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Title: Eutropius
Author: Eutropius, Flavius
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Eutropius" ***

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Internet Archive/American Libraries.)



Transcriber’s Note:

Pronunciation markers in the Latin are inconsistent. No attempt has
been made to standardize them.

The Notes refer to the body of the text by page, chapter and line
number. In this e-text, page numbers are given in the left margin,
chapter numbers at the start of paragraphs, and line numbers in the
right margin.

=Word= indicates bold text. The equals sign is given as =.



                               EUTROPIUS

                        _EDITED FOR SCHOOL USE_
                                  BY
                         J. C. HAZZARD, PH.D.
                 PROFESSOR OF LATIN, PORTLAND ACADEMY

                            [Illustration]

                  NEW YORK ·:· CINCINNATI ·:· CHICAGO
                         AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY



                                  To
                REV. JACOB COOPER, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D.
                        WITH GRATEFUL AFFECTION

                          COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY
                        AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

                              EUTROPIUS.
                                W. P. I



PREFACE


The _Breviarium_ of Eutropius has for many years been used successfully
in German schools, but, though an American edition was published in
the early part of this century, the author has of late years received
little attention in this country. Yet in character and subject the
_Breviarium_ is admirably adapted for elementary work. While the _Viri
Romae_ deals only with the early history of Rome and the lives of a few
great men of the republican age, the _Breviarium_ gives an outline of
the history of Rome from the founding of the city to the death of the
Emperor Jovian in 364 A.D., and is thus in subject closely related to
the Latin course. The Latin is good, remarkably so for the time of its
composition, and is not so difficult as that of Nepos or of parts of
the _Viri Romae_.

In editing the text the beginner has constantly been had in mind,
and so references to the standard Latin Grammars have been added
more copiously than some will consider judicious. It has been found,
however, by experience in the classroom, that a reference to the
grammar when carefully studied is worth far more than a translation of
a difficult passage or comment upon it. The grammatical references are
placed at the bottom of the page where they belong. In the Notes, which
are principally historical and geographical, the editor has tried to
aid the student in mastering the difficulties that occur rather than
to do his work for him. The references to the histories are intended
rather for the teacher than for the pupil. If a few minutes can be
spent every day in reading to the class the portions referred to,
the time will not be wasted, and it will fill in the outline of the
history that the text contains. It is strongly urged that each student
should be provided with a copy of some good outline of Roman History
(Creighton’s Primer is admirable), and follow the text in it from day
to day. In this way a knowledge of the principal facts of Roman History
may be obtained with but slight conscious effort on the part of the
student.

In the analyses of the books and the chapters the accepted dates have
been given, indicating where Eutropius is mistaken in his chronology.
In marking the quantities of the long vowels, Lewis, in his _Elementary
Latin Dictionary_, has been followed, except where later authorities
differ from him.

The editor desires to acknowledge his obligation to Rev. J. R. Wilson,
D.D., Principal of Portland Academy, for advice and assistance, and to
Professors Arrowsmith and Whicher, for permission to use material from
their _First Latin Readings_.

The Grammars cited are Harkness’ Standard Latin Grammar (H.), Mooney
(M.), Allen and Greenough (A. & G.), Gildersleeve (G.), and Bennett
(B.). References to Harkness’ new Latin Grammars (1898) will be found
on p. 242.

                                                           J. C. H.

      PORTLAND, OREGON,
      June, 1898.



CONTENTS


                                  PAGE

                    TEXT

      BOOK I                         7

      BOOK II                       16

      BOOK III                      27

      BOOK IV                       36

      BOOK V                        46

      BOOK VI                       51

      BOOK VII                      62

      BOOK VIII                     73

      BOOK IX                       83

      BOOK X                        94

      BIBLIOGRAPHY                 104

                    NOTES

      LIFE OF EUTROPIUS            105

      BOOK I                       105

      BOOK II                      114

      BOOK III                     121

      BOOK IV                      129

      BOOK V                       136

      BOOK VI                      140

      BOOK VII                     147

      BOOK VIII                    153

      BOOK IX                      158

      BOOK X                       160

      VOCABULARY                   164



[Illustration]



    7 EUTROPĪ

      BREVIĀRIĪ AB URBE CONDITĀ



      LIBER PRĪMUS

      FROM THE FOUNDING OF ROME TO THE CAPTURE OF THE CITY BY THE
      GAULS, 753-390 B.C. THE REGAL PERIOD, 753-509 B.C.


      _Rome Founded, 753 B.C. Romulus, 753-716 B.C._

      =1.= Rōmānum imperium ā Rōmulō exōrdium habet, quī
      Rhēae Silviae, Vestālis virginis, fīlius et, quantum putātus
      est, Mārtis, cum Remō frātre ūnō partū ēditus est. Is cum
      inter pāstōrēs latrōcinārētur,[1] decem et octō annōs[2] nātus
      urbem exiguam in Palātīnō monte cōnstituit, XI Kal. Māiās,          5
      Olympiadis sextae annō tertiō, post Trōiae excidium, annō
      trecentēsimō nōnāgēsimō quārtō.

      =2.= Conditā cīvitāte,[3] quam ex nōmine suō Rōmam vocāvit,
      haec ferē ēgit. Multitūdinem fīnitimōrum in cīvitātem
      recēpit, centum ex seniōribus[4] lēgit, quōrum cōnsiliō omnia      10
      ageret,[5] quōs senātōrēs nōmināvit propter senectūtem. Tum,
      cum uxōrēs ipse et populus suus nōn habērent,[6] invītāvit
      ad spectāculum lūdōrum vīcīnās urbī Rōmae nātiōnēs atque
    8 eārum virginēs rapuit. Commōtīs bellīs propter raptārum
      iniūriam Caenīnēnsēs vīcit, Antemnātēs, Crustumīnōs, Sabīnōs,
      Fīdēnātēs, Vēientēs. Haec omnia oppida urbem cingunt.
      Et cum ortā subitō tempestāte nōn compāruisset,
      annō rēgnī trīcēsimō septimō ad deōs trānsīsse crēditus est         5
      et cōnsecrātus. Deinde Rōmae[7] per quīnōs diēs senātōrēs
      imperāvērunt et hīs rēgnantibus annus ūnus complētus est.


      _Numa Pompilius, 715-672 B.C._

      =3.= Posteā Numa Pompilius rēx creātus est, quī bellum
      quidem nūllum gessit, sed nōn minus cīvitātī[8] quam Rōmulus
      prōfuit. Nam et lēgēs Rōmānīs mōrēsque cōnstituit, quī             10
      cōnsuētūdine proeliōrum iam latrōnēs ac sēmibarbarī putābantur,
      et annum dēscrīpsit in decem mēnsēs prius sine
      aliquā supputātiōne cōnfūsum, et īnfīnīta Rōmae sacra ac
      templa cōnstituit. Morbō dēcessit quadrāgēsimō et tertiō
      imperiī annō.      15


      _Tullus Hostilius, 672-640 B.C._

      =4.= Huic successit Tullus Hostīlius. Hīc bella reparāvit,
      Albānōs vīcit, quī ab urbe Rōmā duodecimō mīliārio[9] sunt,
      Vēientēs et Fīdēnātēs, quōrum aliī sextō mīliāriō absunt
      ab urbe Rōmā, aliī octāvō decimō, bellō superāvit, urbem
      ampliāvit adiectō Caeliō monte. Cum trīgintā et duōs annōs         20
      rēgnāsset,[10] fulmine ictus cum domō suā ārsit.


      _Ancus Marcius, 640-616 B.C._

      =5.= Post hunc Ancus Mārcius, Numae ex fīliā nepōs, suscēpit
      imperium. Contrā Latīnōs dīmicāvit, Aventīnum montem
    9 cīvitātī adiēcit et Iāniculum, apud ōstium Tiberis cīvitātem
      suprā mare sextō decimō mīliāriō ab urbe Rōmā condidit.
      Vīcēsimō et quārtō annō imperiī morbō periit.


      _Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, 616-578 B.C._

      =6.= Deinde rēgnum Prīscus Tarquinius accēpit. Hīc numerum
      senātōrum duplicāvit, circum Rōmae aedificāvit, lūdōs               5
      Rōmānōs īnstituit, quī ad nostram memoriam permanent.
      Vīcit īdem etiam Sabīnōs et nōn parum agrōrum sublātum
      īsdem urbis Rōmae territōriō iūnxit, prīmusque triumphāns
      urbem intrāvit. Mūrōs fēcit et cloācās, Capitōlium incohāvit.
      Trīcēsimō octāvō imperiī annō per Ancī fīliōs occīsus              10
      est, rēgis ēius, cuī ipse successerat.


      _Servius Tullius, 578-534 B.C._

      =7.= Post hunc Servius Tullius suscēpit imperium, genitus
      ex nōbilī fēminā, captīvā tamen et ancillā. Hīc quoque
      Sabīnōs subēgit, montēs trēs, Quirīnālem, Vīminālem, Ēsquilīnum,
      urbī adiūnxit, fossās circum mūrum dūxit. Prīmus                   15
      omnium cēnsum ōrdināvit, quī adhūc per orbem terrārum
      incognitus erat. Sub eō Rōma omnibus in cēnsum dēlātīs
      habuit capita LXXXIII mīlia cīvium Rōmānōrum cum hīs,
      quī in agrīs erant. Occīsus est scelere generī suī Tarquinī
      Superbī, fīliī ēius rēgis cuī ipse successerat, et fīliae quam     20
      Tarquinius habēbat uxōrem.


      _Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, 534-510 B.C._

      =8.= L. Tarquinius Superbus, septimus atque ultimus rēgum,[11]
      Volscōs, quae gēns ad Campāniam euntibus[12] nōn longē ab
      urbe est, vīcit, Gabiōs cīvitātem et Suessam Pōmētiam
   10 subēgit, cum Tuscīs pācem fēcit et templum Iovī in Capitōliō
      aedificāvit. Posteā Ardeam oppūgnāns, in octāvō
      decimō mīliāriō ab urbe Rōmā positam cīvitātem, imperium
      perdidit. Nam cum fīlius ēius, et ipse Tarquinius iūnior,
      nōbilissimam fēminam Lucrētiam eandemque pudīcissimam,              5
      Collātīnī uxōrem, stuprāsset eaque dē iniūriā marītō et patrī
      et amīcīs questa fuisset, in omnium cōnspectū sē occīdit.
      Propter quam causam Brūtus, parēns et ipse Tarquinī,
      populum concitāvit et Tarquiniō[13] adēmit imperium. Mox
      exercitus quoque eum, quī cīvitātem Ardeam cum ipsō rēge           10
      oppūgnābat, relīquit; veniēnsque ad urbem rēx portīs clausīs
      exclūsus est, cumque imperāsset annōs quattuor et vīgintī
      cum uxōre et līberīs suīs fūgit. Ita Rōmae rēgnātum est
      per septem rēgēs annīs ducentīs quadrāgintā tribus, cum
      adhūc Rōma, ubi plūrimum, vix ūsque ad quīntum decimum             15
      mīliārium possidēret.


      _Establishment of the Republic. Election of Consuls, 509 B.C._

      =9.= Hinc cōnsulēs coepēre, prō ūnō rēge duo, hāc causā
      creātī, ut, sī ūnus malus esse voluisset,[14] alter eum habēns
      potestātem similem coërcēret.[15] Et placuit nē imperium
      longius quam annuum habērent,[16] nē per diūturnitātem potestātis  20
      īnsolentiōrēs redderentur, sed cīvīlēs semper essent,
      quī sē post annum scīrent futūrōs esse prīvātōs. Fuērunt
      igitur annō prīmō ab expulsīs rēgibus cōnsulēs L. Iūnius
      Brūtus, quī māximē ēgerat ut Tarquinius pellerētur, et Tarquinius
      Collātīnus, marītus Lucrētiae. Sed Tarquiniō Collātīnō             25
      statim sublāta est dīgnitās. Placuerat enim nē quisquam
   11 in urbe manēret quī Tarquinius vocārētur. Ergō acceptō
      omnī patrimōniō suō ex urbe migrāvit et locō ipsīus factus
      est L. Valerius Pūblicola cōnsul.


      _War with Tarquinius._

      =10.= Commōvit tamen bellum urbī Rōmae rēx Tarquinius,
      quī fuerat expulsus, et, conlēctīs multīs gentibus, ut in rēgnum    5
      posset restituī dīmicāvit. In prīmā pūgnā Brūtus cōnsul
      et Ārūns, Tarquinī fīlius, in vicem sē occīdērunt, Rōmānī
      tamen ex eā pūgnā vīctōrēs recessērunt. Brūtum mātrōnae
      Rōmānae, dēfēnsōrem pudīcitiae suae, quasi commūnem
      patrem per annum lūxērunt. Valerius Pūblicola Sp. Lucrētium        10
      Tricipitīnum conlēgam sibi fēcit, Lucrētiae patrem, quō
      morbō mortuō iterum Horātium Pulvillum conlēgam sibi
      sūmpsit. Ita prīmus annus quīnque cōnsulēs habuit, cum
      Tarquinius Collātīnus propter nōmen urbe[17] cessisset, Brūtus
      in proeliō perīsset, Sp. Lucrētius morbō mortuus esset.            15


      _War with Porsenna, 508 B.C._

      =11.= Secundō quoque annō iterum Tarquinius ut reciperētur
      in rēgnum bellum Rōmānīs intulit, auxilium eī ferente
      Porsennā, Tusciae rēge, et Rōmam paene cēpit. Vērum
      tum quoque victus est.

      Tertiō annō post rēgēs exāctōs Tarquinius cum suscipī              20
      nōn posset in rēgnum neque eī Porsenna, quī pācem cum
      Rōmānīs fēcerat, praestāret auxilium, Tusculum[18] sē contulit,
      quae cīvitās nōn longē ab urbe est, atque ibi per quattuordecim
      annōs prīvātus cum uxōre cōnsenuit.

      Quārtō annō post rēgēs exāctōs, cum Sabīnī Rōmānīs                 25
      bellum intulissent, victī sunt, et dē hīs triumphātum est.

   12 Quīntō annō L. Valerius ille,[19] Brūtī conlēga et quater
      cōnsul, fātāliter mortuus est, adeō pauper ut conlātīs ā populō
      nummīs sūmptum habuerit[20] sepultūrae. Quem mātrōnae
      sīcutī Brūtum annum lūxērunt.


      _Institution of the Dictatorship, 501 B.C._

      =12.= Nōnō annō post rēgēs exāctōs cum gener Tarquinī               5
      ad iniūriam socerī[21] vindicandam[22] ingentem conlēgisset
      exercitum, nova Rōmae dīgnitās est creāta, quae dictātūra
      appellātur, māior quam cōnsulātus. Eōdem annō etiam magister
      equitum factus est, quī dictātōrī obsequerētur. Neque quicquam
      similius potest dīcī quam dictātūra antīqua huic                   10
      imperiī potestātī, quam nunc Tranquillitās Vestra habet,
      māximē cum Augustus quoque Octāviānus, dē quō posteā
      dīcēmus, et ante eum C. Caesar sub dictātūrae nōmine atque
      honōre rēgnāverint. Dictātor autem Rōmae prīmus fuit
      T. Larcius, magister equitum prīmus Sp. Cassius.                   15


      _Secession of the Plebeians. Establishment of the Tribunate,
      494 B.C._

      =13.= Sextō decimō annō post rēgēs exāctōs sēditiōnem
      populus Rōmae fēcit, tamquam ā senātū atque cōnsulibus
      premerētur. Tum et ipse sibi tribūnōs plēbis quasi propriōs
      iūdicēs et dēfēnsōrēs creāvit, per quōs contrā senātum et
      cōnsulēs tūtus esse posset.                                        20


   13 _War with the Volsci, 493 B.C._

      =14.= Sequentī annō Volscī contrā Rōmānōs bellum reparāvērunt,
      et victī aciē etiam Coriolōs cīvitātem, quam habēbant
      optimam, perdidērunt.


      _Coriolanus, 491 B.C._

      =15.= Octāvō decimō annō postquam rēgēs ēiectī erant expulsus
      ex urbe Q. Mārcius, dux Rōmānus, quī Coriolōs cēperat,              5
      Volscōrum cīvitātem, ad ipsōs Volscōs contendit īrātus et
      auxilia contrā Rōmānōs accēpit. Rōmānōs saepe vīcit, ūsque
      ad quīntum mīliārium urbis accessit, oppūgnātūrus[23] etiam
      patriam suam, lēgātīs quī pācem petēbant repudiātīs, nisi
      ad eum māter Veturia et uxor Volumnia ex urbe vēnissent,[24]       10
      quārum flētū et dēprecātiōne superātus remōvit exercitum.
      Atque hīc secundus post Tarquinium fuit quī dux contrā
      patriam suam esset.


      _Slaughter of the Fabii, 477 B.C._

      =16.= C. Fabiō et L. Virgīniō cōnsulibus trecentī nōbilēs
      hominēs, quī ex Fabiā familiā erant, contrā Vēientēs bellum        15
      sōlī suscēpērunt, prōmittentēs senātuī et populō per sē omne
      certāmen implendum. Itaque profectī, omnēs nōbilēs et
      quī singulī māgnōrum exercituum ducēs esse dēbērent, in
      proeliō concidērunt. Ūnus omnīnō superfuit ex tantā familiā,
      quī propter aetātem puerīlem dūcī nōn potuerat ad                  20
      pūgnam. Post haec cēnsus in urbe habitus est et inventa
      sunt cīvium capita CXVII mīlia CCCXIX.


   14 _Dictatorship of Cincinnatus, 458 B.C._

      =17.= Sequentī tamen annō cum in Algidō monte ab urbe
      duodecimō fermē mīliāriō Rōmānus obsiderētur exercitus, L.
      Quīntius Cincinnātus dictātor est factus, quī agrum quattuor
      iūgerūm[25] possidēns manibus suīs colēbat. Is cum in opere
      et arāns esset inventus, sūdōre dētersō togam praetextam            5
      accēpit et caesīs hostibus līberāvit exercitum.


      _Decemvirs appointed, 451 B.C. Laws of XII Tables
      promulgated, 450 B.C. Death of Virginia; Decemvirs deposed,
      449 B.C._

      =18.= Annō trecentēsimō et alterō ab urbe conditā imperium
      cōnsulāre cessāvit et prō duōbus cōnsulibus decem factī
      sunt, quī summam potestātem habērent, decemvirī nōminātī.
      Sed cum prīmō annō bene ēgissent,[26] secundō ūnus ex hīs,         10
      Ap. Claudius, Virgīnī cūiusdam, quī honestīs iam stīpendiīs
      contrā Latīnōs in monte Algidō mīlitārat,[27] fīliam virginem
      corrumpere voluit; quam pater occīdit, nē stuprum ā decemvirō
      sustinēret, et regressus ad mīlitēs mōvit tumultum.
      Sublāta est decemvirīs[28] potestās ipsīque damnātī sunt.          15


      _Revolt of the Fidenates, 438 B.C._

      =19.= Annō trecentēsimō et quīntō decimō ab urbe conditā
      Fīdēnātēs contrā Rōmānōs rebellāvērunt. Auxilium hīs
      praestābant Vēientēs et rēx Vēientium Tolumnius. Quae
      ambae cīvitātēs tam vīcīnae urbī sunt ut Fīdēnae sextō,
      Vēī octāvō decimō mīliāriō absint. Coniūnxērunt sē hīs             20
   15 et Volscī. Sed Mam. Aemiliō dictātōre et L. Quīntiō Cincinnātō
      magistrō equitum victī etiam rēgem perdidērunt.
      Fīdēnae captae et excīsae.


      _War with Vei, 396 B.C._

      =20.= Post vīgintī deinde annōs Vēientānī rebellāvērunt.
      Dictātor contrā ipsōs missus est Fūrius Camillus, quī prīmum        5
      eōs vīcit aciē, mox etiam cīvitātem diū obsidēns cēpit,
      antīquissimam Ītaliae atque dītissimam. Post eam cēpit
      et Faliscōs, nōn minus nōbilem cīvitātem. Sed commōta
      est eī invidia, quasi praedam male dīvīsisset, damnātusque
      ob eam causam et expulsus cīvitāte.[29]                            10


      _Rome Captured by the Gauls, 390 B.C._

      Statim Gallī Senonēs ad urbem vēnērunt et victōs Rōmānōs
      ūndecimō mīliāriō ā Rōmā apud flūmen Alliam secūtī
      etiam urbem occupāvērunt. Neque dēfendī quicquam nisi
      Capitōlium potuit; quod cum diū obsēdissent et iam Rōmānī
      famē labōrārent, acceptō aurō, nē Capitōlium obsidērent,           15
      recessērunt. Sed ā Camillō, quī in vīcīnā cīvitāte
      exsulābat, Gallīs[30] superventum est gravissimēque victī sunt.
      Posteā tamen etiam secūtus eōs Camillus ita cecīdit ut et
      aurum, quod hīs datum fuerat, et omnia quae cēperant
      mīlitāria sīgna revocāret. Ita tertiō triumphāns urbem             20
      ingressus est et appellātus secundus Rōmulus, quasi et ipse
      patriae conditor.



   16 LIBER SECUNDUS

      FROM THE CAPTURE OF THE CITY TO THE END OF THE FIRST PUNIC
      WAR, 390-241 B.C.


      _Military Tribunes with Consular Power Elected, 444 B.C._

      =1.= Annō trecentēsimō sexāgēsimō quīntō ab urbe conditā,
      post captam autem prīmō, dīgnitātēs mūtātae sunt, et prō
      duōbus cōnsulibus factī tribūnī mīlitārēs cōnsulārī potestāte.
      Hinc iam coepit Rōmāna rēs crēscere. Nam Camillus eō
      annō Volscōrum cīvitātem, quae per septuāgintā annōs                5
      bellum gesserat, vīcit et Aequōrum urbem et Sūtrīnōrum
      atque omnēs dēlētīs eārundem exercitibus occupāvit et trēs
      simul triumphōs ēgit.

      =2.= T. etiam Quīntius Cincinnātus Praenestīnōs, quī ūsque
      ad urbis Rōmae portās cum bellō vēnerant, persecūtus ad            10
      flūmen Alliam vīcit, octō cīvitātēs, quae sub ipsīs agēbant,
      Rōmānīs adiūnxit, ipsum Praeneste aggressus in dēditiōnem
      accēpit. Quae omnia ab eō gesta sunt vīgintī diēbus,[31]
      triumphusque ipsī dēcrētus.

      =3.= Vērum dīgnitās tribūnōrum mīlitārium nōn diū persevērāvit.    15
      Nam post aliquantum nūllōs placuit fierī et quadriennium
      in urbe ita fluxit ut potestātēs ibi māiōrēs nōn
      essent. Praesūmpsērunt tamen tribūnī mīlitārēs cōnsulārī
      potestāte iterum dīgnitātem et trienniō persevērāvērunt.
      Rūrsus cōnsulēs factī.                                             20


      _Death of Camillus, 365 B.C._

      =4.= L. Genuciō et Q. Servīliō cōnsulibus mortuus est
      Camillus. Honor eī post Rōmulum secundus dēlātus est.


   17 _Invasion of the Gauls; Torquatus, 361 B.C._

      =5.= T. Quīntius dictātor adversus Gallōs, quī ad Ītaliam
      vēnerant, missus est. Hī ab urbe quārtō mīliāriō trāns
      Aniēnem fluvium cōnsēderant. Ibi nōbilissimus dē senātōribus
      iuvenis L. Mānlius prōvocantem Gallum ad singulāre
      certāmen prōgressus occīdit, et sublātō torque aureō collōque       5
      suō impositō in perpetuum Torquātī et sibi et posterīs
      cognōmen accēpit. Gallī fugātī sunt, mox per C. Sulpicium
      dictātōrem etiam victī. Nōn multō[32] post ā C. Mārciō Tuscī
      victī sunt et octō mīlia captīvōrum ex hīs in triumphum
      ducta.                                                             10


      _First Samnite War, 343-341 B.C._

      =6.= Cēnsus iterum habitus est. Et cum Latīnī, quī a Rōmānīs[33]
      subāctī erant, mīlitēs praestāre nōllent, ex Rōmānīs
      tantum tīrōnēs lēctī sunt, factaeque legiōnēs decem, quī modus
      sexāgintā vel amplius armātōrum mīlia efficiēbat. Parvīs
      adhūc Rōmānīs rēbus tanta tamen in rē mīlitārī virtūs erat.        15
      Quae cum profectae essent adversum Gallōs duce L. Fūriō,
      quīdam ex Gallīs ūnum ex Rōmānīs, quī esset[34] optimus,
      prōvocāvit. Tum sē M. Valerius tribūnus mīlitum obtulit,
      et cum prōcessisset armātus corvus eī[35] suprā dextrum bracchium
      sēdit. Mox commissā adversum Gallum pūgnā īdem                     20
      corvus ālīs et unguibus Gallī oculōs verberāvit, nē rēctum
      posset aspicere. Ita ā tribūnō Valeriō interfectus. Corvus
      nōn sōlum victōriam eī, sed etiam nōmen dedit. Nam
      posteā īdem Corvīnus est dictus. Ac propter hōc meritum
      annōrum trium et vīgintī cōnsul est factus.                        25


   18 _Latin War, 340-338 B.C._

      =7.= Latīnī, quī nōluerant mīlitēs dare, hōc quoque ā Rōmānīs
      exigere coepērunt, ut ūnus cōnsul ex eōrum, alter ex
      Rōmānōrum populō creārētur. Quod cum esset negātum,
      bellum contrā eōs susceptum est et ingentī pūgnā superātī
      sunt; ac dē hīs perdomitīs triumphātum est. Statuae cōnsulibus      5
      ob meritum victōriae in rōstrīs positae sunt. Eō
      annō etiam Alexandrīa ab Alexandrō Macedone condita est.


      _Second Samnite War, 326-304 B.C._

      =8.= Iam Rōmānī potentēs esse coepērunt. Bellum enim in
      centēsimō et trīcēsimō ferē mīliāriō ab urbe apud Samnītas
      gerēbātur, quī mediī sunt inter Pīcēnum, Campāniam et              10
      Āpūliam. L. Papīrius Cursor cum honōre dictātōris ad id
      bellum profectus est. Quī cum Rōmam redīret, Q. Fabiō
      Māximō, magistrō equitum, quem apud exercitum relīquit,
      praecēpit nē sē absente pūgnāret.[36] Ille occāsiōne repertā
      fēlīcissimē dīmicāvit et Samnītas dēlēvit. Ob quam rem ā           15
      dictātōre capitis[37] damnātus, quod sē vetante pūgnāsset,[38]
      ingentī favōre mīlitum et populī līberātus est, tantā Papīriō
      sēditiōne commōtā ut paene ipse interficerētur.


      _Romans defeated at Caudine Forks, 321 B.C._

      =9.= Posteā Samnītēs Rōmānōs T. Veturiō et Sp. Postumiō
      cōnsulibus ingentī dēdecōre[39] vīcērunt et sub iugum mīsērunt.    20
      Pāx tamen ā senātū et populō solūta est, quae cum
      ipsīs propter necessitātem facta fuerat. Posteā Samnītēs
   19 victī sunt ā L. Papīriō cōnsule, septem mīlia eōrum sub
      iugum missa. Papīrius prīmus dē Samnītibus triumphāvit.
      Eō tempore Ap. Claudius cēnsor aquam Claudiam indūxit
      et viam Appiam strāvit. Samnītēs reparātō bellō Q. Fabium
      Māximum vīcērunt tribus mīlibus hominum occīsīs. Posteā,            5
      cum pater eī Fabius Māximus lēgātus datus fuisset, et
      Samnītas vīcit et plūrima ipsōrum oppida cēpit. Deinde
      P. Cornēlius Rūfīnus M. Curius Dentātus, ambō cōnsulēs,
      contrā Samnītas missī ingentibus proeliīs eōs cōnfēcēre.
      Tum bellum cum Samnītibus per annōs quadrāgintā novem              10
      āctum sustulērunt. Neque ūllus hostis fuit intrā Ītaliam
      quī Rōmānam virtūtem magis fatīgāverit.


      _War with the Gauls and Etruscans, 283 B.C._

      =10.= Interiectīs aliquot annīs iterum sē Gallōrum cōpiae
      contrā Rōmānōs Tuscīs Samnītibusque iūnxērunt, sed cum
      Rōmam tenderent ā Cn. Cornēliō Dolābellā cōnsule dēlētae           15
      sunt.


      _War with Tarentum and Pyrrhus, 281-272 B.C. Battle of
      Heraclea, 280 B.C._

      =11.= Eōdem tempore Tarentīnīs, quī iam in ultimā Ītaliā
      sunt, bellum indictum est, quia lēgātīs Rōmānōrum iniūriam
      fēcissent. Hī Pyrrhum,[40] Ēpīrī rēgem, contrā Rōmānōs
      auxilium poposcērunt, quī ex genere Achillis orīginem              20
      trahēbat. Is mox ad Ītaliam vēnit, tumque prīmum Rōmānī
      cum trānsmarīnō hoste dīmicāvērunt. Missus est
      contrā eum cōnsul P. Valerius Laevīnus, quī cum explōrātōrēs
      Pyrrhī cēpisset, iussit eōs per castra dūcī, ostendī
      omnem exercitum tumque dīmittī, ut renūntiārent Pyrrhō             25
   20 quaecumque ā Rōmānīs agerentur.[41] Commissā mox pūgnā,
      cum iam Pyrrhus fugeret, elephantōrum auxiliō vīcit, quōs
      incognitōs Rōmānī expāvērunt. Sed nox proeliō fīnem
      dedit; Laevīnus tamen per noctem fūgit, Pyrrhus Rōmānōs
      mīlle octingentōs cēpit et eōs summō honōre trāctāvit,              5
      occīsōs sepelīvit. Quōs cum adversō vulnere et trucī vultū
      etiam mortuōs iacēre vīdisset, tulisse ad caelum manūs
      dīcitur cum hāc vōce: sē tōtīus orbis dominum esse potuisse,
      sī tālēs sibi mīlitēs contigissent.


      _Embassy of Cineas._

      =12.= Posteā Pyrrhus coniūnctīs sibi Samnītibus, Lūcānīs,          10
      Bruttiīs Rōmam perrēxit, omnia ferrō[42] īgnīque vāstāvit,
      Campāniam populātus est atque ad Praeneste vēnit, mīliāriō ab
      urbe octāvō decimō. Mox terrōre[43] exercitūs, quī eum cum
      cōnsule sequēbātur, in Campāniam sē recēpit. Lēgātī ad
      Pyrrhum dē redimendīs captīvīs[44] missī ab eō honōrificē          15
      susceptī sunt. Captīvōs sine pretiō Rōmam mīsit. Ūnum
      ex lēgātīs Rōmānōrum, Fābricium, sīc admīrātus, cum eum
      pauperem esse cognōvisset, ut quārtā parte rēgnī prōmissā
      sollicitāre voluerit ut ad sē trānsīret, contemptusque est ā
      Fābriciō. Quārē cum Pyrrhus Rōmānōrum ingentī admīrātiōne          20
      tenērētur, lēgātum mīsit, quī pācem aequīs condiciōnibus
      peteret, praecipuum virum, Cīneam nōmine,[45] ita ut
      Pyrrhus partem Ītaliae, quam iam armīs occupāverat,
      obtinēret.

      =13.= Pāx displicuit remandātumque Pyrrhō est ā senātū eum         25
   21 cum Rōmānīs, nisi ex Ītaliā recessisset,[46] pācem habēre nōn
      posse. Tum Rōmānī iussērunt captīvōs omnēs, quōs Pyrrhus
      reddiderat, īnfāmēs habērī, quod armātī capī potuissent, nec
      ante eōs ad veterem statum revertī, quam sī bīnōrum hostium
      occīsōrum spolia retulissent. Ita lēgātus Pyrrhī reversus           5
      est. Ā quō cum quaereret Pyrrhus, quālem Rōmam
      comperisset, Cīneās dīxit rēgum sē patriam vīdisse; scīlicet
      tālēs illīc ferē omnēs esse, quālis ūnus Pyrrhus apud Ēpīrum
      et reliquam Graeciam putārētur.[47]

      Missī sunt contrā Pyrrhum ducēs P. Sulpicius et Decius             10
      Mūs cōnsulēs. Certāmine commissō Pyrrhus vulnerātus est,
      elephantī interfectī, vīgintī mīlia caesa hostium, et ex Rōmānīs
      tantum quīnque mīlia; Pyrrhus Tarentum fugātus.


      _Fabricius; Battle of Beneventum, 275 B.C._

      =14.= Interiectō annō contrā Pyrrhum Fābricius est missus,
      quī prius inter lēgātōs sollicitārī nōn poterat quārtā rēgnī       15
      parte prōmissā. Tum, cum vīcīna castra ipse et rēx habērent,
      medicus Pyrrhī nocte ad eum vēnit, prōmittēns venēnō sē
      Pyrrhum occīsūrum, sī sibi aliquid pollicērētur. Quem Fābricius
      vinctum redūcī iussit ad dominum Pyrrhōque dīcī
      quae contrā caput ēius medicus spopondisset. Tum rēx               20
      admīrātus eum dīxisse fertur: ‘Ille est Fābricius, quī
      difficilius ab honestāte quam sōl ā cursū suō āvertī potest.’ Tum
      rēx ad Siciliam profectus est. Fābricius victīs Lūcānīs et
      Samnītibus triumphāvit.

      Cōnsulēs deinde M. Curius Dentātus et Cornēlius Lentulus           25
      adversum Pyrrhum missī sunt. Curius contrā eum pūgnāvit,
      exercitum ēius cecīdit, ipsum Tarentum fugāvit, castra
   22 cēpit. Eā diē caesa hostium vīgintī tria mīlia. Curius in
      cōnsulātū triumphāvit. Prīmus Rōmam elephantōs quattuor
      dūxit. Pyrrhus etiam ā Tarentō[48] mox recessit et apud
      Argōs, Graeciae cīvitātem, occīsus est.

      =15.= C. Fabiō Liciniō C. Claudiō Canīnā cōnsulibus annō            5
      urbis conditae quadringentēsimō sexāgēsimō prīmō lēgātī
      Alexandrīnī ā Ptolemaeō missī Rōmam vēnēre et ā Rōmānīs
      amīcitiam quam petierant obtinuērunt.

      =16.= Q. Ogulniō C. Fabiō Pīctōre cōnsulibus Pīcentēs bellum
      commovēre et ab īnsequentibus cōnsulibus P. Semprōniō              10
      Ap. Claudiō victī sunt; et dē hīs triumphātum est. Conditae
      ā Rōmānīs cīvitātēs Arīminum in Galliā et Beneventum
      in Samniō.

      =17.= M. Atīliō Rēgulō L. Iūliō Libōne cōnsulibus Sallentīnīs
      in Āpūliā bellum indictum est, captīque sunt cum cīvitāte          15
      simul Brundisīnī, et dē hīs triumphātum est.


      _First Punic War, 264-241 B.C.; Romans victorious in Sicily,
      264 B.C._

      =18.= Annō quadringentēsimō septuāgēsimō septimō, cum
      iam clārum urbis Rōmae nōmen esset, arma tamen extrā
      Ītaliam mōta nōn fuerant. Ut igitur cognōscerētur[49] quae
      cōpiae Rōmānōrum essent, cēnsus est habitus. Tum inventa           20
      sunt cīvium capita ducenta nōnāgintā duo mīlia trecenta
      trīgintā quattuor, quamquam ā conditā urbe numquam bella
      cessāssent.

      Et contrā Āfrōs bellum susceptum est prīmum Ap. Claudiō
      Q. Fulviō cōnsulibus. In Siciliā contrā eōs pūgnātum est et        25
      Ap. Claudius dē Āfrīs et rēge Siciliae Hierōne triumphāvit.

   23 =19.= Īnsequentī annō Valeriō Mārcō et Otāciliō Crassō cōnsulibus
      in Siciliā ā Rōmānīs rēs māgnae gestae sunt. Tauromenītānī,
      Catinēnsēs et praetereā quīnquāgintā cīvitātēs in
      fidem acceptae. Tertiō annō in Siciliā contrā Hierōnem,
      rēgem Siculōrum, bellum parātum est. Is cum omnī nōbilitāte         5
      Syrācūsanōrum pācem ā Rōmānīs impetrāvit deditque
      argentī[50] ducenta talenta. Āfrī in Siciliā victī sunt et dē
      hīs secundō Rōmae triumphātum est.


      _Battle of Mylae, 260 B.C._

      =20.= Quīntō annō prīmī bellī, quod contrā Āfrōs gerēbātur,
      prīmum Rōmānī C. Duiliō et Cn. Cornēliō Asinā cōnsulibus           10
      in marī dīmicāvērunt parātīs nāvibus rōstrātīs, quās Liburnās
      vocant. Cōnsul Cornēlius fraude dēceptus est. Duilius
      commissō proeliō Karthāginiēnsium ducem vīcit, trīgintā et
      ūnam nāvēs cēpit, quattuordecim mersit, septem mīlia hostium
      cēpit, tria mīlia occīdit. Neque ūlla victōria Rōmānīs[51]         15
      grātior fuit, quod invictī terrā[52] iam etiam marī[52] plūrimum
      possent.

      C. Aquīliō Flōrō L. Scīpiōne cōnsulibus Scīpiō Corsicam
      et Sardiniam vāstāvit, multa mīlia inde captīvōrum abdūxit,
      triumphum ēgit.                                                    20


      _Invasion of Africa by the Romans, 256 B.C._

      =21.= L. Mānliō Vulsōne M. Atīliō Rēgulō cōnsulibus bellum
      in Āfricam trānslātum est. Contrā Hamilcarem, Karthāginiēnsium
      ducem, in marī pūgnātum, victusque est. Nam
      perditīs sexāgintā quattuor nāvibus retrō sē recēpit. Rōmānī
      vīgintī duās āmīsērunt. Sed cum in Āfricam trānsīssent,            25
   24 prīmam Clypeam, Āfricae cīvitātem, in dēditiōnem
      accēpērunt. Cōnsulēs ūsque ad Karthāginem prōcessērunt,
      multīsque castellīs vāstātīs Mānlius victor Rōmam rediit et
      vīgintī septem mīlia captīvōrum redūxit, Atīlius Rēgulus
      in Āfricā remānsit. Is contrā Āfrōs aciem īnstrūxit. Contrā         5
      trēs Karthāginiēnsium ducēs dīmicāns victor fuit, decem
      et octō mīlia hostium cecīdit, quīnque mīlia cum decem et
      octō elephantīs cēpit, septuāgintā quattuor cīvitātēs in fidem
      accēpit. Tum victī Karthāginiēnsēs pācem ā Rōmānīs petīvērunt.
      Quam cum Rēgulus nōllet nisi dūrissimīs condiciōnibus              10
      dare, Āfrī auxilium ā Lacedaemoniīs petīvērunt. Et
      duce Xanthippō, quī ā Lacedaemoniīs missus fuerat, Rōmānōrum
      dux Rēgulus victus est ultimā perniciē. Nam duo
      mīlia tantum ex omnī Rōmānō exercitū refūgērunt, quīngentī
      cum imperātōre Rēgulō captī sunt, trīgintā mīlia                   15
      occīsa, Rēgulus ipse in catēnās coniectus.


      _Romans shipwrecked near Sicily._

      =22.= M. Aemiliō Paulō Ser. Fulviō Nōbiliōre cōnsulibus ambō
      Rōmānī cōnsulēs ad Āfricam profectī sunt cum trecentārum
      nāvium classe. Prīmum Āfrōs nāvālī certāmine superant.
      Aemilius cōnsul centum et quattuor nāvēs hostium dēmersit,         20
      trīgintā cum pūgnātōribus cēpit, quindecim mīlia hostium
      aut occīdit aut cēpit, mīlitem suum ingentī praedā
      dītāvit. Et subācta Āfrica tunc fuisset, nisi quod tanta
      famēs erat ut diūtius exercitus exspectāre nōn posset.
      Cōnsulēs cum victricī classe redeuntēs circā Siciliam              25
      naufragium passī sunt. Et tanta tempestās fuit ut ex
      quadringentīs sexāgintā quattuor nāvibus tantum octōgintā servārī
      potuerint; neque ūllō tempore tanta maritima tempestās
      audīta est. Rōmānī tamen statim ducentās nāvēs reparāvērunt,
      neque in aliquō animus hīs īnfrāctus fuit.                         30

   25 =23.= Cn. Servīlius Caepiō C. Semprōnius Blaesus cōnsulēs
      cum ducentīs sexāgintā nāvibus ad Āfricam profectī sunt.
      Aliquot cīvitātēs cēpērunt. Praedam ingentem redūcentēs
      naufragium passī sunt. Itaque cum continuae calamitātēs
      Rōmānīs[53] displicērent, dēcrēvit senātus ut ā maritimīs           5
      proeliīs recēderētur et tantum sexāgintā nāvēs ad praesidium
      Ītaliae salvae essent.


      _Battle of Panormus, 250 B.C._

      =24.= L. Caeciliō Metellō C. Fūriō Placidō cōnsulibus Metellus
      in Siciliā Āfrōrum ducem cum centum trīgintā elephantīs
      et māgnīs cōpiīs venientem superāvit, vīgintī mīlia hostium        10
      cecīdit, sex et vīgintī elephantōs cēpit, reliquōs errantēs
      per Numidās, quōs in auxilium habēbat, conlēgit et Rōmam
      dēdūxit ingentī pompā, cum elephantōrum numerus omnia
      itinera complēret.


      _Regulus sent to Rome to solicit Peace, 250 B.C._

      =25.= Post haec mala Karthāginiēnsēs Rēgulum ducem,                15
      quem cēperant, petīvērunt ut Rōmam proficīscerētur et pācem
      ā Rōmānīs obtinēret ac permūtātiōnem captīvōrum faceret.
      Ille Rōmam cum vēnisset, inductus in senātum nihil quasi
      Rōmānus ēgit dīxitque sē ex illā diē,[54] quā in potestātem
      Āfrōrum vēnisset, Rōmānum esse dēsīsse. Itaque et uxōrem           20
      ā complexū remōvit et senātuī suāsit nē pāx cum
      Poenīs fieret; illōs enim frāctōs tot cāsibus spem nūllam
      habēre; sē tantī[55] nōn esse, ut tot mīlia captīvōrum propter
      ūnum sē et senem et paucōs, quī ex Rōmānīs captī[56] fuerant,
   26 redderentur. Itaque obtinuit. Nam Āfrōs pācem petentēs
      nūllus admīsit. Ipse Karthāginem rediit, offerentibusque
      Rōmānīs ut eum Rōmae tenērent, negāvit sē in eā urbe
      mānsūrum in quā, postquam Āfrīs servierat, dīgnitātem
      honestī cīvis habēre nōn posset. Regressus igitur ad Āfricam        5
      omnibus suppliciīs exstinctus est.


      _Publius Claudius defeated near Drepana, 249 B.C._

      =26.= P. Claudiō Pulchrō L. Iūniō cōnsulibus Claudius
      contrā auspicia pūgnāvit et ā Karthāginiēnsibus victus est.
      Nam ex ducentīs et vīgintī nāvibus cum trīgintā fūgit,
      nōnāgintā cum pūgnātōribus captae sunt, dēmersae cēterae.          10
      Alius quoque cōnsul naufragiō classem āmīsit, exercitum
      tamen salvum habuit, quia vīcīna lītora erant.


      _Battle of Lilybaeum, 242 B.C. Battle of the Aegates Islands
      and End of the War, 241 B.C._

      =27.= C. Lutātiō Catulō A. Postumiō Albīnō cōnsulibus, annō
      bellī Pūnicī vīcēsimō et tertiō Catulō bellum contrā Āfrōs
      commissum est. Profectus est cum trecentīs nāvibus in              15
      Siciliam; Āfrī contrā ipsum quadringentās parāvērunt.
      Numquam in marī tantīs cōpiīs pūgnātum est. Lutātius
      Catulus nāvem aeger ascendit; vulnerātus enim in pūgnā
      superiōre fuerat. Contrā Lilybaeum, cīvitātem Siciliae,
      pūgnātum est ingentī virtūte Rōmānōrum. Nam LXIII                  20
      Karthāginiēnsium nāvēs captae sunt, CXXV dēmersae, XXXII
      mīlia hostium capta, XIII mīlia occīsa, īnfīnītum aurī, argentī,
      praedae in potestātem Rōmānōrum redāctum. Ex
      classe Rōmānā XII nāvēs dēmersae. Pūgnātum est VI Īdūs
      Mārtiās. Statim pācem Karthāginiēnsēs petīvērunt tribūtaque        25
      est hīs pāx. Captīvī Rōmānōrum quī tenēbantur ā
      Karthāginiēnsibus redditī sunt. Etiam Karthāginiēnsēs
   27 petīvērunt ut redimī eōs captīvōs licēret quōs ex Āfrīs
      Rōmānī tenēbant. Senātus iussit sine pretiō eōs darī quī
      in pūblicā cūstōdiā essent; quī autem ā prīvātīs tenērentur
      ut pretiō dominīs redditō Karthāginem redīrent atque id
      pretium ex fiscō magis quam ā Karthāginiēnsibus solverētur.         5

      =28.= Q. Lutātius A. Mānlius cōnsulēs creātī bellum Faliscīs
      intulērunt, quae cīvitās Ītaliae opulenta quondam fuit.
      Quod ambō cōnsulēs intrā sex diēs, quam vēnerant, trānsēgērunt
      XV mīlibus hostium caesīs, cēterīs pāce concessā,
      agrō tamen ex medietāte sublātō.                                   10



      LIBER TERTIUS

      FROM THE END OF THE FIRST TO THE END OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR,
      241-201 B.C.


      =1.= Fīnītō igitur Pūnicō bellō, quod per XXIII annōs trāctum
      est, Rōmānī iam clārissimā glōriā nōtī lēgātōs ad Ptolemaeum,
      Aegyptī rēgem, mīsērunt auxilia prōmittentēs, quia
      rēx Syriae Antiochus bellum eī intulerat. Ille grātiās
      Rōmānīs ēgit, auxilia nōn accēpit. Iam enim fuerat pūgna           15
      trānsācta. Eōdem tempore potentissimus rēx Siciliae Hierō
      Rōmam vēnit ad lūdōs spectandōs[57] et ducenta mīlia modiōrum[58]
      trīticī populō dōnum exhibuit.


      _Sardinia taken by the Romans, 238 B.C._

      =2.= L. Cornēliō Lentulō Fulviō Flaccō cōnsulibus, quibus
      Hierō Rōmam vēnerat, etiam contrā Ligurēs intrā Ītaliam            20
      bellum gestum est et dē hīs triumphātum. Karthāginiēnsēs
   28 tamen bellum reparāre temptābant, Sardiniēnsēs, quī ex
      condiciōne pācis Rōmānīs pārēre dēbēbant, ad rebellandum[59]
      impellentēs. Vēnit tamen Rōmam lēgātiō Karthāginiēnsium
      et pācem impetrāvit.

      =3.= T. Mānliō Torquātō C. Atīliō Bulcō cōnsulibus dē               5
      Sardīs triumphātum est, et pāce omnibus locīs factā Rōmānī
      nūllum bellum habuērunt, quod hīs post Rōmam conditam
      semel tantum Numā Pompiliō rēgnante contigerat.


      _War with the Illyrians, 229 B.C._

      =4.= L. Postumius Albīnus Cn. Fulvius Centumalus cōnsulēs
      bellum contrā Īllyriōs gessērunt et multīs cīvitātibus captīs      10
      etiam rēgēs in dēditiōnem accēpērunt. Ac tum prīmum ex
      Īllyriīs triumphātum est.


      _Invasion of the Gauls, 225 B.C._

      =5.= L. Aemiliō cōnsule ingentēs Gallōrum cōpiae Alpēs
      trānsiērunt. Sed prō Rōmānīs tōta Ītalia cōnsēnsit, trāditumque
      est ā Fabiō historicō, quī eī bellō interfuit, DCCC mīlia          15
      hominum parāta ad id bellum fuisse. Sed rēs per cōnsulem
      tantum prōsperē gesta est. XL mīlia hostium interfecta
      sunt et triumphus Aemiliō dēcrētus.

      =6.= Aliquot deinde annīs post contrā Gallōs intrā Ītaliam
      pūgnātum est, fīnītumque bellum M. Claudiō Mārcellō et             20
      Cn. Cornēliō Scīpiōne cōnsulibus. Tum Mārcellus cum[60]
      parvā manū equitum dīmicāvit et rēgem Gallōrum, Viridomarum
      nōmine, manū suā occīdit. Posteā cum conlēgā
      ingentēs cōpiās Gallōrum perēmit, Mediōlānum expūgnāvit,
      grandem praedam Rōmam pertulit. Ac triumphāns Mārcellus            25
      spolia Gallī stīpitī imposita umerīs suīs vexit.


   29 _Second Punic War begun, 218 B.C._

      =7.= M. Minuciō Rūfō P. Cornēliō cōnsulibus Histrīs bellum
      inlātum est, quia latrōcinātī nāvibus Rōmānōrum fuerant,
      quae frūmenta exhibēbant, perdomitīque sunt omnēs. Eōdem
      annō bellum Pūnicum secundum Rōmānīs inlātum est per
      Hannibalem, Karthāginiēnsium ducem, quī Saguntum, Hispāniae         5
      cīvitātem Rōmānīs[61] amīcam, oppūgnāre aggressus
      est, annum agēns vīcēsimum aetātis, cōpiīs congregātīs CL
      mīlium. Huic Rōmānī per lēgātōs dēnūntiāvērunt ut bellō
      abstinēret. Is lēgātōs admittere nōluit. Rōmānī etiam
      Karthāginem mīsērunt, ut mandārētur Hannibalī[62] nē bellum        10
      contrā sociōs populī Rōmānī gereret. Dūra respōnsa ā
      Karthāginiēnsibus data sunt. Saguntīnī intereā famē victī
      sunt, captīque ab Hannibale ultimīs poenīs adficiuntur.
      Bellum Karthāginiēnsibus indictum est.


      _Hannibal crosses the Alps._

      =8.= Tum P. Cornēlius Scīpiō cum exercitū in Hispāniam             15
      profectus est, Ti. Semprōnius in Siciliam. Hannibal relīctō
      in Hispāniā frātre Hasdrubale Pȳrēnaeum trānsiit. Alpēs,
      adhūc eā parte[63] inviās, sibi patefēcit. Trāditur ad Ītaliam
      LXXX mīlia peditum, X mīlia equitum, septem et XXX elephantōs
      addūxisse. Intereā multī Ligurēs et Gallī Hannibalī                20
      sē coniūnxērunt. Semprōnius Gracchus cognitō ad Ītaliam
      Hannibalis adventū ex Siciliā exercitum Arīminum trāiēcit.


      _Battle of the Trebia, 218 B.C. Battle of Trasumenus, 217 B.C._

      =9.= P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Hannibalī prīmus occurrit. Commissō
      proeliō, fugātīs suīs ipse vulnerātus in castra rediit.
   30 Semprōnius Gracchus et ipse cōnflīgit apud Trebiam amnem.
      Is quoque vincitur. Hannibalī multī sē in Ītaliā dēdidērunt.
      Inde ad Tusciam veniēns Hannibal Flāminiō cōnsulī occurrit.
      Ipsum Flāminium interēmit; Rōmānōrum XXV mīlia
      caesa sunt, cēterī diffūgērunt. Missus adversus Hannibalem          5
      posteā ā Rōmānīs Q. Fabius Māximus. Is eum differendō[64]
      pūgnam ab impetū frēgit, mox inventā occāsiōne vīcit.


      _Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C._

      =10.= Quīngentēsimō et quadrāgēsimō annō ā conditā urbe
      L. Aemilius Paulus P. Terentius Varrō contrā Hannibalem
      mittuntur Fabiōque succēdunt, quī abiēns ambō cōnsulēs             10
      monuit ut Hannibalem, callidum et impatientem ducem,
      nōn aliter vincerent quam proelium differendō.[64] Vērum
      cum impatientiā Varrōnis cōnsulis contrādīcente alterō cōnsule
      apud vīcum, quī Cannae appellātur, in Āpūliā pūgnātum
      esset, ambō cōnsulēs ab Hannibale vincuntur. In eā                 15
      pūgnā tria mīlia Āfrōrum pereunt; māgna pars dē exercitū
      Hannibalis sauciātur. Nūllō tamen proeliō Pūnicō bellō
      Rōmānī gravius acceptī sunt. Periit enim in eō cōnsul
      Aemilius Paulus, cōnsulārēs aut praetōriī XX, senātōrēs captī
      aut occīsī XXX, nōbilēs virī CCC, mīlitum XL mīlia, equitum        20
      III mīlia et quīngentī. In quibus malīs nēmō tamen Rōmānōrum
      pācis mentiōnem habēre dīgnātus est. Servī, quod
      numquam ante, manūmissī et mīlitēs factī sunt.


      _War in Spain, 218 B.C._

      =11.= Post eam pūgnam multae Ītaliae cīvitātēs, quae Rōmānīs
      pāruerant, sē ad Hannibalem trānstulērunt. Hannibal                25
      Rōmānīs obtulit ut captīvōs redimerent, respōnsumque est ā
   31 senātū eōs cīvēs nōn esse necessāriōs quī, cum armātī essent,
      capī potuissent. Ille omnēs posteā variīs suppliciīs interfēcit
      et trēs modiōs ānulōrum aureōrum Karthāginem mīsit,
      quōs ex manibus equitum Rōmānōrum, senātōrum et mīlitum
      dētrāxerat. Intereā in Hispāniā, ubi frāter Hannibalis              5
      Hasdrubal remānserat cum māgnō exercitū, ut eam tōtam
      Āfrīs[65] subigeret, ā duōbus Scīpiōnibus, Rōmānīs ducibus,
      vincitur. Perdit in pūgnā XXXV mīlia hominum; ex hīs
      capiuntur X mīlia, occīduntur XXV mīlia. Mittuntur eī ā
      Karthāginiēnsibus ad reparandās vīrēs XII mīlia peditum,           10
      IV mīlia equitum, XX elephantī.


      _Battle near Nola, 215 B.C._

      =12.= Annō quārtō postquam ad Ītaliam Hannibal vēnit,
      M. Claudius Mārcellus cōnsul apud Nōlam, cīvitātem Campāniae,
      contrā Hannibalem bene pūgnāvit. Hannibal multās
      cīvitātēs Rōmānōrum per Āpūliam, Calābriam, Bruttiōs occupāvit.    15
      Quō tempore etiam rēx Macedoniae Philippus ad eum
      lēgātōs mīsit, prōmittēns auxilia contrā Rōmānōs sub hāc
      condiciōne, ut dēlētīs Rōmānīs ipse quoque contrā Graecōs
      ab Hannibale auxilia acciperet. Captīs igitur lēgātīs Philippī
      et rē cognitā Rōmānī in Macedoniam M. Valerium Laevīnum      20
      īre iussērunt, in Sardiniam T. Mānlium Torquātum prōcōnsulem.
      Nam etiam ea sollicitāta ab Hannibale Rōmānōs
      dēseruerat.

      =13.= Ita ūnō tempore quattuor locīs pūgnābātur: in Ītaliā
      contrā Hannibalem, in Hispāniīs contrā frātrem ēius                25
      Hasdrubalem, in Macedoniā contrā Philippum, in Sardinia contrā
      Sardōs et alterum Hasdrubalem Karthāginiēnsem. Is ā
      T. Mānliō prōcōnsule, quī ad Sardiniam missus fuerat, vīvus
   32 est captus, occīsa duodecim mīlia, captī cum eō mīlle
      quīngentī, et ā Rōmānīs Sardinia subācta. Mānlius victōr
      captīvōs et Hasdrubalem Rōmam reportāvit. Intereā
      etiam Philippus ā Laevīnō in Macedoniā vincitur et in
      Hispāniā ab Scīpiōnibus Hasdrubal et Māgō, tertius frāter           5
      Hannibalis.


      _Campaign in Sicily, 214-210 B.C._

      =14.= Decimō annō[66] postquam Hannibal in Ītaliam vēnerat,
      P. Sulpiciō Cn. Fulviō cōnsulibus Hannibal ūsque ad quārtum
      mīliārium urbis accessit, equitēs ēius ūsque ad portam.
      Mox cōnsulum[67] cum exercitū venientium metū[68] Hannibal         10
      ad Campāniam sē recēpit. In Hispāniā ā frātre ēius Hasdrubale
      ambō Scīpiōnēs, quī per multōs annōs vīctōrēs
      fuerant, interficiuntur, exercitus tamen integer mānsit; cāsū
      enim magis erant quam virtūte dēceptī. Quō tempore etiam
      ā cōnsule Mārcello Siciliae māgna pars capta est, quam             15
      tenēre Āfrī coeperant, et nōbilissima urbs Syrācūsāna;
      praeda ingēns Rōmam perlāta est. Laevīnus in Macedoniā
      cum Philippō et multīs Graeciae populīs et rēge Asiae Attalō
      amīcitiam fēcit, et ad Siciliam profectus Hannōnem quendam,
      Āfrōrum ducem, apud Agrigentum cīvitātem cum ipsō                  20
      oppidō cēpit eumque Rōmam cum captīvīs nōbilissimīs mīsit.
      XL cīvitātēs in dēditiōnem accēpit, XXVI expūgnāvit. Ita
      omnis Sicilia recepta est; ingentī glōriā[69] Rōmam regressus
      est. Hannibal in Ītaliā Cn. Fulvium cōnsulem subitō
      aggressus cum octō mīlibus hominum interfēcit.                     25


   33 _War in Spain, 210-206 B.C._

      =15.= Intereā ad Hispāniās, ubi occīsīs duōbus Scīpiōnibus
      nūllus Rōmānus dux erat, P. Cornēlius Scīpiō mittitur,
      fīlius P. Scīpiōnis, quī ibīdem bellum gesserat, annōs nātus
      quattuor et vīgintī, vir Rōmānōrum omnium et suā aetāte
      et posteriōre tempore ferē prīmus. Is Karthāginem Hispāniae         5
      capit, in quā omne aurum, argentum et bellī apparātum
      Āfrī habēbant, nōbilissimōs quoque obsidēs, quōs ab Hispānīs
      accēperant. Māgōnem etiam, frātrem Hannibalis,
      ibīdem capit, quem Rōmam cum aliīs mittit. Rōmae[70] ingēns
      laetitia post hunc nūntium fuit. Scīpiō Hispānōrum obsidēs         10
      parentibus reddidit; quārē omnēs ferē Hispānī ūnō
      animō ad eum trānsiērunt. Post quae Hasdrubalem, Hannibalis
      frātrem, victum[71] fugat et praedam māximam capit.


      _Recapture of Tarentum, 209 B.C._

      =16.= Intereā in Ītaliā cōnsul Q. Fabius Māximus Tarentum
      recēpit, in quā ingentēs cōpiae Hannibalis erant. Ibi etiam        15
      ducem Hannibalis Carthalōnem occīdit, XXV mīlia hominum
      cāptīvōrum vēndidit, praedam mīlitibus dispertīvit, pecūniam
      hominum vēnditōrum ad fiscum rettulit. Tum multae
      cīvitātēs Rōmānōrum, quae ad Hannibalem trānsierant
      prius, rūrsus sē Fabiō Māximō dēdidērunt. Īnsequentī               20
      annō Scīpiō in Hispāniā ēgregiās rēs ēgit et per sē et per
      frātrem suum L. Scīpiōnem; LXX cīvitātēs recēpērunt. In
      Ītaliā tamen male pūgnātum est. Nam Claudius Mārcellus
      cōnsul ab Hannibale occīsus est.

      =17.= Tertiō annō postquam Scīpiō ad Hispāniās profectus           25
      fuerat, rūrsus rēs inclitās gerit. Rēgem Hispāniārum māgnō
   34 proeliō victum in amīcitiam accēpit et prīmus omnium ā
      victō obsidēs nōn poposcit.


      _Battle of Metaurus, 207 B.C._

      =18.= Dēspērāns Hannibal Hispāniās contrā Scīpiōnem diūtius
      posse retinērī, frātrem suum Hasdrubalem ad Ītaliam
      cum omnibus cōpiīs ēvocāvit. Is, veniēns eōdem itinere[72] quō      5
      etiam Hannibal vēnerat, ā cōnsulibus Ap. Claudiō Nerōne
      et M. Līviō Salīnātōre apud Sēnam, Pīcēnī cīvitātem, in
      īnsidiās compositās incidit. Strēnuē tamen pūgnāns occīsus
      est; ingentēs ēius cōpiae captae aut interfectae sunt, māgnum
      pondus aurī atque argentī Rōmam relātum est. Post                  10
      haec Hannibal diffīdere iam dē bellī coepit ēventū. Rōmānīs
      ingēns animus accessit; itaque et ipsī ēvocāvērunt ex
      Hispāniā P. Cornēlium Scīpiōnem. Is Rōmam cum ingentī
      glōriā vēnit.

      =19.= Q. Caeciliō L. Valeriō cōnsulibus omnēs cīvitātēs, quae      15
      in Bruttiīs ab Hannibale tenēbantur, Rōmānīs sē trādidērunt.


      _Scipio crosses into Africa, 204 B.C._

      =20.= Annō quārtō decimō posteāquam in Ītaliam Hannibal
      vēnerat, Scīpiō, quī multa bene in Hispāniā ēgerat, cōnsul
      est factus et in Āfricam missus. Cuī virō[73] dīvīnum quiddam
      inesse exīstimābātur, adeō ut putārētur etiam cum nūminibus        20
      habēre sermōnem. Is in Āfricā contrā Hannōnem,
      ducem Āfrōrum, pūgnat; exercitum ēius interficit. Secundō
      proeliō castra capit cum quattuor mīlibus et quīngentīs
      mīlitibus, XI mīlibus occīsīs. Syphācem, Numidiae
      rēgem, quī sē Āfrīs coniūnxerat, capit et castra ēius invādit.     25
      Syphāx cum nōbilissimīs Numidīs et īnfīnītīs spoliīs Rōmam
   35 ā Scīpiōne mittitur. Quā rē audītā omnis ferē Ītalia
      Hannibalem dēserit. Ipse ā Karthāginiēnsibus redīre in
      Āfricam iubētur, quam Scīpiō vāstābat.


      _Efforts for Peace._

      =21.= Ita annō septimō decimō ab Hannibale Ītalia līberāta
      est. Lēgātī Karthāginiēnsium pācem ā Scīpiōne petīvērunt;           5
      ab eō ad senātum Rōmam missī sunt. Quadrāgintā et quīnque
      diēbus hīs indūtiae datae sunt, quoūsque īre Rōmam et
      regredī possent[74]; et trīgintā mīlia pondō argentī ab hīs
      accepta sunt. Senātus ex arbitriō Scīpiōnis pācem iussit
      cum Karthāginiēnsibus fierī. Scīpiō hīs condiciōnibus              10
      dedit: nē amplius quam trīgintā nāvēs habērent,[75] ut
      quīngenta mīlia pondō argentī darent,[75] captīvōs et perfugās
      redderent.[75]

      =22.= Interim Hannibale veniente ad Āfricam pāx turbāta
      est, multa hostīlia ab Āfrīs facta sunt. Lēgātī tamen eōrum        15
      ex urbe venientēs ā Rōmānīs captī sunt, sed iubente Scīpiōne
      dīmissī. Hannibal quoque frequentibus proeliīs victus ā
      Scīpiōne petīt etiam ipse pācem. Cum ventum esset ad
      conloquium, īsdem condiciōnibus data est quibus prius,
      additīs quīngentīs mīlibus pondō argentī centum mīlibus            20
      lībrārum propter novam perfidiam. Karthāginiēnsibus condiciōnēs
      displicuērunt iussēruntque Hannibalem pūgnāre.
      Īnfertur ā Scīpiōne et Masinissā, aliō rēge Numidārum, quī
      amīcitiam cum Scīpiōne fēcerat, Karthāginī bellum. Hannibal
      trēs explōrātōrēs ad Scīpiōnis castra mīsit, quōs captōs           25
      Scīpiō circumdūcī per castra iussit ostendīque hīs tōtum
      exercitum, mox etiam prandium darī dīmittīque, ut renūntiārent
      Hannibalī quae apud Rōmānōs vīdissent.


   36 _Battle of Zama, 202 B.C. End of the Second Punic War,
      201 B.C._

      =23.= Intereā proelium ab utrōque duce īnstrūctum est, quāle
      vix ūllā memoriā fuit, cum perītissimī virī cōpiās suās ad
      bellum ēdūcerent. Scīpiō victor recēdit paene ipsō Hannibale
      captō, quī prīmum cum multīs equitibus, deinde cum
      vīgintī, postrēmō cum quattuor ēvāsit. Inventa in castrīs           5
      Hannibalis argentī pondō vīgintī mīlia, aurī octōgintā, cētera
      supellectilis cōpiōsa. Post id certāmen pāx cum
      Karthāginiēnsibus facta est. Scīpiō Rōmam rediit, ingentī glōriā
      triumphāvit atque Āfricānus ex eō appellārī coeptus est.
      Fīnem accēpit secundum Pūnicum bellum post annum                   10
      nōnum decimum quam coeperat.



      LIBER QUĀRTUS

      FROM THE END OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR TO THE END OF THE WAR
      WITH JUGURTHA, 201-106 B.C.


      _Second Macedonian War, 200-196 B.C._

      =1.= Trānsāctō Pūnicō bellō secūtum est Macedonicum contrā
      Philippum rēgem quīngentēsimō quīnquāgēsimō et prīmō
      annō ab urbe conditā.

      =2.= T. Quīntius Flāminīnus adversum
      Philippum rēgem missus rem prōsperē gessit. Pāx eī data            15
      est hīs lēgibus: nē Graeciae cīvitātibus, quās Rōmānī contrā
      eum dēfenderant,[76] bellum īnferret, ut captīvōs et trānsfugās
      redderet, quīnquāgintā sōlās nāvēs habēret, reliquās Rōmānīs
      dederet, per annōs[77] decem quaterna mīlia pondō
      argentī praestāret et obsidem daret fīlium suum Dēmētrium.         20
   37 T. Quīntius etiam Lacedaemoniīs intulit bellum. Ducem
      eōrum Nabidem vīcit et quibus voluit condiciōnibus in
      fidem accēpit. Ingentī glōriā triumphāvit; dūxit ante currum
      nōbilissimōs obsidēs, Dēmētrium, Philippī fīlium, et
      Armenēn Nabidis.                                                    5


      _Syro-Aetolian War, 192-189 B.C._

      =3.= Trānsāctō bellō Macedonicō secūtum est Syriacum contrā
      Antiochum rēgem P. Cornēliō Scīpiōne M. Aciliō Glabriōne
      cōnsulibus. Huic Antiochō Hannibal sē iūnxerat, Karthāginem,
      patriam suam, metū nē Rōmānīs trāderētur,[78] relinquēns.
      M. Acilius Glabriō in Achaeā bene pūgnāvit. Castra                 10
      rēgis Antiochī nocturnā pūgnā capta sunt, ipse fugātus.
      Philippō, quia contrā Antiochum Rōmānīs[79] fuisset auxiliō,[79]
      fīlius Dēmētrius redditus est.

      =4.= L. Cornēliō Scīpiōne et C. Laeliō cōnsulibus[80] Scīpiō
      Āfricānus frātrī suō L. Cornēliō Scīpiōnī cōnsulī lēgātus          15
      datus contrā Antiochum profectus est. Hannibal, quī cum
      Antiochō erat, nāvālī proeliō[81] victus est. Ipse posteā
      Antiochus circā Sipylum apud Māgnēsiam, Asiae cīvitātem,
      ā cōnsule Cornēliō Scīpiōne ingentī proeliō[81] fūsus est.
      Auxiliō fuit Rōmānīs in eā pūgnā Eumenēs, Attalī rēgis             20
      frāter, quī Eumeniam in Phrygiā condidit. Quīnquāgintā
      mīlia peditum, tria equitum eō certāmine ex parte rēgis
      occīsa sunt. Tum rēx pācem petīt. Īsdem condiciōnibus
      data est ā senātū, quamquam victō, quibus ante offerēbātur:
      ut ex Eurōpā et Asiā recēderet atque intrā Taurum sē continēret,   25
      decem mīlia talentōrum et vīgintī obsidēs praebēret,
   38 Hannibalem, concitātōrem bellī, dēderet. Eumenī
      rēgī dōnātae sunt ā senātū omnēs Asiae cīvitātēs, quās
      Antiochus bellō perdiderat, et Rhodiīs, quī auxilium Rōmānīs
      contrā rēgem Antiochum tulerant, multae urbēs
      concessae sunt. Scīpiō Rōmam rediit, ingentī glōriā triumphāvit.    5
      Nōmen et ipse ad imitātiōnem frātris Asiāgenis
      accēpit, quia Asiam vīcerat, sīcutī frāter ipsīus propter
      Āfricam domitam[82] Āfricānus appellābātur.

      =5.= Sp. Postumiō Albīnō Q. Mārciō Philippō cōnsulibus
      M. Fulvius dē Aetōlīs triumphāvit. Hannibal, quī, victō            10
      Antiochō, nē Rōmānīs trāderētur ad Prūsiam, Bīthȳniae
      rēgem, fūgerat, repetītus etiam ab eō est per T. Quīntium
      Flāminīnum. Et cum trādendus[83] Rōmānīs esset, venēnum
      bibit et apud Libyssam in fīnibus Nīcomēdēnsium sepultus
      est.                                                               15


      _Third Macedonian War, 176-168 B.C._

      =6.= Philippō, rēge Macedoniae, mortuō, quī et adversum
      Rōmānōs bellum gesserat et posteā Rōmānīs contrā Antiochum
      auxilium tulerat, fīlius ēius Perseus in Macedoniā
      rebellāvit ingentibus cōpiīs ad bellum parātīs. Nam adiūtōrēs
      habēbat Cotyn, Thraciae rēgem, et rēgem Īllyricī, Gentium          20
      nōmine.[84] Rōmānīs autem auxiliō erant Eumenēs,
      Asiae rēx, Ariarātus Cappadociae, Antiochus Syriae, Ptolemaeus
      Aegyptī, Masinissa Numidiae. Prūsiās autem Bīthȳniae,
      quamquam sorōrem Perseī uxōrem habēret, utrīsque
      sē aequum praebuit. Dux Rōmānōrum P. Licinius cōnsul               25
      contrā Perseum missus est et ā rēge gravī proeliō victus.
      Neque tamen Rōmānī, quamquam superātī, rēgī petentī
      pācem praestāre voluērunt, nisi hīs condiciōnibus: ut sē
   39 et suōs senātuī et populō Rōmānō dēderet.[85] Mox missus
      contrā eum L. Aemilius Paulus cōnsul et in Īllyricum C.
      Anicius praetor contrā Gentium. Sed Gentius facile ūnō
      proeliō victus mox sē dēdidit. Māter ēius et uxor et duo
      fīliī, frāter quoque simul in potestātem Rōmānōrum vēnērunt.        5
      Ita bellō intrā XXX diēs perfectō ante cognitum est
      Gentium victum quam coeptum bellum nūntiārētur.


      _Battle of Pydna, 168 B.C._

      =7.= Cum Perseō autem Aemilius Paulus cōnsul III Nōnās
      Septembrēs dīmicāvit vīcitque eum vīgintī mīlibus peditum
      ēius occīsīs. Equitātus cum rēge integer fūgit. Rōmānōrum          10
      centum mīlitēs āmissī sunt. Urbēs Macedoniae omnēs,
      quās rēx tenuerat, Rōmānīs sē dēdidērunt; ipse rēx, cum
      dēsererētur ab amīcīs, vēnit in Paulī potestātem. Sed
      honōrem eī cōnsul nōn quasi victō habuit. Nam et volentem
      ad pedēs sibi[86] cadere nōn permīsit et iūxtā sē in sellā         15
      conlocāvit. Macedonibus et Īllyriīs hae lēgēs ā Rōmānīs datae:
      ut līberī essent[85] et dīmidium eōrum tribūtōrum praestārent,[85]
      quae rēgibus praestitissent, ut appārēret populum Rōmānum
      prō aequitāte magis quam avāritiā dīmicāre. Itaque in conventū
      īnfīnītōrum populōrum Paulus hōc prōnūntiāvit et                   20
      lēgātiōnēs multārum gentium, quae ad eum vēnerant,
      māgnificentissimē convīviō pāvit, dīcēns ēiusdem hominis[87] esse
      dēbēre et bellō vincere et convīviī apparātū ēlegantem esse.


      _Revolt in Epirus._

      =8.= Mox septuāgintā cīvitātēs Ēpīrī, quae rebellārant, cēpit,
      praedam mīlitibus distribuit. Rōmam ingentī pompā rediit           25
   40 in nāvī Perseī, quae inūsitātae māgnitūdinis[88] fuisse trāditur,
      adeō ut sedecim ordinēs dīcātur habuisse rēmōrum. Triumphāvit
      autem māgnificentissimē in currū aureō cum duōbus
      fīliīs utrōque latere astantibus. Ductī sunt ante currum
      duo rēgis fīliī et ipse Perseus, XLV annōs nātus. Post eum          5
      etiam Anicius dē Īllyriīs triumphāvit. Gentius cum frātre
      et fīliīs ante currum ductus est. Ad hōc spectāculum rēgēs
      multārum gentium Rōmam vēnērunt, inter aliōs etiam
      Attalus atque Eumenēs, Asiae rēgēs, et Prūsiās Bīthȳniae.
      Māgnō honōre exceptī sunt et permittente senātū dōna               10
      quae attulerant in Capitōliō posuērunt. Prūsiās etiam
      fīlium suum Nīcomēdēn senātuī commendāvit.

      =9.= Īnsequentī annō L. Memmius in Lūsitāniā bene pūgnāvit.
      Mārcellus posteā cōnsul rēs ibīdem prōsperās gessit.


      _Third Punic War, 149-146 B.C._

      =10.= Tertium deinde bellum contrā Karthāginem suscipitur,         15
      sexcentēsimō et alterō ab urbe conditā annō, L. Mānliō
      Cēnsōrīnō et M. Mānīliō cōnsulibus, annō quīnquagēsimō
      prīmō postquam secundum Pūnicum trānsāctum erat. Hī
      profectī Karthāginem oppūgnāvērunt. Contrā eōs Hasdrubal,
      dux Karthāginiēnsium, dīmicābat. Famea, dux alius,                 20
      equitātuī Karthāginiēnsium praeerat. Scīpiō tunc, Scīpiōnis
      Āfricānī nepōs, tribūnus ibi mīlitābat. Hūius[89] apud omnēs
      ingēns metus et reverentia erat. Nam et parātissimus ad
      dīmicandum[90] et cōnsultissimus habēbātur. Itaque per eum
      multa ā cōnsulibus prōsperē gesta sunt, neque quicquam             25
      magis vel Hasdrubal vel Famea vītābant quam contrā eam
      Rōmānōrum partem committere ubi Scīpiō dīmicāret.

   41 =11.= Per idem tempus Masinissa, rēx Numidārum, per annōs
      sexāgintā ferē amīcus populī Rōmānī, annō vītae nōnāgēsimō
      septimō mortuus quadrāgintā quattuor fīliīs relīctīs
      Scīpiōnem dīvīsōrem rēgnī inter fīliōs suōs esse iussit.

      =12.= Cum igitur clārum Scīpiōnis nōmen esset, iuvenis adhūc        5
      cōnsul est factus et contrā Karthāginem missus. Is eam
      cēpit ac dīruit. Spolia ibi inventa, quae variārum cīvitātum
      excidiīs[91] Karthāgō conlēgerat, et ōrnāmenta urbium cīvitātibus
      Siciliae, Ītaliae, Āfricae reddidit, quae sua recognōscēbant.
      Ita Karthāgō septingentēsimō annō, quam condita                    10
      erat, dēlēta est. Scīpiō nōmen quod avus ēius accēperat
      meruit, scīlicet ut propter virtūtem etiam ipse Āfricānus
      iūnior vocārētur.

      =13.= Interim in Macedoniā quīdam Pseudophilippus arma
      mōvit et Rōmānum praetōrem P. Iuventium contrā sē missum           15
      ad interneciōnem vīcit. Post eum Q. Caecilius Metellus
      dux ā Rōmānīs contrā Pseudophilippum missus est et
      XXV mīlibus ēius occīsīs Macedoniam recēpit, ipsum etiam
      Pseudophilippum in potestātem suam redēgit.


      _Destruction of Corinth, 146 B.C._

      =14.= Corinthiīs quoque bellum indictum est, nōbilissimae          20
      Graeciae cīvitātī, propter iniūriam lēgātōrum Rōmānōrum.
      Hanc Mummius cōnsul cēpit et dīruit. Trēs igitur Rōmae
      simul cēleberrimī triumphī fuērunt: Āfricānī ex Āfricā,
      ante cūius currum ductus est Hasdrubal, Metellī ex Macedoniā,
      cūius currum praecessit Andriscus, īdem quī et Pseudophilippus,    25
      Mummī ex Corinthō, ante quem sīgna aēnea et
      pīctae tabulae et alia urbis clārissimae ōrnāmenta praelāta
      sunt.

   42 =15.= Iterum in Macedoniā Pseudopersēs, quī sē Perseī fīlium
      esse dīcēbat, conlēctīs servitiīs rebellāvit et, cum
      sēdecim mīlia armātōrum habēret, ā Tremelliō quaestōre
      superātus est.


      _Celtiberian War, 154 B.C._

      =16.= Eōdem tempore Metellus in Celtiberiā apud Hispānōs            5
      rēs ēgregiās gessit. Successit eī Q. Pompēius. Nec multō[92]
      post Q. quoque Caepiō ad idem bellum missus est, quod
      quīdam Viriāthus contrā Rōmānōs in Lūsitāniā gerēbat.
      Quō metū Viriāthus ā suīs interfectus est, cum quattuordecim
      annīs Hispāniās adversus Rōmānōs mōvisset. Pāstor                  10
      prīmō fuit, mox latrōnum dux, postrēmō tantōs ad bellum
      populōs concitāvit ut adsertor contrā Rōmānōs Hispāniae
      putārētur. Et cum interfectōrēs ēius praemium ā Caepiōne
      cōnsule peterent, respōnsum est numquam Rōmānīs placuisse
      imperātōrēs ā suīs mīlitibus interficī.                            15


      _Capture of Numantia, 133 B.C._

      =17.= Q. Pompēius deinde cōnsul ā Numantīnīs, quae Hispāniae
      cīvitās fuit opulentissima, superātus[93] pācem ignōbilem
      fēcit. Post eum C. Hostīlius Mancīnus cōnsul iterum cum
      Numantīnīs pācem fēcit īnfāmem, quam populus et senātus
      iussit īnfringī atque ipsum Mancīnum hostibus trādī, ut in         20
      illō, quem auctōrem foederis habēbant, iniūriam solūtī
      foederis[94] vindicārent. Post tantam igitur ignōminiam, quā
      ā Numantīnīs bis Rōmānī exercitūs fuerant subiugātī, P.
      Scīpiō Āfricānus secundō cōnsul factus et ad Numantiam
      missus est. Is prīmum mīlitem vitiōsum et ignāvum exercendō        25
   43 magis quam pūniendō sine aliquā ācerbitāte corrēxit,
      tum multās Hispāniae cīvitātēs partim cēpit, partim in
      dēditiōnem accēpit, postrēmō ipsam Numantiam diū obsessam
      famē confēcit et ā solō ēvertit, reliquam prōvinciam in
      fidem accēpit.                                                      5

      =18.= Eōdem tempore Attalus, rēx Asiae, frāter Eumenis,
      mortuus est hērēdemque populum Rōmānum relīquit. Ita
      imperiō Rōmānō per testāmentum Asia accessit.

      =19.= Mox etiam D. Iūnius Brūtus dē Callaecīs et Lūsitānīs
      māgnā glōriā triumphāvit et P. Scīpiō Āfricānus dē Numantīnīs      10
      secundum triumphum ēgit quartō decimō annō
      postquam priōrem dē Āfricā ēgerat.


      _War with Aristonicus, 131 B.C._

      =20.= Mōtum interim in Asiā bellum est ab Aristonīcō, Eumenis
      fīliō, quī ex concubīnā susceptus fuerat. Hīc Eumenēs
      frāter Attalī fuerat. Adversus eum missus P. Licinius              15
      Crassus īnfīnīta rēgum habuit auxilia. Nam et Bīthȳniae
      rēx Nīcomēdēs Rōmānōs iūvit et Mithradātēs Ponticus, cum
      quō bellum posteā gravissimum fuit, et Ariarātus Cappadox
      et Pylaemēnēs Paphlagōn. Victus est tamen Crassus
      et in proeliō interfectus est. Caput ipsīus Aristonīcō             20
      oblātum est, corpus Smyrnae sepultum. Posteā Perperna,
      cōnsul Rōmānus, quī successor Crassō veniēbat, audītā bellī
      fortūnā ad Asiam celerāvit et aciē victum Aristonīcum apud
      Stratonīcēn cīvitātem, quō cōnfūgerat, famē ad dēditiōnem
      compulit. Aristonīcus iussū[95] senātūs Rōmae in carcere           25
      strangulātus est. Triumphārī enim dē eō nōn poterat, quia
      Perperna apud Pergamum Rōmam rediēns diem obierat.

      =21.= L. Caeciliō Metellō et T. Quīntiō Flāminīnō cōnsulibus
      Karthāgō in Āfricā iussū[95] senātūs reparāta est, quae nunc
   44 manet, annīs duōbus et vīgintī postquam ā Scīpiōne fuerat
      ēversa. Dēductī sunt eō cīvēs Rōmānī.


      _War with Transalpine Gauls, 125-121 B.C._

      =22.= Annō sexcentēsimō vīcēsimō septimō ab urbe conditā
      C. Cassius Longīnus et Sex. Domitius Calvīnus cōnsulēs
      Gallīs trānsalpīnīs bellum intulērunt et Arvernōrum tunc            5
      nōbilissimae cīvitātī atque eōrum ducī Bituītō, īnfīnītamque
      multitūdinem iūxtā Rhodanum fluvium interfēcērunt.
      Praeda ex torquibus Gallōrum ingēns Rōmam perlāta est.
      Bituītus sē Domitiō dedit atque ab eō Rōmam dēductus est,
      māgnāque glōriā cōnsulēs ambō triumphāvērunt.                      10

      =23.= M. Porciō Catōne et Q. Mārciō Rēge cōnsulibus sexcentēsimō
      trīcēsimō et tertiō annō ab urbe conditā Narbōne
      in Galliā colōnia dēducta est annōque post ā L. Caeciliō
      Metellō et Q. Mūciō Scaevolā cōnsulibus dē Dalmatiā triumphātum
      est.                                                               15

      =24.= Ab urbe conditā annō sexcentēsimō trīcēsimō quīntō
      C. Catō cōnsul Scordiscīs intulit bellum ignōminiōsēque
      pūgnāvit.

      =25.= C. Caeciliō Metellō et Cn. Carbōne cōnsulibus duo
      Metellī frātrēs eōdem diē, alterum ex Sardiniā, alterum ex         20
      Thrāciā, triumphum ēgērunt, nūntiātumque Rōmae est
      Cimbrōs ē Galliā in Ītaliam trānsisse.


      _War with Jugurtha, 111-104 B.C._

      =26.= P. Scīpiōne Nāsīcā et L. Calpurniō Bēstiā cōnsulibus
      Iugurthae, Numidārum rēgī, bellum inlātum est, quod Adherbalem
      et Hiempsalem, Micipsae fīliōs, frātrēs suōs, rēgēs                25
      et populī Rōmānī amīcōs, interēmisset.[96] Missus adversum
   45 eum cōnsul Calpurnius Bēstia, corruptus rēgis pecūniā,
      pācem cum eō flāgitiōsissimam fēcit, quae ā senātū improbāta
      est. Posteā contrā eundem īnsequentī annō Sp. Postumius
      Albīnus profectus est. Is quoque per frātrem ignōminiōsē
      contrā Numidās pūgnāvit.                                            5

      =27.= Tertiō missus est Q. Caecilius Metellus cōnsul. Is
      exercitum ā priōribus ducibus corruptum ingentī sevēritāte
      et moderātiōne cum nihil in quemquam cruentum faceret,[97]
      ad disciplīnam Rōmānam redūxit. Iugurtham variīs proeliīs
      vīcit, elephantōs ēius occīdit vel cēpit, multās cīvitātēs ipsīus  10
      in dēditiōnem accēpit. Et cum iam fīnem bellō[98] positūrus
      esset, successum est[99] eī ā C. Mariō. Is Iugurtham et Bocchum,
      Mauretāniae rēgem, quī auxilium Iugurthae ferre
      coeperat, pariter superāvit. Aliquanta et ipse oppida Numidiae
      cēpit bellōque terminum posuit captō Iugurthā per                  15
      quaestōrem suum Cornēlium Sullam, ingentem virum, trādente
      Bocchō Iugurtham. Ā M. Iūniō Sīlānō, conlēga
      Q. Metellī, Cimbrī in Galliā victī sunt et ā Minuciō Rūfō in
      Macedoniā Scordiscī et Triballī, et ā Serviliō Caepiōne in
      Hispāniā Lūsitānī subāctī. Āctī sunt et duo triumphī dē            20
      Iugurthā, prīmus per Metellum, secundus per Marium.
      Ante currum tamen Marī Iugurtha cum duōbus fīliīs ductus
      est catēnātus et mox iussū cōnsulis in carcere strangulātus
      est.



   46 LIBER QUINTUS

      FROM THE END OF THE WAR WITH JUGURTHA TO THE END OF THE FIRST
      CIVIL WAR, 106-81 B.C.


      _War with the Cimbri and Teutones, 105-101 B.C. Battle
      of Aquae Sextiae, 102 B.C._

      =1.= Dum bellum in Numidiā contrā Iugurtham geritur,[100]
      Rōmānī cōnsulēs M. Mānlius et Q. Caepiō ā Cimbrīs et
      Teutonibus et Tugurīnīs et Ambrōnibus, quae erant Germānōrum
      et Gallōrum gentēs, victī sunt iūxtā flūmen Rhodanum
      ingentī interneciōne; etiam castra sua et māgnam                    5
      partem exercitūs perdidērunt. Timor Rōmae grandis fuit,
      quantus vix Hannibalis tempore nē iterum Gallī Rōmam
      venīrent.[101] Ergō Marius post victōriam Iugurthīnam secundō
      cōnsul est factus, bellumque eī contrā Cimbrōs et
      Teutonas dēcrētum est. Tertiō quoque eī et quārtō dēlātus          10
      est cōnsulātus, quia bellum Cimbricum prōtrahēbātur. Sed
      in quārtō cōnsulātū conlēgam habuit Q. Lutātium Catulum.
      Cum Cimbrīs itaque cōnflīxit et duōbus proeliīs CC mīlia
      hostium cecīdit, LXXX mīlia cēpit et ducem eōrum Teutobodum,
      propter quod meritum absēns quīntō cōnsul est factus.              15


      _Battle of Vercellae, 101 B.C._

      =2.= Intereā Cimbrī et Teutonēs, quōrum cōpia adhūc īnfīnīta
      erat, ad Ītaliam trānsiērunt. Iterum ā C. Mariō et Q. Catulō
      contrā eōs dīmicātum est, sed ā Catulī parte fēlicius. Nam
      proeliō, quod simul ambō gessērunt, CXL mīlia aut in pūgnā
      aut in fugā caesa sunt, LX mīlia capta. Rōmānī mīlitēs ex          20
   47 utrōque exercitū trecentī periērunt. Tria et trīgintā
      Cimbrīs[102] sīgna sublāta sunt; ex hīs exercitus Marī duo
      reportāvit, Catulī exercitus XXXI. Is bellī fīnis fuit; triumphus
      utrīque dēcrētus est.


      _Social War, 90-88 B.C._

      =3.= Sex. Iūliō Caesare et L. Mārciō Philippō cōnsulibus            5
      sexcentēsimō quīnquāgēsimō nōnō annō ab urbe conditā, cum
      prope alia omnia bella cessārent, in Ītaliā gravissimum
      bellum Pīcentēs, Marsī Paelīgnīque mōvērunt, quī, cum annīs
      numerōsīs iam populō Rōmānō oboedīrent, tum lībertātem
      sibi[103] aequam adserēre coepērunt. Perniciōsum admodum           10
      hōc bellum fuit. P. Rutilius cōnsul in eō occīsus est, Caepiō,
      nōbilis iuvenis, Porcius Catō, alius cōnsul. Ducēs
      autem adversus Rōmānōs Pīcentibus[104] et Marsīs fuērunt
      T. Vettius, Hierius Asinius, T. Hērennius, A. Cluentius.
      Ā Rōmānīs bene contrā eōs pūgnātum est ā C. Mariō, quī             15
      sexiēs cōnsul fuerat, et ā Cn. Pompēiō, māximē tamen ā
      L. Cornēliō Sullā, quī inter alia ēgregia ita Cluentium, hostium
      ducem, cum māgnīs cōpiīs fūdit ut ex suīs[105] ūnum
      āmitteret.[106] Quadrienniō cum gravī tamen calamitāte hōc
      bellum trāctum est. Quīntō demum annō fīnem accēpit per            20
      L. Cornēlium Sullam cōnsulem, cum anteā in eōdem bellō
      ipse multa strēnuē, sed praetor, ēgisset.


      _First Mithradatic War, 88-84 B.C._

      =4.= Annō urbis conditae sexcentēsimō sexāgēsimō secundō
      prīmum Rōmae bellum cīvīle commōtum est, eōdem annō
   48 etiam Mithradāticum. Causam bellō cīvīlī C. Marius sexiēs
      cōnsul dedit. Nam cum Sulla cōnsul contrā Mithradātēn
      gestūrus[107] bellum, quī Asiam et Achaeam occupāverat,
      mitterētur, isque exercitum in Campāniā paulisper tenēret,
      ut bellī sociālis, dē quō dīximus, quod intrā Ītaliam gestum        5
      fuerat, reliquiae tollerentur, Marius adfectāvit ut ipse ad
      bellum Mithradāticum mittēretur.[108] Quā rē[109] Sulla commōtus
      cum exercitū ad urbem vēnit. Illīc contrā Marium
      et Sulpicium dīmicāvit. Prīmus urbem Rōmam armātus
      ingressus est, Sulpicium interfēcit, Marium fugāvit, atque         10
      ita ōrdinātīs cōnsulibus in futūrum annum Cn. Octāviō et
      L. Cornēliō Cinnā ad Asiam profectus est.


      _Mithradates invades Asia._

      =5.= Mithradātēs enim, quī Pontī rēx erat atque Armeniam
      Minōrem et tōtum Ponticum mare in circuitū cum Bosporō
      tenēbat, prīmum Nīcomēdēn, amīcum populī Rōmānī, Bīthȳniā[110]     15
      voluit expellere senātuīque mandāvit bellum sē eī propter
      iniūriās quās passus fuerat inlātūrum. Ā senātū respōnsum
      Mithradātī est, sī id faceret, quod bellum ā Rōmānīs et ipse
      patērētur. Quārē īrātus Cappadociam statim occupāvit et
      ex eā Ariobarzānēn, rēgem et amīcum populī Rōmānī, fugāvit.        20
      Mox etiam Bīthȳniam invāsit et Paphlagoniam pulsīs
      rēgibus, amīcīs populī Rōmānī, Pylaemēne et Nīcomēde.
      Inde Ephesum contendit et per omnem Asiam litterās mīsit
      ut ubicumque inventī essent[111] cīvēs Rōmānī, ūnō diē
      occiderentur.                                                      25


   49 _Sulla takes Athens, 87 B.C. Battle of Chaeronea, 86 B.C._

      =6.= Intereā etiam Athēnae, cīvitās Achaeae, ab Aristōne
      Athēniēnsī Mithradātī trādita est. Mīserat enim iam ad
      Achaeam Mithradātēs Archelāum, ducem suum, cum centum
      et vīgintī mīlibus equitum[112] ac peditum, per quem etiam
      reliqua Graecia occupāta est. Sulla Archelāum apud Pīraeum,         5
      nōn longē ab Athēnīs, obsēdit, ipsās Athēnās cēpit.
      Posteā commissō proeliō contrā Archelāum ita eum vīcit ut
      ex CXX mīlibus vix decem Archelāō superessent, ex Sullae
      exercitū XIII tantum hominēs interficerentur. Hāc pūgnā
      Mithradātēs cognitā septuāgintā mīlia lēctissima ex Asiā           10
      Archelāō mīsit, contrā quem iterum Sulla commīsit. Prīmō
      proeliō quīndecim mīlia hostium interfecta sunt et fīlius
      Archelāī Diogenēs; secundō omnēs Mithradātis cōpiae exstinctae
      sunt, Archelāus ipse trīduō nūdus in palūdibus
      latuit. Hāc rē audītā Mithradātēs iussit cum Sullā dē pāce         15
      agī.


      _Terms of Peace, 84 B.C. Sulla’s Return to Italy, 83 B.C._

      =7.= Interim eō tempore Sulla etiam Dardanōs, Scordiscōs,
      Dalmatās et Maedōs partim vīcit, aliōs in fidem accēpit.
      Sed cum lēgātī ā rēge Mithradāte, quī pācem petēbant,
      vēnissent, nōn aliter sē datūrum Sulla esse respōndit, nisi        20
      rēx relīctīs hīs, quae occupāverat, ad rēgnum suum redisset.
      Posteā tamen ad conloquium ambō vēnērunt. Pāx inter eōs
      ōrdināta est, ut Sulla ad bellum cīvīle festīnāns ā tergō
      perīculum nōn habēret. Nam dum Sulla in Achaeā atque
      Asiā Mithradātēn vincit,[113] Marius, quī fugātus erat, et         25
      Cornēlius Cinna, ūnus ex cōnsulibus, bellum in Ītaliā
   50 reparāvērunt et ingressī urbem Rōmam nōbilissimōs ē senātū et
      cōnsulārēs virōs interfēcērunt, multōs prōscrīpsērunt, ipsīus
      Sullae domō ēversā fīliōs et uxōrem ad fugam compulērunt.
      Ūniversus reliquus senātus ex urbe fugiēns ad Sullam in
      Graeciam vēnit, orāns ut patriae subvenīret. Ille in                5
      Ītaliam trāiēcit, bellum cīvīle gestūrus adversus Norbānum
      et Scīpiōnem cōnsulēs. Et prīmō proeliō contrā Norbānum
      dīmicāvit nōn longē ā Capuā.[114] Tunc sex mīlia ēius cecīdit,
      sex mīlia cēpit, CXXIV suōs āmīsit. Inde etiam ad Scīpiōnem
      sē convertit et ante proelium tōtum ēius exercitum sine            10
      sanguine in dēditiōnem accēpit.


      _Battle of Colline Gate, 82 B.C._

      =8.= Sed cum Rōmae mūtātī cōnsulēs essent, Marius, Marī
      fīlius, ac Papīrius Carbō cōnsulātum accēpissent, Sulla
      contrā Marium iūniōrem dīmicāvit et XV mīlibus ēius occīsīs
      CCCC dē suīs perdidit. Mox etiam urbem ingressus est.              15
      Marium, Marī fīlium, Praeneste[115] persecūtus obsēdit et ad
      mortem compulit. Rūrsus pūgnam gravissimam habuit
      contrā Lamponium et Carīnātem, ducēs partis Mariānae, ad
      portam Collīnam. LXX mīlia hostium in eō proeliō contrā
      Sullam fuisse dīcuntur. XII mīlia sē Sullae dēdidērunt,            20
      cēterī in aciē, in castris, in fugā īnsatiābilī īrā victōrum
      cōnsūmptī sunt. Cn. quoque Carbō, cōnsul alter, ab Arīminō
      ad Siciliam fūgit et ibi per Cn. Pompēium interfectus
      est, quem adulēscentem Sulla atque annōs ūnum et vīgintī
      nātum cognitā ēius industriā exercitibus praefēcerat, ut           25
      secundus ā Sullā habērētur.

      =9.= Occīsō ergō Carbōne Siciliam Pompēius recēpit. Trānsgressus
   51 inde ad Āfricam Domitium, Mariānae partis ducem,
      et Hiardam, rēgem Mauretāniae, quī Domitiō auxilium ferēbat,
      occīdit. Post haec Sulla dē Mithradāte ingentī glōriā
      triumphāvit. Cn. etiam Pompēius, quod nūllī Rōmānōrum
      tribūtum erat, quārtum et vīcēsimum annum agēns dē                  5
      Āfricā triumphāvit. Hunc fīnem habuērunt duo bella
      fūnestissima, Ītalicum, quod et sociāle dictum est, et cīvīle,
      quae ambō trācta sunt per annōs decem. Cōnsūmpsērunt
      ultrā CL mīlia hominum, virōs cōnsulārēs XXIV, praetōriōs
      VII, aedīlīciōs LX, senātōrēs ferē CC.                             10



      LIBER SEXTUS

      FROM THE END OF THE FIRST CIVIL WAR TO THE ASSASSINATION OF
      CAESAR, 81-44 B.C.


      _War with Sertorius, 78-72 B.C._

      =1.= M. Aemiliō Lepidō Q. Catulō cōnsulibus, cum Sulla
      rem publicam composuisset, bella nova exārsērunt, ūnum in
      Hispāniā, aliud in Pamphȳliā et Ciliciā, tertium in Macedoniā,
      quārtum in Dalmatiā. Nam Sertōrius, quī partium
      Mariānārum fuerat, timēns fortūnam cēterōrum, quī interēmptī       15
      erant, ad bellum commōvit Hispāniās. Missī sunt
      contrā eum ducēs Q. Caecilius Metellus, fīlius ēius quī
      Iugurtham rēgem vīcit, et L. Domitius praetor. Ā Sertōrī
      duce Hirtulēiō Domitius occīsus est. Metellus variō successū
      contrā Sertōrium dīmicāvit. Posteā cum impār pūgnae[116]           20
      sōlus Metellus putārētur, Cn. Pompēius ad Hispāniās
      missus est. Ita duōbus ducibus adversīs Sertōrius fortūnā
      variā saepe pūgnāvit. Octāvō demum annō per suōs occīsus
   52 est, et fīnis eī bellō datus per Cn. Pompēium adulēscentem
      et Q. Metellum Pium atque omnēs prope Hispāniae in
      diciōnem populī Rōmānī redāctae.

      =2.= Ad Macedoniam missus est Ap. Claudius post cōnsulātum.
      Levia proelia habuit contrā variās gentēs, quae Rhodopam            5
      prōvinciam incolēbant, atque ibi morbō mortuus est.
      Missus eī successor C. Scrībōnius Cūriō post cōnsulātum.
      Is Dardanōs vīcit et ūsque ad Dānuvium penetrāvit triumphumque
      meruit et intrā triennium bellō fīnem dedit.


      _War with the Isaurians, 78 B.C._

      =3.= Ad Ciliciam et Pamphȳliam missus est P. Servīlius ex          10
      cōnsule, vir strēnuus. Is Ciliciam subēgit, Lyciae urbēs
      clārissimās oppūgnāvit et cēpit, in hīs Phasēlida, Olympum,
      Cōrycum. Isaurōs quoque aggressus in diciōnem redēgit
      atque intrā triennium bellō fīnem dedit. Prīmus omnium
      Rōmānōrum[117] in Taurō iter fēcit. Revertēns triumphum            15
      accēpit et nōmen Isauricī meruit.

      =4.= Ad Īllyricum missus est C. Coscōnius prō cōnsule. Multam
      partem Dalmatiae subēgit, Salōnās cēpit et compositō
      bellō Rōmam post biennium rediit.

      =5.= Īsdem temporibus cōnsul M. Aemilius Lepidus, Catulī           20
      conlēga, bellum cīvīle voluit commovēre, intrā ūnam tamen
      aestātem mōtus ēius oppressus est. Ita ūnō tempore multī
      simul triumphī fuērunt, Metellī ex Hispāniā, Pompēī secundus
      ex Hispāniā, Cūriōnis ex Macedoniā, Servīlī ex Isauriā.


      _The Third Mithradatic War, 74-63 B.C._

      =6.= Annō urbis conditae sexcentēsimō septuāgēsimō sextō           25
      L. Liciniō Lūcullō et M. Aurēliō Cottā cōnsulibus mortuus
   53 est Nīcomēdēs, rēx Bīthȳniae, et per testāmentum populum
      Rōmānum fēcit hērēdem. Mithradātēs pāce ruptā Bīthȳniam
      et Asiam rūrsus voluit invādere. Adversus eum
      ambō cōnsulēs missī variam habuēre fortūnam. Cotta apud
      Chalcēdōna victus ab eō aciē, etiam intrā oppidum coāctus           5
      est et obsessus. Sed cum sē inde Mithradātēs Cȳzicum
      trānstulisset, ut Cȳzicō captā tōtam Asiam invāderet, Lūcullus
      eī, alter cōnsul, occurrit. Ac dum Mithradātēs in obsidiōne
      Cȳzicī commorātur, ipse eum ā tergō obsēdit famēque
      cōnsūmpsit et multīs proeliīs vīcit, postrēmō Bȳzantium,           10
      quae nunc Cōnstantīnopolis est, fugāvit. Nāvālī quoque
      proeliō ducēs ēius Lūcullus oppressit. Ita ūnā hieme et
      aestāte ā Lūcullō centum ferē mīlia rēgis exstīncta sunt.


      _War with the Gladiators, 73-71 B.C._

      =7.= Annō urbis Rōmae sexcentēsimō septuāgēsimō octāvō
      Macedoniam prōvinciam M. Licinius Lūcullus accēpit,                15
      cōnsōbrīnus Lūcullī, quī contrā Mithradātēn bellum gerēbat.
      Et in Ītaliā novum bellum subitō commōtum est. Septuāgintā
      enim et quattuor gladiātōrēs ducibus Spartacō, Crixō
      et Oenomaō effrāctō Capuae ludō fūgērunt et per Ītaliam
      vagantēs paene nōn levius bellum in eā, quam Hannibal              20
      mōverat, parāvērunt. Nam multīs ducibus et duōbus simul
      Rōmānōrum cōnsulibus victīs sexāgintā ferē mīlium armātōrum
      exercitum congregāvērunt, victīque sunt in Āpūliā ā
      M. Liciniō Crassō prō cōnsule, et post multās calamitātēs
      Ītaliae tertiō annō bellō huic est fīnis impositus.                25

      =8.= Sexcentēsimō octōgēsimō prīmō annō urbis conditae, P.
      Cornēliō Lentulō et Cn. Aufidiō Oreste cōnsulibus, duo tantum
      gravia bella in imperiō Rōmānō erant, Mithradāticum
      et Macedonicum. Haec duo Lūcullī agēbant, L. Lūcullus
      et M. Lūcullus. L. ergō Lūcullus post pūgnam Cȳzicēnam,            30
   54 quā vīcerat Mithradātēn, et nāvālem, quā ducēs ēius oppresserat,
      persecūtus est eum et receptā Paphlagoniā atque
      Bīthȳniā etiam rēgnum ēius invāsit, Sinōpēn et Amīson,
      cīvitātēs Pontī nōbilissimās, cēpit. Secundō proeliō apud
      Cabīra cīvitātem, quō ingentēs cōpiās ex omnī rēgnō addūxerat       5
      Mithradātēs, cum XXX mīlia lēctissima rēgis ā quīnque
      mīlibus Rōmānōrum vāstāta essent, Mithradātēs fugātus
      est, castra ēius dīrepta. Armenia quoque Minor, quam
      tenuerat, eīdem sublāta est. Susceptus tamen est Mithradātēs
      post fugam ā Tigrāne, Armeniae rēge, quī tum ingentī               10
      glōriā imperābat, Persās saepe vīcerat, Mesopotamiam occupāverat
      et Syriam et Phoenīcēs partem.


      _Battle of Tigranocerta, 69 B.C._

      =9.= Ergō Lūcullus repetēns hostem fugātum etiam rēgnum
      Tigrānis ingressus est. Tigrānocertam, cīvitātem Arzanēnae,
      nōbilissimam rēgnī Armeniacī, cēpit, ipsum rēgem                   15
      cum septem mīlibus quīngentīs clībanāriīs et centum mīlibus
      sagittāriōrum et armātōrum venientem decem et octō
      mīlia mīlitum habēns ita vīcit ut māgnam partem Armeniōrum
      dēlēverit. Inde Nisibīn profectus eam quoque
      cīvitātem cum rēgis frātre cēpit. Sed hī quōs in Pontō             20
      Lūcullus relīquerat cum exercitūs parte, ut regīōnēs victās
      et iam Rōmānōrum tuērentur, neglegenter sē et avārē
      agentēs occāsiōnem iterum Mithradātī in Pontum inrumpendī[118]
      dedērunt, atque ita bellum renovātum est. Lūcullō
      parantī captā Nisibī contrā Persās expeditiōnem successor          25
      est missus.

      =10.= Alter autem Lūcullus, quī Macedoniam administrābat,
      Bessīs prīmus Rōmānōrum intulit bellum atque eōs ingentī
   55 proeliō in Haemō monte superāvit. Oppidum Uscudamam,
      quod Bessī habitābant, eōdem diē quō aggressus est vīcit,
      Cabylēn cēpit, ūsque ad Dānuvium penetrāvit. Inde multās
      suprā Pontum positās cīvitātēs aggressus est. Illīc Apolloniam
      ēvertit, Callatim, Parthenopolim, Tomos, Histrum,                   5
      Burziaonem cēpit bellōque cōnfectō Rōmam rediit. Ambō
      triumphāvērunt, tamen Lūcullus, quī contrā Mithradātēn
      pūgnāverat, māiōre glōriā, cum tantōrum rēgnōrum[119] victor
      redisset.

      =11.= Confectō bellō Macedonicō, manente Mithradāticō,             10
      quod recedente Lūcullō rēx conlēctīs auxiliīs reparāverat,
      bellum Crēticum ortum est. Ad id missus Q. Caecilius Metellus
      ingentibus proeliīs intrā triennium omnem prōvinciam
      cēpit, appellātusque est Crēticus atque ex īnsulā triumphāvit.
      Quō tempore Libya quoque Rōmānō imperiō per                        15
      testāmentum Appiōnis, quī rēx ēius fuerat, accessit, in quā
      inclutae urbēs erant Berenīcē, Ptolemāïs, Cȳrēnē.


      _Cn. Pompey takes command, 66 B.C._

      =12.= Dum haec geruntur, pīrātae omnia maria īnfestābant
      ita ut Rōmānīs tōtō orbe victōribus sōla nāvigātiō tūta nōn
      esset. Quārē id bellum Cn. Pompēiō dēcrētum est. Quod              20
      intrā paucōs mēnsēs ingentī et fēlicitāte et celeritāte
      cōnfēcit. Mox eī dēlātum etiam bellum contrā Mithradātēn et
      Tigrānēn. Quō susceptō Mithradātēn in Armeniā Minōre
      nocturnō proeliō vīcit, castra dīripuit, quadrāgintā mīlia
      ēius occīdit, vīgintī tantum dē exercitū[120] suō perdidit et      25
      duōs centuriōnēs. Mithradātēs cum uxōre fūgit et duōbus
      comitibus. Neque multō post, cum in suōs saevīret, Pharnacis,
   56 fīliī suī, apud mīlitēs sēditiōne ad mortem coāctus
      venēnum hausit. Hunc fīnem habuit Mithradātēs. Periit
      autem apud Bosporum, vir ingentis industriae[121] cōnsiliīque.
      Rēgnāvit annīs sexāgintā, vīxit septuāgintā duōbus, contrā
      Rōmānōs bellum habuit annīs quadrāgintā.                            5

      =13.= Tigrānī deinde Pompēius bellum intulit. Ille sē eī
      dēdidit et in castra Pompēī sextō decimō mīliāriō ab Artaxatā
      vēnit ac diadēma suum, cum prōcubuisset ad genua
      Pompēī, in manibus ipsīus conlocāvit. Quod eī Pompēius
      reposuit honōrificēque eum habitum rēgnī tamen parte               10
      multāvit et grandī pecūniā. Adēmpta est eī[122] Syria, Phoenīcē,
      Sophanēnē; sex mīlia praetereā talentōrum argentī
      indicta, quae populō Rōmānō daret, quia bellum sine causā
      Rōmānīs commōvisset.[123]


      _Pompey subdues Syria and Palestine, 64 B.C._

      =14.= Pompēius mox etiam Albānīs bellum intulit et eōrum           15
      rēgem Orōdēn ter vīcit, postrēmō per epistulās ac mūnera
      rogātus veniam eī ac pācem dedit. Hibēriae quoque rēgem
      Artacēn vīcit aciē et in dēditiōnem accēpit. Armeniam
      Minōrem Dēiotarō, Galatiae rēgī, dōnāvit, quia socius bellī
      Mithradāticī fuerat. Attalō et Pylaemēnī Paphlagoniam              20
      reddidit. Aristarchum Colchīs rēgem imposuit. Mox Itūraeōs
      et Arabās vīcit. Et cum vēnisset in Syriam, Seleucīam,
      vīcīnam Antiochīae[124] cīvitātem, lībertāte[125] dōnāvit,
      quod rēgem Tigrānēn nōn recēpisset.[123] Antiochēnsibus
      obsidēs reddidit. Aliquantum agrōrum Daphnēnsibus dedit,           25
   57 quō lūcus ibi spatiōsior fieret,[126] dēlectātus locī
      amoenitāte et aquārum abundantiā. Inde ad Iūdaeam trānsgressus
      est, Hierosolyma, caput gentis, tertiō mēnse cēpit XII mīlibus
      Iūdaeōrum occīsīs, cēterīs in fidem accēptīs. Hīs gestīs
      in Asiam sē recēpit et fīnem antīquissimō bellō dedit.              5


      _Cicero Consul. Conspiracy of Catiline, 63 B.C._

      =15.= M. Tulliō Cicerōne ōrātōre et C. Antōniō cōnsulibus,
      annō ab urbe conditā sexcentēsimō octōgēsimō nōnō, L.
      Sergius Catilīna, nōbilissimī generis vir, sed ingeniī
      prāvissimī, ad dēlendam patriam[127] coniūrāvit cum quibusdam
      clārīs quidem sed audācibus virīs. Ā Cicerōne urbe expulsus        10
      est. Sociī ēius dēprehēnsī in carcere strangulātī
      sunt. Ab Antōniō, alterō cōnsule, Catilīna ipse victus
      proeliō est interfectus.


      _Triumphs of Metellus and Pompey, 62 B.C._

      =16.= Sexcentēsimō nōnāgēsimō annō urbis conditae D. Iūniō
      Sīlānō et L. Mūrēnā cōnsulibus Metellus dē Crētā triumphāvit,      15
      Pompēius dē bellō pīrāticō et Mithradāticō. Nūlla
      umquam pompa triumphī similis fuit. Ductī sunt ante
      ēius currum fīliī Mithradātis, fīlius Tigrānis et Aristobūlus,
      rēx Iūdaeōrum; praelāta est ingēns pecūnia et aurī atque
      argentī īnfīnītum. Hōc tempore nūllum per orbem terrārum           20
      grave bellum erat.


      _Caesar Consul, 59 B.C. Governor of Gaul, 58-49 B.C._

      =17.= Annō urbis conditae sexcentēsimō nōnāgēsimō tertiō
      C. Iūlius Caesar, quī posteā imperāvit, cum L. Bibulō
   58 cōnsul est factus. Dēcrēta est eī Gallia et Īllyricum cum
      legiōnibus decem. Is prīmus vīcit Helvētiōs, quī nunc
      Sēquanī appellantur, deinde vincendō[128] per bella gravissima
      ūsque ad Ōceanum Britannicum prōcessit. Domuit autem
      annīs nōvem ferē omnem Galliam, quae inter Alpēs, flūmen            5
      Rhodanum, Rhēnum et Ōceanum est et circuitū patet ad
      bis et trīciēs centēna mīlia[129] passuum. Britannīs mox bellum
      intulit, quibus ante eum nē nōmen quidem Rōmānōrum cognitum
      erat, eōsque victōs obsidibus acceptīs stīpendiāriōs
      fēcit. Galliae[130] autem tribūtī nōmine annuum imperāvit          10
      stīpendium quadringentiēs, Germānōsque trāns Rhēnum
      aggressus immanissimīs proeliīs vīcit. Inter tot successūs
      ter male pūgnāvit, apud Arvērnōs semel praesēns et absēns
      in Germāniā bis. Nam lēgātī ēius duo, Titūrius et Aurunculēius,
      per īnsidiās caesī sunt.                                           15


      _Battle of Carrae; M. Licinius Crassus slain, 53 B.C._

      =18.= Circā eadem tempora, annō urbis conditae sexcentēsimō
      nōnāgēsimō septimō, M. Licinius Crassus, conlēga Cn. Pompēī
      Māgnī in cōnsulātū secundō, contrā Parthōs missus est
      et cum circā Carrās contrā ōmen et auspicia dīmicāsset, ā
      Surēnā Orōdis rēgis duce victus ad postrēmum interfectus
      est cum fīliō, clārissimō et praestantissimō iuvene.               20
      Reliquiae exercitus per C. Cassium quaestōrem servātae sunt,
      quī singulārī animō[131] perditās rēs tantā virtūte restituit ut
      Persās rediēns trāns Euphrātēn crēbrīs proeliīs vinceret.[132]


   59 _The Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, 49-45 B.C.
      Caesar invades Italy, Pompey flees to Greece, 49 B.C._

      =19.= Hinc iam bellum cīvīle successit exsecrandum[133] et
      lacrimābile, quō praeter calamitātēs, quae in proeliīs accidērunt,
      etiam populī Rōmānī fortūna mūtāta est. Caesar enim
      rediēns ex Galliā victor coepit poscere alterum cōnsulātum
      atque ita, ut sine dubietāte aliquā eī dēferrētur. Contrādictum     5
      est ā Mārcellō cōnsule, ā Bibulō, ā Pompēiō, ā Catōne,
      iussusque dīmissīs exercitibus ad urbem redīre. Propter
      quam iniūriam ab Arīminō, ubi mīlitēs congregātōs habēbat,
      adversum patriam cum exercitū vēnit. Cōnsulēs cum Pompēiō
      senātusque omnis atque ūniversa nōbilitās ex urbe                  10
      fūgit[134] et in Graeciam trānsiit. Apud Ēpīrum, Macedoniam,
      Achaeam Pompēiō duce senātus contrā Caesarem bellum
      parāvit.


      _Caesar crosses to Spain._

      =20.= Caesar vacuam urbem ingressus dictātōrem sē fēcit.
      Inde Hispāniās petiit. Ibi Pompēī exercitūs validissimōs et        15
      fortissimōs cum tribus ducibus, L. Āfraniō, M. Petrēiō, M.
      Varrōne, superāvit. Inde regressus in Graeciam trānsiit,
      adversum Pompēium dīmicāvit. Prīmō proeliō victus est
      et fugātus, ēvāsit tamen, quia nocte interveniente Pompēius
      sequī nōluit, dīxitque Caesar nec Pompēium scīre vincere           20
      et illō tantum diē sē potuisse superārī. Deinde in Thessaliā
      apud Palaeopharsālum prōductīs utrimque ingentibus
      cōpiīs dīmicāvērunt. Pompēī aciēs habuit XL mīlia peditum,
      equitēs in sinistrō cornū sexcentōs, in dextrō quīngentōs,
      praetereā tōtīus Orientis auxilia, tōtam nōbilitātem,              25
   60 innumerōs senātōrēs, praetōriōs, cōnsulārēs et quī māgnōrum
      iam bellōrum victōrēs fuissent.[135] Caesar in aciē suā habuit
      peditum nōn integra XXX mīlia, equitēs mīlle.


      _Battle of Pharsalus. Pompey is defeated, flees to Egypt,
      and is slain, 48 B.C._

      =21.= Numquam adhūc Rōmānae cōpiae in ūnum neque
      māiōrēs neque meliōribus ducibus convēnerant, tōtum terrārum        5
      orbem facile subāctūrae,[136] sī contrā barbarōs dūcerentur.[137]
      Pūgnātum tum est ingentī contentiōne, victusque ad postrēmum
      Pompēius et castra ēius dīrepta sunt. Ipse fugātus
      Alexandrīam petiit, ut ā rēge Aegyptī, cuī tūtor ā senātū
      datus fuerat propter iuvenīlem ēius aetātem, acciperet auxilia.    10
      Quī fortūnam magis quam amīcitiam secūtus occīdit
      Pompēium, caput ēius et ānulum Caesarī mīsit. Quō cōnspectō
      Caesar etiam lacrimās fūdisse dīcitur, tantī virī intuēns
      caput et generī quondam suī.


      _Caesar defeats Ptolemy._

      =22.= Mox Caesar Alexandrīam vēnit. Ipsī quoque Ptolemaeus         15
      parāre voluit īnsidiās, quā causā bellum rēgī inlātum
      est. Victus in Nīlō periit inventumque est ēius corpus cum
      lōrīcā aureā. Caesar Alexandrīā[138] potītus rēgnum Cleopatrae
      dedit, Ptolemaeī sorōrī. Rediēns inde Caesar Pharnacēn,
      Mithradātis Māgnī fīlium, quī Pompēiō in auxilium apud             20
      Thessaliam fuerat, rebellantem in Pontō et multās populī
      Rōmānī prōvinciās occupantem vīcit aciē, posteā ad mortem
      coēgit.


   61 _Battle of Thapsus, 46 B.C._

      =23.= Inde Rōmam regressus tertiō sē cōnsulem fēcit cum
      M. Aemiliō Lepidō, quī eī magister equitum dictātōrī ante
      annum[139] fuerat. Inde in Āfricam profectus est, ubi īnfīnīta
      nōbilitās cum Iubā, Mauretāniae rēge, bellum reparāverat.
      Ducēs autem Rōmānī erant P. Cornēlius Scīpiō ex genere              5
      antīquissimō Scīpiōnis Āfricānī (hīc etiam socer Pompēī
      Māgnī fuerat), M. Petrēius, Q. Vārus, M. Porcius Catō,
      L. Cornēlius Faustus, Sullae dictātōris fīlius. Contrā hōs
      commissō proeliō post multās dīmicātiōnēs victor fuit Caesar.
      Catō, Scīpiō, Petrēius, Iuba ipsī sē occīdērunt. Faustus,          10
      Sullae quondam dictātōris fīlius, Pompēī gener, ā
      Caesare interfectus est.


      _Battle of Munda, 45 B.C._

      =24.= Post annum[139] Caesar Rōmam regressus quārtō sē cōnsulem
      fēcit et statim ad Hispāniās est profectus, ubi Pompēī
      fīliī, Cn. Pompēius et Sex. Pompēius, ingēns bellum                15
      praeparāverant. Multa proelia fuērunt, ultimum apud[140] Mundam
      cīvitātem, in quō adeō Caesar paene victus est ut fugientibus
      suīs sē voluerit occīdere, nē post tantam reī mīlitāris
      glōriam in potestātem adulēscentium nātus annōs sex et
      quīnquāgintā vēnīret. Dēnique revocātīs suīs vīcit. Ex             20
      Pompēī fīliīs māior occīsus est, minor fūgit.


      _Caesar Monarch, 45 B.C. Caesar Assassinated, 44 B.C._

      =25.= Inde Caesar bellīs cīvīlibus tōtō orbe compositīs Rōmam
      rediit. Agere īnsolentius[141] coepit et contrā cōnsuētūdinem
   62 Rōmānae lībertātis. Cum ergō et honōrēs ex suā
      voluntāte praestāret, quī ā populō anteā dēferēbantur, nec
      senātuī ad sē venientī adsurgeret aliaque rēgia ac paene
      tyrannica faceret, coniūrātum est[142] in eum ā sexāgintā vel
      amplius senātōribus equitibusque Rōmānīs. Praecipuī fuērunt         5
      inter coniūrātōs duo Brūtī ex eō genere Brūtī, quī prīmus
      Rōmae cōnsul fuerat et rēgēs expulerat, et C. Cassius et
      Servīlius Casca. Ergō Caesar, cum senātūs diē inter cēterōs
      vēnisset ad cūriam, tribus et vīgintī vulneribus cōnfossus est.



      LIBER SEPTIMUS

      FROM THE ASSASSINATION OF CAESAR TO THE DEATH OF THE EMPEROR
      DOMITIAN, 44 B.C.-96 A.D.


      _Civil War with Hirtius and Pansa, 44-43 B.C._

      =1.= Annō urbis septingentēsimō ferē ac nōnō interfectō            10
      Caesare cīvīlia bella reparāta sunt. Percussōribus[143] enim
      Caesaris senātus favēbat. Antōnius cōnsul partium Caesaris
      cīvīlibus bellīs opprimere eōs cōnābātur. Ergō turbātā rē
      pūblicā multa Antōnius scelera committēns ā senātū hostis
      iūdicātus est. Missī ad eum persequendum duo cōnsulēs,             15
      Pānsa et Hīrtius, et Octāviānus adulēscēns annōs X et VIII
      nātus, Caesaris nepōs, quem ille testāmentō hērēdem relīquerat
      et nōmen suum ferre iusserat. Hīc est, quī posteā
      Augustus est dictus et rērum[144] potītus. Quī profectī contrā
      Antōnium trēs ducēs vīcērunt eum. Ēvēnit tamen ut victōrēs         20
   63 cōnsulēs ambō morerentur. Quārē trēs exercitūs ūnī
      Caesarī Augustō pāruērunt.


      _The Second Triumvirate, 43 B.C._

      =2.= Fugātus Antōnius āmissō exercitū cōnfūgit ad Lepidum,
      quī Caesarī[145] magister equitum fuerat et tum mīlitum cōpiās
      grandēs habēbat, ā quō susceptus est. Mox Lepidō operam             5
      dante Caesar pācem cum Antōniō fēcit et quasi vindicātūrus
      patris suī mortem, ā quō per testāmentum fuerat adoptātus,
      Rōmam cum exercitū profectus extorsit ut sibi vīcēsimō
      annō cōnsulātus darētur. Senātum prōscrīpsit, cum Antōniō
      ac Lepidō rem pūblicam armīs tenēre coepit. Per hōs[146]           10
      etiam Cicero ōrātor occīsus est multīque aliī nōbilēs.


      _The Battle of Philippi, 42 B.C._

      =3.= Intereā Brūtus et Cassius, interfectōrēs Caesaris, ingēns
      bellum mōvērunt. Erant enim per Macedoniam et
      Orientem multī exercitūs, quōs occupāverant. Profectī sunt
      igitur contrā eōs Caesar Octāviānus Augustus et M. Antōnius;       15
      remānserat enim ad dēfendendam Ītaliam Lepidus.
      Apud Philippōs, Macedoniae urbem, contrā eōs pūgnāvērunt.
      Prīmō proeliō victī sunt Antōnius et Caesar, periit
      tamen dux nōbilitātis Cassius, secundō Brūtum et īnfīnītam
      nōbilitātem, quae cum illīs bellum gesserat, victam                20
      interfēcērunt. Ac sīc inter eōs dīvīsa est rēs pūblica, ut
      Augustus Hispāniās, Galliās et Ītaliam tenēret, Antōnius Asiam,
      Pontum, Orientem. Sed in Ītaliā L. Antōnius cōnsul bellum
      cīvīle commōvit, frāter ēius, quī cum Caesare contrā
      Brūtum et Cassium dīmicāverat. Is apud Perusiam, Tusciae           25
      cīvitātem, victus et captus est, neque occīsus.


   64 _War with Sextus Pompey._

      =4.= Interim ā Sex. Pompēiō, Cn. Pompēī Māgnī fīliō, ingēns
      bellum in Siciliā commōtum est, hīs quī superfuerant
      ex partibus Brūtī Cassiīque ad eum cōnfluentibus. Bellātum
      per Caesarem Augustum Octāviānum et M. Antōnium adversus
      Sex. Pompēium est. Pāx postrēmō convēnit.                           5

      =5.= Eō tempore M. Agrippa in Aquītāniā rem prōsperē
      gessit et L. Ventidius Bassus inrumpentēs in Syriam Persās
      tribus proeliīs vīcit. Pacorum, rēgis Orōdis fīlium, interfēcit
      eō ipsō diē quō ōlim Orōdēs, Persārum rēx, per ducem
      Surēnam Crassum occīderat. Hīc prīmus dē Parthīs iūstissimum       10
      triumphum Rōmae ēgit.

      =6.= Interim Pompēius pācem rūpit et nāvālī proeliō victus
      fugiēns ad Asiam interfectus est. Antōnius, quī Asiam et
      Orientem tenēbat, repudiātā sorōre Caesaris Augustī Octāviānī
      Cleopatram, rēgīnam Aegyptī, dūxit uxōrem. Contrā                  15
      Persās etiam ipse pūgnāvit. Prīmīs eōs proeliīs vīcit,
      regrediēns tamen famē et pestilentiā labōrāvit et, cum īnstārent
      Parthī fugientī, ipse prō victō recessit.


      _Civil War between Augustus and Antonius. The Battle of
      Actium, 31 B.C._

      =7.= Hīc quoque ingēns bellum cīvīle commōvit cōgente
      uxōre Cleopatrā, rēgīnā Aegyptī, dum cupiditāte muliebrī           20
      optat etiam in urbe rēgnāre. Victus est ab Augustō nāvālī
      pūgnā clārā et inlūstrī apud Actium, quī locus in Ēpīrō est,
      ex quā fūgit in Aegyptum et dēspērātīs rēbus, cum omnēs[147]
      ad Augustum trānsīrent, ipse sē interēmit. Cleopatra sibi[148]
      aspidem admīsit et venēnō ēius exstincta est. Aegyptus per         25
   65 Octāviānum Augustum imperiō Rōmānō adiecta est praepositusque
      eī C. Cornēlius Gallus. Hunc prīmum Aegyptus
      Rōmānum iūdicem habuit.


      _Imperial Government Established, 31 B.C._

      =8.= Ita bellīs tōtō orbe cōnfectīs Octāviānus Augustus Rōmam
      rediit, duodecimō annō[149] quam cōnsul fuerat. Ex eō               5
      rem pūblicam per quadrāgintā et quattuor annōs sōlus obtinuit.
      Ante enim duodecim annīs cum Antōniō et Lepidō
      tenuerat. Ita ab initiō prīncipātūs ēius ūsque ad fīnem
      quīnquāgintā et sex annī fuērunt. Obiit autem septuāgēsimō
      sextō annō morte commūnī in oppidō Campāniae                       10
      Ātellā. Rōmae in campō Mārtiō sepultus est, vir, quī nōn
      immeritō ex māximā parte deō[150] similis est putātus. Neque
      enim facile ūllus eō[151] aut in bellīs fēlīcior fuit aut in pāce
      moderātior. Quadrāgintā et quattuor annīs, quibus sōlus
      gessit imperium, cīvīlissimē vīxit, in cūnctōs līberālissimus,     15
      in amīcōs fīdissimus, quōs tantīs ēvēxit honōribus ut paene
      aequāret fastīgiō suō.


      _Extension of the Empire._

      =9.= Nūllō tempore ante eum magis rēs Rōmāna floruit.
      Nam exceptīs cīvīlibus bellīs, in quibus invictus fuit, Rōmānō
      adiēcit imperiō Aegyptum, Cantabriam, Dalmatiam saepe              20
      ante vīctam, sed penitus tunc subāctam, Pannoniam, Aquītāniam,
      Īllyricum, Raetiam, Vindelicōs et Salassōs in Alpibus,
      omnēs Pontī maritimās cīvitātēs, in hīs nōbilissimās
      Bosporum et Panticapaeum. Vīcit autem multīs proeliīs
      Dācōs. Germānōrum ingentēs cōpiās cecīdit, ipsōs quoque            25
   66 trāns Albim fluvium summōvit, quī in Barbaricō longē ultrā
      Rhēnum est. Hōc tamen bellum per Drūsum, prīvīgnum
      suum, administrāvit, sīcut per Tiberium, prīvīgnum alterum,
      Pannonicum, … quō bellō XL captīvōrum mīlia ex Germāniā
      trānstulit et suprā ripam Rhēnī in Galliā conlocāvit.               5
      Armeniam ā Parthīs recēpit. Obsidēs, quod nūllī anteā,
      Persae eī dedērunt. Reddidērunt etiam sīgna Rōmāna,
      quae Crassō victō adēmerant.


      _Death of Augustus, 14 A.D._

      =10.= Scythae et Indī, quibus anteā Rōmānōrum nōmen incognitum
      fuerat, mūnera et lēgātōs ad eum mīsērunt. Galatia                 10
      quoque sub hōc prōvincia facta est, cum anteā rēgnum fuisset,
      prīmusque eam M. Lollius prō praetōre administrāvit.
      Tantō autem amōre[152] etiam apud barbarōs fuit ut rēgēs
      populī Rōmānī amīcī in honōrem ēius conderent cīvitātēs,
      quās Caesarēās nōminārent. Multī autem rēgēs ex rēgnīs             15
      suīs vēnērunt, ut eī obsequerentur, et habitū Rōmānō, togātī
      scīlicet, ad vehiculum vel equum ipsīus cucurrērunt. Moriēns
      Dīvus appellātus. Rem pūblicam beātissimam Tiberiō
      successōrī relīquit, quī prīvīgnus eī, mox gener, postrēmō
      adoptiōne fīlius fuerat.                                           20


      _Tiberius Emperor, 14-37 A.D._

      =11.= Sed Tiberius ingentī sōcordiā imperium gessit, gravī
      crūdēlitāte, scelestā avāritiā, turpī libīdine. Nam nūsquam
      ipse pūgnāvit, bella per lēgātōs gessit suōs. Quōsdam rēgēs
      ad sē per blanditiās ēvocātōs numquam remīsit, in quibus
      Archelāum Cappadocem, cūius etiam rēgnum in prōvinciae             25
      fōrmam redēgit et māximam cīvitātem appellārī nōmine
   67 suō iussit, quae nunc Caesarēa dīcitur, cum Māzaca anteā
      vocārētur. Hīc tertiō et vīcēsimō imperiī annō, aetātis
      septuāgēsimō octāvō, ingentī omnium gaudiō mortuus est in
      Campāniā.


      _Caligula Emperor, 37-41 A.D._

      =12.= Successit eī C. Caesar, cognōmentō Caligula, Drūsī,           5
      prīvīgnī Augustī, et ipsīus Tiberī nepōs, scelerātissimus ac
      fūnestissimus et quī etiam Tiberī dēdecōra pūrgāverit.[153]
      Bellum contrā Germānōs suscēpit et ingressus Suēviam
      nihil strēnuē fēcit. Cum adversum cūnctōs ingentī avāritiā,
      libīdine, crūdēlitāte saevīret, interfectus in Palātiō est annō    10
      aetātis vīcēsimō nōnō, imperiī tertiō, mēnse decimō diēque
      octāvō.


      _Claudius Emperor, 41-54 A.D._

      =13.= Post hunc Claudius fuit, patruus Caligulae, Drūsī,
      quī apud Mogontiacum monumentum habet, fīlius, cūius et
      Caligula nepōs erat. Hīc mediē imperāvit, multa gerēns             15
      tranquillē atque moderātē, quaedam crūdēliter et īnsulsē.
      Britannīs intulit bellum, quam nūllus Rōmānōrum post
      C. Caesarem attigerat, eāque dēvictā per Cn. Sentium et
      A. Plautium, inlūstrēs ac nōbilēs virōs, triumphum celebrem
      ēgit. Quāsdam īnsulās etiam ultrā Britanniās in                    20
      Ōceanō positās imperiō Rōmānō addidit, quae appellantur
      Orchadēs, fīliō autem suō Britannicī nōmen imposuit.
      Tam cīvīlis autem circā quōsdam amīcōs exstitit, ut etiam
      Plautium, nōbilem virum, quī expeditiōne Britannicā multa
      ēgregiē fēcerat, triumphantem ipse prōsequerētur et                25
      cōnscendentī Capitōlium laevus incēderet. Is vīxit annōs IV
      et LX, imperāvit XIV. Post mortem cōnsecrātus est Dīvusque
      appellātus.


   68 _Nero Emperor, 54-68 A.D._

      =14.= Successit huic Nerō, Caligulae, avunculō suō, simillimus,
      quī Rōmānum imperium et dēfōrmāvit et minuit, inūsitātae
      lūxuriae[154] sūmptuumque, et quī exemplō C. Caligulae in
      calidīs et frīgidīs lavāret unguentīs, rētibus aureīs piscārētur,
      quae blattinīs fūnibus extrahēbat. Īnfīnītam senātus                5
      partem interfēcit, bonīs[155] omnibus hostis fuit. Ad postrēmum
      sē tantō dēdecōre prōstituit ut et saltāret et cantāret
      in scaenā citharoedicō habitū vel tragicō. Parricīdia multa
      commīsit frātre, uxōre, sorōre, mātre interfectīs. Urbem
      Rōmam incendit, ut spectāculī ēius imāginem cerneret, quālī        10
      ōlim Trōia capta ārserat. In rē mīlitārī nihil omnīnō ausus
      Britanniam paene āmīsit. Nam duo sub eō nōbilissima
      oppida capta illīc atque ēversa sunt. Armeniam Parthī
      sustulērunt legiōnēsque Rōmānās sub iugum mīsērunt.
      Duae tamen sub eō prōvinciae factae sunt, Pontus Polemōniacus      15
      concedente rēge Polemōne et Alpēs Cottiae Cottiō
      rēge dēfūnctō.

      =15.= Per haec Rōmānō orbī exsecrābilis ab omnibus simul
      dēstitūtus est et ā senātū hostis iūdicātus; cum quaererētur
      ad poenam, quae poena erat tālis, ut nūdus per pūblicum            20
      ductus furcā capitī ēius īnsertā virgīs ūsque ad mortem
      caederētur atque ita praecipitārētur ā saxō, ē Palātiō fūgit
      et in suburbānō sē lībertī suī, quod inter Salariam et
      Nōmentānam viam ad quārtum urbis mīliārium est, interfēcit.
      Is aedificāvit Rōmae thermās, quae ante Nerōniānae dictae          25
      nunc Alexandriānae appellantur. Obiit trīcēsimō et alterō
      aetātis annō, imperiī quārtō decimō, atque in eō omnis
      Augustī familia cōnsūmpta est.


   69 _Galba Emperor, 68-69 A.D._

      =16.= Huic Serv. Galba successit, antīquissimae nōbilitātis
      senātor, cum septuāgēsimum et tertium annum ageret aetātis,
      ab Hispānīs et Gallīs imperātōr ēlēctus, mox ab ūniversō
      exercitū lībenter acceptus. Nam privāta ēius vīta
      īnsīgnis fuerat mīlitāribus et cīvīlibus rēbus. Saepe cōnsul,       5
      saepe prō cōnsule, frequenter dux in gravissimīs bellīs.
      Hūius breve imperium fuit et quod bona habēret exōrdia,
      nisi ad sevēritātem prōpēnsior vidērētur.[156] Īnsidiīs tamen
      Othōnis occīsus est imperiī mēnse septimō. Iugulātus in
      forō Rōmae sepultusque in hortīs suīs, quī sunt Aurēliā viā        10
      nōn longē ab urbe Rōmā.


      _Otho Emperor, 69 A.D._

      =17.= Otho occīsō Galbā invāsit imperium, māternō genere[157]
      nōbilior quam paternō, neutrō tamen obscūrō. In privātā
      vītā mollis et Nerōnī familiāris, in imperiō documentum
      suī nōn potuit ostendere. Nam cum īsdem temporibus,                15
      quibus Otho Galbam occīderat, etiam Vitellius factus esset
      ā Germāniciānīs exercitibus imperātōr, bellō contrā eum
      susceptō cum apud Bēdriacum in Ītaliā levī proeliō victus
      esset, ingentēs tamen cōpiās ad bellum habēret, sponte sēmet[158]
      occīdit. Petentibus mīlitibus nē tam cito dē bellī dēspērāret      20
      ēventū, cum tantī[159] sē nōn esse dīxisset ut propter
      eum bellum cīvīle movērētur, voluntāriā morte obiit trīcēsimō
      et octāvō aetātis annō, nōnāgēsimō et quīntō imperiī
      diē.


   70 _Vitellius Emperor, 69 A.D._

      =18.= Dein Vitellius imperiō[160] potītus est, familiā honōrātā
      magis quam nōbilī. Nam pater ēius nōn admodum clārē
      nātus trēs tamen ōrdināriōs gesserat cōnsulātūs. Hīc cum
      multō dēdecōre imperāvit et gravī saevitiā nōtābilis, praecipuē
      ingluviē et vorācitāte, quippe cum dē diē saepe quārtō              5
      vel quīntō ferātur[161] epulātus. Nōtissima certē cēna memoriae
      mandāta est, quam eī Vitellius frāter exhibuit, in quā
      super cēterōs sūmptūs duo mīlia piscium, septem avium
      apposita trāduntur. Hīc cum Nerōnī similis esse vellet
      atque id adeō prae sē ferret, ut etiam exsequiās Nerōnis,          10
      quae humiliter sepultae fuerant, honōrāret, ā Vespasiānī
      ducibus occīsus est interfectō prius in urbe Sabīnō, Vespasiānī
      imperātōris frātre, quem cum Capitōliō incendit.
      Interfectus autem est māgnō dēdecōre: trāctus per urbem
      Rōmam pūblicē, nūdus, ērēctō comā capite et subiectō ad            15
      mentum gladiō, stercore in vultum et pectus ab omnibus
      obviīs appetītus, postrēmō iugulātus et in Tiberim dēiectus
      etiam commūnī caruit sepultūrā. Periit autem aetātis annō
      septimō et quīnquāgēsimō, imperiī mēnse octāvō et diē ūnō.


      _Vespasian Emperor, 69-79 A.D._

      =19.= Vespasiānus huic successit, factus apud Palaestīnam          20
      imperātōr, prīnceps obscūrē quidem nātus, sed optimīs
      comparandus, privātā vītā inlūstris, ut quī ā Claudiō in
      Germāniam et deinde in Britanniam missus trīciēs et bis cum
      hoste cōnflīxerit, duās validissimās gentēs, vīgintī oppida,
      īnsulam Vectam, Britanniae prōximam, imperiō Rōmānō                25
      adiēcerit. Rōmae sē in imperiō moderātissimē gessit. Pecūniae
   71 tantum avidior fuit, ita tamen, ut eam nūllī[162] iniūstē
      auferret. Quam cum omnī dīligentiae prōvīsiōne conligeret,
      tamen studiōsissimē largiēbātur, praecipuē indigentibus.

      Nec facile ante eum cūiusquam prīncipis vel māior est
      līberālitas comperta, vel iūstior. Placidissimae lēnitātis,         5
      ut quī māiestātis quoque contrā sē reōs nōn facile pūnīret
      ultrā exsiliī poenam. Sub hōc Iūdaea Rōmānō accessit
      imperiō et Hierosolyma, quae fuit urbs nōbilissima Palaestīnae.
      Achaeam, Lyciam, Rhodum, Bȳzantium, Samum,
      quae līberae ante id tempus fuerant, item Thrāciam, Ciliciam,      10
      Commāgēnēn, quae sub rēgibus amīcīs ēgerant, in
      prōvinciārum fōrmam redēgit.

      =20.= Offēnsārum[163] et inimīcitiārum immemor fuit, convīcia
      ā causidicīs et philosophīs in sē dicta lēniter tulit, dīligēns
      tamen coërcitor disciplīnae mīlitāris. Hīc cum fīliō Titō          15
      dē Hierosolymīs triumphāvit. Per haec cum senātuī, populō,
      postrēmō cūnctīs amābilis ac iūcundus esset, prōfluviō
      ventris exstinctus est in vīllā propriā circā Sabīnōs, annum
      agēns aetātis sexāgēsimum nōnum, imperiī nōnum et diem
      septimum, atque inter Dīvōs relātus est. Genitūram fīliōrum        20
      ita cognitam habuit, ut, cum multae contrā eum coniūrātiōnēs
      fierent, quās patefactās ingentī dissimulātiōne
      contempsit, in senātū dīxerit aut fīliōs sibi successūrōs, aut
      nēminem.


      _Titus Emperor, 79-81 A.D._

      =21.= Huic Titus fīlius successit, quī et ipse Vespasiānus est     25
      dictus, vir omnium virtūtum genere mirābilis adeō ut amor
      et dēliciae humānī generis dīcerētur, facundissimus,
      bellicōsissimus, moderātissimus. Causās Latīnē ēgit, poēmata
   72 et tragoediās Graecē composuit. In oppūgnātiōne Hierosolymōrum
      sub patre mīlitāns duodecim prōpūgnātōrēs duodecim
      sagittārum cōnfīxit ictibus. Rōmae tantae cīvīlitātis
      in imperiō fuit ut nūllum omnīnō pūnīerit, convīctōs adversum
      sē coniūrātiōnis dīmīserit vel in eādem familiāritāte               5
      quā anteā habuerit. Facilitātis et līberālitātis tantae fuit
      ut, cum nūllī quicquam negāret et ab amīcīs reprehenderētur,
      responderit nūllum trīstem dēbēre ab imperātōre discēdere,
      praetereā cum quādam diē in cēnā recordātus fuisset
      nihil sē illō diē cuīquam praestitisse, dīxerit: ‘Amīcī, hodiē     10
      diem perdidī.’ Hīc Rōmae amphitheātrum aedificāvit et
      quīnque mīlia ferārum in dēdicātiōne ēius occīdit.

      =22.= Per haec inūsitātō favōre dīlēctus morbō periit in eā,
      quā pater, vīllā post biennium et mēnsēs octō, diēs vīgintī,
      quam imperātōr erat factus, aetātis annō alterō et                 15
      quadrāgēsimō. Tantus lūctus eō mortuō pūblicus fuit ut omnēs
      tamquam in propriā doluerint orbitāte. Senātus obitū ipsīus
      circā vesperam nūntiātō nocte inrūpit in cūriam et tantās eī
      mortuō laudēs gratiāsque congessit, quantās nec vīvō umquam
      ēgerat nec praesentī. Inter Dīvōs relātus est.                     20


      _Domitian Emperor, 81-96 A.D._

      =23.= Domitiānus mox accēpit imperium, frāter ipsīus
      iūnior, Nerōnī aut Caligulae aut Tiberiō similior quam patrī
      vel frātrī suō. Prīmīs tamen annīs moderātus in imperiō fuit,
      mox ad ingentia vitia prōgressus libīdinis, īrācundiae,
      crūdēlitātis, avāritiae, tantum in sē odiī[164] concitāvit ut      25
      merita et patris et frātris abolēret. Interfēcit nōbilissimōs ē
      senātū. Dominum sē et deum prīmus appellārī iussit.
      Nūllam sibi nisi auream et argenteam statuam in Capitōliō
   73 passus est ponī. Cōnsōbrīnōs suōs interfēcit. Superbia
      quoque in eō exsecrābilis fuit. Expeditiōnēs quattuor habuit,
      ūnam adversum Sarmatās, alteram adversum Cattōs,
      duās adversum Dācōs. Dē Dācīs Cattīsque duplicem triumphum
      ēgit, dē Sarmatīs sōlam lauream ūsūrpāvit. Multās                   5
      tamen calamitātēs īsdem bellīs passus est; nam in Sarmatiā
      legiō ēius cum duce interfecta est et ā Dācīs Oppius Sabīnus
      cōnsulāris et Cornēlius Fuscus, praefectus praetōriō,
      cum māgnīs exercitibus occīsī sunt. Rōmae quoque multa
      opera fēcit, in hīs Capitōlium et Forum Trānsitōrium, Dīvōrum      10
      Porticus, Īsīum ac Serāpīum et Stadium. Vērum cum
      ob scelera ūniversīs exōsus esse coepisset, interfectus est
      suōrum coniūrātiōne in Palātiō, annō aetātis quadrāgēsimō
      quīntō, imperiī quīntō decimō. Fūnus ēius cum ingentī
      dēdecōre per vespillōnēs exportātum et ignōbiliter est             15
      sepultum.



      LIBER OCTĀVUS

      FROM THE ACCESSION OF NERVA TO THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER
      SEVERUS, 96-235 A.D.


      _Nerva Emperor, 96-98 A.D._

      =1.= Annō octingentēsimō et quīnquāgēsimō ab urbe conditā
      Vetere et Valente cōnsulibus rēs pūblica ad prōsperrimum
      statum rediit bonīs prīncipibus ingentī fēlicitāte commissa.
      Domitiānō enim, exitiābilī tyrannō, Nerva successit, vir in        20
      prīvātā vītā moderātus et strēnuus, nōbilitātis mediae. Quī
      senex admodum operam dante Petrōniō Secundō, praefectō
      praetōriō, item Partheniō, interfectōre Domitiānī, imperātōr
      est factus; aequissimum sē et cīvilissimum praebuit. Reī[165]
   74 pūblicae dīvīnā prōvīsiōne cōnsuluit Trāiānum adoptandō.[166]
      Mortuus est Rōmae post annum et quattuor mēnsēs imperiī
      suī ac diēs octō, aetātis septuāgēsimō et alterō annō, atque
      inter Dīvōs relātus est.


      _Trajan Emperor, 98-117 A.D._

      =2.= Successit eī Ulpius Crīnītus Trāiānus, nātus Ītalicae in       5
      Hispāniā, familiā[167] antīquā magis quam clārā. Nam pater
      ēius prīmum cōnsul fuit. Imperātōr autem apud Agrippīnam
      in Galliīs factus est. Rem pūblicam ita administrāvit
      ut omnibus prīncipibus meritō praeferātur, inūsitātae
      cīvīlitātis et fortitūdinis. Rōmānī imperiī, quod post Augustum    10
      dēfēnsum magis fuerat quam nōbiliter ampliātum,
      fīnēs longē lātēque diffūdit. Urbēs trāns Rhēnum in Germāniā
      reparāvit. Dāciam Decibalō victō subēgit prōvinciā
      trāns Dānubium factā in hīs agrīs quōs nunc Taifalī, Victoalī
      et Tervingī habent. Ea prōvincia deciēs centēna mīlia              15
      passuum in circuitū tenuit.

      =3.= Armeniam, quam occupāverant Parthī, recēpit Parthomasīrī
      occisō, quī eam tenēbat. Albānīs rēgem dedit.
      Hibērōrum rēgem et Sauromatārum et Bosporānōrum et
      Arabum et Osdroēnōrum et Colchōrum in fidem accēpit.               20
      Carduenōs, Marcomedōs occupāvit et Anthemūsiam, māgnam
      Persidis regiōnem, Seleuciam, Ctēsiphōntem, Babylōnem;
      Messēniōs vīcit ac tenuit. Ūsque ad Indiae fīnēs
      et mare Rubrum accessit atque ibi trēs prōvinciās fēcit,
      Armeniam, Assyriam, Mesopotamiam, cum hīs gentibus                 25
      quae Madenam attingunt. Arabiam posteā in prōvinciae
      fōrmam redēgit. In marī Rubrō classem īnstituit, ut per
      eam Indiae fīnēs vāstāret.

   75 =4.= Glōriam tamen mīlitārem cīvīlitāte et moderātiōne superāvit,
      Rōmae et per prōvinciās aequālem sē omnibus exhibēns,
      amīcōs salūtandī[168] causā frequentāns vel aegrōtantēs
      vel cum fēstōs diēs habuissent, convīvia cum īsdem indiscrēta
      vicissim habēns, saepe in vehiculīs eōrum sedēns, nūllum            5
      senātōrum laedēns, nihil iniūstum ad augendum fiscum
      agēns, līberālis in cūnctōs, pūblicē prīvātimque dītāns omnēs
      et honōribus augēns, quōs vel mediōcrī familiāritāte cognōvisset,
      per orbem terrārum aedificāns multa, immūnitātēs
      cīvitātibus tribuēns, nihil nōn tranquillum et placidum            10
      agēns, adeō ut omnī ēius aetāte ūnus senātor damnātus sit
      atque is tamen per senātum ignōrante Trāiānō. Ob haec
      per orbem terrārum deō proximus nihil nōn venerātiōnis
      meruit et vīvus et mortuus.

      =5.= Inter alia dicta hoc ipsīus fertur ēgregium. Amīcīs           15
      enim culpantibus, quod nimium circā omnēs commūnis esset,[169]
      respondit tālem sē imperātōrem esse prīvātīs, quālēs esse
      sibi imperātōrēs prīvātus optāsset. Post ingentem igitur
      glōriam bellī domīque quaesitam ē Perside rediēns apud
      Seleuciam Isauriae prōfluviō ventris exstinctus est. Obiit         20
      autem aetātis annō sexāgēsimō tertiō, mēnse nōnō, diē
      quārtō, imperiī nōnō decimō, mēnse sextō, diē quīntō decimō.
      Inter Dīvōs relātus est sōlusque omnium intrā urbem
      sepultus est. Ossa conlāta in urnam auream in forō, quod
      aedificāvit, sub columnā posita sunt, cūius altitūdō CXLIV         25
      pedēs habet. Hūius tantum memoriae dēlātum est ut
      ūsque ad nostram aetātem nōn aliter in senātū prīncipibus
      acclāmētur, nisi ‘Fēlīciōr Augustō,[170] meliōr Trāiānō.’ Adeō
      in eō glōria bonitātis obtinuit, ut vel adsentantibus vel
   76 vērē laudantibus occāsiōnem māgnificentissimī praestet
      exemplī.


      _Hadrian Emperor, 117-138 A.D._

      =6.= Dēfūnctō Trāiānō Aelius Hadriānus creātus est prīnceps,
      sine aliquā quidem voluntāte Trāiānī, sed operam dante
      Plōtīnā, Trāiānī uxōre; nam eum Trāiānus, quamquam                  5
      cōnsōbrīnae suae fīlium, vīvus nōluerat adoptāre. Nātus
      et ipse Ītalicae in Hispāniā. Quī Trāiānī glōriae invidēns
      statim prōvinciās trēs relīquit, quās Trāiānus addiderat, et
      dē Assyriā, Mesopotamiā, Armeniā revocāvit exercitūs ac
      fīnem imperiī esse voluit Euphrātēn. Idem dē Dāciā facere          10
      conātum amīcī dēterruērunt, nē multī cīvēs Rōmānī barbarīs
      trāderentur, proptereā quia Trāiānus victā Dāciā ex tōtō
      orbe Rōmānō īnfīnītās eō cōpiās hominum trānstulerat ad
      agrōs et urbēs colendās. Dācia enim diūturnō bellō Decibalī
      virīs fuerat exhausta.                                             15

      =7.= Pācem tamen omnī imperiī suī tempore habuit, semel
      tantum per praesidem dīmicāvit. Orbem Rōmānum circumiit;
      multa aedificāvit. Fācundissimus Latīnō sermōne,
      Graecō ērudītissimus fuit. Nōn māgnam clēmentiae glōriam
      habuit, dīligentissimus tamen circā aerārium et mīlitum            20
      disciplīnam. Obiit in Campāniā māior sexāgenāriō, imperiī
      annō vīcēsimō prīmō, mēnse decimō, diē vīcēsimō nōnō.
      Senātus eī tribuere nōluit dīvīnōs honōrēs, tamen cum successor
      ipsīus T. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Fulvius hōc vehementer
      exigeret, etsī ūniversī senātōrēs palam resisterent, tandem        25
      obtinuit.


      _Antoninus Pius Emperor, 138-161 A.D._

      =8.= Ergō Hadriānō successit T. Antōnīnus Fulvius Bōiōnius,
      īdem etiam Pius nōminātus, genere clārō, sed nōn admodum
   77 vetere, vir īnsīgnis et quī meritō Numae Pompiliō cōnferātur,[171]
      ita ut Rōmulō Trāiānus aequētur. Vīxit ingentī honestāte
      prīvātus, māiōre in imperiō, nūllī acerbus, cūnctīs
      benīgnus, in rē mīlitārī moderātā glōriā, dēfendere magis
      prōvinciās quam amplificāre studēns, virōs aequissimōs ad           5
      administrandam rem pūblicam quaerēns, bonīs honōrem
      habēns, improbōs sine aliquā acerbitāte dētestāns, rēgibus
      amīcīs venerābilis nōn minus quam terribilis, adeō ut barbarōrum
      plūrimae nātiōnēs dēpositīs armīs ad eum contrōversiās
      suās lītēsque dēferrent sententiaeque pārērent. Hīc                10
      ante imperium dītissimus opēs quidem omnēs suās stīpendiīs
      mīlitum et circā amīcōs līberālītātibus minuit, vērum
      aerārium opulentum relīquit. Pius propter clēmentiam
      dictus est. Obiit apud Lorium, vīllam suam, mīliāriō ab
      urbe duodecimō, vītae annō septuāgēsimō tertiō, imperiī            15
      vīcēsimō tertiō, atque inter Dīvōs relātus est et meritō
      cōnsecrātus.


      _Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus Emperors, 161-169 A.D._

      =9.= Post hunc imperāvit M. Antōnīnus Vērus, haud dubiē
      nōbilissimus, quippe cum ēius orīgō paterna ā Numā Pompiliō,
      māterna ā Sallentīnō rēge penderet, et cum eō L. Annius            20
      Antōnīnus Vērus. Tumque prīmum Rōmāna rēs pūblica
      duōbus aequō iūre imperium administrantibus pāruit, cum
      ūsque ad eōs singulōs semper habuisset Augustōs. Hī et
      genere inter sē coniūnctī fuērunt et adfīnitāte. Nam Vērus
      Annius Antōnīnus M. Antōnīnī fīliam in mātrimōnium habuit,         25
      M. autem Antōnīnus gener Antōnīnī Piī fuit per uxōrem
      Galēriam Faustīnam iūniōrem, cōnsōbrīnam suam.

      =10.= Hī bellum contrā Parthōs gessērunt, quī post victōriam
   78 Trāiānī tum prīmum rebellāverant. Vērus Antōnīnus ad id
      profectus est. Quī Antiochīae et circā Armeniam agēns multa
      per ducēs suōs et ingentiā patrāvit. Seleucīam, Assyriae
      urbem nōbilissimam, cum quadringentīs mīlibus hominum
      cēpit; Parthicum triumphum revexit. Cum frātre eōdemque[172]        5
      socerō triumphāvit. Obiit tamen in Venetiā, cum ā
      Concordiā cīvitāte Altīnum proficīscerētur et cum frātre
      in vehiculō sēderet, subitō sanguine ictus, cāsū morbī quem
      Graecī apoplēxin vocant. Vir ingeniī parum cīvīlis, reverentiā
      tamen frātris nihil umquam atrōx ausus. Cum obisset                10
      ūndecimō imperiī annō, inter deōs relātus est.


      _Marcus Aurelius reigns alone, 169-180 A.D._

      =11.= Post eum M. Antōnīnus sōlus rem pūblicam tenuit, vir
      quem mīrārī facilius quis quam laudāre possit. Ā prīncipiō
      vītae tranquillissimus, adeō ut ex īnfantīa quoque vultum
      nec ex gaudiō nec ex maerōre mutāverit. Philosophiae dēditus       15
      Stoicae, ipse etiam nōn sōlum vītae moribus, sed etiam
      ērudītiōne philosophus. Tantae admirātiōnis adhūc iuvenis
      ut eum successōrem parāverit Hadriānus relinquere,
      adoptātō tamen Antōnīnō Piō generum eī idcircō esse voluerit,
      ut hōc ōrdine ad imperium pervenīret.                              20

      =12.= Īnstitūtus est ad philosophiam per Apollōnium[173]
      Chalcēdōnium, ad scientiam litterārum Graecārum per Sextum
      Chaerōnēnsem, Plūtarchī nepōtem, Latīnās autem eum litterās
      Frontō, ōrātor nōbilissimus, docuit. Hīc cum omnibus
      Rōmae aequō iūre ēgit, ad nūllam īnsolentiam ēlātus est            25
      imperiī fastīgiō; līberālitātis prōmptissimae. Prōvinciās
      ingentī benīgnitāte et moderātiōne trāctāvit. Contrā Germānōs
   79 eō prīncipe rēs fēlīciter gestae sunt. Bellum ipse ūnum
      gessit Marcomannicum, sed quantum nūllā memoriā fuit,
      adeō ut Pūnicīs cōnferātur. Nam eō[174] gravius est factum,
      quod ūniversī exercitūs Rōmānī perierant. Sub hōc enim
      tantus cāsus pestilentiae fuit ut post victōriam Persicam           5
      Rōmae ac per Ītaliam prōvinciāsque māxima hominum pars,
      mīlitum omnēs ferē cōpiae languōre dēfēcerint.

      =13.= Ingentī ergō labōre et moderātiōne, cum apud Carnuntum
      iūgī trienniō perseverāsset, bellum Marcomannicum cōnfēcit,
      quod cum hīs Quādī, Vandalī, Sarmatae, Suēvī atque                 10
      omnis barbaria commoverat, multa hominum mīlia interfēcit,
      ac Pannoniīs servitiō līberātīs Rōmae rūrsus cum
      Commodō Antōnīnō, fīliō suō, quem iam Caesarem fēcerat,
      triumphāvit. Ad hūius bellī sūmptum cum aerāriō exhaustō
      largītiōnēs nūllās habēret neque indīcere prōvinciālibus           15
      aut senātuī aliquid vellet, īnstrumentum rēgiī cultūs
      factā in forō Dīvī Trāiānī sectiōne distrāxit, vāsa aurea,
      pōcula crystallina et murrina, uxōriam ac suam sēricam et
      auream vestem, multa ōrnamenta gemmārum. Ac per duōs
      continuōs mēnsēs ea vēnditiō habita est multumque aurī             20
      redāctum. Post victōriam tamen ēmptōribus pretia restituit,
      quī reddere comparāta voluērunt; molestus nūllī fuit
      quī māluit semel ēmpta retinēre.

      =14.= Hīc permīsit virīs clāriōribus ut convīvia eōdem cultū
      quō ipse et ministrīs similibus exhibērent. In ēditiōne            25
      mūnerum post victōriam adeō māgnificus fuit ut centum
      simul leōnēs exhibuisse trādātur. Cum igitur fortūnātam
      rem pūblicam et virtūte et mānsuetūdine reddidisset, obiit
      XVIII imperiī annō, vītae LXI, et omnibus certātim adnitentibus
      inter Dīvōs relātus est.                                           30


   80 _Commodus Emperor, 180-193 A.D._

      =15.= Hūius successōr L. Antōnīnus Commodus nihil paternum
      habuit, nisi quod contrā Germānōs fēlīciter et ipse
      pūgnāvit. Septembrem mēnsem ad nōmen suum trānsferre
      conātus est, ut Commodus dīcerētur. Sed lūxuriā et obscēnitāte
      dēprāvātus gladiātōriīs armīs saepissimē in lūdō,                   5
      deincēps etiam in amphitheātrō cum hūiusmodī hominibus
      dīmicāvit. Obiit morte subitā atque adeō ut strangulātus
      vel venēnō interfectus putārētur, cum annīs XII post patrem
      et VIII mēnsibus imperāsset, tantā exsecrātiōne omnium ut
      hostis humānī generis etiam mortuus iūdicārētur.                   10


      _Pertinax Emperor, 193 A.D._

      =16.= Huic successit Pertināx, grandaevus iam et quī
      septuāgenāriam attigisset aetātem, praefectūram urbī tum agēns,
      ex senātūs cōnsultō imperāre iussus. Octōgēsimō diē imperiī
      praetōriānōrum mīlitum sēditiōne et Iūliānī scelere
      occīsus est.                                                       15

      =17.= Post eum Salvius Iūliānus rem pūblicam invāsit, vir
      nōbilis et iūre perītissimus, nepōs Salvī Iūliānī, quī sub
      Dīvō Hadriānō perpetuum composuit ēdictum. Victus est
      ā Sevērō apud Mulvium pontem, interfectus in Palātiō.
      Vīxit mēnsibus septem postquam coeperat imperāre.                  20


      _Septimius Severus Emperor, 193-211 A.D._

      =18.= Hinc imperiī Rōmānī administrātiōnem Septimius
      Sevērus accēpit, oriundus ex Āfricā prōvinciā Tripolitānā,
      oppidō Leptī. Sōlus omnī memoriā[175] et ante et posteā ex
      Āfricā imperātōr fuit. Hīc prīmum fiscī advocātus, mox
      mīlitāris tribūnus, per multa deinde et varia officia atque        25
   81 honōrēs ūsque ad administrātiōnem tōtīus reī pūblicae vēnit.
      Pertinācem sē appellārī voluit in honōrem ēius Pertinācis,
      quī ā Iūliānō fuerat occīsus. Parcus admodum fuit, natūrā
      saevus. Bella multa et fēlīciter gessit. Pescennium Nigrum,
      quī in Aegyptō et Syriā rebellāverat, apud Cȳzicum                  5
      interfēcit. Parthōs vīcit et Arabās interiōrēs et Adiabēnōs.
      Arabās eō ūsque superāvit ut etiam prōvinciam ibi faceret.
      Idcircō Parthicus, Arabicus, Adiabēnicus dictus est. Multa
      tōtō orbe Rōmānō reparāvit. Sub eō etiam Clōdius Albīnus,
      quī in occidendō Pertināce socius fuerat Iūliānō,[176] Caesarem    10
      sē in Galliā fēcit, victusque apud Lugdūnum est interfectus.

      =19.= Sevērus tamen praeter bellicam glōriam etiam cīvīlibus
      studiīs clārus fuit et litterīs doctus, philosophiae scientiam
      ad plēnum adeptus. Novissimum bellum in Britanniā
      habuit, utque receptās prōvinciās omnī sēcūritāte mūnīret,         15
      vāllum per CXXXII passuum mīlia ā marī ad mare dēdūxit.
      Dēcessit Eborācī admodum senex, imperiī annō sextō
      decimō, mēnse tertiō. Dīvus appellātus est. Nam fīliōs
      duōs successōrēs relīquit, Bassiānum et Getam, sed Bassiānō
      Antōnīnī nōmen ā senātū voluit impōnī. Itaque dictus               20
      est M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Bassiānus patrīque successit.
      Nam Geta hostis pūblicus iūdicātus cōnfestim periit.


      _Caracalla Emperor, 211-217 A.D._

      =20.= M. igitur Aurēlius Antōnīnus Bassiānus, īdemque Caracalla,
      mōrum ferē paternōrum fuit, paulō asperior et mināx.
      Opus Rōmae ēgregium fēcit lavācrī, quae thermae Antōnīniānae       25
      appellantur, nihil praetereā memorābile. Impatientis
      libīdinis, quī novercam suam Iūliam uxōrem dūxerit. Dēfūnctus
      est in Osdroēna apud Edessam moliēns adversum
   82 Parthōs expedītiōnem annō imperiī sextō, mēnse secundō,
      vix ēgressus quadrāgēsimum tertium annum. Fūnere pūblicō
      ēlātus est.


      _Macrinus Emperor, 218 A.D._

      =21.= Deinde Opilius Macrīnus, quī praefectus praetōriō
      erat, cum fīliō Diadūmenō factī imperātōrēs nihil memorābile        5
      ex temporis brevitāte gessērunt. Nam imperium
      eōrum duum mēnsuum et ūnīus annī fuit. Sēditiōne mīlitārī
      ambō pariter occīsī sunt.


      _Heliogabalus Emperor, 218-221 A.D._

      =22.= Creātus est post hōs M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus. Hīc
      Antonīnī Caracallae fīlius putābātur, sacerdōs autem               10
      Heliogabalī templī erat. Is cum Rōmam ingentī et mīlitum et
      senātūs exspectātiōne vēnisset, probrīs sē omnibus contāmināvit.
      Impudicissimē et obscēnissimē vīxit, bienniōque post
      et octō mēnsibus tumultū interfectus est mīlitārī et cum eō
      māter Symiasera.                                                   15


      _Alexander Severus Emperor, 221-235 A.D._

      =23.= Successit huic Aurēlius Alexander, ab exercitū Caesar,
      ā senātū Augustus nōminātus, iuvenis admodum, susceptōque
      adversus Persās bellō Xerxēn, eōrum rēgem, glōriōsissimē
      vīcit. Mīlitārem disciplīnam sevērissimē rēxit.
      Quāsdam tumultuantēs legiōnēs integrās exauctorāvit.               20
      Adsessōrem habuit vel scriniī magistrum Ulpiānum, iūris
      conditōrem. Rōmae quoque favōrābilis fuit. Periit in Galliā
      mīlitārī tumultū tertiō decimō imperiī annō et diē nōnō.
      In Mamaeam, mātrem suam, ūnicē pius.



   83 LIBER NŌNUS

      FROM THE ACCESSION OF MAXIMUS TO THE ABDICATION OF
      DIOCLETIAN, 235-305 A.D.


      _Maximinus Emperor, 235-237 A.D._

      =1.= Post hunc Māximīnus ex corpore mīlitārī prīmus ad
      imperium accessit sōlā mīlitum voluntāte, cum nūlla senātūs
      intercessisset auctōritās neque ipse senātor esset. Is bellō
      adversus Germānōs fēlīciter gestō cum ā mīlitibus imperātōr
      esset appellātus, ā Pupiēnō Aquilēiae occīsus est                   5
      dēserentibus eum mīlitibus suīs cum fīliō adhūc puerō, cum quō
      imperāverat trienniō et paucīs diēbus.


      _Antonius Gordianus Emperor, 237-238 A.D. Gordianus III
      Emperor, 238-244 A.D._

      =2.= Posteā trēs simul Augustī fuērunt, Pupiēnus, Balbīnus,
      Gordiānus, duo superiōrēs obscūrissimō genere, Gordiānus
      nōbilis, quippe cūius pater, senior Gordiānus, cōnsensū            10
      mīlitum, cum prōcōnsulātum Āfricae gereret, Māximīnō
      imperante prīnceps fuisset ēlēctus. Itaque cum Rōmam
      vēnissent, Balbīnus et Pupiēnus in Palātiō interfectī sunt,
      sōlī[177] Gordiānō imperium reservātum. Gordiānus admodum
      puer cum Tranquillīnam Rōmae dūxisset uxōrem, Iānum                15
      Geminum aperuit et ad Orientem profectus Parthīs bellum
      intulit, quī iam mōliēbantur ērumpere. Quod quidem fēlīciter
      gessit proeliīsque ingentibus Persās adflīxit. Rediēns
      haud longē ā Rōmānīs fīnibus interfectus est fraude Philippī,
      quī post eum imperāvit. Mīles eī tumulum vīcēsimō                  20
      mīliāriō ā Circēsiō, quod castrum nunc Rōmānōrum est
      Euphrātae inminēns, aedificāvit, exsequiās Rōmam revexit,
      ipsum Dīvum appellāvit.


      _Philip Emperor, 244-249 A.D._

   84 =3.= Philippī duo, fīlius ac pater, Gordiānō occīsō imperium
      invāsērunt atque exercitū incolumī reductō ad Ītaliam ex
      Syriā profectī sunt. Hīs imperantibus mīllēsimus annus
      Rōmae urbis ingentī lūdōrum apparātū spectāculōrumque
      celebrātus est. Ambō deinde ab exercitū interfectī sunt,            5
      senior Philippus Vērōnae, Rōmae iūnior. Annīs quīnque
      imperāvērunt; inter Dīvōs tamen relātī sunt.


      _Metius Decius Emperor, 249-251 A.D._

      =4.= Post hōs Decius ē Pannoniā īnferiōre Budaliae nātus
      imperium sūmpsit. Bellum cīvīle, quod in Galliā motum
      fuerat, oppressit. Fīlium suum Caesarem fēcit. Rōmae               10
      lavācrum aedificāvit. Cum imperāssent bienniō ipse et
      fīlius, uterque in Barbaricō interfectī sunt. Senior meruit
      inter Dīvōs referrī.


      _Gallus Hostilianus and Volusianus Emperors, 251-253 A.D._

      =5.= Mox imperātōrēs creātī sunt Gallus Hostīliānus et Gallī
      fīlius Volusiānus. Sub hīs Aemiliānus in Moesiā rēs novās          15
      mōlītus est; ad quem opprimendum cum ambō profectī
      essent, Interamnae interfectī sunt nōn complētō bienniō.
      Nihil omnīnō clārum gessērunt. Sōlā pestilentiā[178] et morbīs
      atque aegritūdinibus nōtus eōrum prīncipātus fuit.

      _Aemilianus Emperor, 253 A.D._

      =6.= Aemiliānus obscūrissimē nātus obscūrius imperāvit ac          20
      tertiō mēnse exstinctus est.


      _Valerianus Emperor, 253-260 A.D._

      =7.= Hinc Licinius Valeriānus in Raetiā et Nōricō agēns ab
      exercitū imperātōr et mox Augustus est factus. Galliēnus
   85 quoque Rōmae ā senātū Caesar est appellātus. Hōrum imperium
      Rōmānō nōminī perniciōsum et paene exitiābile fuit
      vel īnfēlīcitāte prīncipum vel ignāviā. Germānī Ravennam
      ūsque vēnērunt. Valeriānus in Mesopotamiā bellum gerēns
      ā Sapōre, Persārum rēge, superātus est, mox etiam captus            5
      apud Parthōs ignōbilī servitūte cōnsenuit.


      _Gallienus Emperor, 260-268 A.D._

      =8.= Galliēnus cum adulēscēns factus esset Augustus, imperium
      prīmum fēlīciter, mox commodē, ad ultimum perniciōsē
      gessit. Nam iuvenis in Galliā et Īllyricō multa strēnuē
      fēcit occīsō apud Mursam Ingenuō, quī purpuram sūmpserat,          10
      et Trebelliānō. Diū placidus et quiētus, mox in omnem
      lascīviam dissolūtus, tenendae reī pūblicae habēnās probrōsā
      ignāviā et dēspērātiōne laxāvit. Alamannī vāstātīs
      Galliīs in Ītaliam penetrāvērunt. Dācia, quae ā Trāiānō
      ultrā Dānuvium fuerat adiectā, tum āmissa, Graecia, Macedonia,     15
      Pontus, Asia vāstāta est per Gothōs, Pannonia ā
      Sarmatīs Quadīsque populāta est, Germānī ūsque ad Hispāniās
      penetrāvērunt et cīvitātem nōbilem Tarracōnem expūgnāvērunt,
      Parthī Mesopotamiā occupātā Syriam sibi
      coeperant vindicāre.                                               20

      =9.= Iam dēspērātīs rēbus et dēlētō paene imperiō Rōmānō
      Postumus in Galliā, obscūrissimē nātus, purpuram sūmpsit
      et per annōs decem ita imperāvit ut cōnsūmptās paene prōvinciās
      ingentī virtūte et moderātiōne reparāverit. Quī
      sēditiōne mīlitum interfectus est, quod Mogontiacum cīvitātem,     25
      quae adversus eum rebellāverat Laeliānō rēs novās
      mōliente, dīripiendam[179] mīlitibus trādere nōluisset. Post
      eum Marius, vīlissimus opifex, purpuram accēpit et secundō
   86 diē interfectus est. Victorīnus posteā Galliārum accēpit
      imperium, vir strēnuissimus, sed cum nimiae libīdinis[180] esset
      et mātrimōnia aliēna corrumperet, Agrippīnae occīsus est
      āctuāriō quōdam dolum māchinante, imperiī suī annō
      secundō.                                                            5

      =10.= Huic successit Tetricus senātor, quī Aquitāniam honōre
      praesidīs administrāns absēns ā mīlitibus imperātōr ēlēctus
      est et apud Burdigalam purpuram sūmpsit. Sēditiōnēs
      multās mīlitum pertulit. Sed dum haec in Galliā geruntur,
      in Oriente per Odenāthum Persae victī sunt. Dēfēnsā                10
      Syriā, receptā Mesopotamiā ūsque ad Ctēsiphōntem Odenāthus
      penetrāvit.


      _Claudius Emperor, 268-270 A.D._

      =11.= Ita Galliēnō rem pūblicam dēserente Rōmānum imperium
      in Occidente per Postumum, per Odenāthum in Oriente
      servātum est. Galliēnus intereā Mediōlānī cum Valeriānō            15
      frātre occīsus est imperiī annō nōnō, Claudiusque eī successit
      ā mīlitibus ēlēctus, ā senātū appellatus Augustus. Hīc
      Gothōs Īllyricum Macedoniamque vāstantēs ingentī proeliō
      vīcit. Parcus vir ac modestus et iūstī[181] tenāx ac reī pūblicae
      gerendae idōneus, quī tamen intrā imperiī biennium morbō           20
      interiit. Dīvus appellātus est. Senātus eum ingentī honōre
      decorāvit, scīlicet ut in cūriā clipeus ipsī aureus, item in
      Capitōliō statua aurea pōnerētur.


      _Quintillus Emperor, 270 A.D._

      =12.= Quintillus post eum, Claudī frāter, cōnsēnsū mīlitum
      imperātōr ēlēctus est, ūnicae moderātionīs[180] vir et             25
   87 cīvīlitātis, aequandus frātrī vel praeponendus. Cōnsēnsū senātūs
      appellātus Augustus septimō decimō diē imperiī occīsus est.


      _Aurelian Emperor, 270-275 A.D._

      =13.= Post eum Aurēliānus suscēpit imperium, Dāciā Rīpēnsī
      oriundus, vir in bellō potēns, animī tamen immodicī et ad
      crūdēlitātem prōpēnsiōris. Is quoque Gothōs strēnuissimē            5
      vīcit. Rōmānam diciōnem ad fīnēs prīstinōs variā bellōrum
      fēlīcitāte revocāvit. Superāvit in Galliā Tetricum apud
      Catalaunōs ipsō Tetricō prōdente exercitum suum, cūius
      adsiduās sēditiōnēs ferre nōn poterat. Quīn etiam per litterās
      occultās Aurēliānum ita fuerat dēprecātus ut inter                 10
      alia versū[182] Vergiliānō uterētur: ‘Ēripe mē hīs, invicte,
      malīs.’ Zēnobiam quoque, quae occīsō Odenāthō marītō
      Orientem tenēbat, haud longē ab Antiochīā sine gravī
      proeliō cēpit, ingressusque Rōmam nōbilem triumphum
      quasi receptor Orientis Occidentisque ēgit praecēdentibus          15
      currum Tetricō et Zēnobiā. Quī quidem Tetricus corrēctor
      Lūcāniae posteā fuit ac prīvātus diūtissimē vīxit; Zēnobia
      autem posterōs, quī adhūc manent, Rōmae relīquit.

      =14.= Hōc imperante etiam in urbe monētāriī rebellāvērunt
      vitiātīs pecūniīs et Fēlīcissimō rationālī interfectō. Quōs        20
      Aurēliānus victōs ultimā crūdēlitāte compescuit. Plūrimōs
      nōbilēs capite[183] damnāvit. Saevus et sanguinārius ac
      necessārius magis in quibusdam quam in ūllō amābilis imperātōr.
      Trux omnī tempore, etiam fīliī sorōris interfector, disciplīnae
      tamen mīlitāris et morum dissolūtōrum māgnā ex parte corrēctor.    25

      =15.= Urbem Rōmam mūrīs fīrmiōribus cīnxit. Templum
   88 Sōlī aedificāvit, in quō īnfīnītum aurī gemmārumque cōnstituit.
      Prōvinciam Dāciam, quam Trāiānus ultrā Dānuvium
      fēcerat, intermīsit, vāstātō omnī Īllyricō et Moesiā dēspērāns
      eam posse retinērī, abductōsque Rōmānōs ex urbibus et
      agrīs Dāciae in mediā Moesiā conlocāvit appellāvitque eam           5
      Dāciam, quae nunc duās Moesiās dīvīdit et est in dextrā
      Dānuviō in mare fluentī, cum anteā fuerit in laevā. Occīditur
      servī suī fraude, quī ad quōsdam mīlitārēs virōs, amīcōs
      ipsīus, nōmina pertulit adnotāta falsō manum ēius imitātus,
      tamquam Aurēliānus ipsōs pārāret occīdere; itaque ut               10
      praevenīrētur, ab īsdem interfectus est in itineris mediō, quod
      inter Cōnstantīnopolim et Hēraclēam est strātae veteris;
      locus Caenophrūrium appellātur. Mors tamen ēius inulta
      nōn fuit. Meruit quoque inter Dīvōs referrī.


      _Tacitus Emperor, 275-276 A.D._

      =16.= Tacitus post hunc suscēpit imperium, vir ēgregiē morātus     15
      et reī pūblicae gerendae idōneus. Nihil tamen clārum
      potuit ostendere intrā sextum mēnsem imperiī morte praeventus.
      Flōriānus, quī Tacitō successerat, duōbus mēnsibus
      et diēbus XX in imperiō fuit neque quicquam dīgnum memoriā
      ēgit.                                                              20


      _Probus Emperor, 276-282 A.D._

      =17.= Post hunc Probus, vir inlūstris glōriā mīlitārī, ad
      administrātiōnem reī pūblicae accessit. Galliās ā barbarīs
      occupātās ingentī proeliōrum fēlīcitāte restituit. Quōsdam
      imperium ūsūrpāre cōnātōs, scīlicet Sāturnīnum in Oriente,
      Proculum et Bonōsum Agrippīnae, certāminibus oppressit.            25
      Vineās Gallōs et Pannoniōs habēre permīsit, opere mīlitārī
      Almam montem apud Sirmium et Aureum apud Moesiam
      superiōrem vīneīs cōnseruit et prōvinciālibus colendōs dedit.
   89 Hīc cum bella innumera gessisset, pāce pārātā dīxit brevī
      mīlitēs necessāriōs nōn futūrōs. Vir ācer, strēnuus, iūstus
      et quī Aurēliānum aequāret glōriā mīlitārī, morum autem
      cīvīlitāte superāret. Interfectus tamen est Sirmī tumultū
      mīlitārī in turrī ferrātā.                                          5


      _Carus Emperor, 282-283 A.D. Carus and Numerianus Emperors,
      283-284 A.D._

      =18.= Post hunc Cārus est factus Augustus, Narbōne nātus
      in Galliā. Is cōnfestim Carīnum et Numeriānum fīliōs Caesarēs
      fēcit. Sed dum bellum adversus Sarmatās gerit, nūntiātō
      Persārum tumultū ad Orientem profectus rēs contrā
      Persās nōbilēs gessit. Ipsōs proeliō fūdit, Cōchēn et              10
      Ctēsiphōntem, urbēs nōbilissimās, cēpit. Et cum castra suprā
      Tigridem habēret, vī dīvīnī fulminis periit. Numeriānus
      quoque, fīlius ēius, quem sēcum Caesarem ad Persās dūxerat,
      adulēscēns ēgregiae indolis, cum oculōrum dolōre correptus
      in lectīculā veherētur, impulsōre Aprō, quī socer ēius             15
      erat, per īnsidiās occīsus est. Et cum dolō occultārētur
      ipsīus mors, quoūsque Aper invādere posset imperium, fētōre
      cadāveris prōdita est. Mīlitēs enim, quī eum sequebantur,
      putōre commōtī dēductīs lectīculae palliīs post aliquot diēs
      mortem ēius nōtam habēre potuērunt.                                20


      _Diocletian Emperor, 284-305 A.D._

      =19.= Intereā Carīnus, quem Caesarem ad Parthōs proficīscēns
      Cārus in Īllyricō, Galliā, Italiā relīquerat, omnibus sē sceleribus
      inquināvit. Plūrimōs innoxiōs fīctīs crīminibus occīdit,
      mātrimōnia nōbilia corrūpit, condiscipulīs[184] quoque, quī
      eum in auditōriō vel levī fatīgātiōne taxāverant, perniciōsus      25
   90 fuit. Ob quae omnibus hominibus invīsus nōn multō post
      poenās dedit. Nam dē Perside victor exercitus rediēns,
      cum Cārum Augustum fulmine, Numeriānum Caesarem īnsidiīs
      perdidisset, Dioclētiānum imperātōrem creāvit, Dalmatiā
      oriundum, virum obscūrissimē nātum, adeō ut ā                       5
      plerīsque scrībae fīlius, ā nōnnūllīs Ānullīnī senātōris
      lībertīnus fuisse crēdātur.

      =20.= Is prīma mīlitum cōntiōne iūrāvit Numeriānum nūllō
      suō dolō interfectum, et cum iūxtā eum Aper, quī Numeriānō
      īnsidiās fēcerat, cōnstitisset, in cōnspectū exercitūs manū        10
      Dioclētiānī percussus est. Posteā Carīnum omnium odiō et
      dētestātiōne vīventem apud Margum ingentī proeliō vīcit,
      prōditum ab exercitū suō, quem fortiōrem habēbat, aut certē
      dēsertum, inter Viminācium atque Aureum montem. Ita
      rērum[185] Rōmānārum potītus cum tumultum rūsticānī in             15
      Galliā concitāssent et factiōnī suae Bacaudārum nōmen
      impōnerent, ducēs autem habērent Amandum et Aeliānum,
      ad subigendōs eōs Māximiānum Herculium Caesarem mīsit,
      quī levibus proeliīs agrestēs domuit et pācem Galliae
      refōrmāvit.                                                        20

      =21.= Per haec tempora etiam Carausius quī vīlissimē nātus
      strēnuae mīlitiae ōrdine fāmam ēgregiam fuerat cōnsecūtus,
      cum apud Bonōniam per trāctum Belgicae et Armoricī
      pacandum mare accēpisset, quod Francī et Saxonēs īnfestābant.
      Multīs barbarīs saepe captīs nec praedā integrā aut                25
      prōvincialibus redditā aut imperātōribus missā cum suspiciō
      esse coepisset cōnsultō ab eō admittī barbarōs, ut trānseuntēs
      cum praedā exciperet atque hāc sē occasiōne dītāret,
      ā Māximiānō iussus occīdī purpuram sūmpsit et Britanniās
      occupāvit.                                                         30


   91 _Diocletian makes Maximianus Herculius Augustus, Constantius
      and Maximianus Caesars._

      =22.= Ita cum per omnem orbem terrārum rēs turbātae essent,
      Carausius in Britanniīs rebellāret, Achilleus in Aegyptō,
      Āfricam Quīnquegentiānī īnfestārent, Narseus Orientī
      bellum īnferret, Dioclētiānus Māximiānum Herculium ex
      Caesare fēcit Augustum, Cōnstantium et Māximiānum                   5
      Caesarēs, quōrum Cōnstantius per fīliam nepōs Claudī trāditur,
      Māximiānus Gālerius in Dāciā haud longē ā Serdicā
      nātus. Atque ut eōs etiam adfīnitāte coniungeret, Cōnstantius
      prīvīgnam Herculī Theodōram accēpit, ex quā
      posteā sex līberōs, Cōnstantīnī frātrēs, habuit, Gālerius          10
      fīliam Dioclētiānī Valeriam, ambō uxōrēs quās habuerant
      repudiāre compulsī. Cum Carausiō tamen, cum bella frūstrā
      temptāta essent contrā virum reī[186] mīlitāris perītissimum,
      ad postrēmum pāx convēnit. Eum post septennium
      Allectus, socius ēius, occīdit, atque ipse post eum Britanniās     15
      trienniō tenuit. Quī ductū Asclēpiodotī, praefectī praetōriō,
      oppressus est. Ita Britanniae decimō annō receptae.

      =23.= Per idem tempus ā Cōnstantiō Caesare in Galliā bene
      pūgnātum est. Circā Lingonas diē ūnā adversam et secundam
      fortūnam expertus est. Nam cum repentē barbarīs ingruentibus       20
      intrā cīvitātem esset coāctus tam praecipitī necessitāte
      ut clausīs portīs in mūrum fūnibus tollerētur, vix
      quīnque hōrīs mediīs adventante exercitū sexāgintā ferē
      mīlia Alamannōrum cecīdit. Māximiānus quoque Augustus
      bellum in Āfricā prōflīgāvit domitīs Quīnquegentiānīs et           25
      ad pācem redāctīs. Dioclētiānus obsessum Alexandrīae
      Achilleum octāvō ferē mēnse superāvit eumque interfēcit.
      Victōriā acerbē usus est; tōtam Aegyptum gravibus
   92 prōscrīptiōnibus caedibusque foedāvit. Eā tamen occāsiōne
      ōrdināvit prōvide multa et disposuit, quae ad nostram aetātem
      manent.

      =24.= Gālerius Māximiānus prīmum adversus Narseum proelium
      īnsecundum habuit inter Callinīcum Carrāsque congressus,            5
      cum incōnsultē magis quam ignavē dīmicāsset;
      admodum enim parvā manū cum cōpiōsissimō hoste commīsit.

      =25.= Pulsus igitur et ad Dioclētiānum profectus cum eī
      in itinere occurrisset, tantā īnsolentiā ā Dioclētiānō fertur      10
      exceptus ut per aliquot passuum mīlia purpurātus trādātur
      ad vehiculum cucurrisse; mox tamen per Īllyricum Moesiamque
      contrāctīs cōpiīs rūrsus cum Narseō, Hormisdae et
      Sapōris avō, in Armeniā Māiōre pūgnāvit successū ingentī
      nec minōre cōnsiliō, simul fortitūdine, quippe quī etiam           15
      speculātōris mūnus cum alterō aut tertiō equite suscēperit.[187]
      Pulsō Narseō castra ēius dīripuit; uxōrēs, sorōrēs, līberōs
      cēpit, īnfīnītam extrīnsecus Persārum nōbilitātem, gazam
      Persicam cōpiōsissimam. Ipsum in ultimās rēgnī solitūdinēs
      ēgit. Quārē ā Dioclētiānō in Mesopotamiā cum praesidiīs            20
      tum morante ovāns regressus ingentī honōre susceptus est.
      Varia deinceps et simul et virītim bella gessērunt Carpīs et
      Basternīs subāctīs, Sarmatīs victīs, quārum nātiōnum ingentēs
      captīvōrum cōpiās in Rōmānīs fīnibus locāvērunt.


      _Diocletian abdicates, 305 A.D._

      =26.= Dioclētiānus morātus callidē fuit, sagāx praetereā et        25
      admodum subtīlis ingeniī, et quī sevēritātem suam aliēnā
      invidiā vellet explēre. Dīligentissimus tamen et sollertissimus
      prīnceps et quī imperiō Rōmānō prīmus rēgiae
   93 cōnsuētūdinis fōrmam magis quam Rōmānae lībertātis invexerit[188]
      adorārīque sē iusserit,[188] cum ante eum cūnctī salūtārentur.
      Ōrnamenta gemmārum vestibus calciāmentīsque
      indidit. Nam prius imperiī īnsīgnē in chlamyde purpureā
      tantum erat, reliqua commūnia.                                      5

      =27.= Herculius autem prōpalam ferus et incīvīlis ingeniī,
      asperitātem suam etiam vultūs horrōre sīgnificāns. Hīc
      natūrae suae indulgēns Dioclētiānō in omnibus est sevēriōribus
      cōnsiliīs obsecutus. Cum tamen ingravēscente aevō
      parum sē idōneum Dioclētiānus moderandō imperiō esse               10
      sentīret, auctor Herculiō fuit ut in vītam prīvātam concēderent
      et statiōnem tuendae reī pūblicae viridiōribus
      iūniōribusque mandārent. Cuī aegrē conlēga obtemperāvit.
      Tamen uterque ūnō diē prīvātō habitū imperiī īnsīgnē
      mūtāvit, Nicomediae Dioclētiānus, Herculius Mediōlānī,             15
      post triumphum inclutum, quem Rōmae ex numerōsīs
      gentibus ēgerant, pompā ferculōrum inlūstrī, quā Narseī
      coniugēs sorōrēsque et līberī antē currum ductī sunt.
      Concessērunt tamen Salōnās ūnus, alter in Lūcāniam.

      =28.= Dioclētiānus prīvātus in vīllā, quae haud procul ā           20
      Salōnīs est, praeclārō ōtiō cōnsenuit, inūsitātā virtūte ūsus,
      ut sōlus omnium post conditum Rōmānum imperium ex
      tantō fastīgiō sponte ad prīvātae vītae statum cīvīlitātemque
      remeāret. Contigit igitur eī, quod nūllī post nātōs hominēs,
      ut cum prīvātus obīsset,[189] inter Dīvōs tamen referrētur.        25



   94 LIBER DECIMUS

      FROM THE ABDICATION OF DIOCLETIAN TO THE DEATH OF JOVIAN,
      305-364 A.D.


      _Constantius I and Galerius Emperors, 305-306 A.D._

      =1.= Hīs igitur abeuntibus administrātiōne reī pūblicae
      Cōnstantius et Gālerius Augustī creātī sunt dīvīsusque inter
      eōs ita Rōmānus orbis, ut Galliam, Ītaliam, Āfricam
      Cōnstantius, Īllyricum, Asiam, Orientem Gālerius obtinēret,
      sūmptīs duōbus Caesaribus. Cōnstantius tamen contentus              5
      dīgnitāte[190] Augustī Ītaliae atque Āfricae administrandae
      sollicitūdinem recusāvit, vir ēgregius et praestantissimae
      cīvīlitātis, dīvitiīs prōvinciālium ac prīvātōrum studēns,
      fiscī commoda nōn admodum adfectāns, dīcēnsque melius
      pūblicās opēs ā prīvātīs habērī quam intrā ūnum claustrum          10
      reservārī, adeō autem cultūs modicī ut festīs diēbus, sī
      amīcīs numerōsiōribus esset epulandum, prīvātōrum eī
      argentō ōstiātim petītō trīclīnia sternerentur. Hīc nōn
      modo amābilis, sed etiam venerābilis Gallīs fuit, praecipuē
      quod Dioclētiānī suspectam prūdentiam et Māximiānī                 15
      sanguināriam temeritātem imperiō ēius ēvāserant. Obiit in
      Britanniā Eborācī prīncipātūs annō tertiō decimō atque
      inter Dīvōs relātus est.


      _Constantine Emperor, 306-307 A.D._

      =2.= Gālerius, vir et probē morātus et ēgregius rē mīlitārī,
      cum Ītaliam quoque sinente Cōnstantiō administrātiōnī              20
      suae accessisse sentīret, Caesarēs duōs creāvit, Māximīnum,
      quem Orientī praefēcit, et Sevērum, cuī Ītaliam dedit. Ipse
   95 in Īllyricō morātus est. Verum Cōnstantiō mortuō Cōnstantīnus,
      ex obscūriōre mātrimōniō ēius fīlius, in Britanniā
      creātus est imperātōr et in locum patris exoptātissimus
      moderātor accessit. Rōmae intereā praetōriānī excītō tumultū
      Māxentium, Herculī fīlium, quī haud procul ab urbe                  5
      in vīllā pūblicā morābātur, Augustum nūncupāvērunt. Quō
      nūntiō Māximiānus Herculius ad spem adrectus resūmendī
      fastīgiī quod invītus āmīserat, Rōmam advolāvit ē Lūcāniā,
      quam sedem prīvātus ēlēgerat in agrīs amoenissimīs
      cōnsenēscēns, Dioclētiānumque etiam per litterās adhortātus        10
      est ut dēpositam resūmeret potestātem, quās ille inrīsās
      habuit. Sed adversum motum praetōriānōrum atque Māxentī
      Sevērus Caesar Rōmam missus ā Gāleriō cum exercitū
      vēnit obsidēnsque urbem mīlitum suōrum scelere dēsertus
      est. Auctae Māxentī opēs cōnfirmātumque imperium. Sevērus          15
      fugiēns Ravennae interfectus est.

      =3.= Herculius tamen Māximiānus post haec in cōntiōne
      exercitūs fīlium Māxentium nūdāre conātus sēditiōnem et
      convīcia mīlitum tulit. Inde ad Galliās profectus est dolō
      compositō, tamquam ā fīliō esset expulsus,[191] ut Cōnstantīnō     20
      generō iungerētur, mōliēns tamen Cōnstantīnum repertā
      occāsiōne interficere, quī in Galliīs et mīlitum et
      prōvinciālium ingentī iam favōre rēgnābat caesīs Francīs atque
      Alamannīs captīsque eōrum rēgibus, quōs etiam bestiīs,
      cum māgnificum spectāculum mūneris parāsset, obiēcit.              25
      Dētēctīs igitur īnsidiīs per Faustam fīliam, quae dolum
      virō nūntiāverat, profūgit Herculius Massiliaeque oppressus
      (ex eā etiam nāvigāre ad fīlium praeparābat) poenās dedit
      iūstissimō exitū, vir ad omnem ācerbitātem saevitiamque
      prōclīvis, īnfīdus, incommodus, cīvīlitātis penitus expers.        30


   96 _Licinius Emperor, 307-324 A.D._

      =4.= Per hōc tempus ā Gāleriō Licinius imperātōr est factus,
      Dāciā oriundus, nōtus eī antīquā cōnsuētūdine et in bellō,
      quod adversus Narseum gesserat, strēnuis labōribus et
      officiīs acceptus. Mors Gālerī cōnfestim secūta. Ita rēs
      pūblica tum ā novīs quattuor imperātōribus tenēbātur,               5
      Cōnstantīnō et Māxentiō, fīliīs Augustōrum, Liciniō et
      Māximīnō, novīs hominibus. Quīntō tamen Cōnstantīnus imperiī
      suī annō bellum adversum Māxentium cīvīle commōvit,
      cōpiās ēius multīs proeliīs fūdit, ipsum postrēmō Rōmae
      adversum nōbilēs omnibus exitiīs saevientem apud pontem            10
      Mulvium vīcit Ītaliāque est potītus. Nōn multō[192] deinceps
      in Oriente quoque adversum Licinium Māximīnus rēs novās
      mōlītus vīcīnum exitium fortuītā apud Tarsum morte praevēnit.


      _Constantine the Great sole Ruler, 324-337 A.D._

      =5.= Cōnstantīnus tamen, vir ingēns et omnia efficere nītēns       15
      quae animō praeparāsset,[193] simul prīncipātum tōtīus orbis
      adfectāns, Liciniō bellum intulit, quamquam necessitūdō
      et adfīnitās cum eō esset; nam soror Cōnstantia nūpta
      Liciniō erat. Ac prīmō eum in Pannoniā Secundā ingentī
      apparātū bellum apud Cibalās īnstruentem repentīnus oppressit      20
      omnīque Dardaniā, Moesiā, Macedoniā potītus numerōsās
      prōvinciās occupāvit.

      =6.= Varia deinceps inter eōs bella gesta, et pāx reconciliāta
      ruptaque est. Postremō Licinius nāvālī et terrestrī proeliō
      victus apud Nicomediam sē dēdidit et contrā religiōnem             25
      sacrāmentī Thessalonīcae prīvātus occisus est. Eō tempore
      rēs Rōmāna sub ūnō Augustō et tribus Caesaribus, quod
   97 numquam aliās, fuit, cum līberī Cōnstantīnī Galliae, Orientī
      Ītaliaeque praeessent. Verum īnsolentiā rērum secundārum
      aliquantum Cōnstantīnus ex illā favōrābilī animī docilitāte
      mūtāvit. Prīmum necessitūdinēs persecūtus ēgregium
      virum fīlium et sorōris fīlium, commodae indolis iuvenem,           5
      interfēcit, mox uxōrem, post numerōsōs amīcōs.

      =7.= Vir prīmō imperiī tempore optimīs prīncipibus, ultimō
      mediīs comparandus. Innumerae in eō animī corporisque
      virtūtēs clāruērunt. Mīlitāris glōriae appetentissimus, fortūnā
      in bellīs prōsperā fuit, vērum ita ut nōn superāret                10
      industriam. Nam etiam Gothōs post cīvīle bellum variē
      prōflīgāvit pāce hīs ad postremum datā, ingentemque apud
      barbarās gentēs memoriae grātiam conlocāvit. Cīvīlibus
      artibus et studiīs līberālibus dēditus, adfectātor iūstī amōris,
      quem ab omnibus sibi et līberālitāte et docilitāte quaesīvit,      15
      sīcut in nōnnūllōs amīcōs dubius, ita in reliquōs ēgregius,
      nihil occāsiōnum praetermittēns, quō opulentiōrēs eōs
      clāriōrēsque praestāret.

      =8.= Multās lēgēs rogāvit, quāsdam ex bonō et aequō, plērāsque
      superfluās, nōnnūllās sevērās, prīmusque urbem nōminis             20
      suī ad tantum fastīgium ēvehere mōlītus est, ut Rōmae
      aemulam faceret. Bellum adversus Parthōs mōliēns, quī
      iam Mesopotamiam fatīgābant, ūnō et trīcēsimō annō imperiī,
      aetātis sextō et sexāgēsimō, Nicomediae in vīllā
      pūblicā obiit. Dēnūntiāta mors ēius est etiam per crīnītam         25
      stellam, quae inūsitātae māgnitūdinis aliquamdiū fūlsit;
      eam Graecī comētēn vocant. Atque inter Dīvōs meruit
      referrī.


      _The Sons of Constantine rule, 337-360 A.D._

      =9.= Is successōrēs fīliōs trēs relīquit atque ūnum frātris
      fīlium. Vērum Dalmatius Caesar prōsperrimā indole neque            30
   98 patruō absimilis haud multō post oppressus est factiōne
      mīlitārī et Cōnstantiō, patruēlī suō, sinente potius quam
      iubente. Cōnstantīnum porrō bellum frātrī īnferentem et
      apud Aquilēiam incōnsultius proelium aggressum Cōnstantis
      ducēs interēmērunt. Ita rēs pūblica ad duōs Augustōs                5
      redācta. Cōnstantis imperium strēnuum aliquamdiū et
      iūstum fuit. Mox cum et valetūdine imprōsperā et amīcīs
      prāviōribus uterētur, ad gravia vitia conversus, cum
      intolerābilis prōvinciālibus, mīlitī iniūcundus esset, factiōne
      Māgnenti occīsus est. Obiit haud longē ab Hispāniīs in castrō,     10
      cuī Helenae[194] nōmen est, annō imperiī septimō decimō, aetātis
      trīcēsimō, rēbus tamen plurimīs strēnuē in mīlitiā gestīs
      exercituīque per omne vītae tempus sine gravī crūdēlitāte
      terribilis.

      =10.= Dīversa Cōnstantī fortūna fuit. Ā Persīs enim multa          15
      et gravia perpessus saepe captīs oppidīs, obsessīs urbibus,
      caesīs exercitibus, nūllumque eī contrā Sapōrem prōsperum
      proelium fuit, nisi quod apud Singara haud dubiam victōriam
      ferōciā mīlitum āmīsit, quī pūgnam sēditiōsē et stolidē
      contrā ratiōnem bellī diē iam praecipitī poposcērunt. Post         20
      Cōnstantis necem Māgnentiō Ītaliam, Āfricam, Galliās obtinente
      etiam Īllyricum rēs novās habuit, Vetraniōne ad imperium
      cōnsēnsū mīlitum ēlēctō. Quem grandaevum iam
      et cūnctīs amābilem diūturnitāte et fēlīcitāte mīlitiae ad
      tuendum Īllyricum prīncipem creāvērunt, virum probum et            25
      mōrum veterum ac iūcundae cīvīlitātis, sed omnium līberālium
      artium expertem adeō ut nē elementa quidem prīma
      litterārum nisi grandaevus et iam imperātōr accēperit.

      =11.= Sed ā Cōnstantiō, quī ad ultiōnem frāternae necis bellum
      cīvīle commōverat, abrogātum est Vetraniōnī imperium;              30
   99 novō inūsitātōque mōre cōnsēnsū mīlitum dēponere īnsīgnē
      compulsus. Rōmae quoque tumultus fuit Nepotiānō, Cōnstantīnī
      sorōris fīliō, per gladiātōriam manum imperium
      vīndicante, quī saevīs exōrdiīs[195] dīgnum exitum nactus est.
      Vīcēsimō enim atque octāvō diē a Māgnentiānīs ducibus               5
      oppressus poenās dedit. Caput ēius pīlō per urbem circumlātum
      est, gravissimaeque prōscrīptiōnēs et nōbilium caedēs
      fuērunt.

      =12.= Nōn multō post Māgnentius apud Mursam prōflīgātus
      aciē est ac paene captus. Ingentēs Rōmānī imperiī vīrēs eā         10
      dīmicātiōne cōnsūmptae sunt, ad quaelibet bella externa
      idōneae, quae multum triumphōrum possent[196] sēcūritātisque
      cōnferre. Orientī mox ā Cōnstantiō Caesar est datus patruī
      fīlius Gallus, Māgnentiusque dīversīs proeliīs victus vim
      vītae suae apud Lugdūnum attulit imperiī annō tertiō,              15
      mēnse septimō, frāter quoque ēius Decentius Senonibus,
      quem ad tuendās Galliās Caesarem mīserat.

      =13.= Per haec tempora etiam ā Cōnstantiō multīs incīvīlibus
      gestīs Gallus Caesar occīsus est, vir natūrā ferus et ad
      tyrannidem prōnior, sī suō iūre imperāre licuisset.[197]           20
      Silvānus quoque in Galliā rēs novās mōlītus ante diem
      trīcēsimum exstīnctus est, sōlusque imperiō Rōmānō eō tempore
      Cōnstantius prīnceps et Augustus fuit.

      =14.= Mox Iūliānum Caesarem ad Galliās mīsit, patruēlem
      suum, Gallī frātrem, trāditā eī in mātrimōnium sorōre,             25
      cum multa oppida barbarī expūgnāssent, alia obsidērent,
      ubique foeda vāstitās esset Rōmānumque imperium nōn
      dubiā iam calamitāte nūtāret. Ā quō modicīs cōpiīs apud
      Argentorātum, Galliae urbem, ingentēs Alamannōrum cōpiae
  100 exstīnctae sunt, rēx nōbilissimus captus, Galliae restitūtae.
      Multa posteā per eundem Iūliānum ēgregiē adversum barbarōs
      gesta sunt summōtīque ultrā Rhēnum Germānī et
      fīnibus suīs Rōmānum imperium restitūtum.


      _Julian Emperor, 360-363 A.D._

      =15.= Neque multō post, cum Germāniciānī exercitūs ā Galliārum      5
      praesidiō tollerentur, cōnsēnsū mīlitum Iūliānus factus
      Augustus est, interiectōque annō ad Īllyricum obtinendum
      profectus Cōnstantiō Parthicīs proeliīs occupātō. Quī rēbus
      cognitīs ad bellum cīvīle conversus in itinere obiit inter
      Ciliciam Cappadociamque annō imperiī octāvō et trīcēsimō,          10
      aetātis quīntō et quadrāgēsimō, meruitque inter Dīvōs referrī,
      vir ēgregiae tranquillitātis, placidus, nimium amīcīs[198]
      et familiāribus crēdēns, mox etiam uxōribus dēditior, quī
      tamen prīmīs imperiī annīs ingentī sē modestiā ēgerit,
      familiārium etiam locuplētātor neque inhonōrēs sinēns, quōrum      15
      labōriōsa expertus fuisset officia, ad sevēritātem tamen
      prōpēnsior, sī suspīciō imperiī movērētur, mītis aliās, et cūius
      in cīvīlibus magis quam in externīs bellīs sit laudanda
      fortūna.


      _Eutropius takes part in the Parthian Expedition, 363 A.D._

      =16.= Hinc Iūliānus rērum potītus est ingentīque apparātū          20
      Parthīs intulit bellum, cuī expedītiōnī ego quoque interfuī.
      Aliquot oppida et castella Persārum in dēditiōnem accēpit
      vel vī expūgnāvit Assyriamque populātus castra apud
      Ctēsiphōntem statīva aliquamdiū habuit. Remeānsque
      victor, dum sē incōnsultius proeliīs īnserit, hostīlī manū         25
      interfectus est VI Kal. Iul., imperiī annō septimō, aetātis
  101 alterō et trīcēsimō atque inter Dīvōs relātus est, vir ēgregius
      et rem publicam īnsīgniter moderātūrus, sī per fāta licuisset.
      Līberālibus disciplīnīs apprīmē ērudītus, Graecīs doctior
      atque adeō ut Latīna ērudītiō nēquāquam cum Graecā
      scientiā convenīret, fācundiā ingentī et prōmptā, memoriae          5
      tenācissimae, in quibusdam philosophō proprior. In amīcōs
      līberālis, sed minus dīligēns quam tantum prīncipem decuit.
      Fuērunt enim nōnnūllī quī vulnera glōriae ēius īnferrent.
      In prōvinciālēs iūstissimus et tribūtōrum, quātenus fierī
      posset, repressor. Cīvīlis in cūnctōs, mediōcrem habēns            10
      aerāriī cūram, glōriae avidus ac per eam animī plērumque
      immodicī, religiōnis Christiānae nimius īnsectātor, perinde
      tamen ut cruōre abstinēret, M. Antōnīnō nōn absimilis,
      quem etiam aemulārī studēbat.


      _Jovian Emperor, 363-364 A.D._

      =17.= Post hunc Ioviānus, quī tunc domesticus mīlitābat,           15
      ad obtinendum imperium cōnsēnsū exercitūs lēctus est,
      commendātiōne patris mīlitibus quam suā nōtior. Quī iam
      turbātīs rēbus exercitū quoque inopiā labōrante ūnō ā Persīs
      atque alterō proeliō victus pācem cum Sapōre, necessāriam
      quidem, sed ignōbilem, fēcit multātus fīnibus[199] ac nōnnūllā     20
      imperiī Rōmānī parte trāditā. Quod ante eum annīs mīlle
      centum et duōbus dē vīgintī ferē, ex quō Rōmānum imperium
      conditum erat, numquam accīdit. Quīn etiam legiōnēs
      nostrae ita et apud Caudium per Pontium Telesīnum et in
      Hispāniā apud Numantiam et in Numidiā sub iūgum missae             25
      sunt, ut nihil tamen fīnium trāderētur. Ea pācis condiciō
      nōn penitus reprehendenda foret, sī foederis necessitātem
      tum cum integrum fuit mutāre voluisset, sīcut a Rōmānīs
  102 omnibus hīs bellīs, quae commemorāvī, factum est. Nam
      et Samnītibus et Numantīnīs et Numidīs cōnfestim bella
      inlāta sunt neque pāx rata fuit. Sed dum aemulum imperiī
      verētur, intra Orientem residēns glōriae parum cōnsuluit.
      Itaque iter ingressus atque Īllyricum petēns in Galatiae            5
      fīnibus repentīnā morte obiit, vir aliās neque iners neque
      imprūdēns.

      =18.= Multī exanimātum opīnantur nimiā crūditāte (inter
      cēnandum enim epulīs indulserat), aliī odōre cubiculī, quod
      ex recentī tēctōriō calcis grave quiēscentibus erat, quidam        10
      nimietāte prūnārum, quās gravī frīgore adolērī multās
      iusserat. Dēcessit imperiī mēnse septimō, tertiō decimō
      Kal. Mārt., aetātis tertiō et trīcēsimō annō, ac benīgnitāte
      prīncipum quī eī successērunt inter Dīvōs relātus est.
      Nam et cīvīlitātī propior et natūrā admodum līberālis fuit.        15

      Is status erat Rōmānae reī Ioviānō eōdem et Varroniānō
      cōnsulibus annō urbis conditae mīllēsimō centēsimō et
      octāvō decimō. Quia autem ad inclutōs prīncipēs venerandōsque
      perventum est, interim operī modum dabimus. Nam
      reliqua stilō māiōre dīcenda sunt. Quae nunc nōn tam               20
      praetermittimus, quam ad māiōrem scrībendī dīligentiam
      reservāmus.



FOOTNOTES


[1] H. 521, II, 2; M. 347; A. & G. 325; G. 585; B. 288.

[2] H. 379; M. 197; A. & G. 256; G. 336; B. 181, 1.

[3] H. 431; M. 255, 1; A. & G. 255, _d_, 1; G. 409; B. 227, 2, _a_.

[4] H. 397, 3, N. 3; M. 225, N. 2; A. & G. 216, _c_; G. 372, R. 2; B.
201, 1, _a_.

[5] H. 497, I; M. 382, 3; A. & G. 317, 2; G. 630; B. 282, 2.

[6] H. 517; M. 355; A. & G. 326; G. 586; B. 286, 2.

[7] H. 425, II; M. 242, 1; A. & G. 258, _c_, 2; G. 411; B. 232, 1.

[8] H. 386; M. 202; A. & G. 228; G. 347; B. 187, III.

[9] H. 425, II, 2, N. 2; M. 241, 2; A. & G. 258, _f_, 2; G. 385, N. 1;
B. 228, 1, _b_.

[10] H. 235; M. 100, 1; A. & G. 128, _a_, 1; G. 131, 1; B. 116, 1.

[11] H. 397, 3; M. 225, 3; A. & G. 216, _a_, 3; G. 372; B. 201, 1.

[12] H. 384, 4, N. 3; M. 210; A. & G. 235, _b_; G. 353; B. 188, 2, _a_.

[13] H. 385, II, 2; M. 211; A. & G. 229; G. 345, R. 1; B. 188, 2, _d_.

[14] H. 509, N. 3; M. 403; A. & G. 337, _a_, 3; G. 596, 2; B. 320.

[15] H. 497, II; M. 328; A. & G. 317, 1; G. 545, 1; B. 282, 1.

[16] H. 498, I; M. 333, 1; A. & G. 331, _d_; G. 546; B. 295, 4.

[17] H. 412, 2; M. 233, 2; A. & G. 258, _a_, N. 2; G. 390, 2; B. 229, 1.

[18] H. 380, II; M. 199, 1; A. & G. 258, _b_; G. 337; B. 182, 1, _a_.

[19] H. 450, 4; M. 443, 1; A. & G. 102, _b_; G. 307, 2; B. 246, 3.

[20] H. 500, II: 495, VI; M. 337: 316, 2; A. & G. 319, 1: 287, _c_, R.;
G. 552, 1: 513; B. 284, 1: 268, 6.

[21] H. 396, III; M. 216; A. & G. 217; G. 363, 2; B. 200.

[22] H. 542, III, N. 2: 544, 1; M. 291: 297; A. & G. 300: 318, _b_; G.
432, R.; B. 338, 3: 339, 2.

[23] H. 549, 3; M. 283; A. & G. 293, _b_, 3; G. 640, 4, (2); B. 304, 3,
_b_.

[24] H. 510; M. 366; A. & G. 308; G. 597; B. 304.

[25] H. 396, V; M. 223; A. & G. 215, _b_; G. 365; B. 203, 2.

[26] H. 515, III; M. 378, 1; A. & G. 326; G. 587; B. 309, 3.

[27] H. 235; M. 100, 1; A. & G. 128, _a_; G. 131, 1; B. 116, 1.

[28] H. 385, II, 2; M. 211; A. & G. 229; G. 345, R. 1; B. 188, 2, _d_.

[29] H. 414, I; M. 236; A. & G. 243; G. 390, 2; B. 214, 1.

[30] H. 384, II, 5; M. 205, N.; A. & G. 230; G. 217; B. 187, II, _b_.

[31] H. 429; M. 243, 1; A. & G. 256; G. 393; B. 231.

[32] H. 423; M. 248; A. & G. 250; G. 403; B. 223.

[33] H. 415, I; M. 247, 2; A. & G. 246; G. 401; B. 216.

[34] H. 503, I; M. 383, 1; A. & G. 320; G. 631, 1; B. 283, 2.

[35] H. 384, 4, N. 2; M. 208; A. & G. 235, _a_; G. 350, 1; B. 188, 1.

[36] H. 498, I; M. 333, 2; A. & G. 331; G. 546, 2; B. 295, 1.

[37] H. 409, II; M. 228; A. & G. 220, _a_; G. 378, 3; B. 208, 2, _a_.

[38] H. 235: 516, II; M. 100, 1: 357; A. & G. 128, _a_, 1: 321, G. 131,
1: 541; B. 116, 1: 286, 1.

[39] H. 419, III; M. 245; A. & G. 248; G. 399; B. 220, 1.

[40] H. 374; M. 192, 2; A. & G. 239, _c_; G. 339, _a_; B. 178, 1, _a_.

[41] H. 529, I; M. 388; A. & G. 334; G. 467; B. 300, 1, _a_.

[42] H. 420; M. 247, 1; A. & G. 248, _c_, 1; G. 401; B. 218.

[43] H. 416; M. 254; A. & G. 245; G. 408; B. 219.

[44] H. 542, IV: 544, 1; M. 292: 297; A. & G. 301; G. 433; B. 338, 4,
_b_: 339, 1.

[45] H. 424; M. 238, 1; A. & G. 253; G. 397; B. 226.

[46] H. 508: 527, I; M. 363: 402; A. & G. 307, _c_: 337, 3; G. 595, R.
1; B. 319, B, 3rd ex. _a_.

[47] H. 524; M. 392; A. & G. 336, 2; G. 650; B. 314, 1.

[48] H. 412, 3, N.; M. 233, 3; A. & G. 258, _a_, N. 1; G. 391, R. 1; B.
229, 2.

[49] H. 497, II; M. 328; A. & G. 317, 1; G. 545, 1; B. 282, 1.

[50] H. 396, V; M. 221; A. & G. 214, _e_; G. 368; B. 197.

[51] H. 391, I, footnote; M. 214; A. & G. 234, _a_; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[52] H. 425, II, 2; M. 241, 3; A. & G. 258, _d_; G. 385, N. 1; B. 228,
1, _c_.

[53] H. 385, I; M. 205; A. & G. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, _a_.

[54] H. 123; M. 55, 1; A. & G. 73; G. 64; B. 53.

[55] H. 404; M. 224; A. & G. 252, _a_; G. 380; B. 203, 3.

[56] H. 524, 2, 2; M. 392, N. 3; A. & G. 336, _d_; G. 628, R. _a_; B,
314, 3.

[57] H. 542, III: 544, 1; M. 291: 297; A. & G. 300; G. 432; B. 338, 3:
339.

[58] H. 396, V; M. 223; A. & G. 215, _b_; G. 365; B. 203, 2.

[59] H. 542, III; M. 291; A. & G. 300; G. 432; B. 338, 3.

[60] H. 419, I; M. 244; A. & G. 248, _a_; G. 392; B. 222.

[61] H. 391, I; M. 214; A. & G. 234, _a_; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[62] H. 384, 5; M. 205, N.; A. & G. 230; G. 217; B. 187, II, _b_.

[63] H. 425, II, 2; M. 241, 3; A. & G. 258, _f_, 2; G. 385, N. 1; B.
228, 1, _b_.

[64] H. 542, IV, (1); M. 292; A. & G. 301, 1; G. 431; B. 338, 4, _a_.

[65] H. 384, II, 1, 2); M. 208; A. & G. 235; G. 350, 2; B. 188, 1.

[66] H. 429; M. 243, 1; A. & G. 256, 1; G. 393; B. 230.

[67] H. 396, III; M. 216, 1; A. & G. 217; G. 363, 2; B. 200.

[68] H. 416; M. 254; A. & G. 245; G. 408; B. 219.

[69] H. 419, III; M. 245; A. & G. 248; G. 399; B. 220.

[70] H. 425, II; M. 242, 1; A. & G. 258, _c_, 2; G. 411; B. 232, 1.

[71] H. 549, 5; M. 281, 4; A. & G. 292, R.; G. 664, R. 1, 2; B. 337, 2.

[72] H. 420, 1, 3); M. 247, 1; A. & G. 258, _g_; G. 401; B. 218, 9.

[73] H. 386; M. 212, N. 1; A. & G. 228; G. 347; B. 187, III.

[74] H. 519, II, 2; M. 354; A. & G. 328; G. 572; B. 293, III, 2.

[75] H. 523, III, and footnote 4; M. 393; A. & G. 339; G. 652; B. 316.

[76] H. 524, 2, 2; M. 392, N. 3; A. & G. 336, _d_; G. 628, R. _a_; B.
314, 3.

[77] H. 379, 1; M. 197; A. & G. 256, _a_; G. 336; B. 181, 2.

[78] H. 498, III; M. 336; A. & G. 331, _f_; G. 550, 2; B. 296, 2.

[79] H. 390, I; M. 206; A. & G. 233, _a_; G. 356; B. 191, 2, _a_.

[80] H. 431, 4; M. 255, 1; A. & G. 255, _d_, 1; G. 409; B. 227, 2, _a_.

[81] H. 425, II, 1, 1); M. 240, 2; A. & G. 259, _a_; G. 389; B. 218, 7.

[82] H. 549, 5, N. 2; M. 286; A. & G. 292, _a_; G. 325, R. 3; B. 337, 5.

[83] H. 466, N.; M. 295, 1; A. & G. 294, _b_; G. 251; B. 337, 7, _b_, 1.

[84] H. 424; M. 238, 1; A. & G. 253; G. 397; B. 226.

[85] H. 499, 3; M. 333, 3; A. & G. 331, N.; G. 546, 1; B. 295, 1.

[86] H. 384, 4, N. 2; M. 208; A. & G. 235, _a_; G. 350, 1; B. 188, 1.

[87] H. 396, I; M. 217, 2; A. & G. 214, _c_; G. 366; B. 198, 3.

[88] H. 396, V; M. 222, 224, N.; A. & G. 215; G. 366; B. 203, 5.

[89] H. 396, III; M. 216, 1; A. & G. 217; G. 363, 2; B. 200.

[90] H. 542, III; M. 291; A. & G. 300; G. 430; B. 338, 3.

[91] H. 415; M. 234; A. & G. 244; G. 395; B. 215.

[92] H. 417, 2; M. 248; A. & G. 250; G. 403; B. 223.

[93] H. 549, 5; M. 281, 4; A. & G. 292, R.; G. 664, R. 1; B. 337, 2.

[94] H. 396, III; M. 216, 1; A. & G. 217; G. 363, 2; B. 200.

[95] H. 416; M. 238; A. & G. 253, N.; G. 408, N. 1; B. 219, 2.

[96] H. 516, II; M. 357; A. & G. 321; G. 541; B. 286, 1.

[97] H. 515, III; M. 378, 6; A. & G. 313, _d_; G. 587; B. 309, 3.

[98] H. 521, II, 2: 466, N.; M. 348: 98, 1; A. & G. 325: 293, _a_; G.
585: 247; B. 288: 115.

[99] H. 301, 1; M. 145, 3; A. & G. 230; G. 208, 2; B. 187, II, _b_.

[100] H. 467, III, 4; M. 352; A. & G. 276, 3; G. 570; B. 293, I.

[101] H. 498, III; M. 336; A. & G. 331, _f_; G. 550; B. 296, 2.

[102] H. 414; M. 236; A. & G. 243; G. 390, 2; B. 214, 1, _b_.

[103] H. 384, II, 2); M. 208; A. & G. 235; G. 350, 1; B. 188, 1.

[104] H. 387; M. 212; A. & G. 231; G. 349; B. 190.

[105] H. 397, 3, N. 3; M. 225, N. 2; A. & G. 216, _c_; G. 372, R. 2; B.
201, 1, _a_.

[106] H. 500, II; M. 382, 4; A. & G. 319, 1; G. 552, 1; B. 284, 1.

[107] H. 549, 3; M. 283; A. & G. 293, _b_, 2; G. 670, 3; B. 337, 4.

[108] H. 501, II, 1; M. 341, 1; A. & G. 332; G. 553; B. 297, 1.

[109] H. 416; M. 254; A. & G. 245; G. 408; B. 219.

[110] H. 412, II; M. 236, 2; A. & G. 258, _a_; G. 391; B. 229, 1, _a_.

[111] H. 529, I; M. 388; A. & G. 334; G. 467; B. 300, 1.

[112] H. 397, 2; M. 225, 1; A. & G. 216, _a_, 2; G. 370; B. 201, 1.

[113] H. 467, 4; M. 352; A. & G. 276, 3; G. 570; B. 293, I.

[114] H. 412, II, 3, N.; M. 233, 3; A. & G. 258, _a_, N. 1; G. 391, R.
1; B. 292, 2.

[115] H. 380, II; M. 199, 1; A. & G. 258, _b_; G. 337; B. 182, 1, _a_.

[116] H. 391, I; M. 214; A. & G. 234, _a_; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[117] H. 397, 3; M. 225, 3; A. & G. 216, _a_, 2; G. 372; B. 201, 1.

[118] H. 542, I; M. 289, 1; A. & G. 298; G. 428; B. 338, 1, _a_.

[119] H. 396, III; M. 216, I; A. & G. 217; G. 363, 2; B. 200.

[120] H. 397, 3, N. 3; M. 225, N. 2; A. & G. 216, _c_; G. 372, R. 2; B.
201, 1, _a_.

[121] H. 396, V; M. 222; A. & G. 215; G. 365; B. 203, 1.

[122] H. 385, II, 2; M. 211; A. & G. 229; G. 345, R. 1; B. 188, 2, _d_.

[123] H. 516, II; M. 357; A. & G. 321; G. 541; B. 286, 1.

[124] H. 391, I; M. 214; A. & G. 234, _a_; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[125] H. 384, II, 2; M. 203; A. & G. 225, 3, _d_; G. 348; B. 187, 1,
_a_.

[126] H. 497, II; M. 382, 3; A. & G. 317, 2; G. 545, 2; B. 282, 2.

[127] H. 544, 1; M. 296; A. & G. 300; G. 432, R.; B. 339, 2.

[128] H. 542, IV; M. 292; A. & G. 301, footnote; G. 431, 3; B. 338, 4,
_a_.

[129] H. 379; M. 196; A. & G. 257; G. 335; B. 181, 1.

[130] H. 384, II; M. 205; A. & G. 227, _f_; G. 346; B. 187, II, _a_.

[131] H. 419, II; M. 246; A. & G. 251; G. 400; B. 224.

[132] H. 500, II; M. 338; A. & G. 319, 1; G. 552, 1; B. 284, 1.

[133] H. 543; M. 295, 1; A. & G. 294, _a_; G. 438, N.; B. 337, 7, _a_.

[134] H. 463, I; M. 175, 2; A. & G. 205, _d_; G. 285, 1; B. 255, 3.

[135] H. 503, I; M. 383, 2; A. & G. 320; G. 631, 2; B. 283, 1.

[136] H. 549, 3; M. 283; A. & G. 293, _b_, 3; G. 670, 4, (1); B. 337, 4.

[137] H. 509, N. 3; M. 366; A. & G. 307, _f_; G. 596, 2; B. 302, 3, _a_.

[138] H. 421, I; M. 253; A. & G. 249; G. 407; B. 218, 1.

[139] H. 430; M. 258, 1; A. & G. 259, _d_; G. 403, N. 4, (_a_); B. 357,
1.

[140] H. 433, 1; M. 258, 1; A. & G. 258, _c_, N. 1; G. 416, 4; B. 141.

[141] H. 444, 1; M. 426; A. & G. 93, _a_; G. 297, 2; B. 240, 1.

[142] H. 301; M. 145, 3; A. & G. 146, _d_; G. 208, 2; B. 187, II, _b_.

[143] H. 385, I; M. 205; A. & G. 227; G. 346; B. 187, III, _a_.

[144] H. 410, V, 3; M. 231; A. & G. 223, _a_; G. 407, 2, (_d_); B. 212,
2.

[145] H. 384, II, 4, N. 2; M. 208; A. & G. 235; G. 350, 1; B. 188, 1.

[146] H. 415, I, 1, N. 1; M. 247, 3; A. & G. 246, _b_; G. 401, end; B.
141.

[147] H. 517; M. 355; A. & G. 326; G. 586; B. 286, 2.

[148] H. 386; M. 202, 1; A. & G. 228; G. 347; B. 187, III.

[149] H. 430 (last example); M. 249; A. & G. 262, N. 2; G. 563, 2; B.
230.

[150] H. 391; M. 214; A. & G. 234; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[151] H. 417; M. 239, 1; A. & G. 247; G. 398; B. 217, 1.

[152] H. 419, II; M. 246; A. & G. 251; G. 400; B. 224, 1.

[153] H. 503, I; M. 383, 2; A. & G. 320; G. 631, 2; B. 283, 1.

[154] H. 396, V; M. 222; A. & G. 215; G. 365; B. 203, 1.

[155] H. 391; M. 214; A. & G. 234; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[156] H. 510, II; M. 366; A. & G. 308; G. 597; B. 304, 1.

[157] H. 424; M. 238, 1; A. & G. 253; G. 397; B. 226.

[158] H. 184, 3; M. 77, 2; A. & G. 99, _f_; G. 102, N. 2; B. 6, 3.

[159] H. 404; M. 224; A. & G. 252, _a_; G. 379; B. 203, 3.

[160] H. 421, I; M. 253; A. & G. 249; G. 407; B. 218, 1.

[161] H. 517, 3, 1); M. 382, 2, N.; A. & G. 326, N. 1; G. 498, N. 8; B.
286, 2.

[162] H. 385, II, 2; M. 211; A. & G. 229; G. 347, 5; B. 188, 2, _d_.

[163] H. 399; M. 226, 1; A. & G. 218; G. 374; B. 204, 1.

[164] H. 397, 3; M. 225, 2; A. & G. 216, _a_, 3; G. 369; B. 201, 2.

[165] H. 385, 1; M. 204; A. & G. 227, _c_; G. 346, R. 2, N. 2; B. 187,
III.

[166] H. 542, IV; M. 292; A. & G. 301; G. 431; B. 338, 4, _a_.

[167] H. 415; M. 234; A. & G. 244; G. 395; B. 215.

[168] H. 542, I; M. 289; A. & G. 298; G. 428; B. 338, 1, _c_.

[169] H. 516, II; M. 357; A. & G. 321; G. 541; B. 286, 1.

[170] H. 417; M. 239, 1; A. & G. 247; G. 398; B. 217, 1.

[171] H. 503, I; M. 383, 1; A. & G. 320; G. 631, 1; B. 283, 1.

[172] H. 451, 3; M. 446; A. &. G. 195, _e_; G. 310; B. 248, 1.

[173] H. 415, I, N. 1; M. 247, 3; A. & G. 246, _b_; G. 401; B. 141.

[174] H. 423; M. 248; A. & G. 250; G. 403; B. 223.

[175] H. 429; M. 243, 2; A. & G. 256; G. 393; B. 231.

[176] H. 387; M. 212; A. & G. 231; G. 349; B. 190.

[177] H. 384, 4; M. 208; A. & G. 235, _a_; G. 350, 1; B. 188, 1.

[178] H. 416; M. 254; A. & G. 245; G. 408; B. 219.

[179] H. 544, 2, N. 2; M. 295, 2; A. & G. 294, _d_; G. 430; B. 337, 7,
_b_, 2).

[180] H. 396, V; M. 222; A. & G. 215; G. 365; B. 203, 1.

[181] H. 399, II; M. 226, 1; A. & G. 218, _b_; G. 375; B. 204, 1.

[182] H. 421, I; M. 253; A. & G. 249; G. 407; B. 218, 1.

[183] H. 410, III; M. 251; A. & G. 220, _b_, 1; G. 404; B. 208, 2, _b_.

[184] H. 391, I; M. 214; A. & G. 234, _a_; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

[185] H. 410, V. 3; M. 231; A. & G. 223, _a_; G. 407, N. 2, (_d_); B.
212, 2.

[186] H. 399, 2; M. 226, 1; A. & G. 218, _a_; G. 374; B. 204, 1.

[187] H. 517, 3, 1); M. 382, 2 N.; A. & G. 320, _c_; G. 633; B. 283, 3.

[188] H. 503, I; M. 383, 1; A. & G. 320; G. 631, 2; B. 283, 2.

[189] H. 515, III; M. 378, 6; A. & G. 313, _d_; G. 587; B. 309, 3.

[190] H. 421, III; M. 247, N. 1; A. & G. 254, _b_, 2; G. 401, N. 6; B.
219, 1.

[191] H. 513, II; M. 375; A. & G. 312; G. 602; B. 307, 1.

[192] H. 423; M. 248; A. & G. 250; G. 403; B. 223.

[193] H. 235; M. 100, 1; A. & G. 128, _a_, 1; G. 131, 1; B. 116, 1.

[194] H. 387, N. 1; M. 212, N. 2; A. & G. 231, _b_; G. 349, R. 5; B.
190, 1.

[195] H. 421, III; M. 238, 2; A. & G. 245, _a_, 1; G. 397, N. 2; B.
226, 2.

[196] H. 503, II, 2; M. 383, 1; A. & G. 320; G. 631, 2; B. 282, 3.

[197] H. 510; M. 366; A. & G. 308; G. 597; B. 304, 1.

[198] H. 385, II; M. 205; A. & G. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, _a_.

[199] H. 410, III; M. 251; A. & G. 220, _b_, 1; G. 404; B. 225.



[Illustration]



BIBLIOGRAPHY


The following books have been referred to in the Notes. While the
references are intended principally for the teacher, every student
should be provided with a copy of Creighton’s Primer of Roman History.
If Eutropius is studied in connection with this book, the student
cannot fail to obtain a fair knowledge of the main facts of Roman
History.

    Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Rodolfo
    Lanciani.

    Early Rome (Epochs of History). W. Ihne.

    Mommsen’s History of Rome, Abridged for Schools and Colleges.
    C. Bryans and F. J. R. Hendy.

    Rome and Carthage (Epochs of History). R. Bosworth Smith.

    The History of Rome (History Primer Series). M. Creighton.

    The Early Empire (Epochs of History). W. W. Capes.

    The Roman Triumvirates (Epochs of History). Charles Merivale.

    The Age of the Antonines (Epochs of History). W. W. Capes.

    Myths of Greece and Rome. H. A. Guerber.

    The Story of the Romans. H. A. Guerber.

    The Development of the Roman Constitution (History Primer
    Series). Ambrose Tighe.

NOTE

In the Notes the references to Harkness’ Grammar occur in two forms,
the first referring to the New Latin Grammar (1898), the second, in
brackets, to the Standard Latin Grammar.



NOTES


LIFE OF EUTROPIUS

Of the life of Eutropius we know very little. Only once in his work
does he mention himself, Bk. X, Ch. 16. He was proconsul in Asia in 371
A.D., and praetorian praefect 380-387 A.D. He is said to have been the
secretary of the Emperor Constantine the Great.

The only one of his works that is extant is the _Breviārium_, a brief
history of Rome from the founding of the city to the death of the
Emperor Jovian, 364 A.D. He dedicated the work to the Emperor Valens,
364-378 A.D., composing it probably at the emperor’s request.

Through the republican period he follows Livy, whom he knows at first
hand. Afterwards he takes Suetonius and the Augustan History for his
guides. His style is simple and terse, and the diction is very good for
the age in which the book was written. As a historian his judgment is
cool and impartial. He makes some blunders, but mostly in the matter
of dates. A Greek translation made by a certain Capito, a Lycian, is
mentioned, but it has been lost. A later Greek version by Paeanius is
extant.



BOOK I


PAGE 7.

CH. 1.

Line 1. =Rōmānum=: note emphatic position.

=Rōmulō=: see the legend of Romulus and Remus in Ihne, p. 32; Livy, Bk.
I, IV; Guerber, p. 140.

2. =Vestālis virginis=: the Vestals were a kind of nuns, six in number,
who were priestesses of Vesta. It was their duty to keep the fire on
the altar in her temple in the Forum burning constantly. “Her altar,
with its ever-burning fire, was the family hearth of the state, from
which the household fires were kindled at certain dates.” Lanciani,
_Anc. Rome_, Ch. VI.

=fīlius=: in apposition with _quī_, subject of _putātus est_.

=quantum putātus est=: ‘as he was thought’ = ‘as it was thought’; note
that the Latin prefers the personal construction where we prefer the
impersonal.

3. =is=: emphatic position.

=cum … latrōcinārētur=: the student should note the different uses
of _cum_, viz.: Temporal, with Indicative or Subjunctive; Causal and
Concessive, with Subjunctive alone; cf. _cum … compāruisset_, Ch. 2;
_cum … habērent_, Ch. 2; _cum … ēgissent_, Ch. 18.

4. =decem et octō annōs nātus= (_nāscor_): ‘having been born eighteen
years’ = ‘eighteen years old.’ The more common expression for the
numeral is _duodēvīgintī_. Cf. _annōrum trium et vīgintī_, Bk. II, Ch.
6; _annum agēns vīcēsimum aetātis_, Bk. III, Ch. 7.

5. =urbem exiguam=: remains of this city are still found on the
Palatine Hill.

=Palātīnō monte=: the Palatine Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome.
The others were the Capitoline, Quirinal, Aventine, Esquiline, Viminal,
and Caelian.

=XI Kal. Māiās=: the full expression would be _ante diem ūndecimum
Kalendās Māiās_, April 21. “In the Roman calendar it coincided with the
Palilia, or feast of Pales, the guardian divinity of shepherds.”

6. =Olympiadis=: the Greeks reckoned time by periods of four years,
called Olympiads from the Olympian Games, which were celebrated at that
interval. The starting point was 776 B.C. Hence the third year of the
sixth Olympiad would be 753 B.C. Some prefer to recognize 754 as the
date of the founding of the city.

CH. 2.

8. =conditā cīvitāte=: ‘the city having been founded’ = ‘when the
city had been founded.’ The student should ascertain by analysis of
the thought what the Ablative Absolute is intended to represent, and
should translate it accordingly. The literal translation should seldom
be used. _Civitate_ = _urbe_, a late usage, frequent in Eutropius. The
usual expression is _urbe conditā_, but Eutropius places the participle
first for emphasis.

=Rōmam vocāvit=: according to Lanciani, Roma is derived from _Rumon_,
‘river.’ Roma then would mean ‘the town by the river,’ and Romulus,
‘the man from the town by the river’ (_Anc. Rome_, p. 37). Mommsen
claims that Ramnes, the early name by which the Romans were called,
means ‘bushmen.’ Hence Roma would be ‘the town of the bushmen’
(Mommsen, _History of Rome_, Vol. I, p. 71).

9. =ferē=: ‘about,’ indicating that the statement is a loose one.

10. =centum ex seniōribus=: ‘a hundred of the elders’; _ex_ or _dē_
with cardinal numerals is regularly used instead of a Partitive
Genitive. Tarquinius Priscus doubled the number of the senators, Ch.
6. Before the end of the regal period the number was increased to
300. Sulla added 300 equites. Julius Caesar raised the number to 900.
Augustus reduced it to 600. For the duties of the senate see Ihne, Ch.
XI; Tighe, pp. 49, 115; Mommsen, pp. 18, 19, 45, 46.

12. =uxōrēs=: object of _habērent_. Emphatic on account of its position
before the subject of the verb.


PAGE 8.

1. =eārum=: the antecedent is _nātiōnēs_.

=commōtīs bellīs=: lit. ‘wars having been aroused’ = ‘when war had been
aroused’; cf. _conditā cīvitāte_, Ch. 2.

=propter raptārum iniūriam=: lit. ‘on account of the wrong of the
stolen (maidens)’ = ‘on account of the wrong done by stealing the
maidens.’ With _raptārum_ sc. _virginum_.

4. =nōn compāruisset=: lit. ‘he had not appeared’ = ‘he had
disappeared.’

5. =ad deōs trānsīsse=: lit. ‘to have gone across to the gods’ = ‘to
have been translated.’

6. =per quīnōs diēs=: ‘through five days each.’

CH. 3.

8. =rēx=: predicate Nominative.

=bellum=: emphatic by position as well as by the use of _quidem_.
“The statement that during the forty-three years of Numa’s reign Rome
enjoyed uninterrupted peace cannot be looked upon as anything but a
fiction or a dream.”

11. =cōnsuētūdine proeliōrum=: ‘because of their habit of (waging) war.’

=iam … putābantur=: ‘were beginning to be thought’; note the force of
the Imperfect.

12. =in decem=: Livy I, XIX, says _in duodecim mēnsēs_.

13. =aliquā= = _ūllā_.

=cōnfūsum=: ‘confused’; modifies _annum_ and is modified by _prius_.

14. =morbō=: _i.e._ a natural death as contrasted with a death by
violence.

CH. 4.

16. =huic successit=: lit. ‘to this one succeeded’ = ‘his successor
was’; note the emphasis.

=hīc bella reparāvit=: in allusion to the former activity of Romulus in
that direction.

17. =Albānōs=: Alba Longa, the most ancient town in Latium, is said
to have been built by Ascanius, and to have colonized Rome. After its
destruction by Tullus Hostilius it was never rebuilt. Its inhabitants
were removed to Rome. At a later time the surrounding country was
studded with the splendid villas of the Roman aristocracy. Livy, Bk. I,
XXII-XXV, gives an account of the conquest of the Albans.

=mīliāriō=: the Roman milestones were set up at intervals of 1000
paces, 5000 Roman feet, on the military roads. They gave the distance
from the place from which the measurement was made, its name, the name
of the person who erected the stone, and the name of the reigning
emperor. The phrase means ‘twelve miles from Rome.’

18. =aliī … aliī=: ‘the one … the other.’ Eutropius uses _alius_ with
the meaning of _alter_.

20. =adiectō Caeliō monte=: lit. ‘the Caelian Hill having been annexed’
= ‘by annexing the Caelian Hill’; cf. _conditā cīvitāte_, Ch. 2.

21. =fulmine ictus=: lit. ‘having been struck by lightning.’

=ārsit=: _ārdeō_.

CH. 5.

22. =ex fīliā=: ‘on his daughter’s side.’ Note peculiarity of _fīlia_,
H. 80, 2 (49, 4); M. 33, N. 2; A. & G. 36, _e_; G. 29, 4; B. 21, 2, _e_.


PAGE 9.

1. =Iāniculum=: Mons Ianiculus, on the opposite side of the Tiber, was
united to the city by the Pons Sublicius.

=cīvitātem=: this city, afterwards called Ostia, was situated on the
left bank of the river, about sixteen miles from Rome. It was used as a
port for Rome until the time of the Empire.

3. =morbō periit=: cf. _morbō dēcessit_, Ch. 3.

CH. 6.

4. =Prīscus Tarquinius= = _Tarquinius Prīscus_. When only the _nomen_
and the _cognomen_ are written, they are often reversed, especially
in late Latin. The legend of the Tarquins is as follows: Demaratus,
their ancestor, fled from Corinth, his native place, and settled at
Tarquinii in Etruria. He married an Etruscan wife, by whom he had
two sons, Lucumo and Aruns. At his death Lucumo inherited all his
father’s property. Although he had married Tanaquil, a woman of the
highest rank, he was excluded from all power and influence in the
state. Discontented with this he removed to Rome with a large band of
followers. He and his companions were received with welcome, and were
admitted to the rights of Roman citizens. He took the name of Lucius
Tarquinius, to which Livy adds Priscus, to distinguish him from L.
Tarquinius, the seventh king of Rome. At the death of Ancus Marcius,
the senate and people unanimously elected Tarquinius to the vacant
throne. His reign was distinguished by great exploits in war and by
great works in peace.

5. =circum=: the Circus Maximus. It was in a valley between the
Palatine and Aventine Hills. Here the Roman games were held. At first
the spectators sat on the hill side and watched the games being
celebrated in the valley beneath them. Tarquinius is said to have been
the first to introduce seats. In the time of Caesar the circus was 1800
feet long and 300 feet wide, and capable of seating 180,000 people. It
was enlarged many times, until in the fourth century it was capable of
seating 385,000 people.

=lūdōs Rōmānōs=: the _Lūdī Rōmānī_, consisting of horse and chariot
races, were the oldest games, and were celebrated originally in honor
of Jupiter by victorious generals as a part of a triumph. At first they
lasted only one day, but the time was gradually increased until in the
age of Cicero they lasted fifteen days, September 4-19.

6. =ad nostram memoriam=: ‘to our time.’

7. =vīcit=: emphatic position.

=nōn parum= = _māgnum_: ‘a large part’; cf. _nōn compāruisset_, Ch. 2.

8. =prīmus … intrāvit=: ‘and he was the first to enter the city
celebrating a triumph.’ A triumph was a solemn procession in which
a victorious general entered the city in a chariot drawn by four
horses. He was preceded by the captives and spoils taken in war, and
was followed by his troops; and, after passing in state along the Via
Sacra, ascended the Capitol to offer sacrifice in the Temple of Jupiter
Capitolinus. The following conditions had to be complied with: (_a_)
The general must have been dictator, consul, or praetor. (_b_) He must
have actually commanded in the battle and commenced it, himself taking
the auspices. (_c_) The battle must have been decisive and ended the
campaign. (_d_) The foes must have been foreigners, and at least 5000
of them must have been slain.

9. =mūrōs fēcit=: he began to surround the city with a stone wall, a
work his successor, Servius Tullius, completed.

=cloācās=: the Cloaca Maxima is a semicircular tunnel, 14 feet wide,
beneath the city. A part of this sewer, about 1020 feet, is still
in existence, and after a lapse of 2500 years goes on fulfilling
its original purpose. Its opening into the Tiber near the Temple of
Hercules in the Forum Boarium is still in a good state of preservation.

=Capitōlium=: the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill. Its
foundations were laid by Tarquinius Priscus. Its walls were raised
by his successor Servius Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus completed
it, although it was not consecrated until the third year after the
expulsion of the kings. It consisted of three parts, a nave sacred
to Jupiter, and two wings, the right sacred to Minerva and the left
to Juno. The magnificence and richness of this temple are almost
incredible. It was burned in the time of Sulla, who rebuilt it. After
being destroyed several times it was raised for the last time by
Domitian, who made it more grand and magnificent than had any of his
predecessors.

10. =per … fīliōs=: Eutropius occasionally substitutes _per_ with the
Accusative for the Ablative or Dative of agent; cf. _per eum multa ā
cōnsulibus prōsperē gesta sunt_, Bk. IV, 10.

11. =rēgis ēius=: apposition with _Ancī_.

=cuī=: cf. _huic successit_, Ch. 4.

CH. 7.

12. =Servius Tullius=: the legend of Servius Tullius is as follows:
Ocrisia, his mother, was one of the captives taken at Corniculum, and
became a slave of Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius Priscus. Servius was
born and reared at the palace of the king. As Tanaquil by her power
of divination had foreseen the greatness of the child, she persuaded
Tarquinius to give his daughter to Servius in marriage. At the death
of Tarquinius, by the aid of Tanaquil, Servius became firmly fixed in
the royal power. The great deeds of Servius were deeds of peace, and he
was regarded by posterity as the author of all their civil rights and
institutions. Three important events are assigned to him. He reformed
the constitution of the state. He extended the boundary of the city
and surrounded it with a wall. He established an important alliance by
which Rome and the Latin cities became members of one great league.

=genitus=: lit. ‘born’ = ‘the son.’

13. =quoque=: as well as Tarquinius Priscus. _Quoque_ must not be
confounded with _quōque_, the Ablative of the pronoun _quisque_.

15. =fossās circum mūrum=: portions of the Servian wall still exist.

16. =cēnsum=: the number of Roman citizens was ascertained every five
years, though not always with perfect regularity, for the assessment
of taxes and the arrangement of military service. Originally the kings
took the census. After the establishment of the republic the duty was
performed by the consuls. After 444 B.C., special officers, called
censors, had charge of it. The census was concluded with the solemn
ceremony of reviewing the newly constituted army, called a _lustrum_.

=orbem terrārum=: lit. ‘the circle of lands’ = ‘the world.’

18. =capita=: ‘souls’; cf. our expression ‘head of cattle.’

19. =in agrīs=: others than inhabitants of Rome possessed Roman
citizenship.

21. =uxōrem=: ‘as his wife.’

CH. 8.

22. =L. Tarquinius Superbus=: L. Tarquinius, called Superbus, ‘the
Overbearing,’ from his haughty manner and conduct, commenced his
reign without any of the forms of election. One of his first acts was
to abolish the rights that Servius Tullius had conferred upon the
plebeians. All the senators whom he mistrusted and all whose wealth
he coveted he put to death or banished. He surrounded himself with a
bodyguard, by means of which he was enabled to do what he liked. After
several successful campaigns his tyranny caused the people to depose
him and drive him from the city.

23. =euntibus=; lit. ‘for those going’ = ‘as you go.’

24. =Gabiōs=: ‘the city Gabii’; the name of the town, though plural, is
in apposition with _cīvitātem_.


PAGE 10.

1. =Capitōliō=: here the Capitoline Hill.

2. =oppūgnāns=: ‘while besieging the city’; a clause with _cum_ or
_dum_ would have been more usual.

4. =ēius=: antecedent is _L. Tarquinius_.

=et ipse Tarquinius iūnior=: ‘also a Tarquin (but) younger’ = ‘who was
also called Tarquinius’; his praenomen was Sextus.

5. =Lucrētiam=: for the interesting story of Lucretia, see _The Story
of the Romans_, p. 62.

=eandemque=: ‘who was also’; H. 508, 3 (451, 3); M. 446, 1; A. & G.
195, _e_; G. 310; B. 248.

6. =stuprāsset=: ‘had offered violence to.’ _Stuprāsset_ for
_stuprāvisset_, cf. _rēgnāsset_, Ch. 4.

7. =questa fuisset=: for _questa esset_. Eutropius generally uses
_essem_, etc., in the Pluperfect Passive Subjunctive. For other
exceptions see Bk. II, 9, 22. He ordinarily uses _fueram_, etc., for
_eram_ in the Pluperfect Passive Indicative.

8. =parēns et ipse=: ‘a relative likewise,’ _i.e._ as well as
Collatinus. He was the son of Marcus Iunius and Tarquinia, the second
daughter of Tarquinius Superbus. He was called ‘Brutus,’ _i.e._ ‘the
Stupid,’ on account of the mental imbecility he feigned to deceive
Tarquinius. _Parēns_, ‘relative,’ a late meaning.

10. =eum=: refers to the king.

=quī=: antecedent is _exercitus_.

13. =rēgnātum est=: lit. ‘it was ruled’ = ‘the dynasty lasted.’

14. =annīs=: Eutropius and some other post-classical writers use the
Ablative of Time within which for the Accusative of Duration of Time.
The Ablative makes prominent the limits that mark the time.

15. =ubi plūrimum=: lit. ‘where most’ = ‘at the most,’ at the place of
the widest extent.

CH. 9.

17. =hinc=: ‘from this time.’

=cōnsulēs=: at first they were called _praetōrēs_, ‘leaders.’ The
consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, the new assembly
organized by Servius Tullius.

=coepēre= = _coepērunt_.

18. =alter eum=: note the fondness of the Latin for antitheses. It
tends to place contrasted words near each other. Often the observance
of this is of assistance in determining the meaning of a passage.

20. =annuum=: ‘lasting one year.’

=habērent=: the clause _nē_ … _habērent_ is the Subject of _placuit_.

21. =redderentur=: cf. _coërceret_, above.

=cīvīlēs=: lit. ‘like citizens’ = ‘good citizens.’

23. =ab expulsīs rēgibus=: ‘after the expulsion of the kings;’ cf.
_post rēgēs exactōs_, Ch. 11.

24. =māximē … pellerētur=: ‘had done the most to drive out
Tarquinius.’

25. =Tarquiniō=: cf. _īsdem_, Ch. 6. Note the emphasis.


PAGE 11.

1. =manēret=: cf. _habērent_, above.

3. =L. Valerius Pūblicola=: Livy, Bk. II, 2, calls him Publius
Valerius. Owing to his efforts to secure the rights of the plebeians
and for his popular measures he was called _Pūblicola_, ‘the Partisan
of the People.’ He secured the passage of the Valerian law giving to
every citizen condemned on a capital charge the right of appeal to the
people.

CH. 10.

7. =in vicem sē=: ‘each other in turn.’ As the Latin has no reciprocal
pronoun it is compelled to resort to various circumlocutions; cf.
Caesar, Bk. I, 1, _inter se_, Bk. II, 10, _alius alium circumspectant_.

8. =tamen=: although both the leaders were slain.

10. =per annum=: cf. _annum lūxērunt_, Ch. 11.

11. =quō morbō mortuō=: ‘and when he had died.’ The Latin relative is
very often best translated by ‘and’ with a personal pronoun. For the
case of _morbō_, cf. _morbō_, Ch. 3.

12. =iterum=: construe with _sūmpsit_.

CH. 11.

18. =Porsennā=: Lars Porsenna, king of Clusium in Etruria. He aided the
Tarquins as they had come from Etruria. See Macaulay’s _Lays of Ancient
Rome_, _Horatius_.

=Rōmam paene cēpit=: Ihne (p. 89) thinks that by this is meant that the
Etruscans conquered the city.

22. =Tusculum=: said to have been founded by Telegonus, the son of
Ulysses. It was always one of the most important of the Latin towns,
and was a favorite resort of the Roman aristocracy. Cicero had a villa
there.

24. =cōnsenuit=: lit. ‘he grew old’ = ‘lived to be an old man.’

26. =dē hīs=: ‘over them’; the regular expression used for a triumph
celebrated for a victory over an enemy.


PAGE 12.

2. =fātāliter=: lit. ‘by fate’ = ‘a natural death’; cf. _morbō
dēcessit_, Ch. 3.

3. =nummīs=: ‘money’; particularly small coins.

=sūmptum habuerit sepultūrae=: ‘had the cost of a burial,’ _i.e._ was
buried at public expense.

=quem=: note its position.

CH. 12.

5. =gener Tarquinī=: Manilius Octavius of Tusculum.

7. =dictātūra=: at times of great danger, when it was necessary for one
man to hold the supreme power, a dictator was appointed by one of the
consuls on the nomination of the senate. The office was for six months;
but in case the specific object for which the dictator was appointed
was accomplished before that time, he resigned. Ihne, p. 118; Tighe, p.
65.

8. =magister equitum=: he was aid-de-camp to the dictator and
was appointed by him. In the absence of the latter he became the
representative of the dictator.

9. =neque … potestātī=: ‘neither can anything be said to be more
similar than the ancient dictatorship to the imperial power which,’
etc. _Imperium_ was the regular term for the power possessed by the
magistrates. Here it refers to the power of the emperor.

Eutropius explains for the benefit of his readers the ancient
dictatorship, which had long since fallen into disuse, by comparing it
to the power possessed by the emperor.

11. =Tranquillitās Vestra=: ‘Your Serene Highness’; Valens, Emperor
of the East, 364-378 A.D. “Other titles used of the emperors were
_Aeternitās Tua_, _Clēmentia Tua_, _Serēnitās Tua_, _Māgnitūdō Tua_,
_Māiestās Tua_.”

=Vestra=: in Latin of the classical period _tua_ would have been used,
as only one person is referred to. In late Latin the pronouns of the
second person plural take the place of the singular, just as ‘you’ has
taken the place of ‘thou.’

13. =sub dictātūrae nōmine=: in 45 B.C. Caesar was made perpetual
dictator.

CH. 13.

17. =populus= = _plebs_ here. _Populus_ is a collective noun, and so
takes a singular verb.

=tamquam=: ‘on the ground that’; a late meaning.

18. =tribūnōs plēbis=: these magistrates, elected by the plebeians in
an assembly of their own (Comitia Tributa), were invested with the
right of ‘intercession,’ by which they could stop all legislation that
they judged to be harmful to the plebeians. To make their intercession
effective they were declared to be _sacrosancti_, _i.e._ ‘inviolable,’
and the curse of outlawry was pronounced against any one who harmed
them. The First Secession of the Plebeians, as this was called, was
the beginning of a long struggle between the orders, and terminated
in the complete political equality of the plebeians. Ihne, Ch. XIII;
Creighton, p. 12; Tighe, p. 91.

19. =per quōs= = _ut per eōs_.


PAGE 13.

CH. 14.

2. =quam habēbant optimam= = _optimam quam habēbant_.

CH. 15.

5. =Q. Mārcius=: called _Coriolānus_ from the city Corioli, which he
had conquered. Ihne, p. 155; Creighton, p. 21.

8. =oppūgnātūrus=: the Participle = _oppūgnāvisset_.

9. =patriam suam=: ‘his native city.’

12. =secundus=: really the first after Tarquinius, but the second in
order. In an enumeration of a series the Latin generally includes the
starting point.

CH. 16.

14. =C. Fabiō et L. Virgīniō cōnsulibus=: lit. ‘C. Fabius and L.
Virginius being consuls’ = ‘in the consulship of,’ etc. One of the
regular ways of dating events in Latin is to give the names of the
consuls for that year. Another is to reckon the time from the founding
of the city; cf. _ab urbe conditā_, Ch. 18.

15. =quī … erant=: ‘who belonged to the Fabian household’; cf. _centum
ex seniōribus_, Ch. 2.

16. =prōmittentēs … implendum=: sc. _esse_; ‘promising the senate and
the people that the whole contest would be completed by themselves.’
_Prōmittō_ regularly takes the Future Infinitive.

18. =quī singulī=: ‘each one of whom.’

=dēbērent=: cf. _esset_, Ch. 15.

19. =ūnus omnīnō superfuit=: see Ihne, p. 163.


PAGE 14.

CH. 17.

1. =sequentī tamen annō=: in the year after the consuls mentioned in
the last chapter.

3. =Quīntius=: generally written _Quīnctius_. He held the dictatorial
power for fourteen days only, and having completed his work returned
to his farm. Later he was again appointed dictator, and again proved
himself to be the deliverer of his country.

4. =in opere et arāns=: the post-classical writers seem to strive
almost as much to avoid uniformity in expression as the classical
writers strive for it.

5. =togam praetextam=: by metonomy the badge of office is put for the
office itself. The toga praetexta had a red border woven in it. It was
the badge of office of the higher magistrates and priests. It was worn
by boys also until they reached the age of manhood and by girls until
they married.

CH. 18.

7. =alterō= = _secundō_.

=ab urbe conditā=: ‘from the founding of the city.’

9. =decemvirī=: the laws, which the decemvirs codified, known as the
Twelve Tables, remained the foundation of Roman law for a thousand
years. They were engraved on twelve bronze tables and were set up in
the Forum that all might read them. Every school-boy was required
to commit them to memory. For an account of the decemvirs and their
legislation, see Ihne, p. 167; Creighton, p. 16; Tighe, p. 95.

10. =ex hīs=: cf. _ex seniōribus_, Ch. 2.

11. =Virgīnī … fīliam=: see Macaulay’s _Lays of Ancient Rome_,
_Virginia_; Ihne, p. 173; Creighton, p. 16.

13. =quam= = _sed eam_.

CH. 19.

17. =Fīdēnātēs=: the town of Fidenae is said to have been colonized by
Romulus. It frequently revolted and was as frequently retaken by the
Romans. After its destruction in 437 B.C. it was rebuilt.

20. =coniūnxērunt sē=: ‘united.’


PAGE 15.

2. =victī … perdidērunt=: ‘they were conquered and also lost their
king.’

CH. 20.

4. =Vēientānī=: they were engaged in almost unceasing hostilities with
the Romans for more than three centuries and a half.

5. =ipsōs= = _eos_. Eutropius often uses _ipse_ for _is_.

6. =aciē=: note the difference of meaning between _exercitus_, _āgmen_,
_aciēs_, and _cōpiae_.

=diū obsidēns=: the siege is said to have lasted ten years.

8. =et Faliscōs=: in classical prose _etiam_ would have been used.

9. =quasi=: ‘on the ground that’; a late meaning.

=dīvīsisset=: cf. _premerētur_, Ch. 13.

11. =Gallī Senonēs=: see Ihne, Ch. XXI; Creighton, p. 25; _The Story of
the Romans_, p. 104.

12. =apud flūmen Alliam=: the fight occurred on July 16, which was
henceforth considered as an unlucky day.

=secūtī … occupāvērunt=: cf. _victī … perdidērunt_, Ch. 19.

15. =obsidērent=: cf. _sustinēret_, Ch. 18.

21. =et ipse=: ‘he too,’ as well as Romulus.



BOOK II


PAGE 16.

CH. 1.

3. =tribūnī mīlitārēs cōnsulārī potestāte=: six military tribunes
with consular powers and consular duration of office were elected by
the Comitia Centuriata. The office was open alike to patricians and
plebeians. This was a compromise measure on the part of the patricians
when they were forced to yield to the demands of the plebeians to be
admitted to the consulship. All the rights of the consulship were given
to them by this means without the honorary privileges the holding of
the office of consul conferred. Each year the people determined whether
consuls or military tribunes with consular power should be elected.
From the time of the creation of the tribunes with consular power
until the opening of the consulship to the plebeians in 367 B.C., the
tribunes were elected fifty times and the consuls twenty-three. The
plebeians were kept out of the office until 400 B.C. Mommsen, p. 63;
Tighe, p. 100.

4. =hinc=: cf. _hinc_, Bk. I, 9.

7. =trēs … ēgit=: _i.e._ a triumph for each of the cities.

CH. 2.

11. =sub ipsīs=: ‘under the direction of these’; _i.e._ the citizens of
Praeneste.

12. =Rōmānīs=: note the name of the people for that of the city.

14. =dēcrētus=: sc. _est_ from the _sunt_ preceding.

CH. 3.

16. =placuit=: lit. ‘it was pleasing’ = ‘they determined.’

17. =ita fluxit=: lit. ‘it flowed so’ = ‘there was such disturbance.’

CH. 4.

21. =L. Genuciō … cōnsulibus=: cf. _C. Fabiō … cōnsulibus_, Bk. I, 16.

22. =honor … dēlātus est=: lit. ‘honor second after Romulus was
conferred upon him’ = ‘honor second to that of Romulus,’ etc.


PAGE 17.

CH. 5.

2. =mīliāriō=: cf. _mīliāriō_, Bk. I, 4.

3. =Aniēnem=: the Anio, a tributary of the Tiber. _Aniēnem_ is
Accusative from the old Nominative _Anien_.

=nōbilissimus=: lit. ‘of highest birth.’ √GNO, cf. _nōscō_.

=dē senātōribus=: cf. _ex seniōribus_, Bk. I, 2.

4. =L. Mānlius=: his name is generally given as _Titus_. _The Story of
the Romans_, p. 106.

5. =sublātō … impositō=: ‘having taken off his (the Gaul’s) golden
necklace and having placed it on his own neck’; cf. _conditā cīvitāte_,
Bk. I, 2.

6. =in perpetuum=: ‘forever.’

7. =fugātī sunt=: note the difference in form and meaning between
_fugāre_ and _fugere_.

8. =nōn multō post=: lit. ‘not after by much’ = ‘not long after.’

9. =mīlia captīvōrum=: it was customary to adorn the procession of
the victorious general, when he was celebrating a triumph, with the
captives he had taken in the campaign. When the procession passed
up the Capitoline Hill to the Temple of Jupiter, the captives were
led aside to the Mamertine prison at the foot of the hill and were
strangled.

CH. 6.

11. =Latīnī=: Creighton, p. 27.

12. =mīlitēs praestāre=: it was the custom of Rome to compel the states
she had subdued to furnish soldiers for the Roman army. These were used
as auxiliary forces.

=ex Rōmānīs=: cf. _ex seniōribus_, Bk. I, 2.

13. =quī modus= = _modus quī_; ‘a force which.’

14. =parvīs … rēbus=: ‘although up to this time the Roman state was
small.’

16. =quae= = _eae lēgiōnēs_.

=duce L. Fūriō=: lit. ‘L. Furius being the leader’ = ‘under the
leadership of L. Furius.’

17. =quī esset optimus=: ‘whoever was the best.’

18. =sē … obtulit=: ‘offered himself.’

=Valerius=: see _The Story of the Romans_, p. 111.

20. =commissā … pūgnā=: _cf. conditā cīvitāte_, Bk. I, 2.

21. =ālīs et unguibus=: cf. _fulmine_, Bk. I, 4.

25. =annōrum=: by a law passed in 181 B.C., the legal age of the
consulship was fixed at forty-three. There were exceptions made, as in
the case of Cn. Pompeius, who was elected consul when he was thirty-six
years old.


PAGE 18.

CH. 7.

1. =Latīnī=: Creighton, p. 28.

2. =ex eōrum=: sc. _populō_.

4. =pūgnā=: see _The Story of the Romans_, p. 113.

5. =dē hīs perdomitīs=: ‘a triumph was celebrated on account of their
defeat.’

6. =rōstrīs=: the Rostra or speaker’s platform in the Forum. From it
the speaker could command the entire Forum and the Comitium. In 42 B.C.
it was removed and set up again at the west end of the Forum. Another
rostra was constructed about the same time at the opposite end, in
front of the new Temple of Divus Iulius.

7. =Alexandrō Macedone=: Alexander the Great.

CH. 8.

9. =Samnītas=: a Greek form of the Accusative. The Samnites were
offshoots of the Sabines, occupying the hilly country between the Nar,
the Tiber, and the Anio. Their bravery made them the most formidable
rival of Rome in Italy. In 290 B.C. they were subjected to Rome.

12. =Q. Fabiō Māximō=: called _Rulliānus_. This Fabius was five times
consul and dictator twice. He triumphed over the Samnites, Marsi,
Gauls, and Etrurians. He was the great-grandfather of Q. Fabius
Maximus, the hero of the Second Punic war.

14. =sē absente=: ‘while he (Papīrius) was absent.’

16. =capitis damnātus=: lit. ‘having been condemned of the head’
= ‘having been condemned on a capital charge’; cf. our expression
‘capital punishment.’

=sē vetante=: cf. _parvīs … rēbus_, Ch. 6. _Sē_; the antecedent is
_Papīrius_.

CH. 9.

19. =T. Veturiō … cōnsulibus=: cf. _C. Fabiō … cōnsulibus_, Bk. I, 16.

20. =vīcērunt=: at the battle of the Caudine Forks, a narrow pass east
of Campania. The commander of the Samnites was Gavius Pontius. See _The
Story of the Romans_, p. 113.

=sub iugum=: the yoke was formed by sticking two spears in the ground
and fastening a third on top. To pass under the yoke was a sign of
subjection, and is equivalent to our expression ‘laying down arms.’
Livy, Bk. IX, VI, describes the process.

21. =pāx … solūta est=: a Roman general could not make peace with the
enemy without the ratification of the senate and the people.

22. =ipsīs=: see note on _ipsōs_, Bk. I, 20.

=facta fuerat=: see note on _facta fuisset_, Bk. I, 8.


PAGE 19.

3. =aquam Claudiam indūxit=: _i.e._ he built the aqueduct named after
him. It was more commonly called ‘Aqua Appia.’ Between seven and eight
miles in length, chiefly under ground, it was the beginning of the
magnificent system of water works that distinguished ancient Rome. Four
of these old aqueducts still furnish the water supply of modern Rome.
Lanciani, _Ancient Rome_, p. 58.

4. =viam Appiam=: “the Appian road was made in 312 B.C. to join Rome to
Capua, and was afterwards carried as far as Brundisium. This ‘queen of
roads,’ as it was called, was a stone causeway, constructed according
to the nature of the country, with an embankment either beneath or
beside it, and was of such a width that two broad wagons could easily
pass each other.”

=Q. Fabium Māximum=: called _Gurges_, the son of Q. Fabius Maximus,
mentioned in Ch. 8.

6. =datus fuisset=: cf. _questa fuisset_, Bk. I, 8.

7. =ipsōrum=: cf. _ipsīs_, above.

10. =per annōs=: cf. _per annum_, Bk. I, 10.

11. =āctum=: ‘waged’; agrees with _bellum_.

CH. 10.

13. =sē … iūnxērunt=: cf. _coniūnxērunt sē_, Bk. I, 19.

15. =dēlētae sunt=: _The Story of the Romans_, p. 114.

CH. 11.

17. =Tarentīnīs=: the people of Tarentum, a rich and luxurious city in
southern Italy. It played an important part in the war with Pyrrhus.
The whole of southern Italy was known as Magna Graecia, on account of
the number of cities founded there by the Greeks.

=in ultimā Ītaliā=: ‘in the most remote part of Italy’; H. 497, 3 (440,
N. 1); M. 423; A. & G. 193; G. 291, R. 2; B. 241.

19. =Pyrrhum … auxilium poposcērunt=: ‘asked aid of Pyrrhus.’ Pyrrhus
was regarded as one of the greatest generals that had ever lived. With
his daring courage, his military skill, and his kingly bearing, he
might have become the most powerful monarch of his day. But he never
rested satisfied with any acquisition, and was ever grasping at some
fresh object. For an account of the war see _The Story of the Romans_,
pp. 115-121; Creighton, p. 31.

20. =orīginem trahēbat=: ‘was claiming descent’; it was the custom of
royal families to claim descent from heroes or gods.

21. =prīmum=: ‘for the first time.’

24. =cēpisset=: cf. _latrōcinārētur_, Bk. I, 1.

=dūcī=: cf. the construction with _praecēpit_, Ch. 8.


PAGE 20.

2. =auxiliō=: cf. _fulmine_, Bk. I, 4.

=vīcit=: although the loss of the Romans was nearly equaled by that of
Pyrrhus, the value of winning the first battle was at once shown by the
fact that the Lucanians, Bruttians, Samnites, and all the Greek cities
joined Pyrrhus.

6. =quōs … vīdisset=: ‘and when he saw them lying’; _quos = et eos_;
cf. _quō morbō mortuō_, Bk. I, 10.

=adversō vulnere=: ‘with their wounds in front’; _i.e._ they died
facing the enemy.

8. =hāc vōce=: lit. ‘this voice’ = ‘these words.’

CH. 12.

10. =sibi=: cf. _Tuscīs Samnītibusque_, Ch. 10.

13. =terrōre exercitūs=: ‘on account of his fear of the army’; note the
difference in meaning between the Subjective and Objective Genitive;
H. 440, 2 (396, III); M. 216, 1; A. & G. 217; G. 363, 2; B. 200.

14. =sē recēpit=: lit. ‘he took himself back’ = ‘he withdrew.’ This
march was merely a feint on the part of Pyrrhus.

15. =honōrificē=: the Romans always regarded Pyrrhus as an honorable
enemy. Their feelings towards Hannibal were entirely different.

17. =Fābricium=: _C. Fābricius Luscīnus_. He was consul for the first
time 283 B.C., when he triumphed over the Boii and Etrurians. He was
noted for his extreme frugality and simplicity, as well as for his
integrity. He is cited by Cicero and Horace as a type of the Roman
citizens of the best days of the Commonwealth.

18. =cognōvisset=: cf. _latrōcinārētur_, Bk. I, 1.

19. =voluerit=: cf. _habuerit_, Bk. I, 11.

CH. 13.

25. =pāx displicuit=: it is said that at first the senate wavered; but
by the energy of the blind and aged Appius Claudius, who caused himself
to be carried into the senate house, their courage was revived.

=remandātum est=: ‘word was sent back.’


PAGE 21.

1. =nisi … posse=: this answer passed into a maxim of state.

4. =ante … quam=: note the fondness of the Latin for separating the
parts of this and other compounds of the same nature.

=veterem=: ‘former.’

=bīnōrum=: ‘two apiece.’

6. =quālem=: predicate to _Rōmam_; ‘what sort (of a city) he had found
Rome (to be).’

7. =comperisset=, cf. _agerentur_, Ch. 11.

CH. 14.

18. =occīsūrum=: cf. note on _prōmittentēs … implendum_, Bk. I, Ch. 16.

=sī … aliquid=: ‘if something.’

=pollicērētur=: Imperf. Subjunctive representing the Future Indicative
in Direct Discourse; H. 574, 646 (507, I, 527, I); M. 363, 1, 402; A. &
G. 307, 1, 337, _a_, 3; G. 595, R. 1; B. 319, B.

19. =dominum=: indicating that the physician was a slave, as was usual
at that time.

23. =Lūcānīs et Samnītibus=: they, with the Bruttii, had joined Pyrrhus
against Rome. This was the second triumph of Fabricius; cf. note on
Fabricius, Ch. 12. He was consul the third time two years after.


PAGE 22.

2. =prīmus=: ‘he was the first to.’

3. =apud Argōs=: it is said that he perished ingloriously in a street
fight, 272 B.C.

CH. 15.

6. =urbis conditae=: cf. _ab urbe conditā_, Bk. I, Ch. 18.

8. =petierant= for _petīverant_: the shorter forms are more usual in
this verb.

CH. 16.

11. =dē hīs=: cf. _dē hīs_, Bk. I, Ch. 11.

12. =cīvitātēs= = _urbēs_: see note on _conditā cīvitāte_, Bk. I, Ch. 2.

=Beneventum=: its name is said to have been originally _Maleventum_,
and to have been changed because of the evil omen it contained. The
name Beneventum was given it in 271 B.C. Here Fabricius defeated
Pyrrhus 275 B.C. It remained a possession of the Romans during the
whole of the Second Punic War and was thanked by the senate for its
faithfulness during that critical period.

CH. 17.

16. =Brundisīnī=: the people of Brundisium, the modern Brindisi. It was
a seaport of Calabria, the chief naval station of the Romans on the
Adriatic Sea, and their regular port of departure for Greece.

CH. 18.

17. =annō=: sc. _ab urbe conditā_.

18. =extrā Ītaliam=: ‘the Roman power was now dominant throughout the
peninsula to the river Aesis; the valley of the Po, however, was still
reckoned a part of Gaul.’

24. =contrā Āfrōs=: _i.e._ Carthaginians. Carthage was one of the
first cities of the ancient world. It was situated on the north coast
of Africa, and was said to have been founded by Phoenicians from Tyre
under the leadership of Dido. Carthage had been the ally of Rome in the
war against Pyrrhus. But the growing commercial activity of Carthage
caused jealousy to arise which resulted in the three wars for the
supremacy of the West,--known as the Punic wars. The first was from 264
B.C. to 241 B.C. The second 218-202 B.C. and the third 149-146 B.C. It
resulted in the capture and destruction of Carthage by the Romans under
P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Creighton, Ch. III.

26. =rēge Siciliae Hierōne=: Hiero was the king of Syracuse and its
dependencies. Nearly all the rest of Sicily was in the power of the
Carthaginians.


PAGE 23.

CH. 19.

2. =rēs māgnae=: ‘great operations.’

3. =in fidem acceptae=: sc. _sunt_; ‘were taken under their
protection’; _i.e._ they were made tributary.

CH. 20.

11. =Liburnās=: sc. _nāvēs_; these were light vessels built after a
model taken from the Liburnians, a sea-faring people that lived on the
east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

12. =Duilius=: the victory of Duilius was due to a device by which he
turned a naval battle into a land contest. His ships were furnished
with grappling irons, by means of which he seized the ships of the
enemy and then boarded them, when the Roman soldiers easily proved
themselves superior to the Carthaginian mercenaries. It was the first
naval victory the Romans had ever gained, and in honor of it a column
was erected to the memory of Duilius.

17. =possent=: cf. _pūgnāsset_, Ch. 8.

19. =inde= = _ex his locis_: ‘from these places.’

20. =triumphum ēgit=: ‘he celebrated a triumph.’

CH. 21.

23. =pūgnātum=: sc. _est_; ‘they fought.’

=victus est=: ‘he (Hamilcar) was conquered.’

24. =retrō sē recēpit=: cf. _sē recēpit_, Ch. 12.


PAGE 24.

1. =in dēditiōnem accēpērunt=: ‘they received in surrender.’

2. =ūsque ad=: lit. ‘even up to’ = ‘as far as.’

6. =decem et octō=: cf. _decem et octō_, Bk. I, Ch. 1.

8. =in fidem accēpit=: cf. _in fidem acceptae_, Ch. 19.

11. =ā Lacedaemoniīs=: cf. _Pyrrhum … auxilium poposcērunt_, Ch. 11.
The Spartans were called Lacedaemonii from Lacedaemon, another name for
Sparta.

CH. 22.

22. =ingentī praedā=: after a victory a portion of the booty generally
was divided among the soldiers.

23. =subācta … fuisset=: cf. _questa fuisset_, Bk. I, 8.

30. =neque … īnfrāctus fuit=: lit. ‘neither in any one was courage
broken by these’ = ‘and no one’s courage was broken by these
(misfortunes).’

=hīs=: sc. _cāsibus_.


PAGE 25.

CH. 23.

4. =continuae=: ‘repeated’; one following another without any break.

6. =recēderētur=: lit. ‘it should be withdrawn’ = ‘they should
withdraw.’

CH. 24.

8. =Metellō=: a coin was struck to commemorate this battle, having the
head of Metellus on the one side and an elephant on the other. Metellus
was consul a second time in 249 B.C., and was elected Pontifex Maximus
in 243 B.C. In 241 B.C. he rescued the Palladium when the Temple of
Vesta was on fire.

10. =venientem=: ‘on his arrival’; in Sicily from Africa.

12. =in auxilium=: lit. ‘for aid’ = ‘as auxiliaries.’

13. =ingentī pompā=: cf. _ultimā perniciē_, Ch. 21.

CH. 25.

17. =obtinēret=: ‘obtain’; a late meaning.

18. =nihil … ēgit=: ‘did not act at all’; _i.e._ he made no use of the
privileges enjoyed by Roman citizens, but acted as a foreigner on
the ground that he had lost his citizenship when he had been captured
by the enemy. It was so provided by Roman law, but there was also the
provision that when a prisoner returned he recovered his former status.
The story of the return of Regulus is more than doubtful.

20. =uxōrem=: according to the view he took she had ceased to be his
wife.


PAGE 26.

1. =obtinuit=: ‘he gained his point.’

2. =nūllus admīsit=: ‘no one admitted (to the senate)’; _i.e._ the
Romans refused to admit the ambassadors.

3. =negāvit= = _dīxit nōn_.

4. =mānsūrum=: sc. _esse_.

CH. 26.

8. =contrā auspicia=: nothing was undertaken by the Romans without
consulting the will of the gods. In this case the sacred chickens
refused to eat, this being an unfavorable omen, yet Claudius persisted
in fighting.

11. =alius=: in classical Latin _alter_ would have been used; cf. _aliī
… aliī_, Bk. I, 4. L. Junius is meant.

CH. 27.

15. =trecentīs nāvibus=: this fleet was not raised by the state, but by
private subscription. The number is generally given as 200.

18. =nāvem aeger ascendit=: ‘embarked with difficulty.’

=vulnerātus … fuerat=: cf. _questa fuisset_, Bk. I, 8.

22. =īnfīnītum=: ‘a very great (amount).’

=aurī=: cf. _argentī_, Ch. 19.

24. =VI Īdūs Mārtiās=: the full expression would be _ante diem sextum
Īdūs Mārtiās_; cf. _XI Kal. Māiās_, Bk. I, 1.

25. =tribūta … pāx=: peace was granted finally on these terms: Carthage
was to evacuate Sicily, to give up the Roman prisoners without ransom,
and to pay a war indemnity of 3,200 talents,--$4,000,000,--one third
down and the remainder in ten annual payments.


PAGE 27.

1. =licēret=: ‘it might be permitted’; the subject is _redimī captīvōs_.

4. =redīrent=: _iubeō_ generally takes the Accusative and Infinitive,
but in poetry and in late prose it sometimes takes _ut_ with the
Subjunctive.

5. =ex fiscō=: ‘from the treasury’; a late meaning.

CH. 28.

6. =Q. Lutātius=: _Cercō_.

=A. Mānlius=: _Torquātus_.

8. =quam vēnerant=: ‘after they had come.’



BOOK III

CH. 1.

12. =Ptolemaeum=: this was the famous Ptolemy Philadelphus. He was
engaged in war with Antiochus II, king of Syria, for a long time, but
finally concluded peace with him and gave him his daughter in marriage.
He was noted for his patronage of literature and science.

14. =Antiochus=: this was the name of several kings of Syria. The one
referred to here was Antiochus II, called Theos.

=grātiās … ēgit=: ‘gave thanks.’

16. =Hierō=: more properly the king of Syracuse (see Bk. II, 18, 19).
During his reign the celebrated mathematician Archimedes lived. He
became the firm ally of the Romans, and when the Second Punic War
broke out he remained true to his alliance. After the battle of Lake
Trasimenus he sent a fleet with provisions and other gifts to the
Romans and also furnished them with a body of light troops.

18. =exhibuit=: lit. ‘held out’ = ‘presented.’

CH. 2.

19. =quibus=: sc. _annīs_; cf. _tempore_, Ch. 1.

20. =Ligurēs=: they inhabited the upper part of the Po valley. They
were of small stature, but strong, active, and brave. In early times
they served as mercenaries in the armies of Carthage. They were not
subdued finally by the Romans until after a long and fierce struggle.
Genua was their chief city.

21. =dē hīs=: cf. _dē hīs_, Bk. I, 11.


PAGE 28.

1. =Sardiniēnsēs=: when a revolt occurred in Sardinia, Rome took
advantage of the exhausted condition of Carthage, and demanded the
surrender of the island and an additional indemnity of 1200 talents
($1,500,000). Corsica was obtained in a similar manner. This was the
beginning of the Roman provincial system. Each province was governed by
a praetor and paid taxes to the Roman people. _Rome and Carthage_, p.
102; Creighton, p. 39.

3. =impellentēs=: nominative agreeing with _Karthāginiēnsēs_ and
governing _Sardiniēnsēs_.

CH. 3.

7. =nūllum bellum habuērunt=: at Rome there was the so-called Temple of
Janus, the gates of which were open in time of war and closed in time
of peace. The gates were closed only three times from the building of
the temple by Numa to Augustus, viz. by T. Manlius, 235 B.C., and by
Augustus in 29 and 25 B.C.

8. =semel tantum=: ‘only once.’

=Numā Pompiliō rēgnante=: cf. _conditā cīvitāte_, Bk. I, 2.

CH. 4.

10. =Īllyriōs=: the Illyrians lived on the eastern side of the Adriatic
Sea. They were a nation of pirates, and made the whole Adriatic and
Ionian seas unsafe for commerce. Even the towns on the coast were not
safe from their ravages. The Romans sent a force against them and
compelled them to give up their conquests and to make peace.

11. =ex Īllyriīs=: _dē Īllyriīs_ would be more common.

CH. 5.

13. =Gallōrum=: the Romans, recalling the terrible battle of Allia,
Bk. I, 20, were panic-stricken at first. A large army was raised and
stationed at Ariminum, where the first attack was expected. But the
Gauls passed around the Roman army, and, falling in with a small
reserve force, utterly defeated it. Instead of hastening to Rome, they
resolved to put their plunder in a place of safety. The Roman army
following them met them finally near Telamon, where the decisive
battle was fought, and the Gauls were annihilated.

14. =cōnsēnsit=: ‘united.’

15. =Fabiō=: _Q. Fabius Pictor_, the earliest of the annalists.
He wrote in Greek an account of the early history of Rome. He is
frequently quoted by Livy.

17. =tantum=: ‘alone.’

CH. 6.

20. =M. Claudiō Mārcellō=: he was five times consul. This was his first
consulship. He was one of the chief generals of the Romans in the
Second Punic War. He captured Syracuse after a siege of two years (Chs.
12, 14). He fell in battle 208 B.C., and was buried by the enemy with
military honors (Ch. 16).

24. =Mediōlānum=: the modern Milan.

=expūgnāvit=: note the difference between _expūgnō_ and _oppūgnō_.

26. =spolia=: called _opīma_, were the arms taken from a hostile
general by a Roman general commanding under his own auspices. They were
hung in the Temple of Jupiter Feretrius on the Capitol. This temple is
said to have been built by Romulus, who inaugurated the custom. They
were won on only two subsequent occasions, when A. Cornelius Cossus
killed Lars Tolumnius, king of the Veii (Bk. I, 19), and the time
mentioned in this chapter.


PAGE 29.

CH. 7.

4. =bellum Pūnicum secundum=: immediately after the end of the First
Punic War the Carthaginians began to prepare for a renewal of the
struggle against Rome. Hamilcar, the father of Hannibal, crossed
over into Spain and conquered a large part of it. Probably it was
his intention to make this province the basis of operations against
Italy. But death prevented the realization of his plans. Hasdrubal, his
son-in-law, took command of the empire Hamilcar had founded in Spain,
and organized and enlarged it. He founded the city of New Carthage,
which from its situation seemed destined to become a second Carthage in
commercial importance. In 221 B.C. he was assassinated. At his death
the command was turned over to Hannibal, the idol of the army and the
sworn enemy of the Romans. Active preparations were made. Forces were
assembled, supplies were prepared, and when all was ready Hannibal gave
the signal for war by besieging Saguntum.

=per Hannibalem=: cf. _per fīliōs_, Bk. I, 6.

5. =Saguntum=: a town on the southern coast of Spain, said to have been
founded by the Greeks as a trading post. It was in alliance with the
Romans, although by the terms of the last treaty with the Carthaginians
independence was secured to the Saguntines by both parties. The capture
of this town was the first hostile act of the war. _Rome and Carthage_,
p. 112; Creighton, p. 40.

7. =annum … aetātis=: lit. ‘passing the twentieth year of his life’ =
‘being twenty years of age’; cf. _decem et octō annōs nātus_, Bk. I, 1.

10. =mīsērunt=: sc. _lēgātōs_.

=ut mandārētur=: lit. ‘that it might be commanded’ = ‘that instructions
might be given.’

11. =dūra respōnsa=: the story is told that when Q. Fabius, the chief
of the embassy, held up his toga, saying, ‘I carry here peace and war:
choose ye which ye will have.’ ‘Give us which ever you please,’ replied
the Carthaginians. ‘War, then,’ said Fabius; and the decision was
greeted by the short-sighted acclamations of the masses.

13. =adficiuntur=: historical Present.

CH. 8.

15. =in Hispāniam=: cf. _Rōmam_, Ch. 2.

16. =Ti. Semprōnius=: sc. _Longus_.

17. =Alpēs=: there is a disagreement as to the pass by which Hannibal
entered Italy. Probably he crossed by the Little St. Bernard pass, and
came into Italy near the present town of Aosta. Creighton, p. 41; _Rome
and Carthage_, p. 118.

19. =LXXX mīlia peditum=: the number of the forces of Hannibal given
here is taken from L. Cincius Alimentus, a Roman annalist. He was
captured by Hannibal, and so had excellent opportunities for gaining
information.

21. =Semprōnius Gracchus=: a mistake of Eutropius. It was Ti.
Sempronius Longus. In the next chapter it should be _Semprōnius Longus_
instead of _Semprōnius Gracchus_.

CH. 9.

23. =P. Cornēlius Scīpiō=: at the beginning of the war he set out for
Spain, Ch. 8, but finding that Hannibal had already left and was on his
way to Italy, he went to Gaul to encounter the Carthaginian before he
should cross the Alps. Hannibal was too quick for him. Scipio returned
to Italy and awaited the arrival of the Carthaginians in Cisalpine
Gaul. Near the river Ticinus, one of the northern tributaries of
the Po, the first engagement of the war took place. The Romans were
defeated; Scipio received a severe wound, and was only saved from death
by the courage of his son Publius, the future conqueror of Hannibal. P.
Scipio and his brother Gnaeus were killed in Spain, Ch. 14. _Rome and
Carthage_, p. 127; Creighton, p. 43.


PAGE 30.

1. =apud Trebiam amnem=: the Trebia is a small stream flowing into
the Po from the south. For an account of the battle see _Rome and
Carthage_, p. 130; Creighton, p. 43.

2. =multī … dēdidērunt=: it was Hannibal’s policy to encourage the
communities subject to Rome to revolt and to attach themselves to his
standard. Everywhere he proclaimed himself to be the ‘Liberator of
Italy.’

3. =Flāminiō … occurrit=: this battle took place in the following
year, 217 B.C. Hannibal wintered in the plains of Lombardy, and at the
approach of spring attempted to cross the Apennines. He was driven
back by a violent storm, and was forced to return to his winter
quarters. Later in the year he passed the mountains and marched into
Etruria, where he was met by the Romans under Flaminius, who had been
elected consul for that year, in the battle of Lake Trasimenus, in
which the Romans were utterly defeated, and almost the whole force was
annihilated. _Rome and Carthage_, p. 138; Creighton, p. 43.

6. =Q. Fabius Māximus=: was the great-grandson of the Q. Fabius Maximus
mentioned in Bk. II, 8, and grandson of the Q. Fabius mentioned in
Bk. II, 9. He was one of the greatest generals of Rome. He was chosen
dictator in 217 B.C., after the battle of Lake Trasimenus. The policy
he adopted is well known. By following Hannibal from place to place,
by watching for any error or neglect on his part and immediately
taking advantage of it, and by avoiding a general engagement, he
earned for himself the name of Cunctator, ‘delayer,’ but he saved the
state. In 215 B.C. he was elected consul again, and again employed the
same tactics. In 210 B.C., when he was consul for the fifth time, he
recaptured Tarentum by stratagem (Ch. 16). He opposed the sending of
Scipio to Africa, saying that Italy ought to be rid of Hannibal first.

=eum … frēgit= = _ab impetū eum prohibuit_; ‘prevented him from
attacking in force.’

=differendō pūgnam=: ‘by postponing battle’: _i.e._ by avoiding a
decisive engagement.

CH. 10.

8. =quadrāgēsimō=: Eutropius is mistaken in the date; it was 216 B.C.

9. =L. Aemilius Paulus=: father of the L. Aemilius Paulus mentioned in
Bk. IV, 6, 7. He had distinguished himself in his former consulship
in the war against the Illyrians. Against his advice the battle of
Cannae was fought, and, refusing to fly from the field when the battle
was lost, he was slain. He was an aristocrat, and was raised to the
consulship by that party to counterbalance the influence of the
plebeian P. Terentius Varro.

13. =impatientiā Varrōnis=: the aristocracy laid all the blame of the
defeat on Varro.

14. =Cannae=: a town of Apulia to the south of the Aufidus, about
halfway between Canusium and the sea. This was one of the most
important battles of the war. Although the Romans greatly outnumbered
the Carthaginians, by the skillful maneuvers of Hannibal, they were
surrounded on all sides and were cut down without mercy. “For eight
hours the work of destruction went on, and at the end 50,000 men lay
dead upon the ground. Aemilius Paulus, the Illyrian hero, who, though
wounded by a sling early in the day, had clung to his horse, heartening
on his men, till he dropped exhausted from his saddle, the proconsul
Servilius, the late high-spirited master of the horse, Minucius, both
quaestors, twenty-one military tribunes, sixty senators, and an
unknown number of knights were among the slain. Nearly 20,000 Roman
prisoners were taken. Of the rest, Varro, with a few horsemen only,
escaped to Venusia. Amid all this slaughter the conqueror had lost only
5500 of his infantry and but 200 of that matchless cavalry to whom the
victory was mainly due.” _Rome and Carthage_, p. 160; Creighton, p. 44.

16. =pars dē exercitū= = _pars exercitūs_; a very rare usage.

18. =acceptī sunt=: ‘were handled’; an ironical use of the word.

20. =nōbilēs virī=: men whose ancestors had held high office.

22. =mentiōnem habēre=: usually _mentiōnem facere_.

=quod numquam ante=: sc. _factum erat_.

23. =manūmissī=: sc. _sunt_; they were liberated because none but
freemen could serve in the Roman legions.

CH. 11.

24. =multae Ītaliae cīvitātēs=: “chiefly Samnites and other south
Italian states. The Greek cities held to Rome, and ‘not one Roman
citizen, nor one Latin community, had joined Hannibal.’”


PAGE 31.

2. =variīs suppliciīs=: probably the Romans exaggerated the cruelty and
treachery of Hannibal.

3. =ānulōrum=: these rings were the distinctive badges of the knights
and senators.

7. =duōbus Scīpiōnibus=: P. Cornelius and Gnaeus, the father and
uncle of P. Scipio Africanus. For the campaign in Spain see _Rome and
Carthage_, p. 183.

CH. 12.

12. =annō quartō postquam=: H. 486 (429); M. 243, 1; A. & G. 256; G.
393; B. 223; cf. _aliquot annīs post_, Ch. 6.

13. =Mārcellus=: see note on _M. Claudiō Mārcellō_, Ch. 6.

=cīvitātem= = _urbem_; cf. _conditā cīvitāte_, Bk. I, 2.

16. =rēx Macedoniae Philippus=: although Philip promised aid, he never
gave it. Owing to his frequent struggles with the states of Greece, and
the invasion of Macedonia by the Romans, he was compelled to devote his
undivided attention to preserving his realm.

21. =prōcōnsulem=: ‘ex-consul’; at the expiration of his term of office
the consul was given a province to govern, under the title of proconsul.

22. =ea=: the antecedent is _Sardinia_.

CH. 13.

25. =Hispāniīs=: the two divisions of Spain, Hither and Further.

28. =missus fuerat=: cf. _questa fuisset_, Bk. I, 8.


PAGE 32.

3. =et Hasdrubalem=: ‘including Hasdrubal.’

CH. 14.

8. =ad … urbis=: cf. _ad quintum mīliārum urbis_, Bk. I, 15. This was
merely a feint on the part of Hannibal to draw the Romans away from
Capua, which they were besieging, to the defense of Rome. _Rome and
Carthage_, p. 187.

12. =per multōs annōs=: cf. _per annum_, Bk. I, 10.

16. =nōbilissima urbs Syrācūsāna=: “So fell Syracuse, the virgin city,
which had seen two Athenian armaments perish beneath its walls which
had for centuries saved Sicily from becoming altogether, what its
greater part then was, a Carthaginian appanage. … It fell to rise no
more, at least to its former opulence. Its temples were left standing,
because they would not pay for moving; … but the choicest works of art
were swept off to adorn the imperial city.” _Rome and Carthage_, p. 181.

22. =in dēditiōnem accēpit=: cf. _in dēditiōnem accēpērunt_, Bk. II, 21.

24. =cōnsulem=: he was praetor, not consul. He was surprised by
Hannibal and slain before Herdonia.


PAGE 33.

CH. 15.

2. =P. Cornēlius Scīpiō=: he is one of the most interesting characters
in Roman history. Brilliant and versatile, he seemed to be the favorite
of fortune. When the senate had resolved to make one more attempt to
conquer Spain and were looking for a leader, he offered himself and
was sent with 11,000 men. On his arrival he found the forces of the
Carthaginians scattered in different parts of the province, and New
Carthage defended by a weak garrison. By a brilliant stratagem he
captured this with its riches and munitions of war, 207 B.C. Next he
attacked Hasdrubal at Baecula in Andalusia. Although the Romans claimed
the victory, Hasdrubal escaped from his hands and started for Italy
to bear aid to his brother Hannibal. Spain was left to the undisputed
possession of the Romans.

3. =annōs nātus … vīgintī=: cf. _decem … nātus_, Bk. I, 1. He was too
young to be elected to the consulship.

5. =ferē prīmus=: ‘almost the first.’

=Karthāginem Hispāniae=: called ‘New Carthage.’ See note on _bellum
Pūnicum secundum_, Ch. 7. A town still exists on the same spot bearing
the name Cartagena.

11. =ūnō animō=: ‘with one accord.’

CH. 16.

14. =Q. Fabius Māximus=: see note on _Q. Fabiō Māximō_, Ch. 9.

17. =pecūniam hominum vēnditōrum=: ‘the money derived from the sale of
the prisoners.’

18. =ad fiscum=: cf. _ex fiscō_, Bk. II, 27.

21. =ēgregiās rēs=: ‘extraordinary exploits.’

=per sē=: cf. _per fīliōs_, Bk. I, 6.

22. =L. Scīpiōnem=: became famous for his victories in the East, Bk.
IV, 4.

23. =Claudius Mārcellus=: see note on _M. Claudiō Mārcellō_, Ch. 6.

CH. 17.

26. =rēs inclitās=: cf. _ēgregiās rēs_, Ch. 16.


PAGE 34.

1. =in amīcitiam accēpit=: cf. _in dēditiōnem accēpērunt_, Bk. II, 21.
It meant practical subjection in either case.

=ā victō=: sc. _hoste_.

2. =obsidēs nōn poposcit=: by pursuing the opposite course to that of
the Carthaginians he hoped to win over the Spaniards.

CH. 18.

3. =dēspērāns=: ‘giving up the hope.’

6. =ā cōnsulibus=: construe with _īnsidiās compositās_.

7. =apud Sēnam=: one of the critical battles of the world’s history.
It is generally known as the battle of the Metaurus, from the name of
the river near which it was fought. The messenger sent by Hasdrubal
to inform his brother Hannibal of his coming fell into the hands of
the Romans. Nero, leaving a part of his forces to watch Hannibal,
with a picked band hastened north, joined the force under Salinator,
defeated Hasdrubal, who perished in the battle, and returned to his
army in Apulia before Hannibal discovered his absence. It is said that
he ordered the severed head of Hasdrubal to be flung into the camp of
Hannibal. He “recognized the features of the brother whom he had so
long and eagerly expected, and in them sadly saw the doom of Carthage.”
_Rome and Carthage_, p. 196; Creighton, p. 45.

12. =ingēns animus accessit=: lit. ‘great courage came to in addition’
= ‘great courage was inspired in.’

=et ipsī= = _etiam_: cf. _et ipse_, Bk. I, 8.

CH. 20.

19. =in Āfricam missus=: the senate, led by Fabius, opposed the sending
of Scipio, but the people forced that body to accede to their demands.
Owing to the opposition Scipio was not as well equipped for the
expedition as he should have been.

=dīvīnum quiddam=: ‘something divine.’ The ancients believed that great
men were inspired by the gods. Scipio pretended to hold communication
with Jupiter Capitolinus. Probably he merely took advantage of a
popular superstition.

24. =Syphācem=: Syphax had driven Masinissa, a Libyan king, from his
throne. Masinissa joined Scipio on his arrival in Africa and gave him
valuable aid. When the war was ended Masinissa was restored to his
throne as his reward.


PAGE 35.

CH. 21.

5. =lēgātī … petīvērunt=: their purpose was to enable Hannibal to reach
Africa and prepare for war against Scipio.

7. =quoūsque= = _dōnec_: a late usage.

8. =mīlia=: sc. _lībrārum_.

=pondō=: ‘by weight.’

11. =nē … redderent=: Indirect Discourse depending on an idea of
commanding implied in _hīs … dedit_.

CH. 22.

19. =quibus prius=: sc. _data esset_; cf. _hīs condiciōnibus dedit_,
Ch. 21.

20. =quīngentīs mīlibus=: Dative, object of _additīs_.

24. =Karthāginī bellum=: the details of these operations are
imperfectly known. _Rome and Carthage_, p. 222.


PAGE 36.

CH. 23.

2. =ūllā memoriā=: ‘within the memory of any one.’

3. =Scīpiō victor=: this was at the famous battle of Zama, one of the
decisive battles of the world. Although Hannibal managed his forces
with his usual skill, and his veterans fought like the men who had so
often conquered in Italy, the Carthaginians were utterly defeated. This
ended the Second Punic War. _Rome and Carthage_, p. 224; Creighton, p.
46.

6. =mīlia=: sc. _lībrārum_.

7. =supellectilis=: Nominative, the usual form is _supellex_.

9. =Āfricānus=: later _Māior_ was added to his name to distinguish him
from the Scipio Africanus who destroyed Carthage, 146 B.C.

11. =quam coeperat=: cf. _quam vēnerant_, Bk. II, 28.



BOOK IV

CH. 1.

12. =Macedonicum=: sc. _bellum_.

CH. 2.

13. =Philippum=: Philip V, king of Macedonia, began to reign 220 B.C.,
was defeated by Flamininus at Cynoscephalae 197 B.C., and died 179 B.C.
_The Story of the Romans_, p. 137; Creighton, p. 47.

15. =rem prōsperē gessit=: in 196 B.C., at the meeting of the Isthmian
games, Flamininus caused a herald to proclaim, “that the senate and the
people of Rome, and their commander, Titus Quinctius, having subdued
Philip and the Macedonians, now restored the Corinthians, Phocians,
Locrians, Euboeans, Thessalians, Achaeans, etc., to their freedom and
independence, and to the enjoyment of their own laws.”

19. =quaterna mīlia=: sc. _lībrārum_; note the force of the
distributive.

=pondō=: cf. _pondō_, Bk. III, 21.


PAGE 37.

2. =Nabidem=: Nabis, the tyrant of Lacedaemon, had seized the city of
Argos.

=quibus voluit condiciōnibus= = _quibus voluit eīs condiciōnibus_.

=in fidem accēpit=: cf. _in fidem acceptae_, Bk. II, 19. This is a mild
way of saying that he made the king a subject of Rome.

CH. 3.

6. =Syriacum=: sc. _bellum_. Creighton, p. 48.

7. =Antiochum=: the most illustrious of the family of the Seleucidae,
kings of Syria, was Antiochus, surnamed the Great. After having
conquered Caelo-Syria and Palestine, he was urged by Hannibal, who
had taken refuge at his court, to make war on the Romans. He invaded
Greece, but was defeated by L. Scipio at Thermopylae in 191 B.C., and
again at Mt. Sipylus in Magnesia in 190 B.C., when he was compelled to
sue for peace.

12. =fuisset=: cf. _quia … fēcissent_, Bk. II, 11.

CH. 4.

14. =L. Cornēliō Scīpiōne=: cf. Bk. III, 16.

=Scīpiō Āfricānus=: although Scipio Africanus was the _legatus_ of his
brother, yet he practically acted as commander, as his brother was a
man of no ability.

17. =nāvālī proeliō=: this battle, fought at the mouth of the
Eurymedon, off Aspendus in Pamphylia, “was the first naval battle and
the last battle fought by Hannibal against the Romans.”

18. =apud Māgnēsiam=: “with the day of Magnesia Asia was erased from
the list of great states; and never perhaps did a great power fall so
rapidly, so thoroughly, and so ignominiously as the kingdom of the
Seleucidae under this Antiochus the Great.” Mommsen.

20. =Eumenēs=: Antiochus had offered one of his daughters in marriage
to Eumenes, the king of Pergamus, on condition that he assist him
against the Romans.

22. =ex parte rēgis=: ‘on the side of the king.’

24. =data est=: sc. _pāx_.

25. =recēderet=: cf. _īnferret_, Ch. 2.


PAGE 38.

1. =concitātōrem bellī=: ‘who had aroused the war’; often it is best to
translate nouns of Agency by a clause.

6. =et ipse=: cf. _et ipse_, Bk. I, 8.

=Asiāgenis=: the more usual title is _Asiāticus_.

CH. 5.

12. =per T. Quīntium Flāminīnum=: cf. _per fīliōs_, Bk. I, 6.

13. =trādendus esset=: the bitterness with which the Romans hunted down
Hannibal was unworthy of such a man and such a nation.

=venēnum bibit=: “Thus ignominiously ended the career of the man who
stood once at the head of the commanders of the world, and whose memory
is still honored for the magnificence of his ambition in daring to
attack and expecting to conquer the most powerful nation of his time.”

CH. 6.

19. =rebellāvit=: on account of the division of the conquered territory
after the fall of Antiochus, Philip became indignant at the Romans, and
planned a revolt on a large scale. His death in 179 B.C. prevented him
from putting his plans into execution. His son Perseus attempted to
carry them out. Owing to his lack of genius, he did not act promptly
and with energy when the opportunity offered, and let it slip by.

20. =Thraciae=: Thrace was the name given originally to the whole
region north of the Aegean Sea. Afterwards it was confined to the
valley of the Hebrus. It became a Roman province in 46 A.D.

=Īllyricī=: Illyricum was on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea. Its
rocky coasts were infested with pirates until it was conquered by the
Romans in the second century B.C. It was made a province afterwards and
known as Dalmatia.

21. =Rōmānīs … auxiliō=: cf. _auxiliō … Rōmānīs_, Ch. 4.

24. =utrīsque … praebuit=: lit. ‘furnished himself equal to both’ =
‘remained neutral.’

25. =P. Licinius=: sc. _Crassus_. He was utterly incompetent and
thoroughly unscrupulous.

26. =gravī proeliō victus=: near Larisa. If Perseus had possessed the
energy to follow up this victory, the result might have been different.


PAGE 39.

1. =mox missus contrā eum=: Eutropius does not mention the two
campaigns under Aulus Hostilius and Quintius Marcius Philippus, in both
of which the Romans were unsuccessful.

2. =L. Aemilius Paulus=: he was the son of the consul who fell at
Cannae, Bk. III, 10. He was one of the best specimens of the sturdy
Roman character. He was noted for his discipline in the army, and
maintained throughout life a pure and unspotted character.

6. =ante … quam=: cf. note on _ante … quam_, Bk. II, 13.

CH. 7.

8. =III Nōnās Septembrēs=: the full expression would be _ante diem
tertium Nōnās Septembrēs_; cf. _XI Kal. Māiās_, Bk. I, 1.

9. =vīcit=: at the battle of Pydna in Macedonia, 168 B.C. “It was in
fact the last battle in which a civilized state confronted Rome in the
field on a footing of equality with her as a great power. … The whole
civilized world henceforth recognized in the Roman senate the supreme
tribunal whose commissioners decided in the last resort between kings
and nations.” Mommsen, _History of Rome_, Vol. II, p. 330.

14. =honōrem … habuit=: ‘held him in honor’ = ‘honored him.’

=victō=: in apposition with _eī_.

15. =sibi=: _sibi_ and _sē_ refer to Paulus.

23. =convīviī apparātū=: ‘in his entertainments.’

CH. 8.

25. =praedam … distribuit=: this act of cruelty was commanded by the
senate.


PAGE 40.

2. =triumphāvit autem māgnificentissimē=: never before had Rome seen so
grand a triumph. It lasted for three days.

3. =cum duōbus fīliīs=: Q. Fabius Maximus and P. Scipio Africanus
Minor, both of whom had been adopted into other families.

9. =Bīthȳniae=: supply _rēx_ from _rēgēs_ above.

CH. 10.

15. =tertium … Karthāginem=: _The Story of the Romans_, p. 139;
Creighton, p. 50; _Rome and Carthage_, Ch. XIX. The Romans encouraged
their ally Masinissa to encroach on the territories of Carthage and to
harass her in every way. They were seeking a pretext for war, having
fully decided to utterly destroy their hated rival. The story is told
that every speech that Cato the Censor made was concluded with the
words ‘_Dēlenda est Carthāgō_,’ ‘Carthage must be destroyed.’

16. =L. Mānliō Cēnsōrīnō et M. Mānīliō=: they were utterly incompetent.
On several occasions they were saved from destruction only by the skill
of Scipio.

19. =Karthāginem oppūgnāvērunt=: the Carthaginians tried in every way
to avert the war. Embassy after embassy was sent to Rome, offering
everything that could be asked. When the Romans demanded the surrender
of the arms of the city, they were given. But when it was demanded that
they should leave their city and should settle somewhere else at a
distance of ten miles from the sea, they refused and prepared for the
struggle that was inevitable.

21. =Scīpiō=: “Publius Cornelius Scipio was the youngest son of
Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of Macedonia. When quite a youth he had
fought at his father’s side at Pydna, and he was afterwards adopted
into a still more illustrious family, that of the Scipios. Like his
grandfather, the great Africanus, he had early shown a taste for other
arts than that of war; and his fondness for literature was cemented
by the friendship which he formed, while still a youth, with the
historian Polybius. He was inferior in all respects to his grandfather
by adoption, the elder Africanus.” He is chosen by Cicero in the _De
Amicitia_ as one whose friendship was worthy of immortality.

24. =cōnsultissimus=: ‘most fertile in council.’

=per eum=: cf. _per Ancī fīliōs_, Bk. I, 6.

27. =committere=: sc. _proelium_; the omission is late and rare.


PAGE 41.

CH. 11.

1. =per idem tempus=: equivalent to the Ablative of Time within which.

=Masinissa=: see note on _Syphācem_, Bk. III, 20.

CH. 12.

5. =iuvenis=: see note on _annōrum_, Bk. II, 6. Scipio was about
thirty-seven years old, and had held the office of military tribune
only.

6. =cōnsul est factus=: as in the case of his grandfather by adoption,
there was the tacit understanding that his office was to be continued
until he had brought the war to an end. The Romans by this time had
learned the advantage of retaining in office in times of danger a man
who showed himself adapted to the place.

9. =quae sua recognōscēbant=: ‘which they recognized as their own.’

10. =Karthāgō … dēlēta est=: “Thus happened what, happily, has rarely
happened in history before or since. An ancient seat of civilization
with the race which inhabited it, with its arts and its sciences, its
laws, its literature, and its religion, was swept away at a single
stroke, leaving hardly a wrack behind; and with it vanished the last
rival whom Rome had to fear, the one state which ever met her on equal
terms, and therefore alone stood between her and universal empire.”
_Rome and Carthage_, p. 260.

=quam= = _postquam_.

11. =avus ēius=: his grandfather by adoption, P. Cornelius Scipio
Africanus Maior, the conqueror of Hannibal.

12. =Āfricānus iūnior=: _etiam ipse_ can, of course, refer only to
Africanus, _iunior_ being adversative; ‘Africanus (but) younger’; cf.
note on _Tarquinius iūnior_, Bk. I, 8.

CH. 13.

14. =Pseudophilippus=: “A pretender, calling himself Phillip, the
son of Perseus, met with support from Thrace and Byzantium, and
was accepted as king by the Macedonian nation. He even extended his
rule over Thessaly by his victory over the Roman praetor Juventius.”
Mommsen, p. 219.

15. =praetorem=: the praetor was one of the chief magistrates at Rome,
next to the consuls. The number varied at different times. After
Sulla’s time there were eight. The duties of the praetor were to
administer justice, and in the absence of the consuls to act in their
place. Praetors were also sent to govern provinces subject to Rome.

16. =ad interneciōnem=: ‘to the point of destruction.’

CH. 14.

22. =cēpit=: after the battle of Leucopatra, in which the Achaeans were
utterly defeated.

=dīruit=: “With Corinth fell the liberties of Greece; a Roman province
took the place of the state that for six centuries had been the home
of art and eloquence, the intellectual sovereign of antiquity; but
though overcome and despoiled, she became the guide and teacher of her
conqueror.” The light of Greece was extinguished.

27. =pīctae tabulae=: ‘pictures.’


PAGE 42.

CH. 15.

3. =habēret=: H. 598 (515, III); M. 378, 6; A. & G. 313, _d_; G. 587;
B. 309, 3.

=quaestōre=: the quaestor was an officer in charge of the treasury.
Two remained in the city while the others accompanied the provincial
governors and managed the finances of the provinces.

CH. 16.

5. =Metellus=: Q. Caecilius Metellus, called Macedonicus, was the son
of Caecilius mentioned in Bk. III, 19. He was consul in 143 B.C., and
received the province of Hither Spain, where he carried on war with
success for two years against the Celtiberi. His brother, L. Caecilius,
was consul in 142 B.C. Chs. 21, 23.

8. =Viriāthus=: it is said that Caepio procured his assassination.

9. =quō metū= = _cūius metū_: for the case of _metū_, cf. _metū_, Ch. 3.

12. =adsertor=: ‘restorer of liberty.’

CH. 17.

17. =pācem ignōbilem fēcit=: but fearing the reckoning that awaited him
at home for concluding peace, he denied before the senate the agreement
he had made with the people of Numantia. The total incompetency of
Pompeius and of his successor, Mancinus, and the demoralization of the
army, caused the war to drag on with disgrace and disaster for three
years. Creighton, p. 49.

20. =Mancīnum hostibus trādī=: they refused to receive him, as the
senate knew they would.

24. =cōnsul factus=: sc. _est_; this was in 134 B.C. He was then at the
legal age for the consulship.

25. =mīlitem=: ‘the soldiers’; a collective noun.


PAGE 43.

4. =reliquam … accēpit=: “A senatorial commission was shortly
afterwards sent to Spain, and the provinces were reorganized. Spain
gradually became exceedingly prosperous, and, despite the guerilla
warfare ever waged by the half-subdued native tribes, it was the
most flourishing and best organized country in the Roman dominions.”
Mommsen, p. 215.

CH. 18.

6. =Attalus=: the kingdom of Attalus consisted of Lydia, Phrygia,
Mysia, and Caria, four states on the coast of Asia Minor.

CH. 19.

9. =Callaecīs=: generally written _Gallaecī_. They were a people
inhabiting the northwestern part of Spain, bordering on the Atlantic.
They were the most uncivilized people of Spain.

=Lūsitānīs=: they lived a little south of the Gallaeci.

10. =P. Scīpiō … Numantīnīs=: from the capture of the city of Numantia
he received the name _Numantīnus_.

12. =dē Āfricā=: _i.e. dē Karthāgine_.

CH. 20.

13. =Aristonīcō=: he was a natural son of Eumenes II of Pergamus. Upon
the death of his brother Attalus, who left his kingdom to the Romans,
Ch. 18, he claimed the throne. At first he met with considerable
success.

15. =P. Licinius Crassus=: he was consul for the year 131 B.C. He was a
good orator and jurist.

25. =carcere=: the Mamertine prison at the foot of the Capitoline Hill.
This was the only prison in Rome in early times. In it most of the
famous captives of the Romans were strangled. It consisted of an upper
and lower chamber. The term Tullianum sometimes applied to the prison
as a whole is more properly restricted to the lower dungeon. Sallust
in the ‘Catiline’ gives an impressive picture of the lower vault in
which Jugurtha perished. “There is,” he says, “in the prison a chamber
named the Tullianum, about twelve feet below the surface of the earth.
It is surrounded by walls, and covered by a vaulted roof of stone; but
its appearance is repulsive and fearful, because of the neglect, the
darkness, and the stench.”

27. =diem obierat=: lit. ‘he had met his day’ = ‘he died.’

CH. 21.

29. =quae nunc manet=: Eutropius is in error. The Carthage of his time
was founded by Augustus. He was carrying out the plans of Julius Caesar
in this.


PAGE 44.

2. =dēductī sunt=: the regular term for the founding of a colony.

=eō= = _ad eum locum_.

CH. 22.

5. =Gallīs trānsalpīnīs=: the Gauls of the modern France and
Switzerland were called _trānsalpīnī_, to distinguish them from the
Gauls of northern Italy, who were called _cisalpīnī_.

=Arvernōrum=: the Arverni were a people of Aquitania, in the modern
Auvergne. In early times they were the most powerful people in southern
Gaul. They still possessed considerable power in Caesar’s time, as he
refers to them several times in the _Gallic War_.

7. =fluvium=: a late word. The regular term for river is _flūmen_.

8. =torquibus=: cf. _torque_, Bk. II, 5.

9. =dēductus est=: _i.e._ from Gaul.

CH. 23.

12. =Narbōne=: this was the first colony of the Romans in Gaul. Later
it gave the name of _Narbōnēnsis_ to the province. It was situated on
the river Atax, and was of considerable commercial importance.

13. =L. Caeciliō Metellō=: see note on _Metellus_, Ch. 16.

CH. 24.

17. =Scordiscīs=: a people of Pannonia. They were sometimes classed
with the Illyrians, but they were remains of an ancient and powerful
Celtic tribe.

CH. 25.

19. =C. Caeciliō Metellō=: he was the son of Quintus Caecilius
Metellus, mentioned in Ch. 16. He was consul in 113 B.C., and carried
on war in Macedonia against the Thracians, whom he subdued. He obtained
a triumph, in consequence, in the same year and on the same day with
his brother.

20. =alterum ex Sardiniā=: this was Marcus Caecilius Metellus, a
brother of Gaius Caecilius mentioned above. He was consul in 115
B.C. In 114 he was sent to Sardinia as proconsul, and while there he
suppressed a revolt in the province. For this he was granted a triumph,
which he celebrated at the same time with his brother.

22. =Cimbrōs=: see Bk. V, 1, 2.

CH. 26.

23. =P. Scīpiōne Nāsīcā=: _i.e._ ‘Scipio with the pointed nose.’ This
name, which was given in derision to one member of his family, clung to
all his descendants.

24. =Iugurthae … inlātum est=: Jugurtha is an interesting character
in Roman history. He was the illegitimate nephew of Micipsa, the
king of Numidia. He served under Scipio in Spain, and there made the
acquaintance of the dissolute patricians who were serving in the army.
On the death of his uncle, he put Hiempsal to death and seized the
kingdom. He besieged Adherbal in the town of Cirta, and, having taken
the town, he put him to death with savage torture. In the capture of
Cirta several Roman citizens were slain. This compelled the senate
to make an investigation; but many of its members had been bribed by
Jugurtha, and it resulted in nothing. Finally war was declared against
him. The army, however, was poorly equipped and badly organized.
Nothing but defeat resulted. Metellus, on taking command in 109 B.C.,
reformed the army, won several victories, and seemed on the point of
bringing the war to an end when he was succeeded by Gaius Marius, his
lieutenant. Marius speedily brought the war to a close. Jugurtha,
however, was surrendered to Sulla, Marius’ lieutenant, by the Moors,
with whom he had taken refuge. After gracing the triumphal procession
of Marius, he was strangled in the Mamertine prison. He is said to
have exclaimed as he touched the water at the bottom of the prison,
‘How cold are thy baths, O Hercules’!

25. =frātrēs suōs=: Eutropius is incorrect. They were his cousins, not
brothers.


PAGE 45.

2. =quae … improbāta est=: probably the senate would have approved of
it, but such an outcry was raised by the people that they were forced
to reject the peace and order the war to be continued.

CH. 27.

6. =Q. Caecilius Metellus=: he was the son of Lucius Caecilius,
mentioned in Chs. 21, 23. He received the name of Numidicus for
his campaign against Jugurtha. In an age of growing corruption his
integrity remained unsullied, and he was distinguished for his
abilities in war and peace. Creighton, p. 61.

12. =successum est eī=: lit. ‘it was succeeded to him’ = ‘he was
succeeded.’

=C. Mariō=: see Bk. V, 1. Marius, who had accompanied Metellus, gained
his consulship by appealing to the credulity of the people and by
misleading them with the most unfair misrepresentations of the conduct
of Metellus.

=Bocchum=: king of Mauretania, father-in-law of Jugurtha.

16. =Cornēlium Sullam=: see Bk. V, 4. The fact that Sulla was an
aristocrat was very annoying to Marius.



BOOK V


PAGE 46.

CH. 1.

2. =Cimbrīs et Teutonibus=: the Cimbri and Teutones were Germanic
tribes who had migrated from their homes and had come into Gaul. They
defeated the Romans in several engagements. In the battle of Arausio,
105 B.C., three Roman armies were cut to pieces. Then they turned their
course towards Spain and gave the Romans a respite of two years. In
102 B.C. they returned from Spain and prepared to invade Italy. Before
their entrance they divided. The Cimbri and the Tigurini crossed the
Rhone, intending to enter Italy by the eastern Alps. The Teutones and
the Ambrones tried to come in by the Maritime Alps, intending to join
their countrymen in the valley of the Po. Marius met them at Aquae
Sextiae, modern Aix, 102 B.C., and the mighty host of the barbarians
was annihilated. The next year the united armies of Marius and Catulus
met the Cimbri near Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul and utterly defeated
them. Those who survived the battle were either killed or sold in the
slave market at Rome. “The human avalanche which for thirteen years
had alarmed the nations from the Danube to the Ebro, from the Seine to
the Po, rested beneath the sod, or toiled under the yoke of slavery.”
Mommsen, _History of Rome_, Vol. III, p. 203. Creighton, p. 63; _The
Story of the Romans_, p. 155.

7. =quantus … tempore=: ‘barely was it as great in the time of
Hannibal.’

8. =Marius=: Gaius Marius was born near Arpinum 157 B.C. of an obscure
family. By his valor and his energy he worked his way up in the army,
winning distinction in the siege of Numantia in Spain. In 119 B.C.
he was elected tribune of the plebs. He now became a marked man. He
acquired influence and importance by marrying into the family of the
Caesars. In 109 B.C. he went to Africa as lieutenant of Metellus. In
107 B.C. he was elected consul and brought the war with Jugurtha to an
end, Bk. IV, 27. After his return from Africa he was elected consul
the second time in 104 B.C. and took command of the war against the
Cimbri and Teutones. Again in 103, 102, and 101 B.C. he was elected
to the consulship, and crushed the barbarians in the two famous
battles of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae, 102, 101 B.C., Chs. 1, 2. In
100 B.C. he was elected consul for the sixth time. The Social war
again called him into active service. He defeated the Marsi in two
successive engagements, Ch. 3. That he might gratify his ambition and
be sent to the war with Mithradates, he procured the passage of a law
removing Sulla from the command of the army and conferring it upon
himself. Sulla refused to give up his command, marched upon Rome, and
forced Marius to flee. After having arranged matters at Rome to his
satisfaction Sulla left for the East, Ch. 4. While he was away, Marius
returned to Italy, besieged Rome, and entered the city as a conqueror.
“The most frightful scenes followed. The guards of Marius stabbed every
one whom he did not salute, and the streets ran with the blood of the
noblest of the Roman aristocracy.” Ch. 7. Without the formality of an
election he became consul for the seventh time, 86 B.C. But he did not
long enjoy his honor. On the eighteenth day of his consulship he died.

15. =absēns=: this was unusual. The law provided that a man must be
present to stand for the consulship, and that at least ten years must
elapse before he could be re-elected.

CH. 2.

18. =dīmicātum est=: this battle was fought in the Campi Raudii, near
Vercellae. Before the battle, the Cimbri demanded that lands should be
given them for themselves and the Teutones. ‘The Teutones,’ replied
Marius, ‘have all the land they need on the other side of the Alps.’

=ā Catulī parte=: ‘on the part of Catulus.’


PAGE 47.

CH. 3.

7. =gravissimum bellum=: this is known as the Social or Italian war. It
was waged by the Italian allies of the Romans. For nearly thirty years
the hope of obtaining Roman citizenship had been held out to them, but
no measure had been carried to better their condition. The burdens
that Rome had imposed upon them had been steadily increased. Finally,
in despair of securing any reforms, they appealed to arms. At first
they were successful, but in the end the Romans conquered. However,
they were compelled to grant nearly all the Italians had demanded.
Creighton, p. 64.

12. =alius=: for _alter_.

15. =ā Rōmānīs=: ‘on the side of the Romans’; cf. _ā Catulī parte_, Ch.
2.

CH. 4.

24. =bellum cīvīle=: the First Civil war, called also the Civil war of
Marius and Sulla. See Chs. 7-9. _The Story of the Romans_, pp. 160-164;
Creighton, p. 66.


PAGE 48.

1. =Mithradāticum=: sc. _bellum commōtum est_.

=bellō cīvīlī=: in classical Latin probably a Genitive would have been
used.

2. =cum Sulla=: Lucius Cornelius Sulla was born of a patrician family
in 138 B.C. After having secured a good education, he passed his early
life in the pursuit of pleasure, squandering the small fortune left
him by his father. He served under Marius in Africa (Bk. IV, 8), and
received the surrender of Jugurtha. During the war with the Cimbri and
Teutones, he served under Marius and Catulus with distinction. When the
Social war broke out he again entered the service and won fresh laurels
(Ch. 3). In 88 B.C. he was elected consul and received the command of
the war against Mithradates (Chs. 5-7). When he had concluded peace
with Mithradates, he returned to Italy in 83 B.C., and prepared for
the campaign against the leaders of the Marian party. His efforts were
crowned with success. In 82 B.C. he brought the conflict to a close
with the decisive battle of the Colline gate (Ch. 8). Sulla was now
master of Italy. He resolved to take the most ample vengeance upon
his enemies, and utterly to crush the popular party. He inaugurated a
proscription, in which as many as 47,000 are said to have perished.
He was chosen dictator by the senate, and made various reforms in the
constitution of the state, all tending to strengthen the power of the
aristocracy and to weaken that of the commons. In 79 B.C. he resigned
his office and retired to his estate at Puteoli, where he died in 78
B.C. “None of his friends ever did him a kindness, and none of his
enemies a wrong, without being fully repaid.”

3. =gestūrus=: the Future Participle is not used by prose writers of
the classical period to denote purpose.

9. =prīmus … armātus=: a general with his army could not enter the
city, except when celebrating a triumph, without losing his command.

11. =in futūrum annum=: ‘for the next year.’

=Cn. Octāviō et L. Cornēliō Cinnā=: in apposition with _cōnsulibus_.

CH. 5.

13. =Mithradātēs=: Mithradates V was king of Pontus, a state of Asia
Minor. He is one of the most striking characters of Roman history.
Possessed of a large and powerful frame, he was endowed also with
a mind of great strength and alertness, indomitable courage, and
consuming ambition. It was the desire to extend his realm that brought
him into collision with the Romans. In 88 B.C. he overran Bithynia,
Cappadocia, and the greater part of the Roman province of Asia. In
84 B.C. peace was concluded with Sulla. In 83 B.C. he again began
war. This was brought to an end two years later (Chs. 6, 8). For the
third time he began to wage war in 74 B.C. This was the last and most
important war, and, owing to mismanagement on the part of the Romans,
was not concluded until 63 B.C., when he was driven from his kingdom
and forced to take his own life (Bk. VI, 14). Creighton, pp. 66, 71.

16. =eī=: the antecedent is _Nīcomēdēs_.

18. =faceret=: Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse representing the
Future Indicative in Direct.

=quod … patērētur=: this use of _quod_ with the Subjunctive after a
verb of speaking, instead of the Infinitive with subject Accusative, is
late. For the usual construction, cf. Bk. III, 11.

=et ipse=: ‘he too.’

23. =Ephesum=: Ephesus at the mouth of the Caÿster in Lydia, was the
chief city in Asia Minor. It was especially famous for its temple of
Diana.

24. =ūnō diē occiderentur=: on that day over 80,000 Italians were put
to death.


PAGE 49.

CH. 6.

1. =Aristōne=: he was a celebrated philosopher.

3. =Archelāum=: Archelaus was a distinguished general of Mithradates.
At first he met with some success, but was twice defeated by Sulla in
the battles of Chaeronea and Orchomenos in Boeotia.

11. =commīsit=: sc. _proelium_.

15. =iussit … agī=: lit. ‘ordered it to be treated concerning peace’ =
‘ordered a truce to be made.’

CH. 7.

18. =partim=: contrasted with _aliōs_.

22. =pāx … ōrdināta est=: by the terms of the peace arranged
Mithradates abandoned all his conquests in Asia Minor, confined himself
to the dominion he had held before the war, paid an indemnity of 3000
talents, and surrendered 80 ships of war fully equipped.


PAGE 50.

2. =prōscrīpsērunt=: ‘outlawed.’ This was the first proscription
in Roman history. It was so called from the list of the names of
the persons who were outlawed. They might be killed by any one with
impunity, even by slaves. Their property was confiscated to the state
and was sold at public auction. Their children and grandchildren lost
their votes in the Comitia and were excluded from all public offices.

6. =Norbānum et Scīpiōnem=: Lucius Norbanus and Gaius Scipio were
elected consuls for the year 83 B.C.

7. =contrā Norbānum=: the battle was fought at Mt. Tifata in Campania.
After the battle Norbanus shut himself up in Capua.

10. =tōtum … accēpit=: by means of Sulla’s emissaries the whole army
deserted Scipio, who was forced to retire from the war.

CH. 8.

12. =Marius=: Gaius Marius the younger was elected consul with Gnaeus
Papirius Carbo, though he had not yet attained the legal age for the
office.

14. =dīmicāvit=: at Sacriportus, between Signia and Praeneste. Marius
was driven to Praeneste, and when the town was captured was slain.

19. =portam Collīnam=: one of the gates of Rome on the Quirinal Hill.
The battle raged so fiercely and the result was so long in doubt, that
Sulla is said to have invoked the aid of Pythian Apollo. With this
battle the resistance of the Marian party in Italy was at an end.


PAGE 51.

CH. 9.

4. =nūllī Rōmānōrum=: this was the first time that any one who had not
held the office of consul was permitted to celebrate a triumph.

9. =XXIV=: sc. _mīlia_ with all these numbers, except the last.



BOOK VI

CH. 1.

14. =Sertōrius=: Quintus Sertorius, a Sabine by birth, served under
Marius in the war against the Teutones. Before the battle of Aquae
Sextiae he entered the camp of the enemy in disguise. In 83 B.C. he
went to Spain and became the leader of the Lusitanians. For several
years he waged war successfully against the Romans. Finally he was
assassinated by one of his officers who was jealous of his power. _The
Story of the Romans_, p. 165; Creighton, p. 69.


PAGE 52.

CH. 2.

5. =levia proelia=: ‘skirmishes.’

=Rhodopam prōvinciam=: a small division of Thrace.

CH. 3.

10. =P. Servīlius=: Publius Servilius Vatia was consul in 79 B.C.
The next year he was sent to clear the sea of pirates. He waged war
successfully against them, conquered Cilicia and organized it as a
province. He took a leading part in the public affairs.

=ex cōnsule= = _prōcōnsule_; a late expression; cf. our expression
‘ex-president.’

CH. 5.

20. =M. Aemilius Lepidus=: Lepidus and Catullus were consuls in the
year after the death of Sulla. They quarreled over some trifling
matter. In 77 B.C. Lepidus marched to Rome with an army. He was met by
Pompey near the Mulvian Bridge and defeated. Shortly afterwards he died
in Sardinia.

23. =Metellī=: Genitive, depending on _triumphus_ supplied from
_triumphī_ above.

CH. 6.

25. =annō urbis conditae=: a variation for the usual expression _ab
urbe conditā_. The year is conceived of as belonging to the city. Cf.
_annō ā conditā urbe_, Bk. III, 10; _annō … ab urbe conditā_, Bk. IV,
22.


PAGE 53.

1. =Nīcomēdēs=: Nicomedes III, surnamed Philopater, was the son and
successor of Nicomedes II mentioned in Bk. IV, Chs. 8, 20. He had been
aided by the Romans, and was encouraged by them to encroach on the
territories of Mithradates. Having no children, he left his kingdom to
the Romans.

2. =Mithradātēs=: see note on Bk. V, 5.

4. =apud Chalcēdōna=: the defeat was both by land and sea.

7. =Lūcullus=: Lucius Licinius Lucullus fought in the Civil war on
the side of Sulla, was praetor in 77 B.C., and consul in 74 B.C. For
eight years he carried on the war against Mithradates with success;
but on account of the mutinous spirit of his soldiers and the jealousy
of certain Romans, he was unable to bring the war to a close. On his
return to Rome he gave himself up to a life of indolence and luxury. He
died in 57 B.C.

10. =Bȳzantium=: the city of Byzantium was founded by the Megarians
in 658 B.C., and was a place of great importance. Constantinople was
founded on the same site by the Emperor Constantine the Great in 330
A.D. It remained the capital of the Roman Empire of the East until its
capture by the Turks in 1453.

13. =centum ferē mīlia=: sc. _hominum_.

CH. 7.

17. =novum bellum=: see _The Story of the Romans_, p. 167; Creighton,
p. 70.

18. =Spartacō=: Spartacus was a Thracian by birth, and had been taken
prisoner and sold to a trainer of gladiators. His character has been
maligned by the Roman writers. “Accident made Spartacus a shepherd, a
freebooter, and a gladiator; nature formed him a hero.”

19. =ludō=: ‘the gladiatorial school.’ The gladiators were mostly
slaves, and were the property of the individuals who trained them and
leased them for the games. This school belonged to Lentulus.

20. =paene nōn levius=: ‘not much lighter.’

22. =armātōrum=: many slaves joined them.

23. =victī sunt in Āpūliā=: they were conquered on the river Silarus,
which flows between Lucania and Campania. Spartacus was slain in the
battle.

CH. 8.

27. =duo=: nominative masculine, agreeing with _Lūcullī_.


PAGE 54.

7. =Mithradātēs fugātus est=: if the Roman soldiers had been able to
restrain their eagerness for plunder and had followed Mithradates
rapidly, he would have been captured.

10. =Tigrāne=: Tigranes, king of Armenia, was the son-in-law of
Mithradates. Although at first he refused to aid Mithradates, later
the insolence of Lucullus’ envoys caused him to change his policy and
take a hand in the war.

CH. 9.

13. =hostem fugātum=: ‘the enemy who had fled.’ Often it is best to
translate a participle by a clause.

14. =Tigrānocertam=: the capital of Tigranes.

16. =clībanāriīs=: this is the only place in Eutropius where this word
is found. It is post-classical, and is used by only two writers besides
Eutropius.

19. =Nisibīn=: he was directing his march to Artaxata, but the mutiny
of his soldiers caused him to turn aside to Nisibis, the capital of
Mesopotamia, and take up his winter quarters there.

20. =hī=: his lieutenants, Fannius and Triarius. They had been defeated
at Cabira and Zela.

22. =neglegenter … agentēs=: ‘conducting themselves carelessly and
greedily.’

24. =bellum renovātum est=: the Romans were now exactly where they were
at the breaking out of the war, Pontus and Cappadocia were overrun by
Mithradates, and the results of eight years’ warfare were lost.


PAGE 55.

CH. 11.

12. =bellum Crēticum=: the war was in reality directed against the
pirates who made Crete their headquarters.

CH. 12.

20. =Cn. Pompēiō=: by the Gabinian law Pompey was invested with
absolute authority, both by sea and by land, as far as fifty miles into
the interior, over the whole eastern Mediterranean for three years.

=quod … cōnfēcit=: in the space of forty days he had swept the whole
western tract of the Mediterranean Sea, and had driven the enemy into
the opposite quarter. He drove the pirates from the sea, and compelled
them to take refuge in their strongholds in the Cilician coast. These
he speedily surrounded and captured. He burnt over 1300 of their
vessels, and destroyed all their hostile magazines and arsenals. In
ninety days he had terminated the contest.

22. =eī … Tigrānēn=: by the Manilian law the authority he had already
wielded against the pirates was extended over all the East.

24. =nocturnō proeliō=: Mithradates at first attempted to procure
peace, but Pompey would hear of nothing but unconditional surrender. He
started to retire slowly but was pursued by Pompey, and was overtaken
in a narrow pass on the Lycus, where the city of Nicopolis was
afterward built. Mithradates escaped with a few horsemen and fled to
Tigranes, who refused to receive him.

=quadrāgintā mīlia=: cf. _centum ferē mīlia_, Ch. 6.

27. =Pharnacis=: Pompey had been active in fostering intrigues in the
family of Mithradates. He had caused Pharnaces to revolt and to ally
himself with the Romans, and had proclaimed him king at Panticapaeum.


PAGE 56.

2. =venēnum hausit=: Pharnaces was about to hand him over to the
Romans. The story is that he was so inured to poisons that he was
compelled to end his life with a sword.

CH. 13.

7. =ab Artaxatā=: Pompey was following him, and was planning to capture
his capital city.

11. =Syria=, =Phoenīcē=: also Galatia, Cappadocia, and a part of
Cilicia which Lucullus had taken away from him, Pompey refused to
return.

12. =Sophānēnē=: Pompey made the son of Tigranes the king of Sophanene.

14. =commōvisset=: Subjunctive, giving the reason of the Romans.

CH. 14.

22. =Syriam=: Syria was disturbed by fierce internal dissensions.
To put an end to the anarchy that existed there, Pompey resolved to
annex it. He drove from the throne Antiochus Asiaticus, who had been
acknowledged by the senate and by Lucullus.


PAGE 57.

2. =Iūdaeam=: the Jews alone refused to obey his orders, and sustained
a siege of three months at Jerusalem. Although Rome had no business to
interfere with the affairs in this part of the East, yet the government
she gave to the provinces, formed from the conquered territory, was
stable and just in the main, and was welcome after the state of anarchy
that had prevailed.

CH. 15.

7. =L. Sergius Catilīna=: Catiline was a member of a patrician family.
By his dissolute habits and his luxury he had squandered all his
property and had run into debt. The only relief was to secure the
consulship, that at the expiration of his term of office he might
be sent to govern some province, from the plunder of which he might
acquire another fortune to be spent in riotous living. Failing to
secure the consulship, he determined to overthrow the state. He formed
a band of dissolute nobles, collected arms in various places, stationed
an armed force at Faesulae in Etruria, and made all preparations for an
outbreak as soon as the time was ripe. Meanwhile Cicero had ascertained
all Catiline’s plans by the aid of the mistress of one of the
conspirators. Desiring to drive Catiline to some overt act, he assailed
him in the senate on the 8th of November. The oration he delivered has
been preserved. Catiline hastened from the city to the armed force at
Faesulae. The conspirators who were left in the city were soon caught
in a treasonable act, and were arrested and strangled in prison by
order of the senate. Afterwards Cicero was accused of having put Roman
citizens to death without a trial, and was condemned to exile for a
time. Creighton, p. 73.

12. =Catilīna ipse=: it was not until March of the next year (62 B.C.)
that Catiline was surrounded, while attempting to escape into Gaul, and
slain.

CH. 16.

16. =nūlla … fuit=: in this triumph was displayed a list of 800
vessels, 1000 fortresses, and 300 cities captured, 39 cities repeopled,
and 20,000 talents of gold brought to the treasury. “The great
conqueror had now celebrated his third triumph. His first had been
for victories in Africa, his second for the overthrow of Sertorius in
Europe; he had now completed the illustrious cycle by inscribing on the
list the name of Asia. Each section of the globe had succumbed to his
prowess.”

CH. 17.

23. =C. Iūlius Caesar=: Gaius Julius Caesar was born July 12, 100 B.C.
He was of a patrician family, but from the first sided with the popular
party. Many stories of his early youth are told. He became pontifex
maximus, military tribune, and quaestor in succession. At this period
he was noted chiefly as a dissolute debtor and a demagogue. In 62
B.C. he was elected praetor, and the next year went as propraetor to
govern the province of Further Spain. In 60 B.C. he returned to Rome
and formed a political coalition with Pompey and Crassus, known as
the ‘First Triumvirate.’ In 59 B.C. he was elected consul, and, after
the expiration of his year of office, entered on the governorship of
Gaul and Illyricum for the period of five years. This was afterwards
extended for another period of the same length. While governor of
the province he conquered the Helvetians and a wandering band of the
Germans who had come over into Gaul, crushed a revolt of the Nervii,
defeated the Veneti and the Aquitani, and twice invaded Germany and
Britain. It was Caesar’s intention to stand for the consulship a second
time as soon as his term of office as governor of Gaul should expire.
Pompey, meanwhile, had become jealous of Caesar’s power and had gone
over to the senatorial party. A measure was passed by the senate
declaring Caesar to be an outlaw unless he should disband his army
and come to Rome a private citizen before a certain date. On Caesar’s
refusal to do this, he was declared a public enemy, and preparations
for war were made. Caesar advanced to Rome. Pompey fled to Greece,
where he was defeated the following year at Pharsalus, and afterwards
was murdered in Egypt. At the battle of Thapsus in Africa, 46 B.C.,
Caesar defeated the remaining leaders of the party, Cato and Scipio.
This was the end of the war. He returned to Rome and was made imperator
and perpetual dictator. He inaugurated several important reforms, among
them a reform in the calendar. He formed many other plans which his
death prevented him from executing. Finally, when it was thought that
he was aiming at the kingly power, a conspiracy was formed, and he was
assassinated on the fifteenth day of March, 44 B.C.

“While other illustrious men have been reputed great for their
excellence in some one department of intellect, the concurrent voice of
antiquity has declared that Caesar was great in all. ‘He had genius,’
says Cicero, ‘understanding, memory, taste, reflection, industry, and
exactness.’” _The Story of the Romans_, p. 176; Creighton, p. 74; _The
Roman Triumvirates_, Ch. 5.

=imperāvit=: ‘was emperor’; a late meaning.


PAGE 58.

1. =dēcrēta est=: for the number and gender see H. 395, 1 (439, 1); M.
174, 2, 178, 2; A. & G. 187, _a_; G. 285-6; B. 235, A, 2, B, 2, _b_, B.

2. =Helvētiōs … Sequanī=: Eutropius, following the custom of his day,
unites the Helvetians and Sequanians. In Caesar’s time they were
quite distinct. The Helvetians lived in what is now Switzerland; the
Sequanians were west of the Jura mountains along the Rhone.

7. =Britannīs=: twice he invaded Britain. The first time it was a mere
reconnoissance. His conquest was only partial.

11. =quadringentiēs=: sc. _centēna mīlia sestertium_; about $1,640,000.

=Germānōs=: twice Caesar crossed the Rhine, but only for the purpose
of impressing the Germans with the power of his forces. He fought no
battles there, but he inflicted terrible defeats on two German bands
that had come over into Gaul.

CH. 18.

17. =M. Licinius Crassus=: there was no cause for war against the
Parthians, but Crassus was anxious to make himself popular by winning
military renown.

18. =circā Carrās=: the overthrow at Carrae was one of the gravest
disasters ever sustained by the Roman arms: 20,000 were slain and
10,000 were carried into captivity. The Romans who were made prisoners
were treated with indulgence by the Parthians and were allowed to
settle in the land of their conquerors. Creighton, p. 77.


PAGE 59.

CH. 19.

4. =alterum cōnsulātum=: this he demanded in accordance with the
agreement formed between Pompey, Crassus, and himself. He was now
eligible for a second consulship, as ten years had passed since he was
consul for the first time.

5. =aliquā=: cf. _aliquā_, Bk. I, 3.

=contrādictum est=: lit. ‘it was opposed’ = ‘opposition was made.’

8. =iniūriam=: “the ‘injury’ was in depriving him of his military
command, and leaving him without the security the consulship would have
afforded.” He was willing to disband his army and return to Rome if he
could be elected to the consulship in his absence, or if Pompey would
disband his army.

=ab Arīminō=: he had crossed the small stream known as the Rubicon
which separated his province from Italy. The story is told that as he
crossed the stream he said, ‘The die is cast, let us go where the gods
and the injustice of our enemies call us.’

=mīlitēs congregātōs habēbat=: ‘kept his troops collected.’

CH. 20.

14. =dictātōrem=: with the exception of Sulla there had been no
dictator since the time of the Second Punic War.

15. =exercitūs … superāvit=: at first he met with serious reverses at
Ilerda, but he soon succeeded in compelling the Pompeians to surrender,
and enrolled most of them in his army.

18. =prīmō proeliō=: at Dyrrhacium in Illyria.

20. =nec … superārī=: Indirect Discourse depending on _dīxit_.

22. =Palaeopharsālum=: this battle is generally known as the battle of
Pharsalia.


PAGE 60.

CH. 21.

4. =numquam … neque … neque=: “a general negative may be subdivided by
_neque … neque_, or _aut … aut_.”

7. =pūgnātum tum est=: Pompey would have refused battle, but was
urged on by his followers. The knights and senators who fought in the
Pompeian ranks soon broke and fled. At the first attack Pompey fled
to his camp, where he tried to rally his routed forces, but he was
unsuccessful. Leaping on his horse at the last moment, he escaped
through the rear gate of the camp, nor did he draw rein until he
reached Larissa. Thence he hastened to the coast, where he took ship
for Egypt.

9. =ā rēge Aegyptī=: he was only a nominal king. Egypt was made a
province by Augustus, Bk. VII, 7.

11. =occīdit=: he caused Pompey to be inveigled into a boat, where he
was murdered and his head severed from his body. His corpse was flung
into the surf, where it was picked up later and burned.

12. =quō cōnspectō=: ‘and when Caesar had seen it.’

14. =generī quondam suī=: Pompey had married Julia, the daughter of
Caesar, in 60 B.C. It was her death in 54 B.C. that tended to loosen
the bond existing between them.

CH. 22.

17. =victus=: Caesar conquered the royal forces on the banks of the
Nile.

18. =Alexandrīā=: when Caesar set fire to the royal fleet, the flames
consumed the great library of Alexandria, containing 400,000 volumes.
In this fire some of the greatest literary treasures of antiquity
perished.

=Cleopatrae=: the famous queen who proved to be the ruin of Antony, Bk.
VII, 6, 7.

20. =Pompēiō in auxilium=: Eutropius seldom uses the double Dative; cf.
_Rōmānīs fuisset auxiliō_, Bk. IV, 3.

22. =vīcit aciē=: it was after this battle that Caesar sent to the
senate the famous message _vēnī, vīdī, vīcī_, ‘I came, I saw, I
conquered.’


PAGE 61.

CH. 23.

2. =eī … dictātōrī=: ‘while he was dictator’; _dictātōrī_ is in
apposition with _eī_.

6. =hīc etiam=: ‘he also’; as well as Caesar.

7. =M. Porcius Catō=: he was the great-grandson of the M. Porcius Cato
mentioned in Bk. IV, 23. He is known in history as Cato Uticensis, from
Utica, where he committed suicide. He was famous for the austerity of
his manners and for his studied imitation of the customs of early days.

9. =victor fuit=: in the battle of Thapsus.

CH. 24.

15. =Cn. Pompēius=: he had gone into Spain and had gathered around him
adventurers of all sorts. At first Caesar had sent officers to subdue
the revolt, but finding their efforts unsuccessful, he took command in
person. After encountering great personal danger, he gained a complete
victory. Thirty thousand of the vanquished perished. Gnaeus Pompey
escaped from the field, but was afterward overtaken and slain. Sextus,
the younger son of Pompey, was the only leader of the republican party
left.


PAGE 62.

CH. 25.

1. =honōrēs=: ‘offices’; political honors.

3. =rēgia ac paene tyrannica=: ‘like a king and almost like a usurper.’
Nepos defines a tyrannus as one ‘who is in perpetual power in that
state which enjoyed liberty.’

8. =senātūs diē=: ‘on the day of the senate’; on the day when the
senate met.

9. =cūriam=: Caesar was slain in the Curia in the Campus Martius.



BOOK VII

CH. 1.

12. =partium Caesaris=: ‘of Caesar’s party.’ Antony at first pretended
to favor the tyrannicides; but after he had obtained possession of the
papers and treasure of Caesar, he changed sides and endeavored to crush
them.

16. =Octāviānus=: he was the son of Gaius Octavius and Atia, a daughter
of Julia, the sister of Caesar. After his adoption he took the name of
Octavianus.

19. =Augustus=: this was a title conferred upon him after the battle of
Actium, when he refused the title of dictator.

=rērum potītus=: _potior_ regularly takes the Genitive in this phrase.
Cf. _Alexandrīā potītus_, Bk. VI, 22.

=quī … trēs ducēs=: ‘these three leaders.’

20. =vīcērunt eum=: in the battle of Mutina, 43 B.C.


PAGE 63.

1. =morerentur=: they were wounded in battle, but Augustus was accused
of having murdered them.

CH. 2.

3. =Lepidum=: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Bk. VI, 1, 5, 23. He was in
Gaul at this time, being governor of Gaul and Spain. After he received
Antonius, they crossed the Alps at the head of a large body of troops
and met Augustus in the north of Italy.

6. =pācem … fēcit=: this was known as the ‘Second Triumvirate.’ Antony,
Augustus, and Lepidus divided the Roman world among them.

8. =vīcēsimō annō=: he was far below the legal age, 43.

9. =senātum prōscrīpsit=: 300 senators and 2000 knights were included
in the proscription. “Each marked his victims’ names upon the fatal
list, and each consented to give up adherents of his own to the greed
or hatred of his colleagues.”

11. =Cicero orātōr occīsus est=: Augustus tried to save him, but
Antony, whose hatred Cicero had incurred, demanded his death, and
Augustus was forced to yield.

CH. 3.

17. =Philippōs=: the battle of Philippi was fought in November, 42 B.C.
Creighton, p. 82; _The Roman Triumvirates_, p. 210.

19. =Cassius=: Cassius was routed and committed suicide.

=Brūtum=: after his forces were routed, Brutus was compelled to kill
himself to prevent capture.

=īnfīnītam nōbilitātem=: ‘very many of the nobility.’

21. =dīvīsa est rēs pūblica=: Lepidus took the province of Africa,
Augustus the West, and Antony the East.

23. =bellum cīvīle=: after the capture of Perusia, Antony threatened
war, but he made a truce with Augustus, whose sister Octavia he married.


PAGE 64.

CH. 4.

1. =Sex. Pompēiō=: the son of _Pompēius Māgnus_, cf. Bk. VI, 24. He
had collected a band of pirates and had made himself master of the
Mediterranean.

5. =pāx postrēmō convēnit=: the agreement at Misenum. In accordance
with this, Pompey was to retain his command over the sea and the
islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica.

CH. 5.

6. =M. Agrippa=: Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa had been a fellow-student
with Augustus. He was a gallant soldier and a devoted friend. It was
largely by his aid that Augustus secured his power and retained it.

7. =Persās=: _i.e._ the Parthians. Eutropius used _Persae_ for the
Parthians who claimed descent from the old Persian kings.

10. =Crassum occīderat=: Bk. VI, 18.

11. =triumphum Rōmae ēgit=: several of the Roman standards lost at
Carrhae were restored by the Parthians, and were carried in the
triumphal procession.

CH. 6.

12. =nāvālī proeliō=: at the battle of Naulochus, 36 B.C. _The Roman
Triumvirates_, p. 219. Shortly afterward Lepidus set up the standard of
revolt. He was defeated by Augustus and his power was taken from him,
but his life was spared.

16. =ipse pūgnāvit=: he lacked the engines necessary for reducing the
strongly fortified cities of the enemy, and besides he was very anxious
to return to Alexandria.

17. =famē … labōrāvit=: his retreat has been compared to the flight of
Napoleon from Moscow.

18. =prō victō=: ‘for conquered’ = ‘as if conquered.’

CH. 7.

20. =dum … optat= = _optāns_, ‘hoping.’ The world could not endure
two masters. It was natural that they should disagree, and that the
stronger should conquer.

22. =apud Actium=: September 2, 31 B.C. Antony had collected a large
naval and land force, but his ships were too large to be handled
easily, and many of his land forces deserted. In the midst of the fight
Cleopatra fled in her galley, and Antony basely deserted his forces and
followed her. Creighton, p. 82; _The Roman Triumvirates_, p. 225.

23. =ex quā=: the antecedent of _quā_ is _pūgnā_.

25. =exstincta est=: she was too proud to be carried to Rome to adorn
the triumphal procession of her conqueror.


PAGE 65.

CH. 8.

7. =duodecim annīs= = _per annōs_ above: the Ablative makes the limits
of the time more prominent than the duration.

8. =prīncipātūs=: ‘leadership’; afterwards the ‘sovereignty’ of the
emperors; cf. _prīnceps_, English ‘prince.’

10. =morte commūnī=: ‘a natural death’; cf. _morbō dēcessit_, Bk. I, 3.
There was a report that he was poisoned by Livia, his wife.

11. =Ātellā=: it is generally agreed that he died at Nola, near Naples.

=sepultus est=: the ruins of his mausoleum still exist.

12. =ex māximā parte=: ‘in very many respects.’

15. =cīvīlissimē=: ‘in a manner most becoming a citizen’; cf.
_cīvīlēs_, Bk. I, 9.

16. =ut … suō=: ‘that he placed them almost on a level with his own
dignity.’

17. =aequāret=: sc. _eōs_. _Aequāre_ may also take _cum_ with the
Ablative.


PAGE 66.

CH. 9.

6. =quod nūllī anteā=: sc. _dedērunt_.

8. =Crassō victō=: ‘from Crassus when he was defeated.’

CH. 10.

14. =in honōrem ēius=: the compliment was not in the founding, but in
the naming.

18. =Dīvus appellātus=: _i.e._ he was deified and became the object of
a national worship. In the provinces he was worshiped before his death.

=Tiberiō=: Tiberius Claudius Nero was the son of Tiberius Nero and
Livia, the third wife of Augustus. He first married the daughter of
Agrippa, whom he divorced at the command of the Emperor and married
Julia, Augustus’ daughter and the widow of Marcus Agrippa. After the
death of Gaius and Lucius Caesar, the sons of Agrippa and Julia,
Tiberius was given the tribunician power and was adopted by Augustus as
his successor.

CH. 11.

21. =ingentī sōcordiā … libīdine=: probably the character of Tiberius
was maligned by the Roman historians. The people disliked him on
account of his “dark and gloomy temper, with no grace or geniality of
manner, shunning the pleasures of the people, and seldom generous or
open-handed.” But we must note the many marks of bias and exaggeration
in the common story, and we may well believe that the ancient writers
formed too harsh an opinion of his motives in some cases, and reported
scandalous gossips too lightly. Creighton, pp. 89-91; _The Early
Empire_, Ch. II.

25. =Archelāum=: he was summoned to Rome soon after the accession
of Tiberius and accused of treason. His life was spared, but he was
obliged to remain at Rome, where he died in 17 A.D.


PAGE 67.

1. =Caesarēa=: called _Caesarēa ad Argaeum_ to distinguish it from
other cities of the same name. It was situated at the foot of Mt.
Argaeus and was a place of great antiquity, its foundation having been
ascribed to Mesech, the son of Japhet.

CH. 12.

5. =C. Caesar=: Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was the son of
Germanicus and Agrippina. He was born in the camp, probably in Germany,
and was reared among the soldiers. He received the surname of Caligula
from his being arrayed in a mimic uniform and wearing a pair of
_caligae_ or soldiers’ boots. At first he ruled well; but his sense of
power turned his head, and the latter part of his reign was marked by
excesses of all sorts. Creighton, p. 92; _The Early Empire_, Ch. III.

CH. 13.

13. =Claudius=: Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Caesar Germanicus was
the second son of Drusus and Antonia, the brother of Germanicus, the
father of Caligula. In early life he had been weak in mind and body,
and had been despised or neglected. As emperor he was ruled by his
wives and favorites, Narcissus and Pallas. He was poisoned by his last
wife, Agrippina, who was anxious that her son Domitius Ahenobarbus by
her former husband might succeed to the empire. Suetonius in his ‘Lives
of the Caesars’ gives a very dark picture of the reign of Claudius.
Creighton, p. 93; _The Early Empire_, Ch. IV.

22. =Britannicī=: the son of Claudius and Messalina, his first wife. On
the accession of Nero, Britannicus was poisoned.


PAGE 68.

CH. 14.

1. =Nerō=: Claudius Caesar, surnamed Nero, was the son of Domitius
Ahenobarbus and Agrippina. His early youth was spent in study under
the philosopher Seneca, who remained his counselor for several years.
During the first five years of his reign he was mild and just. The
later years were filled with all sorts of excesses, and were marked by
great cruelty. Creighton, p. 93; _The Early Empire_, Ch. V.

9. =urbem Rōmam incendit=: it is very improbable that Nero was guilty
of this crime. Rome was almost destroyed in this conflagration. Of
the fourteen districts into which the city was divided, only four
remained untouched by the flames. The fire raged for six days and seven
nights; and, after it was thought to have been extinguished, it burst
forth again, and continued for two days longer. On this occasion Nero
appears to have acted with great liberality and kindness. He caused
provisions to be sold at a very low price and the imperial gardens
to be opened to the people, and temporary shelters to be erected for
their accommodation. That he might remove suspicion from himself, Nero
caused it to be reported that the Christians had set fire to the city,
and a number of them was seized and put to death. This was the first
persecution of the Christians by the Romans, 64 A.D.

CH. 15.

22. =ā saxō=: sc. _Tarpēiā_.

23. =lībertī=: his name was Phaon.

=Salariam=: the _Via Salaria_ ran north from Rome to Ancona on the
Adriatic.

24. =interfēcit=: “At last comes Phaon’s courier with the news that the
senate had put a price upon his head; the tramp of the horses tells him
that his pursuers are on his track, and fear gives him the nerve to put
the dagger to his throat, while, true to the passion of his life, he
mutters, ‘What a loss my death will be to art!’” _The Early Empire_, p.
127.

25. =Nerōniānae=: the ruins of the bath may still be seen near the
Pantheon.


PAGE 69.

CH. 16.

1. =Serv. Galba=: Servius Sulpicius Galba was born in the reign of
Augustus of a patrician family. He was in Spain when Julius Vindex,
the proconsular governor of Gaul, rose against Nero. Galba joined him,
and Otho, governor of Lusitania, followed his example. He was saluted
as emperor by the soldiers, and the senate was forced to ratify their
choice. The emperors from this time on were set up and overthrown at
the will of the army. He was very parsimonious in his dealings and so
lost the good will of the soldiers, who were ready to aid any revolt
against him. He ruled for only seven months. Creighton, p. 96; _The
Early Empire_, Ch. VI.

CH. 17.

12. =Otho=: Marcus Salvius Otho was Roman emperor from January 15 to
April 16, 69 A.D. He was the husband of the beautiful but infamous
Poppaea Sabina, whom Nero took from him and made his own. He was
afterwards sent to Lusitania, where he governed with justice and
moderation. Creighton, p. 96; _The Early Empire_, Ch. VII.

14. =mollis=: ‘effeminate.’

22. =voluntāriā morte obiit=: he put an end to his life at Brixellum in
Cisalpine Gaul.

23. =nōnāgēsimō et quīntō imperiī diē=: Eutropius is slightly mistaken.


PAGE 70.

CH. 18.

1. =Vitellius=: Aulus Vitellius was Roman emperor from January 2 to
December 22, 69 A.D. When the news of Galba’s death reached Upper
Germany, where Vitellius was in command, his legions proclaimed him
emperor at Cologne. He immediately sent his generals, Fabius Valens and
Caecina, at the head of a large force, to Italy, and, having defeated
Otho’s troops, obtained the undisputed command of all the West. He was
moderate in his rule, disturbing no one in the enjoyment of what had
been given by Nero, Galba, or Otho. He was a glutton and an epicure,
spending enormous sums on his table. Creighton, p. 96; _The Early
Empire_, Ch. VIII.

10. =id … ferret=: ‘aimed so openly at this.’

13. =cum Capitōliō=: “In the confusion of the fight the famous temple
of Jupiter caught fire. All were too busy to give time or thought
to stay the flames, and in a few hours only ruins were left of the
greatest of the national monuments of Rome, which, full of the
associations of the past, had served for ages as a sort of record
office in which were treasured the memorials of ancient history, the
laws, the treaties, and the proclamations of old times. The loss was
one that could not be replaced.” _The Early Empire_, p. 146.

17. =in Tiberim … sepultūrā=: Eutropius is mistaken. His body was
recovered and buried by his wife, Galeria Fundana.

CH. 19.

20. =Vespasiānus=: Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasian. He was proclaimed
emperor at Alexandria on the 1st of July, 69 A.D., although it was a
year before he entered Rome. He lived more like a private person than
like the emperor of Rome. The many stories that are told of his avarice
and his methods of raising money are probably exaggerated. Although
he was frugal in his personal expenditures, he spent large sums in
adorning the city. He was the first of the Flavian dynasty. The others
were his two sons and successors. He died on the 24th of June, 79 A.D.
“His last words were characteristic of his somewhat cynical humour,
‘Methinks I am becoming a god.’” Creighton, p. 96; _The Early Empire_,
Ch. IX.


PAGE 71.

8. =Hierosolyma=: Vespasian was besieging Jerusalem when the war broke
out between Otho and Vitellius. When he started for Rome he left Titus,
his son, in charge of the war against the Jews. Titus captured the
city after a stubborn siege of five months, September 8, 70 A.D., and
despite his efforts the Temple was burned. Thousands of Jews perished
in the siege.

11. =ēgerant= = _fuerant_.

CH. 20.

15. =coërcitor=: ‘enforcer’; the word is _apax legomenon_.

=hīc … triumphāvit=: in 71 A.D. when Titus returned to Rome.

20. =genitūram … habuit=: ‘he so knew the horoscope of his sons.’

CH. 21.

25. =Titus=: Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasian. His early years were
spent in military service in Britain and Germany. He won great credit
as a general and a soldier. When he returned to Rome after the fall of
Jerusalem, he conducted himself in such a manner as to cause a fear
that his rule would resemble that of Nero. But after he became emperor
he changed his manner of living, and his whole reign was marked by
a sincere desire for the happiness of his people. The year 79 A.D.
is memorable for the great eruption of Vesuvius, attended by the
destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. He completed the Colosseum,
often called the Flavian Amphitheater. When he died, after a reign of
only two years, there was a suspicion that he had been poisoned by his
brother Domitian. Creighton, p. 98; _The Early Empire_, Ch. X.

26. =omnium … mīrābilis=: ‘remarkable for every species of virtue.’


PAGE 72.

CH. 22.

17. =tamquam … orbitāte=: ‘mourned as for a loss in their own families.’

CH. 23.

21. =Domitiānus=: Titus Flavius Domitian. Vespasian was aware of his
son’s disposition and put no confidence in him. When Vespasian died,
Domitian tried to arouse the soldiers against his brother Titus. After
his brother became emperor, Domitian was treated with great kindness,
and several offices were shared with him. At first mild and just, he
soon became suspicious and cruel. In Britain alone were the Roman arms
successful during his reign. In all other places defeat and disgraceful
compromises with the enemy marked his campaigns. Finally his cruelty
became unbearable, and a conspiracy was formed by the officers of the
guard, several of his intimate friends, and even his wife Domatilla,
and he was slain after a desperate struggle. Creighton, p. 98; _The
Early Empire_, Ch. XI.

27. =dominum=: here it has the New Testament meaning, ‘Lord.’


PAGE 73.

13. =Palātiō=: in the Flavian Palace on the Palatine Hill. Extensive
remains of this structure still exist. At first the word _Palātium_
was applied only to the hill, but from the time of Augustus it meant a
‘palace,’ especially the imperial palace of the Caesars.



BOOK VIII

CH. 1.

20. =Nerva=: Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born at Narnia in Umbria in 32
A.D. He was consul with Vespasian in 71 A.D. and with Domitian in 90
A.D. After the assassination of Domitian he was declared emperor by
the Roman people and the soldiers, and his administration restored
tranquillity to the troubled state. He stopped proceedings against
those accused of treason and permitted many exiles to return. Though
he was virtuous and humane, he did not possess the necessary vigor
for checking the many abuses that existed. He adopted as his son and
successor Marcus Ulpius Traian, who was then at the head of the army in
Germany. He died suddenly on the 27th of January, 98 A.D. Creighton, p.
99; _The Age of the Antonines_, Ch. I.

22. =operam dante=: ‘giving him aid, assisting him.’

=Petrōniō Secundō, Partheniō=: Nerva could not prevent the Praetorian
soldiers from putting them to death.


PAGE 74.

3. =aetātis … annō=: Eutropius is mistaken. He was sixty-five years old
when he died.

4. =inter Dīvōs relātus est=: cf. _Dīvus appellātus_, Bk. VII, 10.

CH. 2.

5. =Trāiānus=: Marcus Ulpius Traian was born at Italica near Seville in
Spain, September 18, 52 A.D. He was trained to arms, and rose through
the various offices to the rank of praetor. He was adopted by Nerva in
97 A.D. After Nerva’s death he became emperor, being the first Roman
emperor who was born out of Italy. He was a great soldier and a good
administrator. Good sense, a knowledge of the world, and sound judgment
characterized him. Just and sincere in his desire for the happiness
of the people, he was one of the best emperors that governed Rome. He
crushed the Dacians, successfully waged war against the Parthians, and
brought peace and prosperity to the whole Roman world. Creighton, p.
99; _The Age of the Antonines_, Ch. II.

13. =Dāciam=: Trajan conducted two campaigns against the Dacians,
101-103 A.D. and 104-106 A.D. On his return from the second campaign
he celebrated a triumph and entertained the people with games lasting
123 days. “It is said that 11,000 animals were slaughtered during these
amusements, and that 10,000 gladiators fought in the arena.”

16. =tenuit= = _habuit_.

CH. 3.

17. =Armeniam=: Trajan began this campaign in 114 A.D. The winter
of the same year he spent at Antioch. During the next two years he
conquered the greater part of the Parthian empire, taking the capital
city Ctesiphon.


PAGE 75.

CH. 4.

3. =amīcōs … frequentāns=: ‘going often to his friends to salute them.’

4. =fēstōs diēs habuissent=: ‘they were celebrating feast days.’

=indiscrēta=: ‘with no distinction of rank.’

6. =nihil … agēns=: his finances were prosperous, partly owing to good
management, and partly from the success of certain mining operations in
Dacia.

9. =per orbem … multa=: “He constructed several good roads in the
provinces and Italy; among them was the road across the Pomptine
Marshes. At Ostia he built a large new basin. At Rome he constructed
the aqueduct called by his name, built a theater in the Campus Martius,
and, above all, made the Forum Traianum, with its basilicas and
libraries, and his column in the center.”

10. =nihil nōn=: the figure of Litotes, affirming a thing by denying
its contrary; cf. _nōn compāruisset_, Bk. I, 2.

CH. 5.

19. =bellī domīque=: H. 484, 2 (426, 2); M. 242, 2; A. & G. 258, _d_;
G. 411, 2; B. 232, 2.

20. =Seleuciam=: it is generally stated that he lived to reach Selinus
in Cilicia, where he died in August, 117 A.D.

23. =sōlus … sepultus est=: he was the only one of the emperors who
was buried within the city. This privilege was enjoyed by the Vestal
Virgins.

24. =in forō=: the _Forum Trāiānum_ was probably the most magnificent
of all the Roman fora. It occupied a large space between the Capitoline
and the Quirinal Hills, the latter of which was cut away to make room
for it. Among the many buildings it contained were two libraries, one
for Latin and the other for Greek manuscripts. It contained also the
famous Column of Trajan. This column, composed of huge drums of white
marble, is pierced within. A bas-relief of the chief events of the
Dacian war winds round the shaft. It is still standing.

25. =CXLIV pedēs=: this was the height of the Quirinal Hill that was
cut away.

26. =habet= = _est_.

=hūius … dēlātum est=: ‘so much respect has been paid to his memory.’


PAGE 76.

CH. 6.

3. =Aelius Hadriānus=: Publius Aelius Hadrian was with Trajan when
the latter died. With the consent of the Syrian army he assumed the
reins of government and his act was ratified by the senate. Although
he lost some of the territory that Trajan had added to the Empire, he
strengthened and united the remainder. He was, in general, a just and
able ruler; yet at times he showed himself revengeful, suspicious, and
cruel. He died of dropsy at Baiae, 138 A.D., in the sixty-third year of
his life. Creighton, p. 100; _The Age of the Antonines_, Ch. III.

7. =glōriae invidēns=: more probably he saw that the Empire had become
too large to be governed successfully.

CH. 7.

17. =orbem Rōmānum circumiit=: he visited every province in the Empire,
correcting abuses, and examining the administration of government.

18. =multa aedificāvit=: among other famous buildings the Mausoleum of
Hadrian, now called the Castle of St. Angelo.

CH. 8.

27. =T. Antōnīnus=: his full name was Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius
Antoninus, called Pius because he persuaded the senate to grant to
his adopted father Hadrian the apotheosis and other honors usually
paid to deceased emperors. “His reign is almost a blank in history--a
blank caused by a suspension for a time of war, violence, and crime.”
Although he waged no war for conquest, he defended the provinces
with vigor, warring against the Moors and Britons, and the untamed
races of the Rhine and the Danube. Creighton, p. 101; _The Age of the
Antonines_, Ch. IV.


PAGE 77.

6. =bonīs honōrem habēns=: ‘paying respect to the good.’

14. =Lorium=: in Etruria on the _Via Aurelia_.

CH. 9.

18. =M. Antōnīnus Vērus=: he is generally known as Marcus Aurelius.
He was the adopted son of Antoninus Pius. When only twelve years old
he assumed the philosophic mantle and gave himself up to the study of
philosophy, attaching himself to the Stoic school. After he became
emperor he associated Lucius Antoninus Verus, his brother, with him in
the government. Although they were entirely different in character,
they reigned conjointly with no disagreement. His ‘Meditations’ have
survived. Creighton, p. 101; _The Age of the Antonines_, Ch. V.

23. =singulōs … Augustōs=: ‘one Augustus (emperor) at a time.’

CH. 10.

28. =contrā Parthōs=: Lucius Verus nominally had the guidance of the
war, but it was carried on by his lieutenants while he lingered in
Antioch.


PAGE 78.

CH. 12.

21. =Apollōnium Chalcēdōnium=: called Apollonius Dyscolus. “He is
the father of scientific Grammar, being the first to reduce it to a
systematic form.”

24. =Frontō=: Marcus Cornelius Fronto. He acquired great reputation as
a rhetorician and grammarian at Rome in the reign of Hadrian. Some of
his letters to his pupils, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, were found
in the present century.

=hīc … ēgit=: ‘he treated all at Rome with equality.’

26. =prōvinciās … trāctāvit=: he did not visit the provinces, but kept
himself thoroughly informed of the details of their administration.


PAGE 79.

1. =eō prīncipe=: ‘during his reign’; cf. =hīs rēgnantibus=, Bk. I, 2.

=bellum … Marcomannicum=: the Marcomanni, ‘men of the marshes,’ were
a German tribe that threatened destruction to the Roman Empire. For
thirteen years Marcus Aurelius with difficulty held them in check. He
built many fortresses and a great wall to restrain them.

2. =quantum … fuit=: ‘it was greater than any in the memory of man’;
_i.e._ there had been no war with the Germans equally formidable.

5. =pestilentiae=: the plague broke out in 167 A.D. and lasted for
several years, despite all efforts to check its ravages. It was
probably brought to Rome by the soldiers returning from the expedition
against the Parthians.

CH. 13.

10. =Quādī=: a powerful people who dwelt in the southeastern part of
Germany. They had been taken under the protection of Rome by Tiberius.
In 174 A.D. Marcus Aurelius defeated them in a fierce battle. They
appear again during the reign of Gallienus (Bk. IX, 8). Towards the
end of the fourth century they disappear from history. _The Age of the
Antonines_, pp. 106-108.

=Vandalī=: a confederacy of German peoples, who dwelt originally on the
northern coast of Germany. Later they settled north of the Marcomanni,
whom they joined. They invaded Spain, and later Africa. Under their
king Genseric they invaded Italy, and took and plundered Rome, 455 A.D.

=Suēvī=: an important confederacy of German tribes. Their name survives
in the modern Suabia.

13. =Caesarem fēcerat=: the title of Caesar was now given to the person
next in rank to the emperor, and who was intended to succeed him.

15. =indīcere … aliquid=: ‘to make any demands on the provinces or the
senate.’

16. =īnstrumentum rēgiī cultūs=: ‘royal furniture.’

22. =comparāta=: ‘their purchases.’

CH. 14.

28. =obiit=: he died at Vindobona, now Vienna.

29. =vītae LXI=: it is generally said that he died in the fifty-ninth
year of his life.


PAGE 80.

CH. 15.

1. =L. Antōnīnus Commodus=: he was the son of Marcus Aurelius, but
like him in no respect. After concluding a disgraceful treaty with the
Germans, he hastened to Rome, where he gave himself up to the grossest
vices. Creighton, p. 102.

6. =in amphitheātrō=: he was the conqueror in 735 combats. Nothing
delighted him more than to be called the ‘Hercules of Rome.’

7. =strangulātus vel venēnō=: he was poisoned and afterwards strangled
by his favorite Marcia.

CH. 16.

11. =Pertināx=: Creighton, p. 103.

CH. 17.

18. =perpetuum composuit ēdictum=: this was a digest of the mass
of edicts that had been issued by the praetors and the provincial
governors. It was the basis of the _Corpus Iūris Cīvīlis_ of Justinian.

19. =Mulvium pontem=: about two miles north of Rome, on the _Via
Flaminia_. Here the ambassadors of the Allobroges, that had been
tampered with by the fellow-conspirators of Catiline, were arrested, 63
B.C. The foundations of this bridge still remain and are built into the
Ponte Mollo at the same place.

CH. 18.

21. =Septimius Sevērus=: Lucius Septimius Severus was commander in
chief of the army in Pannonia and Illyria at the death of Pertinax,
193 A.D. He was proclaimed emperor by the army. For nearly a hundred
years the emperors were made and unmade at the will of the soldiers.
Creighton, p. 104.

23. =omnī memoriā=: ‘in all time.’

24. =fiscī advocātus=: a Roman officer appointed to look after the
interests of the imperial treasury.


PAGE 81.

CH. 19.

16. =vāllum … dēdūxit=: the celebrated wall of Severus, extending from
the Solway Firth to the mouth of the Tyne. It was erected to prevent
incursions of the Caledonians.

17. =Eborācī=: the modern York.

22. =Geta … periit=: he was murdered by order of Caracalla.

CH. 20.

23. =Caracalla=: the name of Caracalla was derived from a species of
Gallic cassock he introduced at Rome.

24. =mōrum … fuit=: his whole life was only one series of cruelties
and acts of extravagant folly. Creighton, p. 105.

25. =thermae Antōnīniānae=: these accommodated about 1600 persons at
once. The ruins are still to be seen.


PAGE 82.

CH. 22.

9. =M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus=: known in history as Heliogabalus. He was
the grandson of Maesa, sister-in-law of Septimius Severus, and the son
of Symiasera. He was priest in the temple of the Sun at Emesa in Syria
when Caracalla died. Through the instrumentality of his grandmother he
was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers and acknowledged by the senate.
He was the most profligate of the Roman emperors.

CH. 23.

16. =Aurēlius Alexander=: Marcus Aurelius Alexander, generally known
as Alexander Severus. He had been adopted by Heliogabalus and had been
created Caesar. “He was distinguished by justice, wisdom, and clemency
in all public transactions, and by the simplicity and purity of his
private life.” Creighton, p. 106.

20. =adsessōrem=: ‘legal adviser.’

21. =Ulpiānum=: Domitius Ulpianus was one of the most celebrated Roman
lawyers. His works are often quoted in the _Corpus Iūris Cīvīlis_ of
Justinian. He was assassinated in a mutiny of the soldiers caused by
his strict discipline.



BOOK IX


PAGE 83.

CH. 1.

1. =Māximīnus=: his full name was Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus. He was
born of barbaric parentage, his father being a Goth and his mother a
German. He was famous for his gigantic size and his marvelous feats of
strength. His government was characterized by oppression and excesses.

CH. 2.

9. =Gordiānus=: Marcus Antonius Gordianus was the grandson of the elder
Gordianus. He was a mere boy, probably not more than twelve years old,
when he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.


PAGE 84.

CH. 3.

1. =Philippī=: Marcus Iulius Philippus I was an Arabian by birth.
After the death of Misithus, the father-in-law of Gordianus, he became
praetorian praefect, and caused the soldiers to revolt, to slay
Gordianus, and to proclaim himself emperor. He proclaimed his son of
the same name Caesar, though he was only seven years old.

3. =mīllēsimus annus=: this anniversary was marked by the celebration
of the Saecular Games with unusual magnificence, 248 A.D.

CH. 4.

8. =Decius=: his full name was Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius.
He was sent by Philippus to Moesia to crush an insurrection, and was
compelled by the soldiers to proclaim himself emperor. His reign was
occupied chiefly with warring against the Goths. He persecuted the
Christians with great severity.

CH. 6.

21. =exstinctus est=: he was slain by the soldiers.

CH. 7.

23. =Galliēnus=: the son of Valerianus.


PAGE 85.

5. =superātus est=: at first Valerianus was successful; but he followed
the enemy too rashly. He was captured near Edessa. After his death his
skin was stuffed and long preserved as a trophy in the chief temple of
the nation.

CH. 9.

22. =Postumus=: this period is known as the ‘Rule of the Thirty
Tyrants.’ These men, who revolted from Gallienus and set up separate
governments for themselves, were noted in the main for their courage.
They repelled the invaders and established governments that gave peace
and security to their provinces.

28. =vīlissimus opifex=: he is said to have been a smith, _ferrī
opifex_.


PAGE 86.

3. =mātrimōnia=: here has a concrete meaning, ‘wives.’

CH. 10.

10. =Odenāthum=: he was the ruler of Palmyra. He checked the incursions
of the Persians and drove Sapor out of Syria. In return for these
services Gallienus honored him with the title of Augustus.

CH. 11.

16. =occīsus est=: he was slain by his soldiers while besieging Milan.

18. =Gothōs … vīcit=: he conquered the Goths at Naisus in Dardania and
received the surname Gothicus in consequence.


PAGE 87.

CH. 13.

3. =Aurēliānus=: his reign presents a succession of brilliant exploits,
and it seemed for a time that he would restore Rome to her former
position. The Goths, Vandals, and the Alemanni were conquered. Zenobia,
who had succeeded her husband as ruler of Palmyra, was captured
and carried to Rome. Tetricus was crushed near Catalauni. Aurelian
commenced many works of public utility, including a new city wall. He
was on his way to chastise the Persians when he was killed by some of
his officers, a conspiracy having been formed against him. Creighton,
p. 109.

11. ‘=Ēripe mē=’: _Aeneid_, VI, 365.

12. =Zēnobiam=: she was not content with the power she had, but tried
to extend her sway over all Syria, Asia, and Egypt. Aurelian captured
Palmyra in 273 A.D., and took her prisoner. After adorning his
triumphal procession, her life was spared and she lived near Tibur for
several years.

=occīsō Odenāthō=: it is said that he was assassinated and that Zenobia
had a hand in it.


PAGE 88.

CH. 15.

2. =Dāciam … intermīsit=: he made the Danube the boundary of the
empire, as Augustus had done.

8. =servī=: the private secretary of the emperor. He is generally said
to have been a freedman.

13. =mors … fuit=: Tacitus had the assassins put to death soon after
the beginning of his reign.

CH. 17.

21. =Probus=: his full name was Marcus Aurelius Probus. He was as just
and virtuous as he was warlike, and is deservedly regarded as one of
the greatest and best of the Roman emperors.

27. =apud Sirmium=: it was his birthplace.


PAGE 89.

4. =tumultū mīlitārī=: the soldiers mutinied because he had employed
them in laborious public works.

CH. 18.

14. =oculōrum dolōre correptus=: ‘affected with a disease of the eye.’

CH. 19.

24. =mātrimōnia=: cf. _mātrimōnia_, Ch. 9.


PAGE 90.

4. =Dioclētiānum=: he was born near Salona in Dalmatia. He rose in
the army from one position to another until on the assassination of
Numerianus he was chosen emperor. He made a great change in the system
of government. In 286 A.D. he associated Maximianus with himself as
a colleague and gave him the title of Augustus. Six years later, 292
A.D., Constantius Chlorus and Galerius were proclaimed Caesars, and the
government of the Roman world was divided among four men, Diocletian
taking the East, with Nicomedia as his residence; Maximianus taking
Italy and Africa, with Milan as his residence; Constantius taking
Britain, Gaul, and Spain, with Treves as his residence; Galerius
taking Illyricum and the whole line of the Danube, with Sirmium as his
residence. This division was natural and possessed many advantages.
It was the only way that the falling empire could be preserved, and a
semblance of union retained. Creighton, p. 109.

CH. 21.

22. =strēnuae mīlitiae ōrdine=: ‘by a course of active service.’

24. =accēpisset=: sc. _imperium_.

29. =Britanniās occupāvit=: in 287 A.D.


PAGE 91.

CH. 22.

5. =Cōnstantium=: surnamed Chlorus, ‘the pale.’

6. =nepōs Claudī=: ‘the grandnephew of Claudius.’ He was the son of
Eutropius, a Dardanian noble, and Claudia, daughter of Chrispus, the
brother of Claudius.

14. =pāx convēnit=: Carausius was recognized as a colleague.


PAGE 92.

CH. 25.

18. =extrīnsecus= = _praetereā_, a late usage.

CH. 26.

28. =rēgiae cōnsuētūdinis fōrmam=: Diocletian introduced the customs
of an Oriental monarch. He wore the diadem, the robes of silk and
gold, and replaced the republican form of salutation by the adoring
prostration of the East.

CH. 27.

9. =ingravēscente aevō=: he was sixty years old, being born in 245
A.D., and abdicating in 305 A.D.

17. =pompā ferculōrum inlūstrī=: ‘with a famous succession of
pictures.’ _Fercula_ are representations of cities, rivers, and other
objects in the conquered countries, carried in procession at a triumph.

CH. 28.

24. =post nātōs hominēs=: ‘since men were created.’



BOOK X


PAGE 94.

CH. 1.

11. =adeō … modicī=: ‘of so modest a mode of living.’

13. =argentō=: ‘silver plate.’

=trīclīnia=: properly a couch for three persons reclining at meals.
Here it means the table, which was square, and surrounded on three
sides by one-armed couches, while the fourth side remained open for
convenience in serving. Each couch accommodated three persons, who
reclined upon the left arm.

14. =Gallīs=: he had reserved Gaul for his peculiar province.

17. =Eborācī=: he was on an expedition against the Picts.


PAGE 95.

CH. 2.

1. =Cōnstantīnus=: known in history as Constantine the Great. The most
important change he introduced was the adoption of Christianity as the
state religion. The story is told that while marching from Gaul at the
head of his legions, he saw in the heavens a luminous cross with this
inscription, ‘By this conquer.’ In 313 A.D. he issued the famous Milan
decree that gave imperial sanction to the religion of the Christians.
Although he openly acknowledged Christianity, his religion was a
strange mixture of Christianity and Paganism. Creighton, p. 112.

6. =in vīllā pūblicā=: a building in the Campus Martius, intended for a
lodging house or hotel for foreign ambassadors.

11. =quās … habuit=: ‘which he utterly disregarded.’

CH. 3.

18. =nūdāre=: ‘to deprive of his power.’


PAGE 96.

CH. 4.

1. =Licinius=: his full name was Publius Flavius Galerius Valerius
Licinianus Licinius. By birth he was a Dacian peasant, and an early
friend and companion of the Emperor Galerius. He was invested with
the command of the Illyrian province in 307 A.D. After the death of
Galerius he concluded an arrangement with Maximinus, by which the
Hellespont and the Bosporus were to form the boundary of the two
empires. After his marriage with the sister of Constantine, he and
Constantine strove with each other for the undivided sovereignty of the
Roman world.

CH. 5.

20. =apud Cibalās=: this was in the great battle of Adrianople, July,
323 A.D., and was followed by the reduction of Byzantium.

CH. 6.

25. =apud Nicomediam=: this victory, September, 323 A.D., made
Constantine the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Licinius was made a
prisoner, and although his life was spared for a time, Constantine had
him put to death in 324 A.D.

27. =tribus Caesaribus=: they were the sons of Constantine the Great,
Constantine, Constans, and Constantius.


PAGE 97.

CH. 8.

20. =urbem nōminis=: Constantinople, a city which he built on the site
of ancient Byzantium. This he aimed to make his capital city. Here
he had a second senate, a praefect of the city, regiones, and even
largesses; all of which showed that the supremacy of Rome was at an end.

24. =in vīllā pūblicā=: a building similar in character to the one at
Rome, Ch. 2.


PAGE 98.

CH. 10.

15. =Cōnstantī=: he ruled from 337 to 361 A.D. He was the third son of
Constantine the Great. Under him the whole empire again became subject
to one ruler. But in 355 A.D. he was compelled to make Julian Caesar
and to send him into Gaul to oppose the barbarians.


PAGE 99.

CH. 14.

24. =Iūliānum=: called the Apostate, because, although he had been
brought up a Christian, later he rejected Christianity and returned
to Paganism. He was a brave soldier and a good general. Forced by his
soldiers to assume the purple, he hesitated to begin a civil war, but
was relieved of the necessity by the opportune death of Constantius
in 361 A.D. “Julian was an extraordinary character. As a monarch,
he was indefatigable in his attention to business, upright in his
administration, and comprehensive in his views; as a man, he was
virtuous in the midst of a profligate age, and did not yield to the
luxurious temptations to which he was exposed.” Many of his literary
works are extant. Creighton, p. 116.


PAGE 100.

CH. 16.

21. =cuī … interfuī=: what part Eutropius took in this expedition is
not known.

24. =remeāns victor=: in the last battle fought on the 26th of June,
Julian was mortally wounded by an arrow and died the same day.


PAGE 101.

CH. 17.

15. =Ioviānus=: his full name was Flavius Claudius Jovian. His short
reign is remarkable only for the disgraceful peace he made with the
Persians. Although he was a Christian, he protected the pagans.

20. =fīnibus=: he agreed that the Romans would surrender their
conquests beyond the Tigris and would give up several fortresses in
Mesopotamia.

24. =Pontium Telesīnum=: it is generally stated that Gavius Pontius
was the leader of the Samnites in the battle of Caudine Forks. Perhaps
Eutropius confuses him with Pontius Telesinus, the leader of the
Samnites in the Social war.


PAGE 102.

CH. 18.

8. =nimiā crūditāte=: ‘violent indigestion.’

21. =quam … reservāmus=: whether he ever fulfilled his intention and
wrote another book is unknown.



ABBREVIATIONS


      abl.       = ablative.
      abs.       = absolute.
      acc.       = accusative.
      act.       = active.
      adj.       = adjective.
      adv.       = adverb.
      cf.        = compare (_confer_).
      comp.      = comparative.
      conj.      = conjunction.
      contr.     = contraction.
      dat.       = dative.
      dem.       = demonstrative.
      desid.     = desiderative.
      dim.       = diminutive.
      disc.      = discourse.
      e.g.       = for example (_exempli gratia_).
      encl.      = enclitic.
      f.         = feminine.
      freq.      = frequentative.
      gen.       = genitive.
      i.e.       = that is (_id est_).
      imp.       = imperfect.
      impers.    = impersonal.
      incep.     = inceptive.
      incho.     = inchoative.
      ind.       = indirect.
      indecl.    = indeclinable.
      indef.     = indefinite.
      intens.    = intensive.
      iter.      = iterative.
      m.         = masculine.
      n.         = neuter.
      nom.       = nominative.
      num.       = numeral.
      pass.      = passive.
      pers.      = personal.
      pl.        = plural.
      prep.      = preposition.
      pres.      = present.
      pron.      = pronoun.
      sc.        = supply (_scilicet_).
      sub.       = substantive.
      sup.       = superlative.

Compound verbs are treated under the simple verbs from which they are
derived. To this there are two exceptions: (1) When neither the simple
verb nor any other compound formed from it occurs in the text, and (2)
in the case of certain verbs like _sūmō_ and _surgō_, which, though
themselves compounds, came to be regarded as simple verbs, and served
as a basis for other compounds. The star prefixed to certain simple
verbs indicates that they are not found in the text, but that two or
more compounds occur.

All matter within square brackets is etymological. The bracketed words
when not translated occur independently in the Vocabulary.



VOCABULARY


A.

=A.= , abbreviation of the praenomen Aulus.

=ā, ab, abs= (=ā= only before consonants or =h, ab= before vowels and
consonants, =abs= usually only before t and =q=, especially frequent
before =te=), prep. with abl., 1, of place, _from_, _away from_, _out
of_; 2, of time, _from_, _since_, _after_; 3, of agency, _by_; 4, of
separation, source, cause, _from_, _through_, _because of_.

=abdūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=abeō=, see =eō=.

=aboleō, ēre, ēvī, itus= [=ab= + =oleō=], _to destroy_, _abolish_,
_wipe out_.

=abrogō=, see =rogō=.

=absēns, sentis= [orig. part. of =absum=], adj., _absent_, _away_.

=absimilis, e= [=ab= + =similis=], adj., _unlike_.

=abstineō=, see =teneō=.

=absum=, see =sum=.

=abundantia, ae= [=abundō=, _to overflow_; =ab + unda=], f., _plenty_,
_fullness_, _abundance_.

=ac=, see =atque=.

=accēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=accidō=, see =cadō=.

=accipiō=, see =capiō=.

=acclāmō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ad= + =clāmō=, _to shout_], _to shout
loudly_, _exclaim_.

=ācer, ācris, ācre=, comp. =ācrior=, sup. =ācerrimus=, adj., _sharp_,
_bitter_; _keen_, _vigorous_, _fierce_.

=acerbē= [=acerbus=], adv., _bitterly_, _cruelly_, _severely_.

=acerbitās, ātis= [=acerbus=], f., _harshness_, _severity_,
_unkindness_.

=acerbus, a, um=, adj., _bitter_, _harsh_, _cruel_.

=Achaea, ae=, f., a district in the Peloponnesus. Later the Roman
province of Southern Greece.

=Achillēs, is=, m., a famous Greek chief at the siege of Troy, slain by
Paris, the hero of the Iliad.

=Achilleus, ī=, m., he assumed the title of emperor under Diocletian,
and reigned over Egypt for some time. He was taken prisoner by
Diocletian, and was put to death, 296 A.D.

=aciēs, ēī=, f., _the sharp point of a sword_; _battle line_; _battle_.

=Acilius, ī=, m., see =Glabriō=.

=Actium, ī=, n., a town in Epirus; a promontory near the town.

=āctuārius, ī=, m., _a secretary_, _shorthand writer_.

=āctus, a, um=, see =agō=.

=ad=, prep. with accus., 1, of place, _to_, _towards_, _to the house
of_, _at_, _near_; 2, of time, _up to_, _towards_, _until_, _at_; 3, of
purpose, _to_, _in order to_, _for_, _for the sake of_.

=addō=, see =dō=.

=addūcō,= see =dūcō=.

=adēmī, ademptus=, see =adimō=.

=adeō= [=ad= + =eō=, adv.], adv., _to this point_, _so_, _very_, _to
such a degree_.

=adeptus=, see =adipīscor=.

=adfectātor, ōris= [=adfectō=], m., _one that strives for_.

=adfectō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ad= + =fectō=, freq. of =faciō=], _to
strive after_, _aspire to_.

=adferō=, see =ferō=.

=adficiō=, see =faciō=.

=adfīnitās, ātis= [=ad= + =fīnis=], f., _relationship_ (by marriage).

=adflīgō=, see =*flīgō=.

=Adherbal, alis, m.=, a Numidian prince, son of Macipsa, slain by
Jugurtha.

=adhortor, ārī, ātus sum= [=ad= + =hortor=, _to urge_], _to encourage_,
_exhort_, _stimulate_, _urge_.

=adhūc= [=ad= + =hūc=], adv., _up to this time or place_; _still_,
_although_, _yet_.

=Adiabēnī, ōrum=, pl. m., the Adiabeni, a people living in the northern
part of ancient Assyria.

=Adiabēnicus, a, um=, adj., a cognomen of the emperor Severus, a
conqueror of the Adiabeni.

=adimō=, see =emō=.

=adipīscor, ī, adeptus sum= [=ad= + =apīscor=, _to gain_], _to get_,
_obtain_, _reach_.

=adicio=, see =*iaciō=.

=adiungo=, see =iungō=.

=adiūtor, ōris= [=adiūvō=, _to assist_], m., _a helper_, _assistant_,
_confederate_.

=administrātiō, ōnis= [=administrō=], f., _management_, _government_.

=administrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ad= + =ministrō=, _to manage_], _to
manage_, _govern_, _regulate_, _carry on_ (war).

=admīrātiō, ōnis= [=admīror=], f., _admiration_, _wonderment_,
_astonishment_.

=admīror=, see =mīror=.

=admittō=, see =mittō=.

=admodum= [=ad= + =modus=], adv., _up to the full limit_, _very_,
_exceedingly_.

=adnītor=, see =nītor=.

=adnotō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ad= + =notō=, _to mark_], _to observe_,
_remark_.

=adoleō, ēre, uī= [=ad= + =oleō=, _to emit a smell_], _to turn to
vapor_, _burn_.

=adoptiō, ōnīs= [=adoptō=], f., _adoption_.

=adoptō=, see =optō=.

=adōrō=, see =ōrō=.

=adrigō=, see =regō=.

=adsentor=, see =sentiō=.

=adserō=, see =*serō=.

=adsertor, ōris= [=adserō=], m., _a claimant_.

=adsessor, ōris= [=adsideō=, _to sit by_], m., _an assistant_, _aid_;
_legal adviser_.

=adspiciō=, see =*speciō=.

=adsurgo, ere, surrēxī, surrēctus= [=ad= + =surgō= (=sub= + =regō=),
_to rise_], _to rise_, _arise_.

=adulēscēns, entis= [=adolēscō=, _to grow up_], m., _young_; as
substantive, _a young man_.

=adventō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ad= + =ventō=, intens. of =veniō=], _to
arrive_.

=adventus, ūs= [=adveniō=, _to arrive_], m., _arrival_.

=adversus, a, um= [=advertō=, _to turn to_], adj., _turned to or
towards_; _opposed to_, _adverse_.

=adversus= and =adversum=, prep. with accus., _facing_, _in opposition
to_, _against_.

=advocātus, ī= [=advocō=, _to call to aid_], m., _a pleader_,
_advocate_; _aider_, _helper_.

=advolō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ad= + =volō=, _to fly_], _to fly to_, _hurry
on_, _rush_.

=aedificō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=aedis= + =faciō=], _to build_.

=aedīlīcius, ī= [=aedīlis=, _aedile_, a Roman magistrate], m., _one who
has been an aedile_.

=aeger, gra, grum=, adj., _sick_, _feeble_.

=aegrē= [=aeger=], adv., _with difficulty_, _scarcely_.

=aegritūdō, inis= [=aeger=], f., _sickness_, _grief_, _vexation_,
_mortification_.

=aegrōtō, āre, āvī= [=aeger=], _to be sick_, _languid_, _pine_.

=Aegyptus, ī=, m., _Egypt_.

=Aeliānus, ī=, m., a leader of an insurrection during the reign of
Diocletian.

=Aelius, ī=, m., see =Hadriānus=.

=Aemiliānus, ī=, m., the governor of Pannonia and Moesia in the reign
of Gallus, Roman emperor, 253 A.D.

=Aemilius, ī=, m, the name of a Roman gens. 1. _Lūcius Aemilius_,
consul 224 B.C. 2. _Mārcus Aemilius_ (Mamercus), dictator. See
=Lepidus, Paulus=.

=aemula, ae= [=aemulus=], f., _a rival_.

=aemulor, ārī, ātus sum= [=aemulus=], _to rival_, _vie with_, _emulate_.

=aemulus, a, um=, adj., _striving earnestly after_, _emulating_,
_rivaling_; _envious_.

=aēneüs, a, um= [=aes=, _copper_], adj., _of copper_, _bronze_.

=aequālis, e= [=aequus=], adj., _equal_, _like_; as subst., _a
companion_.

=Aequī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Aequi_, a people dwelling in the upper
valley of the Aniō, in the mountains forming the eastern boundary of
Latium.

=aequitās, ātis= [=aequus=], f., _evenness_, _fairness_, _justice_.

=aequō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=aequus=], _to make even_, _place on an
equality_.

=aequus, a, um=, adj., _even_, _level_; _fair_, _just_; aequō animō,
_impartially_.

=aerārium, ī= [=aes=, _copper_], n., _treasury_, _fund_.

=aestās, ātis=, f., _summer_.

=aetās, ātis=, f., _time of life_, _life_; _old age_; _period of time_,
_time_.

=Aetōlī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Aetolians_, inhabitants of Aetolia, a
division of Greece.

=aevum, ī=, n., _period of life_, _life_, _age_.

=Āfer, Āfrī=, m., _an African_, especially an inhabitant of Carthage.

=Āfranius, ī=, m., _L. Afranius_, a general of Pompey in Spain, killed
in Africa, 46 B.C.

=Āfrica, ae=, f., _Africa_; often the northern part of the continent,
especially the part near Carthage.

=Āfricānus, ī=, m., see =Scīpiō=.

=ager, agrī=, m., _field_, _farm_, _estate_; _territory_, _land_; _the
country_.

=aggredior=, see =*gradior=.

=āgnōscō=, see =nōscō=.

=agō, agere, ēgī, āctus=, _to set in motion_, _drive_, _lead_; _act_,
_do_, _perform_; _treat_, _deal_; _spend_, _pass time_; =grātiās
agere=, _to give thanks_. =con--cōgō, ere, coēgī, coāctus=, _to drive
together_, _collect_; _force_. =ex--exigō, ere, ēgī, āctus=, _to drive
out_; _complete_; _pass_, _end_. =re--redigō, ere, ēgī, āctus=, _to
drive back_; _reduce_; _render_, _bring_. =sub--subigō, ere, ēgī,
āctus=, _to drive under_, _put down_, _conquer_. =trāns--trānsigō, ere,
ēgī, āctus=, _to carry through_, _finish_, _settle_, _perform_.

=agrestis, e= [=ager=], adj., _of the fields_, _rustic_; as subst.,
_countryman_.

=Agrigentum, ī=, n., a Greek colony in Sicily.

=Agrippa, ae=, m., _M. (Vīpsānius) Agrippa_, son-in-law of Atticus,
minister of Augustus.

=Agrippīna, ae=, f., a city in Belgic Gaul.

=āla, ae=, f., _a wing_, _flank_.

=Alamannī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Alamanni_, a name applied to a
confederacy of German tribes living between the Danube, the Rhine, and
the Main.

=Albānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Albānī_, the inhabitants of Alba Longa in
Latium; the inhabitants of Albania west of the Caspian Sea.

=Albīnus, ī=, m., a family name at Rome. 1. _Clōdius Albīnus_, governor
of Britain at the death of Commodus. He revolted, and was defeated and
slain by Septimius Sevērus at Lugdūnum, 197 A.D. 2. _Sp. Postumius
(Albīnus)_, consul 344 and 321 B.C. 3. _Aulus Postumius Albinus_,
consul 242 B.C. 4. _L. Postumius Albīnus_, consul 234 and 229 B.C. 5.
_Sp. Postumius Albinus_, consul 186 B.C. 6. _Sp. Postumius Albīnus_,
consul 110 B.C.

=Albis, is=, m., the river Elbe in Germany.

=Alexander, drī=, m., Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, the
conqueror of Persia; B.C. 356-323.

=Alexander, drī=, m., see =Aurēlius=.

=Alexandrīa, ae=, f., a city in Egypt, at the mouth of the Nile,
founded by Alexander the Great, 331 B.C.

=Alexandrīnus, a, um=, adj., _Alexandrine_, _pertaining to Alexandrīa_.

=Algidus, ī=, m., a mountain in Latium.

=aliās= [=alius=], adv., _at another time_, _under other circumstances_.

=aliēnus, a, um= [=alius=], adj., _belonging to another_, _another’s_.

=aliquamdiū= [=aliquis= + =diū=], adv., _for a while_, _for some time_.

=aliquantus, a, um=, adj., _some_, _considerable_.

=aliquī, quae, quod= [=alius= + =quī=], indef. pron. adj., _some one or
other_, _some_, _any_.

=aliquis, qua, quid= [=alius= + =quis=], indef. pron., _some one_,
_something_; _any one_, _anything_; _some_; as subst., =aliquid=, n.,
_something_, _anything_.

=aliquot= [=alius= + =quot=], indef. indecl. adj., _some_, _several_.

=alius, alia, aliud=, adj., _another_, _other_, _different_, _else_;
=alius … alius=, _one … one_, _another … another_; pl., _some …
others_; =longē aliam (aliō) atque=, _very different from_.

=Allectus, ī=, m., the chief officer of Carausius in Britain.

=Allia, ae=, f., a small river flowing into the Tiber from the east
about 11 miles north of Rome.

=Alma, ae=, f., a mountain in Pannonia.

=Alpēs, ium=, f., _the Alps_.

=alter, altera, alterum=, pron. adj., _one of two_, _the other_, _the
second_; =alter … alter=, _the one … the other_.

=Altīnum, ī=, n., a town of the Veneti in the north of Italy at the
mouth of the river Silis.

=altitūdō, inis= [=altus=, _high_], f., _height_, _depth_.

=amābilis, e= [=amō=, _to love_], adj., _worthy of love_, _lovely_,
_amiable_.

=Amandus, ī=, m., a leader of an insurrection during the reign of
Diocletian.

=ambō, ae, ō=, adj., _both_.

=Ambrōnēs, um=, pl. m., a Celtic people defeated by Marius near Aquae
Sextiae in 102 B.C.

=amīcitia, ae= [=amīcus=], f., _friendship_.

=amīcus, a, um= [=amō=, _to love_], adj., _friendly_; as subst.,
=amīcus, ī=, m., _a friend_.

=Amīsus, I=, Gr. acc. =Amīson=, f., a coast city of Pontus, the
residence of Mithradates the Great.

=āmittō=, see =mittō=.

=amnis, is=, m., _river_, _torrent_, _stream_.

=amoenitās, ātis= [=amoenus=], f., _pleasantness_, _agreeableness_.

=amoenus, a, um= [=amō=, _to love_], adj., _pleasing_, _charming_.

=amor, ōris= [=amō=, _to love_], m., _love_; _a beloved object_, _one’s
love_.

=amphitheātrum, ī=, n., _amphitheater_.

=amplē= [=amplus=], adv., _largely_.

=amplificō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=amplus= + =faciō=], _to increase_,
_enlarge_.

=ampliō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=amplus=], _to enlarge_, _magnify_.

=amplius= [=amplus=], comp. of =amplē=, _more_, _further_.

=amplus, a, um=, adj., _great_, _large_; _noble_, _distinguished_.

=ancilla, ae=, f., _a maid-slave_, _maid_.

=Ancus, ī=, m., see =Mārcius=.

=Andriscus, ī=, m., a Persian who pretended to be the natural son of
Perseus and assumed the name of Philip.

=angustia, ae= [=angustus=, _narrow_], f., _narrowness_; pl., _narrow
places_, _a pass_.

=Anicius, ī=, m., _C. Anicius_, praetor in the Third Macedonian war,
176-168 B.C.

=Aniēn, ēnis= or =Aniō, ōnis=, m., a small tributary of the Tiber.

=animus, ī=, m., _soul_, _mind_; _disposition_, _feelings_; _courage_,
_spirit_.

=Annius, ī=, m., see =Antōnīnus=.

=annus, ī=, m., _a year_.

=annuus, a, um= [=annus=], adj., _annual_; _lasting a year_.

=ante=, adv., of space, _before_, _in front of_; of time, _before_,
_previously_, _ago_; prep. with accus., both of space and time, _in
front of_, _before_.

=anteā= [=ante=], adv., _before_, _formerly_.

=Antemnātēs, um=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Antemnae_, a Sabine town
at the junction of the Anio and the Tiber.

=Anthemūsia, ae=, f., a province of Mesopotamia.

=Antiochēnsēs, ium=, m., _the inhabitants of Antioch_.

=Antiochīa, ae=, f., the capital city of Syria on the river Orontes.

=Antiochus, ī=, m., kings of Syria. 1. _Antiochus II._, called Theos,
261-246 B.C. 2. _Antiochus III._, called the Great, 223-187 B.C. 3.
_Antiochus IV._, called Epiphanes, 175-164 B.C.

=antīquus, a, um= [=ante=], adj., _old_, _belonging to a former time_.

=Antōnīniānus, a, um=, adj., _of_ or _belonging to the Antonines_.

=Antōnīnus, ī=, m., the name of a dynasty of Roman emperors. 1.
_T. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Fulvius Bōiōnius Pius_, 138-161 A.D. 2. _M.
Aurēlius Antōnīnus Vērus_, 161-180 A.D. 3. _L. Annius Antōnīnus Vērus_,
161-169 A.D. 4. _L. Antōnīnus Commodus_, 180-193 A.D. 5. _M. Aurēlius
Antōnīnus Bassānius Caracalla_, 211-217 A.D. 6. _M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus,
Heliogabalus_, 218-222 A.D.

=Antōnius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. 1. _C. Antōnius_, consul
63 B.C. 2. _L. Antōnius_, consul 41 B.C. 3. _M. Antōnius_, the friend
of Caesar and member of the Second Triumvirate, consul 44 B.C.

=Anullīnus, ī=, m., a Roman senator.

=ānulus, ī= [dim. of =ānus=, _a circle_], m., _a ring_.

=Aper, prī=, m., _Arrius Aper_, praetorian praefect. He was put to
death by Diocletian, 284 A.D.

=āperiō=, see =*pariō=.

=Apollonia, ae=, f., a city of Thrace on the Pontus Euxinus.

=Apollōnius, ī=, m., _Apollōnius Chalcēdonius_, called _Dyscolus_, “the
ill-tempered.” A rhetorician.

=apoplēxis, is=, f., _apoplexy_.

=apparātus, ūs=, m., _equipment_, _preparation_; _splendor_, _pomp_.

=appareō=, see =pareō=.

=appellō=, see =pellō=.

=appetō=, see =petō=.

=Appiōn, ōnis=, m., _Appiōn Ptolemaeus_, king of Cyrene, 117-96 B.C.

=Appius, ī=, m., a praenomen especially common in the Claudian gens.

=Appius, a, um=, adj., _Appian_; especially the _via Appia_, the famous
road built by Appius Claudius the Censor, 312 B.C.

=appōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=apprīmē= [=prīmus=], adv., _most of all_.

=apud=, prep. with acc., of place, _near_; of persons, _with_, _among_,
_in the presence of_, _at the house of_; with the name of an author,
_in the works of_.

=Āpūlia, ae=, f., a district in the southeastern part of Italy.

=aqua, ae=, f., _water_.

=Aquilēia, ae=, f., a city in northern Italy on the Adriatic Sea.

=Aquīlius, ī=, m., see =Flōrus=.

=Aquītānia, ae=, f., a province of Gaul between the Garonne and the
Pyrenees.

=Arabēs, ūm=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Arabia_.

=Arabia, ae=, f., _Arabia_.

=Arabicus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to_ or _pertaining to Arabia_,
cognomen of Septimius Severus.

=arbitrium, ī= [=arbiter=, _judge_], n., _judgment_; _will_; _power_.

=*arceō, ēre, uī, --=, _to inclose_; _prohibit_. =con--coërceō, ēre,
uī, itus=, _to shut in_; _restrain_, _check_. =ex--exerceō, ēre, uī,
itus=, _to exercise_, _drill_.

=Archelāus, ī=, m., (1) a distinguished general of Mithradates. (2)
Called Cappadox, king of Cappadocia, 36 B.C.-14 A.D.

=Ardea, ae=, f., the capital city of the Rutuli, in Latium, about
eighteen miles south of Rome.

=ārdeō, ēre, ārsī, ārsus=, _to be hot_, _burn_; _be eager_, _excited_.

=argenteus, a, um= [=argentum=], adj., _of silver_.

=Argentorātum, ī=, n., a city in Belgic Gaul.

=argentum, ī=, n., _silver_; _money_.

=Argī, ōrum=, pl. m., the city of Argos in the eastern part of the
Peloponnesus.

=Ariarātus, ī=, m., called Cappadox, king of Cappadocia, 220-162 B.C.

=Arīminum, ī=, n., a town in northern Italy on the Adriatic Sea.

=Ariobarzēnēs, is=, m., king of Cappadocia, 93-63 B.C.

=Aristarchus, ī=, m., made king of Colchis by Pompey.

=Aristō, ōnis=, m., an Athenian philosopher who surrendered Athens to
Mithradates, 87 B.C.

=Aristobūlus, ī=, m., king of Judea, taken captive by Pompey, 63 B.C.

=Aristonīcus, ī=, m., a natural son of Eumenes II., king of Pergamus.

=arma, ōrum=, pl. n., _weapons_; _warfare_.

=Armenēs, is=, m., son of Nabis, a tyrant of Sparta.

=Armenia, ae=, f., a country of Asia southeast of the Black Sea.
=Armenia Minor=, the portion west of the Euphrates.

=Armeniacus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to_ or _belonging to Armenia_.

=Armeniī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Armenia_.

=armō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=arma=], _to arm_, _equip_; =ārmatī=, _armed
men_, _soldiers_.

=Armoricum, ī=, n., the northern part of Celtic Gaul.

=arō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to plow_.

=ars, artis=, f., _skill_, _art_, _knowledge_.

=ārsī=, see =ārdeō=.

=Artacēs, is=, m., a king of Hiberia, conquered by Pompey.

=Artaxata, ae=, f., the capital city of Armenia Māior.

=Ārūns, ūntis=, m., the son of Tarquinius Superbus.

=Arvernī, ōrum=, pl. m., an important tribe of Celtic Gaul.

=Arzanēna, ae=, f., a district of Armenia Maior, bounded on the south
by the Tigris.

=ascendō=, see =*scandō=.

=Asclēpiodotus, ī=, m., a praetorian praefect during the reign of
Diocletian.

=Asia, ae=, f., _Asia_; _Asia Minor_.

=Asiāgenēs, is=, m., a Greek term for the Latin _Asiāticus_; cognomen
of _L. Cornēlius Scīpiō_, conqueror of Antiochus.

=Asina, ae=, m. (1) _Cn. Cornēlius Asina_, consul 260 B.C. (2) _P.
Cornēlius (Asina)_, consul 218 B.C.

=Asinius, ī=, m., _Hierius Asinius_, leader of the Marsi in the Marsic
war, 90 B.C.

=asper, aspera, asperum=, adj., _rough_, _bitter_; _violent_, _severe_.

=asperitās, ātis= [=asper=], f., _roughness_, _harshness_.

=aspis, idis=, f., _an asp_, _viper_.

=assiduus, a, um= [=adsideō=, _to sit by_ or _near_], adj.,
_continually present_, _busied_; _diligent_, _persistent_, _faithful_;
_continual_, _unceasing_, _unremitting_.

=Assyria, ae=, f., a division of Asia between Media, Mesopotamia, and
Babylon.

=Ātella, ae=, f., a small town in Campania.

=Athēnae, ārum=, pl. f., _Athens_, the chief city of Attica.

=Athēniēnsis, e=, adj., _Athenian_.

=Atīlius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Bulcus, Rēgulus=.

=atque, ac= (the latter used only before consonants), conj., _and_,
_and especially_, _and even_; _than_, _as_; =simul ac=, _as soon as_;
=idem ac=, _the same as_; =alius ac=, _other than_; =contrā atque=,
_differently from what_.

=atrōx, ōcis=, adj., _savage_, _fierce_, _cruel_, _terrible_.

=Attalus, ī=, m., kings of Pergamus. 1. _Attalus I._, 241-197 B.C. 2.
_Attalus Philadelphus_, 159-138 B.C. 3. _Attalus Philometor_, 138-133
B.C.

=Attalus, ī=, m., king of Paphlagonia.

=atterō, ere, trīvī, trītus= [=ad= + =terō=, _to rub_], _to rub
against_, _rub away_, _wear_; _destroy_, _waste_.

=attingō=, see =*tangō=.

=attrītus=, see =atterō=.

=attulī=, see =adferō=.

=auctor, ōris= [=augeō=], m., _producer_, _originator_, _cause_.

=auctōritās, ātis= [=auctor=], f., _authority_, _power_; _influence_,
_weight_, _dignity_.

=auctus, a=, um, see =augeō=.

=audāx, ācis= [=audeō=], adj., _bold_, _daring_, _audacious_.

=audeō, ēre, ausus sum=, _to dare_, _attempt_.

=audiō, īre, īvī, ītus=, _to hear_, _hear of_, _listen to_.
=ob--oboediō, īre, īvī, ītus=, _to give ear to_, _hearken_, _listen_;
_yield_.

=audītōrium, ī= [=audiō=], n., _a lecture hall_.

=auferō=, see =ferō=.

=Aufidius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Orestēs=.

=augeō, ēre, auxī, auctus=, _to increase_, _spread_; _praise_, _honor_;
_enrich_.

=Augustus, ī=, m., a title of honor given to Octavianus in 27 B.C., and
after him to all the Roman emperors.

=Aureliānus, ī=, m., _Lucius Domitius Aureliānus_, Roman emperor,
270-275 A.D.

=Aurēlius, a, um=, adj., _Aurelian_; esp. _via Aurēlia_, the Aurelian
road.

=Aurēlius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. _Aurēlius Alexander_,
Roman emperor, 222-235 A.D. See =Antōnīnus, Cotta=.

=aureus, a, um= [=aurum=], adj., _golden_, _of gold_; _embroidered with
gold_.

=Aureus mōns=, m., a mountain in Upper Moesia.

=aurum, ī=, n., _gold_.

=Aurunculēius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Cotta=.

=auspicium=, ī [=avis= + =*speciō=], n., _divination by watching the
flight, or noting the cries, of birds_; _an omen_; _auspices_.

=ausus=, see =audeō=.

=aut=, conj., _or_; =aut … aut=, _either … or_.

=autem=, conj., always postpositive, _but_, _however_, _moreover_.

=auxilium, ī= [=augeō=], n., _help_, _aid_; pl., _auxiliary troops_
(usually foreign and light armed).

=avārē= [=avārus=, _greedy_], adv., _greedily_.

=avāritia, ae= [=avārus=, _greedy_], f., _greed_, _avarice_.

=Aventīnus, ī=, m. (sc. =mōns=), _the Aventine_, one of the seven hills
of Rome.

=āvertō=, see =*vertō=.

=avidus, a, um=, adj., comp. =avidior=, _desirous_, _eager,_ _greedy_.

=avis, is=, f., _bird_.

=avunculus, ī= [dim. of =avus=], m., _mother’s brother_, _uncle_.

=avus, ī=, m., _grandfather_, _ancestor_.


B.

=Babylōn, ōnis=, f., capital city of the Babylonian-Assyrian Empire in
Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates.

=Bacaudae, ārum=, pl. m., the name of the revolting peasants in Gaul in
the reign of Diocletian.

=Balbīnus, ī=, m., _(D. Caelius) Balbīnus_ was elected emperor by the
Senate, but was slain by the soldiers at Rome, 238 A.D.

=barbaria, ae= [=barbarus=], f., a strange land, a foreign country
(opposed to Greece and Italy).

=barbaricus, a, um= [=barbarus=], adj., _foreign_, _strange_; as
subst., =Barbaricum, ī=, n., _strange land_.

=barbarus, a, um=, adj., _foreign_, _barbarous_, _barbarian_; as
subst., =barbarī, ōrum=, pl. m., _foreigners_, _barbarians_.

=Bassiānus, ī=, m., see =Antōnīnus=.

=Bassus, ī=, m., _L. (P.) Ventidius Bassus_, a Roman general who gained
several victories over the Parthians. Consul 43 B.C.

=Basternae, ārum=, pl. m., a warlike German people living near the
mouth of the Danube.

=beātus, a, um= [=beō=, _to bless_]=, adj., _blessed_, _happy_,
_prosperous_.

=Bēdriacum, ī=, n., a small town in Cisalpine Gaul.

=Belgicus, a, um=, adj., _Belgic_; =Gallia Belgica=, or absol.
=Belgica=, the northern part of Gaul between the Rhine and the Seine.

=bellicōsus, a, um= [=bellicus=], adj., _warlike_, _fond of war_,
_fierce_.

=bellicus, a, um= [=bellum=], adj., _pertaining to war_, _military_,
_martial_.

=bellō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=bellum=], _to wage war_. =re--rebellō, āre,
āvī, ātus=, _to wage war again_, _rebel_.

=bellum, ī= [for =duellum=, from =duo=], n., _war_, _warfare_.

=bene= [=bonus=], adv., comp. =melius=, sup. =optimē=; _well_,
_successfully_.

=Beneventum, ī=, n., a city in Campania in Italy.

=benīgnitās, ātis= [=benīgnus=], f., _good-will_, _kindness_.

=benīgnus, a, um=, adj., _kind_, _favorable_.

=Berenīcē, ēs=, f., a city in Cyrenaica in Africa.

=Bessī, ōrum=, pl. m., a mountain tribe of Thrace.

=Bēstia, ae=, m., _L. Calpurnius Bēstia_, consul 111 B.C.

=bēstia, ae=, f., _a beast_, _animal_.

=bibō, ere, bibī, --=, _to drink_.

=Bibulus, ī=, m., _L. (Calpurnius) Bibulus_, consul with Caesar 59 B.C.

=biennium, ī= [=bis= + =annus=], n., _two years’ time_.

=bīnī, ae, a= [=bis=], dist. num. adj., _two by two_, _two each_.

=bis= [=duis=; cf. =duo=], num. adv., _twice_.

=Bīthȳnia, ae=, f., a country in Asia Minor, on the Propontis and Black
Sea.

=Bituītus, ī=, m., a king of the Arverni in Gaul.

=Blaesus, ī=, m., _C. Semprōnius Blaesus_, consul 253 B.C.

=blanditia, ae=, f., _flattery_; in pl., _blandishments_, _allurements_.

=blatteus, a, um= [=blatta=, _purple_], adj., _purple-colored_.

=blattinus, a, um= [=blatta=, _purple_], adj., _purple-colored_.

=Bocchus, ī=, m., a king of Mauretania, father-in-law of Jugurtha.

=Bōiōnius, ī=, m., see =Antōnīnus=.

=bonitās, ātis= [=bonus=], f., _goodness_.

=Bononia, ae=, f., a city in Belgic Gaul, now Boulogne.

=Bonōsus, ī=, m., a Spaniard who usurped the imperial title in Gaul in
the reign of Probus, 281 A.D.

=bonus, a, um=, adj., comp. =melior=, sup. =optimus=; _good_,
_advantageous_, _friendly_; =bonō animō esse=, _to feel friendly_; as
subst., =bonum, ī=, n., _profit_; =bonī, ōrum=, pl. m., _good men_,
_loyal citizens_; =bona, ōrum=, pl. n., _goods_.

=Bosporānī, ōrum=, pl. m., dwelling on the Cimmerian Bosporus.

=Bosporus, ī=, m. 1. _Cimmerius Bosporus_, the strait leading from the
Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. 2. A city in the Crimea on the Cimmerian
Bosporus.

=bracchium, ī=, n., _an arm_.

=breviārium, ī= [=brevis=], n., _a summary_, _abridgment_, _epitome_.

=brevis, e=, adj., _short_, _brief_.

=brevitās, ātis= [=brevis=], f., _shortness_.

=Britannicus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Britain_, _British_; as
subst., =Britannicus, ī=, m., son of the emperor Claudius and Messalina.

=Britannī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Britain_, _Britons_.

=Britannia, ae=, f., _Britain_, England and Scotland; in the pl.
includes Ireland.

=Brundisīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of the city of
Brundisium_, in Calabria.

=Bruttiī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people in the southwestern part of Italy.

=Brūtus, ī=, m., a family name at Rome. 1. _D. Iūnius Brūtus._ He
conquered the Callaeci and Lusitani, and won the name of Callaecus
in consequence. Consul 138 B.C. 2. _L. Iūnius Brūtus_, nephew of
Tarquinius Superbus, consul with Collatinus 509 B.C. 3. _(M. Iūnius)
Brūtus_, one of the murderers of Caesar.

=Budalia, ae=, f., a town in Lower Pannonia, the birthplace of the
emperor Decius.

=Bulcus, ī=, m., _C. Atīlius Bulcus_, consul 237 B.C.

=Burdigala, ae=, f., a city in Aquitania, now Bordeaux.

=Burziaonē, ēs=, f., a city in the modern Bulgaria.

=Bȳzantium, ī=, n., a city on the Thracian Bosporus, later
Constantinople.


C.

=C.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Gaius=.

=C.= = =centum=, 100.

=Cabīra, ōrum=, pl. n., a city in Pontus, on the border of Armenia.

=Cabylē, ēs=, f., a town in Thrace.

=cadāver, eris= [=cadō=], n., _a corpse_.

=cadō, ere, cecidī, casūrus=, _to fall_, _be killed_, _die_; _happen_.
=ad--accidō, ere, cidī, --=, _to happen_, _befall_, _come to pass_.
=con--concidō, ere, cidī, --=, _to fall_, _be slain_, _perish_.
=in--incidō, ere, cidī, --=, _to fall_, _fall in with_, _meet_;
_happen_.

=Caecilius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. Q. _Caecilius_, consul
206 B.C. See =Metellus=.

=Caecus, ī=, m., _Appius Claudius (Caecus)_, consul 307 B.C.

=caedēs, is= [=caedō=], f., _killing_, _slaughter_, _massacre_.

=caedo, ere, cecīdī, caesus=, _to cut_, _cut to pieces_; _kill_,
_conquer_, _rout_; =virgīs caedere=, _flog_. =ex--excīdō, ere, cīdī,
cīsus=, _to cut out_, _cut down_, _cut off_; _demolish_, _lay waste_.
=ob--occīdō, ere, cīdī, cīsus=, _to cut down_, _kill_, _slay_.

=Caelius, a, um=, adj., _Caelian_; =Caelius Mōns=, _the Caelian Hill_,
one of the seven hills of Rome.

=caelum, ī=, n., _heaven_, _sky_.

=Caenīnēnsēs, ium=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Caenīna_, a town of the
Sabines.

=Caenophrūrium, ī=, n., a town in Thrace.

=Caepiō, ōnis=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _Cn. Servīlius
Caepiō_, consul 253 B.C. 2. _Q. (Cn.) Servīlius Caepiō_, consul 140
B.C. 3. _Q. (Servīlius) Caepiō_, consul 106 B.C.

=Caesar, aris=, m., a family name in the Julian gens. 1. _C. Iūlius
Caesar_, the famous dictator. See Notes, p. 144. 2. _Sex. Iūlius
Caesar_, uncle of the dictator. Consul 91 B.C. 3. _C. Octāviānus_, see
=Augustus, Octāviānus=.

=Caesarēa, ae=, f., the name given to several cities founded in
honor of the Caesars. 1. _Caesarēa_ in Cappadocia. 2. _Caesarēa_ in
Mauretania. 3. _Caesarēa_ in Palestine.

=caesus, a, um=, see =caedō=.

=Calābria, ae=, f., a division of southern Italy.

=calamitās, ātis=, f., _a calamity_, _defeat_.

=calceāmentum, ī=, n., _a shoe_.

=calidus, a, um=, adj., comp. =calidior=; _warm_, _hot_.

=Caligula, ae=, m., _C. Caesar_, surnamed _Caligula_, Roman emperor
37-41 A.D.

=Callaecī, ōrum=, pl. m., the inhabitants of the northern part of Spain.

=Callatis, is=, f., a town in Moesia, on the Black Sea.

=callidē= [=callidus=, _shrewd_], adv., _keenly_, _shrewdly_.

=Callinīcum, ī=, m., a city in Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates.

=Calpurnius, ī=, m., see =Bēstia=.

=Calvīnus, ī=, m., _Sex. Domitius Calvīnus_, consul 127 B.C.

=calx, cis=, f., _limestone_, _lime_; _the goal of the race-course_.

=Camillus, ī=, m., 1. _(M.) Fūrius Camillus_, a famous Roman hero. 2.
_L. Fūrius (Camillus)_, consul 349 B.C.

=Campānia, ae=, f., a district of Italy on the western side, south of
Latium.

=campus, ī=, _a plain_; =Campus Mārtius=, the level space north of the
Capitoline Hill at Rome; it was outside of the walls in the earliest
times, and served as a place for exercise.

=Canīna, ae=, m., _C. Claudius Canīna_, consul 273 B.C.

=Cannae, ārum=, pl. f., a small town in Apulia, where one of the most
important battles of the Second Punic War was fought, 216 B.C.

=Cantabria, ae=, f., a division in the northern part of Spain.

=cantō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =canō=, _to sing_], _to produce
melodious sounds_, _sing_.

=capiō, ere, cēpī, captus=, _to take_, _get_, _seize_, _capture_,
_arrive at_; =consilium capere=, _to form a plan_. =ad--accipiō,
ere, cēpī, ceptus=, _to accept_, _receive_; _listen to_, _learn_.
=dē--dēcipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus=, _to take in_, _catch_, _deceive_,
_cheat_. =ex--excipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus=, _to take out_, _except_,
_take up_; _intercept_, _capture_; _receive_. =prae--praecipiō, ere,
cēpī, ceptus=, _to take_ _beforehand_, _foresee_; _bid_, _order_,
_direct_, _instruct_. =re--recipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus=, _to take back_,
_receive_; _admit_; =sē recipere=, _to retreat_. =sub--suscipiō, ere,
cēpī, ceptus=, _to take up_; _admit_, _support_; _undertake_, _incur_,
_undergo_.

=Capitōlium, ī=, n., the chief temple of Jupiter in Rome; the hill on
which this stood, the _Mōns Capitōlīnus_, the citadel as well as the
chief sanctuary of Rome.

=Cappadocia, ae=, f., a province in Asia Minor.

=Cappadox, ocis=, m., _a Cappadocian_.

=captīvus, a, um= [=capiō=], adj., _captive_; as subst., =captīvus, ī=,
m., =captīva, ae=, f., _captive_, _prisoner of war_.

=captus, a, um=, see =capiō=.

=Capua, ae=, f., a Greek city near Naples, in Campania.

=caput, itis=, n., _the head_; _a person_, _man_; _mouth_ (of a river);
_life_.

=Caracalla, ae=, m., see =M. Aurēlius Antōnīnus Bassiānus=.

=Carausius, ī=, m., a commander of the fleet under Maximian. He
revolted, and after some time was slain, 293 A.D.

=Carbō, ōnis=, m., 1. _Cn. (Papīrius) Carbō_, consul 113 B.C. 2. _(Cn.)
Papīrius Carbō_, consul 82 B.C.

=carcer, eris=, m., _prison_.

=Cardueni, ōrum=, pl. m., a powerful and warlike people in the
southeastern part of Armenia Māior.

=careō, ēre, uī, itus=, _to be without_, _be free from_, _be destitute
of_; _refrain from_, _abstain from_.

=Carīnās, ātis=, m., _C. Carīnās_, a leader of the Marian party.

=Carīnus, ī=, m., the son of the emperor Carus. He was associated with
his father in the government.

=Carnuntum, ī=, n., an ancient Celtic town in Upper Pannonia, on the
Danube.

=Carpī, ōrum=, pl. m., a German people living between the Carpathian
mountains and the Danube.

=Carrae, ārum=, pl. f., a city in Mesopotamia.

=Carthalō, ōnis=, m., a leader of the Carthaginians, slain by Q. Fabius
Maximus.

=Cārus=, ī, m., _(M. Aurēlius) Cārus_, Roman emperor, 282-283 A.D.

=Casca, ae=, m., _(P.) Servīlius Casca_, consul 44 B.C.

=Cassius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Longīnus, Viscellīnus=.

=castellum, ī= [dim. from =castrum=], n., _a stronghold_, _castle_,
_fort_.

=castrum, ī=, n., _a fortified place_, _town_; pl., =castra, ōrum=, pl.
n., _a camp_; _a campaign_.

=cāsus, ūs= [=cadō=], m., _that which befalls_; _event_, _chance_,
_misfortune_, _death_.

=Catalaunī, ōrum=, pl. m., a city in Belgic Gaul.

=catēna, ae=, f., _a chain_, _fetter_.

=catēnō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=catēna=], _to bind with chains_.

=Catilīna, ae=, m., _L. Sergius Catiline_, a conspirator during the
consulship of Cicerō, 63 B.C.

=Catinēnsēs, ium=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Catina_, or _Catana_, in
Sicily.

=Catō, ōnis=, m., a family name in the Porcian gens. 1. _(M.) Porcius
Catō_, consul 89 B.C. 2. _C. (Porcius) Catō_, consul 114 B.C. 3. _M.
Porcius Catō_, consul 118 B.C. 4. _M. Porcius Catō Uticēnsis_.

=Cattī, ōrum=, pl. m., one of the most important nations in Germany, in
Hesse, and Thuringia.

=Catulus, ī=, m., a family name at Rome. 1. _C. Lutātius Catulus_,
consul 242 B.C. 2. _Q. Lutātius (Catulus)_, consul 241 B.C. 3. _Q.
Lutātius Catulus_, consul 202 B.C. 4. _Q. (Lutātius) Catulus_, consul
78 B.C.

=Caudex, icis=, m., _Appius Claudius (Caudex)_, consul 264 B.C.

=Caudīnus, a, um=, adj., _Caudine_; =Furculae Caudīnae=, the Caudine
Forks, a narrow pass in the Samnite mountains.

=Caudium, ī=, n., a town in Samnium.

=causa, ae=, f., _reason_, _motive_; _pretext_; _case_, _state_;
=causā=, with gen. postpositive, _for the sake of_, _on account of_;
=causam dare=, _to occasion_, _cause_.

=causidicus, ī= [=causa= + =dīcō=], m., _a pleader_, _advocate_,
_special pleader_.

=cecidī=, see =cadō=.

=cecīdī=, see =caedō=. =cēdō, ere, cessī, cessus=, _to move_, _yield_,
_retreat_. =ad--accēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus=, _to move towards_, _draw
near_; _be added_; _agree to_, _enter into_. =con--concēdō, ere, cessī,
cessus=, _to withdraw_, _retire_, _depart_; _submit_; _allow_, _grant_,
_concede_. =dē--dēcēdō, ere, cessī, cessus=, _to go away_, _withdraw_,
_depart_; _to die_ (sc. =vītā=). =in--incēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus=,
_to advance_, _approach_; _march_; _move slowly_. =inter--intercēdō,
ere, cessī, cessus=, _to go between_; _intervene_; _occur_.
=prae--praecēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus=, _to go before_. =prō--prōcēdō,
ere, cessī, cessus=, _to move forward_, _advance_, _make progress_.
=re--recēdō, ere, cessī, cessus=, _to move back_, _withdraw_, _retire_,
_retreat_. =sub--succēdō, ere, cessī, cessus=, _to come up_, _advance_;
_succeed_, _follow_.

=celeber, bris, bre=, adj., famous.

=celebrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=celeber=], _to practice_, _repeat_;
_celebrate_.

=celeritās, ātis= [=celer=, _swift_], f., _swiftness_, _speed_,
_alertness_.

=celerō, āre, --, --= [=celer=, _swift_], _to hasten_.

=Celtiberia, ae=, f., a mountainous country in the central part of
Spain.

=cēna, ae=, f., dinner, the principal meal of the Romans, taken about
three o’clock.

=cēnō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=cēna=], _to dine_, _eat_.

=cēnsor, ōris= [=cēnseō=, _to value_], m., _censor_, a Roman
magistrate, elected every four years, to classify the citizens.

=Cēnsōrīnus, ī=, m., _L. Mānlius Cēnsōrīnus_, consul 149 B.C.

=cēnsus, ūs= [=cēnseō=, _to value_], m., the census, an enumeration and
classification of the people according to wealth.

=centēnī, ae a, a= [=centum=], distrib. num. adj., _a hundred each_.

=centēsimus, a, um= [=centum=], num. adj., _hundredth_.

=centum=, indecl. num. adj., a hundred.

=Centumalus, ī=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _Cn. Fulvius
Centumalus_, consul 229 B.C. 2. _Cn. Fulvius (Centumalus)_, consul 211
B.C.

=centuriō, ōnis= [=centum=], m., a century, a division of the army or
the people, containing a hundred men.

=cēpī=, see =capiō=.

=cernō, ere, crēvī, certus=, _to separate_; _see_, _perceive_;
_decide_, _determine_. =dē--dēcernō, ere, crēvī, crētus=, _to decide_,
_determine_; _decree_, _vote_, _intrust_ (by a decree); _contend_,
_fight_.

=certāmen, inis= [=certō=, _to fight_], n., _a struggle_, _battle_,
_engagement_.

=certātim= [=certō=, _to fight_], adv., _in rivalry_, _zealously_.

=certē= [=certus=, _certain_], adv., _certainly_, _surely_.

=cessī=, see =cēdō=.

=cessō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =cēdō=], _to be inactive_, _loiter_,
_delay_; _come to an end_, _cease_.

=(cēterus), a, um= [nom. sing. m. lacking], adj., _the rest_, _the
others_, _others_.

=Chaerōnēnsis, e=, adj., _belonging to Chaerōnēa_, _a town in Boeotia_.

=Chalcēdōn, ōnis=, f., a Greek city in Bithynia.

=Chalcēdōnius, a, um=, adj., _belonging to Chalcedon_.

=chlamys, ydis=, f., _a Grecian upper garment of wool_, _military
cloak_, _state mantle_.

=Christiānus, a, um=, adj., _Christian_; =Christiāna religiō=,
_Christianity_.

=Cibalae, ārum=, pl. f., a town in Pannonia.

=Cicerō, ōnis=, m., _M. Tullius Cicerō_, the famous orator, consul 63
B.C.

=Cilicia, ae=, f., a division of Asia Minor, bordering on the
Mediterranean Sea.

=Cimbrī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Germanic tribe which, together with the
Teutones, invaded Italy, and was defeated by Marius, 101 B.C.

=Cimbricus, a, um=, adj., _Cimbrian_.

=Cincinnātus, ī=, m., a Roman family name. 1. _L. Quīntius
Cincinnātus_, consul 460 B.C. 2. _T. Quīntius Cincinnātus_, conquered
the Praenestini near the river Allia.

=Cīneas, ae=, m., the friend and minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.

=cingō, ere, cīnxī, cīnctus=, _to encircle_, _surround_; _gird_, _gird
on_, _equip_; =obsidiōne cingere=, _to blockade_, _besiege_.

=Cinna, ae=, m., _L. Cornelius Cinna_, consul 87, 86 B.C.

=circā=, adv. and prep. with acc., _around_, _round about_,
_throughout_.

=Circēsium, ī=, n., a city of Mesopotamia on the Euphrates.

=circueō=, see =circumeō=.

=circuitus, ūs= [=circumeō=], m., _a going round_, _circuit_, _winding
way_.

=circumdūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=circumeō=, see =eō=.

=circumferō=, see =ferō=.

=circumlātus=, see =circumferō=.

=circus, ī=, m., _a circle_, _inclosure for athletic sports_, esp.
_chariot races_; =Circus Māximus=, see Notes, p. 108.

=citharoedicus=, a, um, adj., _of_ or _pertaining to the citharoedī_,
those who play on the cithara, accompanying it with the voice.

=*citō, āre, āvī, ātus= [intens. of =cieō=, _to cause to move_], _to
rouse_. =con--concitō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to arouse_, _urge_, _excite_.
=ex--excitō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to rouse forth_, _excite_, _stimulate_.

=cito=, adv., _quickly_, _speedily_, _soon_.

=cīvīlis, e= [=cīvis=], adj., _pertaining to a citizen_; _civil_;
_polite_, _moderate_.

=cīvīlissimē=, see =cīvīliter=.

=cīvīlitās, ātis= [=cīvīlis=], f., _the art of government_, _politics_;
_courteousness_, _politeness_, _affability_.

=cīvīliter= [=cīvīlis=], adv., sup. =cīvīlissimē=; _citizenlike, as
becomes a private citizen_.

=cīvis, is=, m., _a citizen_.

=cīvitās, ātis=, f., _citizenship_; _state_, _community_; _city_.

=clārē= [=clārus=], adv., _clearly_; _loudly_.

=clārēscō, ere, clarui, --= [incho. of =clāreō=, _to be bright_], _to
grow bright_; _become audible_, _sound clear_; _become illustrious_,
_grow famous_.

=clārus, a, um=, adj., _bright_; _famous_, _renowned_; of sound,
_clear_, _loud_.

=classis, is=, f., _a class or division of citizens_; _the navy_;
_fleet_.

=Claudius, ī=, m., the name of one of the oldest and most famous of
the Roman gentes. 1. _Claudius I._, Tib. Claudius Drusus Nero, Roman
emperor, 41-54 A.D. 2. _Claudius II._, M. Aurelius Claudius Gothicus,
Roman emperor, 268-270 A.D. See =Caecus=, =Canīna=, =Caudex=,
=Crassus=, =Mārcellus=, =Nerō=, =Pulcher=.

=Claudius, a, um=, adj., _Claudian_.

=claudō, ere, clausī, clausus=, _to shut_, _close_, _inclose_.
=con--conclūdō, ere, clūsī, clūsus=, _to shut up_, _confine_.
=ex--exclūdō, ere, clūsī, clūsus=, _to shut out_, _cut off_, _exclude_.

=claustrum, ī= [=claudō=], n., _a barrier_, _hindrance_; _frontier_,
_fortress_, _point of control_.

=clēmentia, ae= [=clēmēns=, _gentle_], f., =mercifulness=,
_forbearance_, _kindness_.

=Cleopatra, ae=, f., the famous queen of Egypt.

=clībanārius, ī=, m., _a soldier clad in mail_; _a cuirassier_.

=clipeus, ī=, m., _a round shield_, as distinguished from =scutum=, _an
oblong shield_.

=cloāca, ae=, f., _a sewer drain_.

=Clōdius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Albīnus=.

=Cluentius, ī=, m., a leader of the Marsi in the Marsic war.

=Clypea, ae=, f., a fortified town in the northern part of Africa, near
Carthage.

=Cn.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Gnaeus=.

=coāctus=, see =cōgō=.

=Cōchē, ēs=, f., a city on the Tigris, near Ctesiphon.

=coepī, isse, coeptus=, defective verb, _to begin_.

=coërceō=, see =*arceō=.

=coërcitor, ōris= [=coërceō=], m., _one who restrains_, _an enforcer_.

=cognitus=, see =cognōscō=.

=cognōmen, inis= [=con= + =(g)nōmen=], n., _a surname_, a name added to
the individual and clan names of a person, either as a title of honor,
as =Africānus=, =Māgnus=, or as a nickname, as =Cicerō=. _Cognōmina_
served to distinguish different families of the same gens.

=cognōmentum, ī= [=cognōmen=], n., _a surname_ (rare).

=cognōscō=, see =nōscō=.

=cōgō=, see =agō=.

=Colchī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Colchis_, in Asia.

Col=lātīnus, ī=, m., _(L.) Tarquinius Collātīnus_, the husband of
Lucretia, and one of the first two consuls, 509 B.C.

=collīnus, a, um=, [=collis=, _a hill_], adj., _pertaining to a hill_,
_hilly_; =Porta Collīna=, the Colline Gate.

=collum, ī=, m., _neck_.

=colō, ere, uī, cultus=, _to till_, _cultivate_; dwell in; practice,
cherish; clothe, adorn; _honor_, _esteem_. =in--incolō, ere, uī, --=,
_to dwell_, _settle_, _inhabit_.

=colōnia, ae=, [=colō=], f., _a colony_, _settlement_.

=columna, ae=, f., _a column_, _pillar_.

=coma, ae=, f., _hair_.

=comes, itis= [=con= + =eō=], m. and f., _a companion_, _comrade_;
_attendant_, _follower_.

=comētēs, ae=, Gr. acc. =comētēn=, m., _a comet_.

=Commāgēnē, ēs=, f., a district in the northern part of Syria.

=commemorō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=con= + =memor=, _mindful_], _to call to
mind_, _mention_, _tell_.

=commendātiō, ōnīs= [=commendō=], f., _commending_, _recommendation_.

=commendō=, see =mandō=.

=committō=, see =mittō=.

=commodē= [=commodus=], adv., _fitly_, _easily_, _properly_, _rightly_.

=commodum, ī= [=commodus=], n., _convenience_, _advantage_, _utility_.

=Commodus, ī=, m., see =Antōnīnus=.

=commodus, a, um= [=con= + =modus=], adj., _in due measure_,
_suitable_, _fit_, _convenient_.

=commoror, ārī, ātus sum= [=con= + =moror=, _to delay_], _to tarry_,
_linger_, _abide_, _remain_.

=commoveō=, see =moveō=.

=commūnis, e= [=con= + =mūnus=], adj., _common_; _ordinary_; _public_;
=rēs commūnis=, _the public interest_.

=compāreō=, see =pāreō=.

=comparō=, see =parō=.

=comparō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=compār=, _like_], _to compare_.

=compellō=, see =pellō=.

=comperiō=, see =*pariō=.

=compescō, ere, uī, --=, _to confine_, _hold in check_, _repress_,
_curb_, _restrain_.

=compleō=, see =*pleō=.

=complexus, ūs= [=complector=, _to embrace_], m., _surrounding_,
_embrace_.

=compōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=compulī=, see =compellō=.

=computātiō, ōnis= [=computō=, _to sum up_], f., _a reckoning_.

=concēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=concidō=, see =cadō=.

=concitō=, see =*citō=.

=concitor, ōris= [=concitō=], m., _he who arouses_, _a stirrer up_.

=conclūdō=, see =claudō=.

=Concordia, ae=, f., a Roman colony founded in Venetia.

=concubīna, ae=, f., _a concubine_.

=condiciō, ōnis= [=condīcō=, _to agree_], f., _a condition_, _state_;
_terms_, _stipulation_.

=condiscipulus, ī= [=con= + =discipulus=, _a student_], m., _a
fellow-student_, _schoolmate_.

=conditor, ōris= [=condō=], m., _a founder_, _inventor_, _writer_.

=condō=, see =dō=.

=cōnfectus=, see =cōnficiō=.

=cōnferō=, see =ferō=.

=cōnfestim=, adv., _immediately_, _at once_.

=cōnficiō=, see =faciō=.

=cōnfīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus= [=con= + =fīgō=, _to fix_], =to fasten
together=, =unite=.

=cōnfīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=con= + =fīrmō=, _to make firm_], _to
confirm_, _strengthen_, _encourage_, _affirm_.

=cōnflīgō=, see =*flīgō=.

=cōnfluō=, see =fluō=.

=cōnfodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus= [=con= + =fodiō=, _to dig_], _to dig_;
_stab_.

=cōnfugiō=, see =fugiō=.

=cōnfundō=, see =fundō=.

=cōnfūsus=, see =cōnfundō=.

=congerō=, see =gerō=.

=congredior=, see =*gradior=.

=congregō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=con= + =grex=, _a herd_], _to collect_,
_unite_.

=congressus=, see =congredior=.

=cōniciō=, see =*iaciō=.

=coniungō=, see =iungō=.

=coniūnx, coniugis= [=coniungō=], m. and f., _a husband_, _wife_.

=coniūrātiō, ōnis= [=coniūrō=], f., _a conspiracy_, _plot_.

=coniūrō=, see =iūrō=.

=conlātus=, see =conferō=.

=conlēga, ae= [=conligō=], m., _a colleague_.

=conligō=, see =legō=.

=conlocō=, see =locō=.

=conloquium, ī= [=con= + =loquor=, _to speak_], n., _an interview_,
_conference_.

=cōnor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to attempt_, _try_.

=cōnscendō=, see =*scandō=.

=cōnsecrō=, see =*sacrō=.

=cōnsecūtus=, see =cōnsequor=.

=cōnsēdī=, see =cōnsīdō=.

=cōnsenēscō=, see =senēscō=.

=cōnsēnsī=, see =cōnsentiō=.

=cōnsēnsus, ūs= [=cōnsentiō=], m., _consent_, _assent_, _united
opinion_; =ex commūnī cōnsēnsū=, _by common consent_.

=cōnsentio=, see =sentiō=.

=cōnsenuī=, see =cōnsenēscō=.

=cōnsequor=, see =sequor=.

=cōnserō=, see =*serō=.

=cōnsīdō=, see =sīdō=.

=cōnsilium, ī= [=cōnsulō=], n., _a plan_, _advice_; _counsel_,
_wisdom_; _authority_; _council_.

=cōnsistō=, see =*sistō=.

=cōnsōbrīna, ae= [=con= + =soror=], f., _a cousin-german_, _first
cousin_.

=cōnspectus, ūs= [=cōnspiciō=], m., _sight_, _presence_.

=cōnspiciō=, see =*speciō=.

=Cōnstāns, antis=, m., the youngest of the three sons of Constantine
the Great.

=Cōnstantia, ae=, f., daughter of Constantius Chlorus.

=Cōnstantīnopolis, is=, f., Constantinople, a city built on the site of
Byzantium by Constantine the Great.

=Cōnstantīnus, ī=, m., 1. _Cōnstantīnus_, surnamed “the Great.” Roman
emperor 306-337 A.D. 2. _Cōnstantīnus_, son of (1).

=Cōnstantius, ī=, m., 1. _Cōnstantius Chlōrus_, father of Constantine
the Great. Roman emperor 305-306 A.D. 2. _Cōnstantius_, third son of
Constantine the Great. Roman emperor 337-361 A.D.

=cōnstitī=, see =cōnsistō=.

=cōnstituō=, see *statuō.

=cōnsuētūdō, inis= [=cōnsuēscō=, _to become accustomed_], f., _habit_,
_custom_, _manner_.

=cōnsul, ulis=, m., _a consul_. The usual name of the two highest
officials of the Roman republic. They were elected annually, and their
names were used in place of a date.

=cōnsulāris, e= [=cōnsul=], adj., _of a consul_, _of consular rank_; as
subst., _an ex-consul_.

=cōnsulātus, ūs= [=cōnsul=], m., _consulate_, _consulship_.

=cōnsulō, ere, uī, tus=, _to consult_, _consider_; _counsel_, _give
advice to_; _provide for_; _ask advice of_.

=cōnsultō= [=cōnsulō=], adv., _purposely_.

=cōnsultum, ī= [=cōnsulō=], n., _resolution_, _decree_; =senātūs
cōnsultum=, _decree of the senate_.

=cōnsultus, a, um= [=cōnsulō=], adj., _experienced_, _learned_; =iūris
cōnsultus=, _a lawyer_.

=cōnsūmō=, see =sūmō=.

=contāminō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=contāmen=, _touch_], _to bring into
contact_, _mingle_; _corrupt_, _defile_, _pollute_.

=contemnō, ere, tempsī, temptus= [=con= + =temnō=, _to scorn_], _to
despise_, _scorn_.

=contendō=, see =tendō=.

=contentiō, ōnis= [=contendō=], f., _exertion_, _struggle_; _contest_,
_contention_.

=contentus, a, um= [=contineō=], adj., _content_, _satisfied_.

=contigī=, see =contingō=.

=contineō=, see =teneō=.

=contingō=, see =*tangō=.

=continuus, a, um= [=contineō=], adj., _successive_, _uninterrupted_.

=cōntiō, ōnis= [contr. from =conventiō=, _assembling_], f., _assembly_;
_an address_ (to the assembly).

=contrā=, prep. with acc., _against_, _opposite to_, _contrary to_;
=adv.=, _on the other hand_; =contrā atque=, _contrary to what_.

=contrāctus, a, um=, see =contrahō=.

=contrādīcō=, see =dīcō=.

=contrahō=, see =trahō=.

=contrōversia, ae= [=contrā= + =vertō=], f., _dispute_, _controversy_.

=contulī=, see =cōnferō=.

=conveniō=, see =veniō=.

=conventus, ūs= [=conveniō=], m., _a meeting_, _assembly_.

=conversus=, see =convertō=.

=convertō=, see =*vertō=.

=convīcium, ī= [=con= + =vocō=], n., _a loud noise_, _clamor_, _cry_;
_insult_.

=convincō=, see =vincō=.

=convīvium, ī= [=con= + =vīvō=], n., _a feast_.

=cōpia, ae= [=co(n)= + =ops=], f., _abundance_, _supply_; pl.,
_troops_, _supplies_; _means_, _force_, _wealth_.

=cōpiōsus, a, um= [=cōpia=], adj., _abounding in_, _well supplied_,
_rich_.

=Corinthiī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Corinth_.

=Corinthus, ī=, f., a city in the Peloponnesus on the isthmus of
Corinth, captured and destroyed by the Romans, 146 B.C.

=Coriolānus, ī=, m., the surname of Q. Marcius, the conqueror of
Corioli, 493 B.C.

=Coriolī, ōrum=, pl. m., a town of the Volsci in Latium.

=Cornēlius, ī=, m., the name of a large and important gens at Rome.
See =Asina=, =Cinna=, =Dolābella=, =Faustus=, =Fuscus=, =Galbus=,
=Lentulus=, =Rūfīnus=, =Scīpiō=, =Sulla=.

=cornū, ūs=, n., _a horn_; _trumpet_; _wing_ (of an army).

=corpus, oris=, n., _a body_.

=corrēctor, ōris= [=corrigō=], m., _a corrector_, _improver_; _a land
bailiff_, _governor_.

=corrēctus=, see =corrigō=.

=corrēxī=, see =corrigō=.

=corrigō=, see =regō=.

=corripiō=, see =rapiō=.

=corrumpō=, see =rumpō=.

=Corsica, ae=, f., an island in the Mediterranean Sea, west of Italy.

=Corvīnus, ī=, m., _M. Valerius Corvīnus_, twice dictator, six times
consul.

=corvus, ī=, m., =a raven=.

=Corycus, ī=, m., a city in Cilicia.

=Cosconius, ī=, m., _C. Cosconius_, a praetor during the Social War, 89
B.C.

=Cotta, ae=, m., 1. _M. Aurēlius Cotta_, consul 78 (74) B.C. 2. _(L.)
Aurunculēius (Cotta)_, one of Caesar’s lieutenants in Gaul.

=Cottius, ī=, m., a king of several Ligurian tribes in the Cottian Alps.

=Cottius, a, um=, adj., _Cottian_; =Alpēs Cottiae=, the Cottian Alps,
between France and Italy, from Mt. Viso to Mt. Cenis.

=Cotys, yis=, m., a Thracian king.

=Crassus, ī=, m., a Roman family name. 1. _Appius Claudius Crassus_,
decemvir. 2. _M. Licinius Crassus_, the triumvir, consul 70 B.C. 3. _P.
Licinius Crassus_, consul 171 B.C. 4. _P. Licinius Crassus_, called
Dives Mucianus, consul 131 B.C.

=crēber, bra, brum=, adj., _crowded_, _numerous_, _frequent_.

=crēdō, ere, crēdidī, crēditus=, _to believe_, _trust_, _think_;
_intrust_, _commend to_.

=creō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to create_, _make_, _beget_; _elect_, _declare
elected_.

=crēscō, ere, crēvī, crētus=, _to grow_, _increase_; _become
influential_, _prosper_.

=Crēta, ae=, f., an island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Greece;
modern Candia.

=Crēticus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Crete_; =Crēticum bellum=, _war
against Crete_.

=crīmen, inis= [=cernō=], n., _accusation_, _slander_; _fault_,
_crime_, _offense_.

=crīnītus, a, um= [=crīnis=, _hair_], adj., _covered with hair_.

=Crīnītus, ī=, m., see =Trāiānus=.

=Crixus, ī=, m., one of the gladiators who revolted with Spartacus.

=crūdēlitās, ātis= [=crūdēlis=, _cruel_], f., _cruelty_.

=crūdēliter= [=crūdēlis=, _cruel_], adv., _cruelly_.

=crūditās, ātis= [=crūdus=, _unripe_], f., _overloading of the
stomach_; _indigestion_.

=cruentus, a, um= [=cruor=], adj., _blood-stained_, _bloody_.

=cruor, ōris=, m., _running blood_, _gore_.

=Crustumīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Crustumerium_, a town
in the territory of the Sabines, north of Rome.

=crystallinus, a, um= [=crystallum=, _crystal_], adj., _of crystal_.

=Ctēsiphōn, ōntis=, f., a city in Assyria, on the Tigris.

=cubiculum, ī= [=cubō=, _to lie down_], n., _a bedchamber_.

=culpō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=culpa=, _fault_], _to find fault with_,
_blame_.

=cultus, ūs= [=colō=], m., _cultivation_, _worship_; _culture_,
_training_; mo_de of life_; _dress_, _splendor_.

=cum=, prep. with abl., _with_, _together with_.

=cum=, conj., of time, _when_, _while_, _whenever_; of cause, _since_;
of concession, _although_; =cum … tum=, _both … and_, _not only … but
also_.

=cūnctus, a, um= [=coniunctus, con= + =iungo=], adj., _all together_,
_all_.

=cupiditās, ātis= [=cupidus=, _desirous_], f., _desire_, _longing_;
_greediness_, _avarice_.

=cūra, ae=, f., _care_, _anxiety_.

=Cūria, ae=, f., _the Roman senate house_, either the Curia Hostilia,
adjoining the Forum, or the Curia Pompeia, built by Pompey in the
Campus Martius. In the latter Caesar was murdered.

=Cūriō, ōnis=, m., _C. Scrībōnius_, consul 76 B.C.

=Curius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Dentātus=.

=currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus=, to run. =ob--occurro, currere,
(cu)curri, cursus=, _to run to meet_; _meet with_, _encounter_;
_withstand_; _occur_.

=currus, ūs= [=currō=], m., _a chariot_.

=Cursor, ōris=, m., _L. Papīrius Cursor_, a celebrated general, six
times consul, dictator twice.

=cursus, ūs= [=currō=], m., _running_, _speed_; _course_, _voyage_.

=cūstōdia, ae= [=cūstōs=, a guard], f., _care_, _guard_, _custody_.

=Cȳrēnē, ēs=, f., a Greek city on the coast of Africa, west of Egypt.

=Cȳzicus, ī=, f., a city of Mysia, in Asia Minor.

=Cȳzicēnus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Cȳzicus_.


D.

=D.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Decimus=.

=D.= = 500.

=Dācī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Dacians_, inhabitants of Dacia.

=Dācia, ae=, f., a country north of the Danube.

=Dalmatae, ārum=, pl. m., _the Dalmatians_, the inhabitants of Dalmatia.

=Dalmatia, ae=, f., a country bordering on the eastern shore of the
Adriatic Sea.

=Dalmatius, ī=, m., _Dalmatius Caesar_, a nephew of Constantine the
Great.

=damnō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=damnum=, _injury_], _to condemn_, _sentence_;
_bind_, _compel_; _censure_.

=Dānuvius, ī=, m., _the Danube_.

=Daphnēnsēs, ium=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Daphnē_, a place near
Antioch.

=Dardanī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people of Upper Moesia.

=Dardania, ae=, f., a district of the Troad, lying along the Hellespont.

=datus=, see =dō=.

=dē=, prep. with abl., of place, _from_, _down from_, _out of_; of
time, _after_, _during_; of cause, _in consequence of_, _through_; of
relation, _concerning_, _in respect to_.

=dēbeō=, see =habeō=.

=dēcēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=decem=, indecl. num. adj., _ten_.

=decemvir, ī= [=decem= + =vir=], m., _one of a commission of ten men_,
_decemvir_.

=Decentius, ī=, m., _Māgnus Decentius_, brother of Magnentius, by whom
he was created Caesar, 351 A.D.

=dēceptus=, see =dēcipiō=.

=dēcernō=, see =cernō=.

=dēcessī=, see =dēcēdō=.

=decet, ēre, uit, --= (impers.), _to be suitable_, _becoming_.

=Decibalus, ī=, m., a celebrated king of the Dacians.

=deciēs= [=decem=], num. adv., _ten times_.

=decimus, a, um= [=decem=], num. adj., _Tenth_.

=dēcipiō=, see =capiō=.

=Decius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. _(Metius) Decius_, Roman
emperor 249-251 A.D. See =Mūs=.

=decorō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=decus=, _honor_], _to decorate_,
_distinguish_.

=dēcrēvī=, see =dēcernō=.

=dēdecus, ōris= [=dē= + =decus=, _honor_], n., _disgrace_, _dishonor_.

=dēdicātiō, ōnis= [=dēdicō=, _to dedicate_], f., _a dedication_,
_consecration_.

=dēdidī=, see =dēdō=.

=dēditiō, ōnis= [=dēdō=], f., _a surrender_.

=dēditus=, see =dēdō=.

=dēdō=, see =do=.

=dēdūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=dēfēcī=, see =dēficiō=.

=dēfendō, ere, fendī, fēnsus=, _to ward off_, _repel_; _defend_,
_protect_.

=dēfēnsor, ōris= [=dēfendō=], m., _a defender_.

=dēferō=, see =ferō=.

=dēficiō=, see =faciō=.

=dēfōrmō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=dē= + =fōrma=], _to bring out of shape_,
_deform_, _disfigure_, _spoil_, _mar_.

=dēfungor, fungī, fūnctus sum= [=dē= + =fungor=, _to perform_], _to
perform_, _finish_.

=dēiciō=, see =*iaciō=.

=dein=, see =deinde=.

=deinceps= [=deinde= + =capiō=], adv., _one after the other_,
_successively_; _next_, _moreover_.

=deinde or dein= [=dē= + =inde=], adv., a_fterwards_, _next_, _then_,
_thereafter_.

=Dēiotarus, ī=, m., tetrarch of Galatia.

=dēlectō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =dēliciō=], _to delight_, _please_.

=dēleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus=, _to destroy_, _overthrow_, _ruin_.

=dēliciae, ārum=, pl. f., _delights_, _pleasure_, _luxury_.

=dēmergō=, see =mergō=.

=Dēmētrius, ī=, m., son of Philip V., king of Macedonia.

=dēminuō=, see =minuō=.

=dēmum=, adv., _at last_, _finally_; =tum dēmum=, _then at last_, _not
till then_.

=dēnique=, adv., _at last_, _finally_; _briefly_, _in fine_.

=Dentātus, ī=, m., _M. Curius Dentātus_, consul 290 and 275 B.C.

=dēnūntiō=, see =nūntiō=.

=dēpōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=dēpopulor=, see =populō=.

=dēprāvō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=dē= + =prāvus=], _to distort_; _pervert_,
_seduce_, _corrupt_, _deprave_.

=dēprecātiō, ōnis= [=dēprecor=], f., _warding off by prayer_;
_supplication_, _intercession_.

=dēprecor, ārī, ātus sum= [=dē= + =precor=, _to ask_], _to plead
against_, _plead_, _avert by prayer_; _decline_.

=dēprehendō=, see =*prehendō=.

=dēscrībō=, see =scrībō=.

=dēserō=, see =*serō=.

=dēsinō=, see =sinō=.

=dēspērātiō, ōnis= [=dēspērō=], f., _despair_, _desperation_.

=dēspērō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=dē + spērō=, _to hope_], _to give up hope_,
_despair_.

=dēstituō=, see =*statuō=.

=dētegō, ere, tēxī, tēctus= [=dē= + =tegō=, _to cover_], _to uncover_,
_disclose_, _betray_.

=dētergeō, ēre, tersī, tersus= [=dē= + =tergeō=, _to rub_], _to wipe
off_, _remove_, _cleanse_, _empty_.

=dēterreō, ēre, uī, itus= [=dē= + =terreō=, _to terrify_], _to frighten
away_, _deter_.

=dētestātiō, ōnis= [=dētestor=], f., _the invocation of a curse_;
_deprecation_.

=dētestor, ārī, ātus sum= [=dē= + =testor=, _to cause to witness_], _to
curse_, _execrate_; _avert_, _ward off_, _deprecate_.

=dētrahō=, see =trahō=.

=deus, ī=, m., _a god_, _divinity_.

=dēvincō=, see =vincō=.

=dexter, era, erum= and =tra, trum=, adj., _right_; _on the right hand_.

=diadēma, ātis=, n., _a royal head-dress_, _diadem_.

=Diadumenus, ī=, m., son of the emperor Macrinus.

(=diciō=), =ōnis=, f., _dominion_, _sovereignty_, _sway_, _rule_.

=dīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus=, _to say_, _speak_, _tell_; _assent_,
_promise_; _appoint_, _call_. =contrā--contrādīcō, ere, dīxi, dictus=,
_to contradict_, _oppose_. =in--indīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus=, _to
proclaim_, _declare_; _appoint_.

=dictātor, ōris= [=dictō=, _to say often_], m., _a dictator_, a
magistrate with supreme power, chosen at times of supreme peril.

=dictātūra, ae= [=dictātor=], f., _the office of dictator_,
_dictatorship_.

=dictum, ī=, [=dīcō=], n., _a saying_, _remark_, _word_; _command_.

=dīdūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=diēs, ēī=, m., and sometimes in the sing. f., _day_, _time_.

=differō=, see =ferō=.

=difficiliter= [=dis= + =facilis=, _easy_], adv., comp. =difficilius=;
with _difficulty_.

=diffīdō, ere, fīsus sum= [=dis= + =fīdō=, _to trust_], _to distrust_,
_doubt_.

=diffugiō=, see =fugiō=.

=diffundō=, see =fundō=.

=dīgnitās, ātis= [=dīgnus=], f., _value_, _merit_; _rank_, _dignity_.

=dīgnor, ārī, ātus sum= [=dīgnus=], _to deem worthy_, _deign_,
_condescend_.

=dīgnus, a, um=, adj., _worth_, _worthy_, _deserving_.

=dīligēns, tis= [=dīligō=], adj., _careful_, _diligent_, _attentive_;
_sparing_; _fond of_.

=dīligentia, ae= [=dīligēns=], f., _diligence_, _activity_,
_earnestness_.

=dīligō=, see =legō=.

=dīmicātiō, ōnis= [=dīmicō=], f., _a combat_, _struggle_.

=dīmicō, āre, āvi, ātus=, _to fight_.

=dīmidius, a, um= [=dis= + =medius=], adj., _half_; as subst.,
=dīmidium, ī=, n., _a half_.

=dīmittō=, see =mittō=.

=Dioclētiānus, ī=, m., _(Valerius) Dioclētiānus_, emperor 284-305 A.D.

=Diogenēs, is=, m., son of Archelaus, slain in the siege of Athens.

=dīripiō=, see =rapiō=.

=dīruō, ere, uī, utus= [=dis= + =ruō=, _to fall_], _to tear asunder_,
_destroy_.

=dīs, dītis=, adj., sup. =dītissimus=; _rich_.

=disciplīna, ae= [=discō=, _to learn_], f., _learning_, _instruction_,
_discipline_; _system_.

=dispertiō, īre, īvī, ītus= [=dis= + =partiō=, _to share_], _to
distribute_, _divide_.

=displiceō=, see =placeō=.

=dispōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=dissimulātiō, ōnis= [=dissimulō=, _to make unlike_], f., _a
disguising_, _dissembling_, _concealment_.

=dissolūtus, a, um= [part. of =dissolvō=, _to take apart_], adj.,
_lax_, _remiss_, _negligent_, _careless_.

=distrahō=, see =trahō=.

=distribuō=, see =tribuō=.

=dītō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=dīs=], _to make rich_, _enrich_.

=diū=, adv., comp. =diūtius=, sup. =diūtissimē=; _long_, _for a long
time_; =quam diū=, _as long as_.

=diūturnitās, ātis= [=diūturnus=], f., _long continuance_, _length of
time_.

=diūturnus, a, um= [=diū=], adj., _prolonged_.

=dīversus, a, um= [part. of =dīvertō=, _to turn aside_], adj.,
_scatter_, _separate_; _different_; _contrary_, _opposed to_.

=dīvidō, ere, vīsī, vīsus=, _to divide_, _separate_.

=dīvīnus, a, um= [=dīvus=], adj., _divine_, _sacred_.

=dīvīsor, ōris= [=dīvidō=], m., _one who distributes_, _an executor_.

=dīvitiae, ārum= [=dīves=, _rich_], pl. f., _wealth_, _riches_.

=dīvus, a, um=, adj., _divine_, _deified_; as subst., =Dīvus, ī=, m.,
_a god_. An epithet given to the Roman emperors after death.

=dō, dare, dedī, datus=, _to give_, _put_, _place_; _furnish_,
_yield_; =dare negōtium=, _to commission_, _direct_; =dare in fugam=,
_to put to flight_; =dare manūs=, _to yield_; =dare operam=, _to
attend to_, _assist_; =dare poenās=, _to pay the penalty_; =dare
verba=, _to deceive_. =ad--addō, dere, didī, ditus=, _to add_, _join
to_. =con--condō, dere, didī, ditus=, _to put together_, _compose_,
_build_, _found_; _conceal_. =dē--dēdō, dere, didī, ditus=, _to give
up_, _surrender_; _devote_. =ex--ēdō, dere, didī, ditus=, _to put
forth_, _show_, _elevate_; _bear_, _produce_. =in--indō, dere, didī,
ditus=, _to put into_; _confer_, _apply_. =per--perdō, dere, didī,
ditus=, _to lose_, _destroy_, _ruin_; _waste_. =prō--prōdō, dere, didī,
ditus=, _to give or put forth_, _make known_; _hand down_; _betray_,
_surrender_. =re--redō, dere, didī, ditus=, _to give back_, _return_;
_render_. =trāns--trādō, dere, didī, ditus=, _to give over_, _give up_,
_deliver_, _surrender_; _intrust_; _transmit_; =trāditur=, _it is said_.

=doceō, ēre, uī, tus=, _to teach_, _point out_.

=docilitās, ātis= [=docilis=, _teachable_], f., _teachableness_,
_docility_.

=documentum, ī= [=doceō=], n., _a lesson_, _example_; _evidence_,
_proof_.

=Dolābella, ae=, m., _Cn. Cornēlius Dolābella_, consul 159 B.C.

=doleō, ēre, luī, litūrus=, _to feel pain_; _grieve_.

=dolor, ōris= [=doleō=], m., _pain_, _sorrow_, _distress_, _vexation_.

=dolus, ī=, m., _fraud_, _guile_, _stratagem_.

=domesticus, a, um= [=domus=], adj., _private_, _domestic_; =domesticum
bellum=, _civil war_.

=dominus, ī= [=domō=], m., _a master_, _lord_.

=Domitiānus, ī=, m., _T. Flavius Domitiānus_, Roman emperor 81-96 A.D.

=Domitius, ī=, m., a Roman family name. 1. _Cn. Domitius_, consul 32
B.C. 2. _L. Domitius_, a Roman general in the war with Sertorius. See
=Calvīnus=.

=domō, āre, uī, itus=, _to tame_, _conquer_. =per--perdomō, āre, uī,
itus=, _to subdue_, _vanquish_.

=domus, ūs=, f., _a house_, _home_; _household_; =domī, loc.=, _at
home_.

=dōnō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to give_, _present_, _confer_.

=dōnum, ī=, n., _a gift_.

=Drusus, ī=, m., _Nerō Claudius Drusus_, son of Ti. Claudius Nero, and
stepson of Augustus.

=dubiē= [=dubius=], adv., _doubtfully_, _uncertainly_.

=dubietās, ātis= [=dubius=], f., _doubt_, h_esitation_ (late).

=dubius, a, um=, adj., _doubtful_, _uncertain_.

=ducentī, ae, a= [=duo= + =centum=], adj., _two hundred_.

=dūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to lead_; _think_, _consider_; _protract_,
_put off_; =uxōrem dūcere=, _to marry_; =vītam dūcere=, _to live_.

=ab--abdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to lead away_, _withdraw_.
=ad--addūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to lead to_, _bring_; _induce_,
_influence_. =circum--circumdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to lead around_,
_draw around_, _surround_. =dē--dēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to lead_,
_withdraw_; _induce_; _launch_, _disembark_. =dis--dīdūcō, ere, dūxī,
ductus=, _to draw apart_, _separate_, _relax_. =ex--ēdūcō, ere, dūxī,
ductus=, _to lead out_. =in--indūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to lead in_;
_induce_; _put on_, _cover_. =prō--prōdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to
lead forward or out_; _prolong_. =re--redūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus=, _to
lead back_; _draw back_; _remove_.

=ductus, ūs= [=dūcō=], m., _leadership_.

=Duilius, ī=, m., _C. Duilius_, consul 260 B.C., commander of the Roman
fleet in the battle of Mylae, 260 B.C.

=dum=, conj., _while_, _until_.

=duo, ae, o=, num. adj., _two_.

=duodecim= [=duo= + =decem=], indecl. num. adj., _twelve_.

=duodecimus, a, um= [=duo= + =decimus=], num. adj., _twelfth_.

=duplex, icis= [=duo= + =plicō=, _to fold_], adj., _twofold_, _double_.

=duplicō, āre, āvi, ātus= [=duplex=], _to double_, _repeat_.

=dūrus, a, um=, adj., _hard_, _harsh_, _difficult_.

=dux, ducis= [=dūcō=], m., _a leader_, _guide_, _commander_.


E.

=ē=, see =ex=.

=Eborācum, ī=, n., a city in Britain, modern York.

=Edessa, ae=, f., a city in the western part of Mesopotamia.

=ēdictum, ī= [=ēdīcō=, _to make known_], n., _a proclamation_, _edict_.

=ēditiō, ōnis= [=ēdō=], f., _a statement_, _account_.

=ēdō=, see =dō=.

=ēdūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=efferō=, see =ferō=.

=efficiō=, see =faciō=.

=effringō=, see =frangō=.

=effugiō=, see =fugiō=.

=ego, meī=, pers. pron., _I_; pl. =nōs=, _we_.

=ēgredior=, see =*gradior=.

=ēgregiē= [=ēgregius=], adv., _excellently_, _exceedingly_,
_strikingly_.

=ēgregius, a, um= [=ē= + =grex=, _herd_], adj., _select_,
_distinguished_, _eminent_.

=ēiciō=, see =*iaciō=.

=ēlegāns, antis= [=ēlegō=, for =ēligō=], adj., _select_, _elegant_,
_polite_.

=elementum, ī=, n., _a first principle_, _simple substance_;
_rudiments_.

=elephantus, ī=, m., _elephant_.

=ēligō=, see =legō=.

=ēmineō, ēre, uī, --=, _to stand out_, _be conspicuous_.

=emō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus=, _to take_; _buy_, _purchase_; _gain_,
_acquire_. =ad--adimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus=, _to take away_, _destroy_,
_deprive of_. =inter--interimō, ere, ēmī ēmptus=, _to take from the
midst of_, _kill_. =per--perimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus=, _to take away
entirely_; _annihilate_, _destroy_. =re--redimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus=, _to
buy back_, _redeem_, _ransom_.

=ēmptor, ōris= [=emō=], m., _a buyer_, _purchaser_.

=enim=, conj., always postpositive, _namely_, _in fact_, _you know_,
_for_, _because_.

=eō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus=, _to go or come_, _march_. =ab--abeō, īre,
īvī (iī), itūrus=, _to go away_, _depart_. =circum--circumeō, īre, īvī
(iī), itus=, _to go around_, _surround_. =inter--intereō, īre, īvī
(iī), itūrus=, _to perish_, _die_. =ob--obeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus=, _to
go to meet_; _attend to_, _perform_; _die_, _perish_. =per--pereō, īre,
īvi (iī), itūrus=, _to perish_, _disappear_, _die_. =re--redeō, īre,
īvī (iī), itūrus=, _to go back_, _return_. =trāns--trānseō, īre, īvī
(iī), itūrus=, _to go across_, _cross_; _pass through or by_; _desert_.

=eō= [=is=], adv., _for that reason_, _therefore_; _to that place_,
_thither_; _to that degree_, _so far_.

=Ephesus, ī=, f., a Greek city near the coast of Asia Minor.

=Ēpīrus, ī=, f., a country on the Ionian Sea, northwest of Greece
proper.

=epistola, ae=, f., _a letter_.

=epulae, ārum=, pl. f., _a banquet_, _feast_.

=eques, itis= [=equus=], m., _a horseman_, _knight_; pl. _cavalry_;
=magister equitum=, _master of the horse_, _aid-de-camp of the
dictator_.

=equitātus, ūs= [=equitō=, _to ride_], m., _cavalry_.

=equus, ī=, m., _a horse_.

=ērēctus, a, um= [orig. part. of =ērigō=], adj., _upright_, _erect_.

=ergō=, adv., expressing an inference, _now_, _then_, _therefore_.

=ēripiō=, see =rapiō=.

=errō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to wander_, _stray_, _rove_; _be in error_,
_err_.

=ērudiō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus= [=ē= + =rudis=, _rough_], _to polish_,
_educate_, _train_.

=ērudītiō, ōnis= [=ērudiō=], f., _a polishing_, _training_.

=ērumpō=, see =rumpō=.

=Ēsquilīnus, ī=, m. (sc. =collis=), _the Esquiline_, the largest of the
seven hills of Rome.

=et=, conj., _and_, _also_, _even_, _and yet_; =et … et=, _both … and_.

=etenim=, conj., _for_, _for truly_, _and indeed_, _because_, _since_.

=etiam= [=et= + =iam=], conj., _also_, _even_.

=Eumenēs, is=, m., king of Pergamus, 197-159 B.C.

=Eumenia, ae=, f., a city in Phrygia.

=Euphrātēs, is=, dat. =Euphrātae=, p. 83, l. 22, m., _the Euphrates_, a
river in Syria.

=Eutropius, ī=, m., see =Life=.

=Eurōpa, ae=, f., _Europe_.

=ēvādō=, see =*vādō=.

=ēvehō=, see =vehō=.

=ēveniō=, see =veniō=.

=ēventus, ūs= [=ēveniō=], m., _outcome_, _result_; _occurrence_,
_event_.

=ēvertō=, see =*vertō=.

=ēvocō=, see =vocō=.

=ex= or =ē= (last never before vowels), prep. with abl.; of place, _out
of_, _from_; of cause, _in consequence of_, _because of_; _according
to_.

=exanimō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ex= + =anima=], _to put out of breath_,
_kill_; _weaken_.

=exārdēscō, ere, ārsī, ārsus= [=ex= + =ārdēscō=, _to take fire_], _to
take fire_; _be angry_.

=exauctōrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to discharge from service_, _release from
the military oath_.

=excidium, ī=, n., _downfall_, _ruin_.

=excīdō=, see =caedō=.

=excipiō=, see =capiō=.

=excitō=, see =*citō=.

=exclūdō=, see =claudō=.

=exemplum, ī=, n., _a specimen_, _example_.

=exerceō=, see =*arceō=.

=exercitus, ūs= [=exerceō=], m., _an army_.

=exhauriō=, see =hauriō=.

=exhibeō=, see =habeō=.

=exigō=, see =agō=.

=exiguus, a, um= [=exigō=], adj., _small_, _scanty_.

=exīstimō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ex= + =aestimō=, _to reckon_], _to
compute_, _value_, _judge_, _think_, _estimate_, _believe_, _suppose_,
_imagine_.

=exitiābilis, e= [=exitium=], adj., _destructive_, _deadly_.

=exitium, ī= [=exeō=], n., _destruction_, _ruin_.

=exitus, ūs= [=exeō=], m., _a going out_, _way of egress_; _result_.

=exōrdium, ī= [=ex= + =ōrdō=], n., _a beginning_.

=exōsus, a, um= [part. of =exodī=], adj., _hating_, _detesting_.

=expavēscō, ere, pāvī, --= [=ex= + =pavēscō=, incho. of =paveō=, _to
become alarmed_], _to dread_, _fear greatly_ (rare).

=expedītiō, ōnis= [=expediō=, _to set fire_], f., _an expedition_,
_campaign_.

=expellō=, see =pellō=.

=experior, īrī, pertus sum=, _to test_, _try_; _await_, _undergo_;
_find, learn_.

=expers, tis= [=ex= + =pars=], adj., _having no part in_; _destitute
of_, _devoid of_, _free from_, _without_.

=expleō=, see =*pleō=.

=explōrātor, ōris= [=explōrō=, _to search out_], m., _a scout_.

=exportō=, see =*portō=.

=expūgnō=, see =pūgnō=.

=exsecrābilis, e= [=exsecror=], adj., _accursed_.

=exsecrātiō, ōnis= [=exsecror=], f., _an execration_, _malediction_,
_curse_.

=exsecror=, see =*sacrō=.

=exsequiae, ārum= [=exsequor=, _to follow out_], f., fun_eral
procession_, _funeral_.

=exsilium, ī= [=exsul=, _a banished person_], n., _banishment_, _exile_.

=exsistō=, see =*sistō=.

=exspectātiō, ōnis= [=exspectō=], f., _expectation_, _anticipation_.

=exspectō=, see =spectō=.

=exstinguō, ere, stīnxī, stīnctus= [=ex= + =stinguō=, _to extinguish_],
_to quench_, _kill_, _blot out_, _destroy_, _extinguish_, _put an end
to_.

=exsulō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=exsul=, _a banished person_], _to be in
exile_.

=externus, a, um= [=exter=, _outer_], adj., _external_, _foreign_,
_strange_.

=extorqueō, ēre, torsī, tortus= [=ex= + =torqueō=, _to twist_], _to
twist out_, _extort_.

=extrā= [=exter=, _outer_], adv., _on the outside_, _without_; prep.
with acc., _outside of_, _beyond_.

=extrahō=, see =trahō=.

=extrīnsecus=, adv., _without_, _on the outside_; = =praetereā=, _in
addition_.


F.

=Fabius=, ī, m., the name of a Roman gens. _Fabia familia_, the
Fabian gens. _C. Fabius_, consul 477 B.C. _Q. Fabius_, the first
Roman annalist. _C. Fabius Pictor_, consul 269 B.C. See =Licinius=,
=Māximus=, =Vibulānus=.

=Fābricius, ī=, m., _(C.) Fābricius (Luscinus)_, a Roman statesman and
general, prominent in the war with Pyrrhus; consul 283 and 278 B.C.

=facile= [=facilis=, _easy_], adv., comp. _facilius_; _easily_;
_readily_.

=facilitās, ātis= [=facilis=, _easy_], f., _ease_, _kindliness_,
_kindness_, _courtesy_.

=faciō, ere, fēcī, factus=, _to do_, _make_, _act_, _form_; _choose_,
_appoint_; pass. =fīō, fierī, factus sum=, _to be done_, _occur_, _take
place_, _happen_; =certiōrem facere=, _to inform_.

=ad--adficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus=, _to do something to_, _influence_;
_treat_, _visit with_. =con--cōnficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus=, _to
do thoroughly_, _complete_; _wear out_, _exhaust_; _prepare_,
_collect_, _furnish_. =dē--dēficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus=, _to fail_,
_desert_, _be wanting_; _revolt_. =ex--efficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus=,
_to form_, _effect_; _accomplish_; _render_; _build_; _produce_.
=inter--interficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus=, _to slay_, _kill_.
=prae--praeficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus=, _to place in command of_,
_appoint_.

=factiō, ōnis= [=faciō=], f., _a party_, poli_tical party_, _faction_.

=factum, ī= [=faciō=], n., _a deed_, _act_.

=fācundia, ae= [=fācundus=], f., _eloquence_, _oratory_.

=fācundus, a, um=, adj., _eloquent_.

=Faliscī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Falerium_, a town in
Etruria, near Mount Soracte.

=falsō= [=falsus=, _false_], adv., _falsely_.

=fāma, ae= [=for=, _to speak_], f., _report_, _rumor_; _renown_,
_honor_.

=Famea, ae=, m., the surname of Hamilco, commander of the Carthaginian
cavalry in the third Punic war.

=famēs, is=, f., _hunger_, _starvation_.

=familia, ae= [=famulus=, _slave_], f., _the slaves in a household_;
_family_, _household_; _race_, _estate_, _retinue_; =māter familiās=
(old gen.), _mistress_, _matron_.

=familiāris, e= [=familia=], adj., _belonging to a family_, _private_,
_intimate_, _friendly_; as subst., _an intimate friend_; =rēs
familiārēs=, _property_.

=familiāritās, ātis= [=familiāris=], f., _intimacy_, _friendship_.

=famula, ae=, f., _a slave woman_.

=fastīgium, ī=, n., _top_, _height_; _slope_, _descent_; _rank_,
_dignity_.

=fātāliter= [=fātālis=, _fatal_], adv., _fatally_, _according to fate_.

=fatīgātiō, ōnis= [=fatīgō=], f., _weariness_, _fatigue_.

=fatīgō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to tire_, _vex_; _test_.

=fātum, ī= [=for=, _to speak_], n., _an utterance_, _prophetic
declaration_, _oracle_; _fate_, _destiny_.

=Fausta, ae=, f., _Flavia Māximiāna_, the daughter of Maximianus and
wife of Constantine the Great.

=Faustīna, ae=, f., _Galēria Faustīna_ (called Junior to distinguish
her from her mother), the daughter of Amira Galeria Faustina. She was
the wife of M. Aurelius.

=Faustus, ī=, m., _L. Cornēlius Faustus_, son of the dictator Sulla.

=faveō, ēre, fāvī, fautūrus=, _to be favorable_, _favor_, _support_,
_cherish_.

=favor, ōris= [=faveō=], m., _favor_, _good will_, _praise_.

=favōrābilis, e= [=favor=], adj., _favored_, _in favor_; _winning
favor_, _pleasing_.

=Fēlīcissimus, ī=, m., the name of the director of the mint under the
emperor Aurelian.

=fēlīcitās, ātis= [=fēlīx=], f., _good fortune_, _success_.

=fēlīciter= [=fēlīx=]=, adv., comp. =fēlicius=, sup. =fēlicissimē=;
_luckily_, _happily_.

=fēlīx, īcis=, adj., _happy_, _successful_, _fortunate_.

=fēmina, ae=, f., _a woman_, _female_.

=fera, ae= [=ferus=], f., _a wild beast_.

=ferculum, ī= [=ferō=], n., _a means of carrying_, _a frame_, _barrow_,
_litter_.

=ferē=, adv., _almost_, _nearly_, _for the most part_, _usually_;
_about_; with neg., _hardly_, _scarcely_.

=fēriātus, a, um= [=fēriae=, _days of rest_], adj., _keeping holidays_,
_idle_; _festive_.

=fermē= [for =ferimē=, sup. of =ferē=], adv., _almost_, _about_
(especially of numbers).

=ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus=, _to bear_, _lift_; _endure_; _bring_,
_receive_, _report_; _drive_, _blow_ (of the wind); pass., _to rush_;
_enter_; =sīgna ferre=, _to advance_; =fertur=, _is said_; =ferre
sententiam=, _to judge_.

=ab--auferō, ferre, abstulī, ablātus=, _to take_ or _carry away_,
_remove_. =ad--adferō, ferre, attulī, adlātus=, _to bring_, _present_,
_produce_, _affirm_; _carry word_. =circum--circumferō, ferre, tulī,
lātus=, _to cast around_, _go around_. =con--cōnferō, ferre, tulī,
lātus=, _to bring together_, _collect_; _convey_; _impute_; _compare_;
=sē cōnferre=, _betake one’s self_, _go_. =dē--dēferō, ferre, tulī,
lātus=, _to bring down_, _bring_; _report_, _inform_; _assign_, _confer
upon_; _offer_; _accuse_; =rem dēferre ad populum=, _to submit a
matter to the people_. =dis--differō, ferre, distulī, dīlātus=, _to
carry asunder_, _scatter_; _postpone_; _delay_; _differ_. =ex--efferō,
ferre, extulī, ēlātus=, _to carry out or away_; _spread abroad_;
_raise_, _elate_; _bury_. =in--īnferō, ferre, intulī, inlātus=, _to
bring in or upon_; _introduce_; _throw_; _inflict_; _make_, _produce_;
_inspire_; =bellum īnferre=, _to wage_ (offensive) _war_; =sīgna
īnferre=, _to advance against_; =sē īnferre=, _to betake one’s self_.
=ob--offerō, ferre, obtulī, oblātus=, _to bring before_, _offer_;
_promise_; _expose_. =per--perferō, ferre, tulī, lātus=, _to carry
through_; _convey_, _report_; _endure_. =prae--praeferō, ferre, tulī,
lātus=, _to carry before_; _put before_, _prefer_. =re--referō,
ferre, rettulī, lātus=, _to bring back_; _report_, _relate_; =pedem
referre=, _retreat_; =grātiam referre=, _make return_, _requite_.
=trāns--trānsferō, ferre, tulī, lātus=, _to bear or take over or
across_; _transport_, _transfer_.

=ferōcia, ae= [=ferōx=, _fierce_], f., _fierceness_, _courage_,
_cruelty_.

=ferrātus, a, um= [=ferrum=], adj., _furnished with iron_, _ironed_;
=mīlitēs ferrātī=, _cuirassiers_.

=ferrum, ī=, n., _iron_; _sword_, _spear_.

=ferus, a, um=, adj., _wild_, _barbarous_, _cruel_.

=festīnō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to hasten_.

=fēstus, a, um=, adj., _festive_; =diēs fēstus=, _feast day_.

=fētor, ōris=, m., _an offensive smell_.

=fīctus, a, um= [=fingō=, to form], adj., _false_, _fictitious_.

=Fīdēnae, ārum=, pl. f., an ancient town in the country of the Sabines,
five miles north of Rome.

=Fīdēnātēs, um=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Fīdēnae_.

=fidēs, ēī=, f., _good faith_, _loyalty_; _promise_; _alliance_;
_trust_.

=fīdus, a, um=, adj., _trusty_, _faithful_.

=fīlia, ae=, f., _daughter_.

=fīlius, ī=, m., _son_.

=fīniō, īre, īvī, ītus= [=fīnis=], _to bound_, _limit_; _end_, _finish_.

=fīnis, is=, m., _a limit_, _boundary_; _end_, _purpose_; pl.,
_territory_, _country_.

=finitimus, a, um= [=fīnis=], adj., _bordering_, _neighboring_; as
subst., =fīnitimī, ōrum=, pl. m., _neighbors_.

=fīō, fierī, factus sum=, see =faciō=.

=fīrmus, a, um=, adj., _strong_, _powerful_; _trusty_.

=fiscus, ī=, m., a _purse_; _treasury_.

=Flaccus, ī=, m., 1. _(M.) Fulvius Flaccus_, consul 264 B.C. 2. _Q.
Fulvius (Flaccus)_, consul 237 B.C.

=flāgitiōsus, a, um= [=flagitium=, _a crime_], adj., _shameful_,
_disgraceful_, _infamous_.

=Flāminīnus, i=, m., _T. Quīntius Flāminīnus_, consul 123 B.C.

=Flāminius, i=, m., _(C.) Flaminius (Nepos)_, consul 223 and 217 B.C.

=fleō, ere, flēvī, flētus=, _to weep_.

=flētus, ūs= [=fleō=], m., _weeping_, _entreaties_; _tears_.

=*flīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus=, _to strike_ (ante-classical).
=ad--adflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus=, _to dash against_, _scatter_,
_ruin_. =con--cōnflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus=, _to strike together_;
_contend_, _fight_. =prō--prōflīgō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to rout_,
_overthrow_.

=flōreō, ēre, uī, --=[=flōs=, _a flower_], _to bloom_, _flourish_,
_prosper_.

=Flōriānus, ī=, m., _(M. Annius) Floriānus_, the brother of the emperor
Tacitus, upon whose death he was proclaimed emperor at Rome, 276 A.D.

=Flōrus, ī=, m., _C. Aquīlius Flōrus_, consul with L. Scipio, 259 B.C.

=flūmen, inis= [=fluō=], n., _a stream_, _river_.

=fluō, ere, fluxī, fluxus=, _to flow_. =con--cōnfluō, ere, fluxī, --=,
_to run together_, _crowd_, _throng_.

=fluvius, ī= [=fluō=], m., _a river_.

=foedō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=foedus=], _to make foul_, _pollute_;
_dishonor_.

=foedus, a, um=, adj., _foul_, _unseemly_.

=foedus, eris=, n., _a treaty_, _alliance_, _league_.

=forem, ēs, et=, etc., see =sum=.

=fōrma, ae=, f., _form_, _figure_, _beauty_.

=fortis, e=, adj., _brave_, _strong_.

=fortitūdō, inis= [=fortis=], f., _courage_, _bravery_.

=fortuītus, a, um= [=fors=, _chance_], adj., _causal_, _accidental_
(rare).

=fortūna, ae= [=fors=, _chance_], f., _luck_, _fortune_; _state_,
_property_.

=fortūnātus, a, um= [=fortūna=], adj., _lucky_, _fortunate_.

=forum, ī= (cf. =forīs=, _out of doors_), n., _an out of doors place_,
_market_, _Forum_; esp., the Forum Romanum between the Capitoline and
the Palatine hills. It was the center of the political, religious, and
business life of Rome.

=fossa, ae= [=fodiō=, _to dig_], f., _a ditch_, _pit_, _moat_.

=Francī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Francī_, _i.e._ “the Freemen,” a
confederacy of German tribes on the lower Rhine.

=frangō, ere, frēgī, frāctus=, _to break_; _wreck_, _subdue_, _tire
out_. =ex--effringō, ere, frēgī, frāctus=, _to break off_, _break
open_. =in--īnfringō, ere, frēgī, frāctus=, _to break off_; _subdue_,
_overcome_.

=frāter, tris=, m., _a brother_.

=frāternus, a, um= [=frāter=], adj., _brother’s_, _brotherly_.

=fraus, fraudis=, f., _foul play_; _treachery_.

=frequēns, entis=, adj., _crowded_, _frequent_; _in great numbers_.

=frequenter= [=frequēns=], adv., _often_.

=frequentō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=frequēns=], _to visit repeatedly_;
_frequent_; _throng_.

=frīgidus, a, um= [=frīgeō=, _to be cold_], adj., _cold_.

=frīgus, oris=, n., _cold_.

=Frontō, ōnis=, m., _(M. Cornēlius) Frontō_, a celebrated teacher of
rhetoric during the reign of Hadrian.

=frūmentum, ī= [=fruor=, _to enjoy_], n., _grain_, _corn_; pl., _crops_.

=frūstrā=, adv., _in vain_.

=fuga, ae=, f., _flight_.

=fugiō, ere, fūgī, --=, _to flee_; _avoid_, _escape_. =con--cōnfugiō,
ere, fūgī, --=, _to flee_, _take refuge_. =dis--diffugiō, ere, fūgī,
--=, _to flee apart_, _scatter_. =ex--effugiō, ere, fūgī, --=, _to flee
from_, _escape_. =prō--profugiō, ere, fūgī, --=, _to flee_, _escape_.
=re--refugiō, ere, fūgī, --=, _to flee back_, _escape_.

=fugō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=fugiō=], _to put to flight_, _rout_.

=fulgeō, ēre, fulsī, --=, _to flash_, _gleam_.

=fulmen, inis= [=fulgeō=], n., _lightning_, _thunderbolt_.

=Fulvius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Centumalus=,
=Flaccus=, =Nōbiliōr=.

=fundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus=, _to pour_, _shed_; _rout_, _vanquish_.
=con--cōnfundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus=, _to pour together_, _mingle_,
_unite_, _confuse_. =dis--diffundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus=, _to spread out_,
_extend_, _stretch_.

=fūnestus, a, um= [=fūnus=], adj., _causing death_, _deadly_,
_destructive_.

=fūnis, is=, f., _a rope_, _cable_.

=fūnus, eris=, n., _burial_, _funeral rites_; _corpse_.

=furca, ae=, f., _a two pronged fork_; _yoke_.

=furcula, ae= [=furca=], f., _a forked prop_; pl., _a narrow pass_.

=Fūrius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. _C. Fūrius Placidus_, consul
251 B.C. See =Camillus=.

=Fuscus, ī=, m., _Cornēlius Fuscus_, one of the most active adherents
of Vespasian in his contest for the empire.

=futūrus=, see =sum=.


G.

=Gabiī, ōrum=, pl. m., an ancient town in Latium, east of Rome.

=Galatia, ae=, f., a province of Asia Minor settled by Gallic tribes in
the third century B.C.

=Galba, ae=, m., _Servius (Sulpīcius) Galba_, Roman emperor 68-69 A.D.

=Gālerius, ī=, m., see =Māximiānus=.

=Gallia, ae=, f., the country of the Gauls; modern France and the
territories on the west bank of the Rhine. The northern part of Italy
was settled by Gauls, and was called _Gallia Cisalpina_; hence the pl.
=Galliae=.

=Galliēnus, ī=, m. _(P. Licinius Valeriānus Egnatius) Galliēnus_, Roman
emperor 260-268 A.D.

=Gallus, ī=, m., 1. _C. (Cn.) Cornēlius Gallus_, governor of Egypt
under Augustus. 2. _Gallus Hostīliānus_, Roman emperor 251-253 A.D.

=Gallus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Gaul_; =Gallī, ōrum=, pl. m., the
Gauls.

=gaudium, ī= [=gaudeō=, _to rejoice_], n., _joy_.

=gaza, ae=, f., _treasure_, _riches_.

=geminus, a, um=, adj., _twin_, _twofold_; as subst., =geminī, ōrum=,
pl. m., _the twins_.

=gemma, ae=, f., _a bud_; _gem_, _precious stone_.

=gener, erī=, m., _a son-in-law_.

=genitūra, ae=, f., _hour of birth_; _nativity_.

=gēns, gentis=, f., _a gens_ or _clan_; _tribe_, _people_, _nation_.

=Gentius, ī=, m., a king of the Illyrians.

=Genucius, ī=, m., _L. Genucius_, consul 365 B.C.

=genus, generis=, n., _race_, _family_, _stock_, _birth_; _kind_,
_class_, _sort_.

=Germānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Germans_.

=Germānia, ae=, f., _Germany_.

=Germāniciānus, a, um=, adj., _stationed or serving in Germany_ (late).

=gerō, ere, gessī, gestus=, _to bear_, _carry_; _perform_, _do_, _carry
out_; _wage_; =sē gerere=, _to conduct one’s self_, _behave_; =rem
pūblicam gerere=, _to administer the state_; =rēs gestae=, _exploits_,
_history_.

=con--congerō, ere, gessī, gestus=, _to bring together_, _collect_.

=Geta, ae=, m., _Septimius Geta_, brother of Caracalla, by whom he was
assassinated, 212 A.D.

=Glabriō, ōnis=, m., _M. Acilius Glabriō_, consul 191 B.C.

=gladiātor, ōris= [=gladius=], m., _a gladiator_.

=gladiātōrius, a, um= [=gladiātor=], adj., _pertaining to a gladiator_,
_gladiatorial_.

=gladius, ī=, m., _a sword_.

=glōria, ae=, f., _glory_, _honor_, _fame_.

=glōriōsē= [=glōria=], adv., _gloriously_.

=Gordiānus, ī=, m., _(M. Antōnius) Gordiānus_, the name of three Roman
emperors, father, son, and grandson, 237-244 A.D. 1. _Gordiānus_,
senior. 2. _Gordiānus Augustus_, son of (1). 3. _Gordiānus Augustus_,
son of (2).

=Gothī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Goths_, a Germanic people.

=Gracchus, ī=, m., a family name in the Sempronian gens at Rome. _Ti.
Semprōnius Gracchus_, consul 218 B.C. See Notes, p. 124.

=*gradior, gradī, gressus sum=, _to step_, _walk_. =ad--aggredior,
gredī, gressus sum=, _to approach_, _attack_, _undertake_.
=con--congredior, gredī, gressus= =sum=, _to come together_, _unite
with_, _engage_, _attack_. =ē--ēgredior, gredī, gressus sum=, _to go
out_, _leave_, _disembark_; _surpass_. =in--ingredior, gredī, gressus
sum=, _to enter_. =prō--prōgredior, gredī, gressus sum=, _to advance_,
_proceed_. =re--regredior, gredī, gressus sum=, _to step back_,
_retreat_, _return_. =trāns--trānsgredior, gredī, gressus sum=, _to
step over_ or _across_, _cross_.

=Graecē=, adv., _in the Greek language_, _in Greek_.

=Graecia, ae=, f., _Greece_.

=Graecus, a, um=, adj., _Grecian_, _Greek_; as subst., =Graecī, ōrum=,
pl. m., _the Greeks_.

=grandaevus, a, um= [=grandis= + =aevum=, _age_], adj., _aged_.

=grandis, e=, adj., _large_, _grand_.

=grātia, ae= [=grātus=], f., _favor_, _regard_; _return_,
_acknowledge_; _friendship_, _love_, _popularity_, _influence_;
=grātiae, ārum=, pl. f., _thanks_; =grātiā=, with preceding gen.,
_frequent in expressions of purpose_, _for the sake of_.

=grātus, a, um=, adj., _welcome_, _pleasing_, _grateful_.

=gravis, e=, adj., _heavy_, _hard_, _severe_; _important_, _grave_;
_troublesome_, _grievous_.

=graviter= [=gravis=], adv., comp. =gravius=, sup. =gravissimē=;
_weightily_, _vigorously_, _seriously_, _with dignity_.


H.

=habēna, ae= [=habeō=], f., _a holder_, _halter_, _rein_; only in pl.,
_the reins_, _direction_, _management_, _government_.

=habeō, ēre, uī, itus=, _to have_, _hold_, _possess_, _keep_; _regard_,
_consider_; _render_ (honor); =habēre sē=, _to be_.

=dē--dēbeō, ēre, uī, itus=, _to owe_, _ought_; pass., _be due_; =dēbet,
dēbuit=, inf., _ought_. =ex--exhibeō, ēre, uī, itus=, _to hold forth_,
_show_, _display_; _furnish_, _procure_. =prae--praebeō, ēre, uī,
itus=, _to hold in front_, _offer_, _furnish_, _exhibit_.

=habitō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =habeō=], _to dwell_, _inhabit_,
_live_.

=habitus, ūs= [=habeō=], m., _state_, _condition_; _habit_, _manner_;
_dress_.

=Hadriānus, ī=, m., _(P.) Aelius Hadriānus_, Roman emperor 117-138 A.D.

=Haemus, ī=, m., a lofty range of mountains separating Thrace and
Moesia.

=Hamilcar, aris=, m., a Carthaginian general in the first Punic war.

=Hannibal, alis=, m., the son of Hamilcar Barca, the great general of
the Carthaginians in the second Punic war.

=Hannō, ōnis=, m., 1. A Carthaginian general in the second Punic war,
taken captive in Sicily 210 B.C. 2. A Carthaginian general in the
second Punic war, defeated by Scipio 203 B.C.

=Hasdrubal, alis=, m., 1. Surnamed Calvus, “the Bald,” commander of the
Carthaginian expedition to Sardinia in the second Punic war 215 B.C. 2.
Brother of Hannibal, defeated and slain at the battle of the Metaurus
207 B.C. 3. The leader of the Carthaginians in the third Punic war
149-146 B.C.

=haud=, adv., _by no means_, _not at all_, _not_.

=hauriō, īre, hausī, haustus=, _to drink_. =ex--exhauriō, īre, hausī,
haustus=, _to take out_, _empty out_, _exhaust_.

=Helena, ae=, f., the name of a Roman camp in Spain where Constans died.

=Heliogabalus, ī=, m., see =Antōnīnus=.

=Helvētiī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Celtic tribe living north of Lake Geneva in
modern Switzerland.

=Hēraclēa, ae=, f., a city in Thrace on the Propontis.

=Herculius, ī=, m., a cognomen of Maximianus.

=Hērennius, ī=, m., _T. Hērennius (Pontius)_, leader of the Samnites in
the Marsic war.

=hērēs, ēdis=, m., _an heir_.

=Hibērī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Hibēria_.

=Hibēria, ae=, f., a country of Asia.

=hīc, haec, hōc=, dem. pron., _this_; _he_, _she_, it; _the following_;
_the latter_.

=hiems, hiemis=, f., _winter_; _storm_.

=Hiempsal, alis=, m., son of Micipsa, king of Numidia, was murdered by
Jugurtha.

=Hierda, ae=, m., king of Mauretania.

=Hierius, ī=, m., _Hierius Asinius_, leader of the Samnites in the
Marsic war.

=Hierō, ōnis=, m., king of Syracuse, an ally of the Romans.

=Hierosolyma, ōrum=, pl. n., _Jerusalem_.

=hinc= [=hīc=], adv., _from this place_ or _time_, _hence_.

=Hīrtius, ī=, m., _(A.) Hirtius_, friend of Caesar; consul 43 B.C.

=Hirtulēius, ī=, m., a distinguished general of Sertorius in Spain.

=Hispānia, ae=, f., _Spain_ (including Portugal). It was divided
into two provinces, Hispania Citerior and Ulterior; hence the pl.
=Hispaniae=.

=Hispānus, a, um=, adj., _Spanish_; as subst., =Hispānus, ī=, m., _a
Spaniard_.

=historia, ae=, f., _history_, _account_, _story_.

=historicus, ī=, m., _an historian_.

=Hister, trī=, f., a town in Lower Moesia.

=Histrī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Histria_, a peninsula in
the northern extremity of the Adriatic Sea.

=hodiē= [=hōc= + =diē=], adv., _to-day_.

=homō, hominis=, m. and f., _a human being_; _man_, _mankind_.

=honestās, ātis= [=honestus=], f., _honor_, _virtue_.

=honestus, a, um= [=honor=], adj., _honorable_, _upright_, _noble_,
_illustrious_.

=honor, ōri=, m., _honor_, _respect_, _esteem_; _public office_.

=honōrificē= [=honōrificus=, _conferring honor_], adv., _with honor_,
_honorably_.

=honōrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=honor=], _to honor_, _respect_, _adorn_;
_celebrate_.

=hōra, ae=, f., _hour_, the twelfth part of the day (sunrise to sunset)
or night.

=Horātius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Pulvillus=.

=Hormisda, ae=, m., king of Persia, 303-310 A.D.

=horror, ōris=, m., _dread_, _terror_, _horror_.

=hortus, ī=, m., _garden_, _orchard_, _park_.

=Hostīliānus, ī=, m., see =Gallus=.

=hostīlis, e= [=hostis=], adj., _hostile_.

=Hostīlius, ī=, m., _Tullus Hostīlius_, the third king of Rome, 672-640
B.C. See =Mancīnus=.

=hostis, is=, m., _an enemy_, _foe_.

=hūiusmodī= [=hīc= + =modus=], adv., _of this_ (_i.e._ the following)
_kind_.

=hūmānus, a, um= [=homo=], adj., _human_; _refined_, _civilized_;
_humane_.

=humerus, ī=, m., _the shoulder_.

=humiliter= [=humus=, _the ground_], adv., _basely_, _meanly_,
_abjectly_, _humbly_.


I.

=iaceō, ēre, uī, --=, _to lie_, _lie dead_.

=*iaciō, ere, iēcī, iactus=, _to throw_, _cast_, _hurl_; _throw
up_, _construct_. =ad--adiciō, ere, iēcī, iectus=, _to throw to_,
_fling_; _add_. =con--cōniciō, icere, coniēcī, coniectus=, _to throw
together_, _unite_; _hurl_, _throw_; _conjecture_. =dē--dēiciō, icere,
iēcī, iectus=, _to throw_ or _hurl down_, _bring down_; _lay low_,
_dislodge_, _destroy_. =ex--ēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus=, _to cast_
or _drive out_, _expel_. =inter--intericiō, icere, iēcī, iectus=,
_to throw_ or _place between_, _interpose_; _intervene_ (in pass.).
=ob--obiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus=, _to throw before_, _put in the way
of_; _put in the hands of_; _expose_. =sub--subiciō, icere, iēcī,
iectus=, _to throw_ or _place under_; _hand up_; _present_; _subdue_.
=trāns--trāiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus=, _to throw_ or _carry across_,
_transport_; _pierce_, _penetrate_, _transfix_; _go_ or _pass over_,
_cross_.

=iam=, adv., _now_, _already_, _at once_.

=Iāniculum, ī=, n., _Janiculum_, a hill on the west bank of the Tiber.

=Iānus, ī=, m., _Janus_, an old Latin divinity, who presided over the
beginnings of all things; commonly represented with two faces.

=ibi=, adv., _there_; _thereupon_, _then_.

=ibīdem= [=ibi=], adv., _in the same place_, _just there_.

=icō, ere, īcī, ictus=, _to strike_, _smite_; =foedus icere=, _to
strike_ (conclude) _a treaty_ (rare).

=ictus, ūs= [=icō=], m., _a blow_, _stroke_, _wound_.

=idcircō= [=id= + abl. of =circus=], adv., _on that account_,
_therefore_.

=īdem, eadem, idem=, dem. pron., _the same_; often best rendered by an
adv., _also_, _too_, _besides_.

=idōneus, a, um=, adj., _suitable_, _fit_; _capable_.

=Īdūs, uum=, pl. f., _the Ides_; the fifteenth of March, May, July, and
October, and the thirteenth of other months.

=igitur=, adv., _then_, _therefore_, _accordingly_.

=ignāvē= [=ignāvus=], adv., _sluggishly_, _slothfully_, _without
spirit_.

=ignāvia, ae= [=ignāvus=], f., _idleness_, _sloth_; _cowardice_,
_baseness_.

=ignāvus, a, um=, adj., _inactive_, _lazy_, _slothful_; _cowardly_,
_dastardly_.

=īgnis, is=, m., _fire_.

=ignōbilis, e= [=in= + =(g)nōbilis=], adj., _unknown_, _unrenowned_,
_obscure_; _base_, _ignoble_.

=ignōbiliter= [=ignōbilis=], adv., _meanly_ (late Latin).

=ignōminia, ae= [=in= + =(g)nōmen=], f., _disgrace_, _dishonor_,
_ignominy_.

=ignōminiōse= [=ignōminiōsus=, _disgraceful_], adv., _ignominiously_,
_disgracefully_.

=ignōrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ignārus=, _ignorant_], _to be ignorant_,
_not to know_, _overlook_.

=ille, illa, illud=, dem. pron., _that_; _he_, _she_, _it_; _the
former_.

=illīc= [=ille=], adv., _there_, _in that place_.

=illūstris, e=, adj., _clear_, _distinguished_, _glorious_.

=Īllyricum, ī=, n., a country east of the Adriatic Sea.

=Īllyriī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Illyricum_.

=imāgō, inis=, f., _likeness_, _semblance_, _image_; _statue_.

=imitātiō, ōnis= [=imitor=], f., _a copying_, _imitation_.

=imitor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to imitate_.

=immānis, e=, adj., _huge_, _immense_.

=immemor, oris= [=in= + =memor=], adj., _unmindful_, _careless_.

=immeritō= [=immeritus=, _undeserved_], adv., _unjustly_,
_undeservedly_.

=immineō, ēre, uī, --=, _to overhang_, _threaten_.

=immodicus, a, um= [=in= + =modus=], adj., _beyond bounds_, _enormous_,
_high_; _excessive_.

=immūnitās, ātis= [=in= + =munus=, _burden_], f., _freedom from public
duties_, _immunity_.

=impār, paris= [=in= + =pār=], adj., _unequal_.

=impatiēns, entis= [=in= + =patiēns=], adj., _impatient_; _intolerant_,
_impetuous_.

=impatientia, ae= [=impatiēns=], f., _impatience_.

=impellō=, see =pellō=.

=imperātōr, ōris= [=imperō=], m., _commander-in-chief_, _general_,
_emperor_.

=imperium, ī= [=imperō=], n., _command_, _control_, _government_,
_military authority_; _sovereignty_, _empire_.

=imperō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to rule_, _command_; _order_, _levy_; _to be
emperor_.

=impetrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to procure_, _gain_; _accomplish_, _bring
to pass_; _succeed_.

=impetus, ūs= [=in= + =petō=], m., _an attack_; _violence_, _vehemence_.

=impleō=, see =*pleō=.

=impōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=improbō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=improbus=], _to disprove_, _blame_,
_censure_; _reject_.

=improbus, a, um= [=in + probus=, _upright_], adj., _wicked_,
_outrageous_.

=imprōsper, spera, sperum= [=in= + =prōsperus=, _fortunate_], adj.,
_unfortunate_, _unprosperous_.

=imprūdēns, entis= [=in= + =prūdens=, _foreseeing_], adj., _not
foreseeing_, _imprudent_, _off guard_.

=impudīcē= [=impudīcus=, _shameless_], adv., _unchastely_.

=impulsor, ōris= [=impellō=], m., _one who incites_, _instigator_.

=in=, prep. with acc., of place, _into_, _to_, _on_, _upon_, _towards_,
_against_; of purpose, _for_, _with a view to_; of other relations,
_respecting_, _according to_; =in diēs=, _day by day_; with abl., of
place, _in_, _on_, _upon_, _in the midst of_, _among_; of time, _in_,
_in the course of_, _during_; of other relations, _in the midst of_,
_in the case of_, _respecting_, _according to_.

=incēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=incendō, ere, cendī, cēnsus= [=in= + =candeō=, to _shine_], _to set on
fire_, _burn_; _excite_.

=incidō=, see =cadō=.

=incīvīlis, e= [=in= + =cīvīlis=], adj., _rude_, _uncivil_.

=inclutus, a, um=, adj., _famous_.

=incognitus, a, um= [=in= + =cognōscō=], adj., _unknown_.

=incolō=, see =colō=.

=incolumis, e=, adj., _safe_, _unharmed_.

=incommodus, a, um= [=in= + =commodus=], adj., _inconvenient_,
_unsuitable_, _unfit_.

=incōnsultē= [=incōnsultus=, _not asked_], adv., _unadvisedly_,
_inconsiderately_.

=incrēmentum, ī= [=incrēscō=, _to increase_], n., _growth_, _increase_.

=inde=, adv., _from that place_, _thence_; _next_, _then_.

=Indī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the people of India_.

=India, ae=, f., _India_, modern Hindustan.

=indīcō=, see =dīcō=.

=indigeō, ēre, uī, --= [=in= + =egeō=], _to be poor_, _to have need
of_, _want_.

=indiscrētus, a, um= [=in= + =discernō=, _to distinguish_], adj.,
_undistinguishable_; _without distinction of rank_.

=indō=, see =dō=.

=indolēs, is=, f., _nature_, _disposition_.

=indūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=indulgeō, ēre, dulsī, dultus=, _to be complaisant_; _be kind_, _be
tender_; _yield_, _grant_, _spare_; _bestow_, _confer_.

=industria, ae=, f., _industry_, _diligence_; _ability_.

=indūtiae, ārum=, pl. f., _truce_, _armistice_.

=iners, ertis= [=in= + =ars=], adj., _unskillful_, _idle_, _effeminate_.

=īnfāmis, e= [=in= + =fāma=], adj., _infamous_.

=īnfantia, ae= [=in= + =for=, _to speak_], f., _infancy_.

=īnfēlīcitās, ātis= [=īnfēlis=, _unfortunate_], f., _ill-luck_,
_misfortune_.

=īnferior, ius= (comp. of =īnferus=), adj., _lower_, _inferior_.

=īnferō=, see =ferō=.

=īnfēstō, āre, --, --= [=īnfēstus=, _hostile_], _to attack_, _molest_,
_infest_.

=īnfīdus, a, um= [=in= + =fīdus=], adj., _not to be trusted_,
_faithless_, _treacherous_, _false_.

=īnfīnītus, a, um= [=in= + =fīniō=], adj., _unbounded_, _vast_,
_enormous_; _numberless_; as subst., =īnfīnītum, ī=, n., _a large
amount_, _a large number_.

=īnfringō=, see =frangō=.

=ingenium, ī=, n., _disposition_, _ability_, _nature_, _wit_.

=ingēns, entis=, adj., _large_, _huge_, _great_.

=Ingenuus, ī=, m., one of the Thirty Tyrants; defeated and slain by
Gallienus.

=ingluviēs, --=, acc. =em=, abl. =ē=, f., _the crop_, _maw_; _gluttony_.

=ingravēscō, ere, --, --=, _to be burdensome_, _be wearied_;
_increase_, _grow worse_.

=ingredior=, see =*gradior=.

=ingruō, ere, uī, --=, _to break in_; _assault in force_.

=inhonōrus, a, um=, adj., _unsightly_.

=inimīcitia, ae= [=inimīcus=, _unfriendly_], f., _enmity_.

=initium, ī= [=ineō=], n., _a beginning_.

=iniūcundus, a, um= [=in= + =iūcundus=], adj., _unpleasant_,
_disagreeable_.

=iniūria, ae= [=in= + =iūs=], f., _wrong_, _injustice_, _violence_,
_injury_.

=iniūstē= [=iniūstus=], adv., _unjustly_.

=iniūstus, a, um= [=in= + =iūstus=], adj., _unjust_.

=innoxius, a, um=, adj., _harmless_; _not guilty_, _blameless_,
_innocent_.

=innumerus, a, um= [=in= + =numerus=], adj., _countless_.

=inopia, ae= [=inops=, _needy_], f., _want_, _scarcity_, _poverty_.

=inquinō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to stain_, _defile_; _dishonor_.

=inritus, a, um= [=in= + =ratus=], adj., _undecided_, _unsettled_;
_void_, _of no effect_.

=inrumpō=, see =rumpō=.

=īnsatiābilis, e= [=in= + =satur=, _full_], adj., _unsating_, _not
cloying_.

=īnsectātor, ōris=, m., _a persecutor_.

=īnsequor=, see =sequor=.

=īnserō=, see =*serō=.

=īnsidiae, ārum= [=īnsideō=, _to sit upon_], pl. f., _ambush_;
_treachery_.

=īnsīgne, is= [=īnsīgnis=], n., _a sign_, _badge_, _ornament_.

=īnsīgnis, e= [=in= + =sīgnum=], adj., _remarkable_, _distinguished_.

=īnsīgniter= [=īnsīgnis=], adv., _remarkably_, _extraordinarily_.

=īnsolēns, entis= [=in= + =soleō=], adj., _unusual_; _haughty_,
_insolent_.

=īnsolentia, ae= [=īnsolēns=], f., _unusualness_; _haughtiness_,
_arrogance_, _insolence_.

=īnsolentius= (comp. of =īnsolenter=), adv., _too haughtily_,
_insolently_.

=īnstituō=, see =*statuō=.

=īnstō=, see =stō=.

=īnstrūmentum, ī= [=īnstruō=], n., _tool_; collectively, _stock of
tools_, _plant_.

=īnstruō, ere, strūxī, strūctus= [=in= + =struō=, _to pile up_],
_to build_; _arrange_, _draw up_ or _array_ (troops); _make ready_,
_equip_, _fit out_.

=īnsula, ae=, f., _an island_.

=īnsulsē= [=īnsulsus=, _without taste_], adv., _tastelessly_,
_insipidly_; _foolishly_, _absurdly_.

=insum=, see =sum=.

=integer, gra, grum= [=in= + root =tag= in =tango=], adj., _untouched_,
_new_; _full_, _entire_, _vigorous_.

=inter=, prep. with acc., of place, _between_, _among_; _of time_,
_during_.

=Interamna, ae=, f., a town in Umbria.

=intercēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=intereā= [=inter= + =is=], adv., _in the meantime_, _meanwhile_.

=intereō=, see =eō.=

=interfector, ōris= [=interficiō=], m., _a slayer_, _murderer_.

=interficiō=, see =faciō=.

=interim=, adv., _meanwhile_.

=interimō=, see =emō=.

=intericiō=, see =*iaciō=.

=interior, ius= [=inter=], adj., comp., no positive, sup. =intimus=;
_inner_, _interior_.

=intermittō=, see =mittō=.

=interneciō, ōnis= [=internecō=, _to destroy_], f., _slaughter_, _utter
ruin_.

=intersum=, see =sum=.

=interveniō=, see =veniō=.

=intolerābilis, e= [=in= + =tolerābilis=, _supportable_], adj.,
_unendurable_.

=intrā=, adv. and prep. with acc., _inside of_, _within_, _during_.

=intrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=intrō=, _within_], _to enter_.

=intueor=, see =tueor=.

=inultus, a, um= [=in= + =ulcīscor=, _to avenge_], adj., _without
satisfaction_, u_navenged_, _unpunished_.

=inūsitātus, a, um= [=in= + =ūsitātus=, _usual_], adj., _unusual_,
_unfamiliar_, _novel_.

=invādō=, see =*vādō.=

=invehō=, see =vehō.=

=inveniō=, see =veniō.=

=invicem= [=in= + =vicem=], adv., _by turns_, _in turn_, _one after
another_, _alternately_.

=invīctus, a, um= [=in= + =vincō=], adj., _unconquerable_, _invincible_.

=invideō=, see =videō.=

=invidia, ae= [=invideō=], f., _envy_, _ill-will_.

=invīsus, a, um= [=invideō=], adj., _hateful_, _hostile_, _troublesome_.

=invītō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to invite_, _summon_.

=invītus, a, um=, adj., _unwilling_.

=invius, a, um= [=in= + =via=], adj., _impassible_.

=Ioviānus, ī=, m., _(Flavius Claudius) Ioviānus_, Roman emperor 363-364
A.D.

=ipse, a, um=, intensive pron., _himself_, _herself_, _itself_,
_themselves_; often best rendered by _very_, _mere_, _in person_,
_even_, _actually_.

=īra, ae=, f., _anger_, _passion_.

=īrācundia, ae= [=īrācundus=, _irascible_], f., _a proneness to anger_,
_hasty temper_; _anger_, _wrath_, _passion_.

=īrātus, a, um= [=īrāscor=, _to be angry_], adj., _angry_.

=is, ea, id=, dem. pron., _this_, t_hat_; _he_, _she_, _it_; _such_.

=Isaurī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Isauria_.

=Isauria, ae=, f., a country of Asia Minor.

=Isauricus, ī=, adj., _Isaurian_, a surname of P. Servilius (Vatia),
who conquered the Isaurians.

=Īsīum, ī=, n., the temple of Isis.

=ita= [=is=], adv., _in this way_, _so_, _thus_; _as follows_, _in such
a way_; _accordingly_, _and so_.

=Ītalica, ae=, f., a city in Spain.

=Ītalicus, a, um=, adj., _Italian_.

=itaque= [=ita= + =que=], adv., _and so_, _therefore_, _consequently_.

=item=, adv., _likewise_, _just so_, _also_, _moreover_.

=iter, itineris= [=eō=], n., _a journey_, _march_; _road_, _highway_.

=iterum=, adv., _again_, _once more_, _for the second time_.

=Itūraeī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Ituraea_, a district in
Coelesyria.

=Iuba, ae=, m., 1. King of Numidia, defeated by Caesar in the battle of
Thapsus, 46 B.C. 2. King of Mauretania.

=iubeō, ēre, iussī, iussus=, _to order_, _command_.

=iūcundus, a, um=, adj., _pleasant_; _pleasing_, _joyful_, _dear_.

=Iūdaea, ae=, f., _Judea_, a part of Palestine.

=Iūdaeī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Jews_.

=iūdex, icis= [=iūs= + =dīcō=], m., _a judge_.

=iūdicō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=iūdex=], _to judge_, _think_, _be of the
opinion_; _pronounce_.

=iūgerum, ī= [=iungō=], n., _a measure of land, somewhat more than half
an acre_.

=iūgis, e= [=iungō=], adj., _joined together_.

=iugulō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=iugulum=, _neck_], _to cut the throat_,
_kill_, _slay_, _murder_.

=iugum, ī= [=iungō=], n., _a yoke_; _ridge_.

=Iugurtha, ae=, m., king of Numidia. See Notes, p. 135.

=Iugurthīnus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Iugurtha_.

=Iūlia, ae=, f., _Iūlia Maesa_, wife of Caracalla.

=Iūliānus, ī=, m., 1. _(Flavius Claudius) Iūliānus_, Roman emperor
361-363 A.D. 2. _Salvius Iūliānus_, an eminent Roman jurist. 3.
_Salvius Iūliānus_, Roman emperor from March 28 to June 1, 193 A.D.

=Iūlius, i=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Caesar, Libō.=

=iungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus=, _to join together_, _unite_, _bind_,
_fasten_; _yoke_. =ad--adiungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus=, _to join to_,
_fasten to_, _add_. =con--cōniungō, ere, iūnxī, iūnctus=, _to fasten
together_, _connect_, _form by associating_.

=iūnior=, see =iuvenis=.

=Iūnius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Brūtus=, =Pullus=,
=Sīlānus=.

=Iuppiter, Iovīs=, m., the chief god of the Latins. He was originally a
personification of the sky, and had control of the thunder, lightning,
rain, and storms.

=iūrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to take an oath_, _swear_. =con--coniūrō, āre,
āvī, ātus=, _to take an oath together_, _conspire_, _plot_.

=iūs, iūris=, n., _right_, _justice_, _authority_; _court_.

(=iussus, ūs=) [=iubeō=], m., only in the abl. sing. =iussū=, _by order
of_, _command_.

=iūstus, a, um= [=iūs=], adj., _just_, _fair_; _proper_, _fitting_,
_regular_.

=iuvenīlis, e= [=iuvenis=], adj., _youthful_.

=iuvenis, e=, adj., comp. =iūnior=; _young_.

=iuvō, āre, iūvī, iūtus=, _to help_, _aid_.

=iūxtā=, adv. and prep. with acc., _near_.

=Iuventius, ī=, m., _P. (M’.) Iuventius (Thalma)_, praetor 167 B.C.


K.

=Kal.= = =Kalendae, ārum=, pl. f., _the Kalends_, the first day of the
month.

=Karthāginiēnsis, e=, adj., _Carthaginian_; as subst.,
=Karthāginiēnsēs, ium=, pl. m., _the Carthaginians_.

=Karthāgō, inis=, f., 1. _Carthage_, a city founded by the Phoenicians
on the northern coast of Africa; destroyed by the Romans 146 B.C. 2.
_Karthāgō Nova_, a city founded by the Carthaginians on the eastern
coast of Spain.


L.

=L.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Lucius=.

=L.= = 50.

=labor, ōris=, m., _labor_, _toil_; _misfortune_.

=labōriōsus, a, um= [=labor=], adj., _full of labor_, _laborious_,
_toilsome_; _wearisome_, _difficult_.

=labōrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=labor=], _to toil_, _strive_; _be in
distress_; _be troubled_.

=Lacedaemoniī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Lacedaemonians_, the inhabitants of
Lacedaemon or Sparta.

=lacrima, ae=, f., _a tear_.

=lacrimābilis, e= [=lacrimō=, _to weep_], adj., _lamentable_.

=laedō, ere, laesī, laesus=, _to hurt_, _injure_.

=Laeliānus, ī=, m., one of the Thirty Tyrants; emperor in Gaul after
the death of Postumus.

=Laelius, ī=, m., _C. Laelius_, consul 190 B.C.

=laetitia, ae= [=laetus=, _joyful_], f., _joy_, _rejoicing_.

=laetor, ārī, ātus sum= [=laetus=, _joyful_], _to rejoice_, _be
joyful_, _be glad_.

=Laevīnus, ī=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _L. Valerius
(Laevīnus)_, consul 206 B.C. 2. _M. Valerius Laevīnus_, consul 210 B.C.
3. _P. Valerius Laevīnus_, consul 280 B.C.

=laevus, a, um=, adj., _left_; as subst., =laeva, ae=, f., _the left_;
=in laevā=, _on the left side_.

=Lamponius, ī=, m., a leader of the Marian party in the Civil war
between Marius and Sulla.

=languor, ōris=, m., _faintness_, _feebleness_, _weariness_.

=Larcius, ī=, m., _T. Larcius (Flavus)_, the first dictator, 501 B.C.

=largior, īrī, ītus sum=, _to give freely_, _distribute_; _bribe_.

=largītiō, ōnis= [=largior=], f., _liberality_, _bribery_.

=lascīvia, ae= [=lascīvus=, _sportive_], f., _jollity_.

=lātē= [=lātus=, _broad_], adv., _broadly_, _widely_; _on all sides_,
_far and wide_.

=lateō, ere, uī, --=, _to lie hid_, _escape notice_.

=Latīnē=, adv., _in Latin_.

=Latīnus, a, um=, adj., _Latin_, _pertainingto Latium_; as subst.,
=Latīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Latins_.

=latrō, ōnis=, m., _a robber_, _brigand_.

=latrōcinor, ārī, --= [=latrō=], _to be a robber_, _commit piracy_.

=latus, eris=, n., _a side_; _flank_.

=laudō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=laus=], _to praise_, _commend_.

=laurea, ae=, f., _the laurel tree_.

=laus, laudis=, f., _praise_, _fame_, _glory_; _ability_, _merit_.

=lavācrum, ī= [=lavō=], n., _bath_.

=lavō, āre, lāvī, lautus=, _to wash_, _bathe_.

=laxō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to loose_, _spread out_, _relax_.

=lectīcula, ae= [dim. of =lectīca=, _couch_], f., _a litter_; _bier_.

=lēctiō, ōnis= [=legō=], f., _a reading_.

=lēgātiō, ōnis= [=legō=], f., _an embassy_.

=lēgātus, ī= [=legō=], m., _an ambassador_, _legate_; _lieutenant_,
_deputy_.

=legiō, ōnis= [=legō=], f., _a legion_.

=legō, ere, lēgī, lēctus=, _to gather_, _collect_; _select_, _appoint_,
_choose_; _read_. =con--conlegō, ere, lēgī, lēctus=, _to collect_,
_gather_; _obtain_, _get_, _acquire_. =dis--dīligō, ere, lēxī, lēctus=,
_to single out_, _esteem_, _love_, _prize_. =ex--ēligō, ere, lēgī,
lēctus=, _to pick out_, _choose_, _select_.

=lēnitās, ātis= [=lēnis=, _soft_], f., _softness_, _smoothness_,
_gentleness_, _mildness_.

=lēniter= [=lēnis=, _soft_], adv., _softly_, _mildly_, _lightly_.

=Lentulus, ī=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _(L.) Cornēlius
Lentulus_, consul 275 B.C. 2. _L. Cornēlius Lentulus_, consul 237 B.C.
3. _P. Cornēlius Lentulus_, consul 71 B.C.

=leō, ōnis=, m., =lion=.

=Lepidus, ī=, m., _M. Aemilius Lepidus_, a member of the Second
Triumvirate, consul 46 B.C.

=Leptis, is=, f., a Phoenician colony in the northern part of Africa.

=levis, e=, adj., _light_, _trivial_, _easy_.

=lēx, lēgis=, f., _a law_, _decree_.

=libenter= [=libēns=, _glad_], adv., _gladly_, _cheerfully_.

=līber, era, erum=, adj., _free_; as subst., =līberī, ōrum=, pl. m.,
_children_.

=līberālis, e= [=līber=], adj., _freeborn_, _noble_; _liberal_,
_generous_.

=līberālitās, ātis= [=līberālis=], f., _generosity_, _kindness_; _a
gift_.

=līberō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=līber=], _to set free_, _release_.

=lībertās, ātis= [=līber=], f., _freedom_.

=lībertīnus, ī= [=lībertus=], adj. used as subst., m., _a manumitted
slave_, _freedman_.

=lībertus, ī= [=līber=], m., _a freedman_.

=libīdō, inis= [=libet=, _it pleases_], f., _pleasure_; _lust_,
_wantonness_, _passion_.

=Libō, ōnis=, m., _L. Iūlius Libō_, consul 267 B.C.

=lībra, ae=, f., _a pair of scales_; _a pound_.

=Liburnus, a, um=, adj., _of_ or _belonging to the Liburnians_, an
Illyrian people living between Histria and Dalmatia; =nāvēs Liburnae=,
light galleys built after a model used by them.

=Libya, ae=, f., the northern part of Africa, west of Egypt.

=Libyssa, ae=, f., a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor.

=licet, licēre, licuit= or =licitum est=, impers., _it is allowed_,
_permitted_.

=Licinius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. 1. _C. Fabius Licinius_,
consul 273 B.C. 2. _(P. Flavius) Licinius_, Roman emperor 307-324 A.D.
See =Crassus=, =Lūcullus=, =Valeriānus=.

=Ligurēs, um=, pl. m., _the people of Liguria_, a district on the
western coast of Italy.

=Lilybaeum, ī=, n., a town in western Sicily.

=Lingonēs, um=, Gr. acc. =Lingonas=, pl. m., a Celtic people of Gaul.

=līs, lītis=, f., _a strife_, _dispute_, _quarrel_; _a suit_, _action_.

=littera, ae=, f., _a letter_ (of the alphabet); pl., _writing_,
_literature_, _letters_; _a letter_.

=lītus, oris=, n., _a shore, beach_.

=Līvius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Salīnātōr=.

=locō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=locus=], _to place_. =con--conlocō, āre, āvī,
ātus=, _to place_, _arrange_, _station_, _establish_.

=locuplētātor, ōris= [=locuplētō=, _to enrich_], m., _an enricher_.

=locus, ī=, pl. =locī= and =loca=, m., _a place_, _spot_; _room_;
_position_, _rank_, _condition_.

=Lollius, ī=, m., M. Lollius, consul 21 B.C.

=longē= [=longus=], adv., _at a distance_, _far_, _by far_.

=Longīnus, ī=, m., 1. _C. Cassius Longīnus_, consul 124 B.C. 2. _C.
Cassius (Longīnus)_, murderer of Caesar.

=longus, a, um=, adj., _long_, _tall_; _distant_; _tedious_.

=lōrīca, ae= [=lōrum=, _a strap_], f., _a corselet of leather_, _a coat
of mail_.

=Lorium, ī=, n., a town in Etruria.

=Lūcānī, ōrum=, pl. m., the inhabitants of Lucania.

=Lūcānia, ae=, f., a district in southern Italy.

=Lucrētia, ae=, f., the wife of Collatinus.

=Lucrētius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Tricipitīnus=.

=lūctus, ūs= [=lugeō=], m., _grief_, _sorrow_, _mourning_.

=Lūcullus, ī=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _L. Licinius
Lūcullus_, consul 74 B.C. 2. _M. Licinius Lūcullus_, brother of (1).

=lūcus, ī=, m., _a sacred grove_, _grove_.

=lūdus, ī=, m., _play_, _game_; _place of training_, _school_.

=Lugdūnum, ī=, n., a city in Gaul, now Lyons.

=lūgeō, ēre, lūxī, lūctus=, _to mourn_, _bewail_.

=Lūsitānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Lūsitānia_.

=Lūsitānia, ae=, f., a province in the southwest of Spain.

=Lutātius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Catulus=.

=luxūria, ae= [=lūxus=, _excess_], f., _luxury_, _extravagance_.

=Lycia, ae=, f., a division of Asia Minor.


M.

=M.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Marcus=.

=M’.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Manius=.

=Macedo, onis=, m., _a Macedonian_.

=Macedonia, ae=, f., an extensive country north of Greece, between
Thessaly and Thrace.

=Macedonicus, a, um=, adj., _Macedonian_; a surname of =Q. Caecilius
Metellus=, who conquered Macedonia; also of =L. Aemilius Paulus=.

=māchinor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to contrive skillfully_, _devise_,
_scheme_, _plot_.

=Macrīnus, ī=, m., (M.) Opilius Macrīnus, Roman emperor 217-218 A.D.

=Madena, ae=, f., a part of Armenia.

=Maedī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people of Thrace.

=maeror, ōris=, m., _mourning_, _sadness_, _grief_, _sorrow_,
_lamentation_.

=magis=, adv., comp., _more_, _rather_; =eō magis=, _all the more_;
sup., =māximē=, _greatly_, _chiefly_, _exceedingly_.

=magister, trī=, m., _a master_, _ruler_, _teacher_; =magister
equitum=, _master of the horse_, _aid-de-camp of the dictator_.

=Māgnentiānus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to_ or _pertaining to
Māgnentius_.

=Māgnentius, ī=, m., Roman emperor, 350-353 A.D.

=Māgnēsia, ae=, f., a city of Asia Minor near Mount Sipylus in Lydia.

=māgnificentissimē= [=māgnificus=], adv., sup. of =māgnificē=;
_splendidly_, _very magnificently_.

=māgnificus, a, um= [=māgnus= + =faciō=], adj., sup.
=māgnificentissimus=; _splendid_, _magnificent_, _noble_.

=māgnitūdō, inis= [=māgnus=], f., _magnitude_, _greatness_, _size_.

=māgnus, a, um=, adj., comp. =māior=, sup. =māximus=; _great_, _large_,
_abundant_, _powerful_.

=Māgō, ōnis=, m., the brother of Hannibal, captured by Scipio in Spain.

=māiestās, ātis= [=māior=], f., _greatness_, _grandeur_, _dignity_,
_majesty_.

=māior=, see =māgnus=.

=Māius, ī=, m., the month of May; usually as adj., =Māius, a, um=,
_agreeing with mēnsis_, _Kalendae_, _Nōnae_, _Īdūs_.

=male= [=malus=], adv., comp. =pēius=, sup. =pessimē=; _badly_, _ill_,
_unhappily_, _unsuccessfully_.

=mālo=, see =volō=.

=malus, a, um=, adj., comp. =pēior=, sup. =pessimus=; _bad_, _evil_,
_hurtful_; as subst., =malum, ī=, n., _misfortune_.

=Mamaea, ae=, f., _(Iūlia) Mamaea_, mother of Alexander Severus.

=Mancīnus, ī=, m., _C. Hostīlius Mancīnus_, consul 137 B.C.

=mandō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=manus= + =dō=], _to commission_, _command_,
_send word_. =con--commendō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to commend_ or _commit
for protection_, _intrust_, _recommend_. =re--remandō, āre, āvī, ātus=,
_to send back word_ (very rare).

=maneō, ēre, mānsī, mānsus=, _to stay_, _continue_, _abide by_.
=per--permaneō, ēre, mānsī, mānsūrus=, _to continue_, _remain_.
=re--remaneō, ēre, mānsī=, _to remain behind_.

=Mānīlius, ī=, m., _M. Manilius_, consul 149 B.C.

=Mānlius, ī=, m., 1. _A. Mānlius_, consul 241 B.C. 2. _M. Mānlius_,
consul 105 B.C. See =Cēnsōrīnus=, =Torquātus=, =Vulsō=.

=mānsuētūdō, inis= [=mānsuētus=, _tame_], f., _mildness_, _gentleness_.

=manūmittō, ere, mīsī, missus= [=manus= + =mittō=], _to set free_,
_emancipate_; _enfranchise_.

=manus, ūs=, f., _hand_, _arm_; _band_, _troop_; _force_; _combat_;
=manūs cōnserere=, _to join battle_; =dare manūs=, _to yield_.

=Mārcellus, ī=, m., the name of a famous Roman family. 1. _M. Claudius
Mārcellus_, consul 222 B.C. 2. _(M.) Claudius Mārcellus_, consul 166
B.C. 3. _(M.) Claudius Mārcellus_, consul 51 B.C.

=Mārcius, ī=, m., 1. _Ancus Mārcius_, the fourth king of Rome, 640-616
B.C. 2. _C. Mārcius_, consul 310 B.C. 3. _Q. Mārcius_, surnamed
Coriolanus. See =Coriolānus=.

=Marcomannicus, a, um=, adj., _belonging_ or _pertaining to the
Marcomannī_.

=Marcomedī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people of western Asia.

=Mardī, ōrum=, pl. m., a powerful, warlike people that dwelt on the
southern shore of the Caspian sea.

=mare, is=, n., _the sea_.

=Margum, ī=, n., a town in Upper Moesia.

=Mariānus, a, um=, adj., _belonging_ or _pertaining to Marius_.

=maritimus, a, um= [=mare=], adj., _marine_, _maritime_, _on the
seashore_.

=marītus, ī= [=mās=, _male_], m., _a husband_.

=Marius, ī=, m., the name of a family at Rome. 1. _C. Marius_, seven
times consul, leader of the democratic party in the Civil war between
him and Sulla. See Notes, p. 137. 2. _C. Marius_, son of (1). Consul 82
B.C. 3. _M. Aurēlius Marius_, one of the Thirty Tyrants.

=Mārs, Mārtis=, m., the Roman god of war.

=Marsī, ōrum=, pl. m., a brave and warlike Sabellian people, who dwelt
in the mountains of central Italy.

=Mārtius, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Mars_.

=Mārtius, ī=, m., the month of March; usually used as an adj.,
=Mārtius, a, um=, _agreeing with mēnsis_, _Kalendae_, _Nōnae_, _Īdūs_.

=Masinissa, ae=, m., a king of Numidia, an ally of the Romans.

=Massilia, ae=, f., a city in Gaul, modern Marseilles.

=māter, tris=, f., _mother_.

=māternus, a, um= [=māter=], adj., _of a mother_, _mother’s_;
_maternal_, _on the mother’s side_.

=mātrimōnium, ī= [=māter=], n., _marriage_; pl. _wives_.

=mātrōna, ae= [=māter=], f., _a matron_, _woman_.

=Mauretania, ae=, f., a district on the northwestern coast of Africa,
embracing parts of modern Morocco and Algiers.

=Māxentius, ī=, m. _(M. Aurēlius Valerius) Māxentius_, Roman emperor
306-312 A.D.

=māximē=, see =magis=.

=Māximiānus, ī=, m., 1. _Gālerius (Valerius) Māximiānus_, Roman
emperor, 305-311 A.D. 2. _(M. Aurēlius Valerius) Māximiānus_, surnamed
=Herculius=, Roman emperor 286-305 A.D.

=Māximīnus, ī=, m., 1. _(C. Iūlius Verus) Māximīnus_, Roman emperor
235-238 A.D. 2. _Gālerius (Valerius) Māximīnus_, Roman emperor 305-314
A.D.

=Māximus, ī=, m., 1. _Q. Fabius Māximus_, consul six times. 2. _Q.
Fabius Māximus_, defeated by the Samnites 292 B.C. 3. _Q. Fabius
Māximus (Cunctātor)_, five times consul.

=māximus=, see =māgnus=.

=Māzaca, ae=, f., a city in Cappadocia, later called _Caesarēa ad
Argaeum_ from Mount Argaeus upon which it stood.

=medicus, ī= [=medeor=, _to heal_], m., _a physician_, _surgeon_.

=medie= [=medius=], adv., _in the middle_, _moderately_, _tolerably_.

=medietās, ātis= [=medius=], f., _the middle_, _place in the middle_,
_midst_.

=mediocris, cre= [=medius=], adj., _common_, _moderate_, _mediocre_.

=Mediōlānum, ī=, n., a city in Cisalpine Gaul, modern Milan.

=medius, a, um=, adj., _in the middle_, _middle_, _midst of_; as
subst., =medium, ī=, n., _middle_, _midst_, _space between_.

=melior=, see =bonus=.

=melius=, see =bene=.

=Memmius, ī=, m., _L. Memmius_, consul 151 B.C.

=memorābilis, e= [=memorō=, _to bring to mind_], adj., _worth telling_,
_remarkable_.

=memoria, ae= [=memor=, _mindful_], f., _memory_; _report_, _record_,
_time_, _age_.

=mēns, mentis=, f., _the mind_; _disposition_; _reason_.

=mēnsis, is=, m., _a month_.

=mentiō, ōnis=, f., _mention_.

=mentum, ī=, n., _the chin_.

=mereō, ēre, uī, itus=, _to get_, _earn_, _deserve_; _serve_.

=mergō, ere, mersī, mersus=, _to dip_, _plunge_, _sink_. =dē--dēmergō,
ere, mersī, mersus=, _to sink_.

=meritō= [=meritum=, _desert_], adv., _deservedly_, _justly_.

=Mesopotamia, ae=, f., _Mesopotamia_, a division of Asia between the
Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

=Messāla, ae=, m., _M. (M’.) Valerius (Messāla)_, consul 263 B.C.

=Messēniī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Messēnē_, an island in
the Tigris river.

=-met=, an intensive enclitic particle, _self_.

=Metellus, ī=, m., the name of a prominent family at Rome. 1. _C.
Caecilius Metellus_, consul 113 B.C. 2. _L. Caecilius Metellus_, consul
251 B.C. 3. _L. Caecilius Metellus_, consul 123 B.C. 4. _(Q. Caecilius)
Metellus Macedonicus_, consul 143 B.C. 5. _Q. Caecilius Metellus
(Numidicus)_, consul 109 B.C. 6. _Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus_,
consul 69 B.C. 7. _L. (Caecilius) Metellus_, carried on war against
Mithradates. 8. _M. (Caecilius) Metellus._

=metus, ūs=, m., _fear_, _dread_.

=Micipsa, ae=, m., king of Numidia, the eldest of the sons of Masinissa.

=migrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to migrate_, _remove_.

=mīles, itis=, m. and f., _a soldier_.

=mīliārium, ī=, n., _a milestone_, _mile_.

=mīlitāris, e= [=mīles=], adj., _military_; as subst., _a soldier_;
=rēs mīlitāris=, _the art of war_, _military operations_.

=mīlitia, ae= [=mīles=], f., _military service_.

=mīlitō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=mīles=], _to be a soldier_, _wage war_.

=mīlle=, indecl. num. adj., _a thousand_; as subst. with part. gen.,
=mīlia, um=, pl. n., _thousand_, _thousands_.

=mīllēsimus, a, um= [=mīlle=], num. adj., _thousandth_.

=mināx, ācis= [=minor=, _to threaten_], adj., _threatening_.

=minimē=, see =parum=.

=minimus=, see =parvus=.

=minister, trī=, m., _an attendant_, _servant_.

=minor, us=, see =parvus=.

=Minucius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Rūfus=.

=minuō, ere, ī, ūtus= [=minus=], _to make small_, _diminish_, _reduce_.
=dē--dēminuō, ere, ī, ūtus=, _to make smaller_, _lessen_, _diminish_.

=minus=, adv., see =parum=.

=mīrābilis, e= [=mīror=], adj., _wonderful_.

=mīror, ārī, ātus sum=, _to wonder at_, _be astonished_. =ad--admīror,
ārī, ātus sum=, _to wonder at_, _admire_.

=Mithradātēs, is=, m., surnamed the Great, king of Pontus 120-63 B.C.

=Mithradāticus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Mithradātēs_.

=mītis, e=, adj., _mild_, _kind_, _placid_.

=mittō, ere, mīsī, missus=, _to send_, _dispatch_; _throw_, _shoot_;
_let go_. =ab--āmittō, ere, mīsī, missus=, _to send away_,
_lose_; _dismiss_. =ad--admittō, ere, mīsī, missus=, _to permit_,
_admit_, _give audience to_. =con--committō, ere, mīsī, missus=,
_to send_ or _bring together_, _join_; _intrust_, _commit_, _bring
about_, _cause_, _allow_; =pūgnam= or =proelium committere=, _to
begin battle_. =dis--dimittō, ere, mīsī, missus=, _to send away_,
_dismiss_; _give up_, _abandon_. =inter--intermittō, ere, mīsī,
missus=, _to send between_, _interpose_, _interrupt_; _stop_, _cease_.
=per--permittō, ere, mīsī, missus=, _to let pass_; _permit_, _allow_.
=praeter--praetermittō, ere, mīsī, missus=, _to permit to go by_, _let
pass_, _let go_; _omit_, _neglect_. =prō--prōmittō, ere, mīsī, missus=,
_to put forward_; _promise_, _assure_. =re--remittō, ere, mīsī,
missus=, _to send back_, _relax_; _abate_.

=moderātē= [=moderātus=], adv., sup. =moderātissimē=; wi_th
moderation_, _moderately_.

=moderātiō, ōnis= [=moderor=], f., _moderation_, _self-control_.

=moderātor, ōris= [=moderor=], m., _a manager_, _governor_, _director_.

=moderātus, a, um= [=moderor=], adj., _self-controlled_, _temperate_,
_modest_.

=moderor, ārī, ātus sum= [=modus=], _to set bounds to_, _check_,
_restrict_, _regulate_.

=modestia, ae= [=modestus=], f., _moderation_; _shame_, _modesty_;
_sense of honor_, _dignity_.

=modestus, a, um= [=modus=], adj., _keeping due measure_, _moderate_,
_modest_, _temperate_.

=modicus, a, um= [=modus=], adj., _small_, _moderate_.

=modius, ī= [=modus=], m., _a measure_, _peck_.

=modo= [=modus=], adv., _only_; _just now_, _lately_; =modo … modo=,
_at one time … at another_, _now … now_; =nōn modo … sed etiam=, _not
only … but also_.

=modus, ī=, m., _measure_, _limit_, _end_; _way_, _manner_.

=Moesia, ae=, f., the modern Bulgaria and Servia, divided into Moesia
Superior and Inferior; hence the pl., =Moesiae=.

=Mogontiacum, ī=, n., a city in Belgic Gaul, modern Mainz.

=molestus, a, um= [=mōlēs=, _mass_], adj., _troublesome_, _annoying_,
_vexatious_.

=mōlior, īrī, ītus sum= [=mōlēs=, _mass_], _to struggle_, _toil_;
_undertake_, _attempt_.

=mollis, e=, adj., _gentle_, _smooth_; _yielding_.

=moneō, ēre, uī, itus=, _to advise_, _warn_, _remind_.

=monētārius, ī= [=monēta=, _mint_], m., _a minter_, _coiner_.

=mōns, montis=, m., a mountain, _hill_, _height_.

=monumentum, ī= [=moneō=], n., _a monument_, _record_; _tomb_.

=mōrātus, a, um= [=mōs=], adj., _mannered_, _of morals_, _constituted_;
_characteristic_.

=morbus, ī=, m., _sickness_, _disease_.

=morior, morī, mortuus sum=, _to die_.

=moror, ārī, ātus sum= [=mora=, _delay_], _to delay_, _wait_.

=mors, mortis= [=morior=], f., _death_.

=mōs, mōris=, m., _a custom_, _habit_; _manner_, _fashion_; pl.,
_customs_, _character_.

=mōtus, ūs= [=moveō=], m., _motion_, _disturbance_, _revolt_.

=moveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus=, _to move_, _remove_; _influence_, _excite_.
=con--commoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus=, _to arouse_, _disturb_, _move_,
_influence_. =re--removeō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus=, _to remove_, _put aside_,
_dismiss_, _withdraw_. =sub--submoveō, ēre, mōvī, mōtus=, _to drive
off_, _dislodge_.

=mox=, adv., _soon_, _directly_, _then_.

=Mūcius, ī=, m., see =Scaevola=.

=muliebris, e= [=mulier=, _a woman_], adj., _pertaining to a woman,
woman-like_.

=multitūdō, inis= [=multus=], f., _a multitude_.

=multō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=multa=, _a fine_], _to fine_, _deprive_;
_punish_, _condemn_.

=multō= [=multus=], adv., _by far_, _much_.

=multus, a, um=, adj., comp. =plūs=, sup. =plūrimus=; _much_, _many a_;
pl., _many_.

=Mulvius, a, um=, adj., _Mulvian_; =Mulvius pōns=, the Mulvian bridge,
about two miles north of Rome.

=Mummius, ī=, m., _L. Mummius_, the conqueror of Corinth; consul 146
B.C.

=Munda, ae=, f., a Roman colony in the south of Spain, where a battle
was fought in 45 B.C. between Caesar and the Pompeians.

=mūniō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus= [=moenia=, _walls_], _to fortify_,
_secure_, _guard_.

=mūnus, eris=, n., _duty_, _service_; _present_, _gift_.

=Mūrēna, ae=, m., _L. (Licinius) Mūrēna_, consul 62 B.C.

=murrinus, a, um=, adj., _of_ or _belonging to the stone murra_,
_murine_.

=Mursa, ae=, f., a town in Pannonia.

=mūrus, ī=, m., _a wall_.

=Mūs, Mūris=, m., _(P.) Decius Mūs_, consul 279 B.C.

=mūtō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to change_.


N.

=Nabis, idis=, m., _tyrant of Sparta_.

=nactus=, see =nancīscor=.

=nam=, conj., _for_, _but_.

=nancīscor, ī, nactus sum=, _to get_, _obtain_.

=Narbō, ōnis=, m., a city in the southern part of Gaul.

=nārrātiō, ōnis= [=nārrō=, _to tell_], f., _a relating_, _narrative_.

=Narseus, ī=, m., king of Persia, 294-303 A.D.

=Nāsīca=, see =Scīpiō=.

=nāscor, ī, nātus sum=, _to be born_; _spring from_, _arise_.

=nātiō, ōnis= [=nāscor=], f., _nation_, _tribe_, _people_.

=nātūra, ae= [=nātus=], f., _nature_, _disposition_; _situation_.

=nātus, a, um= [=nāscor=], adj., lit. _born_; with =annōs= and
numerals, _old_.

=naufragium, ī= [=nāvis= + =frangō=], n., _shipwreck_, _ruin_.

=nāvālis, e= [=nāvis=], adj., _naval_.

=nāvigātiō, ōnis= [=nāvigō=], f., _a voyage_; _navigation_.

=nāvigō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=nāvis= + =agō=], _to sail_, _navigate_.

=nāvis, is=, f., _ship_, _vessel_; =nāvis longa=, _war ship_, _galley_;
=nāvis onerāria=, transport.

=nē=, 1, adv., _not_; =nē … quidem=, _not even_, _not at all_; 2,
conj., _in order that not_, _lest_, _not to_, _for fear that_.

=ne=, enclitic interrog. particle, used (1) in direct questions, and
then translatable only by the inflection of the voice; (2) as conj.
with indirect questions, _whether_.

=nec=, see =neque=.

=necessārius, a, um= [=necesse=, _necessary_], adj., _necessary_,
_indispensable_; as subst., _an intimate friend_, _relative_.

=necessitūdō, inis= [=necesse=, _necessary_], f., _friendship_,
_intimacy_.

=neglegenter= [=neglegēns=, _heedless_], adv., _heedlessly_,
_carelessly_, _negligently_.

=negō, āre, āvi, ātus=, _to say no_, _deny_, _refuse_.

=negōtium, ī= [=nec= + =ōtium=], n., _business_; _toil_, _labor_,
_trouble_.

=nēmō, inis= [=nē= + =homō=], m. and f., _no one_.

=Nepotiānus, ī=, m., _(Flavius Popilius) Nepotiānus_, Roman emperor for
28 days in 350 A.D.

=nepōs, ōtis=, m., _grandson_; _nephew_ (late); pl., _descendants_.

=nēquāquam= [=nē= + =quāquam=, _anywhere_], adv., _not at all_, _by no
means_.

=neque= or =nec= [_nē_ + _que_], adv. and conj., _and not_, _but not_,
_nor_, _nor yet_; =neque (nec) … neque (nec)=, _neither … nor_.

=Nerō, ōnis=, m., 1. Nerō (_Claudius Caesar Drūsus Germānicus_), Roman
emperor 54-68 A.D. 2. _Appius Claudius Nerō_, consul 207 B.C.

=Nerōniānus, a, um=, adj., _belonging_ or _pertaining to Nerō_;
_Nerōniānae thermae_.

=Nerva, ae=, m. _(M. Coccēius) Nerva_, Roman emperor 96-98 A.D.

=neuter, tra, trum= [=nē= + =uter=], pron., _neither_ (of two).

=nex, necis=, f., _death_; _murder_, _slaughter_.

=Nīcomēdēnsēs, ium=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Nīcomēdia_.

=Nīcomēdia, ae=, f., the capital city of Bithynia in Asia Minor.

=Nicomēdēs, is=, m., 1. Surnamed Epiphanes, king of Bithynia, 149-91
B.C. 2. Surnamed Philopator, king of Bithynia, 91-74 B.C.

=Niger, grī=, m. _(C.) Pescennius Niger_, Roman emperor 193-194 A.D.

=nihil= [=nē= + =hilum=, _a trifle_], n., indecl., _nothing_, _not at
all_.

=Nīlus, ī=, m., _the river Nile_.

=nimietās, ātis= [=nimius=], f., _a too great number or quantity_;
_superfluity_, _excess_.

=nimis=, adv., _too much_, _very_, _excessively_.

=nimius, a, um= [=nimis=], adj., _too much_, _too great_, _excessive_.

=nisi= [=nē= + =sī=], conj., =if not=, =unless=, =except=.

=Nisibis, is=, f., a city in Mesopotamia.

=nītor, ī, nīsus= or =nīxus sum=, _to strive_, _attempt_; _rely upon_.
=ad--adnītor, ī, nīsus= or =nīxus sum=, _to lean against or upon_;
_strive_.

=Nōbiliōr, ōris=, m., a celebrated Roman family. 1. _M. Fulvius
(Nōbiliōr)_, consul 189 B.C. 2. _Ser. Fulvius Nōbiliōr_, consul 255 B.C.

=nōbilis, e= [=nōscō=], adj., _noted_, _notable_; _renowned_, _noble_.

=nōbilitās, ātis= [=nōbilis=], f., _renown_, _nobility_;_the nobles_.

=nōbiliter= [=nōbilis=], adv., _famously_, _excellently_, _splendidly_,
_nobly_.

=nocturnus, a, um= [=nox=], adj., _by night_, _nocturnal_.

=Nōla, ae=, f., a city in Campania in Italy.

=nōlō=, see =volō=.

=nōmen, inis= [=nōscō=], n., _a name_; _account_; _pretense_;
_authority_.

=Nōmentānus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Nōmentum_, a Sabine city.

=nōminō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=nōmen=], _to name_, _call_, _mention_.

=nōn=, adv., _not_, _no_.

=Nōnae, ārum=, pl. f., _the Nones_, the seventh of March, May, July,
and October, and the fifth of other months.

=nōnāgēsimus, a, um= [=nōnāgintā=], num. adj., _ninetieth_.

=nōnāgintā=, indecl. num. adj., _ninety_.

=nōnnūllus, a, um= [=nōn= + =nūllus=], adj., _some_, _several_.

=nōnus, a, um= [=novem=], num. adj., _ninth_.

=Norbānus, ī=, m. _(C.) Norbānus_, consul 83 B.C.

=Nōricum, ī=, n., a Roman province south of the Danube.

=nōscō, ere, nōvī, nōtus=, _to come to know_, _become acquainted with_;
in perf. system, _to know_.

=ad--āgnōscō, ere, gnōvī, gnitus=, _to recognize_. =con--cognōscō,
ere, cognōvī, cognitus=, _to learn_, _perceive_, _understand_. =re= +
=con=--=recognōscō, ere, gnōvī, gnitus=, _to recall_, _recognize_.

=noster, tra, trum= [=nōs=], adj., _our_, _our own_.

=notābilis, e= [=notō=, _to mark_], =adj.=, _noteworthy_,
_conspicuous_, _notable_.

=nōtus, a, um= [=nōscō=], adj., _well known_, _familiar_.

=novem=, num. adj., _nine_.

=noverca, ae=, f., _stepmother_.

=novus, a, um=, adj., _fresh_, _new_, _young_, _recent_; =novae rēs=,
_a revolution_.

=nox, noctis=, f., _night_.

=nūbō, ere, nūpsī, nūptus=, _to veil one’s self_, _marry_.

=nūdō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=nūdus=], _to make bare_, _strip_, _expose_.

=nūdus, a, um=, adj., _naked_, _bare_.

=nūllus, a, um= [=nē= + =ūllus=] (gen. =nūllīus=, dat. =nūllī=), adj.,
_none_, _no_; as subst., _no one_.

=Numa, ae=, m., see =Pompilius=.

=Numantia, ae=, f., a city in Spain.

=Numantīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Numantia_.

=nūmen, inis= [=nuō=, _to nod_], n., a divinity, power.

=numerōsus, a, um= [=numerus=], adj., _in full numbers_, _numerous_,
_manifold_.

=Numeriānus, ī=, m., the younger of the two sons of the emperor Carus.

=numerus, ī=, m., _number_, _account_; _character_, _rank_.

=Numidae, ārum=, pl. m., _the Numidians_.

=Numidia, ae=, f., a country of northern Africa, west of Carthage.

=nummus, ī=, m., _money_; _coin_; _sesterce_ (= 4.1 cents).

=numquam= [=nē= + =umquam=], adv., _never_.

=nunc=, adv., _at the present moment_, _now_.

=nūncupō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=nōmen= + =capiō=], _to call_, _call by
name_.

=nūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=nūntius=], _to tell_, _announce_, _report_.
=dē--dēnūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to announce_, _denounce_, _order_,
_threaten_. =prō--prōnūntiō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to tell_, _declare_,
_recite_, _appoint_.

=nūntius, ī=, m., _a messenger_; _message_.

=nusquam= [=nē= + =usquam=], adv., _nowhere_, _in no place_.

=nūtō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to nod_; _waver_, _be ready to give way_.


O.

=ob=, prep. with acc., _to_, _towards_; _for_, _on account of_, _by
reason of_.

=obeō=, see =eō=.

=obiciō=, see =*iaciō=.

=obitus, ūs= [=obeō=], m., _destruction_, _death_.

=oboediō=, see =audiō=.

=obscēnē= [=obscēnus=, _ill-omened_], adv., sup. =obscēnissimē=;
_immodestly_, _indecently_.

=obscēnitās, ātis= [=obscēnus=, _ill-omened_], f., _moral impurity_,
_foulness_, _unchastity_, _lewdness_, _obscenity_.

=obscūrē= [=obscūrus=], adv., comp. =obscūrius=, sup. =obscūrissimē=;
_obscurely_.

=obscūrus, a, um=, adj., _dark_, _obscure_; _ignoble_, _mean_, _low_.

=obsecrō=, see =*sacrō=.

=obsequor=, see =sequor=.

=obses, idis= [=obsideō=], m. and f., _a hostage_.

=obsideō=, see =sedeō=.

=obsidiō, ōnis= [=obsideō=], f., _a siege_.

=obtemperō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=temperō=, _to soften_], _to submit_.

=obtineō=, see =teneō=.

=obvius, a, um= [=ob= + =via=], adj., _in the way_, _meeting_; with
=esse, fierī=, or =venīre=, _to meet_.

=occāsiō, ōnis= [=occidō=, _to happen_], f., _an occasion_,
_opportunity_.

=Occidēns, tis= [=occidō=], m. (sc. =sōl=), _the setting sun_, _the
West_, _the Occident_.

=occīdō=, see =caedō=.

=occulō, ere, culuī, cultus=, _to cover_, _cover over_; _hide_,
_conceal_.

=occultō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =occulō=], _to hide_, _conceal_;
_secrete_.

=occultus, a, um= [=occulō=], adj., _hidden_, _secret_, _concealed_.

=occupō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ob= + =capiō=], _to take possession of_,
_seize_, _hold_, _occupy_; _attack_, _employ_.

=occurrō=, see =currō=.

=Ōceanus, ī=, m., the Atlantic and its divisions in contrast with the
Mediterranean Sea.

=Octāviāna, ae=, f., sister of Octavianus and wife of M. Antonius.

=Octāviānus, ī=, m., see =Caesar, Augustus=.

=Octāvius, ī=, m., _C. Octāvius_, consul 87 B.C.

=octāvus, a, um= [=octō=], num. adj., _eighth_.

=octingentēsimus, a, um= [=octingentī=], num. adj., _eight hundredth_.

=octingentī, ae, a= [=octō= + =centum=], num. adj., _eight hundred_.

=octō=, indecl. num. adj., _eight_.

=octōdecim= [=octō= + =decem=], indecl. num. adj., _eighteen_.

=octōgēsimus, a, um= [=octōgintā=], num. adj., _eightieth_.

=octōgintā= [=octō=], indecl. num. adj., _eighty_.

=oculus, ī=, m., _the eye_.

=Odenāthus, ī=, m., ruler of Palmyra. He checked the incursions of the
Persians, and was honored with the title of Augustus by Gallienus.

=odēum, ī=, n., _a public building designed for musical performances_,
_odeon_.

=odium, ī= [=odī=, _to hate_], n., _hatred_, _aversion_.

=odor, ōris=, m., _odor_, _stench_.

=Oenomaus, ī=, m., a leader of the gladiators who revolted with
Spartacus.

=offēnsa, ae=, f., _disfavor_, _offense_, _hatred_, _enmity_.

=offerō=, see =ferō=.

=officium, ī= [=opus= + =faciō=], n., _service_, _favor_; _duty_,
_office_.

=Ogulnius, ī=, m., _Q. Ogulnius_, consul 269 B.C.

=olim= [=ole=, old form of =ille=], adv., _formerly_.

=Olympias, adis=, f., _an Olympiad_, the space of four years
intervening between the games at Olympus. The period was used in
assigning dates, the first Olympiad beginning in 776 B.C.

=Olympus, ī=, m., a city in Lycia in Asia Minor.

=ōmen, inis=, n., _a foreboding_, _prognostication_, _omen_.

=omnīnō= [=omnis=], adv., _in all_, _altogether_, _only_, _in general_;
_at all_.

=omnis, e=, adj., _every_, _all_.

=opera, ae= [=opus=], f., _work_, _pains_, _aid_; _operam dare_, _to
attend to_, _assist_, _aid_.

=opifex, ficis= [=opus= + =faciō=], m., _workman_, _artisan_.

=opīnor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to think_, _believe_.

=oppidum, ī=, n., _a walled town_.

=Oppius, ī=, m., see =Sabīnus=.

=opprimō=, see =premō=.

=oppūgnātiō, ōnis= [=oppūgnō=], f., _an assault_, _attack_, _siege_.

=oppūgnō=, see =pūgnō=.

(=ops=), =opis=, f., _power_, _help_; pl. =opēs, um=, _wealth_,
_resources_.

=optimus=, see =bonus=.

=optō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to hope_, _desire_.

=ad--adoptō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to adopt_.

=opulentus, a, um= [=ops=], adj., _rich_, _wealthy_.

=opus, operis=, n., _work_, _business_, _need_; _fortification_.

=ōrātor, ōris= [=ōrō=], m., _an orator_, _ambassador_.

=orbis, is=, m., _circle_; =orbis terrae= or =terrārum=, _the world_.

=orbitās, ātis= [=orbus=, _destitute_], f., _bereavement_, _orphanage_.

=Orchadēs, um=, pl. f., a group of islands north of Scotland, now
Orkney Islands.

=ōrdinārius, a, um= [=ōrdinō=], adj., _of order_, _usual_, _regular_,
_ordinary_.

=ōrdinō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ōrdō=], _to arrange_, _regulate_.

=ōrdō, inis=, f., _an order_, _rank_, _row_.

=Orestēs, is=, m., _Cn. Aufidius Orestes_, consul 73 B.C.

=Oriēns, entis= [=orior=], m. (sc. =sōl=), _the rising sun_, _the
East_, _the Orient_.

=orīgō, inis= [=orior=], f., _an origin_, _source_, _pedigree_.

=orior, īrī, ortus sum=, _to rise_, _begin_, _spring from_.

=oriundus, a, um= [=orior=], adj., _descended_, _sprung from_,
_originating_, _born_.

=ōrnāmentum, ī= [=ōrnō=, _to fit out_], n., _a preparation_;
_decoration_, _ornament_, _jewel_.

=ōrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=ōs=, _mouth_], _to pray_, _beg_, _entreat_.

=ad--adōrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to supplicate_; _worship_, _reverence_.

=Orōdēs, is=, m., a king of the Parthians, conquered by Pompey.

=os, ossis=, n., _a bone_.

=Osdroēna, ae=, f., _Osroēnē_, a district in the west of Mesopotamia.

=Osdroēnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Osdroēna_.

=ostendō=, see =tendō=.

=ōstiātim=, adv., _from door to door_, _from house to house_.

=ōstium, ī= [=ōs=, _mouth_], m., _the mouth of a river_.

=Otācilius, ī=, m., _(T.) Otācilius Crassus_, consul 263 B.C.

=Othō, ōnis=, m., _(M. Salvius) Othō_, Roman emperor from January 15 to
April 16, 69 A.D.

=ōtium, ī=, n., _leisure_; _ease_, _idleness_; _rest_, _peace_.

=ovō, āre, --, --=, _to exult_, _rejoice_; _receive an ovation_,
_triumph_.


P.

=P.=, abbreviation of the praenomen Publius.

=pācō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=pāx=], _to pacify_, _make peaceful_.

=Pacorus, ī=, m., son of Orodes I., king of Parthia.

=Paelīgnī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Sabine people dwelling in central Italy.

=paene=, adv., _almost_, _nearly_.

=Palaeopharsālus, ī=, f., a city in Thessaly where Caesar defeated
Pompey 48 B.C. It is generally written Pharsalus.

=Palaestīna, ae=, f., _Palestine_.

=palam=, adv., _openly_, _publicly_.

=Palātīnus, ī= (sc. =mōns=), adj., _the Palatine Hill_.

=Palātium, ī=, n., _the Palatine Hill_; _the imperial palace_, which
was on the hill.

=pallium, ī=, n., _a Grecian cloak_, _mantle_.

=palūs, ūdis=, f., _a marsh_, _fen_.

=Pamphȳlia, ae=, f., a division of Asia Minor.

=Pannonia, ae=, f., one of the most important provinces of Rome, lying
between the Danube and the Alps.

=Pannonicus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Pannonia_.

=Pannoniī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Pannonia_.

=Pānsa, ae=, m., _(C. Vibius) Pānsa_, consul 43 B.C.

=Panticapaeum, ī=, n., a city in the modern Crimea.

=Paphlagōn, onis=, m., _a Paphlagonian_.

=Paphlagonia, ae=, f., a division of Asia Minor on the Black Sea.

=Papirius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Carbō=, =Cursor=.

=parēns, entis= [=pariō=], m. and f., _a father or mother_, _parent_;
_relative_ (late).

=pāreō, ēre, uī, --=, _to appear_; _obey_, _serve_. =ad--appāreō, ēre,
uī, --=, _to become visible_, _appear_; _serve_. =con--compāreō, ēre,
uī, --=, _to appear_, _show one’s self_.

=*pariō, ere, peperī, partus=, _to give birth to_, _bring forth_.
=ab--āperiō, īre, uī, tus=, _to uncover_, _bare_; _open_, _disclose_.
=con--comperiō, īre, perī, pertus=, _to find out_, _learn_.
=re--reperiō, īre, repperī, repertus=, _to find_ (again), _meet with_,
_discover_.

=parō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to make ready_, _prepare_; _resolve_, _plan_;
_get_, _acquire_. =con--comparō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to make ready_,
_prepare_; _obtain_, _procure_. =prae--praeparō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to
make ready beforehand_, _provide_. =re--reparō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to
renew_.

=parricīdium, ī= [=pater= + =caedō=], n., _murder of a father_,
_parricide_.

=pars, partis=, f., _a part_, _number_; _district_; _side_,
_direction_; _party_, _faction_.

=Parthenius, ī=, m., the slayer of Domitian.

=Parthenopolis, is=, f., a city in Lower Moesia on the Black Sea.

=Parthī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Scythian people southeast of the Caspian Sea.

=Parthicus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to Parthia_, cognomen of
_Septimius Sevērus_.

=Parthomasīris, is=, m., king of Armenia.

=partim= [=pars=], adv., _partly_.

=partus, ūs= [=pariō=], m., _a bringing forth_, _delivery_, _birth_;
_progeny_.

=parum=, adv., _too little_, _not enough_; comp., =minus=, _less_, _by
no means_, _not_; sup., =minime=, _least of all_, _by no means_, _not
at all_; as a subst., =parum=, indecl. n., _too little_, _not enough_.

=parvus, a, um=, adj., _little_, _small_; comp., =minor=, _smaller_,
_less_; _younger_ (sc. =nātū=); sup., =minimus=, _smallest_, _least_.

=pāscō, ere, pāvī, pāstus=, _to feed_; of animals, _to graze_, _browse_.

=passus, ūs= [=passus= from =pandō=, _to spread_], m., _a step_,
_pace_; =mīlle passuum=, pl. =mīlia passuum=, a Roman mile = 4854
English feet.

=patefaciō, ere, fēcī, factus= [=pateō= + =faciō=], _to lay open_,
_disclose_, _bring to light_.

=pateō, ēre, uī, --=, _to be open_, _extend_, _be manifest_.

=pater, tris=, m., _a father_, _ancestor_.

=paternus, a, um= [=pater=], adj., _fatherly_, _of a father_.

=patior, patī, passus sum=, _to suffer_, _bear_, _endure_;
_experience_; _allow_, _permit_. =per--perpetior, ī, pessus sum=, _to
endure_, _be patient under_.

=patria, ae= [=pater=], f., _fatherland_, _country_, _home_.

=patrimōnium, ī= [=pater=], n., _inheritance_, _patrimony_, _property_.

=patrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to carry out_, _perform_, _execute_.

=patruēlis, e= [=patruus=], adj., _of a father’s brother_, _child of a
father’s brother_; as subst., _a cousin_.

=patruus, ī= [=pater=] m., _of a father’s brother_, _paternal uncle_.

=paucus, a, um=, adj., _few_, _little_.

=paulisper= [=paulum=, _by a little_], adv., _a short time_.

=paulus, a, um=, adj., _little_, _small_; as subst., =paulum, ī=, n.,
_a little_, _trifle_; abl., =paulō=, _by a little_.

=Paulus, ī=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _L. Aemilius Paulus_,
consul 216 B.C. 2. _L. Aemilius Paulus_, surnamed Macedonicus, consul
168 B.C. 3. _M. Aemilius Paulus_, consul 255 B.C.

=pauper, eris=, adj., _poor_.

=pāx, pācis=, f., _peace_.

=pectus, oris=, n., _the breast_.

=pecūnia, ae= [=pecus=, _cattle_], f., _money_.

=pedes, itis= [=pēs=], m., _a foot soldier_, _infantry_.

=pellō, ere, pepulī, pulsus=, _to drive out_ or _away_, _expel_;
_defeat_, _rout_. =ad--appellō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to call_, _address_,
_name_; _appeal to_; _accuse_. =con--compellō, ere, pulī, pulsus=, _to
drive together_, _collect_; _force_, _compel_. =ex--expellō, ere, pulī,
pulsus=, _to drive out_ or _away_, _expel_, _dislodge_. =in--impellō,
ere, pulī, pulsus=, _to urge on_, _incite_, _impel_.

=pendeō, ēre, pependī, --=, _to hang_, _be suspended_; _rest_, _depend_.

=penetrō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=penitus=], _to enter_, _penetrate_.

=penitus=, adv., _inwardly_, _within_; _deeply_, _completely_.

=per=, prep. with acc. (1) of place, _through_, _across_, _over_,
_throughout_; (2) of time, _through_, _during_; (3) of means or agency,
_by means of_, _by the agency of_, _through_.

=percussor, ōris= [=percutiō=], m., _a stabber_, _murderer_.

=percutiō, ere, cussī, cussus= [=per= + =quatiō=, _to shake_], _to
thrust through_, _strike_, _kill_.

=perdō=, see =dō=.

=perdomō=, see =domō=.

=pereō=, see =eō=.

=perferō=, see =ferō=.

=perficiō=, see =faciō=.

=perfidia, ae= [=perfidus=, _faithless_], f., _treachery_.

=perfuga, ae= [=perfugiō=, _to flee for refuge_], m., _a fugitive_,
_deserter_, _refuge_.

=Pergamum, ī=, n., a city in Mysia in Asia Minor.

=pergō=, see =regō=.

=perīculum, ī=, n., _trial_; _danger_, _peril_.

=perimō=, see =emō=.

=perinde= [=per= + =inde=], adv., _in the same manner_, _just as_,
_equally_.

=perītus, a, um=, adj., _skillful_, _experienced_, _familiar with_.

=permaneō=, see =maneō=.

=permittō=, see =mittō=.

=permūtātiō, ōnis= [=permūtō=, _to change_], f., _change_, _exchange_.

=perniciēs, ēī= [=per= + =nex=], f., _destruction_, _ruin_.

=perniciōsē= [=perniciōsus=], adv., _dangerously_, _destructively_.

=perniciōsus, a, um= [=perniciēs=], adj., _dangerous_, _destructive_.

=Perperna, ae=, m., _(M.) Perperna_, consul 130 B.C.

=perpetior=, see =patior=.

=perpetuus, a, um=, adj., _continuous_, _uninterrupted_; =in
perpetuum=, _forever_.

=Persae, ārum=, pl. m., _the Persians_.

=persequor=, see =sequor=.

=Perseus, eī=, m., the last king of Macedonia, 178-168 B.C.

=persevērō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to persist_, _persevere_.

=Persis, idis=, f., _Persia_.

=Pertināx, ācis=, m., _(Helvius) Pertināx_, Roman emperor from January
1 to March 28, 193 A.D.

=Perusia, ae=, f., an ancient town in Etruria in Italy.

=perveniō=, see =veniō=.

=pēs, pedis=, m., _a foot_, =pedem referre=, _to retreat_.

=Pescennius, ī=, m., see =Niger=.

=pestilentia, ae= [=pestis=, _plague_], f., _a pestilence_, _plague_.

=petō, ere, īvī (iī), ītus=, _to strive for_, _seek_; _beg_, _ask_,
_request_; _assail_, _attack_. =ad--appetō, ere, īvī (iī), ītus=, _to
strive for_, _reach after_; _assail_, _attack_; _long for_, _desire_;
_draw nigh_, _approach_, _be at hand_. =re--repetō, ere, īvī (iī),
ītus=, _to seek again_, _try to get back_, _demand back_; _recall_,
_repeat_; _attack_.

=Petrēius, ī=, m., _M. Petrēius_, a partisan of Pompey; fought against
Caesar in Spain, Greece, and Africa.

=Petrōnius, ī=, m., _Petrōnius Secundus_, a partisan of Nerva.

=Pharnacēs, is=, m., Gr. acc. =Pharnacēn=, the son of Mithradates, who
succeeded his father as king of Pontus.

=Phasēlis, idis=, f., a city of Lycia in Asia Minor.

=Philippī, ōrum=, pl. m., a city in Macedonia where Brutus and Cassius
were defeated by Octavian 44 B.C.

=Philippus, ī=, m., 1. _Philip V._, king of Macedonia 220-178 B.C. 2.
_(M. Iūlius) Philippus I._, Roman emperor 244-249 A.D. 3. _(M. Iūlius)
Philippus II._, son of (2). 4. _L. Mārcius Philippus_, consul 91 B.C.
5. _Q. Mārcius Philippus_, consul 186 B.C.

=philosophia, ae=, f., _philosophy_.

=philosophus, ī=, m., _a philosopher_.

=Phoenīcē, ēs=, f., _Phoenicia_, a country of Syria.

=Phrygia, ae=, f., a division of Asia Minor.

=Pīcentēs, ium=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Picenum_.

=Pīcēnum, ī=, n., a division of Italy on the Adriatic Sea, north of
Latium.

=pīlum, ī=, n., _a heavy javelin_; _pike_.

=pingō, ere, pīnxī, pīctus=, _to paint_; _represent_, _delineate_,
_portray_.

=Pīraeus, ī=, m., the chief harbor of Athens.

=pīrāta, ae=, m., _a pirate_.

=pīrāticus, a, um= [=pīrāta=], adj., pertaining to pirates, piratical;
=Pīrāticum bellum=, _war against the pirates_.

=piscis, is=, f., _a fish_.

=piscor, ārī, ātus sum= [=piscis=], _to fish_.

=pius, a, um=, adj., _reverent_, _pious_.

=placeō, ēre, uī, --=, _to please_, _be agreeable to_; _seem best
to_; impers., =placet, placuit, placitum est=, _to be resolved by_.
=dis--displiceō, ēre, uī, --=, _to displease_.

=placidus, a, um=, [=placō=, _to soothe_], adj., _calm_, _quiet_,
_tranquil_.

=Plautius, ī=, m., _A. Plautius_, sent by the emperor Claudius in 43
A.D. to subdue Britain.

=plēbs, plēbis=, and =plēbēs, ēī=, f., _the common people_, _populace_,
_plebeians_.

=plēnus, a, um= [=pleō=], adj., _full_.

=*pleō, ēre, plēvī, plētus=, _to fill_. =con--compleō, ēre, plēvī,
plētus=, _to fill_ (to the brim); _complete_. =ex--expleō, ēre, plēvī,
plētus=, _to fill up_, _fill_. =in--impleō, ēre, plēvī, plētus=, _to
fill up_, _finish_.

=plērīque, aeque, aque=, adj., _very many_, _most_.

=plērumque=, adv., _mostly_, _generally_, _very often_.

=Plōtīna, ae=, f., the wife of the emperor Trajan.

=plūrimus=, see =multus=.

=Plūtarchus, ī=, m., a Greek philosopher and biographer.

=pōculum, ī=, n., _cup_.

=poēma, atis=, n., _a poem_.

=poena, ae=, f., _compensation_, _punishment_, _penalty_.

=Poenī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Carthaginians_.

=Polemō, ōnis=, m., king of Pontus 39-62 A.D.

=Polemōniacus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to Polemō_.

=polliceor, ērī, itus sum=, _to promise_, _volunteer_.

=pompa, ae=, f., _a procession_, _parade_, _pomp_.

=Pompēius, ī=, m., 1. _Cn. Pompēius_, consul 89 B.C. 2. _Cn. Pompēius_,
surnamed Magnus, the triumvir, consul 70 B.C. 3. _Cn. Pompēius_, son
of the triumvir. 4. _Q. Pompēius_, consul 141 B.C. 5. _Sex. Pompēius_,
younger son of the triumvir.

=Pompilius, ī=, m., _Numa Pompilius_, the second king of Rome, 715-672
B.C.

=pondō= [=pondus=], adv., _by weight_.

=pondus, eris=, [=pendo=, _to weigh_], n., _weight_.

=pōnō, ere, posuī, positus=, _to put down_, _place_, _set_, _deposit_;
_serve_ (at meals); _spend_; _set up_, _build_; _pitch_. =ad--appōnō,
ere, posuī, positus=, _to put before_, _place near_; _serve_ (at
table). =con--compōnō, ere, posuī, positus=, _to arrange_, _settle_;
_conclude_, _finish_. =dē--dēpōnō, ere, posuī, positus=, _to lay down_
or _aside_, _put down_; _stop_; _arrange_, _establish_. =dis--dispōnō,
ere, posuī, positus=, _to arrange_, _array_, _dispose_. =in--impōnō,
ere, posuī, positus=, _to place_ or _put upon_ or _in_; _establish_.
=prae--praepōnō, ere, posuī, positus=, _to set over_, _put in charge
of_. =re--repōnō, ere, posuī, positus=, _to put back_, _replace_,
_restore_.

=pōns, pontis=, m., _a bridge_.

=Ponticus, a, um=, adj., _pertaining to Pontus_; =Ponticum= (=mare=),
the Black Sea.

=pontifex, ficis=, m., _priest_.

=Pontius, ī=, m., see =Telesīnus=.

=Pontus, ī=, m., 1. _Pontus Euxīnus_, the Black Sea. 2. A country of
Asia Minor on the Black Sea.

=populō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to plunder_, _ravage_, _lay waste_.
=dē--dēpopulor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to lay waste_, _ravage_, _plunder_,
_pillage_.

=populus, ī=, m., _a people_, _nation_.

=Porcius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Catō=.

=porrō= [=prō=], adv., _forward_, _henceforth_, _furthermore_, _again_.

=Porsenna, ae=, m., _Lars Porsenna_, king of Clusium in Etruria.

=porta, ae=, f., _a city gate_, _gate_.

=*portō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=porta=], _to bear_, _carry_. =ex--exportō,
āre, āvī, ātus=, _to carry out_, _export_. =re--reportō, āre, āvī,
ātus=, _to carry back_, _report_.

=porticus, ūs=, f., _a colonnade_, _arcade_, _portico_.

=pōscō, ere, poposcī, --=, _to ask_, _demand_.

=possideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus= [=sedeō=], _to occupy_, _hold_, _possess_.

=possum, posse, potuī, --= [=potis=, _able_ + =sum=], _to be able_,
_can_; =plurimum posse=, _to have great power_.

=post=, (1) adv., _after_, _later_, _afterwards_; (2) prep. with acc.,
_after_, _behind_.

=posteā= [=post= + =is=], adv., _afterwards_.

=posterus, a, um= [=post=], adj., _following_, _next_; comp.
=posterior, us=, gen. =ōris=, _later_; sup. =postrēmus=, _last_,
_lowest_; =ad postērum=, _finally_; as subst., =posterī, ōrum=, pl. m.,
_descendants_, _posterity_.

=postquam= or =post … quam= [=post= + =quam=], conj., _after_, _when_.

=postrēmō= [=posterus=], adv., _at last_, _finally_.

=Postumius, ī=, m., see =Albīnus=.

=Postumus, ī=, m., _(M. Cassiānus) Postumus_, one of the Thirty Tyrants.

=potēns, entis= [=possum=], adj., _powerful_.

=potestās, ātis= [=possum=], f., _power_, _might_; _opportunity_,
_permission_; _authority_, _sovereignty_.

=potior, īrī, ītus sum= [=potis=, _able_], _to get possession_,
_acquire_.

=potius= [comp. of =potis=, _able_], adv., sup. =potissimum=; _rather_,
_more_, _sooner_.

=prae=, prep. with abl., _before_, _in front of_, _in comparison with_.

=praebeō=, see habeō.

=praecēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=praeceps, cipitis= [=prae= + =caput=], adj., _headlong_, _hasty_;
_steep_, _precipitous_.

=praecipiō=, see =capiō=.

=praecipitō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=praeceps=], _to throw headlong_, _cast
down_; _rush down_.

=praecipuē= [=praecipuus=], adv., _chiefly_, _principally_,
_especially_.

=praecipuus, a, um= [=praecipiō=], adj., _special_, _particular_;
_eminent_, _prominent_.

=praeclārus, a, um= [=prae= + =clārus=], adj., _very bright_ or
_brilliant_, _excellent_, _distinguished_.

=praeda, ae=, f., _booty_, _spoil_, _plunder_.

=praefectūra, ae=, f., _the office of overseer_, _superintendence_;
_praefecture_.

=praefectus, ī=, m., _overseer_, _superintendent_; _praefect_.

=praeferō=, see =ferō=.

=praeficiō=, see =faciō=.

=praemium, ī= [=prae= + =emō=], n., _reward_, _prize_.

=Praeneste, is=, n., a town in Latium east of Rome, modern Palestrina.

=Praenestīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Praeneste_.

=praeparō=, see =parō=.

=praepōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=praesēns, entis= [=praesum=], adj., _at hand_, _present_.

=praeses, sidis= [=praesideō=], m., _a protector_, _guard_, _defender_;
_president_.

=praesidium, ī= [=praesideō=], n., _help_, _aid_, _defense_; _defensive
force_, _garrison_; _fort_, _station_, _post_.

=praestō=, see =stō=.

=praesum=, see =sum=.

=praeter=, prep. with acc., _past_, _beyond_; _contrary to_, _against_;
_besides_, _except_.

=praetereā= [=praeter= + =is=], adv., _in addition to this_, _besides_,
_moreover_.

=praetermittō=, see =mittō=.

=praetexō, ere, uī, tus= [=texō=, _to weave_], to provide with a
border; =toga praetexta=, _a_ (purple) _bordered toga_, worn by
magistrates and freeborn children till the sixteenth or seventeenth
year, when they became of age and assumed the _toga virīlis_, which was
wholly white; the girls wore the _toga praetexta_ until they married.

=praetor, ōris= [orig. =praeitor=, from =prae= + =eō=], m., _a leader_,
_commander_; _praetor_, _magistrate_, _judge_.

=praetōriānus, a, um= [=praetōrium=], adj., _belonging to the
bodyguard_; _praetorian_; as subst., =praetōriānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the
praetorians_.

=praetōrium, ī=, n., _the imperial bodyguard_.

=praetōrius, a, um= [=praetor=], adj., _of_ or _belonging to the
praetor_ or _commander_; as subst., =praetōrius, ī=, m., _a man of
praetorian rank, an ex-praetor_.

=praeveniō=, see =veniō=.

=prandium, ī=, n., _lunch_.

=prāvus, a, um=, adj., _crooked_, _wrong_; _perverse_, _wicked_.

=*prehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus=, _to grasp_. =dē--dēprehendō, ere, ī,
hēnsus=, _to seize_, _catch_; _surprise_, _detect_, _discover_.
=re--reprehendō, ere, ī, hēnsus=, _to hold back_, _check_; _blame_,
_criticise_, _reprove_.

=premō, ere, pressī, pressus=, _to press_; _press hard_, _crush_.
=ob--opprimō, ere, pressī, pressus=, _to crush utterly_, _overpower_,
_overwhelm_.

=pretium, ī=, n., _price_, _value_; _reward_, _money_, _ransom_.

=prīmō= [=prīmus=], adv., _at first_.

=prīmum= [=prīmus=], adv., _first_.

=prīmus=, see =prior=.

=prīnceps, cipis= [=prīmus= + =capio=], adj., _first_, _foremost_; as
subst. m., _leading man_, _chief_, _leader_.

=prīncipātus, ūs= [=prīnceps=], m., _a chief authority_ (in the state);
_headship_, _leadership_; _reign_, _sovereignty_.

=prīncipium, ī= [=prīnceps=], n., _beginning_, _origin_.

=prior, us=, gen. =priōris=, comp. adj., former, previous, first,
prior; sup. =prīmus=, _first_, _foremost_.

=prīscus, a, um= [=prius=], adj., _former_, _elder_; _primitive_,
_strict_.

=Prīscus, ī=, m., see =Tarquinius=.

=prīstinus, a, um= [=prius=], adj., _former_, _old_.

=prius= [=prior=], adv., _before_, _sooner_, _previously_, _first of
all_.

=prīvātim= [=prīvātus=], adv., _privately_, _as a single individual_.

=prīvātus, a, um= [=prīvō=, _to set apart_], adj., _private_,
_individual_; as subst., =prīvātus, ī=, m., _a man in private life_, _a
private citizen_.

=prīvīgna, ae=, f., _a stepdaughter_.

=prīvīgnus, ī=, m., _a stepson_.

=prō=, prep. with abl., _in front of_, _before in behalf of_; _in
comparison with_, _in accordance with_.

=probe= [=probus=, estimable], adv., _right_, _well_, _properly_,
_correctly_.

=probrōsus, a, um= [=probrum=], adj., _shameful_, _ignominious_,
_infamous_.

=probrum, ī=, m., _a shameful act_, _base deed_; _immodesty_,
_lewdness_; _insult_, _reproach_.

=Probus, ī=, m., _(M. Aurēlius) Probus_, Roman emperor 276-282 A.D.

=prōcēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=prōclīvus, a, um= [=prō= + =clīvus=, _slope_], adj., _sloping_,
_steep_; _liable_, _prone_; _subject_, _ready_.

=prōcōnsul, is= [=prō=, _in place of_ + =cōnsul=], m., _a proconsul_,
_governor_ of a province.

=prōcōnsulātus, a, um= [=prōcōnsul=], adj., _the office of a
proconsul_, _proconsulate_.

=procul=, adv., _at a distance_, _far from_.

=Proculus, ī=, m., a famous Roman jurist.

=prōcumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitus= [=prō= + =cumbō=, _to lie_], _to lie
down_, _sink_, _fall forward_; _fall_, _sink down_, _be beaten down_.

=prōdō=, see =dō=.

=prōdūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=proelium, ī=, n., _a battle_, _combat_, _engagement_.

=proficīscor, ī, fectus sum= [=prō= + =facīscor=, from =faciō=], _to
set out_, _proceed_; _spring from_.

=prōflīgō=, see =*flīgō=.

=prōfluvium, ī=, n., _a flowing forth_; =ventris prōfluvium=,
_diarrhea_.

=profugiō=, see =fugiō=.

=prōgredior=, see =*gradior=.

=prōmittō=, see =mittō=.

=prōmptus, a, um= [=prōmō=, _to set forth_], adj., _prepared_, _quick_,
_prompt_.

=prōnūntiō=, see =nūntiō=.

=prōnus, a, um=, adj., _turned forward_, _inclined_; _tendency_;
_disposed_, _prone_.

=prōpalam= [=prō= + =palam=], adv., _openly_, _publicly_, _manifestly_.

=prope=, adv., _near by_; _nearly_, _almost_.

=prōpēnsus, a, um=, adj., _hanging down_; _inclined_, _disposed_,
_prone_.

=propior, us= [=prope=], comp. adj., _nearer_; sup. =proximus=,
_nearest_, _next_; _latest_, _last_; _next_, _following_.

=proprius, a, um=, adj., _not common with others_, _own_, _special_,
_individual_.

=propter=, prep. with acc., _on account of_.

=proptereā= [=propter= + =is=], adv., _for this reason_, _therefore_;
=proptereā quod=, _because_.

=prōpūgnātor, ōris= [=prōpūgnō=, _to defend_], m., _a defender_.

=prōscrībō=, see =scrībō=.

=prōscrīptiō, ōnis= [=prōscrībō=], f., _a public notice of sale_,
_proscription_.

=prōsequor=, see =sequor=.

=prōsper= and =prōsperus, a, um= [=prō= + =spēs=], adj., _according to
one’s hopes_, _favorable_, _prosperous_.

=prōsperē= [=prōsperus=], adv., _propitiously_, _successfully_.

=prōstituō=, see =*statuō=.

=prōsum=, see =sum=.

=prōtrahō=, see =trahō=.

=prōvidē= [=prōvideō=, _to provide_, _foresee_], adv., _carefully_,
_prudently_ (very rare).

=prōvincia, ae=, f., _an office_, _duty_; _province_.

=prōvinciālis, e= [=prōvincia=], adj., _of a province_, _provincial_;
as subst., =prōvinciālis, is=, m., _a provincial_.

=prōvīsiō, ōnis= [=prōvideō=, _to foresee_], f., _a foreseeing_,
_foreknowledge_; _foresight_, _providence_.

=prōvocō=, see =vocō=.

=proximus=, see =propior=.

=prūdentia, ae= [=prūdēns=, _foreseeing_], f., _foresight_, _practical
wisdom_, _good sense_.

=prūna, ae=, f., _a burning coal_, _live coal_.

=Prūsiās, ae=, m., king of Bithynia 228-180 B.C.

=Pseudopersēs, eī=, m., a pretended son of Perseus.

=Pseudophilippus, ī=, m., a pretended son of Philip, king of Macedonia.

=Ptolemaeus, ī=, m., a name borne by the kings of Egypt after the time
of Alexander the Great. 1. _Ptolemaeus Philadelphus_, 285-247 B.C.
2. _Ptolemaeus Euergetēs_, 247-222 B.C. 3. _Ptolemaeus Philometor_,
181-146 B.C. 4. _Ptolemaeus Aulētēs_, 47-43 B.C.

=Ptolemāïs, is=, f., a city in Libya.

=pūblicē= [=pūblicus=], adv., _in the name of_ (by order of) _the
state_, _publicly_, _officially_.

=pūblicus, a, um= [orig. =poplicus=], adj., _belonging to the people_,
_public_; _official_.

=Pūblicola, ae=, m., _L. (P.) Valerius Pūblicola_, consul 509 B.C.

=pudīcitia, ae= [=pudīcus=], f., _modesty_, _virtue_.

=pudīcus, a, um= [=pudeō=, _to be ashamed_], adj., _modest_, _virtuous_.

=puer, puerī=, m., _a child_; _boy_; _slave_.

=pūgna, ae=, f., _a combat_, _fight_, _battle_.

=pūgnātor, ōris=, m., _a fighter_, _combatant_.

=pūgnō, ārē, āvī, ātus= [=pūgna=], _to fight_; _oppose_, _resist_.
=ex--expūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to take by storm_, _capture_;
_overpower_, _prevail upon_. =ob--oppūgnō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to fight
against_, _assault_, _besiege_.

=Pulcher, chrī=, m., _P. Claudius Pulcher_, consul 249 B.C.

=Pullus, ī=, m., _L. Iūnius Pullus_, consul 249 B.C.

=Pulvillus, ī=, m., _(M.) Horātius Pulvillus_, consul 500 B.C.

=Pūnicus, a, um=, adj., _Phoenician_, _Punic_; _Carthaginian_; =Pūnicum
bellum=, _Punic war_, first, 264-241 B.C.; second, 218-202 B.C.; third,
149-146 B.C.

=pūniō, īre, īvī, ītus= [=poena=], _to punish_.

=Pupiēnus, ī=, m. _(M. Clōdius) Pupiēnus (Māximus)_, Roman emperor 238
A.D.

=pūrgō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=pūrus + agō=], _to make clear_; _clear away_,
_excuse_.

=purpura, ae=, f., _purple-color_, _purple_, _purple garment_.

=purpureus, a, um= [=purpura=], adj., _purple-colored_; _clothed in
purple_.

=purpurō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=purpura=], _to be clothed in purple_.

=putō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to think_, _consider_, _suppose_.

=Pylaemēnēs, is=, m., king of Paphlagonia.

=Pȳrēnaeus, a, um=, adj. (sc. =mōns=), _the Pyrenees mountains_.

=Pyrrhus, ī=, m., king of Epirus, waged war against Rome 281-272 B.C.


Q.

=Q.=, abbreviation of the _praenomen_ =Quīntus=.

=Quādī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Suabian people.

=quadrāgēsimus, a, um= [=quadrāgintā=], num. adj., _fortieth_.

=quadriennium, ī= [=quattuor= + =annus=], n., _a period of four years_.

=quadringentī, ae, a= [=quattuor= + =centum=], num. adj., _four
hundred_.

=quadringentiēs= [=quadringentī=], num. adv., _four hundred times_.

=quaerō, ere, quaesīvī, quaesītus=, _to seek_; _ask_; _get_, _obtain_.

=quaestor, ōris= [orig. =quaesitor=; cf. =quaerō=, =quaesō=], m.,
_quaestor_, _quartermaster_, a name given to certain magistrates who
had the care of public moneys and military supplies, both at Rome and
in the provinces.

=qualis, e=, adj., (1) interrog., _of what kind?_ _what sort of?_ (2)
rel., _of such a kind_, _such as_, _as_.

=quam= [=quis=], adv., _how_, _how much_; after a comp., _than_; with a
sup., _as possible_; =quam prīmum=, _as soon as possible_; =quamdiū=,
_as long as_; =tam … quam=, _as … so, not only … but also_.

=quamquam=, conj., _although_, _even if_.

=quamvīs= [=quam= + =vīs=, from =volō=], adv. and conj., _however
much_, _although_.

=quantus, a, um= [=quam=], adj., (1) interrog., =how great?= =how
much?= (2) rel., correl. to =tantus=, _as great as_, _as_.

=quantum=, adv., _how much?_ _how far?_

=quārē= [=quā= + =rē=], adv., (1) interrog., =why?= (2) rel., _for
which reason_, _wherefore_, _therefore_.

=quārtō= [=quārtus=], adv., _for the fourth time_.

=quārtus, a, um= [=quattuor=], num. adj., _fourth_.

=quasi=, adv. and conj., _as if_, _just as if_, _as though_; _on the
ground that_.

=quātenus=, adv., (1) interrog., _to what point?_ _how far?_ (2) rel.,
_as far as_.

=quater= [=quattuor=], num. adv., _four times_.

=quaternī, ae, a= [=quater=], dist. num. adj., _four each_, _by fours_,
_four at a time_.

=quattuor=, indecl. num. adj., _four_.

=quattuordecim= [=quattuor= + =decem=], indecl. num. adj., _fourteen_.

=-que=, conj. enclitic, _and_, _and yet_, _but_.

=queror, ī, questus sum=, _to complain_.

=quī, quae, quod=, rel. pron., _who_, _which_, _what_, _that_;
_whoever_, _whatever_.

=quī, quae=, or =qua, quod=, indef. pron. used adjectivally, _any_,
_some_.

=quia=, conj., _because_, _since_.

=quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque=, indef. rel. pron., _whoever_,
_whichever_, _whatever_.

=quīdam, quaedam, quiddam=, and as adj., =quoddam=, indef. pron., a
_certain one_, _somebody_; _a certain_.

=quidem=, adv., _indeed_, _in fact_, _to be sure_; =nē … quidem=, _not
even_, _not at all_.

=quiēscō, ere, ēvī, ētus=, _to rest_, _repose_, _keep quiet_.

=quiētus, a, um= [=quiēscō=], adj., _at rest_, _free from exertion_;
_undisturbed_, _quiet_, _peaceful_.

=quīlibet, quaelibet, quodlibet= (=quidlibet=), indef. pron., _any one
you please_, _any one_, _who_ or _whatsoever_.

=quīn= [=quī=, adv., _how?_ + =ne=], conj., _how not?_ _why not?_
_that_, _that not_, _but that_; =quīn et= or =etiam=, _nay more_.

=quīngentēsimus, a, um= [=quīngentī=], num. adj., _five hundredth_.

=quīngentī, ae, a= [=quīnque= + =centum=], num. adj., _five hundred_.

=quīnī, ae, a= [=quīnque=], dist. num. adj., _five each_, _by fives_.

=quīnquāgēsimus, a, um= [=quīnquāgintā=], num. adj., _fiftieth_.

=quīnquāgintā=, indecl. num. adj., _fifty_.

=quīnque=, indecl. num. adj., _five_.

=Quīnquegentiānī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people of Libya.

=Quīntillus, ī=, m., _(M. Aurēlius) Quīntillus_, brother of the emperor
M. Aurelius Claudius.

=Quīntius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Cincinnātus=,
=Flaminīnus=.

=quīntō= [=quīntus=], num. adv., _for the fifth time_.

=quīntus, a, um= [=quīnque=], num. adj., _fifth_.

=quippe=, adv., _indeed_, _as you see_, _surely_.

=quīque= = =et quī=.

=Quirīnālis, is= (sc. =collis=), m., _the Quirinal Hill_, one of the
seven hills of Rome.

=quis, qua, quid=, indef. pron. used substantively, _some one_, _any
one_, _something_, _anything_.

=quisquam, quaequam, quicquam=, indef. pron., adj., or noun, _any one_,
_anything_, _any_.

=quō= [=quī=], adv., (1) rel., _whither_, _where_; (2) interrog.,
_whither?_ _where?_ (3) indef., _to any place_, _anywhere_.

=quō= [=quī=], conj., with comparatives, _in order that_, _that_, _that
thereby_; =quō minus=, _that not_.

=quod= [=quī=], conj., _because_, _supposing that_, _in that_, _so far
as_; =quod sī=, _but if_.

=quondam=, adv., _once_, _formerly_, _sometime_.

=quoque=, conj., _also_, _too_.

=quoūsque=, adv., _till when?_ _how long?_ _until_ (late).


R.

=Raetia, ae=, f., a Roman province south of the Danube.

=rapiō, ere, rapuī, raptus=, _to seize and carry off_, _drag off_;
_plunder_, _destroy_. =con--corripiō, ere, uī, reptus=, to seize,
_snatch up_, _grasp_; _collect_, _carry off_, _plunder_. =dis--dīripiō,
ere, uī, reptus=, _to tear asunder_, _ravage_, _plunder_. =ex--ēripiō,
ere, uī, reptus=, _to take_ or _snatch away_; _rescue_; _deprive_.

=ratiō, ōnis= [=reor=, _to think_], f., _reckoning_, _calculation_,
_account_; _method_, _plan_.

=rationālis, e= [=ratiō=], adj., _of_ or _belonging to accounts_; as
subst., =rationālis, is=, m., _an accountant_.

=ratus, a, um= [=reor=, _to think_], adj., _thought out_, _defined_,
_fixed_.

=Ravenna, ae=, f., a city in Cisalpine Gaul.

=rebellō=, see =bellō=.

=recēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=recēns, entis=, adj., _recent_, _late_, _fresh_.

=receptor, ōris= [=recipiō=], m., _a harborer_, _concealer_.

=recipiō=, see =capiō=.

=recognōscō=, see =nōscō=.

=reconciliō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to procure again_, _regain_; _reunite_,
_reconcile_.

=recordor, ārī, ātus sum= [=re= + =cor=, _heart_], _to remember_,
_recall_.

=rēctus, a, um= [=regō=], adj., _straight_, _direct_.

=recūsō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=re= + =causa=], _to refuse_, _object_,
_decline_, _hesitate_.

=redō=, see =dō=.

=redeō=, see =eō=.

=redigō=, see =agō=.

=redimō=, see =emō=.

=redūcō=, see =dūcō=.

=referō=, see =ferō=.

=refōrmō, āre, --, ātus= [=re= + =fōrma=], _to shape again_, _reform_,
_change_.

=refugiō=, see =fugiō=.

=rēgīna, ae= [=rēx=], f., _a queen_.

=regiō, ōnis= [=regō=], f., _a direction_; _region_, _territory_.

=rēgius, a, um= [=rēx=], adj., _royal_, _kingly_.

=rēgnō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=rēgnum=], _to be king_, _rule_.

=rēgnum, ī= [=rēx=], n., _kingship_, _supremacy_; _kingdom_, _reign_.

=regō, ere, rēxī, rēctus=, _to regulate_, _rule_, _conduct_.
=ad--adrigō, ere, rēxī, rēctus=, _to set up_, _raise_, _erect_;
_rouse_, _encourage_. =con--corrigō, ere, rēxī, rēctus=, _to
straighten_, _correct_, _improve_. =per--pergō, ere, perrēxī,
perrēctus=, _to go straight on_, _proceed_, _hasten_; with acc.,
_pursue with vigor_, _perform_.

=regredior=, see =*gradior=.

=Rēgulus, ī=, m., 1. _M. Atīlius Rēgulus_, consul 267 B.C. 2. _M.
Atīlius Rēgulus_, consul 256 B.C.

=religiō, ōnis=, f., _sense of duty_; _religion_, _devotion to the
gods_; _scruple_.

=relinquō, ere, līquī, līctus= [=re= + =linquō=, _to leave_], _to leave
behind_, _leave_; _bequeath_; _appoint by will_.

=reliquiae, ārum= [=relinquō=], pl. f., _remainder_, _remnant_,
_residue_.

=reliquus, a, um= [=relinquō=], adj., _remaining_, _rest_.

=remandō=, see =mandō=.

=remaneō=, see =maneō=.

=remeō, āre, āvī, --=, _to go back_, _return_.

=remittō=, see =mittō=.

=removeō=, see =moveō=.

=rēmus, ī=, m., =an oar=.

=Remus, ī=, m., the brother of Romulus.

=renovō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=re= + =novus=], _to renew_.

=reparō=, see =parō=.

=repente= [=repēns=, _sudden_], adv., _suddenly_.

=repentīnus, a, um= [=repēns=, _sudden_], adj., _sudden_, _unexpected_.

=reperiō=, see =*pariō=.

=repetō=, see =petō=.

=repōnō=, see =pōnō=.

=reportō=, see =*portō=.

=reprehendō=, see =*prehendō=.

=repressor, ōris= [=reprimō=, _to check_], m., _a restrainer_,
_represser_.

=repudiō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to cast off_, _divorce_; _reject_, _scorn_.

=rēs, reī=, f., _thing_, _matter_; _affair_, _deed_, _exploit_,
_event_; _circumstance_; _story_; _property_, _fortune_; _trouble_;
=rēs familiāris=, _private property_; =rēs pūblica=, _the
commonwealth_, _state_; =rēs gestae=, _exploits_.

=reservō=, see =servō=.

=resideō=, see =sedeō=.

=resistō=, see =*sistō=.

=respondeō=, see =spondeō=.

=respōnsum, ī= [=respondeō=], n., _an answer_.

=rēs pūblica=, see =rēs=.

=restituō=, see =*statuō=.

=resūmō=, see =sūmō=.

=rēte, is=, n., _a net_, _snare_.

=retineō=, see =teneō=.

=retrō=, adv., _backward_, _behind_.

=reus, ī=, m., _defendant_, _accused person_; _prisoner_.

=revehō=, see =vehō=.

=reverentia, ae= [=re= + =vereor=], f., _respect_, _awe_, _reverence_.

=revertor=, see =*vertō=.

=revocō=, see =vocō=.

=rēx, rēgis= [=regō=], m., _a king_.

=Rēx, Rēgis=, m., _Q. Mārcius Rēx_, consul 118 B.C.

=Rhēa, ae=, f., _Rhēa Silvia_, the mother of Romulus and Remus.

=Rhēnus, ī=, m., _the Rhine_.

=Rhodanus, ī=, m., _the Rhone_.

=Rhodiī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Rhodians_, the people of the island of
Rhodes.

=Rhodopa, ae=, f., a lofty mountain in Thrace.

=Rhodus, ī=, f., _Rhodes_, an island in the eastern part of the
Mediterranean Sea.

=rīpa, ae=, f., _the bank of a river_.

=rīpēnsis, e= [=rīpa=], adj., _situated_ or _stationed on the banks of
a river_; =Dācia rīpēnsis=, _Dacia on the Danube_.

=rogō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to ask_, _inquire_; _request_, _implore_.
=ab--abrogō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to appeal_; _annul_, _abrogate_.

=Rōma, ae=, f., _Rome_.

=Rōmānus, a, um=, adj., _Roman_; as subst., =Rōmānī, ōrum=, pl. m.,
_the Romans_.

=Rōmulus, ī=, m., the son of Rhea Silvia and Mars, the founder of Rome.

=rōstrātus, a, um= [=rōstrum=], adj., _furnished with beaks_.

=rōstrum, ī=, n., _the beak of a ship_; pl., the Rostra or speaker’s
platform in the Forum (adorned with the beaks of captured ships).

=ruber, bra, brum=, adj., _red_; =Rubrum mare=, _the Red Sea_.

=Rūfīnus, ī=, m., _P. Cornēlius Rūfīnus_, consul 290 B.C.

=Rūfus, ī=, m., the name of a Roman family. 1. _M. Minucius Rūfus_,
consul 221 B.C. 2. _(Q.) Minucius Rūfus_, consul 110 B.C. 3. _P.
Sulpicius (Rūfus)_, a partisan of Marius.

=rumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptus=, _to break_, _destroy_. =con--corrumpō,
ere, rūpī, ruptus=, _to destroy_; _seduce_, _bribe_, _corrupt_.
=ex--ērumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptus=, _to break forth_ or _out_, _burst
forth_. =in--inrumpō, ere, rūpī, ruptus=, _to break in_, _fall upon_;
_interrupt_.

=rūrsus= or =rūrsum= [orig. =revorsus=; cf. =revertō=], adv., _back_;
_again_.

=rūsticus, a, um= [=rūs=, _the country_], adj., _of the country_,
_rustic_; as subst., =rūsticānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _countrymen_.

=Rutilius, ī=, m., _P. Rutilius_, consul 90 B.C.


S.

=Sabīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Sabines_, a race in central Italy,
adjoining Latium on the east.

=Sabīnus, ī=, m., 1. _Oppius Sabīnus_, a Roman general slain by Dacians
during the reign of Domitian. 2. _Q. Titūrius (Sabīnus)_, a lieutenant
of Caesar. 3. _(Flavius) Sabīnus_, brother of the emperor Vespasian.

=sacer, cra, crum=, adj., _holy_, _sacred_; as subst., sacrum, ī, n.,
_a holy thing_, _sacred vessel_; pl. _religious rites_, _sacrifices_.

=sacerdōs, ōtis= [=sacer=], m. and f., _priest_, _priestess_.

=sacrāmentum, ī= [=sacrō=], n., _an oath_.

=*sacrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to set apart_; _bless_; _curse_.

=con--cōnsecrō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to dedicate_, _consecrate_, _devote_.
=ex--exsecror, ārī, ātus sum=, _to curse_, _abhor_. =ob--obsecrō, āre,
āvī, ātus=, _to implore_, _supplicate_.

=saepe=, adv., _frequently_, _often_.

=saeviō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus= [=saevus=], _to be fierce_ or _cruel_,
_rage_; _punish cruelly_.

=saevitia, ae= [=saevus=], f., _fury_, _cruelty_.

=saevus, a, um=, adj., _raging_, _fierce_, _cruel_.

=sagāx, ācis=, adj., _of quick perception_, _sagacious_, _keen-scented_.

=sagitta, ae=, f., _arrow_.

=sagittārius, ī= [=sagitta=], m., _an archer_, _bowman_.

=Saguntīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Saguntum_.

=Saguntum, ī=, n., a city on the eastern coast of Spain.

=salārius, a, um= [=sāl=, _salt_], adj., _of salt_, _salty_; _via
Salāria_, the road from Rome to Reate.

=Salassī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people living in the Alps.

=Salīnātōr, ōris=, m., _M. Līvius Salīnātōr_, consul 210 B.C.

=Sallentīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people of Calabria in southern Italy.

=Salōnae, ārum=, pl. f., a city in Dalmatia.

=saltō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to dance_, _leap_.

=salūtō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=salūs=, _health_], _to wish one health_,
_greet_, _salute_, _visit_.

=Salvius=, ī, m., see =Iūliānus=.

=salvus, a, um=, adj., _well_, _safe_, _sound_.

=Samnītēs, um=, Gr. acc. pl. =Samnītas=, pl. m., _the Samnites_, a
branch of the Sabine race inhabiting the mountains southeast of Latium.

=Samnium, ī=, n., a division of middle Italy.

=Samus, ī=, f., an island in the Mediterranean Sea, near the coast of
Asia Minor.

=sanguinārius, a, um= [=sanguis=], adj., _bloodthirsty_, _bloody_,
_sanguinary_.

=sanguis, inis=, m., _blood_.

=Sapōr, ōris=, m., the name of several Persian kings. 1. _Sapor I._,
240-273 A.D. 2. _Sapor II._, 310-381 A.D.

=Sardī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Sardinians_, inhabitants of the island of
Sardinia.

=Sardica, ae=, f., a city in Lower Moesia.

=Sardinia, ae=, f., _Sardinia_, an island in the Mediterranean Sea,
west of Italy.

=Sardiniēnsēs, ium=, pl. m., _the Sardinians_, inhabitants of the
island of Sardinia.

=Sarmatae, ārum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Sarmatia_.

=Sarmatia, ae=, f., _Sarmatia_, now the eastern part of Poland and the
southern part of Russia in Europe.

=Sāturnīnus, ī=, m., one of the Thirty Tyrants.

=sauciō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=saucius=], _to wound_.

=Sauromātae, ārum=, pl. m., a people of Asia dwelling on the Tanaïs.

=Saxonēs, um=, pl. m., _the Saxons_.

=saxum, ī=, n., _a stone_, _rock_, _boulder_.

=*scandō, ere, --, --=, _to climb_, _mount_. =ad--ascendō, ere, ī,
scēnsus=, _to climb up_, _mount_, _ascend_. =con--cōnscendō, ere, ī,
scēnsus=, _to mount_, _ascend_; _go on board_.

=Scaevola, ae=, m., _Q. Mūcius Scaevola_, consul 117 B.C.

=scelerātus, a, um= [=scelus=], adj., _wicked_, _infamous_.

=scelus, eris=, n., _a sin_, _crime_.

=scēna, ae=, f., _a stage_.

=scientia, ae= [=sciō=], f., _knowledge_, _skill_.

=scīlicet= [=scīre= + =licet=], adv., _plainly_, _of course_,
_doubtless_.

=sciō, īre, scīvī, scītus=, _to know_, _understand_.

=Scīpiō, ōnis=, m., the name of one of the most illustrious families of
Rome. 1. _Cornēlius Scīpiō_, consul 83 B.C. 2. _Cn. Cornēlius Scīpiō_,
consul 222 B.C. 3. _L. (Cornēlius) Scīpiō_, consul 259 B.C. 4. _P.
Cornēlius Scīpiō_, consul 218 B.C. 5. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō_, consul 191
B.C. 6. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō_, praetor 94 B.C. 7. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō
Āfricānus_, consul 205 B.C., the conqueror of Hannibal in the First
Punic War. 8. _P. Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus (Minor)_, consul 147 B.C.
He brought the Third Punic War to a close by capturing and destroying
Carthage. 9. _L. Cornēlius Scīpiō Asiāgenēs_, consul 83 B.C. 10. _P.
(Cornēlius) Scīpiō Nāsīca_, consul 91 B.C.

=Scordiscī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Thracian people.

=scrība, ae= [=scrībō=], f., _a clerk_, _secretary_.

=scrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus=, _to write_. =dē--dēscrībō,
ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus=, _to copy off_, _sketch_, _describe_.
=prō--prōscrībō, ere, scrīpsī, scrīptus=, _to offer for sale_;
_proscribe_, _outlaw_.

=Scrībonius, ī=, m., see =Curiō=.

=scrīnium, ī=, n., _a case_, _box_ (especially for books and papers).

=Scythae, ārum=, pl. m., a wandering tribe of Europe and Asia north of
the Black and Caspian Seas.

=sē=, see =suī=.

=sectiō, ōnis=, f., _a sale at auction of confiscated property_.

=secundō= [=secundus=], adv., _for the second time_.

=secundus, a, um= [=sequor=], adj., _second_; _favorable_, _successful_.

=Secundus, ī=, m., _Petrōnius Secundus_, a partisan of Nerva.

=sēcūritās, ātis= [=sēcūrus=, _free from care_], f., _freedom from
care_, _security_.

=sed=, conj., _but_; _yet_.

=sedeō, ēre, sēdī, sessus=, _to sit_, _settle_, _remain_, _be
encamped_. =ob--obsideō, ēre, sēdī, sessus=, _to besiege_, _occupy_;
_watch closely_. =re--resideō, ēre, sēdī, --=, _to sit back_, _remain
sitting_, _be left behind_, _remain_.

=sēdēs, is= [cf. =sedeō=], f., _seat_, _chair_; _residence_, _abode_.

=sēditiō, ōnis= [=sed= + =itiō=, from =eō=], f., _dissension_,
_rebellion_, _revolt_.

=sēditiōsē= [=sēditiō=], adv., _seditiously_.

=Seleucīa, ae=, f., 1. A city in Assyria. 2. A city in Cilicia. 3. A
city in Syria.

=sella, ae= [=sedeō=], f., _a seat_, _chair_.

=semel=, adv., _once_.

=sēmibarbarus, ī=, m., _semi-barbarian_.

=semper=, adv., _always_.

=Semprōnius, ī=, m., P. Semprōnius, consul 268 B.C. See =Blaesus=,
=Gracchus=.

=Sēna, ae=, f., a city in Umbria in Italy.

=senātor, ōris= [=senātus=], m., _a senator_.

=senātus, ūs= [cf. =senex=], m., _council of elders_, _senate_, in the
time of the kings a mere advisory body, called together by the king
when he desired advice, but later the chief power in the Roman state.

=senectūs, ūtis= [=senex=], f., _old age_.

=senēscō, ere, senuī, --= [=senex=], _to grow old._ =con--cōnsenēscō,
ere, senuī, --=, _to grow old_.

=senex, gen. senis=, adj., _old_; comp. =senior=, _elder_; sup.
=māximus= (=nātū=), _eldest_. As subst., =senex, senis=, m., _an old
man_; =seniōrēs, um=, pl. m., =the elders= (men over 45).

=senior=, see =senex=.

=Senonēs, um=, pl. m., a people of Celtic Gaul.

=Senonēs, um=, pl. m., the chief city of the Senones.

=sententia, ae= [=sentiō=], f., _an opinion_, _judgment_; _sense_.

=sentiō, īre, sēnsī, sēnsus=, _to discern by sense_, _feel_; _see_,
_perceive_. =ad--adsentor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to assent_, _flatter_,
_fawn_. =con--cōnsentiō, īre, sēnsī, sēnsus=, _to agree_; _conspire_,
_plot_.

=Sentius, ī=, m., _Cn. Sentius_, a Roman general during the reign of
the emperor Claudius.

=sepeliō, īre, īvī (iī), sepultus=, _to bury_, _inter_.

=septem=, indecl. num. adj., _seven_.

=September, bris=, m., _September_, the seventh month of the year
beginning with March.

=septendecim= [=septem= + =decem=], indecl. num. adj., _seventeen_.

=septennium, ī= [=septem= + =annus=], n., _the space of seven years_.

=Septimius, ī=, m., see =Sevērus=.

=septimus, a, um= [=septem=], num. adj., _seventh_.

=septingentēsimus, a, um= [=septingentī=, _seven hundred_], num. adj.,
_seven hundredth_.

=septuāgenārius, a, um= [=septuāgintā=], num. adj., _of_ or _belonging
to the number seventy_.

=septuāgēsimus, a, um= [=septuāgintā=], num. adj., _seventieth_.

=septuāgintā= [=septem=], indecl. num. adj., _seventy_.

=sepultūra, ae= [=sepeliō=], f., _burial_, _funeral_.

=Sēquanī, ōrum=, pl. m., an important tribe in eastern Gaul north of
the Rhone.

=sequor, ī, secūtus sum=, _to follow_, _pursue_; _ensue_.
=con--cōnsequor, ī, secūtus sum=, _to pursue_, _overtake_; _arrive_;
_obtain_. =in--īnsequor, ī, secūtus sum=, _to pursue_, _follow up_.
=ob--obsequor, ī, secūtus sum=, _to submit to_, _indulge in_, _assist_.
=per--persequor, ī, secūtus sum=, _to pursue_, _prosecute_; _relate_.
=prō--prōsequor, ī, secūtus sum=, _to follow after_, _pursue_,
_address_.

=Serāpīum, ī=, n., _Serāpīum_, the temple of Serapis.

=Serdica, ae=, f., a town in Upper Moesia, the modern Sofia.

=Sergius, ī=, m., see =Catilīna=.

=sēricus, a, um=, adj., _of silk_, _silken_.

=sermō, ōnis=, m., _talk_, _conversation_, _ discourse_.

=*serō, ere, --, tus=, _to bind together_.

=ad--adserō, ere, uī, tus=, _to claim_, _lay claim to_.

=con--cōnserō, ere, uī, tus=, _to join in battle_; =cōnserere manūs=,
_to fight hand to hand_.

=dē--dēserō, ere, uī, tus=, _to leave_, _abandon_, _desert_.

=in--īnserō, ere, uī, tus=, _to fasten into_; _insert_.

=Sertōrius, ī=, m., _Q. Sertōrius_, an officer in the army of Marius.
He went to Spain as propraetor in 82 B.C. and maintained an independent
command until his death in 72 B.C.

=Servīlius, ī=, m., _Q. Servīlius_, consul 365 B.C. See =Caepiō=,
=Casca=, =Vatia=.

=serviō, īre, īvī= (=iī=), =ītus=, _to be the slave of_, _devote one’s
self to_; _have regard to_.

=Servius, ī=, m., see =Tullius=.

=servitium, ī= [=servus=], n., _slavery_; _slaves_.

=servitūs, ūtis= [=servus=], f., _slavery_.

=servō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to save_, _preserve_, _watch_.

=con--cōnservō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to keep safe_, _preserve_.

=re--reservō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to keep back_, _reserve_, _preserve_.

=servus, ī=, m., _a slave_, _servant_.

=sēsē=, see =suī=.

=sēstertius, ī= [=sēmis=, _half_, + =tertius=], m., (sc. =nummus=),
_a sesterce_, a small silver coin equivalent originally to two and
one-half asses, but later worth about four cents. In naming large
sums the Romans spoke of “so many times a hundred thousand sestertii”
(_centēna mīlia sēstertium_).

=sevērē= [=sevērus=], adv., sup. =sevērissimē=; _strictly_, _severely_.

=sevērissimē=, see =sevērē=.

=sevēritās, ātis= [=sevērus=], f., _strictness_, _severity_,
_sternness_.

=sevērus, a, um=, adj., _serious_, _strict_, _harsh_.

=Sevērus, ī=, m., 1. _(L.) Septimius Sevērus_, Roman emperor 193-211
A.D. 2. _(Flavius Valerius) Sevērus_, Roman emperor 306-307 A.D.

=sex=, indecl. num. adj., _six_.

=Sex.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Sextus=.

=sexāgenārius, a, um= [=sexāgintā=], num. adj., _belonging to sixty_;
=māior sexāgenāriō=, _older than sixty years_.

=sexāgēsimus, a, um= [=sexāgintā=], num. adj., _sixtieth_.

=sexāgintā= [=sex=], indecl. num. adj., _sixty_.

=sexcentēsimus, a, um= [=sexcentī=], num. adj., _six hundredth_.

=sexcentī, ae, a= [=sex + centum=], num. adj., _six hundred_.

=sexdecim= or =sēdecim= [=sex= + =decem=], indecl. num. adj., _sixteen_.

=sexiēs= [=sex=], num. adv., _six times_.

=Sextus, ī=, m., _Sextus Chaeronēnsis_, a teacher of Antoninus Pius.

=sextus, a, um= [=sex=], num. adj., _sixth_.

=sī=, conj., _if whether_; =quod sī=, _but if_.

=sīc=, adv., _so_, _thus_; =sīc … ut=, _just as_.

=Sicilia, ae=, f., _the island of Sicily_.

=Siculī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Sicily_.

=sīcut= [=sīc= + =ut=], adv., _just as_.

=sīdō, ere, --, --=, _to seat one’s self_, _sit down_. =con--cōnsīdō,
ere, sēdī, sessus=, _to sit down_; _settle_, _encamp_, _take a
position_.

=sīgnificō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=sīgnum= + =faciō=], _to make signs_,
_show_; _point out_, _indicate_.

=sīgnum, ī=, n., _sign_, _signal_; _military_ _standard_, _ensign_;
_statue_, _image_.

=Sīlānus, ī=, m., a celebrated Roman family. 1. _D. Iūnius Sīlānus_,
consul 62 B.C. 2. _M. Iūnius Sīlānus_, consul 109 B.C.

=Silvānus, ī=, m., a Roman who revolted in Gaul during the reign of the
emperor Constantius.

=Silvia=, see =Rhēa=.

=similis, e=, adj., sup. =simillimus=; _like_, _similar_.

=simul=, adv., _at the same time_; =simul atque= or =ac=, _as soon as_.

=sine=, prep. with abl., _without_.

=Singara, ae=, f., a city in Mesopotamia, on the Tigris.

=singulāris, e= [=singulī=], adj., _one by one_, _single_,
_individual_; _remarkable_, _singular_, _unparalleled_.

=singulī, ae, a=, adj., _one at a time_, _one apiece_, _single_.

=sinister, tra, trum=, adj., _left_.

=sinō, ere, sīvī, situs=, _to put_, _place_; _permit_, _let._
=dē--dēsinō, ere, sīvī (iī), situs=, _to cease_, _stop_.

=Sinōpē, ēs=, f., a city in Paphlagonia, on the Black Sea.

=Sipylus, ī=, m., a mountain in Lydia.

=Sirmium, ī=, n., a city in Lower Pannonia.

=*sistō, ere, stitī, status=, _to cause to stand_, _place_, _set_;
_stand_. =con--cōnsistō, ere, stitī, --=, _to stand_, _take position_
(of an army); _stop_, _halt_; _be firm_, _endure_, _continue_.
=ex--exsistō, ere, stitī, --=, _to make come out_; _appear_, _arise_,
_project_, _exist_. =re--resistō, ere, stitī, --=, _to oppose_,
_withstand_, _resist_.

=situs, a, um= [orig. part. of =sinō=], adj., _placed_, _situate_,
_lying_.

=Smyrna, ae=, f., one of the most flourishing and important sea-ports
of Asia Minor.

=socer, erī=, m., _father-in-law_.

=sociālis, e= [=socius=], adj., _social_.

=socius, ī=, m., _a comrade_, _ally_, _confederate_.

=sōcordia, ae=, f., _dullness_, _carelessness_; _laziness_, _indolence_.

=sōl, sōlis=, m., _the sun_; =Sōl, Sōlis=, m., _the Sun-god_.

=sōlitūdō, inis= [=sōlus=], f., _loneliness_; _lonely place_,
_wilderness_.

=sollers, ertis=, adj., _skillful_, _expert_.

=sollicitō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=sollicitus=, _agitated_], _to urge_,
_incite_, _tempt_, _solicit_.

=sollicitūdō, inis= [=sollicitus=, _agitated_], f., _uneasiness of
mind_, _care_, _anxiety_.

=solum, ī=, n., _the ground_, _soil_.

=sōlum= [=sōlus=], adv., _only_.

=sōlus, a, um=, gen. =sōlīus=, dat. =sōlī=, adj., _only_, _alone_.

=solvō, ere, solvī, solūtus=, _to loose_; _set sail_; _annul_; _pay_;
_unseal_, _open_.

=Sophanēnē, ēs=, f., or _Sophene_, a division of Armenia Maior.

=soror, ōris=, f., _a sister_.

=Sp.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Spurius=.

=Spartacus, ī=, m., a Roman gladiator who led an insurrection of
gladiators and slaves, 73 B.C.

=spatiōsus, a, um= [=spatium=, _space_], adj., _roomy_, _of great
extent_, _ample_, _extensive_.

=*speciō, ere, spēxī, --=, (obsolete), _to look_. =ad--adspiciō, ere,
spēxī, spectus=, _to look at_, _examine_, _inspect_. =con--cōnspiciō,
ere, spēxī, spectus=, _to catch sight of_, _spy_; _see_.

=spectāculum, ī= [=spectō=, _to look at_], n., _a show_, _spectacle_.

=spectō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =*speciō=], _to look at_, _watch_,
_behold_. =ex--exspectō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to look out for_, _wait
for_, _await_.

=speculātor, ōris=, m., _a spy_.

=spēs, eī=, f., _hope_, _expectation_.

=spolium, ī=, n., _spoil_, _booty_.

=spondeō, ēre, spopondī, spōnsus=, _to promise_. =re--respondeō, ēre,
ī, spōnsus=, _to answer_, _reply_; _correspond to_, _agree with_.

=sponte= [abl. of =spōns=, obs.], f., _voluntarily_; with =meā, tuā=,
or =suā=, _of my_, _your_, or _his own free will_.

=stadium, ī=, n., _a stade_, _stadium_, _furlong_, 606¾ English feet;
_a course for foot races_; _race course_; _Stadium_, the race course
built by Domitian.

=statim= [=stō=], adv., _instantly_, _at once_.

=statiō, ōnis= [=stō=], f., _a picket_, _guard_.

=statīvus, a, um= [=stō=], adj., _permanent_, _stationary_; =castra
statīva=, _a permanent camp_.

=statua, ae= [=stō=], _a statue_, _image_.

=*statuō, ere, ī, ūtus= [=stō=], _to cause to stand_, _set up_,
_place_; _determine_; _determine on_; _arrange_, _appoint_.
=con--cōnstituō, ere, ī, ūtus=, _to set up_, _erect_; _set in order_,
_organize_; _arrange_, _appoint_; _resolve_. =dē--dēstituō, ere, ī,
ūtus=, _to set down_, _deposit_. =in--īnstituō, ere, ī, ūtus=, _to set
in place_, _arrange_; _found_, _establish_; _determine_, _undertake_,
_begin_; _train_, _teach_. =prō--prōstituō, ere, ī, ūtus=, _to set
forth in public_, _expose_; _dishonor_, _prostitute_, _offer for sale_.
=re--restituō, ere, ī, ūtus=, _to set up again_, _replace_, _restore_,
_reinstate_; _repair_, _remedy_, _save_.

=status, ūs= [=stō=], m., _state_, _position_, _rank_.

=stella, ae=, f., _a star_.

=stercus, oris=, n., _dung_, _excrement_, _manure_.

=sternō, ere, strāvī, strātus=, _to lay low_, _scatter_; _pave_.

=stilus, ī=, m., _stilus_, _pen_.

=stīpendiārius, a, um= [=stīpendium=], adj., _tributary_, _paying
tribute_.

=stīpendium, ī= [=stips=, _gift_ + =pendō=], n., _a payment_; _salary,
pay; campaign_.

=stīpes, itis=, m., _a log_, _stock_, _post_, _trunk_.

=*stō, āre, stetī, status=, _to stand_, _take the part of_, _stand
firm_; _continue_. =ad--astō, āre, stitī, --=, _to stand at_, _be at
hand_. =in--īnstō, āre, stitī, statūrus=, _to draw near_, _be present_;
_press on_, _pursue_. =prae--praestō, āre, stitī, stitus=, _to show_;
_bestow_, _supply_; _surpass_; _be preferable_; _do_, _perform_.

=Stoicus, a=, um, adj., _Stoic_.

=stolidē=, adv., _stupidly_, _stolidly_.

=strangulō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to strangle_, _throttle_, _kill_.

=Stratonīcē, ēs=, f., a city in Caria in Asia Minor.

=strēnuē= [=strēnuus=], adv., sup. =strēnuissimē=, _vigorously_.

=strēnuissimē=, see =strēnuē=.

=strēnuus, a, um=, adj., _brisk_, _active_, _vigorous_.

=strictim=, adv., _superficially_, _summarily_, _briefly_.

=studeō, ēre, uī, --=, _to be eager_, _take pains about_, _pay
attention to_; _wish_, _try_; _favor_.

=studiōsē= [=studiōsus=, _eager_], adv., _eagerly_, _zealously_.

=studium, ī= [=studeō=], n., _zeal_, _enthusiasm_; _desire_, _pursuit_,
_study_; _good wil_l, _affection_.

=stuprō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=stuprum=], _to debauch_, _dishonor_.

=stuprum, ī=, n., _debauchery_, _defilement_, _dishonor_.

=suādeō, ēre, suāsī, suāsus=, _to advise_, _urge_, _exhort_.

=sub=, prep. with acc., _under_, _towards_, _until_, _after_; with
abl., _under_, _beneath_, _at the foot of_, _close to_; _in the reign
of_.

=subiciō=, see =*iaciō=.

=subigō=, see =agō=.

=subitō= [=subitus=], adv., _suddenly_.

=subitus, a, um= [=subeō=], adj., _sudden_, _unexpected_.

=subiugō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=sub= + =iugum=], _to bring under the yoke_;
_subject_, _subjugate_.

=sublātus=, see =tollō=.

=submoveō=, see =moveō=.

=subtīlis, e=, adj., _nice_, _precise_, _accurate_, _subtle_.

=suburbānus, a, um= [=urbs=], adj., _near the city_, _suburban_.

=subveniō=, see =veniō=.

=succēdō=, see =cēdō=.

=successor, ōris= [=succēdō=], m., _a follower_, _successor_.

=successus, ūs= [=succēdō=], m., _favorable outcome_, _success_.

=sūdor, ōris= [=sūdō=, to sweat], m., _sweat_; _fatigue_.

=Suessa, ae=, f., _Suessa Pōmētia_, a city of the Volsci, in Latium.

=Suēvī, ōrum=, pl. m., a confederacy of German tribes.

=Suēvia, ae=, f., _Suēvia_, the land of the Suevi, modern Bavaria and
Wurtemberg.

=suī=, gen., =sibi=, dat., =sē= (=sēsē=), acc. and abl., reflex. pron.,
sing. and pl., _himself_, _herself_, _itself_, _themselves_.

=Sulla, ae=, m., _L. Cornēlius Sulla_, surnamed Felix, consul 88 B.C.

=Sulpicius, ī=, m., 1. _C. Sulpicius_, dictator 304 B.C. 2. _P.
Sulpicius_, consul 279 B.C. 3. _P. Sulpicius_, consul 211 B.C. See
=Rūfus=.

=sum, esse, fuī, futūrus=, _to be_, _exist_, _live_; with gen.,
_belonging to_, _be a part of_; _be true_, _be so_; _happen_, _take
place_; with dat., _have_, _possess_.

=ab--absum, esse, āfuī, --=, _to be away_ or _absent_, _be far from_;
=prope abesse=, _to be at no great distance_, _be near_. =in--īnsum,
īnesse, īnfuī, --=, _to be in_ or _on_; _belong to_. =inter--intersum,
esse, fuī, --=, _to be present at_, _take part in_. =prae--praesum,
praeesse, fuī, --=, _to be over_ or _before_; _rule_, _govern_, _be
in command of_. =prō--prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī, --=, _to benefit_,
_profit_, _aid_. =super--supersum, esse, fuī, --=, _to be over and
above_, _remain_; _survive_, _outlive_.

=summus=, see =superus=.

=sumō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus=, _to use up_, _spend_.

=con--cōnsūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus=, _to use up_; _devour_, _waste_;
_destroy_; _spend_, _pass_; _use_, _employ_.

=re--resūmō, ere, sūmpsī, sūmptus=, _to take up again_, _take back_,
_resume_.

=sūmptus, ūs= [=sūmō=], m., _outlay_, _expense_.

=supellex or supellectilis, is=, f., _household stuff_, _furniture_.

=super=, prep. with acc., _over_, _above_, _upon_, _in addition to_;
with abl., _over_, _above_, _upon_, _on_; _about_, _of_, _concerning_.

=superbia, ae= [=superbus=], f., _haughtiness_, _pride_.

=superbus, a, um=, adj., _haughty_, _proud_, _august_.

=superfluus, a, um= [=super= + =fluō=], adj., _running over_,
_superfluous_; _unnecessary_.

=superior=, see =superus=.

=superō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=super=], _to pass over_ or _around_,
_overcome_, _conquer_; _survive_.

=supersum=, see =sum=.

=superus, a, um= [=super=], adj., _above_, _on high_; comp. =superior,
ius=, _upper_, _higher_, _earlier_, _superior_; _victorious_; _elder_;
sup. =summus, a, um=, _highest_, _chief_, _utmost_.

=superveniō=, see =veniō=.

=supplicium, ī= [=supplex=, _a suppliant_], n., _punishment_,
_execution_, _torture_.

=suprā=, adv. and prep. with acc., _above_, _over_, _before_, _on_.

=Surēna, ae=, m., a general of the Parthians who defeated Crassus in 54
B.C.

=suscipiō=, see =capiō=.

=suspectus, a, um= [orig. part. of =suspiciō=], adj., _mistrusted_,
_suspected_.

=suspīciō, ōnis= [=suspiciō=, _to suspect_], f., _distrust_,
_suspicion_.

=sustineō=, see =teneō=.

=sustulī=, see =tollō=.

=Sutrinī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Sutrium_, a city in
Etruria in Italy.

=suus, a, um= [=suī=], pron. adj., _his own_, _her own_, _its own_,
_their own_; _his_, _her_, _its_, _their_; as subst., =suī, ōrum=, pl.
m., _his (their) friends_, _followers_, _soldiers_ or _fellow-citizens_.

=Symiasera, ae=, f., the mother of Heliogabalus.

=Syphāx, ācis=, m., a king of Numidia.

=Syrācūsānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Syracuse_, a Greek city
in Sicily.

=Syrācūsānus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to Syracuse_; =urbs Syrācūsāna=,
_the city of Syracuse_.

=Syria, ae=, f., _Syria_, a country of Asia, on the eastern coast of
the Mediterranean Sea.

=Syriacus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to Syria_, _Syrian_; =Syriacum
bellum=, _Syro-Aetolian war_, 192-189 B.C.


T.

=T.=, abbreviation of the praenomen =Titus=.

=tabula, ae=, f., _a board_, _plank_; _picture_ (sc. =pīcta=,
_painted_); _writing tablet_; _record_, _list_.

=Tacitus, ī=, m., _(M. Claudius) Tacitus_, Roman emperor 275-276 A.D.

=Taifalī, ōrum=, pl. m., a tribe of Dacia.

=talentum, ī=, n., _a talent_, a Greek money measure worth about $1100.

=tālis, e=, adj., _such, of such a kind_; =tālis … qualis=, _such … as_.

=tam=, adv., _to such a degree_, _so much_, _as much, so_; =tam …
quam=, _as … so_, _not only … but also_.

=tamen=, adv., _yet_, _still_, _for all that_, _all the same_,
_however_, _nevertheless_.

=tamquam=, adv. and conj., _as_, _as if_, _as though_.

=tandem=, adv., _at length_, _at last_, _finally_.

=*tangō, ere, tetigī, tāctus=, _to touch_; _reach to_. =ad--attingō,
ere, tigī, tāctus=, _to border on_, _touch_, _attain_. =con--contingō,
ere, tigī, tāctus=, _to touch_, _reach_; _occur_, _happen to_.

=tantum= [=tantus=], adv., _so much_ (and no more), _only_, _merely_.

=tantus, a, um=, adj., _so great_, _such_.

=Tarentīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Tarentum_.

=Tarentum, ī=, n., a flourishing Greek city on the southern coast of
Italy.

=Tarquinius, ī=, m., the name of a gens in early Rome, said to have
come from Etruria. 1. _(L.) Tarquinius Prīscus_, the fifth king of
Rome, 616-578 B.C. 2. _L. Tarquinius Superbus_, the son of Priscus,
the last king of Rome, 534-510 B.C. 3. _(Sextus) Tarquinius_, son of
(2). 4. _(L.) Tarquinius Collātīnus_, cousin of (3), and husband of
Lucretia, consul 509 B.C.

=Tarracō, ōnis=, f., a city in Spain.

=Tarsus, ī=, f., a city in Cilicia in Asia Minor.

=Tauromenītānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Tauromenium_, a city
on the eastern coast of Sicily.

=Taurus, ī=, m., a mountain range in Asia Minor.

=taxō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =tangō=], _to touch sharply_,
_harass_, _vex_.

=tēctōrium, ī= [=tegō=, _to cover_] n., _a covering_, _cover_;
_plastering_.

=Telesīnus, ī=, m., _Pontius Telesīnus_, commander of the Samnites in
the war against Sulla. See Notes, p. 162.

=temeritās, ātis= [=temerē=, _rashly_], f., _rashness_, _heedlessness_,
_temerity_.

=tempestās, ātis= [=tempus=], f., _point of time_, _period of time_;
_storm_, _tempest_.

=templum, ī=, n., _a sacred spot_; _temple_.

=temptō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =tendō=], _to touch_, _handle_;
_try_, _attempt_; _sound_, _try to win over_.

=tempus, oris=, n., _time_, _period_, _season_; _opportunity_,
_occasion_.

=tenāx, ācis= [=teneō=], adj., _holding fast_, _tenacious_; _firm_,
_steadfast_, _persistent_.

=tendō, ere, tetendī, tentus=, and =tēnsus=, _to spread out_,
_stretch_; =īnsidiās tendere=, _to lay a trap for_, _plot against_.

=con--contendō, ere, ī, tentus=, _to stretch_; _exert one’s self_,
_strive_, _insist_; _hasten_, _march quickly_. =ob(s)--ostendō, ere, ī,
tentus=, _to stretch out_, _show_; _produce_, _furnish_; _disclose_,
_make known_.

=teneō, ēre, uī, tentus=, _to hold_, _keep_, _possess_; _maintain_,
_guard_, _defend_; _seize_. =ab--abstineō, ēre, uī, tentus=, _to
hold back or from_; _keep aloof from_; _refrain from_, _abstain_.
=con--contineō, ēre, uī, tentus=, _to hold_, _keep_, _contain_;
_restrain_, _rule_, _curb_. =ob--obtineō, ēre, uī, tentus=, _to hold_,
_possess_; _rule_, _govern_. =re--retineō, ēre, uī, tentus=, _to hold_
or _keep_ (back); _retain_, _detain_. =sub(s)--sustineō, ēre, uī,
tentus=, _to hold up_, _support_, _sustain_; _bear_, _endure_, _hold in
check_, _restrain_.

=ter=, num. adv., _three times_.

=Terentius, ī=, m., see =Varrō=.

=tergum, ī=, n., _the back_; =tergum vertere=, _to flee_.

=terminus, ī=, n., _the end_, _boundary_.

=terra, ae=, f., _the earth_; _land_; _territory_, _country_.

=terrester, tris, tre= [=terra=], adj., _of the earth_ or _land_.

=terribilis, e= [=terreō=], adj., _frightful_, _dreadful_.

=territōrium, ī= [=terra=], n., _a territory_, _domain_.

=terror, ōris= [=terreō=], m., _fear_, _terror_.

=tertiō= [=tertius=], num. adv., _the third time_.

=tertius, a, um= [cf. =trēs=], num. adj., third.

=Tervingī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people of Dacia.

=testāmentum, ī= [=testis=, _a witness_], n., _a will_, _testament_.

=Tetricus, ī=, m., _(C. Pesuvius) Tetricus_, one of the Thirty Tyrants.

=Teutobodus, ī=, m., a leader of the Cimbri.

=Teutonēs, um=, pl. m., _the Teutonēs_, a Germanic people which with
the Cimbri invaded Italy, but were defeated by Marius, 102 B.C.

=Theodōra, ae=, f., the wife of Constantius.

=thermae, ārum=, pl. f., _warm baths_.

=Thessalia, ae=, f., _Thessaly_, a large district in the northeastern
part of Greece.

=Thessalonīca, ae=, f., a city in Macedonia.

=Thrācia, ae=, f., _Thrace_, a large district in the southeastern part
of Europe, between the Aegean Sea, Macedonia, and the Black Sea.

=Tiberis, is=, m., the river Tiber.

=Tiberius, ī=, m., _Tiberius (Claudius Nerō)_, Roman emperor 14-37 A.D.

=Tigrānēs, is=, m., king of Armenia, son-in-law of Mithradates, 96-56
B.C.

=Tigrānocerta, ae=, f., the capital city of Armenia Maior.

=Tigris, idis=, m., _the Tigris_, a river in Mesopotamia.

=timeō, ēre, uī, --=, _to fear_, _be anxious_.

=timor, ōris= [=timeō=], m., _fear_, _a cause of fear_.

=tīrō, ōnis=, m., _a recruit_; _beginner_.

=Titūrius, ī=, m., see =Sabīnus=.

=Titus, ī=, m., _T. Flavius Sabīnus Vespasiānus_, Roman emperor 79-81
A.D.

=toga, ae=, f., the toga, the characteristic outer robe of the Romans.

=togātus, a, um= [=toga=], adj., _clad in the toga_; _in peaceful
garb_, _unarmed_.

=tollō, ere, sustulī, sublātus=, _to lift_, _raise_, _take up_;
_remove_, _abolish_.

=Tolumnius, ī=, m., _(Lar) Tolumnius_, leader of the Veientes.

=Tomī, ōrum=, pl. m., a city in Lower Moesia.

=Torquātus, ī=, m., 1. _(T.) Mānlius Torquātus_, dictator 353 B.C. 2.
_T. Mānlius Torquātus_, consul 235 B.C.

=torquis, is=, m., _a twisted collar_, _necklace_.

=tot=, indecl. adj., _so many_.

=tōtus, a, um=, gen. =tōtīus=, dat. =tōtī=, adj., _all_, _all the_,
_the whole_, _entire_.

=tractō, āre, āvī, ātus= [freq. of =trahō=], _to treat_.

=trāctus, ūs= [=trahō=], m., _a stretch_, _tract_.

=trādō=, see =dō=.

=tragicus, a, um= [=tragoedia=], adj., of _tragedy_, _tragic_.

=tragoedia, ae=, f., _tragedy_.

=trahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus=, _to draw_, _drag_; _detain_.
=con--contrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus=, _to draw together_, _collect_,
_assemble_. =dē--dētrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus=, _to draw_ or _strip
off_, _remove_; _drag_. =dis--distrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus=, _to pull
asunder_, _part_, _separate_. =ex--extrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus=, _to
draw_ or _pull out_; _prolong_, _waste_.

=prō--prōtrahō, ere, trāxī, trāctus, trāctus=, _to draw forth_, _bring
forward_, _produce_; _discover_, _disclose_.

=trāiciō=, see =*iaciō=.

=Trāiānus, ī=, m., _(M.) Ulpius Crīnītus Trāiānus_, Roman emperor
98-117 A.D.

=tranquillē= [=tranquillus=], adv., _calmly_, _tranquilly_.

=Tranquillīna, ae=, the wife of the emperor Gordianus.

=tranquillitās, ātis= [=tranquillus=], f., _calmness_, _stillness_;
=Tranquillitās, ātis= (as title of emperor), _Serene Highness_.

=tranquillus, a, um=, adj., _calm_, _peaceful_, _tranquil_.

=trāns=, prep. with acc., _across_, _beyond_, _over_.

=trānsalpīnus, a, um= [=trāns= + =Alpēs=], adj., _across the Alps_,
_transalpine_.

=trānseō=, see =eō=.

=trānsferō=, see =ferō=.

=trānsfuga, ae= [=trānsfugiō=, _to flee over_], m., _a deserter_.

=trānsgredior=, see =*gradior=.

=trānsigō=, see =agō=.

=trānsitōrius, a, um= [=trānseō=], adj., _adapted for passing through_,
_having a passage way_; =forum Trānsitōrium=.

=trānsmarīnus, a, um= [=trāns= + =mare=], adj., _beyond the sea_.

=Trebelliānus, ī=, m., one of the Thirty Tyrants.

=Trebia, ae=, f., a river in Cisalpine Gaul, where the second battle of
the Second Punic War was fought.

=trecentēsimus, a, um= [=trecentī=], num. adj., _three hundredth_.

=trecentī, ae, a= [=trēs= + =centum=], num. adj., _three hundred_.

=Tremellius, ī=, m., a Roman quaestor who conquered Pseudoperses.

=trēs, tria=, num. adj., _three_.

=Triballī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Thracian people of Lower Moesia.

=tribūnus, ī= [=tribus=], m., _chief of a tribe_, _tribune_; =tribūnus
mīlitum= or =mīlitāris=, _military tribune_, _captain_, one of the
minor officers of a legion, six in number; =tribūnus plēbis=, _tribune
of the people_, elected from the plebeians. The office was created in
494 B.C. to protect the plebeians from the patricians. Ten tribunes
were elected annually. Their persons were sacred.

=tribuō, ere, ī, ūtus= [=tribus=], _to assign_, _grant_, _give_.
=dis--distribuō, ere, ī, ūtus=, _to divide_, _distribute_, _apportion_.

=tribus, ūs= [cf. =trēs=], f., _a tribe_ (orig. a third part of the
people).

=tribūtum, ī= [=tribuō=], n., _a tax_, _tribute_.

=trīcēsimus, a, um= [=trīgintā=], num. adj., _thirtieth_.

=trīciēs= [=trīgintā=], num. adv., _thirty times_.

=Tricipitīnus, ī=, m., Sp. Lucrētius Tricipitīnus, consul 509 B.C.

=trīclīnium, ī=, n., a couch for three persons reclining at meals, _a
dinner sofa_.

=trīduum, ī= [=trēs= + =diēs=], n., _the space of three days_, _three
days_.

=triennium, ī= [=trēs= + =annus=], n., _the space of three years_,
_three years_.

=trīgintā=, indecl. num. adj., _thirty_.

=Tripolitānus, a, um=, adj., _belonging to Tripolis_; =tripolitāna
prōvincia=, _the province of Tripolis_, in northern Africa.

=trīstis, e=, adj., _sad_, _sorrowful_; _stern_, _strict_, _severe_.

=trīticum, ī=, n., _wheat_.

=triumphō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to celebrate a triumph_.

=triumphus, ī=, m., _a triumph_, a splendid procession in which the
victorious general entered the city accompanied by his soldiers and
the spoil and captives he had taken. The procession passed around the
Capitoline Hill into the Via Sacra, then into the Forum, and up to the
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

=Trōia, ae=, f., _Troy_, a city in the northwestern part of Asia Minor,
renowned for its ten years’ siege by the Greeks.

=trux, trucis=, adj., _wild_, _savage_, _stern_.

=tū, tuī=, pl. =vōs, vestrūm= or =vestrī=, pers. pron., _thou_, _you_.

=tueor, ērī, tūtus= or =tuitus sum=, _to look at_, _watch_; _defend_,
_protect_.

=in--intueor, ērī, itus sum=, _to look closely at_ or _upon_, _gaze at_.

=Tugurīnī=, or =Tigurīnī, ōrum=, pl. m., a Helvetian people who invaded
Italy with the Cimbri and Teutones.

=Tullius, ī=, m., _Servius Tullius_, the sixth king of Rome, 578-534
B.C.

=Tullus, ī=, m., see =Hostīlius=.

=tum=, adv., _then_, _at that time_; _thereupon_.

=tumultuor, ārī, ātus sum= [=tumultus=], _to make a disturbance_,
_riot_.

=tumultus, ūs=, m., _a disturbance_, _uproar_; _rebellion_, _riot_.

=tumulus, ī= [=tumeō=, _to swell_], m., _a hillock_, _mound_, _hill_.

=tunc=, adv., _then_, _at that time_; _accordingly_, _thereupon_.

=turbō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=turba=, _a crowd_], _to disturb_, _confuse_.

=turpis, e=, adj., _ugly_; _base_, _dishonorable_.

=turris, is=, f., _a tower_.

=Tuscī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the Etruscans_, inhabitants of Etruria.

=Tuscia, ae=, f., _Etruria_, a division of central Italy.

=Tusculum, ī=, n., an old town in Latium, about ten miles southeast of
Rome.

=tūtor, ōris= [=tueor=], m., _a guardian_, _tutor_.

=tūtus, a, um= [=tueor=], adj., _safe_.

=tuus, a, um= [=tū=], pron. adj., _your_, _yours_.

=tyrannicus, a, um= [=tyrannus=], adj., _tyrannical_.

=tyrannis, idis= [=tyrannus=], f., _the sway of a tyrant_, _arbitrary
power_, _despotic rule_.

=tyrannus, ī=, m., _a ruler_, _tyrant_.


U.

=ubi=, adv., _where_, _when_; =ubi prīmum=, _as soon as_.

=ubicumque=, adv., _wherever_.

=ubīque= [=ubi= + =que=], adv., _anywhere_.

=ūllus, a, um=, gen. =ūllīus=, dat. =ūllī=, adj., _any_.

=Ulpiānus, ī=, m., _(Domitius) Ulpiānus_, a celebrated Roman jurist.

=Ulpius, ī=, m., see =Trāiānus=.

=ulterior, ius=, gen. =ōris= [=ultrā=], adj., _further_, _remoter_;
sup. =ultimus=, _farthest_, _last_, _utmost_, _greatest_.

=ultiō, ōnis= [=ulcīscor=, _to avenge_], f., _revenge_.

=ultrā=, prep. with acc., _on the further side_, _beyond_.

=umquam=, adv., _at any time_, _ever_; usually with a negative.

=ūndecimus, a, um= [=ūndecim=, _eleven_], num. adj., _eleventh_.

=unguentum, ī= [=unguō=, _to anoint_], n., _ointment_, _unguent_,
_perfume_.

=unguis, is=, m., _a nail_, _hoof_, _claw_.

=ūnicē= [=ūnicus=], adv., _alone_, _singly_, _uniquely_.

=ūnicus, a, um= [=ūnus=], adj., _only_, _sole_, _single_; _uncommon_.

=ūniversus, a, um= [=ūnus= + =*vertō=], adj., _all in one_, _whole_,
_entire_.

=ūnus, a, um=, gen. =ūnīus=, dat. =ūnī=, adj., _one_, _only_, _sole_,
_alone_.

=urbs, urbis, f.=, _a city_; _The City_ (Rome).

=urna, ae= [=ūrō=, _to burn_], f., _a vessel_, urn (of baked clay).

=Uscudama, ae, f.=, a city in Thrace.

=ūsque=, adv., _all the way_, _right on_, _continuously_, _even_.

=ūsūrpō, āre, āvi, ātus= [=ūsus= + =rapiō=], _to make use of_, _enjoy_;
_usurp_.

=ūsus, ūs= [=ūtor=], m., _use_, _employment_; _experience_, _training_;
_profit_, _advantage_, _convenience_.

=ūsus, a, um=, see =ūtor=.

=ut=, adv., interrog., _how?_ _in what way?_ rel., _as_, _just as_;
_since_, _seeing that_; =ut … ita=, _just as … so_.

=ut=, conj., (1) with ind., _when_; ut =prīmum=, _as soon as_; (2) with
subj. of purpose, _in order that_, _that_; _of result_, _so that_,
_that_.

=uterque, traque, trumque= [=uter= + =que=], adj., _each_ (of two),
_both_.

=ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum=, _to make use of_, _employ_; _enjoy_; _have_,
_possess_; _associate with_, _be intimate with_.

=utrimque= [=uterque=], adv., _from_ or _on both sides_, _on either
hand_.

=uxor, ōris=, f., _a wife_.

=uxōrius, a, um= [=uxor=], adj., _of a wife_.


V.

=V.= = 5.

=vacuus, a, um= [=vacō=, _to be empty_], adj., _empty_, _unoccupied_.

=*vādō, ere, --, --=, _to go_, _rush_. =ex--ēvādō, ere, vāsī, vāsus=,
_to go forth_ or _away_; _get away_, _escape_; _get to be_, _become_.
=in--invādō, ere, vāsī, vāsus=, _to enter_; _attack_; _seize_, _take
possession of._.

=vagor, ārī, ātus sum=, _to wander_.

=Valēns, entis=, m., 1. _(F.) Valēns_, consul 96 A.D. 2. _Valēns_,
emperor of the East, 364-378 A.D.

=Valeria, ae=, f., daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius.

=Valeriānus=, ī, m., 1. _(P.) Licinius Valeriānus_, Roman emperor
253-260 A.D. 2. _(P.) Licinius Valeriānus_, son of (1).

=Valerius, ī=, m., the name of a Roman gens. See =Corvīnus=,
=Laevīnus=, =Messāla=, =Pūblicola=.

=valētūdō, inis= [=valeō=, _to be well_], f., _health_ (good or bad),
_sickness_, _weakness_.

=validus, a, um= [=valeō=, _to be wel_l], adj., _strong_, _healthy_,
_effective_.

=vallum, ī=, n., _stockade_, _rampart_, _wall_.

=Vandalī, ōrum=, pl. m., _Vandals_, a confederacy of German peoples
that invaded Italy in the fifth century A.D..

=variē= [=varius=], adv., _variously_.

=varius, a, um=, adj., _diverse_, _various_.

=Varrō, ōnis=, m., 1. _M. (Terentius) Varrō_, a legate of Pompey in
Spain, where he was defeated by Caesar. 2. _P. (C.) Terentius Varrō_,
consul 219 and 216 B.C.

=Varroniānus=, ī, consul 363 A.D.

=Vārus, ī=, m., _Q. Vārus_, one of the leaders of the Pompeian party at
the battle of Thapsus.

=vās, vāsis= (pl. =vāsa, ōrum=), n., _a vessel_, _dish_.

=vāstitās, ātis= [=vāstō=], f., _devastation_.

=vāstō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to lay waste_, _devastate_, _destroy_.

=Vatia, ae=, m., _P. Servilius Vatia_, surnamed Isauricus, consul 79
B.C.

=Vēcta, ae=, f., an island off the southern coast of England, now the
Isle of Wight.

=vehementer= [=vehemēns=, _earnest_], adv., _earnestly_, _seriously_,
_severely_; _exceedingly_.

=vehiculum, ī= [=vehō=], n., _a vehicle_, _carriage_.

=vehō, ere, vexī, vectus=, _to bear_, _carry_, _convey_; in pass. with
=nāvī= or =equō=, _to sail_, _ride_. =ex--ēvehō, ere, vexī, vectus=,
_to lift_, _raise_, _elevate_. =in--invehō, ere, vexī, vectus=, _to
carry in_ or _to_; in pass., _ride into_, _sail into_. =re--revehō,
ere, vexī, vectus=, _to carry back_, _bring back_, _return_.

=Vēientānī, ōrum=, pl. m., _the inhabitants of Vēiī_.

=Vēientēs, ium=, pl. m., _the people of Vēiī_.

=Vēiī, ōrum=, pl. m., _Vēiī_, a powerful town in Etruria, about twelve
miles from Rome.

=vel= [old imperative of =volō=], adv. and conj., _even_; or, _or
else_; =vel … vel=, _either … or_.

=vēnditiō, ōnis= [=vēndō=], f., _an auction sale_, _auction_.

=vēndō, ere, didī, ditus= [contr. from =venumdō=], _to sell_.

=venēnum, ī=, n., _poison_.

=venerābilis, e= [=veneror=], adj., _venerable_, _reverend_.

=venerātiō, ōnis= [=veneror=], f., _veneration_, _reverence_.

=veneror, ārī, ātus sum=, _to worship_, _revere_, _respect_, _honor_.

=Venetia, ae=, f., a district at the head of the Adriatic Sea.

=venia, ae=, f., _favor_, _grace_, _kindness_.

=veniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to come_, _go_. =con--conveniō, īre,
vēnī, ventus=, _to come together_, _assemble_; _be agreed upon_, _be
suitable_. =ex--ēveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to turn out_, _come to
pass_. =in--inveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to come upon_, _find_,
_discover_. =inter--interveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to come upon_,
_appear_, _intervene_. =per--perveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to come
to_, _reach_; _penetrate_, _attain to_. =prae--praeveniō, īre, vēnī,
ventus=, _to come before_, _get start of_, _anticipate_, _outstrip_.
=sub--subveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to come to help_, _aid_, _assist_.
=super--superveniō, īre, vēnī, ventus=, _to come to the rescue_,
_arrive_; _surpass_.

=venter, tris=, m., _the stomach_; _appetite_.

=Ventidius, ī=, m., see =Bassus=.

=verberō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=verber=, _lash_], _to whip_, _scourge_,
_beat_.

=vērē= [=vērus=, _true_], adv., _truly_, _really_.

=vereor, ērī, itus sum=, _to fear_, _dread_, _respect_.

=Vergiliānus, a, um=, adj., _Vergilian_; =Vergiliānus versus=, a verse
from the Aeneid of Vergil.

=Vērōna, ae=, f., an important town in Cisalpine Gaul.

=*vertō, ere, ī, versus=, _to turn_, _change_; in pass., _turn about_,
_return_. =ab--āvertō, ere, ī, versus=, _to turn away_ or _aside_,
_avert_, _divert_. =con--convertō, ere, ī, versus=, _to turn round_,
_change_; _turn_, _direct_; _divert_, _misuse_. =ex--ēvertō, ere, ī,
versus=, _to overturn_, _destroy_, _ruin_. =re--revertor, ī, revertī=
or (less often) =reversus sum=, _to return_; _revert_, _recur_.

=versus, ūs= [=vertō=], m., _a line_, _verse_.

=vērum= [=vērus=, _true_], adv., _truly_, _certainly_; _but_.

=Vērus, ī=, m., see =Antōnīnus=.

=Vespasiānus, ī=, m., _(T. Flavius) Vespasiānus_, Roman emperor 70-79
A.D.

=vespera, ae=, f., _evening_.

=vespillo, ōnis=, m., _a corpse bearer_.

=Vestālis, e=, adj., pertaining to the goddess Vesta.

=vester, tra, trum=, pron. adj., _your_, _yours_; =Vestra= (as title of
emperor), “_Your Serene Highness._”

=vestis, is=, f., _clothing_, _garments_; _a robe_.

=vetō, āre, uī, itus=, _not allow_, _forbid_.

=Vetraniō, ōnis=, m., a commander of the legions in Illyria who was
proclaimed emperor by the troops.

=Vettius, ī=, m., _T. Vettius_, a leader of the Marsi in the Marsic war.

=Veturia, ae=, f., the mother of Coriolanus.

=Veturius, ī=, m., _T. Veturius_, consul 321 B.C.

=Vetus, eris=, m., consul with Valens, 96 A.D.

=vetus, eris=, adj., _old_, _aged_; _of a former time_, _ancient_.

=via, ae=, f., _a way_, _road_, _journey_; _passage_.

(=Vibulānus, ī=), m., _C. Fabius (Vibulānus)_, consul for the third
time 479 B.C. His praenomen is generally given as Kaeso.

=vīcēsimus, a, um= [=vīgintī=], num. adj., _twentieth_.

=vīcīnus, a, um= [=vīcus=], adj., _near_, _neighboring_.

=vicissim= [=vicis=, _alternation_], adv., _in turn_.

=Victoalī, ōrum=, pl. m., a West Gothic people.

=victor, ōris= [=vincō=], m., _a conqueror_; as adj., _victorious_.

=victōria, ae= [=vincō=], f., _victory_.

=Victorīnus, ī=, m., one of the Thirty Tyrants.

=victrīx, icis= [=vincō=], f., _a victress_, _a female conqueror_; as
adj., _victorious_.

=vīcus, ī=, m., _a town_, _village_.

=videō, ēre, vīdī, vīsus=, _to see_, _perceive_, _understand_; in
pass., _seem_. =in--invideō, ēre, vīdī, vīsus=, _to look askance at_,
_envy_.

=vīgintī=, indecl. num. adj., _twenty_.

=vīlis, e=, adj., _cheap_, _common_, _worthless_.

=vīlissimē=, see =vīliter=.

=vīliter= [=vīlis=], adv., sup. =vīlissimē=; _at a low price_,
_cheaply_.

=vīlla, ae=, f., _a country house_, _farm_, _villa_.

=Viminācium, ī=, n., a town in Upper Moesia.

=Vīminālis, e= [=vīmen=, _an osier_], adj., _of osiers_; as subst.,
=Vīminālis, is=, m. (sc. =collis=), _the Viminal Hill_, one of the
seven hills of Rome.

=vinciō, īre, vinxī, vinctus=, _to bind_, _fetter_.

=vincō, ere, vīcī, victus=, _to conquer_, _defeat_; _surpass_;
intrans., _prevail_. =con--convincō, ere, vīcī, victus=, _to overcome_;
_convict_, _refute_; _expose_. =dē--dēvincō, ere, vīcī, victus=, _to
conquer completely_, _subdue_.

=Vindelicī, ōrum=, pl. m., a people dwelling in the Roman province of
Vindelicia, south of the Danube.

=vindicō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=vīs= + =dīcō=], _to claim_; _liberate_;
_avenge_, _take vengeance on_.

=vīnea, ae=, f., _a plantation of vines_, _vineyard_; _vine_.

=vir, virī=, m., _a man_; _hero_; _husband_.

=vīrēs=, see =vīs=.

=virga, ae=, f., _a rod_.

=Virgīnius, ī=, m., 1. _L. (T.) Virgīnius_, consul 479 B.C. 2. _(L.)
Virgīnius_, father of Virginia, a maiden whose attempted enslavement by
Appius Claudius led to the overthrow of the decemvirs; consul 449 B.C.

=virgō, inis=, f., _a young girl_, _maiden_, _virgin_.

=Viriāthus, ī=, m., a celebrated Lusitanian chief who maintained a
separate command against the Romans for several years.

=viridis, e=, adj., _green_, _fresh_, _new_.

=Viridomarus, ī=, m., a leader of the Gauls who was slain by Marcellus.

=virītim= [=vir=], adv., _man by man_, _separately_, _individually_.

=virtūs, ūtis= [=vir=], f., _manliness_, _valor_; _goodness_; _virtue_.

=vīs=, gen. and dat. wanting, acc. =vim=, abl. =vī=, f., _strength_,
_force_; _hostile force_, _violence_; _quantity_, _number_; pl.
=vīrēs=, _energy_, _vigor_, _resources_; =vim facere=, _to use
violence_.

=Viscellīnus, ī=, m., _Sp. Cassius (Viscellīnus)_, the first master of
the horse at Rome.

=vīta, ae= [=vīvō=], f., _life_, _conduct_.

=Vitellius, ī=, m., 1. _(A.) Vitellius_, Roman emperor, 69 A.D. 2.
_(L.) Vitellius_, brother of (1).

=vitiō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=vitium=], _to make faulty_, _taint_,
_corrupt_, _defile_, _dishonor_.

=vitiōsus, a, um= [=vitium=], adj., _full of faults_, _faulty_;
_wicked_, _depraved_.

=vitium, ī=, n., _a fault_, _vice_.

=vīvō, ere, vīxī, --=, _to live_.

=vīvus, a, um= [=vīvō=], adj., _living_, _alive_.

=vix=, adv., _with difficulty_, _hardly_, _scarcely_.

=vocō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=vōx=], _to call_, _summon_; _rouse_; _name_.
=ex--ēvocō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to call out_, _summon_. =prō--prōvocō,
āre, āvī, ātus=, _to challenge_. =re--revocō, āre, āvī, ātus=, _to
recall_, _recover_.

=volō, velle, voluī, --=, _to be willing_, _wish_. =magis--mālō, mālle,
māluī, --=, _to wish_, _rather_, _prefer_. =nē--nōlō, nōlle, nōluī,
--=, _to be unwilling_, _not to wish_, _not to want_.

=Volscī, ōrum=, pl. m., an ancient tribe living in the south of Latium.

=Volumnia, ae=, f., the wife of Coriolanus.

=voluntārius, a, um= [=voluntās=], adj., _of free will_, _voluntary_.

=voluntās, ātis= [=volō=], f., _will_, _desire_, _inclination_.

=Volusiānus, ī=, m., son of the emperor Gallus. His father conferred
the title of Caesar upon him in 251 A.D. and Augustus in 252 A.D.

=voracitās, ātis=, f., _greediness_, _ravenousness_.

=vōx, vōcis=, f., _voice_, _sound_, _tone_; _cry_, _call_; _saying_,
_speech_.

=vulnerō, āre, āvī, ātus= [=vulnus=], _to wound_, _hurt_, _injure_.

=vulnus, eris=, n., _a wound_; _blow_, _misfortune_.

=Vulsō, ōnis=, m., _L. Mānlius Vulsō_, consul 256 B.C.

=vultus, ūs=, m., _the expression of the face_, _features_,
_countenance_.


X.

=X.= = 10.

=Xanthippus, ī,= m., a Lacedaemonian who commanded the Carthaginians
against the Romans under Regulus.

=Xerxēs, is,= m., a king of the Persians who was conquered by Alexander
Severus.


Z.

=Zēnobia, ae,= f., queen of Palmyra.



REFERENCES TO HARKNESS’ NEW LATIN GRAMMARS (1898)


      P.   7. N. 1. 600, II.
                 2. 417.
                 3. 489.
                 4. 444.
                 5. 590.
                 6. 598.

      P.   8. N. 1. 483.
                 2. 429.
                 3. 485, 2.
                 4. 238.

      P.   9. N. 1. 442.
                 2. 425, 4.

      P.  10. N. 1. 428, 2.
                 2. 646.
                 3. 568.
                 4. 564, II.

      P.  11. N. 1. 462.
                 2. 418.

      P.  12. N. 1. 507, 4.
                 2. 570; 550.
                 3. 440, 2.
                 4. 628.

      P.  13. N. 1. 638, 3.
                 2. 579.

      P.  14. N. 1. 440, 3.
                 2. 598.
                 3. 238.
                 4. 428, 2.

      P.  15. N. 1. 463.
                 2. 426, 3.

      P.  16. N. 1. 487.

      P.  17. N. 1. 479, 3.
                 2. 468.
                 3. 591, 1.
                 4. 425, 4, N.

      P.  18. N. 1. 564, I.
                 2. 456, 2.
                 3. 238; 588, II.
                 4. 473, 3.

      P.  19. N. 1. 411.

      P.  20. N. 1. 652.
                 2. 476.
                 3. 475.
                 4. 629.
                 5. 480.

      P.  21. N. 1. 646.
                 2. 643.

      P.  22. N. 1. 462, 3.
                 2. 568.

      P.  23. N. 1. 440, 3.
                 2. 434.
                 3. 485, 2.

      P.  25. N. 1. 426, 1.
                 2. 135.
                 3. 448, 1.
                 4. 643, 3.

      P.  27. N. 1. 628.
                 2. 440, 3.

      P.  28. N. 1. 628.
                 2. 473, 1.

      P.  29. N. 1. 434.
                 2. 426, 3.
                 3. 485, 3.

      P.  30. N. 1. 630.

      P.  31. N. 1. 425, 2.

      P.  32. N. 1. 488, 2.
                 2. 440, 2.
                 3. 475.
                 4. 473, 3.

      P.  33. N. 1. 483.
                 2. 639.

      P.  34. N. 1. 476.
                 2. 429.

      P.  35. N. 1. 603, 2.
                 2. 642.

      P.  36. N. 1. 643.
                 2. 417.

      P.  37. N. 1. 567.
                 2. 433.
                 3. 489.
                 4. 485, 2.

      P.  38. N. 1. 636, 1.
                 2. 531.
                 3. 480.

      P.  39. N. 1. 564, III.
                 2. 425, 4, N.
                 3. 447.

      P.  40. N. 1. 439.
                 2. 440, 2.
                 3. 628.

      P.  41. N. 1. 467.

      P.  42. N. 1. 479, 3.
                 2. 639.
                 3. 440, 2.

      P.  43. N. 1. 475, 3.

      P.  44. N. 1. 588, II.

      P.  45. N. 1. 598.
                 2. 600, II.
                 3. 426, 3.

      P.  46. N. 1. 533.
                 2. 567.

      P.  47. N. 1. 462.
                 2. 425, 2.
                 3. 430.
                 4. 444.
                 5. 570.

      P.  48. N. 1. 638, 3.
                 2. 571, 3.
                 3. 475.
                 4. 463.
                 5. 649, II.

      P.  49. N. 1. 442.
                 2. 533.

      P.  50. N. 1. 462, 3.
                 2. 418.

      P.  51. N. 1. 434.

      P.  52. N. 1. 442.

      P.  54. N. 1. 626.

      P.  55. N. 1. 440, 2.
                 2. 444.

      P.  56. N. 1. 440, 3.
                 2. 427.
                 3. 588, II.
                 4. 434.
                 5. 426, 6.

      P.  57. N. 1. 568, 7.
                 2. 628.

      P.  58. N. 1. 630.
                 2. 417.
                 3. 426, 1.
                 4. 473, 2.
                 5. 570.

      P.  59. N. 1. 621.
                 2. 392.

      P.  60. N. 1. 591, 1.
                 2. 647.
                 3. 579.
                 4. 477.

      P.  61. N. 1. 488, 2.
                 2. 420, 2.
                 3. 498.

      P.  62. N. 1. 426, 3.
                 2. 426, 1.
                 3. 458, 3.

      P.  63. N. 1. 425, 4, N.
                 2. 468, 3.

      P.  64. N. 1. 598.
                 2. 429.

      P.  65. N. 1. 488, 2.
                 2. 434.
                 3. 471.

      P.  66. N. 1. 473, 2.

      P.  67. N. 1. 591, 1.

      P.  68. N. 1. 440, 3.
                 2. 434.

      P.  69. N. 1. 579.
                 2. 480.
                 3. 175, 4.
                 4. 448, 1.

      P.  70. N. 1. 477.
                 2. 598, 1.

      P.  71. N. 1. 427.
                 2. 450.

      P.  72. N. 1. 442, 1.

      P.  73. N. 1. 426, 4.

      P.  74. N. 1. 630.
                 2. 469, 2.

      P.  75. N. 1. 626.
                 2. 588, II.
                 2. 471.

      P.  77. N. 1. 591, 1.

      P.  78. N. 1. 508, 3.
                 2. 468, 3.

      P.  79. N. 1. 479, 1.

      P.  80. N. 1. 486, 1.

      P.  81. N. 1. 430.

      P.  83. N. 1. 425, 2.

      P.  84. N. 1. 475.

      P.  85. N. 1. 622.

      P.  86. N. 1. 447.
                 2. 440, 3.

      P.  87. N. 1. 477.
                 2. 456, 3.

      P.  89. N. 1. 434.

      P.  90. N. 1. 458, 3.

      P.  91. N. 1. 450.

      P.  92. N. 1. 592, 1.

      P.  93. N. 1. 591, 1.
                 2. 598.

      P.  94. N. 1. 476, 1.

      P.  95. N. 1. 584.

      P.  96. N. 1. 479, 2.
                 2. 238.

      P.  98. N. 1. 430, 1.

      P.  99. N. 1. 481.
                 2. 591, 1.
                 3. 579.

      P. 100. N. 1. 434.

      P. 101. N. 1. 456, 3.

           TYPOGRAPHY BY J. S. CUSHING & CO., NORWOOD, MASS.



                    =Cicero’s Laelius De Amicitia=

                  EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES

                        BY JOHN K. LORD, Ph.D.

                 Professor of Latin, Dartmouth College

                            Revised Edition

                    Flexible cloth, 12mo, 109 pages

                            Price, 70 cents

    =In this Revised Edition= of Cicero’s Laelius the editor’s aim
    in preparing the notes has been to furnish all explanations
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    development of the subject.

    =The Introduction= gives an interesting historical sketch of
    Cicero’s life which cannot fail to impart a clear appreciation
    of the man and his work. This is followed by an analysis and
    summary of the Laelius which will prepare the student for an
    intelligent study of the text.

    Its convenient form and arrangement especially adapt this
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       *       *       *       *       *

                      Stories from Aulus Gellius

                       EDITED FOR SIGHT READING

                        BY CHARLES KNAPP, Ph.D.

            INSTRUCTOR IN LATIN, BARNARD COLLEGE, NEW YORK

                     Paper, 12mo. Price, 30 cents

    The Noctes Atticæ of Aulus Gellius is a representative work,
    since it not only reflects perfectly the nature of the subjects
    which engaged the attention of the literary men of the second
    century A.D., but also forcibly depicts the spirit in which
    their labors were prosecuted. Of especial interest and value
    are the numerous quotations from early writers whose works are
    no longer extant. For such portions as yet remain of the oldest
    Latin literature, we are almost wholly indebted to quotations
    by various grammarians. In this connection the obligations of
    Latin scholarship to Gellius are far from small. Fully two
    hundred and seventy-five authors are mentioned or directly
    quoted in his work, while the number of individual works cited
    is twice or thrice as large. In giving these quotations from
    the older writers, he often adds information concerning their
    careers, or their works, and in this way his contribution
    to our knowledge of the history of Latin literature is very
    valuable. For example, practically all that is known of the
    life of Plautus, the greatest comic poet of Rome, is derived
    from the third chapter of the third book of the Noctes Atticæ.

    The commentary gives sufficient assistance to enable such
    students to read the selections as rapidly and intelligently
    as possible, and without the need of any helps beyond those
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    critical edition. Throughout the book all vowels known to be
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                       Lindsay’s Cornelius Nepos

                 WITH NOTES, EXERCISES, AND VOCABULARY

                  EDITED BY Thomas B. Lindsay, Ph.D.

          Professor of Latin and Sanskrit, Boston University

                  Cloth, 12mo, 363 pages. Illustrated

                             Price, $1.10

    This edition of the Lives of Cornelius Nepos is virtually a new
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    fine double page map of the Roman Empire, Greece and the
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    The English-Latin exercises have been rewritten and cover the
    full text of the twenty-five Lives. These exercises, while easy
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    difficult constructions.

                             Text Edition

    For use in recitations and examinations a separate volume is
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       *       *       *       *       *

            Introduction to the Study of Latin Inscriptions

      By JAMES C. EGBERT, Jr., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor of Latin,
    Columbia University. Half Morocco, large 12mo, 468 pages. With
    numerous illustrations and exact reproductions of inscriptions.

                             Price, $3.50

    This work is designed as a text-book for the use of students
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    has been prepared in the belief that a knowledge of epigraphy
    forms an essential part of the equipment of a teacher of the
    classics, and that the subject itself has become so important
    as to justify its introduction, in elementary form at least,
    into the curriculum of undergraduate studies.

    A distinctive feature of the book is the number and character
    of its illustrations,--there being over seven hundred cuts
    and diagrams of inscriptions, for the purpose of illustrating
    the text, and for practice in reading. Of these, over one
    hundred are photographic reproductions, showing the forms of
    the letters and the arrangement of the inscriptions. The work
    is also supplied with an exhaustive bibliography and valuable
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    PLATO’S Apology of Socrates and Crito and a Part of the Phaedo

         WITH INTRODUCTION, COMMENTARY, AND CRITICAL APPENDIX

                      BY REV. C. L. KITCHEL, M.A.

                Instructor in Greek in Yale University

                   Flexible Binding, 12mo, 188 pages

                             Price, $1.25

    =The Dialogues of Plato= contained in this volume exhibit the
    moral qualities of Socrates in their highest manifestations
    and also give some insight into those intellectual processes
    by virtue of which he made an epoch in philosophy. In order
    that this story may not be incomplete or lack its climax,
    this edition adds to the _Apology_ and _Crito_ (usually given
    together without that addition) that part of the _Phaedo_ which
    describes in detail the last sayings and doings of Socrates.

    =The Introduction= gives such a clear and comprehensive outline
    of the life, character, and philosophy of Socrates that the
    student cannot fail to see clearly what manner of man he was
    and why his influence was so decided upon his own time and upon
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    aids to an understanding of Plato’s dramatic representation of
    his great master and by a critical analysis of the argument
    pursued in the Dialogues.

    =The Text= adopted in this edition is based upon that of
    Wohlrab in his revision of the text of Hermann (6 vols.,
    Teubner, Leipzig--Vol. I., 1886). The grammatical and
    exegetical notes have been drawn freely from many sources but
    principally from Cron (Teubner, Leipzig, 1895).

    =Other features= which will commend this edition to students
    and teachers are its convenient form, clear open type, and full
    indices, making it altogether a most attractive and serviceable
    text-book for the study and class room.

    _Copies of Kitchel’s Plato will be sent, prepaid, to any
    address on receipt of the price by the Publishers. Copies of
    the Text Edition (paper binding) will be sent on receipt of 30
    cents._

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