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Title: Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919 - The Story in Outline
Author: Library, Newark Public
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber Note

An Index has been added at the end to facilitate location of subjects.
Text emphasis is denoted as =Italicized Bold= and _Italics_.



                 Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919.

                          The Story in Outline.



                 Newark's Last Fifteen Years, 1904-1919.

         Interesting Facts, arranged Alphabetically by Subjects


  =This compilation is an attempt by a busy library staff to put
  into form convenient for use a large group of such facts and figures
  as experience shows are often asked for. The notes which follow tell
  how we happen to be so interested in Newark's story, why so many
  questions on that story come to us, and what kind of help we hope
  Newarkers may get from it.=

About seventeen years ago the Library began to collect information about
Newark. We began with a search for good topical poetry and for historical
stories so written as to appeal to young people. Of these we found very
little; though poor verse and poor history were both abundant.

Then we extended our search to the field of Newark as a going concern. In
this field we found so little in print that was fairly descriptive of the
actual Newark of the time, from water supply to sewers, and from parks to
jails, that we began to write it ourselves.

We were moved to do this largely because certain changes in school work
led many pupils and teachers to come to us for information. Our brief,
typed and multigraphed statements about subjects like the city hospital,
paving and street cleaning, proved to be very welcome. We gathered a vast
deal of Newark information and, in time, cast much of it into convenient
form for use in the Library and for lending. In these days we held in the
Library several annual exhibits illustrative of and calling attention to
events of both early and recent days in Newark's history.

Mr. Frank J. Urquhart, one of the editors of the Newark Sunday Call, had
long been an advocate of the study of Newark by its citizens, both old
and young. At the request of the Library, he wrote a brief history of
Newark for the use of young people, which later the Board of Education
adopted as a text-book in the schools. Mr. Urquhart helped the Library
very materially in the collection of historical data and in exhibits of
Newark life and customs in the past.

Several years ago the schools took over this Newark work and, of course,
vastly expanded it, and made of it a Course, running through all grades,
on the City of Newark, and supplied for it a text-book and more than
forty pamphlets of Newark information.

Dr. A. B. Poland, then Superintendent of our Schools, approved
heartily of all this Newark study work, and at his request Assistant
Superintendent J. Wilmer Kennedy prepared the Course of Study and the
pamphlets just mentioned.

The demand for Newark information which came to the Library was, of
course, rather increased than diminished by this adoption of a Newark
Study Course by the schools.

Moreover, Newark has now a much larger number of persons who are
interested in its development and its character and its recent
self-improvement than it had fifteen years ago. Consequently, the
requests received from adults for facts and figures concerning recent
events in our city are much more numerous than they were formerly.

Looking back over the world's history with the perspective of many years,
you would not find it an easy matter to select any fifteen-year period
about which you might wish to write even the briefest review. That is,
events appear to lose their importance or to produce unexpected results
with the passing years, and only a comparatively few happenings remain
conspicuous for all time and for all peoples.

There is, however, a peculiar fascination about history in the making,
and especially local history within one's own memory. Perhaps it may
be compared to the study of a dead language as an intellectual pursuit
and the study of a live language for the pleasure or profit of human
intercourse. Both are desirable--the one, as a background, the other, as
a foreground of education.

Newark's history from the days of Robert Treat was so thoroughly reviewed
at the time of the 250th Anniversary Celebration, 1916, that we have
elected to treat as background everything prior to 1904 and to concern
ourselves with the story of Newark from that year to the present. This
means that the high school graduate of June, 1919, should find between
the covers of this pamphlet a record of the city from the time he or
she entered the kindergarten. With these dates in mind it was really
astonishing to find how many changes and what material advances had been
made within the fifteen years. As you thought of the building of the
City Hall and Court House; the changed appearance of the "Four Corners";
the opening of the Hudson and Manhattan Tubes; the new Public Service
Terminal; the adaptation of automatic appliances in fire fighting; the
impetus given movements like "Safety First", vacant lot cultivation and
thrift with its school banks; the bigger civic undertakings like City
Plan, Passaic Valley Sewer; Port Newark and the unexpected trend of its
development due to the war; the war itself, representing the effect of
a world event on a city's activities; the 250th Anniversary, a local
celebration, but illustrative of Newark's relations with the outside
world; and, finally, of the change of city administration to Commission
Government--you wonder whether history at close range invariably presents
so much of interest, or whether 1904-1919 happens to be a particularly
progressive period, or whether Newark, suddenly conscious of its
backwardness in many lines, is now making up for lost time.

So many facts presented themselves that the pamphlet soon outgrew our
original conception of it, becoming much larger than was originally
intended. It is still, however, a succession of facts and in no sense a
consecutive history. Because it grew from fact to fact, suggested by one
assistant and perhaps set down by another; and because from the first
day the idea was suggested to the day when work stopped, a lapse of
three months, we were daily expecting that copy must go to the printer
on the morrow, the entries are not as complete, or the whole as well
balanced as we should wish. One consideration which delayed our work, but
which should contribute to any value it may have, was the fixed desire
to avoid loose, indefinite statement and to resist the inclination to
make irrelevant comment when real information is wanting or difficult to
acquire. This determination grew as our own searches and questionings
showed how common is this looseness of statement. For the facts and
information which it was impossible or very difficult to get from records
on file, we wish to make grateful acknowledgment to city departments,
newspapers, societies and individuals who responded promptly and
graciously to our calls for assistance.

August, 1919.

                                                               C. V. D.



Newark: 1904-1919.


_All-Year School_: Established at Belmont Ave. and McKinley schools,
June 1, 1912. Each year's work divided into four 12 week terms instead
of two 20 week terms. Enables pupil to complete 8 grades' work in 6 years
instead of 8, as he ordinarily would. Attendance during summer term is
not compulsory.


_Almshouse_: New home for aged and infirm poor at Ivy Hill, beyond
Irvington, erected 1913-14 and opened Jan. 1916. Accommodates 400 to 500
people. Has farm of 70 acres so those who are able can work and help to
support themselves. Surveyed by Russell Sage Foundation, Dept. of Surveys
and Exhibits, 1918-19.


_Alternating Plan_: Introduced in Cleveland and Madison Schools, 1913.
Nov. 1915, Cleveland and Abington Ave. schools organized on complete plan
with daily vocational and recreational activities.

Essential feature consists in so co-ordinating work of two teachers that
each may make alternate use of classroom, court and auditorium. Makes for
economy in erection of buildings, since under the alternate plan, it is
possible to accommodate in any fully equipped building from 40% to 50%
more pupils than under the regular system. Broader curriculum with longer
school day. Modification of the "Wirt" system practiced in the schools of
Gary, Indiana.


_Apartment Houses_: City directory for 1906 lists apartment houses, 41,
separately for the first time; now over 300.


_Athletic Association, Public School_: Formed April 26, 1904.


_Athletic Field, Public School_: Bloomfield and Roseville Aves. Annual
meet held here for first time June, 1913.


_Automobiles_: N. J. Dept. of Motor Vehicles was established 1906 for
the registration and supervision of automobiles. Prior to that time this
work had been done in the secretary of state's office and originally
applications for car registrations were signed by the county clerk. In
1900, as far as the first records show, there were not more than 10 or 12
motor-drawn vehicles in the entire state. In 1918, the number registered
was 155,519 exclusive of motorcycles.


_Band Concerts_: First given, 1903, 25 in a year; appropriation, $3,000.
1918 appropriation, $5,000; 60 concerts; attended by 350,000 persons.


_Bank Buildings_: See Buildings.


_Baths, Public_: Public Bath Assoc. formed, 1907. By courtesy of Bd. of
Street and Water Commissioners undertook supervision of 3 old bath houses
on Summer Ave., Morris Ave., and Walnut St.

Bill passed N. J. Legislature, 1910, permitting Newark to issue bonds for
public baths, up to $250,000.

Site of Montgomery St. bath purchased and work begun, 1911. Opened, Sept.
1913. Cost, $100,000.

Placed under the control of Playground Commission, 1913.

Hamburg Pl. (now Wilson Ave.) bath opened, July, 1917.

Baths closed by order of Mayor on account of lack of coal, Dec. 10, 1917.
Re-opened by vote of Commission, Jan. 25, 1918.


_Birth Rate_:

         _Population_  _Rate per Thousand_
  1904      272,000           25.8
  1905      283,000           25.1
  1906      290,000           26.3
  1907      300,000           27.9
  1908      305,000           29.2
  1909      311,000           30.8
  1910      347,469           29.6
  1911      352,000           30.9
  1912      370,000           29.3
  1913      380,000           29.4
  1914      395,000           29.0
  1915      375,000           29.2
  1916      385,000           29.7
  1917      405,000           30.4
  1918      430,000           27.0


_Blind, Work for_: N. J. Commission for the Blind created by act of
Legislature, 1909, to supervise and encourage work for the blind. State
headquarters, originally established at 54 James St., Newark, now located
at 147 Summer Ave.

Here the Commission conducts classes in reading, writing, stenography,
typewriting, basketry, cane-seating, weaving, piano tuning, and other
manual arts. It also sends out teachers to instruct the adult blind in
their homes. First public school class for blind in Newark inaugurated,
Sept., 1910, in Washington St. School.

Under act of 1918, creating State Dept. of Charities and Corrections (now
Dept. of Institutions and Agencies), this Commission is given entire
charge of all state matters relating to the blind.


_Boy's Vocational School_: Opened April, 1910, in Warren St. School, at
Warren and Wickliffe Sts.

Building of new school, to be located on Sussex Ave., bet. 1st and 2nd
Sts., and known as the Seymour Vocational School, in honor of James M.
Seymour, Mayor of Newark, 1896-1903, has been postponed by war. Building
plans and curriculum will follow recommendations made by an Advisory
Committee to Bd. of Education (appointed Aug., 1916) in its survey,
Vocational Overview of Newark, New Jersey, which was prepared by Charles
H. Winslow.


_Buildings_: (This list is here entered to show how many municipal,
educational and notable commercial buildings have been erected within the
last few years.)

American Insurance Co., Park Place and E. Park St. Present building
completed Feb., 1904.

Merchants' National Bank, 770 Broad St., moved to new building Feb. 22,
1905.

New City Hall, Broad St., between Green and Franklin Sts., cornerstone
laid Aug. 5, 1903, formally opened Dec. 20, 1906. Cost $2,500,000.

New Court House, junction of Springfield Ave. and Market St., completed
1907. Cost $2,000,000.

Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co.'s new building. Broad and Clinton Sts.,
completed 1908.

Firemen's Office Building, 16-story, at "Four Corners", completed 1910.

Ironbound Trust Co., Market and Ferry Sts. Present building opened July
25, 1910.

N. Y. Telephone Co., 281 Washington St. New building completed Nov. 1,
1910.

East Side High School, Van Buren St., bet. Warwick and Nichols Sts.,
opened March 1, 1911.

Broad St. Theatre, Broad St., opp. Central Ave. Opened under name of
Shubert Theater, Jan. 8, 1912.

Lehigh Valley Railroad Station, Meeker Ave., Weequahic Park section,
opened Jan. 27, 1912. Cost $60,000.

Central High School, High St., bet. New and Summit Sts., opened Feb. 1,
1912.

Essex Co. National Bank Building, 753 Broad St. Now occupied by Fidelity
Trust Co. Completed June, 1912.

National State Bank, Broad and Mechanic Sts. Present building completed
Oct. 1, 1912.

L. Bamberger & Co.'s Department Store, Market, Halsey and Washington
Sts., opened Oct. 15, 1912.

Kinney Office Building, 12-story, at "Four Corners", completed 1913.

New Board of Health Building, William and Plane Sts., completed 1913.

Young Women's Christian Association, 53 Washington St., completed 1913,
and dedicated Nov. 3, 1913.

Washington Trust Co., 477 Broad St., completed Sept. 1913.

South Side High School, Johnson Ave., cor. Alpine St., opened Sept. 8,
1913.

N. J. State Normal School, Belleville and 4th Aves., opened Sept. 16,
1913.

West Side Trust Co., Springfield Ave. and High St. Present building
opened July 1, 1914.

Public Service Terminal, Park Place, completed, 1916. Cost, $5,000,000.

Robert Treat Hotel, Park Place, named for founder of Newark. Completed
during the 250th Anniversary Celebration, May, 1916.

Federal Trust Co., 740 Broad St., adjoining Mutual Benefit Life Ins.
Co.'s building and erected by Mutual Benefit Life Ins. Co. Completed 1918.

Central Railroad of N. J. Station, South Broad St. Work begun on new
building, Nov., 1916; completed Feb., 1919. Total cost, including
property acquired, $650,000.


_Carteret Book Club_: Established for printing fine editions and study of
art of book making, Dec. 12, 1908. Published, 1917, a volume "Newark",
containing "a series of engravings on wood by Rudolph Ruzicka, with an
appreciation of the pictorial aspects of the town by Walter Prichard
Eaton". Limited edition of 200 copies printed by Merrymount Press, Boston.


_Catholic Children's Aid Association of N. J._: Organized 1904 and
headquarters established in Newark with paid agent. Proceeded to
withdraw children from Catholic institutions and to place them in private
Catholic homes. Instituted work to prevent separation of families
and placing of children in institutions, by prosecuting parents and
perpetuating homes. Headquarters now located at 776 Broad St.


_Charities_: Bur. of Associated Charities, organized 1882, reorganized
1904. Private organization, supported by voluntary contributions, but
with work so far-reaching and constructive that it has become a center
for co-operative effort among all charitable agencies in the city. Has
a visiting Housekeeper Department, Provident Savings Fund, General
Information Bureau and trained social workers to study causes and
conditions. In 1903-04 there were 239 contributors and contributions
amounting to $3,000. In 1918-19 there were 3,000 contributors and
contributions of $48,000.

In 1906, at suggestion of Bureau, Bd. of Trade appointed a committee
to examine claims of charities soliciting contributions, and to try to
name those worthy of support. This is now known as the Bd. of Trade
Endorsement Committee. In 1917 there were 63 endorsed charities.

In 1912 and again in 1916, the secretary of the Associated Charities
published a classified directory of the philanthropies of Newark, a
genuine contribution to the study of social problems.

For facts about distinct lines of work or particular undertakings consult
this directory or the Associated Charities Bur.


_Charter, City_: A city charter is the constitution or frame of
government of a city conferred on that city by the state legislature.

First charter incorporating township of Newark, granted by Queen Anne
to Robert Treat, 1713. Legislature incorporated _township_ of Newark,
1798. Legislature incorporated it under name of Mayor and Common Council
of _City_ of Newark, 1836. The 1857 revision, authorized by act of
Legislature, embodied all changes made since 1836.

Mayor Haussling appointed a committee which formulated and published
draft of new city charter, 1911.

Mayor Raymond appointed "Charter Revision Commission", which presented
its proposed charter to Legislature, 1917. It provided for a mayor, and
Commission of five, elected at large. Mayor to have veto power and to
appoint heads of departments. This was defeated in Assembly, March, 1917.

See also Commission Government.


_Child Hygiene Division, Board of Health_: Established Aug., 1913, to
supervise care of new-born babies, to study causes of infant mortality
and to teach art and science of mothercraft. Chief, 4 clinic physicians
and 14 nurses now in attendance. Has continued work of consultation
stations, formerly directed by general board, at which advice is given
expectant mothers and mothers of children up to school age. Supervises
boarding-homes of infants up to 3 years of age, which by ordinance of
July 6, 1915, must be licensed by Health Bd. Also supervises unmarried
mothers and is planning convalescent home for them at Ivy Hill.

A supervisor of midwives was appointed Nov., 1914, to investigate and
report on practice of midwifery and has continued to direct work of
midwives, who attend 50% of the births of the city.


_Christmas Trees, Municipal_: The first tree, a Norway spruce, 48 ft.
high, with spread of 30 ft., was set up in Military Park, Christmas,
1913. Illuminated at night with 800 electric lights, and 50 in star shape
at top. Week of festival followed. Similar festivities held around trees
set up in the park next 2 years.

In 1916 a great Norway spruce was set up in south lawn fronting City
Hall. Inside the building, a smaller tree was placed in rotunda for week
of festival. These City Hall Christmas Festivals brought together old
and young, rich and poor, for singing and games and Christmas good cheer
of all kinds. For the past 2 years there has been no municipal Christmas
Tree, but Christmas festivities have been held in the City Hall.


_Churches_: Items of church history,--buildings erected, parish houses
annexed, missions established, etc.,--are too numerous to be recorded in
a brief, general outline. Detailed sketches of individual churches have
been written by Rev. Joseph F. Folsom and appended to Urquhart's History
of Newark, Vol. II., pp. 949-1020.


_City Home_: See Delinquent Children.


_City Plan Commission_: "City planning means development of our city
according to carefully prepared plans; stopping all further random
development, all haphazard extensions, and all improvements for certain
favored sections or limited localities. It means considering every
suggested change or improvement as to its effect on the entire city and
all suburbs and nearby towns.

"City planning is for all, and especially for the man of modest income.
It means better housing and attractive and healthful surroundings for
the humblest homes. It means securing for the cheapest tenement the
sunny, airy, sanitary conditions which health, science and common sense
demand.

"It means a City Efficient, a City Clean and a City Enjoyable."

An act providing for city plan commissions passed N. J. Legislature and
became a law March 30, 1911. On June 1, Mayor Haussling appointed the
Newark City Plan Commission. For its investigations and work, $10,000 was
annually appropriated until the adoption of Commission Government. Under
this form of government there were no further appropriations for special
boards and the City Plan Commission went out of existence, Dec. 31, 1917.

Some of the subjects studied and reported on by the Commission aside
from street arrangement, were Centre Market, Housing Problems, Municipal
Recreation, Interurban Improvement and Harbor Development. The Commission
issued "City Planning for Newark" and "A Comprehensive Plan". Both are
valuable documents and rich in Newark facts.


_Civil Service Reform_: The system by which public offices are filled
and promotions made through competitive examinations held under federal,
state or city government. It is known as the "merit system", since
it looks toward the appointment of men to office because of their
competency. It is a reaction from the "spoils system" or the practice
of giving public offices to political favorites. The state measure was
adopted, 1910, by Newark, by popular vote.


_Coal Shortage_: 27,000 emergency coal cards, entitling each person to
1,000 pounds of coal, were issued by Bd. of Health during coal shortage
in the winter of 1917-18. U. S. government instituted Workless Mondays to
conserve coal, and boards of education closed school buildings for lack
of fuel.


_College of Technology_: See Technical School.


_Comfort Stations_: First public comfort station, in Military Park, ready
for use July, 1910. Cost $14,734. Maintained by Shade Tree Commission,
now a division of Dept. of Parks and Public Property.


_Commission Government_: Adopted Oct. 9, 1917, at a special referendum
election. Vote 19,069 for, and 6,053 against.

Present commissioners elected Nov. 13, 1917, to serve until May, 1921,
are:

  Mayor Charles P. Gillen. Dept. of Public Affairs.

  Alexander Archibald. Dept. of Revenue and Finance.

  William J. Brennan. Dept. of Public Safety.

  Thomas L. Raymond. Dept. of Streets and Public Improvements.

  John F. Monahan. Dept. of Parks and Public Property.

Change of government authorized under Walsh Act, passed by the N. J.
Legislature April 25, 1911. 5 commissioners, elected by the people and
responsible to them, replace a mayor, 32 common council members, numerous
departments and boards. The commission names one of its members to be
mayor. He becomes chief Commissioner, but has no veto power.


_Contemporary, The_: Organized April 23, 1909, by representatives of
Sesame, Philomathean, Irving, Saturday and Municipal Art Clubs. To meet
need for single large organization of Newark women, working toward a
better knowledge of civic conditions and for the development of good
fellowship among women.

204 active and 198 associate members enrolled at first regular meeting,
Oct. 19, 1909. Admitted to State Federation of Women's Clubs, Oct. 24,
1909. Legally incorporated, April 19, 1915. Total membership, Sept.,
1918, was 1,461.

Among its activities have been the institution of a social hygiene
movement; the organization of the Housewives' League; advocacy of the
founding of a State College for Women; opening a boarding home for
girls; and work for prison reform, mothers' pensions, child welfare and
delinquency, emergency relief and food conservation.


_Co-operative School_: First established April 3, 1916, in Fawcett School
of Industrial Arts. Wrappers from several department stores given lessons
in salesmanship during working hours without loss of wages.


_Course of Study_: Uniform course for high schools adopted May 27, 1915.
Educational and cultural value of manual arts recognized by requiring
them in all curricula. Arts curriculum carrying full credit in music and
art introduced as major subjects. All other courses modified and adjusted
to meet more adequately needs of students preparing for office, shop,
home or higher institution of learning.


_Crippled Children, School for_: Opened July 7, 1912 in Home for Crippled
Children. 17 pupils ranging in age from 4 to 13 years. Heretofore no
schooling had been provided.


_Deaf, Public School Classes for_: First class organized in Chestnut St.
School with 11 pupils, 1910. In Oct., 1915, classes in lip-reading for
adults were organized as part of evening school program.


_Death Rate_: Statistics for this period are noteworthy because they show
effects of infantile paralysis epidemic in 1916, and of influenza in
1918, which, though less alarming in its symptoms, had more fatal results.

           _Population_  _No. Deaths_   _Death Rate_
     1904     272,000        5,378         19.77
     1905     283,239        5,025         17.74
     1906     290,000        5,551         19.14
     1907     300,000        5,724         19.08
     1908     305,000        5,207         17.07
     1909     311,000        5,529         17.77
     1910     347,469        5,784         16.64
     1911     352,000        5,337         15.16
     1912     370,000        5,423         14.65
     1913     380,000        5,562         14.63
     1914     395,000        5,809         14.70
     1915     375,000        5,382         14.30
  [A]1916     385,000        6,357         16.50
     1917     405,000        5,205         15.30
  [A]1918     430,000        8,482         19.70

  [A] See Infantile Paralysis; Influenza.


_Delinquent Children_: Juvenile court act, providing for separate trial
of all offenders under 16 years, passed by N. J. Legislature, 1903.
Essex Co. Juvenile Court established in Newark the same year. To prevent
association of young offenders with hardened criminals. Judge may commit
the boy or girl to a reformatory institution or refer the case to a
probation officer. In the latter case the child is released but must
report regularly to the officer until the probation period is passed.

House of Detention, 120 Newark St., county institution maintained in
connection with juvenile court, was opened Dec., 1910. For accommodation
of children awaiting trial, and for those held as witnesses. Were
formerly kept at police station or jail.

Essex Co. Parental School, Sussex Ave., bet. Hecker and Duryee Sts.,
authorized by N. J. law of 1912, was opened May 1, 1916. Supersedes House
of Detention now used only for juvenile witnesses. Provides a temporary
home for juvenile delinquents and neglected children and aims to be an
educational rather than penal institution. Here juvenile court is held
and probation cases reported.

Ungraded Schools, No. 1 (So. 10th St.), and No. 2 (Chestnut St.), were
erected, 1911, for better accommodation of classes of truants and
incorrigibles. Curriculum provides for usual common school branches with
particular emphasis placed upon manual and vocational studies. These 2
schools, with the classes in Academy St., established 1898, are the only
schools of this kind under direction of the Bd. of Education. In addition
there is the Newark Parental School, at Verona, formerly known as the
City Home. Maintained by the city for the most difficult cases from
ungraded schools. Provides a home as well as schooling like the Essex Co.
Parental School, except that it takes boys only.


_Dental Clinic Association_: Organized 1909 and financed from private
sources. Later supported by city under N. J. law of 1910, with amendments
1911 and 1913, allowing Common Council to appropriate $10,000 annually.
Provides free dental services for children under 16, unable to pay for
treatment. 3 clinics opened at 74 Newton St., 346 Ferry St., and 297
Orange St. 7,623 individuals treated and 24,878 operations performed in
1918.

Orange St. Clinic closed Nov. 1, 1918, because of insufficient funds and
scarcity of operators, is expected to re-open. Appropriation increased to
$20,000 by N. J. law of 1919.


_Detention, House of_: See Delinquent Children.


_Education Board_: Change from elective board of 32 members, 2 from each
ward for term of 2 years, to present board of 9 members appointed by
Mayor for term of 3 years, made at general election held Nov. 5, 1907.


_Employment Bureau, Municipal_: Established Nov. 15, 1909. Merged its
activities with U. S. Dept. of Labor and N. J. Dept. of Labor, July 1,
1918.

Shortly after the armistice was signed, a Soldiers' and Sailors' Dept.
was organized to assist discharged men to secure positions, advising and
aiding the injured to obtain compensation and vocational training.


_Exhibitions_: Newark History, Free Public Library, May 17-June 1, 1905.
Review of the city's growth from a little settlement of a few houses to
prosperous industrial center. Maps, portraits, pictures, curios. Exhibit
repeated in subsequent years as school children's interest in local
history developed.

Industrial Expositions, 1st Regiment Armory, (1) May 13-25, 1912 (the
first since Aug., 1872); (2) Sept. 12-26, 1914; (3) May 13-June 3, 1916,
250th Anniversary event.

Industrial, L. Bamberger & Co.'s store, Feb., 1913; Feb., 1914; Feb.,
1915.

Fire Prevention, City Hall. First exhibit held Nov. 12, 1913. Exhibits
held annually since that date for week beginning Oct. 9th. This date,
the anniversary of the great Chicago fire, 1871, is generally known
throughout the country as Fire and Accident Prevention Day. In 1918 the
date was changed to Nov. 11th that it might not interfere with the 4th
Liberty Loan. See also Safety Movement.

Municipal, City Hall. March 1-7, 1915. Showing work of various
departments of the city government and their inter-relations. Held in
connection with an exhibit of foreign and American city planning.

Clay Products of N. J., Newark Museum, Feb. 1-March 28, 1915. Brick,
tile, sanitary ware, electrical ware, table ware, crucibles, earthenware,
etc., and demonstration of casting, pressing and turning on the potter's
wheel.

Textiles, Newark Museum, Feb. 1-March 28, 1916. Machine weaving, hand
weaving, old and new, tapestry and weaving and embroideries, and a
special group of textiles lent by foreign-born Newarkers.

School Work, South Side High School, July 5-Aug. 4, 1916. Feature of
250th Anniversary. Showed (1) organization of public school system. (2)
equipment, appliances, supplies, etc. (3) work of all elementary grades,
high schools, special classes and special subjects.

Homelands, Newark Museum, Feb. 1 to March 28, 1916. Costumes and textiles
from foreign lands, mainly secured through the schools. Burnet St.
School, July 10-Aug. 5, 1916. Jewelry, costumes, textiles, furniture,
pottery, etc., from foreign lands, lent by Newarkers of foreign birth,
representing, among others, France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany,
Poland, Lithuania, Ruthenia, Russia, Slovakia, Bohemia, Hungary, Italy,
Armenia, and China. Plays, songs and native dances were part of the
entertainment.

Colonial Kitchen, Newark Museum, Nov. 27, 1917-Feb. 28, 1918. A room 16
ft. × 20 ft., completely furnished as in colonial days, with colonial
domestic tools and utensils in cases.

The Soldier and Sailor, Newark Museum, March 14-April 1, 1918. Complete
modern equipment as required by Army and Navy regulations; model of Camp
Dix, comparison of uniforms and equipment from Revolution to date.

Industrial Housing and Better Homes Exposition, Krueger Auditorium, July
20-27, 1918. Many models made by manual training departments of Newark
schools. Food conservation and war cookery, also features.

Colombia, South America, Newark Museum. June 1-Nov. 30, 1918. Products,
manufactures, life and customs of this rich but little known neighbor.


_Feebleminded, Public School Classes for_: 5 classes established at
College Pl., Lafayette St. and 7th Ave. Schools, Sept., 1910.


_Fire Department, 1906_: First self-propelled steam engine, "Mount
Pelee", placed in service, Nov. 22, 1906. Cost $6,000, weight 8½ tons,
built by Manchester Locomotive Works. Strangely enough the engine itself
sent forth so many sparks, thereby setting fire to numerous awnings and
other things along its route, that it was later converted into a tractor
engine and is now part of the reserve.

1907. Central office Fire Alarm Telegraph Office installed in City Hall.
Cost $55,000.

Bur. of Combustibles and Fire Risks established. Originated Fire
Prevention Code which marked beginning of that important movement.
Effective Dec., 1910.

1911. School of instruction for firemen established.

First motor-driven fire engine, of general type now in use, placed in
service.

1917. Two platoon system inaugurated, whereby the fireman's working
schedule is so arranged that he has 24 consecutive free hours every week.

1918. First fire boat, "William J. Brennan", named for the director of
Dept. of Public Safety, placed in service June, 1918. On the night of
its first day of service it was successful in extinguishing a dock fire,
which might otherwise have resulted in $100,000 loss.


_Flag, City_: Officially adopted by Common Council, March 24, 1916. The
field is white, with Jersey blue border. The city seal in gold, with
gold-blue scroll and blue band beneath, occupies the center of the field.


_Food and Drug Division--Board of Health_: Established, 1913. Prior
to that, only work carried on consisted of taking a few milk samples
wherever suspicion was directed. Today the chief of division, chemist, 2
veterinarians, 4 milk inspectors, 4 food inspectors and a meat inspector
keep close watch over food in every form, especially milk. Food-handling
places, including restaurants, are supervised and scored; food handlers
physically examined; live stock supervised.


_Gary Schools_: See Alternating Plan.


_German Language_: War led to decision May 27, 1918, that no new classes
in German would be formed, although study would be continued in those
classes already organized.


_Girls' Vocational School_: Recommended 1912. Opened Sept., 1914, in
former Normal School building, Washington and Linden Sts.


_Gymnasium, Public School_: First gymnasium installed in new addition to
Hamburg Place School during school year 1906-7. Barringer High School
gymnasium annex opened 1909.


_Health_: See Birth Rate; Child Hygiene Division--Board of Health; Death
Rate; Food and Drug Division--Board of Health; Infantile Paralysis;
Influenza; Little Mother's League; Medical History, Museum of; Mental
Hygiene, Bureau of--Board of Health; Milk Supply; Tuberculosis, Campaign
Against; Venereal Diseases, Bureau of--Board of Health; Whooping Cough.


_High Schools_: Barringer, formerly Newark High School, was the only high
school in the city, 1838-1904. In 1907 the name was changed to Barringer
High School, in memory of Dr. William N. Barringer, city superintendent
of schools for about 20 years.

  East Side, opened March 1, 1911.
  Central, opened Feb. 1, 1912.
  South Side, opened Sept. 8, 1913.
  See also Junior High Schools.


_Housing_: U. S. Homes Registration and Rent Profiteering Committee
created July, 1918, with office in City Hall, branch of national
organization for equitable protection of home rent payers and owners
of dwellings. Undertook compilation of list of homes where war workers
could obtain rooms. Conducted "Rent-a-Room" campaign as war expedient.
Originally planned to aid war workers, service has broadened so that
office has become a general housing bureau.

Basing its figures on local buildings reports Jan. 1, 1915-June 30, 1919,
_Sunday Call_ has estimated that Newark has shortage of 3,000 homes.

See also Apartments.


_Indeterminate Sentence_: See Prison Reform.


_Industrial Expositions_: See Exhibitions.


_Industrial Schools_: See Boys' Vocational School; Girls' Vocational
School; Technical School.


_Industry_: Added celluloid to the world's products; built first
locomotive engine to travel up grade; leads in manufacture of umbrella
frames.

Produced first malleable cast iron; made first patent leather; is
largest fine jewelry manufacturing centre; ranks 11th in U. S. in annual
aggregate value of products.

Ranks 1st in N. J. in number of wage earners, amount of capital invested
in manufacturing, amount paid in wages to workers, and value of goods
produced.

Has one firm employing over 10,000 persons, 8 employing over 1,000, 19
employing over 500, 73 employing over 200, and 123 employing over 100
each.


INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AS AFFECTED BY THE WAR.

1. Stores and Factories:

                              _1904_   _1914_   _1918_
  Grocery stores                950    1,619    1,455
  Dry goods stores              166      288      336
  Automobile dealers             21      145      195
  Machine and machinery mfrs.    79       99      125
  Printers                       68      116      129

2. Finance. Newark as a Financial Centre:

                                    _1904_         _1914_         _1918_
  Banks & Trust Cos.                   17             28             27
    "   "   "    "   Deposits  $   48,593,824 $   91,881,371 $  150,584,502
  Insurance Agencies                  50             96            110
  Fire insurance in force      $  585,496,689 $1,823,849,317 $2,472,090,772
  Life  "  "  "                $1,416,345,076 $3,306,711,318 $4,879,947,621
  Building & Loan Associations       111            245            259
  Postal Savings Deposits        (Begun Sept.
                                    15, 1911)        $27,573        $42,587

3. General Growth:

                                           _1904_       _1914_      _1918_
  Population (Bd. of Health estimates)   272,000      395,000     430,000
  Names listed in Newark directory       105,631      172,756     201,894
  Corporations listed in Newark
      directory                              573        1,695       1,751
  Building permits granted                 2,155        2,104       1,696
  Amount spent on buildings           $6,000,000  $10,610,277  $5,000,000

4. Factories:

                                   _1904_       _1914_          _1917_
  Establishments                     not
                                  available       729             820
  Total capital invested              "     $141,796,120.00 $204,249,525.00
  Cost value of material used         "     $ 89,998,186.00 $203,732,015.00
  Selling value of goods made         "     $167,793,408.00 $332,426,904.00
  Average number persons employed     "              57,156          69,066
  Total amount paid in wages          "     $ 30,714,116.00 $ 53,277,897.00
  Average yearly earnings of workers  "     $        537.37 $        771.41


_Infantile Paralysis_: Epidemic occurred during July, Aug. and Sept. 1,
1916. 1,360 cases with 363 deaths. Greatest number of cases reported week
ending Aug. 12, 260. Highest prevalence under 5 years of age.

Necessitated closing all-year and summer schools, July 19, 1916, and
postponing the opening of fall sessions until Sept. 25.


_Influenza_: Outset of epidemic apparent during last 4 days of Sept.,
1918, when 435 cases were reported. Simultaneously a remarkable increase
in pneumonia. Greatest daily number of influenza cases reported was
1,626, on Oct. 14. Most prevalent in Oct. but continued through Nov.
and Dec. with a total of 29,269 cases of influenza and 3,853 cases of
pneumonia. High prevalence was between 20 and 30 years. Total deaths,
Oct.-Dec., 1918, were 1,354 from influenza and 829 from pneumonia.

All public drinking places, theaters, churches, dance halls, billiard
rooms and other public places of assemblage closed Oct. 10-22. Schools
closed Oct. 11, reopened Oct. 28.


_Institute of Arts and Sciences_, 367 High St. Incorporated 1910.
Merging of Newark University Courses, given 1909, and College Extension
Courses given for several years. To meet widespread demand for courses
of university grade in Newark and nearby towns. Has co-operative support
of New York University which supplies Institute with regular members of
the N. Y. U. instructional staff. Credits courses taken for degrees in
Washington Square College of N. Y. U.


_Italian Language_: 3 year study course introduced at Barringer High
School, Feb. 1, 1919.


_Jitneys_: Or passenger auto-buses. First run in spring of 1916. 349
in operation July, 1919. Name originated in California, where a 5 cent
piece, the fare, is commonly known as a "jitney".

                     _Receipts_        _Tax_     _Passengers_
  1916 (7 months)    $133,043.22    $ 5,556.92     2,660,963
  1917                409,774.86     17,332.74     8,195,491
  1918                855,832.82     36,151.22    17,120,652
  1919 (7 months)     959,473.69     39,940.61    19,189,472


_Junior College_: Established at South Side High School with 50 students
Sept., 1918. Public school system thus extended to include the first two
years of regular college course.


_Junior High Schools_: Established at Robert Treat, Madison and Cleveland
Schools, Sept., 1917. 9th grade, equivalent to 1st year high school,
added to grammar course, with departmental system in 7th and 8th grades.
Experiment of teaching modern languages as early as the 7th grade tried
with success, 1919.


_Junior Museum Club_: Founded June, 1916, by boy and girl delegates from
8B public school classes and members of the Irvington Museum Assoc.,
under leadership of Dr. Henry H. Rusby, of Newark, and the staff of the
Newark Museum Assoc. Purpose: to collect and to study animals, insects,
aquatic life, birds, botany, mineralogy, stamps and coins, electricity,
photography, etc. Membership open to any boy or girl between 10 and 18
years of age. Affiliated with the Newark Museum Assoc. Headquarters,
Public Library building.


_Juvenile Court_: See Delinquent Children.


_Juvenile Delinquency_: See Delinquent Children.


_Lectures, Public_: 25 years ago, the lecture system was a feature of the
evening schools, and continued as such, until 1906, when it was decided
to have the lectures for the people given in school buildings, designated
as lecture centers. In 1907 there were 15 lecture centers, including
the First Presbyterian Church, the Free Public Library and 13 school
buildings.

During the season of 1907-08 there were 245 lectures with a total
attendance of 105,210. For the season 1915-16 there were 30 centers and
400 lectures, with an aggregate attendance of 160,890. During the war
period, 1917-18, the attendance decreased.

Subjects treated in the lectures are history, patriotism, art, music,
literature and geography. Many are illustrated by stereopticon views and
a few by motion pictures. Musical programs have always proved popular.


_Library, Public_: Building completed, March, 1901. Cost of building,
$315,000; cost of land, $100,000. Architects, Rankin & Kellogg,
Philadelphia.

Number of books lent in 1904, 465,674. In 1911 the number passed the
million mark and held it until, in 1918, the library's income was found
to be inadequate, branch libraries were closed, and the number of books
lent dropped, accordingly, 37%.

Art Department and Picture Collection, which were getting well under way
in 1904 and lent 3,000 pictures that year, now lend over 100,000 small
pictures, photographs, lithographs and prints. These pictures are used
by teachers in 36 different schools for classroom work; also by artists,
designers, jewelers, newspapers and journals, advertising men and others
in trades and professions, needing illustrative material.

Barringer High School Branch. Opened, 1900, under management of Public
Library. Management taken over by Bd. of Education and books purchased
from the Public Library, 1915.

Business Branch. First opened in 1904 at 16 Academy St., with a
collection of directories and a general book collection. First public
library of business literature and information for business men ever
established. Similar branches have since been established by libraries
of other large cities. During the 15 years it moved 4 times, always near
the business center at Broad and Market Streets, and special development
along business lines has been steadily carried on.

Branch Libraries, General. Delivery stations were the Library's first
attempt to reach people in sections distant from the main building.
They were opened in drug stores at various centers as early as 1891 and
were intended only for the collection and delivery of books borrowed by
people in the neighborhood. Readers left their cards with a list of call
numbers, taken from the old "finding list" or printed catalog. Requests
were filled at the Library and books delivered to the station daily.

In 1906, because of increased use, delivery stations were replaced
by deposit stations. At these deposit stations, still operated in
stores, the Library placed collections of several hundred books and
continued the delivery system. When the lending of books outgrew deposit
stations, branch libraries were the natural result. After branches were
established, deposit stations were discontinued, Nov., 1914.

From 1905 to 1915, seven general branches in rented stores and two school
branches, were opened for the convenience of residents in neighborhoods
two or more miles from the main library. All branches closed in 1918
because of insufficient funds to carry on the work, which had grown to
large proportions. For notes about branches, see chronological "Story of
the Branches", in pamphlet "The Roseville Branch", published 1917.

Children's Books. The Children's Room at the Main Library always has a
special collection of children's books to lend to children who live near
enough to visit it. The branch libraries lent books also to children in
their neighborhoods. The School Dept. sends to any teacher who wishes it,
a school or classroom library of 25-40 books to lend to the children in
her class. 400 or 500 of these libraries go into schools every year and
15,000 children read the books.

Civil Service law in operation since Dec. 22, 1910.

Fiction. Moved from the main Lending Room on 2nd floor to separate
department on 1st floor Oct., 1912, for the convenience of borrowers.

High School Room, on 1st floor of Main Library. Contains books on the
required reading lists of the four high schools. Opened March 13, 1918,
for convenience of high school students. The whole Library is open to
them for general use as before.

"The Library and the Museum Therein," first issued June 28, 1918.
An eight page journal, illustrated, describing the activities and
acquisitions of Library and Museum. Five numbers have appeared to date.

Music collection added April, 1907. Over $500 raised by friends for
nucleus of collection.

"The Newarker", a "house organ", published "To introduce a City to
itself and to its Public Library". Contained notices and articles on
library activities and on local matters of public interest. Issued by the
Library, Nov., 1911-Oct., 1915. Was taken over as news sheet of 250th
Anniversary Committee of 100, Nov., 1915-Oct., 1916, and discontinued
thereafter.

North Lawn. $53,750 appropriated by Common Council for purchase of 25 ft.
lot, May 8, 1906.

Periodical Dept. Moved to 2nd floor corridor, Sept., 1918, for
convenience of readers.

Registration Dept. Special room for registering new borrowers, adults and
children, and for general registration work; opened on 1st floor, Oct.
14, 1912. Put the clerical work of the Library in one place, under one
head.

Technical Dept., with books, magazines and pamphlets on trades and
sciences, established Nov. 15, 1908.

Time limit on the borrowing of books, extended from 2 weeks to 1 month,
March, 1904. One of the first libraries in the country to do this.


_Lincoln Highway_: Ocean-to-ocean highway from New York to San Francisco,
named in honor of Abraham Lincoln. Formally opened in Jersey City and
Newark, Dec. 13, 1913. Route through Newark: From city line east to city
line south, on Old Plank Road, Ferry, Merchant, Lafayette, Broad, Clinton
Ave., Astor St. and Frelinghuysen Ave. Section between Jersey City and
Newark, formerly called Old Plank Road, now 100 ft. boulevard, cost
$1,000,000. Turns marked by red, white and gold signs.


_Little Mother's League_: Organized in Belmont Ave. School, May 10,
1915, with 46 members, and in Montgomery School, May 26, 1915, with 29
members. Under direction of Health Bd.'s Div. of Child Hygiene. Members,
girls between 11 and 13 years of age, volunteer to help care for city's
babies. Each member undertakes the care of one mother and baby in her
own neighborhood, visits them once a week and reports at consultation
meetings held in the schools. Since May, 1915, over 1,151 girls have
received and given instruction in the care, feeding and management of
babies.


_Lunches, Public School_: Penny lunches served at Hawkins St. School,
beginning Dec. 23, 1914. Average daily cost during first months, $1.80;
average receipts, $1.51, and cost of free portions, 29 cents. Later
provided in Lawrence and South St. schools.


_Medical History, Museum of_: In 1916, steps were taken by Dr. W. S.
Disbrow, then President of the Bd. of Health, to collect and exhibit
"everything which would illustrate the history of medicine in our city,
from its foundation".

A large room on the top floor of the Bd. of Health Building, at 94
William St., was set aside for this purpose.


_Medical Inspection_: Inaugurated in public schools, 1901, under joint
control of Bd. of Education and Bd. of Health. Entire control passed to
Bd. of Education, 1908-09. Originally organized as a means to control
spread of contagious disease, activities have been enlarged to include
all matters relating to the health of school children. In 1914 the number
of school physicians was reduced from 38 to 8, and the number of nurses
increased from 8 to 26. Public school clinic, 25 Market St., was opened
April, 1916, and a trained psychologist added to the staff of experts,
Feb., 1918. Medical inspection in parochial schools is carried on by Bd.
of Health.


_Medical Library Association_: Organized Nov. 18, 1905. The library is
housed in and administered by Free Public Library.


_Memorial Tablets_: See Tablets, Memorial


_Memorial Trees_: See Trees, Memorial


_Mental Hygiene, Bureau of--Board of Health_: Established May, 1919.
Movement started by establishment of a psychopathic ward in City Hospital
as early as 1908. Purpose is to provide a clearing house for cases of
mental or nervous disorder and of defectives coming to attention of
courts, charitable associations or other city agencies. Will study
and contend against drug addiction, enforce prohibition, observe
neuro-psychiatric cases among former soldiers and care of psychological
cases in parochial schools.


_Mexican Border Uprising_: First N. J. Regiment entrained for Sea Girt to
prepare for border service, June 21, 1916.


_Milk Supply_: Thoroughly supervised by Food and Drug Division of Board
of Health, established 1913. Dairies and creameries are inspected
and scored. Milk, except from exceptionally good dairies, must be
pasteurized. Sale of unbottled milk prohibited by city ordinance, adopted
Feb. 1, 1916.

Present supply estimate is 100,000 quarts daily. About 25,000 less than
2 years ago. Decrease in quantity due to increased cost. 3 municipal
depots, where milk is on sale at lowest possible price, opened by Mayor,
Jan., 1919.


_Monuments_: See Statues and Monuments


_Moving Pictures_: First show licensed, Feb. 1, 1906, in 1919, 39. City
ordinance under which "Shows and Exhibitions" are regulated, amended,
1910, to include moving picture houses.


_Municipal Christmas Trees_: See Christmas Trees, Municipal


_Municipal Employment Bureau_: See Employment Bureau, Municipal


_Municipal Exhibition_: See Exhibitions


_Museum Association_: Founded through the efforts of the members of the
Fine Arts Commission, the Committee on Art and Science Collections, and
John Cotton Dana, of the Public Library.

Incorporated, April 29, 1909, with 50 elective trustees and 5 ex-officio
trustees representing the city government and the Bd. of Education, by
special act of N. J. Legislature. Established for the reception and
exhibition of articles of art, science, history and technology and
for the encouragement of the study of the arts and sciences. Rockwell
Japanese Collection purchased for $10,000 and Museum formally opened in
rooms in the Library lent by Library trustees, Feb. 24, 1910.

With annual appropriations, collections, cases and equipment have been
acquired, valued at over $100,000. Paintings, sculpture, pottery, glass,
textiles, bronzes, American Indian material, models of the habitations of
man, and many examples of art and industry. Collections also include over
3,000 objects lent to schools for classroom use. Systematic lending of
objects. for classroom use began in 1914. In 5 years, 19,012 objects were
lent. Largest number lent in one year, 1918, was 7,357.

Disbrow Science Collections held in trust by the Library, were turned
over to the Museum, 1912.

Membership in the Museum Assoc. open to all. Dues paid used for
maintenance of the collections and purchase of new objects. 10 or
12 special exhibitions are held each year in addition to permanent
exhibitions of objects owned by the Museum. Admission, free.

See also Exhibitions; Junior Museum Club; Medical History, Museum of.


_Music Festivals_: First, held at 1st Regiment Armory, 1915. World-famous
artists attracted thousands. Dates for the first and succeeding
festivals, with the names of the leading soloists, follow:

  1st. May 4, 5, 6, 1915. Anna Case, Pasquale Amata, Gadski,
         Witherspoon, Matzenauer, Kreisler.

  2nd. 250th Anniversary Event, May 1, 2, 3, 4, 1916. Anna Case, Ethel
         Leginska, Freida Hempel, Julia Culp.

  3rd. May 1, 2, 3, 1917. John McCormack, Lucy Gates (in place of
         Galli-Curci), Ysaye.

  4th. April 30, May 1, 2, 1918. Geraldine Farrar, Lucy Gates, Arthur
         Middleton, Clarence Whitehill, Giovanni Martinelli.

  5th. May 16, 17, 19, 1919. Anna Case. Reinald Werrenrath, Caruso,
         Toscha Seidel.


_Naturalization_: Public school evening classes preparing foreigners for
U. S. citizenship organized, 1912.


_Newark Day_: For the purpose of studying history and development of
Newark, Nov. 7, 1910, the day before Election Day, was set aside by Bd.
of Education. At the board meeting, Oct. 27, 1910, it was recommended
that principals and teachers and, whenever possible, citizens and
officials lecture to the pupils about the city in which they live. The
day before Election Day was chosen because local interest would naturally
be increased at that time.

Since then interest in the day has grown through the action of the
Schoolmen's Club, composed of men teachers, principals and educational
officials, which adopted the suggestion of Mr. Frank J. Urquhart, of the
Newark Sunday Call, to mark by tablets important historical spots in the
city.

See also Tablets, Memorial.


_Newspapers and Journals_:


Newspapers.

  News, evg.               circ.  92,044,  1919.  Est.  1883
  Call, Sun.                 "    50,000,    "     "    1872
  Star-Eagle, evg.           "    50,000,    "     "    [B]
  Ledger, morn., Sun.        "    32,245,    "     "    1914
  Roseville Citizen, wkly.   "     5,958,    "     "    1915

[B] Evg. Star, successor to Daily Advertiser, consolidated with Morn.
Eagle, Jan. 28, 1916, and from Jan. 31, 1916, published under name
Star-Eagle.


Foreign Newspapers.

  N. J. Freie Zeitung
    (German) morn.            circ.  11,000,  Sun.  15,000,  Est. 1857
  Kronika (Polish)      wkly.   "    15,538,                  "   1908
  L'Ora (Italian)         "     "     2,000,                  "   1902
  Montagna (Italian)      "     "                             "   1894
  Revista (English and
    Italian)                    "     2,000,                  "   1905


School Journals.

Acropolis, Barringer High School; Orient, East Side High School; The
Pivot, Central High School; The Optimist, South Side High School;
Polymnian, Newark Academy; St. Benedict's College Quarterly, St.
Benedict's College; "Fratech", Newark Technical School; "The Worker",
Boys' Industrial; "The Pioneer", Robert Treat School; "Lafayette
Messenger", Lafayette School; "Cleveland Alternate", Cleveland Grammar
and Junior High School; "Onward", Newark City Home, Verona, N. J.


_Normal School, N. J. State_: Formerly Newark Normal School. Transferred
from city to state, July 1, 1913. New building on Belleville and 4th
Aves., opened Sept. 16, 1913. $500,000 finally agreed upon March, 1919,
as purchase price acceptable to city in transfer.


_Open Air Classes_: Inaugurated Feb., 1911, in Elizabeth Ave. School
building for weak, sickly and anaemic children. This school was later set
apart for children in incipient cases of tuberculosis and classes for
anaemic children were organized in 13 regular schools.


_Pageant_: See 250th Anniversary


_Parades_: See 250th Anniversary


_Parental School, Essex Co._: See Delinquent Children


_Parental School, Newark_: See Delinquent Children


_Parks, City_: Under care and supervision of Shade Tree Div. of Dept. of
Parks and Public Property. Distinct from county-controlled parks, like
Branch Brook, Weequahic, East Side, West Side and Riverbank, which happen
to lie within city boundaries. Largest and most familiar are Lincoln,
Military and Washington, all bordering on Broad St. Besides these parks,
there are, in business and residential sections, green squares and
triangles, to serve as breathing spaces and recreation centers.

                        _1905_       _1919_
  No. of parks             19           29
  Park area in acres    19.18        21.77
  Value of park land            $9,267,000

Among parks added to the system since 1905, when Shade Tree Commission
first took charge of the parks, are Wallace Park, a triangle of land
bounded by Wallace St., Wallace Pl. and Bank St., purchased by city,
1907; Court House Park, fronting Court House, between Market St. and
Springfield Ave., deeded to city by county, 1907; Herper's Park,
Randolph and So. 15th St., given to city by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Herpers,
1914, and named in their honor. Ground about drinking fountain, which
marks the first landing place of Robert Treat and his followers,
cultivated and known since 1916 as Landing Place Park. Name of Madison
Park, bounded by Clinton, Belmont and Madison Aves., changed to McKinley
Circle when Hiker Statue was unveiled Memorial Day, 1914, in memory of
the President who called the Hiker Men to service. Triangle, between
Central Ave., Fourth St. and Warren St., previously known as Central Ave.
Park, Central Square, etc., named Liberty Square, 1913.


_Parks, Essex County_: Parks within the boundaries of Newark, but
controlled by the Essex Co. Park Commission, are Branch Brook, Eastside,
Westside, Weequahic and Riverbank.

Weequahic Park enlarged by 50 acres, 1908; Municipal Golf Course of 9
holes opened, 1914, and used by 14,000 players during 1915.

Riverbank Park opened, 1911. Land cost $200,000.

Essex Co. Park Commission Administration Building erected in Branch Brook
Park, 1914.


_Parkways_: Parking strips or green cultivated stretches running through
street centers. First deeded to city, 1911. Originally constructed by
private land companies. When taken over by the city, they came under the
care of the Shade Tree Commission. These parkways to be found on Belmont,
Chadwick, Fourth, Seymour, Hawthorne and Vassar Aves. and Heller Parkway,
and a number of other streets. Park Ave. Parkway is under county park
management. City parkways in 1919 add 8.58 acres to the park area.


_Parochial Schools_: See Schools, Parochial


_Passaic Valley Trunk Sewer_: Passaic River became so polluted by the
sewage of Newark and other cities lying along its course from Paterson
south, that in 1896 a movement was started by Paterson and Newark
Boards of Trade, for the purification of the river. After 16 years of
litigation, 15 municipalities joined in building a great trunk sewer
to collect the sewage of towns in Passaic Valley District, carry it
across Newark Bay and discharge it into upper New York Bay. Work began
July, 1912, under direction of the Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission,
authorized by act of N. J. Legislature, 1907. The cost, estimated at
$12,000,000, will be met by assessments on the municipalities joined in
the project. In 1919, 90% complete.


_Paving_: See Street Paving


_Physical Training_: Made an essential part of elementary school
curriculum, Sept., 1904.


_Playgrounds_: Until July, 1919, there were 3 systems of playgrounds
in Newark: 1. Under Control of Bd. of Education, conducted on school
grounds; 2. Under control of Essex Co. Park Commission on playfields in
all county parks; 3. Under control of Dept. of Playgrounds, under the
Bd. of Recreation Commissioners. The last are generally called "City
Playgrounds".

In July, 1919, control of the city playgrounds passed to the Bd. of
Education, a transfer under active consideration for a number of months.


_Playgrounds, City_: The Bd. of Playground Commissioners was established
by act of N. J. Legislature, 1907, to provide playgrounds and recreation
places. It was composed of 5 members appointed for 5 years. In 1915
the name was changed to Bd. of Recreation Commissioners, in charge of
playgrounds and public baths. Under commission government this board was
responsible to the Dept. of Public Affairs, but in 1919, as has been
stated, control and ownership of the city playgrounds passed to the Bd.
of Education in line with the carrying out of a comprehensive recreation
program.

  1. Canal St., Canal & Commerce Sts.
       113' × 112'. Owned. Opened Oct. 1, 1907.

  2. Prince St., Prince St. & Waverly Ave.
       100' × 103'. Owned (partly). Opened May 1, 1908.

  3. Newton St., Nos. 68-70 Newton St.
       100' × 100'. Owned. Opened Dec. 10, 1908.

  4. Lafayette St., Lafayette St. & N. J. R. R. Ave.
       210' × 90'. Leased. Opened Sept. 6, 1911 (closed).

  5. Oliver St., Oliver & Chestnut Sts.
       156' × 241'. Leased. Opened Sept. 6, 1912.

  6. Belleville Ave., Belleville & Arlington Aves.
       149' × 359'. Leased. Opened Aug. 15, 1913 (closed).

  7. Summer Ave., Summer Ave. & D'Auria St.
       50' × 99'. Lent. Opened Sept. 17, 1913.

  8. Vailsburg. So. Orange Ave. & Boylan St.
       518' × 235'. Owned. Opened July 24, 1915.

  9. Avon Ave., Avon Ave. & So. 10th St.
       246' × 175'. Lent. Opened 1915 (closed).

  10. Broad St., Bet. Emmet & Wright Sts.
       118' × 89'. Leased. Opened Sept. 1, 1915.

  11. Morton St., Morton St. & College Pl. & Howard St.
       87' × 121'. Lent. Opened Dec. 1, 1914.

  12. West End, So. Orange Ave. & 12th St.
       550' × 530'. Lent. Opened Sept., 1916 (closed).

  13. East Side, Wilson Ave.
       Owned. Opened July 1, 1918.


_Police Department_:

         _1904_                    _1919_
  444 members of force.      842 members of force.
    4 precincts.               8 precincts.
    6 bicycle officers.       29 motorcycle officers.
    8 mounted officers.       29 mounted officers.

  1910. Oct. 1, Autos replaced horse-drawn vehicles.

  1916. Replacement completed.

  1919. 17 autos.

  1904. Cost of administration, $  509,644.

  1918.   "  "         "        $1,414,098.

First policewoman appointed Aug. 1, 1918. 3 on force Aug., 1919. Called
in cases involving the handling of girls or women.


_Poor and Alms Department and Almshouse Survey_: Made by Dept. of
Surveys and Exhibits--Russell Sage Foundation under direction of Francis
H. McLean, 1918-1919. Considers whole family welfare problem of the
city,--poverty, relief and social agencies. $1,400 appropriated by Bd. of
Commissioners for Work.


_Population_:

  1904.  272,000, Bd. of Health estimate.
  1905.  283,000, State Census.
  1910.  347,469, Federal "
  1915.  366,729, State   "
  1918.  430,000, Bd. of Health estimate.


_Port Newark_: Development involved: (1) Reclamation of 4,000 acres of
tide marshland on Newark Bay. (2) Construction of ship channel 7,000
ft. long, 400 ft. wide at bottom, and 20 ft. deep at mean low water,
the channel to extend into marshland for a distance of ½ to 1 mile. (3)
Building of dock frontage of 4,500 ft. with derricks, tracks, and other
equipment for handling freight. (4) Building of pier 1,200 ft. long and
150 ft. wide, extending into bay from end of dock, equipped with tracks,
etc., to accommodate ocean vessels. (5) Railway distributing and transfer
system covering the reclaimed area and connecting with at least 3 trunk
lines. Central Railroad of N. J., Pennsylvania and Lehigh Valley already
cross this area. (6) At least 1 wide paved avenue of approach from center
of city.

Actual work begun March, 1914. Under City Dept. of Docks and Meadows,
with Morris R. Sherrerd, Chief Engineer, and James C. Hallock, engineer
in charge. Funds provided by $2,000,000 bond issue authorized by N. J.
Legislature.

Oct. 20, 1915, named Port Newark Terminal Day and declared a public
holiday by the Mayor. Marked by first public inspection of the work.

U. S. government in 1917 leased land in this area for Submarine Boat
Corporation and also 133 acres for the Quartermaster's Supply Depot.

Course of development changed by war, and future plans now uncertain.

See also Shipbuilding.


_Postal Service_:

                              _1904_           _1918_
  Sub-stations                   26               68
  Carriers                      170              328
  Pieces of mail handled    85,978,300      181,584,236
  Total receipts              $634,197    $2,115,549.87

Opening of aerial mail station at Heller Field in Forest Hill Section,
originally set for July 1, 1919, has been postponed.


_Prices, Food_:

                                   _1904_             _1914_ _1918_
  Rib Roast (per lb.)    (Not available for Newark)    $.22   $.39
  Flour, wheat (per lb.)                                .03    .07
  Eggs (per doz.)                                       .35    .52
  Butter (per lb.)                                      .33    .55
  Sugar (per lb.)                                       .05    .09
  Milk (per qt.)                                        .09    .14


_Prison Reform_: (Here are recorded a few facts about N. J. procedure,
selected because of their connection with the administration of law for
Newark. Complete review of state conditions and progress will be found
in the Report of the Prison Inquiry Commission, published 1917.)

Indeterminate Sentence: Or sentence to imprisonment without a fixed time
for its termination. Adopted by act of N. J. Legislature April 21, 1911.
Is in accordance with the principle that imprisonment is primarily for
reformation and that offenders should be released as soon as they have
shown themselves again ready to be fit members of society. Provides for
a maximum and minimum term, the maximum varying with nature of offense
and the minimum not less than a year and not more than two-thirds of the
maximum.

Prior to 1911 this practice had applied only to the State Reformatory.

Prison Labor: Law abolishing private contract system of labor directing
that work of convicts should be employed in manufacture of goods for
state-use was passed by N. J. Legislature, June 7, 1911. Prison Labor
Commission created March 28, 1912, to direct development of "state-use"
system and control its operation, but without sufficient authority to
assure its success. Act passed, April 4, 1913, provided that unfilled
contracts might be continued until state-use industries had been
established. In view of the practical failure to introduce "state-use"
system within the prisons, outside employment of prisoners was authorized
by act of April 11, 1910, and subsequent amendments. Since 1913, 4 road
camps have been opened for employment of convicts on state roads and
have proved a relative success. Farming has also proved profitable. This
system not only aims to prevent waste of state resources but to provide
industrial training for inmates of correctional institutions of the state.

Employment of county prisoners and payment of earnings to their families
was provided for by N. J. law passed 1915. Wardens of jails are
instructed to give preference to men serving terms for nonsupport. At
Essex Co. jail in Newark, $3,000 or $4,000 have thus been contributed to
prisoners' families otherwise left destitute. Benefits will increase as
practice is further systematized.

Probation System: Probation and suspended sentence first introduced by
act of Legislature, April 2, 1906. Authorizes courts and magistrates to
suspend sentence of persons convicted of criminal offenses, to release
them on probation and for such time and under such conditions as the
court determines instead of imposing penalty provided by the law.
Reformatory for Women, N. J. State: At Clinton Farms, Hunterdon Co.
Provided for by act of N. J. Legislature, 1910. Opened Jan., 1913. To
which the criminal court judges may, at their discretion, send females
about the age of 17, who have committed a State Prison offense. Aims to
return women to a self-respecting, self-supporting life. All commitments
are for an indefinite term limited only by the maximum period of
imprisonment fixed by law.

Social Investigation: Investigation of social facts regarding prisoners
to be sentenced and circumstances attending Crime was begun in 1908.
Made part of probation office work. No sentence is now passed by Essex
Co. Court judge until a written statement of all such facts has been
presented. Judge no longer tries to make the punishment fit the crime but
to make the punishment fit the prisoner and restore him to his normal
place in society.


_Probation System_: See Delinquent Children: Prison Reform


_Public Baths_: See Baths, Public


_Public Comfort Station_: See Comfort Station, Public


_Public Lectures_: See Lectures, Public


_Public Schools_: See Schools, Public


_Public Service Corporation of N. J._: Maintains gas, electric and
railway departments. Through its subsidiary companies it furnishes gas,
electric light and power, and street railway facilities to most of the
people of the state.

See also Public Service Terminal; Trolleys.


_Public Service Terminal_: Work on new Public Service Terminal, Park Pl.,
begun June 24, 1914. Opened for street railway operation, April 30, 1916.
Cost, $5,000,000. Terminal arrangements and tunnel system are President
Thomas N. McCarter's solution of Newark's traffic problem, especially
at the "Four Corners". It is estimated that 400 cars, carrying in both
directions 50,000 people, may pass in and out of the Terminal during one
hour.

See also Trolleys.


_Reformatory for Women, N. J. State_: See Prison Reform


_"Safety First" and the Schools_: American Safety League gave talks in
all public schools, Feb., 1912, distributing blue and white buttons to
pupils as reminders of the organization in which they are enrolled.

N. J. Legislature passed a law that school children be instructed in self
protection and accident prevention, April 7, 1913.

Complying with this law, N. J. Dept. of Public Instruction issued a
monograph for use in schools on "Dangers and Safeguards," Feb., 1915.
Prepared in collaboration with Newark Bur. of Combustibles and Fire
Risks, Public Service Corporation, Employers' Liability Commission and
State Bd. of Health, teaches how fires may be prevented, many street
and railway accidents avoided, industrial workers safeguarded, diseases
combated and first aid administered.

Law providing that no vehicle should travel at a greater speed than six
miles an hour when approaching a schoolhouse, provided signs easily
visible were placed on the highway, indicating school locations, passed
by N. J. Legislature, April 6, 1915.

Public Service Corporation furthered "Safely First" campaign by talks in
public and parochial schools, May, 1915.

Public School Safety Patrol established April, 1917. A member of the
city police force has charge of this work under attendance department of
Bd. of Education. Members are appointed each term from students of upper
grades in schools. A chief is chosen in each school. The chief and other
members take a pledge and each is furnished with an arm band as emblem
of authority. There are 50 girls and 600 boys in the force. Duties: To
prevent taking of unnecessary risks by pupils in going to and returning
from school; To guard younger children against traffic accidents and to
prevent disorderly conduct among school children on the street; To aid in
keeping streets and sidewalks clean.

48% decrease from previous year in number of accidents by cars to
children going to and from school in Newark, Feb.-Sept., 1918, credited
to instruction by Safety League.


_School Houses as Social Centers_: Authorized by rules adopted by Bd. of
Education, Aug. 31, 1915, under act of N. J. Legislature, passed, 1913.
First used as polling places in 1917 primaries.


_School Names Changed_:

  Alyea St.                 to Binet No. 3.
  Ann St.                    " John Catlin.
  Coes Pl.                   " Binet No. 2.
  Park Ave.                  " Dayton.
  18th Ave.                  " Milford.
  Elliot St.                 " Elliot.
  15th Ave.                  " Moses Bigelow.
  Hamburg Pl. (Wilson Ave.)  " Monteith.
  Hawthorne Ave.             " Hawthorne.
  Lafayette St.              " Lafayette.
  Madison St.                " Madison.
  Miller St.                 " Hamilton.
  Montgomery St.             " Montgomery.
  Morton St.                 " Joseph E. Haynes.
  Newton St.                 " Newton.
  No. 7th St.                " Garfield.
  Oliver St.                 " Carteret.
  Peshine Ave.               " Berkeley.
  Ridge St.                  " Ridge.
  7th Ave.                   " McKinley.
  State St.                  " Binet No. 1.
  13th Ave.                  " Robert Treat.
  Webster St.                " Webster.


_School Savings Banks_: Purpose: To inculcate and encourage thrift.

Essential features of plan: To have pupils themselves manage banks' work
as far as possible.

To organize a board of savings bank directors, appointed for each school
by its principal.

To place school accounts, over $1.00, with such Newark banks as have
endorsed the school bank plan.

To open individual accounts with the same banks for those pupils who have
deposited a sum that shall be thought sufficient and to require that no
sum be withdrawn without the parent's written consent.

1st bank established in East Side High School, March, 1915.

Randall Law, authorizing school savings banks, passed by N. J.
Legislature, Feb., 1916.

9 schools, now operating school banks: East Side High, Central High,
Abington Ave., Cleveland, Lafayette, Monteith, Newton St., Warren St.,
Washington St.

                                         _Total to_
                              _1917-18_ _July, 1918_
  Deposits made              $14,082.83  $29,855.57
  Interest credited               78.66      188.43
  Transferred to local banks   9,492.20   16,305.70
  Withdrawn by pupils          4,777.99    9,207.97
  Balance in banks                         4,528.33
  No. of depositors            2,461       7,312
  Depositors closing accts.    1,847       2,529
  Remaining depositors                     4,783

       *       *       *       *       *

Idea originated in Belgium. Introduced in U. S. in Beloit, Wis., 1876.
Permanently established in U. S. by John Henry Thiry, a Belgian, 1885.
Amount of school deposits in U. S., $5,000,000, 1915.


_School Survey_: Made by Bur. of Municipal Research under direction of
Essex Co. Public Welfare Committee and with approval of Bd. of Education,
1914.


_Schools, Parochial_:

                                       _1904_  _1919_
  Total number of pupils enrolled      7,202   14,741
  Teaching force:
       Sisters                           114      229
       Brothers                            8        9
       Lay Teachers                       14       31
  Number of schools                       21       26

Rev. John A. Dillon was appointed superintendent of schools for the
Diocese of Newark, January 2nd, 1910.


_Schools, Public_:

                                  _1903-04_  _1918-19_
  Total number of pupils enrolled   43,742     75,461
  High school enrollment             1,264      5,398
  Evening school enrollment          7,377     12,100
  Summer school enrollment (1904)    8,546     19,199 (1919)
  Teaching force (day schools)         967      2,071
  Number of schools                     56         69
  Number of high schools                 1          4-Senior
                                                    3-Junior
  Number of evening schools             15         23
  Number of summer schools (1904)       15         34 (1919)

Dr. David B. Corson was elected superintendent July 1, 1918, to succeed
Dr. Addison B. Poland, city superintendent from 1901 until his death,
Sept. 15, 1917.

See also under name of subject, All-Year School, etc.

_Shade Tree Commission_: Organized, 1904. Composed of three members,
residents, appointed by mayor to serve without compensation. Charged
(1) with planting, care, protection and maintenance of street trees. (2)
with care, maintenance and improvement of the parks. Under commission
government, known as Shade Tree Div. of Dept. of Parks and Public
Property.

                            _1904_  _1918_
  Shade trees on highways  36,800  66,000
  Shade trees set out         750  30,580

Trees sprayed against insect enemies by Shade Tree Commission as part of
its routine work at request of property owners, without charge. Cost of
spraying, about 15 cents a tree.

Trees are planted along streets where more shade seems to the Commission
desirable. Property owner in front of whose property tree is placed
assessed for the cost of the tree and planting, recently averaging about
$5 a tree. Called "assessment planting". Assessment collected as are
other taxes. When owners ask to have trees planted on their property,
expense is met by bill rendered to owner. Price varies with size of tree,
but averages $5. Called "request planting".

See also Parks, City; Parkways.


_Shipbuilding_: Since Sept., 1917, the Submarine Boat Corporation at Port
Newark has equipped, set in motion and run at high speed a plant covering
113 acres and requiring the services of 15,000 workers.

By July 31, 1919, 63 boats had been launched.

"Agawam", the first modern steamship built by the company, was launched
at Port Newark, May 30, 1918.

See also Port Newark Terminal.


_Ship Yard Workers, Evening Classes for_: Established by Bd. of
Education, Jan. 2, 1919, at Robert Treat, Central, East Side and
Bergen St. High Schools, Boys' Vocational School and Fawcett School of
Industrial Arts.


_Smoke Abatement Department_: Established, 1907, to prevent unhealthful
and unsightly clouds of dense smoke and soot. Under commission
government, a division of the Dept. of Parks and Public Property.


_Social Service Survey_: Searching investigation of population, municipal
administration, social influences, industrial conditions, community
problems--saloons, dance halls, crime, housing, health, political
life,--and public and private charities. Made by John P. Fox for Men and
Religion Forward Movement. Oct. 21-Dec. 7, 1911. Limited edition of typed
copies.


_Statues and Monuments_: (For list complete to 1914, see Bd. of Education
Leaflet No. 31, Sculpture and Stone Carving in Newark.)

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. Bronze bust erected in Branch Brook Park
on promenade in front of Barringer High School. By J. M. Didusch.
First prize awarded to United Singers of Newark at twentieth National
Saengerfest, Baltimore, Md., 1903, and presented by them to the city.
Erected, May 22, 1904.

Robert F. Ballantine. Bronze bas-relief. In Eye and Ear Infirmary,
Central Ave. By Jonathan Scott Harley. Unveiled June, 1906.

Liberty Pole erected in 1793 in Military Park, replaced by present iron
mast, 112 feet high; dedicated Thanksgiving Day, 1906.

Court House Statues. 8 marble figures symbolizing aspects of Law on front
of building and 2 heroic bronze figures representing Power and Truth
beside the steps. By Andrew O'Connor, Jr. Court house erected in 1907.

Mgr. George Hobart Doane, for fifty years rector of St. Patrick's
Cathedral. Bronze statue in Rector Park, opposite Trinity Church. By
William C. Noble. Erected by popular subscription. Unveiled, Jan. 9, 1908.

Wisdom instructing the Children of Men. High relief in bronze over
entrance of Free Public Library. By John Flanagan. Subscriptions raised
by Mgr. Doane. Placed, May, 1909.

Abraham Lincoln. Bronze statue. By Gutzon Borglum. On Court House plaza,
where Newark citizens of 1861 met and pledged themselves to help preserve
the Union. Bequest of Amos H. Van Horn, citizen of Newark, soldier in
the Union army, and member of the Lincoln Post, G. A. R. Dedicated by
surviving members of the Post. Tendered to the city by Ex-President
Theodore Roosevelt and unveiled Memorial Day, 1911.

George Washington. Bronze equestrian statue in Washington Park. By J.
Massey Rhind. Bequest of Amos H. Van Horn. Unveiled, Nov. 2, 1912.

John F. Dryden, founder of the Prudential Insurance Co. and pioneer of
industrial insurance in America. Bronze statue, a third more than life
size, called heroic, in rotunda of main Prudential building. By Karl
Bitter. Given by field and home office force. Unveiled, Sept. 24, 1913.

Normal School, Grotesques. Eight decorative figures representing
Mathematics, Study, Botany, Thought, Chemistry, Writing, Music, History.
By G. Grandelis. Placed around cornice. Aug., 1912.

"The Hiker". Bronze statue in memory of Spanish-American War soldiers, at
Clinton and Belmont Aves. By Allen G. Newman. Given by United Spanish War
Veterans. Unveiled, Memorial Day, 1914.

"Our Lady of Loretto", limestone statue, on 3rd story front of Loretto
Hall, hotel for working girls, on Belleville Ave., near 4th Ave. By
Alfred Kenney. Given by Rev. F. M. O'Neil, of St. Michael's Church.
Placed, Aug. 31, 1915.

Branford Place Shaft. To mark center of first settlement near first
church, college and court house. Shaft for street illumination, with
bronze tablets on isle of safety, Branford Place. By Gutzon Borglum.
Erected by 250th Anniversary Committee of One Hundred. Unveiled, May 10,
1916.

Colleoni. Full-sized reproduction in bronze and marble of the world's
most famous equestrian statue and pedestal of Bartolomeo Colleoni, by
Verrocchio, the original of which stands in Venice. Erected in Clinton
Park, opposite Lincoln Park. Given by Christian W. Feigenspan. Made under
direction of J. Massey Rhind. Unveiling, July 26, 1916, a feature of the
250th Anniversary celebration.

Puritans' Landing Place. Drinking fountain at foot of Saybrook Place.
Designed by Gutzon Borglum. Erected by 250th Anniversary Committee of One
Hundred. Unveiled, May 10, 1916.

Puritan and Indian. Bronze shaft for street illumination, with stone
figures of Indian and Puritan at base, site of old Market Place, Broad
St. at Bridge. By Gutzon Borglum. Erected by 250th Anniversary Committee
of One Hundred. Unveiled, May 10, 1916.

Stone seat in Military Park to mark Training Place site, set aside in
1669. Military Park was used for training soldiers in colonial days.
Given by N. J. Daughters of the Revolution. Unveiled, May 13, 1916.


_Street Names Changed_: During war period, 1917-18.

  Hamburg Pl. to Wilson Ave.
  Bismarck Ave. to Pershing Ave.
  Dresden St. to London St.
  Bremen St. to Marne St.
  Berlin St. to Rome St.
  Frankfort St. to Paris St.


_Street Paving_: Market St. repaved with bitulithic pavement from Court
House to Pennsylvania Railroad Station. Paved from Railroad Pl. to Broad
St., in 1911. Paved from Broad St. west to Pierson's Alley and work
completed, June 29, 1912.

Broad St. repaved with wood block from Belleville Ave. to South St. Work
begun June, 1914. Completed, Oct. 5, 1914.

  Total mileage of paved streets, Jan. 1, 1904, 151.17 miles.
    "      "    "    "      "     Jan. 1, 1919, 269.22 miles.


Activities, Repair Dept., 1904

  Repairs to bridges                                     $ 1,106.54
  Supervision of sidewalks                                   846.00
  Repairs to crosswalks                                    2,910.98
  Repairs to pavements other than asphalt                  9,179.06
  Asphalt pavement repairs                                 5,915.64
                                                        -----------
                                                        $ 19,958.22


Activities, Repair Dept., 1918

  Granite pavements repaired, 21,908 sq. yds.           $ 18,314.57
  Brick pavement repaired, 5,755 sq. yds.                  8,283.08
  Telford pavement repaired, 21,897 sq. yds.               7,517.57
  Wood block pavement repaired, 529 sq. yds.               1,054.54
  Asphalt pavement repaired, 37,970 sq. yds.              80,199.69
  Building safety isles                                    1,228.79
  Stone crusher, producing 1,225 cu. yds. broken stone     1,826.62
  Cross walks laid and relaid                              1,537.62
  Streets graded by hand                                   1,252.39
  Repairing roads with broken stone                        9,247.23
  Miscellaneous repairs                                   20,864.06
                                                        -----------
                                                        $151,326.16


Sidewalks, 1918

  Cost of supervision                                    $ 2,612.00
  Cost of work done under city contract                      334.77
                                                         ----------
                                                         $ 2,946.77

On account of war conditions little work was ordered by city. Property
owners under city supervision laid walks costing about $15,000.


_Summer High Schools_: Opened at Barringer High School, 1914, with
947 students. 1st and 2nd year classes only. 1915, full 4 year course
introduced. 1919 enrollment, 1,520 students, with 800 at Central High
School and 720 at Barringer.


_Surveys_: See Boys' Vocational School; Poor and Alms Department and
Almshouse Survey; Public School Survey; Social Service Survey.


_Tablets, Memorial_: (The tablets noted as given by Schoolmen's Club
were after first year purchased from a penny fund collected from school
children, but were erected under direction of the Club.)

Gen. Philip Kearny, for service rendered Italian nation, 1859, when he
fought with forces that drove Austria from the peninsula. Placed on
Kearny statue in Military Park. Given by Italians in Newark, Memorial
Day, 1911.

John Catlin, Newark's first schoolmaster. Placed at Broad and Commerce
Sts., where he opened his first school in 1876. Given by Schoolmen's
Club. Unveiled, Newark Day, Nov. 6, 1911.

Gen. Philip Kearny, New Jersey leader in the Civil War. Placed on Normal
School (built on site of Kearny homestead), Belleville and 4th Aves.,
1912. Given by Bd. of Education.

Robert Treat, founder of Newark. Placed on Kinney building, on site of
Robert Treat's home lot, at Broad and Market Sts., by Schoolmen's Club.
Unveiled, Newark Day, Nov. 4, 1912.

John G. Shea, Catholic historian. Placed on St. Patrick's' Cathedral by
Knights of Columbus, Columbus Day, 1912.

Camp Frelinghuysen, used by the Union volunteers in 1861. Set in boulder
in Branch Brook Park nearly opposite Barringer High School, on west side
of lake, for lack of suitable spot on actual site of original training
quarters, which extended west of park from Lackawanna Railroad toward
Bloomfield Ave. Given by pupils of Barringer High School. Unveiled, May
29, 1912.

Elias G. Heller, who built first schoolhouse in Forest Hill. Placed in
Ridge St. School. Given by his sons. Unveiled, Feb. 11, 1913.

First Meeting House, built in 1668. Placed on building on south side of
Branford Pl., near Broad St. Given by Schoolmen's Club. Unveiled, Newark
Day, Nov. 3, 1913.

First Sunday School, founded by Anna Richards, 1814. Placed by First
Presbyterian Church, on exterior wall of Sunday School building, So.
Broad St., opp. Branford Pl. To mark centennial of school's founding.
Dedicated, June Sunday, June 13, 1915.

Work of Jane E. Johnson in Newark schools. Placed in Normal School,
Belleville and 4th Aves. Given by Nathaniel King, of Bd. of Education,
May 13, 1914.

Washington's route from Philadelphia to Cambridge in 1775, to take
command of Continental Army. Placed on Firemen's building, Broad
and Market Sts., June 25, 1914. Given by N. J. Sons of the American
Revolution.

Hannibal Goodwin, inventor of photographic film and Newark clergyman.
Placed in Public Library corridor by Newark Camera Club, Nov. 28, 1914.

Washington's retreat in 1776. Placed on Trinity Church by N. J. Sons of
American Revolution, March 7, 1914.

Newark's part in War for American Independence. Placed on Prudential
Building by Schoolmen's Club, Flag Day, 1915.

Rev. Moses Newell Combs, pioneer in industrial education and first shoe
manufacturer in Newark. Dedicated, Newark Day, Nov. 1, 1915, and placed
on building at 75 Market St., by Schoolmen's Club, March 10, 1916.

Aaron Burr's parsonage, where first classes of College of New Jersey, now
Princeton University, were held, 1748-1756. Placed on Koenig building,
Broad and William Sts., by Princeton Club, May 10, 1916.

Revolutionary camping ground, in Phillips Park. Set in a boulder from Fox
Hill. Given by N. J. Daughters of American Revolution, May 19, 1916.

Site of first academy in city built in 1774 by gifts of citizens. Set in
boulder in Washington Park. Given by Newark Academy. Placed, July 19,
1916. Dedicated the following fall.

Col. Peter Schuyler, leader of "Jersey Blues". Set in boulder in Military
Park. Given by N. J. Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of
America. Unveiled, Flag Day, 1916.

Justice Joseph Hedden, Revolutionary martyr. Placed on building at 536
Broad St., site of Hedden Colonial home. Given by Barringer High School
students. Unveiled, May 25, 1916.

Divident Hill in Weequahic Park, where boundary between Newark and
Elizabeth was fixed in 1668. Placed on exterior of small marble building.
Given by pupils of South Side High School. Unveiled, May 20, 1916.

Spot where Lincoln spoke on journey to his inauguration in 1861. Placed
at Broad and Division Sts., by Schoolmen's Club. Unveiled, Newark Day,
Nov. 6, 1916.

Newark founders who were Congregationalists. Placed in First
Congregational Jube Memorial Church, Clinton Ave. and Wright St., by its
members, May 10, 1916.

Participation of Newark men in the European war. Placed on City Hall by
Schoolmen's Club, Newark Day, Nov. 5, 1917.

Barringer boys who gave their services to their country in the great
world war. Given and placed in Barringer High School auditorium by
pupils, alumni and teachers of the school. Unveiled, Memorial Day, 1919.


_Technical School_: Given right to grant its graduates collegiate degrees
in science, Jan. 4, 1919. Name changed to College of Technology.


_Telephones_:

                                            _1904_      _1918_
  Instruments in use                        8,935      41,567
  Local calls, 1905                    11,387,490  39,797,745
  Out of town calls, 1905               1,591,785   7,858,685


_Trade, Board of_: Unofficial organization; present membership, 1,500;
established, 1868, to promote industrial, commercial and financial
welfare of Newark.

The following summary by the board, represents their interests during the
past fifteen years:

  1904. Advocated legislation which created Tenement House Commission.

  1905. Started agitation for building of Central High School.

        Obtained appropriation for 12 ft. depth in Passaic River.

  1906. Advocated law limiting public franchise rights to 25 years.

  1907. Brought about creation of Bur. of Combustibles and Fire
          Risks.

  1908. Obtained extension of high pressure system.

  1909. Caused city to start a public bath house system, by establishing
          one.

        Caused city to start a municipal employment bureau.

  1910. Obtained medical inspection in public schools.

  1911. Started agitation for improvement of Plank Road, later carried
          out.

  1912. Held successful Industrial Exposition.

        Lighterage case begun by Board.

        Directory of "Newark Made Goods", published at cost of
          $10,000.

  1913. Brought about establishing of Federal Court in Newark.

        Influence of Board used to establish Public Service Terminal.

        New Jersey sea-level ship canal advocated.

  1914. Opposed purchase of East Jersey Water Plant, and advocated
          Wanaque extension.

        Opposed placing Newark in the Philadelphia Regional Bank
          Zone.

        Filed complaint against detrimental credit loan companies.

  1915. Favored excess condemnation.

        Filed formal complaint in lighterage case.

        Protested against increase in Ferry tolls on Hudson River.

  1916. Opposed site proposed for Memorial building. Held a successful
          "Buy-in-Newark Week".

        Started agitation for safety isles in Broad St.

  1917. Had bill introduced in the U. S. Senate providing for dependents
          of soldiers.

        Favored connection of Hudson and Manhattan and Public
          Service Railway lines.

        Obtained $10,000 appropriation from Board of Freeholders
          for surveys for vehicular tunnels under Hudson.

        Created sentiment for Commission government.

  1918. Sought government aid in providing homes for industrial
          workers.

        Outlined an industrial labor policy.


_Transportation_: See Hudson and Manhattan Tubes; Jitneys; Lincoln
Highway; Public Service Terminal; Trolleys.


_Trees, Memorial_: Doane Oak. Planted in Lincoln Park by Shade Tree
Commission, 1907. In memory of Mgr. George Hobart Doane (1830-1905),
rector of St. Patrick's Cathedral, and one of the most widely known
Catholic ecclesiastics in the country.

Lincoln Highway Sycamores. 40, set out on Lincoln Highway, near Plank
Road Bridge, April, 1917, by N. J. State Federation of Women's Clubs.

State Federation of Women's Clubs Sycamore. Planted on City Hall Plaza in
honor of Federation, by The Contemporary, April, 1917.

Roosevelt Oak. Planted by Boy Scouts in Washington Park, May 3, 1919. In
memory of Theodore Roosevelt, president of U. S., Sept. 14, 1901-1909.
Born, Oct. 27, 1858. Died, Jan. 6, 1919.


_Trolleys_:

                                _1904_          _1918_
  Essex Division
    (Includes Essex Co.
      & West Hudson towns)
  Miles of tracks                 198.2           227.2
  No. of cars                     362             658[C]
  Passengers carried       88,215,000     174,154,820

[C] All cars put in service during last ten years were much larger than
those formerly used.

Opening of new trolley terminal April 30, 1916, one of the most important
improvements in system since Corporation was formed in 1903. See also
Public Service Terminal.

Women first employed as conductors, 1918. War measure due to labor
shortage.

Skip-stops instituted at request of national and state fuel
administrators, April 1, 1918. Another war measure.

Port Newark route to and from Submarine Boat Corporation, first operated,
Sept. 1918.

Strike of motormen and conductors for increased wages called June 6,
1918. Arbitrated by National Labor Bd. Service resumed June 8. Second
strike, March 12-17, 1919.

Transfer charge in addition to 5 cent fare first authorized April 1,
1918. 7 cent fare raise effective, October 15, 1918. Reduction to 6 cents
with 1 cent extra charge for transfer, April 1, 1919. 7 cent fare with 1
cent extra charge for transfer restored, May 4, 1919.


_Tuberculosis, Campaign Against_: State Tuberculosis Sanatorium at Glen
Gardner, Hunterdon Co., provided for by act of N. J. Legislature, 1902.
Building completed, 1907. Cost, $300,000. $89,500 appropriated for new
buildings, 1912.

City Sanatorium for Incipient Tuberculosis, Verona, was opened Jan.,
1908, in the remodelled girl's cottage of the City Home, which had been
discarded for that use.

Newark Anti-Tuberculosis Assoc., 45 Clinton St., established Feb. 1,
1909. To educate public concerning prevention and treatment. Employs
nurses to visit patients discharged from state home at Glen Gardner.

Tuberculosis Dept. of Essex Co. Hospital for Contagious Diseases at Soho,
was opened May, 1911.

N. J. Anti-Tuberculosis League, 45 Clinton St., organized Oct. 16,
1913, to take place of former state association. A clearing house of
information, publicity bureau, education, aid, etc.

Bur. of Tuberculosis, established as separate department of the Newark
Bd. of Health, July, 1915, has reorganized city sanatorium, maintains
additional clinics and investigates housing conditions.


_Tunnels_: See Hudson and Manhattan Tubes; Vehicular Tunnel


_250th Anniversary_: The first settlers, led by Robert Treat, came to
Newark from Connecticut, May 17, 1666. In 1916, from May 1 to Oct. 31,
the city celebrated its 250th birthday with a succession of ceremonies
and festivities.

Preliminary plans were laid in 1914, when the N. J. Legislature approved
an act, March 9, providing for such a celebration. In accordance with
this act, and by authority granted under an ordinance of the Common
Council, Mayor Haussling, in the summer of the same year, appointed
the Committee of One Hundred to raise money and plan, through its
sub-committees, for the anniversary program.

Newark and the forthcoming celebration became subjects of national
interest and importance. Thousands of people from all over the country
entered competitions for the best posters and poems, symbolizing the
city's history and industrial progress. The competitions resulted in the
spread of information about Newark and brought recognition of the city's
standing.

The most notable single feature of the anniversary was the Pageant of
Newark, an historic and allegorical review of the growth of the city,
presented in Weequahic Park.

There were innumerable parades, of which none was more pleasing to the
spectators, or more creditable to the city, than the School Children's
Parade, June 6.

Annual or recurrent events like the Music Festival and Industrial
Exposition were included in the anniversary program and made particularly
attractive.

230 athletes from all parts of the United States and Canada participated
in the athletic events held at Weequahic Park, September 8, 9 and 16, and
succeeded in breaking six world records. The Ninth International Fly and
Bait Casting Tournament, held in Newark, Aug. 23-26, was likewise a great
success. Athletic meets of all kinds were the order of the summer months.

As was natural, Newark became the popular convention city for 1916, all
manner of organizations being glad to avail themselves of the special
attractions offered their members.


_250th Anniversary Competitions_:

1. Street & Building Decorations. Committee of 100 offered $500 for best
plan submitted. Won by Jordan Green, architect, 81 Lincoln Park, Newark.

2. Poetry. Poems on Newark and its 250th Anniversary. Committee of 100
offered $250, 1st prize; $150, 2nd; $100 3rd; 10 prizes of $50 each.
1st prize, Clement Wood (Vulcan Smith, pseud.), New York City, "Smithy
of God". 2nd prize, Anna Blake Mezquida (Anne Grinfill, pseud.), San
Francisco, Cal., "City of Heritage". 3rd prize, Albert E. Trombly (Edmond
St. Hilaire, pseud.), Philadelphia, Pa., "Newark--1916". These poems
and many others have since been collected in a volume entitled, "Newark
Anniversary Poems". Published, 1917. Price, $1.25.

3. Poster. Committee of 100 offered $1,000, 1st prize; $500, 2nd; $300,
Special, awarded by popular vote. 1st prize won by Adolph Treidler, New
York City, "Robert Treat directing the landing of settlers in Newark";
2nd, won by Helen Dryden, of New York City; Special, won by E. A.
Foringer, of Grantwood, N. J.

4. New York Times Essay on Newark History. Open to pupils in public,
private and parochial schools. $10 selection of books, prize for high
school winners; Tiffany silver medals, prizes for grade school winners.
1,000 prizes awarded.

5. Photography. Newark Camera Club conducted "Amateur Photographic
Contest and Exhibition". Grand prize for best picture of entire exhibit,
solid silver loving cup, donated by Franklin Murphy, Chairman of
Committee of 100; 4 gold and 4 silver medals as first and second awards
for pictures in four classes--Class A, Street Decorations and Parades;
Class B, Night Illuminations; Class C, Feigenspan Colleoni Statue; Class
D, Miscellaneous. Grand prize won by Edward J. Brown, member of the Club.
Class A. 1st prize, Edward J. Brown; 2nd, Peter J. Schweikert; Class B,
1st prize, Edward J. Brown; 2nd, George Hahn, Jr.; Class C, 1st prize,
Reuben B. Ashderian; 2nd, George Hahn, Jr.; Class D, 1st prize, Alfred R.
Jayson; 2nd, Edward J. Brown.

6. Emblem. Committee of 100 offered $50, 1st prize; $30, 2nd; $20, 3rd.
Open to pupils of all schools in Newark.

7. City Flag. Committee of 100 offered $100 prize. Open to any resident
of N. J.


_250th Anniversary Industrial Exposition_: See Exhibitions


_250th Anniversary Music Festival_: See Music Festival, 1916


_250th Anniversary Notable Parades_: Opening day, May 1, 1916, at 10 a.
m. Local National Guard, Boy Scouts and other organizations, with Gen.
Edwin C. Hine, commanding.

Founder's Day, May 17, 1916, at 2 p. m. N. J. National Guard, civic
organizations and fraternal bodies.

School Children's, June 6, 1916, at 2 p. m. 11,000 public and 4,000
parochial school children. Time, 3½ hours. Included 22 historical and
symbolic floats, 23 bands, 12 fife and drum corps.


_250th Anniversary Pageant_: Pageant of Newark by Thomas Wood Stevens.

4,000 performers.

Given May 30, 31, June 1, 2, 1916, at 8 p. m., in Weequahic Park. Seating
accommodations for 40,000, including 20,000 free seats. Attended by the
greatest crowds ever handled by police department.

Prologue showed the passing of the explorers Cabot, Verrazano, Hudson,
and the Peace Legend of the original Indians of N. J.

1st to 3rd Movements showed landing of Robert Treat, purchase of land,
land riots of 1746, revolutionary times, Marquis de Lafayette's visit,
first signs of industrial growth, and Lincoln's visit.

4th Movement was symbolic of the forces which have shaped the life of the
city.

Music composed for this occasion by Henry C. Hadley.


_250th Anniversary School Work Exhibit_: See Exhibitions


_Ungraded Schools_: See Delinquent Children


_Vacant Lot Cultivation_:

            _Acres_     _Acres_      _No._      _Value_
          _Available_ _Cultivated_ _Gardens_     _Crop_
  1915        550          10         175     $  4,200
  1916        550          22         375       10,600
  1917        540         193       3,288      114,572
  1918        540         225       4,000      135,000

1918. 18,000 backyard gardens, 20' × 25', also cultivated, with total
value of crop, $180,000. 23 school garden plots planted and cared for by
pupils in manual training, physical culture and science classes. This
work is carried on by the Vacant Lot Assoc.


_Vailsburg_: Annexed, Jan. 1, 1905. Area thus added, 885.1 acres or 1.383
sq. miles.


_Vehicular Tunnel_: Act giving power to the N. J. Inter-State Bridge
and Tunnel Commission, acting jointly with the N. Y. Commission, for
construction and operation of a tunnel for vehicular traffic under the
Hudson River, from New York to Jersey City, passed by both N. Y. and N.
J. Legislatures, 1919.

By this means traffic congestion will be relieved, difficulties of fog
and ice overcome to a great extent, freight handled more cheaply and
mails expedited. Interstate freight traffic will no longer be entirely
dependent on ferry and barge service, as was the case during the harbor
strike in the winter of 1918.

Gen. Goethals, builder of the Panama Canal, has estimated that a tunnel
wide enough to allow 3 trucks to travel side by side and providing for
a foot path will cost $12,000,000. Maintenance will amount to about
$125,000 annually. About 2 years will be required for construction.

As U. S. Congress has voted against federal aid, the expense will be met
jointly by New York and New Jersey.


_Venereal Diseases, Bureau of--Board of Health_: Established July, 1918.
Clinics already in operation were developed, attendants and nurses
appointed.


_Vocational Schools_: See Boys' Vocational School; Girls' Vocational
School; Technical School.


_Wages_: Comparison as illustrated by 7 important trades. These figures
for Newark drawn from U. S. Bur. of Labor Statistics:

                                  _1904_     _1914_       _1918_
  Bricklayer
        Hours per week               44         44           44
        Wages per hour             $.58       $.65         $.75

  Carpenter
        Hours per week               44         44           44
        Wages per hour             $.41       $.50         $.70

  Machinist
        Hours per week               54         54           50
        Wages per hour             $.29       $.36         $.45

  Moulder
        Hours per week               54         54           54
        Wages per hour             $.33       $.38         $.55

  Pattern maker
        Hours per week               54         44           48
        Wages per hour             $.39       $.49         $.75

  Painter
        Hours per week               48         44           44
        Wages per hour             $.36       $.44         $.62

  Plumber
        Hours per week               48         44           44
        Wages per hour             $.44       $.62         $.75


_War, The--Military Organizations_: Local enlistments are estimated:

Army, 9,000; Navy, 4,000; Marines, 250.

9,591 Newark men, 21-31 years of age, were called for service between
April, 1917, and Sept., 1918, under first draft.

59,937 Newark men, 18-45 years of age, were registered for second draft,
Sept. 12, 1918.

  Casualties: (Unofficial record) Killed            120
              Died from wounds                       53
              Died from disease                      65
              Died from other causes                 17
              Wounded                               870
              Missing                                27
                                                  -----
                                                  1,152


_War, The--Relief Organizations_: The following organizations, and many
others, did war work of all kinds.

  American Red Cross.
  Y. M. C. A.
  Y. W. C. A.
  Knights of Columbus.
  Jewish Welfare Board.
  Salvation Army.
  War Camp Community Service.
  U. S. Food Administration.
  U. S. Fuel Administration.
  National League for Women's Service.
  Red Cross Motor Corps.
  National Service Motor Corps.
  Woman's Motor Corps of America.
  Catholic Women's Committee.
  Contemporary Civics Committee.
  Woman's Volunteer Service League (colored).
  Junior Red Cross.
  Girl's Patriotic League.


_War, The--Financial Support_: Every Newark drive for war work funds and
liberty loans was over-subscribed:

Liberty Loans:

                            _Newark's Quota_    _Raised_
  1st May 15-June 15, 1917    $20,670,000      $23,054,300
  2nd Oct. 1-Nov. 1, 1917      31,005,000       36,728,450
  3rd Apr. 26-May 4, 1918      18,876,100       31,298,500
  4th Sept. 28-Oct. 19, 1918   38,198,200       60,130,450
  5th Apr. 21-May 10, 1919     31,225,900       41,383,450

Red Cross:

  1st drive, June 18-25, 1917     750,000          784,570
  2nd   "    May 20-27, 1918      750,000        1,325,000
  United War Work Drive,
    Nov. 11-21, 1918            1,000,000        1,051,752


_War, The--Industrial Aspect_: It is impossible to get figures covering
Newark alone. There were 4 munition plants, 3 plants making uniforms, 10
making chemicals, 3 making military airplanes and one making ships. Some
indication of the extent of the activity induced by the war is indicated
by the number of applications received by federal--state--municipal
employment bureau. In 1917, there were 47,022, in 1918 there were 94,830,
an increase of over 101%. The following table for N. J. is included to
show the great part taken by the state in war industries.

                          _Stock &_
               _Capital_  _Material_ _Goods Made_  _Wages_

  High explosives
    1914     $13,489,358 $ 7,677,803 $ 14,330,232 $ 1,517,425
    1917      55,316,876  37,548,303  245,816,880  24,041,236

  Munitions
    1914       1,158,639   1,136,331    1,813,898     338,440
    1917      25,450,672  35,924,958   47,055,229   9,688,348

  Shipbuilding
    1914      34,286,142   4,851,539   10,475,245   4,714,375
    1917      57,300,609  24,944,468   39,738,072  14,920,054

                                _Employees_  _Average salary earnings_
  High explosives, 1914             2,156         $  703.81
    "      "       1917            21,153          1,136.54
  Munitions        1914               609            555.73
      "            1917            14,623            662.54
  Shipbuilding     1914             6,014            783.90
       "           1917            11,545          1,292.34

Over 50% of all the military explosives produced in the U. S. were made
in N. J.


_War, The--Public School Activities_: Over a million dollars' worth of
liberty bonds were sold, and over a quarter of a million dollars' worth
of thrift stamps.

Nearly $100,000 were contributed to the various auxiliary causes, such as
Surgical dressings, Armenian and Syrian relief. Y. M. C. A. and War Camp
Community Service.

There were 35 Junior Red Cross organizations in schools; over twenty
thousand articles were made for the Red Cross by domestic art classes;
3,000 cards of cotton wound; and 5,000 button holes made.

3,500 pupils enrolled in the Home Garden division of the Junior
Industrial Army.

2,300 home gardens and 21 school gardens were cultivated.

Many thousand magazines were collected in the schools and 20,000 text
books not needed in the schools, were given to the soldiers through the
Public Library.

71 pupils and 26 teachers enlisted in the army and navy or other branches
of war service.


_War, The--Library Service_: From Sept. 1, 1917 to July 30, 1919, 41,575
books and 201,842 magazines were collected by the Public Library, for the
army and navy. Of these 40,705 books and 42,175 magazines were sent in
over one hundred shipments, to 36 different camps, hospitals and other
military posts in N. J. For example, 6,106 books went to Camp Merritt;
1,560 to A. L. A. Dispatch Office at Hoboken for Transport Service; 842
to Port Newark; 9,597 to Camp Dix, and over 1,500 each to Cape May Naval
Training Station, Fort Hancock, Camp Morgan and Camp Vail. The proceeds
of the sale of magazines, etc., not wanted by soldiers, were used for
purchasing technical books and magazine subscriptions for military
hospitals.

The three "book drives" were in Sept., 1917; May, 1918, and May, 1919.


_War, The--Notable Parades_: Universal Service Registration Day, June 5,
1917. To mark enrollment of the first draft army, 7,000 school children
marched in the morning, 8,000 men, representing military, fraternal and
civic organizations, in the afternoon.

Soldier's Day, April 27, 1918. 312th Regiment of Infantry of the National
Army from Camp Dix entertained by the city. Escorted by thousands of
civilians in line from Lincoln Park to First Regiment Armory. 16,000
in parade, 300,000 spectators. Greatest demonstration of the kind in
Newark's history.

Italy Day, May 24, 1918. 8,000 Italian citizens in parade, expressed
their allegiance to the U. S. Many Red Cross workers and 400 children
from McKinley School in line.

War Savings Stamps, June 15, 1918. 7,500 school children and Red Cross
divisions of commercial and industrial concerns, followed by 106 of the
famous French Chasseurs d'Alpines, called Blue Devils, then on a visit to
the U. S.

113th Infantry of the 29th, or Blue and Gray Division, welcomed home May
20, 1919. The 113th left Newark Sept. 4, 1917, as the First Infantry,
National Guard of New Jersey. Their parade was the first to celebrate
the return of Newark men from France. A public holiday was proclaimed
by Mayor Gillen. Other home-coming parades followed with the 312th
Infantry, of the 78th, or Lightning Division, in the line of march,
Memorial Day, 1919.


_War, The_: See also Coal Shortage; Industry; Shipbuilding; Wages


_Water Supply_: Since 1892, drawn from headwaters of Pequannock River in
northern N. J., 26 miles from city. From time to time city has purchased
large tracts of land around this watershed to protect it. Total acreage,
25,000; valuation, $20,000,000; 9 reservoirs; average daily water supply
available, 50,000,000 gallons. Average daily consumption, 47,341,000
gallons.

For many years there has been agitation for new source of supply, as
population and industries increase. In 1918, permission was granted by
the Capital Issues Committee of the Federal Reserve Board to proceed
with the development of the Wanaque watershed on condition that no
construction work be undertaken during the war. Supply from the Wanaque
watershed would be 50,000,000 gallons, equal capacity to Pequannock. Cost
estimated at $9,047,250.


_Whooping Cough_: An ordinance passed Sept. 15, 1915, requires children
under 10 years of age with whooping cough to wear in the street or any
other public place, a yellow band around the arm, marked "Newark Health
Department, Whooping Cough". This is a measure to prevent the spread of
disease.


_Woman Suffrage_: In view of the recent adoption of the Susan B. Anthony
amendment by U. S. Congress, a review of the suffrage movement in N. J.
from earliest times to the present, may be of sufficient interest to
warrant the disregard of limiting dates.

N. J. had woman suffrage up to 1807.

    1884.    Petition for restoration of original suffrage rights and for
               school suffrage.

    1887.    Suffrage for school officials in villages and for county
               officials:
                    Senate--ayes, 15; nays, 2.
                    House--unanimously in favor.
             Passed and became a law. Declared unconstitutional in 1894.

    1895.    Petition for Full Suffrage and School Suffrage rights.

    1897.    Resolution for a referendum on School Suffrage:
                     Senate--ayes, 15; nays, 1. Passed.
                     House--ayes, 42; nays, 5. Passed.
             Submitted to referendum and rejected.

    1912.    Resolution for Full Suffrage:
                     Senate--ayes, 3; nays, 18.

    1913.[D] Resolution for Full Suffrage:
                        Senate--ayes, 14; nays, 5. Passed.
                        House--ayes, 44; nays, 7. Passed.

    1914.    Suffrage Resolution:
                        Senate--ayes, 15; nays, 3.
                        House--ayes, 49; nays, 4.

    1915.    Suffrage Resolution:
                        Senate--ayes, 17; nays, 4.
                        House--unanimously passed.
             Submitted to referendum:
                        N. J., 133,281 for; 184,390 against.
             And defeated, Oct. 19:
                        Newark, 13,125 for; 24,147 against.

    1916.    Presidential Suffrage Bill introduced in Senate. Referred to
               Committee on Judiciary and unfavorably reported.

[D] This resolution through error was not advertised in time, so that a
Resolution had to be introduced in the Legislature of 1914.


_Young Men's Christian Association_: Since 1904 the Y. M. C. A. of this
city has added two stories over its gymnasium building, increasing its
capacity of living rooms for young men to 125.

It has purchased four lots on Warren St., comprising a plot 80 × 100 ft.,
which is to be the site for the annex building to be erected within the
next 5 years.

In the Educational Dept. there have been organized and conducted
the accountancy school, automobile schools, classes in electricity,
salesmanship, modern production methods, personal efficiency and memory
training.

A most important advance was made when the City-Wide Community Work was
organized in 1914. There are now 3 districts being operated. Eventually
the city and suburbs are to be organized with 7 distinct districts, each
with a competent secretary doing work for the whole community.


_Young Women's Christian Association_: New administration and recreation
building, 53 Washington St., opened Sept. 2, and dedicated Nov. 3, 1913.
$300,000 for its erection raised in 14 days by a "whirlwind campaign"
for popular subscriptions. Has gymnasium, assembly hall, cafeteria, roof
garden, swimming pool, classrooms, and offices.

Association residence, or boarding home, 304 Broad St., opened March,
1917.


       *       *       *       *       *



INDEX


  All-Year School  4
  Almshouse  4
  Alternating Plan  4
  Apartment Houses  4
  Athletic Association, Public School  4
  Athletic Field, Public School  4
  Automobiles  4

  Band Concerts  4
  Bank Buildings  5
  Baths, Public  5
  Birth Rate  5
  Blind, Work for  5
  Boy's Vocational School  6
  Buildings  6

  Carteret Book Club  7
  Catholic Children's Aid Association of N. J.  7
  Charities  8
  Charter, City  8
  Child Hygiene Division, Board of Health  9
  Christmas Trees, Municipal  9
  Churches  9
  City Home  9
  City Plan Commission  9
  Civil Service Reform  10
  Coal Shortage  10
  College of Technology  10
  Comfort Stations  10
  Commission Government  10
  Contemporary, The  11
  Co-operative School  11
  Course of Study  11
  Crippled Children, School for  11

  Deaf, Public School Classes for  12
  Death Rate  12
  Delinquent Children  12
  Dental Clinic Association  13
  Detention, House of  13

  Education Board  13
  Employment Bureau, Municipal  13
  Exhibitions  13

  Feebleminded, Public School Classes for  15
  Fire Department, 1906 15
  Flag, City  15
  Food and Drug Division--Board of Health  16

  Gary Schools  16
  German Language  16
  Girls' Vocational School  16
  Gymnasium, Public School  16

  Health  16
  High Schools  16
  Housing  16

  Indeterminate Sentence  17
  Industrial Expositions  17
  Industrial Schools  17
  Industry  17
  Infantile Paralysis  18
  Influenza  18
  Institute of Arts and Sciences  18
  Italian Language  19

  Jitneys  19
  Junior College  19
  Junior High Schools  19
  Junior Museum Club  19
  Juvenile Court  19
  Juvenile Delinquency  19

  Lectures, Public  19
  Library, Public  20
  Lincoln Highway  22
  Little Mother's League  22
  Lunches, Public School  22

  Medical History, Museum of  22
  Medical Inspection  23
  Medical Library Association  23
  Memorial Tablets  23
  Memorial Trees  23
  Mental Hygiene, Bureau of--Board of Health  23
  Mexican Border Uprising  23
  Milk Supply  23
  Monuments  23
  Moving Pictures  23
  Municipal Christmas Trees  24
  Municipal Employment Bureau  24
  Municipal Exhibition  24
  Museum Association  24
  Music Festivals  24

  Naturalization  25
  Newark Day  25
  Newspapers and Journals  25
  Normal School, N. J. State  26

  Open Air Classes  26

  Pageant  26
  Parades  26
  Parental School, Essex Co.  26
  Parental School, Newark  26
  Parks, City  26
  Parks, Essex County  27
  Parkways  27
  Parochial Schools  27
  Passaic Valley Trunk Sewer  27
  Paving  28
  Physical Training  28
  Playgrounds  28
  Playgrounds, City  28
  Police Department  29
  Poor and Alms Department and Almshouse Survey  29
  Population  29
  Port Newark  29
  Postal Service  30
  Prices, Food  30
  Prison Reform  30
  Probation System  32
  Public Baths  32
  Public Comfort Station  32
  Public Lectures  32
  Public Schools  32
  Public Service Corporation of N. J.  32
  Public Service Terminal  32

  Reformatory for Women, N. J. State  32

  "Safety First" and the Schools  32
  School Houses as Social Centers  33
  School Names Changed  33
  School Savings Banks  34
  School Survey  35
  Schools, Parochial  35
  Schools, Public  35
  Shade Tree Commission  35
  Shipbuilding  36
  Ship Yard Workers, Evening Classes for  36
  Smoke Abatement Department  36
  Social Service Survey  36
  Statues and Monuments  37
  Street Names Changed  38
  Street Paving  39
  Summer High Schools  40
  Surveys  40

  Tablets, Memorial  40
  Technical School  42
  Telephones  40
  Trade, Board of  40
  Transportation  43
  Trees, Memorial  43
  Trolleys  44
  Tuberculosis, Campaign Against  44
  Tunnels  45
  250th Anniversary  45
  250th Anniversary Competitions  46
  250th Anniversary Industrial Exposition  47
  250th Anniversary Music Festival  47
  250th Anniversary Notable Parades  47
  250th Anniversary Pageant  47
  250th Anniversary School Work Exhibit  47

  Ungraded Schools  47

  Vacant Lot Cultivation  48
  Vailsburg  48
  Vehicular Tunnel  48
  Venereal Diseases, Bureau of--Board of Health  48
  Vocational Schools  48

  Wages  49
  War, The--Military Organizations  49
  War, The--Relief Organizations  50
  War, The--Financial Support  50
  War, The--Industrial Aspect  50
  War, The--Public School Activities  51
  War, The--Library Service  52
  War, The--Notable Parades  52
  War, The  53
  Water Supply  53
  Whooping Cough  53
  Woman Suffrage  53

  Young Men's Christian Association  54
  Young Women's Christian Association  54


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber Notes


On Page 37, "Court House Statutes" was corrected to "Court House Statues".
Tables were standardized to have italicized column titles. All "Subject"
titles were standardized.





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