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´╗┐Title: A History of Southern Missouri and Northern Arkansas - Being an Account of the Early Settlements, the Civil War, the Ku-Klux, and Times of Peace
Author: Monks, William
Language: English
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NORTHERN ARKANSAS***


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[Illustration: COLONEL MONKS AND WIFE.]


A HISTORY OF SOUTHERN MISSOURI AND NORTHERN ARKANSAS

Being an Account of the Early Settlements,
the Civil War, the Ku-Klux, and
Times of Peace.

by

WILLIAM MONKS

West Plains, Mo.



West Plains Journal Co.
West Plains, Mo.
1907

Copyright 1907
by
William Monks



Introduction.


Now the author was born in the state of Alabama, in Jackson county, on
the north side of the Tennessee River, near Huntsville. He was the son
of James Monks and Nancy Monks. The father of James Monks came over
from Ireland during the Revolutionary War and served in that war until
the independence of the United States was acknowledged. Afterwards he
married a lady of English descent and settled down in the State of
South Carolina. His father died when he was but an infant. His mother
removed to the state of Tennessee, being left with five children, James
being the youngest. Growing up to manhood in that state, he removed to
the north part of the state of Alabama and there married Nancy Graham,
who was a daughter of Jesse Graham. They were originally from the state
of Virginia.

James Monks enlisted in the United States Army and served in the Indian
war that was known as the Seminole war, in the state of Florida. After
his term of service had expired he returned home and sold his farm and
had a flatboat built and placed in the Tennessee River near Gunters
Landing, with the intention of moving to the state of Florida. Taking
his brother-in-law, a Mr. Phillips, on the boat with him, they went
down the river by Decatur, were piloted through the Mussell Shoals, and
at the foot of the shoals at what is known as Tuscumbia, the writer
remembers seeing a part of the Cherokee Indians that were being removed
from the state of Alabama to their present location. The writer can
remember seeing the Cherokee Indians before they were removed from the
state of Alabama.

On reaching Southern Illinois, eight miles from Paducah, my father
landed his boat and looked over the country and came to the conclusion
that that country was good enough, and located in what was then Pope
County. Afterwards they cropped a piece off of Pope and a piece off
of Johnson, and created a new county and named it Massack, after the
old government fort, and located the county seat, named Metropolis. My
father resided nine years in that state, then sold out and started to
move to the state of Texas. On arriving in Fulton county, Arkansas, he
concluded to locate in that county.

Soon after his arrival, in the latter part of June or July, 1844, the
writer was employed to carry the United States mail from Salem, the
county seat of Fulton County, to Rockbridge, then the county seat of
Ozark county, Missouri. My father and mother taught me to be loyal to
my government from my earliest remembrance, and I don't think that
two persons more honest than they ever lived. They taught me from my
earliest recollection to be honest and upright, and I have tried, and
believe I have lived up to their teaching to the very letter; and no
man or woman before the war, during the war, nor since the war, can say
anything else and tell the truth. Religiously, my father and mother
were Baptists, and I believe that they were Christians.



EARLY SETTLEMENTS.


In the year 1844 father sold out and in May started to move to the
state of Texas; crossed the Mississippi river at Green's old ferry,
came by the way of Jackson, Missouri, and traveled the old military
road made by the government troops in removing the Cherokee Indians
from the state of Alabama to their present location--only road leading
west--and in July of the same year (learning that it was very dangerous
for a man to take his family into the state of Texas on account of the
Indians), he concluded to locate in Fulton county, Arkansas, purchased
an improvement and located on what is known as Bennett's river, about
25 miles from where West Plains is now located. The family at that
time consisted of six persons, to-wit: father, mother and four sons,
the author then being in his fifteenth year; father, being a farmer
by occupation, went to work on the farm. The country at that time was
very sparsely settled. The settlements were confined to the creeks
and rivers, where were found plenty of water and springs. No place at
that time was thought worth settling unless it had a spring upon it.
The vegetation was luxuriant, the broom sedge and blue stem growing as
high as a man's head--and he upon an ordinary horse. The table lands,
which were thought at that time to be worthless, had very little timber
growing on them, but were not prairie. There were what were known as
post oak runners and other brush growing on the table lands, but the
grass turf was very heavy and in the spring of the year the grass would
soon cover the sprouts and the stranger would have taken all of the
table lands, except where it was interspersed with groves, to have
been prairie. The country settled up--some of the settlements being
15 miles apart--yet the early settlers thought nothing of neighboring
and assisting each other as neighbors for the distance of 15 miles. At
that time Fulton county contained all of the present territory that now
includes Baxter, Fulton and a part of Sharp counties; and but a short
time previous to the organization of Fulton, all of the territory that
now embraces Fulton, Baxter and Sharp; Izard belonged to Independence
county and Batesville was the county seat. My father located about five
miles from the state line.

Ozark county, in Missouri, joined Fulton county on the state line and
all of the territory that now comprises Ozark, Douglas and the west
half of Howell, belonged to Ozark county and Rockbridge, its county
seat, being located on Bryan's Fork of the North Fork, about 50 miles
from the state line. Oregon county contained all the territory that now
comprises Oregon, Shannon, and the east end of Howell; and a short time
previous all of the territory that now comprises Ripley, Oregon, Carter
and Shannon belonged to Ripley county; and all of the territory that
now comprises Texas, Dent, Wright and Crawford counties belonged to
Crawford county. The country at that time abounded in millions of deer,
turkeys, bears, wolves and small animals. I remember as my father was
moving west and after he had crossed White Water near what was known
as Bullinger's old mill, that we could see the deer feeding on the
hills in great herds like cattle, and wild turkeys were in abundance.
Wild meat was so plentiful that the settlers chiefly subsisted upon
the flesh of wild animals until they could grow some tame stock, such
as hogs and cattle. This country then was almost a "land of honey."
Bees abounded in great number and men hunted them for the profit they
derived from the beeswax. There was no such thing known as a bee moth.

Honeydew fell in such quantities as to completely kill the tops of
the grass where it was open. I have known young turkeys, after they
were large enough for use, to have their wings so gummed with honeydew
that they could not fly out of the way of a dog--have known lots of
them to be caught with dogs when they wanted to use them. There was no
question in regard to there being honey when you cut a bee tree, if
the hollow and space in the tree were sufficient and the bees had had
time to fill it. I have known bee trees being cut that had 8 and 10
feet of solid comb that was candied and grained. When my father first
located, beeswax, peltry and fur skins almost constituted the currency
of the country. I remember that a short time after my father located,
a gentleman came to my father's house and wanted to buy a horse and
offered to pay him in beeswax and peltry, and as I had been accustomed
to paper currency in the state of Illinois, I asked my father what
kind of money peltry was. He laughed and remarked, "Well son, it is
not money at all; it is deer skins." A man thought nothing of buying
a horse or a yoke of oxen, or to make any other common debt on the
promise of discharging the same in beeswax and peltry in one month's
time.

The immigration consisted mostly of farmers and mechanics. Among the
mechanics were coopers who would make large hogsheads for the purpose
of holding the honey after it was separated from the beeswax, and a
man then had his choice to use either candied honey or fresh honey. I
knew whole hogsheads that were full of candied honey. When men would
make a contract to deliver any amount or number of pounds of beeswax,
and within a given time, especially in the fall of the year, they would
either take a yoke of cattle or two horses and a wagon and with their
guns and camp equipage go out from the settlements into what was then
termed the "wilderness," and burn bee comb. In a short time the bees
would be working so strong to the bait that they could scarcely course
them. In the morning they would hunt deer, take off pelts until the
deer would lie down, then they would hunt bees and mark the trees until
the deer would get up to feed in the afternoon, when they would again
resume their hunt for deer. After they had found a sufficient number of
bee trees and marked them, the morning following they would go out and
kill nothing but large deer; case-skin them until they had a sufficient
number of hides to contain the honey that they expected to take from
the trees, take the hides to the camp, tie a knot in the fore legs of
the hide, take dressed buckskin and a big awl, roll the hide of the
neck in about three folds, run two rows of stitches, draw it tight,
then go to their wagons with ridgepole and hooks already prepared, knot
the hind legs of the skins, hang them over the hooks, take their tub,
a knife and spoon, proceed to the trees, stop their team a sufficient
distance from the tree to prevent the bees from stinging the animals,
cut the tree, take out the honey, place it in the tub, and when the
tub was filled carry it to the wagon where the hides were prepared,
empty their tubs into the deer skins, return again to another tree
and continue cutting until the hides were all filled with honey; then
they would return home, take the hides from the hooks on the ridge
pole on the wagon, hang them on hooks prepared for the purpose in the
smokehouse and then the men's work was done.

The labor of the women then commenced. They would proceed to separate
the honey from the beeswax, pouring the honey into hogsheads, kegs or
barrels prepared for it, and running the beeswax into cakes ready for
the market, while the men were stretching and drying the deerskins.
As soon as the deerskins were dried and the honey was separated from
the beeswax, they were ready for the market and took their place as
currency, while the flesh of the deer, sometimes, when bread was
scarce, took the place of both bread and meat, with a change, whenever
the appetite called for it, to turkey and other wild game.

At night they would hunt for fur animals, such as raccoon, fox and
mink, and stretch their hides; a first-class raccoon hide would sell
for 40 to 50 cents; fox, 25 and 30 cents; mink, from 65 to 75c. I have
often known the people to pay their taxes, when the collector came
around, with fur skins, such as raccoon and fox. The collector would
take the hides right at the house and give them a clear receipt for
their taxes, both state and county. I have seen collectors leading a
horse for the purpose of carrying his fur skins. I have seen the horse
completely covered with fur skins, so you could see no part of him but
his head and his hoofs and tail--one could not have told there was a
horse beneath the load unless he had known it.

The people then had many advantages that they are deprived of now, in
the way of wild meat, abundance of honey and fine range. A man could
raise all the stock in the way of horses and cattle that he could
possibly look after; the only expense was salting and caring for
them--didn't have to feed, winter nor summer, except the horses in use
and the cows used for milking purposes. While, on the other-hand, they
labored under a great many disadvantages, in the way of schools and
churches. During the residence of my father in the state of Illinois,
we had a very good common school system, and we had three months of
school every fall. My father being a farmer, sent me only the three
months' term in the fall. I had acquired a limited education before his
removal to Arkansas, yet he was interested in giving his children an
education. At that time there were no free schools, only subscription
schools; teachers generally were incompetent and employed through
favoritism, and not upon their qualifications to teach. In a year or
two after my father located, the settlement got together and located
a school-house site, took their teams, hauled round logs, built them
into walls, made a dirt floor, cut out a large window in the side,
split a tree and made a writing desk, split small trees, hewed them and
made benches for seats, cut a hole in one end of the house, erected
a wooden chimney, what was then known as a stick and clay chimney,
chinked and daubed the cracks, made a clapboard roof, hung the door
with wooden hinges, then the house was considered ready for the school
and had the name of teaching a three-months' subscription school; and
very often half of the pupils were better scholars than the teachers.
All they gained in their education was by attention to study. As the
country improved in population, the people improved in the erection of
school-houses and church-houses and constructed, in place of the round
log school-house and dirt floor, hewed log school-houses with puncheon
floors, stick and clay chimneys.

Those pioneer settlers took a great interest in each other's welfare,
and the different settlements met together from a distance of 15 to
40 miles and adopted rules and customs binding each other to aid and
assist in helping any person who met with any misfortune in the way
of sickness, death or other causes that might occur, and I must say
that there was more charity and real religion practiced among those
pioneer settlers, although many of them were looked upon as being
crude and unlettered. There was a great deal of sickness along the
streams, especially chills and fever. Immigrants came in, generally
in sufficient numbers to form a settlement; and I have known them,
very often, after they had located and opened out 10 to 15 acres and
put it in cultivation and broke the ground and planted their corn, for
the whole family to be taken down at one time with chills and fever,
not able even to help each other or administer to their wants. As soon
as the information reached the other settlements for a distance of 15
miles or more, the different settlements would set a day to meet at the
place with their horses, plows, hoes, wagons, etc.; also provisions,
such as bread-stuff and salt. On meeting, they would ascertain the
condition of the family or families and learn what they needed in the
way of provision, medicine, nursing, etc.; they would then and there
agree that the different settlements should divide up the time, set
the day for each one to furnish waiters to wait upon them in their
sickness, such medicine as they needed, provisions and everything that
was necessary to render comfort, and in the morning before breakfast
they would go out and kill a deer and as many turkeys as they needed,
dress them, prepare them for the cook, who had been brought with them,
go into the field after breakfast, plow and hoe the corn, clean out
the garden, leave the families in charge of nurses and return again
to their respective settlements. Those families, as soon as they were
well, not being acquainted with the customs and rules, would meet them
and inquire as to what amount they owed them for what they had done for
them during their sickness. They would be readily informed, "_Nothing._
You are not acquainted with our rules and customs. Now, we have
obligated and pledged ourselves together not to let any sick or other
disabled person suffer for the want of necessary attention, and the
only thing we require of you is, if any other person should move into
the country and locate, and should be taken down and confined through
sickness or any other cause, that you help in furnishing such aid and
necessaries as they may need until they are able to again take care of
themselves." Now, I have just remarked that there was more real charity
and religion practiced among pioneers than there is in the present
day. The people then all appeared to be interested in bettering the
condition of society.

As soon as it was possible, the different settlements erected
church-houses built of hewed timber, floored with puncheons, hewed
seats, size of house generally from 18 by 20 to 22 by 25 feet, chinked
and daubed. The churches or denominations then were Baptists and
Methodists. There didn't appear to be any antagonism or hatred existing
between the denominations; the doors were thrown wide open for any
minister that might travel through and they all turned out, and you
heard nothing said then in regard to "my church" or "your church."
They appeared to recognize the fact that it was the Lord's church and
that they were the Lord's people. In going to church, sometimes from
1 to 10 miles, they would see flocks of turkeys and herds of wild
deer, both going and coming. As soon as the crops were laid by, they
would agree among the different settlements as to where a camp-meeting
should be held; they would then erect camps or huts, make boards to
cover them, erect an arbor, fill the center of it with straw, and to
the distance of 25 to 35 miles they would all turn out, irrespective
of denomination, and all appeared to enjoy themselves, and the love of
Christ appeared to dwell in each heart, and they appeared to be proud
of the privilege of meeting each other and worshiping together. If
any member belonging to either of the denominations defrauded, or in
any way wronged his brother, he was at once waited upon and requested
to make reparation to his brother and acknowledge to his brother and
to the church, or he was withdrawn from or turned out of the church.
The immigration was chiefly from the Middle States, some from the
Southern States and very few from the Northeastern States. They were
frugal, energetic, honest, intelligent and industrious. As the country
increased in population, the facilities of both schools and churches
improved.

The customs and habits were entirely different from those existing now;
the wearing apparel was entirely home-made; they would raise their
cotton, pick it out with their fingers or a hand gin, women would
spin their warp, spin their filling, get their different colors from
different barks for men's wear; the women used indigo and copperas for
the main colors in manufacturing the cloth for dresses, wound their
stripes on a stick and then wove it into cloth; you could scarcely
visit a house but what you would see a loom, big spinning-wheel and
little wheel; sometimes you would see three or four wheels at one
house. They made both their every day and Sunday wear; the women
appeared to take great pride in seeing who could weave the nicest piece
of cloth, make it into a dress, make cloth and make it into what was
known as Virginia bonnets, and the men tanned their own leather, made
shoes for the whole family. When the women were dressed completely in
their homespun they appeared to enjoy themselves, in church, in company
or any other gathering, and felt just as independent and proud as the
king upon his throne; they appeared to meet each other and greet each
other and all appeared to realize the fact that they were human and
they had but one superior and that was God. The women spun the warp,
spun the wool, wove it into cloth, procured the different barks from
the woods and dyed it, the general color being brown, made it with
their own hands into coats, pants, undershirts; made overshirts out
of homespun cotton and the whole suit was home-made, and very often a
cap, made either of the raccoon or a fox, was worn on the head. When
men met each other at any public gathering they appeared to be proud
of meeting each other; appeared to realize the fact that they were all
American citizens and human, bound together by the ties of love and
affection, and the highest ambition appeared to be to make each other
happy and help one another in time of need.

I don't believe there was as much dissipation by partaking of
intoxicants, or other wickedness, as exists to-day among the same
number of persons. It is true that then any man who was able to
purchase a little still and had a spring could erect his own still
house and make his own whiskey without paying any tax or duty upon the
same, and anyone of his neighbors who wanted a gallon of whiskey could
carry a bushel of corn to the still-house and get a gallon of whiskey
in exchange for it. And if men became drunk on the whiskey it did not
appear to make them wild and crazy as the whiskey of to-day does.

Men then, as well as now, would have disagreements and fall out
and fight, but the custom that prevailed among that class would
not tolerate nor allow a man to use weapons, and if two men had a
disagreement, one of them being a large, stout man physically, the
other being a small man, not equal in strength--if they were together
in a public place and the large one would challenge the weaker to
fight him, before he could hardly open his mouth, some man present who
considered himself to be his equal in physical strength, would just say
to him "now then, if you want to fight, that man is not your equal,
but I am; get your second and walk out and I will do the fighting for
this other man." I have, on different occasions, seen the large man who
was challenging the weaker for a fight reply to the challenge and say,
"My friend, I have nothing against you; this other man hasn't treated
me right," or set out some other reason that he ought to whip him; the
man in reply would say, "I don't want to hear another word from you
in regard to wanting to fight this other man, and if I do you have got
me to fight." Very often I have seen the man shut his mouth and turn
away and say nothing more. On the other hand, I have heard a man say to
another, "If you want to fight, I am your man; the other man is unable
to fight you," and in an instant the other would reply. "Well, sir,
I am your man; just as leave fight you as anybody else." They would
select their seconds, take a drink of whiskey together, enter into
an agreement that whenever the seconds said either one was whipped,
that they were to abide by it, unless they found out before their
seconds did that they were whipped, and if so, they would manifest it
by holloing "enough," when the other person was to stop at once and
inflict no more injury. I have often seen them fight until they were
both as bloody as butchers and in the end the seconds would have to
hollo for one or the other. As soon as they were separated they would
go to the same pool or place where there was water and wash themselves,
and walk arm-in-arm, laughing and talking and drinking together and
remark, "We are now fast friends and we have settled the matter as to
which was the best man." And if a man would produce a weapon on either
side his own friends would turn against him and he would be forced to
put it up at once. Men then appeared to be governed by that higher
inspiration, that a man should not use anything that would permanently
disable or take the life of his fellow-man; but if one man became
pregnant with fight or desire to maim his fellow-man, in order that
he should not be disappointed, some man would readily volunteer, who
believed that he was his equal physically, and deliver him of all his
fighting propensities.


Dow Bryant and a Gallon of Whisky

I will here relate an instance that I well remember. A man by the name
of Bridges lived just above where Bakersfield is now located, owned a
little mill at the same place where they still continue the work of the
mill just above Bakersfield. The mill ground from twelve to fifteen
bushels per day; most of us carried our sacks on horseback, and ground
by turns. Bridges had employed a man by the name of Math Shipman to
run the mill. He was a small man weighing only about 135 pounds, and
there was a man by the name of Dow Bryant, lately from the state of
Tennessee, quite a large man, weighing 225 pounds, who delighted in
fighting under the old style, and claimed that he had whipped two of
the best men in Tennessee at the same time. Shipman had made some
statement that reflected upon Bryant; so Bryant procured a gallon of
whiskey, and, taking two men with him, went from Bennett's river over
to the mill and informed Shipman of what he had heard he had said in
regard to him, and said to Shipman that if he had said it and didn't
take it back, he would have to whip him, and the only thing he hated
about it would be the whipping of as little a man as he was. Shipman
replied that he need not take that matter into consideration, and that
his father had always taught him that if he told anything and it was
the truth, not to take it back under any consideration, and that what
he had said was true; and as to his whipping him, his father had always
taught him never to admit anything until he knew it was true; and "I
have my doubts about you being able to whip me; but if you will get
your second ready, as soon as the corn that is in the hopper is ground
out and I refill the hopper I will get my second and we will go out
into the mill yard so you can test it." They accordingly got their
seconds, went into the mill yard, formed a ring, and when the word
was given by the seconds, they went together. Shipman bit every finger
on the right hand and three fingers on the left hand to the bone; and
Bryant's friends, seeing he was going to be whipped, proposed parting
them. Bryant returned home, and when his neighbors would meet him with
his fingers all bound up, they would say, "Hello there! What's the
matter?" His reply would be, "I went over into the wilderness and got
hold of a wildcat, and it like to have eaten me up before I could get
loose from it." He would further say that Shipman was all mouth, and
that he could not put his hands anywhere about his head unless he got
them in his mouth.

I will give another instance touching the same man (Bryant). He went
over to Salem during circuit court. The sheriff of the county was a man
by the name of Dick Benton, quite a small man, and the constable of
the township was named Moore and a very small man. Bryant was drinking
some, and wanted to fight as usual, and became noisy. The judge ordered
the constable to arrest him; but when Bryant saw the constable coming,
he backed behind an old building, and ordered the constable not to rush
upon him. When the constable came in reach, he knocked him down, came
walking around, and remarked that no tickey officer could arrest him.
The judge then ordered the sheriff to arrest him. When the sheriff came
within reach, he knocked him down, came walking back, and remarked,
"I thought they understood me when I told them that a tickey set of
officers could not arrest me." During the time the father-in-law of
the sheriff had come out. Bryant walked up to him, and with a d----
said: "I want to know what you are doing here." Without any more words
being passed, the sheriff's father-in-law knocked Bryant down, jumped
onto him, but he holloed, and they took him off. Bryant straightened
himself up right into his face again and remarked, "I have told a lie,
I am not whipped." Without any more words he knocked him down again
and gave him a considerable pelting. Bryant holloed again, and after
they had taken him off, he straightened up and walked off about ten
steps distant, turned around, and remarked, "I have told a lie, I am
not whipped; but I am not going to say it within reach of that old man
any more." On the same day some men knocked him down, taking a common
clapboard, hit him three licks while he was running on all fours, then
got a piece of chalk and wrote on it, "Dow's board," and nailed it up
on the corner of the square.

The drinking class for years used all manner of language and obscenity
in the streets, and even in the hearing of the court. There was a man
by the name of Neeley who became a candidate for circuit judge, and one
of the main reasons he urged for his election was that, if elected, he
would punish all offenders of the public peace, and force all persons
to respect the court, and he would discharge the duties with some
dignity and respect for himself and the people. Shortly after he was
elected and during his first court, a man by the name of Smith, who
lived just north of Salem on the South Fork, and who had worked for
his election, came into the court room after the court was in session,
walked around to the judge, took him by the hand and remarked, "Judge,
I want to congratulate you on your success, and I hope things will
change." The judge turned to the clerk and remarked, "Mr. Clerk, assess
a fine of five dollars against Mr. Smith." Smith soon retired from the
court room and declared that Neeley was a tyrant, and that if he had
his vote back he would not support him. In the afternoon the judge
ordered the sheriff to bring Mr. Smith into the court room and said
to him, "Mr. Smith, you were a warm friend of mine in my canvass,
worked for my election, and no doubt contributed much to my success.
Now I don't want to disappoint you in any promises that I made during
the canvass, but after court is convened and the judge on the bench,
it is contempt in any gentleman to come up and take him by the hand
and congratulate him on his success; and now I hope that you, with all
others of my friends, and those who are not, will support and protect
me in enforcing the dignity of the court." Mr. Smith at once became
pacified, and said that the judge was right.

We remember another instance that occurred during the same court. There
was a young lawyer, who came into court, wearing a very fine pair of
boots, and, standing on his feet, he would occasionally raise onto his
toes, and you could hear his boots creak all over the court room. The
judge turned to him and remarked, "Mr., what did those boots cost you?"
The lawyer quickly replied, "Ten dollars, sir." The judge remarked to
him, "I think you got the boots too cheap. I think they ought to be
worth twenty dollars. Mr. Clerk, assess a fine of ten dollars against
this man."

On the next day a man by the name of Cage Hogan, a man who was widely
known, in company with others, got on the public square, near the
saloon, and began to curse and swear, and use all manner of obscenity.
The judge ordered the sheriff to go down and see who was making the
disturbance. The sheriff went out to the place and stated to the
crowd that the judge had ordered him to see who was creating that
disturbance, and to arrest the party. Hogan remarked, with an oath,
"You go back and tell the old judge that it is Cage Hogan, and that I
suppose he has heard of me before, and I don't allow sheriffs to arrest
me until I get ready." The sheriff came back and reported to the court,
and the judge made an order for him to proceed at once and arrest
Mr. Hogan and all others that he might find acting in a boisterous
manner, and if necessary to take the power of the county, and if he
didn't immediately bring him into the court room he would assess a
fine against him of $100. The sheriff returned and informed Mr. Hogan
of what the court had said, and that he would be bound to arrest him
and take him by force if he didn't go without it. Hogan remarked that
if it would be any pleasure and consolation to the old tyrant he was
the man who could go into the court room. When he came into the court
room, the sheriff said, "Here is Mr. Hogan." Mr. Hogan remarked, with
an oath, "I am here, judge, and I would like to know what you want."
The judge replied that there were some parties creating a disturbance
in the hearing of the court and that he had ordered them arrested and
brought in. "Do you know who the parties are?" Hogan, with an oath,
replied, "I am the man; and, judge, I want you to understand that I am
a horse, and if you hain't become acquainted with old Cage Hogan, you
will." The judge remarked to him that they had a stable and that was
the place for horses, and that he would assess a fine of $50 against
him, and ordered the sheriff to take him to jail until it was paid.
Hogan, remarking, "I always carry the money to pay my way, and you need
not put yourself to any trouble to have the sheriff carry me to jail,"
pulled out his pocket book, took out $50, and said, with an oath,
"Here is the money, and I want you to understand that I am no jail
bird, and you can't stick me in your old jail." The judge then said,
"Mr. Hogan seems to have plenty of money; Mr. Clerk assess another $50
fine against him." At that Hogan appeared to hesitate and reflect,
and, pulling out a quart bottle of whiskey from his pocket, started to
approach the judge, who was on the bench, saying with an oath, "Here,
judge, let's drink together and be friends and stop this foolishness."
The judge turned to the clerk and said: "Mr. Clerk, assess another fine
of $50 against him," and ordered the sheriff to take him forthwith to
jail and keep him there until further orders, for he considered him an
unlawful horse, and he did not think it safe for society for him to
run at large. The sheriff, with a considerable posse, carried him to
the jail, and with considerable trouble put him in and shut him up. He
remained in jail two days, and at the evening session of the second day
the sheriff came into court and said that Mr. Hogan was very desirous
of seeing the court. The court then ordered him brought in. On his
being brought in, the court asked him if he still thought he was a
horse. Hogan replied, "No, sir; I am not anything now but Cage Hogan."
The judge said: "As you have now arrived at the conclusion that you are
human and not animal, are you willing to respect the laws of your land
and the dignity of this court?" Hogan replied: "I am, judge, with all
my heart." The judge then said to him, "What about that money of yours;
are you able to pay the $150 fine?" Hogan said, "No, judge, I don't
feel like I could pay $150 this evening; I don't feel as rich and as
brave as I did when you first brought me into court, and I want you to
be as lenient with me as possible." The court said, "Mr. Hogan, if you
will promise me that you will neither disturb the dignity of this court
nor incite others to do so, I will remit all of your fine except $50."
Mr. Hogan then and there paid the $50 fine and was released. From that
time up to the end of his term there never was any disturbance of any
nature in the hearing of the court, and if you went into the court room
everything was so quiet that you could almost hear a pin drop.


The Tutt and Evert War.

My memory is that it was in the year 1846 that an incident occurred
in Marion county that I will now relate. It was known as the Tutt
and Evert war. They were once fast friends. They met in Yellville,
the county seat, and while there one of the Everts purchased a set
of silver spoons at the store of one of the Tutts. Afterwards a
misunderstanding grew up between them as to the payment for the spoons,
which led them into a fight. Afterwards, which was often, when they
would meet in Yellville, they would hardly ever get away without some
fighting taking place between the parties. There was a large gathering
and a public demonstration to take place within a few weeks. The Tutts
declared, backed by the Kings, that if the Everts came into town that
day they would kill them outright. Both parties came in early in the
day, heavily armed. After coming under the influence of intoxicants
to some extent, Evert went into the public square and stated what he
had heard from the Tutts, and said that if they, the Tutts and Kings,
were ready for the conflict, there never was a better time than then,
and that they, the Everts, were fully ready. Both parties, in short
range, opened fire. One of the Kings shot Simm Evert during the fight,
supposed to be through the heart. One of the Kings, just previous to
the shooting of Evert, had been shot through the hips and so disabled
that he could not stand upon his feet. After Simm Evert had received
the wound, he turned around, and, within a few steps of the wounded
King, picked up a large stone, raised it in both hands, and, stepping
up to King, came down on King's head with the stone with all the force
possible, completely crushing King's head. Then, turning around and
walking about three steps, he remarked, "I am a dead man," and fell to
the ground and expired within a few minutes. When the smoke cleared
away and the fighting ceased, an examination showed that there were
eight or ten left dead on the ground. The stoutest men afterwards went
to the stone, but there wasn't one of them that could raise it from the
ground. The surviving Kings made arrangements and attempted to leave
the country. At that time the sheriff of the county was a man by the
name of Mooney. A writ was placed in his hands and he arrested them.
Shortly after the arrest, the Everts and their friends came upon the
sheriff and his posse and demanded the prisoners. The sheriff gave them
up, and they were all shot. The sheriff then appealed to the governor
for aid; he sent the militia, who aided the sheriff in the arrest of
the Everts, a man by the name of Stratton, and some others of their
friends. The governor ordered them to be taken to Lawrence county and
placed in the Lawrence county jail at Smithville, the county seat of
that county. I saw the militia in charge of the prisoners pass my
father's house on their way to Smithville.

In about ten days after they were put in prison, late one evening,
strange men commenced dropping into the town, who were unknown to
the citizens, until they reached to about the number of sixty-five.
Somewhere near midnight they paraded the streets, and the jail being a
log jail, they prepared levers and pried it up and let the prisoners
all out, and they all left together, Evert, Stratton, and their friends
proceeding directly to Texas. After their families had reached them
and everything had quieted down, they sent in and notified Hamp Tutt,
whom they charged with being the inciter and leader in bringing on the
original trouble, that if he would "hull out" and leave the state they
would not kill him. Tutt was a man of considerable wealth and declared
he would not leave the state. He at once hired a young doctor, who
claimed to be a very brave man, to act as his body guard, and kept
himself very close to the town for about the space of two years. One
day, however, he declared that he was going to take a ride out on the
main public road for his health. He, in company with the young doctor,
then rode out about one mile. On returning, not more than a quarter of
a mile from the town, after they had passed the place where they were
concealed, they, (the Everts) discharged a volley. Two balls entered
the back of Tutt, and his horse made but a few leaps when he fell to
the ground. The young doctor ran for dear life, reached the town, and
gave the alarm. Parties immediately went out to the place, but found
that Tutt was dead. On examining the place where the parties had lain
in ambush, they found that they had lain there for months watching for
the opportunity. So ended the Tutt and Evert war.


Indians Chase a Sheriff Ten Miles.

Now the author will relate another incident that occurred in Marion
county, Arkansas, in the early settling of this country. There was a
large relation of the Coker family who lived in that county. One of
the Cokers raised two families, one by a white woman and the other by
an Indian woman. The Indian family, after they had grown up and become
men, resided a part of the time in the Nation, where the mother lived,
and a part of the time they remained in Marion county where their
father and other relatives lived. They were very dangerous men when
drinking, and the whole country feared them. They had been in different
troubles, and had killed three or four men, and if the authorities
attempted to arrest them, they defied them, and would go to the Nation
and remain awhile. There was a deputy sheriff in the county by the name
of Stinnett, who claimed to be very brave, who said he would arrest
them if he found their whereabouts. The Cokers learned what Stinnett
had said, and that the warrant for their arrest was in his possession,
so they got some good tow strings and vowed that whenever they met
him they would arrest him and take him to Yellville and put him in
jail. A short time afterwards they met him in the public road. As soon
as Stinnett recognized them, and having heard of the threats they
had made, he wheeled his horse and put spurs to him. They drew their
revolvers and put spurs to their horses in pursuit, commanding him
to halt. But Stinnett spurred his horse the harder. They pursued him
a distance of about ten miles; but Stinnett's horse proved to be the
best, and he made his escape. They again returned to the Nation.

The good people, generally, of the county were terrorized and afraid
to raise their voices against them, and it became a question as to
whether they had a man in the county who had the courage to attempt
their arrest. They made it a question in the next election, to elect
a man that would make the arrest, if such a man could be found in the
county. There was a man living in the county by the name of Brown, who
was a cousin of the Cokers, and he told the people that if they would
elect him, he would arrest them or they would kill him. He was elected
by a large majority, and, after he had qualified, took charge of the
office. The first time the Cokers came into the settlement, he summoned
two men, thought to be brave, who pledged themselves that if it became
necessary they would die for him. He then went to the house of one of
the Coker family where the Cokers were staying, and on his arrival
found the two Coker brothers sitting in chairs in the yard. He was
within some thirty feet of them before they saw him. Their guns were
sitting near them, and they seized them; but before they could present
them Brown had his revolver cocked and leveled at one of their heads,
and told him not to attempt to raise his gun or he would kill him.
Coker turned his back to him with his gun on his shoulder, secretly
cocked it, and leveled it upon Brown as near as possible without
taking it from his shoulder and fired, missing his aim. About the same
time Brown discharged his revolver at Coker and made a slight scalp
wound. The other Coker threw his gun upon Brown and fired, killing
him instantly. The two men who were acting as a posse for the sheriff
turned and fled, leaving Brown lying dead on the ground. After the
shooting the Cokers fled to the Nation and remained there.

The author will now relate another incident that occurred in the same
county. For years the Cokers and Hogans had been intimate friends, and
drank, gambled, and horseraced together a great deal. There came up a
trouble between Coker and one of his brothers-in-law, and one evening
Coker, in company with Hogan, went to the house of this brother-in-law.
Both had been drinking. Coker swore that he would ride onto the porch
of his brother-in-law, and made the attempt. His brother-in-law caught
the horse by the bridle and warned him not to ride onto porch, and
that if he did he would kill him. Coker drew his revolver, spurred his
horse, but as he entered the porch his brother-in-law shot him dead.
Coker being a cousin of the Indian Cokers, they charged Hogan with
inducing him, while drinking, to go to his brother-in-law's house, so
as to give him a chance to kill him, and that Hogan's life should pay
the penalty. Shortly afterwards Hogan was traveling on an old trail
that led along the bluff of White river. The river here made a bend in
horseshoe shape, following the bluff all around. The Cokers learned
that Hogan was going to pass through this gap, and they lay in wait for
him, cutting off all avenues of escape possible so he would be forced
into the horseshoe for his escape. When he came in sight they raised
the Indian war-whoop, and drew their revolvers. Hogan looked around
and saw that his pursuers were in about a hundred yards of him. He saw
his predicament, as for a quarter of a mile he confronted the bluff,
and that there was only one avenue of escape. He went to the edge of
the precipice and looked over. There, under the bluff, lay the deep,
blue waters of White river, 150 feet below. Again he turned his eyes
toward his pursuers. He knew it meant death if they caught him; so he
made the fearful leap over the bluff, striking the water where it was
about twenty-five feet deep. Hogan was a wicked man and cursed a great
deal. He swore it didn't take him long to reach the water, but that he
thought considerable time intervened from the time he struck the water
until he reached the top again. He swam to the bank which was but a
few feet distant. His pursuers came to the precipice, looked over, and
said that they had made Hogan do something they had intended to do, and
that was, to take his own life, as they supposed no human being could
make the leap and live. After cutting his saddle and bridle to pieces,
they turned his horse loose, and reported that Hogan was killed. Hogan
traveled around under the bluff for about two miles, made his way home,
wound up his business, sold his farm, and moved into Fulton county,
Arkansas, which ended the trouble between them.

The author will relate another incident that occurred in Marion county,
Arkansas. There was a widow residing in that county, who was left with
a family of children, among them a boy about twelve years of age. Her
horse ran away, and she sent her boy in pursuit of it. After he had
found it and was returning home, leading the horse, Hogan and one of
his friends met him in the road. They had both been drinking, and
seeing the boy, concluded to have some fun out of him. Hogan, with an
oath, said, "What are you doing with my horse?" The boy replied, "It is
not your horse, it is mother's horse." Hogan sprang off his horse, and,
thinking to scare the boy and have some fun with him, said: "Here, you
know it's my horse; give him up." The boy pulled a barlow knife out of
his pocket, and, opening it, said, "You attempt to come near me, and
I will stick this knife into you." Hogan stepped up to him and said,
"You little rascal, would you attempt to cut me with a knife?" The
boy, without any further words, made a stroke at him with the knife,
and the blade entered his body near the left breast. Hogan declared
afterward that he jumped about ten feet high. He turned to his friend
and remarked: "I believe our fun with the little bugger has caused my
death, or at least a serious wound." He went to a physician, had the
wound probed, and found the knife had penetrated a rib and reached the
inside. The physician informed him that had it passed between the ribs
it would have killed him instantly. Hogan remarked to the boy, after he
stabbed him, "My son, you are made out of the right kind of stuff. I
had no intention of hurting you or taking your mother's horse from you,
I merely wanted to have some fun; but I see I have struck the wrong boy
this time. Go on and take your horse to your mother."

The author will refer to another incident that occurred in Howell
county, Missouri. In the year 1860 there was a man who resided in West
Plains by the name of Jack McDaniel, who was a blacksmith by trade.
This same Hogan came to town, soon became under the influence of
whiskey, went down to McDaniel's shop with a horse, and ordered him to
shoe him. McDaniel had two other horses in the shop at the time to be
shod, and said to Hogan that as soon as he had shod those two horses,
he would shoe his. Hogan said, "I am in a hurry, and I want you to shoe
mine now." McDaniel told him that he could not shoe his horse until he
had shod the other two horses. Hogan said, "If you don't shoe him at
once, I will whip you." McDaniel then pulled a barlow knife out of his
pocket, and, opening it, said: "Yes; and if you fool with me, I will
cut your throat from ear to ear." At this remark, Hogan moved right up
to him and said, "Just smell of my neck." McDaniel struck at him with
the knife, and the blade entered just under the ear, cutting to the
bone all the way around into the mouth. Hogan went to a physician in
West Plains and had the wound dressed. He then went to a glass, looked
in, and said that he had lived a long time, been in many tight places,
but he had never had such a mouth as he had now, and remarked, "My
mouth looks as if it was spread from ear to ear."

The people then generally gave their time to growing stock, especially
horses and cattle, as hogs and sheep had to be kept close around the
farms and penned of a night, especially the pigs, on account of wolves
and other wild animals. I have known the wolves to kill 2 and 3 year
old cattle. Farmers fed their corn chiefly to cattle, horses and mules.
They always commanded fair prices. Cattle, at the age of four years and
upwards were driven to Jacksonport, Arkansas and from there shipped to
New Orleans. Horses and mules were driven to Louisiana, Mississippi and
some to the Southern part of Arkansas and there put upon the market.
Prices generally ranging from $75 to $150. All of our groceries were
purchased in New Orleans, shipped to Jacksonport, from there they were
conveyed by wagons. Our dry goods were mostly purchased at Lynn Creek,
Missouri and brought through by wagon, but in the early settling of
the country they hauled dry goods all the way from St. Louis except
what were brought into the country by peddlers. The peddlers would go
to St. Louis on horse back with one and sometimes two led horses, buy
the goods, pack them, place them on their horses and peddle all the way
from St. Louis and still further west and take in exchange all kinds of
fur skins.

I have seen peddlers with one horse still loaded with goods and the
other covered with fur skins, and I have seen them again after they had
disposed of all their goods with all three horses completely covered
with fur skins and sometimes so heavily loaded that the peddler would
either be walking and leading or driving.

Money was scarce but the people spent very little money, were not in
debt and lived much better and easier than they do now. Their counties
were out debt and the county warrants were always at par.

When my father first located here, there were about four or five
settlers in all of the territory that now belongs to Howell County;
there were but three men that resided upon what is known as the middle
bayou, William McCarty and his sons, Green and Willis.

In about three years after my father settled here, McCarties sold out
and located on the bayou above Bakersfield. In 1844 there was a man by
the name of Thomas Hall who resided about 10 miles southwest of West
Plains, a man by the name of Cyrus Newberry resided about 10 miles from
where West Plains now is, and a man by the name of Braudwaters resided
near where Moody is now located.

There was not a settlement in all the territory that now includes
Howell valley. There had been a settlement, by a man who was a hunter,
made at what is now termed the town spring at West Plains who had
cleared five or six acres, but had left it. All the valleys in Howell
county were considered worthless on account of there being no water.

When the country commenced settling, there was no attention paid to
congressional lines. As they settled on the streams, they would make
conditional lines--blaze across the bottom until they would strike the
table-lands; and the next men who might come in and settle would blaze
his conditional line across, and for years there was but little land
entered. Men only sold their improvements, and there was a fixed law,
or custom, that prevailed among them--that no man should enter the land
and take another man's improvements without paying him for them. A few
such instances occurred to my knowledge. The man was at once waited
upon, and informed of the rules and customs of the country; and besides
the rules and customs, it was not right nor honest to take a man's
labor without paying him for it; and that it was the intention and
purpose of the people to see that justice was done every man; and he
was therefore notified to proceed to the late owner of the improvements
and pay him the value of the improvements; and if they couldn't agree
upon the value, submit it to two disinterested neighbors; and if they
couldn't agree let the third man be brought in, which finding would
be final. In every instance if the man who had made the entry failed
to comply with the terms, he was at once notified that his absence
from the settlement and a speedy departure from the country would be
satisfactory to the settlement; and that if he failed to comply, he
would have to submit to the punishments that would be inflicted upon
him. If the improvements, which were always reasonable, were paid for,
the party would move off, blaze out another claim, and go to work to
improve it; but if he didn't receive pay for his improvements, he
remained on the land and the other fellow's whereabouts would soon be
unknown; and when the land was sold for taxes, the man owning the
improvements would buy it in by paying the amount of taxes and costs
without an opposing bid.

When my father first located in this country, a large portion of the
territory had never been sectionized. What was known as the old survey,
including range seven and a part of range eight (now in this county)
formed a part of the old survey. Congress passed a law graduating the
price of land according to the length of time it had been upon the
market. The government price was $1.25 per acre. The first reduction
was twenty-five cents upon the acre; then they reduced the purchase
price every few years until all the land included in the old survey
went down to a bit an acre. The graduation law allowed each man to take
up 320 acres by making actual settlement and cultivating it. But the
land speculators took advantage of the law and hired men to go upon the
land and make a few brush-heaps, and in the name of some man apply for
the entry, until all of the graduated lands were taken up, and there
was not a bona fide settler who had complied with the law in one out of
every hundred.

Most of the land in Howell, Gunters, Peace, and Hutton valleys, and
the land where West Plains is now situated, were entered at a bit per
acre. After the entries, the valley lands commenced settling rapidly.
When the time came to procure a patent to the land, speculators went to
Washington and engineered a bill through Congress to allow the parties
to prove up without making proof of actual settlement, and in that
way fraudulently obtained patents to two-thirds of all the land above
referred to. The next thing, the speculators went East, sold their
lands (or mortgaged them) by representing that all of the table lands
were bottom lands and covered with walnut, hackberry, box elder, and
other bottom growths. They let the mortgages all be foreclosed.

The merchants, who procured title to the lands, sent out agents to
examine the land, who went back and reported that the lands were
valueless and were not worth the taxes and refused to pay taxes on
them. With some few exceptions the lands were offered time and again
for taxes, would not sell for the amount of the taxes and thousands
of acres remained in that condition until a short time before the
building of the Kansas City & Memphis railroad. All of the table lands
were looked upon by the people as being entirely worthless and fit for
nothing but range.

My father in the year 1849 sold out and removed from Bennett's river,
Fulton county, to the North Fork of White river, in Fulton County but
two miles from the State line, dividing Missouri and Arkansas. In the
year 1852 father took the winter fever, died and was buried in the
cemetery, three miles above the State line, known as the Teverbauch
cemetery.

In the year 1854 my mother and one brother died with the bloody flux,
leaving three sons of the family, William, the oldest one living,
F. M. and James I. Monks. The author was married on the 10th day of
April 1853 to Martha A. Rice, a daughter of Thomas and Nancy Rice.
He continued to reside upon the old homestead and was a farmer by
occupation. The country commenced settling up rapidly. All the land on
the streams was settled, with very few exceptions, with a frugal and
intelligent class of people, mostly from the middle states. In the year
1856 Howell county was created by taking a part of the territory of
Ozark and a part of the territory of Oregon, to-wit: Ranges 7 and 8 and
a small part of 9 were taken from Oregon county and the remainder of 9
and 10 was taken from Ozark county. Andrew V. Taber, ---- Johnson (and
the name of the other commissioner we have forgotten at the present
time) proceeded to locate the county seat and purchased 40 acres near
the West Plains spring and laid it out into lots, got the county seat
near the center, as a sufficient amount of water was necessary, taking
into consideration the town spring and then what was known as the
Bingiman spring. The lots sold rapidly and the town grew beyond any
expectation and the country was improving and settling up with the town.

In 1858 the author sold out on the North Fork of White river and
moved into Howell county and located 11 miles southwest of West
Plains upon sections 2 and 11, range 9, was appointed constable of
Benton township and in the year 1860 was elected constable of Benton
township, commenced reading law in the year 1858. In the year 1860
West Plains was said to be the best, neatest, prettiest town in South
Missouri and contained about 200 inhabitants; had a neat frame court
house in the center of the square, a first-class hewed log jail, had
four first-class stores (for the country at that time) which kept
continually on hand a general assortment of merchandise, had two
saloons, tan yard and the county was out of debt, with money in the
treasury; a county warrant then was good for its face value in gold,
and the country was prosperous in every respect. The people generally
were fast friends and their chief interest was to develop the resources
of the country and aid and help each other.


How a Mob Was Prevented

In 1860, a man resided about three miles below West Plains by the
name of Collins Coffey on the farm recently owned by Thomas Bolin and
some men by the name of Griffiths and Boles--(some of them resided in
West Plains and some of them resided in Thomasville, Oregon county)
and they and Coffey had a falling out with each other and the enmity
between them became very great. So the Griffiths, who lived at West
Plains went down to Thomasville and they and the Boles with a few other
friends declared that they would come up to Coffey's and mob him.

They went to work and made for themselves a uniform, procured a bugle,
fife and snare drum, procured a hack, made them a place for a candle
and aimed to come up in the night.

Coffey owned considerable stock among which was a bull about four
years old. The range then was luxuriant and there was a pond near the
side of the road that led from Thomasville and West Plains and the
bull with other cattle had lain down on the edge of the road about one
mile from Coffey's residence. They armed themselves, procured their
musicians, got into their hack, drawn by two horses and started off to
the scene of action with a bright light, with a flag flying and the
music playing. When they reached the place near where the male was
laying, he rose to his feet, squared himself and fetched a keen bellow
as though (although he was animal) he might have some information as to
their mission. They paid no attention to the action of the bull and on
their driving within about ten feet of him he made a desperate lunge
forward; they supposed that he intended to gore the horses, but missed
his aim, struck the hack near the coupling, broke the coupling pole and
turned head over heels, and fell right between the horses. The horses
became frightened, made a desperate lunge to extricate themselves, and
the bull at the same time was scuffling to extricate himself. Both
horses fell, the bull and horses were all piled into a heap, grunting
and scuffling. The occupants of the hack were all piled out in a heap,
almost in an instant, and before they could extricate themselves and
get onto their feet the bull had gotten up and was moving in the
direction of his master's house bellowing every step as if to say, "I
dare you to come any further." As soon as the posse got to their feet,
having prepared, before they started, with plenty of whiskey, and being
pretty well filled at the time of the occurrence, Boles got to his
feet, drew his pistol, cocked it and swore he could whip any bull he
ever saw, especially a one horned Coffey bull.

The hack was almost demolished and the occupants considerably bruised,
both horses crippled, and after consultation, they concluded that as
the Coffey bull had proved so successful they had better abandon their
trip and retreat "in good order" to Thomasville, leaving their horses
hitched by the roadside and the shattered hack piled up at one side of
the road.

The next morning they sent out a team and brought the horses and hack
back to Thomasville, and they were wiser and perhaps better men, as
they never again attempted to mob Coffey.

The strange feature about this matter is that the bull was never known
to be cross before this occasion, when his master was to be mobbed.

The society of the country had increased with the population, and
school houses and churches were erected all over the country, nice
farms were opened up, the dwellings changed from round log to hewed
log and frame, the people all manifested a great deal of interest in
schools and churches and the general development of the country.


Religion and Politics.

The prominent religious denominations from 1849 to 1860 consisted
chiefly of Methodists, Baptists and the Christian order; but all
appeared to recognize each other as Christians and would very often
work together, as they had in the early pioneer days.

Everything had the appearance of pointing to the day when Howell county
would become the garden spot of South Missouri.

Politically, the country was largely Democratic. In political
campaigns the Whig and Democratic candidates would canvass the country
together, and while on the stump speaking they would assail each
other's platforms in most bitter terms. After the speaking was over
they would go to the same hotel or boarding place and laugh and talk
together as though they belonged to the same political party, and
after the election was over the successful party would be recognized
by the people as the officers of the whole people. You would see no
partisan line drawn by the different courts between political parties,
but the appointments of all local officers were made according to
the qualifications of the man and not as to what party he belonged.
The author, having been born and raised by Democratic parents, was
a Democrat and acted with the Democratic party, his first vote for
president having been cast for James Buchanan. In 1860 a great
political question of the nation began to be agitated and a very bitter
feeling was manifested from the stump between the Republican and
Democratic parties.

After the Democratic party divided and the bolters nominated
Breckenridge for president, the author took part in the canvas and was
a strong advocate of Stephen A. Douglas, the regular nominee of the
Democratic party, and at the election cast his vote for Stephen A.
Douglas for president.



MISSOURI AND THE CIVIL WAR.


Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States. Soon after
the election they began to discuss the question of seceding from the
Government. The author again took the field in opposition to secession,
and delivered a number of speeches.

In a short time the people that had been the closest of friends and
trusted a neighbor with the most sacred thing they possessed became
bitter enemies and arrayed themselves against one another and as the
discussion of the great question of war continued to grow more bitter
the people appeared to align themselves for and against secession. The
people soon grew so bitter that they often talked of fighting each
other.

Before the firing on Ft. Sumpter and after several of the states had
actually seceded the Union sentiment prevailed so strongly in the
state of Missouri that Clabourn Jackson, the then acting Governor, was
compelled to order an election in the state of Missouri to settle the
matter by a vote, of the people as to whether Missouri should secede
or remain in the Union. The author then took the stump and advocated
that the state remain in the Union and manifest her loyalty to the
preservation of the Union. In this campaign the feeling of the war grew
more bitter. The result, however, of the election was that the state
remained in the Union. In the mean time, Ft. Sumpter had been fired
upon by the rebels.

Clabe Jackson, the Governor, appeared to be determined upon the state
seceding either by fair or foul means. Without regarding a majority
vote of the people of the state, Clabe Jackson, the then acting
Governor, issued his proclamation convening the Legislature in extra
session for the purpose of passing ordinances of secession.

At that time Gen. Frost was in the command of the militia and some
state troops stationed in St. Louis Barracks but he was in heart and
sympathy a rebel. Everything appeared to have been greased and prepared
for the occasion.

As the Governor had the whole machinery of the state completely under
his control he believed that it would be an easy matter for the
legislature to pass ordinances of secession and carry the state out of
the Union, but the Government authorities at Washington learned of the
critical condition and deep laid scheme of the Governor to carry the
state out of the Union and at once ordered Capt. Lyons of the Regular
Army, (who afterward became General of the volunteer forces and fought
the battle at Wilson Creek, Missouri) to come to St. Louis; he, being
a captain in the Regular Army, outranked Gen. Frost, took possession
of the troops, arms and amunitions, etc., reorganized and rapidly
increased the army by volunteers.

On information reaching Gen. Lyons that the legislature had been
convened in extra session he at once took his available troops and left
St. Louis with the intention of surrounding the Capitol and taking the
members of both houses, the Governor, with all his state officers,
prisoners; when the Governor learned that the Government troops were en
route for Jefferson City and their purpose, he ordered the bridge to
be burned across the Gasconade river near its mouth, on what was then
known as the North Pacific R. R. This delayed the troops for several
hours. On their approach to Jefferson City the Governor and state
officers and the members of both houses of the legislature and all the
troops that had been ordered to the Capital by the Governor retreated
to Boonville, Missouri.

I heard our representative in a speech delivered a short time
afterwards, say they came so near getting him while he was getting out
of Jefferson City that he lost his umbrella. Lyons pursued them and at
Boonville they made a stand and on Lyon's arrival with his troops he
attacked them and they fought for a short time. They again retreated,
went into the extreme west part of the state to a place known as Lone
Jack. There they made a stand again, Lyons still pursuing. He again
attacked then at Lone Jack and after a short fight they retreated again
into the State of Arkansas, and there Governor Jackson convened the
legislature and they passed ordinances of secession declaring the State
of Missouri out of the Union and that she was attached to the compact
forming the Confederate States.

General Lyon returned to St. Louis, increasing his force considerably,
several regiments being attached to his command from other states.
The government ordered him to prepare his troops and move west to
Springfield. The terminus of the South Missouri Pacific R. R., at that
time was at Rolla, Missouri. While Lyon was massing his troops and
preparing to march to Springfield the most intense excitement prevailed
in the entire State of Missouri.


A Big Confederate Meeting at West Plains.

The Confederate authorities at once commenced recruiting for the
Confederate service and the Confederate recruiting officers published
a public meeting at West Plains about the first or tenth of July and
while the Confederate authorities were moving, the union or loyal
element of the country was not idle, but was watching every move,
openly and secretly preparing for the conflict.

A few days before the meeting was to be held at West Plains the
Confederates sent to the pinery and procured a long pine pole, hoisted
it at the corner of Durham's store at the northwest corner of the
public square and swung to the breeze the stars and bars. At the
same time, or near the same time, the Union men sent to the pinery
and procured a pole. They hoisted it on the northeast corner of East
Main street by the corner of McGinty's store where the S. J. Langston
Mercantile Co., building now stands and swung to the breeze the stars
and stripes.

It was freely published throughout the county by the Rebels that if
any Union man attempted to open his mouth on that day he would be
shot as full of holes as a sifter bottom. There was a beautiful grove
then growing just east of the branch on East Main street running from
the town spring. Large preparations were made by the Rebels for the
occasion. It was published that there would be leading Confederates
from all over the state and different other states to speak on that
day and one of the main features of the day would be recruiting for
Confederate service. A big speaker's stand was erected with hundreds of
seats. When the day arrived the town was crowded with people and the
friends of both parties were armed and appeared to be ready for the
conflict. The stars and bars attracted a great deal of attention, being
the first flag that had ever been seen by the people that antagonized
the stars and stripes and threatened to destroy the United States
Government.

There was soon a number of determined men gathered under each flag.
A number of their prominent speakers were on hand, among them Judge
Price, of Springfield, known as "Wild Bill" Price. They readily took in
the situation and saw that a conflict was imminent, and as they were
not ready for it they met together in council and agreed that their
men should not bring on the conflict on that day. Quite a number of
the parties prepared themselves at the speaker's stand. When different
speakers were introduced to address the people, many of the men would
sit, either with their guns in their hands or with their guns near to
them, and the most fiery and extreme speeches were made that I ever
heard.

The author well remembers the speech of Judge William Price. He told
them that the lopeared Dutch had reached Rolla, Missouri, the terminus
of the railroad, and that they were complete heathens; that Abraham
Lincoln had given the state of Missouri to them, if they would send
enough lopeared Dutch to conquer the state, and that to his knowledge
they had gone out into the country and taken men's wives and daughters
and brought them into the camps, and that he saw them, in the presence
of the mothers, run bayonets through their infant children and hoist
them up and carry them around on their bayonets; that Abraham Lincoln
had offered a reward for all of the preachers that were in favor of
the South. He bursted into tears and asked the question, "I want to
know who the man is, and the color of his hair, that won't enlist in
the interest of his home, his wife, his children and everything that
is sacred and good, to drive out lopeared Dutch, a certain class of
Hessians, from our land." He urged them to come forward and place their
names upon the rolls. Nearly all the preachers present placed their
names on the recruiting list first.

The excitement grew still more bitter. In the afternoon they began to
threaten openly that the stars and stripes should be hauled down; that
no flag should be allowed to float in West Plains that countenances and
tolerates heathen in our land. The Union men declared that the stars
and stripes should not be lowered unless it was done over their dead
bodies. Quite a number of Union men had assembled under the flag. The
Union men were led by a man named Captain Lyle. He had been warned and
cautioned by his friends not to open his mouth, for the reason that he
would be shot full of holes. Late in the evening there was a lull in
the speaking. The author walked up into the speaker's stand, called the
attention of the people, saw a number of rifles grasped in their hands,
and announced to them that they had been sitting all day listening to
Confederate speeches, but on the next Saturday, if they would meet him
at Black's store, about ten miles west of West Plains, they could hear
Union speeches and the constitution of the United States would be read;
thanked the crowd and stepped down. Quite a number of guns were raised
in the hands of parties and a shower of groans and hisses, and remarks
openly from a number that "We ought to shoot his black heart out now."

It appeared for a while that it would be impossible to evade a conflict
of arms. A number of orders being sent to the Union men to draw down
their flag or they would fire on it and the men who supported it, an
answer was returned that the rebels were requested to draw down their
flag as it was a stranger in the land and unless they lowered their
flag the stars and stripes wouldn't be lowered an inch, unless it was
done over their dead bodies. At last a proposition came that they would
agree for the sake of averting bloodshed to commence lowering both
flags at the same time which proposition was accepted; so wound up that
day's proceedings.

On the Saturday following, the author, with several other Union
speakers, met at Black's store where there were several rebel captains
and lieutenants. The author made a speech in favor of remaining in the
Union and stated that the attempt to secede by some of the states would
eventually result in sad disaster, besides bringing untold suffering
upon the people. Several other Union speeches were made after which the
author read the constitution of the United States and urged that all
lovers of republican form of government would comply with the demand of
the supreme law of the land and, if necessary, sacrifice property and
life in defence of the same; so ended that day's proceedings.


McBride Establishes Military Law.

As the organization of the confederates proceeded they still grew more
bitter against the Union men and declared, by meeting and passing
resolutions, that every Union man should show his colors in favor of
the South or be hung as high as Hamen. In the meantime the Union men
had secretly organized and met together, to take into consideration as
to the time when they should act.

The prevailing sentiment was, that they should remain dormant and let
the rebels shed the first blood, while the minority thought the time
had come for action, and that they ought to act before the rebels
crippled them and tied them up in such a manner that, when the time did
come, they would be entirely helpless and at their mercy.

McBride, who had been elected judge of the 18th Judicial circuit,
which included Howell county, whose home was in Texas county, was made
Brigadier General of the Confederate forces and commenced organizing
and massing his troops. On the arrival of the federal troops at Rolla,
Missouri, he became fearful that they would attack him, rout him and
destroy his forces, so he concluded to march south to West Plains
and make his headquarters at that place until he could organize his
forces and prepare for marching west, where he intended to join the
forces of Gen. Sterling Price and Gen. McCullough who then were massing
their forces to march on Springfield, Missouri, to attack the federal
forces who were then stationed at Springfield under the command of
Gen. Lyon and Gen. Seigle. On his arrival at West Plains he opened
up headquarters, issued his proclamation that all Union men or any
men that were unfriendly to the Confederate cause should come in and
take the oath and the civil law was declared to be suspended and the
military law completely in force.

Then was when the dark day and trouble began to hang over the Union
people. As soon as it was known that the civil law was suspended
little bunches of rebels organized all over the country and also in
the state of Arkansas. In a short time after Gen. McBride's arrival in
West Plains a man who was a door neighbor to the author came into his
field where he was cutting wheat, asked him if he had seen the order
of McBride. My answer was "No." He remarked, "Well, he has made a
general order, requiring all Union men, especially those who have been
open and active in behalf of the Union, to come in and take the oath,
and unless they do they are going to hang them as high as Hamen." The
author replied to him that he was a Union man and he knew it; he had
been open and outspoken for the Union and had voted for McBride when he
was elected Judge, but now he thought he was acting outside of the law
and humanity.

I had neither violated the law of my land nor harmed any man and I
didn't consider that McBride had any right to order me to take an oath
to take up arms against my country or support those who had taken up
arms. If this did become a general war, I thought they were making a
blunder, for the Government, or the lopeared Dutch, as they termed
them, would have the advantage in the way of transporting forage
and commissaries and amunitions of war, while the Confederates would
have to rely mostly for their resources upon the county; that I was
a peace officer and while I was a strong Union man wasn't taking up
arms and I thought that those who wanted to fight, if there had to
be a fight, should go out into the open fields, and not force the
war onto non-combatants, and that the country would suffer enough at
best. Now you know I am a Union man, and I know that you are in favor
of the Confederate cause, and I think this is the course that ought
to be pursued at the present time. The Confederates are in control of
the country, and they will come around and say they must have forage
for the support of the army, and ask you if you know of any Union men;
you could tell them, "My neighbor right here is a Union man, but he
is not disposed to take up arms and go into the fight; take as little
from him as you can possibly do with, and as little from myself;
in return, if this war goes on, and the Federal authorities extend
their jurisdiction, they would be out hunting rebels for the purpose
of getting forage and commissaries, and I could say to them that my
neighbor here is a rebel but take just as little as possible from him,
and as little as possible from me, as we are going to have a hard time
to get through the war any way. But if you pursue the policy you say
has been adopted by the Confederates, you will force all non-combatants
into arms or drive them from the country and completely depopulate
it." He burst into a big laugh and remarked, "Your promises are like a
broken stick, you will never see the lopeared Dutch in this country." I
said to him, "My friend, if this war goes on, before the end of it you
will see what you call lopeared Dutch as thick as blackbirds;" and we
separated.


General Lyons Drives Rebels from Rolla.

About June 10, 1851, the rebels were having a big meeting at Rolla,
Phelps county, Missouri, for the purpose of recruiting. General Lyons
at St. Louis, learned of the meeting, and at once placed quite a
force in the cars, well armed and closed them up so they would not be
detected and started for Rolla with the intention of capturing the
whole outfit.

On the day set for the rebel meeting, quite a number of them had
assembled and a certain young lawyer was delivering an address, telling
them that one southern man could whip five lopeared Dutch and all
they wanted was just an opportunity; in the meantime Lyon's forces
had reached Dillon, the next station east of Rolla about five miles
distant. There the forces were taken from the cars and divided, some
marching southwest and the others northwest, making a flank movement
for the purpose of surrounding the whole place. While they were
marching some person, who was a rebel, went with all the speed possible
and informed the meeting that the Dutch were right upon them; that the
woods were full of them and to get out of there as quick as possible,
if they wanted to save their lives.

The lawyer who was addressing them sprang from the speakers stand and
holloing at the top of his voice as he went, "Get away from here, the
Dutch are upon us." It was said that the lawyer ran so fast that if
a glass of water had been sat upon his coat tail it would not have
spilled. They scattered to the woods in all directions. The Federal
force came in; but their birds had all flown and left the citizens who
had remained to tell the sad tale.

The rebel forces at once retreated to Salem, Missouri, where they again
concentrated their force. The Federal scout, in a few days followed
them to Salem, and there again routed them and they retreated directly
to West Plains, joining the command of McBride at that place. The
rebels, hurriedly, concentrated their forces from all the south and
southeastern counties of Missouri and from the northern counties of
Arkansas.

General McBride made an order to gather all the arms, amunitions, and
horses that were fit for the service, as speedily as possible and the
report was put in circulation that he had given the county over to the
leading rebels, who resided in it, whose action, whatever they did
touching the Union men, would be indorsed and carried out by General
McBride. The leading rebels of the county at once sent out word that
they were going to take all the arms, amunition and available horses
from the Union men and that McBride required each and every one of them
to report and take the oath at once, and if they failed to comply with
said order, speedy action would be taken against them.

They would either be arrested, imprisoned or forced into the
Confederate army to fight and their leaders would be hung.

On the issuing of the said order the wildest excitement prevailed among
the Union men. They immediately met for the purpose of consultation as
to what their final action would be. There were divers opinions among
them; some of them were for acting at once; others (and a majority of
them) were in favor of waiting until the rebels shed the first blood.
Those who refused to report and take the oath had to place themselves
in hiding at once. The rebels made a general move to raid, harass and
capture the Union men. Then real danger confronted a man who claimed
to be a Union man. The rebels had made a general amnesty, upon the
condition that they would join the Confederate army and become loyal to
the Confederate States. About two-thirds of the men who had been open
and avowed Union men saw the danger that confronted them, and joined
the Confederate army and claimed that they would be loyal to its cause.
The remainder of the Union men were disarmed at once, except those who
kept themselves concealed in the mountains and hills.

After they had completely disarmed them and forced many of them to join
the Confederate service, had taken most of their horses, cattle and
hogs for the use of the army, the leading rebels in the county claimed
that they had organized for the purpose of ridding the country of all
Union men who had refused to join the Confederate forces; that when
McBride moved west he was going to leave the whole matter in their
hands, and they intended to string up the Union men to limbs and shoot
them, so they would soon be rid of the class of men who were friends of
the lopeared Dutch and were nigger lovers.


The Testing of Loyal Hearts.

Small bunches of rebel troops came in from Arkansas and joined the
bands that were raiding the country, and the Union men were hunted
like wild beasts. Then set in the darkest day that ever any class of
patriots, true to their government, had to confront.

The author remembers well when the Union men would meet together, that
they took the proposition made by McBride into consideration, and it
was discussed pro and con. Some men would say, "While I am a Union
man and for the government, all that I have in the world is here in
Howell county; my little home, my property and, above all, my wife
and children. They have promised us protection provided we will join
the rebel army. Had we not better accept the proposition and wait for
results?" Others would arise, with tears dripping from their eyes,
and remark that this state of affairs is hard indeed. "Can I afford
to abandon my wife and children that I love so well and leave them
unprotected in the midst of an open state of war, at the mercy of a
mad and distracted people, who are thirsting for the loyal blood of
the nation, and be alienated from them, perhaps, never more to see
them?" Others would arise and remark that "We have seen this danger
coming for months and we are satisfied that the worst has not come,
and I know that I love my wife, my family, my little children, as I
love my own heart; I love to meet them around my fireside and enjoy
their sweet company, and I have delighted in laboring to furnish them
food and raiment and shelter while they were growing into manhood and
womanhood, but I have read and heard read that my highest duty was
to God and my second duty was to my country; and the organic law of
the nation requires at my hands that whenever it becomes necessary to
preserve my government, that I owe to it my life, my honor and the
welfare of my family; and the trying ordeal is now at hand and I don't
know what the final result will be--if I am forced away from my family,
I know they will be left at the mercy of an intolerant and unrelenting
enemy, but I now and here lay my life, my family, my property and my
future happiness upon the altar of my country, and let come what will,
weal or woe, I intend, with all my feeble effort, to defend the stars
and stripes, and stand up openly and courageously in defense of and
for the preservation of the Union." That proposition prevailed and was
unanimously adopted by the Union men.

At this time there was no government aid in reach of these loyal
hearts, that were controlled by nothing but love of country. Uncle
Sam could do nothing for them. They were completely surrounded in
an enemy's country, and while they (the men), with what arms they
had preserved, could by strategy evade the arrest and slaughter of
themselves, their families were completely at the mercy of a mad and
howling mob, thirsting for the blood of Union men.

While the loyal men in the North were enlisting in the interest of
their country, Uncle Sam paid them $13.00 per month, clothed them, and
their families were left in the care of friends; they knew nothing
about the war, except what they read; but not so with the Union men
who were surrounded in an enemy's country. They, without a single word
of protection or comfort from the government for themselves or their
families, but their love and devotion to their country led them to
furnish themselves, to leave their families as best they could, at the
mercy of a howling mob, for the defense of their country.


Rebels Defeated in Douglas County.

The loyal men in Douglas county and the north part of the county of
Ozark were in the ascendency. A rebel force organized from the county
of Howell, Missouri, and Fulton county, Arkansas, wanting to have some
fun hunting Union men, learned that on Bryant's Fork on the north fork
of White river in Ozark county there was a bunch of Union men. So they
armed and equipped themselves, furnished themselves ropes, and marched
to hunt the place these men were said to be. The Union men hearing of
their intention hurriedly prepared a temporary barricade around the
house, and about sixty of them gathered together with their squirrel
rifles in readiness to repel the attack in case it was made. The rebel
scout consisted of two hundred and fifty men.

Early in the morning reliable information reached the Union men that
the rebel forces were well under way and would reach them some time
in the afternoon. One of the Union men, who had always borne the
reputation of being a brave man and would fight anything, became
impatient as the time drew near that they were to be attacked. He had
been a great hunter and was considered a first-class shot, and he
remarked to the Union men, "I can't wait for the rebels to attack us,
I want to get a shot at one so bad with Old Betsy (his gun). I know
of a bald knob, about a quarter of a mile from here, where the rebel
force is bound to pass. I am going there; place yourselves in waiting,
and when you hear 'Old Betsey' belch, you may know there is one dead
rebel, and be certain that they are coming." In about an hour after
the man referred to had left, the rebel advance came in sight, but
they never heard "Old Betsy" belch. They vigorously attacked the Union
men inside their fortifications, and after fighting for about an hour,
they retreated, leaving one man dead upon the field and one wounded.
The Union men received no injury whatever. They became very uneasy in
regard to their friend and "Old Betsy," supposing he had fallen into
the hands of the enemy and they had used the rope on him. Search was
made all along the line of march of the rebels for the missing man, but
no information could be learned of his whereabouts. However, in about
one week, news came from Douglas county that their friend and "Old
Betsy" arrived safely at another rendezvous of Union men in Douglas
county, about forty miles distant, and reported that the Union men had
had a fight with the rebels, and they were all captured or killed, with
the exception of himself, and he had made his escape after the fight.

Just before McBride broke camps to march west to join Gen. Price and
Gen. McCullough, he made a general order that they arrest and seize
every Union man possible, and after he left the country, that the
committee who had been organized to take charge of the county, would
at once exterminate every Union man who had failed to take the oath
or to join the Confederate army, giving them full power as to what
disposition they would make of them.


Rebels Capture Col. Monks.

On the 7th of July, 1861, one of my neighbors came to me and informed
me that the time had come that every Union man had to show his colors
and unless they reported and took the oath or joined the Confederate
army, they would hang as high as Haman. While the Union men were on
their guard and watching their movements, once in a while they would
slip in home to see how the family was getting along. My family at that
time consisted of a wife and four children, three girls and one boy. My
wife had never been accustomed to staying alone and I came in home late
on the evening of the 7th, thinking that I would leave the next morning
before daylight. Sometime after the family had retired, not far from 11
o'clock in the night, I was awakened by a rapping on the door. My wife,
suspecting who the parties were, answered them, and demanded to know
what was wanted; one of them, who claimed to be an orderly sergeant,
remarked that he wanted to know if Monks was at home. She replied that
he was not. A man by the name of William Biffle, whom the author had
been acquainted with for years, replied, "He is here, I know, for I
coursed him into this house late yesterday evening." The author at once
arose to his feet and remarked, "I am here, what is wanted?" A man by
the name of Garrett Weaver, who claimed to be an orderly sergeant and
in charge of the squad, also a neighbor to the author said, "I have
been ordered by Gen. McBride to arrest you, bring you in and make you
take the oath." I owned at that time a first-class rifle and there was
also another rifle gun in the house. I took my gun into my hands and
my wife took hold of the other gun. I told them that a general order
had gone forth, so I was informed, that they wanted to hang all the
leading Union men and "if that is your intention I will die before I
surrender." Weaver replied they were not going to hang me, but they
were just going to take me to McBride to take the oath and I should be
protected. Upon those terms I agreed to surrender, made a light in the
house and found that the house was surrounded by a posse of twenty-five
rebels. As soon as the light was made, a part of them rushed into the
house, took my gun and jerked the one my wife had in her hand out of
her possession, almost throwing her to the floor, began a general
search of the house for other arms and such things as they said the
army needed.

As soon as I dressed, they ordered me to move. They didn't even give me
time to say good-bye to my wife, nor to imprint a kiss upon the cheeks
of my loving children. Closely surrounding me, they marched me about
250 yards, came to their horses, where two more of their posse guarded
the horses, they having dismounted, to approach the house on foot so
they might not be heard.

[Illustration: COL. MONKS ARRESTED AND TAKEN FROM HOME]


"Billy, You Ought Not to be So Saucy."

When within a few feet of the horses the author was halted. It was
just starlight. I noticed a man by the name of Wilburn Baker, a man
with whom the author had been acquainted from a boy, go to the horn of
one of the saddles, lift therefrom a coiled rope and move toward the
author. The author quickly arrived at the conclusion that the time had
come to enforce the order of hanging. Baker ordered the author seized
by the arms, drew them behind him and securely tied him. The author
asked, just as they had completed the tying, "What do you mean? Are you
going to cage me?" Baker replied, "Billy, you ought not to be so saucy,
for you don't know the danger you are in." I was at once ordered placed
on a horse. One of the posse rode up to my side and placed the other
end of the rope around his body and the posse moved west. A short time
before daylight they arrived at the house of William Nicks, who was a
rebel lieutenant. They dismounted and took the author into the house.
There appeared to be a general rejoicing among them. Nicks said, "You
have got him, have you? We had become uneasy about you, and thought
it might have been possible that he had his Union forces around him
and that you had met with disaster; but I feel satisfied that we have
now captured the leader and the counselor of the Union forces and the
remainder will be easily extinguished." Gen. McBride in the meantime,
being uneasy for fear the Federal troops would attack him, had removed
his forces from West Plains to the south part of Howell county, camping
at what was known as the Flag pond.

I was closely guarded until daylight. McBride's forces had broken camp
at the Flag pond on the morning of July 8th and were marching west with
the intention of joining the forces of Gen. Price and Gen. McCullough,
who were then moving in the direction of Springfield, Missouri, with
the intention of attacking the Federal forces at that place, commanded
by Gen. Lyon and Gen. Siegel. Very early on the morning of the 8th
the party started in a southwest direction, with the author closely
guarded. On coming near the head of Bennett's river, Fulton county,
Arkansas, the posse commenced cheering and remarked: "Listen! Do you
hear the drums and the fife? That is Gen. McBride's command moving west
to kill them lopeared Dutch that you Union men have brought into the
state of Missouri. Do you know what we are going to do with such men as
you are? Those of you that we don't hang, the first fight that we get
into with the lopeared Dutch, we will make breastworks out of to keep
the bullets off of good men."

About one mile further we came in sight of the moving column. We rode
along the line, when there was general cheering until we reached a
company that was organized in Oregon county and commanded by Capt.
Simpson. Simpson said, "Why have you brought a Union man in here alive!
If my company had possession of him, he could not live ten minutes."

We soon reached a company commanded by Capt. Forshee which was
organized in this county to whom the whole posse that made the arrest,
belonged. The author was well acquainted with all of them and over
half of them resided in the same settlement and were his neighbors.
On reaching the company Captain Forshee walked out of the line and
remarked to them "Why have you brought him in here alive?" Some of
the posse remarked, that he had been a neighbor and they had all been
friends up to the war and they hated to kill him. Forshee said "When
I saw him at West Plains at the speaking when he got up and contended
that there was a union and the government ought to be preserved, I
wanted to shoot his black heart out of him and I feel the same way yet."

The author was kept in close confinement and on the night of the 8th
the command went into camp near what is known as the old Steve Thompson
farm. The author, with several other prisoners, was placed in the guard
house and orders were given that he be closely guarded.

After they had taken their suppers, men that the author had been
acquainted with from his boyhood, and men who had been acquainted with
his relatives, came to the guard house in considerable numbers and
remarked, "Hello, Monks?" "I never expected to see you under arrest."
"What have you been doing that they have arrested you? I thought you
was a good Democrat." "Have you left your party." "The Democratic party
is in favor of the South." The author replied to them that when they
thought he was a good Democrat they were right. But that he was not
a slave to party and that he held country higher than party and if
Democracy meant secession and nullification, that was one part of the
principals of Democracy that he had never learned; that true Democracy,
as understood by the author, taught every man that in case his country
was invaded either externally or internally that he owed his honor
and property in the support of it and for those reasons he was for
the preservation of the Union at all hazards. Some remarked that "We
ought to hang him right now without waiting any longer" Others remarked
that "We have been acquainted with his people both on his mother's and
father's side and they were all southern people and Democrats and they
are all of them, almost, in favor of the South. It is strange indeed to
see the course that he has taken." The author remarked that "There were
always some shabby sheep in a flock and I suppose from your reasoning
that I am one of them." They all retired, the officers giving orders
that the most vigilant watch be kept over the prisoner. After he had
retired a gentleman by the name of Joseph Teverbaugh who resided in
Ozark county, a merchant and the owner of about twenty negroes, who had
been well acquainted with the author from his boyhood, brought up the
conversation as to what disposition they thought ought to be made of
the author. The author could easily hear all the conversation inside
of the guard line. Many opinions were expressed. Quite a number said,
"Hang him outright." That was the only way to get shut of the Union
men, to make short work of it, and forever rid the country of that
element.

Others said that appeared to be too harsh, that they were in favor
of taking him to Little Rock and confining him in the penitentiary
until the war was over, for it wouldn't take but a short time to rid
the country of the lopeared Dutch and those who were friends to them.
Others remarked that "that would be too easy for a man who was in
favor of the lopeared Dutch; that we are in favor of taking all like
him right into the army and making them fight and if they won't fight,
the first engagement we get into, pile them up and make breastworks
out of them, so that they will catch bullets off of good men." At this
juncture Teverbaugh remarked, "I have been acquainted with Billy from
a boy and you never can force him to fight against what he believes to
be right, that he was a good boy and since he has grown up to be a man
he has been an honorable and straightforward man and quite an active
man politically and my advice would be to confine him in the State
Penitentiary until the war is over, for I tell you now if he ever gains
his liberty you are going to have him to fight."


Sold as a Beef Cow.

On the morning of the 9th they broke camp and marched near the mouth
of Bennett's river and went into camp at what was then known as
Talbert's mill. A short time after we had been in camp Capt. Forshee,
who had charge of the prisoners, came to the guard house and the author
requested him that he be allowed to take the oath and return home, as
his wife and children were almost scared to death owing to the reports
that were currently circulated all through the country, his wife would
believe they had hung him. The captain replied that they were not going
to allow him to take the oath. They had plenty of proof against him,
that he had been communicating to the lopeared Dutch and as soon as
they had formed a junction with Price and McCullough he would be tried
as a spy. He gave orders to the guard to see that he was kept in close
confinement, and about 11 o'clock in the night as near as the author
can guess, it being starlight, the Captain came down to the guard house
in company with one of his men, Frank Morrison.

The author was lying on the ground pretending to be asleep. The Captain
came inside of the guard, called out, "Monks, are you asleep?" The
author raised up in a sitting position and said, "Captain what is
wanted"? The Captain remarked, "I want you to go up to my camp fire,"
which was about 75 yards distance from the guard house. The author
said, "Captain, this is a strange time of night to come down and order
me to your camp fire." He said; "Not another word out of you, rise
to your feet." He ordered Morrison to step behind him with the same
gun that he had recently taken from the author and cock it and "if he
makes a crooked step from here up to the camp fire shoot him through."
The author heard Morrison cock the gun and about half way between the
guard house and the camp fire the Captain remarked to the author,
"Do you know Kasinger?" The author, suspecting that he was going to
be delivered to a mob, said "I know him very well; we have grown up
together from boys." The Captain said, "I thought he was a mighty nice
man. I have sold you to him for a beef cow." The author remarked there
was but one thing he was sorry for; that if he had known he was going
to be delivered to a mob he never would have surrendered and had some
satisfaction for his life. The Captain said, "I thought I was doing
mighty well to sell a black Republican or a Union man for a beef cow
where we have as many good men to feed, as we have here."

His camp fire was under a gum tree with a large top. The fires had
all died down, it being in July and nothing but the stars were giving
the light. On coming within two or three feet of the tree the Captain
ordered the author to halt. He and Morrison walked about ten paces and
said, "I have brought you up here to liberate you. We have got plenty
of good men here to feed without feeding men who are friends to the
lopeared Dutch." The author replied to the Captain, "you may think you
are dealing with a fool. I have neither violated the civil nor military
law; have demanded a trial and you refuse to give it to me. You can't
bring me up here at this time of night and pretend to turn me loose for
the purpose of escaping the responsibility of an officer and deliver me
into the hands of a mob."


The Confederate Army or Hell.

The author was satisfied that he could then see a bunch of men standing
in readiness. The Captain replied, "Sit down or you will be shot in
half a minute." The author sat down and leaned against the tree. He
had on strong summer clothing, wearing an alpaca vest and coat. In an
instant, about twenty-five men, led by Kasinger, and a man by the name
of William Sap, approached the author; Kasinger, holding a rope in his
hand with a noose in it, walked up to the author, held the noose of the
rope above his head and said, "Monks, you have half a minute to say you
will join the army and fight, or go to hell, just which you please."
The author replied that it was said that "hell was a hot place," but he
had never been there, and that he had always been counted a truthful
man until he had been arrested, and since his arrest he had been asked
divers questions of the whereabouts of the lopeared Dutch, and that
he had told them in every instance he knew nothing of them and had
been cursed for a liar. "If I was to say that I would join the army
and fight, I might have a cowardly set of legs and they might carry me
away; and in the next place, I am a Union man, first, last and all the
time. I suppose your intention is to hang me, and there is only one
thing I am sorry for, and that is that I ever surrendered; but there is
one consolation left, when you kill me you won't kill them all, and you
will meet plenty of them that won't be disarmed as I am now."

Kasinger replied, "No damn foolishness, we mean business," and made an
attempt to drop the noose over my head, which was warded off with my
arms.

At this juncture the author appealed to the Captain for protection from
the mob, saying that he was a prisoner, unarmed and helpless, and if
he suffered him to be murdered by a mob his blood would be upon the
Captain's head. No reply being made by the Captain, all of the parties
being considerably under the influence of whiskey, Sap raised his
left hand, pushed Kasinger back and remarked, "I have been shooting
and wounding some of these black Republicans who are friends of the
lopeared Dutch, but I intend to shoot the balance of them dead." At
the same time he drew a pistol from his right-hand pocket, cocked it,
stooped over, ran his fingers under the author's clothing, gave them
a twist and commenced punching him around the chest with the muzzle
of the revolver, and after, as the author thought, he had punched him
some fifty or sixty times with the revolver, the author said to him,
"William Sap, there is no question but that your intentions are to
kill me, and you want to torture me to death. You know that if I was
armed and on equal footing with you, you would not do this." He made a
quick jerk with his left hand, intending to jerk the author upon his
face, remarking to the Captain at the same time, "Captain, you promised
him to us and we are going to take him." The author, with all force
possible, leant against the tree, Sap's hold broke loose, tearing off
all the buttons that were on the vest and coat.

[Illustration: A NARROW ESCAPE FOR COL. MONKS.]

The author again appealed to the Captain for protection from the mob.
The Captain then remarked to Sap, "Hold on for a moment, I will take a
vote of my company as to whether we will hang him or not." The company
at that time was lying on the ground, most of them apparently asleep.
The Captain called out aloud to his company, "Gentlemen, I am going
now to take a vote of my company as to whether we will hang Monks or
not. All in favor of it vote, aye; all opposed, no." He then took the
affirmative vote and the negative vote. They appeared, to the author,
to be almost evenly divided. Sap again remarked to the Captain "You
promised him to us, we have bought him and paid for him and he is ours."

The author again appealed to the Captain for protection. The Captain
replied to Sap, "He claims protection and as I am an officer and he
a prisoner I reckon we had better keep him until we reach McCullough
and Price and then we will try him for a spy and there is plenty of
evidence against him to prove that he has been writing to the lopeared
Dutch and after he is convicted will turn him over and you men can take
charge of him." At this juncture a brother in-law of the Captain said,
"Captain, I have one request to make of you. I want you to take Monks
in the morning and tie him hard and fast, with his face to a tree,
and let me shoot with a rest sixty yards and show you how I can spoil
a black Republican's pate." The Captain replied, "As soon as he is
convicted you can have the gratification of shooting him just as often
as you please."

The Captain and Morrison again took charge of the author, carried him
back and delivered him to the guard with instructions to the guard to
be diligent in keeping him closely confined so that he would have no
possible chance of escape. On the morning of the 10th we broke camp
and went into camp that night just beyond where Mountain Home now
stands. Dr. Emmons, of West Plains, who was a strong Union man and who
afterwards became captain in the 6th Missouri Cavalry, attempted to go
through to the Federal forces but was pursued by the rebels, captured
somewhere in Texas county and brought back to the camp. He was also a
prisoner at the same time; but being a master mason, was paroled to the
limits of the camp and on the night of the 10th made his escape and got
through to the Federal lines, enlisted and was made captain. Of him we
will speak later.


In Camp at Yellville.

On July 11th they broke camp and reached Yellville, Marion county, and
on the 13th reached Carrolton, a small town in Arkansas, and went into
camp. The author well remembers the spring. It ran out of the steep,
rocky gulch and the branch ran a little south of west and a beautiful
grove of timber surrounded the spring. The prisoners were marched down
within a few feet of the spring and there placed under guard. As usual,
the abuse that had been continually heaped upon the prisoners during
the march was renewed and in a short time a man who was said to be from
one of the counties north of Rolla, Mo., commenced making a speech and
inciting and encouraging the soldiers to mob the prisoners at once;
that he had disguised himself and entered the camps of the lopeared
Dutch at Rolla, and that to his own personal knowledge they had men's
wives and daughters inside of their camps, committing all manner
of offenses possible, and that they were heathens; didn't resemble
American people at all and that he would not guard nor feed any man who
was a friend to them; that they ought to be killed outright.

The men who enlisted in the Confederate army from Howell and adjoining
counties, before starting, went to the blacksmith shops and had them
large butcher knives made; made a belt and scabbard and buckled them
around them, and said that they were going to scalp lopeared Dutch. In
a short time the tenor of the above mentioned speech had incited over
400 men and it had become necessary to double the guard. The grove of
timber was filled with men and boys looking over, expecting to see the
prisoners mobbed every minute. There was a man who drew his pistol,
others drew knives and made different attempts to break lines and mob
the prisoners. The man in possession of the pistol declared that he
intended to shoot them. He was on an elevated place and they called
him "Red," and there were three or four men holding him to prevent
his firing. The author remarked to him that: "The time will soon come
when you will meet men who are not disarmed. You had better save your
bravery until you meet them, and my opinion is that you won't need
any man to hold you then." Just about this time on the north side of
the spring--the land dropped toward the spring, on a descent of about
45 degrees--the author heard the voice of a man ordering the guard to
"open the lines and let these ladies come in." The author at once arose
to his feet and spoke out in an audible voice to the guard to give away
and let the ladies come in and see a Northern monkey exhibited, that
the monkeys grew a great deal larger in the north than they did in the
south. At this juncture it appeared to take one more man to hold Red
who said that "he would kill the saucy scoundrel if it took him a week
to do it."

When the posse came in we saw that the ladies were accompanied by eight
or ten Confederate officers with about fifteen ladies. All the ladies
carried small Confederate flags, the first ones that the author had
ever seen. On coming very close to the prisoners they halted and one
of the officers remarked, "These are the Union men that are friends to
the lopeared Dutch. Couldn't you tie the knot upon them to hang them?"
I think almost everyone spoke out and said "we could." After heaping
other epithets and abuse upon the prisoners they and the officers
retired outside of the line. The speaker was still talking, urging and
insisting that the prisoners should be mobbed at once, that they should
not be permitted to live.

At about this stage of the proceedings a man's voice was heard on top
of the bank saying, "Men, I believe your intentions are to kill these
prisoners. You have all started out to fight and you don't know how
soon you might be taken prisoner and you would not like to be treated
in any such manner; I know Billy, (referring to the author) and all you
have against him is the political side that he has taken and I order
the orderly sergeant to double the guard around the prisoners so there
will be no possible chance for the mob to get through, and move with
the prisoners south to a large hewed log house and place the prisoners
therein, and place a guard around the walls and suffer no man to
approach the house without an order from the officers."

As the prisoner began to move, the excited soldiers, who were wanting
to mob them, brought out an Indian yell, and it appeared to the author
he could almost feel the ground shake. After they were put into the
houses, among the prisoners were some who were deserters, the author
whispered to the Union men and told them to lie down close to them so
that they could not distinguish from the outside one from another. The
author was informed by Maj. William Kelley, of the Confederate army,
who resides at Rolla, Phelps county, Missouri, at the present time,
that he was the officer who made the order to remove the prisoners into
the house and place a heavy guard around them to prevent their being
mobbed. This ended the excitement for the evening.

The author had always been a believer in the realities of religion.
About one-tenth of the officers appeared to be Baptist and Methodist
preachers, and frequently when they would go into camp would call a
large number of the men together and very often take the prisoners and
place them near by under a heavy guard, and then convene religious
services. They always took for a text some subject in the Bible and
the author remembers well of the taking of the subjects in the book of
Joshua, where Joshua was commanded to pass around the fortifications
of the enemy and blow the ram's horn and the fortifications fell, and,
the God of Joshua was the same God that existed to-day and there was no
question but that God was on the side of the South and all they had to
do was to have faith and move on, attack the lopeared Dutch and God was
sure to deliver them into their hands.

The author could not help but add, in his own mind, that when the
attack is made that God set the earth to shaking and all around where
the lopeared Dutch are standing that the earth will open and swallow
them up just leave their heads above the surface; so that those
Confederates who were so furious could take their big knives and scalp
the Dutch as they had said on divers occasions they intended to do.


Makes His Escape.

The author was determined to make his escape whenever the opportunity
offered; and he could learn all about the whereabouts of the Federal
soldiers from the excited Confederate scouts who would ride along
the lines and say that the lopeared Dutch were as thick as rats at
Springfield, Missouri, moving around in every direction and they might
be attacked at any time and General McBride was looking every day to be
attacked by the Federal forces to cut off his forming a junction with
Generals Price and McCullough.

In about four or five days they reached Berryville, near where the
Eureka Springs are, and went into camp just west of Berryville right
at the spurs of the Boston mountain. The prisoners were placed in the
guard house near a little creek that was then dry. Captain Forshee's
company went into camp next to the company commanded by Captain
Galloway of Howell county. As the weather was very hot and dry and
the author had been marched barefooted (one of his shoes having worn
out) until his feet were badly blistered, he was lying down, feigning
sickness. The guard has become a little careless. Just about sundown
heavy thunder set in the west. The clouds continued to increase, the
elements grew very dark. In the mean time they had put out a chain
guard all around the encampment and said guard was about thirty steps
from guard house. The low lands were all bottom, covered with heavy
timber and a large oak had fallen across the creek and reached from
bank to bank and the bark had all slipped off. About thirty feet from
the top of the tree the foot of a steep mountain set in. The guard fire
was about sixty yards south of the guardhouse. The clouds soon came up
and a heavy rain set in, with terrific thunder and lightning, and as
the army had temporary tents the guards all crawled in under the tents
and left the author by the fire. The rain soon quenched the fire.

The chain guard were walking up and down the dry creek and they met at
the log referred to. The author thought now was his time to make his
escape, if ever; knowing that he would have to have a shoe, slipped to
one of the tents, got hold of a shoe, and then the thought struck him
that he would like to have a revolver, but on further examination found
their revolvers to be placed in such a position that it was impossible
to get one without waking the men. He then slipped to the butt of the
log and heard the guard meet at the log and turn again on their beat.
He at once crossed on the log on the other side, walked into the brush,
reached the foot of the mountain about twenty steps distant and halted.
Everything appeared to be quiet, the release around the guard fire were
singing, whooping and holloing.

The author then took the mountain which was about one quarter of a mile
high, and it always has appeared to the author that he crossed the log
and went up the mountain as light as a cat. On reaching the top, still
raining heavily, the thought came into his mind that "I am once more
a free man, but I am in an enemy's country, without friends," and at
once determined in my mind to reach Springfield, Missouri, if possible.
I sat down, pulled on the shoe that I had taken and it just fitted
without a sock; I then procured a dead stick for the purpose of holding
before me as I traveled for fear I would walk off of some steep cliff
or bluff, as it was very mountainous.

Having the guard fire for a criterion I moved northwest, soon struck
the leading road west that the army was marching on, traveled the road
for about one mile, came onto the pickets, surrounded the pickets,
struck the road again, traveled all night until just gray day,
directly west or nearly so. A slow rain continued all night. As soon as
it became light enough to see I found myself in a country completely
covered with pine timber. I turned square from the road, went about
350 yards up to the top of a high knob, found about one quarter of an
acre level bench. A large pine had turned out by the roots and the
hole was partially filled with old leaves. The author always had been
afraid of a snake but the time had come when he had more fear of a man
than a snake, so he rolled himself down into the hole in the leaves
and at the time had become chilled with the steady rain. About 9 or 10
o'clock, as well as the author could guess, he heard the beat of the
drum which told that the army was marching on the same road that he
had traveled in the night. In a short time the army passed where the
author was lying in the sink. The author could have raised himself up
and have seen the procession pass but he had seen them just as often
as he wanted to and he remained still. Late in the evening a company
of about 65 men passed. The author was informed afterwards that they
had been detailed to make search for the prisoner, with orders if they
found him, to shoot him at once. The author was further informed by
Confederates who belonged to the command that as soon next morning as
it was reported that the author had made his escape that the chain
guard declared that no man could have passed between them and they were
satisfied that the author was still inside of the lines.

They at once made a large detail and commenced searching. There were
quite a large number of box elders with very heavy, bushy tops. They
said every single tree, every drift and possible place of hiding, was
examined. Orders were at once issued by the commander, who sent word
back to the home of the author, that he had made his escape and to
watch for him and as soon as he came in home to arrest him and either
shoot him or hang him at once.

In the afternoon of the same day it cleared off and just as soon as
dark came, the author was determined to try to reach Springfield, being
in a strange country and knowing that if he was re-captured it would
be certain death. He knew somewhere about the distance he had traveled
west. He located the north star which he used as his pilot or guide
and set out for Springfield, having no arms of any kind, not even a
pocket knife and had become very hungry. He came to a slippery-elm
tree, took a rock, knocked off some of the bark, ate it and proceeded
on his journey, traveling all night. When gray day appeared again, he
went to a hickory grub, broke the grub off with a rock, cut the top
off with a sharp edged rock, to be used for a weapon, placed himself
in hiding, remained all day. As soon as night came, again he proceeded
on his journey, traveled no roads except when they run in direction
of the north star. On the second morning he went into a small cave
surrounded by a thicket, about 10 o'clock in the day he found that he
was near enough to some rebel command to hear the drilling. As soon as
dark came on he proceeded on his journey. The nights were dark and only
star light until the after part of the night. He went near a spring
house, but when he got to it, there wasn't a drop of milk in it. He
passed through an Irish potato patch, grabbed two or three small Irish
potatoes and ate them; passed through a wheat field, rubbed out some
dry wheat in his hand, ate that; ate a few leaves off of a cabbage. On
the third morning, went into hiding, remained until the darkness came
again and resumed the journey.

On the morning of the 4th at daylight I had reached an old trace,
pulled off my clothes and wrung them and put them on again as the dew
was very heavy and every morning my clothes would be wet. I went about
30 or 40 yards from the old trace and thought to myself, if I saw any
person passing that was not armed, that I would approach and learn
where I was. Hadn't been there more than a half hour when I heard a
wagon coming. As soon as the wagon came in sight I saw that there was a
lady driving, accompanied by a small girl and boy, I got up and moved
into the road, walked on, and met the wagon, spoke to the lady. She
stopped the wagon and I asked her if she would be kind enough to tell
me where I was, that I had got lost, traveled all night and didn't
know where I was. She told the author that he was in Stone county,
Missouri, and asked him where he was from. I told her that I was from
the state of Arkansas. She wanted to know if there was much excitement
there. I told her that there was; that men were enlisting and going
into the Confederate service and the people were generally excited over
the prospect of war. I asked her if there was any excitement in this
country. She replied that there was--that the rebels a day or two ago
had run in, on White River, and killed four Union men and drove out
about 40 head of cattle and "that's why I am going out here in this
wagon. My husband belongs to the home guards and has come in home on a
furlough and is afraid to knock around the place for fear he will be
waylaid and shot by the rebels."

I then asked her if she would allow me to ask her a civil question.
She replied that she would. I asked her what her politics were, and
she told me that she was a Union woman. I told her, then, that I would
tell her the truth; that the rebels had had me prisoner and that I
had made my escape from them and had been traveling only in the night
time; that this was the fourth morning since I had made my escape, and
I asked her how far it was to the house; that she was the first person
I had spoken to since I had made my escape. She said it was about 350
yards around the point, to go on down to the house, and as soon as she
got some light wood she would be back. I went to the house, halloed
at the fence, a man came to the door and invited me in. I walked in,
and at once I began to look for arms, and to my great delight I saw a
Springfield musket lying in the gun rack, with a cartridge box with
the letters U. S. on it. O! the thrill of joy that passed through my
mind. I had often heard the old adage quoted, that "a friend in need is
a friend indeed," but had never before realized its full meaning. In
a short time the lady returned. She went to work cooking, soon had me
something to eat, but I had almost lost my appetite, having fasted so
long.

After I ate something and while she was preparing provisions to carry
with me the man told me there was but one place that we could cross
White river without being placed in great danger of being captured by
the rebels, for they were patrolling up and down the river every day.
I told him I never had attempted to travel a foot in daylight since I
had made my escape. He told me he thought if we could get safely across
the river, he knew of an old trace that led across the mountains and
intersected Taney county and as soon as we reached that settlement they
all belonged to home guards and a man would be in no danger in making
himself known.

The woman baked enough biscuit and tied up bacon and red onions with
them, the author thought, to have lasted a hungry man three days, for
him to carry with him and we at once, after taking leave of the good
woman followed by her best wishes that I would get through to the
Federal lines safely, started for White river, about two miles distant.
Just before reaching the river he left the author standing in the road,
went into the house near by and soon came out with two other men in
company with him. On reaching the river where there was a canoe tied to
the bank they stepped aside by themselves, held a short consultation;
then all got into the canoe, carried me across the river, piloted me
across the river bottom to where the old trace left the bottom; there
we separated, they hoping that I would get through to the Federal
lines safely. They didn't think there was any danger in traveling in
daylight, because there wasn't a single settlement for the entire
distance of 25 miles.

The author traveled on until dark had overtaken him. The moon gave no
light until the after part of the night. The author laid down by the
side of the road, took a nap, after the moon came up proceeded on his
journey and in about two miles came to a house. Hallooing at the gate,
a lady came to the door and said: "Come in." They appeared to have a
very savage dog. I remarked to the lady that I believed the dog would
bite me and noticed at the same time that she stood off to one side
of the door. She remarked: "Go in; that dog will not bite you." As I
stepped into the door I was confronted by a man standing in the middle
of the floor in his night clothes with his old Springfield musket
cocked and presented and he called out, "Halt!" The author halted, of
course, and the next remark was, "Who are you and where is the balance
of your crowd?" The author replied: "There is no balance of them and
there is not much of myself left. The Confederates have had me prisoner
and I have made my escape from them and I am now trying to reach
Springfield, Missouri."

The man ordered his wife to strike a light, and after viewing the
author critically, placed his Springfield musket near the bed and
invited the author to take a seat, while he dressed himself. Being not
more than two hours until daylight, his wife asked me to go to bed and
rest. I told her that I wasn't fit to lie in bed; that I had lain on
the ground like a hog ever since I had been arrested. She said that it
didn't matter how dirty a Union man was, he was welcome to sleep in her
bed, and to lie down and she would proceed at once to get breakfast;
that there were some refugee wagons, about two miles distant, making
their way to Springfield, and that she would have me up in time to
reach them. Accordingly, after eating breakfast before daylight, and
starting with the purpose to reach the wagons before they broke camp,
the man remarked to the author, "My captain lives just this side of
where the wagons are camped and I know he would love to see you and
learn about the movements of the rebels."

When we got to the house, he hallooed and the captain came out, asked
the author his name, where he lived and when he was taken prisoner. The
author gave him his name and place of residence, and on learning that
he was from Howell county, asked him if he was acquainted with a man by
the name of Washington Galloway. The author informed him that he was
well acquainted with him. He inquired as to which side he was on, the
Confederate or Union. The author informed him that he was on the rebel
side and was a captain commanding one of the rebel companies; that I
saw him and had had a conversation with him on the evening before I
made my escape. He said, "He is an own brother of mine. My name is
Jesse Galloway;" and the tears ran from his eyes like a whipped child.
He said, "Get down; you are not in a condition to travel any further
at the present time." He gave me a change of clothing and had my
clothes washed and sent me through to Springfield by one of his men on
horseback.

About three weeks after I left him the rebels slipped up near his
house, lay in ambush, and when he came out into the yard they shot him
to death while he was holding an innocent child in his arms.


Arrives at Springfield.

On reaching Springfield, I was conducted directly to the head quarters
of Gen. Lyon, gave him all the information in my possession and told
him I had been entirely stripped, had no means with me for support and
I would like to join the army. He remarked to me, "I don't want you to
join the army; we intend to move south next spring and you are one of
the men that will be in great demand. We have a position for you and
the Government will pay you good wages."

A short time after I arrived I met a man by the name of Percy, a
lawyer, who resided at West Plains, a bitter rebel, who was in there
as a spy. I was alone and there were very few persons that I was
acquainted with living in Springfield. Percy had been posing as a
Union man and offered that if I would go with him, he would carry me
safely through home; tried to get me to agree to go outside the lines
with him after dark, but knowing that he was a bitter rebel and had
been taking an active part in the rebel movement I discarded him as
quick as possible. In a day or two Benjamin Alsup, who resided on
Hutton Valley, Howell county, happened to meet him in town, and he
being acquainted in and about Springfield, had him arrested at once. A
man by the name of Moore, who was a strong Union man, lived about two
miles from Springfield on the Wilson creek road took me home with him
for the purpose of resting up. He was the owner of a fine dapple gray
gelding four years old. He made Gen. Lyon a present of him. About five
days before the Wilson Creek battle it was reported that the Rebels
were on Cane creek, west of Springfield, in considerable force. Gen.
Lyon moved out with a considerable force, riding the same horse, but on
seeing the federal forces approaching they retreated. On the 8th day
of August the rebels appeared in large force, being commanded by Gen.
Price and Gen. McCullough.


General Lyon Killed at Wilson Creek.

Gen. Lyon sent out scouts with glasses for the purpose, if possible,
of ascertaining their number. The rebels had gone into camp about ten
miles from Springfield, with the avowed purpose of attacking Gen. Lyon
the next day at Springfield, and as the scouts were not able with their
glasses to see the largest force of rebels, which was encamped around
a point out of sight, reported as to what they thought the number was.
Lyon and Siegel came to the conclusion that by strategy they could
easily whip them, so on the morning of the 10th, about midnight, they
broke camp at Springfield, taking all of their available men. The
morning being very foggy and misty, they easily surrounded the pickets
and took them prisoners without the firing of a gun, then drew up and
fired the artillery into them before they knew they were there.

So the memorable fight known as the battle of Wilson Creek was begun.
Gen. Lyon rode the horse above referred to at the time he fell on the
battlefield. Both the Confederate and Union side were founding all
their future hopes upon the result of that battle, as to settling the
question in Missouri. The author heard the artillery all day. Late in
the evening word came to the Union men that Gen. Lyon had been killed
and that the Federal army was retreating in the direction of Rolla,
Missouri, and that all the Union men and the home guard would fall in
and meet them at once. O! the scene that followed. Men would hurriedly
ride around, meet their wives and children, tell them that the battle
was lost and they were then retreating and they had only time to come
around and bid them good-bye, and to do the best they could; that they
didn't know that they would ever be permitted to see them again. We
could hear the wife and children crying and sending up the most pitiful
petitions to God to have mercy.

Everything on the Union side appeared to be dark, although it was a
drawn battle and the rebels commenced retreating at the same time,
and retreated about twenty-five miles west, but on learning that the
Federal troops were retreating, they faced about, taking possession
of the battle-ground and all of the southern and western portion of
the state; and then the rebels, being encouraged by the late victory,
determined to rid the country of all Union men at once.

About that time about 350 men mostly from Oregon county commanded by
two very prominent men, made a scout into Ozark county, Missouri. On
reaching the North fork of White river they went into camp at what was
known as Jesse James' mill. The owner, a man of about 55 or 60 years
of age, as good a man as resided in Ozark county, was charged with
grinding grain for Union men and their families; at the time he, and
a man by the name of Brown, were cutting sawlogs about two miles from
home in the pinery. They went out and arrested them, arrested an old
man by the name of Russell and several others, carried them to a man's
house, who was a Union man, and had fled to prevent arrest. They took
Brown and James about 300 yards from the house, procured a rope, hunted
a long limb of a tree, rolled a big rock up to the first rope where it
was tied to the limb, placed the noose around James' neck, stood him on
the rock, rolled the rock from under him and left him swinging, rolled
the rock to the next rope, stood Brown on it, placed the noose around
his neck, rolled the rock out and left Brown swinging in the air, went
to the third rope, placed Russell on the rock, and just as they aimed
to adjust the noose, word came that the home guards and Federals were
right upon them in considerable force. They fled, leaving Russell
standing upon the rock and both Brown and James dangling in the air.

[Illustration: HANGING JESSE JAMES AND MR. BROWN.]


Their Wives and Other Women Bury Them.

Every Union man now having fled in fear of his life, the next day the
wives of Brown and James, with the help of a few other women, buried
them as best they could. They dug graves underneath the swinging
bodies, laid bed clothing in the graves and cut them loose. The bodies
fell into the coffinless graves and the earth was replaced. So the
author is satisfied that the bones of these men still remain in the
lonely earth underneath where they met their untimely death with no
charge against them except that they had been feeding Union men, with
no one to bury them but their wives and a few other women who aided.

Some of the men who were in the scout and present when the hanging was
done are still living in the counties of Howell and Oregon.


A General Jackson Soldier Shot Down.

A short time after this hanging there was a man by the name of Rhodes,
who resided on the head of Bennett's Bayou in Howell county. He was
about eighty years of age and had been a soldier under General Jackson.
His head was perfectly white and he was very feeble. When he heard of
the hanging of Brown and James he said openly that there was no civil
war in that, and that the men who did it were guilty of murder.

Some two weeks from the date of the hanging of Brown and James, about
twenty-five men, hearing of what he had said, organized themselves and
commanded by Dr. Nunly and William Sapp, proceeded to the house of
Rhodes, where he and his aged wife resided alone, called him out and
told him they wanted him to go with them. His aged wife came out, and
being acquainted with a part of the men, and knowing that they had
participated in the hanging and shooting of a number of Union men,
talked with them and asked: "You are not going to hurt my old man?"
They said: "We just want him to go a piece with us over here." Ordering
the old man to come along, they went over to a point about one quarter
from the house and informed him of what he had said. There they shot
him, cut his ears off and his heart out. Dr. Nunly remarked that he was
going to take the heart home with him, pickle it and keep it so people
could see how a black republican's heart looked.

They left him lying on the ground, proceeded directly to Joseph
Spears', who resided about six miles west of town on the Yellville
road, declaring that they were going to treat him the same way. They
reached his house about two hours in the night, all full of whiskey.
When they arrived there Spears was sick in bed. They dismounted, came
in, ordered their suppers and their horses fed. Spears at that time
owned a negro man, and he ordered him to put up the horses and feed
them, and his wife to get them supper. After supper, they concluded
to remain until morning. During the night they became sober, and
concluded, since Spears owned a "nigger," that it could not be possible
that he was a Union man, and the reports that they had heard that he
was a Union man might be untrue, and they would let him alone until
they could investigate further.

[Illustration: CUTTING OUT RHODES' HEART.]

In the meantime, Rhodes not having returned home, and not a single
Union man left in the country that Mrs. Rhodes could get to look after
him, and having heard when they reached Joseph Spears' that the old
man was not with them, although very feeble, she still continued the
search; on the second day, about fifty yards from the road and about a
quarter of a mile from home, while she was looking for him, she heard
hogs squealing and grunting as though they were eating something. She
proceeded to the place and found the hogs were just about to commence
eating the remains of her husband. The Union men having fled, she
notified some of the neighbors, and the women came in and helped dress
the body and buried him the best they could; and neither at the taking
down or burial of Brown and James and the burial of the old man Rhodes
did a single rebel put in an appearance.

There never was a man arrested by the Confederate authorities, or a
single word of condemnation uttered, but as far as could be heard there
was general approval. It was said that the means used were desperate,
but that was the only way to get rid of the men and strike terror to
them so they could neither give aid nor countenance to the lopeared
Dutch.


Benjamin Alsup Taken to Little Rock.

In a few days following they proceeded to arrest Benjamin Alsup,
residing in Hutton Valley, who was a strong Union man, took him to
Little Rock, placed him in the state penitentiary, and kept him there
until after Little Rock fell into the hands of the Federals, when they
exchanged him with other prisoners. While they had him in prison they
worked him in a bark mill by the side of an old mule, with a strap
around his breast and two leather hand holds. He pulled so much in the
mill that his little finger was calloused and he almost entirely lost
the use of it.

After they had hung, shot, captured and driven from the country all of
the Union men, they called a public meeting for the purpose of taking
into consideration what should be done with the families of the Union
men, which meeting had a number of preachers in it. After discussing
the premises, they arrived at the conclusion that if they let the
families of the Union men, who had escaped and gone into the Federal
lines, remain, they would return and bring in the lopeared Dutch. They
didn't believe that both parties could ever live together, and as they
now had the country completely rid of the Union men, they would force
their families to leave. They at once appointed men, among whom were
several preachers, to go to each one of the Union families and notify
them that they would not be allowed to remain; because if they let them
stay, their men would be trying to come back, and they didn't believe
both parties could live together. They stated at the same time that
they were really sorry for the women and children, but nobody was to
blame but their husbands and sons, who had cast their lot with the
lopeared Dutch. Also, as they had taken up arms against the Confederate
states, all the property they had, both real and personal, was subject
to confiscation and belonged to the Confederate authorities; but they
would allow them to take enough of the property to carry them inside of
the lines of the lopeared Dutch, where they supposed their men were and
where they then could care for them.


Loyal Women Driven From Their Homes.

They said they might have a reasonable time to make preparations to
leave the country, and if they didn't leave, they would be forced to do
so, if they had to arrest them and carry them out.

The wildest excitement then prevailed among the women and children.
They had no men to transact their business and make preparations to
leave. Little had they thought, while they were chasing, arresting,
hanging and shooting their men, that they, too, would become victims
of the rebel hatred and be forced to leave house and home, not knowing
where their men were or whether they were dead or alive. All they knew
of their whereabouts was, that those who escaped arrest had left their
homes, aiming to reach the nearest Federal lines.

Women were at once dispatched to reach the nearest Federal lines, if
possible, and inform them of the Confederate order, and procure help
to take them out. Their homes and houses were being continually raided
by small bands of Confederates roaming over the country, claiming that
they were hunting Union men, taking all classes of property that they
might see proper to take, without any restraint whatever.

When the Union men heard that an order had been made requiring their
families to leave, not thinking that a thing of that kind would ever
occur, having left them with comfortable homes and plenty to eat, the
wildest consternation reigned amongst them.

The Federal authorities were willing to give them aid, but were placed
in such a condition that they needed every man in the field, and for
that reason couldn't give them any help in getting out. The women had
to speedily fit up as best they could, close their doors and start for
the Federal lines, leaving the most of their property in the hands of
the rebels. The rebels proceeded at once to take possession of and
occupy most of the homes.

The suffering that followed the women and children is indescribable.
They had to drive their own teams, take care of the little ones, travel
through the storms, exposed to it all without a man to help them, nor
could they hear a single word of comfort spoken by husband, son or
friend. On reaching the Federal lines, all vacant houses and places of
shelter were soon filled, and they were known and styled as refugees.
Many of them went into soldier huts, where the soldiers had wintered
and covered the tops of their huts with earth. They had to leave home
with a small amount of rations, and on the road the rebels would stop
them and make them divide up the little they had started with, and
reaching the Federal lines they would be almost destitute of food and
many of them very scantily clothed.

[Illustration: MRS. MONKS AND CHILDREN BEING DRIVEN FROM HOME.]

They would at once commence inquiring for their husbands and sons.
Numbers of them never found them, as they had been captured, killed and
imprisoned while attempting to reach the Federal lines. O! The untold
misery that then confronted them! After they had traveled and half
starved and suffered from cold and exposure, promising themselves that
when they reached the Federal lines they would again meet their loved
ones who could again care for them, they were doomed to disappointment,
in a large number of instances.

Those who did meet their husbands and sons were also disappointed;
they had either joined the service or been employed by the government
as guides and scouts, and the small amount of pay they received from
the government, wouldn't provide food and raiment for their families.
They were compelled to still be absent from their families, although
they were suffering greatly for all of the necessaries of life and for
clothing and shelter. The women's task of caring for and looking after
the family and the little ones was just as great after they had reached
the Federal lines as before. The government ordered that wherever aid
could be given, rations should be issued to the families, and while the
government did all it could in this way, it was not able to furnish
shelter and houses for their comfort. Winter came on and they underwent
untold suffering; disease set in from exposure, besides the contagious
diseases of smallpox and measles, and hundreds of them died for want
of proper attention, while their men were in the lines of the service
of the government.

Here let the author speak a word in behalf of the devotion and
patriotism manifested by those loyal women who had given their
husbands and their sons to be placed upon the altar of the country,
and sacrificed their homes and their firesides, had become exiles and
wanderers, without home or shelter, had undergone untold suffering,
had faced disease and death, had seen the little ones die, calling for
papa, shivering with cold, suffering with hunger--all for the love of
their country. Yet when they would see the Federal troops move by, with
the stars and stripes unfurled, they would cheer the boys in blue as
they would pass, and urge them to save the country they loved so well
and had made so many sacrifices for and were still willing to suffer
and wrestle with all the ills that a desperate war had brought upon
the country, and wanted to live to once more be returned to their own
hearthstones and be permitted to live under their own vine and fig
tree, where no man dare molest them or make them afraid, to again enjoy
all the sweet comforts of life.

We revere and honor every Federal soldier who enlisted in the interest
of his country from the Northern States, where they knew nothing about
war except what they read, their families being left in comfortable
circumstances, with plenty to eat and wear and friends to speak works
of comfort to them, while their husbands and sons had gone to the front
and were willing to sacrifice themselves on the altar of their country,
if it became necessary. But O! the comparison between the sacrifices
made by the loyal element in those portions of the country where they
were completely surrounded by the enemy.

Those who were willing to lay upon the altar of their country, their
fathers and sons, their wives and children, their property and their
sacred honor in support of the government they loved so well, with no
protection from the government; no arms, amunitions, rations, clothing
or pay from the government, was thought of for a moment. The only
question that prompted, ruled and controlled them was their patriotism
to their God and their country. When we come to compare the sacrifices,
privations, suffering and services between the two classes of loyalists
the first referred to, sink into insignificance.

O! never let us forget to honor and revere patriotism and sacrifices
that were made by the loyal men and women that were surrounded in
the enemy's country and continual fighting without and within. Their
husbands and sons were shot and hung and imprisoned all over this
country, whose bodies never were even honored with a burial. Orders
being made by the rebels that they should not be buried; but yet they
live and speak in thunder tones to the living. Let us plead with the
living to revere and honor the stars and stripes that were maintained
and supported by the blood and lives and sacrifices of the loyal men
and women of the South.

After the rebels had completely driven all the loyal element out of the
country and had but one political party left they exclaimed, "Now the
means that we have been forced to use are very harsh but the line has
been drawn and all of the parties who are giving aid and comfort to
the lopeared Dutch are all outside of the Confederate line and we will
never be troubled with them and the lopeared Dutch any more."

The author went back in retreat with General Siegel, after the Wilson
Creek battle. On reaching Rolla, Missouri, Siegel went into quarters
for the winter. The author was almost worn out with exposure and
traveling, and as General Siegel informed him that there would be no
advance made south until the spring of 1862, and as his family had
been left in comfortable circumstances, with plenty to eat and wear,
and he, being acquainted with some men by the name of Cope, who lived
near Jerseyville in Jersey county, Illinois, went to that place,
remained a month, and being taken sick with lung fever, came very near
dying. He told his friends where he was staying that if he died, he
would die dissatisfied; that he wanted to live and be able to move with
the Federal command in the spring of 1862 when it moved south. After
he had partially recovered he learned that a Mr. Cope, who was living
neighbor to him at the time of his arrest and capture, had moved into
Randolph county, Illinois. He visited the family at once, hoping to
hear from his family at home, and remained there about a month. His
wife, among many others, being notified to leave, had been informed
that the author had made his escape, reached Springfield, and had gone
back with Siegel in his retreat to Rolla. She was permitted to dispose
of just enough of the property, at the rebels' own prices, to enable
her to move, the family consisting of herself and five small children.
She was followed on the road and her wagons searched for arms, and the
rebels threatened to take her to Little Rock, Arkansas, but to enable
her to reach Rolla, Missouri, she posed as the wife of a rebel who had
gone into the Confederate service, and said she was trying to reach her
father, who resided near Rolla. By making that impression, her wagons
were not disturbed any more. On reaching Rolla, she went to Colonel
Phelps, who was afterwards governor of the state, and inquired if he
knew anything of the whereabouts of the author. He informed her that he
had no knowledge of his whereabouts at that time, but he would take her
name, place an advertisement of her arrival at Rolla, in the paper,
and if he was alive it might reach him.

Every house and cabin was full, it being in the dead of winter, and a
deep snow upon the ground, but through the aid and assistance of one
Cyrus Newberry, who had escaped through the lines in Howell county,
she procured a shelter about three miles north of Rolla, which was
very uncomfortable; her clothes were partially frozen on her at that
time. In a short time the advertisement reached the author in Randolph
county, Illinois. He at once set out for Rolla, Missouri, to meet his
family. The house that she had first got into was used by her but a
short time, and she had been forced to go into one of the huts that had
lately been occupied by the soldiers and had been made vacant by their
moving west to Springfield.

On the arrival of the author, O! the horror and the joy that were
intermingled! I was proud to once more meet my wife and children, but
in a moment the thought would pass through my mind, "I left you in a
comfortable home, with plenty to eat, and now to see you here in this
'dug-out,' suffering for food and shelter! O! the war, the horrible
war! What is it that men won't do?" I set out at once to procure a
comfortable shelter for my family and to get in readiness to move south
with the army. Gen. Curtis, then in command of the western department,
was preparing to make a general move south. I was employed by the
government as a guide, receiving $1.50 per day, with rations and
clothing.


Establishing a Federal Post at West Plains.

The army soon broke camp and moved southward. On arriving at West
Plains, the Federal army located a post there. Capt. McNulty, of the
First Illinois cavalry, who had been wounded in a battle with Gen.
Mulligan, was made Provost Marshal. The author was at once detailed
and placed in the Provost Marshal's office as assistant, as he was
well acquainted with all of the people in the surrounding country. The
Provost Marshal would order the author to be seated in a conspicuous
place in the office, and as a general order had gone forth from Curtis
requiring all rebels and rebel sympathizers to come in and take the
oath, and as hundreds of them were daily coming into the office for
that purpose, the Provost Marshal ordered the author to watch every
person who entered the office and whenever any person entered who had
been taking an active part in committing depredations, just to put his
hand upon his forehead and move it down over his face, and he would
order them to the guard house for further examination, without any
further words being said at the time.

Many of the rebels who were taking the oath couldn't see how he could
draw a line between the different persons; let some take the oath and
be released at once, and others ordered to the guard house without a
word being spoken. Among the persons who came in and took the oath and
were released, was the man who was present at the time Capt. Forshee
attempted to deliver the author to the mob, who asked the Captain at
the time to tie the author with his face to a tree, and let him shoot
him in the back of the head, to show him how he could spoil a black
Republican's pate.

The author remembers one incident that occurred during the stay at
West Plains. A man named Lusk, who was constable of Howell township,
and resided in West Plains, was a strong Union man at the beginning of
the war; when the general order was made that every man who had been a
Union man had to join the Confederate service and show his colors or be
hung, Lusk enlisted in the Confederate army and went out with McBride's
command.

Three or four days after the capture of the author by the rebels, Lusk
came up to him in a braggadocio manner and says, "You ought to have
your black heart shot out of you." Lusk had taken the oath and been
released before the author reached West Plains. The author met him in
West Plains and remarked to him: "Hallo, Lusk! How are you getting
along? And what are you doing here?" He replied that he had taken the
oath; that he was tired of fighting. The author asked him if he felt
like he did when he wanted to shoot his black heart out. Lusk replied:
"Captain, I am sorry for what I did, and Captain Emmons so maltreated
me the other day that I could scarcely sit in my saddle." The author
remarked to him: "I will just give your face three good slaps with my
hand." After giving him three raps, the author let him pass.


Lusk Sees Some Lop-eared Dutch.

Soon meeting Captain Emmons, who belonged to the 6th Missouri Cavalry,
had asked him what the trouble was between him and Lusk. He said that
while he was prisoner Lusk came to him with his big knife belted around
him, and said that he was just equal to ten lopeared Dutch and he
had that knife for the purpose of taking ten Dutch scalps before he
returned home, and otherwise abused him for being a Union man and a
friend to the Dutch.

On the arrival of the troops in West Plains he inquired of the citizens
if Lusk had returned home. They informed him that he had and was
residing on Spring Creek, about six miles from town. About half of
Emmons' company were Germans. He went immediately to his company,
ordered the Orderly Sergeant to make detail of ten men and he wanted
them all to be Germans. He ordered them to be mounted and ready for a
scout at once. Taking charge of them in person he proceeded to the
house of Lusk, about six miles west of West Plains at the head of
Spring Creek, rode up to the house and holloed. Lusk immediately came
out into the yard and recognized Dr. Emmons and said "O! Doctor! Is
that you? I am proud to see you." The Doctor said to him, "I am proud
to see you, too." The Doctor at once informed him of what he had said
to him when he was a prisoner in regard to being equal to ten lopeared
Dutchmen and how he had his knife prepared to take that number of
scalps before he came back home, and wanted to know if he got the
scalps before he came home. Lusk replied that if he killed a single
Dutchmen he didn't know it and that he got all of the fighting that he
wanted, didn't want to fight any more.

The Doctor wanted to know if he ever saw any lopeared Dutch and Lusk
replied that he "didn't know that he had." The Doctor replied, "I have
selected ten of the smallest sized of the full stock and I want you
to step over the fence and view them." He then ordered the scouts to
dismount and form in line. Lusk told the Doctor he didn't want anything
to do with them whatever. After they had formed a line the Doctor made
him step in front and view them; asked him what he thought of them.
He said "They are good looking men." The Doctor said to him, "If you
didn't get the chance when you were out in the service to fight ten
of them, and you say you didn't get any scalps, I have brought these
ten down and intend that you shall fight them." Lusk pleaded with the
Doctor that he didn't want to fight them and for God's sake not to let
them hurt him. Emmons said to him "Why Lusk! you said you were equal to
ten of them and intended to bring back ten of their scalps and there
will be nothing now unfair about this fight. I intend to give you a
fair show." He ordered Lusk to get his horse and get onto it and get
ready to march.

There were some four-foot clapboards stacked up near Lusk's house, and
Emmons ordered six of the Germans to get a board apiece. They were all
soon mounted and moving toward West Plains, soon coming to a "horsen"
log. Emmons ordered them to dismount and form a line, placing the men
about ten paces from Lusk, then said to Lusk, "Now, prepare yourself,
and if you can whip these ten lopeared Dutch I will let you go back
home and give you a chromo." Lusk pleaded pitifully to not let the
Dutch abuse him. Emmons ordered the six who had the clapboards to
move one pace in the rear, leaving four of the number to attack Lusk;
he then ordered the four men to seize Lusk, take him to the "horsen"
log and take down his clothes. Two of them were to take him by the
hands and two by the legs and buck him tight against the log; if they
succeeded, the six would proceed, one at a time, and strike him three
licks across that part of the body that he generally used for sitting
on.

He then turned to Lusk, saying, "Prepare to meet them; if you are a
better man than they are, down them and pile them up." At the command
of Capt. Emmons, the four men advanced on Lusk, who did not attempt to
move, seized him by the arms, led him to the log, bucked him over it,
two holding him by the arms and two by the legs, ordered the six men to
advance, one at a time, strike three licks with the flat side of the
board, march on a few paces and give room for the next.

After the performance had been completely carried out as commanded, the
Captain declared that he could have heard Lusk holloing a mile distant
every time the clapboard hit him.

After he had received the boarding, Emmons said that Lusk's setter
was blistered where the boards had hit him, and that he never saw ten
Germans enjoy themselves as much in his life. He then asked Lusk, in
their presence, how he felt now in regard to fighting lopeared Dutch.
Lusk declared that he had nothing against the Dutch and that he never
would want to fight another one as long as he lived, and he hoped that
Dr. Emmons would not let them do him any more harm. He dressed himself,
they were all mounted, formed a line, and Lusk was brought into West
Plains and took the oath, under the promise that he never would fight
another lopeared Dutchman.


Goes to Washington City.

After the post was discontinued at West Plains, the author was again
ordered back to Rolla. The state had made a proposition to the Federal
authorities that if the government would arm, feed and clothe the
troops, it could place a number of regiments of state troops in the
service, and they would be able to send some of their regular troops to
the front. A delegation was appointed by the state to visit Washington
City, wait upon the President and see what the government could do for
the state. The author was appointed as one of the delegates, and on the
night following the departure of the delegation for Washington City, a
rebel scout appeared at the house where the author's family was living
and demanded the author. His wife replied that he was not at home, that
he was one of the delegation that had left that morning for Washington
City. She distinctly heard one man remark: "I expect that is so, for
there was a delegation left this morning for Washington City." The
house wasn't more than a quarter of a mile from the picket posts.

After parleying for some little time, they left the house, marched west
about a mile, where some refugees were located in a house, and demanded
their surrender. The house was full of women and children, there
being also one boy and two men, to-wit: Peter Shriver and a man named
Johnson. They ordered the doors opened; the inmates refused; then the
rebels knocked down the door, and fired a volley right into the house.
Shriver and Johnson being armed, returned the fire, killed one of the
rebels on the spot, and fleeing through the rear part of the house,
made their escape. The rebels killed one boy and severely wounded a
girl and young Johnson, and retreated south, leaving their comrade dead.

It was learned afterwards that most of the scout were men from Howell
county who had learned that the author had placed his family just
outside of the Federal lines and had marched all the way there, with
the avowed purpose of capturing the author and either shooting or
hanging him.

On arrival of the delegation at Washington City they organized the
delegation and made Chas. D. Drake their spokesman. He was afterwards
elected to the United States Senate. Soon after the arrival President
Lincoln informed us that he would be prepared to meet the delegation in
a large hall, near the mansion, at which time and place he desired to
be introduced to the whole delegation. When the delegation entered the
hall the President and his secretary were seated together.


The Delegation Meets the President.

The delegation entered the hall in a single file. Chas. D. Drake
approached the President and when within a few feet of the President
and secretary, they arose to their feet and as the delegation marched
by each one was introduced to them. Afterwards they were seated, and
the petition and address of the people of the State of Missouri was
delivered in an audible voice by Chas. D. Drake. In the opening of the
address we addressed the President and called ourselves his friends.

As soon as the address was read the President rose to his feet and
proceeded to deliver an address to the delegation and the author never
will forget the impression that was made upon his mind in a part of
that address. He said: "You should not address me as your friend; I am
the President of the whole people and nation and while I am President,
I expect to try to enforce the law against all violators of law and
in the interest of the whole people of the nation; but if I have
any friends in Missouri I suspect you men compose a part of them. I
listened to your petition and offers, which make me proud for the
patriotism that you manifest, in offering your services to your country
in the darkest hour of her peril and I would be glad if the government
was able to grant every request that you have made. The government
at the present time is not in a condition to furnish clothing and
commissaries for the number of men that you propose to put in the
field, but the government will furnish all the arms that they can
possibly spare, amunitions and commissaries and authorize the state to
organize and put in the field any number of state troops, not to exceed
sixty regiments." He said he would do all in his power to feed them but
in the present condition of the government the state would have to pay
them.

The delegation returned and informed the state of what promises the
government had made and at once went to organizing and putting state
troops into the field. The author was commissioned as lieutenant of
Company H. and the regiment was ordered into active service for the
period of sixty days. At the expiration of the term of service, the
government ordered that a company of scouts be organized and that the
author be made Captain of the company, to receive first lieutenant's
pay and be clothed and fed by the government, be ordered on duty at
once and placed under the direct command of Captain Murphy, who was
then commanding the post at Houston.

The company scarcely saw an idle day, it was kept continuously scouting
and fighting. The counties of Texas, Dent, Wright, Crawford, LaClede
and Phelps, outside of the post, being completely under the control of
the rebels. Not a single Union man nor his family could remain at home
outside of the post.


Incidents of 1863.

In the fall of 1863, Colonel Livingston, who was acting in the capacity
of Brigadier General, was ordered to proceed to Batesville, Arkansas,
and there erect a post. The author was transferred, by order of the
government, and made chief of scouts receiving Captain's pay and
ordered to move with the command of Colonel Livingston and be under
his command and control until further orders. On or about December 15,
1863, Colonel Livingston, who was Colonel of the 1st Nebraska regiment
and the 11th Missouri Cavalry regiment, broke camp at Rolla, and
marched in the direction of Batesville, Arkansas. Colonel Livingston,
on leaving Rolla, issued a general order and sent the same in all
directions, that all rebels, or "bushwhackers," who were captured
wearing Federal uniform, would be court-martialed and shot; or all
persons who were captured in robbing or plundering houses would be
court-martialed and shot.

On our arrival at West Plains the advance of the command captured three
Confederates dressed in Federal uniforms, near what was known as the
Johnson farm. One of them broke from custody and escaped; the other two
were court-martialed and shot, while the command was camped at West
Plains. After those men were shot, some of the Confederates, dressed in
Federal uniforms, came inside the Federal lines, while in camp at West
Plains, just after dark, and took nine black cavalry horses from the
line and made their escape. The soldiers saw them take the horses, but
thought it was their own men taking them to water.

The command, breaking camp at West Plains, marched in the direction
of Batesville, passed through Salem, Ark., and on Big Strawberry
encountered the rebels and had quite an engagement. The weather was
quite cold. I remember that after the fighting ceased, some of the
soldiers had been fighting with their revolvers, and their hands had
become so benumbed that they had lost the use of their fingers, and
couldn't return their revolvers to their scabbards, and the revolvers
had to be taken from their hands; the hands of some of them were badly
frostbitten.

The command again renewed its march for Batesville. Small bands of
bushwhackers and rebels kept up a continuous fire every day on the
advance, and committed depredations by pillaging; claiming they were
Federal forces, most of them being dressed in Federal uniforms. The
pillaging grew so annoying that Col. Livingston, just before breaking
camp, divided the advance into two columns, marching from a mile to
two and a half miles apart. Late in the afternoon, one wing came onto
a number of those irregular Confederates, or bushwhackers, robbing the
house of a Union woman whose husband was in the Federal army. Nearly
all of them were dressed in Federal uniforms, claiming to the woman to
be Federal soldiers. They had all dismounted and gone into the house to
plunder it, except their captain, Elliott, whom they had left on guard.
The road came around in a short bend and concealed the approach of the
Federals until they were within a hundred yards of the house. There was
a large gate in front of the house. The woman was standing in the yard
about ten steps from the gate. She saw the troops coming before they
were discovered by the captain, and supposed them to be of the same
command. They were all cavalry. As soon as they saw the captain, they
put spurs to their horses, and with revolvers in hand, charged upon
them. The captain gave the alarm, and fled as rapidly as possible on
horseback, a part of the Federals in hot pursuit after him.

Every avenue of escape was cut off from those who were in the house,
and they were forced to retreat through a ten-acre open field, before
they could reach the timber. The woman of the house, seeing them flee,
knew at once that they didn't belong to the same command. While the
Federals were approaching the gate at full speed, she ran to it and
threw it open, so that they would not be checked in their pursuit.
They overtook them about two-thirds of the way across the field, as
the rebels were cut off from their horses and were on foot. Three of
the rebels were killed, and three taken prisoners. They had everything
in their possession--bed clothing, domestic, knives and forks, and
even axes, that they had been taking from Confederates as well as from
Unionists; also a number of women's dresses. All of the dresses were
given to the woman whose house they were robbing at the time of their
capture. The soldiers had a fine time after they reached camp, by
turning the domestic into new towels.

Just after supper, the author was notified to appear at the provost
marshal's office, to see whether or not he could identify the
prisoners. On his appearing and entering into conversation with the
prisoners and inquiring their names, one claimed to be named Smith,
another Taylor and the other Johnson. One of them lisped a little when
talking. The author soon recognized one of them and said to him: "Your
name is not Smith. You had just as well give your proper name, for I
know you." The Provost Marshal asked him if he knew the author. He
hesitated to answer. On the Provost Marshal urging him to answer, he
said: "I ought to know him, as he was one of my near neighbors when
the war commenced. My name is Calvin Hawkins." The author replied,
"That is correct," and turning to the other prisoner for a second
look, recognized him. He remarked, "Taylor is not your proper name."
The Provost Marshal asked him if he knew the author. He hesitatingly
replied that he did. His proper name was then demanded, which he gave
as Jacob Bridges. The other was a boy named Hankins, 13 years of age.


Court-Martialed and Shot.

The Provost Marshal asked them if they had ever read or heard of the
general order that had been issued by Col. Livingston. They replied
that they had. He said to them: "You have violated the order in every
particular; you are wearing Federal uniforms, and have been caught
robbing and pillaging citizens' houses. Tonight your cases will be
submitted to a court martial, except the boy's." He then ordered the
author to take them to a room and inform them that they would certainly
be convicted by the court martial, and the only way they could escape
death would be to give the rendezvous and names of all irregular troops
in their knowledge, and agree to pilot a scout to the different places
of resort.

The author informed them of what the Provost Marshal had said, and
further informed them that Col. Livingston, then acting in the
capacity of Brigadier General, would have the only power to commute
their sentences, after they were convicted. They refused to give any
information that would aid the authorities in capturing the different
irregular roving bands. The author bade them good-bye, told them he
was sorry for them, that they were in a bad condition, but had brought
it upon themselves and each of them had better prepare for death, for
they were certain to be court-martialed that night. He then left the
prisoners, the guard taking charge of them. The court-martial convened
that night; charges and specifications were preferred before the Judge
Advocate of violating both orders. They were accordingly convicted, and
the next morning, before we broke camp, the author saw the detail that
had been selected to execute them; saw the prisoners under guard moving
out to the place selected for the execution, heard the discharge of the
guns, and soon learned that they both had been shot. Somewhere on the
head of Big Strawberry, in Izard county, the boy's mother came to us,
and he was turned over to her.

The command broke camp and proceeded on the way towards Batesville,
with more or less skirmishing with the rebels every day; and on the
25th of December, 1863, we had come to within about three miles of
Batesville, Independence county, the rebels in considerable force
then being in possession of the city. They had a strong picket about
a quarter of a mile from the main city, leading right down Poke
bayou. Another road turned to the right and entered the lower part
of the city. The commander halted and threw out a considerable force
in advance. The author was placed right in the front of the advance,
with orders to charge the pickets, and on their retreat, to charge the
enemy, and if they found them in too strong a force to fall back on the
main command.

The rebel ladies had procured a large hall in the city, situated upon
High street, leading west through the city. They were all dressed in
gray, and had any amount of egg nog and other delicious drinks in the
hall and all through the public parts of the city. A large number of
the Confederate soldiers were in the hall dancing, a number of them
belonging to Col. Freeman's command. On reaching the rebel pickets,
they fired, and the commander ordered a charge with revolver and
saber, and we followed close upon their heels. On reaching the city,
the firing became promiscuous. The rebels retreated south, a number of
them retreating in the direction of White river, and swam the river
with their horses, while many of them abandoned their horses and swam
the river. One part of the rebel command filed to the right, thinking
that it was a Federal scout, and attempted to retreat upon the lower
road. The Federals saw them coming, and knew from their actions that
they were retreating. They at once deployed two lines in front of the
command, one on each side of the road. Before the rebels found out
their real condition they were completely into the trap, and they
surrendered without the firing of a gun.


How Received by the Batesville Ladies.

After the fighting had subsided, the author, with a part of the
command, rode up High street to the hall where they had just been
dancing. There must have been as many as two hundred and fifty or
three hundred ladies in the hall and on the roof. Some of the boys
dismounted, went up into the hall and drank some of their eggnog,
although there were strict orders against it.

The main command reached the east end of High street, marching in a
solid column of two, with a brass band and drums and fifes playing,
and striking up the tune of "Yankee Doodle," they came marching down
High street, in the direction of the hall. The women began to use the
strongest epithets possible in their vocabulary against the Union
soldiers, calling them "nigger lovers," "lopeared Dutch," "thieves" and
"murderers." The author spoke to them saying, "You are mistaken. These
men are gentlemen, sent here by the government to establish a military
post, and if you treat them nicely you will receive the same kind of
treatment."

About this time the front of the command had moved up to the hall. At
once a number of the ladies began to make mouths at them and spit over
the banisters toward them, calling them vile names. The soldiers then
began to hallo at the top of their voices: "O, yonder is my Dixie girl,
the one that I marched away from the north to greet." "God bless their
little souls, ain't they sweet; sugar wouldn't melt in their mouths."
"I am going to get my bandbox and cage up one of the sweet little
morsels and take her home for a pet."

The voices of the soldiers completely drowned the hearing of anything
the women were saying. In a little while the women hushed. As the
column was passing by, one of the women remarked, "I believe that
gentleman gave us good advice; I think we had better stop our abuse and
we will be treated better." We marched down to the west end of High
street, marched across to the next main street, then the head of the
column turned east again up Main street, and striking up the tune of
"Hail, Columbia, My Happy Land," marched up to the east end of Main
street, and ordered a guard placed around the whole town, to prevent
the escape of the rebel soldiers that were concealed in the town. The
author never saw as much confusion as there was there, for a short
time, among the citizens, especially the women. Some were laughing,
some were abusing the soldiers, some crying, and some cursing.

After things had quieted down the soldiers went into camp. Colonel
Livingston began to hunt suitable buildings for his head quarters and
for an office for the Provost Marshall and Judge Advocate. It became a
fixed fact with the citizens of the city that the Federals were going
to locate a permanent post at that place.

While they were in pursuit of the rebels the author remembered an
incident that attracted his attention. There were four or five negro
men standing upon the street corner and one of the officers holloed out
to the negroes; "Which way did the rebels go?" On one corner of the
street there was a bunch of rebel citizens standing and as soon as the
corner was turned and they were out of sight of the rebel citizens they
answered the officer, "Massa, we don't know which way the rebels went;"
one of them dodged around the corner in an instant, and in a low tone
of voice, and with a motion of his hand, said, "Massa dey went right
dat way," almost in an instant came back around the corner and said in
hearing of the rebel citizens "Massa, I declare I don't know the way
dem rebels went."

The next morning Livingston issued a general order for all persons who
claimed protection from the Federal army to come in and report and take
the oath. The author remembers an incident that occurred on the evening
of the fight. There had been two or three men killed just across the
bridge and they placed a guard there with orders to let no person cross
it without a pass. Shortly after dark a young lady who had secreted
around her waist under her clothes, two pistols, a belt and scabbard
which belonged to a Confederate soldier, just after dark came to the
bridge and wanted to cross. The sergeant of the guard ask her if she
had a pass, to which she replied that she had not. He informed her that
he could not let her go over. Among the guards was an Irishman and the
young lady remarked to the sergeant that "it was very hard" that she
"had a relative that was killed just across the bridge and she wanted
to go over and see him and that a woman couldn't do any harm and they
might let her go over without a pass."

The Irishman sprang to his feet and remarked "Be Jasus, women can do
a divil of a sight of harm, can convey more information, can carry
more intelligence through the lines to the rebels than twenty men and
there are so many of our officers, if she happens to be good looking,
would let her pass through." The sergeant believing that she was a near
relative of one of the men that was killed a short distance from the
bridge, let her pass over, and that night she delivered the pistols to
the Confederate soldiers. She afterwards admitted this when she was
arrested for refusing to take the oath.


If You Will Grease and Butter Him.

She declared that she "wouldn't swallow old Lincoln," and the commander
ordered all persons who refused to take the oath, either men or women,
arrested and sent to Little Rock. When she found that she had to take
the oath or go to Little Rock, she said to them that "if they would
grease and butter the oath she would try to swallow it." Afterwards she
became very intimate with one of the young Federals, married him and
when the command broke up left the post, left the country and went with
him.

The author remained there all that winter, being in active service
almost every day, capturing some of the worst men that there were in
the country. In a short time after the post was located the west side
of the river was all in the control of the rebels. The rebels began to
boast and brag that those Northern Yankees could stay around the open
field and around cities but whenever they crossed the river they would
show them just how rebel bullets would fly. Colonel Freeman's head
quarters were near the head of Silamore creek, they would get on the
mountains, on each side (as the Yankees knew nothing about mountains)
and roll rocks down on them and what they didn't kill with rocks and
bullets would be glad to get back across the river to Batesville.

There were no ferry boats on the river, they had all been sunk or run
out by the rebels.

The weather was very cold. White river froze over solid. The old
residents there said it was the first time they ever knew of the river
freezing over solid. The ice was so thick that it would hold the
weight of horses and wagons. Col. Livingston ordered lumber hauled and
laid the planks flat on the ice. He then sent some men who resided in
Nebraska when at home, to make a test. They reported that the ice was
safe for a command to pass over. The commander at once organized a
force, crossed the river on the ice, and took up the line of march for
the purpose of attacking Freeman's forces, which were distant about
ten or twelve miles. As soon as the rebel forces found that they were
moving up Silamore creek in the direction of Freeman's headquarters,
they placed men on the hills on each side of the creek, and as soon as
the Federal forces came within reach, they opened fire, and commenced
rolling stones. The commander halted, deployed skirmishers, ordered
them to fall back, march on foot and flank the rebels, while they would
continue the march up the creek and attract their attention until they
would have them completely flanked, and then close in on them. While
the main force moved up the creek slowly, under almost continuous fire,
all at once a general fire opened up on both sides of the hills. I
never before saw rebels running and dodging in all directions, trying
to make their escape, as they did then. A number of them were killed
and wounded, and the others taken prisoners. The remainder got down
from the hills, wiser men, and made a hasty retreat up the creek. Upon
the Federal column reaching the headquarters of Freeman, it was so
unexpected that he had to retreat, leaving all his camp equipage, his
trunk and clothing, and about $5,000 in Confederate money.

They retreated in an almost northerly direction. Our force returned
to Batesville. The scouts, with a small force of troops, were sent up
White river to find where the line of march of the rebels was. They
found that they had crossed White river near the mouth of the north
fork and were moving in the direction of Pocahontas. There had been
two Federal companies detailed and sent out northeast in the direction
of Spring river. Freeman's command surrounded them and made prisoners
of one of the companies. The other company, commanded by Capt. Majors,
made a charge on the lines and cut their way through.

Reinforcements were at once dispatched in the direction of the moving
columns of rebels. In the meantime, the rebels had reached Pocahontas,
on Black river, and had effected a crossing onto the east side of Black
river, except the rear guard, which were in their boat about midway of
the river, when the Federal forces reached the west side of the river.
They fired on the parties in the boat, wounding some of them, but they
succeeded in reaching the bank, and turned their boat loose. A strong
line of rebels was drawn up on the east bank of Black river, and opened
fire on the Federal forces on the west side. After considerable firing,
both sides ceased. The rebels appeared to move east; the Federal forces
again countermarched and returned to Batesville.

The country on the west side of White river was still under the control
of a strong force of rebels commanded by Col. Weatherford and three
or four other Confederate commanders. About three weeks after their
return, an order was issued for two wagon trains with six mule teams
and a detail of two companies, to escort it. The train moved out, for
the purpose of getting corn and other forage, about fifteen miles
distant on White river. After they had arrived at their destination and
were loading their wagons, a large force of rebels surrounded them,
charged on them, and made prisoners of about half of the escort. The
Federal captain, who belonged to one of the 11th Missouri companies,
surrendered, handed his pistol, about half shot out, to a rebel
soldier, who turned his own pistol on him and shot him dead. The scouts
who escaped capture, retreated with all possible haste to Batesville.

In the meantime, the rebel forces cut the wagons down, piled them in
heaps and set them on fire; while the mules, with all their gear and
breeching on were put into White river and swam across to the other
side. As soon as the news reached headquarters, a force was speedily
organized, and started on a forced march. Upon reaching the scene of
action the rebels were all safely across on the other side of the
river, harness and wagons were just about completely burned up. No
chance of any boats to cross the river and the river being full, they
countermarched and returned to Batesville again.

The whole winter was taken up in scouting and fighting small bands of
rebels. Sometime in the latter part of the winter the commissaries and
forage were becoming scarce and the nearest Federal post down White
river was at Duvall's bluff. The commander called on the author, who
was Captain of scouts, for a detail of two men who could procure a
canoe and try, if possible, to reach Duvall's Bluff and inform the
Federal authorities there of the conditions of the post. The author
detailed a man by the name of Johardy Ware and a man by the name of
Simon Mason. They were to procure a canoe and travel in the night,
drawing it, when daylight came, into thick brush, and in that way, if
possible, reach the Federal post. They succeeded in reaching the post
and in a short time commissaries and provisions, with forage, were
forwarded up the river on two small transports, with a number of troops
to force its passage up the river. Sometime in the latter part of the
winter the boats reached Batesville and supplied all of the wants and
short rations of the soldiers and again made everything merry and happy.


Give an Oyster Supper

In April, 1864, the author had promised to return to Rolla for the
purpose of aiding and recruiting a regiment, known as the 16th Missouri
Cavalry Volunteer. He informed the commander and asked for his
recommendation which was granted. He wanted to know when I wanted to
start so that he could make preparations to send me around by water.
The author informed him that he intended to march through by land. The
commander thought it was a thing impossible, that scouting bands of
rebels had possession of the country, from a short distance outside
of Batesville almost to Rolla, Missouri. The commander and Provost
Marshall gave the author an innovation, made an oyster supper for him
and his company of scouts, said they were loath to give them up, that
they had performed so much valuable service, and he didn't know where
he could get any other men to take their places.

After taking leave of the officers and soldiers, the author took a
small flag, fastened upon a staff, fastened it to the browband of the
bridle and remarked to the officers as he bid them good bye, that the
stars and stripes should float from Batesville to Rolla or the author
would die in the attempt. The company then set out for Rolla, Missouri.
Colonel Woods of the 11th Missouri cavalry had been on detached service
and Lieutenant Colonel Stevens had been commanding the regiment. He had
received orders to join his regiment at Batesville, Arkansas, and, with
a considerable force of men, reached the state line about 12 o'clock,
and came in sight of the command.

They saw our company approaching, at once drew up in line of battle,
and as many of the rebels had procured Federal uniforms, both parties
sent out couriers to ascertain who the forces were. On learning that
both sides were Federals, we marched up and went into camp with them.
The author was immediately taken to Col. Wood's headquarters. He
informed him that he had camped near West Plains the night before,
and that the bushwhackers had kept up a continuous fire until after
they got a considerable distance down South Fork; and he believed it
impossible for as small a force as I had to reach Rolla without great
disaster and perhaps annihilation. He said that the author and his
company of scouts were the very men he wanted, and offered to increase
his salary to $7.00 per day if he would go back with him and remain
with his command. The author told him that he was honor bound to return
to Missouri and assist in organizing a regiment of cavalry for the
United States service, and if the bushwhackers didn't keep clear, he
would give some of them a furlough before he reached Rolla.

After dinner Woods broke camp and moved in the direction of Batesville,
and we in the direction of Rolla. Near where the last firing was done
they had arrested a man named Craws, who really was a Union man, and
the author had been well acquainted with him before the war commenced,
but Woods' soldiers could with difficulty be restrained from shooting
him. On my informing the Colonel that I was well acquainted with the
man and that there was no harm in him, he agreed to turn him over to
the author and let him bring him back home with him. After we had
started, Craws informed the author that he knew the parties who had
been firing on the Federal troops; that their headquarters were about
two miles from where he then resided; and that he was satisfied from
the last firing he had heard, that they had turned off from the main
road and gone up what was called the Newberry hollow. After passing the
old Newberry farm, they had a plain trail that turned to the right and
led directly to the camp. They were commanded by two men named Hawkins
and Yates.

On reaching his house he agreed to continue with us to the road he
thought they had gone, and then return home. I think he was the
happiest man I ever saw when he found he had been turned over to my
care, believing that Woods' command intended to shoot him.

On reaching the road, we found a fresh rebel trail leading right up the
creek; we moved on until near the Newberry residence, which we had been
informed by Craws was occupied by Hawkins' wife. We turned from the
road and halted, and the author, with two or three of his men, being
familiar with the country, reached a high point from which we could
distinctly see one horse standing at the door. Supposing the rebel
scouts were all there, we went back to the company, moved cautiously
toward the house, and gave orders to charge upon them as soon as our
approach was discovered. On coming within fifty yards of the house,
which was unenclosed, a woman stepped outside the door, looked toward
us, and then wheeled for the house, and we charged. Hawkins' horse was
hitched to a half of a horse shoe driven in at the side of the door,
the bridle rein looped over it, his halter rein being already tied over
the saddle horn. The author had ordered all to charge with pistols
in hand. As Hawkins reached the door and made an attempt to take his
bridle rein, he saw that it was impossible. The author demanding his
surrender, he attempted to draw his pistol and had it half way out of
its holster and cocked, when the author fired upon him. He fell back,
still holding his pistol. The author, supposing more of the enemy were
inside the house, dismounted, and rushing to the door, demanded the
surrender of every person that might be in the house. As the author
entered the door, he heard Hawkins, still holding his pistol, remark:
"Monks, you have killed me." The author replied that that was what
he intended to do, and he must let go of that pistol or he would be
shot again. He took his hand loose from the pistol and in a short time
was dead. His wife asked the author to lay him out, which request was
complied with.

We mounted and again took the rebel trail and by this time it had grown
so dark that we lost it and went on to the residence of Captain Howard,
dismounted, fed our horses and got our supper.

Captain Howard afterwards informed the author that he had just been
home and started back to the rebel camp and heard the horses feet,
stepped behind a tree and that we passed within fifteen feet of him;
said if it hadn't been dark we would have been certain to have found
the rebel camp; that that day some one of the rebel soldiers had
killed a deer, stretched the skin and had it hanging up and the camp
wasn't more than two hundred yards from the main road. After we ate
our suppers and fed our horses we again resumed our march and reached
Rolla, Missouri, on the second day afterwards.


Another Meeting With Captain Forshee

In the spring of 1863 General Davidson was ordered to move from Rolla,
Missouri, directly south to Little Rock. On breaking camp and marching
in the direction of West Plains the author, with his company of scouts,
was ordered to report to him for service. On reaching West Plains he
went into camp. West Plains and vicinity were completely covered with
tents and troops. All of the hills adjoining West Plains were literally
covered with tents, Davidson's headquarters being inside of the town.
The author being sent out on a scout, came to the home of a man named
Barnett residing in Gunter's Valley and not being able to reach town,
went into camp near Barnett's. In a short time Barnett came in home.
He had been a lieutenant in the company where the author was prisoner.
He informed the author that he had been to Thomasville Mill and that
Captain Forshee, who lived about one mile below, had also returned with
him.

The author at once placed a guard around Barnett's house (Barnett
being the father-in-law of the Captain) detailed two men to accompany
him, prepared, mounted, and started to the residence of Forshee fully
determined to kill him. The author instructed his men that if Forshee
remained in the house and didn't attempt to run, to play off and tell
him that they belonged to Colonel Woods, a Confederate officer on White
river. The author then being clothed in Federal uniform and having but
a limited acquaintance with Forshee before the war did not think that
he would recognize him. On reaching the house we repaired to the door,
hallooed, and his wife invited us in. The author had his pistol under
the cape of his coat still determined upon killing him. On entering
the house, found him in bed with one of his children, his wife did not
have the supper on the table. The author asked him if he had ever
been in the Confederate service; he answered that he had, went out in
the six months provisional Confederate service; didn't stay his time
out, resigned and came home. The author asked him if they had taken
any prisoners while they were in service; he hesitated a moment and
replied that they did. The author asked him if he remembered the names
of any of them; he said he remembered the names of two of them well.
The author asked him if he knew what became of them; he said that
Black enlisted in the Confederate service, served his time out and
then substituted himself and was now in the eastern Confederate army;
he again hesitated. The author asked him if he knew what became of the
other man; he said that he didn't; that he made his escape from the
Confederate army and he had heard that he was a captain in the Northern
army. The author said with an oath "How would you like to see him;" he
replied "I would not like to see him very well." The author then said,
with an oath, "I am here, look at me and see whether you think I am
worth a beef cow or not." At this his wife sprang between him and the
author and he said to the author, "Captain, there ain't one man out of
ninety-nine but what would kill me for the treatment you received while
a prisoner but I have always thought that if I ever met you and you
would give me the time to explain the cause of it, you wouldn't kill
me, and I want to live to raise my children."

The thought passed through the mind of the author that he could not
kill him in the lap of his family; but he would take him to Barnett's
house where he had some more prisoners and on the next day he would
kill him on the way; ordered him to get out of that bed; Forshee again
appealed and said that he would like to know whether the author was
going to kill him or not; that he wanted to live to raise his children.
The author replied to him with an oath that "you ought to have thought
of these things when you was pulling me away from the bosom of my
family, never gave me time to bid them good-bye; get out of that bed."
There was about a six months old child in the cradle. He slid out of
the bed, kneeled down by the cradle, and was in the act of praying, his
wife still standing close by. The author ordered him to get up; that it
was too late to pray after the devil came; that I had been appointed by
the devil to send him up at once and lie had the coals hot and ready to
receive him and that I didn't want to disappoint the devil. He arose
to his feet and again asked the author if he was going to kill him;
said he wanted time to give me the whole truth of the matter; went
on to say Hawkins, Sapp, Kaiser and others were the cause of all the
mistreatment, but would admit that he done wrong in agreeing to deliver
the author to them for the purpose of having him mobbed and for abusing
him, himself.

His wife had hot coffee on the table and she asked that he be allowed
to sit down, saying that she wanted to see him sup coffee once more.
The author told her that they never gave him time to bid his wife
good-bye, let alone to sup coffee with her. After taking a few sups
of coffee, the author said that he couldn't fool any longer with him;
that he must strike a line and move out. His wife said that she was
going with him, but her husband told her she had no business going, as
it was then snowing and the ground was considerably frozen. The author
told her that if she was determined to go, the boys could take her and
the children behind them, but the Captain would have to walk right in
front of the author, and if he made a crooked step from there until
he reached Barnett's, he would shoot him through. The boys took his
wife and children on the horses, and the author started the Captain in
front of him. He had thought that he would be compelled to shoot him
on the way, but he could not shoot him in the presence of his family;
so he thought he would take him to the guard house and keep him until
morning, and then on the way to West Plains he would make a pretext to
kill him, for he thought he must kill him.

In the morning, after breakfast, we broke camp and moved in the
direction of West Plains. The author had now become cool, and while he
believed he ought to kill him for what he had done, he could not afford
to shoot, or cause a prisoner to be shot, while he was in his charge;
so on reaching West Plains, the prisoner was turned over to the guard
house.

The morning following was very cool, and the ground was covered with
snow. Gen. Davidson had ordered out a large scout for the purpose of
marching towards Batesville and White river, to feel the strength of
the enemy, and the author's company composed a part of the detail.
After the command was mounted and waiting for orders to move, the
sergeant of the guard came out and inquired if there was a Captain
Monks in that command. The Colonel informed him that there was. He
said there was a prisoner in the guard house who wanted to see him.
The author got permission to ride to the guard house, and on reaching
the door, who should meet him but Capt. Forshee, who told the author
that he had almost frozen the night before, and wanted to know if
the author couldn't loan him a blanket. He was told that he was the
last man who should ask the author for the use of a blanket. Forshee
replied: "That's so, Captain; but I believe that you are a good man,
and don't want to see a man, while he is a prisoner, suffer from cold."
The author asked him if they had any gray backs in the guard house.
He said he had none on himself, but didn't know in what condition the
others were.

The author had two new government blankets that he had paid $5 apiece
for a short time previous, on the back of his saddle. He told Forshee
that he didn't know as he would need them both until he had gotten back
from the scout, and would loan him a blanket until he returned. Forshee
replied: "I will never forget the favor." The author handed him one of
the blankets, and immediately started on the scout. While the scout was
south reconnoitering with the enemy, Gen. Davidson received orders from
headquarters countermanding the order to march to Little Rock by land,
and that he would march his forces to Ironton, Missouri, and there
await further orders. He at once broke camp and resumed his march in
the direction of Ironton, carrying the prisoners with him, with orders
for the scout on its return to move up and overtake him, as they were
all cavalry. So the author never saw Capt. Forshee nor his blanket any
more, but was informed that he was paroled at Ironton, took the oath,
returned to Oregon county, and died shortly after the close of the war.

Upon the return of the scout to West Plains, a part of the command that
belonged to Gen. Davidson's forces moved on after the army, while the
author, with two companies, remained in West Plains about half a day
for the purpose of resting up. While in West Plains a rebel that the
author was well acquainted with, came to him and told him he had better
be getting out of West Plains, for a force of five hundred rebels was
liable to come into West Plains at any moment. The author pretended
to become considerably alarmed, and reported that he was going to
march directly to Rolla with the two companies then under his command.
After marching about fifteen miles in the direction of Rolla, he made
a flank movement, marched into the corner of Douglass county, was
there reinforced, and the next day marched directly to the west end of
Howell county. The rebels, believing that the Federal troops had all
left the county, came in small bunches from all over the county. The
author made a forced march and reached the west end of the county about
dark, turned directly toward West Plains, took the rebels completely by
surprise, had a number of skirmishes with them, reaching West Plains
with more rebel prisoners than he had men of his own. On the next day
we turned in the direction of Rolla, and by forced march reached Texas
county. On the next morning we reached the Federal post at Houston, in
Texas county, and turned over the prisoners, among whom were several
prominent officers. Capt. Nicks was one of them. On the night of his
capture the author said to him: "It appears to me that it is about the
same time of night that they brought me prisoner to your house." He
answered: "I declare I believe it is." After the rebels found the small
number of the force that had made the scout, they declared that it was
a shame to let Monks run right into the very heart of the rebels and
carry out more prisoners than he had men.


Murdering Federal Soldiers.

Some time in June, 1863, a rebel scout and a Federal scout had a
fight about twenty miles northwest of Rolla. The rebels were forced
to abandon a number of wagons and mules, and the Federals, owing to
the emergency that confronted them at the time, did not wish to be
encumbered with them, so they employed a farmer to keep the mules in
his pasture until the government should send for them. The Federal
scouts from Rolla and Jefferson City would meet occasionally while
scouting. On the scout's arrival at Rolla, another scout composed of
about one company of Federals was sent out to bring in the wagons
and teams. Just before reaching the place where the wagons and teams
had been left, they saw a command of about two hundred and fifty men,
all dressed in Federal uniforms, and they at once took them to be a
Federal scout from Jefferson City. On approaching each other, they
passed the army salute, and marched right down the Federal line; they,
being unsuspecting, believed them to be Federal troops. As soon as
they were in position each man had his man covered with a pistol. The
rebel scout outnumbering the Federal scout more than two to one, they
demanded their surrender. The Federals, seeing their condition, at once
surrendered. They were marched about a quarter of a mile, near where
the wagons and teams were left, dismounted and went into camp, as the
rebels claimed, for dinner. Several citizens were present. They marched
the Federal company together, surrounded them in a hollow square,
brought some old ragged clothing, and ordered them to strip. After they
were all stripped completely naked, and while some were attempting
to put on the old clothing, all their uniforms having been removed a
short distance from them, at a certain signal the rebels fired a deadly
volley into them. Then followed one of the most desperate scenes ever
witnessed by the eye of man. The men saw their doom, and those who were
not killed by the first volley rushed at the rebels, caught them, tried
to wrest their arms from them, and a desperate struggle took place; men
wrestling, as it were, for their very lives.

A number of the Federals had their throats cut with knives. After the
rebels had completed the slaughter and hadn't left a man alive to tell
the tale, they ate their dinner, and taking the mules and wagons, moved
southwest with them. The citizens at once reported the affair to the
commander of the post at Rolla.

The men who were killed belonged to an Iowa regiment, and the author
believes it was the 3rd Iowa, but will not be positive. A strong detail
was made and sent at once to the scene of the late tragedy, with wagons
and teams to bring the dead back to Rolla. On their arrival with them,
it was the most horrible scene that the author ever looked upon. After
they were buried, the regiment to which they belonged declared and
avowed that they intended to take the same number of rebel lives. The
commander, knowing their determination, and being satisfied that they
would carry it into effect if the opportunity offered, transferred them
to another part of the country.


A Rebel Raid.

Some time in the fall of 1863 the Federal authorities at Rolla learned
that the rebels were organizing a strong force in Arkansas, for the
purpose of making a raid into Missouri. The rebels were under the
command of Gen. Burbrage. The author, being still the commander of the
scouts, was ordered to take one man and go south, for the purpose of
learning, if possible, the movements of the rebels. The author left
Rolla, came by way of Houston, where there was a post, thence to Hutton
Valley, where there was living a man named Andy Smith, who was a Union
man, but had made the rebels believe he was in favor of the south.
The author approached Smith's house after dark, got something to eat
and to feed his horses, and learned from Smith that the rebels were
about prepared to make the raid into Missouri. On the next day the
author was informed by Smith that Burbrage was then moving with his
full force in the direction of Missouri. The author at once started,
intending to reach the nearest Federal force, which was in Douglas
county. In the meantime, Gen. Burbrage, with his whole force, reached
the Missouri line, leaving West Plains a little to the right, taking
an old trace that ran on the divide between the waters of the North
fork of White river and of Eleven Points river, this being afterwards
known as "the old Burbrage trail." The author, expecting they would
march by way of West Plains and on through Hutton Valley, thought he
would be able to keep ahead of them and make his report; but owing to
their marching an entirely different route, the author crossed their
trail. He found that a large force of men had just passed and he, in
company with a man named Long, examined the horse tracks, found that
the shoes contained three nails in each side, and knew at once that it
must be Burbrage's command. They had passed not more than three hours
before this time. Making a forced march, the author and Long followed
on the same trail, and soon came to a house, holloed, and a lady coming
out, we inquired how far the command was ahead. The lady informed us
that they hadn't been gone more than three hours, and she exclaimed:
"Hurrah for Gen. Burbrage and his brave men! The Yankees and lopeared
Dutch are goin' to ketch it now, and they intend to clean them out of
the country!" We then became satisfied as to whose command it was, and
their destination. We rode on about two hundred yards from the house,
turned to the left, and started with all possible speed, intending,
if possible, to go around them and get the word in ahead of them. On
striking the road at the head of the North Fork of White river, we
looked ahead of us about a hundred yards and saw twenty-five men, about
fifty yards from the road, all in citizen's dress, wearing white hat
bands. The state had ordered all the state militia to wear white hat
bands, so that they might be designated from the rebels. The author
remarked to Long: "I guess the men are militia, but we will ride slowly
along the road and pass them, for fear they are rebels." They remained
still on their horses until after we had passed them, then they moved
forward and came riding up and halted us, and wanted to know who we
were. The author told them his name was Williams and Long told them his
name was Tucker. They asked us if we had ever heard of the Alsups, and
we told them we had. Then they wanted to know where we were going. We
told them we were going into Arkansas, near Yellville; that a general
order had been made in the state of Missouri that all able-bodied men
must come and enroll their names and those who were not in the state
service would have to be taxed; that we didn't want to fight nor pay a
tax to support those who were fighting. They ordered us to dismount,
surrounded us, with cocked pistols, and ordered us to crawl out of our
clothes and give up our arms. We commenced to strip. Long had on a
very fine pair of boots, for which he had just paid $5.00, and while
the author didn't know at what moment they would be shot, he could
not help but be tickled at the conduct of Long when they ordered him
to take off his boots. He crossed his legs and commenced pulling,
with the remark: "My boots are tight." The pistols were cocked and
presented right on him, not more than six feet away, and they told him
to hurry up or they would shoot his brains out. While he was pulling
at his boots he appeared to be looking right down the muzzles of the
revolvers. As soon as he had pulled off his boots and pitched them
over, they remarked: "Hell, a right brand new pair of socks on. Pull
them off quick and throw them over." A part of these men were dressed
in the dirtiest, most ragged clothes the author had ever seen--old wool
hats, with strings tied under their chins, old shoes with the toes worn
out, and old socks that were mostly legs; but claiming all the time to
be militia. They ordered us to get into their old clothes and shoes,
and placed their old hats upon us. Our clothing and hats all being new,
the author thought that was one of the hardest things they had ordered
him to do; that he was just as apt to get out of the garments as to get
into them. After we were dressed in their old clothing, one of them
asked: "What did you say your name was?" Long replied, "Tucker." One
that was standing a little back came running up with his pistol cocked,
and remarked that if he was a certain Tucker (naming the Tucker): "I
am going to kill him right here." Another of the number said: "Hold
on, this man is not the Tucker that you are thinking of." Then their
leader said, with an oath: "We belong to Gen. Burbrage's command. He
is just ahead. Do you want us to take you up to headquarters?" We told
him we had heard of Gen. Burbrage, and expected that he was a good
man, so if they wanted to take us to his headquarters all right: but
we did not want to fall into the hands of the militia, as we wanted to
get through to Yellville while Gen. Burbrage was in the country. One
of the men looked at the horses we were riding and remarked: "Let's
take the horses. We have orders to take all horses that are fit for the
service." Another said the horses were rather small for the service,
and as we would have a great deal of water to cross between there and
Yellville, it would be a pity to make us wade it. Then their leader
remarked: "We are Confederate soldiers, out fighting for our country,
and you men are too damned cowardly to fight. We have got to have
clothing, and as we suppose you are good southern men, when you get to
Yellville you can work for more clothes." They then ordered us to take
the road and move on, and tell the Alsups that the country was full of
rebels.

We mounted our horses and rode away, feeling happy on account of our
escape. They remained in the road and watched us until we were out of
their sight. The author looked over at Long's feet and saw his toes
sticking out of his old shoes; could see his naked skin in several
places through his raiment. He hardly looked natural--didn't look like
the same man. We hadn't gone more than a mile until we struck a farm
and a road leading between the farm on one side and the bluff and river
on the other, and looking in front, saw about fifteen men coming. The
author said to Long: "What shall we do? Shall we attempt to run, or
had we better pass them?" We concluded that it was impossible to get
away by running; the only chance left being to try to pass through them
without being recognized.

We rode up to meet them, and they halted us and wanted to know where
we were going. We told them we were going to Marion county, Arkansas,
near Yellville. They asked us our names and we again gave the names
of Williams and Tucker. A man named Charley Durham who had resided at
West Plains and had met me several times, rode up near us and asked
me; "What did you say your name was?" I replied, "Williams." He asked:
"Did you ever live down here about the state line?" I told him I never
did, but I might have had relatives who lived on the state line. He
said: "I am satisfied that I have seen you somewhere." One of the crowd
asked us if we had met about twenty-five soldiers just ahead, and when
we informed them that we had, they remarked: "Bully for the boys; we
had better be moving on or we will be late." They moved on, and we
continued down the road. As soon as we were out of sight I said to
Long; "We will not risk our chances in passing any more of them; there
are too many men down here that are acquainted with us. If it hadn't
been for my old clothes, Charley Durham would have recognized me beyond
a doubt." We then left the road and took to the woods, reaching the
Federal forces about midnight. They had not heard a thing regarding
the approach of the rebels. They hurriedly began to gather in all the
forces, and at once set out to find, if possible, the destination of
Gen. Burbrage. It was learned that he had completely cut us off from
reaching either Houston or Rolla. On the next day the Federal forces
met Gen. Burbrage at Hearstville, Wright county, Missouri, and there
fought a battle with him. The commander of the post at Houston, who
was in command of the Federals, was killed on the first fire from the
artillery of Gen. Burbrage. Col McDonald, during the engagement, was
shot dead at the head of the town spring. Burbrage retreated on the
same route that he had come up on. His command was separated into
several divisions, to get food.

Long and I had been furnished clothes and arms. Capt. Alsup being in
command, moved near the road that leads down Fox Creek, saw a rebel
scout moving down Fox Creek, composed of a part of the same men we
had met the day before. Capt. Alsup said he thought that by striking
the road and taking the rebels by surprise we could rout them. On
marching about a mile we came in sight of them, dismounted for dinner
at the house of a man named Ferris. I proposed to Capt. Alsup that we
charge them. He thought it might be too dangerous; that they would
have the benefit of the house, and might outnumber us, and we would be
compelled to retreat and might be cut off from our horses. He ordered
us to dismount, formed a line, left men to hold the horses, and on
moving about ten steps, the rebel picket, who was placed just outside
of the line, discovered us. They opened fire from each side of the
house, and along a picket fence which enclosed the house. We returned
the fire. The first volley that was fired, a ball passed near my ear,
and wounded the horse that I was riding. The firing continued for some
time. We had them cut off from their horses, unless they came outside
and faced the continual firing. One man attempted to leave the house
and reach his horse, but about ten feet from the door he received a
wound in the face and fell to the ground. In a moment he arose to
his feet, and he and several others again retreated into the house.
The firing continued for fifteen or twenty minutes, when the rebels
retreated on foot, by taking advantage of the house, except one man,
who reached his horse, cut the halter, sprang into the saddle, turned
his horse down the lane, leaning close to the horn of the saddle, put
spurs and made his escape. In the meantime the wounded man attempted to
make his escape by taking advantage of the house and retreating. Capt.
Alsup, when he saw the rebels were retreating, ordered a charge. The
wounded man was again wounded, and fell to the ground, helpless. All
the other rebels reached the woods, and made their escape.

Farris, the man who owned the house where the rebels were stopping,
received a serious wound in the breast. They left sixteen horses with
their rigs, saddle-riders filled with new clothing, in our possession.
Gen. Burbrage retreated from the state, and the author reported to his
command at Rolla.


Rescuing Union Families.

In the fall of 1862 some of the Union men whose families were still
residing in Ozark and Howell counties went to the Federal post and were
promised arms and ammunition in order to return and try to get their
families out, as it had become almost impossible for their families
to get through alone, on account of being robbed. About fifty of them
procured arms and started for Howell county, from the outpost of the
Federal authorities. They marched at night and lay by in the day,
and on reaching the western part of Howell county, informed their
families to get ready to move, still keeping themselves in hiding.
About twenty families prepared for moving, and had assembled on the
bayou, near where Friend's old mill was located. Just about the time
they were ready to start, a bunch of rebels came up and opened fire
on them. They returned the fire and held the rebels at a distance
while they moved all their wagons up close together, and started in
the direction of Ozark county. One of the men who had come to assist
in the escort became excited upon the first fire from the rebels and
ran, never stopping until he reached the Federal lines. The remainder
of the men bravely repelled the rebels, while their families kept
their teams steadily moving. On reaching the big North Fork of White
River, and while the families in their wagons were in mid-stream,
the rebels reached the bluff and opened fire on them. The Union men
vigorously returned the fire. They all reached the opposite side of the
river without one of their number being killed; some of the women and
children had received slight wounds, but nothing serious. The rebels
still continued to fire upon them until they reached the northern part
of Ozark county, when further pursuit was abandoned, and about twenty
families were enabled to reach the Federal lines. In a short time the
Union men attempted to again reach their homes, for the purpose of
helping destitute families to get out. They traveled only at night,
keeping themselves concealed in day time. In this way they reached
Fulton county, Arkansas, when the rebels found out that some of the
Union men were in the country. The rebel forces at once became so
strong that the Federals had to retreat without getting any of their
families, passing back through the western part of Howell county, over
into Ozark, and went into camp on the head of Lick Creek. Shortly
after they got into camp the rebels slipped up on them and opened fire,
mortally wounding a man named Fox and slightly wounding several others.
They had to scatter at once to avoid being captured, and when they
reached the Federal lines they were almost worn out. At this time all
of the Federal posts had numbers of refugee families stationed near
them, entirely destitute of food and raiment, and relying entirely for
their preservation upon the small amount of help they received from the
government.


General Price's Raid.

Upon my return from Batesville, Arkansas, in the spring of 1864, I
commenced recruiting for the 16th Missouri Cavalry Volunteers, the
most of the regiment being composed of men who had been in the state
service. The required number to form the regiment was soon procured,
and the regiment was organized, electing for their Colonel, John Mahan.
The author was elected Captain of Co. K. The regiment was at once
placed in active service, being quartered at Springfield, Missouri, up
to the time of Gen. Price's raid. Then the regiment was divided, one
half of it being sent in pursuit of Price. The other half, which was
known as the second battalion, was placed under my command and held at
Springfield, it being expected that Gen. Price would change his line
of march and attack the city. As soon as the fact was ascertained that
Price was marching north and west of Springfield, orders were made to
send every available man that could be spared from the post. Among
the troops sent out was the author's battalion. We were ordered on a
forced march in the direction of Utony, for the purpose of cutting off
Price's retreat. We reached Utony about 10 o'clock at night, where they
had a strong Federal garrison. Two thousand rebels of Price's command
had just marched across the road before we reached the garrison,
and gone into camp in sight of the town. Strong pickets were thrown
out on each side. About daylight the Federal forces broke camp and
moved on the rebel camp, soon coming in sight of the rebel forces,
and fire was opened on both sides. The rebels commenced retreating,
the Federals pursuing, and continuous firing and fighting was kept
up until we came near the Arkansas line. A number of rebel prisoners
were taken, besides some of their commissary wagons falling into
the possession of the Federals. The Federal commander then ordered
a retreat back to Springfield. Price's forces had torn up all the
railroads as they passed over them, cutting off all supplies, and
the soldiers and prisoners had been placed on quarter rations. The
prisoners, numbering about three hundred and fifty, were ordered to be
taken to Rolla, Missouri. After the first day's march from Springfield
they met a Federal train carrying commissaries to Springfield and
other western points. The men being then on quarter rations, the
Colonel took possession of some of the commissaries and issued them to
the soldiers and prisoners, for which he was afterward arrested and
court-martialed. On reaching Lebanon, Missouri, I saw the quartermaster
haul in about five or six loads of shucked corn, which was distributed
to the soldiers and prisoners. I well remember that while they were
distributing the corn to the prisoners, a general rush, which appeared
to be almost uncontrollable, was made around the wagon. The corn was
thrown out on the ground among them, they picked it up in their arms,
and at once retired to their camp fires, so that they might parch and
eat it. After leaving Lebanon, the prisoners were all placed in charge
of the author. He remembers one rebel prisoner who had on a fine dress
coat, with a bullet hole right in the center of the back, and the
soldiers had to be watched closely to prevent them from shooting him,
as they believed it to be a coat that had been taken from the body of
some Union man, after he had been shot.

On reaching Rolla, the author turned over all the prisoners to the
commander of the post, and they were sent directly to Rock Island,
there to be held as prisoners until such time as they might be
exchanged. I again returned to Springfield and reported to my regiment.
A short time thereafter, the loyal men of the counties of Howell,
Dent, Texas, Phelps, Ozark and Douglas, in Missouri, and of Fulton,
Izard and Independence counties, in Arkansas, with a number of the
officers and soldiers, including the commander at Rolla, petitioned
Gen. Schofield, who was then in command of the western district, to
have the author detached from his regiment, then at Springfield, and
sent south of Rolla to some convenient place, and given command of a
post, as it was almost impossible to send commissaries through from
Rolla to Springfield, on what was known as the wire road, on account of
the roving bands of rebels, who had complete control of the country, a
short distance from the military post.


Capt. Monks Establishes a Post at Licking.

Gen. Schofield at once made an order that Capt. Monks be detached from
his regiment and report at Rolla, with his company, for further orders.
Gen. Sanborn, then in command at Springfield, informed the author of
his final destination; that on reaching Rolla, he would be ordered by
Gen. Schofield to Licking, Missouri, to establish a post.

It soon leaked out, and the rebels swore openly that if he established
a post at Licking or at any other southern point, they would soon drive
the post into the ground and annihilate him and his men. I went to Gen.
Sanborn and requested that he send a telegram to Gen. Schofield, and
ask him to countermand that part of the order that required Capt. Monks
to report at Rolla for further orders, and order him to move directly
from Springfield to Licking. The General hesitated for sometime, as to
whether it would be good policy, owing to the large numbers of rebels
in the country through which I had to pass. He didn't believe that I
would be able to reach Licking with the one company, but he finally
decided that if I was willing to risk it, he would ask Gen. Schofield
to change his order. On Gen. Schofield's receiving the telegram, he
made an order that I be detached from my regiment, be furnished two
company wagons, be well supplied with arms, and proceed directly to
Licking. On reaching Licking I was to report by courier to headquarters
for further orders; and in obedience to said order, two company wagons,
with tents, commissaries, arms and ammunition were at once furnished,
and I set out for Licking, Texas county; passed Hartville, the county
seat of Wright county, and struck the waters of Big Piney. There was
considerable snow on the ground at the time. I took the rebels by
complete surprise. While they were expecting me from Rolla to Licking,
I struck them from the direction they least expected. On reaching
Piney, I encountered a rebel force of about sixty men. We had a fight,
two or three rebels were killed, and the rest retreated south. From
that time until we reached Licking, we had more or less fighting every
day. We would strike trails of rebels in the snow, where there appeared
to be over one hundred men, but they were so sure that it was a large
scout from Springfield that they did not take time to ascertain, but
retreated south at once. On reaching Licking, I sent a dispatch to
Gen. Schofield, telling of my arrival, and immediately received orders
to establish a post and erect a stockade fort, and to issue such
orders as I believed would rid the country of those irregular bands of
rebels and bushwhackers and protect all in their person and property,
especially the loyal men. I immediately selected a frame building for
my headquarters, with an office near by for the man acting as provost
marshal; issued my order requiring all persons who claimed protection
from the Federal authorities to come in and take the oath, and bring
with them axes, shovels, picks and spades, with their teams, for the
purpose of erecting a stockade fort. And further setting out in said
order, requiring all persons who knew of any irregular bands of rebels
or bushwhackers roaming or passing through the country, to report
them at once; and if they failed to report them, they would be taken
as bushwhackers and treated as such. In a short time I had erected
a complete stockade fort with port-holes, and room enough inside to
place all the cavalry horses in case of an attack by the rebels. I had
these orders printed and sent out all over the country. In a short
time, a man who had been known to be a rebel, but had stayed at home
unmolested, but who had been giving aid and comfort to the rebels,
came into the office and said: "Captain, I want to see you in your
private room." On entering the room he said: "I have read that order
of yours. You don't intend to enforce it, do you, Captain?" I said to
him that I did or I wouldn't have made it; that the rebels and I could
not both stay in that country. He said to me, "Captain, of all the post
commanders we have had here, there never was one of them issued such
an order as that. You know if I were to report those rebel bands they
would kill me." I replied, "Very well; you have read my order, and I
have said to you and all others that if you fail to report them I will
kill you; and you say if you do report them, they will kill you; now,
if you are more afraid of them than you are of me, you will have to
risk the consequences; for, by the eternal God! if you fail to report
them, I have said to you that I would treat you as a bushwhacker, and
you well know how I treat them." He dropped his head for a few minutes,
then raised it and said: "Well, it is mighty hard, Captain." I replied
that there were a great many hard things now; asked him where all of
his Union neighbors were. He said that they had been forced to leave
their homes and were around the Federal posts for the reason that they
claimed to be Union men. I told him that "a lot of you rebels have
lain here in the country and made more money than you ever made before
in your lives, and at the same time you have been giving aid, comfort
and encouragement to all of these irregular bands--giving them all the
information that they wanted, so that they might know just when to
make their raids, and now I propose to break it up and stop it, unless
they are able to rout me and drive me away. The government proposes to
protect all of you who will come in and take the oath and comply with
every requirement set out in the order. All I ask of you men is to give
me information of these irregular rebel bands and their whereabouts,
and you can again return home and your information will be kept a
secret; but this much you are required to do." In a short time a large
number of them had come in and enrolled their names, took the oath and
went to work on the fort like heroes.

Occasionally one would come in and say "Captain, I want to procure a
pass for me and my family through the Federal lines; I want to leave."
I would ask him; "What's the matter now? You have stayed here all
through the war, up to the present time, and now I have come among you,
and offered to protect every one of you who will take the oath and
comply with orders." He would reply with a long sigh, "Yes, Captain
but that order that you have made." I would ask him "what order."
"You require all citizens, especially we people who have been rebels,
and stayed at home, to report all of the roving bands of rebels and
bushwhackers; if we don't do it, you will treat us like bushwhackers;
if we were to report them, they would kill us." I said, "Now, you must
chose between the two powers; and if you are more afraid of the rebels
than you are of me, you will have to risk your chances. You say if you
report them, they will kill you. Now, by the Eternal, I am determined
to enforce everything that I have set out in that order. This day you
must settle in your own mind whom you will obey. As soon as the first
roving bands of rebels and guerrillas reached the country for the
purpose of raiding the wire road between Rolla and Springfield, the
night never was too dark but that this same class of men would come in
and report them. I would at once make a detail, send these men right
out with them. As soon as they would get near to the rebels, they would
dismiss these men and let them go home."

The rebels, for several years, had been sending out a large scout
from North Arkansas and the border counties of Missouri and when they
would reach Texas and Pulaski counties they would divide into small
squads and travel the byways and ridges; on reaching the wire road
they would then concentrate and lay in wait until the wagon trains
and non-combatants who were merchants, were moving through from Rolla
to Springfield under the protection of an escort; and all at once
they would make a charge upon them from their hiding places, rout the
escort, capture the train and all others that might be in company with
it, cut the mules loose from the wagon, take all the goods that was not
cumbersome, especially coffee, sugar, salt and dry goods, place them on
the backs of the mules, travel a short distance, divide up again into
small parties, take byways and mountains, travel fifteen or twenty
miles, go into camp; on reaching the counties of Oregon and Shannon,
Fulton and Lawrence, of Arkansas, they would concentrate their forces,
go into camp, eat, drink, and be merry. As soon as their supplies
would run short, they would make another scout of a similar nature.
The commanders of the post, as soon as they would attack the trains,
would order out a scout to pursue them. They would strike their trail
and follow them a short distance to where they would separate and take
to the mountains. They would abandon the pursuit, return and swear
that the country wasn't worth protecting. In that way they completely
outgeneraled the Federal forces and held complete possession of the
country almost in sight of the post.

On one occasion, when the weather was very cold and bleak, I knew of
their capturing some of the Federal soldiers within one mile of the
fort, kept them until the coldest part of the night, just before day,
stripped them naked, turned them loose, and they were compelled to
travel a mile before they could reach a fire, and they were almost
frostbitten. Every Union man was driven away from his home and moved
his family to different posts.

The author had declared that he and the rebels could not both remain
in the country together; that he would either rout them or they would
have to rout him, and for that reason every man that remained in the
country would have to aid him in the work. So, in every instance, when
he would send a force in pursuit of those raiding bands, he would order
the scout to follow them, and when they divided to still continue
pursuit of the most visible trail, and when they came in sight to not
take time to count noses, but charge them and pursue them until they
were completely annihilated. They would go into camp and move at
their leisure, but not so when my scouts got in pursuit of them. In a
number of instances they would overtake them from twenty to twenty-five
miles from the wire road, in camp, having a jolly good time, and the
first intimation they would have would be the boys in blue charging in
amongst them, shooting right and left, and they would scatter in all
directions.

It was but a short time until they remarked to some of the rebel
sympathizers that they had never seen such a change in the movements of
the Federal scouts; that they used to consider themselves safe from a
Federal scout as soon as they left the main road and divided into small
squads; but now they were in as much danger in the most secluded spot
in the mountains as they were in the traveled roads; therefore, their
commanders would have to change their tactics in regard to the scouts,
and abandon that part of the country, as almost every scout that they
had made to the wire road had proved disastrous since "Old Monks" had
been placed in command of the post. In a short time, the Union men, who
had been driven from the country, began to return and go onto their
farms, and about five months after I had been placed in command of the
post, the civil authorities came and held circuit court, Judge Waddle,
of Springfield, then being circuit judge.


Skirmishes with the Rebels.

Some time in the summer, Col. Freeman, who was commanding the rebels
in northeastern Arkansas, whose headquarters were near the Spring
River mill, made a raid and threatened to capture the Federal forces
that were then at the Licking post. I soon gained information of his
intention, made every preparation to repel the attack, also informed
the commander at Rolla of the intended raid. Col. Freeman, accompanied
by other rebel commanders, concentrated all of the available rebel
force then at his command, raided the country, came within about five
miles of the post, learned that reinforcements had been sent to the
post, countermarched and retreated to his headquarters near the head of
Spring river.

A regiment of Federal troops, known as the Fifteenth Veterans, was sent
as a reinforcement, with a part of the Fifth Missouri State Militia
that was then stationed at Salem, with orders to remain at the post.
I received orders to organize all of the available troops and pursue
the rebel forces, and, if possible, to reach the Spring River mill,
in Fulton county, Arkansas, and destroy the mill, which Freeman was
using at that time for grinding meal. The Federal force composing the
scout, aggregating about three hundred and fifty men, moved from the
post at Licking. The author divided his forces, ordering one wing of
them to move through Spring Valley, in Texas county; the other wing to
move directly in the direction of Thomasville, with orders to form a
junction about seven miles from Thomasville, where there was a rebel
force stationed. On reaching the Wallace farm, in Oregon county, we
came onto a force of rebels, commanded by James Jamison, who had
met for the purpose of receiving ammunition which had been smuggled
through from Ironton. After an engagement, the rebels fled, leaving
one man dead; James Jamison received a flesh wound in the thigh. The
Federal force which had been ordered through Spring Valley had had an
engagement near the head of the valley, which had delayed them. The
plans of the author had been frustrated by coming in contact with the
rebels sooner than he expected. As they had retreated in the direction
of Thomasville, where the main force was said to be stationed, I
continued my march, and in about one mile came onto a rebel camp, where
the rebels had cabins erected for quarters; here another spirited
engagement took place, the rebels retreating in the direction of
Thomasville, the Federal forces still pursuing.

Just above Thomasville the command encountered a strong picket force,
fired upon the command, intending to halt it, but being satisfied that
there was a trap laid I ordered a charge. The picket force retreated
to the left, up a steep hill, and at once the whole rebel force opened
fire from the side of the mountain; the bullets flew just above our
heads like hail, one ball passing through my hat. We still continued
the charge and on reaching the top of the hill, routed the whole rebel
force and they again retreated. The author marched into Thomasville,
selected his camping ground inside of Captain Olds' barn lot, giving us
the advantage of the barn, in case we were attacked by a superior rebel
force. I at once dispatched a forage train with strong escort to gather
in all the forage possible, as it was very scarce in the country. After
we had been in camp about an hour I inquired of Captain Olds if he knew
of any corn. He said he did not. In about a half hour my attention was
called by one of the captains pointing to a large smokehouse, and on
looking, saw the soldiers taking down any amount of first-class corn. I
informed the captain that Captain Olds had claimed that he had no corn;
to take the quartermaster and let him place a guard over the corn, to
see that it was not wasted, and that it was properly apportioned. In a
short time the author saw Captain Olds coming. He went to one of the
other captains and inquired who the commander was. He was informed that
it was Capt. Monks. He came to the author laughing and remarked: "You
found my corn, did you? I told you that I had none; I had to secrete it
in that building to keep it so that the rebels could not find it." I
just remarked to Captain Olds: "You needn't try to hide anything from
these lopeared Dutch, for I don't care where you put it they will find
it." The men who discovered the corn were all Germans and belonged to a
German company. He asked us to feed just as sparingly as possible and
leave him a part of the corn, which we did. He then attempted to warn
the author of his danger and asked him if he intended to camp there for
the night; said that Colonel Freeman had over one thousand men which
he could concentrate within five or six hours and that he would cut
the author's command all to pieces. The author replied to the captain
that that was his business, that Freeman had come up on the scout and
claimed that he was wanting a fight; the author prepared for him and
expected to accommodate him but he changed his notion and retreated,
devastating the country as he went, and now the author was hunting
him and his forces and wanted to fight. If he came up that night and
attacked the author's command that it would save any more trouble
hunting him.

Just about that time the author saw the other part of the command
approaching and called the attention of Captain Olds and asked him if
he thought that was a part of Freeman's command. After looking a few
minutes he said to the author: "They are Federal troops." I asked him
if he thought we would be able to remain there until morning? He said
that he thought we would and invited me to come into his house and
eat supper. While at supper asked if we intended to march any further
south. The author informed him that if his information was correct
in regard to Freeman's forces we were about as far away from home as
we ought to get and that we had better move back in the direction
of the post. The author ordered the command to be ready to march by
early daylight, next morning broke camp and moved in the direction of
Spring river. On reaching the head of Warm fork of Spring river, we
encountered another rebel force; had a short engagement, and they again
retreated. On reaching the head of Spring river about the middle of the
afternoon, we again met a rebel force; after considerable firing they
retreated.

The author moved up near the mill and went into camp. The mill was
grinding corn with quite a lot of corn on hand, but the miller left and
retreated with the rebels. The author soon placed a substitute in his
place and the boys had a fine time baking corn cakes.

After supper, some of the men had just retired to rest, when the rebels
again made a fierce attack; after fighting for twenty or twenty-five
minutes they retreated a short distance and went into camp, the river
dividing the two forces. During the night the two pickets would dare
each other to cross the river. During the night there came a heavy rain
and made the Warm fork of Spring river swimming; there was no way to
cross except on the mill dam.

The next morning about daylight the author ordered them to take the
millstones and break them up and destroy the machinery so it would be
impossible to grind; dismounted about one hundred men, placed them in
hiding and marched away a short distance, thinking the rebels would
cross over and we would surprise and capture them. But on seeing the
Federals break camp and marching up on the west side of the river, they
broke camp and marched up on the east side of the river. The author
then mounted his men and marched up the Warm fork to where he effected
a crossing, marched about ten miles, went into camp for the purpose of
getting breakfast. Just after breakfast, the author noticed the advance
of a rebel force march out on another road; as soon as they discovered
that the Federals were in camp, they fell back and the author at
once mounted his men. On the other road, as there was a considerable
hill that hid them from sight, he formed his men in two lines in a V;
detailed a strong advance force, ordered them to move onto the rebels
and charge them, and in case they found that they were too strong, to
retreat back between the lines for the purpose of drawing the rebel
forces in between the lines. After a fierce conflict, lasting but a few
minutes, the rebels again retreated, leaving a rebel Major dead upon
the ground. We then marched into Thomasville and had another running
fight with the rebels, went into camp and the next morning marched back
in the direction of the post at Licking, reaching the post about 10
o'clock that night. The author again took command at the post and the
Fifteenth Veterans returned to Rolla.


Ridding the Country of Bushwhackers.

It soon became very rare to hear of a rebel scout north of the
mountain. Both rebel and Union men who claimed protection by the
Federal authorities began to repair and improve their farms again.
During the time that the author was in command of the post, which
continued up to the time that peace was made, his command had routed
and completely driven from the country all irregular and roving bands
of rebels and bushwhackers and had had numbers of small engagements
in which there had been from eighty to ninety of the most desperate
class of men that ever lived, killed, which was shown in the adjutant
general's report. After they had been driven out of the county, they
located in the counties of Oregon, Shannon and Dent, and at once
commenced pillaging and robbing all classes of citizens, irrespective
of their political adherence. Col. Freeman sent a courier through the
lines with a dispatch, stating the condition of affairs, and asking
that an armistice be entered into between Col, Freeman's scouts and
the scouts which might be sent out from the post, with an understanding
that they were going to aid each other in routing and driving out these
irregular bands.

While engaged in that work they were not to fire on each other, but to
co-operate. The author was to enter into the agreement if it could be
effected. Col. Freeman sent Capt. Cook into Oregon and Shannon counties
to locate those roving guerrilla bands, and in some way, unknown to
either Col. Freeman or myself, they gained the information, and while
Capt. Cook was in Oregon county locating them, they waylaid him and
killed him. Col. Freeman, realizing the fact that they had come into
possession of the whole scheme, came to the conclusion that we had
better abandon the agreement. He organized scouts and captured and shot
some of the most desperate characters that were leaders, while the
author kept a vigilant watch to keep them from crossing over into Texas
or adjoining counties. At the time peace was made, it was admitted by
the law-abiding people, irrespective of party, that the command of Col.
Monks had completely rid the country of all irregular bands of rebels
and had made it safe, in a short time after he had taken command of the
post, for forage trains and all other classes of citizens to pass on
the wire road from Rolla to Springfield unmolested, and that very often
they passed through without an escort.


Battle at Mammoth Spring.

Col. Wood, commanding the Sixth Missouri cavalry, left Rolla on the
7th day of March, 1862, with about two hundred and fifty men, for the
purpose of making a scout south into the counties of Oregon and Howell
and Fulton county, Arkansas, to ascertain the strength of the rebel
forces in that portion of the country; reached Licking and went into
camp. The next morning he broke camp and marched to Jack's fork, in
Shannon county, and on the morning of the 9th marched to Thomasville;
on the 10th he marched to Mammoth Spring, Arkansas. On reaching
Mammoth Spring they learned that there was a rebel force in camp on
the south fork of Spring river, just below Salem, and on the morning
of the 11th they broke camp and marched upon the rebels. On reaching
the rebel encampment they found they had cut timber and blockaded the
road, so that it was impossible to reach the forces, except on foot.
In coming within a few hundred yards of the rebels, lying concealed
behind the timbers, they opened fire upon the advance of the Federal
forces. The Federal forces had two small pieces of artillery that
they unlimbered and brought into use. The rebels having no artillery,
were soon dislodged from the first line of works, and they stubbornly
fell back about one quarter of a mile, and went in behind the second
fortifications that had been hurriedly erected. After fighting for
an hour and a half or two hours the Federal force being greatly
outnumbered, and the rebels having themselves so obstructed, Col. Woods
saw that it was useless to further continue the fight and retreated. On
the next night he reached Howell Valley just below West Plains and went
into camp and on the morning of the 13th they broke camp and marched
in the direction of Houston, Missouri, reaching Houston sometime after
night. The Federal loss in the battle referred to was seven killed and
wounded. The Confederate loss was said to be twenty-five or thirty
killed and wounded. Colonels Coleman and Woodside were commanding the
Confederates.

Col. Woods being in command of the post at Houston, learning that there
was considerable of a rebel force, standing at West Plains, Missouri,
under the command of Coleman and others, organized a scout and on the
24th day of February, 1862, broke camp and marched in the direction of
West Plains, for the purpose of attacking the rebel forces stationed at
that place, taking two small mounted howitzers strapped on mules, made
a forced march, and in the early part of the day on the 25th reached
West Plains. West Plains had a frame court house in the center of the
square where the present court house is located. The road at that time
led due north where Washington avenue is located until it struck the
hill; also there was a road which led east where East main street is
now located and on passing what was known as the Thomas Howell farm,
turned directly north in the direction of Gunters Valley. The rebels
had a strong picket thrown out on both roads; a part of the rebel
command was quartered in the court house. Woods being advised of the
condition of the rebels and where they were all quartered, supposing
that they would take advantage of the court house when the attack was
made, selected a high position where the road first struck the hill,
planted his artillery, divided his forces and made a flank movement,
ordered them to strike the lower road and advance on the pickets and
as soon as they were fired upon, to charge them, while he would remain
with the other part of the force in readiness to dislodge them with his
artillery in case they used the court house as a fortification. On the
advance coming in sight of the rebel pickets, they fired and retreated
with the Federal forces pursuing. The rebel forces at once rallied
their forces and took possession of the courthouse. As soon as Col.
Woods saw them file into the house he leveled his cannon and fired a
shell which struck the house near its center and passed clear through;
that was the first artillery that the rebel command ever had heard.
They filed out of the house faster than they went into it; then Col.
Woods moved with his forces directly upon the forces near the court
house when a general engagement ensued. The rebels retreated west on
the road near where West Main street is now located and a running fight
was continued for about one mile, when Woods abandoned the pursuit,
marched back into West Plains, and again returned to Houston. The
losses on both sides were light, several, however, being killed or
wounded.


"Uncle Tommy" and His Crutches.

I will relate an incident which occurred during the fight. Old "Uncle
Tommy" Howell as he was familiarly known, resided just below the town
spring a short distance from the road; he had a sister living with him
who was an old maid, and was known as "Aunt Polly". Howell being one
among the early settlers of Howell Valley, had taken an active part
in organizing Howell county, which took its name from him and he had
been once representative of the county. The author heard him relate
the circumstance in a speech delivered in West Plains after the war
was over. He said when the fight came up that he was sitting on his
front porch: all at once he heard firing commence, and heard horses
feet and saw the rebel pickets coming on full gallop horseback, with
the Federals close onto them with pistols in hand firing on them; he
had been afflicted with rheumatism for years and one of his legs was
drawn crooked and he hadn't attempted to walk without a crutch for
several years; when he saw the men coming and the others shooting at
them, he supposed that every shot was killing a man; he said they came
right by his door and he never became excited while they were passing;
as soon as they got near the court house they then made a stand, where
it appeared to him that there were thousands of shots being exchanged
every minute. They had all passed his house and he was sitting there
unmolested, when his sister, who was known as "Aunt Polly" ran out on
the porch and cried out at the top of her voice "Lord a massy, Uncle
Tommy, run for your life; you have been a public man and they will kill
you, sure." He said it so excited him that he sprang to his feet. All
below his house the valley was covered with hazel brush and snow was
lying on the ground. He first looked toward where the firing was going
on and said "My God! they certainly have got them very near all killed
in this time" for he was under the impression that every shot killed
a man. He started southwest from his house, ran about a quarter of a
mile, jumped over behind a log; he had hardly gotten still when he
imagined he heard the horses feet of the Federals in pursuit of him; he
raised up and looked, could not see any person, so ran about another
quarter, jumped over behind another log and as soon as he got still,
the first thought came into his mind that they were still in pursuit,
for he could hear the horses' feet, but on reflecting a moment he found
that it was his heart beating; he said he could still hear the firing
and he thought they intended to kill them all before they quit. He had
a son-in-law by the name of Hardin Brown living on the Warm fork of
Spring river, about twenty miles distant, and he started on foot and
never stopped traveling until he reached his house. On reaching the
house, his daughter asked him how, in the name of God, he ever got
there without his crutches. He said that was the first time that he had
thought of his crutches. He began to notice his legs and the crooked
leg was just as straight as the well leg. He said that it completely
cured him of his rheumatism and he had the use of that leg just the
same as he ever did the other leg, and never used a crutch afterwards.
After the war he removed to Oregon county and was elected to the
legislature, and died a member of the legislature.


Disposing of Union Men.

In the spring of 1862 there was a man by the name of Mawhinney, living
about six miles below West Plains, in Howell valley, a Union man, but
who had taken no part either way, except to express an opinion. About
fifteen men belonging to a rebel scout went to his house, called for
their dinners, some of them had him shoe their horses, and after they
had their horses shod and got their dinner, they told him that they
wanted him to go with them. His wife said to them "It ain't possible
that after you have been treated as kindly as you have been you are
going to take Mr. Mawhinney prisoner; you men certainly will not hurt
him." They made no reply, carried him about one half mile from his
home, shot him off of his horse, took the horse and went on, leaving
the body on the side of the road. His wife with what other help she
could get brought him in and had him buried.

About two weeks afterwards, in the spring of 1862, there was a man by
the name of Bacon who lived near West Plains, who has some relatives
living in this county at the present time. He was a Union man but had
taken no part either way, except to express himself openly in favor of
the Union. There came a scout of about twenty men and arrested him,
started west with him in the direction of South Fork, and on reaching
the vicinity where Homeland is located, left the road a short distance,
shot him off of his horse. Went on to a house about one mile distant,
called for their dinner. The woman in preparing dinner fried some
bacon; after they were seated at the table she passed the bacon to
them; several of them remarked that they didn't want any, that they had
had some bacon, but had just disposed of it a short time before they
reached the house. After Bacon had laid where he fell dead for two or
three days he was found and being considerably decomposed a hole was
dug and the body placed into it and covered up, where his dust remains
until the present day.


Union Supplies Captured by Rebels.

In the spring of 1862, the department commander reestablished the
military post at Springfield. All of the commissaries and forage had to
be conveyed from Rolla to Springfield, as the terminus of the railroad
was at Rolla, by wagon trains, a distance of one hundred and twenty
miles. It required a large escort of soldiers to guard the trains to
prevent the rebels from capturing them. All of the country south of the
wire road was in possession of the rebels. There was scarcely a wagon
train that passed on the road without being attacked by the rebels.
They made their attacks generally on the front and rear of the trains,
and before the wagon masters could corral the trains, they would
capture some of the wagons, make the teamsters drive into the woods,
cut the mules loose from the wagons, take sacks of coffee, salt, sugar
and other commissaries, tie them on the backs of the mules, divide
into small bunches and retreat into the hills. Very often the escort
would have to send back to Rolla for reinforcements. The train would
be tied up from twelve to fifteen hours before it could move on. It
became a mystery to the Federal commanders how the Confederates could
concentrate a force of men numbering from fifty to three hundred, and
the first intimation the escort would have, they, the rebels, would
come out of the brush at some secluded spot, yelling, whooping and
shooting, and charge upon the wagon train. They would generally capture
more or less of the loaded wagons with the above results, and it became
a question with the military authorities at Rolla and Springfield how
to capture or rout these bands, and as to how they managed to keep that
number of men near to the wire road and yet the Federals were unable
to discover their hiding places.

About the 15th day of August, the department commander ordered Capt.
Murphy to take five hundred men and two pieces of artillery and move
south from Rolla; to go as far south as he thought it would be safe,
without placing his men so far inside of the Confederate lines that
they might be captured; and, if possible, to learn the rebel movements
and location of their troops. Capt. Murphy broke camp at Rolla and
moved south about fifteen miles, was fired on by the rebels from the
brush, marched about twenty-five miles, went into camp; on the next
morning resumed the march, hadn't marched more than five miles until
they were fired on from the brush; they were fired on four or five
times that day, and went into camp near Thomasville. The next day he
threw out skirmish lines on each side of his command, and resumed
the march down the Warm fork of Spring river. There was more or less
skirmishing all day. He camped on the Warm fork and the next morning
marched over to the Myatt, where we had quite a skirmish. The rebels
again retreated in the direction of the Spring River mill, where they
were said to have a thousand men.

Here the command countermarched back to Rolla, having captured fifty or
sixty prisoners; the Federals had a few men wounded.

In the spring of 1862, the Federal troops advanced on Springfield from
Rolla. The rebels retreated west and the Federals again established
a military post at Springfield. The rebels continued to retreat west
until they reached Prairie Grove, where they concentrated their forces
and the memorable battle of that name was fought, the Federal troops
being victorious. The Confederates retreated from the state.

The military post at Springfield being over one hundred miles west of
Rolla, the terminus of the South Pacific railroad, three-fourths of
the distance being in possession of the rebels, all the forage and
commissaries had to be conveyed by wagon train. The main rebel forces
having been driven from the state, and all of the country south of the
wire road, with few exceptions, being in possession of the rebels, the
Union men with their families having been driven from their homes. The
leading Confederate officers met and held a council of war and decided
to change their tactics. The first thing was to place two or three
hundred well-armed Confederate soldiers south of and near the wire
road leading from Rolla to Springfield, and so harass the wagon trains
that the government wouldn't be able to get forage and commissaries
through to Springfield, and thus force the Federals to abandon the
post. In furtherance of this move, they ordered their soldiers to be
taken near to the line of the road and divided into squads of from
five to twenty-five men, conceal their arms and claim to be private
citizens, live off the country and be so arranged that when a wagon
train was about to leave Rolla, they could be called together on short
notice; and when they wanted to make a more extensive raid, Confederate
soldiers from as far south as the head of Spring river would march up
and meet them and make a general raid.

The government had considerable trouble to learn the hiding places of
these men, but they finally got officers who were acquainted with the
country and men who were bona fide citizens, and knew who were citizens
and who were not, and broke up their hiding places and drove them
further south. It was learned that a part of this Confederate force was
composed of men who claimed to be citizens when they were not making
their raids.


Bravery of Captain Alsup.

In the summer of 1863, the Federal authorities established a military
post at Clark's mill, in Douglas county, Missouri, on Bryant's fork
of White river, erected a post and stationed some Illinois troops
under the command of a Colonel, with Capt. Alsup's company, which was
composed entirely of Douglas county citizens, in all about two hundred
and fifty or three hundred men. Gen. Joe Shelby, a Confederate, with
about five hundred troops, made a forced march from Arkansas and during
the night time surrounded the fort, and the next morning had his
artillery in readiness to open fire. He ordered a complete surrender
of the garrison. The captain of the fort asked for a few minutes to
consider the matter; at the expiration of the time, the Colonel in
command agreed to surrender, stack up the guns and side arms in the
fort, march his men outside and make an unconditional surrender.
When the commander of the fort ordered his men and officers to stack
their arms and march out, Capt. Lock Alsup and his company refused,
and being cavalry, ordered his men to arm themselves and be ready to
move whenever he ordered. While the commander of the fort was having
the remainder of the garrison stack their arms, Capt. Alsup and his
company made a bold dash for liberty, came out of the fort shooting
right and left, took the rebels by surprise, broke the rebel line,
went through, being mounted on good horses, retreated up Bryant's fork
with the rebels in pursuit. While going through an old field that had
grown up to burrs about as high as a man's head, Fritz Krause, father
of the assistant postmaster at West Plains, was thrown from his horse,
rolled under the burrs, the rebels passed by and never saw him. He
laid in the burrs until dark, then made his escape and rejoined his
company at Springfield. The rebels pursued them for about two miles,
then returned to their command. Gen. Shelby paroled the prisoners, and
such things as he could not carry with him he destroyed, the fort being
burned. He resumed his march in the direction of Springfield and was
reinforced by about five hundred troops. During this time, Capt. Alsup
and his men had reached Springfield and, strange to say, hadn't lost a
man; had a few slightly wounded. Gen. Brown, who was in command of the
post at Springfield, was said to be a brother-in-law of Gen. Shelby,
and on Shelby's arrival at Springfield he demanded the surrender of
the garrison. The Federal troops held a consultation and concluded to
fight. After a brief engagement, Gen. Shelby drew his troops off and
moved north; there were several killed and wounded on both sides. Gen.
Brown's arm was broken by a piece from a shell. Gen. Shelby continued
his raid towards the Missouri river, had several small engagements and
then retreated from the state. Capt. Alsup and his brave men should
be held in memory by all comrades, especially by the loyal people of
Douglas and Ozark counties, for their heroic action in charging through
the rebel lines and making their escape after the post commander had
attempted to deliver them into the hands of the rebels.

The fort at Clark's mill was never rebuilt. Capt. Alsup and the loyal
men of Douglas and Ozark counties and part of Wright county built a
temporary fort near the center of Douglas county, and old and young
organized themselves into companies and armed themselves. With the
help of Capt. Alsup's company, they appointed a few of their men as
scouts, while the others worked in their fields. The scouts were out
night and day along the state line and if a rebel scout attempted to
raid the counties, notice was given all along the line and the men
were all up in arms and ready to meet the raiders. It reminds one of
reading the history of the early settlements along the Indian border.
The settlers would build forts and put out sentinels; if the Indians
were seen advancing, word was given and the families would hurry to the
fort and the men arm themselves to drive the invaders back. So this
organization, with some assistance from the post at Springfield, held
Douglas and a part of Ozark and Wright counties during the remainder of
the Civil War, and after the war was over, Douglas county gained the
title of "Old Loyal Douglas County." These old soldiers and comrades
are fast falling and very soon there will be none left to tell of the
heroisms and sacrifices they made for the country they loved. Will
these comrades and their sons and daughters be so ungrateful that they
will let their heroism and sacrifices die with them and be forgotten,
never to be written in history? The answer will be no, a thousand times
no. The history of their heroism and sacrifices shall be written and
go down to their children and their children's children, and may "Old
Glory" ever wave over the country that they love so well and for which
they made so many sacrifices.


Bushwhacking in Howell County.

The writer wants to say that there was not a Union man nor a single
Union family left at home, from Batesville, Ark. to Rolla, Mo., a
distance of two-hundred miles. The writer especially wants to speak for
Howell County, Mo. The rebels took quite a number of Union men from
their homes and shot them, some of them being old men. I will name
a few of them that were shot: Morton R. Langston, the father of T.
J. and S. J. Langston, while he was hauling wood; Jeff Langston, one
of the firm of Langston Bros, was riding on the wood at the time his
father was shot. I asked a leading rebel after the war, why they shot
Langston. His reply was: "He talked too much." Shot Mawhinney, Bacon
and a number of others. Now I want to say right here, notwithstanding
the treatment the Union men received from the rebels, not a single
Confederate was ever taken from his home and shot or otherwise injured
during the whole Civil War and no truthful Confederate will say to the
contrary. There never was but one Confederate hurt after being taken
prisoner in Howell County and he wasn't a citizen of Howell County;
was said to be a north Missouri bushwhacker, charged with being one
of the parties that shot old Mr. Langston, Mawhinney and Bacon. A
Federal scout in the year 1864 captured him below West Plains and the
next morning they hung him to a smokehouse rafter. Notwithstanding a
few of the friends of the bushwackers will tell to strangers that the
writer shot a man in this county, by the name of Hawkins, in the lap
of his family, which is a positive lie; the facts are these; Hawkins
was one of the worst bushwhackers and murderers that ever lived in
Howell County and was commanding a company of bushwackers at the time
he was shot. A short time before he was shot he had captured one of
his cousins, by the name of Washington Hawkins, a Federal soldier, and
taken from him a fine mare with his saddle and rig complete.

In the spring of 1864, a battalion of the 11th Missouri Cavalry,
commanded by Col. Woods, had been ordered to report to Col. Livingston
at Batesville, Ark. The writer had been ordered to report at Rolla,
Mo., with his command. Col. Woods had camped near West Plains the
previous night, the next morning resumed his march towards Batesville;
after he had passed West Plains a few miles, Hawkins and his
bushwhackers fired on them from the brush and they continued to fire
on them every few miles for sixteen miles. Our force met the force of
Col. Woods at the state line where Col. Woods informed me how they had
been firing upon his men all morning. He had taken a man prisoner by
the name of William Krause, whom he turned over to me. Both forces
resumed the march, he in the direction of Batesville, Ark., and I in
the direction of Rolla, Mo. The prisoner told the writer that he knew
the parties who had been firing on Col. Woods' command; that they had
a camp by a pond in a secluded place, and were commanded by Hawkins
and Yates; that it was about four miles almost west. I told Krause if
he would place me on trail he could then go home. He did so and I then
released him. Krause said there were about fifty rebels in the command.

We trailed them about two miles and came in sight of a house that
belonged to old Mr. Newberry, a Union man. He and his family had been
run off from home. I saw a horse hitched to the side of the door, and
supposed there were more inside of the house; there was a skirt of
timber that enabled us to get within about sixty yards of the house.
I ordered my men, when we reached a given point, to charge upon
the house, dismount and reach the wall of the house and demand the
surrender of all persons that might be within. We were about fifteen
feet from the door when Hawkins came out and attempted to mount his
horse. The author demanded his surrender, but he drew his pistol to
fire, the author having his pistol already in hand and presented, fired
on him; the author was sitting in his saddle when he fired on him.

The men examined the house and found he was the only man in it.
The horse he was riding was the one he had taken from his cousin,
Washington Hawkins, a short time previous, with a government rig
complete. Washington Hawkins resided at Bakersfield, Mo., and got his
horse and rig again. We took the trail again, but dark came on us and
we lost it. These are the facts surrounding the whole case, the killing
of Hawkins, one of the worst bandits and guerrillas that ever roamed
through South Missouri and led the worst band of men in the state. I
had previously taken him prisoner and he took the oath of allegiance,
went right back and joined his command and, if possible, he was worse
than before. I must say that there are few men in Howell county that
claim to be Confederates, who tell strangers that Monks shot Hawkins
down in the lap of his family and that he, Hawkins, was a good man.
The writer wants to say that no truthful Confederate will tell any
such a thing; they will tell you that Hawkins was a bad man. Ask such
Confederates as Capt. Howard, Mark Cooper, Judge Dryer, John Ledsinger,
Harvey Kelow, Daniel Galloway, P. N. Gulley and a number of others, if
Hawkins was a good man.

The writer wants to say that he don't believe all the Confederates
were in favor of killing and driving out the families of Union men,
but the most bitter element got in power and being backed by the order
of Gen. McBride, to force all the Union men to join the Confederate
service, or hang them, those Confederates who were opposed to such
treatment were afraid to open their mouths for fear they would receive
the same treatment. You don't hear these same men, that talked about
Monks shooting Hawkins, say a word about Hawkins and his bushwhackers
shooting Union men all over Howell county. There never were but two
houses burned in Howell county by the Union men during the Civil
war, and houses owned by these men had been previously burned by the
Confederates. The town of West Plains was burned by the Confederates to
keep the Federals from holding a post at West Plains.

The writer wants to say that on his return after the war, in the
spring of 1866, he met the rebels, both those that had been officers
and soldiers, and never spoke a harsh word to them, asked them if
they thought both parties could now live together; their answer was,
that they thought they could. All that they asked was that they be
protected. The writer assured them that both Federal and Confederates
would be protected by the civil laws and all they would be asked to
do would be to aid in a strict enforcement of civil laws, which they
readily promised to do. The Union men who had returned to their homes
and the late Confederates joined together and went to building and
repairing old church houses and school-houses and soon were found
worshiping together in the same church and sending their children to
the same school-houses and the old ties that had existed before the war
were being re-united. The country appeared to be prosperous and the old
war spirit appeared to be fast dying out among the people.

I suppose the writer holds more commissions than any other man in the
state, both military and civil and there never was a charge preferred
against the writer of any failure to discharge his duties by the
government or state. While in the military service thousands of dollars
passed through the hands of the writer for forage and commissaries
and ordinance stores and clothing, every dollar was accounted for and
all contraband property was turned over to the government. I never
converted, to my own private use, five cents of any man's property or
money, before or after the war, in the war, nor since the war.

The writer is now residing within about twenty-five miles of where
his father located in the year 1844 and there are several persons yet
living that have been intimately acquainted with the writer since his
boyhood up to the present time, namely James Kellett, Sr., Marion
Kellett, present county treasury of Howell county, Washington Hawkins
of Bakersfield, Mo., and quite a number of others that have been
acquainted with the writer from forty to fifty years. The writer wants
to say right here that he is not ashamed of anything he did before the
war, in the war, nor since the war, and on his return home to Howell
county on meeting the late rebels; he never spoke a harsh word to one
of them, but received them kindly and said to them that the civil laws
should be strictly enforced against all alike, Confederate and Federal.

In the year 1861, sometime in the month of September, after the
Federals retreated from Springfield, Mo. and the Confederates had taken
possession of Springfield, there was one Capt. Brixey who was captain
of a company of home guards residing in the edge of Webster County,
Mo.; soon after the Confederates took possession of the post, they
ordered a captain belonging to a Texas regiment to detail one company
and proceed to the residence of Capt. Brixey and arrest him. Capt.
Brixey having no notice of the approach of the scouts, he and one of
his men were sitting in the house; the first they knew they had a line
within thirty yards of his door, hailed them and presented their guns
and demanded their surrender. Capt. Brixey said, "The ---- you say."
Both parties fired on each other about the same time, the man with
Brixey fell dead, Brixey shot and killed the Confederate captain and
wounded one or two other Confederates; he retreated through his house
and into his orchard and made his escape; one of his arms was broken
by the shot from the rebels from which he entirely recovered and lived
many years afterwards, and has a son residing in this county at the
present time.


Colonel Freeman's Second Raid.

Sometime in the Spring of 1862 Col. Freeman, not being satisfied with
his first raid on the Federal troops at Salem, planned the second raid
to attack the troops then stationed at Salem, Missouri; he organized
his scout and compelled one Robert Bolin, who now resides in Howell
County, to pilot him through the lines, as he, Bolin, had lived near
Salem before the war. On reaching Salem, Col. Freeman halted his troops
and planned his attack.

The Federal troops had no knowledge of the approach of any rebel
forces; they were in squads around Salem. Freeman divided his forces
and gave them a countersign and selected a spot near a deep ditch in
the road and instructed them, if they were defeated and got scattered
to concentrate at that ditch which was beyond the Federal lines a
distance of some miles; on reaching the ditch they were to remain
until they all were collected. After the first ones reached the place,
it being dark, if they saw others approaching they would halt them
and demand the countersign, and if they couldn't give it they were to
fire on them without any further delay, knowing they were enemies. On
reaching the public square they encountered a bunch of the Federal
troops in a building; fired on them, wounded a few, a man by the name
of Jacob Shoffler now residing in Howell County was in the house at
the time, and they cut his clothes in about twenty different places
with bullets and never drew blood; Maj. Santee was commanding, with
one other officer. After they had rallied, all being in disorder, Maj.
Santee ordered a charge on the rebels. Armed with an old pistol he met
Col. Freeman of the Confederate side. Freeman had just shot out; Maj.
Santee ordered his surrender. Col. Freeman started to run, Maj. Santee
in close pursuit, snapped his old pistol, which failed to fire. He then
threw the pistol at Col. Freeman, struck him somewhere between the
shoulders, drew his sabre, and still continued the pursuit. There was
a creek near by and a stone fence had been built along the side of it;
the creek had been frozen over and a skiff of snow on it at the time.
Just as Freeman reached the stone fence Maj. Santee made a thrust at
him with his sabre, inflicting a slight wound; about that time, for
the purpose of escaping, Col. Freeman sprang over the stone fence and
lit into the creek. Maj. Santee, being on horseback, could not pursue
any further. The rebels by this time were scattered in all directions,
started to retreat. It being very dark, the first ones fifty or sixty
in number reached the ditch, halted to wait for the remainder of them
to collect. In a short time about thirty or forty more of them appeared
in sight, retreating with considerable speed; they were halted, the
countersign demanded. They had become so excited in the fight they had
forgotten the countersign and failed to give it. So those who arrived
first opened fire and wounded several of them, scattering them to the
woods. They failed to concentrate until they had retreated south about
30 miles where they learned of the mistake they had made and that
they had fired upon their own men. Maj. Santee being of the opinion
that he had seriously wounded Freeman with his sabre, concluded to
investigate. On reaching the stone fence where he made his leap they
looked over into the creek on the ice and (Col. Freeman being a large
man) it looked like a large ox had been thrown over from the hole that
he made in the ice. They saw that he had crossed the creek and reached
the other side and saw no signs of blood. In the engagement there were
about five or six wounded and killed.

In the summer of 1863 there was a Federal scout organized at
Springfield, commanded by Col. Holland. It was ordered to move by way
of Douglas county, get reinforcements then stationed at the fort,
and from there march through the county of Ozark. They entered the
county of Fulton, Ark., where they had several small engagements.
After considerable fighting and capturing a number of prisoners, they
returned to Springfield; loss, killed and wounded, very small.

In the fall of 1863, Col. Tracy, with a force of rebels, made a raid
from Fulton county, marched up through Ozark county, and on reaching
the Union settlement in Douglas county, he shot and killed nearly
every man he captured, robbed houses, took everything in the house
and out of doors, and burned the houses as he went. After raiding and
pillaging a number of houses, he came to a house where a Union man by
the name of Mahan and one by the name of McCarty were working in the
blacksmith shop, with their arms near them. They were members of the
home guard. The rebels demanded the surrender of the two men, and as
it was generally believed that if a man surrendered to those irregular
forces that it was sure death, they refused to surrender. When the
forces of Col. Tracy commenced firing through the cracks of the shop,
the men returned the fire. Mahan killed one rebel, and they wounded two
or three others. The rebels shot McCarty down, shooting him eight or
ten times after he fell, knocked the door down and rushed upon Mahan,
disarmed him, took him prisoner and then continued their retreat. After
reaching Fulton county, near the bayou, they took Mahan into the woods,
stripped him naked and shot him, leaving his body lying on the ground
unburied. Strange to say, in regard to McCarty, after he had been shot
eight or ten times and left for dead, he recovered from the wounds and
became hearty and stout.

Some time in the early part of the spring of 1864, a man by the name
of Mahan deserted from the 11th Missouri cavalry, stationed at
Batesville, and on reaching Howell county, about two miles from where
Valley Star school house is now located, a bunch of bushwhackers
commanded by B. F. Hawkins and Thomas Yates captured him, took him into
the woods a short distance, stripped him naked and shot him, leaving
his body lying on the ground, unburied. After he had lain there nearly
a week, a man now residing in Howell county took a hoe and shovel and
raked up some rocks and pitched them upon the decomposed body and threw
a few shovels of dirt on him. As it was but a short distance from the
road, the stench from the decomposing body was offensive to persons who
traveled by.


Col. Monks Enforces the Civil Law.

In the month of July, 1865, the author was ordered to declare the civil
law in force in the counties of Texas, Dent, Shannon, Oregon, Howell,
Ozark and Douglas and report to his regiment again at Springfield for
the purpose of being discharged. The long-looked-for and final result
of the war had come with victory couched upon every man who had borne
his flag to the breeze of his country, and to those who had lain
themselves on the altar of their country and died that it might live.

There was general rejoicing among the loyal people, that there was
not a foot of territory on American soil but where the stars and
stripes once more floated unmolested, either by foreign or domestic
enemies, and while the Confederates had fought manfully for what they
conceived to be right, and had laid many of their sons on the altar and
sacrificed them to a cause that they believed to be right, yet a large
majority of them rejoiced when they learned that the cruel war was
over. Although their cause was forever lost, yet the country that they
had loved so well and the flag still floated and invited them back as
erring sons.

The 16th regiment, with a large number of other regiments, was
discharged at Springfield. Then a scene ensued that Americans had never
witnessed before; the blue and the grey began to meet and greet each
other as friends and seemed to forget that just a few months previous
they had been meeting each other armed, for the purpose of slaying one
another. A general amnesty proclamation had been granted by Gen. Grant
to all the rebels who had surrendered. Their officers and commanders
should discharge them and they should be allowed to retain their side
arms for their own protection and return home for the purpose of again
building up and establishing their homes; again meet their wives, their
children, fathers and mothers, neighbors and friends, and once more
be united in all the ties of love; to again reinstate churches, and
instead of studying and practicing the art of war, they should beat
their swords into pruning hooks and aid in establishing and building up
society and good government.

But, lo! one of the most sad and heartrending scenes confronted many
Confederates and Federals on returning to the places where they had
once had happy homes and sweet families, they were not found. During
the terrible war, many of the loved ones that they had left behind
had been called from time to eternity. The home had disappeared and
nothing was left but the soil; all of the improvements being entirely
destroyed. But they, with the courage of heroes, gathered the fragments
of their families, went to work improving and building houses,
refencing their farms, reerecting church houses and school houses, and
in a short time the men who had lately been enemies and borne arms
against each other, were again neighbors and friends, associating
together, sending their children to the same school, becoming members
of the same church; all experienced the difference between a civil war
and peace and fraternity. Many of them expressed themselves that they
had read of civil wars, but never realized the effect of civil war
until after they had passed through the present one: but they could not
understand why they called it "civil" war, for if there was anything
civil about the war they never experienced that part of it.

The author's family had been residing at Rolla during most of the
time of the war. He commenced making preparations to return to his
home in Howell county in the fall of 1865. He began to organize an
immigration party of men who wanted to locate in Howell county and a
number of men who had left their homes in that county. Just a short
time before the parties were ready to leave Rolla for Howell county,
he was met by several men who asked: "Why, Monks, ain't you afraid to
go back to Howell county? You have fought the rebels so bitterly and
contested every inch of ground during the whole war, and some of them
hate you so badly, that I would be afraid that they would kill me."
The author replied that he felt like Gen. Putnam, when the British
attempted to bribe him and said that the colonies never could succeed
in gaining their independence, and that he had better return and renew
his allegiance to the Crown. The General's reply was, "D--n a man that
is not for his country." Now, my reply to you is, that I have forfeited
almost all of my means and shattered the happiness of my family in
contending and fighting for the preservation of the government;
besides, myself and family have been exiled and banished from our home,
and if the rebels had succeeded, all would have been gone. But now the
government has been victorious in crushing the rebellion, liberty and
protection have been once more guaranteed to every citizen, high or
low, rich or poor, and, in the language of Gen. Putnam, I say, "D--n a
man that is afraid to go back and enjoy the fruits of his victory."

Within a few days about twenty-five families left Rolla for West
Plains, and on arriving at West Plains, went into camp. There was
not a single building left in West Plains, as the Confederates had
burned the whole town in time of the war, with the exception of
one store building, which was burned by the Federal troops. The
Confederates' object in burning the town was to prevent the Federals
from establishing a post. The author procured some clapboards, built an
addition to an old stable about two hundred yards south of where James'
livery stable is now located.

Soon after we had reached West Plains and gone into camp, Capt. Howard,
Capt. Nicks and a number of other rebels who were residing in the
county, came in, met the author and said to him: "Captain. I am proud
to meet you." The author replied, "I am proud to meet you. What do
think now in regard to the two parties living together?" They said that
they were satisfied that both parties could live together, that all
they wanted was protection. The author remarked that the rebels had
been in control of the country for several years, but the loyal men
were going to take charge of it and run it now, and as the loyal men
had been contending for the enforcement of the law and claimed that
every American citizen was entitled to the protection of the law, the
author could promise them that, if they would fall into line and help
enforce the law, they should receive equal protection with any other
class of citizens; to which they replied that they were willing to do
so, but there were roving bands of rebels and guerrillas which had not
been subject to the control of the Confederate authorities, and still
refused to lay down their arms, and might yet cause some trouble.

The author was appointed sheriff of Howell county, W. Z. Buck circuit
and county clerk and Peter Lemons, Judge Alsup and ---- were appointed
county judges. There had been an old school house about a quarter of
a mile east of West Plains that was still standing. They met at that
school house, organized and set the civil government of the county
in working order. Soon after, Governor Fletcher ordered an election
and the author was elected to the state legislature, tendered his
resignation as sheriff, which was accepted and W. D. Mustion was
appointed to the vacancy. In a few weeks the author went to Jefferson
City, tendered his credentials and was sworn in and became a member of
the legislature.

Everything, so far as Howell county was concerned, appeared to move off
quietly, while the counties of Oregon and Shannon, with a few of the
border counties, were entirely controlled by irregular bands of late
rebels, who openly declared that the civil law should not be enforced
in those counties; that the Confederacy was whipped, but they were not
and they intended to live off the government; they were armed to the
teeth.

During the winter of 1865 and the year 1866, Howell county settled up
faster than ever it had at any period before the war; the men who had
homes in it and had been forced away on account of the war, mostly
returned and commenced to improve their farms. Their houses, outhouses
and improvements, generally, having been destroyed, the soil was the
only thing left. The town also built up rapidly and in the year 1866
the inhabitants had increased to six or eight hundred.

In the fall of 1866 at the general election the author was re-elected
to the legislature and Capt. Alley, who had been a Confederate all
through the war, was elected to the legislature from Oregon county.
The author again qualified and was present in the legislature during
the whole time, when the great question was brought up before the
legislature, as to what disposition the State would make of the first
liens held by the state on the different railroads for aid that had
been given to the railroad corporations in the way of state bonds
in 1850. In 1855 the state issued her bonds, delivered them to the
companies and they went east and put them upon the market in New York
and Boston to procure money to construct roads, and the bonds with all
the accruing interest, were due the state.

Then for the first time the author learned that many of the men who
had been selected to represent the people's interest in the State
Legislature, failed to discharge the duties that their constituents
had imposed upon them, betrayed their trust, and, through money, were
entirely controlled in the interest of the railroad corporations. The
author believing that it was one among the greatest duties that were
imposed upon men of a representative government, to strictly contend
and do all in his power to enact legislation in the interest of the
people, therefore took a strong stand in favor of closing out all
of the state liens against the different roads, held by the state.
During the session of the winter of 1866 what was then known as the
South Missouri Pacific, which terminated at Rolla, Missouri, was
ordered to be closed out and the road declared forfeited. A resolution
passed through both houses of the legislature ordering the Governor
to seize it, and that said road be run by the state. In the meantime
the Governor was to advertise and sell it. The Governor by authority
of law advertised it and sold it for $550,000. Sometime in April the
legislature adjourned, to meet in an adjourned session in December,
1867. The author returned home.

The immigration into the country rapidly increasing, prosperity
appeared to be on every side; people had plenty of money, good crops,
wheat was worth $1 to $1.50 per bushel, stock of all kinds brought
first-class prices, peace so far as Howell county was concerned,
prosperity and the bettering of the condition of society were moving
hand in hand, and the author felt thankful that the war was over.


Outlaw Rule in Oregon and Shannon.

In the fall of 1867, the counties of Oregon and Shannon, were still
controlled by those roving bands of outlaws who ruled the counties with
an iron hand. A despotism, unequalled at any stage of the war, existed
there. There was a public gathering in the fall of 1867 in Thomasville.
Col. Jamison, one of the leaders of these outlawed bands rode into town
at the head of about fifty men, well armed, shot two men's brains out,
paraded the streets and swore that any man that attempted to enforce
the civil law against them, would fare the same; rode out unmolested
and there was not a single attempt made by the civil authorities to
arrest one of them. In a few days Jamison with some of his men rode
into town and a man by the name of Philip Arbogast, the father-in-law
of Mr. Hill, one of the firm of Hill-Whitmire Mercantile Co., now
doing business in West Plains, who had been a Confederate all through
the war, remarked in the hearing of Jamison, that the war was over,
and he believed that the civil law ought to be enforced. Jamison at
once dismounted, cocked his pistol, approached Arbogast and commenced
punching him with the muzzle of it until he inflicted some wounds
remarking to him that if he ever heard of him uttering a word again in
favor of the civil law being enforced that he would hunt him up and
shoot his brains out.

Some time previous to that occurrence, two men who had been discharged
from the Federal army and had once resided in Oregon county, came into
the county to look at their old homes. Col. Jamison, with about forty
men, arrested them, took them to the house of the sheriff, informed
the sheriff that no "Feds" could ever reside in Oregon county, and no
damn Black Republicans could ever cast a vote at any election that was
held in the county; that they were going to make an example of the men,
that others might take warning; that they were going to take them out
far enough away that their stench would not annoy good Confederates.
Accordingly, they started from the house, took them about one-half
mile, stripped them naked, shot them to pieces, returned to the
sheriff's house with the clothing, which was the uniform they had worn
in the service, horse and mule and saddles which they had been riding;
gave the mule to the sheriff, took the horse with them, published what
they had done, and said that those men shouldn't be buried and that if
any Confederate buried them, they would share the same fate.

Capt. Alley, who had been a Confederate all through the war, but was
an honest man and wanted to see the law enforced, informed Governor
Fletcher of the condition of the county. Governor Fletcher at once
appointed him an enrolling officer, ordering him to enroll and organize
the county into militia companies, to form a posse-comitatus to aid the
sheriff in enforcing the law. As soon as he received his commission, he
rode into the different townships, put up his notices requesting the
people to meet him for the purpose of enrolling. Jamison, with about
forty men, rode into the township where his first meeting was to be,
posted another written notice on the same tree, the purport of which
was that if Capt. Alley, the old, white-headed scoundrel, appeared
on the day to carry out the orders of the Governor, he would meet
him and shoot his old head off his shoulders. Alley, being satisfied
that he would carry out his threat, went to the place before daylight
and concealed himself nearby. About 10 o'clock on the day appointed,
Jamison and about forty followers came charging in on their horses,
revolvers in hand, cursing and declaring that they would like to see
the old white-headed scoundrel put in an appearance so they could make
an example of him; that they didn't intend to let any man enforce the
law against them. As soon as they retired Alley returned home and wrote
to the Governor again, stating the acts, conduct and threats that
Jamison had openly made, and that troops would have to be sent into the
counties to aid him and others in organizing, so the civil law could be
enforced. He asked the Governor to appoint Capt. Monks to command the
troops which he might send.

The author received a letter from the Governor informing him of the
condition; also stated in the letter that while Howell county was
peaceable and law abiding, that her citizens were not safe, by any
means, while such a desperate band of outlaws were right at their very
door, bidding defiance to the civil law, committing all manner of
crimes from murder down and begging the author to consent to his being
appointed Major of State troops; that he would make an order for the
author to organize the men in the county of Howell and include Howell
county in his order, declaring them to be under martial law especially
when it had been requested by Capt. Alley, who had been a life-long
Confederate. The author took the matter under advisement, and as
Jamison, with his band of men, had threatened time and again to raid
Howell county and kill the author with other Union men, he decided to
give his consent to the Governor, wrote him while he reluctantly would
consent to accept the appointment he had thought that he had discharged
his duty in the late war and would not be required to take part in any
further military operation.


Colonel Monks Commissioned by the Governor.

The governor at once appointed and commissioned the author Major of
state troops and ordered him to at once proceed and organize a company
of militia, and at the same time sent one hundred Springfield rifles
and one hundred rounds of amunition for each gun. And soon as it was
organized, he was to proceed to Oregon county, for the purpose of
aiding and supporting Captain Alley who had been appointed enrolling
officer of Oregon county, to enroll and form companies for the purpose
of aiding the sheriff in enforcing the civil law. He was to pursue,
arrest and drive out those roving bands of murderers from the counties
of Oregon, Shannon and Dent. The author at once organized a company
in Howell county, composed of men who had been in the Confederate and
Federal service. On Jamison and others in Oregon county learning that
the author had been appointed Major and that he was organizing, and the
state was arming the men with orders to enter the counties of Oregon,
Shannon and Dent to drive out the murdering bands and aid Captain Alley
in organizing a posse comitatus to aid the sheriff in enforcing the
civil law, they publicly declared that "old Monks might get into Oregon
county but that he would never get out alive."

At that time there was a secret order in the counties of Oregon and
Shannon known as the Sons of Liberty. The author was informed that on a
certain night they would hold a meeting on Warm fork of Spring river.
The author made a forced march and, on reaching the place where they
had assembled, surrounded the house and took all the inmates prisoners,
among them being the sheriff of the county and a few other prominent
men. The next morning Capt. Alley met the author, put up his notices
ordering every man to come in and enroll his name. The author remained
over the next day near the place, got in possession of their papers,
with a secret oath placed upon them, and the aims and objects, binding
themselves together to prevent the enforcement of the civil law, and
further binding themselves to capture or take property from any man who
had been in the Federal army, and, when it became necessary to enforce
it, to shoot men down. They claimed to have lawyers connected with it,
so that if they should be arrested they were to make a pretense of a
trial and allow no man to go onto the jury except those who belonged to
the order.

Capt. Greer, who had been a Captain in the Confederate service all
through the war, and afterwards was elected to the state legislature,
remarked that, "I can soon tell whether those grips, obligations and
oaths were in the organization known as the Sons of Liberty;" said
that "Old Uncle Dickey" Boles, a short time previous, came to him and
informed him that the Sons of Liberty were going to hold a meeting in a
big sink on the mountain and they wanted him to come and join it; that
he was looked upon as a business man and he didn't know anything about
what was going on right at his door; that if he would come and join it,
in a few years he would be a rich man. Capt. Greer said he replied to
him, "Uncle Dickey, I have always been an honest man and have worked
hard, and if a man can get rich in two or three years by joining that
order, there must be something dishonest in it." Old Uncle Dickey
replied: "You won't be in a bit of danger in joining it, for we are so
organized that the civil law can't reach us." Capt. Greer said he had
a son-in-law who was requested, at the same time he was, to attend the
meeting, and that after the meeting he saw him and asked him what kind
of an organization it was. He said his brother-in-law told him, "I dare
not tell you; I took the bitterest oath that I have ever taken in my
life not to reveal the workings of the order on penalty of death. But
I will tell you enough; Captain, I know that you are an honest man and
that that organization is a damn jay-hawking institution, and you want
nothing to do with it." Captain Greer at once sent for his brother-in
law; he came, and the signs, grips and by-laws that were captured at
the place of the meeting were submitted to him and he said he believed
they were word for word the same, and contained the very same oath that
they swore him to on the night that he went to their meeting.

The author was informed that Jamison was then lying in wait on the road
that led from Warm Fork to Frederick Fork township, the next place
where Alley had notified them to meet, waiting for the author to pass
with his men, so that he might fire on them from the brush. Then the
hardest task confronted the author that he ever had had to meet, to
study out a plan to prevent Jamison firing on his men from the brush
as he marched by. He held four men as prisoners, whom he knew were
Jamison's right-hand bowers; he had just been informed that Jamison
had a spy then on the ground to learn the time the author would break
camp and move in the direction of Fredericks Fork. He ordered a wagon
brought up with three spring seats, took the four prisoners and set
them in the two front seats, tied a small rope around their bodies
and around each seat, with two guards in the back seat; then arrested
Jamison's spy, informed him what his business was, which he admitted
and said that Jamison was lying in wait to learn what time I would move
out, and that he intended to fire on me as soon as I came within reach.
I took him to the wagon and asked him if he was acquainted with the
prisoners. He said that he was. "Well," said I, "I am going to release
you and I want you to go and tell Jamison that, just as certain as
he fires from the brush and kills one of my men, I will retaliate by
killing these four men, whom I know are his right-hand bowers." The
author also wrote a letter containing the same statement, and sent
another man, who was a Confederate, with Jamison's spy, to see that the
message was delivered.

On reaching Jamison, they delivered the message and informed him of
what I had said, and told him that there was no possible chance for
these men to escape, for there was a rope tied around each man's body
and fastened to the spring seat, and they were also under a strong
guard. The man who went to carry the dispatch said that after Jamison
read it, he appeared to be in trouble and remarked: "Well, we will have
to desist and not fire, for just as certain as we fire on him and kill
some of his men, he is sure to kill our men." One of the prisoners,
after he was placed in the wagon and heard the message sent to Jamison,
remarked to the other prisoners: "We are dead men, for Jamison is sure
to fire on them." We soon broke camp, and on reaching the place where
Jamison had been waiting, saw the camp fire and where their horses had
been tied and fed, but there was not a man to be seen, neither was
there a gun fired.

[Illustration: COL. AND MRS. MONKS AT CLOSE OF WAR.]

On reaching Fredericks Fork township, Capt. Alley made a speech to the
people and said, among other things, that the counties of Oregon and
Shannon had been controlled by one of the most desperate class of men
that ever lived. That they had ridden through the country on horseback,
heavily armed, defying the enforcement of the civil law, intimidating
the people, both Federal and Confederate alike, and committing all
manner of crimes, robbing and murdering the people and boasting openly
that the damn Confederacy was whipped, but that they were not and
intended to live off the damn "Feds." Now the war is over and all good
citizens, be they Federal or Confederate, should be in favor of the
enforcement of the civil law. "I am ordered by the governor of the
state to enroll all able-bodied men in the county to form a posse to
aid the sheriff in enforcing the law in Oregon county; I am to organize
companies to enforce the civil law. These bushwhackers and thieves have
terrorized this county long enough. The governor has sent Capt. Monks,
a man who is not afraid of bushwhackers and thieves, into this county
to arrest these bushwhackers, thieves and murderers and bring them to
justice. If the people of this county want the civil law enforced,
they should aid Capt. Monks and his men to hunt these fellows down and
either arrest them or drive them from the county. Our people have been
present and saw these men commit all manner of crimes, from murder down
to the smallest crime known to the criminal code. They have done this
openly and the people were afraid to open their mouths or say a word
against it, on penalty of death. I wrote the governor, stating the
condition of affairs in this county, that neither person nor property
were safe, and to send Capt. Monks to this county. And he has sent him
and we have got the right man in the right place."

One of the prominent men of Oregon county went to Jefferson City to
see the governor to procure the removal of the writer and have Col.
A. J. Sea appointed in his place. He said to the governor that Capt.
Monks was arresting some of the best men in Oregon county and had
them prisoners. The governor showed him some of Capt. Alley's letters
that he had written to the governor. The letters stated among other
things that persons and property were at the mercy of these desperadoes
and the county was being terrorized by James Jamison and his men;
that they were robbing whom they pleased openly; that a day or two
before he, Alley, wrote the letter, that Jamison shot a man's brains
out in Thomasville, and dared any man to say he was in favor of the
enforcement of the civil law, that he would serve him the same way. The
governor asked him if those things were true, and he replied that they
were; the governor said to him: "You are a leading man in that county
and a citizen of Thomasville and never a word have you written to me
that such terror and lawlessness existed in your county." He replied
"Governor, I was afraid to." The governor replied to him, "when I send
a man down there that is not afraid to handle those men without gloves,
then here you come with a howl. Now I expected when I sent Capt. Monks
down there, if he did his duty, that there would be a howl raised; I
am satisfied that he is doing his duty. I am responsible for his acts
and you men want to get rid of him; go home and tell your people to
organize companies under Captain Alley and aid Captain Monks and his
men in arresting and driving those bushwhackers and bandits out of your
country and whenever Captain Monks reports to me that the person and
property of your citizens are secure and that the civil law is being
enforced, he will be removed, and not before."

They then employed Colonel A. J. Sea as an attorney. Some time during
the night, while we were encamped on Fredericks Fork, some of the
soldiers took the sheriff out and put a rope around his neck to make
him tell where the bones of two soldiers were, who were murdered by
Jamison and his men. He admitted that he knew where the bones of the
two Federal soldiers were; that after they shot them Jamison gave him
the mule and saddle that one man was riding; that he was afraid not
to take them and promised as soon as the command reached Thomasville
to go and show the bones. On the next morning after our arrival at
Thomasville I procured a big box and placed it in a wagon and brought
the sheriff from the guard house and set him on a box under a strong
guard. About that time Colonel A. J. Sea came up and asked what we were
going to do with that man. I told him "That is my business; when you
was in the military service did you inform the civilians of your object
and aims? You are a civilian now and I will give you five minutes to
get outside of the lines or you will go into the guard house." He took
me at my word and left at once.

[Illustration: COLLECTING BONES OF TWO FEDERAL SOLDIERS SHOT BY COL.
JAMISON AND MEN IN OREGON COUNTY.]

The sheriff piloted the scout to the bones of the men that had been
murdered, and the sheriff, aided by the scout, picked up the bones and
placed them in the box. On examination it was found that three bullets
had passed through one of the skulls, and the other skull appeared to
have been shot all to pieces. I brought the bones in and caused them to
be buried in a cemetery, about one mile west of Thomasville.

Captain Alley had completed the organization of two companies, one
commanded by Captain Lasley and the other by Captain Bledsaw. The
companies were mostly composed of men who had been late Confederates,
as there were very few Union men in the county. They immediately fell
in with my soldiers and a vigorous search was at once made for Jamison
and his men. Being aided by men who were thoroughly acquainted with the
county and knew just where to look for Jamison and his cut-throats,
they agreed to keep on Jamison's track and arrest him and his men if
possible, in Oregon county. I moved my troops up into Shannon county to
prevent Jamison and his men from crossing over into Shannon and scouted
that county to keep them from hiding there. The Oregon county companies
shot and killed some of them and arrested others. Jameson and the
others left the county and never have returned to it since.

But they left some of their sympathizers in the county, and the
only weapons left them were their tongues; having no conscience or
principle, and instigated by the wicked one, they began lying and
preferring all manner of charges against the writer and his men who
went into the county and, by the aid of the law-abiding citizens, drove
out and arrested one of the worst set of men that ever lived, the
savage not excepted, and restored the civil law, so that every citizen
was secure in person and property.

The writer informed the governor that a large majority of the
citizens, both Confederate and Federal, had nobly responded to his
call, had organized two companies of militia to aid the sheriff in the
enforcement of the civil law; Jamison and his bushwhackers had either
been arrested, killed or driven from the county, and the strong arm of
the military law was not needed any longer.

On December 25, 1867, the writer was ordered by the governor to
withdraw his forces from the counties that had been placed under
martial law and declare the civil law to be in full force and effect. I
accordingly returned to Howell county and disbanded my soldiers.

During my march and stay in the counties of Oregon and Shannon, it was
admitted by all honorable Confederates that I had enforced a strict
discipline over my men and protected all classes of citizens in person
and property, had paid the people for all forage and commissaries that
were required for the soldiers, and had driven out the worst set of
bushwhackers, thieves and murderers that ever lived.



REMINISCENCES.


In the spring of 1866 the loyal men had mostly returned to their homes;
among them, Benjamin Alsup, who had been taken prisoner by the rebels
in 1861 and confined in the penitentiary at Little Rock, Ark. He was
released in 1865, when peace was made. There was but one house left in
West Plains, an old school house about one-quarter of a mile east of
the town spring, which was used for a court house. Judge Van Wormer,
who resided at Rolla, was judge of the circuit court and Mr. Perry
was circuit attorney. A short time after the return of Mr. Alsup, a
public meeting of the loyal men was called, signed by several loyal
men. At the date set the writer was present. The meeting was called to
order and Mr. Alsup was elected chairman. He stated the object of the
meeting, and among other things said: "The rebels have hung, murdered,
imprisoned and driven all the Union men from their homes, and _by the
living_, they didn't intend that a single rebel should live inside the
limits of Howell county." He was in favor of giving them ten days'
notice to leave the county, and if they were not gone by that time,
to shoot them down wherever found. Someone introduced a resolution
that the rebels be notified to leave with their families inside of ten
days or they would force them to leave. The resolution was seconded,
I got the floor and spoke as follows: "If that course is pursued, it
will ruin the county; peace has been made and Gen. Grant has ordered
the rebels to return home and become good citizens. Admitting that
everything Mr. Alsup has said is true and we were to turn around and
do the same that they did, we would be just as guilty as they were, and
it would be a question of might and not of right; and I want to say
here now, if any man injures a late rebel, except in self-defense or in
defense of his family or property, I will prosecute him to the bitter
end of the law." Mr. Alsup called another man to the chair and replied
to what I had said, saying: "_By the living_, I am surprised at Captain
Monks, a man who has been treated by the rebels as he has, who now gets
up here and says he will defend the rebels; _by the living_, I want
Capt. Monks to understand right here, now, that if any loyal man kills
a rebel and has to leave the country, and has no horse to ride, I will
furnish him a good horse to ride off on; and _by the living_, let him
prosecute me; he will have a sweet time of it." The next man that took
the floor was a Mr. Hall, who resided about eight miles south of West
Plains. He said: "I am just like Uncle Ben; if any loyal man kills a
rebel and has to leave the country, I will furnish him a good horse to
ride off on, and let Captain Monks prosecute me if he wants to; I don't
think it would be healthy for him to prosecute me for killing a rebel
or helping a man who did kill one." The resolution was put to a vote
and lost by a good majority.

Later in the spring, there was a man by the name of Finley living
seven or eight miles south of West Plains; the family was composed
of husband and wife, both of them about sixty-five years of age, a
daughter of twenty-two years and a son of about eleven. They had been
rebels, but were very quiet and peaceable citizens; they were residing
on government land, had good improvements and a good orchard. There
was a man by the name of Frederick Baker who had homesteaded the land
Mr. Finley was living on. Baker notified Finley to leave in ten days;
if not out in that time, they would be killed. Mr. Finley wanted pay
for his improvements before giving possession. At the expiration of ten
days, very early in the morning Mrs. Finley went into the lot to milk
the cows; Baker slipped up to the lot and with a Colt's revolver shot
the old lady dead. The daughter saw her mother fall, ran to her, and he
shot her; she fell by the side of her mother. The old man ran to the
door, reached up to get his gun out of the rack, when Baker placed his
pistol against his body and shot him dead. The pistol was so close to
Finley when discharged that the powder set his clothes on fire. The boy
was the only one of the family left; he ran to the nearest neighbor for
help and when they got back to the house they found the old man and his
wife dead and the daughter shot through the breast, maimed for life.
The old man's clothes were still on fire when the neighbors arrived.

Hall made his words good for he furnished Baker with a first-class
horse, saddle and bridle, to leave the country on and aided Baker in
making his escape. As soon as the writer learned of the murder he
caused an affidavit to be made and procured a warrant for the arrest
of Baker and had it put into the hands of the sheriff and did all in
his power to cause Baker's arrest, but by the aid given him by Hall
and others he made his escape. The writer reported the murder to the
Governor and the Governor offered a reward of three hundred dollars for
Baker's body, dead or alive. Baker never was arrested.

The writer was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney by Mr. Perry,
who was Circuit Attorney at that time. After I qualified I caused
an affidavit to be made against Mr. Hall charging him with being an
accessory to the murder before the fact and caused his arrest. I was at
once notified that if I attempted to prosecute Hall I would meet the
same fate as the Finley family. Hall was arrested, and the day set for
his preliminary trial at the school-house east of town. On the day
set for trial there were quite a number of persons present; the writer
appeared, armed with a good pistol, laid it by his side during the
progress of the trial; it was proven by the state that he, Hall, was
guilty as charged. The justice held him over to wait the action of the
grand jury and ordered him to enter into a recognizance of two thousand
dollars for his appearance at the next term of the Howell county
circuit court, which he readily filled and was released. Soon after his
release he took the fever and died. Baker never was captured. It was
one among the dirtiest murders that ever was committed in Howell county.

Gen. McBride, before the war, resided in Texas county, on a farm, and
was circuit judge of the 18th judicial circuit, which included Howell
county. He enlisted in the Confederate army and was placed in command
of the Confederate troops at West Plains. The Union men well remember
his famous order, given in the spring of 1861, that all Union men join
the Confederate service, and if they didn't join the Confederate army
he would hang them as high as Haman. After his term of service expired,
he moved his family to near Batesville, Ark., where he resided up to
near the close of the war. He was taken sick and died in the spring of
1866. Some of the friends of the widow in Texas county sent after her
and her family to bring them back to her farm. Reaching West Plains on
their return, they were out of money and provisions. They asked the
people to help them and a donation was taken up for her in West Plains;
I donated five dollars to help her back to her home in Texas county.

After the loyal men had returned to their homes and the civil law had
been fully restored I brought suits by attachment against the following
persons, to-wit: William Nicks, N. Barnett, for aiding the parties in
arresting and taking me from my home and abusing me while a prisoner.
I attached their real estate which was well improved and valuable;
procured a judgement of $8,000.00 against said real estate, procured
an execution and ordered the sale of said real estate. Before the time
for the sale Barnett and William Nicks came to me and admitted that
Barnett was 1st Lieutenant and Nicks 2nd Lieutenant of Capt. Forshee's
Confederate company, while I was held prisoner by said company and that
I was shamefully and cruelly treated while a prisoner, but they were
sorry for what they had done and hoped I would forgive them. Nicks
further said to me, that he had saved my life; that while I was a
prisoner, he overheard some of the Confederate soldiers agree that on
the next night while I was asleep they would slip up and shoot me in
the head, and he got his blankets and came and slept with me. I knew
that Nicks brought his blanket and slept with me one night, but did not
know why he did it.

Nicks and Barnett further said, "Captain you have us completely at
your mercy; we believe you are a good man and we were friends before
the war. You have a judgement against our homes and if you sell them
you will turn us and our families out of doors and leave us destitute
without any homes for our wives and children." I said, "I know it is
hard, for my wife and children were driven from their homes because
they were loyal to their government; but children shouldn't be held
responsible for the acts of their parents and I will say to you now
that I won't sell your homes, I will give them to your wives and
children; we are commanded in the best book of all books to do good for
evil; you men can each one pay me a small sum for expenses and I will
satisfy judgement." Barnett paid me $150. Nicks made a deed to some tax
lands and I entered satisfaction on the judgements. They both said to
me that they ever would be grateful for what I had done for them.

The country began to settle up and the people, irrespective of past
associations, formed new ones, especially the sons and daughters of
those who wore the blue and the gray, and seemed to forget that they
had ever been enemies. As time sped on these attachments ripened into
love. I had but two daughters living. Nancy E. Monks, the oldest,
married V. P. Renfrow, the son of a Confederate; they have two
children, a son, Charles, and a daughter, Mattie M., now grown. Mary M.
Monks, who married H. D. Green, whose father, a Confederate colonel,
died in the service. They have five children living and one dead, one
girl and four boys. Their children are Mattie E., now Mattie E. Bugg;
Will H. D., Frank, Russell and Dick. Adeline Turner, whom I had raised,
married Jacob Schoffler, a Union soldier, and has ten children, four
boys and six girls. Abraham Roach, a boy who had made his home with me
since infancy, married Mattie Hunt, a daughter of Jesse Hunt, a Union
soldier, has three children living, two girls and one boy, Maggie,
Frank and Bernice. I don't believe that there is any person that loves
their children better than I do, and I don't see any difference between
my grandchildren and my own children. I love my sons-in-law as well
as my own children; I love the girl and boy that I raised, and their
families feel as near to me as my own. They are flesh of our flesh and
bone of our bone, and our highest duty to God and them is to teach them
patriotism and loyalty to their government and that their first duty is
to God and their second duty to their country.

[Illustration: FRANK GREEN AND CHARLES RENFROW.]

God forbid that we ever have any more civil war. War is the enemy of
good society, degrades the morals of the people, causes rapine and
murder, destroys thousands of lives, brings misery and trouble upon the
whole people, creates a government debt that our children will not see
paid, makes friends enemies. God forbid that any more sectional strife
ever may grow up among the people; may there be no North, no South, no
East, no West, but let it be a government of the whole people, for the
people and by the people. May the time speedily come when the civilized
nations of the earth will know war no more; when the civilized nations
meet in an international congress, pass an international law that all
differences between nations shall be settled by arbitration. May this
nation in truth and in deed become a Christian nation and every man
speak the truth to his neighbor and adopt the Golden Rule, "Do unto
others as you would have them do unto you."

I take pleasure in giving the names of some of the loyal men who
resided in Howell county in 1861, at the commencement of the Civil war,
who stood for the Union in the dark hour when patriotism and loyalty to
country were tested: John McDaniel, sr., John McDaniel, jr., Jonathan
Youngblood, George Youngblood, David Nicholass, Thomas Wallace,
Martin Keel, Thomas Nicholass, Newton Bond, William Hardcastle, Siras
Newberry, William Newberry, David Henson, John Black, sr., Daniel
Black, Peter Lamons, John Lamons, Solomon Lamons, Thomas Lamons, Thomas
Brisco, Morton Langston, Stephen Woodward, Seth P. Woodward, Dr. D. D.
Emmons, Alfred Mustion, W. D. Mustion, John Mustion, Wesley Cordell,
Hugh Cordell, William Maroney, Henry Maroney, Collins Coffey, John
Coffey, William Coffey, John Chapin, Silas Chapin, Benjamin Alsup,
Andrew Smith, Andrew V. Tabor, Josiah Carrico, Josephus Carrico, John
Dent, Esau Fox, Thomas O. Brown, Jacob Shoffler, Thomas Rice, sr.,
Thomas Rice, jr., John W. Rice, Nathaniel Briggs, Captain Lyle, ----
Rhodes, Jesse Hunt, Joseph Spears, James West, Jesse West, Dent West,
Thomas Kelley.

I will give the names of a few of the men of Douglas county who
remained loyal to their country in 1861: Joseph Wheat, John Wheat,
Ervin King, John Coats, Locke Alsup, William Alsup, Thomas Alsup, Jack
Alsup, Shelt Alsup, Aaron Collins, William Collins, Toodie Collins, Doc
Huffman, Jariah Huffman, Madison Huffman, William Huffman.

I will give the names of a few of the men who resided in Ozark county,
at the commencement of the war, who remained loyal to their country in
the dark days when it tried men's souls to be loyal: James Kellet, sr.,
Marion Kellett, Washington Hawkins. Jesse James, William James, ----
Brown, R. R. Gilliland, Nace Turley, Washington Webster, Dick Webster,
Macajar Foster, Jacob Foster, Henry Saunders, Stephen Saunders, Allan
Saunders, Alexander Huffman, James Hall, Bennett James.

I would love to have space to tell of the patriotism, heroism and
devotion to their country, besides their good citizenship, of the men
of Howell, Douglas and Ozark counties, but suffice it to say that there
never was the same number of men, at any time, who made more sacrifices
for the preservation of their country than did these men in its darkest
hour. These patriots are growing old and will soon be gone and their
lips closed in death, and there will not be one left to tell of their
sacrifices and the services they rendered to their country in its
extreme need. History only will tell of the hardships, privations and
service that they rendered to the government. Will there be no history
left to tell of the heroism and devotion to their country in its
darkest hour? The answer will come from ten thousand tongues that their
history shall be written and go down to our children's children, that
they may learn of the heroism, privation and sacrifice that was made
by those brave men and women, that their country might live and not a
star be dropped from its banner. While history is being written and
monuments being erected to the Confederate soldiers for heroism, shall
we be so ungrateful to the loyal men and women, after they are dead and
gone, and not tell the rising generation of the heroism and sacrifice
they have made, that their country might live? The answer will come
from every loyal heart: No; a thousand times no; it shall be written
and perpetuated for generations not yet born.


Has Known Col. Monks Thirty Years.

I have known William Monks for thirty years or more. I have been in
court with him and a more kind and obliging man I never knew or had
dealings with. He is very considerate in regard to the feelings of
others, always willing to help those who need help. In later life he
joined the church and preached; since he began the Christian life,
I have never heard of any conduct that was not in conformity to his
profession of Christianity. Had he had the school advantages that
others have had, he would have been a power in the community where he
lived.

The writer of this was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, April
first, 1824. His father immigrated west and landed in Pittsburg in
1837. Then the writer of this migrated southwest and finally landed
in Tennessee. At Springfield he met Catherine Ebbert, or Abbott, as
they now call it, and married her March 20, 1856. She was born in
Reeseville, Kentucky, and is still living, aged 76 years last January.

                                                           J. B. WINGER,

                                                        West Plains, Mo.

[Illustration: MR. AND MRS. J. B. WINGER.]


Dr. Dixon's Long Acquaintance.

I will state that I came to Howell county in the year 1866 and settled
on Hutton Valley near where the town of Willow Springs now is. The
present townsite was then a small field without a fence and one small
log cabin. I followed the practice of medicine up to the present date.
I was 83 years old the 20th of August, 1906, and the picture I send you
was taken when I was 81 years old. I was born in McMinn county, East
Tennessee, and remained there until I was eleven years old when I left
there and have gone through many changes and experiences since then.
I served in the Mexican war. I married near Louisville, Ky., in 1849.
My wife is still living and is nearly eighty-five years of age and in
pretty fair health.

I will state that I have known Col. Wm. Monks and wife for over forty
years and know them to be good and true people. I will further state
that there were said to be but seventy-eight families in the entire
county of Howell, and four families in the town of West Plains in May,
1866 and Col. Wm. Monks was one of the four. Now I believe there is
a population in West Plains of over 4,000 and there is room for many
more. This is an educational town, fine colleges and high schools
besides quite a number of ward schools houses, almost entirely built of
brick. Schools last about nine months in the year.

                                        Respectfully yours,

                                            DR. J. C. B. DIXON,

                                                       West Plains, Mo.

[Illustration: DR. J. C. B. DIXON.]


Union Woman Leaves Arkansas for Missouri.

Mrs. Giddens, a widow, before the war resided in Conway county,
Arkansas. She had two sons, Brad and John, who were about grown at
the commencement of the war. This was a Union family and these two
boys, with others, kept themselves hid until the Confederates issued
a general order to hunt down all Union men and either force them to
join the Confederate army or hang them. The boys at once saw that they
would be arrested and forced into the Confederate service. They held a
consultation with their mother and decided to try to reach the Federal
lines near Rolla.

Their mother took a couple of wagons with a large yoke of oxen to each
wagon, and loaded them with her household goods, wearing apparel and
provisions to last them through. In the spring of 1864 they started
for Rolla. The boys traveled at night until they reached Missouri, and
on reaching Taney county they met some Federal troops and made their
way to Rolla, where they enlisted and joined the 16th U. S. Cavalry
Volunteers, and were attached to company K, commanded by Capt. Monks,
and served until peace was made and they were honorably discharged at
Springfield. Both of them are still living and are active ministers of
the church of Christ.

[Illustration: S. B. GIDDENS AND WIFE, MARY DEWETT AND STILLEN
STELLMAN.]

Their mother aimed to reach Rolla by way of West Plains, and on
reaching Howell county, near what is known as the Newt Bond farm, the
bushwhackers stopped her wagons and robbed her, and ordered her to
exchange her large cattle for smaller ones and her large wagon for a
small, light wagon, so that the small cattle could pull it. Finally,
after being stopped several times by the Confederate authorities, she
reached Rolla and found that her sons had enlisted in the Federal army.
She saw the stars and stripes unfurled and it appeared like a complete
change of country. Here she located and remained until her sons were
discharged from the United States service.

                                                      SAMUEL B. GIDDENS.

                                                        Summerville, Mo.

       *       *       *       *       *

All Union families were forced to leave Texas county. The illustration
contains the pictures of S. B. Giddens and wife, who were driven out;
also Mrs. Mary Dewett, now over seventy years of age, who was forced to
leave all she had and flee for her life; Mrs. Stillen Stellman, whose
father went to Rolla and got the Federal soldiers to guard him while he
removed his family.


Union Men Killed in Izard County, Ark.

                                         Moody, Mo., September 26, 1906.

Prior to and when the war of the rebellion broke out the writer of
this article was a citizen of Izard county, Arkansas; the few loyal
people that lived in North Arkansas, had a hope that war would be
averted and when Ft. Sumter was fired upon they realized the awful
condition and consequences of war at their very doors; those who
favored a dissolution of the states had given notice in no uncertain
way. And when the news was flashed over the country that there had
been a clash of arms, the persecution of the loyal people began in
the South and Central states by those that favored secession. They
organized themselves into companies and went from house to house
notifying all those that seemed not to take sides either way, that the
time had come when the sheep and goats had to be separated. The Union
element was arrested and many were sent to the penitentiary at Little
Rock, Arkansas, from the counties of Izard, Fulton and Independence.
Those people were robbed and plundered as long as there was anything
worth taking and some of them, after they had got all the Union people
had, commenced arresting and hanging the Union men. They arrested a
young man and placed a halter around his neck to hang him; he broke
loose from them and he was run one mile before he was caught; then he
was taken to a stooping ash tree and hung. The writer was creditably
informed that a man who was a prominent member of the Baptist church,
scratched the dirt from under his toes in order that he might hang
clear of the ground. I have seen the tree he was hanged on many times.

Another brutal murder was perpetrated upon the person of Rube Hudson,
a Union man who had been run from home and returned home in the winter
of 1865; from an exposure, he took sick with pneumonia; his wife had
secreted him under the floor near the chimney and fire place; the news
got out that he was at home, the rebels raided his house; every thing
in the way of beds and what little they had left was turned upside
down and they gave up the hunt and started away; a spell of coughing
came on him, for he was very ill and he was heard coughing by them and
they came back and tore up the floor and found him; they dragged him
out and took him about one hundred yards from the house; there he was
beaten and hung to make him tell of others who might have come with
him; finally he was hung and shot to death, where the family could hear
him pleading for his life; he made a special appeal to one of his near
neighbors calling his name and asking him to intercede for him and save
him. The only consolation he got was "you are a goner, Rube; you are a
goner, Rube," he was left hanging for the family to cut down and bury.
He met his death for no other cause than that of being a staunch Union
man.

Another bloodcurdling murder was perpetrated upon the person of Minor
White, for no other cause than that of being loyal to his country.
He was honest and upright in his dealings with his fellowmen, but he
was arrested, taken to the county seat of Izard county, tried and was
released. Before he started home a friend told him not to go the road
for they would follow him and kill him, he said: "I have always been
free to speak my sentiments; I have done nothing that I have to slip
back home through the woods. I am going to take the public highway, if
I am killed." He was overtaken about a mile out by the mob that took
him there; he was shot and otherwise mutilated and left hanging to a
tree.

I could mention many things that were done to the Union men and women
in Northern Arkansas that make me shudder to think of, and if I were to
undertake to relate all that came under my own observation, and many
incidents that took place in the counties mentioned that were related
to me by others who are entitled to credit for honor and truth. There
was not a Union family left at home in the counties above referred to.

I am opposed to war on general principles: first, it never settles the
issue; second, it is always a poor man's fight and a rich man's fuss;
third, if the poor soldier is fortunate enough to get back alive, the
debt is his to pay.

                                                            J. M. DIXON.

[Illustration: ADMINISTERING KUKLUX OATH.]



THE KUKLUX


The lawless bands that had been roving through the counties of Howell,
Oregon, Shannon and Dent had been captured, killed or driven out of
these counties by the officers of the law, aided by the militia forces
of the state. All classes of persons and men of every political faith
were secure in their person and property. The civil law was enforced
to the letter and the people generally looked to the bright future of
Missouri.

In the fall of 1868, in the month of September during a political
campaign that was being made in Howell county, while a political
speaking was going on at Black's store in Benton township in the
southwest part of the county, a courier came with a dispatch stating
that Captain Simpson Mason, registering officer of Fulton county,
Arkansas, had been shot and killed from ambush, near the state line
adjoining Howell county, by men who styled themselves Kuklux, and had
ordered all Union men, and especially the officers of the law, to keep
inside of their doors and to tender their resignations as such officers
or they would fare the same as Mason had. It was stated that the
law-abiding citizens were without arms and that the Kuklux were raiding
the whole country; the whole country was being terrorized by said men
and in God's name asked us to come and bring men and arms to aid the
civil officers to enforce the law. The writer advised the people to be
cool; that if there was an organization in the state of Arkansas to
overturn the state government and the loyal people of said state were
helpless, since the rebels at the commencement of the Civil war had had
no regard for state lines I thought that we would have the same right
to go down and help our loyal brethern to enforce the civil law.

A committee of twelve men was selected to say what action we would
take; among the committee were Benjamin Alsup, Rev. Adam Wright, Rev.
John Collins, David Nicholass. Old men were placed on the committee.
The committee retired to deliberate upon the matter, and in a short
time returned and made the following report: "That we, the loyal
people of Howell county, go at once with all available men and arms."
The writer had in his possession at that time one hundred Springfield
rifles, with one thousand rounds of cartridges for each gun. During the
night and the next day about seventy-five men were organized into a
temporary company and were placed under the command of Uncle Benjamin
Alsup. On the night following we made a forced march reaching the
Widow Pickrum's farm, situated on Bennet's river, in Fulton county,
Arkansas, the next morning. We found Captain Richardson, with one
company of state guards, fortified in a barn. On our arrival we offered
our services to Captain Richardson, which were readily accepted. They
were looking for an attack to be made by the Kuklux at any moment, as
Colonel Tracy was said to be at Jackson Port with three hundred and
fifty well armed Kuklux.

While waiting for further orders from Governor Clayton a vigorous
search was commenced for the murderers of Captain Mason. We soon
learned that on the day previous to the murder of Mason he was
registering the voters on the Big North Fork, at what was known as
the Calhoun mill, and on the next day he was to meet the people at
the Harbor Precinct for registration. And on the previous night the
Kuklux, according to a general move that was to be made throughout the
state, met at Colonel Tracy's, at the Widow Pickrum farm. Among them
were Colonel Tracy, Dow Bryant, U. R. Bush, and about forty others;
they selected about twenty men to do the shooting and divided them into
three bunches and erected three blinds, as they did not know which road
Captain Mason might travel. They placed about seven well armed men in
each blind, who had been sworn by the Kuklux and after they had been
placed in their blinds one of the men who did the shooting said, "Let
him come; I am sure to get him for I can hit an old gobbler's neck that
distance." The blind was erected where the road made a short curve with
very thick brush on the left side of the road. When Captain Mason and
posse had approached within about thirty yards of the blind they fired
a volley, five of the shots taking effect in Mason's body. Captain
Mason fell from his horse and expired in a few moments. The assassins
fled through a thick bottom growth. Bryant, Bush, and two or three
others were arrested, charged with being a part of the men who did the
shooting. They were arrested by the state guards, as the civil officers
were afraid to issue a single warrant on account of the threats of the
Kuklux. On an investigation it was proven that Tracy, Bryant, Bush and
about forty others were present the night before Mason's murder. And
that Bush was the man who remarked after he had gone into the blind
"Let him come. I can get him. I can hit an old gobbler's neck that far."

In the meantime, the governor had gotten a dispatch through to
Capt. Richardson that the Kuklux in large numbers were organizing
and threatening to attack the state officers; that he and the state
officers were barricaded in the state house and that he was organizing
the state guards as fast as possible. Capt. Richardson was ordered to
recruit every available man and protect the civil officers as far as
possible; that he had made arrangements to send arms and ammunition
up White river on a boat. I suggested to Benjamin Alsup and others
who had come down from Missouri that the only way we could make our
acts legal would be to join the state guards and be mustered into the
state service, to which proposition my old friend Alsup objected and
remarked: "That's the way with Monks; he is afraid he will hurt some
rebel, contrary to law. Now, by the living, I came down here to hang
some of these old rebels and murderers to the first limb we come to,
and if we have to join the state guards and wait on the civil and
military law to punish them, they never will be punished. I am going
back to Missouri." About two-thirds of the men who came down enlisted
in the state service; Alsup and others returned to Missouri.

As soon as Governor Clayton learned that the writer had come into the
state with men and arms, he sent another dispatch stating that he
and all the law-abiding people of the state would ever be grateful
to him for furnishing men and arms at a time when they were entirely
helpless and at the mercy of a secret and bloodthirsty enemy, bent on
overthrowing the state government; that if I would remain in the state
with my men and arms he would make me lieutenant-colonel of the seventh
regiment of state guards.

We were watching the movements of the Kuklux, and in about eight
or ten days after the murder of Capt. Mason, late one evening, the
deputy sheriff of the county came to headquarters and informed Capt.
Richardson that there were three hundred and fifty Kuklux, well armed,
in camp at Salem, the county seat of Fulton county, and intended to
attack Capt. Richardson before day, the next morning; they had ordered
him, the deputy sheriff, under penalty of death, to bring Bush and
turn him over to them. A brief consultation was held by the officers,
and being satisfied that they were not able to meet the force of Kuklux
then marching upon them, it was agreed that the writer should take the
men from Missouri and recruit men for the service and get all the arms
and ammunition that were left at home and return with all possible
speed. In the meantime, they would retreat to some secluded place and
watch the movements of the Kuklux. They turned Bush over to the deputy
sheriff and he started in the direction of Salem, and Capt. Richardson
broke camp and retreated. The deputy sheriff had not traveled more than
two miles when a posse of armed men met him and demanded Bush, and he,
supposing that they were a part of the Kuklux command, turned him over.
They took him about two hundred yards and shot him to death. The next
morning, before daylight, Col. Tracy charged upon the late camp of
Capt. Richardson, but found it had been vacated.

The Kuklux began a regular, organized system of raiding the Union men's
houses, especially the officers of the civil law, posting written
notices, ordering their resignations at once, and if they attempted the
arrest of any Kuklux, death would be the penalty. They posted a picture
of a coffin with the notice, at the same time ordering all influential
Union men to leave the state at once, under the penalty of death. In
about two weeks the governor ordered a part of the seventh regiment of
state guards to Fulton county, to be stationed on Bennett's river, and
to complete the organization of the regiment with all possible speed;
Col. Dail was placed in command.

After my return home, I organized three companies, commanded by Capt.
F. M. Monks, Capt. Nicolas and Capt. Rice. About three days after the
regiment reached Fulton county, the writer rejoined his regiment with
three companies, one hundred Springfield rifles and one thousand
rounds of cartridges for each gun, and soon completed the organization
of the regiment; he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the regiment.

The governor had sent arms and ammunition up White river, but the
Kuklux captured and sunk the boat with all the arms and ammunition. The
governor said that my arrival saved the north part of the state from
the control of the Kuklux, as he would not have been able to procure
arms for months. The regiment began an active campaign at once, by
which they came into possession of the intentions, aims, secrets and
oaths of the order; found that the order extended up into Missouri,
along the state line. It was a complete military organization. The
intention was to overturn the state government by intimidating the
civil officers of the state, and with this purpose in view they
procured a human skull and two thigh bones, and while the member was
looking on these bones the following oath was administered by the grand
cyclops:

"We (or I, as the case might be) do solemnly swear before Almighty God
and these witnesses, and looking upon these human bones, that I will
obey and carry into effect every order made by any cyclops or assistant
cyclops, and if I fail to strictly conform and execute every order
made as above required of me, unless I am prevented from some cause
which shall be no fault of mine, or if I shall give any information to
any person or persons except members of this order, that the doom of
all traitors shall be meted out to me, and that my bones may become
as naked and dry as the bones I am looking upon. And I take this oath
voluntarily, without any mental reservation or evasion whatever, for
the causes set out in said order, so help me God."

After the oath had been taken the persons taking said oath were
ready for duty. The intentions and aims of this organization were to
intimidate the civil officers and, if necessary to the accomplishment
of their aims, to kill and murder all officers of the state by
assassination or drive them from the state. All civil officers of
the state were at once notified to tender their resignations and to
cease to discharge their official duties as peace officers, and if
they failed to comply with said order, death would be the penalty The
governor and all the state officers received the same order; all Union
men that were influential in the state were ordered to keep themselves
in doors or be driven from the state, or be murdered by assassination.
The following words, with pictures of coffins, were attached to said
notices:

"If you fail to comply with this notice, this coffin will be your final
resting place."

The Kuklux organization, having but one object and aim, to turn the
state government over to the control of the late rebels or Democratic
party of the state, was a complete secret military organization with
the most desperate means to-wit: Murder, by assassination whenever
ordered by a cyclops or assistant cyclops.

A grand cyclops took the place of a colonel. An assistant cyclops
lieutenant-colonel. An order from one of these officers to shoot any
man was final, from which there was no appeal; and men were selected to
execute said order by the most desperate oath known to man or history.
This kind of warfare, being inaugurated throughout the whole state,
with a thorough understanding that their organization would revolt
against the civil authorities of the state government, and had the day
set throughout the whole state.

On the same day that Captain Simson Mason was assassinated in Fulton
county, Ku-Klux attempted to assassinate Governor Clayton in Little
Rock. They were seen in considerable numbers near the state capitol,
after night, all wearing masks. They notified the governor, that they
intended to capture and take possession of the state capitol by a
force, if he did not resign his office as governor; the danger became
so great that he barricaded the state house, as he had but few state
troops. The whole state was invaded by the Kuklux at the same time
and they commenced raiding the state in bands of from twenty-five to
two hundred and fifty men; all wore masks and large rubber pouches
concealed by a cover. They visited the Union men and colored men's
houses and raided the whole country generally, proclaiming that they
were dead rebels who had been shot on the different battlefields during
the civil war and that they had come back to rid the state of black
republicans and carpet-baggers.

They would claim that they were very thirsty, that they never had a
drink of water since they had been killed at the battles of Gettysburg,
Corinth, Vicksburg, and other big battles. They would call on the
colored people to bring them a bucketful and one of their number would
pour the whole bucketful into his pouch and called for more water,
making the colored people believe that they drank the water; then
they would give the colored people orders not to be caught off their
plantations, and if so caught, the penalty of death would be inflicted;
many of the influential colored people were shot down. The author saw a
number of fresh graves of the colored people that had been shot by the
Kuklux; saw holes in windows in houses in towns and villages that had
been shot through after night, while men were reading, who had been
notified to resign their offices or stop using their influence in favor
of the enforcement of the civil law.

The author remembers passing some colored people on the side of the
road; one old colored woman cried out at the top of her voice "Lawd,
massa, massa are you men hunting dem dar Kuklux? Wi, da told us dat
bullets wouldn't kill them. I fought we could fight live men but
when it come to fightin dead men, don't know what to tink about it.
Wi dey come to our house, rode up to de fence called for water; said
they hadn't any water since the battle of Shiloh. Wi, one man drank a
bucketful, and den call for mo. I thought to my soul that they would
never get enuf water." The author replied, "Auntie, when these rebels
are killed, they never get back here; the bad man keeps them to build
fires for him. These Kuklux are the men that ran away from the battle
of Shiloh and have just crawled out of their dens. That's why they are
masked." The old woman said, "Dat what I thought bout it." While the
Kuklux were raiding the country they visited an old darkie's house and
gave him three day's notice to leave the country; and if he failed to
leave they would visit him again and death would be his penalty. In
about three or four day, twenty-five or thirty Kuklux rode up to his
cabin in the night and called for him; he was armed with an old U. S.
musket; he fired into the crowd and killed one of the band and then ran
and made his escape.

Part of the regiment received orders to report to General Upham,
who was stationed at Cottonplant, on White river, leaving Captain
Richardson in charge of the forces in Fulton county and Captain Toney
in charge of the troops in Izard and Sharp counties. The regiment broke
camp and marched by way of Jacksonport and on their arrival went into
camp on the Wadel farm, two miles below Jacksonport. The Kuklux had
declared that we should not march through Jacksonport. A brother-in-law
of Mr. Wadel from North Missouri invited the writer to supper; the
writer believing that a trap had been fixed to decoy him outside of the
lines took one lieutenant and a posse of men and went to his house; on
our arrival, we found a bountiful supper; had every thing that a hungry
man could wish; had eggnog served in silver cups with silver spoons.
The residence was about forty-two by twenty feet; two large rooms with
a ten-foot hall between, with kitchen on west side, fine portico, with
about ten or twelve negro cabins, about sixty to one hundred feet from
the dwelling-house. Just before supper I noticed eight or ten men
come in on foot dressed in gray clothing. I at once ordered my men
to be ready at any moment and to not let them get the drop on them.
Just about the time that most of my men were through eating supper,
I noticed that some of the men that came in to the supper table had
arms on their persons and noticed that the negroes were excited. I
stepped out at a back door and just as I entered the hall door I saw
the landlord approaching the room where my men were seated at the table
with a navy pistol cocked in his right hand, holding it behind his
back. Just as he attempted to open the door where my men were seated at
the supper table, I sprang forward and grabbed his pistol and wrenched
it out of his hand, and said to him, "Don't you dare to attempt to
shoot one of my men." He turned around facing me and said "I went all
through the Civil war and you are the first men that ever disarmed
me." In a moment my men had pistols in hand ready for action, and I
noticed some of the men that came dressed in gray had pistols in their
pockets. I remarked to them, "I came here on an invitation; I am here
as a guest, I wish to treat all persons as gentlemen, especially the
landlord and his family; but this hostile move made upon the part of
the landlord and the presence of these armed men shows me that there is
something wrong." I ordered my men to fall in line and return to the
camp. His wife appeared to be a perfect lady and her husband appeared
to be under the influence of whiskey. He agreed that if I would release
him, he would go into his room and stay there until my men had all
returned to the camp. After he had gone into his room, I gave his
revolver to his wife on her promising not to give it to him until the
next morning.

I learned from Mr. Wadel's brother-in-law that he came from northern
Missouri at the commencement of the war and at about the close of the
war he married his sister; that he was a cyclops and came to Fulton
county in the Kuklux raid, and that the men who came that evening were
all Kuklux, that if I had gone alone to his supper, I would have been
killed.

The next morning we broke camp and resumed our march. On the regiment
arriving at Cottonplant, Col. Dail reported to Gen. Upham and we were
ordered into camp. As soon as the citizens of the city learned of my
arrival, they requested Gen. Upham that I be invited to deliver a
speech in the city hall; that they had heard and read of Col. Monks
and they wanted him to deliver an address to the people at early
candle-light on the present condition of the state. There were about
seven or eight hundred men stationed at the post. After supper, the
adjutant sent an order by an orderly to detail about fifty men for a
patrol guard; that the soldiers had broken into the warehouse and were
taking out whiskey and other articles. I ordered the detail to be made
and report at headquarters for further orders. Our headquarters were
not more than forty yards from the warehouse. I spoke in an audible
voice, "Now, we claim that our mission as soldiers is to protect
persons and property. I want you to see that your guns and pistols
are well loaded, and go direct to the warehouse first and arrest all
soldiers that you find in or about the warehouse and take them to the
guardhouse and there keep them safe until further orders, and patrol
the city closely. Order all soldiers and officers who have not passes
to be inside of their quarters in thirty minutes, and if you find any
soldiers on the street after thirty minutes, arrest them and take them
to the guardhouse; if they resist you, shoot them; and if you have to
shoot, shoot to kill." About that time some man near the warehouse
called out: "Who in hell are you? This whiskey is Kuklux whiskey,
and we will take what we please." I replied, "If we cannot enforce
discipline over the soldiers, we will go back home and send others; you
will find out who I am if you wait until the patrol gets there."

I ordered the officer to sound the reveille. Inside of thirty minutes
every soldier was inside of his quarters. The citizens said that such
a thing had not occurred since the post had been established. Capt.
Sharp was reckless when drinking; he had mutinied and the men that were
disposed to be wild had terrorized the people of the city. Gen. Upham
had failed to enforce discipline over Capt. Sharp and his company.
Capt. Sharp had ridden up and down the streets before the regiment had
arrived and proclaimed, "when Colonel Monks arrives we will clean all
the Kuklux up." The citizens were considerably frightened on my arrival
in August, but after they saw how completely I enforced discipline
everything became quiet, they appeared to be perfectly secure in person
and property.

On the next night, at early candle light, the large hall was filled.
After being introduced by Gen. Upham, I spoke in part as follows:

"Gentlemen and fellow citizens of Arkansas: I am from your sister
state, Missouri, and I am very sorry to find you people in the state
of war. War is not very pleasant; it has its effects upon society;
demoralizes the morals of the people, besides the great sacrifice
of life and property. Besides this, it alienates those who should
be brethern and makes them bitter enemies. Your people may ask the
question, what right have you Missourians to come down into our state?
My first answer will be, Captain Simpson Mason was but recently
assassinated in Fulton county, near the state line, while in the
discharge of his official duty. At the commencement of the civil war
he was a citizen of Fulton county, Arkansas, and I was a citizen of
Howell county, Missouri. Both of us were unconditional Union men.
Both of us were driven from our homes and posses of men from your
state, regardless of the state lines, scouted our county, murdering
and driving out Union men, women and children and hung and shot down
loyal men. Captain Mason and I met in the early part of the war of
the rebellion and soon become fast friends. Served together during
the war. When peace was made we determined to go back home. Men would
meet us and say "If you men go back among the old rebels who hate you
so badly they will kill you." Our reply would be, "Damn a man that is
afraid to go back and enjoy the fruits of his victory." We met and
pledged our sacred honor to each other that if, after our return to our
old homes, either one of us was killed by the late rebels, the other
would do all in his power to bring the guilty parties to justice. A
better and truer man never lived than Captain Simpson Mason. Each of
us came back with the olive leaf in his mouth. Now I don't say that
all rebels are Kuklux, but I will say all Kuklux have been late rebels
and have organized a secret organization, the objects and aims of
which are to overturn the civil government of your state by murder and
intimidations, through the most vile and desperate means known to man,
the savage not excepted. Besides your organization extends into the
border counties of Missouri and as the rebels thought right to cross
the state line during the Civil war, we think it right to cross it
now to help our loyal brethern, and these are the causes that brought
us to your state. We don't want booty. We want to see the civil law
enforced, and we ask your cooperation, and promise you, that all law
abiding citizens, be they Union or rebel, shall be protected in person
and property during our stay in your state and we intend to enforce the
very strictest discipline among our troops. I hope by the cooperation
of the people of your state this unholy war will soon cease." At the
conclusion of the speech they gave three cheers for Missouri troops.

[Illustration: MAKING A PLEDGE--Col. Wm. Monks and Capt. Simpson
Mason.]

On the third day after our arrival at Cottonplant, Captain J. B.
Nicholas' and Captain Sharp's companies were ordered to be detached
from the regiment and placed under the command of the author and
ordered to march at once and report at Marion, the county seat of
Crittenden county for further orders. On our arrival at Marion we were
ordered to proceed directly to Osceola, the county seat of Mississippi
county, Arkansas and to erect a military post and issue an order
ordering all the persons that were armed to come in and take the oath.
On our arrival at that place to report the same to the Governor of the
state. I issued the following general order:

"To the people of the state of Arkansas, especially the citizens
of Mississippi county; greeting; whereas a part of the people,
disregarding their duties as good law-abiding citizens, have by
and through a secret organization known as Kuklux revolted against
the civil government of the state of Arkansas and are now armed
and attempting by murder and intimidations to overthrow the civil
government of the state, now therefore, by the authority in me vested
and as commander of said post, do order all persons who may be in
armed hostility to the present government and those who may be by act
or deed aiding or encouraging those who are in arms against the legal
constituted laws of the state to return to their allegiance and aid in
enforcing the civil law. And any person who may be found from and after
this date armed or aiding or abetting those who are in arms against the
civil law of the state will be promptly arrested and punished to the
extent of the law.

WM. MONKS, commanding the post."

When I arrived there was not a single civil officer in this county.
They had either resigned or had kept themselves indoors. I at once
commenced a vigorous campaign and soon learned that there were two men
charged with being cyclops; one of them resided about thirty miles
down the river on an island; he was charged with killing eight or ten
colored people. I made a detail of about fifty men and placed them in
charge of Captain Sharp and ordered him to go down and arrest both and
bring them up to headquarters. The second day after the scouts started
they returned by steamboat with both men, as well as several other
prisoners. After the boat arrived Captain Sharp came to headquarters
and suggested the release of one of the men as he didn't think he was
guilty. I ordered the prisoners brought to headquarters at once. There
was a man by the name of Edington who resided in Osceola, one of the
wealthiest men in the county; he was well acquainted with one of the
men, as he had been sheriff of the county in which he resided and
a colonel in the Confederate army. He asked me to parole him to the
limits of the city and he would go on his bond for one thousand dollars
until said charges could be investigated. In a few days after he was
paroled Mr. Edington came into the office and informed me that after
his arrest and while on the boat coming up the river Cap. Sharp came
to him in the presence of the captain of the steamboat and remarked.
"Well, colonel, you have got a hard man holt of you now; if you will
pay me one hundred and fifty dollars I can use my influence with Col.
Monks and have you released." The colonel said to Captain Sharp that
he didn't have the money with him. The captain of the steamboat said
to the colonel, "I have the money, I will loan it to you." The colonel
paid Captain Sharp one hundred and fifty dollars. Captain Sharp agreed
to have him released and let him go back on the boat. Mr. Edington said
he had watched all my proceedings since I took command of the post and
had become satisfied that my highest aim was to protect every person in
his person and property.

I ordered the orderly to arrest the colonel and bring him to
headquarters. I told him that I had been informed that after his arrest
and while in custody of Captain Sharp on the steamboat he paid Captain
Sharp one hundred and fifty dollars and Captain Sharp was to release
him and let him return home on the boat. He admitted that he paid the
money and made a full statement of all the facts that caused him to
pay the money. I notified Captain Sharp to appear at headquarters at
once. Informed him of what I had just learned, that while he had the
colonel prisoner, coming up on the steamboat, that he, the prisoner,
paid him one hundred and fifty dollars to procure his release. Captain
Sharp admitted that it was true; I asked the captain if he had the
money. He said he had. I asked the colonel if he had a friend that he
could pay the money to; that I could not pay the money to him, that he
might bribe another one of my officers. He said that I could pay the
money to Mr. Edington. Captain Sharp paid the money to Mr. Edington by
the order of the colonel. I ordered the colonel to the guardhouse for
bribing my officers. I ordered Captain Sharp to report at headquarters
the next day at ten o'clock. The Captain promptly appeared at the
hour set. We went into the back room of my office alone. The captain
and myself took seats. I said to the captain, "I am very sorry that
this thing occurred; that you have allowed one of your prisoners to
bribe you and you have betrayed that confidence imposed in you by
the state. It become my painful duty to place you under arrest and
of all crimes known to the criminal calender the worst is that one
of treason. We claim that we are hunting violaters of the law and if
we become violaters of the law then it will devolve on the state to
place a new set of men in the service so that all violaters of the law
can be arrested and brought to justice. Now I have been informed that
while you composed a part of the command stationed at Cottonplant under
General Upham you was arrested for disorderly conduct and you caused
your company to mutinize. Now I want to say to you that I am going to
put you under arrest and disarm you and I will parole you to the limits
of the city and your first lieutenant will be placed in command of the
company and if you cause your men to mutinize I will arrest the whole
company and send them to Little Rock."

I ordered the whole company to appear at headquarters and informed
them of what I had done. I then sent the orderly and brought out the
colonel and paroled him to the limits of the city under one thousand
dollar bond. I never had a more obedient set of soldiers in all my
service than Captain Sharp's company and they were as true and as brave
men as ever lived. Captain Sharp said he was sorry for what he had
done and I had done my duty and in about one week I returned his arms
and placed him in command of his company. And during the remainder
of service Captain Sharp discharged every duty with honor to himself
and his state. While I was in command of the post I made a vigorous
campaign. Arrested or drove out all the armed Kuklux and had the civil
law fully put in force and the ministers of the gospel reorganized
their churches and business of all kinds was resumed. Intimidations
of the people, of the civil officers, and of the county by the Kuklux
was a thing of the past. I received orders from the adjutant general
at Little Rock to declare the civil law enforced in Mississippi county
and to report with my command to the commander of the post at Marion,
Crittendon county, Arkansas, for further orders. My command was
conveyed by steamboat to Hopefield and from Hopefield we marched to
Marion.

And in obedience to said orders I issued the following order: "To all
whom it may concern, especially to the citizens of Mississippi county,
Arkansas, I send greeting. It affords me great pleasure to say to the
people of Mississippi county that the Kuklux organization is completely
broken up and there is no armed opposition to the enforcement of the
civil law. Therefore, by the power in me vested I declare the civil law
from this date in full force and effect in said county. And I invite
all good citizens to aid in the enforcement of the civil law.

WM. MONKS, Commander of the post."

And when the people of the city learned that my command had been
ordered to leave the city they at once presented the writer with a
new suit of clothes. And on the arrival of the boat and while we were
loading our camp equipage, arms and amunition, about three or four
hundred persons composed of men, women, and children assembled on
the bank of the river to bid us good-bye. And as the boat moved out
they waved their handkerchiefs and hats and gave three cheers for the
soldier boys and their commanders.

On our arrival at Marion we turned over our guns, amunition and camp
equipage and were ordered by the adjutant general to proceed to
Jacksonport for further orders and on our arrival at Jacksonport the
writer was ordered to leave his command at Jacksonport and to report
in person to the governor at Little Rock. On my arrival at Little
Rock I was informed by the adjutant general that the governor was
dangerously sick and confined to his room. The legislature of the state
being in session I was invited by both houses to deliver an address to
the legislature. Both bodies met in the lower house. The writer was
introduced by the speaker. Spoke as follows:

"Mr. President of the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas,
it affords me great pleasure to have the honor of addressing this
august body of men assembled in this hall. Men who have been elected
by the people of the whole state. Men who have the interest of the
people at heart. Men who have the confidence of the people. Men who
are intelligent and know what kind of laws the people need. Men who
are determined to do your whole duty; men who have the courage,
patriotism and love of country at heart, who have stood by your post
while one of the most secret organizations, known as Kuklux, bound by
one of the most desperate oaths to overturn your state government by
intimidation and murder of all the civil officers of the state and
to kill and murder the loyal citizens of your state. The intention
of said organization was to overturn the legally constituted laws of
the state, but through the untiring effort of your governor and his
subordinate officers and the loyal people of your state and the valor
and patriotism of your soldiers, this organization has been completely
routed and broken up and the civil law is again declared to be enforced
in your state. Now may your wisdom as legislators guide you and your
successors in all duties that you may be called upon to perform in
the legislative capacity. And may you always have the interest of the
whole people at heart. And may all the laws that may be enacted by this
legislature or your successors be in the interest of the whole people.
And may patriotism and the love of both state and nation grow in the
hearts of your people and may they become so united that nothing can
sever that cord of love for their state and nation. May God's blessing
guide and direct every one of your public acts, and go with you to your
homes and families and now that your state is once more at peace and
the civil law is being enforced, and your people are secure both in
person and property, I therefore will return to Missouri to the bosom
of my family. I bid you all good bye."

The whole house rose to its feet and gave three cheers and pressed
forward to give the writer a good, parting handshake.

The governor continued to grow worse. The doctors would not admit any
person to his sick room. The adjutant general informed me that the
governor wanted to see me in person. That I had come to the rescue of
the people with men and arms, when the loyal people were completely
overpowered and saved the northern part of the state from the control
of the Kuklux. He said the governor was well pleased with my services
while in the State; that even the rebels spoke in the highest terms
in regard to the discipline that I enforced over my men; that I had
protected the person and property of both Union and rebel, and that
I had given general satisfaction to all classes of persons that were
favorable to the enforcement of the civil law and that it was the
desire of the governor to promote me to a brigadier-general for the
valuable services that I had rendered in the state, and place me in
command of the northern district. I said "You can tell the governor
when he gets well that I was very sorry to find him sick, that it
would have been a pleasure to me to have met him in person. And the
offer that he has made to me to promote me to brigadier-general for
the meritorious services that I have rendered to the state places me
under many obligations to his honor for the high esteem and confidence
he imposes in me, as touching my military service, and as a private
citizen while in this state. And while I thank him for his offer to
promote me to the rank of brigadier-general and place me in command of
the northern district of Arkansas, I must decline the offer and return
to Missouri for I love the people of my state, I love my home and my
desire is to become a private citizen. The only thing that impelled me
to come into your state was to aid the state in enforcing the civil law
and protect your people from assassination and murder and to do all in
my power to aid in bringing violaters of law to justice. This being
accomplished and civil law again being enforced in every part of the
state, my services as a soldier and an officer not being needed any
longer I will ask you again to give my respects to the governor and
will ever hold his memory sacred, and may God's blessing rest upon
the people of your state and your chief executive. So I will bid you
good-bye."

I returned to Jacksonport and rejoined my command and marched directly
to West Plains. There my men bid each other good-bye and returned to
their homes, hoping that this thing of war would be over forever.

On my arrival home I found, to my great surprise, a new political
organization, composed of men who styled themselves Liberal
Republicans, and democrats and rebels; and through some of the most
vicious and unprincipled rebels, they charged me with being a thief
and a murderer. My friends came to me and requested that I at once
institute suits of slander against them, for they knew that it was
false from beginning to end. During the intervening time they had
called an indignation meeting and publicly denounced me as a thief and
murderer. I instituted a civil suit for slander against all persons who
took part in said indignation meeting. I also instituted suit against
one other man on the same charge. The county of Howell at that time,
especially the judicial circuit, was presided over by a judge, who was
an extreme democrat. The defence made application to the judge for
a change of venue from this judicial circuit; he ordered the change
sent to Laclede county, to the city of Lebanon, before Judge Fian.
The defence then set about taking depositions. I was notified to
meet them in Sharp county at Evening Shade for the purpose of taking
depositions. When we met at Evening Shade they commenced hunting around
for witnesses to prove their charges, but failed to find a single
one. But every person they interviewed touching the charges declared
that they were false and that Colonel Monks enforced discipline over
his men while he was in their state and protected every one in
person and property and that all classes of persons regarded him as
being perfectly honest and a good military officer; they failed to
procure a single witness at that place. I next was notified to meet
them in Oregon county, at the court house, for the purpose of taking
depositions. I accordingly armed myself with two good navy revolvers
and went to Alton, the county seat of Oregon county; the circuit court
being in session at that time, on my arrival I put up at a boarding
house conducted by Alfred Harris, who still resides in that county.
Circuit court being in session I went into the court room and remained
until recess. Just after recess the judge came and told me that he had
been informed that a mob then had the court house surrounded and was
going to mob me whenever I entered the square, and to remain in the
court room for a few minutes and he would try and have the mob removed;
in eight or ten minutes the deputy sheriff returned and informed me
that the mob had been removed, and that I could go down and go to my
hotel. As I passed down I saw about fifty or sixty men in front of the
saloons, swearing at the top of their voices "He fought us during the
civil war and he shall not be allowed to come into this county and
live." After reaching the hotel, Mr. Harris with several other friends
urged me not to meet the parties, who were going to take depositions in
one of the rooms of the court house, for they believed the mob would
kill me. I laughed and told them that I reckoned not and that I thought
the war was over and that they couldn't play that game on me, to notify
me to meet them to take the depositions and then prepare a mob to
prevent me from appearing, so that they would be able to manufacture
evidence in the case. And I would either be present at one o'clock,
the time I was notified to meet them, or I would die in the attempt.
So I appeared promptly at one o'clock, the time set, but not one of
the opposite party, either attorney or client put in an appearance.
I remained there until four o'clock and still no appearance had been
entered by the defendants or their attorneys, and I again returned to
my hotel, after circuit court had adjourned for the day.

While we were seated at the table eating supper, a man rapped at the
hotel door and called to Mr. Harris, the landlord, that he wanted to
see him privately for a few moments. Mr. Harris soon returned and
remarked to the writer that he had been ordered to deliver a message;
that he had just been informed that a mob of about one hundred men then
had the hotel surrounded and they would give me ten minutes to get out
of town or I would be shot to death. I replied to Mr. Harris, "In the
first place, I am too old to run; and in the second place, if these
bushwhackers have not shed enough innocent blood, they will have the
best opportunity now that they will ever get; tell them that I don't
intend to leave or run." Mr. Harris said that he would deliver the
message to the bearer.

There were two Confederates seated at the table, eating. They said,
"What does this mean? We thought the war was over." They got up and
left the table. After the writer finished his supper, he retired to
the sitting room, which adjoined Mr. Harris' library. Mr. Harris
immediately came in and offered to barricade the doors and windows.
I objected. He then remarked that the mob would shoot in through the
windows, that he would blind the windows. I consented to his putting
blinds on the windows, but that the doors shouldn't be interfered
with. There was but one door entering the sitting room except the door
that came through the library. I took my seat on a bench where I could
reach the knob of the door with my left hand and hold my revolver in
my right hand. Mr. Harris proposed to blow out the lights, to which
I objected. I told him that if the mob came I wanted the light so
that I could see how to shoot. He then took his seat and entered into
conversation. In a few moments some person took hold of the knob of
the door. I rose to my feet with my revolver cocked, in my right hand
and let the door open just so that one man could enter at a time. Mr.
Maxey, of Howell county, an attorney-at-law, had come in to get a
book out of the library, not knowing that there was any trouble up.
As he came inside of the room I had my pistol cocked and presented on
his left breast. When I recognized Mr. Maxey I lowered my pistol and
remarked to him, "Your face has saved your life." Mr. Maxey became very
much excited, walked across the floor once or twice, and inquired what
was up. I informed him of the notice of the mob and the time that I had
been given to leave the hotel and that the time had then expired, and
that when I heard him take hold of the door, I supposed the mob was
coming. Mr. Maxey remarked that "This thing will never do, I'm going
to see if it can't be stopped." I requested him to say to every person
that might be disposed to come into the house to make themselves known
outside of the door before entering the house.

In a short time the circuit judge and deputy sheriff, with two or
three others, came to the door and made themselves known and came in.
The circuit judge said: "Colonel, I have been informed that you have
been notified by a mob to leave the town in ten minutes or you would
be shot to death, and I have come to see if you wanted a guard." I
replied that I didn't. "If these God damn bushwhackers haven't shed
enough innocent blood and are still bloodthirsty, they will never have
a better opportunity; so just let them come." The judge and sheriff and
those who came with them left the room. I remained in the room until
the usual bedtime. I heard them cursing outside and declare that they
would take me out before daylight. I thought of my horse that was in
the stable, a few yards away. I remarked to Mr. Harris that I was going
to the stable to look at my horse. He begged me not to go out, that I
would be shot down. I said to him that it was a game that two or more
could work at.

[Illustration: LOYAL WOMEN OF HOWELL COUNTY.]

On reaching the stable, I heard the men quarreling on the public
square. A man by the name of Jones, who had been a Confederate and
then was prosecuting attorney of the county, and another citizen, who
appeared to be leading the mob, were having an altercation. Jones
remarked to the other man that he had never met Col. Monks until to-day
and that he appeared to be a perfect gentleman, that the war was over,
and that he had the same right to come here and transact business as
any other man; to which the other declared, with an oath, that a man
who had fought them through the war shouldn't come there, and they
intended to take him out and shoot him before daylight; and further
charged that Jones was not a good Confederate. Jones then gave him
the lie. The two appeared to be about to come together, but others
interfered to keep them separated. I returned to the hotel and said to
Mr. Harris that the seat of war had moved up onto the square.

Mr. Maxey informed me that just outside of the door of the hotel he met
the mob, and they declared that they intended to take Monks out and
shoot him before daylight. He replied to them that they might do it,
but they had better take their stretchers along, for some other persons
would have to bring some of them out; that he had just been in the
house and in a moment he was confronted by Col. Monks with a revolver
presented at his left breast and the very devil was in his eye, and if
they entered the room he would shoot as long as he could move a finger.

When bedtime came, I was placed in an upper room and locked the door,
expecting that if they located my room they would shoot through the
windows. I could still hear them cursing and threatening to take me out
until late in the night. The next morning everything was quiet. I went
to the stable and took my horse down to the spring to water; a number
of men were standing at the side of the street, and one said: "Where do
you suppose the captain and his men are?" I remarked to them that they
were just like a pack of wolves; they were in the brush this morning,
waiting for night to again renew their howling. There was one, Capt.
Wagoner, who resided in town, who remarked to me the next morning that
he never was as proud of anything in his life; that if they could have
scared me and I had attempted to leave town in the night, they intended
to murder me.

After circuit court convened, I went into court, and at noon of that
day the court adjourned. And I, with a number of others, went to
Thomasville, put up at the hotel, had my horse fed and took supper.
While on the road, the man that led the mob passed me on his way to
Thomasville, where he resided. The defendants and their attorneys
failed to produce a single witness to testify in the case. I returned
home to West Plains.

I was notified to meet them at other places in the country, to take
depositions in said cause. The political feeling was strong then
between the parties, and they sent the suits to a county over a hundred
miles distant from where the suits were instituted; this county, at
that time, was completely controlled by the democratic party.

When the suits came up to be tried, over half of the jury had been late
rebels, yet they failed to introduce a single witness to support their
charges, and I recovered a verdict in each case. Judge Fian, who tried
the case, said that he was never so surprised in his life; that he
opened up the floodgates and let them bring in all their evidence from
the beginning of the war up to the time of the trial. Judge Fian had
been a colonel on the Federal side in the Civil war.

On the account of failure to get any proof the juries were compelled to
give a verdict in both cases for Col. Monks, although it was against
the will and feeling of them. It cost the defendants between five and
seven hundred dollars. After the trials, all parties returned to Howell
county. The defendants, after they had procured a change of venue to
Laclede county, boasted openly before trials, that they were going
to beat both cases, that they had got them into a democratic county.
The defendants being beaten at all points, returned, but not being
satisfied, and being backed by the late bushwhackers and Kuklux (the
most desperate set of men that ever lived,) at the next term of the
Howell county circuit court they procured the appointment of a special
prosecution attorney, who had been a late rebel and selected a jury of
men composed of liberal Republicans and so-called democrats, with the
express purpose of indicting the writer for killing one of the most
desperate bushwhackers and rebel desperadoes that ever was in South
Missouri. The men who composed the jury knew well that he was killed
in an open hand to hand fight during the Civil war. The writer soon
found out that they were trying to get a bill of indictment against the
writer, so the writer watched the proceedings of the grand jury. On
Saturday the grand jury came into court and turned in their indictments
and reported to the court that they had no more business. The court
discharged them.

At the same moment the writer asked the court if there was any bill
of indictment preferred against him. He ran over the indictments and
informed the writer that there was an indictment against him, for
murder in the first degree. The Judge said that he was sorry that I
had called it out for he wanted to go home until Monday. I told him
"Just adjourn your court and go home. The sheriff is here." I remarked
to the jury that they needn't have put the county to any cost hunting
witnesses; if they had come to me, I could have told them that I killed
him and the only thing that I was sorry for, was that I hadn't killed
a lot more of the bushwhackers. I would love to ask this jury if they
have indicted any of the bushwhackers and rebels who have hung and
murdered Union men all over Howell county, irrespective of age; the
most of those men were killed at their homes or taken from their homes
and afterwards killed. A part of the men who did these things are still
living in Howell county and that jury knows it.

The sheriff and the judge stepped out of the court house and in a few
minutes returned, and the judge remarked "I will turn you over to the
sheriff." He then ordered the sheriff to adjourn the court until the
next Monday. The sheriff remarked to the writer "You can go where you
please and report to the court at ten o'clock next Monday." The writer
remarked, in the presence of the judge and sheriff, "I did not know
that a man indicted for murder in the first degree could be paroled."
The sheriff adjourned the court and he and the judge left the court
house together. When I met a number of my friends (as there was a
political meeting going on that day) and informed them that I had been
indicted and paroled until next Monday, I couldn't make some of them
believe it.

[Illustration: CAPT. WILL H. D. GREEN, GRANDSON.

                                            LIEUT. MARK SPRINGER, CO. K.]

I appeared at ten o'clock the next Monday morning and before court
was convened, Edward Seay, an attorney-at-law, one among the ablest
lawyers at the bar, a strong rebel sympathizer, came to the writer and
said, "It is a shame that you have been indicted. It has been done for
political purpose and I want your consent to file a motion to quash the
indictment." I remarked to him that I would rather have it tried before
a jury of my country so that I could show the intention and aims of
those who caused said indictments to be procured. He still plead with
me to let him file a motion to quash it, that it would not cost me one
cent. I at last told him to use his own pleasure in regard to it, so
he filed a motion to quash it, and submitted the motion to the court
without any argument, and the court sustained the motion and quashed
the indictment. So ended that charge of murder against the writer. They
saw they were beaten again and their schemes were again exposed to the
whole people and they fell back sullen and became desperate.

In a short time the writer was informed that they were threatening to
assassinate him and to be continually on the watch. I put men on their
trails. Several attempts were made to decoy the writer into their nets,
but they failed. They then employed one Dr. Beldon, who made an attempt
to shoot the author in his own dooryard, but the writer saw him in time
to prevent his shooting, and he left the county at once. Shortly after,
the author was again warned to be on the watch, that they were still
making threats.

There was a man by the name of W. H. McCowen, who had been a
Confederate colonel, living in West Plains. He was known to be a very
dangerous man when drinking and was an uncompromising rebel. The writer
then resided in the house south of the town spring, known as the West
Plains House, and the street ran within a few feet of the gate, which
opened into a hall between the house and kitchen. There was a saloon
about forty yards west of the house, on the same street, run by a man
by the name of Jackson, another uncompromising rebel. This saloon
appeared to be headquarters for these would-be assassins. I had just
brought my horse from the stable and tied him by the gate, with the
intention of going to my farm. Mrs. Lasater, who still resides in West
Plains, had just come over to my house and was there at the time of the
shooting. Mrs. McCowen, the wife of Col. McCowen, came to my house that
morning, came in the back way, and appeared to be very much excited,
and informed me that certain men were going to assassinate me that
morning; that to her knowledge they had been plotting for three days.
They had been using every inducement, making her husband drunk and
trying to work him into it. She had shut him up and locked the doors
to keep them away from her husband, but they would raise the windows
and come in. She had done all she could to keep her husband out of it,
and she thought it was her duty to come and let me know that they had
agreed to shoot me that morning. I thanked her for the information and
said to her that I would ever be grateful to her. I further said to her
that I did not want to hurt the colonel or any other person, but they
must not come to my house on that kind of business if they didn't want
to get hurt. In a few moments she returned home, going around the back
way.

I at once sent to S. P. Woodworth, a merchant who resided in West
Plains and a strong Union man, for his double-barrelled shotgun. I had
two good navy pistols. He sent me his gun and said it was well loaded
with buckshot and was sure to fire. I advised the women, if they came,
to keep cool and go into the back room so they would be out of danger.
I raised the two front windows of the sitting-room about two or three
inches, so I could shoot under them, keeping a close watch on the
saloon. In about thirty minutes after Mrs. McCowen left, I saw two of
the men leave the saloon and come in the direction of my house. They
came to the gate, opened it and stepped onto the porch. My wife went to
the door and begged them to leave. One of the men said that he wanted
to see the colonel. He was armed with two first-class pistols, one of
the pistols belonging to Col. McCowen. I cocked both barrels of my
shotgun and stepped out on the porch with my gun presented and ordered
him to turn around and leave my premises in one minute. Just at that
moment my youngest daughter, now the wife of Mr. Green, sprang forward
and caught my gun. I said to her; "For God's sake keep away from me."
But she stood by my side. During this time he had passed outside of the
gate and had gotten behind a tree; had his pistol cocked and presented
at me and in a moment I had him covered with my shotgun. He would
attempt to get sight on me and would dodge his head back behind the
tree. Not knowing where the other man was, I watched his head and when
he attempted to take sight I fired at his head; at the crack of the gun
he fell. Then six or seven men commenced jumping out at the door of the
saloon. The first thing I thought of was, "They will pretend to arrest
me and give the mob a chance to shoot me after I am disarmed." I sprang
on my horse and rode east and in a few moments five or six men came to
my door and asked my wife who shot first. She ordered them to leave the
house. They soon found that one of the would-be assassins was shot. On
an examination it was found that one of the shot had struck him in the
right side of the forehead, the right side of the brim of his hat was
torn into fragments and the tree had caught a part of the load. The
tree is still standing in the yard. Immediately afterward I sent them
word that they had again opened the ball and I was ready to fight it
out. I never saw men begin to plead for peace as hard in my life. The
sheriff and others would come to me and say: "Colonel, why didn't you
shoot some of those fellows long ago? That is just what they needed." I
asked them why they hadn't arrested some of the assassins long ago.

When the Union men learned that an attempt had been made by these
would-be assassins to assassinate me about two hundred and fifty of
them headed by such men as J. F. Reiley, Esau Fox, Andrew V. Tabor,
David B. Nicholass, John B. Nicholass, Josiah Carico, Chas. Long, J.
Youngblood, and Geo. Youngblood rode into town well armed and publicly
notified these assassins and those who were aiding and abetting them,
that if another attempt was made to assassinate Colonel Monks, or if
they did assassinate him it would take ten of their leaders to pay
the debt and they knew just who they were. On an investigation, it
was proven that on the night before they attempted the assassination
about ten or twelve of these would-be assassins met together in the
town of West Plains, and one of their leaders set out among other
causes why Colonel Monks would have to be killed; that they had tried
to scare him away from the country but found they couldn't scare him
and the only way to keep the republican party from going into power
again in this county was to kill Colonel Monks. Some of the men that
were present were hired to do the shooting next morning and paid the
money. They drank a health to each other on the death of Colonel Monks
next morning. The man who advised and instructed them and paid them a
part of the money is still living in Howell county. This failure in
their attempt to assassinate me and the action taken by the loyal men
appeared to put a quietus on their idea of assassination; if they ever
made any further effort the writer never learned about it. They had
been defeated in every attempt made either to slander or murder me.

I want to say here that I shall ever hold sacred the memory of Mrs.
McCowen, for I owe to her the preservation of my life, and may God's
blessing ever follow her and rest upon her.

The bushwhackers and the Kuklux element were not yet satisfied and had
but one way to vent their spleen against me. That was to get right down
to hard lying. Having failed to prove a single one of their charges
against me in the courts they were bent on injuring me and damaging my
character. With no regard for the truth they would go around secretly
and tell strangers who knew nothing about me that I was a murderer
and a thief. The better element among those who had been Confederates
declared openly that these statements were false from beginning to end.
Many of them have said that I was an honest man, and that if any one
wished to employ an honest lawyer Monks was the man to go to, for no
one could buy him.

Sometimes I would be informed that a late Confederate would say: "I
believe Col. Monks was a good man and an honest one. But I dislike him
because he fought us so hard during the war." I would reply: "Tell him
that I couldn't please them in any way at the commencement of the war;
I didn't want to take up arms. I was an unconditional Union man, and
they, the rebels, came to my home and arrested me, took me into their
command and swore that I should fight; that they would make me fight
and attempted to force me into the Confederate lines, and when I found
that nothing else would do them but to fight, and I went to fighting,
then they turn about and curse me for fighting."

Again I would be informed that some of those persons, who had no regard
for the truth, would secretly charge me with being a murderer. In
reply I would inform them that every part of the country where I had
performed military service was now in the control of the Democratic
party and there was no limitation to the crime of murder.


Henry Dixon Green.

Henry Dixon Green was born in Henderson county Ky., in the year 1851.
His father, H. D. Green, was a colonel in the Confederate army, and
died while in the service. In 1876, the younger Green left his native
state, taking Horace Greeley's advice, and went west to grow up with
the country. He located at West Plains, Mo., and soon began reading law
in the office of Hon. A. H. Livingston. He was admitted to the bar, and
formed a co-partnership with Mr. Livingston in the practice of law,
which continued for several years. Afterwards he formed a partnership
with Judge B. F. Olden. This firm was for years the local legal
representative for the Kansas City, Fort Scott and Memphis Railroad
Company, now part of the Frisco System. Mr. Green acted as claim agent
for this railroad, and afterwards had charge of the claim department
of the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company for the territory of Kansas,
Nebraska, Colorado and Indian Territory, but resigned to resume the
general practice of law at West Plains, Mo. He has served as Probate
Judge of Howell county.

[Illustration: RUSSELL GREEN AND DIXON GREEN.]

Mr. Green was married in 1878 at West Plains to Miss Mary M. Monks,
daughter of Col. Wm. Monks. Mrs. Green is a strong republican while Mr.
Green is a strong supporter of the principles of the democratic party;
but their home life is perfectly peaceful and happy. Five children
have brightened this home, a daughter, now Mrs. Arch Bugg, and four
sons, Will H. D., Frank, Russell and Dixon. The children all take their
politics from their mother. The oldest son, Will, has been admitted to
the Howell county bar and is now practicing law with his father. He is
also Captain of Company K, the local military company of West Plains.
The second and third sons are also members of the company. Frank works
and studies at present in his father's law office, and the other boys
are in school.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
errors.

Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

Changed a few instances of Ku-Klux (excepting the title page)
to Kuklux as the author clearly preferred the latter spelling.

Changed lop-eard, lopeard, and lop-eared to lopeared as that
spelling was somewhat dominant.





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