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Title: Elocution Simplified - With An Appendix on Lisping, Stammering, Stuttering, and - other defects of speech.
Author: Fobes, Walter K.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  _A COMPANION TO BAKER'S READING CLUB._


  ELOCUTION SIMPLIFIED;
  WITH
  AN APPENDIX ON LISPING, STAMMERING, STUTTERING,
  AND OTHER DEFECTS OF SPEECH.

  BY
  WALTER K. FOBES,
  GRADUATE OF BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ORATORY.


  WITH AN INTRODUCTION
  BY
  GEORGE M. BAKER,
  AUTHOR OF THE READING-CLUB SERIES, ETC.


  BOSTON:
  LEE AND SHEPARD, PUBLISHERS.

  NEW YORK:
  CHARLES T. DILLINGHAM.
  1877.



  COPYRIGHT.
  1877,
  BY WALTER K. FOBES.



  THIS LITTLE BOOK
  IS DEDICATED TO
  PROF. LEWIS B. MONROE,
  IN TESTIMONY OF APPRECIATION OF HIS MANY QUALIFICATIONS AS A
  TEACHER OF THIS ART, AND OF THE RESPECT AND AFFECTION
  WITH WHICH HE WILL EVER BE
  REGARDED BY HIS FRIEND
  AND PUPIL,
  THE AUTHOR.



PREFACE.

      "Why write this book?" say you.
      "Because it is needed," say I.


There is no "digest" of elocution that is both methodical and practical,
and that is low in price, now in the market.

This book is an epitome of the science of elocution, containing nothing
that is not necessary for you to know, if you wish to make yourself a
good reader or speaker.

You who will thoroughly study and digest this book, and then put in
practice what you here have learned, will have started on the road, the
goal of which is Oratory.



CONTENTS.


                                                                  PAGE
  PREFACE                                                            5
  INTRODUCTION                                                      11
  ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                                    15
    METHOD OF STUDY OF ELOCUTION                                    15

  PART I.
  PHYSICAL GYMNASTICS                                               17
    ATTITUDE                                                        17
      Standing Position                                             17
      Speaker's Position                                            18
      Sitting Position                                              18
      Changing Position                                             18
      Poise of Body                                                 18
      Rising on Toes                                                19
      Holding the Book                                              19
      Note on Attitude                                              19
    CHEST EXPANSION                                                 19
      Active and Passive Chest                                      19
      Arms at Side                                                  19
      Fore-arm Vertical                                             20
      Full-arm Percussion                                           20
      Hand Percussion                                               20
    BODY MOVEMENTS                                                  21
      Bend Forward and Back                                         21
      Bend Right and Left                                           21
      Turn Right and Left                                           21
    NECK MOVEMENTS                                                  21
      Bend Forward and Back                                         21
      Bend Right and Left                                           21
      Turn Right and Left                                           21
      Note on Physical Gymnastics                                   21

  PART II.
  VOCAL GYMNASTICS                                                  22
    BREATHING                                                       22
      Abdominal                                                     22
      Costal                                                        23
      Dorsal                                                        23
      Puffing Breath                                                23
      Puffing Breath, with pause                                    23
      Puffing Breath, breathe between                               23
      Holding the Breath                                            24
    TONE                                                            24
      Glottis Stroke                                                24
      Soft Tones                                                    25
      Swelling Tones                                                25
    PITCH                                                           25
      Learn Scale                                                   26
      Chant Sentences                                               26
      Read Sentences                                                26
    INFLECTION                                                      26
      Major Falling                                                 26
      Major Rising                                                  27
      Major Rising and Falling                                      27
      Minor Rising and Falling                                      27
      Circumflex                                                    27
      Monotone                                                      27
    QUALITY                                                         28
      Whisper                                                       28
      Aspirated                                                     28
      Pure                                                          28
      Orotund                                                       28
    FORCE                                                           29
      Gentle                                                        29
      Moderate                                                      29
      Loud                                                          29
    STRESS                                                          29
      Radical                                                       29
      Median                                                        29
      Terminal                                                      30
      Thorough                                                      30
      Compound                                                      30
      Tremolo                                                       30
    MOVEMENT                                                        30
      Quick                                                         30
      Moderate                                                      30
      Slow                                                          31
    ARTICULATION                                                    31
    ELEMENTARY SOUNDS                                               31
      Vowels                                                        31
      Consonants                                                    32
    SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL AND VOCAL GYMNASTICS                        33

  PART III.
  ELOCUTION                                                         36
    PLEASANT QUALITY                                                36
    ARTICULATION                                                    38
      Syllables                                                     38
      Words                                                         38
      Accent                                                        38
      Phrases                                                       39
      Emphasis                                                      39
      Sentences                                                     39
    FULNESS AND POWER                                               42
    INFLECTION                                                      44
      Major Rising                                                  45
      Major Falling                                                 45
      Minor Rising                                                  46
      Minor Falling                                                 47
      Circumflex                                                    47
      Monotone                                                      48
    PITCH                                                           49
      High                                                          49
      Middle                                                        50
      Low                                                           51
      Very Low                                                      52
    QUALITY                                                         52
      Whisper                                                       53
      Aspirate                                                      53
      Pure Tone                                                     54
      Orotund                                                       55
    MOVEMENT                                                        56
      Quick                                                         56
      Moderate                                                      57
      Slow                                                          58
      Very Slow                                                     58
    FORCE                                                           59
      Gentle                                                        59
      Moderate                                                      60
      Loud                                                          61
      Very Loud                                                     61
    STRESS                                                          62
      Radical                                                       63
      Median                                                        63
      Terminal                                                      64
      Thorough                                                      65
      Compound                                                      65
      Tremolo                                                       66
    TRANSITION                                                      66
    MODULATION                                                      70
    STYLE                                                           77
      Conversational                                                78
      Narrative                                                     79
      Descriptive                                                   79
      Didactic                                                      80
      Public Address                                                81
      Declamatory                                                   82
      Dramatic                                                      83

  PART IV.
  HINTS ON ELOCUTION                                                85
    DEFECTS OF SPEECH                                               93



INTRODUCTION.


Rev. Dr. Hall of New York says, "There is one accomplishment in
particular which I would earnestly recommend to you: cultivate
assiduously the ability to read well. I stop to particularize this,
because it is a thing so very much neglected, and because it is such an
elegant and charming accomplishment. Where one person is really
interested by music, twenty are pleased by good reading. Where one
person is capable of becoming a skilful musician, twenty may become good
readers. Where there is one occasion suitable for the exercise of
musical talent, there are twenty for that of good reading.

"What a fascination there is in really good reading! What a power it
gives one! In the hospital, in the chamber of the invalid, in the
nursery, in the domestic and in the social circle, among chosen friends
and companions, how it enables you to minister to the amusement, the
comfort, the pleasure, of dear ones, as no other accomplishment can! No
instrument of man's devising can reach the heart as does that most
wonderful instrument, the human voice. It is God's special gift to his
chosen creatures. Fold it not away in a napkin.

"Did you ever notice what life and power the Holy Scriptures have when
well read? Have you ever heard of the wonderful effects produced by
Elizabeth Fry on the criminals of Newgate by simply reading to them the
parable of the Prodigal Son? Princes and peers of the realm, it is said,
counted it a privilege to stand in the dismal corridors, among felons
and murderers, merely to share with them the privilege of witnessing the
marvellous pathos which genius, taste, and culture could infuse into
that simple story."

Elocution trains the voice to obey the mind, and to rightly express
thought and feeling. It is necessary to those who read or speak in
public; to persons with defective speech; to those with nasal, shrill,
throaty, or husky voices; to persons with diseased throat, or liability
to it, arising from wrong use of voice.

The practice of the art of elocution is as necessary to the reader or
speaker as practice of the art of singing is to one who intends to
become a public singer. Any one attempting to sing for the public
without previous practice would be justly hissed from the stage: and a
like fate overtakes most speakers, who, without previous study of
elocution, attempt to speak in public; that is, very few go to hear
them.


CLERGYMEN

should learn to read impressively the Bible, Litany, hymns, and sermons:
for as Dr. Holland says, "When a minister goes before an audience, it is
reasonable to ask and expect that he shall be accomplished in the arts
of expression; that he shall be a good writer and speaker. It makes
little difference that he knows more than his audience, is better than
his audience, has the true matter in him, if the art by which he conveys
his thought is shabby. It ought not to be shabby, because it is not
necessary that it should be. There are plenty of men who can develop the
voice, and so instruct in the arts of oratory that no man need go into
the pulpit unaccompanied by the power to impress upon the people all of
wisdom that he carries." The same writer says of


STUDENTS.

"Multitudes of young men are poured out upon the country, year after
year, to get their living by public speech, who cannot even read well.
The art of public speech has been shamefully neglected in all our higher
training-schools. It has been held subordinate to every thing else, when
it is of prime importance. I believe more attention is now paid to the
matter than formerly. The colleges are training their students better,
and there is no danger that too much attention will be devoted to it.
The only danger is, that the great majority will learn too late that the
art of oratory demands as much study as any other of the higher arts;
and that, without it, they must flounder along through life practically
shorn of half the power that is in them, and shut out from a large
success."


TEACHERS

should learn elocution so as to teach in a pleasing, effective manner;
and also to teach reading in schools, so that children may learn to read
in an easy, agreeable way, and give thought to what they read; thus
leading a child in all studies to get ideas from books, and not merely
words without meaning.


PUBLIC SPEAKERS

should, by study of elocution, learn the best manner of moving,
persuading, and instructing their audiences; thus adding to their own
popularity, and consequently widening their influence.


LAWYERS,

by practice of elocution, will find greater ease in speaking to witness
or jury, and thus be greatly aided in their work.


ACTORS AND PUBLIC READERS

lose both time and money by a neglect of elocution, the practice of
which is essential to success in their vocation.


SINGERS,

by study of elocution, can best obtain that perfect articulation and
elegant expression so necessary to the successful singer.


ALL PERSONS

who have a taste for reading should study elocution, as reading aloud in
the social or home circle is one of the most instructive, pleasing, and
healthful pastimes in which we can indulge.


DEFECTIVE SPEECH,

as lisping, stammering, stuttering, &c., can be entirely cured by a
study and diligent practice of elocution.


UNPLEASANT VOICES,

either shrill, nasal, throaty, husky, or with any other disagreeable
quality, can be made agreeable by practice of elocution.

To meet all these wants, this treatise has been prepared. Embracing as
it does a thorough exposition of the principles of elocution in an
eminently practical form, adapted to the requirements of the student,
the professional man, and the amateur, by a graduate of the Boston
School of Oratory (acknowledged to be the best Institute of Elocution
America has produced), himself a successful teacher and reader, it seems
to present the whole science in a nutshell, so that he "who runs may
read" in reality, if he but follow the instructions of this Manual. Here
elocution is not only simplified, but, in this neat and cheap form,
placed within the reach of all.

                                                      GEORGE M. BAKER.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT.


I would here acknowledge my indebtedness to Prof. Lewis B. Monroe, Dean
of Boston University School of Oratory, for what I have learned of
expression in elocution; to Prof. A. Graham Bell of Boston for valuable
instruction in articulation and inflection; to Prof. Edward B. Oliver of
Mendelssohn Musical Institute of Boston for his most excellent
instruction in tone.

The method of study of this book is the result of the knowledge gained
from these three superior instructors. The plan of Part Three will be
found to be that of Monroe's Sixth Reader.


METHOD OF STUDY OF ELOCUTION.

Part First, a series of gymnastics to give strength and elasticity to
the muscles used in speaking, to expand the chest, and to get a correct
position of body, so that speaking may be without effort, and yet
powerful.

Part Second, a system of vocal exercises for daily practice, to train
the voice, and get command of tone, quality, pitch, inflection, force,
stress, articulation, and right manner of breathing.

Part Third, the application of the vocal exercises to the reading of
short extracts, showing the effect when thus applied, and showing the
difference between the seven styles,--conversational, narrative,
descriptive, didactic, public address, declamatory, and emotional or
dramatic.

There will be found references to select pieces in Baker's "Reading Club
and Handy Speaker," for practice in the different styles of reading.

Hoping this little book may be of benefit to many, it is sent forth to
help those who love the art, but with no thought of recommending this
book for self-instruction, and substituting it for the instruction to be
gained from a good teacher of the art. If a good teacher is not to be
had, use this book.

                                                      WALTER K. FOBES.
  CAMBRIDGE, MASS., October, 1877.



ELOCUTION SIMPLIFIED.



PART ONE.

PHYSICAL GYMNASTICS.


Goethe says, "All art must be preceded by a certain mechanical
expertness."

You find it so in the art of playing the piano: the fingers must be made
nimble, and the wrists elastic, before any thing else can be well done.
In the art of singing you have to exercise the voice in many ways to get
command of it. So, in the art of elocution, it is necessary to practise
the mechanics of physical and vocal culture, that you may be prepared to
express properly your thought and feeling.

You need first a healthy body, elastic and strong in muscles, and
especially in those muscles used in the production of voice. For this
latter purpose I will describe as clearly as I can Monroe's system of
gymnastics, and for the former recommend any other gymnastics that will
give health, strength, and especially elasticity.


ATTITUDE.

1. STANDING POSITION.--Hamlet, so Shakespeare tells us, ends a letter to
Ophelia thus:--

      "Whilst this machine is to him, Hamlet."

Your body is the machine by means of whose working you express your mind
and feelings. If you were to run a steam-engine, you would be very
careful to place the machine in such a position, that it would do the
most work with the least wear and tear. You must do the same with this
machine, your body. To get a correct standing position, place yourself
with back against a smooth wall in the room, with shoulders flat, your
back as nearly straight as you can make it, and every part, from head to
heel, touching the wall. This gives you an upright position, but feels
uncomfortable, because the weight is too much on the heels. Sway the
whole body in its upright position forward, so that the weight will come
mostly on the balls of the feet; and, in doing so, do not bend any part
except at the ankles. You are now in a proper position for speaking. The
head is erect, shoulders thrown back, chest expanded, back nearly
straight, the weight of the body is about equal on ball and heel of the
feet, and your poise of body as it would be naturally in the act of
taking a step forward. This puts every part of your body in the best
condition for easy speaking.

2. SPEAKER'S POSITION.--This position should be assumed before an
audience when some other position is not required for dramatic
expression. It is the standing position, with the weight upon one foot,
and the other advanced. Let the advance foot be about a heel's distance
from the middle of the foot behind, and form a right angle with it.

3. SITTING POSITION.--When you read in a sitting position, the body
should be as in speaker's position, and feet also, the poise of body
being forward.

4. CHANGE OF POSITION.--You sometimes wish to turn to address your
audience at one side. To change gracefully from the speaker's position,
turn the foot in advance on the ball, outward, until it becomes parallel
with the foot behind; then take the weight on it, and turn the other
foot till you have correct speaker's position. If, as you stood at
first, facing the audience, your weight was on the right foot, you will
find yourself facing to the right; if the weight was on left, you will
face left. When facing the audience, to change the weight from one foot
to the other, take one short step either forward or back.

5. POISE OF BODY.--To get steadiness of body, to keep a correct poise,
and to prevent all unseemly swaying, when standing to read or speak,
assume standing position, and, keeping feet flat on the floor, sway
forward until the weight comes entirely on the ball of the feet. Don't
bend the body. Then sway back to standing position. Then sway backward,
keeping feet flat on the floor and the body straight, until the weight
is entirely on the heels; from that sway forward to position.

6. RISE UPON THE TOES.--For the same purpose as the above. Assume
standing position, and rise as high as possible on the toes very slowly;
then sink slowly so as to come back to standing position. Be very
careful not to sway backward in coming down, and you will find yourself
in the exact poise of standing position. Also do the same from speaker's
position, rising on one foot.

7. HOLDING THE BOOK.--Hold your book in the left hand, on one side of
the body, so that your face will not be hid from the audience. The top
of the book should be about even with the shoulder. Many, in reading,
hold the book in front of them; but that is not so pleasant to an
audience, and leads to a stooping position, a contracted chest, and ill
health.

NOTE.--All the foregoing exercises relate to position of body necessary
for the most powerful, and at the same time the easiest, action of the
vocal organs; also to the attitudes most pleasing to an audience when
they look upon a reader or speaker. Practise them until they become
habits, and so unconsciously you will assume correct position when you
stand.


CHEST EXPANSION.

For purposes of speech, you need to use more breath than for ordinary
breathing or conversation. You therefore need to make as much room as
possible for good fresh air by exercise to expand the chest. Elocution
is beneficial to health for this reason.

1. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE CHEST.--Your chest in its ordinary position is
what, in elocution, is called passive chest. The active chest is that
assumed in the standing position, where the chest is raised up slightly
and expanded, with the shoulders drawn back. Practise as an exercise the
active and passive chest, alternating from one to the other without
breathing, or moving the shoulders. The active chest must be kept in all
the physical and vocal gymnastics, and at all time during speech. With
practice it will soon become established as a habit; and your every-day
attitude will be more erect as a consequence.

2. ARMS AT SIDE.--Place your arms at the side, with elbows bent, so
that from elbow to hand the arms are horizontal, and parallel with each
other. Draw the elbows back, clinch the fist with palms up, and make
chest active, keeping the back straight. Take a full breath, and hold it
(see "Breathing"); then carry the arms at full length in front of you,
your hands open and as high up as the shoulders; then bring them back to
the position you started from, with hands clinched, palms up, and pull
back with all your strength, raising the chest slightly more; then give
out the breath. After some practice you may do it twice upon one breath,
being sure to keep the arms as close to the body as you can; for, if you
spread your arms, you will strain the muscles.

3. FORE-ARM VERTICAL.--Assume standing position, and bend the arms,
placing them vertically, and parallel with each other, at the side, with
clinched hands as high as the shoulder; turn the fist out from the
shoulder, raise the chest as much as you can, and, taking a full breath,
hold it; bring the arms forward so as to touch the elbows together, if
you can; then draw them back to first position, and pull downward and
backward as hard as you can; then give out the breath. After some
practice, do this twice on one breath, being sure to keep the arms and
hands close to the body.

4. FULL-ARM PERCUSSION.--In ordinary breathing, it is seldom you fill
your lungs to their fullest capacity; and some of the air-cells are not
filled, especially those at the extreme edges of the lungs. This and the
following exercise are for the purpose of sending air into those
portions of the lungs not ordinarily filled. Assume standing position;
take a full breath, and hold it; then strike with the right hand upon
the top of the left chest a very quick and very elastic blow, striking
with fingers, and swinging the arm freely from its position at the side;
then strike with left hand on right chest in same manner; repeat with
each hand, and then give out the breath. Never strike with the flat palm
or clinched fist, as that is very injurious and unhealthy.

5. HAND PERCUSSION.--Assume standing position, and place your hands on
your chest, with elbows as high as the shoulders; make chest active;
take a full breath, and retain it while you strike alternately eight
light elastic blows with each hand; then give out the breath.


BODY MOVEMENTS.

The muscles of the waist are the front or abdominal, the side or costal,
the back or dorsal muscles. These muscles are very important in speech;
and upon the strength and elasticity of these, and the inner muscles
acting in connection with them, depend the force and strength of your
voice. Three very simple movements are here given, which will give some
measure of strength and elasticity to these muscles.

1. BODY BEND FORWARD AND BACK.--From standing position bend forward,
keeping the back straight, and bending only at the hip-joints; touch the
floor with your hands, if you can; then assume upright position, and
bend back as far as you can.

2. BEND RIGHT AND LEFT.--From standing position, bend to right side as
far as possible, bending only at the waist, and stretching the costal
muscles; then assume upright position, and bend to left in same manner.

3. TURN RIGHT AND LEFT.--From standing position turn the body on the
waist, keeping the hips still, and twisting the waist-muscles, first to
the right, then to the left.


NECK MOVEMENTS.

The neck movements are necessary, because many of the disagreeable
qualities of the voice are due to inelasticity of the muscles of the
neck. The movements are in the same directions as for the body.

1. BEND FORWARD AND BACK.

2. BEND RIGHT AND LEFT.

3. TURN RIGHT AND LEFT.

It is not necessary to describe them at length: but, in bending right
and left, be careful to keep the head from bending slightly backward or
forward at the same time; and, in the turning of head, keep it erect.

NOTE.--This completes the physical gymnastics. Practise them until the
purpose for which they are intended has been accomplished, and
afterwards occasionally, to keep what you have gained. Take each
exercise two or three times in succession. When thoroughly learned,
this will not take more than five minutes. Practise them five minutes
at morning and night.



PART TWO.

VOCAL GYMNASTICS.


You have no need to take any special exercise in walking for the
ordinary purposes of life; but, if you wished to be a "walkist," you
would need special practice to train and develop the muscles for that
purpose. You may be a good singer, able to sing for your own amusement
or that of your friends, without specially training the singing-voice;
but, if you wished to sing in public, you would, if you were wise, train
your singing-voice very carefully. As in these cases, so with the voice
in speaking. For all ordinary purposes of speech, you need no special
training of the speaking-voice; but when, as teacher, clergyman, lawyer,
lecturer, actor, public reader, or in any other capacity, you are called
upon to do more with the voice than others, you ought to train and
develop your vocal powers. For this purpose, the following series of
exercises are given for practice.


BREATHING.

As it is necessary that you should take in and give out more breath in
speaking than at other times, you ought to be able to do this in a
natural manner. If you will practise these breathing-exercises until
they are easy for you, the breath in your reading or speaking will take
care of itself. Practise breathing in the open air, and take in and give
out the breath through the nose without making the slightest sound in so
doing.

1. ABDOMINAL BREATHING.--Take standing position and active chest; place
the fingers on the abdominal muscles, and the thumbs on the costal
muscles; take a full breath, making the abdominal muscles start first,
and move outward; then let the muscles sink in as the breath comes out.
Make as much movement of these muscles as you can, both in and out; and
be sure you keep the shoulders from moving. Pay particular attention to
the movement of the abdominal muscles, letting all the rest (except the
shoulders) move as may be easy to you. Practise this way of breathing
until you can do it easily; and, if it makes you dizzy, do not be
alarmed, but wait till the dizziness is entirely gone before you try
again.

2. COSTAL BREATHING.--Assume standing position with active chest; place
the fingers on the costal muscles, and thumbs at the back; inhale a full
breath, expanding as much as possible the costal muscles and ribs. In
giving out the breath, make them sink in as much as possible. Keep
shoulders still in breathing in and out, and let all other muscles be
free to move as they may.

3. DORSAL BREATHING.--Assume standing position with active chest; place
the fingers at the back on dorsal muscles, and thumbs on the side; take
a full breath, trying to expand the muscles under your fingers as much
as you can. Rightly done, the abdominal and costal muscles, and the
ribs, will also expand; the chest, if not already active, will rise; the
shoulders will remain quiet. In giving out the breath, let the chest be
the last to sink. This is the way of breathing in every healthy man,
woman, and child. Any manner of dressing the body that hinders free and
easy action of the abdominal, costal, and dorsal muscles, and the ribs,
leads to ill health, because it interferes with the vital process of
breathing; and ill health is fatal to success in any art.

4. PUFFING THE BREATH.--Assume standing position, with active chest;
take a full breath, and, rounding the lips as if you were about to say
the word "who," blow the breath out as you would in blowing out a light;
inhale again, and repeat the puffing.

5. PUFF AND PAUSE.--Puff the breath as before, three times, pausing
about five or more seconds, holding the breath between the puffs. In
holding the breath, let there be no pressure upon the lungs or throat,
but control it by keeping the waist-muscles still. (See "Holding
Breath.")

6. PUFF AND BREATHE.--Puff three times in the same way as before,
breathing between the puffs, thus: place the fingers of one hand on the
upper part of the chest, the fingers of the other hand on the abdominal
muscles; keep the chest still, and make the abdominal muscles sink
every time you puff out the breath, and expand, every time you take in
breath, between the puffs. In this exercise breathe through both nose
and mouth. By practice of these three ways of expelling breath you get
command of it.

7. HOLDING THE BREATH.--When you hold your breath for a longer or
shorter time, or try to control it for any purpose of speech, you should
do so by means of the muscles spoken of in "Dorsal Breathing," as being
the ones used in right manner of breathing. You must try to control the
breath by keeping the waist-muscles still; and there should be no
feeling of pressure or uneasiness on the lungs, or in the throat or
mouth. "If at first you don't succeed, try, try again: time will bring
you your reward: try, try again." Get control of the waist-muscles so as
to keep them still; and, while you hold them still, there is no
possibility of the breath getting out.


TONE.

A good tone in speech is as much to be desired as it is in song. Some
have it as a gift of nature; and all can acquire it, in a degree, by
judicious practice. If you have an excellent voice, you can make it
still more excellent by practice; and, if you have a poor voice, you
can, by practice, make it full, pleasant, and effective, and excel that
one who has a good voice, but makes no effort to improve it. The
tone-exercises here given are designed to give command of tone, and
develop purity and power. They should be practised five minutes at a
time, at four different times of the day, and double that time if
possible, in order to get the greatest amount of good from them. Use any
tones of your voice, high or low, without being at all particular about
an exact musical pitch; though, if you can practise with an organ or
piano, you will find it much more beneficial.

1. GLOTTIS STROKE.--Assume standing position with active chest; take
full breath, and whisper forcibly the word "who" three times. Repeat the
same. Now whisper "who" twice, and speak it aloud the third time; then
whisper "who" once, and speak it aloud the second and third time; then
speak "who" aloud three times. Now speak "who" twice, and the third time
say "_oo_" as those letters sound in the word _woo_; then say "who"
once, and "_oo_" the second and third time; then "_oo_" three times.
You should make both the whisper and vocal sound very short and sudden,
without any feeling of contraction or effort in the throat or mouth. It
should seem to you as if the sound came from the lips; and, while you
are energetic in the exercise, it must be done with perfect ease. You
have thus proceeded, from an easy, forcible whisper, to an easy,
forcible sound, and have thus obtained what is called the "Glottis
Stroke." After diligent practice on the above exercise, use any of the
short vowels (see "Articulation"); speaking each vowel three times very
shortly, as you did the vowel-sound _oo_.

2. SOFT TONES.--Assume standing position with active chest, and take
breath; prolong very softly _oo_ as long as your breath will let you,
being careful not to force the sound to continue after you feel the
slightest need of breath, and also not to change the position of the
mouth from beginning to end of the sound. Repeat three times. In this
exercise you will probably hear the voice waver, and find it difficult
to keep it very soft, and yet distinct. Practice will overcome this, and
the exercise will be found very beneficial. The ability to do it shows
cultivation of voice. After some time, use also the long vowels. (See
"Articulation.")

3. SWELLING TONES.--Assume standing position with active chest, and take
full breath; then begin the vowel _oo_ very softly, and gradually swell
it to a full tone, and then as gradually diminish it to the gentlest
sound. Be careful, as in soft tone, as to breath, and position of mouth.
After some practice, you should be able to continue on one breath,
either the soft tone or swelling tone, twenty seconds; which is long
enough for practical purposes. Use same vowels as in soft tone.


PITCH.

It is necessary to all expressive reading that there should be as much
variation in pitch of voice--that is, as to high and low tones--as
possible, and not overdo. The pleasantest quality of voice, without
variation in pitch, is tiresome to the listener. To get command of
pitch, you must practise till the high and low tones are as easy to make
as the common conversational tones. If you can sing the musical scale of
one octave in key of C, or B flat, you will find these exercises more
beneficial than if you cannot sing. If you cannot sing, take a
relatively high or low pitch, as your ear may guide you, and practise
the chanting and reading of sentences as well as you can.

1. LEARN THE MUSICAL SCALE.--Sing the scale in music, using first the
glottis stroke; that is, speak each very short as you go up and down the
scale. Then practise soft tone and swelling tone on each tone within
compass of your voice.

2. CHANT SENTENCES.--Use one tone of voice, and take any sentence,
prolonging the words without reference to the sense, without change of
tone from beginning to end. When you use a high tone, make it light and
clear; when you use a low tone, make it full, free, and forcible. Chant
on each tone separately within the compass of the voice.

3. READ SENTENCES.--Use the same sentences as for chanting, and,
beginning on each tone of the voice, speak it as you would in earnest
conversation, in a way to give the meaning of it. You will see that if
you begin with high pitch, although your voice varies in speaking, it
will be a relatively high pitch through the whole sentence; and, if you
begin low, it will be relatively low. With high pitch, make your voice
light and clear; and with low pitch, full, free, and forcible.


INFLECTION.

In inflection the voice slides up or down in pitch on a word, and by so
doing impresses your meaning on the listener. Inflections are infinite
in number; but a few of them practised will be of benefit in getting
command over them. When the voice slides up, it is called rising
inflection; if down, a falling. If it slides both ways on the same word,
it is called circumflex; and if it varies but little, and is very like a
chant in song, it is called monotone. A major inflection gives an effect
of strength; a minor, of feebleness.

1. MAJOR FALLING INFLECTION.--A falling inflection is indicated by (`)
over the accented syllable of an emphatic word. If you do not already
know the difference between a rising and falling inflection, suppose I
say to you, "The book is on the table," and you, not understanding what
place I said, should ask, "Where?" and I answer, "On the table." Your
question would be made with rising, and my answer with falling
inflection. Use any vowel-sounds, and practise the falling inflection as
you would hear it on the word "table," avoiding all motion of head,
arms, or body, and making it with much energy of voice, as if expressing
strong determination.

2. MAJOR RISING INFLECTION.--This is indicated by a (´) over the
emphatic word. Practise with any vowel-sounds the inflection as you
would hear it on "where," as above, observing same directions as in
major falling inflections.

3. MAJOR RISING AND FALLING INFLECTIONS.--Practise rising followed by
falling, as óh, òh, áh, àh, a['w]e, a[`w]e, &c., using long and short
vowels. Then falling followed by rising, as òh, óh, àh, áh, a['w]e,
a[`w]e, &c., using long and short vowels. Use these as if asking a
simple unimportant question, and giving a like answer; then a question
and answer of earnestness; then of surprise; then of great astonishment.
In so doing, your voice will range higher and lower in inflection than
you otherwise would make it. Do not let any of the inflections sound
plaintive or feeble, but make them strong and decisive.

4. MINOR RISING AND FALLING INFLECTIONS.--Use the same exercises as
under major rising and falling, just mentioned; with this difference,
that you make them so as to sound week, feeble, plaintive, or sad. They
should be practised that you may become familiar with their sound, and
have them at command, so as to use them when needed for expression, and
avoid them when not.

5. CIRCUMFLEX INFLECTION.--This inflection is indicated by a mark
([**symbol like letter V][**symbol like letter V upside down]) or
([**symbol like the bottom half of a circle][**symbol like the top half
of a circle]) because it is a combination of rising and falling
inflection. The first is rising circumflex, because it ends with the
rising; the second is falling circumflex, because it ends with falling
inflection. It is used in expression of doubt, irony, sarcasm; as in
"The Merchant of Venice," act 1, scene 3, Shylock says to Antonio, "Hath
a d[vo]g m[vo]ney? Is it possible a cur can lend three thousand
d[vu]cats?" You will see, if read to express Shylock's irony and
sarcasm, that the words would be inflected, as marked, with rising
circumflex. Practise these circumflex inflections with vowels as
directed under major rising and falling inflections. The falling
circumflex being the reverse of the rising, when once you are familiar
with the rising, can be easily made.

6. MONOTONE.--This comes as near to being one tone of voice as it can
be, and at the same time keep its expressiveness as reading. It is not
really, as its name might indicate, one tone, as that would be like
chanting in singing; but it is variation of inflection within very small
limit of range in pitch. It is best practised as song, however. Prolong,
on a low pitch, any of the long vowels, about five seconds. The mark for
monotone is (-) placed over a word.


QUALITY.

The quality of the voice is that which affects us agreeably or
disagreeably; and we say it is gruff, or husky, or harsh, or pleasant,
&c. Four general and distinct qualities need to be practised until they
are at command of the mind.

1. WHISPER.--Whisper the long and short vowels very easily and quietly
at first, without the slightest feeling of effort in throat or mouth,
and perfectly free from hoarseness or murmuring. As soon as you can make
a clear whisper heard across the room, whisper so as to be heard farther
off, and so proceed gradually, day by day, until you can whisper,
clearly and without effort, loud enough to be heard in a large hall. Do
not practise whispering more than three minutes at a time.

2. ASPIRATE QUALITY.--This is what, in general, is called undertone. It
is a mixture of whisper and voice, and is what you would be likely to
use when in company you speak to any one with a desire not to be
overheard by others. Practise with vowels as in whisper.

3. PURE QUALITY.--Speak the long vowels in your conversational tone as
pleasantly as you can, tossing the tone lightly, as if speaking to some
one across a large hall. Speak each vowel three times on one breath.
Practise them first speaking shortly, then with prolonging of each tone
not over five seconds.

4. OROTUND QUALITY.--This quality is seldom to be heard in uncultivated
voices, but is much to be desired in a speaker. It can only be acquired
slowly and with much practice. It will be easily recognized when heard,
as it possesses a fulness and richness of tone very pleasing. It is not
high, but seems low in pitch; and, although it does not sound loud, it
seems to be effective, and reach a long distance. To acquire it,
practise, as recommended in "Pitch," the chanting and reading of
sentences on the conversational and lower tones of the voice; also
swelling tone under "Tone," on low pitch, using long vowels, especially
_oo_, oh, awe, ah.


FORCE.

Force is the degree of loudness or softness we may give to the voice.
You should be able to speak gently without feebleness or weakness of
voice, and so as to be distinctly heard in a large hall, and also to
make the fullest and loudest voice without showing any effort to do so.

1. GENTLE FORCE.--Chant and read sentences, as under "Pitch," with the
gentlest force you can, and yet make it so as to seem to be clear and
distinct. Do this on every pitch you can, high or low.

2. MODERATE FORCE.--Read and chant as above on the middle and higher
tones, with about the force of earnest conversation.

3. LOUD FORCE.--Read and chant as above, using only the middle and lower
tones of the voice, making the loudest tones you can, without straining
the throat. Force of voice depends on the management of the muscles
below the lungs; and you should have perfect freedom from all effort on
the part of lungs, throat, or mouth, on any pitch, high, middle, or low.
If any effort is perceptible to you, it will be a feeling of strength
and power at the waist; and experience and practice must teach you how
much or how little effort to make at that point. The loudest force, and
at the same time the purest quality, is secured when it seems to make
itself without the slightest feeling of effort on your part.


STRESS.

Stress is the manner of applying force to a word or accented syllable.
Prof. L. B. Monroe, in his book on vocal culture, enumerates six kinds.
The marks he uses to represent them exhibit clearly to the eye what the
voice is required to do. With radical, terminal, and compound stress,
after facility is gained by use of stroke from the shoulder, omit it,
and do them forcibly without movement of any part of the body.

1. RADICAL STRESS.--So called, because the stress is on the beginning of
the word, and marked thus (>). Assume standing position with active
chest, and take breath; touch the fingers to the shoulder, and strike
forward and downward, stopping the hands half way, and clinching the
fist very tightly; at the moment of stopping, speak the vowel "ah" very
shortly. You will notice that the voice issues full, and seems to
suddenly vanish in a manner well indicated by the mark above. Use any
vowels, long or short, with middle pitch of voice. Practise afterward
without any movement of the arms.

2. MEDIAN STRESS.--So called, because the force is on the middle of the
word, marked thus (<>). It is the same as swelling tone, but is much
shorter. Practise with long vowels on middle tones of voice, making
three short swells on the same vowel in one breath.

3. TERMINAL STRESS.--So called, because the force is on the end of the
word, and marked thus (<). Use the same movement as in radical stress;
begin the sound softly when the hand leaves the shoulder, stopping it
suddenly as the hands clinch. The voice seems to be jerked out. Practise
also without arm-movements, using the same vowels as in radical stress.

4. THOROUGH STRESS.--So called, because the force is loud from beginning
to end, and marked thus (=). Prolong about ten seconds long vowels, with
a loud full voice on middle pitch.

5. COMPOUND STRESS.--So called, because it is a union of radical and
terminal stress, and marked (><). The force is on both beginning and end
of the word, and may be made by striking twice in succession, continuing
the voice from radical to terminal without pause of voice between the
strokes.

6. TREMOLO STRESS.--This is a trembling of voice, and marked thus
([**symbol like a rippled line]). Prolong long vowels, making the voice
tremble while you do so.


MOVEMENT.

Movement is the degree of rapidity or slowness with which you speak the
articulate sounds. The danger in fast movement is, that you will not
articulate plainly; and in slow, that you will drawl.

1. QUICK MOVEMENT.--Use exercise of chanting and reading sentences, as
under "Pitch," using the middle tones of voice; and repeat the words
with the utmost possible rapidity, with perfect articulation. In
chanting, do not mind the sense; but, in reading, be particular to give
the meaning of the sentence.

2. MODERATE MOVEMENT.--Use exercise as above about as fast as ordinary
talking.

3. SLOW MOVEMENT.--Use exercise as above, with very slow movement of
voice. In chanting, prolong each word about alike; in reading, give good
expression, and you will see that the more important words usually take
the longest time.


ARTICULATION.

Articulation is the utterance of the elementary sounds, which, when
combined, make language. You have been using the sounds that make up
speech, in combination, every day; but it is a good practice to make
each element separately. After you are able to make each sound
distinctly, you will find you can make yourself understood in a large
hall without using a loud voice. Your jaw, lips, and tongue should move
actively and easily. For this purpose use long vowels,--No. 1, No. 8,
No. 14,--speaking them in quick succession, one after the other, making
them distinct, and making the jaw and lips move as much as you can with
ease. Continue to the extent of your breath. Then use the same with _p_,
_b_, or _m_ before them; then with _t_, _d_, or _n_; then _k_, _g_, or
_y_. Continue this practice about five minutes at a time, until the jaw,
lips, and tongue will move with perfect ease.


ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

In the exercises here given, use the sound, not the name of the letters
which represents the sound, and practise separately the sounds
represented by the Italic letters below. The only correct way to learn
them is from the lips of a competent teacher; but you will do well, and
improve, if you try the best you can in your way.

VOWELS.

            _Long._        |      _Short._       |      _Diphthongs._
                           |                     |
   1.     _e_ as in m_ee_t.| 2. _i_ as in _i_t.  |8^1.    _i_ as in p_i_e.
   3^1.   _a_ "  "  m_a_y. | 4. _e_ "  "  m_e_t. |11^1.  _oi_ "  "  _oi_l.
   5.    _ai_ "  "  _ai_r. | 5. _a_ "  "  _a_t.  |8^{14}._ou_ "  "  _ou_t.
   6.     _e_ "  "  h_e_r. | 7. _a_ "  "  Cub_a_.|^{1}14. _u_ "  "  yo_u_.
   8.     _a_ "  "  _a_h.  | 9. _u_ "  "  _u_p.  |
  10.     _a_ "  "  _a_we. |11. _o_ "  "  _o_n.  |
  12^{14}._o_ "  "  _o_h.  |13._oo_ "  "  f_oo_t.|
  12.     _o_ "  "  _o_re. |                     |
  14.    _oo_ "  "  w_oo_. |                     |

     GLIDES.--1-14 of the vowels, and _r_ when it follows a
     vowel, are by Prof. Bell called "Glides."

CONSONANTS OR ARTICULATIONS.

       _Breath._   |     _Voice._     |    _Nasal._     |_Place in Mouth._
  _p_ as in _p_ay. |_b_ as in _b_ay.  |_m_ as in _m_ay. | Lips.
  _wh_ "  " _wh_y. |_w_  "  " _w_ay.  |                 |  "
  _f_  "  " _f_ie. |_v_  "  " _v_ie.  |                 | Lips and teeth.
  _th_ "  " _th_in.|_th_ "  " _th_en. |                 | Tongue "   "
  _t_  "  " _t_ie. |_d_  "  " _d_ie.  |_n_  "  " _n_igh.| Tip of tongue.
  _ch_ "  " _ch_ew.|_j_  "  " _j_ew.  |                 |  "        "
                   |_l_  "  " _l_ay.  |                 |  "        "
                   |_r_  "  " _r_ay.  |                 |  "        "
  _s_  "  " _s_ee. |_z_  "  " _z_eal. |                 |  "        "
  _sh_ "  " _sh_oe.|_zh_ "  " a_z_ure.|                 |  "        "
                   |_y_  "  " _y_e.   |                 | Whole tongue.
  _k_  "  " _k_ey. |_g_  "  " _g_o.   |_ng_ "  " si_ng_.| Back of "
  _h_  "  " _h_e, _h_ay, _h_a, _h_o, is a whispered vowel, taking the
                position of the vowel following it.

Of the vowels, the numbers indicate positions of mouth; and, where
numbers are alike, the positions are alike. Each vowel-sound is made by
unobstructed sounds issuing through a certain position of mouth. The
position is unchanged with single vowels, and those have but one number.
The position changes in double vowels and diphthongs; and those have two
numbers,--one large, one small. As each number represents a position of
mouth, you can easily see by comparing what sounds are made from
combining others. The number in the largest size type of the two
represents the position that is kept when the sound is prolonged: as in
8^1 prolong the 8 or _a_h, and make ^1 or _ee_ very short; and in ^{1}14
make ^1 very short, and prolong 14. The positions represented by the
small figures are called "Glides," because the position is hardly
assumed before the sound is finished. Diphthongs are sounds made by
combining vowel-sounds, as 8^1 _a_h-_ee_. Of the consonants, or, as well
named by Prof. Bell, articulations,--because two parts of the mouth have
to come together and separate in order to finish the element, thus
obstructing the breath or voice,--those in line across the page with
each other are alike in position of mouth; those in first column are
made with breath only, passing out through the mouth; those in second
column, with sound passing out through the mouth; those in third column
are sound passing out through the nose. For instance, _p_, _b_, _m_, are
in line with each other; and, if you will make the three sounds
represented by those letters, you will see that the same position of
mouth is assumed for each, and that _p_ is breath forced out of mouth,
_b_ is sound out of mouth, _m_ is sound passing out of nose.

Practise these sounds of vowels and articulations until you can make
them forcibly and easily, with elastic movement of jaw, tongue, and
lips; and remember that force depends on the strength and good control
of muscles below the lungs. Then unite them by placing articulations
before vowels, giving most force to the vowel, but make both clear and
distinct. Then use articulations both before and after the vowel, still
giving the vowel the most force, but making the articulation that begins
and ends equally distinct and clear. To arrange these for your practice
in this small book would take too much space. You have above each
element of the English language clearly shown, and can easily combine
them as directed.


SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL AND VOCAL GYMNASTICS.


PHYSICAL GYMNASTICS.

ATTITUDE.

  1. Standing Position.
  2. Speaker's   "
  3. Sitting Position.
  4. Change      "
  5. Poise.
  6. Rise on Toes.
  7. Holding Book.

CHEST EXPANSION.

  1. Active and Passive Chest.
  2. Arms at Side.
  3. Fore-arm Vertical.
  4. Percussion. Full Arm.
  5.     "       Hands on Chest.

BODY AND NECK MOVEMENTS.

  1. Body bend forward and back.
  2.  "    "   right and left.
  3.  "   turn   "      "
  4. Neck bend forward and back.
  5.  "    "   right and left.
  6.  "   turn   "      "


VOCAL GYMNASTICS.

NOTE.--_Be sure and keep_ ACTIVE CHEST _in all vocal exercises_.

BREATHING.

  1. Abdominal.
  2. Costal.
  3. Dorsal.
  4. Puff.
  5. Puff--Pause between.
  6.  "    Breathe  "
  7. Holding Breath.

TONE.

NOTE.--_In following exercises use first long, then short vowels._

  1. Glottis stroke. Who, whispered, followed by short vowels quickly
     spoken.
  2. Soft Tones. Use oo-oh-awe-ah first, then any other vowels.
  3. Swell Tones. Use vowels as in Soft Tones.

PITCH.

  1. Learn Musical Scale. Practise Tone Exercise on each tone within
     compass of voice.
  2. Chant sentences on each tone.
  3. Read sentences, beginning on each tone.

INFLECTION.

  1. Major, fall from different pitches.
  2.   "    rise      "            "
  3.   "     "  and fall from different pitches.
  4. Minor rise and fall.
  5. Circumflex, rise and fall.
  6. Monotone, different pitches.

QUALITY.

  1. Whisper.
  2. Aspirate.
  3. Pure.
  4. Orotund.

FORCE.

NOTE.--_Use exercises under Pitch, Nos. 2 and 3, with different degrees
of force._

  1. Gentle.
  2. Moderate.
  3. Loud.

STRESS.

  1. Radical.
  2. Median.
  3. Terminal.
  4. Thorough.
  5. Compound.
  6. Tremolo.

MOVEMENT.

NOTE.--_Use exercises under Pitch, Nos. 2 and 3, with different rates of
movement._

  1. Quick.
  2. Moderate.
  3. Slow.

ARTICULATION.

NOTE.--_Use only sounds represented by Italicized letters in the words
and letters below._

  1. Elementary Sounds.
  2. Syllables.
  3. Words.
  4. Phrases.
  5. Sentences.

Long Vowels. 1. m_ee_t. 3^1. m_ay_. 5. _ai_r. 6. h_e_r. 8. _a_h. 10.
_awe._ 12^{14}. _o_h. 12. _o_re. 14. w_oo_.

Short Vowels. 2. _i_t. 4. m_e_t. 5. _a_t. 7. Cub_a_. 9. _u_p. 11. _o_n.
13. f_oo_t.

Diphthongs. 8^1. p_i_e. 11^1. _oi_l. 8^{14}. _ou_t. y14. _you._

Glides. 1.--14._-r._

Articulations. Lips--_p_, _b_, _m-wh_, _w_. Lips and Teeth--_f_, _v_.
Teeth and Tongue--_th_ (thin), _th_ (then). Tip of Tongue--_t_, _d_,
_n-l-r-ch_, _j-s_, _z-sh_, _zh_. Tongue--_y_. Back of Tongue--_k_, _g_,
_ng_. Whispered Vowel--_h_.



PART THREE.

ELOCUTION.


If you have faithfully practised Parts One and Two, you have gained some
control of voice, and can now begin elocution, or expression of thought
and feeling. In each of the short extracts you will find some thought
and feeling to express; and if you will take pains to understand
thoroughly what you have to speak, and then speak earnestly as the
thought and feeling prompts you, you will certainly improve. Speak to
some person; and, if no one is present, imagine that there is, and talk
to them: for you need never speak aloud, unless it is for some one
besides yourself to hear. Your first endeavor as a speaker should be to
make a pleasant quality of voice, so that you may make good listeners of
your audience. The following exercises suggest pleasure, and let your
voice suggest the sentiment.


PLEASANT QUALITY.

      1.        A merrier man,
         Within the limit of becoming mirth,
         I never spent an hour's talk withal:
         His eye begets occasion for his wit;
         For every object that the one doth catch,
         The other turns to a mirth-moving jest,
         Which his fair tongue (conceit's expositor)
         Delivers in such apt and gracious words,
         That aged ears play truant at his tales,
         And younger hearings are quite ravished,
         So sweet and voluble is his discourse.

      2. There's something in a noble boy,
           A brave, free-hearted, careless one,
         With his unchecked, unbidden joy,
           His dread of books, and love of fun,--
         And in his clear and ready smile,
         Unshaded by a thought of guile,
           And unrepressed by sadness,--
         Which brings me to my childhood back,
         As if I trod its very track,
           And felt its very gladness.

3. The scene had also its minstrels: the birds, those ministers and
worshippers of Nature, were on the wing, filling the air with melody;
while, like diligent little housewives, they ransacked the forest and
field for materials for their housekeeping.

      4. Let me play the fool:
         With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles come;
         And let my liver rather heat with wine
         Than my heart cool with mortifying groans.
         Why should a man whose blood is warm within
         Sit like his grandsire, cut in alabaster?
         Sleep when he wakes? and creep into the jaundice
         By being peevish?

      5. Across in my neighbor's window, with its drapings of satin and
           lace,
         I see, 'neath its flowing ringlets, a baby's innocent face.
         His feet, in crimson slippers, are tapping the polished glass;
         And the crowd in the street look upward, and nod and smile as
           they pass.

      6. How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!
         Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music
         Creep in our ears: soft stillness and the night
         Become the touches of sweet harmony.
         Look how the floor of heaven
         Is thick inlaid with patens of bright gold!
         There's not the smallest orb which thou behold'st,
         But in his motion like an angel sings,
         Still quiring to the young-eyed cherubim:
         Such harmony is in immortal souls;
         But, whilst this muddy vesture of decay
         Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it.

7. A cheerful man is pre-eminently a useful man. He knows that there is
much misery, but that misery is not the rule of life. He sees that in
every state people may be cheerful; the lambs skip, birds sing and fly
joyously, puppies play, kittens are full of joyance, the whole air is
full of careering and rejoicing insects; that everywhere the good
outbalances the bad, and that every evil that there is has its
compensating balm.

For other selections, see Baker's "Reading Club."

  No.     Page.   Verse.
   1       12      1
   1       82      all
   2       15      6
   2       62      1
   2       72      1
   2       78      all
   3       11      all
   3       35      all
   3       49      all
   4       26      6
   4       36      all
   4       92      1


ARTICULATION.

With pleasant quality you will make listeners; but you will soon weary
them, unless you make them understand by clear articulation. You have
made the organs of articulation elastic by practice of elementary sounds
separately and in combination. In combinations you have made syllables,
and these syllables make words, words make phrases, phrases make
sentences, sentences make up a discourse, address, oration, &c.

SYLLABLES.--Every syllable contains a vowel, or its equivalent;
as in the following word, which is separated by hyphens into
syllables,--in-com-pre-hen-si-ble: you will hear a vowel-sound in each,
the last syllable having the sound of _l_ as an equivalent.

WORDS.--A word may have one or more syllables; and, when it has two or
more, one of them will receive slightly more force than the others, as
in the word "common." Pronounce it, and you will give more force to
"_com_" than "_mon_." This force applied is called accent.

ACCENT.--In pronouncing words, you will notice that in the longest
words, even while you make each syllable distinct, there is no
perceptible pause until the word is finished. In words of two or three
syllables you will find accent as above; but words of four or more
syllables have one accented, and perhaps two syllables besides, that
receive less force than the accented, but more than the others.
Pronounce incomprehensibility. Properly done, you will hear that you
give "_bil_" the strongest accent, and "_com_" and "_hen_" slight
accent, but more than the remaining syllables, "_in_," "_pre_," "_si_,"
"_i_," "_ty_." The accent on "_bil_" is primary accent; and on the
"_com_" and "_hen_" secondary accent.

PHRASES.--Two or more words make a phrase; and a phrase gives you an
idea, perhaps, needing a number of phrases to make complete sense. You
should speak phrases just as you would a long word, without perceptible
pause, and with more force on prominent words than others. Here is a
sentence composed of two phrases: "Fear the Lord, and depart from evil."
A poor reading of this would be, "Fear (pause) the Lord, (pause) and
depart (pause) from evil." A good reading would be, "Fear the Lord,
(pause) and depart from evil."

EMPHASIS.--As in words you have primary and secondary accent, so in
phrases you have what is known as emphasis. In the sentence just given,
the words that had most force were "_Lord_" and "_evil_;" and less
force, "_fear_" and "_depart_;" and little or no force, "_the_,"
"_and_," and "_from_." You may call this primary and secondary emphasis,
the primary having, as in accent, most force.

SENTENCES.--These phrases, or groups of words somewhat connected in
idea, make sentences; and a sentence gives complete sense. As syllables
make words, and in words you have an accented syllable; as words make
phrases, and in phrases you have an emphatic word: so, in sentences
composed of phrases, you have an important phrase; and this important
phrase must be impressed upon the mind of the listener more strongly
than any other. This is done by slightly added force and a trifle higher
pitch; and, as you will readily see, the emphatic word of the important
phrase is the emphatic word of the whole sentence. Thus you have the
structure of sentences; and, if you proportion your force well, you will
not fail to give the meaning correctly. In the following sentence, the
phrases are separated by commas; the emphatic words are in SMALL
CAPITALS; the secondarily emphatic words are in _Italics_. First
understand what the sentence means, then speak it as you would in
earnest conversation, and you will be likely to give it correctly.

"We ALL of us, in a great _measure_, _create_ our own HAPPINESS, which
is not _half_ so much _dependent_ upon SCENES and CIRCUMSTANCES as most
_people_ are apt to IMAGINE."

In this sentence the important phrase is, "create our own happiness;"
and the other phrases must be and are, by a good reader, subordinated to
this one. This subordination of phrases to the principal one is made by
lowering the pitch slightly, and lessening the force slightly on the
subordinate phrases. It is naturally done if you'll talk the sentence
understandingly.

In the following sentences,--

1st, Sound each element of a word separately.

2d, Pronounce each word separately, with proper accent, being careful to
give each element correctly.

3d, Read in phrases, remembering that each phrase should be pronounced
as a long word, without pause, and with emphasis.

4th, Read in sentences, subordinating all other phrases to the principal
phrase.

      1. When sorrows come, they come not single spies,
         But in battalions.

      2. There's such divinity doth hedge a king,
         That treason can but keep to what it would,
         Act little of his will.

3. Grandfather is old. His back, also, is bent. In the street he sees
crowds of men looking dreadfully young, and walking dreadfully swift. He
wonders where all the old folks are. Once, when a boy, he could not find
people young enough for him, and sidled up to any young stranger he met
on Sundays, wondering why God made the world so old. Now he goes to
Commencement to see his grandsons take their degree, and is astonished
at the youth of the audience. "This is new," he says: "it did not use to
be so fifty years before."

      4. Press on! surmount the rocky steeps;
           Climb boldly o'er the torrent's arch:
         He fails alone who feebly creeps;
           He wins who dares the hero's march.

      5. Where I have come, great clerks have purposed
         To greet me with premeditated welcomes;
         Where I have seen them shiver and look pale,
         Make periods in the midst of sentences,
         Throttle their practised accent in their fears,
         And, in conclusion, dumbly have broke off,
         Not paying me a welcome, trust me, sweet,
         Out of this silence yet I picked a welcome;
         And in the modesty of fearful duty
         I read as much as from the rattling tongue
         Of saucy and audacious eloquence.

6. Be not lulled, my countrymen, with vain imaginations or idle fancies.
To hope for the protection of Heaven, without doing our duty, and
exerting ourselves as becomes men, is to mock the Deity. Wherefore had
man his reason, if it were not to direct him? wherefore his strength, if
it be not his protection? To banish folly and luxury, correct vice and
immorality, and stand immovable in the freedom in which we are free
indeed, is eminently the duty of each individual at this day. When this
is done, we may rationally hope for an answer to our prayers--for the
whole counsel of God, and the invincible armor of the Almighty.

      7. The quality of mercy is not strained:
         It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
         Upon the place beneath. It is twice blessed,--
         It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes.
         'Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes
         The throned monarch better than his crown:
         His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
         The attribute to awe and majesty,
         Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.
         But mercy is above this sceptred sway:
         It is enthroned in the hearts of kings;
         It is an attribute to God himself;
         And earthly power doth then show likest God's
         When mercy seasons justice.


FULNESS AND POWER.

Fulness of voice is necessary, that, when you are speaking in a large
hall, your voice may be powerful. Most persons could make themselves
heard, and, with good articulation, understood; but yet they would lack
power, because the voice wants fulness. The extracts given below will
suggest to you the necessity of a full voice to express them well.
Observe these directions in trying to get a full, energetic tone:--

1st, Correct speaker's position, take active chest, and keep it.

2d, Take full breath, breathe often, and control it. (See "Holding
Breath.")

3d, Articulate perfectly.

4th, Use conversational and lower tones of the voice.

5th, Fix the mind on some distant spot, and speak as if you wished to
make some one hear at that point.

6th, Remember to be very energetic, and yet have it seem to a looker-on
or listener to be done without the slightest effort.

      1. O'Brien's voice is hoarse with joy, as, halting, he commands,
         "Fix bay'nets--charge!" Like mountain-storm rush on these fiery
           bands.
         On Fontenoy, on Fontenoy! hark to that fierce huzza!
         "Revenge! remember Limerick! dash down the Sassenagh!"
         Like lions leaping at a fold when mad with hunger's pang,
         Right up against the English line the Irish exiles sprang.
         The English strove with desperate strength, paused, rallied,
           staggered, fled:
         The green hill-side is matted close with dying and with dead.
         On Fontenoy, on Fontenoy, like eagles in the sun,
         With bloody plumes the Irish stand: the field is fought and won.

      2. Thou too sail on, O Ship of State!
         Sail on, O Union strong and great!
         Humanity, with all its fears,
         With all its hopes of future years,
         Is hanging breathless on thy fate.
         We know what master laid thy keel,
         What workmen wrought thy ribs of steel,
         Who made each mast and sail and rope,
         What anvils rang, what hammers beat,
         In what a forge and what a heat
         Were shaped the anchors of thy hope.

      3. Oh! young Lochinvar is come out of the west:
         Through all the wide border his steed was the best;
         And, save his good broad-sword, he weapon had none;
         He rode all unarmed, and he rode all alone.
         So faithful in love, and so dauntless in war,
         There never was knight like the young Lochinvar.

      4. One song employs all nations; and all cry,
         "Worthy the Lamb, for he was slain for us!"
         The dwellers in the vales and on the rocks
         Shout to each other; and the mountain-tops
         From distant mountains catch the flying joy;
         Till, nation after nation taught the strain,
         Earth rolls the rapturous hosanna round.

      5. "But I defy him!--let him come!"
           Down rang the massy cup,
         While from its sheath the ready blade
           Came flashing half way up;
         And, with the black and heavy plumes
           Scarce trembling on his head,
         There, in his dark, carved, oaken chair,
           Old Rudiger sat--dead!

6. All hail to our glorious ensign! Courage to the heart, and strength
to the hand, to which in all time it shall be intrusted! May it ever
wave in honor, in unsullied glory, and patriotic hope, on the dome of
the capitol, on the country's stronghold, on the entented plain, on the
wave-rocked topmast!

      7. Rejoice, you men of Angiers! ring your bells!
         King John, your king and England's, doth approach,
         Commander of this hot malicious day!
         Their armors that marched hence so silver bright
         Hither return all gilt with Frenchmen's blood;
         There stuck no plume in any English crest
         That is removed by a staff of France;
         Our colors do return in those same hands
         That did display them when we first marched forth;
         And, like a jolly troop of huntsmen, come
         Our lusty English, all with purpled hands
         Dyed in the dying slaughter of their foes.


INFLECTION.

Inflection is a slide of voice, either up or down in pitch, or both, on
the accented syllable of a word. You have learned in previous pages what
kinds there are. Major inflections express strength: minor express
weakness.

Rising inflections refer to something to come that shall complete the
sense. If you speak a phrase that needs another to complete its meaning,
you will use a rising inflection to connect them. If you defer to
another's will, opinion, or knowledge, in what you say, you will use a
rising inflection. If you speak of two or more things, thinking of them
as a whole, and not separately, you use a rising inflection.

Falling inflections are used when a phrase or sentence is complete in
itself. If you state your own will, opinion, or knowledge, you will use
falling inflection. If you speak of two or more things separately,
wishing to make each one by itself distinct in the hearer's mind, you
will use falling inflections.

Circumflex inflections, being composed of rising and falling inflections
combined, are doubtful in meaning; for if rising means one thing, and
falling means another, a combination must mean doubt. It expresses
irony, sarcasm, &c.

Monotone is a varying of inflection within very narrow limits, and comes
as near to chanting as the voice can, and still retain the
expressiveness of inflection in speech. It expresses any slow-moving
emotions, as grandeur, awe, solemnity, &c.

Practise the short extracts under each head until you are sure you give
the right inflection in the right place.

MAJOR RISING INFLECTION.

1. Would the influence of the Bible, even if it were not the record of a
divine revelation, be to render princes more tyrannical, or subjects
more ungovernable; the rich more insolent, or the poor more disorderly?
Would it make worse parents or children, husbands or wives, masters or
servants, friends or neighbors?

2. But why pause here? Is so much ambition praiseworthy, and more
criminal? Is it fixed in nature that the limits of this empire should be
Egypt on the one hand, the Hellespont and Euxine on the other? Were not
Suez and Armenia more natural limits? Or hath empire no natural limit,
but is broad as the genius that can devise, and the power that can win?

      3. Shine they for aught but earth,
           These silent stars?
         And, when they sprang to birth,
           Who broke the bars
         And let their radiance out
           To kindle space,
         When rang God's morning shout
           O'er the glad race?
         Are they all desolate,
           These silent stars;
         Hung in their spheres by fate,
           Which nothing mars?
         Or are they guards of God,
           Shining in prayer,
         On the same path they've trod
           Since light was there?

MAJOR FALLING INFLECTIONS.

      1. Stand up erect! Thou hast the form
           And likeness of thy God: who more?
         A soul as dauntless mid the storm
         Of daily life, a heart as warm
           And pure, as breast e'er wore.

      2. Methinks I hear hither your husband's drum;
         See him pluck Aufidius down by the hair,
         As children from a bear, the Voices shunning him;
         Methinks I see him stamp thus, and call thus,--
         _Come on, you cowards! you were got in fear,
         Though you were born in Rome_: his bloody brow
         With his mailed hand then wiping, forth he goes,
         Like to a harvest-man that's tasked to mow
         Or all, or lose his hire.

3. Mahomet still lives in his practical and disastrous influence in the
East. Napoleon still is France, and France is almost Napoleon. Martin
Luther's dead dust sleeps at Wittenberg; but Martin Luther's accents
still ring through the churches of Christendom. Shakspeare, Byron, and
Milton, all live in their influence,--for good or evil. The apostle from
his chair, the minister from his pulpit, the martyr from his
flame-shroud, the statesman from his cabinet, the soldier in the field,
the sailor on the deck, who all have passed away to their graves, still
live in the practical deeds that they did, in the lives they lived, and
in the powerful lessons that they left behind them.

MINOR RISING INFLECTIONS.

1. "Let me see him once before he dies? Let me hear his voice once more?
I entreat you, let me enter."

      2. Stay, lady, stay, for mercy's sake,
           And hear a helpless orphan's tale!
         Ah! sure my looks must pity wake:
           'Tis want that makes my cheek so pale.
         Yet I was once a mother's pride,
           And my brave father's hope and joy;
         But in the Nile's proud fight he died,
           And I am now an orphan-boy.

      3. They answer, "Who is God that he should hear us
         While the rushing of the iron wheels is stirred?
         When we sob aloud, the human creatures near us
         Pass by, hearing not, or answer not a word.
         Is it likely God, with angels singing round him,
         Hears our weeping, any more?"

MINOR FALLING INFLECTIONS.

1. God forbid that we should outlive the love of our children! Rather
let us die while their hearts are a part of our own, that our grave may
be watered with their tears, and our love linked with their hopes of
heaven.

      2. Her suffering ended with the day;
           Yet lived she at its close,
         And breathed the long, long night away
           In statue-like repose.

         But, when the sun in all his state
           Illumed the eastern skies,
         She passed through glory's morning-gate,
           And walked in paradise.

      3. Father cardinal, I have heard you say
         That we shall see and know our friends in heaven.
         If that be true, I shall see my boy again;
         For since the birth of Cain, the first male child,
         To him that did but yesterday suspire,
         There was not such a gracious creature born.
         But now will canker-sorrow eat my bud,
         And chase the native beauty from his cheek;
         And he will look as hollow as a ghost,
         As dim and meagre as an ague's fit:
         And so he'll die; and, rising so again,
         When I shall meet him in the court of heaven
         I shall not know him: therefore never, never
         Must I behold my pretty Arthur more.

CIRCUMFLEX INFLECTION.

1. Were I in England now (as once I was), and had but this fish painted,
not a holiday-fool there but would give a piece of silver. There would
this monster make a man: any strange beast there makes a man. When they
will not give a doit to relieve a lame beggar, they will lay out ten to
see a dead Indian.

2. If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had
been churches, and poor men's cottages princes' palaces. It is a good
divine that follows his own instructions. I can easier teach twenty what
were good to be done than be one of the twenty to follow mine own
teaching. The brain may devise laws for the blood; but a hot temper
leaps over a cold decree: such a hare is madness the youth to skip o'er
the meshes of good counsel the cripple.

      3. "Hold, there!" the other quick replies:
         "'Tis green: I saw it with these eyes,
         As late with open mouth it lay,
         And warmed it in the sunny ray.
         Stretched at its ease, the beast I viewed,
         And saw it eat the air for food."
           "I've seen it, sir, as well as you,
         And must again affirm it blue:
         At leisure I the beast surveyed,
         Extended in the cooling shade."
           "'Tis green, 'tis green, sir, I assure ye!"
         "Green!" cries the other in a fury:
         "Why, sir! d'ye think I've lost my eyes?"
         "'Twere no great loss," the friend replies;
         "For, if they always serve you thus,
         You'll find them of but little use."

MONOTONE.

      1. When for me the silent oar
           Parts the Silent River,
         And I stand upon the shore
           Of the strange Forever,
         Shall I miss the loved and known?
         Shall I vainly seek mine own?

      2. Ye golden lamps of heaven, farewell, with all your feeble light!
         Farewell, thou ever-changing moon, pale empress of the night!
         And thou, effulgent orb of day, in brighter flames arrayed,
         My soul, which springs beyond thy sphere, no more demands thy aid.
         Ye stars are but the shining dust of my divine abode,
         The pavement of those heavenly courts where I shall reign with
           God.

      3. Father of earth and heaven, I call thy name!
         Round me the smoke and shout of battle roll;
         My eyes are dazzled with the rustling flame:
         Father, sustain an untried soldier's soul.
         Or life or death, whatever be the goal
         That crowns or closes round this struggling hour,
         Thou know'st, if ever from my spirit stole
         One deeper prayer, 'twas that no cloud might lower
         On my young fame. Oh, hear, God of eternal power!


PITCH.

The general pitch of voice varies with the emotion. Some feelings we are
prompted to express in the high tones, as joy; some in the lower tones,
as awe: but, without practice, very few have command of the higher and
lower tones; and, when they attempt to read, they cannot give the
requisite variety to make it expressive. It is important that these
exercises should be studied until you can as easily read in your highest
and lowest tones as in your natural conversational or middle tones.

In high pitch, read in as high pitch as you can, and at the same time
keep the tone pure, and you will find your voice gradually gain in
compass.

In middle pitch, read in your conversational tone, with earnestness.

In low pitch, read somewhat lower than middle pitch, and make as full a
tone as you can.

In very low pitch, read as low in pitch as you can with ease, and do not
try to make it loud or full until you have had considerable practice.
Don't pinch or strain the throat: if you do, the quality will be bad.

HIGH PITCH.

      1. Merrily swinging on brier and weed,
           Near to the nest of his little dame,
         Over the mountain-side or mead,
           Robert of Lincoln is telling his name,--
               Bob-o-link, bob-o-link,
               Spink, spank, spink!
         Snug and safe is that nest of ours
         Hidden among the summer flowers:
                       Chee, chee, chee!

      2. Oh! did you see him riding down,
         And riding down, while all the town
         Came out to see, came out to see,
         And all the bells rang mad with glee?

         Oh! did you hear those bells ring out,
         The bells ring out, the people shout?
         And did you hear that cheer on cheer
         That over all the bells rang clear?

      3. I am that merry wanderer of the night:
         I jest to Oberon, and make him smile,
         When I, a fat and bean-fed horse, beguile,
         Neighing in likeness of a silly foal.
         And sometimes lurk I in a gossip's bowl,
         In very likeness of a roasted crab;
         And, when she drinks, against her lips I bob,
         And on her withered dew-lap pour the ale.

MIDDLE PITCH.

      1. The honey-bee that wanders all day long
         The field, the woodland, and the garden o'er,
         To gather in his fragrant winter-store,
         Humming in calm content his quiet song,
         Sucks not alone the rose's glowing breast,
         The lily's dainty cup, the violet's lips;
         But from all rank and noisome weeds he sips
         The single drop of sweetness ever pressed
         Within the poison chalice. Thus, if we
         Seek only to draw forth the hidden sweet
         In all the varied human flowers we meet
         In the wide garden of Humanity,
         And, like the bee, if home the spoil we bear,
         Hived in our hearts, it turns to nectar there.

2. Now the laughing, jolly Spring began to show her buxom face in the
bright morning. The buds began slowly to expand their close winter
folds, the dark and melancholy woods to assume an almost imperceptible
purple tint; and here and there a little chirping blue-bird hopped about
the orchards. Strips of fresh green appeared along the brooks, now
released from their icy fetters; and nests of little variegated
flowers, nameless, yet richly deserving a name, sprang up in the
sheltered recesses of the leafless woods.

3. I know, the more one sickens, the worse at ease he is; and that he
that wants money, means, and content, is without three good friends;
that the property of rain is to wet, and fire to burn; that good pasture
makes fat sheep, and that a great cause of the night is lack of the sun;
that he that hath learned no wit by nature or art may complain of good
breeding, or comes of a very dull kindred.

LOW PITCH.

      1. Mid the flower-wreathed tombs I stand,
         Bearing lilies in my hand.
         Comrades, in what soldier-grave
         Sleeps the bravest of the brave?

         Is it he who sank to rest
         With his colors round his breast?
         Friendship makes his tomb a shrine:
         Garlands veil it; ask not mine.

      2. God, thou art merciful. The wintry storm,
         The cloud that pours the thunder from its womb,
         But show the sterner grandeur of thy form.
         The lightnings glancing through the midnight gloom,
         To Faith's raised eye as calm, as lovely, come
         As splendors of the autumnal evening star,
         As roses shaken by the breeze's plume,
         When like cool incense comes the dewy air,
       And on the golden wave the sunset burns afar.

      3. O thou Eternal One! whose presence bright
         All space doth occupy, all motion guide;
         Unchanged through Time's all-devastating flight;
         Thou only God!--there is no God beside!
         Being above all beings! Three-in-one!
         Whom none can comprehend, and none explore;
         Who fill'st existence with Thyself alone;
         Embracing all, supporting, ruling o'er;
         Being whom we call God, and know no more!

VERY LOW PITCH.

      1. When in the silent night all earth lies hushed
         In slumber; when the glorious stars shine out,
         Each star a sun, each sun a central light
         Of some fair system, ever wheeling on
         In one unbroken round, and that again
         Revolving round another sun; while all,
         Suns, stars, and systems, proudly roll along
         In one majestic, ever-onward course,
         In space uncircumscribed and limitless,--
         Oh! think you then the undebased soul
         Can calmly give itself to sleep,--to rest?

2. Go stand upon the heights at Niagara, and listen in awe-struck
silence to that boldest most earnest and eloquent, of all Nature's
orators! And what is Niagara, with its plunging waters and its mighty
roar, but the oracle of God, the whisper of His voice who is revealed in
the Bible as sitting above the water-floods forever?

      3. The drums are all muffled; the bugles are still;
         There's a pause in the valley, a halt on the hill;
         And the bearers of standards swerve back with a thrill
           Where the sheaves of the dead bar the way:
         For a great field is reaped, heaven's garners to fill;
           And stern Death holds his harvest to-day.


QUALITY.

As there are all kinds and qualities of emotions, so there are all kinds
and qualities of voice to express them. The shade and varieties of
these qualities are as infinite in number as the emotions they
express. We need, however, in practice, to make but four general
divisions,--whisper, aspirate, pure, and orotund. The whisper expresses
secrecy, fear, and like emotions. It is seldom required in reading, as
the aspirate is expressive of the same, and you would be likely to use
that instead of whisper. You should practise the whisper until you can
make it very clear, and free from all impurity, or sound of throat, and
full, so as to be heard at a distance. In both whisper and aspirate
leave the throat free and open; and be energetic, remembering that force
is made by control of muscles at the waist, and not by effort of throat
or mouth. The clearer you can make a whisper, the better quality you can
make in pure and orotund. Pure tone or quality is sound made with no
disagreeable quality being heard; and is the same as pleasant quality,
spoken of as being necessary to make listeners. Pure quality is made
with ease, with no waste of breath, and is used for expression of
agreeable feelings. Orotund is a magnified, pure tone, and adds richness
and power to the voice in speech. It is the expression of intense
feelings, usually slow in movement, as grandeur, sublimity, awe, &c. It
can only be obtained by much practice and much patience, allowing the
voice to grow in fulness, as it will in time, if practice continues.

WHISPER.

      1. Deep stillness fell on all around:
         Through that dense crowd was heard no sound
              Of step or word.

      2. How dark it is! I cannot seem to see
         The faces of my flock. Is that the sea
         That murmurs so? or is it weeping? Hush,
         My little children! God so loved the world,
         He gave his Son: so love ye one another.
         Love God and man. Amen!

      3. Hush! 'tis a holy hour! The quiet room
           Seems like a temple; while yon soft lamp sheds
         A faint and starry radiance through the gloom
           And the sweet stillness down on bright young heads,
         With all their clustering locks untouched by care,
         And bowed, as flowers are bowed with night, in prayer.

ASPIRATE.

      1. Hush! draw the curtain,--so!
         She is dead, quite dead, you see.
         Poor little lady! She lies
         With the light gone out of her eyes;
         But her features still wear that soft,
         Gray, meditative expression
         Which you must have noticed oft.

      2. Lord of the winds! I feel thee nigh;
         I know thy breath in the burning sky;
         And I wait with a thrill in every vein
         For the coming of the hurricane.
         And, lo! on the wing of the heavy gales,
         Through the boundless arch of heaven, he sails:
         Silent and slow, and terribly strong,
         The mighty shadow is borne along,
         Like the dark eternity to come;
         While the world below, dismayed and dumb,
         Through the calm of the thick hot atmosphere
         Looks up at its gloomy folds with fear.

      3. 'Tis midnight's holy hour; and silence now
         Is brooding like a gentle spirit o'er
         The still and pulseless world. Hark! on the winds
         The bell's deep tones are swelling: 'tis the knell
         Of the departed year. No funeral train
         Is sweeping past: yet on the stream and wood,
         With melancholy light, the moonbeams rest
         Like a pale, spotless shroud; the air is stirred
         As by a mourner's sigh; and on yon cloud,
         That floats so still and placidly through heaven,
         The spirits of the seasons seem to stand,--
         Young Spring, bright Summer, Autumn's solemn form,
         And Winter with its aged locks,--and breathe,
         In mournful cadences that come abroad
         Like the far wind-harp's wild and touching wail,
         A melancholy dirge o'er the dead year,
         Gone from the earth forever.

PURE.

      1. Your voiceless lips, O flowers! are living preachers,
           Each cup a pulpit, and each leaf a book,
         Supplying to my fancy numerous teachers
                       In loneliest nook.

      2. Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky,
           The flying cloud, the frosty light;
           The year is dying in the night:
         Ring out, wild bells, and let him die.

         Ring out the old; ring in the new;
           Ring, happy bells, across the snow:
           The year is going; let him go:
         Ring out the false, ring in the true.

      3. Was it the chime of a tiny bell
           That came so sweet to my dreaming ear,
         Like the silvery tones of a fairy's shell,
           That he winds on the beach, so mellow and clear,
         When the winds and the waves lie together asleep,
         And the moon and the fairy are watching the deep,--
             She dispensing her silvery light,
             And he his notes as silvery quite,--
         While the boatman listens, and ships his oar,
         To catch the music that comes from the shore?
             Hark! the notes on my ear that play
             Are set to words: as they float, they say,
                       "Passing away, passing away!"

OROTUND.

1. Approach and behold while I lift from his sepulchre its covering. Ye
admirers of his greatness, ye emulous of his talents and his fame,
approach, and behold him now. How pale! how silent! No martial bands
admire the adroitness of his movements, no fascinating throng weep and
melt and tremble at his eloquence. Amazing change! A shroud, a coffin, a
narrow subterraneous cabin,--this is all that now remains of Hamilton.
And is this all that remains of him? During a life so transitory, what
lasting monument, then, can our fondest hopes erect!

      2. A seraph by the throne
         In the full glory stood. With eager hand
         He smote the golden harp-strings, till a flood
         Of harmony on the celestial air
         Welled forth unceasing: then with a great voice
         He sang the "Holy, holy, evermore,
         Lord God Almighty!" and the eternal courts
         Thrilled with the rapture; and the hierarchies,
         Angel and rapt archangel, throbbed and burned
         With vehement adoration. Higher yet
         Rose the majestic anthem without pause,--
         Higher, with rich magnificence of sound,
         To its full strength; and still the infinite heavens
         Rang with the "Holy, holy, evermore!"

      3. God, thou art mighty. At thy footstool bound,
         Lie, gazing to thee, Chance and Life and Death.
         Nor in the angel-circle flaming round,
         Nor in the million worlds that blaze beneath,
         Is one that can withstand thy wrath's hot breath.
         Woe in thy frown; in thy smile victory.
         Hear my last prayer. I ask no mortal wreath:
         Let but these eyes my rescued country see;
       Then take my spirit, All-Omnipotent, to thee.

     For examples of pure tone, see "Reading Club," No. 1, pages
     54 and 82; No. 2, page 63; No. 3, pages 11, 49; No. 4, pages
     29, 36, 81.

     For orotund, No. 1, page 42; No. 2, page 64; No. 3, page 25;
     No. 4, page 61.


MOVEMENT.

By different emotions you are prompted to speak words in quick or slow
utterance, as in joy or anger you would be prompted to utter words
quickly; while in majesty, sublimity, awe, you would speak slowly. You
should practise movement, that you may be able to read rapidly and with
perfect articulation, and also to read slowly with proper phrasing. In
quick movement, read as fast as you can with proper articulation,
phrasing, and emphasis. In moderate movement, read as in ordinary
earnest conversation. In slow and very slow movement, phrase well, as in
these the emphatic words have the longest time given to them, the
secondarily emphatic ones less time, and the connecting words the least
time; and it is a great art to proportion them rightly. If you do not do
the latter, you will drawl.

QUICK MOVEMENT.

      1. Boot, saddle, to horse, and away!
         Rescue my castle before the hot day
         Brightens to blue from its silvery gray:
         Boot, saddle, to horse, and away!

      2. But hark! above the beating of the storm
         Peals on the startled ear the fire-alarm.
         Yon gloomy heaven's aflame with sudden light;
         And heart-beats quicken with a strange affright.
         From tranquil slumber springs, at duty's call,
         The ready friend no danger can appall:
         Fierce for the conflict, sturdy, true, and brave,
         He hurries forth to battle and to save.

      3. After him came, spurring hard,
         A gentleman almost forespent with speed,
         That stopped by me to breathe his bloodied horse.
         He asked the way to Chester; and of him
         I did demand what news from Shrewsbury.
         He told me that rebellion had bad luck,
         And that young Harry Percy's spur was cold:
         With that he gave his able horse the head,
         And, bending forward, struck his armed heels
         Against the panting sides of his poor jade
         Up to the rowel-head; and, starting so,
         He seemed, in running, to devour the way,
         Staying no longer question.

MODERATE MOVEMENT.

      1. Yes, Tom's the best fellow that ever you knew.
                  Just listen to this:--
         When the old mill took fire, and the flooring fell through,
         And I with it, helpless there, full in my view
         What do you think my eyes saw through the fire,
         That crept along, crept along, nigher and nigher,
         But Robin, my baby-boy, laughing to see
         The shining? He must have come there after me,
         Troddled alone from the cottage.

2. Oratory, as it consists in the expression of the countenance, graces
of attitude and motion, and intonation of voice, although it is
altogether superficial and ornamental, will always command admiration;
yet it deserves little veneration. Flashes of wit, coruscations of
imagination, and gay pictures,--what are they? Strict truth, rapid
reason, and pure integrity, are the only essential ingredients in
oratory. I flatter myself that Demosthenes, by his "action, action,
action," meant to express the same opinion.

      3. Waken, voice of the land's devotion!
              Spirit of freedom, awaken all!
         Ring, ye shores, to the song of ocean!
              Rivers, answer! and, mountains, call!
                The golden day has come:
                Let every tongue be dumb
         That sounded its malice, or murmured its fears.
              She hath won her story;
              She wears her glory:
         We crown her the land of a hundred years!

SLOW MOVEMENT.

      1. Within this sober realm of leafless trees
           The russet year inhaled the dreamy air,
         Like some tanned reaper in his hour of ease
           When all the fields are lying brown and bare.

      2. As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form,
         Swells from the vale, and midway leaves the storm,
         Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread,
         Eternal sunshine settles on its head.

      3. Father, guide me! Day declines;
         Hollow winds are in the pines;
         Darkly waves each giant bough
         O'er the sky's last crimson glow;
         Hushed is now the convent's bell,
         Which erewhile, with breezy swell,
         From the purple mountains bore
         Greeting to the sunset shore;
         Now the sailor's vesper-hymn
               Dies away.
         Father, in the forest dim
               Be my stay!

VERY SLOW MOVEMENT.

      1. Toll, toll, toll,
           Thou bell by billows swung!
         And night and day thy warning words
           Repeat with mournful tongue!
         Toll for the queenly boat
           Wrecked on yon rocky shore:
         Seaweed is in her palace-halls;
           She rides the surge no more.

      2. Now o'er the drowsy earth still night prevails;
         Calm sleep the mountain-tops and shady vales,
         The rugged cliffs and hollow glens.
         The wild beasts slumber in their dens,
         The cattle on the hill. Deep in the sea
         The countless finny race and monster brood
         Tranquil repose. Even the busy bee
         Forgets her daily toil. The silent wood
         No more with noisy form of insect rings;
         And all the feathered tribes, by gentle sleep subdued,
         Roost in the glade, and hang their drooping wings.

      3. My Father, God, lead on!
         Calmly I follow where thy guiding hand
         Directs my steps. I would not trembling stand,
                     Though all before the way
                     Is dark as night: I stay
                     My soul on thee, and say,
                 Father, I trust thy love: lead on!


FORCE.

Every emotion which you have you feel more or less intensely, and that
intensity is expressed through the force of the voice. The degree of
force with which you speak will be according to the degree of intensity
of emotion; and even in the gentlest tone you can express as forcibly as
in the loudest. According to your strength of body and mind, and
intensity of feeling, you have been accustomed to express in a strong or
feeble voice. Force needs to be practised to enable you to fill a large
hall with your gentlest tone, and to make very loud tones without
straining of throat. In gentle force, sustain the breath well, as in
fulness and power, observing directions there given; and make your tone
soft and pure. In moderate force, be as energetic as in earnest
conversation. In loud and very loud force, observe directions under
"Fulness and Power."

GENTLE FORCE.

      1. A noise as of a hidden brook
           In the leafy month of June,
         That to the sleeping woods all night
           Singeth a quiet tune.

      2. O blithe new-comer! I have heard,
           I hear thee, and rejoice:
         O cuckoo! shall I call thee bird,
           Or but a wandering voice?

         Thrice welcome, darling of the spring!
           Even yet thou art to me
         No bird, but an invisible thing,
           A voice, a mystery.

      3. Around this lovely valley rise
         The purple hills of Paradise;
         Oh! softly on yon banks of haze
         Her rosy face the Summer lays;
         Becalmed along the azure sky
         The argosies of Cloud-land lie,
         Whose shores, with many a shining rift,
         Far off their pearl-white peaks uplift.

MODERATE FORCE.

      1. Robert of Lincoln is gayly dressed,
           Wearing a bright black wedding-coat:
         White are his shoulders, and white his crest.
           Hear him call, in his merry note,
               Bob-o-link, bob-o-link,
               Spink, spank, spink!
         Look, what a nice new coat is mine!
         Sure there was never a bird so fine.
                             Chee, chee, chee!

2. O young men and women! there is no picture of ideal excellence of
manhood and womanhood that I ever draw that seems too high, too
beautiful, for your young hearts. What aspirations there are for the
good, the true, the fair, and the holy! The instinctive affections--how
beautiful they are, with all their purple prophecy of new homes and
generations of immortals that are yet to be! The high instincts of
reason, of conscience, of love, of religion,--how beautiful and grand
they are in the young heart!

      3. She was a darling little thing:
             I worshipped her outright.
         When in my arms she smiling lay;
         When on my knees she climbed in play;
         When round my neck her arms would cling,
         As crooning songs I used to sing;
         When on my back she gayly rode,
         Then strong beneath its precious load;
         When at my side, in summer days,
         She gambolled in her childish plays;
         When, throughout all the after-years,
         I watched with trembling hopes and fears
         The infant to a woman grow,--
         I worshipped then, as I do now,
             My life's delight.

LOUD FORCE.

      1. Hark to the bugle's roundelay!
         Boot and saddle! Up and away!
         Mount and ride as ye ne'er rode before;
         Spur till your horses' flanks run gore;
         Ride for the sake of human lives;
         Ride as ye would were your sisters and wives
         Cowering under their scalping-knives.
         Boot and saddle! Away, away!

      2. News of battle! news of battle!
           Hark! 'tis ringing down the street,
         And the archways and the pavement
           Bear the clang of hurrying feet.
         News of battle!--who hath brought it?
           News of triumph!--who should bring
         Tidings from our noble army,
           Greetings from our gallant king!

      3. And, lo! from the assembled crowd
         There rose a shout, prolonged and loud,
         That to the ocean seemed to say,
         "Take her, O bridegroom old and gray!
         Take her to thy protecting arms,
         With all her youth and all her charms."

VERY LOUD FORCE.

      1. "Now, men! now is your time!"
          "Make ready! take aim! fire!"

      2. Up the hillside, down the glen,
         Rouse the sleeping citizen,
         Summon out the might of men!
         Clang the bells in all your spires!
         On the gray hills of your sires
         Fling to heaven your signal-fires!
         Oh, for God and Duty stand,
         Heart to heart, and hand to hand,
         Round the old graves of your land!

      3. Now for the fight! now for the cannon-peal!
         Forward, through blood and toil and cloud and fire!
         Glorious the shout, the shock, the crash of steel,
         The volley's roll, the rocket's blasting spire!
         They shake; like broken waves their squares retire.
         On them, hussars! Now give them rein and heel!
         Think of the orphaned child, the murdered sire!
         Earth cries for blood. In thunder on them wheel!
       This hour to Europe's fate shall set the triumph seal.


STRESS.

In expressing your emotions, the voice is ejected in various ways;
perhaps in a jerky or trembling or flowing manner, as may be, depending
on the kind of emotion you feel. This is called "Stress;" and you have
learned how, mechanically, to make it. Radical Stress is used when you
try to impress upon others your exact meaning. Practise it with that
thought in your mind. Median Stress is used in appeal to the best
affections, and expresses agreeable emotions. The swell comes on
emphatic words. Terminal Stress is used in expressions of anger,
petulance, impatience, and the like. Thorough Stress is used in calling
to persons at a long distance, but has little place in expression. It is
frequently substituted by bad readers or speakers for Median or Terminal
Stress. Compound Stress is used in strong passion; and being a compound
of Radical and Terminal Stress, and used with circumflex inflections, it
combines the meaning of them all, as sarcasm, irony, &c., mixed with
anger, impatience, doubt, &c. Tremolo Stress is used in excessive
emotion; as joy, anger, sorrow, in excess, would cause the voice to
tremble. You should practise this in order to avoid it, as, when Tremolo
does not proceed from real excess of feeling, it has a very ludicrous
effect. Practise the following exercises by thinking and feeling the
idea and emotion.

RADICAL STRESS.

      1. Hark, hark! the lark sings mid the silvery blue:
         Behold her flight, proud man, and lowly bow.

2. There is the act of utterance, a condition that exists between you
and myself. I speak, and you hear; but how? The words issue from my
lips, and reach your ears; but what are those words? Volumes of force
communicated to the atmosphere, whose elastic waves carry them to fine
recipients in your own organism. But still I ask, How? How is it that
these volumes of sound should convey articulate meaning, and carry ideas
from my mind into your own?

3. I call upon you, fathers, by the shades of your ancestors, by the
dear ashes which repose in this precious soil, by all you are and all
you hope to be,--resist every object of disunion; resist every
encroachment upon your liberties; resist every attempt to fetter your
consciences, or smother your public schools, or extinguish your system
of public instruction.

MEDIAN STRESS.

      1. The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof;
         The world, and they that dwell therein:
         For he hath founded it upon the seas,
         And established it upon the floods.

2. Oh divine, oh delightful legacy of a spotless reputation! Rich is the
inheritance it leaves; pious the example it testifies; pure, precious,
and imperishable the hope which it inspires. Can there be conceived a
more atrocious injury than to filch from its possessor this inestimable
benefit; to rob society of its charm, and solitude of its solace; not
only to outlaw life, but to attaint death, converting the very grave,
the refuge of the sufferer, into the gate of infamy and of shame?

      3. How sleep the brave who sink to rest
         With all their country's wishes blest!
         When Spring, with dewy fingers cold,
         Returns to deck their hallowed mould,
         It there shall dress a sweeter sod
         Than blooming Fancy ever trod.
         By fairy hands their knell is rung;
         By forms unseen their dirge is sung:
         There Honor walks, a pilgrim gray,
         To deck the turf that wraps their clay;
         And Freedom shall a while repair
         To dwell a weeping hermit there.

TERMINAL STRESS.

      1. I'll have my bond; I will not hear thee speak:
         I'll have my bond; and therefore speak no more:
         I'll not be made a soft and dull-eyed fool,
         To shake the head, relent, and sigh, and yield
         To Christian intercessors.

      2. Nor sleep nor sanctuary,
         Being naked, sick, nor fane nor capitol,
         The prayers of priests, nor times of sacrifice,
         Embarkments all of fury, shall lift up
         Their rotten privilege and custom 'gainst
         My hate to Marcius: where I find him, were it
         At home upon my brother's guard,--even there,
         Against the hospitable cannon, would I
         Wash my fierce hand in his heart.

      3. A plague upon them! Wherefore should I curse them?
         Would curses kill, as doth the mandrake's groan,
         I would invent as bitter-searching terms,
         As curst, as harsh, and horrible to hear,
         Delivered strongly through my fixèd teeth,
         With full as many signs of deadly hate,
         As lean-faced Envy in her loathsome cave:
         My tongue should stumble in mine earnest words;
         Mine eyes should sparkle like the beaten flint;
         My hair be fixed on end, as one distract;
         Ay, every joint should seem to curse and ban;
         And even now my burdened heart would break,
         Should I not curse them.

THOROUGH STRESS.

      1. "Ho, Starbuck and Pickney and Tenterden!
           Run for your shallops, gather your men,
         Scatter your boats on the lower bay!"

      2. "Run! run for your lives, high up on the land!
         Away, men and children! up quick, and be gone!
         The water's broke loose! it is chasing me on!"

      3. They strike! Hurrah! the fort has surrendered!
         Shout, shout, my warrior-boy,
         And wave your cap, and clap your hands for joy!
         Cheer answer cheer, and bear the cheer about.
         Hurrah, hurrah, for the fiery fort is ours!
             "Victory, victory, victory!"

COMPOUND STRESS.

      1. Thou slave, thou wretch, thou coward,
         Thou little valiant great in villany!
         Thou wear a lion's hide! doff it for shame,
         And hang a calf's skin on those recreant limbs.

2. Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions,
senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with the same
weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed
and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is? If you
prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? if you
poison us, do we not die? and, if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?

      3. Think you a little din can daunt mine ears?
         Have I not in my time heard lions roar?
         Have I not heard the sea, puffed up with winds,
         Rage like an angry boar, chafèd with sweat?
         Have I not heard great ordnance in the field,
         And heaven's artillery thunder in the skies?
         Have I not in a pitchèd battle heard
         Loud 'larums, neighing steeds, and trumpet's clang?
         And do you tell me of a woman's tongue,
         That gives not half so great a blow to the ear
         As will a chestnut in a farmer's fire?

TREMOLO STRESS.

      1. There's nothing in this world can make me joy:
         Life is as tedious as a twice-told tale,
         Vexing the dull ear of a drowsy man.

      2. O men with sisters dear!
           O men with mothers and wives!
         It is not linen you're wearing out,
           But human creatures' lives.
         Stitch, stitch, stitch,
           In poverty, hunger, and dirt;
         Sewing at once, with a double thread,
           A shroud as well as a shirt.

      3. Grief fills the room up of my absent child,
         Lies in his bed, walks up and down with me,
         Puts on his pretty looks, repeats his words,
         Remembers me of all his gracious parts,
         Stuffs out his vacant garments with his form:
         Then have I reason to be fond of grief.


TRANSITION.

The changes from one kind of force to another, or one pitch to another,
or one movement to another, or one quality to another, are many in
expressive reading; and these changes are called "Transition." To
practise it is very useful in breaking up monotony of voice, and adding
expressiveness to it. In practice of these short extracts, you are
showing the benefit of practice in quality, pitch, movement, and force.
Put yourself into the thought and feeling, and vary the voice as that,
guided by common sense, may suggest to you.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, pp. 45, 54; No. 2, pp. 5, 101;
     No. 3, pp. 9, 70, 87; No. 4, pp. 26, 42, 75.

      1. "Make way for liberty!" he cried,--
         Made way for liberty, and died!

      2. "Peace be unto thee, father," Tauler said:
         "God give thee a good day!" The old man raised
         Slowly his calm blue eyes: "I thank thee, son;
         But all my days are good, and none are ill."

      3. "They come, they come! the pale-face come!"
         The chieftain shouted where he stood,
         Sharp watching at the margin wood,
         And gave the war-whoop's treble yell,
         That like a knell on fair hearts fell
         Far watching from their rocky home.

      4.   "Not yet, not yet: steady, steady!"
         On came the foe in even line,
         Nearer and nearer, to thrice paces nine.
           We looked into their eyes. "Ready!"
           A sheet of flame, a roll of death!
           They fell by scores: we held our breath:
             Then nearer still they came.
             Another sheet of flame,
         And brave men fled who never fled before.

      5. Did ye not hear it?--No: 'twas but the wind,
         Or the car rattling o'er the stony street.
         On with the dance! let joy be unconfined!
         No sleep till morn, when youth and pleasure meet
         To chase the glowing hours with flying feet.
         But hark!--that heavy sound breaks in once more,
         As if the clouds its echo would repeat;
         And nearer, clearer, deadlier than before!
       Arm, arm! it is--it is--the cannon's opening roar!

      6. "Together!" shouts Niagara his thunder-toned decree;
         "Together!" echo back the waves upon the Mexic Sea;
         "Together!" sing the sylvan hills where old Atlantic roars;
         "Together!" boom the breakers on the wild Pacific shores;
         "Together!" cry the people. And "together" it shall be,
         An everlasting charter-bond forever for the free!
         Of liberty the signet-seal, the one eternal sign,
         Be those united emblems,--the Palmetto and the Pine.

      7. "Ho, sailor of the sea!
         How's my boy,--my boy?"
         "What's your boy's name, good wife?
         And in what good ship sailed he?"

         "My boy John,--
         He that went to sea:
         What care I for the ship, sailor?
         My boy's my boy to me."

      8. Out burst all with one accord:
           "This is Paradise for Hell!
           Let France, let France's king,
           Thank the man that did the thing!"
         What a shout! and all one word,--
           "Hervé Riel!"
         As he stepped in front once more,
           Not a symptom of surprise
           In the frank blue Breton eyes:
         Just the same man as before.

      9. He called his child,--no voice replied;
           He searched, with terror wild:
         Blood, blood, he found on every side,
           But nowhere found his child.

         "Hell-hound! my child's by thee devoured,"
           The frantic father cried;
         And to the hilt his vengeful sword
           He plunged in Gelert's side.

         His suppliant, as to earth he fell,
           No pity could impart;
         But still his Gelert's dying yell
           Passed heavy o'er his heart.

      10. While the trumpets bray, and the cymbals ring,
          "Praise, praise to Belshazzar, Belshazzar the king!"
          Now what cometh? Look, look! Without menace or call,
          Who writes with the lightning's bright hand on the wall?
          What pierceth the king like the point of a dart?
          What drives the bold blood from his cheek to his heart?
          "Chaldæans, magicians! the letters expound."
          They are read; and Belshazzar is dead on the ground!

      11. _Sir P._--'Slife, madam! I say, had you any of these
      little elegant expenses when you married me?

      _Lady T._--Lud, Sir Peter! would you have me be out
      of the fashion?

      _Sir P._--The fashion, indeed! What had you to do
      with the fashion before you married me?

      _Lady T._--For my part, I should think you would like
      to have your wife thought a woman of taste.

      _Sir P._--Ay, there again! Taste! Zounds, madam!
      you had no taste when you married me.

      _Lady T._--That's very true, indeed, Sir Peter; and,
      after having married you, I should never pretend to taste
      again, I allow.

      12. "And what the meed?" at length Tell asked.
          "Bold fool! when slaves like thee are tasked,
               It is my will;
          But that thine eye may keener be,
          And nerved to such nice archery,
          If thou succeed'st, thou goest free.
               What! pause ye still?
          Give him a bow and arrow there:
          One shaft,--but one." Madness, despair,
               And tortured love,
          One moment swept the Switzer's face;
          Then passed away each stormy trace,
          And high resolve reigned like a grace
               Caught from above.

      13. _Bass._--Why dost thou whet thy knife so earnestly?

      _Shy._--To cut the forfeit from that bankrupt there.

      _Gra._--Can no prayers pierce thee?

      _Shy._--No, none that thou hast wit enough to make.

      _Gra._--Oh, be thou damned, inexorable dog,
      And for thy life let justice be accused!
      Thou almost mak'st me waver in my faith,
      To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
      That souls of animals infuse themselves
      Into the trunks of men: thy currish spirit
      Governed a wolf, who, hanged for human slaughter,
      Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet,
      And, whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallowed dam,
      Infused itself in thee; for thy desires
      Are wolfish, bloody, starved, and ravenous.

      _Shy._--Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond,
      Thou but offend'st thy lungs to speak so loud.
      Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall
      To cureless ruin.--I stand here for law.

      14. _Ham._--Now, mother, what's the matter?

      _Queen._--Hamlet, thou hast thy father much offended.

      _Ham._--Mother, you have my father much offended.

      _Queen._--Come, come, you answer with an idle tongue.

      _Ham._--Go, go, you question with a wicked tongue.

      _Queen._--Why, how now, Hamlet?

      _Ham._--What's the matter now?

      _Queen._--Have you forgot me?

      _Ham._--No, by the rood, not so:
      You are the queen, your husband's brother's wife;
      And--would it were not so!--you are my mother.

      _Queen._--Nay, then, I'll set those to you that can speak.

      _Ham._--Come, come, and sit you down: you shall not budge;
      You go not, till I set you up a glass
      Where you may see the inmost part of you.


MODULATION.

      "'Tis not enough the voice be loud and clear:
      'Tis MODULATION that must charm the ear."

A good reader or speaker will vary his or her voice in the elements of
emotional expression (that is, pitch, quality, movement, stress, force),
on words, phrases, and sentences, in such a manner that the listeners
get a suggestion of the meaning of a word by the sound of it. For
instance, the words _bright_, _glad_, _joyful_, _dull_, _sad_, _weak_,
may be pronounced in such a manner as to suggest by the quality of voice
used their meaning; and, in the same manner, phrases and whole sentences
may have variation in voice so as to suggest their meaning. This is
modulation.

To modulate well, first, you must use your imagination, to form a
perfect picture in your own mind of what you wish to describe, just as
you would if you were an artist, and were intending to paint an ideal
picture; and, in reality, you are an artist, for you paint with words
and tones. Secondly, you should understand the exact meaning of each
word, and, when you speak it, make your manner of speaking it suggest
its meaning. Suppose you were to read Tennyson's "Song of the Brook." We
will analyze as near as words may the manner of reading each verse. Read
the whole song, and form the picture in imagination of the flow of the
water, the scenery along its course, the roughness or smoothness of the
water as described, the slowness or rapidity of its flow at different
points, how large or small the brook is, making the picture as perfect
as if you would paint upon canvas the whole scene.

       THE BROOK.

       1. I come from haunts of coot and hern;
       2. I make a sudden sally,
       3. And sparkle out among the fern
       4. To bicker down a valley.

       5. By thirty hills I hurry down,
       6. Or slip between the ridges;
       7. By twenty thorps, a little town,
       8. And half a hundred bridges.

       9. Till last by Philip's farm I flow
      10. To join the brimming river;
      11. For men may come, and men may go,
      12. But I go on forever.

      13. I chatter over stony ways
      14. In little sharps and trebles;
      15. I bubble into eddying bays;
      16. I babble on the pebbles.

      17. With many a curve my banks I fret,
      18. By many a field and fallow,
      19. And many a fairy foreland set
      20. With willow-weed and mallow.

      21. I chatter, chatter, as I flow
      22. To join the brimming river;
      23. For men may come, and men may go,
      24. But I go on forever.

      25. I wind about, and in and out,
      26. With here a blossom sailing,
      27. And here and there a lusty trout,
      28. And here and there a grayling,

      29. And here and there a foamy flake
      30. Upon me as I travel;
      31. With many a silvery waterbreak
      32. Above the golden gravel;

      33. And draw them all along, and flow,
      34. To join the brimming river;
      35. For men may come, and men may go,
      36. But I go on forever.

      37. I steal by lawns and grassy plots;
      38. I slide by hazel covers;
      39. I move the sweet forget-me-nots
      40. That grow for happy lovers.

      41. I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance,
      42. Among my skimming swallows;
      43. I make the netted sunbeams dance
      44. Against my sandy shallows.

      45. I murmur under moon and stars
      46. In brambly wildernesses;
      47. I linger by my shingly bars;
      48. I loiter round my cresses;

      49. And out again I curve and flow
      50. To join the brimming river;
      51. For men may come, and men may go,
      52. But I go on forever.

As a whole, this piece requires for quality of voice the _pure tone_;
force, _gentle_; movement, _moderate_; pitch, _middle_; stress,
_median_. The variations in modulation must be from these, and will be
mostly variations in quality, movement, and pitch.

Lines 2 to 6. Movement, quick; pitch, high; with quality changing on
words _sudden_, _sparkle_, _bicker_, _hurry_, _slip_, in such a way as
to suggest the meaning of the word.

Lines 7 to 12. Movement, moderate; pitch, middle.

Lines 13 to 16. Movement, quick; pitch, high; the words _chatter_,
_stony_, _sharps_, _trebles_, _bubble_, _babble_, spoken with suggestion
of their meaning.

Lines 17 to 20. Movement, moderate; pitch, middle.

Lines 21 to 24. Movement, quick; pitch, high; make quality suggest on
_chatter_, _brimming_.

Lines 25 to 28. Movement, slow; pitch, middle; change to suggestive
quality on _wind_, _blossom_, _lusty_.

Lines 29 to 36. Movement, moderate; pitch, middle; suggestive quality on
_foamy_, _silvery_, _golden_, _brimming_.

Lines 37 to 40. Movement, slow; pitch, low; suggestive quality on
_steal_, _slide_, _move_, _happy_.

Lines 41, 42. Movement, pitch, quality, all varied on words _slip_,
_slide_, _gloom_, _glance_.

Lines 43, 44. Movement, quick; pitch, high; suggestive quality on
_dance_, _shallows_.

Lines 45 to 48. Movement, slow; pitch, low; quality, very slightly
aspirate; suggestive quality on _murmur_, _linger_, _loiter_.

Lines 49 to 52. Movement, moderate; pitch, middle; suggestive quality on
_brimming_.

This analysis is very imperfect, as it is impossible in words to explain
it. What modulation requires is, as a popular author says, "genius and
sense" on your part, and you will be enabled to do as here is
imperfectly suggested. You will do well to select some pieces, and
analyze them, as here suggested. In Longfellow's launch of the ship, in
his poem "Building of the Ship," picture the whole scene in imagination,
the size and kind of ship, the number of the crowd, &c.

The following pieces are marked so that you may get a general idea of
what is required for emotional expression in each. No marking can give
you particulars of what is necessary, as the modulation of voice or
variety in emotional expression--the light and shadow in the coloring of
your word-picture--must depend upon your artistic "sense and genius."
Imagine your picture, understand the meaning of every word and suggest
its meaning in tone, concentrate yourself in the thought and feeling of
the piece, and let your voice be governed by that, and you will not go
far wrong if you have faithfully practised what has been recommended in
the previous pages of this book.

1. Pure quality, gentle force, slow movement, middle pitch, median
stress.

      Those evening bells, those evening bells!
      How many a tale their music tells
      Of youth and home, and that sweet time
      When last I heard their soothing chime!

      Those joyous hours are passed away;
      And many a heart that then was gay
      Within the tomb now darkly dwells,
      And hears no more those evening bells.

      And so 'twill be when I am gone:
      That tuneful peal will still ring on;
      While other bards shall walk these dells,
      And sing your praise, sweet evening bells.

2. Orotund quality, with fulness and power, varying middle and low
pitch, moderate and quick movement, median and radical stress mixed.

        With storm-daring pinion and sun-gazing eye
      The gray forest eagle is king of the sky.
      From the crag-grasping fir-top where morn hangs its wreath,
      He views the mad waters white writhing beneath.
      A fitful red glaring, a rumbling jar,
      Proclaim the storm-demon still raging afar:
      The black cloud strides upward, the lightning more red,
      And the roll of the thunder more deep and more dread;
      A thick pall of darkness is cast o'er the air;
      And on bounds the blast with a howl from its lair.
        The lightning darts zig-zag and forked through the gloom;
      And the bolt launches o'er with crash, rattle, and boom:
      The gray forest eagle--where, where has he sped?
      Does he shrink to his eyrie, or shiver with dread?
      Does the glare blind his eye? Has the terrible blast
      On the wing of the sky-king a fear-fetter cast?
      No, no! the brave eagle, he thinks not of fright:
      The wrath of the tempest but rouses delight.
        To the flash of the lightning his eye casts a gleam;
      To the shriek of the wild blast he echoes his scream;
      And with front like a warrior that speeds to the fray,
      And a clapping of pinions, he's up and away.
      Away--oh! away--soars the fearless and free;
      What recks he the skies' strife? its monarch is he!
      The lightning darts round him, undaunted his sight;
      The blast sweeps against him, unwavered his flight:
      High upward, still upward, he wheels, till his form
      Is lost in the black scowling gloom of the storm.

3. Pure to orotund quality, gentle to moderate force, moderate movement,
middle pitch, radical and median stress mixed. This contains many words
that can be pronounced with a quality or variation suggesting their
meaning.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rhetoric as taught in our seminaries and by elocutionists is one thing:
genuine, heart-thrilling, soul-stirring eloquence is a very different
thing. The one is like the rose in wax, without odor; the other like the
rose on its native bush, perfuming the atmosphere with the rich odors
distilled from the dew of heaven.

The one is the finely-finished statue of a Cicero or Demosthenes, more
perfect in its lineaments than the original, pleasing the eye, and
enrapturing the imagination: the other is the living man, animated by
intellectual power, rousing the deepest feelings of every heart, and
electrifying every soul as with vivid lightning. The one is a picture of
the passions all on fire: the other is the real conflagration, pouring
out a volume of words that burn like liquid flames bursting from the
crater of a volcano.

The one attracts the admiring gaze and tickles the fancy of an audience:
the other sounds an alarm that vibrates through the tingling ears to the
soul, and drives back the rushing blood upon the aching heart. The one
falls upon the multitude like April showers glittering in the sunbeams,
animating, and bringing nature into mellow life: the other rouses the
same mass to deeds of noble daring, and imparts to it the terrific force
of an avalanche.

The one moves the cerebral foliage in waves of recumbent beauty like a
gentle wind passing over a prairie of tall grass and flowers: the other
strikes a blow that resounds through the wilderness of mind like rolling
thunder through a forest of oaks. The one fails when strong commotions
and angry elements agitate the public peace: the other can ride upon the
whirlwind, direct the tornado, and rule the storm.

       *       *       *       *       *

4. Aspirated orotund quality, moderate force, very slow movement, very
low pitch, median stress.

      Tread softly, bow the head, in reverent silence bow:
      No passing bell doth toll, yet an immortal soul
                  Is passing now.

      Stranger, however great, with lowly reverence bow:
      There's one in that poor shed, one by that paltry bed,
                  Greater than thou.

      Beneath that beggar's roof, lo! Death doth keep his state.
      Enter, no crowds attend; enter, no guards defend
                  This palace-gate.

      That pavement damp and cold no smiling courtiers tread:
      One silent woman stands, lifting with meagre hands
                  A dying head.

      No mingling voices sound,--an infant wail alone:
      A sob suppressed, again that short deep gasp, and then
                  The parting groan.

      Oh change! oh wondrous change! burst are the prison-bars:
      This moment there, so low, so agonized; and now
                  Beyond the stars!

      Oh change, stupendous change! there lies the soulless clod:
      The sun eternal breaks, the new immortal wakes,--
                  Wakes with his God!

5. Pure quality, moderate force, quick movement, high pitch, radical
stress, suggestive quality on many words.

      The Wind one morning sprang up from sleep,
      Saying, "Now for a frolic, now for a leap,
      Now for a mad-cap galloping chase:
      I'll make a commotion in every place!"
      So it swept with a bustle right through a great town,
      Creaking the signs, and scattering down
      Shutters, and whisking with merciless squalls
      Old women's bonnets and gingerbread-stalls:
      There never was heard a much lustier shout
      As the apples and oranges tumbled about;
      And the urchins, that stand with their thievish eyes
      Forever on watch, ran off each with a prize.
      Then away to the field it went blustering and humming,
      And the cattle all wondered whatever was coming:
      It plucked by their tails the grave matronly cows,
      And tossed the colts' manes all about their brows;
      Till, offended at such a familiar salute,
      They all turned their backs, and stood silently mute.
      So on it went capering, and playing its pranks;
      Whistling with reeds on the broad river's banks;
      Puffing the birds as they sat on the spray,
      Or the traveller grave on the king's highway.
      It was not too nice to hustle the bags
      Of the beggar, and flutter his dirty rags:
      'Twas so bold, that it feared not to play its joke
      With the doctor's wig and the gentleman's cloak.
      Through the forest it roared, and cried gayly, "Now,
      You sturdy old oaks, I'll make you bow!"
      And it made them bow without more ado,
      And cracked their great branches through and through.
      Then it rushed like a monster on cottage and farm,
      Striking their dwellers with sudden alarm,
      And they ran out like bees in a midsummer swarm.
      There were dames with their kerchiefs tied over their caps
      To see if their poultry were free from mishaps.
      The turkeys they gobbled; the geese screamed aloud;
      And the hens crept to roost in a terrified crowd:
      There was rearing of ladders, and logs laying on,
      Where the thatch from the roof threatened soon to be gone.
      But the wind had passed on, and had met in a lane
      With a school-boy who panted and struggled in vain;
      For it tossed him and twirled him, then passed, and he stood
      With his hat in a pool, and his shoe in the mud.


STYLE.

What you have to say, where you have to say it, when you have to say it,
why you have to say it, and to whom you have to say it,--on these depend
how you shall say it, or your style. Conversational style is as you
would talk in earnest conversation with a friend; Narrative, as you
would tell an anecdote or story to a company of friends; Descriptive, as
you would describe what you had actually seen; Didactic, as you would
state earnestly, decisively, but pleasantly, your knowledge or opinions
to others; Public Address, which generally includes the Didactic,
Narrative, and Descriptive, is spoken with design to move, to persuade,
and instruct, particularly the latter; Declamatory is Public Address
magnified in expression, exhibiting more emotion, both in language, and
in quality, and fulness of voice; the Emotional or Dramatic, in which
the emotions and passions are strongly expressed. In practising these
different styles, the quality, pitch, force, and time must be regulated
by your thought and feeling, guided, as in transition, by common sense,
which will enable you to tell natural from unnatural expression.
Practise these few exercises under each head; but you will do better to
practise pieces such as are referred to under each head in the "Reading
Club."

CONVERSATIONAL.

1. "And how's my boy, Betty?" asked Mrs. Boffin, sitting down beside
her.

"He's bad; he's bad!" said Betty. "I begin to be afeerd he'll not be
yours any more than mine. All others belonging to him have gone to the
Power and the Glory; and I have a mind that they're drawing him to them,
leading him away."

"No, no, no!" said Mrs. Boffin.

"I don't know why else he clinches his little hand, as if it had hold of
a finger that I can't see; look at it!" said Betty, opening the wrappers
in which the flushed child lay, and showing his small right hand lying
closed upon his breast. "It's always so. It don't mind me."

      2. _Helen._--What's that you read?

      _Modus._--Latin, sweet cousin.

      _Hel._--'Tis a naughty tongue,
      I fear, and teaches men to lie.

      _Modus._--To lie!

      _Hel._--You study it. You call your cousin sweet,
      And treat her as you would a crab. As sour
      'Twould seem you think her: so you covet her!
      Why, how the monster stares, and looks about!
      You construe Latin, and can't construe that!

      _Modus._--I never studied women.

      _Hel._--No, nor men;
      Else would you better know their ways, nor read
      In presence of a lady.

3. "Now," said Wardle, "what say you to an hour on the ice? We shall
have plenty of time."

"Capital!" said Mr. Benjamin Allen.

"Prime!" ejaculated Mr. Bob Sawyer.

"You skate, of course, Winkle?" said Wardle.

"Ye--yes; oh, yes!" replied Mr. Winkle. "I--I am rather out of
practice."

"Oh, do skate, Mr. Winkle!" said Arabella. "I like to see it so much!"

"Oh, it is so graceful!" said another young lady.

A third young lady said it was elegant; and a fourth expressed her
opinion that it was "swan-like."

"I should be very happy, I'm sure," said Mr. Winkle, reddening; "but I
have no skates."

This objection was at once overruled. Trundle had got a couple of pair,
and the fat boy announced that there were half a dozen more down stairs;
whereat Mr. Winkle expressed exquisite delight, and looked exquisitely
uncomfortable.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, p. 56; No. 2, p. 49; No. 3, pp.
     5, 38; No. 4, pp. 94, 67.

NARRATIVE.

      1. Tauler the preacher walked, one autumn-day,
         Without the walls of Strasburg, by the Rhine,
         Pondering the solemn miracle of life;
         As one who, wandering in a starless night,
         Feels momently the jar of unseen waves,
         And hears the thunder of an unknown sea
         Breaking along an unimagined shore.

2. The illustrious Spinola, upon hearing of the death of a friend,
inquired of what disease he died. "Of having nothing to do," said the
person who mentioned it. "Enough," said Spinola, "to kill a general."
Not only the want of employment, but the want of care, often increases
as well as brings on this disease.

3. Sir Isaac Newton was once examining a new and very fine globe, when a
gentleman came into his study who did not believe in a God, but declared
the world we live in came by chance. He was much pleased with the
handsome globe, and asked, "Who made it?"--"Nobody," answered Sir Isaac:
"it happened there." The gentleman looked up in amazement; but he soon
understood what it meant.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, pp. 23, 73; No. 2, pp. 37, 44;
     No. 3, pp. 9, 99; No. 4, pp. 26, 49, 89.

DESCRIPTIVE.

      1. The morn awakes, like brooding dove,
           With outstretched wings of gray:
         Thin, feathery clouds close in above,
           And build a sober day.

         No motion in the deeps of air,
           No trembling in the leaves;
         A still contentment everywhere,
           That neither laughs nor grieves.

         A shadowy veil of silvery sheen
           Bedims the ocean's hue,
         Save where the boat has torn between
           A track of shining blue.

         Dream on, dream on, O dreamy day!
           The very clouds are dreams:
         That cloud is dreaming far away,
           And is not where it seems.

2. The broad moon lingers on the summit of Mount Olivet; but its beam
has long left the garden of Gethsemane, and the tomb of Absalom, the
waters of Kedron, and the dark abyss of Jehoshaphat. Full falls its
splendor, however, on the opposite city, vivid and defined in its silver
blaze. A lofty wall, with turrets and towers and frequent gates,
undulates with the unequal ground which it covers, as it encircles the
lost capital of Jehovah. It is a city of hills, far more famous than
those of Rome; for all Europe has heard of Sion and of Calvary.

3. It was a fine autumnal day: the sky was clear and serene, and Nature
wore that rich and golden livery which we always associate with the idea
of abundance. The forests had put on their sober brown and yellow; while
some trees of the tenderer kind had been nipped by the frosts into
brilliant dyes of orange, purple, and scarlet. Streaming files of wild
ducks began to make their appearance high in the air; the bark of the
squirrel might be heard from the groves of beech and hickory nuts, and
the pensive whistle of the quail at intervals from the neighboring
stubble-field.

     See "Reading Club," No. 2, pp. 15, 39; No. 3, pp. 28, 97;
     No. 4, pp. 19, 36, 92.

DIDACTIC.

      1. To teach--what is it but to learn
           Each day some lesson fair or deep,
         The while our hearts toward others yearn,--
           The hearts that wake toward those that sleep?

         To learn--what is it but to teach
           By aspect, manner, silence, word,
         The while we far and farther reach
           Within thy treasures, O our Lord?

         Then who but is a learner aye?
           And who but teaches, well or ill?
         Receiving, giving, day by day,--
           So grows the tree, so flows the rill.

2. All professions should be liberal; and there should be less pride
felt in peculiarity of employment, and more in excellence of
achievement. And yet more: in each several profession no master should
be too proud to do its hardest work. The painter should grind his own
colors; the architect work in the mason's yard with his men; the
master-manufacturer be himself a more skilful operative than any man in
his mills; and the distinction between one man and another be only in
experience and skill, and the authority and wealth which these must
naturally and justly obtain.

      3. Now, my co-mates and brothers in exile,
         Hath not old custom made this life more sweet
         Than that of painted pomp? Are not these woods
         More free from peril than the envious court?
         Here feel we but the penalty of Adam,
         The seasons' difference; as, the icy fang
         And churlish chiding of the winter's wind,
         Which, when it bites and blows upon my body,
         Even till I shrink with cold, I smile, and say,
         This is no flattery: these are counsellors
         That feelingly persuade me what I am.
         Sweet are the uses of adversity,
         Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous,
         Wears yet a precious jewel in his head;
         And this our life, exempt from public haunt,
         Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
         Sermons in stones, and good in every thing.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, p. 82; No. 2, pp. 88, 76; No. 3,
     p. 59.

PUBLIC ADDRESS.

1. Let not, then, the young man sit with folded hands, calling on
Hercules. Thine own arm is the demigod: it was given thee to help
thyself. Go forth into the world trustful, but fearless. Exalt thine
adopted calling or profession. Look on labor as honorable, and dignify
the task before thee, whether it be in the study, office, counting-room,
work-shop, or furrowed field. There is an equality in all, and the
resolute will and pure heart may ennoble either.

2. While you are gazing on that sun which is plunging into the vault of
the west, another observer admires him emerging from the gilded gates of
the east. By what inconceivable power does that agèd star, which is
sinking fatigued and burning in the shades of the evening, re-appear at
the same instant fresh and humid with the rosy dew of the morning? At
every hour of the day the glorious orb is at once rising, resplendent as
noonday, and setting in the west; or rather our senses deceive us, and
there is, properly speaking, no east or west, no north or south, in the
world.

3. In all natural and spiritual transactions, so far as they come within
the sphere of human agency, there are three distinct elements: there is
an element of endeavor, of mystery, and of result; in other words, there
is something for man to do, there is something beyond his knowledge and
control, there is something achieved by the co-operation of these two.
Man sows the seed, he reaps the harvest; but between these two points
occurs the middle condition of mystery. He casts the seed into the
ground; he sleeps and rises night and day; but the seed springs and
grows up, he knows not how: yet, when the fruit is ripe, immediately he
putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. That is all he knows
about it. There is something for him to do, something for him to
receive; but between the doing and receiving there is a mystery.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, p. 83; No. 2, pp. 77, 79; No. 3,
     pp. 74, 91; No. 4, pp. 35, 53.

DECLAMATORY.

1. You speak like a boy,--like a boy who thinks the old gnarled oak can
be twisted as easily as the young sapling. Can I forget that I have been
branded as an outlaw, stigmatized as a traitor, a price set on my head
as if I had been a wolf, my family treated as the dam and cubs of the
hill-fox, whom all may torment, vilify, degrade, and insult; the very
name which came to me from a long and noble line of martial ancestors
denounced, as if it were a spell to conjure up the devil with?

2. I have been accused of ambition in presenting this
measure,--inordinate ambition. If I had thought of myself only, I should
have never brought it forward. I know well the perils to which I expose
myself,--the risk of alienating faithful and valued friends, with but
little prospect of making new ones (if any new ones could compensate for
the loss of those we have long tried and loved), and the honest
misconception both of friends and foes. Ambition!--yes, I have ambition;
but it is the ambition of being the humble instrument in the hands of
Providence to reconcile a divided people, once more to revive concord
and harmony in a distracted land; the pleasing ambition of contemplating
the glorious spectacle of a free, united, prosperous, and fraternal
people.

3. Tell me, ye who tread the sods of yon sacred height, is Warren dead?
Can you not still see him, not pale and prostrate, the blood of his
gallant heart pouring out of his ghastly wound, but moving resplendent
over the field of honor, with the rose of heaven upon his cheek, and the
fire of liberty in his eye? Tell me, ye who make your pious pilgrimage
to the shades of Vernon, is Washington indeed shut up in that cold and
narrow house? That which made these men, and men like these, cannot die.
The hand that traced the charter of Independence is indeed motionless;
the eloquent lips that sustained it are hushed: but the lofty spirits
that conceived, resolved, and maintained it, and which alone, to such
men, "make it life to live,"--these cannot expire.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, pp. 66, 75; No. 3, pp. 50, 68,
     84; No. 4, pp. 40, 55.

DRAMATIC OR EMOTIONAL.

      1. Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye!
         I feel my heart new opened. Oh, how wretched
         Is that poor man that hangs on princes' favors!
         There is betwixt that smile we would aspire to,
         That sweet aspéct of princes and their ruin,
         More pangs and fears than wars or women have;
         And, when he falls, he falls like Lucifer,
         Never to hope again.

      2. What would you have, you curs!
         That like nor peace nor war? The one affrights you;
         The other makes you proud. He that trusts you,
         Where he should find you lions finds you hares;
         Where foxes, geese. You are no surer, no,
         Than is the coal of fire upon the ice,
         Or hailstone in the sun.

      3. To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
         Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
         To the last syllable of recorded time;
         And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
         The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
         Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player,
         That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
         And then is heard no more: it is a tale
         Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
         Signifying nothing.

     See "Reading Club," No. 1, p. 8; No. 2, p. 28; No. 3, p. 60;
     No. 4, p. 14.



PART FOUR.

HINTS ON ELOCUTION.


[Sidenote: _Practice._] If you have practised and studied the previous
pages of this book, you will have gained an elementary knowledge of the
science of elocution. Carlyle says, "The grand result of schooling is a
mind with just vision to discern, with free force to do: the grand
school-master is Practice." To make an artist of yourself in elocution
requires much practice and much patience. As Longfellow says, "Art is
long, and time is fleeting;" and the art of elocution is no exception to
that truth.

[Sidenote: _Health._] You must have health, strength, and elasticity of
body; and, to get and keep these, obey the laws of life as to exercise,
rest, pure air, good food, and temperance in all things. Avoid all
stimulants, or tobacco in any form. Practise any gymnastics that shall
help to make you strong and sprightly, but especially the physical
gymnastics here given, as they are designed to benefit the muscles used
in speaking.

[Sidenote: _Position._] When you stand to speak, the first thing that
strikes your audience is the position you assume. Therefore be careful
to assume and keep the speaker's position until some other position is
needed for expression; and return to the speaker's position, as the one
which is an active position, but gives the idea of repose and
confidence, without that disagreeable self-consciousness which to an
audience is disgusting. While you are speaking, avoid all swaying or
motion of body, unless it means something.

[Sidenote: _Bowing._] Do not bow too quickly, but do it with dignity,
and respect to your audience, first with a general, quick glance of the
eye about you. Bend the body at the hip-joints; let the back bend a
little, and the head more than the body. Do not bow too low, nor be
stiff in your movements.

[Sidenote: _Holding book._] How to hold the book has been shown in Part
One; and you will find that to be the position that strikes the audience
most favorably, and gives an impression of ease, which goes a great way
towards making the audience enjoy your reading.

[Sidenote: _Articulation._] When you speak, it is for the purpose of
making yourself understood. And to do this you must articulate
perfectly; that is, give a clear and correct utterance every element in
a word. [Sidenote: _Pronunciation._] You must also pronounce
properly,--that is, accent the proper syllable in a word; and, to find
out what the proper syllable is, refer to Webster's or Worcester's large
Dictionary (Worcester being preferable), and find out for yourself.
[Sidenote: _Emphasis._] You must also give the right phrasing,
subordinating all other phrases to the principal one, and remembering
that the emphatic word of your sentence is the emphatic word of the
important phrase. The emphatic word is usually brought out by inflection
and added force; but it may be made emphatic by particular stress, or a
pause before it or after it, or both before and after, or by a change of
quality. Your own common sense will tell you when these may be proper
and effective and natural.

[Sidenote: _Fulness and power._] You must also make your audience hear
you; and this requires, not a loud, high-pitched voice, but--unless
dramatic expression requires otherwise--your middle or conversational
pitch, with fulness of voice, that shall give you power. Your own mind
will regulate this for you, if you will direct your attention to the
persons in the back part of the hall, and speak in middle pitch, so that
they may hear. [Sidenote: _Avoid high pitch._] Many speakers make the
mistake of using a high pitch, and render their speech very ineffective
by so doing. You will call to mind the fact, that, when we say we cannot
hear a speaker, it is not that we do not hear the sound of his voice,
but that we cannot understand the words. Bearing this in mind, you will
see that perfect articulation is what is wanted, and that fulness added
to your voice in middle pitch will make the voice reach, will require
less effort, and will produce better effect.

[Sidenote: _Feeling._] Having made your audience understand and hear,
you must then make them feel. To do this as public reader, actor,
clergyman, lawyer, teacher, orator, lecturer, you must yourself feel
what you have to say, and, forgetting every thing else in your subject,
concentrate your whole being in your utterance and action. Then you will
be effective, and you will carry your audience with you. And you will
fail in proportion as you fail to lose your own personality in your
subject. "The heart giveth grace unto every art;" and of no art is this
more true than of elocution. You may have all the graces of elocution
which practice will give you; yet, in the effect these will produce,--if
the will, acting alone, not being guided by mind and heart, prompts the
utterance,--something will be lacking, of which learned and unlearned
alike will be conscious.

[Sidenote: _Be natural._] "One touch of nature makes the whole world
kin," and cultivated and uncultivated alike will feel it; and this
"touch of nature" you will show if you enter into what you have to say
with mind, heart, and soul. Your voice will vary in all the elements of
emotional expression, and you will be natural.

[Sidenote: _Mechanical speaking._] When speaking in public, do not try
to remember the first rule of elocution. Leave it all behind you when
you come before the audience. Speak from your thought and feeling, and
be sure you are thoroughly familiar with what you have to say. Be sure
you understand it yourself before you try to make others understand.
[Sidenote: _Words without meaning._] You can read words, calling them
off mechanically, or you can speak words from memory very mechanically,
and not have a clear idea of the meaning the words convey while you
speak them. But do not do this. Always think the thought, as you read or
speak, in the same manner as you would if speaking extempore. You can
express your thought clearly by thinking it as you speak; but at the
same time there may be no expression of emotion. [Sidenote: _Thought
without feeling._] You may have thought without feeling; but you must
impress your thought by feeling. When you read, your mind gets the
thought through the words, and from that thought comes feeling; but,
when you speak your own thoughts, the feeling creates the thought. In
reading, you think, and then feel; but, in speaking your thought, you
feel, and then think. When you read, then, or speak from memory, if you
will let thought create feeling before you speak, you will avoid
mechanical reading and speaking, and be effective in conveying the
thought and feeling both together.

[Sidenote: _Feeling without thought._] You can convey emotion without a
definite thought; and this is as bad as either words without meaning, or
thought without feeling. This arousing the feelings without guiding them
by definite thought is the province of the art of music. Elocution is
superior to music for the reason that it guides both thought and
feeling, for certainly it is better that mind and feeling should work
together, than either alone.

[Sidenote: _Emotion in song or speech._] The elements of emotional
expression are alike in speech and song. In each you have quality, time,
force, and pitch. The variation of these elements makes expression of
feeling; and each sound you make contains all these elements. It has a
certain quality; it has more or less of force; it is relatively high or
low in pitch, it takes a longer or shorter time. [Sidenote: _Variety in
expression._] The more you vary in the elements of emotional expression,
the better the effect, provided the variation is caused by the variation
of your feeling, and not by any artificiality, or seeming to express
what you do not feel.

[Sidenote: _Quality. Force. Pitch. Time._] The quality of voice,
its purity or harshness, its aspiration, &c., will vary with the kind of
feeling; the degree of force will vary according to the intensity of
feeling; the pitch will be according to what we may call the height or
depth of your feeling; the movement, or time, will be according as the
emotion is quick or slow. After having cultivated the voice well in
these elements of emotional expression, your own common sense ought to
be your best guide in the application of them to reading and speaking.
You, for the time being, should be the author of what you read. "Put
yourself in his place," and express as you feel that he felt while
writing it.

[Sidenote: _Feeling without expression._] It is possible for you to feel
intense emotion, and not be capable of properly expressing it, so as to
make others feel it. You may not have had training that will give you
command of sound and motion, those channels of expression through which
the body is made to obey mind and soul, and express their thought and
feeling. [Sidenote: _No expression without feeling._] It is impossible
to express, even with the best cultivation, what, at the moment of
utterance, you do not feel: therefore you must sink your own personality
in your subject; and, according to your conception, so will you
express.

[Sidenote: _Reserve power._] All apparent effort must be avoided; that
is, in the expression of the strongest passion or emotion, you must not
give the audience the slightest indication of want of power. You will
give that impression if you try to express more than you actually feel.
In emotional expression it must seem as if it overflowed because of
excess, and you could hardly control it; but you must never lose control
of it. This control will give the audience the impression that you feel
more than you express, and is what is called reserved power. If--your
well of emotion not being overflowingly full--you use a force-pump, or,
in other words, your will-power, to make it overflow, you will fail in
expression.

[Sidenote: _How to get reserve power._] How are you to get this, you
ask. By study and long practice. As you plainly see, it involves a
perfect command over the feelings; and "he that ruleth his own spirit is
greater than he that taketh a city." Conquer yourself. All art,
elocution included, is but a means of expression for man's thoughts and
feelings; and, if you have no thought or feeling to express, art is
useless to you.

[Sidenote: _Breathing._] Do not let your audience be reminded that you
breathe at all. Take breath quietly through nostrils or mouth, or both.
Form the habit of keeping the chest, while speaking, active, as
recommended in all vocal exercises; and the breath will flow in
unobstructed whenever needed. Breathe as nearly as possible as you would
if you were not speaking, that is, do not interfere with right action of
the lungs. The instant you feel a want of breath, take it: if you do
not, you will injure your lungs; and what you say, feeling that want of
breath, will lack power. The more breath you have, so that it does not
feel uncomfortable and can be well controlled, the more power you will
have: therefore practise breathing until you breathe rightly and easily.

[Sidenote: _Throat trouble._] If your general health is good, your
throat will be well; and therefore pay attention to the general health
of the whole body, and the throat will take care of itself. If, when you
come before an audience, your throat and mouth are dry, use only clear,
cold water, not ice-water: that is too cold. Avoid candy or
throat-lozenges; for the use of either of these is worse than if you
used nothing at all. If you have a cold or sore throat, you had better
not use your voice; but, if you must use it, keep it clear by clear
water. A healthy throat will not need even water: it will moisten itself
after a little use, if at first it is dry.

[Sidenote: _Pausing._] Deliberate movement and frequent pausing are very
expressive in some cases. Where it is applicable may be determined by
what you have to express. Pausing in its appropriate place makes
emphasis strong. [Sidenote: _Punctuation._] Let the pause be regulated,
however, by the feeling, and not all by the punctuation. Express
according to your conception of the thought. Punctuation may be a guide
to you in obtaining the right idea; but it is no guide to correct
expression. Pausing, generally, comes naturally either before or after,
or both before and after, the emphatic word or phrase.

[Sidenote: _Poetry._] Speak or read poetry with the same care and
attention to phrasing that you would give to prose, and you will avoid
all drawling, monotony, or sing-song. In order that the rhyme in poetry
may be preserved, the pronunciation of a word may be changed from common
usage, if, by so doing, you do not obscure the meaning; but never
sacrifice the meaning for the sake of the rhyme. In good poetry, which
includes blank verse, the metrical movement will show itself without any
attempt on your part to make it prominent.

[Sidenote: _Stage fright._] You may feel, when you first come before an
audience, a shrinking, or faintness of feeling, such as is known to
actors as "stage fright." It probably arises from a very sensitive,
nervous organization; and, other things being equal, persons of this
character make the best speakers. As to the real cause of this feeling,
as Lord Dundreary says, "It's one of those things no fellah can find
out." But, whatever its cause, you can overcome it by strong will-power
and self-possession; and, after a time, you will become used to
appearance in public, and that will establish the "confidence of habit."
Some of the best orators and actors that ever lived have had "stage
fright;" and some of them, so far as we know, never had it. So you must
not flatter yourself that this is a certain indication of your power. It
takes much more than a tendency to "stage fright" to make a powerful
speaker.

[Sidenote: _Reading. Speaking. Recitation._] Whether you are reading
from a book or paper, reciting from memory, or speaking extempore your
own thought, you should do all as you would the latter, so that a blind
man, who could not judge which you were doing except by the sound of
your voice, would be unable to tell. In committing to memory for
recitation, you will remember more easily if you will pick out the
emphatic words of the sentences in their order, and commit them, as they
contain an outline of the succession of thought and meaning.

[Sidenote: _Action._] The look upon the face, the gestures of the arm,
the attitude of the body, all speak the language of emotion as plainly
to the eye as elocution proper does to the ear. This action will be
prompted by the feelings, as the voice is; and it will be expressive or
not, it will be appropriate or not, it will be graceful or not,
according as you have natural or acquired ability. Natural ability will
be much aided by a knowledge and practice of gesture as a language, and
much may be acquired by any one with practice.

[Sidenote: _Look. Gesture. Attitude._] I have said nothing of action
in the previous pages, as this book treats of expression through the
voice, or elocution. A few words here upon the subject will not be out
of place. When you read, you should ordinarily make your voice express
much, and use gesture sparingly, but, if you feel prompted to make
gestures, never do so while the eye rests on the book. Look either at
the audience, or as may be indicated by the gesture. When you recite, or
speak extempore, you can add much to the expression by look, gesture,
and attitude. In natural expression the face will first light up, and
show feeling; and the attitude and gesture follow more or less quickly,
according to the feeling; and then comes speech. And all these must
express alike. For the face to be expressionless, or to express one
thing while the speech and gesture say another thing, is in effect
ludicrous.

[Sidenote: _Motion without meaning._] Remember that all motions and
attitudes have meaning; and, when no other gesture or attitude is called
for to express some feeling, stand perfectly still in the speaker's
position before mentioned, that being an active, and at the same time a
neutral position. Don't move, unless you mean something by it. Don't
sway the body, or nod the head, or shrug the shoulders, or move the
feet, or make motions or gestures, unless the proper expression call for
it, and your emotion prompts.

[Sidenote: _The eye._] The eye is particularly effective in expression,
as there the emotion first shows itself; and by it you can get and keep
the attention of your audience. In reading, keep your eye off the book
as much as possible, and on your audience. In recitation or extempore
speaking, look at your audience. The eye leads in gesture, and, in many
cases, looks in the direction of the gesture. In personation of
character, as in dramatic scenes, your eye must look at those to whom
you are supposed to be speaking, as, in common conversation, you usually
look at the person to whom you speak. Never look in an undecided way, as
if you did not have a purpose in looking, but look in the face and eyes
of your audience when emotional expression does not require you to look
elsewhere.

[Sidenote: _Gesture._] When you don't wish to use your arm for gesture,
let it hang naturally at the side. When the emotion calls for gesture,
make it with decision, and let the gesture continue as long as you utter
words explaining the meaning of the gesture. Gesture always comes before
words, more or less quickly, as may be the kind of emotion. Usually, if
the words are quickly spoken, the gesture will be quickly made, and the
words will be spoken almost at instant of the gesture. If the words move
slow, the gesture will move slow, and there may be a perceptible pause
between the gesture and words. [Sidenote: _No rules for gesture._] No
stated rules for gesture can be given; for they are as infinite in
number and variety as the emotions they express. You will find, however,
that gesture may be regulated, as emotional expression of voice is, by
means of your intensity of thought and feeling, guided by common sense,
and aided by genius. Gesture is a science and art, which, as in speech
and song, has elements of emotional expression; and these elements
correspond in each. You have in gesture (as said of the others) quality
or kind of gesture, force or intensity in gesture, time or the degree of
movement in gesture, and pitch, or relative height and depth; and all
these have a meaning something like the corresponding elements of song,
or speech, or other arts. Long and hard study and practice will be
necessary to perfection in this, as in all arts. A graceful habit of
gesture, an appropriate expression of eye and face, united to a voice
full-toned, musical, and varying in all shades of emotional
expression,--what is there more captivating to eye and ear, more
pleasing to the senses, more instructive to the mind, more moving to the
emotions, if only it is, as Mendelssohn says of all art, expressive of
lofty thought? "Every art can elevate itself above a mere handicraft
only by being devoted to the expression of lofty thought."


DEFECTS OF SPEECH.

Defects of speech cannot be spoken of at great length in this book. A
thorough study of articulation in Parts One and Two will cure any of
them where there is no defect in the mouth. The letter _s_ is more often
defective than any other letter, it being pronounced like _th_ in
_thin_, or whistled. In the first the tongue is too far forward: in the
last it is drawn too far back. Cure by imitating somebody who makes it
correctly. _R_ is often defective by substituting _w_ for it; as, _wun_
for _run_. Sometimes it is defective by being made with the whole
tongue, something as _y_ is made; as, _yun_ for _run_: and cure may be
had by imitating the correct sound. Other defects of letters or
elementary sounds are less common, and need not be mentioned here.

[Sidenote: _Too precise speech._] Too precise speech is a defect, and
results from trying to give too much force to the consonant sounds, and
not a due proportion to the vowel sounds. It sounds like affectation on
the part of the speaker, and may be corrected by giving more force to
the vowels, and particular attention to phrasing. (See "Articulation,"
Part Three.)

[Sidenote: _Slovenly speech._] Slovenly speech is a defect, and is
opposite in kind and effect from the above. The consonants are not
pronounced; and, to remedy it, practise to give consonants more force
and precision, and pay attention to phrasing and emphasis.

[Sidenote: _Too rapid speech._] Speaking too rapidly is a defect, and
results from too rapid thought. Put a restraint upon thought,--that is,
control it,--and make the tongue move slower in consequence, being
careful to phrase and emphasize well.

[Sidenote: _Too slow speech._] Speaking too slowly is also a defect,
opposite in kind from rapid speech, and is caused by the mind moving too
slowly in thinking. The remedy is to think faster, and urge the tongue
to move quicker.

[Sidenote: _Stuttering._] When you have too slow thought and too rapid
speech, you have stuttering; for the tongue keeps moving all the time
while the thought is coming, and it repeats syllables or words. Make
the mind of the stutterer move faster, and the tongue talk slower. In
each of these last three defects, let the person who wants to cure it
"know what you wish to say before you attempt to say it."

[Sidenote: _Stammering._] Stammering is caused by too much effort on the
part of the person to make articulate sounds, and is usually the result
of imitating some one who stammered, or formed gradually by habit of
incorrect breathing, and from physical weakness. Stammerers make the
attempt to speak, and the lips or tongue or jaw become immovable, or the
words stick in their throat; and, because this takes place, they make
great effort to overcome it. The more effort they make, the harder it is
for them; and sometimes this leads to contortions and jerkings of body
and limbs that are painful. To cure this takes a longer or shorter time,
depending on the state of health, the length of time the habit has been
in forming, the amount of jerking of limbs to which the stammerer is
subject, and the care taken by the stammerer to practise much. A
stammerer can be cured by teaching articulation thoroughly. (See Parts
One and Two of this book; also Monroe's Fourth Reader.) Show every
element separately, and the position the mouth takes to make it; then
combine into syllables, then into words, then into phrases. Show the
stammerer, that, the less the effort made, the easier will be the
speaking. Impress upon the stammerer's mind, "Make no effort to speak,"
and the habit is to be overcome by long-continued practice and a
thorough and complete training in articulation. When reading, be sure
and read in phrases; that is, speak a phrase, as a long word, without
pause. Stammerers, being usually feeble in health, should practise the
physical and vocal gymnastics (Parts One and Two), and particularly the
breathing exercises. When you have given the stammerer confidence, and
he or she finds that talking is as easy as walking or singing, the cure
is certain. There may be times of excitability or nervousness when
stammering will return; but these times will be less and less frequent
as health gets better and confidence grows, and finally will not return.
Remember, stammerer, "make no effort." Be lazy, and even, at first,
slovenly in speech, and cure is certain.

  THE END.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. WALTER K. FOBES,

(Graduate of Boston University School of Oratory,)

IS PREPARED TO TEACH

Elocution in Private or Class Lessons,

Either at his room in Boston, his residence in North Cambridge, or
private residences in Boston or vicinity. The private lessons are
adapted to the wants of the pupil as reader or speaker, in the pulpit,
at the bar, on the rostrum, on the stage, or in the parlor. The class
lessons are designed to make pleasing, intelligent readers for the
social or home circle.

Mr. Fobes will also accept engagements from

SCHOOLS, ACADEMIES, OR COLLEGES,

for courses of lessons designed to give a practical drill in the
elements of good reading and speaking.

He is also prepared to cure

STAMMERING, STUTTERING, LISPING,

and other defects of speech, by a simple, natural method, and the use
(when required) of Bell's Visible Speech.

A few engagements will be accepted for _PUBLIC OR PARLOR READINGS_.


  149 A TREMONT STREET,
  Cor. of West St.,
  BOSTON.
  Residence, Beach St., No. Cambridge, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

"=Books that our Teachers ought to have on hand to SPICE UP with now and
then.="--ST. LOUIS JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.


GEO. M. BAKER'S

READING CLUB and HANDY SPEAKER,

BEING

_Selections in Prose and Poetry_,

SERIOUS, HUMOROUS, PATHETIC, PATRIOTIC, and DRAMATIC. FRESH and
ATTRACTIVE PIECES for SCHOOL SPEAKERS and READING CIRCLES.

In the words of the GOSPEL BANNER,--

      _'From grave to gay, from lively to severe,'
      In poetry and prose a judicious mixture here;
      Beside outlandish dialects, full of words odd and queer,
      Which stir one's sense of humor as they fall upon the ear,
      Pleasant to those who read or speak as unto those who hear._

Published in Parts, each Part containing Fifty Selections. Paper Covers,
15 cents each. Printed on Fine Paper, and Handsomely Bound in Cloth,
price, 50 cents each.


READING CLUB NO. 1.

"We have many readers and books that purport to furnish pieces for the
use of amateur speakers and juvenile orators. But the great defect in
nearly all of them is, that their selections are made from the same
series of authors. We are surfeited _ad nauseam_ with 'The boy stood on
the burning deck,' 'On Linden, when the sun was low,' 'My name is
Norval!' or, 'My voice is still for war.' But in this volume, the first
of a series, Mr. Baker deviates from the beaten track, and furnishes
some fifty selections which have not been published before in any
collection of readings. Mr. Baker has himself written many pieces for
the amateur stage, and achieved a reputation as a public reader, so that
he is eminently qualified by his own experience for the task of teaching
others."--_Phil. Age._


READING CLUB NO. 2.

"Mr. Baker deserves the thanks of the reading public for his
indefatigable endeavors in the field of light and agreeable literature.
The selections are made with good taste, and the book will be of great
value for its indicated purpose."--_New Haven Courier._

"In its adaptation to day schools, seminaries, colleges, and home
reading, the work will be found very superior in its variety and
adaptability of contents."--_Dayton (Ohio) Press._


READING CLUB NO. 3.

"This is one of those books that our teachers ought to have at hand to
_spice up_ with now and then. This is No. 3 of the series, and they are
all brim full of short articles, serious, humorous, pathetic, patriotic,
and dramatic. Send and get one, and you will be sure to get the
rest."--_St. Louis Journal of Education, Jan. 1876._

"The young elocutionist will find it a convenient pocket companion, and
the general reader derive much amusement at odd moments from its
perusal."--_Forest and Stream, N. Y., Jan. 6, 1876._


READING CLUB NO. 4. (_Just Ready._)


  _Sold by all Booksellers, and sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of
  price._
                                    LEE & SHEPARD, Publishers, Boston.



Transcriber's Notes:


Obvious printer's errors have been repaired, other inconsistent
spellings have been kept.

Words surrounded by _ are italicized.

Words surrounded by = are bold.

Small capitals are presented as all capitals in this e-text.

In this e-text, ['w] represents letter w with the acute accent above it
as this symbol is not available in latin-1.

In this e-text, [`w] represents letter w with the grave accent above it
as this symbol is not available in latin-1.

In this e-text, [vo] represents letter o with the caron (v-shaped
symbol) above it as this symbol is not available in latin-1.





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