Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Cavendish on Whist - 18th edition
Author: Jones, Henry Festing
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Cavendish on Whist - 18th edition" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



FRONTISPIECE.

[Illustration: RUFF and HONOURS (from the Compleat Gamester 1680).

          "Lastly, observe the Women with what grace
    They sit, and look their Partners in the face,
    Who from their eyes shoot Cupids fiery darts;
    Thus make them lose at once their Game and Hearts."]

[Illustration:



  ♣--------------------------------♢--------------------------------♣
  |                                                                 |
  |                               THE                               |
  |                                                                 |
  |                       LAWS AND PRINCIPLES                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                               OF                                |
  |                                                                 |
  |                              WHIST                              |
  |                                                                 |
  |                      STATED AND EXPLAINED                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                             AND ITS                             |
  |                                                                 |
  |                      PRACTICE ILLUSTRATED                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                               ON                                |
  ♡                                                                 ♡
  |                       AN ORIGINAL SYSTEM                        |
  |                                                                 |
  |                           BY MEANS OF                           |
  |                                                                 |
  |                HANDS PLAYED COMPLETELY THROUGH.                 |
  |                                                                 |
  |                                                                 |
  |                               BY                                |
  |                                                                 |
  |                          "CAVENDISH."                           |
  |                                                                 |
  |                       EIGHTEENTH EDITION.                       |
  |                                                                 |
  |                  LONDON: THOS. DE LA RUE & CO.                  |
  |                                                                 |
  |                              1889.                              |
  |                                                                 |
  ♠--------------------------------♢--------------------------------♠

                          ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]

                              PRINTED BY

                THOMAS DE LA RUE AND CO., BUNHILL ROW,

                                LONDON.



DEDICATION TO THE NINTH EDITION.



                        JAMES CLAY, ESQ., M.P.

  (Chairman of the Whist Laws Committee of the Arlington Club, 1864,)

                               This Book

                                  IS

                          CORDIALLY DEDICATED

                                  BY

                         HIS SINCERE FRIEND,

                                                             THE AUTHOR.



DEDICATION TO THE TENTH EDITION.


                  +--------------------------------+
                  |                                |
                  |         To the memory          |
                  |                                |
                  |               OF               |
                  |                                |
                  |           JAMES CLAY           |
                  |                                |
                  +--------------------------------+



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


It has often occurred to the Author that there are two principal
defects in the existing treatises on the game of Whist--the one that
the principles of play are, in general, laid down as so many isolated
and arbitrary conventions, the reasons upon which such principles are
based being seldom, if at all, and scarcely ever fully, stated; the
other, that suitable illustrations, by which alone the principles can
be brought forcibly home and fixed in the memory, are almost entirely
wanting. The present work is an attempt to supply these deficiencies.
With regard to the latter, the Author feels that nothing, in point
of illustration of principles, can be so instructive as a selection
of hands played completely through, and accompanied by copious
explanations. The idea, it is believed, as applied to Whist, is a new
one, though a similar plan has long been in use in treatises on Chess.

It has not been deemed necessary to occupy space by detailing the mode
of playing and of scoring, as this information can be readily acquired
at the table. The reader is, therefore, credited with this elementary
knowledge, and is conducted at once to the General Principles, which he
is advised to consider carefully before proceeding to the Hands.



PREFACE TO THE SIXTEENTH EDITION.


The attention of the Reader is particularly directed to Appendix A,
explanatory of American Leads. The Author is firmly convinced that
American Leads are founded on true principles of whist play, and they
therefore have his hearty approval. But, he hesitates to insist upon
these leads in the body of the "Principles," as they have not yet met
with universal,--and, perhaps, hardly with general,--acceptance.

The advanced player is also invited to consider, with care, Appendix B,
which treats briefly of The Plain-Suit Echo.



PREFACE TO THE EIGHTEENTH EDITION.


The advanced player is invited to consider, with care, Appendix C,
which treats of the leads from ace, king, and from king, queen suits.



CONTENTS.


                                                                    PAGE
  THE LAWS OF WHIST                                                    1

  ETIQUETTE OF WHIST                                                  19

  CASES AND DECISIONS                                                 22

  HISTORICAL                                                          31


  PART I.

  GENERAL PRINCIPLES.


  THE FIRST HAND OR LEAD.

  ORIGINAL LEADS                                                      56

  LEADS FROM STRONG SUITS                                             56

    "   FROM SEQUENCES                                                62

    "   ANALYSIS OF, IN DETAIL                                        64

    "   FROM WEAK SUITS                                               72

    "   AT ADVANCED PERIODS                                           74

  RETURNED LEADS                                                      79


  THE SECOND HAND.

  PLAY OF THE SECOND HAND                                             82

          "       "      WITH STRONG SUITS                            82

          "       "      WITH SEQUENCES                               83

          "       "      ANALYSIS OF, IN DETAIL                       85


  THE THIRD HAND.

  PLAY OF THE THIRD HAND WHEN THE LEAD IS FROM
  STRONG SUITS                                                        92

  PLAY OF THE THIRD HAND WHEN THE LEAD IS FROM
  WEAK SUITS                                                          93

  FINESSING                                                           92


  THE FOURTH HAND.

  PLAY OF THE FOURTH HAND                                             96


  THE COMMAND OF SUITS                                                96

  UNDERPLAY                                                          101


  DISCARDING                                                         104


  THE CONVERSATION OF THE GAME                                       108


  TRUMPS.

  THE MANAGEMENT OF TRUMPS                                           119

  LEADING TRUMPS                                                     120

  ASKING FOR TRUMPS                                                  125

  TRUMPING                                                           129

  FORCING                                                            131


  PLAYING TO THE SCORE                                               134

  DRAWING INFERENCES                                                 134

  COUPS                                                              141


  PART II.

  HANDS                                                              156


  APPENDIX A.

  AMERICAN LEADS                                                     281


  APPENDIX B.

  THE PLAIN-SUIT ECHO                                                287


  APPENDIX C.

  ON THE ORIGINAL LEAD OF KING                                       289



THE LAWS OF WHIST.

BY PERMISSION, _VERBATIM_ FROM THE CLUB CODE.

THE FOOT NOTES ARE ADDED BY THE AUTHOR.


THE RUBBER.

1. The rubber is the best of three games. If the first two games be won
by the same players, the third game is not played.


SCORING.

2. A game consists of five points. Each trick, above six, counts one
point.

3. Honours, _i.e._, Ace, King, Queen, and Knave of trumps, are thus
reckoned:

If a player and his partner, either separately or conjointly, hold--

    I. The four honours, they score four points.
   II. Any three honours, they score two points.
  III. Only two honours, they do not score.

4. Those players, who, at the commencement of a deal, are at the score
of four, cannot score honours.

5. The penalty for a revoke[1] takes precedence of all other scores.
Tricks score next. Honours last.

6. Honours, unless claimed before the trump card of the following deal
is turned up, cannot be scored.

7. To score honours is not sufficient; they must be called at the end
of the hand; if so called, they may be scored at any time during the
game.

8. The winners gain--

  I. A treble, or game of three points, when their adversaries
          have not scored.

  II. A double, or game of two points, when their adversaries
          have scored less than three.

  III. A single, or game of one point, when their adversaries have
          scored three, or four.

9. The winners of the rubber gain two points (commonly called the
rubber points), in addition to the value of their games.

10. Should the rubber have consisted of three games, the value of the
losers' game is deducted from the gross number of points gained by
their opponents.

11. If an erroneous score be proved, such mistake can be corrected
prior to the conclusion of the game in which it occurred, and such game
is not concluded until the trump card of the following deal has been
turned up.

12. If an erroneous score, affecting the amount of the rubber,[2] be
proved, such mistake can be rectified at any time during the rubber.


CUTTING.

13. The ace is the lowest card.

14. In all cases, every one must cut from the same pack.

15. Should a player expose more than one card, he must cut again.


FORMATION OF TABLE.

16. If there are more than four candidates, the players are selected by
cutting: those first in the room having the preference. The four who
cut the lowest cards play first, and again cut to decide on partners;
the two lowest play against the two highest; the lowest is the dealer,
who has choice of cards and seats, and, having once made his selection,
must abide by it.

17. When there are more than six candidates, those who cut the two next
lowest cards belong to the table, which is complete with six players;
on the retirement of one of those six players, the candidate who cut
the next lowest card has a prior right to any after-comer to enter the
table.


CUTTING CARDS OF EQUAL VALUE.

18. Two players cutting cards of equal value,[3] unless such cards are
the two highest, cut again; should they be the two lowest, a fresh cut
is necessary to decide which of those two deals.[4]

19. Three players cutting cards of equal value cut again; should the
fourth (or remaining) card be the highest, the two lowest of the new
cut are partners, the lower of those two the dealer; should the fourth
card be the lowest, the two highest are partners, the original lowest
the dealer.[5]


CUTTING OUT.

20. At the end of a rubber, should admission be claimed by any one,
or by two candidates, he who has, or they who have, played a greater
number of consecutive rubbers than the others is, or are, out; but
when all have played the same number, they must cut to decide upon the
out-goers; the highest are out.


ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY.

21. A candidate wishing to enter a table must declare such intention
prior to any of the players having cut a card, either for the purpose
of commencing a fresh rubber, or of cutting out.

22. In the formation of fresh tables, those candidates who have neither
belonged to nor played at any other table have the prior right of
entry; the others decide their right of admission by cutting.

23. Any one quitting a table prior to the conclusion of a rubber, may,
with consent of the other three players, appoint a substitute in his
absence during that rubber.

24. A player cutting into one table, whilst belonging to another, loses
his right[6] of re-entry into that latter, and takes his chance of
cutting in, as if he were a fresh candidate.[7]

25. If any one break up a table, the remaining players have the
prior right to him of entry into any other, and should there not be
sufficient vacancies at such other table to admit all those candidates,
they settle their precedence by cutting.


SHUFFLING.

26. The pack must neither be shuffled below the table nor so that the
face of any card be seen.

27. The pack must not be shuffled during the play of the hand.

28. A pack, having been played with, must neither be shuffled, by
dealing it into packets, nor across the table.

29. Each player has a right to shuffle, once only, except as provided
by Rule 32, prior to a deal, after a false cut,[8] or when a new
deal[9] has occurred.

30. The dealer's partner must collect the cards for the ensuing deal,
and has the first right to shuffle that pack.

31. Each player, after shuffling, must place the cards, properly
collected and face downwards, to the left of the player about to deal.

32. The dealer has always the right to shuffle last; but should a card
or cards be seen during his shuffling or whilst giving the pack to be
cut, he may be compelled to re-shuffle.


THE DEAL.

33. Each player deals in his turn; the right of dealing goes to the
left.

34. The player on the dealer's right cuts the pack, and in dividing it,
must not leave fewer than four cards in either packet; if in cutting,
or in replacing one of the two packets on the other, a card be
exposed,[10] or if there be any confusion of the cards, or a doubt as
to the exact place in which the pack was divided, there must be a fresh
cut.

35. When a player, whose duty it is to cut, has once separated the
pack, he cannot alter his intention; he can neither re-shuffle nor
re-cut the cards.

36. When the pack is cut, should the dealer shuffle the cards, he loses
his deal.


A NEW DEAL.

37. There must be a new deal[11]--

  I. If, during a deal, or during the play of a hand, the pack
          be proved incorrect or imperfect.

  II. If any card, excepting the last, be faced in the pack.

38. If, whilst dealing, a card be exposed by the dealer or his partner,
should neither of the adversaries have touched the cards, the latter
can claim a new deal; a card exposed by either adversary gives that
claim to the dealer, provided that his partner has not touched a card;
if a new deal does not take place, the exposed card cannot be called.

39. If, during dealing, a player touch any of his cards, the
adversaries may do the same, without losing their privilege of claiming
a new deal, should chance give them such option.

40. If, in dealing, one of the last cards be exposed, and the dealer
turn up the trump before there is reasonable time for his adversaries
to decide as to a fresh deal, they do not thereby lose their privilege.

41. If a player, whilst dealing, look at the trump card, his
adversaries have a right to see it, and may exact a new deal.

42. If a player take into the hand dealt to him a card belonging to
the other pack, the adversaries, on discovery of the error, may decide
whether they will have a fresh deal or not.


A MISDEAL.

43. A misdeal loses the deal.[12]

44. It is a misdeal[13]--

  I. Unless the cards are dealt into four packets, one at a time
          in regular rotation, beginning with the player to the
          dealer's left.

  II. Should the dealer place the last (_i.e._, the trump) card,
          face downwards, on his own, or any other pack.

  III. Should the trump card not come in its regular order to the
          dealer; but he does not lose his deal if the pack be proved
          imperfect.

  IV. Should a player have fourteen[14] cards, and either of the
          other three less than thirteen.[15]

  V. Should the dealer, under an impression that he has made a
          mistake, either count the cards on the table, or the
          remainder of the pack.

  VI. Should the dealer deal two cards at once, or two cards to
          the same hand, and then deal a third; but if, prior to
          dealing that third card, the dealer can, by altering the
          position of one card only, rectify such error, he may do
          so, except as provided by the second paragraph of this Law.

  VII. Should the dealer omit to have the pack cut to him, and the
          adversaries discover the error, prior to the trump card
          being turned up, and before looking at their cards, but not
          after having done so.

45. A misdeal does not lose the deal if, during the dealing, either of
the adversaries touch the cards prior to the dealer's partner having
done so, but should the latter have first interfered with the cards,
notwithstanding either or both of the adversaries have subsequently
done the same, the deal is lost.

46. Should three players have their right number of cards--the fourth
have less than thirteen, and not discover such deficiency until he
has played any of his cards,[16] the deal stands good; should he have
played, he is as answerable for any revoke he may have made as if the
missing card, or cards, had been in his hand;[17] he may search the
other pack for it, or them.

47. If a pack, during or after a rubber, be proved incorrect or
imperfect, such proof does not alter any past score, game, or rubber;
that hand in which the imperfection was detected is null and void; the
dealer deals again.

48. Any one dealing out of turn, or with the adversary's cards, may be
stopped before the trump card is turned up, after which the game must
proceed as if no mistake had been made.

49. A player can neither shuffle, cut, nor deal for his partner,
without the permission of his opponents.

50. If the adversaries interrupt a dealer whilst dealing, either by
questioning the score or asserting that it is not his deal, and fail to
establish such claim, should a misdeal occur, he may deal again.

51. Should a player take his partner's deal, and misdeal, the latter is
liable to the usual penalty, and the adversary next in rotation to the
player who ought to have dealt then deals.


THE TRUMP CARD.

52. The dealer, when it is his turn to play to the first trick, should
take the trump card into his hand; if left on the table after the first
trick be turned and quitted, it is liable to be called;[18] his partner
may at any time remind him of the liability.

53. After the dealer has taken the trump card into his hand, it cannot
be asked for;[19] a player naming it at any time during the play of
that hand is liable to have his highest or lowest trump called.[20]

54. If the dealer take the trump card into his hand before it is his
turn to play, he may be desired to lay it on the table; should he show
a wrong card, this card may be called, as also a second, a third, &c.,
until the trump card be produced.

55. If the dealer declare himself unable to recollect the trump card,
his highest or lowest trump may be called at any time during that hand,
and, unless it cause him to revoke, must be played; the call may be
repeated, but not changed, _i.e._, from highest to lowest, or _vice
versâ_, until such card is played.


CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED.

56. All exposed cards are liable to be called, and must be left[21] on
the table; but a card is not an exposed card when dropped on the floor,
or elsewhere below the table.

The following are exposed[22] cards:--

  I. Two or more cards played at once.[23]

  II. Any card dropped with its face upwards, or in any way
          exposed on or above the table, even though snatched up so
          quickly that no one can name it.

57. If any one play to an imperfect trick the best card on the
table,[24] or lead one which is a winning card as against his
adversaries, and then lead again,[25] or play several such winning
cards, one after the other, without waiting for his partner to play,
the latter may be called on to win, if he can, the first or any other
of those tricks, and the other cards thus improperly played are exposed
cards.

58. If a player, or players, under the impression that the game is
lost--or won--or for other reasons--throw his or their cards on the
table face upwards, such cards are exposed, and liable to be called,
each player's by the adversary; but should one player alone retain his
hand, he cannot be forced to abandon it.

59. If all four players throw their cards on the table face upwards,
the hands are abandoned; and no one can again take up his cards. Should
this general exhibition show that the game might have been saved, or
won, neither claim can be entertained, unless a revoke be established.
The revoking players are then liable to the following penalties: they
cannot under any circumstances win the game by the result of that hand,
and the adversaries may add three to their score, or deduct three from
that of the revoking players.

60. A card detached from the rest of the hand so as to be named is
liable to be called; but should the adversary name a wrong card, he is
liable to have a suit called when he or his partner have the lead.[26]

61. If a player, who has rendered himself liable to have the highest
or lowest of a suit called, fail to play as desired, or if when called
on to lead one suit, lead another, having in his hand one or more cards
of that suit demanded, he incurs the penalty of a revoke.

62. If any player lead out of turn, his adversaries may either call the
card erroneously led--or may call a suit from him or his partner when
it is next the turn of either of them[27] to lead.

63. If any player lead out of turn, and the other three have followed
him, the trick is complete, and the error cannot be rectified; but if
only the second, or the second and third, have played to the false
lead, their cards, on discovery of the mistake, are taken back; there
is no penalty against any one, excepting the original offender, whose
card may be called--or he, or his partner, when either of them[28]
has next the lead, may be compelled to play any suit demanded by the
adversaries.

64. In no case can a player be compelled to play a card which would
oblige him to revoke.

65. The call of a card may be repeated[29] until such card has been
played.

66. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the penalty
is paid.


CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR, OR NOT PLAYED TO A TRICK.

67. If the third hand play before the second, the fourth hand may play
before his partner.

68. Should the third hand not have played, and the fourth play before
his partner, the latter may be called on to win, or not to win the
trick.

69. If any one omit playing to a former trick, and such error be not
discovered until he has played to the next, the adversaries may claim
a new deal; should they decide that the deal stand good, the surplus
card at the end of the hand is considered to have been played to the
imperfect trick, but does not constitute a revoke therein.

70. If any one play two cards to the same trick, or mix his trump, or
other card, with a trick to which it does not properly belong, and
the mistake be not discovered until the hand is played out, he is
answerable for all consequent revokes he may have made.[30] If, during
the play of the hand, the error be detected, the tricks may be counted
face downwards, in order to ascertain whether there be among them a
card too many: should this be the case they may be searched, and the
card restored; the player is, however, liable for all revokes which he
may have meanwhile made.


THE REVOKE.

71. Is when a player, holding one or more cards of the suit led, plays
a card of a different suit.[31]

72. The penalty for a revoke:--

  I. Is at the option of the adversaries, who, at the end of the
          hand, may either take three tricks from the revoking
          player[32]--or deduct three points from his score--or add
          three to their own score;

  II. Can be claimed for as many revokes as occur during the hand;

  III. Is applicable only to the score of the game in which it
          occurs;

  IV. Cannot be divided, i.e., a player cannot add one or two to
          his own score and deduct one or two from the revoking
          player;

  V. Takes precedence of every other score, _e.g._,--The
          claimants two--their opponents nothing--the former add
          three to their score--and thereby win a treble game, even
          should the latter have made thirteen tricks, and held four
          honours.

73. A revoke is established, if the trick in which it occur be turned
and quitted, _i.e._, the hand removed from that trick after it has been
turned face downwards on the table--or if either the revoking player or
his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, lead or play to
the following trick.

74. A player may ask his partner whether he has not a card of the
suit which he has renounced; should the question be asked before the
trick is turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting does
not establish the revoke, and the error may be corrected, unless the
question be answered in the negative, or unless the revoking player or
his partner have led or played to the following trick.

75. At the end of the hand, the claimants of a revoke may search all
the tricks.[33]

76. If a player discover his mistake in time to save a revoke, the
adversaries, whenever they think fit, may call the card thus played in
error, or may require him to play his highest or lowest card to that
trick in which he has renounced;--any player or players who have played
after him may withdraw their cards and substitute others: the cards
withdrawn are not liable to be called.

77. If a revoke be claimed, and the accused player or his partner
mix the cards before they have been sufficiently examined by the
adversaries, the revoke is established. The mixing of the cards only
renders the proof of a revoke difficult, but does not prevent the
claim, and possible establishment, of the penalty.

78. A revoke cannot be claimed after the cards have been cut for the
following deal.

79. The revoking player and his partner may, under all circumstances,
require the hand in which the revoke has been detected to be played out.

80. If a revoke occur, be claimed and proved, bets on the odd trick, or
on amount of score, must be decided by the actual state of the latter,
after the penalty is paid.

81. Should the players on both sides subject themselves to the penalty
of one or more revokes, neither can win the game; each is punished at
the discretion of his adversary.[34]

82. In whatever way the penalty be enforced, under no circumstances
can a player win the game by the result of the hand during which he has
revoked; he cannot score more than four. (_Vide_ Rule 61.)


CALLING FOR NEW CARDS.

83. Any player (on paying for them) before, but not after, the pack be
cut for the deal, may call for fresh cards. He must call for two new
packs, of which the dealer takes his choice.


GENERAL RULES.

84. Where a player and his partner have an option of exacting from
their adversaries one of two penalties, they should agree who is to
make the election, but must not consult with one another which of the
two penalties it is advisable to exact; if they do so consult they lose
their right;[35] and if either of them, with or without consent of his
partner, demand a penalty to which he is entitled, such decision is
final.

  This rule does not apply in exacting the penalties for a revoke;
  partners have then a right to consult.

85. Any one during the play of a trick, or after the four cards are
played, and before, but not after, they are touched for the purpose of
gathering them together, may demand that the cards be placed before
their respective players.

86. If any one, prior to his partner playing, should call attention
to the trick--either by saying that it is his, or by naming his card,
or, without being required so to do, by drawing it towards him--the
adversaries may require that opponent's partner to play the highest or
lowest of the suit then led, or to win or lose[36] the trick.

87. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender is
bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries.

88. If a bystander make any remark which calls the attention of a
player or players to an oversight affecting the score, he is liable to
be called on, by the players only, to pay the stakes and all bets on
that game or rubber.

89. A bystander, by agreement among the players, may decide any
question.

90. A card or cards torn or marked must be either replaced by
agreement, or new cards called at the expense of the table.

91. Any player may demand to see the last trick turned, and no more.
Under no circumstances can more than eight cards be seen during the
play of the hand, viz.: the four cards on the table which have not been
turned and quitted, and the last trick turned.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] _Vide_ Law 72.

[2] _e.g._ If a single is scored by mistake for a double or treble, or
_vice versâ_.

[3] In cutting for partners.

[4] _Example._ A three, two sixes, and a knave are cut. The two sixes
cut again, and the lowest plays with the three. Suppose at the second
cut, the two sixes cut a king and a queen, the queen plays with the
three.

If at the second cut a lower card than the three is cut, the three
still retains its privileges as original low, and has the deal and
choice of cards and seats.

[5] _Example._ Three aces and a two are cut. The three aces cut again.
The two is the original high, and plays with the highest of the next
cut.

Suppose at the second cut, two more twos and a king are drawn. The king
plays with the original two, and the other pair of twos cut again for
deal.

Suppose instead, the second cut to consist of an ace and two knaves.
The two knaves cut again, and the highest plays with the two.

[6] _i.e._, his prior right.

[7] And last in the room (_vide_ Law 16).

[8] _Vide_ Law 34.

[9] _Vide_ Law 37.

[10] After the two packets have been re-united, Law 38 comes into
operation.

[11] _i.e._, the same dealer must deal again. _Vide_ also Laws 47 and
50.

[12] Except as provided in Laws 45 and 50.

[13] _Vide_ also Law 36.

[14] Or more.

[15] The pack being perfect. _Vide_ Law 47.

[16] _i.e._, until after he has played to the first trick.

[17] _Vide_ also Law 70, and Law 44, paragraph iv.

[18] It is not usual to call the trump card if left on the table.

[19] Any one may inquire what the trump suit is, at any time.

[20] In the manner described in Law 55.

[21] Face upwards.

[22] Detached cards (_i.e._, cards taken out of the hand but not
dropped face upwards on the table, or dropped face downwards on the
table), are only liable to be called, if named; _vide_ Law 60.

[23] If two or more cards are played at once, the adversaries have a
right to call which they please to the trick in course of play, and
afterwards to call the others.

[24] And then lead without waiting for his partner to play.

[25] Without waiting for his partner to play.

[26] _i.e._, the first time that side obtains the lead.

[27] _i.e._, the penalty of calling a suit must be exacted from
whichever of them next first obtains the lead. It follows that if the
player who leads out of turn is the partner of the person who ought
to have led, and a suit is called, it must be called at once from the
right leader. If he is allowed to play as he pleases, the only penalty
that remains is to call the card erroneously led.

[28] _i.e._, whichever of them next first has the lead.

[29] At every trick.

[30] _Vide_ also Law 46.

[31] _Vide_ also Law 61.

[32] And add them to their own.

[33] _Vide_ Law 77.

[34] In the manner prescribed in Law 72.

[35] To demand any penalty.

[36] _i.e._, refrain from winning.



ETIQUETTE OF WHIST.


The following rules belong to the established Etiquette of Whist. They
are not called laws, as it is difficult--in some cases impossible--to
apply any penalty to their infraction, and the only remedy is to cease
to play with players who habitually disregard them.

Two packs of cards are invariably used at Clubs: if possible this
should be adhered to.

Any one, having the lead and several winning cards to play, should not
draw a second card out of his hand until his partner has played to the
first trick, such act being a distinct intimation that the former has
played a winning card.

No intimation whatever, by word or gesture, should be given by a player
as to the state of his hand, or of the game.[37]

A player who desires the cards to be placed, or who demands to see the
last trick,[38] should do it for his own information only, and not in
order to invite the attention of his partner.

No player should object to refer to a bystander who professes himself
uninterested in the game, and able to decide any disputed question of
facts; as to who played any particular card--whether honours were
claimed though not scored, or _vice versâ_--etc., etc.

It is unfair to revoke purposely; having made a revoke, a player is not
justified in making a second in order to conceal the first.

Until the players have made such bets as they wish, bets should not be
made with bystanders.

Bystanders should make no remark, neither should they by word or
gesture give any intimation of the state of the game until concluded
and scored, nor should they walk round the table to look at the
different hands.

No one should look over the hand of a player against whom he is betting.


DUMMY

Is played by three players.

One hand, called Dummy's, lies exposed on the table.

The laws are the same as those of Whist, with the following
exceptions:--

  I. Dummy deals at the commencement of each rubber.

  II. Dummy is not liable to the penalty for a revoke, as his
          adversaries see his cards: should he[39] revoke and the
          error not be discovered until the trick is turned and
          quitted, it stands good.[40]

  III. Dummy being blind and deaf, his Partner is not liable to
          any penalty for an error whence he can gain no advantage.
          Thus, he may expose some, or all of his cards, or may
          declare that he has the game, or trick, &c., without
          incurring any penalty; if, however, he lead from Dummy's
          Hand when he should lead from his own, or _vice versâ_, a
          suit may be called from the hand which ought to have led.


DOUBLE DUMMY

Is played by two players, each having a Dummy or exposed hand for his
partner. The laws of the game do not differ from Dummy Whist, except
in the following special law: There is no misdeal, as the deal is a
disadvantage.

FOOTNOTES:

[37] The question "Who dealt?" is irregular, and if asked should not be
answered.

[38] Or who asks what the trump suit is.

[39] _i.e._ Dummy's hand. If Dummy's partner revokes, he is liable to
the usual penalties.

[40] And the hand proceeds as though the revoke had not been
discovered.



CASES AND DECISIONS.


Card laws are intended to effect two objects: 1. To preserve the
harmony and determine the ordering of the table. Such, for example,
are the laws in the previous code, which regulate scoring, cutting,
shuffling, &c. and the miscellaneous rules included under the head of
Etiquette. 2. To prevent any player from obtaining an unfair advantage.

The word "unfair" must be taken in a restricted sense. It does not
mean intentional unfairness. This is not to be dealt with by laws, but
by exclusion from the card table. In deciding cases of card law, the
offender should be credited with _bonâ fides_. It follows from this,
that offences should not be judged by the intention of the player,
but by the amount of injury which his irregularity may inflict on the
opponents.

In a perfect code, there should be a penalty for all errors or
irregularities, by which the player committing them, or his side,
_might_ profit; and on the other hand there should be no penalty
for errors by which he who commits them, _cannot possibly_ gain an
advantage.

Penalties should be proportioned as closely as possible to the gain
which might ensue to the offender. For instance: if the third hand has
not played and the fourth plays before his partner, the second hand
is informed whether or not his partner is likely to win the trick. The
law, therefore, provides that the adversaries shall be entitled to
call on the second player either to win the trick, or not to win it,
whichever they please. Say, the fourth hand plays an ace out of turn.
The second hand may be required to win the trick. If he has none of
the suit he must trump it. In the opposite case, if the fourth hand
plays a small card, and the second is called on not to win the trick,
he must play a small card also. In this manner, the second player is
prevented from benefiting by the irregular information afforded him.
Other offences are legislated against in a similar way, the point kept
in view throughout being, that no player shall be allowed to profit by
his own wrong doing.

However carefully a code is drawn up, it will not unfrequently happen
in practice, that cases occur which are but imperfectly provided for.
Such cases should be referred for decision to some arbitrator. The
arbitrator will find himself materially assisted by keeping well before
him the two great objects with which the laws have been framed.

The following general rules will also be found useful in guiding him to
just decisions:

Where two or more players are in fault, it should be considered with
whom the first fault lies, and how far it induced or invited the
subsequent error of the adversary.

Questions of fact should be settled before the case is referred, either
by a majority of the players, or, if they are divided in opinion, by
an onlooker agreed to by both parties, the decision of this referee
being final.

When the facts are agreed to they should be written down, and the
written statement submitted to the judge, who should return a written
answer.

Should it so happen that a case is referred, wherein the players are
divided in opinion as to the facts, the arbitrator will do well to
decline to give a decision. The disputants, however, may be reminded
that the player whom it is proposed to punish is entitled to the
benefit of reasonable doubt.

Questions of interpretation of law should be decided liberally, in
accordance with the spirit rather than the letter of the law. On the
other hand, the arbitrator should bear in mind the great inconvenience
of a lax interpretation of card laws, and, having made up his mind as
to the intention of the law, should decide all cases with the utmost
strictness.

The following cases, with decisions, selected from a large number which
have been brought under the author's notice as having occurred in
actual play, are given in exemplification of the foregoing remarks.


CASE I.

The play of the hand shows that AB (partners) hold no honour. The hand
is therefore abandoned and the adversaries (YZ) score the game. It is
then discovered that Y has only twelve cards, and one of the honours
is found on the floor. AB then object to the score on the ground that
YZ only "held" three honours (_vide_ Law 3).

_Decision_--YZ are entitled to score four by honours. Y is not obliged
to play with his cards in his hand. Besides, the game having been
abandoned, Law 59 comes into operation. The penalty for playing with
twelve cards is laid down in Law 46. Y is liable for any revoke he may
have made.


CASE II.

AB claim "the game" and score it. After the trump card of the following
deal is turned up, YZ object that AB have not claimed honours (_vide_
Laws 6 and 7).

_Decision_--The honours were claimed within the meaning of the law. The
objection to the score, if made really in ignorance of how it accrued,
should have been taken at once. YZ should not wait the completion of
the deal, so as to entrap AB on a mere technicality.

_Note._ This is a good instance of interpretation in accordance with
the spirit of the law. Laws should never be so construed as to inflict
a wholly unnecessary wrong, as would happen in this case were the law
insisted on literally. The intention of Law 7 is to require AB to draw
attention to the claim; and this is sufficiently done by the claim of
"the game."


CASE III.

Y throws down his hand and claims "the game." B (Y's adversary)
thinking that Y is referring only to the tricks, says, "You are not
game." Y then marks four. After the trump card of the following deal is
turned up, A remarks, "if Y had scored his honours, he would have been
game." Y then claims the game, on the ground that he made the claim in
time, and only withdrew it in consequence of B's contradiction. Is Y
entitled to score the game?

_Decision_--No. Y's claim of "the game" is irregular. He is bound to
state in what way he wins it (_vide_ Law 6). There is no evidence that
Y was referring to his honours when he claimed the game, but rather the
contrary, as he afterwards withdrew his claim and said nothing about
honours.

_Note._ This is an example of two players being in fault. It seems hard
on Y that he should suffer through B's mistake; but it must be borne
in mind that the confusion was introduced by Y's own irregularity,
and that the omission to score honours was due to his subsequent
forgetfulness.

                         Compare with Case II.


CASE IV.

At the conclusion of the deal the trump card comes to the hand on the
dealer's left. The dealer requests the players to count their cards.
The player to the dealer's left appropriates a packet of cards lying
a little to his own right hand, between himself and the dealer, and
finds twelve cards in it. The other hands each contain thirteen. The
dealer now claims the hand with twelve cards in it as his hand. Must
the players accept the hands thus given to them, or is it a misdeal?

_Decision_--It is a misdeal. The fault is entirely with the dealer. If
he deals so carelessly that there is any doubt as to the ownership of
the hands, he must apportion them, and having once done so, he must not
shift the hands about, so as to make a hand with twelve cards in it
fall to himself.


CASE V.

Y throws down his cards, remarking, "We have lost the game." On this, A
and B (Y's adversaries) throw down their cards. Z retains his hand. AB
plead that they were misled by Y and that therefore they are not liable
to Law 58.

_Decision_--A's, Y's, and B's hands are exposed, and must be left on
the table to be called, each player's by the adversary. Z is not bound
to abandon the game because his partner chooses to do so. Consequently,
Y's remark does not bind Z. A and B ought to keep up their cards, until
they have ascertained that both adversaries have abandoned the game.

_Note._ The written law is sufficient to decide this case (_vide_ Law
58); but inasmuch as the irregularity in question is a fertile source
of disputes, the case has been deemed worthy of insertion.


CASE VI.

When it comes to the last trick of a hand, it appears that the player
who has to lead has no card. What is to be done?

_Decision_--(_a_) If either of the other players remains with two
cards, it is a misdeal (_vide_ Law 44, paragraph iv). (_b_) If the
other players have their right number of cards, the missing card should
be searched for (_vide_ Law 70) and when found assigned to the leader,
who is liable to Law 46. (_c_) If the missing card cannot be found, the
tricks may be searched to find what card is wanting, and the absent
card assumed to have belonged to the player who had but twelve cards.

_Note._ It may seem that decision _c_ is severe on a player playing
_bonâ fide_ with an imperfect pack. But each player should protect
himself, by counting his hand before he plays. His playing to the first
trick signifies his acceptance of the hand. If he accepts an imperfect
one he must take the consequences.


CASE VII.

Towards the end of a hand a spade is led. The third hand, when it comes
to his turn to play, lays down the ace of trumps (hearts) and says
"There's the game." He then throws his hand on the table. The hand
contains several spades. Is it a revoke?

_Decision_--It is a question of fact. If the card was exposed in order
to save time, it is not a revoke. But if the ace of trumps was played
to the trick it is a revoke, the subsequent throwing down of the cards
being an act of play, equivalent to playing to the following trick
(_vide_ Law 73).


CASE VIII.

The adversary cuts the pack to the dealer, but without his consent,
_i.e._, without the dealer's presenting it to be cut. Is it too late to
claim a revoke in the previous hand? (_vide_ Law 78).

_Decision_--It is too late for the player who cut or for his partner to
claim a revoke, but not too late for the adversaries.


CASE IX.

A player revokes, and on discovering the revoke before the hand is
played out, says in explanation, "I never saw the card; it was hidden
behind my king of diamonds"--the king of diamonds being still in his
hand.

_Decision_--The king of diamonds is constructively an exposed card, and
the adversaries may require that it be laid on the table to be called.


CASE X.

Y leads out of turn. B (Y's adversary) says to his partner, "Shall
we call a suit or not?" B's partner gives no answer. Is the asking
the question a consultation within the meaning of Law 84, although no
answer is made to it?

_Decision_--Yes. It is the very question Law 84 is framed to prevent. B
by the question shows that he is in doubt as to the policy of calling
a suit, and thus affords information he has no right to give. Further
than this, a reply by word of mouth is not necessary to constitute a
consultation. Silence is an answer. The knowledge that a partner is
indifferent may convey information that B has no right to extract.

_Note._ The usual formula is "Will you exact the penalty, or shall I?"
This question does not bring the player under the operation of Law 84.


CASE XI.

A leads and the other three players follow suit. A plays another card
(it not being his lead) and proceeds to gather the five cards into one
trick. On being told of it, A explains that his attention has been
diverted, and that he thought he had not played to the trick. The
adversaries claim to be entitled to the penalties for leading out of
turn, on the ground that the penalty should depend, not on the actual
intention of the player, but on his possible intention.

_Decision_--A has not led out of turn; he has merely exposed a card.
The abstract principle pleaded by the adversaries is quite sound, but
it does not apply to this case. A's word must be taken as correctly
representing the fact that he played a second time to one trick.



WHIST.

HISTORICAL.


The early history of Whist is involved in obscurity. All games of high
character become perfected by degrees; and Whist, following this rule,
has been formed by gradual development. As early as the beginning of
the sixteenth century, a card game called _triumph_ or _trump_ was
commonly played in England. This game in its chief feature, viz., the
predominance of one particular suit, and in its general construction,
was so similar to Whist, that no one can doubt it to have been the game
from which Whist grew.

There were two distinct games called trump. _Triomphe_ or _French ruff_
was very like écarté, only there was no score for the king; Trump or
_English ruff-and-honours_ closely resembled Whist.

Berni ("_Capitolo del Gioco della Primera_," Rome, 1526), enumerates
several games at cards; among them are _trionfi_, played by the
peasants; and _ronfa_, the invention of which is attributed to King
Ferdinand.

_Triumphus Hispanicus_ is the subject of a "Dialogue" written in Latin
and French by Vives, a Spaniard (d. 1541).

_La triomphe_ and _la ronfle_ are included by Rabelais (first half of
sixteenth century) in the long list of some two hundred and thirty
games played by Gargantua.

In "A Worlde of Wordes or Most copious and exact _Dictionarie_ in
Italian and _English_ collected by John Florio, 1598," _ronfa_ is
defined as "_a game at cardes called ruffe or trumpe_;" and under
_trionfo_ we find "_triumph. * * * Also a trump at cards, or the play
called trump or ruff_."

There is no evidence to show whether the above were the foreign or
native form of trump. Douce, in his "Illustrations of Shakespeare,"
concludes, from finding _la triomphe_ in Rabelais' list, that we
derived the game of trump from a French source. But it seems more
probable, from the non-appearance of English ruff-and-honours in
the _Académie des Jeux_, and from the distinction drawn in Cotton's
"Compleat Gamester" between "English ruff-and-honours" and "French
ruff" (_la triomphe_ of the _Académie_), that the game referred to by
Berni, Vives, Rabelais, and Florio, was not the same game as English
ruff-and-honours, for which a purely English origin (as the name
implies) may be claimed.

How and when trump or English ruff-and-honours originated cannot now
be ascertained. It was played at least as early as the time of Henry
VIII., for it was taken by Latimer to illustrate his text, in the
first of two sermons "Of the Card," preached by him at Cambridge, in
Advent, about the year 1529. He mentions the game under its original
and corrupted appellations, and clearly alludes to its characteristic
feature, as the following extract will show.

  "And where you are wont to celebrate Christmass in playing at
  Cards, I intend, with God's grace, to deal unto you Christ's Cards,
  wherein you shall perceive Christ's Rule. The game that we play
  at shall be the Triumph, which, if it be well played at, he that
  dealeth shall win; the Players shall likewise win, and the standers
  and lookers upon shall do the same. * * * You must mark also, that
  the Triumph must apply to fetch home unto him all the other Cards,
  whatsoever suit they be of. * * * Then further we must say to
  ourselves, 'What requireth Christ of a Christian man?' Now turn up
  your Trump, your Heart (Hearts is Trump, as I said before) and cast
  your Trump, your Heart, on this card."

Later in the century trump is often referred to. In "Gammer Gurton's
Nedle, made by Mr. S., Mr of Art [Bishop Still] 1575," the second piece
performed in England under the name of a comedy (performed at Christ's
College, Cambridge, in 1566), Old Dame Chat thus invites some friends
to a game:--

    "CHAT. What diccon: come nere, ye be no straunger,
          We be fast set at trumpe man, hard by the fyre,
          Thou shalt set on the king, if thou come a litte nyer.
          *     *     *     *     *     *     *
          Come nether, Dol, Dol, sit downe and play this game,
          And as thou sawest me do, see thou do even the same
          There is 5. trumps beside the Queene, yᵉ hindmost yᵘ shalt
              finde her
          Take hede of Sim glover's wife, she hath an eie behind her."

In Eliot's "Fruits for the French" (1593), trump is called "a verie
common alehouse game;" and Rice, in his "Invective against Vices"
(printed before 1600), observes that "renouncing the trompe and comming
in againe" (_i.e._, revoking intentionally), is a common sharper's
trick. Decker, in "The Belman of London" (1608), speaks of "the
deceites practised (euen in the fairest and most ciuill companies) at
Primero, Saint, Maw, Tromp, and such like games."

The game of trump is also mentioned by Shakespeare in "Antony and
Cleopatra," Act iv., scene 12 (first published 1623).

    "ANT. My good knave, Eros, now thy Captain is
          Even such a body; here am I Antony;
          Yet cannot hold this visible shape, my _knave_.
          I made these wars for Egypt; and the _Queen_,--
          Whose _heart_ I thought I had, for she had mine;
          Which, whilst it was mine, had annex'd unto 't
          A million more, now lost,--she, Eros, has
          _Packed cards_ with Cæsar, and _false-played_ my glory
          Unto an enemy's _triumph_."

The repeated punning allusions to card-playing in this passage leave
no doubt as to the reference in the last word. Douce ("Illustrations")
points out its real meaning, and ridicules Ben Jonson's derivation of
the word trump from _tromper_.

There is abundant evidence to show that trump is a corruption of the
word triumph. In addition to the instances already given, the following
may be quoted: In Cotgrave's "Dictionarie of the French and English
Tongve" (1611), _Triomphe_ is explained as "_the Card-game called Ruffe
or Trump; also the Ruffe or Trump at it_." Minsheu, in "The Guide
unto Tongues" (1617), gives, "The TRUMPE _in cardes. Triumfo, ita
dict_: quod de _cæteris chartis_ triumphare videatur, _quod illis sit
præstantior_." Seymour, in his "Court Gamester" (1719), says--"The Term
_Trump_ comes from a Corruption of the Word _Triumph_; for wherever
they are, they are attended with Conquest." Ash ("Dictionary, 1775")
has "Triumph (_s. from the_ Lat. triumphus). * * * A conquering card,
a trump; _but this sense is now become obsolete_. Trump (_s. from_
triumph)."

The derivation of the word _ruff_ or _ruffe_ has caused much
speculation. The previous quotations show that it is the same word as
_ronfa_ (Ital.) and _ronfle_ (Fr.), and that it is synonymous with
the English triumph or trump. Even at the present day many Whist
players speak of ruffing, _i.e._, trumping; and, in the expression a
cross-ruff, the word ruff is preserved to the exclusion of the word
trump.

The game of _ruff-and-honours_, if not the same as trump or ruff, was
probably the same game, with the addition of certain advantages to
the four highest cards of the trump suit. Rabelais includes in his
list a game called "_les Honneurs_," but whether it had any affinity
to ruff-and-honours is doubtful. In "Shufling, Cutting, and Dealing,
in a Game at Pickquet: being Acted from the Year, 1653. to 1658. By
O.P. [Oliver Protector] and others; With great Applause." (1659), the
"Old Foolish Christmas Game with _Honours_" is mentioned. Some writers
are of opinion that trump was originally played without honours; but
as no description of trump without honours is known to exist, their
view must be taken as conjectural. In 1674, Charles Cotton, the poet,
published a description of ruff-and-honours in "The Compleat Gamester:
or Instructions How to play at Billiards, Trucks, Bowls, and Chess.
Together with all manner of usual and most Gentile GAMES, either on
Cards or Dice." Cotton gives a drawing of the game of "English Ruff and
Honours," (see frontispiece) and thus describes it:--

  "At Ruff and Honours, by some called Slamm, you have in the Pack
  all the Deuces, and the reason is, because four playing having
  dealt twelve a piece, there are four left for the Stock, the
  uppermost whereof is turn'd up, and that is Trumps, he that hath
  the Ace of that Ruffs; that is, he takes in those four Cards, and
  lays out four others in their lieu; the four Honours are the Ace,
  King, Queen, and Knave; he that hath three Honours in his own hand,
  his partner not having the fourth sets up Eight by Cards, that is
  two tricks; if he hath all four, then Sixteen, that is four tricks;
  it is all one if two Partners make them three or four between them,
  as if one had them. If the Honours are equally divided among the
  Gamesters of each side, then they say Honours are split. If either
  side are at Eight Groats he hath the benefit of calling Can-ye,
  if he hath two Honours in his hand, and if the other answers one,
  the Game is up, which is nine in all, but if he hath more than two
  he shows them, and then it is one and the same thing; but it he
  forgets to call after playing a trick, he loseth the advantage of
  Can-ye for that deal.

  "All Cards are of value as they are superiour one to another, as a
  Ten wins a Nine if not Trumps, so a Queen, a Knave in like manner;
  but the least Trump will win the highest Card of any other Card
  [suit]; where note the Ace is the highest."

This game was clearly Whist in an imperfect form. Whist is not
mentioned by Shakespeare, nor by any writer (it is believed) of the
Elizabethan era. It is probable that the introduction of the name
_whist_ or _whisk_ took place early in the seventeenth century.

The first known appearance of the word in print is in the "Motto" of
Taylor, the Water Poet (1621). Taylor spells the word whisk. Speaking
of the prodigal, he says:--

    "The Prodigals estate, like to a flux.
    The Mercer, Draper, and the Silkman sucks:
        *     *     *     *     *     *    *
    He flings his money free with carelessnesse:
    At Novum, Mumchance, mischance, (chuse ye which)
    At One and Thirty, or at Poore and rich,
    Ruffe, slam, Trump, nody, whisk, hole, Sant, New-cut."

The word continued to be spelt whisk for about forty years. The
earliest known use of the present spelling is in "Hudibras the Second
Part" (spurious) published in 1663:--

    "But what was this? A Game at Whist
    Unto our _Plowden-Canonist_."

After this, the word is spelt indifferently, whisk or whist. In "The
Compleat Gamester" (1674 and subsequent editions) Cotton says, under
playing the cards at "Picket," "the elder begins and younger follows in
suit as at Whisk." But he uses the other spelling in his chapter on the
game itself. He observes, "Ruff and Honours (_alias_ Slamm) and Whist,
are Games so commonly known in _England_ in all parts thereof, that
every Child almost of Eight Years old hath a competent knowledge in
that recreation."

After describing ruff-and-honours (see the passage quoted, pp. 36,
37), Cotton adds, "Whist is a game not much differing from this, only
they put out the Deuces and take in no stock; and is called Whist from
the silence that is to be observed in the play; they deal as before,
playing four, two of a side * * * to each Twelve a piece, and the Trump
is the bottom Card. The manner of crafty playing, the number of the
Game Nine, Honours and dignity of other Cards are all alike, and he
that wins most tricks is most forward to win the set."

Cotton's work was afterwards incorporated with Seymour's Court-Gamester
(first published 1719). The earlier editions contain no Whist, but
after the two books were united (about 1734), Seymour says, "Whist,
vulgarly called whisk. The original denomination of this game is Whist,
[here Seymour is mistaken] or the silent game at cards." And again,
"Talking is not allowed at Whist; the very word implies 'Hold your
Tongue.'"

Dr. Johnson does not positively derive Whist from the _interjectio
silentium imperans_; he cautiously explains Whist to be "a game
at cards, requiring close attention and silence." Nares, in his
"Glossary," has "Whist, an interjection commanding silence;" and he
adds, "That the name of the game of Whist is derived from this, is
known, I presume, to all who play or do not play." Skeat ("Etymological
Dictionary of the English Language, 1882") gives, "Whist, hush,
silence; a game at cards * * * named from the silence requisite to play
it attentively."

Chatto, however, ("Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History of
Playing Cards, 1848"), suggests that whisk is derived by substitution
from ruff, both of them signifying a piece of lawn used as an ornament
to the dress.

The best modern etymologists are of opinion that, whisk and whist,
being, like whisper, whistle, wheeze, hush and hist, words of imitative
origin, it makes no difference which form is first found. So the
received derivation from silence, having a good deal of evidence in
its favour, may be accepted until some more conclusive arguments than
Chatto's are brought against it.

While Whist was undergoing the changes of name and character already
specified, there was for a time associated with it another title, viz.,
swabbers or swobbers. Fielding, in his "History of the life of the late
Mr. Jonathan Wild, the Great," records that when the ingenious Count La
Ruse was domiciled with Mr. Geoffrey Snap, in 1682, or, in other words,
was in a spunging-house, the Count beguiled the tedium of his in-door
existence by playing at Whisk-and-Swabbers, "the game then in the chief
vogue." Swift, in "The Intelligencer" (No. v, Dublin, 1728), ridicules
Archbishop Tenison for not understanding the meaning of swabbers.
"There is a known Story of a _Clergy-Man_, who was recommended for a
Preferment by some great Man at Court, to A. B. C'T. His Grace said,
he had heard that the _Clergy-Man_ used to play at Whisk and Swobbers,
that as to playing now and then a Sober Game at Whisk for pastime, it
might be pardoned, but he could not digest those wicked Swobbers, and
it was with some pains that my Lord _S----rs_ could undeceive him."
Johnson defines swobbers as "four privileged cards used incidentally
in betting at Whist." In Captain Francis Grose's "Classical Dictionary
of the Vulgar Tongue" (1785), swabbers are stated to be "The ace of
hearts, knave of clubs, ace and duce of trumps at Whist." The Hon.
Daines Barrington (writing in 1786), says that at the beginning of the
century, whisk was "played with what were called _Swabbers_, which
were possibly so termed, because they, who had certain cards in their
hand, were entitled to take up a share of the stake, independent of the
general event of the game." This was probably the true office of the
swabbers, the etymology of the word showing it to be allied to sweep,
swoop, swab, swap, and to be first cousin to sweepstakes. Swabbers
soon went out of general use, but they may still linger in some local
coteries. R. B. Wormald writes thus respecting them in 1873:--Being
driven by stress of weather to take shelter in a sequestered hostelry
on the Berkshire bank of the Thames, he found four persons immersed
in the game of Whist: "In the middle of the hand, one of the players,
with a grin that almost mounted to a chuckle, and a vast display of
moistened thumb, spread out upon the table the ace of trumps; whereupon
the other three deliberately laid down their hands, and forthwith
severally handed over the sum of one penny to the fortunate holder of
the card in question. On enquiry, we were informed that the process
was technically known as a 'swap' (qy. swab or swabber), and was _de
rigueur_ in all property constituted whist circles."

After the swabbers were dropped (and it is probable that they were
not in general use in the eighteenth century), our national card game
became known simply as Whist, though still occasionally spelt whisk.
The Hon. Daines Barrington ("Archaeologia," Vol. viii.) says, that
Whist in its infancy was chiefly confined to the servants' hall. That
the game had not yet become fashionable is evident from the disparaging
way in which it is referred to by writers of the period. In Farquhar's
comedy of "The Beaux's Stratagem" (1707), Mrs. Sullen, a fine lady from
London, speaks in a contemptuous vein of the "rural Accomplishments
of drinking fat Ale, playing at Whisk, and smoaking Tobacco." Pope
also classes Whist as a country squire's game, in his "Epistle to Mrs.
Teresa Blount" (1715)--

    "Some Squire, perhaps, you take delight to rack,
    Whose game is Whisk, whose treat a toast in sack."

Thomson, in his "Autumn" (1730), describes how after a heavy hunt
dinner--

    "Perhaps a while, amusive, thoughtful Whisk
    Walks gentle round, beneath a cloud of smoak,
    Wreath'd, fragrant, from the pipe."

Early in the century the points of the game rose from nine to ten
("nine in all," Cotton, 1709; "ten in all," Cotton, 1721; "nine in
all," Cotton, 1725; "ten in all," Seymour, 1734, "rectified according
to the present standard of play"). Every subsequent edition of Seymour
(with which Cotton was incorporated) makes the game ten up. It seems
likely that, simultaneously with this change, or closely following
it, the practice of playing with the entire pack instead of with but
forty-eight cards obtained. This improvement introduced the _odd
trick_, an element of the greatest interest in modern Whist.

At this period (early part of the eighteenth century) there was a mania
for card playing in all parts of Europe, and in all classes of society,
but Whist had not as yet found favour in the highest circles. Piquet,
Ombre, and Quadrille, were the principal games of the fashionable
world. But about 1728, the game of Whist rose out of its comparative
obscurity.

A party of gentlemen (according to Daines Barrington), of whom the
first Lord Folkestone was one, used at this date to frequent the Crown
Coffee-house, in Bedford Row, where they studied Whist scientifically.
They must have made considerable progress in the game, to judge by the
following rules which they laid down:--"Lead from the strong suit;
study your partner's hand; and attend to the score."

Shortly after this, the celebrated EDMOND HOYLE, the father of
the game, published his "Short Treatise" (1742-3). About Hoyle's
antecedents, but little is known. He was born in 1672; it is said
he was educated for the bar. It has been stated that he was born
in Yorkshire, but this is doubtful. At all events, the author, by
personal enquiry, has positively ascertained that he did not belong
to the family of Yorkshire Hoyles, who acquired estates near Halifax
_temp._ Edward III. It has also been stated that Hoyle was appointed
registrar of the prerogative court at Dublin, in 1742. This, however,
is unlikely. At that time, Hoyle was engaged in writing on games, and
in giving lessons in Whist, and he was probably living in London. At
all events, the only known genuine copy of the first edition of the
"Short Treatise" (in the Bodleian), was published in London; and Hoyle
afterwards resided in Queen Square. The name Edmund or Edmond is common
in both the Yorkshire and Irish families of Hoyle; and probably one
Hoyle has been mistaken for another.

Internal evidence shows that Hoyle originally drew up notes for the
use of his pupils. His early editions speak of "Purchasers of the
_Treatise_ in Manuscript, disposed of the last Winter," and further
state that the author of it "has fram'd an _Artificial Memory_, which
takes not off your Attention from your Game; and if required, he is
ready to communicate it, upon Payment of one Guinea. And also, he will
explain any _Cases_ in the Book, upon Payment of one Guinea more." The
cheap spurious editions lament that there was "a Treatise on the Game
of _Whist_ lately dispersed among a _few_ Hands at a _Guinea_ Price;"
that it was to be procured with no small difficulty; and that the
public lay under imposition and hardship in not being able to get the
book under a guinea, and by its being reserved only in a few hands.

No doubt, the circulation of these surreptitious copies induced Hoyle
to print the manuscript, and to register the "Short Treatise" at
Stationers' Hall in November, 1742.

The treatise ran through five editions in one year, and it is said that
Hoyle received a large sum for the copyright. This last statement,
however, requires verification; at all events, Hoyle continued
for years to sign every copy personally, as the proprietor of the
copyright. This was done in order to protect the property from further
piracy, as the address to the reader shows.

The following is a facsimile of Hoyle's signature, taken from the
fourth edition:--

[Illustration]

In the fifteenth edition the signature is impressed from a wood block,
and in the seventeenth it was announced that Mr. Hoyle was dead. He
died in Welbank (Welbeck) Street, Cavendish Square, in August, 1769,
aged 97.

One effect of Hoyle's publication was to draw forth a witty skit,
entitled "The Humours of Whist. A Dramatic Satire, as Acted every Day
at _WHITE's_ and other _Coffee-Houses_ and _Assemblies_." (1743). The
pamphlet commences with an advertisement mimicking Hoyle's address
to the reader. The prologue to the play is "supposed to be spoke by a
waiter at White's."

    "Who will believe that Man could e'er exist,
    Who spent near half an Age in studying _Whist_?
    Grew gray with Calculation--Labour hard!
    As if Life's Business center'd in a Card?
      That such there is, let me to those appeal,
    Who with such liberal Hands reward his Zeal.
    Lo! _Whist_ he makes a science, and our Peers
    Deign to turn _School Boys_ in their riper Years."

The principal characters are Professor Whiston (Hoyle), who gives
lessons in the game of Whist; Sir Calculation Puzzle, a passionate
admirer of Whist, who imagines himself a good player, yet always
loses; Sharpers, Pupils of the Professor, and Cocao, Master of the
Chocolate-house. The sharpers are disgusted at the appearance of the
book.

  "_Lurchum._ Thou knowest we have the Honour to be admitted into the
  best Company, which neither our Birth nor Fortunes entitle us to,
  merely for our Reputation as good Whist-Players.

  _Shuffle._ Very well!

  _Lurch._ But if this damn'd Book of the Professor's answers, as
  he pretends, to put Players more upon a Par, what will avail
  our superior Skill in the Game? We are undone to all Intents
  and Purposes. * * * We must bid adieu to _White's_, _George's_,
  _Brown's_, and all the polite Assemblies about Town, and that's
  enough to make a Man mad instead of thoughtful.

  _Shuf._ Damn him, I say,--Could he find no other Employment for
  forty Years together, than to study how to circumvent younger
  Brothers, and such as us, who live by our Wits? A man that
  discovers the Secrets of any Profession deserves to be sacrificed,
  and I would be the first, _Lurchum_, to cut the Professor's Throat
  for what he has done, but that I think I have pretty well defeated
  the malevolent Effect of his fine-spun Calculations.

  _Lurch._ As how, dear _Shuffle_? Thou revivest me.

  _Shuf._ I must confess the Publication of his Treatise gave me
  at first some slight Alarm; but I did not, like thee, _Lurchum_,
  indulge in melancholy desponding Thoughts: On the contrary, I
  called up my Indignation to my Assistance, and have ever since
  been working upon a private Treatise on _Signs_ at _Whist_, by way
  of counter Treatise to his, and which, if I mistake not, totally
  overthrows his System."

On the other hand, the gentlemen are in raptures.

  "Sir _Calculation Puzzle._ The progress your Lordship has made for
  the time you have study'd under the Professor is wonderful.--Pray,
  has your Lordship seen the dear Man to-day?

  Lord _Slim_. O yes.--His Grace sate him down at my House, and I
  have just lent him my Chariot into the City.--How do you like
  the last edition of his Treatise with the Appendix,[41] Sir
  _Calculation_? I mean that sign'd with his Name.[42]

  Sir _Cal._ O Gad, my Lord, there never was so excellent a Book
  printed.--I'm quite in Raptures with it--I will eat with it--sleep
  with it--go to Court with it--go to Parliament with it--go to
  Church with it.--I pronounce it the Gospel of Whist-Players; and
  the Laws of the Game ought to be wrote in golden Letters, and hung
  up in Coffee-houses, as much as the Ten Commandments in Parish
  Churches.

  Sir _John Medium_. Ha! Ha! Ha! You speak of the Book with the Zeal
  of a primitive Father.

  Sir _Cal._ Not half enough, Sir _John_--the Calculations[43]
  are so exact! * * * his Observations[44] are quite masterly! his
  Rules[45] so comprehensive! his Cautions[46] so judicious! There
  are such Variety of Cases[47] in his Treatise, and the Principles
  are so new, I want Words to express the Author, and can look on him
  in no other Light than as a second _Newton_."

The way in which Sir Calculation introduces Hoyle's Calculations of
Chances is very amusing.

  "Sir _John_. 'Twas by some such laudable Practices, I suppose, that
  you suffered in your last Affair with Lurchum.

  Sir _Cal._ O Gad, No, Sir _John_--Never any thing was fairer, nor
  was ever any thing so critical.--We were nine all. The adverse
  Party had 3, and we had 4 Tricks. All the Trumps were out. I had
  Queen and two small Clubs, with the Lead. Let me see--It was about
  222 and 3 Halves to--'gad. I forgot how many--that my Partner had
  the Ace and King--let me recollect--ay--that he had one only was
  about 31 to 26.--That he had not both of them 17 to 2,--and that he
  had not one, or both, or neither, some 25 to 32.--So I, according
  to the Judgment of the Game, led a Club, my Partner takes it with
  the King. Then it was exactly 481 for _us_ to 222 against _them_.
  He returns the same Suit; I win it with my Queen, and return it
  again; but the Devil take that _Lurchum_, by passing his Ace twice,
  he took the Trick, and having 2 more Clubs and a 13th Card, I gad,
  all was over.--But they both allow'd I play'd admirably well for
  all that."

The following passage from the same pamphlet mentions the
Crown--probably the Crown Coffee-house--and it has been inferred from
this that Hoyle himself might have been one of Lord Folkestone's party.

  "_Young Jobber_ [A pupil of the Professor's]. Dear, Mr.
  _Professor_, I can never repay you.--You have given me such an
  Insight by this Visit, I am quite another Thing--I find I knew
  nothing of the Game before; tho' I can assure you, I have been
  reckoned a First-rate Player in the City a good while--nay, for
  that Matter, I make no bad figure at the _Crown_--and don't
  despair, by your Assistance, but to make one at _White's_ soon."

Hoyle is also spoken of in his professional capacity in "The Rambler"
of May 8, 1750. A "Lady that has lost her Money" writes, "As for Play,
I do think I may, indeed, indulge in that, now I am my own Mistress.
Papa made me drudge at Whist 'till I was tired of it; and far from
wanting a Head, Mr. _Hoyle_, when he had not given me above forty
Lessons, said, I was one of his best Scholars."

Again, in "The Gentleman's Magazine" for February, 1755, a writer,
professing to give the autobiography of a modern physician, says,
"_Hoyle_ tutor'd me in the several games at cards, and under the name
of guarding me from being cheated, insensibly gave me a taste for
sharping."

In the middle of the eighteenth century, Whist was regularly played in
fashionable society. In "Tom Jones," Lady Bellaston, Lord Fellamar,
and others, are represented as indulging in a rubber. Hoyle also comes
in for notice in the following passage in the same work: "I happened
to come home several Hours before my usual Time, when I found four
Gentlemen of the Cloth at Whisk by my fire;--and my _Hoyle_, sir;--my
best _Hoyle_, which cost me a Guinea, lying open on the Table, with
a Quantity of Porter spilt on one of the most material Leaves of the
whole Book. This, you will allow, was provoking; but I said nothing
till the rest of the honest Company were gone, and then gave the Fellow
a gentle Rebuke, who, instead of expressing any Concern, made me a pert
Answer, 'That Servants must have their Diversions as well as other
People; that he was sorry for the Accident which had happened to the
Book; but that several of his Acquaintance had bought the same for a
Shilling; and that I might stop as much in his Wages, if I pleased.'"

In an epic poem on "Whist," by Alexander Thomson, which appeared in
1791, Hoyle was thus invoked--

    "WHIST, then, delightful WHIST, my theme shall be,
    And first I'll try to trace its pedigree,
    And shew what sage and comprehensive mind
    Gave to the world a pleasure so refin'd:
    Then shall the verse its various charms display,
    Which bear from, ev'ry game the palm away;
    And, last of all, those rules and maxims tell,
    Which give the envied pow'r to play it well.
      But first (for such the mode) some tuneful shade
    Must be invok'd, the vent'rous Muse to aid.
    Cremona's poet shall I first address,
    Who paints with skill the mimic war of chess,
    And India's art in Roman accents sings;
    Or him who soars on far sublimer wings,
    Belinda's bard, who taught his liquid lay
    At Ombre's studious game so well to play?
      But why thus vainly hesitates the Muse,
    In idle doubt, what guardian pow'r to chuse?
    What pow'r so well can aid her daring toil,
    As the bright spirit of immortal Hoyle?
    By whose enlighten'd efforts Whist became
    A sober, serious, scientific game;
    To whose unwearied pains, while here below,
    The great, th' important privilege we owe,
    That random strokes disgrace our play no more,
    But skill presides, where all was chance before.
      Come then, my friend, my teacher, and my guide,
    Where'er thy shadowy ghost may now reside;
    Perhaps (for Nature ev'ry change defies,
    Nor ev'n with death our ruling passion dies)
    With fond regret it hovers still, unseen,
    Around the tempting boards array'd in green;
    Still with delight its fav'rite game regards,
    And tho' it plays no more o'erlooks the cards.
      Come then, thou glory of Britannia's isle,
    On this attempt propitious deign to smile;
    Let all thy skill th' unerring page inspire,
    And all thy zeal my raptur'd bosom fire."

Hoyle's name also finds a place in Don Juan. Byron, in saying that Troy
owes to Homer what Whist owes to Hoyle, scarcely does justice to Hoyle,
who was rather the founder than the historian of Whist.

The "Short Treatise" appeared just in the nick of time, when Whist was
rising in repute, and when card-playing was the rage. The work became
the authority almost from the date of its appearance.

In 1760, the laws of the game were revised by the members of White's
and Saunders's Chocolate-houses, then the head quarters of fashionable
play. These revised laws (nearly all Hoyle) are given in every edition
of Hoyle from this date. Hoyle's laws, as they were called, guided all
Whist coteries for a hundred and four years; when the Arlington (now
Turf) and Portland Clubs, re-revised the code of the Chocolate-houses.
The code agreed to by the Committees of both Clubs was adopted in 1864;
it shortly found its way into all Whist circles, deposed Hoyle, and is
now (1874) the standard by which disputed points are determined.

One of the chief seats of card-playing, and consequently, of
Whist-playing, during the eighteenth century, was Bath. Even Mr.
Pickwick is depicted playing Whist there with Miss Bolo, against the
Dowager Lady Snuphanuph and Mrs. Colonel Wugsby, in a passage too well
known to require quotation. Mr. Pickwick's visit was at a date when
the chief glories of Bath had departed. Hoyle's first edition, it will
be remembered, was published at Bath, as also was Thomas Mat[t]hews'
"Advice to the Young Whist Player" (about 1805)--a sound and useful
contribution to Whist literature.

Early in this century, the points of the game were altered from ten to
five, and calling honours was abolished. It is doubtful whether this
change was for the better. In the author's opinion Long Whist (ten up)
is a far finer game than Short Whist (five up); Short Whist, however,
has taken such a hold, that there is no chance of our reverting to the
former game. According to Clay ("Short Whist," 1864), the alteration
took place under the following circumstances: "Some sixty or seventy
years back, Lord Peterborough having one night lost a large sum of
money, the friends with whom he was playing proposed to make the game
five points instead of ten, in order to give the loser a chance, at
a quicker game, of recovering his loss. The late Mr. Hoare, of Bath,
a very good whist-player, and without a superior at piquet, was one
of this party, and has more than once told me the story. The new
game was found to be so lively, and money changed hands with such
increased rapidity, that these gentlemen and their friends, all of
them members of the leading clubs of the day, continued to play it.
It became general in the clubs--thence was introduced in private
houses--travelled into the country--went to Paris, and has long since *
* entirely superseded the whist of Hoyle's day."

Long Whist had long been known in France, but it was not a popular
game in that country. Hoyle has been several times translated into
French. Whist was played by Louis XV., and under the first Empire
was a favorite game with Josephine and Marie Louise. It is on record
("Diaries of a Lady of Quality," 2nd Ed. p. 128), that Napoleon used
to play Whist at Würtemburg, but not for money, and that he played ill
and inattentively. One evening, when the Queen Dowager was playing
against him with her husband and his daughter (the Queen of Westphalia,
the wife of Jerome), the King stopped Napoleon, who was taking up a
trick that did not belong to him, saying, "_Sire, on ne joue pas ici
en conquérant._" After the restoration, Whist was taken up in France
more enthusiastically. "The Nobles," says a French writer, "had gone
to England to learn to Think, and they brought back the thinking
game with them." Talleyrand was a Whist player, and his _mot_ to the
youngster who boasted his ignorance of the game is well known. "_Vous
ne savez pas le Whiste, jeune homme? Quelle triste vieillesse vous vous
préparez!_" Charles X. is reported to have been playing Whist at St.
Cloud, on July 29, 1830, when the tricolor was waving on the Tuileries,
and he had lost his throne.

It is remarkable that the "finest Whist player" who ever lived should
have been, according to Clay, a Frenchman, M. Deschapelles (born 1780,
died 1847). He published in 1839 a fragment of a "_Traité du Whiste_"
which treats mainly of the laws, and is of but little value to the
Whist player.

Before leaving this historical sketch, a few words may be added
respecting the modern literature of the game. So far as the present
work is concerned, its _raison d'être_ is explained in the preface
to the first edition. How far it has fulfilled the conditions of its
being, it is not for the author to say. It was followed, however, by
three remarkable books, which call for a short notice.

In 1864, appeared "Short Whist," by J. C. (James Clay). Clay's work is
an able dissertation on the game, by the most brilliant player of his
day. He was Chairman of the Committee appointed to revise the Laws of
Whist in 1863. He sat in Parliament for many years, being M.P. for Hull
at the time of his death, in 1873.

In 1865, William Pole, F.R.S., Mus. Doc. Oxon, published "The Theory
of the Modern Scientific Game of Whist," a work which contains a lucid
explanation of the fundamental principles of scientific play, addressed
especially to novices, but of considerable value to players of all
grades. In 1883, Dr. Pole issued another volume, called "The Philosophy
of Whist." This is an essay on the scientific and intellectual aspects
of the modern game. It is divided into two parts, "The Philosophy of
Whist Play" and "The Philosophy of Whist Probabilities," the latter
having been strangely neglected since the publication of Hoyle's "Essay
towards Making the Doctrine of Chances Easy" (1754).

These books exhibit the game both theoretically and practically, in the
perfect state at which it has arrived during the two centuries that
have elapsed since Whist assumed a definite shape and took its present
name.

FOOTNOTES:

[41] "The author of this treatise did promise if it met with
approbation, to make an addition to it by way of Appendix, which he has
done accordingly."--_Hoyle._

[42] Authorised as revised and corrected under his own hand.--_Hoyle._

[43] "Calculations for those who will bet the odds on any points of the
score," &c.--"Calculations directing with moral certainty, how to play
well any hand or game," &c.--_Hoyle._

[44] "Games to be played with certain observations," &c.--_Hoyle._

[45] "Some general rules to be observed," &c.--"Some particular rules
to be observed," &c.--_Hoyle._

[46] "A caution not to part with the command of your adversaries' great
suit," &c.--_Hoyle._

[47] "With a variety of Cases added in the Appendix."--_Hoyle._



PART I.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.


INTRODUCTORY.

Before entering on an analysis of the general principles of the Game
of Whist, it is advisable to explain shortly on what foundation these
principles rest; for it might be supposed that a demonstration of the
propositions contained in these pages is about to be offered; that
the chances for and against all possible systems of play have been
calculated; and that the one here upheld can be proved to be certainly
right, and all others certainly wrong. Such a view would be altogether
erroneous. The problem is far too intricate to admit of being treated
with mathematical precision. The conclusion that the chances are
in favour of a certain line of play is not arrived at by abstract
calculation, but by general reasoning, confirmed by the accumulated
experience of practised players. The student must not, therefore,
expect absolute proof. He must frequently be satisfied if the reasons
given appear weighty in themselves, and none weightier can be suggested
on the other side; and also with the assurance that the method of play
recommended in this work is for the most part that which, having stood
the test of time, is generally adopted.



THE FIRST HAND OR LEAD.


The considerations that determine the most advantageous card to lead at
the commencement of a hand differ from those which regulate the lead at
other periods; for, at starting, the Doctrine of Probabilities is the
only guide; while, as the hand advances, each player is able, with more
or less certainty, to draw inferences as to the position of some of the
remaining cards. The number of the inferences, and the certainty with
which they can be drawn from the previous play, constantly increase;
hence it not unfrequently happens that, towards the termination of a
hand, the position of every material card is known.

In treating of the lead, it will be most convenient to begin by
examining the principles which govern the original lead. The
application of these principles will require to be somewhat modified in
the case of trumps, as will appear hereafter.



1. LEAD ORIGINALLY FROM YOUR STRONGEST SUIT.


The first question that arises is, Which is the strongest suit? A suit
may be strong in two distinct ways. 1. It may contain more than its
proportion of _high_ cards. For example, it may contain two or more
honours--one honour in each suit being the average for each hand. 2. It
may consist of more than the average _number_ of cards, in which case
it is a numerically strong or long suit. Thus a suit of four cards has
numerical strength; a suit of five cards great numerical strength. On
the other hand a suit of three cards is numerically weak.

In selecting a suit for the lead, numerical strength is the principal
point to look to; for it must be borne in mind that aces and kings are
not the only cards which make tricks; twos and threes may become quite
as valuable when the suit is _established_--_i.e._, when the higher
cards of the suit are exhausted. To obtain for your own small cards
a value that does not intrinsically belong to them, and to prevent
the adversary from obtaining it for his, is evidently an advantage.
Both these ends are advanced by choosing for your original lead the
suit in which you have the greatest numerical strength; for you may
establish a suit of this description, while, owing to your strength,
it is precisely the suit which the adversary has the smallest chance
of establishing against you. A suit that is numerically weak, though
otherwise strong, is far less eligible.

Suppose, for example, you have five cards headed by (say) a ten in
one suit, and ace, king, and one other (say the two) in another suit.
If you lead from the ace, king, two suit, all your power is exhausted
as soon as you have parted with the ace and king, and you have given
the holder of numerical strength a capital chance of establishing the
suit. It is true that this fortunate person _may_ be your partner; but
it is twice as likely that he is your adversary, since you have two
adversaries and only one partner. On the other hand, if you lead from
the five suit, though your chance of establishing it is slight, you, at
all events, avoid assisting your adversary to establish his; the ace
and king of your three suit, still remaining in your hand, enable you
to prevent the establishment of that suit, and may procure you the lead
at an advanced period of the hand. This we shall find as we proceed is
a great advantage, especially if, in the course of play, you are left
with all the unplayed cards, or _long cards_, of your five suit.

The best suit of all to lead from is, of course, one which combines
both elements of strength.

In opening a suit, there is always the danger of finding your partner
very weak, or of leading up to a _tenace_ (_i.e._, the best and third
best cards, or the second best guarded) in the hand of the fourth
player. If you lead from a very strong suit, these dangers are more
than compensated for by the advantages just explained; if your best
suit is only moderately strong, the lead is not profitable, but
rather the reverse. If all your suits are weak, the lead is very
disadvantageous. The hand, however weak, must hold one suit of four at
least, and this, if only headed by a ten or a nine, should generally be
chosen. Being unable to strike the adversary, you take the best chance
of not assisting him.

It follows that a suit consisting of a single card is a very
disadvantageous one to lead from; yet no lead is more common, even
among players of some experience. The reason assigned in favour of this
lead is the possibility of making small trumps. But it is important to
observe, that you stand very nearly as good a chance of making trumps
by waiting for some one else to open the suit. If the suit is opened
by the strong hand, your barrenness will not be suspected; you will be
able, if necessary, to win the second round, while you will be free
from the guilt of having sacrificed any high card your partner may have
possessed in the suit, or of having assisted in establishing a suit
for the adversary. Again, your partner, if strong in trumps, will very
likely draw yours, and then return your lead, imagining you led from
strength. If, indeed, he is a shrewd player, he will, after being taken
in once or twice, accommodate his game to yours; but he can never be
sure of the character of your lead, and may often miss a great game by
not being able to depend upon you. If you have great numerical strength
in trumps, the evils of a single-card lead are lessened; but in this
case, as will hereafter be shown, it is generally right to lead trumps.
In the opinion of the author, it may be laid down as an axiom, that in
plain suits (_i.e._, in suits not trumps) the original lead of a single
card is in no case defensible.

Many players will not lead from a strong suit if headed by a tenace;
preferring, for instance, to lead from ten, nine, three, to ace, queen,
four, two. They argue, that by holding up the ace, queen suit, they
stand a better chance of catching the king. So far they are right; but
they purchase this advantage too dearly; for the probable loss from
leading the weak suit may be taken as greater than the probable gain
from holding up the tenace.

_Which card of the strong suit should be led originally?_--The key
to this problem is furnished by the remark, that it conduces to the
ultimate establishment of a suit to keep the high or commanding cards
of it in the hand that has numerical strength. In the suit of your
own choosing, you are presumably stronger than your partner; it is
therefore undesirable at once to part with your high cards. Hence it
is best, in general, to lead the smallest. Your partner, actuated by
a desire to assist in establishing your strong suit, will play his
highest card to your lead (_see_ Play of Third Hand, p. 92), and, if
he fails to win the trick, will, at all events, force a higher card
from the fourth player, and so help to clear the suit for you. Another
reason in favour of leading the lowest is, that it increases your
chance of making tricks in the first two rounds. For in the first round
of a suit the second hand generally puts on his smallest card, as will
be seen hereafter. If, therefore, you originally lead the smallest,
holding ace and others, the first trick will, in all probability,
lie between your partner and the last player; and since there is no
reason why the fourth player should hold a better card than the third,
it is nearly an even chance that your partner wins the trick. It is
certain (bar trumping) that you win the second round; therefore, if
the suit is led this way, it is about an even chance that you make
the first two tricks. But if you lead out the ace first, it is two
to one against your making the second trick, for the adversaries have
two hands against your partner's one, and either may hold the king. A
third reason for leading the lowest of your suit is, that your partner
may prove utterly weak in it; and in this case it is important that you
keep a commanding card, to stop the adversary from establishing it.

It follows, when you lead a small card originally, that your partner
should conclude you have led from numerical strength.

There are three exceptions to the rule of originally leading the lowest
of a strong suit.--1. When you lead from ace with four or more small
ones. In this case it is considered best to begin with the ace, lest
it should be trumped on the second round. 2. When your suit contains a
strong sequence, it is best to lead one of the sequence, in order to
prevent the adversaries from winning the first trick with a very small
card. 3. When you lead from a suit of more than four cards (not headed
by ace and not containing a strong sequence), the fourth-best card is
led, for reasons to be afterwards explained. (_See_ Appendix A, pp.
281-6.)

When you intend to lead from a sequence, the card to be selected
depends on the nature of the sequence, namely, whether it is a _head_
sequence or an _under_ sequence. By a head sequence is meant a sequence
of the highest cards of your suit, _i.e._, of the cards heading your
suit; thus, such a suit as queen, knave ten, six, contains a head
sequence of queen, knave, ten. Sequences that do not head your suit
are under sequences; thus ace, queen, knave, ten, is an example of an
under sequence of queen, knave, ten. You should--



2. LEAD THE HIGHEST OF A HEAD SEQUENCE

(_Except as specified in the Analysis of Leads, pp. 64-71_).


For, otherwise, your partner is uncertain where the highest lies, and
you and he may play two winning cards where one would have sufficed.
For instance, if, with queen, knave, ten, you lead the ten, your
partner may put the king on it, but he certainly would not on the
queen. In addition to this, if there is any _finessing_ to be done
in the suit, it can only be by your partner. By finessing is meant
playing an inferior card though holding a higher one of the suit, not
in sequence with the card played. Thus, to continue the illustration of
the sequence of queen, knave, ten. You lead the queen. Your partner has
the ace and others. He will not put it on, but will finesse by playing
his smallest card; and if the king lies to your left, that card is
completely hemmed in. Had you led the ten, your partner would have put
on the ace, and the king have been freed.

On the other hand, if you lead from an under sequence, you should lead
the lowest, the reason being that, in this case, you wish your partner
to put on his highest card. For example, with king, ten, nine, eight,
you should lead the eight and not the ten, as if your partner's highest
card is the knave, you wish him to put it on that he may not afterwards
block your suit by retaining a commanding card of it. Or, suppose your
partner's best card is the queen, the lead of the ten would probably
induce him to finesse, and thus give the adversary a chance of making
the knave the first round, and of retaining the ace in hand, although
you and your partner hold two honours in the suit. If your partner puts
on the queen, you are still able to finesse the nine when the suit
is returned, and this is much more advantageous than your partner's
passing the ten. In the first place, the finesse is postponed to the
second round, when, more cards having been played, you have more data
to guide you as to the policy of making the finesse; and, in the next
place, if you have a choice as to whether you or your partner shall
finesse in your strong suit, it is, as a rule, more advantageous
for you to do it. For, as already explained, it conduces to the
establishment of a suit for the strong hand to retain the command of
it, and for the presumably weak hand to play his highest cards.

With sequences neither at the top nor at the bottom of a suit
(_intermediate_ sequences), the card to lead is the lowest of the
intermediate sequence.

Players who adopt American Leads will, however, select the fourth-best
card when leading a low card from suits of more than four cards,
whether or not the suit contains an under sequence, or an intermediate
sequence (with the sole exception of ten, led from king, knave, ten,
and small). Thus, from king, knave, ten, nine, whether accompanied by
the eight or by smaller cards, they lead the nine; and so on for other
combinations. (_See_ Appendix A, pp. 281-6).



ANALYSIS OF LEADS IN DETAIL.

(_See_ also Appendix A, pp. 281-6, and Appendix C, pp. 289-94.)


[The following analysis should be familiarly known by every player, not
only that he himself may follow it, but also that he may form a correct
idea of the cards the other players hold, by observing what they lead.]


_Ace, king, queen, knave (in trumps)._

Lead knave, then ace.

With more than four in suit, lead queen after ace.

With only four in suit, lead king after ace.


_Ace, king, queen, knave (in plain suits)._

Lead king, then knave.

With more than four in suit, lead queen after knave.

With only four in suit, lead ace after knave.


_Ace, king, queen, with or without small ones (in trumps)._

Lead queen.

With more than four in suit, lead king after queen.

With only four or three in suit, lead ace after queen.


_Ace, king, queen, with or without small ones (in plain suits)._

Lead king, then queen.


_Ace, king, knave, &c._

Lead king, then ace.

Sometimes it is right, more especially in trumps, to lead king, then to
change the suit, and to finesse the knave on the return, particularly
if queen is turned up to your right. With more than five trumps it is
seldom advisable to wait for the finesse. No positive rule can be laid
down, either for trumps or plain suits.


_Ace, king, and small (in trumps)._

Lead king, then ace, if you have at least five small ones. Otherwise,
lead a small one (the fourth-best if an American Leader).


_Ace, king, and small (in plain suits)._

Lead king, then ace.

King is led before ace to inform your partner that you hold the winning
card of your suit, in case you should think fit to change the suit, or
in case the fourth player should have none of it. If your partner has
none, he should not trump, for, even if you do not hold the ace, you
want the adversary to play it, that he may not retain the winning card
of your suit.

When opening a plain suit, headed by ace, king, _after having been
forced_ to trump, lead the ace first. If you begin with the king, and
your partner happens to have none of the suit, he might trump the king,
in order to lead again the suit you have already trumped.

If intermediate cards fall and you remain with the command and the next
best, you inform your partner of the fact by continuing with the next
best. Thus:--You lead king from ace, king, knave, etc. To the king,
your partner drops the queen. You should next lead the knave.


_Ace, queen, knave, ten, with or without others._

Lead ace, then ten, even though one of your others is the nine.

With more than four in suit, lead knave after ten.

With only four in suit, lead queen after ten.


_Ace, queen, knave, and small._

Lead ace.

With more than four in suit, lead knave after ace.

With only four in suit, lead queen after ace.


_Ace, queen, ten, &c. (in trumps)._

If knave is turned up to your right, lead queen.


_Ace and small ones (in trumps)._

Lead ace, if you have seven in suit, and then a small one (the original
fourth-best if an American Leader).

Lead a small one (the fourth-best if an American Leader), with less
than seven in suit.

Obvious variations, taking into account the trump card, are omitted. It
is assumed, _e.g._, that, if your partner has turned up the king, you
would lead a small one from ace, queen, knave, &c., or from ace and any
number of small cards.


_Ace and small ones (in plain suits)._

Lead ace, with five or more in suit.

Lead a small one after ace (the original fourth-best if an American
Leader).

Lead lowest, with only four in suit, the cards being of a lower
denomination than in the leads already enumerated.


_King, queen, knave, ten, with or without others._

Lead ten, even though one of your others is the nine.

(_a._) If ten wins the trick:--

With more than five in suit, lead knave after ten.

With five in suit, lead queen after ten.

With only four in suit, lead king after ten.

(_b._) If ten forces ace:--

With more than four in suit, lead knave after ten.

With only four in suit, lead queen after ten.

The common practice is (or was) to lead queen after ten, in all cases,
to inform your partner that the lead was from king, queen, knave, ten,
and not from king, knave, ten. But, if the ten wins the trick, the mere
fact of continuing with a high card informs your partner that the lead
was from king, queen, knave, ten; for, with the only other combination
from which ten is first led, (viz., king, knave, ten), if the ten wins,
the next lead is a small card.

If the ten forces the ace, and your partner can give you credit for not
leading a losing card when you hold a winning one, he is informed, by
the second lead of any high card but the king, that you led from king,
queen, knave, ten. Therefore, queen and knave are high indifferent
cards, and you select the knave to show five or more originally; the
queen to show four exactly (_see_ Appendix A).


_King, queen, knave, and more than one small._

Lead knave.

With more than five in suit, lead queen after knave.

With only five in suit, lead king after knave.


_King, queen, knave, and one small one._

Lead king, then knave.

If the king wins the first trick it is not safe to go on with a small
one, ace being sometimes held up by the adversary, especially in trumps.


_King, queen, and small ones (in trumps.)_

Lead king, if you have seven in suit, or if one of your small ones is
the ten.

Lead a small one (the fourth-best if an American Leader), with less
than seven trumps, and not holding the ten.

If king is led, and it wins, after king lead a small one (the original
fourth-best if an American Leader).


_King, queen, and small ones (in plain suits)._

Lead king.

If the king wins, after king lead a small one (the original fourth-best
if an American Leader).


_King, knave, ten, nine, with or without small ones._

Lead nine, even though you also hold the eight.

(_a._) If nine wins the trick:--

With more than four in suit, lead ten after nine.

With only four in suit, lead knave after nine.

(_b._) If nine forces queen, or both queen and ace:--

With more than five in suit, lead ten after nine.

With five in suit, lead knave after nine.

With only four in suit, lead king after nine.

(_c._) If nine forces ace, but not queen, king must be led after nine.
Then (third lead),

With more than four in suit originally, lead ten after king.

With only four in suit, lead knave after king.


_King, knave, ten, with one or more small ones._

Lead ten.

If the ten wins the trick, lead a small one after ten (the original
fourth-best if an American Leader).

If the ten forces the queen, or both queen and ace:

With more than four in suit lead knave after ten.

With four in suit, lead king after ten.

If the ten forces the ace, and not the queen, king must be led after
ten.


_King, knave, nine, &c. (in trumps)._

If ten is turned up to your right, lead knave.


_King and small ones._

From all strong suits headed by king, other than those already
enumerated, lead a small one (the fourth-best if an American Leader).


_Queen, knave, ten, nine, with or without others._

Lead queen, then nine, even though one of your others is the eight.

With more than four in suit, lead ten after nine.

With only four in suit, lead knave after nine.


_Queen, knave, ten, and small._

Lead queen.

With more than four in suit, lead ten after queen.

With only four in suit, lead knave after queen.


_Queen, knave, nine, &c. (in trumps)._

If ten is turned up to your right, lead queen.


_Queen, knave, and small ones._

From all strong suits headed by queen, knave (or by queen), other than
those already enumerated, lead a small one (the fourth-best, if an
American Leader).

From queen, knave, nine (six or more in suit), if an American Leader,
lead fourth-best. If not, lead queen.


_Knave, ten, nine, eight, with or without small, ones._

_In trumps_, if queen or king is turned up to your left, lead knave.
Otherwise, _in trumps_ or _plain suits_,

  (_a._) If the second hand is known to adopt the practice, even
          though numerically weak in the suit, of not covering an
          honour with an honour (other than the ace, _see_ p. 88),
          lead eight.

With more than five in suit, lead nine after eight.

With five in suit, lead ten after eight.

With only four in suit, lead knave after eight.

  (_b._) If the second hand adheres to the old practice of covering
          an honour with an honour when numerically weak in the suit,
          lead knave, then eight. And

With more than four in suit, lead nine after eight.

With only four in suit, lead ten after eight.


_Knave, ten, nine, and small._

_In trumps_, if king or queen is turned up to your left, lead knave.
Otherwise, _in trumps_ or _plain suits_,

  (_a._) If the second hand, when numerically weak, does not cover
          an honour with an honour (other than ace), lead a small one
          (the fourth-best if an American Leader).

  (_b._) If the second hand, when numerically weak, covers an honour
          with an honour, lead knave. And,

With more than four in suit, lead nine after knave.

With only four in suit, lead ten after knave.


_Knave, ten, eight, &c. (in trumps)._

If nine is turned up to your right, lead knave.


_Knave, ten, and small ones._

From all strong suits headed by knave, ten (or by knave), with the
exceptions enumerated, lead a small one (the fourth-best if an American
Leader).


_Suits of four or more cards without an honour._

Lead a small card (the fourth-best if an American Leader).



3. LEAD THE HIGHEST OF A NUMERICALLY WEAK SUIT.


When it is your fate to open a numerically weak suit, your object
should be to do as little harm as possible. You cannot expect to win
many tricks, so you must do all you can to assist or _strengthen_ your
partner by leading high or strengthening cards; for, by leading the
highest of a suit numerically weak, you take the best chance of keeping
the strength in your partner's hand, should he happen to hold it.

You will not often be driven to open a weak suit originally, as one
of your suits must contain as many as four cards. But it may so turn
out that your four-card suit is composed of very small cards indeed,
in which case you might prefer to open a suit containing better cards,
though numerically weaker. Every one can see that ace, king, queen,
is a better suit to open than five, four, three, two; but, as you
descend in one scale and ascend in the other, there comes a point where
the two descriptions of strength nearly or quite balance. With hands
containing only a suit of four small cards--say none higher than the
seven or eight, and suits of three cards of higher value--the choice is
sometimes difficult. Also, with hands in which your only four-card suit
is the trump suit, you might sometimes deem it advisable to open one
of the other suits, as a smaller evil than leading a trump. As a rule,
when you are in doubt, stick to the general principle, and lead from
your four-card suit, even though it is the trump suit.

Whenever you decide on opening a suit of but three cards, choose, if
possible, one in which you hold a sequence which may be of benefit to
your partner, as queen, knave, ten; queen, knave, and one small one;
knave, ten, and one other, and so on, and lead the highest. If you have
no sequence, lead from your strongest weak suit. Thus, two honours not
in sequence, and one small one, is a better lead than ace and two small
ones, or king and two small ones. These, again, should be chosen in
preference to queen and two small ones. When leading from a numerically
weak suit that contains ace, king, or queen, but no sequence, if you
have any indication from the previous play that your partner is strong
in the suit (as will be explained in Section 4), lead the highest. But
having no guide as to his strength lead the lowest. You run the risk of
making your partner think you have led from numerical strength; but, on
the other hand, by leading out the high card, you at once give up the
command of the suit, and, unless your partner has strength in it (the
chances being against this), you leave yourself at the mercy of the
opponents.

The case is different with numerically weak suits headed by a knave or
a lower card. Of these suits you should lead the highest; by retaining
such a card as the knave you would scarcely ever be able to stop the
adversaries from establishing the suit, should they be strong in it;
and, by leading out the high card, you do all you can to aid your
partner, should he have strength.

Ace and one other, king and one other, or queen and one other, are
very bad suits to lead from. By holding them up you and your partner
stand a better chance of making tricks in the suit; and if it should
be the adversaries' suit (the chances being two to one that it is) you
keep the power of obstructing it and of obtaining the lead at advanced
periods of the hand. If you lead from ace, king only, lead ace, then
king.

It follows that when you lead a high card in the first round of a suit,
and in the next drop a lower one (subject to the rules respecting leads
from sequences and the lead from suits of five or more cards), your
partner should infer you have led from a weak suit. Thus, suppose you
lead a nine, which is called an equivocal card, as it comes from both
strong and weak suits. If in the second round your partner can infer
that you hold a higher card, he knows you have led from strength. But
if in the second round you lead (say) the eight, your partner may be
equally certain that the former card was the highest of your weak suit.



4. AVOID CHANGING SUITS.


_When you obtain the lead after one or more tricks have been played,
the question arises whether or not you should open a fresh suit._ If
you have had the lead before, it is generally advisable to pursue your
original lead, for you thus take the best chance of establishing the
suit, and you open a fresh suit to a disadvantage.

The fall of the cards in the previous rounds may cause you to alter
your game. Thus, the previous play may have already established your
suit, or may have so nearly established it as to justify you in
leading trumps, as hereafter explained; or your partner may have shown
a very strong suit, or a strong trump hand, which may modify your game.
Again, your partner may prove utterly weak in your suit; you would then
often discontinue it, unless holding the winning cards or a strong
sequence, because, with these exceptions, your continuing it gives the
adversary the opportunity of finessing against you, and of cutting up
your suit; or you may sometimes discontinue a suit if you expect it
will be trumped (as will be further explained in Sections 13-16); but,
failing such indications, it is best, as a rule, to pursue the original
lead.

If you have not had the lead before, it is in most cases advisable to
open your strong suit, when you possess _great_ strength in any suit,
for you open such suit to advantage; but with weak or only moderately
strong suits, which you open to a disadvantage, you would, as a rule,
do better to return your partner's original lead, or to lead up to the
weak suit of your right-hand adversary, or through the strong suit of
your left-hand adversary. When in doubt as to opening your own suit or
returning your partner's, you should, as a general rule, be guided by
your strength in trumps. With a strong trump hand play your own game;
with a weak trump hand play your partner's game.

If your partner has had a lead, and you are thoroughly conversant
with the system of leading developed in Sections 2 and 3, and with
the Analysis of Leads (pp. 64-71), you know by the value of the card
he has led whether he is strong or weak in that suit, unless he has
led an equivocal card, which is led from both strong and weak suits.
In this case, if you have no evidence from your own hand, or from the
fall of the cards, you presume, with a good partner, that he has led
from strength. But you mostly have some evidence; for instance, if he
leads a ten originally, he has led from king, queen, knave, ten; from
king, knave, ten; or the highest of his suit. If you hold--or either
adversary plays--king or knave, you know that your partner has led the
highest of his suit. But, in the absence of these cards, and especially
if the ten wins the first round, or falls to the ace or queen, you may
conclude that your partner's lead was from strength, and you would do
perfectly right to return it.

When you have won the first trick in your partner's lead cheaply, you
must be cautious in returning it, as the strength must be between your
partner and your right-hand adversary. For example, say A, Y, B, Z, are
the four players, and that they sit in this order round the table, so
that A leads and Z is last player. If A leads a small card of a plain
suit, Y plays a small one, and B (third player) puts on his best card,
the queen, which wins the trick, it is clear that Z can have neither
ace nor king; A cannot have them both, or he would have led one,
therefore Y must have one of them at least; and, if B returns the lead,
he leads up to Y's strength, and may cut up his partner's suit.

By observing the card led by either adversary, you can similarly
tell whether he has led from strength or weakness; so also you can
judge from the card played third hand by the adversary whether he is
weak, it being presumed that the third player puts on his best. It is
advantageous to lead up to a weak suit, because you compel the second
hand to put on a high card, or give your partner the opportunity of
finessing. It is generally less advantageous to lead through a strong
suit, unless you are sure that the second hand is not _very_ strong,
and that the fourth hand is weak. Otherwise, by continuing the suit,
you may be establishing it for the adversary, and getting rid of the
command of it from your partner's hand.

In discussing leads from weak suits it was supposed, for the sake of
convenience, that the leader had no indication from the play to guide
him. But in practice, in by far the greater number of cases, weak suits
are opened late in a hand when inference from previous play has given
an insight into the strength or weakness of the several players. Thus,
you commence with your strong suit; your partner fails to show any
strength in it. After several other tricks are played you get the lead
again, remaining with (say) king and two others of your first lead. You
do not wish to take one of the guards from your king, and you do not
deem it advisable to lead a card which your partner may be obliged to
trump. You therefore try another suit. By this time you know, either
by the adversaries' leads what their strong suits are, or by the
players' discards (_i.e._, by the cards they throw away when not able
to follow suit,) what their weak suits are, as will be explained under
discarding. Guided by these indications, you make choice of a suit for
your second lead in which your partner is probably strong, and under
such circumstances you would, as a rule, lead the highest of the suit
of your second choosing, if numerically weak in it.

When you have led a strengthening card, and it wins the trick, you can
rarely do better than continue with your next highest. For example:
from queen, knave, and three you lead the queen, which goes round. It
hardly requires to be stated that you make the best use of your suit
by continuing with the knave. When your strengthening card does not
win, the course of the play is the only guide as to whether you should
continue the suit. The application of the considerations advanced in
this Section will generally inform you where the strong and weak suits
lie, and you will act accordingly, giving your partner his strong
suit, or, if he has not shown one, leading up to the weak suit of the
right-hand adversary, or through the strong suit of the left-hand
adversary.

It has several times been assumed that it is advantageous to have the
lead at advanced periods of a hand; we now see one principal reason why
it is so. The leader knows by observation where the strong and the weak
suits lie, and he will generally be able to make use of this knowledge
in assisting his partner, or in obstructing his opponents.

The principles explained in the preceding pages apply mainly to the
original lead, or to leads early in a hand. They apply also to leads
generally; but, at advanced periods of the hand, and towards its
close, their application is frequently modified by inferences from the
previous play, and by the state of the score. Examples of departure
from the rules here laid down will be presented in the illustrative
hands.

In the second round of a suit--



5. RETURN THE LOWEST OF A STRONG SUIT, THE HIGHEST OF A WEAK SUIT.


When you return your partner's lead, the card you should choose to lead
the second round depends on the number of cards of the suit you have
remaining. Thus, if you remain with three cards, you must have had four
at first. You therefore had strength in the suit, and you should return
the smallest of the three remaining cards, agreeably to the principle
that with strength it is to your advantage to retain the command in
your own hand. If you remain with two cards only, you should return the
higher one, to strengthen your partner; and, similarly, if you have
discarded one of a four-suit, and are left with two only _at the time
you return it_, you have destroyed the numerical power of your suit,
and should therefore treat it as a weak suit, and return the higher
card of the two remaining in your hand.

The advantages of this principle are numerous. In the case that you
and your partner are both numerically strong, the return of the lowest
prevents him from finessing in a suit which must be trumped third
round. Further, if your hand is weak, you naturally return a suit
in which you infer that your partner is strong. You then return a
strengthening card to get a high card of your partner's strong suit out
of his way, and you enable him to finesse if he thinks proper, and so
to keep the command of his suit in his own hand.

It is true that with two small cards only (say the five and the six)
you do not strengthen your partner by returning the six. But there is a
collateral advantage in keeping to the rule even with small cards--_you
enable a good partner to calculate how many you have left of the suit_,
and often where the remainder of it lies. Thus, your partner leads a
small card of a suit of which you have king, three, and two. You, as
third player, put on the king. If you return the suit, you return the
three, and not the two, when it ought to be inferred, either that you
have returned the smallest of a suit of four or more, or that you have
no more of the suit left, or the two only. When your two comes down in
the third round it ought to be certain that you have no more. If your
partner has confidence in you, he can often calculate what you have
left before the third round is played; thus, in the above instance,
your partner, not having the two himself, and seeing that it does not
drop from the adversaries, concludes, with tolerable certainty, that
you remain, after the second round, with the two and no more.

There are two exceptions to the rule of play above stated: 1. When you
hold the winning card you return it, whatever number of cards you
hold, lest it should be trumped the third round, or, your partner,
imagining it to be against him, should finesse; and 2. When you hold
the second and third best, in plain suits, you return the highest.
Thus, suppose you have queen, knave, ten, and one small one of a suit
of which your partner leads a small one, you (third hand) put on the
ten, which is won by (say) the ace. If you afterwards return the suit,
you should return the queen, for you not only force out the king, if
against you, but you also do not block your partner's suit, should he
have led from great numerical strength, say five cards to the nine, an
advantage which you lose by returning the small one.

It should also be observed that, occasionally, when you return your
adversary's strong lead, you do not lead the higher of two remaining
cards, especially if you hold the second best guarded. For example, you
are A; Y is your left-hand adversary. Y has led a king, which was won
by the ace, leaving Y with the queen and others. You remain with knave
and one small one. If you are driven to return this suit, you should
return the small one. The queen will probably be put on second hand,
and you will remain with the best.

[Illustration]



THE SECOND HAND.


In the first round of a suit, you should generally,



6. PLAY YOUR LOWEST CARD SECOND HAND.


You presume that the first hand has led from strength, and, if you
have a high card in his suit, you lie over him when it is led again;
whereas, if you play your high card second hand, you get rid of a
commanding card of the adversary's suit, and, when it is returned, the
original leader finesses against you. Besides this, the third player
will put on his highest card, and, if it is better than yours, you have
wasted power to no purpose.

If, however, you have a sequence of high cards, you should put on one
of the sequence second hand, for, if you pass the trick altogether, the
third hand may win with a very low card, or, with his low card, may
force a high one from your partner. The chief objection to playing an
unsupported high card does not apply, as the leader cannot successfully
finesse against you in the next round.

With a moderate sequence, such as queen, knave--knave, ten--ten,
nine--you play the lowest of the sequence if you are numerically weak;
but, with more than three cards of the suit, you pass a small card
led, agreeably to the principle already discussed--that in weak suits
you play to strengthen your partner, but in strong ones you leave him
to help you. For instance: the leader (A) has king, ten, nine, eight,
seven of a suit; the second player (Y) has queen, knave, and one small
one; the fourth player (Z) has ace and two small ones. A leads a small
card; Y should play the knave; if he does not, the card led forces Z's
ace. It is true that this happens also if Y passes with queen, knave,
and two small ones; but Y, in this case, has a guard to his queen and
knave, and is left with the two winning cards after the second round of
the suit.

With a sequence lower than ten, nine, there is no advantage in putting
on one of the sequence; so the lowest should then be played second
hand, in conformity with the general principle.



7. PLAY THE LOWEST OF A SEQUENCE.


When you do not head a trick, you throw away your lowest card to
economise your strength. Thus, with queen and two small ones, you would
not throw the queen to king led. It is an error to suppose that it is
of no consequence which card you play when you hold only small cards
or cards in sequence. It is not of much consequence as regards merely
the chance of making tricks; but it is of great importance in affording
information to partner.

Thus, suppose the players to be as before, A, Y, B, Z. A leads the
three of a suit, Y plays the five, B the four. It ought to be certain
that B has no more of the suit, it being presumed that he, not being
able to head the trick, throws away his smallest. If he afterwards
plays the two, and it turns out that he previously played the four
_through carelessness_, his partner loses confidence, and gives up all
hopes of drawing correct inferences from his play.

The principle applies equally to cards in sequence. Thus, say queen is
led, and you (second hand) hold ace and king; if you put on the king,
your partner gains the very important information that you have the
ace also. For queen is not led from ace, queen, &c., so the leader
cannot have the ace; the third hand cannot have it, or he would win
the king; and the fourth, not having it himself, infers that you have
it. If you put on the ace, not only could he not tell that you hold
the king, but would assume that it lay with the leader's partner. The
principle, though stated for the sake of convenience in respect of the
second hand, applies to the third and fourth hands also. (For a fuller
examination of this point _see_ Section 12.)

[Illustration]



ANALYSIS OF PLAY OF SECOND HAND IN DETAIL.

(_See_ Note on Analysis of Leads, p. 64.)


_Ace, king, queen, &c._

Play lowest of ace, king, queen sequence.


_Ace, king, knave, &c._

Play king (but _see_ p. 89).

On the second round of the suit, it becomes a matter of judgment
whether you should play ace or finesse knave. No positive rule can be
laid down.


_Ace, king, &c._

Play king.

In trumps it is sometimes right to pass, leaving the chance of the
first trick to your partner.

Obvious alterations on account of the trump card are omitted. It is
clear that, with ace, king, &c., if your partner has turned up the
queen, you should play a small one; and that, with ace, king, knave, if
your right hand adversary has turned up the queen, you should play the
knave; and so on for other cases.


_Ace, queen, knave, &c._

Play lowest of queen, knave sequence.


_Ace, queen, ten, &c._

In trumps, play ten, or with cards in sequence, the lowest of the ten
sequence.

In plain suits, if strong enough in trumps to lead them, play ten, or
lowest of sequence; if weak in trumps, play queen (but _see_ p. 89).

With ace, queen, ten only, play ten, whether strong in trumps or not.


_Ace, queen, &c._

Small card led.

In trumps, play a small one.

In plain suits, with five in suit, play a small one if strong in
trumps; the queen if weak in trumps.

Knave led.

Play ace. It is useless to cover with the queen, as the leader cannot
hold the king (_see_ Analysis of Leads).

These instructions assume ordinary original leads from strength. If
ace or queen is turned up, some players lead knave, from king, knave,
ten. If you know this is the practice of your right hand adversary, you
should exercise your judgment as to covering with ace or queen.

Also towards the close of a hand, knave might be led from king, knave
for various reasons, perhaps as the best chance of saving or winning
the game or a point, or as a false card. No rule can be laid down for
such cases.

Ten or nine led.

Play queen.


_Ace, knave, ten, &c._

In trumps, play ten, or with cards in sequence with the ten, the lowest
of the sequence.

In plain suits, play a small one.

The reason for the difference is that, in trumps a small card may be
led from king, queen, &c.; but in plain suits, not. Hence as, in plain
suits, the king or queen must be in the third or fourth hand, your
strength would be wasted by covering.


_Ace and small ones._

Play a small one.

As before observed, the original lead of a small card from strength is
assumed.

If, after several tricks have been played, you particularly want the
lead, or you suspect the possibility of a lead from a single card, or
one trick is of importance, you would often be right to play the ace.
Again, no rule can be laid down.


_King, queen, knave, &c._

Play the lowest of the king, queen, knave sequence.


_King, queen, &c._

Small card led.

Play queen.

In trumps it is sometimes right to pass, unless you hold ten also, or
only three in suit.

Knave led.

The usual practice is to cover with the queen. But, it can be shown by
calculation that, if the lead is from knave, ten, nine, and small,
more is gained than lost, in the long run, by passing.

The best lead from knave, ten, nine, &c., is disputed; and so also is
the question of covering.


_King, knave, ten, &c._

Play the lowest of the knave, ten sequence.


_Queen, knave, ten, &c._

Play ten, or lowest of sequence.


_Knave, ten, nine, &c._

Play nine, or lowest of sequence.


_Queen, knave, and small; knave, ten, and small; ten, nine, and small._

Play as directed at pp. 82-3.


_Covering or passing second hand._

If an honour is led, and you have the ace, as a rule play the ace.

If an honour is led, and you hold an honour, not the ace, pass as a
rule.

It was formerly the practice to cover an honour with an honour, if
numerically weak. Calculation shows more is gained than lost, in the
long run, by passing. But, if a strengthening card is led, late in a
hand, it would often be right to cover. No positive rule can be laid
down for the play of the second hand under such circumstances. When you
have the _fourchette_ it is almost always right to cover. Thus, if
knave is led, and you hold queen, ten, &c., put on the queen.

If a ten is led, and you hold queen and one small one, play queen.
The lead is probably from king, knave, ten, &c., and the queen may
save your partner's ace. With queen and two small ones, or with other
combinations not enumerated as those with which a high card should be
played second hand, pass.

If a nine is led, and you hold king and one small one, play king. The
leader must have opened an ace suit (either ace, queen, ten, nine, or
ace, knave, ten, nine), assuming him to have led from a suit of four
cards. The same applies if you hold king, nine, and eight is led.

If a medium card is led from a suit of at least four cards, three being
higher than the card led, and you hold cards that (together with the
leader's cards) make up a sequence, cover with the lowest card you can.
For example:--The original lead is an eight. You (second hand) hold
ace, king, ten, with or without small ones. If the lead was from queen,
knave, nine, eight, as is most probable, and the ten is put on, it will
win the trick.

Again: the original lead is a seven. You hold ace, queen, knave, eight.
If the seven is the lowest of a four card suit, the lead must have been
from king, ten, nine, seven. Therefore, the eight put on will win the
trick.

The same applies, if the leader of an ace follows with a medium card.
For example:--Ace is led originally. The next lead of an American
Leader is, say, the eight. You had originally king, queen, ten, four,
and you played the four to the ace. The leader must hold knave, nine
and small. You should, therefore play the ten. And, observe, the play
would be the same, if the second lead of a player who does not follow
the American system were the seven, as then he must hold knave, nine,
eight.

If a small card is led, and you hold an honour and a small card, pass
the trick as a rule; for by putting on the honour you expose your
weakness, and enable the original leader to finesse against you on the
second round. The principal general exception to playing a small card
second hand, is when the circumstances of the hand cause you to seize
any chance of getting the lead, as when you want to stop a lead of
trumps, or to lead trumps yourself. Then it is often right to play a
high card second hand, when unsupported by another high card.

Also, in trumps, if king or queen is turned up, and you hold it singly
guarded (_i.e._, if you have only one other trump), it is generally
advisable to put on the turn-up, second hand. And if you hold king
or queen, singly guarded, and a superior honour is turned up to your
right, you should play the king or queen.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the second round of a suit, if you have the winning card, you
should--in plain suits--generally put it on second hand, subject to
a finesse that will certainly be successful; but in trumps there are
many cases in which you should not, especially if you have numerical
strength in trumps, and a good hand besides. Your winning trump must
make, and, by passing the second round, you perhaps enable your partner
to win with a third best trump--or even a smaller one--yourself
retaining the command.

If, when led through in the second round of a suit, you conclude from
the previous fall of the cards that the second best card is to your
right, it is sometimes advisable to put on the third best. You thus
save your partner's hand if he holds the best. For instance: if knave
is led in the first round, and your partner (then second player) puts
on king, which wins the trick, it is clear (if the ten is your best)
that your partner has the ace, for the third player could not win
the king, and the leader could not have led from ace, knave. If your
right-hand adversary afterwards returns the suit through you, you
should put on the ten in order to save your partner's ace.

[Illustration]



THE THIRD HAND.

(_See_ also "Whist Developments." DE LA RUE & Co.)


In the first round of a suit, you should generally



8. PLAY YOUR HIGHEST CARD THIRD HAND,


in order to strengthen your partner. You presume that he leads from his
strong suit, and wants to get the winning cards of it out of his way;
you, therefore, do not finesse, but play your highest, remembering that
you play the lowest of a sequence.

With ace, queen (and, of course, ace, queen, knave, &c., in sequence)
you do finesse, for, in this case, the finesse cannot be left to your
partner. In trumps you may finesse ace, knave, if an honour is turned
up to your right. Some players finesse knave with king, knave, &c.; but
it is contrary to principle to finesse in your partner's strong suit.

If your partner leads a high card originally, you assume it is led
from one of the combinations given in the Analysis of Leads (pp.
64-71), and your play third hand must be guided by a consideration of
the combination led from. With ace, you pass queen led; you are then
in much the same position as though a small card were led, and you
finessed with ace, queen.

Knave, led originally, is from king, queen, knave, &c. (some players
lead knave from knave, ten, nine, &c.) In either case, if you hold ace
with one small card, play the ace; with more than one small card, pass
(_see_ p. 98). If your only honour is the king, you should pass knave
led. For, the second hand having passed, you assume ace to be to your
left (p. 88). Should the queen be there also, you waste the king by
covering; and if queen is to your right, the knave forces the ace.

Ten may be led originally from king, queen, knave, ten, or from king,
knave, ten, &c. If you hold ace, you should put it on; but if you hold
queen, you should pass. Holding both ace and queen, your play depends
on whether you wish to obtain the lead on the first round of the suit.

If your partner opens a suit, late in a hand, with a high card, your
play, third hand, will depend on your judgment of the character of the
lead. If it is probable that your partner has led from a weak suit,
you will often be right to finesse king, knave, &c., or to pass his
card altogether, so as not to give up the entire command of the suit.
Thus, if ten is led and you hold ace, knave, &c., it is clear that the
card led is the highest your partner holds in the suit. You therefore
pass, and unless both king and queen are to your left, you remain with
the tenace. Similar remarks apply to a forced lead of knave, when you
hold ace, ten, &c. If you have considerable strength in a suit in which
a strengthening card is led, you must be guided by your strength in
trumps. Thus, your partner leads knave from a weak suit, and you hold
ace, king, and small ones. You may, as a rule, pass the knave if you
are strong in trumps, but not if weak.

In the second round of a suit, if you (third player) hold the best and
third best cards, and you have no indication as to the position of
the intermediate card, your play should again depend on your strength
in trumps. If weak in trumps, secure the trick at once; if strong
in trumps, and especially if strong enough to lead a trump (_see_
Management of Trumps, pp. 120-24), should the finesse succeed, it is
generally right to make it. If you hold second and fourth best, you
may nearly always finesse; for you conclude that the winning card
is over you in the fourth hand, since your partner has not led it,
and the second player has not put it on. If the third best lies over
you also, you cannot prevent the tenace from making, and your only
chance, therefore, is to finesse. Thus, if you lead a small card from
queen, ten, and two small ones, your partner wins the first trick
with the king, and returns a small one. The ace is certainly to your
left; you therefore finesse the ten, for if your left-hand adversary
holds ace and knave he must make them both; but, otherwise, your ten
forces the ace, and you are left with the best. In trumps, the winning
card is often held up by the adversary, but you must submit to this
contingency, and generally finesse.

It is of no use to finesse against your right-hand adversary in a suit
in which he has shown weakness. For instance, if the second hand has
none of the suit led, and does not trump it, you (third hand) should
not finesse a major tenace (_i.e._, the best and third best cards).
This often occurs in the second or third round of a suit; also, if your
partner (third player) has won a trick very cheaply, and the suit is
returned, it is rarely of any use to finesse if you have the winning
card.

In some few positions, however, it is necessary to finesse, even if
the second player holds nothing. Thus, your partner leads a knave,
and the second hand renounces (_i.e._, does not follow suit); if you
(third player) hold king, it is useless to cover, as ace, queen in the
fourth hand must make. Again, you have king, and two small trumps; your
partner leads a small one; the second hand renounces. If you want one
trick to win or save the game, you (third player) play a small trump,
when the fourth player will be obliged to lead up to your king guarded.

The state of the game and of the score will often direct as to a
finesse late in a hand. Thus, if you hold a winning card, and want one
trick to save or win the game, of course you should not run any risk.
A finesse against even one card is generally wrong, if, by playing
otherwise, you prevent the adversary from scoring three or five. A
finesse is almost always bad, if by not finessing you insure the odd
trick, as that makes a difference of two to the score. In the opposite
case, a finesse is generally right (sometimes even against more than
one card), if its success gives you the odd trick, or puts you at the
score of three or five.

The considerations as to finessing and the course of play generally,
that come in as the hand proceeds, are so complicated, and depend so
much on inferences from previous play, and on the state of the score,
that one can scarcely do more than to state a few broad rules, and to
add some examples. Illustrations of the conduct of the hand at advanced
periods will be found in Sections 17 and 18 (pp. 134-155), and more in
the hands.



THE FOURTH HAND.


The fourth player having, with a few exceptions, merely to win the
trick, if against him, his play involves no further development of
general principles.

The exceptional cases, where the fourth hand should not win the trick
though he can, or should win his partner's trick in order to get the
lead, depend so much on the previous fall of the cards, that they can
best be illustrated in the hands.



THE COMMAND OF SUITS.

(_See_ also Appendix B., pp. 287-8.)


In the foregoing chapters it has been incidentally stated that you
should


9. KEEP THE COMMAND OF YOUR ADVERSARY'S SUIT: AND

10. GET RID OF THE COMMAND OF YOUR PARTNER'S SUIT.

The reasons will be obvious to those who are familiar with the previous
pages; in the first case, you obstruct the adversaries' suits, and
prevent their establishing them; in the second case, you assist in
clearing the suit for your partner.

Thus, with ace and queen only of a suit led by your partner, if you win
with the queen, play out the ace at once; but, if the suit is led by
your adversary, keep the ace in your hand. If you play out the winning
card of the opponent's suit in hopes of trumping the next round, which
is often done by those who play a trumping game, you do just what
the adversaries want; for the lead of the ace gives them valuable
assistance towards bringing in their suit when trumps are out.

Though the advantage of getting rid of the command of a suit, of
which your partner has declared numerical strength, is recognised
theoretically, the application of the principle is much neglected in
practice. In order to get rid, at the proper moment, of the command
of your partner's suit, a thorough knowledge of the Analysis of Leads
is requisite, as the following examples will show:--1. Your partner
leads ace, originally, of a plain suit. He has led from ace, queen,
knave, &c., or from a suit of five cards at least. You have four of
the suit, say ten, nine, eight, two. To his ace, you should play the
eight, not the two. All follow suit, and your partner continues with
knave, or with a small card. You now know for certain that he led from
five at least. You should play the nine, even if the second hand puts
on a winning card or a trump. When the suit is led again, you should
play the ten. Your partner is left with two small cards, and you do not
block his suit; if you had played two, eight, nine, it is very probable
that you would keep the command of the suit with the ten. 2. If instead
of ten, nine, eight, two, you held, say, ten, nine, three, two, and
your partner leads ace and a small one, you should similarly play the
nine on the second round. 3. If your partner led from ace, queen, knave
and one small one (as you will be informed by his leading queen after
ace), you cannot block the suit; but, if you have played the eight to
the ace, as in Example 1, you must still play the nine to the queen, or
you have called for trumps (_see_ p. 125). You lose nothing by this,
as you and your partner still retain the winning cards of the suit. If
on the third round you find it necessary to play your small card, you
have not called for trumps (_see_ Appendix B, pp. 287-8). 4. Similarly,
you have king, queen, and two small cards of a plain suit of which your
partner leads ace and a small one. All follow suit to the ace; the
second hand trumps the small one. You should play the queen, and to
the third round the king. 5. Your partner leads knave of a plain suit
originally, from king, queen, knave, and at least two small cards. The
second hand plays a small card. You (third hand) hold ace, &c. Whether
or not you should put on the ace, depends on the number of small cards
you hold. Having only one small card, you should play the ace, that you
may not block the suit. Having more than one small card, you pass the
knave. Suppose the knave wins the trick, and your partner continues
with king or queen. If you now remain with ace and one small card, you
should put on the ace; but, if you have ace and two small cards left,
you should pass again, as you still have the power of getting rid of
the command on the third round. 6. To continue the previous example.
Say the two rounds of your partner's suit have resulted in the fall of
seven cards of it, and that you still have ace and a small one left.
Your adversary now leads the suit a third time, that his partner may
trump it. You should play the ace, keeping the small card of the suit
of which your partner will still hold two cards. 7. If your partner
leads a small card of a plain suit originally, and you can tell from
the fall of the cards that the card led was not his absolute lowest,
you know he led from a suit of more than four (_see_ Analysis of
Leads), and if you had four originally, you should be prepared to get
rid of the command on the subsequent rounds. For example:--Your partner
leads eight. All follow suit, and the queen falls. On obtaining the
lead again, your partner leads the six, showing that he led from at
least five cards. Ace comes out. One adversary does not follow suit.
You held, originally, knave, five, four, three, and have played the
three and the four. Your partner now has the lead again, and leads the
king of his suit. You, holding knave and one small one, would play very
badly to retain the knave. You should throw the knave on the king, and
your partner's suit is freed. 8. Your hand contains four cards, viz.,
ace and one small spade (spades not having been led), and two losing
diamonds; your partner has nothing but spades, of which he leads the
king. If you pass it you cannot make more than two tricks, for the
winning diamonds are against you in one hand; but, if you win your
partner's king, and return the small one, and your partner has led
from king, queen, you still win two tricks, and get a chance of making
three or four.

A collateral advantage of playing as advised, is that a good partner
will often know how many of his suit you still have in hand. Thus, he
leads knave, which you pass; he continues with queen, which you win. It
ought to be a certainty that you remain with one small card of his suit
and no more. If you pass again, it should be equally certain, when your
ace comes down in the third round, that you have one small card of the
suit in hand. Again: your partner leads ace and knave; knave is won by
the adversary with the king. You, holding ten, nine, eight, deuce, have
played eight and nine of the suit. If the winner of the trick does not
lead a trump, your partner would infer, with tolerable certainty, that
you remain with the deuce and ten of his suit, as no one is asking for
trumps (_see_ p. 125) and no one has played the deuce in two rounds.

In trumps, the case is somewhat different, as you cannot block your
partner's trump suit. It is then only advisable to get out of his way,
if you see from the fall of the cards that it is essential he should
proceed with trumps. Thus: with ace and one small trump you would not
put ace on his knave led, unless very desirous of three rounds of
trumps immediately. Moreover, in trumps, your partner can count your
hand in another way; for with four trumps you would echo, as will be
fully explained under Management of Trumps (p. 128).

You help your partner to get rid of the command of your suit by leading
the lowest of a sequence, notwithstanding that it heads your suit,
when you want him to win your card if he can. For this reason you lead
ten from king, queen, knave, ten; ace, knave from ace, queen, knave,
and at least two small cards; and so on. In this last case, if your
partner has king, whether he should put it on your knave, or not,
depends on how many small cards of the suit he holds. If, when you lead
knave, he remains with king and one small one, he should win the knave
with the king; but if he has king and two small ones remaining, he
should pass the knave, for precisely the same reasons as those given in
the previous examples. Again, suppose you are left with knave, ten, and
others of a suit, of which your partner can only have king and another
(ace and queen being out), though it is uncertain whether he does hold
the king. You would cause him to get rid of the king by leading the
ten; whereas, if you led the knave, he probably would not part with the
king.

Experienced players frequently endeavour to steal a trick, or to
obtain the entire command of a suit (_i.e._, to keep a sufficient
number of winning or commanding cards in it to make every trick), by
_underplaying_. Underplay is keeping up the winning card, generally in
the second round of a suit, by leading a low card, though holding the
best.

Thus, suppose a small trump is led, and you (fourth player) hold ace,
knave, and two small ones, and you win with one of the small ones. If,
at a later period of the hand, you return a small trump, you will very
likely cause your left-hand adversary to believe that your partner has
the ace; consequently, if your left-hand adversary has the king, he may
not put it on; your partner will win the second round with the queen,
and you will retain the command of the trump suit.

Underplay is an extempore stratagem depending on observation of the
previous fall of the cards, and, therefore, best capable of explanation
by examples. Thus: A, finding his partner strong in trumps, leads the
seven. The king is put on by Y (second hand), which B (third hand)
wins, holding ace, queen, ten, nine, eight. It is evident to B that A's
seven was his highest trump, as the only higher one in is the knave,
and A would never lead the seven from knave, seven. The king having
been put on second hand, B concludes that Y, in all probability, holds
at most one small trump more. The knave is, to a moral certainty, in
Z's hand. B, by leading the eight in the second round, will probably
win the trick, and unless Z had four trumps originally, will catch the
knave with the queen in the third round. (Further examples of underplay
occur in the hands.)

Players should be on their guard against this manœuvre, particularly
when second hand, in the second round of a suit, they hold the second
best card guarded, and the adversary has been playing a strong game (as
by leading trumps), and is left with the long trump, or is certain to
be able to obtain the lead again. Then it is often right for the second
hand to stick on a singly-guarded second best card, especially if that
is the only chance of making it. In the case stated in the previous
paragraph, Z's only chance of making the knave, if singly guarded, is
to put it on second hand. For, if the queen with small ones is in A's
hand, A is sure to finesse on the return of the suit by his partner.
Again, take this case: A leads the six of diamonds; Y, with knave, ten,
and a small one, puts on the ten; B plays the king, and Z wins it with
the ace. Presently, A obtains the lead again, and leads the eight of
diamonds. A, having led the lowest of his suit in the first round, it
may be inferred that he has led from a strong suit--headed in this case
by the queen--and that he is underplaying with, probably, queen and
nine in his hand. Y should observe this, and in the second round should
win the eight with the knave.

Refusing to play the winning card in the first and second rounds
of a suit--commonly called _holding up_--is, in fact, a species of
underplay. For example:--1. Trumps are led by the player to your left;
the third player wins with the ace, and returns the suit through your
hand. If you are left with king and one or more small ones, you should
play a small one, unless the circumstances of the hand are such that
you deem it advantageous to stop the trump lead. The original trump
leader, not knowing but that the king is in your partner's hand, will
probably finesse, and your partner thus has a chance of making the
third best trump, even though unguarded. If your partner has neither
second nor third best trump, no harm is done, as you will then probably
make but one trick in the suit, however you play. 2. Again, ten tricks
are played, and each player is left with three cards of a suit not
opened. If the second player puts on the queen (from which it may
be inferred that he holds the king also), the third hand should not
cover with the ace. For, by winning the trick, he must lead up to king
guarded; but, by passing it, he leaves the lead with the second player,
and takes the best chance of making two tricks. 3. One more example
will suffice: A has the last trump, and ace, ten, and three small cards
of a suit not led. The adversary now leads the king, and follows with
the queen of that suit. A should pass them both; by so doing he will
probably make three tricks in the suit if the cards are equally divided.



DISCARDING.


When you cannot follow suit, you should


11. DISCARD FROM YOUR WEAKEST SUIT.

You weaken a suit by discarding from it, and lessen the number of long
cards you might otherwise establish and bring in (_i.e._, make tricks
with if trumps are out, and you obtain the lead after the establishment
of your suit). On the other hand, you do but little harm by throwing
from a suit in which you are already weak. Your partner should
understand that your first or _original discard_ is from your _weakest
suit_, just as he understands that your original lead is from your
strongest suit.

But, as in the case of leads, you are sometimes obliged to lead from
a weak suit, or to make a forced lead, so sometimes you have to
make a _forced discard_. Forced discards require much more careful
consideration than they generally receive.

It is clear that if the opponents declare great strength in trumps
(by leading trumps or asking for them, as will be fully explained in
Section 13), that your chance of bringing in a suit is practically
_nil_. You should therefore, in such cases, abandon the tactics
you would otherwise adopt, and play to guard your weaker suits, by
discarding from your best protected suit, which is generally your
longest suit. You must, in fact, play a defensive game.

If this system of discarding is comprehended by the two players who
are partners, it follows, as a matter of course, that _when trumps are
not declared against you, your partner will assume you are weak in the
suit you first discard_; but, _when trumps are declared against you, he
will give you credit for strength in the suit from which you originally
throw away_. This is most important, as it affects his subsequent
leads. In the first case, he will refrain from leading the suit from
which you have discarded; in the second, he will, unless he has a very
strong suit of his own, select for his lead the suit in which you have
shown strength by your discard.

It is commonly said, "Discard from your strong suit when the adversary
leads or calls for trumps." But this is a very imperfect and
misleading aphorism. If you have no indications from the play, and
are obliged to discard to an adverse trump lead or call, you should
discard from your best protected suit. But, if you have, or if the
fall of the cards shows that your partner has, sufficient strength in
trumps to outlast the adversary, the discard should be from the weak
suit. Thus: Y, second player, calls for trumps (_see_ p. 125), and B,
third player, also calls. The discards of A and Z should be from their
weak suits. For though, on the one hand, great strength in trumps
is declared against them, on the other hand great strength is also
declared with them. Again: Z deals and turns up nine of clubs. A (the
original leader) leads a small club; Y follows suit; B puts on ace;
Z plays king. This shows that Z has a sequence of queen, knave, ten,
nine of trumps; and therefore that, though A has led a trump, he has
anything but the command of the suit. B returns the trump; Z wins; Y
has no more trumps. His discard should be from his weakest suit. The
following case is less easy:--The adversary (A) leads a tierce major in
trumps, eleven trumps come out, and your partner (Y) must have knave of
trumps to save the game. You now credit your partner with the command
of trumps, though the adversary has led them; and if either you (Y) or
your partner (Z) has to discard, the discard should be from the weakest
suit (_see_ Hand XII.) Similar remarks apply if a strengthening trump
is led by an adversary from weak trumps and good cards in plain suits.

It must be borne in mind that it is only your original discard which
is directive. Having once discarded, you cannot undo your work by any
number of discards from another suit. Also, having once led a suit, you
have declared strength in it; and subsequent discards from that suit do
not alter the fact that it was originally your strongest suit.

It is dangerous to unguard an honour, or to blank an ace; and, also,
to discard a single card when the game is in an undeveloped stage,
as it exposes your weakness almost as soon as the suit is led. But,
when you see that there is a probability of strength in trumps on your
side, direct your partner to your strong suit by all the means in your
power, and unhesitatingly unguard an honour, or throw a single card. Of
course, if strength in trumps is against you, these are the very last
cards you should think of throwing away.

When your left-hand adversary will have the lead next round, if you
discard from a suit in which you hold a tenace, you may possibly induce
him to lead that suit up to you. You must be on your guard against this
ruse, and not necessarily lead up to the discard of your right-hand
opponent.

The same principle applies to trumping as to discarding. The weaker
you are in trumps, the better it is for you to make a little one by
trumping, as will be further explained in Section 14.



THE CONVERSATION OF THE GAME.


12. AFFORD INFORMATION BY YOUR PLAY.

It has several times been assumed in the preceding pages that you
should convey information by your play. The question naturally arises,
_How is it that a player gains any advantage by publishing information
to the table?_ It is often argued, and with much show of reason, that
as almost every revelation concerning your hand must be given to the
whole table, and that as you have two adversaries and only one partner,
you publish information at a disadvantage. No doubt this argument would
have considerable force if you were compelled to expose the whole of
your hand. But you possess the power, to a great extent, of selecting
what facts shall be announced and what concealed.

Experienced players are unanimous in admitting that it is an advantage
to inform your partner of strength in your own suits, though some
advise concealment of strength in suits in which the adversaries have
shown strength. Thus, with ace, king, second hand, the usual play is
to put on the king. The third hand does not win the king, and hence
the leader is able to infer that the ace of his strong suit is against
him. But, if you put on the ace second hand, you prevent the leader
from discovering where the king of his suit lies. It is, however, found
that two honours in the adversary's suit constitute sufficient strength
to make it advantageous in the long run to proclaim your force;
while, with less strength, it is not easy to mystify the opponents
prejudicially; so that, on the whole, it seldom happens that a balance
of gain results from the adoption of deceptive play.

Occasionally, however, a false card may be played with a special
object. For instance: ace is turned up to your right, and, when the
dealer gets in, he leads a small trump. If you, second hand, have king,
queen only, you would be justified in playing the king, in hopes of
inducing the trump leader to finesse on the return of the suit. Or,
take this case: your left-hand adversary leads originally the five of
his strong suit, from king, ten, seven, five. Your partner plays the
six; third hand plays ace. You, holding queen, knave, nine, eight,
four, three, play the three. Your right-hand opponent now leads trumps;
all the trumps come out. The player to your right next returns the
deuce of his partner's suit. The original lead being from a four-card
suit, king, ten, seven, remain in the leader's hand. If you play knave,
the original leader will place queen in your hand, and will hesitate
to go on with the suit. But, if you play queen, he will put knave and
at least one small one in his partner's hand. Then if, under this
impression, he continues the suit, you bring it in.

It is in most cases unquestionably disadvantageous to you that the
whole table should be aware of your being very weak in a particular
suit, and, consequently, information of weakness should be withheld as
long as possible. If you are led up to fourth hand in such a suit,
or if your partner opens the suit with a small card, of course the
disclosure is inevitable; but until one of these events happens your
poverty can generally be kept out of sight. It may happen that you are
occasionally forced to lead a weak suit yourself; and in this event
the least disadvantage, on the whole, is to tell the truth at once, by
first leading the highest of it. Your partner apprised of the state of
your hand, by the fall of your smaller card in the subsequent round,
will probably deem it prudent to strive by defensive tactics to avert
total defeat in that suit, rather than to contend single-handed against
the combined strength of the opponents. But, at critical points of the
game, it is often right to conceal weakness. Thus, towards the end of a
hand, it is necessary that your partner should make a couple of tricks
in an unopened suit, of which you hold two or three little cards. You
should lead the lowest. If you lead the highest, the adversaries will
suspect your weakness at once, and will be sure of it on the second
round. Their efforts will then be directed to preventing your partner
from making the required tricks in that suit. Your left-hand adversary
will not finesse; and if your partner is led through, your right-hand
adversary merely covers, or plays the lowest card he has, higher than
the one you first led.

When your partner has exhibited weakness in one or more suits, you
would frequently be justified in playing a false card. You are driven
to rely solely on yourself, and are entitled to adopt every artifice
your ingenuity can suggest in order to perplex the other side.
The consideration that you may mislead your partner will no longer
influence you, as you know him to be powerless for good or for evil.

You inform your partner by following the recognised practice of the
game, as by leading from your strong suit originally, by leading the
highest of a sequence, by following suit with the lowest of a sequence,
and so forth. If you adhere to this you will soon acquire a reputation
for playing a straightforward intelligible game; and this character
alone will counterbalance the disadvantage which will sometimes attach
to the fact that you have enabled the adversaries to read your hand. If
your partner knows that you play at random and without method, he will
be in a state of constant uncertainty; and you almost preclude him from
executing any of the finer strokes of play, the opportunities for which
generally arise from being able to infer with confidence the position
of particular cards. The extreme case of two skilled players against
two unskilled ones amounts almost to this, that towards the close of a
hand the former have the same advantage as though they had seen each
other's cards, while the latter have not.

It follows that when you are unfortunately tied to an untaught partner,
especially if at the same time you are pitted against observant
adversaries, you should expose your hand as little as possible,
particularly in respect of minor details.

It will become apparent, on consideration, that the question of the
advisability of affording information is more or less intimately
connected with every card that is played. It is, therefore, of extreme
importance to ascertain whether the practice is advantageous or the
reverse. The arguments just adduced are doubtless in favour of the
practice of affording information by the play; but it must be admitted
that by far the strongest authority for it is that experienced players,
by their settled opinions, reject the opposite course.

The instructed player frequently selects one card in preference to
another with the _sole_ object of affording information. When the
principle is carried thus far, the play becomes purely conventional.
For example: you naturally win a trick as cheaply as possible; if,
fourth hand, you could win with a ten, you would not waste an ace.
But suppose you hold knave and ten, which card should then be played?
The knave and ten in one hand are of equal value, and therefore to
win with the knave would be no unnecessary sacrifice of strength.
Nevertheless, you extend to such cases the rule of winning as cheaply
as possible, and you play the ten for the mere purpose of conveying
information. This is a simple instance of pure convention. Again: the
system of returning the higher of two losing cards (_see_ p. 80) when
they are both small cards, is purely conventional. To take another
case: after two rounds of your four-card suit, you are left with two
losing cards, say the six and the seven, and you, having the lead, are
about to continue the suit; you should lead the six, not the seven,
in accordance with the rule that you lead the lowest card of a suit,
except with commanding strength. This being the convention, if you lead
the seven, your partner will infer that you cannot hold the six, and
will suppose that you led from a three-card suit, in consequence of
exceptional circumstances; if he is a good player he will miscount all
the hands, probably to your mutual discomfiture.

Whist conventions, it will be observed, are in accordance with, and are
suggested by, principle. Indeed, all the established conventions of the
game are so chosen as to harmonise with play that would naturally be
adopted independently of convention. The aggregation of the recognised
rules of play, including the established conventions, constitute what
in practice is called the Conversation of the Game of Whist.

It must not be overlooked that unsound players often deceive
unintentionally, and all players sometimes with intention. It is,
therefore, necessary to be on your guard against drawing inferences too
rigidly.

There are some ways of conveying information which have not been
explained. For example: if you have the complete command of a suit, you
can publish the fact by discarding the highest of it; the presumption
being that you would never throw away a winning card with a losing one
in your hand. If you discard a second-best card of a suit of which
your partner does not know you to hold a long sequence, you ought to
have no more of the suit, for with the best also you would discard
that, and with a smaller one you would discard that. By winning with
the highest, and returning the lowest of a sequence (more especially
fourth hand), you show that you have the intermediate cards. Thus, with
ace, king, queen, fourth hand, if you desire to continue the suit,
and at the same time to show that you still remain with the winning
card, you would win with the ace and return the queen. Again, as long
as you keep the turn-up card in hand, your partner knows where it is;
so, having turned up a nine and holding the ten, trump with the ten
in preference. This rule, however, is liable to exceptions. With very
small trumps, of equal value, trumping with the higher card may be
mistaken for an exhibition of four or five trumps; also, if you are
weak in trumps, and the adversaries have shown strength in them, it is
not advisable to keep the turn-up card; for, if the adversaries know
you have it in your hand, they will draw it, whereas, if you play it,
they may be uncertain as to your holding another. If you open a suit
of ace, king only, it must be a forced lead. You then adopt the rule
of leading the highest of a numerically weak suit, and first lead the
ace. This shows your partner (unless you have already been forced, when
you lead the ace before king for other reasons), that you have no more
of the suit. Also, by leading the lowest of a head sequence of winning
trumps (subject, if an American Leader, to a selection of card in order
to show number), you convey information. Thus, you lead a small trump,
partner plays queen, won with king. You remain with ace, knave, ten. On
obtaining the lead, you continue with the ten, and, when it wins, you
have shown two by honours (unless ace is held up, which is unlikely).
If you continue with ace, as in plain suits, your partner can tell
nothing about the knave and ten. You may pursue the same method in
plain suits when your partner has no more trumps, and with any head
sequence when you want him to win the trick, or are sure he cannot, and
also when the fourth hand has already renounced in the suit led.

A most valuable mode of conveying very precise information of strength
is within the reach of players who think fit to adopt _American Leads_
(_see_ Appendix A). As the propriety of these leads is questioned by
some players, it may be stated that they form a beautiful system which
is in full harmony with the established principles of whist play.

With regard to the American system when leading a high card of your
strong suit after a high card, no one disputes the propriety of leading
ace, then queen, from ace, queen, knave, and one small card; and of
leading ace, then knave, from ace, queen, knave, and more than one
small card. In the case of the four-card suit, you select the higher
card to tell your partner not to play the king, as you have not
sufficient numerical power to defend the suit single-handed. In the
case of a suit of more than four cards, you select the lower card that
your partner may not retain the command of your suit, and may play the
king, should he happen to have held king and two small ones originally.
For a similar reason, it is obvious that with queen, knave, ten, and
one small card, you should follow queen with knave; with queen, knave,
ten, and more than one small card, you should follow queen with ten.

Now, here is a germ of a principle of play. Holding two high
indifferent cards, and only four of your suit, your second lead is the
higher card; holding more than four, your second lead is the lower card.

For the sake of uniformity, you should pursue the same plan in
all cases where, after your first lead, you remain with two high
indifferent cards. Thus, your original lead is a ten, from king, knave,
ten, and one or more small cards. The queen is played to your ten.
You have the lead again, and it is immaterial, so far as establishing
the suit is concerned, whether you proceed with the king or with the
knave. But, if your practice is uniform, and in accordance with the
practice which obtains in the case of ace, queen, knave, and of queen,
knave, ten, you can inform your partner whether you led from a suit of
four cards or of more than four cards. If you continue with the king,
the higher of two indifferent cards, you led from king, knave, ten,
and one small card; if you continue with the knave, the lower of two
indifferent cards, you led from king, knave, ten, and more than one
small card.

With regard to the American system, when opening your strong suit with
a low card, those who have already adopted the _penultimate lead_ from
suits of five cards, will have no difficulty in again discovering the
germ of a principle of play. The fourth-best card of your suit is led
from suits of four cards, and from suits of five cards.

You have only to apply the same rule to suits of more than five cards,
and to lead your fourth-best card. You then pursue a uniform practice,
and at the same time convey valuable information. (_See_ Appendix A).

As an illustration, take this suit--queen, ten, nine, eight. You lead
the eight. Now suppose your suit to be queen, ten, nine, eight, three.
You still lead the eight. Now add one more card. Your suit is queen,
ten, nine, eight, three, two. You should still lead the eight. No
doubt, a careful player would lead the eight, as a card of protection,
even if American leads had never been thought of. With lower cards,
such as queen, nine, eight, seven, three, two, it is possible a careful
player might lead the seven; and with still lower cards, where is he to
stop? The knot is cut by the very simple and uniform rule of leading
the fourth-best, without reference to the possibility of its being a
card of protection.

With regard to the lead of a high card followed by a low card, when
the American system is followed, the low card selected should be the
original fourth-best. (_See_ Appendix A).

The more the American system is examined, the more thorough and perfect
it will be found. Care, however, must be taken, with leads late in
a hand, not to confuse a fourth-best lead with a forced lead of the
highest card of a weak suit. The American rule only applies, in its
integrity to the original lead,--or after one or more tricks have
been played, to the original lead of the player's own choice, (_See_
Appendix A). Also, it may be, that the leader, with very strong cards
in all plain suits, starts by leading a strengthening trump. The
uncertainty of the real character of the lead, in this case, is no
doubt unfavourable; but, the advantage of frequently being able to give
information of great numerical strength far outweighs this occasional
danger.

Information as to the number of trumps you hold can be similarly
communicated when you have more than four trumps, by trumping with
the fourth-best and then leading the fourth-best of those remaining.
This rule, however, is subject to rather a large exception. When your
fourth-best trump is a medium card, such as an eight, trumping with the
eight may imperil a trick later on. For instance: with such cards as
king, knave, nine, eight, three, a careful player would rightly trump
with the three and lead the eight. For the time, you do not inform
your partner as to number, because the eight is too valuable a card to
get rid of, and the information might be purchased too dearly. Also,
when about to lead high trumps after a force, there is no occasion to
run any risk by trumping with any but the lowest, as the high cards
led will of themselves indicate how many trumps you now hold (not how
many you held originally). If you take a force with any trump but the
lowest, and do not lead a trump, when your lowest is afterwards played
it only signifies that you had at least five trumps originally, and
your play does not constitute a call for trumps. (_See_ p. 125.)



TRUMPS.



THE MANAGEMENT OF TRUMPS.


The Management of Trumps is, perhaps, the most difficult of the
problems presented to the Whist-player. Before discussing the special
uses of trumps, it may be observed that in some few hands trumps are
led like plain suits, because they are your strongest suit, and you
prefer leading them to opening a weak suit. The principles already
discussed, which guide us to the most favourable chances for making
tricks in a suit, apply to trumps equally with other suits. The
privilege, however, enjoyed by the trump suit of winning every other,
causes some modifications of detail (noticed at pp. 64-71, and at pp.
85-88); for, since the winning trumps _must_ make tricks, you play a
more backward game in the trump suit. Thus, with ace, king, and small
trumps, you lead a small one, by which you obtain an increased chance
of making tricks in the suit, and you keep the command of it, and must
have the lead after the third round, the advantage of which will be
presently explained. Even if your partner is so weak in trumps that the
opponent wins the first trick very cheaply, but little (if any) harm
accrues; for the opponent then has to open a suit up to you or your
partner.

In the great majority of hands, trumps are applied to their special
uses, viz.: 1. To disarm the opponents, and to prevent their trumping
your winning-cards; and 2. To trump the winning cards of the
adversaries. In order to comprehend when trumps may be most profitably
applied to the first, and when to the second, of these uses, we must
first clearly perceive the objects aimed at throughout the hand, viz.:
to establish a suit, to exhaust the adversaries' trumps, and to retain
the long trump, or a certain winning card with which to get the lead
again, for the purpose of bringing in the suit; also to endeavour to
obstruct similar designs of the opponents. It follows that you should



13. LEAD TRUMPS WHEN VERY STRONG IN THEM.


It cannot be too strongly impressed that _the primary use of strength
in trumps is to draw the adversaries' trumps for the bringing in of
your own or your partner's long suit_. With great strength in trumps
(five or more), you may proceed at once to disarm the opponents, and
lead trumps without waiting to establish a suit. For, with five trumps
or more, the chance of your succeeding in drawing the other trumps,
and of being left with the long trumps is so considerable, that you
may then almost always lead trumps, whatever your other cards. The
exceptional hands are principally those which contain five trumps
without an honour, and five small cards of a plain suit; or five trumps
without an honour, and four middling cards of one plain suit together
with four bad cards of another plain suit. But if the adversaries are
at the score of three, you should lead a trump with these hands, as
your partner must have two honours, or very good cards out of trumps,
for you to save the game.

If you are at the score of three, the adversaries being love, one, or
two, you should not lead a trump merely because you have five trumps
with two honours, if they are unaccompanied by a very strong suit, or
by good cards in each suit. For here, if your partner has an honour,
you probably win the game in any case; and if he has no honour you open
the trump suit to a disadvantage. Some good players, however, do not
allow this to be an exceptional case. The turn-up card may sometimes
cause you to refrain from leading trumps from five. Thus: you have
king, ten, nine, six, and four of spades (trumps); ace, queen, and
three small diamonds; and three small hearts. You are four, and the
ace of spades is turned up. In the opinion of most players, the ace of
diamonds is the best original lead; but, if an ace were not turned up,
you should lead a trump.

It is often said, even by pretty good players, "Strength in trumps is
no reason for leading them, unless you have a good suit as well." If
both you and your partner are devoid of good cards you cannot make
tricks; but should your partner hold one good suit out of the three,
you will very likely bring it in for him by leading from strength in
trumps. For, even if you have a poor hand out of trumps, you will
discover in the course of play (_i.e._, by the suits led or discarded
by the other players), what your partner's suit is, and will be able
to lead it to him each time you get the lead with your long trumps.
Besides, if your hand is weak out of trumps, you are placed in the
disadvantageous position of leading from a weak suit unless you lead
trumps.

You should not be deterred from leading trumps because an honour is
turned up to your right, nor necessarily lead them because the same
happens to your left; either is proper if the circumstances of the hand
require it, but neither otherwise. To illustrate this proposition, take
this hand: ace, queen, and three small spades (trumps), three small
hearts, three small clubs, and two small diamonds. The king of spades
is turned up fourth hand. The best lead is disputed; but the author has
no hesitation in advising the lead of a small trump, notwithstanding
that there is a certain finesse over the king. A little consideration
will render this apparent. By leading the trump suit originally, you
obtain the advantages just enumerated, and make the dealer open a suit
up to your partner. Your partner, as soon as he gets the lead, will
return the trump, and you thus obtain the command of trumps whether the
king was forced out in the first round or not.

Bearing in mind the severe consequences of leaving the adversary with
the long trump, you must be cautious in leading trumps from less than
five; four trumps and a moderate hand not justifying an original trump
lead. You should, instead, lead your strong plain suit, and if you
establish it, and the adversaries do not meantime show any great
strength, as by leading or calling for trumps (pp. 125-127), you may
then, with four trumps, mostly venture a trump lead. With strength
in trumps you may generally finesse more freely in the second and
third rounds of trumps than you would in plain suits. In plain suits
an unsuccessful finesse may result in the best card being afterwards
trumped, which cannot happen in trumps. Moreover, by finessing, you
keep the winning trump, and so obtain the lead after the third round.
This is especially important when you have a suit established and but
four trumps. Here you should, generally, not merely finesse in the
second round, but hold up the winning trump, and sometimes at this
juncture refuse to part with it even if the trump lead comes from the
adversary.

An example will render this more clear. The leader (A) has ace, and
three small trumps, a strong suit, headed by ace, king, queen, and a
probable trick, say king and another, in a third suit. A should, in
the writer's judgment, lead a trump. If B (A's partner) wins the first
trick in trumps, and returns a strengthening trump, A, as a rule,
should not part with his ace. When A or B obtain the lead again they
play a third round of trumps, which, being won by the ace, enables A,
by leading his tierce major, to get a force (_i.e._, to compel one of
his adversaries to trump in order to win the trick), in which case
nothing short of five trumps in one hand against him can prevent A's
bringing in his suit. You must be prepared for similar tactics on the
part of the adversaries, and not conclude that they have not the best
trump because they suffer you to win the first or second round.

With a well protected hand containing four trumps, two being honours,
a trump may be led originally. For here the chance of gaining by the
trump lead may be taken as greater than the chance of losing. Thus with
queen, knave, and two small trumps, a four suit with an honour, say
for example, knave, ten, nine, and a small one, king guarded in the
third suit, and queen guarded in the fourth, a small trump if it finds
partner with an honour is by no means unlikely to win the game. If
partner turns out very weak in trumps the leader must alter his plan,
and, instead of continuing the trump lead, play to make three, five or
seven tricks according to the fall of the cards in plain suits.

Trump leads, without strength in trumps, can only be right in
consequence of some special circumstance in the state of the game, or
of the score. For instance, great commanding strength in all the plain
suits may call for a trump lead; or it may be necessitated to stop a
_cross-ruff_ (_i.e._, the alternate trumping by partners of different
suits, each leading the suit in which the other renounces), in which
case it is generally advisable to take out two rounds if possible;
so with the winning trump you play it out, whatever your others are.
Again, if you have a wretched hand and you are love to three or four,
you assume that the game is lost, unless your partner is very strong;
and if he _is_ very strong, the trump is the best lead for him. This
doctrine is frequently carried to excess, as, by concealing your
weakness, you often stand a better chance of saving a point, if not
the game, than by at once exposing it. If, therefore, you have one four
suit, headed by an honour, you would generally do better to choose that.

The trump lead is so much more important than any other that you should
almost always return your partner's lead of trumps _immediately_,
except he has led from weakness, when you are not bound to return it
unless it suits your hand.

If you find one of the adversaries without a trump, you should mostly
proceed to establish your long suit, and abstain from drawing two
trumps for one; to say nothing of the probability that the adversary
who has not renounced is unusually strong in trumps. Besides, when he
has the lead, he will very likely lead trumps in order to draw two for
one; and it is more advantageous to you that the lead should come from
him. On the other hand, if your partner has no trump, it is often right
to endeavour to weaken the adversaries by continuing even their trump
lead.

It is a common artifice, if you wish a trump to be led, to drop a high
card to the adversary's lead, to induce him to believe that you will
trump it next round, whereupon the leader will very likely change the
suit, and perhaps lead trumps. Thus, if he leads king (from ace, king,
and others), and you hold queen and one other, it is evident that you
cannot make the queen. If you throw the queen to his king, he may lead
a trump to prevent your trumping his ace; but if he goes on with the
suit, and you drop your small card, it may fairly be inferred that you
have been endeavouring to get him to lead a trump. Your partner should
now take the hint, and, if he gets the lead, lead trumps; for if you
want them led, it is of little consequence from whom the lead comes. By
a conventional extension of this system to lower cards it is understood
that, whenever you throw away an _unnecessarily_ high card, it is a
sign (after the smaller card drops) that you want trumps led. This is
called _asking for trumps_ or _calling for trumps_.

When you ask for trumps, you command your partner to abandon his own
game, and to lead a trump; and you promise him, in return, if he has
reasonably good cards, either to win the game or to make a considerable
score. It has been laid down, that the minimum strength in trumps which
justifies you in issuing such an order to your partner is four trumps,
two being honours, or five trumps, one being an honour, accompanied by
such cards in your own or your partner's suits that you are reasonably
secure of not having a suit brought in against you. This rule, however,
only applies to an _original_ ask. If you have had the lead, and have
not led a trump, or if you have had an opportunity of asking and have
not asked, and you then ask for trumps at a later period of the hand,
the ask is not a command, like an original one, nor does it necessarily
imply the possession of the minimum strength above stated. It merely
means that, from the fall of the cards, you consider a trump lead would
be very advantageous. For example: you hold ace and a small spade;
king, ten, and two small hearts (trumps); queen and two small clubs;
and knave, ten and two other diamonds. You lead a small diamond; your
partner plays the queen; the fourth hand plays the ace. A small club is
now led through you. You should ask for trumps.

When your partner asks for trumps, and you have four or more at the
time you obtain the lead, lead the smallest, unless you have the ace,
or three honours, or queen, knave, ten; if you have only two or three
trumps when you obtain the lead, lead from the highest downwards,
whatever they are.

Before answering the ask, be sure that the higher card, previously
dropped, is _unnecessarily_ high. For instance a higher card is often
played before a lower, to show that you command the suit, or that you
hold the intermediate cards, or to get out of your partner's way. It
is very important to distinguish between covering second hand and
discarding an unnecessarily high card. For example: with knave, ten,
and one other (say the three), it is usual to play the ten second
hand on a small card. When your three comes down in the next round,
it is not an ask for trumps, unless your partner can infer that you
do not hold the knave. Moderate players, who know of the ask, never
consider this; so with them the choice of the least evil is generally
not to cover, for you otherwise run the terrible risk of having a
strengthening trump led to you with a weak hand. To ask for trumps,
second hand, with knave, ten, and one other, you must play the knave.

When your partner leads a trump, or asks for trumps, if you have
numerical strength in trumps, you should ask at the first opportunity.
This is called the _echo of the call_, though it is made use of also in
response to a lead.

The advantages of the echo are manifold. Your partner being strong in
trumps may hesitate to take a force, but your echo enables him to do so
without fear, and to persevere with the trump lead. Or, your partner
may be in doubt after the second round of trumps as to the policy of
playing a third. But if he can count two more trumps in your hand he
will be directed. Thus: eight are out, your partner has three more; you
have echoed. He will know that the other two are in your hand, and will
not draw two for none, as without the echo, he might do.

The negative advantage of the echo should not be overlooked. Thus:
to take the same case of eight trumps being out, and the leader with
three more trumps. You (his partner) have had the chance of sounding an
echo, but have not done so. The leader knows that you have not both the
remaining trumps, and he will regulate his game accordingly.

To your partner's trump lead you echo in the trump suit; the same if
partner calls, and you are forced. Thus: you have eight, seven, five,
two of trumps; your left-hand adversary leads king, ace of a suit of
which you only hold one. Your partner calls. You echo, by trumping with
the five, and you then lead the eight. On the second round of trumps,
when your deuce falls, the echo is completed. Your partner knows that
you have one more trump, either the six or the seven. If you had not
echoed, he might not be able to tell for certain whether you hold
another trump or not. (_See_ Hands XXXIV., XXXV.)

If you have four trumps and are forced, and your partner then leads or
asks for trumps, you should echo, notwithstanding that you no longer
have numerical strength. This case can best be illustrated by an
example. (_See_ Hand XXXVI.)

       *       *       *       *       *

The use of strength in trumps being to disarm the opponents, it follows
that you should as much as possible husband your strength for that
purpose. Therefore when second player,



14. DO NOT TRUMP A DOUBTFUL CARD IF STRONG IN TRUMPS.


By a doubtful card is meant a card of a suit of which your partner
_may_ have the best.

Whether you should trump or refuse to trump a doubtful card depends
almost entirely on your strength in trumps. It has already been
mentioned that it is an advantage to trump when you are weak, for you
thus make a little trump, which is not available for the other uses of
trumps, and which, if not used for trumping, will presently be drawn by
the strong hand. It is conversely a disadvantage to trump a doubtful
card when you are strong in trumps, for by trumping you weaken your
numerical power, and diminish the probability of your bringing in a
suit. If, instead of trumping, you throw away a losing card, you inform
your partner that you have strength in trumps, and also, by your
discard, what your strong suit is; and if your partner has any strength
in the suit led, you leave him in a favourable position.

If you refuse to overtrump, or to trump a certain winning card, your
partner should conclude either that you have no trump, or more probably
four trumps and a powerful hand besides. If he concludes that you are
reserving your trumps to bring in a suit, he should assist you by
leading trumps as soon as he can. A refusal to be thus forced is seldom
requisite if you have more than four trumps; with six you are mostly
strong enough to trump and to lead trumps; with five you may do the
same, if your suit is established; but if not, it is generally best to
take the force, and to lead your suit.

The situations in which it is most necessary to refuse to overtrump
your right-hand adversary, or to refuse to trump a winning card, occur
when you have four trumps and a very strong suit, or a suit established
early in a hand. For then, by trumping, you prejudice your chance of
bringing in the suit in order to secure one trick. By refusing to part
with a trump in these cases, you obtain the advantages just enumerated,
at the time when they are most likely to become of service; and, where
you refuse to overtrump, your adversary is left with one trump less, by
which your hand is strengthened.

Many players run into the extreme of always refusing to be forced by a
winning card when they are strong in trumps. The situations, however,
just indicated, are almost the only ones in which it answers to hold
up; and these even are liable to several exceptions. For instance:--1.
You should not persist in refusing to be forced if you find that the
adversary has the entire command of his suit. 2. You should not refuse
if your partner evidently intends to force you; and, 3. You should not
refuse to overtrump if you have reason to believe that your left-hand
adversary is strong in trumps.

With an untaught partner it is useless to refuse to trump; he will not
understand it, but will continue to force you. With such, the best
course is rather to make tricks when you can than to play for a great
game.

       *       *       *       *       *

From what has just been said, it is evidently an advantage to



15. FORCE A STRONG TRUMP HAND OF THE ADVERSARY.


For you thereby take the best chance of preventing his making use of
his trumps for bringing in a suit. If he refuses to take a force, keep
on giving it to him.

For instance, if he passes your king (led from king, queen, &c.), and
the king wins, continue the suit, and so on. Some players can never be
brought to understand this; they do not like to see their winning cards
trumped, and therefore frequently change their suit or even lead trumps
when an adversary refuses to be forced.

It now hardly requires to be stated that it is bad play intentionally
to force a weak adversary, and still worse to lead a suit to which
both adversaries renounce, as the weak will trump and the strong get
rid of a losing card.

       *       *       *       *       *

If you have numerical strength in trumps, you are justified in forcing
your partner, relying on your own strength to disarm the opponents. But



16. DO NOT FORCE YOUR PARTNER IF YOU ARE WEAK IN TRUMPS.


For you thus weaken him, and leave it in the power of the antagonists
to draw all the trumps, and bring in their suit. If, then, a good
partner refrains from forcing you, you may be sure he is weak; on the
other hand, if he evidently _intends_ to force you (as by leading a
losing card of a suit he knows you must trump), you may assume that
he is strong in trumps, and you should take the force willingly, even
though you do not want to be forced, depending on his strength to
exhaust the adversaries' trumps.

You may, however, though weak, force your partner under these
circumstances. 1. When he has already shown a desire to be forced, or
weakness in trumps, as by trumping a doubtful card, or by refraining
from forcing you. 2. When you have a cross-ruff, which secures several
tricks at once, and is therefore often more advantageous than trying
to establish a suit. 3. Sometimes when you are playing a close game,
as for the odd trick, and often when one trick saves or wins the game
or a point. And 4. Sometimes when great strength in trumps has been
declared against you.

If your partner leads a thirteenth card, or a card of a suit in which
he knows that both you and the fourth player renounce, your play must
depend on your partner's strength in trumps. If he is strong, he wants
you to put on your best trump, either to make the trumps separately, or
to force out one or two high ones, to leave himself with the command.
If he is weak in trumps, he wants you to pass the card, that the fourth
player may obtain the lead, and lead up to your hand. No general rule
can be given as to the course to be pursued with regard to thirteenth
cards. You must judge of the leader's intention by the score and the
previous fall of the cards.

[Illustration]



PLAYING TO THE BOARD.



17. PLAY TO THE SCORE;

AND

18. WATCH THE FALL OF THE CARDS, AND DRAW YOUR INFERENCES AT THE TIME.


These two all-important principles have already been mentioned as
causing differences in the play. The commonest form in which the former
is presented to us is this: at the score of Love-all five tricks save
the game against two by honours. It is often right, therefore, when two
by honours have been declared against you, to go for the fifth trick by
leading off a winning card, or by putting one on second or third hand.

To explain further what is meant by playing to the score, put yourself
in this situation. Four trumps remain in, the adversaries have two
winning trumps, it being uncertain whether they are in one hand or
divided; you have the two losing trumps, two forcing cards, and the
lead; you can only play correctly by referring to the score. Thus, if
the adversary is at four, and you have won five, or even six tricks,
your game would be to secure two tricks by forcing; for if you play a
trump and the two against you are in the same hand, you lose the game.
But suppose you are at the point of two, and the adversaries are not
at four, and you have won six tricks, your game would be to risk the
trump; for if you bring down the other trumps you win the game; but
by playing to force you make certain of scoring only four. By applying
this mode of reasoning you will often be directed as to a finesse late
in a hand. (Further illustrations of playing to the score occur in the
hands.)

For simple examples of drawing inferences at the time of the fall of
the cards take the following:--1. You lead a small card from ace,
knave, &c.; your partner wins with the queen; you should _immediately_
(_i.e._, before another card is led) infer that the king cannot be with
your right-hand adversary. Hence, on the return of the suit, you would
not finesse the knave. 2. You are second player, and a suit is led in
which you have king, ten, and one small one. You play the small one.
The third hand plays the queen, which is won with the ace. You should
_at once_ infer that the third hand cannot have the knave, and that you
may safely finesse the ten next round.

You will greatly assist your memory by systematically recording
inferences in the above manner. In addition to this you should apply
your knowledge of the principles to noting important points, not
attempting too much at first. Begin by counting the trumps as they
fall, and notice, at all events, the honours, and remember the turn-up
card. By degrees you will find yourself able to recollect the ten
and nine, and then the smaller trumps. Next attend to the suit led
originally by each player, and watch in the second round whether the
lead was from strength or weakness. Try also to remember the fall
of the cards in your own strong suit, that you may know when it is
established. Beyond this, experience will enable you to judge what to
retain and what to reject in each hand; so that, with practice, you
will acquire what may be termed _whist memory_ which will enable you,
without any great effort, to recollect the principal features of every
hand.

The fall of the cards may, one time or another, modify nearly every
rule of play. A player who simply follows rule, and fails to grasp the
situations in which rule should be departed from, is a mere machine
without intelligence. General principles only apply to the general
case; to apply them to particular cases, observation, inference, and
judgment are essential. Thus, in the Analysis of Leads, it appears that
the card which should be led in trumps often differs from the card
which should be led in plain suits. The reason is given at p. 119. But
it will be clear to any one who reads between the lines, that plain
suits should be led like trumps, if all the remaining trumps are in the
leader's or his partner's hands; or, if all the trumps are out, and the
leader or his partner has certain cards of re-entry in other suits.

As another example, take the case of returned leads. A leads a small
card; the second hand plays a small card; B (third hand) puts on the
eight; the fourth hand wins with the queen. When B gets the lead he
returns the knave. It is evident that B must have the ten and the
nine. Here two principles appear to conflict. One rule is, with four
originally return the smallest; the other rule is convey information
to your partner. When a player has thus to choose between two rules,
he must use his intelligence, in order to decide under which rule his
greater advantage lies. In the example given, the return of the knave
cannot deceive partner as to the number of cards held in the suit;
if he takes the trouble to think, he will at once perceive that the
rule as to returned leads has been departed from, in order to convey
information.

       *       *       *       *       *

The three following Examples further illustrate cases where playing to
the board is involved.


CASE I.

[Illustration:

  A  9♣, 4♣, 3♣, 2♣
  Y  A♣, Qn♣, Knv♣, 5♣
  B  8♠, Kg♣, 8♣, 7♣
  Z  9♠, 7♠, 6♣, 9♢]

Score: AB, three; YZ, four. Spades trumps.

AB have six tricks and have played two by honours. It is known from
the fall of the cards that A has no trump; also that Z has the long
diamond. A to lead.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PLAY AND REMARKS.--A leads a small club. Y puts on the ace second
hand. In order to save (and win) the game, Y and his partner must win
every trick (see statement of score and of fall of the cards). Y sees
that to do this Z must have two of the three remaining trumps. This
being so, Z can have but one club, and Y therefore puts on the ace of
clubs second hand.

For other illustrations _see_ Hands VIII and XV.


CASE II.

[Illustration:

  A  Qn♠, 8♠, 2♡
  Y  7♠, 7♡, 10♢
  B  9♠, Knv♢, 7♢
  Z  Knv♠, 10♠, 3♠]

Score: AB want two tricks to save the game. Hearts trumps. A to lead.

A knows Y to have the best heart; also B to have the best diamond and
weak spades.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE PLAY AND REMARKS.--A leads the queen of spades, and then the losing
trump. A takes the only chance of winning two tricks. To accomplish
this Y must hold one spade and one diamond, as will appear by placing
the unknown cards in any other way. A therefore plays on the assumption
that Y holds a spade and a diamond in addition to the trump which is
declared in his hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

For another illustration of leading a losing trump to place the lead
_see_ Hand XXXV.


CASE III.

It is the duty of a player to make the game as easy to his partner
as he can. The play often depends on the sort of partner. For
example:--you lead the ten from king, queen, knave, ten, only, or
from king, knave, ten, &c. Suppose the lead to be from the former
combination, and that your ten forces the ace from the fourth hand.
You obtain the lead again. The proper lead now is the queen. (_See_
Analysis of Leads, p. 67). But, with an indifferent partner, the better
lead is the king, as he may not have drawn the correct inference from
the first lead, and knowing the queen is not the best, he may trump it.

However good your partner may be, you should not put him into
unnecessary difficulties. For example:--

[Illustration:

  B  Knv♣, Knv♢, 10♢, 4♢
  Z  6♠, 7♣, 5♢, 2♢
  A  Qn♠, 10♠, Knv♡, 7♡
  Y  Knv♠, 3♠, Kg♡, 9♡]

Spades trumps. Y can count two hearts, and queen, ten of spades in A's
hand, and a small spade in Z's hand. A to lead.

THE PLAY AND REMARKS.--A leads the seven of hearts. Y should put on
the king, though certain of being able to win with the nine. For, if
Y wins with the nine, he compels Z to play a coup, viz., to trump the
best heart, in order to get the lead through the queen, ten of spades;
but, if Y wins with the king and leads the losing heart, it requires no
ingenuity on Z's part to trump it.



COUPS.


There is no Whist principle which should not be occasionally violated,
owing to the knowledge of the hands derived from inference during the
play. Some of the more frequent of the cases, _where a general rule
can be given for departing from rule_, may advantageously close this
Section.


LEADING FROM WEAKEST SUIT.

It is advisable in most cases where the game is desperate, and where it
is clear that your partner must be strong in your weak suit to save the
game, to lead your weakest suit, notwithstanding Principle 1 (p. 56).
Your partner should finesse deeply in the suit you lead him, and should
not return it, but, actuated by motives similar to yours, should lead
his weakest suit, in which you should finesse deeply, and continue your
weak suit, and so on.

For example: AB (partners) lead trumps. They win the first three
tricks, and show four by honours, and three more trumps remain in A's
hand. Consequently, if AB win another trick, they win the game. Y or
Z now has the lead for the first time. _His lead should be from his
weakest suit_, on this principle: if his partner has not the command of
it, or a successful finesse in it, the game is lost. Say Y leads, and Z
wins the trick. Z should not return Y's lead, but should similarly lead
his weakest suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

For an illustration of this coup, _see_ Hand XXVII.


TREATING LONG SUITS LIKE SHORT ONES, AND VICE VERSÂ.

It often happens towards the end of a hand, that an unplayed suit,
of which the leader holds (say) four cards, can only go round twice,
_e.g._, there may be two trumps left in in one of the opponents' hands.
In such a case, if your suit is headed by queen or knave, you should
treat it as a suit of two cards only, and lead your highest, as this
gives the best chance of making two tricks in the suit.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the reverse case, where a suit can only go round once, it is obvious
that a small card should be led, so as not to tempt partner to finesse.
Thus, holding queen and one small card of an unplayed suit, which you
are about to lead, all the opponents' cards but one being winning
cards, the proper lead is the small card.

       *       *       *       *       *

For an illustration _see_ Hand XXII.

       *       *       *       *       *

There is another case, known as _Deschapelles' coup_, where the proper
card to lead is not determined by the leader's numerical power in
the suit. It is this: all the adversaries' and partner's trumps are
exhausted, and the leader's partner remains with an established suit.
If the leader (not having any of his partner's suit left) is obliged
to open a fresh suit headed by king, queen, or knave, he should lead
the highest card, irrespective of the number of cards he holds in the
suit, that being the best chance of subsequently procuring the lead
for his partner in case his only card of entry in that suit should be
an honour, not the ace.

       *       *       *       *       *

For an illustration of this coup, _see_ Hand XXVIII.

       *       *       *       *       *

Deschapelles' coup often succeeds in practice, but it may generally
be defeated by an attentive player. When the above-described position
of the cards occurs, the adversary, if he has the ace of the fresh
suit led, should not put it on first round. The suit will, in all
probability, be continued with a low card, when the third player will
most likely be compelled to play his highest, which will be taken by
the ace; and, having lost the card of re-entry, he never brings in his
suit, unless he gets the lead in some other way.


REFUSING TO WIN THE SECOND ROUND OF A SUIT.

This is a case of by no means infrequent occurrence. For example: one
of the adversaries has a long suit declared in his favour, which is led
a second time. Only one trump remains in, which is in the hand of the
second or fourth player. As a rule, the second round of the suit should
not be trumped. The third round will probably exhaust the adverse hand,
which is numerically weak in the suit. If it so happens that the player
who is numerically strong in it has no card of re-entry in any other
suit, he will then never bring in his long suit, as his partner, whose
hand is exhausted, cannot lead it again, should he get the lead after
the third round. If there is a card of re-entry in the hand of the
player who has numerical strength, he must bring in the suit, whether
the second round is trumped or not.

_See_ Hand XXIX for an illustration of this position.

A similar rule applies, but less frequently, when one adversary has the
long trumps, and his partner a long suit nearly established.

For an illustration of this position, _see_ Hand XXX.


DECLINING TO DRAW THE LOSING TRUMP.

When all the trumps are out but two, and the leader remains with the
best trump, the losing trump being in the hand of his adversary, the
natural and obvious play is to draw the last trump.

But there is a class of cases in which the trump should not be drawn as
a matter of course, viz., if one adversary has a long suit established,
and his partner has a card of that suit to lead.

The case usually happens in this way: YZ (partners) lead a suit, and
after two rounds establish it. They then lead trumps from a suit
of four trumps (_see_ p. 123). Eleven trumps come out, and A (YZ's
adversary) has the lead and the best trump, one of the opponents having
the losing trump. The question then arises, Should A draw the trump?

A should draw the trump if he has also an established suit; or, if B
(A's partner) has an established suit, and A can put the lead into B's
hand. For, in these two cases, A or B cannot do better than bring in
their suit. Again, A should draw the trump, if the adversary who has
a suit established (say Z) has also the losing trump, for then, if
either Y or Z has a card of re-entry in either of the other two suits,
Z cannot be prevented from bringing in his established suit. Lastly, A
should draw the trump if Y (Z's partner) has the losing trump, and Z
has, declared in his hand, two cards of re-entry. The last case may be
dismissed as of but little practical use, as, at the time when A has to
decide whether he will draw the trump, he will seldom know enough about
the remaining cards to be positive that Z has two cards of re-entry.

In the above cases, A, by not drawing the trump, makes his adversaries
a present of a trick.

On the other hand, A should not draw the trump if one opponent (Z) has
an established suit, which Y (Z's partner) can lead, the losing trump
being in Y's hand. And, it is especially incumbent on A not to draw
the trump, if either he or his partner has a suit which will probably
be established by leading it, and if A can infer from the fall of the
cards that Y has _only one card_ of his partner's established suit in
his hand, subject, of course, to the qualifications already noted.

The point aimed at in not drawing the trump, is, first to get the
commanding card of A's or B's long suit out of the adverse hand. Y or
Z thus obtains the lead, and continues the established suit, which A
trumps with the winning trump. If, now, Z has no card of re-entry in
the fourth--or unopened--suit, he never brings in his established suit,
Y not having another card of it to lead.

The case is difficult to carry when stated thus generally; for an
illustration, _see_ Hand XXXI.


REFUSING TO OVERTRUMP.

Cases often happen where it is not advisable to overtrump. Most of
these depend on the fall of the cards and on inferences from the play
(_see_ Hands XXIII, XXIV), and cannot be generalised. But there is one
case in which it is _never right_ to overtrump, viz., when three cards
remain in each hand, and one player holds the second and third best
trumps, with one of which he trumps the card led. If the player to his
left has the best and fourth best trumps, he can never gain anything by
overtrumping, and may lose a trick, as the following example shows:--

[Illustration:

  Y 9♢, 4♢, 10♡
  B 9♠, 8♠, Knv♣
  Z Kg♠, 6♠, A♢
  A 3♠, 8♡, 7♡]

The position of the trumps (spades) is known. A leads a heart, B trumps
it. If Z overtrumps he loses the other two tricks, but if he throws the
ace of diamonds he wins the other two tricks.

This rule for not overtrumping cannot be laid down absolutely when
there are more than three cards in hand; but when only four trumps
remain in, second and third best against best and fourth, it is so
frequently advisable not to overtrump, that the player should consider
well the position of the remaining cards before overtrumping.

       *       *       *       *       *

For an illustration of this case, _see_ Hand XXV.

       *       *       *       *       *

Since it is so often right not to overtrump under these circumstances,
it follows that when the case arises the player who holds second and
third best should, as a rule, attempt to defeat the coup by playing a
false card--_i.e._, he should trump with the higher card in hopes of
deceiving his left hand opponent as to the position of the third best
trump.


THROWING HIGH CARDS TO PLACE THE LEAD.

This coup presents itself in a variety of forms; the following are
selected as likely to be of use.

Whenever you are left at the end of a hand with the tenace in trumps
(either best and third best, or second best guarded) over the player to
your right, and two other cards, both being cards of the suit led by
him, you, second hand, should _always_ throw the highest card of his
lead to that trick. You can never lose by so doing, and may win. For
example: you have nine and five of the suit led. Throw the nine. For,
in the second round of the suit, it may so happen that you get the lead
with the nine. If the cards lie thus, for instance:--

[Illustration:

  Y 9♣, 5♣, A♡, 10♡
  B Knv♣, Qn♢, 8♢, 6♢
  Z Kg♣, Qn♣, 8♣, 3♣
  A A♣, 6♣, Kg♡, 7♡]

Y has the tenace in hearts (trumps) over A. A leads ace of clubs. If Y
does not throw the nine, and Z plays carelessly and fails to win Y's
nine in the next round, YZ lose a trick. Of course, Z ought to win the
second round, but it is Y's duty to render it impossible for Z not to
do so (_see_ Remarks on making it easy to Partner, p. 139).

The typical example of this coup is the case where the leader plays
the ace, and the second player has king guarded, as in the following
example:--

[Illustration:

  Y A♠, Knv♠, Kg♢, 2♢
  B
  Z
  A Kg♠, 10♠, A♢, 4♢]

Spades trumps. There are only four spades in, and Y knows that A has
the king, ten. B's and Z's cards are immaterial.

A leads the ace of diamonds. If Y plays the two of diamonds he can only
make two tricks; but, if he throws the king to the ace, he still makes
two tricks, and, if his partner has the queen of diamonds, he makes
three tricks.

       *       *       *       *       *

This coup may be similarly played in plain suits. For an illustration
_see_ Hand XXXII.

The following fine coup (which occurred in actual play) exemplifies a
similar, but more complicated, case:--

[Illustration:

  Y Kg♣, 5♣, 3♣, 2♣
  B 9♣, 6♣, 10♡, 8♡
  Z A♣, Qn♣, Qn♡, 9♡
  A Knv♣, 10♣, 8♣, 7♣]

Score: YZ require every trick. Hearts trumps. It is known that the
trumps lie between B and Z.

A leads a club; Y and B play small clubs. Z, knowing that B holds the
second best trump guarded, takes the only chance of saving the game,
by winning the first trick in clubs with the ace, and returning the
queen. Y, seeing his partner's anxiety to get rid of the lead, rightly
conjectures him to hold the major tenace in trumps. He, therefore, wins
his partner's queen of clubs with the king, and saves the game.

It being known that the remaining trumps lie between B and Z, Y would
be right to win the second round of clubs under all circumstances of
the score.

For another illustration of this coup, _see_ Hand XXXIII.

On a similar principle, the leader not infrequently leads a losing
plain card, or a losing trump, at the end of a hand, in order to place
the lead. For illustrations, _see_ Case II, p. 138, and Hands XVI,
XVII, and XXXV.


THE GRAND COUP.

The _Grand Coup_ consists in throwing away a superfluous trump. At the
first glance it appears impossible to have a superabundance of trumps;
but cases sometimes happen where a player has _a trump too many_. To
get rid of this trump--as by undertrumping a trick already trumped by
your partner, or by trumping a trick which he has won, or which you
know he may win--is to play the _grand coup_.

The opportunity for playing the _grand coup_ generally happens in this
way. Two rounds of trumps come out, leaving five trumps in, two in the
hand of (say) B, and three in the hand of Z (the player to his left).
If B has the best and third best trumps, or the second best guarded,
and trumps are not led again, nor used for trumping, it is clear that
at the eleventh trick Z must obtain the lead, and must lead up to the
tenace in trumps. If, before the eleventh trick, Z trumps a trick of
his partner's (or, in the case of only seven trumps coming out in two
rounds, undertrumps a trick already trumped by his partner), and
the lead at the eleventh trick can thus be kept in--or put into--Z's
partner's hand, the _grand coup_ comes off, as in the following
example:--

[Illustration:

  Y Qn♠, 5♡, 3♡, 6♣
  B 10♣, 7♣, 5♢, 3♢
  Z Knv♡, Knv♣, 9♣, 5♣
  A 8♠, 6♠, 10♢, 9♢]

Clubs trumps. Z knows that B has ten and another trump. A leads the ten
of diamonds; Y trumps with the six of clubs; Z undertrumps with the
five. If he retains his three trumps, and B refuses to trump the queen
of spades next led by Y, Z loses a trick in clubs.

The opportunity for playing the _grand coup_ is often missed. A player
should always be on the look-out for it when he has five trumps,
especially if a trump is led to his right. It should be added also,
that if the player who attempts it retains a high card in his hand, he
may be just as badly off as though he remained with three trumps. Thus,
holding three trumps against two, and ace and another card of another
suit, it is not sufficient that he disposes of one of his trumps; he
should also get rid of his ace (_see_ Remarks on Throwing High Cards to
place the Lead, pp. 147-151). The following example will render this
more clear:--

[Illustration:

  Y Knv♡, 5♡, 5♣, Knv♢
  B Qn♡, 6♡, A♢, 5♢
  Z Qn♢, 10♢, 9♢, 8♢
  A 8♣, Kg♢, 7♢, 6♢]

Hearts trumps. B has already got rid of his superfluous trump. A leads
the eight of clubs. B should throw the ace of diamonds to it. For,
if B has the lead after the next trick, he might just as well have
kept his third trump. If A has the king of diamonds, B wins a trick
by discarding the ace; and, if A has not the king, B loses nothing by
throwing the ace.

An exception to this rule is when A has winning cards to go on with.
Thus, if A had another club, B need not discard the ace of diamonds.
This is too obvious to require working out.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following is another aspect under which the _grand coup_ may
present itself:--

[Illustration:

  Y 7♣, 9♢, 6♢, 5♢
  B 8♠, Kg♡, Qn♡, Knv♡
  Z Qn♠, 5♡, 4♡, Qn♣
  A Knv♢, 10♢, 8♢, 7♢]

Hearts trumps. It is known that B has king, queen, knave of trumps, and
a losing spade or club--but uncertain which.

A leads the knave of diamonds. B trumps it.

Z should throw away a small trump, undertrumping B in order to keep two
winning queens. If he discards a queen, he must do so at random, and
perhaps throw away the suit of which B has the small one. By discarding
his useless trump (which B would proceed to draw) he defers parting
with either queen till after the next round, when the fall of the cards
may assist him. B now leads a trump, and Y discards the losing club.
B then leads another trump, and Z now knows that he ought to keep the
spade. This case actually occurred in the presence of the writer, but
Z, instead of undertrumping, discarded the wrong queen at random, and
eventually lost the rubber in consequence.

       *       *       *       *       *

For further illustrations of the _Grand Coup_, _see_ Hands XXXVIII and
XXXIX.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the foregoing principles are reflectively perused, it will be seen
that they mould the Theory of Whist into a harmonious whole. The Theory
of Whist tells you how to play your own hand to the greatest advantage,
how to assist your partner, and how to weaken and to obstruct your
opponents; in short, it teaches how to take the best chance of making
the greatest number of tricks. This knowledge constitutes a _sound_
player. If to theoretical perfection you add the power of accurate
observation, and of acute perception, together with a thorough
comprehension of the whist capacities of partners and of opponents, you
have all the elements necessary to form a Master of the Science.



PART II.

HANDS.


The following hands are given in illustration of the general principles
discussed in Part I. The plan adopted in the arrangement of the hands
is to imitate closely the circumstances of actual play. Thus, at
starting, one player's hand is known, together with the score and the
turn-up card. Each player is then caused to play a card in his turn,
and at the end of the trick, the one player whose hand is known makes
observations, and draws inferences from the play, as though he were at
the whist table.

A, Y, B, and Z, are the four players throughout. They are placed at the
table in the above order, A and B being partners against Y and Z. A is
the first leader, and Z the dealer. In "the play" the cards of each
trick are placed in the order in which the players sit round the table,
the card played by the person whose hand is under consideration being
the one nearest to the reader. The capital letter by each card shows to
which player it belongs.

All the players are supposed to follow the ordinary rules of play,
as laid down in Part I. Thus, each player is credited with leading
originally from his strongest suit, and with leading the card of
it indicated in the Analysis of Leads (pp. 64-71); with playing the
lowest of a sequence when not leading; with returning the highest of a
numerically weak suit, the lowest of a strong suit, and so on.

It has been remarked by critics, that the players are often made
to play badly. Most of the hands are taken from actual play; but,
independently of this, illustrations of indifferent play, with
comments, are obviously of value, as showing the kind of errors that
are likely to be made, and how and why to avoid them.

[Illustration]


HAND I.

         Trump lead from four trumps on establishment of suit.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  Qn, 10, 5, 3                     ♠
  A                                ♡
  A, 7, 6, 3                       ♣
  Kg, Knv, 9, 2                    ♢

Score: Love-all.

Two of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  4♢ Qn♢ A♢ 2♢]

REMARK.--A leads from his strongest suit (_see_ p. 56). Having no
sequence, he leads the lowest card of the suit (_see_ p. 60).

The fall of the queen and ace in this round, leaves A with the winning
diamonds and a small one. His suit is virtually established (_see_ p.
57).

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Y B Z↷ A
  Qn♣ 4♣ 5♣ 3♣]

REMARK.--A plays his lowest card second hand (_see_ p. 82).

B allowing the queen to win, may be presumed not to have the king.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Y↷ B Z A
  7♡ Qn♡ 3♡ A♡]

REMARK.--It is unlucky that A is obliged to win his partner's queen.
The king of hearts is most probably in B's hand, as it is not likely
that B has only one heart, and with queen and small ones B would pass.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. Y B Z A↷
  4♠ Kg♠ 2♠ 3♠]

REMARK.--This is an instructive trump lead. A, at the first start, with
but four trumps, and only one heart, would not have been justified
in leading a trump. But, his strong suit being established, and his
partner having (probably) the best heart, his game is now to lead
trumps. Consider carefully the Management of Trumps (pp. 119-23), and
apply the arguments there made use of to the present situation.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Y B↷ Z A
  A♠ 7♠ 8♠ 10♠]

REMARK (Trick 5).--A finesses the ten (_see_ pp. 93-94).

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y↷ B Z A
  8♡ Kg♡ 10♡ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 3

  7. Y B↷ Z A
  6♢ 5♢ 3♢ Knv♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. Y B Z A↷
  6♠ 7♢ 9♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. Y B Z A↷
  10♢ 8♢ Knv♠ Kg♢]

REMARKS.--At Trick 9, A forces the best trump, and remains with the
thirteenth to bring in the diamond. If Z refuses the force, A (Trick
10) leads nine of diamonds and (Trick 11) the losing trump.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 4

  10. Y B Z↷ A
  2♡ 9♣ 2♣ 7♣]

At Trick 10, if A plays ace of clubs he will be left with a losing
club. By passing, he gives B a chance of winning the trick, and cannot
lose even if Y has king of clubs. It has been suggested that Z's best
lead, at Trick 10, is king of clubs, on the chance of catching ace and
knave; but Z's play is not under examination.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tricks 11 to 13.--Whatever B leads, A makes the remaining tricks, and

                         AB win three by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.      |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Ace, 6, 4           ♠|Kg, 7             ♠|Knv, 9, 8, 2      ♠
  Knv, 9, 8, 7, 4, 2  ♡|Kg, Qn, 6, 5      ♡|10, 3             ♡
  Qn                  ♣|Knv, 9, 4         ♣|Kg, 10, 8, 5, 2   ♣
  10, 6, 4            ♢|Qn, 8, 7, 5       ♢|Ace, 3            ♢


HAND II.

                 Trump lead from four moderate trumps.

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  Knv, 10, 7, 5                    ♠
  Kg, 6                            ♡
  A, 8, 6                          ♣
  A, 10, 9, 2                      ♢

Score: Love-all.

Two of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  4♢ Kg♢ 7♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Z A↷ Y B
  Knv♢ 5♢ 8♢ A♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. Z A Y B↷
  2♠ Kg♠ A♠ 5♠]

REMARK (Trick 3).--B has four trumps, and defence in hearts and clubs,
his partner's suit is established, and no adverse strength in trumps
has been exhibited. B therefore leads trumps. (Consider carefully the
arguments at pp. 122, 123, respecting leads from four trumps, and apply
them to this case.) To judge when to lead from four moderate trumps is
an important point in the game, which hands such as this are given to
illustrate and explain.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 1

  4. Z A Y↷ B
  9♣ 5♣ Kg♣ A♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. Z A Y B↷
  6♠ 8♠ Qn♠ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Z A Y↷ B
  10♣ 7♣ Qn♣ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Z A Y↷ B
  9♠ Knv♣ 2♣ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. Z↷ A Y B
  A♡ 2♡ 7♡ 6♡]

TRICKS 9 to 13.--Z leads knave of hearts which B wins. B draws the two
trumps (if he remembers down to the seven) and brings in the diamonds,
and

                          AB win two by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 8             ♠|Ace, Qn, 4, 3     ♠|9, 6, 2                ♠
  5, 3, 2           ♡|10, 7             ♡|Ace, Qn, Knv, 9, 8, 4  ♡
  Knv, 7, 5         ♣|Kg, Qn, 4, 3, 2   ♣|10, 9                  ♣
  Kg, Qn, 6, 5, 3   ♢|8, 7              ♢|Knv, 4                 ♢

At Trick 2, A leads his original fourth-best diamond (_see_ Appendix
A). In this hand it is immaterial whether A makes the American lead or
not.


HAND III.

A simple elementary hand, save in one point which demands strict
attention to the rule respecting returned leads (_see_ pp. 79-81).

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  A, Qn, Knv, 10, 2                ♠
  Qn, 6                            ♡
  A, 9, 8, 3                       ♣
  9, 3                             ♢

Score: AB, 2; YZ, Love.

Knave of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Y B Z A↷
  5♠ 4♠ 3♠ A♠]

REMARK.--A leads from his strongest suit (_see_ p. 66). Holding ace,
queen, knave, ten, he leads out ace and ten (_see_ Analysis of Leads,
p. 66).

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. Y B Z A↷
  6♠ 8♠ Kg♠ 10♠]

REMARK.--A continues his suit (_see_ p. 74).

As the cards happen to lie A would have been able to make a successful
finesse against the king of spades. But A, not having seen Z's hand,
can only play on general principles.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Y B Z↷ A
  Kg♢ 2♢ 6♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. Y↷ B Z A
  A♢ 5♢ 4♢ 9♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Y↷ B Z A
  4♡ 3♡ Knv♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS { AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y B Z A↷
  6♣ Qn♣ 4♣ 3♣]

REMARK (Trick 6).--A has now the command of his suit, and four trumps.
The adversaries have not shown any particular strength in trumps,
either by leading them or by calling for them, though they have had the
opportunity of doing both, and A therefore assumes that the trumps are
pretty evenly divided, and leads a trump (_see_ pp. 122, 123). A is not
deterred from opening the trump suit because an honour was turned up
(_see_ p. 122).

       *       *       *       *       *

B's winning the trick with the queen shows that Z has not got the king.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 3

  7. Y B↷ Z A
  10♣ 7♣ 5♣ A♣]

REMARK (Trick 7).--B returns his partner's lead of trumps (_see_ p.
125).

       *       *       *       *       *

This is the important trick of the hand. Note the card returned by B,
the seven, and if in doubt as to the fall of the trumps, look at the
previous trick (_see_ Law 91, p. 18). In that trick, the small clubs
that fall are the three, six, and four, and in the present one, the
seven, five, and ten. Nobody having played the two, A may place it by
inference in B's hand, for the adversaries not winning the trick may
be supposed to play their lowest cards. Assuming B to hold the two, it
may be inferred that he has that card and no other left in the suit.
For he returns the seven, a higher card than the two; and the rule is
to return the higher of two remaining cards, the lowest if holding more
than two (_see_ p. 80. Consider carefully the example given there, and
apply it to the present situation).

The king and knave are therefore in the opponents' hands, and divided.
Z has the knave (which he turned up), and he has not the king, as he
could not win the queen in the previous trick. Y must consequently hold
it.

It may be objected that this train of reasoning is too close and
elaborate to serve the purpose of inexperienced players. It is,
perhaps, a little difficult for an elementary hand; but the careful
observance of the rule of play respecting returned leads is so
important, that it has been deemed advisable to insist strongly
upon it. Of course, when playing with those who do not attend to
the conversation of the game, all pains bestowed on working out the
position of the cards from such data as the preceding is so much
trouble thrown away.

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Y B Z A↷
  Kg♣ 2♣ Knv♣ 8♣]

Assuming, then, that A's partner can be depended on to play according
to rule, it is morally certain that the trumps are evenly divided,
and that a third round will leave A with a long trump to bring in his
spades. Accordingly, A leads the eight of clubs (_see_ Trick 8, above).

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. Y↷ B Z A
  Kg♡ A♡ 9♡ 6♡]

TRICKS 10 to 13.--B (Trick 10) leads a small diamond, though, as the
cards happen to lie, his lead is immaterial. A trumps the diamond, and
brings in the spades; and

                         AB win three by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  9, 6, 5           ♠|8, 4              ♠|Kg, 7, 3          ♠
  Kg, 10, 8, 4, 2   ♡|Ace, 7, 5, 3      ♡|Knv, 9            ♡
  Kg, 10, 6         ♣|Qn, 7, 2          ♣|Knv, 5, 4         ♣
  Ace, Kg           ♢|Knv, 8, 5, 2      ♢|Qn, 10, 7, 6, 4   ♢


HAND IV.

An instructive hand, illustrative of playing to the score.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  Kg, 9, 5, 4                      ♠
  A, Knv, 4                        ♡
  Kg, 6, 2                         ♣
  Qn, Knv, 4                       ♢

Score: Love-all.

Queen of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  Knv♠ 7♠ 3♠ 4♠]

REMARK.--A leads from his strongest suit (_see_ p. 56).

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. Y↷ B Z A
  5♡ 2♡ Kg♡ A♡]

REMARK.--It may be inferred that hearts are Y's strongest suit.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Y B Z A↷
  6♢ 2♢ A♢ Qn♢]

REMARK (Trick 3).--A having found his partner weak in spades (_see_
Trick 1), does not continue his suit (_see_ p. 75).

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. Y B Z↷ A
  Qn♡ 8♡ 6♡ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Y↷ B Z A
  7♡ 10♡ 3♡ Knv♡]

REMARK.--Presuming the players are to be depended on for following
the elementary rules of the game, it is clear from the fall of the
cards that Y holds the remaining heart, the nine. B drops the ten, so
he ought not to have the nine, the rule being to play the lowest card
when not able to win the trick. Z ought not to have another heart, for
he returned the six (_see_ Trick 4), and now plays the three. Having
returned the higher card he can hold no more (_see_ p. 80).

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y B Z A↷
  7♢ 3♢ 10♢ Knv♢]

REMARK.--It is evident that Z, dropping the ten, will trump the next
round of diamonds. Nevertheless, A's game is to continue the diamond
(Trick 7), to give Z the lead, and to make B last player.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Y B Z A↷
  9♢ Kg♢ 4♣ 4♢]

REMARK (Trick 7).--Y, dropping the nine of diamonds, may be taken to
have no more, as, not being able to win the trick, he is assumed to
play his smallest. The remaining diamonds are therefore with B.

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Y B Z↷ A
  2♠ 5♣ A♠ 5♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. Y B↷ Z A
  3♣ Knv♣ A♣ 2♣]

REMARK.--Z, with ace, queen, second hand (_see_ his hand below),
follows the usual rule (_see_ p. 86). It is open to argument whether Z
should depart from rule in this case. But Z's hand is not the one under
examination.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 5

  10. Y B Z↷ A
  Qn♠ 5♢ 6♠ Kg♠]

REMARK.--The fall of the queen of spades from Y shows A that the two
remaining spades are in Z's hand. Z's third card is the queen of clubs,
which he turned up.

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 5

  11. Y B Z A↷
  8♣ 7♣ Qn♣ Kg♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 12.

  TRICKS {AB, 7 YZ, 5

  12. Y B Z A↷
  9♡ 10♣ 8♠ 9♠]

REMARK (Trick 12).--A's lead here is instructive. He knows his partner
(B) has one diamond and no spade and no heart (_see_ Tricks 5, 7, and
10). B's other card must therefore be a club (trump). If it is the
best trump, A wins two by cards by leading a trump. But if it is not
the winning trump, a trump lead loses the odd trick. It is better to
make certain of the odd trick than to risk losing it for the chance of
winning two by cards; for the odd trick makes a difference of two to
the score. A therefore properly ensures the odd trick by forcing his
partner (_see_ p. 134).

Suppose the score to be AB three, and YZ one. Then A would be justified
in leading the trump at Trick 12. For, if B has the ten, AB win two by
cards and the game; and, if B has not the ten, AB lose the odd trick;
the score remaining AB three, YZ two. It is better to run the risk of
this score for the sake of the game, than to make certain of scoring
only four and of leaving the adversaries at one.

                         AB win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Qn, Knv, 2        ♠|7                 ♠|Ace, 10, 8, 6, 3  ♠
  Qn, 9, 7, 5       ♡|10, 8, 2          ♡|Kg, 6, 3          ♡
  9, 8, 3           ♣|Knv, 10, 7, 5     ♣|Ace, Qn, 4        ♣
  9, 7, 6           ♢|Kg, 8, 5, 3, 2    ♢|Ace, 10           ♢

In the following hands the comments will be fewer, it being assumed
that explanations of ordinary play are unnecessary.


HAND V.

Illustrative of the advantage of returning the highest of a short suit.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  A, 9, 6, 2                       ♠
  4, 2                             ♡
  Kg, 10, 7, 4                     ♣
  8, 6, 4                          ♢

Score: Love-all.

Three of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Y B Z A↷
  6♣ A♣ 2♣ 4♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Y B↷ Z A
  8♣, Knv♣, 5♣, 7♣]

REMARK (Trick 2).--A's finesse here is justifiable, because he has
strength in trumps (_see_ p. 94). With only three trumps, A's better
play would be to secure the trick at once.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. Y B↷ Z A
  9♣ 3♣ Qn♣ Kg♣]

REMARK.--Note the advantage of the return of the strengthening card at
Trick 2, in accordance with General Principle 5 (p. 79). The command
is left with the presumably strong hand; and the queen is completely
hemmed in. It is true the queen might have been in Y's hand. In that
case the queen must make whatever card is returned. A similar position
occurs at Trick 9.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 1

  4. Y B Z A↷
  4♠ Qn♠ Kg♠ 2♠]

REMARK.--A did not lead the trump at first; but now he does so for
these reasons: he has the long card of his suit; trumps are his
strongest suit (p. 119); and the adversaries have had the opportunity
of calling for trumps (_see_ pp. 125, 126), and have not made use of
it, which is negative evidence that there is no very great strength of
trumps in one hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. Y B Z↷ A
  3♡ 5♡ Kg♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y B Z↷ A
  7♡ 8♡ A♡ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Y B Z↷ A
  Qn♡ Knv♡ 6♡ 4♢]

REMARK (Trick 7).--A being strong in trumps passes the doubtful card
(_see_ p. 129).

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Y↷ B Z A
  Knv♢ A♢ 5♢ 6♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. Y B↷ Z A
  7♠ 10♠ 3♠ 6♠]

TRICKS 10 to 13.--B leads the five of spades, which brings down all
the outstanding trumps. A makes the thirteenth club and the trump; the
adversary makes the king of diamonds (_see_ the hands below).

       *       *       *       *       *

                          AB win two by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  8, 7, 4           ♠|Qn, 10, 5         ♠|Kg, Knv, 3        ♠
  Qn, 10 7, 3       ♡|Knv, 8, 5         ♡|Ace, Kg, 9, 6     ♡
  9, 8, 6           ♣|Ace, Knv, 3       ♣|Qn, 5, 2          ♣
  Knv, 10, 9        ♢|Ace, Qn, 3, 2     ♢|Kg, 7, 5          ♢


HAND VI.

Playing to the score.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  A, 8, 6, 5                       ♠
  A, Kg, Qn, 2                     ♡
  Qn, Knv                          ♣
  8, 6, 4                          ♢

Score: Love-all.

Two of diamonds turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  A♣ 4♣ 2♣ Knv♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. B↷ Z A Y
  3♣ 10♣ Kg♣ Qn♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. B Z A↷ Y
  6♡ 9♡ 3♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. B Z A Y↷
  5♡ Knv♡ 4♡ A♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. B Z A Y↷
  7♡ 2♠ 8♡ Kg♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. B Z A Y↷
  Kg♠ 3♠ 4♠ A♠]

REMARK (Trick 6).--The lead here is the point in the hand. Y has three
tricks up; there is a whole suit (clubs) against him, and his adversary
B has called for trumps (_see_ Tricks 3 and 4). It is, consequently,
Y's duty to make five tricks (which save the game if Z has an honour)
as quickly as possible. He therefore leads the ace of spades to make
the fourth trick, and (Trick 7) forces his partner (though without any
strength of trumps in his own hand, _see_ pp. 132, 133) to make the
fifth.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. B Z A Y↷
  10♢ Qn♢ 10♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. B Z↷ A Y
  5♣ Knv♠ Qn♠ 5♠]

TRICKS 9 to 13.--A leads a trump (the knave, _see_ his hand below), in
obedience to the call, and

               AB score two by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |     B'S HAND.    |     Z'S HAND.
  Qn, 4             ♠|Kg               ♠|Knv, 10, 9, 7, 3, 2  ♠
  10, 8, 4, 3       ♡|7, 6, 5          ♡|Knv, 9               ♡
  Kg, 9, 7, 2       ♣|Ace, 8, 6, 5, 3  ♣|10, 4                ♣
  Knv, 5, 3         ♢|Ace, Kg, 10, 7   ♢|Qn, 9, 2             ♢

       *       *       *       *       *

At Trick 2, B, with the club suit well nigh established (assuming his
partner to have led from strength), and four trumps, two honours,
should risk a trump lead. He cannot lose the game; and if his partner
has an average hand, a trump lead will, in all probability, give AB a
good score. As a matter of fact it would win the game, but that proves
nothing.


HAND VII.

The lead of the fourth-best (_see_ Appendix A), and counting the hands
(_see_ pp. 116-17).

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  Qn, 10                           ♠
  Ace, Qn, 6, 5, 4                 ♡
  9, 8                             ♣
  Knv, 6, 5, 3                     ♢

Score: AB, love; YZ, four.

Eight of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

    TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  4♠, 5♠, 9♠, 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. A Y B Z↷
  Kg♠, A♠, 7♠, Qn♠]

REMARK (Trick 2).--Z's better play would be to open the heart suit.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 3

  3. A Y↷ B Z
  Knv♡ 7♡ 8♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 4

  4. A Y B Z↷
  7♢ A♢ 4♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 4

  5. A Y↷ B Z
  8♢ 10♢ Kg♢ 5♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. A Y B↷ Z
  Kg♣ 3♣ Qn♣ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. A↷ Y B Z
  A♣ 4♣ 2♣ 9♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. A↷ Y B Z
  Knv♠ 6♣ 6♠ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 6

  9. A Y↷ B Z
  2♠ 2♡ 3♡ 5♡]

REMARK.--It is now clear that Y led from five hearts originally (_see_
his lead, Trick 3, and p. 116). Consequently, YZ have all the remaining
hearts between them.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 7

  10. A Y B Z↷
  9♢ 7♣ 2♢ 6♢]

REMARK.--Z can count his partner's hand, viz., three more hearts (_see_
Remark, Trick 9) and one other card, either the deuce of diamonds
(_see_ the fall of the diamonds, Tricks 4 and 5), or a trump. If Y has
the diamond, it matters not what Z leads, as B must then hold four
trumps. Z therefore assumes that his partner has another trump, and
plays to force him.

But if Z could not tell that Y has three hearts, or rather could tell
that he has only two, Z's proper lead at Trick 10 would be the ace of
hearts. For then B must have a heart, and if Z leads a losing diamond,
B discards his heart on it, and wins the game.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.       |      Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.
  Kg, Knv, 8, 4, 3, 2  ♠|Ace, 5            ♠|9, 7, 6            ♠
  Knv                  ♡|Kg, 10, 9, 7, 2   ♡|8, 3               ♡
  Ace, Kg              ♣|7, 6, 4, 3        ♣|Qn, Knv, 10, 5, 2  ♣
  Qn, 9, 8, 7          ♢|Ace, 10           ♢|Kg, 4, 2           ♢

At Trick 6, B should play to force his partner in hearts instead of
leading trumps.


HAND VIII.

Playing to the score and to the fall of the cards.

Game won in spite of partner's bad play.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  10, 9                            ♠
  8, 4, 3                          ♡
  Kg, Qn, 8, 2                     ♣
  A, Knv, 8, 5                     ♢

Score: AB, one; YZ, three.

Eight of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  6♠ A♠ 4♠ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. A Y↷ B Z
  Knv♡ 5♡ 9♡ 3♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. A↷ Y B Z
  Qn♠ 2♡ Kg♠ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. A Y↷ B Z
  Qn♡ 6♡ 10♡ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. A↷ Y B Z
  A♡ 7♡ 3♢ 8♡]

REMARK.--Drawing two for one.

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. A↷ Y B Z
  Knv♠ Kg♡ 8♠ 5♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. A Y↷ B Z
  6♣ 4♣ 7♣ Qn♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. A Y B Z↷
  2♠ 8♣ A♣ 2♣]

REMARK.--Y must have knave.

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. A Y B↷ Z
  Qn♢ 2♢ 4♢ A♢]

REMARK (Trick 9).--Z manages to win the game, in spite of his partner,
by putting on ace second hand and leading a club.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 6

  10. A Y B Z↷
  3♠ 3♣ 9♣ Kg♣]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Z (Trick 11) leads a club; Y makes two more tricks in
clubs, and

                          YZ win two by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

         A'S HAND.         |      Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.
  Qn, Knv, 7, 6, 5, 3, 2  ♠|Ace               ♠|Kg, 8, 4          ♠
  Ace, Qn, Knv            ♡|Kg, 7, 6, 5, 2    ♡|10, 9             ♡
  6                       ♣|Knv, 10, 5, 4, 3  ♣|Ace, 9, 7         ♣
  Kg, Qn                  ♢|7, 2              ♢|10, 9, 6, 4, 3    ♢

At Trick 3, Y plays badly to trump the doubtful spade (_see_ p. 129).
At same trick, B plays well to get rid of the command of his partner's
suit (_see_ p. 96), as A, from the lead, must have knave of spades, and
Z, from the previous fall of the cards, must have the ten single.

At Trick 4, Y's continuing the trump is bad, after ruining his
numerical strength. For he has no particular strength out of trumps
(_see_ his hand), and his partner is evidently very weak in trumps.

As the cards happen to lie, if Z does not put on ace of diamonds second
hand at Trick 9, A brings in the spades, and YZ lose the game instead
of winning it.


HAND IX.

Counting the cards.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  A, Qn, Knv, 8, 7                 ♠
  A, 7                             ♡
  9, 7, 4, 3                       ♣
  7, 6                             ♢

Score: Love-all.

Five of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Y B Z A↷
  3♠ 2♠ 5♠ A♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. Y B Z A↷
  Kg♠ 9♠ 10♠ Knv♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. Y↷ B Z A
  5♡ Knv♡ 2♡ 7♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 1

  4. Y B↷ Z A
  4♢ A♢ Knv♢ 6♢]

REMARK.--B has led from a suit of at least five diamonds.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. Y B↷ Z A
  5♢ 3♢ Kg♢ 7♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y B Z↷ A
  Kg♣ 10♣ A♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Y B Z↷ A
  4♠ Qn♣ 2♣ 4♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Y↷ B Z A
  9♢ Qn♢ 5♣ A♡]

REMARK (Trick 8).--Well played by A. He can count B's hand. The ten of
diamonds is marked in Y's hand, so B has two diamonds and three hearts.
Therefore B must have had four hearts originally, and as it is not the
game to put on knave, second hand, with four, holding less than three
honours (_see_ Trick 3 and Analysis of Play of Second Hand, p. 85), B
must hold both king and queen of hearts.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 9 to 13.--B leads king, queen of hearts, to which A discards
clubs. A makes his three trumps, and

              AB score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 6, 4, 3       ♠|9, 2              ♠|10, 5                 ♠
  10, 9, 6, 5       ♡|Kg, Qn, Knv, 4    ♡|8, 3, 2               ♡
  Kg                ♣|Qn, 10            ♣|Ace, Knv, 8, 6, 5, 2  ♣
  10, 9, 5, 4       ♢|Ace, Qn, 8, 3, 2  ♢|Kg, Knv               ♢

At Trick 7, Z does not lead his original fourth-best, as great strength
in trumps is declared against him. (_See_ Appendix A.)

At Trick 8, Y's play is difficult. He might have noticed that his best
chance of winning the game is for A to hold only winning hearts and a
losing club; and this being so, Y should not lead a diamond.

[Illustration]


HAND X.

Counting the hands. Simple instance of departure from rule.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  A, 9, 7, 4                       ♠
  Qn, 6, 5, 3                      ♡
  A, 3                             ♣
  Kg, 9, 5                         ♢

Score: Love-all.

Six of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  4♣ Qn♣ 10♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. B Z↷ A Y
  3♠ 5♠ 2♠ A♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. B Z A Y↷
  8♠ 10♠ Kg♠ 4♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. B Z A↷ Y
  7♣ 6♣ Knv♣ A♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. B Z A Y↷
  Qn♠ 6♠ 2♡ 7♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. B↷ Z A Y
  8♣ 9♣ Kg♣ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. B Z A Y↷
  8♡ A♡ 4♡ 3♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. B Z↷ A Y
  3♢ A♢ 4♢ 5♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 7

  9. B Z↷ A Y
  7♢ Knv♢ 2♣ 9♢]

REMARK (Trick 9).--The lead of ace, followed by knave, indicates a five
card suit, headed by ace, queen, knave, and a desire that partner, if
he holds the king, should put it on second round (_see_ p. 101). But
in this case Y can count the hands, and therefore departs from rule,
and does not put on the king. Z has a trump, and three diamonds, the
ten guarded being in B's hand. If Y follows rule and puts on king
of diamonds, he loses a trick in diamonds; by passing the knave, he
ensures five by cards.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 8

  10. B Z↷ A Y
  8♢ 2♢ 7♡ Kg♢]

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Whatever Y leads, Z makes the remaining tricks, and

                         YZ win five by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.     |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 2              ♠|Qn, 8, 3          ♠|Knv, 10, 6, 5       ♠
  Knv, 9, 7, 4, 2    ♡|Kg, 10, 8         ♡|Ace                 ♡
  Kg, Knv, 10, 5, 2  ♣|8, 7, 4           ♣|Qn, 9, 6            ♣
  4                  ♢|10, 8, 7, 3       ♢|Ace, Qn, Knv, 6, 2  ♢

At Trick 2 Z's trump lead is rather forward, but justifiable with his
hand at the score of love-all, especially as Y must hold the ace of
clubs.


HAND XI.

Discarding, and playing to the score.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  A, Qn, 7, 6                      ♠
  Qn, 9, 6                         ♡
  Qn, 8, 4, 2                      ♣
  7, 3                             ♢

Score: Love-all.

Six of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

    TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  Kg♢ 6♢ 2♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. A↷ Y B Z
  A♢ 5♢ Knv♢ 7♢]

REMARK.--Y has called for trumps.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. A↷ Y B Z
  4♢ 8♢ 4♡ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. A Y B Z↷
  Kg♡ A♡ 7♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. A Y↷ B Z
  2♡ Knv♡ 10♡ 9♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. A Y↷ B Z
  10♢ Qn♢ 3♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. A Y↷ B Z
  3♠ 9♢ 7♣ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

    TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. A Y↷ B Z
  8♠ 3♡ 2♠ 7♠]

TRICKS 9 to 13.--Y (Trick 9) leads a spade. He is directed to the spade
suit by Z's _original discard_ of a club at Trick 6 (_see_ p. 104),
notwithstanding that Z has since discarded two spades. Z plays properly
to keep his queen of clubs guarded after his first discard, as he only
wants at most two tricks besides the two trumps which he knows to be
in Y's hand. Y, at Trick 8, leads a heart to show he has all the other
hearts, as it is possible that the best heart may be held up by the
adversary. Y thus tells Z not to finesse if he has one trick certain
(_see_ score).

Z puts on the ace of spades, at Trick 9, as that card and the two
trumps in Y's hand make the game. If Z finesses he only scores four,
as will be seen by referring to the hands below. Z's play would not be
right if he had only five tricks up, as he would then want one more
trick to win the game. In that case he should finesse. This is a good
illustration of playing to the score.

              YZ score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.     |      B'S HAND.
  Kg, 9, 8, 3       ♠|5                  ♠|Knv, 10, 4, 2     ♠
  Kg, 2             ♡|Ace, Knv, 8, 5, 3  ♡|10, 7, 4          ♡
  Kg, 9, 5          ♣|Knv, 6             ♣|Ace, 10, 7, 3     ♣
  Ace, Kg, 10, 4    ♢|Qn, 9, 8, 6, 5     ♢|Knv, 2            ♢

At Trick 3, A is justified in risking a force on his partner, though
weak in trumps himself. Strength in trumps has been adversely declared
by the call (_see_ pp. 132, 133), and there is nothing to show that B
has not the queen of diamonds.

At Trick 4, it is doubtful whether A should cover the strengthening
card led (_see_ p. 88).


HAND XII.

Discarding.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  Qn, 9, 7                         ♠
  Kg, 10, 6, 5                     ♡
  Qn, 6, 5                         ♣
  10, 4, 2                         ♢

Score: AB, love; YZ, four.

Two of diamonds turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  Qn♢ 6♢ 3♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. A↷ Y B Z
  A♢ 8♢ 7♢ 4♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. A↷ Y B Z
  Kg♢ 9♢ 7♣ 10♢]

REMARK (Trick 3).--The knave of diamonds, and therefore the command of
trumps, is marked in Y's hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 0

  4. A↷ Y B Z
  Kg♠ 4♠ 3♠ 7♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 0

  5. A↷ Y B Z
  A♠ 6♠ 5♠ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 1

  6. A↷ Y B Z
  2♠ 2♡ Knv♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 2

  7. A Y B Z↷
  Kg♣ A♣ 8♣ Qn♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. A Y↷ B Z
  5♢ Knv♢ 3♡ 5♣]

REMARK (Trick 7).--Z properly concludes, as his partner has command of
trumps (_see_ Remark, Trick 3), that his discard (Trick 6) was from his
weakest suit, notwithstanding the adverse trump lead, and therefore Z
leads clubs. If Z mistakes the character of his partner's discard, and
leads a heart, he loses the game (_see_ pp. 105-6, and apply the rules
of play there stated to the present situation).

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 9 to 13.--Y brings in the clubs (_see_ his hand below), and

                         YZ win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.      |      B'S HAND.
  Ace, Kg, 10, 2    ♠|6, 4                ♠|Knv, 8, 5, 3      ♠
  Ace, 9, 7         ♡|4, 2                ♡|Qn, Knv, 8, 3     ♡
  King, 3           ♣|Ace, Knv, 10, 4, 2  ♣|9, 8, 7           ♣
  Ace, Kg, Qn, 5    ♢|Knv, 9, 8, 6        ♢|7, 3              ♢

At Trick 7, A is right to cover the queen of clubs (_see_ p. 88).

[Illustration]


HAND XIII.

Getting rid of the command of partner's suit (_see_ p. 97).

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  Kg, 10, 5                        ♠
  A, 6, 5                          ♡
  9, 8, 3                          ♣
  10, 9, 8, 2                      ♢

Score: Love-all.

Five of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  Qn♣ Kg♣ A♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. A Y B↷ Z
  Qn♡ 4♡ 2♡ 5♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. A↷ Y B Z
  8♡ 9♡ 3♡ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. A Y↷ B Z
  4♢ A♢ 3♢ 8♢]

REMARK.--_See_ p. 97.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. A Y↷ B Z
  7♢ Knv♢ Kg♢ 9♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. A Y B↷ Z
  10♣ 10♡ 7♣ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 3

  7. A Y↷ B Z
  2♣ Qn♢ 7♡ 10♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. A Y B↷ Z
  9♠ 6♠ A♠ 5♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. A Y B↷ Z
  Knv♠ 7♠ 2♠ Kg♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 5

  10. A Y B Z↷
  4♣ Knv♡ Kg♡ A♡]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Z (Trick 11) leads deuce of diamonds. Y makes two
tricks in diamonds (note the advantage to YZ of Z's having got rid of
the command).

                         YZ win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.          |      Y'S HAND.      |      B'S HAND.
  Knv, 9                  ♠|8, 7, 6             ♠|Ace, Qn, 4, 3, 2  ♠
  Qn, 8                   ♡|Knv, 10, 9, 4       ♡|Kg, 7, 3, 2       ♡
  Qn, Knv, 10, 6, 5, 4, 2 ♣|Kg                  ♣|Ace, 7            ♣
  7, 4                    ♢|Ace, Qn, Knv, 6, 5  ♢|Kg, 3             ♢

At Trick 2, Z plays the turn-up card (_see_ p. 114).

At Trick 3, B passes the nine of trumps. If the tenace is against him
covering does no good; and there is a reasonable chance that the ace
will fall.

At Trick 6, B, having found A weak in trumps, and the whole diamond
suit being declared against him, alters his tactics, and does not
continue trumps.

At Trick 7, Y plays properly in attempting to force the strong trump
hand, keeping knave of hearts with which to trump clubs. If B refuses
the first force he wins two or three by cards, as the cards happen to
lie. But he cannot place the diamonds, and probably his best play is to
trump.


HAND XIV.

Finessing.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  7, 6, 2                          ♠
  Kg, Knv, 9, 7, 6, 4              ♡
  Knv                              ♣
  10, 7, 6                         ♢

Score: Four-all.

Ten of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Y B Z A↷
  5♡ A♡ 2♡ 7♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. Y B↷ Z A
  2♣ 6♣ Qn♣ Knv♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. Y B Z↷ A
  Knv♠ A♠ 3♠ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. Y B↷ Z A
  4♣ 5♣ 10♣ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Y B Z↷ A
  Qn♠ 9♠ 5♠ 7♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3, YZ, 3

  6. Y↷ B Z A
  Kg♠ 9♣ 8♠ 6♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Y B↷ Z A
  A♣ 3♣ Kg♣ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Y↷ B Z A
  4♠ 7♣ 10♠ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. Y B↷ Z A
  Qn♡ 10♡ 3♡ Knv♡]

REMARK (Trick 9).--A's finesse is unlucky. He has no indication as
to the position of the queen. _The finesse must not be judged by the
result._ It is generally right against one card if the success of the
finesse wins the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 10 to 13.--YZ make two tricks in diamonds (_see_ their hands
below); and

                         YZ win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, Qn, Knv, 4    ♠|Ace, 9            ♠|10, 8, 5, 3       ♠
  Qn, 5             ♡|Ace, 10           ♡|8, 3, 2           ♡
  Ace, 4, 2         ♣|9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 3  ♣|Kg, Qn, 10        ♣
  Kg, Knv, 8, 5     ♢|Qn, 9, 3          ♢|Ace, 4, 2         ♢

At Trick 6, Y's lead is not well judged. He knows his partner to hold
king of clubs single, and his object should be to prevent the two
trumps from being drawn together. Y's best lead appears to be queen of
hearts; and if it wins, a diamond.


HAND XV.

Counting the hands, and refusing a finesse.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  A, Kg, Knv, 2                    ♠
  A, Kg, 2                         ♡
  6, 4                             ♣
  8, 4, 3, 2                       ♢

Score: Love-all.

King of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  5♢ 6♢ A♢ 2♢]

REMARK (Trick 1).--A has not both king and queen of diamonds, or he
would have led one. B has not either king or queen of diamonds, or he
would have played one of them instead of the ace. Therefore, Y must
have one of those cards. Z draws this inference _at the time_. It will
not be of any use to him until near the end of the hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. A Y B↷ Z
  5♣ 7♣ A♣ 4♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. A Y B↷ Z
  8♣ Qn♣ 3♣ 6♣]

REMARK.--B has led from exactly five clubs (_see_ Appendix A).

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. A Y↷ B Z
  4♡ 5♡ 3♡ Kg♡]

REMARK.--The ace would be an echo (_see_ p. 128).

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. A Y B Z↷
  7♡ 6♡ 8♡ A♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. A Y B Z↷
  3♠ 5♠ 4♠ Kg♠]

REMARK (Trick 6).--The policy of this lead is doubtful. Players are
apt to show their suits in this manner. But it is clear, the opponents
having led diamonds and clubs, that if Z has strength in any suit it is
in spades. The objections to showing a suit in this way are: 1, that it
may be trumped the first round; 2, that partner may have only one card
of it. In the latter case he cannot return the lead, and must open or
continue another suit to a disadvantage.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. A Y B Z↷
  Knv♡ Qn♡ 9♡ 2♡]

REMARK.--Y has the long trump.

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. A Y↷ B Z
  9♣ Kg♣ 2♣ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 7

  9. A Y↷ B Z
  8♠ 9♠ 6♠ A♠]

REMARK (Trick 9).--Z's play in not finessing is very good. He can count
Y's hand, thus: Y has no more clubs (_see_ Remark, Trick 3), he has the
last trump, and three other cards. These cards must either be queen,
ten of spades, and a diamond, in which case Z's play does not matter;
or the nine returned by Y must be his best spade, in which case he can
only have one more, as he would return the higher of two remaining
cards (_see_ p. 79), and his other cards must then be two diamonds.
Therefore, assuming the case in which Z's play does matter (_i.e._, of
Y's nine being his best spade), Y's diamond must be guarded.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 8

  10. A Y B Z↷
  Knv♢ Qn♢ 10♣ 8♢]

Consequently, Z, by not finessing, makes sure of the game. He requires
one more trick besides the ace of spades and his partner's trump, and
this trick Y is certain to make in diamonds if Z leads through A's hand
(_see_ Remark, Trick 1).

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 10 to 13.--Z (Trick 10) leads a diamond, and, however A plays,

              YZ score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.
  Qn, 8, 3          ♠|9, 5              ♠|10, 7, 6, 4         ♠
  Knv, 7, 4         ♡|Qn, 10, 6, 5      ♡|9, 8, 3             ♡
  9, 8, 5           ♣|Kg, Qn, 7         ♣|Ace, Knv, 10, 3, 2  ♣
  Kg, Knv, 7, 5     ♢|Qn, 10, 9, 6      ♢|Ace                 ♢

As the cards happen to lie, YZ only score four if Z finesses at Trick
9, and A plays properly. A, on winning this trick with the queen of
spades, should see that his only chance of making two more tricks is to
be led up to in diamonds. He should therefore (Trick 10) lead the seven
of diamonds, which Y is compelled to take, and AB save the game.

[Illustration]


HAND XVI.

Leading losing card to place the lead (_see_ pp. 147-151).

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  A, Qn, Knv                       ♠
  A, Kg, 9, 3                      ♡
  Knv, 8, 6, 2                     ♣
  Knv, 5                           ♢

Score: Love-all.

Ten of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  4♢, Kg♢, 8♢, 5♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Z A↷ Y B
  7♢ A♢ Qn♢ Knv♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. Z A↷ Y B
  2♠ 10♠ 3♠ Knv♠]

REMARK.--Y has the king of spades.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 0

  4. Z A Y B↷
  7♡ Knv♡ 5♡ 3♡]

REMARK.--It is probable that A is weak in trumps, as he refused to
force his partner in diamonds. Nevertheless, B leads a trump, as he is
well provided in spades, and has some defence in the club suit.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 0

  5. Z A↷ Y B
  8♡ 4♡ 6♡ Kg♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 0

  6. Z A Y B↷
  10♡ 2♡ 4♠ A♡]

REMARK (Trick 6).--The queen of hearts must be in Z's hand, as A
returned the four and now plays the two, and Y renounces.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 1

  7. Z A Y B↷
  3♣ Kg♣ A♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 2

  8. Z A Y↷ B
  7♣ 5♣ Qn♣ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 7 YZ, 2

  9. Z A Y↷ B
  10♣ 2♢ 4♣ Knv♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 7 YZ, 3

  10. Z A Y B↷
  6♠ 3♢ 9♣ 8♣]

REMARK (Trick 10).--B leads the losing club to throw the lead into Y's
hand. Y will then be obliged to lead a spade, as he has no other suit.
Z will have to follow suit, or will be forced with the queen of trumps,
and B will make the ace of spades and the last trump.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Y (Trick 11) leads a spade, B puts on the queen, and

              AB score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  10, 9, 7          ♠|Kg, 8, 5, 4, 3    ♠|6, 2              ♠
  Knv, 4, 2         ♡|6, 5              ♡|Qn, 10, 8, 7      ♡
  Kg, 5             ♣|Ace, Qn, 9, 4     ♣|10, 7, 3          ♣
  Ace, Kg, 6, 3, 2  ♢|Qn, 8             ♢|10, 9, 7, 4       ♢

At Trick 8, Y should underplay in clubs.


HAND XVII.

Leading losing card to place the lead (_see_ pp. 147-151).

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  A, Qn, 10, 5                     ♠
  10, 3                            ♡
  9, 5, 2                          ♣
  Qn, Knv, 6, 2                    ♢

Score: AB, love; YZ, one.

Four of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  3♠ 2♠ 7♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. B Z A Y↷
  3♢ Kg♢ 5♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. B Z↷ A Y
  10♣ 4♣ 7♣ 9♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. B↷ Z A Y
  6♠ Knv♠ Kg♠ A♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 4

  5. B Z A Y↷
  3♣ Kg♣ 8♣ 5♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 5

  6. B Z↷ A Y
  6♣ A♣ Knv♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 6

  7. B Z↷ A Y
  4♢ A♢ 8♢ 6♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 7

  8. B Z↷ A Y
  10♢ 7♢ 9♢ Knv♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 7

  9. B Z A Y↷
  4♠ 4♡ Qn♣ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 8

  10. B Z A↷ Y
  6♡ 5♡ 8♠ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 8

  11. B Z A Y↷
  7♡ 8♡ 9♠ 5♠]

REMARK (Trick 11).--Y leads the losing spade to put the lead into A's
hand (_see_ fall of the spades, Tricks 1, 4, and 10), and so compel A
to lead hearts up to Z. At this score (YZ, one) this is the best chance
of four by cards. If the score were YZ, love, Y should lead a heart, as
leading the spade gives up all chance of five by cards.

TRICKS 12 and 13.--Z has ace, queen of hearts; and

                         YZ win four by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 9, 8, 7       ♠|6, 4, 3           ♠|Knv, 2            ♠
  Kg, 2             ♡|Knv, 9, 7, 6      ♡|Ace, Qn, 8, 5, 4  ♡
  Qn, Knv, 8, 7     ♣|10, 6, 3          ♣|Ace, Kg, 4        ♣
  9, 8, 5           ♢|10, 4, 3          ♢|Ace, Kg, 7        ♢

At Trick 4, B, having a weak hand, plays his partner's game, in
preference to planning an attack for himself by opening his own poor
suit of four to the knave.


HAND XVIII.

Underplay.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  A, Kg, 10, 6                     ♠
  Knv, 10, 5, 4, 3                 ♡
  Kg, 7                            ♣
  Kg, 6                            ♢

Score: Love-all.

Six of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  3♠ 8♠ 9♠ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. A Y B Z↷
  6♡ A♡ 7♡ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 3

  3. A Y↷ B Z
  4♣ A♣ 6♣ 7♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 4

  4. A Y↷ B Z
  2♣ 10♣ 9♣ Kg♣]

REMARK (Trick 4).--Y has led from ace, queen, knave, ten; and B, the
weak trump hand, has no more clubs.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 5

  5. A Y B Z↷
  2♠ Knv♠ 4♠ 6♠]

REMARK (Trick 5).--Z underplays in trumps. To continue hearts, with
queen, king marked against him (_see_ Trick 2), or to open diamonds,
would be very disadvantageous, so a trump lead is forced, more
especially as Y has command of clubs, and B is about to trump that
suit. The lead of ace or king of trumps would leave the lead with Z,
who would then still be in a difficulty as to his next lead. Further,
it is of importance to endeavour to place the lead in Y's hand, that he
may continue clubs. Also, if the underplay succeeds, it is not at all
unlikely that YZ will win the game.

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 6

  6. A Y↷ B Z
  5♣ Qn♣ 2♢ 3♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 7

  7. A Y↷ B Z
  8♣ Knv♣ 8♡ 5♡]

TRICKS 8 to 13.--Z makes ace, king of trumps, and

                            YZ win the game.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.       |      B'S HAND.
  Qn, 7, 5, 3, 2    ♠|Knv, 8               ♠|9, 4              ♠
  Kg, 6             ♡|Ace, 2               ♡|Qn, 9, 8, 7       ♡
  8, 5, 4, 2        ♣|Ace, Qn, Knv, 10, 3  ♣|9, 6              ♣
  Ace, Qn           ♢|10, 5, 4, 3          ♢|Knv, 9 8, 7, 2    ♢

At Trick 5, if A puts on queen of spades, second hand, he saves
the game. May be, a very shrewd player would have seen through the
position, including the importance of preventing Y from getting the
lead if possible; but A can hardly be blamed for passing, as it is
unlikely that both ace and king of spades are in Z's hand.

[Illustration]


HAND XIX.

Underplay, and playing to the score.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  Knv, 10, 7, 3                    ♠
  A, Kg, 8, 6, 5                   ♡
  A, 3                             ♣
  Kg, 2                            ♢

Score: Love-all.

Four of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  9♣ Qn♣ 6♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. B Z↷ A Y
  3♢ 4♢ 6♢ Kg♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. B Z A Y↷
  6♠ Qn♠ Kg♠ 3♠]

REMARK (Trick 3).--Y is justified in playing a forward game. He has
four trumps (_see_ pp. 122, 123), ace of the opponent's suit, and a
fine heart suit: and his partner has declared strength in diamonds by
choosing that suit for his original lead.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. B Z A↷ Y
  2♣ 4♣ 5♣ A♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. B Z A Y↷
  8♠ 2♠ A♠ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. B Z A↷ Y
  4♡ 3♡ 10♡ A♡]

REMARK (Trick 6).--Y is justified in playing a false card here,
notwithstanding General Principle 12 (p. 108). The heart is a forced
lead, and the card led (the ten) is obviously A's best. Y's scheme is
to take another round of trumps, and then to underplay in hearts (_see_
p. 101); so he puts on the ace to deceive B as to the position of the
king.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. B Z A Y↷
  9♠ 4♠ 5♠ Knv♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. B Z A Y↷
  7♡ 9♡ 2♡ 5♡]

TRICKS 9 to 13.--Z leads the king of clubs, to which Y discards the
two of diamonds. Z then leads the knave of hearts, on which Y puts the
king; the queen falls (_see_ the hands below); Y brings in the hearts;
and

                         YZ win five by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Ace, Kg, 5        ♠|9, 8, 6           ♠|Qn, 4, 2          ♠
  10, 2             ♡|Qn, 7, 4          ♡|Knv, 9, 3         ♡
  Knv, 8, 7, 6, 5   ♣|10, 9, 2          ♣|Kg, Qn, 4         ♣
  Ace, 8, 6         ♢|10, 9, 7, 3       ♢|Qn, Knv, 5, 4     ♢

A and B both play the hand badly. At Trick 6, A, in the face of an
adverse trump lead and the command of his suit (clubs) against him,
should lead the ace of diamonds to make the third trick and save the
game. At Trick 8, B should put on his queen of hearts. He is fairly
taken in by Y's dark play at Trick 6; but he ought not to have allowed
himself to be so. He should have argued that Y, who has been playing a
very strong game, would not be likely to put on ace second hand merely
for the purpose of getting the lead or of making sure of a trick.
Further, if A's lead was a forced one, from weakness (hearts being the
only suit in which B can be strong), Z is sure to finesse if he has
king, knave, or even king, nine. So B's best chance of making the queen
is to put it on (_see_ p. 102).


HAND XX.

Defensive trump lead, and playing to the score.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  Kg, Knv, 5                       ♠
  Qn, 8, 2                         ♡
  Qn, 10, 5, 3                     ♣
  Qn, 7, 5                         ♢

Score: Love-all.

Nine of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Y B Z A↷
  6♣ Kg♣ 4♣ 3♣]

REMARK (Trick 1).--A defensive trump lead, to avoid opening a three
card suit.

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Y B↷ Z A
  7♣ A♣ 8♣ 5♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. Y B↷ Z A
  8♢ Kg♢ 6♢ 5♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 1

  4. Y B↷ Z A
  Knv♣ 2♣ 9♣ 10♣]

REMARK (Trick 4).--A's finesse is unlucky. He is, however, clearly
justified in not parting with the command of trumps, as, even if the
finesse does not succeed, he remains with the last trump, will be led
up to in one of his guarded suits, and will, in all probability, bring
in his partner's diamonds.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. Y↷ B Z A
  4♡ 3♡ A♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y B Z↷ A
  9♡ 6♡ Knv♡ 8♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Y B Z↷ A
  Kg♡ 7♡ 5♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Y↷ B Z A
  10♡ 10♠ 6♠ Qn♣]

TRICKS 9 to 13.--A leads the queen of diamonds, and finds his partner
with the entire command of diamonds (_see_ B's hand below).

              AB score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.       |      Z'S HAND.
  8, 7, 4, 3, 2     ♠|10                   ♠|Ace, Qn, 9, 6     ♠
  Kg, 10, 9, 4      ♡|7, 6, 3              ♡|Ace, Knv, 5       ♡
  Knv, 7, 6         ♣|Ace, Kg, 2           ♣|9, 8, 4           ♣
  8                 ♢|A, Kg, Knv, 4, 3, 2  ♢|10, 9, 6          ♢

It may be observed that Z loses the game by bad play at Trick 7. The
fall of the cards in Tricks 5 and 6 shows that A has the queen of
hearts, and Y the king. Z should therefore, at Trick 7, lead the ace of
spades to make the fourth trick, and then the heart, making the fifth
trick and saving the game.

At Trick 8, if Y leads a spade and Z does not finesse, the game may
be saved. To finesse at that point would be very bad play, as the
ace of spades makes the fifth trick. But Y's play at Trick 8, though
unfortunate, is not wrong; for Y cannot tell that Z has the ace of
spades; indeed, the presumption is that he has not, or he would have
led it. Y properly plays to force the long trump, and to make his
partner fourth player.


HAND XXI.

An ill-judged call for trumps, and a well-judged third round,
notwithstanding the adverse strength.

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  Kg, 5, 4                         ♠
  A, Qn, 10, 8                     ♡
  5, 3, 2                          ♣
  Qn, 10, 6                        ♢

Score: Four-all.

Queen of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  6♣ 10♣ A♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. Z A Y↷ B
  Kg♢ A♢ 3♢ 6♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Z A↷ Y B
  4♣ Knv♣ 2♠ 3♣]

REMARK.--Z has called for trumps.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. Z A Y↷ B
  Knv♠ 6♠ A♠ 4♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Z A Y↷ B
  8♠ Kg♣ 7♠ Kg♠]

REMARK.--The fall of the spades (_see_ Tricks 3, 4, and 5) shows that
the three is in Y's hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. Z A Y B↷
  9♠ 8♣ 3♠ 5♠]

REMARK.--It is seldom right to continue trumps when led by the
opponents; but this is an exceptional case. B plays well in drawing
two trumps for one, as it is evident that if Y and Z make their trumps
separately they must win the odd trick.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. Z↷ A Y B
  4♢ 7♢ 9♢ 10♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. Z A Y B↷
  7♣ 9♣ 4♡ 5♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. Z A↷ Y B
  3♡ Qn♣ 5♡ 8♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 5

  10. Z A↷ Y B
  10♠ 8♢ Knv♢ Qn♢]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Whatever Z leads, B makes ace, queen of hearts; and

                         AB win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

         A'S HAND.        |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  6                      ♠|Ace, 7, 3, 2      ♠|Qn, Knv, 10, 9, 8  ♠
  9, 6, 2                ♡|7, 5, 4           ♡|Kg, Knv, 3         ♡
  Kg, Qn, Knv, 10, 9, 8  ♣|Ace               ♣|7, 6, 4            ♣
  Ace, 8, 7              ♢|Knv, 9, 5, 3, 2   ♢|Kg, 4              ♢

Z's call for trumps is ill-judged, especially at the score of four-all.
The whole club suit is declared against him, as Y, putting on ace,
second hand, can have no more. If Z does not call, he wins the game
easily.


HAND XXII.

Returned lead, and refusing a force.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  A, 10, 9, 4, 2                   ♠
  10, 6, 3                         ♡
  9                                ♣
  A, Qn, 8, 7                      ♢

Score: AB, one; YZ, love.

Knave of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Y B Z A↷
  3♠ Qn♠ 6♠ 4♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Y B↷ Z A
  8♠ 7♠ Knv♠ A♠]

REMARK (Trick 2).--B has the five of spades, and Y the king. A,
therefore, does not continue the trump, but leaves the small spade in
his partner's hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. Y B Z A↷
  3♢ Kg♢ 2♢ 7♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 0

  4. Y B↷ Z A
  6♢ 10♢ 4♢ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 0

  5. Y B Z A↷
  9♢ 2♣ 5♢ A♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 0

  6. Y B Z A↷
  Knv♢ 5♠ 2♡ 8♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 1

  7. Y B↷ Z A
  A♣ 4♣ 7♣ 9♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 2

  8. Y↷ B Z A
  Kg♠ 3♣ 7♡ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 3

  9. Y↷ B Z A
  Qn♣ 5♣ 8♣ 3♡]

REMARK (Trick 9).--A knows B has two more clubs (_see_ Tricks 7 and 8,
and p. 106). A, therefore, desires to leave the lead with Y, that he
may go on with another club, and so clear B's suit.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 7 YZ, 3

  10. Y↷ B Z A
  Kg♣ 6♣ Knv♣ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 8 YZ, 3

  11. Y B Z A↷
  4♡ A♡ 9♡ 6♡]

REMARK (Trick 11).--A leads his smallest heart, as he does not want to
tempt B to finesse (_see_ p. 142). B has ace, queen of hearts (_see_
his hand below), but he does not finesse, as the ace of hearts, last
club, and A's trump make every trick.

                         AB win four by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.     |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 8, 3          ♠|Qn, 7, 5           ♠|Knv, 6            ♠
  8, 5, 4           ♡|Ace, Qn            ♡|Kg, Knv, 9, 7, 2  ♡
  Ace, Kg, Qn       ♣|10, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2  ♣|Knv, 8, 7         ♣
  Knv, 9, 6, 3      ♢|Kg, 10             ♢|5, 4, 2           ♢

Y should play queen of clubs at Trick 7, and ace of clubs at Trick
9, when A will not have sufficient materials for his _coup_, as he
will be uncertain as to the position of the best club. Y gives his
adversary too much information by playing book (_see_ p. 113). When the
adversaries have command of trumps, it is often advisable, towards the
end of a hand, to play so as not to enable them to count the cards.


HAND XXIII.

Refusing to overtrump.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  10, 5, 3, 2                      ♠
  Kg, 10, 2                        ♡
  3, 2                             ♣
  A, 4, 3, 2                       ♢

Score: Three-all.

Five of diamonds turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  8♠ Knv♠ 6♢ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Y B Z↷ A
  7♢ 5♣ 10♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Y B Z↷ A
  Qn♡ A♡ 4♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. Y B↷ Z A
  4♣ Kg♣ 9♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. Y B↷ Z A
  7♣ A♣ Qn♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Y B↷ Z A
  8♣ Knv♣ 5♢ 3♠]

REMARK (Trick 6).-A does not overtrump. This is the sort of _coup_ for
which no rule can be laid down in a book, as it depends entirely on the
state of the game and the previous fall of the cards. A sees, that his
only chance of two by cards is for the remaining trumps to be divided,
and for him to be able to get two rounds before he loses the command of
hearts. If then his partner has ace, queen of spades, he may win the
game against two by honours.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 3

  7. Y B Z↷ A
  8♡ 6♡ 3♡ 10♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. Y B Z A↷
  8♢ 6♣ Knv♢ A♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. Y B Z A↷
  9♢ 4♠ Qn♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 5

  10. Y B Z↷ A
  10♣ 6♠ Kg♢ 4♢]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Z leads a heart which A wins. A leads a spade, and
finds his partner with ace, queen; and

           AB win two by cards (which score before honours).


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

    Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.         |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 9, 8      ♠|Ace, Qn, Knv, 7, 6, 4  ♠|                      |
  Qn, 9, 8      ♡|Ace, 6                 ♡|Knv, 7, 5, 4, 3        ♡
  10, 8, 7, 4   ♣|Ace, Kg, Knv, 6, 5     ♣|Qn, 9                  ♣
  9, 8, 7       ♢|                      | |Kg, Qn, Knv, 10, 6, 5  ♢


HAND XXIV.

Refusing to overtrump.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  Kg, 7, 6                         ♠
  A, 9, 7, 6, 5, 4                 ♡
  5, 3                             ♣
  Qn, 7                            ♢

Score: Four-all.

Five of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  A♢ 2♢ 9♢ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. B↷ Z A Y
  10♣ 6♣ A♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. B Z A↷ Y
  2♣ 3♢ Kg♢ 7♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 1

  4. B Z A↷ Y
  4♣ 4♢ Knv♢ Kg♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. B Z A Y↷
  8♡ 3♡ 2♡ A♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 2

  6. B Z A Y↷
  Kg♡ Qn♡ Knv♡ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 3

  7. B↷ Z A Y
  Qn♣ 5♠ 7♣ 5♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. B Z↷ A Y
  8♠ 5♢ 10♢ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 4

  9. B↷ Z A Y
  10♡ 10♠ 8♣ 5♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 4

  10. B Z↷ A Y
  Knv♣ 8♢ 2♠ 6♡]

REMARK (Trick 10).--Y's play in not overtrumping is very good. He
counts the hand thus: to save the game Z must hold ace, queen, or ace,
knave of spades; his third card is evidently the remaining diamond. A
has the nine of clubs (_see_ fall of the club suit in Tricks 2, 7, and
9), and two trumps. B has two trumps, one being queen or knave (_see_
Trick 9), and king, knave of clubs. If the cards remaining in each hand
are placed face upwards on the table, and the uncertain cards, viz.,
the nine, four, and three of trumps are given two to A, and one to B,
it will be seen that, if Y overtrumps with the seven, he cannot make
the requisite three tricks; but that, if he leaves the lead with A, YZ
make the remaining tricks.

It may be added, that if, at Trick 10, A discards his club, and keeps
his three little trumps together, leaving the trick to B, AB must win
the odd trick if B leads a trump at Trick 11 after trumping. This A
might have reckoned.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.         |      Z'S HAND.
  4, 3, 2           ♠|Qn, 9, 8               ♠|Ace, Knv, 10, 5   ♠
  Knv, 2            ♡|Kg, 10, 8              ♡|Qn, 3             ♡
  Ace, 9, 8, 7      ♣|Kg, Qn, Knv, 10, 4, 2  ♣|6                 ♣
  Kg, Knv, 10, 9    ♢|Ace                    ♢|8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2  ♢


HAND XXV.

_See_ Refusing to overtrump, pp. 146, 147.

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  Qn, 2                            ♠
  A, 8, 2                          ♡
  9, 8, 5, 4                       ♣
  Kg, 6, 3, 2                      ♢

Score: AB, three; YZ, love.

Seven of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  A♠ 8♠ 4♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Z↷ A Y B
  3♣ 7♣ Knv♣ 4♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Z A Y↷ B
  6♣ 6♡ A♣ 5♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. Z A↷ Y B
  3♠ Knv♠ 5♠ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. Z A↷ Y B
  10♠ Kg♠ 6♠ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 2

  6. Z A↷ Y B
  5♢ 4♢ 8♢ Kg♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 2

  7. Z A Y B↷
  10♣ 9♡ 2♣ 9♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. Z A↷ Y B
  7♢ Qn♢ A♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 3

  9. Z A Y↷ B
  Knv♡ Kg♡ 3♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 4

  10. Z A↷ Y B
  Kg♣ 9♠ 10♡ 3♢]

REMARK (Trick 10).--B can count A's hand--viz., a spade and two
diamonds. Therefore, if B overtrumps he cannot possibly win two more
tricks.

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 5

  11. Z A Y↷ B
  4♡ 9♢ Qn♣ 6♢]

TRICKS 12 and 13.--Z leads a trump (he has only trumps in hand), and B
makes ace and eight.

                          AB win two by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, Knv, 9, 8, 7  ♠|6, 5, 4           ♠|Ace, 10, 3        ♠
  Kg, 9, 6          ♡|Qn, 10, 3         ♡|Knv, 7, 5, 4      ♡
  7                 ♣|Ace, Qn, Knv, 2   ♣|Kg, 10, 6, 3      ♣
  Qn, Knv, 9, 4     ♢|Ace, 10, 8        ♢|7, 5              ♢

The end play of this hand is difficult. At Trick 9, Y leads three of
hearts in preference to the queen, as he can count an honour single in
A's hand. At Trick 10, A's best lead is doubtful. At Trick 10, also,
probably Y should trump with the queen (_see_ p. 147); but even then, B
must place ten of hearts in Y's hand.


HAND XXVI.

Counting the hands, and consequent departure from rule.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  4                                ♠
  A, Kg, Qn, 10, 2                 ♡
  8, 7                             ♣
  Kg, 10, 8, 7, 3                  ♢

Score: AB, three; YZ, one.

Five of diamonds turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  Knv♢ 5♢ 6♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. B↷ Z A Y
  2♢ 2♣ A♢ 7♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. B Z A↷ Y
  Qn♠ A♠ 3♠ 4♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. B Z↷ A Y
  3♣ A♣ Kg♣ 7♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. B Z↷ A Y
  4♣ 10♣ 4♢ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. B Z A↷ Y
  7♠ 6♠ 2♠ 8♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. B Z A Y↷
  5♡ 9♡ 7♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. B Z↷ A Y
  9♣ Qn♣ 5♠ 10♡]

REMARK (Trick 7).--This is strong illustration of a case for departing
from rule. Y can count two more trumps, and three more spades in A's
hand (_see_ A's leads, Tricks 3 and 6, and p. 116). It is clear that A
can have at most two hearts; consequently, if Y leads his tierce major
in hearts, he must lose the game, as the opponents have two by honours.
But, if Y can give his partner the lead, and Z has four more clubs, or
the winning club, and A makes the mistake of trumping it, YZ may make
every trick, and win the game.

Y would be right to play as he does even if A had led from only four
spades. With a strong trump hand declared against, and a long weak
suit, it is doubtful whether A should not have led the deuce of spades
at Trick 3 (_see_ Appendix A); but the hand is given as it was played.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 9 to 13.--Z continues to lead clubs (_see_ his hand below), and
whether A passes or trumps,

                        YZ score four by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Knv, 9, 5, 3, 2   ♠|Kg, Qn, 10, 8, 7  ♠|Ace, 6                   ♠
  8, 7              ♡|Knv, 6, 5         ♡|9, 4, 3                  ♡
  Kg                ♣|9, 4, 3           ♣|A, Qn, Knv, 10, 6, 5, 2  ♣
  Ace, Qn, 9, 6, 4  ♢|Knv, 2            ♢|5                        ♢

[Illustration]


HAND XXVII.

_See_ Leading from weakest suit, p. 141.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  A, 10, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2             ♠
  Qn, 6, 3                         ♡
  5                                ♣
  8, 5                             ♢

Score: AB, three; YZ, four.

Five of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  8♣ 3♣ A♣ 5♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. A Y B↷ Z
  Kg♣ 4♣ Knv♣ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. A↷ Y B Z
  2♣ Qn♣ 3♢ 3♠]

REMARK.--By the first discard Z shows his strong suit to be spades. In
an ordinary hand, Z might afterwards throw a diamond. But here, Y must
be strong in diamonds, in order to save the game; and it is important
for Z to keep the power of leading that suit more than once.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. A Y↷ B Z
  Kg♠ Knv♠ Qn♠ A♠]

REMARK.--B covers the honour, because the lead was from weakness. B
plays badly; he should have passed the knave. For, A has shown four
more trumps, and only one other trick is required. Hence, if A has ace
or king of spades, the game is won to a moral certainty; if not, no
good is got by covering.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. A Y B Z↷
  9♢ 10♢ 4♢ 8♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. A Y↷ B Z
  6♣ 8♠ 9♠ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. A↷ Y B Z
  Kg♡ A♡ 7♡ 3♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 4

  8. A Y↷ B Z
  7♣ 5♠ 6♢ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. A↷ Y B Z
  4♡ 2♡ 8♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 5

  10. A Y B Z↷
  9♣ 5♡ Knv♡ 7♠]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--A, with the lead, remains with the last trump and
king, knave of diamonds. He (Trick 11) leads the trump; but, whatever
he plays,

                         YZ win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.         |      Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.
  Kg                     ♠|Knv, 8, 5         ♠|Qn, 9             ♠
  Kg, 4                  ♡|Ace, 5, 2         ♡|Knv, 10, 9, 8, 7  ♡
  Kg, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 2  ♣|Qn, 4, 3          ♣|Ace, Knv          ♣
  Kg, Knv, 9             ♢|Ace, Qn, 10, 2    ♢|7, 6, 4, 3        ♢

A plays well throughout, but he cannot prevent the result. His lead of
the trump at Trick 3 to show his strength, and to tell his partner to
make one trick certain if he has the chance, is unlucky, as it puts the
adversaries on the only tack for saving the game.


HAND XXVIII.

_See_ Treating long suits like short ones, pp. 142, 143.

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  A, Qn, 10, 2                     ♠
  Kg, 5, 4, 3, 2                   ♡
  Kg, 3                            ♣
  Qn, Knv                          ♢

Score: AB, one; YZ, love.

Nine of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  4♢ 3♢ 7♢ Knv♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Z A Y B↷
  4♠ Kg♠ 5♠ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 0

  3. Z A↷ Y B
  6♠ 7♠ Knv♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 0

  4. Z A Y B↷
  8♠ 3♠ 2♣ 10♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 0

  5. Z A Y B↷
  9♠ 5♣ 6♡ A♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 1

  6. Z A Y B↷
  6♢ 2♢ A♢ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 2

  7. Z A Y↷ B
  4♣ 7♣ A♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 2

  8. Z A Y↷ B
  Qn♣ 8♣ 9♣ Kg♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 3

  9. Z A Y B↷
  9♡ 7♡ A♡ Kg♡]

REMARK (Trick 9).--Deschapelles' Coup. B can count A's hand, three
diamonds and two hearts, for the ten, nine of clubs are clearly with Y
(_see_ Tricks 7 and 8). B therefore leads the king of hearts (_see_ p.
142). If he makes the usual lead of a small heart, he wins a trick less
as the cards happen to lie.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 4

  10. Z A Y↷ B
  6♣ 5♢ 10♣ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 5

  11. Z A Y↷ B
  8♢ 9♢ Knv♣ 3♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 12.

  TRICKS {AB, 7 YZ, 5

  12. Z A Y↷ B
  10♡ Qn♡ 8♡ 4♡]

TRICK 13.--A makes the king of diamonds; and

               AB score two by cards and two by honours.

If Y, at Trick 4, discards a heart, he saves the game. Nevertheless,
his proper discard is the club (_see_ pp. 104-5).


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.      |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 7, 3          ♠|Knv, 5              ♠|9, 8, 6, 4        ♠
  Qn, 7             ♡|Ace, 8, 6           ♡|Knv, 10, 9        ♡
  8, 7, 5           ♣|Ace, Knv, 10, 9, 2  ♣|Qn, 6, 4          ♣
  Kg, 9, 5, 3, 2    ♢|Ace, 10, 7          ♢|8, 6, 4           ♢


HAND XXIX.

_See_ Refusing to win the second round of a suit, p. 143.

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  Kg, 9, 7, 6, 4                   ♠
  A                                ♡
  A, 6                             ♣
  Knv, 10, 9, 6, 3                 ♢

Score: AB, four; YZ, two.

Four of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  Knv♡ 4♡ 3♡ A♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. A Y B Z↷
  2♠ A♠ 3♠ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 3

  3. A Y↷ B Z
  10♠ 8♠ 5♠ Kg♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. A Y B Z↷
  3♣ 8♡ Knv♠ 7♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. A Y B↷ Z
  4♣ 9♡ Qn♠ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. A Y B↷ Z
  2♡ 2♢ 10♡ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. A Y B↷ Z
  5♡ 4♢ 7♡ 4♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. A Y B Z↷
  Kg♢ A♢ 5♢ 6♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. A Y↷ B Z
  6♡ 8♢ Qn♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 6

  10. A Y B↷ Z
  7♣ 2♣ Qn♣ A♣]

TRICKS 10 to 13.--Z brings in the diamonds; and

                         YZ win three by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.        |      Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.
  10, 2                 ♠|Ace, 8            ♠|Qn, Knv, 5, 3     ♠
  Kg, Qn, Knv, 6, 5, 2  ♡|9, 8, 4           ♡|10, 7, 3          ♡
  Kg, 7, 4, 3           ♣|10, 9, 8, 2       ♣|Qn, Knv, 5        ♣
  Kg                    ♢|Ace, 8, 4, 2      ♢|Qn, 7, 5          ♢

At Trick 4, A having already shown his suit does not discard from it,
as there is still a possibility of bringing it in (_see_ pp. 104-6),
and his king of clubs is sufficiently protected even after the discard.

If Z parts with the last trump at Trick 6, and leads diamonds, A, on
the second round of diamonds, will unguard his king of clubs, knowing
his partner to have a heart to lead him (_see_ fall of the heart suit,
Tricks 1, 4, and 5), will bring in all the hearts, and win the odd
trick.


HAND XXX.

_See_ Refusing to win the second round of a suit, pp. 143, 144.

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  A, Qn, Knv                       ♠
  8, 4                             ♡
  A, 7, 2                          ♣
  A, Qn, Knv, 5, 2                 ♢

Score: Love-all.

Ten of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  4♢ 6♢ 3♢ Knv♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. Z A Y B↷
  5♡ 7♢ 8♢ A♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Z↷ A Y B
  3♡ 7♡ Qn♡ 4♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. Z A Y↷ B
  2♡ 9♡ Kg♡ 8♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 4

  5. Z A Y↷ B
  Kg♣ 4♣ 6♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 5

  6. Z↷ A Y B
  A♡ Knv♡ 2♠ 2♢]

REMARK (Trick 6).--B has next to no chance of bringing in the diamonds.
He therefore plays to protect his short suits (_see_ pp. 104-6).

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 6

  7. Z↷ A Y B
  Knv♣ 10♣ 5♣ 7♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. Z↷ A Y B
  3♣ Kg♢ 8♣ A♣]

REMARK (Trick 7).--B refuses to win this trick. The three of clubs is
clearly in Z's hand (_see_ fall of the club suit, Tricks 5 and 7), and
the two long trumps. The remaining clubs are evidently in Y's hand. If,
therefore, B parts with the ace of clubs while Z has a club to lead, AB
lose the game, unless A has the king of spades; and if A has that card,
B loses nothing by passing this trick, as Z, having only one more club,
must hold three spades.

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 7

  9. Z A Y B↷
  6♡ 9♢ 10♢ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 7

  10. Z↷ A Y B
  4♠ 3♠ 9♠ Knv♠]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--B (Trick 11) leads the last diamond, and forces Z. Z
(Trick 12) has only spades to lead; B makes ace, queen of spades; and

               YZ score two by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

(B's hand is given above).

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  10, 8, 7, 3       ♠|9, 5, 2           ♠|Kg, 6, 4             ♠
  Knv, 9, 7         ♡|Kg, Qn            ♡|Ace, 10, 6, 5, 3, 2  ♡
  10, 4             ♣|Qn, 9, 8, 6, 5    ♣|Kg, Knv, 3           ♣
  Kg, 9, 7, 6       ♢|10, 8, 3          ♢|4                    ♢


HAND XXXI.

_See_ Declining to draw the losing trump, pp. 144, 145.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  Qn, Knv, 9, 6, 3                 ♠
  Qn, 7, 5                         ♡
  A                                ♣
  Qn, Knv, 9, 8      ♢]

Score: AB, love; YZ, three.

Ace of diamonds turned up.


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  7♠ 10♠ A♠ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Y B Z↷ A
  A♡ 6♡ 10♡ 5♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 3

  3. Y↷ B Z A
  4♢ 2♢ A♢ 8♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 4

  4. Y B Z↷ A
  Kg♢ 10♢ 5♢ Knv♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 4

  5. Y↷ B Z A
  9♡ 8♡ 3♡ Qn♡]

REMARK.--It is evident that Z's lead was from king, knave, ten, &c.,
and that B has no more hearts. Y returning the nine, and the two not
falling, must have the two single, and the other hearts are with Z.

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. Y B Z A↷
  6♢ 2♠ 3♢ 9♢]

REMARK.--The case now arises contemplated at p. 145. A has the best
trump and the lead; Y the losing trump. Y also has one card of his
partner's established suit (_see_ Remark, Trick 5). A therefore (Trick
7) does not draw the trump.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. Y B Z A↷
  Kg♠ 5♠ 4♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. Y↷ B Z A
  2♡ 3♣ Knv♡ 7♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 6

  9. Y B Z↷ A
  2♣ 8♠ Kg♡ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 7

  10. Y B Z A↷
  7♢ 6♣ 4♡ Knv♠]

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Y has nothing but clubs to lead. A wins the three
tricks; and

                         YZ win the odd trick.

If, at Trick 7, A draws the trump, YZ win two by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 7             ♠|10, 8, 5, 2       ♠|Ace, 4             ♠
  Ace, 9, 2         ♡|8, 6              ♡|Kg, Knv, 10, 4, 3  ♡
  Kg, Qn, 4, 2      ♣|Knv, 9, 8, 6, 3   ♣|10, 7, 5           ♣
  Kg, 7, 6, 4       ♢|10, 2             ♢|Ace, 5, 3          ♢


HAND XXXII.

_See_ Throwing high cards to place the lead, pp. 147-149.

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  Knv, 9, 7, 3                     ♠
  Qn, 6, 5                         ♡
  8, 7, 6, 4                       ♣
  Kg, 4                            ♢

Score: Love-all.

Five of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  5♠ 4♠ 2♠ 3♠]

REMARK.--B has no more spades.

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Y↷ B Z A
  Qn♣ 3♣ 5♣ 4♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 3

  3. Y↷ B Z A
  Knv♣ Kg♣ A♣ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 4

  4. Y B Z↷ A
  10♣ 2♡ 2♣ 7♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 4

  5. Y↷ B Z A
  7♡ 3♡ 8♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. Y B Z A↷
  Kg♡ A♡ 5♢ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. Y B↷ Z A
  10♡ Knv♡ 9♣ 5♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. Y B Z↷ A
  6♢ 2♢ A♢ Kg♢]

REMARK (Trick 8).--Well played by A. He sees that if he obtains the
lead on the second round of diamonds he must continue the spade suit,
a course demonstrably fatal to him, unless his partner has the queen
of diamonds together with the long hearts (_see_ fall of hearts, Trick
7). By throwing the king to the ace A avoids the lead, and saves the
game if his partner has either queen or knave of diamonds (as may be
seen by placing the cards), unless the adversaries continue the spade
suit, when the game cannot be saved, by any course of play. This clever
_coup_ occurred in actual play.

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 6

  9. Y B Z↷ A
  9♢ Qn♢ Knv♢ 4♢]

TRICKS 10 to 13.--B brings in the hearts, winning two more tricks; A
makes his trump; and

               YZ score the odd trick and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.        |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 10, 8, 6, 5   ♠|4                     ♠|Ace, Qn, 2          ♠
  Kg, 10, 7         ♡|Ace, Knv, 9, 4, 3, 2  ♡|8                   ♡
  Qn, Knv, 10       ♣|Kg, 3                 ♣|Ace, 9, 5, 2        ♣
  9, 6              ♢|Qn, 8, 3, 2           ♢|Ace, Knv, 10, 7, 5  ♢

At Trick 2, B does not cover (_see_ p. 88).


HAND XXXIII.

_See_ Throwing high cards to place the lead, pp. 147-149

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  A, 4, 2                          ♠
  A, Qn                            ♡
  8, 3, 2                          ♣
  Kg, Qn, 7, 6, 4                  ♢

Score: Love-all.

Nine of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  A♢ 8♢ 3♢ Kg♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1  YZ, 1

  2. Y↷ B Z A
  Knv♠ 3♠ 5♠ A♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. Y B Z A↷
  5♢ 9♢ 2♢ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. Y B Z A↷
  10♢ 4♣ 7♣ 4♢]

REMARK.--Y has the knave of diamonds.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Y B Z↷ A
  Kg♣ Qn♣ 6♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. Y↷ B Z A
  10♣ 2♡ Knv♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. Y B Z↷ A
  5♣ 3♡ 9♣ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. Y B Z↷ A
  7♠ 6♠ Qn♠ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 7

  9. Y B Z↷ A
  8♠ 9♠ Kg♠ 4♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 7

  10. Y B Z↷ A
  4♡ 5♡ 10♡ A♡]

REMARK (Trick 10).--A plays very well in putting on the ace. He wants
two more tricks besides his ace of hearts to save the game. The last
trump and best diamond are against him. It is clear, therefore, if A
has the lead after the second round of hearts (when he must lead a
diamond), he loses the game. It is also clear that unless B has king,
knave, and a small heart, the game is gone.

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 7

  11. Y B Z A↷
  6♡ Kg♡ 8♡ Qn♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 12.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 7

  12. Y B↷ Z A
  7♡ Knv♡ 9♡ 6♢]

YZ score two by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  Knv, 8, 7         ♠|10, 9, 6, 3       ♠|Kg, Qn, 5          ♠
  7, 6, 4           ♡|Kg, Knv, 5, 3, 2  ♡|10, 9, 8           ♡
  Kg, 10, 5         ♣|Qn, 4             ♣|Ace, Knv, 9, 7, 6  ♣
  Ace, Knv, 10, 5   ♢|9, 8              ♢|3, 2               ♢

At Trick 2, Y is in difficulties. His strong suit has been led by his
right-hand adversary. Under these circumstances, he leads from his
strongest weak suit.

At Trick 6, Y's play in continuing the trump is open to criticism. His
better lead seems to be knave of diamonds. Z wins his partner's ten of
trumps in order to draw all the trumps. It is very bad play, for if Z
passes the ten, and Y leads the knave of diamonds, the game is certain.
This is an example of the very common error of winning partner's trick.
It should seldom be done, and only if a positive advantage can be
well-nigh demonstrated from doing it.

At Trick 11, the advantage of winning partner's trick--when judiciously
done--is shown. B, seeing A's anxiety to get rid of the lead, rightly
conjectures that A has two more diamonds. He therefore takes the only
course to save the game, by winning his partner's queen of hearts.

[Illustration]


HAND XXXIV.

Echo of the Call (_see_ p. 128).

[Illustration: Z'S HAND.

  9, 7, 6, 2                       ♠
  9, 8, 5, 3                       ♡

  7, 6, 5, 4, 2                    ♢

Score: Love-all.

Eight of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. A↷ Y B Z
  A♠ 10♠ 4♠ 2♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. A↷ Y B Z
  Qn♠ 3♠ 5♠ 7♠]

REMARK (Trick 2).--Y has called for trumps. Z, having four trumps
himself, commences to echo his partner's call.

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. A↷ Y B Z
  8♠ 7♡ Kg♠ 6♠]

REMARK.--Z completes the echo of the call.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 1

  4. A Y↷ B Z
  A♡ 10♡ 4♡ 5♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. A↷ Y B Z
  Knv♠ Knv♡ 6♣ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. A Y↷ B Z
  2♡ Kg♡ 6♡ 3♡]

REMARK (Trick 6).--Z having echoed, Y has no hesitation in leading
trumps again after being forced a second time.

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. A Y↷ B Z
  8♢ Kg♢ Knv♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. A Y↷ B Z
  9♢ A♢ 7♣ 4♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. A Y↷ B Z
  10♢ 3♢ 8♣ 5♢]

TRICKS 10 to 13.--A (Trick 10) leads queen of diamonds, which analysis
shows is rather better than a club, though, as the cards happen to lie,
his lead is immaterial. Y trumps the diamond, and

              YZ score three by cards and two by honours.

       *       *       *       *       *

But for the echo, the game might have been missed. If after being
forced a second time, at Trick 5, Y deems it prudent not to continue
trumps, and leads two rounds of diamonds, B makes a small trump, and
the game is saved.


THE HANDS.

                       (Z's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.      |      B'S HAND.
  Ace, Qn, Knv, 8   ♠|10, 3               ♠|Kg, 5, 4               ♠
  Ace, 2            ♡|Kg, Qn, Knv, 10, 7  ♡|6, 4                   ♡
  Knv, 4, 3         ♣|10, 5, 2            ♣|A, Kg, Qn, 9, 8, 7, 6  ♣
  Qn, 10, 9, 8      ♢|Ace, Kg, 3          ♢|Knv                    ♢

[Illustration]


HAND XXXV.

Leading losing trump, to place the lead.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  Knv, 10, 9, 8                    ♠
  Knv, 9, 7, 6, 3, 2               ♡
  Knv                              ♣
  Kg, 2                            ♢

Score: Love-all.

King of hearts turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  3♢ 6♢ A♢ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 1

  2. B Z A↷ Y
  4♢ 7♢ Knv♢ Kg♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. B Z A Y↷
  A♡ 5♡ 10♡ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. B↷ Z A Y
  10♢ 4♡ 5♢ Knv♣]

REMARKS (Tricks 3 and 4).--Y leads fourth-best; Z echoes; but as the
cards lie, it so happens that the position of the hearts would be
independently marked after Trick 5.

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. B Z↷ A Y
  2♠ Kg♡ Qn♡ 2♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. B Z↷ A Y
  3♣ A♣ 2♣ 8♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. B Z↷ A Y
  5♣ Kg♣ 4♣ 9♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. B Z↷ A Y
  9♣ 6♣ 10♣ 3♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 7

  9. B Z A Y↷
  3♠ A♠ Qn♠ Knv♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 8

  10. B Z↷ A Y
  4♠ 7♣ Qn♣ 9♡]

REMARK (Trick 10).--Well played by Y. He can count his partner's hand,
viz., the eight of trumps (_see_ Remark, Trick 4, and the fall of the
hearts, Tricks 3, 4, and 5), the last club, and a losing spade, as
Z having put on the ace of spades (Trick 9), cannot have the king.
Y therefore trumps with the nine, and (Trick 11) leads the seven of
hearts to put the lead in Z's hand. Z (Trick 12) leads the club, to
which Y discards the ten of spades; and

                         YZ win five by cards.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.       |      B'S HAND.     |      Z'S HAND.
  Qn                   ♠|Kg, 7, 5, 4, 3, 2  ♠|Ace, 6            ♠
  Qn, 10               ♡|Ace                ♡|Kg, 8, 5, 4       ♡
  Qn, 10, 4, 2         ♣|9, 5, 3            ♣|Ace, Kg, 8, 7, 6  ♣
  A, Qn, Knv, 9, 8, 5  ♢|10, 4, 3           ♢|7, 6              ♢

At Trick 4, B should have led a spade. A having shown at least five
diamonds by leading ace, then knave (_see_ p. 66), the diamond is sure
to be trumped, and it may force the weak trump hand, or may allow one
adversary to discard and the other to trump.


HAND XXXVI.

Echo after a force (_see_ p. 129).

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  A, Qn, 9, 6, 4                   ♠
  Knv, 7                           ♡
  8, 6                             ♣
  A, Qn, 4, 3                      ♢

Score: AB, three; YZ, four.

Two of spades turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  Kg♡ 6♡ 2♡ Knv♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Z↷ A Y B
  Kg♣ 3♣ 2♣ 8♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 2

  3. Z↷ A Y B
  Qn♣ 3♠ 4♣ 6♣]

REMARK.--B has called.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. Z A↷ Y B
  Kg♠ 8♠ 10♠ Qn♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 4

  5. Z↷ A Y B
  9♡ 10♡ A♡ 8♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 5

  6. Z A Y↷ B
  Kg♢ 5♢ 6♢ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. Z↷ A Y B
  7♢ 2♢ 10♢ Qn♢]

REMARK.--A has echoed. He therefore had at least four trumps originally.

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. Z A Y B↷
  2♠ 5♠ Knv♠ A♠]

REMARK.--The remaining trump is in A's hand. But for the echo, it might
be in Z's hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 5

  9. Z A Y B↷
  5♣ 9♢ 8♢ A♢]

REMARK (Trick 9).--B can now lead ace of diamonds, without fear of its
being trumped (_see_ Remark, Trick 8). If the position of the other
trump were uncertain, the lead of the ace of diamonds would be wrong.
For, by leading nine of trumps, B can make certain of saving the
game (_see_ score); whereas, if Z has a trump, and trumps the ace of
diamonds, B loses the game, as Y will then make a diamond.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 5

  10. Z A Y B↷
  3♡ 7♠ Knv♢ 4♢]

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 11 to 13.--B makes his three trumps, and

                            AB win the game.


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.    |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  8, 7, 5, 3        ♠|Knv, 10           ♠|Kg, 2                ♠
  Qn, 10, 7, 6, 5   ♡|Ace, 4, 2         ♡|Kg, 9, 3             ♡
  3                 ♣|Knv, 9, 4, 2      ♣|A, Kg, Qn, 10, 7, 5  ♣
  9, 5, 2           ♢|Knv, 10, 8, 6     ♢|Kg, 7                ♢

[Illustration]


HAND XXXVII.

Coup of compelling a discard, same in principle as the Vienna Coup.

[Illustration: Y'S HAND.

  7, 3                             ♠
  6, 5                             ♡
  A, Knv, 5, 3, 2                  ♣
  A, Kg, Qn, 8                     ♢

Score: Love-all.

King of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. B Z A↷ Y
  Kg♡ 3♡ 8♡ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. B↷ Z A Y
  A♡ 4♡ 2♡ 5♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. B↷ Z A Y
  5♢ 2♢ 9♢ Qn♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. B Z A Y↷
  9♣ Kg♣ 6♣ 3♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 2

  5. B Z↷ A Y
  Qn♣ 7♣ 8♣ Knv♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. B↷ Z A Y
  Kg♠ A♠ 4♠ 3♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 4

  7. B Z↷ A Y
  3♢ 4♣ 10♣ A♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 5

  8. B Z A Y↷
  4♢ Knv♢ 9♡ Kg♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 6

  9. B Z A Y↷
  6♢ 5♠ 10♡ 5♣]

REMARK (Trick 9).--Well played by Y. He can count B's hand as follows:
ten and two small diamonds; queen of spades (_see_ Trick 6--the lead of
the king could only be from king, queen); and one other card, probably
a small spade, for had B another heart he would most likely have
continued his partner's original lead, instead of changing the suit. Y
now leads a trump in hopes that B will discard the small spade, when Y
will lead the seven of spades to throw the lead into B's hand, and B
will be obliged to lead a diamond up to Y's tenace.

B, however, discards a diamond. Y continues his tactics (_see_ Trick
10), leading another trump. This compels another discard from B. If
B discards the small spade, Y leads the losing spade; if B discards
another diamond, Y establishes the diamonds, and in either case wins
the game. This fine _coup_ occurred in actual play.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 7

  10. B Z A Y↷
  2♠ 6♠ 8♠ 2♣]

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 11 to 13.--Y (Trick 11) leads the spade. B is obliged (Trick 12)
to lead a diamond; and

              YZ score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (Y's hand is given above.)

       A'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.     |      Z'S HAND.
  Knv, 9, 8, 4     ♠|Kg, Qn, 2          ♠|Ace, 10, 6, 5     ♠
  Qn, 10, 9, 8, 2  ♡|Ace, Kg            ♡|Knv, 7, 4, 3      ♡
  10, 8, 6         ♣|Qn, 9              ♣|Kg, 7, 4          ♣
  9                ♢|10, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3  ♢|Knv, 2            ♢

At Trick 10, B should notice that he must lose the game if he retains
the queen of spades. His only chance of saving the game here is to
discard the queen of spades, in hopes of finding his partner with two
tricks in spades, or with a trick in spades and hearts. If A has not
these cards, the game is lost.

[Illustration]


HAND XXXVIII.

Grand Coup (_see_ pp. 151-155).

[Illustration: B'S HAND.

  A, Kg                            ♠
  6                                ♡
  Qn, Knv, 7, 6, 5, 4              ♣
  Kg, 5, 4, 3                      ♢

Score: Love-all.

Ace of clubs turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 0

  1. Z A↷ Y B
  4♡ Kg♡ 3♡ 6♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 0

  2. Z A↷ Y B
  7♡ Qn♡ 5♡ 4♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 1

  3. Z A↷ Y B
  10♣ A♡ 8♡ 3♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 2

  4. Z↷ A Y B
  2♢ 6♢ A♢ 5♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Z A Y↷ B
  A♣ 2♡ Knv♡ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 3

  6. Z↷ A Y B
  Qn♢ 10♢ 9♢ Kg♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 3

  7. Z A Y B↷
  7♢ Kg♣ 2♣ Qn♣]

REMARK.--The fall of the king shows that the remaining clubs are in Y's
hand.

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 3

  8. Z A↷ Y B
  8♢ 10♡ 9♡ 4♣]

REMARK.--Well played by B. All the hearts are out; the remaining
diamonds are in Z's hand (_see_ fall of the diamonds, Tricks, 2, 3,
4, 6, and 7), and all the clubs are in Y's hand. Y must therefore have
three trumps and two spades. If B discards a spade to this trick, he
cannot avoid leading trumps twice up to Y. In that case Y will make two
tricks in trumps, saving the game, as will be apparent by so playing
the cards. The result is otherwise if B trumps his partner's best
heart. He can then lead out ace and king of spades, to which Y must
follow suit; and by continuing with the five of clubs (the nine, eight,
and three are in against him), B secures the tenace, and wins the game.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRICKS 9 to 13.--B (Tricks 9 and 10) leads spades, and (Trick 11) the
six of clubs. B makes the last two tricks, and

              AB score three by cards and two by honours.


THE HANDS.

                       (B's hand is given above.)

        A'S HAND.      |      Y'S HAND.    |      Z'S HAND.
  9, 5, 4, 3, 2       ♠|Qn, 6             ♠|Knv, 10, 8, 7     ♠
  Ace, Kg, Qn, 10, 2  ♡|Knv, 9, 8, 5, 3   ♡|7, 4              ♡
  Kg                  ♣|9, 8, 3, 2        ♣|Ace, 10           ♣
  10, 6               ♢|Ace, 9            ♢|Qn, Knv, 8, 7, 2  ♢

At Trick 4, Z leads his lowest diamond, though holding five, because
strength in trumps is declared against. (_See_ Appendix A).


HAND XXXIX.

Grand Coup (_see_ pp. 151-155).

[Illustration: A'S HAND.

  6, 4, 3                          ♠
  A, 8                             ♡
  Knv, 10, 7, 6, 2                 ♣
  6, 4, 2                          ♢

Score: Four-all.

Knave of diamonds turned up.]


THE PLAY.

[Illustration: TRICK 1.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 1

  1. Y B Z A↷
  3♣ Kg♣ A♣ 6♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 2.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 2

  2. Y B Z↷ A
  2♠ 7♠ A♠ 3♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 3.

  TRICKS {AB, 0 YZ, 3

  3. Y B Z↷ A
  Kg♠ 5♠ 10♠ 4♠]

REMARK.--B has called.

[Illustration: TRICK 4.

  TRICKS {AB, 1 YZ, 3

  4. Y↷ B Z A
  Qn♡ 9♡ 2♡ A♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 5.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 3

  5. Y B Z A↷
  5♢ Qn♢ Knv♢ 6♢]

REMARK.--B has three of trumps.

[Illustration: TRICK 6.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 4

  6. Y B↷ Z A
  4♣ 9♣ Qn♣ 2♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 7.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 5

  7. Y B Z↷ A
  9♠ 8♠ Qn♠ 6♠]

[Illustration: TRICK 8.

  TRICKS {AB, 2 YZ, 6

  8. Y B Z↷ A
  10♡ 4♡ Kg♡ 8♡]

[Illustration: TRICK 9.

  TRICKS {AB, 3 YZ, 6

  9. Y B Z↷ A
  Knv♡ 3♢ 3♡ 4♢]

REMARK.--A plays a masterly _coup_ in trumping with the four. He argues
that B, having a weak hand, would not call for trumps with less than
five trumps, two honours. If so, B has a trump too many, and Y must
make a trick in trumps, unless B can play the _Grand Coup_ with the
three of trumps (_see_ Remark, Trick 5).

B undertrumps his partner, the _Grand coup_.

[Illustration: TRICK 10.

  TRICKS {AB, 4 YZ, 6

  10. Y B Z A↷
  7♢ 8♢ 5♡ 2♢]

[Illustration: TRICK 11.

  TRICKS {AB, 5 YZ, 6

  11. Y B↷ Z A
  8♣ 5♣ 6♡ 10♣]

[Illustration: TRICK 12.

  TRICKS {AB, 6 YZ, 6

  12. Y B Z A↷
  9♢ 10♢ Knv♠ Knv♣]

                       and AB win the odd trick.


THE HANDS.

                       (A's hand is given above.)

        Y'S HAND.    |      B'S HAND.     |      Z'S HAND.
  Kg, 9, 2          ♠|8, 7, 5            ♠|Ace, Qn, Knv, 10   ♠
  Qn, Knv, 10       ♡|9, 4               ♡|Kg, 7, 6, 5, 3, 2  ♡
  8, 4, 3           ♣|Kg, 9, 5           ♣|Ace, Qn            ♣
  Kg, 9, 7, 5       ♢|Ace, Qn, 10, 8, 3  ♢|Knv                ♢

At Trick 5 B can place all the remaining trumps; hence he undertrumps
his partner at Trick 10. Though his play is very good, A's _coup_
in trumping with the four, so as to render B's _coup_ possible, is
entitled to the palm. Hence, A's hand heads the example.

At Trick 9, Z ought to lead knave of spades, on which Y should discard
eight of clubs, when YZ win the game.

[Illustration]



APPENDIX A.

AMERICAN LEADS.


Since the appearance of the previous Edition of this work, American
Leads have been the subject of much discussion.

American Leads propose a systematic course of play when opening and
continuing the lead from the strong suit, as follows:--


LOW CARD LED.

_When you open a strong suit with a_ LOW CARD _lead your_ FOURTH-BEST.

When a four-card suit is opened with a low card, the _lowest_ is
the card selected. Instead of calling this the lowest, call it the
_fourth-best_.

When a five-card suit is opened with a low card, the _penultimate_
card is selected. Instead of calling this the penultimate, call it the
_fourth-best_.

When a six-card suit is opened with a low card, lead the
_ante-penultimate_. Instead of calling this the _ante-penultimate_,
call it the _fourth-best_.

And so on for suits of more than six cards. Every suit of four or more
cards, opened with a low card, is to be treated, on the first lead, as
though there were no cards below the fourth-best in the leader's hand.

Example:--

                  |Lead|
  From Qn, 10, 8, | 7, |
    "  Qn, 10, 8, | 7, | 6
    "  Qn, 10, 8, | 7, | 6, 4
    "  Qn, 10, 8, | 7, | &c., &c., &c.

By following this method, you show your partner, as regards a
strong suit which you open with a low card, that you _invariably_
hold _exactly three_ cards higher than the one first led; and not
infrequently what those cards are.


HIGH CARD LED FOLLOWED BY LOW CARD.

_When you open a strong suit with a_ HIGH CARD, _and next lead a_ LOW
CARD, _lead your_ ORIGINAL FOURTH-BEST.

When ace is led from ace and four or more small cards, after leading
the ace, lead the original fourth-best, _i.e._, the card you would have
led if opening with a small card. Thus, in trumps, with ace, knave,
nine, eight, seven, an advanced player would begin the eight. In plain
suits, the ace would be first led. The second lead of an American
Leader would be the eight, the original fourth-best, and not the seven.

By following this method, you inform your partner that you _invariably_
remain with _exactly two_ cards higher than the second card led, as
shown by the following tabulated example:--

       Lead|        |Then|
  From Ace,| Knv, 9,| 8, | 7
    "  Ace,| Knv, 9,| 8, | 7, 5
    "  Ace,| Knv, 9,| 8, | 7, 5, 3
    "  Ace,| Knv, 9,| 8, | &c., &c., &c.

By leading in this way you not infrequently tell your partner what your
remaining high cards are. Thus, with the above combination, if king,
queen come out on the second round, and your partner holds the ten, he
knows to a certainty that you command the suit, a fact about which he
would have been in doubt had you continued with the lowest.

The same rule, when a high card is followed by a low card, applies
to king led from king, queen, and small ones, when the king wins the
trick; and to ten, led from king, knave, ten and one or more small
ones, when the ten wins the trick. These are all the possible cases.
With king, knave, ten, nine, if the nine wins the first trick, the
leader goes on with a high card.


HIGH CARD LED FOLLOWED BY HIGH CARD.

_When you remain with_ TWO HIGH INDIFFERENT CARDS, _lead the_ HIGHER
_if you opened a_ SUIT OF FOUR; THE LOWER _if you opened a_ SUIT OF
FIVE _or more_. (_See_ Analysis of Leads in Detail, p. 64).

The typical example is the combination of ace, queen, knave, and one or
more small cards. With four in suit, ace, then queen is led. But with
more than four in suit, the knave is led after the ace, because then,
if your partner remains with king and one small card, you are strong
enough to invite him to win your trick in order to unblock your long
suit.

In the same way, if queen is led from queen, knave, ten and small,
you proceed with the knave, holding only ten and one small. But, with
knave, ten and more than one small, you continue with the ten, the
lower of two indifferent high cards, to induce your partner to win it,
and so to unblock your suit, should he remain with ace and one small
one, or with king and one small one.

Consequently, if your partner is an American Leader, and on the second
round of your suit, you lead the higher of two high indifferent cards,
he will count your strong suit to have consisted of _four cards_
exactly. On the other hand, when on the second round, you lead the
lower of two high indifferent cards, he will count _at least three_
of your strong suit still in your hand. As it is advantageous to your
partner to be able to count your hand in this way, whether he has
blocking cards or not, you should always pursue the same system. Thus:
you lead ten, from king, knave, ten, &c. The ten forces the queen. You
obtain the lead again. Your king, knave are now high indifferent cards.
If you lead the king, your partner knows you remain with knave and at
most one small card of the suit. If you lead the knave, your partner
knows you remain with king and at least two small ones.

Or, you lead knave, from king, queen, knave, and two or more small
ones. On leading the suit again, if you continue with king, your
partner counts queen, and exactly two small ones in your hand. If you
continue with queen, your partner counts king and more than two small
ones in your hand (_see_ p. 68).

Before deciding which of two or more high cards to lead, be sure
whether they are _indifferent_ cards. This information you can obtain
by consulting the Analysis of Leads (p. 64). When, in the Analysis, the
second lead is given without any qualification, the high cards are not
indifferent.

Three objections are urged against American Leads by players who oppose
their adoption. The first is,


_That they complicate the game._

Even were this stricture true, it is no objection to an intellectual
game that it exercises the minds of the players. But it has hardly any
foundation in fact. All an American Leader asks his partner to observe
is:--

That, when he originally leads a low card he holds three of the suit
higher than the card led.

That, when he originally leads a high card and next a low one, he still
holds two cards higher than the second card led. And,

That, when he originally leads a high card, and follows it with a high
card, he indicates, in many cases, to any one who knows the Analysis of
Leads (as every whist player ought), whether his strong suit consisted
of four or of more than four cards.

The second objection is,


_That they seldom affect the result._

The answer is that American Leads add little which is new to the game.
They only consolidate the received practice, and extend a law of
uniformity to cases not previously provided for.

The third objection is,


_That the information afforded may be of more use to the opponents than
to the leader's partner._

No doubt it may. But, under other whist conditions, experience tells
us that it is advantageous, in the long run, to convey information of
strength, notwithstanding its publication to the whole table. It is in
the highest degree improbable that a player will be at a disadvantage
by imparting too much information.

It should be borne in mind that American Leads, in their integrity,
assume not merely _an_ original lead, but _the_ original lead of the
hand,--the very first lead of all. When a player obtains the lead,
for the first time, after one or more tricks have been played, he may
open his strong suit in the same way as though he were _the_ original
leader. On the other hand, he may deem it advisable to open a weak
suit; or to lead through a strong one, or up to a weak one; or, if
great strength in trumps has been declared against him, may wish to
conceal the fact that his best suit is only a very long one of small
cards (_see_ Hand IX, Tricks 6 and 7); or, if late in the hand, he may
conclude that the time for precise exhibition of strength is past and
gone (_see_ Hand XIII, Tricks 8 and 9, and Hand XXIV, Tricks 5 and 6).
These, however, are matters of judgment, for which no hard and fast
rule can be laid down.

  [For demonstrations of the working of American Leads, and for
  Illustrative Hands, _see_ "Whist Developments," by "Cavendish."
  London: THOS. DE LA RUE and Co.]



APPENDIX B.

THE PLAIN-SUIT ECHO.


All whist players are aware that it is advisable to get rid of the
command of their partner's long suit. But no general rules have been
laid down to further this end. It has been left, for the most part, to
the ingenuity of the individual to decide for himself, on the spur of
the moment, how and when unblocking should be attempted.

Assuming an original lead of a high card from a plain suit of four or
more cards, the third hand may think fit to win his partner's trick in
order to free the suit. With regard to knave led, the play of the third
hand, holding ace, &c., is well known. And there are other cases, such
as the play of the third hand, holding ace, knave only, when king is
led originally; but these are too elementary for discussion here.

If the third hand does not endeavour to win the first trick in his
partner's suit, he is instructed to play his lowest card. This is, no
doubt, sound, except where the third hand holds four cards exactly of
his partner's suit, and he may block it should the lead have been from
more than four cards. Then he should sometimes retain in his hand the
lowest of his four cards, and play the next higher one. It is the
object of the Plain-Suit Echo to determine the cases, in which this
play is advisable.

The typical example is that of ace led originally by a strong suit
player. The second hand follows suit. The third hand holds king, queen,
knave, deuce of the suit. The lead was from at least five cards. If the
third hand is not to block his partner's suit, he must play the knave
to the ace. If the fourth hand follows suit, it is impossible to lose
by playing as above proposed; and, even if the fourth hand renounces,
it is only possible to lose when the lead was from five cards exactly,
and the four cards accompanying the ace are all very small ones.

Again:--The original leader (a strong suit player), leads queen of a
plain suit.

The third hand holds nine, eight, seven and a very small one. He may
block the suit by playing the very small one; if the lead was from
queen, knave, ten, he cannot possibly lose by playing the seven to the
queen; and, if the lead was from more than four cards he may gain.

It would occupy too much space to detail all the cases in which it is
advisable to follow the plan set forth in the examples, and to enter
into all the possible consequences that may ensue.

  [For a full examination of the working of the Plain-Suit Echo, and
  for Illustrative Hands, the advanced player is referred to "Whist
  Developments," by "Cavendish." London: THOS. DE LA RUE and Co.]



APPENDIX C.

ON THE ORIGINAL LEAD OF KING.


The Analysis of Leads, undertaken in order to ascertain the cases in
which the third hand should unblock his partner's suit, showed that
king led originally conveys less information to partner than the
lead of any other high card. It is the only case in which the lead
of a high card is made without at least five in suit, or without the
accompaniment of at least two other high cards.

Hence the student was told[48] that when a king is led originally,
he must not attempt to unblock the suit on the first round; and this
recommendation is quite sound.

It seemed strange that when ace, queen, knave, or ten is led
originally, the third hand, with four exactly in suit, should retain
his lowest card for two rounds; but that, when king is led, he should
abandon these tactics. The conclusion forced on the Author was, that
king should never be led originally, when the leader desires to invite
his partner to unblock.

The cases where the leader desires his partner to unblock, are those in
which the original lead is from more than four cards, the third hand
at the same time holding four of the suit exactly, as explained in
Appendix B, p. 287.

Therefore, the argument on the previous pages being admitted, king
should never be led originally from a suit of more than four cards;
and it almost follows that king should always be led from a suit of
four cards exactly, which contains an ace, king, or a king, queen
combination.


_Ace, king, queen, knave, and one or more small._

Lead knave, in all suits.

Holding more than two small, follow knave with queen; holding two
small, follow knave with king; holding one small, follow knave with ace.


_Ace, king, queen, knave, only._

Lead king, then knave, in all suits.

Ace, queen, exactly, are marked in the leader's hand.


_Ace, king, queen, and more than one small._

Lead queen, in all suits.

Holding more than two small, follow queen with king; holding two small,
follow queen with ace.


_Ace, king, queen, and one small._

Lead king, then queen, in all suits.

Ace and at most one small, are marked.


_Ace, king, and more than two small._

Lead ace, then king, in plain suits.

In trumps the same, holding seven trumps; with less than seven trumps,
lead fourth best.


_Ace, king, and two small._

Lead king in plain suits; the smallest in trumps.


_King, queen, knave, ten, and small (including the nine)._

Lead ten in all suits.

(_a_). If ten wins the trick:--

Holding more than two small, follow ten with knave; holding two small,
follow ten with queen; holding one small, follow ten with king.

(_b_). If ten forces ace:--

Holding more than one small, follow ten with knave; holding one small,
follow ten with queen.

In case _b_, ten cannot be followed with king, as then partner would be
doubtful as to the position of the queen.


_King, queen, knave, ten, only._

Lead king, then ten, in all suits.

Queen, knave, exactly, are marked in the leader's hand.

Here the leader runs the risk, in plain suits, of being blocked if his
partner holds ace, and one small one, originally. There is a conflict
of advantages and disadvantages; in favour, the Author believes, of
the lead of king, if the suit contains only four cards (_compare_ p.
67, bearing in mind that, when that was written, the lead of any card
rather than a king, from suits of more than four cards, had not been
the subject of consideration).


_King, queen, knave, more than one small._

Lead knave, in all suits.

Holding more than two small, follow knave with queen; holding two
small, follow knave with king.


_King, queen, knave, one small._

Lead king, then knave, in all suits.

If king forces ace, or if partner holds ace, the leader, on the
appearance of the knave, is marked with queen and one small. If ace is
not forced, the presumption is that the leader remains with ace, queen,
exactly (_see_ lead from ace, king, queen, knave).


_King, queen, ten, and more than one small, in trumps._

Lead queen.

If queen wins the trick, follow with fourth best _remaining in hand_.
King is marked; so, exclude the king, and on second lead continue with
the fourth best of the small cards.

Sooner or later, the leader will be marked with at least five trumps
originally, including king, ten; or, if he has not the ten, with at
least seven trumps originally.

If queen forces ace, on the appearance of the king, the leader is
marked with at least five trumps originally (one being the ten); or, if
he has not the ten, with at least seven trumps originally.


_King, queen, ten, and one small, in trumps._

Lead king.

Sooner or later, the leader will be marked with exactly four trumps
originally, including queen, ten.


_King, queen, and more than two small._

Lead queen.

If queen wins the trick, follow with fourth best remaining in hand
(_compare_, lead from king, queen, ten, and more than one small, in
trumps).

If queen forces ace, on the appearance of the king, the leader is
marked with more than four originally.

In trumps, the same, holding seven trumps; with less than seven trumps,
lead fourth best.


_King, queen, two small._

Lead king, in plain suits.

On the appearance of the ace, the leader is marked with queen and at
most two small.

In trumps, lead lowest.

       *       *       *       *       *

Granted that the third player will not trump an honour led originally
(and he will seldom lose by passing, even if weak in trumps), the
foregoing leads are clearly advantageous, as they enable the third
player to employ the unblocking system, and assist him in counting his
partner's hand.

       *       *       *       *       *

The mode of leading, here set forth, has been tried by a number of good
players, and has been generally approved. It is, therefore, strongly
recommended to the consideration of advanced players, assuming
always that the leader's partner is himself an advanced player.
Notwithstanding the strong opinion in its favour entertained by the
Author, it is still retained in an Appendix, that it may be tested by
further trial before being positively asserted as a substantive part of
the game.

FOOTNOTES:

[48] "Whist Developments" by "Cavendish." London: THOS. DE LA RUE and
Co.

[Illustration]

        THOS. DE LA RUE AND CO., PRINTERS, BUNHILL ROW, LONDON.

       *       *       *       *       *

                     MAY BE HAD OF ALL STATIONERS.

                                  THE
                   "ISOBATH" CONSTANT-LEVEL INKSTAND

                              (PATENTED)

                    CONSTRUCTED ON A NEW PRINCIPLE

                      OFFERING UNIQUE ADVANTAGES.

[Illustration: Adapted for all Countries and all Climates.

Made in a variety of useful and ornamental forms.

The Float is so weighted and poised as always to keep the Ink on the
same level, whatever quantity may be contained in the Reservoir. The
Mechanism cannot get out of order, as all the materials used are
entirely unaffected by Ink.]

I.--It provides a small DIPPING WELL in which the Ink is always
maintained at the SAME UNIFORM DEPTH. Every dip of Ink taken up by the
pen is at once automatically replaced from the Reservoir within, until
the supply of Ink has been exhausted.

II.--It contains a LARGE RESERVOIR OF INK (about ⅕-pint), which, from
its being completely enclosed, is protected from all access of dust
or insects, as well as from evaporation, and is thus kept in perfect
condition for an indefinite period.

III.--It secures a great economy of Ink; much saving of time and
trouble, as regards cleaning and replenishing; and the same convenient
"dip of Ink" is always obtainable without thought or trouble; whilst
inky fingers and an ill-supplied pen are alike avoided.

IV.--The INK IS ALWAYS READY; ALWAYS OF THE RIGHT DEPTH for dipping;
ALWAYS FRESH, and CLEAR for use.

              PRICES, from FIVE SHILLINGS to TWO GUINEAS.

              _Wholesale only of the Sole Manufacturers_,

              THOS. DE LA RUE & Co., Bunhill Row, LONDON.

                              NOW READY.

                         A NEW WORK ON WHIST.

                     _8vo., Cloth. Price 1s. 6d._

                           WHIST-PERCEPTION

                        ILLUSTRATED BY MEANS OF

                               END-HANDS

                           FROM ACTUAL PLAY.

                                  BY

                        "B.W.D." & "CAVENDISH."

                      IMPORTANT WORK ON PATIENCE.

             _Demy, Oblong 4to., Cloth, Gilt. Price 16s._

                            PATIENCE GAMES.
                                  BY
                              "CAVENDISH"

       (_AUTHOR OF "THE LAWS & PRINCIPLES OF WHIST," &c., &c._)

                     WITH EXAMPLES PLAYED THROUGH.

                  ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS DIAGRAMS,

                          PRINTED IN COLOURS.

              PUBLISHED BY THOS. DE LA RUE & CO. LONDON,
                     AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS.

                         WORKS BY "CAVENDISH."

                      THE STANDARD WORK ON WHIST.

 _18th Edition. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 5s. Greatly enlarged and
       revised throughout. Handsomely printed in Red and Black._

                    THE LAWS & PRINCIPLES OF WHIST.

                   *       *       *       *       *

  _3rd Edition. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 5s. Handsomely printed
                          in Red and Black._

                          WHIST DEVELOPMENTS:
                AMERICAN LEADS AND THE PLAIN-SUIT ECHO.

                   *       *       *       *       *

         _6th Edition. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 3s. 6d._

                          THE LAWS OF PIQUET,

              ADOPTED BY THE "PORTLAND" AND "TURF" CLUBS.

                        EDITED BY "CAVENDISH:"
             WITH A TREATISE ON THE GAME, BY "CAVENDISH."

                   *       *       *       *       *

  _3rd Edition. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Revised throughout. Price 2s.
                                 6d._

                          THE LAWS OF ÉCARTÉ,

              ADOPTED BY THE "TURF" AND "PORTLAND" CLUBS.
             WITH A TREATISE ON THE GAME, BY "CAVENDISH."

                   *       *       *       *       *

          _2nd Edition 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 1s. 6d._

                         ROUND GAMES AT CARDS.

                            BY "CAVENDISH."

                   *       *       *       *       *

                _8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 1s. 6d._

                     THE LAWS OF RUBICON BÉZIQUE.

                    ADOPTED BY THE "PORTLAND" CLUB.

                        EDITED BY "CAVENDISH."
             WITH A TREATISE ON THE GAME, BY "CAVENDISH."

                   *       *       *       *       *

           _8th Edition. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 1s._

                        THE GAME OF LAWN TENNIS
                      (WITH THE AUTHORIZED LAWS).

              PUBLISHED BY THOS. DE LA RUE & CO. LONDON,
                     AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS.

                          THE POCKET SERIES.
                   BY "CAVENDISH." Price 6_d._ each.

               WHIST (3)--GUIDE; LAWS; LEADS. IMPERIAL.
               BÉZIQUE (with New Laws). POLISH BÉZIQUE.
                 ÉCARTÉ. EUCHRE. SPOIL-FIVE. CRIBBAGE.
                       CALABRASELLA. SIXTY-SIX.
                DOMINOES. CHESS. DRAUGHTS. BACKGAMMON.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                    THE STANDARD WORK ON BILLIARDS.
  _5th Edition. Carefully revised. Crown 8vo. Cloth. Price 10s. 6d._

                              BILLIARDS.
          By J. BENNETT, EX-CHAMPION.  Edited by "CAVENDISH."
                  With upwards of 200 Illustrations.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                            CLAY ON WHIST.

    _Improved Edition. Cap. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Extra. Price 3s. 6d._

                         LAWS OF SHORT WHIST,
                           By J. L. BALDWIN;

                      AND A TREATISE ON THE GAME,
                            By JAMES CLAY.

                   *       *       *       *       *

    _5th Edition. Enlarged and Improved. Cap. 8vo. Cloth, Gilt Ex.
                            Price 3s. 6d._

                       THE PHILOSOPHY OF WHIST.

                          BY DR. POLE, F.R.S.

   An Essay on the Scientific and Intellectual Aspects of the Modern
                                 Game.

                   *       *       *       *       *

     _By the same Author. Handsomely Printed on a Card. Price 3d._

                      PHILOSOPHICAL WHIST RHYMES.

                 MANUFACTURED BY THOS. DE LA RUE & CO.
              AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS AND STATIONERS.

                         PATENT PLAYING CARDS.

       MOGULS (OR BEST QUALITY), HARRYS (OR SECOND QUALITY), and
      the cheaper kinds of HARRYS and HIGHLANDERS, with Round or
                   Square Corners, in great variety.

     _The round-cornered cards are cut by improved machinery to an
                absolute uniformity in size and shape._

                   *       *       *       *       *

                        "DEXTER" PLAYING CARDS,

        WITH PATENT INDEX-PIPS, ROUNDED CORNERS, AND ENAMELLED
                          FACES. EXTRA THIN.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                        "PIGMY" PLAYING CARDS.

       BEST QUALITY, HIGHLY ENAMELLED BACKS, IN ASSORTED TINTS.

      Enclosed in neat Sliding Boxes, each containing Two Packs.

      _Adapted for the Game of_ "PATIENCE." _Price 1s. per Box._

                   *       *       *       *       *

                       "PATIENCE" PLAYING CARDS.

                             BEST QUALITY.

      HIGHLY ENAMELLED BACKS, IN ASSORTED TINTS, AND INDEX-PIPS.

          Enclosed in neat Boxes, each containing Two Packs.

            IN A GREAT VARIETY OF STYLES.  PRICES FROM 2/6.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                      "MIDGET" TOY PLAYING CARDS.

    TINTED BACKS, ASSORTED. Each Pack enclosed in a neat Tuck Case.

                         PRICE 2_d._ PER PACK.

                   *       *       *       *       *

                        BÉZIQUE PLAYING CARDS,

              IN BOXES, FOR TWO, THREE, OR FOUR PLAYERS.

               With Markers, and "GUIDE" by "CAVENDISH."

        IN A GREAT VARIETY OF STYLES.  PRICES FROM 2/6 TO 63/-

              PUBLISHED BY THOS. DE LA RUE & CO. LONDON,
              AND SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS AND STATIONERS.

                              DE LA RUE'S
                           INDELIBLE DIARIES
                                  AND
                         RED-LETTER CALENDARS.

                            POCKET DIARIES.

DE LA RUE'S IMPROVED INDELIBLE DIARIES AND MEMORANDUM BOOKS, in three
sizes, fitted in Velvet, Russia, Calf, Turkey Morocco, Persian, or
French Morocco cases; plain or richly gilt, with gilt clasps or elastic
bands, in a great variety of styles. All these Diaries are fitted with
electro-gilt indelible pencils. Also supplied in enamelled paper covers.

  A size  3⅛ by 1⅛ inches.
  B    "  3¾ by 2½ "
  C    "  4½ by 2¾ "

                 CONDENSED DIARIES & ENGAGEMENT BOOKS,

In three sizes (A, B, & C, as above), and in a great variety of Plain
and Ornamental leather cases; they are also published in enamelled
paper covers, suitable for the Card Case or Purse.

                      COMPANION MEMORANDUM BOOKS.

For use with the Condensed Diaries; A, B, & C sizes, as above.

  N.B.--All Condensed Diary and Calendar Cases (except the Tuck) are
  fitted with an extra elastic band for the reception of these books.

                           HALF-CROWN DIARY.

DE LA RUE'S IMPROVED DIARY AND MEMORANDUM BOOK; for Library or
Counting-house use. E size, 7⅝ by 4¾ inches.

                           POCKET CALENDARS.

DE LA RUE'S RED-LETTER CALENDARS AND ALMANACS, in two sizes (A & B, as
above), in enamelled paper covers, suitable for the Card Case or Pocket
Book. Also interleaved; and in Russia, Persian, and French Morocco
cases.

                  "FINGER-SHAPED" CONDENSED DIARIES.

In elegant sliding cases, extra gilt. Adapted for the Pocket or
Reticule.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES


  Used a CLOCKWISE TOP SEMICIRCLE ARROW, ↷, to indicate the lead in
  the hand illustration comments.

  Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
  errors.

  Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

  Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Cavendish on Whist - 18th edition" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home