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Title: English Coins and Tokens - With A Chapter on Greek and Roman Coins
Author: Head, Barclay V., Jewitt, Llewellynn Frederick William
Language: English
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_Author of “Half-Hours among some English Antiquities;” “Grave
Mounds and their Contents;” “The Ceramic Art in Great
Britain;” “Corporation Plate and Insignia
of Office;” “The Stately Homes
of England,” etc., etc._

A Chapter on Greek and Roman Coins,


_Assistant Keeper of Coins, British Museum;
Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archæological Institute_.





It is not possible to say, with any degree of certainty, at what
precise period our ancient British forefathers acquired a knowledge of
the art of coining, or into what part of our island that art was first
introduced. The probability, however, amounting almost to a certainty,
is that the use of money and, consequently, the art of making it,
was introduced into Britain from Gaul; and the Kentish coast being
the nearest to that country, and receiving friendly and bartering
incursions from the Belgic tribes, with whom, doubtless, the natives
traded, the natural assumption is that money was known to, and its use
appreciated by, the inhabitants of that county long before those of
the inland and more northern parts of the island had any knowledge of
such a medium as a substitute for ordinary product-barter. Kent may
therefore, I apprehend, be looked upon as the district in which money
made its first appearance in our country; and, probably, where also it
was first made by our Celtic progenitors.


The period which may, with more than ordinary probability; be assigned
to the adoption of a home-struck currency among the tribes of our
country, is also, naturally, a matter about which only a vague
conclusion can be arrived at. The conclusion, however, that has been
come to after the most assiduous and searching attention to and
consideration of every possible circumstance of locality, analogy of
types, and weight, is that that period may be fixed at from a hundred
and fifty to two hundred years before the birth of Christ. This, then,
for general purposes may be looked upon as the most closely approximate
period that the present state of our knowledge has enabled those
numismatists who have made this branch of the science their special
study to arrive at.

The type of supposed earliest coins of the Britons, derived, there can
be no doubt, from those of Gaul, to which they had become accustomed,
are uninscribed; those of Gaul having, in turn, originally and long
before the days of Julius Cæsar, been derived from the _stater_ of
Philippus of Macedon. This has been ably shown and insisted upon by
various writers, and to it Mr. Evans, the highest and most enlightened
authority upon the subject, has given his full adhesion. The Phocæan
colony of Massilia (Marseilles), he says, “appears to have formed
the centre from which civilization spread through Gaul, as well as
to have been the emporium of its commerce. It was founded about B.C.
600, and from intercourse with its inhabitants the neighbouring
Gauls first learned the usages of civilized life, and after a time
became acquainted with the art of coining. The early silver coins of
Massilia (and none in gold are known) were occasionally imitated in
the surrounding country; but when, about the year B.C. 356, the gold
mines of Crenides (or Philippi) were acquired by Philip II. of Macedon,
and worked so as to produce about £250,000 worth of gold annually, the
general currency of gold coins, which had before been of very limited
extent, became much more extensive, and the _stater_ of Philip--the
_regale numisma_ of Horace--became everywhere diffused, and seems at
once to have been seized on by the barbarians who came in contact
with Greek civilization as an object of imitation. In Gaul this was
especially the case, and the whole of the gold coinage of that country
may be said to consist of imitations, more or less rude and degenerate,
of the Macedonian Philippus.”

The types of the Philippus are, on the obverse, a laureated profile
bust of Apollo, or young Hercules, and, on the reverse, a charioteer
in a biga, and the earliest Gaulish imitations are tolerably closely,
though more rudely, rendered. These, naturally, were introduced, and
became known, to the Britons, who, as naturally, imitated them, as
their neighbours had done the originals. But these imitations were not
always servile, but had occasionally additional features, as drapery, a
torque round the neck, a bandlet, or what not. The constant reproducing
of the dies by different workmen and in different localities also
resulted in the original design being at length almost lost, and what
now, to the uninitiated, appear a lot of unmeaning pellets and curved
strokes, serve only as indications, or faint traces, of the original.
Here, upon the coins (p. 5), is an example. First is the _stater_
of Philip of Macedon, with laureated bust and biga; next a British
coin on which there is an attempted reproduction of the head on one
side, and a rude imitation of horse and driver on the other; and on
the third a very degenerate example, on which only a trace of each
is discernible. These three, out of hundreds of examples, will serve
to show the descent of the type and the changes to which the design
has been subjected. Other types shared the same fate, and thus the
correct appropriation of Celtic coins becomes a matter of no little
difficulty. It is well to remember, as evidenced by these gradual
marks of degeneration, that the ruder coins are not, as might well be
(and indeed have usually been) supposed, the oldest, but are, in fact,
later than others of a higher and more artistic character. In other
words, some of these series of coins, instead of showing the onward
and gradual progress of art from a first rude attempt up to a highly
finished work, serve to exhibit step by step its gradual degeneracy and
decline down to ultimate extinction.


Other coins were more or less imitations of Roman coins, but others
again have a true native character about them that shows that the
Briton, who was an admirable and accomplished worker in metals, was
also a clever die-sinker, and had in him considerable power of design.

Celtic coins are usually considered under two classes, the uninscribed
and the inscribed--that is, those which are without any inscriptions,
and those upon which names or other letters occur--and it seems to
be a generally received opinion that whenever an inscribed currency
was in use, an uninscribed one had preceded it. The uninscribed are,
unfortunately, the most abundant, and therefore, manifestly, it is
impossible to judge by them to what princes or tribes they belong.
The geographical arrangement--that of classifying the types according
to the localities in which they have been found--has therefore, as a
general and very convenient rule, to be adopted. Some coins, as the one
here engraved from my own collection, have the convex side perfectly
plain, while the reverse, concave, side bears a more or less rude
representation of a horse.


[Illustration: _Figs._ A-J, TYPES OF ANCIENT BRITISH COINS.]

“Although we have assigned the date of about 150 B.C. for the
commencement of the British coinage,” Mr. Evans remarks, “it is hard
to say with any degree of certainty in what part of the country it
actually commenced. The study of this class of coins is to some
extent like that of geology: we have no written testimony on which to
fall back, and the annals of the past have to be reconstructed from
the evidence of contemporary yet dumb witnesses disinterred from the
soil. But the numismatist has none of those aids which the geologist
derives from the order of superposition, and the mineral characters
of the rocks in which his fossils are preserved; and, in the case of
uninscribed coins, has nothing but the type and its geographical range
on which to found any conclusion, unless, as in some rare instances it
happens, the coins are associated with others of more certain date.
The mere fact of finding a single coin of a certain class in a certain
locality proves nothing; but when a considerable number of coins of
much the same type are found at different times in places all within a
certain district, the proof becomes almost conclusive that they were
originally struck within that district. And this holds true even with
gold coins, which, from their greater value and relative portability,
have, as a rule, a much wider range than those of silver or copper.”

The districts into which it has been found most convenient (and
undoubtedly as presenting an arrangement that may be looked upon as
practically correct) to classify the inscribed coins are as follows:--

 I.--COINS OF THE WESTERN DISTRICT, or country of the Dobuni,
    comprising the present counties of Somerset, Wilts, Gloucester, and
    part of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and in which are classed the
    coins of--

    BODVOC            of uncertain date.
    CATTI                "       "
    COMVX                "       "
    VO-CORIO-AD (?)      "       "
    ANTEDRIGVS        after 41 A.D.
    SVEI              uncertain date.
    INARA (?)

 II.--SOUTH-EASTERN DISTRICT, or country of the Belgæ, Regni, and
    Atrebatii, comprising the present counties of Hampshire, Sussex,
    and West Surrey, and in which are classed the coins of--

    COMMIVS          the earliest inscribed coin, 55 B.C.
    TINC[OMMIVS]     son of Commius.
    VERICA or VIRICA son of Commius. The first coin with
        REX inscribed.

 III.--KENTISH DISTRICT, or country of the Cantii, comprising the
    present counties of Kent and East Surrey, and in which are classed
    the coins of--

    EPPILLVS        son of Commivs.
    DVBNOVELLAVNVS  _temp._ Augusti.
    VOSE[NOS]       of uncertain date.
    AMMINVS            "         "
    CRAB               "         "

 IV.--The CENTRAL DISTRICT, or country of the Catyeuchlani and
    Trinobantes, comprising the present counties of Buckinghamshire,
    Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Middlesex, Essex, Northamptonshire,
    and parts of Berkshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and
    Oxfordshire, and in which are included the coins of--

    ANDOCO[MIVS]   contemporary with Tasciovanus.
    TASCIOVANVS    30 B.C., who died 5 A.D.
    VERULAMIUM     which was the chief seat of Tasciovanus’s government.
    RUFI or RVLI }
    DIAS         }
    RICON        } contemporary, but unknown.
    SEGO         }
    EPATICVS       son of Tasciovanus.
    CVNOBELINVS    son of Tasciovanus, _circa_ 40 A.D.
    And several others whose legends are undecipherable.

 V.--The EASTERN DISTRICT, or country of the Iceni, comprising
    the present counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and parts of
    Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, and in which are classed the
    coins of--

 ADDEDOMARVS, supposed to have been contemporary with Cunobelinus.

    ECEN           }
    SAEMV--        }
    ACSV           } all unknown
    ANTED          }
    CAV (?) or CAM }
    DVRO           }

 VI.--The YORKSHIRE DISTRICT, or country of the Brigantes, comprising
    Yorkshire and parts of the adjacent counties to the south, and in
    which are included the coins of--

    AVN T--

The parts of the country inhabited at one time or other by various
tribes may be tabulated as follows, and will be useful to students of
that early period of national history; the present names of counties,
as the most convenient, are given in the list. The tribes seem to have
been the--

ANCALITES, an early tribe who inhabited part of Berkshire.

ATREBATES, the main portion of Berkshire.

ATTACOTTI, a fierce Scottish tribe.

BELGÆ, the country from the southern coast to the Bristol Channel,
including Hants, Wilts, and Somerset.

BIBROCI, an early tribe, part of Berks, and Hants, Surrey, Sussex, and
the east of Kent.

BRIGANTES, the country from the Mersey and Humber to Scotland.

CIMBRI, the borders of Devonshire.

CANGI, North Wales, on the coast of the Irish Sea.

CANTII, Kent, which in Cæsar’s time was divided among four chiefs or

CASSI, Hertfordshire.

CATYEUCHLANI, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Hertfordshire.


CORITANI, or CORITAVI, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire,
Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland.

CORNABII, Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire, Shropshire,
Cheshire, and part of Flintshire.

DUMNONII, or DAMNONII, Cornwall and Devonshire.

DEMETÆ, Caermarthenshire, Cardiganshire, and Pembrokeshire.

DOBUNI, Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire.

DUROTRIGES, Dorsetshire.

GADENI, Cumberland and part of Northumberland; and Selkirk, and
adjacent portions of Scotland.

HEDUI, Somersetshire.

ICENI, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire.

JUGANTES, coast of the Irish Sea.

MORINI, Dorsetshire.

ORDOVICES, Flint, Denbigh, Montgomery, Merioneth, Caernarvon, and

OTADINI, the land from the Tyne to the Forth. PARISII, the south-east
of Yorkshire.

REGNI, Surrey and Sussex.

REMI, supposed to be identical with the Bibroci.

SEGONTIACI, the greater part of Hampshire, and Berkshire.

SENONES, a portion of Hampshire.

SESTUNTII, Westmoreland and Cumberland.

SILURES, Herefordshire, Radnorshire, Brecknockshire, Monmouthshire, and

TRINOBANTES, Middlesex and Essex.

VOLUNTII, Lancashire.

               *     *     *     *     *

I now proceed to enumerate some of the inscribed coins referred to
under the geographical arrangement already given.



Coins bearing the word BODVOC, BODVO, or ODVOC, have usually, but
erroneously, been ascribed to Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni. As is
remarked by Evans, “there is no ground for supposing that any coins
were struck by Boadicea, who never seems to have exercised the queenly
power, unless as the leader of a short-lived revolt, and whose chief
complaint against the Romans was, that the kingdom left by her husband
Prasutagus, to which possibly she may have hoped to succeed, was
overrun and pillaged by their troops, she herself scourged, and her
daughters put to shame.” Moreover, no coins of BODVOC have ever been
found in the Icenian territory, but are confined to the opposite side
of the country; and are evidently of a date anterior to the revolt of
Boadicea. The usual type has on the _obverse_ simply the word BODVOC
in large letters across the field; _reverse_, a horse of more or less
disjointed character, with chariot-wheel and other details. One example
has, however, on the _obverse_ a profile bust to the left, and letters
BODVO in front of the face; and _reverse_, a horse, etc.


A convex coin. _Obverse_, an object which may be described as
a branch, or a spike of flowers; _reverse_, a disjointed horse,
chariot-wheel, etc., and the letters CATTI.


Much the same as the last, with the letters, on _reverse_, COMVX.


The reading of these is doubtful. The coins are much the same as the
last, with the letters VO-CORIO over the horse on the _reverse_. One
variety has the additional letters A D in front of the horse’s head,
and another also a D by its legs; thus the continuous inscription would
be VOCORIOADD, but is at present uninterpretable.


_Obverse_, same as the last; _reverse_, disjointed horse, with
chariot-wheel and other objects, and the letters ANTEDRIGV, or ANTE[BO]
I. OV. Another type has, _obverse_, a barbarous attempt at a head; and
_reverse_, a horse as usual, with the letters ANTE[BO], or ANTED, or
ANTE[BO]RI, etc.



_Obverse_, as before; _reverse_, disjointed horse, with chariot-wheel,
etc., and the letters INMA, INAM, or more probably INARA.


_Obverse_, barbarous attempt at a head; _reverse_, disjointed horse,
and letters SV above, and EI beneath the horse. Probably struck by some
British regulus whose name began with SVEI.


_Obverse_, rude attempt at a head; _reverse_, disjointed horse, with
chariot-wheel, etc., and the letters MMIOS, or OMMIOS.


A son of Commivs. _Obverse_, on some, portions of a rude bust; on
others, TINC on a sunk tablet; others, COM, or COM·F, on a similar sunk
tablet; others, TINCOM, or NCOM, etc., between zigzag and corded lines
across the field; others, TINC on a tablet, above which is C and below
F, etc. _Reverse_, on some, a rude, disjointed horse, with the letters,
TINC COMMI F; others, a horse as before, with TIN DV; others, of a
higher class of art, a horseman poising a javelin, and charging to the
left, with C F below and a star above; others, horseman with javelin as
before, and TIN; another, a winged head of Medusa, which unique coin is
in Mr. Evans’s cabinet; others, a horse and TIN; and other varieties.




A son of Commivs. _Obverse_, an expanded five-lobed leaf, or a cluster
of five oak leaves, with VI on one side, and RI on the other; a sunk
tablet of various forms, with the letters COM·F; VERI·COM·F in two
lines; VERICA COMMI F encircling a circular shield, or other object;
COM F between crescents with horns facing inwards; a semi-draped seated
figure, with VERICA; a filleted bust with VIRRI; and others, examples
of which are here engraved. _Reverse_, on some a horseman galloping
or leaping, with CO·F, VIR REX, or VIR; a riderless horse with REX,
VI, VIR; a lion with VIR; a trophy of an attempted imitation of the
Roman caduceus between two cornucopiæ, rising from a two-handled vase,
and COMMI F; a capricorn, with EPPI COM F, etc.; this latter being
very remarkable as bearing the names of the two brothers Verica and
Eppillus. Another variety has a horseman on each side, with COM F on
the _obverse_, and VERICA on the _reverse_; and another, a diademed and
draped bust on one side with VIRI, and on the other, a seated figure of
Victory (?), as here engraved.



One of the sons of Commius, and brother to Tinc[ommius] and Verica.
His name occurs in various stages of abbreviation, EPPILLVS, EPPIL,
EPPI, EPP, and EP. _Obverse_, on some the name EPPIL COM F in two
lines across the coin; others, a circular wreath inclosing COM F; or
winged figure of Victory within a wreath; or a beaded band and a line
of foliage in saltire, with the four letters E P P I, one on each of
the angles of the cross; or a diademed head; or an eagle rising with
EPP; or an ornamental cross, with EPPI COM F between the limbs (p.
6, Fig. E); or a bull, evidently copied from the coin of Augustus,
here engraved. _Reverse_, a winged horse, or Pegasus; or an undraped
horseman galloping, with EPPILLVS, etc.; or draped horseman galloping,
with EPPI COM F; or horse only, with EPPI, and a quatrefoil or other
ornaments; or undraped standing winged figure, with EP; or a crescent
between two clusters of pellets, with REX CALLE (supposed to allude to
Calleva--Silchester--as place of mintage); and other varieties.


_Obverse_, on some a device (placed diagonally across the coin) that
may almost be taken to be the thunderbolt of Jove, between two circles
that _may_ be the wheel of Nemesis, the emblem of swift and retributive
justice, as not unfrequently represented in Roman art; or a laureated
head, with DVBNO; or other device. _Reverse_, on some a horse with or
without a wreath or branch below and other minor devices, with the
DVBNO[VELLA]VNOS; or a griffin, or ornithocephalous winged horse with
star and other ornaments; or a horse with DVBN in a tablet; or other

VOSE[NOS] (?).

_Obverse_, plain convex. _Reverse_, a horse, above which is a bull’s
head and a ring ornament; and, beneath, what has been described as a
“horned serpent,” but may be a torque or other object, with ... NOS;
or a horse with other accompaniments, and VOSII.



_Obverse_, a bust to the right, with or without AMMI; or a plant of
seven branches with AMMINVS. _Reverse_, front view of a biga, or what
may be described as two demi-horses conjoined, heads and forelegs
facing outwards, a human head between, and the letters E above and S
below; or the exergual line, winged Pegasus passant, with DVN above and
AM; or a Capricorn, or hippocampus, and AM.


Only two coins, according to Mr. Evans, are known bearing this name, or
rather commencement of a name, the remainder of which is unknown. One
of the two known examples bears on the _obverse_ a cross whose limbs
are formed of three rows of beads, with central ring, and in the angles
between the limbs of the cross the letters C R A B. _Reverse_, an eagle
rising regardant. The other has, _obverse_, the letters C R A B on a
tablet, above which is an annulet, and, below, an S-shaped object;
_reverse_, a tressure of six beaded points, points outwards, with a
central ring, and within each of the outer curves three pellets.



_Obverse_, on some, bust to the right, with the letters ANDOCO; or a
double cruciform ornament, formed, the one cross of beaded fillets,
and other of two torque-like figures, more or less developed and
accompanied by other minor marks (p. 6, Fig. B); or a bearded profile
bust with a, etc. _Reverse_, a horse, with ANDOCO; or a horse with a
bull’s head above, and ANDO; or a bridled winged Pegasus, with ANDOC,
the N and D conjoined, etc.


Ascertained from numismatic evidence to have been the father of
Cunobelinus and of Epaticcus, is supposed to have reigned some quarter
of a century B.C., with his capital fixed at Verulamium, and to have
died somewhere about 5 B.C. _Obverse_, on some, a double cruciform
device of the same general character as the last described, but of
more or less disjointed and imperfect execution (p. 6, Fig. H); or a
somewhat similar device, with the letters TASCI between the limbs of
the cross; or TASC on an oblong tablet with lines extended from its
angles, and forming, with a beaded band, etc., a kind of cruciform
ornament; or TASC within an oblong tablet surrounded by a beaded
circle; or a beaded bust to the left; or a laureated bust, with TASCIA;
or a Pegasus, with TAS; or an eagle, wings closed, regardant, with
TASCIA; or a bust to the right, with TASCIAVA; and others. _Reverse_,
on some, a horse with various accompaniments, with TASCIOVAN,
[T]ASCIAV, TAXCI, TASCIA, or TASC, etc.; or a mounted horseman, with
various contractions of the name; or a figure of Pegasus; or a bull
with tail over back and head as in act of tossing, as on the coin
of Augustus (already referred to under Eppillus), from which it has
evidently been copied; or a winged griffin; or a boar; or other device.


The coins of Verulamium, the ancient city of Verulam, near St. Albans,
the capital of the Catyeuchlani, and a place of mintage during
some period of time, are tolerably numerous in their types and of
considerable interest. Its name as a place of mintage first appears
upon the coins of Silvanus; on the gold in extremely small characters,
but more conspicuously upon the silver and copper pieces. On some of
the latter we have the name of the town alone, without that of the
prince, but the types are so connected with those which bear the name
of Tasciovanus that it is evident the apparently autonomous coins
must have been issued during his reign. Among the abbreviated forms
of the name of the city upon coins there struck are V, VER, VIIR,
and VERLAMIO, and these occur in connection with, or separate from,
other inscriptions. The _obverse_ of one, bearing the letters VERLAMIO
between the points of the limbs of a double cruciform ornament, is
engraved on (p. 6, Fig. J).


Coins bearing the letters--

    TASCIO      TASCI       TASCIOV      TASCI
    RICON       RICONI      RICON        RICON

and the like, in two lines divided from each other in a tablet across
the field of the coin, appear to have been struck by Tasciovanus at
some town of mintage indicated by RICON, but which has not yet been
satisfactorily ascertained.


Coins bearing the letters SEGO on a tablet, with or without the TASCIO
of Tasciovanus, would seem to have been struck by him at some place, or
recording some tribe, not yet accurately appropriated.


One of the sons of Tasciovanus and brother of Cunobeline. _Obverse_,
on some, an ear of bearded coin and the letters TASCI F; or a head
of Hercules, and EPATI or EPAT. _Reverse_, on some a nude mounted
horseman, with lance and shield, and EPATICCV; or an eagle standing on
a serpent, etc.


The “Cymbeline” of Shakespeare, a son of Tasciovanus and brother
of Epaticcus, and during whose reign the birth of our Saviour took
place, struck a considerable variety of coins in all the metals. He
had Camulodunum (Colchester) for his capital and place of mintage.
Of his sons Togodumnos and Caractacus no coins are known. The coins
of Cunobeline are so numerous and varied that it is not necessary to
summarize their types. The following are examples of the inscriptions:--

  _Obverse_, CAMVL.      _Reverse_, CVNOBELI.
             CA MV.                 CVNO.
             CA MV.                 CVN.
             CVNO BELI.             CVN.
             CVNO BELI.             IDA.
             CVN.                   CV N.
             CVNO.                  TASC. F.
             CVNOBELINI.            TASCIO.
             CVNO.                  TASCIO.
             TASCIIOVAN.            CVNOBELI.
             CV NO.                 TASCIIOVA.
             CVNOBELINVS.           TASCIOVANI.
             CVN or CVNO.           CAM.
             CVNO.                  CAMV.
             CVNOBELIN.             CAM.
             CAMVL.                 CVNO.
             CVNO.                  SOLIDV.
             CVNOBELINI.            TASCIOVANI. F.
             CVNOBELINVS.           TASCIIOVANII. F.
             CVNOB.                 TASCIIOVANTIS.
             CVNOBII.               TAS FIL.
             CVNOBELINVS REX.       TASC.
             CAMVL ODVNO.           CVNO.


Possibly partly contemporary with Cunobeline. _Obverse_, on some a
singular device partaking of the conventional form of the “Thunderbolt
of Jove,” as before alluded to; on others, a six-limbed device, the
limbs curved in “Catherine-wheel” form, and springing from three
central crescents, rings and pellets in the angles; or a cross with
beaded lines and two crescents (p. 6, Fig. C). _Reverse_, on some, a
horse with or without branch beneath, and with or without wheel, and
other rude ornaments, and ADDEDO-MARVS, or ADDEDO, or A[BO][BO]IIDO[M],
or other abbreviations.


A number of inscribed coins about which nothing certain is known have,
with considerable show of reason, been attributed generally to the
Iceni. Their types are very varied, and need not be recapitulated.
Among the inscriptions are the following:--ECE or ECEN (probably for
DVRO-CAM[BORICVM]), etc., etc. Many varieties of uninscribed coins are
also, with more or less show of reason, attributed to the Iceni. The
_obverse_ of one example is engraved on (p. 6, Fig. i).



A number of coins have, with plausible reasoning, been appropriated by
Mr. Evans and other authorities, to the Brigantes, whose dominions seem
to have comprised Yorkshire, Lancashire, and other northern parts, and
who are indeed said to have been the original inhabitants, the Britons
proper, of the island, who had been driven inland and northwards by
successive invaders of the soil, and they seem to have been among
the latest to retain the original national characteristics. Among
the inscribed coins (which are of unusual rudeness) believed to have
belonged to them, are those bearing the letters VO·LI·SI·OS on the
_obverse_, and DVM NOCO VEROS, or DVMNO CO VEROS, on the _reverse_;
TIGIP-SENO on _reverse_; AVNT or AVN-T, the AVN being over the back of
the horse, and the T beneath its neck.


A number of types of rude uninscribed coins, partaking of the character
of those of Gaulish origin, mostly in billon, but sometimes of silver
or bronze, are ascribed to the Channel Islands, and numbers of them
have been found in Jersey and other islands, as well as in our own
country. The examples engraved are in my own possession, and were
found, with others, in Devonshire.


The usual type is a boldly cut, but rudely designed, head, a coarse
imitation of the Greek already referred to; and the _reverse_ a
horse more or less disjointed or disintegrated, and accompanied by
indications, more or less distinct, of wheels and other objects.

As indicating to some extent the area over which the coins of the
ancient Britons circulated, it may be said that the approximate number
of _recorded_ localities in which “finds” have been made in the
“forty shires” may be summarized as most of all in Kent (say forty
places); about half that number in Dorset, Sussex, and Essex; about
a third in Oxfordshire; say a fourth in Suffolk, Surrey, Buckingham,
Hampshire, Herts, and Northampton; and so decreasing in Beds., Cambs.,
and Norfolk; Berks, Middlesex, and Gloucester; Wilts and Somerset;
Lincolnshire and Yorkshire; Leicestershire, Monmouthshire, and
Worcestershire; and Devonshire, Cornwall, Huntingdon, Lancashire,
Northumberland, Nottingham, and Westmoreland. Derbyshire,
Staffordshire, and the other counties not enumerated, not having, so
far as at present known to me, produced a single _recorded_ example.



The earliest coins of the Anglo-Saxon period appear to have been
rude imitations of some of the later current pieces of their Roman
predecessors in our island. It seems doubtful whether at first they
had a coinage of their own, the probability being that those of the
Romano-Britons continued, as they naturally would, to be circulated.
Some of the sceattæ bear more or less rude figures and uncouth heads
and devices, some being evident imitations of the well-known type of
Romulus and Remus suckled by the she-wolf, and others of equally well
known types. From the sceattæ, one of our common expressions at the
present is derived. The word in the singular is _sceat_ or _scæt_,
and the Saxon _sc_ being pronounced soft, as _sh_, became _sheat_ or
_shæt_. From this it naturally became corrupted into “shot,” and thus
“paying your shot” simply meant paying your money, or clearing your
reckoning, and “not having a shot in your locker,” being without money
in cupboard, or purse. These early coins, some of which appear to bear
Runic characters, cannot with any degree of certainty be appropriated
to any kings.

The penny, _penig_, _pening_, or _pending_ (said to be the diminutive
of _pand_, a pledge, and also by some said to be derived from
_pendere_, to weigh) is first named in the laws of Ina, king of the
West Saxons, who began to reign A.D. 688. It was, as now, as has been
conclusively shown, the 240th part of a pound, which weighed about 5760
grains; the weight of a penny was, therefore, 24 grains, which still in
our tables constitute a “dwt.” or “pennyweight.”

The generally received opinion is that the first pennies as succeeding
the sceattæ; and quite independent of the stycas, were struck by
Offa, king of Mercia, from A.D. 757 to 796. “When the kingdoms of
the Heptarchy were united in one sovereignty,” as I have written on
another occasion, “the mints were regulated by laws framed by the
Wittenagemote, or Great Council of the Nation; but it was not till the
time of Æthelstan (924-940), that it was appointed there should be
one kind of money throughout the whole realm, and that no one should
coin but in a town. According to Stow, ‘Æthelstan made, seven coining
mints at Canterbury, four for the king, two for the archbishop, and one
for the abbot; at Rochester three, two for the king, and one for the
bishop. Besides these, in London eight, in Winchester six, in Lewes
two, in Chichester one, in Hampton two, in Shaftesbury two, and in
every other town one coiner.’ The coins remaining pretty well prove
this, and show there were very few considerable towns without a mint;
for besides those particularly mentioned in Æthelstan’s law, there are
coins of Derby, Bristol, Evesham, Exeter, Gloucester, Ipswich, Lincoln,
Norwich, Shrewsbury, Thetford, Wallingford, Worcester, York, and other
places. The probability is that the custom of impressing on coins the
name of the town of the mintage began in the early part of the reign of

One of the largest “finds” of Anglo-Saxon coins was made at Cuerdale,
where, along with a vast number of foreign pieces, there were found:--

    2 of Æthelred.
    24 of Æthelstan II.
    1 of Ciolwulf.
    857 of Alfred.
    45 of Eadwerd.
    1 of Abp. Ceolnoth.
    59 of Abp. Plegmund.
    2 of Sitric.
    1770 of St. Eadmund.

Under the ordinary order of arrangement, the following may be taken as
indications of the coins of Anglo-Saxon rulers:--


The _sceat_ attributed to this king is doubtful.

EGCBERHT, 765-791.

The name is found as EGCBERHT RX. and on the _reverse_ is the moneyer’s

EADBEARHT, 794-798.

_Obverse_, the name EADBEARHT REX in three lines across the field.

_Reverse_, moneyer’s name with device.

CUTHRED, 798-805.

_Obverse_, on some a profile bust, others three arms branching out
from the inner circle, and extending through the legend, CVDRED REX
or CVDRED REX CANT. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name with similar device or
cross, etc.

BALDRED, 805-823.

_Obverse_, bust or cross within inner circle, BALDRED, BELDRED, or
BEALDRED REX CN or CANT. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, cross, etc. One of
his coins has on the _reverse_ DIORMOD MONETA, and within the inner
circle, in two lines, DRVR CITS for _Dorovernia Civitas_ or city of
Canterbury, and is the earliest known instance of place of mintage
appearing upon Saxon coins.



The coins of Offa are of great variety in type, of considerable beauty
in design, and of better workmanship than most of the Saxon pennies.
On the _obverse_ is the name OFFA REX, or REX M, or REX MERCIORN.
_Reverse_, various crosses and other devices and moneyer’s name. Of
these upwards of fifty are known, and some of them used Runic letters.


Coins of this queen (supposed to be the wife of Offa) are known, and
bear on one side the bust and moneyer’s name; on the other her name and

COENVVLF, 794-818.

The coins bear a marked resemblance to those of Offa, but are inferior
in execution. The name is usually COENVVLF REX, with or without M for
Mercia, and on the _reverse_ the moneyer’s name, and often the word
MONETA. Upwards of fifty moneyers are known.



The appropriation of coins to this king is conjectural. The name occurs

BEORNVVLF, 820-824.

_Obverse_, BEORNVVLF or BEORNWVLF REX, REX M, etc., with bust.
_Reverse_, moneyer’s name.

LUDICA or LUDICAN, 824, 825.

_Obverse_, LVDICA REX or RX, ME with bust. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name,
with cross, etc.

WIGLAF, 825-839.

_Obverse_, VVIGLAF REX M and bust. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, with

BERTHVVLF, 839-852.

_Obverse_, bust, and name BERHTVLF or BERHTVVLF REX or REX M.
_Reverse_, moneyer’s name, with cross, etc.; one has a tall cross
between T A, and another the Christian monogram [CR] within the inner
circle. About twenty moneyers are known.

BURGHRED, 852-874.

_Obverse_, bust, and name BVRGRED or BVRGRD; RE, REX, or RECX M.
_Reverse_, moneyer’s name, usually in a line across the middle of
the coin with MON above and ETA below. About one hundred and fifty
varieties of moneyers’ names are known.


The coins of this last of the Mercian kings are not very satisfactorily
to be distinguished from those of Ceolvvlf I. They bear a bust and


Beonna or Beorn was contemporary with Offa. _Obverse_, BEONNA REX.
_Reverse_, a cross within a square, from whose angles lines of dots
project, and letters.

EADVALD, 819-827.

_Obverse_, EADVALD REX in three lines. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name.

ÆTHELSTAN I., _circa_ 828-837.

_Obverse_, bust or letter A, and name ETHELTTAN or ETHELZTAN REX or REX
ANG. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, of which several varieties are known.

ETHELWARD, _circa_ 837-850.

Same general character as the others, with ETHELWARD, AETHELVVEARD,
ETHELVVEARD, or ETHELOARO, RE or REX. _Reverse_, crosses and moneyers’

BEORHTRIC, _circa_ 852.

_Obverse_, letter A or AM, and name BEORHTRIC, BEORMIRIC, or
BEORCHTRIC, RE or REX. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, etc.


_Obverse_, letter A or cross and crescent, and name EADMVND or ADMVND;
RE, RX, or REX, AN. _Reverse_, moneyers’ names, etc., of which above
thirty varieties are known.

ÆTHELSTAN II., 870-890.

_Obverse_, letter A or cross and name EDELSTIN, EDELSTAN, EDILARE,
etc.; R, RE, or REX, A or AN. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, of which
several varieties are known.



_Obverse_, cross and name ECGFRID REX. _Reverse_, radiated cross and

ALDFRID, 685-705.

_Obverse_, cross and name ALDFRIDVS. _Reverse_, a four-footed animal.

EADBERHT, 737-758.

Nothing can be definitely asserted as to the coins of this king; those
ascribed to him may belong to Ecgberht.


Two coins have been attributed to him, the name on the _obverse_ being
on one EDI[L]HD[L]V, and on the other ATHBADIV.


Coins supposed to belong to him bear the name ALCHRED or A[L]CHRED.

ELFWALD, 779-788.

Some sceattæ bearing the word E[L]FVA[L]V or VALD[F][E]LA on one side,
and a quadruped on the other, have been ascribed to him.

HEARDULF, 794-806.

_Obverse_, HEARDVLF. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, of which six are known.

ELFWALD II., 806-808.

The coins assigned to this king are uncertain.

EANRED, 808-840.

About two thousand coins of Eanred were found some years back at
Hexham. His name is variously spelled, as EANRED REX, and the like, and
the variety of names of moneyers numbers about a hundred.

ÆTHELRED II., 840-848.

About two thousand coins of this king were found at Hexham. Some
bear his own name and that of his father Eanred. The name is spelled
_reverse_, the moneyer’s name and a device; the varieties of moneyers’
names numbering about a hundred.

REDULF, 844.

About a hundred of his stycas were found at Hexham. _Obverse_, cross
moneyers’ name, of which about a score of varieties are known.

OSBERCHT, 848-867.

OSBERH, or OSBVEHT; R, RE, or REX. _Reverse_, moneyers’ names, of which
about twenty varieties are known.

ÆLLA, 862-867.

It is doubtful whether the stycas said to belong to this king are
correctly appropriated.

HALFDEN, 875-883.

From the time of Halfden both sceattæ and stycas ceased to be coined. A
penny and a halfpenny of his were found at Cuerdale. _Obverse_, cross
and ALFDENE or VLFDENE, RX or REX. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name.


_Obverse_, SITRIC COMEZ in two lines across the coin, with crosses
between; _reverse_, moneyer’s name in lines across the coin.

CNUT, 883-900.

Of Cnut no fewer than 2534 coins were found at Cuerdale in 1840.
_Obverse_, CNVT, CNVTI, CVNNETTI (differently abbreviated), CNT, etc.;
R, RN, RX, RIX, REX, etc. Some have a cross of various forms with the
letters CNVT terminating the four

  limbs, thus V-+-T _Reverse_, extremely varied, with crosses

and other devices, and moneyers’ town or names, as EBRAICE CIVITAS,

SIEFRID, _circa_ 900.

_Obverse_, crosses and name, as SIEFREDVS, SIEVERT, SIEVERTI, or
SIUERT; R, RE, or REX. The cross with letters at ends of

                                E   |
                                D   |   F
  the limbs occurs on some, as  I --|-- R   _Reverse_, names of
                                I   |   X

moneyer or town with cross, etc., and on some the word

  REX X--|--R etc.

ALWALD, 901-905.

_Obverse_, ALVALDVS or ALVVALDV. _Reverse_, D[=NS] [=DS] REX in two
lines across the coin.

SITRIC, _circa_ 921-926.

_Obverse_, SITRIC REX in two lines across the coin divided by a sword;
SITRIC CVNVNC A with trefoil ornament; or L[=VD]O SITRC in two lines
with sword between, and hammer of Thor below, dividing the lower word.
_Reverse_, crosses and crescents and lettering.

ERIC, 927-954.

_Obverse._ ERIC REX A, or AL, EBOR, EF, EN, IO, N or NO, or TO, in two
lines divided by a sword. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, etc.

REGNALD, 912-944.

_Obverse_, trefoil interlaced knot, or cross, and name, REGNALD CVNVL,
or REG CVNVNC. _Reverse_, cross or “Danish Standard,” and AVRA MONITRE
or BA[ldri]C NOTR AL, etc.


_Obverse_, cross, “Danish Raven,” or interlaced trefoil knot, and the
name ANLAF, ONLAF or ONLOF, REX, or CVNVNC, T D or other letters.
_Reverse_, cross, Danish Raven, or Danish Standard, and moneyer’s
name, followed by MONETA, MONE, MONETR, MINETER, etc., etc. About
twenty varieties of moneyers’ names are known. One _reverse_ has the
moneyer’s name, RADVLF, in a line across the coin, with a flower and
leaves above, and flowers below.



_Obverse_, profile, cross, or other device with name ECGBEARHT,
crescents, tribrach, monogram, or cross and moneyer’s name, of which
there are about thirty varieties known.

ETHELWLF, 837-856.


_Obverse_, cross, bust, or monogram, etc., and name ETHELVVLF,
or REXX. _Reverse_, cross, monogram, or other device, and moneyer’s
name. On some the titles of the king are continued on the _reverse_,
as CANT, SAXONIORVM, OCCIDENTALIVM, etc. About sixty varieties of
moneyer’s names are known.



_Obverse_, bust with name AETHELBEARHT or AETHEBEARHT, RE or REX.
_Reverse_, cross or other device, and moneyer’s name, etc. The one
engraved bears in a cross the moneyer’s name [+] DEGBEARHT, and MO of
MONETA, the last four letters of which (NETA) are between the limbs of
the cross. Sixty varieties of moneyers’ names are known.

AETHELRED, 866-871.

_Obverse_, bust, or in one instance front of a temple, and name,
_Reverse_, cross, or other device, and moneyer’s name, of which about
thirty varieties are known.

AELFRED, 872-901.

_Obverse_, bust of the king on many coins, on others a cross or other
device, with the name ÆLFRED, ÆLFRD, ÆLFD, EL, ELFRED, or AELFRED; R,
RE, RX or REX; S, SAX, SAXONVM, etc. _Reverse_, various devices and
moneyers’ names, of which about two hundred varieties are known. Some
of his coins bear the monogram of London, or rather Londini, sometimes
with or without the moneyer’s name, and MONETA and others with
monograms of other places of mintage. The variety of forms and devices
upon Alfred’s coins is exceptionally great.


_Obverse_, bust, cross, star, or other device, and name EADVVEARD REX
SAXONVM. On some there is no device, and the name is arranged in three
lines across the coin. _Reverse_, cross, building, bird, flower, or
other device, and moneyer’s name, etc., of which there are about 130
varieties known.

AETHELSTAN, 925-941.

_Obverse_, crowned bust or cross, and name ÆTHELSTAN, ETHELSTAN,
ÆDELSTAN, or abbreviated; R or REX, or REX SAXORVM, or REX TOTIVS
BRITANNIÆ, etc. _Reverse_, cross, building, or other device, and name
of moneyer, etc. On some the name is in lines across the coin, and
some are devoid of all ornament. The names upon these coins, of towns
where minted, are Derby, Bath, Southampton, Canterbury, Exeter, York,
Gloucester, Hereford, Leicester, London, Langport, Norwich, Oxford,
Rochester, Shaftesbury, Shrewsbury, Nottingham, Stafford, Worcester,
Wallingford, Wareham, and Winchester, and the number of known varieties
of moneyers’ names closely approaches 220.

EADMUND, 941-946.

_Obverse_, bust, or cross and name, as EADMVND, or EDMEVNDI, REX.
_Reverse_, small cross in centre of inner circle and moneyer’s name,
or the name in lines across. The places of mintage are London, York,
Exeter, Southampton, Leicester, Oxford, and Norwich, and the number of
varieties of moneyer’s names over 160.

EADRED, 946-955.

_Obverse_, bust, or cross, etc., and name, as EADRED or ETHRED REX,
or REX ANGLOR, or REX SAXORVM. _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, either in
the usual way or in lines across, and small cross or other device. The
known towns of mintage on these coins are Exeter, Lincoln, and Norwich,
and the number of varieties of moneyers’ names is over 160.

EADWIG, 955-959.

_Obverse_, bust or cross, and name, as EADVVIG REX. _Reverse_,
moneyer’s name, etc., in usual way or in lines, with cross or other
device. The towns of mintage are Exeter, Bedford, York, Southampton,
Hereford, Huntingdon, London, Norwich, Worcester, and Winchester, and
there are sixty known varieties of moneyers’ names.


_Obverse_, bust or cross, and name, as EADGAR REX, or REX ANGLOR,
or other abbreviation of ANGLORVM, or TO BI, or TOTIVS BRITANNIÆ.
_Reverse_, moneyer’s names, etc. The towns of mintage are Bath,
Bedford, Canterbury, Derby, Exeter, Ely, York, Canterbury, Gloucester,
Ipswich, Southampton, Rochester, Huntingdon, Tutberge, Lewes,
Leicester, Lyminge, Lincoln, Lynn, London, Malmesbury, Norwich,
Oxford, Shrewsbury, St. Edmundsbury, Stamford, Thetford, Teignmouth,
Wallingford, Winchelsea, Wilton, and Winchester; and the varieties in
names of moneyers are almost innumerable.


_Obverse_, bust, or cross, and name, as EADPEARD or EADVVEARD,
REX, ANG, ANL, or ANGLORVM, more or less abbreviated. _Reverse_,
moneyers’, etc., names as usual. The towns of mintage are Bath,
Bedford, Canterbury, Chester, Derby, Exeter, York, Ipswich, Gloucester,
Cambridge, Southampton, Hertford, Lewes, Leicester, Lincoln, Lyminge,
Lydford, London, Norwich, Oxford, St. Edmundsbury, Stamford, Tamworth,
Thetford, and Winchester; the varieties in names of moneyers being
above a hundred.

AETHELRED II., 978-1016.


_Obverse_, bust of varied character with or without sceptre, etc.,
or Agnus Dei, with name, as ÆDELRED, EDELRED, or EDELRÆD, REX, ANG,
ANGL, ANGM, or ANGLORVM, etc. _Reverse_, various crosses and other
devices, or hand from heaven between A ω, and moneyer and town
names. The known names of mintages are Bath, Bedford, Buckingham,
Canterbury, Cambridge, Chichester, Chester, Colchester, Derby, Dublin,
Dover, Dorchester, Exeter, Godalming, Gloucester, Ilchester, Ipswich,
Hertford, Hereford, Huntingdon, Jedburgh, Shaftesbury, Shrewsbury,
Southampton, Sudbury, Lewes, Lancaster, Leicester, Lyminge, Lincoln,
London, Lydford, Maldon, Malmesbury, Norwich, Oxford, Reading,
Winchester, Castle Rising, Rochester, Stafford, Thetford, Totnes,
Torksey, Warwick, Wallingford, Watchet, Worcester, Wilton, and

CNUT, 1016-1035.

_Obverse_, bust, much varied, on some mitred, with or without sceptre,
and name, as CNVT, REX, RECX, RECCX, or RXC; A, AN, ANGL, or ANGLORUM,
etc. _Reverse_, various crosses, etc., and moneyers’ and town names. Of
the latter the following are known:--Bardney, Bath, Bedford, Bristol,
Buckingham, Cadbury, Chichester, Cambridge, Castle Rising, Chepstow,
Chester, Chichester, Canterbury, Colchester, Cricklade, Crewkerne,
Dorchester, Dublin, Exeter, Ely, Ilchester, Ipswich, Gloucester,
Godmanchester, Hastings, Hertford, Hereford, Huntingdon, Hythe, Lewes,
Leyton, Langport, Leicester, Lydford, London, Maldon, Malmesbury,
Norwich, Nottingham, Oxford, Ribchester, Romney, Rochester, Salisbury,
Sandwich, Southampton, Shaftesbury, Shrewsbury, Steyning, Stamford,
Stafford, Southwark, Taunton, Thetford, Totnes, Warwick, Watchet,
Wallingford, Worcester, Wilton, Winchester, and York.

HAROLD I., 1035-1040.


_Obverse_, bust, varied, and name, as HARALD, HAROLD, HLOD, or HARE
..., R, RE, REX, or RECX, A, or AN. _Reverse_, cross, varied, and
names of moneyer and town. The mint towns are Bath, Bedford, Bristol,
Canterbury, Cambridge, Chichester, Colchester, Dover, Exeter, Ipswich,
Lewes, Leicester, Lincoln, London, Norwich, Oxford, Rochester,
Salisbury, Southampton, Nottingham, Stafford, Thetford, Warwick,
Wilton, Wallingford, Worcester, Winchester, and York.

HARTHACNUT, 1040-1042.

_Obverse_, bust, varied, and name, as HARTHACNVT, HARTHECNVT,
ARTHECNVT, HARNATHECN, or abbreviations, R, RE, or REX, and in one
instance, AN. _Reverse_, cross, varied, and moneyer and town names. The
latter, as known, are Bath, Bristol, Chester, Dover, Exeter, Guildford,
Gloucester, Hereford, Huntingdon, London, Lincoln, Norwich, Nottingham,
Oxford, Salisbury, Stamford, Steyning, Southwark, Warwick, Worcester,
and Winchester.


_Obverse_, bust, varied, or king seated on throne with full regalia,
etc., R, RE, or REX, ANGLORVM, more or less abbreviated. _Reverse_,
cross, varied, and other devices, or PAX across the field, or the
arms, a cross between four martlets, etc., and moneyers’ and mintage
town names, among the known places of which are Aylesbury, Bath,
Derby, Hastings, Southampton, Bedford, Bedwin, Berkeley, Bristol,
Canterbury, Chichester, Cricklade, Colchester, Salisbury, Dover,
Dorchester, St. Edmundsbury, Exeter, Lewes, York, Ilchester, Ipswich,
Gloucester, Guildford, Hastings, Cambridge, Southampton, Hertford,
Hereford, Horningdon, Huntingdon, Hythe, Longport, Leicester, Chester,
Lincoln, London, Maldon, Malmesbury, Newport, Norwich, Oxford, Castle
Rising, Rochester, Winchester, Sandwich, Shaftesbury, Shrewsbury,
Nottingham, Stamford, Stafford, Steyning, Sudbury, Southwark, Tamworth,
Taunton, Thetford, Teignmouth, Warwick, Wallingford, Watchet, Wareham,
Worcester, Wilton, Winchester, and York. About two thousand coins of
this king were found near Steyning.

HAROLD II., 1066.

Although Harold reigned only nine months before his death at the battle
of Hastings, there are several varieties of his coins known. They have
the bust on the _obverse_, with the name HAROLD REX ANG, or ANGL; and
on the reverse the word PAX across the field within the inner circle,
and the moneyers’ and mintage town names. The names of known towns
are Hastings, Bedford, Bristol, Canterbury, Chichester, Colchester,
Cricklade, Derby, Dover, York, Exeter, Ilchester, Guildford, Ipswich,
Gloucester, Cambridge, Hereford, Southampton, Huntingdon, Lewes,
Leicester, Chester, Lincoln, London, Maldon, Norwich, Oxford,
Rochester, Romney, Shaftesbury, Nottingham, Shrewsbury, Stamford,
Steyning, Southwark, Taunton, Thetford, Warwick, Wallingford, Wareham,
Winchester, Worcester, and Wilton; and the variety in the names of
moneyers numbers over a hundred.


Coins bearing the names of St. Eadmund, St. Peter, and St. Martin. Of
the first of these nearly 1800 were found at Cuerdale, and therefore
they must have been struck before 905; they bear in one form or other
the name of the saint. The next, vulgarly known as “Peter’s Pence,” are
supposed to have been struck somewhere between 905 and 941; and those
of St. Martin from 921 to 942.

Archbishops, bishops and abbots, were in early times permitted to
coin money. Those known before the time of Æthelstan’s decree that
all the money in the kingdom should be uniform, are the following:
of Canterbury, Archbishops Jaenbrht, 736-790; Æthelheard, 790-803;
Vulfred, 803-830; Ceolnoth, 830-870; Ethered, 871-891; and Plegmund,
891-923. Of York, Archbishops Eanbald, 796; and Vigmund, 831-854.






(1066 to 1087, and 1087 to 1100.)

The coins of William the Conqueror and his son William Rufus cannot,
with any degree of certainty, be distinguished the one from the other;
their appropriation is therefore purely conjectural.

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies only.


OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crowned bust, sometimes full-faced, at others in
dexter or sinister profile; on some the shoulders and arm extending to
the edge of the coin, on others the whole confined within the inner
circle; sometimes with tassel, or pendant, hanging from the crown on
either side (“bonnet” type), or with a canopy over the head (“canopy”
type). On one or both sides of the bust is generally a sceptre, or
star; or sceptre on one side and star on the other; or sword. Those
usually ascribed to the first William are those with the sceptres
only; the others are attributed to William II. But this is entirely


REVERSE.--_Type._ Crosses in considerable variety, including fleury,
battonée, annulæ, voided, etc.; others terminating in pellets, knots,
etc.; cross and saltire; cross and lozenge; cross and annulets, etc.
One type of common occurrence has, in circles between the limbs of the
cross, the letters P A X S. In all cases the device is confined within
the inner circle.

[1] It should be observed that the P is the Saxon W.


_Legend._ Mint master’s and town names, as GODPINE ON LIN, which
signifies that it was struck by Godwine of Lincoln; SIPORD ON PINC, by
Siward of Winchester; ESBRN ON SERBR, by Osbern of Salisbury; SIBODE ON
LVNDEN; and so on. About sixty or seventy different places of mintage
are known.

_Rarity._ Some scarce; those with the canopy over the head exceedingly
so. Those with P A X S are common.

HENRY I. (1100 to 1135.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies only.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crowned bust, sometimes full-faced, at others
three-quarter faced, or in dexter or sinister profile; generally with
a sceptre in the right hand, sometimes one, two, or three stars, or a
rose before the face. In some instances the figure is half length and
full robed, showing right hand holding sceptre, and left extended.
There are many varieties.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Crosses of the same general character as those of
previous monarchs; quatrefoils with crosses, pellets, bezants, roses,
etc., in them; others the letters P A X, bars and annulets.

_Legend._ Mint master’s and town names. About eighty moneyers’ names
are known. One example has the legend in two circles.

_Rarity._ All rare; some types extremely so.

STEPHEN. (1135 to 1154.)


DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies only.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crowned bust, sometimes almost full-faced, but
generally in dexter profile; sceptre, mace, lance, or flag in the right
hand. On one are two figures, variously surmised to be Stephen and
Henry, and Stephen and Matilda, represented standing side by side, hand
clasped in hand, and between them a sceptre.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Crosses, etc., in great variety, all within the inner
circle; some have the space usually allotted to the legend filled with
various little devices, as roses, escallops, etc.; the Stephen and
Henry (or Matilda) is of this kind. One example, struck at Derby, has
within the inner circle a double cross, between the limbs of which are
four martlets.

_Legend._ Mint master’s and town names, of which there are many

_Rarity._ All very rare. The Stephen and Henry (or Matilda) at Tyssen’s
sale, in 1802, brought ten guineas, and at Dimsdale’s, in 1824,
thirteen pounds two shillings and sixpence, and later, much higher

Other coins bear the name of Eustace, son of Stephen (EVSTACIVS.
EISTCHIVS, etc.); Matilda (MA[T]ILD[A] IM[PERATRIX], etc.); William,
second son of Stephen (WILLELMVS. LVI--LLEM DVD); Earl of Warwick;
Robert Earl of Gloucester; and Henry Bishop of Winchester (HENRICVS
EPC.); all rare.

HENRY II. (1154 to 1189.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies only.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crowned bust, full-faced or profile; sceptre in his
right hand, generally held upright, but on some leaned on the shoulder.
In one instance, with three stars before the face.

_Legend._ HENRI.--R. RE. or REX.--A. AN. ANG. or ANGL.

REVERSE.--_Type._ Cross patée, with four small ones, one in each
quarter; all within the inner circle.

_Legend._ Mint master’s and town names; as, WALTER ON LV. (Walter of
London), IOHAN ON LUNDEN (John of London), and so on.

_Rarity._ All rare.

RICHARD I. (1189 to 1199.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies and Halfpennies.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ The only coins known of this monarch are those struck
at Poictou and Aquitaine; they have no bust, merely a plain cross
patée. No English examples have as yet been discovered; the Evesham
ones, etc., were forged by White.

_Legend._ RICARDVS.--RE. or REX.

REVERSE.--In three lines across the coin--


or ACVITAINE. No device.

_Rarity._ Extremely rare.

JOHN. (1199 to 1216.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies, Halfpennies, and Farthings.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ No English coins of John are known, but there
are abundant proofs that coins were during his reign struck to a
considerable extent in England. The supposition, amounting almost to
a certainty, is that the “short cross” pennies of Henry II. continued
to be struck and issued during this reign as well as in the early
part of the next. The Irish coins of John have--_Penny_, full-faced,
crowned bust, within a triangle, sceptre in the right hand; on the left
of the head a rose. _Halfpenny_ and _Farthing_, head in triangle, on
either side a star; one variety of halfpenny, called the “full moon
halfpenny,” has the face filling up the whole field of the coin, the
inner circle forming the outline of the face.

_Legend._ IOHAN. or IOHANNES.--REX or DOM. or DO.--the latter has

REVERSE.--_Type._ _Penny_ and _Halfpenny_, within a triangle a
crescent, above which is a star or cross. Penny, a star at each point
and side of triangle; Halfpenny, star on either side the crescent;
Farthing, within a triangle a star; “full moon” halfpenny, a voided
cross between four annulets, within inner circle.

_Legend_. Mint master’s and town names; as ROBERD ON DIVE., for Robert
of Dublin; WILLEM ON LI, or WILLEM ON LIME, for William of Limerick; or
WILLEM ON WA, for William, of Waterford. The Farthing has IOHANNES and
DW (Dublin) in continuation of obverse.

_Rarity._ All very rare, the Farthing more particularly so.

HENRY III. (1216 to 1272.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Gold_, Penny. _Silver_, Pennies only.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ _Silver Penny._ Full face, crowned in some, without
neck or shoulders; on some, on the right of the head (in the legend),
a hand holding a sceptre over the head; in some, a mullet or star, in
others a crescent and mullet.

The legends of these coins are remarkable for the letters in many
instances being conjoined.

REVERSE.--_Type._ There are two mintages. The early one (called “short
cross pennies”) has a voided cross within the inner circle, and four
pellets conjoined in each compartment; but the practice of clipping
and filing the moneys had been carried to such an extent, that about
1248 Henry issued a new coinage, called “long cross pennies,” with the
same cross, but extending through to the outer edge, thereby rendering
any mutilation visible. The cross is a voided or double one, each end
terminating in a pellet, and one in the centre; three pellets were now
inserted in each compartment instead of four, and not conjoined.

_Legend._ Mint master’s and town names; some have TER. or TERCI. added;
as, TER. RI ON LVND. in continuation of obverse. One variety reads LIE
TERCI LON, being a continuation of HENRICVS REX ANG. of the obverse;
this, in full, would be “HENRICVS REX ANGLIE TERCI. LON.”

_Rarity._ Not uncommon; those with TERCI. and REX ANG. rare.


_Gold._ The _Gold Penny_ of Henry III. was the first gold coin struck
by any English monarch; it is therefore important as marking a new era
in numismatics. The weight is forty-five grains, and it is of pure,
unalloyed gold. On the _obverse_ is a full length robed and crowned
figure of the king seated on a throne or chair of state, with sceptre
in right hand, and orb and cross in the left. Legend HENRIC REX III.
_Reverse_, a long double or voided cross and pellets, a rose between
the pellets in each compartment. This coin has fetched at sales as much
as £140.

From this time till Edward III., no other gold coins were struck by
English monarchs.

EDWARD I. (1272 to 1307.)


DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crowned full-faced bust of the king, with neck and
part of the shoulders draped; crown, consisting of three fleurs-de-lis,
and two lozenges, balls, or points; beneath the rim of the crown, on
the forehead, is a row of from one to five pearls; the hair, which is
very abundant, stands out a considerable distance on either side the
face, and curled; the whole within the inner circle. The Irish mintages
are distinguished by having the head in a triangle, the legend running
on its three sides; there are one or two specimens of English coins
with the triangle, but they are very rare.

D.G.R.--A. AN. ANG or ANGL.--D.H. or DNS HYB. There are many opinions
respecting the Pennies of the first three Edwards. The one most
generally received is, that those with the name contracted to EDW.
belong to Edward I.; those with the name in full EDWARD, to Edward
III.; and the intermediate varieties to Edward II. It remains still,
however, a vexed question, and one not easy of solution.

REVERSE.--_Type._ A plain cross, with its terminations enlarged,
extending through to the outer edge of the coin and dividing the legend
into four parts; three pellets in each compartment within the inner

_Legend._ In every instance except one, which has a moneyer’s name,
ROBERTVS DE HADL., or ROBERT DE HADELIE, consists of the name of the
city or town where struck; as, CIVITAS LONDON. VILL BEREWICI. VILLA

_Rarity._ Pennies common, with the exception of a few mintages. The
Halfpenny and Farthing very rare, the Farthing particularly so.

EDWARD II. (1307 to 1327.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies, Halfpennies, and Farthings.

As I have just remarked, the coins bearing intermediate abbreviations
of the king’s name, between EDW. and EDWARD, are, more for convenience
than by right, appropriated to this monarch. The description just given
will therefore apply to the coins of this reign.

EDWARD III. (1327 to 1377.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny and
Farthing. _Gold._--Florin, Half-florin, Quarter-florin; Noble,
Half-noble, and Quarter-noble.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Groat and Half-groat, head same as Edward I.’s,
within a circle formed of nine arches, fleury; Pennies, Halfpennies,
and Farthings, as Edward I.’s.

_Legend._ Groat, EDWARD. DEI G. REX. ANGL. DNS. HY. Z. AQT.; or
Half-groat, EDWARDVS. REX. ANGL. (or ANGLI) DNS. HYB., or Z. FRANCI or
DI. GRA.--R. or REX.--ANGL. ANGLI. or ANGLIE.--D. or DNS. HYB. Z. FRA.

REVERSE.--_Type._ Cross and pellets as his predecessor; one limb of the
cross of the Durham coins terminating in a crozier.

_Legend._ Groat and Half-groat. In the outer circle, POSVI DEVM
ADIVTOREM MEVM, or MEV. Inner circle, town name where struck; as,
CIVITAS LONDON or CIVITAS EBORACI. Pennies, etc., town, etc., names.

_Rarity._ Calais Groat very rare; Halfpence and Farthings rare; all
others not uncommon.

_Gold._ Florins (six shillings), Half-florins (three shillings),
and Quarter-florins (eighteenpence); Nobles (six and eightpence),
Half-nobles, or Maille-nobles (three and fourpence), and Quarter or
Ferling-nobles (twenty pence). Florin: obverse, the king crowned and
robed, seated under a canopy, with sceptre in right hand and orb and
cross in the left; on the robe a fleur-de-lis; two lions, one on each
side the throne: reverse, within a quatrefoil a short beaded cross with
foliated ends; in each of the angles between the four limbs a lion,
or leopard, surmounted with a crown. Half-florin: a lion, crowned; a
mantle, or banner, charged with the royal arms, hung from his neck:
reverse, within a quatrefoil a foliated cross having a lion in each
angle; legend, DOMINE NE IN FVRORE TVO ARGVAS ME, and variations.
Quarter-florin: helmet, with lamberquins and crest of lion, field
semé-de-lis; reverse, richly foliated cross; legend, EXALTABITVR IN
GLORIA. Noble and Half-noble, king in armour, crowned, standing in
a ship, with sword in his right hand, and in his left a shield of
England and France quarterly; reverse, in a tressure of eight arches
a rich foliated cross, in each angle a lion surmounted by a crown,
a fleur-de-lis at the end of each limb of the cross; legend, IHC
TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT, with variations. Quarter-noble: an
escutcheon with the arms of France and England, quarterly, within a
tressure of eight foils. All more or less rare. A Florin has sold for
£113; a Quarter-florin for £170.


RICHARD II. (1377 to 1399.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and
Farthing. _Gold._ Noble, Half-noble, and Quarter-noble.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Groat and Half-groat, crowned bust within a tressure
of nine arches, as his predecessor; the Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing
similar to the last reigns.

_Legend._ RICARD. RICARDVS.--D. G. DI. G. or DI. GRA.--R. REX.--ANG.

REVERSE.--_Type_ and _Legend_. Similar to the preceding reign; on some,
a rose in the centre of the cross.

_Rarity._ All rare.

_Gold._ Nobles, Half-nobles, and Quarter nobles; same types as before,
with only the necessary change in the legend. All rare; the Half-noble
particularly so.

HENRY IV. (1399 to 1413.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and
Farthing. _Gold._ Noble, Half-noble, and Quarter-noble.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ All his coins like his predecessor’s; (the head
within the circle of arches on the Groat and Half-groat;) and are only
to be distinguished from those of his successors Henry V. and VI. by
weight. The Groat weighs seventy-two grains, the others of course of
proportionate weights.

_Legend._ HENRIC. or HENRICVS.--D. G. or DI. GRA.--REX. ANGL. or
ANGLIE.--Z. FRAN. or FRANC.--D. or DNS. HI. HIB. or HYB.--Z. AQ. or
AQE., etc.

REVERSE.--_Type._ As his predecessor’s; the pellets in two of the
quarters are joined together by an annulet.

_Legend._ Groat and Half-groat; POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV or MEVM in
outer circle, and name of town, as CIVITAS LONDON, in inner one.
Pennies, etc., names of towns, as CIVITAS EBORACI, etc.

_Rarity._ Not uncommon; Groat rarest.


_Gold._ Noble, Half-noble, and Quarter-noble, same as Richard II., with
only alteration of name. All rare; first coinage particularly so.


HENRY V. (1413 to 1422.)

His coins are precisely like Henry IV.; no distinguishing mark has as
yet been discovered, so that what is said of the one will equally apply
to the other.

HENRY VI. (1422 to 1461.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and
Farthing. _Gold._ Noble, Half-noble, Quarter-noble, and, later, Angel,
and Half-angel or Angelet.

_Silver._ Same in every respect with the preceding ones, the only
distinction being by weight, and minor differences, which are not to
be taken as certain indications for appropriation; the weight of the
earlier Groat being 60 grains, and the later, or “light coinage,” 48,
and the other coins in proportion; the 48 grains Groat very rare.


_Gold._ Noble, Half-noble, and Quarter-noble, as before. The Angel,
and Angelet or Half-angel, bear on the obverse a winged and nimbed
figure of the Archangel Michael standing upon a dragon, which he is
transfixing through the mouth with a spear, the upper end of which
terminates in a cross crosslet.


REVERSE.--A ship with a large plain cross in place of mast, on which is
a shield of the royal arms. On the dexter side of the cross a letter H,
on the sinister a fleur-de-lis.


_Rarity._ All rare.

EDWARD IV. (1461 to 1483.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny,
and Farthing. _Gold._ Noble, Rose-noble Royal or Rial, Half-noble
or Half-rial, Quarter-noble or Quarter-rial, Angel, an Angelet or

OBVERSE.--_Type._ The general types of his silver coins are same as
those of his predecessors. The Groat and Half-groat have the bust
within the circle of arches; Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing, the same
as before. Some have the royal badge of the House of York, the rose, on
either side the neck of the bust, and others an annulet and rose, or
four pellets, etc., on the breast; others with the initial letter of
the town.

_Legend._ EDWARD. With titles as before. On the Farthing EDWARD REX
ANGL. REVERSE.--_Type._ Similar to the others.

_Legend._ On Groat and Half-groat. POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM in the
outer circle, and name of town in the inner. On the lesser coins the
names of towns only, as CIVITAS LONDON, etc.

_Gold._ Noble. Same type as his predecessor. Rial or Rose-noble, and
its Half, much the same general type, but with a rose on the side of
the ship, beneath the king and letter E on the flag.

REVERSE.--Within a tressure as before a sun of sixteen rays in place of
limbs of the cross, the lions and crowns and the terminations of the
limbs remaining.

_Legend._ As before. Quarter-rial: arms as before within a quatrefoil;
there are several minor varieties. Angel and angelet as before. The sun
and the rose were badges of the House of York.

EDWARD V. (1483.)

There are some gold and silver coins exactly similar to those of Edward
IV., but bearing as mint marks a boar’s head, a rose-en-soleil, or
a rose-en-soleil on one side and boar’s head on the other, that are
conjectured to have been issued by this youthful king by authority and
order of his uncle the “Protector,” afterwards Richard III., whose
badges they bear. They are extremely rare.

RICHARD III. (1483 to 1485.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Half-groat, Penny, and Halfpenny.
_Gold._ Angel, and Angelet or Half-angel.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ As his predecessors’; the only difference being the
alteration of name in the legend; on some he has a cross on the breast;
mint marks, a boar’s head, and rose-en-soleil.

_Legend._ RICARD.--D. G. or GRA.--REX.--AN. ANG. or ANGL.--Z. FRANC.

REVERSE.--_Type._ As before, but with the different mint marks and

_Legend._ As before, Groat and Half-groat, POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM, in
outer, and name of town in inner circle. Penny and Halfpenny, name of

_Rarity_. All rare, those with M. M., a boar’s head, especially so.

HENRY VII. (1485 to 1509.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Testoon or Shilling, Groat, Half-groat,
Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. _Gold._ Rose-noble or Rial, Angel,
Angelet or Half-angel, Sovereign or Double-rial, and Double-sovereign.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ To this monarch we owe the great change which has
been, since his reign, gradually improving in coins. In the first
issue, his coins very closely resemble those of Henry VI. Bust crowned
with an open double-arched crown, now first used; some have a key on
either side the Bust. In the 18th year of his reign his coins assumed
a very different character. The circle of arches was discarded; the
head (which, for the first time, may be considered as a portrait) is
represented in dexter profile, crowned with a double or single arched
crown, with the ball and cross on top. The Penny of his later issue has
the king sitting in a chair of state, crowned, sceptre in his right,
and globe in his left hand.


_Legend._ H. HENRIC or HENRICVS.--VII. or SEPTIM.--D. G. DI. or
DEI.--G. or GRA REX.--A. AN. ANG. ANGL. AGL. or ANGLIE.--Z.--F. FR.

REVERSE.--_Type._ In his first coinage are the cross and pellets, but
in his subsequent one the cross (fleury) is retained, but in the place
of the pellets is a shield, France and England quarterly. The cross
dividing the shield.

_Legend._ POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM and its usual abbreviations. On the
Groats and Half-groats the inner circle of legend bearing name of town
is dismissed, its place being filled with the shield. In this reign the
Testoon or Shilling makes its first appearance.

_Rarity._ Penny of first coinage extremely rare; Halfpenny rare; others
common. Second coinage, Shilling with VII., Groat with SEPTIM., and
Penny, rare; others far from uncommon.

_Gold._ The Sovereign and Double-sovereign now make their appearance;
they have on the obverse the king, fully robed, sitting on a richly
canopied throne, crowned, sceptre in his right, and orb and cross in
his left, hand; reverse within a tressure of ten arches a large double
rose, in the centre of which is a shield bearing the arms of France and
England quarterly. In the space between the arches of the tressure and
the outer petals of the rose are, alternately throughout, a lion and a
fleur-de-lis. There are several varieties of this coin. The Rial has
the king in a ship, on the obverse as before; on the reverse a rose
with royal shield in the centre as first described. Angel and angelet
much the same as those of his predecessors. Rial, Double-sovereign, and
Sovereign, rare; others, common.

HENRY VIII. (1509 to 1547.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Testoon or Shilling, Groat, Half-groat,
Penny, Halfpenny, Farthing. _Gold._ Double-sovereign, Sovereign,
Pound-sovereign, Half-sovereign, Rose-noble or Rial, George-noble,
Angel, Angelet or Half-angel, Quarter-angel, Crown, Half-crown.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ His first coinage very closely resembles Henry VII.
In his 15th year the Farthing has a portcullis. In his 34th year the
head is almost full-faced, in a robe crowned with an open-arched crown.
In his 36th and 37th years, full-faced portrait, on some with the cap.

_Legend._ H. HE. HERIC. HENRIC. or HENRICVS. VIII. or 8.--D. DI. or
DEI.--G. GR. or GRA.--A. ANG. ANGL. or ANGLIE.--FR. FRA. FRAN. or
FRANC.--Z. HIB. or HYB.--R. RE. or REX. Testoon, HERIC. VIII. DI. GRA.
AGL. FRA. Z. HIB. REX. Penny, H. D. G. ROSA SINE SPINA; Halfpenny the
same, or abbreviated.

REVERSE.--_Type._ First coinage, like Henry VII., with only the
numeral changed from VII. to VIII.; Farthing has a rose and cross or
portcullis. The Testoon or Shilling has the royal rose, crowned with
an open-arched crown, between the royal initials H and R also each
crowned. The others with the cross and shield. There are many varieties
with different marks of towns and prelates, where and by whom they were

_Legend._ POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM, and its abbreviations on the
Shilling and Groat. Half-groat, occasionally the same, or with name of
town. Penny and Halfpenny, name of town. Farthing, CIVITAS LONDON or

_Rarity_. Groat struck at Tournay, CIVITAS TORNACI. etc., very rare.
Henry VIII. debased his silver so much that his later coins have more
the appearance of brass than silver. The shillings and halfpenny rare,
the rest are not.

_Gold_. Double-sovereign, Sovereign, Half-sovereign, Rial, Half
and Quarter-rials, similar in general type to those of Henry VII.:
George-noble, with an equestrian figure of St. George riding over and
transfixing with a spear a dragon, on the obverse; and on the reverse
a ship, a cross, between H R, for a mast, and upon it a double rose.
Angel and Angelet as before. Crown and Half-crown obverse a double
rose, etc., crowned, between the crowned or uncrowned letters H. K.
(Henry and Katherine), H. A. (Henry and Ann Boleyn), H. I. (Henry and
Jane Seymour), or H. R.; reverse, royal arms crowned between same
initials. RVTILANS ROSA SINE SPINA. Half-george, Noble, Crown, and
Half-crown, George-noble, rare; Rial extremely so.

EDWARD VI. (1547 to 1553.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Testoon or Shilling,
Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny, Farthing.
_Gold._ Treble-sovereign, Double-sovereign, Sovereign or Double-rial,
Half-sovereign, Quarter-sovereign or Crown, Half-crown, Six-angel,
Angel, Angelet.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ First coinage, which is base in the same degree as
Henry VIII.’s last coinage. Testoon, etc., profile, crowned with an
open arched crown; Penny and Halfpenny, some with crowned profile,
others with the royal rose. Farthing, portcullis.

Later coinages. Crown, the king in armour, crowned, sword drawn, on
horseback; to the right, under the horse, the date. Half-crown, the
same, sometimes with the addition of a plume on the horse’s head.
Shilling, Sixpence, and Threepence, fullfaced bust of king in robes,
with the chain of the Order of the Garter round his neck, crowned, a
rose on the left, and the value on the right side of the head. Penny,
king enthroned, crowned ball and sceptre in his hands, or royal rose.

MDXL.[2]--likewise on reverse, INIMICOS EIVS INDVAM CONFVSIONE. Penny,

REVERSE.--_Type._ One Testoon has the arms of France and England in an
oval shield mantled; all others have the cross fleury, and plain shield
of France and England quarterly. Farthing, cross and pellets.

_Legend._ POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM and its abbreviations, and town
TRANSIENS PER MEDIVM ILLORVM IBAT; and on some the titles appear.

_Rarity._ Gold coins rare, some extremely so. Silver, first coinage,
the Testoon, Groat, Half-groat, and Penny, rare; all his last are
tolerably common, with the exception of the Crown, Half-crown, and
Penny. Halfpenny and Farthing rare.

_Gold._Treble-sovereigns, with the king in robes, and crowned, seated
on the throne, drawn sword in right, and orb in left, hand; reverse,
royal arms, with supporters, a lion and a dragon. Double-sovereigns,
similar figure, but with sceptre instead of sword; a portcullis at his
feet. Sovereign, same as Double-sovereign, or a half-length figure of
the king in profile, in armour, crowned, sword in right hand, orb in
left; reverse, arms of France and England, crowned, with or without
lion and dragon supporters; beneath, on the mantling, E. R.; others
have the same type as the foregoing. Half-sovereigns, king in chair of
state; half-length figure, and bust crowned, etc.

[2] The first date that appears on any English silver coins.

[3] The first instance of a date upon an English gold coin.

MARY I. AND PHILIP AND MARY. (1553 to 1558.)
Married Philip of Spain, 1554.

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Groat,
Half-groat, Penny. _Gold._ Sovereign or Double-rial, Rial, Angel,

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Before her marriage, Mary’s coins have a sinister
bust profile, crowned, arched crown, hair long and flowing, draped. One
Penny, a rose instead of head. After her marriage with Philip of Spain,
the Shilling and Half-shilling have their busts face to face, with a
crown above between them: here she appears with her dress up to her
chin, and a head dress; he has the stiff ruffle about his neck. This
arrangement of the profile heads facing each other gave rise to the

              “... cooing and billing
    Like Philip and Mary on a shilling.”

The Half-crown, which appears to be merely a pattern-piece, but never
issued, has on one side her bust, over which is the crown between the
date 1554, with the legend MARIA D. G. R. ANG. FR. NEAP. PR. HISP.; and
on the other a similar bust of Philip, beneath a crown, and the legend
PHILIPVS D. G. R. ANG. FR. NEAP. PR. HISP. Some of the coins have no
date, others the date above, others below the heads.

_Legend._ M. or MARIA.--D. G. ANG.--FR. FRA. Z. HIB. REG. or REGI.
Shilling and Sixpence, PHILIP. ET. or Z.; or MARIA. D. G. R. ANG. FR.
Some have the date as 1553 either beneath the heads or by the crown.

REVERSE.--_Type._ Before the marriage, cross fleury and shield, as on
her predecessor’s coins. After the marriage, Shilling and Sixpence bear
the Spanish and Neapolitan royal arms, impaling those of England, in an
oval shield, mantled; surmounted by a crown, between numerals for value.

_Legend._ Groat and Half-groat of Mary, VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA,
and also abbreviated; of Philip and Mary, POSVIMVS DEVM ADIVTO

_Rarity._ Rose-penny rare; Half-crown, Half-groat, and Penny, extremely

_Gold._ Sovereign or Double-rial, the queen full-robed and crowned
seated on the throne, in her right hand a sceptre, in the left the orb
and cross; at her feet a portcullis; reverse, within a tressure of ten
arches a double rose, with shield of royal arms in centre. _Legend_,
of the Lord, and is wonderful in our eyes.”) Rial, the queen crowned
standing in a ship, in her right hand a drawn sword, in her left a
shield of arms; in front, a rose. Same legend. Angel and Angelet, with
St. Michael and the Dragon as on those of preceding monarchs.

ELIZABETH. (1558 to 1603.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Groat, Threepence, Half-groat, Three-halfpence, Penny, Three-farthing,
Halfpenny. _Gold._ Sovereign or Double-rial, Rial, Pound-sovereign,
Half-sovereign, Crown, Half-crown, Angel, Angelet, Quarter-angel.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Silver. Crown and Half-crown, sinister bust profile,
crowned, open double-arched crown, hair turned back, draped, robe with
wide puffed sleeves, stiff frill round the neck; in the right hand
the sceptre, the orb as if held in the left. The Shilling, Sixpence,
Groat, Threepence, Half-groat, Three-halfpence, Penny, Three-farthing,
Halfpenny, and Farthing have also the bust profile, crowned with a
single-arched crown, hair long and flowing down the back, draped
robe, much plainer than before, and having no sceptre or orb.[4] The
Sixpence, Threepence, Three-halfpence, and Three-farthing pieces are
distinguished from the others by having the Tudor rose behind the head.
It was in reference to this distinguishing mark of a rose behind the
head that the satirist on costumes wrote:--

                      “... Behind her head a rose
    That people cry, ‘Lo! there Three-farthings goes!’”

[4] One variety, the “Pudsey” Shilling and Sixpence, said to have been
used in the wars in Ireland, has an escallop shell filling the inner

The commonest Halfpenny has a portcullis instead of the bust; the
one with the bust is extremely rare. The “milled” money is neater in
execution than the earlier “hammered” pieces. The “portcullis” money,
struck in 1601 for foreign use, has on the obverse the royal arms,
surmounted by a crown, between the initials E. and R., each crowned,
and the usual name and titles of the queen; reverse, a portcullis
crowned, and the POSVI, etc., legend.

_Legend._ E. ELIZ. ELIZAB. or ELIZABETH.--D. G. ANG. FR. (or FRA.) ET.
HIB. (or HIBER.) REG. (REGI or REGINA). Three-halfpence, Penny, etc.,

REVERSE.--_Type._ Cross fleury, or plain cross, and shield of France
and England; the shield on the crown mantled. Halfpenny, cross and
pellets. Farthing, crowned monogram of name.

_Legend._ POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM, or its abbreviations; or name of

_Gold._ Sovereign, or Double-rial, same general type as the Sovereign
of Mary. Pound-sovereign, Half-sovereign, Crown and Half-crown,
sinister bust fully robed, crowned with an open crown of two, four,
or five arches. Rial, with the queen in a large ruff, standing in a
ship, crowned, etc. Angels, Angelets, and Quarter-angels, St. Michael
and the Dragon; reverse, a ship, royal shield in front, surmounted by
a cross, with E. and a rose. Some of the legends on the reverses of
EAM; and one Rial, referring to the taking of Virginia by Sir Walter
Raleigh, has on its obverse ELIZAB [ETHA] D [EI] G [RATIA] ANG [LIÆ]
(“Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France, and the
Great Province captured under her auspices”).

In this reign pattern copper coins were struck, but never issued. The
Penny bore on the obverse a full-face portrait of the queen, and the
words THE PLEDGE OF; and on the reverse the crowned monogram, and the
continuation of the legend, A PENNY, and date 1601. Other pattern
pieces were also struck of copper, lead, pewter, and leather, but are
all extremely rare.

JAMES I. (1603 to 1625.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Half-groat, Penny, and Halfpenny. _Gold._ First issue. Sovereign
or Thirty-shilling-piece, Half-sovereign or Double-crown (15_s._),
Quarter-sovereign or Crown (7_s._ 6_d._), Eighth-of-Sovereign or
Half-crown (3_s._ 9_d._). Second issue. Unit (20_s._), Double-crown
(10_s._), British-crown (5_s._), Half-British-crown (2_s._ 6_d._),
Thistle-crown (4_s._). Third issue. Rose-rial or Sovereign (30_s._),
Spur-rial (15_s._), Angel (10_s._), Angelet or Half-angel (5_s._).
Last issue. Rose-rial or Sovereign (Thirty-shilling-piece), Spur Rial
(Fifteen-shilling-piece), Angel, Laurel or Unit, Double-crown or
Half-laurel, British-crown or Quarter-laurel. The current values were
from time to time raised.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crown and Half-crown, king on horseback, in armour,
crowned, drawn sword in his right hand; on the caparison the royal rose
or the thistle crowned.

On some IACOBVS D G MA (or MAG) BRI (or BRIT) FRA (or FRAN) ET HI (or

Shilling, Half-shilling, etc., dexter bust profile, robed, crowned;
long pointed beard and mustachios, hair short, numerals at back of
head for value. Twopence, the bust as before on some, on others the
royal rose crowned. Penny, bust as before, or I. R. crowned; a rose
on one side the letters, and a thistle on the other: others, a rose.
Halfpenny, a portcullis, or rose.

REX., and other abbreviations. Half-groat, etc., I. D. G. ROSA SINE
SPINA. Penny with I. R.; and Halfpenny, no legend.

REVERSE..--_Type._ Crown, etc., royal arms, quarterly, 1 and 4, France
and England quarterly; 2, Scotland; 3, Ireland. The shield of the
Crown and Half-crown mantled, the others plain; Twopence, on some the
same arms, on others a thistle, crowned. The Penny, with I. R. has
a portcullis crowned; the others, a thistle; others have the arms.
Halfpenny, cross moline with three pellets in each quarter; or a

_Legend._ Crown, Shilling, etc., EXVRGAT DEVS. DISSIPENTVR INIMICI;
DEVS. Penny same as Half-groat; other pennies and halfpennies without
legend. _Rarity._ All common, except Half-crown.

_Gold._ Thirty-shilling, Unit, and other pieces, king enthroned, in
full regalia, his feet upon a portcullis, the field diapered; or
half-length or shorter portrait of king in armour, crowned, sceptre in
right and orb in left hand: reverse, shield of arms. Rose-rial, king
enthroned as before; reverse, a large double rose with shield of arms.
Spur-rial, king in armour, standing in a ship with sword and shield;
or, the Scottish lion, sejant, crowned, holding a sceptre in his right
paw and supporting with his left a shield of the royal arms; reverse,
within a tressure a Spur-rowel, or star of 16 points centred with a
rose, four points terminated with lions, and four with fleurs-de-lis.
Angel, etc., usual type. Thistle crown, a double rose on its stem,
crowned, between the initials I. R.; reverse, a thistle crowned in like
manner. Some of the legends or reverses are EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR

_Copper._ Farthing, crown and two sceptres in saltire, IACO. D. G.
BRIT. Reverse, Irish harp, crowned, FRA. ET. HIB. REX. For Scotland a
brass Twopence, called “Hardhead” was struck: obverse three thistles on
one stem, IACOBVS D. G. MAG BRIT; reverse, lion rampant, FRAN and HIB

CHARLES I. (1625 to 1649).

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Twenty-shilling-piece or Pound,
Ten-shilling-piece or Half-pound, Crown, Half-crown, Shilling,
Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-groat, Penny, and Halfpenny.

_Gold._ Tower Mint. Unit, Broad, or Twenty-shilling-piece; Double-crown
or Half-broad or Ten-shilling-piece; crown, Britain-crown,
or Five-shilling-piece, Angel. Oxford Mint, Treble-Unit, or
Three-Pound-piece; Unit or Twenty-shilling-piece; Half-unit,
Double-crown, or Ten-shilling-piece. Briot’s Mint. Unit, Double-crown,
or Half Unit, Angel.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Twenty-shilling and Ten-shilling-piece, king on
horseback with or without artillery, armour, arms, etc., under horse’s
feet. Crowns and Half-crowns, king in armour on horseback, but with
very many variations in detail. One description is as much as our
limits will allow. The Oxford Crown, the rarest in the series, has
the king on horseback, in armour, to the left, crowned, double-arched
crown, drawn sword in his right hand, a sash round his neck, coming
under his left arm, the ends flying behind; the horse not caparisoned,
having only a saddle cloth. On the field of the coin, beneath the
horse, is a view of the city of Oxford, with the word OXON above
it. This coin is beautifully executed. Shilling, Half-shilling,
Quarter-shilling, Groat, Half-groat, and Penny, sinister bust profile,
in robes, crowned, hair long and flowing, beard long. Some Groats and
Half-groats have a rose crowned as also have Pennies. Halfpenny, a
rose, no legend, or a rose crowned between C. R. The variations in
the coins, consequent on the number of mints set up--London, Exeter,
Aberystwith, Oxford, Bristol, Chester, Worcester, Weymouth, York,
and other places--is very great; the differences being more or less
important both as to mint marks and other features.

variously abbreviated. Oxford Crown, CAROLVS. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN.

REVERSE.--_Type._ Generally the royal shield. The Oxford Crown and
some other coins have no device, except an ornament to divide the
legends; and the Prince of Wales’ feathers three times repeated, or
single, above. On some, the shield (which is as James I.’s) is oval,
and mantled, sometimes crowned; others have shields, the quarterings
terminating in a cross moline, etc. The smaller coins have sometimes a
rose crowned, sceptres, or sceptre and trident in saltire, etc., or the
declaration EXVRGAT, etc., in lines across. One Half-groat has two Cs
interlinked, crowned.

_Legend._ Oxford Crown, EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI. In the field
of the coin, in two parallel lines, is RELIG. PROT. LEG. ANG. LIBER.
PARL., beneath which is 1644, OXON, and above v. for value. A branch of
leaves and flowers between the words of the first. Others have CHRISTO
The groat has RELIG., etc., within a scroll on the field, EXURGAT, etc.

_Rarity._ For the most part common. The Oxford crown is of the most
extreme rarity, and most of the Oxford mintages are rare, as are those
of Aberystwith and other places.

_Gold._ Three-pound-piece, crowned profile bust to the waist, with or
without sword and olive branch; feathers behind the head; reverse,
declaration in three lines. Unit or Broad-piece, bust profile, crowned,
much varied on some with drawn sword and olive branch; behind the
head XX for value. Reverse: On field, RELIG., etc., on a ribband.
Double-crown and Crown, bust profile crowned. Reverse. Shield crowned,
CVLTORES. SVI. DEVS. PROTEGIT. Angel same type as its predecessors.

_Copper._--Halfpence and Farthings, David playing the harp, looking
upward; above, a crown, FLOREAT REX. Reverse: Halfpenny, St. Patrick in
full robes, mitered, with crosier, etc., holding to figures around him
the shamrock leaf; behind him the arms of Dublin. Farthing, St. Patrick
as before, stretching his hand over reptiles; behind him a cathedral;
legend, QVIESCAT PLEBS. Other Halfpence, Farthings and Half-farthings
have on obverse two sceptres in saltire, behind, a crown, or C. R.
crowned. Reverse: Some, the royal rose crowned; others, the Irish harp
crowned; and others, again, the Scotch thistle; others, a small pellet
of brass inserted in the centre of the rose. _Legend._ Obverse: CAR.
CARO. or CAROLVS.--D. G. MAG. BRIT. Reverse: On some, the Scotch motto,
NEMO., etc.; others, continuation of titles.

OBSIDIONAL or SIEGE PIECES. These rude coins, if coins they can be
called, were struck by the king, and those favourable to his cause, to
supply that monarch with the necessary funds for carrying on his wars.
They are extremely interesting, as showing the various inconveniences
and shifts the king was subject to. The nobility and gentry, his
partisans, were applied to for the use of all their plate, as were also
wardens and fellows of the different colleges in the universities of
Oxford, etc., the mayors and corporations, of cities and towns, etc.
The plate thus collected was chopped up, for the greatest part, in
unmeaning shapes, and struck or engraved with different devices, and
the value. The Scarborough Half-crown is a piece of thin plate doubled,
the corners turned over to hold together. On one side is engraven in
a very rude manner the castle, with the value in numerals; and on the
other, OBS. SCARBOROUGH, 1645. The Newark Shilling, which is one of the
commonest, is lozenge shaped. Obverse, crown between C. R.; beneath,
XII. Reverse, OBS. NEWARK, 1646. Pontefract, sometimes an octagonal,
and sometimes a round piece. Obverse, C. R. under a crown; DVM SPIRO
SPERO. Reverse, Pontefract Castle, with name or letters. Other places
where these were struck were Colchester, Carlisle, Dublin, Cork, etc.
At Colchester a gold siege piece of the value of 10s. was struck. A
history of the coinage in this reign alone would fill a folio volume.

COMMONWEALTH. (1649 to 1660.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Half-groat, Penny, Halfpenny. _Gold._ Broad, or Twenty-shilling-piece;
Half-broad, or Ten-shilling-piece; Quarter-broad, or Five-shilling-piece.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Half-shilling,
Half-groat, and Penny, a plain shield charged with the cross of St.
George, encircled by a branch of palm, and an olive branch. Halfpenny,
same shield, without branches or numerals. Numerals to denote value (as
V for 5_s._; II VI for 2_s._ 6_d._; XII for 12_d._; VI for 6_d._; II
for 2_d._) on all except the Halfpennies.

_Legend._ THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND. Half-groat, Penny, and
Halfpenny, no legend or numerals. Half-shilling, one type has TRVTH AND

REVERSE.--_Type._ Shield of St. George’s cross, and shield of Irish
harp conjoined, above which is the value, in numerals. Halfpenny,
single shield of the Irish harp.

_Legend._ GOD WITH US, and date. Half-groat and Penny, without legend.
Halfpenny without legend or value.

_Rarity._ All comparatively common; the coins of 1658 and 1660 are

_Gold._ Twenty-shilling, Ten-shilling, and Five-shilling pieces, same
type and legend as the silver; numerals to denote value.

_Copper._ Farthings. On the obverse a shield of St. George’s cross
as before; reverse, shield of Irish harp; legend, FARTHING TOKENS OF
CHANGE, 1649. RELEFE OF THE PORE, etc. Pewter Farthing, shield with
voided cross, surmounted by the letters, T.K., in an oval; legend,
1/4 OVNCE OF FINE PEWTR. Reverse: shield of Irish harp, upon rays,
surmounted by a palm and laurel wreath; legend, FOR NECESSARY CHANGE.
These are all pattern pieces, and are all rare. Several pattern pieces
for other coins are also known. One of these has the two shields on the
reverse held by a winged angel, and the words GVARDED WITH ANGELS, 1651.


DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Nine-pence, and
Sixpence. _Gold._ Fifty-shilling-piece, Broad or Twenty-shilling-piece,
Half-broad or Ten-shilling-piece. _Copper._ Farthings.

OBVERSE. _Type._ Sinister bust profile of the Protector, draped, loose
drapery, head laureated, hair long.

_Legend._ OLIVAR. D.G. RP. ANG. SCO. ET HIB. and PRO. or otherwise

REVERSE.--_Type._ Shield surmounted by an open arched crown, bearing
quarterly, 1 and 4, cross of St. George; 2, cross of St. Andrew; 3,
Irish harp, upon an escutcheon of pretence, the arms of Cromwell, a
lion rampant.

_Legend._ PAX QVÆRITVR BELLO. and date.


_Gold._ Same type and legend as silver. On the edge of the


_Copper._ Farthing. Obverse, head as before, OLIVAR PRO ENG SC IRL.
Reverse, shield as before, and legend CHARITIE AND CHANGE; another,
three columns tied together, having on top of the first a cross, the
second a harp, and the third a thistle, and the legend THVS VNITED
INVINCIBLE; another, a ship under sail, and legend, AND GOD DIRECT OVR

CHARLES II. (1660 to 1685.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ First issue, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Half-groat, Penny. Second, same. Third, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence or Groat, Threepence, Half-groat, Penny. Fourth, Crown,
Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence. _Gold._ Broad or Twenty-shilling-piece,
Half-broad or Ten-shilling-piece, Quarter-broad or Five-shilling-piece.
Five-Guinea-piece, Two-guinea-piece, Guinea, Half-guinea. _Copper._
Halfpenny and Farthing. _Tin._ Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Sinister laureated bust profile, crowned, loose
drapery, hair long and flowing.

_Legend._ CAROLVS. II. D.G. (or DEI. GRA. or GRATIA). MAG. BRI. FRA.
ET HIB. REX, or otherwise abbreviated. REVERSE.--_Type._ The first
three issues of coins bore a plain shield of arms, quarterly, 1 and
4 France and England quarterly, 2 Scotland, 3 Ireland, over a cross
fleury. Those of the fourth and last issue bear four shields, with the
bottoms joined, forming a cross; the shields being England, Scotland,
France, and Ireland, each crowned; in the centre, within a star, St.
George’s cross. Between the shields, in the four compartments, are two
Cs interlinked. One Shilling has one shield of France and England,
quarterly, two shields of Scotland, and one of Ireland, not crowned;
between the shields are the interlinked Cs crowned. The Fourpence has
a monogram of four Cs interlinked, in form of a cross, crowned; and in
the compartments are severally a rose, a thistle, a fleur-de-lis, and
a harp. The Threepence has three Cs interlinked; the Twopence two Cs
interlinked; and the Penny a single C, all crowned; these denote the
value; others have numerals crowned.

_Legend._ MAG. BR. FRA. ET HIB. REX., or otherwise abbreviated, and

_Edge._ DECVS ET TVTAMEN ANNO XV or VICESIMO, or other year of reign.

_Gold._ Same type, sceptres between shields. Obverse: Bust, laureated
and draped, with long hair. Reverse: First issue, arms, etc., as on
silver; later issue, Five-guinea, Guinea, etc., four shields arranged
as a cross, and each crowned; in the centre four Cs interlinked, from
which issue four sceptres, terminating respectively in orb and cross,
thistle, fleur-de-lis, and harp. Legend on reverses, FLORENT CONCORDIA
REGNA, or titles. Edge, DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and year of reign as on the

_Copper._ Halfpence and Farthings, sinister bust profile, laureated,
in armour. English, CAROLVS A CAROLO. Scotch, CAR. II. D. G. SCO. AN.
FR. ET HIB. R. Irish, CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA. Reverse, English, figure
of Britannia, which now first appears; Irish, a harp crowned, date on
field; Scotch, a thistle crowned. English, BRITANNIA, date in exergue;
and date; all common. Farthing with Britannia particularly so.

_Tin or Pewter._ Halfpence and Farthings, some with a plug of copper in
the centre. On the edge, NVMMORVM FAMVLVS and date.

Siege pieces of Charles II., CAROLVS SECVNDVS, or CAROL. II. D.G. MAG.
B. F. ET H. REX.; and on the reverse, C. R. under a crown; DVM SPIRO
SPERO, or POST MORTEM PATRIS PRO FILIO were struck at Pontefract.

I may here mention a most splendid specimen of the die-sinker’s art,
produced by Simon, the celebrated die-sinker, as a trial piece against
an artist who was employed by Charles. The obverse has a bust of the
king of most exquisite workmanship, and round the _edge_ of the coin,
in place of DECVS., etc., was this simple petition in two lines:
“THOMAS. SIMON. most humbly prays your MAJESTY to compare this, his
tryal piece, with the Dutch, and, if more truly drawn, and embossed,
more gracefully ordered, and more accurately engraven, to relieve him.”
At Trattle’s sale, in 1832, a very fine specimen sold for £225. It is
said that only twenty copies were struck with the petition on the edge,
and a few others with a different edge, REDDITE QVAE CAESARES CAESARI
& POST; and one is recorded to be known bearing, RENDER TO CÆSAR THE


JAMES II. (1685 to 1689.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Five-guinea,
Two-guinea, Guinea, Half-guinea. _Tin or Pewter._ Halfpenny, Farthing.
_Gun Money._ As silver.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Sinister bust profile, laureated, on some draped,
on others undraped; hair long. The Crown has the king in armour on
horseback, with drawn sword.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Shields in cross, etc. The Fourpence, Threepence,
Twopence, and Penny have the value, IIII., III., II., I., crowned.

_Legend._ MAG. BR. FRA. ET. HIB. REX. and date.

_Edge._ DECVS ET TVTAMEN REX, and year of reign.

_Gun Money._ Silver being scarce in this reign, an issue of base money
was resorted to, some of which, being struck from the old cannon and
domestic utensils melted down, is called “Gun Money.” The Crown, which
is scarce, has the king in armour, laureated, on horseback, with a
drawn sword, a long sash flying behind; reverse, four shields in cross,
with the crown in the centre; the Half-crowns, Shillings, and Sixpences
have two sceptres in saltire, behind a crown, between I. R.; above the
crown are numerals for value, and beneath, the month in which it was
struck. _Gold._ The Five-guinea-piece is rare, the others common. They
are of the same general type as the silver.

_Tin or Pewter._ Halfpence and Farthings: obverse, bust profile, as
before; reverse, English, figure of Britannia, BRITANNIA; Irish,
figure of Hibernia with the harp, HIBERNIA, or Irish harp crowned.
Half-farthings: obverse, sceptres in saltire, and crown; reverse,
harp or rose, crowned. There is also a kind called plug-money; this
was struck owing to a scarcity of copper; it is of pewter, and in the
middle is inserted a very small square plug of copper, to show that it
is intended to pass for copper money. One tin Halfpenny has the king on
horseback with drawn sword, on the obverse, and on the reverse the harp
surmounted by a crown with lion crest, and two sceptres in saltire; in
this two or more plugs of brass are inserted. Other varieties need not
be particularized. White metal coins were also issued.

WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. (1689 to 1702. 1689 to 1694.)

DENOMINATIONS. _Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Five-guinea,
Two-guinea, Guinea, Half-Guinea. _Tin._ Halfpenny, Farthing. _Copper._
Halfpenny, Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Dexter busts profile of king and queen, (William
and Mary) side by side, that of the king laureated, partly in armour.
Queen draped, hair curled; some have the bust of Mary only; Fourpence,
Threepence, Twopence, and Penny, busts undraped. After Mary’s death,
the bust of William, profile and laureated, appears alone.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Four crowned shields in cross, as before; in the
centre, the shield of Nassau; between the shields, W. and M. conjoined;
the four figures of the date, as 1693, one under each monograph. Some
Half-crowns have a plain shield of the royal arms, crowned; Fourpence,
Threepence, Twopence, and Penny, values crowned. After the death of
Mary, feathers on some, and on others roses, take the place of the
monogram of W and M between the shields; on others the space is left

_Legend._ MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX ET REGINA, or the same, leaving off “et

_Edge._ DECVS ET TVTAMEN and year of reign.

_Gold._ Busts as before; reverse, royal arms in large shield, crowned.
After Mary’s death, reverse, shields in cross, with sceptres, as on the

_Copper._ Halfpence and Farthings. Obverse, busts as before, GVLIELMVS
ET MARIA, or GVLIELMVS TERTIVS. Reverse, figure of Britannia,
reverse, Irish harp crowned, MAG BR FR ET HIB REX ET REGINA, date on
field. There are coins also, of Mary’s only, one of which has, on
obverse, bust profile of queen, draped, hair turned up behind, MARIA
II DEI GRATIA; reverse, full blown rose on a branch, EX CANDORE DECVS.
After the queen’s death, the coins have the bust of William, as before,
with GVLIELMVS TERTIVS; reverse, same as before. Scotch have, on
obverse, a sword and sceptre in saltire, with a crown above: reverse,
thistle, crowned; another has a monogram.

ANNE. (1702 to 1714.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Five-guinea,
Two-guinea, Guinea, Half-guinea. _Copper._ Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Sinister bust profile, draped, hair thrown back, and
tied at back of head with a ribband, which passes round the head.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Four crowned shields in cross. Before the union
these shields were, 1 England, 2 Scotland, 3 France, 4 Ireland. After
the union they were altered to two shields of England and Scotland
impaled, one of France, and one of Ireland. In the centre, the cross
of St. George, in a star of the garter; between the shields, feathers
or roses, or feathers and roses alternately; Fourpence, Threepence,
Twopence, and Penny, values, crowned.

_Legend._ MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG and date.

_Edge._ DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and year of reign.

_Rarity._ All common. The smaller denominations scarcer than the others.

_Gold._ Same type and legend and edge. Reverse, sceptres between the

_Copper._ As there is so much popular error concerning the farthings,
it may be well to remark at length upon them, in order to clear away
the absurd idea generally entertained, of there being only three in
existence. Instead of this being the case, there are absolutely six
distinct varieties. The first, which is the only one which was ever in
general circulation, has, on the obverse, sinister bust profile, of
queen, draped, hair thrown back, encircled with a string of pearls,
ANNA DEI GRATIA; reverse, figure of Britannia, olive branch in her
right, and spear in her left hand, BRITANNIA, date, 1714, in exergue:
this, although scarce, is by far the commonest of the whole: there is
one with the same type, but broad rim, which is rare. Second, bust
as before, ANNA REGINA; reverse, as last. Third, same bust, ANNA DEI
GRATIA; reverse, figure of Britannia, right leg bare; BRITANNIA, 1713,
round. Fourth, obverse as before; reverse, Britannia, as last, under
an arch; BRITANNIA in exergue, 1713. Fifth, bust as before, with band
instead of pearls, within an inner circle (the busts on the others
are on the field); reverse, figure of Britannia standing, helmeted,
in the right hand the olive branch, and in her left the spear, within
inner circle; BELLO ET PACE; date 1715, in exergue. Sixth, bust as
one, ANNA AVGVSTA; reverse, same figure as last, standing in a car,
drawn by two horses; in her right hand she holds the olive branch,
in her left the reins and a spear; PAX MISSA PER ORBEM; in exergue,
1713. The prices depend upon the state of preservation of the coins,
but, for FINE ones, the following are about the values: 1, from six
shillings to fourteen shillings; 2 and 3, from fifteen shillings to
thirty shillings; 3, 4, and 6, from two to three pounds: 5, the rarest,
from five to ten, or twelve pounds. There is a small medal, or counter,
which is very frequently mistaken by the generality of persons for one
of her farthings. It has on the obverse the bust, with ANNA DEI GRATIA;
reverse, the four shields in cross, sometimes plain, and sometimes with
roses between the shields, MAG BR FRA ET HIB REG 1711; frequently RIG
instead of REG. Some of these are of beautiful workmanship, and others
very rude: they are far from being scarce; they were not struck as
current coins. Halfpenny, bust, ANNA D G MAG BR FR ET HIB REG; reverse,
sitting figure of Britannia, leaning on a shield, in her left hand a
spear, in her right a rose and thistle emanating from the same branch;
the whole beneath a crown.

GEORGE I. (1714 to 1727.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Five-guinea,
Two-guinea, Guinea, Half-guinea, Quarter-guinea. _Copper._ Halfpenny,

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Dexter laureated bust profile, in armour and draped,
hair long and curled.

_Legend._ GEORGIVS D. G. M. BR. FR. ET. HIB. REX. F. D.

REVERSE.--_Type._ Four crowned shields in cross. 1, England and
Scotland impaled; 2, France; 3, Ireland; 4, Brunswick, and Lunenberg
with Hanoverian escutcheon. Between the shields, on some, are a rose
and thistle or feathers alternately; on others, S. S. C. (South Sea
Company, silver), etc., indicative of the kind of silver of which
they are minted; in the centre is the star and cross of St. George.
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, and Penny, values crowned.

_Legend._ BRVN. ET. L. DVX. S. R. I. A. TH. ET. EL., reading on
from the obverse; thus, in full, “Georgius, Dei gratia, Magnæ
Britanniæ Franciæ et Hiberniæ Rex, Fidei Defensor, Brunsvicensis et
Lunenbergensis Dux, Sacri Romani Imperii Thesaurarius et Princeps
Elector” (or Elector only), and date.

_Edge._ DECVS ET TVTAMEN, and year of reign.

_Gold._ Same general type and legend as the silver.

_Copper._ Halfpence and Farthings. Obverse, dexter bust profile,
draped, laureated, GEORGIVS REX. Reverse, figure of Britannia,
BRITANNIA, date in exergue. The Farthing has a broad rim. Obverse,
Irish Halfpence, bust as before, undraped, GEORGIVS DEI GRATIA REX;
reverse, figure of Hibernia, with harp, HIBERNIA; date in same line.

GEORGE II. (1727 to 1760.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Five-guinea,
Two-guinea, Guinea, Half-guinea. _Copper._ Halfpenny, Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Sinister laureated bust profile, in armour, hair long
and curled; under the head of some is LIMA.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Four crowned shields in cross as on those of George
I. In the centre of some is the motto, HONI SOIT, etc., on the garter
round the cross, as George I. On some, plain between the shields; on
others, a rose and Welsh feathers alternately, four roses or four
feathers, to denote the silver from which they are minted. Fourpence,
Threepence, Twopence, and Penny, values, crowned.

_Legend._ M. B. F. ET. H. REX. F. D. B. ET. L. D. S. R. I. A. T. ET.
E., as explained under George I., and date. Penny, MAG. BRI. FR. ET.
HIB. REX., and date.

_Gold._ Bust, undraped, laureated; reverse, royal arms in an ornamented
shield, crowned.

_Copper._ Halfpence and Farthings. Bust as before, laureated and in
armour, GEORGIVS II REX.; reverse, figure of Britannia, BRITANNIA,
date in exergue. Irish Halfpence and Farthings, same bust, undraped;
reverse, Irish harp, crowned, HIBERNIA, and date.

GEORGE III. (1760 to 1820.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Guinea (21_s._),
Half-guinea (10_s._ 6_d._), Third-of-guinea or Seven-shilling-piece
(7_s._), Quarter-of-guinea (5_s._ 3_d._), Sovereign (20_s._),
Half-sovereign (10_s._). _Copper._ Twopence, Penny, Halfpenny, Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Early issues: dexter bust profile of king, in armour,
laureated, hair long; on his later coinage, bust undraped, laureated,
hair short.

III. D. G. BRITT. (or BRITANNIARVM) REX. F. D. (or FID. DEF.), etc.
Later coinage has the date beneath the head.

REVERSE.--_Type._ Early coinage: Four crowned or uncrowned shields in
cross, as on coins of George I. and II.; the crowns in those instances
where they do not surmount the shields, being placed in the angles
between them. Later coinage: Crown, St. George and the Dragon within
the mottoed garter, Half-crown, crowned shield of royal arms, within
the garter, on which is the motto, HONI SOIT, etc.; quarterly, 1 and
4, England, 2, Scotland, 3, Ireland, Brunswick, etc., on an escutcheon
surmounted by the electorate crown; the shield crowned; on another,
round the garter, is the collar and badge of the order. Shillings,
royal shield encircled by the garter, no legend; Fourpence, Threepence,
Twopence, and Penny, values, either IIII. III. II. I., or in figures;
one mintage, called wire-money, has the value in writing figures, all
the lines of the same strength.

_Legend._ Early: M. B. F. ET. H. REX. F. D. B. ET. L. D. S. R. I. A. T.

During great scarcity of silver money in 1797 Spanish dollars and
half-dollars were countermarked with a small punch of the king’s
head and put into circulation as current coin of the value of 4_s._
9_d._ This stamp having been counterfeited to a considerable extent,
a different one was adopted in 1804, but it in turn being much
counterfeited, the whole dollar was re-stamped with a fresh octagonal
device, the king’s head, etc., on the obverse, and on the reverse a
figure of Britannia within an oval, crowned with a mural crown, and
having the words BANK OF ENGLAND FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR, 1804. Bank
of England tokens, value Six-shillings, Three-shillings, and other
amounts, were also issued. Of these, and the Irish and Madras and other
issues, I must forego particulars.

_Gold._ Obverse, bust laureated; reverse, Guinea, and Half-guinea,
royal arms in a “spade ace” shield, crowned; Sovereign, George
and Dragon within the garter; Half-sovereign, royal shield;
Seven-shillings, a crown.

_Copper._ Early coinage: Halfpennies and Farthings, bust laureated and
in armour, GEORGIVS III REX.; reverse, figure of Britannia, BRITANNIA
and date; Irish, bust undraped; reverse, Irish harp crowned. 1797
and 1799, Twopence and Penny, with raised broad rim, on which is the
legend, indented, bust profile, laureated, hair long, draped, GEORGIVS
III DEI GRATIA REX; Farthing, date under head; reverse, Britannia,
bareheaded, in the right hand an olive branch, in the left a trident;
seated on a rock, shield under her left hand, BRITANNIA, in the
distance a ship (the water cut up to the curve of the coin), date under
figure. Halfpence and Farthings, same figure of Britannia, but without
the broad rim; halfpenny, BRITANNIA, date under figure; Farthing,
BRITANNIA, under figure, 1 FARTHING. In 1806-7, Pence, Halfpence, and
Farthings, bust laureated and draped, hair short, GEORGIVS III. D. G.
REX. and date. Britannia as before, water in a line across, BRITANNIA.
Irish, harp, crowned, HIBERNIA, and date. A large variety of copper
coins for the East India Company, Isle of Man, Prince of Wales Island,
Sierra Leone, Barbadoes, Ceylon, etc., were struck, which need not be

GEORGE IV. (1820 to 1830.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny. _Gold._ Five-sovereign,
Double-sovereign, Sovereign, Half-sovereign. _Copper._ Penny,
Halfpenny, Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Sinister large bust profile, laureated, undraped.
In 1826 the bust differs, the neck and head are much narrower in
proportion, and it is not laureated. These latter coins are the
productions of Mr. Wyon, from the bust by Chantrey; the former ones
are Pistrucci’s.

_Legend._ On the former, GEORGIVS IIII D. G. BRITANNIAR. F. D. Latter,

REVERSE.--_Type._ Crown, St. George on horseback, undraped, helmeted,
loose vest flying behind, in his right hand a dagger, his left holding
the reins; under the horse, a dragon, a broken lance lying beside,
no legend, date in exergue, edge, DECUS, etc. This coin is of most
beautiful workmanship. Half-crown, early, royal arms; on some in plain
square shield, crowned, encircled by the garter, with motto, HONI,
etc., or ornamented shield, crowned, a rose beneath, and a thistle on
one side, and on the other a shamrock, no legend; date on the former,
with ANNO.; later, royal shield, beautifully mantled.

Early, Shilling and Sixpence as the Half-crowns; later, royal crown and
crest, a lion passant-guardant, crowned; beneath is the rose, thistle
and shamrock. This is commonly known as the “lion shilling.”


_Gold._ Five-pound-piece, Double-sovereign, Sovereign, and
Half-sovereign, bust as before; reverse, George and dragon; or royal

_Copper._ Pennies, Halfpennies, and Farthings; early, bust profile,
laureated, draped or undraped; Pence and Halfpence, GEORGIVS IV DG
REX.; Farthings, GEORGIVS IIII DEI GRATIA; Pence and Halfpence; Irish,
harp, crowned, HIBERNIA. and date; Farthing, Britannia seated on a
rock, facing the right, helmeted, in her left hand the trident, in her
right, which rests on the shield, an olive branch, lion at her feet,
no water in distance, date in exergue; later, Pence, Halfpence, and
Farthings, Britannia seated helmeted, left hand the trident, right
resting on shield, no olive branch, nor lion, beneath the figure, the
rose, thistle, and shamrock, BRITANNIAR REX FID. DEF. A Half-farthing
for Ceylon, and a one third of a Farthing, for Malta, were struck in
1827-8, and are rare.

WILLIAM IV. (1830 to 1837.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Sixpence,
Groat or Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence, Penny, Three-halfpence.
_Gold._ Double-sovereign, Sovereign, Half-sovereign. _Copper._ Penny,
Halfpenny, Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Dexter bust profile, undraped, hair short.


REVERSE.--_Type._ Half-crown, ermine robe surmounted by the crown, tied
at the corners with cord and tassels, on the robe are the royal arms
in a plain square shield, beneath which is the collar and badge of the
Order of the Garter; dated with the word ANNO.; Shilling and Sixpence,
within a wreath formed by branches of olive and oak is the value, ONE
SHILLING.--SIXPENCE. in two lines, a crown above, beneath the wreath
the date; Fourpence, figure of Britannia, FOUR PENCE, date in exergue.
Maundy money, value, crowned, within a wreath of oak branches.

_Gold._ All the same bust as on the silver. Five-pound-piece, a pattern
piece only; Double-sovereign, with arms, with mantle, garter, and
crown; Sovereign, Half-sovereign, bust as before; reverse, royal arms
in ornamental shield.

_Copper._ Pence, Halfpence, and Farthings, bust as before, date under
the head, GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA; reverse, Britannia, as last
coinage of George IV.; beneath the figure, rose, thistle, and shamrock,
BRITANNIAR REX. FID. DEF. Several colonial and other coins were also
struck in silver and copper.

VICTORIA. (1837.)

DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Crown, Half-crown, Florin or Two-shilling
piece, Shilling, Sixpence, Groat or Fourpence, Threepence, Twopence,
Penny. _Gold._ Five-pound-piece, Double-sovereign or Two-pound-piece,
Sovereign, Half-sovereign. _Copper._ Penny, Halfpenny, Farthing,
Half-farthing. _Bronze._ Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing.

OBVERSE.--_Type._ Crown and Half-crown. Sinister bust profile of the
queen, undraped, round the head two plain bands, hair parted on the
forehead, carried over the top of the ear, and all gathered together
at the back of the head. The Half-crown has the fore hair plaited
immediately before it joins the back hair. None of these have been
issued for home currency since 1851. Florin. Sinister bust profile of
the queen, crowned with an open arched crown, elegantly draped over the
shoulders. Shilling, Sixpence, etc., bust same as Half-crown.

_Legend._ Crown and Half-crown, VICTORIA DEI GRATIA. Date under
the head. Florin, first issue, VICTORIA REGINA, 1849; later issue,
=Victoria: d: g: britt: reg: f: d:= and date as =mdccclxviii=. Shilling
and sixpence, VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITANNIAR REG. F. D. Fourpence and

REVERSE.--_Type._ Crown and Half-crown, royal arms quarterly, 1 and
4, England, 2, Scotland, 3, Ireland, shield plain, crowned, within a
wreath formed of two olive branches tied together at the bottom by a
ribband; beneath the shield, the rose, thistle, and shamrock. Florin,
first issue, in a tressure of eight arches, whose cusps have trefoil
terminations, within the inner circle, four crowned shields arranged
as a cross, first and third England, second Scotland, fourth Ireland.
In the centre a rose; the crowns extending through the legend to the
outside edge of the coin. In the four angles are, respectively, two
roses, a thistle and a shamrock. Later issues, similar to the other,
with a trefoiled quatrefoil instead of rose in the centre. Shilling
and Sixpence; value in two lines, within a wreath formed of a branch
of olive and an oak branch tied together with a ribband, above the
value the royal crown, beneath the wreath the date. Fourpence, figure
of Britannia seated, helmeted, in her left hand the trident, her right
resting on the shield, date in exergue. Maundy money, value, crowned,
within a wreath of oak branches and date.

_Legend._ Crown and Half-crown, BRITANNIARVM REGINA FID. DEF. Florin,
first issue, ONE FLORIN ONE TENTH OF A POUND; later issues, =One florin
one tenth of a pound=. Shilling and Sixpence, the words ONE SHILLING,
and SIXPENCE, within the wreath of laurel and oak, beneath which is the
date. Fourpence, FOUR PENCE. Threepence, figure 3 crowned.

The most beautiful of our modern coins is a Crown-piece struck in 1847,
from dies engraved by Wyon. It is in somewhat low relief, and bears on
the obverse an exquisite profile portrait of the queen, to the left,
filling up the entire diameter of the coin. Her Majesty wears an open
four-arched crown; the hair, being plaited, is brought down below the
ear, and fastened at the back of the head; shoulders and bosom draped
with delicate and elaborately ornamented lace, pearls, and jewels, the
portion of the robe visible being diapered with roses, thistles, and
shamrocks in lozenges. _Legend._ =Victoria dei gratia britanniar. reg:
f: d=. Reverse: within the inner circle four shields (two England, one
Scotland, one Ireland), arranged as a cross, within a tressure of eight
arches; each shield crowned, the crowns extending through the legend
and to extremity of the coin. In the centre the star of the Order of
the Garter, and in the angles between the shields, which are diapered,
a rose twice repeated, a thistle, and a shamrock; the spandrils and the
cusps trefoiled. _Legend_, =tueatur unita deus anno dom. mdcccxlvii=.
Round the edge =decus· et· tutamen· anno· regni· undecim=. This,
usually known as the “gothic crown,” was not put in circulation.

_Gold._ Sovereign, and Half-sovereign; obverse, same bust as the
silver, VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, and date; reverse, Sovereign, royal arms,
as the Half-crown; later issues, St. George and the Dragon as on those
of George IV., and date; Half-sovereign, royal shield as before,
without the wreath, mantled, crowned, BRITANNIARVM REGINA FID. DEF.

_Copper._ Farthings; obverse, same as Sovereign; reverse, figure of
Britannia, as before, with the rose, thistle, and shamrock beneath,
BRITANNIAR REG. FID. DEF.; Half and Quarter-farthings have also been
struck for the colonies to supersede the use of cowries.

_Bronze._ Obverse: beautifully laureated profile bust of the queen,
hair tied behind, draped over the shoulders; the portrait filling up
the diameter of the coin; legend, VICTORIA D: G: BRITT: REG: F: D:
Reverse: figure of Britannia, helmeted and draped, holding a trident
in her left hand, and her right resting on a shield of the union; in
the distance, on one side, the Eddystone Lighthouse, on the other a
ship in full sail. _Legend_: ONE PENNY, date in exergue, 1860, _et
seq_. A large number of pattern pieces for coins of various values, and
in all the metals, have at one time or other during this reign been
prepared and struck, and are of the highest interest for the cabinets
of collectors.






The Traders’ Tokens of this kingdom, properly so-called, are confined,
in issue, to the seventeenth, eighteenth, and early part of the
nineteenth centuries--those of the first of these periods being the
most numerous as well as, in most respects, the most interesting.
Though not coins in the ordinary sense, not having been issued by
kings or governments, they play a more important part in the history
of the country than even the regal pieces do, and the information to
be derived from their study is not only valuable but in many instances

Coins, the currency of nations, as I have, on another occasion,
observed, are hoarded up and studied, and constantly referred to in
illustration of historical facts, or as corroborations in cases of
doubtful points; and their value, admitted on all hands, cannot be too
highly estimated. They, however, tell but of princes and nationalities,
not of the people. The coins of Greece and Rome tell of events, of
changes, and of wars, and become, when properly studied, a complete
epitome of the history of the great nations to which they belong.
Those of our own country, however, have not that recommendation--they
become simply, and solely, matters of regal chronology. From the Norman
Conquest to the present hour not one event does an English coin record,
not one national trait does it exhibit, and not one matter connected
with national history or the people does it illustrate.

Not so with Traders’ Tokens. Issued _by_ the people, they tell _of_ the
people, and become imperishable records of that most important estate
of the realm. They indicate to us their occupations and their skill;
their customs and their modes of life; their local governments; their
guilds and trade companies; their habits and sentiments; their trades,
their costume, their towns, their families, and their homes. Pity it
is that these lasting and reliable records and adjuncts to national
history are, as I have just said, confined to some two centuries of
our historical annals--but of those two periods (and especially of the
earliest) they are, assuredly, among the more interesting and important
of illustrations.

In Anglo-Saxon and mediæval times the want of small coins--that is, a
currency representing a small value--was much felt, and this gave rise
to the occasional issue of spurious, or rather base, coins to supply
the deficiency, as it was found the smaller pieces--for instance, the
pennies when broken up for use as halfpence and farthings--were unfit
for general use among the rough-handed population.

In the reigns of Edward VI. and Mary the issue of a base-metal
currency gave rise to considerable dissatisfaction and fraud, and
under Elizabeth, who issued three-halfpence and three-farthing pieces,
that spurious currency was declared no longer current. Despite the
issuing, however, of these three-halfpenny and three-farthing pieces,
the want of halfpennies and farthings was still so seriously felt by
the entire population, that housekeepers, chandlers, grocers, mercers,
vintners, and most other traders were impelled, for conscience’ sake,
to the issue of private tokens of lead, pewter, latten, tin, and even
leather, for the purposes of trade. These were issued by the traders,
and commodities in exchange could only be had from their issuers; they
were thus useless as a circulating medium and a source of frequent loss
to their holders.

In 1574 a proposition was made to the Queen by two persons named
Wickliffe and Humphrey, to coin halfpence and farthings in base silver
(to weigh respectively 12 and 6 grains), but was not acted upon.
It was then proposed to coin pledges of copper, and a proclamation
forbidding the use of private tokens and authorizing those just named
was prepared; this, however, again, was not acted upon, and private
tokens still continued in use. In 1582 the three-farthing pieces were
withdrawn and silver halfpennies issued. They bear on the obverse a
portcullis and mint mark, and on the reverse a cross and pellets.

In 1601 and 1602 the requirements of the army in Ireland caused, for
a time, the issue of copper pence, halfpence, and farthings, and this
seems to have revived the idea of copper pledges for England, for
which, indeed, pattern pieces were struck. Copper tokens were, at that
time, issued by the cities of Oxford, Worcester, and Bristol.

On the accession of James I. that monarch issued silver pennies for
this country, in which his Scottish baubees, bodles, and placks were
useless. A pattern farthing was also prepared but not issued. Soon
afterwards a fresh scheme, which met the approval of the king, was
acted upon. This was the issue of Royal farthing tokens weighing only
six grains each. The licence to mint these dishonest coins which, for
the purpose of getting them into circulation, were sold by the Crown
to all comers at 21 shillings’ worth for a pound, was granted to Lord
Harrington--the king stipulating that he should receive one-half
the profit every quarter of a year. His majesty, however, ere long
altered the arrangement, allowing Lord Harrington a fixed sum, and
himself taking all the rest of the profit. Their principal distributor
was Gerard Malyns, who thus spoke of their intention and use:--“The
necessitye of these small moneys did appeare here with us in England,
where everie chandler, tapster, vintner, and others, made tokens of
lead and brasse for half-pences, and at Bristol by the late Queenes
authoritie were made of copper, with a ship on one side, and C.B. on
the other side, signifying CIVITAS BRISTOLL: these went current, for
small things, at Bristoll and ten miles about. Hereupon, it pleased
our soveraigne lord the king to approve of the making of a competent
quantitie of farthing tokens to abolish the said leaden tokens, made
in derogation of the king’s prerogative royall, which farthing tokens,
being in the yeare 1613, with certain cautions and limitations, made
of meere copper, have on the one side two sceptres crossing under one
diadem, in remembrance of the union betweene England and Scotland; and
on the other side the harpe for Ireland, and the inscription, ‘IACOBVS
D.G. MAGNÆ. BRITT. FRA. ET HIBER. REX.’ And the said farthing tokens
have not oneley beene found very commodius and necessarie for pettie
commutations, but also to be a great reliefe of the poore, and meanes
to encrease charitie, without which many of them had perished, everie
man having meanes to give almes, even the mechanicall poore to the
indigent poore.”

The mode adopted for distributing these farthing tokens and getting
them into circulation was crafty and business-like. They were made up
in packets of 5_s._ 3_d._ worth in each, and these packets, made up
in bags of £20 worth in each, were sent to the mayors of the different
towns of the kingdom, who were required to sell them to the public. For
all sold and remitted for within two months the mayor was allowed two
shillings in the pound for his trouble; if over two months, then only
one shilling; and the purchaser of course in any case got 21_s._ worth
for 20_s._ Thus each 21_s._ worth was sold by the king for 18_s._

Despite all this, however, and the issuing of proclamation after
proclamation to enforce this Royal swindle, private tokens continued
to be issued as much as ever and could not be put down. The office for
the issue of the Royal tokens was in Lothbury, London, and the place is
still known as “Token-House Yard.” After the annulling of this office,
copper farthing tokens of a more honest value were issued, but traders
still struck their own to such an extent that they became more than
ever general throughout the country.

In 1649 an attempt was made to establish a national farthing, and
pattern pieces were prepared. Nothing, however, was done until 1671,
when Traders’ Tokens having increased to a prodigious extent, and being
issued by one or other in almost every town and village in the kingdom,
the government announced the intended issue of halfpence and farthings
to supersede them; and in 1672 a proclamation prohibiting the making or
use of any such private tokens was issued, and stringent measures taken
for their suppression. From that time their use rapidly declined, and
they were soon utterly put down.

From that time (1672) until 1787 no Traders’ Tokens whatever were
struck or issued in this kingdom. In the latter year (1787) the
government having for a long time neglected to issue a sufficient
quantity of copper coins for the purposes of trade, and the copper
coinage having been forged to so great an extent that not one-fourth
of what was in circulation was of Royal mint coining, the Anglesey
Copper Mines Company issued tokens of their own, and to such an extent
that they put into circulation three hundred tons of copper pennies
and halfpennies. The example thus set was followed by other companies,
corporations, and private traders, and tokens soon became so general
that the matter attracted the attention of government, and resulted in
orders being issued for the preparation of a new national coinage.

To that end in June, 1797, George the Third issued his warrant
empowering Matthew Boulton, of the Soho Works, Birmingham, to
manufacture a considerable quantity of penny and twopenny pieces. The
extent to which this contract was carried may be gathered from the
fact that between June, 1797, and 1805, Matthew Boulton “coined under
contract for the British Government upwards of 4,000 tons weight of
copper coin, amounting at its nominal value to nearly £800,000.” These
coins were strictly and unequivocally _honest_, as were also those of
the Anglesey and other works.

The Soho twopenny pieces weighed exactly two ounces each, and eight of
them laid side by side measured one foot; the pennies weighed one ounce
each, and seventeen in like manner measured two feet; the halfpennies
weighed half an ounce each, and twelve of them measured one foot.

The effect of this issue was the stoppage of private tokens, only
one or two examples being known of so late a date as 1802, when they
finally ceased.

By 1811, consequent on the great increase in the value of copper caused
by the costly wars in which this country was engaged, the twopenny and
penny pieces (which were of the intrinsic value of the metal) were
melted down, or used in various ways, and thus the copper currency had
again, gradually and surely, become deficient. In that year the Copper
Companies and others again resorted to the issue of batches of tokens,
and these continued to increase and to be issued in large numbers until
1817, when, by Act of Parliament passed on the 27th of July, their
manufacture was prohibited, and their issuers ordered, under penalties
for disobedience, to take up all they had issued before the 1st of
January, 1818.

Thus came entirely to an end the issue of Traders’ Tokens in this

It is impossible to ascertain, or even to form a correct estimate of,
the number of varieties of seventeenth century tokens that were issued.
Boyne, after mature consideration and much research, estimated the
entire issue as not having exceeded 20,000, and in that he was probably
tolerably correct.

In round numbers the _known_ examples of tokens of the seventeenth
century, issued in the various counties of England, Wales, and Ireland,
may be put down as in:--

  Bedfordshire                about   80
  Berkshire                      "   150
  Buckinghamshire                "   140
  Cambridgeshire                 "   150
  Cheshire                       "    70
  Cornwall                       "    50
  Cumberland                     "    10
  Derbyshire                     "   110
  Devonshire                     "   250
  Dorsetshire                    "   160
  Durham                         "    60
  Essex                          "   250
  Gloucestershire                "   180
  Hampshire                      "   150
  Herefordshire                  "    50
  Hertfordshire                  "   170
  Huntingdonshire                "    70
  Kent                           "   500
  Lancashire                     "   100
  Leicestershire                 "   100
  Lincolnshire                   "   200
  Middlesex, including London    " 3,200
  Monmouthshire                  "    20
  Norfolk                        "   300
  Northamptonshire               "   150
  Nottinghamshire                "    90
  Northumberland                 "    20
  Oxfordshire                    "   230
  Rutlandshire                   "    20
  Shropshire                     "   100
  Somersetshire                  "   280
  Staffordshire                  "   100
  Suffolk                        "   300
  Surrey, including Southwark    "   650
  Sussex                         "   200
  Warwickshire                   "   160
  Westmoreland                   "    25
  Wiltshire                      "   200
  Worcestershire                 "   120
  Yorkshire                      "   450
  Uncertain English              "   100
  Wales                          "   100
  Isle of Man                    "     1
  Ireland                        "   700
  Scotland, none known.

Making a grand total in all of about twelve thousand distinct
varieties; and these, of course, can be only about one-half of what
were actually issued.

The denominations are Pennies, Half-pennies, and Farthings, and they
are of copper, or, in not a few instances, brass.

Their shape is usually round, but some are square, others octagonal,
others lozenge, and others again heart-shaped. These varieties will be
best understood by reference to the following engravings, which may be
taken as general typical examples.





They are usually thin, not very cleverly struck, and many of them
exhibit, in their orthography, ignorant and eccentric modes of spelling
names, both of persons, trades, and places. The greater bulk of them
are, fortunately, dated; the dates ranging from about 1648 to 1672.

The inscriptions in by far the greatest number of examples commence on
the obverse, and are continued on the reverse. They commonly consist
of the christian and surname of the issuer, his trade or occupation,
and the town or village in which he resided. Usually on the ordinary
disc-formed tokens this inscription is between the outer and inner
circle of dotted lines. On the field, within the inner circle, is
usually the value of the coin; the initials of the issuer and his wife
joined together with a knot; trade-company, town, or family-arms;
tavern or shop sign; device, indicating the handicraft or trade of
the issuer; initials or other lettering; or other matter. On some,
principally on the square, lozenge, octagonal, and heart-shaped
examples, the inscription is placed in several lines across the entire
field, and is accompanied more or less by devices, etc.



Among devices the arms of Trade-guilds or Companies are most numerous,
and a brief description of those most commonly met with will be found
of great service to the collector. They are as follows,--but for the
sake of brevity, and as they are but seldom indicated on the tokens
themselves, I omit tinctures:--


APOTHECARIES.--Full length figure of Apollo, the inventor of physic,
his head radiant, holding in his left hand a bow, and in his right hand
an arrow, supplanting (_i.e._ standing over, astride, or vanquishing)
a serpent. On tokens these arms are sometimes represented without
being on a shield. The crest of the company, a Rhinoceros, is also
occasionally used.

ARMOURERS.--On a chevron a gauntlet between two pairs of swords in
saltire; on a chief an oval shield whereon a cross of St. George,
between two peers’ helmets.

BAKERS.--A pair of balances, held, between three garbs, by a hand,
vested, and arm embowed, issuing from radiated clouds, affixed to the
upper part of a chief barry wavy of four, whereon are two anchors.

BAKERS (WHITE).--Three garbs; on a chief an arm issuing from a cloud,
holding a pair of scales, between three garbs.

BARBER-SURGEONS.--On a cross of St. George between, in first and fourth
quarters a chevron between three fleams, and second and third a rose
crowned, a lion passant-guardant.



BLACKSMITHS.--A chevron between three hammers crowned. On some tokens
a single hammer, crowned or uncrowned, without a shield is used;
occasionally also three uncrowned hammers; or, hammer and pincers, as
on the cut; or, again, an anvil, as on the next example. BOTTLE MAKERS
AND HORNERS (now only Horners).--On a chevron between three leather
bottles as many bugle horns, stringed.

BRAZIERS.--On a chevron between, in chief, two ewers (or beakers), and
in base, a tripod pot with two handles, three roses seeded and barbed.

BREWERS.--On a chevron, between three pairs of barley garbs in saltire,
as many tuns. Instead of these arms it was not infrequent for a single
barrel, or three barrels, to be used. Another not uncommon device was
two men carrying a barrel suspended from a shoulder-pole.

BRICKLAYERS AND TILERS.--A chevron between, in chief, a fleur-de-lis
between two brick-axes palewise, and in base a bundle of laths.


BUTCHERS.--Two slaughter-axes addorsed in saltire between three
bulls’ heads couped, two in fesse and one in base; on a chief a
boar’s head couped between two block brushes (_i.e._ two bunches of
“butchers’-broom”). A knife and cleaver, and other signs were also used.


CARPENTERS.--A chevron (sometimes engrailed) between three pairs of
compasses expanded at the points. CLOCKMAKERS.--Sable, a clock, or.

CLOTHWORKERS OR SHEARMEN.--A chevron ermine between, in chief, two
habbicks, and, in base, a teazle slipped.

coaches. Crest, Phœbus drawn in a chariot. Supporters, two horses,
armed. Sometimes this crest alone appears, and sometimes a horse

COOKS.--A chevron engrailed between three columbines, stalked and
leaved. Or, a chevron between three columbines, pendant.

COOPERS.--Gyronny of eight, on a chevron, between three annulets, a
grose between two adzes; on a chief three lilies, slipped, stalked, and


CORDWAINERS OR SHOEMAKERS.--A chevron between three goats’ heads
erased and attired. It is not unusual for the three goats’ heads to be
used without shield or chevron, and sometimes a single goat’s head is
introduced. The public-house sign of the “Three Goats’ Heads,” a “house
of call” for shoemakers, took its origin from these arms.


CUTLERS.--Three pairs of swords in saltire, two pairs in chief and one
in base. Frequently two swords in saltire is used as the trade device
on tokens. DISTILLERS.--A fesse wavy between, in chief, the sun in
his splendour encircled with a cloud distilling drops of rain, and, in
base, a distillatory [still] double armed, on a fire, with two worms
and bolt receivers. Other simpler devices used on tokens are the sun in
splendour; a still; or an Indian holding a bow and arrow (being one of
the supporters of the company’s arms).

DRAPERS.--Three triple crowns each issuing out of a cloud shedding rays
of the sun. Frequently only one triple crown is used on tokens.


DYERS.--A chevron between three madder bags, corded.

FARRIERS.--Three horseshoes pierced. A single horseshoe was, however,
sometimes used on tokens.


FELTMAKERS.--A dexter hand couped at the wrist between two hatbands,
nowed, in chief a hat, banded; or, a hat; or, a hand holding a hat and
feather, were adopted.

FISHMONGERS.--Three dolphins naiant, in pale, finned and ducally
crowned, between two pairs of lucies in saltire (the sinister
surmounting the dexter), over the nose of each lucy a ducal crown; on a
chief three pairs of keys, endorsed, in saltire. FLETCHERS.--A chevron
between three arrows, headed and feathered.

FOUNDERS.--A laver pot (or vase) between two prickets (or

FRAMEWORK KNITTERS.--On a chevron between, in chief, two combs and
as many leads of needles, and, in base, an iron jack springer, a
main-spring between two small springs.

FRUITERERS.--On a mount, a representation of the Tree of Life (Tree of
Paradise) environed with a serpent; on the dexter side thereof a male
figure, on the sinister a female (representing Adam and Eve); at the
bottom of the tree a rabbit.

GIRDLERS.--Party per fesse, _azure_ and _or_, a pale counterchanged,
the first charged with three gridirons, the handles in chief, of the

GLAZIERS.--Two grozing irons in saltire between four closing nails; on
a chief a lion passant-guardant.

GLOVERS.--Party per fesse, counterchanged, on each part of the first,
two and one, a ram salient, armed, and unguled. The same arms,
quartering two goats, statant, affront[=e]e and attired, in fesse, were
granted to the Leathersellers’ Company as an impalement in 1505.

GOLDSMITHS.--Quarterly, first and fourth a leopard’s face, second and
third a covered cup; and in chief two buckles, their tongues fessewise,
pointed to the dexter.

GOLD AND SILVER WIRE DRAWERS.--On a chevron between, in chief, two
coppers, and, in base, two points in saltire, a drawing iron between
two rings.


GROCERS.--A chevron between nine cloves, three, three and three.
Sometimes seven (three, three, and one) are used. Not unfrequently on
tokens three cloves are used as a grocer’s trade device, as are also
one, two, or three sugar-loaves.


HABERDASHERS (Anciently called “Hurrers” and “Milleners).”--Barry
nebulée (or wavy) of six; on a bend, a lion passant-guardant.

HATTERS, OR HATTER MERCHANTS.--On a chevron between three felt hats
with strings, as many escallops. On some tokens a hat, or hat and
feather, or cap, alone occurs.

INNHOLDERS.--A chevron, quarterly per chevron, and per pale, between
three garbs. The crest of this company, a star of sixteen rays, was
also a common device on tokens.


IRONMONGERS.--On a chevron between three steel gads (billets) as many
swivels, the middle one palewise, the other two with the line of the

JOINERS OR CARPENTERS.--A chevron (sometimes engrailed) between three
pairs of compasses expanded at the points. Or, a chevron between two
pairs of compasses extended, in chief, and a sphere in base; on a chief
a pale between two roses, the pale charged with an escallop.

LEATHERSELLERS.--Three bucks passant reguardant attired and unguled.

LORINERS.--A chevron between three curbits and as many bosses.

MASONS.--On a chevron (sometimes engrailed) between three castles, a
pair of compasses, extended.


MERCERS.--A demi-virgin, couped below the shoulders, vested, crowned
with an Eastern-crown, her hair dishevelled and wreathed about her
temples with roses, issuing from clouds, and all within an orle of the
same. This device is sometimes, on tokens, shorn of its clouds, and
used without shield.

MERCHANT ADVENTURERS.--Barry nebulée (or wavy) of six, on a chief
quarterly, first and fourth, a lion passant-guardant, second and third
two roses in fesse, barbed.

MERCHANT TAILORS (or “Taylors and Linen Armourers”). A royal tent
between two Parliament robes, lined ermine; the tent garnished, with
tentstaff and pennon; on a chief a lion passant-guardant.

MERCHANTS OF THE STAPLE.--Barry nebulée (or wavy) of six; on a chief, a
lion passant-guardant.

MUSICIANS.--A swan with wings expanded, within a double tressure
fleury-counter-fleury; a chief charged with on a pale between two lions
passant-guardant a rose seeded and barbed.

NEEDLE MAKERS.--From three crowns in fesse as many needles, pendant.

PAINTERS AND PAINTER-STAINERS.--Three escutcheons quarterly with three
phoenix’ heads, erased.

PARISH CLERKS.--A fleur-de-lis; on a chief a leopard’s head between two
song-books (shut), stringed.

PEWTERERS.--On a chevron between three limbecks, as many roses stalked,
leaved, and seeded. Or:--

PEWTERERS.--On a chevron between three single-handled cups, each
containing so many sprigs of lilies, the Virgin accompanied by four
cherubs, between two pairs of limbecks.

PIN MAKERS.--A demi-virgin couped at the waist, mantle turned
down ermine, her hair dishevelled, on her head an Eastern crown.
PLAISTERERS.--On a chevron engrailed between, in chief, two
plaisterers’ hammers, and, in base, a treble flat brush, handle upward,
a rose seeded and barbed between two fleurs-de-lis; in chief a trowel
fessewise with handle to the sinister.

PLUMBERS.--On a chevron between, in chief, two plummets and, in base, a
level reversed, two soldering irons in saltire between a cutting knife
on the dexter and a shave hook on the sinister; in chief a cross-staff


SADDLERS.--A chevron between three manage saddles complete.


SALTERS OR DRYSALTERS.--Party per chevron, three covered cups
sprinkling salt; crest, a cubit arm erect, holding a covered cup, or
salt sprinkler.

SCRIVENERS.--An eagle with wings expanded, holding in his beak a
penner and inkhorn, standing on a book, closed, fessewise, the clasps

SHIPWRIGHTS.--On an antique hulk, the stern terminating with the head
of a dragon in the hulk, the Ark with three doors in the side, from the
Ark against the side a step-ladder; on a chief the cross of St. George
charged on the centre with a lion passant-guardant.

SILKMEN.--A ship of three masts in full sail on the sea, in base; on a
chief a bale of silk, corded, between two bundles of silk, pendant.

SOAPMAKERS.--A dolphin naiant between three eel spears.

STATIONERS.--On a chevron between three Bibles fessewise, clasps
downwards, garnished and leaved, an eagle, rising, between two roses
seeded and barbed; from the chief a demi-circle of glory edged with
clouds, therein a dove displayed and nimbed.


TALLOWCHANDLERS.--Party per fesse a pale counterchanged; on the first
three doves each holding an olive branch. In place of these arms the
devices commonly found on tokens issued by tallowchandlers are: a
man making candles; a stick of candles; a stick of candles within a
crescent moon; one or three doves with olive branch, etc.


TIN PLATE WORKERS AND WIREWORKERS.--A chevron between three lamps, the
two in chief (one light each) facing each other, the one in base with
two lights, all garnished and illuminated.


TOBACCONISTS.--Usually a roll of tobacco; or one, two, or three pipes;
or a combination of pipes and tobacco.

UPHOLDERS OR UPHOLSTERERS.--On a chevron between three tents (without
poles) ermine and lined, as many roses.


VINTNERS.--A chevron between three tuns (barrels).

WATERMEN.--Barry wavy of six; on the middle bar a boat; on a chief two
oars in saltire between two cushions, tasselled.

WAX-CHANDLERS.--On a chevron between three mortcours as many roses.

WEAVERS.--On a chevron between three leopards’ heads, each holding a
shuttle, as many roses, seeded and barbed. On tokens sometimes three
leopards’ faces alone, without shield, are used.

WOODMONGERS.--A sword erect, hilted and crowned (or enfiled with
a ducal coronet) between two flaunches each charged with a faggot
(or bundle of laths). On one token, that of Govin Gouldegay,
of Whitefriars, the arms are a chevron between three faggots.



[Illustration: “King’s Head,” Derby.]

[Illustration: “King’s Arms,” Uttoxeter.]

[Illustration: “Crown,” Repton.]

Ale-house and shop-signs were much used as devices on tokens; but,
of course, occurring as they do by the hundred, are too numerous
to particularize. Sometimes the sign was named in addition to the
device, but at others the name or the device was alone used. Thus for

[Illustration: “Red Lion,” Ashbourne.]

[Illustration: “George and Dragon,” Uttoxeter.]

[Illustration: “Bunch of Grapes,” Bolsover.]

_Obv._ WILLIAM WEBB AT THE = Within the inner circle the figure of St.
George and the Dragon.

_Rev._ IN SITTINGBORN, 1670 = Within the inner circle, in three lines,

_Obv._ EDMOND HOLT AT THE = Within the inner circle a ship.

_Rev._ SHIP IN RATCLIFFE, 1668 = Within the inner circle, in four

[Illustration: Arms of the Borough of Derby.]

Arms of cities and towns are found not only on those tokens which were
issued by corporations, mayors, or other bodies or officials, but by
some tradesmen. Of the first an example or two will be sufficient:--

_Obv._ THE MAYOR OF = A shield bearing the arms of the city of Oxford;
an “Ox” crossing a “Ford.”

_Rev._ OXFORD TOKEN = C.O., 1652. A small R for Rawlins the die sinker.

_Obv._ A BECCLES FARTHING, 1670. B = In four lines across the coin.

_Rev._ The arms of Beccles, a cattle pen, and Town Hall.

_Obv._ A BRISTOLL FARTHING = C.B., 1652, and a small R for Rawlins the
die sinker.

_Rev._ THE ARMES OF BRISTOLL = The arms of Bristol on a shield.

Of family arms, which are occasionally met with on tokens, and also
of crests, the following engraved examples will be sufficient to show
their general character.

[Illustration: Arms and Crest of Shalcross.]

[Illustration: Arms and Crest of Manaton.]

[Illustration: Arms and Crest of Gent.]

[Illustration: Arms of Coates.]

[Illustration: Crest of Rossington.]

Merchants marks, some of which are curious and of considerable
interest, were to some extent used. They were, indeed, of much the same
use as the “Trade Marks” of our own day. Other devices are implements
of one kind or other connected with the trade or calling of the issuer;
articles of clothing made or sold by him; animals and heraldic figures
usually derived from guild arms or from signs; articles of domestic use
of endless variety; and ships, boats, coaches, carriages, pack-horses,
and numerous other matters connected with the daily life of the people.


Rebusses and allusive designs--that is, devices containing a play upon
the name of the issuer--are far from uncommon. Thus James Bolton, of
Blackburn, adopted on each side his tokens the device of a _bolt_ and
_tun_; Thomas Towers, of March, a _tower_; Anthony Rachell, of Wisbech,
a “_rachalled_” or cogged _wheel_; Walter Coates, of Stockport, a
_colt_; Francis Woodward, of Crutched Friars, a _wood-ward_ mounted and
blowing his horn; William Archer, of Deptford, an _archer_ with bow and
arrow; Hannah Bell, of Tooley Street, a _bell_; Hugh Conny, of Potton,
three _conies_; John Curtis, of Yarmouth, two men _curtseying_; Robert
Hancock, of Whitefriars, a _hand_ and a _cock_; Ralph Harbottle, of
Great Torrington, a _hare_ and a _bottle_; Robert Thornhill, who kept
the “Bull” inn, a _Bull_ standing under a _Thorn_ tree on a mound or
_hill_; and so on.


Very frequently, and sometimes on the obverse and at others on the
reverse, are the initials of the issuer or, more frequently still,
those of the issuer and his wife tied together with, or having between
them, a “true lover’s knot,” with floral or tasselled terminations. The
initials in the latter case are thus arranged

  I·K, that of the family name (Malyn) at the top, and those of

the Christian name, of the husband (John) and wife (Katherine), at the
sides as here engraved from a Duffield token.



On some the issuer has, as will occasionally be met with by the
collector, introduced some remarkably quaint inscriptions. Thus on a
token of Richard Bakewell, of Derby, 1666, is the curious inscription,
GOOD MORROW VALENTINE, the device being two doves billing. On another
Derby token, that of William Newcome, we have on the obverse, TOVCH NOT
MINE ANOINTED, and on the reverse DOE MY PROPHETS NOE HARME. On one of
Samuel Hendon, of Macclesfield,


On one of Thomas Cotton, of Middlewich,


On one of Ann Greene, of Skipton, I WILL EXCHAING MY PENY. Others refer
to the use and benefit of tokens alike to the poor and to the traders.
Thus on one of Andover, on one side we have, FOR YE POORE’S BENEFIT,
and on the other, HELP O’ ANDEVER, 1666; on one of Winchcombe, REMEMBER
1670; Great Yarmouth, FOR THE VSE OF THE POORE; Chard, THE BVRROVGH
CHAING; and so on in very great variety. They were often issued by the
Mayor, the Portreeve, the Overseers, the Chamberlain, or other official
for public convenience.

               *     *     *     *     *

The best, indeed only worthy, book on the general subject of
seventeenth century tokens is Boyne’s, published in 1858, in which
close upon ten thousand examples are carefully and minutely described.

Of the more modern tokens--those so abundantly issued during the thirty
years preceding 1818--and of the silver tokens of the latter part of
that period which, including the Bank Tokens, number some four hundred
varieties, I purposely abstain in this little work from giving any

Of those of silver and gold, Boyne’s “Silver Tokens of Great
Britain and Ireland,” etc., published in 1866, is the best and most
comprehensive list that has been prepared. Of those of copper, Batty’s
“Descriptive Catalogue,” in which some twenty thousand varieties are
minutely described, is as exhaustive a list as could well be prepared.








The science of Numismatics (from the Greek word νὁμυὁμα,
a legally current coin) embraces the study of the coins of all the
nations of the earth who have at any period impressed upon pieces of
metal--gold, silver, bronze, brass, copper, iron, tin, lead, etc.
etc.--any devices (_types_), or inscriptions, indicating that such
pieces of metal were issued by authority for public use as money.

Strictly speaking, the term Numismatics should not therefore be applied
to the study of medallions, medals, or counters, whether commemorative,
purely artistic, military, scholastic, etc., unless, as is sometimes
the case, such medals have been at the same time current as money.

The study of medals is, however, in many respects so nearly allied
to Numismatics that it may be and frequently is included in it for
convenience sake.

For practical purposes coins may be roughly classified under four
principal headings:--

                      { Greek, etc.
I. Ancient, including { Roman, etc.
                      { Phœnician, etc.

II. Byzantine.

III. Mediæval    "    { European various.
                      { Oriental various.

IV. Modern       "      All countries.

Each series may be again subdivided into an enormous number of classes,
as will be seen when we come to examine the Greek and Roman series to
which the following pages will be devoted.

In the outset a few brief remarks on the uses of a cabinet of antique
coins may not be out of place. Of these the first and foremost is the
undoubted fact that these “strange face to face vestiges of vanished
æons” (to use an expression of Carlyle’s) bring our minds into
immediate contact with the life and history of antiquity as no mere
book-study can ever do. Not that we would depreciate the value of a
knowledge of history; on the contrary, this is the one study which is
all important for a collector of coins. Without it a man may indeed
become familiar with the look of ancient coins, and he may gain much
practical knowledge of the prices which they usually fetch at sales,
but he will never be a true Numismatist. If he possess the artistic
sense he may admire them as works of art, but beyond this they will be
to him as a sealed book.



The following extract from the preface to the British Museum “Guide to
the Coins of the Ancients”[5] will give some idea of the uses of Greek

“The chief value of Greek coins lies in their being original works of
art, not copies as are most of the extant sculptures in the round, and
in their recording the successive phases and local varieties of Greek
art, in which respect no other class of monuments, sculptures, bronzes,
terracottas, fictile vases, or gems, can compete with them. From the
seventh century before the Christian era downwards, and from the
farthest east to the extreme west of the ancient civilized world, coins
are still extant, in many cases as uninjured as when they first left
the dies. The devices or _types_ which they bear, if not by leading
artists, certainly faithfully represent the style of the sculpture
and even of the painting of the periods to which they belong. Thus in
no other branch of Greek monuments can the student so readily and so
thoroughly trace the growth, the maturity, and the decay of the plastic
art as on coins chronologically arranged.

“For the study of mythology they present the local conceptions of the
gods and heroes worshipped in the Greek world, with their attributes
and symbols.

“The historian will find a gallery of portraits of sovereigns almost
complete, as well as evidences of the history and of the political
revolutions of innumerable autonomous states and cities in these all
but imperishable records.

“The student of palæography will find on coins examples of various
ancient alphabets, such as Lycian and Cyprian, Phœnician, Greek,
Latin, Iberian, etc., in various stages of development.

“The metrologist, by comparing the weights of coins of different
localities and periods, may gain an insight into the various systems
of ancient metrology in its various standards, and obtain a just view
of the relative values of the precious metals, and of the great lines
of trade in the Greek and Roman world. For practical purposes the
medallist and art workman will find in Greek coins the most profitable
as well as the safest guide. The artist will not fail to perceive
the suggestive value of designs which, on however small a scale, are
essentially large in treatment.”

[5] “A Guide to the Coins of the Ancients, from cir. B.C. 700 to A.D.
1,” with seventy plates, by B. V. Head, second edition, London, 8vo,
1881, Trübners.

No one whose means are at all limited should attempt to form a complete
collection of Greek coins. Even the vast collection in the British
Museum is far from perfect, and in many series is still lamentably

Any one, however, by limiting his ambition to one particular branch,
may hope in course of time to form a cabinet the value of which will
increase rapidly in proportion as it approaches completion.

This applies not only to Greek coins but to every class. Thus, for
instance, there are collectors of English coins who confine their
attention to the Anglo-Saxon period; others who will buy no coins later
than the reign of Charles I.; and others, again, who only collect the
copper money of the last two centuries.

The young collector who would not drift into unprofitable
_dilettanteism_ should therefore select some one series and keep to it,
and it is chiefly with the view of assisting him to make his choice of
a field to work upon that these pages have been written.

It will be well to form some idea, in the first instance, of the
numerous series which are included in the general term of “_Greek

Greek coins may be divided into three principal sections:--

A. _Autonomous_, _i.e._ coins issued by cities governed by their own

B. _Regal_, _i.e._ coins struck in the names of kings.

C. _Imperial_, _i.e._ coins of Greek cities struck in Roman Imperial
times, and with the head of the Emperor on the obverse.

And into eight chronological periods as follows:--

I. B.C. 700-480. _Period of Archaic Art_, ending with the Persian wars.

II. B.C. 480-430. _Period of Transitional Art_, between the Persian and
Peloponnesian wars.

III. B.C. 430-400. _Period of Early Fine Art_, to the end of the
Athenian supremacy. IV. B.C. 400-336. _Period of Finest Art._ Age of
the Spartan and Theban supremacies. Philip of Macedon.

V. B.C. 336-280. _Period of Later Fine Art._ Age of Alexander and his
immediate successors.

VI. B.C. 280-197. _Period of the Decline of Art._ Age of the Epigoni or
descendants of Alexander’s successors.

VII. B.C. 197-27. _Period of Late Decline of Art._ Age of the Attalids,
Mithradates, and of the Roman supremacy.

VIII. B.C. 27--A.D. 268. _Period of Latest Decline of Art._ The Empire.



The coins of the ancients were of various metals, of which the
following need only be specified.

1. _Gold_, distinguished in numismatic works by the abbreviation [AU]
(for aurum).

2. _Electrum_, a compound of gold and silver. EL.

3. _Silver._ AR (argentum).

4. _Billon_ and _Potin_, alloys of silver and bronze. Bil. and Pot.

5. _Bronze._ Copper with a percentage of tin. Æ (æs).



The front or face of a coin is called the _obverse_. Obv.

The back is called the _reverse_. Rev.

The principal device or object represented on a coin is called the

The area or space between the type and the circumference is called the

The lower portion of the area of a coin beneath the type and separated
from the rest of the field by a horizontal line is called the
_exergue_. Ex.

Small objects represented either in the field or the exergue as
adjuncts to the main type are called _symbols_.

Portions of a coin which are sunk below the level of the surface are
said to be _incuse_.


The types of Greek coins were from the earliest times down to the age
of the successors of Alexander almost exclusively religious. The reason
for this is not far to seek. In an age of simple faith the head of a
god upon the coin was the best of all guarantees for purity of metal
and good weight. The gods were, so to speak, invoked by the State to
vouch for the good quality of its currency, in the same way as State
decrees often began with the formula “_In the name of the gods_.” There
is, moreover, some reason to think that the earliest coins were struck
within the sacred precincts of the Temple treasuries, as being holy
places, secure from plunder and inviolable.

In the most ancient period the principal or obverse type is generally
some animal or object sacred to or emblematical of that god whose
worship was prevalent in the city in which the coin was issued.
Subsequently the head of the deity himself was usually placed upon the
obverse of the coin, while the reverse side was occupied by the object
emblematical of his worship. Frequently, too, the head of one principal
deity appears upon the obverse, and, either the entire figure or the
emblem of some other, generally local divinity, on the reverse.

The chief exceptions to the above rule are the so-called _agonistic
types_, or types referring to the games such as the victorious quadriga
on the money of various Sicilian cities. These types are commemorative
in a general way of victories in the Olympian or other local games, but
it is hardly ever possible to refer them to any particular victory.

Victories in war and political revolutions are never directly referred
to on Greek coins, although the unintentional records of such events
may often be traced in a sudden change of coin-types. Thus, for
instance, at Syracuse when the Corinthians succeeded in liberating
that city from the tyranny of the Dionysian dynasty, the coinage of
Syracuse is for a time assimilated to that of Corinth; a still clearer
indication of restored freedom at the same time (B.C. 345) being seen
in the first introduction of the head of Zeus “the Liberator” upon the
coins of Syracuse.

All through the history of free and independent Greece, the original
idea of the religious character of the coinage may be traced. The
coinage was everywhere placed under the auspices of the gods, and
gods, heroes, and their emblems, were alone considered worthy to be
represented upon it. No tyrant, however despotic, not even the great
Dionysius of Syracuse, would have dreamed of placing his own head upon
the coinage of the State. Even Philip of Macedon, when he had united in
his single hand the whole of Northern Greece, and when he reorganized
the coinage of his empire on a new model, placed on his gold money the
head of Apollo and on his silver that of Zeus.

It was reserved for the successors of Alexander the Great, when
the political centre of the Greek world was no longer to be found
in Greece itself, but in the various capitals of the powerful
semi-oriental monarchies which arose out of the ruins of the Persian
empire--Alexandria, Antioch, etc.--it was reserved for these
self-constituted kings and their descendants to substitute their own
heads for those of the gods.

Such an innovation as this, such a complete upsetting of the ancient
deeply rooted idea of the connection between the gods and the coinage
could not be introduced all at once. It had to be effected by degrees.
Alexander the Great even in his lifetime gave himself out as the son
of Zeus Ammon, and after his death the idea of his divinity gained
ground year by year. The first step towards the new fashion of placing
the king’s head upon the coinage was made by Lysimachus of Thrace, who
introduced on his money the portrait of the deified Alexander in the
character of the son of Ammon with the ram’s horn over the ear.

Ptolemy Soter, king of Egypt, the first of the dynasty which ruled
Egypt for two centuries and a half after the death of Alexander, was
the first monarch who placed his own head upon his coins. By slow
degrees his example was followed, first in Asia and finally in Europe,
where Philip V. of Macedon, B.C. 220, was the first king whose portrait
in the character of a mortal, and not disguised as a demi-god, appears
upon the coinage.

The influence of the old religious beliefs nevertheless maintained so
firm a hold on men’s minds that the reverses of Greek coins continued
to bear sacred types throughout the Roman Imperial period; and even on
the money of the Byzantine emperors when Christianity had become the
State religion, the figures of Christ and the Virgin, or the sign of
the Cross, still bear witness that the same religious sanction in a new
form continued to be invoked for the coin of the realm.



 ZEUS (JUPITER). The head of this god is almost always bearded and
      crowned with laurel or olive (Fig. 1). The youthful head called
      Zeus Hellenios, on certain coins of Syracuse, is however
      beardless, and but for the inscription which in this case
      accompanies it, would be indistinguishable from a head of Apollo.

      _Zeus Ammon_ (Fig. 2), frequent on coins of Cyrene, is
      distinguished by the ram’s horn behind the ear. This god is
      sometimes beardless.

      The head of the Zeus of Dodona is represented with a wreath of
      oak-leaves (Fig. 3).

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Zeus (Jupiter).]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Zeus (Ammon).]

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Zeus (Jupiter).]

      The entire figure of Zeus appears in various attitudes, of which
      the following are of most frequent occurrence:--

      Zeus enthroned (Fig. 4), holding in one hand a sceptre, and in
      the other an eagle or a victory.

      Zeus standing, with eagle or victory.

      Zeus advancing, with ægis on his arm and hurling his thunderbolt.

      _Zeus Labrandeus_ on coins of Caria stands full draped, with the
      double axe (Labrys) over his shoulder and a sceptre in his hand.

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Zeus (Jupiter).]

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Apollo.]

 HADES (PLUTO), the king of the under world, resembles Zeus in type,
      but is usually accompanied by Cerberus.

 SERAPIS. The great Egyptian divinity of the Ptolemaic age is also very
      like Zeus, but his head is always surmounted by a lofty modius (a
      measure for corn), which is often richly ornamented.

 APOLLO. The head of this god is more commonly met with on coins than
      that of any other divinity. He is represented in full youthful
      beauty, generally with flowing hair and almost always crowned
      with laurel (Figs. 5, 6, and 7).

      His full-length figure is variously delineated, usually naked,
      with bow or laurel branch in his hand, either standing or seated,
      often on the Delphian omphalos (Fig. 8), or else beside his
      sacred tripod. When he wears a long robe reaching to the feet,
      and carries a lyre, he is called Apollo Musegetes, the leader of
      the Muses.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Apollo.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Apollo.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Apollo.]

 HELIOS (SOL). The Sun god is known by the rays which encircle his
      head (Fig. 9). On coins of the Imperial period he is often seen
      driving the chariot of the Sun.

 POSEIDON (NEPTUNE). The head of this god much resembles that of Zeus,
      but may usually be distinguished from it by the absence of the
      laurel wreath, and by the heavy way in which the dank locks of
      his hair fall about his neck (Figs. 10 and 11). Poseidon is
      sometimes seated on rocks holding a trident and a dolphin or an
      aplustre (Fig. 12).

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Helios (Sol).]

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Poseidon (Neptune).]

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Poseidon (Neptune).]

      Sometimes he stands resting on his trident, and sometimes he
      wields it on high as if about to strike. Occasionally he is
      seen on horseback armed with his trident. He is called _Poseidon
      Hippios_ (Fig. 13).

[Illustration: Fig. 12. Poseidon (Neptune).]

[Illustration: Fig. 13. Poseidon (Neptune).]

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Dionysos.]

 DIONYSOS (BACCHUS). The head of Dionysos is either youthful or
      bearded, and is encircled by a wreath of ivy (Figs. 14, 15, and
      16). His full-length figure is usually naked, or with merely
      a fawn skin hanging from his shoulder. He holds a wine cup
      (kantharos), or a bunch of grapes or the Bacchic staff (thyrsus),
      surmounted by a pine cone.

      Sometimes he has bull’s horns growing from his forehead, and
      on coins of Neapolis he appears as a bull with a human head
      (_Dionysos Hebon_).

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Dionysos (Bacchus).]

[Illustration: Fig. 16. Dionysos (Bacchus).]

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Hermes (Mercury).]

[Illustration: Fig. 18. Hermes (Mercury).]

 HERMES (MERCURY). The head of Hermes is youthful, and wears a hat
      called a _petasus_ (Figs. 17 and 18), close fitting, sometimes
      with a broad flapping brim and adorned with two wings.

      When his entire figure is represented, he is usually clad in a
      short cloak (_chlamys_), and has winged sandals (_pedilia_) on
      his feet.

      As the messenger of the gods and the conductor of the souls
      of the dead, he carries the winged staff (_caduceus_), and
      sometimes, as god of trade, a purse. HEPHÆSTUS (VULCAN).
      This god is sometimes young and sometimes bearded. He wears
      a conical hat (_pilos_), (Fig. 19). On coins of Lipara he is
      generally seated naked on a four-legged stool, holding a hammer
      in one hand and a cup (_kantharos_) in the other (Fig. 20). The
      tongs and the anvil are also emblems of the worship of Hephæstus.

[Illustration: Fig. 19. Hephæstus (Vulcan).]

[Illustration: Fig. 20. Hephæstus (Vulcan).]

[Illustration: Fig. 21. Herakles (Hercules).]

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Herakles (Hercules).]

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Herakles (Hercules).]

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Herakles (Hercules).]

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Pan.]

 HERAKLES (HERCULES). The head of Herakles, youthful (Fig. 21), or
      bearded (Fig. 22), is usually covered with the skin of the Nemean
      Lion. Occasionally, however, he is simply laureate, and sometimes
      the club at his shoulder is added as a distinctive symbol. On
      reverses of coins, Herakles is represented performing his various
      labours, most frequently contending with the Nemean Lion (Fig.
      23). Sometimes also he is seen at rest, either standing and
      leaning upon his club, or seated (Fig. 24). The infant Herakles
      strangling two serpents is a less frequent type.

 PAN. The head of Pan (Figs. 25, 26, and 27) has pointed ears, and is
      either youthful or bearded. Sometimes also he has goat’s horns.
      At his shoulder on many coins appears the shepherd’s crook

 ARES (MARS). The head of Ares is of rare occurrence on coins. He is
      usually bearded and helmeted, but sometimes young and crowned
      with laurel like Apollo (Fig. 28), and when thus represented, as
      on the Mamertine coin here engraved, his name was added in order
      that there might be no mistake as to whose head was intended.

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Pan.]

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Pan.]

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Ares (Mars).]

 ASKLEPIOS (ÆSCULAPIUS). Representations of the god of healing belong
      to a comparatively late period of art. He is bearded, amply
      draped, and leans upon a staff, round which a serpent twines
      (Fig. 29).

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Asklepios (Æsculapius).]

[Illustration: Fig. 30. River Gods.]

[Illustration: Fig. 31. River Gods.]

 He is sometimes accompanied by his daughter _Hygieia_, the goddess
      of health, or by a small figure enveloped in a cloak and hood,
      who is called _Telesphorus_, and is supposed to be the genius of

 RIVER GODS. Rivers are represented during the earlier and finer
      periods of art as rushing bulls or as bulls with human heads
      (Fig. 30), or again as young male figures with bull’s horns over
      the forehead (Fig. 31).

      In the later period the conventional River god is a bearded
      reclining figure, generally half-draped, resting upon an
      overturned vase from which a stream of water is flowing (Fig.
      32). Less frequently the god is shown as actually swimming in the

 THE DIOSCURI (CASTOR AND POLLUX) wear conical hats, each surmounted
      by a star (Fig. 33 _a_). Sometimes they are seen standing side by
      side with palm branches in their hands, but they are more often
      represented on horseback (Fig. 33 _b_).

[Illustration: Fig. 32. A River God.]

[Illustration: (_a_) Fig. 33. (_b_) The Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux).]

 PERSEUS. The head of the hero Perseus (Fig. 34), the slayer of the
      Gorgon Medusa (Fig. 35), wears a winged helmet, while at his
      shoulders is sometimes seen the short sword or knife with a hook
      at the back of the blade (_harba_).

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Perseus.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Gorgon-Head.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Hera (Juno).]


 HERA (JUNO). The head of Hera on coins usually wears a lofty circular
      crown (_stephanos_) adorned with floral or other patterns (Figs.
      36, 37). She also wears sometimes a crescent-shaped crown and a
      veil, and has often a sceptre at her shoulder.

 PALLAS ATHENE (MINERVA). The head of this goddess is helmeted.
      Sometimes the helmet is of the Corinthian pattern (Fig. 38) and
      sometimes of the Athenian (Fig. 39), often richly ornamented.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Hera (Juno).]

[Illustration: Fig. 38. Pallas Athene.]

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Pallas Athene.]

      She is often seen in a fighting attitude, as _Pallas Promachos_
      (Fig. 40), wielding a spear and holding before her a shield or
      ægis. She is also very frequently seated with a victory in her
      hand and her shield beside her. The shield of Pallas is usually
      distinguished by the Gorgon’s head in the centre. The attributes
      of this goddess are the owl and the olive.

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Pallas Athene.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Demeter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Persephone (Proserpine).]

      known by the corn wreath which they both wear. Demeter, the
      mother (Fig. 41), is generally veiled; the daughter, Persephone,
      seldom (Figs. 42, 43). The beautiful head on the well-known
      Syracusan medallions (see _Frontispiece_), crowned with corn
      leaves, is that of Persephone. This goddess often has a poppy
      either in her hair or at her breast. The torch is a frequent
      emblem, especially of Demeter.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Persephone (Proserpine).]

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Artemis (Diana).]

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Artemis (Diana).]

 ARTEMIS (DIANA). As the goddess of Nature in her wilder aspects,
      Artemis carries a bow, and at her shoulder a quiver of arrows
      (Figs. 44, 45). She is often accompanied by a dog or a stag. As
      the Moon goddess, _Selene_, the crescent is her symbol. On late
      coins of Ephesus she appears under a totally different aspect,
      viz., as the embodiment of the nourishing, life-giving forces of
      nature, symbolised by her many breasts.

[Illustration: (_a_) Fig. 46. (_b_) Aphrodite (Venus).]

 APHRODITE (VENUS). On the coins of Eryx, in Sicily, the goddess of
      love is seated fully draped, with Eros (Cupid) as a youth
      (not a child, as in Roman art) standing before her, and with a
      dove in her hand. On Imperial coins of Cnidu, the famous naked
      Aphrodite by Praxiteles was represented. As the goddess of heaven
      (_Aphrodite Urania_), she sits upon the globe (Fig. 46 _a_), her
      head surmounted by the morning star, and holding in her hand a
      sceptre. On the reverse of the same coin (Fig. 46 _b_) are seen
      the sun, the moon, and the five planets.

 CYBELE. “The mother of the gods” wears a turreted crown. Sometimes
      she rides upon a lion, at other times she is seated on a throne
      between two lions. The rabbit is also symbolical of her worship,
      as an earth goddess.

 ISIS. This Egyptian goddess is recognised by her peculiar head-dress,
      consisting of a globe or disc flanked by two cow’s horns and
      surmounted by two ostrich feathers. In her hand she often holds
      the sistrum (a musical instrument). As Isis Pharia (a sea
      goddess) she holds a sail.

[Illustration: Fig. 47. Nike (Victory).]

[Illustration: Fig. 48. Nike (Victory).]

 NIKE (VICTORY). (Figs. 47, 48). This divinity is almost always winged,
      and often flying (_see Frontispiece_). She usually carries a
      wreath; and on coins of Alexander the Great a sort of mast with
      a cross-yard (the stand for a trophy of arms). Sometimes she is
      nailing armour to a trophy (Fig. 48).


In addition to the principal type, whether of the obverse or of the
reverse, there is generally to be seen on the coins of Greek states a
subordinate adjunct device, which occupies some vacant space in the
field of the coin. These additions to the main type are of two kinds:--

(1) Symbols connected more or less directly with the main type: such as
the sacred olive branch on the coins of Athens, and the club and bow on
Fig. 24. (2) Symbols having no connection whatever with the principal
type; such as the small animal on Fig. 7.

The symbols of the 1st class are naturally limited in number and more
or less constant accompaniments of the main type, to which they were
intended to give greater precision and definiteness of meaning. Those
of the 2nd class, on the other hand, might be varied very frequently
on coins of one and the same series. There can be no doubt that
such symbols were the distinctive badges or signets of one of the
magistrates or moneyers under whose authority the coinage was issued.
The frequency with which these personal symbols were varied corresponds
with the duration of the term of office of the magistrate in question,
whether annual or other.

On the regal coinages from the time of Philip of Macedon onwards, in
cases where a uniform coinage was issued at many mints, an adjunct
symbol was very generally placed in the field of the coin as a
mint-mark designating the place of issue (_e.g._ the Trident on Fig.
4). It is frequently impossible to distinguish such local mint-marks
from the personal signets of the officer entrusted by the king with the
supervision of the currency.


The inscriptions on Greek coins may be divided into the following
principal classes:--

      (i.) The name of the people or state.
     (ii.) The name of the chief of the state, whether tyrant or king.
    (iii.) The name of a magistrate.
     (iv.) The name of the engraver of the die.
      (v.) A legend referring to the type.

The above are written sometimes at full length and sometimes in an
abbreviated form, or in the form of a more or less complicated monogram.

Those of class i., when written in full, are usually in the genitive
plural, _e.g._ ΣΤΡΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ (Frontispiece).

Those of class ii. are also in the genitive, _e.g._, ΒΑΣΙΛΑΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ
(Fig. 8).

Those of class iii. are either in the nominative (as ΠΟΛΥΚΡΑΤΗΣ, Fig.
45) or the genitive; in the latter case frequently preceded by ΕΗΙ
(Fig. 12), and often also accompanied by the title of the office as ἑφι
Λυσιστῥατου ἁρχοντος, ἑφι στραθηγου Διονυσἱου.

Among the magistrates most frequently mentioned on Greek Imperial coins
are the following:-- The Archon, the Strategos (Prætor), the Grammateus
(Secretary), the Prytanis, the Tamias (Treasurer), the Archiereus and
Hiereus (High Priest and Priest), the Asiarch, the Hypatos (Consul),
and the Anthypatos (Proconsul), etc., etc.

Those of class iv. are in the genitive, except when accompanied by the
verb (_e.g._ ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΕΠΟΕΙ, for ἑποἱει). This class of inscriptions is
usually in very minute characters.

Those of class v. are in the nominative, as ΖΕΥΣ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΟΣ (Fig. 1),
or genitive, as ΑΡΕΟΣ (Fig. 28).

The names of kings, even when unaccompanied by the title ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ,
hold so conspicuous a position on the reverse of the coins, that it
is easy to distinguish them from the names of less important monetary

The names of eponymous magistrates, such as archons, etc., also occupy
a very prominent place on the money of certain cities; such as Ephesus,
for example.

The names of less important functionaries are written in an abbreviated
form or even in monogram (Fig. 40), in which latter case it is almost
always impossible to say what name was intended.

On coins of the later and especially of the Imperial period, the
inscriptions are much more lengthy than on those of an earlier date.


Dates are not found on Greek coins before the age of Alexander the
Great, and even after his time they are of rare occurrence, except on
certain Asiatic series and on the money of Egypt. They are usually
placed either in the field or the exergue of the coin.

  Units.        A.   B.   Γ.   Δ.   E.   ς.    Ζ.   H.   Θ.

                1.   2.   3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   9.

  Tens.         I.   Κ.   Λ.   Μ.   Ν.   Ξ.   Ο.   Π. κοππα

               10.  20.  30.  40.  50.  60.  70.  80.  90.

  Hundreds.     P.   Σ.   Τ.   Υ.   Φ.   Χ.   Ψ.   Ω.  σαμπι

              100. 200. 300. 400. 500. 600. 700. 800. 900.

They are sometimes preceded by the word ΕΤΟΥΣ, thus, ΕΤΟΥΣ ΡΚΔ = _Anno_
124. On the coinage of Egypt, both under the Ptolemies and under the
Roman Emperors, the character [L] is used instead of the word ΕΤΟΥΣ,
thus, ΛΓ = _Anno_ 33. This character was probably an ancient Egyptian
symbol meaning _year_, adopted into the Greek system of numeration for
the sake of brevity. The following are a few of the many epochs or
_æras_ according to which coins are dated:--

    The Seleucid æra begins B.C. 312.
    The Pompeian     "      B.C. 63.
    The Cæsarian     "      B.C. 48 or 47.
    The Augustan or Actian æra begins B.C. 31.


The unit of account in Greece was the _drachm_. The weight of the
drachm was not everywhere identical. It ranged, as a rule, between
about 55 and 95 grs. troy. For purposes of calculation it may be taken
in a general way as the ancient equivalent of our modern shilling or

Of the various standards of weight which prevailed in different parts
of the Greek world, the _Attic standard_ was the most widely diffused.
The weights of the various denominations, according to this standard,
are as follows:--

  The Talent = 405,000 grs. troy }  not   { = 6,000 drachms.
   "  Mina (1/60 of the Talent   } coined {
         = 6,750 grs. troy)      }        { = 100 drachms.
   "  Tetradrachm   = 270    grs. troy = 4 drachms.
   "  Didrachm      = 135     "    "   = 2    "
   "  Drachm        =  67·5   "    "   = 1    "
   "  Tetrobol      =  45     "    "   = 4 obols.
   "  Triobol       =  33·75  "    "   = 1/2 drachm or 3 obols.
   "  Diobol        =  22·5   "    "   = 2 obols.
   "  Trihemiobol   =  16·8   "    "   = 1-1/2 obols.
   "  Obol          =  11·25  "    "   = 1 obol.
   "  Hemiobol      =   5·62  "    "   = 1/2 "
   "  Tetartemorion =   2·81  "    "   = 1/4 "

The other standards are the _Æginetic_ (drachm 97 grs.); the
_Phœnician_ (drachm 56 grs.); the _Rhodian_ (drachm 60 grs.); the
_Persian_ (drachm 88 grs.). The other denominations of the above
standards may be easily got at by multiplying or dividing the drachms
as in the Attic standard.

Larger denominations than the tetradrachm are rare, but octadrachms,
decadrachms, etc., etc., occur at some towns. The unit in copper was
called the _chalkous_; but its weight does not appear to have been
definitely fixed like that of the silver drachm.

The Attic gold money was regulated according to the same standard of
weight as the silver. The gold unit of account was, however, not the
drachm, but the _stater_, as it was called, equivalent in weight to
the didrachm, and in value to 20 drachms of silver.

As a rule, the denomination of a Greek coin can only be determined by
weighing it. Marks of value occur, however, on the copper of Italy,
Sicily, etc.; but these coins follow a system foreign to Greece proper
(see below).



Greek coins are classified in all great collections in geographical
order, as follows:--The towns under each province should be arranged
alphabetically, for convenience of reference. We have only space here
to mention a few of the principal cities:--


  _Provinces._         _Cities_, _Islands_, _Tribes_, _Kings_, _etc._
    Lusitania            Emerita.
    Bætica               Carteia, Gades.
    Tarraconensis        Emporiæ, Osca, Rhoda, etc.
    Aquitania            Arverni.
    Narbonensis          Massilia, Nemausus.
    Lugdunensis          Lugdunum.
  BRITAIN.      Atrebates, etc., Camulodunum.
    Etruria              Populonia.
    Umbria               Tuder.
    Picenum              Hatria.
    Latium               Roma.
    Samnium              Beneventum.
    Frentani             Larinum.
    Campania             Capua, Cumæ, Neapolis, Nola.
    Apulia               Arpi, Cælia, Teate, Venusia.
    Calabria             Brundusium, Tarentum.
    Lucania              Metapotum, Posidonia, Thurium, Velia.
    Bruttii              Croton, Locri, Rhegium, Terina.
  SICILY.       Agrigentum, Camarina, Gela, Himera,
                           Leontini, Messana, Naxos, Segesta, Selinus,
                           and Syracuse.
    _Kings, etc., of_    Agathocles, Hicetas, Hiero II., Philistis,
                           Gelo, Hieronymus.
    Siculo-Punic           Solus, Motya, Panormus.
    _Islands of Sicily_    Lipara, Sardinia.
  TAURIC CHERSONESE        Panticapæum.
  SARMATIA                 Olbia, Tyra.
  MŒSIA SUPERIOR        Viminacium.
  MŒSIA INFERIOR        Istrus, Marcianopolis, Nicopolis, Tomi.
  THRACE                   Abdera, Ænus, Byzantium, Maronea,
                             Perinthus, Philippopolis.
  THRACIAN CHERSONESE      Cardia, Cœla, Lysimachia.
    _Kings of Thrace_      Seuthes, etc., Rhœmetalces, etc.
    _Islands of Thrace_    Imbros, Lemnos, Samothrace, Thasos.
  PÆONIA, _Kings_          Lycceius, Patraus, Audoleon.
  MACEDON, _Cities_        Acanthus, Amphipolis, Chalcidice, Lete,
                             Neapolis, Pella, Philippi, Pydna, Thessalonica.
    _Tribes_               Bisaltæ, Orrescii.
    _Kings of_             Alexander I., Perdiccas II., Archelaus I.,
                             Amyntas III., Philip II., Alexander the
                             Great, Philip III., Cassander, Lysimachus,
                             Demetrius I., Antigonus I. and
                             II., Philip V., Perseus.
  THESSALY                 Ænianes, Crannon, Larissa, Pharsalus,
  ILLYRICUM                Apollonia, Dyrrachium.
  EPIRUS                   Cassope, Damastium, Nicopolis.
    _Island of_            Corcyra.
    _Kings of_             Alexander I., Pyrrhus.
  ACARNANIA                Œniadæ, Thyrreum.
    _Island of_            Leucas.

  ÆTOLIA                   Federal coins.

  LOCRIS                   Opus, Amphissa.

  PHOCIS                   Delphi.

  BŒOTIA                Coronea, Haliartus, Orchomenus, Tanagra,
                             Thebes, Thespiæ.
  ATTICA                   Athens, Eleusis.
    _Islands of_           Eubœa (with its towns, Chalcis, Carystus,
                             Eretria, Histiæa), Salamis.
  ACHÆA                    Ægium, etc., Corinth, Patræ, Phlius, Sicyon.
  ELIS                     Elis.
    _Islands of Elis_      Cephallenia, Zacynthus.
  MESSENIA                 Messene.
  LACONIA                  Lacedæmon.
  ARGOLIS                  Argos, Epidaurus, Trœzen.
  ARCADIA                  Heræa, Megalopolis, Pheneus, Stymphalus.
  CRETE                    Cnossus, Gortyna, Hierapytna, Phæstus.
  ÆGEAN ISLANDS            Ceos, Naxos, Siphnos, Syros, Tenos, etc.


  _Provinces._             _Cities, Islands, Tribes, Kings, etc._
  BOSPORUS                 Phanagoria.
  COLCHIS                  Dioscurias.
  PONTUS                   Amisus, Amasia, Trapezus.
    _Kings of Pontus_  }   Mithradates IV., Pharnaces I., Mithradates
      _and Bosporus_   }     VI. the Great, etc.
  PAPHLAGONIA              Amastris, Sinope.
  BITHYNIA                 Chalcedon, Cius, Heraclea (Timotheus,
                             Dionysius, Amastris).
    _Kings of_             Nicomedes I., II., and III., Prusias I., II.
  MYSIA                    Cyzicus, Lampsacus, Pergamus.
    _Kings of Pergamus_    Philetaerus, the Attalids.
  TROAS                    Abydos, Alexandria, Troas, Ilium, Scepsis.
    _Island of Troas_      Tenedos.
  ÆOLIS                    Cyme, Myrina, Temnos.
    _Islands of Æolis_     Lesbos (Methymna, Mytilene).
  IONIA                    Clazomenæ, Colophon, Ephesus, Erythræ,
                             Magnesia, Miletus, Smyrna.
    _Islands of Ionia_     Chios, Samos.
  CARIA                    Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Stratonicæa.
    _Kings of Caria_       Hecatomnus, Mausolus, Hidrieus, Pixodarus.
    _Islands of Caria_     Calymna, Cos, Rhodes Ialysus, Camirus,
  LYCIA                    Cragus, Myra, Patara, Phaselis, etc.
  PAMPHYLIA                Aspendus, Perga, Side.
  PISIDIA                  Antiochia, Sagalassus, Selge.
  ISAURIA AND LYCAONIA     Iconium, etc.
  CILICIA                  Celenderis, Mallus, Soli, Tarsus, etc.
  CYPRUS                   Paphos, Salamis.
    _Kings of Cyprus_      Baalmelek, Azbaal, Evagoras, Nicocles, etc.
  LYDIA                    Sardes, Tralles, etc.
  PHRYGIA                  Apamea, Cibyra, etc.
  GALATIA                  Ancyra, Pessinus, etc.
    _Kings of Galatia_     Amyntas, etc.
  CAPPADOCIA               Cæsarea, etc.
    _Kings of Cappadocia_  Ariarathes, Ariobarzanes, etc.
  ARMENIA, _Kings of_      Tigranes, Artavazdes, etc.
  SYRIA, _Kings of_        Seleucus I. (Nicator), Antiochus I. (Soter),
                             Antiochus III. (the Great), etc., etc.
  COMMAGENE                Samosata, Zeugma.
  CYRRHESTICA              Berœa, Hierapolis.
  CHALCIDENE               Chalcis.
    PIERIA                 Antioch.
  CŒLE-SYRIA            Damascus, Heliopolis, Laodicea ad Libanum.
    ITURÆA                 Cæsarea-Paneas.
  DECAPOLIS                Canatha, Gadara, Philadelphia, etc.
  PHŒNICE               Byblus, Marathus, Sidon, Tyre.
    _Island of_            Aradus.
  GALILÆA                  Ace (Ptolemais), Sepphoris (Diocæsarea),
  SAMARIA                  Cæsarea, Joppa, Sebaste.
  JUDÆA                    Ælia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Ascalon, etc.
    _Judæa, Kings of_      Simon Maccabæus, Alexander Jannæus,
                             Herod the Great, Agrippa, etc., etc.
  ARABIA                   Bostra, Philippopolis.
  MESOPOTAMIA              Carrhæ, Edessa (_Kings_--Mannus, Abgarus,
    _King of_              Timarchus.
  ASSYRIA                  Niniva (Claudiopolis).
  PARTHIA, _Kings of_      Arsaces I. and his Successors.
  PERSIA, _Kings of_       Darius, the son of Hystaspes, Xerxes,
                             Artaxerxes, etc.
  BACTRIANA and            Sophytes, Diodotus, Euthydemus.
      INDIA               Demetrius, Eucratides, Heliocles, Euthydemus
   _Kings of_                II., Pantaleon, Agathocles, Antimachus,
                             etc., etc.
   _Kings of_              Tiræus, Artabazes, Attambilus, etc.


  _Provinces._             _Cities, Islands, Tribes, Kings, etc._
  EGYPT, _The Ptolemaic_ { Ptolemy I. (Soter),--Ptolemy XIII. and
  _Kings of_.            { Cleopatra.
    _Alexandria, Imperial_ M. Antony,--Galerius.
    _The Nomes_.
  CYRENAICA                Cyrene, Barca.
  SYRTICA                  Leptis Magna, Oea.
  BYZACENE                 Hadrumetum, etc.
  ZEUGITANA                Carthage, Utica, etc.
  NUMIDIA, _Kings of_      Jugurtha, etc.
  MAURETANIA               Bocchus I., Juba II., etc.

The above list, although an outline of the barest description, may
serve to give some idea of the ground which is covered by a collection
of Greek and cognate coins.

It will also serve to warn the young collector against buying in a
miscellaneous manner.

Let him take up some particular province; say, for example, Sicily, in
which there were some fifty towns which struck coins. He will soon find
that the numismatics of these fifty towns will be a field for study
which will amply reward him for the labour he bestows upon it.


The prices which Greek coins fetch at sales depend upon their rarity,
their state of preservation, and their size, not much upon the artistic
or the historical interest, or upon the metal of which they are
composed. Thus, a gold coin of Alexander the Great, being common, may
be obtained almost at metal value, while a rare copper coin of some
obscure town in the heart of Phrygia may cost almost as many pounds as
the gold coin of Alexander does shillings.



The coins of ancient Rome are not artistically as interesting as those
of Greece. They are, however, most useful for all who desire to become
acquainted with the history and institutions of the eternal city.

They may be divided into the following classes:--

_Coins of the Republic._

I. Heavy Bronze coins cast in a mould, _Æs Grave_. II. The so-called
_Consular_ or _Family_ series, consisting of silver and bronze struck
coins, together with a few gold pieces.

_Coins of the Empire._

III. Gold and silver, struck by the authority of the Emperor.

IV. Bronze (commonly called Large, Middle, and Small Brass), struck
by authority of the Senate, and distinguishable by the letters S. C.

V. Imperial medallions in all metals, not intended to circulate as


(1) The _æs grave_ was the earliest money used in Rome and throughout
the central and northern parts of the Italian peninsula. It consisted
of the As (or unit) and its divisions and multiples, as follows:--

  As. _Obv._ Head of Janus; _Rev._ Prow of ship. Mark of value I
  Semis (1/2 As). _Obv._ Hd. of Jupiter      "        "        S
  Triens (1/3 As).  "     "     Pallas       "        "     ....
  Quadrans (1/4 As). _Obv._ Head of Hercules "        "      ...
  Sextans (1/6 As).    "      "     Mercury  "        "       ..
  Uncia (1/12 As).     "      "     Roma     "        "        .


  Dupondius (2 Asses). _O._ Hd. of   _R._ Prow of
                          Pallas;       ship.     Mark of value   II
  Tripondius (3 Asses).       "             "             "      III
  Decussis (10 Asses). _O._ Head of Roma.   "             "        X

The above types are those of the coins of Rome itself. The æs grave of
the other Italian states had different types.

The As first issued in Rome is said to have weighed one pound, hence
it was called the As Libralis. The earliest known specimens of the
Libral series date from about B.C. 400. As time went on, it was
gradually reduced in weight, at first to 4 ounces, about B.C. 268
(_Triental Reduction_), and subsequently, B.C. 217, to 1 ounce (_Uncial
Reduction_), and somewhat later even to 1/2 an ounce.


(2) Silver money was first struck in Rome about B.C. 268. It consisted
of the following denominations:--

  The Denarius (= 10 Asses). _Obv._ Head of Roma;
      _Rev._ The Dioscuri.                     Mark of value X
  The Quinarius (= 5 Asses). Similar types         "    V or Q
  The Sestertius (= 2-1/2 Asses).  "               "       IIS

Afterwards another denomination called the Victoriatus was added:
_Obv._ Head of Jupiter; _Rev._ Victory crowning a trophy. This was
a coin of Campanian origin, and its value was 3/4 of the denarius.
The types of the silver money, at first constant and uniform, were
subsequently varied according to the pleasure of the officers entrusted
with the supervision of the coinage. The types of the Roman denarii of
the last century of the Republic generally contain allusions to past
(but never or very rarely to contemporary) events connected with the
family of the moneyer. Hence such pieces may be called Family coins,
but to give this name to the whole series of Republican denarii is

At first it is supposed that the direction of the Roman mint was
entrusted to the Consuls themselves, but it was not long before
special magistrates were appointed from time to time to superintend
the currency. These Triumviri or Tresviri Monetales were officially
designated as Tresviri auro argento aere flando feriundo, a title
abbreviated on some coins to IIIVIR. A. A. A. F. F. The adjective
Monetalis referred to the temple of Juno Moneta, in which the mint was
situated, and from this epithet of Juno our modern word “Money” is

It is usual, though not strictly scientific, to arrange a cabinet of
Roman Republican denarii under the _family_ names of the moneyers, in
alphabetical order. As the family name does not always occur upon the
coin, the following table of surnames and of the families to which they
belong will be found useful to the young collector in arranging his

  _Surname._       _Family._
  Acisculus        Valeria.
  Agrippa          Luria.
    "              Vipsania.
  Ahala            Servilia.
  Ahenobarbus      Domitia.
  Albinus          Postumia.
  Antiaticus       Mænia.
  Aquinus          Cæcilia.
  Asiagenes        Cornelia.
  Atratinus        Sempronia.
  Augurinus        Minucia.
  Bala             Ælia.
  Balbus           Acilia.
    "              Antonia.
    "              Atia.
    "              Cornelia.
    "              Nævia.
    "              Thoria.
  Bassus           Betiliena.
  Bibulus          Calpurnia.
  Blandus          Rubellia.
  Blasio           Cornelia.
  Brocchus         Furia.
  Brutus           Junia.
  Buca             Æmilia.
  Bursio           Julia.
  Cæicianus        Cassia.
  Cæpio            Servilia.
  Cæsar            Julia.
  Caldus           Cœia.
  Capella          Nævia.
  Capito           Fonteia.
    "              Maria.
    "              Oppia.
  Capitolinus      Petillia.
  Carbo            Papiria.
  Casca            Servilia.
  Cato             Porcia.
  Catullus         Valeria.
  Celer            Cassia.
  Celsus           Papia.
  Censorinus       Marcia.
  Cerco            Lutatia.
  Cestianus        Plætoria.
  Cethegus         Cornelia.
  Chilo, Cilo      Flaminia.
  Cinna            Cornelia.
  Cocles           Horatia.
  Cordus           Mucia.
  Cossus           Cornelia.
  Costa            Pedania.
  Cotta            Aurelia.
  Crassipes        Furia.
  Crassus          Licinia.
     "             Canidia.
  Crispinus        Quinctia.
  Croto            Metilia.
  Dossenus         Rubria.
  Fabatus          Roscia.
  Faustus          Cornelia.
  Felix            Cornelia.
  Flaccus          Rutilia.
    "              Valeria.
  Flavius          Decimia.
  Florus           Aquillia.
  Fostulus         Pompeia.
  Frugi            Calpurnia.
  Gal[eria]        Memmia.
  Galba            Sulpicia.
  Gallus           Asinia.
    "              Caninia.
  Geminus          Aburia.
  Geta             Hosidia.
  Grag[ulus]       Antestia.
  Gracchus         Sempronia.
  Hemic...         Flavia.
  Hypsæus          Plautia.
  Judex            Vettia.
  Junianus         Licinia.
  Kalenus          Fufia.
  Labeo            Fabia.
  Labienus         Atia?
  Læca             Porcia.
  Lamia            Ælia.
  Lariscolus       Accoleia.
  Lentulus         Cornelia.
  Lepidus          Æmilia.
  Libo             Marcia.
    "              Scribonia.
  Licinus          Porcia.
  Limetanus        Mamilia.
  Longinus         Cassia.
  Longus           Mussidia.
  Lucanus          Terentia.
  Lupercus         Gallia.
  Macer            Licinia.
    "              Sepullia.
  Magnus           Pompeia.
  Malleolus        Poblicia.
  Marcellinus      Cornelia.
  Marcellus        Claudia.
  Maridianus       Cossutia.
  Maximus          Egnatia.
    "              Fabia.
  Mensor           Farsuleia.
  Messalia         Valeria.
  Metullus         Cæcilia.
  Molo             Pomponia.
  Murcus           Statia.
  Murena           Licinia.
  Mus              Decia.
  Musa             Pomponia.
  Naso             Axia.
  Natta            Pinaria.
  Nerva            Cocceia.
    "              Licinia.
    "              Silia.
  Nomentanus       Atilia.
  Nonianus         Considia.
  Otho             Salvia.
  Pætus            Ælia.
    "              Considia.
  Palikanus        Lollia.
  Pansa            Vibia.
  Paullus          Æmilia.
  Philippus        Marcia.
  Philus           Furia.
  Pictor           Fabia.
  Piso             Calpurnia.
  Pitio            Sempronia.
  Pius             Cæcilia.
    "              Pompeia.
  Plancus          Munatia.
    "              Plautia.
  Platorinus       Sulpicia.
  Pulcher          Claudia.
  Purpureo         Fabia.
  Quinctilianus    Nonia.
  Reginus          Antistia.
  Regulus          Livineia.
  Restio           Antia.
  Rocus            Creperia.
  Rufus            Aurelia.
    "              Cordia.
    "              Lucilia.
    "              Mescinia.
    "              Minucia.
    "              Plotia.
    "              Pompeia.
    "              Pomponia.
    "              Sulpicia.
  Rullus           Servilia.
  Rus[ticus]       Aufidia.
  Sabinus          Minatia.
    "              Tituria.
    "              Vettia.
  Sabula           Cossutia.
  Salinator        Oppia
  Saranus          Atilia.
  Saserna          Hostilia.
  Saturninus       Appuleia.
  Saxula           Clovia.
  Scæva            Junia.
  Scarpus          Pinaria.
  Scaurus          Æmilia.
    "              Aurelia.
  Scipio           Cornelia.
  Secundus         Arria.
  Ser ...          Manlia.
  Silanus          Junia.
  Silianus         Licinia.
  Silus            Sergia.
  Sisenna          Cornelia.
  Spinther         Cornelia.
  Stolo            Licinia.
  Strabo           Volteia.
  Sufenas          Nonia.
  Sulla            Cornelia.
  Sulpicianus      Quinctia.
  Surdinus         Nævia.
  Talna            Juventia.
  Tampilus         Bæbia.
  Taurus           Statilia.
  Thermus          Minucia.
  Tod..            ...
  Torquatus        Manlia.
  Trigeminus       Curiatia.
  Trio             Lucretia.
  Trogus           Maria.
  Tubulus          Hostilia.
  Tullus           Mæcilia.
  Turdus           Papiria.
  Turpilianus      Petronia.
  Unimanus         Claudia.
  Vaala            Numonia.
  Varro            Terentia.
  Varus            Vibia.
  Vetus            Antistia.
  Vitulus          Voconia.
  Volusus          Valeria.


(3 and 4.) Imperial coins. The Imperial series may be said to commence
in B.C. 2, when Augustus was made Pater Patriæ. From this time forward
the names of the moneyers cease to appear on the coinage.

The portrait of the emperor, or of some member of the Imperial family,
now almost always occupies the obverse of the coin. The reverse
type is, as a general rule, some allegorical figure, such as Spes,
Justitia, Salus, Pietas, etc., etc., or the representation of some one
of the many provinces of the empire, _e.g._ Britannia, Judæa, etc., or
again some military subject, _e.g._ legionary standards, or the emperor
addressing his soldiers, together with a great variety of types, to
mention which would occupy far more space than we have here at our

The inscriptions on the Imperial coins contain in an abbreviated form
the date of their issue, calculated by the number of times which the
Tribunitia Potestas, or Tribunitian power, had been conferred upon the
emperor. This office was renewed annually on the first day of January.
The formula is TR. POT. or TR. P., followed by a numeral, as, on a
coin of Trajan, TR. P. XX. COS. VI. IMP. XI. This means that the coin
was struck when the emperor was in the possession of the Tribunitian
power for the 20th time, of the consulship for the 6th time, and of the
Imperatorship for the 11th time. Now, as Trajan had the Tribunitian
power for the first time in A.D. 98, we get the date A.D. 116 for the
coin in question. The other offices mentioned were not annual.

               *     *     *     *     *

The following is a list of the Roman emperors, and other members of
the Imperial families, arranged in the order in which it is usual to
classify their coins, which is, as far as possible, chronological:--

  Augustus      B.C. 27-A.D. 14
  Livia or Julia, wife of Augustus Agrippa

  Tiberius      14-37
  Caius and Lucius
  Drusus senior
  Drusus junior
  Agrippina, wife of Germanicus
  Nero & Drusus, sons    "
  Caligula      37-41
  Claudius      41-54
  Agrippina, w. of Claudius
  Nero      54-68
  Galba      68-69
  Otho      69
  Vitellius      69
  Vespasian      69-79
  Domitilla, w. of Vespasian
  Domitilla, daughter of Vespasian
  Titus      79-81
  Julia, daughter of Titus
  Domitian      81-96
  Domitia, wife of Domitian
  Nerva      96-98
  Trajan      98-117
  Plotina, wife of Trajan
  Marciana, sister of Trajan
  Matidia, daughter of Marciana
  Hadrian      117-138
  Sabina, wife of Hadrian
  Ælius, adopted by Hadrian
  Antoninus Pius      138-161
  Faustina I., w. of Ant. Pius.
  M. Aurelius      161-180
  Faustina II., w. of M. Aurelius
  L. Verus      161-169
  Lucilla, w. of L. Verus
  Commodus      180-192
  Crispina, w. of Commodus
  Pertinax      193
  Didius Julianus      193
  Manlia Scantilla, w. of Did. Julian.
  Pescennius Niger      194
  Clodius Albinus (in Britain)      193-197
  Septimius Severus      193-211
  Julia Domna, w. of S. Severus
  M. Aurel. Antoninus (Caracalla)      211-217
  Plautilla, w. of Caracalla
  Geta, brother of Caracalla      211-212
  Macrinus      217
  Diadumenian, son of Macrinus
  M. Aurel. Antoninus (Elagabalus)      218-222
  Julia Paula, w. of Elagabalus
  Aquillia Severa, w. of Elagabalus
  Annia Faustina, w. of Elagabalus
  Julia Soaemias, mother of Elagabalus
  Julia Mæsa, grandmother of Elagabalus
  M. Aurel. Severus Alexander      222-235
  Barbia Orbiana, w. of Sev. Alex.
  Julia Mamæa, mother of Sev. Alex.
  Uranius Sulpicius Antoninus (in the East)
  Maximinus I.      235-238
  Paulina, w. of Maximinus
  Maximus, son of Maximinus
  Gordian I.      238
  Gordian II.      238
  Balbinus      238
  Pupienus      238
  Gordian III. Pius      238-244
  Tranquillina, w. of Gordian III.
  Philip I.      244-249
  Otacilia, w. of Philip I.
  Philip II., son of Philip I.      244-249
  Trajan Decius      249-251
  Herennia Etruscilla, w. of Traj. Decius
  Herennius Etruscus, son of Traj. Decius      251
  Hostilianus, son of Traj. Decius      251
  Trebonianus Gallus      251-254
  Volusianus, son of Treb. Gallus
  Æmilianus      253-254
  Cornelia Supera, w. of Æmilian.
  Valerianus I.      253-260
  Mariniana, w. of Valerian I.
  Gallienus      253-268
  Salonina, w. of Gallienus
  Saloninus, son of Gallienus
  Claudius II., Gothicus      268-270
  Quintillus, brother of Claudius II.
  Aurelianus      270-275
  Severina, w. of Aurelianus
  Postumus (in Gaul)      258-267
  Postumus II., son of Postum.
  Lælianus (in Gaul)
  Victorinus I. (in Gaul)      265-267
  Marius (in Gaul)      267
  Tetricus I. (in Gaul)      267-273
  Tetricus II., son of Tetric. I.
  Macrianus I. (in the East)      260-262
  Macrianus II., son of Macrianus I.
  Quietus, son of Macrianus I.      260-262
  Tacitus      275-276
  Florianus      276
  Probus      276-282
  Carus      282-283
  Carinus      283-285
  Magnia Urbica, w. of Carinus
  Nigrinianus, son of Carinus
  Numerianus      283-284
  Diocletianus      284-305
  Maximianus I., Hercules      286-305
  Carausius (in Britain)      287-293
  Allectus      293-296
  Domitius Domitianus (in Egypt)
  Constantius I., Chlorus      305-306
  Maximianus II.      305-311
  Valeria, w. of Maximian.      II.
  Severus II.      306-307
  Maximinus II. (Daza)      308-313
  Maxentius      306-312
  Romulus, son of Maxentius
  Licinius I.      307-323
  Licinius II., son of Licinius I.
  Martinianus      323
  Constantinus I., the Great      306-337
  Fausta, w. of Constantine
  Crispus, son of Constantine
  Helena, mother of Constant.
  Delmatius, nephew of Constantine
  Hanniballianus, brother of Delmatius
  Constantinus II.      337-340
  Constans      337-350
  Magnentius (in Gaul)      350-353
  Decentius, brother of Magnentius
  Nepotianus      350
  Vetranio      350-356
  Constantius II.      337-361
  Constantius Gallus
  Julian II. (The Apostate)      361-363
  Jovianus      363-364
  Valentinian I.      364-375
  Valens      364-378
  Procopius (in the East)      365-366
  Gratianus      375-383
  Maximus II. (Britain and  Gaul)      383-388
  Victor, son of Maximus II.
  Valentinian II.      375-392
  Theodosius I., the Great      379-395
  Flaccilla, w. of Theodosius
  Eugenius (in Gaul)      392-394
  Honorius      395-423

The above list is not quite complete, even as far as it goes, but it
includes the names of all the emperors whose coins are at all likely to
be met with by the young collector.

The series of the large brass coins, which is more interesting than the
others, ceases after the reign of Postumus.


(5) Imperial medallions. As illustrations of the life and religion of
the Romans under the Empire, as well as of the history of the times,
no numismatic monuments which have come down to us can compete with
the large bronze medallions. They are to be distinguished from the
current large brass coins by the absence of the letters s.c. (_senatus
consulto_), as well as usually by their larger size, higher relief, and
finer work. As, however, the prices fetched by good medallions are,
as a rule, very high, they are practically out of the reach of the
collector of moderate means.



The young collector will not be long before he learns that a large
number of the coins exposed for sale in shop windows are false, and
at first he may be a little discouraged by finding that he is himself
quite unable to discriminate between a true coin and a false one.
But let him not despair. He will in time, by careful observation of
undoubtedly authentic specimens of the class which he has selected for
study, gain a kind of instinct which will enable him to detect the
modern imitation at a glance, even though he may not always be able to
explain his reasons to the uninitiated.

False coins may be divided into the following classes:--

I. _Forgeries struck from false modern dies._ Such forgeries, when the
dies have been well executed by men familiar with the characteristic
peculiarities of ancient work, are often exceedingly difficult to
detect, especially when they are of gold. The true ancient patina and
oxide which time alone gives to bronze and silver, cannot be exactly

A few hints may be of use in the detection of false struck coins.

The weight, owing to the ignorance of the forger, is generally

The style of the art is weak, and the forms of the letters especially
are timid and wanting in firmness.

II. _Modern casts made from ancient struck originals._ A cast coin,
when in gold or silver, may always be detected by its light weight,
unless this has been compensated for by making the cast thicker than
the original. The lettering and the types on cast coins are also less
sharply defined than on struck coins, and the surface has either a soft
and soapy appearance, or else it is covered with minute sand-holes, an
infallible indication of rough casting. The genuine patina of bronze
coins is imitated by paint, which can be removed by spirits of wine.

III. _Electrotypes._ These are of necessity of wrong weight. They may
also be known by the edges, where the mark of joining of the two sides
separately made and then stuck together, is never concealed, unless,
which is seldom the case, the electrotype is intended to deceive. Many
students who cannot afford to buy originals of rare coins, supply their
places by electrotypes, which, as they are exact facsimiles, do not
spoil the eye, as too much familiarity with false coins undoubtedly
does. Electrotypes may generally be split in two with a strong knife.

IV. Original coins which have been altered with a graving tool may be
classed as forgeries, and should be avoided, as there is no telling to
what extent they may have been “restored.”


Coins should be kept under lock and key in a mahogany cabinet. Trays
made of cedar should never be used, as there is a deposit from this
wood which covers the surface of copper and lead coins with a kind of
varnish which is difficult to remove. In arranging coins in the trays,
begin at the left hand top corner, placing the coins in rows, one in
each hole. Under every coin there should be a descriptive card or a
number referring to a catalogue, in which the price paid for every
specimen should be carefully recorded, as well as the name of the
persons from whom it was acquired. A coin from a well-known cabinet
will always fetch more when sold than an equally fine specimen of which
the antecedents are unknown.


Transcriber’s notes:

    Pg. 7  ... COMIVS  the earliest inscribed coin, 55 B.C  should be
           ... COMMIVS the earliest  inscribed coin, 55 B.C..  Period
           after C in  B.C. missing--added in.

    Pg. 14  ... and within each of the. outer curves three pellets.
            Between the and outer no punctuation needed. Period removed.
            ... and within each of the outer curves three pellets.

    Pg. 15  ... is engraved on p. 6, Fig. J).  Opening parenthesis
            missing, adjusted to ... is engraved on ( p. 6, Fig. J).

    Pg. 16  CVNOBELINVS,  comma is a period in all other names on list.
            Changed to period. CVNOBELINVS.

    Pg. 17  The _obverse_ of one example is engraved on p. 6, Fig. i.
            Parenthesis  missing, should be,  The _obverse_ of one
            example is engraved on (p. 6, Fig. i.).

    Pg. 18  Britions  should be Britons.

    Pg. 24  Two coins have been attributed to him, the name on the
            _obverse_ being on one EDI[L]HD[L]V, and on the other
            ATHBADIV. EDI[L]HD[L]V, look like upside down L’s facing
            right. Transcribed as [L].

    Pg. 24  Coins supposed to belong to him bear the name ALCHRED or
            A[L]CHRED.  Upside down L character facing right transcribed

    Pg. 24  Some sceattæ bearing the word E[L]FVA[L]V or VALD[F][E]LA on
            Upside down and backward characters in brackets  [L], [F],
            [E] L,upside down facing left, F,upside down facing left,
            E, since top and bottom  of capital E are identical, just
            facing left.

    Pg. 26  _Obverse._  ERIC REX A, or AL, EBOR, EF, EN, IO,
            N or NO, or TO, in two lines divided  by a sword.
            _Reverse_, moneyer’s name, etc.  Left  as printed in

    Pg. 27  AETHELBEARHT; 856-866. Left as printed in original.

    Pg. 31      ful, End of line type setting error.
            EADWARDl It should be full and EADWARD, .... The comma comes
          down to EADWARD, and the l goes above to full.

    Pg. 32  Wallingford Watchet, Wareham, Worcester, Wilton, Winchester,
            and York. Missing comma between Wallingford and Watchet.
            Comma inserted.

    Pg. 32  About two thousand coins of this king were found near
            Steyning  Period after Steyning missing. Inserted.

    Pg. 38  D H.   Missing period  after D. Period inserted. D.H.

    Pg. 39  DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Pennies, Halfpennies, and
            Farthings  Period missing at end of sentence. Period

            Punctuation after HIBN should be period, so changed.
            FRAN. FRANC.--DNS. HIBN. IBAR. or IBARNC.

    Pg. 47  Shilling and Sixpence. PHILIP. ET. or Z.;
            Period after Shilling and  Sixpence should be comma,
            so changed to comma. Shilling and Sixpence, PHILIP. ET.
            or Z.;

    Pg. 51  Reverse: Halfpenny, St. Patrick in full robes, mitred ...
            Mitred should be mitered.

    Pg. 52  Reverse, OBS. NEWARK. 1646. Period after NEWARK should
            be  comma. Changed to    comma.  Reverse, OBS. NEWARK,

    Pg. 54  Legend on reverses.  FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, or titles.
            Period after reverses should be comma. Period so changed.
            Legend on reverses, FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA, or titles.

    Pg. 56  Other varieties need not be particularised. Particularised
            should be particularized.

    Pg. 62  Shilling, Sixpence, Groat or Fourpence, Threepence Twopence,
            Penny.  Comma missing after Threepence--corrected.

    Pg. 63  ... obverse, same bust as. the silver, VICTORIA DEI GRATIA,
            and date; reverse, Sovereign, royal arms, as the Half-crown;
            Phrase, “same bust as. The silver” should not have a period
            between as and the. Changed to, ... same  bust as
            the silver ...

    Pg. 70  ... their loca governments;  Should be, ... their local

    Pg. 81  FOUNDERS.--A laver pot (or vase) between two
            prickets) or taper-candlesticks). Sentence should be,
            FOUNDERS.--A laver pot (or vase) between two prickets
            (or taper-candlesticks).

    Pg. 85  On a chevron between three Bibles fessewise,
            claspsdownwards ... Should be, “clasps downwards,” .

    Pg. 88  ... are too numerous to particularise. Particularise
            should be particularize.

    Pg. 93  ... and so on in very grea variety. Grea should be spelled

    Pg. 113 On Imperial coins of Cnidu. the famous naked Aphrodite by
            Praxiteles was represented. Punctuation after Cnidu should
            be comma.

    Pg. 113 [Illustration: Fig 47. Nike (Victory).] Should be period
            after Fig.  [Illustration: Fig. 47. Nike (Victory).]

    Pg. 115 Denomination for 90 should be koppa (κοππα). The symbol may
            not be rendered correctly by all readers so it has been
            written by name.

            Tens.        I.   Κ.   Λ.   Μ.   Ν.   Ξ.   Ο.   Π. κοππα
                        10.  20.  30.  40.  50.  60.  70.  80.  90.

    Pg. 115 Denomination for 900. should be sampi (σαμπι). The symbol may
            not be rendered correctly by all readers so it has been
            written by name.

            Hundreds.   P.   Σ.   Τ.   Υ.   Φ.   Χ.   Ψ.   Ω. σαμπι
                      100. 200. 300. 400. 500. 600. 700. 800. 900.

    Pg. 119 _Kings of Pergamus_     Philetaerus, the Attalids ...
            Should be, _Kings of Pergamus_    Philetaerus, the Attalids.

    Pg. 119 Abydos, Alexandria Troas, Ilium, Scepsis.   Alexandria needs
            following comma. Abydos, Alexandria, Troas, Ilium, Scepsis.

    Pg. 119 Calymna, Cos, Rhodes Ialysus, Camirus,  Lindus).  Extraneous

    Pg. 120 (_Kings_--Mannus, Abgarus,  etc. Missing parenthesis--corrected.
            (_Kings_--Mannus, Abgarus,  etc.)

Alternate Spellings and hyphenation:

    Pg. 8   ADDEDOMARVS, supposed to have been contemporary with Cunobelinus.
    Pg. 17  and ADDEDO-MARVS, or ADDEDO, or A[BO][BO]IIDO
            [M], or other  abbreviations. Difference of ADDEDOMARVS
            and ADDEDO-MARVS retained.

    Pg. 48  Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-groat, Three-halfpence,
    Pg. 70  In 1574 a proposition was made to the Queen by two persons
            named Wickliffe and Humphrey, to coin half-pence and
            3 instances of halfpence. Only one of half-pence. Changed
            to halfpence.

    Pg. 46  ... and Threepence, fullfaced bust of king
    Pg. 49  The Penny bore on the obverse a full-face portrait of the
            queen ... Alternate hyphenation of full-face.

    Pg. 39  one limb of the cross of the Durham coins terminating in a
    Pg. 51  St. Patrick in full robes, mitered, with crosier, etc.,

    Pg. 52  reverse, shield of Irish harp; legend, FARTHING TOKENS
            The spelling in question is FARTHIN. This is how it is said
            to be on the token. I am leaving it as is.

    Pg. 52  Other places where these were struck were Colchester,
            Carlisle ...
    Pg. 49  ... to use an expression of Carlyle’s)
            Preserved both Carlisle and Carlyle as one is a place name and
            one is a proper name.

   Instances of various pages:
            21 instances of twopence.  One instance of two-pence changed
            to twopence.

            37 instances of half-groat.  1 instance of halfgroat,
            changed to half-groat.

    Pg. 39  DENOMINATIONS.--_Silver._ Groat, Halfgroat, Penny, Halfpenny
            Changed to Half-groat.

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