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Title: Scientific American Architects and Builders Edition, No. 26, Dec, 1887
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American Architects and Builders Edition, No. 26, Dec, 1887" ***

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Transcriber’s Notes: Italic text is marked _thus_. Bold text is marked
=thus=. The original accentuation, punctuation spelling and hyphenation
has been retained. On the first page there is mention of ‘One Large
Sheet of Details’, which unfortunately is unavailable. It may have been
lost or perhaps was never printed.



[Illustration:

Scientific American

Architects and Builders Edition.

No. 26

  With Two Supplements consisting of
  Two Plates in Colors and One Large Sheet of Details.

DECEMBER, 1887 Single Copies, 25 Cents.—$2.50 a Year

COPYRIGHTED, 1887, BY MUNN & CO.

  New York: Published by MUNN & CO.,
  361 Broadway, corner Franklin Street.]



ECONOMIC ✠ GAS ✠ ENGINES.


Best in principle, workmanship, and materials. An unequalled small
Motor adapted to all uses. When the Motor is not at work, the expense
of running it ceases. Simple, Safe, Economical, Durable. No extra
Insurance required.

PLUMBERS’ GAS ENGINE.

Especially adapted for pumping water in =Private= and =Apartment
Houses=, =Flats=, SMALL HOTELS, and many other places.

[Illustration: No. 6. 1 Man.]

Capacity 250 Gallons, 50 feet high, per hour.

LARGER SIZES.

  No. 7. One‐Half Horse, 600 Gallons, 50 feet High, per Hour.
  No. 8. One Horse, –  1,500     „        „     „        „

GASOLINE GAS ENGINES.

  No. 15. One Man,  –       300 Gallons, 50 feet High, per Hour.
  No. 16. One‐Half Horse,  600    „        „      „      „
  No. 18, One Horse, –    1,500    „        „      „      „

Four Sizes, from Motor for Sewing Machine or Dental Engine to One Horse
Power.

Our Gas Engines will work satisfactorily when attached to Gasoline
Machines.

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.

  Economic Gas Engine Co.,
  Office and Salesroom, 34 DEY ST., NEW YORK.



[Illustration: STAR HACK SAW. No. 2.]

This Saw is much harder than a file, and will cut iron almost as fast
as it will wood. One saw blade will cut off a bar of half‐inch round
iron one hundred times. The blade is eight inches long, and will do
most of the sawing required about a house, shop, or farm. The Patent
Frame is made of steel, polished and nickel plated. It will face the
saw in four directions, as desired. Frame and twelve Saw Blades sent
by mail, postage prepaid, on receipt of $1.50. Hardware dealers will
furnish them at the same price. All genuine goods are marked with a
star and bear our name. We also have full control of the Star Bracket
Saws, and warrant them to be better than any imported blades.

MILLER’S FALLS CO., 93 Reade Street, New York.



A FIRST CLASS OFFICE BUILDING SHOULD BE FURNISHED WITH
A U. S. MAIL CHUTE
(PAT’D.) Connecting EVERY STORY with
THE U. S. MAIL BOX.

ADDRESS FOR CIRCULARS, &c.,

CUTLER MF’G. CO.

“A NECESSITY.”

Sole Makers, ROCHESTER, N. Y.



THE OTIS TUBULAR FEED WATER HEATER

[Illustration: Feed Water Heater.]

With Seamless Brass Tubes and the most recent improvements.

Specially adapted for utilizing the exhaust steam of

ELEVATOR PUMPS,

both Passenger and Freight, to heat the Feed Water for the boilers.

We guarantee one square foot of heating surface per horse power.

We can give reference from Heaters already in operation under the same
conditions, giving the best of satisfaction.

  MANUFACTURED
  BY
  Stewart Heater
  COMPANY,
  40 & 42 Clinton Street,
  BUFFALO, N. Y.



[Illustration: Desk.]

  DESKS
  AND
  OFFICE
  FURNITURE
  _In Great Variety_
  MANUFACTURED BY
  T. G. SELLEW,
  111 Fulton Street,
  NEW YORK.



  THE JACKSON
  Heat‐Saving & Ventilating Grate
  COMBINED
  GRATE and FURNACE.

HEATING on ONE or TWO Floors.

[Illustration: Fireplace.]

Greatest variety of rich and chaste designs in plain or oxidized Iron,
Steel, Nickel‐Plate, Electro‐Bronze, Solid Brass or Bronze. Largest
rooms in coldest climates thoroughly heated. Out‐door air warmed by
the heat wasted in ordinary grates, and introduced, producing perfect
ventilation and equable temperature, without drafts. In use everywhere.

Illustrated Catalogues.

EDWIN A. JACKSON & BRO., 77 Beekman St., New York.



  ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS!
  ATTENTION IS CALLED TO
  ADVERTISEMENT ON PAGE iii.
  FRANK B. MALLORY.



  SPECIFICATIONS SHOULD INCLUDE
  Folsom’s Patent Roof Snow‐Guards

  [Illustration: Snow Guards.]

  ——300,000 IN USE.——
  Address, =JOHN H. HILLER, 1408 Tremont St., Boston.=



Solid Braided Cotton Sash Cord.

[Illustration: Sash Cord.]

The =“SAMSON”= Window Line does not wear out. Save the annoyance
of broken cords. Samples free on application to the manufacturers.

J. P. TOLMAN & CO., 164 High Street, Boston, Mass.



THE Asbestos Packing Co.

[Illustration:

  ASBESTOS REMOVEABLE COVERING
  BOSTONITE
  ASBESTOS FLOORING FELT &c.
  No. 1 WAREPROOF SHEATHING
  THE A. P. Co. 3 PLY ROOFING
  ASBESTOS CEMENT FELTING
  ROOFING PITCH
]

  OFFICES:
  169 Congress St., Boston.
  33 John St., New York.



BRUSH

Electric Lights.

Incandescence Lights for Apartment Houses and Residences furnished by

THE BRUSH ELECTRIC COMPANY,

CLEVELAND, OHIO.

  NEW YORK OFFICE: No. 36 Union Square.
  CHICAGO OFFICE: No. 130 Washington Street.
  ST. LOUIS OFFICE: No. 404 Market Street.
  DETROIT OFFICE: No. 88 Griswold Street.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE No. 8.



SCHUMACHER & ETTLINGER, LITHOGRAPHERS,

  32, 34 and 36 Bleecker and 311 Mott Streets,
  NEW YORK.

FINE COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY.



STANLEY RULE & LEVEL CO.,

MANUFACTURERS OF IMPROVED CARPENTERS’ TOOLS.

  FACTORIES:
  NEW BRITAIN,
  CONN.

SOLD BY ALL HARDWARE DEALERS.

[Illustration:

Stanley’s Universal Hand Beader.]

For Beading, Reeding or Fluting, and for all kinds of light Routering,
this tool is invaluable to wood‐workers.

Seven superior steel cutters go with each tool. Both ends are
sharpened, thus embracing six ordinary sizes of Beads, four sets of
Reeds, two Fluters and a double Router Iron (⅛ and ¼ inch).

=No. 66 Iron stock with seven Steel Cutters, $1.00.=



[Illustration: Scientific American
ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS EDITION.

Entered at the Post Office of

New York as Second Class Matter.

Vol. IV.

Subscription, $2.50 a Year.

NEW YORK, DECEMBER, 1887.

Single Copies, 25 Cents.

No. 6.]



THE SHAKESPEARE MEMORIAL AT STRATFORD‐UPON‐AVON.


The American veneration for the birthplace of Shakespeare is well
known, and it has just taken practical shape by the presentation to
the town of a public drinking fountain and clock tower, the gift
of an American citizen, Mr. George W. Childs, of Philadelphia, in
commemoration of the jubilee of Queen Victoria. The memorial has
been erected in Rother Street, a broad open space near the center of
the town, where several thoroughfares converge, and where the annual
statute fairs or “mops” take place. The structure is handsome and
imposing, and is built of Peterhead granite (for the fountain) and
of hard freestone (for the clock tower). The base of the tower is
square, with projecting buttresses at the four corners, terminating
in acutely pointed gablets, surmounted by a lion bearing the arms of
Great Britain alternately with the American eagle and the stars and
stripes. Appropriate inscriptions are engraved on the four sides of
the memorial. The tower terminates in a spire, beneath and surrounding
which are smaller spires and turrets. The whole height of the structure
is fifty feet. The architect is Mr. Jethro A. Cossins, of Birmingham.
The ceremony of inaugurating the fountain was performed on Monday,
October 17, by Mr. Henry Irving, in the presence of the Mayor (Sir
Arthur Hodgson, K.C.M.G.), the corporation, and a distinguished
company of visitors. Sympathetic letters were read from Mr. J. Russell
Lowell and Mr. Whittier; and speeches were delivered by Mr. Irving,
by Mr. Phelps, the American Minister, Mr. Walter, of the _Times_, Sir
Theodore Martin, and others.—_London Graphic_.


[Illustration: THE SHAKESPEARE MEMORIAL AT STRATFORD‐UPON‐AVON.]



Optical Refinements in Architecture.


Many architects look upon all refinements of line and curve as so much
waste time, and would as soon think of referring to the original Latin
of Vitruvius for rules in proportioning their rooms as to consult and
apply the corrections of the Parthenon to their buildings. In sketching
out his design to a small scale on a sheet of Whatman’s drawing paper,
the architect does so without any further thought than to produce
a convenient plan or a well grouped elevation. Any infinitesimal
correction to the straight line or entasis would be inappreciable to
the naked eye on the surface of paper the inequalities of which would
render it worthless; nor does he take much trouble in the proportions
of his rooms, so long as they look right and fit well. If such
refinements are to be made, they should be shown in large drawings,
or set out to the full size on the works by proper rules and other
instruments. The task is laborious and troublesome, and contract prices
are little in sympathy with such niceties of adjustment. Even of the
more practicable mode of adopting certain ratios and proportions, the
architect does not avail himself very much.

We do not say that every horizontal beam—such as an entablature
supported by columns at intervals—ought to be “corrected” by the
application of a parabolic curve, or that every string course and
cornice should be arranged to curve or bend upward; but we contend that
these refinements ought to be made in interiors wherever the lines
are long, and contrasting lines and surfaces occur in juxtaposition;
that they are, in truth, applying precisely the same principle of
correction as the colorist or decorator would apply when he takes care
to juxtapose two colors or shades which shall be complementary to or
harmonize with each other.

It is painful to witness in modern buildings a perfect ignoring of
these principles of design. We go into a public hall or concert room,
and take our seat. The flat coffered ceiling appears to be literally
bending or falling upon our heads. To make the impression still more
apparent, the architect has introduced a circular or flatly curved arch
over the orchestral recess. If the ceiling is a flat curve, as it often
is, the trusses are, perhaps, brought down below and incased, their
lower edges being made perfectly horizontal, the two lines serving
to increase the difference between them; in other words, to make the
trusses look as if they were deflecting.

Mr. Pennethorne, some years ago, showed that the masses of the temples
of Athens and Rome were designed on perspective principles—that is
to say, the masses and many of the details were designed as they
were intended to be viewed. The point of sight was always before the
architect—that is to say, he studied the effect of his entablatures,
abaci, and other masses of details from points of view that were
likely to be frequented. It is well known that the various sections
through the Doric capitals, the mouldings, and other parts of Athenian
buildings, were composed of different arcs of the conic sections.
Mr. Pennethorne says that the Greek entablature is perspectively
proportioned and arranged to suit the given points of sight thus: The
apparent height of entablature is measured in seconds upon the arc of
a great circle. “Then, dividing this whole apparent height into some
given number of aliquot parts, measured also in seconds, the apparent
height of the architrave, of the frieze, and cornice will, in each
case, be a multiple of this given modulus. Again, by dividing the first
modulus into a given number of apparent aliquot parts, a second modulus
is obtained, by which the apparent heights of all the details of the
cornice of architrave and frieze will be regulated, and the true lineal
heights are then all determined by trigonometrical calculations.” In
short, all the visible heights of features are, upon this principle,
regulated from a given point, the real elevational height of each part
being afterward found.

This system of proportion would probably entail too much labor upon
the architect to work out with any accuracy, and may be looked upon as
chimerical. But we see instances every day of positive ignorance of
these principles, especially in the designing of mouldings, projecting
features, and towers. If the architect is too impatient to make nice
corrections in the manner we have pointed out, he ought at least to
take the trouble necessary to regulate his heights and masses before
inking in his elevations. Sketching in perspective is a valuable
auxiliary in designing roughly the masses of a building; but some more
accurate method is required in perspectively setting out the heights of
stories, entablatures, parapets, towers, and other features. This can
only be done by adjusting all heights from a given point of sight, or
upon the arc of a circle described from the said point. An elevation is
misleading, as every architect knows who has suffered disappointment
after the building is finished. It only gives vertical heights, which
may be very much curtailed or foreshortened in the actual view of the
building from the opposite side of the street, for example.

Many towers and spires have been spoiled by designing them in elevation
instead of at the angle. In broach spires we find a want of care in
one particular above the others. The broach is designed on the level.
The hips of the broach are made to look gentle in elevation, but when
raised above the eye 60 or 100 feet, they become so depressed as to
give a very ungraceful and abrupt springing to the spire.

We may instance the want of entasis to spires and columns. Every one
who has a critical sense of vision must have observed the apparent
weakness there is in a spire that has perfectly straight sides, when
compared with one which has been entasised, and the same with all
columns. Here also the method to insure the correction can be easily
applied. The more important of these refinements are capable of being
made at the initial stage of design, without recourse to decimals
of two or three removes from the decimal point, or to mathematical
calculations.—_Abstract from the Building News_.



Testing Pile‐Protecting Compounds.


In 1882 several piles, coated with various patent anti‐teredo
coverings, were driven in the harbor of San Francisco for the purpose
of testing them. Recently Engineer Manson began pulling up the piles in
order to see the result of the experiments. A pile coated with Pearce’s
compound, composed of paraffine, limestone, kaolin, etc., was found
to be completely honeycombed by the teredos. The eucalyptus and cedar
piles were also nearly destroyed. In 1884 the two piles incased by A.
W. Von Schmidt in sewer pipe and cement, the twenty‐three coated by
Frank Shay with asphalt and wire cloth, the ten of McKeon & Co., coated
with warm cement containing a poisonous substance, and those of W. H.
Hayes, coated with Portland cement, etc., were examined by Colonel
Mendel and Mr. Manson. All showed signs of having proved failures. The
insect is ahead of the inventors up to date.



A Tower on the Mount of Olives.


The tower which is being erected by the Russians on the highest point
of the Mount of Olives is already several stories high, but one
more is to be added. The object is to make it so high that both the
Mediterranean and the Dead Sea may be seen from the top. A number of
bells will be placed in the tower. In digging the foundation, several
Christian graves were found, together with an inscription in Greek, in
which the word “Stephanus” could yet be deciphered.



Scientific American.

ESTABLISHED 1845.

MUNN & CO., Editors and Proprietors,

No. 361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

  O. D. MUNN.            A. E. BEACH.

NEW YORK, DECEMBER, 1887.


  THE
  SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,
  ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS EDITION.


=$2.50 a Year, Single Copies, 25 cents.=

This is a Special Edition of THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, issued monthly.
Each number contains about forty large quarto pages, forming,
practically, a large and splendid =Magazine of Architecture=, richly
adorned with _elegant plates in colors_ and with fine engravings;
illustrating the most interesting examples of modern Architectural
Construction and allied subjects.

A special feature is the presentation in each number of a variety of
the latest and best plans for private residences, city and country,
including those of very moderate cost as well as the more expensive.
Drawings in perspective and in color are given, together with full
Plans, Specifications, Costs, Bills of Estimate, and Sheets of Details.

No other building paper contains so many plans, details, and
specifications regularly presented as the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
Hundreds of dwellings have already been erected on the various plans we
have issued, and many others are in process of construction.

All who contemplate building or improving homes, of erecting structures
of any kind, have before them in this work an almost _endless series
of the latest and best examples_ from which to make selections, thus
saving time and money.

Many other subjects, including Sewerage, Piping, Lighting, Warming,
Ventilating, Decorating, Laying Out of Grounds, etc., are illustrated.
An extensive Compendium of Manufacturers’ Announcements is also given,
in which the most reliable and approved Building Materials, Goods,
Machines, Tools, and Appliances are described and illustrated, with
addresses of the makers, etc.

The fullness, richness, cheapness, and convenience of this work
have won for it the =Largest Circulation= of any Architectural
publication in the world.

=An Increase of Trade= will necessarily accrue to all
Manufacturers and Dealers whose establishments are conspicuously
represented in this important edition of THE SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN. Terms for advertising very moderate. A card of rates
sent on application.

=Bound Volumes=.—Two volumes are published annually. Volumes
1, 2, 3, and 4, which include all the numbers of this work from
commencement to close of 1887, may now be obtained at this office
or from Booksellers and Newsdealers. Price, bound in paper, $1.50
per volume. These volumes contain all the colored plates, sheets
of details, specifications, and all the other interesting matter
pertaining to the work. They are of great permanent value. Forwarded to
any address.

  =MUNN & CO., Publishers=,
  361 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

For additional information concerning any of the plans or buildings
illustrated in these pages, address MUNN & CO., as above.


=CONCERNING AGENTS=.

Customers who pay money to subscription agents or brokers do so
at their own risk. Care should be taken to deal only with known,
responsible, and reliable parties. We send no papers until we receive
the subscription price; and no person is authorized to represent us,
act for us, or receipt for us.

MUNN & CO., Publishers, 361 Broadway, New York.



=CONTENTS=

Of the December number of the ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS EDITION
of SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)


  Arch construction                                      131

  Architectural era                                      129

  Architecture, optical refinements in                   119

  Ash, white                                             125

  Bamboo tree                                            123

  Bathing establishment and casino in Vittel (Vosges)*   134

  Beams, iron, in place of wood                          133

  Board, sounding, in St. Paul’s Cathedral               142

  Books for architects, builders, etc                   xiii

  Bricks, fire                                           126

  Building, a great                                      140

  Cement, Portland                                       126

  Charleston, S. C., building in                         139

  Chateau at Castelnaudary*                              130

  Chimes for churches, new form of*                      132

  Chimes, tube                                           132

  Chimneys, removal of                                   132

  Church, unsafe                                         126

  College for women, the John Crouse memorial*           139

  Compounds, pile protecting, testing                    119

  Correction, a                                          120

  Cottage, a French*                                     122

  Cottage for $4,200*                               136, 140

  Cottage, sketch for a*                                 135

  Drain pipes and wells                                  130

  Dwelling, a $4,200*                                    138

  Dwelling of moderate cost*                             120

  Dwellings at Glenridge*                                126

  Engine, Charter gas and gasoline                       142

  Fever, typhoid, carried by well water                  126

  Fireproof structures*                                  124

  Fireside, cheerful, how to make*                       142

  Flues, chimney, construction of                        124

  Forestry problem, our                                  122

  Foundations in wet ground                              142

  Furnace, hot air, the “Fortune”*                       142

  Gangways vs. staircases                                133

  Grown, how we have                                     135

  Heater, Wainwright*                                    142

  Hemlock                                                127

  Home, Florence Nightingale’s*                          132

  Homes of factory operatives*                           133

  House, $2,500 California*                              128

  Ice house, how to build                                130

  Ink, marking, blue                                     129

  Keystones, ornamental*                                 125

  Library, curious                                       138

  Memorial, Shakespeare, at Stratford‐upon‐Avon*         119

  Mortar, sugar                                          122

  Nails                                                  130

  Notes and queries                                    vi, x

  Painting                                               132

  Pavements, cedar                                       127

  Pine woods                                             134

  Planer, improved double surface*                       142

  Plants for room decoration                             141

  Plate, roofing, a large contract for                   120

  Plumbing, not defective                                142

  Protection, fire                                       140

  Rabbit remedy                                          130

  Readers and patrons, to our                            120

  Residence, a suburban*                                 121

  Residence for $5,000*                             137, 140

  Residence for $8,000*                                  123

  Roburite—a new explosive*                             133

  Roofing plate, contract for, large                     120

  Rooms, proportions of                                  140

  Saw, band, hand and foot power*                        142

  Sawdust                                                125

  Stable costing $5,500*                                 140

  Statue, marble, how made                               139

  Suggestion, a good                                     135

  Temple, Egyptian                                       124

  Tower on the Mount of Olives                           119

  Trees, roadside, in Belgium                            124

  Victory, tower of                                      135

  Walls of burning buildings, collapse of                127

  Walter, Thomas Ustick                                  134

  Yard, back, the                                        134



TO OUR READERS AND PATRONS.


The present number closes our fourth volume and brings us to the end of
another year. Many subscriptions now terminate, and we ask our patrons
to be prompt in sending their renewals, thus avoiding the loss of any
numbers. The terms are only $2.50 a year.

Considering the wealth of illustration, the variety and value of
information presented, this work is by far the cheapest of anything in
the same line.

To builders, and those contemplating the erection of dwellings or other
structures, our paper has proved to be of great value.

With every number, during the past two years, we have given plates
in colors of many new buildings, with specifications, accompanied by
extra special sheets of details. In most cases these have been so
complete as to enable the builder and contractor to proceed at once
with the construction; and on the plans thus presented, thousands of
new buildings have been erected in all parts of the country. In almost
every town in the land attractive dwellings are now to be seen, which,
on inquiry, will be found to have been built from SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN plans.

No architectural publication in the world presents to its patrons
so many practical specifications and drawings without cost, except
the merely nominal subscription rate of $2.50 a year. It is hardly
necessary to remind the builder that he would be obliged to pay several
hundred dollars if the same number of plans were to be specially
prepared for him.

In addition to the colored plates, details, and specifications, we have
furnished a large number of other new architectural illustrations and
many pages of valuable information. In all, the past year’s volumes
include about one thousand engravings.

We remind our readers of these items with the hope they will mention
them to their friends, and, if possible to secure a new subscription,
to send it in with the renewal of their own.

Our aim is to improve and enlarge the sphere of work, rendering it more
and more valuable. To this end we need the support and encouragement of
as many subscribers as possible. If each one of our friends will do a
little for us in this direction, all the parties concerned will derive
benefit.

If any of readers have inquiries to be answered, or suggestions to
make, relating to subjects or features they would like to see treated
in our paper, we shall, at all times, be pleased to hear from them.

Architects and builders who desire to see their plans reproduced in our
pages are also invited to communicate with the editor.


A CORRECTION.

In our November number an error was made in the estimate given for the
$2,500 house illustrated in our colored plate. The cost should have
been stated at $3,400. In some way the bill for mason work and painting
was omitted. These additions and other modifications bring the cost up
to the above sum.


A SUBURBAN RESIDENCE.

One of our colored plates this month represents a suburban dwelling
built of dark trap rock, trimmed with buff brick, and roofed with
ornamental stamped iron plates. It is now being constructed in New
Jersey, by days’ work, at a cost of about $9,250. The following is an
abstract from the


SPECIFICATIONS.

MASON WORK.

_Excavating._—Excavation under the entire house to a depth of about 4′.

_Cellar Walls._—Cellar walls built of good sized trap rock. All
necessary bluestone sills, cellar steps, and copings, fine tooled
brownstone steps for stoops, also fine tooled brownstone sills for the
doors and windows above cellar.

_Walls._—All stone walls above cellar are medium sized trap rock and
well selected, pointed with black mortar.

_Brick Trimmings._—Buff brick used for trimmings, as shown on the
plans, laid in mortar same color as brick.

_Chimneys._—Chimneys built of trap rock and buff brick, and topped out
as shown on the plans.

_Fireplaces._—Fireplaces built where shown, of white fire brick, and
the hearths laid in tile.

_Stone Steps._—Stone steps from main entrance to ground.

_Porch Floor._—Porch floor is cemented with Portland cement.

_Cementing._—The entire cellar bottom is cemented 3” thick with
concrete and Portland cement.

_Plastering._—The entire first and second stories are plastered
three‐coat work, hard finished. Cornices in principal part of first
story and second story hall. Center pieces in rooms to correspond.


CARPENTRY.

_Timber._—Timber all well seasoned spruce. Floor timbers, 2″ × 10″,
12″ on centers. Studding, 3″ × 4″. Main rafters, 2″ × 8″, 24″ on center.

_Cornice._—The cornice is formed of wood heavily moulded.

_Roof._—The rafters are covered with hemlock boards, then covered with
ornamental iron plates laid on tar felt. Valleys and gutters, XX tin.
Leaders, galvanized iron. The ridge is ornamental iron work.

_Floors._—The floors throughout are double. The upper floors are
narrow white pine, except hall and kitchen. The hall is narrow oak, the
kitchen narrow white maple, the bath rooms are white maple. The main
hall is paneled wainscot, 4′ high. Kitchen and bath rooms wainscoted
with narrow beaded strips of maple. The trimmings throughout, except
main hall, will be selected white pine. Hall to be of white oak. Doors
to be six paneled. Main stairs and balustrade to be white oak. Others
stairs white pine, with Georgia pine treads. Inside blinds throughout.
Plain bronze hardware on principal part of first story. Jet and bronze
for balance.

_Painting._—The wood and iron work on the outside will be painted
three coats. The inside will be wood filled and have two coats of hard
oil.

_Plumbing._—The apparatus for plumbing work located as shown on the
plans. To be piped and arranged for water pressure.

_Range._—The kitchen to have an approved low down range, fitted in
fireplace.

_Heater._—There will be placed in the cellar a No. 14 combination
steam and hot air heater.


ESTIMATE OF COST.

  Mason work, complete      $4,400
  Carpenter and roof work    3,400
  Painting                     200
  Plumbing, gas pipes, etc.    650
  Steam heating                600
                            ——————
                            $9,250


A LARGE CONTRACT FOR ROOFING PLATE.

The interesting picture of the Western Tennessee Hospital for the
Insane, at Bolivar, in that State, which will be found in our
advertising pages, will command the attention of humanitarians and
administrators everywhere. Such buildings, devoted to such purposes,
are not frequently to be met with. The announcement made in connection
therewith, that the Alderly brand of square Terne plate was selected by
the commissioners for the roof, gutters, and valleys of the structure,
requiring over 1,000 boxes of roofing plate, presents, in a forcible
way, the claims of that article. It is manufactured and sold by Messrs.
Gummey, Spering, Ingram & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., and Liverpool,
England.



A DWELLING OF MODERATE COST.


This cottage is built in Plymouth Park, Buzzard’s Bay, near Wareham,
Mass., one of the most charming locations on the New England coast.
From the veranda a beautiful view is obtained of the bay and coast.
The cottage is erected on one of the knolls (which is one of the
features of the park), and has for a background a grove of pine and
oak trees. The shingles are treated with “Cabot’s creosote stains” of
the following colors: On roofs, a steel gray, and on sides, sienna.
The clapboards are painted a light olive green and trimmed with bronze
green and Indian red. The studs of hall, dining room, and parlor are
exposed, and together with underboarding and beams overhead are planed
and sand‐papered, and all woodwork is given two coats of shellac of
light finish. The second floor is plastered (sand finish). The contract
price for cottage was $2,800 complete. The architect is Chas. E.
Miller, 149 Broadway, N. Y.


SPECIFICATION.

GENERAL CONDITIONS.

The contractor is to give his personal superintendence to the work,
and to furnish all transportation, labor, materials, apparatus,
scaffolding, and utensils needful for performing the work in the
best workmanlike manner, according to the true intent and meaning
of the drawings and these specifications, which are intended to be
co‐operative, and when anything is shown on plans and not mentioned in
specification, or vice versa, the same is to be furnished as though
it were both shown and specified. This specification and the drawings
annexed are intended to include everything requisite to the proper
and entire finishing of carpenter’s, mason’s, and plumber’s work, and
the same shall be furnished, notwithstanding every item necessarily
involved in the above words is not particularly mentioned.

All work when finished is to be delivered up in an undamaged state,
without exception, except where otherwise specified, all materials to
be of their respective kinds, and all labor to be done in the best
workmanlike manner, to the full satisfaction of owner. Should the
contractor introduce, at any time, materials different from the sort
and quality herein specified, the same shall be removed and made good
at the contractor’s expense.

The contractor will be held responsible for all portions of the work
let to him.

The contractor shall make no alterations of the drawings or
specification, but should any error or inconsistency appear in these,
it shall be the duty of the contractor to duly notify architect, who
will make proper adjustment. The contractor is to give to the proper
authorities all requisite notices of the work in his charge, obtain
official permits and licenses for temporary obstructions and pay all
proper fees for the same, and to be solely answerable for all damage
to neighboring premises or to the person or property of the public by
himself or his men or through any operatives under his charge, whether
in contract or extra work. Contractor is to protect his work from frost
until building is finished, and is to cart away all rubbish and leave
the whole broom clean. All drawings, etc., are to be returned to the
architect, and are not to be used for any other building.


CARPENTER.

_Scantling._—Sills over piers 6″ × 8″, sills that rest on stone wall
4″ × 6″, all to be halved and pinned at angles. Plates 4″ × 4″, posts
4″ × 6″, girts 4″ × 4″, braces 2″ × 4″, studding 2″ × 4″. The studding
of hall, parlor, and dining room to be planed and chamfered.

Partition caps 2″ × 4″ to be planed in the above rooms. Soles 2″ × 4″
as well. First floor beams 2″ × 8″, 16″ on centers. Second floor 2″
× 8″, 16″ on centers, and to be dressed when exposed in above rooms.
Attic beams 2″ × 8″, 16″ on centers. All beams under partitions to be
doubled and spiked. Trimmers ditto.

_Main Roof._—Rafters 2″ × 8″, 2′ on centers. Valley rafters 3″ × 10″.

_Veranda._—Girders 4″ × 8″, floor beams 2″ × 6″, 2′ on centers.
Rafters 2″ × 6″ (dressed). Posts constructed of studs. Hemlock boards
and shingles. Veranda roof timber will be exposed and dressed, floor to
be merchantable yellow pine, free from large loose knots, shakes, or
sap. Balcony floors to be covered with heavy canvas and slushed over
with metallic paint, to be graded away from wall of house.

_Framing._—The house to be framed and braced in a perfect and
substantial manner, and to be perfectly plumb and true. All beams to be
spiked together where practicable, so as to form tie across building.
All framing of beams to be with tenon and tusk. Roofs strongly framed
and cross bridges, first and third tier of beams. Gutters on roof to be
hung of galvanized iron. Veranda to be built in and lined with Merchant
& Company’s roofing tin (or plates). There will be three 4″ galvanized
iron leaders for main roof, and one in front for veranda. (See plans.)

_Gables._—Construct gables as shown.

_Roofing._—Cover all roofs with sawed pine shingles 6″ × 18″, three
shingles to the lap. On main roofs these to be nailed on shingle laths;
on veranda roofs, on spruce boards, underside dressed (as specified).
Flashing of Merchant & Company’s old method roofing plates. Flash
around chimney, valleys, and junction of roofs with walls of house.

_Walls._—The walls of hall, dining room, and parlor to be covered with
good ⅞″ pine boards dressed on exposed side; all other underboarding
to be of hemlock of even thickness. Over this cover walls with felt
paper, and then on first story cover paper with clear pine clapboards
5″ to weather. Above felt cover paper with 6″ × 16″ sawed pine shingles
not more than 6″ to weather. Between partitions of hall, dining room,
and parlor fit ⅞″ pine boards, dressed on both sides, with ¼ round
mould to keep panel in place; the sheathing on other sides of room
dressed on one side; boards not more than 5″ wide.

_Bases._—Form base as shown of 1½″ thick pine.

_Casings._—1¼″ thick and 2″ wide.

_Furring._—Fur out the walls of stairs to cellar (corner boards to be
4″ wide, 1¼″ thick; put on angle beads where necessary).

_Outside Step._—⅞″ thick riser, 1¼″ thick tread.

_Flooring._—First and second floors to be made of good T. and G.
yellow pine in rooms over hall, parlor, and dining room; to be dressed
on both sides; third floor spruce; all to be not more than 5″ wide.

_Partitions._—Set the partitions between hall, parlor, dining room,
pantry, kitchen, and cellar stairs with 2″ × 4″ spruce, studs dressed
and chamfered. (_Note._—This is to be done so as to make a uniform
appearance in hall, dining room, and parlor.) Studs of all other
partitions of hemlock. Construct woodwork between piers, as shown.

_Interior Stock._—All the stock for inside finish to be best quality,
well seasoned, smoothed, and sand‐papered, and, unless otherwise
specified, of white pine. Hardwood saddles for all hearths and door
openings.

_Architraves._—All doors and windows to have ⅞″ × 5″ plain
architrave with moulding and bead on ends. No splicing allowed.

_Doors._—Front door to be 2″ thick, of design shown (cherry). All other
doors to have 1⅝″ thick four paneled stock door (local manufacture),
and, unless otherwise shown, to be 2′ 6″ × 7′ 6″. The openings from
hall to parlor and dining room to be: hall and parlor, 7′ × 7′ 6″; hall
and dining room, 6′ × 7′ 6″. Bases 6″ high, moulded (in bed rooms,
closets, and pantries).

_Door Frames._—All door frames to have 1⅛″ thick jamb, with stops
nailed on.

_Window Frames._—All windows, unless otherwise shown, to have box
frames with pockets; sills to have sub‐sill, upper sill, plowed, etc.,
and given proper pitch.

_Sashes._—All sashes to be 1⅝″ thick, with lights as shown, and to
have moulded sash bars. All sliding sashes to be double hung, the best
steel axle pulleys, hemp sash cords, and iron weights. Cellar windows
to have plank frame hinged at top. Casements to be hinged and have
spring catches.

_Bath Room._—Sheathe up sides of bath tub, riser of water closet and
basin, with clear white pine ⅝″ thick; wainscoating of bath room of
same stuff 4′ 6″ high with neat mould on top. Make a batten door under
basin with catch, etc. Door in riser of and in top of water closet and
bath to be black walnut put on with brass screws.

_Closets._—Fit up closets, except as otherwise specified, with one
shelf, and cleat under for books. Bed room in attic to be furred as
shown.

_Dressers._—Fit up dresser in kitchen of clear white pine, glass doors
at top and drawers and cupboards under; dressers in pantry to be the
same.

_Blinds._—Provide and hang to all windows of first and second floors
1¼″ outside blinds of two folds properly hinged, and having rolling
slats.

_Base Knobs._—To all doors, and to have rubber tips.

_Hardware._—Butts.—All doors to be properly hung with japanned butts
of requisite sizes. Locks.—The front door to be supplied with brass
faced mortise, patent reversible front door knob lock with night work,
with two keys to each combination, and brass striking plate. All other
doors (except closets) to have 4″ mortised locks, brass face and brass
striking plate. Closets to have rim locks. All locks to have brass
keys. Knobs.—The front door to have a plain 2½″ round bronze knob,
with bronze rose and drop escutcheon to match. All other knobs to be
(black) terra cotta with bronze iron mounting, etc. Bell pulls.—The
bell pull to front door to be bronze, to match front door hardware.
Bolts.—The rear door to kitchen to have two barrel bolts; door to
cellar one, doors to bulkhead to have brass padlock with staples,
etc. Drawer pulls.—Drawers to have bronzed iron drawer pulls. Sash
fasts.—All double hung windows on first floor to have Morris patent
self‐locking sash fasts, to be of bronzed iron. Put on patent fasts to
all casements, windows. Hooks.—Put heavy, triple hooks of japanned
cast iron to all closets, 8″ apart. Screws.—All hinges, etc., to
be securely put in place with steel screws of proper size. Bell
hanging.—Put in a large gong for front door, properly connect with
wire, etc.

_Stairs._—Main stairs to have an open string moulded and nosing to
return on ends and carried around well. Risers ⅞″ thick, tread 1½″
thick: tread and risers housed into wall string and treads plowed into
risers; risers plowed into the underside of the tread. The outer string
to be 1″ thick, and beaded on lower edge. All to be of clear pine.
The stairs to have cherry newel, 5″ × 5″, turned. Cherry rail, 2″ ×
3″. Balusters, 3 on each tread, 1⅛ × 1⅛; all to be solidly put
together and wedged. Cellar stairs to have 1½″ thick strings, sawed
to receive 1¼ treads; all of spruce. Attic stairs to have 1¼″
strings, plowed to receive risers and treads; all of spruce.


PAINTING.

All shingles of walls and roof to be stained with Cabot’s best creosote
stains, of colors selected by architect. The clapboards to receive two
coats of best white lead and linseed oil finish, in colors as directed.

_Hardwood._—The newel, rail, and balusters to be filled with three
coats of hard oil, rubbed to a dead finish. The studs and beams
overhead in dining room, parlor, and hall to have two coats of shellac
(or Wheeler’s hard finish). All other woodwork the same.

_Glazing._—All glass to be double thick American, of number of lights
shown; all to be well puttied and tacked, thoroughly cleaned, and left
whole and perfect. All small lights to have cathedral glass, selected.


MASON.

_Excavation._—Excavate for all cellar wall piers, etc., as shown. Dump
the earth where directed, and leave the premises clear after building
is finished. Piers 3′ below surface.

_Cement, Lime, and Sand._—All lime used in the mason’s work to be
extra No. 1 Rockland lime. Cement, best quality Rosendale of approved
brand. Sand to be clean and sharp, and all to be used in proper
proportions.

_Foundations._—Furnish all materials and build walls, unless otherwise
shown, 1′ 6″ thick of stone laid in lime and cement mortar in equal
portions, and clean, sharp sand in proper proportion; the whole to be
well bonded and trowel jointed inside and out.

_Hearths._—Hearths to be of Portland cement, with lampblack to give
color.

_Bluestone._—Chimney cap to be of bluestone in one piece, holes for
flues cut in. Cellar stairs as shown.

_Brickwork._—Brickwork of chimney to be selected, on exposed places
jointed in red mortar, all to be hard, well burned brick. Build in
register flue in kitchen breast where directed and 6″ C. I. thimble
where shown. Build in breast of chimney on second floor 5″ C. I.
thimble, 2′ 6″ from floor.

_Trimmer Arches._—Turn trimmer arches over all fireplace openings.


PLASTERER.

_Laths._—Laths to be best seasoned pine, free from all imperfections,
laid ⅜″ apart and breaking joint.

_Plaster._—Plaster will be two coat work, the second to be white sand
finish, well floated. The first coat to be best Rockland lime and clean
sharp sand, well mixed with long cattle or goat hair, to be thoroughly
worked and stacked, all to be well troweled and made perfectly true.
Patch up and repair all plastering at completion of building.


PLUMBER.

_Lead Pipes._—The lead pipes through to be AA lead pipe. The waste
pipes to be heavy; all joints between lead pipes to be heavily wiped,
and joints between lead and iron pipes to be made with brass ferrules
wiped into lead pipe and calked into iron pipe with molten lead and
oakum.

_Iron Pipes._—Iron pipes to be heavy C. I. soil pipe, free from all
imperfections, and of uniform thickness; thoroughly coated inside and
out with coal tar. All joints to be calked tight with molten lead and
oakum.

_Drain Pipe._—From point marked on plans run a four inch C. I. pipe
to roof, making all proper branches for water closets, baths, basins,
tubs, sinks, and at roof to be capped with Smith’s patent ventilating
cap. At foot of this place a 4″ running trap, with hole for cleaning
out, and an inlet to run out under servants’ water closet. All branches
to be Y branches, 4″ for water closet, and 2″ for basins, sink, etc.
Plumber to make connections with street pipe.

_Lead Supply Pipe._—Run from point marked on plans a ¾″ lead pipe.
Place at the beginning of this a rough round way lever handle, stop and
waste cock. Connect with main supply. From the ¾ lead pipe make all
proper connections for water closets, tubs, baths, and sink with ⅝″
pipe, all to be graded so as to empty at stock cock. In kitchen, over
sink, put two cocks (lever handle), so as to control supply of hot and
cold water to second floor, the same to empty in the sink.

_Boiler._—Furnish and set where shown in kitchen a heavy 30 gallon
galvanized iron boiler with stand complete. The boiler to be supplied
with water through a branch of ⅝″ lead pipe, and connect with water
tank of range with a ⅝″ extra strong lead pipe, the other part of
boiler to be fitted up with ⅝″ strong lead pipe with ⅝″ sediment
cock, and the required length of light lead pipe to empty into sink
trap (boiler to have a safety attachment). Furnish and put on to supply
to boiler in the most convenient place a ⅝″ finished lever handled
stop cock to control supply to boiler. From head of boiler run lines of
⅝″ lead pipe to supply sink and tubs in kitchen, basin, and bath tub
on second floor.

_Sink._—Furnish and set up (and of size shown) a plain C. I. sink
with slate back. To be set on C. I. legs, to be supplied with hot and
cold water through ⅝″ lead pipe, drawn through ⅝″ compression bibb
cocks, one hose, the other plain, wasted through heavy lead S trap
calked into iron pipe as specified.

_Tubs._—Furnish and set up tubs of size shown, supplied and wasted the
same as sink, but to have brass plugs and safety chains. Tubs of wood
well dovetailed.

_Wash Basin._—Furnish and fit up (of size shown) in bath room a 1¼″
thick Italian marble slab, counter‐sunk and moulded on edges, backs 10″
high, the slab to be fitted with a 12″ marble pattern basin (overflow)
well fitted to slab, with brass clamps, etc. The basin to be supplied
with hot and cold water through silver plated compression basin bibb
cocks (⅝), wasted through 2″ lead pipe and S trap, silver plated
basin plug and safety chain.

_Bath._—Furnish and fit up bath of size shown, 14 ounce copper tinned
and planished, tub to be supplied with hot and cold water through ⅝″
lead pipe, and drawn through ⅝″ bath silver plated compression cocks.
Wasted through 2″ lead S trap. Silver plated plug and safety chain.

_Note._—All lead S traps to have brass trap screws for cleaning.

_Water Closet._—Water closet in bath to be a Demarest or Manhattan
patent long oval flushing rim earthenware hopper, automatic seat, all
complete, with waste preventing cistern, to be copper lined; supply
through ⅝″ lead pipe connected to main supply; to have heavy last
lead trap, properly connected with soil pipe. Connect from cistern to
hopper with 1¼″ light lead pipe so as to get good flush. The water
closet for servants to be enameled iron hopper with cistern, etc., as
above.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is said that the ova of tapeworms are frequently deposited in the
wrinkles of a lettuce leaf and near the mid rib of a cabbage leaf, and
so it behooves those wishing uncooked leaves of any kind to have them
carefully washed.



A FRENCH COTTAGE.


We publish herewith the plans for a house designed by M. A. Fatalot
and erected by M. Valette, architect. It is built on the side of the
terrace (Rue Babie), on the green hills which overlook the Seine.

[Illustration: A FRENCH COTTAGE—HOTEL DE PEINTRE, A MEUDON.]

The construction is very simple. The architect was, in fact, asked
to use the strictest economy. The first floor, built over a cellar,
consists simply of a vestibule, A, which opens into a dining room, C,
a bed room, D, a kitchen, B, the water closets, E, and the stairway.
The latter is constructed of wood and leads to the second story, which
serves as both studio and drawing room. This room is lighted by the
large window shown in our perspective view. The walls of the building
are of stone—stone from Meudon, nicely colored—and Bourgogne bricks
of different shades form the design of the frieze. The basement is of
dressed stone; the pediments of the gables and the cornice are covered
with a plaster of sand and mortar colored in imitation of stone. The
tops of the pediments are decorated with Parvillee faience. The perron
is of Bagneux stone and the mullions and supports of Euville stone.

The following is a detailed list of the expenses:

  Masonry              $1,480
  Carpenter work          265
  Plumbing, etc.          166
  Joiner’s work           462
  Locksmith’s work        315
  Heater, etc.             74
  Painting and glazing     92
                       ——————
                       $2,854
  Salaries                200
                       ——————
                       $3,054



Our Forestry Problem.


According to latest estimates, we consume yearly, with our present
population of sixty millions, not less than twenty billion cubic feet
of wood. The amount is made up, in round figures, in the following
manner:

2,500,000,000 feet for lumber market and wood manufactures;

360,000,000 feet for railroad construction;

250,000,000 feet for charcoal;

500,000,000 feet for fence material, etc.;

17,500,000,000 feet for fuel.

To this it will be safe to add, for wasteful practices and for the
destruction by yearly conflagrations, at the least, twenty‐five per
cent.

The average yearly growth of wood per acre in the well stocked and well
cared for forests of Germany has been computed at fifty cubic feet.
Applying this figure to our present requirements, we should have an
area of not less than five hundred million acres in well stocked forest
to give us a continual supply of all kinds for our present needs. Now,
a careful canvass made four years ago developed the result that the
existing forest area in the United States, excluding Alaska and Indian
Territory, comprised almost five hundred million acres (489,280,000);
but it is well known to everybody who is acquainted with our forests
that they cannot compare in yield with the average European Continental
forests under systematic management. Much of what is reported as forest
is useless brush land or open woods, and depreciated in its capacity
for wood production by annual fires, by which the physical structure of
the leaf mould is destroyed, and thus, too, its capacity for storing
the needful moisture, reducing wood production, and killing all young
growth.

Without care, without management, and left to the kind but uneconomical
work of nature, interfered with, in addition, by rude and ignorant
action of man, it is doubtful whether, on the existing area, one
half the amount of wood is produced yearly which we now require. We
have, therefore; beyond doubt, reached—if not passed—the time when
increased drain means squandering of capital, and when regard to
husbanding, to careful management, to recuperation of our forests,
and planting of new forests is required for the purpose of merely
furnishing raw material; and it should not be forgotten that to
reproduce the quick growing white pine of an acceptable quality and
sufficient size requires not less than eighty to one hundred years,
and for the long leaved pine two hundred years; that, altogether, wood
crops are slow crops; that nothing of size can be grown under a quarter
of a century at the best.

That this is a business requiring intelligent national consideration
is apparent. Not less so if we appreciate the magnitude of the values
resulting from it. The total value of forest products in the census
year was placed at $700,000,000, or ten times the value of the gold
and silver production, five times the value of all coal and mineral
production, and exceeding every one of the agricultural crops, corn and
wheat not excepted; and representing in value about thirty per cent. of
the total agricultural production.

Of injuries wrought locally by the reckless clearing of hill sides and
of deterioration of the soil due to inconsiderate action of man, I
could entertain you by the hour. The country is full of examples. Any
one who wishes to study the effect of such denuding of hill sides upon
the soil, the water flow, and agricultural conditions, need not go to
France, Spain, Italy, Greece, or Palestine. The Adirondack Mountains
are within easier reach, where the thin cover of earth exposed to
the washing rains is carried into the rivers, leaving behind a bare,
forbidding rock and desolation, while at Albany the Hudson River is
being made unnavigable by the _debris_ and soil carried down the river.
The government has spent more than ten million dollars, I believe, and
spends every year a goodly sum, to open out a passage over the sand bar
thus formed.

Go to the eastern Rocky Mountains, or to Southern California, and you
can gain an insight into the significance of regulated water supply for
the agriculture below, and also learn how imprudently we have acted
and are acting upon the knowledge of this significance by allowing the
destruction of mountain forests in the most reckless and unprofitable
manner. Along the shores of Lake Michigan, and along the sea coast, we
are creating shifting sands by the removal of the forest cover, to make
work for the ingenuity of our children in devising methods for fixing
these sands again. The vegetable mould with which the kind forest had
covered the alluvial sands of the southern coast plain we are taking
pains to burn off in order to replace it with expensive artificial
fertilizers.

That the great flood of the Ohio, which cost the country more than
twenty million dollars, was entirely due to deforestation, I will
not assert; but it must have been considerably aggravated by the
accumulation of minor local floods, due to the well known reckless
clearing of the hill sides, which sent their waters down into the river
in torrents. At the season when the winter snows are melting, watch the
newspapers, and you will find an almost daily mention of the disastrous
ravages of brooks and streams, many of which injuries could have been
prevented by avoiding the creation of their distant and indirect cause.
Thus we may multiply examples all over the country, showing harmful
local influences upon agricultural conditions due to forest devastation.

That the vast stretches of land in the Northwest, from which the white
pine has been cut and burned off, present the aspect of a desolation
which sickens the heart, you may hear from every one who has seen these
deserts unnecessarily wrought by man. Every traveler in this country,
be it to the White Mountains, to the Adirondacks, along the Alleghany
Mountains, be it through the Rockies or the redwoods of California,
cannot but be startled by the desolate, sad aspect of many of these
once beautifully clad mountain crests.

And we are a nation hardly a hundred years old, with over thirty acres
per capita to spread ourselves upon. What will become of us when we
must live upon five acres per head? We are far enough advanced in our
recklessness of disregarding the indirect significance of forest areas
to have learned a lesson at home, and to feel the necessity of being
more careful in the utilization of the forest, so as not to lose its
protection for our agricultural and general interests.

The means for its solution I may only briefly indicate. They are
education, example, encouragement, legislation. Some of these are
of slow effect. Others can be made to give results at once. Let the
United States government, which still holds some seventy million acres
of the people’s land in forests, mostly on the Western mountains,
where its preservation is most urgently needed—let the government
set aside these otherwise valueless lands, and manage them as a
national forest domain, and then the first effective step, a feasible
and not a forcible one, is made. Let the military reservations on
the Western treeless plains, which are still in the hands of the
general government, be planted to forests and managed as such. This
would be no doubtful experiment, would interfere with nobody, would
enhance the value of the surrounding country—and education, example,
and encouragement are provided, as far as it is in the legitimate
province of the general government. And such example, instead of
costing anything to the country, can be made self‐sustaining—nay,
productive—and would add appreciably to the people’s wealth.—_B. E.
Fernow_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mortar containing sugar has been employed in building the new Natural
History Museum in Berlin, and has proved far superior to common mortar.
It sets almost with the firmness of a good cement, while mortar made
with molasses became soft and brittle after a time. In Madras a mortar
is used with which either sugar, butter or buttermilk, shellac and eggs
are mixed. It holds well and takes a marble‐like polish.



A RESIDENCE FOR $8,000.


The perspective and plans herewith presented are from the designs
of Mr. S. W. Whittemore, architect, East Orange, N J. The general
dimensions are: Front, 36 feet, exclusive of bay windows; side, 51
feet, exclusive of piazza and laundry. Height of stories: Cellar, 7
feet; first story, 10 feet; second story, 9 feet 6 in.; attic, 8 feet.

_Materials._—Foundation, stone; first and second stories, clapboards;
roof, shingles.

_Cost._—$8,000.

Fireplaces are provided in the dining room, library, parlor, and hall.
The attic is finished throughout. Cellar under the whole house except
laundry.

[Illustration: A RESIDENCE FOR $8,000.]

[Illustration: First Story Plan.]

[Illustration: Second Story Plan.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Bamboo Tree.


Writing from China, a correspondent says that the Chinese have
developed the culture of the bamboo tree very wonderfully. They can
produce a perfectly black as well as a yellow bamboo. The Emperor of
China has one officer whose duty is to look after his bamboo gardens.
This valuable tree is found in all tropical and sub‐tropical regions,
both in the eastern and western hemispheres. An attempt has been made
in England, and with some success, to raise a dwarf species found at
an altitude of 12,000 feet in the Himalaya mountains. The new world
furnishes bamboo of the greatest diameter. The stems are usually very
slender, but in the northwestern part of South America is found one
species with a diameter of 16 inches. The Chinese put this plant to a
greater variety of uses than any other people. Some kinds of it when
it first shoots up from the ground are used as a vegetable as we use
asparagus, or it can be pickled in vinegar or made into delicious
sweetmeats. The plant has to be 30 years old to blossom, and then it
bears a great profusion of seeds and dyes. These seeds may be used like
rice, and a kind of beer may be made from them. In 1812 severe famine
in portions of China was prevented by the sudden blossoming of a great
number of bamboo trees. The stems of all the varieties are remarkably
silicious. One kind found in Java is so hard that it strikes fire
when the hatchet is applied to it. This has only a very slender stem,
which is polished and used as stems for tobacco pipes. This Protean
tree furnishes material for houses, boats, cordage, sails of boats,
telescopes, aqueduct pipes, water‐proof thatching, clothing, water
wheels, fences, chairs, tables, book cases, boxes, hats, umbrellas,
shields, spears, and paper. The pith is used for lamp wicks, so there
is no part of it that cannot be used for something. From some of it
exquisite carvings inlaid with gold and silver are cut, that exceed
in beauty the ivory carvings for which the Chinese are so famed.
Recently it has been put to another use. Mr. Edison has found that
the carbonized fibers of the bamboo furnish the best material for the
incandescent electric lamp, and has made use of it in his system of
lighting. In Burmah and Siam whole cities are built from bamboo. These
houses are made in pieces, lashed together, and raised on posts several
feet high.—_The Lumber World_.



FIREPROOF STRUCTURES.


An article recently published by us apropos of the Opera Comique
catastrophe has brought us several interesting communications, and,
among them, one from Mr. Hennebique, one of the designers of the 948
foot Belgian tower. Mr. Hennebique has established the fact that
structures in which iron is used in the flooring do not arrest the
ravages of fire, but fall even more quickly than those in which wood is
employed.

In fact, the beams that support the ceiling joists, flooring,
and laths, naturally combustible materials, are raised to a high
temperature, and, becoming red hot, bend under their own weight, and at
the same time shove the walls outwardly.

The flooring of Mr. Hennebique’s invention, which is composed of a
cement made of coal ashes, plaster rubbish, and hydraulic lime, is
refractory enough to resist the heat developed by combustion.

As may be seen from the figure, this flooring consists of tubular
girders resting upon very simple metallic anchorages. These girders
are of the composition above described, and thus constitute a sort
of monolith upon which any sort of a floor can be laid—terra cotta,
marble, wood, etc.

Aside from its being nearly completely incombustible, this sort of
flooring presents a great advantage, from an economical standpoint, in
consequence of the rational utilization of the materials employed. It
is unnecessary to say that the metal is perfectly protected against
oxidation.

Another advantage of this flooring is that it almost entirely prevents
the propagation of sound.

[Illustration: =HENNEBIQUE’S FIREPROOF FLOORING.=]

As may be readily seen, this mode of construction is applicable to
different uses and to every possible sort of decoration, such as
cornices, compartment ceilings, girders of various styles, as well as
pillars, pilasters, columns, and supports of every shape and every
resistance.—_Chronique Industrielle_.



Construction of Chimney Flues.


In a letter to the _Insurance World_ Mr. Thomas Boyd, architect, of
Pittsburg, Pa., gives the following practical information:

I have had considerable experience in examining buildings burned by
fire, having been associated with my father for eleven years, and
during that time have examined hundreds of buildings destroyed by fire.
I have traced more fires to the cause of defective flues than to any
other source, and I could refer you to buildings, not only in this
city but in others, where fires have occurred from this cause, and the
insurance men and the public in general stated that the fire occurred
from “unknown causes,” as it was first seen many feet away from the
flues.

In seventy‐five cases in one hundred where fires occur from “unknown
causes,” it can be traced to defective brickwork. Ordinarily, an
architect specifies that the brickwork shall be well slushed, and that
the flues shall be well pargeted or plastered on the inside. This is
a great error, as no flues should be plastered on the inside, and no
walls having flues in them should be slushed, as the term is generally
understood.

The flues should in all cases be built smooth on the inside, and all
the joints should be filled full of mortar, the vertical joints as
well as the bed joints. The lining of the flue or the four inches
surrounding the flue should always be kept in advance of the brickwork,
and the brick adjoining the lining and the second and third brick, and
so on, should be shoved in soft mortar up against each other. This will
fill all the vertical joints from bottom to top as laid. The slushing
that is ordinarily put in from the top only goes down into the joint
about ½ inch, thus leaving an opening the entire length of the wall,
and in some cases an opening which a mouse could crawl through. As it
is only a question of time when all the plastering that can be put on
the inside of a flue will fall off, it will leave these vertical joints
between the bricks open into the flue, and as the joists cross through
these joints in the brickwork, fire is liable to take place ten or
twenty feet away from the flue. I have taken down many old buildings in
which these joints were filled with carbon or soot.

If the flues are built as above described, any competent builder
or architect can find out whether the mechanics doing the work are
slighting it or not; but if the inside of the flue is plastered or
lined with terra cotta or any other material, you cannot tell whether
the wall is properly built or not until this plastering falls off,
which it will in the course of a few years. Thus all buildings erected
with plastered flues are liable to burn at any time.

I have made a practice for a number of years of building flues without
lining them, and then when the house is built, or as each story is
erected, I put a dense smoke in the flue and close the opening at the
top. If there is a hole the size of an ordinary pin head, the smoke
will find it and penetrate into the interior of the wall adjoining the
flue.



Roadside Plantations of Trees in Belgium.


The roadside planting of trees is carried out on a most extensive
scale in Belgium, forming a marked feature in the landscape of that
country. According to the report of M. J. Houba, State Head Bailiff
or Ranger of Woods and Rivers in Belgium, recently published in the
_Revue Horticole_, the total length of the highroads of Belgium in 1881
amounted to 4,227 miles, classified, as regards tree planting, in the
following manner:

                                  =Miles.=
  Roads already planted            2,417

    „   still to be planted          264

    „   which cannot be planted    1,546
                                   —————
                                   4,227

From this it will appear that, at the date mentioned, more than half
the entire length of the Belgian highroads had been planted, and that
the proportion would soon reach two‐thirds.

The number of trees used in forming these plantations amounted
to 871,685, representing in 1881 a money value of £415,986, the
average cost of each tree when planted having been about 2s. 6d. The
plantations had therefore at this date increased in value to nearly
four times the amount of the capital originally expended upon them.

The trees principally employed in these roadside plantations (already
made) are: Elms, 371,621; oaks, 130,828; poplars, 80,853; ash,
73,893; beech, 32,970; maples, 27,755; service trees, 24,630; Norway
spruce, 43,767; larch, 41,699. It will be seen from this list that
coniferous trees are largely used in Belgium for roadside planting. On
the other hand, the report only gives 897 plane trees, 976 acacias,
and 672 cherry trees, apple trees, and pear trees, showing that
while the Belgian authorities fully recognize the great utility of
these roadside plantations in other respects, they especially aim
at the production of timber of good quality in a commercial point of
view.—_The Garden_.



An Egyptian Temple.


An Egyptian temple appears to have been one of the most imposing
assemblages of buildings that can be well conceived. Avenues lined
with hundreds of sphinxes on each side led the worshiper to the
sacred precinct for the distance of thousands of feet, and thus the
mind, even when remote from the vicinity of the temple, received an
impression calculated to excite veneration. This avenue was terminated
by a stupendous mass of pyramidal form, above 200 feet wide and about
80 feet high, whose enormous proportion was naught diminished by the
vastness of the plain in which it stands, nor by contrast with the
mountains that overhung it. In the center of this propyleum is a door,
flanked in advance by an obelisk on each side, about 90 feet high,
and beside which are figures of colossal dimensions, 45 feet high,
sitting as guardians of the sacred portal. The effect of the whole
is gigantic, and calculated to impress the coming worshiper with the
fullest notions of his insignificance in the scale of material nature.
The triumphal gateway being passed, a magnificent court meets the eyes
of the beholder, having on each side a colonnade. And this court led
to a densely columned hall or vestibule, under the shades of which
the crowds of Egypt’s sons and daughters reposed to recover from the
exhaustion and fatigue caused by their journey under a burning sun to
the fane of their creature god. And here the mind also dwelt awhile on
the first impressions produced by the contemplation of the overpowering
majesty of the gorgeous mass. For the huge propylea, which inclosed
either end of the court, and the hall, with its forest of clustered
columns, which the eye could not number, and the playful variety
and copiousness of channeled hieroglyphics which left not a space
uncovered, and the brilliancy of the pigment which gave an endless
variety to the shafts and capitals of the columns, to the beams, the
walls and ceilings, bewildered the attention, and left not a moment of
repose to the wondering stranger. A lofty central avenue of columns,
above 60 feet high, forming, as it were, a triumphal way, leads under
a third portal, of dimensions by no means inferior to the others
just mentioned, and marked with what care and with what sanctity the
priests guarded every approach to the inner parts of the temple. But
this gateway passed, and a scene the most sublime burst upon the view.
An ample peristyle much larger than the one already passed, presented
itself to the eye, probably planted with trees, crowded with metaphoric
statues.

On either hand a double avenue of columns, less for convenience than
dignity of effect. In the center uprose the portico of the mass of
building, that formed the temple itself—the columns in dimension
more lofty, in decoration more rich, in proportion more graceful than
those of the courts. The dynasties that had ruled over the country
up to the period of the erection of this temple have their histories
graven on the walls and on the columns. The same pyramidal form gives
an appearance of endless durability to the mass, which is surmounted
by an immense hollowed cavetto having the center occupied by the
sculptured form of the agatho demon, or winged globe and serpents,
with outstretched wings extending over the center intercolumniation of
the facade, and seemingly a being of another world. Admitted beneath
this porch, the minds of the worshipers are prepared for the gloomy
inner penetralia, where every object was mysterious and emblematic.
Numerous doorways closed by curtains succeeded each other, and led from
vestibule to vestibule, which hindered the eye from penetrating with
sacrilegious gaze into the inmost sanctuary, all access to it being
forbidden to the multitude.

To these vestibules the light of day was denied, and the mind was
subdued by the gloom of the spot, for the attention was absorbed by
the contemplation of the sacred mysteries of the place and by the
effects produced on the attention by the huge incongruous figures of
granite—monstrous reflections of the gloomy minds of the religious
inhabitants of the sacred precinct, who sought to deify matter and the
animal instincts.—_T. L. Donaldson._



The White Ash.


“About twenty years ago, Prof. J. L. Budd, of Ames, Iowa, advised
keeping the seeds of the ash through the winter in kegs or boxes, mixed
with clean moist sand, taking care that they become neither too wet
nor too dry. Freezing will do no harm. The ground should be marked and
prepared as for corn, and planting at the intersections, placing four
to six seeds in the hill. They should be carefully cultivated, and the
next spring thinned to one plant in each hill, the vacancies being
supplied. By planting thus thickly, the young trees get a straight
growth. At the end of six years every alternate row north and south
should be thinned out, and at the end of ten years every alternate tree
in each row. When twelve years old, on good soil and proper culture
the first four years the grove would have 12,000 trees on ten acres,
averaging eight inches in diameter. By cutting the stumps close to the
ground, and covering with a light furrow on each side, a second growth
is obtained in eight or ten years, more valuable than the first.”

Prof. C. S. Sargent, in speaking of this timber, says: “To develop
its best qualities, the white ash should be planted in a cool, deep,
moist, but well drained soil, where it will make a rapid growth. That
the plantation may be profitable as early as possible, the young trees
should be inserted in rows three feet apart, the plants being two feet
apart in the rows. This would give 7,260 plants to the acre, which
should be gradually thinned until 108 trees are left standing, twenty
feet apart each way. The first thinning, which might be made at the end
of ten years, would give 4,000 hoop poles, which at present price would
be worth $400.

“The remaining thinnings, made at different periods up to 25 or 30
years, would produce some three thousand trees more, worth at least
three times as much as the first thinnings. Such cutting would pay all
the expenses of planting, the care of plantation, and the interest
on the capital invested, and would leave the land covered with trees
capable of being turned into money at a moment’s notice, or whose value
would increase for a hundred years, making no mean inheritance for the
descendants of a Massachusetts farmer. The planting of the white ash
as a shade and roadside tree is especially recommended, and for that
purpose it ranks, among our native trees, next to the sugar maple.”

Prof. B. G. Northrop says in reference to this tree: “One of the
most valuable of our native trees is the white ash, and, all things
considered, it is one of the most profitable for planting. Combining
lightness, strength, toughness, elasticity, and beauty of grain in
a rare degree, it is in great and growing demand for farming tools,
furniture, interior finishing of houses and railroad cars, the
construction of carriages, for oars and pulley blocks, and many other
purposes. The excellence of our ash is one secret of the preference
given abroad to American agricultural implements. It is hardy, will
bear the bleakest exposure, is a rapid grower and attains large size,
but will not thrive on poor lands. It is every way superior to the
European ash, much as that has been cultivated and lauded abroad. It
is now found widely in the nurseries and young plantations attached
to the forest schools of Europe. Director General Adolfo di Beranger,
president of the Royal Instituto Forestale, at Vallombrosa, pointed me
to his plantations of _Fraxinus Americana_ with a tone which implied
that is the tree of which Americans may well be proud.

“The ash is a fine ornamental tree for private grounds, public parks,
or for the wayside. When planted closely for timber they grow straight
and free from low laterals, and early reach a size that makes the
thinnings valuable for poles and fencing.

“The seeds of the white ash are abundant, ripening by the first of
October. They may be easily gathered after the first frost. If sown in
the fall, they should be covered with three inches of straw. If to be
sown in the spring, the seed may be mixed with damp sand.”



Sawdust.


Sawdust has been a source of worry and expense to mill men in various
ways, though it is to be admitted that in utilizing it to some extent
as fuel they have in part solved the problem of its economical
disposition. Lately, there has sprung up a certain demand for it, and
the problem of its cheap shipment is now one that presents itself.
A Yankee inventor has tried baling it, and appears to have devised
a scheme that accomplishes the purpose successfully. He makes the
sawdust into bales, and has progressed so far as to be able to
compress thirty‐two cubic feet, or a quarter of a cord, into a package
three feet long by two feet on each of its sides. As this occupies
only twelve cubic feet, the reduction is sixty‐two and one‐half per
cent. of its original bulk. The machine used is nothing more than an
ordinary hydraulic press, which is arranged in a manner similar to a
hay or cotton press. The sawdust is pressed into bales and at the same
time inclosed in a burlap covering, making a neat and easily handled
package for shipment. Small pieces of wood, shavings, etc., may be
baled with the sawdust or separately with equal facility. It appears
a simple method of putting this bulky stuff in convenient shape for
shipment, and it would seem might be employed to advantage wherever a
market can be found for this species of mill refuse.—_The Timberman._

[Illustration: ORNAMENTAL KEYSTONES.]

[Illustration: ORNAMENTAL KEYSTONES.]

[Illustration: ORNAMENTAL KEYSTONES.]



DWELLINGS AT GLENRIDGE.


We illustrate a few of the tasteful residences which have been erected
at Glenridge, N. J., a charming suburb of New York City, situate on
the line of the Delaware and Lackawanna Railway. Glenridge is 14 miles
from New York, and the time required for the trip, including the ferry
across the Hudson River at New York, is about 40 minutes. The dwellings
we have chosen for illustration have been recently erected. They vary
in cost from $4,000 to $6,500 or more. We can supply on application
such further information as readers may desire.

[Illustration: GLENRIDGE.]

[Illustration: GLENRIDGE.]

[Illustration: GLENRIDGE.]

[Illustration: GLENRIDGE.]

[Illustration: GLENRIDGE.]



Fire Bricks.


Mr. W. Y. Dent, in a Cantor lecture at the Society of Arts, London, on
building materials, gave an account of some of the chemical problems
involved in the constituency of fire clay and fire bricks.

The plastic clays consist of silica and alumina chemically combined
with water. They are hydrated silicates of alumina, the plasticity
depending upon the water that enters into their composition. The
water with which the clay is chemically combined can be expelled at
a temperature a little above that of boiling, without detriment to
its plasticity, but the whole of the water contained cannot be driven
off without raising the temperature to dull redness. Silica, alumina,
and lime are separately very infusible substances, and are capable of
resisting exposure to very high temperatures without softening. It is
on account of its extreme infusibility that lime is found to be the
most suitable material for the cylinders upon which the oxyhydrogen
flame is made to impinge to produce a brilliant light, the intensity
of the light being due to the extremely high temperature to which
the lime is raised. Lime, however, from its want of cohesion, could
never be brought into general use for such purposes as fire clay is
employed, and this is also the case as regards silica, which requires
the addition of some substance of a basic character, with which it
will unite, and so cause the particles to bind together. The nearest
approach to the use of silica alone as a fire brick is in the case of
the Welsh brick, made from the Dinas rock in the Vale of Neath.

This material, before being made into fire bricks, had long been used
for repairing the furnaces at the copper works of South Wales, for
which purpose its peculiar property of expanding when subjected to
the influence of a high temperature, instead of contracting, as in
the case of some other fire clays, renders it particularly suitable,
the cementation of the bricks being facilitated by the increase of
temperature. This Dinas rock occurs in various conditions, from that of
a firm rock to that of disintegrated sand, and a mixture of about 1 per
cent. of lime is, therefore, necessary in order to make it into bricks.
Dinas bricks will stand very high temperatures, but are more friable
than ordinary fire bricks, and will not resist to the same extent the
action of basic substances, such as furnace slags, containing much
oxide of iron. They are, besides, porous and readily absorb moisture,
rendering it necessary for furnaces built of them to be gradually
heated, as they are liable to crack if sufficient time is not allowed
for driving off the moisture. The composition of the clay used for
fire bricks is a question of great importance, inasmuch as its quality
depends greatly upon its chemical constituents, although its power of
resisting fusion, when exposed to intense heat, is effected by its
mechanical condition.

The same materials, when mixed together in the form of a coarse powder,
will require a higher temperature to fuse them than would be the
case if they were reduced to a fine state of division. The qualities
required in fire bricks are that they should bear exposure to intense
heat for a long time without fusion, that they should be capable of
being subjected to sudden changes of temperature without injury, and
that they should be able to resist the action of melted copper or iron
slag. The Dinas brick, which contains 98 per cent. of silica, will bear
exposure to a higher temperature than most others, but it will run down
sooner when in contact with melted iron slag. Ganister is the name
given to a fine grit which occurs under certain coal beds in Yorkshire,
Derby, and South Wales, and the black ganister from the neighborhood
of Sheffield is especially adapted for lining cupola furnaces, owing
to its capacity to stand high temperatures without shrinking, in
consequence of the large quantity of silica it contains.

Fire bricks made of silicious clays from granitic deposits in various
parts of Devonshire also contain a large proportion of silica, but
their powers of supporting exposure to high temperatures are materially
increased by the coarseness of the particles of disintegrated granite
of which they are composed. The material employed for the Dinas
bricks, as well as the others mentioned, differs considerably in its
character from what is ordinarily understood by the term fire clay,
as used in the manufacture of the celebrated fire bricks of Blaydon
Burn, Stourbridge, or Glenboig; the quality of which, as regards their
chemical composition, depends upon the relative portions of silica and
alumina, and their freedom from iron oxide and alkaline salts, the
presence of which tends to render the clay more fusible.



Improvements in Making Portland Cement.


Clay is taken as dug from the pit, without being dried, and mixed with
the usual proportion of lime, a portion of which is used as limestone,
the remainder as freshly burnt lime. The burnt lime is first added in
such proportion that the water in the clay exactly suffices to slake
it, and the heat given out effects the necessary drying. The limestone
is then added and the mixture ground in a mill to the usual degree of
fineness, made into bricks, calcined, and the “clinker” reduced to a
fine state of division as usual.



Typhoid Fever Carried by Well Water.


The following account of the transmittal of cases of typhoid fever by
well water is sent us by Dr. Henry B. Baker, secretary of the Michigan
State Board of Health. It is made to him by Dr. H. McColl, of Lapeer,
Mich.

Dr. McColl reports: About September 1, 1887, Myron Gardner, railroad
employe, came from the South sick with fever to his father’s house. He
was supposed to be malarial. No care was exercised with stools in the
way of disinfection, but they were thrown into privy vault in rear of
house, and in close proximity to well. Wash water was thrown on the
surface of the ground, which was very dry at the time. About September
7 or 8, a copious rain fell and soaked the sandy soil; and on September
14, Wm. Gardner and wife, father and mother of Myron, and E. D. Gardner,
a brother (who was a student in my office), and who boarded at home,
were attacked with fever. On this day I got home from Washington, and
found four of them down with a severe type of typhoid fever; and in two
weeks Myron’s wife and child were attacked; also a child across the
street at Terry’s, who had used water from the Gardner well; about the
same time three cases in the Clifford house, south of Gardner’s, who
also used water from the Gardner well. None of the people from either
of these houses were in the Gardner house. In the Walker house, still
further south, one case has occurred, and I was at a loss to account
for this case till a few days ago, when the young man said that at the
mill where he was working they had used the Gardner water for a few
days, owing to the disarrangement of the pump at the mill. Two others
of the mill hands—Anderson and Lester—who used the same water were
attacked about the same time. Lester is now convalescent. Anderson is
dead, as also the child at Terry’s. When I took charge of the cases,
I ordered the discontinuance of water from the Gardner well and the
disinfection of the stools, and no new cases are now reported. People
who assisted to take care of the Gardner and other families, and who
use water from other sources, have not been attacked. Clearly, Myron
Gardner brought the fever home, the well became infected after the
first rain from slops and privy, and the other cases got their seed
from the water.

Dr. Baker adds: The foregoing instructive account of the way typhoid
fever was spread, in one instance, is produced in the hope that
it may lead others to trace the spread of this important disease,
and, what is of greater importance, act intelligently for the
prevention and restriction of the disease, as Dr. McColl did in this
instance.—_Sanitary News._



An Unsafe Church.


About a month ago, Inspector of Buildings Griffin discovered that the
wall on the southern side of the Warren Avenue Baptist Church, Boston,
Mass., was bulging. He climbed to the roof, and was astonished to find
that the scissors truss that supported the pitch of the roof was not
bolted together, but was fastened only with railroad spikes.

The wall was out of plumb fully nine inches. A peremptory order was
issued to vacate the church. Then a more careful examination was made,
with startling results.

The truss was laid bare, and then it was discovered that the sole
support for the roof of the great building consisted of three iron rods
one and one half inches in diameter.

The cross rods were of no use, because the wood had shrunk away and
the bolts could be rattled. The upper and lower chords of the truss
were made of eight two‐inch planks, and where the cross rods had been
put through and clinched the auger had cut off one plank and part of
another, weakening the truss by one‐eighth.

The lower chord of the truss was cut completely through in two places.
It is said that it will cost nearly $200,000 to repair the church,
which is one of the largest in the city.

It would not be a bad idea for the trustees of other churches to have
the trusses carefully examined.



Cedar Pavements.


To pave a city with cedar would seem to be a luxury, but it appears
that in the city of Chicago, out of 277.71 miles of paved streets,
there are 213.35 miles of cedar blocks, of which nearly forty miles
was laid last year, and the Chicago _Tribune_ says it is the cheapest
pavement laid in the city. Dead cedar brought from the vicinity of
Green Bay, Wis., was first used, but it was found that it did not wear
well, and live timber is now required. The cedar is a tree which does
not taper rapidly, and one of good size should furnish a stick 30 ft.
long. The logs are brought here by boats in lengths of about 6 ft.,
with the bark still on, peeled, and cut into blocks 5 in. long. The
blocks range in diameter from 3 in. to 9 in., and cost 50 to 60 cents
a yard, measurement being made after they are laid. The process of
paving a street with cedar blocks is much the same as was used with the
Nicholson pavement. A sand foundation is first provided, and on this
are laid boards which serve as stringers. On the stringers planks are
placed parallel with the curb, and the cedar blocks are stood on end on
the planks. The interstices between the blocks are filled with gravel
and coal tar.

For the last three years block pavement has cost in Chicago from $1.00
to $1.30 a yard. The life of cedar block pavement is three to seven
years, and it is an excellent pavement when first laid. It is believed
by many to be detrimental to health from the fact that it absorbs all
liquids falling upon it, gives them back in the shape of vapor under
the influence of the sun, and is itself constantly decaying. It is
stated as a curious fact that this pavement wears out faster on streets
where traffic is light than where it is heavy. Cedar blocks are used
for paving all through the West, but more freely probably in Chicago
than in any other city in the world. They are cheap, and that is a
great point in their favor.



Hemlock.


Respecting the merits of hemlock, the _Minneapolis Lumberman_ has
a good word in its last issue. It quotes from a correspondent at
Williamsport, Pa., regarding the experience with the wood there as a
foundation for paving blocks; and in regard to a stretch of Nicholson
pavement there which had been down sixteen years, goes on to say:

“The blocks had been placed on two thicknesses of one inch hemlock, the
boards coated both sides with coal tar. When the pavement was taken
up, the boards were found to be in good condition—so perfectly sound
that they were put back again for possibly another sixteen years. The
correspondent says that out of a mile of sixty foot street, less than
10,000 feet of the old planking was condemned. There seems to be no
question as to the superlative merit of hemlock for paving purposes.”

This is valuable testimony, and better evidence of the lasting
qualities of hemlock under paving blocks than any Western experience
has produced, for the reason that it has nowhere in the West been
so long as that in use. It has been recognized, however, as a wood
excellently suited to this purpose, and is employed almost exclusively
wherever the cedar block pavement is freely used, which includes a
good many of the large cities in the United States, and practically
all Western towns in which any paving is done. It is apparent that
lumbermen are beginning to take a strong interest in hemlock, and
evidences of its growth in favor are becoming rather plentiful. It
occasionally gets a setback from some local dealer, who has come off
second best in an encounter with its slivers, but it is bound to come
more and more in use in spite of the strong objection that is made to
it by some users. Its light weight and great strength for many building
purposes are factors that tell.—_Timberman._



Collapse of Walls of Burning Buildings.


Mr. Alex. Black, writing to the _Building News_, says: The expansion
of brick by fire heat may be estimated at rather above half that of
wrought iron; and of mortar at about one‐fourth more than that of
wrought iron. The mortar joints in the wall may occupy, say, one‐fifth
to one‐sixth of the height of the wall. There is no accurate data as
to the maximum heat developed at Whiteley’s fire. It, however, depends
on the nature of the contents, etc., consumed and the accumulation of
draught currents. If there is free lime, etc., in brick or mortar,
there is added to the expansion more or less disintegration, which
would become not the least potent cause of collapse.

We may assume that the interior surface of the brickwork exposed to
the fire expanded, say, 1 in. in 8 ft. or 10 ft., vertically and
horizontally, which would produce a distortion by buckling, or curving
inward, dish‐like, of the inside half thickness of the wall, both
vertically and horizontally, leaving for a time the outside half
thickness (say, for convenience of description) not much disturbed;
in the meanwhile, air gets in between these inside and outside half
thicknesses, or slices, and it may become gradually expanded by heat
and help to force them further apart until the whole wall collapses.

In setting iron girders, the usual practice appears to be to build the
ends solidly in the wall to act as a tie; but by having cross flanges
at ends the wall may be built close to these on inside toward interior
of building, and space left for expansion on their outside; but this
space is of no use without the ends of the girders are set upon rollers
or rockers, as is done for bridge girders, because the rigidity of wall
would not be sufficient to withstand undisturbed the expansive pushing
out, or horizontal thrust, of loaded girder end if resting upon a rough
bearing plate or block.

If building timber joists into walls, it is a safe method to bevel off
the upper corner equal to the bearing of the end in the wall, which
allows the projecting portion of joist, if broken accidentally, to drop
down without disturbing the wall, by the leverage which it would exert
if built in the wall in the usual way.



A $2,500 CALIFORNIA HOUSE.


California can justly boast of a larger number of pretty places and
picturesque localities in which to erect residences of moderate cost
than can be found in any other State in the Union. The beautiful town
of Alameda, covering, as it does, a large extent of ground, embracing
several square miles, may be regarded as a paradise for those who wish
a quiet retreat, away from the din and confusion of the city, and yet
be in close connection with the great mart. Nearly every portion of
the town is covered with a natural growth of oak trees. Nor does this
growth stop at this point. For a long distance to the north the ground
is covered by the beautiful trees from which the neighboring city of
Oakland derives its name.

Extremes meet in architecture as well as other matters. Some æsthetic
persons have sought to copy the humble abode of the laborer in the
external view of a dwelling, while the internal arrangements and
fittings rival those of Aladdin’s palace. Others seek to have the
outside present to the eye a conglomeration of whimsical ideas, while
they have not deigned to cover the floors with a carpet, nor have a
door between any of the rooms or halls, excepting those connecting with
the outer world.

Much benefit has been derived from these whimsical erections, and it
is only by much study and close application to the fancies of their
clients that architects have been enabled to prepare the beautiful
bijou plans, a good representation of which is given in this issue. In
justice to the architectural profession, we must say that no portion
of their practice has been so usefully bestowed as that which has been
bestowed upon the production of plans for such homes, a full plan of
which accompanies this article.

[Illustration: A CALIFORNIA HOUSE FOR $2,500.]

The elevation, as shown, is a model of neatness and economy. At once
attractive in appearance and substantial in all its surroundings, it
does away with all those horrible idiosyncrasies and bugbears of the
Elizabethan and Queen Anne styles. There are no small windows to cause
the one who cleans them to utter a whole vocabulary of cuss words at
the architect who made so many corners to dig out. There is no part of
California but what needs all the sunshine that was intended to enter a
room, and the large windows shown allow the heat and light to make glad
the hearts of the dwellers therein. Even with the thermometer at 100
degrees and over in the shade at noontime, still, when evening comes,
the cool winds that invariably bless the sleep of those who are tired
from their daily toil has easy ingress from these same large windows.
And in winter, from the absence of snow in all of our beautiful
valleys, the same windows are a source of joy and comfort for the
occupants to observe the driving rains, or admit the blessed sunshine
as it pierces through the wintry clouds.

Great care should be exercised in painting the exterior. The colors
selected should be a happy blending of light and dark shades. They
should be graded from rich, heavy grades at the bottom to the lighter
tones at the gable peaks, preserving, through the intermediate section,
a consistent harmony. The roof may be of dark slate color. The
trimmings may be colored with a combination of blue, black, and Indian
red. The body of the house may be varied to suit the above. It must be
distinctly borne in mind that all buildings of the same class cannot be
treated alike. Trees have a wonderful effect on colors used, and the
main study of the painter and owner should be that the salient points
of form and detail be enhanced by the proper selection of the various
colors. By all means, if you are building a home for yourself, take the
good wife into your confidence, and let her judgment be given on the
various colors to be used.

[Illustration: PLAN OF $2,500 CALIFORNIA HOUSE.]

[Illustration: SECTION OF DOOR JAMBS AND INSIDE FINISH.]

[Illustration: A CALIFORNIA HOUSE FOR $2,500.]

[Illustration: ROOF PLAN.]

[Illustration: SECTION & ELEVATION OF SIDE PORCH AND RAILING.]

The arrangement of the rooms, as shown by the plan, is very desirable
for any one with a small family. A feature is made of the entrance
way. From the hall, one can pass either to the parlor or dining room,
the latter being the general sitting room. The parlor is large—13
× 17 feet in size. It has a fireplace, as shown. A cornice is also
designated. Sliding doors connect this room with the dining room, the
size of the latter being 12 × 17¾ feet. A cornice and fireplace are
also shown. In case of company or family gathering, the two rooms will
be practically one. The porch shown in front will be very handy for the
gentlemen who smoke, or, on warm days the ladies can use the same for
sewing purposes, sheltered, as the plans show, by the roof overhead.

You pass from this room into a hall, from which you can enter all the
rest of the rooms. The main chamber is 12 feet 6 inches by 16 feet 6
inches, besides a large bay window, having four windows for light and
air. There is also a cornice in this room, and a place for a stove to
connect with parlor chimney. There is a very large closet, and also
wash room, which is well lighted and ventilated. Passing along the
hall, we next come to a large linen closet. This will be found very
serviceable for the storage of the linen in daily use. Then comes a
large chamber, 11 feet 6 inches by 12 feet. No cornice is shown. Should
a fire be needed in this room, a patent flue could be placed therein,
starting from near the ceiling. A large closet is also connected with
this room. At the end of the hall is the bath room, 6 feet 3 inches by
9 feet 6 inches. A wash bowl and water closet are shown. The window,
being directly over the tub, assures perfect ventilation.

On opposite side of hall from bath room is a room designated as
breakfast room, in size 10 × 11 feet, with two windows. This can be
used as a bed room, should the dining room suffice for the needs of
the occupants of the house. This room is very convenient, as it can be
reached by three different ways. The next room is the kitchen, in size
10 × 13 feet, with plenty of light and ample means of ventilation. The
place for the stove pipe is indicated by the dotted lines leading to
the dining room chimney. Should it be found more desirable to have the
stove in a different position from that indicated, a patent flue can be
put in, starting near the ceiling. A large pass closet, amply fitted
with drawers and shelves, connects with the dining room. There is also
a large pantry fitted up with bins, etc.

A stairway is shown, near breakfast room, leading to the attic. No plan
is given of the latter, as the space can be divided according to the
individual tastes of the parties building. The rear hall is 3 feet 6
inches wide.

The whole plan is very compact, and will bear careful study. The detail
drawings, as shown, will give an adequate idea of the various finishes.
Each one is distinctly marked.

We append a general set of specifications to aid those who may see fit
to adopt the design. Should any one want a complete set, we can forward
them a printed copy.


SPECIFICATIONS.

_Excavations._—All rock, dirt, etc., to be cleared away from site of
the building. Trenches for walls and piers to be extended down to firm
and solid ground. The bank to be dug well away from the walls, and the
same to be left open until the walls are well set and dry.

_Drains_.—To be of ironstone pipe, with cemented joints. The fall to
be not less than one‐fourth inch to one foot. No drains to be less than
sixteen inches from surface of ground.

_Brick Work_.—Hard, well burned brick to be used throughout. All brick
walls to be made level and straight to the proper and exact height, and
to a true line from one end to the other, even to the splitting of a
brick where necessary. Piers 12 × 12 inches. Turn trimmer arches for
the support of all hearths at the time chimneys are built. All sills to
be set in mortar after walls are proper height.

_Size of Timbers, etc._—Main sills, 6 × 8 inches; plates, 2 × 4;
studs, 2 × 4; underpinning, 4 × 6; joists, 2 × 10; ceiling joists,
2 × 4; rafters, 2 × 4; bridging, 2 × 3 and 2 × 4. Studs and joists
spaced 16 inches from center; rafters, 2 feet 8 inches from center;
underpinning 2 feet 8 inches from center. All timber below main sills
to be of redwood.

Roof to be sheathed with 1 × 6 Oregon pine, well nailed to every
rafter. Gutters arranged so as to carry off water wherever directed.

_Rustic_.—All laps and butt joints to be painted before being nailed
in position. Butt joints to have a 3 × 11 inch piece of tin to keep out
water.

_Outside Steps_ to be built upon strong stringers, inch risers of
redwood, and two inch treads of Oregon pine, with nosing and scotia.
The recess to front hall will be floored six inches below main floor,
with three inch Oregon pine, put together with white lead.

_Floors_.—Oregon pine, tongued and grooved, 4 inches wide, to be used
throughout the house. One tongue nail and one through nail to be driven
in each piece at each nailing.

_Grounds_ to be of ¾ in. Oregon pine at all openings.

_No inside finish to be put on until the last coat of plastering is on._

Face casings to be 6 inches wide and 1¼ inches thick, with suitable
plinths.

Sash beads to be fastened on with raised head screws.

All interior work to be hand‐smoothed and sand‐papered.

All carved or planted‐on work to be primed before putting up.

Bases in all rooms to be 10 inches wide, with 2 inch moulding.

_Wainscoting_.—Rear hall, kitchen, and breakfast room to be wainscoted
3 feet high, and capped with nosing and scotia. Bath room, 6 feet high
all around.

_Pantry and Pass Closet_ to be fitted up with shelves and hooks
complete, and bins and drawers as shown.

_Lathing_.—Good sound lath to be used, laid on not less than ⅜
of an inch apart. Joints broken over 8 laths. No lath to be put on
vertically, to finish out to corners or angles; neither must there
be any lath run through angles and behind studding from one room to
another. All angles to be formed and nailed solid by carpenter before
laths are put on.

_Plastering_.—All walls, partitions, and ceilings to be plastered one
coat of well haired mortar, made of best lime and clean, sharp sand,
free from loam and salt, using best cattle hair. To be made at least
eight days before using.

_Brown_ coat to be covered with a good coat of best white hard finish.
All plastering to extend to the floor. Center pieces where designated
on plans.

_Painting_.—All interior wood work to have three coats of best white
lead, in such tints as may be approved by the owner. Kitchen floor to
be oiled two coats.

_Gas Pipes_ to be introduced so as to give the number of lights shown
on plan.

_Plumbing_.—Water pipes to be of galvanized iron ¾ inch diameter.
No ½ inch pipe to be used. A 40 gallon galvanized iron boiler, with
necessary connections, to be placed in the kitchen. Sink to be of size
shown by drawing, to have 2 inch iron water pipe and a Garland trap;
3½ inch brass strainer; back of sink to be lined with zinc. Slop
hoppers to be placed as shown. Wash basins to be located as per plan,
and to have all necessary hot and cold water connections. Water from
all basins to discharge into an open slop hopper outside. Bath tub to
be lined with No. 12 zinc, to have a 1¼ inch waste, with Garland
trap. All necessary fixtures for bath tub to be placed in proper
position. The water closet to be Budde’s patent. Place safe trays under
all sinks, bath tub, wash basins, water closets, etc., with 2 inch
turned‐up edges, well nailed to wood work. Three‐fourths inch wastes.
All waste or soil pipes to be connected with the sewer, and extend the
same above basins, sinks, bath tub, water closets, etc., out through
the roof.

_Generally._—Drawings and specifications are intended to correspond,
and to be illustrative the one of the other. All drawings to be
furnished by the architect. Details to be given from time to time
as the work progresses. Should the necessity arise that any change
or changes be made from the original design, the owner shall have
the right so to do without invalidating the contract, adding to or
deducting from the contract price the agreed sum of any change made.


COST.

The above specifications are given as a general index of the work. No
accurate estimate can be given from them of the cost of the house.
Quality and price of hardware, etc., have been omitted, leaving same
to the pocket books of intending builders. As shown, with finishes
indicated by the details given, the house can be erected at a cost of
about $2,500. Of course this figure can be changed considerably. Using
the best of materials, etc., the price should be given at $3,000,
at which sum a truly cozy home can be obtained by those seeking a
permanent dwelling place.—_California Architect_.



The Architectural Era.


This is the title of a new monthly published at Syracuse, N. Y. It is
finely printed, handsomely illustrated, and full of interesting reading
matter. It forms a valuable addition to the architectural literature of
the day. The elegant style in which it is produced does honor to its
enterprising publishers, Messrs. D. Mason & Co. Three dollars a year,
twenty‐five cents per number.



Blue Marking Ink for Boxes, Bales, etc.


Mix a sufficient quantity of ultramarine with barytes (sulphate of
barium, blanc fix) and water to produce the desired tint. It may be
rendered more permanent by adding some liquid glue (solution of glue
in acetic acid) or some starch paste, prepared with the addition of a
little wax.—_Chem. and Drug._



CHATEAU AT CASTELNAUDARY.


The internal decoration of the structure represented in the
accompanying engravings is due to Mr. Arnaud, an architect at
Carcassonne. The front already existed in part, and merely the
finishing of it is due to him. As for the parlor and dining room, of
which we give an illustration, these two rooms, like the rest, were
studied with very artistic care by Mr. Arnaud, and the execution of the
work was closely watched.

[Illustration: CHATEAU OF CASTELNAUDARY—FRONT VIEW—M. AUBRY, ARCHITECT.]

The chimney that decorates the dining room is of Echaillon stone, and
was made at the works of Mr. G. Biron. It is 14 feet in height, and
cost, all carved, $1,400. The flooring of the rooms is of oak, of two
colors, and was put down by the house of Idrac, of Toulouse, which
makes a specialty of old oak inlaid floors. The color of the old oak,
introduced into the very substance of the wood, lasts an indefinite
length of time. The wainscoting of the dining room and that of the
parlor is of walnut, and forms a frame, in the case of the dining
room, for old tapestry. In the parlor the panels are covered with
large‐figured cretonne.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF CASTELNAUDARY CHATEAU.]

The ceilings are of plaster, with mouldings. To that of the dining
room are affixed, by invisible hooks, some old Japanese plates. These
produce a very happy effect in the ceiling as a whole, and in nowise
injure it. The ceilings are painted in softening tints, the principal
of which are red, blue and maroon. The dining room cost, as a whole,
$3,600, the old tapestry included. It is 24 × 30 feet, and the parlor
is 28 × 37 feet.—_La Construction Moderne_.



Nails.


A test has recently been made of the relative value of wire and cut
nails, with results quite at variance with generally received opinions.
This test, given below, is published in a circular issued to the nail
trade by the Wheeling nail manufacturers, and was made by a committee
appointed by the Wheeling manufacturers, who give the following result:

              Number of nails in    Pounds required to pull
                     pound.              nails out.

                 Cut.    Wire.        Cut.     Wire.

  20d             23       35        1,593      703
  10d             60       86          908      315
  8d              90      126          597      227
  6d             160      206          383      200
  4d             280      316          286      123

This test showed the relative value of a pound of each kind to be as
follows:

  1 lb. of 20d. cut nails equals 1·40 lb. of wire nails.
  1 lb. of 10d. cut nails equals 2·01 lb. of wire nails.
  1 lb. of 8d. cut nails equals 1·87 lb. of wire nails.
  1 lb. of 6d. cut nails equals 1·49 lb. of wire nails.
  1 lb. of 4d. cut nails equals 2·06 lb. of wire nails.

In obtaining the above results, two tests were made of the 8d. cut nail
and four of the 8d. wire nail; three tests each were made of the 6d.
and 4d. cut nails and 6d. and 4d. wire nails, and the average is shown.

The committee report as a result of their experiments that $1 worth of
cut nails will give the same service as $1.78 in wire nails, if at the
same price per pound.—_Building._



=Rabbit Remedy.=


A correspondent of the _Revue Horticole_ states that he has been
completely successful in saving both his vines and haricot beans from
being totally destroyed by the rabbits which swarm in this district by
using a remedy which he terms the “Bouillie bordelaise.” This consists
of a mixture of sulphate of copper (bluestone or blue vitriol) and
fresh slaked lime, in the proportion of 3¼ lb. of the former to
4½ lb. of quicklime in twenty‐one gallons of water. The bluestone
is first dissolved in a bucket of water, the quicklime is then slaked,
and when cool it is thrown along with the dissolved bluestone into a
barrel or other vessel of sufficient size; water is then added to make
up twenty‐one gallons, and the whole is well stirred up. The mixture is
conveniently applied with a whitewash brush, and in fine, dry weather
only should it be used. The object of the lime in the mixture is to
counteract any ill effects that the sulphate of copper or bluestone
might have on the vegetable tissues, and also to indicate that no part
of the stem or plant which it is intended to protect has been passed
over without receiving its proper share of the application.



How to Build an Ice House.


Under this head the _American Architect_ advises a correspondent as
follows:

1. The ice house floor should be above the level of the ground, or, at
least, should be sufficiently above some neighboring area to give an
outfall for a drain, put in in such a way as to keep the floor clear of
standing water.

2. The walls should be hollow. A four inch lining wall, tied to the
outer wall with hoop iron, and with a three inch air space, would
answer, but it would be better, if the air space is thoroughly drained,
to fill it with mineral wool, or some similar substance, to prevent
the movement of the air entangled in the fibers, and thus check the
transference by convection of heat from the outside to the lining wall.

3. A roof of thick plank will keep out heat far better than one of thin
boards with an air space under it.

4. Shingles will be much better for roofing than slate.

5. It is best to ventilate the upper portion of the building. If no
ventilation is provided, the confined air under the roof becomes
intensely heated in summer, and outlets should be provided at the
highest part, with inlets at convenient points, to keep the temperature
of the air over the ice at least down to that of the exterior
atmosphere.



In reply to inquiries from various correspondents we would say that
Messrs. Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, proprietors of this periodical, have
an extensive architectural bureau connected with their establishments,
and here, with the assistance of an able corps of architects,
they prepare, in the best and most prompt manner, designs, plans,
specifications, and details for all kinds of buildings, churches,
schools, stores, dwellings, etc. Hundreds of buildings in all parts of
the country have been erected from their plans. Messrs. Munn & Co. will
be pleased to furnish any information desired by readers relative to
any buildings illustrated in these pages.



Look to Your Drain Pipes and Wells.


The Rhode Island State board of health has completed its investigation
of the epidemic of typhoid fever at Conanicut park hotel, made last
summer.

At the opening of the season of 1887 trouble was experienced, but no
action was taken. Soon the people in the house began to be ill, and at
a time when all the rooms were taken and many more guests were to come
and occupy the cottage apartments. From the first symptoms, which were
not considered serious, the disease, which proved to be typhoid fever,
assumed a violent form, and Dr. Jernigan, on whose advice several
patients had come to the island, directed a practical plumber to make a
thorough examination of the premises.

The plumber discovered that the pipes leading from the water closets
had leaked into the cellar, and that from all appearances the leak
had existed from the first of the season. The sewage had run into the
well from which the water was drawn for general uses about the hotel.
Prior to the discovery of the contamination of the water, its sparkling
qualities had been praised by all the guests. The plumber also reported
that the ground near the well was saturated with the sewage, and that
when disturbed the earth emitted an overpowering and sickening stench.
From the cellar the investigation was continued to the well at the
north end of the house. It was dug quite recently, and the shaft had
been sunk through an old drain leading to a cesspool, and a portion of
the drain constituted a section of the well shaft.

The State board of health proposes to ask for an appropriation this
winter sufficient to pay for a careful examination of all the hotels
in the State, and the inspection and analysis of all waters used for
drinking purposes where there is liability of contamination.—_Sanitary
News_.



=Messrs. Munn & Co.=, in connection with the publication of the
=Scientific American=, continue to examine improvements, and to
act as Solicitors of Patents for Inventors.

In this line of business they have had _forty years’ experience_, and
have now _unequaled facilities_ for the preparation of Patent Drawings,
Specifications, and the prosecution of Applications for Patents in
the United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. =Messrs. Munn &
Co.= also attend to the preparation of Caveats, Copyrights for
Books, Labels, Reissues, Assignments, and Reports on Infringement of
Patents. All business intrusted to them is done with special care and
promptness, on very reasonable terms.

A pamphlet sent free of charge, on application, containing full
information about Patents and how to procure them; directions
concerning Labels, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reissues,
Infringements, Assignments, Rejected Cases, Hints on the Sale of
Patents, etc.

We also send, _free of charge_, a synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws,
showing the cost and method of securing patents in all the principal
countries of the world.

=MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents,=

361 Broadway, New York.

BRANCH OFFICE.—622 F Street, Washington, D. C.



=Arch Construction.=


Iron construction has so completely superseded masonry for bridge
building that it would appear almost unnecessary to discuss the
question of the equilibrated arch for any large span. But the
mathematical principles of the arch have always been an interesting
subject with geometricians and theorists, and the theory, at any rate,
ought to form one of the subjects of the architect’s and engineer’s
education. As a problem of the equilibrium of forces, the theory of
arch construction is instructive, inasmuch as it presents us with
a concrete example of three forces balanced in a structure. The
other day, at the opening of the engineering section of the Bristol
Naturalists’ Society, at University College, Bristol, the president,
Mr. Charles Richardson, C.E., read a paper on arch building, in which
he advocated the employment of arches of equilibrium for bridges. The
author referred to the well known and elegant property of the balanced
arch, which is derived from the principle of the catenary or suspended
chain or inverted polygon of bars, each bar or link assuming the
position (inverted) that the arch stones of an equilibrated arch would
have. In Dr. Hutton’s valuable “Tracts on Bridges,” this principle is
followed in his elucidation of the arch, and readers of that work will
remember the diagrams given of various kinds of balanced arches, and
the curves of extrados necessary to insure equilibrium. The theory,
indeed, is older than Hutton. Belidor and Dr. Hooke both investigated
the form of the extrados from the nature of the curve, and this theory
has been made the foundation of a very interesting system of designing
arches. According to this theory of the question, the stones are
considered free from all friction—a condition which does not hold in
practice. Mr. Richardson follows, as far as we can see, this theory.
He enunciated the theorem that the weight on any point of the arch is
proportional to the vertical line from the road line to the intrados at
that point; that the horizontal thrust is the same throughout the arch,
and is equal to the weight on the crown per unit of area multiplied by
the radius of curvature there; and also that the bed pressure at any
point is equal to the horizontal thrust multiplied by the secant of
the angle the curve makes with the horizon at that point. This rule
is thoroughly mathematical and true for arches of equilibrium; and
the author exhibited an instructive model of an arch equilibrated,
and showed by inverting it, and suspending a chain weighted by steel
rods representing the loads at each point, that the latter coincided
with the road line. But the engineer‐architect has to do with arches
in which the element of friction enters; the stones are cemented, and
therefore the theory, however beautiful, does not hold good in every
case. Instead of the separate arch stones or voussoirs, he has to
deal with segments of the arch which turn upon certain edges. Thus
an arch which fails breaks into four parts, the crown sinks, and the
haunches rise, the joints at those points opening. One of the questions
to decide is the points at which rupture occurs, that being found to
find out what horizontal pressure each of those lower segments have
to sustain. From knowing the thrust and its point of action, the
stability of the arch will depend on the mass and weight of the pier.
The experiments of Rondelet and others have proved that the voussoirs
unite into segments of the arch, and tend to overturn the abutment,
acting rather as levers than wedges. He found, also, that the greatest
thrust was in arches with an even number of voussoirs or a point at the
vertex; that a keystone lessened the thrust. Nevertheless, the theory
of equilibration should be known by all architects and bridge builders.

In alluding to the materials, the author showed the impossibility of
dressing and bedding stones accurately. Practically, the stone built
arch is difficult to execute with precision. The facing stones only
are cut to the true curve, the backing being filled in with rubble
and roughly executed. With brickwork the bricks can be all bedded in
cement, being more convenient for handling, and a vitrified brick is
equal at least to the best stone in resistance. The brick arch should
be built in vertical bond, not in rings. Mr. Richardson finds that,
taking the safe load in cement at 5 cwt. upon the square inch, an arch
15 in. thick at the springing and 12⅚ at the crown is sufficient
for a span of 85 feet with a rise of ⅛ of the span. He says: “As
all loads and thrusts on such an arch are in direct proportion, if
each dimension were multiplied by four, we should have a span of 340
feet with a rise of 42 feet and an arch thickness of 5 feet. This 5
feet thickness would give a sufficient margin of safety for the moving
load, because 5 feet is only the necessary thickness at the springing,
while that at the crown would be 9 in. less. The total weight of this
bridge would be 100,000 tons.” Ring‐built arches are advisedly objected
to, as the rings tend to separate when any settlement takes place.
Mr. Richardson does not rely too much on friction, and he is right.
There can be no scientific arch construction that is not based on the
principle of equilibrium, the line of thrust being kept within the
middle third of the arch thickness; and in designing arches of brick
or stone the engineer should always be able by diagram to satisfy
himself of this condition. Whenever the line of thrust passes close to
the lower edge of the arch ring at the haunches, there must be undue
pressure and a tendency to open at the other edge. In other words, the
arch is inclined to drop at the crown. When it passes out of the arch,
failure must take place sooner or later. Instead of first deciding upon
the curve and road line, as is frequently done, the right course is to
find the line of thrust for the given span and loading, and then make
the arch conform as nearly as possible to this line. We agree with the
opinion that brickwork, if correctly applied, would be found to excel
iron construction in strength, durability, and economy—certainly in
appearance. In the construction of masonry arches, sufficient care
is not always bestowed upon the drainage of the arches—a cause, we
imagine, of many failures.—_Building News._



GILBERT SHEFFIELD, a Warren County, N. Y., lumberman, is one
of the men who believes in using his men well, and in doing something
to relieve the tedium of life in the woods. He has 35 men employed
at Tahawus, in Essex County, and says that for the past two years it
has been his practice to furnish them with copies of the prominent
newspapers, so that when they left camp they were as well informed
regarding current events as when they went in.



=NEW FORM OF CHIMES FOR CHURCHES.=


A new form of chimes for churches is being introduced in England,
which are said to give much satisfaction. They consist of a series
of metallic tubes suspended from a beam, as shown in our engraving.
They are struck by hammers, are very resonant, loud, and pleasing. A
correspondent of the _Pall Mall Gazette_, speaking of their effect,
says: “The music of many tuneful bells, harmonious, ever changing,
lending themselves to any simple air, easy of management, and mellowed
as the sound of cathedral bells.... Such music I have heard at
Coventry.”



=Tube Chimes.=


The new invention which goes under the name of tube chimes is a musical
chime in which metal tubes instead of bells are employed. The tube
chimes can be used for any purpose that bells are used for, and besides
are an economical substitute for bells. They are remarkable also for
a depth and richness of tone which one does not expect to find except
in high class cathedral bells. A tube chime for a church belfry is
especially suitable. The carrying power is not quite equal to that of
bells. A chime was lately set up in the tower of one of the Dorsetshire
churches which has pleased all concerned. Rung for the first time on
occasion of the harvest festival, it caused both delight and surprise
by the sweet and melodious tones it gave out. The invention has not
long been brought under public notice, but the demand for household
octaves in place of the inharmonious gong is already very large. Mr.
Harrington has a taste for music, and the idea of adapting tubes of
metal for the musical purposes of bells is no new one. It has taken,
though, many years of experiment and study to perfect the principle.
One difficulty, which was a great obstacle in the way, may be alluded
to. The large chimes are rung by bell ropes, but, contrary to the
plan of bells, there is an external hammer instead of the internal
clapper. If the hammers were made of sufficient hardness to prevent
wear and tear, the chime lost its sweet tones and became harsh. If the
hammers were less hard, they would constantly require to be replaced.
Fortunately, that difficulty, like many others, has been satisfactorily
got over. The chimes can be, it should be noted, tuned to any desired
pitch, and Messrs. Harrington & Co. are probably warranted when they
say: “The introduction of this invention will, we are assured, mark
the commencement of a new era in connection with church bells and
carillons, chimes for clocks of all sizes, dinner calls and gongs, and
all mechanisms in which musical bells are used or required, and in some
of these departments bids fair to work a complete revolution.”—_The
Architect._

[Illustration: THE NEW TUBE CHIMES.]



MISS FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE’S HOME.


At the residence of Sir Harry Verney, Claydon House, Buckinghamshire,
a deputation from the Working Men’s Club of Whatstandwell, Derbyshire,
recently waited on Miss Florence Nightingale, for the purpose of
presenting to her an oil painting, by Mr. E. Crosland, of her late
home, Lea Hurst, as a token of their esteem, and in recognition of
the great interest taken by her in that institution. The deputation,
consisting of Mr. F. C. Iveson, Mr. Crosland, the artist, and Mr.
W. Peacock, assured Miss Nightingale of the love felt for her by
all classes of people at Whatstandwell and in that district, and of
their gratitude for her kindness and help in every good work. Miss
Nightingale, in thanking them for the present, which she admired very
much, expressed her continued great interest in the institution and its
members, and assured them of her hopes for its welfare. The deputation
were entertained at Claydon House by Sir Harry and Lady Verney. We are
permitted to copy the picture of Lea Hurst in our engraving, using a
photograph taken by Mr. J. Schmidt, of Belper.

[Illustration: LEA HURST, DERBYSHIRE, THE HOME OF MISS FLORENCE
NIGHTINGALE.]

Miss Florence Nightingale is a lady whose name has been deservedly
honored in England since the Crimean war and has become the symbol
of a particular type of personal efforts in the service of afflicted
humanity. She was born at Florence, in May, 1820, youngest daughter
and coheiress of W. E. Nightingale, Esq., of Lea Hurst, Derbyshire, and
Embley Park, Hampshire. She devoted her attention to the working of
schools for the poor, juvenile reformatories, and hospitals, inspecting
many such institutions on the Continent, and residing, in 1851, with
the Protestant Sisters of Mercy at Kaiserswerth, on the Rhine. She next
bestowed her care and gifts of her money on the London Governesses’
Sanatorium in Harley street. During the Crimean war, in 1854, when
the inefficient state of our military hospitals in the East demanded
instant reform, the hospital at Scutari, opposite Constantinople, was
established for the relief of sick and wounded British soldiers and
prisoners. It was resolved to form a select band of volunteer lady
superintendents and female nurses for this and other army hospitals.
At the request of the Secretary of State for the War Department,
Mr. Sidney Herbert, afterward Lord Herbert of Lea, Miss Nightingale
undertook the task of organizing and directing this service, which
she performed in a manner universally admired, and which earned her
the personal friendship of the Queen, with many public and private
expressions of gratitude and esteem. A testimonial fund amounting to
$250,000 was subscribed in recognition of her patriotic and benevolent
work, and was, at her special desire, applied to create and maintain an
institution for the training of nurses. Miss Nightingale’s impaired
health, for many years past, has debarred her from active public
exertions but she has continued to study the plans and operations of
those charitable agencies on which she is a high authority, and has
written brief treatises on subjects of much practical importance. Her
“Notes on Hospitals,” printed in 1859; “Notes on Nursing,” in 1860;
and “Notes on Lying‐in Institutions,” and on the training of midwives
and midwifery nurses, in 1871, were of considerable utility. She also
wrote, in 1863, valuable observations on the sanitary condition of
the army in India, and has furnished to the War Office useful reports
and suggestions concerning the army medical department.—_Illustrated
London News._



Painting.


In order to use paints and oils economically, a clear understanding of
their purpose and action is absolutely necessary. Linseed oil is said
to “dry” after being applied. That is only partially true. It rather
oxidizes and changes to a tough, gummy substance not unlike hard glue.
This action is accelerated by the use of “driers,” as they are called.
But in no case does it give the same results as when left to dry of
its own free will. The carbonate of lead or mineral which is added to
the oil gives the color and assists in making up the body. The life of
the paint is the oil, and when it is oxidized, it alone is the binding
element. Upon it depends the durability of the paint. A piece of wood
dipped in linseed oil and hung up to dry, or oxidize, in the air, will
soon become covered with a beautiful translucent film of oxidized oil,
which grows harder daily. It will take a high polish and preserve the
wood. Another piece dipped in carbonate of lead, or mineral, mixed in
turpentine, or any fluid to allow it to spread evenly over the surface,
will when dry have a dead or flat color without polish or body to
bind it together, and the slightest abrasion will remove portions of
it. All painting is done either with pure oils or with the admixture
of a fluid like turpentine, which assists in the distribution of the
mineral, but does not add to the body. When the surface of wood has
been covered with a thick coating of oxidized oil, it can be washed and
rubbed to look clean and polished. Boats, when of a light color, are
often painted with a mixture containing much turpentine, in order that
all marks may be removed with a little beach sand, by rubbing off the
mineral, which is not bound together securely by oil, but only loosely
by turpentine. Car builders now often paint their cars or varnish them
a second time soon after the first, say after about six months’ run.
This gives them a good coat of oxidized oil to withstand the weather
and preserve the wood. A few coats applied within short intervals
produce a fine covering which is very durable and will take a polish
after washing.—_Master Mechanic._



Removal of Chimneys.


An interesting scene was caused recently by the blowing up of the
two immense chimneys on Borsig’s machine works in Berlin. A large
number of spectators were present to witness the ceremony, including
several officers of the army, the trustees of the Borsig estates, and
the employes of the works. Punctually at five minutes past six P. M.,
the signal to “Look out!” was given; then came the word of command,
“Fire!” and at this moment the vast chimney, towering to a height of
say 120 feet 9 inches, quietly collapsed. The noise occasioned by the
fall was not very great, ditches two meters in breadth having been
dug all round the chimney and filled with straw. For blowing up this
colossus, which consisted of 98,000 bricks and was topped with a heavy
iron cap weighing twenty‐five centners, only 24 kilos of dynamite were
employed. Photographs were taken of the chimney before it fell, and
also as it was in the act of falling, by an officer of the Commission
for Experimenting with Explosives. The second chimney standing about
80 feet high, was blasted with gun cotton, of which 35 kilos were
required.



HOMES OF FACTORY OPERATIVES.


The institution of the factory system changed the workshop home of the
domestic system to the home proper by transferring work to the factory.
As a result, the homes of the operatives under the factory system have
undergone a great change, and are still undergoing changes, which are
making the English significance of the word “home” a reality to the
poorest. It is perfectly true that in every large factory town one can
find loathsome dwellings occupied by groups of persons called families.
In most factory towns, both in America and Europe, it is easy to find
dwellings occupied by factory operatives which are a disgrace to the
owners and the municipality. Yet, taking the operative population of
such towns as a class, they are very comfortably housed, and about as
well housed in one country as another. The personal inspection of more
than 1,000 homes of factory operatives leads Mr. Carroll D. Wright to
this conclusion, he having written a special report on the “Factory
System of the United States” for the Census Bureau.

British factory houses being floored with stone, as a rule, present
a cold and cheerless look. The dimensions of the British house are
much smaller than factory houses in America. The tenements of three
rooms have much less space than tenements of three rooms here. This is
generally true of all European factory towns. But the houses of the
operatives are, as a rule, separate ones, the tenement house being
quite unknown except where what is termed the “model workingmen’s
houses” are being tried. The boarding house is not an institution for
factory operatives.

[Illustration: OPERATIVE’S HOUSE AT WILLIMANTIC FACTORIES.]

At Saltaire, near Bradford, the homes of the work‐people are excellent;
rents vary from $30 to $100 per year for three to five room houses. The
houses are neat, tidy, and prettily furnished. At Queensbury, where
John Foster & Son have works, the weavers earn 15 to 18 shillings per
week full run, and the rents are 84 cents per week for three rooms.
Some of the best houses in England are at Copley village, in Halifax,
built by James Akroyd & Sons. They rent three rooms for £10 per year,
and the operatives are helped to acquire a freehold. The Crowleys
at Halifax employ 5,000 people, who have good houses. The houses at
Salford and Manchester are not so good. The factories at Paisley are
excellent evidences of the good influence which arises from proper
interest in employes. The works of the Messrs. Clark and Messrs. Coates
are model establishments and the influence of model works extends to
the houses of the people employed, which are here very comfortable.
Rents vary from 72 cents to $2 per week, according to number of rooms.

In Glasgow no cellarages can now be found. The operatives have gone
to the suburbs, where they have changed their cramped city abodes for
clean and light houses. Belfast, Ireland, is improving the dwellings of
the linen factory operatives. The houses are tidy, and rents are from
48 to 60 cents per week for four rooms. There are houses with flats
in Belfast. In the west and east of Scotland the operatives live very
largely in flats; rents in Dundee and Dunfermline being for two rooms
from $15 to $30 per year, and for three or four rooms from $30 to $50
per year.

Among the most substantial houses for workingmen will be found
those of Herr Krupp, in Essen, Rhenish Prussia. By his system of
employment he has the selection of the best mechanics in Europe. This
system comprehends all the advantages to be found in model industrial
establishments, including excellent tenements and gardens at low
rents. A foreman, a gun‐maker, earning $45 per month, receives four
rooms, a drying place on the roof, a cellar, and a garden for $45 per
year. A workman with wages at 75 cents per day pays $37 per year for
three large rooms, drying place, cellar, and garden. There are fair
tenements, in two or three story blocks, situated in colonies just
outside the towns. For $100 per year, one can obtain a most excellent
tenement of seven large rooms, cellar, garden, etc. The houses in
the colonies are owned by Herr Krupp. In fact, he believes that he
receives better results by owning everything, and by being able thereby
to control the sanitary surroundings of the dwellings of his people.
These colonies, each having its name, are laid out with park, schools,
churches, supply stores, etc. The housing of the single men is on the
barrack plan.

It may be stated that the houses in Great Britain and on the Continent
are of stone or brick, as the locality may afford, and the neat wood
cottage of America cannot be found. It is quite impossible to compare
the houses of European factory operatives with those of the same class
in America. The great mass of the former are, generally speaking, quite
as well housed as the latter, so far as the quality of the house is
concerned; but so far as quantity of room and excellence of living are
concerned, the advantage is with the operatives of America. When the
operative of this country steps out of the boarding or the tenement
house, he steps into an individual home the equal of which cannot be
found in the factory towns of the Old World.

The cottage of the American factory operative, when he sees fit to
occupy one, is superior to the cottage of the workingman of any other
country. It is most gratifying to know that the individual homes are
not only increasing in number in this country, but they are increasing
in influence. In all the leading factory towns this is the course of
progress.

The plates we give on this page represent one of the styles of modern
cottages built by the Willimantic Linen Co., of Willimantic, Conn. With
each cottage is quite a garden of several thousand feet of land. The
rent is from $60 to $125 per year. These houses are located in such a
way as to exhibit variety of styles; that is, two of like architecture
are never placed side by side. The company has a large number of these
houses occupied by operators and overseers. The cuts show the front and
side elevations, and the plans of the two floors. These are given as a
type of the detached workingmen’s homes used in this country.—_Min.
and Sci. Press_.



Gangways v. Staircases.


Mr. A. Lindsay Miller, in the _Building News_, recommends for theaters
and other public buildings the use of gangways instead of stairs.

In public works, especially dye works, they will not use the stairs,
but gain access to the several floors by gangways, with a rise of about
5 ft. in 12 ft. or 13 ft. of length, and any one watching the speed
and ease with which the workers run from floor to floor would at once
understand why staircases are not used. Of course, architecturally,
they have not the dignity of the staircase; but, in theaters and music
halls, dignity is secondary to security. The advantage of the gangway
is easily explained.

In going down a stair, each step, or, in a hurry, each second step,
must be taken, and the slightest mistake throws the person down. In a
stair 12 ft. long, at least six different steps require to be taken.
In the gangway of the same length, a person in a hurry, or in the
excitement of a panic, would take it in two bounds, and with perfect
safety.



ROBURITE—A NEW EXPLOSIVE.


A number of experiments were conducted lately at the works of Messrs.
Heenan & Froude, Manchester, with a new explosive, called “roburite,”
which is manufactured in Germany, and is about to be introduced into
this country for use in blasting operations. The composition and
process of manufacture of this explosive are kept secret, but we
understand that it consists of two non‐explosive and perfectly harmless
substances, of such a nature that they may be stored or transported
without special precautions or restrictions. These two substances may
be mixed together when required, and, in combination, become roburite,
a yellowish compound, which will bear rough handling with safety. We
understand that an intense heat is necessary to explode it. In order to
prove this, the explosive was placed, in the experiments in question,
between two plates, which were freely rubbed together and hammered;
and a small quantity thrown upon a fire was merely consumed, without
exploding.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

In order to obtain an idea of the explosive effectiveness of roburite,
eight ounces of the explosive were placed on a plate of the very best
steel, at the point marked A in Fig. 1, which shows the state of the
plate after the explosion. This plate was 3 ft. square by ½ in.
thick, and a bulge of about 1 ft. diam. and 3½ in. deep was caused
by the explosion. Twelve ounces of the explosive were then placed at
A (Fig. 2) on a cast iron plate, 6 in. thick, and weighing nearly
three tons. After the explosion the plate was found to be broken
transversely, in the manner shown in the engraving. Unlike dynamite,
roburite is said to be in no way affected by varying temperatures,
and if duly protected against damp, it may be kept for years in any
climate, without its efficiency becoming in any way impaired. It is
also claimed by the manufacturers that roburite has an explosive force
greater than dynamite by at least 25 per cent.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

In exploding, roburite does not produce noxious gases, and, therefore,
may be used without intermission, while the poisonous gases given off
by dynamite often necessitate the stoppage of work, in some cases
for a considerable time. This new explosive is applicable for use
in mines and quarries, and for torpedoes and blasting operations
generally.—_Industries_.



Iron Beams In Place of Wood.


Speaking of the large apartment house in New York lately condemned for
dry rot (see illustration last November number of this paper), the
_American Architect_ says: A few of the floors were of spruce, and
these, as might be expected, had resisted the rot much better than the
hemlock, and were still sound, but the construction ought certainly
to be changed. In view of the dangers from this source which attend
efforts to provide fire‐resisting floors of wood, it would seem that
something might be done with light shapes of rolled iron beams. We have
seen rolled floor beams used in Paris nearly as light as wooden ones
of the same depth, and a tier of these, deafened with mortar on wire
in the French manner, and wire‐lathed underneath, with a wooden floor
over, would cost little more than a solid mass of wooden beams, and
would be proof against rot as well as fire.



BATHING ESTABLISHMENT AND CASINO IN VITTEL (VOSGES). BUILT BY CHARLES
GARNIER, ARCHITECT, OF PARIS.


The casino is built of plastered quarry stone, with the exception of
the socle, the balustrades, and the pillars, which consist of gray
Vosges sandstone. The facade is ornamented with mosaics, and the roof
is covered with slate of two colors.

[Illustration: BATHING HOUSE AND SALOON AT VITTEL—CHARLES GARNIER,
ARCHITECT.]

The bathing establishment is colored in Moorish style. Red brick bands
in the socle, as well as the faience and mosaics in the main cornice,
stand out artistically from the gray plaster of the walls. The roof is
covered with red tiles.—_Architektonische Rundschau_.



The Back Yard.


Our immediate ancestors had their farm house, with its necessary
accompaniment of granaries, barn, etc. We move to town and build our
shingle palace or brick mansion, with its large front show window, in
which the well preserved, gilt edged family Bible and the Rogers group
have it which and t’other for supremacy—and set up in our back yard,
to represent the outbuildings of our ancestry, a privy, a pile of
slabwood, generally as dumped, a few barrels, perhaps a cheap stable.
Not then satisfied with the amount of decaying wood about the premises,
we lay a lot of wood walk.

Walking along the avenue, we see a pretentious residence. It must be
occupied by people of great refinement, for is not the most prominent
room in the house the library, the whole street side taken up with
an immense bay window, the glass reaching nearly to the floor? How
splendidly it was lighted as we passed last night! What elegant sets
of books on the shelves! Plenty of pictures, too. Let us to‐day take
a look at the back yard. Why do not these people board up the windows
at the back of the house? Here is a well with a dirty puddle by it,
the pump standing on a rotting platform; hard by some kitchen garbage,
farther on ashes, and so it goes, the whole rear of the lot so bad as
to discourage vegetable life even. It is mercifully screened in part
from the general view by a high, unpainted board fence, against which,
now and then, a weed or tuft of grass grows. Where is there better
field for the crusade?

The rear of the house and the outbuildings, though not so expensively
finished, have a right to be carefully and artistically done. A
woodshed is not a nuisance if inclosed, well boarded and painted, and
the wood kept inside. A privy has no right to exist. If there be no
proper system of drainage in the house for a water closet, partition
off an earth closet from the woodshed or stable. Tasteful, well cared
for outbuildings and fences are not only not an offense to the artistic
sense, but are rather pleasing, indicating thrift, tidiness, and
comfort. But when we consider the opportunities they offer for the
support of the vine morning glories, sweet peas, nasturtiums, climbing
roses, and like forms of plant life, what a joyous recompense for so
little labor and care. Then all the available back yard space that is
not used for walks, drives, etc., should give either vegetables or
flowers—minister to the comfort or culture of the family.

Listen to people who lament the bad influences of street associations
upon the children. Yet they say, very reasonably, the children must
have outdoor air, etc., and they have never considered but that the
only alternative from the housing of the children is the freedom of
the streets. They do not know what moral education is contained in a
few feet of ground, congenial work for the hands, and the prettiest of
life development studies for the mind. Give each of these street‐loving
children a flower bed, a small set of garden tools, some flower seeds,
and what help and advice they need, and note if there be not germs
of nobler thoughts and desires taking root at the same time in their
fertile natures. But—to moralize a little—there is a kinship between
the ornamented front and disgraceful rear of a residence and the
fine clothes and the false heart of the wearer, and we fear that the
majority of people who inhabit that sort of residence would rather risk
some contamination of their children’s characters than to see their
faces, hands, and clothes besmeared with Mother Earth.

The back yard of the future will be a bower of flowers and greenery and
the leisure hour resort of the family.—_N. W. Architect_.



Thomas Ustick Walter.


Thomas Ustick Walter died at his home, in Philadelphia, on October 30,
aged eighty‐four years. He had been for some years president of the
American Institute of Architects.

His first principal work was the new county prison, in 1831, now
generally known as “Moyamensing Jail.” In 1833 he made the original
designs for Girard College, and was sent to Europe by the building
committee of the institution. His tour through the principal countries
was made for the specific purpose of the study of the principal
buildings of the old world. Upon his return he took charge of the
college buildings, which were finished in 1847, in accordance with his
suggestions, when he was also made one of the directors of the college.

Mr. Walter’s next great public work was the break‐water at Laguayra
for the Venezuelan government. In 1851 his design for the extension
of the national capitol was adopted, and he was appointed government
architect. He removed to Washington, where he designed several
prominent public buildings, among them being the wing added to the
Patent Office in 1851, the reconstruction of the Congressional Library
building, which was destroyed by fire in 1851, the extensions of
the United States Treasury building in 1855, and the Post Office in
the same year, the dome of the national capitol, and the government
hospital for the insane.



Pine Woods.


The sights and sounds of pine woods, the comfort and delight of walking
in them, cannot be half told in a short paragraph. They are also as
sanitary as they are pleasing and beautiful. It is said that the air
of the Black Forest does more to revive and cure weakly patients than
gallons of medicine; and from experience of the odors of pines at
night, or in the early morning and dewy eve, I should say they were not
only antiseptic, but strengthening as a dose of quinine. The living
leaves, as well as the dead and slowly decomposing needles, redolent of
healing and strengthening odors, bring back the color to pale cheeks
and strength to semi‐exhausted constitutions.

The shelter of pine forests is also perfect. No matter how the wind
thunders and roars among the tops, calm prevails on the surface of
the ground. Just as the waves of the ocean are, after all, limited to
its surface while a perpetual calm rests on its deeper depths, so the
turmoil of the storm exhausts its force on the tops of the trees, while
the base of the boles are hardly moved by it. Hence the superlative
value of pines in masses for shelter. The shelter of a large pine
wood is unique in character, providing a local atmosphere as genial
as it is pleasant. The elasticity of the dead needles seems to get
into one’s spirits, and enables one for the nonce to bid adieu to the
cares and the ills of life. One saunters along under the shadow of
tall pines without fatigue, and can rest on the clean, sweet carpet of
dead needles and leaves with little fear of noxious weeds, insects,
or malaria; and the whole air is deodorized and charged to the full
with health‐giving properties by the odor‐distributing pines, that not
only provide warmth and shelter, but health, to all who walk under
or linger among them. Pine woods in England are mostly too small to
furnish to the full all these advantages; but the black forests of
Scotland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Russia are massive enough to
furnish shelter, shadow, rest, and health to those wise enough to seek
for either amid their grand trunks or under their dense, dark masses of
branches and leaves.—_The Garden_.



SKETCH FOR A COTTAGE.


We give from the _Architectural Era_ the floor plans and perspective
sketch for a cottage which presents a number of attractive features.
This house might be well built for $5,500, and perhaps less, depending
on the locality and style of interior finish.

[Illustration: SKETCH FOR A COTTAGE.]

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN.]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN.]



How We Have Grown.


When the history of the past seven years comes to be written, they
will stand as years of the most marvelous expansion ever known in our
history. Two of them, 1884 and 1885, were held as they passed to be
dull years, but even these included great growth, and were a period
of industrial readjustment rather than liquidation. The population of
this country has not increased more than a fourth since the census
of 1880, but house building, as an industry, has more than doubled,
the number of common brick made in this country having increased from
3,800,000,000 to 7,000,000,000, worth $49,000,000. As the lumber trade
has increased in less but large proportion, and iron production has
risen over one‐half from 4,300,000 tons in 1880 to 6,300,000 in 1886,
it is certain that the past seven years have seen the most active
building ever known in this country. Chicago uses one‐seventeenth of
the brick made in the country, and if its building represents the same
share of the cost of house erection of all sorts in the United States,
fully $2,000,000,000 have been spent on buildings in this country in
the last seven years. As about the same sum will be reached by adding
the building in the leading cities and estimating for the rest of the
country, the truth is probably not far from these figures, which are
under rather than over the mark. The railroad building since 1880 has
cost, at $50,000 a mile, $2,700,000,000. This makes $4,700,000,000, or
about one‐tenth of the national wealth in 1880, turned into railroads
and buildings in this country. As the residence and business real
estate of the country, including water power, was valued in the census
of 1880 at $9,881,000,000, and the railroads at $5,500,000,000, we
have added one‐half to the cost of the latter and one‐fifth to the
former in seven years, although the railroads represent the accumulated
construction of fifty years, and the buildings are spread over an even
longer period in their erection. This enormous increase has taken place
without adding a bale to the cotton to be carried or a bushel to the
grain raised. No more pork is produced now than in 1880, and the number
of sheep is no greater now than then. Great increase has been made
in cattle raised for food, in fruits, and, on the average, in canned
goods. Coal, taking bituminous and anthracite together, has increased
one‐half from 70,000,000 to 106,000,000 tons. Copper has advanced in
output from 27,009 tons in 1880 to 69,800 in 1886, and about the same
this year. A great advance is true of nearly all mineral products, but
in agriculture the United States has made little or no progress in
product in the last seven years, but a great advance in acreage or the
cost of cultivation.—_Philadelphia Press._



A Good Suggestion.


Charles Hardy, in the _National Builder_, says: Underestimating means
working for nothing and forcing others to do the same; it means
impoverishment and poor work. The contractor has himself and his family
to maintain, and the temptation is great to get out by doing poor work.
I would suggest that every contractor purchase an account book large
enough to enter, line by line, upon a single page, every item of his
estimate—giving quantity, price, and labor for each item. Let him
leave opposite to this page a blank page, on which he may enter, on the
corresponding line opposite, the actual amount of labor expended upon
the item, and he will thus be able to see the result of his contract.



A TOWER of VICTORY has been erected on the grounds of Washington’s
Headquarters, at Newburg, N. Y., at a cost of $35,000. It affords
beautiful views of the Hudson, the Highlands, and the surrounding
country.

[Illustration: A COTTAGE FOR $4,200.

[For description see page 140.]]

[Illustration: _1st Story Plan._]

[Illustration: _2nd Story Plan._]

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: A RESIDENCE FOR $5,000.

[For description see page 140.]]

[Illustration: _FIRST STORY PLAN._]

[Illustration: _SECOND STORY PLAN._]

       *       *       *       *       *



A $4,200 DWELLING.


We give a perspective view and plans of a neat dwelling, the general
dimensions of which are as follows:

Front, 29 ft. 6 in., exclusive of bay window; side, 48 ft. 9 in., not
including piazza.

Cellar, 7 ft.; first story, 9 ft. 6 in.; second story, 9 ft.; attic, 8
ft. See floor plans for dimensions of rooms.

_Materials._—Foundation, brick; first and second stories, clapboards;
gables, cut shingles; roof, slate.

_Cost._—Four thousand two hundred dollars, including furnace and
mantels.

[Illustration: A $4,200 DWELLING.]

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN.]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN.]

Fireplaces are provided in the dining room, parlor, and one bed room.
The attic has two bed rooms, front room, and hall. Cellar under the
whole house.



PROF. THOMAS, of Little Rock, has a curious library. The
covers of the books are of wood, each a different specimen. They are
made from white oak, red oak, black oak, chestnut, American beech,
birch, red cedar, yellow pine, pitch pine, willow, poplar, cypress,
“old field” or long‐leaved pine, bois d’arc, black walnut, hickory
(several varieties), white and red maple, box elder, black locust,
black sumac, water locust, coffee bean, wild plum, holly, basswood,
papaw, bay, umbrella, wild cherry, sweet gum, elm (several varieties),
sycamore, witch hazel, butternut, pecan, hickory, and twenty or more
other woods.



THE JOHN CROUSE MEMORIAL COLLEGE FOR WOMEN.


We take pleasure in presenting to our readers an illustration of
the John Crouse Memorial College for Women, which it is proposed to
erect on the hill west of the Hall of Languages, Syracuse University,
Syracuse, N. Y. This edifice is to be the gift of one of the wealthiest
and most prominent citizens of Syracuse, Mr. John Crouse. The donor of
this magnificent gift well deserves to be held in grateful remembrance
by every friend and well wisher of the Syracuse University, as well
as by the students and faculty. It is proposed to make this building
a model one in every respect, and neither pains nor money are to be
spared to render it the most perfectly equipped college to be found in
the country. The structure is to be five stories in height, to be built
of East Long Meadow brownstone, and to cover an area of nearly two
hundred feet square.

In this connection a brief historical sketch of Syracuse University may
interest our readers.

The college now known as Syracuse University had its origin in Lima,
a pretty little village in Western New York, but quite out of the
way, and not easy of access. It was then called Genesee College,
and the first gathering of faculty and students occurred on Monday,
June 9, 1851. The faculty consisted of Benjamin F. Tefft, D.D. LL.D.
and Professors Houghton, Douglass, Whitlock, and Alverson. On June
12 of same year, the Rev. B. F. Tefft was inaugurated president of
Genesee College, and on July 10 the names of thirty‐eight students
were enrolled on the college register. November 5 saw the faculty
increased by the addition of Professors Hoyt and Fowler. The college
thus organized continued with varying fortunes until July 7, 1871, when
it disbanded. In 1866 the subject of removing the college from Lima
began to be agitated, and the idea of a central university for the
Methodism of New York was first publicly announced in the _Northern
Christian Advocate_, during the year 1873. From this time forth the
new enterprise met with great favor on all sides, except with the
citizens of Lima, who were reluctant to see the withdrawal from their
midst of their principal attraction, to which we may well believe they
had become greatly attached, and who procured an injunction against
its removal. Prominent members of the Methodist Central Conference
were nevertheless commissioned to carry forward the good work, and
substantial aid was soon forthcoming. Syracuse, being the most central
city in the State, was finally settled upon as the most appropriate
home for the new college.

[Illustration: ARCHIMEDES RUSSELL, Architect, Syracuse, N. Y.]

The site now known as University Hill was secured, plans made by the
well known architect, H. N. White, were adopted, and July 19, 1871,
the contract for building the Hall of Languages was let for the sum
of $136,000, and Syracuse University became an assured fact. The
corner stone of the Hall of Languages was laid on August 31, with
impressive ceremonies, and the faculty of the College of Liberal
Arts was inaugurated. On September 1 the college opened in the Myers
block, which had been secured for the use of the university, and here
the sessions were held until May 1, 1873, when the Hall of Languages
being completed, it was on that date occupied for the first time.
During the year 1871 the plan for a medical college in connection
with the university was adopted, and its first commencement exercises
were held February 12, 1873. When the Hall of Languages was erected,
other buildings were contemplated at such time as the finances of
the university should admit of their realization. The institution
has struggled along, sometimes meeting with reverses, but now and
then being fortified and strengthened by the reception of substantial
encouragement from some of its many and devoted friends. Now at last
the wheel of fortune has suddenly turned in its favor, and it finds
itself at the flood tide of prosperity, with the prospect before it of
a long and honorable course of usefulness and well deserved success.
University Hill commands a magnificent view of the belt of hills which
girdle the city, with Onondaga Lake set like a sparkling gem in the
distance. Upon the west hill an observatory has just been erected,
and near the Hall of Languages a suitable building is in process of
erection, for the accommodation of the fine and valuable library which
has been generously bestowed upon it by one of its friends. Syracusans
are proud of the University, and they, in common with its hosts of warm
friends throughout all parts of the country, rejoice in the evidence of
its well merited prosperity.

The alumni of Syracuse University have members not only in almost
every State in the Union, but count among their number graduates
from Canada, England, Mexico, San Domingo, Brazil, China, India, and
Japan.—_Architectural Era_.



How a Marble Statue is Made.


Mr. John A. P. Macbride, sculptor, who was introduced to a large
audience, chiefly of workingmen, by Sir James Picton, recently gave a
practical lecture on the above subject, at the Rotunda lecture hall,
Liverpool. After giving a sketch of the art and its great antiquity,
the lecturer drew a profile in chalk on the blackboard, which he filled
in with clay, and proceeded to demonstrate the building up and modeling
of a portrait bust of soft clay. He stated that there was a general
and erroneous opinion that in taking a portrait bust it was necessary
to take a cast of the face. This was a mistake, for the head lost all
the spirit and go by such a mechanical process that should distinguish
an artist’s work. The truth was not always that which appeared to be
true, and the sculptor had to convey some idea of the character as well
as of the mind of the sitter; and a man who knew his work ought to be
able to do so with his fingers. Carving was a secondary consideration.
The lecturer then explained the process of pointing a marble statue.
In this process, the model and the block of marble were each fixed on
a base called a scale stone, to which a standard vertical rod could be
attached at corresponding centers, having at its upper end a sliding
needle, so adapted by a movable joint as to be set at any angle and
fastened by a screw when set. The sculptor having marked the governing
points with a pencil on the model, the instrument was applied to these,
and the measure taken. The standard being then transferred to the block
base, the pointer, guided by this measure, cuts away the marble, taking
care to leave it rather larger than the model, so that the general
proportions were kept, and the more important work then left for the
sculptor’s hand.—_Building News._



About 5,500 buildings have been rebuilt and improved in Charleston,
S. C., in the year since the earthquake, and 270 new buildings have
been erected. This has been a busy year with mechanics and builders at
Charleston, and about $3,500,000 has been expended in this work.



A STABLE COSTING $5,500.


We present herewith front and rear perspectives, with plans, for a
handsome stable now being erected in Brooklyn, N. Y., from designs and
plans prepared at the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN office. The general
dimensions are: Front, 40 feet; side, 25 feet. Height of stories: First
story, 11 feet: 5 feet breastwork in second story.

[Illustration: A STABLE COSTING $5,500—FRONT VIEW.]

[Illustration: A STABLE COSTING $5,500—REAR VIEW.]

[Illustration: FIRST FLOOR PLAN.]

[Illustration: SECOND FLOOR PLAN.]

_Materials._—Foundation, stone; water table, red granite; outside
walls, red pressed brick; trimmings, buff brick; tower and gables,
shingles; roof, black and red slate; inside wall finish, enameled
brick; ceilings and stable work, Georgia pine; cellar under carriage
room. Cost, $5,500.

_Special Features._—Space for six carriages in carriage room;
accommodation for four horses; ample ventilation and light; stable
connected by sliding door. Both floors are laid with 2 inch Georgia
pine plank.



A Great Building.


Mr. J. L. Smithmeyer, architect of the Congressional Library building,
states in his first annual report that the Congressional Library
building when completed will be the largest structure in Washington,
with the exception of the Capitol. It will cover 111,000 square feet of
space.

In a building of such magnitude and importance, every step in the
progress of the work must be carefully considered, lest fatal mistakes,
due to hasty construction, should occur. It was deemed of the utmost
importance to test every foot of ground supporting the foundation
walls. For this purpose a traveling testing machine was constructed,
which will give an accurate test of the entire soil. The tests thus far
made have been most satisfactory, the soil standing a maximum pressure
of 13·5 tons to the square foot, only 2·5 tons being required. These
tests will be continued until the foundations are laid.

The method of testing the soil and putting in the concrete foundations
may be briefly described as follows: First, the trench excavations are
made by the contractor to the width and depth required by the plans,
the bottom of the trenches being made perfectly level. Then the testing
machine, consisting of a car bearing the required amount of weight in
pig lead for making the tests, is placed in the trenches upon iron
rails, which rest upon four cast iron pedestals, the latter being set
four feet apart each way, each pedestal covering one foot of ground.
Thus, one‐fourth of the entire weight borne by the car rests upon
each one of the pedestals, and the precise weight sustained by each
square foot of ground is exactly determined. The soil being thus tested
as to its resisting strength, is then ready to receive the concrete
foundations.



A COTTAGE FOR $4,200.


We give on page 136 a perspective view and floor plans of a cottage
costing $4,200. The general dimensions are:

Front, 32 ft.; side, 39 ft. 2 in., exclusive of bay window and butler’s
pantry. The size of rooms will be seen by reference to the floor plans.

The height of stories is as follows: Cellar, 7 ft.; first story, 9 ft.
6 in.; second story, 9 ft.; attic, 8 ft.

_Materials._—Foundation, stone; first and second stories, clapboarded;
gables, cut shingles; roof, slate.

_Cost._—Four thousand two hundred dollars, including furnace and
mantels.

This house is designed to be heated by a furnace. There are fireplaces
in the dining room and in one front bed room. The attic has two bed
rooms and hall finished, and garret. Cellar under the whole house.



A RESIDENCE FOR $5,000.


The house illustrated on page 137 has the following general dimensions:

Front, 31 ft. 6 in., including bay window; side, 43 ft., including bay
window.

Cellar, 7 ft.; first story, 10 ft.; second story, 9 ft. 6 in.; attic, 8
ft. The floor plans show the sizes of the rooms.

_Materials._—Foundation, stone; first and second stories, clapboards;
gables, cut shingles; roof, slate.

_Cost._—Five thousand dollars, without heater and mantels.

It may be heated by a furnace. There are fireplaces in the dining room
and in one chamber. The attic has two chambers and hall finished.
Cellar under the whole house. Water closet off the laundry, and private
stairs from kitchen to platform of main staircase.



Proportions of Rooms.


There are few objects connected with our art that have been more
frequently dwelt on by those who have undertaken to be our guides and
monitors than the right proportions to be given to rooms. Vitruvius
led the way, and subsequent theorizers have laid down, sometimes very
dogmatically, their views of just proportions. I find, however, in the
actual practice of the ablest men such extreme diversity, and I observe
pleasing effects producible by the adoption of such widely different
proportions, that I find myself, I confess, much inclined to be
somewhat incredulous of all these theories. Certainly if beauty could
be thus reduced to a formula, and the proper relation indisputably
established between the length, breadth, and height of every room,
a royal road would be cleared for us, which would be at least very
convenient both to those who teach and to those who learn. I fear I
can scarcely hope to furnish you with such a desirable help in your
studies. I find rooms of universally admitted beauty, yet of almost
every geometrical figure. I have heard of the room in the museum of
Florence, the Tribune it is called, which contains the Venus di Medici,
spoken of in terms of rapturous approval for the beauty of its form
and proportions. This saloon is an equilateral octagon on plan. I have
known square rooms greatly admired—such, for example, as the saloon in
Cobham Hall, which is usually pointed to as one of the _chefs‐d’œuvre_
of Inigo Jones. Who is there that is not charmed with the proportions
of the Pantheon at Rome? This, you know, is circular. The classical
teacher of our art, Vitruvius, seems to contemplate only rectangular
forms, and directs us to adapt the double cube and the cube and a half,
whether for a temple or a triclinium.

The Sistine Chapel, attached to the Papal Palace, upon which the best
art of Italy in its best days was expended, is a triple cube, viz.,
133 by 44. While of modern French, Italian, and English teachers, each
seems to have his own special favorite proportion. The truth I believe
to be that, so bounteously have we been endowed, and so liberally have
the laws of beauty in form and proportion been framed, there exists
in fact an endless variety of beautiful forms and proportions. My
impression is that it is as little consistent with truth to lay down
any one definite form or proportion as the best as it is to extol any
one particular curve as the line of beauty. I believe that there are as
many pleasing proportions to be given to rooms as there are pleasing
harmonies of color and sound. The purpose of a room must always be an
important guide in determining the form and proportions to be given
to it. If planned so long in proportion to its width as to remind us
of a passage, it loses its distinctive character, and creates a false
impression, which it can never be good art to do. It is indeed obvious
that a consideration of the special fitness of a room for its destined
uses must always greatly influence its proportions. The octagon form,
so much affected by our ancestors in planning their chapter houses,
owes its origin probably far more to the propriety of that form for a
chamber intended for the convenient assemblage of the members of the
chapter sitting in council than to any intrinsic architectural beauty,
however unquestionable that beauty may be.—_S. Smirke._



The _Firemen’s Herald_ says fire protection, like charity, should begin
at home. However efficient may be the public service against fire, a
single bucket of water properly administered may stop a fire that all
the efforts of the brigade would be unable to quench, and besides, the
jet of a powerful engine is as destructive in its way as fire to all
perishable articles within a room, such as furniture, pictures, and
bric‐a‐brac.



Plants for Room Decoration.


The universal custom now prevailing in most establishments of having a
few plants in addition to cut flowers dotted about the different rooms
induces me to write a short paper thereon, not only because it has
developed into a very important part of the gardener’s work, but it
likewise requires a fair share of taste in the arrangements, as well as
suitable plants for the purpose. Generally speaking, each room being
differently furnished will require a different class of plants for
its adornment, but, as a rule, plants with stiff, upright growth are
objectionable to the eye, as they do not hide the pot or stems unless
others of a dwarfer growth are associated with them; therefore they
should only be used when possessing special features either in flower
or foliage. Too many plants in a room are objectionable, because they
detract from rather than elevate or enhance the effect, especially if
the room is elaborately furnished. For instance, plants assigned to the
front hall or corridor would be unsuitable in a drawing room or boudoir.

Another important matter to study is the various kinds of receptacles
provided for the use of plants. These vary in size and shape greatly,
but are generally of a fanciful, elaborate, and artistic design, and
the plants for these should be selected with the greatest care and
taste, so as to add a completeness and finish, and in no way hide or
diminish the effect of their appearance. I have often found, however,
a great difficulty in getting plants to go in them without taking
them out of the pots, and in many cases I have found it necessary to
reduce the ball of roots in order to fit the latter in properly. This
quite ruins the plant, for, in the case of choice or delicate growing
subjects, it is almost impossible for them to recover. But in order to
meet this difficulty, it is advisable to make a selection of plants,
grow them in suitable sized pots, and use them for no other purpose.
To do this it requires a sufficient number for three changes; say, if
twenty plants are required at one time, sixty should be grown, and
duplicates of all to be grown to follow on.

The atmosphere of rooms is generally dry, though warm, and impregnated
with gas and other enemies to plant life. So different is all this to
the healthy atmosphere of a plant house, that it is necessary that
every plant used should have completed its growth, or some injury will
follow. Take the different varieties of adiantums, for instance. If
used for the decoration of rooms in a growing state, the young fronds
would most certainly be injured; yet, when properly prepared, there
are no more popular or suitable plants for the purpose, and they can
be grown to a useful size in small pots. Nephrolepis exaltata, though
not so choice as others, is a most handsome fern to use. Its long and
gracefully drooping fronds are an ornament in any position, while many
of the Pteris family have a fine and graceful appearance, and may be
used freely. Nice plants of Spiræa japonica with or without flowers are
very ornamental. The different sorts of lycopods make perfect plants
for small vases, as also do the artillery plant (Pilea muscosa) and
the little Caladium argyrites. In fact, there is no lack of either
foliage or flowering plants suitable for a tasteful arrangement either
in a drawing room or boudoir, while for more commodious places, such
as the entrance hall, corridor, or staircase, and where larger plants
are admissible, there is the beautiful Caladium esculentum, with noble
foliage and which stands well, several sorts of palms, the larger
fronded ferns, curculigo, Ficus elastica, Hibbertia volubilis, and the
calla or Ethiopian lily, all of which have a reputation for retaining
their beauty better than many others, and therefore should be grown
for the purpose. But to avoid as little injury as possible, frequent
changes are necessary, and it is a very good rule to water every
plant well before it is used, and when it again needs water change it
for another. Let all pots and plants be kept very clean, and avoid
letting the plants remain long enough to make growth in the different
positions, for such growth, when brought out to the light, is generally
very weak.—_Thomas Record, The Garden._



THE WAINWRIGHT HORIZONTAL FEED‐WATER HEATER.


We illustrate herewith the Wainwright Horizontal Feed‐Water Heater,
adapted for use in a horizontal position under the floor of an engine
room, or where the head room is limited. The feed water enters at the
lower opening marked “feed,” fills the body of the heater, and having
been heated by the exhaust steam surrounding the tubes, passes to the
boiler at upper opening marked “feed,” the exhaust entering at either
end. A drip pipe, as shown, is provided for escape of the water of
condensation, and a hand hole for washing and cleaning. It will be
seen that this heater contains a large body of water well disposed to
receive heat, the tubes, being of corrugated copper, present 50 per
cent. increased heating surface over plain tubes of the same length,
while at the same time five times the strength is added, and owing to
their property of expansion and contraction, all danger of the ends
pulling out or the joints working and leaking is eliminated. This
property of expansion and contraction also prevents any accumulation of
scale and sediment.

[Illustration: HORIZONTAL FEED‐WATER HEATER.]

These heaters are manufactured by The Wainwright Mfg. Co., 65 Oliver
St., Boston.



The Charter Gas and Gasoline Engine.


This gas engine, manufactured by the Williams & Orton Manufacturing
Company, of Sterling, Illinois, possesses various features that must
commend it to the attention of all interested in the production of
power from gas. It is characterized by great simplicity, having no
gearing, so that it is practically noiseless. It has a power and a
supply cylinder, one placed over the other, and each working or worked
by its own crank. An impulse is given at every revolution of the wheel,
and by the governing device the amount of gas consumed is regulated in
proportion to the work done. The ignition valve is easily accessible,
and needs no adjustment on starting the engine. It can be used either
for gas or gasoline. For the latter, a few drops are aspirated at each
stroke into the cylinder, where mingling with the air they form the
mixture for ignition. The gasoline can be kept in a tank outside the
building, and is subjected to no contact with the flame until it has
been thoroughly vaporized and has entered the working cylinder.



AN IMPROVED DOUBLE SURFACE PLANER.


[Illustration: GLEASON’S DOUBLE SURFACE PLANER.]

A four‐roll machine that is simple and durable, and all geared with
the most improved extension gearing, is shown in the accompanying
illustration, as made by Messrs. E. & F. Gleason, manufacturers
of improved wood tools, American Street and Susquehanna Avenue,
Philadelphia, Pa. Both heads are driven with one counter, and only two
belts are required, the adjustment of bed and control of feed being
both on left‐hand side of machine, at B C, within immediate reach
of the operator. The bottom head is quite as easy of adjustment as
the top head, having large screws, F, one at each box, to regulate
cut or chip and keep it in line with bed and top head, both heads
having self‐oiling boxes. The machine will double‐surface stuff from
one‐eighth inch to six inches in thickness. It occupies a floor space
of about four feet by forty inches. The counter shaft has patent
self‐oiling hangers and patent self‐oiling loose pulleys.



Foundations in Wet Ground.


A new method of making foundations in wet ground has been devised by M.
Bonnetond, a French military engineer. His plan is to bore a hole 10
ft. or 12 ft. deep and 1½ ft. in diameter in the damp ground, and in
this a series of dynamite cartridges are placed, and finally exploded.
The expansion of the gases generated drives the water far out beyond
the sides of the hole, into which it does not return for at least
half an hour. The time thus gained is utilized in rapidly excavating
the cavity, which is then filled with a cement concrete, which sets
before the return of the water. The method has been adopted in the
construction of a fortified enceinte at Lyons, and is said to have led
to very rapid work.



HOW TO MAKE A CHEERFUL FIRESIDE.


In the accompanying illustration is shown one of several forms of
arranging artificial sticks or logs in a fireplace for burning gas,
to give a close imitation of a blazing wood fire, which has been
patented and is made by Henry P. Dixon & Co, of 1330 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia. Several other forms of logs and grouping are also made,
the sticks and the logs being colored to resemble wood, and having
fixed between them splints of asbestos, which become incandescent when
in use, so that when the gas is turned on and a match applied to the
small jets arranged to the best advantage over and between the logs, it
gives the appearance of a first class wood fire. These artificial logs
are made of material not injured by the flames, and are designed to
last a life‐time without cracking or breaking, the gas being supplied
through a brass union fixed in the back of each log, through which
connection can be readily made by rubber tubing or otherwise to the
nearest gas pipe. A good, cheerful fire, which makes neither dust,
dirt, nor ashes, is thus ever ready at hand and available by simply
turning on and lighting the gas, the flow of which is regulated as
desired.

[Illustration: ARTIFICIAL LOGS FOR FIREPLACES.]



The Sounding Board in St. Paul’s Cathedral.


The form of the sounding board is, I think, a novelty, but I am led
to believe that it is an approach to the true form for the purpose.
Flat sounding boards have been most commonly tried, but they are now
generally discarded. A parabolic sounding board behind the preacher
has been used with a certain effect, but the advantage is limited to
those in the direction of the axis of the curve; and in these cases,
action and reaction being equal, the preacher can sometimes hear the
criticisms of his audience, if any should be uttered tolerably loud
in the proper direction. Besides which, a shell of this description
would have had little effect in stopping the objectionable echoes. To
meet these difficulties, a curve was selected which has the property
of distributing uniformly in every direction so much of the preacher’s
voice as can be advantageously reflected. The figure is hyperbolic,
the axis being perpendicular over the preacher. The diameter is ten
feet, and so much of the voice it receives is reflected as if it came
from a point about four feet from the preacher. It would be interesting
to know, but I am not aware that sufficient experiments have been
made to ascertain, what amount of sound is reflected from a given
material. The harder the material, obviously the better the result.
In this case hard organ pipe metal has been used. I observed a marked
increase of audibility of the voice at a place where the assistance
of the reflected sound is obtained over a point equidistant from the
pulpit, but too high to receive the reflected wave from the sounding
board.—_F. C. Penrose._



THE POPULAR “FORTUNE” HOT AIR FURNACE.


A hot air furnace that is designed to include all the good elements
of the best styles of modern construction, and is especially adapted
for suburban houses, is shown in the accompanying illustration.
It is manufactured by Messrs. Thomas, Roberts, Stevenson & Co, of
Philadelphia, in four sizes, and has clinker‐cleaning, shaking, and
dumping grate, upright lever for shaking the grate, improved dust
flue and check draft, improved cylinder, with and without drum heads,
and extra large radiating surface, being durable and cheap, while
economical in use. These furnaces are made at a moderate price, without
any expense being put on for mere show, and thousands of them are in
use in nearly all parts of the country.

[Illustration: THE FORTUNE HEATER.]



Not Defective Plumbing.


It many times so happens that plumbing is found a ready excuse for
filthy people to place the blame upon “defective plumbing,” while
in reality it is other defects that are the real cause. There are
many things to take into consideration besides faulty plumbing. You
should ask yourself: Is your cellar pure? How many germs of disease
are lurking there because you have failed to properly drain and
ventilate it, and remove the decayed vegetation and other impurities?
And the well or spring; how much filth, unseen or unrealized though
it be, is permitted to enter there, until at last it enters your life
blood and becomes a part of your being, bringing you to an untimely
grave?—_Plumbers’ Trade Journal._



AN IMPROVED HAND AND FOOT POWER BAND SAW.


A strong and well made band saw machine, to be run by foot or hand
power, is shown in the accompanying illustration, and is manufactured
by Messrs. J. M. Marston & Co., of No. 3 Appleton Street, Boston, Mass.
The table is 18 × 21 inches and 42 inches high, and is adjustable for
cutting on a bevel. There is an adjustable guide for the saw above and
below the table, the saw pulleys are 16 inches in diameter, and the
driving power is by means of gears, all shafts being of steel. The
upper saw pulley has an adjustment to tighten the saw and bring it in
line with the lower saw pulley. The power machines are from the same
pattern, and are arranged with driving shaft and pulley on lower part
of the frame, and tight and loose pulley on lower saw shaft, so that
it can be belted direct from main shafting without counter shaft. The
machine is a very easy‐working one, cutting some four times as fast as
a gig saw with less power.

[Illustration: MARSTON’S BAND SAW.]

The circular saw machine made by the same firm has its center part of
iron, with grooves planed for gauges to slide in, which allows very
fine and exact work to be done on the machine. There is a collar on
the arbor, so that any endwise wear can be taken up, and the gears are
accurately cut from solid iron. The aim of the manufacturers has been
to make a simple, strong, accurate, and durable machine, such as can be
put to hard work without injury, some of their saws having been in use
for fifteen years without needing repairs.



Superior =Copper Weather Vanes=

GILDED WITH PURE GOLD.

TOWER ORNAMENTS, CHURCH CROSSES, FINIALS, ETC.

[Illustration: N E W S]

Vanes made from any Drawing or Design on Short Notice.

=T. W. JONES,=

  SUCCESSOR TO
  =CHAS. C. BRIGGS,=
  =V. W. BALDWIN,=

Removed from 213 Pearl Street to

  =168 Front Street,=
  Near Maiden Lane,
  NEW YORK.

Illustrated catalogue of over 250 designs, mailed to any address on
receipt of a two cent stamp, half the postage.



[Illustration: ACME

  PAT. REG.
  27. 83.]

=GEO. W. MARBLE, Sole Manufacturer of THE ACME WRENCH.=

The best made, all steel, and warranted, 8 sizes.

28 to 32 South Canal Street, Chicago, U. S. A.



DEXTER BROTHERS’ ENGLISH SHINGLE STAINS

[Illustration:

H. W. HARTWELL & WM. C. RICHARDSON. ARCHTS.

BOSTON MASS]

Are made of the very best English Ground Colors, and contain no
benzine, water, or creosote. They have been thoroughly tested by some
of the best Architects in the country during the past three or four
years, and the colors are more lasting than any other stain. The price
is 75 cents a gallon for any color. We would advise Architects to
specify Dexter Brothers’ English Shingle Stain, and note the number on
the Sample boards. Send for Sample Boards of Colors.

  DEXTER BROTHERS,
  55 and 57 Broad Street, Boston, Mass.



ARCHITECTS

SHOULD ALWAYS SPECIFY

[Illustration:

Mueller’s WATER PRESSURE Regulators]

to insure against the bursting of pipes and to preserve a uniform
pressure throughout the building.

Write for illustrated catalogue and prices.

  =H. MUELLER & SONS,
  220 and 222 East Main St., Decatur, Ill.=



=COMPETITION.=

=SCHOOL HOUSES.=

=[At Albany, N. Y.]=

  STATE OF NEW YORK,
  DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,
  SUPERINTENDENT’S OFFICE,
  ALBANY, N. Y., September 20, 1887.


Plans and specifications for school‐houses.

Architects are invited to submit competition plans for six school
buildings, for which $975 is offered in prizes. Time of competition
limited =to December 15, 1887=.

For further particulars address

  A. S. DRAPER,
  State Superintendent, Albany, N. Y.



  ALL OUR FURNACES ARE
  ABSOLUTELY
  Gas Tight


=Constructed with Simplicity & Economy. Healthy, Pure Warm Air.
No Flues to Stop Up. No Mechanic Required Every Year to Put Them in
Order.=

Has more radiating surface than any Hot Air Furnaces made. Every
Joint is a Steam Boiler Joint. Adapted for Heating Dwellings, Stores,
Churches, School‐houses, etc.

MANUFACTURED BY

  =Klein Furnace Co.,
  250 and 254 North Ave., Rochester, N. Y.=

[Illustration: Klein’s Steel Plate Tubular Furnaces.]

Also Mfrs. of Economist Steel Plate Ranges.

☞See them and you will buy no other Warm Air Furnace. Every Heater
Warranted.



Architects, ✠ Builders, ✠ and House ✠ Owners

[Illustration: Cable Section.]

[Illustration Cable Section.]

Should use our =Lead Covered Electric Conductors and Cables= for
circuits for Electric Call Bells, Annunciators, Electric Gas Lighting,
Incandescent Lighting, or for communication between Residence and
Stable, etc., and avoid the vexation and inconvenience of broken,
leaky, or grounded circuits. Our Cables are moisture proof and can
be embedded in the plaster walls, while the flat cable is specially
adapted for arranging along the wainscoting, and staining to match.
They are permanent, reliable, and economical.

[Illustration Cable Section.]

[Illustration Cable Section.]

Standard Underground Cable Co.

  GENERAL OFFICES:
  No. 708 PENN AVENUE, PITTSBURGH, PA.

  Branch Offices:
  Telephone Building, Cortlandt St., New York. G. L. Wiley, Manager.
  139 East Madison Street, Chicago. F. E. Dehenhardt, Manager.

MANUFACTURERS OF

The WARING ANTI‐INDUCTION and BUNCHED CABLES, and ACHESON COMPOUND
CABLE.

For Telegraph, Telephone, Electric Light and Power, Underground,
Submarine, and Aerial.

=Light Leaded Cables (containing one or more conductors) for use in
Houses, or for connecting Residence and Stable.=

_Insulated Line Wire, Underwriters’, Magnet, Annunciator, and Office
Wire._

  All Work Guaranteed.
  ☞ Send for Illustrated Circular.☜



JAMES F. WOOD & CO.

PATENTEES AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE GREAT AMERICAN PIPE COVERING

  FOR
  HOT‐AIR PIPES
  STEAM GAS AND WATER
  PIPES

  FRONT AND ORANGE STS
  WILMINGTON, DEL.

[Illustration: PATENTED IN UNITED STATES AND CANADA]


These coverings beyond question are the best non‐conductors of heat
known to the scientific world. They are easily applied, very durable,
and =indestructible=. Recommended by Engineers and Architects.

  INSULATION OF HEAT.
  PROTECTION AGAINST FROST.
  FREEDOM FROM RATS, MICE, AND INSECTS.

Many good Heaters have been condemned and thrown away for not giving
a supply of hot air, when the fault was in the uncovered pipes in the
cellar wasting the heat, which could have been saved with J. F. Wood &
Co.’s Great American Pipe Covering.

It sends the heat where wanted. It protects the woodwork near from
fire. It is a great saving in fuel. It prevents water and gas pipes
from freezing. It prevents the condensation of steam. Fire and
water have no effect on them. _They do not powder down, char, nor
crack._ They are cleanly in application. They are neat and regular
in appearance. They are applied to pipes without the use of paste or
cement of any kind. =Send for Catalogue and Price List.=



[Illustration:

Solar Iron Clad.

E Rogers. Phila’]


This is a Cast Iron Casing, lined with tin or galvanized iron, to
prevent direct radiation of heat in cellar; four loose panels lift out,
so as to give access to furnace for repairs or renewal, if necessary,
without disturbing the Hot Air Pipes; it has sliding panels for feed
door and smoke pipe to allow for expansion; it has also a dust flue and
flue door for Damper. We claim this to be the most complete, durable,
and convenient cold case made, equal in efficiency to Brick set, with
much less room required and less expensive, besides the facility for
access for repairs, without requiring, as in a brick set, so large
a space to work in. It is much superior to the ordinary sheet iron
casing, both for durability and efficiency. It is not necessary to
remove the casing or Hot Air Pipe to clean out, or repair, or even
renew or change the heater.

  =The Leibrandt & McDowell Stove Co.,
  PHILADELPHIA and BALTIMORE.=



=L. MANASSE,=

IMPORTER AND MANUFACTURER,

=88 Madison Street, Chicago, Ill.=

[Illustration: Drawing Tools.]

ARCHITECTS’ AND SURVEYORS’ SUPPLIES.

=Drawing Tools, Papers, Tapes, Chains, Colors, Inks, etc.=

=Improved LEVELS for Builders and Tiling.=

Illustrated Catalogues Sent on Application.



[Illustration: Established 1857.]

=The GREAT CHURCH LIGHT=


=FRINK’S Patent Reflectors=, for Gas or Oil, give the most
=powerful, softest, cheapest and best= light known for Churches,
Stores, Show Windows, Banks, Theatres, Depots, etc. New and elegant
designs. Send size of room. Get circular and estimate. A liberal
discount to churches and the trade. =Don’t be deceived by cheap
imitations.=

=I. P. FRINK, 551 Pearl St., N. Y.=



  =THE “IDEAL”=
  PATENT TILE‐LINED BATH‐TUB.
  Perfection of Cleanliness and Durability.
  SHARPLESS & WATTS, Patentees,
  BAKER BUILDING,
  =1524 CHESTNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA.=
  Send for Illustrated Circular and References.



[Illustration:

  =CHICAGO
  ANDERSON=
  PRESSED BRICK CO.
  189 & 191 La Salle St.,
  =CHICAGO, ILL.=
  Front & Ornamental
  =Pressed Brick.=
]



[Illustration; Leveling Instrument.]

The latest improved, _i.e._, the boss to Engineers, Architects,
Builders, Contractors, Farmers, and all others requiring a low price
Leveling Instrument for grading, measuring heights, squaring, or
getting any desired angle. Descriptive circulars furnished on receipt
of stamp.

  =JOHN W. HARMON,
  65 Haverhill Street, Boston, Mass.=



=ORNAMENTAL BRICK=

[Illustration: Ornamental Brick.]

Brick and Terra‐Cotta furnished from any design.

Bricks for Arches ground to suit any radius.

Equal in Quality and Color to Philadelphia Brick.

[Illustration: Ornamental Brick.]

  =JAMES H. BEGGS & CO.,
  Wilmington, Del.=



[Illustration:

  =H. W. JOHNS’=
  TRADEMARK ASBESTOS
  =LIQUID PAINTS.=]

Asbestos Roofing, Building Felt, Steam Packings, Boiler Coverings, Fire
Proof Paints, Cements, Etc. Samples and Descriptive Price Lists Free.

H. W. JOHNS MF’G CO., 87 MAIDEN LANE, N. Y.



  Fine Office & Bank
  Fittings }  BRASS &
           }  WIRE WORK.

[Illustration; Desk.]

  A. H. ANDREWS & CO. 195 Wabash
  Ave., Chicago, and 686 Broadway, N. Y.



[Illustration: House.]

=COSY HOMES!=

=How to Build Them.=

Contains =96= pages, showing complete designs of =10= low‐cost houses,
with valuable information for those who wish to build economically.
Post‐paid on receipt of price. =25c.=

  =F. L. SMITH=, Architect,
  22 School St., =Boston=.



[Illustration: SEAMLESS BRASS & COPPER TUBES, SHEET BRASS, BRASS WIRE

FINE TOOLS, TAPS, DRILLS, VISES CHUCKS]

CHARLES H. BESLY & CO.

  175–177 LAKE ST.
  CHICAGO.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE

Mention this paper.



=STEWART’S= MACHINE‐WAXED SHEATHING.

Absolutely Water‐proof, Air‐proof and Decay‐proof.

ODORLESS AND PERFECTLY CLEAN TO HANDLE.

_The Cheapest and Best in the Market._

FOR LINING BUILDINGS UNDER CLAPBOARDS, SHINGLES, SLATE OR TIN.

Put up in rolls containing 650 square feet each, and at the low price
of $2.00 per roll (less than one‐third of a cent per square foot).

SAMPLES FREE BY MAIL.

=W. H. STEWART, 74 Cortlandt Street, New York.=

Send for Samples and Illustrated Pamphlet of STEWART’S PATENT
LAP‐SEAL READY ROOFING and IRON‐FIBRE PAINTS.



THE STAR VENTILATORS ARE SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS.

The ventilating area is greater than any other that is storm‐proof.

[Illustration:

  PATENTED
  TRADE MARK]

=HANDSOME, NOISELESS, DURABLE, STORM‐PROOF, SIMPLE, CHEAP.=

After competitive trial, have been adopted by the United States
Government for their light houses in this district. Received the only
Award of Merit at the Pennsylvania State Fair, 1886. Recommended by
the leading Architects, and always adopted wherever it is put in
competition with any other for curing gassy and smoking chimneys, and
ventilating Factories, Light houses, Schools, Churches, Dye Houses,
Cotton and Woolen Mills, Cars, Residences, Bath‐rooms or Water‐closets.

=Prices and special discounts named on application.=

  =MERCHANT & CO.,=
  GENERAL MANAGERS,
  Philadelphia, New York, Chicago, London.

[Illustration: SECTIONAL VIEW]



[Illustration:
  CREOSOTE WOOD STAINS.
  FOR SHINGLES, FENCES, CLAPBOARDS ETC.

  PRICE
  30ᶜ. 50ᶜ. & 75ᶜ. PER GALL.
  ACCORDING TO COLOR.

VERY DURABLE AND ARTISTIC.

FOR SAMPLES ON WOOD & CIRCULARS SEND TO

  SAM’L CABOT SOLE MANFR.
  70 KILBY ST. BOSTON.]



[Illustration: Woodworking Machines.]

FOOT‐POWER MACHINERY.

COMPLETE OUTFITS for CONTRACTORS and BUILDERS.

[Illustration: Woodworking Machines.]

Machines for ripping, cross‐cutting, scroll‐sawing, mortising and
tenoning, forming edges, grooving, gaining, rabbeting, cutting dadoes,
and turning. Builders use our Hand Circular Rip Saw for the greater
portion of their ripping in preference to carting their lumber to a
mill five minute’s drive from their shops. The same is true in regard
to scroll sawing, mortising, tenoning, cutting stuff for drawers,
boxes, etc. Builders using these machines can bid lower and save more
money from their contracts than by any other means.

[Illustration: Mortiser and Circular Saw.]

=Read the Following Letters from Builders:=

CLARENCE F. LEE, carpenter and builder, Morristown, N. J.,
says: “I have had one of your Hand Circular Rip‐Saws for about three
months, and am much pleased with it. Have done the ripping for 15
houses in that time, which is over forty miles through inch boards.
Have ripped as high as 3‐inch plank. Table is also good for rabbeting;
having rabbeted all jambs and sawed all drips for 200 windows.”

ALEX. SHIELDS, Lima, Ohio, says: “A few days since we had some
150 small drawers to make for a drug store; the steam power mill wanted
50 cents each for making them. With my foot power machinery I made
them, and saved $25 above good wages on the job.

If desired, these machines will be sold =ON TRIAL=.

The purchaser can have ample time to test them in his own shop and on
the work he wishes them to do. Descriptive Catalogue and Price List
Free.

=W. F. & JOHN BARNES CO., No. 567 ... Ruby St., Rockford, Ill.=



  CHAS E LITTLE, =59 FULTON ST.=
  New York.

Silver Medal on Tools Awarded by Amer. Inst. 1886. Medal “Superiority”
for

  =W. F. & J. Barnes’ Workshop MACHINERY.=
  =New York Agency.           Factory Prices.=



Patent Foot Power Machinery!

[Illustration: Mortiser and Circular Saw.]

The Latest and Most Improved

Scroll Saws, Circular Saws, Lathes, Mortisers, Etc.

THE “ACME” CIRCULAR SAW.

=For Foot or Hand Power.=

Suitable for various kinds of work, in Cutting‐off, Ripping,
Mitring, Rabbeting, and Grooving, and with the addition of the extra
attachments, Scroll Sawing, Boring, etc.

=Price, with two 7‐inch Saws, $40.=

       *       *       *       *       *

“Diamond” Mortising Machine.

Will mortise ¼ to 1 inch wide, 3 inches deep, and with the addition of
the Diamond Adjustable Tenoning Tool, cut Tenons ⅛ to ¾ in. thick,
3 in. wide.

=Price, with 3 chisels, $25.=

=Machines on Trial.=

=Catalogue Free.=

  =Seneca Falls Mfg. Co.,=
  276 Water Street,
  SENECA FALLS, N. Y.



[Illustration:

  THE
  NEW YORK
  SELF ACTING
  SHADE ROLLER

THE BEST ON THE MARKET

MADE IN TIN AND WOOD

EVERY ROLLER WARRANTED]

  MANUFACTURED BY
  CUSHMAN BROS. & CO.,
  BOSTON, MASS.

=All Shades and Upholstery Goods at Bottom Prices.=



LYON & HEALY

[Illustration: Trumpeter and Drummer.]

STATE & MONROE STS., CHICAGO, will mail, free, their newly enlarged
Catalogue of Band Instruments, Uniforms and Equipments. 400 Fine
Illustrations describing every article required by Bands or Drum Corps,
including Repairing Materials, Trimmings, etc.

Contains Instructions for Amateur Bands, Exercises and Scales, Drum
Major’s Tactics, By‐Laws, and a Selected List of Band Music.



E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO.,

_591 Broadway, N. Y._

[Illustration: Camera Equipment.]

  Manufacturers and Importers of
  PHOTOGRAPHIC
  INSTRUMENTS,
  Apparatus and Supplies,
  OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

Sole Proprietors of the =Patent Detective=, =Fairy=, =Novel=, and
=Bicycle Cameras=, and the =Celebrated Stanley Dry Plates=.

=Amateur Outfits= in great variety from $9.00 upward. Send for
Catalogue or call and examine.

☞_More than Forty Years Established in this line of business._



  ESTABLISHED 1854.
  DEVINE’S STEAM BOILER WORKS,
  Marine, Locomotive, Tubular, House, and
  GREENHOUSE BOILERS.
  WROUGHT IRON HOT WATER BOILERS
  A SPECIALTY.

Manufactory, 381 to 393 S. Canal Street, Chicago.

[Illustration: Greenhouse Boiler.]

The above cut is of Greenhouse Boiler, meeting with universal success
wherever placed. Estimates gladly furnished for any capacity.

  =PETER DEVINE,
  387 S. CANAL ST., CHICAGO.=



[Illustration: Automatic Air Valve.]

[Illustration: Automatic Air Valve.]

AUTOMATIC AIR VALVE.

For STEAM COILS and RADIATORS

Direct and Indirect.

=Most Simple and Reliable Air Valve Made. Nothing to Get Out of Order.
Has No Movable Piece. No Loose Thimbles to Fly Off. Every Valve is
Thoroughly Tested, and Warranted to Give Satisfaction.=

  Manufactured by
  Thos. L. McKeen,
  EASTON, PA.



Brick Making Machinery.

[Illustration: Brick Making Machine.]

MACHINES OF 10,000, 25,000, 50,000 BRICKS PER DAY CAPACITY.

ERECTED SUBJECT TO TRIAL AND APPROVAL.

  CHAMBERS, BROTHER & CO.,
  PHILADELPHIA, Fifty‐second St., below Lancaster Ave.



[Illustration: THE HERCULES.

TRADE MARK

PATᴰ JUNE 12, 1883]

Section of =Copper‐Wire‐Sewed Light Double Belting=, specially
adapted to use on cone pulleys and other hard places. Manufactured
by the =PAGE BELTING CO., Concord, N. H.= Also manufacturers of
Staple and Special Grades of Leather Belting and the “HERCULES” Lacing.

☞ Send for Catalogue No. 23.☜



[Illustration: Woodworking Machines.]

  WOODWORKING
  MACHINERY,
  PLANERS AND
  MATCHERS,
  PONY PLANERS,
  Hand Matchers,
  Solid Plate and
  SEGMENT
  RE‐SAWS.

CONNELL & DENGLER, Rochester, N. Y.



[Illustration:

(Iron Beam Protection. Patented June 3, 1884.)]

HENRY MAURER & SON,

MANUFACTURERS OF

FIRE‐PROOF MATERIAL

Of every description. Hollow Brick made of Clay for Flat Arches,
Partitions, Furring, etc. Porous Terra Cotta, =Fire Bricks=, etc.,
etc.

  =Office and Depot, 420 East 23d St., New York.=
  WORKS, PERTH AMBOY, N. J.



[Illustration: Woodworking Machine.]

  WOODWORKING MACHINERY
  FOR
  Chair, Furniture and
  Cabinet Mills, Pattern
  Makers’ use, etc.

  =Rollstone Machine Co.=
  =48 Water St., Fitchburg, Mass.=



FINE TAPS AND DIES.

[Illustration: LIGHTNING]

Lightning and Green River Screw Plates. Bolt Cutters, hand and power.
Drilling Machines, Punching Presses, Tire Benders, Tire Upsetters and
other Labor Saving Tools. Send for Price List C.

=Wiley & Russell Mfg. Co., Greenfield, Mass.=



  BRAY & BRECK,
  Stained Glass Works,
  35 and 37 Province St.,
  BOSTON, MASS.

  SEND FOR
  =Illustrated Catalogue and Price List.=



J. M. STUTZMAN, 181 William St., New York.

[Illustration: STEEL NAME STAMPS]

Steel Alphabets and Tool Stamps. Stencil Cutting, Dies, Burning Brands,
Door Plates, Soap Moulds, Seals, &c.

Liberal discount to Agents.

Price for Tool Stamps, 15 cents per letter up to ⅛ in. Postage, 10
cents additional per stamp.



AIR BRUSH.

[Illustration: Air Brush and Franklin Institute Medal.]

Received Gold Medal Franklin Institute. A legitimate artists’ and
draughtsmen’s tool. Applies color by a jet of air. Greatly economizes
time in mechanical, engineering and architectural draughting. Send for
description.

  =AIR BRUSH MFG. CO.
  80 Nassau St., Rockford, Ill.=



RICHMOND WEATHER STRIP CO.

[Illustration:

  MANUFACTURERS OF
  ROWLETT’S INDEPENDENT
  AUTOMATIC COUNTER‐BALANCED
  WEATHER STRIP.

  AWARDED BRONZE MEDAL AT CINCINNATI INDUSTRIAL
  (EXPOSITION 1884.)

HAS NO SPRINGS, TRIGGERS OR CIRCLE IRONS; POSITIVE ACTION; CANNOT GET
OUT OF ORDER; FITS ANY DOOR.

AGENTS WANTED IN EVERY CITY AND TOWN IN THE U. S. SEND FOR CIRCULAR.
SAMPLE STRIP. PREPAID TO ANY PERSON ON RECEIPT OF $1.00. ADDRESS

  RICHMOND WEATHER STRIP CO. RICHMOND, IND.
  P. O. BOX 282. FACTORY 217 N. 6TH STREET.

MENTION THIS PAPER.]



  MALLORY’S
  STANDARD SHUTTER WORKER

[Illustration: Shutter Worker.]

  Opens and closes the blinds without raising the window.
  Automatically locks the blinds in any position.
  Best and cheapest blind hinge.
  Incomparable for strength, durability, and power.

Can be applied to old or new houses, of brick, stone, or wood.

  =Send for Illustrated Catalogue to=
  Frank B. Mallory,
  =FLEMINGTON, NEW JERSEY, or
  60 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK.=



[Illustration: Ornate Glass Panels.]

EDWIN LEE BROWN, Pres’t.

  The Western Sand Blast Co.,
  Ornamenters of Glass for
  VESTIBULE DOORS,
  TRANSOMS,
  BANK & OFFICE COUNTERS,
  ——AND——
  Manufacturers of Advertising
  Glass Signs.

_Sand Blast & Embossed Railroad Glass a specialty._

  =N. W. Cor. Clinton & Jackson Sts.,
  CHICAGO, ILL.=

Telephone 4085.

[Illustration: Ornate Glass Panels.]



[Illustration:
  WILLER’S
  PATENT
  SLIDING
  BLIND

WILLIAM WILLER, SOLE MFR.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE

MILWAUKEE WIS.]



[Illustration: Ventilation Fan.]

Clark’s New Drying Exhaust and Ventilating Fans,

PATENT ADJUSTABLE WINGS.

Capacity Quickly Increased or Diminished.

Self‐Oiling Bearings. Light Running.

Durable.

PRICE LIST FREE.

GEO. P. CLARK, (Box A), Windsor Locks, Ct.



GLASS

  PHILLIP SEMMER & COMPANY.
  PLATE, SHEET & LOOKING GLASS Depot
  No 4, 6, 8 & 10 DESBROSSES. ST.
  NEW YORK.
  WRITE FOR QUOTATIONS.



HAYDEN BROTHERS,

Hardwood Lumber,

MAHOGANY AND VENEERS,

[Illustration:

LUMBER DRYING A SPECIALTY,]

  22d and Jefferson Streets,
  CHICAGO.



[Illustration: Shingle.]

THORN SHINGLE & ORNAMENT CO.,

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF

=The Best and Cheapest Metallic Roofing

TILES AND SHINGLES

YET OFFERED TO THE BUILDING TRADE.=

The Horseshoe Spring‐Lock Shingle (Patten’s Patent) just out. This
Shingle can be put on in one‐half the time it requires with any other
shingle now in the market. Is cheap, durable, secure, thoroughly
water‐tight and makes a good appearance as a roof covering. Two (2)
sizes.

THORN’S PATENT ROOFING and WALL TILES, the most perfect and Unique
Roof, Gable, Tower, and Wall covering, yet produced in metal. On the
roof in appearance they are like terra cotta earthen tiles, and are
better, and half the cost. Four (4) designs or sizes are made.

All the above goods are packed a square to the box and delivered f.o.b.
cars in Philadelphia.

For particulars, price lists, etc., address

  THORN SHINGLE & ORNAMENT CO.
  12th & Callowhill Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.



THE PULLMAN SASH BALANCE.

[Illustration: Window Sash Balance.]

  _A MORE PERFECT and ECONOMICAL
  Balance than Weights and Cords.
  Works smoother and easier
  than any other device._

No Boxes or Pockets in Frame necessary.

_IT IS ADJUSTABLE._

Made entirely of steel. The best coil spring is used, it being encased
in a drawn steel drum, and a metallic tape fastened on outside of drum
to operate sash.

=Is very compact, occupying space required for ordinary sash pulley.=

This Balance entirely overcomes the difficulty of friction occasioned
by counter weights.

_It relieves the entire heft of sash._ A 75 to 100 lb. sash works
as easily as a very light one. Applied to old windows as readily as to
new, without altering frame or sash. =Will last a lifetime.=

The Pullman Balance is being introduced to all the leading Architects
and Builders in the country, and they pronounce them far superior to
the old method.

=Send for Description and Prices.=

☞ _A fair discount to the Hardware trade._

PULLMAN SASH BALANCE CO., ROCHESTER, N. Y.



  ——THE——
  Standard Wood Turning Co.
  58 BAY STREET,
  Jersey City, N. J.

  MACHINE‐TURNED
  BALUSTERS

Various Sizes and Patterns Dovetailed ready for use, with Tait’s Patent
Dovetail.

PEDESTAL and TURNED NEWELS.

  STAIR RAILS,
  Of all dimensions, worked, ready to put up.

[Illustration: Baluster.]

[Illustration: Baluster.]

Send 4c. Stamp for our 32‐page Catalogue, containing 200 Illustrations
of Balusters, Pedestal Newels, Brackets, Drops, etc.



ANDERSON & DICKEY

  Architectural Wood Turning
  ——AND——
  Spiral Moulding,

43 Bristol Street

BOSTON, MASS.

All kinds of Newels, Stair Posts, Balusters, Rails, Table and Chair
Legs, etc.

Wood Mantels, Office Fittings, Interior Decorations, etc.

Rope Moulding and Twist Screen Work, etc. Architects’ Designs a
specialty.

[Illustration: Baluster.]

[Illustration: Baluster.]

Estimates given. Send 2‐cent stamp for illustrated catalogue.



No. 11 PLANER & MATCHER

[Illustration: Planer.]

=Double Belted and Geared Lower Rolls.=

Special Machinery for Car Work and the latest improved Woodworking
Machinery of all kinds.

  C. B. ROGERS & CO.
  Norwich, Conn.
  109 Liberty Street,
  New York.



CHARTER’S GAS ENGINE.

The safest, most reliable and economical Motor in existence.

=Independent of Gas Works and Machines.=

[Illustration: 2 to 25 H. P.]

So it can be used _anywhere_.

  =Makes its Own Gas=
  AT COST OF ABOUT
  =65 cents per M Feet.=

A Saving of 25 to 85 per cent guaranteed over all other Gas Engines.

  Chicago Agent: H. H. LATHAM,
  42 Dearborn Street.

  New York House:
  12 Cortlandt Street.

  =Williams & Orton Mfg. Co.=
  =P. O. Box 148. STERLING, ILL.=



  =Shimer’s Variety Moulder, with=
  =Surface Moulding Attachment.=

=FOR SINKING= panels with pattern guided by pin that automatically
takes its position when you start the Machine, and drops out of the way
when you stop it. The Cutter in the overhanging arm of the Machine has
a perpendicular adjustment of one inch, and is operated by the handle
shown in the cut attached to an eccentric lever that is automatically
locked to the one position when at work.

=TO CHANGE= from Surface Moulder to Variety Moulder, disconnect
the rod that runs the incline on the T lever and pin it up. Run the
housing up by means of the hand wheel until it stands above the belt
line, remove the one spindle, substitute the other and set screw it
to the housing. Turn the small table back under the arm. Raise the
arm, disconnect the shaft that runs the upper pulley, and the Machine
becomes an Edge Moulder without having any of its parts unbolted and
laid away.

_You never tire of the make up of this Machine, which is as simple and
effective as it is durable._

[Illustration: Woodworking Machine.]

Reversible Cutters for any shape of mould made to order, and warranted
to cut free and easy. For Circulars and full information, address,

  SAMUEL J. SHIMER,
  MANUFACTURER of the SHIMER CUTTER HEADS and
  SPECIAL WOODWORKING MACHINERY,
  MILTON, PENN.



  =THE MASON REDUCING VALVE=
  GIVES SATISFACTION WHEREVER USED
  =OFFICE 22 CENTRAL ST. BOSTON, MASS.=

[Illustration: Reducing Valve.]



  =CARPENTERS’ MACHINERY,
  HAND AND FOOT POWER.=

  Lathes,
  Tenoners,
  Mortisers,
  Scroll Saws,
  Groovers,
  Formers.

[Illustration: Woodworker Operating Machine.]

  Rip Saws,
  Cross Cut Saws,
  Combined Saws,
  Jig Saws,
  Edge Moulders,
  Dado Heads.

FRED. A. RICH, 25 South Canal Street, Chicago.



=ROOFING ✠ SLATE.=

  =The AMERICAN BANGOR SLATE CO.,
  Miners and Manufacturers of best Pennsylvania Black Roofing Slate,=
  BANGOR, PENN.

Address correspondence to =J. EDGAR MITCHELL, Sec’y and Treas.,
Allentown, Pa.=



  =PARQUET FLOORS=
  (BUTCHER’S PATENT).

[Illustration: PARQUET FLOORS

CHAS. BUTCHER. & Co. BOSTON]

The only Wood Flooring made on the correct principle, being laid with
perforated metal tongues so that Floors of any thickness from ¼ inch
up can be laid and blind‐nailed.

Butcher’s Boston Polish is the best finish for Hardwood Floors. For
sale by agents in all large cities. Full information on application to

  =THE BUTCHER FLOORING CO.,
  9 and 11 Haverhill Street,
  BOSTON, MASS.=



  =“BUILDING”
  ——AN——
  Architectural Weekly.=

=PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.=

Devoted to Architecture, Engineering, Furniture, Decoration, and
Ornament.

Subscription, $6 a year.

Sample subscription of three months, $1.50

Single Copies, 15 cents.

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]


=MONTHLY NUMBER.=

A special feature of these numbers will be =Small Country and City
Houses=, with plans and details.

Subscription, $1.75 a year.

Sample subscription of three months, 50 cents.

Single Copies, 15 cents.

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]

=JUST PUBLISHED.=

=INTERIOR DECORATION.=

  By ARNOLD W. BRUNNER and THOMAS TRYON, Architects.
  One Quarto Vol., Cloth, Price, $3.00.

[Illustration: Room Interior.]

Containing, besides introductory remarks, chapters on The Hall, The
Staircase, The Library, The Parlor, The Dining‐room, The Study, The
Bedrooms.

This book is fully illustrated with 75 drawings of interiors, details,
furniture, etc. It contains suggestions for the treatment of both city
and country houses, and indicates methods for altering and improving
old work. It is written with a view of interesting non‐professional
readers and all who care to beautify their homes, as well as architects
and decorators.

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]

=NEW BOOKS.=

=Improved Plumbing Appliances.= By J. PICKERING PUTNAM,
Architect. This work was printed last year in serial form in
“BUILDING,” and has since then been carefully revised and
brought out in book form, as being worthy of more permanent form. With
91 illustrations. One octavo volume, cloth, price, $1.50.

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]


=Architectural Studies.=

  =Vol. II.=
  =JUST PUBLISHED, PART 6.=

$500 to $2,500 Houses, giving perspectives, elevations and plans, with
specifications, bills of materials and estimates of cost. One Paper
Portfolio, 12 plates, Price, =$1.00=.

  PLATE.               PLATE.

    I.—$500 House.     VII.—$1,000 House.
   II.—$700   „       VIII.—$1,000  „
  III.—$800   „         IX.—$1,200  „
   IV.—$800   „          X.—$1,500  „
    V.—$900   „         XI.—$2,000  „
   VI.—$1,000 „        XII.—$2,500  „

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]


=PART 7.=

  =INTERIOR WOODWORK=
  ——FOR——
  =_HOUSES OF MODERATE COST._=
  =One paper portfolio, $1.00.=

Plates XIII and XIV.—Two China Closets, with details. XV.—Parlor
Mantel, with details. XVI.—Book Shelves, with details. XVII.—Staircase
Screen, with details. XVIII.—Two Bedroom Mantels, with details. XIX
and XX. Entrance Hall and Staircase, with details. XXI.—Bathroom, with
details. XXII.—Hall Fireplace, with details. XXIII.—Library Bookcase,
with details. XXIV.—Dining‐room Mantel, with details.

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]


=PART 8.=

=STORE FITTINGS.=

=LIST OF PLATES.=—Plate 25, Counter and Showcase, with Details;
26, Detached Case, with Details; 27, Wall‐shelving, with Details; 28,
Telephone Case, with Details; 29, Counter for Druggist, with Details;
30, Wall Cases, with Details; 31, Two Counters, with Details; 32, Two
Detached Cases, with Details; 33, Prescription Counter, with Details;
34, Perfumery Case, with Details; 35, Wall Shelving, with Details; 36,
Cashier’s Desk, with Details. One Paper Portfolio, Twelve Plates.

=Price, $1.00.=

=A Most Complete Work of Details.=

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]


=Modern Architectural Practice.=

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]

  =No. 1.=
  =A Large Country House in Detail.=
  =By BRUCE PRICE, Archt.=

This number contains twenty‐four 12 × 15 plates, and full specifications
illustrated by woodcuts and diagrams. One Large Quarto, 12 × 15, Boards.

=Price, $5.00.=

[Illustration: Page Decoration.]


=ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES.=

VOL. I.

=One Large Quarto Vol., Cloth, Price $5. Containing 60 large
Lithographic Plates, treating on the following Subjects.=

=_PART I._=—LOW COST HOUSES, including prize designs, with
elevations, plans, details, specifications, bills of materials, and
estimates of cost. 12 large (11 × 14) plates of practical designs,
costing from $500 to $3,000.

=_PART II._=—STORE FRONTS AND INTERIOR DETAILS. 12 plates and
descriptive letterpress.

=_PART III._=—STABLES. Containing 12 plates of Stables, suitable
for village lots, ranging in cost from $300 upward.

=_PART IV._=—SEASIDE AND SOUTHERN HOUSES. 12 plates of designs
for Cheap Houses, with ample verandas, suited to a summer climate.
Average cost, $1,500.

=_PART V._=—OUT‐BUILDINGS. Containing 12 plates of designs of
Small Stables, Summer Houses, Pavilions, Privies, Fences, Gates, etc.

Each of these parts may be obtained separately when desired. Paper
portfolio, 12 plates and descriptive letterpress, =_$1 each._=

  =W. T. COMSTOCK, Publisher,
  23 WARREN ST., NEW YORK.=



  THE LATEST & BEST IMPROVED
  BRICK
  MACHINES
  FOR BOTH STEAM
  AND HORSE POWER.

[Illustration:
  STEAM POWER BRICK MACHINE
  WITHOUT GEARING.
  WEIGHT 7000 LBS.

  STEAM POWER BRICK MACHINE
  READY FOR PULLEY.
  WEIGHT 7200 LBS.

  HORSE POWER BRICK MACHINE
  WT. 4500 LBS.

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE

  HENRY MARTIN,
  INVENTOR, PROPRIETOR,
  AND MANUFACTURER.

  139 CHESTNUT ST.
  LANCASTER, PA., U. S. A.

A. PALMER CO. ENG.]



Manufacturers and Dealers in Parquet and Inlaid Floors, Wainscoting,
Etc.

J. DUNFEE & CO.,

  Wood Carpet and Weather Strips
  OF ALL KINDS,

102 Washington Street,—CHICAGO.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE.

Factory, 204 to 212 South Clinton Street.



  B. G. UNDERWOOD,
  ADVERTISING AGENT,

  =361 Broadway, New York,=
  AND
  =31 Pemberton Sq., Boston.=



=Cast Iron Gas and Water Pipes

1½ to 48 INCHES DIAMETER.=

=Cast Iron Flange Heating and Steam Pipes, Fire Hydrants and Stop
Valves for Water or Gas, all Sizes.=

ALL PIPE PROVED BY HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE.

  =GLOUCESTER IRON WORKS,=
  =GLOUCESTER CITY, N. J.=

  SAMUEL R. SHIPLEY, Prest.
  HENRY B. CHEW, Treas.
  JAMES P. MICHELLON, Secy.
  WILLIAM SEXTON, Supt.

  =OFFICE,=
  =6 North Seventh Street, Philadelphia.=



VENTILATOR.

Patented May 4th, 1886.

[Illustration: =For Bulk Windows.=]

Adapted for Dwellings, Stores, Hospitals, School Rooms, Offices, Public
Institutions, &c., allowing ventilation without draught. Simple and
readily adjustable. _Manufactured and sold, Wholesale and Retail_, also
Patent Right for sale for States, United States or Canada, address

=T. T. COHEN, 211 So. 13th St., Phila., Pa.=



[Illustration:

  ESTABLISHED 1868
  BY GEORGE HAYES

  THE HAYES
  SKYLIGHTS

  PERFORATED METALLIC,
  INSECT & STORM
  PROOF
  BLINDS

SEND FOR CATALOGUE

71-8TH AVE. NEW YORK.]



=COMBINATION SQUARE=.

[Illustration: Combination Square.]

This tool, with its sliding blade and stock having right angle and
mitre faces, level and scriber, is more than a substitute for a whole
set of the common kind. It can be used in many places and for purposes
that a stationary blade cannot.

Send for price.

  =L. S. STARRETT,=
  Manufacturer of Fine Tools, =ATHOL, MASS=.



DRAFTSMANS’ ADJUSTABLE CURVE RULER.

Highly Commended. Makes any Curve.

[Illustration: Curve Rule.]

For sale everywhere, 14 inch, $1.50; 30 inch, $2.87. CIRCULAR GRATIS.

  =FRANK W. DAVENPORT=, Patentee and Manufacturer,=
  =Providence, R. I., U. S. A.=



  =New York City.  Room 217 Stewart Building.
  C. POWELL KARR, C.E.
  CONSULTING ARCHITECT.=

Plans and Specifications prepared for Heating, Lighting, Ventilation
and Sanitation of Buildings.

SPECIAL ATTENTION DEVOTED TO THE INSPECTION AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE
ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF THEATERS, MUSIC HALLS, AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS.



  =ALLEN B. RORKE,
  Contractor and Builder,
  423 WALNUT STREET,
  PHILADELPHIA.=



MORSE ELEVATOR WORKS.

  Morse, Williams & Co.
  Successors to CLEM & MORSE,
  BUILDERS OF ALL KINDS OF
  Passenger and Freight ELEVATORS

  Send for Circulars.
  OFFICE: 411 CHERRY STREET.
  Works: Frankford Avenue, Wildey and Shackamaxon Streets
  PHILADELPHIA.
  NEW YORK OFFICE: 108 Liberty Street.

[Illustration: Elevator.]



  PASSENGER ELEVATORS,
  MANUFACTURED BY
  HOWARD IRON WORKS,
  BUFFALO, N. Y.

The Elevators in the State Capitol, Albany, New York, were built by us,
and many others in some of the finest buildings in the country.



  GRAVES’
  ELEVATORS,
  PASSENGER and FREIGHT,
  MANUFACTURED BY
  L. S., GRAVES & SON, Rochester, N. Y.
  BRANCH OFFICE: 46 Cortlandt Street, New York.



JOHN WHEELER,

  CARPENTER and BUILDER
  ——OF——
  ORNAMENTAL RUSTIC
  WORK

[Illustration: ORNAMENTAL RUSTIC]

=Medals from American Institute=,
And other Associations.

P. O. Box 140. =Cleveland St., Orange, N. J.=



[Illustration:

LEPAGE’S

THE ONLY GENUINE

LIQUID GLUE]

UNEQUALLED for CEMENTING

wood, glass, china, paper, leather, &c. Always ready for use.
_Pronounced strongest glue known._

IS MADE BY THE Russia Cement Co.,

=AWARDED TWO GOLD MEDALS.=

  Gloucester, Mass.
  Sample 20c stamps



  FIRST CLASS
  HEATING APPARATUS,
  J. REYNOLDS & SON,
  Thirteenth and Filbert Streets, PHILADELPHIA, PA.

[Illustration: Furnace.]

  Manufacturers of
  Steel Air Tight Furnaces,
  KEYSTONE
  =Steel Furnaces=.

BRICK SET AND PORTABLE.

=For Anthracite and Bituminous Coal or Wood.=

Our heaters are strictly first‐class, made of the best material and
workmanship, and are supplied with the Reynolds’ Shaking Grate, the
best labor and fuel saving appliances. They are absolutely Gas, Dust
and Smoke Tight. Cooking Ranges, Low and Half Low Grates, in great
variety of styles and sizes. Descriptive circulars sent free to any
address. The trade supplied.



[Illustration: KEYSTONE FLOORING MACHINE.]

THE foremost floorer in the market. There are perhaps without a single
exception more “Keystone” Flooring Machines in use than any other
make in the market. Valuable references and testimonials and full
information cheerfully given.

  =GOODELL & WATERS=,
  3031 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.



[Illustration: Notes and Queries.]


HINTS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

=Names and Address= must accompany all letters, or no attention will be
paid thereto. This is for our information, and not for publication.

=References= to former articles or answers should give date of paper
and page or number of question.

=Inquiries= not answered in reasonable time should be repeated;
correspondents will bear in mind that some answers require not a little
research, and, though we endeavor to reply to all, either by letter or
in this department, each must take his turn.

=Special Written Information= on matters of personal rather than
general interest cannot be expected without remuneration.

=Scientific American Supplements= referred to may be had at the office.
Price 10 cents each.

=Books= referred to promptly supplied on receipt of price.

=Minerals= sent for examination should be distinctly marked or labeled.



(1) G. W. B. asks: 1. What kind of cement used, and how to cement gum
face on band saws? A. Ordinary rubber cement, such as you can purchase
at any of the rubber stores, will answer your purpose. 2. Is there
anything to be put in glue to prevent moisture from disturbing the
joints in patterns? A. A little bichromate of potash put into your glue
will render it insoluble, after exposure to light. 3. Is there anything
to prevent shellac used for patterns from getting dark before using
after it is mixed some time? A. We know of no way to prevent this.

(2) W. S. C.—In closed circuits for steam heating, the pressure of the
steam along the flow pipes and in coils in well arranged systems is so
nearly equalized with the pressure in the boiler, that it requires but
small elevation of the water of condensation in the return pipe above
the water level in the boiler to allow of its return by gravity. In
this system all of the radiators should be not less than from 1 to 5
feet above the water level in the boiler, according to the complication
and extent of the circuit. The air is discharged at the radiators, and
no waste of water is necessary.

(3) E. H. S.—Coal tar alone with gravel and sand for sidewalks does not
dry well. Asphaltum with equal parts of coal tar melted together and
sprinkled upon the mixed sand and gravel that has been made hot upon
an iron plate (the mixing to be done in a large pan of iron), putting
no more asphalt and tar upon the sand and gravel than will just make
it stick together; then dump into place while hot, spread quickly, and
beat level with a ram or heavy roller. Dust over the surface with fine
sand before rolling or beating, to prevent the material from sticking
to the roller or beater. This operation requires a little care and
experience as to just the amount of asphalt and tar for a given measure
of sand and gravel, and also for the proportions of sand and gravel
required to make the best pavement. Sometimes a thin bed of broken
stone is laid as a foundation. Also a thin bed of coarse gravel is
sometimes spread before dumping the hot mixture.

(4) J. C.—A first class ice boat, sailing on first class ice, will sail
from three to four times faster than the wind that drives the boat. For
example, a wind having a velocity of fifteen miles an hour will drive
the boat at the rate of from forty to sixty miles an hour.

(5) T. H. G. writes: I have a mahogany table which has been varnished
and has ink spots on it. 1. By what means can I get the varnish and ink
off, in order to rub on an oil finish? A. The ink spots can be washed
off with water and the varnish with alcohol. 2. What is best to polish
carved brass? A. Polish with rotten stone and oil, alcohol, or spirits
of turpentine. 3. What will remove water stains from polished marble?
A. Mix quicklime with strong lye,

(_Continued on page_ x.)



Building Plans and Specifications.

In connection with the publication of the BUILDING EDITION OF
THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Messrs. Munn & Co. furnish Plans and
Specifications for Buildings of every kind, including Public Buildings,
Churches, Schools, Stores, Dwellings, Carriage Houses, Barns, etc. In
this work they are assisted by able and experienced architects.

Those who contemplate building, or who wish to alter, improve, extend,
or add to existing buildings, whether wings, porches, bay windows, or
attic rooms, are invited to communicate with the under‐signed. Our work
extends to all parts of the country. Estimates, plans, and drawings
promptly prepared. Terms moderate. Address

=MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York=



Business and Personal.


_Any person having a new invention may, without charge, consult MUNN &
CO., Scientific American Office, 361 Broadway, New York, for advice how
to obtain a Patent or Caveat. Our Hand Book of Instructions relating to
Patents sent free._



_Practical Working Drawings_ of machinery made by A. K. Mansfield & Co.,
280 Broadway, N. Y. Life‐long mechanics. One formerly R. R. supt. M. P.
Important references. Work guaranteed. Correspondence invited.

For Sale—22 unbound volumes SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, of old dates. Also a
lot of odd numbers, in good order. For a descriptive list address I. R.
Hudson, 212 East 14th St., New York.

All kinds wood engraving. Perfect; lowest rate; sell engr. tools,
mate’l, machs. N. H.  Taylor, Wyandotte, Kan.

Portable grinding mills. Chas. Kaestner & Co., Chicago, Ill.

Engines and boilers. Chas. Kaestner & Co., Chicago, Ill.

For Sale—The following braiding machines: 2 nine carriers, 1 twelve
carriers, 2 thirteen carriers, 1 sixteen carriers, 1 twenty carriers,
1 twenty‐one carriers. Also three looms, 24 and 30 shuttles. All the
above will be sold cheap. Raymold & Whitlock, 99 Fourth Ave., N. Y.

Wanted—New invention or novelty for the English market by a
first‐class London house, having a large connection among shippers,
warehousemen, drapers, etc. Address “Everclean,” 100 Wood St., London,
England.

_Lacquers._—Zapon, Brilliantine, Brassoline, Opaline, and other
lacquers and special varnishes. _Brilliant, hard, durable._ Send for
catalogue. The Fred’k Crane Chemical Co., Short Hills, N. J. N. Y.
agent, Horace Van Sands, 733 Broadway.

For the best and cheapest 4 Horse Engine, address Peter Walrath,
Chittenango, N. Y.

Perforated metals of all kinds for all purposes. The Robert Aitchison
Perforated Metal Co., Chicago, Ill.

For the latest improved diamond prospecting drills, address the M. C.
Bullock Mfg. Co., 138 Jackson St., Chicago, Ill.

The _Railroad Gazette_, handsomely illustrated, published weekly, at
73 Broadway, New York. Specimen copies free. Send for catalogue of
railroad books.

The Knowles Steam Pump Works, 113 Federal St., Boston, and 93 Liberty
St., New York, have just issued a new catalogue, in which are many
new and improved forms of Pumping Machinery of the single and duplex,
steam and power type. This catalogue will be mailed free of charge on
application.

_Link Belting_ and Wheels. Link Belt M. Co., Chicago.

Presses & Dies. Ferracute Mach. Co., Bridgeton, N. J.

Nickel Plating.—Sole manufacturers cast nickel anodes, pure nickel
salts, polishing compositions, etc. $100 “_Little Wonder_.” A perfect
Electro Plating Machine. Sole manufacturers of the new Dip Lacquer
Kristaline. Complete outfit for plating, etc. Hanson, Van Winkle & Co.,
Newark, N. J., and 92 and 94 Liberty St., New York.

Iron Planer, Lathe, Drill, and other machine tools of modern design.
New Haven Mfg. Co., New Haven, Conn.

Supplement Catalogue.—Persons in pursuit of information of any special
engineering, mechanical, or scientific subject, can have catalogue
of contents of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT sent to them free.
The SUPPLEMENT contains lengthy articles embracing the whole range
of engineering, mechanics, and physical science. Address Munn & Co.,
Publishers, New York.

The Holly Manufacturing Co., of Lockport, N. Y., will send their
pamphlet, describing water works machinery, and containing reports of
tests, on application.

Curtis Pressure Regulator and Steam Trap. See p. 301.

Planing and Matching Machines. All kinds Wood Working Machinery. C. B.
Rogers & Co., Norwich, Conn.

For best leather belting and lace leather, including Hercules, see Page
Belting Co.’s adv., p. 318.

Iron, Steel, and Copper Drop Forgings of every description. Billings &
Spencer Co., Hartford, Conn.

Paint mills. Chas. Kaestner & Co., Chicago, Ill.

Pat. Geared Scroll Chucks, with 3 pinions, sold at same prices as
common chucks by Cushman Chuck Co., Hartford, Conn.

Steam Hammers, Improved Hydraulic Jacks, and Tube Expanders. R.
Dudgeon, 24 Columbia St., New York.

60,000 _Emerson’s_ 1887 ☞ Book of superior saws, with Supplement,
sent free to all Sawyers and Lumbermen. Address Emerson, Smith & Co.,
Limited, Beaver Falls, Pa., U. S. A.

Safety Elevators, steam and belt power; quick and smooth. D. Frisbie &
Co., 112 Liberty St., New York.

“How to Keep Boilers Clean.” Send your address for free 88 page book.
Jas. C. Hotchkiss, 120 Liberty St., N. Y.

Pays well on Small Investment.—Stereopticons, Magic Lanterns, and
Views illustrating every subject for public exhibitions. Lanterns for
colleges, Sunday schools, and home amusements. 152 page illustrated
catalogue free. McAllister, Manufacturing Optician, 49 Nassau St., N. Y.

Ax handle and spoke lathes. Railway cutting off saw machines. Rollstone
Machine Co., Fitchburg, Mass.

Best belt hooks are Talcott’s. Providence, R. I.



[Illustration:

PROSPECTUS

  =OF THE
  Scientific American
  FOR 1888.=]

=The Most Popular Scientific Paper in the World.=

=Only $3.00 a Year, including Postage. Weekly. 52 Numbers a Year.=

=This widely circulated= and splendidly illustrated paper is published
weekly. Every number contains sixteen pages of useful information and a
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representing Engineering Works, Steam Machinery, New Inventions,
Novelties in Mechanics, Manufactures, Chemistry, Electricity,
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Natural History, etc.

=All Classes of Readers= find in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN a popular
_resume_ of the best scientific information of the day; and it is the
aim of the publishers to present it in an attractive form, avoiding
as much as possible abstruse terms. To every intelligent mind,
this journal affords a constant supply of instructive reading. It
is promotive of knowledge and progress in every community where it
circulates.

=Terms of Subscription.=—One copy of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN will be
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  MUNN & CO.,
  361 Broadway, New York.


  =THE
  Scientific American Supplement.=

This is a separate and distinct publication from _The Scientific
American_, but is uniform therewith in size, every number containing
sixteen large pages. THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT is published
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A vast amount of fresh and valuable information pertaining to these
and allied subjects is given, the whole profusely illustrated with
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_The most important Engineering Works_, Mechanisms, and Manufactures at
home and abroad are represented and described in the SUPPLEMENT.

Price for the SUPPLEMENT for the United States and Canada, $5.00 a
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  =MUNN & Co., 361 Broadway, N. Y.,=
  Publishers SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.


=To Foreign Subscribers.=—Under the facilities of the Postal Union,
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MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York.



  THE TIFFANY
  GLASS COMPANY
  MEMORIAL WINDOWS
  GLASS WORK
  DECORATIONS

_Designs and Estimates submitted_.

  LOUIS C. TIFFANY, _Pres_.
  PRINGLE MITCHELL, _M’ger_.
  JOHN DU FAIS, _Sec_.
  JOHN C. PLATT, _Treas_.

  333–335 Fourth Ave., New York City.
  509 Pullman Building, Chicago.



[Illustration: Building with Towers.]

=The Old Bangor Slate Company=

  F. C. YARNALL, President,
  PHILADELPHIA.

  I. S. MOYER, Sec. & Treas.,
  BETHLEHEM, PA.

This Company is the original operator in the Bangor Valley, and
continues to manufacture the Blue Roofing Slates which have become so
celebrated for fineness of texture and uniformity of color.

We also beg to call the special attention of Architects and Builders to
the fact that we have perfected a system by which we can furnish Slates
with Sawed Edges of suitable size and curve for Towers or Domes of any
size or shape.

Working Drawings should be furnished, in which case we can
=guarantee= a perfect job.

Address Correspondence to

  =The Old Bangor Slate Company,
  At Office, BETHLEHEM, PA.=



  =INVALUABLE BOOKS=
  FOR THE
  =MECHANIC, ENGINEER,
  AND CHEMIST.
  REVISED TO DATE.=


=Nystrom’s Pocket‐Book of Mechanics and Engineering.=

=Nineteenth Edition, Revised and Greatly Enlarged with Original Matter.
By Wm. Dennis Marks, Ph.B., C.E. (Yale S.S.S.) Illustrated. 16mo.
$3.50.=

“A library in itself, giving a little of everything that the
engineer and mechanic will need to know to aid them in every‐day
practice.”—_Industrial World_, Chicago.


=Marks on the Steam Engine.=

=Third Edition, Revised. Enlarged, and Interleaved.=

=The Relative Proportions of the Steam Engine. By Wm. D. Marks. With
numerous Illustrations. 12mo. Extra Cloth. $3.00.=

“A work of inestimable value to every mechanic, containing as it does,
rules, tables, and directions in regard to the steam engine which come
into use in every‐day practical life of the engineer.”—_San Francisco
Wood and Iron._


  =Elements of Modern Chemistry.=
  (=_WURTZ_.=)

=New Edition, Thoroughly Revised. Translated by W. H. Greene. 12mo.
Cloth. $2.50. Sheep. $3.00.=

“A valuable work as a class‐book, and a most interesting and
instructive volume for the general reader.”—_New York School Journal_.

If not obtainable at your Booksellers’, send direct to the Publishers,
who will forward the books, FREE OF POSTAGE, promptly on
receipt of the price.

  =J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
  PUBLISHERS,
  715 and 717 Market St., Philadelphia.=



=Red‐Letter Days Abroad.= By John L. Stoddard, author of “The Stoddard
Lectures,” etc. 8vo. With illustrations. In box, $5; in morocco, $10.
New Library edition, $3.50, in half calf, $7.

Laurence Hutton’s =Literary Landmarks of London.= 12mo. $1.50.

J. R. G. Hassard’s =A Pickwickian Pilgrimage.= $1.

William Winter’s =Shakespeare’s England.= 50 cents.

William Winter’s =English Rambles.= 12mo. $1.50.

William Winter’s =The Trip to England.= Ill’d. $2.

Robert Laird Collier’s =English Home Life.= $1.

Mrs. Lew Wallace’s =The Storied Sea.= 16mo. $1.

Henry James’s =Portraits of Places.= $1.50.

Henry James’s =A Little Tour in France.= $1.50.

Hubbard’s =Woods and Lakes of Maine.= $3.

Jane G. Austin’s =Nantucket Scraps.= $1.50.

Miss E. B. Chase’s =Over the Border.= Ill’d. $1.50.

Clarence King’s =Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada.= With maps.
12mo. $2.

L. H. Weeks’s =Among the Azores.= Ill’d. $1.50.

Waring’s =The Bride of the Rhine.= Ill’d. $1.50.

Mrs. Dahlgren’s =South‐Sea Sketches.= $1.50.

D. J. Snider’s =Walk in Hellas= (Modern Greece). $2.50.

=Geraldine.= A sumptuous illustrated edition.

=Scott’s Poems.= New holiday edition. 350 illustrations.

=Swanee River.= A beautiful illustrated book.

=My Old Kentucky Home.= Richly illustrated.

=Juan and Juanita.= By Frances C. Baylor.

=Fools of Nature.= An Anti‐Spiritualist novel.

=Under Pine and Palm.= By Frances L. Mace.

=Sobriquets and Nicknames.= A reference book.

=A Flock of Girls.= By Nora Perry.

=The New Astronomy.= By Prof. S. P. Langley.

=Carlyle‐Emerson Correspondence.=

=Hawthorne and His Wife.= New editions. Each in two volumes. With
illustrations. Per set, $3.00; in half calf, $6.00.

=Japanese Homes.= By Prof. E. S. Morse.

=Chosön: The Land of the Morning Calm (Korea).= By Percival
Lowell. New editions. Each in one volume. 12mo. Illustrated. Per
volume, $3.00; in half calf, $6.00.


=THE TICKNOR SERIES OF OCTAVO POETS.=

LIBRARY EDITION.

  =The Lady of the Lake.=
  =The Lay of the Last Minstrel.=
  =Marmion.=
  =The Princess.=
  =Childe Harold.=
  =Lucile.=

Six volumes, elegantly and uniformly bound, with all the original
illustrations, beveled boards, and full gilt. In cloth. Each, $3.50. In
tree calf or antique morocco, $7.50.

These are the most famous and popular editions in existence of great
poems. In their original shape they have had enormous sales, and in
their cheaper form, with all their original illustrations, complete and
unworn, they will have renewed popularity.

Also uniform with the above in style and price, cheaper editions of the
beautifully illustrated

=Tuscan Cities.= By W. D. Howells.

=Red‐Letter Days Abroad.= By J. L. Stoddard.

⁂ _For sale by all booksellers. Sent, post‐paid, on receipt of the
price by the publishers,_

=TICKNOR & CO., BOSTON.=



[Illustration: J. Rayner.

IMPORTER AND MANUFACTURER

MAHOGANY

CABINET Woods and Veneers.

  FOOT. EAST HOUSTON Sᵀ
  NEW YORK.

  275–289 EAST 20ᵀᴴ ST
  CHICAGO, ILL.]



HOT‐WATER HEATING,

[Illustration: Water Heater.]

[Illustration: Water Heater.]

For Greenhouses and Dwellings

HITCHINGS & CO.,

233 Mercer Street, N. Y.

SEND 3 CENTS POSTAGE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.



VIOLIN OUTFITS.

Consisting of Violin Box, Bow, and Teacher, sent to any part of the
United States on 1 to 3 days’ trial before buying.

[Illustration: Violin.]

  =Violin
  Outfits.=

=at $4, $8, $15 and $25 each. Send Stamp for= Beautiful Illustrated
96‐page Catalogue of Violins, Guitars, Banjos, Cornets, Flutes,
Strings, etc. Lowest prices. Mail orders a specialty.

  =C. W. STORY, 26
  Central Street, Boston, Mass.=



[Illustration: PRICE $193.]

WE SELL DIRECT TO FAMILIES—

(avoid Agents and Dealers whose profits and expenses double the cost on
every Piano they sell) and send this First‐Class UPRIGHT Cabinet GEM 7½
Octave Rosewood Piano, Warranted 6 years, for =$193!= We send it—with
Beautiful Cover and Stool—for Trial in your own Home before you buy.
Send for circulars to

=Marchal & Smith, 235 East 21st St., N. Y.=



  ICE & REFRIGERATING
  Machines. York Patent.
  =YORK MFG.
  CO., York, Pa.=



[Illustration: Trade Mark.]

Warren’s Natural Asphalt Roofing.

FINALLY PERFECTED AND TESTED BY TEN YEARS OF PRACTICAL USE.

Over 15,000,000 square feet, or 350 acres, of this roofing have been
laid within the past ten years. =Superior= to all other for flat roofs.

Much more durable than coal tar materials, because it remains
practically unchanged when exposed to the weather.

An Asphalt roof emits no odor, and does not injure rain water.

References to many of the best buildings throughout the country given
on application.

  =“Composite” Felt
  FOR ROOF FOUNDATIONS.=

A two‐ply composed of one layer of saturated felt and one of Manila
rope paper. Combines durability and strength with lightness and
pliability.

Send for Circulars and Samples.

  =Warren Chemical and Manufacturing Co.,
  114 JOHN ST., N. Y.
  101 MILK ST., BOSTON.=



BEATTY ORGANS

For $37.50 worth $75

  $400.00 Organs only $80.00
  $1200.00 Pianos for $250.00

Other BARGAINS, write for catalogue. Address,

=DANIEL F. BEATTY, Washington, New Jersey=



[Illustration: A POINTER!]

We can offer to your advantage
GLUE.

  ORANGE     {=SHELLAC=,}   WHITE
    GUM      {          }    GUM
  SHELLAC    {=VARNISH=.}  SHELLAC

=WOOD ALCOHOL,

WOOD STAIN.=

  F. W. THURSTON & CO.
  IMPORTERS,
  CHICAGO.



F. W. DEVOE & CO.

(Established 1852)

  =PURE
  MIXED
  PAINTS=

We desire to call attention of consumers to the fact that we guarantee
our ready mixed paints to be made only of pure linseed oil and the most
permanent pigments. They are not “Chemical,” “Rubber,” “Patent,” or
“Fireproof.” We use no secret or patent method in manufacturing them by
which benzine and water are made to serve the purpose of pure linseed
oil. Sample cards, containing 50 desirable shades, sent on application.

  =FINE VARNISHES,
  WOOD FILLERS,
  WOOD STAINS.=

ARTISTS’ MATERIALS, MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS.

Catalogues of our different departments to responsible parties.

  =Cor. Fulton and
  William Sts.,
  NEW YORK.=

  =Coffin, Devoe & Co.,
  176 Randolph St.,
  CHICAGO.=



  ——THE——
  “Timby Burglar Proof Sash‐Lock & Ventilator.”

=PATENTED MARCH 29th, 1887.=

=MEETS A LONG FELT WANT.=

It is manufactured from the best MALLEABLE IRON and BRONZE METAL.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.

Section of Frame with Lock applied.

Thumb piece moved upward releasing upper sash.]

Is very simple in construction, strong and durable, absolutely Burglar
Proof, and a perfect ventilator; Automatic in action, easily applied
to any window, as it adjusts itself to varying thicknesses of Sash, or
inside stops.

  Only One Lock is Required for
  =A WINDOW.=

As it controls both Sash perfectly, bolting either or both securely in
any position desired, thereby affording means for perfect ventilation,
and at the same time absolute security against Burglars and Sneak
Thieves.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.

Back view of Lock and operating device.

Thumb piece moved upward and bolt thrown back, same as in Fig. 1.]

It is =easily operated, ornamental in appearance=, and does not
interfere with applying weather strips or inside blinds, and is =the
only Side Sash Mortise Lock that= can be used =in connection with
inside screens=, it having been constructed with special reference
to the same. As a rule, =Burglars and Sneak Thieves= have little
difficulty in entering dwellings through windows because of their
insecure fastenings. Hence it is just as important that =each and every
window= should be provided with a =good substantial lock= as that the
front door should be.

=Buy the Timby Burglar Proof, and take no other. The Convenience
and Absolute Security afforded will be ample reward. Full Directions
and Pattern for setting accompany each Lock Sold.=

For further information apply to =I. G. JENKINS, Oswego, N. Y.=



E. J. JOHNSON,

ROOFING SLATE

MARBLEIZED SLATE MANTELS, SLATE HEARTHS, SILLS, LINTELS, ETC.

=SLATE NAILS, ROOFING FELT, SLATERS’ CEMENT, ETC.=

ESTIMATES FURNISHED ON ALL SLATE WORK.

QUARRY, BANGOR, PA.

OFFICE, 18 BURLINGTON SLIP, N. Y.



  =ADAMANT=
  WALL PLASTER.
  MANUFACTURED BY

  Adamant
  Manufacturing
  Company.

OFFICE

  32 EAST GENESEE STREET,
  SYRACUSE, N. Y.

=The New, Cheap, and Only Superior Substitute for Common Plaster.=

It is hard as marble, and will last as long as the building.

It does away with the warping and shrinking of doors and casings, it
not being necessary, as with common plaster, to saturate the building
with water.

It costs but little more than lime plaster, and its superior qualities
make it immeasurably cheaper.

It saves waiting several weeks or months for the building to dry out. A
room finished one day can be occupied the next.

It does not crack or fall off, even in case of leakages.

It is applied easily by any good mason.

It is the only material with which repairing can be done neatly and “to
stay.”

☞ For Prices and Estimates, or Further Information, Apply to or Address
the Company.



IMPORTANT

To Architects, Builders, House‐Painters, Decorators, Boat‐Builders and
Yachtsmen desiring an _extremely durable_ Finish for Wood.

[Illustration: ROSENBERG’S

ELASTICA

TRADE MARK

REGISTERED

FINISHES

NO. 1 & NO. 2.]

Are superior to any Varnishes or Wood‐Finishes in the market, for the
following reasons, viz.:

=They possess more body, higher luster, greater resisting properties
to atmospheric influences, action of water and alkali, are more
elastic, will not scratch or mar white, and are more durable.=

  =For all classes=
  Inside Work,
  =Requiring great durability, use No. 2 ELASTICA FINISH.=

  =For=
  Outside Work,
  =Requiring extreme durability, use No. 1 ELASTICA FINISH.=

  WORKS:
  734–740 East 14th Street,
  733–739 East 13th Street,
  199–207 Avenue D.

  Manufactured by
  STANDARD VARNISH WORKS,
  D. ROSENBERG & SONS,
  Office, 207 Avenue D,
  NEW YORK.

Send for Samples and Full Particulars.



[Illustration: Door Hanger.]

=The “Barry” Hanger.=

Each wheel on the =“Barry Hanger”= is on an independent axle. All other
hangers have the two wheels on =one axle=. Consequently, when one track
settles more than the other (as they frequently do), the =axle “tips,”=
and carries the door =side‐wise= toward the lowest track, causing an
unpleasant rubbing against the track or casings below. The =“Barry
Hanger”= overcomes this trouble, and a door will run as =easy= and
=true= in the =center=, when there is a variation of one half inch or
more in the height of the tracks, as it would when they are perfectly
level.

  —MANUFACTURED BY—
  SYRACUSE BOLT CO.,
  SYRACUSE, N. Y.



BUFF AND BLUE

AMHERST AND BEREA

SANDSTONE

Sawed stone of all kinds. Sawed and split flagging, curbing and gutter
stone and bridge stone.

THE CLEVELAND STONE CO., CLEVELAND, O.

Send for illustrated catalogue.



EXCELLENT BLACK COPIES of Architectural Drawings, Sketches, etc., by
the Patent

AUTOCOPYIST

Only equalled by Lithography.

Specimen Free.

AUTOCOPYIST CO., 166 William St., New York.



⁂ PECORA ⁂ MORTAR ⁂ COLORS ⁂

[Illustration:

  Office
  JOHN M. SHARP,
  BUILDER,
  1936 SOUTH COLLEGE AVENUE,
  PHILADELPHIA.

Telephone 3454

Philadelphia, Jan. 27, 1887

Mess. S. Bowens Sons

Dr Sirs

After using a large quantity of your Red & Black I have found them
entirely satisfactory and in all respects the best colors I have
handled.

Yrs respectfully

John M Sharp]

S. BOWEN’S SONS, 150 North 4th St., Philadelphia.



[Illustration: THE BRIDGEPORT WOOD FINISHING CO.

G. M. BREINIG, AGENT, PRINCIPAL OFFICE AT MANUFACTORY NEW MILFORD, CONN.

NEW YORK BUSINESS OFFICE, 96–98 MAIDEN LANE. MANUFACTURERS OF

WHEELERS PATENT WOOD FILLER

BREINIG’S LITHOGEN SILICATE PAINT.

LITHOGEN PRIMER, WOOD STAINS

SILEX FLINT AND FELDSPAR.

PAMPHLET GIVING DIRECTIONS FOR FINISHING HARD WOOD FREE TO ANY ADDRESS.]



  =DRAW KNIFE CHAMFERER,=
  with adjusting screw to set it to the width of CHAMFER wanted.

[Illustration: PAT. JULY 19, 87.]

For sale by the

=Jobbing and Retail Hardware Dealers.=

Sent to any address on receipt of 60c.

=J. H. HOAGUE, TOOL MFR., CHICOPEE, MASS.=



=Two‐Horse Power Engine. $75.=

[Illustration: Engine.]

WITH STEEL BOILER, $150.

=Cheap, Reliable, Safe.=

Automatic Boiler Feed. Automatic Pop Safety Valve, Steel Boiler. Cost
of running guaranteed not to exceed three cents per hour. Nothing equal
to it ever before offered for the price. Larger sizes equally low. Send
for free descriptive circular.

  CHAS. P. WILLARD & CO.,
  236 Randolph Street, Chicago, Ill.



=SHIELDS & BROWN CO.=

=Manufacturers of Sectional=

[Illustration: INSULATED AIR COVERS]

—FOR—

=Steam, Gas and Water Pipes, Drums, Heaters, etc.=

=The Best Non‐Conductor of Heat & Cold in the World.=

Send for illustrated descriptive Circular, and name this paper.

  143 Worth Street,
  NEW YORK.

  78 and 80 Lake St.,
  CHICAGO.



[Illustration: Screw Plates.

THE NEW LITTLE GIANT]

  =Send for
  CATALOGUE
  F. F. F.=

[Illustration: Adjustable Die.]

=WELLS BROS. & CO., GREENFIELD, MASS.=

MANUFACTURERS OF

=Screw Cutting Machinery and Tools for Machinists’, Carriage Makers’,
and Blacksmiths’ Use.=



[Illustration: Portrait.]

  COLEMAN NAT’L BUSINESS COLLEGE.
  Newark, N. J.

National Patronage, Best Facilities, Best course of Business Training,
Shortest Time, Lowest Rates, No Vacation.

Address, H. COLEMAN, Pres.



ESTABLISHED 1843.

Manufacturers of

=Stable Fittings and Fixtures,=

=IMPROVED and PATENTED

IRON, BRASS, BRONZED and NICKEL‐PLATED=

POULTRY YARD APPLIANCES, ETC.

Low estimates furnished to Architects, Builders, Carpenters, Masons,
etc.

=Catalogue Mailed on Application.=

SAMUEL S. BENT & SON,

=No. 111 Chambers St., New York, N. Y.=



  EVERY VARIETY OF
  PLAIN and FIRE PROOF
  =BUILDING PAPER,=
  ASBESTOS PAPERS,

Waterproof and Inodorous Papers, Plain and Corrugated Carpet Linings,
Deadening Felts, Roofing Materials, Tarred Board, &c., &c.

  =Two and Three Ply
  Keystone Prepared Roofing=

Send for Samples and Delivered Price List “B.”

H. F. WATSON, Manufactu’r, ERIE, PA.

=Daily Capacity of Mills, 60 Tons.=



[Illustration: Man Operating Scroll Saw.]

  =CHANDLER & FARQUHAR
  177 Washington St.
  BOSTON.=

New England Agents for

BARNES’ FOOT POWER MACHINERY

AND DEALERS IN

=Machinists’ Supplies of Every Kind=

Send two stamps for illus. catalogue



=WELL=

Encyclopedia of 700 Engravings of WELL TOOLS,

Diamond Drills and Lightning Hydraulic WELL Machines.

Book free, 25c. for mailing it.

  American Well Works,
  Aurora, Ill.



Architectural Sheet‐Metal Works.

  Metal Building Trimmings, Ventilating Skylights,
  Metallic Roofing Tiles, Building Specialties,
  Builders’ Light Iron Work.

J. S. THORN,

No. 1201 Callowhill St., Philadelphia, Pa.



[Illustration:
 N. CHENEY.
 C. HEWLETT.

CHENEY & HEWLETT

ARCHITECTURAL IRON WORKS.

EVERY VARIETY OF WROUGHT AND CAST IRON WORK FOR BUILDINGS.

  OFFICE 201 BROADWAY.
  NEW YORK.

BOOK GIVING STRENGTH OF WROUGHT IRON GIRDERS, BEAMS AND CAST IRON
COLUMNS, MAILED ON APPLICATION.
]



=ARCHITECTURAL AND ORNAMENTAL=

  =IRON STAIRS, GRILLES,
  GUARDS, GATES, RAILING.=

Special attention to Ornamental Work.

=Vault, Area, and Skylight (Cement and Iron).=

Designs, Estimates, and Catalogues on application.

MANLY & COOPER MFG. CO.

4150 Elm Ave., Philadelphia. 271 Broadway, N. Y.



=ESTABLISHED 1844.=

=SAMUEL H. FRENCH & CO.,=

=York Avenue, Fourth and Callowhill Sts.,=

PHILADELPHIA, PA.

=PAINT MANUFACTURERS.=

Strictly Pure Lead, Zinc and Colors, Dry, in Oil, Japan, and Ready
Mixed for Use.

  PEERLESS
  MORTAR COLORS

=BLACK, BROWN, BUFF, AND RED.=

Masons’ and Builders’ Supplies.

SEND FOR CATALOGUE AND CIRCULARS.



HOYT & BROTHER

[Illustration: Woodworking Machine.]

  Manufacturing Co.,
  =AURORA, ILL.=

  MANUFACTURERS OF
  =Machinery for Working Wood.=

=Planing Mill Machinery a Specialty.=

Send for Catalogue.



CHILTON PAINTS.

The Chilton Manuf’g Co. would call the attention of Architects and
persons desiring a good article to their Pure Linseed Oil Paints. The
most durable and therefore the most economical in use. Sample cards of
colors sent on application.


  =147 Fulton St., New York.
  141 Milk Street, Boston.=



HULL’S

  Patent Wrought Iron Steel Dome
  FURNACE.
  (PATENTED SEPTEMBER 5th, 1882.)

[Illustration: Furnace.]

Unequaled for Heating Power, Durability, and Freedom from Gas.

Send for Circular and References.

Four Sizes.

Portable and Brick Set.

Shaking and Dumping Grate.

No Charge for Estimating.

  MANUFACTURED AND SET BY
  HULL, GRIPPEN & CO.
  310 & 312 THIRD AVENUE, NEW YORK.



=THE IMPROVED FLORIDA=

=STEAM HEATER=

[Illustration: Steam Heater.]

The best and most complete House Heater in the world. Self‐feeding,
automatic, portable and saves all expense of brick‐work. Most
economical. Carries steam from 10 to 12 hours without attention.
Compact. 14 sizes, from 4 to 6 feet high. Anti‐clinker grate, easily
shaken, no dust. Sales larger than the combined sales of all reputable
Steam Heaters.

=3500 in ACTUAL USE,=

all giving the best satisfaction. Estimates furnished on application.
Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Address

  =PIERCE, BUTLER & PIERCE MFG. CO.,=
  SOLE MANUFACTURERS, SYRACUSE, N. Y.

GENERAL AGENCIES

  GEO. B COBB, 97 William St., New York, N. Y.
  CRANE BROS. MFG. CO., Chicago, Ill.
  JAS. B. ROBERTSON & CO., Baltimore, Md.
  N. O. NELSON MFG. CO., St. Louis, Mo.
  B. TABER & SON, Chicago, Ill.
  JAMES P. WOOD & CO., Philadelphia, Pa.



Black Diamond Steel Dome Furnaces.

[Illustration: Furnace.]

ALL SIZES.

Patent Self‐Cleaning Ash Pit Obviates labor, dirt, and annoyance. Sure
preventive from fire caused by hot ashes.

  Patented and Manufactured by
  The Schoen Heater and Stove Co.

PORTABLE and BRICK SET.

Common Sense Clinker‐Crushing Grate. Great saving of labor and fuel.

Perfect Dump.

Office and Salesroom

  13 North Eleventh St.
  Philadelphia.

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.

AGENTS WANTED IN EVERY TOWN.



GAS FIXTURES

[Illustration:
  BENJ. THACKARA
  CHAS. THACKARA
  A. M. THACKARA

  Chandeliers,
  Lanterns, Brackets,
  Electroliers,
  Ecclesiastical Decorations,
  Lamps,
  and Grills
  IN ALL
  Metals.

Designs Furnished, Estimates Given.

Correspondence Solicited.

Holiday Goods.

Bric‐a‐Brac.

  THACKARA SONS & CO.,
  1300 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.]



Bartlett’s Wrought‐Iron, Brick‐Lined Portable Furnace.

THE VETERAN,

For fifty years has proven the Veteran’s Power, Durability, Efficiency,
and Reliability.

[Illustration:
  HOT AIR
  RADIATOR
  STEEL DOME

  JOB BARTLETT’s SONS
  PHILAD.

  USE EGG COAL

  CLEAN OUT
  AND
  CHECK DOOR

  VETERAN PORTABLE
  HEATER

  ASHPIT MUST BE KEPT
  CLEAN

  COLD AIR

  PATD SEP. 5. 1882
  AND JULY 20. 1886
]

  NO DUST,
  NO GAS,
  NO SMOKE,
  NO DAMPERS.

_No Overheated Cast‐iron Surfaces._

=Fire Clay Lined Fire Chambers.=

The Veteran is made of Heavy Boiler Plate Iron. A Shaking and Dumping
Grate is attached, which will give you great satisfaction in its
control and management. Pure warm air in great abundance. Every furnace
is warranted to give perfect satisfaction.

  =ESTABLISHED 1847.
  Job Bartlett’s Sons, 10th & Filbert Sts., Phila.
  ESTIMATES AND ADVICE FREE.=



The Globe Steam Heater

[Illustration:

  DAMPER
  SAFETY VALVE
  TO DRAFT DOOR]

Has been thoroughly tried in many private and public buildings and
always found to be the best. Very economical, and easily managed.

Large surface exposed directly to the fire. Ask for all particulars
before you place your order for any other.

=THE GLOBE SAFETY DAMPER REGULATOR SHOULD BE USED ON EVERY STEAM
HEATER IN USE.=

For new Illustrated Price List of Globe Steam Heating Appliances,
address

=Globe Steam Heater Co., North Wales, Pa.=



[Illustration: THE DECORATOR AND FURNISHER.

FLEMING BREWSTER & ALLEY. N. Y.

PRESIDENT’S OFFICE OF THE DECORATOR AND FURNISHER COMPANY.]

The Decorator and Furnisher.

A magnificently illustrated magazine devoted to the one subject of home
adornment, both in furnishing and decorating. It is an artistic and
practical answer to every inquiry and want in beautifying the home.

_The Decorator and Furnisher_ contains original designs and articles on
decoration by the best writers and most prominent artists.

The most successful magazine of its kind in this country, and it
deserves all the prosperity it enjoys.—_Buffalo News._

Yearly Subscription. $4.00. Single Copies, 35c.

_30 & 32 East 14th St., New‐York._



ART STAINED GLASS

FOR CHURCHES, DWELLINGS, Etc.

Keystone Stained Glass Works,

271 SOUTH 5th ST., PHILADELPHIA.



THE IMPROVED ECONOMY

Combination Steam and Warm Air

=HEATER=

IN ITS MANY POINTS OF MERIT

LEADS EVERY HEATER MADE.

  SIMPLE, PRACTICAL, ECONOMICAL,
  EMBODYING
  DURABILITY and ABSOLUTE SAFETY.

[Illustration: The Combination Heater.]

=Low Pressure=, Radiates Heat with from 1½ to 3 pounds of
Steam. One fire generates both Warm Air and Steam, increasing its
capacity 25 per cent. over any All‐Steam Apparatus. Automatically
regulated, maintaining a uniform temperature.

=Our System of Warming Buildings with Steam Radiation and Warm Air
insures=

PERFECT VENTILATION.

  THE ECONOMY WARM AIR FURNACES
  Have a reputation that is neither excelled nor equalled for
  DURABILITY, POWER, AND ECONOMY,
  =and are guaranteed in every respect.=

SEND FOR NEW 72 PAGE CATALOGUE,

giving full particulars, descriptions, and illustrations of 7 different
styles of the

  Combination Heaters
  AND THE
  Economy Warm Air
  FURNACES.

  Manufactured solely by the
  J. F. Pease Furnace Co.,
  Syracuse, N. Y., and Toronto, Ont.

=Eastern Agents.=—EARL B. CHACE & CO., 206 Water St.,
New York; JOHN DEMAREST, General New England Agent, 112
Portland St., Boston; W. H. FENNER & CO., Providence.

=Western Agents.=—ADKINS & HOFFMAN, 177 East Randolph
St., Chicago, Ill.; GOSS HEATING & PLUMBING CO., 703 Main St.,
Kansas City, Mo.; ARTHUR A. POND, 35 Washington Ave. South,
Minneapolis, Minn.; GAGE & HORTON MFG. CO., 1231 Olive St.,
St. Louis, Mo.

[Illustration: The Double Radiator Economy Warm Air Furnace.]



=The M. H. JACOBS’ FURNACE CO.,=

Manufacturers of the celebrated wrought iron =spiral= radiator and
steel dome portable

  WARM AIR
  FURNACES

With Hot Water Attachment.

Most Perfect and Durable

  =THE KING
  of HEATERS=

[Illustration: Furnace.]

It wears the Crown of Superiority.

  Most Economical
  AND
  POWERFUL.

The Spiral Radiator is exciting universal attention and careful
examination by the public, as evidenced by the drift of popular favor.
A cursory examination alone is sufficient to show its merits and
superiority. It combines all the requisites of a successful furnace,
viz.: Future Maintenance, Efficiency, and Power to Economize and
Radiate the Heat Desired. No less attention has been given to the
qualities upon which depend the health and vitality of our families.

MANUFACTURED BY

=M. H. JACOBS’ FURNACE CO., Syracuse, N. Y.=



“=THE AUBURN=”

STEAM HEATING BOILERS,

Automatic, Self‐Feeding, Portable.

[Illustration: Steam Boiler.]

Requires attention but once in from twelve to twenty‐four hours. Fuel
magazine surrounded by water. Self‐locking shaking grate. Waste of coal
_impossible_. _No dust._ _No gas._

  The Woodcock Patent Shaking Grate,
  For Boiler Furnaces of all Descriptions

Saves its cost in a year, supplanting all other shaking grates. No
waste of coal. No burnt or broken grates. Self‐locking, and as nearly
automatic as a grate can be made.

Send for Illustrated Catalogue.

Woodcock & Co., Auburn, N. Y.



Notes and Queries.

(_Continued from page_ vi.)

so as to form a mixture having the consistency of cream, and apply it
immediately with a brush. If this composition be allowed to remain for
a day or two, and be then washed off with soap and water, the marble
will appear as though it were new.

(6) J. M. D. asks: Is there any virtue in the “divining rod,” so
called, as a means of determining the locality of hidden streams of
water? A. None whatever. The bobbing of the stick is due to a muscular
pressure by the holder.

(7) C. W. C. desires (1) a recipe for a stain to imitate mahogany on
white birch wood, that will not raise the grain of the wood. A. A dark
mahogany stain is made as follows: Boil half a pound of madder and 2
ounces of logwood chips in 1 gallon of water, and brush well over the
wood while hot; when dry, go over the whole with pearlash solution,
2 drachms to the quart. 2. Can you give recipe for making the acid
stain? A. In the acid stain you take nitric acid, and dilute with 10
parts of water, and wash the wood with it. 3. Are there any books which
give full directions for imitating the different woods? A. We would
recommend for your purpose Spons’ Workshop Receipts (second series),
which we can send you, postpaid, for $2.00.

(8) A subscriber asks how to make spirit varnish suitable for
varnishing carved wood. A. Take 1 ounce copal and ½ ounce shellac;
powder them well, and put them into a bottle or jar containing 1 quart
alcohol. Place the mixture in a warm place and shake it occasionally
until the gums are completely dissolved; and when strained the varnish
will be ready for use.

(9) J. W. B. desires a recipe for some fire‐extinguishing liquid.
A. One of the best solutions for the extinction of incipient fires
consists of crude calcium chloride 20 parts, salt 5 parts, dissolved in
water 75 parts. Keep at hand, and apply with a hand pump.

(10) G. H. A. says: I have lately made a workshop of an upper room,
and have put in a lathe, boiler, and engine of a total weight of
2,400 pounds, resting upon 3 joists 3 inches by 9 inches by 16 feet 0
inches. Will it strengthen the floor sufficiently to enable it to carry
the increased weight if I bolt three 3 inch by 8 inch joists to the
existing ones? A. You had better use 4 inch by 8 inch joists bolted
with ⅜ inch bolts about 10 inches apart. Take care to provide solid
bearings for your new joists, wedging the ends up with tiles in cement.

(11) W. A. writes: I have noticed in your issue of the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN, at various times, the receipt for making a printing machine
called the hektograph. You also gave a recipe for making a black ink
to be used with the same. I have tried both, but I find a great
difficulty in gaining a success. I have tried the process for the ink
in the manner you describe, but I fail to produce any copies. Ink
is prepared with nigrosine. It will not create a bronze. Would you
therefore kindly direct me in the right direction, that is to say, to
get a black ink that can be used by the hektograph? A. The ink you
desire is made by dissolving soluble nigrosine (aniline black) in 5 to
7 parts of water. It should be a saturated solution and rather thick.
For use on the hektograph it is best to use a purple ink. See “The
Copying Pad,” etc., contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No.
438.

(12) A. C. R. writes: Can you recommend me a good rubber cement? I wish
to cement leather together, the cement to be waterproof, to resist oil,
and the leather to retain its elasticity after pressing. A. Dissolve
gutta percha in bisulphide of carbon; shave off the edges of the
leather, and pour on the cement; allow to evaporate to dryness. Then
put the two faces together, previously heating thoroughly, and press
until cool.

(13) G. F. asks the best kind of a vessel to make liquid gold in, for
potter’s use. A. Either a glass or a porcelain vessel will answer.

(14) W. J. M. asks how papier mache is made to stand the action of
water. A. Coat with a mixture made by fusing together equal parts
of pitch and gutta percha, to which is added two parts of linseed
oil containing five parts of litharge. Continue the heat until the
ingredients are uniformly commingled, and apply warm.

(15) J. D. & Co. ask a process to prevent the smuts from escaping in
the air from a lampblack house. A. Carry the outlet of your lampblack
chamber to one side and into the top of a vertical shaft, where place a
rose jet of water. Have the water drop vertically in an even spray, so
as to produce a draught down the shaft. The water will gather the waste
lampblack, which can be either utilized or run into the sewer. A vent
at the bottom of the shaft may connect with a chimney or into the open
air. A pump or city water supply will be required.

(16) W. D. G., Jr., asks how large a main pipe will be required to
supply 6 hydrants and 50 dwelling houses, the water to be brought 1
mile with a 70′ head; the hydrants to be used with a 1″ nozzle, and
there being no probability of more than two being required at a time?
A. About a 6″ pipe; a smaller one would not give the desired pressure
for hydrant uses.

(17) S. M. writes: Can you give a formula for a brilliant waterproof
finishing polish to be used on veneer after it is rubbed down with
pumice stone and water? The polish to be applied the same as French
polish. Use linseed oil 1½ pounds, amber 1 pound, litharge 5 ounces,
white lead, pulverized, 5 ounces, minium 5 ounces. Boil the linseed
oil in an untinned copper vessel, and suspend in it the litharge and
minium in a small bag, which must touch the bottom of the vessel.
Continue the boiling until the oil has acquired a deep brown color,
then take out of the bag and put in a clove of garlic; this is to be
repeated 7 or 8 times, the boiling being always continued. Before the
amber is added to the oil it is to be mixed with 2 ounces linseed oil
and melted over a fire that is well kept up. When the mass is fluid, it
is to be boiled and stirred continually for 2 or 3 minutes; afterward
filter the mixture, and preserve it in bottles tightly corked. When
this varnish is used, the wood must be previously well polished and
covered with a thin coat of soot and spirits of turpentine. When the
coat is dry some of the varnish may be applied, which should be equally
distributed on every part with a small, fine sponge. This operation
must be repeated four times, being always careful that each coat will
be well dried first. After the last coat of varnish, the wood must be
dried in an oven and afterward polished.

(18) G. P. writes: We want some plan to prevent the noise or work of
our lodge room (I.O.O.F.) from being heard in the room below; we have a
good floor and carpet, good partitions, walls plastered, etc., but are
willing to go to quite an expense to remedy the present defect on this
score. A. Probably you have no deafening under the floor. In such case
there are only two ways that we can suggest for your trouble: To take
up the floor and put in a plaster deafening between the seams. Next,
to take up the carpet and lay two thicknesses of roof felting or paper
boards (book‐binders’ boards might do, or paper carpet lining). Then
lay battens across the floor, and a new floor on the battens. Do not
nail the battens to the old floor. Then lay the carpet lining and the
carpet on the lining.

(19) W. A.—To clean marble from discoloration: Try 2 parts sodium
carbonate, 1 of pumice stone, and 1 of finely powdered chalk. Mix into
a fine paste with water. Rub this over the marble, and the stains will
be removed; then wash with soap and water.

(20) F. B. asks in regard to papier mache floor covering: 1. Will it
hurt to use printed paper? A. According to the article “A Papier Mache
Floor Covering” we find Manila paper recommended. It is very likely
that newspaper would answer, but it is by no means as strong an article
as the variety spoken of. 2. How thick will that covering be? A. The
thickness depends upon whether more than a single thickness of the
paper is used—probably from one‐sixteenth to one‐eighth of an inch in
thickness. 3. How long will it be before it is ready for use? A. That
depends entirely upon the drying; if artificial heat is applied, we
should think that the whole operation could be carried through and the
covering finished within a week.

(21) C. C. C. asks: Which would be the best test for water works—to
have three streams on one main near each other, or three streams on
different mains scattered over the town? The mains 8 inches, 6 inches,
and 4 inches, works half a mile from town. A. If you are testing in the
interest of contractors, place the trial streams as near the source of
supply as possible, and also near the 8 inch main. A fair test will be
to locate the streams widely apart on one distributing branch.

(22) F. L. asks how to imitate walnut graining. A. Try the following:
The wood, previously thoroughly dried and warmed, is coated once or
twice with a stain composed of 1 ounce extract of walnut peel dissolved
in 6 ounces of soft water by heating it to boiling, and stirring. The
wood, thus treated, when half dry is brushed with a solution of 1 ounce
potassium bichromate in 5 ounces boiling water, and is then allowed to
dry thoroughly, and is to be rubbed and polished as usual.

(23) Z. T. D. asks: How much water per second will flow through a 14
inch pipe, 80 feet long, with 8 feet head? Also, 18 inch and 21 inch
pipes, same conditions? A. The discharge for 14 inch pipe, 18 cubic
feet per second. For 18 inch pipe, 34 cubic feet per second. For 21
inch pipe, 50 cubic feet per second.



Full plans and specifications for any of the various buildings
illustrated in this work may be obtained, on very moderate terms, at
this office. These include churches, schools, dwellings, enlargements,
extensions, wings, etc. The two volumes for the past year, which may be
purchased for $3, contain nearly 200 elevations and many plans. Address
Munn & Co., 361 Broadway, Architects and Builders Edition SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN.



PATENTS.

Messrs. Munn & Co., in connection with the publication of the
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, continue to examine improvements, and to act as
Solicitors of Patents for Inventors.

In this line of business they have had _forty‐one years’ experience_,
and now have _unequaled facilities_ for the preparation of Patent
Drawings, Specifications, and the prosecution of Applications for
Patents in the United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs
Munn & Co. also attend to the preparation of Caveats, Copyrights for
Books, Labels, Reissues, Assignments, and Reports on Infringements of
Patents. All business intrusted to them is done with special care and
promptness, on very reasonable terms.

A pamphlet sent free of charge, on application, containing full
information about Patents and how to procure them; directions
concerning Labels, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reissues,
Infringements, Assignments, Rejected Cases, Hints on the Sale of
Patents, etc.

We also send, _free of charge_, a Synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws,
showing the cost and method of securing patents in all the principal
countries of the world.

  =MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents=,
  361 Broadway, New York.

BRANCH OFFICES.—No. 622 and 624 F Street, Pacific
Building, near 7th Street, Washington, D. C.



=Duplex Steam‐Heater Co.=

Manufacturers under FISKE’S PATENTS,

=10 Barclay Street, New York.=

[Illustration:

  _Simplest in Construction.
  Largest Steaming Capacity_.

WRITE FOR REFERENCES AND DISCOUNT.

Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price‐List.

AGENTS WANTED EVERYWHERE.]



=THE NEW ERA RADIATOR=

[Illustration: SEMI‐SECTIONAL VIEW.]

Will utilize the heat that now escapes up your chimney.

It will save =500= to =1,000= lbs. of coal out of every ton.

=Can be put on any stove pipe=, either in the room with the stove, to
increase the heat, or it will heat room adjoining or room above.

=COSTS LITTLE.
SAVES MUCH=.

Send for Circular and Testimonials.

  =Wilmot Castle & Co.,
  Rochester, N. Y.=



GATES IMPROVED HOT WATER HEATER

[Illustration:

=Office of FITCHBURG GAS CO.=

FITCHBURG, May 17, 1887.

Mr. E. N. GATES.

DEAR SIR: Having now used your system of Hot Water Circulation in my
house from December first to May fifth, it gives me pleasure to say
that it has met the requirements of the extreme cold of the past winter
and the mild weather of the spring months in the most perfect manner,
giving out just the temperature for comfort in all the variations of
temperature outside, and with great economy in fuel. Yours respectfully,

H. F. COGGSHALL, _Treasurer and Manager_.]

=The following Special Advantages over other Methods of Heating=:

1st.—OVER HOT AIR FURNACES.—No Dust! No Burnt Air! No Gas! and
ability to send the heat where it is wanted, without regard to
direction of wind or height of cellar, and using less fuel for amount
of space heated.

2d.—OVER STEAM, HIGH OR LOW PRESSURE.—From the fact the temperature
of water in radiators can be between 70° and 212° or higher, thus
adapting it to all degrees of outside temperature, thereby, taking the
season through, it makes a great saving in fuel in this point alone,
besides the comfort of having a building evenly heated.

3d.—OVER OTHER HOT WATER SYSTEMS.—In all others, the water goes
to Radiators from one common reservoir. Therefore, being next to
impossible to have all rooms heated alike. Different rooms will receive
current of water at different rates of speed. With this system all
rooms can be heated alike, when desired, from the fact that each
current is provided with an independent boiler, and the hot water must
go where the pipe leads, and you have perfect control over every room,
and can be put in at less cost than any other system of hot water
heating to do the same work.

=For Illustrated Circular, References, and Full Particulars, address=

=E. N. GATES, Box 1504, FITCHBURGH, MASS.=



=NEW YORK SAFETY DUMB WAITER FIXTURES=

Patented United States, April 19th, 1887; in Canada, May 18th, 1887.

[Illustration: Dumb Waiter.]

The MOST COMPLETE, SIMPLE and ABSOLUTELY SAFE WAITER made. Provided
with SAFETY ROPE, AVOIDING ACCIDENT. ENTIRELY NOISELESS, and moves with
perfect ease.

FIXTURES ONE SIZE ONLY, adapted to any size waiter. Can be adjusted by
any CARPENTER or MECHANIC. DIAGRAM and FULL DIRECTIONS ACCOMPANY EACH
SET.

HANDSOMELY BRONZED, and packed ONE SET in a BOX. Sold by the Hardware
trade.

PRICE, 15.00.

[Illustration: Dumb Waiter.]

For catalogue address the manufacturers.

  =THE EDWARD STORM SPRING CO., Limited,
  Poughkeepsie, N. Y.=

  =or, JOHN H. GRAHAM & CO., Sole Mfrs. Agents,
  113 Chambers Street, New York.=



=ARTISTIC HOMES, 1887.=

[Illustration: N. W. AYER-SON. PHILA.]

The most practical work published. Contains =76= full page
=Illustrations= of Queen Anne and Colonial Villas and Cottages, costing
from $1500 upward. Price =$4.50=. Parties contemplating building cheap
or expensive residences will find it to their advantage to correspond
with us.

  FULLER & WHEELER,
  =Architects,
  ALBANY, N. Y.=



[Illustration: Western Tennessee Hospital for the Insane.]

Our celebrated =ALDERLY= brand was selected by the Commissioners of the
Western Tennessee Hospital for the Insane at Bolivar, Tennessee, for
the Roof, Gutters and Valleys of the building, over =all other leading
brands= of Terne Plates after a thorough test of all its qualities.

These buildings required over =1000= boxes of =ALDERLY= Brand Terne
Plate, which is the =largest contract ever made for one particular
brand= of Roofing Tin.

The =ALDERLY= Brand was selected =purely on its merits=.

  GUMMEY, SPERING, INGRAM & CO.,
  PHILADELPHIA—LIVERPOOL.

P. S.—The =ALDERLY= is the only =perfectly square= Terne plate in the
market, being =resheared= before coating.



THE FEW ADVANTAGES OF THE COMBINATION SYSTEM AS DEMONSTRATED BY

=THE PERFECTLY COMBINED STEAM AND WARM AIR HEATING APPARATUS.=

[Illustration: Portable: 3 sizes, 28, 32, and 36 inch.]

=1st=.—Two results with but one fire.

=2d=.—All benefit derived from a Steam Heater is radiated in the
Combination, while no sacrifice is made in wasting what you are
compelled to burn before reaching Steam Radiation (212 degrees).

=3d=.—With steam, when fire is banked for the night, radiation
ceases—in the Combination, never!

=4th=.—With steam, the consumption of fuel is the same at 60° as it is
at zero. In the Combination, you burn only what the outside temperature
demands.

=5th=.—The drafts are automatically arranged, requiring no further
attention.

=6th=.—In zero weather all Hot Air Heaters are weak—in the
Combination, steam supplies the power whenever wanted.

With these positive advantages, it is no difficult matter to decide
which to purchase.

A home well heated is a necessity. This comfort can be secured by a
little outlay.

=THE PERFECTLY COMBINED=

=Steam and Warm Air Heating Apparatus=

IS MANUFACTURED BY THE

=WEIR & NIXON STEAM and WARM AIR HEATING CO.=

1410 & 1412 North Sixth St., Philadelphia, Pa.

=CATALOGUES SENT TO PARTIES WISHING HEATING APPARATUS.=

[Illustration: Brick set: 5 sizes, 28, 32, 36, 40, and 48 inch.]



The OMEGA FIREPLACE FURNACE

[Illustration: Fireplaces.]

20 page illustrated catalogue, containing full information and prices,
sent to any address.

A Double Heater and Perfect Ventilator. A Revolution in Fireplace
Heating. Gives the combined heat of both a Furnace and Fireplace, with
Perfect Ventilation. Equalizes the heat in every part of the room.
Burns equally well Hard or Soft Coal, Wood or Coke. Address

  OMEGA STOVE AND GRATE CO.,
  89 Euclid Ave.,
  Cleveland, Ohio.



=The Draper Recording Thermometer.=

This thermometer gives a permanent and continuous record in ink of the
temperature. The chart indicating hours of the day and days of the week
gives the degrees of temperature from 20° below zero to 110° above. All
instruments are accurately adjusted and warranted. The record is easily
read and absolutely correct. Sold by the leading instrument dealers and
opticians throughout the United States and Canada, and by


  =The DRAPER
  MANUFACTURING CO.=

  Owners of the United States and foreign patents.
  152 Front Street, New York

[Illustration: Size 14 × 20 in. _Patented. Copyrighted._]



  =THE BARAGWANATH STEAM JACKET
  Feedwater Boiler and Purifier.=

[Illustration: Feedwater Boiler.]

Boils the feedwater. Keeps the boiler clean. Saves boiler repairs.
Saves from 15 to 40 per cent. of fuel. Large heating surface. No
radiating surface. No back pressure. Thoroughly utilizes the exhaust.
Strong and durable. Over 5,000 in use. Send for circular.

  WM. BARAGWANATH & SON. 40 West
  Division Street, Chicago, Ill.

  JAS. B. CROUTHERS, M. E., General Eastern
  Manager, 112 Liberty Street, New York.



  =DRAWING INSTRUMENTS,
  DRAWING PAPER,
  BLUE PROCESS PAPER,
  AMERICAN LIQUID INK.=

A fully illustrated and priced catalogue of 200 pages of all
instruments and materials used by draughtsmen sent upon mention of this
paper.

  =G. S. WOOLMAN,=
  116 FULTON ST.,
  =NEW YORK.=



“MERSHON” PATENT

=SHAKING GRATE=

For Steam and Hot Air Furnaces. The most reliable and Perfect Shaking
Grate in the world. Send for catalogue. “Mershon” Patent Shaking Grate,
Heater and Range Works,

=1203 Filbert Street, Philadelphia, Pa.=



HOW TO MAKE AN INCUBATOR.—

Full directions, illustrated with 7 figures. Also directions for
operating the apparatus. Contained in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT,
No. 612. Price 10 cents. To be had at this office and from all
news‐dealers.



=MINERAL WOOL!=

  =INDESTRUCTIBLE. FIRE‐PROOF. SOUND‐PROOF.
  FROST‐PROOF. VERMIN‐PROOF.  ODORLESS.=

For Deadening, Fire‐Proofing, Insulation of Heat and Cold in Buildings,
Prevention of Frost in Water or Gas Pipes.

[Illustration: MINERAL WOOL FIRE PROOF COVERING

(Patented May 29, 1883.)]

Also Fire‐Proof Sectional Coverings for Steam Pipes and Boilers. Best
non‐conductor for all surfaces, Steam or Fire Heat. Will not Char,
Crack, or Burn. Easily applied and removed by any one, and is indorsed
by Insurance Companies. For full information and sample free, address

  =Western Mineral Wool Co.,
  Box 123.
  CLEVELAND, O.=



  EDWARD FORD, PREST.
  A. PITCAIRN, VICE‐PREST.
  E. L. FORD, SECY.
  JOHN F. SCOTT, TREAS.

PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS CO.,

=CREIGHTON, PA.,=

MANUFACTURERS

=POLISHED PLATE GLASS.=

=Ground and Rough Plate Glass for Floors and Skylights.=

Three‐sixteenths thickness, made expressly for fine residences.

=LARGE AND WIDE GLASS A SPECIALTY.=

The Largest Plates of Glass in the cities of Chicago, Cleveland,
Detroit, St. Paul, Syracuse, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and
in many New York buildings, were manufactured at our works.

=IMMENSE PRODUCTION.=

The combined production of our two factories is 260,000 square feet
per month. The largest production of any factory in the world, which
enables us to fill our orders promptly.

The high reputation and unprecedented large sale of glass made by this
company since its organization is due entirely to its superior quality,
NATURAL GAS alone being used throughout both works as fuel.

=—CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED.—=

  _Works No. 1,_
  =CREIGHTON, PA.

   _Works No. 2,_
  TARENTUM, PA.=

WESTERN UNION WIRE AND TELEPHONE CONNECTION IN GENERAL OFFICE,
CREIGHTON, PA.



=REFRIGERATORS.=

Estimates furnished (under new construction) for

Hotels, Stores and Butchers’ Use

ALSO A LINE

=FOR RESIDENCES,=

  BY
  =FRANK W. LOCKWOOD,=
  240 South Second St., Philadelphia.



[Illustration: J. I. CASE
T. M. Cᴼ.

SAW MILLS

STATIONARY & PORTABLE ENGINES and THRESHERS.

RACINE WISCONSIN.

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE]



=23 Awards of Merit for Superiority.=

=The oldest, the best, the cheapest.=

Locks of one piece. No cleats or springs. Simple and perfect. Made in
four sizes, of Copper, Tin, Steel, or Galvanized Tin.

Full line of Roofing Sundries.

If you want an antique finish, get our Queen Anne Shingles.

_Send for Catalogue and Price List, special to the trade._

=Wholesale Agents:=

  W. W. MONTAGUE & CO., San Francisco, Cal., Pacific Coast.
  KNISELY & MILLER, Chicago, Ill.
  GEO. TRITCH HARDWARE CO., Denver, Col.
  PHILLIPS & BUTTORFF MFG. CO., Nashville, Tenn.
  MCDONALD, KEMP & CO., Toronto, Sole Agts., Canada.
  JEROME TWICHELL & CO., Kansas City, Mo.

[Illustration: Walter Shingle.]

[Illustration: Section through Shingles.]

[Illustration: A Dwelling.]

  THE NAT’L SHEET METAL ROOFING CO.,
  510 to 520 E. 20th St. N. Y.



[Illustration: Gushing Well.]

=ARTESIAN=

Wells, Oil and Gas Wells, drilled by contract to any depth, from 50 to
3000 feet. We also manufacture and furnish everything required to drill
and complete same. Portable Horse Power and Mounted Steam Drilling
Machines for 100 to 600 ft. Send 6 cents for illustrated catalogue.

  =Pierce Well Excavator Co.
  New York.=



=USEFUL BOOKS.=

Manufacturers, Agriculturists, Chemists, Engineers, Mechanics,
Builders, men of leisure, and professional men, of all classes, need
good books in the line of their respective callings. Our post office
department permits the transmission of books through the mails at very
small cost. A comprehensive catalogue of useful books by different
authors, on more than fifty different subjects, has just been published
for free circulation at the office of this paper. Subjects classified,
with names of author. Persons desiring a copy have only to ask for it,
and it will be mailed to them.

TITLE OF SUBJECTS:

  AGRICULTURE.
  ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY.
  ANIMALS, DOMESTIC.
  ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING.
  ANALYSIS AND ASSAYING.
  ASTRONOMY.
  BIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, ETC.
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  DRAWING, ETCHING, ENGRAVING, ETC.
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  TECHNOLOGY.

=Address MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York.=



[Illustration: Medallion.]

=RUBBER BELTING, PACKING, HOSE,=

AND ALL OTHER KINDS OF

=RUBBER GOODS,=

——FOR——

=MECHANICAL and MANUFACTURING PURPOSES.=

The Largest and Most Extensive Manufacturers in America.

=THE GUTTA PERCHA AND RUBBER MFG. CO.=

=New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Toronto.=



[Illustration: CONANT BOSTON]

=MARSTON’S

Hand & Foot Power

Circular Saw=.

Iron frame 36 inches high. Top 80 × 40 inches, centre part of iron with
planed grooves on each side of saw for cutting off gauges to slide
in. Ripping gauge slides in iron groove. Steel shafts. Gears are all
machine cut from solid iron. Boring table and side treadle. Two 6‐inch
saws and two cranks with each machine. Weight 350 pounds.

Send for price list.

  =J. M. Marston & Co.=
  Cor. Appleton & Tremont Sts.,
  BOSTON, MASS.



Plans and Specifications.

Full plans, specifications, and sheets of details, complete, ready for
the builder, may be obtained at this office, for any of the structures
illustrated in this publication. We also prepare plans for buildings
of every description, including churches, colleges, schools, stores,
dwellings, carriage houses, barns, etc.

We are assisted in this work by able architects, and we try to make
our estimates reliable, so that the work can be done by any reliable
builder at the prices named. Terms moderate.

  MUNN & CO.,
  361 Broadway New York.

VALUABLE BOOKS FOR ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS, ETC.

Promptly sent, on receipt of the price, by =MUNN & Co.= No. 361
Broadway, New York City.


=AMERICAN COTTAGES.=

Consisting of 44 large quarto plates. Containing Original Designs of
Medium and Low‐cost Cottages, Seaside and Country Houses; also a Club
House, School House, Pavilion, and a small Seaside Chapel, together
with a Form of Specification for Cottages. One large quarto volume.
=$5.00=


=ARCHITECTS’ AND BUILDERS’ POCKET‐BOOK.=

Containing Original Tables and Valuable Information for Architects,
Builders, Engineers, and Contractors. By E. F. Kidder. Fully
illustrated with plates. Put up in pocket‐book form, morocco flaps
=$3.50=


=ARCHITECT’S HAND‐BOOK.=

A Hand‐Book of Formulæ, Tables, and Memoranda, for Architectural
Surveyors and others engaged in Building. By J. T. Hurst, C.E.
Thirteenth edition. Royal 32mo, roan =$2.00=


=ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.=

Containing 387 designs and 967 illustrations of the various Parts
needed in the Construction of Buildings, Public and Private, both for
the City and Country; also, Plans and Elevations of Houses, Stores,
Cottages, and other Buildings. By M. F. Cummings, M.A., Architect,
Associate Author of “Architecture, by Cummings & Miller.” One large 4to
volume, 56 plates. Reduced from $10.00 to =$6.00=


=ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES.=

PART I.—12 Designs for Low‐cost Houses. This set includes the Prize
Designs for $2,500 Houses of “Building Competition No. 1.” These will
show Elevations, Plans, and Details, together with Specifications,
Bills of Materials, and Estimates of Cost. In addition to the above,
there are given a number of other Designs, ranging in cost from $500 to
$4,000 =$1.00=

PART II.—Store Fronts and Interior Details. Containing 12 plates of
Designs and Details for the following classes of Stores: Drug Store,
Restaurant, Village Shop, Retail 25‐ft. Store, Bank and Office Finish,
Cigar Store, Corner Dry Goods Store, Store Front, Basement, and First
Story, and others =$1.00=

PART III.—Stables. Containing 12 plates of Stables suitable for
Village Lots, ranging in cost from $300 upward. This set of plates will
contain a fine selection of Designs giving Exteriors, Plans, and some
Details. Paper portfolio =$1.00=

PART IV.—Seaside and Southern Houses. 12 plates of Designs for Cheap
Houses, with ample Verandas, suited to a summer climate. Average cost,
$1,500 =$1.00=

PART V.—Outbuildings. Containing 12 plates of Designs of small
Stables, Summer Houses, Pavilions, Privies, Fences, Gates, etc. =$1.00=

PART VI.—Perspectives, Elevations, and Plans, with Specifications,
Bills of Materials, etc., of Houses costing from $500 to $2,500 =$1.00=

PART VII.—Designs for Door and Window Finish, Wainscoting, Mantels,
Closets, etc. =$1.00=


=ARCHITECTURE.=

Encyclopedia of Gwilt’s, Historical, Theoretical, and Practical. New
edition, revised, with Alterations and considerable Additions. By Wyatt
Papworth, F.R.I.B.A. Nearly 1,600 wood engravings (about 500 being new
to the work). Thick 8vo, cloth =$20.00=


=BRICKS, TILES, AND TERRA COTTA.=

A Treatise on the Manufacture and Materials, Tools, Machines, and Kilns
used. By Charles T. Davis. 800 pages, 228 engravings, and 6 plates
=$5.00=


=BUILDING SUPERINTENDENCE.=

By Professor Theodore M. Clark. One vol. Profusely illustrated with
Plans, Diagrams, etc. =$3.00=


=BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.=

A Complete Manual of the Details of Construction, illustrated with
a large number of engravings.

PART I. Contents: Walling and Arches; Brickwork; Masonry; Carpentry;
Floors; Partitions; Timber Roofs; Iron Roofs; Slating; Plumbers’ Work;
Cast Iron Girders, etc.; Joinery.

PART II. Contents: Brickwork and Masonry; Timber Roofs; Roof Coverings;
Built‐up Beams; Curved Ribs; Timber and Iron Girders; Centers; Joinery;
Stairs; Riveting; Fire‐Proof Floors; Iron Roofs; Plasterers’ Work;
Painting, Paper‐Hanging and Glazing. Price of each =$3.50=

PART III. Materials: 1. Stone; 2. Bricks, Tiles, Terra Cotta, etc.; 3.
Limes, Cements, Mortar, Concrete, Plaster, and Asphalts; 4. Metals;
5. Timber; 6. Paints and Varnishes; 7. Glass; 8. Paper‐Hanging; 9.
Miscellaneous. Post‐paid =$6.00=


=CARPENTRY MADE EASY;=

Or, The Science and Art of Framing on a New and Improved System. With
Specific Instructions for Building Balloon Frames, Barn Frames, Mill
Frames, Warehouses, Church Spires, etc. Comprising also a System of
Bridge Building, with Bills, Estimates of Cost, and valuable Tables.
Illustrated by 44 plates, comprising nearly 200 figures. By William L.
Bell, Architect and Practical Builder. 8vo =$5.00=


=CHURCH ARCHITECTURE, WITHERS’.=

One large volume of fifty‐one 9 × 14 plates, substantially bound in
extra cloth, sent by mail or express to any part of the United States
upon receipt of price, reduced from $15.00 to =$10.00=


=CONCRETE.=

A Practical Treatise on Natural and Artificial Concrete, its Varieties
and Constructive Adaptations. By Henry Reid, C.E., author of “The
Science and Art of the Manufacture of Portland Cement.” Third edition,
8vo, cloth =$6.00=


=COTTAGES;=

Or, Hints on Economical Building. Containing 24 plates of Medium
and Low‐cost Houses, contributed by different New York Architects;
together with descriptive letterpress, giving Practical Suggestions
for Cottage Building. Compiled and edited by A. W. Brunner, Architect.
And a chapter on the Water Supply, Drainage, Sewerage, Heating, and
Ventilation, and other Sanitary Questions relating to Country Houses.
By Wm. Paul Gerhard. One 8vo volume, cloth =$1.00=


=COTTAGE, THE SUBURBAN.=

Its Design and Construction. Containing over 100 illustrations and full
descriptive letterpress. This book gives Practical Instruction on every
question arising in House Building, and should be in the hands of every
one intending to build. One 8vo vol., cloth =$1.50=


=DECORATION, INTERIOR.=

By A. W. Brunner and Thomas Tryon, Architects, with 65 illustrations,
giving suggestions about Hall, Staircase, Library, Parlor, Dining‐Room,
etc. Study, Bed‐Rooms. Fifteen plates. Just published =$3.00=


=MANTELS, ALBUM OF.=

One large quarto volume, bound in cloth =$4.00=

Unbound in portfolio =4.00=

This book contains 60 plates and 103 designs of mantels and shelves.


=MASONRY AND STONECUTTING,=

In which the Principles of Masonic Projection and their Application
to the Construction of Curved Wing‐Walls, Domes, Oblique Bridges, and
Roman and Gothic Vaulting, are explained. By Edward Dobson, M.R.I.B.A.,
etc. =$1.50=


=HOUSE PAINTER.=

Modern House Painting, containing 20 colored lithographic plates,
exhibiting the Use of Color in Exterior and Interior House Painting,
and embracing examples of simple and elaborate in Plain, Graded, and
Parti‐colors; also the Treatment of old style of Houses, together
with full descriptive letter‐press, covering the Preparation, Use,
and Application of Colors, with Special Directions applicable to each
example; the whole Work offering Valuable Hints and Suggestions on
Harmonious Color Treatment, suitable to every variety of Building. By
E. K. Rossiter and F. A. Wright. Oblong, 4to, cloth =$5.00=


=LEFFEL’S HOUSE PLANS.=

Containing Elevations, Plans, and Descriptions of Houses costing
from $500 to $3,000, and adapted to families having good taste and
moderate means. Including the six prize plans in the Mechanical News
competition. One oblong quarto =$2.00=



=Band Saws. Band Saws.=

=DAMASCUS TEMPERED BY NATURAL GAS HEAT, SUPERIOR TOUGHNESS.=

After more than ten years’ experience in the manufacture of Band Saws,
we have discovered a new process of =Tempering and Straightening= all
at one operation. This process insures =absolute perfection=.

We specially request all users of Band Saws to send us their address in
full, and also a description of the sizes of saws used, and we will, by
return mail, quote them special prices, and also send them our pamphlet
on the Band Saw, which contains much valuable information for all users
of Band Saws.

[Illustration: Band Saw Blades.]

The Superior Quality of our Band Saws, All Tempered, Straightened, and
Trued at one operation, which we have patented, makes them so perfect
that our =SALES HAVE MORE THAN TREBLED IN THE PAST YEAR=. Our largest
and best customers prefer them to the best imported saws.

☞=WRITE FOR OUR CIRCULAR AND REDUCED PRICE LISTS.=☜

=NATURAL GAS=

Is perfectly free from all impurities, and steel heated by its use does
not scale. It contains no sulphur or other base substances. We are the
first to adopt its use in heating saws for tempering, which explains
the cause of our saws being tougher than any others now made.

[Illustration:
  The Emerson Patent
  $100.00 GOLD PREMIUM
  DAMASCUS TEMPERED
  SAWS
  MADE BY
  EMERSON SMITH & CO.
  BEAVER FALLS PA
  Send for price list and circular
  PATENTED SEPT. 9ᵀᴴ 1884.]

=OUR CIRCULAR SAW=

Of all sizes from 6 inches in diameter to 6 feet, both
Solid and Inserted Teeth, also our

=Double Toothed Cross Cuts=

(two saws in one), for all uses =HAVE NO EQUAL=.

Our SAWYER’S HANDBOOK will be sent =FREE= to any part of the world on
receipt of full name and address.

Address EMERSON, SMITH & CO. (LIMITED).

=Beaver Falls, Pa.=



=Classified Index of Advertisements Published in the Present Number of
the Scientific American, Architects and Builders Edition.=


  =Adjustable Clapboard Marker.=                   Page
  Stanley Rule & Level Co.                     cover ii

  =Adjustable Planes.=
    Stanley Rule & Level Co.                   cover ii

  =Advertising Agent.=
    B. G. Underwood                                   v

  =Advertising Glass Signs.=
    The Western Sand Blast Co.                      iii

  =Air Brush.=
    Air Brush Mfg. Co.                              iii

  =Architects’ and Surveyors’ Supplies.=
    L. Manasse                                       ii

  =Architects.=
    Fuller & Wheeler                                 xi
    C. Powell Karr, C.E.                              v
    Munn & Co.                                       vi
    F. L. Smith                                      ii

  =Architectural Iron Work.=
    Cheney & Hewlett                               viii
    J. S. Thorn                                    viii
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                        viii

  =Architectural Wood Turning.=
    Anderson & Dickey                                iv
    Standard Wood Turning Co.                        iv

  =Artesian Well Machinery.=
    Pierce Well Excavator Co.                      xiii

  =Artists’ Materials.=
    F. W. Devoe & Co.                               vii

  =Asphalt Paint and Cement.=
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                       cover iv
    Warren Chemical and Mfg. Co.                    vii

  =Asbestos.=
    Asbestos Packing Co.                       cover ii
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                             ii

  =Automatic Air Valves.=
    Thos. L. McKeen                                  ii

  =Balusters, Stair Rails, Etc.=
    The Standard Wood Turning Co.                    iv
    Anderson & Dickey                                iv

  =Band Instruments.=
    Lyon & Healy                                     ii

  =Bath Tub, Tile Lined.=
    Sharpless & Watts.                               ii

  =Black Varnish.=
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                       cover iv

  =Boiler Coverings.=
    Asbestos Packing Co.                       cover ii
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                       cover iv
    Shields & Brown                                viii
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                             ii
    Jas. F. Wood & Co.                                i

  =Booksellers and Publishers.=
    Decorator and Furnisher                          ix
    Wm. T. Comstock                                  iv
    J. B. Lippincott & Co.                           vi
    Ticknor & Co.                                    vi

  =Brass Goods.=
    C. H. Besly & Co.                                ii

  =Bric‐a‐Brac.=
    Thackara Sons & Co.                              ix

  =Brick.=
    Jas. H. Beggs & Co.                              ii
    Chicago Anderson Pressed Brick Co.               ii

  =Brick Machinery.=
    Chambers, Bro. & Co.                            iii
    Henry Martin                                      v

  =Builders’ Hardware.=
    Orr & Lockett                             cover iii

  =Building Paper, Felt, Etc.=
    Asbestos Packing Co.                       cover ii
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                       cover iv
    Warren‐Ehret Co.                          cover iii
    Warren Chemical and Mfg. Co.                    vii
    H. F. Watson                                   viii

  =Builders’ Scroll Saw.=
    W. F. & J. Barnes Co.                            ii

  =Building Plans and Specifications.=
    Munn & Co.                                       vi

  =Cabinet Woods and Veneers.=
    J. Rayner                                       vii

  =Cables.=
    Standard Underground Cable Co.                    i

  =Calipers.=
    Chandler & Farquhar                            viii

  =Carbolate of Lime.=
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                        cover v

  =Carpenters’ Machinery.=
    Fred. A. Rich                                    iv

  =Carpenters’ Tools.=
    Stanley Rule and Level Co.                 cover ii

  =Carpet Lining.=
    Warren‐Ehret Co.                          cover iii
    H. F. Watson                                   viii

  =Cements.=
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                             ii
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                       cover iv

  =Chandeliers.=
    J. P. Frink                                      ii
    Thackara Sons & Co.                              ix

  =Clapboard Marker.=
    Stanley Rule & Level Co.                   cover ii

  =Color Grinders.=
    Wm. T. Lindeman & Co.                     cover iii

  =Combination Square.=
    L. S. Starrett                                    v

  =Contractor and Builder.=
    Allen B. Rorke                                    v

  =Copying Process.=
    Autocopyist Co.                                viii

  =Cordage.=
    J. P. Tolman & Co.                         cover ii

  =Covering for Steam, Gas, and Water Pipes.=
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                       cover iv
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                             ii
    Shields & Brown                                viii
    Western Mineral Wool Co.                        xii
    Jas. F. Wood & Co.                                i

  =Creosote Wood Stains for Shingles, Etc.=
    Samuel Cabot                                     ii

  =Cutter Heads.=
    Sam’l J. Shimer                                  iv

  =Desks and Office Furniture.=
    T. G. Sellew                            cover ii

  =Door Hangers.=
    Syracuse Bolt Co.                            viii

  =Door Plates.=
    J. M. Stutzman                               iii

  =Draftsman’ Adjustable Curve Ruler.=
    Frank W. Davenport                             v

  =Draw Knife Chamferer.=
    J. H. Hoague                                viii

  =Drawing Instruments, Etc.=
    G. S. Woolman                                xii
    L. Manasse                                    ii

  =Drilling Tools and Machinery.=
    C. H. Besly & Co.                             ii

  =Dumb Waiter Fixtures.=
    The Edward Storm Spring Co.                   xi

  =Edge Tools.=
    Fayette R. Plumb                        cover iv

  =Electric Conductors and Cables.=
    Standard Underground Cable Co.                 i

  =Electric Lights.=
    Brush Electric Co.                      cover ii
    The Thomson‐Houston Electric Co.       cover iii

  =Electrical Supplies.=
    Shaw & Geary                            cover iv

  =Elevators.=
    L. S. Graves & Co.                             v
    Howard Iron Works.                             v
    Morse, Williams & Co.                          v

  =End Wood Mosaic.=
    Wood‐Mosaic Co.                        cover iii

  =Engines and Boilers.=
    C. P. Willard & Co.                         viii

  =Engineers’ Supplies.=
    L. Manasse                                    ii

  =Feed Water Boiler and Purifier.=
    Wm. Baragwanath & Son                        xii

  =Feed Water Heaters.=
    Stewart Heater Co.                      cover ii

  =Fire Brick.=
    Henry Maurer & Son                           iii

  =Fireproof Building Materials.=
    Henry Maurer & Son                           iii

  =Fireproofing Material.=
    Asbestos Packing Co.                    cover ii
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                          ii

  =Foot and Hand Power Machinery.=
    W. F. & J. Barnes Co.                         ii
    C. E. Little                                  ii
    Fred. A. Rich                                 iv
    Seneca Falls Mfg. Co.                         ii

  =Furnaces.=
    Abram Cox Stove Co.                    cover iii
    Job Bartlett’s Sons                           ix
    Hull, Grippen & Co.                           ix
    E. A. Jackson & Bro.                    cover ii
    M. H. Jacobs’ Furnace Co.                      x
    Klein Furnace Co.                              i
    Leibrandt & McDowell Stove Co.                 i
    Omega Stove & Grate Co.                      xii
    J. F. Pease Furnace Co.                        x
    J. Reynolds & Son                              v
    Schoen Heater and Stove Co.                   ix
    Thomas, Roberts, Stevenson & Co.       cover iii

  =Gas Engines.=
    Economic Motor Co.                      cover ii
    Williams & Orton Mfg. Co.                     iv

  =Gas Fires.=
    H. P. Dixon & Co.                       cover iv

  =Gas Fixtures.=
    Thackara Sons & Co.                           ix

  =Gas and Water Pipes.=
    Gloucester Iron Works                          v

  =Glass—Plate.=
    Gillinder & Sons                       cover iii
    Pittsburg Plate Glass Co.                    xii
    P. Semmer & Co.                              iii

  =Glass (Stained and Mosaic).=
    Bray & Breck                                 iii
    Alfred Godwin                           cover iv
    Gillinder & Sons                       cover iii
    Keystone Stained Glass Works                  ix
    Tiffany Glass Co.                             vi

  =Glaziers’ Diamonds, Etc.=
    Gillinder & Sons                       cover iii

  =Glue.=
    F. W. Thurston & Co.                     vii

  =Greenhouse Boilers.=
    Peter Devine                                  ii
    Hitchings & Co.                              vii

  =Ground & Rough Glass for Floors, Etc.=
    Pittsburg Plate Glass Co.                    xii

  =Hack Saws.=
    Miller’s Falls Co.                      cover ii

  =Hammers.=
    Fayette R. Plumb                        cover iv

  =Hand Sawing Machines.=
    W. F. & J. Barnes Co.                         ii

  =Hardwood Floors.=
    Wood‐Mosaic Co.                        cover iii

  =Heating Apparatus.=
    Abram Cox Stove Co.                    cover iii
    Job Bartlett’s Sons                           ix
    Wilmot Castle & Co.                           xi
    Duplex Steam Heater Co.                       xi
    E. N. Gates                                   xi
    Globe Steam Heater Co.                        ix
    Hitchings & Co.                              vii
    Hull, Grippen & Co.                           ix
    E. A. Jackson & Bro.                    cover ii
    M. H. Jacobs’ Furnace Co.                      x
    Klein Furnace Co.                              i
    Leibrandt & McDowell Stove Co.                 i
    D. Mershon’s Sons                            xii
    Omega Stove & Grate Co.                      xii
    J. F. Pease Furnace Co.                        x
    Pierce, Butler & Pierce                       ix
    J. Reynolds & Son                              v
    Schoen Heater and Stove Co.                   ix
    Thomas, Roberts, Stevenson & Co.       cover iii
    Weir & Nixon                                 xii
    Woodcock & Co.                                 x

  =Iron Work for Building Purposes.=
    Cheney & Hewlett                            viii
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                     viii
    J. S. Thorn                                 viii

  =Leather Belting.=
    Page Belting Co.                             iii

  =Leveling Instruments.=
    John W. Harmon                                ii

  =Liquid Glue.=
    Russia Cement Co.                              v

  =Lithographers.=
    Schumacher & Ettlinger                  cover ii

  =Lumber.=
    I. G. Jenkins                                vii

  =Lumber Drying.=
    Hayden Bros.                                 iii

  =Machinists’ Supplies.=
    Chandler & Farquhar                         viii

  =Mahogany and Veneers.=
    Hayden Bros.                                 iii
    J. Rayner                                    vii

  =Mail Chutes.=
    The Cutler Mfg. Co.                     cover ii

  =Mantels, Grates, Fire Places, Etc.=
    E. J. Johnson                                vii

  =Masons’ and Builders’ Supplies.=
    S. Bowen’s Sons                             viii
    S. H. French & Co.                          viii

  =Mathematical Instruments.=
    F. W. Devoe & Co.                            vii

  =Metallic Roofing Tiles and Shingles.=
    Gummey, Spering, Ingram & Co.           cover iv
    National Sheet Metal Roofing Co.            xiii
    Thorn Shingle and Ornament Co.               iii

  =Mineral Wool.=
    Western Mineral Wool Co.                     xii

  =Mortar Colors.=
    S. Bowen’s Sons                             viii
    S. H. French & Co.                          viii

  =“New Flint Glass Ornamental Tile.”=
    Gillinder & Sons                       cover iii

  =Office and Bank Fittings.=
    A. H. Andrews & Co.                           ii

  =Organs.=
    D. F. Beatty                                 vii

  =Ornamental Brick.=
    Jas. H. Beggs & Co.                           ii
    Chicago Anderson Pressed Brick Co.            ii

  =Ornamental Glass Work.=
    C. H. Postel & Co.                      cover iv
    The Western Sand Blast Co.                   iii

  =Ornamental Iron Work.=
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                     viii

  =Ornamental Rustic Work.=
    John Wheeler                                   v

  =Packing Materials.=
    Asbestos Packing Co.                    cover ii

  =Paints.=
    The Chilton Mfg. Co.                        viii
    F. W. Devoe & Co.                            vii
    Eureka Color Works                      cover iv
    S. H. French & Co.                          viii
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                          ii
    Wm. T. Lindeman & Co.                  cover iii
    W. H. Stewart                                 ii
    F. W. Thurston & Co.                         vii

  =Parquet Floors.=
    The Butcher Flooring Co.                      iv
    J. Dunfee & Co.                                v
    Wood‐Mosaic Co.                        cover iii

  =Pavement Lights.=
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                     viii

  =Photographic Outfits.=
    E. & H. T. Anthony & Co.                      ii

  =Pianos.=
    Marchal & Smith                              vii

  =Planing Mill Machinery.=
    Hoyt & Bro. Mfg. Co.                        viii

  =Polished Plate Glass.=
    Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.                   xii

  =Porous Terra Cotta.=
    Henry Maurer & Son                           iii

  =Porous Earthenware.=
    Henry Maurer & Son                           iii

  =Poultry Yard Appliances.=
    S. S. Bent & Son                            viii

  =Prepared Roofing.=
    M. Ehret, Jr., & Co.                    cover iv
    H. F. Watson                                viii

  =Pressed Brick.=
    Jas. H. Beggs & Co.                           ii
    Chicago Anderson Pressed Brick Co.            ii

  =Pumps.=
    Goulds Mfg. Co.                         cover iv

  =Pumping Engines.=
    Economic Motor Co.                      cover ii

  =Radiators.=
    Wilmot Castle & Co.                           xi

  =Railing Iron.=
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                     viii

  =Railway and Steam Fitters’ Supplies.=
    Fayette R. Plumb                        cover iv

  =Recording Thermometer.=
    The Draper Mfg. Co.                          xii

  =Reducing Valve.=
    Mason Regulator Co.                           iv

  =Reflectors.=
    J. P. Frink                                   ii

  =Refrigerators.=
    F. W. Lockwood                               xii

  =Roof Snow Guards.=
    John H. Hiller                          cover ii

  =Roofing.=
    Asbestos Packing Co.                    cover ii
    M. Ehret. Jr., & Co.                    cover iv
    H. W. Johns Mfg. Co.                          ii
    W. H. Stewart                                 ii
    Warren‐Ehret Co.                       cover iii
    Warren Chemical & Mfg. Co.                   vii
    H. F. Watson                                viii

  =Roofing Slate.=
    E. J. Johnson                                vii
    The American Bangor Slate Co.                 iv
    The Old Bangor Slate Co.                      vi

  =Roofing Tin.=
    Gummey, Spering, Ingram & Co.      xi & cover iv
    Merchant & Co.                          cover iv
    N. & G. Taylor Co.                      cover iv

  =Roofing and Wall Tiles.=
    The National Sheet‐Metal Roofing Co.        xiii
    Thorn Shingle and Ornament Co.               iii

  =Sandstone.=
    Cleveland Stone Co.                         viii

  =Sand Blast and Embossed Railroad Glass.=
    The Western Sand Blast Co.                   iii

  =Sash Balance.=
    Pullman Sash Balance Co.                      iv

  =Sash Cord.=
    J. P. Tolman & Co.                      cover ii

  =Sash Lock and Ventilator.=
    I. G. Jenkins                                vii

  =Saws.=
    Emerson, Smith & Co.                         xiv
    Seneca Falls Mfg. Co.                         ii

  =Scroll Saws and Tools.=
    W. F. & J. Barnes Co.                         ii
    Fred. A. Rich                                 iv
    Seneca Falls Mfg. Co.                         ii

  =Shade Roller.=
    Cushman Bros. & Co.                           ii

  =Shaking Grate.=
    D. Mershon’s Sons                            xii
    Woodcock & Co.                                xi

  =Sheathing Lath.=
    I. G. Jenkins                                vii

  =Shellac.=
    F. W. Thurston & Co.                         vii

  =Shingles (Wood).=
    I. G. Jenkins                                vii

  =Shingle Stains.=
    Sam’l Cabot                                   ii
    Dexter Bros.                                   i

  =Shutter Worker.=
    F. B. Mallory                                iii

  =Skylights.=
    G. Hayes                                       v
    J. S. Thorn                                 viii

  =Sliding Blinds.=
    Wm. Willer                                    ii

  =Stable Fittings and Fixtures.=
    S. S. Bent & Son                            viii

  =Stained Glass Substitute.=
    W. C. Young                            cover iii

  =Stair Iron.=
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                     viii

  =Steel Alphabets, Stencil Cutting, Etc.=
    J. M. Stutzman                               iii

  =Taps and Dies.=
    Wiley & Russell Mfg. Co.                     iii

  =Tinting Colors.=
    Eureka Color Works                      cover iv

  =Tools and Foot Power Machinery.=
    C. E. Little                                  ii
    Seneca Falls Mfg. Co.                         ii
    Fayette R. Plumb                       cover iv

  =Tower Ornaments, Finials, Etc.=
    Thos. W. Jones                                 i

  =Underground Cable.=
    Standard Underground Cable Co.                 i

  =Valves and Hydrants.=
    Gloucester Iron Works                          v

  =Varnish.=
    F. W. Devoe & Co.                            vii
    Wm. T. Lindeman & Co.                  cover iii
    Standard Varnish Works                      viii
    F. W. Thurston & Co.                         vii

  =Vault Lights.=
    Manly & Cooper Mfg. Co.                     viii

  =Ventilating and Exhaust Fans.=
    Geo. P. Clark                                iii

  =Ventilators.=
    T. T. Cohen                                    v
    Merchant & Co.                                ii

  =Violin Outfits.=
    C. W. Story                                  vii

  =Wall Plaster.=
    Adamant Mfg. Co.                             vii

  =Water Pressure Regulators.=
    H. Mueller & Sons                              i

  =Weather Strips.=
    J. Dunfee & Co.                                v
    Richmond Weather Strip Co.                   iii

  =Weather Vanes.=
    Thos. W. Jones                                 i

  =Well Tools.=
    American Well Works                         viii

  =Window Sash Cord.=
    J. P. Tolman & Co.                      cover ii

  =Window Shadings.=
    Oswego Shade Cloth Co.                  cover iv

  =Wood Carpet.=
    J. Dunfee & Co.                                v
    Wood‐Mosaic Co.                        cover iii

  =Wood Filler.=
    Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co.               viii
    F. W. Devoe & Co.                            vii
    Wm. T. Lindeman & Co.                  cover iii
    D. Rosenberg & Sons                         viii
    F. W. Thurston & Co.                         vii

  =Woodworking Machinery.=
    Connell & Dengler                            iii
    E. & F. Gleason                         cover iv
    Goodell & Waters                               v
    Hoyt & Bro.                                 viii
    C. B. Rogers & Co.                            iv
    Rollstone Machine Co.                        iii
    Samuel J. Shimer                              iv

  =Wrenches.=
    Geo. W. Marble                                 i


[Illustration:

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

  ARCHITECTS
  AND BUILDERS
  EDITION.

Vol. IV.

  =JULY–DECEMBER,=
  1887.

MUNN & CO., PUBLISHERS,

=No. 361 Broadway, New York.=]



[Illustration: INDEX.]

=VOLUME IV.—JULY‐DECEMBER, 1887.=

Articles Marked * are Illustrated.


COLORED PLATES.

I. A Cottage for $2,500. A residence in Kansas City. With large plate
of details drawn to a scale. July.

II. A $4,000 cottage. A $1,400 double house. With plate of details
drawn to a scale. August.

III. A Southern residence of moderate cost. A $1,200 cottage. With
plate of details drawn to a scale. September.

IV. A residence of moderate cost. A country store and flat. With plate
of details drawn to a scale. October.

V. City frame houses of moderate cost. A $2,500 dwelling. With plate of
details drawn to a scale. November.

VI. A dwelling of moderate cost. A suburban residence. With large plate
of details drawn to a scale. December.


MISCELLANY.

Figures preceded by a star (*) refer to illustrated articles.


=A=

Adulteration of flour,                     44

Africa, industries in,                     71

Air filter,                               *23

Antiquarian discovery,                     24

Arch, construction of,                    131

Apartment house, Mortimer,                121

Arch, Roman,                              *16

Architects, women as,                       6

Architecture, design in,                  100

Architecture, mud, in Persia,              41

Architecture, naval,                       49

Architecture, school house,              *105

Architectural era, the,                   129

Artist’s house,                           *18

Ash, white, the,                          125

Asphalt, artificial,                       47


=B=

Bamboo tree,                              123

Bank building, design,                    *69

Basswood,                                  42

Bathing establishment,                   *134

Beams, iron vs. wood,                     133

Bearings, to obtain,                       70

Bed room decoration,                       50

Bell, largest known,                       69

Bell, Shaw & Gray,                        *78

Bevel, improved,                          *49

Birthplace of James Watt,                *121

Blacksmith’s epitaph,                      18

Blinds,                                    91

Blistering,                                47

Bloomfield, C. C., residence,             *72

Board, sounding, St. Paul’s,              142

Boiler, Auburn,                          *100

Boilers, removing grease from,             61

Bourse, at Havre,                         *10

Brick and brickwork, cost,                 83

Brick dust cement,                         69

Bricks, Gladstone,                         78

Brick making, Chinese,                     93

Bricks, fire,                             126

Bridge, Britannia,                          7

Bridges, temporary,                       *52

Broiler farm, Howe,                       *23

Buffet in walnut,                         *96

Builders, items for,                       31

Building, a great,                        140

Building, Mr. Gunther’s,                   45

Building, regulation of,                    8

Building, Young Men’s Assoc.,             *24


=C=

California house, $2,500,                *128

Camera clamp,                             *10

Candle grease, to remove,                   9

Car load, American,                        32

Car wheels, paper,                         46

Carpet, wood,                              70

Carriages, sound in,                      109

Carved work,                              *43

Casino in Vittel,                        *134

Cathedral of Notre Dame,                  *21

Cedar pavements,                          127

Cedar shingles,                           104

Ceilings and floors,                      *36

Cement, action of frost on,                89

Cement apparatus,                         116

Cement, brick dust,                        69

Cement, effect of freezing,               115

Cement, Portland, making,                 126

Cement, Portland, tests of,                87

Cement, testing,                          *37

Cement testing machine,                   *78

Chateau at Castelnaudary,                *130

Chimes, tube, new,                       *132

Chimney, tall, laddering,                 *52

Chimney flues, construction of,           124

Chimney tops,                              70

Chimneys, lamp, how made,                  38

Chimneys of the ancients,                  65

Chimneys, removal of,                     132

Church, an unsafe,                        126

Church at La Capelle,                     *94

Church at Stratton,                       *95

Church of moderate cost,            *40, *109

Chutes, mail,                             *87

Circulars, seven foot four,                27

City front, design,                      *115

Clamp, camera, new,                       *10

Clock, windmill,                           21

College, John Crouse,                    *139

College of City of New York,              *48

College, Polytechnic, Cogswell,           *32

College, Vassar, sewerage,                 99

Combustion, spontaneous,                  115

Composition, new,                          63

Concrete dockworks, failure,               73

Concrete, effect of sea water,             98

Contract, roofing plate, large,           120

Corner finish,                             68

Correction, a,                            120

Cottage, a continental,                   *35

Cottage, a $1,200,                        *54

Cottage, a $3,500,                        *58

Cottage, a $4,200,                       *140

Cottage, an $1,800,                       *62

Cottage, Cambridge,                       *70

Cottage, French,                         *122

Cottage, London,                          *71

Cottage of moderate cost,                 *39

Cottages, seaside,                        *92

Cottage, sketch for,                     *135

Court house, Montpelier,                  *30

Covering for pipes,                      *118


=D=

Dam, California, great,                    43

Decoration, bed room,                      50

Decorative notes,                          95

Decorative novelties,                      90

Decoration, room,                         141

Design in architecture,                   100

Dining room, Tatton,                      *17

Disinfectant, new,                         92

Disinfection for the household,            50

Disinfection of sick rooms,               102

Dockwork, concrete, failure,               76

Donatello,                                 *9

Drainage and plumbing,                     16

Dry rot,                                   20

Dry rot in large building,               *104

Dumb waiters,                               7

Duomo of Florence,                         *9

Dwelling, a Brooklyn,                     *27

Dwelling, a $1,200,                  *30, *88

Dwelling, a $2,500,                      *102

Dwelling, a $2,800,                       *83

Dwelling, a $3,500,                      *111

Dwelling, a $3,700,                      *110

Dwelling, a $3,800,                      *114

Dwelling, a $4,000,                       *60

Dwelling, a $4,200,                 *61, *138

Dwelling, a $4,500,           *33, *106, *117

Dwelling, a $5,000,                  *57, 140

Dwelling, an artist’s,                    *18

Dwelling, an Ohio.,                       *68

Dwelling at Cambridge,                    *24

Dwelling at E. New York,                   *7

Dwelling at Flushing,                     *89

Dwelling at Montclair,                     *2

Dwelling at Providence,                    *5

Dwelling, C. C. Bloomfield’s,             *72

Dwelling, Chicago,                        *19

Dwelling, East Orange,                     *9

Dwelling, English,                         *8

Dwelling, Flatbush,                       *13

Dwelling, Flushing,                       *28

Dwelling for narrow lot,                  *83

Dwelling house, double,                   *34

Dwelling, Kansas City,                     *3

Dwelling, Minneapolis,                   *108

Dwelling, Mr. Gunther’s,                   45

Dwelling, New York,                        *1

Dwelling of moderate cost,     *55, *80, *120

Dwelling, seashore,                       *65

Dwelling, small, Paris,                   *76

Dwelling, Southern,                       *83

Dwelling, the Marquand,                    34

Dwelling, Worcester,                     *105

Dwelling, $3,500,                          *6

Dwelling, suburban,                        67

Dwellings at Glenridge,                  *126

Dry rot, preventive,                       13


=E=

Earthquake foundations,                   *96

Ebonizing,                                100

Engine, gas, Charter,                     142

Engine room, Paisley,                     *44

Entrance, design for,                    *113

Epitaph, blacksmith’s,                     18

Exhibition at Madrid,                     *97

Exhibition, Manchester,                   *14

Exhibition of building materials,          65

Explosive, new,                          *133

Exposition, Agricultural, Nation’l,       *31


=F=

Factory operatives’ homes,               *133

Faience, Burmantofts,                     *45

Fan, ventilating,                         *78

Fanlight grating,                         *64

Farm, broiler, Howe,                      *23

Feed water heater, new,                  *142

Fences, wire,                              18

Fever, typhoid, by well water,            126

Filing machine, saw,                      *87

Filter, air,                              *23

Finger nail paint,                         97

Finish, corner,                            68

Fire and whitewash,                        37

Fire brick,                               126

Fire, care in respect to,                  96

Fire place, marble,                       *38

Fire proof paper,                          22

Fireside, cheerful,                      *142

Fire proof structures,                   *124

Flies, oil of bay for,                     89

Floors and ceilings,                      *36

Floors, hydrofuge,                        *52

Floors, stable,                           *75

Flooring, fireproof,                     *124

Flour adulteration,                        44

Fluatation,                           45, 100

Flues, chimney construction of,           124

Food economy,                              61

Forestry problem, our,                    122

Foundations, earthquake,                  *96

Foundations in wet ground,                142

Front, city, design,                     *115

Furnace, hot air, Fortune,               *142

Furniture, willow, to clean,                7


=G=

Galvanizing process,                       95

Gangways vs. staircases,                  133

Gardens at railway stations,                6

Gas engine, Charter,                     *142

Gas fitting, rules for,                    92

Gas tar, use of,                           56

Gate at Bougival,                         *93

Gift, a jubilee,                           50

Girders, effect of heat,                   22

Glass, frosted,                        89, 97

Glass, plate,                              58

Glass, stained,                            52

Glass window,                              42

Gold, silk, and ivory,                     97

Granite,                                   69

Granite, red,                              26

Great woodcock,                          *100

Grating, fanlight,                        *64

Grease in boilers, removal,                61

Ground, frozen, excavating,                69


=H=

Habitations, healthy,                      97

Hall, Ancoats,                            *16

Hall, Holbrook,                          *104

Hall, Hulme,                              *16

Heater, feed water, new,                 *142

Heater, Fortune,                         *142

Heating by steam,                         104

Hemlock,                                  127

Hemlock laths,                             46

Herbinger, Col., tomb of,                 *42

Home of Miss Nightingale,                *132

Home of Milton,                           *37

Home interiors,                            19

Homes of factory operatives,             *133

Hotel Bourgtheroulde,                     *20

Hotel de Peintre, Meudon,                *122

Hotel de Ville, Paris,                    *43

Hotel, Spokane Falls,                     *11

House, apartment, Mortimer,               121

House, a New York,                         *1

House, a $1,200,                     *30, *88

House, a $2,500,                         *102

House, a $2,800,                          *83

House, a $3,500,                     *6, *111

House, a $3,700,                         *110

House, a $3,800,                         *114

House, a $4,000,                          *60

House, a $4,200,                    *61, *138

House, a $4,500,              *33, *106, *117

House, a $5,000,                    *57, *140

House, an artist’s,                       *18

House, an English,                         *8

House, an Ohio,                           *68

House at Brooklyn,                        *28

House at Cambridge,                       *24

House at East Orange,                      *9

House at Flatbush,                        *13

House at Flushing,                        *89

House at Montclair,                        *2

House at Providence,                       *5

House, California, $2,500,               *128

House, C. C. Bloomfield’s,                *72

House, Chicago,                           *19

House, double, English,                   *34

House, Flushing,                          *27

House for narrow lot,               *83, *116

House, ice, how to build,                 130

House, ideal, of the future,               64

House, Kansas City,                        *3

House, Minneapolis,                      *108

House, Mr. Gunther’s,                      45

House of moderate cost,   *55, *80, *86, *102

House, railroad men’s,                   *108

House, seashore,                          *65

House, small, Paris,                      *76

House, Southern,                          *83

House, the Marquand,                       34

House trap, Pietsch,                      *69

House, Worcester,                        *105

Houses, healthy,                           97

Houses, suburban,                          67

Houses, tenement,                         *66

How we have grown,                        135

Hydrofuge floors,                         *52


=I=

Industries in Africa,                      71

Ink for marking boxes, etc.,              129

Ink, marking, blue,                       129

Interior, a Dutch,                        115

Interiors, home,                           19

Iron beams vs. wood,                      133

Iron, to distinguish from steel,           63

Ivory, silk, and gold,                     97


=J=

Jacotot, Henri,                           *22

Joints and pipes,                         113

Joints in woodwork,                       *10


=K=

Keystone, ornamental,                    *125

Kerosene oil,                              45


=L=

Lamp chimneys, how made,                   35

Lane, Market‐sted,                       *16

Lath, Hall’s,                             *26

Laths, hemlock,                            46

Laundry, an English,                       40

Leather, top, to clean,                    91

Library, a curious,                       138

Library, congressional,                   140

Library building,                         *53

Library, Carnegie,                        *31

Lift for Eiffel tower,                     52

Lime, testing,                            *37

Logs, artificial,                        *142

Love‐lies‐bleeding,                     *70


=M=

Mail chutes, Cutler’s,                    *87

Manchester Exhibition,                    *14

Marble, effect of snow on,                118

Marble, practical use of,                  62

Marble statue, how made,                  139

Marble, to stain,                          27

Marbles, Algerian,                         21

Marbles, Vermont,                          66

Masonry, measurement of,                   76

Memorial, Shakespeare,                   *119

Mercury as disinfectant,                   92

Milton, home of,                          *37

Mirrors, painted,                          44

Miters, varying,                          *18

Monument, Grant, design,                  *77

Monument to M. Thiers,                   *112

Mortar, colored,                           91

Moulder’s sand,                            75

Mud architecture in Persia,                41


=N=

Nails,                                    130

Naval architecture,                        49

Nightingale, Miss, home of,               132


=O=

Oil, kerosene,                             45

Oil of bay for flies,                      89

Open gas fire radiator,                   121

Operatives, factory home,                *133

Ornamental keystones,                    *125


=P=

Pa crusta,                                 19

Painting,                                 132

Painting brick buildings,                  89

Palaces, winter,                           73

Panel, ornamental,                        *64

Panels, terra cotta,                        7

Paper, best effects in,                    50

Paper car wheels,                          46

Paper, water proof,                        22

Passion flower, new,                      *22

Pavements, cedar,                         127

Pavilion, ornamental,                    *107

Pedestal tenoner,                         *74

Pile protecting compounds, testi’g,       119

Pine, long leaf,                           94

Pine woods,                               134

Pipes and joints,                         113

Pipes, bursting of,                        38

Pipes, drain, look to your,               130

Pipes, water, bursting,                   113

Planer, improved,                        *142

Planer, surface, new,                    *100

Plaster, sand in,                          33

Plaster, wall, adamant,                    52

Plastering,                               107

Plate glass,                               58

Plumbing, about,                           24

Plumbing and drainage,                     16

Plumbing, not defective,                  142

Portal of St. Ouen Abbey,                 *20

Portland cement, improvem’nts in,         126

Post office, Montpelier,                  *30

Post office, San Antonio,                 *90

Post office, Springfield,                  *7

Prints, transfer to wood,                  91

Problem, forestry, our,                   122

Pump, force, Alert,                      *118

Pyramids,                                  75


=R=

Rabbit remedy,                            130

Radiator, New Era,                       *118

Railroad men’s house,                    *108

Rainbows, double and single,               64

Readers and patrons, to our,              120

Relics, ancient, Sidon,                    21

Residence, a $1,200,                 *30, *88

Residence, a $2,500,                     *102

Residence, a $2,800,                      *83

Residence, a $3,500,                       *6

Residence, a $3,700,                     *110

Residence, a $3,800,                     *114

Residence, a $4,200,                *61, *138

Residence, a $4,500,          *33, *106, *117

Residence, a $5,000,                *57, *140

Residence, Parisian,                      *76

Residence at Flushing,               *28, *89

Residence at Montclair,                    *2

Residence at Providence,                   *5

Residence, artist’s,                      *18

Residence, Brooklyn,                      *27

Residence, Cambridge,                     *24

Residence, Chicago,                       *19

Residence, East New York,                  *7

Residence, East Orange,                    *9

Residence, Flatbush,                      *13

Residence for $8,000,                    *123

Residence, Kansas City,                    *3

Residence, Minneapolis,                  *108

Residence, Mr. Gunther’s,                  45

Residence, New York,                       *1

Residence of C. C. Bloomfield,            *72

Residence of moderate cost,          *55, *80

Residence, Ohio,                          *68

Residence, seashore,                      *65

Residence, Southern,                      *83

Residence, suburban,                     *121

Residences, suburban,                      67

Residence, the Marquand,                   34

Residence, Worcester,                    *105

Residence, $4,000,                        *60

Riverside Avenue, Spokane Falls,          *11

Roburite,                                *133

Roofing plate contract, large,            120

Roofing plates, Penn,                      78

Roofing slate,                             32

Room, twelve mat,                         *36

Rooms, proportions of,                    140

Rose, Gloire De Dijon,                    *22

Rouen, gems from,                          20

Ruprich‐Robert, Mr.,                       19


=S=

Sand in plaster,                           33

Sand, moulders’,                           75

Sandstone in building,                     25

Saw, band, Marston’s,                    *142

Sawdust,                                  125

Saw filer, Sherman’s,                     *87

Scaffolding, portable,                    *34

School architecture,                     *105

School house and nursery,                 *63

Screens,                                   91

Sewerage, Vassar College,                  99

Shakespeare memorial,                    *119

Shingle stains,                           118

Shingles, cedar,                          104

Shrubs, planting,                          50

Shutter worker, Malloy’s,                 *87

Sideboard in walnut,                      *96

Silk, gold, and ivory,                     97

Silk room, disinfecting,                  102

Silo building,                            *74

Slate, roofing,                            32

Snow, effect on marble,                   118

Snow sheds, mountain,                      67

Sounding board, St. Paul’s,              *142

Stable, a $5,500,                        *140

Stable floors,                            *75

Staircase, Tatton,                        *17

Staircases, gangways vs.,                 133

Stains, shingle,                          118

Statue, marble, how made,                 139

Steam heating data,                       104

Stone, Caen,                               70

Stone, preservation of,                   100

Stone steps, to repair,                   116

Stone, waterproofing,                      45

Store, a country.,                        *82

Store at Winona,                          *91

Store, country, a $2,000,                 *59

Stores, water pipes in,                  *104

Suggestions, good,                        135


=T=

Tar, gas, use of,                          56

Tatton, Cheshire,                         *17

Tea, Japanese,                             25

Tenoner, pedestal,                        *74

Temple, Egyptian,                         124

Terra cotta panels,                         7

Theater, a safe,                           33

Thuja gigantea,                           115

Timber, green or dry,                       7

Tomb, M. Thiers’,                        *112

Tomb of Col. Herbinger,                   *42

Tombs, Etruscan,                           35

Tower on Mount of Olives,                 119

Trade unions,                             104

Trap, house, Pietsch,                     *69

Trap, plumbers’,                          *49

Tree, bamboo,                             123

Trees, planting,                           50

Trees, planting, roadside,                124

Tripod head, new,                         *10

Tube chimes,                              132

Typhoid,                                  110

Typhoid fever by well water,              126


=U=

United States, growth of,                 135


=V=

Vase, the largest,                         39

Vassar College sewerage,                   99

Vegetables in Japan,                       26

Villa, a French,                          *46

Villa, an Austrian,                       *41

Villa at Saint Lo,                        *98


=W=

Wages, how to increase,                    34

Wall, Chinese,                             44

Wall, dividing, removal,                   57

Wall plaster, adamant,                     52

Walls, burning buildings, collapse,       127

Walter, Thomas U.,                        134

Water, good, value of,                     34

Water pipes, bursting of,                 113

Waterproof paper,                          22

Waterproof stone,                          45

Water, the, keep out,                     120

Watt, James, birthplace of,              *121

Weather strip, Richmond,                   26

Weather Vane, Reynolds’,                  *26

Wells, look to your,                      130

Wheels, car, paper,                        46

White ash, the,                           125

Whitewash and fire,                        37

Whooping cough,                            87

Windmill clock,                            21

Window glass,                              42

Window shutter device,                    *87

Winter palaces,                            73

Wire fences,                               18

Wood carpet,                               70

Wood filler, Wheeler’s,                    11

Wood of Thuja gigantea,                   115

Wood, preservation of,                     65

Woodpecker’s sugar bush,                   32

Woodwork, joints in,                      *10

Woodwork, preservation,                    32

Woods, pine,                              134

Woods, staining,                           47

Woods, uses of,                            24

Women as architects,                        6

Writing, minute,                           77


=Y=

Yard, the back,                           134



The Thomson‐Houston Electric Co.

—MANUFACTURE—

THE ONLY PERFECT AUTOMATIC SYSTEM OF

ARC AND INCANDESCENT LIGHTING

In the World.

☞_New illustrated pamphlet will be furnished
on application._

  THE THOMSON‐HOUSTON ELECTRIC COMPANY,
  Principal Offices: 178 Devonshire St., BOSTON.
  Western Offices: Pullman Building, CHICAGO.



=WM. T. LINDEMAN & CO.=

1400 and 1402 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia,

=Color Grinders.=

MANUFACTURERS OF

Mahogany, Cherry, and Walnut Stains, Philadelphia Flat Brick Red,
Outside Hard Wood Finish, Philadelphia Iron Filler and Steel Color
Paint, Philadelphia Hard Wood Filler.

——§ AGENTS FOR §——

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D. B. Crockett’s “Preservative” and “Spar Composition.”



  FLOORS End‐Wood a Specialty.
  Parquetry, Wood Carpet.

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=END‐WOOD MOSAIC= is the most perfect and durable floor covering
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CATALOGUE FREE. SAMPLE BY MAIL, FOUR CENTS. MANUFACTURED BY

WOOD‐MOSAIC CO.,

  Office and Works,
  318 SCIO ST., ROCHESTER, N. Y.

  Salesroom,
  321 FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY.



=THE NOVELTY HOT AIR FURNACE,=

[Illustration: Hot Air Furnace.]

  =FIRE TESTED=
  AND
  =INDESTRUCTIBLE.=

=Tens of thousands in use.=

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=Thirteen Years of Public Service.=

=Universally Satisfactory.=

=Its wonderful merit has established its reputation.=

=“Par excellence,” wherever used.=

[Illustration: Hot Air Furnace.]

=It is the original and only possible perfect three drum construction.=

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GET DESCRIPTIVE PAMPHLET.

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EXPERTS AND SPECIALISTS in the manufacture of HEATING ENGINEERS’
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  PHILADELPHIA.
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ORR & LOCKETT,

184 & 186 Clark Street, Chicago,

BUILDERS’ HARDWARE

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

=We are Sole Chicago Agents for=

  Geer’s Spring Hinge, Norton Door Check and Spring,
  Dudley Shutter‐Worker,

AND SEVERAL OTHER SPECIALTIES.

=The following are some of the fine Public and Office Buildings
furnished by us:=

First National Bank Building; Montauk Block; Pullman Offices and Flats;
C., B. and Q. Office Building; Grand Trunk Depot and Offices; New Board
of Trade; Home Insurance Building; Insurance Exchange; Traders; Clark
and Counselman Buildings; and New Union League Club Buildings, of this
city; the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fé Offices of Topeka, Kansas; the
Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern R. R. Offices, at Cedar Rapids,
Iowa; and the George Spencer Office Buildings, at Duluth, Minn.

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. SATISFACTION GUARANTEED.



GILLINDER & SONS,

  =720 ARCH STREET, — PHILADELPHIA.=

  IMPORTERS
  AND DEALERS IN
  FRENCH and AMERICAN
  =Plate Glass,
  Looking Glass
  Plates,
  Enameled,
  Colored,
  Cathedral,
  AND
  other Ornamental
  Glass.=

  Glaziers’ Diamonds.
  =Pure Putty,
  Points, etc.=

[Illustration: Ornate Window.]

  MANUFACTURERS OF
  =FRANKLIN=
  Window Glass,
  Equal to Foreign Brands.

  Also Manufacturers
  OF THE
  =“New Flint Glass
  Ornamental Tile.”=

—FOR—

  Windows in Cars and Dwellings,
  OF
  Unequaled Brilliancy.

(SEE CUT.)

Catalogues and Estimates furnished on application.



Beautiful & Lasting for ORNAMENTING WINDOWS, DOORS, TRANSOMS, &c.

[Illustration:

=Stained Glass Substitute=]

AT SMALL COST. Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Prices. Samples by
mail 25 cents.

  =W. C. YOUNG= SOLE AGENT, 733 ARCH ST.
  PHILADELPHIA, PA.

AGENTS WANTED EVERYWHERE.



=Warren‐Ehret Company=

  BUILDING AND SHEATHING PAPERS,
  COMPLETE READY ROOFING,
  —AND—
  CARPET LININGS,

=428 MARKET STREET, PHILADELPHIA.=



=Popular Fortune Hot Air Furnace=

FOUR SIZES—Nos. 25, 28, 32, and 36.

BEST FURNACE KNOWN FOR HEATING DWELLINGS.

  =ECONOMICAL, DURABLE, AND CHEAP.
  IMPROVED DUST FLUE, LARGE RADIATION.=

[Illustration: Hot Air Furnace.]

Having repeated inquiries for a HOT AIR FURNACE combining all the good
elements of a first‐class furnace, with the FANCY FRILLS left off, that
could be put up at a MODERATE PRICE, induced us to make the “POPULAR
FORTUNE,” sales of which, and the satisfaction rendered, have proven it
to be just the furnace wanted, specially for Suburban Houses.

Write for circular and prices.

  MANUFACTURERS,
  =Thomas, Roberts, Stevenson & Co.,
  PHILADELPHIA.=



  The BEST Roofing Tin
  is the CHEAPEST!

=But how are you to know that you get the quality and brand wanted?=

Because every PERFECT SHEET of the following three extra fine
guaranteed brands of Roofing TIN IS STAMPED at the works with the name
of the brand and the thickness. Please note this.

  “Old Style.”
  Extra Heavily Coated.
  The Best Made.

  =“Westminster.”=
  Re‐dipped. Made
  from Heavy Iron.


  COOKLEY
  K
  Highest Grade of
  Heavy Regular Coated.

=EVERY BOX IS GUARANTEED.=

Sample pieces of the Tin, also circulars and full information given.

  =N. & G. TAYLOR CO.
  Established 1810. 77th year.
  PHILADELPHIA.=



Prepared Roofing

BEST, CHEAPEST, MOST DURABLE.

[Illustration:
  EHRET’S
  BLACK DIAMOND
  PREPARED ROOFING
]

  ANYBODY CAN PUT IT ON.
  EASILY HANDLED.

PUT UP IN ROLLS OF 100 SQUARE FEET.

Send for Latest Circular, Price List, etc.

  MANUFACTURED BY
  M. EHRET, Jr., & CO.,

  PHILADELPHIA,
  423 Walnut Street.

  ST. LOUIS,
  113 North 8th Street.

  CHICAGO,
  50 Dearborn Street.



  Ornamental
  Glass
  Works.

  EMBOSSED
  Glass,
  New Designs.

  Memorial
  WINDOWS.

SPECIAL WORK.

  Brass Signs
  AND
  Memorials.

Sample of work on Exhibition at 14 Vesey St., N. Y.

DESIGNS and ESTIMATES FURNISHED.

  =Work as Reference,=
  Union News Co.,
  Pennsylvania Railroad,
  Pennsylvania University.

C. H. POSTEL & CO.,

1314 RIDGE AVENUE.

  BRANCH OFFICE:
  527 ARCH ST.,
  PHILADELPHIA, PA.



=TINTING= COLORS
STRICTLY PURE.


=For Painters’ and Builders’ Use.=

Cannot be excelled for PURITY and FINENESS.

MANUFACTURED BY

  EDW. E. JILLARD,
  EUREKA COLOR WORKS,
  1645 NORTH TENTH STREET,
  PHILADELPHIA, PA.



=WOOD MANTELS.=

  INTERIOR DECORATIONS,
  ARTISTIC FURNITURE,

DESIGNED AND MANUFACTURED BY

  GEO. W. SMITH & CO.,
  3907 to 3919 Powelton Avenue,
  Philadelphia, Pa.



=FAYETTE R. PLUMB,=

Successor to =YERKES & PLUMB=, Manufacturer of

=Hammers, Edge Tools, Sledges, Blacksmith and Railroad Tools.=

MAIN OFFICE and WORKS:

  =PENN. R. R.,
  TUCKER AND JAMES STREETS,
  PHILADELPHIA, PA.=



  Architects, Roofers, Builders. “Alderly”
  and
  “Penn” Old Method Roofing Plates

THE TWO BEST BRANDS OF =GUARANTEED= ROOFING PLATES.

THERE ARE NO OTHER BRANDS EQUAL TO THESE PLATES.


=ALDERLY=

  Made of Siemens‐Martin Soft Steel, same as Old Style Plates.

  Next in Quality, of Standard Weight, Perfectly Square, Perfectly
  Assorted.

  True to Gauge. We carry in Stock, Stamped and Unstamped.


=“PENN” OLD METHOD Treble Coated Roofing Plate.=

  =GUARANTEED= to stand any test demanded. Guaranteed to be heavier
  coated than any other plate, each box, 14 × 20 contains =20 lbs.=,
  and 28 × 20 contains =40 lbs.= Guaranteed to have all the Coating
  that it is possible for any plate to hold. Guaranteed Rolled true
  to Gauge. Absolutely perfect in every respect. Guaranteed to last
  longer on Roof without being painted than any other Old Style
  Plate. Guaranteed sheets perfectly square and flat. Both =IC= and
  =IX=, all strapped with iron.

SOLE MANUFACTURERS of the =“PATTEN” METALLIC ROOFING SHINGLES=.

  GUMMEY, SPERING, INGRAM & CO.,
  Philadelphia—Liverpool.



=STAINED GLASS=

For Churches and Private Dwellings, etc.

_JEWELED MOSAICS._

Illustrated Catalogues Free.

  ALFRED GODWIN,
  1201 Market Street,
  Philadelphia, Pa.



=WOOD WORKING MACHINERY.=

Band Saws, Jointers, Pony Planers, Shapers.

SPECIAL FOR CARPENTERS AND BUILDERS.

  E. & F. GLEASON, 250 Susquehanna Avenue,
  Philadelphia, Pa.



The “Gilbertson’s Old Method” is the only brand of Dipped Plates of
which the makers have notified consumers—through a letter published by
us some time since—that they would send NO WASTERS TO THIS COUNTRY.

=SHEETS= that are =GUARANTEED= and =STAMPED= are the only protection to
the Architect, Owner, and Roofer, against dishonest competition and the
=USE OF INFERIOR MATERIAL.=

——MERCHANT & CO.,——

  525 Arch St., PHILADELPHIA.
  9 Burling Slip, NEW YORK.
  202 Lake St., CHICAGO.
  No. 1 Metal Exchange Buildings, LONDON, E. C.



GAS FIRES

_Resembling Wood or Coal._

Burning Natural or Manufactured Gas.

[Illustration: Log Effect Fire.]

HENRY P. DIXON & CO.,

Manufacturers,

  1330 Chestnut St.,
  Phila., Pa.



=SHAW & GEARY,=

[Illustration: Electric Bell.]

MANUFACTURERS & DEALERS

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES.

  53 No. Seventh St.,
  PHILADELPHIA.



[Illustration:
  CHOUAGUEN,
  TRADE MARK
  OPAQUED HOLLANDS.]

In ordering your Window Shadings specify

=“CHOUAGUEN.”=

AND TAKE NO OTHER.

_See Trade Mark._

Are the Best Finished, Most Uniform, and Most Durable Goods made.

ENQUIRE OF ANY DEALER.



[Illustration: The Goulds
Mfg. Co.

MANUFACTURERS OF

PUMPS FOR HAND AND POWER USE IN AND ABOUT

PRIVATE RESIDENCES

  SEND FOR
  NEW NO. 10
  CATALOGUE

  ADDRESS
  SENECA FALLS, N. Y.
  60 BARCLAY ST.
  NEW YORK]



[Illustration: A DWELLING OF MODERATE COST]

[Illustration: Plan of First Floor.]

[Illustration: Plan of Second Floor.]

[Illustration: A SUBURBAN RESIDENCE]

[Illustration: Plan of First Floor.]

[Illustration: Plan of Second Floor.]





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