sa boo ng báyan ang báta`, káhit na hindí ko gustò. I
was forced to go shouting after the child all over town, though I
didn't like to do it. Hindí mu ba nàbása sa diyáriyo ang tungkùl
sa súnog? Haven't you come across the details of the fire in
the paper? Baká mo màbásag, Hwána, iyà ng pinaglàlaruwan mò ng
kandeléro. See that you don't break that candlestick you're playing
with, Juana. Nádala nyà nang hindí sinásadyà` sa kanya ng pagalìs
ang áki ng páyong. When he went away he inadvertently carried off
my umbrella. Nàgambála ku ang pagaáral ni Hwàn dahilàn sa áki ng
pagdatìng na walá sa óras. I disturbed Juan in his studying by my
untimely arrival. Nàgámit ni Hwàn ang áki ng, sombréro dahilàn sa
kanyà ng pagmamadalí nang pagalìs. Juan used my hat in the haste of
his departure. Nàgísing nya sa kanya ng pagiingày ang manga báta`. What
with his racket he woke up the children. Náhampàs nang hindí sinásadyá
ni Pédro ang bábuy nang kanya ng kápit-báhay. Pedro inadvertently hit
his neighbor's hog with his whip. Nàíwan din nyà sa ákin ang kanyà
ng anàk, káhit na itò y áyaw nya ng gawìn. She was also forced to
leave her child with me, although she disliked to do this. Nápatày
ko nang barìl-barílan ang manòk. I accidentally killed the chicken
with my toy-gun. Kánin mo ang milòn, kung iyu ng gustò, o kayà` ang
ságing, kung sya mo itò ng nàpìpíle`.--Nàpìpíli ko ang milòn. Eat the
banana, if you like, or the melon, if you prefer it.--I prefer the
melon. Nápitas nyà ang bulaklàk nang hindí sinásadyà`. She picked the
flower without intending to. Nàpútol ko nang hindí sinásadyà` ang lúbid
na itò. I chanced, without intending it, to cut this string. Baká mo
màsíra`, Hwàn, ang patágo sa iyù ng kwàlta nang iyu ng kapatìd. See
to it, Juan, that you don't do away with your brother's money that
is entrusted to you. Nàusísà ni Hwána ang inumìt na singsìng nang
kanyà ng kapatìd. Juana happened to inquire for the ring her sister
had filched. So from: angkìn, búlag, bútas, hábol, patày, púlot.

464. The direct passive may correspond regularly to the active
described in § 461, and denote an object undergoing an action which a
rational actor was enabled to perform by virtue of outer circumstances.

Ang úlo ni Hwàn ay nàbìbílog nang kanya ng kalarò`. Juan's playmates
are succeeding in making a fool of him (literally: in rounding his
head). Nágupit nyà ang makapàl na damìt. It turned out that he was
able to cut the thick cloth. Hindí ku màípon ang manga karáyum na
nangàsábug sa lúpa`. I did not succeed in gathering up all the needles
that were scattered over the floor. Hindí ko mápatay ang púsa ng
itò. I cannot kill this cat (i.e. its life is tough, it gets away,
etc.) Kapag nàpútol mo ang bákal na iyàn, ikàw ay makawáwalà`. If
you can get a chance to cut through that iron, you can make your
escape. Nàpútol nya ang káhoy. He got the wood cut all right. Hindí nya
màpútol ang leèg nang manòk. He couldn't get the chicken's neck cut
through. Màpùpútol na raw nyà ang púno nang káhoy na nabwàl. He says
he will be in a position to cut through the tree that has fallen. ang
kanyà ng násingìl the money he was able to collect. Similarly, from:
bálot, gawà`, húli, kúha, kúlam, nákaw, pitàs, sábi, taàs, táwag.

465. Similarly, the direct passive is regularly used to correspond
to the active in § 462, of objects of sensation. Nàkilála ko si Hwàn
doòn sa sàwáyan. I got acquainted with Juan at that dance. So from:
alaála, dinìg, inò, kíta, málas, pansìn.

466. Other uses of the direct passive do not regularly correspond to
any active, cf. § 440 f.; these have their own abstract with pagkà-.

The direct passive is used to denote an object which has accidentally
got into such and such a condition; the actor is either indifferent
or entirely lacking. There seems to be no abstract principle clearly
separating this form from the passive with na- described in § 440;
where position of the object is involved, the accidental form is

Nàbúte ang kanyà ng pagkatákot. His fear reached a high point. Ang
kanya ng bangkà y patúngo sa bandà ng kalunúran, dátapuwat pagkaraàn
nang ilà ng sandalì` ay náiba ang kanya ng bandáhin. His canoe was
headed toward the west, but after a while his direction changed. Ang
ìnumínan nang báhay ay dápat málagay sa lugàr na malílim. The shelf
for drinking-water of a house should be in a shady place. Násakay
sa trèn ang ipinahatìd mo ng manga dalanghíta`. The tangerines you
sent have been shipped. Nàtúlin ang pagpapadulàs nang báta ng si Hwàn
sa pútek. Juan's sliding on the mud got faster and faster (in spite
of him).

Similarly from: bágay, balíta`, baòn, dápat, doòn, hintò`, húsay,
kápit, lapàg, látag, ligtàs, liguwàk, lípat, lubòg, lúlan, mána,
nákaw, pagítan, páko`, patày, pátung, sábog, taàn, tábon, tágo`,
talà`, tanìm, taòn, tayò`, tirà, túlos, únat.

Abstract: Pagkásakay nang manga sáko nang kamóte sa trèn ay lumákad
itò agàd. As soon as the bags of sweet-potatoes had been put on board
the train, the latter started to move. So from: balíta`, gámit, ibà,
látag, libìng, sarà.

466a. This irregular passive is used also of animate, rational
subjects, whose actions, then, are viewed rather as an accidental
undergoing; this type is not clearly definable from that with ma-
in § 441, except where both forms are used in contrast (-higà`);
the habit with regard to each root is, however, entirely fixed.

In some cases the accidental actor is imaginable: Náakyàt si Pédro
sa itaàs nang lángit dahilàn sa ginawá nya ng pagkápit sa pinalipàd
na lóbo. Pedro got carried up into the air owing to his grip on the
loosed balloon. Nàhárang sina Hwàn sa daà-ng-Balíwag. Juan and his
company chanced to get held up on the Baliuag road. Hwag kà, Hwàn,
pumásuk sa sekréta, sapagkàt baká ka máhigà` sa ihawàn, kung ikàw
ay màhúle. Don't go as a spy, Juan, for you might get laid on the
gridiron, if you got caught. Similarly: banggìt, barìl, bilanggò`,
distíno, húli, ligtàs, píli`, tanggàp, táwag.

Processes of life: Sya y nábingì. He got deaf. Nàbúte si Hwàn sa kanya
ng pagkatákot. Juan was bettered by his fright. Si Pédro at si Maryà
ay màkàkasàl. Pedro and Maria will get married some day. So: himbìng,
lóko, tahímik, tinìk, túto, wíli.

Abstract: Ang pagkàgúlat ni Hwána sa maíngay na putòk nang kanyòn ay
sya nyà ng ikinabingì. Juana's shock at the loud report of the cannon
was what made her deaf. Malakì ang kanila ng nagìng pagkàgúlat. Their
astonishment was great. Ang pagkàsúnog sa manga sundálo sa loòb
nang báhay ay nangyári dáhil sa pagkásara nang manga bintána`. The
fact that the soldiers were burned in the house was due to the
circumstance that the windows had been closed. Ang pagkátinìk sa
lalamúnan nang báta` ay sya nyà ng ikinamatày. The boy's getting a
fishbone into his throat was what killed him. Pagkátinik nang unggò`
ay sya y nagálit. When the monkey had got a spine into his foot he
got angry. Ang pagkàwíle ni Hwàn sa báhay ny Andrès ay dahilàn sa
anàk na dalága nitò. Juan's being spell-bound in Andres' house was
due to the latter's daughter. So: gustò, kasàl, manghà`.

Movements, especially the resultant position: Sya y nárapà`. He fell on
his face. Náriyan kamì sa iyo ng báhay kahápon nang umága, dátapuwat
hindí ka námin dinatnàn. We were at your house yesterday morning, but
we did not find you there. Náluhod sya sa kanyà ng harapàn. He knelt
down in front of her. Nàpàpagítan si Hwàn sa dalawà ng dalága. Juan
chanced to get placed between two young ladies. Sila y nàùupò`. They
are seated. Similarly from: ákap, alìs, bálot, díne, díto, dulàs,
doòn, haràp, kublì, kulòng, lákad, lugmòk, padpàd, panhìk, sakày,
sísid, tabì, tágo`, tayò`, tirà, tungtòng.

Abstract: Ang ikinátahol nang manga áso ay ang pagkádapá ni Hwàn. What
made the dogs bark was Juan's falling on his face. Pagkásakay ni Hwàn
sa trèn ay lumákad ito ng agàd. When Juan was on board the train,
it soon started to move. So also: dulàs, kublì, lagày, panhìk, silìd,
tabì, tayò`.

467. The passive forms an explicit plural in which -ang- is infixed
into the nà-: Tibáyan mo ang manga itátayú mo ng kúbo sa búkid,
sapagkàt baká iyo y mangágibà` kung lumakàs ang hángin. Prop up the
huts you are going to build in the fields, for otherwise they might
break down when the wind gets stronger. Mangàgìgibà` ang manga báhay na
itò, sapagkàt hindí táma` ang pagkátayò`. These houses will break down,
because they are not built right. So from: pangàw, sábog, talungkò`.

468. An irregular form is nàndon beside ná-roòn.

469. Accent shift is due to the root: Ang pagpapatahòl ni Hwàn sa
kanya ng áso ay nakàtàtawà. Juan's making his dog bark is a funny
sight. So álam, túloy.

Passive: Náabut nyà sa kanyà ng paglulundàg na may tánga ng pamálo`
ang ilawàn, kanyà` itò y nabásag. In his climbing with the stick in
hand, he accidentally reached the lamp, and so it got broken. Sya y
nábulàg. He went blind. So: gísing, háyag, húli, lápit, láyo`, túloy.

Abstract: Ang pagkáhuli nang susò` ay malakè. The snail was left way
behind. Ang pagkáabot nyà sa bóte ay hindi magálang. The way he reached
for the bottle was not polite. So: álam, áyaw, gísing, lápit, úna.

470. From phrases: Ang paánan nang hìgáan ay nàbàbandà-ng-kataasàn,
dátapwat dápat màbanda-ng-ibabà`. The foot of the bed is turned toward
the north, but should be turned to the south (bandà ng ibabà`, bandà
ng kataasàn).

From derived words: Passive: Nàtàtagílid ang bangkà`. The boat has
a list to one side (ta-gílid, § 523).

(a) Passives from words with prefix ka- (§ 398) are frequent. Ang
búkid ni Hwàn ay nàkàkarátig nang kay Pédro. Juan's field borders
on Pedro's. Nàkasále nya sa kanya ng paglalarò` ang kanya ng
pínsan. He took his cousin for playmate. Si Maryáno ay nàkatálo ni
Hwàn. Mariano was Juan's opponent. Si Narsíso ang lági ng nàkàkatálo
ni Pédro sa manga pagtatálo ng idinàdáos linggo-linggò sa kanila ng
sàmáhan. Narcisso is always Pedro's opponent in the debates which they
hold every Sunday at their club. Si Lúkas ang màkàkatálo ko. Lucas
will be my opponent. nàkàkatúngo the person one happens to be dealing
with. nàkaúsap be by chance able to be conversed with.

Underlying word non-existent: Nàkatúlog si Hwàn sa panunoòd nang
teátro. Juan fell asleep while watching the play. Umulàn kagabì at
lumamìg, kaniyà` ako nàkatúlog nang mahimbìng. Last night it rained and
got cool; in consequence I fell sound asleep, got a sound sleep. Hindí
ako màkatúlog. I couldn't get any sleep. Abstract: ang pagkàkatúlog.

(b) Explicit plural of the preceding: Nangàkàkatúlog sila ng lahàt,
nang pumások sa báhay ang magnanákaw. They had all fallen asleep,
when the thief came into the house. Pagpilítan ninyò ng hwag kayò
ng mangàkatúlog sa inyo ng pagbabantày sa manga háyop at iba pà ng
árì nang pàmahalaàn. See to it that you don't fall asleep when on
guard over the animals and other property of the government. Ngayòn
ay mangàkàkatúlog silà, dahilàn sa maláon nila ng pagpupuyàt
gabi-gabì. Now they will be able to sleep, owing to their staying up
late night after night.

471. Passive with pag- (cf. § 445): the reduplication affects the
pag-. Hindí ko màpagáway ang tamìs at ang ásim nang limonáda ng itò. I
cannot produce a balance of sweet and sour in this lemonade. Sa
kalaúnan ay nàpagkilála ni Hwàn ang kanya ng kamàlían. Finally
Juan saw where he was wrong. Hindí nya nàpagkúro` agàd kung anò ang
gàgawin nyà. He was not able to decide at once what he was going to
do. Nàpàpagkúrù mo bà ang lahàt nang sinábi ko sa iyò kahápon? Are
you able to figure out all I said to you yesterday? Hindí ko màpagkúro
kung anò ang íbig nya ng sabíhin. I simply couldn't make out what he
was trying to say.

(a) Accent shift is due to the root: Áyon sa sábi nang marámi ay
màpàpaghuli na ràw ang manga magnanákaw. According to what people say,
the thieves will soon be caught.

472. Passive with pang-: Nàpanagínip niya ng nàkíta nya ang kanya ng
amà. He dreamt he saw his father.

473. makà- D is used in prohibitions: Hwag kà ng makàláyas-láyas! Don't
ever run away! So from tungtóng.

(a) with paki-: Hwag kà ng makàpakikáin-káin kung hindí ka
inàanyáhan. Don't ever take a meal with people unless they invite you.

474. The instrumental passive is rare: badiyà, màilabàs, màipások,

475. Local passive with mà-.

Nàmàmasdan kò mulá sa banda ng itò nang bintána` ang báhay ni Áli
ng Maryà. I get a view of Mistress Maria's house from this side of
the window. Pagingátan mo ang iyo ng kwaltà sa bulsà pagluwàs mo sa
Mayníla`, at nang hwag kà ng mànakáwan. Look carefully to the money in
your purse when you go to Manila, so as not to get robbed. Nàpasúkan
nya sa kwàrto ang magnanákaw. In entering the room he came upon the
thief. Nàputúlan ku nang tahìd ang kátyaw. I managed to cut the
game-cock's spur. Nàpùputúlan ko nà nang pálong ang kátyaw. I am
succeeding in cutting off the game-cock's comb. Màpùputúlan daw nyà
nang manga pálong ang manga kátyaw nya ng pangsábong. He will manage
to cut off the combs of his pit game-cocks, he says. Nàsagasáan nang
trèn ang isa ng táo. A man got run over by the train. Nàsakyan námin
ang bangká ni Hwàn. We happened to get into Juan's canoe. Ang kamàtáya
ng màtagpuàn nang isa ng magnanákaw ay lági ng hindí mabúte. The death
a robber meets is usually not good. Baká mu màtamáan ang úlu nang
báta`. See that you don't hit the child's head (and disfigure him).

Similarly: balíta`, bukàs, damdàm, datìng, gustò, intindì, kamìt,
kulápol, ligtàs, málay, pígil, tanìm, túlog, tumpàk, túto, wisìk.

(a) With contraction of prefix and initial: màláman (álam).

(b) Accent shift lacking: nàmatáan (matà).

(c) Extra accent shift is due to the root: Kamuntí nang màtamaàn nang
kanya ng pukòl ang báta`. He nearly hit the child with his throw. Baká
mu màtamaàn ang báta`. See that you don't hit the child. So also:
nàalamàn (álam).

476. Local passive with mà-pag-: Nàpaghìhinaláan nang kápitan
ang mabaìt na si Hwàn. Even honest Juan falls under the mayor's
suspicion. Nàpàpaghinaláan nilà si Kulàs sa pagkawalá nang aláhas. They
are capable of suspecting Nicolás in connection with the disappearance
of the jewelry. Màpàpaghinaláan ka ng kasabuwàt nang manga sundálo sa
bundòk, kapag hindí ka tumahímik sa báhay. You will risk suspicion
as having connection with the soldiers in the mountains, if you do
not stay quietly in your house. Similarly: álam, bintàng.

(a) Extra accent shift (plural): mà-pag-alam-àn.

477. Local passive with mà-pang-; the only example lacks accent shift:

478. Local passive with mà- from underlying word with ka- (cf. §
398): nàkagalítan, màkatuwaàn.

(a) with pagka-, corresponding to an active with magka- (§ 405):
màpagkalipumpunàn (lipumpòn).

479. Special static words with makà- are formed from numerals in the
sense of so many times: makàánim six times; makálawà twice; makálimà
five times; makásiyàm nine times. So: makáilàn several times.

From phrases, the higher numbers: makása-m-pù` ten times.

With irregularities: makáitlò, makáyitlò three times; makàápat,
makàípat four times.

Reduplicated: makàlìlíbo a thousand times.

4. The prefix pa-.

480. The general sense of the prefix pa- is to denote something
caused or ordered to undergo such and such an action. With accent pà-
an increase of the action is expressed.

(1) Simple static forms.

481. The root with prefix pa- denotes an object or person ordered,
caused, or allowed to undergo such and such an action. The person
caused to undergo may be the same as the person ordering or allowing.

Ang paakyàt ni Hwána na púno nang kakàw ay ang nása súlok nang
bakúran. The cocoa-tree Juana ordered climbed is the one in the corner
of the yard. Ang panyo ng itò ay paalaála sa ákin niy Áli ng Maryà sa
anàk nya ng dalága. This handkerchief is a souvenir to me from Aunt
Maria which she sent by her daughter. Inihandá nang ámi ng kaséra
ang atsára ng papáya úpang siya námi ng magìng paáyap. Our landlady
served some pickled papaws for us to use as condiment. Pabalìk ni
Hwàn ang lìbru ng itò. Juan sends this book back. Itò ang paháti` sa
ákin ni Pédro. This is what Pedro ordered me to deal out. Ang manga
tubò ng itò ay papútol sa ákin ni Pédro. Pedro ordered me to cut this
sugar-cane. Ang táo ng itò ang pasakày ni Hwàn sa karumáta ko. This
is the man whom Juan asked me to take into my carriage. Ang binása
ni Hwà ng kautusàn ay patáwag nang kúra. The ordinance Juan read was
given out for proclamation by the priest. Ang báhay na ytò y patayó
ni Hwàn. Juan had this house built. Patípon ni Hwàn sa ákin ang manga
nyòg na itò. Juan ordered me to gather up these cocoanuts. Ang pauwé
ni Hwàn sa kanya ng inà ay isa ng maínam na singsìng. What Juan sent
home to his mother was a beautiful ring.

As conjunctive attribute the word with pa- may express manner: ang
daà ng pabalìk sa Balíwag the road back to Baliuag. Papások sya ng
lumàlákad sa gitná nang báhay. He was going farther in toward the
inside of the house. Pasakày sya ng lumuksò sa kabáyo. He jumped on
the horse as if mounting to ride. Nang mahúlug ang báta` sa káhoy,
ay paupó sya ng lumagpàk sa lúpa`. When the boy fell from the tree, he
landed on the ground in a sitting position. Pauròng sya ng lumákad. He
went backwards.

With movements pa-, reflexive, is often weakened to a mere indication
of direction: Paakyàt sa púnù nang káhoy ang unggò` nang sya y abútan
nang lóbo. The monkey was just climbing the tree, when he was overtaken
by the wolf. Pabalìk si Hwàn. Juan is going back. Patúngo si Hwàn sa
báya-ng-Balíwag. Juan was headed for the town of Baliuag.

Similarly: álam, biglà`, bulòng, gawà`, hárang, kálat, lági`, lalà`,
puntà, sigàw, tágo`, takbò, talungkò`, tayò`, túloy.

(a) From a derived word: paitaàs (itaàs, § 373).

(b) The peculiar meaning is weakened in some words: ang paága a kind
of rice which matures early, ang pakinábang profit, advantage, ang
palabàs a theatrical performance, ang palígo` a bath, ang pamagàt an
appellation, a nickname. So from: bangò`, bása, bayò, bigàt, daàn,
dúsa, háyag, hintúlot, lákad, lígid, lúgit, sákit, talìm.

(c) With retraction of accent and contraction: páno (anò).

(d) Irregular: Ang pagkáparoon kò sa bèsbol ay paubáya` nang áki ng
gurò`. My going to the baseball game was by permission of my teacher

482. pa- (1) is made from barytone roots when they express manner, or,
more especially, direction: Ang bangkà` ay hindí paayòn sa ílog. The
boat is not headed with the stream. Pahagìs nya ng iniyabòt sa ákin ang
aklàt. He handed me the book by tossing it. Iníwan nya ng paharàng sa
daàn ang karitòn. He left the wagon blocking the road. Paharàng nya ng
inihágis sa ílog ang púno-ng-ságing. He threw the banana tree crosswise
into the river. Ang paglakè nang lámat nang pinggàn ay pahatè`. The
increase in the crack of the dish is going towards halving it. Ang
búnga ng itò y pahatè` kung mapiráso pagkahinòg. This fruit goes into
halves when it breaks on ripening. Similarly: líhim, pútol.

(a) The accent shift is due to the root and the value of the
formation is as in § 481, in: Ang paabòt mo ng súlat ay tinanggàp
ko. I have received the letter you sent to me. Si Hwàn ay isa ng báta
ng pabayà`. Juan is a neglectful boy.

(b) The accent shift is like that of a root word in: Paligú na ang
manga báta`. The children are bathed now (pa-lígo`).

483. pa- r, as explicit plural: see ábot.

484. pa- D. The action is repeated at short intervals; the reflexive
value is frequent. Sya y lumàlákad na pahintò-hintò`. He goes on,
stopping every little while. Pamalí-malì` ang kanya ng pagbílang. His
count contains repeated errors. Alam nyà ang manga pasíkot-síkot sa
báya-ng-Balíwag. He knows all the ins and outs of the district of
Baliuag. So from: iyàk, lígid, mínsan, pasiyàl, túlog.

(a) Accent shift is due to the root: Patúlog-túlog at pagisìng-gisìng
siyà. He sleeps and wakes by fits and starts. Patawà-tawà at
paiyàk-iyàk siyà. She giggles at one moment and weeps the next.

485. pa-pa- has durative-iterative meaning: Papaalìs sya nang akò
y dumatìng. He was just going away when I arrived. Papauròng sya ng
lumàlákad. He was going backwards. So from labàs.

(a) papáno (anò) seems equivalent to páno (§ 481,c).

486. As appears in the example of paligò` above (§ 482,b), the forms
with pa- are apparently capable of all the modifications that are
found in simple roots: Thus:

(a) with prefix pang- (§ 347): Pangpakáin sa báta` ang gátas na
itò. This milk is for the children's food. Pangpakáin sa panaúhin ang
pinatay kò ng túpa. The sheep I have slaughtered is for serving to the
guests. Pangpatukà sa manòk ang pálay na itò. These rice-grains are to
be given to the chickens to pick (tukà` the beak of a fowl). So from:
dikìt, lígo`.

(b) with ka- R (§ 400): Kapàpapútol ko pa lámang nang manga káhoy na
itò. I have just had this firewood cut.

(c) with ka-pag- R (§ 400,a): Kapagpàpapútol ko lámang nang siìt kay
Hwàn. I have just ordered Juan to cut up the bamboo spines.

(2) Normal transients, abstracts, and special static words.

487. The root with pa- is sometimes used as a transient contingent
punctual, with the value of a reflexive passive; more commonly the
form with ma-pa- (§ 506) fulfils this function. There are three types:

(a) Genuine reflexive passive: Paábut ka sa mangà nagsìsihábul sa
iyò. Let yourself be overtaken by your pursuers. Paakyat kà kay Hwàn
sa itaàs nang káhoy. Ask Juan to take you up into the tree. Twì ng
papásuk akò sa síne sa áki ng kúyang, ay nasìsiráan ang mákina. Every
time I ask my oldest brother to take me to the moving-picture show,
something goes wrong with the machine. So: kasàl, ligàw.

(b) Reflexive of interest: one who orders that something undergo
such and such an action for him: Paakyàt ka kay Hwàn nang isa ng
búnga-ng-nyòg. Ask Juan to climb for a cocoanut for you.

(c) Reflexive of motion; the pa- has faded value; thus are used
the local equivalents of the demonstrative pronouns and a few other
words. Paríni ka. Come here. Tuwì ng aku y paroòn sa kanya ng báhay
ay hindí ku sya inàabútan. Every time I go to his house, I fail to
find him in.

(d) If the pa- is accented, the action is more intense: Pàága ka nang
pagparíto. Be very early in your coming here.

(e) A contingent durative is formed with pa- R. (a) Paáakyat akò kay
Hwàn sa itaàs nang káhoy. I shall ask Juan to take me up into the
tree with him. Papàpások akò sa síne sa áki ng kúyang. I shall ask
my brother to take me to the moving-picture show. (b) Paáakyat akò
kay Hwàn nang isa ng búnga-ng-nyòg. I shall ask Juan to climb for a
cocoanut for me. Papùpútol akò nang buhòk kay Hwàn. I shall ask Juan
to cut my hair.

488. For the reflexive of motion (§ 487,c) a set of transients and
an abstract are formed with -um- and pag-. These also are equivalent
to the forms with ma-pa- (§ 506).

(a) Regularly from the four roots serving as locals of the
demonstrative pronouns. Pumaríni ka! Come here! Pumaríne ka sa áki
ng tabì. Come close here to my side.

Madálang ang pagparíto nang manga bálang. Locusts come here but
rarely. Pího ako ng pàparíto sa alasìngko. I will surely come here
at five o'clock.

Pápariyàn sána kamì, dátapuwat nagkaroòn kamì nang malakì ng
kaabalahàn, kanyà hindí kami nátuloy. We were coming to you, but we
had so much trouble that we did not carry out our intention.

Pagparoòn ko ay sàsabíhin ko sa kanyà ang ibinalítà mo. When I get
there I shall tell him what you have told me. Kità ng dalawà ay
páparon sa teyátro. We two are going to the theatre.

(b) Occasionally from loòb: pumaloòb.

(c) Also the abstracts pagpalígo`, pagpanáog; these form the transient
with ma- from the root (§ 441); and pagpatúngo, which forms its
transient with -um- from the root.

(d) Plurals: magsipalígo`, nagsìsipanáog.

489. mag-pa-, pag-pa-pa-. Active with mag- from the root with pa-
denotes one who causes, orders, or allows such and such an action to
be performed on something else or (reflexively) on himself.

Nagpaáyap ang ámi ng kaséra. Our landlady served a relish. Si
Hwàn ay nagpabáya` sa kanya ng tungkúlin. Juan grew lax about his
duties. Nagpabyày si Hwàn nang isdà` sa kanya ng palàisdáan. Juan
had some fish put into his fishpond. Ang médiko ang nagpaginháwa sa
máy sakìt. The doctor made the patient feel comfortable. Nagpagupìt
akò sa barbéro. I had the barber cut my hair. Ang pagpapagupìt ko sa
barbéro ng si Hwàn ay hindí ko lubhà ng gustò. I don't like very much
to have my hair cut by barber Juan. Paráti ang manga pagpapahárang
ni Andrès sa manga táo ng naglálakàd. Andrés often orders travellers
to be held up. Si Pédro ay nagpaháte sa ákin nang pálay. Pedro had
rice dealt out to me. Ang kàtiwála y syà ng nagpahátì nang pálay sa
manga kasamà. It was the agent who ordered rice distributed to the
field-workers. Ang pagpapaháte nang kàtiwála sa manga lariyò sa manga
magkakápit-báhay ay hindí iniyútos nang panginoòn nya ng si Hwàn. The
agent's having bricks distributed among the neighbors was not in
accordance with the orders of his master Juan. Sya y nagpahíkaw sa
kanya ng alíla`. She had her maid put her earrings on her. (híkaw an
earring). Si Pédro ay nagpápahingà. Pedro is taking a rest (literally:
allowing himself to breathe). Ang inà y nagpahubàd (or: nagpahubàd
nang damìt) sa kanya ng anàk. The mother ordered her daughter to
undress her. Sya y nagpakáin nang gúlay sa manga panaúhin. She
served vegetables to the guests. Sya y nagpàpakaséra. She keeps a
boarding-house. Sya y nagpàpalabàs nang lamòk. He is driving out
the gnats. Nagpápalabàs nang teyátro ang sàmáha-ng-ópera. The opera
company is producing a play. Nagpalígo si Hwàn nang kabáyo. Juan
bathed some of the horses. ang pagpapalígo` the bathing something or
someone. Nagpapútol si Hwàn nang labòng. Juan had some bamboo shoots
cut. Nagpàpapútol kamì nang káhoy. We are having some wood cut. Ang
pagpapapútol nya sa Intsèk nang buhòk ay hindí sinunòd nitò. When he
ordered the Chinaman to cut his queue, the latter did not obey. Ang
pagpapasakày sa trèn ni Hwàn nang manga kamátis ay hindí nautàs bágo
lumákad ang trèn. Juan had not finished having his tomatoes loaded
on the train, when the train started. Si Hwána ay nagpasákit nang
marámi ng manglilígaw sa kanyà. Juana caused grief to many who wooed
her. Si Hwána ay nagpasuklày sa kanya ng alíla`. Juana ordered her maid
to comb her hair for her. Ang pagpapasundú nya sa ákin sa alíla` ay
ikinagálit ko. His ordering me to fetch the servant made me angry. Sya
y nagpàpatalìm nang isa ng gúlok. He is sharpening a bolo. Nagpatáwag
akò nang isà ng kasamà. I had a workman called. Ang pagpapatáwag ko
sa manga alíla ay hindí sinunòd nang báta ng si Hwàn. Little Juan
did not obey my order to him to call some servants. Ang pagpapatáwag
nang kúra sa léyi ay hindi nátuluy, sapagkàt binatò nang manga táo
ang magtatawàg. The priest's order that the law be proclaimed was not
carried out, for the crier was stoned by the people. Nagpatayó sya nang
isa ng kúbo. He had a hut built. Ang pagpapatayó ni Hwàn nang isa ng
kúbo ay hindí natápus bágo sya nàtáwag sa pagsusundálo. The hut Juan
was having built was not finished before he was called to military
service. Nagpatipìd sya sa manga kasamà nang kanila ng pagkáin. He
had his workers be sparing with their food. Nagpatípon si Hwàn nang
káhoy sa kanya ng manga kasamà. Juan ordered his workmen to gather
wood. Ang pagpapatípon ni Hwàn sa manga kalabàw ay hindí sinunòd
nang kanya ng kàtiwála`. Juan's order that the carabao be gathered
together was not obeyed by his overseer. Sya y nagpatotoò sa úsap ni
Maryà at ni Hwána. She gave testimony in the lawsuit between Maria
and Juana. Si Hwána ay naparoòn sa ákin at siyà ng nagpatotoò na ikàw
ay dumalò sa isa ng sabungàn. Juana came to me and assured me that you
had attended a cock-fight. Ang pagpapatotoò nyà ay hindí tinanggàp nang
hukòm. The judge did not accept his testimony. Sya y nagpaupò` nang ilà
ng eskwéla. He had a few of the pupils sit down. Ang pagpapaupò nang
maèstro sa manga eskwéla ay hindí nila sinunòd agàd. The teacher's
order to the pupils to sit down was not promptly obeyed. Magpaútang
ka nang kwaltà sa manga mahihírap. Lend money to the poor. Nagpauwí
ba si Hwàn nang sìlya sa kanya ng inà?--Hindì`. Ang kanya ipinauwè`
ay isa ng singsìng. Did Juan send a chair home to his mother?--No,
he sent home a ring.

Similarly: ábot, alaála, balìk, baòn, dalà, dulàs, dúnong, dúsa,
galìng, gálit, gandà, gawà`, háyag, hírap, húli, ísip, iyàk, kilála,
kinábang, kintàb, kíta, kulò`, kumpisàl, lagày, lákad, larò`, láyas,
láyaw, limòs, lípas, lúto`, magàt, mísa, pások, siglà, singkàw, sísid,
tahòl, tugtòg, túlog, túlos, ulàn.

(a) Plural with magsi- (§ 386); nagsìsipagpalimòs.

(b) From a derived word: Huwag kayò ng magpaumága sa inyo ng
pagsasàlitáan. Don't let yourselves be overtaken by the morning in
your conversation (umága, § 358).

(c) Root with accent shift: Sya y nagpaabòt nang súlat sa ákin. He
had a letter handed to me.

(d) The pa- is accented, expressing extreme degree of action; from
shifted root: Nagpáuna si Hwàn sa lakaràn. Juan managed to get himself
into the very first place in the walking-party. So from: íwan.

(e) Doubled root, shifted: Nagpáuna-unà si Hwàn sa lakaràn nang manga
magkakasáma. Juan got himself too far ahead in the boys' walking-party.

(f) Special static word (of the kind in § 358,d): ang magpapatawàg
a town-crier.

490. pa- (1) -in, p-in-a. The direct passive from words with pa-
denotes the person ordered to do so and so, the thing caused to be
so and so.

Padalángin mo ang iyo ng pagparíto. Make your coming here
infrequent. Pagka pinapútol ka nyà nang káhoy ay sumunòd
ka ng agàd. When he orders you to cut wood, do you obey at
once. Pinapùpútol námin nang tubò si Pédro. We are having Pedro cut
some sugar-cane. Paputúlin mo si Hwàn nang kúgon. Have Juan cut the
cugon-weeds. Papùputúlin námin kayò nang yantòk. We shall ask you to
cut some rattan. Pinatahòl ni Hwàn ang kanya ng áso. Juan made his dog
bark. Pinatalìm nya itò. He made this sharp. Pinatayó ni Hwàn sa kanya
ng pálad ang kapatìd nya ng maliìt na si Maryáno. Juan stood his little
brother Mariano up on his open hand. Hindí ako pinatúlog nang pagtahòl
nang áso. The barking of the dog kept me from sleeping. Patulúgin mo
ang báta`. Put the child to sleep. Pinaupú nya ang manga eskwéla. He
had the pupils sit down. Pinaupú ko ang áki ng bisíta. I asked my
visitors to be seated.

Similarly: alìs, balìk, bilì, bútas, díto, hintò`, inòm, káin,
kápit, lákad, láyas, lípad, pások, tahàn, takbò, táwad, túlin, túloy,
untì`, yáman.

(a) With accented pà-: Pàbusugin mò ang manga háyop. Feed the animals
till they have had enough. Pàhampasìn mo siyà. Whip him harder. Hwag
mò ng pàputiìn ang pintà nang báhay. Don't paint the house too white.

(b) pà- with accent shift: Pàdalangin mò ang iyo ng pagparíto. Come
here very rarely.

491. pa-pag- (1) -in, p-in-a-pag-. The direct passive has pag- before
the root when it corresponds to simple actives with characteristic
mag- (§ 351). Màpàpahámak lámang ang báta ng ito, kapag hindí nátin
pinapagáral nang sapàt. This boy will turn out a mere good-for-nothing,
if we do not make him study enough. Pinapaghubàd nang inà ang kanya ng
manga anàk. The mother ordered her children to undress. Pinapagpútol
námin nang ságing sina Hwàn. We asked Juan and his people to cut
bananas. Papagputúlin mo si Hwàn nang buhòk. Tell Juan to get a
hair-cut. Papagpùputúlin nila kamì nang kanila ng manga kawáyan. They
will order us to cut all their bamboo. Pinapagsuklày ni Hwána ang
kanya ng alíla`. Juana told her maid to comb her (the maid's) hair.

Similarly, from: bíhis, hintò`, trabáho.

(a) From a derived word: Sya y pinapagkalatimbà`. He was forced to
do the well-bucket exercise (kalatimbà`, § 519).

(b) With extra accent shift: papagtùtuluyìn (túloy).

492. With pang-: Paráti ng pinapanghàhárang ni Andrès ang kanya ng
manga kampòn. Andrés often orders his companions to commit highway
robberies. Papanghiramìn mo si Pédro nang lúbid. Have Pedro go and
borrow some rope. Papamutúlin mo nang damò si Pédro. Have Pedro cut
grass. Papamùmutúlin silà ni Hwàn nang damò. Juan will order them to
cut grass.

493. pa-pag-pa- (1) -in, p-in-a-pag-pa-. With both pag- and pa-
preceding the root the direct passive with pa- denotes someone caused
to cause something: Pinapagpatotoò nang tagapagtanggòl ni Andrès ang
táo ng si Mariyáno na syà ng nakàkíta sa nangyáre. Andrés' lawyer
called as a witness the man Mariano, who had seen the occurrence
(cf. magpatotoò, § 489).

494. i-pa-, i-p-in-a-. The instrumental passive with pa- denotes the
object ordered, caused, or allowed to undergo such and such an action.

Ipinaálam ko sa kanyà ang manga báta`. I made known to him the
departure of the children with me. Ipinaalìs nila ang hárang nang
daàn. They ordered the obstruction of the road to be removed. Ang
ipinadala mò ng súlat ay tinanggàp ku nà. I have received the letter
you sent me. Ang sapátos na may lapàd na suwélas na yitò ay syà ng
ipinagàgámit na pangtayò` sa báta`. This flat-soled shoe is given
children to be used in learning to stand up. Ang mayáma ng taga iba
ng báyan na pàparíto ay ipinahárang nang púno nang tulisàn. The rich
stranger who was going to come here was held up by order of the chief
of the bandits. Ipinahátì sa ákin ni Pédro ang mansánas. Pedro ordered
me to divide the apples. Itò y ipinaháte ni Pédro parà sa ákin. This
was ordered by Pedro to be dealt out to me as my share. Isinakày
sa trèn ang ipinahatìd mo ng manga dalanghíta`. The tangerines you
shipped were put on board the train. Ipinaísip nya sa manga eskwéla
ang fétsa nang pagaáway nang manga Rúso at Hapunès sa Port-Àrtur. He
asked his pupils to think of the date of the fighting between the
Russians and the Japanese at Port Arthur. Ipakíta mo ang díla` sa
manggagamòt. Show the doctor your tongue. Ipinapùpútol ni Hwàn ang
manga káhoy sa kanya ng bakúran. Juan is having the trees in his yard
cut down. Ipapùpútol ko ang manggàs nang áki ng báro`. I am going
to have the sleeves of my blouse cut off. Ipapútol mo, Hwàn, ang iyo
ng kukò. Have your fingernails cut, Juan. Ang ipinasakày ni Tátay na
manga súha` sa trèn ay nangabúlok sa daàn. The grape-fruit Father sent
by train got spoiled on the way. Ipinasundú ko kay Hwàn ang médiko. I
told Juan to fetch the doctor. Ipinatáwag ko sa alíla` si Hwàn. I had
Juan called by a servant. Ipinatayó ni Hwàn ang báhay na itò. Juan had
this house built. Ipinatipìd nya sa bátà ang pagkáin nang lansónes. He
made the child eat sparingly of the lansones. Ipinatípon ni Hwàn sa
kanya ng kàtiwála` ang manga kalabàw. Juan had his agent gather the
carabao. Ipinatúluy nya ang pagkantà, káhit na maíngay ang mangà
nakíkinìg. He went on with his singing although the audience was noisy.

So: áhon, balìk, baòn, bilanggò`, bítay, dápit, dúsa, gamòt, gawà`,
gupìt, hábol, háyag, hintò`, hintúlot, kasàl, kilála, lákad, libàng,
mána, patày, sákit, tápon, uwì`.

(a) Different in meaning is the corresponding form from díto; it is the
primary instrumental passive corresponding to pumaríto, etc. (§ 488):
Ang pagsákop niyà nang táu ng makasalánan ay sya nyà ng ipinaríto. His
saving of sinful man is what he came here for.

(b) Accent shift is due to the root: Ipaalàm ka sa kanyà ang áki ng
patùtungúhan. Let him know where I am going. Ipinaalam nyà sa ákin
ang kanya ng nilóloòb. He made his intentions known to me. Ipinatulòy
ni Pédro ang pagpapatayò nang báhay. Pedro had them go on with the
construction of the house. Similarly: ábot.

(c) With pag- (cf. § 491): ipapagáral.

(d) With pa- prefixed to the root, the instrumental passive with pa-
denotes that ordered to be caused. The only example has radical accent
shift: Ipinapatulòy ni Hwàn sa kanya ng kàtiwála` ang pagtatanìm
nang manga kasamà. Juan had his agent order the field-workers to go
on with the planting.

495. i-pag-pa-, i-p-in-ag-pa-. When the relation of the object ordered
to undergo an action is explicitly that of a thing given forth (§
368), a kind of double instrumental passive is made by prefixing
pag- to the pa- (cf. the explicit use of pag- in primary passives,
§§ 369. 375): Ipinagpaháte` sa ákin ni Pédro ang pálay. The rice was
ordered by Pedro to be dealt out to me. Ang kwàlta ng nàpangaginàldohan
ni Hwàn ay sya nyà ng ipinagpasakày sa tiyobíbo sa kanya ng kapatìd
na maliìt. Juan used his Christmas money to treat his little brother
to a ride on the merry-go-round. Ang kautusàn ay ipinagpàpatáwag nang
kúra. The law is being called out by order of the priest.

(a) With additional pa- (as in § 494,d): ipinagpapadalà.

496. i-paki-pa-, i-p-in-aki-pa-. Before a word with pa- the
instrumental passive with paki- denotes the thing asked (as a favor) to
be caused to undergo such and such an action. Hwag mò ng ipakipapútol
ang púno-ng-káhoy, dátapuwat pakiputúlin mo na mìsmo. Don't ask
someone else to cut down the tree for me, but cut it down for me
yourself. Ipakìkipapútol ni Hwàn sa inyò ang manga tinibàn sa kanya
ng bakúran. Juan will ask you to have the banana-stumps in his yard
cut down. Ipinakipapútol nya kay Hwàn ang manga damò sa bakúran. He
asked Juan to have the grass cut in his yard.

(a) The thing asked (as a favor) to be caused to do so and
so: Ipinakipakáin lámang niya ang kanya ng anàk hábang sya y
walà`. She asked someone else to feed her child while she was
away. Ipinakìkipasúso lámang nya kay Maryà ang kanya ng anàk, sapagkàt
walá sya ng gátas. She is asking Maria to nurse her child for her,
because she has no milk.

497. pa- (1) -an, p-in-a- (1) -an. The local passive with pa- denotes
that caused to undergo an action as local object.

Paaláman mo sa kanyà kung saàn ka páparon. Let him know where you
are going. Pinaasuhàn ni Pédro ang manga púno-ng-manggà. Pedro smoked
(i.e. warmed, so as to speed flowering) the mango trees. Pinabayáan ni
Hwàn ang kanya ng manga tungkúlin. Juan neglected his duties. Pabayáan
mo syà. Leave him alone. Ang pagpatày sa manga magnanákaw ay hindí
pinarùrusáhan nang hukòm. The judge does not punish one for killing
robbers. Pinahatían akò ni Pédro nang pálay sa kàtiwála`. Pedro had
the agent give me my share of rice. Pinahubaràn nang inà ang manga
báta`. The mother had her children undressed. Pakinggàn nawá ninyò
ang áki ng pagtáwag. Pray give hearing to my call. Pinalìligúan
nang pagòng ang ílog. The turtle bathed in the river. Pinalìligúan
nang babáye ang báta`. The woman was bathing the child. Hwag mò ng
pamaláyan sa marámi na ikàw ay marámi ng kayamánan sa báhay, úpang
hwag kà ng nakáwan. Don't let people know that you have many valuables
in your house, lest you be robbed. Pinanaúgan nya ang báhay. He went
down from the house. Pinaputúlan ni Hwàn nang taínga ang kanya ng
manga biìk, úpang hwag máangkin nang iba ng táo. Juan had the ears
of his little pigs cut, so that they might not be inadvertently
taken by anyone else. Pinapùputúlan ni Hwàn nang buntòt ang lahàt
nang kanya ng manga manòk. Juan has all his chickens' tails clipped
(for identification). Paputúlan mo nang kaunti` ang mahábà mo ng
buhòk. Have your long hair cut a little. Papùputúlan ko nang buntòt
ang manga manòk na bágo ng bilè. I shall have the tails clipped of the
chickens I have just bought. Ang bangka ng itò ay pinasakyàn ko kay
Hwàn. I allowed Juan to ride in this canoe. Pinatunáyan sa ákin ni Hwàn
na ikàw ay nagsúsugàl. Juan proved to me that you are gambling. Ano ng
bandà ang kanilà ng pinatùtungúhan? What direction are they headed for?

So also: bendisiyòn, dalà, hintúlot, hírap, doòn, kinábang, magàt,
mána, panhìk, sákit, tábon, tigàs, walà`.

(a) Accent shift, due to the root: pabayaàn, equivalent, however,
to pabayáan.

(b) pà-: Pàagáhan mo ang pagsúlong. Get away very early. Pàináman mo
ang súlat. Write very neatly. Pàitiman mò ang kúlay nang túbig. Make
the color of the water very black. Hwag mò ng pàputian ang pintà nang
báhay. Don't put too much white into the paint for the house.

(c) pa- also prefixed to the root: Pinapahatían akò ni Pédro nang
pálay sa kàtiwála`. Pedro told the agent to have me given my share
of rice. Pinapahatían ni Pédro nang pálay ang manga kasamà. Pedro
ordered that the laborers be given their share of rice.

498. Special static words are formed with pà- and -an to denote place
or plurality of habitual causative action; barytone roots have accent
shift of two syllables, sometimes optionally of one syllable:

Ang maliìt na sápa ng itò ay sya ng pàbiyáyan ni Alfònso nang maliliìt
na isdà ng nàhùhúli nya sa ílog. This little pool is where Andrés
turns loose the little fish he catches in the river. Ang pàlangúyan
nang manga páto ni Hwàn ay malálim. Juan's duck-pond is deep. Ang
kanila ng pàtagálan nang pagsísid ay ginawá nila sa Sibùl. Their
diving-contest took place at Sibol.

ang pàrusahàn penitentiary; hell. ang pàliguàn bathroom, bathtub.

So also: pàkumpisálan, pàaralàn, pàhayagàn pàhayágan, pàmahalaàn

(a) Derived from these a transient and abstract in mag-: ang
pagpapàtagálan a contesting for endurance.

(3) Transients and abstracts with pa- and ka-.

499. mag-pa-ka-, pag-pa-pa-ka-. The active with mag-pa- (§ 489) from
words with ka- expresses a reflexive actor: Ang pagpapakahírap sa
pagaáral ay máy ganti ng pála`. Exerting oneself at studies has its
reward. Nagpakamatày si Lúkas. Lucas committed suicide. Magpápakamatày
si Lúkas. Lucas will commit suicide. ang pagpapakamatày the act of
suicide. So also from: walà`.

(a) From forms with ma-, in more intensive sense than mag- alone (§
352,c): Ang pagpapakamarúnong serious effort at learning things.

With irregularities of accent, as in § 353,a.b.: Sya y
nagpakamápuri. He praised himself very much. Sya y nagpakamayabàng. He
boasted much.

500. pa-ka- (1) -in, p-in-a-ka-. The direct passive with pa-ka- denotes
something caused to be too much so and so: Hwag mò ng pakalalímin ang
gawi ng húkay. Don't make the hole you are to dig too deep. Hwag mò
ng pakalàlalímin ang hùhukáin mo ng balòn. Don't make the well you
are going to dig too deep. Pinakalálim ni Hwàn ang húkay. Juan made
the ditch too deep.

(a) The form with p-in-a-ka- occurs as special static word: pinakamahàl
most expensive, dearest; pinakamúra cheapest.

(b) More commonly from words with ma- (§ 454): Si Risàl ay syà ng
naging pinakamarúnong na táo sa kapulua-ng-Filipínas. Rizal was
the most learned man in the Philippines. pinakamalakàs strongest;
pinakamalínis cleanest. So from: búti, hába`, halagà, húsay, kínis.

501. i-kà-pa-, i-k-in-à-pa-. The instrumental passive with i-kà- (§
417) from words with pa- expresses the thing or circumstance causing
someone to be made to do so and so. Ikinàpaalìs sa kanyà sa báhay
ni Hwàn ang kanya ng pangungumìt. His petty thievery caused him
to be ordered to leave Juan's house, to be dismissed from Juan's
house. Ikinàpàpaalìs nila sa kanyà ang kanya ng pinaggagawà ng
katampalasánan sa manga háyop. His constant cruelty to the animals is
forcing them to dismiss him. Ang kaibigàn nya ng màtúto ay sya nyà
ng ikináparoon sa Espánya. His desire to get an education is what
made him go to Spain. Baká mo ikàpahámak ang iyo ng pagparoòn. I am
afraid your going there may cause you to be unfortunate. Ikàpàpahámak
nya ang kanya ng pagsusundálo. His military service will cause him
to fall into bad ways.

(a) With pag- either before or after the kà- a voluntary actor is
implied who is caused to make someone or something do or be so and
so. Ang ipinagkàpasakày ni Hwàn sa kanya ng máy sakit na kapatìd sa
trèn sa lugàr nang sa karumáta ay ang katulínan nang trèn. What made
Juan have his brother ride on the train rather than in a carriage was
the speed of the train. Nagpaísip sya sa kanya ng manga eskwéla nang
manga paraà ng ikàpagpàpalakè nilà sa kanila ng aklátan. He had his
students think of means that would help them to make their library
(get) larger.

502. pa-ka- (1) -an. Local passive with pa- (§ 497) from a word with
ka- (§ 398): pinakawalàn was allowed to go free.

503. ka-pa- (1) -an. Local passive with ka- (§ 419) from a word with
pa- (§ 481): kapàpatungúhan the place one will be headed for.

(a) Static words with ka-pa- -an are forms with ka- -an from words
with pa-:

With S (§ 421): Si Hwàn ang kapàtagálan ni Maryáno sa pagsísid sa
túbig. Juan contends with Mariano in staying under water as long
as possible.

With S (1), (§ 423); accent irregularly placed: Ang báta ng si Pédro
ang sya ng kàpakitáan ni Maryà nang kanyà ng larwàn. Little Pedro is
the child to whom Maria showed her toys and who showed her his.

With (2), (§ 422): Ang kapabayaàn nya sa manga tungkúlin ay syà ng
malakì nya ng kapintásan. His neglectfulness of his duties is his
great fault.

504. maka-pa-. With maka- in the usual meanings (§ 433 ff.) a few
transients are made from words pa-. Nakapahingà sa lílim ang manga
kalabàw. The carabao rested in the shade (irrational actor). Bayáan
mo ng makapahingà ang manga dalà mo ng kalabàw bágu ka bumalìk sa
búkid. Let the carabao that brought you rest before you go back to
the country. Makapàpahinga nà ang manga háyop bágo sya dumatìng. The
carabao will have rested before he arrives. So from: doòn, lígo`.

505. Commoner is maka-pag-pa- (corresponding to mag-pa-); the abstract
has pagkapa-. Nakapagpapútol na akò nang káhoy na gàgamítin ko sa boò
ng tagulàn. I have already had wood cut for the entire rainy season. Si
Lílay ay nakàkapagpapútol nang káhoy sa alílà ni Kíka`. Lilay
has permission to order Kika's servant to cut the wood. Hindí ako
makapagpapútol nang tubò kay Hwàn, sapagkàt marámi sya ng trabáho sa
ibà. I cannot have Juan cut sugar-cane, because he has already too
much work to do for other people. Makàkapagpapútol akò nang labòng,
kung iyò ng gustò. I can have some bamboo-shoots cut, if you wish.

So from: bilì, kínis, tápon.

506. The passive with ma- from words with pa- varies in meaning,
owing chiefly to the various values of words with pa-.

(a) Genuine passive: Hindí nya napahinòg ang manga ságing. He did
not succeed in getting the bananas to ripen. Mapahíhiram mo ba
akò nang lima ng píso ng gintò? Can you let me borrow five dollars
gold? Napapások ko sa kuràl ang manga kalabàw. I succeeded in bringing
the carabao into the corral. Napatátalim ni Pédro ang mapuròl na
gúlok. Pedro is able to sharpen dull bolos. So from: alìs, puntà,
sáboy, túlog.

(b) Reflexive passive: Ang máy sakit ay napadapà` sa manga nagàalágà
sa kanyà, sapagkàt sya hindí makakílos. The sick man had the people
who were caring for him lay him on his face, because he could not
move. Napagísing si Hwàn sa kanya ng kapatìd sa óras nang alaskwátro
nang umága. Juan had his brother wake him up at four o'clock in the
morning. Napapások akò sa síne sa áki ng kúyang. I asked my oldest
brother to take me to the moving-picture show. Mapapàpások.... I shall
ask to be taken in. Silà y napatùtúlong. They are asking for help. So:
álam, hatìd, tawìd.

(c) Reflexive of interest: Napaakiyàt akò kay Hwàn nang isa
ng búnga-ng-nyòg. I asked Juan to climb for a cocoanut for
me. Napapútol silà nang káhoy. They asked to have wood cut for
them. Napapùpútol ang manga anàk nang kanila ng kukò kay Nánay. The
children ask Mother to cut their fingernails. Napapùpútol akò nang
gàgawi ng pípa kay Hwàn. I am asking Juan to cut me some wood for
a cigarette-mouthpiece. Napatilàd akò nang tubò kay Nánay. I asked
Mother to slice me some sugar-cane.

(d) Movement: Napabíngit sya sa malaki ng pangánib. He got into a
very dangerous situation. Naparíne sa tabi kò ang báta`. The child
came up close to me. Ang magkaybíga ng si Pédro at si Maryáno ay
naparoòn sa Mayníla`. The two friends, Pedro and Mariano, have gone
to Manila. Sya y napaóo. He assented. So from: díto, loòb, salámat,
túngo. Also from the derived word luwásan: napaluwásan.

507. Instrumental passive only in: maipabarìl.

508. Passive with mà- (§ 463 ff.) from words with pa-. Bumitìw ang
bátà sa lúbid, kanyá nàparapà` ang kanyà ng kahatakàn. As the child
let go of the rope, the one who was pulling against him fell on his
face. Nàparíto si Hwàn sa kanyà ng pagtatagò` sa manga tiktèk. Juan
happened to come here in his hiding from the spies. Nàpàparíto sya
ng madalàs. He often gets round here. Màpàparíto raw syà sa báya
ng itò. He will get round to our town, he says. Nàpahámak sya sa
ginawá nya ng pagsusugàl at pagsasábong. He became good-for-nothing
through his gambling and cock-fighting. Nàpàpahámak ang báta ng
si Hwàn, dahilàn sa lubòs na pagpapaláyaw sa kanyà nang kanya ng
manga magúlang. Little Juan is getting spoiled through his parents'
complete indulgence. Hwag kà ng duwàg, Hwàn, at nang hwàg ka ng
màpahámak lámang sa iyo ng pagsusundálo. Don't be a coward, Juan,
so that you may not merely come to misfortune through your military
service. Màpàpahámak lámang ang báta ng itò, kapag hindí nátin
pinapagáral nang sapàt. This boy will turn out a good-for-nothing,
if we don't make him study enough. Hindí nàpahinòg na maága ni Hwàn
ang manga ságing. Juan didn't get his bananas ripe early enough. Hindí
nya nàpahinòg ang manga ságing, sapagkàt naúbus agàd. He did not get
his bananas ripe, because they were all eaten up too soon. Si Pédro ay
nàpàpahingà. Pedro is resting. Nàpatayó si Pédro dahilàn sa kanya ng
pagkàgúlat. Pedro leaped to his feet in his surprise. Dahilàn sa kanya
ng pagkàgúlat ay nàpaupú siya. In his surprise he fell into his chair.

So from: gúlat, halakhàk, hitsà, iyàk, kasàl, lagày, lagpàk, luksò,
sigàw, tindìg.

(a) Plural with -ang-: Ang manga kalabàw ay nangàpàpahingà. The
carabao are resting. So: nangápamanghà`.

(b) Accent shift: Nàpagisìng si Hwàn sa kalakasàn nang putòk nang
barìl. The report of the gun was so loud that Juan woke up. So: táwa.

(c) Abstract, of movements, pagkàpa-. Ang dáhil nang kanya ng
pagkàparíto ay ang paniningìl. What brought him here was the collecting
of debts. Ang pagkàpalígo nang kabáyo ay marumè. The horse has not
been bathed clean. So from: alíla`, doòn.

(d) With makà- D (§ 473) from -paríto: Hwag kà ng
makàparí-paríto. Don't you ever come round here!

509. Instrumental passive, mà-i-pa-, from: dalà, kilála, kíta, túlos.

510. Local passive, mà-pa- (1) -an. Màpàparusáhan kità. I shall have
to punish you. So: kinìg.

511. Special static words with nà-pa-ka- denote something having a high
degree of such and such a quality. Ang sákit na iyo ng ipinarùrúsa sa
ákin ay nápakabigàt. The grief you cause me is very severe. Nàpakabúte
ang kanya ng pagkatákot. Her fear reached a high degree. Ang sakày
na táo nang kutséro sa karumáta ay nàpakatabà`. The man the driver
has taken into his carriage is very stout. So also: iklì`.

(a) From a phrase: nàpakawala-ng-hiyà`.

5. The prefix pati-.

512. pati- before a root expresses that such and such a movement
(of one's own person) is suddenly performed.

513. With mag- it denotes the voluntary performer. Barytone roots seem
to have accent shift. Ang báta y nagpatihigà` sa sahìg. The child
suddenly lay down on the floor. Nagpatihulòg si Pédro sa bintána`
sa isa ng pagsumpòng nang kanya ng pagkalóko. Pedro suddenly threw
himself from the window in an attack of his madness. Nagpàpatihulòg si
Hwàn sa hagdánan kung sinúsumpòng nang kalokóhan, kaniyà` sya y itináli
nilà sa isa ng halígi nang báhay. They tied Juan to one of the posts of
the house, because when he is assailed by a fit of insanity he throws
himself down the stairs. Magpàpatihulòg daw sya mulá sa ituktòk nang
kanya ng bìlanggúan úpang sya y makataanàn. He says he will throw
himself from the roof of his prison so as to make an escape. Sya y
nagpatiluhòd. He suddenly knelt down. Ang pagpapatiluhòd nang báta`
ay sya ng nakasakìt sa kanya ng túhod. The boy's throwing himself on
his knees is what injured his knee.

514. The passive with mà- denotes the involuntary
performer. Nàpàpatihigà` ang báwat mádulàs sa lugàr na itò. Every one
who slips at this place falls on his back. Hwag kà ng magpadulàs,
sapagkàt baká ka màpatihigà`. Don't slide, for you might fall
on your back. Sya y nàpatiluhòd. He fell, landing in a kneeling
position. Nàpatiupú sya sa kanya ng pagkádulàs. He fell into a sitting
position when he slipped. Nàpàpatiupò` ang báwat táo ng magdaàn sa
lugàr na itò, dahilàn sa madulàs na lúmot nang lúpa`. Everyone who
comes through this place falls and lands in a sitting position,
owing to the slippery moss on the ground.

III. Irregular Derivatives.

(1) Transients and abstracts of the particles sa and -ging.

515. The particle sa has transient forms as follows:

(a) A normal transient: with pà-sa, pá-pà-sa, ná-sa, ná-sà-sa. Nása
simbáhan silà. They are (were) at church. Násàsa simbáhan silà nang
mangyáre ang súnog. They were at church when the fire occurred. Nang
pása simbáhan silà.... When they went to church.... Pápàsa simbáhan
silà. They will go to church.

Plural: Nangása simbáhan silà. They are (were) at church.

(b) An accidental passive (of movement): má-pa-sa, má-pà-pa-sa,
ná-pa-sa-, ná-pà-pa-sa-; abstract: pagká-pa-sa. Nang mápasa simbáhan
silà ay malálim nà ang gabì. When they got to the church, it was
already late at night. Mápàpasa simbáhan silà sa gabì. They will strike
the church at nightfall. ang pagkápasa simbáhan a chance coming upon
the church.

516. The (transient) forms of -ging are ma-gìng, ma-gí-ging, na-gìng,
na-gí-ging; abstract: pa-gi-gìng. Magpùpútol daw nang buhòk ang Intsèk
na si Yèng pagigìng binyágan nya. The Chinaman Yeng says he will have
his queue cut when he gets baptized.

(2) Odd affixes.

517. ba- seems to appear in ba-lasìng.

518. hin-, with irregular nasalization of initials, in one simple
derivative: Ang kanya ng himatày ay hindí nalaúnan. Her fainting-fit
did not last long (matày). -himagsìk (bagsìk) does not occur, but
underlies many derivatives, especially maghimagsìk (§ 352,c) and
hìmagsíkan (§ 377,a). Many such underlying forms can be postulated
from the various transients with manghin- (§ 357,b).

(a) With r: ang hintutúro` the forefinger (túro`).

519. kala- in ang kalaháte` a half; ang kalatimbà` dipping on the
heels and rising, hands holding opposite ears (as trick or imposed
as a punishment), from háti` and timbà` a well-bucket; these have
various further derivatives, see Index.

520. kasing- having such and such a quality in common with something
else; hence partly equivalent with ka-: Kasingkúlay nang áki ng
báro` ang kanya ng salawàl. His trousers are of the same color as my
blouse. Ang bóla ng itò ay kasinglakì nang itlòg. This ball is the
same size as an egg. Si Hwàn ay kasingpantày ni Pédro. Juan is of
the same height as Pedro.

521. mala- (Spanish ?) derogatory: ang malasutsòt a young lout,
a half-grown boy (literally: a bad whistler).

522. pala- expresses extreme tendency to such and such an action:

(a) pala- S -in, from oxytone roots: Sya y isa ng palabintángin. He
is very distrustful. Ang manga isdà y palabùlúkin sa tagáraw. Fish
easily spoil in the hot season. ang palalungkútin a melancholy person,
palapùtákin a fowl given to cackling, palasumbúngin tattle-tale,
palasutsútin one who is always whistling, palatuntúnin one who is
always trying to follow up his stolen property, palatuwáin palatwáin
one who is easily amused.

From root with shifted accent: palasàkítin person who is always
getting sick. Irregularly: palahùníhin an animal given to neighing,
chirping, etc.

Lack of secondary accent: palaiyákin a cry-baby.

(b) pala- (2) -in, from barytone roots: palagalitìn a hot-head,
palagisingìn a poor sleeper, palagutumìn one who is always getting
hungry, palagulatìn nervous person, palahilawìn a kind of rice that
is hard to cook through; Palaputulìn ang manga tingtìng nang walìs
na ytò. The fibres of this broom are very brittle. palatakutìn a
timorous person.

(c) palà- -an the place for such and such a thing: ang palàisdáan
a fish-pond, palàsingsíngan the ring-finger, the fourth finger,
palàtuntúnan a set of rules, rules of order.

523. ta- in ta-gílid the side; with retraction of accent: -talíkod.

524. tag- in names of seasons: tagáraw, tagulàn, the two Philippine
seasons; ang taglamìg cold weather, the (American) winter. With
accent-shift: taginìt the hot season.

525. taga- person whose duty it is to do so and so, especially upon
some particular occasion: ang tagaalìs nang gwarnisyòn nang kabáyo
the one detailed to unharness the horses, tagabílang accountant,
counter, tagaíkid sa gawaàn nang lúbid the one who rolls up a rope
in the rope-factory; Ikàw ay tagainùm lámang. Your job here is only
to drink; so: tagakáin one whose only duty is to eat. Tagapútol nang
káhoy ang katungkúlan niyà. He is delegated to cut wood. tagasúlat the
one who does the writing; tagatahè` one who does the sewing. So from:
húli, sulsì.

(a) With pag-: tagapagbigày, tagapagtanggòl.

(b) With pag-pa- one whose duty it is to oversee the doing of so and
so: ang tagapagpaalìs nang tapòn nang manga bóte head bottle-opener;
tagapagpainùm sa fiyèsta bartender at a fiesta; Isa ng tagapagpainùm ay
isa ng tagapagbigày nang inumìn sa manga háyop o manga báta`. So: ang
tagapagpakáin who gives food to animals or children, tagapagpalígo` who
bathes children or horses, tagapagpasúlat head writer, tagapagpatotoò

526. tara-, tra- is felt to be a prefix in: ang táo ng tarabúko,
trabúko a bald-headed person, felt as derivative from búko smooth,
unripe cocoanut.

527. -éro (Spanish) as suffix of agent; final vowel (or vowel plus
n or glottal stop) is lost: bangkéro, sabungéro, sipéro (sipéros,
plural); from derived word: Katipunéros (ka-tipún-an, § 423); from
compound word: básag-uléro a brawler, ruffian (básag-úlo).

(3) Pronoun forms.

528. The various forms of the pronouns and objectivizing particles
show some regular derivation.

(a) n- with irregularities, for disjunctive forms: n-ang, n-i (si),
n-inà n-ilà (sinà silà), n-íno (síno), n-irè, n-itò, n-iyàn, n-oòn
(iyòn, yaòn); n-ità (kità), n-iyà (siyà), n-ilà (silà). From the
prepositive form: n-átin, n-ámin, n-iniyò.

Similarly, the particle nawà`, root áwa` pity.

(b) ka- for local and prepositive forms: ka-y (si), k-inà (sinà);
from the disjunctive form: ka-níno, ka-nità, ka-niyà. ka-nilà.

(c) With si compare sí-no, with ang, a-nò.

(d) Local equivalents of the demonstrative pronouns (treated as
separate roots): d-íne (irè), d-íto (itò), d-iyàn, d-oòn.

(e) Words of manner with ga-: ga-áno, gá-no (anò), ga-yòn (iyòn). From
disjunctive forms: ga-nitò, ga-niyàn, ga-noòn. Cf. also gáya like.

Of similar formation: Ang butò nang haláma ng itò y gabútil nang
pálay. The seed of this plant is as large as a grain of rice (bútil
a kernel of grain).

(f) saàn (for sa anò?) is felt as a simple word.


The formations with irregular affixes (515 ff.) have been omitted
from this list.

The following regular features have been ignored:

(1) Prefixes beginning with n-; these are the actual-mode forms of
prefixes beginning with m-, and are treated in the same paragraphs
as the latter.

(2) Forms with doubling or reduplication of the root; also those with
accented reduplication (of root or prefix) expressing durative aspect;
these are treated in the same paragraphs as the corresponding forms
without reduplication.

(3) Secondary accent, when not peculiar to prefixes.

(4) Variations in position of accent.

The numbers refer to paragraphs.


(1) No affix: 332. 336. 338. 341-346. 348. 358.

(2) Suffix only:
  -an 31. 334,c. 374. 377-381.
  -anan 377,b.
  -han, -hanan see -an.
  -hanin, -hin see -in.
  -in 334,c. 359. 367.
  -inan 377,b.
  -nan see -an.
  -nin see -in.

(3) Infix only:
  -in- 334,b,1. 359. 365. 366.
  -in- -um- 359,a.
  -um- 348. 349. 358.

(4) Infix and suffix:
  -in- -an 374.
  -um- -in 359,a.


i- 31. 334,a,2.b,2. 368. 373.
    i- -in- 368.
    ika- 413. 416.
    ikà- 417.
    ikàpa- 501.
    ikàpag- 418.
    ikàpagpa- 501,a.
    ikin ... see ik ...; the -in- expresses actual mode.
    ini- see i- -in-.
    ipa- 494.
    ipag- 369-371.
    ipag- -an- 369,a.
    ipagka- 414. 415.
    ipagkàpa- 501,a.
    ipagma- 370.
    ipagpa- 495.
    ipaki- 394.
    ipakipa- 496.
    ipakipag- 395.
    ipang- 372.
    ipapang- 394,c.
    ipin ... see ip ...; the -in- expresses actual mode.

    ka- 31. 76. 77. 179. 183. 334,a,2. 398. 400-402.
    kà- 403.
    ka- -an 419. 421-426.
    kà- -an 428. 430. 431.
    ka- -anan 423,b.
    ka- -anin 421,a.
    ka- -in- 412.
    kàka- 399. 404.
    kamag- 398,a.
    kamag- -an 423,b.
    kamaka- 398,a.
    kapa- -an 503.
    kàpa- -an 503,a.
    kapag- 400,a. 486,c.
    kapang- 400,b.
    kapang- -an 421,b. 423,b.
    kapàpa- 486,b.
    kay- see ka-.
    kina- 412.
    kina- -an 419.
    kinà- -an 260. 503.
    kinà- -anin 421,a.
    kinapa- -an 503.
    kuma- 404.
    ma- 438 ff. 444. 449. 454.
    mà- 463 ff. 469.
    ma- -an 451.
    mà- -an 475.
    ma- -in 457.
    mag- 34. 334,a,1. 350. 353-356. 358.
    mag- -um- 352,c.
    mag- -an 352,d.
    mag- -in 352,d. 358,a.
    magka- 405. 408. 409,a.
    magkà- 410. 411.
    magka- -an 427,a,c.
    magkà- -an 430.
    magkaka- 409.
    magkaka- -an 427,d.
    magkinàka- 412,a.
    magma- 352,c. 353,a.
    magmà- 353,b.
    magmaka- 453,a.
    magpa- 489.
    magpà- 489,d,e.
    magpa- -um- 489,b.
    magpà- -an 498,a.
    magpaka- 499.
    magpakama- 499,a.
    magpakamà- 499,a.
    magpapa- 489 f.
    magpati- 513.
    magsi- 385.
    magsipa- 488,d.
    magsipag- 386.
    magsipag- -an 386,b.
    magsipagka- 406.
    magsipagpa- 489,a.
    magsipang- 387.
    mài- 474.
    maipa- 507.
    màipa- 509.
    maipag- 450.
    maipang- 450.
    maka- 433 ff. 444. 453.
    makà- 458 ff. 469. 473. 479.
    màka- 470,a.
    maka- -an 443. 454,c.
    màka- -an 488.
    makapa- 504.
    makapag- 445. 447.
    makapagpa- 505.
    makàpaki- 473,a.
    makapang- 448.
    makapang- -in 448,b.
    maki- 390.
    makipag- 391.
    makipag- -an 391,a.
    makipagka- -an 427,b.
    makipang- 392.
    mang- 334,a,4. 357. 358.
    màng- 358,e. f.
    mang- -in 357,a.
    manga- 442.
    mangà- 467.
    manga- -an 421,a.
    mangagsi- 385,a.
    mangagsipag- 386,a.
    mangaka- 442.
    mangàka- 442. 470,b.
    mangàpa- 508,a.
    mapa- 506.
    màpa- 508.
    màpa- -an 510.
    mapag- 446. 455.
    màpag- 471.
    mapag- -an 452.
    màpag- -an 476.
    màpagka- -an 488,a.
    nàpaka- 511.
    mapang- 454,c. 456.
    màpang- 472.
    màpang- -an 477.
    màpati- 514.
    pa- 207. 481-484. 487.
    pà- 487,d. 515,a.
    pa- -an 497.
    pà- -an 497,b. 498.
    pa- -in 490.
    pà- -in 490,a,b.
    pag- 34. 274. 334,a,1. 348-356.
    pag- -an 352,d. 375.
    pag- -anan 375,b.
    pag- -in 352,c. 360-363.
    pag- -um- 352,c.
    pagka- 274. 404. 433, ff. 444. 453,b.
    pagkà- 274. 458 ff. 469.
    pagka- -an 420.
    pagkà- -an 429.
    pagkaka- 405. 406. 407,a,b.
    pagkakà- 410. 411.
    pagkàka- 470,a.
    pagkaka- -an 427,a.
    pagkakà- -an 430,a,b.
    pagkàpa- 508,c.
    pagkapag- 445. 447.
    pagkàpag- 471.
    pagkapang- 448.
    pagkapang- -in- 448,b.
    pagmama- 352,c. 353,a.
    pagmamà- 353,b.
    pagpa- 488.
    pagpapa- 489.
    pagpapà- -an 498,a.
    pagpapa- -um- 498,b.
    pagpapaka- 499.
    pagpapakama- 499,a.
    pagpapakamà- 499,a.
    pai- 481,a.
    paka- -an 502.
    paka- -in 500.
    paki- 389.
    paki- -an 396.
    paki- -in 393.
    pakiki- 390.
    pakikipag- 391.
    pakikipag- -an 391,a.
    pakikipagka- -an 427,b.
    pakikipang- 392.
    pakipag- -an 396,b.
    panu- see pang-.
    pang- 334,a,4. 347. 357.
    pang- -an 376.
    pàng- -an 383.
    pang- -in 357,a. 364. 367,b.
    pàng- -in 367,c.
    panganga- -an 421,a. 422,a.
    pangpa- 486,a.
    papa- 485.
    pàpa- 488.
    papa- -an 497,c.
    papag- -in 491. 491,b.
    papagpa- -in 493.
    papang- 492.
    pau- see pa-.
    pin... see p...; the -in- expresses actual mode.
    puma- 488.


The words are arranged by roots, in accordance with the speech-feeling,
so far as ascertainable. The forms díne, díto, diyàn, doòn have,
however, been given separate places.

In using the index the sound-variations described in § 334 should
be kept in view. The forms are given with fullest accentuation and
vocalism (iy for y, uw for w after consonant), regardless of actual
occurrence. For e see i, for o see u. Foreign r is under d, f under p,
v under b.

The brief indication of meaning after each form ignores shades of
meaning that would require long definitions; so especially factors
of involuntary or completed action and of ability (ka-, maka-, ma-)
and of accident or ability due to external causes (kà-, makà-, mà-).

The references to occurrence have been limited by considerations
of space; the numbers refer to page and line; when in heavy type,
to paragraphs of the Grammatical Analysis.

The following abbreviations are used: arch.: felt as archaic. C.:
Chinese. disj.: disjunctive form. E.: English. excl.: exclusive. id.:
the same meaning. incl.: inclusive. intr.: English definition to be
taken in intransitive sense. loc.: local. n.: name. pl.: the Tagalog
form is an explicit plural. prep.: prepositive. S.: Spanish [11]. tr.:
English definition to be taken in transitive sense.


a- see anò, ang.

abà ah 151(14).

abakà S. hemp 237(37).

-abála: pagabála a bothering; see Corrigenda.
  nangabála made trouble 239(29).
  kaabalahàn trouble 302(14).

-abàng: umabàng watch for 226(23).
  umáabàng is lying in wait 64(41).
  nakaabàng is on guard 48(12).

ábito S. vestment 98(20).

abéynte-kuwátro S. twenty-fourth 110(11).

abúbot belongings 118(23).

-ábot (a) overtake: abútan be reached 92(19). 299(38).
  inabútan was overtaken 52(42). 84(34). 250(30).
  inàabútan is being reached 301(34).
  paábot let oneself be overtaken 301(21).
  paaábot pl. 46(11).
  nagpaábot let himself be overtaken 52(28).
  --(b) with accent-shift; reach for, take: umabòt reach for
  231(5). 237(20). reached for 231(6).
  umáabòt reaches for 62(14).
  pagabòt a reaching for 231(7).
  nagáabòt is handing 237(17).
  pagaabòt a handing 237(19).
  inabòt was taken 30(10).
  ináabot is being reached for 246(3).
  iyabòt be handed 249(13).
  iniyabòt was handed 30(13). 106(21).
  iniyáabòt is being handed 249(12).
  kaàbútan one of two who hand to each other 278(4).
  maabòt he reached 286(28).
  maáabòt will be reached 20(27).
  naabòt was reached 286(27).
  pagkaabòt a reaching for see Corrigenda.
  náabòt was reached 296(13).
  pagkáabòt a reaching for see Corrigenda.
  paabòt caused to be handed 300(23).
  nagpaabòt caused to be handed 304(21).
  ipinaabòt was caused to be handed 52(11).

-ága: umága morning
50(40). 62(36). 66(25). 120(19). 163(23). 190(24). 241(39). 262(5).
  inùumága is being overtaken by morning 245(42).
  magpaumága let oneself be overtaken by morning 304(18).
  agáhan be done early 250(30).
  maága early 312(27).
  paága early rice 300(3).
  pàága be very early 301(36).
  pàagáhan be done very early 308(36).

agàd soon 32(22). 42(31). 48(26). 265(1).
  agàd-agàd immediately 36(5). 48(37.40). 265(1).

ágaw that snatched 220(17).
  agàw snatched 222(16).
  umágaw snatched 226(24).
  inágaw was snatched 250(11).
  agawàn a grabbing together 260(3).
  pagaagawàn a scrambling 108(25).
  nagsìsipagagawàn are scrambling 108(24).
  naàágaw can be seized 40(8).
  makàágaw seize 108(31).

aginàldo S. Christmas present; as n. 118(6).
  nàpangaginàlduhan was given as a Christmas present 298(26). 307(21).

ágos stream 16(3).
  umàágos is streaming 44(42).

àguwa-bindíta S. holy-water 96(28).

áhas snake 120(21).

-áhit: pangáhit razor 232(17).
  nangáhit did shaving 167(2).
  inahítan was shaved 250(32).

-áhon: umáhon go up 116(18). went up 226(25).
  umàáhon is going up 110(20).
  àáhon will go up 263(26).
  pagáhon a going up 226(27).
  nagsiáhon went up, pl. 118(13).
  ipinaáhon was caused to go up 120(16).

akála` opinion 20(8). 98(15). 271.
  pangakála panukála` thought 16(9). 224(40). 226(1).
  nagakála` thought, planned 24(17). 50(13).
  inakála` was thought 18(17.24).
  inàakála` is being thought 11(86).
-ákap: nààákap is embracing 66(40).

-ákay (a) lead: umàákay is leading 22(31).
  inákay was led 26(36).
  (b) with accent-shift inakày young of animal 102(20). 247(13).

ákin prep. and loc. of akò: my, me, by me 165. 169. 182.

-akiyàt: umakiyàt climb 22(39). climbed 16(15).
  áakiyàt will climb 22(36).
  pagakiyàt a climbing 24(6).
  nagsísiakiyàt are climbing 108(31).
  àakiyatìn will be climbed 16(15).
  makaakiyàt be able to climb 108(28).
  makaákiyàt will be able to climb 22(37).
  maakiyàt be able to be climbed 16(13).
  náakiyàt got carried up 295(3).
  paakiyàt ask to be climbed with or for; caused to be climbed or
  climbed for; climbing up 106(14). 299(6.37). 301(22.29).
  paáakiyàt will ask to be climbed with or for 301(38). 302(1).
  napaakiyàt asked to be climbed for 311(37).

aklàt book 154(28).
  aklátan library 210(12). See báhay.

-akmà`: inakmaàn was prepared for 70(29).

akò I 16(17). 152(14). 63. Cf. ákin, ko.

áko` person relieved 220(19).
  pangáko` 233(35).
  mangáko` promise 44(13).
  ináko` was pledged for 220(19). 243(31).
  ipinangáko` was promised 34(10).
  pagkapangáko` a having promised 44(22). 287(29).

alaála souvenir, present 72(37). 221(3).
  pangalaála memory 116(24).
  alalahánin be minded 104(33).
  àalalahánin will be minded 243(34).
  inàalaála is being remembered 243(32).
  naalaála was remembered 202(36).
  nàalaála was recalled 30(16). 72(23). 100(13).
  nààalaála is remembered. màalaála be recalled 86(3).
  paalaála caused to be given as a souvenir 299(8).
  pagpapaalaála a causing to be remembered 292(22).

-alága`: nagàalága` is attending to 311(28).

alagàd assistant 114(12).

aláhas (S.) jewelry 102(24).

álak wine, liquor 221(6).

-alala see alaála.

-álam (a) know: màláman be known 22(35). 298(9).
  màlàláman will be known 42(37).
  nàláman was known 26(32).
  nàlàláman is known 24(32).
  màpagaláman be generally known 60(35).
  paálam causing himself to be known (as leaving) 183(17).
  ipinaálam was caused to be known (as leaving) 32(9). 306(4).
  paaláman be made known 308(3).
  paàaláman will be made known 42(35).
  napaálam caused himself to be known (as leaving) 54(12)
  --(b) with accent-shift: alàm known 300(32).
  makialàm interfere 58(42). 264(18).
  pinakialamàn was looked after 265(32). 290(32).
  kaalàm accomplice 267(1) and Corrigenda.
  nakààalàm knows 42(14).
  pagkáalàm a knowing 82(9). 272(6).
  nàalamàn got known 118(1). 298(14).
  màpagalamàn get generally known 118(42). 298(24).
  ipaalàm be given out to be known 307(3).
  ipinaalàm was given out to be known 307(4).

alasìngko S. five o'clock 180(7).

alasès S. six o'clock 122(6).

alaskuwátro S. four o'clock 172 (42).
  magàalaskuwátro will be four o'clock 66(34).

alastrès S. three o'clock 66(32).

álat salty 218(37).
  kaálat kayálat what saltiness 267(34).
  kaalátan saltiness 267(27).

-álay: iniyálay was offered 16(5).

áli aunt, madam 118(14). 151(36). 59. 256.
  magáli aunt and niece or nephew 242(1).

alikabòk dust 245(26).
  maalikabòk dusty 289(1).

alíla` servant, domesticated 54(7). 62(32).
  aliláin be domesticated 106(40).
  pagkàpaalíla` a making a servant of oneself 104(2).

alìn which? 22(37). 48(18.25.36). 97.
  alìn-alìn pl. 97.

alintána in spite 277.
  inalintána was paid attention to 88(29).

alípin slave 90(36).

-alipustà`: alipustaìn be mistreated 72(39).

alìs go away 192(36).
  umalìs go away 52(22). went away 20(36).
  áalìs will go away 192(2).
  pagalìs a going away 108(22).
  nagsísialìs are going away 114(27).
  nangagsialìs went away, pl. 120(39).
  inalìs was removed 30(10).
  iniyalìs was removed 248(6).
  alisàn be removed from 250(33).
  àlísan a going away together 257(23).
  nagàlísan went away together 236(14).
  nagààlísan are going away together 96(15).
  ikinaalìs was the cause of going away 271(41).
  makaalìs be able to go away 78(11).
  makaáalìs will be able to go away 42(38). 281(25).
  nakaalìs has gone away 282(21).
  pagkaalìs a having gone away 80(3).
  mààalìs will be removed 96(34).
  papaalìs going away 300(39).
  pinaalìs was caused to go away 32(34).
  pinaáalìs is being caused to go away 64(23).
  ipinaalìs was caused to be removed 70(4). 306(5).
  mapaalìs be able to be caused to go away 122(21).
  ikinápaalìs was the cause of ordering to go away 310(5).
  ikinàpàpaalìs is the cause of ordering to go away 310(8).
  tagaalìs remover 315(33).
  tagapagpaalìs head remover 316(1).

alitaptap firefly 40(15).

Alfònso S. n. 309(6).

-alsà S.: pagaalsà a raising 70(2).

altàr S. altar 96(17).

aluwági (S.) carpenter 56(35).
  pagaaluwági carpentry 58(2).

amà father 30(26). 59.
  magamà father and child 242(2).
  magaamà father and children 242(27).
  amaìn uncle 247(26).
  magamaìn uncle and nephew or niece 242(25).
  ináamà godfather 247(17).

ámin prep. and loc. of kamì: our, us, by us excl. 165. 169.
  námin disj. of us, by us 163.
  umámin confessed 226(28).
  àamínin will be owned up to 243(36).
  inàámin is being owned up to 243(35).

Amérika S. America 189(29).

amerikána S. European coat 281(5).

Amerikáno S. American 56(30).

-ampàt: maampàt be able to be stopped 46(8). 259(30).

-ámo` (S. ?): inámo` was caressed 84(32).
  inamù-amò` was repeatedly caressed 86(4).

ámong (S.) sir, Father 20(37). 50(40).

-ámot sell, of other than professional merchant: umámot sold 226(30).
  inamútan was sold to 246(41).

an see anò.

-ának: magának family 165(17). 242(17).
  kamagának relative 54(22). 266(34).
  kamaganákan clan 112(26). 277(14).
  angkàn one's family 112(19). 260(39).

anàk son, daughter 30(25).
  panganàk infant 54(6).
  kapangànákan birth, birthday 275(43).
  panganganàk a giving birth 220(24).
  naipangánganàk has just been born 36(16). 288(4).

Andrès S. n. 26(30).

Andòy S. short-n. 208(1).

áni harvest 191(32).

-ánib: pangánib danger 46(15).
  mapangánib dangerous 289(21).
  umánib make one's sleeping-mat overlap 226(30).
  iyánib be made to overlap 248(7).
  magkaánib overlapping each other 269(38).

ánim six 52(44). 67.
  pangánim number six 225(38).
  ikaánim ikánim sixth 273(17).
  makàánim six times 298(32).

-anínaw: inanínaw was scrutinized 66(19).

aniyáya invitation 219(28).
  inaniyáhan was invited 250(34).
  inàaniyáhan is being invited 203(26).

aniyò` aspect 20(12).
  nagáaniyò` is behaving 40(40).
  pagaaniyò` behavior 108(33).

antimáno S. beforehand 20(39). 262(1).

antòk sleepiness 84(14).
  nagáantòk is sleepy 231(42).
  nakapagáantòk causes to get sleepy 108(8).

anò, an what? what kind of? 18(6). 22(21). 97. 179. 190. 264.
  anò-anò pl. 114(16). 97.
  nanganò did what? 239(29).
  páno how? 155(21). 300(8).
  papáno how? 18(11). 301(1).
  gaáno gáno how great? 28(2). 316(28). 190. 247. See also saàn.

anúnas S. custard-apple, Anona reticulata L. 76(19).

Ánong S. short-n. 286(38).

ang the, a 45. 61-71. 75. 78. 108. 109. 115. 116. 119. 126. 130-133.
161. 168. 196. 246. 248. 253.
  nang disj. the, a, of the, by the; when
  45. 119. 116-194. 253. 317(2). 340. 341 (3,d).

-angk see -ának.

angkìn appropriated 60(20).
  umangkìn appropriate 226(32).
  angkinìn be appropriated 62(6). 243(39).
  inangkìn was appropriated 16(8).
  ináangkìn is being appropriated 243(37).
  máangkìn get appropriated 308(20).

ápat four 24(37). 67.
  àápat only four 116(16).
  ápat-ápat four at a time 223(41).
  pangápat number four 225(36).
  ikaápat ikápat fourth 82(16).
  makàápat makàípat four times 298(36).

Áfrika S. Africa 189(4).

-apt see atìp.

apòy fire 22(6).
  inapuyàn was inflamed 94(29) and Corrigenda.

áral doctrine 140(31). 223(23).
  umáral arch. teach morals 233(22).
  magáral study 18(7). 209(13).
  magàáral will study 217(28).
  nagáral studied 30(5).
  nagàáral is studying 90(31). 233(22).
  pagaáral a studying 28(3).
  magsipagáral study pl. 262(34).
  nagsìsipagáral are studying 38(5).
  arálan be taught morals 250(36).
  aralàn study-room 238(6).
  pagarálan be learned 168(1).
  pinagarálan was studied 18(14).
  pinagàarálan is being studied 255(4).
  makapagáral be able to study 34(33).
  pinapagáral was caused to study 305(19).
  ipapagáral be used for causing to study 88(11).
  pàaralàn school 26(32).

aráro S. plow 232(2).
  pagaaráro a plowing 232(1).
  magaaráro plowman 242(38).
  ararúhin be plowed 243(40).

áraw sun, day 16(11). 66(1). See also madalì`, kalaháti`.
  áraw-gabì day and night 94(31). 257. 331.
  áraw-áraw every day 58(7). 331.
  kaarawàn holiday 110(17).
  tagáraw sunny season 34(27). 315(29).

arày ouch 151(15).

ári` that owned 42(2). 220(22). See also máy.
  nagàári` owns 40(17).
  pagaári` possession 62(24). 102(31).
  maári` be possible 168(18).
  maàári` will be possible 16(27). 46(12).
  naári` was owned, became possible 104(12). 285(29).
  naàári` is possible 152(18).
  pagkaári` possibility 80(30).

aritmétika S. arithmetic 82(1).

àrmas armàs S. arms 106(26). 235(4).

arsubìspo S. archbishop 96(10).

artísta S. artist 90(10).

ása expectation 72(7). 209(24).
  pagása hope 56(19). 76(13).

-ásal: inásal conduct 34(24).

asanà` (S. ?) a tree, Pterocarpus Indicus Willd. 263(25).

asáwa husband, wife 30(39). 34(5).
  magasáwa take a wife 78(38). married couple 30(25). 242(4).
  magàasáwa will take a wife 232(2).
  nagasáwa took a wife 80(6).
  pagaasáwa the taking a husband or wife 80(27). 92(9).

ásim sourness 297(10).
  maásim sour 289(1).

asìn salt 30(11).
  asnàn be salted 250(37).

aspilè S. pin 260(7.21).

áso dog 18(8).
  inàáso is being chased 243(41).
  naáso has been chased 284(9).
  nàáso got chased 292(42).

asò smoke 64(33).
  asuhàn chimney 261(10) and Corrigenda.
  pinaasuhàn was smoked 308(4).

asúkal S. sugar 198(31).

asùl S. blue 122(2).
  kayasùl what blueness 267(35).

asuwàng vampire 34(30).
  magasuwàng-asuwángan play vampire 237(9).
  magàasuwàng-asuwángan will play vampire 237(7).
  nagasuwàng-asuwángan played vampire 34(26).

at t and; for, that, though
15. 20. 37. 45. 49. 213. 289. 306. 312. 317.

átas that prompted 98(33).
  iniyátas was enjoined 54(42).

ataòl S. coffin 116(1).

atè (C.) oldest sister 59. 256.
  magatè oldest sister with brother or sister 242(5).

átin prep. and loc. of táyo: our, us, by us, incl. 165. 169.
  nátin disj., of us, by us 163.

atìp roofing 118(27).
  pangatìp shingle 224(40).
  aptàn be roofed 250(38).

átis custard-apple, Anona squamosa L. 76(20).
  atísan grove of átis trees 261(10).

atsára sour preserves 163(17). 299(11).

áwa` (a) pity 46(22).
  kàwáwa` piteous 80(12). 267(29).
  ikinaáwa` was the cause of pitying 272(1).
  naáwa` pitied 285(16).
  pagkaáwa` a pitying 285(40).
  nagmàmakaáwa` is calling forth pity 44(11). 288(36).
  (b) accent shifted: awà` overcome by pity 222(17).
  kaawaàn be the object of pity 182(39).
  kinaàawaàn is the object of pity 275(1).
  nawà` pray 47. 225.

-áway: nagàáway is fighting 232(4).
  pagaáway a fighting 306(18).
  nakipagáway fought along 264(24).
  nakìkipagáway fights along 264(21).
  kaáway enemy 18(11).
  kaàáway there has just been quarreling 267(12).
  mapagawày quarrelsome 186(33).
  màpagáway be matched 297(10).

áwit song 280(39).
  awítan be sung to 250(38).
  magàwítan sing together 183(11).
  nagààwítan are singing together 236(27).

ay y is; then 15. 20. 37. 45. 49. 89. 119.

áyap condiment 244(2) and Corrigenda.
  nangáyap ate relishes 239(31).
  ináyap was used as a condiment 244(1).
  paáyap given to be used as a condiment 299(12).
  nagpaáyap served a relish 302(28).

áyaw (a) not desired 30(5.37). 40(30). 239. 267.
  pagáyaw unwillingness 226(32).
  (b) accent shifted: umayàw refused, left the table 231(12).
  pagayàw refusal 94(17). 231(9).
  nakaayàw has left the table 286(25).
  pagkáayàw dislike 70(13).

áyon according to 40(3). 278.
  umáyon agreed 30(4).
  nakaáyon has come to be in accordance 281(3).
  paayòn conforming 300(13).

áyos formation 48(4.15) 90(11).
  mapagáyos be able to be straightened 287(6).
  mapàpagáyos will be able to be put into shape 287(7).


bà interrogative particle 47. 215. 223. 229. 299.

-bába` (a) bumába` became low 226(35).
  kababáan lowness, south 62(15). 163(26). 241(19).
  mabába` low, humble 104(27). 289(2).
  (b) Accent shifted: babà` low; come down 223(16) and see páko`.
  bumabà` descended 36(35).
  ibabà` south 56(24). 163(26). See also bandà.

-bábag: bàbábag will fight 226(37).
  nagbábabàg are fighting each other 237(25).
  pagbababàg a fighting together 252(14).
  nakipagbabàg fought along 264(37).

-bábaw: bumábaw became shallow 258(40).
  ibábaw top surface 66(28).
  kababáwan shallowness 88(30).
  mabábaw 88(26). 220(8).

babáyi babái female, woman 30(32). 163(13). nagbabá-babayíhan played
woman 237(14).

báboy pig 36(13).

-badiyà: náibadiyà got spread abroad 24(33).

bagà really? 22(21). 47. 216. 290. 219. 317(3).

-bagábag: nabagábag grew uneasy 120(37).

-bágal: mabágal slow 18(4).

bágay thing, circumstance 28(1). 36(22).
  bágay-bágay various things 116(33).
  ibinàbágay is being adapted 248(9).
  nàbàbágay is suitable 78(34).

bagiyò hurricane 273(8).

-bagsàk: ibinagsàk was dropped 271(24).

-bagsìk: mabagsìk violent 42(3). 44(30).
  mababagsìk pl. 102(19).
  maghimagsìk come to violence 314(27).
  naghimagsìk came to violence 236(5).
  nagsipaghimagsìk revolted, pl. 263(12).
  nanghimagsìk resorted to violence 241(18).
  nagsipanghimagsìk pl. 263(30).
  hìmagsíkan internal warfare 258(13). 314(28).
  naghìmagsíkan fought each other 236(23).
  nagsipaghìmagsíkan pl. 263(13).
  paghihìmagsíkan internal warfare 52(42). 116(12).
  panghihìmagsíkan id. 241(11).

bágo new; before 18(37). 36(32). 291.
  kabàbágo newly 54(6).
  nabàbágo has been changed 64(35).

bahà` flood 98(17). 110(23).
  bumábahà` there is a flood 110(19).
  pagbahà` a flooding 110(21).

bahági part 82(17).

bahagiyà slight 201(21).

báhay (a) house 34(21). See also kápit, tánod.
  báhay-aklátan library-building 210(11).
  báhay-báta` womb 210(23).
  báhay-gúya` womb of animal 210(24).
  báhay-pàhayagàn newspaper-office 210(25).
  báhay-pàmahaláan government building 292(21).
  Báhay-paníki place-n. 210(25).
  báhay-pintáhan paint-house 210(26).
  báhay-sangláan pawnshop 252(22).
  báhay-tùlúyan inn 112(38).
  bahày-bahày various houses 52(15). 110(36).
  magbáhay build a house 232(5).
  pamamáhay household 70(26).
  kabahayàn house containing several dwellings 120(3). furnishings
  of a house 276(5).
  --(b) Accent shifted: bahày tame, shy 222(19).
  nabábahày is shy 286(29).

baìt good conduct 165(1).
  kabàítan kindness, virtue 74(41).
  mabaìt well-behaved 84(11).
  mababaìt pl. 34(35).

báka S. cow 112(40).

bákal iron 201(30). 220(5).

bakàs mark, in: bakàs-súgat mark of a wound 46(6).

bakasiyòn S. vacation 26(35).

-bakìl: bakìl-bakìl uneven 220(2).

bákit why? 18(7). 236.

bakiyà` sandal 245(20).

bákod fence 266(6).
  pangbákod used in making a fence 225(2).
  bakúran be fenced in 250(40). yard, grounds 34(38).

bákol open bamboo basket without handle 74(5).

bála any 186(18). 271(22). 66. 132.

bála S. bullet 52(36).

balahíbo fur 212(18).

baláe person whose son or daughter one's daughter or son has married;
old friend 207(35). 266(5).
  magbaláe two people whose children have intermarried 242(8). 269(42).
  magbabaláe pl. 240(28).
  kabaláe one's baláe 266(2).
  magkabaláe two fellow baláe 269(40).

bálak plan 287(11).
  binálak was planned 18(34).

bálang locust 267(27).

balàt skin, shell 16(18). 30(10).

báli S. matter, harm 52(6). 42(5).
  balatàn be peeled 200(24).

báli` break 219(29).
  ipinagkákabalè` is the cause of breaking in numbers 273(7).
  makabále` be able to break 281(26).
  nabále` was broken 284(32).
  nabàbále` is interrupted 104(4).
  mabalían be broken in 70(18).
  nabalían was broken in 62(27).

-balìk: bumalìk come back 66(17). 233(17). came back 20(40).
  bábalìk will come back 32(27).
  bumábalìk is coming back 66(24).
  magbalìk come back to 233(18).
  nagbalìk came back to 72(11). 283(4).
  pagbalikàn be come back to 255(5).
  pagbàbalikàn will be come back to 32(28). 255(5).
  makabábalìk will be able to go back 56(31).
  pabalìk going back 299(13.27.39).
  pagpapabalìk a causing to go back 48(20).
  pinabalìk was caused to go back 68(41).
  ipinabábalìk is being sent back 48(7).

balíkat shoulder 48(19).

balíta` that reported; famed 34(29). 36(2).
  magbalíta` relate 42(24).
  nagbalíta` related 118(35).
  pamamalíta` a relating of stories 102(12).
  ibalíta` be reported 88(39).
  ibinalíta` was reported 32(8).
  ipamalíta` be related 275(18).
  ipinamalíta` was related 22(27).
  binalitáan was narrated to 250(42).
  pagbabàlitaàn a reporting by many 102(13).
  pinakibalitáan was ascertained by report 102(42). 265(30).
  nàbalíta` got related 46(18).
  nàbàbalíta` gets related 48(26).
  pagkàbalíta` a getting narrated 272(42).
  màbalitáan be learned by report 56(18).
  nàbalitáan was learned by report 38(12).

Balíwag place-n. 173(9). See báyan, daàn.

balúbad casoy, Anacardium occidentale L. 76(20).

baluktòt crooked 218(38).
  balú-baluktòt variously bent 290(33).
  bumaluktòt bend; bent 226(39). 233(25).
  magbaluktòt bend in quantity 233(24).
  pagbabaluktòt a bending 48(15).

balòn a well 24(37).

-bálot: bumálot roll up 226(40). 233(27).
  magbálot roll up in quantity; wrap oneself up 233(26).
  magbalòt roll up variously 52(21).
  nagbalòt rolled up variously 52(35).
  nagsipagbalòt pl. 118(13).
  nabálot has been wrapped up 284(10).
  nabàbálot is wrapped up 36(39).
  nàbálot got wrapped up 198(8). 255(40).

bambò club 70(17).
  pangbambò club for beating 225(2).
  nangbábambò is beating 239(32).
  bambuhìn be beaten 70(29).
  binambò was beaten 72(10).

-banàl: kabànálan act of piety 78(33).

banáyad gentle 48(17).

bànda S. band, orchestra 48(31).
  bànda-ng-músika band of music 48(30).

bandà direction 18(22).
  bandà ng ibabà` south
  mábandà-ng-ibabà` get turned towards the south 296(21).
  bandà ng kaliwà`, kánan see dúlo.
  bandà ng kataasàn north
  nàbàbandà-ng-kataasàn is turned toward the north 296(20).
  bandáhin direction headed for 294(24).

bandíla` S. flag 234(14).

banìg sleeping-mat 62(35).

bantày watcher 80(18).
  bantày-pálay rice-guard 228(17).
  bantày-pintò` door-keeper 78(31).
  magbantày stand guard 38(14).
  pagbabantày a guarding 36(18).
  bantayàn be guarded 251(2).
  bantáyan sentry-box 248(16).

Bantòg family-n. 165(17).

bangàn granary 270(33).

-banggìt: binanggìt was mentioned 90(23).
  nábanggìt got mentioned 50(11).

bangkà` canoe 20(3).
  mamangkà` go boating 28(12).
  magsipamangkà` pl. 263(21).
  namámangkà` is boating 20(2).
  nagsísipamangkà` pl. 98(17).
  pamamangkà` a boating 239(32).
  pagbabangkáan boating-party 112(13).
  bangkéro boatman 80(34). 316(11).

bangkày corpse 46(30).

bàngko S. banking-house 227(18).

bangkò` S. bench 30(29).

-bangò`: mabangò` fragrant 278(15).
  pabangò` perfume 222(38).

-bángon: nagbàbángon is getting up 70(36).
  kabàbángon there has been getting up 267(13).

bapòr S. steamship 56(24).

-barà: barà-barà unruly 273(37).

baráha S. cards 173(3).

baráso S. arm 138(31).

barbéro S. barber 24(35).

barìl gun 36(20).
  nagsipamarìl went shooting, pl. 28(25).
  pamamarìl a shooting 230(9).
  pinagbábarìl is being shot 56(26).
  barìl-barílan toy-gun 261(35). 293(18).
  maipabarìl be caused to be shot 52(23). 312(9).
  nábarìl got shot 56(29).

báriyo S. district of a town 70(11).

báro` blouse 205(20).
  magbarò` put on one's clothes 237(26).
  pamamáro` clothing 110(33).

-bása: pagbása reading 227(3).
  binása was read 299(18).
  binàbása is being read 172(6).
  basáhan be read to 251(2).
  basahàn reading-room 137(16).
  mabása be able to be read 186(2).
  nabása has been read 244(3). 284(11).
  màbása get read 52(12).
  nàbása got read 86(19). 293(2).
  pabása gospel-reading ordered by a communicant 251(13).

-basà`: nagsísipagbasà` are getting themselves wet 110(23).
  nakabasà` caused to be wet 201(22).

básag a breaking, in:
  básag-úlo a head-smashing, free-for-all fight 262(7).
  básag-uléro ruffian 316(13).
  basàg broken 30(10).
  mabásag be broken 30(8). 283(21). 284(35).
  nabásag has been broken 296(14).
  màbásag get broken 293(4).

-bastà`: nagbastà` packed up 232(5).
  pagbabastáan a packing up together 118(17).

báso S. drinking-glass 137(39).

báta` boy, girl 30(33). See also báhay.
  bináta` young man 90(28).
  pagkabáta` childhood 86(22). 285(41).

batalàn platform of house 72(14).

Bathála` God 54(42). 59.

-bátis: nagbàbátis is fording 104(42).
  binátis was forded 244(4).

batò stone 30(7). 220(4).
  binatò was stoned 303(30).

báo cocoanut-shell 108(32). 163(13).

báo widower, widow 163(29). 256.
  nabáo was widowed 80(29). 285(29).

baòl S. box, trunk 268(8).

báon provisions 28(27).

-baòn: pagbabaòn a burying 54(29).
  mábaòn get buried 54(17).
  magpabaòn cause to be buried 54(24).
  ipinabaòn was caused to be buried 54(30).

báwal forbidden 218(39).

báwang garlic 36(22).

báwat every 24(40). 48. 66. 132. 246.

-báwi`: bàbawíin will be taken back 244(4) and Corrigenda.
  ikinabáwi` was the cause of being taken back 272(3).

-báya` (a) bayáan be permitted 46(37). 48(13).
  binayáan was permitted 78(31).
  binàbayáan is being permitted 286(38).
  paubáya` permitted 300(9).
  magpàpabáya` will be neglectful 106(32).
  nagpabáya` was neglectful 302(29).
  pabayáan be left alone 308(7).
  pinabayáan was left alone, not interfered with
  168(23). 169(42). 308(6).
  (b) Accent shifted: pabayà` neglectful 300(25).
  kapabayaàn neglectfulness 310(39).
  pabayaàn be permitted 52(8). 237(29). 308(34).

bayábas see biyábas.

báyad payment 54(9).
  báyad-útang debt-payment 178(29).
  bayàd paid 222(22).
  magbáyad pay 54(23).
  nagbáyad paid 232(6).
  bàbayáran will be paid to 54(29).
  binayáran was paid 54(11).
  binàbayáran is being paid for 74(3).
  pagbayáran be settled with 54(32).
  pagbàbayáran will be settled for 58(27).
  pinagbayáran was settled for 255(6).
  pinagbàbayáran is being atoned for 74(21).
  makabàbáyad will be able to pay 114(41).

báyan town, district 22(27). See also kápit, táo.
  báya-ng-Balíwag the town of Baliuag 20(3).
  báya-ng-Kamálig 92(15).
  báya-ng-Malólos 38(5).
  báya-ng-Marikína 96(38).
  báya-ng-Mayníla` 256(30).
  báya-ng-San-Migèl 50(14).
  bayàn-bayàn various towns 50(8).
  namàmáyan is dwelling in a town 50(34).
  kababáyan fellow-townsman 60(12). 267(3). 291(37).
  magkababáyan two or more fellow-townsmen 26(31). 270(10.17).
  makabáyan patriotic 288(30).

bayàw wife's brother, sister's husband 54(8).
  magbayàw two men, one of whom has married the other's sister 242(9).

-báyo: ibáyo far side 80(36).

-bayò: pangbayò pestle 225(3).
  magbayò pound rice 232(7).
  magbabáyo rice-pounder 242(40).

bayúgin a tree, Pterospermum 237(39).

bayòng palm-leaf sack 74(5).

bíbas jester 98(30).

bibìg mouth 30(20).

Bigaà place-n. 116(25).

bigàs hulled rice 104(15).
  magbigàs hull rice 232(8).
  magbibígas rice-dealer 242(41).
  bigasàn be supplemented with rice 251(3). containing uncooked
  rice 261(10).
  bìgásan rice-mill 203(3).
  Bìgása-ng-Sumúlong-at-Kasamahàn Rice-Mill of Sumulong and Company

bigàt weight 226(36).
  kabigatàn heaviness 158(12).
  nakabíbigàt is making heavy 32(10).
  mabigàt heavy, grave 58(34).
  mabibigàt pl. 118(22).
  pabigàt weighting 110(7).
  nápakabigàt too severe 313(10).

bigày that given 220(24).
  bigày-loòb favor 210(27).
  pagbibigày-loòb a doing favors 60(23). 235(26).
  nagbigày gave 76(35).
  nagbíbigày is giving 60(38).
  pagbibigày a giving 50(30).
  ibigày be given 42(43).
  ibíbigày will be given 16(28).
  ibinigày was given 20(14).
  ibiníbigày is being given 40(11).
  bigyàn be given to 26(2).
  bìbigyàn will be given to 74(42).
  binigyàn was given to 32(15).
  bìgáyan receiver 258(22).
  kabìgáyan one of two who give to each other 277(36).
  mapagbigày over-indulgent 289(25).
  tagapagbigày hander-out 315(41).

-bigkàs: nagbíbigkàs is pronouncing 231(24).
  biníbigkàs is being pronounced 98(38).

biglà` suddenly 82(40).
  pabiglà` in sudden manner 68(10).

bigtì strangled 223(24).
  bumigtì strangled 227(3).
  pagbigtì a strangling 227(4).
  nagbigtì strangled himself 233(29).
  pagbibigtì a strangling oneself 233(29).
  bigtihìn be strangled 22(22).
  bigtíhan gallows 279(19).

béha cigarette-stub 205(21).

bíhag captive 233(1).

bihása` skilled 46(12).

bihíra` seldom, rare 40(26). 42(21). 72(29). 106(39). 110(29). 112(13).
  magkàbihíra` occur at odd times 114(27). 271(9).

bíhis that donned 220(26).
  bihìs dressed up 222(23).
  nagbíhis dressed himself up 232(10).
  nagbìbíhis is dressing himself up 32(37). 96(21).
  magsipagbíhis dress up, pl. 262(35).
  makapagbíhis have dressed oneself 96(24).
  pinapagbíhis was ordered to dress himself 32(14).

biìk young pig 72(36).

-bilà`: kabilà` other side 16(23). 266(6).
  magkábilà` be on both sides 16(7). 271(11).

bílang number 24(5).
  bilàng counted 222(24).
  pagbílang a counting 285(24).
  bìbilángin will be counted 24(4).
  mabílang having a number 114(1).
  pagkàbílang count 291(2).
  tagabílang counter 315(34).

bilanggò` prisoner 258(24).
  ibíbilanggò` will be put into prison 100(28).
  ibinilanggò` was put into prison 248(12).
  bìlanggúan prison 201(31).
  nábilanggò` got jailed 38(2). 198(1).
  ipabíbilanggò` will be caused to be put in prison 100(15).

bilàs wife's sister's husband 242(11).
  magbilàs two men whose wives are sisters 242(10).

biláo large flat basket 74(5). 108(17).

bilì that bought 308(26).
  bilì nang bilì keeps buying 177(8).
  pangbilì used for buying 255(34).
  bumilì buy 120(19).
  pagbilì a buying 223(21).
  magbilì sell 249(22).
  nagbilì sold 233(30).
  nagbíbilì is selling 233(31).
  pagbibilì a selling 252(19).
  namilì bought in quantity 239(33).
  namímilì is shopping 249(9).
  bìbilhìn will be bought 203(18).
  binilì was bought 163(40).
  pinamilì was bought in quantity 246(41).
  ipagbilì be sold 98(36).
  ipinabilì was sold 249(21).
  ipinagbíbilì is being sold 74(8).
  binilhàn was bought from 251(5).
  pinagbilhàn was sold to 255(8).
  bìlíhan market 258(24).
  ikabilì be the cause of buying 186(10).
  nakábilì happened to buy 56(38).
  màbìbilì will get bought 203(37).
  pabilhìn be caused to buy 34(5).
  makapagpabilì be able to cause to be bought 286(39).

bílin commission, errand 221(27).

-bilmìt: pamilmìt used as fish-pole 249(28).

bílog circle 112(2).
  bilòg rounded, round 222(25).
  bumílog turned on a lathe 227(6).
  namílog turned 188(26).
  binílog was turned 244(5).
  binìbílog is being turned 244(6).
  kabilúgan roundness 38(17). 152(17). 276(27).
  nàbìbílog gets turned 293(36).
  pabilòg in a circle, spherically 46(40). 48(4). 110(41).

-bendisiyòn S.: magbendisiyòn give blessing 96(26).
  nagbébendisiyòn is blessing 98(3).
  pagbebendisiyòn a blessing 54(32).
  binèbendisyunàn is being blessed 114(19).
  pagkabendisiyòn a having blessed 64(29).
  pagkábendisiyòn a having chanced to bless 56(8).
  pabendisyunàn be caused to be blessed 54(17).

bendíta S.: holy 96(25).

-biniyàg: nagbíbiniyàg is baptizing 98(2).
  binyágan person baptized 314(20).

bintána` S. window 70(30).

bintàng suspicion 36(29).
  nagbintàng suspected 38(24).
  pagbintangàn be suspected 20(9).
  pinagbintangàn was suspected 16(21).
  nàpàpagbintangàn gets suspected 20(35).
  palabintángin given to suspicion 315(7).

bingì deaf 86(23). 167(8).
  ikinabingì was the cause of being deaf 295(17).
  nakabíbingì causes deafness 219(42).
  nábingì got deaf 295(12).

bíngit edge, brink 180(34).
  bumíngit went to the brink 227(7).
  ibiníngit was put on the edge 248(13).
  biningítan was approached up to the brink 251(7).
  kinàbìbingítan is been on the brink of 52(31).
  napabíngit go to the brink 312(2).

birtùd S. occult quality 60(10).

bíro` joke 220(27).
  pangbibíro` a joking 40(39).

biróke S. blow-gun bullet 212(31).

bèsbol E. baseball 48(2).
  nagbèbèsbol is playing baseball 135(28).

bisìg arm, stick 70(28). 84(10).

bisíta S. visitor, visitors 305(5). chapel 251(13).

bísiyo S. vice 163(21). 221(14).

bistày sieve 74(5).
  magbibistày screener 242(38).

bitàk crack 32(5).

-bitàw: binitàwan was let go of 66(34). 254(24).
  mangákabitàw relax their hold 78(15).

-bítay: ipabítay be caused to be hanged 52(6).

bitbìt that carried by a part of it 122(2).
  binitbìt was carried 52(37).
  pagkábitbìt the way of holding 253(24).

-bitìw: bumitìw let go 174(22).
  bitíwan be let go of 76(10). 254(25).
  binitíwan was let go of 44(22).
  pinagbitiwàn was variously let go of 256(16).
  mabitíwan be let go of 44(21). 288(23).

bitúka intestine 38(30).

bitóke (S.) blow-gun bullet 212(31).

biyábas bayábas S. guava, Pisidium guayava
L. 236(17). 256(38). 283(11).
  magsìsipamiyábas will go guava-picking, pl. 263(22).

-biyábit: nangakabiyábit were hanging 34(28).

-biyábo: pagbibiyábo swinging the feet 232(11).
  pinagbìbiyabúhan is being swung on 255(10).

-biyàk: biniyàk was split 244(7) Corrigenda.
  kabiyàk half, side 112(40).

Biyàrnes-Sànto Biyernesànto S. Good Friday 20(1).

biyátiko S.: viaticum 98(3).

biyày that given liberty in a closed space 220(27).
  nagbiyày set loose 232(13).
  nagpabiyày caused to be set loose 302(20).
  pàbiyáyan place for giving temporary liberty 88(26). 309(6).

Viyóla S. family-n. 277(16).

bóbo clown 241(34).

-bubòng: bubungàn roof 38(22).

bubuwìt a kind of mouse 224(27).

-budbòd: ibinudbòd was strewn 32(18).

bugtòng riddle 222(3).
  nagsìsipagbugtúngan tell each other riddles 114(32).

bugòk rotten, crazy 218(40).

buhángin sand 68(4).
  kabuhangínan beach 68(4).

-búhat: bumúhat lifted 189(34).
  buhátin be lifted 283(29).

búhay life 18(10). See also hánap.
  buhày alive 92(19).
  namùmúhay is leading a life 104(27).
  pamumúhay way of living 30(30).
  ikabùbúhay will be the means of living 34(25).
  kabuháyan livelihood 32(12).
  mabùbúhay will live 58(30).
  nabúhay lived 285(29).
  nabùbúhay is living 72(17).
  pagkabúhay a coming to life; staple food 285(41). 288(38).
  pagkàbúhay a lucky bringing to life 291(36).

búho` slender bamboo, Dendrocalamus 18(3).

buhòk hair 24(31).

buhòl knot 274(29).
  magbuhòl tie a knot 232(14).

-búhos: ibinúhos was poured 30(20).

búkas tomorrow 88(13). 262(2).
  kinàbukásan when the next day came 48(41). 190(27). 279(24).

bukàs opened 223(26).
  bumúbukàs is opening, intr. 227(10).
  magbukàs open, tr. 228(35).
  pagbubukàs an opening, tr. 26(31).
  buksàn be opened 78(30).
  binuksàn was opened 78(31).
  bùkásan aperture 84(43).
  mabuksàn be opened 86(1). 120(21).
  nàbuksàn came open 22(2). 188(9).

búkid field, estate, country 38(8). 74(1). 90(7).
  bukirìn estate, fields 92(35).

búko unripe cocoanut 316(8).
  tarabúko trabúko bald-headed 316(7).

bukòd beside, in addition to 54(5). 279.
  magkabukòd two separately 269(43).
  magkakabukòd pl. 279(9).

-búkol: bukulàn covered with bumps 62(26).
  nagkàkabúkol is getting bumps 62(16).

bóla S. ball 46(38).

-búlag (a) nakabùbúlag is causing blindness 280(35).
  màbúlag get blinded 255(38).
  (b) Accent shifted: bulàg blinded, blind 22(29).
  nábulàg went blind 296(16).

búlak cluster of capoc cotton 247(2).
  Bulakàn place-n. 110(13). 260(5).

bulaklàk flower 189(2).

-bulìd: ibinulìd was pushed off 26(7).

bulsà S. purse 112(21).

-búlo: kabuluhàn importance 42(15).
  makabuluhàn important 271(16). 289(23).

bulòk rotten 218(40).
  nangabulòk became rotten, pl. 306(27).
  palabùlúkin easily decaying 315(8).

-bulòng: kabùlúngan one of two who whisper together 277(38).
  pabulòng in whispers 114(5).

bundòk mountain 116(18). See also paà.
  namundòk took to the mountains 52(38).
  pamumundòk a living in the mountains 52(42).

buntìs pregnant 36(17).

buntòn heap 116(34).

buntòt tail, train 240(41). 244(40). 253(8).
  buntútan tail-end 72(3).

-bunò`: nagbunò` wrestled 66(32).
  nagbúbunò` is wrestling 86(40).
  pagbubunò` a wrestling 252(25).
  nakipagbunò` engaged in wrestling 66(27).
  kabunò` person with whom one wrestles 66(34).

-búnot: bunòt plucked up 225(26). cocoanut-fibre 221(11).
  bumúnot plucked up 227(11).
  nagbunòt plucked up in quantity 237(27).

búnga fruit; betel-fruit 16(15). 247(3).
  búnga-ng-káhoy fruit of a tree 36(1).
  magbúnga bear fruit 16(12).

bungánga` maw 212(35).

bungbòng piece of unsplit bamboo 110(31).

-búrol: ibinùbúrol is being laid in state 112(30).
  kinàbùburúlan is being lain in state in 114(4).

busábos slave 90(36).

bóses S. voice 74(19).

Bùstos S. place-n. 100(12). See also lúpa`.

busòg satiated 223(27).
  pàbusugìn be well fed up 305(10).

bútas hole, hollow space 86(11). 104(10).
  bútas-karáyom needle's-eye 22(27).
  bumútas make a hole 86(5).
  binútas was pierced 106(20).
  makabútas have made a hole 86(8).
  nabútas has been perforated 86(8).
  nàbùbútas gets perforated 106(37).
  pinabútas was caused to make a hole 86(9).

bóte S. bottle 120(22).

búti goodness 218(23).
  butíhan be done well 220(10).
  ikinabúti was the cause of improvement 287(43).
  kabutíhan excellence, advantage 58(2). 62(3).
  makabùbúti will cause to improve 28(35).
  nakabùbúti causes to be well 226(33).
  mabúti good, well 16(9).
  mabubúti pl. 102(5).
  nàbúti got better, reached a high point 294(22). 295(12).
  pinakamabúti best 230(10).
  nàpakabúti extreme 313(11).

botikáriyo S. apothecary 54(2).

bútil kernel of grain 316(33).
  gabútil as large as a grain 316(31).

-bóto S.: bumóto voted 227(13).

butò bone, seed 42(5). 108(7).

boò` buò` whole, entire 34(29). 66. 98. 261.

-buwàl: nagbuwàl felled 199(25). 232(14).
  ibuwàl be felled 178(33).
  ibinuwàl was felled 270(27)
  nabuwàl has been felled 253(4). 294(5).

buwàn moon, month 38(18). 110(13).

buwìs interest on money 227(18).

buwísit repulsive 98(16). 219(1).
  binuwísit was annoyed 58(26).
  kinàbùbuwisítan is being abhorred 94(27).


daàn raàn hundred 52(43). 17. 134.

daàn way, road 32(3).
  daà-ng-Balíwag road to Baliuag 220(3).
  magdaàn pass by 68(7).
  nagdaàn passed by, past 24(40). 76(36).
  nagdádaàn is passing by 26(11).
  pagdadaàn a passing by 254(20).
  idaàn be left on the way 248(15).
  dinaanàn was run over, was called for on the way 251(9). 254(29).
  dinaánan was assailed 254(25).
  dinàdaánan is being assailed 254(27).
  pinagdàdaanàn is being gone through 30(30). 82(7).
  pinagdaánan was traversed 32(24). 256(10).
  dàánan usual route 258(26).
  nagdàdàánan are passing on the way 234(31).
  makaraàn have passed 16(11).
  nakaraàn has passed 18(38).
  pagkaraàn a having passed 24(11).
  nakáraàn nakádaàn came upon 18(32).
  paraàn manner, means 42(12).

dagà` rat 84(20).

-dagàn: dinaganàn was lain upon 44(38).
  magkádagàn be one on top of the other 270(24).
  magkàkàdagàn will be one on top of the other 270(26).
  nagkádagàn were one on top of the other 270(30).
  nagkàkàdagàn are one on top of the other 270(33).
  nagkàkàdagàn-dagàn pl. 108(24).

dágat sea 110(19).
  dagàt-dagátan lake 261(34).

dágok blow with the fist 256(23)
  pinagdadagukàn was variously struck at 84(21) and Corrigenda.
  pinagdàdadagukàn is being variously struck at 256(22).

dáhil cause 16(4). 78(33). 143(15). 206(10). 280.
  dahilàn cause 22(6). 280.
  nagdàdahilàn is alleging as cause 187(10).

dáhon leaf 16(9).
  nagdàdáhon is putting out leaves 232(16).

dáing that laid open 250(37).
  daìng laid open 222(29).
  dináing was laid open 244(7).

-daìng: dumádaìng is complaining 40(41).

-dáka: pagdáka immediately 18(42).
  karáka-ráka at once 207(20). 267(30).
  pagkaráka at once 288(40). 265(5.9).

dála fishnet 240(7).
  dinála was caught with the net 244(8).

dalà that borne 34(22) 38(27.34).
  dumalà bear up 233(16).
  dumádalà is bearing up 227(14).
  magdalà bring, carry 106(32). 233(17).
  nagdalà brought 28(27).
  nagdádalà is bringing 48(33). 72(35). 233(32).
  pagdadalà a bringing 251(12).
  dalhìn be carried 32(2).
  dàdalhìn will be carried 34(4).
  dinalà was carried 56(24).
  dinádalà is being carried 40(19).
  dalhàn be carried to 251(11).
  makadádalà will be able to carry 178(39).
  nakapagdalà was able to bring 286(35).
  nakapagdádalà nakapápagdalà nakákapagdalà is able to bring 286(36).
  madalà be able to be carried 16(4). 283(25).
  madádalà will be able to be carried 34(31).
  nadalà was able to be carried 283(22).
  nádalà got carried off 293(6).
  nagpadalà caused to be carried, sent 264(3).
  pagpapadalà a sending 48(17).
  ipadalà be sent 22(19).
  ipinadalà was sent 90(32). 306(7).
  ipinadádalà is being sent 74(6).
  ipinagpapadalà were repeatedly sent 58(25). 307(26).
  pinadalhàn was sent to 58(6).
  máipadalà get sent 58(19).

dalága young woman 36(26).

dalamháti` grief 219(31).
  pagdadalamháti` a grieving 74(13).
  pakikipagdalamháti` a grieving along 112(26).
  kadalamhatían grief 276(28).

dalandàn orange 76(20).

-dálang: dumálang became infrequent 26(10).
  madálang infrequent 289(4).
  padalángin be made infrequent 304(35).
  pàdalangìn be made very infrequent 305(14).

dalanghíta` tangerine 294(28).

-dalángin: panalángin prayer 94(33).

-dalàs: dumádalàs is growing frequent 68(16).
  kadalasàn frequency, frequently 40(40). 186(22). 262(4).
  madalàs frequent 46(24). 269(1).

dálaw visitor 112(29).
  dumálaw paid a visit 64(9).
  dumàdálaw pays a visit 112(36).
  nagsìsidálaw pl. 112(25).
  pagdálaw a visiting 86(28).

dalawà see -lawà.

dalì` hasten 221(41).
  dálì-dáli` very quickly 34(1). 224(13).
  daliàn be done quickly 251(12).
  madalì` quick, soon 94(28). 102(11). 166(16).
  madalì ng áraw: nagmàmadalì-ng-áraw it is dawning 235(21).
  --magmadalì` be quick 34(9).
  magmámadalì` will hurry 235(38).
  pagmamadalì` a hurrying 293(11).

dalíri` finger 185(21).

-dalò: dumalò come for a purpose, to aid 34(1). 38(11). 304(1).
  nagsísidalò are coming 114(36).
  daluhàn be succored 58(39).
  dinaluhàn was attended 100(18). 251(14).

dáma S. checkers 266(12).

-damàg: magdamàg the whole night 190(35).

damdàm feeling 102(16). 219(32).
  dumamdàm felt 227(15). 233(37).
  magdamdàm feel oneself hurt 233(34).
  dináramdàm is being regretted 82(9). 244(10).
  damdámin feeling, emotion 276(29).
  makiramdàm spy out 264(4).
  karamdáman illness 207(31).
  nakáramdàm felt 68(3). 292(32).
  nakàràramdàm is feeling 42(43).
  nàramdamàn was felt 201(26).
  nàràramdamàn is being felt 70(6).

dámi multitude 112(21). 267(27).
  dumámi grew in number 60(32).
  dinamíhan was made numerous 251(15).
  karamíhan numerousness, majority 34(33). 198(9). 66. 132.
  marámi many 20(13). 28(27). 69. 71. 99. 110. 138.

damìt garment, cloth 52(22). 169(2).
  pananamìt clothing 32(33). 219(14).

damò ramò grass 76(28). See also kalabàw, púno`.
  dinamuhàn was cut grass from 251(16).
  damúhan grass-field 18(33). 259(17).

dámot stinginess 268(5).
  kaydámot karámot what stinginess 268(5).
  kaydámot-dámot what great stinginess 268(4).
  karamútan stinginess 34(18).
  marámot stingy 60(22).
  mararámot pl. 112(8).

-dániw?: karaniyúwan karaniyúan usual, usually 36(15). 40(9). 262(6).

dangàl honesty, honor 218(26).
  karàngálan honoring 90(13).

-dapà`: dumapà` lay down on his face 227(17).
  nagdàdapá-dapáan pretends to fall on his face 108(18).
  nagkangdadápa` sustained repeated falls on his face 70(35). 269(29).
  nagkàkangdadápa` is falling repeatedly on his face 269(31).
  nakadapà` is prone 281(12).
  nárapà` fell on his face 295(30). Corrigenda.
  pagkárapà` a falling on one's face 295(39).
  napadapà` had himself laid on his face 311(27).
  náparapà` fell on his face 312(11).

dápat necessary, fitting 22(1). 36(9.20). 268.
  karapatàn due, right 276(8).
  marápat deserving 80(20).
  nàràrápat is appropriate 80(13). 276(29).

Rafayèl S. n. 270(5).

-dápit: pagdápit a calling for 114(39).
  ipinadàdápit is being caused to be called for 114(18).

-dápo`: dumápo` struck, landed 16(31).
  pagdápo` a hitting, landing 64(31). 68(16).
  dinapúan was landed on, was hit 96(28). 251(18).

daràs adze 58(14).
  pagdaràs a chopping with the adze 60(3).
  darasìn be trimmed with the adze 58(17).
  dinaràs was trimmed with the adze 58(32).
  pinagdarasàn was variously hewn off 58(17).

Daruwìn E. family-n. 245(9).

-dasàl (S.): magdasàl say prayers 78(37).
  nagdádasàl is saying prayers 64(36).
  nagsísipagdasàl pl. 114(30).
  pagdadasàl a praying 104(4).
  pinagdàdasalàn is being prayed in 104(17).
  dàsálan rosary 76(43).

dátapuwat but 16(4). 318. 322.

dáti formerly; since long ago 44(23). 64(18). 262(3).
  paráti often 18(8). 30(28). 262(12).

-dátig: kadátig karátig bordering on, next to 256(32). 266(9).
  magkarátig bordering on each other 270(2).
  nàkàkarátig borders on 296(27).

-datìng: dumatìng arrive 18(37). arrived 20(14).
  nagsidatìng pl. 118(34). 232(1).
  dumáratìng is arriving 18(35).
  dáratìng will arrive 52(2).
  pagdatìn an arriving 48(12). 56(25).
  datnàn be reached 56(32).
  dinatnàn was reached 46(3).
  dinàratnàn is being reached 64(7).
  karáratìng there has been arriving 151(31).
  makaratìng have arrived 82(38). 100(1).
  nakaratìng has arrived 34(21).
  màdatnàn be come upon 88(36).

-dáos: pagdadáos a performing 20(5).
  idáos be performed 264(32).
  idináos was performed 274(15).
  idinàdáos is being performed 92(24). 114(29).

dàw ràw he says, they say 17. 47. 217.

-dáya`: magdàdáya` will cheat 18(24).

dáyap the lime 76(20).

dì` not 38(17). 237. 239. 301.

-ribàl S.: karibàl rival 46(21).

dibdìb the chest 212(9).

-dikdìk: dikdikìn be crushed 16(25).

dikìn mat on which dishes are set 221(32).

dikìt blaze 220(30).
  pangparikìt kindlings 158(10).

-dikìt: idinikì was pasted 52(10).

dikóla S. (de cola) train 262(41).

díla` tongue 251(21). 306(21).
  diláan be licked 251(22).
  diniláan was shown the tongue (as insult) 251(20).

-dílat: nadílat came open 24(24).

-dilàw: madidilàw yellow, pl. 291(19).

-dilìg: pangdilìg implements for sprinkling 225(4).
  nangdídilìg is sprinkling 239(34).
  pangdidilìg a sprinkling 239(35).
  diligìn be sprinkled 244(11).

dilìm darkness 36(5).
  dumilìm it grew dark 52(29).
  pagdilìm a growing dark 36(32).
  kadilimàn darkness 72(1).
  madilìm dark 40(15).

Del-Pilàr S. family-n. 241(25).

relòs S. watch 137(41).

dimóniyo S. demon 40(5).

dìn rìn also, again 18(16). 17. 47. 218. 221. 227. 238. 239. 262(11).

dindìng, see dingdìng.

díne ríne loc. of irè: here 316 (27). 17. 47. 263.
  nàrìrinè is here 74(21).
  paríne come here 301(33).
  pumaríne come here 302(8).
  naparíne came here 312(3).

-dinìg: makárinìg hear 24(18).
  nakárinìg heard 20(19). 292(33).
  márinìg be heard 28(19).
  nárinìg was heard 20(41).
  nàrìrinìg is being heard 114(12).
  pagkárinìg a hearing 18(13). 176(41).

dingdìng dindìng wall 62(20).

Risàl S. family-n., Rizal 275(43).

desgrásiya S. misfortune 276(39).

-distíno S.: idinistíno was assigned to the parish 96(2).
  nàdistíno got assigned 50(9).

retáso S. patch 239(10).

-retráto S.: retratúhan be photographed 281(14).

díto ríto loc. of itò: here, hither; to him
16(4). 18(22). 316(27). 17. 47. 263. 280.
  nàrìritò is here 70(26). 184(36). 203(6).
  pumàparíto comes here 204(18).
  pàparíto will come here 302(11). 306(11).
  pagparíto a coming here 203(5).
  pinàparíto is being sent here 104(20).
  ipinaríto was come here for 307(1).
  naparíto came here 44(9).
  napàparíto comes here 191(16).
  màparíto get here 184(35).
  màpàparíto will get here 312(15).
  nàparíto got here 312(13).
  nàpàparíto gets here 312(15).
  pagkàparíto a getting here 313(1).
  makàparí-paríto never come here 313(3) Corrigenda.

-díwang: nagdíwang celebrated 275(43).
  pagdiríwang a celebrating 90(13).
  ipinagdìdíwang is being celebrated 110(12). 249(23).

diyàn riyàn loc. of iyàn: there, thither, from there
182(27). 316(27). 17. 47. 263.
  náriyàn went there, was there 191(14).
  pápariyàn will go there 302(13).

diyáriyo S. newspaper 284(11).

Diyégo S. n. 100(40).

Diyòs S. God 64(4). 182(40). 59.

-dugtòng: idinugtòng was said in continuation 80(28). 102(19).

dugò` blood 22(8).
  nagdudugò` bled profusely 88(28). 282(38).
  pagdudugò` a bleeding 46(8).

-dúkit: dumúkit carved 88(8).
  pangdudúkit sculpture 90(3).
  mangdudúkit mandurúkit carver, sculptor 86(18). 104(8).
  dukítin be carved 90(11).
  dinúkit was carved 90(9).

-duklày: nagdùduklày-duklày keeps blurting out 114(15).

doktò S. learned man 168(9).

-dúkot: idinùdúkot is being scooped out 110(2).

dúlang low table 252(1).

-dulàs: madulàs slippery 313(41).
  mádulàs slip 313(35).
  pagkádulàs a slipping 313(39).
  magpadulàs let oneself slide 313(36).
  pagpapadulàs a letting oneself slide 294(29).

dúlo end 16(7).
  dúlo-ng-bandà-ng-kaliwà` left-hand end 274(28).
  dúlo-ng-bandà-ng-kánan right-hand end 211(1).
  dulúhan end part, back yard 34(38).

Romanìsmo S. Romanism 56(14).

-dumì: pagdumì defecation 42(4).
  marumì dirty 94(7). 219 (36).

Don-Nasáriyo S. n. 116(26).

dúnong knowledge 28(15).
  karúnong what wisdom 173(42).
  karunúngan wisdom 276(30).
  marúnong wise, knowing, knowing how to 16(1). 26(1). 269(8).
  pagmamarúnong a pretending to be wise 167(29).
  pagpapakamarúnong a making oneself wise 309(24).
  pinakamarúnong wisest 309(40).
  marurúnong pl. 48(10).
  nagparúnong caused to be educated 90(40).

-dungò: nagdúdungò is shy 285(17).

dúro` stitch 224(1).
  durúin be pricked 244(1).
  durúan be stuck into 251(22). a spit 221(8).
  duruàn place for sticking 260(6).

-dúrog: dinúrog was crumbled 32(18).

dúsa suffering 245(18).
  pagdudúsa a suffering 76(24).
  parúsa punishment 16(28).
  nagpàparúsa is causing to suffer 42(9).
  pagpaparúsa a causing to suffer 42(16).
  ipinarùrúsa is being caused to be suffered 313(10).
  parusáhan be punished 16(22).
  parùrusáhan will be punished 16(24).
  pinarusáhan was punished 292(19).
  pinarùrusáhan is being punished 222(18). 233(1). 308(8).
  pàrusahàn place of punishment 74(21). 309(12).
  màpàparusáhan will get punished 22(5). 313(6).

rosáriyo S. rosary 104(4).
  magrosáriyo pray a rosary 104(17).

Rúso S. Russian 306(19).

doòn roòn ron loc. of iyòn: there; to him, to it
18(40). 38(17). 316(27). 17. 47. 263.
  dumoòn go there 20(26).
  magkaroòn get, have 96(3).
  nagkaroòn got, had 24(35). 52(30). 268(25).
  kinàdòroonàn is been in 74(33). 90(18). 279(13).
  nároòn nàndon got there, is there 36(33). 193(15). 39. 468.
  nàròroòn is there 42(36). 74(12). 264(10).
  paroòn go there 301(33).
  pumaroòn go there 20(15). went there 76(27).
  páparoòn will go there 88(13). 207(30). 302(18).
  pagparoòn a going there 72(40). 302(16).
  parunàn be gone to 70(34).
  pinaroonàn pinaronàn pinarunàn was gone to 46(4). 138(37).
  ikináparoòn was the cause of going there 310(11).
  makaparòn be able to go there 100(16).
  naparoòn went there 20(23). 312(5).
  pagkáparoòn a getting there 300(9).

-doòp: pinagdódoòp were brought together (hands) 96(8).

duwàg coward 312(22).
  kaduwágan cowardice 116(14).

duwènde S. dwarf, elf 30(24).

Dòytsland E. n. of a ship 268(29).


-gaàn: magaàn light, easy 48(2). 255(2).

gaáno, see anò.

gabì night, evening 36(2). See also áraw.
  gabì-gabì every night 62(38). 331.
  ginágabì is being overtaken by night 244(12).
  kagabì last night 190(15). 259.

gága madwoman 44(25).

gagambà spider 262(23).

-gálang: magálang polite 237(19). 289(5).

-gálaw: paggálaw a moving 192(20).

gáling coming from 40(5). 193(18).
  nanggáling came from 193(22).
  nanggàgáling is coming from 193(22).
  pinanggalíngan was come from 256(30).
  pinanggàgalíngan is being come from 32(30).
  kagàgáling there has just been coming from 267(14).

galìng skill 58(6).
  gumalìng got well 54(10).
  magalìng skilful; well 46(29). 269(2).
  magagalìng pl. 94(32).
  pagpapagalìng a causing to get well 42(22).

gálit (a) anger 22(15).
  ikagálit be the cause of anger 195(39).
  ikinagálit was the cause of anger 303(24).
  kinagalítan was the object of anger 274(15).
  kinagàgalítan is the object of anger 40(36).
  nagálit got angry 16(20).
  nagàgálit gets angry 106(28).
  pagkagálit a getting angry 176(39).
  nàkagalítan happened to be the object of anger 52(40). 298(28).
  magpagálit cause to get angry 98(32).
  palagalitìn hot-head 315(18).
  --(b) Accent shifted: galìt angry 177(39).
  kagalìt at odds 266(39).
  nagkagalìt had a falling out 269(19).
  pagkakagalìt a falling out 155(27). 269(19).
  nagkagá-kagalìt got angry at each other, pl. 269(25).
  kàgalítan quarrel 236(36). 279(34).
  pagkakàgalítan a quarreling together 222(42). 279(39).

-gambála`: nagambála` was disturbed 284(36).
  nàgambála` was unintentionally disturbed 293(8).

gámit that used 46(39).
  gamìt used, second-hand 183(15).
  gumámit use 58(14). used 94(4).
  gumàgámit is using 202(17).
  paggámit a using 56(37).
  gamítin be used 161(20).
  gàgamítin will be used 234(22).
  ginámit was used 60(26).
  ginàgámit is being used 40(35).
  gamítan be used on 58(16).
  kagamitàn use, employment 36(23). 120(15).
  magámit be able to be used 20(5). 74(7). 283(26).
  nagámit was able to be used 230(14).
  nàgámit was accidentally used 293(10).
  pagkàgámit the way of using, chance ability to use 240(3). 291(40).
  ipinagàgámit is being caused to be used 306(9).

gamòt medicine 54(9).
  panggamòt means of curing 46(14).
  gumamòt cure 46(13).
  gumágamòt is curing 46(16).
  paggamòt a curing 42(15).
  manggagamòt manggagámot physician 28(24). 44(28.30). 243(10).
  panggagamòt curing 42(25).
  gamutìn be treated 46(23).
  ginamòt was treated 46(4).
  ginágamòt is being treated 290(13).
  ipinagamòt was caused to be treated 54(8).

-gána S.: gumàgána is earning 227(18).

ganà concern 98(6). 281(25). 198.

gandà beauty 70(11).
  magandà beautiful 48(15). 152(3).
  magagandà pl. 72(19).
  nagpápagandà is causing to be beautiful 48(18).

ganitò, see itò.

ganiyàn, see iyàn.

gantì that given in return 90(12). 200(33). 272(11).
  gantì ng pála`: gumantì-ng-pála` return favors 231(14).
  gumantì act in retaliation 227(19).
  manghigantì take vengeance 24(25). 241(19).
  manghíhigantì will take vengeance 241(21).
  gantihìn be given return for 58(9).
  panghigantihàn be the object of vengeance 40(38).

gáno, see anò.

ganoòn, see iyòn.

-gápang: gumàgápang is crawling 18(3).
  paggápang a crawling 18(4).

-gápas: panggápas kind of knife 225(5).
  gumápas cut, slice 227(20).
  pinanggàgapásan is being cut from 256(32).

-gápos: iginápos was tied down 58(31).

-gastà S.: paggastà a spending 248(11).

gàstos S. expense 54(27).

gátas milk 175(1).

gawà` that done 54(20). 74(8). 240(34). 277(24).
  gumawà` do, make 244(35).
  paggawà` a making, doing 86(10). 202(36).
  gawìn be done, made 24(17).
  gàgawìn will be made, done 32(6). 104(1).
  ginawà` was done, made 20(36).
  ginágawà` is being done, made 44(3.9).
  pinaggagawà` was variously done 310(8).
  ginawaàn was done to 74(40). 76(3.6).
  gàwáan workshop 58(41).
  gawaàn factory 315(35).
  kagagawàn surprisingly, illicitly done 277(23).
  nakagawà` succeeded in making 86(7).
  nakagágawà` is able to make 281(28).
  magawà` be able to be done 30(6). 56(2).
  magágawà` will be able to be done 18(20). 74(27).
  nagawà` has been done 54(40).
  nagágawà` can be done 102(30).
  pagkagawà` a having made, ability to make 282(10.28).
  mapaggawà` given to doing 98(31).
  mágawà` chance to be done 238(36).
  pagkágawà` the way making turned out 291(3).
  pagawà` ordered to be made 104(11).
  nagpagawà` caused to be made 104(8).
  ipinagawà` was caused to be made 104(15).

gawì` direction 163(28). 193(28).

gáya like 18(8). 316(30). 272.

gayòn, see iyòn.

gibà` broken-down 225(9).
  gibá-gibà` tumble-down 290(36).
  mangágibà` collapse, pl. 296(3).
  mangàgìgibà` will collapse 296(5).

gílas energy, enterprise 48(32).

-gílid: tagílid side 315(27).
  tumagílid turned the side to 231(17).
  pagtagílid a moving side-ways 192(20). 231(17).
  tinagilíran was hurt in the side 254(18).
  tinaligdàn was turned the side to 254(19).
  tagilíran side wall, side part 261(29).
  nàtàtagílid is inclined to one side 296(24).

gíliw respected 219(3).

ginàw cold feeling 280(38).
  naginàw got cold 285(17).

-ginháwa: guminháwa became comfortable 227(20).
  gumìginháwa is getting comfortable 227(21).
  kaginhawáhan comfort, bliss 72(20).
  nakaginháwa caused to be comfortable 280(36).
  maginháwa comfortable 289(6).
  nagpaginháwa caused to be comfortable 302(32).

gíning Miss, Mrs. 256.

gintò gold 311(20).

ginoò Mr., gentleman 54(37). 100(30). 219(3). 289(5). 256.

-gìng 48. 250. 516.: magìng become 18(26). 314(18).
  magíging will become, take place 18(28). 94(23).
  nagìng became, occurred 18(31). 36(38). 144(23).
  nagíging is becoming, arising 42(5). 62(14).
  pagigìng a becoming 314(19).

-gísing (a) awaken, tr.:
  kagìgísing there has been awakening 184(12).
  makàgísing accidentally awaken 62(11).
  nakàgísing awakened 257(32).
  nàgísing was accidentally awakened 293(12).
  napagísing caused himself to be awakened 311(30).
  --(b) With accent shifted: wake up, intr.:
  ikinágisìng was the cause of waking up 158(9).
  mágisìng wake up 18(39).
  màgìgisìng will wake up 18(37).
  nágisìng woke up 38(21).
  pagkágisìng a waking up 62(18).
  pagisìn-gisìng waking up now and then 300(36).
  nápagisìng woke up 312(39).
  palagisingìn fitful sleeper 315(19).

gitnà` middle 16(7). 24(38).

grúpo S. group 90(25).

gúbat jungle 18(2).
  kagubátan jungle country 118(40).

gubiyèrno S. government 92(32). 200(18).

-gúgol: ginúgol was spent 257(14).
  ginùgúgol is being spent 112(22).

gúlang age 38(6). 56(33).
  paggúlang a growing ripe 272(22).
  magúlang old, mature; parent 32(6). 283(39).

-gúlat: gulatìn scary 247(32).
  pagkagúlat a getting scared 285(42).
  pagkàgúlat astonishment 36(38).
  mapanggúlat given to scaring 289(36).
  magugulatìn jumpy 62(7). 290(4).
  nàpagúlat was astonished 30(22). 58(8).
  palagulatìn nervous person 315(20).

gúlay vegetable 72(36).

-gulò: nagkagulò was surprised 268(29).
  magulò confused 237(2).
  nagulò became confused 284(38).
  nagúgulò is confused 52(29).

gulòd hill 226(25).

gúlok bolo 38(27).

-gúmon: nàgùgúmon is trailing 98(20).

guntìng shears 26(2).

gupìt a cutting with scissors, hair-cut 219(13).
  panggupìt used for cutting, scissors 225(5).
  gumupìt cut 26(15).
  naggugupìt cut to bits 238(33).
  naggúgugupìt is cutting to bits 238(34).
  paggugupìt a cutting to bits 273(33).
  manggupìt cut hair 26(1).
  nanggupìt did hair-cutting 167(2).
  manggugupìt manggugúpit hair-cutter 24(34). 243(11).
  panggugupìt hair-cutting 26(19).
  ginupìt was cut 60(6).
  gupitàn be sheared 26(3).
  nakagupìt was able to cut 281(29).
  pagkagupìt a having cut 250(32).
  nakágupìt accidentally cut 290(12).
  nágupìt chanced to be cut 293(38).
  pagkágupìt a chance cutting 291(4.42).
  nagpagupìt allowed himself to be sheared 302(33).
  pagpapagupìt an allowing oneself to be sheared 302(34).
  ipinagupìt was caused to be cut 180(11).

góra S. cap 246(4).

gurò` teacher 80(40).

gustò S.: desired, liked 16(29). 52(22). 267.
  paggustò a desiring 18(21).
  gustuhìn be desired 114(41).
  nagkagustò conceived a desire 268(31).
  ipinagkagustò was the cause of desiring 272(33).
  ikinàgùgustò is the cause of liking 273(31).
  pinagkàkagustuhàn is being liked by many 275(7).
  magustúhin fond 110(1). 289(42).
  pagkágustò a coming to desire 24(1). 92(36).
  màgustuhàn happen to be liked 74(2).
  nàgùgustuhàn is liked 209(25).

gútom hunger 28(32).
  gutòm hungry 76(8).
  gutúmin be assailed by hunger 28(28).
  nagùgútom is hungry 285(19).
  palagutumìn one who easily gets hungry 315(19).

guwàrdiya-sibìl guwàrdiya-sivìl S. gendarme, gendarmerie 20(20).

guwarnisiyòn S. harness 315(33).

gúya` young of animal, calf 210(24). See báhay.


hába` length 56(39).
  humába` grew long 38(30).
  kahabáan length 192(22).
  mahába` long 120(2).
  pinakamahába` longest 58(11).
  mahahába` pl. 18(15).

habágat spring wind 227(40).

hábang while, during 16(2). 292.

-hábol: nagsìsihábol are pursuing 301(21).
  paghábol a pursuing 84(27).
  panghahábol a chasing 116(7).
  habúlin be pursued 18(10).
  hinábol was pursued 88(24).
  hinàhábol is being pursued 68(19).
  nàhàhábol gets pursued 18(8).
  ipinahábol was caused to be pursued 76(10).
  ipinahàhábol is being caused to be pursued 72(32).

hagdàn ladder 270(31).
  hagdánan stairway 106(11).

-hágis: naghágis tossed 48(8).
  inihágis was tossed 16(30). 248(17).
  mapanghágis given to flinging 289(36).
  pahagìs with a toss 300(14) and Corrigenda.

-hagk, see halìk.

-hágod: humàhágod is stroking 98(21).
  hinágod was stroked 84(10).

Hagúnoy place-n. 110(24).

-hakbàng: háhakbàng will take a step 70(1).
  paghakbàng a stepping 68(29).

-hákot: paghahàkútan a carting together 118(17).

halagà price 54(23).
  mahalagà dear 36(14). 234(41).
  pinakamahalagà most valued 42(1). 288(38).
  mahahalagà pl. 116(2).

-halakhàk: nápahalakhàk burst into laughter 68(26).

haláman garden-plant 72(36).
  hàlamanàn garden, flower-pot 74(14). 260(38).

halayà S. jelly 253(38).

halíge post 64(23).

halìk kiss 94(12).
  humalìk kissed 227(22).
  hagkàn be kissed 251(24).
  hinagkàn was kissed 94(10).
  mahagkàn be able to be kissed 92(26).

halimbáwa` example 48(23). 62(10). 265(2).

-halimhìm: hinàhalimhimàn is being brooded on 102(18).

hálo` that admixed 220(35).
  hálù-hálo` confused 50(15).
  hinalúan was mixed with 251(24).
  hinàhalúan is being given an admixture 108(6).
  haluàn mixing-vessel 260(8).
  pinahàhalúan is being caused to be given an admixture 108(7).

hálos almost 110(25). 265(3).

hámak unfortunate, no-account 219(3).
  ikàpahámak be the cause of coming to grief 310(12).
  ikàpàpahámak will be the cause of coming to grief 310(14).
  màpahámak come to grief 312(22).
  màpàpahámak will become good-for-nothing 312(24).
  nàpahámak came to grief 312(17).
  nàpàpahámak is getting spoiled 312(19).

hampàs whipping, whip 220(37). 221(42).
  hampàs-lúpa` vagabond 211(4).
  maghampàs-lúpa` be a vagabond 235(27).
  panghampàs used as a whip 225(8).
  humampàs hit with a whip 227(24).
  naghampàs whipped himself 233(38).
  nagháhahampàs is whipping about 238(36).
  manghampàs whip people 239(38).
  hampasìn be whipped 184(8).
  hinampasàn was struck with a whip 251(25).
  hampásan whipping-bench 258(27).
  kahampásan one of two who perform mutual flagellation 277(39).
  nahampàs has been whipped 284(12).
  nakáhampàs happened to hit 291(27).
  náhampàs was accidentally hit with a whip 293(14).
  pagkáhampàs a chance hitting 62(17). 292(3).
  páhampasìn be whipped harder 305(11).

hámon a challenge 52(25).
  manghàhámon will challenge 48(24).
  manghahámon challenger 48(29).
  hinámon was challenged 48(32).
  hinàhámon is being challenged 18(21).

hánap that sought 76(23).
  hánap-búhay livelihood 271(40).
  maghàhánap-búhay will work for a livelihood 193(32). 235(30).
  humánap seek 74(23).
  paghánap a seeking 227(25).
  maghánap earn 32(11). 233(39).
  paghahánap the earning one's living 60(16). 102(7).
  maghanàp seek in quantity; search 237(28).
  paghahanàp a searching 52(29).
  hanápin be sought 92(12). 244(13).
  hinánap was sought out 16(22).
  hinàhánap is being sought 76(18).
  ihánap be looked for 30(32).
  paghahanapàn a searching through a place 52(34).
  nahánap has been sought 143(36).
  makapaghanàp have searched 287(20).
  nakapaghanàp has searched 287(18).
  pinahanápan was ordered to be sought in 52(15).

handà` a serving food 114(34).
  maghandà` serve 112(29).
  nagháhandà` is serving 114(9).
  iháhandà` will be served 237(36).
  inihandà` was served 299(11).
  iniháhandà` is being served out 62(36).
  nakahandà` is served 183(22). 281(4).

-hantày: hantayìn be awaited 32(26).
  hinantày was awaited 50(37).

hangàd aim, goal 46(36).

hangàl fool 276(31).
  kahangalàn foolishness 276(31).

-hanggà: hanggáhan boundary 258(29).
  hanggàn limit 22(6).

hanggàng until, up to 16(12). 68. 293.

hángin wind 118(31).

-hángo`: paghángo` a rescuing 78(10).
  hinángo` was rescued 88(36).
  ikahàhángo` will be the means of rescuing 74(42).
  mahángo` be able to be rescued 74(23).
  mahàhángo` will be able to be rescued 78(2).
  nahàhángo` is being rescued 78(12).

hápis grief 38(11).
  hinápis was grieved 244(14).
  nahàhápis is sad 285(20).
  pagkahápis a grieving 74(25).

hápon afternoon 18(39). 190(23.31).
  maghápon whole day 112(9). 262(8).
  kahápon yesterday 152(13). 172(6). 259.
  pagkahápon a having supped 104(16).

Hapòn S. Japan 269(20).

Hapunès S. Japanese 306(19).

hárang obstruction 220(39).
  panghárang used as an obstruction 225(8).
  humárang held up 227(26).
  paghárang a holding up 198(21).
  naghárang made an obstruction 233(41).
  paghahárang an obstructing 233(42).
  nanghárang held people up 239(38).
  panghahárang highway robbery 239(40).
  hinárang was held up 282(36).
  ipinanghárang was used in holding up 250(10).
  hinarángan was obstructed 251(27).
  pinangharángan was the place of holding up 255(11).
  harangàn hold-up 197(9).
  paghaharangàn a holding up together 275(22).
  ikinahárang was the cause of being held up 272(6).
  pagkahárang a having held up 282(29).
  pagkapanghahárang a having practised highway robbery 287(30).
  nàhárang got held up 295(6).
  pagkàhárang a chance holding up 292(5).
  pahárang caused to be held up 197(10).
  paharàng crosswise 300(15).
  pagpapahárang a causing to be held up 302(36).
  pinapanghàhárang is being caused to practise highway robbery 305(22).
  ipinahárang was caused to be held up 306(11).

haràp front 228(25).
  humáharàp is facing 96(7).
  háharàp will be present 96(18).
  hinaràp was faced 20(37).
  harapàn place in front of 24(37).
  kaharàp facing 98(21).
  náharàp came to face 72(2).

hardìn S. garden 72(19).

hári` king 24(29).
  naghàhári` is ruling 24(30).
  pagharían be ruled 255(14).
  pinaghàharían is being ruled 24(32).
  kahariyàn kingdom 24(36). 276(18).

-hása`: hasà` sharpened 202(30).
  paghahása` a sharpening 232(16).
  ihása` be sharpened 248(19).
  hasáan be given a sharp edge 251(28).
  paghasáan be sharpened on 255(15).
  hasaàn whetstone 255(15).

-hátak: paghátak a tugging 78(8).
  hatákin be pulled at 284(16).
  kahatakàn one of two who tug against each other 186(38).

háti` divide; that divided; mid- 222(1).
  háti ng gabì: naghàháti-ng-gabì it is midnight 84(19). 235(24).
  kinàháti-ng-gabihàn was at midnight 38(21). 279(25).
  hatì` divided 222(31).
  pangháti` used for dividing 225(11).
  humáti` divided, halved 227(29).
  nagháti` distributed 234(1).
  paghaháti` a distributing 234(3).
  naghatì` divided up, divided in quantity 237(30).
  paghahatì` a dividing in quantity 237(32).
  nangháti` shared orders 239(41).
  panghaháti` a sharing orders 239(42).
  hináti` was divided 16(7). 244(4).
  pinaghatì` was divided in quantity 246(20).
  paghatían be shared 28(34).
  ikinaháti` was the cause of breaking in two 270(39). of being able
  to divide 272(9).
  naháti` has been divided 284(39).
  pagkaháti` a having divided 282(31).
  nakàháti` chanced to divide 291(29).
  pagkàháti` a chance dividing 291(6). 292(8).
  paháti` ordered to be divided 299(14).
  pahatì` tending to halve 300(18).
  nagpaháti` caused to be divided 302(38).
  pagpapaháti` a causing to be divided 302(41).
  ipinháti` was caused to be divided 306(13).
  ipinagpaháti` was caused to be divided up 307(19).
  pinahatían was caused to be given his share 308(9).
  pinapahatían was caused to be caused to to be given his share
  kalaháti` half 80(24). 273(21). 314(32).
  kalaháti-ng-áraw half-day 118(26).
  kalaháti-ng-óras half-hour 66(36).
  magkákalahatì` will be half through 104(17). 238(22).
  pangangalaháti` a being halfway 24(6). 241(13).
  kalahatían middle 261(27).

-hatìd: naghatìd conveyed 56(26).
  nagháhatìd is conveying 98(3).
  paghahatìd an escorting 114(39).
  ihatìd be conveyed 34(6).
  iháhatìd will be conveyed 104(28).
  inihatìd was conveyed 20(26).
  iniháhatìd is being conveyed 20(4).
  hàhatdàn will be conveyed to 175(1).
  hinàhatdàn is being conveyed to 190(10).
  paghàhatdàn will be delivered to 20(9).
  pinaghatdàn was delivered to 255(16).
  pinaghàhatdàn is being delivered to 179(8).
  ipinahatìd was caused to be conveyed 294(28).
  napahatìd had himself conveyed 52(37).

hátol advice 30(4).
  naghàhátol advises 74(30).

-háwa: nakàhàháwa is contagious 272(3).

háwak that grasped 66(35).
  humáwak took hold 78(7).
  pagháwak a taking hold 227(31).
  hinawákan was taken hold of 66(26).
  makaháwak be able to take hold 22(22).
  nakaháwak has taken hold 281(14).
  nakàháwak got hold of 290(18).

-háyag (a): paháyag that published 48(37).
  nagpàpaháyag causes to become public, announces 48(35).
  pagpapaháyag an announcing 90(22).
  ipinaháyag was caused to become public, was announced 56(6).
  pàhayágan páhayagàn newspaper 48(27). 236(41). See báhay.
  --(b) with accent shift: hàyágan public affair, public 236(37).
  náhayàg got widely known 60(11).

háyop animal; carabao 28(26).

-higà`: paghigà` a going to bed 64(6).
  hinìhigàn is being slept on 102(26).
  hìgáan bed 244(22).
  hihigàn couch 62(12).
  kahíhigà` there has just been lying down 267(15).
  makahigà` be able to lie down 281(33).
  nakahigà` has lain down 86(39).
  nahigà` lay down 38(17). 285(34).
  nahíhigà` is in the act of lying down 285(35).
  máhigà` get laid 295(8).
  nagpatihigà` suddenly lay down 313(20).
  mápatihigà` fall on one's back 313(37).
  nàpàpatihigà` falls on his back 313(35).

higànte S. giant 32(31).

-higìt: mahigìt with an excess 118(16).

-higpìt: mahigpìt firm, strict 42(40).
  mahihigpìt pl. 122(5).

híkaw ear-ring 303(3).
  nagpahíkaw caused himself to be adorned with ear-rings 303(2).

-híla: humìhíla is dragging 118(20).
  paghíla a dragging 118(22).
  hiníla was dragged 16(3).
  hinìhíla is being dragged 100(23).
  mahìhíla will be able to be dragged 80(27).

-hilámos: panghilámos water for washing hands 62(36).

hilàw raw 28(31).
  palahilawìn kind of rice 315(20).

hilìng request 219(34).
  humilìng requested 186(18).
  hinilìng was asked for 16(27).
  hiníhilìng is being asked for 52(8).
  mapanghilìng given to demanding 42(7).

hìléra S. row 34(20).
  makahiléra be in single file 110(41).
  nakahiléra is in single file 122(2).

-himbìng: mahimbìng sound, deep 296(39).
  náhimbìng fell sound asleep 84(19).

hína` weakness 18(7).
  humína` became weak, slow 227(34).
  naghína` made gentle 234(5).
  nanghína` slackened up 240(2).
  nagsìsipanghína` are getting weak 108(28).
  kahináan weakness, slowness 22(39).
  mahína` weak, slow 22(33).
  mahihína` pl. 149(20).

hinála` suspicion 40(23).
  paghihinála` a suspecting 84(39).
  hininála` was suspected 30(23).
  hinìhinála` is being suspected 18(20).
  pinaghìhinaláan is the object of suspicion 40(21).
  màpaghìhinaláan màpàpaghinaláan will get suspected 38(19). 298(19).
  nàpaghìhinaláan napàpaghinaláan gets suspected 298(15).

hindì` not, no 16(4). 152(7). 228. 237. 239. 301. 319. 340.

-hinhìn: mahihinhìn respectable, decent, pl. 94(11).

hintày wait 206(1).
  maghintày wait 153(4).
  naghintày awaited 26(13). 30(14).
  naghíhintày is awaiting 48(12).
  paghihintày a waiting 285(23).
  hinintày was awaited 120(37).

hintò` a stopping; stop 22(26). 222(2). stopped 223(28).
  maghintò` stop 170(3).
  magsihintò` pl. 184(22).
  naghintò` stopped, ceased 18(3). 283(13).
  naghíhintò` stops 110(36).
  nagsísipaghintò` pl. 112(5).
  ihintò` be stopped 104(19).
  hintuàn be ceased from 251(28).
  hinintuàn was ceased from 122(22).
  hintúan stopping-place 258(32).
  máhintò` come to an end 60(37).
  náhintò` got stopped 259(34).
  pahintò-hintò` stopping at intervals 300(30).
  pinahintò` was caused to stop 26(2).
  pinapaghintò` was caused to cease 84(31).
  ipinahintò` was caused to be stopped 241(1).

-hintúlot: pahintúlot a permit 116(2). 272(4).
  ipinahìhintúlot is being permitted 54(18).
  pahintulútan be given permission 264(22).
  pinahintulútan was given permission 264(39).
  pinahìhintulútan is being given permission 122(6).

hinòg ripe 34(28).
  nagkákahinòg are in part getting ripe 36(1).
  nahinòg got ripe 16(13).
  pagkahinòg a getting ripe 300(19).
  napahinòg was able to be caused to ripen 311(20).
  nápahinòg came to be caused to ripen 312(27).

-hingà: humíhingà is breathing 20(8).
  hiningà breath 40(28). 228(29).
  makapaghingà be able to breathe 68(20).
  magpahingà rest 54(11).
  nagpápahingà is resting 303(3).
  makapahingà be able to rest 311(2).
  makapápahingà will have rested 311(4).
  nakapahingà has rested 310(43).
  nakapápahingà has just rested, is rested 206(1).
  nàpàpahingà is resting, of animals 312(31).
  nangàpàpahingà pl. 312(37).

hingì`: paghingì` a requesting 227(35).
  manghingì` beg 34(18).
  nanghingì` begged 32(20).
  nagsísipanghingì` are begging 112(5).
  manghihingì` begger, beggar 112(16).
  makahingì` be able to ask for 281(33)
  makáhingì` get by asking 32(22).

hip, see -íhip.

hípag husband's sister, (woman's) brother's wife 242(13).
  maghípag two women, one of whom is married to the other's brother

hípon kind of shrimp 259(6).

-hiràm: híhiràm will borrow 227(36).
  manghiràm borrow 240(5).
  panghihiràm a borrowing 221(5).
  hiniràm was borrowed 174(22).
  hìráman person borrowed from 258(34).
  kahìráman one of two who borrow from each other 277(39).
  magkahìráman two who borrow from each other 278(35).
  makákapanghiràm will be able to borrow 287(24).
  nakákapanghiràm is able to borrow 287(22).
  mapanghiràm given to borrowing 289(37).
  papanghiramìn be caused to go and borrow 305(34).
  mapahíhiràm will be able to be caused to borrow, will be able to
  be lent to 311(21).

hírap misery 22(5). 50(29).
  hiràp wearied 62(25).
  maghìhírap will suffer 46(18).
  paghihírap suffering 44(24).
  kahirápan hardship 62(4).
  mahírap difficult, poor 22(32). 36(19). 269(3).
  mahihírap pl. 54(22).
  nahirápan was pained, wearied 118(22).
  nahìhirápan is being pained 44(12).
  nagpàpahírap is causing to suffer 22(10).
  pagpapahírap a causing to suffer 46(14). 273(1).
  pagpapakahírap a taking pains 309(20).
  pahìhirápan will be caused to suffer 44(10). 100(15).

Hesùs S. Jesus 285(42).

-hitìt: hititìn be puffed at 66(13).

-hitsà (S. ?): ihiníhitsà is being tossed up 48(5).
  hinitsahàn was tossed to 48(7).
  nápahitsà got thrown upward 84(3).

hitsúra S. appearance 40(13). 106(11). 116(33).

-híwa`: hiníwa` was slashed 20(33). 203(37).

-hiwalày: maghiwá-hiwalày part, separate, pl. 183(11).
  naghiwalày parted (two persons) 88(17).
  naghiwá-hiwalày pl. 26(34). 102(40).
  naghíhiwalày are parting 40(18).
  magkáhiwalày go apart (two involuntary actors) 270(38).
  magkàkàhiwá-hiwalày will part, pl. 26(32).
  nagkàhiwá-hiwalày went apart, pl. 271(14).

hiyà` shame 72(12). 90(39).
  kahiyá-hiyà` arousing shame 58(13).
  kahiyaàn be revered 274(18).
  makahiyà` given to embarrassment 288(31).
  nahíhiyà` is ashamed 285(20).
  mapanghìyà` given to embarrassing 289(38).

heyugrafíya hewgrafíya S. geography 82(1).

hubàd naked 223(29).
  maghubàd undress oneself 232(19).
  pinaghùhubaràn is being undressed in 255(18).
  nagpahubàd had himself undressed 303(5).
  pinapaghubàd was caused to undress himself 305(21).
  pinahubaràn was caused to be undressed 308(11).

húgas dish-washing 219(36).
  naghùhúgas is washing 114(7).
  maghuhugàs dish-washer 242(42).
  manghuhugàs id. 243(14).
  hinùhugásan is being washed 251(30).
  hugasàn place for dish-washing 260(8).

húkay hole, ditch 24(38).
  hukày hollowed 104(9).
  humúkay dig 24(37). 152(32). dug 179(26).
  hùhukáyin hùhukáin will be dug 309(34).
  ihinúkay was dug for 248(19).
  hinukáyan was dug up 179(27).

hukòm judge 18(26).
  hùkúman court of justice 54(31).
  paghuhùkúman session of court 54(34).

-húla`: humúla` predicted 277(37).
  manghúla` tell fortunes 240(6).
  manghuhúla` fortune-teller 206(16).

húli (a) that caught 220(41). 282(6).
  panghúli means of catching 52(27).
  humúli catch 108(5). 165(34).
  paghúli a catching 108(3).
  nagsìsihúli are catching 102(1).
  nanghùhúli goes catching 106(39). 240(6).
  panghuhúli a catching in quantity 106(24).
  manghuhúli catcher 56(20). 110(6).
  hulíhin be caught 52(16). 68(9).
  hinúli was caught 20(20). 84(31).
  hulíhan be caught from 251(32).
  hulihàn a catching by many 260(9).
  pagkahúli a having caught 282(33).
  màhúli get caught 52(22). 70(19). 102(3).
  nàhúli got caught 16(22). 44(16).
  nàhùhúli is getting caught, is caught 28(29). 309(7).
  nagpahúli allowed himself to be left behind 68(36).
  tagahúli catcher 165(34).
  --(b) Accent shifted: hulì late; last 20(30). 28(18). 222(31).
  panghulì last 226(10).
  kàhulì-hulíhan very last 40(27). 280(17).
  máhulì be late 235(39).
  màhùhulì will be left behind 18(18).
  náhulì was last 118(34).
  pagkáhulì a being left behind 18(31). 296(18).
  màpàpaghulì will all be caught 198(12). 297(20).

Húliyo S. n. 279(5).

Holò S. Sulu 120(18).

húlo` source, upstream 279(4).

-húlog: ihúlog be dropped 168(19).
  ihùhúlog will be dropped 64(43).
  hulúgan be dropped to 16(17).
  hùhulúgan will be dropped to 16(19).
  ipakihúlog be dropped along 265(6).
  ipinakihúlog was dropped along 265(9).
  ipinakìkihúlog is being asked to be dropped along 265(10).
  ikinahúlog was the cause of falling 74(38).
  kahùhulúgan will be fallen from 158(30).
  kinahulúgan was fallen from 274(19).
  kahùlúgan one of two who drop to each other 278(6).
  kahulugàn meaning 30(18). 120(24).
  nakahúlog caused to drop 281(34).
  mahúlog fall down 299(32).
  mahùhúlog will fall down 22(12).
  nahúlog fell down 24(7).
  pagkahúlog a falling down 24(18).
  magpatihulòg throw oneself down 206(23).
  magpápatihulòg will throw himself down 313(28).
  nagpatihulòg threw himself down 313(21).
  nagpápatihulòg throws himself down 313(24).

húni chirp 197(21).
  humúni purred 84(1).
  hùníhan chirping together 202(21).
  kahùníhan one of two that chirp at each other 278(8).
  mapaghunì given to neighing 289(31).
  palahùníhin given to neighing, chirping 315(15).

Húniyo S. June 110(11).

hungkòy winnowed 223(30)
  naghungkòy winnowed 232(21).
  hungkúyan winnowing-machine 258(36).

Hòrdan S. Jordan 106(6).

hurnò S. oven 212(36).

húsay excellence 58(1).
  nagsìsihúsay are getting well 108(36).
  mahúsay in good shape, excellent 46(5). 108(12). 269(4).
  pinakamahúsay most excellent 28(38).
  mahuhúsay pl. 196(22).
  nàhúsay got well 44(24).

hustò S. just suited 108(40).

hóta S. iota 30(16).

huwàg not, do not 20(13). 234. 239. 240.

Huwàn S. n. 20(2).

Huwána S. n. 173(25).

huwátaw (C?) Chinese bowl 255(30).

huwès S. judge 54(37).

huwéting (C?) lottery 229(26).


ibà other 22(10). 66. 98. 132. 251. 314.
  ibà t ibà: nakapagìibà-t-ibà is able to alter 36(10).
  pinagibhàn was differed in 255(19).
  pagkakáibà a being different 46(39). 276(31).
  náibà got different 294(24)
  nàìibà changes 50(17).
  pagkáibà a being different 110(17).

íbig liked, desired 20(18). 267.
  pagíbig a desiring, loving 60(25). 64(4).
  iníbig was desired, loved 18(15). 40(16).
  inìíbig is being desired, loved 92(20).
  ìbígan mutual love 259(28).
  magìbígan loved each other 236(29).
  nagììbígan are loving each other 236(29).
  pagiìbígan a loving each other 90(6).
  kaibigàn desire, affection 140(2). 168(38).
  kaìbígan one of two who love each other 94(18). 140(2). 278(9).
  magkaìbígan two who love each other 42(30). 278(36).
  kayibígan friend 16(5). 139(41). 278(17).
  magkayibígan pair of friends 22(30). 278(37).
  magkakayibígan pl. 26(30). 278(40).
  pagkakayibígan a being friends 24(28). 278(30).
  makipagkayibígan make friends with 40(6). 278(31).
  nakipagkayibígan made friends with 86(30).
  kàibígan person loved 279(41).
  nagkàkàibígan are loving each other 90(32). 280(4).
  maibigìn fond of 96(39). 110(15).

íbon bird 197(21).

-ígi`: maígi` accurate 28(5).

igìb that dipped 220(42).
  umigìb dip out 227(38).
  mangigìb fetch water 282(24).

Igoróte S. Igorote 110(33).

-íhaw: ihàw roasted 222(32).
  magíhaw roast, tr. 232(21).
  iníhaw was roasted 244(16).
  ihawàn gridiron 295(9).

-íhip: umìíhip is blowing 227(39).
  hinípan was blown on 251(33).

ikàw thou 18(10). 47. 63. 182.
  See iyò, kà, mò.

-íkid: nakaíkid is coiled up 120(21).
  tagaíkid roller 315(35).

-iklì`: kaikliàn shortness 192(21).
  maiiklì` short, pl. 24(31).
  nápakaiklì` very short 221(17).

ílag go away 151(39).
  umílag get out of the way 56(20).
  nagsiílag got out of the way, pl. 118(34).
  umìílag is running away 116(7).
  pagiílag a getting away 116(27).
  pangingílag an avoiding 102(2). 118(43). 240(8).
  ilágan inlagàn be avoided 238(42).
  inilágan was avoided 251(37).
  inìilágan is being avoided 36(22).

ilàn a few; how many? 16(11). 66. 98.
  íilàn only a few 38(9). 48(28).
  makáilàn several times 44(39). 298(33).

ilàng uncanny 40(9).
  pagilàng a tricking 227(41).
  kailángan kayilángan necessity 58(16). 275(35). 288(12).
  nangàngailángan requires 108(2). 275(38).
  pangangailángan a needing 236(32). 275(39).
  kàkailangánin will be necessitated 275(39).
  kinàkailángan is being necessitated 46(11). 82(38).
  nailàng was nonplussed 285(21).

-ílap: maiílap wild, pl. 28(25).

ílaw light, lamp 122(5).
  ilawàn lamp 286(27).
  maílaw illuminated 72(6).

elektrisidàd S. electricity 290(19).

-ílin: pangingílin performing of ceremonies 112(18).

ílog river 16(2).
  Ílog-Pásig Pasig river 244(9).

Ilóko S. Iloko 275(8).

impiyèrno, see infiyèrno.

empléyo S. employment 92(32).

impò grandmother 59. 256.
  magimpò grandmother and grandchild 242(13).

inà mother 30(27). 151(22). 59.
  maginà mother and child 242(14).
  magiinà pl. 242(30).
  inahìn female 238(40).
  iníinà godmother 247(17).

-ínam: maínam handsome, pleasant 18(14). 269(5).
  pàináman be made very pretty 308(37).

indà` grandmother 59. 256.

-inìp: naíinìp is impatient 285(22).

ínit heat 134(19).
  inìt heated, angry 167(9). 222(33).
  umínit became hot 227(42).
  nagínit heated; grew angry 24(22).
  nagìínit is heating 234(6).
  kainítan heat 118(20).
  maínit hot 50(9).
  maiínit pl. 96(29). and Corrigenda.
  taginìt hot season 152(20). 315(11). and Corrigenda.

iniyò prep. and loc. of kayò: your, you, by you, pl. 165. 169.
  niniyò disj., by you, of you, 163.

-inlag, see ílag.

infiyèrno impiyèrno S. hell 22(6).

entabládo S. platform 98(40).

-intindè S.: nàintindihàn was understood 50(6).

Intsèk Chinese 56(34).

-inò: ininò was paid attention to 68(6).
  náinò got noticed 100(3).

-inòm: uminòm drank 228(2).
  paginòm a drinking 163(21).
  magiinòm drink much 206(26).
  màngingínom mangiínom boozer 243(11).
  ininòm was drunk 230(11).
  inumìn drinking water 247(27).
  ìnumínan water-shelf 259(22).
  ìnúman drinking-party 257(25).
  kaìnúman one of two who drink together 277(40).
  makáinòm accidentally drink 88(34).
  pinaíinòm is being caused to drink 200(18).
  tagainòm one whose only duty it is to drink 315(36).
  tagapagpainòm one whose duty it is to give drink 316(2).

inúyat molasses 253(40).

-íngat: nagíngat was careful 288(13).
  nagìíngat is being careful 48(13).
  pagiíngat a being careful 62(14).
  ingátan be done carefully 227(31).
  pagingátan be given due care 255(20).
  maíngat careful 40(22).

íngay noise 32(30).
  pagiingày a making much noise 293(13).
  naíngay made a sound 285(30).
  maíngay make a sound 106(5). noisy 295(16).

Ingglès Inggléses S. English 155(24). 260(11).

ingkantádo S. enchanted 84(16).

engkantadòr S. enchanter 84(38).

ingkòng grandfather 59. 256.

ipà rice-hulls 120(22).

-ípat, see ápat.

-ípon: nagsìsipagípon are gathering up 262(37).
  maípon have been gathered 34(12).
  naípon has been gathered 60(32).
  màípon get gathered 293(39).

irè this 163(36). 64.
  nirì disj., of this, by this 316(18). 166.
  See also díne.

isà sà one, a 16(3). 67. 248. 261. 314.
  isà ng báhay: kasà-ng-báhay housemate 68(22). 266(37).
  isà ng daàn: ikaisà-ng-daàn hundredth 273(22).
  isà ng laksà: ikaisà-ng-laksà` millionth 273(23).
  isà ng líbo: ikaisà-ng-líbo thousandth 273(23).
  isà ng pù`: pangsà-m-pù` number ten 225(40).
  ikasà-m-pù` tenth 212(38). 273(24).
  makásà-m-pù` ten times 64(19).
  íisà only one 36(20).
  isà-isà one by one 32(23). 76(19). 265(4).
  nagisà-isà acted one by one 239(16).
  inisà-isà were taken one by one 76(15).

isdà` fish 88(26).
  mángingisdà` fisherman 243(6).
  palàisdáan fishpond 315(24).

ísip thought, intelligence; think 88(15). 159(29). 184(15). 222(2).
  pangísip means of thinking 271(15).
  umísip think 228(3). thought out 96(19). 100(15).
  pagísip a thinking out 228(4).
  magísip take thought 200(23). 234(7).
  nagísip took thought, planned 207(20). 233(8).
  pagiísip a planning; thinking-power, reason
  44(25). 98(34). 234(9). 252(31). 254(27).
  magisìp think of various things 237(33).
  nagisìp thought about, ransacked his mind 102(43).
  nagíisìp is variously thinking of 202(42).
  pagiisìp a searching through one's mind 30(16).
  isípin be thought of 166(11).
  inísip was thought of 170(4).
  pinagísip was planned 246(14).
  pinagisìp was variously thought out 246(21).
  pagkaísip a having thought out 193(31).
  pagkàísip a chance thinking out 291(7). 292(11).
  nagpaísip caused to be thought out 310(21).
  ipinaísip was caused to be thought of 306(18).

eskuwéla S. pupil 304(5).
  eskuwèlhan school 90(3).

Espániya S. Spain 80(40).

ispírito S. spirit 66(23).

Estádos-Unídos S. United States 46(33).

estasiyòn S. station 116(20).

estudiyànte S. student 26(29).

estopádo S. stew 182(2).

istóriya S. history 271(6).

itìm black 36(40).
  itimàn be made black 251(40).
  kaitìm what blackness 151(27).
  kaiitìm pl. 267(41).
  maitìm black 36(12).
  pàitimàn be made very black 308(37).

itlòg egg 28(31).
  pinangitlugàn was laid into 256(35).
  pàngitlúgan place where eggs are laid 262(4).

itò yitò this, the latter, he, it 16(32). 64.
  nitò disj., of this, by this 20(34). 166.
  ganitò in this manner 26(7). 190.
  See also díto.

-íwan: íwan (for i-íwan) be left 32(3). 140(3).
  ìíwan will be left 248(21).
  iníwan was left 32(25). 44(42).
  inìíwan is being left 248(22).
  kinaiwánan was left in 237(34).
  naíwan has been left 32(27).
  nangaíwan pl. 120(33).
  nàíwan got left 293(16).
  nagpáiwàn caused himself to be left 50(38). 304(26).

-iyàk: umiyàk weep, cry 186(35).
  umíiyàk is weeping 22(24).
  nagsísiiyàk pl. 114(15).
  pagiyàk a weeping, crying 100(1). 228(6).
  inìiyakàn is being wept for 251(42).
  ìyákan a crying by many 100(4). 257(26).
  nagìyákan wept together 32(8).
  ikináiyàk was the cause of weeping 30(37).
  paiyàk-iyàk weeping at intervals 300(38).
  pagpapaiyàk a causing to cry 100(7).
  nápaiyàk burst into tears 90(20).
  palaiyákin cry-baby 315(17).

iyàn yàn that 20(9). 64.
  niyàn disj., of that, by that 157(32). 166.
  ganiyàn in that manner 20(12). 102(22). 190.
  See also diyàn.

iyò yò prep. and loc. of ikàw: by thee, thee, thy 16(28). 165. 169.

iyòn yòn yoòn yaòn that, you, the former 16(9). 64.
  niyòn noòn disj., of that, by that, 34(27). 38(8). 50(27). 166.
  gayòn ganoòn in that manner 18(19). 190. 238. 239.
  magkágayòn happen thus 46(17). 271(10).
  See also doòn.

Eyurúpa Yurúpa S. Europe 82(2). 221(37).


kà thou, enclitic form of ikàw 47. 63. 182.

kabaliyerésa S. stable 181(39).

kabàn box; dry measure of 75 litres, equal to 25 salòp; twenty-five
220(38). 228(36).

kabáyo S. horse 60(30). 288(25).
  See kinamatayàn.
  nangàngabáyo is riding horseback 240(9).
  kabá-kabayúhan hobby-horse 261(34).
  nakapangàngabáyo is able to ride horseback 287(26).

kabiyàw: kumabiyàw press sugar-cane 228(6).
  kabyáwan cane-press 255(28).
  pagkabyawàn be used to press cane in 255(27).
  pagkàkabyawàn will be used to press cane in 255(28).
  pinagkabyawàn was the place of pressing cane 255(24).
  pinagkàkabyawàn is the place of cane-pressing 255(25).

kabuluhàn, see -búlo.

kabutì mushroom 244(19).

-kagàt: pagkagàt a gnawing 36(4). 86(6).
  kinagàt was gnawed 76(9).
  kinákagàt is being gnawed 106(30).
  pinagkakagàt was variously gnawed 84(24).

káhit although; no matter; any
18(11). 22(3). 28(21). 48. 68. 248. 253. 264. 290. 294.

kahòn S. box 84(42). 120(20).

káhoy wood; tree 32(33). 34(28). 58(1).
  See búnga, piráso, púno`.

-káin: kumáin eat 24(1). ate 16(16).
  kumàkáin is eating 42(8).
  kàkáin will eat 28(39).
  pagkáin an eating; food 28(33). 241(40). 254(5).
  nangàngáin makes his food of 36(13).
  kánin be eaten 293(20). boiled rice 72(34).
  kináin was eaten 32(16). contents of stomach 275(7).
  mangináin graze 18(33). 241(13).
  nangìngináin is grazing 18(2).
  pangingináin a grazing 18(4).
  makapangináin have grazed 18(36).
  kinàkáin is being eaten 36(15).
  kakanìn sweetmeats 108(6).
  nagkàkakanìn makes sweetmeats 236(7).
  pagkánan be eaten from 255(30).
  kàínan eating-party 284(36).
  pagkakàínan an eating together 108(21).
  kainàn kakanàn dining-room 114(6). 230(12).
  makikáin eat along 192(40).
  makìkikáin will eat along 264(6).
  nakikáin ate along 264(7).
  kakàkáin there has been eating 175(8).
  kakàínan one of two who eat together 278(9).
  makakáin be able to eat 94(30). 281(37).
  nakáin was able to be eaten 283(27).
  pagkakáin a having eaten 108(27).
  makàkáin happen to eat 108(9).
  makàpakikáin-káin ever eat along 297(26).
  pangpakáin served as food 112(29).
  nagpakáin caused to be eaten 303(6).
  pagpapakáin a causing to eat 112(39).
  pakánin be caused to eat 72(33).
  ipinakipakáin was asked to be caused to eat 307(37).
  tagakáin one whose task is merely to eat 315(37).
  tagapagpakáin one who is to serve food 316(4).

kaingìn a clearing 118(40).

kakàw S. cocoa 299(6).

káki S. khaki 122(2).

kalabása S. pumpkin 76(15).

kalabàw (S.) carabao 70(38).
  kalabàw-ramò grass-carabao, wild carabao 230(9).

kalabìt a touch 201(26).
  kakàlabítan one of two who touch each other 277(41).

kalabòg a thud 24(4).
  kumalabòg fell with a thud 24(9).
  kàlabúgan thud of many objects 257(27).

kalákal merchandise 236(31).

kalámay rice-paste 56(16).

kalàn stove, brazier 74(5).

kalasìng clink 247(21).
  kàlasíngan clink of many objects 257(31).

-kálat: pakálat caused to be rumored 118(10).

kálaw owl 18(29).

kalaykày rake 225(25).
  kinalaykày was raked 166(22).

kàlingkíngan, see -lingkìng.

kaliwà` left-hand 90(26).
  See bandà.

kalsáda, see karsáda.

káluluwà soul 72(26). 268(15).

-kaluskòs: kumaluskòs pattered 228(6).
  kàluskúsan a pattering by many 84(20).

kamálig storehouse 253(37).
  Also as place-n., see báyan.

kamátis (S.) tomato 268(26).

kamatsilè S. a tree, Pithecolobium dulce Benth. 247(1).

kamày hand 22(9).
  nagkàmáyan shook hands with each other 234(10).

kambèng goat 112(40).

kamì we, excl. 20(38). 63.
  See ámin.

kamiséta S. shirt 122(2).

-kamìt: nagkamìt gained 232(22).
  kàkamtàn will be received 272(42).
  màkamtàn get obtained 40(5).
  nàkamtàn got obtained 62(3).

kampána` S. church-bell 80(26).

kampìt kitchen-knife 174(22).

kampòn S. comrade 305(33).

-kámot: kinámot was scratched 84(2).

kamóte S. sweet-potato 253(2).

kánan right-hand 90(26).
  See bandà.

kandáro S. lock 283(40).

kandidáto S. candidate 209(24).

kandíla` S. candle 50(29).

kandeléro S. candlestick 293(5).

kanilà, see silà.

kanína a little while ago 22(17). 50(40). 262(5).

kaníno, see síno.
  --kanità, see kità.
  --kaniyà, see siyà.

kaniyà` therefore 20(13). 241. 295. 297. 324.

kaniyòn S. cannon 252(9).

kaniyunéro kaniyunéros S. cannoneer 200(18). See trabáho.

kànser S. cancer 204(11).

kantà S. song 208(6).
  kumantà sing 110(32).
  kumákantà is singing 228(8).
  nagsísikantà pl. 110(38).
  pagkantà a singing 112(3).
  nagkákantà sings 112(2).
  kantahìn be sung 110(38).
  kinantà was sung 208(7).
  kantahàn be sung for 204(29).
  kantáhan song in chorus 112(4).
  nagkantáhan sang in chorus 200(20).

-kapà`: kumapà` felt out 228(9).
  kumákapà` is groping for 228(10).
  nangapà` caught with his hand 240(10).
  kinapà` was groped out 244(21).
  nakàkàkapà` has come to be grasping 291(31).

kapàg when, if 187(12). 248(31). 48. 296. 300. 304.

-kapàl: makapàl thick 86(7).

Kapampángan, see pangpàng.

kápit that held; a hold 66(29).
  kápit-báhay neighboring house, neighbor 38(10). 56(35). 211(5).
  magkápit-báhay pair of neighbors 242(22).
  magkakápit-báhay pl. 38(9).
  kápit-báyan neighboring town; person from the next town
  46(7). 60(12). 211(7).
  pagkápit a holding on 295(4).
  nagsikápit took hold, pl. 78(11).
  nakakápit has taken hold 64(22).
  nàkàkápit is clinging 78(15).
  pakapítin be caused to take hold 78(2).

kápitan S. mayor 98(38).

kapitàn S. captain 254(34).

kapóte S. rain-coat 161(20).

kápuwà` fellow-; equally 36(39). 249.
  kápuwà tào: magkápuwà-táo two fellow-men 242(23).

karaniyúwan, see -dániw.

kárang covering of wagon or boat 118(21).

karáyom needle 224(1). See bútas.

karéra S. course 167(27).

karéta S. wagon 100(23).

karitòn S. cart 38(17).

karnabàl S. carnival 237(8).

karnè S. meat, beef 114(11).

karsáda kalsáda S. street 201(22). 257(26).

karumáta S. carriage 52(36).

karósa S. float 234(13).

kasàl (S.) wedding 219(38). married 54(19). 223(31).
  pagkakasàl a uniting in marriage 90(34).
  ikinasàl was united in marriage 94(29).
  mákasàl get married 92(26).
  màkàkasàl will get married 295(14).
  pagkákasàl a getting married 94(35).
  pakasàl get married 168(16).
  ipakasàl be caused to be united in marriage 92(17).
  ipinakasàl was caused to be united in marriage 92(24).
  mápakasàl get married 90(41).

kasalukúyan, see -salúkoy.

kasapuwégo S. match 193(7).

kaséra S. landlady 302(28).
  nangàngaséra eats in a boarding-house 240(11).
  pàngaserahàn boarding-place 38(4). 262(9).
  nagpàpakaséra keeps a boarding-house 303(8).

Kastíla` S. Spanish, Spaniard 28(3).

katàm a plane 56(38).
  kumatàm use the plane 58(10).
  màngangátam planer 56(34).
  pinagkatamàn was variously planed off; shavings 56(40).

katawàn, see táo.

kathà` that composed 221(2).

kátiyaw fighting-cock 238(3).

kátre S. bedstead 62(38).

katuturàn, see -tuwìd.

káwad wire 284(22).

-káwag: ikináwag was shaken 78(14).

káwal herd, troop 106(26). 116(6).

kawále` frying-pan 114(10).

káwáwa`, see áwa`.

kawáyan bamboo 34(37). See pantày.
  kawayanàn kwayanàn bamboo-grove 260(42). 290(20).

káwit pruning-knife 240(12).
  mangáwit prune; get tired of 240(12).
  nangàngáwit is getting tired of 104(18).

kay, see si.

káy ké than 16(9). 281.

káya ability, means 56(4). 226(35). 255(3).
  nangàngáya has mastery 240(14).
  ikakáya be the cause of ability; means 54(22).
  makàkáya will come within the ability 16(16).
  nakáya came within the ability 283(29).
  nakàkáya comes within the ability 283(30).

kayà` else 40(5).
  so that 48(11). 47. 219. 297. 317(4). 321.

-káyas: kayàs smoothed 222(34).
  kumáyas smoothed 228(11).
  nakáyas was able to be smoothed 283(31).

-kayilà`: ipinagkayilà` was lied about 60(18).

káylan kélan when? 70(18). 92(2). 39. 262(7). (13). 317(5).

káyo cloth 249(34).
  mangkakayò cloth-dealer 248(9).

kayò you, pl. 63. See iniyò.

kibò` least sound or movement 44(42).
  kumibò` make the least sound, budge 279(13). made the least sound,
  budged 44(5).
  pagkibò` a making the least sound or movement 104(25).

Kíka` (S.) short-n. (Francisca) 311(11).

Kíko` (S.) short-n. (Francisco) 50(36).

-kilála: kilalà familiar 290(19).
  kumilála make acknowledgement 90(40).
  kakilála person with whom one is acquainted 60(23).
  pagkàkilanlàn be used as an advertisement 58(18). 279(28).
  nakàkìkilála nakàkàkilála is acquainted with
  167(30). 276(8). 292(28).
  nàkilála was perceived, got known 70(38). 104(2).
  màpagkilála be found out 40(20). 66(38).
  nàpagkilála was realized 50(32).
  nàpagkìkilála is being recognized 44(34). 52(1).
  nagpakilála caused to be known 168(34).
  nagpàpakilála is causing to be known, showing 44(24).
  pagpapakilála a showing 52(25).
  ipakilála be caused to be known 58(5).
  ipinakilála was caused to be known 64(40).
  ipinakìkilála is being shown 88(8).
  màipakilála come to be shown 68(32).

-kílos: pagkílos a moving, intr. 44(35). 66(35).
  kìlúsan concerted movement 264(4).
  makakílos be able to move 311(28).

kinà, see sinà.

kinábang profit 263(39).
  pakikinábang profit; holy communion 263(38).
  pakinábang advantage 300(3).
  nagpakinábang caused to profit, gave holy communion 98(4).
  pakìkinabángan will be profited from 94(26).

-kinìg: kuminìg trembled 42(41). 64(27).

-kinìg: makinìg hear 20(16). 30(17).
  makíkinìg will hear 96(11).
  nakinìg heard 285(30).
  nakíkinìg is hearing 22(21). 96(5).
  pakinggàn be listened to 20(29). 308(12).
  pinakinggàn was listened to 50(27).
  nàpakinggàn happened to be heard 46(24).

kínis skill 56(37). 102(22).
  kakínis what cleverness, how clever? 102(14).
  makínis smooth, skilful 102(9).
  pinakamakínis most skilful 102(14).
  makikínis pl. 118(29).
  nakapagpàpakínis is able to make smooth 58(14).

-kintàb: nagpápakintàb is causing to shine, polishing 114(8).

-kingg, see kinìg.

-kísig: makísig lively 78(23).

-kíta: kumíta find, earn 30(33).
  kumìkíta is finding 30(37).
  pagkíta an earning 60(37).
  magkíta see each other (two actors) 234(10).
  magkikíta pl. 28(1). 239(5).
  nagkíta saw each other 203(40).
  kinakitáan was the place of seeing, was seen in 36(32).
  makàkíta happen to see, find 30(26). 66(6).
  makàkìkíta will happen to see 30(36).
  nakàkíta happened to see 16(2). 40(27).
  nakàkàkíta happens to see 292(31).
  màkíta get seen 30(25). 32(38).
  màkìkíta will be seen 22(37).
  nàkíta got seen 20(24). 32(31).
  nàkìkíta is getting seen 20(21). 26(4).
  pagkàkíta a chance seeing 38(18). 80(12). 292(35).
  kàpakitáan one of two who show each other 310(36).
  nagpàpakíta causes to be seen, shows 48(14).
  ipakíta be shown 48(33). 306(21).
  ipinakíta was caused to be seen, was shown 30(38). 34(18).
  màipakíta come to be shown 28(15).

kità thou and I; thou by me 16(19). 18(21). 63. 182.
  nità disj., by, of thee and me 163.
  kanità prep. and loc., thy and my, thee and me, by thee and me
  227(17). 165. 169.

kitè` chicken 238(9).

kláse S. class, school 26(36).

kristàl S. glass 255(21).

kristiyáno (Chinese brogue: kilistiyáno) S. Christian 58(39).

Krísto S. Christ 20(4).

krùs S. cross; also as family-n. 20(24). 242(20).
  nagkurùs crossed himself 64(29).
  nagkúkurùs is crossing himself 64(5).

kò disj. of akò: of me, by me 47. 163. 182.

kúba` hump; hunchback 22(29).

-kublì: nagkublì concealed himself 94(5).
  nagkúkublì is hiding (intr.) 232(23).
  pagkukublì a hiding 186(14).
  nangúngublì is staying concealed 108(20). 240(16).
  pangúngublì a staying concealed 272(14).
  pinagkùkublihàn is being hidden in 94(8).
  kublíhan hiding-place 36(33).
  nàkùkublì is in hiding 108(33).
  pagkákublì a being in hiding 108(23).

kúbo hut 118(27).

kúgon nipa, Imperata arundinacea 118(27).

-kúha: kumúha took 50(38).
  kumùkúha is taking 112(7).
  kúnin be taken 202(10).
  kinúha was taken 30(7). 84(25).
  kinùkúha is being taken 74(26).
  pinagkúkuhà is being variously taken 74(7).
  pagkúnan be taken from 255(35).
  pagkùkúnan will be taken from 222(35).
  pinagkúnan was taken from 255(31).
  pinagkùkúnan is being taken from 255(33).
  ikinakúha was the cause of taking 272(11).
  makakùkúha will be able to take 56(40).
  nakakúha has taken 90(24).
  nakakùkúha succeeds in taking 54(4).
  pagkakúha a completed taking 52(36).
  màkúha get taken 34(9).
  nàkúha chanced to be taken 58(11). 267(7).

kukò fingernail 234(23).
  manghinukò cut the fingernails 241(24).

kúlam magic principle 40(11).
  mangkukúlam sorcerer 40(1). See médiko.
  kinúlam was bewitched 42(29).
  kinùkúlam is being bewitched 40(41).
  nàkùkúlam is bewitched 42(6).

kúlang lack 201(10).
  kulàng made incomplete 222(35).
  nagkùkúlang is at fault 96(40).

-kulápol: nàkùkulapúlan is encrusted 110(35).

Kulàs (S.) n. (for Nicolás) 258(28).

Kulása (S.) n. 287(23).

kúlay color 171(21).
  kakúlay of the same color 266(10).
  kasingkúlay id. 314(37).

kulilìng small bell 225(22).

kólera S. cholera 42(3).

-kulò`: kumúkulò` is boiling, intr. 74(24).
  nagpakulò` caused to boil 96(20).

kulòg thunder 254(36).

kulugò wart 228(30).

-kulòng: kùlúngan place of imprisonment 86(4).
  kulungàn cage, crate 238(41).
  kinàkùkulungàn is the place of accidental imprisonment 86(5).
  nàkùkulòng is imprisoned 84(42).

-kumbidà (S.): kinumbidà was summoned 20(19).

kompaniyà S. company 221(20).

-kumpisàl (S.) magkumpisàl go to confession 98(22).
  pagkukumpisàl a going to confession 98(12).
  nangumpisàl practised going to confession 98(28).
  nangúngumpisàl goes to confession 56(13).
  kinúkumpisàl is being given confession 98(7).
  kumpìsálan confession 98(24).
  mapagkumpisàl given to going to confession 98(11).
  nagpápakumpisàl gives confession 98(3).
  pagpapakumpisàl a giving confession 98(5).
  pàkumpisálan confessional 96(37).

kumpòl cluster 281(35).

kumpusisiyòn S. composition 90(15).

kumustà S. como está? 230(39).

kúmot blanket, sheet 36(39).

-kun, see--kúha.

kung when, if, whether 16(6). 45. 298-301.

kongkristiyános S., see kapatìd.

kópiya S. copy 52(10).

kúra S. priest 50(3).

kuràl S. corral 268(42).

korbáta S. necktie 163(36).

kurípot stingy 112(16).

koréyo S. mail 168(19).

-kúro`: pinagkùkúro` is being considered 82(24).
  mapagkúro` be able to be divined 287(10).
  napagkùkúro` is able to be divined 52(19).
  màpagkúro` get figured out 20(18).
  màpàpagkúro` will get figured out 182(20).
  nàpagkúro` got figured out 297(13).
  nàpàpagkúro` is divined, is understood 297(15).

koróna S. crown 26(24).

-kurùs, see krùs

-kuròt: kumuròt pinch 228(13).
  manguròt pinch people 240(16).
  kurutìn be pinched 244(24).
  kurutàn be pinched from 251(43).
  kùrútan a pinching by many 257(35).

kúsa` of its own accord 225(20).

kusína` S. kitchen 114(9).

kosinéro S. cook 114(1).

kutìng kitten 255(37).

kutsíliyo S. table-knife 114(9).

kutséro S. driver 272(2).

kúto head-louse 225(16). See pamatày.
  kutuhàn lousy person 260(10).

kuwáko cigar-holder 220(34).

kuwaltà kuwàlta kuwàrta (S.) money 30(33). 141(27).

kuwàrto S. room 84(23).

-kuwayan, see kawáyan.

-kuwènta S.: pagkuwènta a counting 223(6).

kuwènto S. story 66(3).
  pagkukuwènto a story-telling 286(5).

kúya kúyang (C.) oldest brother 46(22). 118(15). 59. 254.
  magkúya oldest brother with brother or sister 242(14).
  magkukúya pl. 242(30).


laàn that reserved 221(3).
  inilálaàn is being reserved 248(22).

-labà S. ipaglálabà will be washed for 174(40).

lában against 22(15). 282.
  lumában complete 60(40).
  labánan be opposed 60(36).
  labanàn war 251(1).
  nagsìsipaglabanàn are fighting each other 122(15).
  paglalabanàn a fighting, war, battle 116(27).
  makipaglában engage in a contest 48(23).
  pakikipaglában an engaging in a contest 116(29).
  kalában opponent 266(11).
  kinàkalában is being opposed 60(38).

labanòs (S.) large radish 252(21).

labàng trough 289(3).
  labangàn manger 260(25).

labàs the outside 52(38).
  lumabàs went out 52(34).
  lumálabàs is going out 74(1).
  paglabàs a going out 245(3).
  maglabàs bring out 234(11).
  ilabàs be brought out 270(32).
  nilàlabasàn is being come out at 42(14).
  naglàlàbásan are going out together 236(16).
  máilabàs get taken out 110(4).
  palabàs theatrical performance 300(4).
  papalabàs going out 96(30).
  nagpápalabàs is bringing out, presenting 303(9).

labì added to ten, -teen 58(12). 135.
  labi ng isà: panglabì-ng-isà number eleven 225(40).
  ika-labì-ng-isà eleventh 273(24).

lábis excessive 172(40).

labòng bamboo-sprout 172(25).

-ladlàd: iniladlàd was dropped 104(36).

lagablàb blaze 231(6).

-lagánap: lumagánap circulated, intr. 34(29).

lagári` a saw 187(13).
  manglalagarì` food-sawer 243(17).
  mapaglagarían be able to be sawed on 288(24).

lagày situation, condition 46(8). 90(35).
  ilagày be placed 108(12).
  inilagày was placed 220(17).
  inilálagày 108(42).
  nilagyàn was put onto, was covered 30(11). 261(30).
  nilàlagyàn is being put into, is being filled 108(39).
  làgáyan place where things are put 193(36). 258(38).
  lalagyàn receptacle 96(25). 261(22).
  pagkakálagày a placing, position 270(40).
  kinàlàlagyàn is the place of putting 38(32). 88(5).
  kalàgáyan position, state 34(34). 176(35).
  málagày get placed 294(26).
  pagkálagày chance placing, position 100(20).
  nagpalagày caused to be placed 24(39).
  mápalagày chance to stay in a position 22(14).

lági` frequently 60(27). 62(15).
  palági` id. 62(10).

-lagkìt: malagkìt sticky 221(26).

laglàg that falling 247(3). 257(31).
  ilálaglàg will be dropped 24(3).
  inilaglàg was dropped 32(24).
  nalaglàg fell down 257(28).

lagnàt fever 94(30).

lagpàk a falling down 58(35).
  lumagpàk come down on, land 46(38). came down 299(32).
  lálagpàk will fall down on 244(39).
  paglagpàk a falling down onto 48(22).
  nàpàpalagpàk is falling down onto 108(19).

-lagò`: malagò` dense 24(31).

-lagòk: pagkalagòk a having swallowed 30(20).
  pagkálagòk a chance swallowing 291(9).

-lagòt: malagòt break off, intr. 40(28).
  nalagòt broke off 261(27).
  pagkalagòt a breaking off 112(31).

lahàt all 26(12). 66. 132. 145. 174.
  lahàt-lahàt all the various things 74(35).

láhi` family, race 275(29).

lákad a going, an errand 221(4).
  lakàd on foot 223(17).
  lumákad go, walk 18(7). went 283(1).
  lumàlákad is walking 115(15).
  paglákad a going 66(18).
  naglákad drew on foot 234(13).
  paglalákad a drawing on foot 234(12).
  maglakàd walk about 122(7).
  naglálakàd is walking about, journeying 22(31). 66(9).
  nagsísipaglakàd pl. 58(40).
  paglalakàd a walking, journeying 66(15). 84(4).
  maglalakàd traveler 242(43).
  lakárin be traveled over 118(26).
  nilákad was walked over 244(24).
  lakáran be gone to, be gone on 70(6). 252(4).
  nilakáran was travelled on 32(19).
  nilàlakáran is being walked on 22(33).
  lakaràn walking-party 260(13).
  makalàlákad will be able to walk 104(31).
  nakalàlákad is able to walk 34(8).
  nalákad was able to be walked over 283(33).
  nàlákad chanced to walk 177(17).
  palákad course 50(6).
  pagpapalákad a causing to go 288(9).
  pinalákad was caused to walk 68(41).
  ipalákad be caused to go 118(19).

lakàs force 44(6). See úbos.
  lumakàs grew strong 76(39).
  inilakàs was made louder 42(41).
  lakasàn be done with strength 252(5).
  kalakasàn strength, loudness 182(23).
  malakàs strong, loud 18(23). 269(6).
  pinakamalakàs strongest 309(41).
  malalakàs pl. 18(15).

lakì size 66(12).
  lumakì grew larger 56(9).
  nagsilakì pl. 90(5).
  paglakì a growing larger 300(17).
  lakhàn be made big 252(6).
  kalakhàn greatness, most 44(29). 60(39).
  malakì large 18(18). 69. 99. 110. 138.
  malalakì pl. 34(38).
  ikàpagpàpalakì will be the means of causing to grow larger 310(22).
  kasinglakì of the same size 314(39).
  magkakasinglakì several of the same size 120(3).

lákip: kalákip having the same cover, enclosed with 173(28).

laksà` million 134. See isà.

-láko`: magláko` peddle 232(23).
  maglalakò` peddler 226(23).

-lála: nilála was woven 46(40).

-lalà`: inilalà` was the cause of getting worse 291(17).
  palalà` getting worse 92(10).

laláki man, male 30(31).

lálim depth 218(27).
  ilálim under side 20(28).
  nilalíman was done deeply 252(7).
  malálim deep 18(39).
  pakalalímin be made too deep 309(33).
  pakalàlalímin will be made too deep 309(34).
  pinakalálim was made too deep 309(35).

lálo` more 24(27). 147. 242.
  nilalúan was exaggerated 98(5).

-lam, see -álam.

lamàn flesh, muscle, contents 18(15). 48(1). See piráso.

lámang only 28(33). 47. 220. 227. 243.

lámat crack 300(17).

-lambòt: malambòt soft 163(14).

lamìg cold 118(31).
  lumamìg became cold 296(39).
  lálamìg will become cold 183(16).
  kalalamìg what coldness, pl. 268(1).
  kalamigàn coldness 272(36).
  malalamìg cold, pl. 219(32).
  taglamìg cold weather 315(30).

lamésa S. table 114(9).

-lampàs: lumálampàs is getting excessive 54(27).

lamòg bruised 62(28).
  naglálamòg is getting bruised 62(15).

lamòk gnat 303(9).

-lámon: lumàlámon is feeding, intr. 228(14).
  nagsìsilámon pl. 262(21).
  lalumúnan throat 88(28).

landàs path 252(3).

lansónes S. fruit of Lansium domesticum Jack. 306(32).

lantà withered 76(36).

langgàm ant 202(20).

langìs oil 74(24).

lángit sky, heaven 22(2).
  kalangitàn heavenly regions 104(24).

-langòy: lumangòy swim 28(21). swam 82(33).
  làngúyan swimming-place 258(40).
  makipaglàngúyan go along swimming 264(28).
  makìkipaglàngúyan will join the swimming party 264(30).
  pàlangúyan place where something is allowed to swim 309(8).

-lápad: lapàd widened 306(8).
  kalapáran wideness 70(40).
  malápad wide 92(35).

-lapàg: inilapàg was placed on the ground 106(16).
  inilálapàg is being placed on the ground 36(41).
  nàlàlapàg is lying on the ground 114(43).

lápis S. pencil 223(8).

-lápit (a) lumápit came near 26(19).
  lumàlápit is coming near 64(19).
  paglápit a coming near 66(25).
  nilapítan was approached 24(22).
  malápit near 44(27).
  malalápit pl. 110(18).
  --(b) With accent-shift: málapìt get near 100(27).
  màlàlapìt will be near 120(7).
  nálapìt got near 98(40).
  pagkálapìt a having got near 46(28).

laráwan image 20(4).

lariyò (S.) brick 302(41).

larò` game; play 46(32). 241(34).
  maglálarò` will play 232(24).
  naglarò` played 232(24).
  nagsipaglarò` pl. 86(31).
  naglálarò` is playing 46(36).
  nagsísipaglarò` pl. 46(35).
  paglalarò` a playing 48(5).
  laruìn be played with 244(25).
  làrúan play-ground 139(41).
  laruwàn toy 84(6).
  paglaruwàn be used as a plaything 255(37).
  pinaglaruàn was played in 48(41).
  pinaglàlaruwàn is being used as a plaything 255(40).
  makipaglarò` play along 88(20).
  pakikipaglarò` a playing along 264(25).
  kalarò` playmate 86(33).
  kalálarò` there has been playing 267(16).
  palarò` public games 204(20).
  pagpapalarò` an allowing to be played 268(9).

lasìng drunken 108(32).
  naglasìng got drunk 282(28).
  paglalasìng a getting drunk 190(15).
  nakalálasìng makes drunk 108(8).
  nakákapaglasìng is able to get drunk 286(38).
  balasìng an intoxicant plant, Anamirta cocculus 108(7). 314(23).

laséta (S.) knife 207(6).

láta tin; can 223(26). 292(2).

-latà`: panglalatà` extreme fatigue 66(33).

-látag: ipinaglàlátag is being spread for 62(35).
  nàlàlátag is lying stretched out 92(22).
  pagkàlátag a chance spreading 269(39).

latìn S. Latin 28(23).

-láon: kalaúnan duration, length 32(1). 86(11).
  naláon took long 34(20). 70(37).
  nalàláon takes long 108(27).
  maláon long, taking long 34(25). 108(35). 69. 110. 138.
  nalaúnan lasted long 36(33). 38(12). 54(13).

lawà, see sa.
  dalawà two 16(25). 224(22). 67.
  dalawà ng pù`: pangdalawà-ng-pù` number twenty 225(41).
  ikadalawà-ng-pù` twentieth 273(24).
  dalawà ng pù t isà: ikadalawà-ng-pù-t-isà twenty-first 273(25).
  dádalawà only two 84(30). 224(32).
  dalá-dalawà two by two 224(10).
  pangalawà number two 226(7).
  dadalawáhin having two 54(5).
  ikalawà second 24(15).
  makalawà second day, day after tomorrow 180(4). 204(18). 288(33).
  kamakalawà day before yesterday 166(42). 266(35). 259.
  makálawà twice 98(1). 262(8).

-láwak: maláwak broad 28(26). 72(18).

-láwig: lalawígan province 110(13).
  lalawíga-ng-Pampàngga Pampanga province 210(28).
  maláwig roundabout 240(32).

-lawìt: naglawìt hung out, tr. 232(26).
  ilawìt be hung out, down 78(1).
  inilawìt was hung down 78(6).
  nakalawìt hung down 38(29).

-layà`: kalayáan liberty 56(31).

láyag a sail 228(17).
  lumáyag sailed, voyaged 228(16).
  naglálayàg sails back and forth 258(42).

láyas get away 222(4).
  lumáyas go away 100(8). went away 228(18).
  làláyas will go away 181(28).
  nilayásan was deserted 252(9).
  làyásan a deserting by many 259(30).
  makàláyas-láyas ever run away 297(24).
  pagpapaláyas a driving away 36(23).
  palayásin be driven away 84(22).
  pinaláyas was driven away 72(11).
  pinalàláyas is being driven away 72(31).

-láyaw: pagpapaláyaw a causing to be fulfilled 312(19).

-láyo` (a): kaláyo` what farness, how far? 70(5).
  maláyo` distant, far 28(26).
  malaláyo` pl. 82(37).
  --(b) With accent-shift: málayò` be far away 32(19). 34(11).
  nàlàlayò` is far away 80(37).

líban except 70(12). 114(23). 283.

-libàng: paglilibàng an amusing 116(37).
  lìbángan place for amusing 258(42).
  malibàng be diverted 204(30).
  nalibàng became engrossed 70(22).
  ipinalílibàng is being caused to be amused 116(37).

-libìng: paglilibìng a burying 114(21).
  inilílibìng is being buried 112(30).
  lìbíngan burial-ground 114(21).
  pagkálibìng a chance burying 114(25).

libreríya S. library 227(36).

librò S. book 90(29).

líbo thousand 48(28). 52(43). 134. See isà.
  líbo-líbo a thousand at a time 100(18).
  makàlìlíbo a thousand times 50(28). 298(38).

-líbot: lumíbot took a walk 228(20).
  naglíbot carried about 234(14).
  naglibòt went on his errands 70(20).
  naglílibòt is going about 34(30).
  nagsísipaglibòt pl. 110(27).
  paglilibòt a going about 68(2).
  nalíbot has been gone round to 76(24).

-lígaw: paglígaw a courting 46(21).
  manglilígaw manlilígaw wooer 42(27). 70(10).
  nilìligáwan is being courted 70(14).

-ligàw: paligàw allowing himself to be led astray 32(13).

-ligáya: magsiligáya rejoice, pl. 262(21).
  nakalìligáya is gladdening 202(21).

-ligd, see -gílid.

-lígid: palígid round about 16(20). 26(8).
  palígid-lígid all around 32(33). 38(19).

ligsì speed 218(30).
  ligsihàn be done quickly 252(10).
  maligsì quick 44(37).
  nagmámaligsì acts quickly 235(41).

-ligtàs: nagligtàs saved 291(39).
  naglíligtàs saves 18(9).
  pagliligtàs a saving 96(19).
  iligtàs be saved 88(30).
  niligtasàn was escaped from 22(28).
  makapagligtàs be able to save 94(34).
  máligtàs get saved 92(8). 96(4).
  náligtàs got saved 122(18).
  màligtasàn get escaped from 50(30).

lígo` bathe, intr. 222(4).
  malígo` bathe, intr. 28(14). 191(38).
  malìlígo` will bathe 191(30).
  nalígo` took a bath 76(37). 285(38).
  nalìlígo` is bathing 16(2). 32(31).
  palígo` bath 300(4).
  paligò` bathed 300(26).
  pangpalígo` used for bathing 183(23).
  pagpalígo` a bathing, intr. 40(18). 76(38). 302(20).
  magsipalígo` bathe, intr. pl. 28(12). 302(23).
  makapalígo` have bathed 32(37).
  pagkàpalígo` a chance bathing 313(2).
  pàliguàn bathroom, bathtub 309(12).
  nagpalígo` caused to bathe, bathed, tr. 181(36). 303(11).
  pagpapalígo` a bathing, tr. 303(12).
  pinalìligúan is being caused to bathe, given a bath 308(14). is
  being bathed in 308(13).
  tagapagpalígo` one whose duty it is to bathe, tr. 316(5).

-liguwàk: máliguwàk get spilled 174(6).

líham letter 154(4).

líhim secret 24(32). 40(33).
  lihìm kept secret 36(22).
  inilíhim was kept secret 118(41).
  palihìm secretly 70(14).

liìg neck 135(17). 201(10).

-liìt: kaliitàn smallness 34(2). 118(1).
  maliìt small 40(14).
  maliliìt pl. 34(36).

leksiyòn S. lesson 187(24).

likòd back 24(26). 68(4).
  likuràn rear 48(16). 68(11).
  -talíkod 315(27).
  tumalíkod turned the back 231(18).
  pagtalíkod a turning the back 231(18).
  tinalikdàn was turned the back to 254(21).

Lílay (S.) short-n. 264(6).

lílim shade 310(43).
  malílim shady 294(27).

limà five 56(33). 67.
  panglimà number five 225(37).
  lilimáhin having five 86(21). 247(36).
  ikalimà fifth 273(18).
  makálimà five times 298(33).

-límang: limàng confused 291(1).
  nalímang became confused 285(24).

limonáda S. lemonade 297(10).

limòs alms; ceremonial gift 112(6).
  maglimòs give alms 78(37).
  manglilímos alms-seeker 112(10).
  limusàn be given alms 112(7).
  nilìlimusàn is being given alms 72(31).
  nagpápalimòs is asking for alms 72(30).
  nagsísipagpalimòs pl. 110(28). 304(17).

-límot: nalimútan was forgotten 208(7).
  nalìlimútan is forgotten 92(2).
  nakalìlímot has forgotten 276(8).

-linamnàm: malinamnàm tasty 16(18).

-línaw: malínaw clear 38(18). 116(38).

lindòl earthquake 289(14).
  lumílindòl there is an earthquake 281(12).

-línis: lumínis get clear 228(21).
  naglínis cleaned 181(38).
  naglìlínis is cleaning 182(31).
  maglilinìs cleaner 242(43).
  linísin be cleaned 238(6).
  nilínis was cleaned 56(39).
  nilìlínis is being cleaned 244(26).
  kalinísan cleanness 276(32).
  pinakamalínis cleanest 310(1).
  malilínis clean, neat, pl. 259(1).

lintìk lightning 254(37).

linggò (S.) Sunday 50(11).
  linggò-linggò every Sunday 96(4).

-lingkìng: kàlingkíngan little finger 280(13).

lípa` a smearing, plastering 196(24).
  panglípa` used for plastering 225(12).
  maglilipà` plasterer 242 (43).

-lipàd: lumílipàd is flying 88(23).
  pinalipàd was caused to fly 295(5).

-lípas: lipàs elapsed, evaporated 222(38). 287(7).
  magpalípas allow to elapse 26(39).
  nagpalípas allowed to elapse 92(3).
  nagpàpalípas allows to elapse 74(12). 90(7).

-lípat: lumípat change one's abode, move 88(43). moved
118(39). 228(23).
  nagsìsilípat are changing their abode 122(13).
  ikinalípat was the cause of moving 116(26).
  màlìlípat will go over 46(2).

-lípol: lipúlin be exterminated 24(36).

-lipumpòn: nagsísilipumpòn are swarming over 262(22).
  pinagkàkalipumpunàn is being overrun by many 90(19). 276(9).
  màpagkalipumpunàn get overrun by many 106(28). 298(30).

-lípon: nagsìslípon are swarming over 262(22).
  nagsìsipaglípon are gathering up 262(37).
  nagkàkalípon is getting all over 268(32).
  nalìlípon has been, is able to be gathered together 98(38). 283(34).

-litàw: lumitàw bobbed up 78(7).

-litsòn S. paglilitsòn a pig-roasting 262(39).
  litsúnan pig-roasting party 257(37).

-litò: pagkalitò a having become confused 72(9).

-liwalìw: magliwalìw be idle, loaf 240(23).
  pagliliwalìw an amusing oneself, pleasure 96(39).

liwánag illumination 66(1).
  lumiwánag became light 201(37).
  maliwánag bright 66(37).

liyàb flame 66(16).

léyi S. law 234(36).

lubày cessation 100(1).
  naglubày ceased 66(35).
  naglúlubày ceases 58(21).

lubhà` very 46(33). 147.
  malubhà` intense 46(7). 78(25).

lúbid rope 186(38).

-lublòb: naglúlublòb is splashing about 110(25).

lóbo S. wolf 299(38).

lóbo (S.) balloon 138(31).

lubòg immersion, dyeing 251(41).
  lumubòg went under 78(17).
  nálubòg got sunk 257(12).
  nàlùlubòg is immersed 78(13).

lubòs complete 40(2). 312(19).

lugàr S. place 20(27).

-lúgaw: maglúgaw prepare rice-broth 232(27).
  nilúgaw rice-broth 252(32).

-lúgi: ikinalúgi was the cause of losing money 239(43).

-lúgit: palúgit handicap 60(38).

-lugmòk: nàlùlugmòk is sunk (in an emotion) 92(4). 114(14).

-lúha`: lumùlúha` is shedding tears 94(31).

-luhòd: lumuhòd kneel down 228(24). knelt down 228(25).
  nakaluhòd has knelt down, is on his knees 112(1).
  náluhòd knelt down 295(33).
  nàlùluhòd is kneeling 22(24).
  nagpatiluhòd suddenly knelt down 313(29).
  pagpapatiluhòd a suddenly kneeling down 313(31).
  nápatiluhòd fell on his knees 313(38).

Lúkas S. n. 104(20).

luksò jump over 222(5).
  lumuksò jumped 16(21).
  pagluksò a jumping 60(14).
  luksuhàn be jumped onto 252(11).
  luksúhan jumping by many 257(38).
  nakipagluksúhan took part in a jumping-contest 264(31).
  nakìkipagluksúhan takes part in a jumping-contest 204(19).
  pakikipagluksúhan a jumping with others 62(1).
  nàpàpaluksò involuntarily jumps up 62(10).

luktòn locust 191(32).

lóko S. crazy 80(31).
  panglolóko a fooling 108(3).
  nilòlóko is being fooled 50(32).
  kalokóhan insanity 313(25).
  pagkalóko a fit of insanity 313(22).
  nàlòlóko is fooled 106(1).

lúlan that loaded onto a vehicle; an embarking
100(32). 118(18). 219(40).
  nagsilúlan embarked, pl. 118(24).
  ilúlan be put on a vehicle 20(38).
  inilúlan was put on a vessel 56(24).
  lulánan be laden 252(12).
  lùlánan an embarking by many 259(32).
  màlúlan get put in a vehicle 20(11).

Lóleng (S.) short-n. 134(31).

lulòd shin 254(35).
  luluràn be hit on the shin 252(13). the shin 261(25) Corrigenda.

lúma` worn-out, old 171(4).

lumbò cocoanut-shell drinking-cup 74(5).

lumpò lame 219(5).
  nalumpò became lame 285(28).

lúmot moss 313(41).

lundàg a leap 48(16).
  lumundàg leaped 70(39).
  paglulundàg a leaping about 296(13).

lúnes S. Monday 180(5).

-lúnod: lunúrin be drowned 16(25).
  kalunúran be drowned in 274(22). west 18(22). 163(27).
  kalùlunúran will be the place of drowning 274(23).
  magkalunòd have drownings 112(13).
  malúnod get drowned 264(29).
  nalúnod got drowned 28(22).
  nangalúnod pl. 88 (31).
  pagkalúnod a drowning 88(30). 272(23).

lunggà` lair, hole 84(29).

-lungkòt: ikinalungkòt was the cause of regret 32(37). 88(17).
  ikinalúlungkòt is the cause of regret 80(30). 272(13).
  kalungkútan melancholy 92(5).
  nalungkòt became sad 90(34).
  nangalungkòt pl. 34(23).
  nalúlungkòt is sorry 285(25).
  palalungkútin given to grief 315(9).

lúpa` land, ground, earth 16(4). 24(4). 46(38). See hampàs.
  lúpa-ng-Bùstos ground of Bustos 100(9).
  lúpa-ng-San-Ildepònso ground of San Ildefonso 100(34).
  lupaìn land, country 56(17).

-lupìt: kalupitàn cruelty 74(20).
  malupìt cruel 44(30).
  malulupìt pl. 20(32).

lúsong aid 231(42).
  lusúngin be gone down into 244(27).
  nilúsong was gone down into 244(27).
  nilusúngan was gone to the aid of 252(15).
  lusungàn mutual aid 260(14).

lusòng mortar 16(25).

lúto` a cooking; that cooked 182(33). 221(8).
  maglúto` cook 114(3).
  naglúto` cooked 182(1).
  naglùlúto` is cooking 108(6).
  maglulutò` cook 243(1).
  lutúin be cooked 134(19).
  nilúto` was cooked 257(35).
  nilùlúto` linùlúto` is being cooked 244(28).
  inilùlúto` ilinùlúto` is being cooked 181(18). 248(24). 249(25).
  ipinaglùlúto` is being cooked for 249(24).
  lutúan be cooked with 252(15).
  lutuàn kitchen 114(6).
  pagkalúto` a past cooking 108(10).
  nagpàpalúto` causes to be cooked 108(6).

loòb inside; spirit, will, opinion 36(5). 40(25). 90(40). See bigày.
  loòb-loòb modest opinion 98(26).
  nilóloòb is being intended 307(5).
  pumaloòb go into the inside 42(10). 302(19).
  napaloòb got into the inside 104(15).

-luwà, see káluluwà.

-luwà`: inilúwà` is being spat out 40(28).

-luwàg: maluwàg loose, not well fixed 92(38).

-luwalháti`: maluwalháti` in good shape 268(36).

-luwàng: kaluwángan looseness, width 253(27).
  maluwàng loose, too wide 289(8).

-luwàs: lumuwàs go down-stream 56(21).
  pagluwàs a going down-stream 297(34).
  napaluwásan went down-stream together 279(4). 312(8).

luwàt long duration 173(39).
  maluwàt long 40(31). 62(22). 269(7).
  magmaluwàt take much time 236(2).
  nagmaluwàt acted slowly 236(1).
  naluwatàn took long 84(8).


(see also B, P).

m, see na.

mà` Uncle, Don, Mr. 256.

mabúlo a tree and its fruit Trichodesma zeylanicum 34(40).

madlà` populace 24(33).

-magàt: pamagàt title 86(19). 300(5).
  pamagatàn be given a name 42(21).
  pinamàmagatàn is being given a name 168(8).

magíging, magìng see -gìng.

mahàl dear 22(11).
  pagmamahàl a holding dear 72(38).
  minámahàl is being held dear 62(34).
  kamàhálan highness, majesty 26(23).
  kamahalàn dearness, high price 186(9).
  kinàmahalàn was got dear in 279(17).
  pinakamahàl dearest 309(38).

-mahála`: namàmahála` is ruling 122(4).
  pàmahalaàn pàmahaláan government 56(15). See báhay.

maìs S. maize 248(29).

maèstro mayèstro S. master, teacher 88(12).

mákina S. machine 203(2).

-málas: nàmálas got perceived 36(38). 38(19).

málay consciousness 288(18).
  nagkamálay became conscious 268(33).
  nakàmálay happened to notice 188(10).
  nàmaláyan got noticed 42(39).
  pamaláyan be caused to be noticed 308(15).

malì` bad 34(24). 271(42).
  kamàlían wrongness 297(12).
  pamalímalì` repeatedly wrong 300(31).

Malólos place-n. 110(24). See báyan.

máma` uncle, sir 151(35). 59.

mámayà` mámiyà` soon 262(9).

màn too, as well
16(18). 47. 221. 227. 248. 262.(7).(10).(13). 219. 317(3).(5).

mána that inherited 40(5).
  nàmàmána is inherited 40(11).
  ipamána be bequeathed 40(30).
  ipinamàmána is being bequeathed 40(31).
  pamanáhan be bequeathed to 40(33).

manè` peanut 76(16).

maníka` (S.) doll 40(14).

Manikìs S. family-n. 209(24).

mansà S. spot 191(14).

mansánas S. apple 182(27).

-máno S.: nagmàmáno kisses the hand 56(14).

manòk hen, cock, chicken 38(30). 72(36).
  nagmanòk-manúkan played rooster 237(10).

Manuwèl S. n. 228(16).

mangà plural sign 16(8). 143(16). 48. 251.

manggà S. mango 34(40). See púno`,
  manggáhan mango-grove 255(11).

manggàs S. sleeves 306(24).

-manghà`: pagkámanghà` a getting astonished 60(5).
  nangápamanghà` were astonished 52(18). 312(38).

mangkòk (C.?) bowl 248(35).

mangmàng ignorant 94(39).
  kamangmangàn ignorance 82(24).

màpápasa, mápasa, see sa.

Marikína S. place-n. See báyan.

Mariyà S. n. 70(11).

Mariyáno S. n. 54(1).

Màrkes S. family-n. 189(43).

Markíta S. n. 92(29).

-masìd: nagmámasìd is observing 100(21).
  pagmamasìd an observing 272(25).
  masdàn be looked at 20(32).
  minàmasdàn is being looked at 252(17).
  pagmasdàn be observed 255(42).
  pinagmasdàn was scrutinized 18(4).
  pagkámasìd a chance looking at, a glancing 168(33).
  màmasdàn get looked at 88(7).
  màmàmasdàn will get looked at 96(16).
  nàmàmasdàn is visible 297(32).

masiyádo, see -siyádo.

Masòn S. freemason 56(12).

matà eye 20(27). See pilìk.
  matà-matà trellis-work 223(41).
  minámatà is being looked down on 30(3).
  matáan be looked round for 254(31).
  minatáan was looked round for 254(30).
  kamatà congenial at sight 266(12).
  mapangmatà given to looking down on people 18(19).
  nàmatáan got espied 36(3).

-matày: ikamámatày will be the cause of dying 94(28).
  ikinamatày was the cause of dying 186(15).
  ipagkákamatày will be the cause of a part dying 272(34).
  kinamatayàn was died in 38(23).
  Kinamatayà-ng-kabáyo place-n. 221(30).
  pagkàkamatayàn will be died in by some 275(13).
  pinagkamatayàn was died in by some 275(10).
  kamàtáyan death 94(34).
  mamatày die 40(32).
  mamámatày will die 32(1). 62(26).
  namatày died 16(11).
  nangamatày pl. 286(16).
  namámatày is dead 74(11).
  pagkamatày a dying 22(3). 40(27).
  mamatày-matày be able to die off 287(37).
  namatayàn was died from 38(9).
  namàmatayàn is died from 112(19).
  magpápakamatày will commit suicide 309(23).
  nagpakamatày committed suicide 309(22).
  pagpapakamatày suicide 309(24).
  himatày fainting-fit 314(25).
  naghíhimatày is fainting 236(6).
  paghihimatày a fainting 159(6).
  himatayìn be attacked by a fainting-fit 208(5).
  hinimatày was attacked by a fainting-fit 246(1).
  ipinaghimatày was the cause of fainting 88(32). 250(3).

matsìng young monkey 110(9).
  kamatsingàn monkey-tricks 276(32).

máy mé there is; having; about 16(8). 48. 69. 110. 138. 252. 331.
  máy ári`: nagmèmé-ári` has ownership 40(13).
  máy-roòn same as máy 18(25). 69. 110. 331.

-máyaw: magkàmáyaw harmonize 102(13). 270(41).

mayèstro, see maèstro.

Mayníla` place-n. 50(2). See báyan.

médiko S. physician 30(2).
  médiko-ng-mangkukúlam witch-doctor 42(21).

Migèl S. n. 255(33).

milágro S. miracle 74(32).
  nagmìmilágro is working a miracle 104(23).

milagróso S. miraculous 74(29).

míle-nobisiyèntos-dòs S. 1902 34(27).

milòn S. melon 76(16).

mínsan once 16(2). 22(34). 39. 42. 262(10).
  mínsanin be done all at once 246(5).
  pamínsan-mínsan once in a while 68(10).

mésa S. table 173(26).

mísa S. mass 50(37).
  magmísa say mass 96(26).
  nagmìmísa says mass 96(4).
  pagmimísa a saying mass 96(18).
  pagkamísa a having said mass 98(19).
  makapagmísa be able to say mass 96(14).
  magpamísa have mass said 72(29).
  nagpamísa had mass said 72(25).
  pagpapamísa a having mass said 80(25).

mìsmo S. himself 46(18). 72(29). 265(7).

míting E. meeting 236(18).

miyèrkules S. Wednesday 259(32).

mo disj. of ikàw: by thee; of thee 47. 163.

mukhà` face 24(23).
  kamukhà` of the same appearance 266(14).

mulà` from 16(7). 284.
  magmulà` start from 32(7). 284.
  minulàn was begun 283(9).

muláwin a tree, molave, Vitex littoralis Decne 263(27).

mulì` again 18(35). 20(17). 148.

múna previously, first 40(6). 47. 222.

mundò S. world 50(18).

Mundò (S.) short-n. 96(38).

munisiliyò S. sacristan 253(16).

munisípiyo S. town-hall 36(42).

muntì` little 174(6).
  kumuntì` what almost-ness 174(4).

múra (a) cheap 219(7).
  minúra was scolded 90(38).
  muráhan be done cheaply 252(20).
  minuráhan was sold too cheaply 252(19).
  pagmumùráhan a making things cheap 236(31).
  kamuráhan cheapness 276(33).
  pinakamúra cheapest 114(41).
  --(b) With accent-shift: nagmurà cursed 32(38).
  murahàn mutual reviling 260(16).
  magmurahàn revile each other 236(34).
  magmùmurahàn will curse each other 203(39).
  nagmùmurahàn are reviling each other 236(35).
  pagmumurahàn a mutual reviling 236(37).
  kamurahàn one of two who curse at each other 278(22).

múra` unripe 22(38).

músika S. music 48(31). See bandà.

músiko S. musician 110(31).

-muò`: ipinagkákamuò` is the cause of partial hardening 272(37).

muwàng information 82(6).


(See also D, S, T.)

na ng m attributive 15. 20. 37. 45. 49. 119. 122-159 and Syntax,

nà already
18(39). 47. 223. 224. 226. 227. 229. 242. 244. 341(3,c). 342. 437.

nagíging, see -gìng.

-nagínip: panagínip dream 225(13).
  nanagínip dreamt 240(21).
  nanànagínip is dreaming 240(20).
  pananagínip a dreaming 240(17).
  nàpanagínip was dreamt 297(22).

nagìng, see -gìng.

nákaw that stolen 221(9).
  numákaw stole 32(39).
  pagnákaw a stealing 104(1).
  magnákaw commit theft 170(4). 244(17).
  nagnákaw did some stealing 155(41).
  pagnanákaw thievery 38(2).
  magnanákaw thief, robber 36(29).
  nakáwin be stolen 102(24).
  nànakáwin will be stolen 32(35).
  ninákaw was stolen 32(36).
  ninànákaw is being stolen 102(24).
  pinagnakàw was variously stolen 120(32).
  nakáwan be stolen from 234(8).
  ninakáwan was stolen from 252(22).
  nakawàn robbery 178(37).
  nakapagnànákaw is able to commit thefts 102(17).
  mànákaw get stolen 102(27).
  nànákaw got stolen 102(27).
  mànakáwan chance to be stolen from 24(3).
  nànànakáwan chances to be stolen from 102(20).

namàn on the other hand, however 22(32). 47. 224.

námin, see ámin.

nánay mother 116(17). 59.
  magnánay mother and child 242(15).
  magnanánay pl. 242(31).

nàndon, see doòn.
  --nang, see ang.

Narsíso S. n. 296(30).

nása, nàsása, see sa.
  --nátin, see -átin.

-náog: manáog come down from one's dwelling 264(23).
  nanáog came down 38(16).
  nanànáog is descending 100(25).
  panáog come down 151(40).
  pagpanáog a descending 302(20).
  magsìsipanáog will descend, pl. 108(13).
  nagsìsipanáog are descending 106(29).
  pinanaúgan was come down from 308(18).

nawà`, see áwa`.
  --ni, see si.

nì S. nor; any, and, and not 22(22). 48. 68. 253. 319.

nilà, see silà and sinà.
  --ninà, see sinà.
  --niniyò, see iniyò.
  --níno, see síno.

ningnìng glow 40(16).
  nagníningnìng glows 40(15).

nirè, see irè.
  --nità, see kità.
  --nitò, see itò.
  --niyà, see siyà.
  --niyàn, see iyàn.
  --niyáya`, see yáya`.

niyòg cocoanut 24(1).
  See púno`,
  niyúgan cocoanut-grove 259(3).

niyòn, see iyòn.

nobéla S. novel 86(19).

nóbiyo S. fiancé 92(31).

núno` ghost 34(32).

-noòd: nanúnoòd is looking on 48(36).
  nagsísipanoòd pl. 48(29).
  panunoòd a looking on 296(37).
  panoorìn be looked at 108(29).
  pinanónoòd is being looked at 108(32).

noòn, see iyòn.


(See also K.)

ng, see na.

ngà` indeed, please 40(21). 47. 226. 229.

ngálan name 156(11).
  pangálan id. 26(16).

ngayòn now, today 28(7). 262(11). 302.

-ngitì`: ngumíngitì` is smiling 228(26).
  nàngìngitì` is asmile 92(28).

-ngiyàw: ngumiyàw mewed 84(27).

ngúnit but 30(6). 320. 322.

P (F)

pà still, yet, more 24(16). 47. 226. 243. 248. 314.

paà foot, leg 18(15).
  Paà-ng-bundòk place-n. 118(25).
  pinaahàn was caught by the leg, hurt in the leg 252(25).
  paanàn be turned the feet to 252(29). base, foot 98(40).
  pinaanàn was turned the feet to 252(27).
  paánan base, foot 90(30).

Páblo S. n. 283(22).

padèr S. wall 52(11).

-padpàd: nápadpàd was cast by chance 96(2).

pag when, if 32(13). 45. 300. 303.

pagakpàk applause 219(41).
  pagakpakàn be applauded 197(36).
  pàgakpákan applause by many 257(40).

pagigìng, see -gìng.

pagítan place between, interval 258(31). 271(17).
  pumagítan took position between 228(26).
  pamamagítan an acting as means 24(33). 38(34).
  ipinagítan was placed between 248(25).
  nàpàpagítan is between 171(21).

pagkà as soon as, after, when 181(27). 48. 296. 300. 304. 306.

pagkìt wax 221(11).

págod weariness 76(1).
  pagòd tired 66(33).

pagòng turtle 16(1).

Páho` place-n. 120(11).

páin bait 108(14).
  pagpapáin a catching with bait 108(39).

pákay purpose, aim 50(33).

páko` nail 218(38).
  páko ng babà`: mapagpáko-m-babà` over-modest 289(28).
  pakuàn nailing-place 260(20).
  nàpàpáko` is nailed 20(24).

pakuwàn watermelon 203(37).

palà but otherwise 209(25). 47. 228. 301.

pála` gift, prize, favor 90(12). See gantì.

pálad palm of hand 106(37). See kasamaàn, kasawiàn, sawì`.
  nagkapálad had good fortune 34(3). 78(38).
  nagkàkapálad has the good fortune 40(24).
  kapaláran fortune 60(17).

palakà` frog 228(11).

palakòl hatchet 240(5).

palànsa plànsa (S.) flat-iron 212(32). 227(42).
  pinalànsa was ironed 244(30).

palásiyo S. palace 26(26).

palatòn S. dish 193(3).

pálay rice, standing or in hull 163(19). See bantày, tánod.

palayòk earthenware pot 74(5).

palibhása` for the reason, because 54(20). 265(8).

palìt exchange 148(26).
  pinalitàn was supplanted 104(12).

pálo` hit, strike 183(25).
  pamálo` club, cudgel 70(16).
  palúin be caned 195(35).
  ikinàpálo` was the cause of getting thrashed 273(34).
  pagkàpálo` a thrashing that was got 272(16).

pálong comb of rooster 291(16).

famíliya S. family 54(4).

Pampàngga S. place-n. 173(9). See lalawígan, provìnsiya.

pána` arrow 228(28).
  pumána` shot an arrow at 228(28).
  pinána` was shot with an arrow 244(31).
  nakàpána` chanced to hit with an arrow 291(32).

panahòn time 34(25). 50(5). 52(32).

-pánaw: pumánaw departed 228(29).
  pumàpánaw is departing 92(25).
  pagpánaw a departing 114(17).
  pinanáwan was parted from 92(27).

panày constant 72(20). 82(6).
  kapanayàn continuance 276(34).

-panhìk: pumanhìk entered (a dwelling), went up into (a house)
38(27). 72(8).
  pumápanhìk is entering 106(9).
  pinanhikàn was entered 175(41).
  mápanhìk get in 106(15).
  pagkápanhìk a getting in 72(9).
  pinapanhikàn was caused to be entered 52(14).

paníki bat 210(26). See báhay.

paniyò S. handkerchief 147(1).

pansìn noticeable 219(8).
  pansinìn be paid attention to 46(1).
  pàpansinìn will be minded 96(35).
  pinansìn was paid attention to 20(41). 94(2).
  pinápansìn is being paid attention to 54(19).
  nàpàpansìn gets noticed 100(19).

pantày leveled 223(32).
  pantày-kawáyan height of a bamboo-plant 218(28).
  pantày-pantày even, all level 118(30). 291(5).
  kapantày of the same height 173(28).
  magkapantày both of the same height 270(3).
  kasingpantày id. 104(6). 315(1).

páno, see anò.
  --panukála`, see akála`.

panòt bald-headed 219(10).

-pangàw: nakapangàw is pilloried 110(5).
  nangàpàpangàw have got into the pillory 110(9).

panginoòn master 62(39). 86(31). 226(3).

pangkàt group, team 46(34). 76(21). 110(31).
  pangkàt-pangkàt group by group 110(30).

pangnàn hand-basket 261(40).

pangpàng bank of stream 28(13).
  Kapampángan Pampanga 189(23).
  Kakapampangánan the Pampanga country 277(12).

papáno, see anò.
  --pápasa, see sa.

papáya S. papaw 163(18).

papèl S. paper 50(39).

pára like 36(12). 67. 275.

parà pára S. for 90(11). 286. 288.

párang forest 62(29).
  kaparángan wooded regions 82(36).

pári` S. priest, Father 20(4). 256.

parého S. equal 257(42).
  paré-parého all equal 40(13). 224(1).

Parìs S. Paris 220(31).

partè S. part 82(21).
  kapartè share 16(6).

-parò: parù-parò butterfly 88(24).

pása, see sa.

pasà` bruise 62(27).

pásak that calked with 221(10).
  pasakàn calking-place 260(23).

pasàn that carried on the shoulders 98(36).
  pumápasàn carries on the shoulders 22(32).
  pàpasanìn will be carried on the shoulder 104(34).
  pinasàn was carried on the shoulder 104(38).

Pasífiko S. Pacific 259(1).

Pásig the Pasig; see ílog.

pasígan beach 16(4).

-pasiyàl (S.): magpasiyàl take a walk 32(2).
  magsipagpasiyàl pl. 32(13).
  magpápasiyàl will take a walk 232(28).
  magsísipagpasiyàl pl. 32(15).
  nagpasiyàl took a walk 182(7).
  nagsipagpasiyàl pl. 279(1).
  nakapagpasiyàl was able to take a walk 200(14).
  papasí-pasiyàl walking about at intervals 96(6).

-pasiyènsiya S.: magpasiyènsiya rest content 56(8).

-paséyo S.: nagpàpaséyo forms a procession 48(40).

paskò S. Easter; Christmas 220(24).

pastòl (S.) herdsman 116(7).

páso` a burn 220(1).
  pasò` burnt; pottery 222(40).
  pumáso` burned 228(30).
  mamáso` a blister 241(39). 244(12).
  namáso` scorched 240(21).
  napáso` has been burned 284(41).

-pások: pumások go in, enter 78(30). went in 30(17). 38(31). 50(19).
  pumàpások enters 42(13).
  pàpások will go in 192(5).
  pagpások a going in 42(12). 96(26).
  pasúkin be violently entered 262(19).
  pinások was illicitly entered 237(41).
  pinàpások is being penetrated 118(30).
  pinasúkan was entered 36(36).
  makapások be able to enter 74(31).
  makapàpások will be able to enter 22(4).
  nakapások was able to enter 80(2). 116(21).
  pagkapások a having gone in 38(32).
  pagkàpások the way of getting put in 291(11).
  màipások get put in 108(41).
  nàpasúkan chanced to be come upon in entering 297(37).
  papások going in; asking to be taken in; ask to be taken in
  204(22). 299(29). 301(24).
  papàpások will ask to be taken in 301(40).
  pagpapapások a causing to enter 272(39).
  papasúkin be caused to enter 72(26). 80(30).
  mapapàpások will ask to be taken in 311(34).
  napapások caused himself to be taken in; was able to be caused to
  enter 311(23.32).

-pátag: ikinàpátag chanced to be the cause of staying quiet 116(11).

patàk a drop 96(29).

patày dead person 20(8). 38(25).
  pamatày used for killing 225(15).
  pamatày-kúto louse-killer, thumb 225(15).
  pumatày (arch. matày) kill 231(2).
  pagpatày a killing 227(4).
  patayìn pataìn be killed 84(22).
  pàpatayìn pàpataìn will be killed 28(20). 44(16).
  pinatày was killed 244(33).
  patayàn be killed for 252(32).
  pinagpatayàn was killed in 274(31).
  pàtáyan mortal combat; slaughter-house 190(15). 259(3).
  kapàpatayàn will be the place of killing 279(18).
  kapàtáyan one of two who kill each other 277(42).
  mapatày be able to be killed 283(35).
  napatày has been killed 284(14).
  pagkapatày a having killed 282(35).
  mápatày get killed 36(19). 293(42).
  màpàpatày will get killed 18(12).
  nápatày got killed 26(12). 38(3). 84(28).
  pagkápatày a chance killing 291(12). 292(15).
  ipinapápatày is being caused to be extinguished 122(6).

patì also, even 110(34). 112(20). 68. 305.

patìd a breaking, an interruption 42(4). 44(42). 58(1). broken 223(33).
  pumatìd break, tr. 228(31).
  kapatìd broken from the same piece; brother, sister 32(8). 266(16).
  kapatìd-kongkristiyános brother-Christians 50(22). 210(16).
  magkapatìd two brothers or sisters, brother and sister 46(20).
  magkakapatìd pl. 270(14).
  kinákapatìd child of one's godparents 271(30).
  magkinákapatìd two people, one of whom is the child of the other's
  godparents 271(31).
  magkikinákapatìd pl. 271(32).
  kapàpatiràn will be the place of breaking 274(29).
  kinapatiràn was the place of breaking 274(27).
  kapàtíran one of two who break together 277(43).
  mapatìd break off, cease 60(9).
  napatìd broke off 78(16).
  napatiràn was broken in, suffered a fracture 88(28).

patìs shrimp-sauce 259(5).
  patisàn be spiced with shrimp-sauce 252(33).
  pàtísan cannery for shrimp-sauce 259(5).

pátiyo S. court-yard 98(20).

Patrísiyo S. n. 275(28).

patrúliya S. patrol 122(20).

páto S. duck 116(38).

patumanggà` regard, consideration 22(24).

-pátung: nàpàpátung is placed on 116(1).

Patúpat derisive n. 50(3).

-páwi`: pawì` allayed 222(42).
  nakapàpáwi` will allay 28(35). 280(37).
  napáwi` has subsided 279(34).

páwid nipa fibre 30(37).

-páwis: pumàpáwis is sweating 22(8).

-páyag: pumáyag consent 30(5). consented 18(29).
  pumàpáyag consents 228(34).
  ipináyag was granted 248(26).
  pinayágan was agreed to 252(33).

payápa` tranquil 219(11).
  kapayapaàn tranquility 116(9).

páyo advice 52(24).
  ipináyo was suggested 28(36).

páyong umbrella 166(27).

Pédro S. n. 20(2).

pígil that restrained 134(28).
  pigìl under control 223(1).
  nagsipígil controlled, pl. 282(14).
  pigílin be brought under control 66(23).
  nàpigílan got restrained 66(17). 100(36).

-píhit: pumìpíhit turns round 68(10).

pího surely 18(11).
  piního was ascertained 44(33).

piklàt scar 219(9).

pìknik E. picnic 235(34).

píko S. a pick 58(33).

-píli`: pumíli` chose 228(34).
  mamíli` choose out 16(24).
  namíli` selected 186(20).
  piníli` was chosen 244(34).
  màpíli` get chosen 241(34).
  nàpìpíli` is preferred 293(21).

pilìk fin, lash 210(30). Corrigenda.
  pilìk-matà eyelash 210(30). Corrigenda.
  pilikàn have the fins removed 252(34).

píling side, proximity 90(8).

Felípe S. n. 208(1).

Filipínas S. the Philippines 40(2). See kapuluàn.

-pílit: pumílit effected by trying hard 228(37).
  pumìpílit is trying hard 228(35).
  pagpílit a trying hard 64(1).
  nagpílit tried very hard 44(5). 50(14).
  nagpìpílit tries very hard 44(20). 234(17).
  nagpùpumílit is making an extreme effort 168(14). 235(32).
  pilítin be striven for 18(17). 184(35).
  pinílit was compelled 244(35).
  pagpilítan was striven for 297(2).
  napìpilítan is compelled 112(28).

pelóta S. ball 48(11).

pínsan cousin 39. 42.
  magpipínsan group of cousins 242(32).

pintà S. paint, painting 219(12).
  pintahàn be painted 252(35).
  pintáhan place for paint; see báhay.

pintàs that found fault with 221(13).
  pintasàn be found fault with 252(36).
  pintásan mutual fault-finding 257(42).
  kapintásan reprehensible quality 310(40).

pintò` door 78(30). See bantày.
  pintúan doorway 22(2).

pinggà carrying-pole 158(12).

pinggàn dishes 114(7).

pípa S. cigarette-mouthpiece 249(29).

Pépe S. short-n. 279(5).

pípe dumb 86(23).
  napípe became dumb 285(28).
  pagkapípe dumbness 86(23).

pipíno S. cucumber 76(16).

pipìt stone-sparrow 197(21).

péras S. pears 189(16).

piráso (S.) piece broken off
  piráso-ng-káhoy piece of wood 56(38).
  piráso-ng-lamàn piece of meat 108(42) Corrigenda.
  pirasúhin be broken off 252(6).
  mapiráso go to pieces 300(19).
  napiráso went to pieces 284(42).

pirìnsa (S.) flat-iron 212(32).
  pinirìnsa was ironed 223(4).

Píro (S.) n., for Pédro. 138(28).

píso S. peso, half-dollar 102(38).

-pitàg: pìtágan respect 118(9).
  pinagpìpìtagánan is being respected 256(8).

pítak section 247(11).
  pinítak section of rice-field 247(10).

-pitàs: pumitàs pick, pluck 22(35). picked 282(40).
  pitasìn be picked 244(36).
  pìpitasìn will be picked 22(37).
  pamìmitasìn will be picked selectively, in quantity 247(2).
  pinamímitàs is being gathered 246(42).
  pitasàn be picked from 252(37).
  pamitasàn be gathered from 256(36).
  pamìmitasàn will be gathered from 256(38).
  nagpìtásan picked together 236(17).
  napitàs has been picked 284(43).
  nápitàs got picked 293(22).
  nàpìpitàs is picked 24(16).

pitìk fillip 225(14).
  pamitìk single rein 72(1).
  pumitìk give a fillip 228(37).

Pétra S. n. 240(29).

fétsa S. date 271(16).

pitsòn S. pigeon 252(32).

píto S. small flute, whistle 227(39).

pitò seven 20(5). 67.
  pitò ng pù`: pamitò-ng-pù` number seventy 225(42).
  pamitò number seven 225(38).
  ikapitò seventh 32(4).

piyáno S. piano 167(21).

fiyèsta piyèsta S. fiesta 98(35). 137(37).
  kapiyestáhan holiday 110(11).

plànsa, see palànsa.

Pransìsko S. n. 50(20).

presidènte S. magistrate 38(1).

-prubà S.: prubahàn be proved 52(3).
  pùprubahàn will be proved 52(4).

provìnsiya S. province 50(1).
  provìnsiya-ng-Pampàngga Pampanga province 210(29).

pò` deferential particle 20(37). 47. 229.

pù` ten 38(6). 134. See isà, dalawà, etc.

púgad nest 228(9).

-pukpòk: pamukpòk mallet 90(30).
  pumúpukpòk is pounding 228(38).

pukòl a throw 106(36).
  pagpukòl a throwing 281(35).
  magpupukòl throw repeatedly 238(38).
  pinúpukòl is being thrown at 112(8).
  mapamukòl given to throwing things 289(39).

pulà red, redness 147(1).
  pulahàn all red 261(12).
  kapulà what redness 173(40).

Polikàrpiyo S. family-n. 189(43).

polìs S. policeman 34(26).

pùlpito S. pulpit 20(28).

pulò` island 255(14).
  kapuluàn kapuluwàn archipelago 24(30).
  kapuluà-ng-Filipínas the Philippine archipelago 56(24).

pulúbe beggar 72(30).

púlong crowd 229(13).

púlot that picked up 221(15).
  namúlot gathered up 32(23).
  mámumulòt gleaner 243(17).
  pinamúlot was picked up selectively, in quantity 247(3).
  pinulútan was picked up in 252(38).
  pùlútan a scramble 259(33).
  nàpúlot got picked up 62(30).
  nàpùpúlot gets picked up 40(8).

pulòt honey 174(7).

-púnas: nagpùpúnas is scrubbing 232(29).
  pinùpunásan is being scrubbed 252(40).

púnit small hole, tear 169(2).
  punìt-punìt full of small holes 259(6).

-punlà`: punláan germinating-plot 243(40).

punsò ant-hill 66(1).

puntà S. direction of going 106(2).
  nagsipuntà went to, pl. 116(18).
  púpuntà will go to 193(24).
  nagsísipuntà are going to 108(1).
  pagpuntà a going toward 104(35). 106(4). 116(20).
  puntahàn be gone to 40(9).
  pinuntahàn was gone toward 32(20).
  papuntà towards 84(36).
  napapúpuntà is able to be directed 48(10).

púno` head: of wood (i. e. tree) 16(8).
  of grass (i. e. blade) 76(31).
  of bridge 248(16).
  stem end of fruit 203(38).
  chief 306(11).
  beginning 50(15).
  púno-ng-damò blade of grass 76(29).
  púno-ng-káhoy tree 34(39).
  púno-ng-manggà mango-tree 254(37).
  púno-ng-niyòg cocoanut-tree 22(34).
  púno-ng-ságing banana-tree 16(3).
  púno-ng-súha` grape-fruit-tree 36(34).
  pinúno` chief, official 56(27). 116(22).
  pàmunúan initiator 262(7).

punò` filled, full 36(40). 76(30).
  punàn be completed, be added to 252(41).
  pùnúan all full 118(21). 258(1).
  napunò` became full 26(9).

purgà S. purge 230(11).

purgatóriyo S. purgatory 50(17).

púri honor, respectability 94(12). See kasiraàn.
  nagpúri an honoring 48(38). 60(9).
  nagpurihàn praised one another 236(39).
  nagpùpurihàn are praising one another 236(41).
  mapúri honorable 289(8).
  nagmápurì praised himself 238(25).
  nagmàmàpurì is praising himself 238(25).
  pagmamápurì praising oneself 238(26).
  nagpakamápurì praised himself much 309(28).

Port-Àrtur S. Port Arthur 306(19).

-puròl: mapuròl dull 225(6).
  mapúpuròl will get dull 248(31).

púsa` cat 84(1).

pustà S. a bet 60(29).
  nagsipustà made a bet, pl. 60(34).
  pustáhan a betting together 60(33). 102(40).
  nakipagpustáhan entered into a bet with 102(34).

púso` heart 218(24).

-putàk: nagpúpuputàk is cackling much 238(40).
  pùtákan cackling by many 238(10).
  palapùtákin given to cackling 315(10).

fùtbol E. football 46(35).

putì` white 219(12).
  pàputiìn be made too white 305(12).
  pàputiàn be made very white 308(39).

pútik mud, clay 86(37).
  putíkan be made muddy 253(1).
  putikàn muddy place, person, thing; clay-pit 166(19). 260(24).
  mapútik muddy 110(14).

púto cake, bun 32(15).

putòk crash, report 259(34).
  pumutòk made a crash; there was a crash 64(31).
  pinùputukàn is reached by a crash 106(33).

pútol a cut; that cut 220(2). 221(16).
  p. nang p. cuts and cuts 222(10).
  putòl cut 223(3).
  putòl-putòl all cut up 224(16).
  pamútol used for cutting 225(16).
  pumútol cut 154(4). 199(27). 226(26).
  magsipútol cut, pl. 262(26).
  nagsipútol cut, did cut, pl. 190(22).
  pumùpútol is cutting 228(39).
  nagsìsipútol pl. 262(24).
  pùpútol will cut 228(40).
  magsìsipútol pl. 191(8).
  pagpútol a cutting 196(34).
  magpútol cut several things, cut on oneself 228(21).
  magsipagpútol pl. 262(38).
  magpùpútol will cut 234(21).
  magsìsipagpútol pl. 262(41).
  nagpútol cut 234(24).
  nagsipagpútol pl. 263(2).
  nagpùpútol is cutting 202(14).
  nagsìsipagpútol pl. 263(3).
  pagpupútol a cutting 234(19).
  magputòl cut variously or repeatedly, cut up 237(37).
  magpúputòl will cut 237(38).
  nagputòl cut 237(40).
  nagpúputòl is cutting 237(42).
  nagpúpuputòl is cutting to bits 239(9).
  magpuputòl cutter 243(1).
  mamútol cut selectively, in quantity, or as occupation 220(21).
  magsipamútol pl. 263(24).
  mamùmútol will cut 240(29).
  magsìsipamútol pl. 263(26).
  namútol cut 240(27).
  namùmútol is cutting 240(27).
  mámumutòl cutter 243(18).
  pamumútol a cutting 240(23).
  putúlin be cut 244(42).
  pùputúlin will be cut 58(27). 207(5).
  pinútol was cut, cut off, stopped 38(34). 44(26). 154(10).
  pinùpútol is being cut 58(36). 248(34).
  pagputulìn be cut up 246(27).
  pinagpúputòl is being cut up 246(25).
  ipútol be cut for 248(29).
  ipùpútol will be cut for 248(29).
  ipinútol was cut for or with 154(15). 175(31). 248(28).
  ipinùpútol is being cut for or with 181(15). 202(6).
  ipagpútol be cut for 249(26).
  ipagpùpútol will be cut for 249(27).
  ipinagpútol was cut for or with 249(28).
  ipinagpùpútol is being cut for or with 249(29).
  ipamútol be used for cutting 250(17).
  ipinamútol was used for cutting 250(13).
  ipinamùmútol is being cut with or for, in quantity 187(13). 250(14).
  putúlan putlàn be cut from 253(5).
  pùputúlan pùputlàn will be cut from 253(7).
  pinutúlan was cut from 118(28). 154(20).
  pinùputlàn is being cut from 60(1). 253(3).
  pagputúlan be cut on 256(1).
  pagputulàn be cut from variously 256(13).
  pinamutúlan was cut from selectively or in quantity 158(10). 256(40).
  pinamùmutúlan is being cut from 256(33).
  nagputulàn cut together 236(43).
  pakipútol that cut with others or as a favor 184(3). 263(40).
  makipútol cut by permission 264(12).
  makìkipútol will cut along with others 206(11).
  nakipútol cut by permission 264(8).
  nakìkipútol is cutting by permission 264(10).
  pakikipútol a cutting by permission 264(13).
  pakikipamútol a cutting, as occupation, by permission 264(39).
  pakiputúlin be cut as a favor 264(43).
  ipakipútol be cut as a favor 184(1).
  ipakìkipútol will be asked to be cut 265(13).
  ipakipagpútol be cut with as a favor 265(19).
  ipakìkipagpútol will be cut for as a favor 265(23).
  ipinakipagpútol was asked to be cut for 265(25).
  ipinakìkipagpútol is being asked to be cut for 172(26). 265(28).
  kapútol piece; brother, sister 16(5). 266(16).
  magkapútol two such 270(5).
  magkakapútol pl. 270(16).
  kàkapútol only a piece 267(6).
  kapùpútol there has just been cutting 267(17).
  kapagpùpútol there has just been cutting of several things 267(20).
  kapàpamútol there has just been cutting in quantity 267(23).
  magkaputòl get broken in numbers 182(22).
  magkákaputòl will many of them get broken 269(10).
  nagkaputòl got broken in numbers 269(11).
  nagkákaputòl is breaking in numbers 269(13).
  magkáputòl-putòl break into many pieces 255(21).
  magkàkàputòl-putòl will break into many pieces 271(23).
  nagkáputòl-putòl broke into many pieces 271(19).
  nagkàkàputòl-putòl gets mangled 271(21).
  ikapútol be the cause of breaking 158(12).
  ikapùpútol will be the cause of breaking or involuntary cutting
  ikinapútol was the cause of breaking 272(15).
  ikinapùpútol is the cause of breaking 272(17).
  ipagkaputòl be the cause of breaking in numbers 273(9).
  ipinagkaputòl was the cause of breaking in numbers 273(11).
  ipinagkákaputòl is the cause of breaking in numbers 273(7).
  kapùtúlan one of two who cut together 278(10).
  makapútol be able to cut 269(7).
  makapùpútol will be able to cut 281(41).
  nakapútol has cut 282(22).
  nakapùpútol is able to cut 281(39).
  mapútol have been cut, be able to be cut 38(35). 60(4). 283(37).
  mapùpútol will be able to be cut 283(38).
  napútol has been cut, was cut 261(26).
  nangapútol pl. 286(17).
  napùpútol has just been cut, is cut 284(15). 285(1).
  nangapùpútol pl. 286(19).
  pagkapútol a having cut 282(37).
  makapagpútol be able to cut several things 286(43).
  nakapagpútol has cut 286(41).
  nakapagpùpútol is able to cut 286(42).
  maputúlan be cut from 185(21).
  mapùputúlan will be cut from 288(13).
  naputúlan was cut from 288(9).
  napùputúlan is cut from 288(10).
  napagputúlan was able to be cut on 288(26).
  makàpútol chance to cut 290(28).
  makàpùpútol will chance to cut 290(30).
  nakàpútol chanced to cut 24(34). 290(20).
  nakàpùpútol is by chance cutting 290(23).
  màpútol get cut 294(3).
  màpùpútol will get cut 294(5).
  nàpútol got cut 293(24.43). 294(2).
  nàpùpútol gets cut, is cut 201(30).
  pagkàpútol the way cutting got done 291(15).
  màputúlan get cut from 238(2).
  màpùputúlan will get cut from 297(41).
  nàputúlan got cut from 297(38).
  nàpùputúlan gets cut from 297(39).
  papútol that caused to be cut 299(15).
  paputòl transversely 166(21).
  kapàpapútol there has just been causing to cut 301(11).
  kapagpàpapútol there has just been causing to cut several things
  papùpútol will ask to have cut 302(2).
  magpapútol cause to be cut 225(1).
  magpàpapútol will cause to be cut 191(6).
  nagpapútol caused to be cut 303(13).
  nagpàpapútol is causing to be cut 303(14).
  pagpapapútol a causing to be cut 303(15).
  paputúlin be caused to be cut 304(39).
  papùputúlin will be caused to cut 304(40).
  pinapútol was caused to cut 153(23).
  pinapùpútol is being caused to cut 304(37).
  papagputúlin be caused to cut on oneself 305(23).
  papagpùputúlin will be caused to cut several things 305(24).
  pinapagpútol was caused to cut 181(27).
  pinapagpùpútol is being caused to cut 181(16).
  papamutúlin be caused to cut selectively, in quantity, or as
  occupation 305(35).
  papamùmutúlin will be caused to cut 305(36).
  ipapútol be caused to be cut 306(25).
  ipapùpútol will be caused to be cut 306(23).
  ipinapútol was caused to be cut 204(10).
  ipinapùpútol is being caused to be cut 306(22).
  ipakipapútol be asked to be caused to be cut 307(29).
  ipakìkipapútol will be asked to be caused to be cut 307(32).
  ipinakipapútol was asked to be caused to be cut 307(34).
  paputúlan be caused to be cut from 308(24).
  papùputúlan will be caused to be cut from 308(25).
  pinaputúlan was caused to be cut from 308(19).
  pinapùputúlan is being caused to be cut from 308(22).
  makapagpapútol be able to cause to be cut 311(12).
  makàkapagpapútol will be able to cause to be cut 311(15).
  nakapagpapútol has been caused to be cut 311(8).
  nakàkapagpapútol is able to cause to be cut 311(10).
  napapútol asked to be cut for 311(38).
  napapùpútol asks to be cut for 311(40).
  palaputulìn brittle 315(21).
  tagapútol person whose duty it is to cut 315(32).

poòk place, district 40(2).

poòn lord, saint 104(5). 182(40).
  pinópoòn is being worshipped 189(3).

-puwà`, see kápuwà`.

-púyat: nagpúyat staid up, watched 232(30).
  nagpuyàt repeatedly staid up 238(1).
  pagpupuyàt a repeated staying up 297(7).
  namùmúyat keeps from sleeping, keeps up 240(31).
  pinúyat was kept up late 245(2).


sa loc. particle 16(2). 45. 49. 195-212. 306. 515.
  sa lawà: sà-lawáhan fickle 94(1). 259(20).
  sa ulè`: pagsa-ulàn be returned to 62(12). 72(13).
  pinagsa-ulàn was returned to 44(25). 256(7).
  nása is in 18(22). 314(7).
  nangása pl. 118(35).
  násàsa is being in 36(16). 44(1).
  pása go to 20(18). 314(9).
  pápàsa will go to 314(10).
  mápasa get to 94(4).
  mápàpasa will get to 314(15).
  nápasa went by chance 116(30). 279(4).
  nápàpasa comes by chance to 106(26).
  pagkápasa a chance coming to 60(21). 314(16).

sà, see isà.

saàn loc. of anò: where? to what? 42(14). 64(37). 316(34). 264.

-sabàd: isinabàd was said in interruption, was thrust in 102(22).

-sabày: sabày-sabày all at the same time 224(2).
  sinabayàn was accompanied 82(32).
  pagkakásabày a happening at the same time 270(42).

sábi that said 24(8). 74(36). 198(12). 276.
  sabì-sabì chance talk 116(10). 120(9).
  nagsábi said 26(14). 36(29).
  nagsipagsábi pl. 26(5).
  nagsàsábi is saying 156(40).
  pagsasábi a saying 155(24).
  sabíhin be said 30(15). 50(24).
  sàsabíhin will be said 20(11). 30(14).
  sinábi was said 16(17).
  sinàsábi is being said 96(9).
  pinagsabì was variously said 156(13).
  pinagsabì-sabì was repeatedly said 246(34).
  ipinagsábi was told about 249(35).
  pinagsabíhan was told, was ordered 20(15). 32(26).
  kasabihàn proverb 276(11).
  pagkasábi a having said 70(28).
  makapagsábi be able to tell 52(9).
  nakapagsábi was able to tell 76(25).
  màsàsábi will get said 92(37).
  pagkàsábi a getting said 80(1). 100(36).

-sábit: sabitàn clothes-rack 258(38).
  nakasábit is hanging (from a nail, peg, etc.) 281(4).

-sábog: nagsábog strewed 16(20).
  nàsàsábog is lying scattered 90(30). 108(19).
  nangàsábog got scattered, pl. 293(40).

sabòn S. soap 184(34).

-sábong: pangsábong used for cock-fighting 297(42).
  pagsasábong cock-fighting 312(17).
  sabungàn cockpit, cock-fight 304(1).
  sabungéro cock-fighter 98(21). 316(11).

-sabuwàt: kasabuwàt accomplice 298(19).

sáboy a sprinkling 68(3).
  sumàsáboy is splashing, intr. 228(41).
  pagsáboy sprinkling 68(40).
  nagsàsáboy is scattering 68(9).
  isináboy was sprinkled 268(11).
  sinàsabúyan is being sprinkled at 68(24).
  napàpasáboy falls scattering 70(4).

sadiyà` that come for 38(26). 78(28). 221(18)
  magsadiyà` go for one's purpose 74(28).
  nagsadiyà` went for his purpose 74(33).
  sinadiyà` was done intentionally 233(36).
  sinásadiyà` is being done intentionally 62(13). 98(32).

sagàd close-cropped 219(13).

-sagása`: sumagása` knock, jostle 229(1).
  sagasáin be hit upon, be conflicted with 245(3).
  sinagasáan was bumped into 22(24).
  nagsàgasaán jostled each other 237(1).
  pagsasàgasaàn a jostling each other 237(1).
  màsagasáan get run into 271(22).
  nàsagasáan got run into 297(43).

ságing banana 16(8). See púno`.
  sagíngan banana-grove 250(40).

sagitsìt sizzling 114(10).

sagòt that answered 26(23). 44(15).
  sumagòt answer 44(10). answered 26(1).
  sumásagòt answers 44(2).
  sinagòt was given an answer 191(41).
  isinagòt was said in reply 16(18).
  makasagòt be able to answer 76(4).
  nakasagòt was able to answer 68(21).

saguwàn a paddle 261(41).
  sumaguwàn paddled 229(1).
  pagsaguwàn a paddling 82(12).

sahìg flooring, floor 114(43).
  isinásahìg is being used as flooring 248(32).

-sáhod: sumáhod hold under 229(1).
  isáhod be held under 248(34).

-sáing: magsáing cook rice dry 232(30).
  sináing ration of rice, not yet served 229(8).

sakà` then, afterwards 52(30). 68(21). 243.

-sakàl: pagsakàl choking 227(5).

sakatéro S. grass-cutter 96(2).

sakày person carried in a vehicle 80(36).
  pangsakày used for riding or driving 225(18).
  sumakày mount, ride 72(1). mounted 52(37).
  sumásakày is mounting, is getting on or in (a vehicle) 229(2).
  pagsakày mounting, riding 70(40). 167(41).
  nagsakày took into a vehicle 234(25).
  pagsasakày a taking into a vehicle 272(2).
  isinakày was put on a vehicle 306(16).
  ipinagsakày was taken into a vehicle 249(37).
  sakyàn be embarked in 253(10).
  sinakyàn was ridden in 253(9).
  sinàsakyàn is being ridden in 82(32).
  sàkáyan embarkation by many 258(3).
  sasakyàn vehicle 219(35).
  nakíkisakày embarks along with others 98(18).
  ikinásakày was the cause of chance mounting 273(36).
  nakasakày has mounted, is mounted 100(23). 281(15).
  nakasásakày is able to mount 281(43).
  pagkasakày a past mounting, ability to mount 282(12.39).
  nasakyàn was able to be mounted 228(16).
  násakày got put on a vehicle 294(28).
  nàsàsakày is in a vehicle 114(22).
  pagkásakày a chance mounting or riding 292(17). 294(36). 295(41).
  nàsakyàn got mounted 298(1).
  pasakày that caused to be taken into a vehicle 299(17). in riding
  position, astride 299(30).
  nagpasakày caused to be put on a vehicle 268(25).
  pagpapasakày a causing to be put on a vehicle 303(17).
  ipinasakày was caused to be put on a vehicle 306(26).
  ipinagpasakày was caused to be used for riding 307(21).
  pinasakyàn was caused to be mounted 308(28).
  ipinagkápasakày was the cause of causing to ride 310(18).

sakdàl accusation 54(36).
  isinakdàl was charged 56(12).
  ipinagsakdàl was accused 54(31).

-sakìm: kasakimàn selfishness 28(34). 74(20).

sákit (a) grief 223(20).
  pasákit suffering caused 42(43).
  nagpasákit caused suffering to be undergone 303(20).
  ipinasákit was caused to be suffered 22(7).
  pinasàsakítan is being caused to suffer 40(40).
  --(b) Accent shifted: sakìt pain, sickness 30(28). 42(3). 223(18).
  sumakìt hurt, injure 188(30).
  sinàsaktàn is being hurt 60(1). 70(15).
  nagkasakìt got sick 54(7). 78(24).
  pagkakasakìt a getting sick 269(8).
  ipinagkasakìt was the cause of getting sick 273(14).
  nakasakìt cause injury 313(32).
  masakìt sore 40(41). 281(31).
  masaktàn be hurt 206(24).
  masàsaktàn will be hurt 204(2).
  nasaktàn got hurt 264(25).
  palasàkítin one who easily gets sick 315(14).

sáko S. sack 104(15).

-sákop: sakòp included 290(31).
  pagsákop an including, a saving 306(42).
  mànanákop savior 20(33).
  nasàsákop is included, is under control 116(31).

sála failure, offense 38(2).
  sumála fail, miss, 64(42). failed 229(4).
  saláhan be omitted, skipped 253(11).
  sanglàn be missed 253(14).
  sinanglàn was missed 253(12).
  nagkàsála sinned against 271(1).
  pagkakàsála a sinning against 290(1).
  kasalánan sin 20(32). 98(7).
  makasalánan 22(1). 74(22). 289(22).
  pagkasála a having missed 272(10). 286(3).

salakàb fish-trap 243(7).
  mánanalakàb fish-trapper 243(7).

-salákay: pagsalákay an attacking 122(10).
  pananalákay a repeated attacking 122(23).
  sinalakáyan was attacked 122(9).

salakòt rain-hat of palm-leaves 212(22).

salamangkà S. sleight-of-hand trick 202(37).

salámat thanks 16(32). 152(4).
  magpasalámat give thanks, thank 160(15).
  napasalámat was thankful 88(16).

salamìn glass, looking-glass, eye-glass 60(7). 238(39). n. of dog

salapì` money; half-dollar 30(27). 252(41).

salàt needy 219(14).
  kasalatàn lack 239(35).

salawàl trousers 122(1).

-salaysày: isinalaysày was narrated 38(5).

salbáhi S. savage, brutal; brute 44(4). 50(17). 70(25).
  kasalbahíhan brutality 54(28).

-sáli: isáli be taken along, be included 248(37).
  isináli was included 248(36).
  kasáli participant 22(18). 48(5).
  nàkasáli got taken as companion 296(28).
  makàsáli chance to take part 114(28).

salità` word, speech 18(13). 20(41).
  magsalità` speak 28(39). 80(37).
  nagsalità` spoke 104(19).
  pagsasalità` a speaking 80(40).
  pananalità` manner of speaking 44(35). 50(15).
  pinagsalitaàn was spoken to 76(3).
  sàlitáan conversation 32(7). 44(20).
  magsàlitáan converse 114(5).
  nagsàsàlitáan are conversing 86(32).
  pagsasàlitáan a conversing 28(11). 64(10). 88(3).
  kasàlitáan one of two who converse together 278(2).
  makapagsalità` be able to speak 50(14).

-sálo: kasálo fellow-partaker 42(8).

-salúbong: sinalúbong was met 18(40). 66(19).

sálok dipper; basket 229(6).
  sumálok dip out water 229(6).

-salúkoy: kasalukúyan present, at the same time 36(40). 260(11).

salòp a dry measure; see kabàn.

sáma (a) come along, go along 182(26). 222(5).
  sumáma go along 32(13). 66(30). went along 140(19).
  sàsáma will go along 84(12).
  pagsáma a going along 104(30).
  pagsasáma a going together 54(18).
  isáma be taken along 84(32).
  isináma was taken along 86(28).
  samáhan be gone with 253(14).
  sinamáhan was gone with 186(20).
  sàsamáhan will be gone with 68(34).
  sàmáhan society, company 296(32).
  sàmáha-ng-Sumúlong the Sumulong Co. 210(30).
  sàmáha-ng-ópera opera company 303(10).
  makisáma go along with 202(23).
  kasáma companion 30(9.22). 50(39). 273.
  magkakasáma group of three or more companions 28(25). 48(39).
  --(b) With accent-shift: samà act as partners 223(20).
  kasamà field-worker, peon 72(32). 86(22).
  kasamahàn partner 108(32). 210(35). See Sumúlong.
  magkakasamahàn group of three or more 207(41). 278(40).

samà` badness, injury 218(31).
  kasamaàn badness, injuriousness 276 (37).
  kasamaà-ng-pálad bad fortune 42(28).
  masamà` bad, hurtful, ugly 40(14). 50(7). 58(39).

sambalílo (S.) hat 137(42).

sampàl a slap 24(23).
  sinampàl was slapped 24(22).

sampày that hung across 251(33).
  nagsampày hung across, tr. 232(31).
  isinampày was hung across 248(38).
  sampáyan clothes-line 223(33).

Sam-Pédro S. St. Peter 72(27).

sána in that case, then 34(17). 74(23). 47. 230.

San-Antóniyo S. place-n. 34(29). See táo.

sánay practice 46(16).
  sanày practised 46(24).
  pasasánay a drilling 116(29).
  pagkasánay a past practising 46(23).

San-Visènte S. place-n. 220(40).

sandalì` moment, while, short space of time 18(6). 24(11).

sandáliyas S. sandals 278(35).

sandòk cooking-dipper of cocoanut-shell 74(5).
  sumandòk dipped out 229(8).

sanhì` cause 190(16).

-sánib: sumánib make one's sleeping-mat overlap 229(8).
  isánib be made to overlap 248(7).
  kasánib overlapping 266(18).
  magkasánib two that overlap 269(38).

San-Ildepònso S. place-n. 100(10). See lúpa`.

San-Matéyo S. place-n., see báyan.

San-Migèl S. place-n. 50(9). 116(6). See báyan.

sànto S. saint 98(15). 104(15).

Sàntos S. family-n. 209(26).

santòl fruit and tree of Sandoricum Indicum L. 34(40).

sangà bough 34(28). 118(28).

-sanggà: sumásanggà is warding off 106(36).
  sinásanggà is being warded off 106(35).

Sang-Huwàn S. St. John 104(6). 110(10).

sangkálan chopping-block 256(1).

sangkàp accompaniment 221(22).
  kasangkàp id. 266(20).
  kasangkápan  utensil, tool, appurtenances 58(2.33). 74(6).

-sangl, see sála.

sanlà` pledge 252(22).
  sangláan place for pledges, see báhay.

sápa` pond 88(26).

sapagkàt because 20(17). 201(36). 306.

-sapantáha`: sinapantáha` was conjectured 38(25).

sapàt sufficient 305(19).

sapátos S. shoes 32(35).

-sápit: sumápit arrived, came 62(24).

-sarà: pangsarà instrument for closing 225(19).
  sumásarà closes, intr. 225(20).
  pagsasarà a closing, tr. 26(36).
  isinarà was closed 80(1).
  pagkásarà a chance closing 80(17).

-saràp: masasaràp tasty, pl. 34 (39).

sári` sárì-sári` various 48(15). 74(31).

saríle self; own 48(33). 62(12). 72(13). 137. 169. 175.

saríwa` moist; fresh 184(9).
  nanaríwa` got fresh 76(40).

satsàt tonsure 106(21).

sawì` awkward 219(15). 276(33).
  sawì-ng-pálad unlucky 211(8).
  nasawì-ng-pálad became unlucky 54(3).
  kasawiàn awkwardness 276(37).
  kasawià-ng-pálad bad fortune 94(37).

sáya S. dress, skirt 240(41).

-sayà: kasàyáhan gladness 275(27).
  masayà gay 80(15). 92(28).

-sáyad: magsisáyad get wearied, pl. 118(20).

sáyang that regretted 219(16).
  nanghináyang grieved 292(14).
  nanghìhináyang is mourning 241(24).
  panghihináyang a mourning 241(26).
  panghinayángan be regretted 257(6).
  panghìhinayángan will be regretted 191(31).
  pinanghinayángan was regretted 257(12).
  pinanghìhinayángan is being regretted 257(13).
  nasáyang went for naught 285(5).

-sayàw: sumayàw dance 110(32). danced 186(18).
  sumásayàw is dancing 112(2).
  pagsayàw a dancing 112(4).
  nagsásayàw is performing a dance 110(38).
  sayawàn be danced before 253(15).
  sinayawàn was danced to 186(21).
  sàyáwan dance by many; ball 112(5). 186(19). 258(4).

si siy particle of names 20(2). 45. 58. 62. 78. 126. 162. 196.
  ni disj., of, by 45. 162.
  kay loc., to, for 45. 196.

Sibòl place-n. 118(26).

sibúyas S. onions 76(17).

sigà` bonfire 66(16).

-sigàng: isigàng be put on the fire 248(39).
  nakasigàng is cooking 281(6).

sigaríliyo S. cigarette 227(1).

sigàw that cried 221(23).
  sumigàw yelled 24(21).
  sísigàw will yell 24(19).
  pagsigàw a shouting 42(41).
  nagsisigàw kept shouting 16(31). 44(40).
  nagsísisigàw screams continually 40(42).
  pagsisigàw a continual shouting 16(26). 44(26).
  isinigàw was cried out 24(13). 68(39).
  sinigawàn was yelled at 253(16).
  sìgáwan a shouting by many 258(5).
  magsìsìgáwan will yell together 236(18).
  pagsisìgáwan a yelling together 48(37).
  nakasísigàw is able to cry out 84(25).
  pasigàw in a shout 70(24).
  nápasigàw involuntarily gave a shout 88(27).

-sigl, see silìd.

-siglà: masiglà cheerful 276(35).
  magpasiglà cause to be cheerful 112(11).

sigúro S. no doubt 18(24). 80(39).

siìt spines at base of bamboo-cluster 246(27).

-síkad: sumíkad kicked at 229(9).
  nagsísikàd kicks repeatedly 238(3).
  nagsísisikàd is kicking much and repeatedly 239(11).
  sinikáran was kicked at 253(17).

síkat ray of light 66(22).
  sumìsíkat is shining 78(4).

-sikìp: sumikìp became narrow 229(10).
  nagsikìp grew crowded 234(27).
  masikìp crowded 98(39).

sekréta S. spy 168(5).

-siksìk: sumiksìk crowded his way 229(13).
  nagsísiksìk is stuffing 234(29).
  nakìkipagsiksíkan takes part in the crowding 98(41).

síko elbow 48(19).

síko, see tsíko.

-síkot: pasíkot-síkot nooks and corners 300(33).

silà they 18(27). 63.
  nilà disj., by them, of them 16(7). 163.
  kanilà prep. and loc., their, by them, them 18(26). 165. 169.
  kaní-kanilà prep. and loc., their various, their respective
  26(37). 165. 169.

silà, see sinà.

silakbò a flare, leap 231(6). 254(26).
  sumilakbò flared up 229(14).
  sinìsilakbuhàn is being welled up in 22(15).

-sílang: sìlángan place of rising 259(41).
  silangàn place of child-birth 260(26).
  sìlangánan east 163(27).
  silángan east; place-n. 163(27). 261(13).

-silbè (S.): magsilbè serve 40(7).
  pinagsìsilbihàn is being waited on 64(12).

síle S. chile pepper 76(16).

silìd small room 84(39). 114(13).
  sumilìd get into a small space 104(34).
  isilìd be put in 248(40).
  siglàn be filled 138(5).
  siniglàn was filled 20(17.34).
  sinìsiglàn is being filled 20(6).
  pinagsisiglàn was variously filled 118(7). 256(20).
  pagkásilìd a chance putting away 104(37).

-sílip: sinílip was peeped at 106(20).

síliya S. chair 234(12).

sílong ground-floor, space under platform of house 260(29).

-simbà: magsimbà go to church 78(37).
  nagsimbà went to church 242(18).
  nagsísimbà goes to church 56(13).
  simbáhan church 20(15).
  mapagsimbà devout 98(10).

sinà silà pl. particle of names 48. 60. 62. 162. 196.
  ninà nilà disj., of, by 48. 162.
  kinà loc., to, for 48. 196.

sínag ray 66(36).

síne S. cinematograph 204(22).

sinélas S. sandals 70(1).

séniyas S. signals 246(22).

-sintà: pagsintà a proffering love 229(16).
  sinísintà is being loved 245(5).

sèntimos S. centimos, cents 222(37).

síno who? 97. 167.
  síno-síno pl. 97. 131.
  níno disj., of whom? by whom? 167. 168.
  kaníno prep. and loc., whose? by whom? 168. 169.
  kaní-kaníno pl. 168. 169.

sinungáling mendacious 219(17).
  nagsísinungalìng tells lies 238(5).
  kasinungalíngan falsehood 276(38).

-singìl: paniningìl a dunning 313(1).
  singilìn be dunned for 264(14).
  sinísingìl is being claimed 54(23).
  násingìl got collected 294(7).

singkamàs (S.) Pachyrizus angulatus Rich. 76(16).

-singkàw: nagpasingkàw caused to be hitched up 52(35).

singsìng ring 102(2).
  palàsingsíngan the ring finger 315(25).

sípa` that kicked away; football 46(32).
  pagsípa` a kicking 48(15).
  màninípa` football-player 48(24).
  sipáin be kicked away 84(9).
  sinípa` was kicked away 24(45). 84(3).
  pinagsipà` was variously kicked 84(43).
  pinagsisipà` was variously and repeatedly kicked 84(21).
  sipéro football-player 316(11).
  sipéros pl. 48(24).

-sípag: kasipágan diligence 276(38).
  masípag diligent 64(14).
  masisípag pl. 34(35).

-síra` (a) nagkasíra` got partly spoiled 268(37).
  nakasìsíra` causes ruin 235(27).
  masíra` be able to be destroyed 283(40).
  nasíra` was destroyed; deceased 78(5). 285(7).
  nasìsiráan gets damaged 301(24).
  màsíra` get destroyed 293(26).
  nàsìsíra` gets destroyed 191(32).
  --(b) Accent shifted:
  sirà` destroyed 223(3).
  kasirà` opponent in anger 266(42).
  magkasirà` break with each other 24(28).
  nagkasirà` had a falling out 269(20).
  nagsipagkasirà` pl. 269(28).
  kasiraàn ruin 94(12).
  kasiraà-ng-púri injury to honor 94(16).

serbísiyo S. service 62(35).

sèrmon S. sermon 20(16).
  isinèsèrmon is being preached about 50(16).
  sinèsèrmunan is being preached to 50(13).

-sísi: magsísi repent 20(31).
  magsipagsísi pl. 22(2).
  pagsisísi a repenting 22(25).
  pinagsisíhan was repented 291(9).

-sísid: sumísid stay under water 168(41).
  pagsísid a staying under water 309(10).
  nàsìsísid is submerged 88(35).
  pagpapasísid a causing to dive 116(38).

sítaw the cow-pea, Vigna catjang Endl. 76(16).

siyà he, she; that which 47. 63. 106.
  niyà disj., by him, of him, 47. 163.
  kaniyà prep. and loc., his, by him, him 165. 169.
  kásiyà sufficient 268(8).
  magkàkàsiyà will be sufficient 271(4).
  pagkàsiyahàn be a sufficient container 52(13).
  makasísiyà will be adequate 281(7).
  nasiyahàn got what corresponded to it 66(21).
  nasìsiyahàn gets what corresponds to it 112(26).

-siyádo (S. demasiado)
  :masiyádo excessive 54(19). 289(17).

siyàm nine 38(6). 67. pangsiyàm number nine 225(38).
  makásiyàm nine times 298(33).

siyásat that inquired into 203(5).
  nagsiyásat inquired 28(2). 203(2).
  pagsisiyásat an inquiring 66(21).
  maniyásat pry into 240(33).
  siniyásat was interrogated 64(34).
  nasiyásat has been inquiring into 199(32).
  mapagsiyásat inquisitive 40(20).

siyèmpre S. always 262(13).

siyéte-palábras S. Easter Mass 20(29).

subálit but 322.

-subò: sumubò boiled over, intr. 52(12).
  sinubhàn was boiled over in 54(30).

súbo` mouthful 221(24).
  pagsusúbo` a feeding 219(15).
  subúan be fed 253(19).

-súbok: nanùnúbok is spying 40(24).
  subúkan be watched for, put to a test 68(8). 102(34).
  sinubúkan was put to a test 56(39).
  sinùsubúkan is being spied on 40(22).
  masubúkan be able to be tested 265(20).

-sugàl (S.): nagsúsugàl is gambling 269(22).
  nagsipagsugàl gambled, pl. 190(34).
  pagsusugàl a gambling 251(29).
  sùgálan gambling-party 174(29).

súgat a wound 20(8).
  sumúgat wounded 20(38).
  sinugátan was wounded 253(20).
  sugatàn wounded person, the wounded 20(39). 260(28).
  nagsugatàn wounded each other 237(3).
  masugátan be able to be wounded 36(21).

súha` grape-fruit 34(40). See púno`.

súhol a bribe 72(39).

súka` wine set to sour, vinegar 289(2).

súkat proper, fitting 58(18). 98(24). 268.

suklày comb 229(19).
  sumuklày combed 229(18).
  nagsuklày combed himself 234(30).
  sinuklày was combed 245(7).
  sinuklayàn id. 253(21).
  nagpasuklày caused himself to be combed 303(22).
  pinapagsuklày was caused to comb himself 305(26).

súlat that written, letter 52(10).
  sulàt written 199(30).
  sumúlat write 140(18). wrote 50(39).
  sùsúlat will write 138(11).
  sumùsúlat is writing 146(5).
  pagsúlat a writing 140(29).
  pagsusulàt a writing in quantity 238(5).
  panunúlat id. 240(35).
  magsusulàt clerk, scribe 243(2).
  mánunulàt id. 243(20).
  sinúlat was written 154(8). 245(9).
  isinúlat was put into writing 94(22). 184(35).
  sulátan be written to 154(19).
  sulatàn writing-desk 217(13).
  kasùlátan kasulatàn correspondent 278(12. 24).
  makasúlat be able to write 282(2).
  nakasùsúlat is able to write 282(1).
  nakàsúlat happened to write 176(38).
  tagasúlat writer 315(39).
  tagapagpasúlat overseer of writers 316(5).

-súlid: sumúlid spin thread 229(19).
  sinúlid thread 184(4).

sulihiyà the weave 48(1).

suléras S. joists 234(43).

-sulsè (S.): manulsè darn 169(2).
  tagasulsè darning-woman 169(1).

sulò` torch 90(26).

súlok corner 52(33). 64(22).
  sulòk-sulòk nooks and corners 64(21).

súlong go ahead 151(39).
  sumúlong push ahead 229(19). also as family-n. (Sumúlong at
  kasamahàn: see bìgásan).
  pagsúlong a pushing on; a going away 88(41). 308(36).
  isùsúlong will be pushed forward 58(3).
  isinùsúlong is being pushed ahead 230(3).

súman steamed rice in banana-leaves 227(1).

sombréro S. hat 137(41).

sumbòng complaint 96(12).
  nagsumbòng brought a charge 100(21).
  ipagsumbòng be complained of 96(35).
  ipinagsumbòng was complained  of 38(1). 96(10).
  palasumbúngin tattle-tale 315(10).

-sumpòng: pagsumpòng attack, fit 313(22).
  sinumpòng was overcome 18(36). 84(14).
  sinúsumpòng is being overcome 108(27).

sundálo S. soldier 52(23).
  nagsundálo became a soldier 183(2).
  pagsusundálo military service 303(34).

-sundò`: sumundò` fetch 229(21).
  pagsundò` a fetching 229(22).
  sinundò` was called for 256(41).
  sinúsundò` is being called for 104(23).
  kásundò` agreeing 268(9).
  nagkásundò` agreed with each other 168(16).
  pagkakásundò` an agreeing with each other 271(5).
  pagkàsunduàn pagkàsunduwàn be agreed upon 278(30).
  pinagkàsunduàn was agreed upon 32(2).
  nagpasundò` caused to be fetched 92(23).
  pagpapasundò` a causing to be fetched 303(23).
  ipinasundò` was caused to be fetched 306(28).
  ipinasúsundò` is being caused to be fetched 88(19). 92(16).

suntòk blow on the head 229(24).
  pagsuntòk a striking on the head 229(23).
  suntukìn be struck on the head 245(10).
  sinuntòk was struck on the head 245(10).
  sinúsuntòk is being struck on the head 245(11).

-súno`: nakisúno` dwelt along, dwelt with 264(15).
  kasúno` fellow-guest 118(15).
  magkakasúno` pl. 118(18).

-sunòd: sunòd-sunòd following on one another 72(25).
  sumunòd follow, comply, obey 52(24). 100(27). followed 231(6).
  sumúsunòd is following 38(7). 46(19).
  pagsunòd a following 38(10). 94(24).
  sundìn be complied with 92(8).
  sinunòd was complied with 303(16).
  sinúsunòd is being complied with 62(37). 66(13).
  isinunòd was taken next, was made to follow 76(18).
  sundàn be followed 240(23).
  sinundàn was followed 22(25). 36(36).
  sinùsundàn is being followed 68(23).
  kasunòd following another 266(21).
  magkasunòd two, one of whom follows the other 42(29). 270(8).
  pagkakásunòd-sunòd a following one on the other 271(6).
  masùnúrin obedient 94(20).

súnog a burning up, conflagration 122(18). 156(10).
  sunòg burnt 66(41). 223(4).
  panunúnog a setting fire to, a burning 122(12).
  sunúgin be burned up 122(20).
  pinagsunòg was variously burned up 122(10).
  magkasúnog have a fire 268(41).
  nasúnog has been burned 172(39). 259(4).
  pagkasúnog a past burning 197(34). 283(2).
  pagkàsúnog a getting burned 292(19). 295(19).

súnong that carried on the head 108(16).

sungánga` a blow on the mouth 212(37).
  sùsungangáin will be struck on the mouth 174(37).

súngay horn 24(29).

-sunggàb: sinunggabàn was seized 46(27). 58(22).
  sinùsunggabàn is being seized 108(34).
  masunggabàn have been taken hold of 110(2).
  nasùsunggabàn is able to be seized 110(8).

súpot bag 34(5).

sorbétes S. sherbet 272(33).

súso breast, nipple 212(11).
  ipinakìkipasúso is being asked to be caused to take the breast

susò` snail 18(1).

sutsòt a whistling 197(22).
  sumúsutsòt is whistling 229(24).
  malasutsòt a young lout 315(3).
  palasutsútin one who always whistles 315(11).

soòt that worn 70(1).
  isoòt be put on 248(41).
  sootàn be got into 104(11).

-suwày: pagsuwày a disobeying 54(3).
  makasuwày be able to disobey 94(21).

suwélas S. soles 306(8).

suwèldo S. pay 26(27).

-súyo`: pagsúyo` a bribing 92(38).
  panunúyo` a propitiating by bribes 72(34).

súyod a harrow 243(3).
  magsuyòd harrower.


t, see at.

taàn that set apart 221(3).
  itinátaàn is being reserved 248(24).
  taanàn fugitive 261(14).
  magtaanàn flee 237(4).
  makataanàn be able to flee 286(24). 313(29).
  nàtàtaàn is reserved 80(13).

taàs height 218(13).
  itaàs upper part, north 36(27). 163(25).
  paitaàs upward 48(6).
  itinaàs was raised 88(34).
  kataasàn north 163(25).
  mataàs high 64(12).
  nátaàs got raised up 78(8).

-tabà`: tumabà` grow stout 206(27).
  katabà` how fat 42(5).
  matabà` fat, stout 244(34).
  nápakatabà` very fat 313(12).

tabakéra S. tabatière 220(25).

tabáko S. cigar 66(12).
  nagtàtabáko is smoking a cigar 66(19).

tabì side; step aside 32(31). 152(1).
  nátabì got to the side of 74(14).
  pagkátabì a getting to the side of 94(8).

tablà S. board 34(37).

tábo` dipper 222(27).

tábon dam 245(14).
  nagtábon dammed up 232(32).
  pagtatábon a damming up 179(39).
  tinabúnan was dammed up 253(22).
  nàtàtábon is covering, is piled over 120(22).
  pinatabúnan was caused to be filled 26(10).

taburéte S. chair 24(39).

tadtàd chopped up 20(7).
  pagtatadtàd a chopping up 114(10). and Corrigenda.

tagà tigà coming from 56(23). 48. 254.

-tagà`: tumagà` hew, chop 290(27).
  tinagà` was chopped 44(39).

tagàl length in time, endurance 168(41).
  tagalàn be done long 253(23).
  matagàl long-enduring, patient 104(26).
  natagalàn was able to be endured in 62(6).
  pàtagálan contest of endurance 309(10).
  pagpapàtagálan a contesting for endurance 48(22). 309(17).
  kapàtagálan opponent in a contest for endurance 310(32).

Tagálog Tagalog 50(15). 58(6).
  Katagalúgan the Tagalog country 50(23).

tagílid, see -gílid.

tagpì` a patch 266(4).
  tagpiàn be mended 253(26).
  tagpían place of patching 259(7).
  katátagpì` there has just been mending 175(9).

tagpò` a meeting 220(3).
  magtatagpò` meet each other, pl. 102(4).
  nagtatagpò` met each other 26(39).
  tagpuìn be met by appointment 245(12).
  tagpuàn be joined up 253(26).
  pagtàtagpuàn will be met in 26(34).
  tagpúan meeting-place 106(9).
  makíkipagtagpò` will meet another 98(26).
  makátagpò` happen to meet 66(5). 92(14).
  nakátagpò` happened to meet 18(2). 36(8).
  màtagpuàn get met with 106(25).
  nàtagpuàn got met with 34(20). 92(15).

tágo` that put away 221(25).
  magtágo` hide oneself 32(35).
  magtagò` keep oneself in hiding 56(19).
  nagtagò` kept himself in hiding 56(21).
  pagtatagò` a staying in hiding 312(13).
  itágo` be hidden 40(25).
  itinàtágo` is being put away 273(34).
  taguàn place for safe-keeping; hiding-place; hiding
  52(35). 120(10). 163(22).
  kinàtàtagúan is the place of concealment 118(43).
  makapagtágo` be able to hide oneself 52(32).
  nàtàtágo` is hidden 24(31). 34(11).
  pagkàtágo` the way of storing 268(39).
  patágo` given for safe-keeping 293(26).

-tahàn: magtahàn cease 232(33).
  nagtahàn ceased 106(7).
  tàhánan abode 66(24).
  patahanin be caused to cease 100(2).

-tahì`: manahì` sew, patch 169(2).
  pananahì` sewing as occupation 240(36).
  mànanáhi` seamstress 243(14).
  pinanànahiàn is the place where sewing is done 256(42).
  tagatahì` person appointed to sew 315(39).

tahìd spur of rooster 238(3).

tahílan girder 227(15).

tahímik quiet 102(4). 114(4).
  tumahímik become quiet, quiet down 44(17). became quiet
  44(25). 122(23).
  nanahímik quieted down 240(37).
  nagsipanahímik pl. 36(5).
  katahimíkan quietness 116(9).
  matahímik quiet 34(35). 120(38).
  màtahímik get quiet 40(42).

tahòl a bark 62(8).
  tumátahòl is barking 229(25).
  pagtahòl a barking 305(2).
  pagtatahòl a barking at 234(31).
  tàhúlan a baying together 258(7).
  nagtàhúlan bayed together 190(17).
  ikinátahòl was the cause of barking 273(38).
  nakatahòl has barked, was able to bark 191(2). 198(18).
  pagkátahòl a chance barking 158(8).
  pagpapatahòl a causing to bark 296(10).
  pinatahòl was caused to bark 304(41).

taínga ténga ear 110(35).

-takà: pagtatakà a being surprised 64(16). 232(34).
  ipinagtátakà is the cause of surprise 66(4).
  katakà-takà exciting wonder 36(26).
  nakapagtátakà causes wonderment 36(24).

takbò a run 70(40).
  tumakbò run 18(18). ran 18(39).
  tumátakbò is running 251(39).
  tátakbò will run 18(35).
  pagtakbò a running 18(9).
  pagtakbò-takbò a running about at intervals 231(22).
  nagtátakbò runs (as repeated occurrence) 108(16).
  nagsipagtakbò ran, pl. 84(29).
  nangagsipagtakbò id. 116(13).
  pagtatakbò a running 88(25).
  nagtátatakbò is running wild 62(13). 238(42).
  takbúhan a running together 60(27). 116(5).
  nagtakbúhan ran together 22(26).
  nagsipagtakbúhan pl. 96(30).
  nagtàtakbúhan are running together 86(40). 106(34).
  pagtatakbúhan a running together 18(1). 96(17).
  makipagtakbúhan join in a race with 18(21).
  nakìkipagtakbúhan joins in a race 60(26).
  pinakìkipagtakbuhàn is being run with 60(29). 265(33).
  makatakbò be able to run 18(16).
  patakbò on the run 68(18). 72(8).
  pinatakbò was caused to run 70(39).

takìp cover 172(15).
  pangtakìp used as cover 94(15).

tákot fear 20(6).
  takútin be frightened 50(33).
  nagtàtakòt-takútan pretends to be frightened 108(15).
  katákot-tákot terrifying 267(27).
  ikinatákot was the cause of fearing 272(23).
  katakútan be feared 36(9).
  kinatakútan was feared 274(30).
  kinatàtakútan is being feared 42(18).
  pagkatakutàn be feared by many 275(19).
  pagkàkatakutàn will be feared by many 275(21).
  pinagkatakutàn was feared by many 275(15).
  pinagkàkatakutàn is being feared by many 36(30).
  katakútan timidity 116(14).
  katakutàn reverence 276(11).
  katatakutàn terrifying 34(32). 277(30).
  nakatàtákot is causing fear 66(12).
  matákot be afraid 20(13).
  natákot grew afraid 58(23).
  nangatákot pl. 36(6).
  natàtákot is afraid 36(7).
  pagkatákot a being afraid 72(9).
  palatakutìn easily frightened.

tála` star 272(25).

-talà`: nátalà` got fixed 116(24).

talagà by fate, by nature, once for all 98(33). 116(16).
  tinalagà was resolved upon 46(23).
  katalagahàn fate 276(40).

-tálas: matálas keen, clever 234(9).

-talastàs: natátalastàs is able to be understood 284(2).
  napagtalastàs was entirely understood 287(14).
  napagtátalastàs napápagtalastàs is entirely understood 287(15).

-táli`: panáli` used for tethering, tying up 225(21).
  nagtáli` tethered 232(35).
  itináli` was tethered 313(25).
  tinalían was tied up 104(37).
  nakatáli` is tied 284(16).

-tálik: tumálik became close 88(2).
  matálik intimate 22(30). 52(17).

-talíkod, see likòd.

talìm cutting-edge 221(36).
  patalìm cutting instrument 36(19).
  nagpatalìm caused to be sharp, sharpened 44(36).
  nagpápatalìm is sharpening 303(25).
  pinatalìm was made sharp 304(42).
  napatátalìm is able to be made sharp. 311(24).

talíno (S.?) intelligence 60(16).
  katalinúhan id. 50(6).
  matalíno intelligent 36(28).

-tálo (a): nagtàtálo is contending 46(34).
  pagtatálo a contending 296(31).
  manálo be victorious 52(8).
  nanálo won 48(36).
  nanànálo is victorious 62(2).
  nagsìsipanálo pl. 118(5).
  pananálo victory 56(30).
  mánanalò victorious, victor 48(38). 62(1).
  talúnin be defeated 46(37).
  tàtalúnin will be defeated 18(24).
  talúnan defeated, loser 18(42). 148(22). 163(7).
  pinanalúnan was won 60(33).
  katàlúnan one of two who are opposing each other 278(12).
  pinagkatalunàn was won in by many 60(27). 275(23).
  pagkatálo a being defeated 52(7).
  màkatálo turn out to be the opponent 168(28).
  màkàkatálo will be an opponent 30(2).
  nàkatálo was the opponent 296(29).
  nàkàkatálo is the opponent 296(31).
  --(b) Accent shifted: katalò opponent in winning-and-losing game
  nagkatalò played a game 269(21).
  pagkakatalò a winning-and-losing 48(21).

talumpáti` oration 98(38).
  nagtàtalumpáti` is making a speech 98(41).
  pagtatalumpáti` a speech-making 236(39).

-talòn: tumalòn jumped down 88(29).
  nagtalòn jumped down 28(21). 70(30). 72(13).

talòng egg-plant 76(16).

-talungkò`: nakatalungkò` has squatted down 98(19). 112(1).
  nangàtàtalungkò` are in squatting position 108(29).
  patalungkò` in squatting position 220(9).

táma` (a) a hit, correct 152(7). 220(5).
  tumáma` hit 24(23). 229(26).
  tamáan be hit and destroyed or disfigured 238(39).
  màtamáan get hit and disfigured 298(5).
  --(b) Accent shifted: tamà` hit 223(5).
  tamaàn be hit in some part 106(38).
  tinamaàn was hit 24(25). 38(21).
  màtamaàn get hit in some part 36(21). 298(11).

-tamàd: katamaràn be neglected 274(36).
  katàtamaràn will be neglected 274(39).
  kinatamaràn was neglected 274(34).
  katàmáran laziness 18(36).
  matamàd lazy 260(15).

tamìs sweetness 297(10).
  matamìs sweet, sugar 198(31). 252(6).

-tamn, see tanìm.

-tampalásan: tinampalásan was roughly handled 94(14).
  katampalasánan roughness 310(9).

-tampò: pagtatampúhan mutual contrariness 259(28).

-tamò: magtamò partake 78(39).
  nagtátamò is partaking 112(20).

-tanàw: tumanàw take into view 90(39).
  tanawìn be observed 108(21).
  pagkatanàw a having looked 283(4).
  nakátanàw chanced to espy 28(13). 72(5).
  pagkátanàw a chance espying, the way of seeing
  18(34). 108(16). 291(19).

-tandà`: tumátandà` is getting old 229(27).
  matandà` old 38(6).
  matatandà` pl. 114(31).
  matandaàn be able to be remembered 24(5).
  natàtandaàn is able to be remembered 20(25). 28(5). 116(19).

tanikalà` chain 244(38).

tanìm that planted 221(26).
  pananìm used for planting 86(32).
  nagtátanìm is planting 86(38).
  pagtatanìm a planting 307(13).
  mànanánim planter 243(15).
  itátanìm will be planted 16(6).
  tamnàn be planted in 253(28).
  nàtàtanìm is planted 76(31).
  nàtàtamnàn is planted in 34(39).

taniyàg much regarded 219(18).
  pagtataniyàg an exhibiting 90(16).
  tanyágan exhibition 259(9).
  pagtatanyágan the making an exhibition 90(9).

tansò` copper 230(14).

tantiyà S. calculation, guess 281(41).

tánod watchman
  tánod-báhay house-watchman 210(31).
  tánod-pálay rice-guard 210(31).
  tumánod guarded 229(27).
  nagtánod stood guard, formed a guard 207(41).
  tinanúran was guarded 253(30).

tanòng that asked, question 56(5). 68(21).
  tumanòng asked (with quotation or thing asked about)
  44(8). 82(13). 106(10). 229(29).
  nagtanòng put questions, asked (with indirect quotation)
  82(3). 234(34).
  nagtátanòng is putting questions 234(33).
  tinanòng was inquired of 26(1).
  itinanòng was asked 26(3). 30(30).
  ipagtanòng be asked about 74(26).
  ipagtatanòng be repeatedly asked about 98(23).

-tánga`: tinangáan was threatened 100(13).

tángan grasp; that grasped 66(38). 108(41).
  tinangnàn was grasped 42(39).

tangày that carried along 70(3).
  nagtátangày is carrying along 68(28).
  tinangày was carried along, washed away 82(34).
  tinátangày is being borne along 16(3).

tanggàp that received 221(27).
  tumanggàp received 76(25).
  tanggapìn be accepted 48(25). 245(16).
  tàtanggapìn will be accepted 52(25).
  tinanggàp was received, accepted 58(9). 219(29).
  tanggapàn be taken from 253(31).
  tanggápan receiving-place 252(21).
  nátanggàp chanced to be accepted 42(28).

-tanggòl: pagtatanggòl a defending 257(14).
  mánananggòl attorney 116(25).
  maipagtanggòl be able to be defended 288(1).
  tagapagtanggòl attorney 305(40).

-tanghà`: tumanghà` wonder 229(30).

tangháli` noon 30(29).
  manangháli` eat the noon meal 204(26).
  katanghalían middle part of day 26(14). 120(38).

-tángi`: itinángi` was refused 60(29).

-tanglàw: pagtanglàw an illuminating 66(36).

-tangò`: tumangò` consented 16(6).
  tumátangò` consents 229(31).

tápang courage 36(31).
  katapángan bravery 276(41).
  matápang courageous 42(19). 66(2).

tapàt space in front 189(1).
  ipinagtapàt was owned up 90(32).
  katapàt facing 48(7).

tapìk a tap 220(7).
  pinagtátapìk is being petted 84(10).

-tápon: itápon be cast away 30(36). 62(23).
  itinápon was cast away 62(30).
  ipinagtapòn was variously cast away 120(40).
  tapunàn place for throwing away 205(21).
  nagpatápon caused to be exiled 56(27).
  ipatápon be caused to be cast out 56(17).
  pagkapatápon a having caused to be banished 120(18).

tapòn S. stopper, cork 166(17).
  tapunàn be corked 253(34).

-tápos: tapòs ended 30(19).
  tapúsin be ended 236(18).
  tinápos was ended 56(6).
  katapusàn end, cessation 24(1). 50(18). 114(33).
  makatápos have finished 88(3). 167(26).
  matápos come to an end 50(37). 82(3).
  natápos ended 236(37).
  pagkatápos a having ended 44(37). 52(4).
  matápos-tápos be able to come to an end 287(39).

tarà come along 207(35).

tarabúko, see búko.

-tarangkà: tàrangkáhan gateway 32(17).

-taráto S.: pagtaráto a treating 44(31).

tasà (S.) point 254(2).

tátal splinters 58(17).

tátay father 120(17). 122(17). 59.
  magtátay father and child 242(16).
  magtatátay pl. 242(33).

tatlò, see -tlò.

táo person, human being 20(7).
  táo-ng-báyan townsperson 50(17).
  táo-ng-San-Antóniyo person of San Antonio 34(31).
  panaúhin guest 247(29). 250(39).
  táo-taúhan manikin; pupil of the eye 88(8). 135(22).
  katáo persons 42(6). 255.
  kataúhan mankind 135(21).
  katawàn body 20(33). 276(19).
  pangangatawàn physique, body 18(14). 36(11).

-taòb: pagtataòb a tipping over, tr. 82(32).

taòn year 26(36).
  taòn-taòn every year 191(32).
  kátaòn at the same time 104(18).
  nagkátaòn happened at the same time 84(37). 94(6).
  pagkakátaòn a happening at the same time 271(6).
  nàtàtaòn comes at the same time 110(22).

táwa (a) laughter 68(27).
  t. nang t. keeps laughing 206(35).
  tumáwa laughed 18(23).
  tumàtáwa is laughing 229(31).
  pagtáwa a laughing 100(37).
  tumàtáwa-táwa laughs at intervals 231(23).
  tawánan be laughed at 186(34).
  tàwánan laughter by many 259(37).
  katatawanàn laughable, laughing-stock 24(17). 167(30).
  --(b) Accent shifted: tumátawà-tawà snickers, giggles at intervals
  nanawà-nawà kept snickering 241(33).
  ikátawà be the cause of laughter 185(23).
  ikàtàtawà will be the cause of snickering 274(2).
  ikinátawà was the cause of laughter 292(31).
  ikinàtàtawà is the cause of snickering 274(4).
  nakàtàtawà causes irrepressible laughter 108(28).
  matatawanìn easily made to laugh 290(3).
  patawàtawà snickering at intervals 300(38).
  nápatawà burst out laughing 120(28).

-táwad: patàtawárin will be pardoned, excused 184(19).

táwag a call; name 50(10). 64(18).
  pangtáwag panáwag used for calling 225(22).
  tumáwag call 18(27). called 32(39).
  tumàtáwag is calling 64(5).
  pagtáwag a calling 64(42).
  nagtáwag announced 234(36).
  pagtatáwag an announcing 234(37).
  nagtawàg called in numbers 238(7).
  nagtátawàg is calling in numbers 238(7).
  pagtatawàg a calling in numbers 238(11).
  nagtátatawàg is calling much and variously 239(12).
  magtatawàg town-crier 303(30).
  manáwag summon 240(38).
  tawágin be called 78(1).
  tináwag was called 16(5).
  tinàtáwag is being called 40(32).
  itináwag was called out, was called for 42(31). 44(28). 248(42).
  ipinagtáwag was called out 249(39).
  tawágan be called to 253(36).
  pagkatáwag a having called 283(6).
  màtáwag get called 46(21).
  nàtáwag got called 303(34).
  pagkàtáwag a chance calling 291(39).
  patáwag caused to be called out 299(19).
  nagpatáwag caused to be called 303(26).
  pagpapatáwag a causing to be called 303(27).
  magpapatawàg town-crier 248(42).
  ipinatáwag was caused to be called 52(13). 54(25).
  ipinagpàpatáwag is being caused to be called out 307(24).

-tawìd: tumawìd cross 106(4). crossed 68(2).
  napatátawìd is causing himself to be taken across 80(35).

tayà` stakes 258(8).
  tàyáan a staking by several 258(8).

táyo we, incl. 63. Cf. átin and té.

tayò` stand up 222(7). erected 223(35).
  pangtayò` used for setting up, for standing up 225(24). 306(9).
  tumayò` stood up 204(27).
  pagtayò` a standing up 289(21).
  magtayò` set up, erect 203(2).
  nagtayò` erected 234(40).
  pagtatayò` an erecting 234(22).
  itátayò` will be set up 296(2).
  itinayò` was erected 248(43).
  tinayuàn was built in 253(36).
  pagkakátayò` a standing up together 98(39). 271(7).
  kinàtàtayuàn is being stood on 98(40).
  nakatayò` is upright 110(41).
  nakatátayò` is able to stand up 282(3).
  pagkatayò` a having stood up 283(8).
  nàtàtayò` is standing 34(38). 50(26).
  pagkátayò` a chance standing up or erecting 104(19). 291(21).
  patayò` caused to be erected 299(20). in standing position 287(26).
  nagpatayò` caused to be erected 303(32).
  pagpapatayò` a causing to be built 303(33).
  pinatayò` was caused to stand up 304(43).
  ipinatayò` was caused to be erected 306(30).
  nápatayò` jumped to his feet 312(31).

-táyog: katáyog what tallness 267(35).

té (táyo?) come along 207(35).

teátro, see teyátro.

-tibà`: tumibà` cut down bananas 229(34).
  tinibàn trunk of banana-tree after fruit has been gathered 184(2).

-tíbay: tumíbay grew firm 24(27).
  tibáyan be propped 296(2).
  matíbay firm 18(20). 64(36).

tigà, see tagà.

tigàs hardness, hard 219(20). 281(26).
  tigasàn be done with hardening 253(38).
  matigàs hard 283(27).
  pinatigasàn was made hard 237(31).

-tígil: nagtígil ceased 201(37).

-tiìs: tinítiìs is being endured 223(18).
  tìísin hardship 62(21).

tiktìk spy 312(14).
  tumiktìk spied 36(31).

tikuwàs lowered at one end 223(35).
  pagtikuwàs a getting out of balance 192(22).
  nagtikuwàs tilted 234(42).

-tilàd: tumilàd split, cut up 229(35).
  tinilàd was split 46(40).
  napatilàd asked to be sliced for 311(43).

teléfono S. telephone 291(40).

timbà` well-bucket 314(34).
  tumimbà` drew in a bucket 229(36).
  kalatimbà` squatting on heels 314(32).
  nagkalatimbà` squatted on heels 196(37).
  pinapagkalatimbà` was caused to squat on heels 305(29).

-timbàng: timbángan scales 259(10).
  katimbàng equal 42(6) and Corrigenda.

tinápay bread 32(17).

tindà (S.) goods for sale 259(11).
  tindáhan store, shop 170(4).

-tindìg: nagsitindìg stood on end, pl. 66(16).
  nagtindìg stood up 26(25).
  nagsipagtindìg pl. 96(29).
  nakatindìg is on his feet 38(33). 90(25).
  pagkátindìg a chance standing up 291(21).
  nápatindìg jumped to his feet 202(1).

tinidòr S. table-fork 114(8).

tinìg voice 86(25). 114(11).

tinìk spine, splinter, fish-bone 16(20). 250(34).
  nátinìk got a splinter 16(21).
  pagkátinìk the getting a splinter 295(23).

-tintéro: S.: tinterúhan ink-stand 180(33).

tinóla stew 163(18).

tingà foreign substance between the teeth 241(29).
  manghiningà pick one's teeth 241(29).

-tingìn: tumingìn watch 18(26).
  pagtingìn an observing 229(37).
  tingnàn be looked at 64(26).
  tiningnàn was looked at 18(13).
  tinìtingnàn is being looked at 106(34).

-tingkàd: matingkàd intense 147(1).

tingtìng fibre, bristle, straw 315(21).

-tipàn: pinagtipanàn was appointed as meeting-place 104(39).
  tìpánan a meeting by appointment 102(11).
  nagtìpánan made an appointment to meet each other 26(34).

-tipìd: pagtipìd a being economical 229(37).
  nagtipìd saved 235(2).
  nagsipagtipìd pl. 236(6).
  pagtitipìd a saving 235(1).
  tinipìd was economized in 245(17).
  kaytipìd what savingness 174(1).
  natipìd has been economized in 284(18).
  matipìd economical 298(9).
  mapagtipìd given to saving 289(26).
  pagkátipìd a chance saving 292(25).
  nagpatipìd caused to be economized 303(36).
  ipatipìd be caused to be economized in 244(20).
  ipinatipìd was caused to be economized 306(31).

-típon: tipòn gathered 223(6).
  pangtípon used for gathering 225(26).
  pagtípon a gathering 229(39).
  magtípon store up 235(5).
  nagtípon stored up 235(5).
  nagtìtípon stores up 202(19).
  pagtitípon a storing up 235(3).
  tìpúnan meeting 259(35) Corrigenda.
  katipúnan a gathering; n. of a secret society 116(27).
  Katipunéros members of the Katipunan 116(32).
  nakatípon succeeded in gathering 282(4).
  natípon has been gathered 284(19).
  pagkatípon ability to gather, a having gathered 282(16). 283(10).
  nakàtípon chanced to gather 291(33).
  pagkàtípon a chance gathering 291(23).
  patípon that caused to be gathered 299(21).
  patipòn into a heap 166(23).
  nagpatípon caused to be gathered 303(37).
  pagpapatípon a causing to be gathered 303(39).
  ipinatípon was caused to be gathered 306(32).

típus S. typhoid 223(19).

-tirà: tumirà dwelt, staid 229(41).
  magtirà dwelt 54(12).
  nagtirà dwelt 50(4).
  nagtítirà is dwelling, stays 38(8). 114(27).
  pagtitirà a staying 36(25). 54(13).
  nagtútumirà keeps staying 112(27).
  itinirà was left 249(1).
  tirahàn be dwelt in 253(40).
  tinìtirahàn is being dwelt in 253(42).
  tirhàn be left for 253(39).
  tinirhàn was dwelt in, was left for 118(3). 253(38).
  tìráhan dwelling 16(32). 24(38).
  titirhàn home, house 118(27).
  ikinápagtirà was the cause of dwelling 120(6).
  kinàtirhàn was lived in 120(42).
  makatirà be able to stay 52(39).
  mátirà remain, get left 192(38).
  màtìtirà will have to remain 187(26).
  nátirà got left, dwelt 28(31). 56(30).
  nàtìtirà is left, dwells 26(28). 28(33).
  pagkátirà a chance staying 116(25).

-tísod: tinísod was kicked away 245(20).
  natísod has been kicked away 284(20).
  nakàtísod accidentally hit with the foot 290(35).

-tiwála`: tiwalà` persuaded, convinced 104(40).
  paniwála` belief 40(3).
  maniwála` believe 68(29).
  naniwála` believed 106(19).
  nanìniwála` believes 40(7). 52(1).
  paniniwála` a believing, faith 34(32). 40(2).
  pàniwalaìn credulous 116(9).
  paniwaláan be given credence 52(6).
  kàtiwála` confidential agent, manager 268(13).

tiyà S. aunt 59. 256.

tiyàn womb 36(16).

tiyának goblin 68(1).

teyátro teátro S. theatre 148(27).

tiyobíbo S. merry-go-round 307(21).

-tlò: tatlò three 24(18). 67.
  tatlò ng gabì: pagtatatlò-ng-gabì a three-nights' celebration
  tatlò ng pù`: pangatlò-ng-pù` number thirty 226(9).
  tatlò-tatlò three by three 224(1).
  pangatlò number three 226(8).
  ikatlò third 273(19).
  makáitlò makáyitlò three times 298(36).

trabahadùr S. laborer 82(25).

trabáho S. labor 30(26).
  trabáho-ng-kaniyunéro artilleryman's work 155(22).
  magtàtrabáho will work 138(30).
  nagtrabáho worked 90(14).
  pagtatrabáho a working 82(7).
  pinapagtàtrabáho is being caused to work 72(33).

trabúko, see búko.

trèn S. train 116(21).

Tsàng C. n. 263(4).

tsíko síko S. custard-apple, Achras sapota L. 34(40).

Tsína S. China 269(20).

tubà` sap 258(1).

túbig water 16(31).

túbo S. tube 255(20).

tubò sugar-cane 181(15).
  tubúhan cane-field 237(41). 259(18).

túbo` that grown; profit 189(24). 232(22).
  tumúbo` grew 16(12).
  tùtúbo` will grow 16(9).
  tinubúan was grown up in, was grown on 26(39). 204(10).
  katutúbo` inborn 38(13). 267(4).

-tud, see -tuwìd.

tugtòg that played, piece of music 186(21).
  tumugtòg play music 166(3).
  tumútugtòg is playing music 110(37).
  nagsísitugtòg pl. 110(32).
  mánunugtòg musician 112(3).
  tugtúgin music 247(22).
  tinùtugtugàn is being played for 48(30).
  tugtúgan piece of music by several performers 112(4).
  pagtutugtúgan a playing together 110(40).
  pagpapatugtòg a causing to be played 80(26).

túhod knee 48(19).

tukà` beak 230(2).
  tumukà` pick with the beak 230(2).
  pangpatukà` given to pick 301(8).

tuksò joke 195(39).

-tuktòk: tumuktòk knocked 78(26).
  tumútuktòk is knocking 155(37).
  pagtuktòk a knocking 78(27).
  itinuktòk was knocked 30(7).
  ituktòk top, ceiling 62(15). 118(21).

-túkop: tinúkop was covered with the hand 100(2).

tulà` connected 186(40).
  tulá-tulà` coherent 44(35).

-túlad: tuláran be limited 74(23).

túlak push 252(5).
  tumúlak pushed at; went away 230(3). 235(10).
  nagtúlak pushed 235(9).

tulày bridge 163(12).

-tulè: tutulè ear-wax 224(22).
  manghinulè clean the ears 241(30).

-túlin: magtúlin go fast 167(35).
  nagtùtúlin is hurrying 68(16).
  tinulínan speed 310(19).
  matúlin swift 18(8). 60(31).
  nàtúlin got faster 294(29).
  pinatúlin was caused to hurry 72(4).

túlis point 284(33).
  tulìs pointed 223(7).
  tulísan be sharpened 254(1).
  tulisàn bandit 120(1).
  matúlis pointed 271(12).

túlog sleep 220(8).
  tumúlog slept in 64(38).
  tumùtúlog sleeps in 64(37).
  pagtúlog a sleeping 230(7).
  tinùtulúgan is being slept in 62(39). 190(12).
  tulugàn sleeping-place 260(32).
  makitúlog sleep along with 122(14).
  matúlog go to sleep 64(5). 84(18).
  natúlog went to sleep 18(36). 38(20). 84(39).
  natùtúlog is asleep 18(38). 38(28). 62(9).
  matutulugìn sleepy-head 290(4).
  nakàtúlog happened to sleep in 290(36).
  màkatúlog chance to fall asleep 296(41).
  mangàkatúlog pl. 297(3).
  mangàkàkatúlog will fall asleep pl. 192(14).
  nàkatúlog fell asleep 296(37).
  nangàkàkatúlog are asleep 296(43).
  pagkàkatúlog a falling asleep 62(22).
  màtulúgan get slept in 84(17).
  patúlog-túlog sleeping by fits and starts 300(36).
  nagpatúlog caused to sleep 62(8).
  patulúgin be caused to sleep 305(3).
  pinatúlog was caused to sleep 36(18). 84(38).
  mapatúlog be able to be caused to sleep 64(2).

túlong help 32(39).
  tùtúlong will help 32(11).
  nagsìsitúlong are helping 114(2).
  tulúngan be assisted 234(19).
  pinagtùtulùng-tulúngan is being done by haphazard helping 106(29).
  pagtutulungàn a mutual assisting 237(4).
  ikatúlong be the means of helping 60(23).
  nakatúlong contributed 94(37).
  nakatùtúlong is contributing 112(11).
  napatùtúlong is asking to be helped 311(35).

-túlos: pagtutúlos an offering up 50(29).
  nàtùtúlos is set up 66(41).
  nagpatúlos caused to be set up 72(29).
  nàipatúlos was caused to be set up 80(26).

-túloy (a): itinúloy was gone on with 287(11).
  tinulúyan was staid with 116(35).
  tùlúyan place of lodging; see báhay.
  nakitúloy asked to stay with 148(31).
  patúloy caused to go on; going on 60(3). 70(34).
  pinatúloy was caused to stay on 84(38).
  ipatúloy be caused to go on, be continued 88(43).
  ipinatúloy was continued 20(41). 66(18). 84(3).
  ipinatùtúloy is being continued 108(20).
  --(b) With accent-shift: tulòy further 28(12). 34(8). 47. 231.
  nátulòy chanced to continue, got continued 207(31). 237(5). 240(18).
  papagtùtuluyìn will be caused to go on 88(14).
  ipinatulòy was caused to be gone on with 96(31). 307(6).
  ipinapatulòy was caused to be caused to be gone on with 307(12).

tumpàk correct 219(20).
  màtumpakàn get ascertained 70(32).

túnay true 66(7). 82(31).
  katunáyan truth, truly 30(15). 82(5). 265(6).
  pinatunáyan was caused to be realized 308(29).

-tuntòn: tùtuntunìn will be followed 34(14).
  tinuntòn was followed 34(21).
  palatuntúnin querulant 315(11).
  palàtuntúnan set of rules 315(26).

tóno S. tone 207(4).

tungkòl about, concerning 30(16). 52(25). 287. 288.
  tungkúlin concern, duty 96(40).
  katungkúlan duty, office 52(41). 110(32).

tungtòng a stand 221(31).
  tútuntóng will set foot on 70(26). 100(29).
  tinùtuntungàn is being stood on 100(25).
  makátuntòng-tuntòng ever set foot on 100(8).
  mátuntòng happen to stand on 68(4).

-túngo: tumúngo went toward 230(8).
  nagsitúngo pl. 282(30).
  katúngo person dealt with 266(25).
  kàtùtungúhan will turn out to be the place gone toward 279(20).
  nàkàkatúngo is being dealt with 68(14).
  patúngo towards 18(40). 20(3). 48(6). 285.
  pagpatúngo a going towards 120(7). 302(21).
  patùtungúhan will be headed for 90(43). 307(4).
  pinatùtungúhan is being headed for 72(6). 308(30).
  kapàpatungúhan will be the place headed for 26(33). 310(28).
  napatúngo went toward 102(42).

-tungò: itinungò was bent over 74(16).

túpa sheep 112(40).

-tupàd: pagtupàd a fulfilling 96(39).
  pagkatupàd a having fulfilled 233(35).

Tùrkos S. Turks 260(10).

torníliyo S. screw 92(38).

túro` that pointed out, a teaching 186(32). 221(32).
  turò` extended, stiff 223(8).
  panúro` pointer 225(27).
  magtúro` teach 232(36).
  nagtùtúro` is teaching 232(38).
  pagtutúro` a teaching 88(14).
  nagtúturò` is pointing out variously 238(14).
  panunúro` a pointing things out 240(39).
  itúro` be pointed out, be shown 182(43). 249(2).
  katuruàn one of two who point at each other 278(25).
  màitúro` get taught 90(1).
  hintutúro` forefinger 42(14).

turumpò S. spinning-top 227(6).

túta` puppy 244(40).

túto perception, care 166(36).
  màtúto get educated 168(14).
  nàtúto got taught 178(4).
  màtutúhan get learned 196(35).
  nàtutúhan got learned 28(2). 50(24).

tutubè dragon-fly 291(28).

totoò true 104(23). 116(2).
  tòtohánan actuality 94(21). 259(16).
  katotohánan truth 26(5). 68(32).
  nagpatotoò testified, affirmed 303(42).
  pagpapatotoò a testifying 304(3).
  pinapagpatotoò was caused to testify 305(40).
  tagapagpatotoò witness 20(13).

toòd stump 16(23).

tuòs care 46(29).

tuwà` joy, gladness 46(5). 76(41). glad 80(15).
  ikinatuwà` was the cause of joy 26(25).
  ikinatútuwà` is the cause of being glad 272(26).
  kàtwáan a rejoicing together 120(25).
  magkàtwáan rejoice together 280(11).
  nagkàkàtwáan are rejoicing together 120(26).
  nakatútuwà` causes pleasure 280(40).
  natuwà` became glad 24(27).
  nangatuwà` pl. 34(23).
  màkatuwaàn happen to be liked 40(39). 298(28).
  palatwáin easily pleased 315(13).

tuwì` every time, whenever 58(3). 60(40). 244. 300. 307. 317(5).

-tuwìd: pagtutuwìd a reckoning 232(39).
  katuwíran the right 56(7). 100(38). 257(14).
  katuturàn right outcome 76(21).
  makatuwìd have figured out; consequence 56(15).
  matuwìd correct 44(26). 50(14).

túyot drought 191(32).

U (O).

o S? or 16(25). 45. 321.

ò oh 76(34). 80(12). 151(15).

ó, see óo.

-ubrà (S.): umbrà took effect, was suitable 230(11).
  pagubrà a taking effect 108(35).
  magúubrà will suit 235(11).

úbos exhaustion
  úbos-lakàs exhaustion of strength 18(39). 22(16).
  úbos-làkásan exhaustion of strength by several 96(29).
  ipinagúbos-làkásan was done with exhaustion of strength 250(4).
  inùúbos is being used up 112(9).
  iniyúbos was expended 283(41).
  nakaùúbos is able to use up 112(40).
  naúbos was used up 312(29).
  naubúsan was exhausted of 32(19).

ugáli` habit 96(26).
  inugáli` was made a habit 36(25).
  kaugáli` accordant in habits 266(27).
  kaugaliàn custom 38(10). 112(22).

ugàt root, artery 218(32). 290(12).

úhaw thirst 280(38).
  naùúhaw is thirsty 285(25).

úkol with regard to, for 42(15). 50(28). 288.

úlam that eaten along with one's rice 72(34).

ulàn rain 110(14).
  umulàn rained 177(16).
  umúulàn is raining 152(16).
  úulàn will rain 168(34).
  pagulàn a raining 110(21).
  maulàn rainy 110(21).
  nagpápaulàn causes rain 110(15).
  tagulàn rainy season 202(18).

ulè` again 24(11). 47. 232. See sa.
  úulè` will do it again 44(12).

olíva S. olive 90(28).

úling charcoal 70(32).

-úlit: paguúlit-úlit a manifold repeating 86(10).
  inúlit was repeated 50(28).
  maúlit stubborn 24(14).

úlo head 22(10). 26(4). See básag.
  uluhàn head-end 72(3).

ulòl foolish, crazy 16(1).
  kaululàn foolishness 98(23).
  kaùlúlan one of two who fool each other 278(3).
  pagkaulòl insanity 254(29).

umága, see -ága.

-umìt: pangungumìt panguumìt petty thievery 156(3). 310(6).
  inumìt was filched 293(28).

-umpisà: magumpisà begin 18(31). 32(16).
  nagumpisà began 16(26). 20(29).
  paguumpisà a beginning 26(35). 96(15).
  umpisahàn be begun 48(4).
  inumpisahàn was begun 26(19). 50(21).
  inùumpisahàn is being begun 48(37).

-umpòg: nagkákaumpòg-umpòg is getting repeated bumps 62(19).

-umpòk: umpúkan assemblage for talking 38(7).

úna (a) first 24(15). 38(21). 273(21).
  pangúna number one 225(39).
  mangùngúna will take the lead 240(40).
  nangúna took the lead 240(40).
  inúna was taken first 42(31).
  pagkaúna a having got ahead 283(12).
  --(b) With accent-shift: nagunà-unà competed for the first place
  kàunà-unáhan very first 280(16).
  náunà got ahead 64(8).
  nàùunà is ahead 88(24).
  pagkáunà a getting ahead 18(34).
  nagpáunà got himself into the first place 304(24).
  nagpáunà-unà got himself too far ahead 304(27).

únan pillow 260(6).

-únat: naúnat has been straightened 284(21).
  nàúnat got straightened 24(26).

untì` short 219(21).
  untì-untì` little by little 76(12). 78(9).
  umuntì` grew less 28(30).
  untiàn be lessened 254(2).
  kauntì` something small, a bit 48(32). 60(16).
  kayuntì` what fewness 267(36).
  kákauntì` only few 267(8).
  pauntiìn be caused to be few, be reduced 98(7).

ungàs stupid 22(21).

unggò` monkey 16(1).
  nagùunggù-unggúan is playing monkey 237(11).

úpa pay 56(3). 72(33).
  ùúpa will pay 88(12).
  umùúpa hires 48(29).
  ùupáhan will be paid 34(6).
  upahàn hired 114(1.23).

úpang in order to, so that 16(22). 18(16). 308.

ópera S. opera; see sàmáhan.

úpo a vegetable, Lagenaria vulgaris Seringe 76(16).

upò` sit; a sitting 220(9). 222(7).
  pangupò` used for sitting 225(28).
  umupò` sit 184(23). sat 230(15).
  pagupò` a sitting 230(16).
  nagupò` seated 235(12).
  nagúuupò` sits variously 239(2).
  paguupò` a sitting variously 181(30).
  nangupò` mischievously sat down on 240(41).
  panguupò` a mischievous sitting on 240(42).
  ùupàn will be sat on 254(4).
  inùupàn is being sat on 32(5).
  ùpúan a sitting together 258(9). seat 24(39). 283(9).
  uupàn chair 180(29).
  kaùpúan one of two who sit together 278(4).
  kinàùupàn happens to be the place of sitting 223(16).
  nakaupò` is seated 281(19).
  nangákaupò` pl. 286(11).
  nangàkàkaupò` are able to sit 286(14).
  maupò` sit down 184(24).
  maúupò` will sit down 192(39).
  naupò` sat down 24(39).
  naúupò` is (in the act of) sitting down 204(26).
  pagkaupò` a sitting down 286(4).
  náupò` happened to sit down 202(1).
  nàùupò` is sitting 30(29). 96(22).
  pagkáupò` a chance sitting 277(24).
  paupò` that caused to sit 174(29). 249(35). in sitting position
  nagpaupò` caused to sit 304(4).
  pagpapaupò` a causing to sit 304(5).
  pinaupò` was caused to sit 305(4).
  nápaupò` involuntarily sat down 198(24).
  nápatiupò` fell into sitting position 313(39).
  nàpàpatiupò` falls on his seat 313(40).

úpos cigar-butt 205(21).

óras S. hour 42(4). 48(26). See kalaháti`.
  orásan be done promptly 254(5).
  orasàn watch, clock 248(14).

orasiyòn S. prayer 104(14).

-úrong: umùúrong is going backwards 230(18).
  nangagsiúrong retreated, pl. 262(30).
  pauròng backwards 299(34).
  papauròng backwards continually 300(40).

usà deer 18(1).
  nagusà-usáhan played deer 237(12).

úsap law-suit 199(33).
  paguúsap a conversing 70(19).
  pagusápan be discussed 102(5).
  pinagusápan was discussed 28(2).
  pinagùusápan is being discussed 30(29).
  makipagúsap converse with 28(14).
  nakìkipagúsap is entering into conversation with 74(30).
  pakikipagúsap an engaging in conversation with 80(38).
  kaúsap person conversed with 102(32).
  kumàkaúsap is talking at 268(19).
  kausápin be conversed with 44(2). 70(21).
  kinaúsap was addressed 70(24).
  makaúsap be able to converse 68(20).
  màkaúsap get conversed with 70(14).
  nàkaúsap got conversed with 44(26). 78(17).

usbòng edible shoot 253(2). 256(13).

usísa` that inquired about 221(34).
  nagusísa` made inquiry 76(1).
  nangusísa` interrogated 241(3).
  usisáin be asked about; be interrogated 76(14). 98(13). 290(26).
  inusísa` was questioned 76(28).
  pinagusisà` was variously questioned 76(5).
  nausísa` has been questioned 284(23).
  naùusísa` has just been questioned 76(22).
  mapagusísa` inquisitive 60(19).
  nakàusísa` happen to inquire 290(39).
  nàusísa` got inquired for 293(28).

úso S. fashion 287(7).

útang debt 54(12). 76(2). See báyad.
  umútang borrow 230(19).
  magutàng borrow variously 238(15).
  maguutàng habitual borrower 243(3).
  nangútang borrowed 241(4).
  mángungutàng habitual borrower 243(20).
  inútang was borrowed 245(24).
  pinangútang was (reluctantly) borrowed 247(4).
  utángan be borrowed from 254(6).
  magpaútang cause to be borrowed, lend 304(8).

-utàs: nautàs was completed 303(18).

útos a command 56(27). 122(5).
  nagútos commanded 232(41).
  nagùútos is commanding 114(7).
  iyútos be commanded 62(37). 64(13).
  iniyútos was commanded 24(37). 26(18). 106(17).
  ipinagútos was given as an order 182(19). 249(40).
  inutúsan was given an order 92(12).
  utusàn servant, waiter, orderly 254(34). 260(34).
  kautusàn decree, law 54(4).

óo ó yes 26(2). 44(18).
  oóhan be answered affirmatively 254(7).
  napaóo assented 312(6).

uwalà`, see walà`.

uwè` a going home; that taken home 114(26). 221(35).
  umuwè` go home 34(12). 76(43). went home 50(36). 52(35).
  úuwè` will go home 287(20).
  nagsísiuwè` are going home 72(35).
  paguwè` a going home 70(23).
  naguwían went home together 26(37).
  pauwè` that caused to go home 298(23). homeward 34(14).
  nagpauwè` caused to be taken home, sent home 304(9).
  ipinauwè` was caused to be taken home, was sent home 304(10).


walà` without, not having; there is not
16(10). 20(21). 69. 99. 110. 239. 248.
  walà ng hiyà`: kawalà-ng-hiyaàn shamelessness 277(10).
  nápakawalà-ng-hiyà` most impudent 98(27).
  pagwawalà` a breaking away 232(42).
  iwalà` be got rid of 249(3).
  kawalà` partaking of freedom 196(27).
  magkawalà` get away 44(6).
  nagkawalà` got away 44(10).
  nagkákawalà` is getting away 58(31).
  ikinawalà` was the cause of being without 292(6).
  ipagkawalà` be the cause of getting away 272(38).
  ipagkákawalà` will be the cause of getting away 272(41).
  ipinagkawalà` was the cause of getting away 273(1).
  ipinagkákawalà` is the cause of getting away 273(2).
  kawàwalàn will be the place of losing 206(17).
  kawalàn lack, absence 46(16). 118(1).
  makawalà` be able to get away 44(40).
  makawáwalà` will be able to get away 294(1).
  nakawalà` succeeded in getting away 46(31). 86(12).
  mawáwalà` will disappear 46(2).
  nawalà` disappeared 64(33). 82(10).
  nawáwalà` is disappearing 40(16). 76(13).
  pagkawalà` a disappearing 298(17).
  nawalàn has been deprived of 70(8). 82(30).
  pawalàn be allowed to get away 44(12).
  pinawalàn was allowed to get away 44(8).
  magpakawalà` get oneself away 106(23).
  pinakawalàn was allowed to get loose 66(28). 310(26).

walìs broom 315(22).
  nagwáwalìs is sweeping 233(2).
  wináwalìs niwáwalìs is being swept away 245(26).
  niwalisàn was swept 94(7).
  niwàwalisàn is being swept 254(8).

walò eight 52(43). 67.
  pangwalò number eight 225(38).

wapélo C. exclamation of distress 58(38).

wíka` language, word, words 20(5). 28(3). 74(39).
  nagwíka` spoke 20(20).
  winíka` was spoken 18(42).
  kawikaàn proverb 276(15).
  pagkawíka` a having spoken 20(40).

-wíli: nàwíli got spellbound 88(2).
  pagkàwíli a getting spellbound 295(26).

-wisìk: iniwisìk was sprinkled 96(27).
  niwisikàn was sprinkled on 64(30).
  nàwisikàn got sprinkled on 76(38).


-yábang: kayabángan pride 272(2) Corrigenda.
  mayábang proud 60(15).
  nagmayabàng boasted 238(21).
  ipinagmayabàng was boasted of 60(17).
  nagpakamayabàng boasted of himself 309(29).

-yábong: mayábong grassy 18(33).

yáman wealth 72(22). 80(25).
  yumáman get rich 60(25). got rich 74(9).
  pagyáman a getting rich 120(27).
  kayamánan wealth 308(16).
  mayáman wealthy 72(19).
  payamánin be caused to get rich 50(34).

yámang while 16(12). 18(33). 309.

yàn, see iyàn.

yantòk rattan 46(40).

Yap C. n. 234(25).

-yári: mangyári happen 54(29). 66(22).
  mangyàyári will happen 18(11). 52(20).
  nangyári happened 24(27). 46(19).
  nangyàyári happens 40(30). 44(20).
  kapangyaríhan power 36(10). 40(4).

yári` that made; the make 74(4). 220(10). 221(37).
  mayári` have been made 104(11).
  nayàyári` is made 34(36). 46(40).

yaòn, see iyòn.

-yáya`: yumáya` invited 230(21).
  pagyáya` an inviting 230(22).
  nagyayà` urged 28(11). 34(12).
  niyáya` was invited, summoned 32(13). 36(42).

Yèng C. n. 263(4).

yéro S. iron 92(35).

yitò ytò, see itò.--yò, see iyò.

-yukayòk: nagsísipagyukayòk are nodding 108(30).

yòn, see iyòn.

Yurúpa, see Eyurúpa.

yúta` billion 134.

yoòn, see iyòn.


The following errors are due entirely to oversights on my part;
they would have been far more numerous, but for the accuracy and
intelligence of the typesetter, Mr. Staley, and the unfailing kindness
of the editor, Professor W. A. Oldfather.--L. B.

[Transcriber's Note: The indicated errors have been corrected in the
text of this edition, except for the one referring to 212(25), as the
instruction is not clear enough, and 322(42), as the location could
not be found.]


PAGE   LINE   FOR               READ

  20     16   mákinig           makinìg
  22      2   nabuksan          nábuksan
  24     31   n                 ng
  32      1   namámatay         mamámatay
  38     11   galían            galiàn
  40     39   pagbibíro`        pangbibíro`
  42      6   katimbà`          katimbàng
  42     39   tiningnan         tinangnan
  44      2   sumagòt           sumásagòt
  44     40   nagsisigáw        nagsisigàw
  46     24   ngà               ngá
  48     20   pagbabalìk        pagpapabalìk
  60     38   nagbibigay        nagbíbigay
  62      5   syà               nyà
  68     13   siniglan          siniglàn
  72     12   hyà               hyà`
  74     40   a                 o
  84     21   pinagdagukàn      pinagdadagukàn
  92      6   mámatày           mamámatày
  94     29   inapúyan          inapuyàn
  96     29   maínit            maiínit
  98      2   magbíbinyàg       nagbíbinyàg
  98     39   Masakìp           Masikìp
  99     25   giving            given
 100     15   ipabíbilannggò`   ipabíbilanggò`
 108     42   pirásu ng lamàn   pirásu-ng-lamàn
 114     10   pagtadtàd         pagtatadtàd



 190      2   Add: si nasíra ng Mariyà the deceased Maria.
 210     30   Add example: pilìk-matà eyelash (pilìk fin, lash), and at
              211(13) omit pilìk.
 212     25   Omit: bagáso etc.; the word may be S. bagazo sediment.
 212     37   Add: hantày hintày.
 215     41   Omit: lákad.
 223     17   The example of lakàd should be transferred to 222(38).
 223     25   Binyàk etc.; transfer to 244(7).
 244      2   Add: (ang áyap condiment).
 244      4   Add example: Ang gúlok na yàn ay bàbawíin ko sa iyò,
              kapag ipinamútol mo nang kawáyan. I shall take back this
              bolo from you, if you use it for cutting bamboo.
 244      7   See on 223(25).
 245     39   Add: sagòt.
 249      8   Add: lalà`.
 259     35   Add example: ang tìpúnan a meeting; and omit típon in
              next line.
 261     10   Add example: Ang asuhàn nang báhay ni Pédro ay nasúnog.
              The chimney in Pedro's house burned out; and omit asò
              from line 16.
 261     24   Add example: luluràn shin.
 267     18   Add: So gísing, káin.
 277      2   Add example: kayabángan pride; and omit yábang, line 8.
 277      7   Add: salúkoy.
 286     30   Add example: Pagkaabòt nang bátà nang kanyà ng laruwàn ay
              tumakbò sya ng agàd. After reaching for his toys, the boy
              at once ran. Omit the words: see ábot.
 294     33   Omit: ibadyà.
 295     30   Add example: Sya y nárapà`. He fell on his face.
 296     19   Omit: ábot, and add example: Ang pagkáabot nyà sa bóte ay
              hindi magálang. The way he reached for the bottle was not
 297     29   Add: badiyà.
 299     27   For pahágis read pahagìs, and transfer the example to
 300     14   See preceding.
 313      3   Add: With makà- D (§ 473) from -paríto: Hwag kà ng
              makàparí-paríto. Don't you ever come round here!
 315     31   Add: With accent-shift: taginìt the hot season.
 322     42   Add reference: 28(7).


[1] An English translation by Charles Derbyshire was published in
1912 by the Philippine Education Company in Manila and the World Book
Company in New York, under the title "The Social Cancer".

[2] The entire syntax and much of the morphology, especially whatever
relates to the accent-shifts in word-formation, will be found to be
new. I have of course refrained from any and all historical surmises
beyond the indication of unassimilated loan-words. The system of
transcription used is, with a few deviations, that of the International
Phonetic Association.

[3] They were accessible to me chiefly through the courtesy of the
Newberry Library in Chicago.

[4] I owe this and the following statements about the degree of
pitch-rise to the kindness of Dr. C. Ruckmich of the Department of
Psychology of the University of Illinois.

[5] It might perhaps be more correct not to include such cases under
the term attribution (as will be done in the following analysis),
but to set up instead an additional syntactic type of "exocentric

[6] In the proverbial expression at 16,18, balàt skin, skins is used
as an object expression without ang, contrary to the normal habit.

[7] Although grammatical terms are necessarily and properly employed in
different meanings when referring to different languages, the Tagalog
constructions in question are so different from what is ordinarily
understood by "cases" that the above terminology has been avoided in
the following discussion.

[8] At 16, 2 hábang, instead of standing at the beginning of its
clause, follows the subject, taking the place of ay. I take it
that this sentence has been handed down in this form from an older
generation of speakers. Cf. § 316.

[9] Once, at 16, 18, at is used concessively, even though, and is
placed not at the beginning of its phrase, but after the subject,
where ay would normally stand. The sentence is no doubt traditional;
it has currency as a proverb. See § 68 and cf. § 292.

[10] Cf. Kern's derivation of linggò from Spanish domingo, felt as
containing infix -um- (Sanskritsche woorden).

[11] Where S. words are, as genuine loan-words, more or less fully
Tagalized, the S. is enclosed in brackets. In cases where Mr. Santiago
is not conscious of this origin, it would have been more consistent
to omit the indication, but it would be very difficult to single
these out.

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