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´╗┐Title: Common Denominator
Author: MacDonald, John D.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Common Denominator" ***

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                          Common Denominator

                         BY JOHN D. MacDONALD

                       Illustrated by DON HUNTER

           [Transcriber's Note: This etext was produced from
                   Galaxy Science Fiction July 1951.
         Extensive research did not uncover any evidence that
         the U.S. copyright on this publication was renewed.]



      Advanced races generally are eager to share their knowledge
         with primitive ones. In this case ... with Earthmen!


When Scout Group Forty flickered back across half the Galaxy with a
complete culture study of a Class Seven civilization on three planets
of Argus Ten, the Bureau of Stellar Defense had, of course, a priority
claim on all data. Class Sevens were rare and of high potential danger,
so all personnel of Group Forty were placed in tight quarantine during
the thirty days required for a detailed analysis of the thousands of
film spools.

News of the contact leaked out and professional alarmists predicted
dire things on the news screens of the three home planets of Sol. A
retired admiral of the Space Navy published an article in which he
stated bitterly that the fleet had been weakened by twenty years of
softness in high places.

On the thirty-first day, B.S.D. reported to System President Mize that
the inhabitants of the three planets of Argus 10 constituted no threat,
that there was no military necessity for alarm, that approval of a
commerce treaty was recommended, that all data was being turned over to
the Bureau of Stellar Trade and Economy for analysis, that personnel of
Scout Group Forty was being given sixty days' leave before reassignment.

B.S.T.E. released film to all commercial networks at once, and
visions of slavering oily monsters disappeared from the imagination
of mankind. The Argonauts, as they came to be called, were pleasantly
similar to mankind. It was additional proof that only in the rarest
instance was the life-apex on any planet in the home Galaxy an abrupt
divergence from the "human" form. The homogeneousness of planet
elements throughout the Galaxy made homogeneousness of life-apex almost
a truism. The bipedal, oxygen-breathing vertebrate with opposing thumb
seems best suited for survival.

If was evident that, with training, the average Argonaut could pass
almost unnoticed in the Solar System. The flesh tones were brightly
pink, like that of a sunburned human. Cranial hair was uniformly
taffy-yellow. They were heavier and more fleshy than humans. Their
women had a pronounced Rubens look, a warm, moist, rosy, comfortable
look.

       *       *       *       *       *

Everyone remarked on the placidity and contentment of facial
expressions, by human standards. The inevitable comparison was made.
The Argonauts looked like a race of inn and beer-garden proprietors in
the Bavarian Alps. With leather pants to slap, stein lids to click,
feathers in Tyrolean hats and peasant skirts on their women, they would
represent a culture and a way of life that had been missing from Earth
for far too many generations.

Eight months after matters had been turned over to B.S.T.E., the First
Trade Group returned to Earth with a bewildering variety of artifacts
and devices, plus a round dozen Argonauts. The Argonauts had learned
to speak Solian with an amusing guttural accent. They beamed on
everything and everybody. They were great pets until the novelty wore
off. Profitable trade was inaugurated, because the Argonaut devices
all seemed designed to make life more pleasant. The scent-thesizer
became very popular once it was adjusted to meet human tastes. Worn as
a lapel button, it could create the odor of pine, broiled steak, spring
flowers, Scotch whisky, musk--even skunk for the practical jokers who
exist in all ages and eras.

Any home equipped with an Argonaut static-clean never became dusty. It
used no power and had to be emptied only once a year.

Technicians altered the Argonaut mechanical game animal so that it
looked like an Earth rabbit. The weapons which shot a harmless beam
were altered to look like rifles. After one experience with the new
game, hunters were almost breathless with excitement. The incredible
agility of the mechanical animal, its ability to take cover, the
fact that, once the beam felled it, you could use it over and over
again--all this made for the promulgation of new non-lethal hunting.

       *       *       *       *       *

Lambert, chief of the Bureau of Racial Maturity, waited patiently for
his chance at the Argonaut data. The cramped offices in the temporary
wing of the old System Security Building, the meager appropriation,
the obsolete office equipment, the inadequate staff all testified not
only to the Bureau's lack of priority, but also to a lack of knowledge
of its existence on the part of many System officials. Lambert,
crag-faced, sandy, slow-moving, was a historian, anthropologist and
sociologist. He was realist enough to understand that if the Bureau of
Racial Maturity happened to be more important in System Government,
it would probably be headed by a man with fewer academic and more
political qualifications.

And Lambert knew, beyond any doubt at all, that the B.R.M. was more
important to the race and the future of the race than any other branch
of System Government.

Set up by President Tolles, an adult and enlightened administrator,
the Bureau was now slowly being strangled by a constantly decreasing
appropriation.

Lambert knew that mankind had come too far, too fast. Mankind had
dropped out of a tree with all the primordial instincts to rend and
tear and claw. Twenty thousand years later, and with only a few
thousand years of dubiously recorded history, he had reached the stars.
It was too quick.

Lambert knew that mankind must become mature in order to survive. The
domination of instinct had to be watered down, and rapidly. Selective
breeding might do it, but it was an answer impossible to enforce. He
hoped that one day the records of an alien civilization would give
him the answer. After a year of bureaucratic wriggling, feints and
counter-feints, he had acquired the right of access to Scout Group Data.

As his patience dwindled he wrote increasingly firm letters to Central
Files and Routing. In the end, when he finally located the data
improperly stored in the closed files of the B.S.T.E., he took no
more chances. He went in person with an assistant named Cooper and a
commandeered electric hand-truck, and bullied a B.S.T.E. storage clerk
into accepting a receipt for the Argonaut data. The clerk's cooperation
was lessened by never having heard of the Bureau of Racial Maturity.

       *       *       *       *       *

The file contained the dictionary and grammar compiled by the Scout
Group, plus all the films taken on the three planets of Argus 10, plus
micro-films of twelve thousand books written in the language of the
Argonauts. Their written language was ideographic, and thus presented
more than usual difficulties. Lambert knew that translations had been
made, but somewhere along the line they had disappeared.

Lambert set his whole staff to work on the language. He hired
additional linguists out of his own thin enough pocket. He gave up
all outside activities in order to hasten the progress of his own
knowledge. His wife, respecting Lambert's high order of devotion to his
work, kept their two half-grown children from interfering during those
long evenings when he studied and translated at home.

Two evenings a week Lambert called on Vonk Poogla, the Argonaut
assigned to Trade Coordination, and improved his conversational
Argonian to the point where he could obtain additional historical
information from the pink wide "man."

Of the twelve thousand books, the number of special interest to
Lambert were only one hundred and ten. On those he based his master
chart. An animated film of the chart was prepared at Lambert's own
expense, and, when it was done, he requested an appointment with
Simpkin, Secretary for Stellar Affairs, going through all the normal
channels to obtain the interview. He asked an hour of Simpkin's time.
It took two weeks.

Simpkin was a big florid man with iron-gray hair, skeptical eyes and
that indefinable look of political opportunism.

He came around his big desk to shake Lambert's hand. "Ah ... Lambert!
Glad to see you, fella. I ought to get around to my Bureau Chiefs more
often, but you know how hectic things are up here."

"I know, Mr. Secretary. I have something here of the utmost importance
and--"

"Bureau of Racial Maturity, isn't it? I never did know exactly what you
people do. Sort of progress records or something?"

"Of the utmost importance," Lambert repeated doggedly.

Simpkin smiled. "I hear that all day, but go ahead."

"I want to show you a chart. A historical chart of the Argonaut
civilization." Lambert put the projector in position and plugged it in.
He focused it on the wall screen.

"It was decided," Simpkin said firmly, "that the Argonauts are not a
menace to us in any--"

"I know that, sir. Please look at the chart first and then, when
you've seen it, I think you'll know what I mean."

"Go ahead," Simpkin agreed resignedly.

"I can be accused of adding apples and lemons in this presentation,
sir. Note the blank chart. The base line is in years, adjusted to our
calendar so as to give a comparison. Their recorded history covers
twelve thousand of our years. That's better than four times ours. Now
note the red line. That shows the percentage of their total population
involved in wars. It peaked eight thousand years ago. Note how suddenly
it drops after that. In five hundred years it sinks to the base line
and does not appear again.

"Here comes the second line. Crimes of violence. It also peaks eight
thousand years ago. It drops less quickly than the war line, and never
does actually cut the base line. Some crime still exists there. But a
very, very tiny percentage compared to ours on a population basis, or
to their own past. The third line, the yellow line climbing abruptly,
is the index of insanity. Again a peak during the same approximate
period in their history. Again a drop almost to the base line."

       *       *       *       *       *

Simpkin pursed his heavy lips. "Odd, isn't it?"

"Now this fourth line needs some explaining. I winnowed out death
rates by age groups. Their life span is 1.3 times ours, so it had to
be adjusted. I found a strange thing. I took the age group conforming
to our 18 to 24 year group. That green line. Note that by the time
we start getting decent figures, nine thousand years ago, it remains
almost constant, and at a level conforming to our own experience. Now
note what happens when the green line reaches a point eight thousand
years ago. See how it begins to climb? Now steeper, almost vertical. It
remains at a high level for almost a thousand years, way beyond the end
of their history of war, and then descends slowly toward the base line,
leveling out about two thousand years ago."

Lambert clicked off the projector.

"Is that all?" Simpkin asked.

"Isn't it enough? I'm concerned with the future of our own race.
Somehow the Argonauts have found an answer to war, insanity, violence.
We need that answer if we are to survive."

"Come now, Lambert," Simpkin said wearily.

"Don't you see it? Their history parallels ours. They had our same
problems. They saw disaster ahead and did something about it. What did
they do? I have to know that."

"How do you expect to?"

"I want travel orders to go there."

"I'm afraid that's quite impossible. There are no funds for that sort
of jaunt, Lambert. And I think you are worrying over nothing."

"Shall I show you some of our own trends? Shall I show you murder
turning from the most horrid crime into a relative commonplace? Shall I
show you the slow inevitable increase in asylum space?"

"I know all that, man. But look at the Argonauts! Do you want that sort
of stagnation? Do you want a race of fat, pink, sleepy--"

"Maybe they had a choice. A species of stagnation, or the end of their
race. Faced with that choice, which would you pick, Mr. Secretary?"

"There are no funds."

"All I want is authority. I'll pay my own way."

And he did.

       *       *       *       *       *

Rean was the home planet of the Argonauts, the third from their sun.
When the trade ship flickered into three-dimensional existence, ten
thousand miles above Rean, Lambert stretched the space-ache out of his
long bones and muscles and smiled at Vonk Poogla.

"You could have saved me the trip, you know," Lambert said.

A grin creased the round pink visage. "Nuddink ventured, nuddink
gained. Bezides, only my cousin can speak aboud this thing you vunder
aboud. My cousin is werry important person. He is one picks me to go to
your planet."

Vonk Poogla was transported with delight at being able to show the
wonders of the ancient capital city to Lambert. It had been sacked
and burned over eight thousand Earth years before, and now it was
mellowed by eighty-three centuries of unbroken peace. It rested in the
pastel twilight, and there were laughter and soft singing in the broad
streets. Never had Lambert felt such a warm aura of security and ...
love. No other word but that ultimate one seemed right.

In the morning they went to the squat blue building where Vonk
Soobuknoora, the important person, had his administrative headquarters.
Lambert, knowing enough of Argonaut governmental structure to
understand that Soobuknoora was titular head of the three-planet
government, could not help but compare the lack of protocol with what
he could expect were he to try to take Vonk Poogla for an interview
with President Mize.

Soobuknoora was a smaller, older edition of Poogla, his pink face
wrinkled, his greening hair retaining only a trace of the original
yellow. Soobuknoora spoke no Solian and he was very pleased to find
that Lambert spoke Argonian.

Soobuknoora watched the animated chart with considerable interest.
After it was over, he seemed lost in thought.

"It is something so private with us, Man Lambert, that we seldom speak
of it to each other," Soobuknoora said in Argonian. "It is not written.
Maybe we have shame--a guilt sense. That is hard to say. I have
decided to tell you what took place among us eight thousand years ago."

"I would be grateful."

       *       *       *       *       *

"We live in contentment. Maybe it is good, maybe it is not so good.
But we continue to live. Where did our trouble come from in the old
days, when we were like your race? Back when we were brash and young
and wickedly cruel? From the individuals, those driven ones who were
motivated to succeed despite all obstacles. They made our paintings,
wrote our music, killed each other, fomented our unrest, our wars. We
live off the bewildering richness of our past."

He sighed. "It was a problem. To understand our solution, you must
think of an analogy, Man Lambert. Think of a factory where machines are
made. We will call the acceptable machines stable, the unacceptable
ones unstable. They are built with a flywheel which must turn at
a certain speed. If it exceeds that speed, it is no good. But a
machine that is stable can, at any time, become unstable. What is the
solution?" He smiled at Lambert.

"I'm a bit confused," Lambert confessed. "You would have to go around
inspecting the machines constantly for stability."

"And use a gauge? No. Too much trouble. An unstable machine can do
damage. So we do this--we put a little governor on the machine. When
the speed passes the safety mark, the machine breaks."

"But this is an analogy, Vonk Soobuknoora!" Lambert protested. "You
can't put a governor on a man!"

"Man is born with a governor, Man Lambert. Look back in both our
histories, when we were not much above the animal level. An unbalanced
man would die. He could not compete for food. He could not organize the
simple things of his life for survival. Man Lambert, did you ever have
a fleeting impulse to kill yourself?"

Lambert smiled. "Of course. You could almost call that impulse a norm
for intelligent species."

"Did it ever go far enough so that you considered a method, a weapon?"

Lambert nodded slowly. "It's hard to remember, but I think I did. Yes,
once I did."

"And what would have happened," the Argonaut asked softly, "if there
had been available to you in that moment a weapon completely painless,
completely final?"

       *       *       *       *       *

Lambert's mouth went dry. "I would probably have used it. I was very
young. Wait! I'm beginning to see what you mean, but--"

"The governor had to be built into the body," Soobuknoora interrupted,
"and yet so designed that there would be no possibility of accidental
activation. Suppose that on this day I start to think of how great and
powerful I am in this position I have. I get an enormous desire to
become even more powerful. I begin to reason emotionally. Soon I have
a setback. I am depressed. I am out of balance, you could say. I have
become dangerous to myself and to our culture.

"In a moment of depression, I take these two smallest fingers of each
hand. I reach behind me and I press the two fingers, held firmly
together, to a space in the middle of my back. A tiny capsule buried
at the base of my brain is activated and I am dead within a thousandth
part of a second. Vonk Poogla is the same. All of us are the same. The
passing urge for self-destruction happens to be the common denominator
of imbalance. We purged our race of the influence of the neurotic, the
egocentric, the hypersensitive, merely by making self-destruction
very, very easy."

"Then that death rate--?"

"At eighteen the operation is performed. It is very quick and very
simple. We saw destruction ahead. We had to force it through. In the
beginning the deaths were frightening, there were so many of them.
The stable ones survived, bred, reproduced. A lesser but still great
percentage of the next generation went--and so on, until now it is
almost static."

In Argonian Lambert said hotly, "Oh, it sounds fine! But what about
children? What sort of heartless race can plant the seed of death in
its own children?"

       *       *       *       *       *

Never before had he seen the faintest trace of anger on any Argonaut
face. The single nostril widened and Soobuknoora might have raged
if he had been from Earth. "There are other choices, Man Lambert.
Our children have no expectation of being burned to cinder, blown to
fragments. They are free of that fear. Which is the better love, Man
Lambert?"

"I have two children. I couldn't bear to--"

"Wait!" Soobuknoora said. "Think one moment. Suppose you were to know
that when they reached the age of eighteen, both your children were
to be operated on by our methods. How would that affect your present
relationship to them?"

Lambert was, above all, a realist. He remembered the days of being
"too busy" for the children, of passing off their serious questions
with a joking or curt evasion, of playing with them as though they were
young, pleasing, furry animals.

"I would do a better job, as a parent," Lambert admitted. "I would
try to give them enough emotional stability so that they would
never--have that urge to kill themselves. But Ann is delicate, moody,
unpredictable, artistic."

Poogla and Soobuknoora nodded in unison. "You would probably lose that
one; maybe you would lose both," Soobuknoora agreed. "But it is better
to lose more than half the children of a few generations to save the
race."

Lambert thought some more. He said, "I shall go back and I shall speak
of this plan and what it did for you. But I do not think my race will
like it. I do not want to insult you or your people, but you have
stagnated. You stand still in time."

Vonk Poogla laughed largely. "Not by a damn sight," he said gleefully.
"Next year we stop giving the operation. We stop for good. It was just
eight thousand years to permit us to catch our breath before going on
more safely. And what is eight thousand years of marking time in the
history of a race? Nothing, my friend. Nothing!"

When Lambert went back to Earth, he naturally quit his job.





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